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Full text of "Travels in New Zealand [microform] : with contributions to the geography, geology, botany, and natural history of that country"

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AMALGAMATED 1892. 



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"" : 



T R A V E L S 



IN 



NEW ZEALAND; 



WITH CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 



GEOGRAPHY, GEOLOGY, BOTANY, AND NATURAL 
HISTORY OF THAT COUNTRY. 



BY ERNEST DIEFFENBACH, M.D., 

Late Naturalist to the New Zealand Company. 



IN TWO VOLUMES. VOL. II. 




S 'W11UAMS. 
Kitci Kiwi, or Apterix Australis. 



LONDON: 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1843. 




London : Printed by WIM.IAM CLOWES and Sows, Stamford Street. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME II. 



PART I. 

PAG I 

CHAPTER I. 
The Natives of New Zealand . . 1 

CHAPTER II. 

Diseases of the Natives .'.!. . ^ 

CHAPTER III. 

Native Customs regarding Children -Tattooing Mar- 
riage . . . 24 

CHAPTER IV. 

The Food of the Natives their Clothing their Dances 
Witchcraft Modes of Burial Ideas regarding 
the Soul . . , . 43 

CHAPTER V. 

Native Villages and Houses Division of the New Zea- 
land Tribes Their Numerical Strength 68 

CHAPTER VI. 

Origin of the New Zealanders, as shown by their Tra- 
ditions Their Religious Observances The " Tapu" 84 

CHAPTER VII. 

The Character and Intellectual Faculties of the New 
Zealanders Their Classes and Grades of Society 
Property Religion . . . 107 



iv CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

PAG 

Native Modes of reckoning Times and Seasons Dif- 
ferent Sorts of Land Modes of Tillage Warfare 
Spirit of Revenge Their Canoes Cannibalism . 121 

CHAPTER IX. 

How to Legislate for the Natives of New Zealand . 135 

CHAPTER X. 
Fauna of New Zealand 177 



PART II. ON THE LANGUAGE OF THE 
NEW ZEALANDERS. 

CHAPTER I. 

Introductory Remarks . . . 297 

CHAPTER II. 
Specimens of the New Zealand Language . 306 



PART III. 

GRAMMAR . . . 325 

DICTIONARY . . . 355 



NEW ZEALAND. 



PART I. 



CHAPTER I. 

The Natives of New Zealand. 

BEFORE giving an account of the aboriginal inha- 
bitants of New Zealand, it may not be uninteresting 
to take a cursory view of those varieties of the 
human race which inhabit the numerous islands in 
that immense space of the great ocean which has 
Asia, Africa, America, and the Southern Pacific for 
its boundaries. In some cases these islands are of 
the size of continents, in others they are merely 
small coral formations, or of a volcanic nature. 
Man inhabits most of them ; the easternmost of 
those inhabited is r Easter Island, the westernmost 
Madagascar, and the southernmost the southern 
island of New Zealand. In spite of the impedi- 
ments which distance must have created, he has, 
even with his feeble resources, surmounted all ob- 
stacles in the most mysterious manner, and has 
traversed seas often stormy and boisterous, not fol- 
lowing in his labyrinthic migrations that course 

VOL. II. B 



2 NATIVES OF [PART i. 

which theorists have assigned to him, either from 
the direction of certain periodical winds, or from 
their preconceived ideas deduced from the history 
of the human species. 

There are two great varieties of the human race 
to which these natives belong : one approaches to 
the black, or negro, and has therefore been called 
the race of the Austral negroes ; their colour is 
dark, their hair sometimes woolly, curly, or matted ; 
their skulls often show bad proportions, their lan- 
guage consists of various dialects, or perhaps lan- 
guages; the state of society with them is disor- 
ganised, and they hold a low grade in the human 
family. 

They occupy the following islands : 

Van Diemen's Land, New Holland, New Guinea, 
Louisiade, New Britain, New Ireland, Salomon 
Islands, Santa Cruz (or Nitendi), New Hebrides, 
Loyalty Island, New Caledonia, and the Archi- 
pelago of Figi. Of some other islands they were 
the original possessors, but were either extermi- 
nated, driven into the interior, or blended with the 
succeeding race. This is the case in the Malayan 
Peninsula, in the Andaman Islands, Penang Island, 
and the Philippine Islands. 

If we divide this vast extent of sea and land by 
the equator, and again by the 164th degree of east 
longitude, most of the nations belonging to the 
Austral negroes will be found to live in the south- 
west division formed by these lines ; the other three 



CHAP. I.] NEW ZEALAND. 3 

divisions are occupied by the v second race. It must, 
however, be observed, that the term Austral negro 
is very vague. The Papua, the Alforas, and the 
Haraibras are included, of which the former 
have been regarded as a mixed race between the 
true Austral negroes and the Haraforas ; and the 
latter as a race entirely distinct from the Aus- 
tral negroes. There is a great variety amongst 
them : a native of New South Wales, for instance, 
bears no similarity to a negro, as the former has 
smooth lank hair ; nor has the Austral negro in 
the New Hebrides, where they seem to be very 
pure, much similarity to the African negro ; and 
the Viti or Figi islanders, especially, stand isolated 
among this race by a very peculiar dialect, a well- 
ordered state of society, notwithstanding that there 
exists cannibalism, by the chastity of their women, 
and by the exclusive use of pottery. I must, there- 
fore, repeat that the term Austral negro is here 
only used to distinguish this class from the other 
great family, which I now proceed to define in a 
more distinct manner. 

This second race comprises people of a lighter- 
coloured skin, with dark glossy hair, and often very 
regular features. Although the various languages 
which they speak appear very different, yet an iden- 
tity of certain elements can be traced in them ; and, 
from the relation that all the languages bear to the 
Malayan dialect, as well as from the similarity of 
manners and customs, this race was generally con- 

B 2 



4 NATIVES OF [ PART I. 

ceived to be Malayan, while in fact the Malays only 
form one subdivision of it. In general the nations 
belonging to this race have attained a certain de- 
velopment of social forms, which, indeed, with some 
have reached a very artificial state. This family 
may be subdivided into three great groups : 

1. True Polynesians. They are distinguished by 
the mythos of Maui or Mawi, the religious or le- 
gislative custom of the " Tabu ;" also in some de- 
gree by the drinking of the kawa ; but, above all, 
by the very intimate connection of their several 
dialects. In their features they approach the Cau- 
casian race ; they are generally handsome, and of 
a light-brown colour. 

They live to the eastward of the Austral negroes : 
a line running from the north-east extremity of the 
islands of Hawaii, between the Viti and Tonga 
islands, and extending westward to the western- 
most part of the southern island of New Zealand, 
is the western limit of the true Polynesians. To 
them belong the following islands : 

Archipelago of Hawaii, or the Sandwich Islands ; 
their northern limit. 

Nukahiwa, or the Marquesas. 

Archipelago of Pomotou, or Dangerous Islands. 

Archipelago of Tahiti, or the Society Islands. 

Archipelago of Hamoa, or the Navigators. 

Archipelago of Tonga, or the Friendly Islands. 

Fanning Island, Roggewein Island, Mangia, Sa- 
vage Island. 



CHAP. I.] NEW ZEALAND. 5 

Waihou, or Easter Island ; their eastern limit. 

Rotu-rna ; their western limit. 

Chatham Islands. 

New Zealand ; their southern limit. 

2. A second group inhabits islands to the north- 
ward and westward of those above enumerated. 
They are generally of a darker colour ; the use of 
the kawa is unknown to them, and is replaced by 
the betel and the areca. They are bolder navi- 
gators than the true Polynesians, and have distinct 
traditions. Their language, although it has many 
points of general relationship, forms some very dis- 
tinct dialects, which are called the Tagalo, Bisayo, 
and Kawi languages. The following islands are 
inhabited by them : 

Kingsmill Group, Gilbert's Islands, Marshall 
Islands, Radak or Ralik Island, the Carolines, Ma- 
riannes, Pellew Islands, all the islands between 
Japan and Hawaii, the Archipelago of Anson and 
Magellan, the Philippine Islands, and the island of 
Java. Chamisso, the German traveller, has sketched 
many of these people in a very spirited and attrac- 
tive manner. 

3. A third group comprises the true Malayans. 
They have a flatter and broader countenance, 
and inhabit Malacca, the Indian Archipelago, the 
Sunda Islands, the Moluccas, the coasts of Borneo, 
Celebes, Guilolo, and Sumatra. 

There are many circumstances to interest us, 
particularly at the present moment, in the history 



6 NATIVES OF [PART i. 

of that division of the human family to which the 
inhabitants of New Zealand belong. It is true 
they have no written language in which their past 
history is preserved, and their religious notions and 
traditions are exceedingly confused and undefined ; 
their mode of life is extremely simple ; their arts, 
although interesting, yet rude. Their traditions, 
however, contain many things which would be im- 
portant to the historian of the human species if he 
could discover their true meaning ; but his chance 
of doing so is every day decreasing, and many ma- 
terials calculated to elucidate the past history of 
the nations of the great ocean have already been 
lost. Their intercourse with Europeans is so ge- 
neral, they make such rapid strides towards civil- 
ization and Christianity, and so many dangers 
threaten to annihilate them, that every traveller 
should consider it a paramount duty to become 
acquainted with everything regarding these island- 
ers, as the means of awakening an interest in the 
minds of the powerful and civilized, and of inducing 
them to afford effectual aid, protection, and instruc- 
tion to the weak and uncivilized. 

Regarding the natives of New Zealand the public 
has lately evinced so much interest as to induce me 
to believe that the following details, which I col- 
lected amongst the people themselves, will be accept- 
able. My object will be fully attained if these 
details tend to produce still more amicable inter- 
course with the native race, as well as speedy mea- 



CHAP. I.] NEW ZEALAND. 7 

sures in regard to their preservation and improve- 
ment, and, above all, that forbearance on the part 
of the colonists, without which no efforts to pre- 
serve the natives and to ameliorate their condition 
can be successful. 

It appears that the native population of New 
Zealand was originally composed of two different 
races of the human family, which have retained 
some of their characteristic features, although in 
the course of time they have in all other respects 
become mixed, and a number of intermediate va- 
rieties have thence resulted. They call themselves 
Maori, which means indigenous, aboriginal; or 
Tan gat a maori, indigenous men ; in opposition to 
Pakea, which means a stranger, or Pakea mango 
mango y a very black stranger, a negro. 

The men belonging to the first of these races, 
which is by far the most numerous, are generally 
tall, of muscular and well-proportioned frame, very 
rarely inclining to embonpoint, but varying in size 
as much as Europeans do. Their cranium often 
approaches in shape the best and most intellectual 
European heads. In general, however, it may be 
said to be of longer dimensions from the forehead 
to the occiput ; the forehead itself is high, but not 
very full in the temporal regions ; the coronal ridge 
is ample, no coronal suture exists ; the occiput is 
well developed, showing a great amount of animal 
propensities not, however, in undue preponderance 
over the intellectual. In a skull which I possess of 



8 NATIVES OF [PART i. 

a man of one of the interior tribes of Roturua, the 
frontal sinuses are much developed, the skull length- 
ened, the forehead somewhat reclining ; the osseous 
part of the nose is much depressed, and the nasal 
bones much more curved than in the European ; 
the upper maxilla protrudes much, especially the 
part from one incisor to the other ; the bones are 
thick and heavy in comparison with those of a 
European, and this is a character which seems to be 
rather general. The wormian bones are unusual ; 
in the skull referred to there is one at the lower 
angle of the parietal and its junction with the occi- 
pital bone. This skull is certainly one possessing 
all the peculiar characteristics of the race ; but the 
skulls of many New Zealanders in no way differ 
from those of Europeans. 

The colour of the New Zealanders is a light clear 
brown, varying very much in shade ; sometimes it is 
even lighter than that of a native of the south of 
France : the nose is straight and well shaped, often 
aquiline, the mouth generally large, and the lips in 
many cases more developed than those of Europeans ; 
the eyes are dark and full of vivacity and expression ; 
the hair is generally black, and lank or slightly 
curled ; the teeth are white, even, and regular, and 
last to old age : the feet and hands are well propor- 
tioned ; the former, being uncovered, are in a healthy 
development, and a native laughs at our misshaped 
feet. As the New Zealanders often use the second 
and great toes in weaving and plaiting the ropes of 



CHAP. I.] NEW ZEALAND. 9 

the phormium, the toes are less confined than with 
us, and they have more command over the muscles. 
Their features are prominent, but regular ; the ex- 
pression of the face quiet and composed, showing 
great self-command, and this is heightened by the 
tattooing, which prevents the face from assuming 
the furrows of passion or the wrinkles of age ; their 
physiognomy bears no signs of ferocity, but is easy, 
open, and pleasing. Some of the natives have hair 
of a reddish or auburn colour, and a very light-co- 
loured skin. I may also mention here that I have 
seen a perfect xanthous variety in a woman, who 
had flaxen hair, white skin, and blue eyes ; not per- 
haps a half-caste, but a morbid variety, as was proved 
by the extreme sensibility of her visual organs, her 
rather pallid appearance, and her age ; on her cheeks 
the skin was rather rough and freckled. The na- 
tives who live near the hot sulphurous waters on 
the borders of the Lake of Roturua have the enamel 
of their teeth, especially of the front teeth, yellow, 
although this does not impair their soundness, and is 
the effect, probably, of the corroding qualities of the 
thermal waters. In a skull which I possess of a chief 
of that tribe, the last incisor and the canine tooth 
show, where they join together, a semilunar incision. 
This is the case in both the upper and lower maxillae, 
but more so in the upper. It is perhaps made with 
an instrument, or is occasioned by the constant use 
of the pipe. 

The second race has undoubtedly a different ori- 



10 NATIVES OF [PART i. 

gin. This is proved by their less regularly shaped 
cranium, which is rather more compressed from the 
sides, by their full and large features, prominent 
cheek-bones, full lips, small ears, curly and coarse, 
although not woolly, hair, a much deeper colour of 
the skin, and a short and rather ill-proportioned 
rigure. This race, which is mixed in insensible 
gradations with the former, is far less numerous; 
it does not predominate in any one part of the island, 
nor does it occupy any particular station in a tribe, 
and there is no difference made between the two 
races amongst themselves ; but I must observe that 
I never met any man of consequence belonging to 
this race, and that, although free men, they occu- 
pied the lower grades ; from this we may perhaps 
infer the relation in which they stood to the earliest 
native immigrants into the country, although their 
traditions and legends are silent on the subject. 

From the existence of two races in New Zealand 
the conclusion might be drawn that the darker were 
the original proprietors of the soil, anterior to the 
arrival of a stock of true Polynesian origin, that 
they were conquered by the latter, and nearly ex- 
terminated. This opinion has been entertained re- 
garding all Polynesian islands, but I must observe 
that it is very doubtful whether those differences 
which we observe amongst the natives of New Zea- 
land are really due to such a source. We find simi- 
lar varieties in all Polynesian islands, and it is 
probable that they are a consequence of the differ- 



CHAP. I.] NEW ZEALAND. 11 

ence of castes so extensively spread amongst the 
inhabitants of the islands of .the great ocean. 
If one part of the population of New Zealand 
were a distinct race,- a fact which cannot be 
denied as regards other islands, it is very curious 
that there should be no traces of such a blending 
in the language, where they would have been most 
durable, or in the traditions, which certainly would 
have mentioned the conquest of one race by the 
other, if it had really happened. Captain Crozet, a 
Frenchman, who early visited New Zealand, says 
that he found a tribe at the North Cape darker 
than the rest. I could observe nothing of the kind 
there, although I visited all the natives. Nor are 
these darker-coloured individuals more common in 
the interior ; I should say, even less so. There is 
undoubtedly a .greater variety of colour and counte- 
nance amongst the natives of New Zealand than one 
would expect, a circumstance which might prove 
either an early blending of different races, or a dif- 
ference of social conditions, which latter supposition 
would go far to explain the fact. All the New 
Zealanders speak of the Mango-Mango (blacks) of 
New South Wales as unconnected with and inferior 
to themselves, but they never make such a distinc- 
tion regarding their own tribes. 

The females are not in general so handsome as 
the men. Although treated by the latter with great 
consideration and kindness, enjoying the full eer- 
cise of their free will, and possessing a remarkable 



12 NATIVES OF NEW ZEALAND. [PART I. 

influence in all the affairs of a tribe, they are bur- 
dened with all the heavy work ; they have to culti- 
vate the fields, to carry from their distant planta- 
tions wood and provisions, and to bear heavy loads 
during their travelling excursions. Early inter- 
course with the other sex, which their customs per- 
mit, frequent abortions, and the long nursing of the 
children, often for three years, contribute to cause 
the early decay of their youth and beauty, and are 
prejudicial to the full development of their frame. 
Daughters of influential chiefs, however, who have 
slaves to do the work of the field, are often hand- 
some and attractive, and no one can deny them this 
latter epithet as long as they are young. This is 
heightened by a natural modesty and childlike 
naivete, which all their licentiousness of habit can- 
not entirely destroy. The children of both sexes, 
with their free, open, and confident behaviour, have 
always been my favourites. Brought up in the so- 
ciety of the adults, partaking in the councils of their 
fathers, their mental faculties become awakened and 
sharpened earlier than is the case in more civilised 
countries. 

But I must not forget to pay my tribute of praise 
to the old ; the old women especially are the best- 
natured and kindest creatures imaginable, and the 
traveller is sure to receive a smile and a welcome 
from them, if no one else shows any intention of 
befriending him. 



CHAP. II.] 13 



CHAPTER II. 

Diseases of the Natives. 

BEFORE these people became acquainted with Euro- 
peans they were uniformly healthy, if we may trust 
their own accounts, and those of the earliest navi- 
gators who visited them. Their first visitors de- 
scribe them as possessed of that energy of frame and 
exuberance of health and animal spirits which we may 
always expect to find where a people are untainted 
by the evils which seem to be the necessary com- 
panions of civilization ; where they are living in a 
moderate, although invigorating, climate ; where 
they are not suffering from actual want ; and where 
they are forced to satisfy their necessities by the 
exercise of their physical and mental powers. It 
would have been contrary to the laws of nature for 
them to have been entirely free from illness ; but 
their diseases were those of an inflammatory and epi- 
demic character. Amongst the tribes of the east 
coast I found a tradition, that "shortly before the 
time of Cook a fatal epidemic broke out in the 
northern parts of the island, and that its victims 
were so numerous that they could not bury them, 



14 DISEASES OF [ PART L 

but threw them into the sea. One of the symptoms 
was that the patient lost all his hair. When the 
northern tribes had recovered, they made war on 
those at Tauranga, in the Bay of Plenty, and to the 
southward, expecting to find them so weakened by 
the disease as to be incapable of resistance. Epi- 
demics are still common in the island, but only 
amongst the natives, and seldom attack the Euro- 
peans. The disease is a bad form of influenza, a 
malignant catarrh of the bronchise, with congestion 
of the lungs, affection of the heart, accompanied 
by fever and great prostration of strength, so that 
in all cases an early supporting treatment must be 
adopted. In former times these epidemics may have 
been transient, and the patient may have usually 
recovered his former health; but at present they 
attack constitutions already weakened and corrupted, 
and not only prove fatal to people of all ages, but, 
even if the health is to a certain degree restored, it 
does not recover its former vigour ; chronic disorders 
often remain, and with them a disposition to fall 
victims to the slightest attack of illness of any sort. 
The consequence is, that the number of the abori- 
gines in New Zealand rapidly decreases a strange 
and melancholy, but undeniable, fact! It may be 
that it is one of Nature's eternal laws that some 
races of men, like the different kinds of organic 
beings, plants, and animals, stand in opposition to each 
other; that is to say, where one race begins to 
spread and increase, the other, which is perhaps less 



CHAP. II.] THE NATIVES. 15 

vigorous and less durable, dies off. This has been 
the result of the contact of the Caucasian race, es- 
pecially the Anglo-Saxon nations, with the red race 
of America and with the isolated inhabitants of the 
South Sea Islands, which latter, in all other respects, 
appear to be our equals in physical durability and 
mental capacities. The Anglo-Saxon race have been 
so energetic in their colonial enterprises, but, at the 
same time, so reckless and unsociable as regards the 
aborigines, that it might at once be taken for granted 
that the simple-minded islanders, who do not know, 
either as individuals or as tribes, the powerful ef- 
fect of the term "forward" would stand a bad 
chance with such competitors, and that this alone 
would damp their enterprise and industry, render 
them careless of life, and shorten their existence. At 
the first view this would appear probable ; and I think 
I shall be able to show that to a considerable degree 
it is actually the case ; but as, in New Zealand, the 
natives do not derive their support from the chase, 
which in the case of the inhabitants of America and 
New South Wales has been the great cause of their 
destruction, we must, I think, look deeper for the 
causes of such an evil in order to find the means of 
counteracting it to the best of our power ; and 
thus, if it be the design of Providence that the 
race should disappear, to be able to alleviate that 
change in the inhabitants of countries of which 
we have taken possession, and at least to have the 
satisfaction of knowing that we have done every- 



16 DISEASES 01 [PART i. 

thing in our power to prevent injustice or to lessen 
the extent of it. 

I will now glance at the condition of the abo- 
rigines before the time at which Europeans came 
in contact with them, a condition which we still 
find, with very little change, in the interior of the 
country. There were even then many causes to 
prevent an increase of the population, similar to 
that which would have taken place had the islands 
been inhabited by Europeans. The families of the 
natives are not large ; early sexual intercourse pre- 
vents the natural fruitfulness of the women ; 
infanticide exists to a certain degree ; the custom 
of the inhabitants not to cultivate more produce 
than is necessary to satisfy their common wants, 
and their being deprived in very rainy seasons even 
of those scanty means ; their suffering from want 
during the time of war, since they are usually be- 
sieged in their fortifications, which are at a dis- 
tance from their cultivated fields ; war itself, which, 
although mere skirmishes, carries off a large num- 
ber of their strongest men, and has often proved so 
destructive to a tribe, that it has been broken up 
entirely, and has disappeared ; the belief in witch- 
craft (makuta), to which many have fallen victims, 
both of the bewitched, from the mere force of ima- 
gination, and also of the supposed perpetrators of 
the crime, who have been murdered in revenge by 
the relations ; the practice of slavery, which in no 
form, even the mildest, contributes to increase the 



CHAP. II.] THE NATIVES. 17 

population; all these causes are sufficient to ac- 
count for the natives not having spread in greater 
numbers over a country which, with the imple- 
ments and resources they possessed for agriculture, 
would have supported a much larger number of 
inhabitants. But neither all these causes, nor 
the wars which for the last twenty-five years have 
agitated the whole island, and driven many tribes 
from their districts, who lived in continual fear of 
their neighbours, and dared not cultivate the land, 
nor the unequal introduction of fire-arms, which 
gave to one tribe too great an advantage over the 
others, will explain why so many diseases are 
now prevalent amongst them, nor why their num- 
bers continue to decrease after most of these causes 
have ceased. At present, wars, if not uncommon, 
are at least much less frequent and less extensive ; 
a feeling of security begins to exercise its due influ- 
ence ; murders arising from witchcraft and other 
superstitions are of less frequent occurrence, and 
are perpetrated only in the interior, where Euro- 
pean intelligence and customs have not yet pene- 
trated. My opinion on the subject is this : in 
former times the food of the natives consisted of 
sweet potatoes, taro (Caladium esculentum), fern- 
root (Pteris esculenta), the aromatic berries of the 
kahikatea (Dacrydium excelsum), the pulp of a fern- 
tree (Cyathea medullaris) called korau or mamako, 
the sweet root of the Dracaena indivisa, the heart of 
a palm-tree (Areca sapida), a bitter though excel- 

VOL. II. C 



18 DISEASES OF [PART I. 

lent vegetable, the Sonchus oleraceus, and many 
different berries. Of animals they consumed fishes, 
dogs, the indigenous rat, crawfish, birds, and guanas. 
Rough mats of their own making, or dog-skins, 
constituted their clothing. They were hardened 
against the influence of the climate by the necessity 
of exerting themselves in procuring these provi- 
sions, and by their frequent predatory and travelling 
excursions, which produced a healthy excitement, 
and with it an easy digestion of even this crude 
diet. 

This state of things has been gradually changed 
since the Europeans arrived in the country. They 
have given them the common potato, a vegetable 
which is produced in great quantities with little 
labour ; and as this labour could be mostly done 
by the slaves or by the women, potatoes became the 
favourite food of the aborigines. They preferred 
feeding upon them to procuring what was far more 
wholesome, but gave them more trouble in obtain- 
ing. They have exchanged the surplus of their 
crops for blankets, which keep the skin in a con- 
tinual state of irritation, and harbour vermin and 
dirt far more than the native mats. The Euro- 
peans also brought them maize ; but, in order to 
soften the grains of it, the natives lay them in 
water, and allow them to ferment or decompose 
until they produce a sickening smell ; they are 
then pounded and baked in cakes, and are con- 
sumed in large quantities, but form a very un- 



CHAP. II.] THE NATIVES. 19 

wholesome food, which disturbs the whole process 
of assimilation. Pigs were also introduced by the 
Europeans ; but the natives do not consume many 
of these animals, at least not in those places where 
they can sell them for blankets, muskets, powder, 
or lead. Their wars decreased, partly from exhaus- 
tion after particularly troubled times, partly from 
the establishment of the missions. Instead of 
being constantly in bodily exercise, they became 
readers, an occupation very much suited to their 
natural indolence. Their numerous dances, songs, 
and games were regarded as vices, and were not 
exchanged for others, but were given up altogether. 
The missionaries, while abolishing the national 
dances and games, might with safety have intro- 
duced those of England, which would soon have 
become great favourites with them. 1 

In one word, instead of an active, warlike race, 
they have become eaters of potatoes, neglecting 
their industrious pursuits in consequence of the 
facility of procuring food and blankets, and they 

1 I only met with one case in which the missionaries acted 
otherwise, from a wish to contribute to the bodily welfare of their 
flock ; this was at Kaitaia, a mission-station to the northward of 
Hokianga, where they had introduced cricket, and other innocent 
games, which were in great favour with the natives : Kaitaia was, 
moreover, the only place where the missionaries seemed at all to have 
thought about the causes of the prevailing diseases, and the means 
of counteracting them ; they called the attention of the natives to 
their state of health, and to the fact of the decrease of their num- 
bers, and induced them to adopt a mode of living more nearly ap- 
proaching ours. 

c 2 



20 DISEASES OF [PART I. 

pass their lives in eating, smoking, and sleeping. 
No medical man will deny that in this mode of 
living alone a sufficient cause is found to account 
for many of the diseases which prevail. Po- 
tatoes are unwholesome if they form the only 
food, and if those who live upon them do not use 
great bodily exercise. Salt is not in use among 
them. This stimulant, so necessary to the human 
frame, they formerly obtained in eating cockles 
and other shell-fish. By their present mode of 
diet a chyle is produced unsuited to a healthy 
circulation. From the exclusive use of potatoes 
prominent paunches begin to be common among 
children, which are by no means natural to the 
race, and are not met with among the tribes in the 
interior. 

The natives have adopted part of our food and 
part of our clothing, but they have not adopted the 
whole. Unconsciously we have brought them the 
germs of diseases, which accompany many of them 
through life, and consign them to an early grave. 
I have often known a sickly native to be soon re- 
stored to health after being clothed in a shirt, 
trousers, and jacket, instead of a blanket only, 
which he can, and does, throw off at any moment ; 
and when provided with a strengthening diet, with 
meat and a glass of wine or beer, in fact, when he 
lives altogether as we do, it is singular how well 
this mode of treatment generally succeeds, if no acute 
disease exists. 



CHAP. II.] THE NATIVES. 21 

Their mode of living is certainly a predisposing, 
rather than an actual, cause of disease. The skin, 
having become tender, is easily susceptible to cli- 
matic influences and other accidental causes, or to 
contagious diseases of different descriptions, which 
find a fertile soil in a constitution thus weakened. 
But many of the prevailing diseases arise from bad 
living only. They consist in scrophulous indura- 
tions and ulcerations of the lymphatic glands of 
the neck, lymphatic swellings, inflammation of the 
eyes ; impurities of the blood, shown in frequent 
abscesses and chronic eruptions ; malignant fevers, 
with affections of the mucous membranes of the 
intestinal canal and other mucous membranes. 
In Roturua a party of natives set out on a travel- 
ling excursion : on the road they buried some boiled 
pork, that they might feast upon it at their return : 
this they did ; but they were all seized with a dan- 
gerous delirious fever, and some of them died. Fish 
dried without salt is often sent to natives in the 
interior by their relations living on the sea-coast. 
At the time when this is eaten sickness is common. 
I have often known gastric fevers caused exclusively 
by the use of rotten corn. Acute exanthematie 
diseases have never been observed here by me ; and 
it is to be hoped that the speedy introduction of 
vaccination may preserve the natives from the ra- 
vages of small-pox. If the syphilitic or gonorrhoeal 
contagion, which is now very frequent on the 
coasts, infect a frame thus constituted; the result 



22 DISEASES OF [PART I. 

will doubtless be that many complicated forms of 
those diseases will appear : diseases of the hip-joint, 
for instance, and of the spinal column, and distor- 
tions of the spine in early infancy, which even now 
are not very rare. A disease called wai-ake-ake is 
very common ; it is a sort of pustulous scabies, very 
difficult to cure without altering the manner of 
living and throwing aside that most unhealthy 
vestment the blanket. Ringworm also is prevalent. 
Besides these diseases, chronic catarrhs are the most 
common complaints, in consequence of the natives 
exposing themselves to the cold and humid external 
air, after having been heated in their houses by a 
temperature of 100 Fahrenheit; many of these 
attacks terminate in consumption. In the interior 
of the country, where the natives have seldom come 
in contact with Europeans, and where they have 
preserved their own customs, sickness is far less 
common. This is especially the case in that exten- 
sive district from Taupo to Roturua, where thermal 
springs are found. Kind Nature has provided here 
one of the principal remedies against scrofulous 
and eruptive diseases resulting from uncleanliness. 
The natives are continually bathing in the sul- 
phurous and alkaline waters ; and in this thermal 
region they are a healthy race, with a very fine and 
elastic skin. 

Club-feet (e ape) are not uncommon. Amongst 
monstrosities I have also observed hair-lip (e ngutu 
riwa) ; and individuals are occasionally met with 



CHAP. II.] THE NATIVES. 23 

who have six or more toes or fingers on a foot or 
hand ; the well-known chief Rauparaha, in Kapiti, 
is distinguished by this peculiarity : in one case 
several members of a family were thus formed. I 
never observed any case of mental disease, if I except 
that of a young man in Kapiti, who appeared to have 
been born idiotic. 



24 [PART i, 



CHAPTER III. 

Native Customs regarding Children -Tattooing Marriage. 

WHILE the approach to European customs has been 
thus followed by a train of evils, art and civilized 
life have as yet done little to aggravate the pains of 
child-birth. The mother at the approach of labour 
seeks refuge often alone in a neighbouring wood, 
and in a few moments after the birth of the child 
goes to a running water, bathes herself and the 
infant, and is soon seen again occupied with her 
usual work amongst her associates. But until the 
time of baptism she is "tapu," that is, sacred, or 
unclean, if we prefer the Biblical translation of a 
Hebrew word of the same signification. Generally, 
however, only the wives of chiefs are subject to 
this rigorous custom. The mother herself cuts the 
umbilical cord with a shell, often too close, and in 
consequence umbilical ruptures are frequent ; they 
however disappear with the growing age. Twins, 
which are called mahanga, are not uncommon, but 
no superstitious feeling is attached to their birth, 
and it is regarded as a natural occurrence. Some- 
times the child is sacrified (roromi, infanticide), but 



CHAP. III.] NATIVE CUSTOMS. 25 

this unnatural crime mostly occurs as an act of 
revenge : broken faith, or desertion by the hus- 
band, the illegitimacy of the children, matrimonial 
dissensions, illicit connections with Europeans, 
slavery during pregnancy, and separation from the 
husband are the principal causes. In many cases 
infanticide is the result of superstition of the gross- 
est character, and is occasioned by fear of divine 
anger and punishment. Rangi-tautau, the wife of 
a young chief at the mission settlement at Roturua, 
killed her first child under the following most 
singular circumstances : while pregnant she was 
one day at the pa on the other side of the lake, 
where an old priestess had hung out her blanket 
for the purpose of airing it ; the young woman ob- 
served a certain insect upon the garment, caught 
it, and, according to the native custom, eat it. She 
thought that she had not been perceived, but the 
old witch had seen her, and immediately poured 
forth the most violent imprecations and curses upon 
her for having eaten a louse from off her sacred gar- 
ment, and foretold that she would kill and eat her 
own child as a punishment for this sacrilegious 
deed. This threat she frequently repeated after the 
woman's confinement, and' worked so much upon 
her agitated mind by threats of the vengeance of 
Heaven, that the infatuated mother dug a hole, 
buried her child, and trampled it to death, unmoved 
by the piercing cries of the poor creature. But she 
afterwards deeply repented having thus violated the 



26 INFANTICIDE. [PART I. 

most sacred law of nature ; and, perhaps, in conse- 
quence of this, she and her husband separated from 
their tribe and became the principal supporters of 
the missionary. 

They have other modes of killing the child : the 
head of the infant not yet fully born is compressed, 
and thus its existence terminated ; and sometimes 
abortion is effected by pressing violently upon the 
abdomen with a belt. Many children are still- 
born ; but I suspect that in almost all these cases 
death was caused by the mother. It makes no dif- 
ference whether the child is male or female ; but if 
the woman is desirous that her child should be of the 
one sex, and has boasted that she knows it will be 
so, on its proving of the other sex she frequently 
sacrifices it. The child, if suffered to survive the 
first moments of its existence, is generally safe ; 
and even under the circumstances I have mentioned, 
maternal love often gets the better of anger or de- 
spair. I have known cases, however, where in a fit 
of passion or jealousy the child was afterwards mur- 
dered by the mother or her relations. 

The child who is not doomed thus to perish at 
its birth is nursed with affection and tenderness, 
either by the mother o'r by some other woman of 
the tribe, who gives it her breast. During a great 
part of its infancy it is taken care of by the father, 
who evinces admirable patience and forbearance. 
It remains unclothed and exposed to the incle- 
mency of the weather, but often takes refuge in the 



CHAP. III.] NAMES. 27 

warm blanket of the father or mother. It is lulled 
to sleep by songs which are called nga-ori-ori- 
tamaiti, and which happily express those feelings 
and sentiments that so delight us in our own 
nursery rhymes. In this early age there is, it 
appears, little mortality or sickness amongst the 
New Zealanders, except in those parts of the island 
in which the diseases I, have alluded to are preva- 
lent, or have become hereditary. 

The father or mother, or the relations, give a 
name to the child, taken from some quality or 
from some accident which happened before, or at 
the time of, his birth ; new names are thus con- 
tinually formed. It is rarely that the son bears 
the same appellation as his father ; the name is 
simple, but one man is often known by different 
names, and an accident may change the original 
one. All the names have meanings, and the num- 
ber of pure vowels which occur in the language, 
and the termination of every word with a vowel, 
render the names harmonious. 1 The European, or 

1 As specimens of native names the following may be given : 

Names of Men. Names of Women. 

Te Kaniata Te Kanawa 

Teatua Amohia 

Tengoungou Rangi toware 

Tangimoana Rangitea 

Titore Rangiawitia 

Hiko Parehuia 

Heu-Heu Rangikataua 

Narongo Pareaute 

Rangiaiata Kari 



28 BAPTISMAL [PART i. 

rather Oriental, names which have been given to 
the missionary natives undergo a transmutation 
adapted to their idiom, which improves their eu- 
phony. Unconnected with naming the child is 
the custom of its baptism. This remarkable cere- 
mony (E riri) is entirely unique : the time of its 
performance is not at any fixed period, but it gene- 
rally takes place during the first few months after 
the birth. It is done by the tohunga, or priest, who, 
with a green branch dipped in a calabash full of 
water, sprinkles the child and pronounces the fol- 
lowing incantation, which varies according to the 
sex of the child. The whole ceremony is very mys- 
terious ; few of the young people have been present 
during its performance ; and it seems to be a relic 
of a former more connected form of religious wor- 
ship, or perhaps of that primitive religion which is 
the basis of our most sacred religious rites. 

A very old chief and priest in Kaitaia, who had 
become a Christian, related to me the circumstances, 
and gave me the incantations. 

It would be necessary to be acquainted very 

Names of Men. Names of Women. 

Hamanu Aroha 

Tumu-Tumu Rangimahora 

Tawao Wakapoi 

E I hi Pirangi 

Matangi Rimginganganu 

Warepouri Rangipaeroa 

E Puni Pareugaoe 

Rauparalm Kaone 

Pane Kareao Eraraue 



CHAP. III.] INCANTATIONS. 29 

exactly with the whole of the ceremony before 
attempting to decipher the sense of these incanta- 
tions, or to translate them. There were some dis- 
crepances in the accounts I received of this custom : 
I was told that the baptism is carried on by girls 
or women, who lay the child upon the mat. Per- 
haps the two accounts can be reconciled, as the 
incantation may be said alternately by the priest 
and by the girls in the form of a dialogue. This 
seems to be probable from what I can decipher of 
it. The whole has evidently a symbolical meaning, 
as indeed all customs of the kind have, even among 
the most savage nations. 

Incantation used at the Baptism of Boys. 

Tohia te tama nei kia riri kia ngiha, kaui otu me te nganahau 
ka riri ki tai no tu ka nguha ki tai no tu, Koropana ki tai no tu. 
E pa te karanga ki tai no tu : me te nganahau ki tai no tu : taku 
tama nei kia tohia : koropana ki tai no tu : pa mai te karanga ki 
tai no tu : ko te kawa o karaka wati : o riri ai koe : e nguha ai 
koe : e ngana ai koe : e toa ai koe : e karo ai koe : ko tu iho uhia : 
ko rongo i houhia. 

Incantation used at the Baptism of Girls. 

Tohia te tama nei kia riri : kia nguha te tama nei : kani o tu : 
me te nganahau : ka riri ki tai no tu : ka wakataka te watu : kania 
kania ma taratara : te hihi ma taratara : te hau o uenuku puha ka 
mama tauira o tu : ka mama tauira o Rongo. Ho : ka kai tu : ka 
kai Rongo : ka kai te wakariki. He haha : he hau ora : he hau ran- 
gatira : kei runga kei te rangi : ka puha te rangi. E iriiria koe ki 
te iriiri : hahau kai mau tangaengae haere ki te wahie mau tanga- 
engae : watu kakahu mou tangaengae. 

The following is an attempted translation of the 
incantation used at the baptism of girls ; but several 



30 BAPTISMAL INCANTATIONS. [PART I. 

words are evidently incorrectly written, and of 
others I am unacquainted with the meaning. 

As, however, it was stated by a native to be " a 
piece of nonsense which he did not understand, nor 
anybody else, for its mystical expressions were known 
only to a few," it is probable that some words are 
very ancient and obsolete. I have not attempted 
to translate those parts of which I could not com- 
prehend the import. The sentences may be con- 
sidered to be pronounced alternately by the priest 
and a party of girls : 

Girls. Tohia te tama nei. 

We wish this child to be immersed. 
Priest. Kia riri. 

Let it be sprinkled. 
Girls. Kia nguha ! te tama nei. 

We wish the child to live to womanhood. 
Priest. Kani o Tu. 

Dance for Atua. 
Girls. Me ta nganahau. 
Priest. Ka riri ki tai no tu. 

It is sprinkled in the waters of Atua. 
Girls. Ka wakataka te watu. 

The mat is spread. 
Priest. Kania ma taratara, 

Te hihi ma taratara. 

Dance in a circle, 

Thread the dance. 

The remainder is very obscure. 
Scarcely anything can be said as to the education 
of children, which is left almost entirely to nature. 

1 Nguha signifies literally the art of tattooing on the lips of 
women at the age of puberty. 



CHAP. III.] CHILDREN. 31 

They early acquire those arts which are necessary 
for their maintenance and preservation. Near the 
sea or the lakes they acquire the art of swim- 
ming almost before they are able to stand upright. 
They are not deficient in obedience to their parents, 
although the latter do not exercise their authority 
very strictly, but allow their children to do what 
they do themselves. Where there is no occasion 
for burthening them with restrictions which they 
do not understand, as is the case in civilised nations, 
there are fewer occasions for correction. They are 
a cheerful, affectionate set of little urchins, inde- 
fatigable in annoying the visitor from distant Eu- 
rope by their curiosity, which extends to his person, 
clothes, all the things he may have with him, and 
even to his sayings and doings, which are faithfully 
reported to the elders : nothing escapes the atten- 
tion of these youngsters. From their continual 
contact with the adults all their mental faculties 
are early developed, although they pass their youth 
in doing nothing, or in innocent games. Their 
kite (manu, or pakau pakaukau) is of a triangular 
form, and is very neatly made of the light leaves 
of a sedge ; it is held by a string made of strips of 
flax tied together, and its ascent is accompanied 
with some saying or song, such as the " He karakia 
pakau," 1 which I here give in a note. It is a sign 

1 Piki mai piki mai kake mai ke mai ki te te hi ta hao te haii 
imi ka tu te rupe rupe katu kawa te kawa te kawa i numi e koe 
ki te kawa tua tapi ki te kawa tua rua kawaka ki ki kawaka kaka 
ahumai ahumai. 



32 SPORTS OF CHILDREN. [PART I. 

of peace when it is seen flying near a village, a 
" tohu tangl manu" A top, called kaihora, nicely 
formed and managed as it is by us, supplies another 
of their amusements. In the game of Maiti they 
are great proficients. This is a game like that 
called cat's-cradle in Europe, and consists of very 
complicated and perplexing puzzles with a cord tied 
together at the ends. It seems to he intimately 
connected with their ancient traditions, and, in the 
different figures which the cord is made to assume 
whilst held on both hands, the outlines of their 
different varieties of houses, canoes, or figures of 
men and women are imagined to be represented. 
Maid, the Adam of New Zealand, left this amuse- 
ment to them as an inheritance. Another game 
is called tutukai, and is played with a number of 
pebbles. A very common sport amongst children 
consists in opening and shutting the fingers, and 
bending the arm in a certain manner, when the fol- 
lowing words are said, the whole of which must be 
completed in a single breath : 

Katahi ti karna ti ka hara mai tapati tapat.o re ka rau ua ka ran 
ua ka noho te kiwi ka pohe wa tautau to pi to pa ka huia mai ka 
toko te rangi kai ana te wetu kai ana te marama o te Tiu e rere ra 
runga o tepe ra peka o hua kau^re turakina te arero wiwi wawa 
ke ke ke te manu ki taupiri. 

