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Full text of "Travels in Ceylon and continental India; including Nepal and other parts of the Himalayas, to the borders of Thibet, with some notices of the overland route"

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TRAVELS 
CEYLON AND CONTINENTAL INDIA; 



NEPAL AND OTHER PAETS OF THE HOfAUTAS, 
TO THE BOEDEBS OF THIBET, 

WITH SOHB NOTI0B8 Of TKI OVKELAVD BOUTB. 

APEENDICE8, 
ADDBESSED TO BABON VON HDHBOLDT, 



DR W. HOFFMEISTEH,*- 

,bi.iHa FHTBicixa to aiB hotal Hta 
PBIHCS WALDEHAK Ot PKUH8IA. 

SimulaM firm ^f Snnun. 



EDINBURGH: 
WILLIAM P. KENNEDY, ST ANDREW STREET. 

LONMN: HAMILTON, ADAMS, AND 00. 
HDOOOXLTUI. 



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PBEFACE. 



The following Letters aad descriptive sketches are 
the legacy of a traveller in the distant lands of the 
East; — one who may he said to have reached the 
soimnit of that peculiar happmess attainable by those 
only 1^0 are of enthusiastic temperament, and inqui- 
sitive in the pursuit of natural science. Ever true to 
the duties of his own calling, — still, even in war, beside 
that Prince whom he had accompanied as medical 
attendant through all the dangers of a most arduous 
journey, as &r as the banks of the Sutlej in the ter- 
ritory of the Sikhs, — himself s lover of peace, he was 
smitohed away hy a violent death on a battle-field. 
The fragments now presented to the pubhc, must be 
considered as tbe rehcs of a mind, imbued with the 
living freshness of youth, cultivated by a scientific 
education, full of suscepiibihty to impression in a world 



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new to him, of unwearied activity in comprehending 
the ever-chan^ng phases of nature in her most varied 
and most gorgeous forms, and of htiman society in its 
manifold relations, and withal, anunated by a hvely 
desire to oommunioate without delay to friends at 
home what he had recently witnessed. These are hut 
acattored pages, which could only have heen moulded 
into their proper shape after the author's return. His 
brothers and relatives, painiiilly deprived of that hope, 
have deemed it a fitting tribute of love and respect to 
the deceased, to collect these fragments, in order that 
even what is merely touched on, or hinted at, in them, 
may not sink, useless, into oblivion. 

And we must acknowledge our obligation to them 
in this matter; for even the few pages, printed formerly 
in the journals of the day, excited a universal mterest, 
which may now, it is hoped, he increased by more con- 
nected detiuls. 

If a rapid journey does not afford time or opportu- 
nity for thorough investigation and deep scientific re- 
search, because one ^ictiu-e too quickly supplants 
another; it has, on the other hand, the advantage 
of affording fiicihties for the more lively apprehension 
of every remarkable position of afiairs, every salient 
object, every striking appearance, — ^viewed in the 
boldest outlines, the most marked contrasts, the most 



Such advantages will not fiul to be noticed among 

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the letters and papers now collected, especially as they 
present before ns scenes from the most celehrated, 
most lovely, and most magnificent countries of the 
East, enlivened by a foreground which the suite of a 
Prince can alone Ornish. 

As these are the communications of a traveUing 
companion of the first German Prince who ever visited 
Ceylon, Bengal, and the courts of Cathmandoo and 
Oude, we thus oht^ a new poin(^de-vne, fi-om which we 
may become acquainted with the mode of life of the 
nations that inhabit the lands of the Ganges and of the 
Sutlej, with that also of the people of Ceylon and of 
the elevated valleys of the Himalaj'as. 

Natural History and Topography have not been 
without their share of benefit ; as new paths have been 
forced through the wonderfid mountain-range of the 
Himalayan chain, over rocky heights and snowy peaks, 
by the enterprising courage of these travellers ; and as 
the productions of annual creation, as well as those of 
the most luxuriant vegetation, in valleys and on moun- 
tains, have afforded much new matter and many 
curious smreys to the naturalist. 

In conclusion, — the many characteristic and well- 
combined touches, describing the manners and customs 
of society among the most various races, nations, 
classes, reli^ous and political communities, and grades 
of civilization, m the East, add not a little to the 
agreeable and exciting interest which pervades the 



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following pages, compensating to the reader for the 
want of those finishbg strokes which the destroying 
hand of Fate rendered it impossible to supply. 

C. UITTEE. 

BiBLU, Hth M&reh 1S47. 



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MEMOIR OF THE AUTHOK. 



OwiBQ to the very scanty amount of information Litlierto 
obt^ed by natives of Germany on the subject of India 
aod Indian affairs, the oriental journey of His Royal 
Highness Prince Waldemar of Prussia excited a univer- 
sal interest, as giving rise to the hope that the observa- 
tions made on the re^ons traversed by him, — some of 
them as yet but rarely visited, — would be made the 
property of the public at large. A few detached episto- 
lary communications from Dr Hoffmeister, who accom- 
panied the Prince as travelling physician, were favour- 
ably received in numerous circles, on account of the 
peculiarly comprehensive and graphic descriptions con- 
tained in them ; and they led to the expectation that, on 
the traveller's return, these short fragments might be 
collected and presented in an entire form. 

The death of the Author put an end to that hope. It 
appeared, therefore, to the surviving relatives, to be a 
sacred duty to collect those posthumous fragments, — 
-which indeed could have been arranged in a regular, 
scientific manner by his hands only, — and to commit 
them to the press. In taking this step, they were favour- 
ed by the gracious approval of his Royal Highness. 

This origin of the publication accounts for its present 
form. It contains only those letters which were written 
for his own immediate circle of relatives and ^ends, , 



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Vlll MEMOIR OP THE AUTHOR. 

usually penned amid the engrossing occupations of a 
rapid and fatiguing journey, under the oppressive in- 
fluence of a tropical climate. Yet not only are their 
contents unaltered, but their original form is likewise 
preserved, because it alone could afford sufficient free- 
dom in the connection and communication of the diver- 
sified matter of which they treat. The gaps have been, 
as far as possible, filled up from the journals; several 
shorter letters have been united to form one longer one, 
and placed in chronological order, so as to furnish a dis- 
tinct survey of the whole route. The fragments of bota- 
nical and zoological information, which were scattered 
through the posthumous papers, and could not well be 
introduced into the series of letters, have been appen- 
ded separately. 

Thus much it was necessary to say regarding the origin 
and form of the book. As to the value of the matter 
now laid before the public, it behoved not the Editor to 
form any opinion; nothing, therefore, could give him 
greater satisfaction, than to be enabled to preface it with 
the favourable judgment pronounced upon it by Profes- 
sor Dr Carl Ritter. 

Many readers, who may turn with closer interest to' 
the personal character of the Author, as displayed in 
these letters, may wish to find here a short sketch of his 
life, and of his scientific pursuits. 

Wekneb HorFMEiSTBR was bom in Brunswick on 
the l4th of March 1819. Hia parents resided in that 
place tUl the year 1827, when bis father, who hitherto had 
been minister of the parish of St Peter's, was transferred 
to Wolfenhnttel, in the capacity of member of the Consia- 
torial Council. Werner's cloudless childhood was passed 
in the untroubled domestic circle of his parents' house, 
till his father's death, in the year 1832. The joyous 
nature of the boy soon got the better of the painful im- 
pression of that event. 



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XBUOIB OF THE AUTHOB. IX 

From his early chOdhood, it was the freah life of na- 
ture which, above all else, attracted and occupied him. 
He delighted in roaming, with his youthful companions, 
over the surrounding hills and forests, to collect plants 
and insects ; or, at other times, his hours were spent in 
watching, and taking care of, a number of animals of 
various kinds, with which he peopled the house and the 
court-yard. Sometimes sparrows or tit-mice,* — some- 
times a pair of young jack-daws or owls, from the neigh- 
bouring church-steeple, — or again, mice or bats, formed 
his menagerie. His first surgical experiments were per- 
formed on an owl, which had had its legs broken by the 
roughness of the keeper of the tower; and the sufferings 
then endured by the poor animal, had well-nigh caused 
him to waver in the inclination which he had already 
manifested towards the medical profession. 

Amidst these occupations, the scientiiiG education, 
which his great abilities made it requsite that he should 
receive at an early age, was by no means neglected. The 
classical languages, and still more, mathematics and geo- 
graphy, excited a vivid interest in his mind; still, how- 
ever, his passion for the study of natural science conti- 
nued to predominate ; and it was nourished and strength- 
ened by meeting with similar tastes in an elder brother, 
and by the scientific instruction he received from a friend. 
The diligent reading of books of travels, and frequent 
excursions among the neighbouring Harz mountains, en- 
larged, with hia advancing years, the circle of his obser- 

* The Pendaline Titmome, — one of Nature's moat ingeniooB architccta, — 
is a, bird well Imown in Oerm&ny, Poland, LiUinatiia, and Northern Italy. 
The jonng natnraliiit conld not fail to admire its eiquiattely-formed nest of 
eloeelj iroven down, which is suspended, like a bag, from some pliant bough, 
ud carefuDj sheltered from cold, having none but a nde aperture, and that 
defended by a projectiiig brim; hot the gtructura is looked on with a some- 
what different feeling bj the peasantry, who regard it with enperstitione 
TeneratiaD. In some parts of Oermuiy, one of these nests is suspended near 
the door of each cottage, and the poaseasoia look upon it as a protector from 
thonder, and Ka Uttle architect as a sacred bird — Tk. 



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X MEMOIR OF THE AUTHOR, 

rations, and increased liis desire of becoming acquainted 
with remoter regions, and with nature in the peculiar 
ft>rmB there displayed. Even in those days, he was oc- 
casionally pained by reflecting how little prospect his 
iuture life appeared to offer of the possibility of satisfy- 
ing this craving. 

During his last year at school, he had finally deter- 
mined to study medicine; and after his mother's death, 
he removed, with a view to preparing for the university, 
to the " Collegium Carolinum" at Brunswick, where, in 
quiet retirement, he devoted hia time to anatomical, bo- 
tanical, and mineralogical studies. In the spring of 
1 839 he quitted Brunswick, to commence his academic 
course at Berlin, attracted thither hot merely by the 
distinguished fame of its univereity, but by the privilege 
there offered him, of enjoying the scientific aid and the 
advice of hia uncle. Professor Lichtenstein, to whom, 
more than to any one else, he was indebted for the 
guidance of his studies. He availed himself, with un- 
remitting diligence, of the means of improvement af- 
forded him in the lectures of MuUer, Mitscherlich, Kunth, 
and Weisa ; and as hia insight into that science which 
was his chosen portion grew deeper, his affection for it 
still increased. 

On leaving Berlin, he betook himself to the University 
of Bonn, where his cheerful lively character was deve- 
loped in all its vigour and energy, under the influence 
of academic life, and of a numerous circle of friends. 
Various tours, both in the immediate vicinity of the val- 
ley of the Rhine, and in Switzerland, the South of France, 
and Holland, tended, in some measure, to satisfy that 
desire, — as intense as ever in his mind, — of penetrating 
into distant parts; and at the same time they were far 
from being fruitless, in point of scientific improvement ; 
as he profited diligently by every advantage he met 
with in visiting the various learned institutions, museums. 



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MBHOtB OF THB AUTHOB. Zl 

hospitals, and clinic&l lecture-rooms; and also, while at 
llontpelier, b; his aoquamtaoce with Uarod de Serrea, 
' LaUeioand, and Euinolz. His medioal knowled^ was 
etdaiged and more deeply fixed, while at Bonn, hj his 
academical and personal intercourse with Naase, Hariess, 
and Von Ibell, bj repeated experiments, and by hia own 
medical practice. 

In a similar manner he passed the latter years of hia 
course at the Berlin University, towhidt he returned at 
Michaelmaa, 1841; but hia hitherto joyous spirit was 
overwhelmed with sadness by the sudden death of a 
younger ^ater, to whom he was tenderiy attached. For 
a considerable time, hie energy was so much crushed, and 
sudi a deep and settled melancholy had taken possession 
of his soul, that, withdrawing himself firom everything 
in the shape of recreation, and remaining in close retire- 
ment, he pursued, from a principle of duty alone, the 
course of study which hehad begun. The medioal prao- 
tice in which he was employed, both in fiuscb's clinical 
hospital, and in Br Behrendt's Orthopedic Institution, 
was little fitted to restore his wonted oheerfulQess ; yet 
he continued to attend to it with great diligence, and 
with much self-devotion. Besides this, he bestowed 
much time upon a scientific work, — a treatise on earth- 
worms, — which he commenced with a view to the exa- 
mination for his doctor's degree, and which he subse- 
quently enlarged, and printed in a separate form. The 
lectures of Schonlein, Wagner, and Hecker, gave a fresh 
impulse to his love of science, and completed his aca- 
demic course. 

Possessed of a degree of cultivation which fuUy quali- 
fied him for the medical profession, and of a rich store 
of knowledge in the various branches of natural science, 
he quitted Berlin in the autumn of 184>3, after having 
taken his doctor's degree, with the intention of visiting 
London and Paris. Puring the three months be spent 



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Xll KSMOra OP THE AUTHOR. 

in London, he not only enlarged Iiis atnentific acquire- 
ments, bnt Bought an opening for going out to India as 
ahip^urgeon. He met wiUt no situation snch as he de> 
ured; and another plan, for going out from Paris as 
superintendent and physician of a colony to Malacca, 
which was neariy carried into execndon, also failed. 
Discoursed and cast down, he returned to his " hither- 
land." There, fortune, which he thought had for ever 
forsaken him, unexpectedly smiled upon him. His 
Royal Highness Prince Waldemar of Prussia was making 
preparations for his joumeyings in the East. Dr Hoff- 
meister was recommended for the situation of travelling 
phyucian, hy Humboldt, Schiinlein and IJchtenstein, and 
was accepted hy His Royal Highness. ' In this dtuation, 
no less honourable than enjoyable, the cherished dreams 
of his early days were abundantly resized. The varied 
cultivation of his intellect, the youthful freshness of his 
mind and spirit, and the healthful vigour of his bodily 
frame, seemed to ensure the happiest and most valuable 
results to his journey. Thus, with the brightest pros- 
pects both for nearer and more distant futurity, he 
quitted' his native land, to find, after dangers escaped 
and difficulties overcome during a long wandering, an 
eariy grave in a distant clime ! 

DR. A. HOFFMEISTER. 



BuLiH, Ttb or Afbil, 1847. 



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LETTERS FROM THE EAST. 



FIBSI LETTER 

PMiMDBK VltOM TttlEfl:™— iSOOHi — CHDSOH 01 ST 

innABITAIrTB CATS DBL CLUB — rBIRCK QEOKOK 01 ' 

n> TBB MOVHTAISS — DBPABTU&K — BAI CIF FATBU — FAIKAI — DAtTLS — OATB 
— OOSIKTH — 1BE AOBO-OOBIHTHna — DIFAKTDU fBOM . 
— iOaoPOLlS DlSCaiPTlOT Of THB CITI — THB QBUE CO 



AiaiKS, Sept. 31, 18U. 

Etbbtthing apparently conspires to render this jour- 
ney one of the moat agreeable that can be imagined. 
The weatTier is incomparably beautiful; the sun and 
moon alternate in ever gladdening brightness, the aea 
is smooth as a qkirror, of a deep sapphire-blue, the 
heat not excessive, the society ^reeable in the ex- 
treme; in short, we have all that heart can desire. 

We sailed from Trieste on the afternoon of the 
1 6th of September, and arrived next morning at eight 
o'clock at Ancona, where we were received by the 
Consul. Under his guidance we visited every thing 
worthy of any notice in that small shabby town. The 
dirty white houses, with their flat, whitewashed roofs 
tf hollow tiles, appeared tolerably neat when viewed 
from above; and the sea, to whose shore I longed to 



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2 AHOOSA— VOTAQB TO CORFU. 

Letake myselfj lay at our feet, clear as crystal and of 
an azure hue. Our principal object wa8 the Church 
of St Cyriacns, Baid to have been built out of the 
ruins of a temple of Venus. The exterior appears like 
a building of Venetian architecture, with numerous 
small pillars supported by lions, at the principftl en- 
trance, and many variegated marble ornaments inserted 
in the grey limestone. The interior corresponds exactly 
with my idea of a Moorish mosque, with broad arched 
c«ling3 of many-coloured cloth. The monuments and 
antiquities which it contains are of no particular in- 
terest. 

After having partaken of a tolerable dinner in a 
dirty hotel, — the best, however, in the place, — we ram- 
bled through some streets of the town, all swarming 
with filthy, ragged creatures, — and speedily re-embark- 
ed in the steamer, which, leaving Ancona, followed 
the coast of latria. As far as Corfu we kept always 
within view of the shore, which became even more 
parched and arid than it had been at Ancona and at 
Trieste. Olive groves, in which were trees of great 
age and wonderful size, and vineyards, were the only 
traces of cultivation discernible even by the aid of a 
spy-glass, on the bare limestone rock. Here and there 
peeped forth a group of small white limestone cottages, 
or a wreath of curling smoke, — not. a man was to be 
seen, — not another sign of life. At length appeared 
the island of Corcyra, now called Corfu, — to its right 
the island of Tano, on which the nymph Calypso is 
said to have dwelt, and the rocks of the Cyclops, 
These rocks are not few in number round Corfu, and at 
least a dozen of thera may be distinctly noticed. How 
enchanting, once more to rest one's eyes on a green 
isle ! The lofty Albanian hills too, on the opposite 
coast, have a bolder and more picturesque appearance, 
as seen from this point. Above them again tower the 



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Ceraunian mountains, to the height of seven ihotuand 
feet. CorreBponding to them, on the island itself, rises 
the noble San Salvador, about four thousuid feet in 
height. 

The town of Corfu has a bright and pleasing aspect; 
flags of many colours, and multitudes of fishermen and 
of sailors, (Greeks and Turks, in varied and motley 
costumes, (chiefly however quit« white, or with red 
or blue jackets, and white /u«ta7ieUe,) crowd the shores. 
The castle occupies the projecting eminence; of equal 
strength are the fortifications of the adjacent island of 
Vido, from which the English, — ^the present posseseora 
of Corfu, — maycommand theharhour. At last the longed- 
for permission to land arrived. At three o'clock in the 
afternoon, an elegant little bark, lined throughout with 
linen, fetched us from our ship. What a crush upon the 
quay, — what a multitude of strange, wild-looking faces 1 
On our right, a large depdt of melons, cactus-fruit, and 
grapes; — on our left, the filthy office of the board of 
health, over the door of which was inscribed " TynTit 
mratr^gait." Antid the crowd of sun-burnt faces, and 
the tattered 6treek costumes, wliich had once been 
white, the multitude of Greek priests, all in black, 
with high fonr-comered caps, produces a striking eflect. 

The natives of the island are still, for the most part, 
distinguished by the mixed colours of their attire, and 
by their blue bag-atoddngs, which, the Greek name hav- 
ing escaped me, I am unable to designate by any other 
eipreasion. They consist of a large folded ba^, in which 
s hole is cut on either side to admit the foot. The Pa- 
likari of the Morea, on the other hand, wear the white 
fu8tameila, a cotton petticoat, laid in innumerable folds, 
and scarcely reachii^ over the knee ; — and, with it, the 
beautifully ornamented " calza," of red cloth, or moroeco- 
leather, a sort of gaiter, stretching from below the knee 
to the instep, and hooked round the calf of the leg. All 



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4 COBMJ. 

(Greeks wear the red fez, with blue or silver tasael, — & 
covering for the head, which appears to me marvelloualy 
unsuited to the frightful glow of their scorching sun. 
The red or blue jacket, without sleeves, embroidered 
in gold or silver, worn by persona of distinction, is a 
magnificent dress; — the sleeves form a separate piece 
and leave open all the inner side of the arm, from 
which hangs forth a fiUl and very white shirt-sleeve. 
The belt round the waist is broad, and beautifully 
adorned with embroidery of gold and silver. But of 
such persons we met with very few in Corfu; the people 
we saw were, generally, exceedingly ragged and filthy 
. looking, with the exception of the countless priests, 
on whose black or dark-blue long gowns dirt may have 
passed nnperceived. The chief qualification for the 
priesthood here appears to be a long black beard, with 
corresponding whiskers: tome it is inconceivable how 
such roguish-looking beings can be ecclesiastics. The 
dark-brown complexion of the lower classes struck me 
as pleasing; it results rather from their custom of be^ 
ing always half-naked, than from thetr having Moorish 
or Gripsy blood in their veins. Most of these people 
were very ugly, more especially the dark, chesnut- 
coloured hucksters, with heads half-shorn, and the re- 
maining tuft of hair tied in a tail behind, who offer, 
at a cheap rate, prickly pears, oranges, jujube and love- 
apples. 

On our way to the hotel, to which we were led through 
narrow laneSj stinking, and full of dirty rubbish, we were 
assailed by beggars of every description. A houso, fully 
as dirty on the outedde as all the others, was pointed 
out as the hotel. On the steps, at the door of entrance, 
lay a filthy Moor, playing at dice with five other ragged 
fellows; — while all around them were strewn the well- 
gnawed rinds of the water-melons, which had served 
them for breakfast. With some trouble we forced our 



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iray through, aad scmmbled up a steep wooden stur, 
covered with a thick coating of dirt. Our whole party 
were unanimous in thinking that we had hit upon the 
wrong house, and that this pig-sty could not possibly be 
the first-rate hotel, described in all our guide-books as a 
capital house. Our cicerones were therefore compelled 
to turn to the right about, to make search for another 
hotel, which, it was supposed, must exist. We had 
scarcely however reached the door, ' when the whole 
party of our English friends met us, a sure sign that our 
guides had led us right. A few words passed, among 
which the English word " dirty" repeatedly caught my 
ear. Unfortunately, this had been heard aad understood 
by the landlord, a half-civilized Albanian, who now 
poured forth a volley of curses, accompanied by most 
furious looks. 

The dice-playing public, and many other folk, to whom 
such a scene appeared highly delectable, gathered 
around us, and we were forced hastily to retreat. The 
other hotel had remarkably pleasant apartments, but our 
hopes were dashed on being informed that they were only 
to be let by the week or month. Nothing now remained 
for us, save to wend our way back once more through 
the assembled public of Corfu, all eager to criticize our 
proceedings. This formidable step was at length taken ; 
and on returning, we found, in the first place, that the 
rooms of the hotel were much better than we had fan 
cied them; — but in the second place, that the landlord, 
from malice, — as we were not inclined, like the English 
people, to pass the night there, but intended to sleep on 
board, — would not give us any food. 

A couple of gold pieces, paid in advance, soon made 
him rolent, and he promised that, in tlie course of 
two hours, he would have a good dinner prepared for 
us. This time of waiting was, by dint of bargaining, 
beat down to one hour, fo^- longer our hungry stomachs 



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6 COBFU. 

could not hold out. En attendaaUi we eouglit a pallia- 
tive in a mixture of coffee-grounds and water, in the 
Cal% del Club, under a splendid colonnade, whiclL nearl; 
surrounds the handsome " piazza," in the centre of the 
town. Sly-looking black-eyed boys were playing around 
ub; some of them martyrizing, in a most inhuman man- 
ner, a bird which they had caught, while others were 
snatching away the crutches of a poor cripple. The 
grand piazza, planted all round with Ail(mth.us trees, 
lay before us; to the left of it rose the palazzo of the 
governor, with its spacious portico, and vts two beautiful 
gates; — in front of it a fountain, the basin of which 
surrounds the statue of Sir Frederick Adam. To the 
right stretches an extensive grove of acacias, in the mid- 
dle of which stands the statue of General Schulenburg, 
who, under the Venetians in 1716, six times repulsed 
the Turks from the fortress; and lastly, high-above the 
"piazza" frowns the castle, surmounted by its light- 
house. As we could still afford sufficient time, we 
sought out the most beautiful points of view within our 
reach. Art (i. e. the English) has done much to beau- 
tify this charmingly situated town: more especially fine 
is the view of it, from the foot of the fort to which we 
climbed. 

An invitation to dine with Prince George of Cam- 
bridge, the commandant of the place, saved us from the 
necessity of returning to our hotel. The dinner was suc- 
ceeded by a ride, in which unluckily, so many claims 
were made on my skill in horsemanship, — of which this 
was the first trial, — that I could manage to see but little 
of the delightful olive-forest, or of the magnificent sun- 
set glow; and, had not our speed been somewhat abated 
in returning, I should have preserved but a slight recol- 
lection of that lovely evening. I do however at least 
retain in my mind a faint, yet pleasing picture of the 
beautiful, oak-like growth of the olive-tree,— of the half- 



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clothed herdsmen, and the many-coloured floeks of goats, 
nbder the deep shade of the forest, — and of the glorious 
vistas of the azure sea, in which the setting bud was 
about to sink into its tomb. It was late when, rowod by 
Prince George'B twelve goudolierB, we sped our way to 
the ateanier by moonlight, over the glassy sea. 

At five in tlie morning, on the 1 9th of September, we 
were to make another flying excursion, which was to ex- 
tend across the roountainotis part of the island of Cor- 
cyrd, and its interesting ruins: but alasl no information 
was to be obtained among the learned of the town of 
Corfu, concerning the well-preserved remains of an an- 
cient city named Calliope, of which all the English 
Hand-books are full. No one knew the name; — it wai 
only subsequently that I learned that the disappoint- 
ment had arisen out of a typc^mphJcal error, CaJliope 
being put instead of Caasiope, the ancient name of the 
city of Corcyra. It lies farther eastward, and still, in 
its numerous ruins, gives evidence of its former great- 
ness. 

At half-past five a.m., we were already on shore and 
in our saddles. We began by rambling through the pic- 
turesque environs of the town, in which several palm- 
trees already appeared. We saw two very pretty vil- 
lages, one of which, Potamo by name, was full of life ; 
but the hoases every where consist merely of four walls 
without windows, with a flat roof. The filth in their 
interiors is frightftd; yet the inhabitants are toleraWy 
cleanly in their persons, especially the women, who 
have a mode of dress quite peculiar to themselves, and 
do not, like other Greek females, cover their heads with 
the fez. 

We now proceeded on our ride without path or gate, 
ciimhing steep hills, over hedges and ditches, always 
aiming at the highest points. On arriving at the high 
ground, and finding ourselves beside a cottage, the in- 



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8 MOUNTAIN BFDB. 

habitants of 'which betrayed great ahirm, having pro- 
bably never before seen horses on their steep rocks, we 
got a woman to give na some grapes, which we devoui^ 
ed with excellent appetite, while the whole population 
gazed in utter amazement at the grape-eating cavaliers. 
Signs served instead of language, as we had no inter- 
preter. Again we advanced, at a gallop, over what had 
been the bed of a river, full of stones and pebbles, till 
we found another rocky height to climb. Our horses 
clambered up like goats. We halted among the ruins 
of a viDa, very picturesquely situated among olive-trees, 
where we met two tall, handsome, splendidly attired, 
young Greeks, who held our faorses for us, I took the 
opportunity of sketching these fine-looking fellows with 
their proud and noble countenances. One was clad in a 
perfectly white costnme, the covering of his legs alone 
was of scarlet cloth, with silver clasps, and his belt of 
red velvet, loaded with embroidery of gold : the latter 
contained a pair of pistols, inlaid with silver, with long 
narrow stocks, and two poniards, a long and a short one. 
The drawing caused them great pleasure, for they ap- 
peared extremely vain both of their beauty and of their 
finery. 

Beantiful as is the thick and gigantic olive-forest in 
these parts, vegetation generally is dry and withered; 
a couple of cyclamens, and the squilla marittma, with 
its long leafless stalk, were the only blossoming plants ; 
— the insects also were but few ; — I saw only some bee- 
tles, (AteuckusJ in the dung, some hornets and a cou- 
ple of white butterflies. The people lead, in general, an 
idle life ; for this olive-forest produces, without much 
exertion on their part, enough for their support; no 
one thinks of making new plantations ; and the fields 
that surround the villages are neither manured nor 
ploughed. Each tree brings its regular income now, as 
was the case a hundred years since ; and the vine is in- 



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DEPAETDBE PKOM CORFU. 9 

digenous. It was only in tlie neighbourhood of the 
town, wliere the soil is extremely fertile, that we saw 
fields of maize, aad ground laid out for the cultivation 
of vegetables ; and there is indeed far more of all this 
here, than lo the other parte of Qreece. 

I never should have imagined that the oUve-trec 
could have so picturesque an appearance as it has here, 
where it equals the oak in height ; the stems, usually 
full of holes and cavities, are of considerable size, and 
crowned with beautiful foliage, the shade of which is 
often most refreshing, when riding, in the heat of the 
day, on the ridge of a mountain. 

Thus, by following paths over which I could not have 
ventured to pass on foot, we at length reached the vici- 
nity of the town, — not a little &tigued, but still ani- 
mated by the remembrance of the exquisite landscapes 
we had beheld among these sea-girt mountains. As I 
wished to make a few purchases, I gladly availed myself 
of the permission to absent myself from our party dur- 
ing the visit to the fortifications of the adjacent island 
of Vido. A few minutes more, and I found myself once 
again on board the steam-boat, and soon the Prince's 
gondola rowed across from the island of Vido, and gave 
the signal for sailing, which was immediately obeyed. 
Our English fellow-travellers we found all re-assembled, 
and our adventures were mutually recounted. About four 
o'clock we all dined together. On this occasion the heat 
of the cabin became most oppressive ; moreover, just 
after our repast, a very uncomfoi-table hot wind sprung 
up, which caused the ship to roll violently, so that, to- 
wards evening, several of the passengers were attacked 
by sea-sickness. To spend the night in our cabin would 
have been intolerable: the heat rose to 28" Reaumur 
(98° Fahrenheit), I took, therefore, my sea-cloak for 
my companion, and slept on deck, until the drenching 
morning-dew drove me back into the cabin. 



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Meantime we had run into the bay of Patras, and 
were passing, now close under the coast of Lepanto ; now 
again, still closer under that of the Morea. Upon those 
rocks (which were altogether bare, or liad only here 
and there a few mariUtne fines and tamarisks growing 
on them,) many villages were pointed out as occupying 
the sites of celebrated cities ; but I shall not weary you 
with an enumeration of them. None of them seemed' 
to possess much beauty. At nine o'clock we landed at 
Patras, our first Greek town. This is genuine claasie 
ground, ifonehad not been awareof the fact, the 
mighty ruins, which extend far into the sea around the 
harbour, as well as the earnest, solemn countenances of 
the soldiers who lay stretched on the heach, must have 
convinced one of it. We passed through a broad piazza, 
surrounded by small stone buildings, before reaching 
the town itself. Here every place swarmed with busy, 
active men. Some were rolling barrels; others nail- 
ing down chests; here, an industrious shoemaker was 
working in front of his door ; there, a tailor, with at 
least a dozen assistants. In one spot they have already 
begun to dig a canal through the middle of the street ; 
in another, a number of paviors are working at the 
new market-place: in short, a degree of bustle and 
activity reigns here, not to be met with in other large 
towns in Greece. 

The city is quite new; of the ancient town which lay 
farther westward, and, according to the custom of ancient 
Greek sea-ports, more inland, nothing is now visible, 
save some heaps of ruins: — all has been laid waste by the 
Turks. The works of the new city, now springing up, 
are being carried on with great zeal; long colonnades 
have been built already, at the expense of Govern- 
ment, to mark out the future streets, although as yet 
neither shops nor dwelling-houses have arisen under their 
shadow. Farther on, towards the hills, tlie houses de- 



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CASTLE OP PATBAB. 1 1 

generate into filthy liovela; and, among the cleanly- 
dressed men, are to be seen on all sides, dirty, crippled 
b^gare, and wild-looking gipsy boys : here and there 
we also noticed two or three old women with dishe- 
Telled hair, trailing themselTes through the filth of the 
streets; for the beautiful springs which rise among the 
hills, and which ought to scatter refreshing vegetation 
around, no channel being dug for their water which 
therefore stf^oates in the great heat, are transformed 
into a stinking marsh, reaching to the confines of tlie 
leafless, grassless, dusty plain below. 

When we had ascended half-way up the hill, on which 
rises the old " Castello," — still in tolerable preservation, 
— we again witnessed the shocking manner in which 
these fine springs of water are continually abused. A 
house was to be built: for this purpose, nothing was 
thought necessary but to hack up the soil, composed of 
crumbled ruins, turning in at the same time the water 
of the nearest spring, and scattering on this miry slough, 
a little straw and some dried grass. Lime and mortar 
being thus prepared, they merely built up, straightway 
and on the spot, the stones that lay strewn around them! 
Having reached the summit of the mount, we forced our 
way through heaps of ruins to the half-deatn^ed Venetian 
" castello." Entering at a small iron door, which was 
scarcely closed, we found a strong detachment of (?reek 
soldiers, in most picturesque groups. Nothing can have a 
better effect than that beautiful Greek costume. Their jer^ 
kina were sky-blue with silyer, the calze of the same blue 
stuff, fustanelle and ample sleeves of white, a broad sabre, 
several pistols, a very long musket, and the red fez, com- 
pleted each man's wariike attire. Some of them were seat- 
ed on a half-fallen stair, carelessly holding their fire-arms ; 
another group was playing at cards, under the shade of a 
fig-tree, upon the ruins of a marble fountain; while others 
were employed in unloading the mules that had brought 



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12 SKETOHINO PORTBAITS. 

provisions. Their captain, of giant stature, with tremend- 
ous hlack mustachios, and with numerous medaJs on hie 
jacket, was going round, reading in a growling tone the 
list of names, from a dirty paper be held in hia hand. We 
ascended the tower, and soon we saw the black-looking 
captain defiling with his company, at a quick pace, 
through the field of ruins; a moat picturesque sight! 
Lower down lay the town, in beautiful disorder; round 
about it the mountains of red liniestone; opposite, the 
Albanian shores; and, in the centre of the landscape, 
the azure bay, thickly studded with sails. After hav- 
ing refreshed ourselves by admiring the beautiful pro- 
spect, wo entered at another door of the fort, and here 
we found the spring of water encircled by fresh and 
lovely verdure. Peculiarly refreshing was the sight of 
a prodigiously lai^e plane-tree, the only one left standing 
by the Turks, who spared it, because it served to hang 
the Greeks upon. Close beside this fountain-head, we 
found a small house among the trees, a little nook far 
too inviting for us to pass without lingering there. The 
inmates of the house brought chairs and tables promptly 
and unasked; fetched fresh water, and offered us wine 
grapes, and all this merely that they might enjoy the 
pleasure of looking at us. The fort, with its plane- 
tree, was soon selected as the subject of a sketch. Now 
the people flocked from all sides, full of curiosity ; for the 
most part they had uncommonly handsome faces, sun- 
burnt, but clean-looking, with an honest expression. 

Two remarkably handsome lads, of ten or eleven years 
of age, especially attracted my attention. I drew the port- 
rait of one of them : he stood perfectly still, with decorum 
and respect, not knowing what I was going to do with him. 
Some men, who had pressed forward to peep over my 
shoulder, began to notice the thing, and when at laat, they 
discovered the likeness, they cried aloud again and again, 
" KaXSt ! xa7^6it" And now each man would have his pic- 



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0BBBE8 OF PATRAB. 13 

ture taken, — each one pressed forward to the spot where 
the boy had stood, smote on his breast, and gestieulated 
with extraordinary -vivacity, placing himself in the best 
attitude, and adjusting his dress in the most becoming 
manner. It was a wonderfully pretty scene. One of 
the most refined-looking, and best dressed among them, 
had the honour of being sketched; and when at last, he 
actually stood there upon the paper, the fellow himself 
and his neighbours could not contain themselves for 
joy; be hopped and jumped, first on one leg, then on 
the other, snapped his fingers, and talked on without 

ceasing ; at length be took Count Gr and me 

aside, and drew us almost by force into his hut at no 
great distance, brought out his arms, displayed to us his 
medals won in the Turkish war, and laid before us his 
best belts and jackets ; then he went into the little gar- 
den, tore down with both bis hands some bunches of 
grapes, which he constrained us to accept, and gathered 
besides for each of us, a large nosegay of odoriferous 
herbs. 

On returning to the spring, we there found the aged 
consul, bowed down with grief and hardships, who had 
previously announced bis intended visit. He spoke little, 
as he only understood Italian and Greek, and looked 
peevish and morose amidst all our mirth, while we were 
amusing ourselves by making the swarthy little young- 
sters, with their beautiful, merry, black eyes, trundle 
their hoops, and leap to catch gold coins. In the mean 

time. Count Gr had collected a multitude of the 

older people around him, to whom he was displaying 
experiments with a chemical apparatus for instan- 
taneous hght. How they did stare and shake their 
heads, when, with a cracking explosion, the tinder was 
ignited ! One man was bold enough to wish to try the 
thing himself; when he at last succeeded, he was gazed 
at with astonishment by the rest, and was unable to 



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14 SCHOOL— CAFE. 

coQoeal Hb own joy, and thereupon they all in chorus 
ahouted out their cry of xccUn! xaU»! While suoh en- 
tertainment was going on, time was gliding away un- 
perceived, and we were obliged to think of retracing our 
steps to the town. We afterwards found however, that 
we had a little interval remaining before our departure, 
of which we availed ourselves to obtain, in a house which 
was quite hidden under bowers of Corinthian vines, a 
sight of the stores of these Corinth grapes (commonly 
called currants). Unluckily this pretty fruit was already 
spread out for drying, au4 the process of preparing was 
explained to us, without its being possible to offer us 
any of the high-flavoured and much-prized little grapes. 
We next witnessed the teaching of a troop of little 
children, who were all seated in a dirty hut, on a 
piece of coarse carpeting spread upon the ground, and 
receiving instruction in the art of reading from an old 
man. The alphabet-books, instead of being bound, had 
their backs fastened into a cane. The older children 
had a sort of catechism. Lastly, we rested ourselves for 
a few moments in a much-frequented cafb on the mar- 
ket-place. Here there was a swarm of people of every 
rank and condition; dirty, swarthy creatures with white 
muatachios, and impoverislied attire; and elegant dan- 
dies with dazzling white fustanelle in ample folds, a 
heavy load of gold embroidery on their red jei^ins, 
magnificent belts, tassels of a yard long on their lofty 
fezzes, red morocco shoes and scarlet ccUze. One among 
them was distinguished by his beauty, his long hair 
and tight-laced figure; — he was a Palikaro. 

Moat of the people were sitting, according to the 
fashion in Greece, out of doors, playing with their 
rosaries, and sipping a glass of water, their only refresh- 
ment. Before the principal entrance sat two musicians, 
making most execrable music; — one, an old man, was 
scraping a fiddle, which the other accompanied by 



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OtTLF AiFD 8H0BBS OF OCiBiaTH. 15 

scratching with a toothpick, ob an eig^t-Btringed 
^itar; the highest string alone was fingtred; — the 
others were merely scratched on. In the interior of the' 
caf%, leeches were also sold ; thej were to he seen hang- 
ing in large bottles in the windows. While I wae lott- 
ing at them, a fearful noise was heard in front of the 
honse: the old man had been pushed off his stool, and 
robbed of hie fiddle b; a younger fellow, who, on his 
part, was now beginning to exhibit hie skill. He had 
seen the old man richl; paid, and be thought that he, as 
a better performer, might claiiu some reward. Amidst 
a kind of flourish of this harmonious choir, accompanied 
by a grunting song, we took our departure from the 
beautiful caf&, and soon afterwards from Patras. 

The moonlight night at sea was clear and lovely; so 
warm that I again pr^erred sleeping on deck in my 
" capote." We rose at four; for at six we were to be en 
route for Corinth, accompanied by our English friends. 
In the morning-dawn we already saw spread before us 
the harbour of ancient Corinth, the end of the Gulf, 
which resembles here an inland-lake, and on which is 
now situated the wretched nest called Lutraki. The- 
bare roeka rise on either side to the height of a thousand 
feet, and shine with a reddish glare. The shores are 
treeless, but clothed with green tamarisks and lentisk 
shrubs. Besides the horfles that had been ordered, we 
found a great number of others, which the consul, who 
had been sent from Athens to meet us, had provided. 
Thus we had great choice of them; notwitlistanding 
which, by some mistake, I had, instead of a horse, a 
humble mule, an exchange wliicb, in spite of (he cliain 
that served aa a bridle, and the high horse-saddle, I had 
no eanse to regret. Our cavalcade, amounting to at 
least twenty perstms, moved on at a quick trot, over 
the sandy beach, among the green underwood. The 
bare mountains stretched high, and higher atill, in 



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1 6 ACEO-COBINTHtra. 

ftvnt, and in Iialf an hoar the Acro-Corinthus, or Citadel 
of Corinth, lay before ub. The country became more 
and more barren, as we drew nearer and nearer to the" 
seat of ancient splendour, till at last we found ourselves 
traversing fields of stones, and heaps of ruins, without 
one single plant. The plain, which hitherto had been 
verdant, became more and more bleak; at length several 
melancholy-looking pieces of wall, — relics of ancient 
times,^Kihtruded themselves on us, against which were 
built up some windowless barracks. Six lofty and 
massive pillars are the only monuments which remain 
of departed beauty. This broad ruin-strewn plain was 
formerly covered with magnificent streets and palaces, 
from the hill of Acro-Corinthus down to the sea; now 
are seen only a score or so of miserable dwellings, 
crowded together on a little spot of ground ; and about 
the same number of others, scattered here and there. 
Not a trace of agriculture is discoverable; yet large 
wine-casks, seen at intervals among the broken walla, 
betray the proximity of vineyards. We passed the Am- 
phitheatre; Professor Boss, the celebrated antiquarian, 
— sent to meet us by the King, — directed our attention 
to the fact; otherwise I should rather have imagi;ied 
the hollow area, the sides of which are somewhat ex- 
cavated, to be a dried-up pond; so few are the remain- 
ing traces of masonry ; not even the seats or the stejffl 
can be recognised. We did not linger in the town, but 
immediately proceeded on a decayed Venetian road, 
(only occasionally marked as such by some remains of 
old pavement, and which was rather a hindrance than a. 
relief to our climbing steeds,) up the mountain to Acro- 
Corinthus. The road goes through chasms and over 
rocks, and is often dangerous, for the mountain is very 
high and steep. After an hour's ride we arrived at 
the first gate. Here the fortifications are still tolerably 
well kept up; there is also a garrison of about 30 men. 



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TEMPLE OF AFHBODITE. 17 

From this gate we proceeded on foot, halting, now at the 
ruins of a Turkish mosque built out of the remains of 
marble pillars, — now ai a Grecian tombstone, — ^now again 
at a Venetian cistern, or the crumbling walls of a Chris- 
tian chapel : for there is no age that has not erected its 
memorials here ; now indeed, they are lying low in rub- 
bishy fragments, and those of the most beautiful period 
are buried the deepest. On the extreme summit, we seat- 
ed ourselves on two pillars of the Temple of Aphrodite, 
— mere broken pieces, requiring the skill of an arohtso- 
log^st such as Professor Ross, to trace their story, — and 
surveyed the Isthmus of Corinth, — the calm blue waters 
on eitherside — death-like, — without onovessel, — the two 
large and magnificent harbours of ancient Corinth. Uow 
narrow did the neck of land appear, when viewed from 
above, — how trifling the distance separating us from 
Helicon and Mount Parnassus on the opposite shore! 
These also are now but naked rocks ; — these heights that 
once were crowned with groves of pines and oaks, — so 
lovely — so much sung. Pity it is indeed, that the death 
of all vegetation should produce iu the mind so melan- 
choly an impression; wherever one turns one's eye, trees 
are wanting — men are wanting; — one sees only inquisi- 
tive Englishmen, telescope in hand, searching out the 
traces of former grandeur. Notwithstanding the burn- 
ing heat of the sun, the precious spring-water, collected 
in the ancient Greek subterranean water-courses — whiclt 
even the many centuries of barbarism have uot succeeded 
in destroying — never fails to rise on the surface of this 
rocky summit. 

Under heat the most oppressive, our poor beasts 
scrambled like cats down these frightful roads, and soon 
we were all assembled to partake of a frugal dinner in 
a dirty inn. 

Among many other bad things the wine was altogether 
undrinkable. The careless treatment of it during fermea- 



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18 PaOFBSSOB aOSS-STADION. 

tation would soon cause total corruption; therefore, to 
preserve it, the natives add a great abundance of resin 
and of the needle-like leaves of the pine, so that it ac- 
quires a nauseous, resinous, rhubarby sort of taste. Hav- 
ing satisfied the cravings of hunger, we again mounted 
«ur steeds, to take, under the guidance of Professor 
Ross, a survey of the " Stadion," — the great Theatre of 
the Isthmus of Corinth,— and of the fir-grove of Poseidon. 
In one hour — during which we travelled on a tolerably 
^ven road, a marvellous occurrence in Greece, — we 
reached the place. The theatre and the ruins of a tem- 
ple lie pretty close to each other. These ape gigantic 
monuments of ancient architecture. The stones which 
yet mark the circumference of the theatre, where of 
yore the Erinnyie walked with slow and measured step, 
are blocks of from twelve to fourteen feet in length, by 
eight in height. That even such a work could be de- 
stroyed, and how that was accomplished, is clearly prov- 
ed by the immediately adjoining ruins of a Turkish 
lime-kiln; a similar tale is told on the Acropolis by the 
halves of bombs mixed up with fragments of the capi- 
tals of pillars. Poseidon's fir-grove now consists only of 
a few trees, at most fifty years of ^e ; the trees which 
formed the grove in old times have probably been re- 
peatedly burned down, and the young ones are intention- 
' ally mutilated, for the sake of obtaining from them rosin 
for the manufacture of wine. On the arena, which mea- 
sures 600 feet in length, we found some pieces of mo- 
saic and a copper coin. Excavations are more rardy 
made than one might imagine. Many tombs are still 
found in the vicinity: we witnessed the opening of one 
of them. We now quitted the ruins of the andent city, 
and reached, in an hour from the theatre, the point of 
the Gulf of Corinth, where another steamer was to take 
ns np to Convey us to Athena The place of departure, 
Kenkres, the ancient Oenchrea, consists of a row of 



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CEPABTDEE FBOH EEHEBE8— PI&A17a, 19 

mean cottages. We found there however, an &lmo4 
inconceivable throng: all Greece af^ieared to have flow- 
ed together, as of old, to the " combat of the chariot 
and the soQg." On bo»d the steamer people all crowd- 
ed together, manj still enveloped in large sheepskin^ 
to ward off the heat; ,aoon not a place was left free for 
one to move or stand, for all were lying down together 
mifamiUe on the deck. Here were to be seen many aa 
d^aat dress, many a ponderous silver sabre or pistol, 
many a tight-laced figure; but few handsome faces. 
The Prussian minister had come to convoy us to the 
shore, and gave ua an excellent dinner on board the 
steam-boat. At length the cool of the evening came, 
a great refreshment afler so sultry a day, among such a 
multitude of men, closely crowded together. At half- 
past eight o'clock we entered the Fineus. Unfortunate- 
ly, the charge of remaining beside the lufj^age, until the 
dispersing of the mass of human beings permitted it to 
be caxried on shore, where the royal carriages were im- 
mediately to receive it, fell to my lot. The luggage was 
landed at last, but the promised caxriages were not to 
befouud; we therefore waited till ten o'clock: the in- 
security of the roads did not allow of our lingering any 
longer. Luckily we succeeded, by paying a lai^ sum, 
in obtaining a conveyauoe; and now we proceeded along 
ui uneven country road, on our somewhat nervous jour- 
ney, through a dark olive wood. I was, meantime, bo 
much ■ fatigued, that, — notwithstanding my having for- 
gt^ten my cutlass, which I had been wearing at my side 
through the day, — I soon fell into a sound sleep, from 
which I was only wakened with di^iculty on our reach- 
ing the vicinity of the city, by my companion's loud 
cries of "The Acropolis! the Acropolis!" It was inb- 
po^ble at that hour to distinguish many objects: what 
I ccHild discern, a few solitary palm trees and many 
ruins, had a melancholy and desolate appearance. The 



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'20 ATHE:(S— ACEOPOLIS. 

atreets were narrow; the houses like wretched barracks, 
full of filth and rubbish. It was eleven p.m., when I 
alighted at the Hotel de I'Orient. Feeling somewhat 
indisposed in consequence of the heat and of my eier- 
tiona, I remained neit day tolerably quiet at home, 
making only one or two very short excursions, — in com- 
pany with an English gentleman, — as, for instance, to the 
temple of Jupiter, of which eighteen magnificent pillars, 
sixty feet high, yet remain standing. It is situated iru- 
mediately behind the hotel, in the plain, separate from 
the town; for the space now left va«ant, is merely to 
indicate the circumference of a piazza hereafter to exist. 
The houses are all wanting excepting the hotel and the 
King's palace; the latter is a costly edifice, built of mar- 
ble from Mount Pentelicus; it extends over a large sur- 
face, and agreeably enlivens the desolate avenue of 
ruins. A flight of marble steps leads to a more elevat- 
ed ptazKa in front of it. Imagine yourself standing on 
these steps; to the right is the Hotel de I'Orient, to the 
left the building occupied by the Bavarian embassy, 
which most unfortunately stands on a level lower than 
that of the piazza before the palace. The hill beside it 
is Lycabettus; then follow the palace and the columned 
remains of the temple of Jupiter. How melancholy the 
effect produced by the mixture of the relics of by-gone 
splendour, with the architecture of the present day '. 

On the following Monday, the 21st of September, I 
climbed, with our English fellow-travellers who had 
obtained a permission to visit it, to the Acropolis, which 
is now being cleared out and excavated. Large heaps 
of tombs are there scattered on every side, from which 
may be seen, — and their size furnishes the solution of the 
(li£Bculty, — how it was that so many a block of marble, 
six feet in length, was forced to quit the pediment on 
which it had stood, and how the ground became white 
as snow, with crumbled marble. Many lofty columns. 



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RUINS OF TEHPLB8. 21 

COW prostrate and broken, which had remained erect for 
centuries, also show how the Turkish fire and all-devour- 
ing lime-kilns have raged here. 

The impression made on first viewing the Parthenon is 
sublime beyond all conception; it is the moat beautiful 
monument of antiquity that I have seen. The colossal 
bas-reliefs which filled up the pediment, are now in the 
British Museum, to which they were sent by Lord Elgin. 
I have seen them there, standing upon the floor, where 
they have a mournful aspect, as every thing must have 
that has been torn down from its proper position under 
the free canopy of heaven. The digging up and the car- 
tying away of old Turkish mosques, and other buildings, 
have afforded a rich treasure of marble fragments; one 
shed is here filled with broken statues and friezes; 
another with vases and coins. 

■ The temples of Erechtheus, of Apollo, and of Bacchus, 
«e now but groups of ruined pillars scattered here and 
there; — none of them indeed so large as the glorious 
Parthenon, but each, in its own way, beautiful and 
astonishing. Had the rays of the sun been less intense- 
ly scorching, how gladly would I have sat, for hours 
longer, on the high marble steps, where I beheld around 
me the magnificent remains of the past, while the dirt 
and rubbish of the present age lay far beneath. 

I was struck, during my descent, by the heaps of 
human bones that I saw lying in every hollow place. 
In the city itself they have already vanished. The 
modem town consists, as yet, only of one street, which, 
with much pains, has been rendered passable; — it leads 
directly to the palace; in its centre stands an ancient 
Christian church, built in the Moorish style, dingy-look- 
ing and miserably low when compared with the shafts 
of those noble pillars of the temple of Jupiter. It is 
amrounded on all sides by booths, in which fruit and 
other eatables are exposed for sale;— behind it the 



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22 MODBBN CITY— KING OTHO. 

continuation of the principal street extends to some 
distance, leading to the most conBiderable caf^ of the 
town, which is not far from the church, the " Kaii^ifbi> r^i 
EXXmios" (pronounced " Cq0ion Hs EUadoa.") This caffe 
has two entranceg with glass doors; it contains a lai^ 
room, with a billiard-table covered with filth, and some 
dirty white tables that had once been painted ; we found 
in it a host of loungers, who were smoking abominable 
paper-cigars, and drinking cold water. It is, however, 
also possible to procure coffee, chocolate, and, by waiting 
patiently for the right moment, even a little ice. Un- 
tidy, barefooted lads bring what is asked fer, if one has 
the good fortune to make oneself intelligible to them. 

At some distance from the town, in a street which, as 
yet, LB only marked out, and has no houses, stands the 
theatre. The university and the hospital, on the other 
hand, are situated in a tolerably pretty part of the 
neighbourhood, which is already covered with pleasant 
houses, and has the honour of possessing the only green 
trees any where to be seen. The quarter of the town 
nearest to the Acropolis is, on the contrary, most horri- 
ble; abounding in dingy, rubbishy ruins; yet one sees 
there scarcely a wall that has not variegated fr^menta 
of marble columns, or the heads or trunks of statues built 
up iu it. The figures that usually meet the eye, running 
or crawling among the debris, are those of sordid, dusky- 
coloured boys, or ugly, tattered old hags. In many parts 
the rubbish is lying twenty-four feet deep; and, on at- 
tempting to excavate, one meets with the capitals of 
pillars that yet stand erect. 

On Tuesday (the 22d of September) I had the honour 
of being presented to the King and Queen; and since 
then, I have been at court nearly every day, and have 
taken a lively share in the enjoyment of all the pleasure 
parties. The king is a young man, of prepossessiug 
appearance, and his countenance is always marked by a 



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EXCUfiSION TO PHYLA. 23 

friendly expreBsion. He is habituallj attired in tlie 
Greek costume, and never lays aside Lis broad silver 
sabre. He graciously did me the honour to enter at 
onee into a long conversation with me ; and, on subse- 
quent occadona likewise, he seemed to have a predilec- 
tion for talking with me on jsoolo^cal subjects, especi- 
ally when I had the honour of being seated opposite to 
him at the dinner-table. The Queen is an elegant, 
sprightly, active lady, of an even, bright, and happy 
temper, — fond of making, in person, the arrange- 
ments for all the parties of pleasure; and decidedly pre- 
ferring a swift-galloping horse to a tea-party, — and 
social games in the open air to musical entertainments. 
Although the ladies of her court were clad in the grace- 
ful costume of Greece, she always appeared in a simple 
attire of French or German fashion. 

On the appointed day the proposed excursion took 
place, — to tlie ruined mountain fortress of Phylse, situ- 
ated on Uount Hymettus. It was a most frightiiil ride. 
I could never have scrambled up these paths on foot ; 
but, with Greek steeds, these four hours of clambering 
up and do-wn again were a mere trifle, which the queen 
and her ladies accomplished at a gallop; while to me, 
the deep chasms and the loose, tumbling masses of 
stone afforded matter of no smaU uneasiness. Profes- 
sor Ross always led the van, ready to solve any doubts 
that might arise, and to throw light on the various anti- 
quities. Unfortunately, time is too short; otherwise I 
]^ould have had pleasure in dealing out to you much 
learned information, which I picked up by the way. 

The view from the colossal rocky masses, of which the 
ancient fort was composed, was indeed transporting. It 
included Athens, — the royal palace, shining in all its 
whiteness in the blue distance, — the fir-clad mountains, 
illumined with a rosy brightness, — and, rendering the 
effect more vivid, — giey, sombre-looking cliffs predomi- 



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24 OREBK DANCES. 

Hating on every side. At nine o'clock we returned to 
the village where we hud left the carriages. It Ib a large 
and prosperous pla«e. Here we found the royal tent 
ready pitched, and a liberal repast *a8 served, in which 
nothing was laeking that could satisfy the most dainty 
palate. While we were eating, the population gathered 
around us, the men clothed in white woollen stuff, their 
heads shorn quite bare, except the long tuft of hair 
behind, — the women with handkerchiefs round their 
heads, and long white petticoats, with very pretty em- 
broidery in black stripes. The children of rich parents 
were distinguished by their red caps, which were com- 
pletely covered with ancient gold and silver coins, so 
that at a distance it appeared as if they wore helmets. 
Cheerful fires were lighted, and were soon burning all 
round the tent. Suddenly there arose a strain of 
mournful singing, to which the village youths, drawn 
up in tine, under the guidance of a skilftd leader, be- 
gan to dance in graceful measures. In this dance, they 
hold each other by their hands, which are continually 
flourished together in the air, imitating, only with dimi- 
nislied vivacity, each movement of their leader, ad- 
vancing three quick steps, and retreating one slow step ; 
and the simultaneous movements of all the figures gives 
to the dance a certain measured and solemn air. At 
intervals the time is quickened ; the leader, snapping 
his fingers, springs lightly up into the air, and then 
throws himself upon the ground, — still without with- 
drawing his hand from the line. The whole row, conse- 
quently, unites in an animated vibrating movement ; 
and not one is guilty of breaking the time or figure. 

Similar to this is the women's dance, except that they 
join hands alternately, across an intervening person, so 
that the first, third, and fifth, and again the second, 
fourth, and sixth, are linked together; but there is the 
same measured step, the same sad, monotonous, wailing 



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OAHSS. 26 

melody, and yet the same passion for, and persereranoe 
in, tlie dance. Men and women never dance promiscu- 
ously. To put a stop to their dancing waa by no means 
such an easy matter, sis to set it a-going. Alter it had 
cgased, we, in our turn, diverted ourselves with amusing 
gamea in the open air, in which the King and Queen 
again distinguished themselves by their agility. At 
laat, at the request of her majesty, a race waa run by the 
young maidens of the village, which caused prodigious 
laughter. Confectionery and money, placed on tlie top 
of a chest, marked the goal: the enthusiasm and pasaion 
of the little creatures, and the crowding about this chest, 
which moat of them reached rather on their heads than 
their feet, really made it altogether a veiy pretty scene. 
There was besides, an ease and a universal gaiety in 
the whole party, such as I had really not imagined 
could exist in Qreece, in these times of great excite- 
ment, of which at least, our newspapers are always so 
full. When, at eleven at night, we at length got into 
the carriages, we heard still for a long while, the huzzas 
of these honest village folk; and their "z^rw i ^aaiJaut," 
(Zito o vasilefs,) resounded far and wide. Had I not, 
after this pleasure-party, enjoyed three others of simi- 
lar kind with the Greek court, I should have marked 
that evening as pre-eminent among the moat interest- 
ing and agreeable recollections of my journey. The 
amiability of their majesties strikes me more and more 
upon further acquaintance, and my taste for such festive 
enjoyments haa also increased. Unfortunately however, I 
must throw on them the blame of causing this letter to 
he far from carefully or properly composed or written. 
Not one moment of my time was at my own disposal; I 
made numerous acquaintances, which cost me the sacri- 
jSee of some leisure ; so that nothing waa left but my night 
hoars, when I was wearied with long rides, dinner-parties, 
and dances ; — a time which one would fain bestow on any 



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26 PLEASAMT AKTICIPATIONS. 

occupation, rather than on Trriting letters and journals. 
On board the steam-boat, vbich sails from this on the 
SOth of September, for Syra and Alexandria, I shall find 
time to fill up the arrears of the remaining five days. 

If our travelB continue as they have be^n, my prai- 
tion will be a most agreeable and delightful one, and no 
such thing is dreamt of as over-exertion. The Greeks 
have been universally represented to us as thieves and 
brigands ; — I have found only a cheerful, good-humoured, 
enga^ng people. Thus we may expect to find it also in 
Africa and in India, and the anticipated struggles with 
wild and murderous banditti will, doubtless, never be 
realized! 



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THE HABEET. 



SUPPLEMENT TO THE FIEST LETTER. 



Athhj, Stpt. a, 
U 7 project of (Moeading Lycabettus, failed again tliia 
momiiig, — and that for the second time, — owing to my 
not having awaked early enough ; for these pretty gauze 
curtains are a capital inTention for warding off mosqui- 
toes, hut they are also, alas! the rery best means to 
ensure one's morning hours being wasted. 

My first visit was to Professor Buros. He had pro- 
mised to take me to see the fish-market, and we set out 
for it accordingly, without delay. This crowded mass 
of booths, oyer the roofs of which is spread old linen 
eloth, — to exclude, as far as possible, the heat of the 
Bun, — is a most odious abode, owing to the quantity of 
bad meat, and the myriads of fiies, which literally cover 
the slaughtered calves like a black drapery. The fruit 
offered in greatest abundance is that of the S<^a- 
nwm mdongena (" Maktrizars"), or egg-plant, as well 
as that of another species of Solanum, long and 
thin, and of a green colour, which is very much eaten. 
Potatoes are a rarity there; grapes are the chief arti- 
cle. The fishmonger's division occupies only a small 
portion of the market, and is not ftUIy frequented till 
after three o'clock. We were too early; however, there 
was already a very fine choice of fish. I particularly 
noticed the Sparma eryth^nua, (Eoae Spams) and another 
larger jfi^partw, as also the Exoca^/us evolana, (flying fish) 
MaUus ha/rbaivs, (red SurmuUet) Scorpmta, (Sea^Scor- 



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28 THE HUSEUM. 

pion) Squatvna, (Angel-Shark) and Raja (Trygon) pas- 
tinaca, (Sting Ray). 

From thence we went to the museum. A small, neat 
house ia hired for it, by the Natural History Society, 
which is favoured with the King's support. On the 
ground-floor is the mineralogical collection, esteemed 
the most considerable part of the whole museum. I 
can only judge of its value hy the mass of fossil remains 
from Pentelicus, and from another hill which stands very 
near Lycabettus. They furnish a multitude of highly 
interesting remains, for the most part of ruminating 
animals. One under-jaw appeared to me, to be undoubt- 
edly that of a walrus; I also recognised the hones of a 
hippopotamus. What a pity it is that no one should feel 
su^cient interest in these fragments to arrange and 
classify them! But that is quite out of the question; 
— it is even fortunate that they are now at least eare- 
ftilly preserved. 

The zoological portion of the museum is, certainly, 
most scantily supplied; it includes the species peculiar 
to' Greece, and a few specimens from JBrazil, obtain- 
ed, either by exchange, or as gifts. They are, one 
and all, very ill stuffed. The only object in the whole 
collection worthy of notice as being really rare, is a 
well-preserved specimen of the Capra ^gagrua, from the 
desert isle ofAntimUo (Phyle). Possibly it may be al- 
together a new and distinct species; for who would ven- 
ture to take it for granted, that the jEgagrus of Persia 
had been cast upon an isolated rock on this side of the 
.^^elm Sea. The one in the museum has the three- 
ridged horns of the goat, but considerably inclined out- 
wards. The upper parts of the animal are of a dark, its 
sides of a yellowish, brown. 

On arriving at home, I found, to my surprise, another in- 
vitation to a fete champStre. Wo started at eleven o'clock. 
I v^ in the same carriage with Mademoiselle Colocotroni, 



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COPBT HXCTOMOH. 29 

and with Dr Treiber, tLe King's physician ; cODvereatioii, 
however, would not flow oa as might have been desired, 
as I was not able to touch on any topic of lasting inte- 
rest. After a drive of two hours we reached the village 
of Ealaki, which is surrounded by thinly-planted olive 
woods. There we found the red and white linen mar- 
quee, belonging to the royal family, pitched on an emi- 
nence considerably exposed to the wind. We set out 
immediately on horseback, and the cavalcade flew on 
with great resolution over a very stony piece of ground. 
My dapple-grey steed, notwithstanding the irregularity 
of its pace at a gallop, is a most distinguished brute. 
Dashing over thorns and hedges, and passing many a 
dilapidated farm, we at length reached a steep moun- 
tain-path, behind Hymettus. Our horses did their ut- 
most, but the smooth, slippery crags of argillaceous 
schist mocked all their efforts, and their riders were, 
for the most part, forced to dismount, and to find their 
way on foot as best they could, through the underwood 
of Pistacia Terebin^us (turpentine tree) and pine. At 
last we beheld at our feet, the fig-tree, which marks 
the entrance to the grotto of the nymphs. We had no 
small difficulty however in penetrating into the inte- 
rior; the ladies especially, who had however the Queen 
at their head to lead them on by her good example, 
were in a state of considerable embarrassment. By the 
help of ropes and ladders, which we had taken with us, 
we succeeded, after some time, in eflecting an entrance; 
but, — notwithstanding ail Professor Ross's learned re- 
marks on the original use of the cave,— on its having 
been sacred, rather to the nymphs than to Apollo, — and 
in spite of the beautiful stalactites we found in it, — it 
failed to rivet the attention of the company beyond a 
very short time. The fair adventurers, already grown 
bolder, began to scramble up the steep sides of the 
cavern, upon the ladders, aided by ropes; the love of 



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30 BOTAL TEST DINNEB. 

displaying their powers easily oyercoming the taste for 
listening to the discourse of a savant. Our ride back, — 
for -which it was at first no easy matter to recover our 
wandering horses, — ^was performed at the same pace as 
before; no repose was granted to our paUreya, till we 
found ourselves once more at Kalahi ; and indeed, even 
^en, the passion for equestrian exercise had not been 
sufficiently gratified, and so we visited the windmill bill, 
on which stands a mill with twelve armed wings. How- 
ever, as the view was not particulariy fine, and the wind 
very troublesome, we soon returned to the tent, where 
we gathered round a tasteful and weH-repIeniehed board. 
I had the honour of sitting opposite to the King, and of 
being interrogated by hia majesty on various points, in 
the course of which conversation, I felt that it was not 
merely the polite wish to talk with every one on sub- 
jects connected with his own profession, but a real inte- 
rest in science which prompted his queries. Dinner 
ended, the whole village population flocked together; 
one man beat the great drum, another played on a tin 
flute, which seemed to require a great eflbrt. The sound 
of the mttsic speedily invited the lovers of the dance to 
assemble, and the long line waved, in spiral motion, 
now slowly, now in more lively cadence, in graceful and 
measured step. This was the romaica. Another dance, 
performed by single dancers, or by a pair standing vis- 
^vis, begins with a slow cadence, and degenerates into 
a bacchanalian stamping, the dancer throwing himself on 
his knees and then quickly jumping up, and all this 
with an accompaniment of snapping and piping, growing 
louder and more shrill with the increi^ed wildness of 
the movements. Afterwards, the women also began to 
dance; at first among themselves, but by degrees, ming- 
ling with the lines of the men, and when we, infected 
with a desire to imitate them, pressed into the dance, 
others also joined themselves to us. 



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UATBOHlCBAIiIS. 31 

Preseotlj we were wheeling round in the midst of' 
them ; now in a waltz, — now in a Scotch reel, — to the no 
Bmall amusement of those who were performmg the an- 
tique dauce.* They sought to copy our modem airs 
and graces, but their attempts all failed, and rather af- 
forded scope for ridicule than added to the classical 
effect. Our drive bach to Athens by moonhght, during 
which I was so fortunate as to be the companion of the 

fair and charming Mavrom%cal%,-f and of Count Q , 

was most enchanting. Singing, and classical translations 
of German songs into Frendi, contributed not a little to 
our entertainment. 

In the afternoon of the following day, when every- 
thing was finally arranged for our departure on the mor- 
row, I visited, in company with Professor Buros, the 
botanical garden. The road to it leads along a water- 
course, the humidity of which produces the most glori- 
ous vegetation and rapid growth of trees. The " Mdia 



* Probably the andeiil md oel«bnted "Pifrrkie da»et" ta bcMtifUlj 
sUoded (o in one of the st&iuu of Byron'g impunooed Uf . 
" You hsTG Qit Pjirhic danc« M jet; 

Where !■ the Pyrrhic phaJani gone? 

Of two Eucb leHom, irh; forget 

The Dohler uid the manlier one? 

Ton haTG the letters Codmne gare. 

Think ;e he meant them for % dKreV—lx. 
f The nunc of MaTromicali is vHOdftted with all the most remarkable 
erentB in tbe hietorj of modem Greece. The shore which the doit Teterui 
patriot of that family took in the EerohiHon, his own (ntFeringe, and tbe 
tngio fate of hie jonng aodnolde son, by whose handOapo d'litria fell, are dow 
matter of history ; but we cannot better illustrate the feelings of delight and 
intereit with which our Author foond himself in company with the fair and 
jDuthfdl danghter of the chiefteinB of Maina^ than by quo&^ the concluding 
parBgiBjA of an intereaUng and touchiog account of their history, contained 
in a work recently published, " Wayfaring Sketches among Oie Qreeks and 
Turks." " The MaTromicalis were, and indeed are, the most powerful bmi- 
ly of their proyince, and are greatly respected and belOTed in Muna — they 
themselres, &om the old Bey down to his beautiful giand.daughteT, the 
Queen's maid of honour, are each in their distioctiie podtiDU the most per- 
fect types of the tine Greek aristocracy, and to great simpliinliy of manner 
they unite refinement of mind and delicacy of feeling."— Ta, 



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32 VISIT TO BOTASIC QABDBS. 

Azedarach" (common beard tree) in particular, succeeds 
delightfully, and grows to the Bize of a tree in the courBe 
of three years; it bears clusters of yellow fruit. All 
ihe trees of this " Melia" are transplanted hither from 
the botanic garden, the neighbourhood of which th^ 
mark. At the entrance we found the lady of the cura- 
tor, who led us in and most obligingly presented us with 
bouquets. In the garden itself there is in fact not much 
that is remarkable. Brouasonetia, (paper mulberry) Me- 
lia, (beard tree) Cercis, (Judas tree) and Syringa (lilac) 
flowering for the second time, Roses snACostuaes, besides 
many fruit-trees and other nursery plants. The curator 
resides in a Turkish building, the external flight of 
steps leading to which, with a draw-bridge, yet reminds 
one of the Pasha who once dwelt there. 
- The kind lady could not resist exhibiting to us the 
curator's manufactory; for the garden is not his chief 
occupation, as one may easily perceive by the endless 
confusion that reigns within its bounds. He has dis- 
covered the very valuable art of manufacturing — from 
the refuse of the Spuma Marina* — an elegant material, 
which becomes waterproof by the action of fire, and 
which is equal to alabaster in beauty of colour, and to 
porcelain in hardness, while it far surpasses the latter 
in lightness. 

The most exquisite sunset-glow was illuminating the 
Acropolis as we wended our way homewards; every 
mountain shone resplendent in the roseate light. What 
a magnificent prospect! As darkness cast its shroud 
over the landscape, we pereeived the fires of the gipsy 
groiips on the level plain below. 

Monday passed away in preparations for our depar- 
ture; after dinner I rejoined the Prince at the palace, 

■ Sea Froth, or Keffekill, a mineral found in the CrimeB., in Spun, and 
especiall; in Ifatolia. It 'a commonl; used among th« TuikB in the manu- 
fftctnre of tiie heada of tobacco pipes. — Tb. 



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DBPABTUBB FROM PIUAUa 33 

and about five o'clock, we drove to the Pineus. The 
Parthenon was shining brightly in the serene light of 
evening; the white pillared mine were looking down 
upon us, as though they would bid us farewell, — awaken- 
ing in our minds thoughts of home. At the fort we 
met our English acquaintances; some of whom took 
leave of, while others accompanied, our party. To 
many others besides, we hid a hearty adieu, the little 
bark rowed off, and at the same moment, the men-of-war 
lying in the harbour, thundered their farewell-salute ! 



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CXSAL BOAT. 



SECOND LETTEB. 




<UiK>, ISA Octottr 18M. 

So I am now actually proceeding on my travels by 

tlie canal of the Nile, between Alexandria and Cairo ; 

and, altbough it is not tlie very Nile itself, it is certainly 

a place from which a letter has never before been 

despatched to B . The ship in which I now am, is 

exactly a Dutch " Trecksckuite," (track-boat) such as 
one travels in from Utrecht to Leyden, — and it is drawn, 
as in Holland, only with somewhat more noise, by three 
active horses, which the half-clothed fellows, who act as 
drivers, cheer on by the sound of a most abominable 
kind of singing, to which another man responds from on 
board with a speaking trumpet. The surrounding 
country too is quite as flat as that along the canals of 
Holland; hut there is this difference, that there, one 
glides through gardens of. tulips and hyacinths, and 
here, through the most barren and dismal-looking plains 
of sand. 



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OKBKK OOVBT. 35 

My last letter contained a very hastily-patched-up 40- 
count of Athens ; but, if I recollect rigbtly, tLe last d&ye 
were wanting, and you must grant me final remiasion as 
far as these are concerned, for I am not now in a condition 
to be making further excerpts from my Journal. I can 
only assure you in a few WArds that the King and Queen of 
Greece are reaUy charming people, well worUiyof being far 
happier than they are ; for their ungrateful subjeots, for 
whose sake the King is expending enormous sums yearly, 
will never be brought to acknowledge or comprehend their 
obligations to him. What pleasure and satisfaction were 
diffused throughout the court, when our Prince honoured, 
with his presence, its festivities, not one of which did I 
miss. I suspect these parties do usually savour not a 
little of ennui; for there is among the Greeks a great 
want of nobility fit to grace a court, and all Germans are 
banished. The society is consequently monotonous,— 
consisting of four or five ladies of the Queen's bed-cham- 
ber, one only of whom can speak German: several Greek 
cavaliers, one of whom, U. Uavromicali, the king's mas- 
ter of the ordnance, left a most pleasing impression on 
my mind; and Professor Ross, a very learned antiqua- 
rian, formerly connected with the Greek university; 
that university from which many a man of distinguished 
merit, many a main prop and bright ornament, was 
driven away on the 16th of September.* That great joy 
should be caused by the event of so amiable a prince 
coming, with his suite, to introduce some little variety 
into their monotonous life, was therefore most natural; 

* The Uith of September 1S43,— when the popular, with (he miUtal?, 
assembled in the great >qiutre in front of the pohice, and remaiidiig there for 
ten boon, reK^oie in tiieir demanda, yet abetaining from all TJoIecce, com- 
[«Ued King Otho, who liad been totally imprepaied for gocb ariring, aod 
who, (m directing (he artillery to be poiated agaiiut the inmrgeiitf, fmuid 
erei7 piece tamed agunet himiielf, to grant them a coortitntion, to fonu a 
new nuDiiitry, conven* a national aHemblj, and eaclade all foreignen from 
Ihd Court, <uid from cYBTj office.— Tft. 



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6b COVE'S PLBASITBE PABTIB8. 

and tlie result -was, that one £Ste rapidly succeeded an- 
other, and there was no end of the devices invented for 
giving pleasure to all. One must, to be sure, have a con- 
siderable stock of strength, and bones not easily shaken, 
to be able, after riding at a gallop during aii hours over 
every obstacle, to scramble down on foot over high cliffs 
and huge masses of rock, leading one's horse by the 
bridle during two hours more ; and that in places where 
even the Greek horses slip down beside their dis- 
mounted riders; and then, at the end of the ftte cham- 
pdtre, to dance without intermission during half the 
night, in a climate where the cool of the evening is like 
our warm forenoons. In all this however I took my 
part; and, what is perhaps yet more surprising, her 
majesty the Queen was ever foremost in it all, led the 
march at a gallop over fields of stones, where many, — 
as, for instance, your bumble servant, — would never have 
dreamed of such a thing as galloping, — after the repast 
was ended, gave the sigual for active and exciting games, 
— and altogether allowed but little repose to the young 
ladies oT her court, who doubtless would often have 
preferred their sofas to the games of blind man's buff or 
of "la grace." In short the pleasure-parties to Penteli- 
cus, where the beautiful and precious marble is quarried, 
and where the grove of poplar-trees, — a great rarity in 
Greece, — would alone make it worth one's while to lead 
the moonlight dance with beautiful ladies arrayed in 
splendid Groek costumes, — and the excursions to 
Hymettus and to the Grotto of the Nymphs, have left 
a bright picture in my mind which can never be effaced, 
whatever other impressions may follow hereafter. 

But I am forgetting that I am on the Nile; and that 
it was my intention to write more particularly about 
Africa. I shall therefore merely touch slightly on the 
subject of our voyi^e. We sailed from Athens on the 
evening of the 30th of September, under the thunders 



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STBA AND HEUMOPOLia. 37 

of three large Prench and two Englisli ships of war, all 
wliose yards were manned. On the 1 st of October, in 
the morning, we reached Syra, one of the Greek isles, 
whose capital of the same name is very picturesquely 
situated on a conical hill, while two higher mountains 
form the back-ground. This is the Roman Catholic 
town. All its houses are white, and have flat roofs, 
upon which the inhabitants pass the night. The wide- 
spreading Greek town, {Hermopolis) situated on the 
hiirbour, is far larger, and is the centre of all the trade 
of the place. The consul came to meet us, and display- 
ed his hospitality in the Oriental fashion, by setting be- 
fore us sherbet and sweetmeats. We traversed the 
cleanly and well-paved streets of the town, which are 
filled on both sides with shops full of manufactured 
goods, chiefly the product of native industiy, such as ca- 
potes, pipes, shoes, cloths, &c.; and then ascended to 
the summit of one of the twin hills, on which stands a 
convent. The road is very steep, and the streets in the 
upper town are narrow and dirty; a multitude of pigs 
blocked up the road, bo that our asses had some difficid-' 
ty in forcing their way through; moreover the heat was 
intense, and the white houses and treeless hills dazzled 
the eye: but wlien we did at last reach the top, the en- 
chanting panorama well repaid our toil, notwithstanding 
the absence of all verdure save that of a few pretty 
vineyards. On one side is an extensive sea-view with 
ParoB, NazoB, Delos, and a variety of smaller islands in 
the distance; and on the other rises the lofty hill of 
Pyrgos, a bare and frowning height, separated by a deep 
precipitous cleft from the hill of the convent on which 
we were standing; it was only at the foot of this moun- 
tain that we could descry a few green vineyards enclos- 
ed with walls. The path to this ravine passes over the 
roughest and most frightful clitfs; yet we saw on it 
numberless women with large amphoras on their heads, 



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OS FB&NCH STBAMfm. 

olimbing up and dowo. They fetch the pure and beau- 
tiful water from the spring that bubbles up on that 
height, the oidy fountain in the island, and eeU it in the 
town. On onr way back we scrambled down the rugged 
side of ^e ravine. What a delicious shade did we en- 
joy under the large fig-trees beside the spring! Close 
to us was a splendid vineyard, or rather an extensive 
trellised bower formed of vines, on which hung bunches 
of grapes, such as we could only compare for size to 
those of Eshcol, sweet and juicy, and most refreshing, 
especially after we had cooled them in the fresh water 
of the fountain. We could willingly have luxuriated 
among these delights for a much longer time; but sud- 
denly there appeared a messenger despatched from the 
■ steamer to call us back in all haste ; we therefore mounted 
our asses, and urged on the brisk little beasts to a rough 
gallop. We soon reached the consul's house, and in a 
few minutes more found ourselves on board a large 
gloomy-looking French steamer, which was to tiJte us 
on our further voyage. Here for the first time, the 
fact that-we were approaching the Eastern world was, visi- 
bly and in every imaginable form, presented before ua. 
Pilgrims from Northern and Western Africa all bound 
for Mecca, swarmed around us. On a many-coloured 
carpet lay a venerable and pleasant-looking old man, 
whose cOpper-brown complexion contrasted singulariy 
with his hoary heard. He was clothed all in white; the 
end of his long scarf of thin silk, twisted round his 
head, and fastened into his white turban, and his broad- 
brimmed, red and yellow straw hat, characterised the 
Bedouin. But who could have imagined that this small 
lean man, with his delicately formed hands and feet, 
was the object of dread in so many battle^ that same 
£1 Kesari Ben Ismael, at present French Creneral of the 
Bedouin Light Cavaliy? He was now going, via Alex- 
andria, to Mecca, accompanied by two most captivating 



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SCBNB8 OS BOABD. 39 

boys of dark-brown hue, who had not an article of rai- 
meut upon them save a soiled shirt and the red fex-cap. 
They seemed to cling to the aged man with extreme 
tenderness; and he also appeared to take in good part, 
and to be pleased with, all that they did; sometimes 
even a smile played upon those rigid features as they 
carried on their wild fun aroimd him, pulling his long 
moustachios, seating themselves on his lap, and practis- 
ing many a droll prank. There he lies upon his splen- 
did carpet immoveable through the whole long day ; his 
mode of killing time is to divert himself continually 
with a gold watch of great value, which points to half- 
past five when it is twelve o'clock at noon ; he keeps his 
eye ever upon it that he may not miss his time for pray- 
er. This recurs five times daily; he has a particular 
baas-mat for the purpose, which he spreads out upon 
the floor; then with his &ce turned towards Mecca, he 
first looks at his hands, next bends in deep reverence, 
hastily raising himself and standing erect, and lastly 
throws himself on his knees, and even prostrate with 
his face to the ground. This whole ceremony is per- 
formed twice on each occasion, and after it is ended he 
rolls up his msi, and lays it aside, 

A no less Oriental scene was presented before us in the 
other direction by three Turks, seated in a group, sur- 
rounded by their slaves. They smoked their "Nargilet" 
with the utmost gravity, gazing fixedly at the fumes 
rising from the water in the crystal vessels attached to 
their pipes. There too, were Persians, with green 
turbans, long flowing robes striped red and white, and 
splendid silk saahes; their faces characterised by long 
noses and large prominent eyes. I drew portr^ts of 
leveral of the figures that struck me moat. Koreover 
I relieved an aged Turk who was suffering from tooth- 
ache, by extracting a large double-tooth! In conse- 
quence of this, I was pressed on all sides, to partake, 



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iO ABBIVAL AND LANDINO. 

with these curious people, of their water-melons; and it 
is not my custom to scorn such well-meant invitations. 

Most exceedingly did we rejoice when, at length, a 
loud shout announced that the African coast was in 
sight; — for, however novel and varied were the scenes 
presented on board, there is nothing of which one more 
quickly becomes impatient than tho atmosphere of a 
cabin, the smell of oil and grease, the gloomy darkness, 
and the noise of the engine. On the fiat promontory, to 
sweep round which we were obliged to make a great 
circuit, in order to enter the ancient harbour on its op- 
posite side, we perceived several towers, or objects hav- 
ing that appearance. Cleopatra's Needle andPompey's 
Pillar were also pointed out to us: unfortunately how- 
ever the coast is so low, that all these features, seen on 
the level horizon, have but a miserably poor effect. Hav- 
ing thus nearly described a circle, we found ourselves 
once more beholding the prospect that we had left be- 
hind us, of the Egyptian fleet here stationed. It is said 
to be a most wonderful fleet; — but I must be pardoned 
for saying that, to my eyes, it was a most unlovely sight. 
Every vessel seemed to be old, ill-kept and shabby- 
looking; the paint of most of them was worn off, and in 
very few of them were there any signs of life. In these 
few, youngsters of dusky complexion, with red caps and 
white trowsers, were chmbing and springing about most 
cleverly in the rigging. 

Among the numerous little boats which made for the 
steamer, we soon recognised that which belongs to our 
consul. It was lined with crimson cloth, and rowed by 
twelve handsome brown sailors; at their head sat a tall, 
well'made, shining negro, who attracted our especial at- 
tention: he wore a white turban; his upper garment and 
trowsers were also white; his inner-garment of bright 
scarlet. We were informed that the consul was lying 
sick at Cairo, and had therefore, seat two deputies to ro- 



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ALE5ASDBIA. 41 

ceive us; — one, a 7ouDg clerk, whose enil)arraasmeiit 
kept him iu a constant tremble; and the other, a man of 
very common-place appearance. Our luggage was cai^ 
ried off Lelter-skelter, and we took our departure, push- 
ing through the crowd of little skiffs belonging to the 
numerous boatmeu who were eagerly flocking to the 
steamer. Such a shouting — such a noisy bustle amid 
the multitude of sable and dusky faces, with flat noses 
and thick lips! The turban and the single garment 
wound round the loins, were, generally speaking, the 
only raiment worn by this motley crowd- Troops of ca- 
mels and of asses were stationed on the beach, waiting 
for the arrival of the passengers; and here a fresh dis- 
pute awaited us, which however was soon settled by the 
exertions of our guides. Instead of the asses, which in 
point of size and strength are almost equal to mules, we 
were fortunate enough to secure a veiy elegant caliche, 
lined with white silk. In it we proceeded to the town. 
The first truly foreign sight that greeted our European 
eyes, was a troop of dromedaries; then the strange and 
varied population, — the dusky Bedouins, the jet-black 
Nubians and Ethiopians, and the slaves from the west 
coast of Africa, with their frightful, broad, flat noses, 
called forth exclamations of surprise. The women of 
the " Fellahs" veiled, and wrapped in blue chemises and 
trowsers, with their three-cornered veils of black silk, 
and the black circles painted round their dark eyes, 
riveted our attention, no less than the elaborate carved 
work of the projecting latticed windows. Passing through 
many streets, some broad, some narrow, and amidst a 
most animated throng of people of all sorts, we at length 
reached an open square, surrounded by a number of 
thoroughly European-looking houses. They were built, 
as a speculation, by Mehemet Ali, who asks a high 
rent for tliem. We halted before one of these, — the Ho- 
tel Oriental; a large stone house, with lofty saloons, all 



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42 ALEXANDEU. 

the lalinds of whicli were closed. Behiod each apart- 
ment ia an alcove, with two beds; a haudaome sofa, a 
piano-forte, and a number of Parisian engravings, adorn 
the rooms: the cuisine is excellent; — in a word, it unites 
all the advantages of a good French or German hotel ; 
the only drawback being the nightly plague of themus- 
quitoes, which unfortunately in this country never fejl 
to disturb our slumbers. We spent some time, on our 
first arrival, in lounging on the window-seats, amusing 
ourselves with watching the sorrowful-looking and noise- 
less trains of dromedaries, laden with stones, constantly 
passing by, with slow and monotonous pace; — the Ma^ 
hometan population, clad in the gay and motley costumes 
of the East; and the multitude of English and French 
travelleiB, even ladies mounted on horseback and on 
asses; — all seen at a glance, on casting one's eye round 
this spacious "place." Venders of pastry and sweet- 
meats, of lemons and sherbet, — gracefully carrying their 
goods on the top of their heads, — and water-carriers, 
with their bags of goats'-hide, — made by skinning a goat 
in a very clever manner, and afterwards sewing up the 
neck and the legs, — some on foot, and others mounted 
on camels, all jostling each other among the crowd. 

Two days were devoted to seeing the sights of the 
city, and that time proved amply sufficient for the pur- 
pose. On the very day of our arrival, we mounted our 
asses, and made our first giro through the town, in the 
course of which we certainly saw but little worthy of no- 
tice. What we most admired was the view from the pa- 
lace, — which is situated at the sea-side, — and from the 
harem of the Pasha. We entered, and began to carry on 
some negociations with the military on duty as guard, and 
with some Turkish magistrates, who, by reason of the 
Bamadan, had but just assembled after sunset, to do 
their work by night. Thus we gradually paved the way 
for obtaining the favour of permission to inspect the pa- 



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MOBQUB-CAFB. 43 

lace. The shades of Dight had fallen when ve remounted 
our assee and rode back to the town, aow enveloped in 
darkness, relieved only here and there hj the sad and 
murhy light of a date-shop, with its small talloT lamps. 
These dates as they are devoured by the people here in 
an unripe state are remarkably pretty, of an orange or 
lemon yellow, and seem to invite the passer-by to par- 
take also; but, for a European, on account of the tannin 
that abounds in them, they are scarcely eatable. 

We drew up and dismoiuited in front of a mosque, 
from which proceeded a sound of loud singing. It con- 
tains a spacious hall, with numerous white-washed pil- 
lars; between these were bars, from which were sus- 
pended oil lamps. The congregation of the faithful 
stood iu straight rows, one behind another. Exactly 
opposite to the entrance, was the sanctiiary, or holiest 
place, the " Mahrab," a little niche, before which stood 
the Inutum. As often as he began to intone his plaintive 
chant, "AU<ih el Akbar," the whole congregation pros- 
trated themselves, with their faces touching the ground, 
idl striking it simultaneously. This alternate prostra- 
tion and rising again of the gaily-turbaned multitude 
had so strange and picturesque an effect, that we could 
not have resisted the temptation of diverting ourselves 
for a much longer time, by peeping in through the 
grated windows and the open door, at the novel spec- 
tacle, but suddenly, a well-aimed paving-stone was pre- 
cipitated into the very midst of our party. Fortunately, 
it merely struck me a somewhat violent blow on my side 
as it fell. Thus taken by surprise, we were too glad to 
jump hastily into our saddles, and to ride swiftly forward 
to the place for which we were then bound, which hap- 
pened to be a caf4. There we were presented with small 
nargileha, uid were expected to smoke, which cost me 
no small effort. More to my taste was the caf^noir, 
which, though served with -the grounds in it, was not ill- 



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** OLBOPATBA'8 MEBDLB. 

flavoured. We sat on a high balustrade, with our legs 
dangling in the air; for our repeated endeavours to sit 
after the fashion of the Turks uniformly failed, so that 
at last Vfe gave up the attempt in despair. In this caf^ 
we saw a rude specimen of the transparencies, with 
figures " A I'ombre Ghinoise," accompanied by metrical 
singing with tambourine ad libitum, which forma the 
favourite substitute for theatrical entertainments among 
the better classes of the oriental inhabitants of Alex- 
andria. 

On the morning of the next day, (the 3d of October) 
I was awakened by the infiammatory stings of the mus- 
quitoes, which had penetrated within my gauze curtains^ 
These little insects, — a species of " Ctdea;," (gnat) by no 
means a Simulia, — glide unperceived within the hang- 
ings, if there be an opening however small in any of 
the seams, or a bole that has been unobserved in the 
close examination which every curtain must needs un- 
dergo daily; and when once confined in a narrow place, 
they sting all the more malignantly. 

Our first proceeding was to set out for one of the 
handsomest quarters of the city, accompanied by our 
Russian interpreter, — a man possessed of the minimum 
of good manners, and the maximum of stupidity. On 
the preceding day we had visited Cleopatra's Needle, — 
a monument which has a most dismal appearance, being 
half-buried in the sand, and surrounded by fallen walls 
of great size. The soil of this whole district of country 
consists, to a considerable depth, of limestone remains, 
the relics of ancient Alexandria. The ruins are looked 
upon as a quarry, and the materials for building are. 
fetched as they are required, from this often ransacked 
but still inexhaustible subterranean magazine. I found 
in my visit to Cleopatra's Needle, little of peculiar inte- 
rest, except a lizard eighteen inches in length, which, 
on my attempting to catch it, began to climb up the 



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ORIENTAL QARDENS. 45 

obelisk. Salamanders (newts) were psrticularly abun- 
dant here. They often reminded me of the tale of the 
stupid Kailun, when I saw them crawling among the 
heaps of stones, — the ruins of ancient palaces. 

I was, on the other hand, agreeably surprised with 
the thoroughly modem-oriental gardens, which are most 
unique in their appearance, full of lofty bowers and 
marble fountains. We visited them ou the 4th of Oc- 
tober, riding to them through the suburb, which is close 
to the new harbour, — our road bordered on either side 
with palm-trees, raising their tall forms on the top of 
ruined walls; each stately tree resplendent with beau- 
tiful and abundant fruit. From time to time we heard 
the mournful creaking of the " saJd^," (water-wheel) 
which is usually placed on the most elevated point, 
under the shade of thick trees, that from it the garden 
may be kept continually well-watered. Pure fresh 
water is here a most precious thing; it is brought info 
the city by a single water-course only; — these deep wells 
afford brackish water, which may serve for purposes of 
irrigation, but cannot he-uaed at all for drinking. 

"We entered a lofty house, of neat and almost Euro- 
pean appearance. A long entrance-hall, paved in a sort 
of Mosaic, with black and white sea-pebbles, leads im- 
mediately into the first inner-court, which is surrounded 
with a low border of mesembryanthemmn, (fig-mary- 
gold) while its walla are richly and beautifully clothed 
with a profusion of jessamine, roses, and various other 
elegant creepers. A long alley, laid with marble slabs, 
and still edged with mesembryanthemum, terminates at 
the great " kiosk," or pavilion, — a large, airy building, 
constructed of carved wood-work, quite in the oriental 
styl^ in the midst of which are playing numerous foun- 
tains, in handsome marble basins. Every one of the 
plants trained over this bower was in fiJl flower; the 
fragrance of the Arabian jessamine ("jasminvm sam- 



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46 FRACAS AT THE FOBT. 

hoc") in particular, was moat delicious. At this place 
is the entrance to the garden itself. All its alleys are 
separated by high* enclosures, chiefly of rosemary ; the 
loftier groves are formed of oleander, orange, and mu«a 
trees (the latter, plantain and banana trees); the date- 
palms occupy a separate division; and another is de- 
voted to the vegetable-garden, in which are cultivated 
several sorts of melons, gourds and cucumbers. 

As our cicerone was here seized with a violent fit of 
i^e, we were obliged to proceed on our way unat- 
tended, and we wandered on to a steep eminence, sur- 
mounted by a fort, to which we ascended. Notwith- 
standing the significant gestures by which the ill- 
equipped garrison had warned us from above not to 
approach, we were soon at the top, and enjoyed a 
charming view of the many white mosques below, scat- 
tered among gardens of date-palms, — ^bounded on one 
side by the sea-like Lake of Uareotis, and on the other 
by the Mediterranean. Scarcely had we however seated 
ourselves on the end of a half-fallen bridge, when the 
soldiers, enraged at our having penetrated within their 
stronghold, came up to us and attempted to drive us 
away. One man only was bold enough to stretch 
forth his hand, and then indeed, it was to touch, not 
us, but the ass-drivers: his stick was soon taken from 
him, and after loud screams and stubborn vocifera- 
tions on the part of the garrison, — in their Arab tongue, 
which, at any time, sounds like the language of per* 
petual disputing,— they came to the resolution of leaving 
UB where we were. On our return, we shaped our course 
towards the monument that bears the name of Pcanpey's 
Pillar, and passed a fountain which pours its waters 
into a dirty basin, where washing was being carried on. 
Here we saw a crowd of filthy, screaming, wrangling 
women and girls, all clad in blue shifts, and indescri- 
bably ugly, — nevertheless, if they happened to be witb- 



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PALACB Of THB PASHA. 47 

eat Ae black, veil, always catching up the ends of th^r 
gumenta in their mouths, and drawing them half over 
their faces. Many of them had their naked children 
atting astride on their Bhoulders. The chief part of the 
intf devolved on men, who, standing in the basin, were 
UTubbing tlie clothes lustily. 

The road to Pompe/s Pillar leads over an arid, burn- 
ing plain, covered with stones and sand, here and there 
paaung over extensive burial-grounds, in which the 
graves are marked only by a few atones, rudely pot 
together with mortar, and often unhewn. The pillar 
I itself stands out pretty freely, and appears as though it 
[ must have belonged to some immense temple; but nei- 
Qter its capital nor its proportions have any beauty; — 
they bear evidence, on the contrary, of a corrupt, mo- 
dem-antique taste. 

From thence we turned our steps towards the Palace 
of the Pasha. One cannot picture to oneself a finer site 
for a palace. It stands close to the sea, at the old 
harbour, and commaucU a view of the whole fieet. The 
stairs and the audience-chamber are built of beautiAil 
white marble: large circular halls with splendid inlaid 
floors, in which the most precious woods are not spared; 
state-apartments, the walls of which are hung with rich 
tap^itry; handsome vases, — one of which is a present 
trmn the Pope, — and numeroiis p^ntings; the most 
el^^nt Parisian ameublements, cabinets filled with 
stuffed birds from Brazil, — all kept up vnik great care 
and neatness, — are to be seen within the walls of He- 
bemet Ali'a magnificent abode. French taste has here 
regulated the luxury of the East. Much pleased, we 
quitted the palace, which, according to the fashion of 
all our oriental buildings, is but two stories in height. 

After dinner, we sallied forth once more, and tra- 
versed on foot, in the twilight of evening, the city now 
ejJiVeoed by the joyoiis sunset liberty of the Ramadan; 



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48 AMrSBMENTS AT CAFE. 

passing, — Boraetimes through dark streets, and some- 
times through market-places or bazaars brightly illu- 
minated with paper-lanterns and filled with eatables of 
all sorts, — we wandered on till we reached an elegant 
cafe, where we gave ourselTes up to the enjoyment of 
oriental scenes and characteristics. Here, in the most 
profound repose, the Mussulman was smoking his pipe; 
— ^brown faces mingling with black ones, — and black 
with copper-coloured; — tattered costumes beside those 
the most recherch^a; — turbans and "tarbooshes," (red 
caps) — all in a motley crowd: in the centre of the hall a 
fountain was playing. The coffee and the " chihoScks" 
(pipes) were excellent, — and the jolly waiter, with his 
jacket and his white trowsers, presented us with mas- 
tich* for chewing, which he took out of a pocket in the 
top of his shirt-sleeve! To add to the entertainment, 
some musicantes took their places within the caf^; a 
blind hoy, aa singer, — and an old man, who played with 
a plectrum on wire-strings stretched across a board, a 
kind of hautboy, and the tambourin, completed the 
orchestra ! A second singer soon relieved the first ; for 
their performances required great effort, from the custom 
of constantly shaking the head, turning the eyes, and 
making the most inconceivable grimaces. The melody, 
— ^for the most part in a minor key, — was always either 

* A cnrtom, t«I7 preTalent tlironghoat the Lerant, and almost nniTersal 
at CoDitaotuiople and Smymft, ascribed by the inhHbitanls to the healthful 
effeeta of t}iia rednous aabstuice on the month : the name of mmtich ia it««lf 
derired from the uae af it — ntaiticaTe, So highly ia it valued in the 
Island af Sdo, where it is the chief expert, that very strict culea are ob- 
serred regarding the iocieiana made in the lentisk trees, and the gathering 
of the juice. Eren in the dayeof TuAieh tyranny, the fortonate iubabitanta 
of the villages that fun^abed it, eiijoyed an exemption from compnlsory and 
unpaid labour, wid freedom from eyeij chief, aaie the "Ago," or lord, who 
travelled in state from place to place, to collect the treasure ; the supplying 
of it being limited by goremment to certain localities. The Fittama Unlit- 
evj, &om which masldeh exudes, requires scarcely any cnltlTation; itisabean- 
tifiil CTergreen, though scarcely exceeding the size of a tall shrub: the in- 
cisions are mode only in July and September.—Ts. 



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CANAt-ATOBH-HILB. 49 

asked for or named before-hand by tlie landlord, who 
tliNi expressed his satisfaction by clapping his hands. 
The tout-enaemhle made our ears ache, especially as it 
was so very close to us. We soon repaired to our hotel, 
to finish the preparations for departure on the following 
day. 

On the 6tb of October, in the morning, we went on 
board the vessel by which we were to proceed, on the 
Mahmood^h Canal, taking with us a good supply of 
provisions. Our interpreter, — a black man with fine 
eyes, — followed us in a small, neat tnu;k-boat, made of 
painted wood. The country around, destitute equally 
of life and of verdure, makes a melancholy impression 
on the traveler. Mud-huts, a " Sakieh," many Egyptian 
vultures/ and a few miserably poor and half-savage men, 
were the only objects that attracted our attention. The 
whole course of the canal lies through a stratum of sand 
and clay, and in most parts the rude mound which con- 
fines it is not even clothed with grass. 

It was late in the evening ere we reached the place 
where the canal enters the Nile, beside a wretched 
village, ("Atfeh") whose inhabitants dwell in common 
with their poultry, in a kind of swallow's nests. The 
junction of the canal with the waters of the sacred 
stream is effected, at this point, by means of a lock 
with sluice-gates. A stately steamer, beautifully light- 
ed up, was lying at anchor in front of a house two 
stories high, in which coffee was served; and as we 

* The Hgyftiaa at Bqiulina vnltnre, ( Vvltvr Ptrencplenu) though in iti 
tqipeanaoe and habite one of the moat horrid birda that ouk be aeoi in ■ny 
ooontrr, with it* naked wrinkled foce, block, hooked beak, long neck, and 
ttemendoiu talooB, in most oKfnl, both in waging w&r agumt the inDomen- 
bte mice, and still mare, in clearing awa; the many csicBseB before thej 
pntre/j, and tbuB preventing thme notions eihalationi which. Id nieh a eO- 
mate, would otherwise be so bM, The male ia oearlf white; the female of 
( brown colonr, both having black qniUe : this Tulture sometimes measnres 
twelre feet from tip to tip of its wings : it has no ehyneu, and nerer aoara Is 
lo% %hta.— Tr. 



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50 STEAMER OV THE NILE. 

went on board, we were greeted with loud music. We 
onnd eveiy thing in the boat arran^d in the best 
possible style; — the after-deck was surrounded with 
purple velvet sofas; and the cabin set apart for our use 
was cool and airy. Certainly, whether from the effects 
of imagination, or really from the beneficial influence of 
the mild and tepid air of the Nile, with its silky, balmy 
softness, — we did, as we lay there stretched beside eaeh 
other upon the floor, enjoy a slumber so refreshing that 
no other could be compared to it. Meantime, every 
three or four hours, all the numerous domestics belong- 
ing to the vessel renewed, in plena, their vigorous exer- 
tions in the way of performing, with the accompaniment 
of drums, kettle-drums and serpents, airs of Bellini or 
of Donizetti ; it never occurred to any one among them 
to think of our poor ears being torn to pieces by their 
discords; on the contrary, all this was done for our 
cirtertainnient, till at length we gave them clearly to 
understand that we were no amateurs. In the morning, 
(on the 6th of October) we partook of a most scanty 
breakfast, as our provisions were rapidly disappearing. 
We were therefore most agreeably surprised, when, at 
dinner, the cook of the steamer set before us a great 
number of dishes, all choice Arabian dainties, for the 
most part consisting of very greasy preparations of rice 
or of flour, — several of them really excellent, — but many, 
according to our taste, too fat and doughy. 

But truly, neither the good fare, nor the noisy 
Egyptian music and drumming, could indemnify us for 
the ennui of watching the view along the banks of the 
Nile. The broad expanse of water, turbid and of a dark 
yellow colour, winds through a low and barren plain, 
which displays none of the fresh verdure that one might 
expect to see so soon after the inundations. On the 
exterior margin of the river only, is there a little half- 
dried-up grass, to consume every particle of which with 



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GATHERING DATES. 51 

all pos^ble expedition, affords matter of rivalry to the 
young camels, and to the Qumerous herds of baffaloes, 
which stand up to their muzzles in the muddy water. 
Here and there, appears a palm-grove, of from fifty to a 
hundred date-palms; as far as I could judge, the height 
of some of these trees might be eighty ot ninety feet. 
They all make a fine show at present, adorned with a 
rich crop of remarkably pretty clusters of red or golden 
fruit. When passing under those that grew close to the 
water-side, we could descry, in the dark object appear- 
ing from under the crest of rich foliage at a great height, 
the figure of a man, busily employed in gathering the 
fruit into a straw mat, which he had contrived to wind 
up with him to that elevated position, while the assem- 
bled population below were eagerly watching liis pro- 
ceedings. The usual rule is- for each of these palm- 
groves to have a hamlet situated at no great distance 
from it; but it may be often sought for in vain, for it 
requires an eye accustomed to such a country to dis- 
cover its position. The material of which their huts are 
built is the black soil beneath their feet, pieces of which 
they bake in the sun, into a sort of rude bricks, or 
indeed, often mere clods; with these they construct, at 
pleasure, round, square, or conical buildings, usually not 
exceeding four feet in height; a single aperture answer- 
ing the double purpose of door and window. The whole 
hamlet, when viewed from any point in the vicinity, 
resembles nothing so much as a collection of swallows' 
nests, built close together. How horrible the interiors 
of these molehills are, is evident from the apparently 
indelible filth which cleaves to these miserable, degraded, 
Bwarthy-brown creatures, although they seem to facili- 
tate the promotion of cleanliness by diminishing their 
wardrobe to the last degree! How pitiable and shock- 
ing is it to behold the unfortunate men with rough, hard 
ropes fastened obliquely across their breastSj dragging 



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52 WATBK-WHEELS. 

the boats up the river against the current, their bodies 
dreadfully excoriated, and covered with sores, like our 
worst cart-horses! The womea wrap themselves in 
long dark blue garments, one end of which is used to 
cover the head; the black half-veil is never wanting, 
even in cases of most extreme ugliness; it is a long 
three-cornered piece of silk, fastened with brass buttons 
to the top of the cap or hood, so as to hang from below 
the eyes. The effect of the whole costume is abominably 
bad. 

Here and there was to be seen a large lake, the re- 
mains of the late inundation; beside it, almost invari- 
ably, a group of acacia or sycamore trees; beneath their 
shade a few buffaloes, working a powerful " Sakieh" for 
the irrigatioQ of some fields of wheat or of Indian com, 
(" Doora Shamee") while the overflowings of the plen- 
tiful stream, thus raised, serve to nourish the grove it- 
self. This " Sakieh" is a very simple machine, consist- 
ing of a large wheel, on the outer circumference of 
which, all round, are fastened earthen pitchers; these 
draw the water out of a small trench close beside the 
wheel, raise it up, and pour it into a wooden trough or 
channel. The mournful creaking of these wheels re.- 
sounds throughout every part of Egypt, as an accompa- 
niment to the yet more mournful singing of the drivers 
of the oxen; for the Arab never engages in any occupa- 
tion without accompanying it by singing. This art 
does indeed at present occupy a very low place in the 
scale of cultivation; they sing every thing through the 
nose, or at best, squeeze out their tones in a most extra- 
ordinary manner. Their melodies are, for the most 
part, in minor keys, and have but few notes; the chief 
art in executing their airs, is to drawl out a succession 
of wild cadences, which, doubtless, many European ar- 
tistes might vainly endeavour to imitate. They have a 
strange, and often even an unpleasant sound, but they 



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NIGHT OH THE NILE. 53 

produce an impression of sui^rise which is certainly 
somewhat striking. 

Prom time to time, though rarely, I observed, on the 
banks of the river, a flat field covered with tall, rush- 
like grass, but no general verdure was spread over the 
level surface. Here aud there a branch of the Nile was 
glittering in the distance, or its course was marked by 
a small, white sail, usually of a quadrangular form, and 
fastened to a pole, which lies obliquely across the mast- 
bead. 

The captain had given us a promise that we should be 
in Cairo before three o'clock; but the current was too 
strong, owing to the subsiding of the inundation, to al- 
low of our advancing rapidly, and so hour after hour 
passed away. Towards sunset the Pyramids at length 
appeared. Like grisly phantoms, they stood there on 
the red horizon, and riveted our every look, until they 
vanished in the dim twilight. Sable night now met us 
in deepest gloom, and still not a light was visible, not a 
vessel, nothing to announce to us that we were drawing 
near to a capital city, containing a population of nearly 
two hundred thousand inhabitants. Our impatience was 
excited, aud not so easily quieted, although the'swarthy 
orchestra, with their white jackets and trousers, used 
their utmost exertions to break the drums of our ears, 
and thus to arrest our attention. Their performance 
being at length concluded, we took refuge in our usual 
evening entertainment, singing, and the banks of the 
sacred stream soon re-echoed the sounds of our German 
national airs. A deep stillness was spread over all around 
ua on board, and the brown-looking Fellahs crept out on 
every side, attracted by the charm of a strain of singing 
80 new to them. 

At length Cairo lay before us, — at least, many lights 
were glimmering on the shore. Our steamer made a 
most awkward and unskilful turn, by which a small 



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64 KOCTTEHAL ARRIVAL. 

bark laden with stones was run down, and several men 
were thrown into the river; sounds of fearful alterca- 
tion and loud cries of murder were raised, and not 
words only but blows were exchanged. On the shore, 
there now appeared people bearing large iron vessels 
like barrels, fastened to poles, and filled with burning 
wood, straw or shavings, to serve as flaring lanterns. 
Nothing was to be seen of the promised carriages; asses 
however were standing in readiness; brown, wild, ban- 
ditti-like men were brandishing their sticks, with fright- 
ful cries, each goading on his beaat. We mounted, after 
having made the necessary arrangements regarding 
our baggage, leaving one of our servants witli the in- 
terpreter, to remain beside it, — a precaution which, 
owing to the disorderly state of the country) the narrow 
streets, and the midnight robberies which frequently 
occur, was assuredly very necessary, — and urged on our 
asses, laden only with the most indispensable parts of 
our luggt^e, to a swift gallop. Thus our cavalcade 
dashed on towards the city, — the two guides, torch in 
hand, leading the van, — like hounds upon the scent, as 
we passed through the thick gloom of close and narrow 
lanes, and over roads often blocked up by rubbish and 
by vehicles of divers sorts and sizes. A littledisaster, 
viz., one of our cavaliers, who had the encumbrance of 
the heavy money-box, being thrown Irom his ass, though 
fortunately he escaped unhurt, was the only adventure 
that befel any of our party; and the mirth occasioned 
by the novel scene of our nocturnal entry, lasted till, 
after half-an-hour's ride, we found ourselves at a stand 
before a large gateway. It was the Hfitel Oriental, — a 
bouse very prettily situated, and with something very 
English in its appearance. The gate was opened, but 
we sought in vain throughout the spacious building for 
waiters or domestics of any kind, while the impudence 
of the ass-drivers could scarcely be held within bounds, 



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HOTEL-VIEW OF THE CITI. aa 

even by the aid of our sticks. After sundry fruitless 
endeavours, we succeeded in rousing a most Bomniferous 
negro, who spoke a little Italian; he speedily put an 
end to our difficulties, by means of a long whip of hip- 
popotamus' liide, (called "koor-bag") with which he dealt 
fearful blows to the right and left among the sleeping 
men who were stretched, without any covering, on the 
ground on all sides. As to our rooms however, we had, 
in the first place, great difficulty in convincing the peo- 
ple of our identity, and thus obtaining possession of t)ie 
apartments ordered for the Prince and his suite, — and, 
at one time, it really seemed aa if we had here bid fare- 
well to the civilized world. Kevertheless, the beds in 
which, thoroughly wearied, we shortly sank to rest, 
were very good; the curtains were thick and without 
any holes, bo that musquitoes ("Mikken") &om without, 
and grumbhngs (" MUckeit") from within, were equally 
excluded. It was not till the following morning that 
we were made aware of the advantages which our suite 
of apartments possessed. The landlord, — a Frenchman, 
proprietor also of jhe above-mentioned hotel in Alex- 
andria, — full of apologies, introduced us to a handsome 
'^gaXon," and a dining-room furnished with Turkish 
divans. The walls, throughout, were adorned with 
very pretty English and French engravings, and in the 
salon was a piano-forte, and one by no means devoid of 
merit. 

It is now once more day. The Venetian blinds are 
opened. What an enchanting prospect ! To our left, a 
long row of oriental houses, with richly carved "muahre- 
heehs" (latticed projections instead of windows) inter- 
spersed with mimosaa and palm-trees, rising pictur- 
esquely above the garden walls: the long line of houses 
and palaces is terminated by a tall and splendid mina- 
ret: several similar buildings, gaily painted red and 
white, appear in the foreground: the centre of the back- 



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56 VIEW ON THE tJZBEEEEH. 

ground is a grove of palms gracefullj pencilled against 
the blue horizon: adjoining it, to our right, tower the 
two gigantic Pyramids of Geezeh. They supply in some 
measure the place of hills, which are wanting to perfect 
the beauty of the landscape. To our right on the hori- 
zon lies the desert, easily recognisable by its atmo- 
sphere; over it floats a thick vapour of yellowish grey- 
ish hue. The foreground here however is all the pret- 
tier for this; it consists of a thick forest of acacias, 
clothed in the freshest vernal green, and broken at in- 
tervals by flourishing fields of maize; in the centre of 
the picture a small piece of water, bordered by Lahbek 
acacias. Near this basin passes one of the greatest 
thoroughfares leading to the city: it extends across the 
wide square called " the Uzbek^eh," upon which the win- 
dows of our hotel look out. A multitude of asses laden 
with fruit, followed by swarthy young drivers, is ap- 
proaching the town; then draws near a long train of 
slowly-pacing dromedaries, each fastened by a rope to 
the one before it: women in blue shifts and trousers, a 
large um on the head, a smaller one on the uplifted 
palm of one hand, and often a naked infant astride on 
■ the shoulder of the other aide; white Copts with their 
black turbans; black Nubians with their long white to- 
gas; lean, wizened, filthy-looking Arabs; and fat, well- 
fed, cleanly Turks and Armenians; all are moving on, 
en masse, towards the city. Close in front of our win- 
dows the eye is refreshed by the rich foliage of acacias 
and sycamores. It is impossible to describe the delight 
we feel in once more beholding really green trees, which 
we have mourned the want of ever since we quitted 
Vienna. Here is shade; here is water; here are clean 
beds and a most comfortable breakfast. Having done 
honour to the latter, our curiosity could be restrained 
no longer. We jumped upon the hacks of the asses that 
stood in readiness under our windows, and off we set. 



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CAIRO. 57 

without lo3S of time, bound for the interior of the city 
of the Caliphs. 

A totally new world here opens upon the traveller's 
astoDiBhed gaze; he knows not where first to cast his 
eyes ; whether upon the gay and motley dwelling-houses 
adorned with carved work, upon the magnificent ruined 
mosques, or upon the shops of the wealthy merchants, 
and the crowded and various mass of human heings ga- 
thered together from all the nations of the East, which 
swarms around. It was scarcely possible to penetrate 
the throng that pressed closely on us, for the usual 
width ofthestreetsis only from four to six paces. Our in- 
terpreter, armed with his formidable hippopotamus' hide 
whip, compelled, without further ceremony, by a few 
3)owerful lashes, all loiterers to make way; and quickly 
cleared every obstruction from our path. Even the 
heavy-laden camels were forced to yield to such treat- 
ment, and so we advanced with tolerable speed. We 
are generally accompanied in our more extended rides 
by one or two janissaries, (commonly called " Caw&s- 
ses") whose constant attendance often becomes quite an 
oppression ; as, though they make a very fine show, they 
are not of the slightest use; for no one dreams of such a 
thing as being attacked by robbers, and the accounts 
given by travellers on this point are greatly exaggerated. 

From the moment when a European first enters the , 
streets of Cairo, his mind cannot fail to be impressed 
with the thought that he is within the precincts of a city 
degraded, impoverished, and weakened by famine and 
by plague, whose only attraction now is what remains of 
its ancient splendour. But this splendour of bygone 
ages was so great, and so closely interwoven with the 
whole structure, and with the very being, of the city, 
that a long period of sanguinaiy barbarism has failed al- 
together to obliterate it. Wherever he may turn, the 
elaborate wood-carving of the airy " muskr^ehs," — the 



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68 VIEW F&OM THE CITADEL. 

beautiful bronze gates of the falleti palaces, — tbe half- 
immured Bculptured ornaments, scattered amid the re- 
mains of ancient mosques, — all testify to the refined 
taste, and tlie skill in art, of the era of tlie Calipbs. 
Fortunately, scarce a drop of rain ever falls among these 
ruins: if this were not the case, it were hardly possible 
that so many relics of the fine arts, of the eleventh, and 
even of the tenth, century, should have been preserved ; 
for, since that glorious era, nothing in the way of repairs 
has been attempted, but on the contrary, every thing 
has contributed to reduce the beautiful monuments of 
antiquity to mere heaps of broken fragments, which have 
' supplied building materials for many edifices of more 
recent date. 

As far as I can recollect, it was on our first day (the 
8th of October) that we repaired to the citadel, thence 
to enjoy a general survey of the whole city. There lay, 
— stretching over the broad plain beneath, clothed in a 
tint of sombre grey, — the immense extent of the C32>itah 
The suburbs, whose houses are only built of mud, have 
a most woeful appearance; beyond them ^ain, are 
spread immense heaps of rubbish and d^bri^ through 
which it was necessary to cut in forming the roads. 
Within tliese outskirts of the city, — in melancholy and 
deathlike prominence, — are scattered some few very an- 
cient mosques and miQarets, more durable than all else 
around them, — now, alas ! only inhabited below by dogs, 
— above by turtle-doves and ravens. Casting our eyes 
round the circumference of this mighty wreck, we were 
enabled to form some idea of the vast size of the city of 
old. Formerly it had a population of eight hundred 
thousand souls; the present inhabitants scarcely amount 
to two hundred thousand ! Immediately below the cita- 
del, — which rests upon a solid foundation of limestone- 
rock, — are a number of long, mean, grey buildings, 
which, with their flat roofs covered with camels' dung 



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GEHBBAL ASPECT OP CAIRO, o9 

instead of asplia]te, and with their windowless walls, 
look like paate-board boxes. They never exceed eight 
or tea feet in heiglit, while each occupies a surface of 
. twenty feet square. These are temporary barracks, in 
which the soldiers are living, with their wives and chil- 
dren, — a fearful crowd ! 

Grey is the colour that predominates throughout the 
entire city; here and there only, a minaret of graceful 
architecture, painted red and white, gladdens the weary 
eye; or the dome of a mosque of ancient date, shining 
through the net-work or tracery of chiselled stone. Most 
willingly did we bestow a long and lingering look on the 
Pyramids, which stand out, — bright and glorious in tlie 
clear sunshine, — amid the golden haze that overhangs 
the desert. Between them and the town, there is a wel- 
come stripe of verdure, — trees in fresh and rich fohage, 
scattered over fields of wheat or of matze. Again, and 
yet again, — in many a distant spot, — we descried the 
source of all these blessings — the Nile, — glittering like 
some great lake, among the trees. To our left, we ob- 
served a small wood of palm-trees ; the edge of it forms 
the boundary of the desert. To our right, — like a long, 
straight, whitish wall, — extend the limestone mountains 
of the " Mokattam." The circumference of modem 
Cairo is still very great, in proportion to the number of 
its inhabitants; being twice — perhaps nearly thrice — as 
large as that of Berlin. The immense heaps of ruins, 
and the almost uninhabited streets of some quarters, 
often consisting, in great part, of fallen houses, are how- 
ever necessarily included in this measurement. 

On our descent from the highest point of the citadel, 
we visited, in the first place, the half-finished mosque, 
begun by order of the Pasha; — an edifice on a very 
grand scaJe, but executed in a corrupt, half-Moorish, 
half-modem style. Its chief beauty consists in the ex- 



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W PASHA'S PALACE. 

quiaitely -marbled oriental alabaster of its pillars, — some 
fifty or so of which are already standing, — the yellow 
marble of its niches and friezes, — and its various Ifoeaic 
pavements, formed of the most valuable stones found in 
Egypt. It is strange that the Pasha, who undertakes 
so many great architectural works, should never have 
thought of repairing any one of the ancient mosques, 
which are of such uncommon beauty. 