They have the following tale of a girl, whose 
face they fancy they can discover on the orb of the 
moon. Rona, a native maid, went with a calabash 
to fetch water. The moon hid her pale face behind 
dark and sweeping clouds. The maid, vexed at this 



CHAP. III.] TATTOOING. 33 

uncourteous behaviour, pronounced a curse on the 
celestial orb ; but as a punishment she stumbled and 
fell. The moon descended, raised her from the 
ground, and she now resides with her. 

There is no separation of the sexes during child- 
hood, nor indeed at any later age. Although pu- 
berty appears earlier than with us, the difference in 
th period is not so great as it is between us and 
the southern nations of Europeans. 

Families are not large ; there are rarely more 
than two or three children, although I found more 
numerous families in the interior. One of the 
causes may be the habit of nursing the child for a 
very long time. I have seen, however, as many as 
ten children by the same father and mother. As 
soon as the boy grows up he partakes in the occu- 
pations of the man, and tries to get a name for 
warlike exploits. He then receives the tattooing, 
an operation which lasts some time, and is done at 
intervals. The Tobunga is charged with this func- 
tion ; but it is not every one of them that is able 
to perform the operation. Some of the chief mas- 
ters of the art are slaves, and the Waikato tribe are 
celebrated for their skill, in the perfect execution of 
the designs. The tattoo, or " moko" which is its 
native name, is done either with the sharp bone of 
a bird, or with a small chisel called ulil. The 
candidate for this distinction reposes his head upon 
the knees of the operator, who drives the chisel 
into the skin with his hand. Each time, the chisel 

VOL. n. D 



34 TATTOOING. [PART I. 

is dipped into a pigment called narahu, which is 
prepared by carbonizing the resin of the kauri- 
pine ; and after each incision the blood is wiped of. 
The persons operated upon never allow the slightest 
expression of pain to escape them ; and after the in- 
flammation has passed away, the regular and clean 
scars appear dark. The tattooing of the lips is the 
most painful part of the operation. The moko is 
the same in all tribes, and does not form what 
might be called the arms of an individual, neither 
is it given as a reward for valiant deeds. When 
the natives had occasion to sign deeds in their 
transactions with the Europeans, they used to draw 
upon the document a part of their moko or some 
other figure as their signature ; but this seems to 
have been a modern invention. The moko is not an 
enforced ceremony ; but any one may have it done, 
or not, according to his wishes. Neither is it in 
many cases complete, but often remains unfinished. 
Slaves, if they have been taken when children, are 
not tattooed, nor is the operation completed in 
those cases where it has already been partly per- 
formed upon them. The complete moko comprises 
the face, the posteriors, and the anterior part of the 
thighs to above the knees The first lines are 
drawn from the wings of the nose to the chin. All 
the different parts of the moko have names. They 
are generally curved or spiral lines. 

Rerepi are those from the nose to the chin. 

Pongiangia, at the wings of the nose. 



CHAP. III.] TATTOOING. 35 

Ngu, at the summit of the nose. 

Kamcai, on the chin. 

Ngutu, on the lips. 

Hupe, in the rima nasi. 

Koroaha> on the lower maxilla, where the mas- 
seter lies. 

Pnta-ringa, on the ears. 

Pae-pae, on the malar bones. 

Kokoti, on the cheeks. 

Korohaha, the lower spirals of the cheeks. 

Erewa, upper eyelid. 

Tiwana, over the brows and temples. 

Titiy four lines on the middle of the forehead. 

Rape, the posteriors. 

Rito, the outer lines of those spirals. 

Puhoro, the upper part of the thighs. 

The girls, as soon as they arrive at puberty, have 
their lips tattooed with horizontal lines ; to have 
red lips is a great reproach to a woman. With 
females in many cases the operation ceases here, but 
more frequently the chin is tattooed, especially in 
the Waikato tribe, and the space between the eye- 
brows, much resembling the tattoo of the modern 
Egyptians : in some rare cases it extends over the 
angles of the mouth : I have indeed seen a woman 
whose whole face was tattooed. Women bear, be- 
sides, the marks of their " tangi" or lamentations 
for the dead: these are incisions made on their 
bodies with shells, and dyed with nara/iu, often 
running regularly down the thorax and the extre- 

D 2 



36 MARRIAGES. [ PART I. 

mities, but frequently without any regular design. 
The general effect of the tattoo is to give the face a 
rigorous and unchangeable appearance : it prevents 
the symptoms of age from becoming visible so early 
as they otherwise would do, but it is not so for- 
midable as it has been represented by some travel- 
lers. The tattoo of the lips, however, in women, 
gives them a livid, deadly appearance, certainly not 
to their advantage. 

Although few or no ceremonies are connected 
with marriage, the customs regarding married wo- 
men are strict and solemn. No marriage or con- 
nection for life takes place before the young people 
have attained a certain age, from eighteen to twenty 
for instance, with a little difference perhaps in the 
two sexes. It is not, however, rare that a child is 
promised in marriage, and then she becomes strictly 
" tapu" until she has attained the proper age. The 
suitor for a wife either succeeds by a long and con- 
tinued courtship, e-aru-aru, if the girl is at first 
unwilling to bestow her inclinations on him, or, if 
she is propitious, a secret pinching of the hands on 
both sides declares the affirmative. The latter is 
called ropa. If the girl is so lucky as to have two 
suitors who have equal pretensions, so that neither 
herself nor the father ventures a decision, " e-puna- 
rua" is ordered, or what we would call a pulling- 
match a dragging of her arms by each of the 
suitors in opposite directions, the stronger obtaining 
the victory, but often with very injurious conse- 



CHAP. III.] POLYGAMY. 37 

quences to the poor girl, whose arms in some cases 
sustain luxation. Polygamy is not interdicted, but 
is very uncommon amongst them. Here and there 
a chief possesses two wives, sometimes three, but 
most of them have only one. Adultery on the part 
of the wife is punished with death, of which several 
instances have come under my observation ; where, 
under the influence of Europeans and missionaries, 
the native laws have become less rigorous on this 
point, the husband exposes his wife in pur is natu- 
rallLus, and is then reconciled to her. In a pa 
near the North Cape of the island the wife of an 
influential chief had committed this crime. The 
chief, a Christian, enraged at the insult offered to 
him, declared he would divorce his wife. The 
woman, on her side, said that if he did she would 
hang herself, and would no doubt have kept her 
word. What was to be done ? The case was dis- 
cussed with the missionaries, and after a few days 
the man forgave his wife and took her back again. 

The adulterer often seeks safety in flight : if he 
is of an inferior class, or a slave, he has forfeited 
his life ; if he is a chief or an influential person, re- 
tributive justice cannot reach him : when he is of a 
different tribe, it becomes a cause of war. But these 
latter cases are very rare, as it is most frequently 
slaves who are guilty, and they are protected by no 
one. If the husband is faithless, his mistress is 
sometimes killed by his wife, but at all events 
stripped naked; and this is often done to the h us- 



38 ADULTERY. [PART I. 

band by the relations of the wife, if his rank does 
not shield him. Sometimes the husband commits 
suicide from fear of the consequences. A curious 
case of this description came to my knowledge, 
which I will relate, as being interesting in other 
respects. We were accompanied from Kawia into 
the Waipa district by a chief of the name of 
Te Waro. Te Waro had been in Van Diemen's 
Land, had seen the working of the English laws 
there, and had resolved in his own mind to adopt 
them in his country to their full extent. When we 
were in Kawia, Captain Symonds, the police ma- 
gistrate, explained to Te Waro the new state of 
things in New Zealand, and especially that they 
ought not to take the punishment of crimes into 
their own hands, but give the offenders up to 
justice. The chief made a promise that in his tribe 
he would make known those laws and enforce 
them. When we afterwards came to Te Waro's 
own abode on the Waipa river, Captain Symonds 
settled satisfactorily some outrages which had been 
committed by the natives upon some European 
settlers ; and as soon as this was finished, the chief, 
calling a girl to him, stepped forward and said to 
us, "I promised you to acknowledge your laws, 
which seem to be good, and I will be true to my 
promise. This girl has committed a murder. Her 
brother had had forbidden intercourse with a slave* 
girl, and, when the case became known, he feared 
the consequences from the relations of his wife, and 



CHAP. III.] TREATMENT OF WOMEN. 39 

shot himself. But the sister found the slave last 
night in the bush, and, to revenge her brother's 
death, killed her. Take the girl and judge her ac- 
cording to your laws." The girl was Te Waro's 
daughter! The reader may imagine the scene! 
Te Waro, a man of serene, highly meditative, and 
noble countenance, arraigning his only child of 
murder : his motives could not be mistaken. Before 
him stood his daughter, who pleaded her cause 
with energy and firmness, although now and then 
a tear started from her eye. She justly observed 
that she had acted according to their law, and that 
the girl had been the cause of her brother's death. 
But Te Waro would not listen to this. When the 
magistrate refused to send the girl to Auckland, 
Te Waro wished to give himself up to justice, being 
the nearest relation, and was with difficulty per- 
suaded that any such mode of retribution was con- 
trary to our laws. This case will show how much 
the natives appreciate the new order of things, and 
how easy it will be to reconcile them entirely to it. 
And yet this was a tribe far in the interior, not in 
constant contact with Europeans, nor influenced by 
missionaries. 

The wife is well treated by the husband ; she is 
his constant companion, and takes care of the plan- 
tations, manufactures of mats, and looks after the 
children. The man constructs the house, goes out 
fishing, and to war : but even in war the woman is 
often his companion, and either awaits in the neigh- 



40 DIVORCE. [PART i 

bourhood the termination of a skirmish, or on the 
field itself incites the men to combat. 

Divorce scarcely ever takes place except in cases 
of adultery. Widows are " tapu " until the bones 
of the husband have been scraped and brought to 
their ultimate resting-place : the same is the case 
with the widower. After this ceremony they be- 
come "noa," or free. Widows of arikis, or here- 
ditary chiefs, hold for life the highest influence over 
the tribe, or convey this influence to the chief whom 
they may marry. Instances of suicide at the death 
of a husband, especially if he was a " great man," 
are not uncommon ; and hanging seems to be the 
favourite mode of exit. 

It is well known that girls, before they are mar- 
ried, can dispense their favours as they like a per- 
mission which, as long as they lived in their primi- 
tive state, was perhaps not abused, as the liaison was 
binding, for the time being, even with Europeans. 
Afterwards girls became an article of trade with 
the chiefs in shipping places, who regarded selling 
their women as the easiest method of getting com- 
modities. But it must be admitted that parents, 
relations, and the females themselves, are very anx- 
ious to unite in legal matrimonial ties with the 
whites, and that licentiousness is not an inherent 
part of their character. If these ties are in any way 
iixed, they are maintained on the part of the female 
with affection and faithfulness. Infanticide is then 
uncommon. I know as many as six children of 



CHAP. III.] MIXED MARRIAGES. 41 

such mixed marriages : there results from them one 
of the finest half-castes that exists, and I would add, 
also, an improvement on the race, at least in its 
physical particulars, as far as can be judged from 
children. They retain, however, many of their 
mother's peculiarities, especially in the colour and 
quality of hair and eyes. They are generally 
attached to her race, and of course better acquainted 
with her language than with English. I may ob- 
serve that their number in the islands is nearly 400. 
A European having a native for his wife obtains, 
as a matter of course, the full protection of her 
father ; and if the latter is a powerful chief, the 
son-in-law can exercise a great influence, as the 
natives generally take great delight in their grand- 
children. Connexions of this kind, even if the 
couple had been lawfully married, have been viewed 
and, as it appears, most unwisely with great 
contempt by the missionaries, who are too apt to 
consider the people to whom they have been sent to 
preach the Gospel as an inferior race of beings ; in 
many cases, however, the missionaries seem to have 
been actuated by a desire to check the influence of 
bad characters who may thus connect themselves 
with a tribe. From some cases which have come 
under my observation, I must remark that many 
of these have turned out very good marriages ; 
and as the average native female population seems 
to be greater than the male, this will furnish a 



42 BLENDING OF RACES. [PART I. 

remedy against certain evils experienced in other 
colonies, where the contrary was the case, and tend 
to what I conceive to be very desirable an ultimate 
blending of the races. 



CHAP. IV.] 43 



CHAPTER IV. 

The Food of the Natives their Clothing their Dances Witch- 
craft Modes of Burial Ideas regarding the Soul. 

I HAVE already mentioned what the prevailing food 
of the natives was before the Europeans introduced 
maize and potatoes, and still is in many parts. As 
there are, however, many curious circumstances 
connected with this subject, a few remarks may be 
interesting. A New Zealander has two meals a 
day, one in the forenoon and one just before sunset. 
Generally the female slaves or the elder women 
prepare the food, each family for themselves, or 
sometimes several together. The native oven, hangi 
or kohua, made in the well-known manner with 
heated stones, is situated either in the open air or in 
a house (te-kauta) constructed of logs' at a small 
distance from each other, so that the smoke may 
escape. The fire-wood must be taken from the bush : 
all parts of old houses, canoes, fences, &c., are 
strictly forbidden (tapu). Before the meal is cooked 
baskets of sedge or flax are made, in which the 
different parties receive their share. Generally the 
men and women sit apart from each other ; the tau- 



H FOOD. [PART i. 

reka-reka, or slaves, retain their share, and sit by 
themselves. The food must be consumed in the 
open air ; the dwelling-house is " tapu." Formerly 
pipis, or cockles, formed a great part of their food, 
and were obtained in large quantities on the ebb of 
the tide. Fish are used, either fresh or dried in 
the sun. They are caught with the seine, or with 
a navicular (canoe-shaped) piece of wood, lined on one 
side with a thin plate of the pawa-shell (Haliotis), 
in imitation of a fish, and with a hook formed from 
a piece of human bone, or the whole hook is formed 
out of human bone ; this is used without bait, and 
is towed at the stern of a canoe. The use of human 
bones for this purpose was meant to convey an in- 
sult and a defiance to a hostile tribe, as only the 
bones of enemies killed in battle are thus used. As 
a fly, a feather of the apterix is highly esteemed. 

The half-fossilized bones of the moa, a bird be- 
longing probably to the struthious order, but now 
extinct, were selected for their hardness, in ab- 
sence of the larger and stronger bones of quadru- 
peds. Flatfish and rays are transfixed with wooden 
spears in the shallow bays ; fish of the genera Scom- 
ber, Trigla, Serranus, Sparus, Balistes, Labrus, and 
Conger, are caught either with the seine or with 
hooks ; a Myxene with the hand ; and four kinds 
of fresh-water eels by baiting a very skilfully-con- 
structed funnel-shaped basket of wicker-work (pu- 
koro-tuna). A species of shark which at Mid- 
summer that is, at Christinas visits in countless 



CHAP. IV.] FISHING. 45 

numbers the coasts and its inlets, is held in high 
estimation ; it is eaten dried. In size the seines 
(kupenga) used by the natives rival our largest, and 
are made of unprepared flax exactly in the same way 
and form as ours are. Large salt-water crawfish 
are caught by diving, in which art the women are 
very expert ; fresh -water crawfish, which are com- 
mon in the inland lakes and rivulets, are taken with 
bait. Birds are generally decoyed by imitating their 
voices, or by a decoy-bird ; the latter is the mode 
used to catch the kaka, or the Nestor australis. A 
native concealed in the forest by a cover made 
of branches has a long rod in his hands, which 
reaches to a neighbouring tree : near him sits 
the decoy-bird, whose cries attract the wild ones, 
which deliberately walk down the rod, and are 
caught one after the other in quick succession. 
Tuis, or mocking-birds, are decoyed by imitating 
their notes ; formerly pigeons were speared, but at 
present the gun is generally used. In former times 
the birds called kiwis (Apterix australis), and 
kakapos (Centropus ?), formed part of the food of 
the natives, but now these birds have become nearly 
extinct in the northern island. The kiore maori, 
or native rat, and the guana, were once favourite 
dishes, but they have met with the same fate : the 
native dog was formerly considered a dainty, and 
great numbers of them were eaten ; but the breed 
having undergone an almost complete mixture with 
the European, their use as an article of food has 



46 FOOD. [PART i. 

been discontinued, as the European dogs are said by 
the natives to be perfectly unpalatable. The New 
Zealand dog is different from the Australian dingo ; 
the latter resembles in size and shape the wolf, 
while the former rather resembles the jackall ; its 
colour is reddish-brown, its ears long and straight. 
The native name is kuri, the general name for the 
dog amongst the Polynesian race ; but it is very 
curious that the Spanish word " pero" is also known 
to them. 

Among the delicacies at certain seasons may be 
mentioned the sweet and fleshy bractese of the Frey- 
cinetia Banksii ; they also occasionally eat the fari- 
naceous root of some terrestrial Orchideee, as the 
Thelymitra Forsteri, the Orthoceras strictum, Micro- 
tis Banksii ; nor do they disdain the fat grub of some 
coleopterous insect which they find in rotten trees. 

The korau, or mamako, the pulpous stem of a tree- 
fern (the Cyathea medullaris), is an excellent vege- 
table, which is in season about Christmas ; it is pre- 
pared by being cooked during a whole night in a 
native oven. The heart of the cabbage-palm (Areca 
sapida), which grows in the gloomy forest in hilly 
situations, is eaten raw. The koroi, or the berries 
of the kahikatea-pine, are a wholesome aromatic 
fruit. The fern-root (Pteris esculenta) is still fre- 
quently eaten, being previously roasted and beaten, 
but its use is rapidly decreasing. 

With the exception of the taro (Arum esculen- 
tum, or Caladium esculentum), and the dog, which, 



CHAP. IV.J THE SWEET POTATO. 47 

according to their traditions, their forefathers brought 
with them when they first came to the country, all 
these animals and vegetables were nga mea tawito 
(old things, indigenous things). A change took place 
in their food by the introduction of the sweet pota- 
to, kumara (Convolvulus batata) an introduction 
which is gratefully remembered and recorded in 
many of their songs, and has given rise to solemn 
religious observances. It may be asked, what was 
the period when the poor natives received the gift of 
this wholesome food, and who was their benefactor ? 
On the first point they know nothing ; their recol- 
lection attaches itself to events, but not to time : the 
name, however, of the donor lives in their memory. 
It is E Pani, or Ko Pani, the wife of E Tiki, who 
brought the first seeds from the island of Tawai. 
E Tiki was a native of the island of Tawai, which 
is not that whence, according to tradition, the 
ancestors of the New Zealanders had come. He 
came to New Zealand with his wife : whether in less 
frail vessels than they possess at present, and whether 
purposely or driven there by accident, tradition is 
silent. He was well received, but soon perceived 
that food was more scanty here than in the happy 
isle whence he came : he wished to confer a benefit 
upon his hosts, but knew not how to do it, until his 
wife, E Pani, offered to go back and fetch kumara, 
that the people who had received them kindly might 
not suffer want any longer. This she accomplished, 
and returned in safety to the shores of New Zealand. 



48 THE SWEET POTATO. [PART I. 

What a tale of heroism may lie hidden under this 
simple tradition ! Is it a tale connected with the 
Polynesian race itself, or does it not rather refer to 
the arrival in New Zealand of the early Spanish 
navigators, who may have brought this valuable 
product from the island of Tawai, one of the Sand- 
wich Islands, where the plant is still most exten- 
sively cultivated ? There can be scarcely any doubt 
but that New Zealand was visited by some people 
antecedent to Tasman. Kaipuke is the name for 
ship in New Zealand. Buque is a Spanish word. 
Kai means, to eat, live, men. No other Polynesian 
nation has this word to designate a ship. Pero (dog) 
and poaca (pig) are also Spanish. Tawai, whence 
E Pani brought the kumara, is situated to the east 
of New Zealand according to tradition ; and the 
first discoverers in the great ocean, Alvaro Mendana 
(1595), Quiros (1608), Lemaire, and others, arrived 
from the eastward, as they did at Tahiti, according 
to the tradition of the inhabitants. Tasman did 
not come to New Zealand until 164*2. 

However this may be, the fields of kumara are 
strictly " tapu," and any theft from them is severely 
punished. The women who are engaged in their 
cultivation are also " tapu," They must pray, to- 
gether with the priests, for the success of the harvest. 
These women are never allowed to join the cannibal 
feasts ; and it is only after the kumara is dug up 
that they are released from the strict observances of 
the " tapu." They believe that kumara is the food 



CHAP. IV.] PIGS. 49 

consumed in the "reinga," the dwelling-place of 
departed spirits, and it is certainly the food most 
esteemed among the living. 

They have several ways of preparing the sweet 
potato : it is either simply boiled, or dried slowly 
in a "hangi," when it has the taste of dates, or 
ground to powder, and baked into cakes. 

The calabashes (hue) were, according to their tra- 
ditions, the next addition to their stock of eatables. 
The first, from which they received the seeds, was 
carried by a whale, which threw it on to the shore. 

All the other articles of food were introduced by 
Europeans, by Captain Cook and those who fol- 
lowed him. Captain King, when, at the end of the 
last century, he brought back the two natives who 
had been taken away by force to teach the settlers in 
Norfolk Island the mode of dressing flax, landed at 
the north end of the island, and there introduced 
maize, and gave the natives three pigs, which, how- 
ever, were mistaken by them for horses, they hav- 
ing some vague recollection of those which they 
had seen on board Captain Cook's vessels. They 
forthwith rode two of them to death ; and the third 
was -killed for having entered a bury ing-ground. A 
very old man, who had known Captain King, related 
this singular story to me. Pigs have only of late 
been generally introduced into many parts of the 
country ; and in some places where tribes have been 
broken up they are found wild in large numbers. 
The native name is poaka; and although English 

VOL. II. E 



50 PIGS. [PART i. 

men think this word to be their own " pork," with 
a native termination (porka), I am doubtful whether 
the New Zealanders had not some knowledge of 
this animal previous to its introduction by us. In 
the languages of the islands in the Southern Ocean 
the name of the pig is bua, buacca, buaha, and pua ; 
and it was certainly known in those places before 
the arrival of the English. The New Zealand pigs 
are a peculiar breed, with short heads and legs and 
compact bodies. 

Water is the common drink of the New Zea- 
landers. They sometimes press out the juice from 
the drupes of the tupakihi (Coriaria sarmentosa), 
which is called tutu, and which they drink unfer- 
mented. The seeds of these berries form a very 
active acrid poison, and produce, when swallowed 
by accident, violent spasmodic affections and inflam- 
mations of the nerves. 

Food and everything connected with it being the 
most important objects in a native's life, we cannot 
feel astonished that they should be so intimately 
connected with his religious ideas, and that we 
should find traces of a sacrifice to the Supreme 
Being of a part of the produce of the soil or of the 
chase. To have known these customs more accu- 
rately, before they fell into disuse, would have been 
very interesting : now they have nearly disappeared. 

The following is an incantation which was uttered 
at the offering of a pigeon : 



CHAP. IV.] INCANTATIONS. 51 

He karakia mo te kuku kia ma ai te hinu kia imi ai tahuna ki 
te kapura ko te karakia tenei. 

Ka tahuna ka tahuna te ahi tapu e Tiki ka ka i te ata tapu e 
homai e homai e Tiki e hinu e ka ki koe he wai kuku ka ki koe 
he wai ruru ka ki koe he wai kaka ka ki koe he wai pitoitoi ka 
ki koe he wai piraka raka ka ki koe he wai tuna ko te puna 
i wea ko te puna i rangi riri homai kia ringia. 

Literal Translation. 

A Prayer, that the Pigeon may be pure, that it may be very fat : 
when the fire burns the prayer is said. 

When (it) is lighted, when (it) is lighted the sacred fire, oh Tiki ! 
when it burns on the sacred morning : oh give, oh give, oh Tiki, 
the fat : it burns for thee, the fat of the pigeon ; for thee, the fat 
of the owl; for thee, the fat of the parrot; for thee, the fat of the 
flycatcher; for thee, the fat of the thrush : a water of eels : where 
is its spring ? the spring is in heaven : sprinkle, give ! be it poured 
out. 

A prayer regarding the native rat is as follows : 

He karakia kiore maori. 

Kia haeremai ai ki te poka kia mate ai Taumaha kirunga, 
taumaha kiraro ki taku matua wahine i ki ai taku kiore ma te reke 
taumaha taumaha Etakate po e taka ki tu hua e taka te ao e taka 
ki karewa i tutu ai he kiore. 

That connected with the calabash is 

He karakia hue kia hua ai. 
A Prayer that the Calabash may be fruitful. 
He aha taku takano he turu taku kakano he rakau nui taku 
kakano moe mai ra taku tokoto mai ra koutou koa u Tamariki 
hua kiwi huahua moho te homai te ringia ki te kawekawe o pu te 
hue. 

In their dealings with Europeans they are eager 
for everything the latter consume, with the excep- 
tion of spiced and acrid articles : they have an aver- 
sion also to distilled spirits. With some, however, 

E2 



52 MAT CLOTHING. [PART I. 

who live continually with Europeans, the drinking 
of spirits has already become a habit, but it is not 
as yet very general. Our bread is a much-desired 
article with them, and in the European settlements 
the baker receives the greatest part of their earnings. 
It is well known that the custom of drinking kawa, 
the juice of the root of Piper methisticum, prevails 
in many of the South-Sea Islands. The real Piper 
methisticum does not grow in New Zealand, but 
a cognate species, the Piper excelsum, which also 
bears the name of kawa, but is not used to prepare a 
drink. 

All their clothing was formerly made of the 
Phormium tenax. The mode of manufacturing 
it is very simple, and consists merely in intertwining 
perpendicular threads with others extended horizon- 
tally. The beauty and durability of these mats are 
well known, but making the most common one 
occupies a woman full six months, and one of the 
best requires a much longer time. They are of dif- 
ferent descriptions. 

E kaitaka is made of the finest flax : it is white 
and silk-like, with a strong black border, beautifully 
worked with angular designs in red, very much re- 
sembling some of the drawings on Mexican tombs. 
These mats are worn at festivals, and form the 
principal article of presents. When dyed black 
they are called waihinau. These are very beautiful 
and scarce. 

E koroai is a white mat with black strings, and 



CHAP. IV.] VARIETIES OF MATS. 53 

a thick fringe of strings of the same colour. It is 
generally worn as a toga by the principal men. 

E wakaiwa is a white mat, with yellow, or fre- 
quently variegated, strings, not twisted, but rolled 
together, so as to form tubes, which is done by scrap- 
ing the flax-leaves on one side. They are worn by 
the women. 

E tahea is likewise a woman's mat, with twisted 
strings, two or three feet long. 

E hima is a white mat, with white strings at a 
distance from each other. 

E tatara is a black-stringed mat, with patches or 
rows of dyed wool, of which substance the natives 
are very covetous ; and many a red comforter or cap 
has been converted into these ornaments. They 
have, however, a red vegetable dye of their own. 
This is the wood and bark of the rimu-pine. 

E rapaki is a coarse mat, which the women wear : 
it covers them from the loins to the knees. 

E mangaika is a very thick and large mat, into 
which black or yellow pieces of flax are closely in- 
serted, and which are impervious to rain. In these 
the epidermis, which keeps the fibres of the flax-leaves 
together, is not separated; and where this is the 
case the mats are called koka. 

A good sleeping-mat is called takapau, and re- 
sembles our table-covers : an inferior one is called 
e porera. 

Mats are also made from pieces of dog's-skin sewn 
together. They are then called tahi uru. 



54 VISITING COSTUME. [PART I. 

I am scarcely able to give any new particulars re- 
garding the preparation of flax. I will only observe 
that the introduction of blankets has greatly dimi- 
nished the skill of the natives in preparing it ; and 
that they work very little of that valuable article for 
the purposes of trade, although a good flax-scraper 
of either sex can clean as much as ten pounds weight 
per diem. 

If a party of natives are travelling, they dress 
themselves, just before arriving at their destination, 
in their best clothes. A wooden comb (heru) is 
used, in shape remarkably like some I have seen 
which were brought from North America ; the 
face and hands receive the unusual luxury of being 
washed ; and the head is ornamented with the white 
feathers of the albatross or gull, or, as a still 
greater distinction, with the esteemed tail-feathers 
of the uia (Neomorpha Gouldii). Sometimes the 
face is painted with a red ochre (kokowai), or a 
blue ochre (pukipoto). But this painting is used 
chiefly at certain feasts, at funeral ceremonies, and 
in their wars. The red ochre is also said to pre- 
vent the mosquitoes and sand-flies from tormenting 
the body. The hair is often greased with shark's 
oil, or with an oil pressed from the seeds of the titoki 
(Aledryon excelsum, belonging to the Sapindacese). 

The ears of both sexes are pierced, and this is done 
at an early age. The native ornaments worn in the 
ears are pieces of the ponamu (nephrite, or oriental 
jade), which are called e tara ; the mako taniwa, or 



CHAP. IV.] NEGLECT OF FLOWERS. 55 

teeth, of the tiger-shark, which are very much 
esteemed ; or a tooth of a deceased husband. Some- 
times the opening receives the purple flower of 
several kinds of Metrosideros, or Clematis, or the 
favourite pipe. Generally speaking the natives take 
very little delight in flowers, which they regard as 
useless, and seldom use them as ornaments. They 
wonder how Europeans can bestow such trouble on 
Flora's children, being, as they say, useless for 
food. 

Around the neck both sexes generally wear a 
figure cut out of jade. This they call E' Tiki : it has 
an enormous head, very large eyes, and monstrous 
and disproportionate arms and legs. It is not in any 
way regarded as an idol, although the value they 
attach to it seems to be connected with some an- 
cient genealogical traditions, as E' Tiki is also the 
name of one of their great ancestors. Generally I 
found that they considered these figures as heir- 
looms in a family, but, where no such hereditary 
value was attached, they readily parted with them. 
This seems the real nature of these E' Tikis, which 
we find in many of the Polynesian islands under 
the same name, and which were considered as em- 
blems of their religion, as they certainly are in one 
sense, if we take their great veneration for the me- 
mory of their ancestors as constituting part of their 
religion. The colossal busts of Easter Island, the 
grotesque statues of the Sandwich and Figi Islands, 
are the same as the wooden carvings over a New 



56 DRESSING THE HAIR. [PART I. 

Zealander's house, or on his sepulchral monuments 
all are Tikis (E' is the article). 

Men for the most part either have their hair cut 
periodically, or wear it long and tied up on the 
crown of the head ; girls let it fall over the fore- 
head (which they do not like to have uncovered), 
and crop it in a straight line about an inch above 
the eyebrows. Married women sometimes wear it 
loose and flowing; sometimes they tie it up in dif- 
ferent shapes, according to the fashion, which is as 
changeable in this respect as with us. Young girls 
and boys always wear it short. 

The hair on the head of a chief is a very sacred 
object, and the operation of cutting it is accom- 
panied with certain customs connected with the 
" Tapu." 

The New Zealander would have a tolerably strong 
beard if he did not eradicate it as soon as it appears. 
This is done with a cockleshell; but the custom is 
not universal, and men are sometimes seen with 
large beards. Generally speaking, their legs, chest, 
and arms are less covered with hair than is the case 
with Europeans, and it causes them great astonish- 
ment to see the hairy thorax of the white man. 

Dances and songs are very common ; the latter 
are generally accompanied with mimicry. A war 
is commenced and concluded with a dance, in which 
the features are in various ways contorted. They 
have a game with four balls, exactly like that of the 
Indian jugglers, arid they accompany it with a song. 



CHAP. IV.] DANCES AND SONGS. 57. 

Another game is with one ball (poi) suspended from 
a string. Some songs are erotic or lyric, and are 
sung to a low, plaintive, uniform, but not at all 
disagreeable tune. A great many of their songs are 
licentious. In paddling, they stimulate each other 
to exertion by a song ; one man, standing at the head 
or in the hull of the canoe, sings a strophe, and the 
rest join in chorus. E' Waiata is a song of a joyful 
nature ; E' Haka, one accompanied by gestures or 
mimics ; E' Karakia is a prayer or an incantation, 
used on certain occasions, and in saying this there 
is generally no modulation of the voice, but sylla- 
bles are lengthened and shortened, and it produces 
the same effect as the reading of the Talmud in syna- 
gogues. Most of these songs live in the memory of 
all, but with numerous variations ; certain karakia, 
or invocations, however, are less generally known, 
and a stranger obtains them with difficulty, as they 
are only handed down amongst the tohunga, or 
priests, from father to son. To adapt words to a 
certain tune, and thus to commemorate a passing 
event, is common in New Zealand, and has been the 
beginning of all national poetry. Many of these 
children of the moment have a long existence, and 
are transmitted through several generations ; but 
then their allusions become unintelligible, and fo- 
reign names, having undergone a thorough change, 
cannot be recognised. 

The only musical instrument possessed by the 
natives is a flute (E' Win, or Poretu) with four 



58 DISEASES ATTRIBUTED [PART I. 

holes, made of wood : the airs produced on it are 
plaintive, but little modulated. 

The game of draughts is very common, and is 
called E' Mu: although not played for gambling 
purposes, it often gives rise to quarrels. It is some- 
times played differently from our game, but I am 
not quite sure that it was not introduced by Eu- 
ropeans. 

The New Zealander is not over-clean in his per- 
son, but he is very particular respecting his food ; and 
his dwelling also is kept in as much order as possible. 
The introduction of blankets and all sorts of ragged 
European clothing, accompanied with the parasitical 
flea, which, according to native accounts, only ap- 
peared with the Europeans, has not improved his 
sense of propriety or his general appearance. The 
rigour of the climate and the want of soap are the 
principal causes of this, as the natives do not cease 
washing and cleaning themselves when they have 
plenty of that invaluable article, or when the vanity 
of the females is in any way concerned. 

Diseases are generally ascribed to the action of a 
spirit (E' Atua), as a punishment for eating food or 
doing anything that is " tapu;" or forbidden : in 
many cases they are believed to originate in witch- 
craft (Makuta). The latter belief is deeply rooted, 
and even the Christianized natives cannot divest 
themselves of it. Bewitching is done by digging a 
hole, and invoking the spirit of him whom they want 
to have destroyed, which appears above the hole as 



CHAP. IV.] TO WITCHCRAFT. 59 

a light, when a curse is pronounced over it; or 
during the night they go to the side of the river, 
and call on the spirit, which appears on the other 
bank. There is a district in the northern island, 
situated between Taupo and Hawke's Bay, called 
Urewera, consisting of steep and barren hills: the 
scattered inhabitants of this region have the re- 
nown of being the greatest witches in the country. 
They are very much feared, and have little connec- 
tion with the neighbouring tribes, who avoid them 
if possible. If they come to the coast, the natives 
there scarcely venture to refuse them anything, for 
fear of incurring their displeasure. They are said 
to use the saliva of the people whom they intend 
to bewitch; and visitors carefully conceal their 
spittle, to give them no opportunity of working 
their evil. Like our witches and sorcerers of old, 
they appear to be a very harmless people, and but 
little mixed up with the quarrels of their neigh- 
bours. It is a curious fact that many of the old 
settlers in the country have become complete con- 
verts to the belief in these supernatural powers. 
Witchcraft has been the cause of many murders ; a 
few days before I arrived at Aotea, on the western 
coast, three had been committed in consequence of 
people declaring on their death-bed that they had 
been bewitched. The police magistrate, Captain 
Symonds, remonstrated with them on the absurdity 
of such proceedings, and obtained the promise of the 



60 REMEDIES FOR DISEASES. [PART I. 

chief that in future he would deliver up to justice 
all who committed these murders. It is a curious 
fact, which has been noticed in Tahiti, Hawaii, 
and other islands inhabited by the great Polyne- 
sian race, that their first intercourse with Eu- 
ropeans produces civil wars and social degradation ; 
but that a change of ideas is quickly introduced, 
and that the most ancient and deeply-rooted pre- 
judices soon become a subject of ridicule to the na- 
tives, and are abolished at once. The grey priest, 
or tohunga, deeply versed in all the mysteries of 
witchcraft and native medical treatment, gives way 
in his attendance on the sick to every European 
who pretends to a knowledge of the science of sur- 
gery or medicine, and derides the former credulity 
of his patient. As the diseases are generally ascribed 
to psychical causes, they are treated by means of 
prayers, "not however without some attendance on 
the body. If a chief or his wife falls sick, the 
most influential tohunga, or a woman who has " the 
odour of sanctity," attends, and continues day and 
night with the patient, sometimes repeating incan- 
tations over him, sometimes sitting before the house 
and praying. The following is an incantation which 
is said by the priest as a cure for headache. He pulls 
out two stalks of the Pteris esculenta, from which 
the fibres of the root must be removed, and, beating 
them together over the head of the patient, sings 
this chant : 



CHAP. IV.] PRAYERS FOR THE SICK. 61 

He Karakia tupapaku, ka ngau tona matenga e te atua ka kara- 
kiatia tend kakakia kia ia ki oraia. 

Literally A Prayer for the Dead (Sick) when his Head aches ; to 
Atua this Prayer is prayed, that he (the sick) may become well. 

Ko matataia ko matapo i tako mata wea wea mai wea te rakaua 
te Atua i taka maimnga te rakaua te Atua i ta Kamai raro te 
kuruki te mho o te tupua kuruki te niho o te tawitu ka ti ngau 
kati te ngau kati ko karakiaanga tupuna a nga wananga ko akuo 
tenei tauira. 

The following is another incantation, in which 
there occurs an invocation to Tiki and Pani to re- 
store the patient to health : 

Ta wiwi ta manawa ko taku manato manawa ko taku manawa 
heki te manawa irunga ia tawaki hoki iho te manawa i e puta ihu 
hoki iho kia ora tenei tangata E Tiki e Pani kia ora tenei tangata 
ka hoki mai tena manawa kawaia. 

At the same time the relations make their appear- 
ance in or near the house, and show their grief by 
weeping, in which the patient joins. Frequently 
the latter is carried to another house or to a neigh- 
bouring village, to have the continual benefit of 
these lamentations. But, what is more efficient, 
they provide the sick with better and more easily 
digestible food than usual with cockles, fresh 
fishes, decoction of fishes, Sonchus oleraceus, or a 
solanum, birds, and so on. Men or women of 
an inferior class, if they become diseased, often go 
to the bush, and return when they are well again ; 
whilst there they chiefly employ the steam rising 
from herbs infused in boiling water. If there are 
hot-springs in the neighbourhood, they are very 



02 MOURNING. [PART i. 

much used, and with admirable effect. The natives 
are better surgeons than physicians ; lirnbs shattered 
by a ball, or otherwise broken, I have seen carefully 
set, laid upon pillows, kept clean, and the pressure 
of clothes and the contact of the air kept off by a 
wicker-work contrivance. Abscesses are opened 
with a knife or a shell ; indurated lymphatic glands 
on the neck are fearlessly cut out with a razor or 
a common knife. Their practice of cutting up and 
devouring their enemies has made them pretty well 
acquainted with the general structure of the body : 
they also know very well how to detail the symp- 
toms of a disease, although they are unacquainted 
with the internal functions of the human body. 

When death occurs, general lamentations take 
place amongst the nearest relations (e tang'i), who 
make deep incisions in their own bodies with broken 
pieces of shells. The mourners either stand in an 
upright posture, throwing their arms backwards, 
and keeping them in a trembling motion ; or they 
squat down, enveloping their heads in the mats. 
These violent expressions of affection, the streaming 
tears, and this unbounded show of grief at the 
decease of the renowned warrior, or of a friend or 
relation, have something poetical and striking in 
their primitive simplicity. The old bedaub them- 
selves with red pigment, and cover their heads with 
wreaths of green leaves. The house in which the 
death took place becomes "tapu" until the period 
of the cleaning and ultimate burial of the bones, 



CHAP. IV.J TREATMENT OF THE DEAD. 63 

which is not at any fixed time, but generally takes 
place during the first year, when the flesh is suffi- 
ciently decomposed. All the clothes and utensils 
of the deceased are either left in the house which 
he inhabited or are buried with him. The body is 
placed in a sort of canoe-shaped coffin among the 
foliage of a tree in a grove, where it remains for 
several months. It is then taken down ; the bones 
are washed and cleaned, and finally deposited in a 
small covered box, which is sometimes carved, and 
resembles a canoe ; it is elevated aboveground, on 
a column standing in the village, in the neighbour- 
hood of the houses of the surviving relations. 
Sometimes the bones are placed in a hollow tree 
in some secret spot of the wood, or in a limestone 
cavern, of which there are many in the island, or 
in some chasm of the rocks difficult of access. If 
the man was of great consequence, such as an ariki, 
or hereditary chief, a mausoleum of exquisite carved- 
work is erected in the centre of the village, into 
which the body is brought in a sitting posture, 
dressed in the best mats of the deceased, and orna- 
mented with feathers. The human figures on the 
monument are generally meant to represent him in 
whose memory it is erected, his wife, children, and 
ancestors ; and all the figures are designated with 
their names. The putting forth the tongue to an 
enormous extent in these carvings is the symbol of 
valour, courage, and defiance, and is found in almost 
all the native sculptures. 



64 MAUSOLEUMS. [PART I. 

Another characteristic of these carvings is evi- 
dently symbolical of the vis genitrix of the male or 
female originals, and they are intended also to cele- 
brate the prowess and resources of a tribe. We 
can trace these emblematic meanings in the carvings 
throughout Polynesia and the Indian Archipelago, 
and even in India itself; and they are evidently 
among the most ancient and primitive symbolical 
representations, and gave rise to solemn ordinances 
in the religions of ancient Greece and Rome. 

When buried in a mausoleum, either the body is 
left to slow decay, emitting a horrible smell through 
the village, or an after-visitation takes place, at 
which the tohunga sings the funeral ode, or pihe, 
modified according to the circumstances of the 
death, whether in battle or by disease ; T and he 

1 I give here the Pihe, as it was given to me, through the 
kindness of a missionary lady at Kaitaia. It differs in some points 
from the version communicated in Professor Lee's Grammar. 