We next made an attempt to obtain a sight of part at 
least, of the interior of the Pasha's palace. A veteran 
officer procured for us permission to enter, although we 
had at first been refused. 

But what was our surprise and disappointment, when, 
on being uahered into the suite of apartments surround- 
ing the parterre, we found ourselves in a large ante- 
chamber, with straw mats, and white-washed walls 
coarsely painted in grey and red stripes. Even the 
reception rooms were not much better, and they con- 
tained, in the shape of furniture, only soiled and torn 
red divans, placed against walls that had once been 
white. In the front court lay a detachment of Egyptian 
militia, whose arms and equipments were most minutely 
examined by our party of inquisitive strangers. An 
Egyptian soldier is by no means an ill-looking person:^, 
and one might fancy him well-treated, if one did not 
know that parents here often put out an eye of one of 
their children, or cut off the fore-finger of his left baud, 
that they may save at least one of their sons from be- 
coming the victim of the Pasha's cruel tyranny in his 
military service. Tlie infantry wear loose blue jackets, 
white waistcoats, red belts, white loose trowsers fastened 
by means of garters at the knee, white gaiters, reaching 
to the ankle, and red slippers on their stockingless feet. 
Their head-gear consists of a red cap, similar to the 
Greek fez, but here called " tarbSosfi." 

Below the citadel there is an extremely curious 



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BAZAAE. 61 

well,* the only one in all Egypt, for the people universally 
drink the water of the Nile. It is said to be of great 
antiquity, and is known by the name of " Beer Yooaef," 
or Joseph's well. Its depth is supposed to be not far 
from three hundred feet. It is hewn in the limestone 
rock. Round the well itself is an ingeniously constructed 
winding staircase, with windows in its inner wall, which, 
from their great depth, afford but a small portion of 
light. 

Near the foot of the citadel, and adjoining it, is a 
small side building, which contains Mehemet All's 
menagerie. A few lions and hyenas are there attached 
by huge ponderous chains to the walla of their close and 
dirty cells. The animal most worthy of note is a serval 
(" Felts Serval"). 

On our way home we visited a bazaar. The streets 
of the bazaars, like all others, are only four or five paces 
in width. They are unpaved, but usually covered by an 
awning, stretched across from the higher stories of the 
houses on either side, which casts a mysterious gloom 
over the whole scene. The merchants deal in silk goods, 
a few of which are of home manufacture, but the greater 
part imported from Constantinople. There also are to 
be seen tailors selling ready-made clothes; numerous 
appraisers, (" dellalin") carrying about silver and gilt 
arms and weapons, shawls and pipes, both nargilebs and 
chibouques; and squatted down in the midst of the 
crowd, dirty little imps, sucking sweet citrons and pome- 
granates. The ordinary attire of these young boys is a 
shirt of blue cotton with loose sleeves fastened up by 
means of a red woollen cord thrown over the neck and 

* Minutoli tffimu that the well has b«eD called " Seer Yooitf," to mark 
it aa containinK the tomb of the patriarch of that name. — Editor. The 
name real! j deiiTee its oiigin from the renowned Saladin, {" Yoo^f 8oiak- 
t'-dtm") the founder of the Eijobite dynaat; in Egypt, who, in the twelfth 
century, while occupied iu enlarglDg, improrioK, uid fortifjing hii capit&l, 
diecDTered and cleared oat thii vei; ancient well.— Th. 



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62 COSTUMES. 

crossed behind. Boya rarely wear the turban; they 
usually content themselves with the tarb^sh. The 
merchants who carry on their trade in ailks and mouth- 
pieces, are for the most part Turks, and are clean, and 
finely dressed after the fashion of their nation. A 
wealthy Arab always wears a white shirt and white 
, trowsera, and biuda round his waist two broad silken 
sashes. A jacket of silk or of cotton tissue, with the 
sleeves slit up, or a loose bed-gown reaching to the 
ankles, yellow alippers ne^t the skin, with red ones over 
them, — the former having no soles, — complete his cos- 
tume. The women of the common fellahs may be seen 
here in numbers, with their naked infants, covered with 
filth and vermin. These women aell a sort of flat cake, 
or tough, half-baked, white bread, and also cucumbers 
and sweet citrons. Their dress is a kind of long, blue 
garment, ending in a hood that covers the head. The 
black veil, which is drawn tightly up to the bridge of 
the nose, is fastened by a brass clasp, formed of three 
little buttons strung upon a wire, to the end of this long 
garment, which hangs down on the forehead. Many of 
them however, even young women, are discontinuing 
the use of this most irksome veil; they compensate for 
the want of it by holding a tip of their long drapery 
between their teeth, and cast a blinking, one-eyed glance 
at the stranger. The custom of painting the eyes dark- 
blue with " kohl," (" antimonium crvdum") and the 
nails red with henna, has become common even among 
the lowest ranks. The constant habit of carrying a bur- 
den upon the head has given to these women a stately, 
swimming mode of walking; and from the same cause, 
not merely to prevent their long loose sleeves from fall- 
ing over their hands, they are wont to raise their hands 
as high as their heads, holding back their flattened 
palms, which altogether gives a strange, balancing air 
to all their movements. Belts or saahes they never wear; 



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TURKS AND COPTS. 63 

consequently, even the most slender figure has a plump 
and full appearance. Although so carefiil in concealing 
their faces, they do not scruple to be considerably & la 
dfcouverte otherwise, owing to the very broad opening 
at the neefc of the garment. Blue drawers, of the same 
stufi'as the chemise, are an indispensable part of their 
costume, but shoes they have none. These are consi- 
dered an appendage peculiar to ladies of distinction, who 
geueraUy appear in the streets mounted on asses, and 
numerously attended. Tlieir garments are usually white 
instead of blue, and a small black cloak of stiff silk, 
which is thrown over the head and shoulders and hangs 
down the back, forms a striking contrast with the rest 
of the costume. They sit astride in men's saddles, with 
very high Btirrups, into which they are raised with ex- 
treme difficulty. 

Great luxury is displayed in the way of fine horses 
and beautiful trappings. The saddle-cloths are of purple 
velvet riclily embroidered in gold, and with thin plates 
of gold fastened on them. Suspended round them, are 
as many tassels as. can possibly be crowded on them. 

Almost all persons of any consideration are Turks, 
and for the most part belong to the army. They are 
attired in the Turkish ^shion, with the exception of the 
turban, — which is but rarely to be seen in its original 
rich and ample form, — wearing loose drawers falling 
over the knee, a sort of " colza," (or covering for the 
leg) an embroidered jacket, usually of blue or brown, 
a broad silken girdle, in which are placed several pistols, 
and a short sabre in a silver scabbard. The red fea 
universally prevails. 

Strikingly characteristic, among the mixed crowd of 
gaUy and variously apparelled folk, is the dark figure 
of the Copt, — with his yellow complexion, and his vacant 
sycophantish countenance, — ^generally all in black, — 
dress and turban. A much larger turban, also of black. 



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oi UOSQUE OF EL EAEDBAI. 

is worn by the lawyers and by the expositors of the 
Koran. Those persons who can boast of a particularly 
holy descent, are marked by the green turban; — but 
indeed I saw this only in the mosques. 

On the second day of our visit to Cairo, (the 9th of 
October) we made an excursion to the so-called Tombs 
of the Caliphs.* We rode out by the gate nearest to the 
MokaMam hills, to visit, in the first place, the Mosque of 
" El KmWim." a building of the 15th century. A large, 
half-mined, temple-like edifice was opened to us: it is 
surmounted by a dome and an elegant pointed minaret. 
The stucco of the ceiling has fallen off, the beautiful 
painting has become effaced, and the designs of the 
arabesques that covered the side walls and surrounded 
the quadrangular windows, are only occasionally to be 
recognised. The strong latticed gratings of cast bronze 
are yet in good preservation, and no less so the doors of 
entrance, with their hinges and mountings of bronze. 
This is indeed no matter of surprise, considering the 
dryness of the atmosphere. The inlaid floors, on the 
other hand, have suffered greatly; they retain but few 
traces of the splendid Mosaic pavements, composed of 
yellow and black marbles and of alabaster. The actu^ 
place of interment of "^/ Kdedbai" is beneath the 
vault of the dome. Here, in an ancient block of granite, 
are exhibited the footprints of Mahomet himself. The 
Sultan's tomb is enclosed by a grating of carved wood, 
formerly gilt, the openings of which are so narrow that 
it is no easy matter to see through it the large Koran 
lying on the grave. The magnificence of the sculptures 
of the dome can now be distinguished only by isolated 
fragments here and there; the masonry is however, 

* Theae ue, ptoparlj gpenking, not the Tombs of the Calipha, though 
unong EaTop«»n tnnllen thej are alnayi^nown b; tbat nune, but those 
of th« HemlDok kings of the CircBsgian djnaety, fonndeil, in the 14th cen- 
tal;, b; Sultan Berkook, The Tombs of the Caliphs were of mnch older date, 
BUd oooupied the mt« of one of th« Bamors, in the dt; of Cairo it»elf.^-TB. 



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MOSQUE OF EL BSSEOOK. 65 

generally speaking, in excellent condition, and what 
injuries it has met with are such as could very easily be 
repaired. 

We now rode forward over the wide and desolate 
field of ruins: — ^hillocks of from thirty to fifty feet in 
height, formed entirely of potsherds and broken water' 
jars and various wrecks of buildings of every age, lay 
scattered all along ourpatb, marking theeztent of the city 
of the Caliphs. Soon we reached the burial-place, which 
is only in some few places enclosed by walls. Ancient 
mosques and domes, pointing out the tombs of the 
Caliphs, here rise on every side. Several of them are 
covered with designs of great beauty, elegantly traced 
with the chisel in the limestone walls, which look as 
though a web of delicate embroidery bad been thrown 
over them. We entered one of the most remarkable of 
these monumental mosques, — that of'M Berkook," — 
which dates from the 14th century. Owing to its dis- 
tance from the city, a wonderful degree of stillness 
reigns within; the only sounds of animation throughout 
the precincts of its deserted walls proceeded from some 
little children, belonging to poor families that have taken 
up their abode in the lateral recesses of the mosque. 
The large, open court, in the centre of which is a foun- 
tain overshadowed by trees, — is surrounded by arcades: 
the slender pillars that support these have capitals 
adorned wikh a variety of Arabic designs: the grating 
of wooden fret-work, now grown grey with age, but still 
bearing marks of having once been gilt, struck us as 
peculiarly handsome. This mosque is without a dome. 

Our third day {the 10th of October) was occupied in 
sight-seeing among the mosques of Cairo itself. We 
visited so many that my memory can scarcely present a 
full and distinct picture of each ; there are still eighty of 
them in a habitable state, within the capital : if those 
that are now in ruins be included, the number mounts 



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66 HOSQUE OF EL MOAICD. 

up to at least two hundred. The entrance-porch, sur- 
mounted by a ]ofty cupola^ ia usually the most magnifi- 
cent part, and often contains the tomb of the founder. 
The actual mosque conBists of large, open spaces or 
courts, surrounded by splendid colonnades. In the 
centre is a large quadrangular space, with marble pave- 
ment, and lofty, highly ornamented walls or colonnades; 
its only arch above, — the free canopy of heaven. In 
this inner court, and under the colonnades, prayer is 
offered up. What abeautiful spot for worshipping God! 
How much more majestic and sublime in reality than 
many a Gothic cathedral, 'where adoration is poured 
forth amid darkling gloom! Here the glorious vault of 
heaven itself, with its unchanging and unsullied blue, — 
seems to rest, like a vast dome, on those lofty walls of 
sculptured stone. In the middle of the above-mentioned 
open quadrangle rises a beautiful fountain, generally 
built of, and covered in with, marble; a few palms sur- 
round the basin in which every individual of the con- 
gregation of the Faithful may quench his thirst and 
perform his prescribed ablutions. Palm-mats are spread 
beneath the colonnades, which are often formed of six 
or seven rows of magnificent marble pillars. On that 
side of the building which is toward Mecca there is a 
niche in the wall, of superb workmanship, — a sort of 
Holy of Holies. Every Mohammedan slips off his shoes 
on entering the colonnade: — our not being able to do 
the same with our boots, — whatever might have been 
our willingness to comply with the custom, — often gave 
rise to curious scenes; more especially in the much fre- 
quented mosques, where we were, on more than one 
occasion, saved from acts of violence only by the energy 
of the " Gaiv^s." 

The great mosque of " Ei Modiud" lay the nearest to 
our hotel, — on the opposite side of the covered street. 
It has a magnificent entrance, somewhat resembling a 



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MOSQCBS OP TBYLOON AHD EL AZ'HaB. 67 

gigantic grotto of shell-work, with hundreds of small 
niches in the nohle porch, which is aixtj feet in height. 
An immense hronze lustre, shaped like an ark, is sus- 
pended from the huge dome by two long chains, the 
third being broken: turtledoves were nestling in it. 
The dome was originally covered with skilful wood- 
carving, some fragments of which yet remain, and even 
here and there betray the fact that they once were gilt. 
The open court, with its fountain in the centre, is of 
surpassing beauty ; its marble pavement, untrod by the 
rough step of boot-clad feet, — retains its brilliant polish, 
go that we were actually forced to draw straw " babooskee" 
(slippers) over our European chaussure. 

The Mosque of " Tet/loon," (" Tooloon") now in ruins, 
is a giant structure, and left a peculiarly grand impres- 
sion on my mind. The colonnades that surround the 
immense open apace in the centre, are forty feet high, 
and are supported, not by the pillars only, but by lofty 
pointed arches of most graceful proportions and beauti- 
ful workmanship.* Here and there, where tlie more 
recent parts have given way, the exquisite workmanship 
of the original edifice is clearly visible. Some portion 
of the gilded wainscotting is herestill preserved, although 
the mosque is of the ninth century. A few ancient 
tablets of black porphyry are inserted in the walls near 
the principal entrance, and contain Cufic inscriptions. 

We found our way into yet a third mosque, that 
known by the name of " El Az'har," {or " ihe splendid") 
which boasts a peculiar sanctity ."f* It contains, within 



* These ore among the earlieet Bpeeiraena dow in e^detenoe of the piHiited 
OT modem Gothic etjle of aicMtectnre, vhich »ppeus to hnve been intro- 
dnced into Euiope bj the Cniudera in the 12tb ceutiuy, after the; had 
become funili&r with it uuong tlie SamcenB. — Te. 

^ Mr Lantj in hia work on the Modem Mgyptia/ns, meudons that, until 
Ihe French inyaaion, neither Jew, Frank, nor anj othet Chiietian, wae Buf- 
fered to pasa b^ore ttua mosque.—Ts. 



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68 MOSQUE OF SULTAN HASSAN. 

its enclosure, a very large space of ground, covered with 
outbuildings; a poor's-house; a sleeping apartment for 
pilgrims; a library; a celebrated college in wbieh in- 
struction is still given and professors deliver lectures ; 
and bath-rooms, in which the barber carries on his shav- 
ing operations, — all are connected with this large and 
many-pillared edifice ! There was, within, a crowd of 
the faithful : some were cowering down to the ground, 
reading the Koran, and bending the upper part of the 
body np and down as they read; — others were pursuing 
us with hissing and snapping noises, continually pointing 
to our feet, and making gestures significant of putting 
off our obnoxious shoes. Meantime our Catvdss de- 
fended us from the obtrusive, by lasbes which, with his 
ever-ready whip, he dealt largely round on every side, 
while the servants of the mosque, — with their long black 
gowns, and yellow under-garments, — struck in valiantly, 
contributing, with their long canes, not a few blows to 
our protection. 

On the fourth day, (the llth of October) we visited ■ 
one of the greatest mosques, — that of " Sultan Hassan." 
It stands in a large "place," in which, at the time of our 
visit, a conjuror was performing his wonderful feats, for 
the edification of a numerous circle of spectators, of all 
ages and of every class, which had gathered round him. 
The chief exhibition of leger-de-main that we witnessed 
consisted in one of the audience cracking a very dreadful- 
looking whip violently round the bare head of the merry- 
andrew, — a tall, lean, swarthy-brown fellow, — a perform- 
ance apparently attended with some danger; while the 
hald-headed victim so skilfully adapted himself to each 
twist, each movement, of the lash, that he was never 
touched. The people were likewise amusing themselves 
by swinging in balancing-wheels, horizontal and vertical, 
— and by carrying on, in booths and tents, a variety of 
games, — ^in the invention of which, all Arabs are most 



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MOSQUE OP SULTAN HASSAK. S9 

fertile. They were also lounging about their caf4s, — or 
at leaat places where coffee is retailed, — which consist of 
a row of little boxes like hen-coops, made of plaited 
palm-twiga, on which the guests seat themselves to 
drink their coffee out of extremely diminutive cups, and 
to smoke their pipes. " Sherbet' may also be Iiad at any 
of these stands ; i. e. syrup of any kind, as mulberry, 
apncot, or plum, mixed with water. None is a more 
general favourite for this drink than that of violets : to 
me the verdigris colour of the beverage always appears 
somewhat suspicious. 

The magnificent mosque occupies one whole side of 
the piazza, and is, like most of the others, painted in 
stripes of red and white. This colouring of the walls, 
which does not at all harmonize with the elegant deco- 
rations of the windows, must surely have sprung up in 
these latter days of degeneracy in the fine arts, and thus 
have been unconnected with the original architecture. 
The turrets are of oast bronze, scattered over with innu- 
merable little projections and ornaments of irregular and 
convolute form, the design of which is not easily traced. 
The interior of the porch too, with its lofty arches, and 
the portals at the entrance, are adorned with a multi- 
tude of small niches, of workmanship so delicate, so 
much resembling exquisite stalactites, that one can never 
weary of examining it. The height of the walls ta 
seventy feet to the roof, which is likewise full of these 
stalactite-hung niches, while a row of them forms a cor- 
nice immediately below it. The principal entrance leads 
to the tomb of Sultan Hassan; it is a large vaulted dome 
of immense height, adorned above, all over, with that 
curious sculptured niche-work, which I can designate by 
no name save that of stalactite-covered niches. There 
are upon it abundant traces of former gilding. The 
half-broken windows are extremely beautiful specimens 
of arabesques; — they are filled with glass of the most 



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70 ' ASSOCIATIONS AND IMPRESSIONS. 

brilliaal and varied colouring; but they are placed at so 
great a height, that the rays which they admit shed but 
a dim twilight on the scene below. The pavement is of 
the finest mosaic, formed of porphyry, jasper and mar- 
ble; in its centre, placed i^inst the east side-wall of the 
building, is the maesive but simple tomb-stone, con- 
cealed behind a lofty grating of most elaborate deaign, 
partly of iron and partly of wood, on which marks of 
ancient gilding are also observable. On the splendid 
pavement within, lies a huge Koran, in characters of red 
and gold, said to have been written by a son of Hassan. 
All here is on the very spot on which it lay when the 
mosque was first built, well-nigh five hundred years 
ago. Since then, one generation after another has 
marvelled at the vast expenditure of magnificence 
and of skill, — and although none has ever possessed the 
art and the means requisite to repair the injuries 
that the edifice has gradually received, — yet a religious 
awe has withheld the hand of mischief or of revenge 
from approaching these monumental shrines, — and tl^e 
mildness of the climate has tended to preserve sculptures 
of wood and of stone, which in our less genial climes, 
would have been reduced, by the vicissitudes of the 
weather, to a mass of rubbish and of desolation. How 
often, as I crossed the threshold of these lofty and myste- 
rious halls, 80 sublime in their simplicity, so tranquil 
and hushed in their magnificence, have my thoughts 
wandered to the " thousand and one nights," and to their 
enchanted palaces, which, for many a long century, no 
foot had trod. Often too am I involuntarily reminded of 
" Aboo Hassan the rope-7naJcer," and of " the blind AH 
■ Baiia," when, in walking through the streets, I see the 
industrious artisans sitting in their little shops, — mere 
stalls hollowed out in the walls, — whose only opening 
towards the street, serves the double purpose of door 
and window. The front part of each shop is laid with 



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AUDIEHCE OP THE PASHA. 71 

carpeting, on irhieh tlie passer-by may seat himself to 
transact business or to indulge his love of gossip. Here, 
generally, may be seen the proprietor reposing cross- 
legged, with his clean jacket of silken stuff, and his 
white turban, now busily plying his needle, — now mak- 
ing the air resound with the blows of his hammer, or 
now again smoking his nargileh, after the fashion of 
every merchant in the bazaar. 

On the same day on which we took our general coup- 
d'teil of nearly all that was most remarkable among the 
mosques, we were also honoured with an audience of the 
Pasha. At seven o'clock in the evening, an equipage 
all glittering with gold, came to convey us to the palace. 
Two Moors with burning pitch-rings ran before us; and 
horsemen in bright uniforms surrounded the carriage, 
which proceeded rapidly on its winding way through 
the narrow streets of the city. In front of the palace, 
we alighted with all possible speed, and escorted our 
royal master up the flight of steps, and into a large but 
not very elegant saloon, containing only red divans, and 
at one end of the room two candelabra, six feet high, 
between which stood a was taper, which was lighted as 
the Prince entered. The Pasha's interpreter, Cfwsreu 
Bey, a short, thick-set man, with piercing, rolling eyes, 
came forward to receive us, led us up to his highness, 
and presented us. We jumped up, not without difficulty, 
upon the high seats, in which operation our spurs were 
a sad hindrance. In the first place, a long pipe richly 
set with diamonds, was brought to the prince by the 
commander of the forces; next, a similar one to each of 
us, — silver trays served to support the pipe-bowls. I 
smoked with the utmost gravity, at the same time 
straining every nerve to follow the interpreting of the 
conversation, which was no easy matter, as I had the 
most distant seat. Coffee was next handed round, in 
tiny cups, by the great dignitaries. It was perfectly 



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72 DEPARTURE FROM CAIRO. 

black, and boiling hot; nevertheless etiquette required 
that the whole should be swallowed at a draught. This 
I really could not accomplish; I delivered over my cup 
to the officer in waiting, after having merely taken a sip. 
He hastily covered it with his two hands, according to 
prescribed custom, as if he were endeavouring to catch 
an insect in it. 

This letter must be despatched in an unfinished state, 
as I had been misinformed as to the hour for sending it 
off. I shall write again from Buex, where I expect to 
find time to describe the pyramids, and to say something 
concerning the remaining days of our stay in Cairo, 



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HATOBING BOOS. 



SUPPLEMENT TO THE SECOND LETTER. 



FROM THE DIAEY. 



Om the 13th of October, we ascended the pyramids of 
Qizdi, to which, by the hye, I think such a miserable 
little place, situated too at such a distance from them, 
has DO right to give its name. The Pasha had supplied 
oa with horses, — stout, gentle beasts; so we galloped on 
as far as the Wi\e, and then proceeded to Crizeb, where 
we visited, in the first place, the ovens for hatching eggs. 
These are low chambers, built of earth, and raised 
against the walls of the dwelling-houses. The openings 
are one foot above the ground, and about two feet in dia- 
meter. There weresixofthemateachsideof thebouse, 
filled with dust and ashes to the height of about half a 
foot. Beneath them are the ovens for heating the eggs: 
in each chamber five or six hundred eggs are packed: 
a man creeps in daily, and turns them with great care. 
The usual temperature of the chamber is 31-6° Reau- 
mur, (103° Fahrenheit.) In twenty-one days the ohick- 
eia are hatched; — a third part of the eggs, or rather 
less, comes to nothing ; the hatching is carried on oidy 
during three, or at moat four months of the year, from 



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7-1 SPHINX. '■■ 

January to April; this is probably owing to the diffi- 
culty of procuring food for the young chickens.* 

Our road from Gizeh lay through several delightful 
woods of palm-trees, whose crops of dates had just 
been gathered iu. The ordinary dwellings of tlie Fel- 
lahs are under the palm-trees; for they betake themselves 
to their mud-built hovels only in cases of necessity and 
distress. Their children are prowling about the mo- 
rasses and the remains of the inundation all day long. 
Under these palms, tillage is carried on; with a very 
simple plough to be sure; — ^yet the fields are, as far as 
we could see, well cultivated. The greater part of the 
plain was still covered with water; and, on this account, 
we could approach the pyramids only by making a great 
circuit, riding along a narrow dyke. At length we reach- 
ed the desert, over the flat surface of which, mounted on 
the swift coursers of the Pasha, we flew on at a most 
rapid pace towards the pyramids. Tlie population of 
tlie surrounding villages, — for the most part Bedouins, 
rushed out to meet us, with loud shouts. Among them 
I descried one thick-lipped, flat-nosed native of western 
Africa. Each of us selected his men to act as guides, 
or rather was selected by them ; — and so we proceeded 
to the Pyramids. 

First, however, we saw the noble and pleasing Sphini. 
How much is it to be regretted that the calcareous sand 
of the desert is constantly, more and more, threatening 
to bury it! and that the soft calcareous roek out of 
which it is hewn is so light and crumhhng, that the 

* Ttus ringulBT and ingenioua art of batchinR eggi in OTcne a peculiar, 
hot only to 'Bgjft, bnt to one place in tbat countij,— the Tillage otSertut, 
in tlie I>elt», the iohabitsiita of which Papers* themielTea thm^ont the 
land eiU7 antmna, the trade paiong aa KB heit-loom from generation to 
generatioti. Besides their board, and a fixed payment for their guperintend- 
ene« of the eggi, the; are entitled, if more than the guaranteed two-tiiirda 
come to maturity, to ret^ the OTerplus. Their peculiar ekill oouiala, not 
go mnch in the cons^uction or ammgement of tiie " mamalt" or hatchlng- 
honsee, as in the nice regnhttion of the ares.— Tr. 



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PYBAMID 0? CHEOPS. 75 

nose has vanished altogether, and the bosom too is de- 
cayed and full of holes.* 

The pyramid which we first visited was that of Ckeopt, 
the Oreat Pyramid. On its interior wall, close above 
the entrance to the king's chamber, are the hieroglyph- 
ics, engraved by Professor Lepsiua. 

We descended the first, or outer passage, the entrance 
of which is about a tenth of the height of the pyramid. 
Here the regularity of the steps, — or outer tiera of 
stone, — ceases. The stones above the opening are im- 
mense, wedge-shaped blocks, resting against each other. 
We descended with twenty candles, each of us taking 
two men to assist him ; — it cost us some trouble to drive 
back the remainder of the crowd, and we could not ac- 
complish it without causing much uproar; — indeed, not- 
withstanding all our exertions, a black supernumerary 
contrived to smuggle himself in with our party. The 
descent of the steep passage was accomplished rather by 
sliding than walking, and in the course of it we were 
often obliged to bend ourselves quite double; however, 
the guides assisted us to the utmost of their power, and 
never sufiered us to fall. At length, having ascended 
■the second passage, and proceeded to a lofty gallery, we 

* iSir Gardntr Willtinxni, iaiat " Modern Bgyft and TAtUt," infonoa 
at tbat from the Mcomolatian of sund the entmoce into the Sphinx ia noW 
ooncealed, knd eren ita pogHIoii nnkaown. In % Qnek incription cat on 
iti pKir, beaiiiw Uie ilgnatiiie at Arriu, which Si O. W. qnotea, with Br 
Yoni^a EngliaB tninriatiaii of It, — olluaon ia mode to the motiTi which led 
the ^yplJuu of old to place their great monnmenti n clow to the edge of 
the deaert. Thej were, the poet romratei, UDwilling to Bsorifiee, even to 
pDrpoaa ao noble, anj portion of land which could be cnltiTated. It appeui 
from the acconnta givea bj Bii Q. W. and other writers,' that the Bphini 
waa originally an object of adoration,— that the space between iu'legi was u, 
■aored are*, — that an altar atood between its pawa, — and that tite entrance 
to thia eanctnary wM flanked by acolptured lioni. Uudj Cncee of red psjnt 
remain on the Sphini, and on the fragments near iL Jt was fonnerlj pro- 
tected from the Band by brick walla. Hieiogtrphio jnBcriptiMU may alill he 
■een on the grunte laUA i^on Its br«ast.~TR. 



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76 WONDEBFUL FEAT. 

reached the Eing's Chamber, a large, dark hall, into 
which no ray of light haa ever penetrated. It is formed 
of blocks of granite, and the only thing it contains is a 
rude sarcophf^us, of the same material. Another cham- 
her, called the Queen's, which we had the same difficulty 
in approaching, contains nothing except bats. One of 
our attendants crept into one of the air-channels, (which 
are not much more than one foot square,) for the pur- 
pose of catching some of them, and he was lucky enough 
to seize a few. The species is the " VeapertSio Barhas- 
telltts:" it has a long tail, and ears meeting above the 
nose. 

The ascent on our return, climbing up the narrow 
outer passage, was yet more difficult than the descent: 
we were most heartily rejoiced when it was all over, and 
we saw the light of day once more. After a short inter- 
val of repose, we ascended quickly, on a broken part of 
the pyramid, to its summit, on which is a flat space, up- 
wards of thirty feet square. We had wished to brealt- 
fast on that elevated platform ; but we found the heat 
too great, and contented ourselves while on the top 
with emptying a bottle of champagne to the health of 
our king. One of our guides now volunteered to per- 
form within five minutes the exploit, not only of scram- 
bling down the Great Pyramid, in the ascent of whicli 
we had occupied more than a quarter of an hour, but 
moreover, of climbing up that of Cepkren, — or of Bei- 
jtoni, whichever you may he pleased to designate it, — 
which, near its top, is still covered with its casing, and 
almost inaccessible to a European; — and actually the 
five minutes had not yet perfectly elapsed, when the fel- 
low was heard shouting to us from the apex of the se- 
cond pyramid. A few minutes more, — and he was with 
us again on that of Cheops, — and all this without being 
in the least out of breath. Both of these pyramids are 



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EBTDBN TO CAIRO, 77 

about 450 feet, more or lesa, in height:* — the third, 
, that of Mycerinus, which stands at a little distance, is 
considerably smaller. 

After remaiQing for some time on the top, we agaia 
descended to the plain, — passing over the face of this 
mighty work, — this monument of the now mysterious 
ages of the past. Our horses were standing in readiness 
below; we resolved to strike off by another road : — n« 
isooner said than done. But soon we came to a halt be- 
fore a trench, formed for irrigation from the Nile, which 
crosses the path ; we leaded in, and fortunately reached 
the other side in safety, although the water was up to 
our pommels, and our horses wore shying at the dogs of 
the Bedouins who were swimming close beside us. Tho- 
roughly soaked, we proceeded on our journey. A nume- 
rous flight of birds, game of various kinds, besides mews, 
herons, and kites, — tempted us to indulge in the plea- 
sures of sporting; however nothing was shot except one 
owl. It was the Stru> noctua, or snowy owl. We passed 
the ruins of a handsome bridge, dating from the time 
of the ancient Arab kings, — and towards evening, hav- 
ing traversed flourishing fields of maize in most tuxuri' 
ant verdure, we found ourselves at Gizeh, and 30on after- 
wards reached Cairo. 

* Aocordiog to the calcnlationi nude bf Sir Oardntr Witiiritott, the pre-- 
tent perpen^culitr height of the Oceat Ppuoid ia 4SCl'9 feet: Ita preieot 
taae is T33i) fe«t, kccoidii^ to hit meMtuement; ita pcTpendicnlu' height, 
when entire, he oUcolateg to hare been 180*9 feet. Tlila differs bat slightly 
ftma the meagaremeDte of CouUlle, as quoted in the second Toltune on 
" Egsptian AttHquUia," pnblahed hj the Bociety for tlie Dlffiiiion of 
Uscjiil Knowledge. Coiotid Howard Vyie'i metunirementa would connder- 
abl; reduce the present perpcndicnlar height. Bit Gardner Wilkinson rec- 
kons ttie present perpendicular height of the pyminid of Cephren to be IIG'S 
feet, sod the present length of ita base 690 feet; — ita former perpendicular 
h^ht 153 feet. These meiuuremeDts Ter; nearlj coincide witli those of 
ColORil Hoteard Vyie, — W>d do not differ nmteriftllj from those of Jomard 
and of BtUoni, aa quoted in the above-named work. ,Str O. Wiltimoit 
giTea the present perpendicular height of the pjianud of M;cerinns u 2037 
feet,— its present length of boM as 330-0 feet,— and ita former perpendicular 
height aa 3180 feet.— T«. 



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78 PBBFABtNO mOIOO. 

On the 15th of October, in the moat oppressive heat,- 
we made an expedition to SaJiiara.'* We crossed the 
Nile at Old Cairo ; and thence followed the left bank of 
the river for the distance of five let^ee. One beautiful 
palm-grove succeeded another; — everywhere we saw a 
cheer^l and well-fed, though verj dirty population, 
some of whom were engaged in preparing the "nieleh," 
(indigo). It is, while boiling in earthen vessels, cmshed, 
to the sound of noisy singing.t At length we reached 



* Supposed bj aooie writcn to darira U* mine flora PAoASoiari, Uie 
god iTonliipped at MempluB. — Ta. 

f W« Qnd, in an interestiiig article im Indigo, contiined in the 3d Vdimte 
. on " VtgtiMe Svhttanca," published b; the Bocietj for the THfftieion of 
llM(al Knowledge, that the method of preparing in^go in Egjpt differs tm^ 
KUtiallj fivm that paniied in Britiah India, in the Wert Indie*, or in Korth 
America. In all theie counCiies, though the mode of proceeding laiiea in 
different places, it may be sud to conairt generallj of three parts, canied on 
■uooeHiTelj in three large Tats,— ni. fermenlation, sgltatim, snd preoipita- 
tion: irhereai in Egypt the plants are dried, prenoosly to bdng put into 
earthen jara ailed with hot water. Thej are then wo^ed in th^, with a 
palm branch, in the manner of obnmiDg, ontil the whole of the eoloor is 
prened out. The liquid is next atrsined through the bark of a tree into an- 
other Jar : it is left there for eight da ja, during which time part of the water 
escapes by triclding throngh a amall aperture half-way down the dde of the 
Teasel, leaving the sediment at bottom. GTtus residonm ia afterwards poured 
into a broad but very shallow hole formed in the sand, which aburba the re- 
maining liquid and leaves the indigo in aolid cakes. The Egyptians and the 
Hindoos are the only people who scald or boil the indigo instead of ferment- 
ing ft : their method ia aaid to produce less colouring matter, and a Uas per- 
manent dye. The fermentation of it is attended, however, with ao much dif- 
ficulty and uncertainty, as to have caoaed more numerous fiulures, in proper-, 
tion to the number of persons engaged in tike factories, than almost any other 
branch of apeculation. Many woAmeu die &oin the noxious vapoais of the. 
indigo, and the refuse water would poison the brooks, if suffered to flow 
into tliem. The Indigoftra anil requires great heat ; it is sown in narrow 
furrows, two or thi«e inches deep, about a foot ^lart from each other. The 
Egyptian peasants sow it once in seven years, and obtain two crc^ annually. 
Ttie plant is stunted and shrubby; its stem haid and ligneous; its growth 
■tiaight and delicato ; its smooth pinnated leaves, and bunches of small, pur- 
ple, papilionaceous flowers emit a ftunt but pleasant smell : the aeeds ore 
contained in brown pods. A few centuries since, even after Marco Polo bad 
described the indigo plant of Asia, Europeans peraiated in believing it to be a 
mioeral substance. So strong too was the jealousy of it in Germany, that it 
waa known as "the devil's dye," and in consequence of tlie pr^udtoe sgunst 



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ANCIENT MBJIPBIS. 79 

llitrahemiy, Uie neighbourhood of the aucieiit Memphis, 
aow only distinguished from the reat of the plain by im- 
mense heaps of ruins, which resemble rather a mountain 
formation than fragments of ancient worica of architec- 
ture. Not a pillar ia to be seen, — not a block of marble ; 
— all is overgrown with palms.* Some wandering Be- 
douins had pitched their tent not far from this sacred 
spot, and they gave us a friendly invitation to enter and 
to share their coffee. After remaining a short time 
among them, we proceeded along the dylces as before, 
and reached the termination of our ride in two hours. 
A plunge in the last basin of the inundation, refreshed 
us greatly, and whetted our appetite for breakfast, of 
which we partook at the base of one of the largest pyra- 
mids. This pyramid is of easy ascent ; it is built in the 
same manner as that of Gheopa, but inferior in height, 

•Ji} riTal of tbe OemuQ iroad, an oath ms eTea noentlj (if itid««d iC be 
not Itill) imposed on Che NurambeigdyeniWhothuauuiiulljpMJamdtbcia- 
■aires b? s pledge not to a«e indigo I — Tk. 

* How ■tiiklDgly doe* Oaa lirid j^otore of tho present deMlatloi) of the 
aooieDt capital of Lower Egypt, the renowned jVanpAu, Meiioph, or A'ojit, 
— which superseded Thebes as the metropolis of Egypt, — illustrmte die fnl- 
filment of that short but comprehend re prophecy uttered b; the mouth of 
Jeremuh, ch. ilri. ver. 19, " Noph shall be waste and desoUte, withoat an 
inhabitaiit." Hony are the denunciations, coaUzned in other passage* of 
Scripture, against tins city. Had Pr Hoffmeister vivtvd Memphis at a nkore 
EaTonrable BeasaD, he wguld doubtless hare menUoned the celebrated Cotos- 
nit 0/ JCaiiutu II. It is however, when the Nile is high, aearlj cowred 
with water, and froip the lonie caose some part* of Memphla are then nn- 
^pcoacbsble. The coloaos is, though mnch broken, still more than titttt 
in height. It is sappoced b; some to mark the Ate of tha great Temptt ijf 
PChat. Two statues of red granite, and some other figures, likewise remain. 
let eTen during more faToorable months, coniparatiTely little is to be seen 
to mark the artea of the &inoue Temples of Serapii, o( Pihah, and of Apis. 
In the latter, the god Apis, — the black bull,— was kept and worshipped. To 
the north and west of ttie city, in ancient times, was an artificial lake, be- 
Uered, as were many other wonders, to be the work of Menes, — the mythic 
kmg; — its position can Daw scarcely be traced. Sic Q. Wilkinson beHerea it 
to bare been near (tie dyke below Sakkorar-probably the spot where we 
lUl find onr snihor enjoying the refreshment of bathing. The Colossus of 
Bimtses II. is the property of the BriUsh Museum, bnt ia left In Egypt on 
•ccDtmt of the eipen»e of transporting it to this country.— Tk, 



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80 TOMBB. 

(though upwards of three hundred feet high) and fa^ 
more decayed. Haviug crossed the high mounds of rub- 
bish accumulated from a great number of pyramids, part 
of which are still surrounded by walls that may be easily 
traced, so that they appear quite Hkechureh-yards,* we 
descended into the subterranean chambetB of the ancient 
tombs. The entrance of the one we yisited is between 
masses of rock, half closed up by tJie sand that obetructa 
it. After a descent of twenty feet, we entered a dark 
cavern ; in the back-ground appears a handsam© and spa- 
cious hall supported by pillars : a^ its walls are adorned 
with splendid hiert^lyjAic tablets, executed in the hard 
lime-stone: the ceiling bears traces of painting, which 
has indeed here and there preserved its brilliancy won- 
derfully; but the lovers of art have made fearful havoc 
all round. In one very deep recess is a descending 

shaft ; Count caused himself to be let down by 

a rope, but after arriving at a depth of 40 feet, and at 

the end of the rope, he could scarcely see the bottom, t 

The graves of animal-mummies, (ibises, oxen, sheep, 

snakes, &c.) situated in the neighbourhood, nearthe vil- 

* The pjninida of Sokkora and of BaBboor, bH Btonding aeor each atber ; 
thOM at Abomur are bat a few miles dutant.—Ts. 

■4- The tomb here described may ler; probah); be tbat allnded to to th« 
wort aboTe quoted, on " £ffyj5iia» Atttiqiiilia" where we find that " Cap- 
tain Caviglia cleared one out to the depth of siitir feet, and found at a Httle 
distance, to the Minth of the well's bottom, a chamber containliig a highly 
polbhed BarcophagDB withont hierc^Ijphics." Among the inmnnerable 
tombe, extending for miles round Abonui and Oizeh, are manj mde paint- 
ings and sculptures, Teluable as illustrattre of the customs and ciriliialJon of 
ancient Egypt. Sir G. Wilkinson particularly describes one vaulted tomb of 
hewn stone, of thetima of Psammeticus 11.,— which he considers to be proba- 
bly the oldest eiistinB specimen of a stone arch, haring been built 600 years 
before the Cbiistian era : arches, formed of crude brick, are mdeed found at 
Thebes, in tombs of the 18th century, B.O. Hr G. W. also so^esCs the ide» 
that the chamber, of which he traced the base, in one of the crude brick py- 
ramids at Dasboor, must haTC bad a vaulted roof, — and he quotes the suppo- 
sition of Dr Bicbardson, who thought that Asychls, — a ting of rer; andient, 
but uncertain date, — in boasting, as recorded by Herodotus, of the saperie- 
Hty of his brick pyramid over those of stone, must hare referred to the in. 
ventian of the arch, and to its being the first spedmeo of it.—^TB. 



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HBLIOPOt.18. SI 

lage of Abouair, we only found after a difficult eearch ; 
and a very long rope was necessary, to let us down the 
half-filled-up shaft.* While being drawn up again, hav- 
iag seen little or nothing, my hands slipped, I lost my 
hold of the rope, by which I was endeavouring to pull 
myself up, and fell, when I had nearly gained the top, 
down again to the bottom, — a great depth. With hands 
excoriated and shockingly wounded, I at length con- 
trived to get out, and, mounted on an ass, not without 
pain and difficulty, I reached the Nile, by which, for- 
tunately, we were to return home : for I should have been 
utterly unable to hold the bridle. At midnight we 
found ourselves standing before the gates of Cairo, and 
it was only owing to a lucky accident that we were suf- 
fered to enter, though ignorant of the watchword, 

A subsequent excursion to HdiQpolis,-^-the ancient 
" On," — ^the city of philosophers, close to the modem 
Matar^eh, — afforded us but little satisfaction. We found 
only an elevated part of the surface, marked out by its 
solitary obelisk, and by a profusion of ruins. f The re- 
turn home, under the shade of gum-acaoiaa, beside the 
water-trenches supplied from the Nile^ was most agree- 
able. The fields were full of " Sibiscus eaeuleniue," 
{Baniah,) and oi " Indiffofera," (NeeleK). At the out- 
skirts of a little viUage,J surrounded hy well-cultivated 

* Mr Lucas, irbo, in 1714, wandered, b; the aid of Aiudne'a tliread, 
through neorl; all of these c&tacDmlm, inugioed, fitim the embklmed oi- 
hatds fauod then, that tha god Apia had been buried in them.^ — T&. 

i- I'heee ruins, unong wluch ore those of the sreat Tempi* of the Sdq, and 
the Avenne of Sphinxea, are howeTec, to the autiquarian, 6t great intereat, 
and the obeliefc is extremely curiona, iudepeiideDt of Che auodatioiu connect- 
ed with the oity where Plato and H^odotus studied : which, in Str&bo'i time, 
waa alieod; deaerted. The place abonnds no leea in Scriptural than in cla«- 
Bc^ aaeociatdona ; — we read of Joseph marryiiig the daogbter of its prieM, 
(Qen. xli. 4£). Its usual Hebrew name was Btththemiik, — " House of the 
Sou ;" — bat it is mentioned under the name of Bilhate*:, or Avea, " House 
of Vanitj," — with TJoph and other citiea, in the donuDoiations against 
Egypt, uttered b; the TOice of inspiration. (Bzek.ixi. and Uoaea I.} A b- 
ini]«i- prophecy is cont^ned in Jeremiah xliiL 13. — Tn. 
t Probablf the Tillage oi Matareeh, whichis fuUof ancient fragments.- Ta. 



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8'2 I>A9aA-3 PHVSICIAKS. 

fields of " Ricinut," {castor-oil tree) we were conducted 
intft a garden, where, in the centre of a flower-bed, the 
point of a gigantic obelisk projects abovB the ground. 
Its hieroglypbicB are almost entirely filled up by the 
nests of mason-wasps. Apricot and peach trees enoircled 
the granite block, Wlio can tell what may be its ap- 
pearance or its language, at the depth of fifty or Eoxty 
feet below the present surface of the soil ! 

I bad, during our stay in Cairo, the pleasure of formT 
ing several interesting acquaintances. Among the fore- 
most of these was that of the Pasha's physician in ordi- 
nary, — Klot Bey, — which dates its commencement from 
a visit which we paid him. His house has nothing dis- 
tinguished about it; but ostriches and gaselles are run- 
ning about in its court, in which we also saw the young 
lion sent by Professor Lepsius, and destined for Berlin. 
Klot Bey's collection of Egyptian antiquities contains 
much that is of interest. He is liberal-minded, and full 
of independent thought as a physician. He expresses 
himself remarkably well, and would do honour to a pro- 
fessor's chair, if indeed he is as deep and well-grounded 
in his scientific knowledge as he is agreeable in conver- 
sation; — and of this I could form no opinion in so short 
an acquaintance. He has gained great honour by the 
operations he has performed in cases of the leprous tu- 
mour so common in Upper Egypt, which is not very rare 
even in Cairo. He has. described the mode of perform- 
ing it in a treatise which he published on the subject. 
I was also introduced to Dr Pruner, another physician 
in ordinary, a medical man of great experience. Among 
his orthoptedic patients, whom he has consigned to-tbe 
care of Dr Schledehaus, I saw several most successful 
cases of cure in club-foot of the second and third d^;ree. 
I happened to be at this OrthopEsdic Institution on the 
day on which we were to dine with the Pasha. At 
about half-past two o'clock, I hurried back to the hotel, 



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MBUSCSOLY IKCIDEMT. 83 

and saw, to mj horror, the Pasha's equips^ just driving 
off from its entrance. What a disappointment I How 
much should I have enjoyed seeing His Highness at din- 
ner; — and it was vain to hope for another opportunity, 
as our departure was at hand. 

On the 1 7th of October, Count G set out for 

Su^ with a viev to making arrangements with tli« 
captain of the " Hindoatan," as to our further route. 
We accompanied him, as he rode through the gate of 
Cairo late in the evening, and parted at the spot whore 
the bivouacking detachment of cavalry had pitched their 
tents, at the edge of the desert. A few flying eicur- 
sicms in the environs of the capital, which we made 
specially for the sake of sketching, — and a visit to the 
Pasha's garden at Shoobra, occupied us during our re- 
maining days at Cairo. On the evening of our last day, 
(the 19th of October,) soon after we had returned from 
our day's sight-seeing, and while we were enjoying our 
tea on the balcony of the hotel, cries of most agonizing 
distress, mingled with imprecations uttered in the French 
tongue, suddenly burst forth below our windows. We 
saw a man, in white under-clothing and without shoes, 
running to and fro before the sackiyeh, making violent 
gesticulations, and apparently in a state of fearful des- 
pair. It was our landlord, U. Coulomb. The inquisi- 
tive soon formed a circle round him, while some more 
sensible and active neighbours brought lanterns to il- 
luminate the depths of these horrible pits, and their 
haif-rotten water-wheels. The surface of the water is 
ten feet below the level of the ground, and below that 
again is muddy, slimy water, fifteen feet deep. Any 
one who, in the dark, may approach too near the edge 
of the pit, and thus fall in, is gone; nothing can save 
him. The descent of this pit is extremely difficult, and 
some time elapsed before any one could be found willing 
to venture down. At the end of half an hour, after 



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84 DfiPABTUBE FROM OAIRO. 

many fruitless attempts, they succeeded, by means of 
letting down several men, in recovering the body of a 
young man, — the younger brother of M. Coulomb. He 
was instantly put into bed, and we cut every article 
of clothing off his body. A slight degree of warmth 
was still perceptible. Dr Schledehaus was fortunately 
with us, and he assisted me in my endeavours to restore 
animation; Klot Bey also came, after I had sent for 
him twice. We laboured on till night had passed away : 
— we sat beside the dead till two o'clock in the morn- 
ing; never intermitting our exertions in rubbing and 
warming the lifeless frame. At length the convic- 
tion forced itself upon us that all human help was vain ; 
it had come too late. Death had but too surely grasped 
his victim. What an awful night was .that ! On the 
very day that followed it, a simple funeral procession 
was seen to wind its mournful way from before the gate 
of the "Brothers C(ndomh." 

Our baggage had been sent before us to Suez on the 
I8th of October, as we had succeeded, througli the 
obliging civility of the officials connected with the Bom- 
bay steamer, in obtaining berths for our voyage to that 
place, although at first the captain had refused to aug- 
ment the ordinary number of passengers. We had had 
some hopes of being still able to secure berths on board 
the steamer "Hindostan," bound for Calcutta; how- 
ever we were informed, even at Alexandria, that, almost 
invariably, every berth was taken before the departure 
of the overland mail from London, and we therefore 
contemplated, with quiet resignation, the unpleasant 
prospect of being obliged to wait at Bombay a whole 
month, for an opportunity of proceeding to Ceylon. As 
the shades of evening were closing around the spacious 
Uzbekeeb, on the 20th of October, the Pasha's drome- 
daries were seen standing in front of our hotel; — one 
among them, — elegantly caparisoned, and distinguished 



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DEOMECAEIES. * 86 

ftlso by its light and slender form, — ^was destined for 
the Prince's own use: The others were all large, indeed 
gigantic creatures. We speedily mounted, and rode off 
towards the desert. The slow jolting motion of the drome- 
daries when wfdking, was soon pronounced by eveiy one 
to be quite intolerable; their trot we found somewhat leas 
irksome : even at the end of the first quarter of an hour 
wb were so weary of the constant swinging, and of being 
thrown backwards and forwards in saddles fJEutened with 
bands or thongs, and with very high sUmipe which un- 
comfortably forced back our feet, that every one of us 
heartily wished the ride at an end : in fact the fatigue 
was so great, that not having yet recovered from the 
sleeplessness and the exertions of that last dreadful night, 
I sunk repeatedly, notwithstanding the violent motion, 
— which I can only compare to the game of tossing a fox 
in a blanket, — ^into a weary slumber : I was however, 
much to my regret, wakened each time by the cries of 
the anxious dn^man, who feared that I niigbt fall from 
my unpleasant elevation. 

Thus we rode on uninterruptedly, during twelve long 
hours. At length we perceived, by the first light of 
morning dawn, a well-built house in the midst of the 
desert; — ^itwas No. 4, one ofthestationsor hotels, which 
the Transit Company* has built, for the accommoda- 
tion of the numerous travellers who cross the Isthmus 
of Suez in their pubhc carriages or vans. Every stranger 
is free to enter; only he must pay one pound sterling 
for the mere permission to do so, and every other chat^ 
is proportionably high. Wearied as we were, we hasten- 
ed forward towards this most welcome resting-place, 
where we enjoyed an excellent breakfast, and some 
hours' repose in capital beds, — and moreover, towards 

* TbePeiuiuulaTUid0ii«i(iJCoinp<ui7, which hunow been telieTed, bj 
the PaiAa'i Tianiit AdminiatraUoi], of the ch>u^ of the Egjptiaii put of 
the overland route.— Ta. 



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Ob 30VKSEY THBOtTOH THE DESEKT. 

evening we all voted ourselves greatly the better for a 
remarkably good English dinner. 

Such are the English ! Every where, even in the 
most desolate solitudes, they introduce their " Com- 
fort T 

As soon as the heat of the day was over, we were once 
more on our road, mounted on our heavy beasts. In a 
httle while, night overtook us; and, whenever the moon 
was obscured by a passing cloud, or when one or another 
of our little caravan yielded to Morpheus, — the party 
were in danger of being scattered. The desert is parch- 
ed and barren; behind No. 4, is a ridge, which runs 
from west to east,* There is said to be much imder- 
wood upon it, well stocked with game: — the only plants 
that I observed were a strongly scented Arlemi^ 
(Wormwood), and various kinds of Salsota (Salt- Wort). 
A multitude of fantastic forms floated before me as I sat 
dozing in my saddle; but no Jackals, no Hyienas, no 
Jerboas appeared, although we could see distinctly, even 
to some distance, in the clear moonlight. We arrived, 
quite exhausted, at about three a.m., on the 22d of Oc- 
tober, at the station No. 6. Here the charge made for 
our coffee and eggs was a guinea and a half. After a 
few more painful hours on the backs of our dromedaries, 
morning dawned upon us; there appeared to the north, 
towering in the crimson light of sunrise, the ouUins 
of a mountain ridge;+ and the Bed Sea itself burst 
upon our sight. Birds wdl known in Germany were 
here greeted by us as welcome messengers from home : 

• Tbe wndhiU* of Uu&htm. The defile of El JUiMaia, atnc Nil 4, ia 
g«netsll; mppoKd to be thftt tluough which the IgneliteB puwd fnuD 
MiifdoL—TB.. 

■f The Koitoom ounmbuiu, wMeh gJTS their name to the adjacent part 
of the Ked Sea. Kokoom, dgniijiiig deetrucdan, b lappoaed by loiiie 
to hare leferanoe lo the destnctiDD of Pbaraoh't boat; while most aothiHv 
derire tbe name from the ancient Greek town and fort of Clyinu.— 



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SUEZ. 87 

—■V& saw the Gharadrius MoriiieUflis (Dotterd), and the 
UotaiaUa AUm (Wagtail), frequently, throughout the 
desert, and before that, we had had tho joy of meeting 
our good old friend tiie Stork in vast flocks among the 
palm-groves of Sakkarah." 

We were now obliged to muster all our remaining 
strength; — but indeed our faint embers of energy were 
soon extinguished under the intense glow of the ascend- 
ing sun, which rendered the shaking pace of our drome- 
daries more than ever irksome; — our I^ were stiff and 
aching, and every joint seemed to have grown rigid. At 
about baJf-past seven a.h., we were at length in sight of 
Suez, — a small and dirty town: ruiAs upon ruins meet 
the eye on every side, and, among them all, the travel- 
ler seeks in vfun for any abode fit to dwell in. The 

* Tboee readers vho maj be funilior vith the domestic life, and we mhj 
idd with the popular BODgs of Oemutn;, will %t once anderetend with what 
nrta and tender feelingi a Qerman miut weloome, in a fcovtgn land, tbto 
home-bird, which, front jear to j«ar, he has been nccuakimed to regard ai a 
member of bU fanul;. In Oennan;, iu HollanS, and in parts at France, 
boica or wheels are placed on the housetops to entice them to settle there, 
and a house wMch is uerer liated h; one ia deemed onluokj: each stork 
returns to its own neat, and Tajions eipsrimenlB liaTB been tried to prore 
thia fact. One gentlenukn in Poland is even aud to baie fasteoed an iron 
BoUar, with the words " Bac eiamia ^x Pelonia," to a stotk in aatmnn; 
and to haTS welcomed it back m spring, adorned with a golden collar, 
bearing the iiiecriptioa, " India cum donit reniUif euvniam Polimii." 
The storks arriTe in Germanj and HoUaod about April; and in Aogost 
the irtude flock re-ossemblee with coofused noise, and, on the signal be- 
ing given, they depart for Egypt, Barbaiy and the East. The; seem to 
migrate from a real love of tiareUing ; for eren at Bagdad, and other plaeea 
where ninter is never severe, they regularly depart in aatumn. In Egypt 
th«j feed on froge, and thus are of great use. If they are loved in Qn^ 
many, they are renerated ia. Oriental countries, where they destroy serpents 
and other vermin : among the ancients they were held sacred. Adrian 
eaoimemorated by medals the foot that a stork built it< nest on the Temple 
of Concord, regardless of Uie noise and bustle of the capitoL The quality 
qiedally venerated in this bird among the Greeks was its filial piety, Ite 
pecidiar instinct regarding its migrations is strikingly alluded to in the IHvine 
wanung by the month of Jeremiah, (Jer. viii. 7,) " Yea, the stOTk in the 
heaven knoweth her app<Hnted times, tuki the turtle, and the crane, and the 
nraDow, obaerve the time of tb^ oom^; but my pet^le know not the 
judgment of the Lord." — Ta. 



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OO GOOD NEWS— GEBBL ATTAKA. 

hotels are falsely so-called, for any hen-house might be 
as worthy of the name. Yet how delightful to ua was 
the long-wished-for moment, when our dromedaries, 
with a deep groan, knelt down in front of one of these 
wretched abodes ! We had scarcely assembled round the 
breakfast-table, when the Captain of the Hindostan was 
ushered in. He came to offer us cabins, and most com- 
fortable accommodation in every way, on board the Cal- 
cutta steamer. This was joyful tidings, for we had all 
been quite in low spirits, in consequence of our previous 
unsuccessful efforts to obtain a passage for Ceylon direct. 
The arrangementB were concluded at once, and our lug- 
gage was sent for to the Bombay steamer, and imme- 
diately put on board the "Hindostan." 

The day fixed for sailing was the 25th of October. — 
En attendant, we made several excursions among the 
adjacent mountains, the Ge6ei Attdka.* This range 
rises, — to the west of Suez, at a distance from it, as the 
erow flies, of about three leagues, — from a plain but 
slightly elevated above the level of the sea, and covered 
with travelled fragments of hard limestone rounded by 
friction, and of a dark brown colour. In the wide plain 
between these mountains and the Red Sea, eveiythiug 
bears the traces of some violent action, — apparently 
that of a stream of water; — all the fragments of stone 
lying on its surface have evidently been detached from 
the mountain above. Several distinct channels of con- 
siderable depth, marked by white calcareoiis sand, unite 
themselves with the bed of one larger stream. The ex- 
plorer who may trace the latter up that part of its 
course, which is visible from Suez, will find himself 
advancing towards the hills in a direction from north- 
east to south-west, the highest turn only leading him 



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OBBEL ATTAKA. 89 

due soaiK We rode into the bed of tliis river, and fol- 
Joired it towards its Bource, till we found ourselves at 
the foot of a precipice, where, apparently, a waterfall of 
from forty to fifty feet in height, had worn the rocks in- 
to hollow grottoes and deep creeks and basins. Before 
we reached the turn in the bed of the stream, we had, 
on either side of ua, a rampart, — eighteen or twenty feet 
high, — consisting entirely of debris: — probably once the 
bed of the river, which may here have deepened its 
channel as it flowed on. The mass in aitu here consista 
of a brownish-grey limestone, the fragments of it greatly 
resembling pebbles. It is so hard as to emit sparks 
when struck with the hammer: the formation at the 
foot of the moiintain is the hardest: higher up we came 
to regular, horizontal strata, which, at a height of about 
500 feet above the channel of the water, are quite white. 
I should reckon the highest point, to which we had no 
small difficulty in ascending, to be from I £00 to 2000 
feet above the level of the sea: it is a sort of terrace, 
strewn with broken fragments of travelled stone; the 
abrupt decHvities on which we had clambered up are, in 
some parts, covered with these, while elsewhere there 
are deep cavities, formed by the undermining and wear- 
ing away of the summits of these rocky masses. The 
question which presents itself on examining these ap- 
pearances, is, — ^what was the undermining agent? — ^for 
water there is none. This roughness and inequality of 
the surface rendered the scramble a difficult aad tedious 
affiiir. About 100 feet below the highest point of the 
Gebel Attaka, I saw a perfectly white, sharply marked 
line drawn horizontally along the summit. I contrived, 
by dint of scrambling, to reach the spot ; — even on my 
way to it I found fragments of selenite and of disinteg- 
rated gypsum in great abundance. The white streak is 
an mihydrite of remarkably pale, clear colour, in con- 
tact with a stratum of brownish limestone of moderate 



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hardness. In this stratum I missed the distiiict fossild, 
a profusioQ of which I had observed throughout the 
lower limestone stratum, and saw merely organic re- 
mains extending across the stone like a delicate traoery; 
— very small shells and the remains of eotkrinites. The 
ridges of nearly all the highest mountains are on ope 
»nd the same level. — There are no plants on these bare 
declivities, whose every stratum fliay therefore be dis- 
tinctly traced. The bed of the stream however, — which 
appears like a large, deep groove, sharply drawn, from 
the height downwards, in the smooth limestone, — forms 
an exception in this respect. — We saw, among its white 
rounded gravelly stones, large bushes of the blue-leaved 
Gapparis (caper -tree), fragrant Artemisia (wormwood), 
Lavender, and a few compositce. The only living crea- 
tures that we caught a sight of, were a few large vul- 
tures (Vvitur cinereua), and some sm^ler birds of prey 
belonging to the falcon tribe: unfortunately we did not 
bring down a single bird. 

We embarked oh the 25th of October, but did not ac^ 
tually sail until half-past ten on the 26th. Our voyage on 
the Red Sea presented very little to interest us. On the 
28th of October, the weather became unfavourable ; — 
thunder-clouds darkened the clear sky, and lightning 
flashed across the drmament. A great number of flying 
fish (ExQcaetua volitans), afforded us some amusement 
for a short time, rising suddenly from the water, shoot- 
ing up like rockets, and duttering about in the air for 
eight or ten seconds. We also observed a screech-owl, 
whose persevering efforts, — notwithstanding the compa- 
rative neameas of land, — to remain close to the ship 
were regarded as an evil prognostic. The storm how- 
ever did not burst upon us till the following day, and 
it was not a very formidable one. Another owl, which 
established itself on the mast, was shot, but unluckily 
it dropped into the water, so that I cnuld not obtain 



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caATEBrlfiLAHD— ADBNi 91 

possessioD of it. Two harmless wa^^ails, — dnTen out to 
sea by the wind, — were added to our ship's companj; 
they made a hearty meal of the insects that were flying 
in swarms about the sheep on board. A flight of rose- 
coloured locusts was also seen; a considerable number 
fell down upon our vessel: — they were about six inches 
in length, and their wings were spotted with brown. 

On Thursday the 29th of October we reached the 
island of Harrisch, and passed beneath its crater-walls; 
it consists almost entirely of extinct Tolcanoes. One 
crater, the side of which is partly washed away by the 
action of the sea, so that its interior lay open before 
us, — seemed to me the most interesting point : its sides 
are covered, almost down to the edge of the water, with 
black slags and other volcanic remains: the upper mar- 
gin is of red earth. Even with the aid of the spy-glass 
we could not discover the slightest trace of vegetation. 
A bed of white sand, visible oa one solitary spot, was at 
first declared by one of the passengers to be guano; 
the captain however contradicted that idea: the white 
streak contrasts strikingly with the reddish-grey of the 
soil. 

On the lat of November, at ten o'clock in the morning, 
we landed at Adbk, the southernmost point of Arabia, 
glad to find ourselves safe on terra firma once more, 
having escaped the dangers of the Red Sea, At four 
o'clock we set out on our sight-seeing expedition. The 
sun was hot, and the atmosphere glowing ; notwithstand- 
ing which we proceeded rapidly, in order to have a 
general view of this mean place, this town of huts, — and 
to be on board again in the evening. Aden is the crater 
of an extinct volcano, which the English have trans- 
formed into a fort: it possesses little interest of any 
kiod. Nevertheless we wandered on till it had become 
too late to return on foot. We therefore despatched an 
old Aiub who had invited us into his rush-built hut, to 



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.d2 UNPLEASANT DILEMMA. 

procure asaes for riding. The dsses however did not 
make their appearance ; there came instead a couple of 
Camels, whit^, protesting against such treatment, we 
refused to take, proceeding forthwith to make the best 
of our way on foot ; — at the gate however we were met 
by a party of wild-looking Arabs, who were bringing the 
wished-for asses, but they demanded a most exorbitant 
hire, and insisted on its being paid beforehand. After 
long and noisy bargaining, we mounted the beasts, the 
fellows being to all appearance quite contented. We 
had scarcely ridden on a few yards, when, with most 
impertinent threats, they demanded fiill and instant 
payment of the sum originally demanded, and even at- 
tempted to make a violent assault upon us. Fortunately 
they were unarmed, and although they constantly fol- 
lowed us at a distance of from fifty to eighty pa^es, they 
did not venture to molest us on our return, which, in- 
dignant at their knavery, we accomplislied on foot, 
leaving the asses behind us. After a forced march of - 
about half an hour,' over cliffs and across narrow defiles, 
we reached the shore, quite exhausted, and delighted to 
find the little boat in readiness to convey us out of the 
reach of our pursuers, on board our steamer. 

Tlie monotony of our further voyage to Ceylon was 
only relieved by the view of the large island of Socotra, 
and a day before we arrived at our destination, by the 
verdant and palmy isles of the Archipelago of the Lac- 
cadives. 



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VOYAOI! TO CETLON. 



THIRD LETTEB. 

oneiura; — qmnr'B Boon — ibi aiuin — 



Dr CAMTBHLL — MB AHSntUTHIK — OVLIITATIOR OF 
mr — PUJOE O* TBB KDIM OF EAFItT — BOTIFTQ < 
ION — THS TEMFLS Um THl Dil^Dt. — JODBinn 



HUHT — BOBOU — miOLF — OAIMXKi. — BLIrB IBT 



UA]>Bi^ Dti. 34, ISU. 
Uhfobtuhatblt, during my stay in the island of Cey- 
lon, a pressure of accumulated business, and the huny 
of travelling, prevented me from giving you some earlier 
token to prove how often my thoughts have been with 
you aJl ; and, during our voyage to India, we bad such 
weather that, tossed by the rough billows, and sur- 
rounded by a crowd of sea-sick passengers, I found let- 
ter-writing quite impossible. 

After a somewhat monotonous, but, in point of weather, 
most favourable voyage from Suez, on board the large 
steamer " Hindostan," we were once more rejoiced by 
the sight of green land. The company on board was 
very i^reeable, and there were between thirty and forty 
ladies ; but the number of passengers was too great : it 
amounted to about a hundred and fifty. We had there- 
fore no lack of entertainment and conversation; yet we 



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9* AREIVAL AT CBTLON. 

were all right glad when our voyage of nearly four weeks 
was at an end. As we approached the Island of Ceylon, 
the rich and verdant foliage of its shores, — among which 
we aoon recognized woods of cocoa-nut trees, — stood out 
in more and more marked relief from the deep blue of 
the mountain forests in the back-ground. 

Two hours yet elapsed, and we slowly entered the 
rock-bound harbour of Point de Cfalle, at the southern 
extremity of the island. How bright and glorious were 
the thick groves of palms; how striking the contrast of 
the white foaming spray dashing over the black cliffs, as 
seen against their dark verdure ! Soon our vessel was 
surrounded with small boats, formed of the stems of trees 
bound together. Larger canoes,* each consisting of the 
hollowed trunk of one tree of a very pretty colour, also 
came alongside: fastened to their sides by cross sticks, 
were pieces of wood, of half the length of the canoe, 
which floated on the water to prevent any danger of cap- 
sizing. With such craft as these, known by the name of 
"Orowah," — the Cingalese venture far out on the open 
sea. Lean, copper-coloured men, with Uvely black eyes, 
finely cliiaelled features, and raven hair twisted in a 
knot behind, a scarf girt about them as their sole attire, 
' — were sitting in these frail barks. Among them were 
young boye of most lovely countenance, whose rich, flow- 
ing black hair fell over their backs. This motley tJiFong 
surrounded the " Hindostati" in strange groups, while 
the prince and bis suite bid a hearty farewell to their 
amiable fellow-passengers, who were to sail on th^r fiir- 
ther route in that good ship. The governor's boat wss 
now seen approaching from Oalle; — we jumped on board 



* Dr Dbtt, in hl« account of a jonmey in Cejlon, thai m 
ingof the " KotmaU Oanga." " We ireie convejed orer in a can«ec4tte 
nijiett oonitnietiati, winch, it mig^t be infemd from ite appeantnoe, voaU 
bardlj taxTj a ta>gle man, and jet it ooDTe;ed three or four irith perfect 
■afety. It cond8t«d tnerel; of the rough trunk of a j^gery pahn, hotknred 
DBt, and BOi^orted od each aide b; a planMn-etaft as oBt-riggen." — Tk 



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FIE8T IMPEEBSrONB. 95 

her, and, with ten red-hosed rowers to speed our flight, 
and entertain us with their abominable singing, we 
boimded over the surf and gained the shore. 

The sun was shining with glowing heat, and the aro- 
hiatic iragrance of the island of spices was wafted softly 
to us on the breeze. Suddenly transferred from the 
clear and elastic atmosphere of the ocean to this hot- 
house air loaded with the scent of rich flowers, I felt al- 
biost \\ke one recovering from an illness, who, on a mild 
spring day, steps for the first time into the soft luxuri- 
ance of the flower-garden. It is very remarkable how 
far out at sea one beginsto perceive this balmy perfume; 
although it ia not indeed the scent of cinnamon, as tra- 
vellers fabulously assert, themselves deceived by a com- 
mon trick of the ship-surgeons, who, aa the vessel sails 
past Ceylon, secretly sprinkle a few drops of oU of cinna- 
mon upon the deck ! 

A great crowd of natives, in every imaginable variety 
of costume, received us as we* set foot on land; — fore- 
most among them were the " headmen," distinguished 
by a blue Dutch coat, and a large East Indian handker- 
chief thrown round the loins, so as to appear like a sort 
of under-petticoat. A large comb of the finest tortoise- 
shell confines the hair, which is neatly turned back over 
the top of the head, and hangs in plaits such as young 
giHs wear in Germany. Small in stature, and of deli- 
cate and slender form, they have a somewhat efieminate 
appearance; however, the eye soon learns to perceive 
real beauty in the shining, coflee-brown skin, the re- 
fined features, and the large black eyes of the true 
Cingalese. The natives of Malabar are essentially dif- 
ferent from them; — they are marked hy a greyish- 
brown complexion, a stronger system of bones, a flat 
nose, and short, often shaggy hair, which is cut and 
never plaited ;-rr-and are, for the most part, a very ugly 
race. There were alec, among the varied multitude 



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!»b NATlVES-QtIEBN'8 HOUSE. 

several "gentlemen" of ancient Portuguese and Dutch 
extraction. The antique costume which they sport ia 
truly singular. It consists of a head-dress somewhat 
resembling a college cap, a jacket richly embroidered 
in gold, with enormous buttons, the sleeves slit np ta 
the elbows, and simple East Indian handkerchiefs hang- 
ing over their short drawers; lai^ ear-rings and a mul- 
titude of rings on their fingers mark their affluence. The 
largest part of the population, — scanty as is the cloth" 
ing of most of thera, especially of the younger men 
whose only garment is a coil twisted round their loins, — 
carry parasols, of Chinese manufacture, of bamboos and 
varnished paper. We pressed forward through the 
crowd, — ^which we had difficulty in penetrating, as we 
were crushed and stared at on all sides, — to the ancient, 
moss-grown Dutch gate. Opposite to it was the place 
of our destination, an open building, of somewhat vene- 
rable appearance, one story high, surrounded by an airy 
veraudah, — with the figure of a cock* and the date 1687 
over the entrance. It was the " Queen's house," or 
governor's residence. Of its large rooms, paved with 
stone, three were prepared for our reception. They have 
doors, which, indeed, serve the purpose of windows also, 
both towards the verandah and the inner gallery, and 
contain, in the shape of furniture, only large beds, mea- 
suring eight feet square, with muslin hangings round 
them. 

■ The toim of GkUe U indebted fat ita emblein,— » oook,~to an etTmolo- 
gical error of tbe Fortnguese mlcra of Ceylon, who ueodated the dbhk 
Qalla with GoiftM,— » coot,— whereas Oalla, in Cingslew, means t, rock ; 
thoB the name ia reall; derived from the dtotrion of the town and harboor. 
In like manner, " Fedii/ra-tal:a-gaU<i," " a rimt-vove nxi," has been trans- 
formed bj the "^e'"** ^to " PtdTO talla-galla," as though aome great Don 
had immortaUeed hia name bj beatowing it upon that peak; whereae, in fact, 
the Fortogoese nerer reached that part of tlie island, and the name waa giien 
in consequence of a rush need in niat>makiDK being found in aboDdance OD 
that mountain. One of the moet absurd of these misnomers is that b j which 
the hill of " Sfailati-Pattena," near Kandy, has been dt 
fish, " HvtUm-button /"— Ta. 



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THE QABDEN. 97 

Bat a peep into the garden soon enticed us awaj from 
our spacious apartments iato the luxurious freedom of 
the open air. — What a splendid profusion of red and 
yellow Hibiecus, — what beautifiil, rich, velvety turf, 
such as I have never seen since I was in England ! Here 
the gorgeous Plumeria, with its sweet fragrance, 
there gigantic banana-trees, (Muga. SapientvmJ Fapaws, 
(Carica Papaya) and bread-fruit trees, (Artocarfmsin- 
cisa), towering above the walls. We descended a flight 
of steps, — green from the continued warm moisture, — 
into the tree-garden, or shrubbery, which is on a level 
twenty feet lower. It is a perfect wilderness, peopled 
by innumerable animals. Among the tall grass, — ^which 
was full of long-tailed green lizards, — were shining forth 
lilue creepers of wondrous beauty, (the Clitoria) and a 
number of red-blossomed ^>tl\&»,m6,■(Impat^enscocci^lea); 
above them rose bread-fruit trees, with dark, shining, 
sinuated leaves, at least a foot in breadth and two or three 
in length, white stem, and rough, heavy, round fruit, of 
a greenish yellow colour, — ^the elegant Papaw tree, with 
regularly tapering, hollow stem, from the top of which 
bursts a tuft of rich foliage, each leaf broad-spreading 
like an umbrella, thick clusters of fruit somewhat re> 
sembling small melons hanging below the crest of 
leaves. Here too we found the plantain-tree, (Musa 
Paradieiaca) universally known in India as the Sana- 
na tree: its reed-lite, thick, sappy stem bears the 
leaves, which are eight feet in length and two or three 
in breadth, springing in an upright position out of its 
top; but their thin and tender texture, while it exposes 
them to be torn by the wind, causes them to droop 
gracefully as they expand. Who could imagine that this 
tree, with a stem of one foot in circumference, and 
twenty feet in height, and with foliage so luxuriant, 
is the growth but of one year? The fruit grows in 
thick, regular clusters, mi a spike hanging from the top 



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98 THE BEBAD-rEUIT TREE. 

of the stem, at the axil of the tuft of leaves; — this 
Eipike or fruit-stalk, which is about four feet long, has 
usually some eight or ten clusters of fiuit nearly a 
foot in length, each of which, again, contains some 
twenty or thirty plantains. This beautiful greenish- 
yellow fruit has a charming effect, amid the freshness 
of the gigantic spreading foliage; its flavour is far 
more delicious here than at Cairo, where we had it 
at dinner daily. Each plantain is about four inches 
long; its skin is soft and leathery; heneath that is 
a pulpy fleshy substance, very sweet, and without either 
seeds or kernel. 

The hrecid^fruit tree bears a coarse, hard fruit, which 
is often dressed and eaten by the people here in an un- 
ripe state, but which, when ftUly matured, contains 
among the seeds a milk-like fluid said to be sharp and 
acrid.* We have not tasted this fruit, but it is clear 
that the eulogies of many travellers, who speak as if 
nothing could bear comparison with it, are not merited. 

The fruit of the Papaw tree reaemWes a melon; hav- 
ing like it, flesh of a yellowish colour, which however 

* The natiTeB of Ce jlod (sa we are iDfonned by Dr GreTflle in the Bota- 
nical section of the " Account of British India,") also eat the fruit of the 
Artocarpm isiegrifolia, or Jaca tree, irhich, elsevhere, la not held in great 
eateem. The Jaca a a larger tree than the bread-fruit tree, and of eitraor- 
dinarj aspect, bearing its ponderous fmit on the tmnk and arms. Eaoh 
froit cantaina SBTeral hundred seeda three or four times aa large as almonds. 
Of the bread-fruit, the variety most esteemed in the South S« Islands oon- 
lains no seeds; the tree propagates iteelf b; suckera &om its creeping roots. 
It frahs during eight months of the fear, and the Tahitiana oae a soar paste 
made of its fmit, called "mahU," during the remaining four. The bread- 
fruit of Cejion is much used for curry, and as a Tegetabte sUced and fried. 
The praises of this wonderful tree, of erer; part of which the Bouth Sea 
lalandera make some use, have been sung by Loid Bjron in the foUowiug 
lines:— 

" The bread tree, which, without the ploughshare, yields 

The unreap'd harrest of unfurrow'd fields, 

And bakes ita unadulterated loaves 

Without a fomace in unpurchaa'd groies. 

And flings off famine from its fertile breast ; — 

A priceless market for the gathering gueat." — Tit. 



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1B0PICAL WONDBBS. 99 

becomes piokisli as it ripens. It is inferior to the mul- 
titude of curious and delicious fruits of Ceylon, only 
from having a peculiar, — to most palates unpleasant, — 
taste of the seeds of Indian cress. 

I searched for some time in vain, among the super- 
abundant vegetation, and the many perfumes that 
loaded the air, for the cause of one peculiar and most 
overpowering fragrance. At length I discovered its 
origin in a tree, twelve feet in height, with thick and 
clumsy branches, long, narrow leaves, and large, white 
oleander-like flowers. — It was the Plvmerxa, — a sacred 
tree, which generally, when in an open place, is deemed 
worthy of a stone enclosure. Close beside it I found 
another tree, which makes but little show; it bears 
bunches of brown flowers, and a green fruit resembling 
cucumbers, close to its stem. The Appoo (butler or 
head man-servant) made signs to eat; I bit the fruit, 
and found it to be a very quintessence of sourness. — It 
was the BUimimg, (Aterrkoa Bilimhi)* 

The humid, vapoury atmosphere which pervades these 
shades, under the massive bowers of foliage so gigantic, 
is most favourable to scorpions and serpents. A long, 
slender, brown lizard, with triangular head, was also 
shding about among the branches; and a species of 
large carpenter-bee {Xi/locopa,) was filling the air with 
its loud humming. Crows, — whose screams are far 
more discordant than that of any crows at home, — were 
perched on all the trees, and casting an inquisitive and 
impudent glance at the foreign intruders. 

After breakfiist,— r*t which meal, by the bye, I made 
acquaintance with a profusion of tropical fruits new to 
me, Pompol^ons, or Shaddocks, (Citrus Decumana,) 
Jamboos, (Eugenia JamhosJ and mangoes, (Mangi- 
fet-a) — we could restrain our curiosity no longer, and 
saUied forth once more into the open air, to become 
* Th)i is k bTonrite fhiU in the cnUne of CeylDn. 



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00 TOWS OP GALLK- 

more at Iioine among the magnificence of tropical na- 
ture. Our abode was within the walls of the old cita- 
del; we therefore passed out hj the same gate by which 
we had entered on our arrival. Here, for the first time 
in my life, I saw lai^e piles of green cocoa-nuts. The 
effeminate Cingalese were lying in groups upon the 
ground, playing with stones of many colours. We met 
venders of Betel leaves and Areca nuts* distinguished 
Cingalese borne in their palanquins, herds of buffaloes 
and Zebu oxen, yoked to vehicles made of a sort of bas- 
ket-work plaited of the leaves of the cocoa-nut tree. 

An avenue of Hibiscus trees with large yellow fioweis 
afforded us refreshing shade; the sea, dashing high on 
our right, shed a coolness through the sultry air. We 
now entered the town itself, which is separated from the 
citadel by a wide " place." It consists of only two long 
streets, formed of small one-storied houses. On a foun- 
dation wall, two foet in height, built of stone, rest wooden 
pillars, which, with a wall of hurdles, support a broad 
overhanging cocoa-nut tree roof: tiles are seldom used. 
At the back of the deep verandah is the entrance to the 
one solitary apartment. The proprietor sits or hes on 
the raised floor above the foundation wall, beside his 
wares or the implements of his trade. In the street 
through which we walked, there were only petty mer- 
chants or shop-keepers, dealing, for the moat part, in 
spices and aromatics, pepper, turmeric, ginger, carda- 
momum, salt and saltpetre: all their goods were re- 
posing beside each other in perfect harmony, spread in 
little heaps on fresh bananar-leaves. .Wo also saw among 
their stores, rice, and various sorts of grain, among the 
rest, several kinds new to me, such as " amou," " core 

' The nut of the Bettt Iree (Areea CaUc/ai,) bo constantlj naed b; the 
natiTee of India and the n^j^^^ot couDtries, who che* it as toba«oo, ii cut 
in slices, eprinkled vith lime. Mid mixed with the leaf of a ktad of p^pcr, 
which ia CDnaequentl; known m £etd-Ua/.-~Tli. 



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IT8 SHOPS AND POPULATION, 101 

con," and " kahbg," aJl somewhat reBembling our millet, 
(SetariaQermanica.) Suspended to the roof we saw pret- 
ty basket-work cages, in which were speaking mina-birds* 
and parrots. We provided ourselves in this bazaar with 
parasols of Chinese manufacture, & most necesaary wea- 
pon of defence in heat so overwhelming, the thermome- 
ter being at least up to 35" B^umur, (111* Fahren- 
heit.) Most of these shop-keepers have learned a little 
English, so that we could make ourselves intelligible to 
them. Our appearance among them in our travelling 
attire, brought a crowd of people, — themselves without 
any, — to walk round us; a number of chUdren in parti- 
cular, with lovely, soft, black eyes, and many of them 
with thick silver bangles on their ankles, were running 
merrily about. Every thing here indicates prosperity 
and contentment; not a careworn or sorrowful face is 
to be seen. Not a creature thinks of such a thing as 
hard work; for why should they make life a burden, 
when they may, without much trouble, subsist for the 
whole year on cocoa-nuts and rice? 

We now entered a thick grove of bananas, and of cocoa- 
nut and betel trees, which begins at the edge of this bazaar 
town, and continues along the coast. Nothing can be more 
graceful than these latter loftily-waving, slender, palmy 
trees, with their bushy crowns, bending downwards in 
delicate feathery curves. How heavy and clumsy does 

* Hr WilBon, the dirtingiuelied omitliologut, in the hiitor; of British In- 
dia of the Edinburgh Cabinet Libniry, ^tu the faUowiog sccouDt afthiinot 
Ttty commanlj knami bird. " It ia samewhtit larger than ■ blackbird; iU 
pluDuige ia of a rich mlfcy black, vith a vhite ipot about Che central edge of 
tbe wing; the bill and feet are yellow, and a peculiar fleihj appendage or 
caruDcle atretohcB from the aide of the face, and behind each e;e, to the 
back of the head. This bird is ea«l; lamed, and perhapa the meet accom- 
pliahed linguist of all tba feathered tribes; it imitatea man'a roice much nlore 
accaratel; than a parrot, and may be taught to pronounce long aentencea in 
the moat clear and articulate roanner. It is coniequently held In the bigheat 
esteem by the natives, and is sometimes brought alire to European countriea; 
ttie moral purity ol the English tongne is not hoire'er aJirajs exhituted ai 
the remit of ila maritime edneaUon."— Tb. 



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102 . TBOPIOAL NAIUKB. 

the African date-palm, to say notliing of every European 
tree, appear ia comparison of them, Tbe deep azure of 
the sky, and the white surf breaking high over the dark 
rocks of the coast, fill up the picture, and the effect of 
contrast in the whole is most etrikingly beautiful. 

It is impossible to describe the wondrous impression 
made upon the traveller by the luxuriance of tropical na- 
ture; the warm, humid, heavy air, laden with the per- 
fumes of spices and of cocoa-nut oil, and the feiry-like 
glancing of the light, — clear, though partial, — through 
the thick palmy crests above, A rich under-growth of 
yellow, red, and blue campanulas, surrounds the neat 
dwellings, — buiit in the old-fashioned Dutch style, with 
small verandahs at their sides, which, without being 
dignified with any particular name, are scattered along 
the road towards Colombo. Old Dutch inscriptiona 
are to be met with frequently in every direction, on 
brick walls half decayed and green with moss, — as 
though one had wandered into some desolate region, , 
long deserted by mankind. Every thing produces an 
impression of dreaminess and of repose. 

Wherever the palm-trees are not enclosed within gar- 
den walls, the ground is covered with thick underwood, 
diminishing in height as it approaches the sea. Little 
green serpents abound in the copse; beautifully painted 
crabs run about the stones, taking a hasty side-leap when 
pursued, and concealing themselves beneath the luxuri- 
ant tendrils of the beautiful, red-flowering IpoiMsa. 
The Bromelia Ananas (common pine-apple,) and the 
Pandanus (screw-pine,) succeed well here, growing wild 
on bare parched cliffs, only nourished, apparently, by 
the constant moisture of the atmosphere. How I longed 
to seat myself, and to sketch those magnificent groups 
of bread-fruit, mango and palm trees; but again, might 
I not replenish my botanical box with some of those 
splendid creepers or lilies; or waylay those lizards three 



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BUTTEBFLIES. 103 

feet long,— OQ tlieir black and yet mossy rocks;— or drag 
out that little dark fiendish scoipion from its retreat be- 
neath yon stone; or, last not least, possess myself of 
those span-wide, black-winged, gaily-spotted butterflies. 
Here are Friam and Helenus; there, AriBtippiis and Aga- 
memnon.* 

It was high time for luncheon before we returned 
home; yet you will not be surprised when I tell you that, 
the moment our repast was ended, I begged to be ex- 
cused from accompanying the Prince, in order to make 
a botanical excursion. Ascending a hill which, in the 
forenoon, we had passed to our left, I wandered up to- 
wards the source of a little brook. The soil coDBista of 
a yellowish red clay, probably caused by the decomposi- 
tion of clay iron-stone, and mingled with red fragments 
of harder consistency .t I was joined by many inquisitive 

* Not beroea or philosophen, but the "tri>HiZ)tainf>"of'rariaiubutterSiea1 
We nut; qoote, b; way of expUiution, a pangnph from the articlo " £*- 
tomology," in the EnojdopiBdili, " la tbe rut oniltitiidB of bntterfliea, tbe 
greatest part at which are foreign and eitra-Baropesn, and to when food 
and manner of life ve are otter etrangera, it was impoBiible to give aignill- 
cant triiial namee. Limueiu, therefore, bj waj of nmile, haa taken the 
□amea of the Bg%Ua from the Tn^an hiatoiy. They eonaiit of two troopa 
or bodies; of vbicb one contsina the aable, and, a« it were, mouraing noblei, 
haling red or blood; epola at the basil of their wings. These receire names 
from the Trojan noblee; and the moat splendid among them bear the name 
of Priam. Tbe other bod; ornamented with a variety of gay colours, are 
diBtinguiahedbytbenameaof the Grecian heroes; andaa in both armies, there 
were kings, as well u officera of an inferior rank, tiiose elegant butterflies, 
whose hinder winga reaembie tula, are lUstingoiihed by some royal name. 
Thus, wlien Paria ii menUoned (knowing that he waa a Trojan, and of royal 
blood) we look for hhn among those of the first secdon; i.e., thoee ofaaable 
colour, spotted in the breaet with red, and liBTing their hinder winga resem- 
bling taihp. When Agamenmon U named, we atonee find him among those 
nobles whieb have Tari^aled and swallow-tailed wings. But vhen Nereue 
ia spoken of, we readily know him to belong to the laat eectian, baring winga 
bntno tails." The ^(^iMi are the Brat of the aii classes into which natu- 
ralists diride the genia Papilio: tbe others being, 2d, IftHa/uii; 3d, Par- 
tttutii; 1th, DaJtai; 5th, NymphaUt; 6th, Plebmi.--T». 

+ Dr Daiy, who, in his " AcatuiU of the interior of Ctglon," gives a full 
description of the soils af the island, eaya, " The beat and meet prodactire 
sells of Ceylon are, a brown loam reanlting fran the decomposition of gnelaa 
or gnmitie rook, abonoding in feltepar; or a reddish loam, resulting from 



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104 EXCUB8I0N WITH BATIVB OOMPAHIOUa. 

natives, who, on observing the objects of my pursuit, as- 
sist^ me in gathering flowers, and showed great delight 
when I caught butterflies. One of them, indeed, seeing 
my perplexity, as I was despairing of being able to main- 
tain my equilibrium on the two thin bamboos which 
served as a bridge, offered to carry me across the little 
stream. Although our conversation was generally con- 
fined to dumb-show, I noticed that they cried " kondet^' 
when pointing out any thing good, or that had a pleasant 
taste or perfume, — ^while, if the fruit was poisonous, or 
if the flower had a disagreeable odour, their exclamation, 
accompanied by a gesture significant of throwing it 
away, was, " nodderkey, nodderkei/ r They seemed to 
' look with compassion at my endeavours to catch inseots, 
or to kill lizards, — while at other times they shook their 
heads at me in an expressive manner; for the mass of 
the native population, — excepting, of course, the intru- 
ders from Malabar, and the Persian Mahometans, com* 
monly called " Moormen," are all Buddhists.* 
the deeampwdtiaa of chy iiaD-«tan«, called In CejIoD, KabocAstoDe.** Dr 
D»T7 obaerrei tiut there ii. Id tbe kU of tke klkod, k great louxiitf of 
nS''*'>1<> <^ ■>1>° of ralmreoua matter, which he attribnt«a to the n^id 
deoomporition tamed bj the g™»t he»t, and to the heary nuns.— Ta. 

* BefereHce is hen made to the flnt great commandnieat of Oautama 
Buddha, -ra. " From the meuieat iiueet np to mu, thoa ehalt not kia" 
The religioiu aoTaplee of the (Sigalese ue not, howeTer, geDemily as atriet 
aiour Author appean to have imaged from theee geatnree; the; are &e- 
qoentlj guilt; of killing animals of erer; lort, irith the eiceptdon of the co- 
bra de eapello, which ie deemed lacied, from a tradition of its haTing miia- 
cnlonely sheltered Gaatama under ite uplifted hood from the scorching i»3^ 
of the SOD, when he had ut down to leet. All those individuals howerer 
who consecrate themKlres to the service of Buddha rigidlj adhere to this 
grand precept; thoa Mijor Porbei, in hia " Eleven Years in Ceylon," men- 
tions the " Piraniada," or water-strainer — used by devotees to prevent 
tbe destruotion of tiie animalcnlB which tbey wonld swallow impercep- 
tiUy in drinking unstndned water." He also mentiona the strict obedience 
rendered by all natives to this law when they TtdtBuddha'asacred mountain, 
«onunoaly called Adam's Peak; he says, " At Diabetme," (four miles from 
the Peak) " the fowls were killed that we might reqiure during our stay at 
the holy footstep, as no follower of Buddha wonld break bis first oomutMid- 
ment within the hallowed predncts whioh, with to-morrow's dawn, we are 
about to enter."— Tb. 



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8T0EH AKD NIOHT SCENE. 106 

Having obtained a rich booty, I returned home to- 
wards sunset: the lightning was flashing tremendously, 
and I had scarcely reached our airy dwelling, when a 
sudden and fearfully violent shower burst upon it, white 
the rolling thunder pealed, and the brilliant lightning 
cast an almost uninterrupted glare. The flood that im- 
mediately, after a few minutes' rain, surrounded the 
house, enlightened me as to the necessity for its being 
raised above the ground by a foundation'wall of flve 
feet in height. As soon as this tropical water-spout was 
over, and the darkness of night was spread over the 
scene in deep and sudden gloom, every tree was illum- 
inated by countless fire-flies, various species of Coleop- 
terous insects — Elater noctilucus, (night-shining skip- 
per,) Lampyris rtoctilvca (glow-worm,) and Cantharu, 
so that the garden appeared like an assemblage of bril- 
liant " Christmas trees;"* and the evening concert of the 

* The ftnthor refen to a bvoniite uniuement in (he domeatic cirola in 
Germ»nj„Bt the £e»ti»itieB of the partiiig ye»r, — doubtlBM one of the bright 
viraona asaooiated in his mind with the recollection of that " clondle« child- 
hood" which, we ue told, be ei^ojed under bli pannla' roof. It hu now 
become faroiliar to m&nj in this country; but to some it maj require ei- 
pUnalion. The ChriBtmu-tree ia ajouon fir, itnught Uid ahapel;, uidbJI; 
from three to dx feet in height, which occnioes the centre of a lust table, 
^ which the gueata or the jurenile <^Ie are not admitted till all ia read;. 
Theae who are initiated into the mysteiiei of the tree are buaily engaged on 
diristDuu eve in decking ita rigid branchea aUd aombre foliage with every- 
tiiing that ia bright and cay. Lighted (apera, of every hue, are ingenioualy 
fixed to the eitnmitiei of the branches,— bonbooi of many coloura, grapea, 
ofangea and cherriea are aoapended trom them in toost Ihtiting confuaion, 
and laat not least, hanging in the midat of them, and scattered on the table 
below, are gifts, each bearing (he name of the friend for whom itiadeatined. 
Tlie pot in which thia tree stands ia usually strewn with such flowera or Ter- 
dure as the aeaaon may afford, and the ensemble is extremely pretty. An- 
other kindred and rery popular custom, is that of placing a Christmaa-trce, 
adorned by the maternal Pomona, with a rich crop of such fruit, to which 
etery member of the family circle contributea aome gift, — beside the couch 
of the sleeping child, before that merry maming dawns upon it. Such then 
was die " NeaUuea," accompanied too by simple and charactsriatlc melo- 
dies, a duious contrast to the " evening concert of the tropica" described 
■Imfe, which glittered before the mind's eye of the yoDthful traveller wboae 
Ui«af[hts ao of(en wandered to hia bther-land. — Tft. 



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106 SEBENADB. 

tropics began with redoubled zeal. The musicians are 
QryUi, (crickets and locusts) Cicadw, (frog-hoppers) 
ten or twelve distinct species of Rana artorea, (tree- 
frogs) Geckos,' and several small owls. This sylvan 
population kept up a noise which bafles all descrip- 
tion: — humming and chirping, croaking and squeaking, 
whistling and whizzing, clicking and clapping, — as in 
the tale of the "enchanted castle." There are some 
species of Cicadae, of great size and of wonderfully 
beautiful colours; these are the chief culprits in this 
nocturnal breach of the pea<:e; for the ear is soon ac- 
customed to the mill-like sound of the long-legged 
tree-frogs, which usually greet their pursuer with a pert 
and fearless croak from within the large calyx of some 
gorgeous Sower. 

We had, ever since our arrival at Cairo, acknowledged 
the utility of the ample bed-hangings ; — here too they 
are indispensable, for there is a great abundance of mus- 
quitoes, which, however, I thought somewhat less cruel 
in their attacks than those of Egjpt. 

Next day, (the 14th of November) we set out very 
early on another excursion. The Prince had gone be- 
fore us: — we found him seated in the middle of a httle 
palm-garden, busily engaged with his pencil, and sur- 
rounded by inquisitive Cingalese. They had placed a 
chair for him, and had regaled him with fruit, which 
luxury they now offered to us: we also, before joining . 
the Prince, had received from another party of hospit^ 
able Cingalese the same kindness. 

Inscribed on a solitary house among the palm-trees, 
we read the words " Comfort-place." As we were very 
thirsty, and the outside of the house looked most in- 
viting, we entered, with the intention of purchasing 
refreshments of some sort. At our request, the innuttes 

* A speciea of pale brown lizoid, lo named fiom the peoulUi lonnd of iti 
BbriU voice,— Tit. 



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BUBAL BECBPTION. 107 

forthwith brought cocoa nuts, the first fresh ones that 
I had tasted. The fruit is taken in an unripe state, 
when it contains clear water* in its centre, as is the 
case with unripe hazle nuts. Tliis cool beverage, which 
has a mingled sweetness and sourness to the taste, we 
all thought most delicious. B7 breaking the nut quite 
open, one may take out with a spoon, from within the 
shell, the flesh which is just beginning to form : in colour 
and consistency it resembles the white of a light-boiled 
eg^; its taste is like that of sweet jelly, with somewhat 
of a nutty flavour. It was only nowthat we discovered 
that we were beiug entertained out of pure hospitality; 
even the domestics declined receiving payment. Here, 
for the first time, we became acquainted with palm- 
sugar, called " Jaggery" : its colour is brownish, like that 
of the coarsest bonbons, but the Savour remarkably 
pleasant. It is made of the juice of several species of 
palms, which is obtained by cutting off the end of the 
flower-sheath, and binding it up above the wound, and 
it is never allowed to fernieut,t Great quantities espe- 

• Commonlj called " Cocoa Nut-MUl/'—Tt^ 

f The juice thus obtaioed — aTerBging neu-ly two hundred pinta fWim each 
tree — IB called Toddj; it is XHaeUiiieB drank treab, — sometimea rermented 
into viDegoT or wine,— eometimes dietilled into Amcki when iotended for 
Jn^erj, the linoua fermentadoa ii checked b; putting a little lime into the 
earthen pota in which it is gathered, and the Bug&r is made by boiling. Tha 
OBe of Amck ia lamentably prevalent unoDg the degenerate Cingalese of 
the lowlands, wliile in the interior, Oautama Buddha'a prohibition against 
all ktndi of fermented liquor ia more strictly obeyed. The gathering of the 
' juice is not unattended with danger; U> save tbemaehea the Istigue of fre- 
qnently ascending and descending the tall and branchleaa stem of the palm, 
the indolent Cingalese &sten coir cordage Avm tree-top to tree-top, and 
traverung these aerial passagea with little care, they often meet with acoi- 
Aenta, which, from the height of the treea, generally prove fatal. It has 
been said by Humboldt that wine, oil, nai, dour, sugar, aalt, thread, ulec- 
nls, we^ona and habitationa, are all afforded by the palms. Innumerable 
mdeed are the uaea made of every part of the tree, and of its fruit, so that 
it may well be called the ataff of life in the countries of which it ia a native. 
" The hundred and Hfty uses of the Cocoa-nut tree" are familiarly spoken 
of in Ceylon, while in the figurative language of the East, the eight hundred 
and one of the Palmyra palm have been celebrated in a Tamul poem called 
Tala Vilaaam.— Tb. 



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108 BOTANICAL EZPEDITIOD'. 

cially are made from tlie juice of the " burning, or 
ttoray-leaved palra," (Caryota urens, — " Ketool Oaka,") 
a palm-tree distinguUlied by tlie long feathery leaflets 
of its bending leaves, which give it less of a curly ap- 
pearance than other species of palm. It is not quite so 
tall as the cocoa-nut tree, but of somewhat thicker stem 
than the slender Areca. 

Just as we were about to depart from our " comfort- 
place," Count G returned thoroughly drenched ; 

he had been shooting birds in a neighbouring rice-field, 
and had brought down a brace of young Ifinas, with 
imperfectly formed caruncles. 

In the afternoon I visited the only botanist* of this 
island, — Captain Champion, — a very well informed per- 
son, to whom I was indebted for many curious facts. 
Notwithstanding Tlmnbei^'s residence of half-a.year in 
Ceylon, and the researches of Wallich and of many 
others, a little trouble is sure to be rewarded by the dis- 
covery of many new plants. A botanical expedition 
was forthwith agreed upon, and we proceeded in Captain 
Champion's gig to an unfrequented part of the country, 
about four miles from the town, where we alighted, and 
scrambled over rocks and hills. I was greatly exhaust- 
ed by the burning sun, — and did not therefore gain as 
much information as I might have desired in that ram- 
ble, which was my only initiation into the Flora of the 
tropica. I felt almost overwhelmed by the crowd of ob- 
jects of interest: no one that my eye was wont to be- 
hold; — all was new and strange. A violent shower 
overtook us on our return; however we arrived just in 
time for me to see the whole of the Captain's beautiful 
collection of insects. The result of this first exposure 

* The Dill; ODE then rerideot in the iahncl; Dr Qudner, the distiitguighed 
SiiperiDt«niIent of the Botanicitl Oardena at Enndy, — one of the first bota- 
Diita of the age, — being, Ba Dr HoSmeialer gBbBeqQGTitl; menttODS, absent 
on n Tisit to Madras for hia health.— Tr. 



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XISADTEirniBE. 109 

to a tropical sun was a violent swelling in m; ikce, 
vhich ended in an abscess above the eye. A melan- 
choly surprise moreover awaited me on my return to 
my quarters at Queen's House: I found myself robbed 
of a large portion of my wardrobe. Part of my linen, 
— some silk handkerchiefs, — all my knives, — and my 
case of surgical instruments, — were gone. I gave the 
alarm ; no one could have committed the theft save the 
roguish servants, half-a-dozen of whom were always 
crowding around me, and whose noiseless step, as they 
enter the room, may easily pass unobserved. There is 
no power of locking one's door; and the sentinel sta- 
tioned at the gate had put us off our guard. A strong 
representation made to the principal officer of the house- 
hold succeeded so, far as to recover my surgical instru- 
ments. This was our^rst misadventure; — how many 
others were yet to come ! 

We now took leave of the civil and military officers of 
the place, Mr Crippa and Captain Thurlow, and, at four 
o'clock in the morning, on the 15th of November, we 
set out on our journey in what is here called a " dili- 
gence," or " mail-coach," which in fact consists merely 
of a box made of boards, with a linen roof spread over 
it, and with seats too narrow for one man, but which, 
on the present occasion, must needs suffice to contain 
two! Notwithstanding our being deprived of the power 
of moving freely, great contentment reigned among our 
party, as we proceeded on our palm-o'ershadowed way, 
keeping close to the coast, and watching the redection 
of the still young and harmless rays of the rising sun in 
the ocean's clear and placid face. We crossed handsome 
bridges over more than one broad stream. There was 
ever something that was interesting to look at, now 
the Pandamtis (Screw-pine) growing to an uncommon 
height beside the sea, — now stately palms rearing 
their crowned heads towards the sky, — or again 



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1 10 JOCBNEYTO COLOMBO. 

fishermen's boats, dramDg in their henvy nets. We 
were ferried across two small streams, whose banks 
were indeed enchanting. Along the whole road we saw 
the people adorned in their gayest stjle, in motley and 
picturesque costumes; the head men with their Dutch 
coats and their insignia, and the wealthier part of the 
Malabar population distinguished by a number of rings 
in their ears and on their fingers. They all saluted the 
long-expected Prince* with the deepest respect, folding 
their hands before their faces, and slightly bending for- 
wards; — nevertheless it was not difScult to discover in 
them symptoms of disappointment, when they beheld, 
— instead of the Oriental Potentate, loaded with gold 
and jewels, mounted on an elephant, and wearing a 
crown, — only Prince Waldemar in his simple travelling 
dress: it was evident that their imagination had con- 
jured up some extraordinary coup-d' ceil. They have, 
in the East, no conception of the simplicity of a German 
Prince. 

When breakfast-time arrived, a man, clad in white 
costume, — of considerable embonpoint, and singular stiff- 
ness, — drew near to our vehicle, and saluted the Prince. 
In broken Euglish, but with great cordiality, he request- 
ed that the coach might draw up, and caused coffee and 
plantains to be handed round. He was a Dutchman, — 
a relic of his nation in Ceylon: joy and brandy were 
equally beaming in his eyes. Before we drove on, he 
brought out a long-treasured-up, and really very pretty 
pair of old-fashioned wine-glasBes, and entreated the 

* lutnieUoiuhBdbeeDMiitb; th«Seoratki7 of state for the OoloniM,— 
Lord Stanley, — to the Cejlon Oorenunent, to receiTe Piiiioe Woldemar in k 
m&nner becoming his rank, and suitable to the intimate and friendlj rela- 
tiom eiiating betireen Oieat Britain and Pnuaia, — and to afford him ereiy 
aid and fadlity on hia traTele. Id ponuance of theae directioni, anango- 
meoti were OTeiy where made for the Prince's reception b; the native 
iMete In the prorinoea, and for Iu9 being treated with the honoors doe ta 
Uie GovemOT hlmeelf,— Tb. 



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FISHEBMEB. Ill 

Prince's acceptance of them bo eamestly, tb&t hia Royal 
Highness could not do otherwise than graciously receive 
the gift. Brittle goods in our narrow coach t Before 
we came to the next station, the precious glasses were no 
more. Near it we breakfasted, — in company with a very 
interesting and agreeable English gentleman, Mr An- 
stnither, and bis lady, who escorted us from Galle to 
Colombo, — at the house of the local magistrate, Mr 
Gibson, The country now became hilly: broad and 
well-made roads conducted us up the ascents; they were 
bordered, on either side, by a row of old, Dutch build- 
ings, charmingly situated among thick, and extremely 
rare, flowering shrubs; tall Arecas and Cocoa-nut trees 
formed a continued and delightful shade; — vehicles, 
drawn by fine brown and white oxen, with long, moon- 
shaped horns, bearing their yoke, of simple construction, 
on their Immpa, — met us repeatedly. At one spot we 
alighted, for the sake of watching the fishermen as they 
drew in their nets. Several kinds of mackerel and many 
gaily spotted kinds of Scarus and o! Chcetodon were lyiag 
there in heaps upon the beach. The fishermen were toil- 
ing on, regardless of the scorching sun, accompanyiog 
their every movement with a strain of mournful singing, 
which strongly reminded us of the Egyptian boatmen. 

Four o'clock arrived, and with it the storm which, 
during this moneoon, pays its daily visit with almost 
unvarying punctuality. According to established cus- 
tom, it commences with a few heavy drops, which are 
the immediate precursors of a sudden and most violent 
shower.* On this occasion it was a perfect water-spout, 
so that we seemed to be driving through a lake, and it 
was vain to think that we could escape being com- 
pletely soaked. The shower-bath had exhausted itself 

* iiinaaingl J dcaciibed by Hijor Paibea u " b combinadon of Scatab mut, 
Eogliitb thnnder-sbaver, and tropical watet-spout, more reeeinblui): a Bcue- 
ral water-fall than anything called by the name of rain." — To. 



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112 ELEPHANTIASIS. 

in about an hour; and, in a veiy short time, all the 
water had run off, and our road was once more dty : in- 
deed in spite of the heavy rains, I have never seen either 
high-roads or paths better than those of this island. 
How brightly did every leaf now shine after the refresh- 
ing rain, how sweetly did the flowers give forth their 
fr^^nce, and the little birds their song i This is one 
of the phases of nature, which I had frequent occasion 
to admire in Ceylon, 

Thoroughly drenched, we found ourselves at a halt 
beneath a triumphal arch, formed of cocoa-nut leaves, 
and erected at the margin of a broad and noble river, 
nearly equal, in its body of water, to the Rhine ; it was 
the Kalioo G-anoa. On its opposite bank lay the town 
of Caltdea, whose streets we could distinguish from a&r. 
We saw, in the boat which conveyed us across the ferry, 
several men afflicted with leprous eruptions, and with 
elephantiasis. This disease disfigures its unhappy vic- 
tims frightfully : they have however fortunately almost 
always one sound leg, compared to which the swollen 
one appears like a huge shapeless lump. Cases of this 
malady abound in this part of Ceylon.* Another tri- 
umphal arch had been erected on the north side of the 
Ealloo Ganga ; it was constructed, according to the 
fashion of the country, of bamboos, hung with white or 
pale yellow festoons of young and tender palm leaves, 
and very tastefully decorated, in the centre and on each 

• The diKue ia limited to the south-weBtem coait; Dp D«Ty sUudee at 
tome leogtli to the previUeitce of it in the district betireea Colombo and 
MutoTft, which he attribntea to the temperatnre there being thronghoDt the 
year high, and the &ir the greater put of the jear loaded irith moisture. 
ElephsnUada is also common in some parta of the coDtlneut of Ana, particu- 
larl; at Cocbini hence it ia fi-equently called " Coektn teg," Cases of actual 
IsproHj are of rare occnrrence in Cejion, and are transmitted to the OoTem- 
ment Leper Hoaidtal, near Colombo, where howerer the number of patients 
is neier conndemble. Dr DaTj mentions that there ii scan^l; an; species 
of cutaueoos disease, of which he has not seen an instance among the natiyes. 
— Tb. 



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SOBSERY-CmSAUOS QAKDENa. 1 1 3 

ade, with the panicles of banana flowers, remmding na 
of the Thyrsus of Bacchus with its vine leaves and ivy. 
We were received, at this place, by a deputy sent by the 
Governor of Ceylon, who conducted us to His Excel- 
lency's equipage. Thence we advanced at a rapid pace 
towards Colombo, changing horses every half hour. We 
were preceded by two finely equipped outrunners, (horse- 
keepers) who wore red and white turbans, short breeches, 
and sleeves trimmed with red ribbons. The country 
now became more and more beautiful at every step : 
nature and art seemed to conspire to render the land- 
scape a charming one ; — picturesque country-seats, — a 
rich vegetation, — several rivers flowing softly between 
banks of exquisite loveliness,— distant vistas of mountain 
scenery, — and the mellow radiance of evening light over 
the whole; — the scene was like one vast and blooming 
garden. For a considerable distance we passed on be- 
tween the moat celebrated cinnamon gardens of Cey- 
lon:* the cinnamon trees however though brilliant from 
their shining foliage, are mean-looking, as contrasted 
with the luxuriance of the varied vegetation around, 
and are kept, by pruning, to a height of only about 
twelve or fifteen feet. The sun was beginning to dip 

■ These gardens, though the bog«t of (he ialand,— the louth-weit part of 
Ceylon being the anl; coonlr; of which the dDnuoon tice ii kaoini to be a 
-nalira — are oomparatiTel; of recent fbrmation. A (tnuige idea had obtuned 
Mnong the Ihitch rulers of Oejlon, that the spice was onl; valuable vhen 
gtoitii^ wild in the jungle, and it was nerer cultiTaled lilt after the year 
1796. The Ihitch were stiict to the eib«aie in their monopoly of ciniuunoD. 
The iojuring of the trees, peeling any portion of the bark, exporting or sell- 
ing cinnamon, — were all Crimea puniahable with death. — To keep up the 
price, bonfires of cinnamon occsdonally perfumed the itreets of Amstordam, 
as recorded by H. Beaumare, who witnessed it in 1760. Besides constoiitly 
■applying the European market, Ceylon exports large quantities of cinnamon 
to South America, where it is in daily use among the workmen, as a preser- 
vatiie against the noiiouB efTecle of the fumes of quicksilTer used in the 
ttSnea. Of the bales of cinnamon imported into Great Britain, far the grealer 
proportion is not for home consumption, but for the foreign nmrket,~-being 
exported to Spain, Portugal, aud other Roman Catholic countries, where it 
is largely used, with Aankineense, &c,, in the MrriDes of the Chorch. — Ta. 



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114 SECEPTIOH AT COLOMBO. 

behind the glorioua horizon as we approached the capi- 
tal : a courier was despatched before tis, to announce 
that the Prince was at hand. The whole population 
were on the qui vive: — daudies in European attire, 
mounted on wretched nags, saluted us as we droTe 
through the handsome open square in front of the town ; 
— and we could distinguish, among the varied crowd, 
many well-dressed English gentlemen, and even gay 
ladies not a few. It was a most cheerful scene, and 
our satisfaction would have been complete, had our own 
appearance been in character with this grand and tri- 
umphant entry ; but wetness and filth had, at the last 
stations, conspired to the no small injury of our never 
very splendid habiliments ! 

On reaching the gate of the Fort, we were greeted 
with military music, and with the firing of cannon, 
which noisy salutations were reiterated on our finally 
halting in front of the magnificent " Queen's HQuae." 
The Governor and Commander-in-Chief, Sir Colin Camp- 
bell, a venerable old man, with hoary head, gave us a 
most kind reception; and Captain Maclean* conducted 
us to our respective apartments, in a wing of the Palace, 
opening into the garden. Unfortunately, my swelled 
face prevented me from appearing at table, so I passed 
a quiet evening on the sofa. Here again, we were fol- 
lowed, at every step, by a host of copper-coloured do- 
mestics, — men and boys, — some wearing jackets, others 
wearing no clothes at all ; many and vain were nay 
attempts to get rid of their attendance ; before I was 
aware of it, the sneaking fellows were at my heels ^ain. 

Next morning brought me a multitude of butterflies, 
and some of our party shot many birds of various kinds, 
Oriolus, Crax, Oractda, Erodias, Sse. I carefully skin- 
ned them, and had left them for a few minutes to dry in 
the aun, when the native servant came running in, and 
* Ba CoUh'b Htn-in-Iaw Bud Aide^-camp.— Tft. 



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BITTBK DISAPPOIHTMENT. 116 

said, " Master, crow come, take yellow bird." I turned 
round to look, and it was even so; half of my birds bad 
disappeared ! Without delay, I took what remained with 
me into my room ; however, at the end of half an hour, 
I discovered that millions of microscopic ants had, in 
spite of the arsenic with which they were prepared, 
nibbled every morsel of skiQ from off the feathers ! But 
a glance at my cases of insects completely overwhelmed 
me; — the whole treasure was reduced to powder — Oh 
that I could have wreaked my vengeance on the small 
but silent foe ! But the ants were marching in endless 
procession, — a long sable line, — up to my glass of eau- 
sucrfe, which was thus gradually becoming a mass of 
dead bodies ; while there sat the crow, in undisturbed 
tranquillity, at the open door, as if, in contempt, mock- 
ing my distress.^ 

I saw but little of the city, as my swelled face ex- 
cluded me from all pleasure-parties ; however, in spite 
of it, I made various purchases in preparation for our 
journey into the interior of the island, such as tin-boxes, 
spirits and glasses. On the next day, (the 17th of 
November) I was able for the first time, to appear at 
breakfast, " tifSn" (or luncheon) and dinner, of course 
always dressed, as etiquette requires, in white trousers, 
black satin waistcoat, dress-coat and white neckcloth, — 

* The anwB tie here bo tams uid impudent, espedkUj irlthia the Fort 
■t Colombo, that it la scarcely poeaible to tears a br«ak&rt table onprotected, 
lest they Bhoold can; off everjtbing eat^Ie. Their appearance ii remark- 
able; the; alnajB at irith thcdr mouths open, as if aofferiDg from the heat, 
and their pecnUarl; land and hoarse cry grates upon the traTeller's ear, and 
■eems to haunt lum whererer he goes. Major Forbes thus notices them; — 
"On arriTing at a rest-house you ate immediatelr attended by WTeral 
crows ; aa soon as yon are seated, one or more of these harpies, having 
settled beyond yatn reach, in defiance of all threatening gestures, com- 
mences forthwith to screech at you with expanded beak and drooping 
wings; lialt where yon will, — unpack when yoa| may,— only lookup into 
the trees oboTe, and yon will see one crow at least, with his head on one 
Bda, peering int« jonr proTJsion baskets, as if he were sent to take an 
Inrentory!" — Tn- 



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116 MB AtTBTatTTHEE'S DEJEHITEIL 

moat oppreBBively hot ! The Prince had been invited, 
and took me as his companion, to lunch, at twelve 
o'clock, with Mr Anstruther,* whose courteous atten- 
tions we had already enjoyed on our joum'ey from Galle. 
I never met with a more amiable and pleasing man. 
While we were partaking of his splendid d6jfeuner, some 
of his people were brought in to exhibit before us the 
mode of preparing cinnamon.-f The shoots of one year, 
which are about the thickness of one's thumb, are cut 
off, and stripped of their leaves. The cinnamon-peeler 
(or chaliah) seats himself on the ground, and with hia 
long knife, — convex on one side and concave on the 
other, — makes an incision the whole length of the shoot; 
he then very skilfully, with the curved point of his knife, 
separates the bark from the wood : the next operation is 
to scrape off, with the utmost caution, both the green 
inner rind or epidermis, and the greyish outer covering, 
or thin skin: the bark, which is not thicker than parch- 
ment, and is at first white, when laid to dry in the sun 
soon assumes a yellowish, and after some time a brown 

* Then Colonial Etecretarj in Cejlon Tk. 

t The GDDHiian tree nsuallj jields a dooble Imrrert yearly; the fiist. i* 
gnti ooe, from April to August;— the second, or leBser one, iTom Norember 
to January. The seTeral proceBses in the preparation of Cinnsmon are com- 
monly entrusted to separate claasea of " chaliaM." The tagranix ditFoud 
around during the operaUon U very strong, although it is an error to ima^pna 
that auy odoor is perceptible in passing through a plantatioD of cinnamon 
trees. The leaves of the cinnamon hare a flayour of ctoTes, and (torn them 
olore-oil is distilled in large quantittea. Camphor is also sometimes made 
from the rtwt of the dunamon tree, though that substance is more commoolj 
obtained Avm the Camphor tree of J^an and Cbiou, the Lasm Camp/urra. 
The shining dark green leaf of the Cinnamon tree is remarkable for its beauty 
irhen first opening; it presents a picturesque mixture of tender yellow and 
flaming red. The coarser kinds of the spice are known by their darker 
coloor, thicker consistency, more extreme pongency and bitter after-taste. 
The refuse is distilled for Uie sake of its water and ile golden-coloured eseeo- 
tial oil. The fragrant, yellowish white flower, resembles that of the Saxi- 
fraga umiroiB,— London Pride. The fruit, in form like an acorn, but 
smaller than a pea, if boiled, yields an oil wbich, when cold, becomes a solid 
substance like wax, and is formed into candles, which emit an agreeable 
odour.— Tb. 



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MR AUSTBUTHEB'S OABDEN, 1 1 7 

hue, curia up together, and the ciaDamon is then ready. 
When fresh, it ia extremely burning to the tongue; the 
footstalka of the leaves, on the other hand, have a very 
pleasant taste, and it is much the cuatom here to chew 
them. The cinnamon-tree {Laums Ctnnamommn) is 
planted in a poor and sterile soil, — a eilicious sand, 
formed by the disintegration of quartz. Great heat and 
frequent rains are the only requisites to ensure its suc- 
ceasful growth. 

In Mr Anatruther's garden we saw the Nutmeg tree, 
(Myristica moschata) loaded with fruit: the nutmegs, in 
appearance, somewhat resemble dark yellow apples: 
when pickled in an unripe state, their flavour is excel- 
lent. We saw also the betel-pepper shrub (Piper Betel, or 
" KapoorootoeU" ), — the Jamboo tree f Eugenia Jam- 
boaa), — the Malay Apple tree (Eugenia Malaccensia, or 
Rose Apple), — the Clove tree (Garyophyllis aromaticua), 
the so-called Almond tree,* (a species of TerminaliaJ,— 
the Mango tree {Mangi/era Indica), — the Sugar-cane 
(Sacckarum. offi^narum), — and Bamboo-cane (Bambusa 
arundinacea). A profusion of fruits, not to be surpassed 
in excellence, were spread before us at the d^jedner: we 
bad, besidea pine apples and bananas, — the yellow Man- 
go, which is about the thickness of one's fist, of an ir- 
regular round shape, and its kernel enclosed in a very 
juicy pulp or flesh; it has a peculiar fragrance, not un- 
like that of common Jessamine. The Jamboo has a 
sourish taste, like an unripe Gravenstein Apple; its 
colour LB perfectly white. The Guava (Psidium pyri- 
ferum) is a small pear, with soft, melting fleeh, and some- 
what of a musk perfume. The custard Apple {Annona 

* Probably tlie apeciee mcationed by Boyle, «ho, in hi> lUaitratiomi of 
the Botany of the HimaJaiyiiD Hountuua, thus nrite», " The kernels of T. 
Gatappa have the Bome n&me, Badamt, applied to tbem, u to those of the 
common almond ; they are eaten as auch, and are Tery palatable. I haye 
seen the treea as lar north a> Allahabad, in gardens. Those of T. Bellerica 
and T. Moloccana are also eaten." 