Papa te watitiri Te toto roiai koe 

I runga nei E wano 

Ko ana ka na pu Wano wano wano wano 

Heaitu Mai toki haumie 

Ko riri rongo mai kaheke Ka riri Tu 

[Tatara te wai puna Ka nguha Tu 

Tea kouru Ka wewehi Tu 

Ko nga ngana Ka wawana 

Ko a pa rangi Tu atu 

Ko kapiti ho Raro pouri ai] 

Ko kapiti hono Ka taka Hokianga nui ai 

Te ata o te taua Ka taka te waro 

Te hihihiki Pipi ra u e ru koia 

Te rama rama Pipi ra u e ru koia 

Te weti te weta Kia kotikotia 



CHAP. IV. J SACRED PLACES. 65 

afterwards removes the bones to a place in the 
forest, often known only to himself. It would 
appear that not only the clothing, but also the 
ornaments, implements of war and fishing, and so 
forth, are deposited with the dead : at least, in ex- 
amining some old coffins which were suspended on 
trees, I found fish-hooks (made of human bones, 
perhaps of those of a conquered enemy), and some 
battle-axes of Lydian stone. All these places, wahi- 
tapu (sacred places), as they are called generally, or 
papa tupapakau (a coffin for the corpse), if it is a 
monument, are strictly sacred ; and many a strife 
has arisen between Europeans and natives, from the 

Te uru o te ariki Hiki Hiki 

Pipi ra u e ru koia Hiki Hiki warawara 

Pihe ! Ko iai tanga roa 

He tapu 1 tana 

He tapu tumata tangaroa Homai ra 

E Dgaro He kino Tu 

He ngaro tu ki tana he iwa Wangainga 

He iwa Kia tai 

He iwa tukua ki te marae Koropana 

Wero wero Te kawa ki te marae 

Wero wero te tara homai ra Witi rua 

Werohia ki teia Te ika tere ku paenga 

Wakarewa wakarewa Kia uru Ae Aea 

Te tara ki a Tai Ae Aea 

Me kotahi manawa reka Kia uru Ae Aea 

Te manawa ki a Tu Ae Aea 

U Ae Aea Kia uru Ae Aea 
UAeAea Pihe! 

NOTE. The lines in brackets are only sung when the dead has 
been killed in battle. In such case the heads of the enemies he 
has slain are raised into the air on spears each time the word Pihe 
is said by the priest, and repeated by the chorus. 

VOL. II. F 



66 THE SOUL AND THE [PART I. 

former disregarding this feeling. In the centre of 
the island, at Taupo, I found that a custom exists 
and I conclude that it has existed throughout the 
island of cutting off the heads not only of their 
enemies, to prepare and preserve them, but also of 
their friends and relations, for the purpose of keep- 
ing them to lament over from time to time. At 
all funeral ceremonies the old women are generally 
the most violent in their grief; and some are so 
energetic in their " tangi," that their bodies are 
entirely covered with deep scars, from the incisions 
which they make with their broken shells, and 
their eyes become inflamed from an excess of crying. 
Man, according to the notions of the natives, 
is endowed with an immortal, incorporeal spirit 
(wairua), which at his death departs from the body, 
and goes, as a falling star, to the reinga, or nether 
world, the entrance to which is down the face of 
a rocky cliff at the Cape Maria van Diemen. An 
ancient pohutukaua-tree (Metrosideros tomentosa) 
stands there, upon the branches of which the spirit 
descends. The natives hold this place in great awe 
and veneration; and even Christian natives who 
accompanied me would not go near it. But the 
spell has been partially broken by a missionary cut- 
ting off the branch on which the spirit was supposed 
to alight. In the interior the natives still adhere 
to their ancient notions. The reinga is the common 
dwelling-place of the spirits, but it is not the only 
one. Before the spirit of an ariki, or hereditary 



CHAP. IV.] WORLD OF SPIRITS. 67 

chief, descends into it, it goes into Heaven (Taki- 
wana) ; there his left eye remains, and becomes a 
star. In the reinga the spirits live as men do on 
earth ; but they can leave it, and influence the ac- 
tions and the fate of those who are alive, communi- 
cating with them through the medium of the to- 
hunga, who hears them. Their voice has a whistling 
sound, which others besides the tohunga sometimes 
perceive, when they walk out in the dark. If tra- 
vellers come into the neighbourhood of the reinga, 
they throw down a piece of fern, or of the nikau- 
palm (Areca), to let the spirits know whether the 
wanderers are inhabitants of the open land or of 
the forest. The wairua often speak in dreams to 
the priest or to the ariki, who announces their 
communications in the morning, and these often 
lead to important resolutions. The belief in dreams 
is universal, and the commands given in that way 
are implicitly obeyed, and often influence their most 
important actions. 



F 2 



68 [PART i. 



CHAPTER V. 

Native Villages and Houses Division of the New Zealand 
Tribes ; their numerical amount. 

THE houses of the natives are generally collected 
into villages, which are either fortified by walls and 
trenches, or with high double or treble fences. 
Such a place is called E Pa, and is inhabited chiefly 
in disturbed times, when the whole tribe assembles 
in it. Being generally situated on the top of a hill, 
the pas are deficient in water, which the slaves have 
to fetch from below, at the risk of being shot by the 
besieging party. Within these walls are the houses, 
of which several, belonging to one family, stand in 
an enclosure. The largest are often forty feet by 
twenty ; they have a portico, a sliding door at the 
gable end about a foot and a half square, and a 
small opening as a window on one or both sides of 
the door. This house serves for the sleeping-room 
of the members of a family, and they occupy it dur- 
ing bad weather, and it is here that the women 
manufacture their mats. The house is not divided 
into apartments : the sleeping-places are ranged on 



CHAP. V.] NATIVE HOUSES. 69 

both sides along the walls ; from the door to the 
side opposite is a passage, shut in by boards. One 
or two columns support the roof inside : these are 
carved with grotesque figures. The roof is lofty, 
but the side-walls are little more than two feet 
high. The boards forming the framework of the 
house are cut out from a tree by means of a simple 
adze, as the saw is not yet much in use ; and it is 
curious to see the extreme correctness of their eye 
in doing this, although the work is very tedious. 
The ceiling over the portico is carved, and at the 
nd of the ridge-pole stands a human iigure often 
that of the proprietor, but monstrously and purposely 
distorted. Sometimes that of his wife is carved out 
of the beam which supports the ridge-pole. The 
two door-posts are likewise carved. A real native 
house, of which there are many in the interior, is 
very solid, and great skill and taste are displayed 
in filling up the spaces between the frame-poles. 
This is done with reeds, which they have variegated 
by blackening the outside spirally, or with the 
cannulated stalks of a fern, which are kept together 
by dyed pieces of flax. The ridge-pole is a flat 
board, painted red and black in different arabesques, 
generally spirals. The same is the case with the 
boards which support the roofs. The outside is 
also sometimes boarded, or the walls are formed of 
thick and tight bundles of raupo-leaves (a Typha). 
In the middle of the house a fire is lighted in the 
evening, which fills it with smoke; sometimes a 



70 NATIVE HOUSES. [PART I. 

times a lamp is burnt, for which purpose they use 
shark or whale oil in a pawa (Haliotis), with a wick 
of the native flax. Each member of the family lies 
down on a mat, and goes to sleep in the dress that he 
or she wore during the day, but this is often thrown 
off if the heat becomes excessive. The smoke and 
heat render it very disagreeable for a European to 
sleep in these houses ; besides, the natives are so com- 
municative, that on the arrival of a stranger talking 
goes on all night. Inferior persons and slaves range 
themselves around the fire in the kitchen, but more 
frequently they all sleep in the same house. The 
kitchen (te-kauta) is a separate building ; it is con- 
structed with high walls and gables. The firewood 
is kept in it, but it is used as a cooking-place only 
in bad weather. A third sort of structure are the 
provision-houses (pataka), which are built on poles 
to prevent rats from entering them. The sweet 
potatoes are kept in a place by themselves. Similar 
huts preserve the seed during winter, but these are 
mostly erected in the plantations. The wahi-tapu, 
or burying-place, of a beloved child or relation, stands 
also in the enclosure ; to this enclosure favourite 
pigs and dogs have access, and sometimes a few 
bushes of the Phormium tenax are cultivated in it 
for daily use. 

The different families are thus separated in their 
fenced yards, which are, however, connected by stiles 
leading from one to the other, and by paths be- 
tween the fences. Near the coast these substantial 



CHAP. V.] NATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 71 

native houses have been replaced by huts, formed 
in the European fashion, and made of the raupo, 
a sort of bulrush ; little, however, has been gained 
by this change, either in appearance or real conve- 
nience. The native architecture might be very 
much improved upon, without altering either the 
material or the peculiar style. I saw a house in 
Rotu-rua which the natives had built for Mr. 
Chapman, the missionary ; it was high, had glass 
windows, and several side apartments branching off 
from the middle room ; it was built in the native 
style with these improvements, and I thought this 
was setting a good example, in improving, not sup- 
planting, the industry of the natives. This house 
was in strength and beauty equal to any in New 
Zealand on the European plan ; and, indeed, the 
natives are excellent architects in any style, and 
execute designs, when once clearly explained to 
them, without any future assistance, and with the 
most simple implements. They have built several 
churches some of them very large structures en- 
tirely by themselves, without the aid of any Eu- 
ropean. 

The New Zealander has a fixed habitation, al- 
though he $oes not always reside in the same place. 
In his plantations, which are often at great dis- 
tances from each other, or from the principal village, 
he possesses a house, which he inhabits when he 
goes there in the planting season. Part of his 
time he spends on visits to distant relations, or to 



72 THIRST FOR KNOWLEDGE. [PART I. 

European settlements on the coast, either for the 
purpose of trading or to see what the pakea 
(stranger) is doing. I have scarcely ever been at 
a settlement where I did not meet visitors from 
distant parts of the country. These occasional visits 
are probably as useful to the natives, and tend as 
much to their real improvement, as a constant re- 
sidence with the white people would do : they have 
an insatiable curiosity to know and see every- 
thing that is going on, and an equal eagerness to 
communicate it to others. In this manner news 
and information of every description make their 
tour through the island, carried from tribe to tribe 
by oral communication. They are excellent ob- 
servers ; they soon discover the weak points of body 
or mind in others ; and although they regard us as 
vastly superior to themselves, they soon become 
sensible of the evils our civilization carries with it. 
The points they find the most difficulty in under- 
standing are the different grades into which our 
society is divided, and the poverty and misery under 
which some of our classes labour, while others seem 
to lead a life of abundance and idleness. 

It is well known that the inhabitants of New 
Zealand are divided into numerous tribes, who live 
dispersed over the country, both on the coast and in 
the interior ; and, indeed, almost every powerful 
family has its own designation. These tribes are 
apportioned into the following large divisions : 

I. Rarewa, who live between the North Cape 



CHAP. V.] NATIVE TRIBES. 73 

and the 35th degree of south latitude. They have 
broken up, taken as slaves, or intermixed with, the 
tribe of the Haupouri, a once numerous and flourish- 
ing people, who had their principal pas on the 
northern coast, and from the North Cape to Pa- 
renga-renga, and in Kaitaia. In all these places 
trenches and walls remain on the tops of high hills, 
which are now deserted. When the Haupouri were 
conquered, a few, about thirty in number, went to 
Manawatawi, or the Three Kings' Islands, where 
they now live ; and I found a family of them, con- 
sisting of six persons, at Cape Maria van Diemen. 
At the end of 1840 about sixty of this tribe re- 
turned to Pa-renga-renga, their old territory, with 
the intention of again occupying the land of their 
forefathers. Pane-kareao, the chief of the Rarewa 
in Kaitaia, did not object to this ; but commissioned 
me to tell them that they must not sell any land, 
as it belonged to him. About forty of the Hau- 
pouri live at Houhoura, or Mount Carmel ; the rest 
at Kaitaia, along the western coast from Hokianga 
to the northward, on the A wa-roa, a river which dis- 
charges itself into Rangaunu, and also in Lauriston 
Bay at Oruru, intermixed with the Rarewa. The 
principal village of the latter is Kaitaia, where 
there is a mission-station, which was established 
eight years ago. The greater number of these na- 
tives are Christians, with the exception of some 
smaller tribes. Although the causes of disease 
prevailing on the coast do not exist here, as there 



74 NATIVE TRIBES. [PART I. 

is not much shipping nor a continued intercourse 
with Europeans higher up than the Bay of Islands, 
yet I found much sickness prevalent, which the 
more convinced me of the justness of my supposi- 
tions respecting the causes of the general decay of 
health throughout the island. The united Rarewa 
and Haupouri tribes comprise at least 2000 fighting 
men ; this number I ascertained from those I found 
congregated in the church at Kaitaia, and also 
whilst I was visiting all their different settlements. 
The women, children, and old men, I estimate 
throughout New Zealand as three-fourths of the 
whole population ; 8000 would therefore be the 
amount of the whole tribe. 

II. Nga-pui, comprising the tribes at the Bay of 
Islands and Hokianga, those at the latter place 
being called Nga-te-poa. They number 3000 men 
capable of bearing arms. Their principal settle- 
ments are at Wangaroa, in Waimate between the 
Bay of Islands and Hokianga, on the Kawa-kawa 
in the Bay of Islands, and at Hokianga itself, 
Their spiritual welfare is comparatively well pro- 
vided for. There are seven church missionary sta- 
tions : Tepuna, Keri-keri, Wangaroa, Paihia, Wai- 
mate, Kororarika, Waikeri ; there is a Wesley an 
station at Hokianga, and three Roman Catholic 
priests are stationed at Wangaroa, Kororareka, and 
Hokianga respectively. There are thus 12,000 
people under the spiritual guidance of thirteen mis- 
sionaries, each of whom has therefore rather a small 



CHAP. V.] NATIVE TRIBES. 75 

flock. The Church missionaries in the Bay of 
Islands possess large properties in these districts, 
which is perhaps the reason that they have not 
long ago gone into the interior, where they would 
have been far more usefully employed than in the 
Bay of Islands, which is principally a shipping- 
place. Some of the stations occupied by them are 
nearly deserted by the natives, and they have there- 
fore no congregations, unless they choose, like St. 
Antonio, to preach to the fishes. 

III. Nga-te-whatua, a tribe occupying Kaipara 
and Waitemata, in the Gulf of Hauraki and Manu- 
kao. These people have been most unfortunate 
during the last twenty years, as their whole number 
has dwindled down to about 800. They were en- 
closed between the Waikato and Nga-pui, both of 
which tribes were their enemies, and dispersed them 
in all directions ; and it is only lately that they 
have returned, and claimed as their own a part of' 
their original territory. In many places their 
ancient pas are still standing, which even in the 
recollection of the present generation had been 
very thickly peopled. There is a Wesley an mission- 
station at Kaipara for this tribe. 

IV. Nga-te-paoa, comprising the Nga-te-Maru, 
the Nga-te-Tamatera, and the Nga-te-Wanaunga. 
They decreased much during the wars with the 
Nga-pui and their other neighbours, but still amount 
to 5000. They live at the Waiho, or Thames, at 
the Piako, at Coromandel Harbour, and a small divi- 



76 NATIVE TRIBES. [PART I. 

sion of them at the island of Waiheke. There are 
mission-stations at Puriri and Maraetai in the Gulf 
of Hauraki. 

V. By far the largest tribe is that of the Wai- 
kato. They comprise eighteen subdivisions. 

a. A T ga-te-menio-potu, living in Rangitoto and on 
the river Mokau, 

b. Ngate-pakura, on the river Waikato. 

c. Nga-te-hinitu, in Otawao, at the river Waipa. 

d. Nga-te-ruru, at the Waipa 
c. Nga-te-mahuta in Manukao. 

f. Nga-te-toata, Manukao and Waikato. 

g. Nga-te-hikairo, in Aotea on the western 
coast. 

h. Nga-te-kinohaku, at the Waikato. 

2. Tungaunga, at the Waikato. 

k. Nga-te-hauwa, at Mata-mata, ninety miles 
up the valley of the Thames. 

/. Nga-te-tipa, at the Waikato. 

m. Nga-te-tohinga, at the Waikato. 

n. Nga-te-mahanga, at the Waikato. 

o. Nga-te-puiawa, at the Waikato. 

p. Nga-te-mariu, at the Waikato. 

q. Nga-te-korokiu, at Maunga-tautari, near the 
river Waikato. 

r. Tetaou, at Mata-mata. 

.9. Nga-te-tamoa, at the Waikato. 

These are the tribes which have most preserved 
their original vigour, and, I may add, original virtues, 
notwithstanding that their customs have been soft- 



CHAP. V.] NATIVE TRIBES. 77 

ened down by the influence of missionaries and other 
Europeans. They occupy by far the greater part 
of New Zealand, and claim, besides, by conquest, 
all the land as far as Taranaki on the western coast, 
from which they drove numerous tribes into the 
country on both sides of Cook's Straits, and only a 
few stragglers of the latter remained near the 
Sugarloaf Islands. The villages on the Waipa are 
very numerously inhabited, each village containing 
from 300 to 400 people. The Waikato tribes can col- 
lectively bring 6000 men into the field, and the whole 
population amounts at least to 24,000, if not more ; 
as in these interior tribes the average number of two 
children to a family is scarcely sufficiently high. 

Amongst the Waikato tribes several mission- 
stations have been established; at Manukao, at 
Marae-nui, at the mouth of the Waikato, and at 
Otawao, are Church missionary stations ; at Wain- 
garoa, Aotea, and Kawia, are Wesleyan stations. 
The number of natives who have become Christians 
daily increases, although many tribes have opposed 
altogether the introduction of the new doctrine. 

VI. Nga-te-awa. There are two large divisions 
of the Nga^te-awa, one occupying both sides of 
Cook's Straits, from Taranaki to Port Nicholson, 
and from Cape Farewell to Cloudy Bay in the 
middle island ; the other living on the east coast 
of the northern island. Although these two divi- 
sions are situated at a great distance from each 
other, and there is little communication between 



78 NATIVE TRIBES. [PART I. 

them, they nevertheless acknowledge one com- 
mon origin, as the Taranaki Nga-te-awa have a 
tradition that they are descended from those on 
the east coast, and that they emigrated to the 
westward. 

The first portion is subdivided into a great many 
different families : 

a. Nga-te-toa. This numerous and powerful tribe 
formerly lived in Waingaroa and Kawia, on the 
western coast, and the Europeans call them the 
Kawia tribe. Their leader, Rauparaha, is greatly 
renowned throughout the island for his talents 
and valour. Rauparaha yielded to the Waikato, 
and went to live in Kapiti, or Entry Island ; others 
of this tribe live in Rangitoto, or D'Urville's Island, 
in the Admiralty Islands, on the Oieri or Pylorus 
river, and in Mana and Cloudy Bay. 

b. Nga-te-tama and Nga-te-motunga. They for- 
merly lived between Mokau and Mount Egmont ; 
at present most of them live in the Chatham Islands, 
and only a few at Port Nicholson. 

c. Pukatapu, in Wanganui, near Cape Farewell, 
in Queen Charlotte's Sound, and Port Nicholson. 

The whole of these tribes number about 6000 
souls. 

The Nga-te-awa, on the eastern coast, live at 
Tauranga, in Ohiwa, Matata, Opotiki, and Maraenui. 
Their number amounts to about 8600. 

There are mission-stations at Tauranga, Opotiki, 
Waikanahi, and Wanganui, in Cook's Straits ; the 



CHAP. V.] NATIVE TRIBES. 79 

Wesleyans have stations at Cloudy Bay and Tara- 
naki. 

VII. Nga-te-Wakaua. This tribe is divided 
into 

a. Nga-te-pikiao, living at Muketu and Wakatane, 
on the east coast. 

b. Nga-te-te-rangita, on the inland lake of Ro- 
torua. 

c. Ta-hourangi, on the lake of Terawera, still 
farther inland. The number of this tribe is 10,000. 
They have still their old native customs and warlike 
habits ; and the mission-station at Rotu-rua has 
made less progress than any other station in the 
country : this results from the character of the tribe, 
not from any want of zeal or ability on the part of 
the excellent man who resides there. These natives 
offer the best study of the native character as it was 
some few years ago. 

VIII. Nga-te-tuaretoa. These people live on the 
left shore of the river Waikato, below the point 
where it issues from Lake Taupo, at that lake 
itself, at the lake of Rotu-aire, and at the foot of 
the volcanic chain of the Tongariro. The tribes 
which are living at the Taupo lake are called the 
Nga-te-tu-Runiakina, Nga-te-kurawiu, Nga-te-Pehi, 
and Nga-te-roinangi. There are about 800 men 
capable of bearing arms, and 3200 souls. They are 
at enmity with the tribe at Wanganui, and fought 
with them twice during the time I was in New 
Zealand, losing each time nearly fifty men. 



80 NATIVE TRIBES. [PART I. 

IX. The Nga-te-raukaua, in Otaki, about twenty 
miles to the northward of Kapiti, at the rivers 
Manawatu, Rangitiki, and Waitotara, all of which 
discharge themselves into Cook's Straits. They are 
related to the tribe at Wanganui, above mentioned, 
and their number is about 600. They are on bad 
terms with the Nga-te-awa, who are settled at 
Waikanahi, opposite Entry Island, and in 1839 I 
witnessed a battle in which about 150 men were 
killed on each side. The Nga-te-raukaua are an 
interior tribe, and lived formerly on the upper part 
of the river Waikato. The Waikato tribes drove 
them away, and they settled in Cook's Straits. At 
the same time the Nga-te-awa were driven to the 
southward, and each disputed the advance of the 
other. In the interior I saw some of the old pas 
of the Nga-te-raukaua, and the figure of a human 
head, roughly cut out of a tufacious stone, was 
pointed out to me as a memorial to their principal 
chief, who was killed there. At present the most 
intimate connexion exists between them and the 
Nga-te-toa, of whom Rauparaha is the head, and 
who seems to intrigue with them against the rest of 
the Nga-te-awa. 

X. Nga-te-kahuhunu. This is a very numerous 
tribe, inhabiting the east coast from above Waiapu, 
or East Cape, to Hawke's Bay, and is subdivided 
into smaller tribes : I do not think its number 
is less than 36,000, as the east coast swarms with 
natives. They formerly lived as far down as Port 



CHAP. V.J NATIVE TRIBES. 81 

Nicholson, but were driven thence by the Nga-te- 
awa, with whom, however, they have lately made a 
peace, which is likely to last. 

There is only one mission-station at Turanga ; 
but the natives are a very industrious people, and 
rapidly progressing in civilization. 

XL and XII. The Rangitani and Nga-haitao. 
These were the tribes which Captain Cook met at 
Queen Charlotte's Sound. To judge from the re- 
mains of their pas, they must have been very numer- 
ous, and great slaughter must have taken place when 
the Nga-te-awa, under Tu-pahi and Rauparaha, 
conquered them. The only remains of the tribe are 
some slaves at the Oieri or Pylorus river, and a small 
independent tribe at Otago, on the eastern coast of 
the middle island, which still musters about 300 
fighting men, and their number may amount to 1200 : 
they are in a very forward state of civilization. There 
are no natives besides these in the middle island, and 
none in the Southern, or Stewart's Island, with the 
exception of some brought there from other parts, 
and living with the whalers. 

In this census I do not pretend to anything like 
accuracy; but I have visited nearly all the tribes 
myself, and if, as I think is the case, the data which 
I obtained of the number of fighting men and the 
average of the rest of the population are to be relied 
on, my estimate is entitled to some credit. When 
I had seen only the coasts, and compared what I 
saw with the exaggerated estimates of some navi- 

VOL. II. G 



82 NATIVE TRIBES, [PART I. 

gators, I was inclined to place the population of the 
islands at a much lower amount than that which I 
have here given ; but the fact is, the natives live 
dispersed, and the spirit of separation of tribes and 
families is one of the characteristic features of these 
people. The traveller in the interior will find many 
small tribes, of which he hears nothing on the 
coast, and which are scarcely known even to the 
missionaries. 

On the other hand, an approximate account of 
the population is easier to be taken in New Zealand 
than in other countries inhabited by primitive tribes, 
as the natives here are altogether a settled and agri- 
cultural people. 



CHAP. V.] 



NATIVE TRIBES. 



TABLE of the Tribes and Population of New Zealand. 





Names. 


Habitat. 


Population. 


1 


Rarewa . . 


North Cape to 35 


8,000 






S. lat. 




2 


Nga-pui . . ' . f 


Wangaroa, Bay of 


12,000 






Islands, Hokianga. 




3 


Nga-te-whatua . 


Kaipara, Manukao, 


800 






Waitemata. 




4 


Nga-te-paoa . 


Gulf of Hauraki . 


5,000 


5 


Waikato . . 


Manukao, Aotea, 


24,000 






Waingaroa, Kawia, 








Waipa, Waikato, 








Mata-mata,Mokau, 








Maunga Tautare. 




6* 


Nga-te-awa (a) . 


Cook's Straits . . 


5,490 




Nga-te-awa (6) . 


East Coast . . . 


8,600 


7 


Nga-te-Wakaua, 


Mukeiu, Rotu-rua, 


10,000 






Terawera, Waka- 








tane. 




8 


Nga-te-tuaretoa . 


Taupo .... 


3,200 


9 


Nga-te-Raukaua. 


Otakki, Manawatu. 


600 


lot 


Nga-te-kahuhunu. 


East Coast, Turan- 


36,000 






ga, Hauriri in 








Hawke's Bay. 




11 


Rangitane . . ) 


Middle Island, es- 


1,200 


12 


Nga-haitao . . j 


pecially at Otago, 








Total . ., 


114,890 



* In this number are included the Nga-te-rua-nui, the Nga-te-apa, and the 
Nga-te-tahi, which might also be regarded as distinct tribes, although they are 
now more or less mixed with the Nga-te-awa in Cook's Straits, where they live. 

f This tribe has a great number of subdivisions. 



84 [PART i. 



CHAPTER VI. 

Origin of the New Zealanders, as shown by their Traditions 
Their religious Observances The "Tapu." 

IN discussing the deeply interesting question, what 
was the reason of a nation of common origin being 
divided into such numerous clans, opposing each 
other with so much hatred and envy, we might, 
perhaps, find the clue in events long passed by, and 
connected with the history of the earliest immi- 
gration of this race into the country. The little 
which can be gathered from their traditions, where 
the dim historical truth is almost hidden by the 
clouds of fable, and where human beings appear as 
demigods in the obscurity of the past, excites only 
regret that those Europeans who have lived so long 
in the country, and ought to be thoroughly versed 
in the language, have not taken more interest in the 
subject, and collected long ago materials for a his- 
tory of this race, which in a very short period must 
be buried in oblivion. What the fossils are to the 
naturalist, in regard to the changes which have 
continually been going on in the animal and vege- 
table productions of these islands of the Pacific, 



CHAP. VI.] TRADITIONS OF ORIGIN. 85 

that should the traditions and language be to the 
historian as regards the changes of their inhabitants. 
Not being preserved to the world by monuments 
constructed of lasting materials, nor by the art of 
writing and printing, it is only in their evanescent 
tales, and in their songs, that a slender clue is 
offered by which to penetrate into their past history. 
Although these traditions have neither the literary 
nor historical value of those of the northern na- 
tions, the mythology of which is grander, and the 
events which they commemorate more striking, yet, 
in an inferior degree, that might be said of the 
traditions of the Polynesians which Tacitus has 
written of the ancient Germans : " Celebrant car- 
minibus antiquis (quod unum apud illos memorise 
et annalium genus est)," etc. 

Now, these traditions have handed down to us 
the following facts : 

Before the arrival of the present inhabitants there 
were no men in the land, and it was covered with 
forest. Three canoes then came from a distant 
land, situated to the eastward, the names of which 
canoes were Arawa, Kotahi-nui, and Matatua. They 
contained Te-tupuna or Te-kau-matua (ancestors). 
In the Arawa were the ancestors of the Nga-pui 
and of the Rarewa, who sat at the head, the Nga- 
te-wakaua behind them, and the Nga-te-roinangi 
at the stern. It is a custom to the present day 
that those engaged in an important enterprise of 
any kind, whether in peace or war, are "tapu;" 



86 TRADITIONS. [PART I. 

they can neither smoke nor eat anything but the 
food indigenous to the country, nor can they have 
connexion with women. If these rules are trans- 
gressed, they are punished by the gods, who frus- 
trate their object. Thus it happened in this case. 
In the middle of the canoe were the women, and a 
man whose name was Tamate-kapua : this latter 
was guilty of adultery with the wife of a Nga-pui. 
The canoe stopped, and only pursued its course 
after they had reconciled the divine anger by an 
imprecation and by the punishment of the offender. 
This imprecation is still preserved. The words " No 
te uru o te Arawa koe," meaning you belong to the 
Arawa that is, you are a cheat and a liar are pro- 
verbial. They arrived at New Zealand : the Nga- 
pui landed in the Bay of Islands ; the Rarewa in 
Oruru, in Lauriston Bay ; the Nga-te-wakaua and 
the Nga-te-roinangi at Muketu, in the Bay of 
Plenty, whence the former settled at Rotu-rua, and 
the latter went into the interior to the Taupo lake : 
these were the forefathers of their respective tribes. 
May not the incident above mentioned have sown 
the seed of the hostilities in which the inhabitants 
of the north and those of the south have been 
engaged from time immemorial ? 

The second canoe, Kotahi-nui, landed on the 
western coast in Kawia, and its crew were the an- 
cestors of the numerous tribes of the Waikato. A 
piece of the canoe is asserted to be still preserved ; 
that is to say, it became stone, and is to be seen near 



CHAP. VI.] TRADITIONS. 87 

the northern head of Kawia Harbour. It is a large 
piece of limestone rock, cropping out upright from 
the sandy downs which surround it. Limestone 
rock occurs in that harbour, but on the other side ; 
and it is not impossible that the mass of stone was 
actually put here by them as a memorial of their 
arrival. 

The third canoe, Matatua, brought the Nga-te- 
awa, who landed in Wakatane, on the eastern coast, 
and in the course of time a branch of them went to 
Taranaki. 

Thus we are led to consider the numerous tribes 
in the island "as in the first instance derived from 
five. When they spread farther, the founder of a 
new tribe gave his name to it, and it was called 
Nga (the genitive case plural of the article), adding 
te-tangata, the men of this or that chief. 

Tradition says that these canoes came from the 
eastward, from the island of Hawaiki. The taro 
and the dogs were the only things they brought 
with them which were not before known on the 
island. It is expressly stated that the Kotahi-nui, 
which had to go to the western coast, doubled the 
North Cape. 

According to another tale, the natives of Hawaiki 
had four eyes, but nothing else regarding them has 
been preserved. 

I have noticed already that at a subsequent period 
the Kumara was brought to them by E Pani from 



88 TRADITIONS. [PART I, 

the island of Tawai. E Tiki, her husband, was a 
stranger to the New Zealanders, although of the 
same colour and language. 

We cannot fail to recognise, in the names Ha- 
waiki and Tawai, the Sandwich Islands, Hawaii 
and Tauai. One of the differences between the dia- 
lect of New Zealand and that of the Sandwich 
Islands is, that in the latter, as well as in the dia- 
lect of Tahiti, fewer consonants are used : the Arii 
of the Sandwich Islands becomes Ariki in New 
Zealand; Ranakira becomes Rangatira; Tanata be- 
comes Tangata; and in the same manner Hawaii 
has become Hawaiki. The u and w are in all Poly- 
nesian languages of an equal value, the pronuncia- 
tion being a sound intermediate between both, and 
there is no difference therefore in sound between 
Tauai and Tawai. But there is still better evidence 
for the assertion that the Sandwich Islanders must 
be regarded as the last stock from which the New 
Zealanders have sprung. There are traditions 
which lead us back to still more ancient times, 
when Maui and his brothers fished up the island of 
New Zealand. Maui is not a god ; although tradi- 
tion gives him supernatural powers, he is distinctly 
stated to be a n an. There were four brothers 
Maui mua, .Maui roto, Maui waho, Maui tiki tiki o 
te Rangi; which literally means Maui (who was) 
formerly, Maui (who is) within, Maui (who is) 
without, Maui tiki tiki, from heaven. 



CHAP. VI.] TRADITIONS. 89 

Their parents are not known, nor the land whence 
they came. Maui mua is the Tuakana, or elder bro- 
ther. He went out one day with the youngest of 
his brothers, Maui tiki tiki o te Rangi, or Kotiki, 
to fish ; and as bait was wanting, the brother 
offered his ear, and both together they hauled 
up New Zealand. There is a mountain near the 
east coast, called Hiko rangi (literally, Heaven's 
Tail), which is said to be the fish-hook of Maui, 
and the island itself was the " begotten of Maui," 
" Te Ahi na Maui," which name is sometimes given 
to the northern island, although very little known 
amongst the natives themselves. This myth, which 
is perhaps a geological tradition, is very similar 
to one related regarding the Tonga or Friendly 
Islands, but the personages are named differently. 
At a time when nothing existed, says the narrative, 
but heaven and water, and the seat of the gods, the 
island of Bolotu, the god Tangaloa, to whom belong 
all inventions, and whose priests are always carpen- 
ters on the 1 island of Tonga, went out fishing on a 
certain day, and threw his line and hook from the 
sky into the water. Suddenly he felt a strong re- 
sistance. Thinking that a great fish had taken the 
bait, he put forth his whole strength, and, behold ! 
rocks appear above the water, which increase in 
number and extent as he draws in his line. His 
hook had seized on the rocky bottom of the sea, 
and had almost reached the surface of the water, 
when unfortunately the line broke, and the Tonga 



90 TRADITIONS. [PART I. 

Islands alone remained above the ocean. The rock 
which came first out of the depth is still shown in 
the island Hunga, with the hole in it which was 
made by the fish-hook of Tangaloa. The rocky 
island was soon covered with herbs and grasses, 
which were the same as in the habitation of the 
gods, Bolotu, only of an inferior kind, and given to 
decay and death. 

There are other traditions respecting Maui, ac- 
cording to which he is more of a spiritual being, 
and is called the maker of heaven and earth ; but it 
seems as if modern notions were here interwoven 
with native legends. According to another still 
more confused notion, earth and heaven are man 
and wife, and the island of New Zealand is their 
offspring, the birth of which was effected by the in- 
terference of Maui. But "rangi" has a more ample 
meaning than heaven: it is used for day, light, 
or the abstract principle of light as opposed to 
darkness. Is there a deeper meaning in this latter 
tale, and does it point to the mysterious trimurti of 
Asiatic religions? 

However this may be, the same Maui, Mauwi, or 
Mawi, is the most important personage in all the 
mythical traditions of the true Polynesians, and es- 
pecially in those of the Sandwich Islands, one of 
which groups, in fact, bears his name, and many 
are the songs to his praise. 

If we further inquire whether we may trust to 
what the tradition tells us, that the New Zealanders 



CHAP. VI.] THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. 91 

in the last instance have come from the islands of 
Hawaii, and whether there is a natural possibility 
or probability for such a derivation, we encounter 
difficulties which it is probable will never be sur- 
mounted. All that we can do in the obscure his- 
tory of the early migrations of these races is to 
group the different islands according to the rela- 
tionship that exists between their inhabitants in re- 
gard to language and customs, and to see whether 
there is anything in the traditions of the people 
to confirm these signs of relationship. There is 
such affinity between the dialects of the natives of 
Hawaii and those of New Zealand, and to a far 
greater extent than that common tie which unites 
all Polynesians. Shrubs and trees of the same genus, 
although of different species, bear the same names in 
New Zealand and in the Sandwich Islands ; the kawa 
(made from the Piper methysticum) is not drunk in 
New Zealand, but in the latter country the Piper 
oxcelsum bears the same name ; the rata and aki 
are kinds of Metrosideros in New Zealand and in 
the Sandwich Islands ; the ti is a Dracaena, or rather 
Cordyline, in both: the physical features of the 
natives are similar, as is also the character of their 
sculpture, manufactures, &c. According to the 
traditions current in New Zealand, their fore- 
fathers had a long voyage from the eastward be- 
fore they arrived at that island. Can we trace in 
the natives of Easter Island, who, according to 
those navigators that have visited them, . are more 



92 EASTER ISLAND. [PART I. 

like New Zealanders than any other Polynesians, 
the connecting link between the group of Hawaii 
and Ahi na Maui, or New Zealand? Easter 
Island is at the limits of the south-east trade- 
wind, and emigrants from Hawaii might arrive 
there without difficulty : the present inhabitants of 
this isle, a spot almost lost in the infinity of the 
ocean, seem to have retrograded in civilization; at 
least the high statues, cut out of a soft volcanic 
rock, which were seen there by Cook and La Pey- 
rouse, were not ascribed to the then existing genera- 
tion, but to their ancestors ; and the strange shape 
of these sculptures reminds us more than anything 
else of the grotesque wood-carvings of the natives of 
New Zealand. Is it not probable that the ancestors 
of both people, now so remote from each other, were 
the same ? We have, unfortunately, no means of 
comparing the dialect of Easter Island with that of 
New Zealand ; and the outrages committed in mo- 
dern times, by those who miscall themselves Chris- 
tians, on the natives of that interesting spot, do not 
leave us much hope that our acquaintance will soon 
become more intimate. The native name of Easter 
Island is Waihu, and the same word is found as the 
native name of Coromandel Harbour, on the eastern 
coast of New Zealand. 

The Sandwich Islands, it is true, are, of all the 
Polynesian Islands, the most distant from New Zea- 
land, being situated in 24 north lat. and 161 45' 
west long., while the most northern point of New 



CHAP. VI. J POLYNESIAN MIGRATIONS. 93 

Zealand is in 34 27' south lat. and 173 4' east 
long., thus embracing almost the extreme limits 
of the Polynesian Ocean, or of that part of it which 
is occupied by the true race of Oceanians. The 
reader, knowing how studded with islands is the 
intermediate space, many of them uninhabited, but 
producing fruits sufficient to serve as food for man, 
will perhaps say, " Is it not more likely that the 
Sandwich Islanders, if leaving purposely or by 
chance their former home, should have fallen in 
with one of those islands, and settled where the 
climate was mild and genial, instead of going where 
it is always variable, and often rigorous ? I have 
no answer to this objection, and it is in vain to 
attempt to account for that endless mixture and 
separation, not only of different races, but of differ- 
ent divisions of one and the same race, which we 
find in the islands of the great ocean. The mere 
proximity of the islands, or even prevailing winds, 
explain nothing. In the Chatham Islands, for in- 
stance, which are nearly 300 miles to the south-east 
of New Zealand, live the remains of an aboriginal 
race, who in a short time will have disappeared 
before the intruding New Zealanders, and who, 
although Polynesians, have nothing in common 
with the latter. The New Zealanders knew no- 
thing of that island before they came there in 
European ships. 

The migration of man in the great ocean is not 
more mysterious than that of plants or animals ; 



94 GEOLOGICAL SPECULATIONS. [PART I. 

the subject is very abstruse, but we need not, there- 
fore, shun inquiry altogether. If a land-bird, which 
has no sustained power of flight, is met with in two 
island groups, the Chatham Islands and New Zea- 
land ; or if the Apterix australis, which has no 
power of flying whatever, is found in the small 
Barrier Island near the coast of New Zealand, and 
in New Zealand itself; are we not justified in look- 
ing to the geological structures for indications of a 
former connection of these islands with New Zea- 
land, which assuredly is the centre of certain pecu- 
liar animals and plants ? but it would be theorising 
too far were we to consider each of the little neigh- 
bouring islands as a similar centre, or to attribute 
to a miraculous accident the distribution of animals 
which, from their very configuration, are precluded 
from transmarine migration. 

Is it not possible, nay, very probable, that a phy- 
sical revolution has broken apart what was formerly 
connected, and that this event destroyed the path 
on which alone such migration was possible ? I 
find no objection, either in the geological structure 
or in the plants or animals, to the theory that a 
chain of islands was formerly connected with New 
Zealand ; and there is every probability that the 
continent of which New Zealand, Chatham Island, 
and Norfolk Island are the ruins and fragments, 
formerly occupied a very large space. According 
to the accounts of whalers, there is now very little 
depth of water between Chatham Island and New 



CHAP. VI.] POLYNESIAN LANGUAGE. 95 

Zealand, or between the latter place and Norfolk 
Island; and it is for that very reason that they 
make those places their whaling-grounds, although 
I am not aware that soundings have ever been 
taken. May not, therefore, the once vast continent 
have sunk into the abyss of the ocean ? If we ven- 
ture to speculate on the migrations of human races, 
may we not be allowed to say that the high road is 
broken by which he who is at present an islander 
formerly reached the place of his present dwelling ? 
It is far more credible to me that such was the 
case than that the inhabitant of Chatham Island, 
for instance, reached that place in a frail canoe, 
through an always stormy and boisterous sea. Here, 
again, we are supported by tradition. There are 
dim recollections of important geological events 
amongst the natives of New Zealand : they say 
that the middle island was formerly connected 
with the northern. The geologist and the natural 
philosopher never despise such traditions, as they 
serve to lead them to new truths. 

Of all existing languages that of the Polynesians 
appears to me the most primeval and ancient in its 
structure. In many of the islands we find the 
native a happy child-like being, simple and innocent, 
and living upon the free gifts of nature ; he is aware 
of the existence of a great Spirit, but it strikes him 
with awe, and he has not yet speculated on it. It 
is in a great degree a pure abstract belief, resulting 
from instinct, as we should expect it to have been 



96 THE "TAPU." [PARTI. 

implanted in man at the beginning of his existence. 
These singular characteristics lead us to believe that 
the islands of the great ocean were peopled in periods 
long passed away. On the other hand, we are led 
to suppose that the primitive stock from which 
all these islanders have sprung was possessed of a 
certain degree of civilization, of which we now see 
only the remains. 

The first discoverers found a certain form of 
society in the more populous islands ; it was divided 
into castes, and the rigorous law of the " tapu " 
was imposed upon it, and kept up by a priest caste. 
The traditions and legends, and even a common 
legislator; the names of the highest being, Atua, 
and of the inferior deities ; their agriculture, their 
architecture, their art of weaving and carving, all 
these seem to confirm the belief that the New Zea- 
landers, as well as the other Polynesians, are de- 
scended from a common stock, which was, it is 
true, in a state of infancy, yet was civilized, and 
understood the art of navigation in a higher degree 
than they do now. The traditions of Tahiti, Ha- 
waii, and New Zealand point out that the inhabit- 
ants formerly made distant voyages, which they 
would now be unable to accomplish. Indeed, we 
might in this case dispense with the theory above 
advanced, and say that when their migration took 
place they had better means of traversing the sea. 
But where is the early cradle, where the original 
dwelling-place of this ancient people, with which 



CHAP. VI.] ANTIQUARIAN QUESTIONS. 97 

we only became acquainted after it had exchanged 
its primitive seat for the Indian and oceanic islands, 
and had sunk into comparative barbarism ? Was 
it Java, or the continent of Asia itself, that fertile 
birth-place of nations? Or must we look to the 
east, to which direction, indeed, their traditions 
point ? and is America the true seat of a once 
mighty civilization, which has been broken up 
by some cause or other, and the people scattered 
abroad ? No clue remains to solve this problem, 
as we now only see many nations which stand in 
co-ordination, but not in subordination, to each 
other, and of which, although they are in very dif- 
ferent degrees of civilization, none can claim abso- 
lute antiquity. On all these points a field is open 
for a combination of labour, and an arduous inves- 
tigation of language, carried from island to island. 
Nations rapidly undergo an entire change ; and 
where the art of writing does not exist, the history 
of their ancestors and origin soon falls into oblivion, 
and language, which in nations separated from each 
other is most stationary, must be almost our only 
guide. Even during the short period of sixty years 
that Europeans have been acquainted with the New 
Zealanders, their knowledge of navigation has dimi- 
nished, and with it that bold adventurous spirit 
which made them brave the dangers of long coast- 
ing voyages. For instance, Captain Cook found 
them possessed of double canoes, which are now 
nowhere met with. 

VOL. II. H 



98 THE POLYNESIAN RACE. [PART I. 

The tradition, which I found to be universal in 
New Zealand, is, that they came from the eastward, 
and not from the westward, as was asserted to sus- 
tain the theory of their uninterrupted migrations 
from Asia. This tradition gives rise to very inte- 
resting considerations : the true Polynesian race is 
separated from Asia by the Austral negroes and the 
Malayans races which, being inferior both in phy- 
sical strength and mental capabilities to the Polyne- 
sians, cannot be believed to have pushed them to the 
eastward. I am by no means anxious to broach a new 
theory ; but thus much seems evident, if we are guided 
by tradition, by language, and by the geographical 
distribution of the true Polynesians that, if they 
actually came from the Malayan peninsula, or from 
Java or Borneo, this emigration must have taken 
place in very primitive times, when the mother 
tongue of the Malayan and Polynesian languages 
had not yet undergone any alteration; that they 
cannot have gradually made their way through the 
chain of islands which stretches from Java to the 
Viti islands, as in that case we should find many 
of these islands inhabited by the Polynesian race, 
and not by the Austral negro. On the other hand, 
the fine and regular cast of countenance of the New 
Zealanders, the Jewish expression of their features, 
the very light colour of their skin, and the whole 
of their customs, remind us greatly of that primi- 
tive Asiatico-African civilization which attained its 
greatest height under the empires of the Phenicians 



CHAP. VI.J THE MALAYANS. 99 

Syrians, and Carthaginians, and confirm the rela- 
tion of the Polynesians in a closer degree to nations 
whose birth-place is Asia, but from whom they are 
now separated by black tribes. The native baptism, 
the laws of the " tapu," the monotheistical cast of 
religious ideas, all remind us strongly of these Asi- 
atic nations. 

There is at the present moment a migration 
going on of the Malayans from their peninsula to- 
wards New Guinea and Australia the seats of the 
true Polynesians ; we find among them the most 
enterprising merchants of the Pacific, who have 
established forts and settlements on the northern 
coast of Australia, and of New Guinea and several 
other islands, gradually extending their dominion 
over the Austral negroes. This migration has, 
however, nothing to do with the ancient peopling 
of the Polynesian islands, from whose inhabitants 
the Malayans are still separated by the dark race, 
and it is only on the western and northern coasts 
of the islands that they are found. It is a modern 
migration, which might be easily traced by the 
historian and geographer. 

I doubt whether much more than what I have 
stated can be gleaned from these native traditions. 
If a system of mythology existed in the country 
from which the stock of the New Zealanders is de- 
rived, it does not appear to have been transplanted 
with them in its completeness, but to have been re- 
tained only in fragmentary and confused notions and 



1 00 INFERENCES OF A [PART I. 

superstitions after their immigration into the new 
country. But still there remain traces of the more 
ancient maternal creed, which had come to some 
sort of perfection in the Sandwich Islands. There 
the traditions and religious observances were in the 
hands of a priest caste, and the same is the case in 
New Zealand, although it is difficult to define what 
is a New Zealand " tohunga ;" for here the word 
means merely " a wise man ;" it is not signifi- 
cative of a class separated from the rest by cer- 
tain distinctions of rank, nor are its prerogatives 
merely confined to the men : a tohunga is sometimes 
the ariki, or hereditary chief, sometimes a rangatira, 
or even a slave, or an old woman, who possesses a 
knowledge of the popular traditions, and has the 
power to consecrate or to bewitch, to drive out evil 
spirits by karakia, or prayers, to heal sick people by 
these means, and to pronounce the " tapu" a well- 
known custom, which in its sacred and rigorous 
character has the double meaning in New Zealand 
of religious worship and civil law. Ridiculous as 
this custom of the " tapu" has appeared to some, and 
as many of its applications really are, it was, not- 
withstanding, a wholesome restraint, and, in many 
cases, almost the only one that could have been im- 
posed; the heavy penalties attached to the viola- 
tion of its laws serving in one tribe, or in several 
not in actual hostility with each other, as moral and 
legal commandments. It was undoubtedly the ordi- 
nance of a wise legislator. The kumara-field, pro- 



CHAP. VI.] NEW ZEALAND ORIGIN. 101 

perty contained in a house left uninhabited by its 
proprietor, a house containing seeds, a canoe left 
unprotected on the beach, a tree selected for being 
worked into a canoe at a future period are " tapu." 
What is this but a command not to steal ? A 
burying-place, the utensils and clothes used in in- 
terments, are strictly consecrated, as is the house 
in which the deceased lived. And this custom arose 
from a feeling deeply rooted in all the human family, 
and the more so the higher they advance in civil- 
ization, namely, respect to the memory of de- 
parted friends or relations. What is this but a law 
against sacrilege ? They also " tapu " the canoe in 
which a person has been drowned, or the musket 
with which he committed suicide. These are no 
longer used, but are either left untouched, or are 
broken up and the pieces placed upright at the spot 
where the accident happened. If any blood of a 
chief has been spilt, however innocent the occasion 
and slight the loss, the instrument which inflicted 
the wound becomes " tapu," and the chief takes it 
as his property. A meeting was to take place at the 
Taupo lake : Te Heu-Heu, the principal man of the 
tribes, was requested to be present, and a new and 
highly ornamented canoe was sent to fetch him 
over. When he stepped into it a splinter penetrated 
the skin of his foot : every one left the canoe imme- 
diately, it was hauled up, and the proprietor did not 
think of remonstrating against Te Heu-Heu laying 
his " tapu " on it, and regarding it as his property. 



102 THE " TAPU." [PART i. 

It was the custom ! Another canoe was launched, 
in which they proceeded to the place of rendezvous. 
A canoe found adrift is " tapu :" but here this word 
has a somewhat different meaning ; it is " tapu" 
(i. e. belongs) to him who saves it. A canoe with a 
party in it, when saved from being lost, stands in the 
same predicament, and becomes forfeited to those 
who came to its relief. In these instances we easily 
recognise the primary principles of our own laws 
relating to deodands, royal droits, and the claims of 
salvors. Sick persons, with the house they dwell 
in, and all utensils they use, are " tapu ;" but in 
general this is the case only with persons of con- 
sequence. A married woman and a girl promised 
in marriage are inviolably " tapu." 

No one will deny that many of these customs are 
agreeable to common sense, although others are 
absurd, and often very annoying to the traveller. 
I must, however, bear testimony to the natives, 
that, if treated with a little tact, they are not very 
obstinate with a stranger in regard to these ordi- 
nances, and that, with the hand in the pocket, he 
may, as in other more civilized communities, free 
himself from most of them. 

A woman had been murdered by some people of 
a neighbouring tribe, on the road between Rotu-rua 
and Tauranga, shortly before my arrival at the for- 
mer place. The road had been laid under a strict 
" tapu ;" but the principal natives, although they 
are perfectly of the old school, and heathens, did not 



CHAP. VI.] THE " TAPU." 103 

prevent us, or the Christian natives who were with 
us, from breaking that " tapu," and walking on the 
road. 

Near Manukao I once lighted the fern ; the fire 
ran rapidly towards the hills, where, unknown to 
me, was the burial-ground of a large tribe of Wai- 
kato. Before I approached the village some men 
passed me running towards the fire, which was about 
fifteen miles distant, in order to extinguish it. In 
the village there was great crying and distress about 
the conflagration. I pleaded my ignorance, acknow- 
ledged my error, and settled the affair with a fine of 
three shirts. The fire was extinguished before the 
remains of their dead were consumed ; and we have 
ever since been the best friends. 

A very strict "tapu" prevented my ascending the 
principal cone of the Tongariro, a volcano in the 
centre of the island, it being considered, symbolically 
I presume, to be the backbone of their greatest an- 
cestor, and having a head as white as that of the 
present chief, who was absent on a war party to 
Cook's Straits. After much negotiation, however, 
they would have allowed me to break the " tapu" on 
paying four sovereigns ; but I had not the money with 
me, and I in vain offered merchandise instead. 

A strict " tapu " forbids the use of the remains of 
an old house for cooking, and makes it unlawful 
to eat food that has been cooked with such fuel. 
Travellers often disregard this custom ; but, although 
the natives do not always quarrel about it, they be- 



104 THE " TAPU." [PART i. 

come sulky, and never touch the food, even though 
they may have become Christians. 

The head, or rather the hair, of the New Zea- 
lander is the part most strictly " tapu " of his body. 
It must not be touched by another, nor must any- 
thing be carried over the head. The cutting of the 
hair of a chief is a process always accompanied by 
solemnities. The dissevered hair is collected and 
buried, or hung up on a tree. This sanctity extends 
even to the wooden bust of a great man. In one of 
the houses of Te Puai, the head chief of the Wai- 
kato, I saw a bust, made by himself, with all the 
serpentine lines of the moko, or tattooing. I asked 
him to give it to me ; but it was only after much 
pressing that he parted with it. I had to go to 
his house to fetch it myself, as none of his tribe 
could legally touch it ; and he licked it all over be- 
fore he gave it to me, whether to take the " tapu" 
off, or to make it still more strictly sacred, I do not 
know. He particularly engaged me not to put it 
into the provision-bag, nor to let it see the natives 
at Rotu-rua, whither I was going, or he would 
certainly die in consequence. Payment for the bust 
he would not take ; but had no objection to my 
making him a present of my own free will, which I 
accordingly did, presenting him and his wife with a 
shirt each. 

If men or women are " tapu," they are not allowed 
to touch their food or drink, but are fed by others 
until the " tapu " is taken off, which is done by the 



CHAP. VI.] THE " TAPU." 105 

priest or priestess with some simple ceremonies and 
prayers. Also a child or a grandchild can take the 
" tapu" off. The man subject to the " tapu" touches 
the child, and takes drink or food from its hands : 
the "tapu" is thus removed, but the child is in its 
turn "tapu" during the day of the ceremony. The 
breaking of the " tapu," if the crime does not become 
known, is, they believe, punished by the Atua, who 
inflicts disease upon the criminal ; if discovered, it is 
punished by him whom it regards, and often becomes 
the cause of war. 

I have dwelt thus long on this singular custom to 
show under how many various forms it appears. It 
comprises, indeed, everything that we would call 
law, custom, etiquette, prejudice, and superstition ; 
and has, therefore, its good as well as its bad effects. 

From intimate acquaintance with the savage I am 
led to believe that, as long as he lives by himself, he 
possesses more virtues than vices, at least as regards 
his own tribe. Adultery and theft are uncommon : 
the latter is punished by exercising the lex talionis. 
To discover a thief I have seen them resort^ to the 
ordeal of drawing lots. After the experience of 
some time I still continue to regard the New Zea- 
landers as a very honest people, far more so than 
the lower classes of the European colonists. 

The tribes in their relation to each other, as long 
as they are at peace, have certain established customs, 
which are legal with them. A slave who runs 
away to his own or to another tribe is invariably 



106 SENSE OF JUSTICE. [PART I. 

brought back. A woman in Mata-mata, in the 
valley of the Thames, had left her husband, and 
lived with another very influential man in a pa near 
the Waipa. In this pa there were two parties : one 
wished to allow the woman to remain, and were 
willing to defend her ; but the other, by far the 
more numerous, were for giving her up to the hus- 
band, and thus avoid a war, which would certainly 
have ensued. This was done : the woman was brought 
back, and her husband shot her ! 

Those natives who have adopted the Christian 
laws adhere most strictly to them, as they do also in 
the case of our civil laws, which are indeed based 
upon the former. There is a high natural sense of 
justice amongst them ; and it is from us that they 
have learnt that many forbidden things can be done 
with impunity, if they can only be kept secret. 
With the art of keeping a secret, however, the New 
Zealander is little acquainted, although he possesses 
in many other respects great self-control ; the secret 
must come out, even if his death should be the im- 
consequence. 



CHAP. VII.] 107 



CHAPTER VII. 

The Character and Intellectual Faculties of the New Zealauders 
Their Classes and Grades of Society Property Religion. 

I HAVE as yet said nothing about the character and 
intellectual faculties of the New Zealanders. In 
their character the predominant feature is self- 
estimation ; and to this source we may trace that 
heterogeneous mixture of pride, vanity, covetous- 
ness of new and strange things, that mildness and 
ferocity, fickleness, and good and kind disposi- 
tion, which they exhibit. It appears to me that 
this self-esteem, if wisely guided, might be made 
the best means of raising their social condition. I 
am no partisan of that condemnation of the cha- 
racter of so-called savage tribes, amongst whom I 
include the New Zealanders, which is so indis- 
criminately indulged in by travellers : in ^general 
I believe that their good and amiable qualities far 
outweigh the bad. 

They are affectionate husbands and parents ; and 
although the younger and more vigorous chiefs 
supersede the aged in their authority over the tribe, 
the latter are respected, and their council listened 
to. The tribes more removed from intercourse with 
Europeans are hospitable, and this cardinal virtue 



108 INTELLECTUAL FACULTIES [PART I. 

was once common to all. In the interior a stranger, 
whether European or native, is always received with 
welcome : food and shelter are soon prepared for 
him. With their friends and relations they divide 
everything they possess. If a New Zealander meets 
a relation after some period of separation, all he has 
is immediately given to him ; and in these cases it 
is impossible to make any one who has served you 
retain for his own use what he has received. A 
desire of instructing themselves, and a spirit of 
curiosity, pervade young and old. They are very 
attentive to tuition, learn quickly, and have an ex- 
cellent memory. Many know by rote hundreds of 
traditions and songs, and will repeat word for word 
the Christian catechism, or whole chapters of the 
gospel. In attention to the objects which surround 
them in quickness of perception they are superior 
in general to the white man : plants, animals, stones, 
and so on, are designated by their own names, the 
knowledge of which may be said to be common to 
all. This spirit of curiosity leads them often to 
trust themselves to small coasting vessels ; or they 
go with whalers to see still more distant parts of 
the globe. They adapt themselves readily to Euro- 
pean navigation and boating, and at this moment a 
native of New Zealand is master of a whale-ship ; 
and in Cook's Straits many boats are manned by 
them alone. 

On their first intercourse with Europeans the 
natives always manifest a degree of politeness 



CHAP. VII.] AND CHARACTER. 109 

which, would do honour to a more civilized people. 
When they meet one another, or a European, after 
the first salutation, by touching noses, they do not 
remain standing upright, but squat down on their 
heels ; and in entering the house of a European this 
is immediately done in profound silence, and it ap- 
pears to me that by this peculiar posture they intend 
to show their respect to others, as is common with 
some Oriental nations. They dislike to converse 
standing, and if we do so they think we are not 
paying the necessary attention either to themselves 
or to the subject. But their temper often changes 
very quickly ; and a fickleness of character appears, 
a change from good to bad humour, often without 
any imaginable cause, which, especially when tra- 
velling, is very disagreeable. But if this irritability 
of temper is met with firmness, they suppress it ; 
and, indeed, it is often put on to see how the 
European will bear it. If they are treated with 
honesty, and with that respect which is due to 
them as men, I have always found them to re- 
ciprocate such treatment ; and I have travelled 
amongst them with as much pleasure and security 
as I have in European countries. 

A prominent feature of their character is to re- 
taliate and revenge any wrong they have suffered. 
The wrong is often imaginary, and quarrels arise 
without any cause, especially if a tribe possesses the 
right of the stronger. I know an instance where 
the remembrance of a murder had been carried 



1 10 INTELLECTUAL FACULTIES [PART I. 

silently for forty years, when it was at length ex- 
piated by the death of him who committed it. 

They are cruel in their wars, either of retaliation 
or aggression, and it cannot he denied that they 
possess a good deal of selfishness, and have not that 
true generous spirit, that gratitude for benefits con- 
ferred, or that true friendship, so characteristic of 
European and Eastern nations. But we never find 
these qualities amongst savages : they are, in fact, 
the fruits, and the best fruits, of refinement and 
civilization. 

It will readily be seen that the character for fero- 
city and treachery, which has been ascribed to the 
New Zealanders, does not justly apply to them in 
times of peace. In their domestic relations they are 
very easily guided ; and if outrages are committed, 
they are either the consequence of superstition or are 
authorized by what they regard as lawful customs. 

I am sorry to say that, by intercourse with 
Europeans, the natives have lost many of their ori- 
ginal good qualities, and have acquired others, far 
less amiable. They have become covetous, suspici- 
ous, and importunate. They have lost a great part 
of their hospitality and politeness ; and their refus- 
ing aid, when the stranger is most in want of it, or 
exacting exorbitant recompense for it, makes tra- 
velling now very annoying. To this must be added, 
that those who have become Christians refuse, by 
the ill-judged directions of the missionaries, to 
furnish food or to perform any kind of work for a 



CHAP. VII.] AND CHARACTER. Ill 

traveller who may happen to arrive on a Sunday, 
which must sometimes take place in a country where 
one entirely depends upon the natives. Highly as I 
appreciate the merits of the missionaries, I must say 
that they have omitted to teach their converts some 
most important social, and therefore moral duties, 
which they will only acquire by a more intimate 
intercourse with civilized Europeans. 

In their native state they are as laborious as their 
wants require ; but, easily satisfying those, and un- 
able, even by their utmost exertions, to compete with 
the lowest of Europeans, they get lazy and indolent, 
prefer begging to working, and pass a great part of 
their time in showing their acquired fineries and 
contemplating the restless doings of the colonist. As 
servants they are very independent, and Europeans 
will do well, if they want any native helps, to treat 
them with attention, and rather as belonging to the 
family than as servants. They have this feeling of 
independence very strongly, and it is very creditable 
to them. 

There is every reason to believe that in a short 
time the character of the New Zealanders will be 
entirely changed, and any one who wishes to see 
what they were formerly must study them in the 
interior, where they are still little influenced by 
intercourse with us, which, I must repeat, has 
been little advantageous to them. 

Suicides in consequence of wounded pride, or 
of shame from having been found guilty of theft, 



112 CLASSES AND GRADES [PART I. 

from fear of punishment, by a husband at the death 
of his wife, by a wife at the death of her husband, 
or by both at the death of their children are not 
uncommon, and cases of all these descriptions have 
come to my knowledge. The love of life is not 
among the New Zealander's strongest feelings: I 
could record many instances in which they have ven- 
tured their lives to save those of Europeans, with a 
coolness and courage that would have done honour 
to a man of any nation. 

Simple as the structure of a New Zealand com- 
munity is, it bears, in its division into certain classes, 
the traces of a former more artificial state. The 
principal person in a tribe is the Ariki ; but as he 
is per se a Rangatira, he is rarely called by the 
former name, and hence the difficulty of ascertain- 
ing who is the ariki. His dignity is hereditary ; he 
is the lord of the soil, the Taki-o-te-wenua, the root 
of the land (or tribe ?). It is hereditary both in the 
male and female line, and, whether child or adult, 
the ariki is revered as deriving his title from the 
number and renown of his ancestors. If he unite 
eminent bodily or mental faculties with his here- 
ditary dignity, his authority over the tribe is of 
course increased, and he is either a great warrior 
or a tohunga a priest. Generally speaking, his 
authority does not extend to the executive, but is 
confined to the council, where his advice in the 
affairs of the tribe is of great weight. Even by 
the enemies of the tribe he is treated with some 



CHAP. VII.] OF NEW ZEALANDERS. 113 

consideration, and in particular cases, where he 
boasts of being related to a great number of tribes, his 
life, even in battle, is spared. To the ariki presents 
are sent from distant friends or relations, a tribute 
as it were, although, as already observed, the ho- 
nours paid to him are voluntary and complimentary, 
rather than compulsory ; and are not numerous. 
The rest of the men are either rangatira, free men, 
or taua-reka-reka, slaves. There are distinctions 
amongst the free men according to the importance 
of their relations and ancestors, or their proficiency 
in war or council. But with them, as with the 
chiefs, their influence depends rather upon their 
mental superiority than upon the exercise of any legal 
claim. The ariki, as well as the rangatira, possesses 
land with well-defined boundaries ; and, in disposing 
of the land of the tribe, every one can sell or retain 
his own as he likes. Of the sons of a rangatira, the 
first and the last inherit the greatest dignity, and are 
called the Ngako-o-te-wenua, the fat of the earth. 
The slaves, taua-reka-reka, are the prisoners of war, 
male or female, and such of their children as are 
born in slavery. They have to perform the greater 
part of the work of the field, and are the property 
of their master, who can do with them as he pleases. 
If they escape to their own tribe, they are either 
sent back or fetched back without resistance, as the 
right to a captured slave is acknowledged. Many 
wars have been carried on merely for the purpose 
of getting slaves, and this was the avowed object of 

VOL. II. I 



114 LANDED PROPERTY. [PART 1. 

the renowned E'Ongi in making war on the tribes 
to the eastward. The " tohunga," or priests, can 
belong to either of these classes, but the " karakia" 
(prayers), makuta (witchcraft), or healing art, or 
dreams, are most powerful when coming from a 
priest who is distinguished by high birth. 

There exists a very distinct notion of the rights 
of landed property amongst the natives, and every 
inch of land in New Zealand has its proprietor. 
Sometimes land is given to a strange tribe, either 
as pay, or from other considerations ; but the pro- 
prietor reserves certain rights, some of which are 
what we should term manorial. It was formerly 
very common that the fat of the native rats (kiore) 
killed on such lands should be given to the prin- 
cipal proprietor, and in many cases a title to land 
seems to have been derived from the fact of having 
killed rats on it : thus a chief will often say, " This 
or that piece of land is mine ; I have killed rats 
upon it." But generally the titles to land are de- 
rived from inheritance or from conquest. The latter 
constitutes an acknowledged right ; if, however, 
conquered land is again taken possession of by the 
original tribe, the right of the stronger prevails. 
In settling the complicated land question as regards 
European buyers, many difficult cases of this kind 
will doubtless be brought forward, where the ori- 
ginal tribe had returned, trusting for its security to 
the Europeans and to the advance made in civil- 
ization, or to the weakened state of its enemies- 



CHAP. VII.] TITLES AND RIGHTS. 115 

The right certainly is on the side of the conqueror, 
although another tribe is in possession. Such cases 
must be settled by a liberal system of compromise. 

After a war, the conquered land was distributed 
according to natural limits amongst the principal 
people, each of them acting as trustee for his imme- 
diate followers. Every hill, vale, or creek in New 
Zealand has its name, and the definition of the 
portion of each individual is therefore comparatively 
easy. 

The rangatira, or freemen of a tribe, are very 
independent of each other. They are kept to- 
gether more by custom and relationship than by 
any laws. Each may assemble around him a tribe 
of his own, and build a pa a case which not un- 
frequently happens. And this has probably been 
the origin of so great a variety of tribes a powerful 
family forming a clan for themselves, and adopting 
a name of their own. 

The leader in war is not necessarily an ariki or a 
rangatira of the first rank, although by his renown 
as a warrior he may have gained great influence 
over the tribe. 

If we take religion in its common meaning as a 
definable system of certain dogmas and prescrip- 
tions, the New Zealanders have no religion. Their 
belief in the supernatural is confined to the action 
and influence of spirits on the destiny of men, mixed 
up with fables and traditions. I have before ob- 
served that Maui and his brothers, in consequence 

i 2 



116 RELIGION. [PART i. 

of their having fished up the island, as well as 
E Pani, for having introduced the kumara, are the 
principal persons in the mythology of the people. 
Although tradition says that they have been mor- 
tals, they have undergone some sort of apotheosis, 
and live in the memory of their descendants as 
beings endowed with supernatural powers. Of 
Maui the tradition says that he gave them the 
forms of their houses, canoes, and so on, and was 
therefore the real benefactor of his people ; but 
there is no sort of worship paid to his memory. 
Their belief in spiritual agencies more nearly ap- 
proaches the nature of religion, and has taken its 
rise in an intuitive feeling of the influence of bene- 
volent or mischievous spirits, or of the souls of 
their relations and ancestors, over all their actions. 
These spirits are called Atua and Wairua. It is 
difficult to define the meaning of these names, but 
it may be observed that Atua, although qualified to 
assume many different forms, and represented as so 
many separate spirits, is the divinity ; Wairua, which 
word signifies both soul and dream, are the spirits 
of the deceased, invisible, and capable of acting be- 
nevolently or in a hostile manner upon men. The 
native language joins to Atua both the definite and 
indefinite article and the plural number, He-atua, 
Te-atua, and Nga-atua ; but, notwithstanding this, 
although separated in appearance and actions, the 
gods of the New Zealander are emanations of the 
st Unknown," and seem to be based upon a former 



CHAP. VII.] THE ATUA. 117 

purer belief of monotheism. The Atua, although 
immaterial, can assume certain forms, as that of a 
bird, or a lizard, or a cloud, or a ray of the sun ; a 
beautiful green lizard, called kakariki, is especially 
dreaded, as being a metamorphosed Atua. Not to 
those earthly forms of the Atua, however, but to the 
spirit itself, prayers are addressed for favourable 
winds and fine weather, for success in war, for 
averting diseases, for punishing on the offender the 
breaking of the " tapu," and so on ; and the eyes of 
the priests are raised to heaven during these invo- 
cations. 1 I must, however, observe that their idea 

1 Such prayers, for instance, are as follow: 
He karakia mo te ra kia witi ai. 

A Prayer for Sunshine by a Party who suffer from Cold. 
Tenei tenei toa nine te ai tia nei e maua ko te ao nunui ko te 
ao roroa upoko upoko witi tera. 

A Prayer for Wind. 

E topa ra e rere ra e tae koi ki te puke re warewa au hia mai 
koe ke ai tou ariki koau koau ko rereha e ware hoki rereha ko 
pouri awa ano pea kia uhia mai koe ki te kahu keke kapai koe te 
rere atue kareo kareo. 

A Prayer at the. beginning of a Fight. 

Teke teke pari kou haramai kato notono katonotono karerei te 
kapu a taku ingato. 
Kia toa ! kia toa ! 

A Prayer in Fishing for Crawfish. 

Totoke na hia tura kiwahona kai mai ai e hiana e rawe ana e 
taki ana niho koi tara ko kia u o niho huimai nga koura pura kau 
o te ratahara ko taku tokuke. 

Another. 

Ngau mai ngau mai e ngue ki taku matira nei e ngu e ki taku 
nmtira nei e ngue ki taku matira wakataratara ka hika ra kei to 
hara e tangaroa kia u. 



118 RELIGION. [PART i. 

of Atua is often merged in the indefinable. For in- 
stance, a compass, a barometer, are to them atuas. 
In one word, Atuas are the secret powers of the 
universe, whether they appear to them as beneficent 
or malignant ; but the latter class is that especially 
addressed in prayer, for the purpose of averting 
their supposed wrath and hatred. There is no wor- 
ship of idols, or of bodily representations of the 
Atua; and what have been taken for idols are mere 
ornaments or heir-looms from their ancestors, and 
are called tiki, or e tiki, as already observed. The 
wairua, or the spirits of the deceased, can commu- 
nicate with mortals ; but I am not aware that they 
can assume any form or appearance except the rays 
of the sun or a shadow. The tohunga does not 
see, but hears, them (their voice is a whistling or a 
slight breeze), and communicates their demands to 
the people. They are the immaterial and immortal 
parts of men ; but it seems as if even these parts 
could be annihilated, or rather incorporated with 
the soul and body of another, if he consumes the 
flesh of an enemy, and especially his left eye, which 
is considered the seat of the soul. It was formerly 
a very common practice, of which I myself know 
an instance, to sacrifice slaves on the death of a 
great chief, that he might have the advantage of 
their services in the reinga. They appear to believe 
that the after-life differs little from this, with the 
exception that all the good things of this world, 
especially kumaras, are there in great plenty and 
profusion. 



CHAP. VII.] THE PRIESTS. 119 

The knowledge of the priests is handed down 
from father to son ; and the youths undergo a re- 
gular course of instruction. I was present at one of 
the lessons : an old priest was sitting under a tree, 
and at his feet was a boy, his relation, who listened 
attentively to the repetition of certain words, which 
seemed to have no meaning, but which it must have 
required a good memory to retain in their due 
order. At the old tohunga's side was part of a 
man's skull filled with water; into this from time 
to time he dipped a green branch, which he moved 
over the boy's head. At my approach the old man 
smiled good-humouredly, as if to say, " See how 
clever I am," and continued his Abracadabra. I 
have been assured by the missionaries that many of 
these prayers have no meaning; but this I am 
greatly inclined to doubt : the words of the prayers 
are perhaps the remains of a language now for- 
gotten; or, what is more probable, we find here 
what has existed among most of the nations of anti- 
quity, even the most civilized, viz., that religious 
mysteries were confined to a certain class of men, 
who kept them concealed from the " profanum vul- 
gus," or communicated only such portion of them 
as they thought fit. They often had a sacred sym- 
bolic language, the knowledge of which was con- 
fined to the priesthood, as, for instance, the Egyp- 
tian hieroglyphics and the Sanscrit ; or, if we look 
nearer home, we find the religion of Thor, Odin, 
and Freya enveloped in a poetical mythos, which 



120 THE PRIESTS. [PART I. 

has for its foundation deep and grand philosophical 
conceptions of morals and ethics. At the introduc- 
tion of Christianity the priests were not at all into- 
lerant towards the new doctrine; they quickly gave 
up their own belief, and became the most successful 
teachers of their countrymen. The priests are, at 
the same time, among the most expert and clever in 
the native arts ; in fact " tohunga" is often used to 
designate a clever carpenter, carver, or physician ; 
just as in former times the priesthood, both in Eu- 
rope and Asia, united in itself all the learning and 
skill of the period : and when we behold these 
reverend-looking personages, it is difficult to believe 
that they have ever been the ferocious cannibals that 
almost all travellers have represented them. 



CHAP. VIII.] 121 



CHAPTER VIII. 



Native Modes of reckoning Times and Seasons Different Sorts 
of Land Modes of Tillage Warfare Spirit of Revenge 
Canoes Cannibalism 

The natives have some knowledge of the heavens, 
winds, and seasons, especially as far as is applicable 
to the purposes of practical life. Their designations 
for the principal points of the horizon, which are 
also applied to the winds, are the following: 

North Hauraro. 

North-east He Marangai Hauraro. 

East Marangai. 

South-east He Tonga Marangai. 

South Tonga. 

South-west He Tonga Hauauru. 

West Hauauru. 

North-west Hauraro Hauauru. 

A year is called tau, and has thirteen months - 
marama. (See table in following page.) 

Distances are often reckoned by nights (po), that 
is, how many nights they have to encamp before 
reaching a place. One " po " means rarely more than 
from twelve to fifteen miles; often less. In relating 



122 



RECKONING COUNTING. [PART I, 





Names. 


Corresponding to our 


1 


Marama-ko-te-tahi . 


June 


2 


rua . 


July 


3 


torn . 


August 


4 


wa . 


September 


5 


rima 


October 


6 


ono . 


November 


7 


witu 


December 


8 


,, waru 


January 


9 


iwa . 


February 


10 


ngahuru 


March 


11 


Marama-ko-te-ngahuru 


llth month, in which the 




hauhake kumara. 


kumara is taken up. 


12 


Ko-te-paengwawa. 




13 


Ko-te-tahi-o-pipiri. 





past events their reckoning is very imperfect; the 
most correct mode seems to consist in counting a 
succession of the great chiefs or warriors of one 
tribe : sixteen to eighteen were the utmost preserved 
in their recollection, of whom most, but not all, 
were father and son ; so that this might be regarded 
as reckoning according to generations. Their sys- 
tem of counting is purely decimal, and might be 
carried on ad mfinitum with native words, if re- 
quired 10 is kau, 100 rau, 1000 mano: it is per- 
formed by joining the cardinal numbers to the con- 
junctive particle ma. (For further information on 
this point the reader is referred to the Grammar.) 
Plants or birds, which appear at certain seasons, 
give the natives sure signs when the time ap- 
proaches to begin agricultural labours. Two migra- 



CHAP. VIII.] VARIETIES OF LAND. 123 

tory cuckoos (the Cuculus fasciatus, Forst), called 
kohaperoa, or koekoia, and a very small and beauti- 
ful kind (the Cuculus nitens of the same author), 
called by the natives pipiwawaroa which appear 
on the coast at Christmas mark the period of 
the first potato-harvest. The flowering of the 
beautiful Clematis albida reminds them to turn 
the soil for receiving potatoes, which is done in 
October. Their plantations are generally on the 
sides of hills, but the kumara and maize plantations 
are in the alluvial ground of the valleys. They are 
excellent judges of soil, and distinguish the different 
kinds by names. The one matua (father soil) is the 
stiff clay of the hills, and is not esteemed; clayey 
alluvial land on the banks of rivers is called reretu ; 
sandy land is called one pu; land composed of de- 
cayed vegetables on the sides of hills is called one 
kura; rich land on the sides of rivers is called tai 
pu. The two latter are those preferred for planta- 
tions. If the land is wooded (and such they prefer), 
the trees are cut down and burnt, but no attempt 
is made to root up the stumps ; the land is after- 
wards dug up with a pole, which has a foot-piece 
firmly attached to it, and which is used in the same 
manner as our spade. It is made of the hard wood 
of the maire (Eugenia maire), or sometimes of the 
wood of the Leptospermum ericoides, and is called 
e kaheru. The work proceeds rapidly; and the soil 
being interlaced with roots of shrubs and fern, the 



124 PRIVATE PROPERTY. [PART I. 

implement is preferable to our spades, which cut, 
but do not tear up ; those especially which are made 
entirely of iron cannot be used by the natives, as 
their feet are bare. Sometimes a hoe is used formed 
of Lydian or green stone, fixed to a handle. It is 
called e toki. The seeds are then put into holes 
made with a stick of the wood of the manuka. All 
the plantations are fenced in. The greatest labour 
is bestowed upon the kumara-fields. They are kept 
clear of weeds ; the kumaras are planted in regular 
rows ; and the caterpillars of a sphinx, which feed 
in great numbers upon the leaves, are at all times 
carefully removed. In neatness such a field rivals 
any in Europe. Every family has its own field, 
and the produce is its private property. But the 
head of a tribe, being as it were the father of a 
family, often institutes a sale, to which all have 
contributed their produce, and the receipts are 
divided according to the contributions ; in this 
proceeding there is, however, nothing compulsory. 
Fishing is likewise carried on in common : an old 
man acting as an umpire divides the fish which has 
been caught into equal portions, according to the 
number of families ; he then walks round, and with 
a stick points out to whom each heap belongs. 
Strangers who happen to be present, or a white 
man who is settled amongst the tribe, receive their 
share. An umpire divides also the property they 
have received in exchange for land. 



CHAP. VIII. J MODES OF WARFARE. 125 

The former modes of carrying on warfare have 
now been almost entirely changed by the introduc- 
tion of fire-arms. Single combats with the meri or 
the patiti (stone-club, or tomahawk), to decide a 
dispute, were formerly frequent, but are now dis- 
continued. A war is generally announced to the 
opposite party beforehand, but sometimes it is car- 
ried on by surprise. The young men of the tribe, 
with the slaves and women carrying provisions, 
approach the stronghold of the enemy, generally at 
daybreak, when they hope to find their adversaries 
unprepared ; but the watchful dogs often frustrate 
their designs, and they are either met in open field 
by their antagonists, or, if the latter feel themselves 
too weak for such an encounter, a long siege ensues, 
which often lasts for several months ; and woe to 
the inmates of a pa if it is taken. In meeting in 
the open field, the action begins with a dance, in 
which all manner of distortions of the body are em- 
ployed to express defiance of the enemy ; the thighs 
are beaten, the tongue thrust out, and the eyes drawn 
up, till only the white is visible : by these means 
and by mimic song they excite themselves to the 
height of fury. The chief leads his troop ; he car- 
ries a sort of staff with a carved point, and orna- 
mented with parrot-feathers and pieces of dog-skin ; 
besides this he has a " meri," a war-club made of 
green jade, pierced at the handle, through which a 
string passes. With the lower end of the staff they 
fence skilfully. Old women dance in front of the 



120 BESIEGING A PA. [PART I. 

party, stripped of their clothes, bedaubed with red 
ochre, and distorting their faces even more fright- 
fully than the men. All the warriors have their 
hair dressed, tied round on the top of the head, 
and ornamented with feathers, but their bodies and 
limbs are entirely naked. The combat is carried on 
by alternate advance and retreat. If a party retreats 
in flight, they carry, if possible, their dead with 
them, or the enemy seizes them for the purpose of 
devouring them. 

In an engagement on the sea-shore, in which 
muskets were used, I saw both parties advance, 
guarding themselves by trenches rapidly dug as they 
pushed forward. They fire continually, but irregu- 
larly, and a great deal of powder is wasted, as they 
rarely take aim. But, notwithstanding this, krge 
numbers are often killed. 

Their mode of besieging is rude, but not without 
cunning. The besieging party digs trenches and 
erects high structures of blocks of wood, from which 
their fire can reach into the pa. Both parties have 
fosses with loopholes, and outposts ; but they are little 
careful to conceal their arrangements, each knowing 
the other's forces too well ; and strangers or neutrals 
are allowed to pass from one party to the other, the 
combatants politely ceasing to fire during the time. 

If a pa is taken, in most cases nothing but a gene- 
ral slaughter of the men satisfies the thirst of the 
victors for revenge, and women and children are 
carried off as slaves. When the two parties are 



CHAP. VIII.] WAR CANOES. 127 

inclined to peace, they deliberate about the condi- 
tions, and a feast concludes the whole. 

On returning home they sometimes kill more of 
the captives. E'Ongi's principal wife, who was 
blind, often indulged the natural cruelty of her 
disposition in this manner. But her barbarity at 
length met its just punishment : in one of the last 
excursions of E'Ongi to Wangaroa she was left 
behind on account of sickness, and, being unable 
to defend herself, the dogs actually devoured her 
alive. 

A remarkable custom exists among the natives, 
called the taua tapu (sacred fight), or taua toto 
(fight for blood), which is in the true spirit of the 
ancient law of the Asiatics " blood for blood." If 
blood has been shed, a party sally forth and kill the 
first person they fall in with, whether an enemy or 
belonging to their own tribe ; even a brother is sacri- 
ficed. If they do not fall in with anybody, the 
tohunga pulls up some grass, throws it into a river, 
and repeats some incantation. After this ceremony, 
the killing of a bird, or any living thing that comes 
in their way, is regarded as sufficient, provided that 
blood is actually shed. All who participate in such 
an excursion are " tapu," and are not allowed either 
to smoke or to eat anything but indigenous food. 

In former times large fleets of canoes often went 
to distant parts of the island, and, as the country is 
everywhere intersected by rivers, and contains many 
lakes, the canoes were dragged from one to the 



128 CANNIBALISM. [PART I. 

other. E'Ongi traversed nearly the whole northern 
island in this manner. 

The canoes which they use in war are the largest, 
and are ornamented at the head and stern. They 
are made of one tree, the kauri, in the northern, 
and the totara in the southern parts of the island. 
I have seen them eighty feet long, and they are 
able to carry a proportionate number of warriors. 
They have gunwales on their sides, firmly attached 
by flax ropes. Formerly a stone adze was the 
only implement used in their construction ; the 
natives, however, have now an iron adze. There are 
other sorts of canoes ; one of them, very low and 
without gunwales, is used in many parts of the 
island, especially in the inland lakes of Taupo and 
Rotu-rua, and is called tiwai. The sails are trian- 
gular, and made of the light raupo-rushes. They 
can sail very close to the wind, and are steered by a 
paddle. 

A few observations regarding the cannibalism of 
these islanders may not be out of place. This 
frightful custom has not yet entirely ceased, al- 
though it undoubtedly will do so in a very short 
time. The implacable desire of revenge which is 
characteristic of these people, and the belief that 
the strength and courage of a devoured enemy are 
transferred to him who eats him, are, without ques- 
tion, the causes of this unnatural taste not the 
pleasure of eating human flesh, which is certainly 
secondary, and, besides, is not at all general. A chief 



CHAP. VIII.] CANNIBALISM. 129 

is often satisfied with the left eye of his enemy, 
which they consider the seat of the soul. They 
likewise drink the blood from a similar belief. The 
dead bodies are " tapu " until the tohunga has taken 
a part of the flesh, and, with prayers and invocations, 
has hanged it up on a tree or on a stick, as an offer- 
ing to the Atuas, or to the wairua of him to re- 
venge whom the war was undertaken. The heads 
are stuck up on poles round the village. Women, 
especially those who plant the kumara, and those 
who are with child, are not allowed to eat of the 
flesh, but children are permitted to do so at a certain 
age, when the priest initiates them into the custom 
by singing an incantation, which I insert here, 
although it is too obscure for translation : 

He waka ngungu tamariki tenei Mau nga tua ahu 

karakia Horo nuku 

Ka ngungu te tama nei Horo rangi 

Ka koro te tama nei Horo paratu 

Ka kai te tama nei Horo awa hei kai 

Ka kai tangata te tama nei Mau nga pukenga hei kai 

Ka horo parata te tama nei Mau nga wananga hei kai 

Ka kai hau te tama nei Mau tenei tauira 

Ka kai e tiki ei E kai te tama nei 

Ka kai rangi E horo te tama nei i te tangata 

Ka kai papa hei kai Ka kai akuanei 

Mau nga tua hei kai Kakai apopo 

Mau nga wahi tapu hei kai Heoi katahi kakai te tamaiti. 

Many men too are restricted from eating it. They 
all agreed, when conversing with me freely upon 
the subject, that human flesh is well flavoured, 
especially the palm of the hands and the breast 
The flesh of Europeans they consider salt and dis- 

VOL. II. K 



130 CANNIBALISM. [PART I. 

agreeable a curious physiological fact, if true ; and 
they stated the same regarding the flesh of our dogs 
and the introduced European rat. It appears very 
doubtful whether they ever killed a slave merely 
for the purpose of eating him. Where such mur- 
der was committed there was generally some super- 
stitious belief connected with the act, or it was done 
as a punishment. 