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118 DINITEB AT QUEEN'S HOUSE. 

aqaatiiosa,) — a thick-skinned, scaly, green fruit, not un- 
like tbe cone of a pine tree, and with a rich creamy 
pulp. The Cashew Nut tree {Anacardimn OccidentaleJ 
— has a fruit nearly eimilar, in size and shape, to a pear: 
the only part that is eaten is the nut, of a kidney-bean 
form, attached to the outside of the fruit at the lower 
end, the hard shell of which encloses a kernel of most 
agreeable flavour. In addition to all these fruits, the 
" PompeUnoes," a species of very large and highly- 
perfumed Shaddock, with bright pink pulp, — and many 
other varieties of the Orange tribe, were placed be- 
fore us. But the fruit among the whole multitude, 
which met with roost commendation, was the " Ram- 
butan" (or Nephclium) a large, fleshy berry, exactly re- 
sembling the Solanwm Lycopersicmn (Love Apple or 
Tomata,) only perhaps somewhat smaller : it has a 
delicious sourish sweetness, and contains a thick, white 
kernel : it grows upon a large myrtle-like tree, Nephe- 
lium lappaceum, or Ewphoria Nepkeliivm. 

In the evening a splendid dinner was given by the 
Governor in one of the handsome state apartments of 
the Palaee. The table was groaning under the rich dis- 
play of silver plate; there was a servant standing behind 
the chair of each guest, while two or there dozen more 
were running hither and thither; — for the same man who 
pours out the wine, will not touch a plate; and he who 
trims tbe cocoa-nut oil lamps, and arranges the wax can- 
dles, could not think of such a thing as fetching a chair. 
Every one has his own appointed office to perform, and 
it requires no small degree of study to define the limits 
of each man's duty. It is often necessary, when one re- 
quires some slight service, to address one self to four or 
five different attendants, and each one may perhaps 
refer one to some other person.* 



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DEPARTCBE F0& EAin>T. lid 

A most important office devolves on the man who 
dnrmg dinner time keeps in motion the large, heavy, 
beautifully painted board, — equal in size to the table over 
irhich it is suspended ; which is done by means of strings 
irhich pass through the wall. This ever-swinging board 
is the PtttiJaih, the cooling effect of which ia much needed 
during the hot operation of dinner, while at the same 
time, on those unaccustomed to it, it has a somewhat 
soporific effect. All the rooms are quite open towards 
the verandah, which, for the sake of coolness, surrounds 
each story; windows ther^ are none. Great luxury- 
reigns here in the article of light: each apartment is 
lighted by lustres, be it ever so far removed from that in 
which the company are assembled. Our own rooms had 
each of them, two lamps, two candles, and a lustre, 
which last I found much " fi charge," as it was only with 
great difficulty that I could extinguish its brilliant light. 
Cocoa-nut oil is burned in all the lamps here. We see it 
solid in our perfumer's shops at home; — ^here, under the 
influence of a temperature averaging about 24" B^u- 
mur (86° Fahrenheit) it is a liquid, clear as water, or 
sometimes, of a pale yellow colour. 

On the 18th of November we set out from Colombo, 
for the far-famed city of Kandt, — the capital of the 
ancient Cingalese rulers, those proud and mighty Kings. 

len strict in Ceylon than in Hindoattui ; so that eiiwpt in the honeehold of 
tbe Qovemor, a very moderate number of domesticB, not eicuding tliat of a 
Enropean eatabUitiment, mffices for all the work. 

Etiquette howeTW reqnirea that at a dinner party each guest ihoald 
bring his own serraut to attend upon him at table. The peculiarity of moral 
character among the CSngalese, — familiar to all reeidents in Ceylon, -vis., 
th^ habitual disbonevty concerning any matt«n not committed to their 
care, and obont which they do not therefore consider themselres responmble, 
■nd thdr gcrupnloaa honesty conoeming whatever has been entrasied to 
them, has led to a custom regar^ng theee " guestV KrvutB," which ia re- 
pugnant to Enropean feelings; when the operation of cleaning the plate 
begins, they are one and all, pnt into a separate apartment ; and instanoei 
kare been known of newly arrired British residents, scorning roch lile 
s, and paying dear for their mis-placed confidence, — Tb. 



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120 ntHABITAHTS OF COLOMBO. 

Historical notices would fill more space than I can afford 
to bestow : I ma; just mention that it was only in the 
year 1815, after repeated insults offered to the English, 
that the last Tyrant-King, who with his Prime Minister 
or Adikar, Pilim4 Talaw4, had, in 1803, barbarously 
massacred a body of English troops, was captured and 
dethroned. His name was Sree Wikrim^ Rajah Singha: 
he died in 1832.* 

A vehicle similar to the mail-coach from Qalle, and 
by no means more roomy, conveyed us on our journey to 
the interior. The officer selected to accompany us was 
the Qovemor's Aide-de-Camp, Captain Maclean, an ami- 
able, kind-hearted man, not at all military in his ap- 
pearance. 

As we drove out of Colombo, I had for the first time 
an opportunity of seeing something of the town, which 
is built chiefly of brick, but contains many very neat 
houses, or I should rather say cottages, of one story. 
We also passed several of the wonderfid monuments of 
antiquity; — temples, covered with rudely sculptured or- 
naments, lions, drains and volutes. The city is of 
immense extent, and a large proportion of its inhabitants 
are Moormen, distinguished by the turban, the short 
drawers, and the showy belt, — and Malabars. These last 
are rendered conspicuous, not only by their iron-grey 
complexion, but by painted stripes of white, red, and 
yellow, variously combined, with which they adorn their 

■ In ]>rDaT7'B"j4Kounlo/(&>/nl«rtorq/'(7«yIon," the reader iriUfiadK 
DBTntiTe of the erenta preceifing uid ODDDected with the coQTentioa of lgI5, 
b; vhiob the British GloTenunent obtained pooeaakin of the wliole idand. 
The interral between 1805, when an umiatice concluded the war of 1803, 
(which led to the massacre of the Sntieh troopa under M&jor DaTie,) and 1815, 
when war was again declared under IiieaCenant-Oeneral Sir Robert Brown- 
rigg, — may be jnstl; characterized as " The Beign of TerroF." Among tlie 
manj Tictims of the cmel jeaJooB; of thie last despot, was the guilt; Fint 
Adikar himeelf, Pilime Talawe, The English guaranteed to tJie Kingdom 
of K&ud;, its old goTemnieDt, reli^us tibert;, and protectloD ia tka lawi 
and customs of the land. — Tb. 



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r 



CASTES AND O0T-OA8TE8. 121 

foreheads: — the; are Brahmins, Persians, too, are to 
be .seen there : their national costume, their long black 
beards, yellow skin, and aquiline noses, strike the eye 
of the trayeller. 

Among the Gngalese, as among the Hindoos, there is 
the distinction of castes, which is marked chiefly by the 
greater or lesser abundance and luxury of the wardrobe ; 
all are not allowed to wear jackets.* There are also 
some " oatcastes," or people ntrf; belonging to any caste, 
who are looked on as outlawed, and, notwithstanding the 
efforts of the English to protect them, meet with con- 
tumely and ill-treatment.'f' 

• The popoliitioQ of Cejion b, ocoocdiiig to Dr D»tj, diyided into foot 
principal castes: the l>t ia the Kofal o*>l«; the 2d, that of the Brahmlna ; 
the 3d is compawd of three nibdiTiaiaDa, — fii. merchuta, cnltiTalon of the 
earth, and ihepheTds ; the 4t)i includes sixty inferior grades of wciety, ai law 
ea#t«e,— among the reet, fishermen, snuthe, tailors, and other of the most 
nsefol trades, irith executioners and tom-tom beaten I The small ptopoT' 
iiaa of the two highest piindpol castes has, in a great measure, saTed Cey km 
from the d^radiog mental and political despotism which has been the bane 
ofHindoatan. Aocordin); to ancient Cingalese law,lhe use of gold ornaments 
was limited to rojal peraonsgni, and the bTonred few who bftd receiTod th<nn 
&om the hands of royalty. The jack et,~which, as well as the fiat cap, and 
the piiiilege of wearing severaJ nmilar garments one on the top of the other. 
Is a badge of high caste, — is, as we are informed by the same author, always 
thrown oflT on entering a temple : any one who doee not nncorer his shoulders 
is Buppoeed to entail on himself boils and cataneous diseases in another stal« 
of existence. The Cingalese ChrisHans and the Halabara, thoogh not of any 
caste, are not outcastes, being attached to the cultiTators <of the 3d caste), 
aud to the fishsrmen (of the 4th) respectively. These natiTe CtiristiBni are 
belicTed to be descended from the oonverts,- often compulsory,— made by 
the Portt^uese : thdr religion is very degenerate, and (rhilepreeerringmany 
tenets and practices of Popei7, appears not nntunted with Bnddhiat supersti- 
tion ; its only minister, the Baohristian, is mentioned by Dary as " an igno- 
rant man, who cannot read, and knows only a few prayers by heart;" tilt 
about thirty years since, none of these people had ever seen a Cingalese New 
Tertaament. A purer form of Christianity had, howerer, been introdnced 
into the north-western part of Ceylon, at a very early period, by the Nesto- 
rians; and within the last CO years of British rule, the nnmber of native Pro- 
testant Christians, which was rery con^derable nnder tiie Dutch, has 
greatly increased : varions European and American Protestant Hismonaries 
haying labonred in the joint cause of education and OhristiBiiity. — Ta. 

■(■ The SJu>ttUu, or out-oastee, are mentioned by Dr Davy u " the descend- 
ants of those who were punished by t>ring made out^Mstes, for OHitiQuing to 



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122 JOUEBEY TO THE IHTEBIOB. 

An admirably engineered road leads from the \ow, flat 
country that borders the coast, to the monntains of the 
interior; — from the fresh and verdant fields of rice and 
the groves of cocoa-nut trees, to the black and frowning 
masses of gneiss rock. What a glorious magnificence of 
colouring among the rich bowers of these foreats! Not 
one withered leaf is there; every tree sliines brilliant, — 
each in another and yet another tint of verdure, and 
each more vivid than the last! 

In the early part of our route, one village quickly 
succeeded another; but, as we ascended higher, the 
country became more tranquil and lonely. We had be- 
gun to feel the heat very oppressive before we gained the 
high and wooded region above. 

The view from these heights, — ^looking back over the 
plains below, — baffles every attempt at description: it 
dazzles the delighted eye. Amid the lavish abundance 
of objects new and wonderful to us, I may mention at 
least the Talipot tree, or (j^reatFan Palm, (Coryphaiijn- 
bractdifera). We saw, here and there, towering high 
above the tops of all other trees, large and bright green 
crests; — in one spot we observed, shooting up from the 
centre of this splendid crown, a solitary flower of r©-' 
splendent whiteness, and of immense size- This was the 

eat beef after its oae wu prohibited, — and of those who hare noce been de- 
j^rnded foi bigh treteon." The former crime tna perpetuated b; the pecu- 
liar (tii imposed on themi for "the; were required (o furnish hides, and hide- 
ropea for taking elephants." During the n&tiTe awa;, tlie; were subjected 
to man; indignities and sufferings, — forced to liie in open sheds, prohibited 
from approacliing a temple, be. Dr Dbt; nwutioiui a ""E"''^'' drcumstangc 
u resulting from the dr«ad of Qieii contaminating touch) certain Khodia« 
being Buipected of a murder, the Cingalese, commanded b; our govenunent 
to make them prisoners, refused, siting that " the; could not pollute them- 
■etres bj sdidng them, but would williogl; shoot them at a distance." The 
Bhodiai still preserve the Buddhist leli^n, and its sacred language, the 
Pali: ;et the; are abandoned by the teachers, and excluded &om the rites 
and Bsnctuaries of Buddhism. Dr Dst; records one instance of a priest who, 
when rebuked b; the king for preaching (0 the Ehodias, nobl; replied, " Be- 
ligion should be oommgn to all." — To. 



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TALIPOT TEEB AND M0HKET8. 123 

celebrated Talipot, the umbrellanleaved palm, which 
floners but once, immediately on reaching the acm^ of 
its lofty stature, and then dies! Each leaf is a circle 
of five feet in diameter, folded together in a marvellous 
manner. These leaves are, throughout the highland 
districts of Ceylon, used, after the leaf-stalk has been cut 
off, aa umbrellas; — they are also highly esteemed aa fur- 
nishing writing materials, for which purpose they are 
cut up into strips, and written upon length-ways, with 
an iron style.* 

We alighted at one of the steepest parts of the road, 
to enjoy more freely a full survey of the landscape. No 
chasm or precipice was visible in all this rugged moun- 
tain pass; every thing was overgrown and concealed by 
green bualies and giant trees. How many beautiful 
plants, — Orchidece and LiliacecB, — did I gather during 
that day's journey! and on every side I met with trees 
new to me, many of them clad in wondrous and gigantic 
foliage, — scarcely one of which I had ever seen before ! 
Here, for the first time, we observed a herd of mon- 

• The leaTCB of the talipot tree, each of which^when fully gpre&d out, can 
dkclter Beren or tAght penonB beneath its irondrout circumference, were, — aA 
we are wgni^d in hutoriea of tbe natiTe govemmenti of Cejlon,— foimerly 
the bndgea of tank Id the Tariooa cailea, (he grade of euh man being nuirked 
by the number of them which he was pecmitted to have borne before him oi 
&IU. Bn( their most singnlnF qoalitf perhaps la their durabilitj, > proof 
of which b the well-known fiuit that, while, among (he Cingalese, eome la- 
cred record! are ineorilieil on plates of bronie bordered with nlrer, thoie of 
meet importance Id ibe wcrehip of Buddha are conunitted tolaminn of these 
learee. Dr Dury, id describing a journey in tbe interior of the island to~ 
wards tbe east, thos speaks of Uiis tree, which he, in a note, designates the 
" iMuala ipinoia," thoi^h oar Aotbor, in common with most writers, de- 
scribes it Bi the " Corypha umbracBlifera." " This ncble pslm," he says, 
"has been the subject ofa good dealof fabnlona atory. It has been called the 
giant of tbe forest; but, like tbe cocoa-nut tree, it Is never found wild. It* 
bloesom is said to burst forth suddenly, with a loud explosion; but it expanda 
gradually and quietly. When its flower appears, its leaves ace said 1« droop, 
bang down and die; bnt they remtun fresh, erect and TigorouB, 1^ the &iiit 
is nearly ripe, and their drooping precedes only the death of the tree, which 
speedily takes ptaoe aflar the ripenhig of the fruit. Bren the disaKreeabl»> 
ncM of tbe gmdl of the flower has been exaggerated greatly."— Tn, 



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124 BANIAN TaEB. 

keys springing about among the branches; although 
they were at a depth beneath us of nearly four hundred 
feet, the noise of their chattering was distinctly audible. 
We could trace, to a great distance, by the shaking and 
breaking of the boughs, the direction of their gambols. 
A multitude of green parrots, with large, red ' bills, 
(Psittaeus Alexandrinua, or Alexandrine Parrakeet,) 
were flying among the underwood; but so jealous were 
they of being approached, that we could not catch one. 
The rocks, in the neighbourhood of the last station on 
this road, are clothed with three or four different species 
of beautiful red and white Impatiens (Balsam) and the 
-roadside below is enlivened by a species of Coreopsis, 
(Tick-seed sunflower) with a great profusion of yellow 
flowers. Beyond these nearer and smaller features of 
loveliness, we had the magnificent prospect of a forest of 
lofty trees, clad in sombre green. There were Myrtua, 
(Myrtle) Rhm, (Sumaoh) Laums, (Bay-tree) and many 
others; — and, pre-eminent among them all, the won- 
derful Fictia Indica (Banian-tree.)" 

* Thu tree, vhich Kcms to rttuid alone erea uuong sJl the lemubable 
productioDH of the vegetable worid in the But, ig conudered woied among 
the Hindoos, who beliera their god Vishnu to have been bom under it, aod 
ooneider iti long dnnition, lt« ontstretched aimi, and oienhodowing benefi- 
cence, M emblema of the ddt;; hence probably iU Linneean name of I^oob 
Beltgioea, vhioh howcTsr is inore commaDl; applied to the poplar-leaved 
Banian, or " Bo-^rte" of Ceylon, which ia there held mcied to Buddha. 

The Banian ia propagated not by seed, but by fibrea tbrown out by all the 
btanchee, vhich gioir thicker and gtronger aa they descend to the ground, 
where they finally take root, each parent tree thus fanning a grove, in ap- 
pearance so singnlar ae to baffle all desoripdon. Ila vast and many-pillared 
tent of rich foliage, — supported by a molUtude of trunks, adorned in its aea- 
aon vrith a very small, %-like, scarlet froit, and its dork reoesses nightly il- 
luminated with myriads of flre-fiieB, — aeeme to the European traTeller like a 
<mag^ scene of romance. The Brahmin loves to dwellbeneaihit« shade, and 
a temple may generally be seen at no great distance from its circle. The 
jnoet remaikable of these trees that has been described, is asii to grow on an 
island in the Nerbudda, ten miles from the city of Baroche, in thi; provinoe 
of Oozerat;— the name " Cu^Awr -Aurr," was given it in honour of a saint. 
Though many of its roots and stems have been carried away by high floods, 
... . , . . . „ ^ ^^ jj^^ stams. 



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POPPLATION. 125 

' At this last station the people had erected some of 
the elegant triumphal arches already described, Frorb 
^e&ce to Kandy the road was lined with cottages on 
both sides. I cannot imagine on what grounds Ceylon 
is affirmed by some to be a thinly peopled country; in 
this district, the huts continue for miles together, with- 

and the oTei^hangiag br&nchea corer a, macb l&rger ep&ee, — it« larger Kemi 
amooat to three Ikundred and fiftj^ tbecmoUet to more than three thonnnd, 
and new roots are deecending in profuDon. Hindoo fegtirala aie at itated 
seaaong held there, and it is u!d that MTen thousand penoni find >had< 
mder its branchea, vhich are SUed with green wood-pigeona, doves, pea- 
cocki, ■■"e'"g bird), large familiea of mankeya, and multitudM of enormou^ 

The Banlaii b beantifullj described in the two folh)mng paangae, m cha* 
nctetMic of the two poeta — Tk. 

" Branching, ao broad along, that In the ground 
The bending twigg take root; and daughten grow 
About the mother tree; a pillared shade. 
High OTer-arclied, with echoing walks between. 
There oft the Indian herdsnun, ehanning heat. 
Shelters in cool; and tende hii pasturing herds 
At loopholes cut throngh thickest shade," Miltoi. 

" 'Twaa B, fair soene wherein thej stood, 
A green and sunn; glade amid the wood. 
And in the nudst an aged Banian grew. 
It was a goodlj oght to lee 
That Tcneiable tree. 
For o'er the lawn, irrt^nlarl; spread, 
Vittj Btrught colomni propt its loft; head; 
And nun; a long depending dioot 
Seeking to strike its root. 
Straight, like a plummet, grew towards the ground. 
Some OB the lower boi^hs, which erost tbelr way. 
Filing their bearded fibres, round and round, 
With dibd; a ring and wild contortion wound; 
Some to the pasang wind, at (Jmes, with fwaj 

Of gentle motion swung; 
Others of jounger growth, unmoT'd, were hung 
Like stone-drops from the mvem's fretted height. 

Beneath was smooth and fair to sight. 
Nor weeds nor brieri deform'd the natural floor; 
And through the leafy cope which bower'd it o'er 

Came gleams of chequer'd light. 
So like a temple did it seem, that there 
A pious heart's Snt impulse would be prajer." 

SODIHIT.— CiiM< <tf Ktkaisa. 



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1 26 FACE OP THE COCNTBY. 

out intermission ; and they appear to be inhabited hy a 
people blessed with plenty and with contentment.* 

Soon we left the forest behind us, and descended once 
more into a broad plain covered with fields of rice, — or, 
as they are here called. Paddy-fields, — whose verdure is 
80 fre^ and sappy that the Anest crops of wheat in sum- 
mer would look dingy and faded beside them. These, 
together with the Areca and Palmyra palms that sur- 
round the enclosures, the short, crisp tufts of the Sago 
palms, and of the wild date trees, and the dark forests 
of the mountain-tops at no great distance, form a pic- 
ture no less charming than it ia varied in its features and 
colouring. The ditches beside the road are almost every- 
where overgrown with a beautiful species of Cassia, 
which grows to the height of five or six feet, and has a 
long Thyrsus-like flower, of such a fiaming golden hue, 
that I would give worlds to be able to transplant it into 
any of our gardens in Europe. I am assured here that 
no description of it has been given to the world. 

But now we were again climbing a steep hill, and 
threading our way through populous streets. We were 
followed by a crowd of several hundreds, in procession ; 
— all must needs see the Prince, — for a European prince 
had never before set foot in Ceylon! We drove on, 
through narrower and yet narrower streets; — passed 
beneath one elegant arch afler another, all formed of 
bamboos and tender palm-leaves; and at length were 
met by a deputation consisting of officers connected 
with the local government. After receiving the Prince 
at the gate, they rode on into the city, with their 
scarlet uniforms and gold epaulettes, — a brilliant escort, 
to usher in our queer old tub of a coach .' Close to the 
gate, again, stood, waiting to meet bis Royal Highness 

* NeTcrtlielus, thoDgb this p«rt of Cej\oa ia popnlooi , it ia b? no meaua 
eiroDeoiig to state that the klaud generall; ii rei? Ukiulf peopled. Its ei 
t«Dt is tffenty-foar thatuand Aqnue milee, — the Dumber of ita inhabitaot 
kmouDta onl; to fifteen hundred thonsajid.^TB. 



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EBCBPTIOH AT KASDT. 127 

Jong rows of " headmen" and priests, tbe former ar- 
rayed in robes of white muslin, and decked with gold 
omamenta. These headmen, — for the most part aged 
men, with hoary beards, — wear a most singular costume ; 
their head-dress, — the large flat round cap, made of 
white muslin, or occasionally a square one, of scarlet 
and gold;* — their raiment, a small tight jacket, with 
large battens, often formed of precious stones, and short, 
full, plaited sleeves; — over it they twist several ample 
pieces of muslin, all the ends of whicli are bound toge- 
ther in front beneath the broad golden girdle, so that 
their figure gains a wonderful degree of rotundity. Tlie 
girdle is of -the richest gold embroideiy. They also wear 
long chains round the neck, bangles on the wrist, and 
heavy rings, all of gold. They are the only individuals, 
among the whole nation, who claim a right to wear 
trowsers: these are fastened with a frill above the ankle, 
and, being made of the whitest muslin, produce a pictu- 
resque effect, contrasting with the dark bronze or coffee- 
colour of their arms and feet. To heighten the singu- 
larity of their figures, they wear round the neck a large 
crisped ruf^ such as preachers did with us in days of 
yore. 

Kow commenced a strain of loud music, which I can 
only compare to that which we are wont to hear as the 
accompaniment of dancing bears and capering monkeys. 
Amid the sounding of fifes, the rattling of tambourines, 
and the rolling of drums, — the various musicians, clad in 

* The court head-dreBS of the Adikara anlj : it haa an eleTated psiik in tb« 
middle, BDrmoonted by eome bright gem : inferior headmen weaf the roand, 
irhite, €at cap. The ^sljnguiahiiig iDgignitv of the Adikan boKOTer,— 
though probably not aeeo doc heard amid the din of tom-toma and the 
wanng of banners on thia occasion,— are their wlver slicks and immense 
irhips, the latter described by Hojoi Forbee m eight or ten feet in length, 
tvo iQchea in breadth, and as producing a report almost eqnal to Bring a 
pistol. Elach Adikar is attended by a confidential servant carrying a silver 
betel-box , and folloved by persoos holding long-handled fans, ornamented 
slicks, spears, bows or gnns.— Ta. 



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1 28 Pavilion At kandy; 

gay jackets, and, according to the national fashion, 
wearing Indian liandkerchiefa instead of trowaer^ 
danced and jumped with most animated gesticulationj 
to the no small detriment of their rude harmony. Sud- 
denly there appeared three elephants, constrained to 
adapt their heavy pace to the marked cadence of the 
music. A grand display of silk banners, — shot through 
and through, — and of gold brocade, grown black with 
age, were next paraded before us. Then followed a 
strain of singing, which might have charmed the tiles 
from off the roofs, had there been any; and, in short, 
these festive and characteristic demonstrations were so 
deafening and so exciting as to border on the disagree- 
able; at least we were by no means sufficiently prepared 
to act our part with perfect self-possession during a re- 
ception so overwhelming. 

At length, however, we drove up to the quarters 
which were destined for us, a palace, in comparison of 
which that at Colombo is a mere nothing. In the centre 
of a lawn, carpeted with the smoothest and richest turfj 
adorned, here and there, with scattered groups of Mag- 
nolias, or " Mocu-trees," in full flower, stands a hand- 
some edifice of marble whiteness, surrounded by regular 
colonnades, and remarkable for the airy and elegant 
style and the beautiful proportions of its architecture. 
An extensive park, in which flowers, butterflies, and 
leeches might be seen in eqasl abundance, stretches 
along the sides of the hills, encircling the whole valley, 
and, at every point, an exquisite mountain landscape 
opens upon the view. We were obliged to make our 
toilet in all haste, for the Prince had accepted an invi- 
tation to tiffin at Colonel Macdonald's. 

The residence of this officer is the ancient Palace of 
the Kings of Kandy, towards which accordingly we 
soon turned our steps. A biulding of but one atoiy, 
with a front several hundred feet in width, but of 09 



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ANCIENT PALACB." 129 

groat depth, flanked at each end by an ancient temple^ 
was seen before us at the extremity of a little valley, 
A short flight of steps leads to the principal entrance, 
in front of which its present occupant haa erected a 
verandah. The door is of cluinsy device, supported by 
posts in the shape of dragons. The walla are five feet 
in' thickness, as are those of the ruined dwelling of rer 
meter date. The one long hall of the interior has been 
divided into several apartments, and side-rooms also 
branch off from it. The walls, although in most parts 
covered with a thick coat of whitewashing, retain, here 
and there, traces, reaching up to the low ceiling, of 
battle-scenes, in which several leopards, a female figure 
and that of a man, are still discernible. On the spot 
where, for five hundred years, the great and half-deifled 
Kings of Kandy sat on their throne of gold, unappToach> 
able by any of their sul^eots save the Adikars alone, 
now stands the elegant tea-table of an English lady. 
This article of furniture is, by the bye, a fine specimen 
of the Point-de-Galle inlaid work, on which are expended 
the varied beauties of Ceylon's ninety-nine species of 
mostly wood The skilful artificers of Galle tempt the 
traveller with exquisite productions of tlieir art, splendid 
boxes and cabinets in particular, all which are, of course, 
quite beyond my purse. 

Towards evening I was tempted, by the infinite multi* 
tude of fire-flies which were fluttering over the lawn, to 
step out upon its velvety grass, and succeeded in col- 
lecting several dozen of these splendid insects. When 
dinner-time arrived, I observed, to my horror, in the 
brilliantly lighted apartment, that my white trowsers 
were streaked with blood ! I was not long left in sus- 
pense as to the cause of the disaster : this was our first 
acquaintance with those leeches with which we after- 
wardfl became but too familiar. I actually found several 



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130 BOTANIC OABDEN. 

hundred of them clioging to my legs ; they had pene* 
trated through my trowsers; however I freed myself hy 
means of the established recipe of lemon-juice of these 
unwelcome guests.* 

We went on the following day, the 19th of November, 
to visit the Botanic Garden, which is at the distance of 
about half a Oerman mile from the present outskirts of 
the decayed and fallen capital, and on the bank of the 
Mahawelle-Ganga, which we crossed by a veiy handsome 
bridge of satin-wood, called the Peradenia Bridge. + 
Tlie Botanic Garden is full of curious and valuable 
plants; every kind of spice and aromatic plant, and a 
multitude of very rare trees from the mountainous dis- 
tricts of Ceylon, loaded with blossoms and with fruits, 
are there collected. Among the Chinese fruits, none 
could bear comparison with the delicious Litcki, which 
indeed surpasses every fruit that we had hitherto tasted. 
It is somewhat larger than the finest strawberry, and 
contains, beneath a thin leathery rind of dark red 
colour, a white semi-transparent pulp or jelly of moat 
exquisite flavour. Another variety of this fruit, of 
larger size, and prickly, is, if possible, yet more agree- 
able to the taste. These are the produce of difierent 

* The CejIoD leech ie of a brown colour, marked with three lon^tndinal 
light-jellow lines; its lugeBt Bize is about three-fonrthB of ui inch in length, 
and one-teath of an inck in diauKteri but it can stretih itself to two iucbes 
in length, Hnd thi^n becomes Bufficientl; small to be able to pnee betneen the 
■titchea of n etocking, II it nearl; Kmi-tranBparent in Bubatance; in form, 
tapering towarilsthe fore-part, — atoTe, roundish, — below, flat; it apparentlj 
pouessea an acute sense of smell, for no soaner does a peisoa stop in a place 
infested by leeches, tban tbej crowd ettgerl; to their Tictim from all qaartera, 
uniestrained bj the caprice sometimes so annojing in their medicinal bre- 
thren. Loss of blood, itching, and sometimes slight inflammation form the 
extent of their injuries in the case of a person in good health, but ammala 
suffer more severely from their attacks.— Tr. 

t A Tery remarkable work of architecture, eonstrpcted by Lientenant- 
Colonel Frnser, Deputy Qnsirt«r-Haeter Genertil. It ia mentioned by M^or 
Forbes, ss " a light and elegant srch of satin-wood, two hundred and five 
feet in length."— Tb. 



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SCQAE PLANTATIOH. 131 

species of Dimocarpm; or Suphoria.' I also saw, 
for the first time, a most singular species of Banana, 
a tree from Madagascar, which, from its leaves spring* 
ing from the two opposite sides of the stem onlj, has 
the appearance of having been crushed or flattened. 
The sheath that encloses the leaf emits, when punc- 
tured, a considerable quantity of very sweet juice; 
from which circumstance the tree is known, among 
the English, by the name of " TrafxUer's Friend," Mr 
Gardner, the superintendent, was at Madras on account 
of ill-health; we were however received by a native, 
whom we found well quahfied to act as a most efficient 
cicerone, and even acquainted with the botanical names 
of the plants, and their clasaification,"!" 

We hurried on from thence, to see a great si^ar- 
plantation. It was harvest time, and all hands were 
busy at work. The sugar cane which has been culti- 
vated in Ceylon for the last twenty years, is not any of 
the species indigenous to the island, having been brought 
from the Mauritius. The native kind, known by the 
name of " Hue cane," produces only half the quantity of 
sugar obtained from the Saccharwm o^dnantm. Tlie 
cane is planted in October, and is cut for the first time 

• Muif varietiea of this fruit axe fcnomi in China. The common LUcAi 
u covert with pricklj scolo, uid larger than th« first truit here described, 
being &boat two inches in i^meter; tlie Loogan ia siso prickl;, but Biuller, 
and brown instead of red. But Mr Davis, in the Becond Tolume of hia work 
OD China, mendoiu the " Looiig-yen," or " dragon'a eye," aa much nnaller 
and of smootlier skin than the common Litchi, known in Bengal. It i> pro- 
babl; the first fruit described above by Dr Hofimeister. These fruits ImTe 
been ripened in hot^booees in England, and are well worthy of being more 
frequently caltirated. The Dimocarpus is a tree of moderate rize; ite bark 
of a rich brown ; its leaTcs resemhllng those of the laurel ; its fmit growing 
in hnncbes, on stalks several inches in length, at the eilronii^B of the twigs, 
each individual fruit hanging on a short separate stalk, the appeaittoce of the 
■hole tree being extremely graceful — Tb. 

t This native is well known to British residents in Ceylon as an CKcelleat 
botanical draughtsman : it is understood that an ^moat unrivalled collection 
of botatiioal dtawings, accurately representing the flora of Ceylon, may be 
fonnd buried in tome moity cabinet, belonging to the government of Kandy. 
-Tb. - 



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1S2 SUGAB BOILINQ. 

at tbe end of fourteen months, after vliich tbe uenal 
interval allowed is from ten to twelve months. Kew 
plants are required in five years. The soil most adapt- 
ed for its cultivation, is a red clay, whicli restdts from 
the decomposition of a species of black porphyry, and is 
here called " Kabook." 

When fully ripe, tho sugar cane* is cut above the 
stole, and tbe upper part is used as fodder for cattle, 
while tbe remainder of the cane ia divided into three 
long pieces: these are pressed between two fluted iron 
cylinders, placed one above the other, but in an oblique 
position, from which process they are brought out 
flattened and tolerably dry, so that, ailer being exposed 
for a short time to the sun, they are used as fiiel for 
heating the caldrons. Tbe juice pressed out in this 
cylindrical mill runs into A cistern, capable of containing 
about three hundred gallons, and four ounces of quick- 
lime are added to the mass, to facilitate the separation 
of all feculent matter, by causing it to rise to the sur- 
face of the juice, which now assumes a yellow colour. 
From this large cistern it runs into the first of a succes- 
sioiT of boilers, in each of whioh the heat is kept Up to 
a temperature higher than the preceding one; that of 
the fifth and last averaging 240° Fahrenheit, and 
mounting finally to 260°. At this point the sugar is 
ready to granulate, and it is then drawn off, through a 
grooved channel, into lai^e four-cornered trays, or' 
shallow vessels, to cool. The scummings of the third 
and fourth coppers are constantly returned into the two 

* FeiT initere. In describing t, Bogar-pluibition, dilate mneb on the ap- 
peannoe of the cute,— the loboiioal operatioiu of planting, hoeing and 
cutting, and the iuteieitiiig procee^ngi of (he mill and the caldion, being 
the till-eugroe^tig topIcB, Yet the logar-ouw la diitingukhed b; the ele- 
gaoce of it< golden stem striked vith red, and its datk lerdurB, a«d, aboTs 
ftll, b; the beaut; of it» ^veij, arrowy bloBBom, which b; eome tnTsUera 
hu been compared to a light and graeeful plume of white feuben, tipped 
with lilac, riang in tbe centra of the tuft of leaie*.— Is. 



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TEMPLE OP THE DALASA. 133 

first, in -which at last nothing but acum remains, and 
this, with the molasses, (which, when the sugar is newly 
casked, dnun through plantain stalks fixed in holes 
left in the bottoms of the hogsheads), and an admixture 
of water, is fermented upon the spot, and distilled to 
produce Kum. One gallon of cane-juice yields about a 
pound of sugar. The manufactories are almost all in 
the hands of English managers; at Point-de-Galle only 
did we meet with a native manufacturer. The cultiva- 
tion of the sugar cane is of recent date in the island, 
and admits of being much extended and improved.* 

Again we sat down to a sumptuous repast, at which 
there was no lack of Champagne. But fer more inte- 
resting and enjoyable, in my opinion, than the eucces- 
Mon of splendid banc[uet8, was our visit to the principal 
temple of Kandy, which contains thefar-famed "halada," 
a boasted relic of Baddha himself, (in reality, a tooth 
formed of ivory) on the poaaession of which that of the 
kingdom of Kandy itself was believed to depend. The 
flame of rebellion was kept alive among the people by 
their Adikars, until this shrine was taken by the Eng- 
h^.t The temple is a mere wooden edifice, but mark- 

* The hope here eipreased, then eheriahed b; many, has not been realiied, 
and while coffee plantatimu, Bpioe gardena, lud cocoa-nut groiuida Kre more 
or lew flonruhing in Cejlon, the attempt! at introdndng the oaldntioD of 
the Bugar-oane have altogether biled, and those best acqiujnted with the 
uland have come to the coaclumon that the cUroate is imauitable Ts. 

f ThU fiur-funed relic hs« eh>u«d the nomberleBS ncintudee common to 
aU BJnular objecta of BOpentitiauB Teneration, whether Ptgui at Popiih, 
Oriental or Enropean, After working, as tradition affirms, extraordinaTT 
miiacles on the IniUaa Continent,— which left permanent nsnlts in the 
altered faith of andent Idngdomi and the unrelenldiig wan waged b; Brah- 
miniM-n Bgainet Bnddism, — tiie sacnd tooth of Qattiaaa Suddia was taken, 
-— Kccoiding to Cingalese l^jendi,— by a Prince and Princees true to hi> 
religioD of peace, from the bedeged Hnctnary at " Dantapoora" to the 
islaiwl where the Buddlia had Uved and died. M^jor Forbea give* ureml 
aigoments, at great length, for beHetlng " Daniapoora" to be ideoHcal with 
the sacred Jnggemant. Since ita home has been in Oerlon, the tooth has 
been far &oro kading a life of peaos ;— bnt whether it was, or wa« not, taken 
bj the Portngnew in the 16th century, seems to be a qaestios. beyond (he 



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134 ItALADA. 

ed by its height, as it has two Btories. The unpretend- 
ing entrance, with its flight of steps on each aide, re- 
ca,Iled to my mind that of a village church in Grermany. 
Priests, in rich attire, and decked with many ornaments, 
met the eye in every direction, and the walls were 
covered with emblems and decorations of brass. We 
first ascended, by one of the flights of steps, to the 
sanctuary, which is closed with folding doors of gilded 
bronze, and into which not a ray of daylight ever pene- 
trates. Within its sacred walls, on a large table, hung 
with white shawls and gold brocades, stands the shrine 
of the Dalada. It is a casket in the form of a bell or 

power of liny ifriter finally to settle. Not only do ita woraliippere deoy this 
to baTe b«en the fiict, but they maintain that on the conqnert of the king- 
dom of Emdy by the Enghsh in 1815, the relio never fell ioto their hands, 
not baring been Boirendered by the nntivee, who Etill considered it their onn 
and clandesUnely remoTcd it from the Daiada Ufalegaiia »,t Sandy. It was 
recovered from them by the English towards the conclasioD of the rebellion 
of 1S17, aud I>r Davy, who was then in the countrj', and who afierwards, in 
company with the Governor, Sir Robert Brownrigg, had an opportunity 
rarely enjoyed by any Enropean, of very closely inspecting the tooth and sjl 
its karanduas, thns speaks of the impression produced by the capture.^ 
*' When the relic was talcen, the effect of its capture was sstonishing, and 
almost beyond 4he comprebrnsion of the enlightened: — 'Xow (the people 
smd) the English are indeed maaterB of the country ; for they who ponesa 
the relic have a right to govern four kingdoms : — this, for two thonsand 
years, is the first time the relic was ever taken from us.' And the first 
Adikar observed, ' That whatever the English might think of the consequence 
of having taken Kappitipola, Pilime Talawe, and other rebel leaderaj in his 
opinion, and in tliat of the people in general, the taking of the relic was of 
infinitely more moment.'" In 1S28, 8ir Edward Bamee, then Oovemor, 
caused the Dalada to be puhUcly cihibited at Kandy, with great pomp : it 
had not been displayed to the crowd of worshippers ^oe 1773. An inter- 
esting account of the magnificent and characteristic scene presented on this 
occaaon, on which the Buddhist relic became the political tool of a ChrisHan 
government, and many forced worshippers were drawn to its'shrine by 
worldly interest ratlier than by superstition, is contained in the first volume 
of Major TorbeB's work. The Dalada was, ftom the year 1817 till 1847, 
kept nnder the cnstody of the British government, and to its disgrace as a 
Christian power, British soldiers mounted guard over it day and night. 
Within the last few months, howerer, it has been made over to the votaries 
of Buddha, to dispose of as they please, greatly to the discorofitare of the 
priesthood, who foresee that the relic and its worshippers most taii into con- 
tempt when no longer apheld by the British government.— Ta. 



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EARAHDUA. 135 

dome, of parest gold, richly studded with gems. Be- 
hind it are large plates of gold, inscribed with a variety 
of characters or emblems. The casket opens by a small 
door below, of which the governor and the chief priest 
have each a key,* Beaide the great casket, or " kar- 
andua" as it is called, — that contains the " Dalada," 
stands a smaller one, which is commonly used in pro- 
cessions, — and, on the same table or platform, are 
numerous small golden figures, of rude vorkmanship. 
On two side-tables, loaded with gold and silver brocades, 
are placed lamps of silver gilt, fragrant from the sweet 
cocoa-nut oil that feeds their flames. The walla aro 
hung with costly Indian shawls of most beautiful de- 
sign. An adjoining apartment, from which also the 
light of heaven is excluded, was resounding with loud 
and stunning music, — the beating of the " tom-tom," or 
drum, accompanied by a strain of singing calculated to 
break the tympanum of any unaccustomed ear. The 
half-howling, half nasal melody executed by three 
youngsters, rung its changes in a high and squeaking 
key,— all the variety of its tones being comprised within 
the interval of a third! Its sound Beems now always to 
echo on my ear, whenever I smell the exquisite perfume 
of the P/wwierio-flower, with which the floor and the 
tables were strewn in this sanctuary. The singers 
moved their heads backwards and forwards, and made 
most piteous grimaces as they sang. 

We next ascended the other stair, which, by a similar 
folding door, leads into a secret closet, very like the 
former one. In this closet or small room stands, or 

* This oDter shriiie, or Kmndu, ia, acoording to Dr Darr, five feet fom 
and a half inche* hlgb, and nine feet ten inchea in drcnmfocence at it< baae. 
H« fomid it on clOM hupecHon to be only of iilTer gilt, and the gema of 
yerj little value ; Bome cien of colonred crjatal. But witlun this Karandoa 
ue foor others, all of pore gold, rioh^ wrought and decorated with dia- 
nuDdi, rnWea and emeralda, and each wrapped either in maBlin or in tinael. 



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1*^6 ANOTHER MI3F0BTUNB. 

rather lies, — Buddha himself, as large as life, with staring 
eyes, a delicate noae, and a very yellow complexion, his 
hand supporting his head, and his face and hands the 
only parts that are not gilded.* Other figures are placed 
beside him, of which one represents his wife, but the 
others are borrowed from the worship of the god Brahma, 
and stand there, as our interpreter informed ua, rather 
as ornaments than as objects of adoration. Here again, 
is an abundant display of aheet-goM, of costly banners, 
rich brocades, and other objects of value, studded with 
precious and rare gems, such as sapphires and rubies of 
extraordinary size. 

On returning to our quarters, I found that my pockets 
had once more been thoroughly rifled. In the hurry of 
changing my clothes, I had left my purse in the pocket, 
where it had not long been suffered to remain ; fortu- 
nately however it contained only a few shillingB, some 
Egyptian money, and a little collection of ancient copper 
coins of Ceylon. 

A stud of horses was purchased in preparation for our 
further journey into the mountainous re^on of the 
island; — ^very pretty, — ^but mischievous and snapping 
little creatures. 

At break of day on the 20th of November, thus 

* Hn^ ForitM ioformi va, that Om fansgea of Buddlia ttn'onlj represent- 
ed in tluee podtiona, — viz., dtting cross-legged, standing aa it preparing to 
advance, and reclining on hia ride, witb lua head resting on a, pillow; he it 
general!; represented clad in the yellow robe, but one of pomegnoste colour 
is also oanonicsL His statnes are not placed in the temples as objects of 
worship, bnt to recall more forcibl; the founder of their rellgim to the 
minds of its votariu. Correaponding to the mild tenet* of Gautama's reB- 
^on, are the oirerings made in his temples : ornaments are presented to the 
Wihare; bnt Sowers, remarkable tor Beagaaae and beaat;, are alone offered 
before the figure of the Buddha." The Buddha here mentioned, is of coarse 
OaiUama Btiddha, the divinit; of Ce;lon. The records of no less than 
twentf-five Buddhss are preserred among the Cingalese, bnt Gantama was, 
BccordiDg to Cingalese history, the founder of the natianal rdif^on, which is 
now however grentlj altered md oorrupted. It is distinct fiurn Ute Bud- 
dhism of Thibet, Japan, or China.— Tb. 



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VISIT TO A OERHAN PLANTEB. 137 

mdunled, we took our departure from the filfby streets 
of this poverty-Btricken city, and, crosaing the ^radenia 
bridge, we proceeded on our smooth and easy roadj 
without meeting anything worthy of notice, till at about 
eleven o'clock we halted for breakfast. Soon after we 
had resumed our march, such a storm burst upon us, as 
I had never before witnessed. In an instant we were 
soaked to the skin; even my journal and sketch-books 
I was unable to protect. But we rode on bold and uu' 
daunted, during two long hours of this pelting rain, 
gradually ascending higher and higher among the hills. 
At the end of that time, we had reached a considerable 
elevation, probably about two thousand feet above the 
sea, and were pleasantly reminded of the fact by the un- 
usual coolness of the atmosphere. I, for one, certainly 
benefited by this shower; it had lured forth from their 
retreat several rain-worms of five or six feet in length,— 
the very reptile that I had beheld with so much interest 
and astonishment in the museum in Paris several years 
ago, I sprang from my horse with lightning speed, to 
catch some of them, but it was not without much diffi- 
culty that I succeeded in getting hold of those strong and 
active creatures. Scolopendrce too, (Centipedes) of enor- 
mous size, and rolling Onisd, as large as walnuts, were 
creeping out. To my great regret I did not obtain 
possession of a single bird among the many that we that 
day shot, as they all fell irrecoverably into the depths of 
the tall grass. Towards evening we reached a miserable 
"rest-house," which did not ofier any conveniences or 
comforts, not even that of a fire to warm ourselves and 
to dry our clothes. Uost opportune therefore, and most 
thankfully accepted, was an invitation to partake of the 
hospitality of a German planter, who, with his brother, 
is cultivating coffee-plantations of considerable ezt^it, 
in a tract of land cleared by fire of its primitive forests 
and jungle. Under the friendly roof of the Slessra. 



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138 FOREST SCENERT. 

Worms, of Frankfurt, we ate a hearty dinner, during 
which ctjpversation flowed on most pleasantly in the Ger- 
man tongue. Tlie house was indeed a small one, and 
could scarcely include the whole of our numher beneath 
the shelter of its thatched roof; nevertheless we were, one 
and all, as cheerful as heart could desire. A rich col- 
lection of serpents and of insects, caught in the immedi- 
ate neighbourhood, contributed not a little to my share 
of the amusement. Somewliat less agreeable, however, 
than this social evening, was the night, — a cold and 
misty night it was too, — which we passed on the damp 
ground, where rats were swarming, with little or noth- 
ing spread below us. Next morning, (the 21st of No- 
vember) we inspected the coffee plantation, still black 
with the embers and scattered ashes of that proud and 
ancient forest, of wliich a few tall Mango trees are still 
left, — spared as monuments of their fallen race ! 

After bidding a hearty farewell to these kind " coun- 
trymen," we proceeded to visit another plantation, on a 
larger scale, which was on our way. From thence we 
rode on, without further lialt, through shady forests, — 
whose underwood was enlivened by magnificent butter- 
flies, — and found ourselves still continually ascending, 
our road winding along the edge of lofty beetUng cliffs 
of granite rock, as we drew nearer and nearer to the 
table land of the ridge above. Here and there we saw, 
amid the thick and gloomy forests, a spot which, by 
means of fire at the dry season, had been cleared out 
and opened to the light of day, that it might be used 
forthwith for a coffee plantation. In the ravines or little 
glens among the higher mountain-tops, we observed 
several large waterfalls, and as the rushing toirents 
dashed their silvery foam over the edge of a chff into 
some deep chasm, the distant roar was wafted over to 
us on the mountain breeze. At the foot of one such 
cascade we passed close to the spot where its fallen 



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waters precipitate themselveB into their black and tur- 
bulent pool, and it cost us no small trouble to guide our 
steeds across the ford below. As for mine it Tiolently 
broke loose from me, and on my attempting to regain 
my Iiidd, it kicked and struggled bo that its hind-feet 
struck me on the breast; I fell to the ground, and during 
a few minutes, gasped for breath : however, I soon dis- 
coTered that none of my ribs were broken, and that I 
was in a condition to resume my journey, though not 
without some difficulty. 

We soon reached our breakfast-station, Rahbodua, a 
little spot at an elevation of two thousand feet, encircled 
by magnificent cascades, whose tops we could frequently 
distinguish amid the Lofty peaks above. I was busily 
occupied among the productions of the vegetable world 
around, and the geological wonders of the masses of rock, 
which abound with cinnamon stone ; while the Prince 
was taking possession, with his pencil, of some of the 
beautiful waterfalls. 

Beyond this station, our road became more steep, and 
the Sera underwent a marked change: wewerenowatno 
great distance from one of the highest passes of this moun- 
tain chain. The forest rose to a gigantic height, and ap- 
peared nearly black from its vust bowers of dark foliage : 
soon, moreover, a heavy mist sunk down upon us, so 
that we were enveloped in midnight gloom; — the bright 
spots were indeed few and far between. The darkness was 
almost total when we gained the head of the paaa ; we 
could just discern a few dirty hovels, surrounded by bar- 
ricades, before the entrance of which we saw our hither- 
to naked " cooties,"* wrapped in some scanty covering, 
and shivering round a fire. Our kind friend Captain 
Maclean, who, on account of the weakness of his little 
horse, and the strength of his own constitution, always 



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140 

started lialf aa liour before the rest of our party, had 
obtained information regarding the dangerous character 
of this place. We were assured that the multitude of 
wild elepliants in this neighbourhood, which are wont to 
march in single file, perfectly at their ease, along the 
beaten paths, rendered it impossible for us to proceed 
without torches or darning firebrands. Travellers had 
often before found the road blocked up, and had been 
forced to retreat in danger of their lives. In spite of all 
these representations, the absolute necessity of carrying 
firebrands was not, in our opinion, very clearly proved: 
the Prince gave the decisive word, and we proceeded 
along the dangerous defile without a single torch. We 
had not advauced far, when some fresh heaps of dong 
were observed, confirming the truth of the statements 
made to us. We rode on nevertheless, and not one of 
these objects of dread waa heard, — much less seen, — by 
any of us. 

Tlie wild elephant is a bold and formidable animal, 
which, without pausing long, takes a sure aim at its 
victim. Those most to be feared are the solitaiy males, 
which, being thrust out of the herds, often lie in wait 
for any one who may pass that way, and put him to 
death slowly, and with the utmost deliberation.* 

After another hour and a half of utter darkness, 
we descried the lights of the Convalescent Station of 

• ThB " hora-aliat," Or "rogve tUpkant," ia not only dreaded by InTel' 
len, but legarded with almoet gaperetitiODa horror by the Cingalese, who be- 
BeTe it to be a rebel and criminal member of society, eiiled from the herd 
by common consent, and held In abhorrence, mingled with fear, no leee by 
it« former companloni than by man. He naaally ranges within a forest drcle 
of &om ten (o fifteen miles, and takes far greater del^ht in a human TJctim 
than hiB more sodal brethren do. Miyor Forbes CTea says, " baring once 
OTercome their dread of man, and made a sacceBsfol vatg, liomidde seemi to 
them a favonrite amnsement." He mentions an instance of a rogue elephant, 
without any irritation or apparent inducement, coming at mid-day into an 
open field, trampling a woman (o death, ai>d straightway retomlng, calmly 
and slowly, to its forest.— Tb. 



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NUWESA ELLU. 141 

tbe English troops, Ncweba Elua, which is situated u 
high as six thousand four hundred feet above the level 
of the sea. We were ushered into a pleasant, although 
lowly dwelling; on the spacious hearth of its principal 
apartment were blazing Luge It^ of wood, a luxury 
we bad not enjoyed for many a long day, but which was 
by no means superfluous here. The mist was now fall* 
ing, and with it the thermometer. The temperature, 
which in the morning had been 24» Rfeumur (86° Fah- 
renheit) now sank to 10" (55' Fahrenheit). Alas! 
even here, tired to death as we were after our long ride, 
we were not to enjoy repose; — we were constrained, in 
consequence of receiving an invitation to dine with 
Captain Eelson, to make our toilet without delay. 
While at dinner, I had well nigh fallen asleep, and was 
only occasionally roused from my half-slumbering state 
by one or other of the gentlemen asking me to drink 
wine with him. Never was I more thoroughly frozen 
than on our return from the dinner-party; the way was 
long, and there was hoar-ft^st. I found the thermo- 
meter in our room standing at 8° (50* Fahrenheit), in 
the open air at 6* (46° Fahrenheit), and it even fell as 
low as 5° (H' Fahrenheit). 

A party had been arranged for a hunt on the morning 
of the ftjlowing day, the 22d of Kovember. The sur- 
rounding woods were said to be fiUl of elks. Hlk is the 
name given, in Ceylon, to a very large species of grey- 
ish brown deer, with long hair : it is the C&rvus hippe- 
la^iis or unieolor, or moose-deer.* A numerous pack 

* This aolm&l moot not be coafoanded with tbe Cemnt Aleti, — elk, or 
moose-deer, — the name tU bdng erraneaael; nppUed bjBiitieh remdeatfl bath 
in Cejlonnndontbe continent oflndiit to more than ooe species of >tag, while 
the real elk or inoo8e.deer ie not found in Asia eicept In its northern r^ona. 
Ur Wilson, In bie notices on the zoolog; of British loditi, mentiona that 
"the riua gronp of atAge te entirely Asiatic;" it is di^ngnished b; tbe rooud- 
aem and pecoUai formation of the hems. That naturalist describes the 
QonaBuaa ( Cemu unieolor ) aa " the largest species of Ceylon," lurpaadng 



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142 EUaOPBAH VEOETATION. 

of bloodhounds, and a no leas numerous body of quick- 
scented natives assembled round the "rest-house," for 
the purpose of raising the game in the thick and often 
impenetrable underwood, here known as "the Jvngle." 

Tliis sweet, inviting spot, Nuwera EUia, lies in an open 
plain among moor lands, encircled on every side by 
craggy mountains, which, in our climate, would be clad 
in eternal snows; bold and lofty peaks tower to the very 
skies; among them the highest summit in the island, is 
Pedro-tallagalla, which rises to the height of eight 
thousand four hundred feet above the sea. 

The level ground, on which, scattered here and there 
among the thick bushes, stand the few detached buildings 
of which Nuwera Ellia (or New-House) consists, is but two 
thousand feet beneath this high level ; no wonder tliere- 
fore that ttie whole vegetation of the neighbourhood 
should assume altogether a nevt appearance, and more 
of a European character. Few trees are to he seen; 
among these I may mention IViododendron arboreum 
(tree rhododendron) with its flowers of burning crimson, 
Viburnum opubis (the " snow-ball tree," or guelder rose,) 
Eiwnymus (the Spindle-tree,) and several species of 
Acacia. The peach, the apple, and the pear tree thrive 
extremely well here; and above all, the potatoe, and 
every possible variety of European vegetable, tuniipa, 
cabbages, &c., &c. — One object the eye seeks in vain 
in all this highland district ; I mean the fir-tree ; 
— for throughout the whole of Ceylon no trees of the 
order of Ooniferce are to be seen. The moors are 

in sue the atag of Europe. The throat ia loaded witb lang briatl; hair, the 
bul U abort, and the general coloar ia a nniform dark brown. This unmal 
is yay bold and fierce, and dwella in the jungle and the deepest recewes of 
the foreate." The Oreat Euso, (Cenmi hippdaphta) ia numbered bj Ht 
WilaoD te ■ apecies found in coDtinental India, (chiefly Bengal) ood in mts- 
rol of the Amatic ialonda; ite site eiceeda that of the unitolar, being neailj 
equal to that of a horse. It bae trifurcated homa, very coarse hair, of a 
njvoas blown in summer, changing in vinter to a greyer hue ; the tail it 
rather long." It is sometimee luawn as the great Axii.—T*. 



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UPLAND MOORS. 143 

overgrown with a kind of hard grass, two or three feet 
high,* among which luxuriate many beantifiil alpine 
Tarieties of Campanula and a most fragrant species of 
Pkysalis, (Winter-cherry) I think, probably, the PAy- 
salis pabescens, — all in as great abundance as the sting- 
ing nettle in our meadows! The winter cherries are 
here called Cape goos^ierries, and no fruit makes a bet- 
ter tart. 

This beautiful retreat is said to have been discovered 
by a rich English gentleman, (I think his name was 
Horton) while engaged- in a wild boar hunt,~and I am 
assured that he laid out the ground as a park some fifty 
years since. Be that as it may, the posts of a spacious 
gate-way, rising above the moor, still meet the eye; and 
the place all round them, wherever it is not too boggy, 
is covered with thick bushes of Pdargoniwm, Tagetes, 
and various other plants, all of which we are wont to 
see in pots ; and which are here probably the relics of 
former cultivation.^ 

■ Thfa U the LtTWii-grati, Andropogon iScAanonlAtu, — one of tliB moet 
cIiantct«risHc pniduotiona of CeyloD, and of Bome pnrta of the adjacent ooa- 
(anent. It is the geoeial cOTering of such parta of the hilla, oeu Kandy, u 
are not oveigrawn with jonglei nod in its joung ukd tender etate aSbrd* 
good pastnre to bufhloes ; it emits when bmiaed a Btioag lemon-^cent, 
vhich, although pleasant at first, liecomea If one ii long eipoied to it, partl- 
cnlarl; oppressiTe. lis taste ia a refreshing acid.— Tb. 

■f A Blight canfudon, not surprinng in a stranger and a foreigner, tteroi 
here to have aiieen on the suhject of names. Hnveia Ellia, though tinted 
and deaoribed b; Dr Davy in 1S19, when its aolitade waa but rarelj broken 
b; tlie natives who resorted thither in quest of iron or of gems, was little 
known to Enropeans till, in 1829, Sir Edward Barnes, then Qovemor of Cej- 
lon, having accidentally wandered thither in the chase, fixed apon it as a 
military convalescent station, and built the residence above olloded to. It< 
wonderfolly temperate cliniate, 6S° bdng reckoned its mean temperature b; 
day, and SS^ by night for the entire year, freedom from pierdng winds, and 
proiimity to the mountain peaks, and the eitraordinary purity of its water, 
render it equally salubiioas and congenial; there ore also cliaiybeate springs 
in the neighbonrhool The "fifi^ years since" spoken of by onr author is 
thus probably an error foifijlten years since. But the allusion to the " gen- 
tiemoii of the came of Horton," doubtless refers, not to Nuweta Ellia, but, 
to on iuterestiiig wild, and solitary table-land, at no great distance iWim it. 



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1 +4 MOUMTAIN BAMBLK. 

The chase had already commeticecl, wheD I Bet out on 
my rambles witli the intention of climbing several moun- 
tain-summits; unfortunately, I wajs unable to advance be- 
yond a very short distance, for the bushes are thorny and 
impenetrably thick. I therefore turned my steps in an-^ 
other direction, towards the pass which we had ascended 
the evening before. Here my toil was amply rewarded by 
Bcenefy of surpassing loveliness, — deep and narrow glens, 
half filled up in some places by fallen trees stretched 
across them, — mountain streams winding their rugged 
way beneath, — and on all sides a smiling lawn, carpeted 
with exquisite flowers. I soon heard in the thicket, at 
a great depth below me, the clamorous cry of the bounds ; 
the crashing and breaking of the branches approached 
nearer and nearer, till at length an animal of large 
size sprang out of the jungle, and crossed the road with 
one mighty bound, only to vanish instantly amid the thick 
wood on the other side. It was probably an elk. Shortly 
afterwards I fell in with the whole hunt in the valley 
below. Thrir toils had been unrewarded, for the object 
of their pursuit was too swift both for huntsmen and for 
hounds. 



knoiTD u the Barton Pluna, (hug nuned in houoiu of Sir Sobert WQmot 

Horton, Ooremoi of Cejlon lioiD 1S31 to 1S3T. A picturesqiie descripdan 
af the primierU deioUtlon of these plaJns,— the most elevated in the ulukd, 
— of their eombre foreate, — und monatain ramp&rtB, — and of the a4}»ceiit 
■ouicm of the BUhool-Oja or Walawe lUver, und the MBbawelle-Ouiga, ia 
pTenbjMsjor Forbes: One of his oharacteristic touches is as follows i — "In 
these vast jungle solitudes, on the ascent from Nuwera EUia, on every twig, 
round every tree, the stilly damp of ages baa twined a mossy vesture i their 
mouldering rocks, moss-clad forests, and silent pliuns offer so lev signs of 
animated nature, that the notes of a small bird are a relief from universal 
(tillness; and the occasional rise of snipe is absolutely startling. In follow- 
ing up Uie green banks of a rill on one of these mountiuns, I called to my 
companion and proposed a change of direction; he ansnered, ' Very well.* 
Instantly, as if these words had burst the nu^c spell which bound the demon 
epirits of the waste, the joyous sounds, ' very well ! very well ! very well !" 
came hnrrjing forth from every copse and winding glade ui these, the farthest 
bounds of the forest labyrinth." — Tr. 



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MOUNTAIN RIDE . 145 

After break&st, the party undertook a second hunt, 
Bud returned tnumpbant with a large and handsome 
elk. In the evening a dinner •was given to the hunt in 
thereat-house; the company However broke up early, as 
we were to start at day-break. 

Day-break didaniTe indeed; butthe^hole country 
around, with the sole exception of the spot where we 
were, was enveloped in mist bo dense, that we were 
obliged to wait till it should disperse. As soon as this 
was the case, we proceeded at a swift gallop, down an- 
other pass in the mountains, — a steep and long descent. 
Our road was here for the Erst time circling roimd bare 
hills, on which herds of budaloes were grazing; the high- 
est ridges alone were crowned with wood. Here sud- 
denly the formation changes from the primitive masses 
to secondary lime-stone, dolomite, and lumps of iron- 
stone in a state of disintegration : — ths yellow soil 
abounds in mica. We reached an open and elevated 
platform, from whence we had an opportunity, which 
we had never before enjoyed, of seeing in perspective 
the singular and manifold crossings of the valleys below. 

We found ourselves, at one o'clock, at our station, 
" Wilson BungaUnv," — a lonely hut, surrounded with a 
verandah, as are all the other rest-houses. After break- 
fast, a snipe-shooting expedition was agreed upon, in 
which Captain Maclean and I took no share, as he was 
withheld by the fear of wet paddy-grounds, and I by the 
desire of botani^ng. The shades of evening had fallen 
ere our gentlemen returned, — drenched up to the shoul- 
ders, — ^from their toilsome day's sport. Twelve brace of 
snipes and a number of other birds were however spoils 
that consoled them for all their fatigues. 

Near this station the paddy-fields begin to assume the 
form of terraces, — the mode of cultivation prevaleut 
throughout the interior of Ceylon. Along the gently 
slopingvalleys, these endosures, — each levelled to a depth 



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146 IRRIOATIOK OP PADDY-PIELDS. 

of about a foot or a foot and a lialf lower tliao the one 
immediately above it,— ^re surrounded -with low walls of 
earth.* There la never any la«k of water, for the rains 
are regular and abundant. 

We made ourselves as comfortable as circumstances 
permitted in our " rest-house," and after a few hours' 
sleep on the hard ground, started at three o'clock in -the 
■ morning on the Slth of November. The moon was still 
shining brightly, and the sun did not rise till three hours 
and a Iialf of our journey had passed away. When the 
dear light of day dawned on ua, we found ourselves on 
the brink of a deep and precipitous chasm, — ^the rugged 
bed of a mountain torrent. The road, newly made and 
covered with soft, loose earth, was only a few feet wide, 
and was continually yielding beneath our horses' tread. 
We were ever and anon climbing, — and again descending, 
— now a steep part, now an easy one, — ^but constantly- 
skirting the channel of the stream. On a bare rock in 
the middle of the river, we saw a lai^e troop of monkeys, 
leaping in merry gambols: immediately on perceiving 

' For the parpoae of Becuring copious irrigfttion and iDundaUon, wluch art 
not allowed to depend on the ralna, however tegular and abondftnt; water 
being, as tit lesTD from Dr Dav;, " BometimeB conducted two or three miles 
along (he dde of a hill, or occamooall; eten carried from one dde of a moun- 
tain toanothei' b; means uf wooden pipes." Of theee picturesque temtces, 
which, in aome places not exceeding three feet in width, reaemble the ^n 
of >ealB in a vast amphitheatre, Dr DaTy thus speaks : — " Among the moun 
tains, paddy-fields are a succesrion of terraces or flights of steps; and in each 
field the crop maj be in a different stage of growth, in some just T^etating, 
in others foU^rown, ripening, or lipe ; — there, at tht same time, ;ou may see 
the labourers at b]1 thrar different operations, — banking, ploughing, sowing, 
weeding, reaping, and treading cat the grain," The diligent cDltiTatora uf 
these rerdant lerraees maj recall, to the minds of some traTcllera, the.indoS' 
trious rine-diessers of our Antiior's natiie iaod, who, on the Bunuy banks of 
" Fatter JiAine," may he seen toiling to carry, not water, but manure, to the 
objects of their care. In those two species of husbandry, ao opposte in many 
respects, there is this point moreover in common, — that no portion of 
ground, however short and narrow, is left uncultivated. The paddj-ground, 
being ploughed while ander water, and again urigated after seed-time, is not 
drained tiil the crop hi nearly ripe, when the water nmi off to the ienaoe 
below, and So Bows on fnaa one to another. — Tb. 



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ETTBM PITTTA, BADDLLA. 147 

oiir approach, they sprang with the greatest agility, by 
means of an overhanging tree, to the.oppoaite bank. 
They were Silens, (Inuus Silenus) a species of short- 
tailed monkey. 

Towards eleven o'clock we reached the station at 
which we were to break&st, — Ettem Pictta, a rest- 
house like the preceding ones, built on an isolated rock. 
Here again, the population of the surrounding district, 
with their headmen, had assembled to salute the Prince, 
and to see him pass beneath the triumphal arches of 
bamboos and palms which they had erected in honour of 
hia visit. From this place we had a distance of fourteen 
Englisdi miles to traverse before arriving at our place of 
rest. The valley continued without any new feature, 
and we perceived scarcely any difference between the 
scenery here and that of our momingfs ride: it was not 
till we descended a very steep declivity, and once more 
beheld the region of palms and bananas, that we found 
more variety among the objects around us. I was how- 
ever so much fatigued, that my only recollection is of 
having passed under two more of those beautiful deco- 
rated arches, and of having seen and pursued a porcupine, 
before descending into the lovely valley of Badulla. 

Badulla, situated in a very charming open valley, and 
surrounded by tall and majestic cocoa-nut trees, was a 
most welcome retreat for travellers wearied with the se- 
vere exertions of a twenty-five miles* ride over difficult 
mountain patlis. The town itself is small and neat, con- 
sisting of two broad streets, which cross each other and 
seem to stand in the midst of a pleasant garden. The 
houses are of one story, built of bamboos, and covered 
with the leaves of the cocoa-nut tree; each house has 
but three walls, the fourth side being open, and serving 
at once for door, window and shop. Here are seated, 
distinguished by the turban, the sun-burnt Moormen, 
grave and serious-looking : they form the great majority 



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1 48 SATIVE COSTUMES. 

of the merchaots and dealers, selling chiefly Engliah- 
stone-ware and ironmongery; — there, the Cingalese 
venders of fruit and grain, — the " topetty," or coil of 
white mualin girt about the loins, their only garment; 
and the broad tortoise-ahell comb fastening the plait of 
their long blact hair; — again the eye is struck, among 
the varied groups that pass before it, with the pictur- 
esque figures of native females, wives of wealthy Cinga- 
lese, — their ample dark -red garment (the "hala") thrown 
over the lefl shoulder, and confined by a silver ^rdlo, 
their hands and feet adorned with rings and bangles, — 
dragging behind them naked children, whose arms and 
legs are loaded with cumbrous ornaments of silver, like 
those of their parents:^-or again, shaven priests, with 
the toga of fiaming yellow wrapped jvoudly round them, 
— silent and solemn, like Plato or some other philosopher 
of ancient times. The men of poorer and more degraded 
castes are not privileged to wear anything save the simple 
" topetfy," — but indeed even those of higher degree 
usually content themselves with a long piece of cotton 
cloth, covered with Indian patterns, which is wound 
about the loins and hangs down to the ancles. This 
garment, together with the long plaited hair and the 
lai^e comb, ^ves to their naturally slender and delicate 
figures a most feminine appearance. But to my eye 
there is something pretty and engaging about these 
cheerful, friendly people, with their black eyes and their 
shinmg, olive-brown skin; and more especially about 
their lovely little ones, who unfortunately however have 
the greatest dread of Europeans. Would that it were 
but possible to win these people from the use of their 
betel-nut, which dyes their lips a vile yellowish red, and 
their teeth brown, and distorts their mouths with a per- 
petual giin ! It is really impossible to imagine anything 
more disgusting than this unnatural custom. The Arec* 
nut, the unslaked lime, and the betel-pepper leaf, are 



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PALM F0KB8T. 149 

aU mdiviiiua,lly, and much more when united, things fit 
only for poisoning ipAs. 

The uglineae of tlie women is, notwithstanding tlieir 
picturesque ensemble, quite equal to the beauty of the 
men. One Bees only withered old hags with ^dn3 Hke 
parchment, and even a Cingalese belle has, at twenty, all 
the air of being a grandmother with the weight of sixty 
years on her head, — ^which is probably the consequence 
of their being married when mere children, &om ten to 
twelve years of age. 

At the extremity of one of the streets of the town, a 
most enchanting landscape opens upon one: lofty pioun- 
tains in the back-ground, — a glorious forest of tall cocoa- 
nut trees, of Areca and of Palmyra palms, close to_the oub- 
skirts of the town; the underwood, beneath the deep 
shade of their thick bowering foliage, consisting of va- 
rious blossoming shrubs, — their lovely flowers, for the 
most part white and of an Oleander-like form, breathing 
celestial perfumes, and large Convolvuluses, white, or of a 
deep blue, twining high into the air round all the branches, 
— and, not to be forgotten, the elegant Carica Pa/paya, 
(Papaw-tree) with its crown of spreading, sinuated leaves, 
— rising among orange-trees of every sort, with their 
shining foliage and their tempting fruit. 

Between the trees on the roadside appears here and 
there a small cottage, in which some old woman may be 
seen, oflering for saJe the beautiful, fragrant, yellow fruit 
of the Banana-tree: — goats, not unlike fawns in appear- 
ance and colour, — are seen running about on every side, 
amidst groupea of young children, whose only pretence 
of clothing is a simple coil twisted round them. 

In the evening I walked with the Prince along this 
magnificent avenue. Few only of the people followed 
us, in spite of their curiosity; for it was late, and these 
superstitious folk have an extreme dread of the Evil-Spi- 
rit, although I fear they have not any distinct or lively 



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150 UNMUSICAL COSOBBT. 

impression concerning God.* As sunset draws near, the 
fragrance of the numberless flowers becomes more de- 
lightful; the air is soil and balm; as on a fine summer 
evening at Honiie; and throughout all nature, life seems 
to begin with renewed freshness. Myriads of frc^ cause 
the air to resound with their voices, croaking in every 
variety of tone ; — the palm-trees are filled with minas, — 
black, thrush-like hirds, with long yellow legs and red- 
dish yellow flaps or caruncles hanging below their eyes. 
These hirds, in concert with the crows, keep up a most 
intolerable screaming; and a host of insects, members of 
the numerous families of frog-hoppers, grass-hoppers, 
crickets and locusts, chime in with their soprano to com- 
plete the harmony of the concert. Several of these 
minas, whose peace, as they are held sacred, had never 
hefore been broken by the shot of a gun, fell by the 
Prince's aim. 

To our right hand, at the end of the grove of palms, 
stood a house of very singular appearance, raised on a 
high foundation-wall of stone, but constructed in a neat 
and tastefiil style, of fine wood, with a carved roof, alto- 
gether much resembling a Swiss cottage. It was the 
priestly dwelling-place: — opposite to it was the entrance 
to the " Dagoha," or Buddhist sanctuary. We ascended 
a ruined flight of stone steps, which leads into the inte- 
rior of a spacious walled-enclosure. Tall palm-trees here 

* Th« Cingalese hare eografbed on tbeir origiiud Buddhisni mitn; strange 
and incongruous saperatitions, demon-worship, planet-worsUp, and, like the 
refined idolaters of the days of St Paui, (Acts ifii. 23,) the tronhip of " Th* 
Un/nowa Qod," — their " AhvMa Ddjjo." ■ The red^eyed demon, pesUlence, 
the demons af the forest and of poisonous pkiDts, and other objects of this 
worship of fear, they seek to propitiate by offering a red cock; but the pecu- 
liar offering made to the " Spirit oftktfiood," "Ganga Bartdera," a perwnii- 
fication of the malaria someJimeB prevalent on the banks of all Ceylon 
streams, differs from all the reM. A miniature double canoe, canopied with 
CDcoa-nat leaves, is filled with lietel, grain and flowers, and launched npan 
the streanl; in a sickly seaaoD, a whole navy of OixM tiny barks is lesorCed to 
as a sure defence against the ■' nn^r-JUJid." — Te. 



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DAGC^A ANIk WIHABE 15 I 

east thefr shade over aa edifice, the most extraordinary 
I had ever seen. A large, round, bell-shaped building 
of stone, from forty to fifty feet in height, rises from 
within a double enclosure, skilfully constructed of brick, 
but now fallen iiito a state of dilapidation. Nothing re- 
]>ose8 on the foundation below, except this great circular 
dome, which is smooth as the globe of some huge lamp. 
Everything is grey with age,' yet ia the coating of plas- 
ter that covered the whole, traces of figures and of vo- 
lutes or arabesque devices were here and there discerni- 
ble. The summit appears to have been of old com- 
pletely gilded; and the base must have been very ele- 
gant, and finely fluted; — but not a window, not a door, 
not an opening of any kind could we discover in all this 
mysterious edifice, which in fact contains nothing except 
a relic of Buddha, — a tooth or a bone, — to which the 
priests gain aocess by a subterranean passage, plose be- 
side this colossus stands a modest and unpretending 
" Wihar^" or idol-temple, a whitewashed building, sur- 
rounded by a verandah, the roof of which is supported 
by elegant wooden pillars. Within these holy walls stand, 
rangedinfront of amost frightful image of a sleeping Bud- 
dha,a table covered with odoriferous flowers, and a variety 
of bronze vessels amidst a profusion of cocoa-nut-oil 
lamps. We met two very filthy-looking priests, who 
without hesitation permitted us to enter, and to exa- 
mine both the architectural masks on the walls, and the 
wooden Buddha. A multitude of copper drums and 
tambourines were hung up in the verandah before the 
sanctuary; — it waa lucky for us that tliey were not put 
into requisition, as at Kandy, for an accompaniment to 
a shrill and screaming song. A number of small mud- 
huta, like stables or pig-sties, stand round tlie temple; I 
was unable to discover the use for which they are in- 
tended, or to obtain any information on the subject. But 
the most beautiful object by far in the scene around 



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152 BO^TBBE-KUJOB BOOBBS. 

these aacred precincts was a very ancient Bo-tree, (Ficm 
Bdigiosa) with its mighty boughs and knotty roots. 
The Bo-tree ia a species of £g, with small poplar leaves, 
which terminate in long pointed ends; it is num- 
bered among the sacred trees, and grows to an im- 
mense height and strength : trees of a hundred feet 
high are by no means rare in the primitive forests of 
the island. High above their broad and spreading 
masses of foliage rise the slender, tapering palms, shoot- 
ing up their bright crests into the air hke rockets, to a 
height of a hundred and fifty, or two hundred feet. 

Suddenly plunged in " darkness visible," and guided 
only by the uncertain brightness of the fire-flies, which 
were dancing in myriads around the crowned summit of 
each lofty tree, — like gay and variegated fire-works, — 
or by the glimmering of solitary cocoa-nut oil lamps 
shining^ in lowly cottages, — we found our way back to 
our " Bungaiow,"* at the farthest extremity of the town. 
Meanwhile, during our absence, a plan had been agreed 
upon with the officer in command at this station, the 
renowned elephant-hunter. Major .Rogw«,+ by which 
we were to start the following morning for an elephant- 

* Such 19 the name girea in the Baat to honaes erected for the acconuao- 
d»tioQ of traTelleiB.— W. HopniEisrBB. 

f Hi^or Bogen, no len eicelknt at a dnl admiiiistntor than unriTkllMl 
as an elephant ahot, i» once dead. Han' strikiag tiie analogy between the 
toaching fate of this fettrlese man, who had lived t« recount bo man; hair- 
breadth «ecapes, and whose life had been repkte with inch romautio dangers, 
and that of (he fonthful trayeller, who, at the Tery ntoment when hu erery 
Tiiion of happineu seemed to have become a reality, and when eyen the'most 
adTentOTDua parts of his wild and remote travela had been a&f^lj paBsed 
throuf^j was cut down by a death no lew unexpected in its form than endden 
iuitsatrokel It tnu not by theofteipeiienced fury of the elephant,— noFin 
the din of the battle-field, that Major Bogerg fell ; but by the dread artillery 
of heaven, as he stood alone in unshared, unthought-of darker. He had 
token shelter with some other travellers in a hat during a thnnder-atonn ; 
after a time he went to the door to see if it had cleared off; the next mo- 
ment there wae a Tirid flash of lightning and violeat clap of thnnder,— he 
retomed not, — his companions went to the threshold, — and found only his 
lifeless remaina.— Tb. 



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DBPABTURB FOB THE ELBPHAHT HUNT, 153 

hunt in tbe lieart of the forests and jangle, a three days' 
journey from Badulla. I was obliged to pack imme- 
diately in all haste, that I might be in readiuess early 
enoagh in the morning. 

At five o'clock a.m., on the 25th of November, our 
horses were waiting for ua to mount and go: the 
" cooliea" or bearers, bad gone on iu advance with the 
oook, and had taken all the luggage. Major Kogers, 
aatd his amiable and pleasing companion, the hical Judge, 
a young gentleman of the name of Layard, made their 
appearance in most extraordinai? costumes, — large, 
loose, linen jackets, hats of basket-work plait, " leech- 
gtockinga," reaching above the knee, and over these a 
sort of mountain shoes. Such is the habiliment neces- 
sary in self-defence, on account of the plague of this 
counti7, the Ceylon leech, which abounds in these parts. 
Without delay we mounted our steeds, which bore us 
swiftly, over well-made roads, to the first mountains of 
the range, the out-poats as it were of an enohanting 
Highland country. Our road, engineered by our friend 
Major Rogers himself, in long zigzags up the steep ac- 
divity of a very high hill, commanded a prospect ever 
varying, and ever more and more expansive over the 
valley of the river below, which, when we began our 
ascent, had been enveloped in mist. In many pans, 
little brooks, still swollen from theheavy thunder-showers 
of the preceding day, crossed our road. For some hours 
we enjoyed most lovely views, — rice-fields, banana- 
gardens, and palm-groves, clothing the sides of the 
rich valley at a great depth below ua; — at the end of 
that time we found ourselves plun^ng into the deep 
forest: the road, though newly cut through it, had in 
many places been washed away by the rushing torrents 
of rain: towering masses of rich and varied foliage rose 
in every direction above and beyond the magnificent 
evergreens, which shone brightly on either side; already 



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1-54 RAPID VEGETATION. 

had the trees, through which this opening had been so 
-recently cut, met over head' and formed a bower; al- 
ready had conical hills arisen on the middle of our path, 
— the newly constriicted abodes of the Termites fatali 
or bellicosi, (white ants):* such is, in these climes, the 
profuse luxuriance of naturfe ! With us long years are 
spent in planting and careful and anxious training, to 
obtain a tolerably flourishing shrubbery; here on the 
contrary, vegetation often threatens to dispossess man- 
kind of their domain, and to bury villages and paddy 
fields in one mass of coppice. This bushy underwood 
or "jungle" as it is called, grows so thick, so thoroughly 
interwoven with gigantic creepers and thorny parasites, 
that, in many parts, it were vain to attempt to force a ' 
passage through it. The elephant alone, — the monarch 
of this ■wilderness, — stalks through it all, and treads 
down the crashing woods with his giant pillars as he 
goes.t 

In some places immense roots of mighty trees present 

* Such are the ajnoziDg dimeDBionB of these Womlnnu stractnreg, fonned 
by insects not exceeding & quarter of an inch in height, that Bishop Heber 
'describes some wliicit he saw in Bengal Be looking, at a, distance, like tbe 
itnmpg of decftjed trees : thej were five or six feet high; probably seren 
or ^ht in circumference at the base, and partiallj overgrown with gran 
and ivj. Mr Smeathman Haeures us tliat " when these hills are little more 
than half their height, it is the practice of the wild bolls to stand es senti- 
nels on them, while the rest of tbe herd are mioinating below :" he adds, that 
he has himself stood, with ibur other men, on the top of one of these hiliocka 
atits greater height, to watch for a vessel in sight. The pinnacles which gire 
to these conical educes so remarkable an appearance, are the cDlamns pre- 
pared to support and divide future arched apartments, and axe mentioDed by 
natnraliets ss affording evidence that these insects project their arches, and 
do not make them by eicaration. Ta, 

f Probably a scene snch as Dr QreviUe alludes ta vf hen he aays, " A (pe- 
des of Trichoianthei ascends to the tops of the highest branches, and pro- 
duces ■ beautifid white Sower, with a fringed border, but which, expanding 
only in the night, is rarely seen ; while tbe abundant frnit, nearly as large 
■s a small orange, and of a vivid scarlet colour, is very ornamental. So na- 
merous are climbers of this description, that trees and shrubs are lashed as 
It were together, and the forests and jangles often thereby rendered impene- 
trable except to wild animals."— Tb. 



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TALDKsiA— ciraat. " 15 j 

themselves as obstacles to the traveller: m others, we 
heard, to our amasement, that the overgrown thicket 
Of from twelve to fifteen feet in height, through which 
wetad to force our way, —was the growth ofbut one year 
and a half, before which time that part of the forest bad 
been burnt down for the sake of cultivation. Did not 
pieces of charred wood and black streaks of coal on the 
newly laid road confirm the truth of this statement, it 
■would be difficult for the stranger to credit it. 

On the margin of a clear and rippling stream, and 
encircled by trees of enormous size, lies Taldehia, — 
a solitary bungalow. There Major Rogers' cook had 
prepared a capital breakfast for ws, — eggs, roast fowls, 
and curry with abundance of rice. Curry is a national 
dish in all these lauds, and is never wanting at auy 
dinner or breakfast, either in Ceylon or India. It is 
left to the cook's discretion and skill to furnish a new 
variety of curry each day; for the " de quoi" is a matter 
of indifierence. Every kind of meat, poultry or game, 
fish or shell-fish, may, — hya plentiful addition ofCayenae- 
pepper, cardamums, turmerick (which gives the sauce a 
sulphur yellow hue) and the juice of young cocoa nut^ 
as the main ingredient of the sauce, — be transformed 
into a curry: rice is an indispensable auxiliary, soften- 
ing the pungent beat of the dish in so far as to enable 
one, — after having persevered in the experiment for a few 
weeks, — to eat it with some relish. The exquisite fruits 
of the country never fail to make their appearance at 
table: they are very highly priaed at first by Europeans, 
but when the charm of novelty has passed away, they 
eease to be so irresistibly inviting. 

The well-made road soon came to an end on the other 
aide of Tatdenia, and the continual leaping and clam- 
bering, under the scorching rays of the sun, threw our 
hordes into a great heat. The deep and almost im- 



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156 THK PBIHOB AJUaetNO. 

broken abode of tbe trees, in many parts of tbe way, 
was however most refresbing. We forded three or four 
swollen and impetuous streams, whose banks were steep 
and ru{^^. Wewere soaked upto ourcbests; but had 
always the sure prospect of being soon dry, from the 
violent exercise. On reacbii^ tbe high ground, towards 
noon, we observed tbe fresb dung of elephants, — a most 
agreeable surprise for all the sportsmen. Their footsteps 
were immediately tracked, and a numerous train of run- 
ners and of coolies was soon dispersed through the jungle 
to start tbe herd. Tbe horses were to be led forward to 
be out of the way: I remained at the baiting-place, mj 
surgical instruments in my hand, prepared in case of any 
accident rendering my services useful. Not long after 
the thick bushes had closed behind my companions, and 
I bad been thus left standing in perfect solitude, I beard 
at a great distance, the heavy crashing tread of an ele- 
phant. Uy first thought was to satisfy myself as to tbe 
height and strength of tbe surrounding trees, that I 
might, in case of necessity, take refuge in them, dtould 
an elephant chance to pay me a visit. 

At tbe end of three hours, tbe sportsmen issued out of 
the jungle, with clothes much torn, without having been 
able to fire a shot; but, — His Royal Highness and the 
Major were missing ! Suddenly we beard two shots quickly 
succeed each other, followed by a trumpet-note, tbe 
elephant's cry of distress. We waited in intense anxiety, 
and bad soon tbe joy of welcoming among us those 
whom we had missed. An elephant had been shot, first 
by the Prince and then by the Uajor; but as to killing 
it, that is a very difierent affair. The rules of the chase 
are these; — the hunter pursues his victim, — whose track 
the natives never fail to fiiid,^through thick and thin; 
which, amid jungles, dense even to darkness, is not ac- 
complished without violent exertions. On approaching it, 



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TEB11£ OF fiLEPHAST HUNTING. 157 

he advanceB to within four or five pacea, and fires pr^oiselj 
at the moment when the animal is preparing to charge his 
assailant. There are however bat two spots at which a 
shot, fired from this distance, Is instantaneously fatal, 
namely, above the eye close to the front of the ear, — w, if 
the elephant ia rushing upon the hunter &ce to face, just 
above the root of the trunk; all other wounds, even 
when the gun is loaded with heavy balls, only serve to 
make bim furious. It is therefore really not saying 
tCK) much when I affirm that elephant hunting ia an 
excesMvely dangerous amusement. How easily may the 
gun, put out of order by the wet, or by the rushing and 
pressing forward through the thick bushes, miss fire at 
the critical moment! Besides, what a sure aim and 
what cold hlood are requisite in firing, to hit exactly the 
mortal spot! 

In the evening, at the little village of Palivalla, 
we partook of an excellent, though simple repast, consist- 
ing of snipes, which we had outselvee ahot ; after which, 
wrapped in our cloaks and lying on straw mats, we en- 
joyed very sound alumbers, notwithstanding the rain 
which was constantly trickling through the roof of palm 
leaves. The whole population waa a-foot as we entered 
the place, pretty-looking little men of dark-brown com- 
plexion, who, in the heart of this wilderness, cultivate 
rice to a considerable extent, and manage their terraces 
and the enclosures by which they parcel out their small 
pieces of land, with great skill. 

On the 26th of November we started at five o'clock 
in the morning, while it was still dark, crossed a deep 
river flowing between steep banks, and reached, 
about nine o'clock, another small village, Bobola, 
where we took breakfast. Even here eveiything waa 
adorned in festive style, to receive the Prince; — the 
"headmen" appearing, as usual, covered with jewels, 
with their white muslin, and their broad, fiat, round 



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158 BOBOLA— INflECT FOBS. 

caps. We sat under a palm-roof, upon lat^e benches, 
low, but very wide. Tlieae are in universal use, both 
for sitting and for sleeping: — they are plaited of the 
young leaves of the cocoa-nut tree; instead of Chinese 
varnish, they have always a covering of cow-dung, which 
is assuredly filthy enough, but is said to be the only 
means of guarding against the dcKtructive Termites 
(white ants) and Enmenes (carpenter wasps). Houses 
"formed of bamboos, and all plaited walls of matting, are 
plastered in the aame maimer: nothing can be more 
frightful.* Our cottage was shaded by a beautiful and 
gigantic tamarind-tree (Tamarmdus Indicus), the pods 
of which contain a semi-fluid pulp of a most agreeable 
acid, which is a favourite refreshment in this country: 
the tree resembles an Acacia. 

This village marked the utmost bound of cultivation: 
beyond it we entered into the thick masses of a primeval 
forest. Its deep and awful gloom almost made me shud- 
der; I was overpowered by the feeling of the mighty 
differonce existing between it and anything I bad ever 
before seen. The huge stems of its trees stand close 
beside each other; creepers, of almost tree-like growth, 

* In Bpeaking of the hosts of insects nnd reptiles so peeuUarl; cha>«eterigdc 
of this island, Major Forbes says— "After a heavj shower, the houses in 
Cejlon lire invaded bj snake* and venomous insects i centipedes and scorpions 
are Che moat numerous of these intruders ; the bite of the former and the 
sting of the latter being equally severe, but neither of them dangerous to 
adults in good heoltb. Myriads of white ants aoon bl^in to fill up the glass 
shadea that surround every tamp for the purpose of preBflryibg the flame from 
being eitingniahed. Flying-bugs, beetles, car-wigs, and eye-flies add to the 
masseB that hover round your person, ovenpread the tables, or scramble over 
each other on the floor : these iDsecls are far more disgasting and tronble- 
same ttian thdr larger brethren, usoalli classed as venomous, or considered 
as dangerous." The proceedii^ of the white ants are perhaps the mostin- 
sidious; sometimes undermining the floors and posts, Bametimes reaching the 
roof by one of their covered ways, and intersecting it with pipes and galleries, 
they take possession of the dwelling, filling up the cavities which the; have 
guawed within the posts with tempered clay, which soon hardens, so that 
tiie wooden posts seem to be transformed into stone pillars ; but almost all 
these foes have the good taste to object to the peculiar species of plaster, 
which, as the minor evil, is so commonly adopted in Ceylon. — Tn. 



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STIt&NGB CORKSCBEWS-OALBOEA. 159 

often bind together three or four of the sturdiest among 
them, already partly dead, or, as it were, caugitt in this 
strong embrace while in the very a«t of expiring. More 
than once I saw only one stem, of moderate thickness, 
and winding round in a spiral form. I was at first not 
a little surprised and puzzled at the sight of these 
gigantic cork-screw trees, until I discovered their origin. 
It was the stem of the creeper; the trunk round which 
it had twined, oppressed by its weight, had rotted and 
worn away, and it was left alone and unsupported. I 
did not see many flowers; light and air are lacking for 
them in this place; but the whole vigour of the plant 
was thus expended on the foliage which was proportion^ 
ably rich and beautiful. 

In some places, foaming mountain torrents, which 
have washed away the soil from the roots to the depth 
of four or five feet, made it by no means easy for our 
horses to proceed; frequently also they were obliged to 
shape their course round thick iinperishable stumps, or 
hnge sterna of fallen trees. Occasionally we came to an 
open space, covered with luxuriant grass, where the 
sweetest flowers were unfolding their beauties, and 
swarms of butterflies fluttering around; but soon we 
pluDged once more into the deep and solemn shades, 
where our swift steeds were impeded in their onward 
course by many a mass of those bare and knotted roots, 
or by dark waters, whose depth we could not ascertain. 
The path was so narrow that we were forced to ride in 
single file, keeping close behind each other, that our 
party might not be scattered. For six long wearisome 
hours we rode on, straining every nerve for speed ; at 
length we reached our goal, the centre of the forest, 
wTiere a few huts had been erected for our accommoda- 
tion. 

This place is called Galbocka. Tliree huts contained 
our whole party. Their walls were formed of dried 



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160 KSTKAORDINABY OOMPOETa. 

leaves and twigs, their roofs of palm-leaves and grass, 
and tbeir gutters of the bark of trees. Four poete stuck 
into the earth, with six or seven sticks fastened diagonall^r 
across them, formed the table ; chairs there were 
none; but, on the other hand, the walla were hung with 
white cotton, and a curtain of the same material covered 
the doorway. The floor was somewhat sunk in the 
ground, and during continued rain it soon filled with 
water. Such were the " com/orta" of our eight days' 
residence at Qalbocka. 

Every morning, before night had fully yielded to the 
dawn of day, we started from our lurking-place, in pur^ 
suit of elephants, which are met with in large herds; 
and usually, even before sunrise, we were wet to the 
skin. Wlien the natives perceived, by their quick scent 
or otherwise, that the elephants were at hand, which 
they announced by a particular sign, we all instantly 
dismounted, and the huntsmen rushed, head-foremost, 
through tlie thicket, while I remained with the attend- 
ants at the halting-place. The crash of an elephant, 
running at fiill speed, may be heard at the distance of 
half a mile ; a whole herd makes a noise such as one 
might imagine from an avalanche falling over a vast 
forest. The terrific and portentous cry, not unlike a 
fearfully loud note sounded from a broken trumpet, is 
uttered by the mighty beast at the identical moment 
in which it turns around, either to crush its enemy, or 
itself to receive the fatal ball. I therefore always 
knew, even at a distance, when the crisis of danger had 
arrived. 

On one occasion I had remained nearer than usual 
to the hunt, because the danger of being isolated in a 
broken and rocky ground, all alive with elephants, is 
really greater than that of following close to the chase. 
Suddenly a crash was he^ird to the right and to the left, 
— ^behind us sounded a trumpet-tone, and before us ap- 



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ILEPHANT HUNTING). IbJ 

peared the bead of a huge and powerful animal, stirring 
among the thick bu^ea j — ^we were standing on a smooth 
rock, onlyslightlydeTatedabovethe surrounding ground. 
How fortunate that juBt then, Uajor Rogers, the most 
expert marksman of the hunt, was close to ua. He 
sprang in among the elephants, and, advancing to- 
wards the one nearest him on the right, to within the 
length of its trunk, he fired a shot into its ear; then 
turning with lightning speed to the one on the left, be 
discharged the contents of bis other barrel into its 
temple. Eoth fell with a hollow groan, as if blown 
down by a sudden whirlwind; the others, on bearing 
their giant comrades sink crashing into the bushes, 
hastily fled; for their fall produced a resounding noise 
like the report of two distant canons. 

AAer that day, I had seen enough of elephant bunt- 
ing, and always sought some pretext for remaining at 
home. On the following day. Major Rogers killed a 
female elephant, and by that one shot he brought down 
two victims, for she crushed, in her fall, a young one that 
was running beside her. Besides these, a young ele- 
phant had been already numbered among the slain, and 
many were wounded. The Prince himself was at one 
time in instant danger of being overtaken by an elephant 
rendered furious by three wounds in tbe head. Fortu- 
nately the creature was laid low by another shot. 

On tbe day immediately preceding our departure from 
Galbocka, a large elephant was shot by Count Von 

, and, as it was doubtful which ball was to be 

considered fatal, and to whom tbe tail, — tbe usual trophy 
of elephant hunters, — was justly due, I set out with tbe 
Count, to examine the dead body. 

Silent and noiseless, we rode along the narrow paths, 
■when tbe rising sun had scarce begun his course. Our 
copper-brownguide often atoodstilltolisten, and branched 
off from the straight road, to avoid bringing us into contact 



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1 62 VI3IX TO THE SLAIIT. 

with a numerous herd. We were ohiiged to make 
great detours, to reach the spot, where the colossus had 
&llen. There he lay beside a little brook, — the ground 
on every aide crimson with his blood; on his mouth and 
on his proboscis, — the only parts vulnerable to them,— 
we saw marks of the claws and teeth of the blood-thirsty 
Ohittas* (Leopards). Unluckily for me, they had already 
departed before our arrival. The elephant, although 
reckoned one of very considerable size, measured but 
eight feet from the crown of his head to the sole of hia 
foot ; so much are we often deceived in our ideas of their 
height. It had only very sliort straight tuaka, one of 
which we extracted, after inconceivably hard work, 
which lasted an hour and a half, in the course of which 
we were so covered with blood and perspiration, that we 
looked rather like savages than civilized Europeans. 
With toil and difficulty, and after many wanderings, we 
regained our station: for indeed it is no easy matter to 
ride through these wild and ancient forests, on untrod- 
den paths; — and the horses must have strong bones, and 
be well shod, not to lose their footing and fall on the wet 
and slippery roots of the trees. 

Thus our forest residence was brought to a close. 
We had, during that week, several opportunities of be- 
coming acquainted with the half savage natives of that 
district, who flocked even from distant parts to see the 

* Not the " Chittak," or hnnting tiger of HindoatMi, (the Fdit jubala) 
but the " Kotia" (FHit Ltopardai) of Cejlon, which is Temariuble for ita 
fsar of nuD, and Mldom attacka % hnmui being except in self defeace ; yet 
it has been known to hmve eien the preeence of the lord of creation in its 
Bagemeai to eeiw its fsTOnrite prey, the dog. loat&ncea ore oommon of the 
moat eitnwrffiiBuy panic bdng produced among c&ttle by the mere antell of 
a Leopard. The Cingalese of the mounttunoas interior wage inveterate and 
BQccessfnl war against this enemy io many ways- Some naturalists assert 
that the '* Kotia" thoUgh generally agreeing with the desoriptian of the 
leopard more than idth tbat of the panther, has some peculiaiities not found 
in either of these qmulrupeds ; among others that it cannot entirely retract 
Its clam into their sheath : it some^mes grows to dght feet in lei^h, and 
its skin is rained for its great beauty,— Th. 



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THE YEDDAH3. 163 

Prince. This too was the only place wliere we saw real 
barbarians, that is to say, beings destitute of all religion 
and mor^ity, and without even a glimmering idea of 
the habit of social life. They dwell among the lofty 
forests, in mud-built hovels, under the shelter of palm 
leaves; wearing no manner of clothing save a Scanty 
apron fastened by a string round the waist; and carry- 
ing the javelin and the bow and arrow. The Cingalese 
of the lowlands know them by the name of Veddahs,* 
and look upon them with great contempt, notwithstand- 
ing their claims to descent from a higher caste. 

The first time that I beheld these beings they made a 
truly horrible impression on my mind. In the midst of 
a heavy rain, we were informed that they had arrived, 
and were ready to perform their dance in our presence ; 

* The Vedditha, — & remoant of the aborigiiukl inhabitAnta, driven into the 
forests of BioteDoe uti Veddu&ttA, manj centnriea rince, by uk inTasian 
from Hiodoetiui, — are dinded into two elatttt, the village and the forest 
Teddaba. The former though aaTRge in their bppe&rance and dress, and 
abnoat irithout civilizatian, have fixed babitationa formed of the bark of 
treea, and aonie oominuiiication with the other nativea, with whom, howerer, 
the; do not mix. Ignorant of ever; iocdal rite, not diatingulahed among 
themselrea by names, superatitioua in their fear of evil apirita though desti- 
tnle of all idea of a saprame or Ijenefioent Gtod, or of a atate of future ei- 
wteliEe, and rewarda and pnniahnientB, and coniequently without knowledge 
of right and wrong, onahle to count above five, having do idea of medicine, 
making no attempt to bury their dead, themselvee living almost aotel; b; the 
chaae, cultivating a very little Indian corn in the moat primitive manner, 
and occaaianaily allaying the pangs of hunger by eating cakea of decayed 
wood mixed with honey, or meat preserved with honey in the hollow of a 
tree stopped np with clay, never seeking to possesa any manufactured 
article except amw-heads, attached to thia savage freedom and satisfied in 
every reapect with their owncondition, tbey seem degraded almost to the level 
of bnitea that perish. Yet the forest Veddaha are more barbaroua still. 
Living in the forests without dwellings, or any means of subsistence except 
the abase, they are subject to Cingalese of the adji^ning districts, whose cruel 
policy it haa ever been to increase that degradation which enables themselves 
to obtain ivory and venison hi barter for the moat valueleas articles. 

But within these few yeai8 much has been done for the civilization of thia 
unhappy race. The late lamented Governor, the Right Hon. J. A. Stewart 
Mackenzie, set apart an annual sum to be applied towards fun^hing them 
with huts, seed-com, and agricultural implements; and a school was snc- 
oesdnlly established among them at his awn expense. — Tr. 



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16-1 DANCINQ AND CONVULSIONS. 

forthwith appeared six small, lean, bronze-coloured men, 
vith raven-black hair, long and dishevelled, hanging 
down their backs. One fellow only was somewhat taller 
than the rest, yet his stature did not appear much to 
exceed five feet. Their eyes were rolling and unsteady; 
— their language waa a hoarse, yet loud sounding ciy ; 
and their dialect intelligible only with great difficulty to 
the Cingalese of the plain. They were all shivering from 
wet and cold; nevertheless they seemed to be in a 
highly excited state, and moat impatient to begin the 
dance. It consisted iu a sort of hopping to and fro, on 
alternate feet, at first moving slowly, but gradually 
quickening their step, which they accompanied with 
frightful contortions of their eyeballs, while they held 
down their heads, bending low. An aged man, whom 
at first we had not observed, rehearsed a few words, ap- 
parently questions, to which one of their number always 
replied with great vehemence. Presently their move- 
ments became very quick and impetuous ; — and now 
they jumped backwards and forwards on the heels of 
both feet, tossing their arms about with such fearftil 
violence, that we were in fear of their dislocating all 
their joints. Suddenly one man fell headlong into the 
mire, which had been routed up by this tremendous 
exercise, and writhed, arms and legs, in violent convul- 
sions. 

We had had more than enough of this horrible spec- 
tacle. Money was distributed ; but they did not know 
it, and it required much talking to make them compre- 
hend that copper coins were of less value than silver. 
A pocket-handkerchief, which Major Rogers bestowed on 
the occasion, had a much better effect ; the fortunate in- 
dividual, to whose lot it fell to receive it, immediately 
fastened it round bis loins, and danced as if beside 
himself; but soon he also was prostrate in the mud. 
And now the others must needs have pocket-handker- 



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HORRORS OF BRANDT. 165 

chiefs also; a piece of cotton cloth was torn up and dis- 
tributed among them, which they joTJulIy twisted about 
their beads; ^rther demonstrations of gratitude thej 
seemed ignorant of, and instead of any such, they re- 
commenced their shocking and convulsive dance, which 
could not easily have been brought to a conclusion, had 
not the idea occurred to the Prince of offering them 
brandy. We were aware that they were reported to 
have a violent aversion to this liquor: at first not one t^ 
them would venture to taste it ; at length the old mas 
alone took a few drops, after which he assured them all 
that the drink was excellent. Thereupon a second fel- 
low tried it too ; he opened his mouth very wide, and 
poured about half a tumbler down his throat at onoe. 
What screams, what horror ! In accents of most bitter 
lamentation he assured his companions that he had 
swallowed fire, pointing at the same time to his stomach, 
and bending double and writhing in a most piteous 
manner. They immediately chimed in with his howl- 
ing, cast an anxious look around, and then all simulta- 
neously fled, suddenly and with lightning speed. 

Only once, since that day, have I met with any of 
these wild and sh^gymen; it was at a station near 
to BaduUa. They were carrying bows and arrows, — the 
former, handsome ones of red wood, — and were shooting 
in capital style. Mr Layard promised sixpence to any 
one of them that oould shoot his hat; it was forthwith 
suspended upon a pole at a distance of dzty paces ; yet, 
notwithstanding the evening twilight, it fell, pierced 
through, at the first shot. 

On leaving Galbooka on the 80th of November, we 
had great difficulty in passing the mountain streams, 
(the Ootiyawa Oya) which were in high flood; — our 
strong steeds however carried us through, steep as were 
its banks and impetuous its waters. In the evening, we 
came to Wellawa. 



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1 66 ENORMOUS 8LAUGHTBE 

Next moniing, (tlie Ist of December) we started very 
early, and reached our breakfast station Bobola. by ten 
o'clock. We slept that night at Faletalla, from which 
place another adventurous elephant hunt was under- 
taken on the 2d, in which however not one elephant 
was brought down. I had retoained with the servants, 
in a large paddy-field, and was catching insects, while 
the other gentlemen were following the chase. All of 
a sudden, I saw the whole of our natives rush precipi- 
tately to the trees. I deemed it advisable to do the 
same myself with all possible speed; for a loud crash 
and crack announced that an elephant was at hand, and 
with furious and rushing speed approaching nearer and 
■nearer to the spot on which we stood. Scarcely had I 
left the marshy flat behind me, and taken refuge in a 
tree, when a powerful elephant issued, at a quick pace, 
from the thicket. A loud shout, which resounded from 
the troop of natives, — the cry of the elephant drivers, — 
caused him to turn aside, and soon his ponderous steps 
were no more heard, llie thick underwood does not 
retard his heavy trot, more than the tall grass of a 
meadow the galloping of a horse. 

With regard to the size of elephants, I have had con- 
vincing proof that the reports current among us are 
much exaggerated. I have not in this country seen 
one that exceeded eight feet in height. The tame ones 
in India are said to be larger. Then another popular 
error is to suppose that every male is furnished with 
tusks. This is quite untrue. Among a hundred ele- 
phants four or five only have perfectly formed tusks. I 
was assured of this by Major Rc^rs, who has killed at 
least fourteen hundred elephants with hia own hand. 
Wlien, sis years a^o, he had reached his thirteenth hun- 
dred, he ceased reckoning any longer. His whole house 
is filled with ivory; for among the hosts of the sUin, 
more than sixty were tusked elephants. At each door 



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FEARFUL ADVEKTOEES. 1 67 

of his verandah Btand huge tusks, while, in his dining- 
room, every comer is adorned with high piles of similar 
trophies. Most fearful adventures indeed has he gone 
through. On one occasion an infuriated elephant so 
trampled and crushed him with its feet and trunk, that 
it was only the depth of the hole into which the latter 
had east him, .that was the means of saving his life. 
Several of his ribs on the right side were broken by 
this stamping, which is the usual mode in which an ele- 
phant despatches bis enemy; his right arm was also 
broken in three places, and the shoulder dislocated he- 
sides. He has seen two of his feUow-sportsmen, bj.simi- 
lar treatment, perish before his eyes; he himself, of iron 
constitution, has escaped with his life, and a fearful re- 
venge indeed has he taken for his defeat in that memo- 
rable adventure.* 

The elephants commit great ravages in the rice-fields 
and the plantations in these parts. It is calculated that, 
notwithstanding the frequent hunts, they annually in- 
crease by six or eight hundred. The northern parts of 
the mountain district, which we have not visited, are 
quitfr depopulated by them; on the roads which lead 
across them, the thickest trees are provided with ladders 
that they may serve as places of refuge. for wanderers. 
The extermination of these wild beasts is therefore, for 
the present, not to be thought of; a slight consolation 
or the zoologists of future days. 

The hunt of the 2d of December was the last that we 
witnessed. We now returned to Taldenia, a distance of 



* The Bocoont gJTea by M^or Rogera himself of this fenrful ailTeDtiue 
iraa s Ter; reoiarkable iUiutratiDD of that wondeiful presence of mind h; 
which be iras characterized. The infuriated elephant seized him sod car- 
ried hira off in Ita trunli ; hie friends Iblloned, and found him l;iug on Hie 
ground withs«»eralBeierBit\jori«B. He related that he had frequently before 
reflected nh»t he should da uuder euch circumEtanceB, and had reeolied to 
molie DO struggle or resistance, a resolution which be bad kept, and to tbat 
he attributed hi« escape.— Tr. 



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1 68 KIDB IN THE DAEK. 

six miles, on untrodden paths. The ascent was so steep 
on the smooth face of the cliffs, that our horsee were 
forced to scramble like goats, while their riders, leadiogf 
them by the bridle, were in constant danger of being 
dragged down and falling with them. Already twilight 
was drawing on, and we were to arrive at Badulla that 
evening. Just at the moat difBcult spot, the misfortune 
befell me of my horse slipping down into a hollow and 
breaking the saddle-girth; however, with efficient as- 
sistance at hand, the injury was speedily repaired. We 
passed the Badclla-Ota, whose waters reached to our 
waists, and soon found ourselves once more at Taldbkia. 
Thence we proceeded at a hand gallop; lame as our 
poor horses were, they were urged on to great speed by 
vehement laying on of the whip. Nevertheless, night 
and total darkness overtook us, and a rough and weary 
journey of ten long miles yet lay before us. Our party 
was much scattered, and kept tc^ether even in groups 
of two or three with difficulty, and only by dint of call- 
ing and screaming. How, in those dark hours, we 
crossed the slender bamboo bridges, and threaded the 
steep and narrow paths, without meeting with any mis- 
adventure, is to me quite inconceivable. 

At Baddlla a rest of three days was agreed upon, 
and the baggage, grown quite mouldy, was, for the first 
time for eight days, dried in the sun and thoroughly 
overhauled. Not a single boot was whole, not an article 
of raiment remained entire, the linen was beyond the 
power of any washing to make it white, and the trunks 
had so completely burst open that we were obliged to 
fasten them up with ropes. I turn from my stockings 
and my leather trowsers, which now feel exactly like 
boards, to conclude, in all haste, the narrative of my 
journey. We spent the third and fourth of December - 
at Badulla. From thence we set off on the fifth, and on 
the, eighth, after a tliree days' ride through the moun- 



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BATNAPOOBA. 



lainfi, by way of Haboo Taiia and Ballahooddb, we at 
length reached Rathapooea.* 



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BATNAPOOEA. 



FOUBTH LETTER. 

ftltHAFOOU— TBE OBM nBHIBT— JOOKIIIT tO iBiU'i FEAE— 1 



Patmt, 2Tth Jwiiutrj 181S. 

I muBt nov carry ;ou back Bome few miles, to Ceylon, 
and to the moat interesting spot in all the " island of 
8[Hce8," viz. Adam's Peak. We arrived at Ratkapoora 
on the 8th of December, and rested in a most inviting 
bungalow, a country bouse open on every side, — where 
we recovered from the fatigues of our journey and the 
adventurous hardships of elephant-hunting. Two days 
must needs suffice for that purpose, during which we 
were entertained, — "onTiepetdpaamieux," — by the very 
youthiul, and, in spite of his name, very delicate. Presi- 
dent of the district, Mr Power. 

Tlie town is charming from the beauty of its situa- 
tion, although of its ancient monuments nothing now re- 
mainsj for vegetation and humidity soon destroy what 
no one ever repairs. Notwithstanding this, an air of 
antiquity is cast over the whole scene. Scattered over 
a bill-side, on the banks of the noble Kalu-Gahoa, — not 
veiy close, for the river is a dangerous neighbour, — are 
the detached buildings, with broad roofs and deep ve- 
randahs, which constitute the town. The larger dwell- 
ings among them are painted white and yellow, and have 
a foreground of lovely green turf, with thick flowering 



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BA2AAB. 1 71 

ahrubs, and large yellow beU-flowers and passion-flowera. 
Gorgeous bread-fruit-trees, and the species of Termina- 
lia, tere known, bj reason' of its fruit, as the Almond- 
tree, are the chief ornaments of this town; — ^both are 
distinguished by their smooth white bark. As the 
natives here content themselves with merely a slight 
piece of cotton cloth in the shape of raiment, — so, in like 
manner, I have not seen a single stem in Ceylon which 
wears a covering as thick or as rough as that of the 
sturdy trunks of our oaks at home; nearly every tree 
here has a polished, shining bark. 

One street only, in the town of Ratnapoora, consists 
of contiguous rows of houses; it is the Bazaar, in which 
here, as in other towns in Ceylon, the spice^warehouses 
predominate; for curry is almost the only dish among 
many thousands of the inhabitants. Here may be seen, 
however, besides, many interesting productions of Cin- 
galese art and industry. Very irequently, we observed 
the stone-polishers moving their leaden wheels by means 
of a sort of violin-bow: their turban and their somewhat 
lemon-coloured complexion mark them as Moormen. 

The celebrated precious stones of Ceylon are brought 
chiefly from Ratnapoora, and form a principal article of 
trade. We fortunately happened, on the first day of our 
stay at that place, to meet with a certain stout little 
gentleman in a white jacket and trowsers, — a moat kind 
and friendly person, — who accosted' us in Dutch with 
mucli politeness, introducing himself as the Superinten- 
dent of the Gem-fishery, He requested to be allowed 
the pleasure of doing the honours of the place io His 
Royal Highness, by causing his men to carry on their 
fishing operations before him,< — for gems are here fished 
up in a most singular manne , after the fashion of a 
pearl-fishery. 

On the following morning accordingly we wended our 
way down towards the bank of the river, — the Kalu- 



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172 BANK OF THE KALU-QAHOA. 

Ganga. There are but few spots at which it shows it- 
self from between the gay border of gigantic bamboos, 
with their elegant goldeu stems, and their fresh, verdant, 
sappy folit^e, which grows so thickly on ita margin.* 
At one of these openings, which we reached after a toil- 
some march through half-submerged fields of rice, — all 
swarming with land-Ieechea, — ^lies the gem-fishery. A 
small tributary stream, which at this place flows into 
the Kalu-Ganga, forms the treasure-bed. Here we saw 
six reddish-brown natives, standing in the water, which 
reached up to their breasts, and working about in it 

* The r«al Bomlioo, (Bambuia ArKiidinacea) as i]iBtiiig:uiehed from the 
maii; species of tall and luxuriant reeds or cBJies which traTellera often dig- 
nify with that name. Its, manifold nsea among tha Ohinew are well kikown. 
TraTellera indeed assure u> that, in the Oeleatial Emigre, 111810617 ■"! thing 
U to be fonnd bj sea or b7 land into the compodtion of which bamboo doei 
not In some way enter : bridges of bamboo we hare alread; found alluded to 
b; OUT Author; — ropes and sails are formed bj twisting orpluting split bam~ 
boos ; houses are conatructed of them, — walls, roofs and gutters ; to say no- 
thing of all the ^miture they oontain,^ — miLts, Kreens, chairs, tables, bed- 
•leads, bedding, kc. 4c. The jonng shoots, boiled or pickled, are a faTonr- 
ite article of food iD some Eastern countries ; and in China, in addition to all 
these OSes, which are more or lesa'common also in Ce;lon, we must not omit 
to mention its vahie as a material for manufacturing paper. This ia made 
of the second bark and ligneous substance of the GrBt year's shoots, which, — 
after being steeped in mitddj water for about fifteen days, then coyered with 
Ihne, and then again washed and bleached, — are boiled in large coppers. 
Next follows the operation ef crushing with a pestle, by which the whole 
mass is reduced to a thin paste. The paper is finally made by mixutg gum- 
water, and the jnice of a particular kind of plant, with this paste, in the 
laige reservoirs ont of which it is taken in bamboo-moulds. Naturalists de- 
■oribe sereral varieties of Bamhiaa Artmdinaeea, known in India and in the 
adjacent islands, all of which grow to the haght of a tree. The Bamboo Ily 
of Malabar, which, like the Talipot tree, flowers but once, grows to the height 
ot dxty-slx feet. The Bamiao Zelm, of Java and Malacca, reaches that of 
fifty feet. But the variety most common im India has been described by 
many travellers as growing even as high as eighty feet. In (he Holaccas, 
Antes and fislnng-rods, pikes and arrows, tobacco-pipes and writing-pens, are 
nnmbered among the endless uses of some pecnliat species of bamboo. Wliile 
some tinds are mere hollow reeds, others have hard and solid ligneons stems. 
In Ceylon, as in other Oriental lands, most dangeroDs efiects arise, in 
case of fire, ft'om the nse ofhoUow bamboos in building hooses, the confined 
and rarified tur within (hem burstitf; forUi with a tremendous ezplost.>n, 
— Ta. 



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OEM-PlSHEET,-DEP&RTraE FOR ADAH'S PEAK. 17-1 

with long mattocks. They were standing in an oblique 
line across the stream, and shovelling up from its bed, 
against the current, the mud, in which the precious 
stones are contained. The depth of the hollow, which 
they had thus dug in the channel, was apparently not 
less than twelve or fourteen feet. They collected all the 
slime or mud into heaps at their feet; there the water 
as it flowed on, washed away the finer particles of silt, so 
that the coarse sand and clayey gravel only remained. 
Every half-hour they dipped down, holding flat baskets 
in their hands, which they brought up full; they then 
swung them backwards and forwards in the water, with 
much caution and neatness, to separate all the lighter 
parts of their contents, after which they carried the bas- 
kets filled with coai'se sand and gravel to the shore, there 
to undergo examination. Besides granulous lime and 
lumps of blue clay and flakes of mica, there was con- 
tained in the mass thus fished up, a gaily variegated 
sand formed of fragmeuts of quartz, feltspar, rubies and 
topazes. Rubies of large size are extremely rare, and 
fine sapphires yet more so; topazes on the contrary, or 
yellow and yellowish-green sapphires falsely called to- 
pazes, are more frequently met with. 

Unfortunately for us, not one fine gem was fished up 
that day, save perhaps some few dark blue sapphires, 
which were not of very particular beauty. Heantime 
I amused myself by Watcliing the magnanimous com- 
posure of the worthy Dutchman, who, clad in his 
white jacket, and never fer a moment parted from his 
clay-pipe, gazed with unruffled serenity the whole day 
long, at the unproductive labours of his gem-fishers. 

The following day (the 9th of December), by the time 
we had concluded a very hearty breakfast, cavalry 
horses were staiiding in readiness at our door to carry 
us to the foot of Adam's Peak. The weather was mild 



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174 DOHBSTIC QB0CP8,— TILLIOE SCENBBT. 

and lovely: the early part of our road, passing over the 
richest turf, traversed plantations of slender and delicate 
Areca palms, whose graceful crests, by the bye, my eye 
misses sadly in India, We proceeded among cocoa-nut and 
spreading umbrageous bread-ft^it trees, which conceal 
low and homely cottages built of loam; under the shadow 
of their broad roofs may be seen groups of black-haired, 
naked children playing in the shade, while their mothers, 
— wrapped in light webs of white cloth, and wearing mas- 
sive rings of silver on their ancles, — are diligently turning 
the spindle replenished with wool. The husband sits 
there beside his industrious spouse, and imagines, — ^like 
our tobacco-smokers lounging on their sofas, — ^that he is 
abundantly occupying his every moment, while he chews 
his betel, and calculates, perchance, bow long the clus- 
ters of bananas hanging over his head may yet last. On 
all sides one sees either groups of cottages or scattered 
dwellings, and nowhere is it possible to point out the 
spot at which a village begins or ends. 