The island of Tuhua, or Mayor's Island, in the 
Bay of Plenty, with a population of about 200 souls, 
has been subject to many attacks from the tribes of 
the mainland ; first from the Nga Pui, and after- 
wards from the Nga-te-Wakaua, in Wakkatane. 
Their pa being situated on an almost inaccessible 
rock of craggy lava, the enemy has always been 
obliged to retreat. The last attack was made in the 
night, but the inhabitants were on their guard, and 
allowed the enemy to come to the base of the rock 
on which the pa stands, and then rolled down large 
boulders, by which many of the attacking party 
were crushed ; the rest retreated. They related this 
the following morning to a missionary, and, on being 
asked to show the marks of the blood on the rocks, 
they answered, " Our women have licked it off! " 
The savage, passionate and furious with the feeling 
of revenge, slaughtering and devouring his enemy 
and drinking his blood, is no longer the same being 
as when cultivating his fields in peace ; and it would 
be as unjust to estimate his general character by his 
actions in these moments of unrestrained passion, 



CHAP. VIII.] CRIMES OF CIVILIZATION. 131 

as to judge of Europeans by the excesses of an ex- 
cited soldiery or an infuriated mob. If we were to 
be judged by the conduct of our countrymen in the 
South Seas, who, unprovoked, have not only fre- 
quently murdered the innocent by tens and twenties, 
but, what is still worse, have fostered the passions 
of the natives against each other in every possible 
manner, what a picture would be given of our civil- 
ization ! The history of the discovery of the islands 
of the South Seas is one continued series of blood- 
shed and aggression ; and in our intercourse with 
the New Zealanders it might easily be proved that, 
in nine out of ten cases in which there has been a 
conflict between them and Europeans, the fault was 
on the side of the latter, not even excepting the case 
of the otherwise humane and benevolent Captain 
Cook, who shot natives in order to make himself 
acquainted with their race. If one were to reckon up 
the crimes and gratuitous cruelties (not including, 
of course, the unhappy but involuntary consequences 
of our intercourse) which civilized men have com- 
mitted against the savage, the balance of humanity, 
and of other virtues too, would probably be found 
on the side of the latter. I am acquainted with 
authentic facts relative to occurrences in many of 
the South Sea Islands, several of them related to 
me by the perpetrators themselves, which make the 
blood boil, and which are only equalled by the 
treatment of the American Indians as related by Las 
Cases. 

K 2 



132 MISERIES OF THE [PART I, 

Their mode of carrying on war by surprise and 
stratagem has naturally made the tribes fearful and 
suspicious, and has proved the greatest hinderance 
to the occupations of peaceful industry. Tribes 
have been broken up, villages deserted, cultivation 
neglected ; and it is only now, after complete ex- 
haustion, that the heavy wounds inflicted since the 
time when E' Ongi first exchanged for muskets in 
Sydney the ploughshares which he had received 
in England begin to cicatrize, and the people to 
throw off that state of suspicion and alarm in which 
the perpetual hostility of their neighbours had 
placed them ; and that a field is at length opened 
for a government, such as perhaps never existed 
before, to reclaim them to civilization. 

How far the fear of being surprised by their 
enemies was carried, will be proved by the custom, 
very common in a pa, or with a travelling party, of 
beating the pahu, a canoe-shaped piece of wood 
about twelve feet long, and suspended by two 
strings, the hollow din of which sounded far and 
wide through the stillness of midnight, and was 
intended to let an approaching party know that 
they were on the alert. But many a pa has been 
taken by surprise, and many a party has been cut 
off, from neglecting any kind of caution. 

One of their most favourite systems of warfare 
is to get the enemy into their power by cunning. 
The tribes of Rotu-rua and Waikato were for a 
long time involved in a war which originated in 



CHAP. VIII.] NATIVE WARS. 133 

an act of treachery. A chief of the Waikato paid 
a visit to a pa in Rotu-rua, where he had some 
relations; an old man in that pa, who had quarrel- 
led with one of the Waikato many years before, and 
wished to involve his people in a war with them, 
received the chief with great apparent friendship, 
but told his son to kill him treacherously from 
behind, when he was in the act of making the 
customary salutation. The son did so, and a long 
and bloody war was the consequence. 

The Rotu-rua are now the most belligerent tribe 
in the island, and are at war with all their neigh- 
bours. The cause of a long war between them 
and the Nga-pui was an act similar to that above 
related. A party of thirty Nga-pui came on a 
visit to the island of Mokoia in the lake of Rotu- 
rua ; they were hospitably received, but their doom 
was already sealed. After feasting, the islanders 
joined them in singing a war-song, it having been 
previously arranged that at the second repetition of 
the chorus they should kill all their guests : this 
was done, and all the Nga-pui were butchered, with 
the exception of two who escaped in a canoe. This 
act of treachery was, however, severely punished : 
E' Ongi came down from the Bay of Islands, 
dragged his canoes overland into the lake of Rotu- 
rua, killed a great number of the murderers, and 
carried away about sixty of their children into 
slavery. 

It is well known that the New Zealanders have 



134 MUMMIFIED HEADS. [PART I. 

a custom of preserving in a peculiar manner the 
heads of their slaughtered enemies. After the 
brain has been taken out (and eaten), the head is 
slowly steamed over hot stones, the exudating hu- 
midity is wiped off, and this process is continued 
till the head becomes mummified, in which state it 
can be preserved for a long time ; these heads are 
called moko-mokai. In returning home from a 
war excursion the victors carry them on the taia- 
has, a sort of pike, and afterwards plant them upon 
the fences around their houses. In singing the 
Pihe, or funeral ode, these trophies are elevated on 
sticks at the concluding chorus. 

Formerly these heads formed a speculative sort 
of commerce with the Sydney traders, but now they 
have become very scarce ; I myself have seen them 
only on one occasion in the interior. 



CHAP. IX.] 135 



CHAPTER IX. 

How to legislate for the Natives of New Zealand ? 

A FEELING of regret is, I believe, very generally 
excited amongst thinking men, when they observe 
how little benefit has resulted to barbarous tribes 
from their intercourse with the people of civilized 
nations. Not only does the bodily frame of the 
savage lose its health and manly beauty, his mind 
its instinctive acuteness and primitive resources, 
but, either by the more violent means of wholesale 
murder, or gradually, as if acted upon by a slow 
poison, the races diminish in numerical strength, 
until they cease to exist as nations or tribes. The 
philosopher in his study speculates on the causes 
of the disappearance of certain kinds of animals, by 
changes which have taken place in the physical con- 
dition of the globe, whether in the earliest or more 
recent periods. It is well known that, besides one 
division of natural history embracing the subject of 
living animals and plants, there exists another re- 
lating to those which are extinct, and for the in- 
vestigation of which their fossil remains furnish 
us with materials ; but it is not so generally 
known that we have proofs of similar extinctions 



136 HOW TO LEGISLATE [PART I. 

continually going on, even down to the present 
times. In some cases the extermination of a species 
of animals seems to be connected with a plan of 
nature, which man can neither frustrate nor com- 
prehend. The Apterix australis, which is defi- 
cient in what affords to a bird its principal pro- 
tection wings and which, from laying but one 
egg in a season, does not multiply sufficiently to 
make up for the loss, could not resist the effects 
resulting from the introduction of the dog into 
New Zealand, and is now very nearly extinct. 
Another bird, the kakapo, which, judging from 
some feathers which I obtained, must have been a 
large and beautiful coocoo (Centropus), has riot been 
seen for many years ; indeed, it is only the oldest 
natives who have ever seen it ; and they say that 
the cats which the Europeans brought into the 
island have destroyed this bird, which used to roost 
on the lower branches of trees. In other cases, 
when man has been aware of such an extinction 
going on, either absolutely or in a certain locality, 
and when his interest has been roused, he has suc- 
ceeded in counteracting the process, or at least in 
retarding it. Thus the Bos urus, a large and pow- 
erful animal, which in the times of Tacitus lived in 
large herds in the countries inhabited by the Ger- 
manic and Sclavonic nations, was nearly extermi- 
nated in the beginning of this century, and all that 
remained were about 500 head in a forest in Li- 
thuania. Protection was then afforded to these 



CHAP. IX.] FOR THE NATIVES ? 137 

animals, the destruction was stayed, and their num- 
bers have again increased. In these cases it has 
generally been the introduction of different species 
of animals or of man, and the physical changes 
thence resulting, that have occasioned the exter- 
mination of certain species which were unable to 
resist their effects. But man, I believe, does not 
stand in this position. All our researches into his 
history lead us to conclude that the races are not 
different in their origin, and forbid the idea of in- 
feriority, and of the necessity of one race being 
superseded by another. I am of opinion that man, 
in his desires, passions, and intellectual faculties, is 
the same, whatever be the colour of his skin ; that 
mankind forms a great whole, in which the differ- 
ent races are the radii from a common centre; and 
that the differences which we observe are due to 
peculiar circumstances which have developed certain 
qualities of body and mind. Man, even in the 
state of barbarism in which the Polynesian nations 
remain, is superior in many respects to a large 
proportion of the population of Europe. That he 
gives way before the European, and is gradually 
exterminated, whilst it shows our superiority in 
some points, shows also our deficiency in the arts of 
civilization and moral government, which disables 
us from uniting his savage simplicity and his virtues 
to what our state of society might offer to im- 
prove his condition, and which causes him merely 
to taste what is bitter in civilized life. But this by 



138 HOW TO LEGISLATE [PART I. 

no means shows his inferiority : the lion that tears 
the deer into pieces is not therefore made of nobler 
material. We, who with " firewater," with the 
musket, and disease, war against the unoffending 
tribes of coloured men, have no right to talk of 
their inferiority, but should rather perceive a defi- 
ciency in our own state of civilization. 

The subject of preserving the natives from exter- 
mination by the spreading of colonization has been 
the study of many excellent men ; perhaps it has 
been thought more difficult than it actually is. If 
we dismiss the belief that there is something in 
their physical configuration or mental disposition 
to prevent their continuance when in contact with 
Europeans, or that there is any natural necessity 
for their giving way to another race, and if we are 
inclined to exercise what we profess by our laws 
and our religion, I see no difficulty in legislating 
for the different people amongst whom colonies have 
been established, although the minutiae of a legis- 
lative design must always be modified according to 
the different races. I think there can be little dif- 
ference of opinion as to the general principles ; but 
to adapt them to a particular country must be the 
result of a knowledge of the principal causes of the 
decay of the natives in that country. In the follow- 
ing pages I shall merely speak of the natives of New 
Zealand, and attempt to show how that fate can 
be averted which, in the opinion of many, seems 
inevitably to await them. 



CHAP. IX.] FOR THE NATIVES? 139 

There are already reasons for fearing an approach- 
ing conflict between the natives and the colonists, if 
the latter continue to be placed upon land belonging 
to the former, and for the peaceful and lawful acqui- 
sition of which no attempt even has been made. 
Up to the present time the energies of the New 
Zealanders to defend their rights have not been 
roused, and they have merely protested against the 
injustice ; but, if left unprotected, the multitudes of 
Europeans pouring into their country will not in- 
timidate them they will rather fill them with 
suspicion, stimulate them to exertion, and convert 
them into open foes. And let not such an enemy 
be despised : the New Zealander is no coward ; he 
can live in his impenetrable forests, where no Euro- 
pean can follow him ; he can cut off all chance of 
colonization, especially if necessity teaches the tribes 
to forget their own dissensions and to be strong by 
union. 

And yet, of all the nations of the Polynesian 
race, the New Zealanders show the readiest dispo- 
sition for assuming in a high degree that civilization 
which must be the link to connect them with the 
European colonists, and ultimately to amalgamate 
them. 

This disposition is especially the result of the 
nature of their country. If in the islands situated 
between the tropics Nature has been profuse in her 
gifts, yielding spontaneously, or with little exer- 
tion on the part of man, all the necessaries of life, 



140 HOW TO LEGISLATE [PART I. 

man has at the same time become there more effe- 
minate, and less inclined to great bodily or men- 
tal exertion. Where the climate is so genial, clothes 
are superfluous, and houses of a complicated con- 
struction are not wanted. Agriculture that cor- 
ner-stone of an advanced state of civilization. re- 
mains in its infancy ; and the cattle, roaming at 
large, destroy the young cocoa-nut and bread-fruit 
trees. The milk of the cocoa-nut serves the natives 
instead of that of the cow ; bread-fruit, bananas, 
yams, and taro, are all highly farinaceous, and take 
the place of the cerealia of Europe. The acquaint- 
ance with European luxuries, and the creation 
of artificial wants, have not made these islanders 
healthier or happier than when they lived upon 
the bounties of Nature. 

How different is the case with the natives of New 
Zealand! Their country produces spontaneously 
scarcely any indigenous articles of food ; all these 
they have to plant, with much labour : their climate 
is too severe to allow of their dispensing with clothes 
or with substantially constructed houses, to obtain 
both of which they are obliged to exercise their 
mental and bodily faculties ; and they have, therefore, 
become agriculturists, with fixed habitations. They 
are not, indeed, as cleanly as the natives of the favoured 
islands to the north, but that is a consequence of 
their climate and their poverty. If the first contact 
with Europeans produced an injurious effect upon 
their health, in consequence of the entire change* 



CHAP. IX.] FOR THE NATIVES? 141 

in their food and mode of living, every succeeding 
step is a gain to them ; every advance in the know- 
ledge of our system of husbandry and of our manu- 
factures increases their bodily welfare ; every mental 
acquirement gratifies their ardent desire for informa- 
tion. The division into separate castes, which we 
find more or less in the Polynesian nations, as de- 
rived from Asia, is very indistinct in New Zealand, 
where there is more of the shadow of it than of the 
reality ; and this circumstance will facilitate their 
amalgamation with Europeans upon the broad prin- 
ciple of equality. Their family connexions that 
first foundation of social life that first and strongest 
link in the chain which binds men into a community 
have with them a powerful influence. Among 
them also woman is on an equality with man, 
and enjoys the influence due to her position. The 
New Zealander has excellent reasoning powers ; he 
has no deeply-rooted prejudices nor superstitions, 
although fond of contemplation. Formerly these 
people were very warlike, but they are now inclined 
to peace, and the greater part of them are Christians ; 
they are friends of the Europeans, and particularly 
of the English, and have become reconciled to their 
taking possession of the country. 

In consequence of the interest which the natives 
excited, Her Majesty's Government, in making New 
Zealand a British colony, acknowledged it as a pro- 
minent object to protect the native population in 



142 HOW TO LEGISLATE [PART I. 

their inalienable rights. His Excellency the Lieu- 
tenant-Governor was instructed to acquire the sove- 
reignty from the native chiefs by means of treaty. 
This was done with a few tribes in the northern 
parts of the island, and with some individuals in 
the southern ; but circumstances made it afterwards 
necessary, without consulting the wishes of the in- 
habitants, to assume at once the sovereignty over 
the three islands. This was a mere formal step to 
prevent other nations, or individuals, or bodies, from 
acquiring in any way sovereign rights. It could 
not imply any duties to be performed by the natives, 
nor any sacrifices to be made by them, before 
they had become fully acquainted with the duties 
of a citizen, and were able to participate in the 
benefits of the new organization. The measure 
was also unavoidable, for, the numerous tribes being 
perfectly independent of each other, it would other- 
wise have been necessary to send a commission over 
the whole country to acquire their consent. But, 
even in the case of a single tribe, the chief has no 
authority to give away what he does not himself 
individually possess; each of its members is the 
sovereign possessor of his own plot of ground, and 
to have the consent of all would have amounted 
nearly to an impossibility. 

A far more important question for the Adminis- 
tration to settle is that of the territorial rights of 
the natives. I have shown that they are perfectly 



CHAP. IX.] FOR THE NATIVES? 143 

aware that they possess such rights. They disposed 
several years ago of the larger part of the islands to 
Europeans, and they acknowledge the titles of those 
who have purchased from them. It has been said 
that the natives are now strangers on the soil, that 
they have sold all their land, and that nothing re- 
mains to them. This is not quite the case. Well 
acquainted with the nature of their country and the 
capabilities of the soil in the different districts, they 
have generally retained such parts as were best 
suited for cultivation ; but in some instances they 
have not made any such reserve. According to 
European law, the new proprietor would in these 
cases be entitled to remove the native inhabitants 
from their land ; such, however, can never be al- 
lowed in New Zealand, and this point calls for the 
special interference of Government. The deeds of 
purchase have almost always been written in a 
foreign language and in a vague form, and the pur- 
chases were often conducted without a proper in- 
terpreter being present. Where the natives had 
made no particular reserve for themselves, the land 
was sold by them with the implied understanding 
that they should continue to cultivate the ground 
which they and their forefathers had occupied from 
time immemorial ; it never entered into their minds 
that they could be compelled to leave it and to 
retire to the mountains. There was, perhaps, an 
understanding between the parties that the seller 
should not be driven off by the buyer ; but this was 



144 HOW TO LEGISLATE [PART I. 

verbal only, and not recorded in the written docu- 
ment. It would indeed be sad were the native 
obliged to trust to humanity, where insatiable and 
grasping interest is his opponent, and where the 
land has gone through ten different hands since 
the first purchaser, who perhaps bought it for 
a hundred pipes, and where not one of the buyers 
ever thought of occupying it. In transferring 
land to Europeans the natives had no further idea 
of the nature of the transaction than that they 
gave the purchaser permission to make use of a 
certain district. They wanted Europeans amongst 
them ; and it was beyond their comprehension that 
one man should buy for another, who lived 15,000 
miles off, a million of acres, and that this latter 
should never come to the country, or bestow upon 
the sellers those benefits which they justly expected. 

The most vital point in regard to the native in- 
habitants, where they occupy part of claimed land, 
and are inclined to retain it, is that the extent of 
such disputed land should be fixed by legal titles 
and boundaries, and that they should be protected 
in the possession of it against the cupidity of the 
Europeans. 

Her Majesty's Land Commissioners, in decid- 
ing questions according to the letter of the deeds, 
where the native sellers do not dispute the le- 
gality of the title, cannot be aware of the hardship 
and injustice which in some cases they will entail 
upon native tribes. I will give one instance. An 



CHAP. IX.] FOR THE NATIVES? 145 

emancipated convict from Sydney bought from the 
natives a piece of land in one of the northern 
harbours of the island some ten years ago, and 
settled there. The natives continued to cultivate 
the best part of the land, which was not of very 
great extent ; but the man sold the land to another 
European, with whom I visited the district when 
he went to take possession of his property. The 
natives acknowledged that the land had been fairly 
purchased, and declared their willingness to give up 
what they had not cultivated, but said that they had 
no other place to go to, and therefore begged to re- 
tain their cultivated ground. Now the commis- 
sioners, who will arrange this matter without visit- 
ing the spot, will probably decide the case in favour 
of the European. The latter told me that he would 
wait for this decision, and then turn the natives off ! 
The New Zealand Company has cut the Gordian 
knot of native territorial rights by reserving to them 
a tenth, and afterwards an eleventh, part of all 
country and town sections which were sold. This 
plan, as regards the town allotments, was certainly 
very judicious and expedient, as the best means to 
procure a sufficient fund to be applied to the ex- 
penses of protecting and civilizing the natives. It 
was, however, an error to believe that they would 
at once occupy their town allotments, and would 
live in one community with the Europeans. It 
may be that single individuals will do so, but it 
will never be the case with the majority. What 

VOL. II. L 



146 HOW TO LEGISLATE [PART I. 

attractions can town-life have for them^? Being 
unaccustomed and unwilling to drag on a life of 
labour and exercise, the native has no means of pro- 
curing in a town that which is necessary to enable 
him to equal even the lowest of our labourers in 
comfort and appearance. The chief, who thinks 
himself equal in station and importance to any 
gentleman, will not consent to send his son to the 
shoemaker, or tailor, or carpenter ; and he would 
feel himself degraded if he should continue to live 
amongst enterprising European mechanics. It is 
true that some New Zealanders have learned a trade, 
that others have become domestic servants, and that 
still more have taken to a sea-faring life ; but, 
generally speaking, they have the best chance of 
being preserved as a nation, and of becoming civil- 
ized, by following their own inclination, and be- 
coming landed proprietors or peasants. Since 
Europeans have inhabited the island, that is, ever 
since the colony has been established, the na- 
tives have not only provided them with food, but 
have also supplied more than 150 vessels annually, 
and have freighted smaller vessels for New South 
Wales with pork, maize, and potatoes. They have 
increased their cultivations in proportion as emi- 
grants have flocked to their shores, and they are wise 
enough to perceive that by these means they can 
procure what they want, and be independent of 
the Europeans, without sacrificing their nationality. 
They would especially be able to do this if they were 



CHAP IX.] FOR THE NATIVES ? 147 

supplied with the capital resulting from the sales of 
their ,town allotments, so as to become proprietors 
of live-stock. The cutting and squaring of timber, 
and the preparation of flax, are not contrary to their 
disposition, and I include these employments among 
the resources of a peasant. 

I have always observed that the natives who 
hover about the settlements of Europeans are far 
inferior to those in the country : they are not only 
more unhealthy, but also become an ill-conditioned 
compound of the dandy, beggar, and labourer. 

Distilled spirits, being in most extensive use in all 
the Australian colonies, and being, in fact, the chief 
source of the public revenue, have not failed to cor- 
rupt, mentally and bodily, the natives, as well as the 
European settler. 

With regard to the above-mentioned arrangement, 
of reserving to the natives the tenth or eleventh 
part of the country lands, 1 do not mean to assert 
that that quantity of land is insufficient ; on the 
contrary, it is more than is in any respect required 
for the present or for future generations. The 
point upon which I would insist is this, that they 
will not occupy the reserved land. They have 
their favourite places, generally not very avail- 
able to Europeans. What an injustice would be 
committed if we were to take from them the land 
which they occupy, and which they have cleared, 
and were to restrict them to that portion which has 
fallen to them by a lottery in London, and thus 

L 2 



148 HOW TO LEGISLATE [PART I. 

perhaps to separate a tribe from the spot where 
they were born, where they have hitherto dwelt, and 
where they have buried their kindred ! It must be 
at once obvious that, as a general principle, this 
plan of reserves is impracticable. If it were carried 
into execution with regard to all the land in New 
Zealand, the native share alone would be 5,000,000 
acres a quantity vastly greater than is wanted for a 
population, at the highest, of 115,000 souls. 

To consult, therefore, not only the wishes of the 
tribes as to the place, but also their interest as to 
the quantity of land which is deemed sufficient for 
each of them, and to acknowledge their titles to 
such land, are measures which seem to result imme- 
diately from the nature of the circumstances, and 
should precede any adjudication of land to European 
claimants, or any further acquisition of it on the 
part of government. The natives form small tribes 
all over the country. It is in vain to expect that 
two tribes or more will ever amalgamate into one ; 
but there is no doubt that, if each tribe is left in the 
possession of its own ground, the aborigines will 
more effectually become mixed with the Europeans 
than if there were larger native communities. 

To carry this, measure into effect it is necessary 
that the approximate population of each tribe should 
be ascertained ; that it should be explained to them 
that they are at liberty to choose any spot which 
they may prefer, and that the rest is either given 
to the individuals to whom they have sold it, if the 



CHAP. IX.j FOR THE NATIVES ? 149 

claims of the latter are found consistent with justice, 
or that it will return to them, and that they may 
sell it to government. 

With regard to the quantity of land, it will be 
the duty of the commissioner to procure them a 
sufficiency ; and as to what constitutes a sufficiency, 
I think that ten acres of arable land for each indi- 
vidual of the tribe, man, woman, or child, chief or 
slave, is ample. New Zealand is not adapted for pas- 
ture, but for agriculture ; and, being a mountainous 
country, the quantity above mentioned will be very 
valuable. When the question of providing for the 
children of the missionaries was brought before the 
committee of the Church Missionary Society in 
London, two hundred acres for each child was 
thought to be a liberal allowance. It must, how- 
ever, be observed that, in a country where there is 
such a great difference in the value of land, and 
where only cultivable land is valuable, as there 
is no natural pasturage, ten acres of arable land 
must be regarded as sufficient for all reasonable 
wants of an individual. On the other hand, if that 
quantity is not thought sufficient for the children of 
a missionary, who have no claims to the land, I 
should assert that it is not sufficient for a native, 
there being no reasonable ground for making a dif- 
ference between them. As many of the natives will 
leave their tribe, and seek a livelihood amongst the 
Europeans, those who remain will benefit by their 
departure, as, according to the present established 



150 



HOW TO LEGISLATE 



[PART i. 



custom, such property, when abandoned by indivi- 
duals, belongs to the tribe. It is, however, obvious 
that the commissioner of the native reserves must 
act in most cases according to circumstances. 

Taking the population of both islands at 114,890 
souls, the quantity of land which would have to be 
secured to them, allowing, as proposed, ten acres for 
each, would amount to 1,148,900 acres; and its 
distribution, according to the numbers in each tribe, 
would be as follows : 



Tribes. 


Souls. 


Land in Acres. 




8,000 


80,000 




12,000 


120,000 


Ngu-te-whatua . 


800 
5,000 


8,000 
50,000 


\Vaikato . 


24,000 


240,000 


Nga-te-awa (a) 
Nga-te-awa (6) 
Nga-te-wakaua 
Nga-te-tuaretoa 
Nga-te-raukaua 
Nga-te-kahohunu 


5,490 
8,600 
10,000 
3,200 
600 
36,000 
1 , 200 


54,900 
86,000 
100,000 
32,000 
6,000 
360,000 
12,000 








Total . . . 


114,890 


1,148,900 



With regard to the reservation of town allot- 
ments, I am of opinion that it would be much better 
if, instead of doing so, a certain sum from the pro- 
ceeds of sales of town and country land were appro- 
priated to the native population. It will make the 
duties of the commissioner too complicated if the 
allotments themselves are reserved, and will lead to 
controversies between him and the municipality, 



CHAP. IX.J FOR THE NATIVES ? 151 

particularly in cases where a native reserve becomes 
desirable to the local administration, or for govern- 
ment purposes an instance of which has already 
occurred. It is far better to treat with the natives 
for the purchase of their right in such a spot at once, 
than to have afterwards the disgusting spectacle of 
seeing the land, inch by inch, come by indirect means 
into the hands of the Europeans. 

II. Her Majesty's ministers having decided that 
government should have the first right of purchas- 
ing the remaining land from the natives, there is 
the best possible opportunity for giving them in ex- 
change for it such articles as will be of permanent 
and increasing value to them, and will raise their 
condition as peasants. In almost all the purchases 
of land which have been made by private indivi- 
duals, the purchase-money consisted of guns, gun- 
powder, lead, blankets, tobacco, and pipes ; and in 
several purchases which were made by government, 
flour and blankets formed the greater part of the 
payment. All these articles lose their value in a 
very short time, and are not of much advantage to 
the natives, as they can procure them by barter 
for their produce. Live-stock and agricultural im- 
plements are now the articles in greatest request, 
and, indeed, the most essential to their welfare. It 
would be expected that, having so many missionary 
establishments amongst them, they would already 
be in possession of stock ; but this, except in one or 
two instances, is not the case ; and the only way in 



152 HOW TO LEGISLATE [PART I. 

which they will ever obtain it is, by a liberal pay- 
ment for their land in stock, which can be very 
cheaply imported from South America, and in cattle 
from Sydney, if the prices at the latter place continue 
as low as they are now. 

III. As a great many unions have taken place 
between Europeans and native women, and a number 
of half-caste children exist, whose mothers have 
often received a quantity of land as a dowry from 
their fathers, or as being their property by birth- 
right, such land should remain the property of 
the mother and children. 

The number of half-caste children exceeds 400 
on the islands : and connections between Europeans 
and native women are generally fruitful. 

Of all measures which could be proposed for the 
benefit of the aboriginal population, the most im- 
portant is to leave them undisturbed in the posses- 
sion of their old cultivated grounds, and in the 
enjoyment of their own manners and customs, as I 
have above recommended. The sudden exchange 
of their own habits of life for ours has always been 
followed by the result which might naturally 
have been expected, viz. their quick return to their 
kindred and their old habits. Placed amongst a 
European colonial community, a native, when he 
ceases to be an object of curiosity to us, is little re- 
garded, unless he gives us his aid as our servant; 
and even as such he often finds himself curtailed in 
the recompense of his labour. He is soon made 



CHAP. IX. J FOR THE NATIVES ? 153 

sensible of the differences of rank, and perceives 
that he is not treated as one who is made of the 
same flesh and blood as his master. Of all the 
better enjoyments of civilized life he is deprived, 
as in colonial society every one gives up his mind 
solely to the acquisition of money. In the lower 
orders, with whom he comes in contact, he can per- 
ceive nothing desirable, nothing to prevent his 
regretting that independence which he enjoyed in 
his own home, and from the fruits of his own land : 
he is expected to forget his language ; in fact, all 
the sacrifices are on his side. In his own vil- 
lage, on the contrary, he lives in the midst of 
his kindred and is respected; nor are his means 
of subsistence so precarious as amongst the colo- 
nists ; he is convinced that what he grows, and 
the manner in which he grows it, are the fittest 
for him, and the best adapted to his means, when 
compared with what he sees the Europeans do- 
ing, with all their vaunted intellect, as they have 
not the advantage of knowing, as he does, the 
nature of the soil and the climate of the country : 
and thus he will in time adopt what is desirable in 
his circumstances ; he will by degrees be taught the 
value of civilization, and be able to appreciate its 
manifold advantages, without entailing on himself 
its miseries only. 

IV. The internal division of such native reserves 
should be left to the tribe itself. I am well aware 
that there exist differences of rank amongst them, 



154 HOW TO LEGISLATE [PART I. 

and that all the individuals of a tribe have not 
equal claims to its property. This, however, is no 
objection to the arrangement which I suggest. The 
tribes are small, their constitution nearly patri- 
archal : all who belong to one family work in com- 
mon ; and it seems to be advisable not to interfere 
with this. Wars having ceased, slavery will wear 
out in time ; any interference in the latter respect 
would not be properly appreciated, either by the 
masters or by the slaves. The latter are now ge- 
nerally seeking their fortunes amongst the Eu- 
ropeans, in consideration of giving their master a 
part of their earnings, in return for which they are 
fed, and participate in the resources of the tribe. 
When the old generation dies offj this state of de- 
pendence will cease. When members of a tribe die 
without leaving heirs, the property should belong to 
the rest of the tribe. 

V. There are, however, some cases in New Zea- 
land in which the interference of the commissioner is 
required. These are, for instance, when a tribe has 
been conquered by another, and has been allowed 
to remain on the land, or has had some other place 
given it to inhabit. According to native customs, 
they have no right to the place in which they live. 
In such cases, a place of habitation and their 
freedom should be secured to them by treaty or by 
purchase from the conquerors, and the latter should 
be made aware that they must give up all preten- 
sions to authority over their former foes, and 



CHAP. IX. J FOR THE NATIVES? 155 

that henceforth the government will defend their 
rights. 

VI. The administration of justice within the 
limits of the tribe should be left to the natives. 
Crimes are very uncommon, although murders, re- 
sulting from superstition, sometimes happen. It is 
clear that instruction as to the deep guilt of this act, 
and an intimation that it is contrary to the laws of 
civilized nations, are the best means to prevent it 
in future. And I can bear witness that it requires 
very little labour to convince them of the enormity 
of this practice, and to make them discontinue it. 

VII. To invest formally, and in an impressive 
manner, the principal men of a tribe with a certain 
degree of authority, to show these people that we 
regard them as capable of becoming civil func- 
tionaries, and to connect gradually the native admi- 
nistration of justice with the law of the country, 
seem to be the next steps to civilization. Each of 
these native functionaries should act as a magistrate 
in his own tribe, or as a constable in regard to Eu- 
ropean colonists, denouncing their aggressions to 
the proper authorities, securing runaways, and de- 
livering them up for trial. Several instances have 
occurred in which natives have of their own ac- 
cord secured runaway prisoners, and have brought 
them to the towns. In such cases, the usual reward 
should be given to the captors, and it should not 
be pleaded, as I have known it done, that a great 
benefit would be conferred upon them by retak- 



156 HOW TO LEGISLATE [PART I. 

ing a prisoner and clearing their country of bad 
characters. 

The native constable, or magistrate, who would 
thus be established in every tribe, must be paid; 
and it must be made his interest to further the 
views of government. The principal object in 
making the appointments should be, to show the 
natives that we treat them as we do Europeans. 
By thus manifesting that we believe them capable 
of fulfilling the duties of their commissions, we give 
to their self-esteem and to their sense of dignity 
that stimulus which renders them subservient to 
ulterior views for their own improvement. I 
would also recommend that a dwelling should be 
erected for the native magistrate in the principal 
village. I would furnish that dwelling with some 
of our domestic comforts, and by this means 
make the natives acquire a taste for the rest. A 
colony is established ; all the Europeans soon have 
furnished and comfortable houses. In the neigh- 
bourhood lives a native tribe in slovenly huts; 
they have relinquished their own solid architec- 
ture, and have no means of competing with the 
Europeans. They continue to live in the old way, 
wandering from one patch of cultivated land to 
another, and constantly changing their place of 
abode. But if the chief, whose civil office will now 
add to his importance, is encouraged to build him- 
self a house on his reserved ground, perhaps in an 
improved native style, a point of centralization will 



CHAP. IX.] FOR THE NATIVES? 157 

be given, the foundation-stone of a native village 
laid, around which the rest of the tribe will as- 
semble, and under proper guidance will improve the 
roads and the agricultural capabilities of the sur- 
rounding country. It is very obvious that the 
colony at large would greatly gain by such an ar- 
rangement. 

It might be objected that the missionary-house 
and church already form this central point of attrac- 
tion ; but these settlements in only a few cases are 
situated in places where the natives generally 
assemble and cultivate the land. Where they have 
been established in the midst of a native agricul- 
tural district, as for instance in Kaitaia, the im- 
provement of the surrounding country and of the 
natives themselves strikes the observer at once. 

VIII. The relations of the several tribes to each 
other should also occupy the attention of the com- 
missioner. There are still some old differences 
between tribes, and several battles took place during 
my stay in New Zealand. It must, however, be 
observed, that a great number of the inhabitants of 
the islands are now Christians, and that the first 
result of this has been to abolish aggressory wars. 
In such a case the only steps which the commis- 
sioners could take would be to go immediately 
amongst the contending parties and dissuade them 
from hostile proceedings ; td prevent these skirmishes 
by force would not always be in the power of go- 
vernment, even if it were advisable to do so. 



158 HOW TO LEGISLATE [PART I. 

IX. It has often occurred to me that the advan- 
tages which would accrue to a new colony by a proper 
direction of the labour of a population of 114,890 
souls has not been sufficiently considered. If work of 
any description is to be done, the making of roads 
and wharfs, the felling of timber, clearing of ground, 
and so on, the authorities will not take the trouble 
of superintending its execution by the natives ; 
and the latter on their part are very cautious in 
taking contracts, and will only trust those parties 
who have gained their confidence : the principal 
cause of this is, that they are always expected to 
do the work at a very low rate of remuneration, 
in comparison to the high wages which are paid 
to Europeans, and that in some cases procrastina- 
tion, if not deficiency, of payment has taken place. 
When once the confidence of the natives in such 
engagements is lost, it is very difficult to re-esta- 
blish it. In New Zealand, where there is neither 
slave nor convict labour, and at the same time a 
great scarcity of free labour, the rapidity of its pro- 
gress as a colony will in a very important degree 
depend upon the natives finding it their interest to 
exert themselves. I have seen them work very hard 
where they had this stimulus, or where they were 
otherwise well managed. In some instances in 
which timber was to be brought down from the 
sides of steep ravines, and along mountain-streams, 
where Europeans found the task impracticable, 
an equal number of natives easily accomplished it. 



CHAP. IX.] FOR THE NATIVES? 159 

Their powerful frames, their indifference to wet, 
and their habit of labouring unclothed, renders 
them, if once roused to exertion, particularly suited 
to such kind of work. If the tribe nearest the place 
where the work is to be done is unwilling to assist, 
it has often happened that a very distant tribe has 
engaged to perform it, and this has created no feel- 
ing of envy. In all cases, therefore, where public 
works suited to their powers are to be executed, 
an offer should be made to the natives on terms 
similar to those offered to Europeans ; the na- 
ture of their engagement should be explained to 
them, and a written agreement drawn out. As it 
is probably intended to establish settlements in many 
different parts of the island, it would be advisable 
to establish the system of employing the natives 
some time before the scheme is put into execution, 
as this will not only facilitate the subsequent ar- 
rangements, but materially diminish the price of 
labour, and will, in fact, often be the only way to 
have works executed at all. 

X. I believe that, even in their present state, 
the natives of New Zealand are well qualified to 
enjoy all the personal rights of British subjects. 
They are trustworthy when called upon to give 
evidence in public, as was fully shown in their 
depositions before the court for examining into 
land claims ; and I believe they might with ad- 
vantage be admitted into the land and sea service. 
Formerly many hundred natives served in British 



160 HOW TO LEGISLATE [PART I. 

ships, especially in whaling-vessels and in the pilot- 
boats of Hobart Town and Sydney. But of late 
they have become very unwilling to serve, on account 
of the bad and humiliating treatment which they 
have received from the Europeans. In Her Ma- 
jesty's forces this would not be the case : on account 
of the discipline which is kept up amongst soldiers, 
they are great favourites with the natives. The 
commissioner should inform them that, according 
to the laws, they will enjoy the same civil rights as 
British subjects, explaining to them the duties of 
such situations, and offering his assistance in pro- 
curing for them full participation in those rights. 

XI. I have elsewhere mentioned the changes 
that have taken place in the physical condition 
of the natives since they have come in contact 
with Europeans. I have traced this effect to that 
alteration in their mode of living which their ac- 
quaintance with new kinds of food and clothing, 
and their altered occupations, have occasioned. I 
have seen many natives fall in the prime of life 
victims to diseases which, by early attention, could 
have been cured or averted. A surgeon was for- 
merly employed by the Church Mission, but for the 
last few years his duties have been discontinued. 
The Church Missionary Society supplies medi- 
cines to its members, and there is much willingness 
amongst the missionaries to assist the natives. But 
everybody knows how much mischief is done by 
such an unprofessional system of " dispensing, 



CHAP. IX.] FOR THE NATIVES? 161 

bleeding, and blistering ;" and besides, assistance is 
always refused if there is anything sexual in the 
disease. On the other hand, it is not medicine 
alone that is wanted, but advice and dietetical mea- 
sures, with a few simples; and in a great many 
cases a medical man alone is able to form a correct 
judgment. In order to provide this aid for the 
natives, it would perhaps be advisable that the com- 
missioners for the different provinces should be in- 
dividuals having some degree of medical knowledge, 
that they should direct their attention to the state 
of health of the aborigines, that they should com- 
municate to government a quarterly statement of 
the health of those intrusted to their care, and that 
they should issue a printed circular to all the natives 
of the district, informing them that they can obtain 
help on application. 

To insure to the aboriginal inhabitants the means 
of livelihood, to protect them in the possession of 
their property, not merely by the letter, but by 
the spirit and most scrupulous application of the 
laws, to place them in all civil rights on a foot- 
ing of equality with the Europeans, are no doubt 
among the first and most essential duties of the 
legislature. But, in a new and prominent effort of 
European enterprise, as the colonization of New 
Zealand will be, civilization ought likewise to show 
its usefulness by developing the slumbering faculties 
of a native population through instruction, and by 
rendering them gradually capable of participating 

VOL. II. M 



162 



HOW TO LEGISLATE 



[PART i. 



in our arts and sciences. And here I am naturally 
led to speak of the exertions of the missionaries. 
There are at the present moment missions of three 
different sects in New Zealand of the Church of 
England, of the Wesleyans, and of the Roman Ca- 
tholics. The first, which is the oldest, and was 
established by a very excellent and pious man, the 
Rev. Samuel Marsden, in 1814, consists of the fol- 
lowing stations : 

Stations of the Church Missionary Society in New Zealand. 





Names. 


Clergymen. 


Catechists. 


1 


Kaitaia . 




2 


2 


Wangaroa . 


. . 


1 


3 


Bay of Islands, 
(a) Paihia . 


1 




4 


(6) Tepuna . 


. . 


1 


5 


(c) Kerikeri . 


. . 


1 


6 


(d) Waikeri . . . 




1 


7 


(e) Kororarika . 


1 




8 


Waimate .... 


1 


2 




Frith of the Thames. 






9 


(a) Puriri 




1 


10 


(b) Maraetai 




1 


11 


Tauranga . 


1 


1 


12 


Roto-rua .... 


. . 


1 


13 


Ohiwa . . 




1 


14 


Turanga .... 


*i 




15 


Port Nicholson 


. . 


i 


16 


Waikanahi .... 




i 


17 


Manukao .... 


. . 


i 


18 


Waikato .... 


i 


i 


19 


Waipa .... 




i 




Total . . 


6 


18 



There is also an inspector of the printing-office, 
who is one of the most useful members of the mis- 
sion, and has an assistant. 



CHAP. IX. J FOR THE NATIVES? 



163 



The Wesleyan mission, whose members are all 
ordained clergymen, consists of the following sta- 
tions : 

Wesleyan Missionary Stations. 





Names. 


Clergymen. 


1 


Hokianga 


1 


2 


Kaipara 


1 


3 


Waingaroa 


1 


4 


Aotea . .' * ; . j 


1 


5 


Kawia . 


1 


6 


Taranaki 


1 


1 


Cloudy Bay 


1 



This mission likewise employs a printer at the 
Mangungo press, Hokianga. 

The Roman Catholic mission consists of a bishop 
and ten priests, one of whom is generally stationed 
at Wangaroa, one at Hokianga, one at the Bay of 
Islands, one at Tauranga, and one in the Southern 
Islands. In accordance, however, with the spirit of 
the Roman Catholic missionary system, they are 
generally without fixed places of abode; and the 
bishop, whose diocese extends over several archi- 
pelagos in the great ocean, is continually travelling 
from place to place, accompanied by priests. 

There are, consequently, at the present moment 
forty-four missionaries employed in New Zealand ; 
which, taking the population at 114,890 souls, 
gives one missionary for little more than 2500 
natives. Their duties, however, are by no means 
equally distributed, as the places most remote from 

M2 



164 HOW TO LEGISLATE [PART I. 

the Bay of Islands have but lately been occupied by 
them ; and many densely populated districts have no 
missionaries at all. The expenses of the establish- 
ments of the Church society amount to nearly 
17,0007. annually. 

If asked to point out the fruits of employing 
such a large body of teachers, I should, from my 
own personal experience, answer as follows : 

The exhaustion produced by sanguinary wars dur- 
ing many years, and the necessity imposed upon the 
natives, by the influx of Europeans, to accommodate 
themselves to certain changes, have prepared the 
field to receive the seeds of Christianity. The most 
powerful lever in the hands of the missionaries was 
the printing of a translation of the Gospel, the Ca- 
techisms, and a few tracts. They gave the natives 
a language, by communicating to them the art of 
reading and writing, and, as the latter possess a 
great taste for such occupations, this knowledge 
spread throughout the country by mutual instruc- 
tion, even in places where no missionary had ever 
been, and many thus became acquainted with the 
precepts of Christianity. It is not at places where 
the greatest number of teachers is found that there 
are the best Christians : on the contrary, the mis- 
sions were generally established near the chief har- 
bours, and the natives of such places are the worst 
in the islands. Christianity has not failed to exer- 
cise its inherent soothing and pacifying influence ; 
but the assertion is not quite correct that the mis- 



CHAP. 1X.J FOR THE NATIVES? 165 

sionaries have cleared the way for the settlement of 
Europeans, as in almost all cases they have been pre- 
ceded by European adventurers, who dwelt in safety 
amongst the natives for many years before any 
missionary made his appearance. Their efficiency 
would undoubtedly have been greater if they had 
shared the adventurous spirit of the settlers, and 
had lived amongst the interior tribes, instead of 
dwelling many together on the coasts and in har- 
bours, where so many things counteract their efforts. 

The New Zealand mission having been first esta- 
blished as a trial of the so-called civilizing principle, 
many men were chosen who, although otherwise 
respectable, could not, from their limited education, 
and their somewhat low views of the apostolical 
character of their mission, be expected to dedicate 
themselves entirely to the business of their call. 
The consequence has been, that many of these older 
missionaries have become landed proprietors ; and 
many, by other pursuits, such as banking, or trading 
with the produce of their gardens or stock, have 
become wealthy men. Their influence upon the 
native character would have been the same if they 
had been sent out and supported merely as colonists, 
and with no higher pretensions than their station 
of life entitled them to. 

The acquisition of land by these individuals is 
the reason why the whole body has been so much 
abused, although the fault lay only with a few. 
It cannot be doubted that, in a country where each 



166 HOW TO LEGISLATE [PART I. 

strives to outdo his neighbour in the accumulation 
of worldly treasures, often setting aside all other 
considerations, the missionaries should have endea- 
voured to counteract this tendency, by confining 
themselves to their proper sphere as civilizers and 
instructors, especially as, in opposition to other 
Europeans, they professed themselves imbued with 
the highest Christian principles of humility and dis- 
interestedness. They ought to have expected that 
to be seen foremost in mercantile pursuits would 
diminish their credit with the natives, and put a 
weapon into the hands of their adversaries. No- 
body would have grudged them or their children 
the possession of as much land as they could possi- 
bly have required for their own use ; but the belief 
prevalent in Europe, that the missionaries cultivate 
the chief part of the land which they possess, is very 
erroneous; I do not believe that more than sixty 
acres are in cultivation by missionaries or their 
sons in the whole of New Zealand ; and as that 
country is not a pastoral, but purely an agricultural 
one, the quantity of land which they have claimed, 
as being requisite for the support of their families, 
is infinitely too large. Eleven missionaries, the only 
ones who had given in their claims to the land com- 
missioners when I left New Zealand, demanded 
96,219 acres ! and four others had not yet sub- 
mitted their claims, which I doubt not will be 
equally large. Some of these persons are now re- 
tiring on their property, and their sons have become 



CHAP. IX.] FOR THE NATIVES? 167 

so independent as to refuse lucrative situations under 
government, for which, had they been properly edu- 
cated, they would have been particularly qualified, 
as being masters of the native language. 

I will insert here a list, which will show in what 
proportion the land thus claimed is distributed 
amongst the individuals in question. 

Religion has been at all times the most effective 
civilizing power, and it evinces a gross ignorance of 
facts to deny that missions conducted according 
to pure exalted conceptions of the divine Author 
of Christianity are the best outposts of the inter- 
course of Europeans with uncivilized nations. The 
natives of New Zealand may fairly claim to be 
placed on an equality with the colonists as regards 
their religious wants. Many of the missionaries are 
excellent and disinterested men ; and although only 
a few of them have had the advantage of a univer- 
sity education, they seem to be perfectly qualified for 
holy orders, and to officiate as clergymen. 

The Wesleyan missionaries are not allowed to 
purchase land, but are restricted to an allotment 
sufficient for the wants of their families. Their 
success amongst the natives has been quite as great 
as that of their brethren of the Church of Eng- 
land. 

The Catholics evince in New Zealand, as every- 
where, the restless spirit of proselytism, and there 
results from this the singular spectacle of a lively 
controversy on religious points being carried on 



168 



HOW TO LEGISLATE 



[PART 



TABLE of the Land claimed by Missionaries in New Zealand. 



Number 
of the Case. 


Name of the Missionary. 


Extent in 
Acres. 


When 
Purchased. 


Amount of 
Purchase Money. 










. *. d. 


78 


J. Davis, Waimate . . 


5,000 


Oct., 1839 


40 


163 


Joseph Matthews . 


1,500 


1835 


20 


163 (a) 


Ditto . . 


1,000 


1839 


60 


164 


Richard Matthews . 


3,000 


May, 1839 


73 


222 


Richard Taylor, in parte 




Nov., 1839 


312 


243 


William White . . 


1 


Jan., 1835 


50 


243 (a) 


Ditto . . 


150 


1835 


33 8 6 


243 (b) 


Ditto . . 


2 


1835 


470 


243 (e) 


Ditto . . 


1,000 


Sept, 1835 


117 6 


243 (d) 


Ditto . . 


500 


Dec., 1836 


32 2 


243 (e) 


Ditto . . 


250 


Jan., 1833 


15 


243 (/) 


Ditto . . 


500 


1839 


51 18 


243 (g) 


Ditto . . 


10,000 


1839 


450 










in merchandise. 


245 


Henry Williams 


1,000 


Dec., 1833 


42 6 










in merchandise. 


245 (a) 


Ditto . . 


3,000 


Jan., 1835 


231 16 










cash and merchand. 


245 (6) 


Ditto . . 


500 


April, 1836 


34 8 6 


245 (c) 


Ditto . . 


4,000 


1836 


210 


245 (d) 


Ditto . . 


500 


May, 1838 


48 19 6 


245 (e) 


Ditto . . 


2,000 


1839 


279 19 


248 


William Williams . . 


300 


Dec., 1835 


72 10 6 


248 (a) 


Ditto . . 


400 


1835 


113 18 


248 (b) 


Ditto . . 


20 


Sept., 1836 


8 14 6 


248 (c) 


Ditto . . 


20 


April, 1837 


7 15 


248 (d) 


Ditto . . 


100 


July, 1838 


29 4 6 


248 (e) 


Ditto . . 


50 


Oct., 1838 


15 13 6 


255 


Charles Baker . . . 


1,200 


1836 & 1839 


119 19 


255 (a) 


Ditto . . . 


30 


1835 


28 4 4 


255 (b) 


Ditto . . . 


5,000 


1836 


147 19 10 


269 


William Fairburn . 


400 


1821 


10 


269 (a) 


Ditto . . 


40,000 


Jan., 1836 


400 


273 


James Kemp . . . 


50 


1834 


not stated. 


273 (a) 


Ditto . . 


6,000 


1835 


do. 


273 (6) 


Ditto . . 


150 


1836 


do. 


273 (c) 


Ditto . . 


2,500 


1836 


do. 


273 (rf) 


Ditto . . 


1,000 


1836 


do. 


273 (e) 


Ditto . . 


100 


1836 


do. 


273 (f) 


Ditto . . 


6 


1838 


do. 


273 ^) 


Ditto . . 


70 


1839 


do. 


273 (A) 


Ditto . . 


100 


1833 


44 


274 


John King 


3,000 


1S35 


not stated. 


274 (a) 


Ditto . . . 


1,500 


1836 


do. 


274 (b) 


Ditto . . . 


500 


1836 


do. 


274 (c) 


Ditto . . . 


not stated. 


1 834 & 1836 


do. 




Total (11 individuals). 


96,219 


Total . 


3,102 9 8 



Besides these claims, the missionaries Shepherd, Hamlin, Puckey, and the 
former missionary surgeon, Ford, claim large districts ; so that, the quantity of 
land, exclusive of that which has been bought by the Church and Wesleyan 
missions as bodies, does not amount to less than 130,000 acres. 



CHAP. IX.] FOR THE NATIVES? 169 

amongst the Protestant and Catholic natives. The 
humble and disinterested manner of living of the 
priests, and the superior education which they have 
generally received, have procured them many friends 
both amongst Europeans and natives, and also many 
converts amongst the latter. 

It probably is not to be expected that other 
branches of useful knowledge will be imparted to 
the natives by the missionaries, and in this case 
their knowledge of reading and writing places in 
the hands of native commissioners the best means 
of imparting instruction by the all-powerful press. 
The schoolmaster is not so much wanted in New 
Zealand as books, which travel through the coun- 
try, and are read and understood by young and 
old, if they are written with a knowledge of the 
native capabilities, which, by the bye, are not to be 
estimated very low. For the composition or trans- 
lation of such books the native language is perfectly 
sufficient, as it admits the formation of new words 
on a native basis. This has already been done to a 
great extent in the translation of the Scriptures. 
The commissioner should cause to be published not 
only all acts of government, but also information 
on English laws, books for children and for adults, 
and so on. Every one must be struck with the 
assiduity and perseverance with which mutual in- 
struction is carried on amongst the natives ; they 
will often sit for hours together criticising the 
meaning of a phrase in their books. In this man- 



170 HOW TO LEGISLATE [PART I. 

ner we can permit them to partake of the enjoy- 
ments and instructions of civilized life, without 
mixing them up with ourselves, where their pride 
and self-esteem must be often sorely offended. 

As to what books ought to be printed, I think a 
judicious selection from the ' Penny Magazine' would 
be one of the best and cheapest provisions that 
could be made. 

It has been asked whether it would not be very 
desirable to educate some youths perhaps the sons 
of chiefs in this country. I believe that such ex- 
periments never had any very good result. Our 
climate, and our artificial manner of living so dif- 
ferent from what the natives are accustomed to are 
generally very injurious to their health ; and, instead 
of contributing to their welfare, we render them 
miserable. This is the principal objection : but 
there is another ; a man thus educated, if he do 
not possess a very superior understanding, could 
do no more good to his countrymen at large than 
a European, who has already these acquirements, 
and likewise a knowledge of the native language. 
With regard to the youths sent to England being 
selected from the sons of chiefs, I should say that, 
from the small difference which exists in the rank 
of the New Zealanders, it is very immaterial for 
ultimate usefulness whether any attention is paid 
in this country to the distinction between a chief 
and a slave. It has been the custom amongst mis- 
sionaries to employ native catechists : these should 



CHAP. IX.] FOR THE NATIVES? 171 

be encouraged, and be made the means of imparting 
knowledge to the children and youths. Many of 
these catechists are to be found who have grown 
up near the missionaries, and who are competent 
and willing to enter into every measure for the im- 
provement of their countrymen. 

The whole system of effectually protecting and 
gradually civilizing the natives of New Zealand 
may therefore be reduced to the following simple 
points : 

1. Security in their titles to the land which they 
occupy, provided such land is a sufficiency. 

2. Purchase of their remaining land by payment 
in live-stock. 

3. Security of the property of the children of 
Europeans by natives. 

4. The internal arrangement of all the reserved 
landed property to be left to the natives themselves. 

5. No purchases of such land by Europeans to be 
valid, nor under any condition to be occupied for 
government purposes. 

6. Procuring by treaty or purchase a sufficiency 
of land for conquered tribes, who are henceforth to 
be under the protection of government. 

7. The administration of justice within the limits 
of the tribe, and amongst themselves, to be left, for 
the present, to the natives. 

8. Publishing a short code in their own language, 
which shall be simple enough to be in harmony with 
their rude state of society and their wants, but of 



172 HOW TO LEGISLATE [PART I, 

such a progressive character as to allow the gradual 
and complete introduction of English laws. 

9. Investing the principal man of a tribe with a 
civil function that of magistrate or constable. 

10. Construction of a house for him in an im- 
proved native style. 

11. Preventing collision between tribes, not by 
force, but by persuasion. 

12. In employing and paying them for public 
works, the natives to be placed on equal terms with 
Europeans. 

13. Their admittance into the navy and army. 

14. Provision of medical aid for them. 

15. Equality of the natives with Europeans re- 
garding their religious wants, and the providing 
teachers for all the tribes. 

16. The establishment of a printing-press in New 
Zealand, and a regular supply of small books in the 
native language. 

The ruling spirit of English colonization is that 
of absolute individuality. It is unwilling in its 
contact with foreign nations to acknowledge any 
other system than its own, and labours to enforce 
on all who are under its control its own peculiar 
principles. This has been most destructive to the 
native races, as might be expected from the sudden 
and violent change which was demanded from them ; 
and hence principally it is that no amalgamation 
has taken place between the aborigines of America, of 
Australia, or of Van Diemen's Land, and the Eng- 



CHAP. IX.] FOR THE NATIVES? 173 

lish emigrants, but the original inhabitants have 
either disappeared or greatly decreased in number 
and natural vigour. The East Indies may perhaps 
be cited in disproof of this opinion, but they can 
scarcely be termed colonies in the true sense of the 
word. In our Asiatic possessions the number of 
Europeans is too small to effect extensive changes; 
the natives are possessed of a civilization and a re- 
ligion of their own, which through ages have taken 
deep root, and, consequently, were not so easily 
affected by foreign influence; whilst at the same 
time, by a wise policy, our civil and religious insti- 
tutions were never in any way forced upon them. 
To India, therefore, what I have said above does 
not apply. 

If in New Zealand a too violent change is intro- 
duced at once, if the natives are forced to live 
amongst the Europeans in towns, or if they are 
driven from their cultivated lands to others, their 
future prospects will be gloomy ; if, on the con- 
trary, a strong protective administration watches 
over their interests against the baneful selfishness 
of colonial schemers, if their intellect is judiciously 
improved by good and useful books, then indeed I 
believe that it will be possible for them to continue 
in the midst of a prosperous and thriving colony, 
until in the course of time they become amalga- 
mated with it. 

The Abbe Raynal says, in his ' History of the 
Establishments and of the Commerce of the Euro- 



174 HOW TO LEGISLATE [PART I. 

peans in both Indies/ when speaking of the abo- 
rigines of Brazil, that V amour de la patrie is an 
artificial sentiment peculiar to our state of society, 
and unknown to the man who lives in a state 
of nature. The French humanist would have 
found it difficult to define where, amongst the many 
nations inhabiting the earth, civilization ends and 
barbarism begins, or to prove that this feeling 
really decreases as we descend from the most highly 
civilized nations, as they are termed, to those which 
are less civilized. It seems to me that this asser- 
tion of the Abbe is contrary to all historical expe- 
rience. I would say, on the contrary, that a man's 
love of his native land is much stronger in a state 
of nature than in an artificial society ! Does not 
the savage desire to die on the spot where he has 
hunted, and to be buried in the same grave as his 
kindred? And does not the philosopher, on the 
other hand, smile at all this, and pride himself on 
his cosmopolitism? Did not the ancient Britons 
and Germans fight obstinately against all-subduing 
Rome out of love for their country ? And does not 
the extirminating warfare which is carried on at 
this moment by a slave-holding republic against the 
Seminole Indians result from a violation of the ter- 
ritorial rights of the latter by intruding and reck- 
less adventurers? But if in a native the love of 
his country is much stronger than in a colonist, if 
all his recollections, all that gives him strength 
to defend the soil of his fathers, are identified with 



CHAP. IX.] FOR THE NATIVES ? 175 

the land in which he was born, and which is as it 
were a part of himself; is it not a disgrace to our 
civilization to allow him to be oppressed by stran- 
gers, who have no interest in the country, no regard 
or attachment towards it, beyond its money value ? 
If we deem ourselves a nobler race, why not act as 
the gardener does, who grafts upon the wild pear- 
tree a twig from a nobler stem, and so gives it the 
durability and higher qualities which he is anxious 
to propagate ? The system of exterminating the ori- 
ginal races is a gross and a fearful mistake in the 
management of modern English colonies. Not 
only have their traditions and remembrances died 
with them, which would supply the place of their 
history, and would relieve the insipid character of 
these purely trading communities, but the principle 
of stability and of patriotism has also been de- 
stroyed. The natives have universally showed a 
far nobler attachment not only to their country, 
but also to its European discoverers, and to the first 
colonists, than the imported race of shopkeepers, 
who only strive to dissolve the ties which should 
bind them to the land of their birth, and who pride 
themselves on their own ignorance regarding every- 
thing that belongs to the original inhabitants. The 
natives, properly controlled, would be a far better 
bulwark against the aggressions of other na- 
tions than the colonists themselves. And it is re- 
markable that those advantages are never taken 
into account which would ensue to the mother 



176 REMARKS. [PART i. 

country by a largely consuming native population 
fulfilling at once two of the grand objects of colo- 
nization first, that of opening new markets for 
British manufactures ; and secondly, which is still 
more important, converting in the course of a few 
years an island of savage tribes into an integral 
portion of Great Britain, emulous to resemble its 
parent land in wealth, happiness, strength, know- 
ledge, civilization, and Christian virtues. 






FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 



MATERIALS TOWARDS A FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND, 
AUCKLAND ISLAND, AND CHATHAM ISLANDS. 



NOTES on the MATERIALS at present existing towards a 
FAUNA of NEW ZEALAND, by JOHN EDWARD GRAY, 
F.R.S., Keeper of the Zoological Collections in the 
British Museum. 

NOTHING was known of the Natural Productions of New 
Zealand until Captain Cook's first voyage, in which he 
was accompanied by Mr. (afterwards Sir Joseph) Banks, 
Dr. Solander, and Mr. Sydney Parkinson, an artist of con- 
siderable merit, who was employed by Sir Joseph Banks to 
draw the specimens of animals and plants which were dis- 
covered during the voyage. The notes and drawings made 
by these gentlemen during this voyage contain many species 
found by them in the various parts of New Zealand at which 
the expedition touched. 

Captain Cook, in his second voyage, was accompanied by 
John Reinhold Forster and his son George Forster. The 
latter of these gentlemen made drawings of a considerable 
number of animals observed during the voyage, many of 
them having been discovered in New Zealand. 

The drawings made by Sydney Parkinson and George 
Forster, together with the manuscript notes of Dr. Solander, 
are with the Banksian Collection of Plants in the British 
Museum, and form part of the very extensive and magnifi- 
cent collection of Natural History Drawings belonging to 
that institution. 

VOL. II. N 



178 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

Dr. Solander described the specimens as they were col- 
lected, consequently his notes are in geographical order ; 
and one of the parts of his manuscript, entitled Pisces Aus- 
tralia, contains descriptions of 41 species of fish which he 
had observed on the coast of New Zealand. 

The notes made by the Forsters, father and son, are now 
in the Library of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Berlin, 
and are in the course of publication entire by that body ; the 
notes relative to the fish were printed in J. G. Schneider's 
" Sy sterna Ichthyologies, Iconibus 110 Illustratum. Berol., 
1801." 

These drawings, having been ever since the return of the 
travellers accessible to scientific persons of all countries, 
have been the means of making the animals discovered 
during these voyages well known to naturalists, and have 
become the authority on which numerous species have been 
described. A few of them, as the poe bird of New Zea- 
land, were published in the plates attached to Captain 
Cook's Voyages. 

The late venerable Dr. Latham, when engaged on his 
Synopsis of Birds, examined them, and described most of the 
species of birds they contained, and engraved a few of the 
figures ; and these species have been taken up by Gmelin 
and others. Kuhl, in his ' Monograph of the Species of 
Procellaria,' founded most of his new species on these 
figures. 

They afford the ichthyologist the only certain means of 
identifying the species derived by Schneider from Forster's 
Notes. Cuvier had them and the notes copied to assist 
him in composing his ' History of Fish ;' and, last year, Dr. 
Richardson consulted both collections, and compared them 
together, and from this comparison presented to the British 
Association a ' Report of the Ichthyology of New Zealand,' 
to which he added a few new species from other sources, an 
abstract of which he has kindly furnished for this Appendix. 

A considerable number of specimens were brought home 
by the naturalists of these expeditions. Some found their 
way into the Leverian Museum, but these have been scat- 
tered ; and the greater number, doubtless, from the length 



FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 179 

of time which has passed, and the imperfect method of pre- 
servation then used, have now perished. A few specimens of 
the fish, preserved in spirits, are in the collection of the Bri- 
tish Museum, and a few birds and fish similarly preserved 
are in the collection of the College of Surgeons ; but these 
have generally so lost their colour that they are of com- 
paratively little use, except to point out any minute organic 
character that may have escaped the eye of the artist. 

The collection of shells appears to have been numerous. 
Many of them remained in the hands of the late Mr. Hum- 
phreys, and were distributed a few years ago at the sale of 
his stock. This clever conchologist also notices many of them 
in his Catalogue of the Duchess of Portland's Collection, 
and in the Catalogue of the Calonne Collection. Martyn, 
the most beautiful conchological artist of his time, published 
three volumes of engraved imitations of his drawings, consist- 
ing almost entirely of the South Sea shells discovered by 
these expeditions ; and his figures were copied by Chemnitz 
into his large and more extensively known work, and have 
been thus introduced into the scientific catalogues. Many 
of the species of Martyn's figures are from New Zealand. 

The insects collected during these voyages were described 
from the specimens in the Banksian Cabinet by Fabricius, 
when he visited England, and are published in his different 
works. 

From the time of Cook's voyages until within these last 
few years there appear to have been no collections received 
from that country, with one exception; for, in 1812 or 1813, 
Captain Barclay, of the ship Providence, brought home a 
bird which Dr. Shaw, in the last volume of the ' Naturalist's 
Miscellany,' described under the name of the Southern 
Apteryx, or Apteryx Australis. Many persons regarded 
this figure and description with doubt, but the specimen 
described by Dr. Shaw having at length found its way into 
the collection of the Earl of Derby, that liberal nobleman 
allowed it to be re-stuffed, and a second account of this bird 
appeared in the Transactions of the Zoological Society. 
Since that period several specimens have been received in 
London, and are known as the Kiwi of the natives. 



180 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

Three of the recent French voyages of discovery have 
touched at New Zealand : M. Duperrey, in La Coquille, in 
1824; M. Dumont D'Urville, in the Astrolabe, in 1827; 
and M. La Place, in La Favorite, in 1831. 

In the year 1832, MM. Quoy and Gaimard, in their 
accounts of the animals collected during M. Dtimont D'Ur- 
ville's voyage round the world in the Astrolabe, described 
several birds and fish, many shells and soft animals, which 
they had observed and collected during their visit to New 
Zealand ; but, unfortunately, several of the species described 
by these naturalists are the same as those that had before 
been described under other names by the naturalists who had 
consulted and used the collections resulting from Cook's 
Voyages, which is to be regretted, as causing a confusion in 
the nomenclature. 

In 1835, on the return of the Rev. William Yate, he 
brought with him twenty- nine species of marine shells, 
among which were ten species which had not been before 
observed by either the naturalists who accompanied Captain 
Cook or M. D'Urville; and these were described by me in 
the Appendix to Mr. Yate's account of New Zealand. Since 
that period Mr. Busby has brought home two land helices, 
which I described in the 'Annals of Natural History.' 

The French whalers who visit these islands are constantly 
sending zoological specimens to Paris. Some of the birds 
so collected have been described in Guerin's Revue de 1* Zoo- 
logique, in the * Annales des Sciences Naturelles ;' Compt- 
rendue in the Academic des Sciences of Paris ; and by M. 
Dubois, in the * Bulletin des Sciences de Bruxelles.' 

Within the last two or three years several collections of 
animals, especially birds, have been received in London ; 
and from some brought by Dr. Dieffenbach, Mr. Gould has 
described a few in his magnificent work on the Birds of 
Australia. 

Generally speaking, many of the birds and most of the 
fish known to inhabit New Zealand by the voyages of Cook 
and D'Urville, are as yet known only by figures and descrip- 
tions to the scientific collectors of England. Except an 
Apteryx Australis from the Earl of Derby, sixteen species 



MAMMALIA. 181 

of birds received from Miss Rebecca Stone, twenty-nine 
species of shells received from Mr. Yate, about the same 
number from Mr. Busby, five species of reptiles, three spe- 
cies of fish, a few insects and Crustacea, and fifty-eight 
species of shells brought home by Dr. Dieffenbach, and 
described in this appendix, we have no specimens from this 
country in the British Museum collection the National 
Collection of the mother country, which should be the richest 
in the natural curiosities of its different colonies. 

From these materials, assisted by my friend Dr. Rich- 
ardson, and my assistants in the British Museum, Mr. 
G. R. Gray, Mr. E. Doubleday, and Mr. Adam White, the 
following list of species has been compiled ; and to render 
it more complete, the descriptions of any new species that 
have occurred to us have been added. 

J. E. GRAY. 

British Museum, 1 5th August, 1842. 

N.B. Since the above was written the British Museum has received a collec- 
tion of shells presented by Dr. Stanger, the preserver of the remnant of the 
African expedition, a collection of insects and shells from Dr. Sinclair, thirty- 
eight specimens of birds collected by Dr. Dieffenbach, presented by the Directors 
of the New Zealand Company, together with three other species offish collected 
by Dr. Dieffenbacl,, which had been sent to the College of Surgeons, but have 
been transferred to the Museum by Mr. Owen. 



I. LIST of MAMMALIA hitherto recorded as found in NEW 
ZEALAND, by John Edward GRAY, F.R.S., &c. 

The physiognomy of the natives has been figured by the 
various navigators who have visited the Island, and more 
lately by Quoy and Gaimard. Voy. Astrolab. t. 1, f. 1, 2. 
Homo sapiens, var. Nova Zelandice. 

As yet no terrestrial beast, except bats, has been found 
wild in these Islands, nor do any appear to be known to the 
natives. 

Fam. VESPERTILIONID^E. 

1. Vespertilio tuberculatus. G. Forster. Icon, ined., 

n. 1. 
Yellowish brown; ears small, rounded. 

Inhab. Dusky Bay, New Zealand. G. Forster. 



182 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

" The Pekdpekd, or Bats, and various small batlets, are very 
common in the Island, but none of the Vampire species. (Ptero- 
pus ? or Glossophaga?) They are among the smallest of the 
Australian species." Polack, i. 304. I am not aware that any 
of these animals have reached Europe ; they would he interesting, 
and doubtless new. " There is, apparently, only one species ; pro- 
bably the one figured by Forster." Dieffenbach. 

The following Marine Mammalia are recorded as found 
there by Polack and others ; but, as I have seen no specimen 
of any of them, I am not able to verify the accuracy of the 
systematic names applied to them. 

Fam. PHOCID^E. 

2. The Bottle-nose Seal. Polack, N. Z. ii. 316. Ma- 

crorhinus leoninus : Phoca leonina, Linn. / P. probo- 
scidea, Peron and Lesueur, Voy. Terres Aust. ii. 34, 
t. 32 ; Sea Lion, Anson, Voy. 
Inhab. Uwona, 1836. Polack. 

3. Sea Lion and Lioness. Polack, N. Z. ii. 316. Forster, 

Cook's Voy. iv. 71 t. Otaria jubata, Desm. Mam.,, 
248. O. Leonina, Peron, Voy. O. Pernettyi, Lesson. 
Phoca jubata, Schreb. 300, t. 83 B., from Pernetty, 
Voy. ii. 47, t. 10. 
Inhab. Southern Islands. Islets to the south-west of 

Island of Victoria. 

I saw a skin of one which was caught on the west coast of the 
middle island. Dieffenbach. 

4. Sea Bear. Polack, N.Z. 317- Arctocephalus Ursi- 

nus, F. Curier. Phoca Ursina, Linn. I. N. i. 55. 
Bursina potius volans. Forster. Icon ined., n. 2. 
Otaria Ursina, Desm. Ursina marina, Steller, Nov. 
Com. Petrop., ii. 331, t. 15 ; cop. Schreb., t. 82. 
Inhab. New Zealand, Dusky Bay. G. Forster. 
Young. Black, beneath rather browner, fins black. 
Seals are " called by the general name of Karavake Ktkino by 
the natives." Polack. 

From 6 feet to 10 feet in length. 

" The Fur-Seal of commerce (probably A. Ursinui) was for- 
merly hunted in great numbers, especially on the western coast 



MAMMALIA. 183 

of the middle island of New Zealand, in Stewart's Island, and 
Chatham Islands. Now, owing to this exterminating warfare, only 
straggling individuals are met with, and the animal may be said to 
have deserted the country. Sealers assured me that there was no 
difference between the Otaria Falklandica and that of New Zea- 
land, which, however, seems to be very doubtful. Kekino is their 
native name." Dieffenbach. 

Fam. DELPHINID^E. 

5. New Zealand Dolphin. Delphinus Zelandice, Quoy 

et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., i. t. 28, f. 1, 2. 
Inhab. Cook's Straits. Dieffenbach. 

6. Grampus, or Killer. Polack, N. Z. ii. 407. Del- 

phinus Orca ? 



Fam. 

7. Sperm Whale. Polack, N. Z. ii. 323; ii. 408. Phy- 

seter Macrocephalus. 

Inhab. New Zealand. Par a Parana, natives ; Tohora, 
Dieffenbach. 

Varies in colour white, black, ochreous, dingy red, and mot- 
tled. 

8. Humpback, or Gibbosa. Polack, N. Z. ii. 404. Ba- 

leena gibbosa ? 
Inhab. New Zealand ? Gregarious. 

9. Physalis, or Fin- Back. Polack, N. Z.i. 323; ii. 405. 

Balsena Physalus ? 
Inhab. New Zealand ? 

10. Pike-headed Balsena. Po/acA:, N. Z. ii. 405. Ba- 

lsena Boops ? Linn. 
Inhab. New Zealand ? 

11. Musculus, or Large-lipped Whale. Polack, N. Z. 

i. 323 ; ii. 406. Balsenopterus musculus. 
Inhab. New Zealand. Common. 

12. Tohora, or Right Whale. Polack, N. Z. i. 323; 

ii. 401. Balcena Antipodum, Gray, N. S. 1. 1. B. 
Mysticetus, Polack ; Cuv. Oss. Foss. 368, t. 25, ? 
bones. B. Australis, Desmoulins ? 



184 FAUNA OF MEW ZEALAND. 

Inhab. New Zealand. Tuku peru of the natives. 
Dieffenbach. 

The body smooth, short, thick ; the gape very large, arched, 
suddenly bent down at the angle ; the blower on the back part of 
the head, a little before a perpendicular line from the eye ; the 
ends of the upper and lower jaw with a roundish rough protuber- 
ance ; length of the body 60 feet ; length of the head to the angle 
of the gape 9 feet; of the flippers, or fins, 3J feet; breadth be- 
tween fins on the abdomen 8 feet 2 inches. 

The above short description of this species is taken from a very 
good drawing made from the actual admeasurement of the speci- 
men . This drawing has been carefully reduced by squaring in 
the accompanying plate ; and, as the proportions differ considerably 
from the figure usually given of the Northern Whalebone Whale, 
I have been induced to regard it as a new species. 

Polack records two other Whales, as 

13. The Mungu Nue, or Black Physeter, Polack, i. 323, 

which is the same as the Pike-headed Whale of the 
Appendix. 

14. The Razor-back, Polack, ii. 407. 

" Back remarkably serrated, and the mouth very much pointed 
like to the Porpoise." 

Besides these quadrupeds there are mentioned 

15. The New Holland Dog. Canis familiaris Australis, 

Desm. ; Canis Dingo, Blumenb. 

Said to have been introduced from Australia, but according to 
Polack, i. 320, " It has been an inhabitant some two or three 
centuries." It would be interesting to institute an accurate com- 
parison between these animals and an Australian specimen. The 
adults are called Kararake, and the young Kuri^ by the natives. 

** The dog of the natives is not the Australian dingo, but a 
much smaller variety, resembling the jackal, and of a dirty yel- 
lowish colour. It is now rarely met with, as almost the whole 
race of the island has become a mongrel breed. A native dog of 
New Zealand is not a sufficiently powerful animal to do harm to 
domestic sheep, but it is different with the introduced and mongrel 
dogs, mostly bull-terriers or bloodhounds, which are savage pig- 
dogs, although with men they are great cowards. In want of 
better sport they hunt young birds, and to this cause the scarcity 
of many indigenous birds must be ascribed. The natives also call 
the dog sometimes " Pero" (Spanish) : they have a tradition that 






MAMMALIA. 185 



their ancestors brought the dog with them when they first peopled 
New Zealand. Is it not probable, from the Spanish name, that the 
dog was brought to them by navigators of that nation before the 
time of Tasman ? "Dieffenbach. 

15. The Rat. Mus Rattus, Linn. ? 

" Called Kiore by the natives ; said to have been introduced at an 
early period by European vessels." Polack. It would be interest- 
ing to see whether it is the European, the Indian, or the New Hol- 
land rat that has been introduced, or if there may not be more 
than one kind. 

" There exists a frugiferous native rat, called Kiore maori (in- 
digenous rat) by the natives, which they distinguish from the 
English rat (not the Norway rat), which is introduced, and called 
Kiore Pakea (strange rat). On the former they fed very largely 
in former times; but it has now become so scarce, owing to 
the extermination carried on against it by the European rat, 
that I could never obtain one. A few, however, are still found in 
the interior, viz. at Rotu rua, where they have been seen by the 
Rev. Mr. Chapman, who described them as being much smaller 
than the Norway rat. The natives never eat the latter. It is a 
favourite theme with them to speculate on their own extermination 
by the Europeans, in the same manner as the English rat has 
exterminated their indigenous rat." Diej/fenbach. 

16. The Mouse. Mus Musculus, Linn.? 

" The common domestic mouse of Europe has also been intro- 
duced." Dieffenbach . 

Besides these the Colonists have purposely introduced 
The common Cat. Felis Dornestica ; called Picheki 
by the natives. Polack. Dieffenbach. 

" The cat often runs wild, and is another cause of the exter- 
mination of indigenous animals. It is remarkable to observe that 
these wild cats soon resume the streaky grey colour of the common 
wild cat." Dieffenbach. 

The Pig. Sus Scropha, Linn. ; called Puorka by the 

natives. Poaka, Dieffenbach. 
The Horse. Equus caballus, Linn. 
The Ass. Asinus vulgariv. 
The Sheep. Ovis aries, Linn. ; but they are much 

hunted down by the native dog. 
The Ox. Bos Taurus, Linn. 



186 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

LIST of the BIRDS hitherto recorded as found in NEW ZEA- 
LAND, CHATHAM, and AUCKLAND ISLANDS, with their 
Synonyma, by GEORGE ROBERT GRAY, Esq. 

Fam. FALCON JD.E. 

1. Falco harpe. Forst. Icon. ined. t. 36; juv., t. 37. 

Falco Novse Zealand! se, Gm. Lath., Ind. On., 
i. 28.?? 

Kahu of natives ? Yate, Polack, Dieffenbach. Queen 
Charlotte's Sound and Dusky Bay. Forst. 

2. Falco brunnea. Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1837. 

Synop. of Austr. Birds, pt. iii. Falco harpe, Forst. 
Icon. ined. t. 38. Falco Australis, Homb. et Jacq. 
Ann. des Sci. Nat. 1841, p. 312. 

Kauaua of the natives. Yate, Polack, Dieffenbach. 
Kari-area of the natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound. 
Forst. 

Fam. STRIGID.E. 

3. Athene Novce Seelandice. Strix fulva, Forst. Icon. 

ined. t. 39. Vieill. Ency. Meth. 1291. Strix Novse 
Seelandise, Gmel. Syst. Nat. 296, sp. 38 : Lath. 
Ind. Orn. i. 65, Strix Zealandica, Quoy et Gaim. 
Voy. de 1'Astrol. Zool. i. 168, pi 2, f. 1. 
Herooroo of the natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound. 
Forst. Eou Hou of the natives of Tasman Bay. 
Quoy et Gaim. Kou Kou of the natives. Yate. 
Kao Koa of the natives. Polack. Ruru ruru. 
Dieffenbach. 

Fam. HIRUNDINID.E. 

Mr. Polack refers the following native names of Riroriro, 
Piripiri, Toutouwai, Tuturiwatu, as species of " swallows." 
These names are also mentioned by Mr. Yate, but not as 
belonging to this or any other family, except the last, which 
he says is a plover. 

Fam. ALCEDINID^E. 

4. Halcyon vagans. Alcedo cyanea. Forst. Icon. ined. 

t. 59. Alcedo sacra, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. 453 : Lath. 



BIRDS. 187 

Ind. Orn. 251, var. $ et e. Halcyon sanctus? Vig. 
et Horsf. Linn. Tr. xv. 206. Alcedo vagans, Less. 
Voy. de la Coq., Zool., 694: id. Man. d'Orn., ii. 89. 
Ghotarre of the natives of Dusky Bay. Forst. Koto- 
retare of the natives. Yate. Kotaritari of the na- 
tives. Polack, Dieffenbach. Kotare popo of the 
natives. Lesson. 

M. Lesson also refers to another species under the native name 
of Poukeko. 

Fam. UPUPID^E. 

5. Neomorpha Gouldii. G. R. Gray, List of Genera of 

Birds, p. 15. Neomorpha acutirostris et crassiros- 
tris. Gould, Syn. Austr. Birds : Birds of Australia, 
pt, pi. 
Huia, Yate. Uia of the natives. Polack, Dieffenbach. 

Fam. MELIPHAGID^E. 

6. Prosthemadera Nova Seelandice. Strickl. Ann. of 

Zool. ; G. R. Gray, List of Genera of Birds, p. 20. 
Certhia cincinnata. Forst. Icon, ined., t. 61. Me- 
rops Novae Seelandiae. Gmel. Syst. Nat., i. 464. 
Merops cincinnata. Lath. Ind. Orn., i. 275. Stur- 
nus crispicollis. Daud. Elem. d'Orn. Meliphaga 
concinnata. Temm. Men., Ixxxvii. Philemon con- 
cinnatus. VieilL Ency. Meth., 613. Anthochsera. 
Vig. et Horsf. Linn. Trans, xv., 323. Le Cravate 
frisee. Levaill. Ois. d'Afr., pi. 92. 
Poe, or Toi of the natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound. 
Forst. Toui of the natives. Less. Tui of the natives. 
Dieffenbach. 

7. Ptilotis cincta. Meliphaga cincta. Dubus, Bull. 

Acad. Sc. Brux., 1839, pi. i. p. 295. 
Kotihe of the natives. Yate. Ihi of the natives of 
Taranaki . Dieffen bach . 

8. Anthomis melanura, G. R. Gray, List of Genera of 

Birds, p. 20. Certhia olivacea. Forst. Icon, ined., 
t. 62. Certhia melanura. Spnrrm. Mus. Carl., t. 5. 
Certhia sannio. Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. 471 : Lath. Ind. 



188 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

Orn., 735. Philedon Dumerilii. Less. Voy. de la 
Coq. Zool., 644, pi. xxi. Anthomyza cceruleocephala. 
Sw. Class, of Birds, ii. 327- Philedon sannio. Less. 
Compi. Buff., ix. 165. 

He-ghobarra of the natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound. 
Forst. Koho-i-mako of the natives. Less. Koho- 
rimako of the natives. Yate. Korirnaku of the na- 
tives of the Northern Island, and Mako mako of 
the natives of the Southern Islands. Dieffenbach. 

9. Anthornis melanocephala. 

Yellowish olive; head steel black, with a tinge of the same 
colour on the neck ; wings and central tail-feathers brown, mar- 
gined with yellowish olive, the outer feather brown, and the 
second, third, and fourth feathers on each side blackish brown, 
margined with steel black ; vent pale yellow. Total length Hi 
inches; wings, 4i inches; tarsi, Ij inch: bill, 13 lines. 
Chatham's Islands. Dieffenbach. 

Fam. CERTHID^E. 

10. Acanthisitta citrina. G. R. Gray, List of Genera 

of Birds, App., p. 6. Motacilla citrinella. Forst. 
Icon, ined., t. 164. Motacilla citrina. Gmel. Syst. 
Nat., 979. Sylvia citrina. Lath. Ind. Orn., ii. 529. 

1 1. Acanthisitta tenuirostris. Lafr. Mag 1 , de Zool., 1841. 

Acanthiza tenuirostris. Lafr. Rev. Zool., 1841, 242. 
Piwauwau of the natives, a bird confined to the upper 
regions of the hills. Dieffenbach. 

12. Acanthisitta punctata. G. R. Gray, List of Genera 

of Birds, App., p. 6. Sitta punctata. Quoy et Gaim. 
Voy. de 1'Astrol., i. 221, pi. 18, f. 1: Less. Compl. 
Buff., ix. 133. 

13. Acanthisitta longipes. G. R. Gray, List of Genera 

of Birds, App. p. 6. Motacilla. Forst. Icon, ined., 
t. 165. Motacilla longipes. Gmel. Syst. Nat., 979. 
Sylvia longipes, Lath. Ind. Orn., ii. 529. 
fi tectee tee pomou of the natives of Dusky Bay. Forst. 
The bird, with the native name of Didadido, given by M. Lesson, 
may probably prove a species of this genus. 



BIRDS. 189 

14. Mohona ochrocephala. G. R. Gray, List of Genera of 

Birds, p. 25. Muscicapa chloris. Forst. Icon, ined., 
t. 157- M uscicapa ochrocephala. Gmel. Syst. Nat., 
944 : Lath. Ind. Orn., ii. 479. Certhia heteroclites. 
Quoyet Gaim. Voy. de 1'Astrol. Zool., i. 223, pi. 17, 
f. 1. Orthonyx icterocephalus. Lafr. Rev. Zool., 1839. 
Orthonyx heteroclitus. Lafr. Mag. de Zool., 1840, 

pi. 8. Mohoua . Less. Compl. Buff., ix. 139. 

Mohoua houa of the natives of Tasman Bay. Quoy 
et Gaim. Popokatea, natives of Cook's Straits. 
Dieffenbach. 

Fam. LusciNnxffi. 

15. Sphenceacus ? punctatus. G. R. Gray, List of Ge- 

nera of Birds, p. 27. Synallaxis punctata. Quoy 
et Gaim. Voy. de 1' Astro!., i. 255, pi. 18, f. 3; 
Less. Compl. Buff., ix. 122. 

Mata of the natives of Tasman Bay. Quoy et Gaim. 
Matata of Yate, Polack, and Dieffenbach. 
Lives in the Typha swamps and amongst fern. Its flight is 
very short and heavy. Dieffenbach. 

16. Acanthiza igata. Curruca igata. Quoy et Gaim. 

Voy. de 1'Astrol., Zoo!., i. 201, pi. 2, f. 2. 
Igata of the natives of Tasman Bay. Quoy et Gaim. 

17. Certhiparus senilis. Lafr., Rev. Zool. Parus se- 

nilis, Dubus, Bull. Acad. Sc. Brux. 1839, 297. 

18. Certhiparus Novce Seelandice. Lafr., Rev. Zool. 

Parus urostigma, Forst. Icon. ined. t. 166. Parus 
Novae Seelandiae, Gmel. Syst. Nat., 1013; Lath. 
Ind. Orn., 571. 
Toe Toe of the natives of Dusky Bay. Forst. 

19. Certhiparus maculicaudus. Parus Zelandicus, Quoy 

et Gaim. Voy. de 1'Astrol., Zool., i. 210, pi. ii. f. 3. 
Less., Compl. Buff, viii. 318. 