The surrounding accompaniments of the more distant 
villages are rural and attractive in no ordinary degree. 
The aspect of their well-cultivated fields is lar more 
varied than that presented by the crops of wheat, barley 
and oats, which chequer our home landscapes. I never 
beheld a more exquisite verdure than the fresh velvety 
green of the young rice, before it is in blossom; beside 
it are fields of " coracan," (Eleusine coracana) clad in 
sober brown, — others in which the rich ears of yellow 
maize already begin to swell, and yet others in which 
may be seen the different grasses here cultivated as grain. 
Everywhere, even when only a single row of houses 
bordered our road, we found the accustomed triumphal 
gateway, — a simple arch, over which the golden-ting^ 
verdure of the young cocoa-nut leaf was gracefully 
twined, while the centre never failed to be adorned by 



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7B3TITS DBCOBATIONS. 1 75 

fhe beautiful txlue flovrer-sheatli of the banana, and a 
gay profusion of fruits and flowers,* 

For nearly two miles our road was lined on either 
side with garlands of exquisite creepers, — whose luxu- 
riant tendrils furnish thread to fasten the wreath, — 
mingled with bamboo oanes and palm or cocoa-nut 
foliage. The an'angiog of these elegant playthings, 
connected as they are with all the pomp and oircum- 
staticc of many a ceremony, forms a favourite amusement 
amongthe indolent Cingalese, and whole vill^es volunteer 
their services in erecting arches or in weaving festoons. 

At each triumphal arch, a troop of peasants in festive 
attire, their hoary-bearded chiefs at their head, was 
uwially assembled to see and to salute the Prinoe. 

We soon passed the limits of the lowland country; 
wild brooks and rivers, flowing between steep and ru^ed 
banks, began to offer no slight difficulties to the unskil- 
ful rider: the way became narrower and the ascent more 
abrupt, and soon we found ourselves skirting the edge 
of bold precipices, commanding glorious mountain views. 
How splendid is the picture formed by a rich palm- 
grove, with blue mountains towering into the clear 
sky behind, and soft wooded hills in the nearer dis- 
tance; and how fresh and fragrant are the thick bushes 
which clothe the fore-ground! Rare plants here dis- 
played their beauties around us; among them the won- 
drous Pitcher-plant, {NepeiUkea distiUatoria) with its 
curious little vessel suspended at the point of each leaf, 
was growing luxuriantly in the coppice, twining its 
tendrils round eveiy bush, and waving its long pitch- 
ers, often nearly a foot in length, from every branch. 
From time to time, at a turn or opening of the path, 

* Dr Davj, nhen tnTelliog with the QoTemor, Sir Robert Brownrigg, in 
1817, WW mui; of these decorated archnajs, which the Cingaleae take sach 
delight in erecting, formed b; traiuplaoting nhole trees of the Banana or 
plantain bodll;.— Tb. 



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176 FIBST TIBW OF ADAM'S PEAK. 

we were agreeably surprised by a view of Adam's Peak 
itself, — with its slender, pointed summit, — suddenly 
bursting upon us. Ikf eaotime we had yet— before react- 
ing the mountain — to pass through three deep valleys, 
fording a multitude of rushing streams, and toiling down 
their steep banks and up again. 

Kow, however, the forest assumes an aspect of lofty 
grandeur. The well known Bo-tree {Ficus rdigioaa), 
and two other species of Indian Fig-tree, all of them 
without fruit, and quite unlike any other tree in ap- 
pearance, with some twenty or more sturdy stems, all 
meeting in a single crown above, produce a wonderful 
and strange effect. Here the tall Ebony-tree seems to 
pierce the azure vault with its sombre, almost black, 
foliage, which hangs around the white stem only after 
it has risen in solitary and leafless magnificence to the 
height of forty feet above the ground; beside it the 
Calamander, and the Pterocarpua Sandalinue (Red- 
Sandal-wood tree) ; they are both however much more 
rare. Pepper vines and a profusion of very beautiful 
Ferns so cover nearly every, stem, that it is often diffi- 
cult to distinguish the actual foliage of the tree itself; 
each twig moreover nourishes a multitude of superbly- 
dowering parasites, generally of the honey-suckle and 
epidendrum tribes. 

Here, in this region of noble forests and redundant 
vegetation, at a height of at least sixteen hundred feet 
above the sea, the difficulty of the ascent increases con- 
siderably. The moisture which is continually trickling 
down, has transformed the narrow path into a tangled 
mass of slippery roots twisted across the steep ades of 
the rocks. We were obliged to have our horses led on 
before us, which was not particularly agreeable where 
the blood streaming down their legs made us conscious 
of the more than ordinaiy abundance of those land- 
leechea which are the true plague of Ceylou. Bain 



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PALABADOOLLA, SUMPTUOUS HOTEL. 177 

having fallen on the previous day, millions of them 
had heen lured out; they soon covered our clothes, and 
doubtless sought to spy every opening, however small 
in order to torment ua horribly. The most careful 
and ingenious precautions in the way of covering our 
feet and legs were all in vain ; for ihese little creatures, 
which are often no thicker than a needle, work their 
way through the stuff, or else crawl up to the neck, 
where they are still more disagreeable. Our Cingalese 
attendants suffered less than we did, in spite of their 
bare feet, for they have an art by which they very 
cleverly strip off these cunning foes. 

Now again, the forest is interrupted by a flat space, 
overgrown with jungle so deep and dense, that the tra- 
veller, if he stray from the right path, may sink in its 
dark mazes and be absolutely lost. At the extremity 
of this plain lies PalaBadooli<a, a small place consisting 
of a few mean huts, chiefly inhabited by priests, with 
shaven beads and yellow robes. One of the huts had 
been arranged and decked out for our reception; that is 
to say, the walls-^consisting of mats woven together 
and plastered with cow-dung — were hung with a gay 
drapery of red and white cotton; four posts had been 
stuck into the mud-floor, and cross sticks placed on th« 
top of them to form a table, and a low, broad bench 
made of plaited twigs had been placed beside it to re- 
present at once beds and chairs. The sportsmen set out 
on a shooting excursion before dinner, from which they 
returned, bringing few birds indeed, but a plentiful sup^ 
ply of leeches. 

After a few hours' rest, we started with early dawn, 
on the 10th of December, — leaving all our luggage be- 
hind us, — for the ascent of Adam's Peak. Here the 
tropical vegetation ceases; long ere now we had bid 
farewell to the palmy groves; — yet for some distance 
further, the thick and gloomy forest, with its masses of 



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17S A30EHT OP ADAM-B PEAK. 

dark verdure, cast on us a welcome shade as we pro- 
ceeded on our toilsome climb. We had nothing now 
before ub but to clamber up the steep ascent, over the 
wet, smooth rocks, or the slippery roots, without a halt 
or a resting-place. 

As the path up to Adam's Peak is annually trod by 
many thousands of pilgrims, — Mahometans as well as 
Brahmins and Buddhists, — one might expect to find 
there an easy way; but on the contrary, nothing has 
been done but what was absolutely indispensable; here, 
against a cliff so steep as to be quite impassable, a ladder 
of feeble twigs haa been placed; — there, in some pecu- 
liarly polished and slippery part, a few steps have been 
hewn out of the living rock. With these exceptions, the 
gnarled roots of the Sideroxylon, (Iron-wood tree) and 
the Laurus, (Bay-tree) are the only evidences to mark 
that human feet have traversed these solitudes. But 
these are indeed sufficient to prove that this must have 
been a beaten track for centuries ; for how many a 
step must have been Imprinted, ere naked feet could 
have lefl their traces on these hard and imperishable 
sorts of wood ; and yet in many spots the roots actually 
appear like worn-out flights of steps! After a fatiguing 
march of an hour and a half, we came to the ruins of 
a small house, in which we rested for a few moments; 
the chill and most unpleasant misty wind warning us 
not to linger long. Shortly afterwards, we passed the 
last broad bed of a river, a place not unlike the Bode- 
kessel at the Rosztrappe in the Harz Mountains ; hut 
what a lavish profusion of flowers! Out of the bare 
slabs of rock spring three varieties of Balsams, each of 
which might be the ornament of our green-houses, while 
in other places, a luxuriant carpet of exquisite ferns 
and mosses is spread over the black cliflTs; the former, 
so elegant in the forms of their leaves, that it seemed 
as though the fantastic imaginings of some gifted artist 



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PATX0UE3 AND BBFBBSQMEKTS. 1 79 

had been pencilled before our eyes. The splendid 
flowers of the tropics here give place to a fresh, vigorous 
Alpine vegetation ; many things reminded me of our 
own mountain glens ; — the Oermander, (" Forget-me- 
not,") and Crudanella (" Cross-wort,") look quite lite 
Europe; but their colours are more vivid, tiey have 
somewhat of tropical brilliancy, and seem to be fashioned 
on a, larger scale. 

Climbing several steep rocks, — on whose surface are 
chiselled figures of Buddha and very ancient inscrip- 
tions, — we scrambled on with the aid of hen-roost lad- 
ders and roughly hewn steps. Now the path led us, to 
our great annoyance, after having ascended the abrupt 
elevation, down a no less abrupt declivity; now we were 
forced to wade, for a quarter of an hour, through run- 
ning water; or again, to scale cliSs so smooth, and 
as it were polished, that to fall was inevitable, and 
to escape with unbroken bones, almost more than we 
could hope for. How delicious and refreshing here were 
the fruits of the burning zones that now lay far beneath 
UB, — the cocoa-nuts and the oranges, which our natives 
had carried up with us .' Those Cingalese were running 
and springing in advance of the party, like goats, though 
they were bearing heavy burdens on their heads; they 
climb the smooth rock so nimbly and easily with theit 
barefeet, that I began to esteem our pilgrimage as far 
more meritorious than that of the unshod Buddhists. 

Much fatigued, we arrived towards the end of our 
fourth hour, at one of the elevated platforms, a level, 
open space ; tlie sharp peak, — a single conical mass of 
rock, — rises majestically beyond it. It was the first time 
that we had beheld its full outline; but, how were we 
ever to gain its summit 1 The feet of a fly or of a lizard 
seemed to be indispensable requisites for accomplishing 
that exploit. A small rest-house stands in the centre of 
the little valley. Its interior presents nothing but bare. 



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180 LADY BEOWNBIOOrS BEST-HQUSZ. 

grey walla; the light finding ita way in through the 
door: a most uninviting abode we should have pro- 
nounced it, had not the blazing fire kindled by our excel- 
lent cook, and the savoury fumes of hia most distin- 
gulahed curty, promised ua some comfort. Soon however 
we were driven by a sharp current of air, — to which, 
spoiled by the climate and the dwellings of Ceylon,* we 
had become extremely sensitive, — from within the in- 
hospitable walls of " Lady Brownngg's Best-house." This 
lady had indeed actually been there, and the building 
had been erected at her expense. I regard her, in her 
pedestrian activity, with far higher esteem than Countess 

X •, who was dragged up the Pyramids by her 

arms : the ascent here is in many parts no less steep, 
and far more slippery. 

You will easily believe that, having been accustomed 
in the lowland valleys, to a heat of from 22° to SI" (about 
81° to 86° Fahrenheit) we felt the air now, at a level of 
nearly six thousand feet, cool and thin. But indeed 
the thermometer had fallen even here only to 14° (69" 
Fahrenheit) which at home, is not reckoned cold enough 
for lighting our fires. 

We were still separated from the Peak by a valley, or 
more properly speaking, by one deep gle;i and two nar- 
row ravines ; it really provoked me thus to be obliged to 
descend again, and to relinquisli the advantage I had 
but just gained with so much toil and trouble. On arr 
riving at the actual base of the cone or peak, we observed 

* A curious contrast iit thia respect to the dwellinga of Europ«an reaidentg 
00 the continent of India, w Bubseqaentlj described bj our authDr, whers 
utifidal refr^^ration is promoted b; a, canstsnt tharougti dnught. M^r 
Forbes thus alludes to tlie precautions agunat nxiJiiria bo neceesory in Cejlon: 
". The malaria generated in flats or jungle diatricts might in a great degree 
be prevented b; haying the honeea, particulail; the sleeping apsrtmentg, 
elevated at least six feet above the ground. Permanent Cingalese houses are 
.alnaya raised considerabi; aboTe the surrounding countrj, and constructed 
BO as to prevent a current of air pasdng either through the inner ooort or 
Hij of the SDrrounding chuuben." — Tft. 



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VEQETATIOH OF, ASD LAHDBCAPE PEOM THB PEAK. 1 81 

a remarkable change in the vegetation. But lately we 
had once more found ourselves amidst shady wood ; 
here it suddenly ceased, and we should according to 
one's usual experience in ascending lofty mountains, 
have expected to meet with pines and firs, but of such 
trees there is not the slightest trace ; any more than of 
the beautiful Gentians of the Alps, or of the lovely Ericas. 
But what a glorious compensation ! The naked rock can- 
not indeed here produce trees of lofty stem and spread- 
ing shade, like those we had left behind us; but their 
place is immediately supplied by a forest of magnificent 
Tree-Rhododendrons, from fifteen to twenty feet high, 
which predominates more and more towards the sum- 
mit. The dwarf underwood between them consists of 
myrtle-like plants, many of which have a delicious fra- 



From time to time we had splendid panoramic views 
of the mountain glens and the lower ranges of hills; and 
in a deep vista below, but at no great distance, a narrow 
stripe of the sea, — of whose immediate proximity we could 
scarcelypersuade our8elves,^-was glancing brightly in the 
sunshine. The mountain is not higher than those which 
tmvellers commonly climb in Switzerland; but nowhere 
in that land can the eye measure the height, by com- 
parison with a plain so nearly on. the level of the sea. On 
that side of the peak on which the path leads up, all 
vegetation ceases at some six hundred feet below the 
highest point; not indeed by reason of the gr^at height, 
but because the summit is one single huge mass of rock, 
■ — gneiss with hornblende, — without the least covering of 
soil on its steep aides. Here the traveller, if at all in- 
clined to giddiness, can scarcely escape sutFering from it. 
A most singular expedient has been resorted to for 
diminishing the dangers and difficulties of pilgrims in the 
way. To hew steps in these mighty rocks, would have 
been too great an undertakings instead of attempting it, 



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182 SUMMIT OF THE PEAK. 

numberless chains, of every variety of link, are riveted 
into the living stone. They hang in dozens to the right 
and to the left; some antique and rusty, some of newest 
stamp ; for it is esteemed a meritorious work to lay one 
of these chains along the path, that so, if any pilgrim 
should chance to fall, he may he cai^ht in this iron net- 
work. After dragging myself up for some fifty paces or 
so, as if by a windlass, I reached a sort of flat landing 
place, upon which one may set foot to ground firmly, 
and enjoy a breathing-time; but immediately I beheld, 
to my horror, an overhanging precipice, which I could 
scale only after a most aerial lashion, by the help of 
strong iron chains. The end of the ascent is extremely 
disagreeable ; an iron stair is here suspended in the air, 
and has been so completely forced out of its original 
position, that tlie steps are now nearly perpendicular. 
When this last difficulty has been overcome, the cry of 
" Land, Land I" may at last be raised, and the pilgrim- 
age is completed ! 

The Prince was the first to gain the summit, followed 

by Count ■. I had too many plants packed all 

about my person, besides being encumbered with the 
weight of sundry apparatus, to allow of my sharing the 
honour. A stair leads up to the entrance of the walled 
enclosure which surrounds the apex of the peak. The 
flat space within the wall, in the centre of which this 
highest cone rises, measures about seventy feet by thirty. 
The height of the conical apex is about eight or nine 
feet. The whole of the eastern side is resplendent with 
the gorgeous scarlet blossoms of the Bhododendron arbo- 
reum, and an exuberant abundance of other flowers of 
unrivalled beauty luxuriates among the thick grasa. 
Everything that here meets the eye is strange and won- 
derful. The most singular object is a small temple of 
iron-wood, adorned with much carved work, under a 
low roof of tiles: I should think it is about eight feet in 



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8BEB PADA-PILORIMAGES. 183 

height, and covers a space of ten feet square. Within 
is to be seen the Iioly relic which attracts such multi- 
tudes of pilgrims, the celebrated " Sree Pada," or sacred 
footstep, believed by the Cingalese Christians and Ma- 
hometans to be that of Adam; by the Buddhists, of 
Gautama Buddha; and by the Brahmins, of Siva, The 
rocky mass, on which this footstep is engraven, forms 
the floor of the little wooden edifice, dignified with the 
name of temple. There is certainly here to be seen 
something resembling a foot-print, an impression be- 
tween five and six feet in length, and upwards of two 
feet in width, in wliich the partitions of the toes are 
very clumsily restored or formed with gypsum ; but what 
cripples should we all have been, if our great progenitor 
Adam had stood on feet like this ! The mark of the 
sacred footstep is enclosed within a golden frame, stud- 
ded with gems of considerable size, a few only of which 
are genuine. 

Here, upon this desolate spot, thousands annually 
perform their superstitious devotions. The rule pre- 
scribed for pilgrims is, to scale the mountain in a single 
march, and then, having ofiTered up their prayers, and 
presented their sacrifices of money or of fruits, at the 
shrine, to descend without casting one look aronnd, — a 
most arduous exploit indeed ! Under the roof of this 
sanctuary, a filthy-looking priest was idly lounging be- 
side a dish containing some pieces of money : a signifi- 
cant wink intimated to ua his expectations. On a few 
shillings being cast in, the servant of the god hastily 
gathered them up, and set down the tempting money- 
plate in its proper place.* 

* Ae our author waa precluded, by the aeason tit nhich be ascended the 
Peak, from nJtneBdag the procee^ngs of [utgrimB on ite aammit, eome noties 
of them here may not be unwelcome to tbe reader; wa therefore qnote Dr 
DaTf'g Bccoimt of the pctuetque scene :— " The next moraiug, immediately 
b«foM nm-rbe, ne were witkened by the shouts of a party of pilErima just 
sniTed ; it con«ated of aeieral men aad women, natire CingaleBe 



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184 SUDDEN ISOLATION. 

For a veiy abort time only, after arriving on the sum- 
mit, did we enjoy the extensive prospect, which, though 
magnificent and striking, is certainly rather too mono- 
tonous to be called beautiful All around nothing meets 
the eye but mOuntain-topa, clothed with thick and ver- 
dant foroata ; this ceaseless wood covers almost every- 
thing that could add the charm of variety to the scene. 
The mountain features of the landscape immediately 
surrounding the Peak, are so lofty that scarce any part 
of the low country beyond ja to be seen, and merely an 
occasional glimpse of the ocean. We had gazed but a 
few minutes at the view, when a fresh north-west wind 
enveloped, first the more distant summits, — then those 
near at hand,— and, lastly, the peak itself, in a rolling 
drapery of dense mist. Thus isolated, we bid adieu to 
the world without, and wrapping ourselves in our Greek 
" capotes," we sought slielter in our huts, the walls of 
which consisted, as usual, of bamboos int«rwoven with 
palm-leaves, while the only comforts they contained 

of the interior, kll neiitt? dreued in cleko clotbeg. Thej immediBtel; pro- 
ceeded to their deTotioos : n priest, in hig yellow robea, stood on the rouk 
close to the impreraon of the foot, with hie face to the people, who had 
ranged themaelTeB in a rbv below; some on their kneee, with their hands ap- 
lifted and joined palm to palm, and others bending forward, with their hands 
in the eame attitude of deration. The priest, in a loud, clear f oice, sentence 
by KDtence, recited the articles of their religious faith and duties; and, in 
response, thej repeated the aamt after him. When he had finished, they 
raised a loud shout; and, he retiring, they went through the same ceremony 
bj themselves, with one of their party for their leader. An interesting scene 
followed this : wires affectionately and respectfiilly saluted their husbands, 
children their pareata, and friends one another. An old grey-beaded wunan 
first made her Balams to a really venerable old man; she was mored (o tears, 
and nearly kissed his feet ; he affectionately raised her op. Seveml middle- 
aged men then salajned the patriarchal pair ; these men were ealamed in 
return by still younger men, who had first paid their respects to the old 
people; and lastly, those nearly of the same standing slightly sidamed each 
Other, and eichauged betel-leares. The intention of these salutations, I was 
informed, was of amoral kind, — to confirm the ties of kindred, — to strengthen 

fomil; loTe and friendship, and to remote animosities. Before the 

pilgrims descend, they are blessed by the priest, and exhorted lo return to 
their homes, and lead in future rirtuous liTes." — Tk. 



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BASH TI81TANT. 186 

were iliree benches formed of sticks, and a table to cor- 
respond. A sharp wind from the north-west was whist- 
ling Bo keenly through our by no means air-tight walla, 
and the atmosphere felt so frosty, when, drawing our 
cloaks closely round us, we lay down to sleep after our 
repiast was ended, that we rose in turns through the 
night, to rekindle, by means of exercise, some life and 
warmth in our benumbed limbs. 

At six o'clock in the morning of the 11th of Decem- 
ber, the thermometer had fallen to 6 above the freezing 
point (46° Fahrenheit) ; we therefore all gladly wel- 
comed the proposal of being speedily on the move for 
our return. On reaching the lower end of the chains, — 
after descending a part which now seemed even more 
nervous than it had done on the ascent, notwithstanding 
our being preserved by a sea of white mist, from the 
giddiness of a bird's eye survey over the panorama that 
lay deep below, — we observed the undoubted traces of 
an elephant, a neighbour, whose nearness we had Uttle 
suspected during the past night. If an animal so colos- 
sal can indeed find means, with the aid of bushes, to 
drag its ponderous limbs up these precipitous masses of 
rock, the question next occurs, how can he successfully 
accomplish the descent ; for to scramble down is far more 
difficult than to climb up ?• This we knew for certain 
by our own experience; for we could only proceed down 

• M^r Forbea adduces, in proof of th« hardihood of tho eleph»Dt, the 
fiiet that in Ceylon " it rangea OTer eyery part of the island, Toluntarily 
clambering to the iomniitii of the highest monntune, and nndergoing a change 
of temperBitDre which, from the plidns of Bintenne to the top of the Pedro- 
talla-galla, is sometimes nut less than 50°, with a difference of eleiaUon of 
fall eight thousand feet." Among other illuetrations of hie theorjthat "the 
instinct of the elephant ie not of that snperior order uBnallj assigned to it," 
the mme miter menttons its adTenturoua temerity. In a majiner quite tallying 
with the remarks of our author: he says,— "it is fond of clambering up 
steep hills, and does not shun slippery rocba, on which eo clumsy an animal 
is neceAarily insecure. I have known three instanoes in the Matale district 
aione, of elephants being killed by falling dowa precipices." — Ta. 



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186 DE3CEHT PROM THE PBAK-BATNAPOOEA. 

these steep patlis by springing and rusbing forward with- 
out a halt, which caused no stuall concussion of our ver- 
tebral and bony system, while more serious and really 
deplorable results followed from the injuries inflicted on 
the system of boots and shoes ! 

It had been settled that the whole distance, which in 
the ascent had occupied six boura and a half, ^as to be 
traversed now at one pull ; — we were to be at the foot of 
the Peak in four hours; — ^but, alas! in one hour and a half 
our whole party was scattered, and each was scrambling 
on his solitary way as best he could. As I lingered to 
gather seeds and plants, or to hammer stones, 1 was now 
far in the rear, and now again leading the van, so that I 
had an opportunity of witnessing the sufferings of each 
individual of our long train. Here, one was limping on 
with a sole-less shoe; there, another was running almost 
barefoot ; while our afore-named friend; Mr Power, ex- 
hausted by exertions to which he was unaccustomed, 
was supported by two natives. The Prince was soon an 
hour in advance of all the rest. When I at length ar- 
rived at Palabadoolla, with my pockets heavily laden, I 
found his Royal Highness fast asleep ! 

At this place we made only a short halt, necessary in 
order to exchange our tattered habiliments for others ; 
after which we moved on with weary limbs, through the 
odious part of the country infested with leeches, towards 
the spot where our horses were to he in readiness. No 
horses were there ; we were therefore obliged to proceed 
on foot, wading through a deep brook, with the dismal 
prospect before us of running on, footsore as we all were, 
for nine or ten miles. We had begun to resign oui^ 
selves to our hard fate, when the tardy steeds made their 
appearance. We now rode on swiftly to Ratnapoora, 
where a little repose was granted to our worn-out limbs, 
whose every joint ached for a long time afterwards. On 
the 13th of December, we sailed, in a large boat, most 



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VOYAGE DOWN THE QAKGA. 187 

tastefully decked with garlands of fruit and flowers, 
down the beautiful Ealu Ganga to Caltuba. It was a 
charming voyage, and, aa we glided along, many monkeys 
and beautiful birds fell by our sportsmen's guns. 

Arriving at Caltura on the evening of the second day, 
the (14th of December) we found one of the Governor's 
carriages in waiting, which conveyed us in an hour and 
an half to Colombo. There we were hospitably enter- 
tained for five days more, at the end of which time we 
embarked on board the English war-steamer, " Spiteful," 
Captain Maitland, for Tbincoualee. 



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TBIKCOMALER 



FIFTH LETTER. 

DBF4BTDBB FROM OOLOHBO — IBISOOHALBB— M1D1U3— TBB BOCE-TBimiS O 

VAHAHALAIFOlt— OILOCFTTA— LOED BARCtN 
tBB PiUliqillW— IliTS OF BBHOil,— OAri— 



PiTHA, 28<A nfJaiMary, 1845. 

Oh tlie afternoon of the 18tli of December, we took 
our departure, in the splendid war-steamer Spiteful, — 
placed at the Prince's disposal by Queen Victoria, — from 
the beautiful town of Colombo, from the kind old Go- 
vernor, from our dear friend and companion Captain 
Maclean, and from many other kind friends and ac- 
quaintances. Rounding the southern extremity of the 
island, we landed, after two days, on its north-east- 
ern coast, in one of the most beautiful harbours of the 
world, that of Trincouaiee. Two days were passed in 
the chase, and in catching insects, amidst the magnifi- 
cent forests that clothe the shores, and the little islands 
by which the harbour is closed in. The Admiral gave 
us a costly and brilliant entertainment in his fairy palace 
on shore; and we enjoyed rides along the coast, under 
the ever-smiling shy which seemed to gaze upon the re- 
sponsive smiles of the placid ocean. 

When these two days had flown, we bid farewell to the 
lovely island, not without deep regret. The feeling was 
universal among us, that we were in all probability 
leaving behind us the most beautiful part of our travels. 
We had scarcely cleared the harbour (on the 22d of De- 



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MADRAS— CHRISTMAS FETE. 189 

cember) when the sea became very rough: we had a 
very bad passage, and suffered much from eea-sickness. 
On the 24th, we reached Madbas, a beautiiiil and im- 
posing city; — ^mountains aloue are wanting to make the 
scene incomparably fine. The Governor, the Marquis of 
Tweeddale, vacated his i^ole paUce for our reception, 
and went into the country, without troubling himself 
much about us. The pride and pomp of the English 
" haute noblesse" are, here in India, yet more intolerable 
than in London; for here persons assume the air of 
Princea, who, in their native land, would only play a 
aubordinate part. I was, at any rate, spared much cere- 
mony by this treatment; and the only oppression was 
the many dozens of servants, in red and white attire, 
with " chowries^' and peacock-taila, who with noiseless 
tread followed our every movement. 

After a succession of grand dinner-parties, and a 
wonderful Christmas 16te, on a terrace paved with 
marble,* illuminated with countless bright chandeliers, 
and fragrant with the perfumes of a thousand flowers, 
wafted by the fresh sea-breeze, — altogether resembling a 
scene in fairy-land, — we quitted Madras on the 28th of 
December, and sailed upon a rough and tempestuous sea, 
some distance southward, to visit the rock sanctuaries 
of the famous temple-city of MAHAUAUiPtiR. We were 
kindly accompanied by Mr Elliot, a gentleman well 
versed in natural science, who was to explain to us the 
wonders of these architectural monuments. The pkce 
is about thirty-five miles to the south of Madras. We 
vere borne over the surf and landed on the shore with 

* The pnemeDta, walla snd pilkra, lo bequenU; eappoeed hj Btnuigei* 
to be of marble, ore in lealit; plaatered with " cAunam," s kind of flue lime, 
in craninoii ate throDgbout India, but for which. Madm la partiimlulj 
famoiu : it U then made of calciiied abetla, and, being nuoeptible of a fiiN 
potiab, is employed in the decoration of those Tillas scattered among gardeu 
and aTennea to the aouth of Fort Qeorge, which oOTetitate the Enropean 
. omi of Madraa.— Tft. 



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190 TBMPIB CITY OP MAHAMALAIPUE. 

great difficulty, in a fragile bark, whose planks were 
fastened witt cocoa-nut fibres (" coir") instead of nails, 
and stopped witli tow; it was kept in motion by twelve 
wild-looking rowers, stripped to tbe skin, and plying 
their oars to the measured sound of horrid cries and 
screams, under the name of singing. The coast is very 
fiat, yet I have never seen a higher surf. Our Hindoos 
availed themselves most skilfully of the rushing flow of 
the last huge wave, to deposit us, without too complet« 
a soaking, on dry land. 

On the shore I found lai^e fragments of extremely 
fine-grained gray syenite scattered through the coppice. 
Further on, I found the same stone in immense blocks, 
forming large platforms, with deep hollows like small 
lakes, which, notwithstanding the immediate neighbour- 
hood of the ocean, are filled with fresh water. A piece 
of rocky ground, — not unlike the " Devil's W(dl," in the 
Harz Mountains, — contains the wonderful remains of 
the primeval sanctuaries: ea«h rocky mass is trans- 
formed into a splendid temple, with beautiful figures 
and sculptured ornaments, all hewn in the living rock. 

The first monuments which presented themselves- to 
our view were at a distance of about four hundred paces 
from the edge of the waves; — ^two masses of sohd rock, 
some eighty feet or so in length, and, I should think, 
from forty to fifty in height, separated from each other 
by a narrow cleft, and covered from top to bottom witli 
finely executed figures, most of them as large as life. 
Upon the wall to the left side of the cleft, the prin- 
cipal figure that strikes the eye is that of a penitent, 
Arjuna, who is represented standing on his left foot, 
with his arms crossed above his head. On his left 
stands the god Iswara, pointing to him with one hand. 
Close beside these and above them, are several rows of 
figures, with a very singular head-dress, half-kneeling, 
half-walking, doing homage to the penitent. The two 



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TEMPLE SCTJLPTtTEES. 191 

lower rows again consist of animal figures only, — mon- 
kejs, lions, tigers, antelopes and birds. It ia'remarkable 
that several of the figures, — chiefly those on the right- 
hand idde, — are looking towards the cleft, into which is 
stuck a female figure with a lofty head-dress; though 
this statue, also of hewn stone, is evidently of more 
recent date. On the solid block, to the right-hand side, 
are tlie principal objects of the whole scene, — a very 
beautifully executed elephant with its young one, al- 
most aa large as life, and in excellent preservation, ex- 
cept that the tusk is broken off. It stands next to the 
ground; above it again, are seen two rows of male and 
female figures, in attitudes of devotion. These are of 
peculiarly beautiful workmanship, and sculptured in 
bold alto-relievo. 

Proceeding in a south-westerly direction, we soon 
found ourselves in front of the first of the seven temples 
hewn in the rock. It contains a cave, the roof of which 
is supported by eight pillars, while empty niches appear 
at the farther extremity. In another is found the re- 
cumbent image of the god Vishnu, with hia left knee 
raised up, and a female figure sitting upon it. The 
largest of these cavern temples contains, in the back- 
ground, a very fine basso-relievo. Vishnu is supporting 
with one hand a falling vault: there is much power and 
expression in tliis figure : the two females also, shrink- 
ing back in terror, are by no means bad; but unfortun- 
ately the moisture which continually trickles down has 
done considerable damage. Several architectural re- 
mains in the neighbourhood are easily distinguished as 
of more modem date, by their being formed of hewn 
stones joined together, instead of being excavated and 
sculptured in the living rock; many of them are how- 
ever also in very good taste.* 



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192 NATITB BOATS. 

Our retani to the ship vraa more dangerous than our 
landing, as the breakers drove us back towards the shore. 
The billowy walls, towering to the height of teu feet, 
at first appeared impregnable, and twice was our rude 
Indian bark dashed back upon the coast with a crashing 
sound ; at length however the dauntless sailors suc- 
ceeded in bringing us safely across the swelL The na- 
tive boats are wooden vessels, like targe shapeless cauU 
drons, ten or twelve feet in depth. Their thin planks 
are fastened together with cocoa-nut ligatures, which 
gives them such elasticity, that they can endure the 
most violent shocks without going to pieces. Their great 
depth keeps them well above the water. Pieces of wood 
are fastened across the boat, adding firmness to the 
whole, and serving as seats to the rowers. The latter 
are, by reason of the great length of their oars, not un- 
frequently thrown overboard, and on this account, a boat 
of tills sort known by the name of " Muaaoola^," is usu- 
ally accompanied by a smaller craft, called " Catamar- 
rowr," the duty of which is to pick up any person who 
may fall into the water. The " Gatamarran" consists 
merely of three or four thick logs of wood, upon which 
the rower kneels and paddles with a board, sometimes 

the moat Bsdent bidldingi uid monninents at MaluilnllpnmD, (Maluma- 
laipni) ore coDBecnted to Vuhnu." The place u coouaonly hoowit bj the 
nune of " tit Seven Pagedai," though in ftxX that number of templea dots 
Dot exist there. The modem name of Sfahabaliporam ugnifisa the "citif 
of tht gnat Bali," a ch&ractet veiy famoaa in Hindoo romance. The 
■cnlptiue* ora suppoacd b; lome wiiten to refer chiefly to the exploit! of 
that deified hero, ai well ai to those of Krishna, Aijnoa, and other actors in 
the wai celebrated in the " JUaAabarat," Mi Hamilton meotions the 
appearance of the lion, — represented ae much larger than the natonil sise, — 
at remarkable, ttom the fact of that ammal being nnknown in the sooth of 
India. He sapposea the nhole of the scnlptnres to have been rent b; some 
ooDTnlmon of nature before thej irere flniahed. Brahmintcal tradition re- 
oorda the existence of a gnti capital near these temples, and the raging sur^ 
beliered to han encroached on the coast of Coromandel geoerall}, is said 
here to break orer the ruined monuments of a forgotten tplendour. Bj 
some hoirerer the seat of the Oreat Bali'e kingdom is placed on the weftam 
ooaat of India.— Tb. 



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ARRIVAL AT CALCUTTA. 193 

to Ms left and sometimes to his right side. A vesBel, 
or rather raft, of this description ia often swallowed by 
the waves, and as often rises again to the surface. The 
only article of clothing worn hy its sailors is a sharp 
conical straw hat, shaped like a long paper comet, in 
which they usually carry letters on hoard, from resi- 
dents on shore. 

On nearing the steamer, a fresh difficulty presented 
itself, as to jumping out on the ladder to climb her side; 
for we were now too low by a few yards, now again too 
high, to set foot upon it, so violently was our boat 
tossed up and down by the waves.* 

We arrived, after a six days' voyage, within the do- 
main of the GANaES, and, on the 3d of January, landed 
in the city of Calcutta. We were received in the palace 
of the Governor-Genera), Lord Hardinge,'*' a residence 
far handsomer than the Castle of many a German Prince. 

Calcutta is not a place that would please me in the 
long run. The city is a strange medley of, on the one 
hand, the most splendid palaces, and on the other, the 
most wretched bamboo huts. The population is no less 
diversified. Here the eye is struck by "coolies," or por- 
ters, their burdens poised upon their heads; or palan- 
quin-bearers, of reddish brown complexion, who run 
about, through the live-long day, with their heavy pole 
on their bare shoulders ; there, by filthy Mahometans, 
driving before them a pair of mean and unsightly bul- 
lucks yoked to. a cart, formed of bamboos roughly fas- 

* A difflcoltj i>j ao meiuiis unheard of to most mtdTes of our Kitfirt hnd, 
bn( which, to ■ tnTeller whose home mw bo Ux inlaud, and whose onlf em- 
barkatioiu hilberto had been amid the &ciIitieB of frequented porte, might 
well appear an adrentnre worthy of being recoided among the peiili of the 
mighty deep I — Ta. 

■f We cop;, in thta inatsDce, without eoiT«ction, Oar anthto', from & eon- 
fwAon into which fbrdgners, — pnzded b; the dignity of high oSd&l rank 
lud the ftmilloT En^ish lonnd of " my Lord," — often &il, and which led 
him to commit one or two other miitiAei r^arding proper names, deognatea 
the Qoremor-Oeneial by a title which be did not live to see eonferred upon 



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194 ETIQUETTE-UNIFOBMB. 

tened t<^ethcr, witli creaking solid vroodeu wheels; or 
again, by the most elegant equip^es on the face of the 
earth, drawn by horses of the noblest Arab blood ; seated 
within, are gay and fashionable ladies; mounted behind, 
livery servants glittering with Indian gold and stuffs of 
the finest tissue ; thus one is surrounded at once by the 
utmost splendour and the greatest poverty, the proudest 
pomp and the most abject degradation. 

In this place eveiy one is held in servile dependance 
on the etiquette of distinguished society. To appear on 
foot is held quite inadmissible; only the brown Hindoos 
of the lower castes think of doing such a thing. A pa- 
lanquin, or a carriage, is the proper and genteel mode 
of conveyance. 

The innumerable domestics of the palace, who watch 
one's every step, but, to those who cannot make them- 
selves intelligible to them, are not available for any real 
service, seem to me even more oppressive here than the 
similar hosts at Madras or at Colombo. I am provoked 
to anger or to laughter, when I am panting for a glass 
of water, and the servant brings mB ink. 

The uniform of these dark and handsome men is ex- 
tremely tastefiil and showy. Most of them wear scarlet 
coats, loaded on the breast with gold lace, and flat tur- 
bans, also of scarlet, with white centres. The upper 
servants are old men, with fine hoary beards, — a pictur- 
esque contrast to their long garments of bright red, adorn- 
ed with a profosion of gold embroidery. The runners, 
grooms and coachmen, are equipped in shorter coats of 
dark blue, flat turbans of the same colour with red 
crowns, and short white breeches; those in charge of 
the plate, the treasure? of the household, and the upper 
and under servants of his department, wear white coats, 
blue sashes, and white turbans with bine centres. The 
total number of domestics required in the Government 
House is three hundred and seventy two '. 



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"THE COCBSB." 195 

Tlie climate here is most agreeably temperate and 
spring-like ; indeed there is a marked difference, if we 
compare it with Ceylon; for there are but few flowers 
here at present, and the trees have generally lost at least 
part of their foliage; yet, notwithstanding these appear- 
ances, the noon-day heat is overwhelming, and it is im- 
possible to venture out of the house before four o'clock. 
At that hour the scene becomes gradually more animated 
upon the " GoiM-se," a broad street near the river, kept 
constantly moist by means of water sprinkled from leather 
tubes. There the " haut ton" of the English population 
are assembled, in carriages or on horseback, all in the 
finest toilets. Every one bows and is bowed to, and so 
presses on through the crowd, which often, towards five 
o'clock, is very considerable. As certainly as every fine 
gentleman takes his " tiffi/n," at one o'clock, and enjoys 
his " siesta" at three, — so certainly is he to be seen on 
the " Course" at five, in elegant equestrian costume, not 
omitting white kid gloves. There yet remains the toil- 
some operation of dressing for a seven o'clock dinner- 
party, and the exertion that must needs be made to 
enjoy it; and then, about nine or half-past nine o'clock, 
the hard day's work of a man of fashion in this metro- 
polis is completed. He may stretdi himself upon the 
sofa and smoke a cigar, till it is time to exchange his 
vigils for the charms of sleep, by throwing himself into 
the four-post bed which invites him to repose, with its 
gauze curtains, and more than a dozen of pillows. 

During the whole of our stay, there waa no lack of 
splendid dinners, concerts, &c., &c. ; a ball was moreover 
given in honour of the Prince; but I could form no 
judgment as to the merits of these entertainments, for 
a, multitude of necessary occupations gave me so much 
running hither and thither through the day, that all 
desire to join in the dance had passed away. For the 



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196 SCENES ON TBE GANQES. 

same reason I could only pa; %ing visits to the museum 
and the beautiful Botanic Garden. 

We spent some time at the Govemor-General's veiy 
pretty country residence at Barrackpore, at no great dis- 
tance from Calcutta. There is an aviary and a beauti- 
ful menagerie, in which are to be found remarkably fine 
specimens of the Entellus — and Hooloc monkeys and 
pheasants of almost every kind met with in the Hima- 
layas. 

On the 12th of January, I paid a visit to Dr Wal- 
licli,* the Superintendent of the Botanic Garden, which 
is a perfect Paradise, charmingly situated on the banks 
■of the Ganges. I went down the river in one of 
the Governor's boats, — swift as an arrow, — rowed by 
sailor boys in gay jackets of various colours. It was 
yet eariy, and the January sun had risen but a little 
while before. A light veil of mist cast its drapery ttver 
the white colonnades of the elegant country houses; 
■verdant shrubs and majestic trees clothed the banks of 
the broad stream as far as the eye could reach, — only 
occasionally interrupted by rich and velvety lawns. 
" What a magnificent fairy-like prospect !" I was silently 
exclaiming to myself: at that moment my eye was 
diverted by a flight of crows, rising into the air with 
loud screams. The dead body of a white man, perfectly 
covered with crows, immediately floated by. Nothing 
can equal the inconceivable impudence of the birds that 
hover about the Ganges. No one shoots at nor disturbs 
them, because they fulfil the duties neglected by the 
indolent police: consequently, besides crows, hundreds 

* B; the kindnen of Dr Wallich, tbe tianBlator baa beeo ftkTaared vUh 
the perusal of ft let(«T Kddrewed to him b; Dr Ho8meiat«T rroni B&rT&ck- 
pore, in which he eipreM» not 0DI7 hie grateful recollection of bli agraea- 
hle intercoone with that eminent Botuiiat, but hie r^ret that nntoirard ■ 
circomibuioei had prerented his enjojing, in more freqaent visita to tbe 
Botaiuc Oaideiu, the opportonitj of increasiiig bis edentific knowledge, and 
thug more fullj preparing him>«lf tra hii HimalaTao tour. — Tb. 



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DEPARTUEE FROM CALCUTTA. 197 

of kites and vultures, adjutant-birds asd minas, are to 
be seen in every street, and on the roofs throughout the 
city.' Swarms of brown kites fly beneath my window, 
and seat themselves so close under it, that I could strike 
them with eaae; while a flock of those bare-necked, 
thick-billed, giant storks, is in the habit of taking pos- 
session of the lion and the unicorn, in the arms of Great 
Britainj on the highest ridge of the roof at Government 
House, — thus producing a most ludicrous effect. 

After a residence of fourteen days at Calcutta and 
Barrackpore, every thing was prepared for our journey 

to Patna. The Prince and Count had started 

from Barrackpore on the evening of the Idth of January, 
because more than two persons cannot be expedited in 
palanquins at once, on account of the great number of 
bearers that woiild be required to be in attendance at 
the stations. On the following evening, the 20th of 
January, we bid a hearty farewell to the Governor, the 
amiable Lord Hardlnge, and took a more formal leave 
of his suite. Captain Monro accompanied us till we 
were shut up in those horrible boxes, palanquins, in 

* The carrion birda tvnd pariah dogs of Calcutta, with the foxes and jack- 
sis which, emerging from the jungle after eunset, make night hideoiu with 
their howls, aie encouraged in th«r aoiUcity by the ehare of dunty riands 
left &om the well-replenitihed boordB of European reridente, which f^lg to 
their lot, — the relit^oua pr^ju^cea of the nativeB preventing their tsating 
any food prepared by those not of their own religion or oaate, and moreover' 
hmiting them almost entirely to the use of vegetable food. 

Bnt the sight of tbe«e insatiate animals ia coonected, — ia the mtndB of 
those acquainted with the dark horrors of the sacred stream,— with scenes 
8tiU more revolting than the floating by of a sohlary corpse,— vii., the 
" Sittuan," where the bodies of tbe dead ate burnt, and the " QkauU" 
where the dying are carried, living victims, and left ti) die. Captain Wil- 
liamson, in his Ori^ital Memoirs, describes another melancholy feature of 
the latter cnat«m ; that when a person has been thus carried to the place 
apptnnted for death, he ia, in the eye of Hindoo law, dead ; and in the event 
of recovery, finds himself an outcast : not even hla own children will eat with 
him, or afford him help : he is held in abhorrence, and has no resource 
bnt to betake himself to a village inhabited solely by persons under rimilar 
-Tb. 



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198 PALAHttUIN JOUKNEY. 

which, from this place forward, we were to pursue our 
journey tlirough the plains of Hindostiiti. 

Never shall I be reconciled hy use to this species of 
vehicle: to me it appears, to begin with, sufficiently 
horrible to see men toiling on like draught-cattle. 
Picture to yourself a wooden box with a wide opening 
at each side ; — fastened lengthways across its top, is a 
strong pole, the two ends of which rest on the shoulders 
of the four bearers: — within this machine the traveller 
lies stretched at full length, panting under heat the 
most oppressive, or if he attempts to leave his doors 
open, suffocated by the dust: for the weight of the 
vehicle is considerable, and the weaiy bearers, unable 
to lift their feet high, continually raise all the dust of 
roads that have not seen a drop of rain for the last four 
months. These toil-worn beings cheer on their steps 
by a plaintive groaning song, which at first has a most 
dolorous sound, like a wail of agony, but to which the 
ear becomes accustomed, as to the irksome creaking of 
awheel; while the unwilling eye gradually learns to 
behold their excoriated shoulders and the woimds on 
their bare feet, with the same measure of indifference 
with which one is often forced to look upon the rubs 
and sores of a cart-horse at home. Yet, upon the whole, 
if driven to a choice, I should prefer a long palanquin 
journey to a long sea-voyage: for nothing can equal the 
monotony of the desolate waste of waters, on which, 
frequently, not one of the many wonders that traveUers 
describe is to be seen, or at most, but an occasional 
flying fish or leaping dolphin; while the dancing motion 
of the ship incapacitates the landsman for any employ- 
ment, and throws him into a state of misanthropic in- 
dolence. In the palanquin the traveller has at any rate 
the power of occupying himself; and though he can see 
but little, there may chance, in that little, to be some 
scenes or objects new to him. 



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FlLOaiM ATTIKE. 199 

' The balancing motioD of my vehicle together with 
my previous fatigues, caused coe to fall ere long into a 
deep slumber. In the middle of the night, I suddenly 
felt the palanquin set down with a hard jerk, and saw, 
by the clear moonlight, that we had halted ftt the edge 
of a broad river. With great difficulty we made our- 
selves intelligible to our hearers: they were paid off, and 
we were ferried across the stream; but on the other side 
■we found not a creature. After we had called in vain, 
loudly and long, some men at length appeared, stupified 
with drink. The ferry-men were not satisfied with the 
money given them, and, with the utmost composure, 
they produced their "tarif" a huge black board, on 
which the rate of fores was marked. 

At length matters were adjusted, and we advanced 
with fresh vigour. We had left Hooghly to the east 
of our course. When the sun rose, its rays disclosed 
before our eyes an interminable plain, covered with 
parched grass, which,' if the rustling wind chanced to 
agitate its withered blades, had a truly wintry effect. 
About one o'clock, the heat had increased to 27* (93* 
Fahrenheit); the air moreover was so full of dust, that 
my thick hair appeared as if powdered, and my nose and 
eyes were in a state of inflammation. 

It was not until we reached Gaya (on the 22d of 
January) that we were once more gladdened by the 
sight of rocks and hills, to break the monotony of the 
arid desert. The change in the dress and language 
of the population had struck us much even on the 
second day. On the third, wc met numbers of pilgrims. 
Their costumes were picturesque, — no longer the un- 
varying white cloth, twisted in many folds round the 
shoulders, breast and loins, as in Calcutta, — ^but here, 
a rich Cashmere of azure bliie displayed its ample dra- 
pery, — there, a mantle of dark yellow, — or again, a 
ponderous silken tunic, with embroidery of gold; the 



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;' 



20(>- ' -^^ GATA AND BNVIEONS. 

headgear too was changed from the protuberant and 
massive turban to a flat cap of elegant form and colour. 
We saw here men of strong and vigorous race. Most of 
these people wore tight breeches, and were armed with 
an iron buckler on the back, and a long sword at the 
left side. Here and there a mighty elephant drags his 
massive pillars tardily along, bearing a whole fomily 
upon his back, — that of a wealthy priest, or of a Rajah, 
— ^with the sum-total of their household-goods, consisting 
of a few coverlets, which also serve as cloaks, a set of 
copper drinking vessels, and a kettle in which to boil 
their curry. The whole treasures of the wardrobe are 
usually heaped on the owner's person, for the sake of 
display; what need then of carrying trunks, any more 
than furniture or domestic utensils? A Persian mer- 
chant, with the green turban, reclining at his ease, and 
smoking his hookah, rolls past in a light vehicle, which 
resembles a small quadrangular turret, with a canopy 
over-head, and running upon two wheels; the pole is 
fastened to a knob or hump of leather on the horse's 
back; and the Arab steed is driven by an attendant of 
sable hue. 

The station of Gata was at length reached, on the 
24th of January, and we were able to shake off the dust, 
and enjoy the refreshment of a bath. 

Huge rugged masses of gneiss, and hills of d^ris of 
the same formation, encircle on every side this beauti- 
iully-fiituated town, and the dusty, desolate plains, and 
scorched wearisome roads, are soon forgotten, when the 
eller finds himself suddenly transported to a smiling 
ey, where fields of opium are succeeded by terraces 
ice, where tanks of fresh water are surrounded by 
lant and flourishing gardens, and where one draw- 
after another pours forth its limpid stream to re- 
li his languid eye. Here is the home of that vig(>- 
I and umbrageous tree, the Palmyra Palm (forcuaus 



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VIEWa OP THE CITY. 201 

fiabeUi/armia) with its thick and fan-like bowers of 
foliage: liere too flourishes that most beautiful of all 
Indian trees, the tamarind. Its tender and fragrant 
verdure, as it spreads its graceful shade, here, over a 
white, conical, Hindoo temple, — there, over a group of 
simple clay-built eott^es, — or again, over the colon- 
nades of English country scats, — Eulds an indescribable 
charm to the scene. 

How delightful is it, seated on the gnarled root of one 
of these trees, high on some rugged crag, to enjoy the 
coup-d'oeil of the whole city in its long extent, witli 
its clear and glassy pools, — their broad steps enlivened 
by groups of maidens busily washing, and their basins, 
by elephants bathing at their ease, — its many and 
various towers and minarets, and its white-domed 
mosques, — ^in short, with all its sundry oriental cha- 
racteristics, standing out in picturesque prominence 
amid the velvety verdure of Indian vegetation! What 
animation in those dusty streets below us .' what a 
motley mixture of vehicles and of figures! palanquins, 
cliaises, gigs, elephants with their lofty baldachins; 
women, with large rings of gold hanging from their 
nostrils, and a profusiou of massy silver bracelets, bear- 
ing huge jars on their heads; native soldiers, in their 
gay uniforms; and other men with their long web of 
dirty white wrapped round them, and their large shoes 
with long and pointed ends. Much indeed did I regret 
that time failed me for taking sketches. 

On the morning after our arrival, we visited one of the 
greatest temples in India, that of Vishnu-padda; it is 
' built of a beautiful shining dark-gray stone : and is equal 
in circumference to many a little village. The principal 
edifices stand on a high granite rock, and produce a 
most singular effect, surrounded as they are by a num- 
ber of low colonnades full of inscriptions and of images 
of Vishnu. A pointed tower, some forty or fifty feet in 



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202 TEMPLE OF TI3HS0-PADDA. 

height, divided into several stories, and ornamented by 
numerous volutes, but without a dngle window, contains 
the holy images and the footsteps of Vishnu.* Its in- 
terior is constantly illuminated with lamps, and filled 
with the fri^rance of choice flowers. The entrance to the 
sanctuary is from within s quadrangular temple-build- 
ing close at hand, whose round dome is supported by two 
colonnades, one above the other. The piUars form two 
rows all round, an outer and an inner one, and in each 
of these every four pillars are clustered together: the 
outer line consists of six of these groups; the inner one 
of four ; the height of the columns does not exceed eight 
feet. 

Under the colonnades, and in all the courts and vesti- 
bules, we saw multitudes of pilgrims, who had flocked 
hither only to sacrifice their savings to the avmcious 
rapacity of the fat priests. It is well known that he 
who arrives at the shrine in opulence, returns in beg- 
gary; the priest obtains possession of his carriage and 
horses, or, if he has none, of the very coat he wears. 
Stupidity and worthlessness are painted in the coun- 
tenances of these priests, beyond all description. There 
sits one of them, overgrown and unsightly, idly squatting 
on the ground, a most di^fusting object; before him 
stands a pilgrim, pointing to three superb Japan bed- 
steads, hung with coverlets of costly silk, and watching 

* The fer-fameil sanctity of Qaja, whicli eiteads to the pbin of the river 
Fulgo, on which the modem town la built, beluw the temple-crowneil rock, 
is attributed b; the Hindoos to its baring beea the scene of Viehnu'e great 
■rictoiy over the Asoor, or giant and infidel, Qaja, who was pressed down to 
the iafernal regions bj the foot of the god ; while the Buddliiste behere this 
spot to hsTe been the birthpUee, or the residence, of their great prophet and 
legislator. The pnTinql number of pilgrims wss believed by Mr Hanulton 
(writing in 1820) to amount, in times of peace, to 200,000, and the revenue 
derived b; the Britiah Oovemmeat from the pilgrim-taz, increased in propor- 
tion to (he maguitude of the ceremonies performed, is stated to have risen, 
in ISlC, to 230,000 rupees. Mr Eamiltoo speaks of this influx of devout pil- 
grims, as the fruitful source of the numerous crimes, for which the province 
of Bahar is remarkable.— Tfi. 



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PBIESTS AND OFPBBIHQS, 203 

the keen glance of those greedy eyes, as they scan and 
eBtimate the gift. It does not suffice, — money must yet 
be added; and then the ceremony begins. In the hrst 
phtce, the pilgrim's feet are washed, then rubbed with a 
golden ointment, and a flower of jessamine is next laid 
upon each foot. This operation of ablution and anoint- 
ing is performed by a young boy, who represents th^ 
&mUy of the priest, and another person who acts as an 
assistant. This done, the pilgrim receives a pot con- 
taining a brown salye, with which he anoints first the 
priest, and afterwards his two coadjutors, on the fore- 
head, the breast, and either arm. He then draws forth 
from within- a bag, several garlands of flowers, some 
formed of African iuaiygold, others of jessamine, but 
all richly adorned with silver spangles; throws one 
over the priest's head, and another over his folded hands, 
and proceeds to crown the other personages of the scene 
with similar wreaths, during all which operations, sundry 
prayers and apophthegms are muttered in a solemn 
whisper. When the ceremony is concluded, the pilgrim 
departs, minus his money, hia gifts, and, if he has faith 
sufficient, his sine also; and wends his way home from 
the sacred shrine with light heart, and yet lighter purse. 
It is truly deplorable to behold haggard and tattered 
mothers, with their half-famished infants in their arms, 
carrying their last handful of rice as an ofiering to the 
temple; cocoa-nuts too, and necklaces of flowers, are 
presented by many a poverty-stricken worshipper. To 
me it is inconceivable how the English can tolerate so 
mighty an evil ! Venders of sacred flowers, among which 
Jessamine, Marygold and Everlastings predominate, are 
seated on all the steps, ofiering their fragrant goods for 
sale. Two thousand priestly families are said to be 
maintained at Gaya alone, by the offerings of the pil- 
grims. 

The surrounding country is well cultivated; it pro- 



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204 PATNA ASD THE OAKGES. 

duoes great quantities of opiunij and four Tarietiee of 
rice. The smallest of these is distinguished by its red 
husk, and known by the name of " Ghavl;" the lai^ 
grained pure white sort is called " Choola." I also saw 
a species of vetch ("Eooltee") with long kidney-sliaped 
seeds, besides durra-grasa {"Chinura") and another kind 
of grain, called "Koorshee." Only a small quantity of 
sugar is made from cane grown in these parts, and it is 
very black and ugly; Jaggery, or Palm-sugar, is un- 
known here ; palm-wine is however made from the wild 
date tree (Phcenix eylvestriaj which is quite disfigured 
by the numerous incisions made in its young shoots. 

We left Gaya on the evening of the 2fith of January, 
and arrived at Patha on the following day. It was 
stormy weather, but without rain ; the trees had a very 
wintry appearance, for they do not here preserve th^ 
perennial Verdure and never-ending succession of blos- 
som, which characterize those of Ceylon. 

Patna, — the far-famed land of rice, — is not to be 
compared with Gaya in point of beauty; the surround- 
ing country is flat and dismal. The banks of the 
. Ganges, — that sacred stream, painted in the stanzas of 
our poets as flowing amid varied loveliness and roseate 
fragrance, are in reality sandy and arid, monotonous, 
and without any refreshing verdure. The town of Patna 
extends up the river for ten miles; from no point there- 
fore can a general survey of the whole be obtained. It 
is said to contain 62,000 houses, i. e., clay-built hovels; 
&nd a population of 380,000 souls. We are quartered at 
a considerable distance from the actual town, in the 
beautiful and commodious country residence of the Com- 
missioner of Revenue and Circuit of the Province of 
Bahar,— of which this place is the capital, — a most kind 
and friendly person, Mr'Kavenshaw. 

We visited the town, to take a glance at the few re- 
markable objects which it presents; a Mahometan bun- 



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OPIUM FIELDS. 205 

al-place, a few mosques, and the opium factory. The 
immense quantity of opium here produced filled me 
with amazement. No leas than 160,000 " maundB," (or 
12,800,000 Iba.,)* of opium are obtained in, and ex- 
ported from this place annually; Gaya exports 4>0,000 
maunds, (3,200,000 lbs.) This must be consumed entirely 
among the opium-eaters of China; for none of it is 
sent to Europe. The manufacture ia extremely simple. 
After the flower has passed away, the green poppy- 
heads are wounded with an instrument exactly fitted 
for the purpoae ; the juice which exudes is scraped 
carefully together; and when, in the process of drying, 
it has reached a certain fixed point of inspissatiou, it is 
rolled up in boUs weighing five pounds, and wrapped in 
the dried petals of the poppy. The opium-fields are 
now in ftdl flower, and bring vividly to my recollection 
our own poppy-fields in Germany, but with this differ- 
ence, that here the Ganges performs the work of pre- 
paring and cultivating the soil, the produce of which, 
year after year, continues the same, and always fetches 
the same unvarying price. The profits derived by the 
English from this branch of trade are enormous. 

Our residence at Patna was concluded by a ball, given 
by the British regiment stationed at the neighbouring 
cantonment of Dinapore, on the evening of the 30th of 
January. 

From this place we are to proceed towards Kepaul, to 
penetrate into the interior of that country, as the Rajah 
of Nepaul wishes to receive the Prince'a visit in bis ca- 
pital city of Cathmandoo. We shall make a stay of about 
a fortnight there, before entering into the proper re^on 
of the Himalayabs, among the high mountains of which 
range we are to spend the hot season, viz., the months 
of April, May and June. 

* Ttaa mauod ia heie calcul&ted, occarding la Word and Hamilton, at 
«i£ht7 Iba.— Tb. 



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LEAVIXO THB BSITISH TEBBITOBIES. 



SIXTH LETTER. 



1 iiBrAUL-~(ialtLOBa— FADS a: 



ClTHiii»IK», 36lA FAmarg 18W. 

We were at first assured tliat we should never be able 
to cross the boundary of the KmaDOM of Nepaul, — but 
patient and resolute perseverance have enabled us, not 
only to enter, but to penetrate into parts which, for a 
long period, have been unvisited by any European; 
and we have now been, for the last fourteen days, resi- 
dent in its wonderful capital. 

The Prince had started in advance, from Patna, on 
the 31st of January; — our palanquins followed on the 
next day. Passing through Mdzufferpoob on the 2d of 
February, and Uutbabt on the 3d, — we reached, on the 
4th, the last British station, Suoouli. I arrived there 
one day later than the Prince and the Counts, in com- 
pany vrith Mr Fortescue, a very agreeable and aecom- 
plished English tourist, who had recently united himself 
to our party. We were received in a most friendly and 
hospitable manner by the amiable officer in command at 



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FAL8E TBETB. 207 

the place, — Major Wheeler. The pleasant society we here 
enjoyed, soon consoled me for the loss of forty rupeea, 
which had been most artfully stolen from me at Muzuf- 
ferpoor; but there is little of interest in the flat, steppe- 
like country around. 

At sunrise, on the fith of February, the magnificent 
summits of the eastern Himalayas appeared in view; 
but it was only for the spa<^ of an hour or so that we 
feasted on the sublime prospect of those majestic, snow- 
capt peaks, which indeed rise hke some sti^nge and 
incongruous apparition, beyond the parched and arid 
steppes: — ^the vision passed away; and again the hori- 
zon was flat and monotonous as before. How dreadful 
to live, year after year, at such a place as this! Yet 
there lives, at Sugouh, an aged Rajah, who was great 
and powerful in former days, but who now maintains, 
for his amusement, only an army of elephants, and a 
stud of some forty or fifty horses. The latter are, for 
the most part, white, with their tails dyed red ; they 
are of Arab, Turkish, Persian, and Chinese breeds. Of 
the herd of elephants some are of considerable size; but 
the largest, whose height does not much exceed nine 
feet, is a " Mukua," i. e., an elephant with short, 
straight tusks, which never grow. An ingenious plan 
has however been devised, to remove this obstacle of 
its appearance on state occasions ; large and handsome 
tusks being inserted by means of holes bored in the 
shorter ones, 

The soil of the flat plain in which Sugouli is situated, 
consists of a rich, yellow clay; and as there is never 
any want of water,~there being, in every field, at least 
one draw-well, if not several, — it is well adapted for the 
cultivation of SeBwmum' (oil plant), Bidnua (castor- 

• The CQlture of the Saamam OrUxtale (or oU-plaiit) is »erj eiLtj, and 
the oil IB readily obtained from the leeda by eipresaon. Nine poonde of 
teed yield two qiiaita of all,; vhich, when it is firat dnwn, has an unplea- 



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208 MOORLAND JOUENBY, BISSOULI. 

oil tree), and several other oleaginous plants, as well 
as of Cajan (pigeon-pea), and some species of barley. 
OT^v/nt is likewise produced here in moderate qaantities. 
The few str^gling trees, here and there met with, — of 
the Bomhaa:, and of the Erythrina genus (silk-cotton 
tree, and coral tree), were adorned with the emhryo 
blossoms of Spring. 

After " tiffin," i, e., about five o'clock in the afternoon, 
on the 5th of February, we took our departure from So- 
gouli, and just as the first shades of twilight ware fall- 
ing, we were ferried across a broad river, the Sakorojia. 
At the first station on the other side we were detained 
for two hours by the non-arrival of our luggage ; cudgel- 
ling and money were necessary to stimulate the zeal of 
our bearers and coolies. Towards day-break, on the €tli 
of February, we found ourselves in a wild, moorland re- 
gion, overgrown with tall, hard grass, which, especially 
in those places where it had been burnt down for tl^ 
sake of securing young pasturage, proved extremely irk- 
some to the feet of our palanquin-bearers. The thermo- 
meter about seven a.m. showed only 4° of K^umur (4-1° 
Fahrenheit,) and at sunrise the snowy sunmiits of the 
Himalayas, gloriously illuminated by the radiant glow, 
once more appeared in the north-east, as if rising imme- 
diately from the vast plain. The frontier village, Bie- 
souiJ, lies within the limits of this steppe. Its meadows, 
clothed with fresh verdure, and surrounded with hedges, 
— and its beautiful and ^gantic " Peep«i" tree (Ticus 
Religiosa,) in the centre of the village, have a most 
pleasing effect. 

At half-an-h out's distance beyond Bissouli is the be- 
ginning of the Nepaulese border forest; at first thin and 
Mmt taste of miutard, but this noii passeg awaj, leaviiiK t, very aveet and 
pleamitly fiiTOured (nl, admirabl; adapted for all the porpoiea of olive tU, 
frith this great advantage, that it does not contract rancidity, though kept 
for maoy jean. The seed itself ia much valued aa an article of food in many 
parts of Asia and AfMcs — Tr. 



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AEB0EE0C8 TEOETATION. 209 

open, but soon becoming an impenetrable thicket, in 
whicli tKe beds of strea^ms form the 011I7 paths. How 
refreshing to our weaiy sight was this forest, — the first 
that we had seen since quitting Ceylon, — and now 
doubly welcome after we had so long languished amid 
the heat and dust of the monotonous plains of Hindos- 
tan ! The edge of the wood consists of several varieties 
of Ficus (mfedoria, BengcUerma, r^igioeaj of Bavhi- 
nia, (mountain ebony) and of Dalbergia, with an occa- 
sional £V^nna, (coral tree) but without the least ad- 
mixture of underwood, as that is destroyed by the fre- 
quent conflagrations of the grass. Further in, among 
the depths of the forest, the Shorea rohuata," — that 
magnificent Saul-tree, — chiefly predominates; but it is 
mingled with the CraUeva, (Garlic Pear) the Fero- 
nia, (Elephant Apple) the Guilandma Bonduc, (Nicker 
tree) the Myrobalawus, or Terminalia Chebula, and 
several varieties of extremely thorny Acacia. The 
spots on which the grass had been burnt last autumn 
were shining with a rich carpet of wonderfully beautiful 
sappy-green: the trees, many of them yet leafless, re- 
minded U8 that we were in early spring; the Biymhax 
heptapkyUwm alone, (seven-leaved silk-cotton tree) was 
in the full glory of its gigantic, crimson blossoms. 

At the end of four hours we reached the bed of a 
broad stream, which was covered with debris of grey 
sand-stone, quartz and granite, and altogether destitute 
* It is described by Dr Boyle, in tdi iplendid work en the Botany Mkd 
otlier bronoliee of the Natural Hietory of the HboiOtiyan MoonCaing, u re- 
nuu-kable for its aize uid beauty, and aa aflbrding the beat and moat exten- 
sively used timber in India,— it yields in great abundance tJie reran called 
dhoona, which is used for the uuue purpoEes aa pitch, and in Indian templea 
for incen^. The naUtea in Borne porUof India apply the wood In several of 
their superstitious ceremonies, — as for instance, if witchcraft is suspected 
by them, btanches of the Saul-tree are marked with the names of aU the 
femalea in the place, married or unmanied, who have att^ed the age of 
twelve, and then, at earl; dawn planted in the water for four or five bouis ; 
the person whose name b written on the branch that withers firet, is ak onc« 
convicted and condemned. — Ta. 



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210 BECHIACO AKD ITS MALAEU, 

of vegetation. Here and there a little spring was 
gushing forth in the dry water-course, — the bed of the 
river Chebia, which, in the rainy season, is an impetu- 
ous torrent. Its lofty and nigged banks are formed of 
grayish-white compact clay, intermixed with sand and 
mica, rising, at one bend of the stream, to a perpendi- 
cular height of about three hundred and twenty feet. 
Water still flows in the channels of some of the tribu- 
tary rivulets, but, on reaching the empty bed of the 
" CJheria, is soon dried up. 

At one such confluence, close to the edge of the pre- 
cipitous and elevated bank on the left side of the river, 
lies the Post-station of Bbcutaoo,* a wretched village, 
containing about a dozen huts. It is deserted during 
the summer, as is indeed the whole aurrounding dis- 
trict, on account of its " malaria, ""f* which engenders 
a malignant and fatal kind of fever. Whence does this 
noxious miasma arise? The soil is dry and stony; far 
and wide not a marsh is to he seen in this part of the 
country. May not the rapid and copious evaporation of 
the many springs impregnated with oxide of iron, that 
flow in these deep ravines, be the possible agent in pro- 
ducing these baneful exhalational 

The steep ascent beyond this point rendered our pa- 
lanquins useless: nimble horses of a small breed were 

* The name, Bccorditig to H&miltoD, signifieB t place aboanding with gcoi- 
pioDB.— Te. 

t The Hal Aria regiong—called Tarai or Tarajani,— is a tract of country 
from twentj to thirtj miles in width, between the hilU which form (he south. 
era boimdarj of AB8im,Bootan,Nepaul Proper, &c. &c.,aiidtheflatBofHiD- 
doTOui. It is covered with Imurient legelation ; the eihalatjooa from the 
numerous Bpringa which hare th^ rise amoDg the neighboarii^ moDDtaina 
are confined b7 the dense foreeta ; the groimd during spring ia coreted with 
fallen leaves, which are rotted bj the flnt i^ns of the hot season, and to 
tiiese, among other ouises, has been attributed an atmosphere so unhealthy 
that IM Enropean can encounter it for any length of time vrith impunity. 
Its effects were btal to a large body of British troops in 1TT2. The natives 
eaJl it " A^," and suppose that it proceeds from the breath of large ser. 
pents, which they believe to inhabit th« forests of the Himalayas. 



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INHA6ITAS1B OF THE PLAIBS AND IRE MOUNTAINS. 211 

therefore in readiness to bear us" on our further route, 
over the smooth, pebbly surface; while the care of out 
luggage devolved upon a troop of bearers, — thorough 
Mongolians in their appearance, — who carried it in 
light baskets on the nape of the neck, steadying the 
heavy burden bj means of a broad strap placed across 
the forehead. 

How striking is the contrast between the inhabitants 
of the plains and those of the mountain forests of this 
frontier! Never by any chance does one see the lug- 
gage-bearer of the plain carrying any thing upon hia 
back; the heavy tin chests are swung in pairs, — one 
hanging at each end, — on a bamboo pole laid across 
the shoulder; — here, on account of the more convenient 
and easy mode of bearing heavy burdens, h*lf of the 
former number of bearers suffices for the same luggage. 
The inhabitants of these parts are distinguished from 
the Hindoo race, no less by their lighter, and somewhat 
yellowish complexion than by their broad noses and an- 
gular faces; the hair, too, is not cut, but hangs loosely 
down, or is arranged in long plaits. The men wear 
jackets and drawers, instead of the simple web of cotton 
which forms the costume of the Hindoo. Their feet are 
shod with straw sandals, a necessary protection against 
the sharp pebbles. A strong knife, called the " khui^ 
ri," curved inwards, and with a broad end, with which 
they liew down trees as thick as a man's arm, is stuck 
within the girdle, in place of the iron-tipped bamboo 
stafF, or of the long, straight sword, which the inhabitant 
of the low country wears on his shoulder as he marches 
along. Heavy amulets, always formed of one of the 
precious metds, and of Agalmatolith, are here sus- 
pended round every neck. The costume of the women 
dilfers yet more from the simple apparel of the Hindoo 
female; they wear jackets and petticoats, and are fond 
of displaying heavy rings of gold in the ears and 



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212 FAKEERS-BOKDEB COUMTET OF NEPAUL. 

nostrils: they too are not uafrequently armed with the 
" khukri." 

We met numerous Fakeeis, the only travellers who, 
attracted by the many spots of holy ground within the 
kingdom of Nepaul, tread these dreary soUtudes. Each 
one of these beings seemed to be more revolting than 
the last. They are, for the most part, young men, and 
their life is one of ease and good cheer; for, in every 
place their impudence procures them money. Their 
raiment, when, indeed, they have any, is a cloak of 
orange colour; their face is smeared over, as is the 
whole body, with ashes, which gives them a horribly ca- 
daverous hue; their hair, long and disheveUed, is either 
dyed a pale reddish -brown, or covered with a wig formed 
of tufts of camel's hair, and powdered with ashes: not 
unfrequently moreover they put on the top of this, by- 
way of an additional head-dress, their iron pot or stew- 
pan ! Many among them carry a sort of guitar with 
wire chords, or a hand drum. They invariably act the 
part of tyrants towards the poor; often have I seen 
them busily inspecting the. baskets of the heavy- laden 
bearers, and appropriating to themselves their victuals. . 

We now wound up the narrow glen* of a tributary 



* The border countrj' of Xepaill is weU described b; Dr Bucbuun Homil- 
(on M foUoirs : — " Bounding tbe Tornu, to tbe north, u a regioD uearlj of 
the wuae width, eanaatiDg of amall hills which rise graduallj towards the 
north, and w&tered b; maa; streama that spring froia the Houthem faces of 
the first lofty mountajos, to which these hills gradually unite. The channeU 
of these riTers or torrents are filled with fra^pnente of graait« and schistose 
mica; but tbe hills tbemselres are generally composed of clay intemuied 
with yariouB proportions of sand, micft and gravel. Tbe lower part of these 
bills, and some of the a4i<"^i>t plains, are the grand rite of the Saul foreeta. 
Higher up, tbe bills are covered with a Toet variety of trees, and among 
those of tbe Dorth are many pines, and an abundance of the Mimosa, (Atacia 
Cateclai) from which tbe Catechu is made. The hills are in some places 
separated from the high mountsjns by flue valleys of some length, bat cou- 
ddertJily elevated abote tbe level of Uindostan Proper. In tbe country 
weet from the Qangee, these valleye are called by tbe generic name of lloon, 
analogous to the Scotch word Strath; bat towards tbe east the term is oav 



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VALE OF THE EAPTY. 213 

stream, until we reached a chain of hills extending from 
west to east; and crossing its steep ridge b; the Chbria- 
Ghaut, (Pass of the Cheria) entered another and a 
broader valley, which proved to be only a bend of that 
of the Cheria, which we had quitted soon after passing 
.Bechiaco. The forest consists here almost exclusively 
of stately Said-treea, (called Sakita by the natives) the 
timber of which is considered, next to that of the Dal- 
bergia Cissu, the finest in this country, and is conveyed 
from this district to many distant parts; even at Patna, 
it is used for making the many thousand opium chests, 
■which are exported for the Chinese market. 

Before entering the vale of the Raptt, one of the 
most considerable and most interesting valleys of the 
outposts of the Himalayan chain, we were obliged to 
cross the river KnBBoo,* and to proceed, for several 
hours, along a plain covered with travelled fragments 
such as we had continually found beneath our feet in 
the other river-glens. Towards evening the teuts of 
Major Lawrence at lengtli appeared in view ; they were 
pitched at some distance before us, in the retirement of 
a deep valley, beside the village of Hethaura, on the 
-banks of the beautiful Rapty. Here the Prince had 
hailed on the preceding day, and in a little while we 
saw him returning with his suite, all mounted on ele- 
phants, from a hunt, in which their booty had been 
but small ; not a single deer, leopard, nor wild boar had 
rewarded their toils. Uncertain traces only had been 
met with of the rhinoceros and elephant. Besides this 
sudden rencontre with our friends, we were surprised by 
the unexpected and magnificent apparition of a detach- 



known, though nich Talleys u« of frequent oocmrenee. Among the spun 
Mid ridges of the billi there tn nuuiy nurow TaUe;i or glene, which poaBssa 
, » rich Boil, jet are totally neglected. — Tn. 

* Probably the " Karrara" of Hiibiiltoii, which flowi into the Rapt; be- 
li)W Hbthauxa, — Th. 



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21 * DIL BIGEDM THAPPA. 

ment of Nepaulose troopa, which had welcomed the 
Prince on the frontier. A Ncpauleae of the highest 
rank, DU Bikram, (Dil Bigrum Tkappa) nephew of the 
Minister, was at their head; a fine looking young man, 
slender and elegant in hia figure, with verj beautiful 
and delicate, almost feminine features, — ^long, curling, 
black hair, a light, somewhat European complexion, 
and without beard. The uniform worn by the military 
is remarkably showy and picturesque ; it consists of a 
red or blue jacket with slashed sleeves, short white 
linen breeches, a broad saah, and a low sky-blue tur- 
ban, resembling indeed rather a college cap, though 
called by the former name, and adorned in front with a 
silver crescent. They are strong, well-made men, more 
stalwart, and less Mongolian iu their appearance than 
the mountaineers ; their open countenances and hold 
bearing made a most agreeable impression upon us. 
They are admirably drilled, and the word of command 
in use among them is English, though so much corrupt- 
ed as scarcely to be recognized. 

This escort defiled before us on the following morning, 
(the 7th of February) accompanied by four large ele- 
phants, and, advancing in front, guided us through the 
intricacies of those confused ranges of hOls, and of the 
rocky paths of those border forests, to all which the 
kingdom of Nepaul is indebted for its unapproachable- 
ness. Dil Bickram was still beside us, mounted on his 
dapple-grey steed of Chinese blood, which was ever fresh 
and unwearied, notwithstanding the eccentricities of his 
march, as he crossed and re-crossed, the road, dashed 
forward to the front of our long procession, or a^in 
drew up the rear of the whole train. He gave evidence 
of his passion for the chase by firing at every parrot that 
flew within reach. Most ludicrous scenes were caused 
by the officious zeal of hie twenty or thirty vassals, all 
of whom watched his every movement. His greatest 



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BANKS OP THB RAPTY. 216 

pleaaure waa, at each halting-place, to make hia appear- 
aDce in a new costame, each being if possible more 
costlf than the last. Hia usual dress was a short, purple 
Chinese coat, bordered with fur, a round Chinese scull- 
cap of velvet, with four projecting points, tight breeches 
of rich brocade, and white leather Btockings, over which 
were drawn peaked shoes of velvet, or exquisite little 
boots of gold. 

The vale of the Rapty, along which our course lay, is 
one of the most beautiful I ever beheld. The river is 
clear and rapid, though not very broad; and its course 
winding and varied between rocky and broken banks. 
Its margin is richly clothed with beautiful bushes ; the 
giants of the forest here recede, and make way for un- 
derwood of luxuriant growth ; Jitsticia, Leea, Phlomis, 
and many other woody LabiatcB, were resplendent with 
their gorgeous blossoms ; the Bauhinea acandeus, (Climb- 
ing Mountain Ebony) and several varieties of DoUchos 
twine into elegant festoons among the leafy Bummits of 
the graceful Acacias. 

Higher up the stream, the valley, at first wide and 
open, becomes narrower and more rocky. Its rugged 
sides are formed of gneiss, alternating with granite and 
quartz-rock, here hut slightly disintegrated, in compari- 
son of the upper part of the Cheria Ghaut, where I saw 
smooth cliffs upwards of two hundred feet in height, 
which at first sight appeared to consist of sand, but, on 
close examination, proved to he masses of disintegrated 
gneiss : deep hollows are there excavated by the river, 
while these frowning battlements rise lofty and perpen- 
dicular, on either aide above its rocky bed. 

The first three houra of our wanderings through the 
vale of the Rapty were most enjoyable; afterwards, the 
constant crossing from one bank of the stream to the 
other, which brought us into rather too close contact 



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216 BEEMPHED— PASS OF SISWAOHCaBY. 

with its waters, rendered our waj somawliat fatiguing 
and unpleasant.* The valley does not open out until it 
approaches Bheehfhes, the first Nepaulese military 
station ; there ita breadth is bo great as to enable the 
traveller to survey the towering summits and bold fea- 
tures of highland scenery which bound it. The height 
of the nearer hills, I should estimate, by a rough guess, 
to be from three to four thousand feet; they are ^ 
sharp ridged; no broad mountaiu-tops or table-lands 
are to be seen. The valley of the Rapty at Beemphed 
runs downward from E.N.E. to W.S.W. ; but the sharp- 
crested mountains on either side, form an acute angle 
with the course of the glen, and each range seems to 
throw out projecting spurs to meet those of the opposite 
chain. 

From Hethaura to Bheemphed, — our next station, — 
is a distance of some twenty miles. At the latter place 
we rested for the night, and early on the next morning 
(the 8th of February) we set out to ascend the pass of 
SisWAaHDEBT. The road here winds up an extremely 
steep conical hill, formed of aand-stoae, and covered with 
rolled fragments. We reached the summit only after a 
fatiguing climb of three hours: It is covered by a Ne- 
paulese fortress, strong and in excellent repair, which 
seems to render the approach from this quarter, — already 
made sufficiently difficult by nature, altogether imprac- 
ticable to a hostile army. Here, for the first time, I saw 
a few firs (pinus lonffifoUa) upon the hills, mingling with 
the acacias and saul-trees: the temperature, which, in 
the valley below, averaged 15* (66° Fahrenheit) had fidlen 
on the summit, at half-past eight, a, m., to 7" 6' (about 
48° aff Fahrenheit) from which we may fairly infer that 

* Humlton mentiaiu that, from the eitRtordinar; wlndingi of the B&p^ 
in tluB DUTO* defile, it ii croeaed no len than hrenty-two tJmes between 
Hethaon u>d BheNiiidi«d.— Tb. 



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VBOETATIOIJ OF THE SISWAOHUERT PASS. 217 

the height of theh ill is somewhere between five and six 
thousand feet above the level of the saa.* 

Vfk followed, for some time, the ridge of this pass, pro- 
ceeding in a north-westerly direction, and thus enjoyed 
an opportunity of observing the marked difference be- 
tween the north and the south and east sides. The two 
last are bare and treeless, while the former is clothed 
with noble forests:-}- our admiring attention was parti- 
cularly attracted by the dark crimsoned flowers of the 
rhododendron, which, growing to a height of above 
twenty feet, spreads over the northern side of every 
mountain-top in the Siswaghurry range. 

It bears a great resemblance to the rhododendron ar- 
boreuvn of Ceylon ; and the thick clusters of its flaming 
crimson blossoms may be seen, even from a great dis- 
tance, glowing amid the dark verdure of its shining fo- 
liage. The common name by which it is here known is 
" Ourahssi" its flowers, being esteemed holy, are an arti- 
cle of trade usually offered for sale at the temples, and 
the snuff made of the bark is excellent. Besides this 
gorgeous tree, I remarked here two species of oak, grow- 
ing to the height of forty or fifty feet, the " Bhaiish" 
(Quercus semicarpi/olia) and the " Bhalath," — both su- 
perb trees. 

From the heights of Siswaghurry we first obtained a 

* Hamilhm nwntlona, that the name of the fort,—" Chiaapang, or Chee- 
lagkuTTj/ la deriTcd from a epiing of cold water, whieh, according to baro- 
metiicaJ obserrationB, ta situated 5S18 feet abote the ptains of Bengttl." Th. 

■)■ Dr Rofle alludes to this peculiar feature of the Hinmlajas as one of the 
difficoltiea in accurately defining the three sevenJ belts into which he diTidea 
their slope : ^e aajB, " A further difficulty b also produced h; the great 
difference in the legetation of the northern and southern &ceB of the tvTj 
same range or mountain, go that frequeatt; a straight line running along the 
Bommit of the ridge maj be Been diTiding the Iniuriant, arboreous and 
shrubby tegetatioa of the nortbem face from the brown, barren, or grassy 
ooTcrii^ of the southern slope, This difference may be aecnbed in part to 
the greater depth of the soil on the northern face ; but oliiefly, I conceire, 
to the less direct influence of the solar rays on this than on the soutbem 



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21 8 QLEN OP THE TAMBA EHANI. 

view of the beautiful valliea of Nepaul Phopeb. A plain 
of no great extent appears near the horizon to the north ; 
while, in the foreground, a labyrinth of rocky glens, all 
originating iu the steep acclivity on the north-eastern 
side of the Siswaghurry range,* stretiAes to the open 
country below. We soon looked down upon one of the 
most considerable of these glens, as it lay immediately 
below us, bending and winding towards the east-south- 
east ; it was the valley of the Tauba Ehani Nucbt, or 
CoPPBB'HiNB River. . 

A shady and pleasant path through the thick forest 
brought us, by a descent of some three thousand two 
hundred feet, to the margin of the Tamra-Ehani's clear 
waters, near which the wood ceases. Tall ferns, — the 
first we had seen on the continent of Asia, — nearly con- 
ceal the numerous small brooks which gush down the 
ru^ed declivity. The masses of stone which here present 
themselves, — Grauwacke-schist and a loose clay-slate, — 
forming a narrow and indented defile, control the course 
of the river, whicli winds its way in a thousand turnings 
through these laminated rocks. Considerable quanti- 
ties of copper and of iron are found here, and I observed 
slags lying in many places. It is a curious fact that 
cow-dung is here used as fuel for smelting the ore, 
although there is no lack of wood for that purpose. We 
passed not far from the copper mine, but were not per- 
mitted to see the mining operations, nor to examine the 
ore. 

We had scarcely emei^ed from the wild and nagged 
ground at the head of the glen, when we began to per- 
ceive a striking contrast between the improductive waste 
of the wooded ravines through which we had hitherto 
passed, and the careful cultivation of the valley of the 
Tamra Kbani. Here no thicket of uniruitful bushes, 

1 Dangra mootttuna, Slswaghnny or 



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DELIGHTnri. C0irtKA8T8. 219 

no rank exuberance of luxuriant grass is to be seen ; but 
we beheld, spread before us, a richly dressed ralley, 
every inch of it improved, even to the foot of the distant 
tnoantains, and terraced fields laid out on the steep accli- 
vities; while the freshest vernal green, — ^the young 
shoots of barley, their second crop, — gladdened our weary 
eyes. How delightful, after the tedious and arid plains 
of the Indian lowlands, to>enjoy the refreshing prospect 
of fertile and verdant fields; and, instead of the sultry 
atmosphere and burning dust of the banks of the Ganges, 
to breathe the mild and elastic air of these mountain 
recesses! A net-work of little trenches, which catch 
eve»y drop of water that finds its way down the slopes, 
extends between the narrow terraces, presenting no small 
obstacle to the traveller as he skirts the hill-side. 

After a march of an hour and a-balf, we quitted the 
valley, and once more ascended the higher ground on 
the left bank of the stream, where the road zigzags, for 
some distance, up the southern slope of the hill, — 
scorched by the glowing sunshine, — and then continues 
along the top of its broad ridge. This elevation com- 
mands most lovely views of the deeper valleys to the 
westward, gay with green meadows and pleasant vil- 
lages. The red tone of colouring spread over the sand- 
stone bills in the immediate foreground, and the naked 
appearance produced by the absence of wood, "give to 
this landscape a cert^n resemblance to many of those 
in Oreece; but the dreams and illusions to which sach 
reminiscences give rise are speedily dispelled by the 
sight of beautifially cultivated lands, and of clean and 
tidy cottages. Nothing strikes the traveller, coming 
from the flats of Hindostan, more than this last feature 
of the altered scene. There, the eye is wont to behold 
only mud-walled hovels thatched with straw or with 
rashes, — their single opening answering the double pur- 
*pose of door and windows, — or huts constructed of a 
few bamboos, and villages which seem to consist of a 



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220 VILLAGE AECHITECTURE— CHITLONG. 

solid accumulation of filth, while the sole occupation 
to which their inhabitants apply themselves is the manu- 
facture of fuel from cow-dung: how gladly, on the other 
hand, does one here welcome the sight of neat houses 
built of wood or of brick, which display, not cleanliness 
only, but elegance and taste. On the front of the lower 
part of the building is a kind of portico, the roof of 
which is supported by carved pillars, and the four or 
five centre windows of the first floor are decorated with 
a profusion of beautifiil wood-carving, which vividly re- 
minds me of Cairo. The roof is formed of small tiles* 
with a double curvature. Every thing proves that Chi- 
nese art has found apt scholars on this side of the Hima- 
layas. In these villages we remarked, among the neat 
dwellings, a multitude of small chapels, — simple edifices 
of stone with projecting roofe, which contain Lingams 
and images of the gods ; occasionally also temples, of 
six stories in height, elegant fountains and tanks, lined 
with stone to a great depth, and provided with stone or 
metal conduits. 

Towards evening, we reached the plain, which we had 
seen at a distance in the morning, from Siswaghurry. 
It is watered bj a small stream, and bordered by a dense 
forest, extending over the foot of the Chandar-Giri range, 
which, tike a loftj rampart, separates it on the north 
side from the valley of Cathmandoo. We pitched our 
tents in an open space beside the village of Ghitlonq; but 
they aiforded imperfect shelter from the chilliness of the 
night, which, even on our arrival, was most unpleasant. 
When, about the dawn of day, we were preparing to 
start, the thermometer was standing at 2^° (about 37° 
Fahrenheit); however, the climbing of those steep schis- 

* These Uea, — hovever imignifte«iit the cnbject ma; appear, — ht,ie at- 
tracted the attention of other vritere. Dr Buchuum HuniltoD describes 
(hem as flat; of an oblong farm, baiiii^ two loDgltudiual grooves, ode above 
and another below, which fit into the u^ocent tHea, the ithole being amuig-' 
ed and put on irith peculiar neatnegg,— Tb. 



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CHANDAR-aiBI PASS. 221 

tose rocky masBes, of which the south aide of the moun- 
tftins consists, speedily warmed our hemimbed limbs. 
The forest here oonsiata of spiny-leaved oak, with vari- 
ouB species of Bay-tree, Berberia, Vitex (Chaste Tree), 
and a beautifiil variety of Pnmua: the bushes most 
prevalent among the underwood are of the Daphne can- 
nabina, which is remarkable for the fragrance of its blos- 
soms, and from the bark of which a coarse kind of paper 
is manufactured. We recognised with delight, among 
the luxuriant creepers, our own German Ivy, twining 
its tendrils in the humid moss; Violets also, (Viola 
serpens) and PotentUlas, in full flower, were shining fortli 
from its velvety carpet. 

A toilsome climh of two hours and a-half brought us 
to the naked and rocky summit of the mountain, where 
a sharp westerly wind, with a temperature of 4' (41° 
Falirenheit) made us fully sensible that we had gained 
a point of considerable elevation. 

On this narrow path, we met numbers of heavy-laden 
bearers, carrying spices, fruit and salt, or large sacks of 
cotton. This is the only access permitted to the king- 
dom of Nepaul from the south-west; a more easy and 
convenient one does indeed exist, but the Government 
has made it forbidden ground. Report commonly al- 
leges that guards have been stationed to ward off intru- 
ders ; ^e found subsequently that facts do not corrobo- 
rate this statement; the natives are however deterred 
by fear from venturing, even when heavy laden, on that 
tempting path. 

The roof of a half dilapidated house seemed to pre- 
sent an admirable point for obtaining a panoramic view 
of the magniEcent landscape, which was spread out 
below. We scrambled up to it accordingly; but how 
bitter was our disappointment, when a dense mist, sud- 
denly rising, cast its gloomy ^roud over the whole scene '. 
Near as the snowy mountains now were, we could only 
distinguish a vague and spectre-like outline of their 



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222 VALLEY OP CATHHANDOO. 

westemmost peaks; — the three large towns, and the 
numerous villages of the valley of Cathmandoo, undefined 
and melani^ol j-looking, were seen dimly peering through 
the haze. We little knew what glories this unlovely 
weather was concealing from our view, until, on our re- 
turn, we enjoyed the prospect in its fullest beauty. 

We were much struck by observing the great depth at 
which the valley of Cathmandoo lies, in comparison of 
that of Chitlong, in which we had passed the night: the 
difference between their levels may be estimated at 
about eight hundred feet. The height of this pass 
ie eight thousand five hundred feet above the level of 
the sea: the plain round Cathmandoo lies upwards of 
four thousand feet below this elevation; and the Chan- 
dar Giri mountain rises so abruptly, that, from the head 
of the pass, we cast our eyes down an almost perpen- 
dicular declivity of that entire depth. The path, in 
descending, was therefore extremely fatiguing, and not 
without danger; moreover, tlie crumbiing yellow sand- 
stone, of which the whole northern side of this ridge 
consists, and the mica-schist, so abundantly occurring in 
it, — ^which, in a state of disintegration, forms a very slip- 
pery, yellow clay, — offer no secure footing, on which the 
weary traveller may venture to rest. To add to these 
difficulties, the path is so narrow, as to be often ob- 
structed by the trains of bearers, and the groups of 
women and children. 

Who could have imagined that, on mountain paths 
such as these, on which neither horses nor draught-oien 
are put into requisition, the loaded elephant could drag 
on his way? Yet, in the middle of this rugged steep, 
we mot this patient slave, panting under the weight of 
an oppressive burden ! He was sliding, with the utmost 
caution, down the mountain-side; at all the steepest 
points carefully placing his hind feet between his front 
ones, at the same time using his trunk as a fifth foot, 
and thus testing the firmness of each stone before he 



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TANKOT— SGINEBT. 223 

hazar<led his bulky frame upon it. Meanwhile, be seemed 
to know the danger well, and to be full of anxious fear; 
we had ocular demoiutratioii that this was not cause- 
less, in the three or four huge carcases which, on near- 
ing the base of the mountain, we saw lying beside our 
path; every such fall is certain death to tbiB massive 
and unwieldy beast. 

In half-an-hour we reached the vaUey,and found, In the 
neighbourhood of the town of Tamkot, tents prepared for 
us to breakfast in ; near tbem lay another detachment of 
troops, sent forward to meet the Prince. Major Law- 
rence, British Resident in Nepaul, had prepared us for 
a very magnificent reception ; our travelling guise was 
therefore laid aside; and, mounted on horseback, we 
pursued our course along a nearly level plain. The road 
leads, in a north-easterly direction, to Catbmandoo. To 
the north, narrow ranges of hills of moderate height, — 
branches of the Chandar-Giri mountains, — extend as far 
as to the banks of the Boghutht, which, flowing towards 
the south, forces its way through the lofty ramparts of 
the Chandar-Giri, at a point farther east than the pass. 
This breach in the south-western barrier cf the valley 
forms its second approach, to which I have already al- 
luded. 

Crossing one of these low ridges, a splendid viow of 
the capital burst upon us; it stands in a valley watered 
by the many streams tributary to the Bogmuthy. To 
our right, OH the summit of aft eminence, stands Eibta- 
pooB ; before us, to the left, rises, — amid a grove of beau- 
tiful and shady trees, — the Temple of Saubhubath ; here 
and there little bills, richly wooded, break the outline of 
the terraced fields, which are shining in the early stage 
of their lovely verdure. In the horizon tbo glorious 
snow-capt peaks of Dhatabdhq and Gossainthaw are 
towering to the skies; in the middle distance below 
them are the lofty terraced banks of the Bogmuthy, 



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224 MAETABAB SINGH. 

which form the back-ground immediate!; behind the re- 
splendent roofs of the many temples of Cathmandoo. 

Proceeding along narrow but well-paved roada, be- 
tween hedged terraces and smiling villages, we arrived 
at the first bridge of the Bishmdttt, an elegant structure 
of red brick, whose top however is formed merely of 
cross-laid beams, the principle of the arch being un- 
known in this country. !M!uGh industry has been bestow- 
ed on the making of roads ; in each village they are 
neatly paved with bricks, like those in the cities of Hol- 
land. 

A numerous and motley throng had assembled on the 
other side of the bridge ; a long file of soldiers in their 
red and blue jackets, and a troop of elephants, splendidly 
caparisoned with silken stuffs and plates of gold and 
silver, and surmounted by ^Ided " howdaha," had been 
marched hither, and were drawn up to receive the 
Prince. A spacious tent of blue and white cotton, with 
silk curtains, was pitched on the level ground beyond : 
there we were welcomed by Captain Ottley, Assistant- 
British Resident, and Dr Christie, staff-surgeon of the 
small body of British troops in this place, both in full 
uniform. 

We dismounted, and were conducted within the mar- 
quee ; but we had scarcely seated ourselves, when the 
arrival of the Nepaulese Minister, — Martabar Singh, — 
(Magnanimous Lion) was announced. Kis appearance 
was like the rising sun, -Clothed entirely In gold tis- 
sue, resplendent with emeralds, pearls and diamonds, 
and so fragrant of sandal-wood oil and otto of roses, that 
it almost suffocated one! On the breast he wore three 
large plates of gold covered with insignia and inscrip- 
tions, the badges of his dignity ; round his neck hung 
thick strings of pearls ; his head-dress was the flat tur- 
ban of Nepaul, made of Chinese brocade, studded with 
pearls, and surmounted by a bird of Paradise ; his ears 



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BBCBPTION. 225 

were adorned with large hoopa of gold, and hia arms and 
each of hia fingers were encircled with briUia^nts. He 
was mounted on a tall white steed with blue cockades 
and golden trappings. 

Such was the picture presented by Martabar Singh, — 
Minister and Generalissimo of the kingdom of Nepaul, 
^f proud and stately mien, tall, handsome, and cor- 
pulent, with a keen and lively eye, a small aquiline 
nose, a magnificent black beard, and long raven hair. 
He was immediately followed by two of his sons, 
arrayed in every colour of the rainbow. Next to them 
appeared Dill Bickram Thappa, — gorgeous and shining 
beyond what we had ever seen even him before, — and 
Djung Bahadur, — a kinsman of the Rajah, a man of 
very intelligent countenance, by far the most educated 
and agreeable of them all ; he too was overloaded with 
superb silken stuffs, with pearls and glittering arms. 
Twenty or more officers, equipped in simple red and 
white uniforms, — some of whom were veterans with sil- 
very beards, though still vigorous and strong, — brought 
up the rear of the procession. 

Martabar Sin^ advanced to meet the Prince, first made 
a most graceful " salam," then stepping forward about 
two paces, bowed himself over the left, then over the 
right shoulder of the object of his salutations, in a way 
similar to what is practised in embraces on the stage ; 
a second salam, and a retreating step, concluded the 
ceremony, which each of our party was in hia turn ob- 
liged to undergo. His sons too, and the officers, all per- 
formed it with the same formal solemnity, the whole 
operation occupying, as you may imagine, a considerable 
time. 

This done, we seated onrselves on the chairs which 
stood ready in the tent, and a short but most interesting 
conversation took place, during which Major Lawrence, 
Captain Ottley, and Dr Christie, had enough to do to 



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226 NATIVE THIBES. 

satisfy eTeiy claim upon them as ioterpreters, both in 
putting questions and in answering them. 

The interview however soon broke up, as it was now 
time to mount the richly caparisoned elephants, which 
stood in readiness to bear us in triumphal procession to 
the capital. The foreign guests were led to their re- 
spective elephants after a fashion resembliog that in 
which a gentleman leads the fair ladies in a quadrille: 
first advanced Martabar Singh, — on his right hand the 
Prince, on his left, Major Lawrence ; Dr Christie and I 
were conducted in like maimer by a brother of Djung 
Bahadur. We mounted our howdahs ; peacock's tails 
and Chinese parasols were put in requisition, and thus 
we all marched forward towards the city, to the sound 
of a variety of musical instruments, among which bag- 
pipes, clarinets, kettle-drums, bells and triangles played 
the most prominent part. 

An endless multitude of strange and motley figures 
covered the terraced fields on either side of the road. 
We here saw the most singular and varied costumes ; 
among them that of the Bhooteab, the inhabitants of 
BooTAN, with clumsy stuff boots, coarse felt coats, thick 
tufts of hair, and a completely Mongolian physiognomy: 
men and women among them are dressed alike. Thf 
NBWARa," or aboriginal population, are clad, in spite o 

• Pew Bnbjeoto Beem to have been more fertile in diBCUBWona wnong thoa 
acquainted nith the higtariciJ records or the conflicting creeds of these East 
em land«, than that of the various tribes inhabiting the monntaiiiB an' 
pluns of NepauL According to Dr Buchanan Hamilton's account of Nepaol. 
"all that have an; pretensiona to be cansidered abori^nal are b; theit fea- 
tures clearly marked as belon^i^; to the Tartar or Chinese nice, and have ni 
sort of resemblanoe to the Hindoos." Of such abori^nal tribes, that author 
notices no less than 9 or 10, diBtingnished bj rariouj habits and pursuits, 
shades of ciriliiatioa and religious tenete. The Newars, who form the ma- 
joritj of the inhabitants of Kepaul Proper, are described u a race addicted 
to agricultoTe and commerce, and far more advanoed in the arts than any 
other of the mountain tribes. Their style of building, and moat of their arts, 
appear to have been introduced from Thibet, and the greater part still adhere 
to the religion of the Buddhists, but on the other hand, they have adapted 



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BNTET INTO CATHMANDOO. 227 

the cool atmosphere, in little more than a broad Web of 
cotton cloth; the Gorkhas, or conquering race, sport 
jackets and trowaers, and even ahoee. Troops of fakeers 
and of other beggars were slowly advancing before us, 
and uttering most doleM cries as they passed. 

We looked down from our lofty seats at this crowd 
and bustle far below, through which the elephants were 
slowly making their way. The singular and picturesque 
city, — with its gay temples, and elegant brick struc- 
tures,* its gardens, whose orange trees were loaded with 
golden fruit, while plum and cherry trees were in the 
full glory of their blossom, — was extended before our 
wondering eyes. The bridges threatened to give way 
under the mass of human beings, which rushed together 
to see us pass through the la^t branch of the Biehmuttt; 
for our elephants must needs wade through the stream, 
since the bridges are too feeble to support the weight of 
these mighty animals. 

We entered the city itself through several very narrow 
streets, whose entire width was just sufficient to admit 
of an elephant passing along. The rich wood carving 
lavished on the rosettes of the windows, on tho pillars, 
architraves and comers of the roofs, flminded me of 
many an ancient German commercial city ; yet, on the 
other hand, the Oriental character stamped on the whole 
scene is very conspicuous. The gilded roofs of the 



I of <mete, bare r^ected the Lsmu, Uid ha<re & priesUiaod of 
their own, named Bangraa, Theee people partaka freely of evetj kind of 
luimiil food, and are prone to habita of tntoilcatlon. 

* This epthet. nhich, applied to edificea of red brick, ma; appear Bome- 
what inappropriate, U eipluned by the acconnt of Nepaoleae arehil«iitujre 
given by I>t Buchanan Hamilton. He aaye, " The Nepaulen have peculiar 
moulds for the bricka uaed in comicea and other decoiationa, add for the 
front* and ornamental parta of their best housea they make amooth glazed 
bricka, that are very bandEome. They have, in the alloTial matter of the 
plain of Nepaol, large strata of parUcularly line brick-clay, and in the lower 
hilis are found masaes of a hard red clay, called " Limgcka" which they uae 
for painting the vralla of thdr houaea." — Te. 



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228 ABCHITBCJUaE OP THE CITY. 

temples, hung round with hells and adorned with &&gB 
of many colours, and the gigantic im^es of stone, he- 
tray the influence of Chinese taste. The rain, which 
was falling in torrents, did not prevent our gazing with 
surprise at many an ancient and splendid edifice, nor 
admiring the skill in the fine arts displayed in the horses, 
elephants and battle scenes, carved on the houses, the 
rich designs of window rosettes through which the rays 
of light penetrate, the colossal dimensions of the hide- 
ous monsters of stone, (toad-headed lions, dragons and 
rhinoceroses) and the many-armed red-painted images 
of the gods. 

More surprising than all the rest was the coup d'ceil 
presented by the market-place, notwithstanding its mo- 
derate size. On either side of it stands a great temple, 
whose eight stories, with their gilded roofs, are peopled 
by innumerable minas and sparrows. " A flight of broad 
stone steps guarded by two monsters, leads up to the 
entrance of the temple ; above, gigantic rhinoceroses, 
monkeys and horses adorn the edifice. The multitude 
of these strange figures, the stunning noise that re- 
sounded from within, the antique gloomy air of the 
surrounding houses, with their projecting roofs, and 
the solemn grandeur of the whole scene, awakened in 
my mind a feeling as though I had been suddenly car- 
ried back to some city of a thousand years since : I was 
involuntarily reminded of the description which Hero- 
dotus gives of ancient Babylon. For how long a time 
may all these things yet continue to appear exactly as 
they now do ! The durable wood, the indestructible 
stone,* and a people who, like their kindred and in- 
structors, the Chinese, cling to all that is primitive, 

* Deacribed by Dr Bucbanao Hamilton as being found diepoeed in Tertical 
strata, in large maases, ns coaUining much lime, being Tei; fine-grained, 
baving a silky loatie, cutting well, and admirabl; resisting the action of 
the weather Tr. 



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THROUGH THE CITT. 229 

unite in effectually resisting the destroying influence of 
Time. 

We rode on, meantime, through a high, bat narrow 
gate-way, into a court, where we saw several tame 
rhinoceroses, kept here on account of the custom of the 
country, which requires that, on the death of the Rajali, 
one of these creatures should he slain, and imposes on 
the highest personages in the state the duty of devour- 
ing it.'* 

Passing through dark and narrow streets, and travers- 
ing squares, — in which Buddhist pagodas, with their 
raauy-armed images of Mdhadevi, Indra, and ParvaU 
alternate with the Brahminical temples*|" that rise tier 
above tier, — we at length found ourselves at the other 
extremity of the town. 

The gate is, like all the otter gates of the city, a 
simple, tall, white arch, with a large eye painted on 
either side ; indeed every entrance is, according to 
Chinese fashion, adorned with these horrid eyes sur- 
rounded with red borders. On the flat roof above the 
gate, stands a slender iron dragon, with a tongue a yard 
long, exactly of the form usually represented by the 



The dwelling of the British resident is about a quar- 
ter of an hour's ride beyond the town, in the centre of a 
beautiful park, on a little eminence, and its white Gothic 
buildings, although somewhat faulty in style, have an 
extremely picturesque effect, rising among tall fir-trees, 

* Henn, the lawgiTer of the Hindooi, enumeratea the articles of which 
the ofleringa to the mitnei of deceased ancestore should consUt, and which, 
when the ceremon; had been duly perfomiBd, were to be eaten bj the 
Bnthmin and hie gnests ; among these ia the flesh of the rhuioceios.^irB. 

f The creeds, deities and anpentitiooB rites of the Nepaulese ue no less 
diiendSed and intermingled than thdi tribes. Wliile the Brahminism of the 
minority of the popalatian is looked npon b; the natives of Bengal as corrupt 
in the extreme, the Buddhism of the remainder is not unnuied with divinities, 
rites and costoms borrowed from the Fantheon and the sacred books of the 
Hmdoos.— Tk, 



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230 BIVERS AND GNVIBONS. 

witli the snowy Alpine range in the back ground. We 
found the interior of the house very roomy, hut so per- 
meable in every part by the opea air, that it appeared 
to us scarcely habitable in this spring-like and^ to say 
the least, temperate weather. The fire was never suf- 
fered to expire on the hearth during the first eight days ; 
for the thermometer very frequently stood, about sun- 
rise, at ^^ (33» Fahrenheit) or even at the freezing 
point. At noon, with a cloudless sky, the temperature 
mounted again to from 20 to 22° (from 77° to 80°.) 
Continuous rain was a rare occurrence ; on the other 
hand, about seven o'clock in the morning, dense mists 
often rose, which lasted during the whole day. 

Tlie town of Cathmandoo stands not far from the 
lowest point of the valley, at the spot where the Bish- 
mutty flowing from the north-west, and the Bogmuthy 
from the north-east, unite their waters. On the op- 
posite side of the Bogmuthy, at the distance of about a 
mile from Cathmandoo, Ues the second city of the valley 
of Nepaul, Lalita Patau, which is said, in days of yore, 
to have surpassed its rival in size and importance. The 
greatest extent of the valley is from east to west; its 
highest level is in the north-western part, its lowest 
in the south, at the point where the Bc^muthy flows 
out of it. One of its most remarkable features is the 
natural terracing of its steep sides, which has been ex- 
tended and improved by art, the most rugged and 
abrupt declivities having thus been transformed into 
gently sloping terraces, along the whole extent of which 
however it is neceaaary to pass in order to reach the 
mountains, from whatever point the ascent may be vai- 
dertaken. 

On the third day after our arrival, (the 12th of Febru- 
ary) the ceremony of our reception by the Rajah took 
place. His elephants were sent to convey the Prince 
and his suite. We were conducted to the usual recep- 



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AUDIENCE OF THE KAJAH. 231 

tion-palace, — a sort of court-lioase; but were not admit- 
ted to the proper " Dwrbar," — the Royal ResideDce; the 
interior of the latter however Is said to be very shabby, 
and even its exterior is by no means imposing. 

The large wooden building, in which the reception 
took place, has certainly no resemblance to a palace. 
It contains dark staircases, and rooms filled with dust 
and with old armour. The audience-chamber is on the 
third floor. Two rows of chairs were placed at the sides, 
and a couple of sofas against the wall at the end of the 
apartment. The dirty yellow hangings were but par- 
tially concealed by old and very bad French engravings, 
and portraits as large as life, among which I remarked 
a Napoleon with cherry cheeks, and the whole succes- 
sion of the Rajahs of the last century, as well as many 
of their kinsfolk, all painted, after the flat and rude 
manner of the Chinese, by native artists. Coverlets of 
white cotton served instead of carpets. No display of 
wealth or magnificence appeared, save in the costly and 
brilliant costumes of 'the Kajah and of his courtiers and 
household. 

Upon the divan to the left aide of this presence-cham- 
ber, sat the young Rajah (he is only sixteen years of 
age) and beside him his father, the deposed sovereign : 
both have quite the air of rogues, — the young Rajah 
even to a greater degree than his father. If his face 
had not that dis^reeable expression, which he has 
heightened by the habit of distorting his mouth and 
nose abominably, he might, with his lai^e black eyes, 
his long, finely shaped, aquiline nose, and his small, 
delicate mouth, have been reckoned very handsome. 
Young as he is, his actions prove that the opinion formed 
of him from his outward man, is not an erroneous one. 
He appears to have every quality best fitted to make an 
accomplished tyrant. The &,ther, — a man of milder dis- 



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232 COURT SCENES. 

position, — has still many adherents; but, fortunately for 
the country, the real ruler is Martabar Singh, 

Both Rajahs were not only magnificent in their ap- 
parel, but literally overloaded with gold, gems and bril- 
liants. 

The divan on the right-hand side waa occupied by the 
Rajah's three younger brothers, boys of eight, ten and 
twelve years of age. The two elder ones are already 
married. 

The Prince sat on the side row, nest to the Rajah, and, 
as I took my seat at some distance and on the same side, 
I could, to my great regret, follow but little of the con- 
versation. Meanwhile, it afforded me no slight amuse- 
ment to see how Martabar Singh made a point of show- 
ing off his power, as he now rose, now again seated 
himself: for all those present, even the members of the 
Royal Family, are obliged to stand up the instant he 
rises; there was therefore an incessant rustling up and 
down, and he took care moreover to give occasion for 
perpetual bowings and salutations. 

At the conclusion of the audience, presents were dis- 
tributed ; various and costly furs, Chinese silken stuffs, 
and beautiful weapons. My turn too came to stand up 
and to receive a fur dress made of otter's skins, a po- 
niard, and a " khukri" in a gilt scabbard. The Rajah 
touched my hand, which honour, graciously conferred 
on me, I was instructed to acknowledge by a low salam, 
while Martabar Singh threw the gifts over my arm. 

The following day we visited a very ancient place of 
pilgrim^e, in the neighbourhood of Cathmandoo, — the 
celebrated sanctuary of Sambhubath. It stands on one 
of those isolated sand-stone hills, of which several rise in 
this plain, apparently unconnected with the surrounding 
ranges of hills, though their formation is identical. This 
monument of antiquity, — a bell-shaped structure, from 



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HEPAULBSG SANCTITABIE8. 233 

fifty to sixty feet in height, above which tower the 
twelve stories of the gilded temple, — is BUirounded by 
trees of great age and of immense size. A flight of 
neariy three hundred steps leads to the summit of the 
hill on which it stands. At the upper end of the stair 
lies, upon a stone pediment, the thunder-bolt of Indra,* 
a thick gilded stafT, seven feet long, terminating at each 
end in a sort of sceptre-crown, the form of which re- 
minded me of the French fleur-de-Iys, In the vicinity 
of the great sanctuary, there are various other temples, 
containing inextinguishable fire, and a multitude of 
figures of Buddha. Pilgrims from Bootan, and Fakeers, 
flock in numbers to these sacred shrines-, we saw also on 
the day of our visit, a procession of young maidens as- 
cending the height; they had decked their hair with the 
red blossoms of the rhododendron, and were themselves 
for the most part not without beauty. 

Another sanctuary, of Brahminical origin, named 
Pasdpatihath, rises upon the summit of a similar hill. 
Its doora are of massive silver, and its architecture, 
which in other respects is by no means remarkable, 
abounds in gold. The interior was full of monkeys and 
of young cows. The former, of the Rhesus species, 
{Inuus Rhesus) which here, equally in Buddhist and in 
Brahminical fanes, is treated with the greatest parti- 
ality and respect, and inhabits the groves around every 
temple. 

The sanctuaries of Handagono were the objects of 
our excursion on the 16th, as was on the 17th the 
ancient temple-city of Bhatgokq, distinguished, in former 
days, for the learning of its priests ; in the latter we did 
not find much to interest us. 

I became acquainted with the animal creation of 
the valley of Cathmandoo by means of a great battue, 

' The Jupiter of 



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23* BATCTE-EXCTESION. 

arranged hj Uartabar Singh, on the 13th and 14<th of 
February. Two regimenta were called out, to tread 
down the jungle, and the birds were so much alarmed 
by the noise, that man; of them rushed against the dri- 
vers, aa if robbed of their senses, and were thus caught 
by the hand. Great numbers of them were also set up- 
on by the Kajah'a trained hawks. The Prince received 
specimens, — living and dead, — of all that this chase 
afforded ; so that, for three days, I was engaged in strip- 
ping and preparing the skins of the victims, assisted by 
two servants who performed the coarser part of the 
work. A few Civet cats, beautiful Nepaul pheasants, 
thrushes, woodpeckers, parrots, &c. &c., were numbered 
among the booty. 

After witnessing, on the 19th, a grand review of the 
Nepaulese troops, with their artillery and their ele- 
phants, we availed ourselves of the permission gra- 
ciously vouchsafed us, to see something of the interior 
of the country by making a tour to the valley of Nota- 
KOT, to which no European has penetrated for many 
years past. The Minister's stout mountain ponies were 
prepared for our use; and, accompanied by Captain 
Ottley, — whose presence, from the delicacy of his consti- 
tution, rather impeded than facilitated our progress on 
the journey, — ^we started on the 20th of February. 

We soon quitted the lowest part of the valley of Cath- 
mandoo, and gradually ascended the terraces of alluvial 
soil, through which the four branches of the Bogmuthy 
to the north-east, and the three of the Bishmutty to the 
north, have hollowed out deep clefts. In many places 
we found cuts of more than 200 feet in depth, affording 
admirable opportunities for studying the strata. The 
banks between the streams are most carefully divided, 
from the lowest to the highest point, into terraces, vary- 
ing from two to four feet in height according to the 
elevation of the ground, and every inch is rendered 



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GEOLOcnr OP the talley, 233 

available for cultivatioo. This gives to tlie valley the 
appearance of an imUieQae amphitheatre, these terraces 
forming the tiers all round. 

Here and there, in the steep ramparts that enclose 
the valley,* I counted upwards of fifty different strata, 
consisting of beds of clay of the most various colours, 
alternating with sand, — fine and coarse, — ^which, like 
the clay, is more or less intermingled with mica, and 
also contaiuB larger fragments of mica schist and of gra- 
nite. In the layers of blue clay, kidney-shaped lumps 
of black charcoal, and a species of clay abounding in 
humus, are found in great quantities; those of the latter 
are known by the name of Ko7iJi!ar,f and are used as 
manure on the fields. + 

• Those writers best Bcquainted with the grait nJley from which oar 
author waA thoe ascending, agme in auppo^og th&t it was formerly a lake, 
which gradnall; depoaited the sllaviaJ matter that forms the different nib- 
strata of the plain. The extent of the lake, Dr Bachauan Hamilton informi 
ns, may he ereiynhere traced b; that of the alluiial matter, oboTC the eige» 
of which generally appear irregularly shaped large Etones, which, haring 
rolled down from the hills, had stopped at the water's edge, as is osual in 
the lakes of hill; countries. The remembrance of the lake is preserved in the 
mythotc^cal fiibles of the natiTes, both Brabmiiucsl and Buddhist, treditian 
affirming that one of the gods, with a blow of his scimitar, cleft the moun- 
tains, and that the Bogmathy forthwith issaed through the g^>, which now 
forms its narrow gorge. While the lake existed, the two hills of Bambhtmoth 
and Pasnhatlnath most have appeared as islands in the nudst. — To. 

f BlTTEB, in his " Erdttiinie" (AMa, vol. iii., p. 67,) giru this name as 
" Koncha." Fromthe eiperimenU he has hitherto made.itappearsprDboble 
that they are the beds of Infiuoria. — EuiIOB. 

:|: Dr Royle, in describing the geology of the great Gangetic Valley, Mya 
that in most parte calcareous -particleii are intenniied with the sandy smI, 
and with the substratum 'tn which clay predoioioates, aesnming in many 
places the form of spongy cavernous nodules, remarkable especially from 
their being so abundant as occasionally to ^ve the appearance of the sur- 
face bdng covered as with a fall of lai^ hail-stoDcs, and forming the eiten- 
mvely diffused Kanhir formation of India. That of Nepaui ia described by 
Dr B. Hamilton as a block substance resembling clay, and constituting a 
large proportion of the alluvial matter, approaching very near to the na- 
ture of turf, and much intenniied with leaves, bits of stick, fruits and 
other vegetable eiuvise, the produce of plants eimilai to those now growing 
on the neighbouring hills. He says it is called " ffoncAa"' by the Newars, 
who dig it out in large quantities, and apply it to their fields as mannre. 



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226 TOWNS AND VILLAGES— KAULU PAS9. 

The first town we reached waa Baladchi, a place dis- 
tinguished hy its many temples, and its great traffic in 
spices and dyes; it is situated on the western range of 
hills, — the boundary of the principal vaUey, — about three 
hundred feet above the level of Cathmandoo. More in- 
teresting is the village of Dabumtalla, on a sharply 
projecting tongue of ground between two deep branches 
of the Bishmutty. 

In an hour and a-half we arrived at Chitpooh, the 
last village of the valley of Cathmandoo, of the whole 
of which it commands an extensive, though not particu- 
larly beautiful view. Blocks of granite and of gneiss in 
great numbers cover the ground; yet gneiss does not 
occur in situ till the cliffs, from 300 to 400 feet above 
that level, where it is in conjunction with mica schist. 
The path, although much trodden and enlivened by nu- 
merous bearers, pilgrims and fakeers, is jet very bad, 
and quite impassable for any beast of burden. For a 
considerable distance it skirts the western side of a chain 
of hills that extends from north-east to south-west. We 
were obliged to cross three or four branches of the Bish- 
mutty, before reaching the foot of the Eaulia Pass. 

Here agriculture has, on every side, taken complete 
possession of the land to the extermination of all wood ; 
even to a great height on the Eaulia Pass, we found 
capital soil, everywhere laid out in terraces: the whole 
western side of the chain of hills of Darumtalla is richly 
supplied with water, springs and purling brooks abound- 
ing in every part, though the absence of trees might lead 
one at first sight to suppose the contrary. In six hours 
we gained the head of the pass and our night's quarters, 

He BdilB, that the rirera that puts throogh thie Eoncha haTe wuhed from 
ita Btrals another harder and bUckcr subatuice, but still haTing so strong a 
reeemblance to it that it ia called "Ha-Eoacka" by the natiree, who sup- * 
pose it to be decayed charcoal; an opinion, thf truth of nhich however 
aeemed to him incompatible with the great aiie of some of its masses.— Tk. 



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VIEW OP THE HIMALAYAS. 237 

— a bungalow, erected by Mr Hodgson, at a beigbt of 
two tbousand feet, near the summit of the tnouataiii- 
peak. Unfortunately the shades of evening prevented 
us from enjoying a full prospect of the chains of moun- 
tains. Of the Himalayas, we saw only the Dhatabus 
group, still irradiated by the crimson glow of sunset : all 
tlie others were wrapt in clouds. Early in the morning 
of the 21at of February, tbe most glorious and enchant- 
ing landscape burst upon our view, that . imagination 
could picture in any highland scenery: a boundless 
ocean of gigantic snowy mountains, towering one behind 
the other on the clear horizon; four distinct ranges were 
visible; the peak of Dhayabun in the north-west seemed 
almost to vanish amid so many other giants : hut lo ! in the 
north, while we were gazing at the huge Gossaibtham its 
eastern surface caught the bright glow of morning light. 
Now again our attention was attra«ted to the W.N.W., 
where a sharp and lofty summit seemed to pierce the 
very skies, its three needle-like peaks, one after the other, 
illuminated with the most exquisite crimson tints. We 
could hardly venture to believe it the Dhawala Giri 
itself; yet, according to its position, it could he no otiicr. 
Our maps, the compass, and the testimony of several 
old men, soon removed all doubt. Who could have ima- 
^ned that a distance of thirty German miles* could thus 
shrink into nothing? It was an overpowering impression, 
filling the soul with awe. The realization of a perpen- 
dicular altitude of a German mile.'f* there it stands, like 
a giant spectre, and in vain does the astounded beholder 
seek for similes whereby to shadow forth the sublimity 
of the spectacle: I can only say that the outline of the 

* Upwards of & bnndred aJid tMrty-eight English milea,— Tr. 

i- Mr HamiltoTi, in his account of Hindratim, gives tbe lieightof Dhawaln 
Giri (or the White Hoimtuii) at exceeding 36^2 feet aboTe the level uf the 
■«•. Dhayabun, he gives »s 24,768, and states that it is visible from Patna,, 
a distance of 162 geographical (about 186 statnCe} miles. Dr Wallich marks 
the height of OMSunthao, 21,710.— Th. 



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238 MOUNTAIN SCENES— BHOOTBAB. 

Alps of Switzerland, so deeply engraven in my memory, 
now ehrunk into comparative inaignifieance, and as it 
were vanished into nought. 

At sunrise, I found all the eastern and south-eastern 
slopes covered with ice; our thermometer meanwhile 
had sunk, at half-past six, a.m. to 3^° (40° Fahrenheit) 
although a little while before, it had been standing at 
6° (about 43-4° Fahrenheit). 

As we scumbled down the steep declivity of the 
northern side of the Eaulia, we marked the rolling va- 
pours, resplendent with every gorgeous tint of purple 
and of red, gradually filling the depths of the vallies 
below. Thick bushes of fragrant Daphnes clothed the 
cliffs, till, after a descent of an hour and a half, we 
reached a table-land, on the nortli-east side of the 
Eaulia, a thoroughly Alpine stretch of prairie-ground. 
The chieftain of a tribe of Bhooteas,* surrounded by his 
wild retainers, all clad in moat singular garb, had there 
pitched his camp. Farther down, the path presented 
qtiite an animated scene, from the multitude of bearers, 
of whom the larger proportion were females, laden with 
heavy burdens, — the varied products of the sultry valley 
of Noyakotf, — pine-apples, oranges, betel-leaves, sugar- 

* Mr Hamilton, In hie " DescrJpUan of Hmdost&n," infonns ns th»t, be- 
Bides the countriea irhich we coll Thibet and Bootan, the fihooteaa, throttgh 
the irhole tract between the men Caii and Teestti, ooonpy the Alpine re- 
^oa adjacent to the snow; peaba of the HimaJajw on both eiilea of the 
mountuns, called by the natives of the South, Bhote, Thoa this race is 
scattered through the mountain-redone on the borders of Thibet, afCenrards 
Tiated by oni author. The prindpal support of th™ countij is its mines 
and numerous flocks of sheep, goals and cattie; the quantity of grain raised 
bdng inconaderable. The higher Bhootea Tillages in the tract between the 
rirets Call and Danli are entird; deserted in itinter, all aeeesa to them being 
prevented by the snow, from Ocl^ber to May. This siugnlaT race is of Tar- 
tar origin, and presenes a striking resemblance in laogiu^ and personal ap- 
pearance to the Chinese Tartars of Thibet, and a great Teneratian for tbe 
Lamas; and, though their religion is much mixed with Brahminism, they are 
regarded with hatred by tbe other hill tribes, as cow-killers, and, as snob, ont- 
easts of the worst descriptjon.— Tr. 

• Mentioned by other writers as bdng two thousand two hnndnd feet 



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AOEICOT.TUBAL ECOKOMY. 239 

cane, and the garlic so highly prized in Cathmandoo, 
all carried on the back, and aapported by a bead-band 
across the forehead. Our road lay through a succession 
of hamlets surrounded by fields, whose enclosures were 
formed of Spurge (Ev^photHa antiqaomm) with stems 
often as thick as a man's thigh. 

The terracing is here carried out even upon precipitous 
chasms and deep ravines; in many places, the terraces 
are three times as high as they are broad, and the in- 
ventive skill of the mountaineers has made them serve 
the additional purpose of stables for the cattle. Hori- 
zontal poles are stuck in, so as to project ^m the upper 
edge of each terrace-wall, and mats are thrown over 
them; imder the sheltering cover thus provided, the 
whole herd is made to stand, in regular order. The 
next day the stable is moved up to tlietier immediately 
above: and thus the trouble and expense both of build- 
ing stables and of manuring the land are dispensed with. 

We found ourselves, after much ascending and de- 
scending, in a lofty forest, the first we had met with on 
this side of the valley of Cathmandoo. It consists en- 
tirely of umbr^eous trees; Erythrina, Skorea, Bau- 
hinia, &c., with an underwood of Carissa and Justicia. 
The soil is a compact red clay with a large admixture 
of mica; chfis of mica-schist and gneiss occurring but 
rarely. At length we slid down an almost perpen- 
dicular declivity, from eight to nine hundred feet in 
depth, ovei^rown with thick bushes, at the foot of 
wMch we found ourselves on the rocky bank of a 
little stream, whose name we could not ascertain, but 
which was distinguished by the pale green hue of its 
clear waters. We followed its course till the point of 
its confluence with the Baloo Tadi, whose channel is 
less rocky, though the banks continue very steep. The 
b>«ar then thkt of Cathmuidoo, mmI ooinhabitkble daring the liolt«rt wbsqh, 
from the prev&lence of the Ayul. — Ta. 



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240 TADl AND TEISOOIOONOA. 

bed of tbe latter is sand; and almost entirely flat ; a 
fourth part only of its surface was covered with watery 
all the rest being cultivated land, and chiefly laid out in 
sugar plantations. A few miserable straw huts, and a 
potter's oven standing in the open air, in which water- 
jars, formed of a beautiful micaceous clay, were under- 
going the process of baking, over a Are fed with the 
favourite fuel of Nepaul — cow-dung — were the only signs 
of habitation that presented tliemselves, upon the road 
which finally led us to the real Tadi river, — a broad and 
beautiful, though very shallow stream. Flowing down 
from the north-north-east, it unites itself, just beyond 
the spot where it receives the waters of the Baloo Tadi, 
(Little Tadi) with the Tkisoolounqa. 

On the other side of the Tadi, rises the mountain of 
Noyakot. The warm climate of the lower part of the 
valley here, produces a vegetation totally different from 
that of the plain of Cathmandoo. At the foot of the 
mountain, which is richly wooded, we found a beautiful 
species of Bamboo, — also the Butea frondosa, the Fe- 
ronia, (Elephant Apple) and other Aurantiaceas, — se- 
veral varieties of the fig-tree, {Ficua in/ectorta, latifoUa, 
&.C.), among which was one unknown to me, with beau- 
tiful dark-red fruit; and higher up, a shady wood, con- 
sisting of various species of Laurus, intermingled with 
many varieties of Gretma, Bavhinia, Sec, &c. 

Without turning aside to visit the city of Noyakot,' 

* No^Bkot, {Kew Port} the key of Nepaul Proper on the Thibti Bide, ii 
Tennuk&ble as having been. In 1792, the ne plus ultra of the lictoriouB Chi- 
nese armi, though rituated within anij 36 miles of Cathmandoo, uid 60 of 
the BriUsh territor; in the Beng&l Preridenoy. The motive vhiah led tbe 
Celestial Empire to hazard so bold and so remote a compugn was lengeance 
against the ambitious Oorkhss, who. having in 1T6S conquered Nepaul, had 
turned their arms agaiost the Grand Lamas of I«b8s and Teshoo Loomboo. 
The result of the Chinese inTaiioQ was, that the R^jah of Nepaol concluded 
a treat; on ignominious terms, and became nominall; tribntary to Chma, 
though it has ever been the wise policy of that emiore, uofonrown, to leave 
Nepanl in its independence. — Tb. 



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BHSIITEB OP NOTAKOT. 2*1 

we immediately ascended the steep mouDtain to the 
sanctuaiy. The umbrageous forest sooq came to an 
end, and the hea.t became most oppressive, until, at the 
end of an hour^s climb, we gained the summit and the 
temple that crowns it. According to a rough estimate, 
its elevation above the vale of the river may be between 
three and four thousand feet. 

This mountain is no solitary peak, but rather the last 
and the most pointed summit of a ridge which rises to a 
much greater height, and stretches far towards the 
north, — ^the Mahuiehdbl. Two separate shrines are 
situated on this hill of Noyakot; the lower one, the ac- 
cess to which is by means of a flight of steps somewhat 
exceeding one hundred in number, is the larger of the 
two, and contains a multitude of strange and grotesque 
figures of animals : it ia rich in wood-carvings and 
Totive offerings, weapons and vessels formed of metals 
of every sort, but the whole is filthy beyond description. 
The upper one is much smaller, built almost entirely of 
brick, and devoid of all ornament: the low story of 
wood, on its plain and lofty substructure, is the only 
part adorned with beautiful carved windows, and dis- 
plays, as does also the roof, considerable taste. Between 
the two sanctuaries stands the Durbar, a royal palace 
of small size and built of brick, but singular and strik- 
ing in its appearance, and surrounded by pleasure- 
grounds dignified with the name of gardens. 

The magnificent view of the valley of the Trisoolgunga 
is the best reward which this mountain offers to those 
who scale its heights; and its temple structures, with 
their gilded roofs, foim an incomparable foreground. 
But, alas ! the beautiful valley and the city that lay at 
our feet, were objects unattainable by us. The Umits 
of our tour were fixed; we returned as we had come, 
and saw on our way, at the foot of the mountain, the 
splendid edifices of the " Great Dwrbar," architectoral 



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2*2 EETUEN TO CATHMANDOO. 

monumeots, quite . unique ia their 8t;le. The wood- 
caiTing of tlie windows seems as imperishable as the 
liard bricka of flaming red of which the whole is con- 
structed. In the extensive garden of this palace we saw 
very lai^ beds of pine-apples. The banana flourishes 
here without culture or care. 

Towards evening we set out on our toilsome march, 
retracing our steps towards the capital. Our continued 
and severe exertions were however so richly repaid, that 
for a long time the weariness of our limbs was altogether 
forgotten. Before the sun sank to rest, we had gained 
a commanding height, from which we enjoyed a full 
viewofDhawala-GiriandGoesainthan, bathed in burning 
tints by the deep efFulgence of the parting orb. The 
prospect of those thousands of ice-clad pinnacles, now 
glowing, now fading, in every variety of brilliant or of 
exquisitely delicate hues, — afforded us an enjoyment 
beyond the reach of comparison, but which left an im- 
pression that nothing can ever efface. 

While the shades of approaching night were fast thick- 
ening around us, our path was by no means free from 
danger; however, we arrived without any misadventure 
befalling us, at the little bungalow on the Pass of the 
Kaulia, where we rejoined our travelling companions; 
and on the following day we returned by the same route 
we had followed in coming, to the city of Cathmandoo. 
The days allotted for our sojourn in the kingdom of 
Nepaul were fast drawing to a close. A visit to Marta- 
bar Singh in his own palace, and a farewell audience of 
the BAJab, were the points of interest in the latter part 
of our residence in its capital. Our leave-taking was 
celebrated by a thoroughly Nepaulese entertainment, 
which consisted in cutting off the heads of a> number of 
huge buffaloes, with the peculiar weapon commonly used 
here for that purpose, — a short but extremely heavy sabre, 
curved inwards, and shaip on the inner edge, — known 



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EXTBAOBDIirABT ENTEBTAINHEHT. 243 

by the name of "Kora." After tbe most distinguished 
personages of the court liad displayed their akill in de- 
capitation, Martabar Singh himself doffed his gorgeous 
robe, — woven of peacock's feathers and silk, — seized the 
short sabre, sprang forward with the greatest agility and 
grace, and fetching a tremendous blow, hewed down a 
young bufiialo on the spot, cleaving its whole body 
asunder, by a stroke of the " Kora" immediately be- 
hind its shoulder-blades! 

To-morrow we shall depart from this most interesting 
city, following the same route by which we penetrated 
into Nepaul, to re-enter the flat plains of British India, 
and to visit Benares and Delhi. 



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SEVENTH LETTEE. 




Wb arrived at Sugouli, on the let of March, oia 
Bheemphed and Hethaura. At that place we remained 
for eereral days, on account of a tiger-hunt, which 
it had been arranged should take place in the neigh- 
bourhood. The Bettiah Rajah had sent twenty ele- 
phants for that purpose; ten more had been plaoed at 
the disposal of the hunt by the Rajah of Nepaul. These 
preparations made, we set out for the forests, in com- 
pany with several English fiends, lovers of the chase, 
who had joined us at Bissouli; and day after day, the 
hunt was carried on with inde&tigable zeal. 

On the second day, a tigress was beat up, with her 
whelp ; the latter was shot dead by the Prince, and the 
mother was likewise wounded, but she did not charge, 
and finally escaped in the thick jungle. In the course 
of the following days, several wild boars, axis-deer, 
( Qervua porctimsj a civet-cat, and several peacocks and 



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jungle-fowl were brought down; but not one tiger was 
even seen : we wearied our elephants in vain. 

At length, on the last day of the hunt, (the 8th of 
March) the drivers roused a large and powerful tiger, 
where we should least have expected it, in a field of 
Cajan. There was in its appearance none of that 
grandeur which I had expected: it walked away softly, 
slowly and clumsily, like a dog that has had a good 
cudgelling ! A piece of marshy ground retarded its 
escape, which was soon rendered impossible by a shot 
in the leg. The next ball entered Hiq heart, and the 
tiger fell dead upon the spot. 

It was a mighty beast: from the snout to the tip of 
the tail it measured about eleven feet, and a very suffi- 
cient load it was for the elephant that bore it off the 
field. I had great difficulty in preventing the natives, 
through whose villages we passed with our booty, from 
plucking out all the hair of the beard; in a short time 
one side had actually been plucked bare, and nothing 
now remained but to tear out the hair of the other side 
myself to remove the possibility of its being stolen. On 
account of the great heat, the skin was taken off, with 
the assistance of several butchers, that very night, that 
■we might secure it in all its beauty, and carry it off with 
us as a trophy of the chase. 

We were now once more in the flat country, and, as 
the journey was to be performed after the usual fashion in 
palanquins, a separation of our party must needs take 
place. I travelled in the second detachment, with Mr 
Fortescue; and setting out on the 10th of March, we 
proceeded via Gorucpoor and Azimgur, and reached 
Benares at the end of a four-days' march. 

Benabbs is in my opinion the most beautiful of all the 
Indian cities we have hitherto seen. It extends along the 
banks of the noble river, forming a wide crescent of majes- 
tic buildings, — countless mosques, minarets, pagodas and 



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246 BENIBES. 

palaces. All these splendid edifices are of a remarkably 
beautiful red sand-stone, found in quarries near the city. 
The motley inhabitants, whose real numbers have scarce- 
ly been ascertained, move and jostle on, the live-long 
day, in the crowded streets, and on the banks of the 
Chinges, which are almost every where provided with 
broad flights of steps, — " Ohavis," — to enable the pil- 
grims to descend with ease and comfort to the margin 
of the sacred stream. Ko other city that I have seen 
presents as lively a picture of the mode of living of the 
people of India, their manners and their customs, as 
Benares. How poor and monotonous in comparison of 
it is that great metropolis, Calcutta, so often extolled 
by the English, — ^wedded to all their home luxuries, — 
because, forsooth, roast beef and pickles, and everything 
that appertains to good living and to " comfort," may 
there be had in abundance, to their very heart's con- 
tent ! 

The heat is to be sure great enough in Benares ; we 
had to endure a temperature of from 25° to 26° (89° to 
91° Fahrenheit) on our way hither; and even in the 
airy tent pitched in the garden of tlie house in which - 
we are lodged, — the residence of Major Carpenter, — I 
should feel disposed to give myself up to quiet contem- 
plation, did not time forbid any such luxurious indo- 
lence. Musquitoes too are super-abundant here, to the 
no small detriment of our night's repose. 

The few days of rest in Benares passed rapidly away 
in sight-seeing, among the ancient and very remarkable 
mosques and temples of this far-famed city. We quitted 
it on the J9th of March, and halfa day's journey brought 
ua to Allahabad, a city much resorted to as a place of 
pilgrimage. At seven o'clock a.m., on the 26th of 
March, we entered LnosNOW, (the natives pronounce it 
Lachno) after traversing, in our palanquins, the weary 
plain that extends from Allahabad, and passing through 



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P1AIS3 OF INDIA. 247 

the town of Caumpoob, spending Maundy Thursday, and 
Good Friday itself, en route, as heathen among the 
heathen. 

The plains in this part of India have a singularly dis- 
mal aspect: the carefully cultivated fields of oil plants, 
ricinus, barley, spelt and other kinds of grain, here 
make way for a sandy waste, destitute of all traces of 
vegetation; or for a liard, parched, clayey soil, from 
which every green blade is removed aa fast as it springs, 
by the destroying hand of the grass-cutters; this deso- 
lating work being in these parts a profitable trade. Trees 
are a rare apparition here; it is only in the neighbour- 
hood of the mud-built hovels clustered into wretched. 
villages, and of the filthy towns surrounded with mounds 
of rubbish, that an occasional group may be seen, — man- 
goe-trees, intermingled with Acacias and with Peepul 
trees, — under whose shade travellers, — Moslems or Hin- 
doos, — have pitched their tents. Tlie brown, half-naked 
Hindoos, crawl and squat together beside their rude buf- 
falo-carts, while the Moslems, clean and neat in their 
apparel, with their ample and flowing garment of white 
muslin and the characteristic turban, sit cross-legged in 
front of their tents, smoking their hookahs, surrounded 
by a circle of naked children, and of women wrapped in 
large shawls, of whom nothing is to be seen save the 
black rings painted round their eyes, and their feet, 
loaded with ornaments of gold and silver. These people 
are unmoved by the groans or the measured and doleful 
cries of the palkee-bearers ; they scarcely condescend to 
bestow a glance, much less a salam, on the stranger, as 
he inquisitively peeps forth from within hia palanquin. 

Such groups aa these present however the only va- 
riety that can tempt the traveller, on his sultry and 
weary way, to clear his eyes of the thick dust, to rouse 
himself from his lethargy, and to look abroad. Petty 
annoyances are as unfailing a feature in the history of 



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IF PALANQUIH JOUENET. 

lelf : now a pole of hia palanquin 
is luggage-bearers (Bangiioalla) 
igain, he arrives at a station, 
igle palanquin-bearer, or at any 
umber he haa paid for, is forth- 
nins in such a case, but violently 
l£ or fist, these miserable crea- 
lity has long accustomed him to 
Sometimes indeed it may suf- 
reprimand on the first that can 
ijdi the recreants almost always 
appearance, and the refractory 
nward way. Blows serve to in- 
Porce, those unintelligible phrases 
en occur; for Hindostanee ia not 
ipeans: we are however studying 
le seeking to outstrip his neigh- 
head of the second detachment, 
sn in requisition. What a des- 
en doomed to listen to intermin- 
e " Moonehee," and other autho- 
ig a single word, and scarce dar- 
that these worthies take it for 
nd them perfectly ! 
1, we bad alighted from our pff 
in the morning, — for we travel 
lout intermission, — to take our 
a race with our palkee-bearers. 
is in the immediate vicinity of 
! had not changed our usual tra- 
iwsera of thin red silk, with only 
lat, — when, to our utter amaze- 
found ourselves in the narrow 



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INOBNlOtra KESISTANCS. 249 

streets, — ^tlen peopled only with dogs, — of a subarb of 
that great city. The clay-walled hovels, with their outer 
coating of cow-dung to exclude the moisture, soon came 
to an end, after we had passed through the last of seve- 
ral large gates of Saracenic architecture, with painted 
arches. Brick houses, entirely open on the ground floor, 
with shops and workshops, at this early hour still occu- 
pied as bed-chambers, formed, within the city-gate, wide 
and regular streets. Here and there appeared a build- 
ing of greater size, and of semi-European aspect. An- 
other gate, larger than the preceding ones, presented it- 
self at the extremity of the great street through which 
we had proceeded ; beside it was drawn up a detachment 
of soldiers, with red jackets and iron morions, but wear- 
ing, instead of trowsers, the simple white cotton hand- 
kerchief hanging about their legs. One of the veteran 
officers felt himself called upon, — in his great zeal to imi- 
tate European civilization, — to run up behind us, most 
respectfully desiring to know our names. So unreason- 
able a demand we had never yet met with in India, and 
Mr Portescue seemed inclined to reply by brandishing 
his stick. I contented myself with informing him in a 
most confidential manner, that my name was " Seeks 
v/nd sechzig sechs-eckige Hechtskopfe," ("Six and sixty 
six-cornered pike's heads") upon which, after repeated 
and unsuccessful attempts to pronounce the name, in 
the course of which he nearly dislocated his tongue and 
his jaw-bone, he retired, grumbling and indignant; for 
neither Sanscrit nor Persian could furnish the necessary 
sounds. 

After a quarter of an hour's march, the aspect of the 
city changed. Large and lofty houses, plastered over 
with yellow or white shining stucco, formed an unbroken 
line on either side of the street ; numerous jUosques, and 
minarets of ingenious and spiral form, rose amid edifices 
of thoroughly European appearance. Domes with gilded 



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250 BHTEY IHTO LUCKNOW. 

summits, and white open balustrades round the terraced 
roofs of noble palaces, increased in number as we pene- 
trated further into the interior of the city; yet its 
architecture, though el^aut and munificent in a style 
of its own, is not of pure and correct taste. Thus, for 
example, we passed an edifice of extraordinary size, 
where the rules of art would have required a great num- 
ber of tall windows in front. The spaces for them in- 
deed were there; but, as no Mahometan likes to have 
any towards the street, tbey were all, on both stories, 
completely walled up. Something however being necesf- 
sary to break the dismal monotony of the solid masonry, 
each niche intended for a window was, with truly Orien- 
tal bad taste, filled up with figures as large as life, 
representing men of every age and every rauk, painted 
al fresco in the most gaudy colours. Picture to yourself 
a house with sixty large windows ornamented in this 
manner.' The one above described is a " Mehalla" or 
harem. The part of the city which we last traversed 
consists entirely of government offices and royal pfdaces. 
But now, at a turn of the street, we were met by a 
troop of armed horsemen at full gallop, who were driving 
the foot-passengers out of the way with great clamour ; 
next followed a company of the infantry body^ard, 
with red uniforms and silvered halberds, to clear the 
way more thoroughly still. We found ourselves in the 
midst of such a crowd and tumult, that it became neces- 
sary to brandish our sticks, and make vigorous use of 
our elbows. A frightful din, caused by a military band, 
consisting of fifes, drums and cymbals, — the men be- 
decked in most strange costumes, — increased the Orien- 
tal character of the scene, and heralded the approach of 
some person of high dignity. This advanced guard was 
succeeded by three huge elephants, with brocade trap- 
pings over their heads, and silver howdahs upon their 
backs. Accustomed to such processions, we did not 



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HAPPY MEBTINO. 251 

dream of anything extraordinary, least of all, at this early 
hour, of the immediate proximity of the Nabob of Oude. 
A corpulent man, with immoderately bloated cheeks, and 
of extremely phlegmatic appearance, enveloped, cap^- 
pie, in gold tissue, and mounted on a tall white chatger 
of Cabul breed, was seen riding in the midst of a troop 
of showy lancers, handsome, well-made men, with yellow 
uniforms, blue caps and enormous boots. It proved to 
be none other than the Sovereign himself. We had 
however in the throng no opportunity to look more 
closely at him. 

The street soon widened into a spacioiis square; a 
beautiful and verdant lawn and rich wood appeared be- 
fore us on the other side of a lofty free-stone arch. 
Passing through this gateway, we entered a sort of park, 
at the farther extremity of which are several large, yel- 
low roughcast buildings. Flat roofs with massive balus- 
trades, lofty colonnades surrounding plain quadrangular 
boxes, and carefully closed jalousies, characterized it as 
the dwelling of the British Resident; for this form of 
architecture is universally adopted for the habitations of 
the English throughout India, from Ceylon to the Him- 
alayas, being indeed rendered almost necessaty by the 
sultry climate. 

We had reached our goal, and Mr Shakspeare, tlie 
British Resident, gave us a most friendly welcome in 
this his chateau. The Prince and his companions had 
arrived the day before ; we were all delighted to meet 
again after a separation of four or five days, such as 
often happens in the palanquin travelling of these lands, 
and mutually to recount the adventures of our jour- 
ney. Our kind host is himself a bachelor; but three or 
four other English gentlemen are resident at Lucknow 
with their families; and in this little circle we could 
clearly mark the pleasure caused by the arrival of for- 



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252 BOCIBTT— CITY SCEHfiS. 

eign guests, as introducing a little variety into their dull 
a,nd monotonous life. The stiff and aristocratic tone 
that prev^ls among the fashionable society of Calcutta, 
does not reign here; consequently the drives, pleasure 
parties and evening entertainments, which -were of daily 
occurrence, were most cheerful and agreeable. Music 
was all the fashion; the most trifling performance seem- 
ed to give universal satisfaction; no voice was so poor 
or insignificant, as not to be exerted with pleasure, to 
display its owner's skill in the tuneful art, by pouring 
forth some simple melody; no piano-forte so discordant 
as not to enable one to shine by striking up a few hack- 
neyed waltzes. 

After a two o'clock tiffin, our second repast, no less 
substantial than the first designated by the English name 
breakfast, of which we had partaken at ten o'clock, we 
proceeded, in the equipages prepared for us, to make 
acquaintance with the wonders of the city. We saw it 
in its most brilliant aspect, for it happened to be a fes- 
tival both with Hindoos and Mahometans, and a count- 
less and motley multitude in festive attire was crowding 
the streets, and the square in front of the great mosque 
of Imam Barah. It must be remembered that Luck- 
now is a city of nearly a hundred thousand inhabitants, 
and that the Moslems liave a peculiar propensity to in- 
dolence and lounging, especially on feast-days^ when all 
labour is positively prohibited. 

There they sit, all in a row, neat and clean in their 
mu^in garment^ the rose=eoloUred turban on their 
heads, squatting upon the broad marble balustrades, in 
grave and solemn repose. Their hi^ head-dress marks 
them as Mahometans. The Hindoos are moreover sel- 
dom seen with those beautiful Damascus poniards, with 
thick ivory handles and golden tassels, stuck in their 
girdles. These Moslems are plainly the dandies of tlie 



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HTMDOO MCBIC AND MCSIdAKS. ZS$ 

place. Their Blippers of gold embroidery, with long, 
tumed-up points, testify still further to their opulence 
and their love of finery. 

Here, a crowd of screaming, raging Hindoos, — for they 
are incessantly quarrelling, — is gathered round a hideous 
&keer. The servant of the gods, condescending to ex- 
hibit his skill in profane art and tricks, is actually 
balancing a sword upon his nose! Two diminutive 
youngsters, likewise fakeers, with faces painted white, 
and high caps of gold paper, are dancing in a circle 
, around him. Farther on, a yellow Himalayan hear is 
performing his antics, amid a throng so dense, that the 
animal's grotesque movements are scarce visible to 
passers-by. 

From within a tent at no great distance from us, 
issues a sound of horrid, nasal singing. The cadences 
and trills, — to add force to which, both hands are held 
before the mouth in a most ungraceful manner, — would, 
if but correctly in tune, have by no means an unpleasing 
effect. I know the melody; it is an extremely pretty 
one; were it sung without that dreadfully harsh, nasal 
twang, I could fancy its being really charming. The 
words are, " Tasa be taaa no he no," — a Persian song of 
Hafiz; indeed most of the national songs are of Persian 
origin, for in ancient times the Persians were the poets 
whose province it was to provide lays for the whole 
country : now, alas ! even their muse is silent. 

The lovely songstresses whose strains had reached our 
ears, now appeared amid the throng. A rich and flow- 
ing drapery of red muslin enveloped them from head to 
foot, in its thousand folds: its airy texture was re- 
splendent with spangles of gold and silver; largo gold 
rings were passed through their right nostrils, and three 
or four others through each of their ears. Their arms, — 
which appeared from time to time as they gracefully 
moved the ends of their long robes backwards and for- 



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254 NATCH GIKLS—aUMI DB8DM. 

wards, now winding them closely round their figures, 
now again loosely unfolding them, turning and circling 
in elegant gyrations, — were adorned with thirty or forty 
bracelets of gold, silver, and many-njoloured enamel; and 
eyen their feet, which occasionally, in the stamping 
movement of their measured step, peeped from beneath 
their long, loose, silken pantaloons, displayed broad sil- 
ver bands fastened above the ankle and bung round 
with bells of the same metal, whose tinkling marked the 
cadence as they moved. Each toe was moreover adorned 
with a sort of signet-ring of silver. These singing or 
dancing girls, " Bayadferes," who never fail to appear 
at every festival, every audience, and even every serious 
and important proceeding among the great ones of the 
land, are most popular, both among Moslems and Hin- 
doos; and their dance, — if the turning to and fro without 
moving from one spot can be called dancing, — is, as well 
as their singing, known in India by the name of " Natch-." 
Our four outrunners, or " Chobdara," bearing long sil- 
ver staves, the badges of their office, had great difficulty 
in opening a way for us through the crowd, to the en- 
trance of the great mosque. This gate, known by the 
name of " Rami Desum," is a large arch, with elaborate 
and tasteful decorations of stucco on either side. In 
the centre, above the arch, the attention is attracted by 
the emblem of the Nabob of Oude, two gigantic fishes. 
The great beauty of these, as well as of other Indo-. 
Moorish architectural chefs-d'teuvre, consists especially 
in the neatness and correctness of the execution. The 
lofty white facades produce a pleasing impression, and 
no offence is here taken at the fact, that the adjoining 
buildings form, on one side an obtuse, and on the other 
a right angle, with the main edifice; or that a multipli- 
city of arches and numberless turrets to the right, are 
made to correspond to a straight and simple wall to the 
left, — symmetry being a thing never aimed at here. 



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IHAUM BABKY. 2f!5 

The Ihauh Baret* ia one of the largest and moat re- 
markable moeques that I have seen in India. Its 
vaulted hall is a hundred and seveoty feet in length. 
The whole edifice is majestic in its simplicity; gold and 
silver are not here lavished in the same degree as in 
other similar structures; yet the general effect ia far 
more vivid than that of the ancient mosques of Cairo, 
which the niche-work of the fretted gate-ways, and the 
scolloped designs of the sculptured ceilings strongly re- 
Rall to my mind. Nor did I ever see in Egypt minarets 
as beautiful as those of this mosque: they are fluted 
from top to bottom, and enriched with exquisite wreaths. 

The grouped buildings of the mosque, iiregular as 
they are individually, present altogether a charming and 
fairy-like picture; the whiteness of the front is finely 
thrown out by the fresh verdure of the garden, enriched 
with pomegranate trees and Persian rosea in full fiower. 
In the interior of the lofty structure stands a sepulchral 
monument, containing some relics. It is of great size; 
somewhat in the form of a tower-like cabinet, overlaid 
with thin plates of gold, and decorated with pearls and 
precious stones; in the lower part of it are the turbau 
and Koran of the deceased. The curious are only suf- 
fered to look in from afar, although generally the Ma- 
hometans of India are not nearly so bigoted as those of 
Egypt, no such thing as putting off one's shoes being 
ever spoken of, nor free access into their holy places 
ever denied. 

We also visited the burial-place of the present Eoyal 
Family, a wonderfully fine work of art, for Moslems 
spare no expense on their sepulchres. The dwellings of 
the living may indeed be filthy and scarcely habitable, 

* Tbe ImMim Ban? has not, bowever, like the mMqaea of the Egjplun 
SultanB, a halo of anljquit; to add romance to its magDificence, It was 
built between the ye*re 1780 and 178i, by the Nabob A»oph ud Dowlah, the 
■a of Oude who made Luctnow hie capital.— Tb. 



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SA6 KOTAL BITBIAL PLACE. 

provided only the departed are lodged iu splendour. 
The entrance to the royal tomb is a lofty white gateway, 
eunnounted by a cupola, and from its appearance the 
stranger would never expect to find a place of sepulture 
within. In the first court, surrounded by buildings, 
fountains are ever playing in beautiful marble basins, 
encircled by myrtles, roses and cypresses; palm-trees 
grace each comer of this garden, on every side of which 
glittering turrets and walls of dazzling whiteness rise 
amid the fragrant and shady bowers. The balmy air of 
evening was loaded with the perfume of roses and jessa^ 
mine, and the deep azure of the vault above formed a 
striking contrast to the whiteness of the domes and the 
comers of the roofs, still illuminated by the last rays of 
the setting sun. A brilliant light shone through the 
arched windows of the lofty Moorish hall, under the 
marble gateway of which we now passed. 

If the entrance court and external appearance of the 
burial-place produce an indescribable and magic impres- 
sion, the charm is somewhat broken in the interior, where 
the eye wanders, distracted by the confused mass of in- 
congruous yet brilliant objects; the tone of feeling caus- 
ed by the first general view being, meantime, unpleasant- 
ly disturbed. The inner space, from its overloaded mag- 
nificence and unbounded profusion of gold and silver, 
pearls, gems, and all the valuables the East or the West 
can afford, had rather the appearance of a retail shop or 
of a ianey glass warehouse, than of the resting-place of 
the dead. Glass cupolas, andcandelabras of every variety, 
may bo seen standing in dozens, pell-mell upon the 
ground; lustres, ten feet in height, of bright and many- 
coloured glass, brought hither from England at an im- 
mense expense: and among these are deposited many 
trophies, swords and other weapons, of the finest Ispa- 
han steel. The glare of the innumerable lamps so daz- 



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WOHDEKa OP THE MAUSOLEUM. 267 

zles the eye, that it is difficult to find the principal thiof 
among the multitude of other objects of interest. 

Here, stand a couple of tigers, as large as life, formed 
of pieces of green glass, joined together with gold, pre- 
sented by the Emperor of China. There, the attention 
IB arrested by a silver horse, fire feet high, with th« 
head of a man, and the wings and tail of a peacock, — 
the steed sent down to the Prophet from heaven. An- 
other horse, carved in wood, is an original likeness of the 
late Nabob's favourite charger. Vases, bronze figures, 
marble statues of moderate size, plans of the city and 
of the palaces, painted upon a gold ground, and a thou- 
sand other toys and trifles, were gathered together in 
this extraordinary place. 

At length however amidst all this chaos, we disco- 
vered the tombs themselves; enclosed within massive 
golden railings, and canopied with a baldachin of gold, 
filigree-work, pearls and gems, lai^e and small, lavished 
upon them. Besides the father of the reigning sove- 
reign, who lies buried in the principal tomb, several of 
his wives repose on either side of him. 

Dazzled by the brightness of real and false diamonds, 
we quitted the sepulchre, and mounted the elephants, 
which were waiting at the gate to convey us, at their 
heavy trot, to the old part of the city, whore, from our 
lofty seats, we looked down on many and varied bazaars, 
all clean and neatly kept and lighted with veiy pretty 
lamps. Most pleasing pictures of domestic life were 
seen as we returned, on the balconies and through the 
open windows of the second stories, with which our how- 
dahs placed us upon a level. Seldom does an opportu- 
nity offer of looking into the interior of a family circle 
so as to get a peep at real home-life among the Hindoos. 
The narrow streets here seem formed expressly to afford 
such a peep : many a beautiful lady was seen, before 



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258 EOTAL STABIES ASD GARDENS. 

sbe bad time to throw away her hookah and betake 
herself to flight, for "Johnny Satee" (the elephant) 
marches on at a furious pace. 

On the 26th of March, we set out in carriages, at £ve 
o'clock in the morning, the only hour at which the heat 
can be endured, and drove to the royal stables on the 
opposite bank of the Goomty, We there saw nearly 
two hundred horses of the greatest value, each standing 
ready bridled and attended by two "syces" (grooms) in 
splendid attire. Most of these noble steeds were of 
Arab race, but too fat from over-feeding to be beautiful, 
for they are never mounted; they stand there merely to 
be looked at. 

The gardens of several of the royal palaces on the 
banks of the Goomty, remarkable for their tasteless mag- 
nificence, formed the more distant object of our excuf 
sion. The summer-houses of these pleasure-grounds are 
built in half French, half Moorish style ; their large and 
heavy roofa supported by many slender and feeble 
columns. A kind of white stucco called chunam, is the 
substitute for marble, and the wood work of the walls is 
painted grey or white. Never, even in the smallest of 
these pavilions is the warm bath wanting, and but sel- 
dom the private mosque, which I can only compare to a 
child's toy in appearance. The centre of the garden ia 
usually occupied by a marble tank, in which many foun- 
tains are playing, and cypresses alternate with roses in 
embellishing its margin. The water-works are very 
tastelessly modernized; soldiers in red jackets, sheep, 
crippled dogs and lions, all spout forth water in the most 
wonderful manner ! 

The bowers and flower-beds are, in the hot season, 
owing to the great drought, in a poor condition, in spite 
of their being every morning inundated by means of 
multitudes of small canals ; which, along with the straight 
paved walks, produce a very stiff efl'ect in the general 



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IMPBOVEMENTS IN SCULPTURE. 259 

aspect of the grounds. In addition to this a mania pre- 
vails at Lucknow for placing marble or plaster statues, 
as large as life, at every turn and comer, without the 
slightest regard to the choice of figures, which seems to 
be left to the discretion of the sculptor. He copies the 
moat antiquated French models, the originals of which 
have been out of date for many a long year, and manu- 
factures, for a very reasonable price, shepherds and 
shepherdesses, British soldiers, Neptunea, or it rfay be 
Farnese pugilists, or dogs, lions, and sundry other beasts. 
Among them all I espied busts of Jean Jacques Rous- 
seau, D'Alembert, and Napoleon, standing on the ground 
amid the fauns and the monsters of Indian mythology, 
all gathered together in the most perfect harmony to 
defend a flower-bed .' What marvellously enhances the 
brilliant effect of these works of art, is a discovery 
which certainly is worthy of notice in Europe, viz. the 
custom of painting the hair, eyes and feet, (wbetlier 
bare or shod) with a thick coating of lamp-black. The 
Venus de Medici appears to wonderful advantage in this 
improved edition t 

The piece of water usually forms the uniting link be- 
tween the larger summer-house or kiosk and a small 
wooden pavilion, which, destitute of all ornament save a 
neat balcony, is only intended as a point from which may 
be commanded, at one glance, the prospect of the whole 
long row of fountains plajing in the reservoir. 

Little furniture, beyond a few divans, is to be seen in 
these garden palaces; on the other hand, the walls of the 
apartments are decorated with a number of old French 
copper-plate prints, such as make their appearance at sales 
by auction, with the inscriptions below, " I'Eii," " Modes- 
tie," "Innocence," fee, promiscuously arranged among 
the productions of native artists, water-colour daubs of 
favourite horses, and dogs or pet monkeys, belonging to 
the Potentates of the Kingdom of Oude ! 



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260 NABOB'S STATE STEAUEft. 

When the traveller has seen one of these gardens, he 
has Been them all ; what I liked hest in them was the 
continual supply of exquisite houquets of roses, which 
the gardener never failed to present with a deep salam. 
We visited two or three such gardens, all helonging to 
the king ; the first was quite enough to satisfjr me, and 
I rejoiced when we were once more seated in our cani- 
nes and on our way to see the state-8t«amer, which his 
Majesty has caused to be built for his own use. It lies 
in the Goomty, and as that river is but small, the di- 
mensions of the vessel are proportionably diminutive, 
and elegant. The Prince's arrival on board was greeted 
by a protracted salute, such as almost to make us repent 
of having risked the safety of our ears, since the boat 
herself did not offer much of interest. 

She contained two handsome saloons, the sides of 
which were fitted up with divans covered with velvet 
and brocade. Here again was to be seen a selection of 
wretched, gaudily-coloured French engravings, as well 
as a vdriety of musical clocks, which, in accordance with 
the Indian notions of music, were all made to play at 
once. One saloon was appropriated to the Nabob, 
the other to hia wives. More singular and characteris- 
tic was the sight of a curious gondola lying alongside 
the steamer; in form, it exactly resembles the ordinary 
representations of the whale swallowing Jonah, and like 
them, it rises almost entirely out of the water, which it 
merely seems to touch below. 

The afternoon of the same day was occupied in visit- 
ing several mosques; we saw, among others, that of 
Sadxitk Alt Skah, the grandfather of the present king, 
which differs but little in the main from those we had 
before seen. 

By far the most interesting day of our residence in 
Lucknow was the 27th of March, on which his Majesty 
gave a dSjeaner in honour of the Prince. At nine o'clock. 



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PBISCE OP OIJDE. 261 

■we were waiting, all in our best, for tlie arrival of the Na- - 
bob's son, by whom the Priace was to be preseated. He 
<1id not come, — but, instead of bim, came the news that 
he was indispoBed, and that aome time must yet elapse 
before he could arrivo. It waa rumoured that he had 
taken rather too much opium ! 

One half-hour after another passed away; at len^h 
a noise was heard in the court and in the garden. 
His Highness appeared, accompanied by the Uinister, a 
tall, lank-looking man with a shrewd and cunning face. 
He was deadly pale, his eyes rolled with a restless 
and vacant expression, and his fat puffy cheeks hung 
flabbily; the lofty gold turban, — formed almost exactly 
like the crown of Charlemagne on a pack of cards, — hax- 
monized ill enough with the haggard air and listless coun- 
tenance; pearls, rubies and emeralds were glittering 
upon it, and a magnificent diamond clasp fastened the 
bird of Paradise that waved above his brow. A gorge- 
ous robe of gold brocade, strings of pearls about his 
neck, diamond ear-rings, a sash of the most exquisite 
Delhi work, trowsers of gold tissue, and peaked shoes 
bordered with gold, completed the splendid appare), in 
which the corpulent scion of royalty, leaning on the 
arm of the sharp and lean, but no less superbly attired 
Minister, slowly and heavily dragged his lazy steps along. 
The usual ceremony of the theatric embrace was duly 
performed, and after a somewhat short and monosyllabic 
conversation, we entered his Majesty's state-carriages, 
which were waiting for us. On arriving at the court of 
the principal palace, which was enlivened by military 
groups of every variety, we were popped into palan- 
quins of silver, and thus carried up the first flight of 
steps. Even on reaching the landing-place, it was al- 
most imposcdble to stand upon one's own feet, so great 
waa the throng of bustling attendants, — the " Khidmvt- 
gars," "Soobadars," and whatever else their various 



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262 DEJEtlHCE AHD OUBSTa 

offices maj be called, — one and all endeavouring to make 
waj for the coming gaeet, and thereby, one after an- 
other, stumbling and falling in the m4I6e. If, in India, 
at an ordinary dinner-party of forty persons a hundred 
different servants are required, you may form some idea 
of the number in attendance on this grand occaaon. 

The long table was already set, and soon his Majesty 
appeared, grave and dignified in his demeanour, and 
surrounded by his suite, all glittering with gold. His 
entrance was proclaimed in a clear and sonorous tone by 
various ofBcers. The King is a tall, stately person, of 
enormous embonpoint; his apparel resembled that of 
his son, except that it was yet more splendid and more 
richly ornamented with diamonds. He was accompanied 
by another of his sons, who, though still more corpulent, 
much resembled him. Tlie physiognomy of the reign- 
ing family is expressive rather of good nature than of 
shrewdness or talent, if indeed character can be express- 
ed at all in such a mass of fat ! How different were 
the portraits of their ancestors, even of the father and 
grandfather of the present Nabob ! In their features 
power and energy are strongly marked, while the living 
faces around us bore the stamp only of luxurious enjoy- 
ment, and of a life of indolent pleasure. 

The numerous company was distributed in such a 
manner at the long table, that on ono side sat the Royal 
Family, his Royal Highness Prince Waldemar, the gran- 
dees of the state, and the King's household; while all 
the English guests, with their ladies, took their places 
opposite to them ; a strangely mingled assembl^e ! At 
first the heat was suffocating, because the punkah could 
not be set in motion until the Nabob had taken his seat. 
At length the signal was given for commencing the 
operation of eating. The Nabob graciously condescend- 
ed to send each of us a large plate of "piUaw," a dish 
consisting of rice dyed yellow, with abundance of grease 



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CniSDfB OF OUDE. 263 

and of pepper, and boiling hot besides; in cool weather 
it may probably be a very pleasant sort of food ; here, 
in the most oppressive heat, the very sight of the smok- 
ing platter threw us into a perspiration! The Mahome- 
tan grandees opporate to us sat stiff and motionless, 
without touching a morsel of food; we, on the contrary, 
tasted several dishes, of which we highly approved ; most 
of those at table were however by no means palatable, 
owing to the superabundance of colouring matter, of 
apices, oil, and gold and silver froth with which the 
curious and artistic pyramids of mutton and rice were 
richly loaded. The ladies seemed to follow our example 
in the matter of appetite, and seemed perfectly at their 
ease in the midst of the heterogeneous company around 
them: I was fortunate enough to sit next to one of them, 
who made a point of ordering, in a tone quite as if she 
were at home, each individual tiling to be handed to 
her that could tempt the dainty palate ; and thus I had 
an opportunity of doing full honour to the cuisine of 
His Majesty of Oude. 

Exactly opposite to me sat three most lovely Httla 
boys, — the younger Princes, — in whom I could see clear 
marks of a good appetite, and of the eagerness with 
which they longed to attack the ragouts that stood be- 
fore them. Their heavy golden turbans seemed to be 
DO less an oppression to them than the moderation they 
were constrained to observe. The King, on the other 
hand, was in a most merry mood. He himself helped 
Prince Waldemar, and did the honours of the beautiful 
delicacies of Indian confectionary. Flower pots were 
set upon the table, the flowers, twigs, leaves and soil in 
which, were all eatable, and when they had all been 
devoured, the flower-pots themselves were demohshed in 
like manner; again, on breaking off the pointed top of 
a small pasty, which he caused to be handed to the 
Prince, out flew a pair of pretty httle birds, — which 



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264 HUMANE BNTBETAINHEN1. 

playful surprise threw the corpulent Nahoh into an 
immoderate fit of kughter. 

At the end of the d^jeAner, ice was actually served; 
it may well be termed a luxury here, in eveiy way, for 
it can only be obtained by an artificial process; neyer- 
theless, refreshing as it was, we were delighted when the 
company rose from table, and we were once more per- 
mitted to exchange the close and sultry atmosphere of 
the saloon for the open air. 

The combats of wild beasts were now to commence. 
We were conducted to a gallery, from which we looked 
down upon a narrow court, surrounded by walls and 
gratings. This was the arena on which the exhibition 
was to take place. Unluckily the space allotted for 
spectators was, on account of the great number of Eng- 
lish ladies present, so circumscribed, that we could find 
only a had standing-room, and one moreover in which 
the glare and heat of the sun were most oppressive: 
however, the spectacle exhibited before our eyes in the 
depth of the battle-field, was of such a nature that all 
discomfort was soon forgotten. 

We there beheld six powerftd bufialoes, not of the 
tame breed, but strong and mighty beasts, the offspring 
of the Amees of the mountains ; measuring at least four 
feet and a half in height to the back, with huge and 
wide-arching horns, from three to four feet in length. 
There they stood, on their short, clumsy legs, — snorting 
violently, and blowing through their distended nostrils, 
as if filled with forebodings of the approaching danger. 
What noble animals! what strength in those broad 
necks! Pity only that such intense stupidity should be 
marked in their eyes ! 

A clatter of sticks, and the roar of various wild beasts 
now resounded; to which the hnfialoes r^lifid by a 
hollow bellowing. Suddenly, on the opening of a side- 
door, there rushed forth a strong and formidable tiger, 



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THE VAHQDISHBD FOE, »b5 

measuriiig, I should say, from ten to elcTen feet in 
length, from head to tail, and about four feet in height 
Without deliberating long, he sprang, with one mighty 
bound, into the midst of the bufeloes, and darting un- 
expectedly between 1^ redoubtable boms of one of the 
boldest champions, he seized him by the nape of the 
neck, with teeth and claws. The weight of the tiger 
nearly drew the buffalo to the ground: a most fearful 
contest ensued. Amid roars and groans, the farioua 
victim dragged its fierce assailant round and round the 
arena, while the other buffaloes, striving to liberate their 
comrade, inflicted on the foe formidable wounds with 
their sharp and massive horns. 

Deep silence reigned among the audience ; each specta- 
tor watching, in breathless suspense, to mark the issue of 
the combat and at the same time the fateofafevrunhap* 
py monkeys which, constrained, as if in mockery, to wit- 
ness the bloody scene, looked down, at first, with inde- 
scribable terror, from the tops of their poles, but, when 
these were violently shaken by the horns of the buffaloes, 
fell down as if dead, and lay, extended at full length, 
with the utmost resignation expecting their end, with- 
out making the least attempt to avert it. 

Two other tigers, somewhat inferior in size, were now, 
with great difficulty, driven into the battle-field, while 
the struggle still continued. Nothing however could 
induce them to make an attack in any quarter : they 
paced slowly round the scene, rubbing themselves, cat- 
like, against the wall as they moved, whenever the buf- 
faloes, — ^which without regarding them, were ever and 
anon goading their adversary with their horns, — ap- 
proached nearer to them. But now the dread tiger 
received a thrust upon his ribs, which forced him to 
quit his hold : he fell with violence and then slunk 
timidly into a comer. Thither he was pursued by the 
buffalo, — rendered furious by his mangled neck, — and 



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266 THE BEAR FIGHT. 

was made the butt of many a vengeful Mlow and thrust, 
while he merely betrayed hia pain by the hideous con- 
tortions of his mouth, not making the least movement 
in aelf-defence. 

Fresh actors now appeared on the scene ; two Him- 
alayan hears of different species, were, — though not with- 
out most arduous exertions,— forced into the fight, to 
the very point whither the tiger had retreated. Many 
a wound inflicted by sharp claws, and many a rude box 
on the ear, were now interchanged, amid fierce growls 
and roars. Blood was streaming from the face of every 
combatant. While all were furiously engaged in one 
tremendous m^\4e, the wounded buflalo, which mean- 
time had been occupied with one of the half-dead mon- 
keys, renewed hia attack, drove them altogether in a 
heap, and did not deaiat from hia infuriated assault, 
untU the wound of an adversary's claws had torn a great 
part of the skin from ofi* his muzzle. 

A universal exhaustion now prevailed: the first tiger 
lay as if dead, aave his horrible grimacea; the others, 
kme from their wounds, hobbled from one coriier of the 
arena to the other; the bears too maintained a most 
peaceful tranquillity, so aoon aa they ceased to feel the 
sharp goading sticks of the keepers. 

It was truly a savage and horrid spectacle, hut not the 
leaa entertaining for the ladies and gentlemen • however 
only that unhappy buffalo lost its life, in consequence of its 
wounds; the tigers are all yet living, one only having had 
a rib broken. The Nabob keepa aixteen powerful tigers 
in his menagerie, all destined for this sort of spectacle. 

We now quitted the gallery, to betake ourselves to 
the plain, near the Goomty, which had been prepared 
as a fresh theatre, and where a stand had been erected 
from which we were to witness the continuation of the 
dreadful drama in an altered form. There appeared as 
aucceBsive combatanta, — rama, antelopes, and elephants: 



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mBPHAHT noHT. 267 

«Tei7 living creature is here trained for the fight, eren 
the partridge and the quail. 

The elephant-fight was, as may be easily imagined, 
the most ma^ificent scene of all. Two huge champions 
-were selected, and, after being rendered frantic by spices 
«nd brandy, were led up towards each other. At first, 
for some time, they stood, face to face, in perfect stil!- 
neas; then suddenly they took a short run, and rushing 
with tremendous violence, thrust each other backwards 
and forwards, with their strong tusks and entangled 
trunks, as if in a fearful wrestling match, till the very 
earth shook beneath their feet. Their "MahoiUa," or 
drivers, who sit upon their necks, remained, to my 
amazement, in their places during the whole struggle, 
whicli they even appeared to direct. 

Suddenly one elephant slightly drooped his head; the 
other pressed him backwards, and finally put him to 
flight. At fidl trot, the stronger elephant pursued the 
fugitive. The usual issue of such a retreat is, that the 
victor, on making up to the vanquished, bites off his 
tail ; to prevent which, squibs and rockets are thrown in 
between them; on this occasion, that device failed, for 
the victor, — ^who, as we could see when he ran past \i8, 
bad had one of his tusks broken off, from the root of 
which streams of blood were Sowing down into his 
mouth, — ^was quite beside himself with rage. 

The fugitive now in an instant unexpectedly turned 
towards the river; whereby a multitude of spectators, 
who had no other way of escape, were forced to rush 
into the water. We could yet for a long while see the 
two combatants chasing each other to and fro, till at 
length, they both vanished among the bushes in the 
distance. 

During all this time, jugglers, ring-fighters, wrestlers 
and dancers, had never ceased to exhibit the best per- 
formances of their various wonderful arts, and the rams 



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368 FtTBROOCK BAM. 

continued to €ght with each other on this side of the 
river, while the elephants were wrestling on the other. 
Even camels they attempted to put into a state (^ fury, 
and to provoke to single combat: they are said to carry 
on a regular wrestling with necks and legs, and to have 
a most ludicrous appearance when thus struggling; how- 
ever, on the present occasion, every endeavour to incite 
them to it failed. They foamed and groaned, but, in 
spite of all the tugging hither and thither with ropes, 
they still would not engage in the fight. 

During the whole of these entertainments, the royal 
personages, the grandees of the court, and the English 
ofScers in fiill uniform, were sitting together, — a motley 
assemblage, — till at last the yawns of his Majesty gave 
the signal for breaking up. 

On the evening of the same day, after the extreme 
heat was over, we visited one of the grandest palaces, 
that named "Furrooce Bah." It contains an immense 
suite of apartments, all painted in veiy dark colours, 
and with very few windows. The walls are hung with 
worthless pictures, the tables and consoles are loaded 
with musical clocks, Chinese automatons, and objects 
of art from every nation and every clime. 

In this palace, we saw several thrones, which, taken 
together, contain more gold and precious stones than 
could be found in many a large city in Europe. A few 
of the little diamond roses having been knocked off by 
the bayonets of the soldiers on duty ; no less a sum than 
two lacs of rupees (L.20,000) was expended in repairing 
them. Yet with all their costly magnificence, these 
monuments of former days can boast no real beauty. 

From the court in the centre of the palace are seen 
handsome balconies and several neat facades, which 
however are not correct, according to the rules either 
of Moorish or of Indian architecture : much of the old- 
fashioned French style prevails throughout. 



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miMTIHO PARTY. * 269 

Oa the opposite aide is a far more spacious court, 
Adorned, in the middle, with a laige marble tank. The 
"Mehalla," or Harem, receives its light from this court, 
as does also another side-wing built to correapoDd to it. 

A hunting party was arranged for the following morn- 
ing, the 28th of March. We set out very early, mount* 
ed on elephants; the king had sent his chittahs,* bia 
hunting lynzest and his falcons, in order to exhibit 
every variety of field-aport known in this land. In the 
first place, herons, woodcocks and fowls were turned 
out, and then set upon with falcons: next, civet cats 
were set a-running, and caught by the lynxes. Lastly, 
the chittah was brought up to act its part; seated, 
blind-fold, upon a cart drawn by oxen, it was driven 
along behind a herd of antelopes, until we had approach- 
ed within about sixty paces of a party of three of them. 
The head of the wild beast was then uncovered, where- 
upon, crouching low like a cat, it crept up to within 
half that distance, then springing upon its prey with 
few and easy bounds, it seized first one and then 
another of the little band by the throat with lightning 
speed. 

The antelope with its elegantly twisted, spiral horns, 
its graceful form and cream-coloured hue, does not 
much exceed in size a large ram: it lives, in the parks 
near this place, in a half wild state; as does also 
the Nyl-&hau,J a lai^ animal, of a slate-gray colour, 
with sloping backs and short horns, and equal in point 
of size to an ox. Several of these creatures trotted by, 
clo^ to us. 

* A species of long-legged LiapaTd from thibet. Sohreber mentioiu th« 
niee BOimal onder the name of " Otpard." — W, HorrmiBTEB, 

t The Fdii CaraBal,--t, gpecle* of anall I17111.— W. HoniiEiBiEB. 

XTbeAKiUopepiela of moat natuinliati. but deeigoBted in Dr Rojle'i work 
on the Hinulajae u the Antilope Hippekiphni, Its liie ia unull; deicrib- 
ed u between that of an ox and that of a deer.— Tb, 



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270 VARIOUS COMBATANTS. 

A new edition of the fights of wild beasts, — ^though of 
a less sanguinary character than the last, — was arrang- 
ed, to be exhibited on the same day for our entertain- 
ment. Among other single combats, was that of an 
ass and a hysena, which has obtained great celebrity in 
the East, as a spectacle diverting in the highest degree: 
to me it appeared that the custom of baiting against 
eacb other animals so heterogeneous, which in the course 
of nature never come into contact, far less into collision^ 
with each other, savoured much more of cruelty than of 
amusing sport. Both animals are held with ropes, and 
thus drawn forward until they are made to touch each 
other; then the ass kicks and stamps, and even endea- 
vours to bite, while the hyaana contents itself with open- 
ing its fierce mouth tremendously wide, without doing 
much injury to its foe. This nevertheless is called a fight. 

The combats between antelopes were, on the other 
hand, an extremely pretty sight; consisting in wrest- 
ling, and pushing backwards and forwards, in the oouise 
of which the graceful antagonists perpetually strive with 
their long horns to turn each other's heads to one side. 

The people of this country also avail themselves of 
this mode of fighting to catch wild antelopes by means of 
tame ones, a noose, weighted with lead, being iaetened 
to the boms of the tame animal : in the course of the 
fight those of the wild one become entangled in the 
noose; the trained antelope, immediately on feeling 
that it is drawn tight, stands still to prevent the escape 
of the prisoner thus caught. 

Large black rams also appeared as combatants, and 
thrust eacb other round the arena most lustily: their 
horns were polished to a shining smoothness, and their 
fieece was all shorn with the exception of a shaggy 
mane; which gave them a most comical, somewhat lion- 
like appearance. 



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EOTAL GIFTS. 271 

On our return, we paid a visit, in his etudio, to the 
artist Beeckeif, an Englishman, who, from early youth, 
has been in the service of the king of Oude, He has 
painted many a capital picture; but the climate, so 
often injurious to European constitutions, seems to 
hav^ weakened him much. 

On arriving at the palace of the British Resident, we 
found there the minister, sent by the king as the bearer 
of several rich presents: precious stones, richly orna- 
mented sabrea, and other weapons, with blades of Is- 
pahan steel, rich and brilliant scabbards, and superb 
hafts. Hakeem SoAift, as I am here designated, was pre- 
sented with a huge illuminated folio volume, the cover 
of which was adorned with beautiful arabesciues painted 
on a gold ground. It is a rare Persian manuscript, con- 
taining the heroic poem of the renowned Hafiz, — "Shah 
Nameh," — ^rich in fine and delicate miniature paintings, 
all executed on a gold ground, and exquisitely illumin- 
ated throughout in blue and carmine. 

A pleasure party to one of his Majesty's country seats, 
now almost deserted, concluded the sight-seeing of this 
busyday. The most enjoyable part of the excursion 
was our homeward row on the Goomty, in the Nabob's 
splendid gondolas; and Arndt's song, " Was ist des 
Seutschen Vaterland," — sung with clear voicea, sound- 
ed not amiss as the notes died away amid Amjud 
Alt's gardens of roses. Unfortunately however the 
rosy ^grance was, in consequence of the burning of 
several corpses on the banks of the river, strongly min- 
gled with other and less welcome odours. 

Several banquets yet follow.ed during the latter days 
of our residence at Lucknow; one dinner-party was at 
the house of Colonel Willcocks, whose beautiful obser- 
vatory and astronomical instruments were of the deep- 
est interest for me. 

The most splendid fete was that given by the king on 



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27S DAN0EB0U8 EMBBAOBS. 

the Ist of April, At four o'clock, his Majesty's cavalry 
lancers were already filling the garden and court of our 
quarters; at five, the cannonade commenced, and an 
uninterrupted salute was fired till seven. At about six 
o'clock the Heir<apparent and the Minister arrived in 
their carnages; the former was, on this occasion, 'free 
from the intoxicating and atupifjing efiects of opium, 
and appeared almost handsome. The usual ceremonies 
took their course ; I also was obliged, in my turn, to go 
through the theatrical embrace, which really, after a lit- 
tle practice, is not a very difficult matter; only it is very 
necessarj: to be on one's guard against remaining sus- 
pended to the person who performs this salutation, by 
the buttons of one's coat being entangled in the laby- 
rinth of his gold chains and pearl necklaces, which hap- 
pened to me with Martabar Singh, at Cathmandoo. 
Daring these salutations flourishes of trumpets were 
sounding from without, and three bands of various mu- 
sical instruments were carrying on their performances 
all at once. Amid this dreadful din, which wasrender- 
ed more deafening still by the continued thunder of the 
artillery, we drove to tbe king's palace, in the Royal 
carriages, accompanied by a numerous escort of lancers 
in yellow uniforms. 

The great court of the palace, and the tank in its cen- 
tre, in which the fountains play, were brilliantly illumi' 
nated with small Chinese lanterns. On arriving in the 
great hall, we were received by the Prince, for the King 
sent his apology on the score of illness, having some- 
thing the matter with his foot. There was in this spa- 
cious saloon, a crowded assemblage of varied and gor- 
geous costumes, and the host of richly apparelled do- 
mestics was yet more numerous than on former occa- 
sions. It was not without difficulty that we could make 
our way to the table, which was prepared in a horse- 
shoe form, in the great hall, and at which we took our 



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TOASTS AND PIBB-W0BK8. 273 

places for dinner; tlie dishes were all cold, and man; of 
them by no means palatable, however the excellent cla- 
ret and champagne were all the more prized. 

The King's buffoon and several dancing girls now 
made their appearance, and commenced their usual per- 
formance, accompanying it with singing. The buffoon 
danced in the character of a lady, with frightful contor- 
tions of bis whole frame, and afterwards appeared in 
various other travesties, — among the rest, disguised as 
an old man, carrying on his back a palanquin, in which 
a lady was seen reclining. Next began the " toaate," — 
Prince Waldemar, the King of Prussia, the King of 
Oude, and the Princes his sons. Fine speeches, and 
long ones too, were made upon the occasion. Mr Shak- 
speare spolce for a full half-hour. The " hip, hip, kip, 
hurrah !" seemed to afford great amusement to the grave 
HuBsulmnns, who, without tasting a drop, sat gazing 
and listening in mute wonder, scarcely able to compre- 
hend what it all could mean. 

The dinner was succeeded by a brilliant display of 
fire-works, which lasted till the night was far advanced. 
Long rows of human figures, and animal forms of various 
sorts, were burning in magic fire; lofty palaces of wood 
and paper, shone, burst, and were scattered in flames; 
and, more beautiful than all the rest, rose some twenty 
or more air-balloons, which, having shot up to a great 
height in the air, shoWered down sheaves and nosegays 
of fire. 

In the garden behind the palace, shone in giant let- 
ters, formed of lamps of many colours, the inscription in 
English, " Pritice Waldemar of Prussia." The fSte was 
terminated, after the echo of the last cannon had died 
away, by the ceremony usual here, of throwing a chain 
of silvered metal round the neck of every guest, whether 
lady or gentleman. 

Thus then, we hid farewell to the splendour and the 



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274 CANOtrOB AND AGRA. 

pleasures of the court of his Majesty of Oude, and to the 
beautiful eitj of Lucknow. The Prince started on the 
2d of April, and Mr Fortescue and I followed next day. 
On the 4th of April we passed the ruins of the ancient 
and celebrated city of Camoogb,* and after an uninter- 
rupted march of three days and three nights, we at 
length found ourselves in the magnificent city of Agba. 

It is situated on the south-western bank of the JcH- 
»A, (Yamuna) and presents, when the first distant view 
of its many beautiful domes and minarets meets the eye 
of the traveller, a most wonderiul and striking picture. 
The surrounding country can boast no beauty; indeed, 
since passing through Allahabad, or even since our visit 
to Benares, we have traversed one continued arid and 
desert plain. The harvest is past, and the few fields in 
which any cultivation is to be seen, — and scarcely a 
third part of the land is used for any sort of ^riculture, 
—bear parched and unlovely crops of Midnus, with its 
short and stumpy stems, vetches, or herbs used in dyeing. 
We miss the opium cultivation here, and since leaving 
Lucknow, we have seen no more fields of barley or of 
spelt. 

This is the most un&yourable season for seeing the 
environs of Agra, which, for the distance of some miles, 
look like one vast heap of rubbish. The Acactaa alone, 
with their tender verdure, resist the fatal and desolat- 
ing west wind, which often blows with great violence, 
bringing with it a heat so fearfully glowing, that the 

* A place of great renoini in the remote ens of Hindoo hiatorj, *iid de- 
■cribed u bnTing been at one time tbe prondest of all the Indian CBpHala. 
Fint bumbled in 1018, when ita miereign tendered hia sabmlnian to Hah- 
moud of Qhimi, it wtu spared b; th&t great conqneror, onlj to tall a speedy 
prej to other and 1e§a distant fo«e; since the eaj-ly pari of the 11th centuiy, 
it has uerer regained its former power and splendonr, and it has now for 
ages presented only a mass of nuns, sufficient from their extent to mark 
He impodog size, while fngmenta of temples, nunsolenms and sculpturea, 
prostrate amid desolate jangles, taH to preaerre even a restige of its beauty 



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ESVIEONB OF AOBA, 275 

thermometer rises, at about 2 o'clock p.m., in the shade, 
to above 33° (106° Fahrenheit)! Several trees of the 
Acacia tribe, such as the beautiful Acacia Seriasa, and 
the tree from which gum Arabic is procured,* occa- 
BioQally gladden the eye, and fill the air with a de- 
licious, spicy fragrance. Beside every spring too, even 
here, is a group of the ash-like Sumach, but no grass, 
no herbaceous vegetation of any kind, is to he seen, — 
not a single flower nor a single butterfly. Blueish-green 
thistles and caper bushes form the only clothing of these 
undulating hiUa, the tombs of ancient greatness and 
ma^ificence. The prevailing colour of the soil is, al- 
most universally, a reddish gray, or a blackish tint; but 
scarce in any spot is its originaJ formation to be traced, 
for recent debris are heaped over the ruins of remoter 
date. The highways are the only features of the land- 
scape that tell of habitation and civilization; and it was 
certainly the first time in my life that I hailed with de- 
light the sight of a road grown smooth from long and 
frequent thoroughfare, a welcome object however, in 
these white and dusty pluns. 

We entered Agra on the 7th of April, rejoiced at 
having hitherto escaped the noxious effects of the hot 
season in this climate, and not less so, to find a shelter 
from its intensity in the ingenious construction of the 
dwellings here. It is difficult, in the temperate climate 
of our German home, to form any conception of the 
bumtng heat of a tropical sun. When in Agra, tempted 
by the artificial lowering of the temperature iu the inte- 
rior of our residence, we ventured, after mid-day, to take 
a short walk along the street, the sensation caused by first 
meeting a rushing stream of air heated up to 34>° or 35° 
(109« or 111" Fahrenheit) was most startling. The pain 

* The Acaeia Aralka, the gum of which is need in India, and eiported 
thence aa a, subetitnte for the real gam Arabia, the product of the AoKia 
Ifilotita to wtdoh it ij however Ter; inferior. — Tb. 



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276 PEBILODB CONTSASTB. 

felt in the nose resembled that caused by excessive cold, 
and a sort of shivering ran down the bock. We were 
involuataril; impelled to betake ourselves to running, in 
. order to reach the cool atmosphere of the first Tatty, or 
of the nearest shades. Immediately on re-entering, 
after such an exposure to the heat, any inhabited apart- 
ment, or, I should rather say, vault, — for all the rooms 
are very lofty, and surmounted by domes, and light is 
admitted only by a small sky-light, — one is in danger of 
being struck with apoplexy, for a current of cold air 
flows upon one from all sides. A pair of bellows is at 
work, noiseless but ceaseless, behind each door; and 
over the heated crown of the entering guest, — which 
nevertheless he is constrained to uncover, — the weighty 
punkah is moved backwards and forwards so vehemently, 
that every hair is made to fly loosely about his head. 
At any rate, there is no doubt that to go out before 
evening is by no means advisable; coup-de-aoleil or 
fever may not indeed be very frequent, but cough, 
catarrh and toothache, are the ordinaiy evils that result 
from such imprudence. 

It is interesting to observe how inventive the neces- 
sities of the climate have here made man. How varied 
and ingenious are the methods he has devised in the 
internal arrangement of his domestic architecture for 
obtaining relief from the oppressive heat ! 

A house, such as the weaJthy and distinguished Bri- 
tish residents here occupy, is generally a structure of 
considerable height, but of only one story, of a horse- 
shoe form, with a colonnade in the centre: windows are 
altogether wanting ; and the only doora are in the side 
walls opening into a corridor, and screened by double 
hangings, — coverlets of cotton cloth, thickly wadded, — 
beneath which every one that enters must bend, and 
thus creep in. Tlie sitting-rooms in the side-wings of 
the mansion receive their light from above, or else 



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BRITISH HOMES IN INDIA. 277 

through small bath-rooms, in which jars fiill of water 
are continu^y Htanding, and which have but one ex- 
ternal entrance, and that closed up by means of a tatty- 
frame, kept always moist by having water poured per- 
petually upon it. All rooms, that lie towards the west, 
are cooled by an apparatus of this sort ; for the sultry 
west wind is changed, by the rapid evaporation of the 
water, — caused by the current of air flowing in,— into 
an agreeably cool, and even occasionally into a cold 
breeze: it is therefore much easier to produce a mode- 
rate temperature within the dwelling when this hot wind 
blows, than when eveiy breath is hushed, even though 
the heat in the open air may then be less intense. 

The so-called " Tatties," to which I have already re- 
peatedly alluded, are wooden frames, of the size of the 
door; upon which thick bundles of the roots of Ivaran- 
cura Grass, (AndropogonlvaroTicura) bound together in 
close rows, are fastened down with thin bamboo ; the 
whole resembles in miniature the walls of briera and 
thorns at a salt-work. These roots are extremely por- 
ous, and rapidly absorb the water, which speedily eva- 
porates, causing a very peculiar smell, which at first is 
most unpleasant, and even produces headache and a 
feeling of stupor, but to which habit soon reconciles the 
stranger, and for which he even frequently acquires a 
real passion. 

The central, and by far the most habitable part of the 
house, is a spacious rotunda, with a very lofty roof, 
which however is flat, so that the vaulting of the different 
apartments into which it is divided does not interfere 
with their syrametiy. This part of the building is sur- 
rounded by a wide corridor, in which various machines 
for cooling the atmosphere are stationed like pieces of 
artillery. Several of these, with their broad, wind-mill- 
like wings, somewhat resembling mill clappers, are 
turned without intermission, and the current of air thus 



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278 INDIiN LUXtntlEB. 

caused, fioding its way into the room through small 
double tatties, produces a most grateful efiect. The 
ever-active punkah is in motion at the same time; even 
by night it is never suffered to rest, as it serves the 
double purpose of creating artificial coolness and of driv- 
ing away the musquitoes, for even gauze curtains cannot 
be tolerated here during the excessive heat. 

Another most agreeable contrivance in these houses 
is the bath ; a large tank of water with marble steps. 
This luxury is not however universally to be met with; 
and I was often obliged to content myself with having 
a few pitchers of water poured over my head, which a 
servant on whom this office properly devolves, — the 
" Bikiahtee," — is ready continually to replenish from his 
goat-skin vessel. This man has, as may be imagined, a 
most important office, and is ever and anon replenishing 
empty water-jugs and jars, or supplying thirsty water- 
bibbers. His assistants are several huge oxen, which 
relieve him of the hardest part of the work, by pacing 
down an inclined plane beside a deep well in the garden, 
to draw up thence the huge barrel. 

The water for drinking is cooled either with ice, or, 
when that is wanting, with saltpetre; in the more ordi- 
nary degrees of heat, the porous vessels formed of red 
clay, (" QaUas ") prove sufficient to accomplish that ob- 
ject, their efficacy being increased by wrapping them in 
wet cloths. These earthen jars are manufactured in all 
parts of India, and both their elegant forms and the 
targe admixture of mica in the clay of which they are 
made give them a remarkably pretty appearance. 

The making of ice is practicable only in elevated situ- 
ations, in early spring, and even then, only when the 
wind is blowing from certain quarters. It is carried on 
in large clay pans, which are placed on finely chopped 
straw; the small fragments of ice, formed in them, are 
carefully gathered up and packed closely and firmly to^ 



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BN0LI8B MISTAKES. S79 

gether ; and eEich member of the joint-stock companies, 
formed for that purpose at Benares and at Agra, receives 
on cert^n appointed days, his portion of ice, according 
to the number of his shareB. 

The manner of life, where every thisg great and 
small is so artificially regulated, differs essentially from 
that usual amoDg us at home. The open air is only to 
be endured till about nine, or at latest ten o'clock ; an 
Englishman at least will never leave the house after that 
time of day, German constitutions, fresh from Europe, 
are not easily injured by the heat; I have frequently 
remained at my drawing, io the open air, till eleven 
o'clock, without suffering in consequence, although the 
danger of such an exploit was depicted before me in the 
most vivid colours. It is an inherent part of the Eng- 
lish character, to maintain stedfastly a belief once esta- 
blished; no one therefore ventures to go out of doors 
after nine in the morning, or before five in the evening; 
while, on the other hand, it is held to be quite allowable, 
and indeed a matter of course, to make a most substan- 
tial meal three times daily, and to drink a quantity of 
strong ale and fiery wine, as though no danger could 
possibly be apprehended from that quarter. In my 
opinion it would be abundantly safe to take a little more 
exercise, even during the extreme heat; indeed, with a 
table so luxuriously supplied, it might doubtless be a 
most wholesome practice. 

As soon as the sun has risen, the Indian traveller ac- 
cording to established custom enjoys whatever is worth 
seeing of the beauties or curiosities of nature or of art; 
then takes bis bath, and makes his toilet for breakfast ; 
this repast ended, he repairs to tlie lady's music-room, 
regales himself with a little music in her company, and 
carries on some conversation touching the respective 
merits of Italian and German composers. The piano- 
forte is unfortunately almost always out of tune, and 



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280 AN INDUS DAT. 

in no very brilliant condition, as rust commita its ravages 
among the chords, in spite of the cover with its wadding 
three fingers thick. After this, those who hav6 time to 
spare, devote a few hours to slumber. About one or two 
o'dock the company re-assembles in the dining-room for 
a second meal, which is followed by another short sleep, 
— an afternoon "aieata," — on rising from which, at five 
o'clock, carriages and saddle-horses are found in readi- 
ness for the usual airing, The heat is even then very 
oppressive, and the west wind covers equipages and 
cavaliers with a thick coating of gray dust, so that leisure 
for the bath and toilet before dinner is no slight luxury. 
The party sit down to table at seven o'clock ; several 
ladies are usually present, among whom the individual 
partner whom he is to hand to the dinner-table , is 
always pointed out beforehand to each gentleman of 
distinction. 

There was seldom any lack of society; for sociability, 
interrupted during the day by the overwhelming heat, 
receives a new impulse in the cool hours of evening; and 
in fact, this custom of late dinner-parties is one with 
which the stranger willingly complies, as being very well 
adapted to the climate. But what shall I say of the fre- 
quent and, even in the hottest season, so dearly loved 
balls! Dancing is carried on with passion, and with 
perseverance too ; and it is even at these same balls that 
the greatest number of persons is found assembled, since 
the invitations are less rigidly select than those for the 
dinner-parties. There, may be seen figures the most 
singular and grotesque; European ladies, whose youthfiil 
bloom has passed away, with their grey hair " frisks ala 
payaanne," making most laborious endeavours to dance 
what, as if on purpose to annoy us, they here call "Polka;" 
beside them, youthful beUes, perhaps not more than thir- 
teen or fourteen years of age, with all the "pretension" 
of maturer dames, not unfrequently even with artificial 



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BHDBTPOOR. 281 

brightness glowing on their cheeks, whose natural roses 
fade early indeed in this torrid zone.. 

The roses however may be tolerated; but when, in 
order to conceal somewhat of Indian blood, which sheds 
ft faint tinge of bronze over the skin, a coating of white 
of egg mixed with chalk is carefully laid on, then the 
arts of the toilet have really, according to European no- 
tions, been pushed a little too far; and I should have held 
this to be mere calumny, had not a nearer look of more 
than one of these artificially made up " dames blanches" 
convinced me of the reality of the thing. The life of 
feasting and revelry in the city of Agra, was, on the 
ISth of April, once more exchanged for the hot and 
dusty palanquin. 

We next proceeded to EeuETPOOR, at which place we 
arrived on the 16th, and where we spent five most inte- 
resting days with the Eajah. He has, in gratitude to 
the English, to whom he is indebted for his elevation to 
the throne, built a palace for his friends, quite according 
to English taste in its architecture and arrangements. 
It contains all manner of " comforts," which can render 
life agreeable in this country, apparatuses for refrigera- 
tion, ice-pans, a large tank or bath on the second story, 
and an excellent cellar, well stocked with claret and 
champagne. In this palace we resided during our stay 
at Bhurtpoor, sallying forth eariy evety morning to the 
chase of the Antelope or the ifyl Ohau. During the hot 
hours of the day, we occupied ourselves with drawing, 
painting and reading, and with preparing the skins of 
the slaughtered victims of the hunt. The Rajah got up 
for our entertainment, besides the various field sports, 
wrestling-matches, in which we witnessed wonderful 
feats of strength ; the usual fights of elephants, of tigers, 
of antelopes, and of rams, were also here again exhibited. 

The most considerable place on our road from Bhurt- 
poor to Delhi, was Mutika or Mathura, where we were 



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S82 DELHI AND ITS MONUMENTS. 

most kindly welcomed, and most hospitably and agree- . 
ably entertained by Mr ThomtoQ, an unconmnonly 
pleasing English gentleman. 

Delhi, — the ancient seat of the Oreat Mogvl, — was 
the ultimatum of our day's journeying on the 26th of 
April. It is a large but melancholy-looking city; its 
environs a complete desert, covered with the wreck of 
former grandeur. Our residence here was rendered 
more unpleasant by the circumstance of our being quar- 
tered with an old gentleman who did as little as he pos- 
sibly could for his guests. His horses were hut once put 
to his carriage, and that at a time when, as he well knew, 
the Prince had gone out; the door of his splendid mar- 
ble bath was never unlocked, and indeed it was only af- 
ter we had quitted his abode, that we were made aware 
of its existence. We were obliged therefore, in order 
to visit the very remarkable ruins of the ancient edifices 
of Delhi, all of which are at a considerable distance from 
the British station, to mount the elephants which belong 
to Government. In the heat of this climate, the pecu- 
liar and uneasy motion of being rocked on an elephant's 
back, and the glaring sunshine, were most irksome, es- 
pecially on our return, for although we started for our 
sight-seeing at five in the morning, we never found it 
possible to be at home before eleven. 

There are monuments here of a very ancient date, 
which in point of interest fully equal the Pyramids of 
Egypt. The remains of a gigantic mosque, begun on 
too grand a scale to be completed, present an image of 
the bygone magnificence of ancient Delhi. One minaret 
is yet standing; it is two hundred and fifty feet in 
height, and measures sixty-five paces in circumference; 
three hundred and ninety-eight steps conduct to its sum- 
mit. It is fluted extemallj, and its stories consist alter- 
nately of red sandstone and of white marble, a combina- 
tion often met with in India. 



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PALACE OF SHAH JEHAH. S8S 

• Far more uicient than the " Koottib Minar," — u this 
great tower is called, — is a pillar of cast metal, bearing 
Sanscrit inscriptions, which rises to the height of forty 
feet from the ground, while its shaft and base are said 
to be buried for an equal depth beneath. Timur caused 
a cannon to be fired at it ; but the ball made an im- 
pression without injuring the column. The spot on 
which it stands, is surrounded by the ruins of a Hindoo 
temple, which this primseval and mysterious monument, 
concerning whose origin there is a lack of all satisfactory 
information, has outlived. 

I must also mention the palace built on the banks of 
the Jumna, by Shah Jeham, which on the 1st of May, 
we visited in company with Mr Metcalfe. It stands 
without the city-gate, and is enclosed by ramparts, from 
five to BIX feet in thickness, and fifty feet in height. 
Its shining walls of red sand-stone are visible from a 
great distance, and the vast space within their circum- 
ference forms quite a city of itself. 

The gates of the palace are semicircular projections; 
the walls are fluted on the top, and fortified with a 
multitude of low turrets. A vaulted passage " Ckatta," 
which has only one opening, in its centre, leads from the 
gate, in the semicircle of which the sentinels are sta- 
tioned, to the first court, distinguished by the name of 
"Notiimt Khamah."* In this co»u^ are the royal stables. 
The second court, " Devami Am,"'\ which is the largest 
of all, surrounds an open hall the front of which is sup- 
ported by nine arches of sandstone inlaid with marble. 
A third handsome gate leads horn this court into the 
third one, "Devani Kkat,"X in which is the marble hall, 
where in days of yore, stood the peacock-throne of the 
Great Mogul. Its roof rests on columns of solid marble, 
and the pavement is formed of the most precious stones, 
* i. e. Place of the band af instrumentB. -(- L e. Public H*ll. ]: L e. 
Special HalL— Tb. 



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S84 



HOBUDE AUD GABD£N BATH. 



Mnoug which I observed comelianB of great Talue. On * 
one of its side walls, stands the Persian inacription in -<. 
large characters of gold, " If Paradise ever ewisted on 
earth, it ia this, it is this, it is this !" 

The marble gallery, or roatrum, on which the Grreat 
Uognl was wont to step out to address the people, is ^bo 
here shown. The walls are inlaid, throughout, with 
Italian mosaic-work of various marbles : the apples, 
pears and cherries, represented on a ground of black 
marble, in these works of art, as well as the oft-recur- 
ring goldfinches and bulfinches, afford most concluBive 
evidence as to their European origin. 

On the left side of the hall is the private mosque, also 
of marble, called Motee Musjid: it is small and simple, 
but built in a very beautiful style, On the right side is 
the present Palace of the Emperor, where he lives, sur- 
rounded by his many wives. The gilded roof of this 
edifice still remains, while all other similar ones have 
long since vanished. 

In the garden beside the Palace, is a marble bath, 
the magnificent mosaic pavements of which are covered 
with perfectly carpet-like designs. Unfortunately it is 
in an extremely dilapidated condition; and its floor 
covered with thick dust, old rubbish and fragments of 
marble seats and divans. A superb tank with an en- 
olosure of sea-^een composition, and an extraordinarily 
beautiful rosette, formed of cornelian and blood-stone, in 
its centre, was half buried beneath the mbbisli; in ad- 
dition to which one of the Imperial barbarians had 
caused a lai^e box filled with earth to be rolled over it 
on iron-bound wheels, to serve as a target for the dis- 
play of his skill in archery. 

ircades that surround the court, are, for 
rs, falling, one after another, into ruins; 
ptured balustrades of the marble balls are 
ppearing; and tattered remnants only of 



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BDBIAI. PLACE OF HUHAOOON. 285 

.the large awnings whicli afforded shade in former daTS, 
now hang from the roofs. Yet this shadowy potentate 
is in the regular receipt of a pension, the amount of 
which exceeds that of the annual income of the Queen 
of Great Britain, and which is intended to maintain the 
palace in good rep^. No good is done with it all ; the 
numerous parasites and useless idlers at court embezzle 
three quarters of the whole sum, while the fourth is con- 
sumed chiefly by the countless host of wives who people 
the Harem. 

Early on the morning of the 2d of May, mounted on 
ponderous elephants, we rode through a part of the city, 
passing by the Fort. The object of this expedition was 
a visit to the tombs of the Baberide Emperors, which 
are about four miles distant from the town. The soil is 
covered with the ruins of ancient Delhi, scattered amidst 
solitary mimosas and fig-trees. 

The walls which enclose the magnidcent burial-place 
o( Hvmayoon, are in a half dilapidated state; the outer 
gate only, built of imperishable red sandstone, is still in 
very good preservation. An interval of about a hundred 
paces,— originally probably a garden, but now used for 
the cultivation of tobacco, — separates the main building 
from the surrounding walls. The former has a broad 
facade, numbering seventeen arches, including the cen- 
tral one which serves as a gate. The sixteen others are 
built up, with the exception of small square doors left 
in them as entrances to the vaults. The whole edifice 
forms a perfect square, containing sepulchral cells on 
each side, the total number being sixty-eight. On as- 
cending the stair, we reached a spacious platform, the 
foundation on which rests the principal part of the struc- 
ture, viz. the tomb of Htemayoon. himself. 

This tomb is a lai^e octagonal tower, consisting of 
three stories surmounted by a dome, ^together rising to 
a height of sixty feet; with eight smaller towers cluster- 



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286 HAUBOLEUH OF NIZaH ITS T>EKS. 

ing around it. It was erected by Hvmayoon, the father 
of Aldar, about the year a.d. 1640; it is simple, but 
neble in its style of architecture, and, connderiug itg 
antiquity, in excellent preservation. 

At a still greater distance from the city is the mauso- 
leum of the renowned saint Nizam ud Deen. Before 
arriving at it, we were obliged to traverse a whole city 
of tombs; small sepulchral edifices of mosque-like 
form rose around us, as far as the eye could reach; on 
eveiy side ruined domes, open vaults and columned 
remains, mark the sites of ancient temples. At length, 
on arriving in fixint of a lofty gray wall, a low door was 
opened to admit us, and within, we beheld the welcome 
verdure of several leafy trees. A narrow court leads, 
through a second entiy, to a lai^ tank surrounded by 
galleries and by various temple-like structures. Here 
a number of priests and of fakeers volunteered to throw 
themselves down from the points of the domes, if only 
we would suitably remunerate them; which however we 
begged to decline doing. 

The sanctuary itself, a marble structure of wonderful 
beauty and elegance, stands in another court, under the 
shade of fig trees. Its inner walls are decorated with 
numerous Arabic inscriptions, in characters of gold; 
and the oeiling is hung with ealken drapery; however, 
though we saw all this, we were, as unbelievers, not per- 
mitted to see the co£Sn of the saint. A priest now drew 
near, bearing in his hands two small earthen vessels; 
while he opened their lids he uttered these words, " This 
is the gift, offered to all, to the poor as well as to the 
rich, to the King as well as to the meanest subject." 
Thus saying, he presented to na part of the contents 
of his little pot, — a sort of small confectionary, or " «*- 
crerie." 

In the vicinity of this peculiarly sacred spot, — for 
Nizam ud Deen was a holy Sheik, — are several se- 



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POttTEESS OP PUBANA EILLA. 28? 

pulcLral monuments of singular beauty, whicli, some- 
what more in accordance with our European style, con- 
sist of simple sarcophagi, surrounded by finely sculp- 
tured open screens of marble. Here is to be seen the 
tomb of J^tam Ara ("Jahara") the daughter of Shah 
Jdian, as also that of Moodjewadje; again, a third, sur- 
rounded by a very lofty enclosure of marble, is erected 
to the memory of Qengri Medrih Baba, son of Ai^mr 
Shah. 

A temple-like quadrangular edifice, with a flat roof, 
stands near to, yet isolated from, this vast and splendid 
city of the dead. It consists of twenty-five small conti- 
guous arches, five in each row; the outer ones supported 
by double, the inner by single columns : the intervals 
between the outer pillars are filled up, to the level of 
the capitals, with gratings of elegant arabesque design. 
The materiaJ of this edifice is a yellow sand-stone: it 
contains, within, the marble sarcopht^ of the mother, 
sister and brothers, of the individual by whom it was 
erected, — Kkan Anm Khan, — who is said to have been 
a foster-brother of Humayoon. 

One of the grandest architectural monuments is the 
ancient and mighty fortress of Shere Kkan, — Purana 
KiUa, — which we visited on our way home. Its strong 
and massive towers and ramparts, although much dilapi- 
dated, are tolerably well patched up with brick, ao that 
no considerable breach now remains. Of the four gates, 
three are built up; at one of these, we observed ele- 
phants, sculptured in marble, sunk into the red sand- 
stone walls of the side towers. 

After making a great circuit, we at length arrived at 
the only gate which still affords access to the interior; 
and beheld within, to our amazement, a number of 
houses, standing side by side: a whole village is enclosed 
within the circumference of the walls, which measure, I 



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S88 FEKOZB EOTELAH. 

should think, not less than from eight to nine hundred 
paces on each of the four sidea. Several ancient build- 
ings, worthy of note, ^et remain standing in this spacious 
interior. The first is a tall, octagonal tower of red sand- 
stone, without a dome and flat-roofed; it bears the name 
of "ShereMv^ul," and is said to have been built hjShere 
Khan as an aiiy summer residence. Steep stairs lead to 
the two upper stories, which are surrounded by external 
galleries, and decorated, within, with beautiiul painted 
ceilings, and mosaics of blue and yellow glazed sandstone. 
Another is the wonderfully beautiful mosque, attributed 
to Okoree Allah vd Deen. It is one of the flat mosques, of 
inconsiderable depth, and consisting of but one simple 
structure. The front is adorned with five lar^ portals, 
the arches of which are of nearly horse-shoe form, the 
middle one, which is the principal entrance, having but 
little to distinguish it from the others. The central 
vaulted hall is very lofty, but its dome is flattened; the 
niches opposite to the doors of the entrance contain 
remarkably beautiful marble frameworks, filled with 
splendid arabesques. 

From this wonderful fortress we proceeded to visit 
that of FerozeShah, whose sand-stone monolith, — Feroze 
Kotelah, — is visible at a great ^stance, rising above the 
venerable walls around. It is surrounded on every wde 
by a mass of small arched structures raised one above 
another, and bears numerous inscriptions, those near its 
base in Hindui, those higher up in Sanscrit characters. 

Our ride back to the city I cannot certainly number 
among the pleasant features of our expedition; for the 
sun, having already attained a high point in its course, 
spread a scorching glow through the atmosphere. On 
returning to our quarters I was obliged, with the utmost 
despateh, to make ready our trunks for an early depart- 
ure; for to-morrow we are to quit Delhi, and to proceed. 



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PEOJKCTBD INEOAD. 289 

via Mbbbct, towards the cooler regions of the Hima- 
]&jaa, with the intentioo, — should the Chinese autho- 
rities put no hindrance in our way, — of penetrating 
through the mountain range, hj one of the fix>ntier 
passes, into Thibet. 



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EIGHTH LETTEE. 




Pawiu DimA, Mlk qfJHM, 1816. 

We have been quickly transported from the buming 
desert of the plains to the cool heights of the mountain 
range. Even at Meerut, where ve anived on the 3d of 
May, and took up our abode in a handsome English ho- 
tel, " the Albion," we found the heat much less oppres- 
sive. The weather was warm indeed, but the thermo- 
meter at noon did not rise above 25° (89° Fahrenheit). 
About two o'clock in the afternoon a fearful storm burst 
upon us; the sun was darkened b; clouds of yellow dust, 
whirled high in the air, until at length a violent tro- 
pical shower fell in torrents which, gradually relenting 
in their fury, ended in a soft spring rain. 

The air was mild and pleasant in the extreme, when, 
on the 4th of May, we proceeded on our farther route, 
lu the evening we reached the banks of the Ganges, 
and crossed its stream near the sanctuaries which bear 
its name, — the Oimga Deval. During the night we ac- 
complished a considerable part of our journey, so that ' 



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PALANQUIN MI8ADTBNT0BB. 291 

early d&vn found ns approacliing Mookadabad, the last 
EtatioQ. before reaching the mountains. A carriage, 
drawn bj four horses, met us a few miles from the 
town, aifd conveyed us, at a rapid pace, to our desti- 
nation. Mr WHaon, a most amiable and agreeable man, 
welcomed us to his house, and entertained us at a splen- 
did dinner, after which, the heat of the day being past, 
we continued our journey, along an extremely pleasant 
road, and, having double relays, we advanced with great 
epeed. A email village, at the boundary of the low 
forest region, — the Tarai, so much dreaded on account 
of its malaria, — was our first halting-place. 

Horses were in readiness to convey the Prince, Count 

von and Mr Wilson without delay to the foot of 

the mountains. Count von der G and I were to 

follow immediately in the palanquins, which had been 
sent forward from Mooradabad. This was not however 
destined so to be. To our no small annoyance, we now 
found our palanquins, already grievously the worse of 
their four months' joumeyings, heavily loaded on the 
top with flower-pots and water-jare, the weight of which 
much retarded our progress. My medicine-chest made 
my vehicle, at any rate, suffitaently weighty; and now 
the addition of the ponderous pitchers caused its every 
joint to crack. Accordingly, I had scarce fallen into 
my first slumber, when a loud crash suddenly awaken- 
ed me, and I robbed my drowsy eyes only to gaze at 
my broken palanquin! The bearers, dismayed, stood 
still; I alighted, and found, alas! that the pole had 
given way, — an injury which ropes and fastenings were 
unable to repair. 

There I sat, in the dark and dreary solitude, com- 
pletely at the mercy of a set of lazy, knavish men, to 
whom I could not even make myself intelligible. Even 
in this extremity, violent measures proved successful. 
After first wreaking my vengeance on Mr Wilson's 



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292 THE ILL-EQPIPPED WOEKMAN. 

water-pitchers, I seized the first bamhoos that could be 
found, and with their help the ponderous and richetty 
machine was once more set in motion. Arriving in 
safety at the nearest village, we roused a "Mistri," or 
joiner, from his repose: a crowd of idle folk gathered 
around, while, with most provoking slowness, he bored 
holes, for which he had no nails. When at last the 
nails were procured, screws were wanting; and to wind 
up tlie catastrophe, the oil failed, and wa were left in 
darkness, of which the bearers availed themselves te 
make their escape. In short, it was past one o'clock 
before we resumed our march. Even then, in spite of 
these repairs and of my fatigues, I was obliged to make 
the best of my way alongside the palanquin, on foot. 

When day dawned, we were entering a forest; gigantic 
trees, — Savl and Stssoo, — and bushes of VoUcamei-ia, 
richly interlaced with creepers, excluded all view by their 
dark and impenetrable foliage. A narrow path only had 
been cut through them, and it was often blocked up by 
huge stems of fallen trees, an obstruction which in some 
places had been cleared away by fire. The sun was now 
more vertical, and the heat more overwhelming; the hu- 
mid, sultry, oppressive air, — the "Ayal," — seemed like s 
weight of lead. Towards eleven o'clock, we reached the 
station of Kau Dhungi at the end of the Taeui district, 
and there found the first detachment of our party, who 
had been waiting for us since five o'clock in the morn- 
ing. Refreshed by a breakfast which we had ourselves 
cooked, — during which the unfortunate palanquin, after 
a second break-down, again made up to us, — we mount- 
ed the highland horses, " Qkoonts," which were standing 
ready. 

Some six miles or so we wound along the broad, but 
almost dry, channel of the NraAL-GirH0A, which, though 
often a considerable river, dwindles, during the hot sea- 
son, into a scanty brook. Its bed is overgrown with 



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SWINGING HINDOOS. 293 

dwarf bushes of Mimosa and Bauhinia, and strewn with 
rolled fragments of qiiartz-roek and ofgraawacke-achist. 
Our road next climbed the rugged acclivities of hills of 
feruginous clay and gypsum, and after this beginning, 
our ascent waa steep and continuous. The tiny stream, 
which we crossed and re-crossed, brings with it a quan- 
tity of lime, which covers all the pebbles in the ^ape- 
of calcareous epar. 

We now left behind us the desolate heights, — covered 
with boulders, — of the lower hills; and gained the ver- 
dant and lofty summits of the second range, at least 
four hundred feet higher. A current of cooler air here 
met us, a delightful contrast to the heavy and insalu- 
brious atmosphere of the valley; here roses were bloom- 
ing, and syriuga-bushes shedding their perfume, while 
delicious yellow raspberries and the berberis with its 
large blue berries, invited us to feast on their refreshing 
dainties. 

Upon the ridge of a bare hill, stand the few straw- 
built huts of the village of Sihoria. Near this place, 
our attention was attracted by a strange-looking, high 
frame, much resembling a gallows, from which hung 
twisted chains, assuming, at a distance, the form of a 
gibbeted skeleton. Swinging is, in these parts, a mode 
of worshipping the gods, practised by the pious Hindoos 
with as much devotion as I witnessed in the Nepaulese 
while they were turning their prayer-wheels! Various 
indeed, are the ways that man has devised to reach 
heaven; but I never should have dreamed of any people 
attempting to swing themselves into its precincts! 

We were now drawing near to the chain of the Gha- 
GEB mountains, and .ascending a succession of beautiful 
hills, rendered more charming by the uoble pines, (Pinus 
longifolia) that crowned their summits, and by the roses, 
barberries, red-blossoming pomegranates, and fragrant 
syringas (PkUad^hvs and Deutzia) which clothed their 



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294r HOONUUAN UONEBYB. 

sides. Gorgeous wreaths of a species of clematis were 
twining around the hawthorn bu^es, among the tall 
stems of apricot and cheny trees. Our mountain steeds 
clambered up man; a steep path, over travelled and po- 
lished masses of claj slate, ere we reached the head of 
the pass, where the for^t becomes thicker, with stems 
taller and more massive, and consists chiefly of loft; 
- oaks, (Quereus tomentosa and semecarpi/olia,) whose 
gnarled branches form a thick bower of foliage. 

Herds of Hoonuman monkeys, (Semnopithecns Etad- 
ha) were making every bough tremble, as they preci* 
pitated themselves with bold springs from one tree-top 
to another. This animal, in &ce, bears a strong resem- 
blance to an old man ; it is, in this part of the country, 
peculiarly pale in its colour, often indeed perfectly white; . 
and its black face, its long beard, and thick tuft of hair 
over the eyes, give it a most extraordinary appearance. 
In point of character however it has certainly been the 
object of vile calumny, being described as extremely 
malicious; whereas it throws neither stones norcudgels, 
but contents itself with making a grimace from its lofty 
seat, as it looks down in conscious security, to clap 
one's hands suffices to put to flight a whole herd ; a sud- 
den rustling and crackling is straightway heard among 
the branches ; on every side the venerable oaks are sees 
to shake their massive tops, and the large, white crea- 
tures, with their long tails, dart swiftly through the air, 
passing from tree to tree, without ever missing their 
aim. The Bhansh Oak is apparently their favourite 
tree, 

He riige of the pass, — ^full of precipitous ravines, 
abrupt declivities, and deep clefts cut by the rushing- 
torrents, — is richly wooded. Here flourish the maple, 
the ash, the box, the poplar, the hom-beam, the walnut 
and the apricot tree. The underwood consists chiefly of 
^ringa, and of two most odoriferous kindred shrubs. 



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NAINETHAI.. 29fi 

worth; of being thfl diBtinguished omamenta of a Euro- 
pean garden; while the deliciouslj' elastic mountain 
breeze, balmy from the fragrance of numeroua flowers, 
refreshes and invigorates the traveller after the toil- 
some ascent. Lilies of the valley, strawberries in blos- 
som, and ivy, with a beautiful variety of white melilot, 
and many other familiar plants, reminded us of our 
Clerman hills. 

But now the desce&t began ; soon however we were 
again climbing an abrupt acclivity, and in a quarter of 
an hour we espied, between the green oaks and luxuri- 
ant rhododendrons, which formed a frame for the pic- 
ture, the dark and glassy surface of a lake, deep in the 
valley at our feet. A retired group of four stone-built 
houses and three lowly cottages, clustered together un- 
der the name of Naiksthal, stands on the mar^n of 
the lake, amid groves of splendid trees, on a spot where, 
but a few years ago, the bear, the leopard, and the Je- 
row deer, reigned \udistarbed. We dismounted, and, 
winding through a deep dell, arrived at the dwelling of 
Ur Ludiington, who received us in the most friendly 
manner. 

The forest around this place still abounds with wild 
beasts: on the preceding day a leopard had seized the 
dog of our next-door neighbour, close to his bouse. On 
the cliffs of the surrounding hill, two species of antelopes, 
(Aniilope Ohoral and A. Thar) one called "Qhoral," 
the other "Svrow," find their rocky home. The barking 
of the small Muntjac deer, — here known by the name of 
" Kacher," — often echoes from crag to crag ; while the 
ki;ger Jerow deer, — called " Sattmer" in the plains — is 
also not unfrequently met with. Within a quarter of 
an hour's walk from this place is a spacious cavern, the 
bear's retreat ; no bear was however at present to be 
seen, and unluckily the den is too deep for its inmate 
to be driven out by the fumes of sulphur. Even the 



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296 LAKE AND ITS QBOLOOT. 

tiger Beems to fix upon this mountain region as its fa- 
vourite haunt, and much is he dreaded among its re- 
tired dwellings, on account of his hold and plunderous 
sallies. Not far &om Nainetbal, four months since, 
one of these latter heasts of pre; la; in wait upon the 
pilgrim's path, and tore to pieces no less than ten or 
twelve travellers. It is a remarkable fact that this ani- 
mal, apparently unaffected by any difference of tempera- 
ture, is fuUj as dangerous in this elevated region, on 
the verge of eternal snows, as it is in the flat and sultry 
plains. I have even been assured that, in the Punjauh,- 
the tiger's foot-prints have not unfrequently been found 
in snow. 

" Nainbthax." Bignifles the lake of Naina, the latter 
name being that of a renowned heroine. The lake liea 
between lolly cliffs of black limestone on the one, and 
loose deposits of argillaceous schiat on the other side: its 
depth is very coneiderable ; the plumb-line proved it, in 
several places, to be from sixty to seventy-five feet. 
Near its centre is a shallow spot, which, from the adja- 
cent mountain summits, shines with emerald hue. The 
narrow end of the lake is towards the south-west ; the 
north-eastern extremity is broad, and is the only place 
where, for a short distance, its margin is fiat, scarcely 
raised above the level of the water. According to the 
measurements of Colonel Everest, its height above the 
sea is six thousand three hundred feet, and its circum- 
ference three miles and one third. The calcareous spar, 
which appears on the highest point of the surround- 
ing rocks of clay-slate, the greenstoue-trapp, detached 
blocks of which lie upon its western side, and the bro- 
ken, indented form of its shores, would lead to the con- 
clusion that this lake is of volcanic origin. Three others 
are situated in the neighbourhood, within a circuit of 
from ten to fifteen miles. 

Our stay in this charming valley was prolonged from 



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LDNAR ECLIPSE. 297 

day to day, as the provisions necesaary for our ftirther 
wanderings in the mountains could only be procured, — 
and that not without many delays,'*— by a mountainous 
and circuitous route irom Alhoba. I thus enjoyed 
abundant leisure for collecting botanical and zoological 
specimens. The chase afforded us one Ohortd-Antdope, 
which the English call Chamois, and several specimens 
of various species of deer, and of pheasants, the skins of 
which I was busied in preserving. The bears did not 
vouchsafe to show themselves; leopards we saw indeed 
in abundance, but not one was slain, the nature of the 
rocky ground rendering it impossible to pursue these 
swift-footed creatures. The insects were but few; I 
found however a considerable number of butterflies on 
the Syringa bushes: chiefly of the species Hipparchia 
and Lyasna, also one Evpr^a, of most brilliant co- 
lours, all bearing a striking resemblance to those fami- 
liar to us at home. It might indeed naturally be ex- 
pected where so many slirubs and flowers are perfectly 
similar to those of dermany, that the insects which ap- 
pear among them should coincide with those of that 
country. 

On the 23rd of May, we observed a total lunar 
eclipse, during which the natives made a most fearful 
noise, howling and beating the drums, to drive away 
the dragon from the moon ! Shortly afterwards, on 
the 27th, we were to start from Naiaethal, furnished 
with seventy-four coolies, eight horses, four tents, and a 
whole flock of sheep for food. The appointed day ar- 
rived ; but a tremendous thunder-storm burst upon us, 
with deluges of rain which inundated the whole place, 
and such was the rush of water that cascades were leap- 
ing down the side of every hill into the lake. At length, 
towards nine o'clock, the rain ceased: and after break- 
fast we mounted our horses, and, having despatched the 
coolies in advance, bid farewell to the lovely Nainethal. 



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298 DEPARTDBB FOE THE MOUNTAINS. 

We began our journey by scaling a mounttun ridge; after 
whicli followed an abrupt descent, on nigged, windiDg 
patba. The Bbaneh-oaka aoon came to an end, and we 
found ourselyea in a tliick wood of firs, whicb filled the 
air with balsamic fragrance, white it rendered our path 
extremely slippery by the fallen needles of its foliage. 
From an elevated projection we commanded an ezten- 
aive view of the mountain, valliea and glens: the spot 
was even pointed out to us, which was to be our next 
day's halting-place. 

The boundary of the Nainethal district is here marked 
by a large heap of atones. The path leads, for some time 
after having reached the base of the hill, along the dry 
channel of a stream ovei^:rown with raspberries and 
barberries; soon however we were obliged to quit it, as 
it was impracticable for horses. We passed through 
several villages of neat, clean houses, roofed with slate: 
beyond the last of these, the road turns off to ascend 
the acute angle of a narrow ridge, thickly wooded with 
pear-trees. On reaching the edge of this hill, we saw 
before us the glen of the Kosiu, and after a toilsome 
descent, we arrived at the banks of the river, which, 
swollen by the late rains, was here about eighty paces 
in width, its greatest depth being three feet. On the 
opposite bank lies Boojan, a hamlet of some twenty 
houses, surrounded by a verdant coppice of Sycamore, 
Mango and Pomegranate-trees, Here we pitched our 
tents, dismissed our coolies, cooked our supper, and re- 
posed from the fatigues of the day. 

At eight o'clock a.u., on the SStb, we proceeded to 
ascend the valley of the Usioacka Nunnt, a tributary 
stream of the Kosila. Rugged precipices of argillace- 
ous schist, clothed with scanty vegetation, rise on either 
side, above this narrow gleu, which contains several 
small mills of very simple construction. To my amaze- 
ment, there appeared here, at an elevation of four 



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DOEA HATH AND ITS DEVAL8. 299 

thousand feet above the sea, a few solitai? palms, 
(Phosniw hvnnilia) one of which, near the villi^e of 
CuuEOLA, I should estimate to be at least thirt; feet in 
height. Passiiig by an opening in the valley, which dis- 
closed to view high ch& of mica-schist and of black 
day-slate, we climbed the rounded ridge of a naked hill, 
to the village of Tipoli, which stands in a little circle of 
well cultivated fields. The ascent here becomes very 
difficult, on account of the height of the artificial ter- 
races, and with the exception of the Uttle sanctuary of 
Jooi^BGA Debi, it presents no object of interest. A march 
of four hours brought us to the spot where we were to 
bivouac, among tall pine-trees, on a gently sloping hill- 
side. The headmen, " Pvdwariea,"* of the two adjacent 
villages, Thanda and DiULi, had, with many of their 
kinsfolk, received us at the latter place, and they now 
followed US to our encampment, 

Neit day, the 29th, we crossed theGAOAS river, and pas- 
sing through several pleasant villages, proceeded to the 
valley of Doba Hath. Our attention was here directed 
to a multitude of small temples, close to a grove of pa)ms 
probably planted by the hand of man. These sanctu- 
aries are said to have been erected, seven hundred years 
*go. by the Kajah of Kothaur, who dwelt here during 
one year, and completed one temple, or " Deval," on 
each day of that period. These buildings have the ap- 
pearance of diminutive towers of various heights; qua- 
drangular below, but terminating above in a pyramydal 
form, and surmounted by a knob or ball on the pointed 
top, In front there is a small opening, protected by a 
very small portico resting on four pillars. 

A far more stately and remarkable monument is the 
temple in the village of DoRK(DwaraJ, an edifice of consi- 
derable size. The main building, which is half dilapidated, 
is quadrangular, and adorned with sculptures of very dis- 

* Petty eoUecton iLppointed bj Govemmeut.— Tb. 



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c 



300 TEMPLE OP MAHADBO. 

tingnished merit. Unfortunately the base, — which re- 
presents elephants, closely crowded together, and seen 
in fiill front with their heads projecting, — ^has been 
grievously defaced by Mahometan zealots; above it is a. 
row of figures, both male and female, but not one of 
them many-armed. In the interior are several half-de- 
molished sculptured figures, executed in demi-relief. 
This ancient monument is overshadowed by a Butter- 
tree," (Bassia butyntcea) and by groups of palms (PhcBnix 
s^hieatris) .- close beside it, is a fine spring, covered by a - 
subterranean passage of solid masonry. 

Another temple, a Brahminical shrine still inhabited 
by priests, stands at no great distance. The most con- 
siderable of its buildings is a Detial of great height and 
of extreme antiquity, which stands in a court surrounded 
by walls painted red and white, adjoining wbtch are two 
small wooden temple-halls. This sanctuary is dedicated 
to the Mahadeo'f of Kbdarkath, and many pilgrims, 
shrinking from the length of the journey to the latter 
shrine, make DofiA Hath the end of the pilgrimage. 

The succeeding days of our travels led us, — as we fol- 
lowed the valley of the Eotelal, which springs from the 
base of the lofty Doha Giri, a gently sloping and broad- 
ridged mountain, — through a comparatively level tract 
of country ricbly cultivated by its industrious inha- 
bitants. The vegetation is monotonous in the extreme : 

* The produce of the Sairia hviyraeea, — the ttntter or Ohee tree of 
tb« Almora and Nepaul biUg,-Ji deicHbed b; Dt Bo;te u of a delicate white 
colour. Hid of the cDnnetence of fine lard, but vithoiit an; duagreeable 

emell; it is highlj eeteemed u a liniment in rheumatism fee, and when 
used b; natlTes of tank ia fVequentl; ImpreKoated with some fragrant attar. 
The fruit ripeiu in Au£U>t> the kemeU, about the nie and shape of 
olmondi, ore eoolf extracted from the smooth ohestnut-coloured pericarps, 
when they are bruised and rubbed up to the eonsistenc; of oreara, and lub- 
jected to a moderate presnire in a cloth bag. The oil conoretea iinmediately 
OD being expreaaed, and lettuna Ita conaiatencj at a temperatnre of 96°. — Ta. 
f Siva, the Destra;er, the deit; peculiarl; venerated throughout the 
miuutain region, is belieTed, under the appellation of " Mahadto," to be 
enthroned among the moat inooceaaible preciplcei of the Bimolajaa. — Ta. 



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KATCHEEEI lEON SMELTIHG. 301 

a few Balaams, JElaspberrieB, Bauhinias, and here and 
there a Qossypivm were all that I observed. We crossed 
the Rahgvhoa, into which the Kotelal flows: the former 
river is about eighty paces in width, and its channel, 
which IB filled with pebUes washed down in quantities, 
may perhaps be about as wide again. On its banks we 
saw mines, from which rich iron ore is procured in abun- 
dance; the smelting huts are aituated close beside them, 
near the confluence of the Kotelal and the Ramgunga. 
High-piled heaps of slags were pointed out to us, and 
small hearths, not larger than that of an ordinary kitchen, 
on which the ore is smelted. The huts immediately 
adjacent, had been very recently burned down, and were 
still smouldering. We also found mining operations car- 
ried on, close to a little village consbting of straw huts, 
in the valley of the Katchbbbi, which running for a 
time parallel to that of the Ramgunga, and enclosed by 
tame, and somewhat bare hills, contains very rich and 
beautiful meadow lands, watered by a mere insignificant 
rivulet. 

We availed ourselves of this opportunity of seeing the 
very primitive operations of the smelting carried on here. 
A pair of bellows, with a mouth piece fastened on by 
cement, leads down into a small pit, rudely constructed 
of stone, under which a space has been hollowed out 
which is connected with the shaft above by an air-hole : 
in the upper part, the pounded iron-stone is mixed with 
an equal quantity of charcoal, and brought to a state of 
glowing heat: the slags sink down through the air- 
hole, and the welded iron forms into masses, which are 
from time to time drawn out and hammered. 

The whole of this level creek among the hills, which 
forms the valley, is known by the name of Shimolteka; 
the pass of Pohduakhai., by which we ascended from it, 
rises to some eight hundred feet higher, After crossing it, 
we once more reached the Rauqunga, and thence pro- 



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SOS COPPER UIMBS OP AQOOE. 

ceeded along its left bank, often at a great elevation 
above the river. A multitude of pilgrimB, ctuefly wo- 
men, coming from Kbdaiuiaie, here met ua; the; de- 
clared themselves to be natives of Bdndelcdnd, and the 
women were all clad in garments of dark blue cotton, 
bordered and tricked out with red. The elderly mat- 
ron^ greeted us with shouts and screams, while the 
young maidens ranged themselves in a line, turning 
their backs to us. 

A forest of Rhododendron and of various species of 
Oak bestowed on us its welcome shade, and a few soli- 
tary pines appeared upon the opposite ridge. 

Near the little village of Agoor, where we again de- 
scended to the water's edge, a precipitous face of rock of 
greenisli blue stone caught my eye; the mouths of three 
different shafts, and a great quantity of lumps of ore 
and slags made it evident that a copper-mine was worked 
at that place. The beautiful, green cupriferous schist is 
worked in a simple manner, exactly similar to that we 
had witnessed in the iron-works of the valley of Kat- 
cherri. The ore is smelted, by means of charcoal, with 
an alloy of limestone broken down into it ; but here the 
slags are brought up above, as the crucible, — ^if indeed 
a hole of half a foot in diameter, built in with unhewn 
stones, can be so called, — has no outlet whatsoever. 
With the greatest difficulty we obtained permission from 
the men in the huts to see their proceedings, and exa- 
mine a few pieces of their metal, which they produced 
most unwillingly, being evidently afraid that we had 
some design of robbing them. 

A most agreeable night's quarters awaited us on the 
evening of this day, the 1st of June, in the bungalow of 
Mr Lushington, which stands on a beautiful lawn, with 
its httle garden, a sequestered nook in the midst of 
lofty, forest-clad mountains, — altogether a cliarming 
scene. The neighbourhood reminded me strongly of 



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ASCENDING THE BAHGDNOA. 303 

many landscapeB in Switzerland, and this European cha- 
racter struck me the more from the presence of the nu- 
merous ornamental plants so familiar in our own flower- 
beds, — wall-flower, hearta-ease, camationa, roses and 
coreopsis. 

From this spot forward, the banks of the Ramgunga 
are so steep and bigh, that we could but seldom see the 
liver; lovely dells, their rippling brooks overgrown with 
beautiful ferns, and often enlivened by cascades, inter- 
rupt the monotony of the way, which lies generally 
through a thinly planted wood, consisting of Oaks and 
Fear trees, with underwood of roses and barberries. In 
the bottom of a deep lateral glen, I saw for the first 
time, the j^lsculus (Horse-Cbestnut) trees in full blos- 
som, as tall as ours, but with narrower leaves ; I also 
remarked a few solitary Walnut trees. 

At length the dark forest became more light, the val- 
ley more open, and in the distance we descried our tents 
and the temples of Adh Budbi, rising beneath the shade 
of tall Mulberry-trees. Our encampment lay near the 
sanctuaries, but about eighty feet lower down; close 
beside a sweet little stream, — the NiaoKa, also known 
here as the Adh Budbi Ncddt, — abounding in trout 
and in little waterfalls. Ascending the river through 
the glen, on our next day's march, we found that its 
banks soon became higher and more nigged; the rocks, 
clad on the height with a scanty vegetation, descending 
almost perpendicularly to the margin of the water, a 
declivity of eight hundred feet. 

Here we gradually bid farewell to the rounded, gently 
sloping hill-tops and carefully cultivated terraces, which 
had hitherto characterized our landscapes; and entered 
upon mountain scenery marked by bold grandeur. The 
geological formation is schistose sandstone, and fre- 
quently also compact sandstone assuming the form of 
smooth cHfib; in a few particular spots, grauwacke-schiat 



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304 PASSES OF TILLEKANNI AND EHONEALA. 

of dark colour, and some actual laminated slate are 
found, — ^but these are more rare. Crossing a hill, we 
entered a district watered by another stream, the valley 
of the EuBSAtJ NcDDT, great part of which is thickly 
wooded; higher up this river, the path winds along its 
banks, crossing and recrossing from side to side, and 
ascending as if by steps. It was peculiarly difficult at 
the village of EiRSAl.: there the abrupt declivities of 
the mountains are naked and desolate; a few giant 
trees only remain to mark what the forest was in days 
of yore, ere the destroying flames annihilated its glory. 