Momohoua of the natives of Tasman Bay. Quoy et 
Gaim. Riro Riro of the natives of the Northern 
Islands. Dieffenbach. 
Mr. Yate speaks of two birds under the native names of Tata- 



190 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

riki, Tataiato, which may be species of this genus Certhiparus : 
the latter is also mentioned by Mr. Polack. 

Fam. TURDID^E. 

20. Turnagra crassirostris . G. R. Gray, List of Genera 

of Birds, 2 edit., p. 38. Forst. Icon. ined. t. 145. 
Turdus crassirostris. GmcL, Syst. Nat., 815. Lath. 
Ind. Orn. Tanagra macularia, Quoy et Gaim. Voy. 
de 1' Astrol., Zool. i. 186 : pi. 7, f. 1. Keropia cras- 
sirostris, G. R. Gray, List of Genera of Birds, 

1 edit. Turnagra. Less. Compl. Buff', viii. 216. 

Golobieo of the natives of Dusky Bay, or Queen Char- 
lotte's Sound. Forst. Pio Pio of the natives of 
Queen Charlotte's Sound. Diefenbach. Keropia et 
Koko Eou of the natives of Tasman Bay. Quoy et 
Gaim. 

Fam. MUSCICAPID^E. 

21. Rhipidura flabellifera. Muscicapa ventilabrum. 

Forst., Icon, ined., t. 155. Muscicapa flabellifera. 
GmeL, Syst, Nat., 943. Lath. Ind. Orn. Muscipeta 
flabellifera. Temm., Man. d'Orn. 

Diggowagh wagh of the natives of Dusky Bay. Forst. 
Piwaka-waka of the natives. Polack, Dieffenbach. 
Pi-oua-ka-oua-ka of the natives. Less. 

22. Rhipidura macrocephala. Swains. Nat. Libr. Flyc., 

p. 122. Partis macrocephalus. GmeL, Syst. Nat., 
1013. Lath., Ind. Orn., 571. Hist, of Birds, i. p. 110. 

23. Rhipidura melanura. 

Dark olivaceous brown ; head and neck greyish black with a 
supercilious spot on each side white; tail black. Total length 
6J inches; bill J inch.; tail 4 inches; tarsi 10 lines. 
Inhabits Cook's Straits. Dieffenbach. 

24. Miro albifrons. G. R. Gray, List of Genera of 

Birds, p. 43. Turdus ochrotarsus. Forst., Icon, 
ined., t. 148. Turdus albifrons. GmeL, Syst. Nat., 
822. Lath., Ind. Orn., 354. 

25. Miro longipes. Less., Tr. d'Orn., 389. Muscicapa 

longipes. Garnofs Voy. de la Coq. ; Zool., 594, pi. 
19, f. 1. Less., Comp. Buff., viii. 373. 



BIRDS. 191 

Gha toitoi of the natives of Dusky Bay. Forst. Miro 
miro of the natives. Garnot. 

26. Miro Forsterorum. Turdus minutus. Forst., Icon. 

ined., t. 149. 

Deep-shining black, with the breast and abdomen pale yellow ; 
deeper on the former. The base of the secondaries of some of the 
quills, and of the outer tail-feathers, also a small spot on the fore- 
head, white. Bill and tarsi black, with the toes pale. The female 
is represented by Forster as brown, in the place of the black of the 
male, otherwise the sexes are alike. Total length 5| inches ; bill 7 
lines; wings 1 inch ; tarsi 1 inch. 

Mirro mirro of the natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound. 
Forst. Pirangirangi of the natives of Queen Char- 
lotte's Sound. Dieffenbach. 

27. Miro Die/enbachii. 

This species is very like the preceding, but is altogether of a 
smaller size, and the colour on the chest is darker, with the base 
of the lower mandible pale. Found on the Chatham Islands. 

28. Miro toitoi. Muscipeta toitoi. Garn., Voy. de la 

Coq., Zool., pi. 15, f. 3. Less., Man. d'Orn., p. 188, 
ed. Compl. Buff., viii. 383. 

Nirungiru of the natives. Polack. Ngirungiru of the 
natives. Yate, Dieffenbach. To-i-toe of the natives. 
Less. 

Fam. CORVIDJE. 

29. Callaeas cinerea. Lath., Ind. Orn., i. 149. G. R. 

Gray, List of Genera of Birds, p. 51. Forst., Icon, 
ined., t. 52. Callaeus. Forst., Ench., p. 35. Glau- 
copis cinerea. GmeL, Syst. Nat., i. 363. Swains. 
Class, of Birds, ii. p. 267. Qucy et Gaim., Voy. de 
1'Astrol., pi. 15. 

Kokako of the natives. New Zealand crow. Yate. 
Dieffenbach. Kakako of the natives. Polack. 

Fam. STURNID^E. 

30. Aplonis Zelandicus. Lamprotornis Zelandicus. Quoy 

et Gaim., Zool., i. 190 ; pi. 9, f. 1. Less., Compl. 
Buff., ix. 73. 

31. Aplonis obscitrus. Lamprotornis obscurus. Dubus 

Bull. Acad. Sc. Brux., 1839, 297. 



192 FAUNA OK NEW ZEALAND. 

32. Aplonis australis. Turdus australis. Sparm., Mus. 

Carl., pi. 69. Lath. Ind. Orn. i. 338. 

33. Creadion carunculatus. G. R. Gray, List of Genera 

of Birds, p. 54. Forst., Icon, ined., t. 144. Sturnus 
carunculatus. GmeL, Syst. Nat., 805. Lath., Ind. 
Orn., 324. Wagl., Syst. Av., sp. 6. Creadion pha- 
roides. Vieill., Ency. Meth. Icterus rufusater et 
Novae Zealandiae. Less, et Garn., Zool. de la Coq., 
pi. 23, f. 1. Xanthornus carunculatus. Quay el 
Gaim., Voy. de TAstrol. Zool., i. 212; pi. 12, f. 4, 
5. Philesturnus. J. Geoffr., Ann. du Mus.; Less., 
Compl. Buff., ix. 51. Oxystomus carunculatus. 
Swain., Class, of Birds, ii. p. 270. 
Tieke of the natives of Tasman Bay. Quoy and Gaim. 
Tiaka or Purourou of the natives. ] ate. Tira-oua- 
ke* of the natives. Less. Tierawaki, Cook's Straits. 
Dieffenbach. 

Fam. FRINGILLID^. 

34. ? Fringilla albicilla. Less., Voy. de 

la Coq., Zool., 662. 
To-i-to-i of the natives of New Zealand. Less. 

35. Alauda Novce Seelandice. GmeL, Syst. Nat., 799. 

Lath., Ind. Orn., ii. 497. Alauda littorea. Forst., 
Icon, ined., t. 143. 

Kogooaroure of the natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound. 
Forst. Kataitai of the natives of Cook's Straits. 
Dieffenbach. 

A " Ground Lark " is given under the name of Pihoihoi, by 
Mr. Yate; Piohiohi, by Mr. Polack; Pi-o-oie, by M. Lesson, 
which may prove to be the above species. Mr. Polack also men- 
tions a lark-like bird, of a black colour, under the native name of 
Purourou, which I do not think belongs to this genus. 

Fam. PSITTACID.E. 

36. Platycercus Novce Seelandice. Wagl. Monogr. Psitt. 

Forst., Icon. ined. t. 46. Psittacus pacificus, var. 
/3. Gmel, Syst. Nat., 329 ; var. e. Lath., Ind. Orn., 



BIRDS. 193 

i. 104. Psittacus Novae Seelandiae. Sparm. (non 
Gmel.), Mus. Carl., t. 28. 
Kakariki of the natives. Dieffenbach. Powaitere of 

the natives. Yate. Po-e-tere of the natives. Less. 
Very common in the Chatham Islands. Dieffenbach. 

37. Platycercus Auriceps. Vigors, Zool. Journ., 1825, 

p. 531, pi. suppl. ii. Psittacus Pacificus, var. S. ; 
Lath. Ind. Orn., i. 104. Psittacus Auriceps. Kukl, 
Monogr. Psitt., 46, sp. 69. Conurus Auriceps. Kuhl, 
Monogr. Psitt. New Zealand. Wagl. 
" Never seen by me in New Zealand." Dieffenbach. 

38. Trichoglos.ms Aurifrons. Wagl. Monogr. Psittac. 

Psittacus (Lathamus) Aurifrons. Leas. Cent. Zoo)., 
pi. 18. 
" Also called Kakariki." Dieffenbach. 

39. Nestor Meridionalis. Psittacus Hypopolius. Forst. 

Icon, ined., t. 50. Psittacus Meridionalis. Gwel. 
Syst. Nat., i. 333. Psittacus Nestor. Lath. Ind. 
Dm., i. 110. Psittacus Australis. Shaw, Mus. 
Lev., pi. 87. Nestor hypopolius. Wagl. Monogr. 
Psitt., : G. R. Grays List of Genera of Birds, 
p. 68. 
Kaka of the natives. Yate, Dieffenbach. 

Fam. CUCULID^. 

40. Eudynamys taitensis. Cuculus fasciatus. Forst. 

Icon, ined., t. 56. Cuculus taitensis. Sparrm. Mus. 
Carl, t. 32 ; Lath. Ind. Orn., i. 209 ; Vieill. Ency. 
Meth., 1329. Cuculus taitius. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 

412. Eudynamys Less. Tr. d'Orn., 32. 

Kohaperoa of the natives. Yate. " Koheperoa," from 
a specimen. Miss Stone. Kohapiroa. Polack ? 
Koekoia of the natives. Dieffenbach. 

41. Chrysococcyx lucidus. Cuculus nitens. Forst. Icon. 

ined., t. 57. Cuculus lucidus. Gmel. Sysl. Nat., i. 
421 ; Lath. Ind. Orn., i. 215; Vieill. Nouv. Diet. 
Hist. Natr., viii. 233; Ency. Meth., 1335. Chal- 
cites Less. Tr. d'Orn., 153. 

VOL. II. O 



194 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

Poopoo arouro of the natives. Forst. Pipiwavvaroa of 
the natives. Yate, Dieffenbach. 

" Both these birds are migratory, appearing near the coasts in 
the month of December. The latter is known to lay its eggs in 
the nests of smaller birds, especially in that of the fantail fly- 
catcher." Dieffenbach. 

" To this family probably belongs the bird called Kakapo by 
the natives, and to judge from some tail-feathers of a green me- 
tallic lustre, which I obtained in the interior, the bird may be a 
Centropus. It has become so rare, that it has never been seen 
by any of the missionaries, nor by the natives for many years past. 
Its destruction is owing to the introduction of cats and dogs. The 
bird used to perch on the lower branches of trees, according to the 
accounts of the natives, who caught it by the glare of a torch dur- 
ing the night." Dieffenbach. 

Fam. COLUMBID.E. 

42. Carpophaga Novce Seelandia. Columba argetrsea. 

Forst. Icon, ined., t. 137- Columba Novae See- 
landise. Gmel Syst. Nat., 773 ; Less. Compl. Buff., 
viii. 107. Columba Zeelandica. Lath. Ind. Orn., ii. 
603. Columba spadicea. Lath. Ind. Orn. Suppl. 
Ix. ; Less. Compl. Buff., viii. 85. Columba spa- 
dicea leucophsea. Homb. et Jacq. Ann. des Sci. Nat., 
1841. 

Hagarreroo of the natives of Dusky Bay. Forst. Kou- 
koupa of the natives. Kukupa of the natives. Yate. 

Kuku and Kukupa of the natives. Dieffenbach. 

43. Carpophaga ? 

Columba senea, var. /3. Lath. Ind. Orn., ii. 602. 

44. ? 

Columba brunnea. Lath. Ind. Orn., ii 603 ; Less. 

Compl. Buff., viii. 109. 

" I doubt the existence in New Zealand of more than one species 
of pigeon, the Columba argetrsea of Forster. Very slight varieties 
in plumage exist, but not sufficient to constitute species." Dieffen- 
bach. 



BIRDS. 195 

Fam. TETRAONID^. 

45. Coturnix Novce Zealandice. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. de 
1'Astrol., Zool, i. 242, pi. 24, f. 1 ; Less. Compl. 
Buff., vii. 459. 

" Seen by me once in the northern island, but is very scarce." 
Dieffenbach. 

Fam. STRUT HI ON OXE, 

46. Apteryx Australia. Shaw, Nat. Misc., pi. 1057, 1058; 
Trans. Zool. Soc. ; Gould's Birds of Australia, 
pi. Dromiceius Novae Zealandiae. Less. Man., ii. 
210. 

Kiwi or Kiwikiwi of the natives. Less., Dieffenbach. 
" Its eggs are laid at the root of trees." Miss Stone. 
" To this order probably belongs a bird, now extinct, called 
Moa (or Movie) by the natives. The evidences are, a bone very 
ittle fossilized, which was brought from New Zealand by Mr. 
Rule to Mr. Gray, and by him sent to Professor Richard Owen. 
(Proc. Zol. Soc., 1839. 169.) I possess drawings of similar 
bones, and of what may possibly be a claw, which are in the 
collection of the Rev. Richard Taylor in Waimate. They are 
found on the east coast of the northern island of New Zealand, 
and are brought down by rivulets from a neighbouring mountain 
called Hikorangi." Dieffenbach. 

Fam. CHARADRIDJS. 

47. Charadrius xanthocheilus, Wagl. Syst. Av. sp. 36. 

Jard. and Selby's Illustr. of Orn., pi. 85. 
Tuttiriwhatu of the natives. Miss Stone. Takahikaki 
of the natives. Yate. Tuturuata of natives of Cook's 
Straits. Dieffenbach. 

48. Charadrius obscurus. Gmel. Syst. Nat., 686 ; Lath. 

Ind. Orn., ii. 747 ; Wagl. Syst. Nat., sp. 35. Cha- 
radrius glareola. Forst. Icon, ined., t. 122. 
Ha-poho-era of the natives of Dusky Bay. Forst. Tu- 

turiwatu of the natives. Yate. 

To this order may also be referred two other birds spoken of by 
Mr. Yate under the names of Pukunui, Pututo. 

49. Hiaticula Novce Seelandice. Charadrius torquatulus. 

Forst. Icon, ined., t. 121. Charadrius Novae See- 

o 2 



196 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

landise. Gmel. Syst. Nat., 684. Charadrius Novae 
Zealandiae. Lath. Ind., ii. 745. 

Doodooroo-attoo of the natives of Queen Charlotte's 
Sound. For st. 

50. Anarynchus frontalis. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. de 

1'Astrol., Zool., 1252, pi. 31, f. 2; Less. Compl. 
BuflF., ix. 427. 

51. Hcematopus picatus, Vigors' s King's Voy. Coast of 

Austr. ii. 420. Haematopus Australasianus. Gould, 
Desc. of New Sp. of Austr. Birds, p. 6. 
Scarcely different from this species, and very common in New 
Zealand. 

Toria of the natives. Diejfenbach. 

Fam. ARDEID.E. 

52. Botaurus melanotus. Ardea (Botaurus) Australis. 

Cuv.; Less.Tr. d.'Orn., 572? 

Blackish brown on the back, with some of the feathers and 
wings reticulated with yellowish white ; head, neck, quills, secon- 
daries and tail dirty brown; sides of head, throat, and streaks down 
some of the feathers and beneath the body yellowish white, the two 
latter with blackish -brown streaks, more or less perfect, down 
several of the feathers. Young, blackish brown, reticulated all 
over with yellowish white, like the common bittern. 

Total length, 2 feet 2 inch.; bill, 3 inch.; wings, 12J; tarsi, 3|. 
Matukuof the natives. From a specimen found on the 
Hokianga River. Miss R. Slone. Dieffenbach. Ma- 
tuku urepo of the natives, or Crane of Yate. Also 
found on the Murray, South Australia. Mr. Fort- 
nvm. 

53. Herodias Matook. Ardea jugularis. Forst., Icon. 

ined., t. 114; Wagl., Syst. Av., sp. 18. Ardea 
caerulea, var. 7. Gmel. Syst. Nat., 631. Ardea ma- 
took. Vieill. N. Diet. Hist. Nat, xiv. 416; id., 
Ency. Meth., 1118. 

Matook of the natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound. 
Forst. Matou cou of the natives. Less. 

Fam. SCOLOPACID^E. 

54. Himantopnx Novce Zecdandice. Gould, Proc. Zool. 



BIRDS. 197 

Soc., 1841 ; Birds of Austr., pi. Himantopus 
melas ( ? .) Homb. et Jacq. Ann. des Sci. Nat, 
1841, 320. 

Tutumata of the natives of Port Nicholson. Dieffen- 
back. 

Fam. RALLIDJE. 

55. Ocydromus Australis. Strickl. Ann. Nat. Hist. ; 

G. R. Gray, List of Genera of Birds, p. 91. Forst. 
Icon, ined., t. 126. Rallus Australis. Sparrm. Mus. 
Carl., t. 14 ; Lath. Ind. Orn., ii. 756 ; Vieill. Ency. 
Meth., 1067. Rallus troglodytes. Gmel. Syst. Nat., 
713. Ocydromus. Wagl. 

Weka or Weka-weka of the natives of Cook's Strait, 
Wood-hen of the Settlers. Dieffenbach. 

56. Rallus assimilis. 

The pectoral buff band on the breast, and rufous colour of the 
cheeks and on the sides of the neck, are much less prominent 
than on the Australian specimens, otherwise these birds are very 
similar. 

Konini of the natives of Cook's Strait. Dieffenbach. 
Katatai of the natives. Yate and Miss Stone. 

57. Rallus Dieffenbachii. 

Back olive brown, irregularly banded with buff and black; 
breast and lower posterior part of the neck and breast rufous yel- 
low, banded transversely with black ; quills, scapulars, under-tail 
coverts, deep rufous banded with black ; lower part of chest, abdo- 
men, sides, and jugulum, black banded with white; top, hind 
part of the head, cheek, and a streak below the eye, olive-brown, 
the two last tinged with rufous ; a band from the nostril to the 
middle above the eye white, the continuation of this band behind 
the eye and throat grey, but white beneath the bill; tail dark 
brown with longitudinal streaks of deep rufous near the base. 
Total length 12! inches, bill 1J, wing 5, tail 3j, tarsi 1J. 

Moeriki of the natives of Chatham Islands. Dieffen- 
bach. 

58. Porphyrio melanotus, Temm. Man. d'Ora. ii. 701. 
Pukeko of the natives. Yatc, Dieffenbach. 



198 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

Fam. ANATID^E. 

59. Casarca variegata. Anas cheneros. Forst. Icon. 

ined. t. 67- Anas variegata. GmeL Syst. Nat. 505. 
Lath. Ind. Orn., ii. 836. Bernicla variegata. Steph. 
Shaw, Zool., xii. 59. Casarca castanea. Eyton, 
Monogr. Anat., 108 pi. 

Pooa dugghie dugghie of the natives of Dusky Bay. 
Forst. Putangi tangi of the natives of Cook's Strait ; 
Paradise Duck of the settlers. Dieffenbach. 

60. Anas superciliosa, GmeL, Syst. Nat., 537; Lath., 

Ind. Orn. ii. 852 ; Ey ton's Anat., 139 ; Steph. Shaw, 
Zool., xii. 109. Anas leucophrys. Forst. Icon, 
ined., t. 77. 

He-Parrera of the natives of Dusky Bay and Queen 
Charlotte's Sound. Forst. Parera of the natives. 
Yate. Dieffenbach. 

61. Malacorynchus Forsterorum, Wacjl., Isis, 1832, 

p. 1235. Anas malacorynchus. Forst., Icon, ined., 
t. 74 ; GmeL, Syst. Nat., ii. 526 ; Lath., Ind. Orn., 
ii. 862. Rhynchaspis malacorynchos. Steph., Shaw, 
Zool., xii. 123. Mergus Australis. Homb. et Jacq. 
Ann. des Sci. Nat., 1841. 
He-weego of the natives of Dusky Bay. Forst. 

62. Spatula rhyncholis Rhynchaspis rhynchotis, Steph. 

Shaw. Zool., xii. 123. Eyton, Monogr. Anat. 133. 
Anas rhynchotis, Lath. Ind. Orn. Suppl. 70. 
New Zealand and Chatham Island. Dieffenbach. 

63. Faligula Novce Zealandice. Steph., Shaw, Zool., 

xii. 210. Anas atricilla. Forst., Icon, ined., t. 79. 
Anas Novee Zealandiae. GmeL, Syst. Nat., 541 ; 
Lath., Ind. Orn., ii. 870. 
He-patek of the natives of Dusky Bay. Forst. 

Fam. COLYMBID.E. 

64. Podiceps (Poliocephelus) rufopectus. 

Back ochreous black, with the feathers slightly margined with 
white, top of head and back of neck black, the shafts of former 
somewhat prolonged, and light fulvous ; cheeks and throat ash ; 



BIRDS. 199 

lower part of neck, before, and breast, deep rufous ; beneath the 
body white, tinged with rufous ; vent plombious ; quills brownish 
black, secondaries white-margined, and tips brownish black ; bill 
black; legs lead-colour. Total length 12 j in. ; bill, Ij in.; 
wings, 4f in. ; tarsi, 1 J in. 

New Zealand. Dr. A. Sinclair. 
Fam. ALCID^E. 

65. Spheniscus minor. t Temm., Man. d'Orn., p. cxiii. 

Aptenodytes minor. G. Forst. Icon, ined., t. 84, 85 ; 
J. R. Forst., Comra. Gotten., iii. 147 ; Gmel., Syst. 
Nat., 558; Lath., Ind. Orn., ii. 881. Chrysocoma 
minor. Steph., Shaw's Zool., xiii. 61. Catarrhactes 
minor. Cuv., Reg. An., 551. 
Korora of the natives. Forst. Dieffenbach. 
Lays two white eggs in the crevices of rocks and holes near 
the sea-shore. Dieffenbach. 

66. Eudyptes antipodes. Catarrhactes antipodes. Homb. 

et Jacq., Ann. des Sci. Nat., 184]. 
Auckland's Island. 

M. Lesson refers to a species of this family under the native 
name of Ho-i-ho. 

Fam. PROCELLARIDJS. 

67. Pelecanoides urinatrix, Cuv. Procellaria tridactyla. 

Forst., Icon, ined., t. 88. Procellaria urinatrix. 
Gmel., Syst. Nat,, 560 ; Lath., Ind. Orn. 327. Hala- 
droma urinatrix. Illig. Prod. 274; Steph., Shaw, 
Zool., xiii. 257. Puffinuria Garnotii. Less,, Voy. 
de la Coq., Zool., 730, pi. 46. 

Teetee of the natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound. 
Forst. 

68. Puffinus cequinoctialis. Steph., Shaw, Zool., xiii. 229. 

Procellaria sequinoctialis. Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 213 
Lath., Ind. Orn., ii. 8*21. 

69. Procellaria gigantea, Gmel. Syst. Nat., 563. Lath. 

Ind. Orn., ii. 820. 
Cook's Straits. Dieffenbach. 

70. Procellaria Cookii. Procellaria velox, Banks, Icon. 

ined., t. 16 ? 
Grey above, with the apex of each feather narrowly margined, 



200 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

as well as their bases, white; oblong spot below each eye; wing- 
coverts, secondaries, and quills brownish black, with the basal 
portion of the inner webs of the two last, white ; the front, cheeks, 
under wing- coverts, and the whole of the under part, white. Bill 
black ; tarsi and knee brownish yellow ; feet black, with the inter- 
mediate webs yellow. Total length 12j inches : bill, length 1 inch 
7 lines, depth in middle, 3^ lines ; wings 9J inches ; tarsi 1 inch 
2 lines. 

The wings project above an inch beyond the tail, like the one 
represented by Parkinson in the above-mentioned ' Icones,' but the 
bill is longer and more slender. 

Titi of the natives. Dieffenbach. 

71. Prion mttatus, Cuv. Procellaria vittatus. GmeL, 

Syst. Nat., 560. Procellaria Forsteri. Lath., Ind. 
Orn., ii. 827. Procellaria latirostris. Bonn, Ency. 
Meth. Pachyptila vittata. Illig., Prod. 274. Pa- 
chyptila Forsteri. Stcph., Shaw, Zool., xiii. 251. 

72. Diomedca exulans, Linn., Lath. Ind. Orn., ii. 789. 

" Not immediately near the shores, which, however, they also 
visit, but in the New Zealand seas, exist several kinds of alba- 
trosses, which the natives call Toroa." Dieffenbach. 
Fam. LARIDJE. 

73. Lestris antarcticus. Less., Tr. d'Orn., 616; id. 

Compl. Buff., ix. 511. Lestris cataractes. Quoy et 
Gaim. Voy. de 1'Uranie, pi. 3S. 

74. Larus fuscus. Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 225. Lath. Ind. 
Orn. ii. 815. 

75. Larus scopulinus. Forst., Icon, ined., t. 109. 
He-Talle of the natives of New Zealand. Forst. 

M. Lesson speaks of a species under the native name of Aki- 
aki. 

76. Sterna striata. Gmel. Syst. Nat., 609. Lath'. Syn. 

vi. 358, t. 98. 

Fam. PELKCANID^. 

77. Sula australis, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1840, 177. 

Pelecanus serrator, Banks, Icon, ined., t. 30. 
Tara of the natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound. 
Dieffenbach. 



BIRDS. 201 

78. Graucalus carunculatus. Pelecanus carunculatus. 

Forst., Icon. ined. t. 104. Phalacrocorax ? carun- 
culatus. Steph., Shaw, Zool. xiii. 94. 

79. Graucalus cirrhatus. Pelecanus cirrhatus. Gmel., 

Syst. Nat., 576. Hydrocorax cirrhatus. VieilL, 
Ency. Meth. Phalacrocorax? cirrhatus. Steph., 
Shaw's Zool. xiii. 95. 

80. Graucalus punctatus. Forst., Icon. ined. t. 103. 

Pelecanus punctalus. Sparrm. Mus. Carl. t. 10; 
GmeL, Syst. Nat., 574; Lath., Ind. On., 11. Pha- 
lacrocorax punctatus. Steph., Shaw, Zool., xiii. 88. 
Pelecanus naevius. GmeL, Syst. Nat., 575. Phala- 
crocorax naevius. Cuv., Reg. An., 565. 
Pa-degga-degga of the Natives of Queen Charlotte's 

Sound. Forst. 

Common in Cook's Strait. They are social birds, and build 
their nests, many together, on high trees overhanging the rivers 
and coasts. They lay two white, as large as hen eggs, and feed 
especially upon the eels and smaller fishes of rivers. Dieffenbach. 

81. Graucalus auritus. Carboauritus. Less., Tr. d'Orn. ; 

id. Compl. Buff. ix. 497. Hydrocorax dilophus. 
VieilL Gal. des Ois. pi. 275. 
New Zealand. Less. 

82. Graucalus varius. Pelecanus pica. Forst., Icon. 

ined. t. 106. Pelecanus varius. GmeL, Syst. Nat., 
576. Phalacrocorax varius. Steph., Shaw, Zool. 
xiii. 92 

M. Lesson mentions a species of this genus under the native 
name of Ka-oua-ko. " All the species of cormorants are called 
Kauwau by the natives." Dieffenbach. 

83. Graucalus carboides. Phalacrocorax carboides, Gould, 

Desc. of New Sp. of Austr. Birds, p. 7. 

84. Graucalus flavirostris. Phalacrocorax flavirostris, 

Gould, Desc. of New Sp. of Austr. Birds, p. 8. 



202 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

III. DESCRIPTIONS of the REPTILES and AMPHIBIA hitherto 
observed in New Zealand, by J. E. GRAY, F.R.S., &c. 

Fam. SCINCID^E. 

1. Tiliqua Zelandica. Harmless Lizard. Polack, N. Z. 

i. 317. 

Pale brown, with irregular small black spots, with a narrow 
white streak from the nostril over the outer edge of the eyebrow, 
along the sides of the body and tail, and a narrow black streak 
below it; sides rather darker, with a few short black-edged white 
spots; throat arid beneath greenish silvery, with a narrow silvery 
streak from the cheek across the middle of the ears on the side of 
neck, and another down the middle of the front of the fore feet ; 
tail tapering, slender; toes slender; ears deep, round, with a few 
very obscure rounded scales in front ; scales smooth, of the nape 
obscurely three-grooved. 

" Is called Moko-Moko by the natives of Cook's Strait, where it 
lives amongst fern on the hills, or in the shingle of the sea-coast. 
The general native name for reptiles is Ngarara." Dieffenbach. 

2. Tiliqua ornata. 

Inhab. New Zealand, Cook's Straits. Dieffenbach. 

Pale brown with small black and white dots, sides paler with 
similar dots, darker above, and separated from the back by an in- 
distinct pale marginal streak ; beneath, silvery, varied with the 
darker edge of the scales ; tail thick, tapering, above brown black 
and white dotted and varied ; beneath white ; ears deep, round, 
with a few very obscure round scales in front; scales smooth, thin, 
with three more or less distinct white streaks. 

Like the former, only described from a single specimen in 
spirits, which may be immature. Other specimens would be 
desirable. 

Fam. GECKOTID.E. 

Genus NAULTINUS. Gray, Brit. Mus., and Zool. Misc., 
72. 

Toes 5. 5. free, base thick, rather dilated ; last joint elongated, 
thick, compressed, free, clawed ; all with entire cross scales beneath. 
Thumb similar, but the base is shorter. Scales small, granular, 
subequal above and below. Tail tapering, round, with scales like 
the body. 



REPTILES. 203 

This genus is most nearly allied to Gehyra, but differs from it 
in the end of the toes not being compressed. " Amongst fern, and 
in the forest of the Northern Island." Dieffenbach. 

* Femoral pores none. 

3. Naultinus elegans. Gray, Zool. Misc., 72. 

Inhab. " Northern Island, amongst decayed trees, and 
running about between the fern. Called Kakariki" 

Thumb clawless ; green, rather paler beneath ; streak along the 
under lip to the ear, two arched stripes on the top of the head, 
irregular-shaped spots on each side of the back, hind legs, inter- 
rupted streak along each side of the body and tail white, with a 
narrow black edge ; tail with a cross series of compressed larger 
scales at the base. 

" Departed spirits are said to transfer themselves into this and 
the former species, and the natives regard them therefore with a 
certain dread, calling them Atuas Gods." Dieffenbach. 

* * Triangular patch of the scales in the front of the vent 
pierced with a central pore. 

4. Naultinus pacificus. Gray, Zool. Misc., 73. Gecko 

pacificus, Gray., Brit. Mus. Platydactylus Duvau- 
celii, Dum. and Bib., Herp. Gen. iii. 312. 

Pale brown, marbled, and dotted with darker brown, forming 
four broad, irregular, unequal confluent bands across the back ; a 
dark streak from the back angle of the eye to the angle of the 
mouth, and a broad irregular band from the upper part of the 
back of the eyes to just over the ear. Lower lip with six larger 
plates on each side the rostral one, the three front largest ; the 
upper lip with a small roundish scale in the middle just above 
the rostral plate. 

Var. 2. Small, with only the two front lateral lower 

labial plates large. 

Inhab. New Zealand, Cook's Straits. Dr. Dieffenbach. 
"Islands of the Pacific Ocean/' Mr. S. Stutch- 
bury, 1830. 

This species appears to have a more general distribution than 
the preceding, as we some years ago received a small specimen 
from Mr. S. Stutchbury, who brought it from one of the islands of 
the Pacific. It agrees in many points with the P. Duvaucelii of 
Dumeril, but they describe that species as coming from Bengal. 



204 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

5. Naultinus punctatus. 

Inhab. New Zealand. Museum of Haslar Hospital, 
presented by H. Kelsall, Esq., Surg. R.N. 

Thumb clawed, dark green, back with very small scattered 
black specks the size of a granule ; the under side yellow green ; 
length of body 4 inches; tail broken; toes 5. 5.; claws 5. 5. all 
acute; toes elongate, unequal, short, the lower joints dilated^ 
and furnished with a series of cross plates; the last joint rather 
tapering, flat beneath, triangular above, covered with granular 
scales ; belly with a fold of skin on each side. The body, limbs, 
and tail covered with uniform granular scales, the throat with si- 
milar, and the rest of the under side with rather larger granular 
scales. The head covered with larger flat polygonal scales, 
forming small shields over the muzzle. The under side of the 
base of the tail covered with rather large many-sided smooth 
scales ; labial plates regular. The scales in the front of the vent, 
between the thighs, rather larger, each pierced with a pore, form- 
ing together a triangular spot, and there are two series of pores 
along the under side of each thigh. 

The Hemidactylus Oualensis, Dmneriland Bibron, Herp. 
Gen. iii. 351, t. 28, f. 7, probably belongs to this genus. 

Fam. AGAMID^E. 

Genus HATTERIA. Gray, Zool. Misc. 72. 
Head quadrangular, covered with small scales ; throat with a 
cross fold ; nape and back with a crest of compressed spines ; body 
covered with small scales, belly and under side of the tail with 
large squarish keelless flat scales placed in cross series ; tail com- 
piessed, triangular, covered with small scales, and with a ridge of 
large compressed spines; legs strong; toes 5. 5., short, strong, 
cylindrical, slightly webbed at their base, covered above and below 
with small scales; claws short, blunt. Femoral pores, none. 
Pre-anal scales small ; a few of them are pierced in the centre. 

6. Hatteria punctata. Gray, Zool. Misr. 72. Gigantic 

Lizard, Coo&Woy., 3, I. 153,, or Guana. Polack, 
N. Z. i. 317. 
Inhab. New Zealand. 

Olive ; sides and limbs with minute white specks ; beneath yel- 
lowish. The spines of the nuchal and dorsal crests yellow, of the 
caudal brown; the scales of the back, head, tail, and limbs small, 



REPTILES. 205 

granular, nearly uniform ; with irregular folds in the skin, which 
are fringed at the top with a series of rather larger scales. An 
oblique ridge of larger scales on each side of the base of the tail, 
and a few shorter longitudinal ridges of rather smaller ones on 
each side of the upper part of the tail. 

There is a young specimen of this species more brightly co- 
loured in the Museum of Haslar Hospital, Gosport. 

" I had been apprized of the existence of a large lizard, which 
the natives called Tuatera, or Narara, with a general name, and 
of which they were much afraid. But although looking for it at 
the places where it was said to be found, and offering great rewards 
for a specimen, it was only a few days before my departure from 
New Zealand that I obtained one, which had been caught at a 
small rocky islet called Karewa, which is about two miles from 
the coast, in the Bay of Plenty, and which had been given by the 
Rev. W. Stack, in Tauranga, to Dr. Johnson, the colonial sur- 
geon. From all that I could gather about this Tuatera, it appears 
that it was formerly common in the islands ; lived in holes, often 
in sandhills near the sea-shore; and the natives killed it for food. 
Owing to this latter cause, and no doubt also to the introduction 
of pigs, it is now very scarce ; and many even of the older resi- 
dents of the islands have never seen it. The specimen from which 
the description is taken I had alive, and kept for some time in 
captivity : it was extremely sluggish, and could be handled without 
any attempt at resistance or biting." Dieffenbach. 
Fam. HYDRIDE. 

7. Two-coloured Sea Snake. Pelamys bicolor. Polack, 

N. Z.,i.318. 
Inhab. New Zealand, River Hokianga. 

Polack observes, a native showed Captain Cook a drawing of a 
guana and a snake: he suspects the latter must have been a 
conger-eel. N. Z., i. 318. 

*' Neither sea nor land snakes have ever been seen by me. 
An English captain tried to introduce (!) the common black snake 
of New South Wales, but it is said that they died, and frustrated 
his benevolent design." Dieffenbach. 

Fam. TESTUDINID.E. 

" On the authority of Mr. Charles Heaphy I state here that a 
small land tortoise was found near the Wanganui River, in Cook's 
Strait ; the natives never mentioned to me the existence of such 
an animal." Dieffenbach. 



206 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

Order AMPHIBIA. 

Polack, i. 318, mentions " toads and frogs as not uncommon, 
especially near the mountain districts, but he believes they do not 
differ from the species in Europe," 

As the species of these animals are very local in their distribu- 
tion, I have no doubt, when they come to be examined, or spe- 
cimens of them are sent to Europe for comparison, that they will 
prove new to science, and different from any hitherto described. 
" They have never been seen by me." Dieffenbach. 



IV. LIST of FISH hitherto detected on the Coasts of NEW 
ZEALAND, by JOHN RICHARDSON, M.D., Inspector of 
Hospitals at Haslar; with the description, by J. E. GRAY, 
Esq., and Dr. RICHARDSON, of the New Species brought 
home by Dr. Dieffenbach. 

Fam. PERCOIDE.E. 

1. Serranus lepidopterus. Butterfly Barber-fish. Rich- 

ardson, Annals of Natural History, for March, 1842. 
(Perca lepidoptera, J. R. Forster, MS. II. 58, apud 
Bl. Schn., p. 302.) 

2. Polyprion cernuum. Wreck-fish, Cherney, or Jew- 

fish. C. and V. 3, p. 24, t. 42. (Scisena gadoides, 
Solaiider MS. Pisces Australise, p. 38. Banks, fig. 
pict. 2, t. 74. Palo-tera, G. Forster, fig. pict. Bibl. 
Banks, 2, t. 218. Perca prognathus, J. R. Forster, 
MS. IV. 19, apud Bl. Schn., p. 301.) 

3. Centropristes trutta. The Kahavai. C. and V. 2, p. 

54. (Scisena trutta, G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 210. 
Perca trutta, J. R. Forster, apud Bl. Schn., p. 542.) 
Inhabits Queen Charlotte's Sound. 

4. Centropristes mulloides. (Scisena mulloides, Banks, 

fig. pict. 2, t. 68. Scisena mulloides ft. (sapidis- 
sima), G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 211.) 
Inhabits Hetrawaii and Queen Charlotte's Sound. 

5. Centropristes sapidissimus. (Mulloides sapidissimus, 



FISHES, 207 

Solander, Pise. Austr., p. 22. Banks, fig. pict. 2, 
t. 67.) 
Inhabits Tegadoo Bay and Tolaga. 

6. Aplodactylus meandratus. Richardson, Zool. Trans. 

3, p. 83. (Scisena mseandrata, Banks, fig. pict. 2, 
t. 65. Sc. Mseandrites, Solander, Pise. Austr., p. 2.) 
Taken off' Cape Kidnappers. 

7. Percis colias. Coaly Percis, C. and V. 3, p. 273. 

(Labrus macrocephalus, Solander, Pise. Austr., p. 
27. Banks, fig. pict. 2, t. 57. Gadus colias, G. 
Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 181. J. R. Forster, MS. II. 
36, apud Bl. Schn., p. 54.) 
Inhabits Queen Charlotte's Sound. 

8. Percis nicthemera. Black and white Percis. C. and 

V. 3, p. 274. 

An inhabitant of the Bay of Islands, and perhaps not 
specifically distinct from the preceding. 

9. Uranoscopus maculatus. Bearded Uranoscope. 

Richardson, Ann. Nat. Hist, for May, 1842. (Ura- 
noscopus maculosus, Solander, Pise. Austr., p. 21. 
U. maculatus, J. R. Forster, apud Bl. Schn., p. 49. 
G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 176, 177. U. kouripoua, 
Lesson, Voy. par Duperrey, pi. 18. U. cirrhosus, 
C. and V. 3, p. 314. U. Forsteri, Id., p. 318.) 
Frequents Queen Charlotte's Sound, Tolaga, and the 
Bay of Islands. " Bedee" is stated to be its native 
name by Forster, and " Kouripooa" by Lesson. 

10. Upeneus vlamingii. C. and V. 3, p. 452. (Labrus 

calopthalmus, Solander, Pise. Austr., p. 35. Banks, 
fig. pict. 2, t. 46.) 
Inhabits Queen Charlotte's Sound. 

11. Upeneus porosus. C. and V. 3, p. 455. Inhabits 

the rivers. 

Fam. COTTOIDE^E. 

12. Trigla papilionacea. The Kumu. C. and V. 4, p. 

50. (Solander, Pise. Austr., p. 23. Banks, fig. 
pict. 2, t. 104.) 



208 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

Has been taken in Tolaga Bay, at Oporagee, in the 
Bay of Islands, and on other parts of the coast. 

13. Scorp<pna cardinally. Richardson, Annals Nat. 

Hist, for 1S42, p. 212. (Solander, Pise. Austr., 
p. 28. Banks, fig. pict. 2, t. 212.) 
On the coast of Eahee-no-mauwee. 

14. Scorpcena cottoides. J. R. Forster, apud Schn., p. 

196. (G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 190.) 
The native name is " Enooheetara." 

15. Scorpcena plebeia. Richardson, Ann. Nat. Hist, for 

1842, p. 212. (Solander, Pise. Austr., p. 21.) 
Inhabits Tolaga Bay. 

16. Scorpcena cruenta. Richardson, Ann. ut supra. (So- 

lander, Pise. Austr., p. 5.) 
Taken off Cape Kidnappers. 

17. Sebastes percoides. Richardson, Ann. Nat. Hist. 

for July, 1842, p. 384. (Solander, Pise. Austr., p. 
4. Banks, fig. pict. 2, t. 16.) 
Taken at Motuaro, in Queen Charlotte's Sound. 

Family SCLENOIDE^:. 

18. Cheilodactylus carponemus. Richardson, Zool. Tr. 

3, p. 99. (Sparus carponemus, G. Forster, fig. pict. 
2, t. 206. Sciaenoides abdominalis, Banks, fig. pict. 
2, t. 206.) 

Inhabits Matarruhow and Dusky Bay; and also King 
George's Sound in New Holland, and Port Arthur 
in Van Diemen's Land. 

19. Cheilodactylus macropterus. - - Richardson, Zool. 

Trans. 3, p. 101. (Scisena et Scisenoides abdominalis, 
Solander, Pise. Austr., p. 11 et 27. Banks, fig. 
pict. 2, t. 40. Scirena macroptera, G. Forster, fig. 
pict. 2, t. 206. J. R, Forster, MS. II. 54, apud 
Bl. Schn., p. 342.) 

Taken off Cape Kidnappers, in Queen Charlotte's 
Sound, and in Dusky Bay. 



FISHES. 209 

20. Latris ? salmonea. Richardson, Zool. Trans. 3, p. 

114. (Sciaena salmonea, Banks, fig. pict. 2, t. 66.) 
Inhabits Totseranue Cove, Queen Charlotte's Sound. 

21. Latris lineata. Richardson, Zool. Trans. 3, p. 108. 

(Scisena lineata, G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 204. J. 

R. Forster, MS. II. 52, apud Bl. Schn., p. 342.) 
This fish was taken by Cook's crew in Dusky Bay, and named 
by them " Yellow Tail." It is very like the much-prized Trum- 
peter of Van Diemen's Land. 