Two passes, — the Tillekannikhal and the Kbonka- 
LAKHAL, — were crossed in one day's march, on the 4th 
of June. Before we gained the summit of the first, we 
were struck by a great change in tlie vegetable world 
around us: the forest became more and more dense; 
Walnut trees, Horse-Chestnuts in full flower. Oaks, Wil- 
lows, and a species of Hulberry-trees, constitute the 
higher wood, the under-growth being entirely of roses. 
Tlie Pass op Khomkala is about five hundred feet high- 
er, and bare of wood on its highest ridge. 

What a glorious prospect should we have enjoyed from 
this height, had not the whole atmosphere been filled 
with vapour! We could distinguish at such a depth be- 
low as might well make the beholder giddy, the large 
village of Dhdrpooe; but the surrounding summits were 
all veiled from our view. 

The ground was covered with beautiful flowering 
plants, — melilot, white anemone, and several varieties of 
columbine; and lower down, a species of strawberry new 
to me, bearing a profusion of fruit, the delicious flavour 
of which is a great contrast to the Fragaria Indica with 
its yellow blossom and tasteless fruit, which we have in- 
variably met with hitherto. 

We descended by frightfully steep and rocky paths to 
the spot where our tents had been pitched, near Dntra- 



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STSIEE AUORO THE UUIBB& 306 

POOB, where we did not arrive till eleven o'clock at nigbt. 
The village is beautifully situated, and consists of neat, 
clean, stone houses, roofed with slate. It was however 
standing empty and desolate, the inhabitants having all 
gone, as we were informed, to pursue the " Tikahdar," 
— or village magistrate, — who had run away with the 
public funds committed to him ; according to another 
report, the " Tikahdar" had refused to pay the work- 
men their full half of the profits of the copper-mines 
which form the principal source of revenue in this place; 
in consequence of which, we were assured, the men 
had refused to work, and had even quitted the mines. 

I visited one of these copper-minea, the entrance to 
which is formed by a natund cavern, with numerous 
chasms and crevices. I was obliged to slide across a 
narrow bridge, which, without the protection of any 
hand railing, spans an apparently fathomless abyss. 
Splinters of resinous pine served as I descended, to shed 
some tight on my path, and to spread great terror among 
the multitudes of bats and of a species of Cypgdua, rous- 
ed by this sudden intrusion on their solitude. The 
shaft, — or rather hole, for it is only a little more than a 
foot in diameter, — descends abruptly, and is besides so 
dirty, that I resolved rather to abandon alt further in- 
vestigation, than to penetrate, creeping quite flat on my 
face, through so narrow and uninviting a passage. The 
miners, I am told, lie upon their backs, and knock off 
the stone containing the ore, with a hammer. 

Our day of repose at Dhdspoob, the 6th of June, was 
devoted to the chase, which brought us a young musk- 
deer, and a Jerow-deer. Meanwhile, the villf^e popula- 
tion, whom the presents bestowed on them had inspired 
with some measure of confidence, appeared in greater 
numbers; stUl however it was a difficult matter to bring 
together a sufficient troop of coolies. It could only be 



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806 AL^OAHASDi BITBB AHD 01SOBO. 

accompliBbed by meaofi of the violent meaeurea ranpioy 
ed by the foreign Putwariea. 

From this place we proceeded, along the valley of the 
Sddbgaon Ndddt, which, higl^er up, before its conflu~ 
ence, at the village of Sedoli, with another small atreiun, 
bears the name of the Sedoli brook. Many tre^ of the 
Ooni/era order appear on the mountain heights; Taxus, 
(Yew) of tall and noble stems, especially predominates. 
The rocky banks of the DcnsaAON are frightfully steep 
and wild: we quitted them before reaching the spot 
where that river flows into the Alacanahda, and followed 
the course of a emaU stream, the Diuleh, which, tailing 
over a deep and nigged declivity, unites its waters also 
with those of the Alacananda. The roaring of the lat- 
ter, a turbid stream of a greyish yellow colour, which 
forces its narrow way through lofty chflfe of blackish- 
grey argillaceous schist, may be heard at a great dis- 
tance. 

A " Sanffho," or rope-bridge, leads across, not far from 
the village of Bauoth, situated on the right bank. These 
bridges, in universal use among the mountains, consist 
of two strong grass ropes, tight stretched across the 
river from side to side, to which are suspended, so as to 
hang perpendicularly, short grass ropes, not thicker than 
a finger, bearing transverse pieces of wood, fastened at 
right angles to their lower extremity; over these hori- 
zontal sticks, are laid lengthways, split bamboos, which, 
properly speaking, form the bridge. As its width is 
scarcely one foot, and these bamboos do not aflbrd a very 
substantial footing, the passenger, who ventures to tra- 
verse this primitive suspension-bridge, must be free from 
all tendency to vertigo. 

Our horses were obliged to swim through the stream, a 
rope being fastened round their necks, by means of which 
they were drawn over to the opposite bank. They all 



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OLBN OF THE EUMBGAK. 307 

passed safely through the water, although the carreDt ia 
strong and rapid, and not less than a. hundred and fifty 
feet in breadth. The transport of our tents and baggage 
WAS attended with no lesB difficulty: we followed, bring- 
ing up the rear. On the opposite side, the path climba 
an abinpt ascent, constantly tracing the brink of the 
rocky precipice, here formed of pure sand-stoue, which 
overhangs the Alacananda. At first, for about a thou- 
sand feet of the acclivity, we met with palms, (Pkcenio) 
kamUia} loaded with richly Savoured dark blue fruit 
reaembling dates. 

Turning towards the north-east, we soon reached the 
glen of the Kuiteqab, which river flows between a thicket 
of woody bushes on the one side, and a range of culti- 
vated terraces on the other. The reckless burning of 
grass and of underwood, and the barking of the large 
trees have dreadfully devastated the forest here, as in 
many other places. We found, encamped among the 
bushes, at the highest point of the glen, a troop of 
Bhooteas, from Neetee, who were carrying several hun- 
dred-weight of salt, stowed on the backs of sheep and 
goats, — their beasts of burden. These goats are very 
large, strong-built animals; for though laden with twelve 
" seers," or twenty-four pounds, each, in saddle bags 
across the back, they advance with an active and spright- 
ly step. 

Not fax from the village of Foeri, which stands very 
high, and is surrounded with copper-mines, we met the 
Puiuxirie, and a number of the inhabitants, all in white 
apparel, who had come out to receive us. A bungalow, 
situated on the summit of the hill, afforded us a most 
agreeable shelter, and we were obliged, by the heavy 
rains, to make a halt in it for one entire day. On the 
following we entered the pass of Sihalekeax, beyond 
the village of Matoheinda. The head of this pass is 
clothed with a very fine wood of noble mossed oaks, yews, 



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bay-trees and ■willowa: here, for the first time among 
the mountaina, we met with bamboos; the luxunant 
green sward waa richly adorned with heantifal Orchidece, 
a species of very fragrant Pol^ffonum, and a profusion 
of atrawberriea. A second pass, the Ebaluesal, — or 
UocKWAKBAL, for every place in these parts has more 
than one name, — which we ascended, after crossing the 
Jadmbnighar brook, proved a moat toilsome climb ; the 
path being slippery from the decayed leaves thickly 
strewn on it. The only habitations we passed were 
those of the miserable hamlet of Djdde, (Dhpb) beyond 
which, from our encampment at Chobbda, we caught 
the first view of the glorious enowy peaks of Kedar- 
nath in the back-ground, shining in ailvety splendour 
against the deep azure of the firmament, and appear- 
ing, from the effect of contrast, to be quite near us. 

Our Hindoo attendants were not slow in availing 
themselves of the permission previously granted, to re- 
pair to the sacred spot of Tononath, about three miles 
farther eastward. 

The following day, the 11th of June, after descending 
by very steep and difficult paths, winding above the 
banks of the Aqas-C^unoa, we reached the lovely and 
mirror-like lake of Dubithal, which lies at a great ele- 
vation. After making the circuit of its waters, we 
espied, beneath the summit of the overhanging ridge, a 
tent, in front of which sat a group of people clad in yel- 
low silk and richly bedizened. The High- Priest of Ke- 
damath had come to this place to meet the Pnnce, and 
present his salutations, and he now requested to know 
whether he might have the honour of waiting upon His 
Royal Highness, and in what manner. Soon afterwards, 
his approach was heralded by the sound of a frightful 
kind of music, produced by long, trumpet-like wind in- 
struments. After half an hour had elapsed, the High- 
Priest himself appeared ; a handsome man, in the prime 



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HIGH PRIEST OF KBDARXATH. 309 

of life, mth noble features marking him as a Hindoo of 
the purest race ; be distributed a multitude of presents, 
consisting of pastiy, confectionery, Cashmere shawls, 
yak-tails, musk, and a bowl full of rupees. His magni- 
ficent attire presented a curious contrast to our simple 
travelling guise. 

Following him, we proceeded next day to Okiucth, 
descending at first along a sharp ridge, from which we 
obtfuned a general view of the valley of the Aqas to our 
left, and that of the Cali-Gunoa to our right; the lat- 
ter studded with villages, and rich in terrace cultivation: 
before we were aware of its vicinity, Okimuth lay at our 
feet in the deep valley. 

A large quadrangidar edifice, with a Deval standing 
in the middle of a court surrounded by galleries, con- 
tains the dwelling of the high-priest. He received us 
at the door, touched the Prince's hat, as if to bestow a 
blessing upon him, and led us across the court, into an 
open hall, where a divan and two chairs weo-e placed, on 
which we took our seats. Before the conversation be- 
gan, two small oanea were handed to each of us; the 
ends of them were wrapped in cotton, and steeped in a 
most exquisite perfume, a mixture of sandal-oil, and 
green otto of rosea. The High Priest spoke very quickly, 
and with much animation, and seemed delighted with 
the present of a ring which he received in return for his 
fragrant ^ft; his hands trembled, as he added it to the 
many others on his little finger. He appeared, when we 
took leave, somewhat embarrassed, as to whether he 
should hold out his hand by way of salutation or not. 
This hesitation recalled to my mind Uartahar Singh, 
with his hearty embraces: we have, by the bye, but re- 
cently received the intelligence of that illustrious person 
having been murdered at the instigation of the Rajah 
of Kepaul. 

We soon proceeded on our journey, and, below Oki- 



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SIO OLER OP THH HUNDAaBI. 

muth, reached tbe banlcB of the wild CAU-OnnaA, which, 
roaring and foaming, dashes on between its rocky banks. 

A very loose and tottering " Sangho," fonned of slen- 
der bamboos bound together with grass ropes, spans its 
angiy whirlpool in the wildest part, at an elevatiim of 
from forty to fifty feet. At Uasta, we entered the glen 
of the MtMDAoai, which river we afterwards crossed, at 
a bridge b^ond Kabakkotji, a sacred spot, marked by 
a temple of great size. In the neighbourhood of a small 
village, in the valley of the Mundagri, I saw for the 
first time a Deodara Csdar (Pinue Deodara); it had 
probably been planted there. Our party was, irom this 
point, increased by the addition of an Englishman, who 
lives in these wild mountain regions, by the chase of 
musk-deer, which he finds a lucrative occupation. He 
is a delicate, almost feeble-looking man, on whom the 
invigorating effects of mountain-air, or of the life of a 
hunter, aro not at all ^roeptible; in short, by no means 
the Mimrod that we had &ncied him. Above JtuiiLPV- 
TAH, the Hundagri, here a wild mountain torrent, makes 
a groat bend ; its banks become moro and more rugged, 
in some parts rising in precipitous cliJk, to the height 
of more than a thousand feet. It receives, just at this 
ti>ii, tbe waters of the BASSitoHi Nuddt. At this point 
ioo, we beheld the magnificent falls of the latter river; 
their deafening thunders, reverberating in the narrow 
glen, seem to make the very air tremble. I should es- 
timate tbe lowest leap of the foaming waters, to be 
about a hundred and fifty feet in depth ; broken in se- 
veral places into angry spray, they rush down this 
nugbty precipice with tremendous roar. 

Higher up, the path, which cUmbs a steep ascent, be- 
(wmes narrower, and soon consists merdy of steps, from 
*hich we cast a shuddering glance at the raging torrent 
dating along its rocky bed, at a feariul depth below. 
The glen is closely hemmed in by frowning ramparts of 



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BATHIHO PILOEIHS. 311 

gneiss TOc^, which are too rugged at their base for any 
T^^atioD, but are clothed on the ridge above with 
Rhododendrons, Bhansh Oaks, and Fines. For some 
time, oar path continued ^ong'the edge of the predpioe 
on the right bank of the Mundagri ; at length it wound . 
down towards the margin of the stream : a quarter of an 
hoar more, and we beheld before us, not far from the 
river, the far-fiimed temple^ of Gacmodhd. 

A mtdtitude of pilgrims had gathered round the sacred 
springs of this spot, wliere, amid man; ceremonies, thej 
perform their ablutions. A basin of twelve feet square, 
with three gradations of depth, receives the water of one 
hot spring, ToprACUHD, which flows down from it in 
copious streams, by brazen conduits. Here we witness- 
ed several singular bathing scenes. The temperature of 
the spring is 41°5 (125° Fahrenheit) the devout pilgrims, 
ther^ore, could not come into contact with its sacred 
waters without experiencing acertaindegreeofpain, the 
female bathers especially found the heat decidedly too 
great for their softer skins. They popped in alternately, 
first one, then another foot, without ventaring a leap; 
many, even of the men, betrayed their pain while in the 
water by a most doleful mien. Others again displayed 
great heroism, standing in the centre amidst the bubbling 
of the fountain. One lakeer stepped in, without moving 
a muscle in his face; ranained in the water fuUy three 
minutes, then rubbed his whole body with ashes, and, 
shortly afterwards, without having put on his clothes, 
was seen squatting in the cool evening air. What an en- 
viable impassibility f I entered into conversation with 
this man regarding his mode of life. His expressions 
were as follows: "I left Juggemauth, my family pro- 
perty and home, and followed the god, by whose in- 
spiration I was moved to wander hitlier. For twenty 
years I have been a fakeer. The god has ever given 
me all that I could need. The god baa likewise kept 



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312 aATTBICmiD AND EEDABNATH. 

me Irom being sensitive to cold, preserved me from suf- 
fering the pangs of hunger, and, vhen sick, raised me 
up again. In winter, the god must needs send me some- 
thing in the shape of a mantle, something wherewith to 
clothe myself; yet, if it he not so, he will not suffer me 
to sink under the chilling blasts !" 

When the pilgrims have at length contrived to per- 
form their three prescribed immersions, their garments 
are next washed in the holy water, amid continued 
prayer. Among them may be seen men and boya run- 
ning up and down at the edge of the basin, without the 
least idea of devotion, simply to wash their feet, or to 
cleanse various goods and chattels in-its sacred foun- 
tain; gun-barrels and lamps were being cleaned in it; 
nevertheless, I was not permitted to descend to its mar- 
gin, to estimate the temperature of its holy source. It 
is distant only about fifteen paces from the Mundagri, 
into which river the basin empties its descending stream, 
which forms a hot marsh on the bank, where, in spite of 
a temperature of 36" (1 13° Fahrenheit) nettles and docks 
thrive to perfection. Sixty paces from the first basin, 
and somewhat farther from the river, is the second 
spring, — a cold one, known by the name of Gadeiound, 
Its temperature is 17° 7, (about 72* Fahrenheit); the 
water is far more strongly impregnated with carbonate 
of iron than that of ihe hot spring; its basin is also 
resorted to by the pilgrims for bathing. 

On the 16th of June, we arrived at the great object 
of pilgrimage, the templed shrine of Ebdabnate, re- 
nowned for ages on account of its peculiar sanctity. 
There the sacred corpse of Vishnu is said to have been 
deposited, after having been, when in the form of a 
bull, seized and put to death by the " five Pardiks" 
or holy brethren. 

On leaving Gauricund, we had still a height of five 
thousand feet to scsie before reaching the Temple, and 



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A NBW BNBMT. 313 

therefore staxted early. The weather was bright and 
serene ; and ere long, the gun's burning raye were strik- 
ing down on our toilsome path, which, often not more 
than a foot and a^half in width, continued to wind along 
the ledge of rock. A new plague here presented itself 
in the shape of an iunnmerable swarm of small stinging 
flies, — Ceratopogon, — which crawled within our raiment 
and covered the whole body; it is certainly the only kind 
of Qy that practises this mode of attack: their stings 
are very malignant, and we continued to feel them for 
several days. 

We proceeded up the glen of the Uundagri, the depth 
of which is at least twice as great as that of the "Itose- 
trappe" in the Harz Mountains. It is but seldom pos- 
sible to see the river, although the hollow roar of its suc- 
cessive waterfalls never ceases to sound in one's ears. 
The declivities and the points of the gneiss cliffs are 
covered with noble wood: primeval oaks, with foliage 
of most singular form, from whose jagged boi^hs hangs 
down a sort of long, white moss, while rich ivy, and 
beautiful festoons of the vine, twine aroimd their vene- 
rable stems; walnut and horse chestnut trees in fresh- 
est verdure, and the latter in the full glory of its blos- 
som; maple and hazle-nut trees of great size, with bays 
and many other trees unknown in the forests of Ger- 
many, bU intermingled in motley masses. Higher up, 
the wood becomes comparatively stunted and sciuity; 
rose-bushes and willows chiefly predominate ; tall trees 
gradually become rare ; the Taams only, which here sup- 
plies the place of the fir, still shoots np, aiid stands forth 
a fiiU-^own tree among the stunted bushes. £re long, 
forest trees, whether tall or dwarf, are no more seen, 
save in the depths of the glen below; roses and bushes 
of a species of syringa, of most powerfid fragrance, are 
the hist, but not the least lovely shrubs ih&t crown the 
steep. 



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*»'* GLEN OP THE MUNBAaEI. 

A beautiful cataract, broken into several falls, rush* 
ing over a precipice of some hundred feet in depth, 
riveted our admiring attention, before we reached the 
last pilgrims' resting-place, — Bbim Odiab. Immedi- 
ately beyond that station, the glen rises considerably; 
the path however continues much on the same level, 
80 that we soon found ourselves beside the Uundagri. 
Here we came to the first bed of snow, the length of 
which I should estimate to be not less than eight hun- 
dred paces; it is covered with erratic fragments and • 
large blocks of stone. A vast avalanche has formed a 
vault over the river. Murmuring rivulets trickle down 
on every side from their sources among the beds of 
snow which fill the hollows; their steep banks often 
obliged us to make great circuits. Beside one of these 
little streams, I suddenly perceived a most unpleasant 
smell, which at first puzzled me; but soon I observed, 
close to the channel of the water, a little white spot; 
and, scrambling to it, I discovered a sulphureous spring, 
gushing forth from beneath a large mass of rock, and 
filling the air with a potent smell of Bulphnrated hy- 
drogen. 

From this point forward, arboreous v^etation yields 
to a luxuriant Alpine fiora : Rhododendron, with parch- 
ed and unadorned stalks, FritHlaria, Iris, and Potett- 
tiUas and Anemones of various colours, clothe the steep 
sides of the acclivities and their lofty summits. 

Scarcely conscious how far we had advanced, we sud- 
denly found ourselves at the valley where, encircled by 
frowning precipices, and embosomed amid lofty moun- 
tains, stands the sanctuary of Eedabhath. In the back- 
ground, to the north-north-west, the valley is bounded by 
huge heaps of "debacles," formed of brownish gray snow 
mingled with stones, piled up and towering into hills 
of ruins ; to the right of these rises the glorious peak of 
Ebdarmath, — twenty-one thousand, five hundred feet 



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HANOTCAIIY OP KBDABNATH, 315 

ftbove the sea. Uodftiinted by cold and fatigue, we 
forced our way througli three fields of snow, — a most 
arduous achievement, — ^to the rock from which devout 
pilgrima, offering up their lives as a sacrifice to the 
deity, were wont to cast themselves headlong. On this 
elevated point, the air was rarified to sach a degree that 
we all suffered from headache, and I was even seized with 
vertigo, though walking on level ground. The rock rises 
abruptly to a height of some six hundred feet above the 
beds of snow, and a waterfall, — ^the source of the Uun- 
dagri, — nishea down the steep, and vanishes beneath 
the snow-bed, from which the incipient river emerges at 
some distance lower down. 

On a gentle eminence in the moorland bottom of tbe 
valley, surrounded by a proftision of beautiful flowers, 
and especially of the most lovely auriculas, of deep 
violet hue, stands the far-famed temple of Kedamath. 
It is upon the whole well built, but has no marks of 
great antiquity: of the original structure, not a vestige 
now remains save its basement, — built, according to tra- 
dition, by the gods themselves, and a few ancient, much 
decayed capitals of pillars, which lie scattered around, 
half sunk in the moor. The sanctuary was erected in 
its present form, by the High Priest of Okimuth, only 
three years ago. Its facade has a narrow flight of 
steps, not more than ten feet in height, and a door in 
the centre, flanked on either side by a niclie, — that on 
the left hand being occupied by the figure of a Hoowa- 
'man, — ^that on the right by the Chupraasy of MaJut- 
deo; above the latter, in a diminutive niche, stands tlie 
flute-player of the god, — Kirkisei, — ^while the corre- 
sponding small niche on the left hand remains empty. 
A httle spring, with a sort of tiny house built over it, 
rises at the distance of about a hiindred paces beyond 
the temple; farther off, on the eastern declivity of 
the moimtain' ramparts which enclose the valley, is 



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316 HINBRAL BPBIHQS AND VALLBT OF KEDABNATH. 

ftQOtlier spring, named RBTiomrD, strongly impregnated 
with carbonic acid. Its temperature is 4° 6 (41° Fah- 
renlieit); several others, situated at no great distance 
JTom each other, higher up among the mountains, are of 
a heat not exceeding 3° 3 (39° Fahrenh^t). 

The ralle; in which the temple stands has an eleva- 
tion of eleven thousand eight hundred feet ahove the 
sea: its width, measured across the Utindf^, which 
divides it longitudinally, is about four hundred and 
eighty paces. The lower hills which advance in front of 
the mountain nuige on either side of the valley, are 
probably mere mounds of d^ris, accumulated by the 
constant sliding down of masses of snow: they give a 
peculiar character to the whole scene. 

We spent the night on this elevated plateau ; the air 
became cold and keen, and towards morning the ther- 
mometer was standing at 6° 5 (44° Fahrenheit). About 
eight A.1I., on the 18th of June, we quitted this wild and 
romantic solitude by the same path which had led ns 
thither; before reaching Jilmilputam however, we turn- 
ed to the south-vest, and traversing a forest of noble 
oaks, gained a projecting point among the mountains, 
whence we commanded a mi^fnificent prospect of the 
Kedamath group. The sharp line of demarcation be- 
tween snows and forests was, from this spot, clearly dis- 
tinguishable. Opposite to us, separated by the glen of 
a little stream, lay the pretty vill^e of Tibjooohi, near 
which we selected a most suitable and tempting spot 
for our encampment. 

After holding a long consultation as to how we should 
proceed, and by what path enter the territory of the 
Rajah of Gtdbwal, no coolies being here to be had, we 
at last resolved to retain those who had hitherto accom- 
panied us, and, turning north-west-ward, we immedi- 
ately struck into the depths of the finest. Here and 
there we found an isolated space, where, in the heart of 



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lTiqeetkaps. 317 

the wood, — ^there partially deatroyed by fire, — iii6 OTal- 
epiked, or fox-tail amartuith, (Amaran^vt Oamgetieai*} 
here used as grain, had been sown among the oahes. 
Broad slopea covered with ieaa alternate with pieces of 
ground thus cultivated, or with the forest, with its tall 
and sturdy stems. The path, slippery with roots and 
fallen leaves, offers do easy aeoent; as far as the head of 
the pass of TfiOBiKHAL, the wood continues to increase 
in Uie luxuriance of its v^etation, and even on the 
summit, it excludes all view. To our left, beside the 
path, a large tiger-trap had been set, consistiDg of a 
deep pit, with a portcullis formed of several heavy trees 
joined together, and weighted on the top with stones. 
A prop is placed below it, as in a mouse-trap; which is 
very easily moved by means of small pieces of wood; 
and to this ta fastened, within the pit, a living goat. 
The portcullis closes, instantly upon the tiger seizing 
his slaughtered victim. The animals known among the 
natives here as tigers f^'Sher") are, in fact, almost inva- 
riably leopards. 

A second pass, yet h^her than the first, and after 
it three other mountain ridges, yet remained to be 
crossed, ere we arrived, in the middle of the wilderness, 
at the ruins of a bungalow, standing on a narrow and 
uninviting strip of ground, surrounded by thick jtingle. 
The rich carpet of mosses and of ferns of most elegant 
form, was glistening with drops of heavy rain. Beyond 
this spot, the trees become dwarfed, and the oak gives 
place to the rhododendron and the birch. 

Never before had the giant mountains to the north ap- 
peared so completely to pierce the very skies, as when 
seen from this point, where a deep and wide glen lay at 
our feet. Like crystal palaces of ice, they towered into 
the air; to our right, tiie Pbak of Budbinate, with its 
immense slopes of smooth and shinii^ snow; to our 
left our old friend, the Peak ov Kbdakbath. Sharp and 



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318 SNOW BEDS— PAWALI DANDA. 

dear were the outlines of tlieae bright Bummits, — ^pen- 
cilled agftinat the azure akjj — and difficult vould it have 
been to decide which was the more beautiiul of the twin 
pair. Two beds of snow, — bordered with lovely, pale 
rose-coloured auriculas, and primroses of bright sulphur 
yellow and of delicious fragrance, — ^must needs be cross- 
ed ; after which, scaling a steep rock of mica schist, the 
surface of which had been reduced by disintegration to a 
somewhat soapy connstency, we gained the summit, the 
crowning point of all these lofty passes. Here we again 
beheld the glbrious snow-capped peaks of the higher 
Himalaya range; but it was only for a moment; the 
next instant, glittering icy needles alone towered above 
the dense mass of vapour, at such a height, that wc 
might have deemed them an airy mirage, had we not, 
but a few seconds before, been gazing upon the entire 
chain, down to its very base. 

We wandered on, aloi^ the ridge of this pass, for fuU 
two hours, till at length we descried, to the south-west, 
our tents pitched on the crest of a distant height. Me- 
morial stones beside our path, and a fakeer whom we 
met, marked it as the pilgrims' route to Gubciotbi; it 
was broad and smooth, and led us through a lovely val- 
ley richly wooded with oak, to our resting-place, Pawali 
Danda. The Rajah's coolies were awaiting our arrival. 
An overhauling of our baggag6, along with the necessary 
repairs of our trunks, and the paying off of bearers and 
other attendants, made a day's halt indispensable. Our 
horses too were discharged for the present, as super- 
numeraries, great part of our further route being imprac- 
ticable except on foot; and Simla being their appointed 
rendezvous, they were sent on by another road. To- 
morrow we are to proceed towards the sources of the 
Ganges. Our first stage is to be to the glen of the 
BlLHANa; the " upper route," in favour of which we had 
at first decided, being reported impassable, from its 
bridges being broken down. 



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TH% FBBSS^ANQ. 



NINTH LETTEB. 




Hooui,, OH TBI BBiaiMTHI; 71k Iff Jnlf, \it6, 

Wb are now penetrating deeper and deeper among the 
mountains, and it is becoming more and more di£Scult to 
procure the number of coolies requisite to expedite our 
baggage and our tents. The vill^es, or rather hamlet^ 
are few and far between; and the inexorable severity 
with which their miserable inhabitants are pressed into 
our service by their " Putwaries" or district magistrates, 
often makes me shudder. The wages of the bearers 
are very low; not one man could be obtained to act in 
that capacity without open violence; for each lias his 
field or his trade, irom which he must be torn away by 
the compulsory measures of the Putwarie, and of his 
" Ckuprasaies" or armed underlings. Thus necessity con- 
strains us to lay aside all considerations of reluctance or 
of remorse, and to witness* day after day, the hardships 
of these poor creatures, as, panting and groaning under 
their heavy burdens, they toil up the steep and rugged 
paths. Our troop of coolies hai; dwindled down from 



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320 FA.UG ALiBUa 

aeventy-four,— our suite on starting from Nunethal, — to 
about half that number: jet, even now, it is no easy 
matter to procure a sufficient supply of provisions in 
this poor country, notwithstanding that the people live 
most frugally, going through a whole day's hard work, 
OB tho strength of a handful or two of barley-meal or of 
wbeaten flour. The Tictnals are transported on sheep, 
each having a small saddle on its back : of conrse no 
very weighty burden can be laid on bo weak an animal; 
the usual load does not exceed eighteen or twenty 
pounds. 

A strange rumour had spread among the people in the 
dominions of the Rajah of Gurwal, to wit, that the 
Prince was preceded by a host of three thousand mili- 
taiy, carrying fire, devastation and .pillage, wherever 
they went. With the utmost difficulty were the tetroiv 
stricken populace convinced that the plundering army, 
and the splendid court with its golden pageantry, all 
consisted merely of a few pedestrian travellers, clad in 
simple attire, and followed by their luggage-bearers. 
Our party has unfortunately been diminished by the loss 
of one most useful member, — the Prince's personal at- 
tendant, — who, being seized with repeated attacks of 
the nature of cholera, probably caused by the sultry air 
of the valleys, was left behind. His place was taken by 
the aforementioned English hunter, who is intimately 
acquainted with all the windings, the ups and downs, and 
the narrow passes, of these mount^n roads, and la more- 
over well versed in the " Pahari Zvbaun," or language 
of the mountaineers, a dialect unintelligible even to our 
interpreter. 

We quitted our resting-place of Pawali Danda on the 
2l8t of June. It was cold.^-S" 8, (50 Fahrenheit) — 
and very wet, and an autumnal-looking mist concealed 
all the landscapes, as we descended into the glen of the 
BniHASa. Deep in its recesses lies the village of Qowahna, 



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GOWAKNA AHD ITS ENTIBONS. 321 

consiatmg of two parts, known as " Mittegaon" and 
" MvUegaoji," or " upper" and " lower:" our tents were 
pitched close beside it, on a small, isolated hill, round 
which the river -winds, raging and thundering as it 
makes the bold sweep. Rice is laigel; cultivated near 
this place: the joung shoots, but just transplanted, and 
arranged in neat spiral or zigzag lines in the fields, 
give the valley the appearance of pleasure gardens laid 
out in the Dutch style. I was struck by the singularity of 
this mode of culture in the rice grounds throughout the 
glen of the Gowaun-Nuddy. The effect produced by the 
tender, velvety green of the young rice wa« most beauti- 
ful; the plant was one of the species called " BasmiUt^," 
which is very highly esteemed in the plains. The fields 
lie in the deep hollow of a channel, where of old the river 
was wont to flow; in a few days, the properseason will 
have arrived for damming up the main branch of the 
stream, and thus diverting its waters for the purpose of 
inundating the young crops. The Bice harvest is here 
the second in the year ; wheat and barley have already 
been reaped and brought in, and the stubble plucked up 
by the roots and burnt. I observed, here and there, on 
the rocky masses of gray gneiss, large cavities hollowed 
out in their fiat tops. On these, the rice, when ripe, is 
separated from the husk by means of threshing. 

A very ^il and tottering bridge led us, on our next 
day's march, across the stream. The path up the glen 
from this place forward, is scarcely practicable, owing to 
the steepness of the roeky ramparts, covered with hug© 
blocks of stone, and overgrown with alders, turf and 
vines. The ascent Is abrupt and long-continued; our 
first breathing-place was t^e summit of the Eedarakhal 
pass, far above the limits of the growth of trees. lo 
many places, we could scale the black surface of these 
loamy acclivities, softened by the heavy rains, only by 
drf^ging ourselves up on all fours. My measuromeat 



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322 DESCENT OF EEDARAEHAL. 

gave for the summit of the pass, a perpendicular height 
of ten thousand, five hundred and eighty feet, above thd 
level of the sea. 

On the descent of the opposite slope, vegetation hegics 
with SJiododendron campanidiOum, next follows a thick 
forest of maple with underwood of buckthorn, and a 
species of pear-tree, ("PoppemuU") with very lai^s 
heart-shaped leaves, folded up in the centre, giving the 
tree a most singular appearance : a species of bamboo 
extends up to the highest limit of arboreous vegetation. 
Oocasionaliy also, in the heart of this lofty forest, we 
eame to insulated pieces of open ground, oveigrown with 
tall herbs, chiefly Rumex acetotdla, (sorrel) Spergula 
nodosa, (knotted spurrey) Lamium, (archangel) and se- 
veral umbelliferous plants, but they were of such luxu- 
riant growth, that we could scarcely see over their heads. 
These mountain prairies are often upwards of two miles 
in length. Lower down, are interminable fields of straw- 
berries ; and in the last place, we were obliged to pass 
through a dense forest of bamboos, before reaching the 
cultivated lands of the little village of Qewalbb, where 
we found crops of tobacco, cucumbers, and various spe- 
cies of millet. 

On the 26th of June, we crossed the deep glen of the 
BsALB GuNOA, and beyond it, a wooded pass, the name 
of which we could not learn. 

Bears and other wild beasts, abound in this part of 
the country: we met a man who had lost his nose, and 
were informed that he had been thus maimed by a black 
bear of the species so common here. Several musk-deer 
snares were laid close beside our path. They consist 
merely of a young tree, bent downwards; to the top, — 
which is wedged in between two little pieces of wood on 
ihe-ground, in such a manner that the slightest touch 
will make it start up into the air, — a strong noose is fas- 
tened, and the whole ^s carefully concealed with leaves 



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HCSE-DEBBr- LBOPABDS— BHALE QDHQA. 323 

and twigs. A closely interwoTen fence oq eaoli side 
leaves only a narrow passage. As soon as a musk-deer, 
in passing, touches the wedges, the tree-top, witli the 
noose attached to it, flies up with a jerk, and the animal 
is taken. JfottoZ Pheasants, and even leopards, are 
said to be caught in these snares. The last mentioned 
animal, of which there are great numbers in these re- 
gions, possesses great peculiarities. It seems to delight in 
paths trodden by human beings, and imprints with its 
claws, deep furrows on the bark of the trees near them in 
every direction ; five parallel streaks on the stems attract 
one's notice continually, the central one beginning some- 
what higher than the rest, which would not be the case 
were they the marks of a bear. These leopards ap- 
pear to seek out, as particular favourites, trees of soft 
bark; for every stem of the Rhododendron Arboremn 
which had attained a tolerable degree of thickness, is 
covered with these furrows on every side. 

After a forced march of seven hours, in which, on a 
broad meadow-land, we passed two smaU lakes, Moesah- 
SAG and UussABiNACictiii, we reached the channel of the 
second Bhaib Qcnqa ; the latter part of the journey be- 
ing performed by slipping along, and gliding down steep 
declivities after the fashion of the "MontagnesRusses;" 
for the bamboo canes closing over, and the fallen leaves 
of the Bhansh oaks strewn upon the clayey path, render 
it nearly impassable. We were obliged to help ourselves 
forward with our hands from one bamboo to another. 
The Bhale Gunga, which unites itself with the other 
stream of the same name, near the large village of Ka- 
THDB, is only ten or twelve paces across, but rapid and 
impetuous, and so deep is the ravine cut by its rushing 
waters, that it appears mantled in darkness amidst the 
magnificent foliage of the surrounding forest, consisting 
of maple, ash, beech and walnut trees. Among the va- 
riiHis species of oak, the "Mohroo" {Queroua dUatataJ 



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324 PIKNABKG— HOCNTAJN BKIDQES, 

waB distin^Blied by its thick globular fruit, in size 
equal to a email apple, of a gray or roddish-brown colour, 
and growing on a very flat cup, which doea not fall off 
with the acorn. 

Below the village of Futmabse (also called Pmtaree, 
or PinrKvamr, according to the people we happened to 
ask;) we pitched our tents beneath the shade of a beau- 
tiful walnut grove. The trees were loaded with nuts, 
which however on account of their extreme hardness, 
and the difSculty of extricating the kernel from its shell, 
are little esteemed. These nuts are quite round, and 
when broken, spring into four pieces. We are told that 
there is another species, with thin-shelled fruit, which is 
cultivated in these parts. 

The race of inhabitants here, as in Gewali, is large 
and strong: the men have thick black beards, and wear 
loose garments and trowsers of brown wool; the women 
studiously kept themselves out of sight. The houses of 
the village, situated higher up on the hill-side, are neat 
and clean, built of stone, with a flight of wooden steps 
outside, and a paved landing-place before each threshold. 
The vHb^e is surrounded by fields of red Amaranth. 

Our first march on the following day led across a pass, 
ten thousand five hundred feet in height, on the other 
side of which we entered the valley of the Pelang, a deep 
lateral glen, running into the valley of the Pillgaon. 
The path was still through thick forests, in which I was 
struck by one huge hazel-nut-tree, with a stem equal in 
thickness to that of an oak. Ere long, we reached the 
banks of the rapid Pillgaon itself, over whjch a bridge 
had just been thrown, a work of mountain architecture, 
such Ei3 is in common use here. The trunks of three 
trees had been laid across the wildest part of the stream ; 
railing there was none ; besides which, the long stems 
of the trees, unsupported and flexible, vibrated in the 
centre, with a most unpleasant swinging motion. 



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CONIFBBf. 325 

On die 28tli of June, from the sharp projecting ridge 
of a high mountain, beyond the Pass op Koos, which 
rises to an elevatioD of ten thousand, seven hundred feet, 
we caught the first view of the Vailbt op the Gtanqbs, 
with the villages of Beital, — among them Ualla and 
Bitharee, — to the south-west Sioochee, Gursollee, and 
several others, situated ou an extended and apparently 
treeless slope on the right bank of the river. The contrast 
seemed to heighten the rich and beautiful effect of the 
thick wood through which we threaded our way on the 
descent. Here the Conifeiie begin to predominate, and 
among them are trees of incredible size and height; one 
" Morinda" Fir (Abiee Pindrow*) measuring six feet in 
diameter, and rising to a height of, I should say, not 
less than two hundred feet; a Taxus (Yew) of five feet 
in diameter; and other Bimilar giants. Lower down 
begins the " Moi" Fir {Ptcea Morinda), which likewise 
attains a wonderful circumference. £ven the Spircea, 
and the Xylosteum,—ot which latter one species struck 
me amid the lofty and massive forest, — are here arbor- 
escent. The "Moi" Fir much resembles our Red Fir; 
it has vei7 thin and pointed leaves, half an inch in 
length, and its boughs grow at a right angle from the 
stem, whjle those of the "Morinda" Fir (Abiea Pind- 
row) hang downwards. The leaves of the latter spring 
two from one sheath; they are two inches in length, 
and of a shining dark green on the upper side. 

But now the forest became less gloomy; soon we 
found ourselves once more in the region of bamboos, and 
the sound of rushing water aimounced to us the proxi- 
mity of the sacred stream, although we were still at a 
height of several thousand feet above it, and unable to 
catch even a glimpse of its course. The last abrupt de- 

u Khutrev, of anyie, or the 



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326 PASSAQB OP THB BHAGUUTHI. 

scent, which led us to its margin is covered with long, 
hard graas, on which we were perpetually sliding, and 
in some danger of slipping down from top to bottom of 
the smooth declivity, without anything to break our fall. 
In the valley of the Bhaoibathi, — as the Ganges is here 
called, — we were surrounded by a vegetation entirely 
different from what we had before seen. All'the rugged 
clife are clothed with grape-vines ; in the midst of their 
climbing tendrils are thick bushes of Auramiiacem, Ber- 
heria, Cissus, and a species of Raspberry with gray fruit 
of most delicious flavour. 

A simple rope, formed of tbin strips of bamboo twist- 
ed tt^ether, and stretched across the river, which is 
about fifty paces in width, serves as a bridge. On this 
rope rests a crooked piece of wood, to each end of which, 
one is fastened by a strong cord round the waist. A 
signal is then given, to wind oneself across the rope with 
hands and feet, which is at first a tolerably rapid mode 
of transit, as one proceeds down an incline, but all the 
more difGcuIt on the other side, so much so that it re- 
quires great strength and violent effort to reach the end 
of the rope and to set foot on terra-firma. Five hours 
passed away before all our baggage was conveyed across 
in this manner. Our tents were pitched upon the far- 
ther bank, which is neither steep nor very lofty ; and 
in spite of the great heat, we enjoyed a tolerably undis- 
turbed night's rest, aa the stinging flies (Ceratopogon) 
were not nearly so numerous as they had been at the 
former stations, where not one of our party could close 
an eye, on account of their attacks. 

The banks of the Bhagirathi in this valley consist of 
a white stone, the component parts of which are quartz 
and feltapar intersected with black mica. At the spot 
where the rope spans the river, two lai^e masses of rock 
advancing on either side, contract the channel consider- 
ably: the waters dash up against them in furious and 



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COOLIES AND TIKAHDAB. 327 

roaring breakers, like the waves of the sea against a 
nigged beach. I waa particularly struck here by the 
extraordinary colour of the stream : it has an opalized 
appearan«e, caused, probably, by the fine shivers of mica 
which float in it. 

A fresh troop of cooliea was here engt^ed, who, un- 
like what we had met with on former occasions, dis- 
played the greatest willingness to enlist iu our service; 
because a " Tifcakdar" was granted them, i. e. & man 
appointed to superintend and lead them, and support 
them in all their rights; notwithstanding this however 
a long time elapsed on the following morning, before we 
were actually in motion. The path is steep, but as well 
made as could possibly be expected in such a district. 
Tlie greatest delay we-met with was the numbers of little 
rivers and brooks, the first of which we crossed at the 
village of Bithakee below Beithal : each of these made 
it necessary for us to scramble down by steep paths, like 
flights of steps, from rocks often not less than a thousand 
feet in height, to the water's edge, and straightway to 
climb up again to an equal elevation opposite, exposed 
all the while, to the burning rays and scorching glare of 
a vertical sun. Liknmergeyera* and black crows were 
hovering and circling around us; but very little was to 
be seen in the way of either plants or animals. Parched, 
withered pines, of the species longi/olia, — standing in 
mournful solitude, their attenuated forms casting no 
shadow, — serve only to render the shppery path more 
smooth and slippery still by their fallen foliage; some 
small primroses, scattered singly, the white Cyperus, a 
few ferns, and long, parched grass, compose the entire 
flora of those slopes where any soil is to be found. 

■ Qypirija baTblU^a, bearded Tultnre-eagU. It i< bo nre a tnrd, and so 
muociai in ito habits, ba to tie conddered & precioiia capture even in thone 
countries where it moat inhabits. Bare as it is in all coaDtriee, it is the in- 
habitant of many,— from the Pyrenees and Alps to the steppei of the Siba- 
tian deaeiti.— Tb. 



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328 BANKS AND FALLB OF TBB QANOES. 

The rocks rise precipitouBl; on either side of the river, 
aod few villages are seen id its vicinity, as most of them 
are higher up. In aomo places, the dip of the strata od 
the one bonk is diametrically opposed to that on the 
other; the colour is no less different, one being black, 
the other white. 

After a march of nearly five hours, we arrived at our 
resting-place, beside the rivulet of Oodh-Gtadh. Above 
us lay the village of TiAaBi, mentioned by Hodgson as 
Tbwarbi. The river Uab, — which Hodgson ineotrectly 
calls the Saab, — flows down from this little place, and 
falls into the Granges, and a little lake, bearing the name 
of Rahal or Naqh, lies at a distance of five or six miles. 

Our path, next day, the 30th of June, continued with- 
out much variety, besido the G-anges; gentler slopes, — 
clothed with "Ghed" Pines, (Pmut longi/olia) Khodo- 
dendron, Bamboo, and Indigofera, — alternate with deep 
cut glens, in which mountain torrents rush down between 
steep and rugged banks. The rocks b^low, on the edge 
of the Ganges itself, are covered with a species of climb- 
ing fig, while the bed of the stream is iuU of stems of 
fir, swept down by the current. 

Higher up, a hollow thundering roar, resounding ^m 
afar, reminded us that we were approaching the falls of 
thf Ganges. With great difSculty we scramhled over 
the loose boulders down to the river, to obtain a nearer 
view of them. There are several falls, one above another. 
The first, a sheet of water, about eighty feet wide, rushes 
over a precipice of only sixteen feet in depth ; on the 
left side indeed the faU is even somewhat less ; but the 
faUing mass, rebounding against a sunken rock beneath 
the dark surface of the pool below, rises ^ain into the 
air in a vast pillar of water. The second fall is rather 
deeper; the third is the greatest, being at least thirtyfeet 
deep. Every thing around is wrapt in a veil of vapoury 
spray, and sprinkled with the finely attenuated drops 



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GOaQE or THE BHAGIEATHI. d'Z9 

from tli9 mighty body of water, vdiose thimden cauae the 
-very earth to tremble. Several rapids and falls of infe- 
lior depth occur higher up the stream, where, hemmed 
in by frowning clifb, to a gorge of no more than twenty 
feet wide, it forces its onward way with tremendous 
violence. The wild music of the stream, — its deep hol- 
low murmurs, or loud and angry raging, — henceforward 
our constant companion, had the effect of making us 
habitually speak to each other in a high and screaming 
tone; at night, notwithstanding my weariness, its cease- 
less clamour resounding in our tent, — almost always 
pitched close to its brink, — not unfrequently banished 
sleep from my eyes. 

Immediately before our next halting-place, we crossed, 
by a bridge formed of trunks of trees, to the left bank of 
the river, where, on a small piece of level ground, we 
found a half ruined bungalow. 

Lofty granite clifia and high banks of debris, through 
which the Bhagirathi has cut its way, made our march 
on the 1st of July sufSciently difficult and fatiguing. In 
one plac^ where our path led close beside the water, 
we saw a precipitous face of rock a thousand feet high, 
which the calcareous springs that trickle down over the 
whole extent of its surface from top to bottom, have 
covered with a fretwork of yellowish white calcareous 
spar. Fallen blocks of loose calcareous stone upwards 
of two feet in thickness, are lying in the sand of the 
river; the water of the springs, which falls in numerous 
little cascades, has an unpleasant astringent taste, and 
is slightly impregnated with carbonic acid. 

For some time the newly repaired path continued 
along the edge of the stream ; it was so loose, that in 
some places it gave way beneath our feet : it led us down 
to a bridge of beams, a veryiragile affair, and, as usual, 
without rails or parapet, in spite of which it appeaj-ed to 
me far preferable to the simple rope; for it is easier iQ 



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330 FALLEN B0CE8-S00KHEE. 

reconcile oneself by habit to the swinging and tottering 
of the long trees, and to the eight of the deep abyss be- 
neath one's feet, than to the desperate situation in which 
one is placed in sliding tdong the giddy rope. 

Just beyond the confluence of the LuNEaADH rirer, 
which rolls its golden sand into the Bhagirathi, we were 
obliged to pass over mounds of rubbish, caused by the 
fall of an immense mass of rock, which took place eight 
years ago. Large blocks, from ten to twenty feet in 
thickness, are piled above each other, towering to a 
height of three hundred feet above the river. The path 
over these is a most laborious, scrambling ascent; walls 
of rock are to be scaled which rise nearly perpendicular- 
ly, and in many places, where the smooth stone offers 
no firm hold for the foot, long narrow planks of cedar- 
wood, their ends propped up with stakes, are laid aJong 
its edge. A wood of small extent, consisting of willow, 
poplar, mulberry and elm trees, and a few scattered 
"Roi" firs, occasionally ornamented by the climbing ten- 
drils of the vine, extended along our path till we arrived 
at the slope on which lies the village of Sookheb. Higher 
up, we were exposed to the scorching rays of the sun; 
here and there only, a beautiful group of walnut and 
apricot-trees cast a welcome shade, before we reached 
the cultivated fields of amaranth and of wheat. 

The village seemed like an abode of the dead; we saw 
only a few solitary men, with rope-baskets on their arms, 
spinning wool; and ugly women, with clumsy turbans, 
and dirty brown woollen jackets and trowsers. Our en- 
campment lay in the centre of the village, which con- 
sists of some thirty well-built wooden houses. Several 
of these have two or three low stories; the windows are 
mere small boles, and the roofs consist, like those in the 
Valais, of strong, rough plants. The building materials 
are for the most part furnished by the Deodara Cedars 
that are carried down by the river. A tree with steps 



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DEODARAS^BIVBES— DHBEALBE. 331 

liev& in it leada up to the first floor, where the entrance > 
into the principal apartment is through a door just high 
enough to admit of a man creeping in, bent double. 
Dark bed-chambers and store-rooms occupy the space be- 
side it. 

Beyond the neat little village of Jalla below Fubali, 
we reached the beginning of the first forest of Indian 
Cedars (Cedrua Deodara}. It is in part destroyed by fire, 
but noble trees yet remain in it. The Deodara is the 
most beautiful tree of the fir tribe that exists in any 
part of the world : it shoots up with a tall, stra^ht, ta- 
per stem, often a hundred feet in height, and not un- 
jrequently forty feet in circumference. The branches 
grow in stages, at regular intervals, and spread out like 
overshadowing roofs. They are adorned with thick-set, 
upright cones. The leaves, strewn in abundance upon 
the ground, choke all vegetation. 

We eroased on wavering cedar-tree bridges, the broad 
Seaheoadh, (Si(m) and the laigest of all the many tri- 
butary streams of the Bbagirathi, the G-oohtt, and, 
finally, the Hbbsiia (HursU); beyond which last we 
passed over the Bha^rathi or Ganges itself Here the 
Cedar forest ceases, and is succeeded by the Roi-Fir. 

The wood gradually becoming less dark, we soon per- 
ceived in the distance the village of Dheralee ; almost at 
the same moment, we came within sight of that of Mook- 
BA, lying over against it, upon the rugged steep which 
forms the rampart of the valley. After a march of four 
hours, we arrived at the former place. A tower, of six 
stories, serves as a fortress, as we are informed, to protect 
the village, — consisting of small neat wooden dwellings, re- 
semblingSwiss cotti^s, — from the sheep-fltealing hordes. 
Above Dheralee, we crossed an elevated mountain ridge 
of granite, beyond which the cedar forest be^^ns again. 
Even on the rugged precipices that overhang the river, 
towering like huge battlements, a solitary Deodara has 



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332 SANGHO-HEBTUfa OF THE W2TBBS, 

here and there Btnick root, uid rears its soHe and 
shapely form. 

We here saw, but did not pass orer, a "Sangho," 
which, swiDgiQg at a hei^t of about seventy feet above 
the Bhag;irathi, leads the NiLuito path across its stream. 
The name of " Sangko" is here applied, not only to the 
platform or suspension bridges, but to the tree-bridges 
above described, by one of which, four hours afterwards, 
we crossed the Bhaibooethi, — ^the parent stream of the 
Jahnxvi or Jaekavi. A trunk of a tree with steps 
hewn in it, leads down to several flat masses of rock at 
the edge of the raging stream, which forces a narrow 
passage, — scarce twenty feet in width, — through the 
frowning cUflb; two other trees, joined tt^ther by 
means of unhewn pieces of wood laid across them, form 
a very rude and nervous bridge, which, to add to the 
difficulty, inclines downwards from one bank to the 
other at a most formidable angle. Through the gaps in 
this primitive structure we looked down upon the dark 
waters rolling at a depth of sixty feet below. Close be- 
side the bridge, there lies a stone, of oval form, about 
one foot long, and painted red. It is neither more nor 
less than the body of the god, here worahipped under 
the name of Bbavram! 

Our camp, though not very conveniently situated, af- 
forded a magnificent prospect of the wild and broken 
glen, covered with shattered masses of rock, and of the 
picturesque confluence of the BHAQiaATHi and Jahnevi, 
The two rivers unite their waters just at our feet; each 
teems to repel the other with its wild waves. It is a 
desolate and savage scene : the path, beyond the bridge, 
is quite in character with it, winding up the lofty 
steep in zigzags, now on giddy flights of steps, now 
again on tottering planks, laid across chasms and deep 
abysses. We now crossed the base of the Dbkahi Fsae, 
where we again found ourselves in a wood of splendid 



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HOME OF THE HTTSE DEEA AND MONAL PHEASANT. 333 

cedars. Here lies the sanctuary of Bhairam, who is 
worshipped as the god of the river; it is surrounded by 
heaps of stones, and by &a^ or rude streamers, fas- 
tened to sticks, set up on all sides by the devout pil- 
grims. The aged Zemindar, who had been appointed 
by the Rajah to attend upon ua, did not forget to avail 
himself of the opportunity of displaying his piety by 
setting up his tiny banner. 

Here and there we perceived a strong odour of musk, 
marking the track of the Moachus mosehi/erm, com- 
monly known as the Thibet Musk, and said to abound in 
these parts; for it is a beast of the forest, and loves the 
wild rocks and clifb. The cedar forest in particular is 
its proper home. Recent tracks of bears were also ob- 
served in abundance ; these seem to be tolerably peace- 
ful animals, feeding principally on the pods of the legu- 
minous plants, and in autumn on the fruits that drop 
jrom the trees. The locusts also, which fall upon the 
fields of Miow, they seek out and devour voraciously. 

I saw few birds, except one species of partridge, and 
the Monal Pheasant.* The latter is a splendid bird, of 
the size of a small turkey-cock, with shining plumage of 
dark blue and metallic green. Again and again did we 
hear its cackling cry, as it started and winged its up- 
ward Sight; again and again did we mark the dazzling 
brilliancy of its feathers, shining through the branches 
of the Deodara Pines. 



■ Or " Bird 0/ Oold," — the Lophophenu refalffiia, or Impejan-pheMant. 
It IB desoribed b; Hr Wilson aa " oniameiited with a handBome cteat; the 
feathers of the neck long and loose, like the hackles of & cock. The colour* 
of the plomage, bo eiceedinglf briUiuit from their metallic lastre, and eo 
variable, acconling to the direction of the light, or the position of the spec- 
tator, that thej cannot be described by words, — purple, green and gold be- 
ing the prevaiting hues." An attempt has been made to transport them to 
England, but they died on the passage. Were it repeated it might probably 
ere loi^ nicceed, for they radurecold well, though impatient of great heat." 



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334 TfilBUTABIEB OF THE GANOBB— GUNOOTBI. 

Each Kamlet, each open space, each steep accent, has 
here its name, -which lives in the mouth of many a pil- 
gnm. On one spot a desolate chaos of shattered rocka 
was pointed out to us, where ooce a village -stood: it 
was overthrown b; the fall of a mountain, which swept 
it away, leaving not a trace behind. 

We passed several small streams, which flow into the 
Oanges from its left hank, — the Sitthioadh, — Miani- 
OABH, — and BooDDiSADDi, — before reaching the last and 
greatest of its tributaries, the Kedka-Guhoa, at Gungo- 
tri. The Bhftgirathi itself is more and more confined be- 
tween the projecting rocks; when we first descended to 
its waters, they spread over a broad channel, at least 
eighty feet in width; here, they are again and E^in 
forced to wind through a rugged and deep-cut passage, 
hemmed in to a breadth of no more than twelve. At 
one place, a mass of rock has formed a natural bridge 
over it, close beside a lofty wall of everlasting snow. Here 
and there, its waters are hidden under beds of snow. 
Immediately below Gungotri however, the stream is 
broader, notwithstanding which it flows, even there, 
with tremendous fury, and keeps np a continual hollow 
thunder, by rolling huge stones and masses of rock 
along its wild and rugged channel. 

We had almost reached the level of the water, ere we 
beheld before us the low and unimposing temple of 
GoNOorBi.* The deep and savage ravines, with their 

* Until a compontiTelj resent period, thia region -wtm unexplored b; any 
tmellei', save some wuideriDg Hindoo devoteeH. Ur J. Frsser, who Tinted 
Oangotri in 1816, Ku the Snt European nlio peuetrsted tJuther; he aecer- 
tained the elevation to be 10'319 feet. Even among the devout Hindoos, 
thiE pilgrinuge is conaidered an exertion so mighty as to redeem the per- 
former from troublei in this irorld, and to ezunre a happy transit throi^h M 
the Btages of tcanimigration. The three pools, — Sutya (the Son) Coond, 
— CuAnu Cocmd, — and Brahma Coond, — are soid to be of pure Ganges wa- 
ter, unpolluted by any confluent stream. The water taken from hence is 
drawn under the inspeclion of a Brahmin, who is paid for the privilege of 
taking it, and much of it is carried to Bengal and offered at the temple of 



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REOaETFUL BEHINT8CGHCES. 335 

black pools and raging torrents, their naked perpen- 
dicular clifis and magnificent viBtaa of distant moun- 
tains, we had noTT left beliind ns; the rocky heights 
which bound the glen on either side are still indeed 
high and steep enough, and crowned by jagged ridges 
and sharp summits, but these are overgrown in many 
parts with cedars and birches; and the principal fea- 
ture which we had expected would add the sublime to 
this landscape, — the splendid back-ground of snowy 
peaks, — is altogether wanting, being shut out by the 
overhanging rocks around. 

The scene presented before our eyes is by no means 
that picture of awful desolation, which we had gazed on 
before, on our way hither, in those boundless ranges of 
snowy mountains, towering in every variety of bold out- 
line, which seemed as though they were fresh irom the cre- 
ative hand of some mighty volcanic power. Those gigan- 
tic, needle-like peaks of ice, or softer, conical, snowcap- 
ped summits, — those clear and polished crystal bulwarks, 
with their attenuated and prbj^ing edges, sharp as that 
of the warrior's blade, — those towers and battlements 
with theirthousand pinnacles, — reposing on a broad base- 
ment of solid rock, — which we had seen before so near 
and so distinct that the boundary of eternal snows 

Baidjanath. The uceiit of the Bured atreein ]b, beyond QoDgotri, of ex- 
treme difficalt;; it waa hofferer accompliahed b; Captaioa Hodgeon and 
Herbert, who aft«r aacending an iinmense mov bed, and making their u- 
eond biTonac bejond Qunsptri at a level of 12,914 feet, foimd the aangea 
inaiiig from under a veiy low arch from which huge hoary ictclea depend, 
at the foot of the great anow-bed, here about 300 feet in depth; proceeding 
Tor Bome thousand paces up tlie inclined bed of snow, wliich Beemed to fill np 
the hollow between the seTeral peaks, called by Colonel Hodgson Mount 
MtHTa and the Four Saints, and geometiicallj aacertuned to rary in height 
from 21,179 to 22,798 feet, thej obtained a near view of those gigantic 
moontaina described bj our author aa Beeu from Mookba. As Colonel Hodg- 
son juatl; observea, " It falls to the lot of few to contemplate so msguificent 
an object aa a anow-clad peak rising to the height of upwards of a mile and 
a hair, at the abort horizontal distance of two and thi«e quarter milei."— 



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336 DISAPPOINTED HOPES. 

seemed like the border of a vaat white drapeiy, drop- 
ping its ample folds over the gloomy cedar forest, — this 
again, castiog its sable maatle around, concealing the 
features of every fonn, save the naked, arid clifTs, — it* 
self traversed by broad bare stripes, marking, like 
giant's tracks, the resistless and all-destroying course of 
a rushing avalanche, — ^the roaring stream in the depth 
below, with its countless rapids and its foaming cata- 
racts; — all, all are wanting here. In a word, I must 
confess that I had expected something more at Gun- 
gotri than two half-ruined deal houses, a (Hminutive " 
temple, and a few ancient cedars, torn and battered by 
the storms. As to distant landscape, nothing of the 
sort is to be seen. 

The temple, a small stuie structiire destitute of all 
external ornament, measures scarcely fort^ paces in cir- 
cumference, including the whole surrounding wall. Fa- 
koenr may be seen squatting around it on every sid^ 
under the projecting cliffs. A few poplars, birchra and 
sturdy cedars, stand near the sacred edifice. It is ne- 
cessary, before permission can be obtuned to enter the 
shrine, to bathe in the holy stream. The water of the 
Ganges has, however, hen a temperature of only 3° 2 
(39° Faiirenheit) rather too cool for me at least to be 
willing to join the rest of the party in their dip; espe- 
cially as I was informed that there was nothing to be 
seen witliin the temple except a small silver image of 
Ownga, and a few rude stone figures. 

Siva and Bhairam are the gods, and Qvmga the god- 
dess, to whom the sanctuary is dedicated; Qaneaa is 
merely an accessory object of adoration. 

Uinistering at this place of pilgrimage is a most lu- 
crative occupation for the priesthood: its duties are at 
present performed by an aged priest, to whose femily 
the sacred cliaige was committed by the Rajah; he ac- 
companied us hither from Dheralee. 



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riBW OF THE PEAKS. 337 

On the 6th of July, we descended from these rocky 
lieights, favoured by clear and lovely weather; thaaks 
to its bright and glorious influence, we enjoyed the pro- 
spect, to the north-^^aat, of the Budrii Himualbh, here 
aJao named Sitpokikanta, — piercing the skies with its 
icy aeedles ; and farther southward, when these, far sur • 
passing the rest in height, had vanished from our eyes, 
we could yet gaze on the smooth and sharp-crested 
llDAaBiKANTA. The last must be the "Ironside Peak" 
of Hodgson; it rises high into the air, in the form of a 
single polished icy mass, with a bold indented ridge. 
Towards the south-west appeared, through a deep cut 
in the outline of Mianieanta, a smooth, rounded, snowy 
summit of wonderful beauty and clearness, covered on 
all sides with immense glaciers. Unfortunately it soon 
disappeared behind other nearer heights. One castel- 
lated, conical mountain, rising apart from all the others, 
not far from the Dxeani Peak, was pointed out to us as 
" Bhaibau jump." 

We now recrossed the dangerous bridge of Bhairam- 
gath. From the summit of a lofty cliff, we cast a hn- 
gering glance on the Jahnavi Gcnga (also called Jahni 
OF Jahdi) and on its impetuous neighbour, the Bhaibo- 
QBTHi, — themeetingof their wild waters being here visible 
at our feet, — and then bid a long farewell to the thunders 
and the picturesque fury of the wild mountain streams. 

An hour and a half brought us to the precipitous chasm 
across which the Neelcnq bridge is laid; the river is here 
some thirty paces in breadth, and hemmed in between 
perpendicular banks; the bridge, formed of three very 
thin beams, spans its dark pool at a height of seventy 
feet. The path, afler crossing it, winds up the steep 
ascent to a wooden gate, which to the pilgrims coming 
from Jalla and Mookba marks it as that leading to Oun- 
gotri: another, stretching Away to the northward, leads 
into Thibet. 



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338 MOOKBA— C0BTUME8. 

From one part of our road, where, for a short distance, 
we emerged from the cedar forest into an open country, 
we again commanded a magnificent view of the peaks 
of the highest Himalayahs on every aide ; TJdaqkikabta, 
RcDRCHiHUALEH, another mountain of conical form, 
perhaps identical witli Moiba, and in the direction of 
Dheralee, far over the heights that mark the river's 
course, the lofty Chooeikakta. This last is by no means 
a sharp peak; but rather appears like a very corpulent 
figure, and its heavy summit like a night-cap. 

The pure granite continues as far as the vicinity of 
Mookba; there we again met with a schistose formation 
for the most part greatly disintegrated. There too, the 
little streamlets, bright and limpid, which msh in beau- 
tiful cascades from the rocky heights, first afforded us 
that pure and precious beverage of which we had been 
so long deprived; the water of the Bhagirethi being 
utterly undnnkable, and that of the Jahdi, which is a 
little better, extremely difficult to procure. 

In the village itself, on a Bunny terrace paved with 
stone, we pitched our tents. An open space such as 
this, serving the purpose of a threshing-floor, while it 
has all tlie air of a market-place, is usually to be found 
in the centre of each village, and is here called "Joka" 
or " Patang ;" the inhabitants assemble on it every even- 
ing, and amuse themselves with dancing and singing. 

Groups of pretty childen, with gentle countenances, 
were playing in front of the houses; the women on the 
contrary, clad in their coarse, stiff, woollen jackets, and 
thick, clumsy turbans, are frightfully ugly. The men, 
with their tall, well-made figures and stately beards, 
have a warlike air; their caps, stiff and pointed, resemble 
Macedonian helmets; and their woollen garments, of 
thick and unpliant texture, a suit of armour, 

I here saw many of those houses which Hodgson calls 
" five-storied ;" they might just as well be dignified by 



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TILLAdE ABCBITECTURE. 339 

an enomeration of twelve stories; for they are con- 
structed of a considerable number of boamB, laid across 
eacli other, the interstices being built up with stones. 
Between every two cross-beams a narrow slit is left open, 
tJie only inlet for the light of day. The two higher 
stories are those in which the family apartments are 
placed; in these may be seen occasionally a couple of 
tiny windows, like those of a dove-cote; the side op- 
posite to the entrance is also often ornamented with a 
balcony. In many of these tower-like cottages, a gallery 
runs ali;round, close beneath the roof, which is nearly 
flat, and formed of smooth planks, over the seams of 
which are laid triangular listels, to prevent the rain from 
penetrating. As neither posts nor sleepers are employed 
in this architecture, wooden cramps are, in very high 
houses, fixed on the upper part, for the sake of securing 
greater firmness, extending over, and holding together, 
three or four transverse beams. Chimnies I never saw : 
the ground-floor, over which the first story usually pro- 
jects, contains the stalls for cattle and the bee-house. 
The latter occupies one whole aide of the house, in which 
the window slits are walled up, leaving only fly-holes for 
the bees on their lower edges ; all the rest is closed with 
cow-dung. The entrance to this apiaty is on the op- 
posite side from that to the dwelling-house, and it was 
with the greatest difficulty that I obtained permission 
to cross its threshold, as the people were afraid that I 
might take possession of their honey. I found within, a 
perfectly dark chamber, three feet high, in which, rest- 
ing on a low wooden stand, are the bee hivea, a sort of 
square tubes formed of four planks, connected in front 
vrith the fly-holes and open behind towards the dark 
room. When the honey is to be taken out, which is done 
in July or August, a fire of cow-dung is made in this 
little chamber, the smoke of which drives the bees out by 
the fly holes; they soon return however and build anew. 



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340 AOBICUITDEB AND FBITIT-TBEES. 

Beside every dwelling-bouse etaitds a Bmall, square, 
wooden hut, generally not so much as six feet in length, 
and the same in height, with three stakes before its 
entrance. This is used as a store-room; its door is 
opened and closed by means of a large piece of iron, 
shaped like a sickle, which serves instead of a key. 

The agricultui-e here is the same commonly prevalent 
throughout the country of the upper Ganges. Some of 
the cedars are burnt down, and thus, in the most simple 
manner, a portion of the dark forest is converted into 
land fit for cultivation. The mighty stems of these 
venerable trees do indeed, by their thickness, bid defi- 
jyiee to the annihilating power of the devouring element, 
but the husbandman, taking no further trouble about 
clearing away the stumps, merely sows among them a 
species of red Amaranth, the leaf of which is used as 
a vegetable ("Lai Sag") and its seed ground into 
meal ("March") for making bread. The com harvest, 
barley or wheat, is here but just beginning, and a second 
crop is not yielded, or at any rate only in remarkably 
good soil. Rice does not succeed here, but three dif- 
ferent sorts of millet, (Kaoni, Kodha, and another,) are 
cultivated in its place. 

Apricot-trees are planted in great numbers for the 
sake of their fruit; almost invariably, in the centre of 
the village, may be seen a grove of them; it is not the. 
same tree which we cultivate, but the wild apricot-tree, 
which maintains an inverse ratio between its own growth 
and the size of its fruit. The tree grows tall and sturdy, 
like an apple-tree, often measuring three feet in dia- 
meter, while the fruit, on the contrary, although very 
plentiful, is not larger than a cherry. There is also a. 
second variety of apricot, which grows lower down, near 
Reithal; its fruit is of the size of a small plum, with a 
perfectly smooth skin. The peach-tree likewise grows 



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FALSE BBPOaTS. 341 

wild every where in these parts, and bears a similar 
fruit, small, but of an a:greeable, sourish flavour. 

Here at Mookba, all our preparations have been made 
for our further journey, across the nearest frontier pass, 
that of the NEBLrNQ, into Thibet. Stores of meal and 
rice, and pack-sheep for their transport, have been pur- 
chased, and an agreement has been made with the 
necessary number of coolies. It is indeed rumoured 
that the head Mandarin of the district which we shall 
first enter, has given orders to break down the bridges 
in the neighbourhood of the border vilifies ; but we put 
no faith in such reports. Hitherto, we have been re- 
ceived with good-will every where, excepting perhaps 
those villages where, on account of their scanty popula 
tion, the raising our troop of coolies proved, at harvest- 
time, a great oppression; in all other places, the people 
have been delighted with the opportunity of earning a 
trifle, and at the same time of satisfying their curiosity, 
ae they had full leisure and facility, on the march, for 
contemplating those strange beings, whose appearance 
was so unlike anythii^ they had before seen. 



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FOEBIOBEBS BEFELLGD. 



TENTH LETTEB. 

'■ (nBouaiMt) DiFixfOBB TBOM jcooiBi— iMFoaaiBiuiT or nniKus 



A BIVEK — VALLKT Ol 



CHunn, 28IA ofJid't, 18J8. 
OuE departure from Mookba was, owing to ehameful 
intrigues, delayed from day to day. Our proviaions 
were not forthcoming; our coolies became refractory, 
and at last openly declared that they would not go to 
Keelung; the whole village was in an uproar; much was 
said about treaties and agreements, according to which 
no foreigner durst set foot on the pass; it was positively 
affirmed moreover, that the Rajah had given peremptory 
orders that no one should be suffered to cross the fron- 
tier. In short, 80 many obstacles presented themselves, 
that His Royal Highness at length resolved, instead of 
penetrating by way of the Neelung Pass into Thibet, and 
advancing by a road which traverses that country into 
Eunawur, to proceed directly to that province by one of 
the mountfun passes. 



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NATIVB INTBiaUBS. 3*3 

Who would have imagiaed that our afore-mentioDed 
companion, the English Ninirod, during all thia vexati- 
ous and disgraceful business, would be secretly acting a 
part in the game^ and, while publicly appearing on our 
side, ffivately, behind our backs, doing his utmost to 
oppose our plans. He was dismissed forthwith. 

In high indignation, after innumerable difficulties and 
negotiations with the coolies, we at length quitted the 
village of Mookba on the 11th of June. The "Tindal," 
or superintendent of the coolies, was dismissed, — then 
again engaged, and once more sent away on account of 
hia impudence. At length, about one o'clock, our train 
was in motion; but, when only an hour and a half bad 
elapsed, at our halting-place, in the valley of the Hbbsilx, 
not one of our coolies would move a step. Meantime, 
we had learned by spies that two village chiefs from 
Mookba, and our dismissed " Tindal" had laid a plot for 
instigating them to a unanimous rebellion, and to a mid- 
night flight. Accordingly, two hours afterwards, these 
three men arrived, and we watched them as they winked 
and nodded to one f^ter another of the coolies, endea- 
vouring to carry out their insidious deaigns. A bold 
and sudden interference on our part however, defeated 
them entirely; the two village chiefs fled; but the 
Tindal was taken captive, and thoroughly humbled by 
means of a well-merited castigation. He gave us very 
fair words, and confessed the whole of the shamefiJ in- 
trigue. As his attendance was of no small use to us, 
we retained him, taking however the precaution of bind- 
ing him with ropes every evening for some time. To 
prevent all poaaibility of the coolies making their escape, 
the bridge over the Hersile, which we had crossed in 
the course of the day, was broken down through the 
night, so that every homeward path was cut off. On 
the following morning therefore the full troop was 



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3+4 VAI-tEY OP THE OOOMTT— BHOJPUTTBA. 

mustered, &ai during that da/a march we advanced 
coQfliderably. 

DuriDg the- early part of it ve bad' a most toilsome 
olimb in crossing a high mountain, on the other side of 
which we reached the valley of the Goomtt. The whole 
of the eastern declivity of this steep tidge is clothed 
with a dense forest of cedars; higher op, on ita veiy 
crest, we ascended above the region of that tree. The 
wood here becomes less dark, and the ground is covered 
with lai^ patches of grass mingled with strawberries 
and Cheiranthus (Wall-flower.) The two ridges, which 
bound the valley of the Hersile, are of equal height, 
the only difierence being the extreme richness of the 
woods of cedar on the left bank. The path on the 
descent leads in a slanting direction, northward, into 
the parallel valley of the Ooomty. On this side the 
cedar-tree ceases immediately below the crest of the 
mountain, and is succeeded by the birch (" BooteA" or 
Bho ,) appearing singly, intermingled with PhUad^fphus, 
(Syringa) Roi Fir, and various kinds of raspberry, after- 
wards in large masses forming a thick forest. The ap- 
pearance of this tree is far more beautiful than that of 
our birch ; for even the oldest stems, of which however 
I did not see any exceeding one foot in diameter, retain 
their beautiful bark, which, though rough and full of 
fissures, never loses its whiteness ; in young trees it has 
an almost silvery efiect. The leaf is much thicker 
and rounder, and has a shorter point than that of the 
European birch. The hark, — known by the name of 
" Bhojpnttra," — is used as a writing material which is 
procured in a very simple manner; a longitudinal in- 
cision is made" upon the smooth, branchless stem of a 
half-grown tree, and the separate coatings of thin 
bark are stripped off singly with great care. Six or 
seven of them are fit for use, but the outer ones are the 



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HDT-HAKTEST— BUHKAKA. 3i5 

best, being tUnneT and more thoroughly bleached. 
Pieces as lai^ as three feet square are sometimes ob- 
tained in this manner. 

We were now, on the left bank of the Ooomty, once 
more climbing a steep ascent, and crossing a multitude 
of small rushing torrenta. Many a Bmooth acdivity, 
overlaid with masses of trayelled granite, added to the 
difficulty of the path. From the top of one of these we 
caught our last glimpse of the Ganges ; then the forest 
grew thicker, and the ground more level. Hazel-nut 
trees, from three to four feet in diameter, were, with the 
birches, the most prevailing wood. The former are Here 
cfdled " SkeroU," and bear short, rounded, thick-shelled 
nots. We marked the traces of the plentiful nut-har- 
veat,* which the mountaineers had recently gathered in. 
A species of juniper, — " Taroo," — ^from the berries of 
which an intoxicating drink is prepared, forma the un- 
derwood. After threading our way along one of the prin- 
cipal lateral glens, we halted upon a meadow covered with 
rich grass two feet in height, at a lovely and enchant- 
ing spot named Buheaba. But even this reettng-place 
did not satisfy us: we quitted the pleasant shade of the 
birches, and descended into the glen of the Bootoo 
CrADH. It is a rapid stream, full of rocky d4bris. Its 
icy -cold water reached up to our knees as we waded 
through. Immediately after crossing it, we scaled an 
abrupt Mid boulder-covered height; half way up, we 
reached the region of Alpine prairies clothed with tall 
grass and beautiful umbelliferous plants. One of these 
latter ^the " EiaUack,") is remarkable for its extremely 
spicy fr^rance. Its sappy stalk is commonly eaten, 
and has a most agreeable flavour. 

Our tents were at last pitched on one of these eleva- 

• So ftbnntlant indeed, thai hftial-nnto form aa article of Himalayin 
tnde, bdng sold in the bazaars of Hindoatan under Che name of "Jlndtii," 
and not onf^equentlj Bubjeoted to eipreerioD for the oil largely contained in 



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346 roOLAL DAaOO— BHUBAL BHBEP. 

ted prairieB above the limit of arboreous vegetation, 
which here gives place to an Alpine flora only at a 
height of eight thousand feet. Our encampment was 
surrounded by a perfect garden of sweet flowers, — splen- 
did Anemones, beautiful varieties of Pot^i^Ua, EpUobi- 
um, Lilium, Aster, and, somewhat higher up on the 
rocks, the exquisite sky-blue Papaver Alpinum of the 
Himalayahs. A lofty but gently rising mountain ridge, 
from which murmuring brooks innumerable trickle 
down, bounds this stretch of meadow-land, the name of 
which is FooLAL Daroo. We had scarcely taken up our 
quarters there, when there appeared, on the sun-lit hill 
at the foot of which our tents lay, a large flock, at least 
eighty head, of wild sheep (" Bhural").* They were 
sprightly, active creatures, leaping merrily about ; among 
them were some rams with large and powerful horns. 
Not long afterwards, we observed a second, somewhat 
less numerous, flock, grazing still higher on the moun- 
tain pastures; they seemed to have no shyness, and al- 
lowed the sportsmen to approach close to them. Unfor- 
tunately, not one was killed, and the report of the guns, 
which doubtless they had never heard before in their 
wild home, put to flight the whole flock; swift as the 
wind they vanished behind the crest of the ridge. 

These animals, for which I had hitherto Bouglit in 
vain, live close to the boundary of everlasting snow, and 
only visit the lower regions from time to time. They 
have a very thick, reddish brown fleece, with black 
shaggy wool on the breast, and horns twisted spirally, 
which, in the older rams, are inclined far outward. The 
Prince told me that he had seen one owe, which had a 
lamb beside it, make the most tremendous bounds to 
drive away an eagle that had attacked its young one. 

We were much favoured by the weather at tliis place ; 

* Meotianed b; Mine &nthon u the Amdc Aigali,or, OniAmmtm." — To. 



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F0aB3 AJfO SCBAHBLK3. 317 

the air was clear, and, after the sun had aet, We saw the 
peaks of the snowy mountains still glowing in the lin- 
gering radiance; soon however it became sensibly chill. 

The height of this spot, obtained by thermometer, is 
eleven thousand two hundred and seventy-two feet 
above the sea. 

Early on the morning of the 13th of July, we set out 
on our march, amid heavy mist, — the thermometer not 
above 5°8 (16° Fahrenheit). Bare, treeless ridges, 
clothed with slippery grass, and abruptly sloping Alpine 
pastures, on which we wound up in zigzags, not ventur- 
ing to face the steep, rendered the ascent a most fa- 
tiguing one; to add to our troubles, the mist was so 
dense that our coolies lost sight of each other, and final- 
ly, a continuous rain increased our toil not a little, by 
the difficulty of advancing through the tall, wet grass, 
or upon the smooth, argillaceous soil. We scrambled 
up and down on the lofty masses of debris, forced* 
in the intervening hollows, to wade through the many 
tributary streams of the Goomty, keeping that river it- 
self constantly to our left hand; neither bridges, nor 
even trunks ef trees to supply their place, are found 
here. The water of these streams is icy cold, and often 
flows so rapidly that we had difficulty in keeping our 
footing as we passed through. 

At length, after sliding down an abrupt declivity con- 
sisting of crumbling clay and loose fragments of granite, 
we reached the first bed of snow, which covers the 
Goomty for the distance of several miles. We crossed 
over it, and proceeded, on the surface of the snow, along 
the right bank of the river. The snow-bridges of the 
smaller streams having fallen in, we were soon obliged 
to return to the opposite side; there our path, after tra- 
versing several mountain meadows, wound up to a great 
height, scaling a rocky acclivity. 

We were perpetually sliding back upon the wot grass. 



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34S COLD iJSO OOUFOBTLBSfl'BirOUAC. 

aod afull hour of tedioua climbing had passed away, ere 
we arrived, half-way up the hill, at the base of an over- 
hanging precipice of granite, which, although the level 
^>ace below waa limited enough, afforded some slight 
belter to our party from the ice-cold rain. We halted 
here. Our naked coolies cowered around as, shivering 
wid their teeth chattering from cold. It proved how- 
ever aotuaJly impoeeible, with our coolies and baggage, 
to pass the night on this platform of only ten feet square^ 
There was not room sufficient to allow of pitching our 
tents, and not a spot was to be found in the neighbour- 
hood bearing the most distant resemblance to level 
ground, — nothing but nigged acclivities and precipitous 
eliffs on every side. 

Count 0— — , meanwhile, had gone in search of a bet- 
tor resting-place. The wind was every moment becom- 
ing colder and more piercing, and our limbs more and 
more benumbed; and still no meBsenger arrived to an^ 
nounce the discovery of an encampment-ground. Thus 
an hour passed away in dreadful discomfort and sus- 
pense ; at the end of that time one of the guides return- 
ed, to conduct us to a spot which he had at length found. 

It waa nearly dark from the heavy rain ; we stumbled 
(m, — ^following our guide, over the almost impassable 
mountains of debris, — so stiff from cold that, when we 
slid down, it w&a scarcely possible for us to rise up again, 
and our benumbed hands almost refusing to grasp our 
much-needed mountain poles. At length we reached the 
spot selected as our resting-place, a somewhat leas steep 
declivity, above the deep glen of the Goomty'a parent 
stream. Our tents were pitched as well as could be m«- 
nf^d, but the rain poured through them oa all mAea. 
Before our camp-beds could, with the help of large stonest 
be set up, another hour and a half had elapsed, and we 
had not yet got rid of our drenched clothes. As to esta^ 
blishing any thing like a comfortable abode, such a thing 



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SOUBCB OF THB GOOMTT. 349 

tree not to be dreamt of for this night; audthe wood we 
had brought with us was so thoroughly wet that it would 
not ignite. At length, after many vain attempts, a 
feeble flickering flame rewarded our peraeTeraace, and, 
cherishing it into a Bmall fire, we boiled our own choco- 
late, the cook being ill from the cold, and incapable of 
doing any. work: but neither chocolate nor brandy, — in 
which last we indulged more largely than usual, — suc- 
ceeded in thoroughly reviving the natural warmth of 
our framra. 

I was scarcely in a state to make any measurements 
of height by the thermometer, however the result of my 
calculations, such as they were, was an altitude of eleven 
thousand, seven hundred and nineteen feet above the 
sea. 

The night was passed by no meana in the moat agrees 
able maimer. At length however morning dawned, and 
the rain ceased. We now perceived that we were on 
the right bank of a large river, bridged over by beds of 
snow. It is the central parent stream of the Groomty; 
the confluent on the right-hand side descends from the 
"Snow Lakes." There also a path leads acroBB; but it 
was not selected for our course, being reckoned the 
longest and most difBoult. I was unable to obtain 
any accurate information as to what these snow lakes 
really are; we probably lost a great deal by not visiting 
them. 

A bright and serene day, with a sunshine most welcome 
at such an elevation, favoured our ascent of the pass 
which DOW lay before us. We soon arrived at the snow- 
bridge over the rapid river, beyond which we ascended 
without intermission over a naked waste, covered with 
travelled blocks, among which an argillaceous schist, 
with a ferruginous tint, chiefly predominates, though 
with a copious intermixture of fragments of quartz and 
of granite. 



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350 PIBU) OF SNOW. 

As for plants, a very small remnant of soil, on the 
mai^n of the numerous rippling brooks, is all that is 
left for them. This narrow border is adorned with 
dwarf ye)low Potentillaa, and Ranunculuses; while the 
stones are clothed with mosses and with black-edged, 
yellow Hehena. 

Not a living creature is to be seen in all this death- 
hke solitude; no feathered songster enhvens, with his 
joyous warbling, these desolate aad rugged cliffe, nor 
these wild wastes, whose dreary expanse is br<^en only 
by huge erratic blocks. From time to time indeed, I 
watched the flight of a few beetles, but their monoton- 
ous hum soon died away in the silent air, leaving only 
a more intense feeling of solitude behind. 

At the end of one hour's march, we had already 
reached the Erst broad field of snow; before entering 
upon it we had to ascend a hill of travelled stones, from 
which we obtained a bird's-eye view of the broad valley 
through which we had just passed. To our right and 
left lay extensive moraines, those dirty glacier masses, 
loaded with argillaceous and stony fragments. 

We now proceeded to traverse the immense and shin- 
ing field of snow. In many places it was so soft that 
we sank in it up to our knees, and a most fatiguing 
march we found it. The ruined heaps of a fallen Mid 
shattered rock rise hke an island in this ocean of snow; 
we halted upon it to rest ourselves and gather new 
strength. 

The confluent of the Goomty, whose course we were 
following, had long ere now disappeared beneath im- 
mense glaciers and masses of snow. Only in some few 
spots, where deep crevasses and formidable chasms were 
to he cleared, we heard the roar of its waters in the un- 
seen depths below. 

We overcame however all these obstacles, wid reach- 
ed the further end in safety; but a long and toilsome 



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PASS OF LAMA KAQA— MODNTADi SICKSBS8. .>ol 

ascent yet remained to be accomplished, before we could 
gain the summit of the pasa. We were forced to scale 
the precipitous wall of a vast glacier, while the wild 
wind was continually pouring down upon us showers of 
small stones, from the lofty, needle-like pinnacles of rock 
which, weathered and worn by friction, towered on our 
right from amid this sea of ice. At the end of four 
hours, the Prince, the guide and I gaioed the culmina- 
ting point, without suffering much from the difficulty of 
breathing, and the feelings of indisposition caused by 
the "momitain sickness." A naked pyramid, consisting of 
broken masses of white granite, domineering higli above 
all around it, forms the apex of the mountain; making 
a wide circuit round a towering crest of snow, we scram- 
bled up to its base. It consists entirely of huge rocky 
debris, and fragments of from three to four feet in dia- 
meter; water was trickling down on all aides, although 
there was no snow lying upon its summit. From this 
point, our guide pointed out to us the path*followed by 
the English traveller, Mr Bailey; it lies farther west- 
ward, tracing the course of the western tributary of the 
Goomty. The point on which we stood, on the other 
hand, had never yet been trod by any European explorer. 
According to my measurement, tlie head of this pass, — 
the name of which is Laua Kaga, — is fifteen thousand, 
three hundred and fifty-five feet above the level of the 
sea; the conical apes rising above it, I should estimate 
to be at least from three to four hundred feet more. 

Nearly an hour and a half passed away before the 
van-guard of our troop of coolies, with their load of bag- 
gage, arrived at the bead of the pass. They were in a 
deplorable condition, and suffering, as was also our in- 
terpreter Mr Brown, from headache, which they de- 
scribed as intolerably severe. Anxiety, debility and sick- 
ness are the other symptoms of the disease, known here 



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36S UHBXPECTBD DIPPICOLTV. 

by the name of "Bish," poison, or "Moondara." Travel- 
lers among these mountains, ascending within the limit 
of eternal snow, are generally attacked by it. It show- 
ed itself among the coolies even half-way np the pass. 
They take, as an antidote, a paste prepared of the small 
sour apricots (" Ckoaroo") which I before described, the 
kernels being bruised, and mixed up with it; it has an 
unpleasantly sour taste, from which it derives its name 
oi " Kkutai," 

When, after long delays, the whole train of coolies 
was at last assembled at this point, the guides, who 
meanwhile had been exploring, with a view to- our on- 
ward march, returned with the assurance that it was im- 
possible to advance farther in the same direction, recent 
avalanches having formed a perpendicular precipice of 
from five to six hundred feet. We satisfied ourselves, 
by ocular demonstration, of the truth of their assertion ; 
the snow-field had fallen oif abruptly towards the hoUow 
on the oppflsite side. How then were we now to de- 
scend, with our half-dead coolies, into this profound 
abyss! No expedient remained for us, but to clamber 
in a westerly direction, over the cone, and thence to en- 
deavour, by traversing frightfully steep banks of snow 
and ice, to effect a descent. 

We set out on the march, and had scarcely gained the 
highest point, when a chill and soaking mist, gradually 
changing into a violent hail-shower, enveloped us in a 
gloom so dense, that the pioneers of our long train were 
altogether cut off from the rest. 

Everything however conspired to make us earnestly 
desirous of reaching tlie foot of the mount&in with the 
least possible delay; for the day was already on the de- 
cline, and it would have been utterly impracticable to 
pursue, amid the perils of darkness, a march itself so 
replete with danger. As little could we, without risking 



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ICE HEWEBS. 35S 

our lives, spend the night on these heights. Our guides, 
themselves apparently anxious and perplexed, were 
urged forward with the impatience of despair. 

We arrived in safety at the base of the first snowy 
steep i hut here we found that the lowest, and unfor- 
tunately also the most abrupt declivity consisted of a 
smooth mass of ice, upon the existence of wliich we had 
by no means calculated. We forthwith began, axe in 
hand, to hew steps in it. It was a painfully tedious 
operation ; and, while engaged in our fatiguing labour, 
we were obliged, hanging over a giddy abyss, to cling 
faet with our feet and our left hands, lest we should lose 
our hold and slide down to the bottom. This did in- 
deed all but happen to the Prince himself; his pole 
however, furnished with a very strong iron tip, checked 
his fall. I too slipped, and darted down to a consider- 
able distance, but fortunately, with the aid of my " al- 
penstock," I contrived, in spite of its point being broken 
off, to keep myself in an upright position.. Thus the 
Prince and I, accompanied by the guides, arrived pros- 
perously at the end of the ice, and reached a less dan- 
gerous surface of snow ; but not a creature bad followed 
us, and the thick rimy snow that darkened the atmo- 
sphere prevented us from casting a look behind, towards 
our lost companions and attendants. One of the guides 
was sent back in quest of them ; and it turned out that 
the coolies had refused to descend by this route. Neither 
money nor cudgelling seemed now to be of the least 
avail. 

At length the snowy shower somewhat abated; the 
ciirtain of mist opened for a moment, and we descried, 
standing in a line on the crest of the ridge, from which 
we had descended an hour before, the whole array of 
coolies. Not on? of them could muster resolution to 
venture upon the icy way; they looked down in despair. 
When they perceived us standing below, a few of the 



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354 PEAEFOL AKVEHTUEES. 

most courageous, — ui^;ed on by Count with voice 

and stick, — at length agreed to follow in our steps. 
They got on pretty well as far as the smooth icy preci- 
pice ; but here several of them lost their firm footing 
and slid down the steep descent with their heavy bur- 
dens on their backs. It was a frightful scene, and, to 
All appearance, full of danger, not one of them how- 
ever met with any injury; even Mr Brown, whose 
shooting descent from the highest part filled us with 
terror, — as he slid down a distance of at least a hundred 
feet, into a crevasse, in which he was apparently en- 
gulfed, — was at last brought to us safe and sound with 
the exception of considerable excoriation and torn rai- 
ment. It cost half an hour, however, to hew a lon^ 
flight of steps for him in this icy wall. During all these 
proceedings, which occupied more than an hour, the 
Prince and I were standing at the foot of the declivity, 
up to our knees in snow, exposed to a freeing blast and 
to incessant sleet, but most heartily were we rejoiced, 
when at length all our people were gathered around us, 
without <Mi6 broken neck or limb. The coolies had lat- 
terly given up the attempt to scramble down the fatal 
precipice of ice, and had glided down "a la nwtiioffne 
Rusae," abandoning themselves to their fate. 

The remainder of our downward way was through 
half-melted snow, and unattended with any considerable 
danger, until we arrived at the top of a mound of travel- 
led blocks ftbout three hundred feet in height, by which 
we must needs descend, to reach the glen below. Here 
our coolies seemed to lose every spark of courage; some 
howled and wept aloud, others threw themselves pro- 
strate, with their laces on the ground. What was now 
to bo done? Who could have brought himself, in such 
circumstances, to have recourse to blows with these poor, 
sufTering creatures? Our last expedient, to bring them 
.to their legs again, was to relieve them of all the bag- 



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OLACIEBfi AND MOBAINBa H55 

gAge, each one of our party cwiying a share of the load 
on his own shoulders. It iraa no very arduous under- 
tfJi.mg, for the most ponderous article, — to wit, our tent, 
— we had been under tlie sad necessity, as it had be- 
come thoroughly wet and very heavy, of leaving on the 
summit of the ridge. This good example produced the 
desired effect; the bearers advanced immediately, and, 
— with the exception of a few who were extremely ill, — 
at a more lively pace ; thus the joyful prospect opened ' 
upon us, of reaching a night's quarter below the limit 
of perpetual snow. 

This glen is choked up by a glacier, covered with a 
great quantity of travelled stones, — many-coloured schist, 
resembling sandstone, of every shade from a deep purple 
to a yellowish red, and often not unlike rotten wood. 
The side ramparts of the glen have a worn, broken, de- 
solate air that makes one shudder. We proceeded down 
a gently inclined plane, traversing now solid, or partially 
melted snow, — now masses of ice, — furrowed with deep 
fissures and fathomless chasms. Streams of water had 
worked out for themselves channels on its surface, and 
were murmuring along at our feet, while we could catch 
the hollow roar of rivers in the depths below. I was 
much struck and surprised here by the sight of multi- 
tudes of dead locusts, strewn in masses on every side ; 
tiiey must have lain there since last year, if not longer, 
-for I sought in vain to recognize in them any one dis- 
tinct colour. 

After about an hour and a half, we reached a turn of 
the glen, where, gliding down a wall of ice covered with 
fragments of stone, we at last set foot on terra firma. 
This was the terminal moraine of the glacier, and we 
now perceived the river, about thirty feet wide, which, 
after flowing on beneath the superincumbent mass, 
rushes out furious and roaring from its vast prison, by a 
low-arched glacier-gate. We followed its course, along 



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356 DOO 800HDA. 

the left bank, on which here and there bridges of snow 
yet remained. At length, at a. second turn of the glen, 
the cliff-embosomed valley of Bissaeib euddenl; lay 
stretched before us in the rosy illumination of a splendid 
sunset, the snow-capped peaks veiled in an aiiy drapeiy 
of mist and golden vaponr, through which their clearly 
pencilled summits shone forth in peerless majesty. 

We had now arrived at our resting-plaee. It lay in 
immediate contact with a large glacier, which leaves bnt 
& narrow strip of open ground, on the left border of the 
valley, and once more couceals the river, which, lower 
down, bursts forth anew in two broad streams, whose 
waters however are soon re-united. The place is named, 
on account of the meeting of the waters. Do Soohda. 
Our guide could ^ve us no information regarding a 
place called Barstni, which, according to our maps, must 
lie at no great distance. The dwarf cypresses and wi^ 
"lows afforded us from their long roots, which creep far 
under the blocks of travelled stone, a sufficiency of wood 
for fuel, with which we lighted a cheerful blazing fire ; 
and thus it was not till the shades of night had fallen, 
that we felt the want of our tent. Our night's rest was 
certainly not the most agreeable, as we were obliged 
to cower round the fire cheek by jowl with our filthy 
Hindoo attendants. 

The following day, (the 15th of July) was spent at our 
halting-place, for the sake of fetching down our tent 
from the head of the pass. It was brought down so 
completely frozen together, that it was scarcely possible 
to set it up. 

We were now compelled in the first place, oh starting 

the following morning, to make -a circuit to the source 

of the impetuous Bospa,* as there was no other means 

of gaining the opposite bank. We were therefore forced 

* Btupa ia the name giTeo to this river m the nutpB ; our gaidee called it 



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PASSAGE OP THE GLACIER AND THE BU8PA. 357 

to bestow all our skill and paiaa on cutting out a path 
for ouraelves, across the towering glacier from which it 
rises. Each one gave a helping hand in the arduoua la- 
bour of hewing out steps and transporting the baggage. 
The passage occupied three hours, and was not without 
danger, especially on the highest spot, beneath which 
the main branch of the Bxiepa rages along ; for there the 
loose blocks of stone might so easily have been dislodged 
from their positions on the polished heights of ice, that 
we could descend from the many little eminences only 
^ain "& la Moniagne Russe." Soon after we had 
crossed this glacier, the rain recommenced; the people 
most to be pitied as suffering from its effects were the 
unfortunate bearers, who had to carry the tent, heavy 
with accumulated moisture. After an hour's march over 
level wastes of debris, we were detained by a new oh- 
stacle. A rapid and greatly swollen stream, flowing 
down from the lofty beds of snow on the right bank, cut 
off our path. We spent three hours in traversing the 
rugged mounds of loose blocks which form the ramparts 
of its little glen, before reaching the snow-bridge, which 
spans it higher up; having crossed it, we returned down 
the other side to the edge of the Buspa. It was noi 
possible to transport our tent by this route; we were 
obliged to float it through the stream by means of ropes, 
and what little of it the rain had yet left dry, was in 
this transit completely soaked. The eight coolies too 
who had the eharge of carrying it, were dragged through 
the river in a similar manner. 

The valley now became wider, and the bed of the 
river flat and sandy: to counterbalance this improve- 
ment we found ourselves in a perfect net-work of little 
brooks, in wading through which, the rushing, iee-cold 
waters often reached up to our knees. They all belong 
to one group of springs, the dame of which is Niital 
Nddst. We crossed a larger brook by means of a has- 
tily constructed, very frail bridge, formed of trees found 



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S58 TICISBITTTDES OF TBB JOUBNET. 

on tlie spot. Beyond it the valley ezpands tx> a width- 
of several tlioueaBd pa«ee, bounded on either side by 
gently eloping hilla: the snows on their Bummits 
vere yet unmelted. Endless heaps of mountain-wreck, 
extending along these parallel ramparts in wild and 
sterile desolation, ^ve to the scene a character of awe- 
inspiring melancholy. The bottom of tlie valley, along 
which we were proceeding, consists of a level bed of 
clay, clothed with ^sh and verdant grass. One spot, 
where the river makes a bend, and a lofty impending 
precipice offers some shelter from the wind, appeared to 
us perfectly adapted for a comfortable encampment. 

On the following morning also, (the 17th of July) 
our path was at first easy and pleasant, lying through 
beautiful meadow land : soon however the scene 
changed ; the narrowed glen was now hemmed in be- 
tween steep acclivities covered with d^ris and crowned 
with savage frowning rocks, broken into dark clefts 
and furrows. The snow and ice have committed 
fearful ravages here; the mountain summits appear 
as though all the mightiest powers of nature had vied 
with each other in the effort to shiver them into frag- 
ments! 

We scrambled up the steep bank overhanging the 
river; suddenly, we beheld at our feet a yawning abyss, 
nearly a thousand feet in depth, apparently excluding 
all prospect of advancing farther. Evidently a huge 
mass of rocky wall had here given way, and precipitated 
itself into the deep below. It seemed impossible to 
descend without endangering our lives, for in no part 
did the rock afford a spot, on which to rest one's foot. 
A chamois would have found it a perilous path! But 
what was to be done? — we must find our way across. 
The guide first made the experiment, placing his foot 
warily on stones that projected here and there; we fol- 
lowed, one by one, with great caution, and actually 
reached the base without a single accident, although 



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RENEWED DIFFICnLTIES. 359 

the fragments, constantly detached from the mass of 
loose blocks, were rolling down under our feet, and 
every gust of wind hurled down upon U8 showers of 
small stones. 

No form of rock among the mountains can be so diffi- 
cult and irksome for the traveller to scramble over, aa 
this loose erratic debris, in which granite, schist and 
pebbles, all conglomerated with very loose earth, form 
lofty mural precipices of the most treacherous kind. 
Rocks, be they ever so steep and high, may, if one is 
not a victim to giddiness, be scaled or descended in 
safety; but on heights such as these, where all firm 
footing fails, where each projecting atone yields beneath 
one's tread, and rolls down with stunning velocity, every 
scramble is a most hazardous adventure. 

The conveying of our baggage down the side of this 
chasm cost us great labour; we were once more forced 
to leave our tents behind us, now saturated and more 
heavy than ever with rain. 

The worst part however was yet to come, — a mound of 
boulders, along which we scrambled, at a height of some 
four hundred feet above the river, constantly exposed to 
the danger either of shooting down into the stream with 
the loose blocks, or of being buried beneath the perpen- 
dicular walls of crumbling stone and clay, which threat- 
ened to give way at the slightest touch! 

How thankful were we then, once more to set foot 
on a beaten path, how enchanted to welcome the first 
birchen bushes! There yet remained indeed a great 
number of narrow deep-cut glens, where mountain- 
torrents must needs be passed either by throwing across 
them bridges, formed of trees dragged to the spot with 
great toil, or, where no wood was to be found, by wading 
through; these hindrances were however more time- 
consuming than dangerous. 

Our attention was now directed to some cattle grazing 



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on an Alpine pasturage in the distance; below that wild 
prairie, we were assured, lay Cuetkool, the frontier village 
of BtssAHiB. We reached the first pasture-land, but 
still no trace of inhabited regions or of the proximity of 
human beings was discoverable. The tracks of bears 
only, — seen here in great abundance, — and the yellow- 
beaked crows hovering above us, reminded us that 
animal creation was not extinct. At length we roarked 
rose bushes beside our path, and on winding round a 
bend of the river, the first trees appeared, — Cheel pines 
(Finns Umgifolia,) and Roi firs, (Picea MorindaJ present- 
ly we descried in the distance the tower-like, wooden 
temple of Chotkool. Rich fields of green wheat upon the 
lofty terraced banks we gladly welcomed as symptoms 
announcing that the village was now near, and, before 
darkness had over-spread the scene, we had gained the 
height and the hamlet that crowns its summit. 

Chetkool is a pleasant village, surrounded by ter- 
raced rocks, adorned with emerald crops of wheat. We 
already marked the thoroughly Chinese character of the 
architecture, both of the temple and of the houses; and 
in fact this place has much intercourse with Thibet. Its 
temples are dedicated to the Lama-worship. That be- 
side which we pitched our camp, stands upon a base- 
ment of stone, and has a broad portico, supported by 
beautifully carved wooden pillars; a quantity of wood- 
carving, especially dragons' heads, adorn the comers of 
the roof, and a number of the twisted horns of the Bku- 
ral sheep are hung upon the walls. In front of the tem- 
ple stands a smaller edifice, resting on nine pillars, and 
containing an idol-figure which on our establishing our- 
selves beside it, was withdrawn. The houses, about 
twelve in number, are almost all built of wood, the nar- 
row interstices only, between the beams, not broader 
than the beams themselves, being filled up wfth stones: 
the roofs are flat. On one side of the biulding, the 



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COSIITME 07 CHETEOOL WOMEN. 361 

trunk of a tree, with steps hewn in it, leads up to a 
balcony with a balustrade of varied and fanciful, wood' 
carving. From it is the entrance to the family apart- 
ments. Moat of the dwellings hare a sunk story, with 
small, low doorways, probably leading into the store- 
rooms. 

On the balcony of the first floor, we usually saw the 
women sitting, for here they do not conceal themselves, 
as is the universal custom throughout the valley of the 
Ctanges. Their costume is a very singular one. Be> 
sides the round felt hat, they wear, fastened on the 
back of the head, a large bush of red wool, below which 
hangs a profusion of thick plaits, not indeed of hair, but 
of this same red wool. It is a species of peruke, similar 
to Uiat worn by Pakeers. A wreath of everlastings is 
twined round the hat. A web of woollen cloth, of home 
manufacture, — ^red, brown, or white, — is thrown over the 
left shoulder, twice wound round the upper part of the 
body, and then twisted, on the back above the waist, 
into a knot, from which it hangs down like a scarf, in 
drapery reaching to the ankles. A brass clasp of very 
peculiar form confines the ample folds on the left should- 
er, while the right is left uncovered. The lower end of 
the web, hud together in many plies, is bound round the 
waist by means of a girdle, and covers the rest of the 
figure. The whole dress is no less dignified and becom- 
ing, than it is elegant; it were impossible to conceive a 
finer effect produced by such simple means. It bears 
some resemblance to the guise of a French shepherd in 
olden times. The physiognomy however is here marked 
by thoroughly Tartar features; the women are, for the 
most part, extremely ugly; but among the men we re- 
marked a few, who, with their long fiowing black hair 
and noble beards, were tolerably good-looking. The 
men alone spin the wool, and go about, as at MoofAa, 
-spindle in hand, with their little basket on the arm. The 



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362 DOCBLE DISAPPOINTMENT. 

women devote themselTOs to a^cultural labour, and to 
the tending of the cattle. The breed of this place Ib a 
cross between the woolly-tailed Yak ox, and the common 
Indian cow; a pretty race of animals, rather high in the 
nape, and of a black colour. What a delicious treat for 
us once more to enjoy a drink of new milk ! 

The cultivation of the fields is carried on with the at- 
most care; they are all inclosed with low stone walls, 
and the soil is excellent. Two kinds of wheat (" Chog" 
and " Qehong,") buck-wheat, (" Mad^a") a species of 
cabbage, ("Shsata"), — pos«bly Brasnca nopiw, to which 
at least it bears a great resemblance, — are the fruits of 
the ground here cultivated. Here and there also, we 
saw crops of tobacco ; but the greatest part of the fields 
is occupied with buck-wheat, the green blades of which 
are used as a vegetable. 

We remained at this place during four days; unfor- 
tunately, during all that time, the rain never ceased ; 
once only did we behold the lofty, snow-capped peaks, 
which, rising in the back-ground of the valley, add such 
beauty to the landscape. At first we had the fairest 
prospect of penetrating hence into Thibet;, the guide was 
already enga^d, and a store of provisions ordered to be 
laid in; but the timid irresolution of the villags chief 
frustrated the whole plan. The people altc^^her are 
not to be depended upon; while encouraging us by the 
smoothest words and the best promises, they were, behind 
our backs, using every endeavour to hinder the execu- 
tion of our designs.* According^, when at length the 
long-expected coolies and the provisions were, at least 

• The disappointnient experienced bj the prince Wid his p«rty od thit 
and nmilar occaalani, uid which vas Dot eaaaed by the men doabt oi 
inbiguei of ■ Tillage populatioD, is eipluiwd by Dr Bojts'i tceaant of the 
■jgtetn ponued tonsrdi travellsrs in these r^ons. He laji, " tbe cteat 
only of tfie psneti osn now be Tinted, as erery one is prohibited Avm eroai- 
log tbe fWmtder for feu- of eicltiiig the jealoosy of the nbetiia aofliMiae*, 
and diitnrhing the tnn<-Hlmala;aD tradeoftlieproTiiiccofE^Man."— T*. 



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GLEN OP THE BUSPA. 363 

in part, colleoted, we were obliged to content ourselves 
with casting a longing look up the valley, along which 
stretches the path leading into Thibet, to all appearance 
neither a dangerous nor a di£Bc\Ut one. 

Our own path, on which we proceeded on the 22d of 
July, led U8 between green fields of buck-wheat, down 
the right bank of the river, on which the Okeelpmea 
(here called "Limm") begin much later than on the op- 
posite side, being probably dispossessed of their pristine 
domain by the encroachments of agriculture. 

After the second hour's march, the path descended to 
a considerably lower level, nearly that of the river, where- 
as before we had been at a height of several hundred 
feet above it. The only stream of any importance which 
presented itself on our path, was the Likqitara, which we 
crossed about half-way to our station, the village of Rua- 
BDM, a small place, consisting of some twenty houses, 
situated in the midst of damp meadows. The Buspa is 
here contracted in its channel, and has a great fall ; our 
biTouac was close to its banks, on an open, verdant mea- 
dow, about a hundred feet above the water-fall. I cal- 
culated, — by the point at which water boiled, — that the 
elevation of this spot must be nine tliousand, seven 
hundred and fifty feet. 

The clear, brilliant weather of the following day en- 
abled us to enjoy the extensive prospect of the mountain 
ranges to the southward, crowned with icy peaks and 
needles. Our path was at first difficult from the accumu- 
lated masses of huge granite blocks, often connected to- 
gether by bridges. Further on, we entered into the 
shade of a beautiful forest ofCheelpines and poplars; 
the cedars also once more appeared, though singly and 
scattered, beyond the BuMM NoDDT. They here bear the 
name of " Kjeim&ng," At one place, where the valley 
trends round a projecting cliff which advances far into 
its hoDow, the granite gives place to a gray gneiss. 



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364 BDNGLA AND ITS SQEKSBY. 

which, higher up the crags, is more and more mingled 
with mica, passing at length into mica schiat, but this 
ia only for a very short distance, after which the white 
granite re-appears, 

A charming wood of apricot and walnut trees, beneath 
tlie shade of which lay scattered a number of solitary 
huts, made us aware of the proximity of the village of 
SuHGLA, round which agriculture has extended its sway 
over a wide and fertile domain. We arrived there after 
a three hours' march. A " sangho" leads across the 
river, — here about ninety paces in width,— to the further 
bank, on which the village lies, which is large, and buUt 
in a very pretty style ; the houses, which have chimneys 
and flat roofs, being richly decorated with wood-carving. 
On an open space in the centre of the village, stands 
the temple, thoroughly Chinese in its appearance, sur- 
rounded by a columned gallery with decorations carved 
in wood, evidencing taste and skill in the art, the 
points of the roof projecting and curved upwards. Neat, 
clean and pretty as this village is, it did not, from our 
encampment on the opposite hank, produce as pictur- 
esque an effect as Cbetkool, the beautiful bach-gromtd 
being wanting here. 

Sungla is situated upon a lofty terrace, which, jutting 
out at the foot of the mountains, is cleft, by the brooks 
which flow down from them, into four separate parts. 
Farther down, on ibe same aide of the Buspa, but on a 
level much higher than that of Sungla, stands upon a, 
projecting rock the village of Eahbbo. 

A walk through Sungla brought ua into close contact 
with the inhabitants. The leading people among them 
had assembled for the evening on the open space in front 
of the temple. Among them were the "Mookdiat^' or vil- 
lage chief, and his son, both distinguished by the ele- 
gance of their attire. Trowsers of blue and white striped 
cotton, drawn in tightly above the ankles, a long coat of 



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TEMPLES AND PRAYBB-CTLINDEE. 365 

Vhite woollen stuff, with skirts turned back, and trimmed 
at the bottom with a border of red, a broad belt, elegant 
shoes and a brown cap, form their neat and pretty cos^ 
tume. The women wear a dress exactly similar to that 
already described at Chetkool, only prettier and finer in 
every respect. A small, singular-looking building, stand- 
ing dose to the temple, with a roof remarkable for its 
far-projecting, dragon-shaped points, contains two cliests, 
with staves for bearing them: these reminded me by 
their form, of the scripture description of the Ark of the 
Covenant. Another edifice, standing farther back, at- 
tracted our attention by the wonderful paintings on its 
interior walls; representing, in pale brown and gray co- 
lours, symbolical figures of various sorts; the fish and 
the dragon occur repeatedly. On the path from the 
village to the " Sa^ho," stands a tiny house of prayer, 
rudely constructed of stones: a flag is stuck up on its 
top, but within, it contains only a niche, in which is 
i>laced a " prayer-cylinder." This little machine, which 
in form is exactly like a coffee-roaster, covered with 
hide, and resting on a moveable axle, is called a "Man- 
nek, or, " Lamake Manneh." The passers-by may fre- 
quently be seen to stand still before the little oratory, 
and diligently to turn the cylinder, thus performing 
their devotions. In like manner they may be often 
seen to pass rapidly through their fingers strings of 
wooden beads, of Chinese workmanship, a species of ro- 
sary used in prayer. 

We quitted Sungla on the 24th of July, not very early, 
for it was a misty morning. Our path lay at first along 
the banks of the Buspa. We passed over the waters of 
a chalybeate spring, which gushes forth from under an 
immense block of granite, between fields of " Pkapv/r," 
or " Madua," (species of Fagopynim). The thick fog 
excluded all view, so that, on reaching the summit of a 
conical mountain, named Stbllinjootipah, we could only 



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366 PASS OP HAaOM(l-SUTI,EJ. 

see the grand outlines of the snowy peaks, peering dinilf 
tlirougb over against us. The way was rendered toil- 
some by the numerous rocky chasmsj where mountain 
torrents had cut their deep passage through the heights. 
After ea«h one of these clefts we had a considerable 
ascent; three of them we had to cross before refichiDg 
the foot of the pass of HABDHa. We ascended in the 
first instance a spur of that mountain, distinguished by 
the name of Toka: the partial opening of the mist oc- 
casionally revealed to us the fine view which it com- 
mands, extending over the pass of Bbuanq, the tower- 
ing snowy mountains on the other side of the river, 
and a number of small villages in the nearer distance. 
On the highest ridge of the pass, we found a small 
level space, almost entirely surrounded by pyramids of 
stone, for the most part of very couples architecture, 
and furnished with projections which serve as seats. 
This plateau is covered with a luxuriant Alpine flora, 
consisting of sky-blue poppy, red and yellow potentillas, 
beautiful grasses, and rhododendron. 

We now descended in a north-easterly direction, into 
a thick forest, which begins with Pmua longi/olia, and P. 
excelaa. Some six hundred feet lower down, a new spe- 
cies of pine mingles with these, remarkable for the ex- 
treme shortness of its leaves, and known here by the 
name of " Koorooe;" it is the Abies W^tbiana, closely 
allied to the Silver Fir. Three hundred feet lower 
again, appears the Morinda Fir, (Abies Pindrow) oc- 
curring however only singly, Immense i)eocfara Cedars 
stand here and there in the midat of them; and at 
length, beyond the village of Mxbbab, or Mebdb, which 
lies at the foot of the mountain, these last are grouped 
into a magnificent grove. 

This village stands upon an eminence above the Scr- 
LBJ, not far from the place where it receives the waters 
of the Buspa; however, to obtain a view of the forraec 



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MBBUB-OBDAB-OII.. 367 

river, we were obliged to pasa over a rocky height partly 
overgrown with bushes. 

Not a living sool was to be seen in the village: the 
very fields seemed lifeless, though rich with crops of 
barley and " pAopar" in full ear. The " Mookdiar" was 
however at length found, and dragged home by force. 
He made many apologies, and ended by supplying us, 
to the best of his ability, with meal, rice, butter and 
milk. The temple-court, surrounded by an open colon- 
nade resting on six pillars, served here, as at Sungla, 
for our bivouac. Not far from our tent stood a speciee 
of altar, surmounted by ram's horns and an urn not un- 
like the monumental urns of the ancients. 

I had often before this been struck by the appearance 
of these urns, portly in their proportions, rudely formed 
of clay, painted white, and covered over with a roof. It 
is exceedingly difficult to obtain any information as to 
their meaning and use : the people, when we questioned 
them, were unwilling to give an account of the matter, 
and their replies were ludicrously evasive, — as for in- 
stance, that " the boys had made these urns," &c., &c. 
It is probable that they are intended to represent some 
sort of Lama incarnation. 

The sons of the " Mookdiar" of Sungla, who had accom- 
panied us hither, now exhibited to us the process of ob- 
taining the very highly valued cedar oil. Resinous cedar- 
wood, cleft into many small pieces, is carefully squeezed 
into a new round pot, in such a manner that nothing can 
fall out when the pot is whirled round and round. It is 
then turned upside-down over a copper bowl set in a- 
little pit, every opening being filled up with small stones 
and moss. Round about the pot, a heap of billets of 
wood is piled up so high as entirely to cover it, and 
kept burning for luUy two hours. Next morning the 
little pit is opened, and the copper vessel removed, in 
which the cedar oil is found to have gathered, in the 



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S68 FSMALB C00LIB8-B0QEE. 

shape of a thin liquid substance resembling tar. It 
fetdies a verj bigb price here, and is used as a medicine, 
internally and eztemallj, in cases of intestinal disease 
and in eruptions of the skin. 

There was at tliis place a lack of cooUes, and man; 
things required to be put in order, for which reasons we 
did not set out on our march very early on the morning 
of the 26tb of July. A number of really pretty young 
girls were standing in readiness to transport our heavy 
baggage; at first we hesitated about accepting of tbem 
as bearers; however, we were assured that such was the 
custom here. So, reconciling ourselves with a good 
grace to so agreeable a change, we acquiesced in the 
appointment of this extraordinary retinue, which, parti- 
cularly as contrasted with our former troop of filthy 
coolies, savoured not a little of the romantic. A few of 
these damsels had very beautiful eyes, and their charac- 
teristic costume, — ^the long cues of hair with the bushy 
tuft of red wool, the small, brown, felt cap lined with 
red, stuck in a most coquettish manner on one side, the 
graceiid drapery, with the peculiar bunchy knot behind, 
and the shining brass ornament fastening tlie folds on 
the clothed shoulder, — set off their beauty to the best 
advantage. 

We proceeded through a tall wood of cedars and Cheel 
pines, in which we enjoyed, at several points, an open 
view of the Sutlej roaring at a great depth below. On 
the lofty bank opposite, appeared the village of Rogeb, 
built, like a swallow's nest, at the top of a nearly per- 
pendicular precipice, five hundred feet in height, with 
cultivated terraces, covered with com, situated on ledges 
so dangerous that it seems as though no mortal could set 
foot on them without sliding down into the abyss. The 
bank on this side is not inferior in elevation, but less 
steep, and partly clothed with grass. We descended, at 
some distance farther on, from the high ridge, chasing, 



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NBOZA PINES— BARUSG, Sb9 

on our way, a herd of Rhesus monkeys,* neighlwura we 
had not seen for a long while; they were plundering 
the noble cedars. 

At B, turn of the path, the first "N'eoxa" Pines fPinus 
Gerardianaf) met our eyes; they are trees of large and 
bending boughs, with pale leaden grey stems, and leaves 
springing three out of one sheath. Their round, pale 
green cbnes are of the size of an infant's head; those of 
last year are still hanging among the young and tender 
ones, which will not be fully matured till two months 
hence. 

The country in the neighbourhood of the next village, 
Babuho, is lovely and enchanting indeed; a warm spring 
air was breathing around us, and beautiful trellised vines 
were crowding upon the apricot trees that shone in the 
full glory of their ruddy fruit. The flat roofs of the 
high houses were covered with piles of apricots, about 
to be dried and prepared as "Khutai." The inhabitants 
were ever and anon bringing in firuit newly shaken oif 
the tree, and they gave us carte blanche to take as much 
as we diose. The rosy-cheeked maidens who were bear- 
ing the load, tumbled them, with liberal abundance, 
into our hats. 

The same neat, but stiff costume prevails among the 
women here, which we observed some time ago at Mook- 

* The Papio Sham, or " Bkunder" of Hiadoetan, aod tha Stmnopiih^cta 
EnUlim, or " Soonwmati," alreadj described bj out author, and well 
known as the iscred monkey of so man; eaatem luidi, aie remarkable h 
being the onl; apecios of Simia known to be migiatory in their habita. They 
paH the hot aiunmer among the heights of the Himalayas, where they hare 
been known to gam an elevation of more than lu,<>OU feet, and detcend to 
the plains before winter. The Hoonuman is eien siud by some travellers 
to have succeeded in accomplishing the pasaage of the great mountaJn tnr- 
Tier, and to wander occadonally into the extensive table-land of Central Asia. 

t The seeds of Che Pinta Otrardiana are mentioned b; other travellers 
as farming (though probably not at the season in which our author visited 
the Himalayas,) a principal aiiicle of food uf the inhabitants of Kunawur. 
-Tb. 



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370 aVALASCHB wseck. 

ba. The men are good-looking, tall and of stately bear- 
ing- 

This village, which appears to be of great Bize, lies in 
the heart of the Neoza pine region. About Imlf-an- 
hour'e march beyond it, we marked the traces of a vast 
avalanche, which bad obstructed the whole lateral glen, 
and dammed up a small river, which flows into the 
Sutlej. The whole aide of the mountain, far above, is 
denuded of its rich forest, and the valley is blocked up 
with a mound, fifty feet high, formed of many thouaand 
sturdy trunks and youthful stems, not a few of which 
have been snapped off in the middle. I recognised 
among them Cbeel pines, birches, poplars, and, most 
Dumepous of all, Deodara cedars. Beneath this layer of 
forest-wreck, which is conglomerated with earth and 
loose stones into a mass of some ten feet in thickness, 
there still lies a bed of snow, forty feet deep. We 
crossed over this mound to the opposite bank. On the 
side on which Barung lies, an impetuous brook, rushing 
down over the snowy rubbish, has made a deep cut in it, 
thus enabling one to see how completely the whole is 
interspersed with stems of trees. 

After crossing the avalanche, we descended, along 
that side of the little river, to the banks of the Sutlej, 
which here flows over a sandy channel full of loose peb- 
bles: the water is yellow and turbid. These sandy 
banks seem to be the favourite home of the Neoza pine, 
a species met with only in a very limited region. The 
Neoza is, in comparison with the other giants of the 
mountain forests, but of inconsiderable size; its sturdi- 
est stems not exceeding a foot and a half in diameter. 
It lacks also the beautiful slender top of the other Him- 
alaya pines; nevertheless, it is a pre-eminently hand- 
some tree; its smooth, silver ^ray bark, — which never 
transforms itself into a rough outer coating, — and the 



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POOAREB-LAMA UESa. 371 

large, elegantly formed, pale green cones, with which its 
branches are loaded, give it a atraage, yet peculiarly 
beautiful air. 

At the end of about four hours we reached the base 
of a granite cliff, from the top of which a rope is stretched 
across the Sutlej, to serve as a bridge. We climbed the 
height, and saw the "Ckeena" (Panioum mitiacewn) 
fields and vineyards of the village of Pooabbe extended 
before us. We passed along a rich bower of vines, 
adorned with clusters of grapes of prodigious size, to an 
open green sward, bordered with tali poplars and hazel 
nut trees. Unfortunately, neither grapes nor nuts were 
ripe ; but what an aromatic air, what a lovely valley ! 

The situation of Fooaree, embosomed amid vine-clad 
hills, where many a tall stem, loaded with rich foliage 
and exquisite grapes, has been trained into a shady 
bower, is romantic in the extreme. The village occu- 
pies the only bare and unfruitful spot in the neighbour- 
hood, a bold rock jutting out into the bed of the Sutlej, 
on which it is perched at a height of a hundred and fif- 
ty feet above the river's deep, dark pool. The high 
houses, neatly built of beams, with intermediate stones, 
stand so near each other as to leave only very narrow 
lanes between; their upper stories are adorned with 
balconies, and their doors guarded by long chains, which 
can be drawn tight and held firm by those sitting upon 
the bfdeony. At the entrance of the village stands a 
great Lama-Temple, with its small, pillared structure 
close beside it, in which are kept the kettle-drums, and 
a sort of enormous trumpets, — instruments used here in 
religious ceremonies. Large prayer-cylinders, " Man- 
nehs," are seen in every place; here they are made of 
wrought copper, and covered with Lama characters. 
Here too, we again saw, in great numbers, those white, 
rude, loam-built domes or urns, before which, as Lama 
worshippers, the inhabitants perform their devotions. 



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372 HONOUBS HBNCEBBD BY THE UUAa 

We are toM that written rolls from the grand Lama are 
placed within them; they are here called " Ckosden," 
or " Chokhden." 

The Burrounding fields are well cultivated; the crops 
of " Cheena" and " Kaonee," (epeciefi of Panicwm) are 
not yet ripe for the harvest. The vine is used in a sin- 
gular way, an intoxicating drink being made hy boiling 
the juice; it is called " Rak," and has a very peculiar 
sweet taste, somewhat like grape-brandy. 

From the top of a cliff, over against Pooaree, we en- 
joyed, for a long while, the pleasing view afforded hy the 
groups of neat houses surrounded by smiling vine- 
bowers and verdant corn-fields, — the frowning rocks 
in the hack-ground, crowned on their summits with 
dark cedar-forests, — while the light clouds fiitted across 
the silvery peaks of Raldwng, ("Re^dang") in the far 
distance, and we were refreshed, after our day's fatigues, 
by the soft and balmy breath of evening. Already the 
valley was veiled in twilight, when the Lamas (Priests) 
of the temple appeared, with their long red mantles 
thrown round them in imposing drapery,and commenced, 
in honour of the Prince, a strain of melancholy singing; 
first, a leader gave forth the melody, as if intoning a 
Latin prayer ; then the whole chorus, consisting of four 
other voices, joined in chanting the response, as in the 
" Reaponsorivmi" of a Roman Catholic church. The 
scene produced a wonderfully grand and aelemn effect. 
It was long before we could summon resolution to quit 
this enchanted spot ; and we did not return until a veiy 
late hour to the shady walnut trees under which our 
tents were pitched. 

Our next day's march (the 26th of July) began with 
the tedious passage of the Sutlej, here ninety paces wide, 
which was accomplished hy means of the rope-bridge. 
We were bound hy a woollen rope to the crooked piece 
of wood, and thus we moved slowly along to tho opposite 



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PASSAGE OF THE 8CTLEJ— KOKGEB. 3"S 

shore. We managed the matter tolerably well ourselvea, 
but the transport of our baggage after this fashion oc- 
cupied an immense time. It was most piteous to Bee 
the unhappy sheep, — our yet living victuals, — hanging 
by only one leg, and thus drawn across the raging 
stream. A lai^e dog too, which ran up to us at Barung, 
and has followed us ever since, was sent across in the 
same manner, amidst tremendous bowling; scenes which 
caused, as you may imagine, abundant laughter. The 
impudence of one of the coolies was however no matter 
of laughter to me ; for I saw, from the other side, with- 
out any power of interfering, that he was coolly cutting 
off the new rope from my tin trunk, and pocketing it ; 
the distance was so great that, though I could distinctly 
see the proceeding, it was impossible to recognize the 
thief s face. 

When the whole of the baggage was safely deposited 
on the farther bank, and stowed once more on the 
backs of our coolies, we ascended a steep height, under 
the raya of a scorching sun. We saw, after this, only a 
few vine-bowers, beside a small village on our left hand ; 
then all was debris of gray argillaceous schist, along 
which we could scarcely trace our path. As I had ad- 
vanced far beyond the rest, and found myself in perfect 
solitude, I began to fear lest I should have strayed from 
the right way, and accordingly I descended the steep up 
which I bad just climbed ; to my annoyance however, I 
was obliged- to re-ascend it straightway. On the sum- 
mit, we found an ancient wall, screening a village, the 
houses of which are bo low and flat-roofed, as not to be 
visible until one has approached close to it. The name 
of this place is Kongee. Here the vineyards entirely 
cease ; in their stead, the terraced fields, — enclosed with 
apricot-trees, loaded with ripe fruit, — are laid out in 
crops of the finest wheat, just beginning to exhibit a 
golden tinge. 



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374i DEVAL AND OHOPAI^ 

The most considerable edifies at Kongee, is the "De- 
val," or Temple, of that peculiar style of architectare, 
uuiveraall; prevaleot in the hig'her mountain districts, 
which are peopled entirely by Lama worshippers. High 
walls surround a quadrangular court; contiguous to it, 
but without windows, are the actual temple buildings, 
with flat slated roofs, supported by elegant pillars of 
cedar-wood. During Divine service, — if such a name 
can be bestowed on the chanting of the priests, — the 
interior of the temple is illuminated with lamps. The 
people themselves take no further active share in the 
matter, and indeed, with the exception of the turning 
of the prayer cylinders, I have witnessed nothing like a 
religious ceremony among them. 

In the middle of the court stands a diminutive wooden 
sanctuary, of thoroughly Chinese architecture which in 
the Kunawur district bears the name of a "Ohopal." It 
is open on all sides, and contains a space of from fifteen 
to twenty feet square, the height being generally about 
fifteen feet. From eight to twelve elegantly carved, 
square, wooden pillars support a broad over-hanging 
roof, with four corners in the form of dragons, or other 
monsters of wonderful device, turned upwards and fur- 
nished with wooden bells. The floor is just sufficiently 
raised above the ground to allow of one's sitting com- 
fortably upon its edge, and altogether the building af- 
fords a convenient resting-place for travellers, sheltering 
them at any rate from rain; and we were never hin- 
dered from taking possession of it ; whereas the temples 
are invariably closed against foreigners. In the temple- 
court at Eongee stands a large baldachin of red silk, an 
abundance of gold and silver tinsel is hung round it, 
and on its highest point, waves a large yaU-tail.* With- 

* The Eogluh call tUs article of luxury " com-tail." One would faocj, 
from racb t. name, only the greaBj whitk of our own dorae«tic cowg. Thii, 
howerer, it the bush;, white tail of the yai-Ox, which ia in unirernl uae 



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KOTEE-MYSTEBIOCB FISH-POND. 375 

io, there seems to be not an article save the silver vessels 
of the temple. 

Beyond thtB place, we had yet an aacent of more than 
a thousaiul feet, before -we reached the next vill^e, 
which stands almost on the crest of the ridge. Our 
path lay between hedges of white-flowering Spir<Baa, 
mei^^g into a long shady avenue of apricot trees. This 
terminates at the village of Kotee, one of the most 
charming: that I have seen ia this mountain region. A 
spacious lawn, surrounded with gigantic hazel-nut trees, 
and carpeted with luxuriant, velvety turf, now opened 
upon us ; on a little raised platform to our left hand, 
stood the neat, pretty hQuses of the village; to our 
right stretched a water-course, bordered by a rich ena- 
mel of varied flowers, and soon losing itself among the 
thick bushes, which enclose the fields, for the irrigation 
of which it is afterwards divided into numerous little 
channels. 

Close to the hazel-nut grove, rises a lofly wall Vith a 
neatly fluted border, and a gate of Chinese style, cover- 
ed with a slanting roof of lai^e slates. I entered and 
found an open space, in which was a tank enclosed with 
stones. The jet-d'eau in the centre, and the stone 
border are much decayed; the water flows into the ba- 
sin from a fish's head of bronze, still in good preserva- 
tion, opposite to the entrance. The friendly, pleasing 
inhabitants, who, full of curiosity, gathered in great 
numbers around me, were unable to give me any infor- 
mation regarding this secluded and extraordinary spot; 
moreover, I unfortunately understand but very little of 
their language. I could follow just enough to discover 
that the innumerable flshea, swimming in the tank, are 
fed daily by them, but never eaten. Doubtless this 
reservoir must, in former times, have been connected 



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376 SCPKESTITIOUS TB.ADITIO , 

with Bome sanctuary, and the feeding of the finny 
race here must have had some religious signification. 
Although this is now forgotten and lost, yet the village 
population eng^e in the employment with great zeal, 
because it was the custom of their ancestors. Uany 
such inexplicable and singular practices are to be found 
among the mountaineers, and the only answer that I 
could ever obtain, by way of enlightening me on their 
origin and meaning, is, that they do it "for God's 
take." 

These fishes are however also interesting in another 
point of view. The streams that flow down into the 
Sutlej from the wild, broken, rocky glens, rise for the 
most part amidst anow, have a very short course, and 
contain no fish. Everywhere, when I made inquiries 
on the subject, I received the reply, " There is no jUii 
here." Even in the Sutlej, no one ever thinks of fish- 
ing, and it ia said that no fish can live in its waters up 
to the point where it issues from Thibet. Whether that 
statement is correct or not, I cannot pretend to decide, 
but at any rate the perpendicular rocks which rise from 
its margin, and only at a very few spots leave any ac- 
cess to the stream, are undoubtedly not favourable to 
fishing. Whence then have these isolated fishes been 
brought to this place? They were of two species; as 
far as I could distinguish their appearance, one belonged 
to the carp tribe; in all probability, they may be yet 
unknown to us, however it was utterly impossible to get 
possession of even one specimen of them. 

While I was reflecting on the possible origin of this 
fish-pond, the rest of the travellers arrived, and we now 
refreshed ourselves with the beautiful apricots, ofiered 
to us with great politeness by the hospitable viUa^rs. 
They quietly allowed of our selecting the beat fruit from 
among their heaped-up stores, or beating them down 
from the trees. A multitude of pretty children, — clad 



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qioantic cedars. 377 

only in little shirts, made of wool and very short, — were 
jumping and playing around us; many women also, with 
pleasing features, appeared in their usual costume,— -the 
head covered with the small felt cap rolled up at the 
edge, and the bush of red wool on the nape of the neck. 
The huge brass broocheB, of the singular, spectacle-hke 
form, are never wanting, and here, as at Chetkool, serve 
to fasten, on the left shoulder, the single long piece of 
woollen stuff which forms their garment. 

We soon reached the advancing comer of the first 
range of hills, some two thousand feet above the level 
of the Sutlej; the path proceeds pleasantly, lying be- 
tween fields of wheat and of barley, and apricot trees 
loaded with fruit. The numerous groups of inhabitants 
enticed to the path by curiosity, led us to suspect the 
proximity of another village, though we could not see 
its houses. 

After the ascent of a considerable hill, we again 
entered the Cedar forest, which, in a region eight or 
nine thousand feet above the sea, is almost inva- 
riably met with. In this part it is thinly scattered, 
and numerous Cheel pines are interspersed among the 
Deodaras. The great number of villages in this district 
must have interfered much with the denseness of the 
forest; on the other hand, there are some individual 
stems of immense circumference, though of no great 
height. We measured several with pack-thread, and 
found one twin tree to be thirty-six feet in circumfer- 
ence, and many others were very little less. 

Our path, — here very steep, and rendered slippery by 
the fallen leaves of the cedars, — soon led us above the 
wooded region, and we found ourselves upon a well- 
made and carefully kept-up road, the ddk^oad to 
Cheenee. It has been made, for the distance of at least 
a hundred miles, across the roughest mountain country, 
by a company of British merchants, simply on a specu* 



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378 SPECULATION IN THE QAAFG TRADE. 

lation, for the sake of canyiDg grapes with the greatest 
possible expedition to Simla, from the few places where 
they are successfully cultivated; the; arrive at that 
station fresh, and in excellent condition. A contract 
has been' entered into with the authorities of the dis- 
trict, according to which the grapes are packed by peo- 
ple appointed for the purpose, and transported from one 
'village to another. Each station is fixed, and the D&k 
has scarcely arrived, when the Mookdiar makes his 
appearance widi fresh coolies, ready to forward the 
grapes without a moment's delay. Thus they travel oo 
from village to village, till they reach Simla. The bas- 
kets, in which they are carried, are long dossers, or 
back-baskets, pointed at the lower end. Cotton is sent 
up the country for packing them ; in this the grapes, 
gathered not in bunches but singly, are packed in alter- 
nate layers. When they eome to table at Simla, they 
have by no means the tempting appearance of a hand- 
some, full-grown cluster, but rather resemble gooseber- 
ries ; an immense quantity of them is however disposed 
of 

In this grape trade, to which the Rajah of Bissahir 
presents no obstacle, a single English merchant is said 
to realize, in the course of each season, a profit of four 
hundred pounds sterling, and the demand for grapes is 
greater than the supply. It is strange that the Rajah 
knows all this, and yet it never occurs to him that he 
might carry on the traffic in this article with the low 
country on his own account, by which means he would 
make much larger gains, as the grapes iare bis own pro- 
perty. 

On this levelled road, still bordered for some distance 
with detached groups of pines and cedars, we advanced 
at a very rapid pace, so that within half an hour, the 
village of Cheenee presented itself before us. Well con- 
trived water-trenches extend on every side down the 



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CHEBNEB-PANIKIHECEIES. 379 

alopee, for the purpose of inigatiog the numerous culti- 
Tated terraces, or of turning little mills, called " Pand- 
checlcies." The latter are at preeeot in full activity. A 
" Pemdcheckie" consiBte of a tiny house, scarcely large 
enough to admit of two persons standing in it. The 
water rushes with grsai violence from a wooden conduit, 
upon a wheel which moves horizontally, its broad fel- 
loes being placed obliquely like the wings of a wind- 
mill. The rudely fashioned axle bears, at its upper end, 
the circular mill-9t<me, which is kept in constant motion 
by the revolving of the wheel. In these mill-boxes, — 
for houses one can scarcely call them, — may generally 
be found an individual of the fair sex, busily engaged in 
removing the flour, and in pouring in the com. The 
watei^hannels, formed of cedar-wood, are manufactured 
with extreme care. At the places where our road crosses 
their course, they are interrupted, in order to leave a 
free passage ; but the current of the water is so rapid, 
and its impetus so great, that it shoots from one con- 
duit to the other in a strong, unbroken line, like a ray 
of light, which struck me as a most singular appearance. 

We had now gained an open height, commanding a 
view of the left bank of the Sutlej. Behind the chain 
of mountains which rises from its banks, — ^in the rugged 
defile of which we could ^et recognize the ruinous ava^ 
lanche and the masses of snow which we had so recently 
traversed near Banmg, — appeared heights, treeless in- 
deed, but clothed with fresh verdure ; above them rose 
the outliers of the Raldung group, piercing the very 
skies with their eternal snows. Unfortunately a shroud 
was wrapped around the highest summits, for a storm 
was advancing towards us. How magnificent the con- 
trast of the dark oedar forests, the alpine pastures of 
teuder green, and the white dazzling snow ! 

In the fore-ground, to our left, rose a smooth rocky 
Jiill, its summit covered with numerous heaps of ruins. 



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^aO THE ESOLISHMAN-S GRAVE. 

apparently the remains of an ancient fort. A peaceful- 
looking structure in the midst of these, is marked by 
the many flags and streamers waving on long poles to 
be a Lama temple. The sloping front of this projecting 
rock, a face of granite, is smooth and naked from top 
to bottom, rendering it impracticable to scale the hill on 
that side. We turned its right flank however, and 
found ourselves presently under the shade of a row of 
large poplars and melia trees. A wide expanse of corn- 
fields lies behind them, near the village, which here ex- 
tends on our left hand, upon the gently sloping acclivity 
of the hill, almost to the temple that crowns it. In the 
centre of a verdant meadow, we descried a really stately 
looking bungalow; on closer inspection however, it was 
discovered to be in so dilapidated a condition, that it 
would have been hazarding our lives to remain in it. It 
was erected seven years ago, at the expense of an Eng- 
lish traveller ; but this part of the country is so little 
frequented that nothing has been done since to keep it 
in repair; the inhabitants of the place have moreover 
robbed the untenanted structure of all superfluous orna- 
ment, and of every little bit of iron that was not too 
firmly fixed to be removed, and its windows of every 
atom of glass. Our tent was therefore pitched on the 
emerald turf close beside the deserted bungalow. We 
little thought that we had fixed our bivouac so near the 
grave, in which an Englishman was buried but a few 
weeks ago. Two sportsmen, in their passion for the 
chase, undertook a t^te-&-t6te expedition into the moun- 
tains from this place, for the sake of hunting wild goats. 
One of the two, — the moat renowned hunter among the 
mountains, — fell sick on the return, expired the second 
day, and was, with great difiiculty, interred by his com- 
panion in this sequestered spot. 

Scarcely had our tent been set in order, when the 
storm hurst upon us with awful violence; the crash and 



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BXTBAOEIUNAKY VILLAGE-WALK. 381 

roll of the thunder was tremendous, and so shook the 
air, that a multitude of avalanches detached themselvea 
from the snowy mountains, and, with a rumbling thun- 
dering noise, forced for themselves new paths to the 
old established piles of snowy debris, on the other side of 
the stream. The rain poured all ni^t long from the 
beavy clouds, and we should have fared much worse 
under the perforated roof of the bungalow than in our 
tent. Towards mid-day, the sky began to clear. I 
availed myself of the favourable moment to chmb to the 
highest point of the hill on which Cheenee stands. It 
was a matter of more difficulty than I had anticipated, 
for every where one house stands close to another. I 
was constrained to creep through, between the cottages, 
along narrow passages, often terminating in most filthy 
comers- More than once I found myself, on the flat roofs 
of the houses, exposed to the danger of stepping into 
the air-holes, for chimneys they have none. The houses 
are half excavated in the rock, the fore-part only pro- 
jecting beyond, and the roofs, level with the edge of the 
terrace above, are quite covered with the same kind of 
soil as that of the hill-side, ao that I could often distin- 
guish only by the hollow sound, whether I was treading 
on Hrm ground or on the top of a house. Adjoining to 
the village is a wilderness of hemp, — ten feet high, — 
and of stinging nettles, through which, with much 
trouble, I made my way to the top of the hill. Here I 
perceived that the edifice which, from below, we had 
supposed to be a .temple, was only a Lama residence. 
It is painted white, and the verandah in front, with its 
broad, overhanging roof, yeUow: several very remark- 
able specimens of wild goata' horns of great size were 
nailed up round the doors. 

There was little else to be seen here; the river-valley 
is not in sight, and the village, of which nothing was 
visible but the fiat roofs, covered, in gi^t part, with dried 



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382 ABSENCE OP CA8TR 

or rotting apricots, appeared to great disadvantt^e. On 
my return, I was repeatedly in danger of falling throu^ 
a eraser roof; and my sudden apparition, as I descended 
from ledge to ledge, caused great alarm among the many 
notable dames engaged in their domestic occupations. 
At leugUi I found myself in the principal open place of 
the village, where stand the larger " Deval " and a " Cho- 
pai" with very heaatiful wood-carving. The roof of the 
latter is terminated, at each comer, by a large wooden 
bird with q>read wings, and the usual decoration of bells. 
The pillars too of this venerable sanctuary, are of skil- 
ful and elogant workmanship. There is a particular 
oaste, or rather a subordinate daas of the priesthood, 
who devote themselves to the execution of this wood- 
carving. Differences of caste, such as exist among the 
Hindoos, are unknown here ; nevertheless, the son of a 
Lama becomes a Lama in bis turn. ' All the other in- 
habitants of the village on the other hand, are, with the 
exception of the " Mookdiar," equal to each other in 
rank, and all are bound to serve as coolies, whenever the 
Rajah commands them. In the plains of Hindostan, on 
the contrary, none but the lowest castes perform the 
duties of bearers ; seldom indeed does a Bndimin make 
up his mind thus to demean himself; and when he does, 
he never fails to demand a higher payment for this con- 
descension, because he is s Brahmin. 

I had but just returned to our encampment, when the 
rain began to pour down with renewed fiiry. How is it 
that people maintain that the whole of Uppbb Euvawub 
lies beyond the runy zoneT I do not think one could 
possibly witness, during the nuny season, in the plains, 
or among the lower and plain-ward range of hills, a 
more complete and tremendous down-pour, than what 
we have experienced during the -last two days, in this 
mountain region. Unfortunately this unfavourabte wea- 
ther excluded all view ; the glorious Raldung group was 



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TREACHEBOrS CHtTPKASSIES. 383 

constant!; shrouded; and besides tMs disappointment, 
the chillineaa of the atmosphere compelled us to have 
recourse to our costumes of felt, similar to those of the 
mouutaiueera, lest, being prevented ^om taking exer- 
cise, we should be frozen in our tents ! 

Cheenee was the place where we had hoped to find our 
horses awaiting us for our further journey; hut one only 
of the " chvprassies " who had been despatched with 
them irom Gowanna, made his appearance ; he alleged 
that he had left them aU in the lurch to come on more 
quickly to meet us with part of our ba^age. He was 
immediately sent back, to bring the horses. In all pro- 
bability he had been endeavouring to advance his own 
interests by this manceuvre, for it is impossible to place 
confidence in any of these Hindoos, when they are left 
without surveillance. They are all rogues, and never 
fail to pilfer when a good opportunity offers. 

The unintermitting rain and the necessary improve- 
ments and repairs in our wardrobes and our shoes, de- 
tained us, — nolens volens, — at Cheenee until this day, 
(the 28th of July) and a few days of repose are far from 
being unwelcome, after our forced and toilsome marches. 
Ueantime, it is now firmly resolved that we are to start 
to-morrow morning, rain or no rain, and to trace the 
Sutlej, ascending its course as far as we can possibly 
penetrate. 



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A EBTROBPBCT. 



ELEVENTH LETTEB. 



Smu, lOlA qfSipttmbir, 1845. 

Wb are now at laat in our haven of rest, the British 
convalescent station of Stula. During three months 
we were cut oS from all communication, for the post 
never penetrates into the regions through which we were 
wandering. Almost the whole of our mountain journey, 
— a few days at the end of Majand at the beginning of 
June forming the only exception, — ^was performed on 
foot ; a distance amounting at the lowest estimate to a 
hundred and eighty G-erman miles.* In the plains, this 
would not have heen anything very considerable, but 
you must keep in mind that heights of fifteen thousand 
feet, — more than the elevation of Mont Blanc, — pre- 
sented themselves on our path; and that frequently after 
marching a short distance early in the morning, to pre- 

* 7iO Englieb geognphioJ, ot dwuI; 820 itatute milea Ta. 



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TAILOEING. COBBLING AND WASHING. S85 

pare us for our breakfast, we had, as soon as it was over, 
to ascend a anow-capped mountaiD. 

The noD-appearance of our horses, which had been 
sent round by a nearer way, and of our heavy baggage, 
of which we were also disappointed at Cheenee, caused 
the lack of sound slioes and tmtattered apparel to be 
painfully felt. We soon consoled ourselves for the want 
of our horses, having now been long inured to pedestrian 
travelling: our torn coats too, and jackets, — out of which 
our elbows were peeping forth, and in which their own 
original colour was less easily recognised than that of 
the vegetable and geognostie productions of the regions 
we had traversed, — were still capable of rendering us 
some service; but shoes without soles, on shaip rocks 
and stony ground, were almost more than human nature 
could endure without repining. However, since, among 
the mountains as in the plains, cows never die any other 
death than that of dd age, leather is a rare article, and 
we were constrained, — after the soles, patched and cobbled 
with our own hands, had shared the fate of all their pre- 
decessors of the shoe tribe, — to march forward in sandals 
such as are worn by the mountaineers. 

Luckily they were in very good keeping with the rest 
of our apparel; for we had been driven by necessity to 
accustom ourselves to the costume of the mountaineers 
(" Pahari") consisting of a short dress called "Bahoo," 
— like a sort of coat-of-mail, or loose smock-frock, of 
raw, white wool, — and wide trowsers bound tight above 
the feet. Both are confined by a worked, woollen gir- 
dle. The small, brown, felt cap, with rolled-up border, 
deficient, not so much in suitableness to the heavy rains 
and chilly air, as in neatness and elegance, completed 
our attire. Often were we constrained to spend pur 
days of rest in washing our own linen, and in mending 
our tattered raiment; and we eng^ed more willingly 



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3S6 HABD PABB WELL MET. 

even in tbis occupation, than in the tedious and distaste- 
ful labour of cobbling our shoes! 

In spite of these trifling discomforts, I must eert^ulj 
vote these mountain wanderings to be the most interest- 
ing portion of our whole tour. We hare endured many 
fatigues and hardships; have slept week after week 
under the shelter of dripping tents; travelled on for 
whole days in half-melted snow; stood up to our knees 
in ice-cold w'ater, to construct, with hands frozen and 
benumbed, hasty bridges across rushing streams; scaled 
acclivities on which a goat or a chamois might have be- 
come giddy, and subsisted the while on the stringy fiesh 
of rams or goats, and hard sea-biscuit, or tough " Shep- 
oWy," (cakes of barley-meal) to which, — the greater 
part of our stock of wine having been lost, — a mouthful 
of brandy was found sji excellent accompaniment. 

Ueanwhile, our good spirits and good humour were 
inextinguishable; indeed no serious cause of disquietude 
ever occurred, or at any rate, we had no time to dwell 
upon grievances. 

Our last steep ascent for the day accomplished, and a 
spot selected for our encampment, our first concern is to 
fix our tent. Each one sets his hand to the work, and 
in a few minutes the tent is pitched ; our cloaks are un- 
rolled, our blankets spread, and thus our night's quar- 
tere are prepared. But there stand, expecting their 
pay, the whole troop of coolies ; the poor fellows must 
not be kept too long waiting for their hard-earned pit- 
tance. Many a rope must be unboimd to get at the 
money, and forthwith tied up again in dexterous knots,* 
the substitute for a lock and key. Suddenly, I bethink 
myself of my beautiful gathered plants; what a pity 
that they should be left to wither! The paper too, 
saturated with moisture, must be laid out in the sun to 
dry. To release from suffering the various living crea- 



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A BtrsT EVENnra. 387 

tures, swarming and sprawling in all manner of bottles, 
and to file tliem on needles, is likewise a duty that admits 
of QO delay. While I am occupied with it, numbers of 
people gather round me, with imploring gestures. On« 
points, moaning, to his stomach; another brings a sick 
child, and without more ado lays it silently at my feet ; 
while yonder group are carrying hither an unfortunate 
man with Mattered legs. There is no time to lose; not a 
moment to linger among my zoological treasures: I 
must at least show my wiUingness to aiFord relief, even 
where I cannot ^ve a remedy; and alas! how rarely 
can an efficacious remedy be provided in such haste! 
Yet it would be hard indeed to send away with worth- 
less or fatal advice these poor people, who have come 
from their far-distant homes confidently anticipating 
their cure from the " Bara Doi^or Saheb!" When the 
wonder-working medicine has, at length, been rum- 
maged out of the deep and closely-packed chest and 
duly dbpensed, and the bandages applied, — though not 
without making large holes in the remains of my linen 
shirts, — I begin to think of indulging in a little repose. 
But lo ! a sudden torrent of rain threatens destruction 
to the plants I had but just prepared for my hortus 
aieims : I hasten out to rescue my treasures. Thus the 
rest of the day slips away ; darkness comes on with swift 
and unlooked for strides; and, as evening closes in, 
our simple repast is devoured with vomcious appetite. 
Scarcely have the dishes been removed, when the con- 
versation dies away, and our eye-lids drop heavily; but 
no! hence lazy sleep! my journal must be written before 
the vivid impressions of the day have faded from my 
mind. A solitary candle, — sheltered from the draught 
of air by an ingenious paper bell, lest it should be too 
often extinguished, — sheds its faint and murky light 
upon my work. In what a poetic mood must I then 
indite, in what interesting and witty language clothe my 



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388 DISAPPOISTMBNTB AND TRANSITIONS. 

descriptions of the adventures we h&ve gone through m* 
the scenes we have beheld I At length, I am free to. 
sink down on the hard couoh of coarse, scratching, woollen 
stufiT; and refreshing enough would be my slumbers, if 
the incessant blood-letting, occasioned by gnats and 
stinging flies, and other little hostile animals of the 
sucking or stinging kind, would but suffer the dreamy 
doze to mei^e into a sound sleep. After a short rest, 
morning dawns; a noisy menial enters, and unmerci- 
fully pulling away the bed-clothes, compels me to throw 
on my apparel, yet damp from yesterday's rains. The 
tent vanishes no less quickly; and we are left to stand 
shivering in tlie chill morning blast. 

But to return to the province of KtJHAWun, from which 
I despatched my last tidings of our peregrinations. — 
' After our four days of rest at Cheenee, we started 
on the 29th of July, amid continued rain, and retraced 
our steps for some distance, towards Kotee, on either 
side of the dak-road, which we quitted before long, lay 
the wheat and barley fields of the village of Cheenee, 
It was harvest time, and the rain was doing fatal havoc. 
For the most part, we saw only the women occupied in 
field labour; they move in a row along the narrow terraced 
fields, cutting off the ears with short sickles; one man 
and several children following to bind them together in 
bunches. The stalk is left standing almost entire, and 
afterwards either burnt down or ploughed in. The ter- 
race is next irrigated, and the second crop sown, consist- 
ing of "Phapur," (Buck-wheat) "Ka<mee" and "Cheena" 
(millet) " March," (Amaranth,) or peas and beans. Du- 
ring the reaping of their coni-harvest, they all sing in 
chorus a melancholy tune, ending with a long sustained 
note, while part of the chorus resume the melody. 

The agriculture in the environs of the village soon 
gives place to the cedar forest, into which we penetrated 
on quitting the dak-read. Clouds of heavy mist were 



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resting on the mountaiDs, new maesea evflr and anon 
rising from the river-glen and rolling slowly upwards to 
the region of everlasting snow. The cedar forest be- 
comes more and more dense and gloomy; and solitary 
Neoea and Ghed pines are intermingled among the 
giants of the forest, which have almost monopolized the 
mountains of Eunawnn 

The diminished darkness of the wood betrayed, after 
we liad journeyed on for an hour and a half, the proximity 
of avillage: wedescended to it by a steep stair, leading 
down a considerable declivity. Its name is Eoshxee. 
Several clear rivulets ripple through it, and a variegated 
carpet of flowers, — beautifiil blue Ga/mpanvlae, SpinBos, 
Delphiniums, and Diantkiises, — is spread around the 
cottages. Here, for the first time, I saw oxen used in 
agricultural labour; they were yoked to a very simple 
plough, made entirely of wood. 

We had scarcely passed through the fertile district 
attached to Koshmee, when the rain began anew, pene- 
trating even through the tall tliick cedars, whose broad 
boughs, like spreading roofs, overshadowed our path. 
After some time, we found ourselves overlooking a deep 
ravine; immediately above a fine water-fall, we saw our 
appointed resting-place, Pasqsb, situated on the same 
level on which we were standing, but with the stream 
flowing between us. An abrupt descent through a wood 
of Neoza pines leads to the bridge ; but after crossing it, 
our real toils commenced. It seemed as if the steep ac- 
clivity of slippery granitic fragments would never come 
to an end, and we were repeatedly deceived by the scat- 
tered and isolated groups of houses, which we mistook 
for the longed-for village : still we were not actually at 
Pangee. 

At length we reached an avenue of Hazel-nut trees; 
thick hedges of raspberry loaded with scarlet fruit, and 
balsams of various species, growing beneath their humid 



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390 NOIST BNCAMPHEHT. 

Bhade, had reached an immense aie. Walls and houses 
of loftier architecture now marked that we were draw- 
ing near to the village itself. It consists of three dis- 
tinct parts, situated at different heights on the hill-side; 
that which we entered was the highest and most consi- 
derahle. We pitched our tents beside a tower-like build- 
ing, ornamented with the horns of the "^ioral" and of 
the " Iskin:"* the rain was still pouring in torrents. 
The stem of a tree, with steps hewn in it, — the ordinary 
kind of stair here, — leads to the door of this tower, 
which is used as a magazine. Between it, the temple, 
and a newly erected small bouse of cedar-wood, — ^whidi 
serves as a depot for the instruments of the temple, 
trumpets seven feet long, drums, and kettle-drums, — 
lies an open space, with a "Chopal" in its centre, of which 
last our attendants immediately took possession. Those 
who could find no room in it, sought shelter under the 
verandah of the temple, accessible only by climbing; 
others took refuge in the tiny drum-house, where they 
killed time by sundry first-rate performances on the tin 
instruments and the huge drums. Doubtless they were 
better off there than we under our wet tent, ratting on 
our cloaks, which were drenched through and through. 

Fortunately, towards evening, the sky cleared up, so 
that we were able to take a walk through the viU^e. 
A narrow lane runs round behind the temple, to a small 
garden ftUl of apple-trees, ("Paloo"} and from it again 
to the sordid, filthy streets of the village itself. As the 
houses here also are bnilt into the terraced rock, it 
is not difficult to reach their flat roofs, and, leaping from 
one to the other, to gain a general view of the place. 
The house-tops were covered with apricots, which, in this 
weather, so little fitted for drying them, had in great 
part become a mass of putrefaction, making the earthen 
roofs extremely slippery. 

■ The irild goat h here called "IiUn."—V. HoFPjraMni. 



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AEGHITECTUEE OF FASOEB. 091 

A most inyitiog ladder led ua from the roof of one of 
these houses dovn to the court bdow. This edifice, the 
most stately into the interior of which we found our 
way in these parts, is decorated with a lavish profusion 
of wood-carving. Windows there are none ; their place 
is supplied throughout the upper story by a wainscoting 
of open work, the perforations of which represent bou- 
quets of flowers, and monsters of most various device. 
The cock spears to play a principal part among the fi- 
gures in this tracery; and also stands conspicuous over 
every door, and on the comers of the roof. Some of the 
male inhabitants made their appearance, by no means 
displeased at our intrusion. To carry on conversation 
with them was no easy matter ; however, I gathered from 
what passed that one of them was a huntsman. He gave 
me some interesting information regarding the wild ani- 
mals of the neighbourhood, particularly the "lakin," 
and assured me that no bears are ever found here. He 
was most desirous of accompanying us as huntsman; 
instead of this plan, we proposed that he should sally 
forth on his own account to the wild-goat chase, with 
the understanding that we should pay him a handsome 
price for every skin with boms. 

We mounted to several other roofs after this ; a scramble 
which was richly rewarded by a most enchanting view 
of the valley and the scenety beyond. Every where in 
these parts there may be seen the same dark cedar 
forest, the same smooth face of granite rock, the same 
snow-capped mountains, and the same wildly storming, 
roaring river; yet every landscape presents so much 
variety in the grouping, so much fresh charm, that it 
seems aa though one had never seen any thing similar 
to it before : thus wg found it here also. 

Immediately below the village, at a frightful depth, — 
two thousand feet at least lower than the point on which 
we stood, — the Sutlej makes a bold sweep among the 



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392 BOCE-BtriLT TIU.A0B8. 

frowning crags. From.time to time the thunder of its 
waters resounded even to this distance. Wat^'faJls leap 
down into its vortex fnmi the opposite bant, shining like 
streaks of silver amid the sable woods. High above the 
gloomy forest region, we perceived a little village scat- 
tered among verdant terraces, on the &ce of a ru^ed, 
and prodigiously lofty cliff. 

It were impossible to describe the strange effect pro- 
duced by these rock-built villages, when seen from a 
distance: they seem to hang among the cr^;s, like swal- 
lows' nests under the eaves of windows. The narrow 
paths, by which their inhabitants ascend, appear like a 
vein of coal on the face of a smooth precipice. One can 
scarcely believe it practicable, in such situations, for men 
to till, to plough, to cany on labour of any sort, without 
tumbling, — ^plough, oxen and husbandman, — ^into the 
deep abyss. Yet there these simple mountaineers esta- 
blish themselves, and pass the rest of their days over- 
hanging these chasms, the mere crossing of which seems 
a break-neck adventure. A water-spout, a snow-drift, 
or an avalanche, might annihilate dwellings and fields 
by one fell sweep. 

The appearance of these bold eyries is however on 
nearer inspection somewhat different from what one 
had expected; there is in fact a sufGciency of firm 
ground for the building of half-cavemed houses, for the 
laying out and cultivating of terraced fields. On the 
other hand, the villages on the opposite cliff appear 
from this side no leas critically balanced, and their 
access no less impracticable. 

The village, whose picturesque position as viewed 
from Pangee led to this digression, is named Poobbaneb. 
Its roofs appeared red and yellow, from the huge piles of 
apricots, which form the principal source of wealth and 
one of the chief articles of food of the inhabitants, who 
subsist during the winter on fruits, either boiled witli 



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FLA.T AOOFS AND THEIR USES. d93 

flour or grits, or eaten raw. The apricots have by no 
meaas an unpleasant flavour, when half-dried; but if, 
whon laid out for desiccation, they are on the contrary 
drenched by the rains, the whole heap passes into a 
state of vinegar-like fermentation, in which it emits a 
most abominable smell; all sweetness and aroma are 
irrecoverably gone, and nothing remains but an elastic, 
brown mass, mixed up with the kernels, and covered 
with a thick powdery crust. 

From the nauseous sour taste which the fiuit has in 
tiiis form it derives its name of "Khutai;"* a pecu- 
liar flavour, resemUing rhubarb, is borrowed probably 
from the flat roofe on which it is spread, which consist 
of a layer of loose earth or of loam, beat firmly down on 
a sub-stratum of birch bark. This covering is softened 
and opened up by the soaking rains, and mingles, in a 
disgusting manner, with the half-rotten fruit. 

I cannot hacard any judgment as to the origin of this 
peculiar mode of roofing; possibly it may have been , 
adopted for the facility it afibrds of construction and of 
repairs, and continued from hereditary custom; but to 
me these fiat roofs, which in Europe are found only in 
southern regions, appear remarkably ill suited to a cli- 
mate, where deep snow lies for three or four months of 
the year. On this point I was informed, in reply to my 
enquiries, that the snow is swept down from the house- 
tops daily, and that its breaking through into the house 
is a very rare disaster. 

Early on the 30th of July, in spite of the pelting rain, 

* " KhtUai," — BO c«]led from the trana.HiiiiBJaj&n province troai whence 
it is procured, Kathai or Cattsj, tbe oncieat name alao of tbe uortbem part 
of Cbiiut, — ia tbe name of what is considered the bett of &ve different kinda 
of "Jtuivar," m " jVirfriii," i. e. Poison antidote, from Xir, the privative 
prqioaition, and Bit or SM, the celebrated poigon : b; thli lut appellatiuD 
(Bit) the mountain sickneeg is bIbo known, t£ previouBl; mentioned bj our 
author. — Tb. 



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S94 BUBLESQUE ZEMINDAR. 

whicli penetrated through our tent in every part, we 
prepared for our onward march. Our "Zemindar,"* — 
one of the most burlesque figures that can be im^ned, 
exactly tike Pantaloon in the pantomime, — ^waa already 
bustling about in the greatest fiiss, to drive, or rather 
to halloo forward, our coolies; for his sonorous bass voice 
is the best part of him. During our whole mountain 
tour, he was continually to be heard shouting and bluster- 
ing; and evermore to be secu in a state of super-activity, 
as though our interests lay nearer his heart than words 
could tell; nevertheless, we were abominably ill pro- 
vided for by him; for, in spite of his stentorian voice, 
he accomplished very little unless he was constantly 
watched. 

The conceit of the mau was really prodigious; he was 
vain iu the first place, of his small foot, of which he made 
a perpetual parade in the most elegant, gold-embroi- 
dered ladies' stippers, courting admiration, and ewallow- 
. iag the most egregious doses of flattery, without a mo- 
ment's doubt as to its being genuine praise; then of his 
moustaobioB, from which he carefully twitched out every 
grey hair; and lastly, of his snow-white garments of 
finest muslin, and his gracefully twisted turban. His va- 
nity could fail not to meet with full many a rub from the 
heavy rains and the rough mountain-paths; and indeed 

* Ths " 2tmiiular"]a b dvil officer, appointed bj tbe Bsjftb in irbow 
territoriee the tntTeller ma; be, to Attend upon hiia fat tbe purpose of pro- 
curing the requidte mpplies of oooUea uid af pratidonB, Kttlins the paj- 
menta to be mode for (hem, and Belecting the beat epota for encuapmeata. 
He acta as negociator betneen the traveller and the natitea.— W. Horp- 
MEISTRE. — The explanation of these aerrlcea being thoa rendered b; the 
Zenkindar, we iMliere to hare been, the deeire of the R^aiia of QonrsJ, 

Ksaahir, &o to treat the Piinoe with the «ame reapect he had met with 

in the Bengal Preiidenc;. Tbe dutiea of the Zemindar are not neeeesa- 
ril7 cannected wHh the accommodsition of traTeUers, of whom indeed there 
ale Ter7 few in Kunawnr, hia poaitkin being that of land-holder, or collector 
of the QoTemment rent or rcTenne in a village or diatriet, with iuter^to in 
the aoil of vatioos eitent in luiotia places. — Ta. 



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OHAKUS OF SMOEINQ. <J9d 

it waa here peculiarly out of place. He loved to hasten 
forward some distance before us, that he might be able 
to smoke his pipe of tobacco at his ease, for which pur- 
pose alone be keeps two special servants; one to cariy 
liis large hookah, the other, a vessel full of water, ready 
to furnish a supply for it at any moment, for water is 
not always to be found here. 

Tobacco-smoking is here, as in India, a universal cus- 
tom: those who are unable to procure a hookah, even of 
the simplest form, — which consists of a cocoa^nut-sheU 
with a small clay pipe fixed upon it, — supply the want by 
making a hole in the moist, loamy soil, to serve as a 
pipe-bowl ; a pipe passes into it through the ground, the 
mouth-piece above being a stalk or hollow twig, through 
which they inhale the tobacco-fumes, with such violence 
indeed that they are often seized with fearful fits of 
coughing, and convulsive vomitings; for they swallow 
every particle of smoke. Those who have not already 
an aversion to tobacco-smoking, would certainly acquire 
it here, on seeing this most abominable form of it. 

But to return to our departure from Pangee,— on the 
open space before the temple we found our coolies drawn 
up in array ; among them a number of women in their 
finest gala attire, tricked out with necklaces of silver 
and tin beads. Many, almost children, were gazing 
with tears in their eyes at the last remaining burdens, 
by far the heaviest of all, which, as they had not pressed 
forward with sufficient alacrity to the distribution of the 
bag^;age, now fell to their share. However, as we took 
good care to prevent the lustiest fellow from marching 
off with the lightest packages, a more equitable division 
of the whole was soon effected, and harmony was restored; 
the wrangling and screaming ceased, and our long train 
moved on at a rapid pace, to the sound of singing. The 
steepest mountains alone interrupt this vocal strain; 
ever warbling, never resting, the coolies pursue their 



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396 BEPINED WAT 07 KILLING TIME. 

ceaseless march. From time to time only, they halt be- 
side a Bpriog, for they could not exist without water. 
To refresh their strength, they sometimes hastily pre- 
pare for themselves, with the aid of the crystal stream, 
a kind of dough made of coarse flour, which they eat 
raw; the hookah meantime passing from mouth to 
mouth. Generally, if our stage was not too long, the 
whole file arrived very booq after we did, at the night's 
resting-place; but the longer our day's journey, the more 
did they linger behind. Freed from their heavy burdens, 
coolies and coolias then seated themselves in a circle to- 
gether, waiting patiently for their pay, which they never 
received until the last str^^lers had reached the goal. 
Meanwhile, they passed the time in hunting for a cer- 
tain little insect in each other's hair, an occupation in 
which they set to work with no less unceremoniousness 
than skill. This mutual service appears to be a peculiar 
mark of favour tendered by the fair sex to their male 
friends, and a polite attention of the latter to one ano- . 
ther, supplying the place of conversation, somewhat aa, 
in some circles of society at home, riddles and charades 
are given out, or a game of forfeits is played. 

Not far from the village of Pangee, — the beautiful 
landscape of which was alas! entirely concealed in 
heavy mist when we quitted it, — my attention was 
again attracted by those curious, portly-shaped, loam- 
built urns,* marking the dominion of Lama-worship. 
They are rudely formed lumps, — urns, or bells, or what- 
ever else they may "be designated, — sometimes oval, some- 
times spherical, measuring from two to three Feet in dia- 
meter, and painted white on the outside. They stand 
on a basement of masonry two feet high, and are co- 
vered with a roof made of boards. I made repeated and 

* Theli nama vaa, nt this place alea, Tariaiulj prononneed; •anketiiiul 
•' CAoihden," EDmetimea " Chadm," vhh ctctj intermedl&te giitdation of 
•oond. — W, HorrmiaTBii. 



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6PPBRSTITI0US CUSTOMS. 397 

atremious endeavours to discover whence they derive 
their origin ; but to every enquiry as to their ^gnifica* 
tion, I received the laconic answer, — "GoD;" — ^the same 
reply which invariably cuta short all investigatioES con- 
cerning their temples or other holy things. These urns 
arc constantly met with on all the roads and in all the 
villages, and persons may be seen praying before them, 
as at the way-side oratories in Eoman Catholic countries. 
That which appears to me the most likely to be true of 
all the contradictory statements made to me on the sub- 
ject, is that they cont^n prayers written on scrolls, and 
signed by the Grand Lama at Teshoo Loomboo.* 

In some places, these urns are constructed of stones; 
in others again, of a sort of basket work of twigs ; but 
invariably they are plastered over with loam, and paint- 
ed white. It was not till we advanced farther, that I 
saw them regularly arranged in rows of three, each 
urn having its own distinguishing colour; one yellow, 
one grey, and one white. In ascending the Sutlej, the 
tirst of these curious objects is met with not far from 
Cheenee, that place apparently marking the boundary 
of Lama-worship. 

No less strange and mysterious than the Chokhdens 
are the "Manneh Paddehimgg," which begin about the 
same place ; they are piles of stones regulariy put to- 
gether, in form somewhat like long, narrow aJtars, the 
upper surface being covered with polished pieces of slate, 

* Not the perwDitge aeimUT inowu as the Oraad or " Daiaf Lama, the 
Pontifical Sorereign of Thibet, who>e reaideoce is at LftBn; bat the " Ttihoo 
Lama," protected and wwHhipped by the Chinese Emperon of the present 
djiuaty. The description given of his capital, ite temples and moni^teries, 
by C^itsin Turner in 1TS3, indicates great einritual power, but nothing like 
magmfioenoe. The number of " G^longi" or monks, in attendance at daily 
prayei in the g«at " Ootmba," ot temple, was naid to amount to 3700, the 
nunneries bang on an equal scale. tTntil the Nepaulese inTssion in 1790, 
the tenitories of Teehoo Loomboo enjoyed unbroken peace, without the 
pioteotion of any armed fcsce. Bince that date, the bonds of dependence 
OD the Celestial Empire hare been greatly tightened. — Th. 



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398 MANNEH PADDEB0NG8. 

each of which bears the following inscription in Thibetian 
characters, " Om man nek padeh ho hwng."* Some of 
these graven stones are perfect master-pieces of sculp- 
ture; others are merely scratched, as though they were 
the productions of children. With few exceptions, they 
are all engraved with the same characters; the above- 
■ mentioned syllables contain the initials of all the prin- 
cipal divinities of the pantheon of Thibet; however, 
even the priests could enlighten me only as to the " Ma," 
which is said to stand for Mahadevt, and the "Pa," 
which signifies Parvati. At all events, it is a very easy 
and passive mode of performing devptions ; for the prayer 
is entrusted to a stone, which lasts as long as the life of 
the worshipper, and is preserved and cherished as a me- 
morial of his piety, long after he has mingled with his 
kindred dust, 

• Properly thoe words ire, — " Om Mane Padma koun." 

" Oh precieai Lotus 1 Amen." 
Aecoiding to Etaproik'i tnnsUti<Hi of " Vigiu't TraviU la Caikntre," 
ToL ii, p. 331, where Wilson thus eipiuns them. See slso " JTauvaatt Jour- 
nal Aiialipa," JanTier, 1831 ;»nd FotUn'i Fiyiu-koiu-lt, irmstftted by ASei 
Sentual, p. IIB tad llio. Padiaa, the Lolvi, a the ^mbol of FuWh. — 
Es. 

These sacred and mfsteriaiu words are held In venerstion not onlj by the 
Buddhists, or Lanu-womhippers of Thibet and Kunawur, but by those of 
Bootan. Ur Hunilton mections t^t in the latt«r coimtry they *re in- 
scribed on most pubUo buildings, ft^quently also engraved on the kh^ in 
large and deep characters, aod somedmes even rendered legible od the aides 
of bills, by means of rtones Gied in the earth so as to form the letters, and 
of so great a mie aa to be vialble at a consderable distance. They are more- 
arer connected with another Qngular custom mentioned by the same au- 
thor. He informs us that " a white silk scarf is an Invsjiable attendant on 
every intercourse of ceremony in Bootan aod in Thibet, and is always trsJOB- 
mitted nnder cover with letten. The manufacture is of a thin texture, re- 
■embling that sort of Chinese stuff called ' pelong,' and is remarkable ttir the 
purity of its glotsj whiteness. This scatrf is commonly damasked, and the 
sacred word* are nsnally near both ends, which terminate in a fringe. The 
ori^ or meaning of this mode of interconrse has nbrer been ascertainedi 
it is esteemed of such moment however, that the fi«jah of Bootan once re- 
tomed a letter to Che readent at Bungpoor, which he had transmitted from 
the Govemor-Oeneral, merely because it came unattended with the balky 
encumbrance to testify its aathenticity."-^TB, 



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ALTEBED VEQETATION. 399 

These accumulated masses of prayer-stones are re- 
garded with the deepest veaeration by the Lama woi^ 
shippers, and increasingly so in proportion to their eiEe. 
No one ever turns his left side towards one of these mo- 
numents as he passes by, but always studiously contrives 
to leave it on his right hand. For this reason there are 
always two paths made beside the little heaps, one for 
coining and the other for going. Just beyond Fangee, 
we were struck by seeing the first of these piles of stones. 
We did not find any again till we reached the other side 
of the pass, which we soon afterwards ascended. 

The gradual rising of the mist permitted us to recon- 
noitre the position in which we were. We found out^ 
selves proceeding along the edge of a hill, at an eleyatifm 
of about two thousand feet above the river. An incon- 
siderable stream, the Keshem, which has cut s deep 
chasm in the hill, forced us to make a circuit of two 
hours, down into its hollow and up again: at length 
we regained the same level on the further side, after 
which we had a very toilsome ascent, by steps hewn in 
the granitic blocks. The pines and cedars gradually 
become stunted ; at length they make way for cypresses 
("Leoora") and juniper, (" Taloo") which cover the 
entire slope of the hill, on which our tents were to be 
pitched for the night. The place where we encamped 
was not indeed very pleasant or inviting, and moreover, 
it was abundantly exposed to the wind; but it was the 
only spot of level ground. Bushes of thorny, blueish- 
green juniper and dwarfed cypresses formed a thick 
copse all around; and a multitude of Alpine plants, — 
thyme, everlastings, campanulas, roses, and hyssop, — 
clothed the flat space, amid scattered fragments of 
granite. 

Some two or three hundred feet below, we espied the 
glistening verdure of rich meadows. There is indeed no 
village there, but in that bright spot lies nestled the 



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400 PEBBETBBIKa AHBASSADOKli. 

tiny hamlet of JsNOEaA, vttere a few sheplierda dwell 
the whole year round; and where, at certain seasons, 
the flocks and herds scattered over the pastures of these 
hills, are collected together. A few cow-houses were 
the only buildings I distinguished. From this seques- 
tered nook we fvooured new milk, a luxury to which, 
from this time forward, we were to bid a long farewell. 
We also purchased aeTeral kids, for we were obliged to 
spare our flock of sheep as much as possible, since, in 
the absence of all vegetable food except rice, one sheep 
was necessarily slaughtered every week. 

On returning to our tents, after feasting on the glo- 
rious prospect of the peaks and mountains shining in 
the crimson tints of sunset, — the passes of Habuuq and 
Bsf AMa to the south, and RALnuNG to the east, — the eme- 
rald brilliancy of the insulated meadows, and the magnifi- 
cent irradiation of the granite cli& towering in the nudst 
of dark cedar forests, — we were met by the announce- 
ment that an embassy from the Rajah of Gurwal, at- 
tended by a number of " ckupraaeies," had just arrived 
at our camp, bringing the salutations of his Highness, 
and moreover, a multitude of presents. We had long 
since quitted the dominions of that potentate, — which 
lie much farther southward, bounded on the north by 
the river Jumna, — and had pushed on among the Hima- 
layas, without paying our respects to him at his resi- 
dence. Tin, upon the Chinges. He had fiilly expected 
a visit, and had contemplated honouring the Prince with 
a magnificent reception. Notwithstanding the disap- 
pointment of all his hopes however, this kind and hos- 
pitable Rajah persisted in despatching a great part of the 
presents destined for the Prince and his suite ; selecting 
those that could most easily be packed, and sending with 
them a numerous escort. As our paths through the moun- 
tains were not easily to be traced, still less followed, his 
embassy bad passed a whole month in wandering hither 



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THE KAJAH-S OIFTS. 401 

and tlutlier, during dreadful rains, vithout being able 
to fulfil their commission, until at length, by a fortunate 
chance, tb^ fell in with us in this wild solitude. The 
audience was deferred till the following morning. 

When the appointed time arrived, the present-bearers 
made their appearance ; for the most part officers of the 
Rajah's housebold-troopsj arrajed in gorgeous turbans, 
and newly-waslied flowiDg garments of finest muslin, 
with powerful broad-swords at their sides. Amid many 
ceremonies, after touching the Fnnoe's feet with the 
points of their fingers, they spread the costly gifts upon 
the ground before us : an epistle, embroidered on Chinese 
brocade, was also delivered to His Royal Highness : how 
much did we regret that not one of us was able to de- 
cipher it ! 

The most worthy of notice among the presents were 
handsome Nepaulese poniards and "Kkvhriea," musk- 
hags, Nerbissi-roots, — a highly prized arcanum, believed to 
be a cure for every disease, — shawls of great value, and a 
skin of a Thibet Musk, which would have been an ines- 
timable treasure, had not the Dermestea lardariut 
(Leather-eater) been so busy in its ravages during the 
long wanderings that it was almost falling to pieces. 
The bearers of these treasures returned home richly re- 
warded, and entrusted with counter-presents for the 
Rajah, and immediately afterwards, we followed our 
long since departed ba^age. 

Our resting-place near the cow-houses of Jengera was 
not more than from a thousand to fifteen hundred feet 
below the pass, which we now saw rising before us in its 
naked and rugged grandeur. For some time, we forced 
our way through the thick and thorny bushes of juniper 
and cypress, till at last we entered upon the actual 
ascent of the pass. The lower part of it is a steep and 
difficult mountain-path ; soon however we reached a 
Woad road through wild pastures, enamelled itb the 



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402 BEBE^fOEHAL PASS. 

most beautiful, fresh, Alpine-dora: here for the firat 
time I saw gentianas, which I had missed on all our 
previous- wanderings among the Himalayajs, and near 
them, a rich profusion of red and yellow potentillas, 
dark blue forget-me-not, thyme of moat aromatic frag- 
rance, mint, and, last not least, hiding its charms under 
huge blocks of dark granite, that lovely cerulean Alpine- 
poppy of the Himidayas. Who could have imagined 
that those banks of primitive rock, so naked and deso- 
late when viewed from beneath, would prove to be thus 
exquisitely adorned ! But we had been no less deceived, 
owing to the clear mountain air, regarding the nearness 
of the head of the pass: the sun bad risen far above the 
icy needles of Raldung, and its burning raya bad become 
very oppressive before we gained the nearest height. 
We had im^ned that the ascent of the whole pass,— 
the name of which is Ebbbnokhal, — ^was now accom- 
plished, when suddenly we beheld ita culminating point 
in the distance before us; for it was a mere out-post 
hill that we had climbed. During two hours more, we 
mounted higher and higher, on paths, most delightful 
certainly, and adorned with lovely Alpine flowers, but 
no less toilsome than charming. 

But what a surprise awaited us on reaching the high- 
est ridge ! A single, sharply-drawn crest of white gra- 
nite, destitute of all vegetation, (such are all the loftiest 
ridges of the HimaIayas,~one cannot even walk along 
them), now rose before us ; at one spot only there ia a 
passage broken through it, a narrow opening like a sort of 
gate. The instant we entered this, the most mf^nificent 
Alpine panorama, beyond what fancy could have pictured, 
burst upon us : the mountains of the Chinese territory, — 
Pdbktiji, — which we now beheld for the first time. How 
strange, bow interesting, the thoughts that filled the mind 
on thus finding oneself, as it were, magically transported 
to the very gates of the Celestial Empire ! Alas ! we knew 



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HAGIO PANOB&HA. 403 

too veil hy former experience, how securely defended 
these vere ; ao much the more ardent was our desire to 
penetrate the barrier! so much the more vivid were our 
imaginings of the beautiful and the wondrous enclosed 
within ! The mellow violet blue of the long lines of hills 
towering one behind another, had something in it bo 
mysteriooB, so enchanting, that the most intense longing 
to see them more closely, to perambulate them at our 
leisure, was kindled in our minds. We did not then 
know how little they gain by nearer approach, — how, at 
last, that landscape which ^om a distance appears so 
attractive, resolves itself into cold, naked, ruinoas-look- 
ing rocks, crowned with everlasting snow. We after- 
wards reached these heights, and so far crossed their 
barrier, that we saw before us no more blue mountains, 
and even no more snow, — but only the monotonous hori- 
zon of that table-land of Thibet, which, most unpromis- 
ing in its sterility and desolation, stretches far as the 
eye can reach. 

On the highest point of this paaa, we found, as usual, 
memorial stones, or rather monumental heaps, set up 
beside the road, to which every traveller adds his con- 
tribution. He who wishes to acquire a peculiar stock of 
merit, carries up with him a pole, on which he fastens a 
streamer, and which he t^ien sets up on the monument, 
where many such flags already wave. Others content 
themselves with throwing a few flowers on these altars, 
and this, to please our attendants, I also did; for even 
on this lofty point, flowers are to be found without much 
difficulty, and I had loaded myself with so many, gather- 
ed by the way, that I had been forced to throw away 
part of my treasure ere now. One small umbelliferous 
plant, with whitish gray flowers, and most aromatic 
fragrance, is peculiar to this spot : the coolies, who fell 
upon it with great eagerness, called it "Losser" or "Las- 
ser," a name which reminded me of the Laser of the 



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'404 abdmatic lassbk. 

ancients.* I had never seen it before except on onr 
way to the sources of the Ganges, where I met with it 
at a height of six thousand feet. 

The rooky mass of the pass is a micaceous formation, 
intersected by an extraordinary species of stone, consist- 
ing entirely of shining crystals, sometimes pale blue, and 
sometimes white. The path before us was a gradual 
descent; soon we once more obtained shelter from the 
violent wind, which had made our stay on the summit 
of the pass most uncomfortable. The limit of arboreous 
vegetation lies about six hundred feet below the ridge : 
the wood begins with trees and bushes of most singular 

* Tbia umbelUferoiu plant b referred b; Dr Hoffmeiater in his second 
Appmdix to the genoi Aitrantitm. It may very probably bara been mmo- 
tkxd bj the few aeieDlUc trBfellera who hare hitherto Tinted Eanawnc; it 
ie at least Dot noticed in Dr Boyle's secUou on the ITinbeUi/era, nor iD Br 
Ltndley'a naUces of thoee of the Himalayaa embodied in Dr Koyle'a work. 
By the kindnea of that eminent bDlauist, Dr OreTille, we are broured with 
the following remarks. The Laser of tlie ancients was a gum-reain endvwed 
with, or helieTed to be posaeteed of, euch important properties (hat by the 
Bonuina <t was Tsiued at ita weight in gold. Thia preoioiu sabet&nee was 
the SylphioD of the Oreeka, and the parta tixiai Cyrene whence it waa 
brought were tailed the " Regia ij/lphifera." Amongat the many minunil- 
ous powera attributed to the Laaer were those of nentraliring the effects of 
poison, coring envenomed wounds, reatorii^ sight to the blind and youth to 
the aged. Bo Ughly waa this drug prized, that atorae of it were preserved at 
Rome among the treasures of the state, and PUnj eays,— «o great was its value, 
that Juhus Cwsar, when Mctator, caused a hundred and eleven ounces which 
he found m the public treaaor; to be sold to defray the eipenaea of the flrat 
dvilwar. The plant waa considered of such importance that it waa repreaant- 
ed^lpon the coins of Gyrene. There can be no doubt that it belongs to the na- 
tural order Uvibeltifinr, and it has tieen aucceasiv^ly referred to Ltuerpitium 
Siler,—L.gKmmi/erum,—IAgiatictmlatifoliiaa,—FertUaliiiSttana,iji. Vivi- 
ani haa deacribed a plant in his " Flora Libgca," onder the name of Thapfia 
Sylphion which, being found by Delia Cella on the mountains of Cyrene, aud 
reaembling the representation on the ooina, ia probably the iJant so h^hly 
valued by the ancients. The root is reported by the nativea to possess valn- 
sble medical properties. It is clear, however, from the accounts of ancient 
authors, that there waa more than one kind of Zoier, and it is not improbable 
that epuiions drugs were gradually substitutad for the true one. The term 
has been conaidered a mere corruption of Lacitr, and might represent the 
concrete nulky juice of varioua plants. It is known that Aaaafffltida waa at 
one time exported from Persia and aubatitnted for it. The juio; of tba 
Aasafcetida is used as a condiment by acme Asiatic nations.— T«. 



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VEGETATION AND OEOLOGT. 40S 

sliape 9.ad appearance, whicL I could not at a]l recc^- 
niM, until my guide told me what they were ; neither 
more nor less than birches, thus stunted and disfigured 
by storms and snow drifts. Here and there also, in moist 
spots, I remarked beautiful bosquets of rhododendron, 
of two very rare species, one with rose-coloured, the 
other with yellow flowers; both unluckily had passed 
the prime glory of their blossom. Five hundred feet 
lower down, we entered the region of the cheel pine, on a 
declivity covered with boulders of red granite, in which 
are traces of copper ore, in the form of copper pyrites or 
of azure of copper occurring among the rolled stones, or 
of a mountain green clay covering the rock in situ. It 
struck me as remarkable that on the northern side of 
the pass, the intermediate step between the birch and 
rhododendron and the lofty coni/ercB, — viz., bushes of 
cypress and juniper, — is altogether wanting, as is on the 
southern side, the rhododendron. 

Our descent was, for the space of an hour, through a 
wood consisting only of firs: not till we reached the 
point lower down, where the roar of the Tiqab river,* 
rushing deep below us, first met our ears, did we ^e 
any cedars, and eren then only single trees; at the same 
time, golden fields of wheat appeared in the distance. 
Umbrageous trees, — oak and rhododendron arboreum, — 
compose the wood on the banks of the river. We soon 
saw, on its opposite side, the village of which we had 
caught a bird's-eye view from the height of the pass. 
Close to the place at which we crossed tlie Tigar, the 
granite ceases on both sides of the stream, as if suddenly 
clipped away, and is succeeded by a hard clay-slate, 
often passing into clay-ironstone, and a marked change 
takes place in the outline of the hills. 

The vegetation here presents many forms familiar as 
home-friehda: loh^ervadLeontadomindMalvarotundi/olia 

* It hMTBriooB Dunei; onthcmapg it is called the Z««a. — W.H 



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406 LIPPA AND ITS ENVlaONS. 

growing under tlie cedar-trees; and beside the margin 
of the river, large bushes of a species of Ribes, called 
"Njanghe" hy the natives : it bears a beautiful light 
red fruit, with a greasy outer coating, similar to that of 
the honeysuckle berry, from which it derives an un- 
pleasant, turpentine-like flavour: in spite of this how- 
ever, it is commonly eaten by the natives. 

The first cultivated fields appear on the farther side 
of the Tigar, after crossing the "Sangho," which is thirty 
paces long. The lovely viUage of Lippa, to which they 
belong, lies between terraced fields on the side of a lofty 
rock : we ascended to it by a veiy considerable climb. 
Here forest and thicket are alike wanting; the ground 
is clothed with a thoroughly southern flora, such as we 
did not see E^ain before reaching the banks of the lower 
Sutlej. A wonderfully beautiful species of Gapparis, — 
spreading its bunches of blossom and garlands of tender 
green, far and wide, — Malva, Althea rosea, and Echinops 
growing to the height of a man, with white or pale^blue 
flower-halls, form the splendid ornaments of the lofty 
slope. These soon give place to yellow wheat, and the 
young and verdant blade of buck-wheat, with which, 
after the harley-harvest, the terraced fields are cropped, 
each being inclosed with a wall crowned with a hedge of 
Clematis, filling the air with a most delicious perfiune. 
Along these walls extends the path, which occasionally 
also serves as a water-channel for irrigation. Some- 
times indeed, the water-courses may be seen suspended 
high above the road, resting on tall fir poles, — for the 
motmtaineers bestow much industry on the irrigation of 
their cultivated lands, and are thorough masters in the 
art of planning and constructing their little canals and 
aqueducts. The river below is, moreover, divided into a 
complete system of small water-courses, each of which 
drives one of those small mills, — "Pamdaeckies," — which 
I have already described. 



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SANCTUAKY— IKHABITAKTS. 407 

Thu8 by slow yet not tedious steps, our path at 
length led us to the village, which, quite according to 
the custom of our fatter-land, begins with a suburb of 
stinging nettles and sow-thistle. The temple, with the 
" Gfuypal" in front of it, Btauds at the end of the lower tei> 
race; by far the greater part of the village being on the 
second one, immediately above it. We pitched our tents 
on the margin of a little rivulet which flows beneath the 
temple-lawn, our coolies taking possession of the"(7Aopa(," 

This sanctuaiy appears new, or at least recently re- 
paired: it is adorned with very pretty wood-carving, 
both on the comers of the roof and on the doors: the 
Terandah, formed of the most beautiful cedar-wood, 
with tastefully flowered patterns in the carved work, 
has an uncommonly fine effect ; not unlike, — though on 
a very small scale, — the ideal suggested on reading the 
description of the temple of Solomon. Hangings of 
many colours, flags and yak-tails, are combined in its 
decorations, and they are employed indeed in the oma^ 
menting of many houses here. On either side of the 
temple stands a very ancient cypress, — the two largest 
stems of this tree, that I have ever seen; they are 
nearly destitute both of foliage and of branches, and 
have a grisly and haggard air. 

Lippa is a most animated vill^e. A n^ultitude of 
inquisitive, good-humoured, merry folk, soon found their 
way into our tent; many sick persons too were carried 
thither, and I had enough to do in dressing wounds, 
applying plasters, and disponing medicines. We saw 
here several Chinese from the interior of Thibet; among, 
the rest, one fat and portly fellow, a smith by trade, 
completely equipped in his national costiune, with his 
long cue of hair, and lunnel-shaped cap, who repaired 
our guns and other arms with great skUl. Not many 
of the women appeared; those we did see were well- 
made and pretty, clad in the same picturesque drapeij: 



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*08 DANGKROTJS PLAY-GKODND. 

we had remarked on the other side of the pass, with 
the same hrass ornaments, which are here called "Pit- 
ckoock," or " PiUoock." On the fair sei rests the whole 
burden of field labour and of domestic toil, while the 
men, — ^whose appearance is thoroughly Chinese, — saun- 
ter about, all the day long, smoking their pipes. 

Towards evening, we visited the upper vUlage, the ^- 
proach to which is by a broad road. As the intervaJs 
between its houses are also on a wider scale than usual, 
it is not practicable to pass from roof to roof; many of 
the dwellings are distinguished by long flag-stafis, on tlie 
end of which yak-tails wave as banners; these, if we 
were rightly informed, are the houses of the priests. 
The lower story is, for the most part, of masonry; in its 
wall is a door with a round arch, opened and closed by 
means of the long chidn with a padlock upon it: the up- 
per story is of wood vrith the usual flat roof. Beside 
the houses are little gardens with luxuriant vine-bowers, 
apricot and peach trees, and apple-trees loaded with 
beautiful fruit. The inhabitants, especially the children, 
seemed much alarmed at our appearance, and fled, 
screaming, into their houses. 

It was harvest-time, and the flat roofs, which serve for 
threshing floors, as do the trees for hay-lofts, were richly 
covered with wheat or with apricots. We could mark 
the merry gambols of many a group of little ones on the 
house-tops: how often must one and another tumble 
down from this airy play-ground \ doubtless, the great 
number of cripples one meets with in these parts, must 
be attributed to this perilous custom. 

Leaving the village to our left, we proceeded, after 
traversing several gardens, to reconnoitre asmall.edifice 
adorned with many flags: its appearance marks it as a 
temple or consecrated spot; it is a tasteful structure, 
with a Wanting roof of slate; all the wood-work is var- 
nished yellow, while the walls are painted white ; beside 



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TEMPLE SCENE AT LIPPA. 409 

it stands a colossal white " Ohokkden," similar to those 
before described. Strange sounds from within the tem- 
ple now fell upon our ears, — a deep murmuring, accom- 
panied with the tinkling of bells : amid the still solitude 
and solemn twilight of the place, the effect was striking 
and mysterious in the extreme. We bad not long stood 
there, gazing silently at the ever darkening shades of 
the river-glen, when the door opened, and an aged priest 
(Lama or Lamia) stepped forth, wrapped in ared man- 
tle, thrown over the shoulder like the toga. He was 
followed by a woman, bearing a finely wrought copper 
pitcher with a silver lip, of peifectly Etruscan form, and 
several boys carrying large censers — a most picturesque 
group ! The woman came after us, as we wended our 
way along a side path, to present us with flowers, having 
observed that we had ornamented our hats with the milk- 
white bells of a beautiful species of Datura. 

Here again, I saw, among the decorations of the tem- 
ple, wild-goats' horns of extraordinary size, and horns of 
the Snow-Qazelle, — which pass here for those of the fe- 
male of the wild-goat, — as well as of the Bhurai. We 
were told that bears are never met with here, nor indeed 
in the whole country on this side of Sungla: if this in- 
formation be correct, the sharp line of demarcation, limit- 
ing the appearance of this wild beast, is very remarkable,- 

On the first of August, we were in full march before 
sun-rise; we were this day again to see the Sutlej, 
which, for the sake of cutting off a large angle of the 
road, we had quitted, two days before, at Pangee. For 
some time, we traced the course of a small stream, the 
Hangalung; afterwards, our path led us close to the se- 
cond Lama temple, through fields covered with wild 
hollyhocks, of colours as varied as those in our gardens 
at home; next .followed a steep ascent, accomplished 
for the most part by means of Steps hewn in the many- 
coloured clay-date. The ridge of the chain of hills. 



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410 MAQNiyiCENT DISOLATIOS. 

whicli extends along the deep and narrow goi^ of Lip- 
pa, is thinly clothed with cedare; even from this height 
we could distinguish some few distant windings of the 
Sutlej, here called Sutteloosa. But we had a tedious 
climb before we gained the summit of the mountain, 
passing, as we ascended, through a small, solitary hamlet 
with an apricot-garden ; numerous flights of wild doves 
were fluttering above our heads ; the same species, which 
with OS is kept tame in dove-cOtes, here in all their 
primitive freedom ; they afforded us an excellent dinner. 
On the highest point of this pass, which forms the wall 
of separation between two lateral valleys watered by- 
small streams, we commanded an extensive bird's-eye 
view over a great part of the valley of the Sutlej, with 
the two villages of Kola and Pilla, — ^the three separate 
^x>ups of the snow-capped giants of Purkyul forming a 
glorious baok-ground to the north. Immediately before 
us, lay wild and magnificent masses of broken rock, and 
desolat«, sun-scorched mountains of debris, frowfling, 
,and naked save a few decayed and solitary pines. Be- 
hind us lay the smiling fields of Lippa; we could also 
trace, stretching far on the other side of the village, on 
the rugged, bouMer-covered steep, the zig-zag path lead- 
ing to a side-valley in which is the vill^e of I^>shoo, 
To the north-weat, below a gloomy rampart of vast, 
shattered blocks, lay the Oasis of Kaitcu ; but, as the 
depths of the lovely and fertile valley were as yet con- 
cealed from our view, the whole region wore an inde- 
scribably melancholy aspect, one mountain range rising 
immediately beyond another, — wave upon wave, ^ all 
bare, gray and monotonous. Nevertheless, this desola- 
tion has a peculiw charm, even though, above Eanum, 
not a single stunted tree, not a shrub, is seen to break 
the vast wilderness. 

While, under the shade of the last cedar, I was k&sA- 
ing my eyes on this sul^me prc^wct, there arese behind 



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THB COOLIES' OHORPS. 411 

mc a very melodious strain of singing. The chorus was 
a full one; a few voioes began the air, — ^replete with 
sudden transitions and wild roulades, — and as Its high 
final note approached, the other voices echoed the melody, 
while the cloBing note was still sustained. This artleas 
song was so in character with the wilderness before me 
and wiUi the dreamy thoughts and feelings to which it 
gave rise, that I listened to it with intense delight. The 
singers were none other than our bearer-train, consisting, 
for the most part, of maidens and youthful matrons from 
Lippa: I gave them a few coins, to hear more of their 
sweet warbling, and they sang fh>m that time forward, 
the whole way down the steep descent, never hindered 
in the least degree by the heavy burdens on their backs. 

Soon we had left the last thin, ahabby coj^e behind 
us; before us stretched the gray and naked waste of 
dAris, over which we were threading our tardy way ; a 
few scattered and stunted bushes of roses, and of worm- 
wood with its white parched stalks, — the true plant of 
the wilderness, — were the last traces of vegetation which 
the sun had foiled to scorch from off the fece of the 
schistose clifis. At a turn of the path, we caught a 
Tiew of several villages, surrounded by green bushes and 
fields of golden wheat ; a narrow stripe of verdure runs 
down the mountain side near them, marking the course 
of a little brook, to which the groups of dwellings owe 
their existence, brings of water are rarelyfound in these 
parts ; we passed but one, which was instantly encom- 
passed by the coolies, and for the time nearly exhausted. 

The village of Kanum, the ultimatum of our day's 
Journey, had hitherto, from its situation in the deep re- 
cess of the river's narrow gorge, been concealed from 
our view. At the end of another hour, the lower half 
of the opposite monntain-slope became visible for the 
first time, with its green trees and rich bushes, far be- 
low us; and at length the village itself appeared, though 



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412 LABETTNG AND IT8.T0WEE. 

Btill at some diatance. Immediately we bid adieu to 
the Bteep and naked tvilderness of mountain wreck : 
apricot gardenB rising above each other in high ter- 
races clothe the slope, announcing the proximity of 
the dvelhngs of man; they belong to the village of 
Labbung, situated on the near side of the deep gleu 
that separated ua from Kanum. A large pile of "Man- 
neh Paddeh" stones lies not far from its entrance, and 
as soon as we had rounded a projecting comer of rock, 
we were struck by the unexpected view of a grand and 
lofty building, a apeciea of tower. It is built half of 
stone, half of wood, sqilare, and with from ten to twelve 
stories; the upper part is very ruinous, and perfectly 
black from age and smoke. Its venerable and gigantic 
form lias an imposing effect; the more so, as it occupies 
a bold and commanding position on the brink of a pre- 
cipitous cliff, where detached masses of rock are scattered 
on every side. We had, ere now, seen many similar 
structures on the banks of the Bhagirethi, but few of 
equal size. They served, in olden times when the Chi- 
nese yet extended their away over this land, as places 
of refuge for the population of the whole village. 

The apricot-trees on the terraces were loaded with 
ripe fruit, and no one restrained either us or the coolies 
from shaking down and eating as toany as we chose: 
they are here used as food for the cattle. They are not 
indeed of the finest kind, but yet abundantly sweet and 
juicy, and the refreshment which they afforded was a 
most salutary preparation for our renewed march; for 
we here observed to our consternation, that, in order to 
reach Eanum, we must make the circuit of the deep 
glen, and moreover clamber up a steep acclivity on the 
opposite bank of the river. 

This fruitful valley forms a pleasing contrast to the 
dreary and barren heights among which it is embosomed. 
Avenues of silver poplars enclose each terrace ; between 



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IBRIUATION— KAHOM. il3 

Uiem are richly-loaded apricot-trees, and yellow fields 
of wheat; and in the far depth below, among innumer- 
able mills, green gardens of herbs, one behind another, 

along the margin of the stream. 

We arrived before long at the be^nning of the water- 
courses, which, often passing over scaffoldings from twen- 
ty to thirty feet high, convey the precious stream in nu- 
merous pipes and channels, from the moat elevated point 
of the valley, to the highest of the cultivated terraces. 
Some thousand feet or so below Labrung, we crossed 
the rivulet, and wound up the opposite slope, by a moat 
enjoyable path. Limpid brooks raurraor on either side, 
fringed by rich and umbrageous avenues of silver pop- 
lars and apricot- trees ; so that, while the midday sun 
was darting his relentless rays, we luxuriated in deep 
sliade almost till we reached Kanum. It was in the de- 
sert solitudes of the Himalayas, that we first learnt fully 
to appreciate the gladsome blessing of clear streams. 
With exquisite delight we could have gazed for hours 
at the rippling waters, refreshing not only the parched 
tongue, but the eyes also, wearied by the ceaseless pro- 
spect of a chaos of stern and sterile rocks: often too, 
between the mountain villages, we could not only quench 
our thirst, but feast on travelled dainties ; for multitudes 
of apricots floating down the current were fished out 
with the utmost ease. 

Kanum is one of the largest villages which we visited 
among the mountains. The inhabitants of the remoter 
villages, far and wide, flock together here to make their 
purchases: articles of gold and silver, hoots, woollen 
shoes, beautiful carpets and coverlets, and tasteful and 
ingenious wood-carving, are the products of the industry 
of this place: it also contains one of the largest Buddhist 
monasteries,* and two temples of considerable size, so 

' The " QyUmgt" or monkg among the Lama-worshippers, like the moaka 
of the Bomau Catholic Church, — to which the religion of Thibet is proFed 
b; the tMtimoD; of various traiellen, and we ma; add of Sr HoSmeister 



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414 HATIVE MERCSAHTS. 

that it m&y almost boast the dignity of a capittJ in Ku- 
nawur: the houses ore built on terraoea, like a fl^t 
ef steps <m the iHll-aide. 

We pitched our tents oq one of these terraces, a hun- 
dred paces or so from the village, cloae beside the gieat 
temple. A multitude of the curious soon crowded around 
us, and all manner of wares were brought and offered 
for sale; Chinese aillcen stuf^ silver hookahs, cloth 
boots, knives and poniards. All the different mer- 
diuits began their dealings by making us a present, 
oouusting of a sort of bad raisins handed on large brass 
dishes; the prices however which they asked for their 
goods were so exorbitant, that, in spite of their raieina, 
they were speedily driven out of our tents. 

When the cool of the evening drew on, I ascended the 
hill to the village. The houses of the first row are very 
high, and constructed in a very singular and clumsy 
style, of thick cedar stems: the streets leading up to 
the second and third rows are narrow alleys, dark and 
filthy, and in many places closed above by the overhang- 
ing houses: doors and windows are most sparingly in- 
troduced; the former are guarded by a couple of long 
chains passing through a hole in the second story; while 
oa^ of the latter is often seen peeping, not the human 

Umwlf, to b«M In toiae pdnti t, nngnlu' reeembluice,~ienoaiic« woild^ 
STOOatiana ftml f*mil; tin, UW) mafaitnin itrict eccl«aiutical dlociplme, utd k 
legol&T gndadon fWim the SoTereign Pontiff donu to the joimgeat nonce. 
AmoDg otbci feature* of Luna wonhip ue, pnyen f(^ the dead, chanting 
ef umbki, the intoniog of pntjen, the perpetual buming of light* in the 
(emplea and gaactuariee, the tonmre, the oelibacy of the clergy, holj water, 
relic worship, and the adoration of the queen of heftTen, The name "Xoma" 
h proper); applied to the prceident of a monaetcr;. The giand Lama in held 
bj them to be an incamatioo of their dinnity. He nddis at Laesa, and nn- 
itea the regal andpriestl; dignitiea in hie own peiwtn, the ciTil power being 
boweier almost entirely rested in the rajah or deputy, and in no measure, 
howCTer small, *hai«d by any inferior fiinotiouariH of the Baoerdotal order. 
On the deoeaM of the grand Lama, pecaliai and myateriou inToostioiut are 
oaiTisd on tot thiee jeare; after which, the indiTidual in whose penon he is 
^ ie.i^pear, is said to be announced by inspiration to the ecdenaatical, and 
4 by the crril, powers. — Tk. 



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BUDDHIST UOSASTBRY. il5 

£u}e divtae, but the bead of a borse or of an ass 1 That 
portion of the building which calls itself th$ ground- 
floor, is in fact Scai-cel; ever more than the stone base- 
ment on wbieh the house rests, and the first story con- 
tains the stalls for the cattle. It is only by nigbt, or 
during the winter season, that the human inmates be- 
take themselves to the dark chambers of the interior: 
in summw the roof is their usual abode, and indeed du- 
ring the warm months they even sleep there. 

Mounting a sort of henhouse-ladder, I reached the 
teiT3£e immediately above, to which I was obliged to 
%ht my way against several furious dogs. Here I 
found myself on a level with the roofs of the houses be- 
low; street and house-tops are here one and the same, 
aiiid covered with the same layer of earth: in not a few 
cases when the door below is wanting, the only entrance 
to the house is from its roof. 

On the top of one of the largest houses, I saw an aged 
man, in a brownish red mantle and a red cap, pacing 
up and down, and diligently threading his rosary back- 
wards and forwards between his fingers, while a younger 
man and woman, both attired in the same hue, were 
spreading out t)te grain on the flat hous^-top. Other 
figures, also in red gowns, and not one without the rosary, 
were gliding about, bringing forward fresh sheaves of 
wheat. I at once concluded that this was one of the 
Buddhist monasteries, which I knew to exist in Kanum. 
The old man beckoned to me to approach, and I stood 
for a while looking at these people as they moved up 
and down ; they were soon joined by several women clad 
in the same capuchin of brownish red. They were the bre- 
thren and the sisters of the monasteiy and nunnery, and 
the aged father was the Lama or President of the former. 

I wandered on along several other roofe, everywhere 
received without the slightest shyness or reserve, and 
even gladly welcomed. One eld woman, whose grand- 



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416 VILLAGE SCBNE8. 

children I had been caressing, came to me in a, veiy 
friendly manner, and discoursed to me at great length 
and witli moat voluble loquacity: the peroration of her 
address, — all the rest of which was utterly unintelligible 
to me, — heing loud peals of laughter, in which aU her 
neighbours of both sexes took part. In conclusion, the 
venerable dame presented me, amid many extraordinary 
gesticulations, with a bundle of herbs and vegetables 
from her kitchen garden. I endeavoured, as beat I 
could, to make myself understood by her; but all my 
efforts only occasioned fresh bursts of laughter; for the 
language of these people is totally different from the 
Hindui, no less than from the Hindostani, being known 
as the KunauH or Miichan. 

I now bent my steps toward our tent, laden with va- 
rious species of grain peculiar to this district, for the 
most part winter corn, bieuspidated barley, wheat of 
most remarkable beauty, &c. The summer fruits of the 
earth are peas, vetches, broad Windsor beans, turnips, 
and oleaginous plants. 

Meeting my fellow-travellers on the way, I returned 
with them straightway, to visit a more distant quarter 
of the town: we found it all alive with industrious in- 
habitants, busily engaged in the labours of their harvest- 
home. They generally use, for carrying in the corn, 
large baskets, which they bear upon the back; much of 
it is however also brought in from the terraces on asses. 
One apparently prosperous and wealthy man, — probably 
a naturalised foreigner, for he wore a garment of white 
muslin, and a flat turban instead of the felt cap, — was 
looking down at the labourers from the roof of his house, 
giving them directions and imparting his commands. 
Another party was occupied in treading out the grain 
with horses, on a spacious threshing-floor, enclosed by a 
wall. This is the only service that horses are here re- 
quired to perform ; they are never yoked to any vehicle. 



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TBE LAHA-fi DWBLLlMd. 417 

nor made to bear a saddle : the wild and spirited ani- 
mala are chased round upon the apread-out corn ; a 
man with a stick hung with little streamers, and another 
with a long whip, were driving them up and down at a 
gallop. This mode of threshing makes a feaiful dust, 
and the straw ia trodden to nothing. 

After wandering along several narrow, dirty lanes, 
between half-dilapidated walls, and dwellings orna- 
^nentcd with very ancient horns of the bbural and the 
wild goat, we reached the last row of houses, contiguous 
to which is a grove of tall juniper-trees. That tree here 
attains a height of from thirty to forty feet. A long 
line of sepulchral-looking monuments forms the boun- 
dary of this spot; amongthem stand several of the 
urns to which I have so often alluded, — one of a brown- 
ish yellow, one white, and one black, under the same 
roof: what these different colours signify, I failed in 
every attempt to ascertain. 

- Our attention was attracted by a large edifice at the 
extremity of the town: it is a hollow square, enclosing 
a small, open court. An old man with a venerable 
hoary beard, clad iu the ordinary red mantle, and busily 
engaged in counting his rosary amid muttered prayers, 
«ame forward upon the roof and beckoned to us. He 
made himself known as a head-Lama, and promised to 
do the honours of the temple to which his dwelling is 
attached, as soon as he should have finished his devo- 
tions. Without much ceremonizing, we accepted his in- 
vitation, and, aa a preliminary step, descended by the 
uncouth ladder into the court, to seize the favourable 
opportunity for seeing the interior of a Kunawuree 
dwelling. The ground-floor contains only store-rooms 
and cow-stalls: in the second story, which has a veran- 
dah about two feet wide, towards the court, we found an 
apartment which appeared to he the Lama'a state-room, 
for it contained two rudely-worked chairs and a tabl^, 



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418 PISP WTO THB LA3U SASQTVAB.Y. 

articlee of which he waa exceedinglj proud. Ueantime 
he was 80 completely absorbed in his rosaiy, that he 
seemed utterlf unconscious of our throwing open every 
door and window-shutter in his house. The pl&u of the 
building would have excited ouradmiratitMi, — being upon 
the whole both pretty and judiciously devised, — had not 
all the details been bo shabbily and unskilfully executed. 
Every door and window opens into the inner court. 
Upon the roof, and on the top of the colonnade which 
surrounds the court, are little gardens, filled with Iris, 
Datura, and Tagetea, which find abundant nourishment 
in the material of the roof. 

Wlien at length his prayer admitted of a pause, the 
aged Lama led us down into the court, by the trunk of 
a tall tree with steps hewn in it, — the only kind of stair 
I ever saw in these parts, — drew out a long wooden key, 
and intimated by a significant and mysterious gesture 
that we should follow him. The long key opened a 
large folding door at the bottom of the court, the en- 
trance to the sanctuary or small temple, which, as a 
great favour, he was about to show us. 

What strange and wondrous things did we see crowd- 
ed together in this darksome hall ! The light of heaven 
glimmers in only through an aperture in the ceiling, and 
through the open door, the saored threshold of which we 
were not allowed to pass. The principal object is a large 
gilded idol, representing Mahadeva whom I should not 
have expected to find in aLama temple. The image stands 
in a sort of shrine, with two open doors painted with 
golden stars and enclosed in a ^t border; its effect, in 
this magic and shadowy light, was most unearthly: it was 
almost the only object that could be distinctly recog- 
nized amid the sniroundiDg gloom. A balustrade, hung 
with red streamers, enclosed the space round it ; to its 
right, lay a multitude of strange instruments apparently 
of very ancient date, — ^huge-bellied brazen trumpets, 



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wATEft-DaAWEaa 419 

with drums and kettle-drums of most various dimen 
sions ; to ita left, a number of flags, a great I>ell, and 
divers coarsely painted figures of clay. At the first 
glance, the walls appeared hung witli many-coloured 
paper; but when the eye had become accustomed to 
the lugubrious shades, we perceived them to be covered 
with small tablets of unbaked clay, about tho size of 
ordinary Dutgh tiles. They are apparently manufac- 
tured in a woodea mould, and contain diminutive figures 
of Buddha, in four different colours, yellow, red, grey 
and white. In many places, they had fallen off and 
were lying on the ground ; of these the old priest wil- 
lingly gave us as many as we wished to have ; unfortu- 
nately however, these works of art are fragile in the ex- 
tremoi Strange to say, with all his absorbing and long- 
continued prayer, the £^ed Lama displayed not the 
slightest vmeration for his gods, but replied to our 
queries, and .gesticulated amid great laughter, ever and 
anoD sinking again into bis devout abstractioa : more- 
over, he had evidently reckoned with avaricious long- 
ing upon the money he received at parting. 

Proceeding, in the twilight of evening, along an- 
other and a well-made path, beneath alder and poplar 
trees, we gradually descended to our encampment. Be- 
side one of the water-courses, we found a numerous 
group of women, busily engaged in drawing water : they 
carry it on their backs in a peculiar kind of wooden ves- 
sel, constructed with great art of varnished wood, bound 
with iron hoops, and entirely closed at the top, like a 
barrel, except the bung-hole : a woollen cord, passing 
through several rings, serves as a strap for carrying ic. 
Various other vessels of wood also testify to the expert- 
ness of the artificers: I saw plates and dishes of the most 
beautiful veined wood, delicately thin, and very neatly 
manufactured. 

Already the sub had disappeared behind the lofty 



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*20 SDSSET LAKD80APB. 

mountains which form the western houodary of the val- 
ley; a full hour and a half passed away however, before 
night began her reign; during this interval, we had 
time enough to enjoy the glorious landscape of the deep 
valley below adorned with rich trees, and the rugged 
clifTs opposite, around Labning, clothed with pine and 
cedar fbresto: the tall and ancient tower, domineering, 
at a height of a thousand feet, over the narrow glen, — 
the yellow corn-fields, and dark firs, — the long winding 
path by which, in the morning, we had threaded our way 
down the steep, — all conspired, in the mellow light of 
evening, to form a picture, of singular lovelineBS, in the 
peculiar blending of stem and smiling features, of bright 
and sober tints: it was abruptly severed from the 
heights on the Kanum aide, by a ravine the depths of 
which were hidden from our view. 

As the entrance of our tent was turned towards 
this magnificent highland scene, we enjoyed for a long 
while the delight of watching the exquisite succession 
of roseate and of purple hues, until, suddenly, the most 
clear and splendid starry vault was stretched above the 
scene, and nearer and more distant objects were alike 
shrouded in nocturnal gloom. 

Our tent-bearers had been long on tlieir march, on 
the following morning, (the second of August) before we 
could follow them. The Oliief-Lama had announced his 
intention of honouring us with a meeting, promising at 
the same time, to exhibit the interior of the great tem- 
ple, beside which we had encamped. Climbing up the 
stair-tree, we entered the building by a small, low door, 
which led us into a long and lofty ante-chamber, washed 
with yellow paint. On its longest side were doors open- 
ing into the temple itself Here we were met by the 
Chief-Lama, a figure whose whole appearance and bear- 
ing were striking and majestic in the extreme: I felt 
as though X were beholding one of the philosophers of 



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THE CHIEF LAMA, 421 

fcntiquHy, Cato or Seneca liimaelf. Picture to yourself an 
aged man of tall and stately form, wrapped in the long 
and ample toga of dark-red wool: his head uncovered, 
his snow-white locks cut short, while his long and hoary 
beard flows down upon his breast: the rosary suspended 
from his girdle, and under his arm a large book.* After 
baluting the Prince, he opened the doors, so as to afford 
us aT full survey of the whole interior of the temple. 
Here too, the largest of the many images of the gods 
was a ^Ided Makadeo, the other smaller ones being of 
stone or of bronze. To the right and left stood large, 
green, varnished cabinets, painted in gold, with a num- 
ber of drawers, dontaining manuscripts: a multitude of 
mystic objects fiUed the remaining space. Unfortunately, 
it was impossible to make ourselves intelligible to our 
kind and venerable friend; for, besides the language of 
^his district being unknown equally to our interpreters 
and to ourselves, his deafness precluded even the slight- 
est attempt at conversation, 

- Would that I could yet have found among the living, 
tlie celebrated Hungarian sage, Alexander Czosma de 
K&ros, who passed several years at Kanum as a hermit ! 
We were often asked about him, for he ia still well 
known in this mountain region by the name of " Sikan- 
der Saheh." 
■ We found-here again the same clay tablets employed 

* It is conunoDly agserted, te menttaaed by Mr Hamiltaii, that the ort of 
printing, that might; engine of good aai ot aiil, haa from a Ter; remote period 
been practieed in Thibet, thongb »a limited in its uie bj the influence ol 
■uperBtition, that it has not undc^one any improyenient. Copiea of the re- 
UgiooB booka of Lama-vorahip are multipUed, not bj moreable types but bj 
meuu of set forms of the nature of atereotjpe, which are impressed on thin 
Blip* of pm>er of Thibetiaa fabiicatioi]. The alplialMt and character are ac- 
knowledged to be derived from the Saourit. IC is a general behef through- 
out Thibet, that the arts and sciences had their origin in the hcri; citj of 
Benares, which, as well as other Indian places of pilgrinuge, is much rene- 
irated and not unfrequentlj viaited bj the deiout TbibeSana. Although re- 
ligious ceremoniea of every kind are performed exclu^vety by the Lamas and 
Ojlongs, the laity are not restricted from the jtadj of Uieir sacred books. — Tb. 



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422 WILDERNESS OF THE SCTI.BJ. 

in lining the wall; on each of them are six or seven 
figures of Buddha: ibey were distributed among u« with 
the greatestliberalitj. With trembling handtheaged pre- 
late closed the doors of bis aaoctaary tmce more, when 
he obseired that we had derived, from the viev of its 
inn^ wonders, all the odification that we desired; forth- 
with, after the farewell salutations, we proceeded on our 
journey. 

It seined as though the fields of Eannm had vanished 
beneath our tread, when, ere long, we found ouraelves 
onoe more in a dreary, desolate waste. Alter a quarter 
of an hour's march, we re-entered the valley of the 
Sutlej ; on its brink the path winds up from height to 
height. Few and faint are the traces of vegetation visi- 
ble on those arid rocks; here and there only, a miser- 
able-looking Neoza pine,-~-sad, leafless wormwood, — or a 
few stunted bushes of thorny Astragi^ut. Both bankf 
of the river look as though they had but just issued from 
some fiery furnace: scorched and naked, the rude cliffs 
stand forth amid boundless masses of d^ris, which re- 
semble gigantic he^ps of ashes: Nowhere refreshing 
shade,— nowhere a trace of verdure, — the very water of 
the river, whicb laves the base of those high and rocky 
jidges at a great depth below, seems to have lost iU 
fertilizing power. 

It ia an awful solitude: all nature is still and death- 
like : to add to the wild melancholy of the scene, the ac- 
clivities are all bo steep that not a single vestige of a 
path trod by foot of man is ever to be found. On the 
uncertain surface of those loose, shattered fragments, the 
wanderer's footstep leaves no mark behind. Blocks of 
stone and masses of rock, nicely poised, roll down be- 
neath his tread. Woe to him that lingers there ! With 
rapid and restless pace that brooks no tanking, the tra- 
veller must pursue his giddy way, — ever forward, for- 
ward! lest he be precipitated, amid the falling wreck, 



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ITS VBOBTATIOH AflD iUMBBALOGT. 423 

into the deep abyss! Tbe rattling and rumbling of 
detached stooes wM a muaic which accompanied us 
through all the long di^r. Some few parts of the rocky 
procipioes wero so abrupt, so polished by the attritioa of 
constantly tumbling debris, that we were obliged to hew 
steps in tiiem, before we could venturo to pass on. 

The sum total of the wretched plants that drag on a 
miserable existence on these sterile crags, amounted, duiv 
ing our first hour and a half, to only seven. One rose was 
actually to be seen thero, and flowering even in this wil- 
derness; the most frequent sign of vegetable life how- 
ever, was a species of white worm-wood, so mean and 
wizened that from the opposite bank it was not to be 
descried. 

Still we were ever ascending higher and higher; the 
burning sun and the depressing influence of a desert 
such as this, produced languor and exhaustion more 
speedily than an ordinary march. It was not till we had 
almost guned the summit of the ridge which separated 
us from one of the lateral vallies of the Sutlej, that some 
measure of brightness and of spirit enlivened us once 
more. There is, on the highest point, a spring, — the 
only one on the whole way, — the first sight of which was 
hailed by our coolies and heavy-laden damsels with 
shouts of joy : nevertheless its waters are very bitter, 
and strongly impregnated with copper. An abundance 
of copper ore is visible on the surface of the rock near 
this spot; carbonate of copper effloresces from the 
yellow-tinged clay-slate, and the ground is covered 
with calcareous spar and light calcareous stone. The 
moisture had however, notwithstanding this richness of 
the mineral world, called forth a somewhat more pro- 
lific vegetation. The Epilobt'wm (willow herb) delighted 
me OS recalling home, in spite of its being surrounded on 
all sides by prickly steppe-plants, dwarf Acacias, and a 
species of laurel-like Daphne. 



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424 DILATOEf BKIDOB BtTILDBBS. 

We allowed our coolies time for refreshment and re- 
pose, and hastened forward to the head of the pass, 
which we gained after a short ■ascent. It is, according 
to usual custom, decorated with poles and many-colourr 
ed streamers. From this high point we distinctly saw 
the little river Ropa or Rusealono, which we were soon 
to cross: but oh! at what a tremendous depth.' The 
-path, scarcely distinguishahle, runs down an inmost per- 
pendicular steep covered with mountain-wreck: now 
-leaping, now sliding, we scrambled down : however, 
-even at a distance of only eight hundred feet below the 
summit, the descent becomes somewhat easier; once 
jnore our feet found firm ground on which to rest, and 
numerous flowers, — Asters, Delphinium and Papaver, 
resembling our own, yet appearing in a foreign form, — 
«Iothe the less ru^ed spots. Half-way down the moun- 
tain, at a height of fifteen hundred feet, a beautiM 
forest of Ched and Neoza pines commences; in it we 
found, occupied in hewing down a few stems, the thirty 
carpenters whom we had sent on before-hand to con- 
struct the bridge: they received a well-merited caatiga- 
tion, for they had been despatched with the Zemindar 
•on the morning of the preceding day, so that the bridge 
ought to have been completed, instead of which they 
had loitered so long by the way that they^had arrived 
only just before we did. 

Meantime, leaving them to their dilatory proceedings, 
we descended the last thousand^feet, where difficulties 
again awaited us, as the lower part of the mountain is 
very steep, and consists of smooth, yellow granite, and 
quartz-rock; our course was moreover frequently inter- 
rupted by precipitous- chasms and giJlies, cut by snow- 
-torrents. The slope immediately on the banks of the 
river here, as on those of all the more considerable 
Btream^ among these mountains, consists of perpendicu- 
lar ramparts of great height, sq that it was found ut- 



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FBUITLESS EFFOaiS. *25 

terly impoBBible to approach the channel of the river, 
far more to build a bridge: and not a trace of bridge- 
building was to be aeen, — not a single tree had even 
been brought down to the water's edge. 
• There was here but one route by which we could de- 
scend. It consisted of the remains of an avalanche, 
which in spring had choked up the bed of the river, 
and had hitherto served as a bridge. Unfortunately this 
mass of debacles had recently fallen in, and one gigat^- 
tic tower of snow was now left standing alone on either 
Bide; even these mighty piers of the quondam bridge 
bad been partly washed away by the current at their 
base, while the glowing sun above, no less fatal a de- 
stroyer, caused the melted particles to trickle dowH 
their sides. We descended with great difficulty on these 
wet and dirty banks of snow, and when all was done, 
we found ourselves at the very margin of the river in- 
deed, but without any means of transit across its rapid 
waters. We were conatrained, on account of the dis- 
tance from the wood, and of the difficulty of transport, 
to relinquish all idea of bringing down timber and beams 
for building; ropes of sufficient length too were wanting, 
and if we had had them, they must have proved useless 
by reason of the frowning crags on the opposite shore. 
At length a huge cedar-atem, torn down by the i-ushing 
avalanche, was disentangled, and one grand effort was 
pat forth to drag it to the narrowest part of the stream ; 
after long and arduous labour, in the course of which 
we were all drenched to the skin, and covered with 
black mud, we were forced to abandon this plan also ; 
for the tree became deeply imbedded in the sand, and 
■no power of ours could move it from the spot. In this 
dilemma, we at last learned that a better place for con- 
structing a bridge was to be found elsewhere; for actu- 
ally our pioneers had been too indolent even to obtain 
"proper information regarding the locality. 



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426 PA8SA0E Of IHB BUSKALOBQ. . 

In order to reach tha apot pwnt^ oat to lu, W9 were 
obliged to clamber up an abrupt clif^ then to ascend a 
steep acclivity, Beveral buodred feet in beigbt, aod cQv^- 
ed with loose fragments of rock, and finally, to ac»le 4 
conical maas of granite, witbout tbti alighted vestigQ of 
a path. The slope of loose debris was expected to prO' 
aent the moat insuperable obstacle: it proved otherwise; 
the blocks of stone did not yield beneath our feot, and 
when we reached the granite rock above, we found flat 
ledges and narrow fissures enough, bo that, clambering 
up with hands and feet, we did at last gain the top of 
tbe cone, just in time to guide our eooHes, — ^who were 
at that moment coming up, — ^to the right course by our 
shouts. 

The second spot selected for the passage of the river, 
seemed, at any rate, less dangerous than the first; for 
although the stream, fifty feet across, daahes its raging 
billows through the narrow goige, a solid pier presents 
itself in tbe midst of its eddy, in the shape of a huge 
mass of roek. If it be but possible to gain that point, 
all is safe; for it lies not vety far from the opposite 
shore: unfortunately however, it offers no jutting cor- 
ners, but presents, on the side towards which we de- 
scended, a amootb face of Iximi sixteen to twenty feet 
in height. Without delay we proceeded to tbe work of 
building; there was no time to lose; for already, in the 
depths of this contracted defile, the shades of twilight 
were threatening to overtake us : each coolie must needs 
give a helping hand; stones were collected, and trees 
hewn down and driven into the bed of the river. 

The work advanced more rapidly than I had expect- 
ed. As soon as a few firm points in Ute stream had 
been secured, the rock in its centre was, with the assist- 
ance of a hastily-made ladder, speedily gained; from it 
a second rock was reached by means of a short bridge 
laid across, and thence the opposite bank itself was at- 



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DmOESI VfOS CHASOO. 427 

lained. At each hazardous spot, ooe of our party Be&ted 
bimaelf, to stretch out a helping hand to the cooliaa And 
cooHas, aad thus bring them s&fely across. After three 
lioure of very arduous toil, the whole party and the whole 
baggage were on the further side. But we were still 
far from our station of Chasoo ; a steep acclivity rose ia 
front of us, and when, with much difficulty and fatigue^ 
we reached its top, we found ourselves deluded, again 
and again, by a false hope, as, at each turn of the 
patb, we expected to see the village immediately before 
us. 

At lei^h however it did appear, — like a green oasis 
in the rocky desert at our feet. What a refreshment 
for our weaiy eyes and limbs ! 

The last part of our descent was a well-oiade stair, of 
many hundred steps, hewn in the living rock. At its 
lower extremity, begin the apricot-gardena, vine-bowers 
and rich meadows. The village herds were returning 
slowly homeward as evening drew on, — a scene of rural 
charm seldom witnessed among these mountains. 

Chasoo is a village of about forty houses, one of tlie 
most sequestered retreats to which we penetrated. Its 
dwellings, — one of which was given up to us for our 
night's quarters, — are neat and pretty. We pitched our 
tent on the flat roof, the coolies taking possession of the 
interior. The tops of the other houses, all equally flat, 
extend, in terraces, for at least a hundred feet down 
towards the smiling dale, where the lowest are concealed 
amid vine-clad bowers; on many of them, red and white 
flags and yak-tails, fastened to long poles, are seen wav- 
ing in the air, while wooden " Chokhdens," painted yel- 
low, gray, or white, are placed here and there, by the 
way-side. 

There was no lack of varied refreshment here ; rai- 
sins, f^ricots and new milk, were brought in greater 
abaodauce than we could make away with; and the 



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428 DBEARY CHAOS. 

multitude of Chinese goods offered for sale gave evi- 
dence of a frequent and busy traffic with Thibet: a 
much-frequented pass leads hence through the moun- 
tain barrier to that country. The costume of the inha- 
bitants, moreover, bears a close resemblance to that of 
the Chinese; some of the men even wearing cues of false 
hair. The purchases made from among the variety of 
wares of all sorts, were a piece of beautiful dark-blue 
Chinese silken stuff, and two silver tobacco- pipes: very 
pretty silver ornaments are also to be had here. 

I regretted exceedingly that our stay at this place 
was so short; for in this remote river-gleu, there are 
-many rare and very remarkable plants, which never met 
my eyes again: however, we were on our march at 
break of day on the 3d of August, as we had a very 
long journey before us. 

Instead of having reached better paths, we found our- 
selves, alas ! immediately after leaving the little rivulet 
of Chasoo, once more in a wild and naked wUdemess. 
Bare rocks of polished slate, now obstructing our path 
in the shape of large slabs or huge detached blocks, — 
now again, shivered into fragments and weathered al- 
most to disintegration, forming vast mounds of debris, 
— were the only feature of the strange, chaotic scene 
around 1 gray, parched worm-wood, and here and there 
a dwarfed and crippled pine, alone marked that vegeta- 
tion had not actually expired. Add to this, that our 
path continued uninterruptedly to ascend, though still 
liever affording the slightest view; even the Ruskalong 
river, whose course we were following to re-enter the 
valley of the Sutlej, was bidden from our eyes; for we 
were too high up, on the rocky ramparts that hem in 
the stream, and its banks too steep and contracted. 
The view of the Sutlej, which burst upon us at the end 
of a two hours' march, brought little or no variety to 
the dreary landscape; for its yellowish gray waters flow 



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RETURN TO THE SUTLEJ. 429 

on, devoid of anything like picturesque cliarm, between 
arid and monotonous rocka. 

Tlie only object which now by ita beauty gladdened 
our weary eyes, was the magnificent chain of snowy 
mountains, which, on reaching the highest point of the 
ridge, where we began to descend towards the valley of 
the Sutlej, suddenly lay extended before us. 

Our route continued along the banks of the river, in 
a north-easterly direction ; we were some eighteen hun- 
dred feet or so above its waters, and yet so near the 
brink that we could cast a stone into its pools. But 
soon the few faint traces of a path disappeared ; we 
followed our guide in silence, as he stepped forward, 
deeply imprinting his wary footsteps, and searching for 
unyielding spots of ground or firm and solid stones. 
Often we were obliged, in order to turn the dank of a 
smooth and perpendicular face of rock, to slide down 
several hundred feet; often again our way led us over 
the jigged edge of a projecting cliff, overhanging the 
deep and rugged gorge. In many places the only pos- 
sible means by which we couM advance, was to lie flat 
on our faces, and thus glide down, while the guide 
directed our feet, and another attendant held us firmly 
by the neck. Our " Alpen-stocks" were nearly useless, 
as we were forced to use both hands to help ourselves. 

Thus sliding in every variety of posture, standing, 
sitting, lying prostrate, proving each stone before we 
ventured upon it, or, — when the pioneer with a bold 
spring had precipitated into the depth the entire layer 
of loose earth over which our course lay, — rumma^ng 
out, with the points of our poles, hollows in the wall of 
rock which might serve as props on which to rest our 
-wdght, we advanced in a most tedious and unpleasant 
manner; and the continual view of the open abyss, rear 
dy to swallow us up together with the rolling debris, 
was so overwhelming, that at each tolerably secure 



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430 INCEEASmQ DIFFICULTIES. 

spot, we sank down faint and exhausted. The glare of 
the sun however soon drove on the weary traveller from 
his rest, — still forward, forward, — once more to attempt 
Uiis hazardous exploit. 

Those parts in which we had to scramble down over 
loose debris were decidedly worse than all the rest ; for 
there, the stones, detached by those who followed, rolled 
downwards on the advanced guard of our party. 

For six long hours our path proceeded after this 
foshitm. How we one and all passed so prosperously 
over the dangerous spots, — the veiy remembrance of 
which still makes me shudder, — and still more, how the 
heavy-laden bearers passed over them without breaking 
their necks, is to me a complete enigma. It was one of 
the most arduous days of our whde travels, and one the 
perils of which I would not willingly go through E^ain. ' 

We saw onr day's goal for some time before us ; but 
at the same time we saw also the whole length of road 
we had yet to traverse, extended in full view like a 
white streak along the blackish gray rock. Our toilsome, 
rope-dancing journey was still far from having reached 
its conclusion; the last bit was, however, far less formi- 
dable, and we marched forward in silent resignation, 
winding along a succession of projecting rocks and hcAi 
sweeps of the river. 

One sharp and beetling cliff, an almost black schistose 
fbrmation, whose funereal hue and shattered form com- 
pleted the chaotic character of the scene, required the 
putting forth of our last energies to scale its height: 
the noon-day sun was glowing fiercely, the air was eid- 
tiy and oppressive, and dark thundeivclouds were tower- 
ing in the horizon. 

To our great joy we perceived the north-eastern side 
of the pass to he somewhat less steep and desolate; 
there, at least, were some few grasses and parched steppe- 
plants. Before vs to the north-east, lay t^e emerald 



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KO»A AND TT8 IHBABniANTa. *31 

oasis of the Tillage of Pooa, our appoiBt«d resting-place, 
siti^ated on a hill <m the oppo^te side of a narrow glen 
traversed by a small stream. In the fore-ground, we 
marked another village, that of KoBA, or KoB, at the 
extremity of a little plain, into which the north-eastern 
declivity of the pass juts out. The whole tract of land 
at our feet, rich with vegetation, appeared one uninter- 
rupted garden, watered by many rivulets : high walls, 
snimounted by luxuriant hedges, form at once the 
boundary-line of the wilderness and the enclosure of 
fruitful corn-fields. Within two hours we reached the 
plain of Kora, and, overccmie by fatigue, resolved to 
{ntch our tents in this paradise. Thick, velvety tur^ 
and the shade of very ancient apricot-trees, invited ub 
to repose : we had only to touch the trees, to have 
showered upon us a redundant supply of ripe and deli- 
cious fruit; milk too, and cakes baked in the ashes, 
were soon brought in liberal profusion by the hosjHtable 
inhabitants. Beautiful butterflies and many other in- 
sects were swarming round the beds of flowers on the 
mai^ns of the brooks, whereas, on yonder heights, I had 
seen not a traee of any living creature, — not a bird, not 
a lizard, not an insect of any kind. Hy entomotogic)^ 
diase occujned me, in spite of my exhaustion, until, 
as twilight rapidly drew on, the tent arrived : it vas 
pitched in tbe midst of the apricot-grove, and our din- 
ner was speedily prepared. 

We were soon surrounded by a throng of the inhabi- 
tants, attired completely afler the fa^ion of Thibet. 
The profusion of amber ornaments, and the brownie 
red of all their garments, the thoroughly Thibetian 
complexion, the general use of boots and trowsers, even 
among the women, which prevails from this place for- 
ward, all mark the influence of the manners and customs 
of Thibet. The men wear ekull-caps, sandals or high 
doth boots, and a broad bdt round tbe red vestment, in 



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432 CHABACTBEISTIC OKOUPa 

which are stuck a knife, a pipe, a spoon, and a nilmr 
ber of other little articles. The only thing which dis- 
tinguislieB the women's costume, is the absence of the 
belt and the manner of wearing the hajr, which, divided 
into numberless thin plaits, and interlaced with coral, 
shells, amber, and silver bells, hangs down like a sort of 
net-work upon the back. 

The Tartar physiognomy is by no means very predo- 
minant; and aJthough the noses are generally somewhat 
broad, and the cheek-bones lar^ and prominent, yet I 
saw some faces which, in any country, would be acknow- 
ledged to be pretty and expressive. The figures are 
slender and yet athletic, resembling those of the inhabi- 
tants of the valley of the Buspa, near Sungla. 

Through the evening, the whole population, having 
flocked together from fsr and near, sat in strange 
groups around our tent, perfectly satisfied with the 
simple permission to gaze to their hearts' content at the 
new and unwonted visitants. WLether we, in our semi- 
European costumes, appeared the more wonderful to 
them, or they to us, in their thick, stiff, woollen garb, 
tricked out with finery and hung with fantastic orna- 
ments from top to toe, it were difiScult to decide. The 
whole night long, these friendly people, ever wakeful, 
ever mirthful, bivouacked around their fire; a constant 
joyousness reigned among them, and their hours flew on 
amid laughter and singing. 

Our departure, on the 4th of August, was, as had been 
our arrival on the 3rd, a universal fSte. The path was 
enlivened by numbers of blithe and merry women, 
maidens, and children; and the male population escort- 
ed us as far as the river, — at least an hour and a halfs 
walk, — and even there parted from us only one by 
one. The women remained on the vine-clad hills com- 
manding our path, singing in clear but plaintive tones, 
" TantiMi ne re ho !" which, I understand, signifies, 



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BRIDOE OV NAMTOO. 433 

" happy journey !" The kindly salutation was still heard 
resounding, long after the songstresses had vanished 
from our eyes. 

We left the village of Pooa to our left hand; it lies at 
no great distance from Eora, and the vineyards of the 
two places, which clothe the lowest hollow of the vale, 
are all but contiguous, bo that the whole landscape, as 
far as the Sutlej, seems like a continued fruit garden. 

The river-glen itself, which we entered at the end of 
.our second hour, loses, from this point upwards, much of 
its desert, chaotic character: the mural precipices rising 
from the water's edge are less steep and lofty, and the 
higher mvuntain-ridges recede further from the channel 
of the stream. Consequently, we here found some few 
green shrubs, and occasional solitary pines and juniper- 
trees; and even the grisly worm-wood, the ordinary 
clothing of the masses of loose stones, assumes a some- 
what fresher hue. 

In order to reach the left bank, we crossed the cele- 
brated bridge of KiMToo, the only one on all this route : 
there are indeed but three bridges thrown over the ra^ 
ing Sutlej throughout the whole extent of upper Euna- 
wur : this one derives its appellation from a place of the 
same name, which however is not situated upon our 
route. . It is built of strong hewn beams, which must 
unquestionably have been brought hither from a dis- 
tance of six or seven days' march. When this is taken 
into consideration, it may really be pronounced to be a 
wonderful work, and the merit of the Chinese, who gave 
a large sum for its construction, deserves to be recorded 
with high praise. In length, the bridge measures eighty- 
two paces; seven beams, laid longitudinally and parallel 
with each other, without parapet or rails, form the mid- 
dle part, swinging at a height of some seventy or eighty 
feet above the stream. As_ aU bridges, even the smal- 



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leat, among the Himaliuyas, are stretched a«roBs the 
water at a great elevation, on account of its being regu- 
larly in flood in spring, so this one also is supported at 
either end, by a somewhat rude and primitive but most 
firm and substantial t6te-de-pont ; the descent to which, 
from the path along the cliffs, is by a ftteep flight of 
steps. Several layers of strong beams are fixed in a 
slanting position on the projecting crag, their lower 
extremities being well secured in the wall of masonry, 
while their upper ones advance boldly over the river. 
Upon the end of the longest and highest of these, the 
beams of the bridge itself are loosely laid, their other 
ends resting on a- similar sub-stmcture on th^ opposite 
bank, — the most simple mode of constracting a bridge, so 
as perfectly to answer the purpose for which it is intend- 
ed, viz., securing to the foot-passenger a. safe transit; 
some caution however is necessary in the middle, owing 
to the violent vibrations of the long beams. 

We proceeded, on the leit bank, at first through loose 
gravel, which soon however again gives place to clay- 
slate ; the soil is here intersected by numerous brooks, 
not, like those we had seen lower down, rushing over pre- 
cipices in foaming cascades, but fertilizing the gentle 
slopes by their spreading moisture. Their channel are 
bordered by beautiful flowering plants; Asters, Cam- 
panulas, and a species of ioMicera; the juniper forming 
a tall copse, and here and there attaining the height of 
a tree. 

After four hours' march, on tolerably level patha, we 
entered the deep dell of a rivulet which, at its junction 
with the Sutlej, forms in its valley a creek, some two 
thousand paces or so in width. To make the circuit of 
this, we ascended the lateral slope of the mountain, and 
immediately found ourselves within the cultivated lands 
of the village of DnBUNO. This pUce must not be con- 



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MANNEES OF ITS INHABITANTS. 436 

founded with Dabusg, whieh lies farther to the south- 
west: the district generally ie one of the richest in this 
stony and unfruit^l land. 

The whole of the female inhabitantB were, at the time 
of our arrival, busily engaged in the wheat fields; peas, 
millet, three varieties of barley, and a small, peculiarly 
well-flavoured Swedish turnip, called "Njumah," are also 
cultivated here: still however the great source of wealth 
is the apricot. That iruit grows in such lavish abundance 
that the flat roofs no longer suffice to hold the crop, the 
overplus of which is stored on the surface of the fields 
after the harvest-home; and every path and stile is ren- 
dered slippery by the numbers inevitably trampled down. 

As we entered the village, the people, especially the 
women and children, assembled in crowds, and received 
us with loud shouts. These mountaineers of the Sutlej 
are certainly the blithest folk I ever saw, garrulous, un- 
suspicious and friendly, yet not troublesome by their im- 
portunate intrusions, like the natives of Chinese Thibet. 
Nevertheless they were not to he withheld from exam- 
ining our goods and chattels and our every article of 
raiment, nor from prying even into our pockets, — each 
new discovery causing a fresh hurst of laughter. Mean- 
time, I thus enjoyed an opportunity of sketching many 
of the prettier women with their children; on seeing 
that I rewarded with a trifling coin the virtue of sitting 
still, they all pressed eagerly forward, although at first 
my mysterious designs had excited some anxiety. 

The costume here is extremely curious: loose trowsers 
of their brownish-red woollen stuff, woven by the vil- 
lagers themselves, form the principal part of it: a load 
of amber, ("Poshoo") glass beads and amulets, pen- 
dent in countless strings round the neck, and falling 
over the breast and back, is never missing in any fe- 
male figure; equally indispensable are the long plaits 
of sized hm, which, to the number of forty or fifty, 



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436 THIBTIBHNESa. 

hang down the back, while the men adorn the head he- 
faind with a loog, flowing tail, either of their own hair 
or of brown wool: the children and youths usually dis- 
pense with any such ornament. 

The women are all distinguished by an uncommonly 
sweet voice, which often contrasts strangely with the 
broad, square face. Their singing is melodious, and 
their language too has a much softer sound than the 
"JftZfsAan" dialect of lower Kimawur, or the positively 
harsh one of Sungnum, called the " Tebarskad;" for here 
the Bhootea language is already spoken, which bears a 
great resemblance to that of Thibet. 

While I was busily engaged with my drawing, the 
crowd had pressed nearer and nearer to me, and when I 
rose up, my last silk pocket-handkerchief was gone ! It 
really pained me, on account of the pleasing kindliness 
of these people, to find myself disappmnted in their 
honesty; but the love of stealing seems to be a main 
feature in the character of every Mongolian tribe. 
Among the high mountains of lower Kunawur, the 
traveller may leave everything he has, open and un- 
watched, wi^out the slightest fear, provided only he is 
sure of the faithfulness of his own attendants. 

In the evening we had a delightful walk through the 
fields: wherever we went, the vill^ers sought out and 
presented to us the ripest and finest apricots. Their 
dwellings, into which we obtained access without any 
difficulty, have, for the most part, court-yards inclosed 
within stone walls. In almost every court we saw the 
industrious inhabitants engaged in the labours of the 
harvest-season, with which they frequently unite the 
performance of strange ceremonies. I saw two women 
in one court winnowing com, seizing the moment when 
the wind was in their &vour: beside them stood a cen- 
ser, round which, as often as a sieve-full had been shaken 
out, they circled three times with slow and measured 



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DOMESTIC GEOCPS. 437 

step, strewing cypress leaves upon it, and waving over it 
a large bunch of cypress twigs, after which they resum- 
ed their work. 

Tlie houses rest on basementB of masonry, and the 
aacent to the low door-way is by means of a stair-tree. 
One enters at once into a large room, the remaining 
space of the lower story being devoted to stalls for the 
cattle. The "whole family, if not employed on the roof, 
may generally be found gathered together in this apart- 
ment, seated on boards. The women spin or wind the 
wool, to prepare it for the loom which, with a hand-mill, 
a few wooden bowls, and sonde vessels of earthenware, 
form the sum total of household furniture in this their 
public room. The indolent partners' of their home pur- 
sue meanwhile their sole occupation, — to wit, smoking 
tobacco. In one wall of this room are the entrances to 
the gloomy dungeons which serve as bed-chambers. 
Unfortunately, these good people appear to have not the 
slightest idea of cleanliuess. I could not resist leading 
one dear little, lovely, black-eyed boy to the edge of the 
brook, and washing his face, which extraordinary pro- 
ceeding caused universal merriment and laughter. The 
little presents of pins and glass beads, packets of which 
I carried about with me, were received with joyous ac- 
clamations by young and old. 

A tree with steps hewn in it, — sometimes indeed 
there are several such stairs, — ^leads to the upper story, 
or else directly to the roof The former contains the 
store-rooms, at once granaries, and d6p6ts of dried pulse. 

We perambulated the dwellings from the court-yard 
to the house-top, without the inmates, manifesting any 
particular concern, the most they ever did being to 
laugh at our curiosity. It really did my heart good to 
find myself no longer regarded, as in the low lands of 
India, as a wUd beast, whose impure touch would con- 
taminate the abode and render it uninhabitable. The 



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438 SUPEEBTITrODS 0B$EEVAHCE3. 

cringing, servile Hindoo of the plains, and of the lover 
range of hills, who will endure the grossest maltreatment 
in silence, says, — if one approaches too near his house, — 
quite openly, though with folded hands and head bending 
in deepest reverence, " Prince, ('Maharajah,'} ' Saheb,' 
thou wilt pollute the house of thy slave; have the kind- 
ness to depart I" 

On our return, we found the tent, which had been 
pitched on a tilled field inclosed between hedges of 
syringa, decorated with flowers: a number of little chil- 
dren, bearing large bouquets which they had gathered 
for us, were waiting at the tent-door. All manner of 
iruit too, — currants, and a species of Comelian^erry 
("MunJUi") in particular, of an agreeable sourish taste, 
— were brought to us in abundance. Other little ones 
were busily providing our cooks with fire-wood, without 
making the slightest claim to remuneration for their 
kind offices. 

The village of Dubling consists of some twenty bouses, 
of architecture simple indeed but very much to the pur- 
pose. Many long stone dykes or piles of stone tablets, 
bearing I^ma inscriptions, and well-preserTed Chokh- 
dens, testify to the piety of the inhabitants. Ranged 
beside the latter objects of superstition, I found small 
cakes of brown meal, in which was fixed a circle of small 
lighted sticks; grains of every variety of com were also 
scattered among them : all this must certainly have 
some religious import : may it not possibly be intended 
as a sort of sacrifice? 

The Sutlej is not visible from this place; we first 
caught sight of it i^ain on the following day, (the 5th 
of August) after we had quitted the apricot groves and 
meadow-lands of the village. Veiy near our road lay 
the hamlet of Dabumg, into which, misled by the simi- 
larity of its name, a portion of our troop of coolies had 
wandered on the preceding day; for, in the indistinct 



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GEOLOOICAL APPEABANCBS. 439 

enunoiation of these parts, Dubling and Dablingf are al- 
most identical in sound. At tUe latter place we re- 
marked "Mannek-paddehunffs" of dimensions such as we 
had never before met with : one of them is five hun- 
dred paces in length and six in breadth. Ita upper sur- 
face is entirely covered with well-chiselled slabs of slate, 
several of which bear the usual inscriptions, in white 
characters on a red or a yellow ground. 

We continued to thread our way close beside the 
banks of the Sutlej, whose waters are of a dark greenish 
yellow hue ; the granite soon re-appeared, but only in 
detached fragments; the opposite rampart of the river- 
glen continued for some time to present a face of schis- 
tose rock ; gradually however, the granite began to pre- 
dominate, becoming at last a compact formation, with 
gray gneiss occasionally occurring in it, and intersected 
by numerous radii of blue zeolite. 

The opposite bank is an almost perpendicular mural 
precipice, a thousand feet high, of gray granite, traversed 
by numerous veias of quarts from four to six feet in 
thickness, which cross each other in all directions. Each 
little snow-stream, after flowing gently down from the 
lofty rounded summits, suddenly plunges in one un- 
broken cascade from the edge of the rugged cliff into 
the dark, turbid waters of the river. 

We ascended some eight hundred feet higher above 
the Sutlej, before we obtained a view of the vine-bowers 
and apricot gardens of the small village of Khab. The 
rumour of our approach had already spread even in this 
retreat : we had been described as giants with long, 
black beards ; consequently, the inhabitants were wait- 
ing at the entrance of the village, on the tiptoe of ex- 
pectation, to catch the first sight of these monstrous 
foreigners. Among them were many women in the red 
costume of China : they were decked out with a thou- 
sand different sorts of ornaments; amber and chank 



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440 CONFLUENCE OF THE aDKE AND THE LEE. 

shells, lapis lazuli, turquoises, ("Jugate") and opals, 
("Njapchi")a,\\ were hung about them as trinkets. Neck- 
lacee here often consist of many-coloured glass resem- 
bling agate, imported from Thibet. We were again pre- 
sented with apricots and " Khutai;" garlands of flowers 
also, consiflting of red and yellow tagetes and double 
hollyhocks, were lavished upon us. 

The village is situated on a sharp projecting angle of 
rock, close to the junction of the Thibetian riverLKE with 
the Sutlej, which is here called the GtDHB. A woman 
led us through her farm-yard to a spot whence we en- 
joyed a nearer view of the confluence of the two streams. 
Each of them dashes furiously along between almost 
closing precipices of gray rock, forming by their coUi- 
aion a tremendous whirlpool: nevertheless, in spite of 
this tumultuous commingling, the separate colouring of 
their waters, — the yellowish green of the Guh£ and the 
grayish blue of the Lee, — may be distinctly traced to a 
considerable distance. The rocky banks of the latter 
appear no less rugged than those of the Sutlej, and still 
more desolate. 

Ascending through fields of wheat and " phapur," 
we reached a grove of large and ancient Neoza pines; 
beneath their shade is a sacred spot, marked as such 
by the liama inscriptions and patches of red paint on 
the detached masses of rock. Here we were once more 
greeted by the solemn salutations of aged, hoary -beard- 
ed Lamas, and presented by them with flowers, fruit 
and tobacco; marks of ho^itality and respect for which 
they did not fail to demand some remuneration. In the 
evening we pitched our camp on one of the cultivated 
terraces of the village of Namdja (Namgiah), from which 
we were separated by the dell of a Uttle rivulet. In 
a fleld close beside us, the inhabitants were busily en- 
gaged in agricultural labours: the wooden plough was 
drawn by yak-oien, which one man was guiding by the 



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NAMDJA-YAK OXEN. 441 

nose, while the other was directing the plough: the wo- 
men and children following to hoe the ploughed ground, 
singing sweetly aa they moved along. The yak-ox, — ge- 
nerally of a black colour, — is the ordinary domestic ani- 
mal here. Those used for ploughing are ugly and short- 
legged, and hold their heads very low; the beautiful 
long silky hair hanging from below the belly is almost, 
if not entirely, wanting in them, no less than the bushy 
tail, which their avaricious owners commonly cut off, as 
an article of trade. The yak-ox used in riding is an in- 
finitely handsomer animal ; it has a stately hump, a rich, 
silky hanging, nearly reaching the ground, twisted horns, 
a noble bearing, and an erect head. 

From Namdja we at length succeeded in crossing the 
frontier of Thibet; however, I must now conclude this 
epistle, which, unfortunately, I have been obliged to 
write in great haste. You will, at any rate, be able 
to form from it a tolerably distinct idea of the mode of 
travelling among the Himalayas, and a more or less vi- 
vid picture of some regions hitherto but little known. 



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: BNTBSIHQ THIBET. 



TWELFTH LETTER. 

lAHW*— TAK-oxn— pnoun hoioh oi 




Bmu, 2Sd of Septanier, IMC, 
Aptbb repeated unauccesaful attempts, His Boyal 
Highneaa succeeded, on the 6tli of August, in travers- 
ing the boundary of Thibet; not indeed at the place 
originally contemplated, but in a highly interesting 
part of the country; and thus we actually penetrated 
within the barriers of the Celestial Empire ! 

Four sturdy yak-oxen stood in readiness for ua to 
mount their woolly backs; the baggage-sheep were sad- 
dled and packed, and a merry band of village dames 
and maidens, all clad in the loose red trowsers, were 
bustling about with the remainder of our luggage, amid 
incessant laughter and singing. The men, on the fron- 
tier and in Thibet, act as bearers only when forced to do 
BO ; and the whole burden of agncultural and of domes- 
tic toils they also leave to the women. It was a matter 
of some difficulty to gain a firm seat on the backs of our 
novel ateeda, caparisoned with our Qreek capotes by 



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ORUNTISQ aTBBDa 4*S 

way of saddles ; for they are very shy, and kick with 
their hind-feet, turning their heads round perpetually, 
as if about to gore their riders. About half-paat nine 
o'clock, we set out on our expedition, leaving behind us 
the apricot-grovea of Namdja, and thus bidding farewell 
to the last oasis in the desert of rocks and of debris 
through which tfie Sutlej forces its way. 

Although our path appeared, from a distance, to be 
extremely dangerous, it proved quite sufScieutly firm 
and level for our broad-footed yak-oxen, noble beasts 
with the thick, silky, white fringe under the body, and 
the bushy tail, both of which sweep the ground: but 
soon the steepuoas increased so much that these poor ani- 
mals b^an to groan, orrathergrunt,*in the most melan- 
choly manner, and this unearthly mudc gradually rose 
to such a violent rattle, that, — driven rather by its irk- 
some sound than by the discomfort of our saddleless 
seat^ — we dismounted at the end of the first half-hour. 

How dreary, yet how imposing, is the prospect of 
those rude, steep, rocky masses of shattered slate, be- 
tween which the roaring Thibetian river thunders its 
dark yellow waves. Not a shrub, not a green herb to 
gladden the eye ; aa tar as it can reach, nothing is seen 
but rock after rock, tumbled together in wild ruins, or 
frowning in stem crags, descending in deep and start- 
ling precipices, or towering, — if indeed the mist allows 
a glimpse of those stupendous heights, — into bold moun- 
tain peaks and lofry pinnacles, crowned with everlasting 



* From thia pecnliai amud the animal deriTea its name of Bos gnt*nitnt; 
"bj some natuntiets it ia ieagnaied the Bot potpKagta, Besides the import- 
ant artiole of trade foniahed bj the jak-oien in their bul>, which are sold 
in aU parts of India as chowries, and as ornamental trappingi toe honea and 
elephants, and commonl; nsed in Persia and Tnrke; foe atand&rda, djed 
ciioiaon and bioim under the name of horae-tBila, they are valued fay the 
natirM of Thibet for th^ long hur, need in th« mannfaoture of tents, 
ropes, Ac., and for thdr rich and abundant milk. — To. 



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m HIOB KOAD FBOH LADAE. 

The narrow path winds, for several hours, along the 
ramparts of the gorge, — which conust of yellowish-gray 
debris, — at a level of from five to eight hundred feet above 
the channel of the river; frequently interrupted by deep 
and rugged hollows, constraining us to make great cir- 
cuits. Beside the brooks, — which indeed are by no 
means numerous, — I found a number of interesting 
plants: the region of snow is also encircled by a belt of 
verdure; but unfortunately, beyond the compass of the 
snow-streams, this fresh vegetation abruptly terminates, 
and nothing is left but that parched, cheerless worm- 
wood, and some few dwarf cypresses. 

We were now mounting higher and higher: suddenly 
we halted on the brink of a perpendicular cbaam, cleft 
in the rocky bulwark of the river-glen by the little 
brook Koopsuso or OopauMa. We descended to the 
water's edge, a depth of from four to five hundred feet, 
by a steep flight of steps hewn in the living rock, a dif- 
ficult descent, and more particularly bo to our yak-oxen. 
This rivulet, which leaps down into the Sutlej in beauti- 
ful cascades, afforded us the refreshment of pure water, a 
circumstance worthy of note, since we found drinkable 
water only twice on this tour. In the hollow beside its 
margin we found, lying down to rest, a flock of Thi- 
betian goats and sheep, laden with Cashmere wool 
(" Lena") and Shawl-wool (" Uhn") packed in sacks 
laid across their backs. We were now upon the great 
road leading from liodak through Thibet. 

Turning back on gaining the height on the further 
side of the ravine, we beheld the whole procession of 
female bearers, only then winding down the long stair. 
One plant after another here presented itself; at first 
only prickly steppe-plants, but presently roses, willow- 
herb and gentians; for we were, while ascending higher 
and higher still, approaching nearer and nearer to the 
mow-hne, and to the pass which defends the boundaty 



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PANORAMA OF THIBET. 4+3 

of the Celestial Empire. The clay-slate, which had hi- 
therto accompanied us, altogether disappears here, and 
makes way for a yellow granite, huge masses of which 
form the summit of the pass: between these, the ground 
is covered with a wide-spreading and thorny ftirze, — 
species of Genista and Astragalus. 

From the top of an immense block of granite, we 
commanded, for the first time, a panoramic view of the 
pl^B of Thibet. Below us extended a countless suc- 
cession of mountain ranges, each one loftier than the 
more distant one beyond; the last gentle wave of this 
mighty ocean. of hills dying away, in the remote hori- 
zon, into a broad, straight line, — the first we had seen 
for many a long day; it was tlie elevated table-land of 
Thibet. 

The wild and rugged character of the banks of the 
Sutlej had now passed away: and we here found its 
waters flowing between softly sloping hills, still however 
as naked and sombre, as monotonously gray, as those 
over which we had passed before : only in the depths of 
the little vallies did we here and there see a verdant 
stretch of flourishing wheat fields, and a group of flat- 
roofed hoiises enhosomed in an apricot grove : far as the 
eye could reach, no forest was to be seen. Yet tlieae bare 
and desert ranges of hills had a beauty, a charm, which 
I know not whether to attribute to the exquisite radi- 
ance shed over them by the gorgeous illumination of 
the western alty, to the mysterious and spell-bound un- 
known that lay concealed beyond, or to the exciting 
feeling that we were on the very threshold of the Celes- 
tial Empire. 

Our resting-place, the frontier village of Shipkee, was 
not yet visible; but we could descry three or four more 
distant villages, and could follow, — alas ! with our eyes 
only, — a path winding across the barren mountain- 
ridges, into the interior of that hidden land. How 



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4 to SHIPEBB. 

much did I envy the lammergeiera the freedom of their 
fl^ht, as, poieed in mid-air, they circled high above onr 
heads! 

To OUT left towered the majestic Furkyul, with its 
thousand sharp cones and pinnacles, like aome gigantic 
Termites-hill: the "greater part of it was covered with 
snow. 

We descended from this commanding point by gentle 
zigzags, through tall bushes of furze, the home of a mul- 
titude of partridges and of small mountain-hares (Lago- 
mya);* and in two hours we arrived at Shipkee: the last 
portion of the way only was fatiguing from its steep- 
ness. 

The village, built in the form of a semi-circle round 
the valley of a little rivulet, lies in the centre of a wood 
of apricot-trees, amid the tender verdure of rich fields, 
which, by means of skilful irrigation, are made to bear 
two crops yearly. The houses, — from twenty to thirty 
in number, and many of them very ruinous, — stand about 
two hundred feet above the river, which here bears the 
name of Ldmo, — a name however which the natives 
seem unwilling to pronounce. 

We had heard much of the rude inhospitality of the 
Thibetians; but nothing occurred in our own experience 
to confirm such a statement. We were suffered to carry 
on our proceedings undisturbed, while we set up our tent 

<■ Ad uiiinal imkiMwt) to KieDtJfia toaristo among the Himalkju until » 
comparktiTelj recent period: it was discoieredby Dr Rojie and named after 
him the Lagomya Roylii. To the Zool<^Bt it 1b pecnlioilj iaterertoig, a* 
the other ipenea of the Qectu, from alt of wUoh it differs mom "t lct*i 
have becD foimd only in Horthern Asa and among the Tockj moontaini of 
North-Weat America. The length of the Lagomi/t Roylii ie about nine 
■nohes: like moit of the other iinim*lii inhabiting the elerated rt^ont of 
EunawDT, Thibet, &c., it haa a soft rich fur below the ooarae outer hair. 
The former ia of a blue-black colour; the latter dark-bromi; and osoall; 
about OD inch in length: the face ia somewhat ahaggy, and the eara are of a 
■iugular funnel-like form. B; mme tiaTellera the LagoKyt haa been env- 
neouily deaciibed aa a t«il-leaa itt. — Tb. 



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FOBBIDDEK HOSPITALITY. 447 

on the roof of an untenanted house of one story; the long- 
cued, red-gowned %urea only pressed forward inquisitive- 
ly around us, and watched our moTements with a smile. 
They were smoking their small silver pipes the while, 
or turning their prayer-cylinders ; others, shaking their 
heads, were examining, with the deepest attention, the 
texture of our clothes, the buttons, knives, and utensils, 
—in short, everything on and about us; and the wo- 
men, clad in the same red costume, and tricked out with 
unber, brass aud many-coloured stones, were standing 
a little farther off, laughing immoderately. 

Notwitlistanding the Emperor's mandate, which for- 
bids the supplying of any victuals to foreigners under 
pain of being ripped up, these villagers brought us milk 
and apricots in as great abundance as we could possibly 
desire. Bj degrees, the whole population, men, women 
and children, assembled to stare and to laugh at the 
strange, unwonted intruders. The men are tall and 
well made, and have inoreover, generally, agreeable fea* 
tores: still, the Tartar descent is betrayed by the broad 
dieek-hones, and the long oblique eye turned upward 
at the outward extremity. The difference between the 
population of Northern Bissahir and that of Thibet is 
scarcely perceptible; the features, the costume, and the 
manners and customs are the same, vnth this distinc- 
tion onlyj that the inhabitants of Bissahir are friend- 
ly, merry, and yet modest; those of Thibet on the 
contrary, the most impudent, filthy, vulgar rabble upon 
the face of the earth : they cheat and chaffer Uke the 
Jews, and practise deception whenever opportunity 
offers. 

The costume of both sexes consists of a caftan, a pair 
of loose drawers, and high cloth boots of motley patch- 
work; the women are marked only by their drawers be- 
ing a little longer, and by their plaited cues of black 
hair, shining with grease, which hang down the back in 



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448 CONSCTLTATIOH OF PHYSICIANS. 

a multitude of narrow cords, bound together with imita- 
tion-agates made of glass, innumerable shells, and pieces 
of amber. Round the neck they wear, besides amulets, 
from ten to twenty strings of lumps of amber, false 
stones, lapis-lazuli, and turquoises of great beauty. The 
men content themselves with one cue, which, to make it 
very long and thick, is interwoven with sheep's wool. 

Among the numerous dignitaries of this little place, 
who without the slightest shyness forced their way into 
our tent, were two doctors, an elderly and a younger 
man. They intimated their earnest desire to make my 
acquaintance, and the elder one, by way of salutation, 
touched my brow with the points of his folded hands. 
Our conversation was necessarily somewhat monosyl- 
labic, as neither our interpreter nor any one of our at- 
tendants could speak the language of ITiibet, I undei^ 
stood only enough to convince me that these people are 
extremely ignorant, and physicians as it were by inspi- 
ration alone. One showed me bis case of surgical in- 
struments, which hung from his girdle ; a long iron case, 
with a little drawer, beautifully inlaid with brass. It 
contained a number of lancets, or rather fleams, which 
are struck with a hammer to open a vein, a variety of 
rudely wrought iron knives, and a razor. He had set 
his heart on exchanging his instruments for mine, and 
for the sake of curiosity, I actually gave him one of my 
lancets for two of his fleams: he departed quite proud of 
his new possession. 

Having positively ascertained that no Chinese official 
in the Emperor's service was here posted to hinder our 
progress, we proceeded the next day in our attempt to 
penetrate into the interior of the land. 

We crossed several spurs of the ranges of hills, for the 
sake of reaching the nearest lateral valley, with its small 
village and gladsome brook ; for where there is no water, 
the eye wanders only over arid masses of broken slate. 



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KJOE AND ITS SCBNBKT. HB 

with a sear and scanty clotMng of thistles aad steppe- 
grassee, thorny Astragalus and bushy Genista. Ail the 
Tillages are situated at a height of several hundred feet 
above the Sutlej. 

Within three hours we reached the next vill^e, Kjok, 
which had been visited by one European only, a long time 
since; smihng fields, and apricot trees bending beneath 
a load of fruit, encircle this neatly-built group of hous^. 
On the flat roofs, we saw the women busied in threshing 
out the wheat, with flails exactly similar in form to those 
used among us in Germany,- — whereas in Kunawur and 
in the valley of the Buspa, the grain is trodden out by 
horses or oxen driven forward over the sheaves. Even 
on the slope above Kjok, we found the usual slabs of 
stone with Lama inscriptions, the piles being here of 
great extent. From this place a steep descent of some 
four hundred feet leads to the terraced fields of the well 
watered valley, waving with rich crops of young and 
tender barley (" Njong") and yellow wheat, (" Jaang,") 
already partly reaped. Above the quartz rocks of the 
river-side precipices, there appears a deep stratum of 
very beautiful iron-ore, (hsematite) which however, ow- 
ing to the want of timber for fuel, cannot be turned to 
any account. 

I was the first of the party to reach the village, which 
consists of some thirty scattered houses. I sought shel- 
ter from the overwhelming heat of the sun, beneath a 
spreading apricot-tree; but scarcely had I established 
myself there, to enjoy the luxury of repose, when the 
inquisitive villagers discovered my retreat, and gathered 
in troops to obtain a full view of this extraordinary ap- 
parition of a European; women in long drawera, and 
cloth boots with felt tops, — men in the red or white 
" Bakoo" with the broad woollen belt, — the eiders of 
the village smoking their silver pipes. A couple of 
aged Lamas enlightened the rest on the subject of my 



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450 INTE08IVEME88 AMD JEALOrSY. 

desceat and of my fatherland. My doUies and my 
pockets, my portfolio of plants and my boxes of inaeot^ 
all were examined with minute attentioD and Tmshrink- 
ing importunity; and the very garments were well nigh 
torn fh>m off my back ; moreoverj I am shocked to say 
that during all this ovei^auling, the fair sex decidedly 
manifested the greater impudence. 

Meanwhile, the Prince with his companions had arriv- 
ed, and straightway the process of incrpeotion and mani- 
pulation re-commenced from the beginning. When they 
perceived that we had a mind to make purchases, they 
produced a multitude of strauge wares, — trinkets, neck- 
laces, pipes, fee, — for all of which they asked the most 
exorbitant prices. Each man wears a brass spoon, a 
tinder-pouch, and a woollen sling with stones in it, 
hanging by his belt; the women have, in addition to 
these, a small pair of brass pincers, which they use for 
twitching out the hairs from their chin, and many 
other non-descript instruments besides.- Willing as they 
were to part with their goods and chattels for money, 
however trifling the coin might be, their jealousy on 
other points was keen in proportion to their avarice: 
specimens of seeds and of various kinds of grain which 
I had collected were secretly abstracted from my pock- 
ets, and they could only be prevailed on to tell me the 
names of the river and the village, on condition of my 
not writing them down. One of the elders of the peo- 
ple, a fine-looking old man with a shrewd countenance, 
on my attempting to draw his portrait, flew at my sketch- 
book, and endeavoured forcibly to snatch it from me; 
when that measure of violence failed, he had recourse 
to the pathetic, throwing himself on his knees before me 
with gestures of deepest anguish, and seizing me by the 
beard. 

This was the only means which I discovered on this 
occasion for distancing from our tents the uninvited 



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SKETCH-BOOK A VEAPOB OF DEFENCE. 4SI 

guests; whenever their importunity exceeded all bounds, 
I assumed an attitude a,9 if about to draw their por- 
traits; instantly they fled, neck and heels, as if driven 
away by some evil spirit. Nevertheless I did succeed 
in committing to my sketch-book some few costumes. 

The faces were, for the most part, of really frig^ttul 
and repulsive ugliness, — the bridge of the nose deeply 
depressed, — the nasal stump scarce visibly protruding, 
— ^and the mouth veiy large and gaping wide. 

The most hideous and filthy were the women, many 
of whom were spinning wool with the spindle, but with- 
out using the bowl as is customary with the women of 
Nako and lieeo. 

We returned to Shipkee accompanied by two of the 
inhabitants of Kjok, who imparted to me, on our way, 
that the tablets of stone above described are paid for by 
the people of the village, that on solemn occasions the 
heads of families cause many such to be made, and Uiat 
the Lama alone understands the art of engraving them. 
The inscription " Om man neA pa deh hung " is found 
unchanged here also, but sometimes repeated several 
times on one slab. 

Our night at Shipkee was by no means of the most 
agreeable ; till a very late hour we were incessantly dis- 
turbed by the intrusions of those impudent Thibetians, 
who boldly forced their way into our tent, always bring- 
ing some new article for sale. Moreover, to add to our 
disquietude, the gnats and other insects were most 
annoying, and allowed us scarcely any sleep. 

Setting out at nine o'clock on the following morning 
(the 8th of August) to re-ascend the pass, we gained its 
height in two hours and a half, and arrived the same 
evening once more at Nam4ja. At that place, while I 
was sitting alone in the tent, a company of Lamas ap- 
peared, and straightway there arose the sound of soft 
and solemn singing. First one voice began by reciting, 



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452 8ANGB0 OVER THE SUTLEJ. 

— with alternately rising and falling cadence, — a sort of 
monologue; then the chorus joined in, with melodious 
voices and long sustained notes, in a somewhat high 
key. The whole strain reminded me of the anthems of 
the Komish Church with the amen of the chorister boys; 
and altogether, as an accompaniment to the strange 
figures in their picturesque red mantles and red caps 
with their yellow liama insignia, produced a solemn and 
romantic efiecl 

From Narodja, we descended, by a steep path, cover- 
ed with loose, rocky fr^ments, to the Sutlej, which we 
were now to cross. The "sangho" here, although 
spanning a stream fully thirty paces wide, is the worst 
we ever passed over; an old and tottering fabric, — ^fra- 
gile at the best, being woven only of willow branches 
and bass from various trees. In the middle of it, we . 
were obliged to help ourselves forward almost entirely 
with our hands, the open frame-work of sticks which had 
served as footpath having fallen out: and, to~ add to 
the difficulty, it is so loose that, the two extremities 
being fastened to the opposite banks, it sinks suddenly 
towards the centre, forming a sharp angle. 

Fresh toils awaited us on the further side, as we must 
needs cross the stupendous dam which here confines the 
course of the river, — a ridge of rocks, six thousand feet 
in height, — before we could enter the valley of the Leb. 
From afar, the path seems like a narrow stripe drawn 
upon a smooth wall, however we found it in reahty less 
dangerous than those we bad traversed on previous 
days. 

At the entrance of the oasis on which stands the 
small village of Qimhth, (Muth) a number of Lamas 
again advanced to receive the Prince, with their choral 
chanting, said to consist of portions of the " Tumehah," 
their sacred book. 

Above this green spot we turned to the northward. 



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BANKS OF THE LEE-NAKO. *63 

ascending a lofty pass by a difficult, but well-kept path. 
From this elevation we beheld the wide-spread tract of 
mountain wreck, stretching along the left bank of the 
Lee, in tame, undulating hills, and melting away in the 
dimness of a distant and undefined horizon. The path 
itself is covered with gray lime-stone. We marched on 
for eight, hours before arriving at the large village of 
Naeo, situated in the midst of this steppe, at a height 
of eleven thousand, two hundred feet above the sea. 
Here apricots refuse to thrive, and no second crop of 
grain can be obtained. The agricultural produce con- 
sists chiefly of rape, ("Njunkar") " Phapur," wheat, 
barley, spelt and leguminous plants. In front of the 
village, which lies between huge granite blocks, is a 
little lake, surrounded by willows, the only trees to be 
seen in the neighbourhood. The costume is, upon the 
whole, the same as that of Namdja, except that the men 
wear no cues ; and the women, — of whom I saw many 
spinning wool in the market-place, while others were 
seated, weaving busily at a primitive kind of loom, — 
wear, round the throat, a most extraordinary ornament, 
like a dog's collar, and round the waist a sort of bell- 
rope covered with blue glass-beads. 

Before setting out for Leeo, we were conducted by the 
Lama, — a man still in the prime of life, — over the tem- 
ple, an unadorned, square building, painted dark-red, 
which stands at the west end of the place. The lowly 
wooden door was opened to us without any difficulty, 
and we were permitted to enter. It is the only aperture 
by which light penetrates ; consequently, the darkness 
of the interior was such, that it was not till we had 
gazed for some time that we could distinguish the va- 
rious images of the gods, which the Lama was explaining 
to us. Over against the door stands, raised upon a pe- 
destal, a small idol; a larger one is placed immediately 
behind it. The first image represents "Lobwn Patma;" 



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454 TEMPLE AN© ITS IDOLa 

luB face is green, and he is clothed in stuff. The second 
or principal figure is called "Dorj'ee Simha;" over bis 
head hovers the blue, iringed and beaked " CkaMum," . 
holding in his beak a string of pearls. To the right 
hand of these two, stands the jellow "Nana tkeia;" to 
the left the red " Vinahin joongna." Further off, stands 
in a niche on the right, " Thevadna," . and to the left, 
" Nabumati^se;" tbe complexions of the two latter are 
^reen and blue respectively. A quadrangular space, 
separated from these images of tbe gods by a threshold of 
large beams, serves as a floor on which to dry the blades 
of " pkapur," the food of the priests, 

Tbe walls are unfortunately in a very ruinous condi- 
tion, but we could still distinctly tra«e on them a finely 
executed painting in size-colour, in which Chinese forms 
and Chinese taste are easily recognised. Rows of sit- 
ting figures with very expressive faces, are there repre- 
sented ; each' figure is about six feet high, and surrounded 
by all manner of volutes and fantastic ornaments, in 
gold and various gay hues. The ceiling is also covered 
with Chinese designs in gilding, and ancient Chinese 
banners of bright colours are hung from the pillars of 
the middle aisle. 

All the images of the gods are of some merit as works 
of sculpture, but unfortunately so covered, aa indeed 
everything else is, with dust and dirt, as to make it 
evident that no cleansing hand has touched them for 
many a long year. 

The Lama manifested endless uncertainty regarding 
the antiquity and the purpose of this sanctuary; more- 
over, he allowed us to take as many as we chose of tbe 
little clay figures of eveiy imaginable Indian divinity, 
which lay heaped up together in a niche. 

Over against this temple stands another smaller one, 
built in the same style, and of fully aa great antiquity. 
The principal idol contained in it is the statue of a fe- 



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BRIDGE OP THE LBE-^LBBO. *55 

male divinity, standing in the middle wall: it is the 
goddess " Doohna :" over her the " Chakium" is again 
seen to hover, with its square, blue wings, and beaked 
head. Dragons with long proboeces stand on either sid^ 
a,nd small white elephants at the feet of the image. On 
her right and left are seated four figures, with faces of 
four different colours ; their names were not mentioned 
to. us. fhe Liama indeed stated them to he the servants 
of " Doolma," and alleged that they had no names. The 
remainder of the walls is covered with figures of Buddhar. 

Not a little dissatisfied with the indistinct explanations 
given to us by the Lama, we quitted Nako, and rapidly 
descended one declivity after another, to the hanks of 
the Lee. Leaving the village of Haling to our right 
hand, we proceeded west-ward towards the bridge, a 
very beautiful and substantial structure of cedar-wood, 
fdiich here unites the steep and rugged banks. 

A quarter of an hour^s march beyond it, led us to the 
villa^ of Leeo. It lies two thousand, five hundred feet 
lower than Nako, reposing against the face of a project- 
ing rock, which forms the angle between the little river 
Lipa and the Lee, and the highest ridge of which is a 
shattered, indented granite crag, crowned with the re- 
mains of ancient walls, encircling the ETummit, and ap- 
parently marking it as having been formerly the site of a 
fort. This rocky crest conceals at first the sweet se- 
questered village with its apncot-trees, and its beautiful, 
well watered and well cultivated fields. Crossing the 
Lipa, we ascended the height beyond, which forms a 
continuation of the lofty ridge on the opposite bank of 
the Lee, on which Nako stands. From the summit we 
once more commanded a view of the Chinese snowy 
mountains of Purkyul. 

The vegetation on the loose masses of granite and of 
clay-slate, along which we were now marching, is scanty 
in the extreme, and the path unfrequented and desolate: 



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456 HAMO-HnMOABimO PASS. 

one single mercliant, conveying his store of opium on 
the backs of several asses to Ladakh, was the only per- 
son we saw. At length, on entering the glen of the 
Chooling, we beheld, glistening before us, the golden and 
verdant fields of the twin villages of Sooling and Hang- 
mat. Cavaliers mounted on finely caparisoned steeds, 
the first riding-horses we had seen for a very long timet 
now met us on the way. 

- Hako lies beyond the Chooling, and its wide-spread 
tillage covers a large tract of country. The view of 
these smiling fields, reaching far down into the hollow, 
was moat refreshing to our weary sight, and formed a 
striking and agreeable contrast to the abruptly rising, 
limestone mountains, thickly strewn with loose d4bris, 
which, in comfortless sterility, bound the fruitful valley. 
With the exception of some few poplars, there is a total 
absence of trees ; gooseberry bushes are met with on 
all sides, but their fruit only ripens at a very late sea- 
son. 

On the 12th of August, we accomplished the crossing 
of one of the most formidable passes, that of HimaAKtrKa, 
■ — twelve thousand feet high, — to the head of which wa 
ascended by comparatively easy mountain paths, over 
acclivities covered with masses of travelled limestone. 
The descent on the oHier side, however, proved propor- 
tionably steep, as we scrambled down to the deep-cut 
glen of a mountain stream, to trace its onward course. 
Our path wound in a serpentine manner along the 
boulder-covered steeps, lower and lower still, till at last 
we saw lying before us the apricot groves and the deep 
hollow of the vale of Sungnum. 

SuDgnum is a considerable village, containing some 
forty dwelling-houses, and a great number of sm^ 
store-houses, which appear like wooden boxes. A tem- 
ple of somewhat recent date, and a multitude of Chokh- 
dens, neatly wrought in wood, and placed beside the 



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soowHinsi. 457 

Looses in groups of three, — grey, wliite, and yellow, — 
mark the zealous Lama-woRship of the place. 

We heard in this Ullage exceedingly pretty singing. 
The women of Hang had also charmed us with several 
very pleasing melodies, which however, owing to their 
sudden transitions and modulations, and the habit of 
melting the notes into each other, are peculiarly difficult 
to recollect or to note down. One song which we had 
heard even at Lippa and at Namdja, had a more marked 
air than all the rest; they called it " Soongitameok." 
Whether the name of the place Boongnum has any con- 
nection with the tune, I know not. It has three strophes, 
and while one division of the chorus sustains the con- 
cluding notefe of the second, the other joins in with the 
third strophe. Occasionally also they repeat a strophe 
according to the character of the words they sing to it, 
which they vary each time at pleasure. 

The tilled lands of Soongnum lie on either side of the 
little river Bonkioo; their crops are barley and "pha- 
pur." The necessary purchases and other preparations 
for our further journey obliged us to rest one day at 
this plaoe; we therefore pursued our peregrinations on 
the .14th along the valley of the Ruskalosq, passing 
close below a very elegant temple, picturesquely situated 
on the brink of the naked and commanding rock, not 
fer from the little hamlet of Ruakalong. These "Lama 
Devala" are usually two stories high, and painted white, 
with the exception of the two balconies of the upper 
story, which are almost always black. The roof is paint- 
ed red, and intersected by little grooves, formed like 
gutters; it is surmounted by several small, yellow-roofed, 
pointed turrete. 

After the pasMige of the river, we ^ain scaled a steep 
acclivity covered with loose slate, with here and there 
some few strai^hng Deodara cedars an3 Neoza pines, — 



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468 BEMtTNG PASa. 

poor and dwarfiah treea. Still the ascent continued, 
tedious and aeTere, and before long, we left all trace of 
wood behind ua : bushes of honey-auckle and stunted 
cypresses bordered our path till we gained an elevation 
often thousand feet, when we found ourselves surround- 
ed by a wide-apreading carpet of polygonum, blue ge- 
raniums, and dock, interrupted here and there by a 
desolate surface of broken rock, unadorned by a single 
plant. On the crest of the Bbmcho pass, I found, to 
ray surprise, Spurge growing in great abundance, ex- 
actly similar to our own, — the Euphorbia etdgua. On 
the other side of this summit we caught a distant view 
of Kanum ; and, proceeding in the direction of Labning, 
along the naked top of the lofty mountain ridge, we 
reached our appointed camp at Tapung, still consider- 
ably higher than the latter vill^e. 

During the whole of this march, but more especially 
on the highest part of the pass, we had to fight against 
a violent south wind, and towards evening ^he atmo- 
sphere became decidedly chilly. The thermometer fell 
at eight o'clock p.m. to 7° (48" Fahrenheit). ' We saw on 
our way a flock of strong, large-boned goats, laden with 
salt, coming from Thibet, via Nako. In these mountain 
regions, salt is very highly valued as an article of trade. 
At Leeo I saw a woman who had, attached to her man- 
tle, a little purse filled with salt. To my inquiry, what 
was contained in that little bag, she replied that it was 
fiill of "Loo:" these people give it to their children as 
we do sugar, by way of a dainty. 

On the following day, we once more reached the banks 
of the Sutlej, where I was struck by the remarkable 
difference between the forest clothing of the mountains 
along that river, and of those on the other side of the 
Benung pass, although the geognoatical formation con^ 
tinues the same. Here they are green with cypressee^ 



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EETtJBN TO LIPP4 AHD CHBBNEB. 459 

Neoza pines and cedars, and soon we entered a cedar 
forest, which was all alive with the loud chirping of a 
species of large Cicoiia (frog-hopper.) 

After traversing the scene of this sylvan concert, we 
reached the banks of a small rivulet, the point of junction 
with our former road, which now led us the same evening 
once more to Lippa. There I found, to my great joy, 
every one of the patients who had been brought to me on 
our first visit, perfectly cured. From Lippa we followed 
our old track across the ERREira pass, — which seemed in 
the ascent infinitely longer than it had done before, — 
to Pangbb; and thence on the l7th of August, we pro- 
ceeded, by way of Cheenee, on the dilk road down the 
valley of the Sutlej. 

Cheeneb appeared, in the glorious weather with which 
we were now favoured, far more pleasant and inviting 
than it had done on our previous visit. Much of the snow 
which then covered the mountain had now thawed, and 
what remained was rapidly melting. We often heard the 
thunder of an avalanche though we never saw its course. 
The fields were already covered with the young and ten- 
der verdure of the second crop, — the blossoming "pha- 
pu/F;" and beautiful, ripe clusters of purple grapes, — the 
fruit of a long, oval form, — were bestowed upon us in 
lavish abundance both at Jengera and at Clieenee. The 
people were just then busily engaged in preparing the 
grapes for transport to Simla, and already large baskets 
were standing packed. 

In the evening a procession, the distant sound of which 
we had heard for hours before, passed by our tent. A 
lai^ ark, hung with drapery, on the centre of which 
towered a gigantic red plume composed of several yak- 
tails, was borne on the shoulders of two men ; it was pre- 
ceded by two trumpeters, labouring with distended 
cheeks to blow their unwieldy instruments, full six 
feet long; next to them marched drummers, beating 



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460 FETOHIHO HOME IT&E SHBIHB. 



hand-kettle-drums of various sizes; cymbal players, and 
several other musicians, with divers serpentine trumpets. 
We followed in the rear of the loug train till it reached 
the temple, where the end of the ceremony consisted in 
the bearers of the ark raising it on high, and Betting it 
in motion with vibrations of great violence, and of as 
bold a swing as the length of the staves would permit. 
. The name of the divinity inhabiting the ark was vari- 
ously reported to us; but " Takoo" seemed to be the 
prevailing designation. The people of Cheenee had been 
fetching home the ark, — their holiest shrine, — from ano- 
ther place, where it had been, for a considerable time, in 
a temple, united with other gods. 

A total change had been manifest in the vegetation, 
ever since we had again set foot on solid granite, 
which, on this side of the glen of the Lesa, beyond 
Lippa, takes the place of the clay-slate. It seems 
almost as if the granite favoured the growth of the cedar 
and the fir. Wherever the declivities of this formation 
are not too steep and nigged, there may always be seen 
the sombre verdure of forests of dmifercB; shooting up 
from the clefts of the rocks, the umbrageous, terraced 
foliage of the shapely Deodar^ which, blending with 
the tender green of the cultivated fields, the smiling 
loveliness of the nestled villages, and the tumultuous 
career of the roaring Thihetian river deep below, — the 
windings of which may be distinctly traced from all the 
higherpoints, — gives to the valley asingularly picturesque 
character. Every treeless slope, every craggy summit is 
enamelled with an exquisite meadow itora, and the dell 
of each little rivulet is luxuriantly adorned with splen- 
did flowering plants, Genrumder, (Foi^t-me-not) Salvia, 
Spircea, and a variety of Baisammew and of UvrtbeUiferw. 

On the 20th of August, followed by a train of forty- 
five coolies, we set out from Cheenee, to descend the 
valley of the Sutlej. Our march began with the vseesA 



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HEBBOO JlSD IT3 APUBIES. 461 

of a considerable acclivity, from which we enjoyed a 
view of the villages on the opposite bank, which we had 
formerly passed through, — Barung and Mebur; altoge- 
ther a charming landscape ! 

Ascending by a rocky path, we were soon far above 
the region of trees: our way led us so far south-ward 
that we looked upon the confluence of the Buspa and 
the Sutlej at no great distance from us: the former 
river ia not more than half as broad as that into which 
it falls. 

Passing through the glen of many a mountain stream, 
— in which from time to time my attention was attract- 
ed by signs of tropical vegetation, — and scaling many a 
steep height, we arrived, after a seven hours' march, at 
the village of Mbbroo. The culture of the vine is not 
attempted here, and the apricots are very bad; however, 
the surrounding district seems rich in corn, and I ob- 
served a super-abundant devotion to the nurture of 
bees. One small house was quite enveloped in swarms 
of them, and indeed I soon discovered that their light- 
ing holes were in the first floor: the bee-hives, — which, 
on receiving permission to enter, I proceeded to inspect 
more closely, — consist merely of cells in the walls, about 
eight inches in depth by eiz in height, very insufficient- 
ly closed towards the interior with a sort of matted 
covering. The bees were buzzing through the whole 
house most peaceably, in the midst of the utensils and 
furniture, and of the inhabitants themselves. 

"We traversed, on the following day, — after passing 
the steep banks of the little stream Joola, — one of the 
most delightful regions imaginable, arrayed in rich 
vegetation, and affording numberless charms to beguile 
the way. Trees of spreading branches and leafy bowers 
were once more seen in greater abundance ; we pene- 
trated the deep recesses of a dense forest of horse-chest- 
nuts and walnut trees, with tall and sturdy stems; 



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4ftZ ■ tJESHE— CHEEGAOIf." 

crystal brookB were jnurmuring beneath their welcome 
shade; and the tender, emerald turf was a refreshment 
of which our eyes had been too long deprived. 

Soon after we had issued forth from the wood, we 
came in sight of the neat, flat-roofed dwellings of TTa- 
HBE, built half of stone and half of wood, above which 
rises, in the centre of the place, the "Deval" with its two 
galleries, and the beautifully carved gable-end o( its 
roof. This little village, — with its pretty, variegated 
houses, painted brown and white and richly ornamented 
with wood-carving, and the beautiful mountain land- 
scape around, — has a very Swiss air: a few vine-bowers 
appear somewhat lower down on the near bank, wLieh 
is clothed with beautiful tree^ chiefly pear and apri- 
cot, alder and oak. The Sutlej, rolling along at a great 
depth below, abruptly severs this soft and richly-wood- 
ed slope, with its picturesque fore-ground and brilliant 
tints, from the bold precipices of the opposite mountain, 
which towers aloft in rugged grandeur, rendered more 
gloomy by the thick and sable forest of Deodaraa. The 
grapes of ITrnee were not yet ripe, while those of Poo- 
aree, situated at a much greater elevation, had been 
gathered a week before; we had here reached tlie limit 
of the cultivation of the vine, and we were, at the same 
time, to bid farewell to the apricots; beyond this place 
not another roof ruddy with its stores of fruit is to be 
seen. 

The hank along which we were now to thread our 
way beyond Umee is but scantily wooded, and so extra- 
ordinarily steep that in more than one place we looked 
down an almost perpendicular precipice, at least a thou- 
sand feet in depth, upon the waters of the Sutlej. 
Following the narrow gorge, we descended the cliffs by a 
rough and stony path, to our resting-place at Chbeoaon 
(Siroonq). 

This is one of the most enchanting villages I ever 



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dTLIHABt OPEBATIOKS. 463 

saw. . Its lofty terraces rise one above another, ia tlie 
midst of gigantic nut-trees, from a spacious and verdant 
lawn, which occupies the lowest spot and which we 
selected for our encampment. At the extremity of this 
open green, stands a tasteful "Deval" with beautiPuIly 
carved galleries, and a conical, pointed roof; beside it a 
tall, tower-like edifice of five stories, the approach to 
which ia by a Sight of steps. All the houses of the 
village are cleanly and in go§d condition. We made 
our way into their interiors without ceremony; the in- 
mates submitting to our impertinence with a very good 
grace, and leaving ua at full liberty to do whatever we 
chose. 

A ledge of planks, or a sort of wooden balcony with- 
out balustrade, surrounds the upper story, to which the 
ascent is by a primitive ladder-tree; but the entrance 
ia at the opposite side, at the very furthest point from 
the stair, so that, to enter the family apartment, — which 
receives its only modicum of light through the door, — 
it is necessary to perform the circuit of the entire dwel- 
ling. In the first of these into which we pried, the neat 
and cleanly house-wife was engaged in preparing a sort 
of electuary or mannaiade of peaches, (known by the 
name of "Aruka") while her spouse was busy kneading 
the "Shepatty" dough for those barley cakes which here 
supply the place of bread. A little band of pretty chil- 
dren crept away at the startling sight of foreigners, and 
seemed to shrink from us with extreme terror. 

The houses here, as in many villages we had before 
seen, stand so near each other that the neighbours can 
step across from roof to roof; and the family groups 
might generally be seen assembled on the Iiouse-tops. 
The interstices between the houses are filled up with 
tangled hedges of hemp, — eight or nine feet high, — 
stinging nettles, and a species of gourd, called "Tomha," 
r-with a white blossom, and a juicy fruit about as large 



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464 WANOTOO BBIDQB-nSETJAB. 

aa aa infant's liead,~~wliich luxuriates ia rank, profu- 

At the foot of the fligUt <^ steps which leads up to 
the highest ternice, we saw a young damsel diligently 
employed in pounding apricot-kernela in a wooden mor- 
tar: they are much iised here, as from them Is extracted 
a very fine oil with an agreeable flavour, resembling 
that of bitter almonds. Thi^ maiden had veiy pleasing 
features; and the miUer-girla too, who were watching 
the small "Pandzeckies," in which the millet ("Cheena"/ 
18 ground, were really uncommonly pretty. 

The vegetable world assumed a more and more rich 
and varied aspect, as we advanced lower and lower in 
the valley of the Sutlej, The tropical forma in these 
more southerly regiona became increasingly manifest in 
the bamboos, the caper-bushes, the creeping fig-trees, 
Bignonias, Ddlhergias, and beautiful and fragrant varie- 
ties of Clemaiit. Peculiarly luxuriant in this redund- 
ancy of superb plants is the vale of the rushing Baba, 
which river, on the 22d of August, we crossed by a san- 
gho, not far from its junction with the Sutlej. A quarter 
of an hour's march beyond that point, brought us to 
the Wanqtoo bridge, — the first structure really deserving 
the appellation of bridge, — and by it we crossed to the 
southern bank of the Sutlej. Magnificent indeed is the 
moimtain scenery which here surrounds the wild and 
roaring river; its rugged and indented banks rise ab- 
ruptly, bearing amid their rocky pinnacles a noble 
diadem of forests, while, in the back-ground, — forming 
a narrow vista between them, — extends the green and 
shady valley of the Baba. 

We rested, after our fatiguing journey, in the villajge 
of Nbktjar; for the scaling of the steep mountain on 
the left bank of the river is no easy matter. Our next 
day's wayfarings (the 23d of August) led us for at least 
an hour, through a forest of oak and pear-trees, which, 



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TEANDA'-SCENBBT OF THE LOWEB SUTLGJ. 465 

witli ita goi^ous profusion of flowering balsams and 
gloxinias, scattered over a velvet turf of liveliest green, 
seemed like nothing but the most richly adorned park. 
When this came to an end, the ConifercB, — Seodaras, 
Rot firs, and Ched pines, — again predominated in the 
sylvan scene that bordered our path. In the heart of 
the forest lies the village of Paho, with its beautiful and 
picturesquely situated temple. Among the trees of the 
wood are several of gigantic size: one Cedar we mea- 
sured, and found to be thirty-six feet in circumference. 
Beside the twin streams of the Soldako, — the banks 
of which are clothed with Morus, Melia, several beautiful 
species ofDolichoa, and yellow-flowering Orchtdeie, — we 
quitted the wood for a long and arduous ascent. On 
the other side of this mountain, — which is said to abound 
with bears, — we penetrated once more into the cool and 
shady recesses of the cedar-forest, in which we pitched 
our tents, iipmediately above the village of Teanda. A 
violent thunder-storm, with deluges of rain, prevented 
Dur advancing further: it raged till about five o'clock. 
As soon 3s its fury was exhausted, we scaled one of the 
heights near our camp, from which we commanded a most 
glorious view of the extensive mountain landscape; the 
snow-capped peaks of Kotghur piercing the north-west- 
em sky with their sharp needles and serrated outlines; 
another range of pointed, silvery mountains, sublime in 
their stupendous height, extending far to the south- 
south-oast; while, at a depth of fully fifteen hundred 
feet below our point of view, the Sutlej was rolling along 
ita narrow gorge. 

The freshness and luxuriance of vegetation continues 
unchanged in those parts of the river's wild defile which 
we traversed on the following day. Tho clothing of 
noble wood gives to the rugged mountains an air of rich- 
ness and of life, and the emerald pasturage of every hol- 
low glade and every level spot throws into the graver 



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466 HANJOOTEB DAHDA BIDOE. 

laDdscape gleams of brilliant and tender hae, while the 
couDtlees torrents, leaping in beautiful cascades from 
the beetling precipices which form the ramparta of the 
glen, add grace and variety to the scene. The forest 
is by no means very thick, and there is a lack of un- 
der-wood, resulting probably from the conflagrations 
of the long grass before the rainy season ; but this 
favours the exquisite and lavish verdure, which covers 
the ground wherever there is sufficient moisture, in 
many places so luxuriant, that we were buried in it up to 
the waist: the trees, maple, — ash, bhansh-oak, — beard- 
tree, mulberry, and rhododendron, — form a close and coa- 
tinuoua bower, affording the most grateful shade; the 
path ia bordered, moreover, by a thick hedge of ama- 
ranth, balsams, hemp, and a multitude of papilionaceous 
flowers: here and there a solitary fig-tree presents itself, 
and a species of yellow-flowering cucumber twines its 
elegant festoons over the tall beard-tree. Perpetually, 
throughout this day's march, we eame to rocky grottoes 
in which cool and crystal fountains bubble forth amid 
a frame-work of various balsams, the blue fiowers of a 
splendid gloxinia and the slender ears of a species of 
spurrey. 

Immediately beyond the confluence of a small stream, 
—the Chohda, — with the Sutlej, a lateral spur of the 
mountain ridge extends to the margin of the water; it 
bears the name of Mahjooi^b Dahsa, and rises to an 
elevation of about two thousand feet above the river; 
its ascent is, however, not very difficult, as the path 
winds gradually up its flank. From the crest of this 
pass we looted down upon two small river-glens on the 
opposite bank of the Sutlej, — with their rippling brooks 
glancing in the sunshine, — and upon the lovely villi^e 
otEyao, while to the aouth-weat, at a much greater dis- 
tance, we could descry the loftier buildings of Sebah. 
The descent of Manjootee Danda is accomplished by 



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AaKIVAL AT BEEAN. 467 

gentle 2dgzags, and ofTera more than one picture of un- 
rivalled beauty j^harming and sequestered nooks, where 
water-falls, grottoes, blossoming slirubs, and rivulets 
murmuring beneath the rich traceiy of cucumber ten- 
drils, or sparkling along a carpet of enamelled sward, ex- 
quisitely chequer the fairy-like scene. 

In one of these dells we were met by an ambassador 
from the Eajah of Bissahir, leading an elegantly capari- 
soned horse, which he had been dispatched to offer to 
the Prince for his entry into Seran. His Royal High- 
ness however begged to decline making a public entry, 
or being received with any ceremony, 

A "Deval," and the Palace of the Rajah of Bissahir, — 
hia summer residence,— were the first features of tlie 
town of Seran which caught the eye as we descended to 
it. The temple is an extensive edifice, surrounded by a 
gallery immediately below the overhanging roof; beside 
it rises the actual "Deval," a tall, white, tower-like 
Btructure, terminating in a truncated cone; it stands be- 
tween the sanctuary and the abode of the Rajah, which 
is a simple and unpretending fabric, two stories high. 
Behind this range of buildings hes concealed the group 
of lowly dwellings, dignified with the name of Seran, — 
in reality, a miserable village, composed of a few half- 
ruinous, one-storied houses. 

Tents were ready pitched in this place, affording 
ample room to accommodate us all. Before long, a crowd 
of the curious had assembled to gaze at ua; young inen 
and boys especially, flocked together in great numbers 
from every quarter. They were fine looking youths, 
with frank countenances: some of the older people also 
had an exceedingly pleasing expression. The " Bakoo," 
or smock-frock, the woollen drawers, and the broad 
woollen belt of the mountaineers, are no longer found 
here; and the flat, brown woollen caps are more rarely 
worn. The women are shy, and did not often make 



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468 DEUGBTS or THE BATH. 

their appearance; their prevalent head-dress is sttll the 
same as in Pocuuee, — the long phtits and bushy tnft of 
red wool behind the head, — but a white kerchief is here 
generally thrown over it. The long, party-colotired web 
of woollen Btu^ fastened on the leit breast with the 
Pitzook, or brooch, is also still the usual costume. 
The burden of labour and drudgery of every sort ap- 
pears to be laid specially on the women; at least we 
almost always saw them going about with lat^ baskets, 
— round, but tapering down to a point, — on tbeir backs: 
almost eveiy thing is carried in these baskets,— eveo 
water, which is, for this purpose, poured into huge bra- 
zen flagons. 

We had scarcely established ourselveB in our tents, 
when the Rajah sent a liberal supply of fruit for our 
refreshment, — beautiful forced mangoes, grapes, and un- 
ripe peaches, as hard as apples, for in this state it is the 
custom to eat them here. At the same time he an- 
nounced his intention of waiting upon the Prince oa the 
following day. 

It was a lovely evening, but the heat in our tent vaa 
most oppressive; we therefore sought out a spot where 
we might cool ourselves in some limpid stream; a small 
brook, close to our camp, offered one of the meet charming 
bathing-places that couM be imagined. A pure and softly 
rippling rivulet which gushes forth am<»]g the rocky 
heights to the north of Seran, leaps in two beautiful cas- 
cades, over the jagged brink of a precipice richly clothed 
with creepers and coppice: each of these cascades is receiv- 
ed into a little pool below: thick bushes of balsam, syr- 
inga, and gloxinia, surround these basins, whose clear, cool 
waters afford the most delicious refreshment. Near the 
spot where the streams from the two water-falls i^ain 
unite, numerous monuments, in appearance resembling 
ancient tombs, stand beside the water's edge. The same 
iigure seems to be represented on them all, a form clad 



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VISIT OF TBB EAJAH 0¥ BI8SAHIB. w9 

id female Attire, witb the right hand uplifted; on some 
it was repeated six times, each time three figures in a 
row. I failed to obtain any explanation regarding the 
signification of these memorials of antiquity. 

The followiug moniiug (the 25t}i of August) His 
Highness the Ksjah kept us all very long waiting; 
noon had already arrived, when we at last heard the 
sound of trumpets and of drums, announcing his ap- 
proach. The Sovereign appeared on foot; a small, de- 
crepit man, clothed in violet-coloured silk, with morocco- 
leather boots, of the same colour, and a huge and most 
unshapely cap of gold tissue : he was led forward hy the 
Vuzeer (" Bujeer") and another exalted dignitary, both 
arrayed in white. 

Count von and I advanced to meet him; the 

Count took his left, and I his right arm, and so, amid 
the acclamations of the people, and the loud shouts of 
" Maka Rajah," " Maka Rajah!" — we proceeded to the 
tent, where, already, the presents sentbyHisHighnesB as 
precursors of his visit were deposited on large brass dishes. 
Our camp-beds, with Indian shawls thrown over them, 
served as divans, on which the Rajah and his suite im- 
mediately reclined. Our interpreter, Mr Brown, trans- 
lated questions and answers at a brisk rate, and the 
conversation flowed on with vivacity and zest; for the 
aged Rajah, however dulled and enfeebled in his outward 
man, displayed no lack of life and quickness in his 
mind and language. 

Among the presents was a piece of Russian leather, 
which has thus the opportunity of making the great 
round and travelling back to Europe ! There were also 
several singular weapons, and webs of silken and of wool- 
len stufiii, musk hags, and the highly-valued Nerbissi 
root. 

The same ceremonies took place at the departure of 
the Rajah; however, he very politely declined our fur- 



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470 AUDIBNOB IN I^B FALAGB. 

ther escort, not without symptoms of secret uneasi- 
ness. 

• After dinner the Prince returned his viait. The Vu- 
zeer came to conduct us to the palace. Passing through 
a half-dilapidated gateway, surrounded by an eager 
throng of inquisitive spectators, we entered the great 
court, OTer which was spread a baldachin. A grand yet 
simple entrance leads into the interior of the palace, an 
edifice distinguished by the severe and unadorned style 
of mountain architecture. Three elegant silken sofas 
were placed in a circle; behind them and on either 
side, stood hosts of courtiers clad in white, with drawn 
"KhvJcriea" (short sabres) in their hands : a few only were 
marked as heralds by the insignia which they bore, — ^the 
long, gilt staff, separating at the top into two curved 
points. The counter-presents now offered as an acknow- 
ledgment of those received, — in compliance with the 
oriental etiquette of exchanging gifts, — were accepted, 
apparently with great satisfaction, by the Eajah. He 
conversed for a long while with the Prince, and ex- 
pressed a great desire to obtain information concerning 
the position, size and state of our native land, as well as 
to know the name of every sovereign in Germany ; on 
all which subjects it was no easy matter to give his 
Highness an intelligible reply. He refused, through the 
medium of his "Bujeer," to allow us to see his palace; 
excusing himself on the plea that " the gods were in it," 
and only granting us permission to be conducted round 
its outer gallery. 

Altc^ether the audience was a highly interesting 
scene, and one of peculiarly oriental character. By the 
crims6n light of an exquisite evening sky, — a rarity in 
this part of the country, — we wended our way back to 
the tents. 

As we quitted Seran the next morning, after a night 
of incessant rain, the whole of the river-glen was hidden 



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OOOBA— THE BAJAH'S COUHTBT-SEAT. 471 

by a vapoury shroud. We soon reached the end of the 
plain of Sersn, and descended a declivity of some fifteen 
hundred feet to the channel of the Macibeladgadh, wMch 
we crossed by a bridge. During the Bteep ascent on the 
opposite bank, we suffered greatly from the heat, which 
was so oppressive that we could scarcely breathe. A fe* 
trees, — chiefly mulberry, with an underwood of Greuna 
and Garissa, interlaced with the rank tendrils of many a 
vine, — afforded a scanty shade ; but their poverty seemed 
but to enhance the beauty of the forest of noble oaka 
above, which, broken only here and there by the culti- 
vated lands surrounding the numerous villages, continues 
as far as Gooha, 

The Hajah has certainly displayed good taste, in 
causing a country-seat to be erected here; for it is a 
most enchanting spot. We selected, aa our encampment- 
ground, the court which lies inclosed between this new 
palace and the temple. 

As the former is still unoccupied, there was no one 
to ward us off, nor even to deny us access to its inner 
apartments. The building is a perfect square, with a 
small entrance, leading immediately into a spacious 
chamber probably destined for the domestics of the 
household, in which there is a projection covering the 
actual entrance to the interior of the dwelling. In the 
centre of the whole is an open space, with a tank, sur- 
rounded by a neatly carved gallery of cedar-wood, from 
which small doors lead into the dark bed-chambers, and 
larger ones, elegantly ornamented with wood-carving, 
into the apartments of greater size : the second story is 
laiii out on exactly the same plan. The rooms are low, 
and do not exceed twelve feet in length, by from five to 
eight in width. The broad gallery which surrounds the 
second story on the exterior side, is not yet completed. 
It ia covered by the overhanging roof, which is of black 
slate. Opposite to this country-house stands a large, 



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478 EAMPOOB. 

haodacme temple, with a wide and very pretty gaUery, 
and ft high, conical, white roof, surmounted by a falcon 
with a serpent in its beak, sculptured in stone. ' 

A beautiful white clematis twines gracefully round 
the corner of the " Deval," and a rampant brake of 
hemp, nettles and balsams, encircles the picturesque 
group of buildings; wild fig-trees too, — bearing a small, 
dark-blue, eatable fruit, — and tall bushes of Melia and 
of Cariaaa, — among which a species of gourd, with email 
fruit of the brightest yellow, has wreathed its tendrils 
to an aspiring height, — all flourish in wUd luxuriance 
here. Amid many more ordinary plants, my eye was 
caught by a solitary citron-tree, ("Niraboo") adorned 
with a profusion of green fruit, about the size of one's 
fist. 

Ab we started from this place for Rahpoor, we again, 
for the first time since we had quitted Delhi four months 
before, felt the oppressive heat of the flat country. Our 
path, an almost unbroken descent, lay through a forest 
of Cheel pines, in which we crossed several small streams. 
At the last turn of the road, where it bends downward 
to a considerably lower level, Rampoor, the capital of 
Bissabir, situated on a projecting eminence on the banks 
of the Sutlej, was pointed out to us in the dbtance. The 
country through which that river rolls on its rapid cur- 
rent, is, in this part, extremely pleasant ; the banks in- 
deed are yet steep, but they no longer present those 
gigantic mural precipices which we had seen at Rogee, 
or at Cheenee ; and the lowest terrace, — to which the wa- 
ter rises at its full flood in spring, — is clothed with the 
succulent and brilliant verdure of luxuriant pasturage. 

We followed the course of the Sutlej, from Rampoor, 
along easy and well-made roads, on the SOtb of August; 
till, quitting the river-glen, we struck off in a south- 
westerly direction, towards Kotohdb, where we celcr 
brated the termination of our mountain wanderings in a 



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KOIOHUK MISSION ASD S0BOOL8. 47S 

most soleiftnizing manner at tlie home of two Q«rman 
missLOQanes, Messrs Raddph and ProoliDow.* 

These yeiy amittble and excellent men, — the first a 
native of Berlin, the second of Pomerania, — have done 
wisely to settle in this paradise of Kotghur, where 
they have erected very neat and pretty dwellings, aur* 
rounded by a charming park, and have estaUished. a lai^e 
school for the Hindoos, who appear also to flock in num- 
bers to the Chiurch. Thm a foundation seems to be laid 
for forming a Christian Church in Rot^ur; for th« 

* Ageata of tlie Chnnth of England Minonary Society. The Himalajft 
MiBSion, of which Eo%hai ia atill conradered the centre, was establiBbed &t 
the rei^aeBt and with the aasistaace of some of the British reeideotB at Bimla 
and elsewhere, in the jearl&i3, since which time tiie goepel hu b«eniH«ach- 
e4 in the nUages of the djetrict Mid at the uuniol muUu, it Sain; Thibetiui 
sod Hiadui ti^cts h&Te been diatribnted^ medical and aurgicaJ advice and 
airietance giren by thg missionariea; orphan institutionB opened; and day- 
■cho<^ eatid>listied: in 1844 the bojs' scbool, under the charge of Mr Eii> 
do^h, uumbeied from thirty to fort;; while Mn Procknaw had a achool of 
ICQ or twelTe girls, whom she tanght to aew and knit, to read and write. 
Snoe then, the waf ta the PnqjaDb has caoged nme interruption to the la- 
booTB of the nmmaaarisB, who were ol]%ed to Rmore tea a time to Kmla; 
but from the latter part of lS4d, Eot^hur has agun been their heBd-4)uar- 
terB, and their operations are carried on with uninterrupted activity, and not 
wEthont evidenoea of that blessing which alone can gire eucceaa- Another 
step has been laiten la the eitennon of the miavoD towarde Thibet, b; the 
establiahment of a new school at Eepoo, between Kotghur and Rampoor; 
and another school has been opened at Theog, between Kotghur and Smla. 
Mr Procknow nuBtionB tliat many people from the adjacent nllagea, and 
travellen Sicao a distance oome in, aod with the duldren of the schools and 
tile native aerranta from the plains, listen attentively not only Ui the serriceB 
on the Lord's day, but to the daily family worship, at which he bos read and 
eiplained the Sciiptnrea, particalarly the PanJilea, the BemKai. oa. th* 
Hoimt, and the History of the Death and Resurroction of oar Lord. He 
had met on the road between Kotghur and Simla a wandering Lama from 
Chinese Tartaqr, wb« had one of the Thibetian Chrietiair tracts wlueh he 
had received ttom a travelling Zemindar, who told him that a Sat^ had 
distributed many of them at the Bampoor fair the year before: io other in- 
stances these tracts having been distributed in Lower Kunawur and Blsaa- 
hir have been met with and fsund to be read and highly valued in Ctunes* 
Tartary: so that these oleut and unobtrusive messengers of the Owpel, clad 
in no foreign garb, have found their way into the CelesUal Empire itself, 
across th&t very balrier which has 1>een found so impassable for Europeans, 



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474) FjUIBWBLL to the BtJTLBJ. 

mountaineers, though thejr themselves iniked eome &p* 
parent!; only from curiosity to the Church, send their 
children to the school; not one of them however has 
been baptised aa yet, but the boys are admirably well 
instructed, have learned English very quickly, and can 
read the Bible both in English and in Hindui, and in> 
telligently explain what they read. In Germany, these 
two missionaries would doubtless be mere " candidates," 
whereas here, they are already beginning to gather a 
family circle around them. Herr Rudolph yesterday an- 
nounced to us an addition to his, requesting the Prince 
at the same time to stand godfather to Ms child. 

We heard a Hindui sermon, and afterwards a German 
one, which was very excellent, although Herr Proch- 
now has not spoken a word of German for three years. 
I am bringing home with me a Hindui Bible, which I 
received from him. 

On the let of September, we enjoyed, at our early de- 
parture, a farewell view of the lovely valley of the Sutlej, 
bounded on either side by undulating hiUs ; then, turn- 
ing our back upon its charms, we traversed, in a south- 
westerly direction, the hemp-fields of Kotghur, Unfor- 
tunately, owing to a hurt on my foot, I was obliged to 
avail myself of a horse which the Prince had ordered for 
me. Quite unexpectedly we found ourselves in a forest 
of " Kil" firs (Pmus lortffi/oliaj and of " Mohroo" and 
"Bhansh" oaks, and as we penetrated into its deep re- 
cesses, matted with a thick underwood of beard-trees, 
bramble-bushes, balsams and ferns, we seemed suddenly 
transported from the burning zone to a region of ever- 
lasting spring. Many sweet and smiling hamlets, sur- 
rounded by fields of amaranth, are scattered through 
the wood. At one place, where the path winds round 
a river-glen somewhat wider than the others, we caught 
a glimpse of the hill of Hatoo, crowned by the fort of 
Pdbama Eilla, and soon afterwards we reached, aiter 



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AEBITAL AT BIMLA. , *75 

ihe ascent of a ridge some two thousand feet in height, 
the beautiful bungalow of Naoeahda. 

On the 4th of September, we arrived at Simla, the 
English Convalescent station,, where there is a crowd of 
English officers, who have resorted hither with their fa- 
milies in quest of health. The place lies on the same 
level as at Nainethal, but there is this difference be- 
tween them, that the latter is just springing into ex- 
istence, — scarce twenty Englishmen are there, and no 
ladies except the daughters of Mr WOson, — whereas at 
Simla, some hundred and fifty officers reside, half of 
that number being married, and provided with daugh- 
ters or female relatives besides ; in addition to which, 
many widows are settled here, and not a few solitary 
matrons, who console themselves at balls and varied fes- 
tivities for the absence of their lords. 

At the end of our long and wild Himalayan peregri- 
nations, we arrived at the new and handsome English 
hotel in a somewhat barbarian costume; instead of a 
coat was substituted something between a cloak and a 
coat of mail, formed of coarse woollen stuff, — in the 
broad belt confining it at the waist was stuck the cut- 
las; feet shod with sandals by way of shoes, long hair 
combed back over the top of the head, and a rough and 
shaggy beard, completed our grotesque appearance. The 
whole skin of my face had peeled off twice from the re- 
flected glare of the snow, and that which had now suc- 
ceeded it was of a dark brown hue. 

Now, — we draw French kid gloves over our sun-burnt 
hands; force our feet, broadened by exercise, into deli- 
cate dancing-boots ; and never dream of appearing other- 
wise than in dress-coats and white waistcoats; for the 
most rigid etiquette is here observed. How strange 
does it still seem to me when I awake in the morning 
to find myself, not in the dripping tent, but in a com- 
fortable bed-room furnished with all manner of luzu- 



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476 BAZAABS-UOTLEX FtffTTLATION. 

rieB. The lack of pedeBtrian activity too is an unwont- 
ed slaveiy; for our limbs, accustomed to scaling moun- 
tains and to Bcrambting down precipiees, are now exert- 
ed only to pay morning viaits, or to dance polkas at a 
baUt 

There are, at Simla, three great Bazaars, i. e. streets 
consisting only of Bhops and warehouses, occupied chief- 
ly by Cashmere merchants. A great number of native 
artisans also live in this place. Here is to be seen an 
infinite variety of costumes; those of the mountains 
mingling with those of the plains ; Sikhs with the high, 
painted turban, on which they generally wear an iron 
ring with a sharp polished edge, — a dangerous missile; 
Afghans with the red caftan and the noble, flowiog 
beard; and Cashmerians, never failing to display upon 
their persons their beautiful shawls. The latter people 
are usually merchants or tailors, but the goods they sell 
are not suited to my purse. To complete the pictur- 
esque effect of the varied throng, there are the gay and 
motley uniforms of the Indian troops. 

Every evening, after five o'clock, according to Orien- 
tal custom, the most stirring and animated scene be- 
gins; especially in the broad street in which our hotel 
is situated, the so-called " course." 

No one ventures to make his appearance there who is 
not mounted on a handsome horse; or who cannot sport 
the whitest linen, the moat stylish cut of coat or showy 
uniform, and white kid gloves: for one must needs make 
special toilet here, in order to enjoy the open air. Every 
creature is on horseback; even the fair sex dash along 
on fine, spirited, Arab coursers; and many an English 
lady may be seen galloping down the street, followed by 
a train of three or four elegantly equipped ofiicers, while 
others of sedater age, are carried about in " Jampans." 
The "jampan" is a sort of machine, in form resembhng 
an arm-chair, suspended at either side, by means of 



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RETINnES-PA«HIONABI,B SOCIBTTT. 477 

straps, to a sliort pole, and bome on the shoulders of 
bearers in gay and varied liveries ; twelve of tbese har- 
lequin-like fellows running behind. You may thus fons 
some . estimate of tlie immense number of domestics 
constituting the train of a single lady; for these bear- 
ers never move hand or foot in any other employment 
than the carrying of the " jampan." Another set of 
servants is kept for sending round notes, that being 
their only avocation ; then there are some whose whole 
duty it is to beat the clothes, some to sweep the rooms, 
others to lay the table; with shoe-blacks, lamp-lighters, 
■dog-boys (a most important post), horse-keepers, wait- 
ers and porters besides, — each office having its own pe- 
culiar name, all which it costs no small trouble to learn. 

Since the arrival of our tardy steeds, we regularly 
join in the promenade on the " course ;" I indeed only 
for the sake of swelling the number of the Prince's 
suite; for I should much prefer rambling about on foot, 
and shooting birds, this being precisely the season at 
which the yellow Loxia (Grosbeak) and the still almost 
imknown, beautiful red Cuckoo, make their appearance. 
I seldom accomplisb rescuing the morning hoars for any 
such excursion, as we can scarcely ever return home at 
night before two o'clock, A cnstom, you must know, 
reigns in this place, of never sitting down to dinner be- 
fore eight or nine o'clock in the evening. If a hall is 
appended to the entertainment, then a second repast,— 
called " Swpper," — follows at about one in the morning. 
Our own dinner-hour was unalterably fixed at four o'clock, 
but then unfortunately, we scarcely ever dine at home. 

We have now for a long time been enjoying the ease 
and liberty of an hotel, of which, throughout the East 
Indies, as far as the mountains, we were always depriv- 
ed, as we passed on from one Governor or public official 
to another, each of whom indeed placed half his house, 
or at least his best suite of apartments, at the Prince's 



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478 OBNERAL DEBCBIPTION OF BIHLA; 

disposal, but among whose brilliant and friondly hospi- 
talities we were never free to lay aside t}ie white neck- 
cloth, or the French kid gloves. Here, an hotel has re- 
centl; been set up for the accommodation of strangers, 
a thing utterly unheard of in the plains of Hindostan. 
A Frenchman is at the head of the establishment, and 
we find ourselves very well off in his house; at least I, 
BO long inured to sleeping on the moist ground, am un- 
conscious of, and proof against, any wetness of the walls 
or dampness of the floors. Moreover, a couple of old pi- 
ano-fortes 18 to be found here; I have, after trying them, 
selected the best of the two, and have tuned it for the 
Bake of playing some old favourite now and then in the 
evening, or accompanying a duet. 

The town of Simla, when seen from a distance, has a 
most singular effect : it consists almost entirely of a mul- 
titude of detached pavilions; the bazaars only, lying in 
terraces one above another, on the face of a pretty steep 
hill, have a somewhat more connected appearance, and 
might be mistaken, at first siglit, for a village or small 
town. The country-houses, many of them on a large 
scale and very handsome, surrounded by extensive 
"parks" or pleasure-grounds, are scattered here and 
there through the forest, amid the deep shades of huge 
cedars and firs. The above-mentioned " course" leads 
on one side between these villas, sweeping round the 
foot of a hill, to the distance of some miles, while, on 
the other, it extends about as far in a straight line 
The distance from one countiy-house to another is there- 
fore quite extraordinary, and, except on horseback, pay- 
ing a round of visits would be out of the question. 

The immense extent of the place seems at first as- 
tounding, for, in circumference, it is scarcely inferior to 
Calcutta: but soon one begins to discover that the fo- 
rest, in which the whole is built, and behind which it 
-would be natural to imagine a multitude of houses, does. 



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ENTEBTAIHMENT8. i79 

in fact, not conceal any; all the dwellings being situated 
close to the few roads, which run along the base of the 
mountain ridge. 

During our evening rides, we enjoyed most glorious 
views of our old friends, the snowy mountains, whose 
varied labyrinth of peaks and summits forms, when 
seen from this point, a single, long-drawn line in the 
horizon. We can scarcely now persuade ourselves, a« 
we gaze at their majestic outline, that we were actually, 
but a little while since, in their very midst. 

Cray -balls and splendid festivities rapidly succeeded 
each other, and a bal masqu^ was also got up. To my 
great relief, I received a dispensation from the necessity 
of appearing in costume; and the idea of disguising me 
as a mountain lady was also relinquished, in consequence 
of my positively refusing to have my beard cut off. Be- 
sides, it would have been no easy matter to supply tlie 
want of the woolly tuft and of the long mazes of plaited 
hair. It was a bright and merry party; for there are 
here a great many sprightly old ladies, who, loaded with 
perfect gardens of flowers, rush about in the polka witli 
most incredible zeal. They did not however appear, as 
I had heard they were to do, as Dianas or the Graces, 
but on the contrary, in remarkably pretty antiquated cos- 
tumes, hoop petticoats and stiff brocades; the elderly gen- 
tlemen being equipped to correspond. The fancy dresses 
were all very successful, and selected with much taste. 
The Oriental masked travesties were also very nume- 
rous, and natural to a degree which doubtless could 
never have been attained in any other part of the 
world; for you may easily imagine, considering the 
generosity with which all Eastern Princes delight in 
lavishing presents to the right and left, that the British 
officers, many of them newly arrived from the remotest 
parts of the East Indies, having been ordered, now to 
the Punjaub, now to Scinde or Affghanistan, are richly 



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480 UAKEi:&GES. 

•trpptied with oofrtly stuffs, which they can ttrm to ac- 
count only on occasions ea<^ as this. 

There was, however, by no means a lack of young 
ladies ; for the kind and thoughtful relatives at Simla 
never fail to bring up from the plains every thing in the 
shape of young and marriageable nieces or cousins ; and 
here, where so many agreeable officers are stationed for 
pleasure's sake alone, many a youthful pair are thrown 
together, and many a match is made. In the course of 
last week only, two weddings were solemnized; no great 
festivities take place here at such events, anymore than 
in England. The marri^e ceremony is performed in a 
small and miserable church, to which we are obliged to 
go an hour before puhlic worship begins, in order to be 
sure of finding seats. I have certamly never carried 
away much of edification from the service; a number of 
psalma is read, but the manner of it is, that the clergj' 
man reads the first verse, the people the second, and so 
alternately throughout:* it is not till the very end of 
the service, — ^which is long, and in which the same thing 
is repeated two or three times over, — that the Epistle 
and Gospel are read, with a few remarks appended to 
them, instead of a sermon. I have however silently re- 
solved not to enter the place again, having observed a 
large crack in the vaulted ceiling, which threatens to fell 
in before long. 

* The reader will remember not only that, in joining in the Berrice of the 
Charah of EngUiid, our author mw Ihtening to a foreign iKognage, bat that 
tn^bia own countr? he wat aaoDBtMned to a noo-Iitui^cal mode of wonbip. 



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PRINOB WALDSHAB-S FETE CHAMPBTBB, 



SUPPLEMENT TO THE TWELFTH LETTER. 



ITiA October I84S. 
We are to start from this pl&ee, on our iurther jour- 
neyings, next week, our time having slipped away amid 
numberless balls, fetes and dinner-parties, given in honour 
of the Prince by the Commander-in-Chief, by General Sir 
Harry Smith, and by the officers. The finale was an 
exceedingly brilliant (Bte, arranged and given by Prince 
Walderaar himself, in which the whole beau monde of 
Simla took part. It was a kind of fete champ^tre in the 
depth of a lovely valley, beneath giant cedars, which, as 
evening closed in, were lighted by many hundred lamps 
suspended to every branch and twig, forming altogether 
a magnificent saloon witli a magic illumination. The 
fine figures and picturesque costumes, — marking many 
an Oriental ra«e, — among the countless spectators ga- 
thered together from far and near, who, in scattered 
groups, had ranged themselves amphitheatrically on 
the surrounding hills, produced an effect so striking 
that Fancy could hardly picture a more beautiful or 
wondrous scene. On a large floor, laid with cloth, 
which had been put up in the centre of the lawn, before 
three spacious tents hung with elegant drapery, danc- 
ing was carried on, and the collation, — ^the so-called 



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482 . DEPABTDBB FOB FEBOZEPOOB. 

"tiffin," — was served in the middle tent. The splen- 
dour of this fSte has won a great and far-spread fame, 
which indeed it well deserves. 

We are to proceed in a westerly direction Irom Simla, 
through the hunung plains, which, after our long resi- 
dence among the cool and beautiful forests of the 
mountain regions, will be most distasteful to us: our 
first point is to be Ferozepoor; where next we shall go 
after that, ^et remains undecided. 



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THE SIEH INVASION— LOODI AN A.' 



THIBTEENTS LETTEB. 



Is all probability, an abundance of reports, true 
and falae, on the subject of the campaign against the 
Sikhs, — in which, by a strange concatenation of circum- 
stances, I find myself involved, — will spread rapidly 
through all the public journals in Europe ; there seems 
therefore to be no reason for my sufiering you to remain 
any longer iu suspense and anxiety concerning me. 

The state of the case is as follows, — the Sikhs, with a 
force of thirty-six thousand men, have crossed the Sut- 
lej not far from Ferozepoor, which place, with its feeble 
garrison, they thus keep encompassed on every side. 
The news of their invading the British territory caused 
orders to be given, — which had not been expected so 
Boon, — for the departure of all the regiments from Loo- 
diana; these orders were given so suddenly, that even 
the officers of several of the regiments were only in- 
formed of the position of affairs six hours before. We 
had ourselves started from Ferozepoor on the 22d of 
November, in spite of its being rumoured that the Sikhs 
were in motion; and we had returned without delay to 
IiOODlANA, intending to proceed to Uhbala, where our 



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484 HUSTBBINQ OF THE BRITISH ABMT. 

camels and tents bad been ordered to meet us. The 
road ftt>m Ferozepoor to Loodiana is very desolate, and 
the villages are poor and thinly peopled, so that we 
were forced to peiform our palanquin journey, two at a 
time, on three successive evenings; the great heat mak- 
ing it impossible to travel eicept by night. We arriv- 
ed in safety, — without having seen any Sikhs, — at 
Loodiana, where we heard of the movement, and re- 
mained, statu quo, for a fortnight, until the British 
army marched against the aggressors. 



Atchuieo, 17(A ofDKmthtr. 
I can add only a few words, to beg that you will not 
distress yourself on my account. The first days of the 
Sikh campaign are over, — weaiy and bitter days for 
me! One must be a practised horseman indeed, to 
maintain a good seat amidst such a tumult. 

Yesterday, the firat Sikh fort, Wddmee, was taken by 
storm, but the artillery being too weak, the destructioB 
of the citadel was deferred until the arrivaJ of reinforce- 
ments. 

The Sikh force is great and formidable, but the Brit- 
ish army, mustering at this place for the first time to^ 
day, is the largest ever collected in India. To-morrow 
some twenty regiments at least will be assembled her?. 
The noise and tumult, — caused by the many thousand 
camels, the countless elephants, the numerpua train t^ 
women and children accompanying the native troops, 
and the vast multitude of servants and horscrkeepers, — 
baffle all description. There are at least fifty thousand 
men already crowded together here ! 

The Sikh army, shut in between Febozbpoor and 
Atcbbbiko, are cut off from the only ford, and it is 
impossible for them either to advance or to retreat. 



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BATTLE OF MOODKEE. *85 

MooDEBB, 2M qfDicembtr. 

On the morning of the 18th, after a forced march of 
three days, with the BritiBh troops, — consisting of thir- 
teen regiments of infantry, five regiments of cavahy, 
and seven batteries, — we arrived at the village of Mooi>- 
KEE. 

Shortly before the army marched into that place, it 
became known that the Sikhs were on the move; seve- 
ral shots were heard; but the irregular light cavalry 
repulsed the enemy's detachments, so that the British 
took undisputed possession of the village. The tents 
were quickly pitched; but the immense loads of baggage, 
transported on thousands of camels and elephants, and 
in waggons drawn by bullocks, had not yet come up, 
when suddenly, the officers, to a inan, were hurried from 
their hastily snatched morsel of food, to re-mount their 
scarce unsaddled steed»j- and the dead-tired soldiers, 
who had performed on two successive days marches of 
twenty English miles each, were roused from beside 
their boiling kettles by the cry, " The Sikhs are on the 
march!" The British troops advanced at a double quick 
step. I was left in the carap, my horse being completely 
knocked up. At a few minutes before four, the Sikh 
hatteries opened a murderous fire of grape-shot, and 
the battle was begun. The air was thick and sultry; 
the smoke of gunpowder and the fearful dust wrapped 
all in one mysterious gloom; not a foe was to be seen; 
the lightning of the artillery alone marked his position. 
For two hours this cannonade continued, after which 
the Sikh infantry charged at the point of the bayonet, 
but thrice they were repulsed. Not until the blackest 
night had overspread the scene, did the enemy quit 
their position. One solitary Sikh has been taken priso- 
ner; seventeen of the enemy's guns and three standards 
are taken; but the loss on the side of the British, both 
in killed and wounded, is very great. 



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486 VISIT TO THE BATTLB-HELD. 

Several regtmente were left on the battle-field, to 
cover the removal of the wounded, among whom were 
many offlcera. To my unspeakable joy, the Prince and 
the two Counts returned without a single wouni^ al- 
though they had been in tlie hottest of the fire. Some 
one bad alarmed me by the dreadful intelligence ib&t 
one of them had fallen. Three of my dear and excel- 
lent friends have been laid in the dust this day; among 
them was one of the most talented medical men on the 
British stafiT. Anotlier army surgeon has had both his 
legs shot off. 

Yesterday morning, after a night of watching, I set 
out, with a detachment of troops, for the field of battle, 
to render some assistance in bringing in such of the 
wounded as were still lying there. Unfortunately, I 
was under the necessity of leaving my horse in the 
camp. We had scarcely reached the battle-field, when 
we were met by numerous bodies of troops, who had 
received orders to return to the British qaartera with 
all possible speed, the Sikh cavalry being on the marcK 
Notwithstanding this, the officer in command of our 
detachment advanced fully half a mile further. Sud- 
denly, just as we were giving drink to the first few of 
the unhappy sufferers, and preparing to convey them to 
the camp, there appeared, in the horizon, a cloud of 
dust, and several random shots were fired. The com- 
manding officer gave orders to form the line, — but the 
native panic for the Sikhs was too great, the Sepoys one 
and all broke the ranks and fied, and that with such 
swiftness that I could not attempt to keep up with them. 
I followed the road which I supposed to be the best, 
running at a quick pace for some two miles or so; after 
which, the ground became so sandy, that exhausted by 
the difQculty of the way, my strength failed, and I felt, 
to my consternation, the impossibility of traversing the 
remaming three miles with the same desperate ^ed. 



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THE WOOMDED. 4S7 

The shots were approachiog nearer and nearer, and 
with them the thick cloud of dust that concealed the 
file. With great difficulty, I pushed on for another half 
mile; I could then scarcely muster sufficient strength to 
persuade the driver of an elephant laden with the slain, 
to make a halt and to carry me forward with the dead. 
He dragged me up; immediately I became insensihle, 
and with returning conBciousness I found myself in the ' 
camp. A sound sleep soon restored me. 

This morning, a corpse was brought into our tent, with 
an open note, expressing regret and condolence on 
Count von having been killed in the engage- 
ment of the ISth: Ihe slain was, however, a Roman 
Catholic priest, who had accompanied the Irish regi- 
ments. I had seen the body lying on the battle-field, 
and now recognized him by his long, black beard, which 
bad given rise to the mistake. He was actually hewn 
in pieces with sabre cuts. 

To-day, some of the unfortunate wounded have at last 
arrived, after lying for two days and nights on the 
bloody field, — ^the veiy individuals for whom I was yes- 
terday helping to search. Not far from the place from 
which I waa so suddenly forced to retreat, a slightly 
wounded private had both his hands cut off. God be 
prabed ! mine are yet safe and sound; and right actively 
must X exert them, for there is a lamentable deficiency 
of medical attendance in the hospital. 

To-morrow the army is to advance towards Ferozepoor, 
and I cherish a confident hope that we shall get through 
successfully, fresh reinforcements having now arrived. 
Farewell; — may we soon meet again ! 



The goal appointed him was other than his Father- 
land .' 



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488 BATTLE OF PEBOZESHAH. 

The ardent desire, cherished from early childhood, had 
been fuMIIed in a manner tlie most comprehensive, and 
under circumstances the moat propitious. It had been 
his favoured lot, to traverse, in his joumejings beside the 
Prince, a great part of the eastern world, to understaJid 
by personal acquaintance, and to appreciate with enthu- 
Biasm, the varied wonders and the rich luxuriance of 
nature in the East Indies : from all the perils of his long 
wanderings he bad escaped unscathed; neither the 
burning heat of a tropical clime, nor the icy cold of 
the Himalayan mountains had impaired his vigorous 
frame; neither the chasms and precipices of the rocky 
paths, nor the billows of the wild ocean had jeoparded 
his life; from amid the enjoyment of scientific pursuit, 
in the living brightnesB of blooming youth, he was 
called hence by an unthought-of death, and one so sud- 
den that it may almost be called painless. 

The Editor is guided, in his short notice of the imme- 
diate circumstances of his death, by the narrative con- 
tained in the letters of His Royal Highness Prince 
Waldemar, and in those of Count von der Groben. 

On the 21st of December, the British army advanced 
towards Ferozepoor, and encountered the Sikh forces at 
Ferozeshah, their main body being drawn up in a thick 
jungle. A bloody battle ensued. The British troops, 
marching in close array, attacked the enemy; but the 
murderous fire of artillery and grape-shot brought them 
to a stand. At this critical juncture, the Governor- 
General, Lord Hardinge, himself rode along the front 
ranks, encouraging them to the onset. Prince Walde- 
mar accompanied him, surrounded by his fellow-travel- 
lers. While riding close beside the Prince, whom, in 
this moment of extreme danger, he refused to quit, Dr 
HoflTmeister was struck by a grape-shot, which entered 
his temple. He fell forward to the ground. The Prince 
instantly sprang from his horse, and raised him; but the 



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DEATH OP DR HOFFMBISTEE. 489 

vital spark liad already fled ; at the same moment, the 
advance of the forces rendered it necessary to move on. 
The slain were unavoidably left on the field of battle. 
Not until two days had elapsed, was it possible to inter 
them. 

He was laid in the same tomb with several of his 
friends who fell on that bloody day; and a simple mo- 
nument in the burial-ground at Ferozepoor, erected by 
the Prince to the memory of his faithiul physician and 
beloved companion, records his tragic fate, and marks 
his journey's utmost bourn. 



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APPENDIX. 



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APPENDIX I. 



i)S THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE CONIFERJl, 
ON THE HIMALAYAS MOUNTAINS. 



(fBOH a H^ tDDRBSSSD TO BAMW VON HDUBOLDt.) 

SiBli, ISa of Ottober, 1846. 

Amid materials so copious and varied as thoae which now lie 
.before, me, it is no eas; task to select such as may be right and 
suitable, to prove to you that I have not passed with closed 
eyes through this most interesting portion of our traveU. In 
-this view alone, not with the idea of imparting to you any 
thing new, I now undertake to write down for your perusal, a 
few short notices on the Coniferte of the Himalayas, and espe- 
.ciallj on their geographical distribution. Much has been done 
of late towards the definite arrangement of the various species; 
and accurate and minute descriptions have been published, — 
among the rest by my amiable and accomplished friend, Ci^ 
t^n Madden, in the Quarterly Medical and Literary Journal, 
Delhi, 1845; pp. 34 — 118, — with which you are probably already 
familiar. The subject of their geographical distribution has, 
however, as far as I have observed, been hitherto left, to a 
great degree, in uncertainty; few of the English botanists hav- 
ing enjoyed an opportunity of seeing, at one view, so great a 
part of the Himalayan region. 

The number of the different species of Coniferse which 1 have 
seen amounts to eleven or twelve, viz : — 

.Three Pines: Pinm longif<Aia, Lambebt, 

J'.exceUa, Lahbbbt, 

F. Gerardiana, Lahbebt; 



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♦94 APPBNDIX. 

One Spruce Fir : Ficea Morinda, Link, 

m Abkt Smiihiana, Lo(7im>k. 

Two SilTer Fire: Afn^Pindnm, Roile, 

A. Weitbiana,^ Pinbtcn WoBussEirsB. 

One Cedar: Cedrus Deodara,. LeitDoir. 

One CTprees, or perhaps two : Ctipre»fwtorvicta,...LA]tB^.T. 

Two Jnnipera : Junipena exedia, Bibbbbbtein. 

J.»qitamo$a, Doir. 

One Yew : Taxut btKcata f 

The Southemmoet point from which onr mountain wander- 
ings began, was Naikfthal, situated on the kke of the sam« 
name, at a height of 6500 feet above the level of the sea; Long. 
81" 48', Lat 39» 88'. At this place, there is a highly interest- 
ing forest of Cvprattu toruloxt; containing trees of forty feet 
in height on the Northern acclivities, and extending to an ele- 
vation of 8,500 feet on the summit of the Choohak mountain. 
Tfa« Bonthen aeclivities, on the other hand, are clothed with 
Fmtia lonffifoUa, — trees of from fiO to 80 feet in height. The 
latter is aveiybeautiful pine; ita leaves are generally ghtee green, 
■nd grow three in one sheath. This tree is distinguished ftvt& 
tiw Pinm exedta, — a speciee very closely alKed to it, — both by • 
the colour of the leaves, those of the exoeha being always of a 
somewhat greyish green, and by the Cones, those of the latter 
being from 16 to 30 indies in length. The Pinut longi- 
folia continued for a long time the only tree of the Fir- 
tribe along our path, which lay in a direction almost due North- 
ward ; it clothes the Northern and Western elopes of the moun- 
tains on the KoeiLA Gckoa, 6000 — 6500 feet above the sea, — 
the mvunttun ridges from Bojan to Dniw, — ^the lofty crests, 
7000—8000 feet high, on dther side of the Pomdhakhal 
Pass, — and idl the decUvitie^ near the route North-North-West- 
ward, from DwAKA (DoraJ Hath, to the RAitcnjiraA, the out- 
liers of the DuNAOBiRA moontains. In these forests of Pima 
longifoUa, I never saw trees above from 40 to 50 feet in haght, 
tiie custom of bumii^ down the gnisa and the underwood hav- 
ing done great damage everywhere. At Suhiaiti, the "Ckoo- 
loo" Pine, as the Pintie longifalia ie there c^ed, grows, — tc^e- 
ther with. Quetwn lanata imd Myriea »apida,-^~-B,t aa elevation 



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APPBNDIS. *96 

of from 5600 to 6000 feet Beyond that point, some few d«. 
tached woods of pine only, — of what species I was unable to 
distinguish,^ — appear abore Ash Badkl Single pines are also 
met with in the neighbourhood of the |Fort of Chahdpoob; 
but all the surrounding eummita are bare. The gleua of th« 
KuBSALEB NofiDi or Banqalbb Ncddi lie at too great a depth. 
Even the passes in Gamdial, — the Khonkala eal and the 
Pii^KANJ (TiiUkanni) sai^ (from 7500 to 8000 feet above 
the sea) have not one specimen of Conferee on their Southern 
sides; and the Northern slop^ afford nouri^ment only for a 
soantj growth of Taxat. The copper mountain at Dhunfoob 
is perfectly naked on its higher ridges; the deep hollows ai« 
fulomed with thick woods of umbrageous trees. In the valley 
of the Ddseqaob, at an elevation of 6800 feet, I again met 
with a tolerably thick forest of Pmua longifoUa, and it is very 
remarkable that the Chamasropt Martkma, (Waujob) is here 
in inunecUate contact with it, some tall stems of that Palm 
being even scattered in among the pines. The Conifene cease 
at a level of about 1000 feet above the channel of the Alaca 
MANDA, and re-appear somewhat lower, at an elevation of about 
1500 feet, on the right bank; from which point they extend 
t)t a distance of five or six miles, on both sides of the small 
river Kdhbgab, reaching as high as the summit of the ridge 
which separates the GAHoaEBaAifD Nnnnr from the Kukboab. 
Beyond that, there are no more Coi».ifer<K; the copper-mine 
hills of PoKRi, doubtless above 6500 feet high, bear only oak. 
I first met with the pine again, in crossing the pass KhaIiB kal, 
climbing the rugged spurs of the Tdnonath Pbak. Here, at 
a height of from 7800- to 8500 feet, appeared for the first time, 
the wonderfully beautiful Abie» Pindrow, perfectly pyramidtd, 
of immense height, and with very short branches. The long, 
flat, dark-green leaves of this tree caused it at first to be mis- 
taken for a Tasm (Waluch). At this pass, it is called 
"Kooloo," but the names vary with every glen, with the 
exception of the Piniis hngifolia and P. exceha, which, 
throughout the Western Himalayas, bear the common name 
of '^Chee^' or " Cheel." The Khonkala kal also marks the 
beginning of the beautiful Silver Fir, Abies Webbiana, a tree 



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496 APPBMDIX. 

which attains & height of some eighty feet, with short, but 
verj white leaves. Both species of AbUs maj probablj be 
reckoned to hare the latitude of this pass, — 30** 30', — for their 
Southern limit. On the descent from Tttngnath, at an ele- 
vation of 6500 feet, I also observed the "ffiji" Fir, Ficea Mo- 
rinda, which bears a great resembltmce to our Abia, being dis- 
tinguished chiefly by its brighter foliage, and more pmnted 
leaves. This appears to be the Southernmost point of geogra- 
phical distribution with this tree also. The defile of the Aoab 
GDNQA, — 4000 feet above the sea, — and that of the Mundaori 
OONOA, with the ridges, 7500 feet high, which lie between them, 
are clothed, on their loftiest points, with oak alone. In like 
manner, there is a total absence of Goniferae on both banks of 
the MuHDAQRl QCMOA, until it receives the waters of the wild 
Kali qunoa. At that place, below the level of the forests of 
Pavia, Jufflatit, and Acer, I found, beside the village of Phata, 
a solitary Deodara Cedar, the first that I had seen : it is of 
great siae, and I have no doubt has been cultivated. The path 
up the right bank of the Mundaobi to GAnarcuND never rises 
above the region of the Amentacece. About two or three miles 
above Gaubicdnd, the attention is first arrested by the tall aud 
majestic form of the AbUs Pindrow peering high on the left 
bank, at an altitude of some 2000 feet above the bed of the 
stream. Not one specimen of the Fir tribe is to be seen on the 
way to Kbdabkath. A dense Oak forest extends as far as 
Bhih Odiab, above which place, at a height of 9000 feet, the 
trees cease one by one, in the following order : Quereui lanala, 
Coryha, Comus, Skododendron arborrum, Syringa, Salix. On 
the opposite summits, un the left bank, the genus Pinu* yet 
appear?, even at this height, but whether the excelta or the 
longifolia, I was unable to decide. From Tiejouqeb Nakain, 
5200 feet above the sea, and situated iii the heart of the Oak 
forest, we crossed right over six or eight trackless mountains, 
some higher, some lower, but all spurs of the Bddbihath clus- 
ter, until we came down upon the Gangbs ( BhaffiraOii) nearly 
opposite to RpiTHAL. The first pass, that of Tsow kal, is 
about 9600 feet high; the limit of arboreous vegetation, at 
an elevation of 8500 feet, is marked t^ Alnva, Betula, and 



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APPENDIX 497 

Populm; Coniferw tu« to be seen only in & hollow, at a depth 
of about 8000 feet, — apparently the Ahies Webbiana. Our 
(lathles? way led on, for full four hours' march, at an elevation 
of from 8600 to 9000 feet. In the descent upon Pawau 
Dahda, we did not come in contact with any Coniferfe, but 
threaded our way through dense and uninterrupted forests of 
Oak, inhabited by multitudes of the Motchu* moschiferue, while 
the gorgeous LophopAorut, disturbed now for the first time, 
was perched on many a bough. In the glen of the BUiIiANG 
river, as far as'tbe village of Gowahha, tJiere Is still nothing 
but oak (three different epeciea) to be eeen. The nest lofty 
pass, eeparating this river-glen from the viJley of KAinnai, 
rises to a height, — according to my own measurement by the 
thermometer,— of 10,580 feet. Nevertheless, 6ven here, the 
forest ends with QTiercus and Eliododendron arboreum, — with 
a thick underwood ni BanO/asa, reaching up to an elevation of 
900Q feet. On all these heights, wherever a gentler slope or 
a surface of table-land permits, immense pnuries of herbaceous 
plants are to be found; Polygonum, Rwmex, tall PotentUke, 
Arum, and Sonckits of from 3 to 5 feet in height tyid such 
thickness that it is a matter of great difficulty to force one's 
way through. This peculiarity, — which I have never met 
with before or since, — characterizes all the lateral spurs of the 
BnnaiNATH group of mountains. The ridge between the val- 
ley of Kathu&a and the two Bhaleouhoa streams, — scarcely 
inferior in height to the last, being 10,400 feet above the sea, 
— is clothed with a vegetation similar in kind, jet even more 
giguitic : there are, at a level of 9000 feet, several very inter- 
esting lakes. The nest pass, beyond the BnALEOtiH.aA, is ex- 
ceedingly steep; its south-eastern side is destitute of all Coni- 
ferae; but, on the other hand, descending from the culminating 
point which is 10,700 "feet high, at an elevation of 8500 feet 
on the nortb-weet slope, begins one of the moat splendid fo- 
rests of Conifirw I ever saw : the deep gorge of the Pblang 
NnoDY, in particular, is rich with the loftiest apecimena of the 
AbUs Pindroui, certainly eiceeding 300 feet in height, and 
measuring from 15 to 20 in circumference,— .i 6 ie« Wdbi- 
ana shooting up to 160 feet, — and Pkea Murinda scarcely in- 



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498 APPENDIX. 

ferior to it. The Pindtvw is here called "Morin" "Morind" 
and " Moorinda-" the oame given to the Red Fir or Pieea Mo- 
rinda is '* Roi." Id the glen of the PilIiOaon, the oak rei^a 
alone, with a thick jungle of bamboo. The last pass before 
entering the valle; of the Ganobs ia steep to the greatest de- 
gree, although its elevation doee not exceed 0700 feet. The 
highest STimmits are still clothed with forests, and oak forests 
too ; but very near the crest of the ridge, on the descent of the 
north-western side, begins an extensive fir wood, — first Ahies 
Pindrow, then Ahia WditiaTia, then, from a level of 8000 feet 
down to one of 6500, the Picea Morinda. At the latter alti- 
tude, the Pinvt exeeUa also occurs, but few and far between. 
Some specimens of the Pindrow here measure from 30 t« 40 
feet in circumference ; those of the "Mo^' Fir (Picea Morinda,) 
from 15 to 20 feet. It is a giant forest, and among its majestic 
trees are the tallest specimens of Coniferte that I have seen 
among the Himalayas. On the left bank of the Ganges, above 
Rbithal, at a height of 800 feet above the stream, begins a 
thin wood of Pitim exceha, extending to a distance of about 
eight or nine miles. This tree is most unworthy of its name, 
for specimens of more than from 40 to 50 feet in height are 
great rarities. Near the Falls of thb Ganges, not much 
above the level of the stream, the Pinva excelta occurs on the 
left bank, together with the P. Imgifolia. The Roi Fir ascends 
on either side of the river, but only a solitary tree here and 
there. At Danoool, on the left bank, at an elevation of 7500 
feet, there is a forest of Hippophae, Populua, Moms, and 
Grewia, with a few Roi Firs scattered singly through it. From 
Danoool to Sookbee, the rocks are nearly bare. The latter 
place ties amid forests of Pavia and Juglam, and not a tree of 
the Fir tribe is near it, though its level is 1000 feet above the 
stream. It is not till near the succe^ive confluences of the 
three rivers, the Shban-oadh, the Hkrsile, and the QoouTr, 
with the Qanoes, that, on the right bank of that river, not for 
from the vilhige of Jalla, the CEDAR FOREST begins; it 
soon appears on the left hank also, and stretches, in vast mas- 
ses, irom the margin of the here shallow stream to a height of 
1000 feet, extending above the level of Dhbralee on the left, 



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APPENDIX. 499 

and of MooKBA on the right bank, and above Bhaibahoatteb 
on the Jahnbvi Gdnoa, and continuing along the BBAaiRATni 
itself, almoet without interruption, as far as Guhqotri, and 
even a daj's march beyond that place. It is found in its 
greatest perfection between Dueralbe and BHAiKAHaATrEB, al- 
though even near Gunootbi single trees of Irom 10 to 12 feet 
in circumference, and from 50 to 80 in height, occur. On the 
Hbbsii^ and the Gooutt; the Oedrus Deodara also extends to 
a considerable distance, but reaching onlja height of some 800 
feet above their respective chtmnela. Thua the latitude of 
31° 3' appears to be the southern limit of the Deodara Cedar, 
which nearly corresponds with the elevation of Simla, where it 
occurs very frequently, although not in great petfection. 

On the mountains above Mooeba, at an elevation of 11,000 
feet, a very dwarf Cypre»s is met with, covering large tracts. 
Above the course of the HEasiLE the Cedar ceases ; the Pinus 
exceha, together with the Picea Mortnda, ascends, though but 
thinly scattered and not wide-spread, about 200 feet higher; 
after which, among the meadow-glens of the numerous foun- 
tains of waters, — the sources and confluents of the Goomty, — 
arboreous vegetation finally terminates with a' wood of Corylua 
and Betvia, at the level of Foolal Daboo, 11,500 feet above 
the sea. The Juniperue squamosa ceases simultaneously with 
the Betula. Beyond the snowy pass of the Lama Kaoa, 16,000 
feet in height, appears, among the sources of the BrsPA, a Cy- 
pj-eis of very low growth, which supplied us with fuel. I be- 
lieve this to be a new species of Cupre»ms, distinct from the 
C. toruloaa. It grows at an elevation of from 14,000 to 15,000 
feet, and also occurs ^ain at the point where the bed of the 
BnspA aaaumes its contracted and rocky character, a day's march 
and a half lower down, where it is clearly recognized as differ- 
. ent from the Juniperus, by the inhabitants of Chetkool, who 
find it of no use in the preparation of Juniper-brandy. The genus 
Pinvx first begins again, long after the Betula, on the left bank 
of the BusPA, about six miles above Chetkool. Apparently it 
is the Pinua exceisa, growing at a height of 11,500 feet. Not 
until Chetkool do forests of P. exceha appear upon the right 
bank also; that tree is there called the "Linna" The "Roi' 



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c ) 



500 APPB 

Fir, (Picea Morinda) here known by the nMne of "Marm," 
begins, Bimultaneoualy with th« genus Popvlui, at the altitude 
of Kaqsam, 9000 feet, and on either bank of the rirer. Far 
below Ragsam, at the confluence of the Bbbasn Nuddy on the 
right bank of the Bdbpa, the Cedar, — ^here called " Kjdmang^ 
— reappears ; and at Scngla it is met with in great perfection, 
together with the Pvau* txcdm, particularlf on the less culti- 
vated left bank, at a height of 800 feet above the etream. The 
entire slope of the Habdno Pass tonards the eouth-south-east, 
is destitute of all wood. On the other hand, upon the north- 
west aide, the Ooni/era present themBeWea in large masses, ex- 
tending from the summit down to the level of the Sutlej. This 
seems to be a general focus for all the pinee of the Himalayas; 
they are aU found here. First appears the Piniu excelta, con- 
jointly with the Rhododendron campanulatuta, immediately 
below the summit, at a height of 10,600 feet Some 600 feet 
lower down begins the Abie» Wdibiana, here called " Eoorooi" 
almost immediately after it, the Picea Morinda, and nest to it 
agtun, 500 feet lower down, the Ahiet Pindrow, but only singly. 
All these four coatinue down to Mebuk (Mdibar) a level of 
9500 feet : close below this place the Cedrut Deodara b^ins 
to predominate exclusively : fflngly, it occurs higher up. 

AboTe the village of Bakdhg, 8400 feet high, I met with the first 
" Neoza pine" (Pinvs Qerardiana), a tree peculiar to the Sotlbj. 
It continues in a beautiful and uninterrupted forest down to 
PooAREB, a level of 5800 feet On the right bank of the Sctlu, 
at the elevation of Chbunee, 9600 feetj where the culture of the 
vine ceases, the Cedar occurs in specimens of immense siae, — 36 
feet in circumference, — intermingled with Va^Pinuttreraa'diana 
and the P. excelsa. Ascending the river, as far as Panoee, there 
is, on boUi of its banks, at an elevECtion of from 1000 to 3000 
feet above its channel, a tolerably thick forest of CedrusDeodara, 
varied with occasional "HoC Firs {PK«a Morinda) and border- 
ed by " Neoia pines." The same forest extends up the Sotlbj 
on both sides, ss far as the pass of Eskenq Khal, after which 
it continues to a great distance on the left alone ; it is very 
dense, and the Cedar predominates in it more and more. On 
the other side of the Ebjugnq pass, above Lippa, the wood is 



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APPENDIX. B0( 

exceedingly thin : a stripe of miserable Cedarg and S'eoza^PUiM 
rans along the rugged mountains covered with debris, as far aa 
the heights above Kanum, where trees of every sort gradually 
become stunted, and the vegetation of the Thibetian steppes 
begins. The Ebeeno Pass ia remarkable, from the fact that 
on its southern slope the Jiinipems exaeha occurs simultane- 
ously with the Cv/preasus. Both being in fruit, they could not 
be confounded. The Junipems exeelta I first saw at Cheteool,' 
in a specimen 40 feet in height; beyond Kaneh, on the Uppbb 
SuTLEJ, it is the only arborescent plant. At the village of 
KaAB only, a few scattered JVeoza pin^, of great beauty occur. 
At Shipeee and at Namoiah {Namdja), the Juniperns prevails 
alone, as also in the valley of the Lbb, and upon the mountains 
of Njko, Leeo, andHANG, all of which are bare beyond deacrip- 
tion. Along the course of the Lowbb Sutlej the Cedar Forett 
extends on both sides of the river, at an elevation of 2000 feet 
above its channel, for the diatance of several days' journey,, as 
far aa Teanha, where it is met with in great perfection. Not 
iar from Guba, on the way to Rahpoor, oceiirs, as a curiosity, 
a forest of Pinua longifolia, many miles in length, at an alti- 
tude of 1000 feet above the river. This tree is here called 
" KU.'" Above Kotohoe begins a beautiful forest of Picea 
Morinda, Abies WebbiaTia, and Pinut exeeha, trees not seen 
before on or near the Lowbb Sutlej. At Naosansa, the 
forests of Gedrua Deodara also begin ; here again they are in- 
termingled with Ahia WeUtiana and Ahie» Pindrow j the 
Neoza is wanting. The mountain- tops are clothed with woods 
of Fir, sometimes thicker, sometimes again more scanty, reach- 
ing even to the loftiest summits. Very noble stems of Abies 
Pindrow, and of Picea Morinda, are met with, a day's march 
above Siula, at Phaooo. Immediately above tiiat station there 
ia also an isolated wood of Taxue, 

The most beautiful of the Coniferce, beyond all doubt, are the 
"Morinda" Fir (Abies Pindrow) and the "Neozd' pine (Piniis 
G^ardiatta). The latter I have never found exceeding 50 feet 
in height ; the stem is never straight, but bends in a most 
gracefid curve, and is covered with an epidermis invariably 
smooth, and of a beautiful silver grey. The form of its huge 



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502 APPEHDIX. 

cono ia ftlso cxtrnnel; elegant, and the colour of its leaves > 
rind grass-green, so that the tree muBt be ranked among the 
chief ornaments of the Himalayan mountiuns. Its fruit, more- 
over, which ripens in November, hw a very fine flavour. The 
distribution of the Neeaa corresponds almost exactly to that of 
the grape-vine in the valley of the Sutlbj. The mountaiu 
above KAsnM, where a dwarf form of this tree exists, form the 
sole exception to the general rule. 

But I am forgetting that I have already &r exceeded the 
bounds of a short notice. 



SUPPLEMENT. 

The following is a synopsis of the species, &&, mentioned is 
the foregoing sketch : — 

I. PINUS LONGIFOLIA. Lambert, Pinus. i. 26, 37. 

SoiLE, Illustrations of the Botany of the Himalayan 
Mountains, Vol II. t. 85, fig. I. — Link, in Schi-bcbtbbd. 
Limwaa, VoL XV., p. 507. The " TchiV Pint, " Cheioa,' 
" Cheer' or " Cheel," (according to Roylb, VoL L, p. 
349, called " cheer," " ettltah," and " ihanaa)," on the 
Sutlej, bearing the name of " S^U."* Growth, from 50 
to 80 feet in height. Oeoffraphieal dietribulion, from 
29° 25' to 320. Ye0etational Limit, from 5000 to 8000 
feet above the level of the sea. Most wlde^ distributed 
of all the Coniferte in the HimaJayas. 

II. PINUS EXCELSA. LiUBEET, L c. 33. Waujch,— 

Plants Asiatics Bariores, 201. Likk, 1. c, page 515- 
The " K^r of the natives of Siemoee and of Gobwal; 
frequently designated by English travellers, on account 

• " EH," SuiBorit, according to WiIbod, " a sptcia qfpitu."—V. Hon- 



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APPENDIX. 60S 

of its thin drooping branches, " th« Keeping Jtr;" the 
" Zvnna" pine. Groath, at the highest, from 40 to 50 
feet Geographical distrib-iUion, from 30° SO* to 32*. 
Vegetationai limit, from 7000 to 10,600 feet ab