22. Latris ciliaris. Richardson, Zool. Trans. 3, p. 115. 

(Sciama ciliaris, G. Forster, 2, t. 205, and 2, t. 209. 
J. R. Forster, II. 55, apud Bl. Schn., p. 311.) 
This fish is named "Moghee" by the natives of Dusky Bay. 
It is also an inhabitant of Queen Charlotte's Sound. 

Fam. SPAROID^E. 

23. Pagrus guttulatus. C. and V. 6, p. 1GO. 
An inhabitant of the mouths of rivers. 

24. Pagrus micropterus. C. and V. 6, p. 163. 

Inhabits the estuary of the River Thames, N. Zealand. 

25. Pagrus latus. Richardson, Ann. Nat. Hist, for 

1842, p. 392. (Scisena lata, Solander, Pise. Austr., 
p. 25. Scisena aurata, G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 208. 
J. R. Forster, MS., apud Bl. Schn., p. 266.) 
Taken in the sea between Owhooragi and Opooragi, and also in 

Queen Charlotte's Sound. In the latter locality its native name is 

" Ghooparee." 

Fam. SCOMBEROIDE^. 

26. Scomber loo. C. and V. 8., p. 52. ? (Scomber scom- 

brus, Solander, Pise. Austr., p. 31.) 

Solander observed this mackerel in Queen Charlotte's Sound. 
Its identity with the Scomber loo is not perfectly established. 

27- Thyr sites atun, var. altivelis. Richardson, Zool. 
Tr., 3, p. 119. (Scomber splendens, Solander, Pise. 
Austr., p. 37. Scomber dentex, G. Forster, fig. 
pict. 2, t. 216. Scomber dentatus, J. R. Forster, 
MS. II. 58, apud Bl. Schneid.) 

VOL. II. P 



210 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

This fish is named " Maga" by the natives of Queen Charlotte's 
Sound, where it was seen by the Forsters. Solander first saw it 
in Murderer's Bay. 

28. Gempylus Solandri, C. and V. 8, p. 216. (Scom- 

ber macropthalmus, Solander, Pise. Austr., p. 40. 
Banks, fig. pict 2, t. 91.) 
Frequents the coasts of Eaheenomauwee. 

29. Histiophorus 



" Sword-fish" are mentioned in Polack's account of New Zea- 
land. The species is not ascertained, but it is perhaps the indicus. 

30. Naucrates ? 

" Pilot-fish" are also mentioned by the same writer. 

31. Chorinemus forsteri. (Scomber maculatus, G. Fors- 

ter, fig. pict. 2, t. 228. J. R. Forster, MS. II. 120, 
apud Bl. Schn., p. 26.) 

This fish is named " Milinjidne" by the natives of Port Essing- 
ton on the north coast of New Holland. It is probably the same 
species with the Chorinemus commersonianus of the " Histoire 
des Poissons." 

32. Trachurus novce-zelandice, C. and V. 9, p. 26. 

An inhabitant of the seas of New Zealand and of Shark 
Bay, New Holland. 

33. Trachurus 9 clupeoides. (Scomber clupeoides, So- 

lander, Pise. Austr., p. 31.) 
Inhabits Dusky Bay. 

34. Caranx lutes cens. (Scomber lutescens, Solander, 

Pise. Austr., p. 38.) 
Inhabits Queen Charlotte's Sound. 

35. Caranx sinus-obscuri . (Scomber trachurus, varietas, 

G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 223. C. and V. 9, p. 20.) 
Frequents Dusky Bay. 

36. Caranx platinoides. (Scomber platinoides, Solander, 

Pise. Austr., p. 13.) 
Frequents Tolaga Bay. 

37. Seriola cultrata. (Sciaona cultrata, G. Forster, fig. 



FISHES. 211 

pict. 2, 212. J. R. Forster, MS. IV. 9, apud Bl. 
Schn., p. 344.) 
Discovered at Norfolk Island by the Forsters. 

38. Capros australis. Richardson, Zool. Tr., 3. 
This is probably the Dory mentioned by Polack. 

Fam. SIGANOIDE.E. 

39. Acanthurus triostegus. Bl. Schn. p. 215. (Harpurus 

fasciatus, J. R. Forster, apud Schn. Teuthis aus- 
tralis. Gray. King's Voy. Austral. Append, 435.) 
Inhabits the seas of the Mauritius, New Zealand, New 
Holland, and Polynesia. 

Fam. MUGILOIDE^E. 

40. Mugilforsteri.C. andV.xi. p. 141. (Mugil albula ? 

G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 239.) 

Polack says that mullets are named by the natives " Kanai," 
but we do not know whether this be the species he means or not. 

Fam. GOBIODE.E. 

41. Clinus littoreusy C. and V. xi. p. 389. (Blennius litto- 

reus, G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 184. J. R. Forster, 
MS. II. 42, apud Bl. Schn., p. 177.) 
Named " Kogop" by the natives of Queen Charlotte's 
Sound. 

42. Acanthodinusfuscus. Jenyns, Zool. of Beagle, pi. 18, 

f. 2. 

Found by Mr. Darwin in the Bay of Islands. The preceding 
species is thought by Mr. Jenyns to be probably likewise a mem- 
ber of this group. 

43. Christiceps australis. C. and V. xi. p. 102. 
Inhabits the rivers of New Zealand and Van Diemen's 

Land. 

44. Tripterygion nigripinne. C. and V. xi. p. 413. 

Inhabits rivers. 

45. Tripterygion varium. C. and V. xi. p. 414. (Blennius 

varius, G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, 1. 185. J. R. Forster, 
MS. II. 43, apud Bl. Schn., p. 178.) 

p 2 



212 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

Named " Kekogop " by the natives of Queen Char- 
lotte's Sound. 

46. Tripterygion forsteri. C. and V. xi. p. 415. (Blen- 

nius tripinnis, J. R. Forster, MS. II. 41, apud BL 
Schn. p. 174.) 

47. Tripterygion fenestratum. C. and V. xi. p. 416. 

(Blennius fenestratus, G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 186. 
J. R. Forster, MS. II. 39, apud Bl. Schn., p. 173.) 
Inhabits the fresh- water rivulets of Dusky Bay, and is 
named by the natives " Hetarooa." 

48. Tripterygion capita. Jenyns, Zool. of the Beagle, 

pi. 19, f. 1. 
Crawls over the tidal rocks in the Bay of Islands. 

49. Eleotris gobioides.-C. and V. xii. p. 247. 

50. Eleotris radiata. C. and V. xii. p. 250. 
Taken in the mouth of the river Thames. 

50*. Eleotris basalis. Gray, Zool. Misc., 73. 

Inhabits the River Thames, New Zealand. Dr. Dief- 
fenbach. 

" Brown, in spirits, minutely darker speckled; fins darker, 
blackish ; the pectoral fin with a broad yellow basal band ; head 
blackish; tail rounded; first dorsal 7, hinder 10 rayed; ventral 
5 rayed." Gray. 

51. H&meroccetes acanthorhynchus. C. and V. xii. 

p. 311. (Callionymus acanthorhynchus, G. Forster, 
fig. pict. 2, t. 175. J. R. Forster, II. 30, apud Bl. 
Schn., p. 41. C. monopterygius, Bl. Schn. 1. c. 
L'Hemerocet acanthorhynque, C. and V., 12, p. 31 1.) 

The Forsters, father and son, described and figured a specimen 
of this fish, which was thrown up in a storm on the beach of Queen 
Charlotte's Sound. It had not come in the way of collectors since 
that time, until Dr. Dieffenbach procured a specimen in Wangaroa 
Bay, Chatham Island, which he sent to the College of Sur- 
geons, and he also possesses a coloured sketch of the recent fish. 
Through the kindness of Professor Owen, I have had an opportu- 
nity of examining the specimen, and of drawing up the subjoined 



FISHES. 213 

description. Though Cuvier knew the fish only from the drawing 
and notes of the Forsters, and there are some important omissions 
and ohscure passages in the latter, as published by Schneider, he 
appears to have assigned a correct place to it in the system ; for it 
seems to be most nearly allied to Callionymus, which is the genus 
to which it was assigned by Forster. The New Zealand name of 
this fish is written " Kogohooe" by G. Forster, and " Kohikoi " 
by Dr. Dieffenbach. 

Form elongated, with the width at the gill -covers, where it is 
greatest, exceeding the height ; from thence the head is depressed, 
and slopes gradually to the snout, which shows a widely lanceolate 
tip when seen from above, and a thin edge when viewed in profile. 
The top of the head is flatly convex laterally, and the same de- 
pressed-rounded form extends on the upper surface, from the occi- 
put to the dorsal, but with an acute though not elevated mesial line. 
At the beginning of the dorsal the height and thickness of the body 
are nearly equal, and from thence it diminishes gradually in both 
dimensions to the slender base of the caudal fin. The sides are 
quite flat, and the back and belly are rounded, with a groove for 
the reception of the dorsal and anal. The head forms somewhat 
less than a fifth part of the total length, caudal included, and its 
height at the eyes is about equal to one-third of its own length. 
The large oval orbits, being placed very near to each other on the 
lateral slope of the head, have a vertical and slightly outward aspect. 
A thickening of the integument on the upper half of the eyeball 
forms what Forster calls " a semilunar nictitating membrane." The 
upper margins of the orbits are smooth and slightly raised, and 
flank a narrow linear mesial depression. The preorbitar large and 
triangular, with its apex, pointing forward, has a smooth even edge, 
with some low smooth ridges radiating forward on its surface. An 
exterior membrane, free beneath, stretches across the snout from one 
preorbitar to the other, as in Callionymus, and is the part to which 
Forster alludes when he says " labium superius duplex, apice 
semilunato spinis duabus." The fore edge of the membrane is 
slightly lunate, the tips of the crescent being formed by the acute 
subulate points of the maxillaries, which are the spines of Forster. 
The limb of the maxillary widens to its end, which is truncated, 
and can be retracted entirely beneath the edge of the preorbitar 
and of the scaly margin of the cheek at the angle of the mouth : 
its end shows when the jaws are extended. The intermaxillaries 
form the entire upper lip, and their limbs, covered by the ordinary 
integument, play beneath the preorbitar membrane, and are pro- 



214 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

tractile, though in a less degree than in Callioni/tnus, and without 
giving a downward inclination to the mouth. Indeed, the struc- 
ture of the jaws generally is much like that which exists in the 
genus just mentioned. The gape is pretty large, and extends 
nearly as far back as the anterior edge of the orbit. The under- 
jaw is rather more acute than the upper one, and a very little 
shorter ; it is bordered by a thin membranous lip, which widens 
towards the angle of the mouth, and folds back when the orifice 
is shut. The nostrils are situated a short way before the eye, and 
just above the upper edge of the preorbitar. The posterior open- 
ing is small and oval, and may be easily mistaken for one of the 
pores which are scattered over the neighbouring scaleless parts : 
the anterior opening is contiguous to it, and scarcely to be dis- 
cerned, being almost hidden by a minute membranous point. A 
small cluster of pores between the anterior angles of the orbits 
may have been mistaken by Forster for the nostrils. His expres- 
sion is, " nares inter oculos, contiguce." The upper and lower jaws, 
branchiostegous membranes, preorbitars, disks of the preopercula, 
and narrow space between the eyes, are covered with scaleless 
membrane, dotted irregularly with minute pores. A double row 
of these pores exists on the middle of each limb of the lower jaw ; 
moderately large scales cover the cheek close to the orbits, and run 
forward even a little farther than the angle of the mouth. The 
scales of the operculum and suboperculum are somewhat larger, 
and completely conceal the junction of the two bones. The inter- 
operculum is equally scaly, but being slightly narrower its extent 
is readily perceived. The disk of the preoperculum has a deeply 
lunate form, and is augmented by a very thin scaleless membran- 
ous border. No vestige of any spinous process exists on its 
rounded edge. The whole gill-cover has an obtuse semi-oval form ; 
and its thin, flexible, rounded edge projects far over the gill- 
opening, and fits so closely to the pectoral region as to conceal the 
opening, though it is very large, arid runs forward to the root 
of the tongue. The gill-covers, being scaly to their extreme edges, 
blend imperceptibly with the scales at the base of the pectoral fins, 
giving no indication of the existence of the aperture till the flap is 
raised; but on each side of the nape the opening, which runs for- 
ward there, gapes somewhat like the valve of a mya. All this is 
faithfully represented in George Forster J s figure ; but there is an 
ambiguity in J. R. Forster's notes, which has led Cuvier to think 
that the branchial aperture was restricted to a tubular opening, as 
in Ccdlionymus. The passage is " opercula squ-amosa, calcari 



FISHES. 215 

simplice: apertura branchialis, supera subovata, tubulosa" The 
spur to which he alludes can only be the projecting rounded gill- 
flap, which, from the opening running along its upper edge on 
the side of the nape, shows in profile like the obtuse spur of a 
violet. The latter clause of the passage is also intelligible if the 
adverb supera be the word that was written by Forster. The 
branchiostegous membrane is not broad, but when expanded it 
assumes, from the tightness of its margin, somewhat of the swell- 
ing form common among the gobioids and cottoids. When the 
mouth is closed, the acute inner edges of the limbs of the lower 
jaw, coming in contact with each other, overlie and completely con- 
ceal the gill-membrane, and its attachment to the isthmus. 

The intermaxillaries are furnished round the entire border of 
the mouth with a narrow band of short recurved teeth. The 
rounded articular heads of the maxillaries project into the roof of 
the mouth, and are lined by soft unarmed integuments. The 
chevron of the vomer, lying contiguous to them behind, is smooth 
and depressed on the mesial line, but forms a small minutely- 
toothed button on each side, close to the anterior points of the 
palate-bones. Forster describes this part of the structure by the 
phrase " palatum papillosum, denticulatum" He also says of 
the jaws "denies minuti" which must have been overlooked by 
the authors of the ' Histoire des Poissons ' when they wrote 
" Mais sur les dents des machoires Forster garde le silence." 
The tongue is narrow and strap-shaped, free beneath for a great 
part of its length, and smooth on the surface. The pharyngeals 
are armed with short hair-like teeth ; and the long, slender bran- 
chial arches are set with round tubercles, which are fringed with 
a few minute teeth. 

' The scales are moderately large, of a semi-oval form, and trun- 
cated at the base by a waving line, which produces a very shallow 
middle lobe. There are about 13 nearly parallel furrows en the 
base, and the outer edge of the scale is thin and membranous : 
its structure is cycloid. The lateral line is straight, and is com- 
posed of 48 scales, which are rather smaller and more lobed than 
the others. A short mucous tube perforates the disk of each of 
these scales, and rises above its surface. Behind the pectorals 
there are three rows of scales above the lateral line, and five 
below it. The scales terminate at the base of the caudal in a 
lanceolate point on each side of the fin. 

Rays: Br. 7 7 ; D. 41 ; A. 39; C. 12f ; P. 20; ' V. 1/5. 
The pectorals have an oval form, their central rays being the 



216 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

longest, and the others diminishing gradually to the uppermost 
and undermost, which are short. All the rays are forked at the 
tips; and a triangular patch of small scales covers the base of the 
central ones. The elliptical and rather acute ventrals are attached 
nearly half their own length before the pectorals. Their short, 
slender spine has a flexible tip. The other five rays are forked, 
the fourth being the most so, as well as the stoutest and longest. 
The flat, scaly space between the bases of the ventrals exceeds 
them in breadth. The tips of these fins when laid back go a 
little beyond the middle of the pectorals, and just touch the first 
anal ray. The dorsal, commencing over the first third of the 
pectorals, extends to near the caudal fin : its fourth ray stands 
over the anus. Two or three of the anterior rays are graduated, 
the next portion of the fin is nearly even, and about one-quarter 
higher than the depth of the body. The posterior quarter of the 
fin is also graduated, and the last ray has only one-third of the 
length of the tallest one. All the rays are jointed, tapering, and 
flexible ; and, with the exception of two thin middle ones, which 
are faintly forked, they are all simple. The membrane of this, 
as of all the other fins, is transparent and delicate, and disappears 
so readily when handled, that its original extent cannot be ascer- 
tained in the specimen. The figures represent it as being nearly 
as deep as the rays, and showing a notch behind each of their 
tips. The anal is similar to the dorsal in shape and structure, 
but is one-third less in height. Its first spine stands on the 
verge of the anus, and is distinctly jointed. The central rays are 
rather more evidently forked at the tips than the corresponding 
dorsal ones. Both fins, when laid back in their respective fur- 
rows, lie with all their rays turned to the same side, as is usual 
with the blennies, and not alternately to right and left, like the 
spinous rays of most acanthopterygii. The caudal fin is com- 
posed of 8 forked rays, 2 simple graduated ones above and below, 
and 2 short incumbent basal ones. The first upper-forked one 
is the largest, and forms an acute projecting tip to the otherwise 
rounded fin. Dr. DiefTenbach's figure corresponds, in this re- 
spect, with the specimen, so that the fin has not been mutilated 
since the drawing was made. But Forster gives a slightly cres- 
centic terminal edge to the caudal. The length of the part of 
the tail which is intercepted between the caudal and the two 
other vertical fins is about equal to its height. The anal papilla 
is small, and does not project beyond the orifice. 

In Dr. Dieffenbach's sketch the general colour of the head, 



FISHES. 217 

body, and caudal fin is wax-yellow or siskin-green, becoming 
brighter towards the under surface. Four flaxflower-blue 
streaks descend from behind forward, obliquely over the nape, 
gill-covers, and cheek : there are some blue tints about the jaws, 
and two rows of blotches of the same colour run along the sides 
to the tail. The tip of the caudal is blackish. The base and 
upper edge of the dorsal have the greenish tint of the body ; the 
middle part is alternately bluish and rose-coloured, with a row of 
irregular darker red spots. The anal is rose-coloured, with a 
purple margin, and the pectorals and ventrals are entirely rose- 
coloured. 

DIMENSIONS. 

In. Lin. 

Length from tip of upper lip, when retracted, to ex- 
tremity of caudal-fin . &*';*' ' y ' a ' : ; .82 
Do. do. to base of caudal-fin . .70 
Do. do. to beginning of anal . . 2 3-g- 
Do. do. to beginning of dorsal . * i'* ; 'l 11-J- 
Do. do. to pectorals ;*^. ';'.'' ^ . 1 9^ 
Do. do. to ventrals. . . - 1 5 
Do. do. to edge of gill-flap .. . 1 9 
Do. do. to anterior angle of eye . 7J 
Diameter of the eye, lengthwise ' u ' 4 -' : . - 1 ''.. . 4 
Greatest height of the dorsal (llth to 15th ray) . . 010^ 
Height of first dorsal ray t !..'' /- . . ^ -.-.' '"'.\ . 7 
Do. of last do. .v' v .'./: .'.', ^ , ' ' ; 3J 
Do. of middle anal rays .,., ' ,'i: j '..:' .;.'];.. 7 
Length of dorsal fin . vjj -.' . . '^.- . 4 6i 
Do. of anal fin . . . . . . .45 

Do. of space between dorsal or anal and caudal . 2 

Do. of ventrals '' . ' ' 1!l ";'- :; '- |>~ ^-wV . ^ . Q 11 

Do. of pectorals . * ;* " i .^\ t v" ; : . . l 2 

Do. of caudal . . -.' "' .*"' . : '.- . 1 2 

Height of body at anus . *_- -.' . "J ' .09 

Thickness of do. 08 

Width at gill-covers v . <r-y . s 4 . 9J 

Do. of space between the orbits . .. . .02 

The dimensions of Forster's specimen are nearly the same with 
the above. 

Thrown up by a storm in Queen Charlotte's Sound, and 
termed by the natives " Kogohooee." At Wangaroa 



'218 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

Bay, Chatham Island, called " Kohikoi." Dr. Dief- 
fenbach, whose specimen is now in the British Mu- 
seum. 

Fain. LABROIDE^E. 

5'2. Labrus poecilopleura. C. and V. xiii. p. 95. 
M. Lesson ascertained that the native name of this fish is " Pare 
quiriquri." 

53. Julis? rubiginosus. (Sparus rubiginosus, Banks, fig. 

pict. 2, t. 38. Solander, Pise. Austr., p. 7.) 
Taken off* Cape Kidnappers. 

54. Jidis notatus. (Sparus notatus, Solander, Pise. 

Austr., p. 16. Banks, fig. pict. 2, t. 37.) 

55. Julis miles. (Labrus coccineus, J. R. Forster, apud 

Schn. Labrus miles, Bl. Schn., p. 264.) 
Named the " Soldier " by the seamen who accompanied Cook 
on his second voyage. 

56. Julis celidotus. (Labrus celidotus, J. R. Forster, 
apud Bl. Schn., p. 265.) 

57. Julis? prasiophthalmus. (Sparus prasiophthalrnus, 

Solander, Pise. Austr., p. 5.) 

58. Odaxpullus. C. and V. 14, p. 304. (Scarus pullus, 

G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 202. J. R. Forster, MS. 
IV. 17, apud Bl. Schn., p. 208.) 

Named " Mararee " by the inhabitants of Queen Char- 
lotte's Sound. 

59. Odax vittatus. (Coregonoides vittatus, Solander, 

Pise. Austr., pp. 1-39. Callyodon coregonoides, 
Banks, fig. pict. 2, t. 44.) 
Inhabits the sea at Mataruhow. 

Fam. CYPRINOIDE^:. 

60. Leuciscus (Ptycholepis) salmoneus. (Mugil lavare- 

toides, Solander, p. 15.? Mugil salmoneus, G. Fors- 
ter, fig. pict. 2, t. 237. J. R. Forster, MS. II. iv. 
14, apud Bl. Schn., p. 121.) 
Inhabits Tolaga. 



FISHES. '210 

Fam. EsociD-ffi. 

61. Galaxias alepidotus. Cuv., Reg. An. 2, p. 283. 

(Esox alepidotus, G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 235. 
J. R. Forster, MS. II. 62, apud Bl. Schn., p. 395.) 
Named by the natives of Dusky Bay " He-para," and by Cook's 
sailors " Rock-trout." 

62. Hemiramphus marginatus. Lacepede. (Cuv., Reg. 

An., ii., p. 286.) 

One of the fish sent by Dr. Dieffenbach to the College of Sur- 
geons (now in the British Museum) is a hemiramphus. Its scales 
have in a great measure perished, as very often occurs when fish of 
this genus are put up in weak spirit, but the specimen is otherwise 
in pretty good condition. I have referred it to the marginatus 
of Lacepede (v. vii., 2), though, in the absence of good figures or au- 
thentic examples, I do so with doubt. I had received two speci- 
mens of the same fish from Port Arthur, Van Diemen's Land, 
before I saw Dr. Dieffenbach's collection. The table of dimen- 
sions will suffice to give an idea of the proportions of the fish. 

Its form is the usual one of the elongated htmiramphi : the 
depth of the body is almost uniform from the nape to the anus, 
which is remote from the head. The thickness is but little less 
than the height, but the form becomes more compressed at the 
origin of the dorsal and anal fins, which are opposite to each other. 
The height also slopes rapidly down there into the trunk of the 
tail, which is short and rather slender. The back is broadish and 
rounded, and, the scales having dropped off, shows longitudinal 
lines, marking the course of the large muscles of the back. There 
is a bright silvery band along the side, and the lateral line follow- 
ing the curve of the belly near its edge can still be traced. The 
scaly triangular upper jaw, as usual in the genus, is capable of being 
elevated by a lunge-like joint, without the slightest power of exten- 
sion. The lower jaw, resembling the bill of snipe, is bordered by a 
thin lip, whose width is equal to half that of the lower jaw itself. 
This lip folds back, and when raised permits a row of 15 or 16 
round pores to be seen on the basal half of the jaw. The orifice 
of the mouth corresponds exactly with the semi-lanceolate form of 
the upper jaw, and it is armed entirely round its border by a 
narrow, crowded band of short linear, tricuspid teeth. The cusps 
are slightly divergent, and the central one of each tooth is rather 
the largest. In a second species from Port Arthur, which has a 



220 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

more slender and scarcely bordered lower jaw, the lateral cusps 
of the teeth are very minute ; and in a nearly similar species from 
the China seas the teeth are more thinly set, and the lateral 
cusps are so indistinctly seen through a common lens, that the 
teeth appear simply subulate. The tongue is fixed nearly to the 
top, and is fleshy, with a concave smooth disk and slightly raised 
membranous margin. 

Rays: Br.; D. 16; A. 18; C. 16; P. 12; V. 7. 

The pectoral is acute, the rays lengthening gradually from the 
lowest to the uppermost, which is simple but articulated. The 
others are forked at the tops. The articulations in the first rays 
of the dorsal and anal are obscure. The fork of the caudal 
scarcely extends to half its depth; the lower lobe, as usual in the 
genus, is the largest. The ventrals, small and approximate, are 
placed behind the middle of the total length of the fish. 

DIMENSIONS. 

VanDiemen's VanDiemen's 

Land Spec. New Zealand Land Spec. 

No. 1. Spec. No. 2. 

Length from point of lower jaw to i n . Lin. in. Lin. in. Lin. 

tip of caudal . . . 10 9 11 12 2 

Projection of lower jaw beyond 

upper one . . . .111 18 20 
Length from point of upper jaw to 

tip of caudal . . .89 93 10 2 
Do. do. to base of caudal .76 7 8J 86 
Do. do. to anus . .58 511 66 
Do. do. to ventrals . . 4 7J 48 5 3j 
Do. do. to pectoral . . 1 71 1 Sh I 9J 
Do. do. to edge of gill-cover 16 17 18 
Length of lower lobe of caudal .12 12 15 
Do. of pectorals . . .10 10 13 
Do. of ventrals . . . 5j 6 6j 
Do. of dorsal, or anal . .12 12 15 
Do. of trunk of tail between ver- 
tical fins . . . .06 06 06 
Height at the nape . . . 8J 9 9 
Do. ofbody . . .08 8^ 9J 
Thickness of body . . .06 6J 08 
Diameter of circular orbit . .04 04 4f 
Length of upper jaw . .04 04 4 



FISHES. 221 

63. Galaxias fasciatus. Gray, Zool. Misc., 73. 
Inhabits the River Thames, New Zealand. Dr. Dief- 

fenbach. 

" The body brown, with nearly regular narrow cross bands on 
each side." 

" This species resembles, in its form and proportions, Esox 
alepidotus, Forster, Icon, ined., Brit. Mus., No. 235 : but that 
figure represents his species as olive-green; the back, head, bases 
of the dorsal fins, and the side of the body marked with unequal, 
moderate-sized, irregular-shaped, yellow spots : some of the spots 
are lunate, and one on each side, over the pectoral fin, is ring- 
shaped, with a central eye ; while all the specimens brought home 
by Dr. Dieffenbach, both the adult and young, are marked with 
similar cross bands." Gray. 

64. Sairis scombroides. (Esox scombroides, Solander, 

Pise. Austr., p. 40. Esox saurus, G. Forster, fig. 
pict. 2, t. 233. J. R. Forster, MS. II. 65, apud Bl. 
Schn., p. 394.) 

Inhabits Dusky Bay and the sea between New Zea- 
land and New Holland. It is named " He-eeya" by 
the aborigines. 

O 

65. Exocetus subpellucens. (Esox subpellucens, Solan- 

der, Pise. Austr., p. 14.) 
This is a bearded species. 

66. 67. Exocetus exiliens et volitans. Auct. 

Both these forms of flying-fish are stated by voyagers to be in- 
habitants of the Australian and New Zealand seas, but we have 
seen neither specimens nor figures of them from New Zealand. 

Fam. CLUPEODIE^E. 

68. Clupealata. Solander, Pise. Austr., p. 17. 
Inhabits Tolaga Bay. 

We do not know to which of the subdivisions of the Linnsean 
genus Clupea it properly belongs. Megalops is an Australian 
form. 

Fam. GADOIDE^E. 

69. Lota baccha. Cuv., Reg. An. 2, p. 334. (Gadus 

rubiginosus, Solander, Pise. Austr., p. 49. Gadus 



2*2*2 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

bacchus, G. Forster, '2, t. 180. J. R. Forster, MS. 
II. 34, apud Bl. Schn., p. 53.) 

Inhabits Murderer's Bay. It is probably the " had- 
dock" of the settlers : its native name in Queen 
Charlotte's Sound is " Ehogoa." 

70. Lota rhacina. (Gadus rhacinus, G. Forster,, fig. 

pict. 2, 1. 179. J. R. Forster, MS. IV. 16, apud Bl. 
Schn., p. 56.) 

Bears the name of " Ahdoroo " among the natives of 
Queen Charlotte's Sound. 

71. Brosmius venustus. (Blennius venustus, Parkinson, 

fig. pict. 2, t. 5.) 

An inhabitant of Totaeranue, or Shipcove in Queen 
Charlotte's Sound. It is most probably the " hake " 
of the settlers. 

Polack mentions " cod-fish," bearing the native name of " Wa- 
puka," but we do not know the fish he alludes to The " polach '' 
he speaks of are, perhaps, the young of the Percis colias, the adult 
of which are known to the settlers as the " cole-fish." 

Fam, PLATESSOIDE^E. 

72. Platessa? (Rhombus?} scapha. (Pleuronectes sca- 

pha, G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 193. J. R. Forster, 
MS. II. 46, apud Bl. Schn., p. 163.) 
Named by the natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound 
"Mahoa." 

73. Rhombus plebeius. Solander, Pise. Austr., p. 12. 
Glib bonnet-fleuk. 

Rh. plebeius, olivaceus, immaculatus ; dentibus Solea- 

rum scopulse-formibus, unilateralibus ; squamis parvis 

laevibus, linea laterali recta; pinna caudae truncata 

sub-rhomboidali : pinnis aliis esquamosis. 

Rad. Br. 77 ; D. 60 ; A. 45 ; C. 12| ; P. 1111 ; V. 6. 

A single specimen of this fish was sent by Dr. Dieffenbach to the 

College of Surgeons (now in the British Museum) . Solander has the 

following brief notice of a fish of this family in his ' Pisces Aus- 

tralise :' " Pleuronectes plebeius, ssepe pedalis. Latus dextrum 

e cinereo pallide olivaceum : latus sinistrum albicans. Iris e cine- 

reo, argentea : pupilla nigra. Habitat Tolaga." As this passage 



FISHES. 223 

agrees with Dr. Dieffenbach's specimen, and no figure was executed 
of Solander's fish, no mistake can arise from appropriating, as we 
have done, the specific appellation plebeius to the fish described 
below. The Pleuronectes scapha (G. Forster, t. 193 ; J. R. Forster 
apud Schn., p. 163) of Queen Charlotte's Sound has larger scales, 
the lateral line arched over the pectoral, a rounded caudal-fin, and 
twice as many rays in the dorsal and anal as plebeius. 

The form of plebeius, excluding the vertical fins, is an oval 
whose smaller axis rather exceeds half the longitudinal one ; but 
the entire fish has a somewhat rhomboidal form, owing to the 
dorsal and anal rays increasing in length towards the middles of 
the fins. The naked trunk of the tail forms one-ninth of the 
length of the fish, caudal excluded. This fin is truncated by two 
lines meeting in an exceedingly obtuse angle at the tip of the 
central ray. The head forms a sixth of the entire length, candal 
included. The mouth is rather small, and its sides are but slightly 
unequal. The right or coloured side is flatter, and rather smaller, 
and is quite toothless, as in the soles. The other, or under side, 
is convex, and is armed on both jaws with a band of short, dense, 
brush-like teeth ; those on the lower jaw being somewhat taller 
than the intermaxillary ones. There are no teeth on the roof of 
the mouth. The knob of the vomer and the articular heads of the 
maxillaries form smooth rounded projections within the mouth. 
The tips of the maxillaries project, as is usual, under the integu- 
ments of the snout. The jaws form the apex of the head, the 
under one ascending when the mouth is shut, but projecting 
farther than the upper one when it is depressed. The eyes, 
placed on the right side, are near each other, their orbits being 
separated merely by a smooth, rounded, narrow, and slightly 
curved ridge, which may be traced by the finger through in- 
equalities in the bone over the hind part of the head, nearly to the 
angle of the gill-opening. The upper eye is about one-third part 
of the length of its orbit farther back than the under one. The 
posterior opening of the nostrils is a small hole with thin edges : 
the anterior one is still more minute, with tubular lips. The nos- 
trils are smaller and more approximated on the under side than 
on the upper one. All the parts before the eye, the under jaw, 
isthmus, gill-membranes, and ridge between the orbits, are scale- 
less ; there are a few scattered deeply-imbedded scales on the disk 
of the preoperculum ; the rest of the head is scaly, the scales on 
the under side being smaller and softer, but distributed as on the 
coloured side. The disk of the preoperculum alone is more con- 



224 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

spicuously smooth on the inferior side, which is destitute of the 
downiness exhibited by many of the soles. The lateral line is 
quite straight, and runs to the extreme end of the caudal. The 
scales are deeply imbedded in the skin of the body, adhere 
strongly, and are smooth to the touch, whether the finger be drawn 
backwards or forwards ; their form varies with their position, 
being oval, obliquely rounded, or partially truncated ; all have a 
narrow rhomboidal tip covered with a thick spotted epidermis. 
Under a microscope of high power many clear lines or furrows 
can be seen radiating from behind the rhomboidal tip to the pos- 
terior edge of the scale, separated by fine ridges, which appear 
transversely jointed or corrugated, and as if composed of minute 
oblong crowded or tiled plates. A few of the same kind of 
plates can be perceived irregularly scattered on the tip of the 
scale when deprived of its epidermis. Neither teeth nor crena- 
tures can be detected on the edge of the scale. Scaly fillets exist 
between the caudal rays. The other fins are scaleless. 

The branchiostegous membrane is supported by seven rays on 
each side, the lower ray being very small and turned from the 
others towards the mesial line. The pectorals are rounded, and 
contain eleven rays. The under fin is rather smaller than the upper 
one, but has as many rays. The dorsal commences a little before 
the nostrils, and almost at the end of the snout ; but the jaws project 
beyond it. Its rays, sixty in number, gradually increase in height 
towards the middle of the fin, and decrease again towards its end, 
the last rays being very short. The three first rays have free, taper- 
ing, thread-like tips, with the membrane between them deeply 
notched. The anal is shaped like the dorsal, except that the tips 
of its first rays do not project so far beyond the membrane. It 
contains forty-five rays. The ventral is situated in the same 
plane with the anal, and their membranes are continuous, the 
position of the anus alone showing where the one terminates and 
the other begins. If the fin be regarded as two ventrals com- 
bined, there are but three rays in each, and the three first resemble 
the corresponding dorsal rays, and have deeply-notched mem- 
branes. The pelvis forms a projecting horn, three-quarters of an 
inch long, separated from the os hyoides by a notch. 

DIMENSIONS. 

In. Lin. 

Length from end of snout to extremity of caudal fin 10 8J 

Do. do. to beginning of ditto . 8 9 



FISHES. 225 

In. Lin. 

Greatest vertical height of body . .., , ,; .-;>, . ! 4 9J 

Do. do. of body and fins . , -,- .'*; 6 11 

Length from end of snout to gill-opening .,,V>; , -. 1 9 

Ditto do. to angle of upper orbit ' 8 

Distance between the orbits . , . . ... 02 

Height of tail between the vertical fins . : ", " u . ' i Q 

Length of ditto . f /'' . J^,. .^. .^'- -^ . Q g 

Thickness of body . L_4jfy ^tt r^*< 'SfWi *V* i Q 7 

Axis of orbits . v * v ' ; '''' " ' ' *v ff ' *^" <! . 6J 

Small diameter of do. , l ' ; . . . 5 

Height of central dorsal or anal rays * . . 12 

Length of caudal ' . . . . . . 1 Hi 

Inhabits Tolaga Bay. 

Polack mentions flat-fish, which are intermediate between the 
flounder and the sole, and are named " pitiki " by the natives. 

Fam. DISCOBOLI. 

74. Lepadogaster pinnulatus. J. R. Forster, MS. IV., 

15, apud Bl. Schn., p. 2. (Cyclopterus pinnulatus, 
G. Forster, fig. pict, 2, t. 248.) 

Haunts stony beaches and the mouths of rivulets in Queen 
Charlotte's Sound. It is named " moyeadoo " by the natives. 

75. Gobiesox littoreus. Cuv. Reg. An. 2, p. 345. (Cy- 

clopterus littoreus, J. R. Forster, MS. II. 27, apud 
Bl. Schn., p. 199.) 
Inhabits stony beaches. 

Fam. ECHENEIDE^E. 

76. Echeneis naucrates, L. 

Fam. ANGUILLIFORMES. 

77. Anguilla Die/enbachii.GTay, Zool. Misc., 73. 
Inhabits the River Thames, New Zealand. Dr. Dief- 

fenbach. 

" Upper jaw shortest ; teeth small, in several series, velvet 
like; head short, conical; upper jaw rather the shortest: brown, 
in spirits, with small, differently placed, short black lines : face 
with 3 pores on each side just above the upper lip, and 4 pores in 
a short arched line just above the tubular nostrils ; chin with a 

VOL. II. Q 



226 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

series of 7 pores on each side near the edge, becoming wider apart 
behind ; lateral line formed of rather distant tubular pores, thf* 
line is slightly bent upon the pectoral ; the dorsal commencing a 
little distance before the vent. Length 15, head to pectoral If, 
length of dorsal 10, of anal 8| inches." Gray. 

78. Ophidium blacodes.G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, t. 174. 

(Bl. Schn., p. 285. Cuv. Reg. An. 2, p. 359.) 
Named " ekokh " by the natives. Lurks at the bottom of the 
sea in stony places. The natives spear it and prize it as an article 
of food. 

Fam. LOPHOBRANCHII. 

79. Hippocampus abdominalis. Lesson, Mem. de la 

Soc. d'Hist. Nat. iv. p. 411, Septr., 1818. (Voy. 
du Duperrey, Zool., p. 125.) 
There are several other members of this genus in those seas. 

Fam. PLECTOGNATHT. 

80. Tetraodon hamiltoni, sp. nov. 

There is a specimen in the Museum at Haslar. 

81. Monacanthus scaber. J. R. Forster, MS. II. 72, 

apud Bl. Schn., 477. (G. Forster, fig. pict. 2, 
t. 247.) 

Known among the aborigines of Queen Charlotte's Sound 
by the name of " baddeek. 5 ' 

Fam. CHIM^ERHXE. 

82. Callorhynchus antarcticus. Lacepede, 1, xii. (Chi- 

meera callorhynchus, Solander, Pise. Austr., p. 18.) 
Inhabits Murderer's Bay, and other parts of the coast. 
It is the " erhe-perhepe" of the natives, and the 
" elephant-fish" of the English settlers. 

Fam. SCYLLIA. 

83. Scyllium? lima. Miiller und Henle, Plagiostomen, 

p. 26. (Squalus lima, Banks, fig. pict. 1, pi. 53. 
Sq. Isabelle, Lac. i. 225.) 
Frequents tbe coast of ^Eaheenomauwee. 



FISHES. 2*27 

Fam. CARCHARI^E. 

84. Carcharias (Prionodon) melanopterus. Miiller und 

Henle, Plagiostomen, p. 43. (Carcharias melanop- 
terus, Quoy and Gaimard, Freyc., pi. 43.) 
Common in the New Zealand and Australian seas. 

85. Carcharias (Prionodon) maoo. Miiller und Henle, 

Plagiostomen, p. 44. (Squalus Carcharias, Banks, 
fig. pict, 1, t. 51.) 

Inhabits the seas of Polynesia, and coasts of /Eahee- 
nomauwee. 

Fam. SPINACES. 

86. Acanthias maculatus. (Squalus maculatus, Parkin- 

son, fig. pict. 1, t. 52.) 
Frequents the coast of ^Eaheenomauwee. 

Fam. SQUATINORAJ^E. 

87. Rhinobatus (Syrrhina) Banksii. Miiller und Henle, 

p. 150 et 123. (Raia rostrata, Banks, fig. pict. 1, 
p. 45.) 

88. Trygonorhina fasciata. Miiller und Henle, Plag. 

p. 124. (Raia fasciata, Banks, fig. pict. 1, t. 47.) 

Family RAI.E. 

89. Raia nasuta. Banks, fig. pict. 1, t. 44. 
Inhabits Totseranue. 

Fam. TRYGONES. 

90. Tceniura lymma. Miiller und Henle, Plagiostomen, 

p. 171. (Trygon halgani, Lesson, Duper. Voy. t. 
Trygon ornata, Gray, Illustr. Ind. Zool., t. 
Inhabits the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Polynesian 
and Australian seas. 

Fam. MYLIOBATIDES. 

91. Myliobatis nieuhofii. Miiller und Henle, Plagios- 

tomen, p. 177. (Raia macrocephala, Banks, fig. 
pict. 1, t. 48.) 

Q 2 



228 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

Fam. CYCLOSTOMI. 

92. Heptatrema dombe yii. Lacepede, Cuv. Reg. An. 2, 
p. 405. (Petromyzon cirrhatus, G. Forster, fig. 
pict. 2, t. 251, Bl. Schn. 532.) 
Inhabits Dusky Bay. 

The preceding list is extracted from a Report on the Ichthyology 
of New Zealand, read at the Manchester Meeting of the British 
Association, and which will appear in the annual volume of that 
Body. To this has been added the description of the new species 
brought home by Dr. Dieffenbach. 



IV. CATALOGUE of the SPECIES of MOLLUSCA and their 
Shells, which have hitherto been recorded as found at NEW 
ZEALAND, with the Description of some lately discovered 
Species, by J. E. GRAY, F.R.S., &c. 

Like the shells found in the other parts of the southern 
ocean, many of them are of a larger size and brighter 
colour than the species found in the same latitude in the seas 
of the northern hemisphere, and this is particularly the case 
with the terrestrial groups; some of them belong to genera 
which are only found in the warmer part of the northern 
half of the world. The genus Struthiolaria is peculiar to New 
Zealand. It is probable that some of the species which are 
inserted in this list, on the authority of Favanne, Chemnitz, 
and other of the older authors, may be found to have 
been placed in it erroneously ; for before attention was paid 
to the geographical distribution of animals, persons were 
not so attentive to the particular habitats of the species, and 
many of these shells must have passed through several 
dealers' hands before they reached their describers. I have 
marked the more doubtful with an asterisk. 

Fam. STROMBIDJE. 

1. Strombus Troglodytes. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair. 



SHELLS. 229 

Fam. MURICID^E. 

2. Ranella Argus. Lam. Var., whorls transversely pli- 

cated, sub-nodose. 

Inhabits New Zealand $ Manukao, and Cook's Straits. 
Dr. Dieffenbach. 

3. Triton variegatum, Lam. Murex Tritonis, Linn. 
Inhabits New Zealand ; W. Coast of N. Island, near 

Cape Maria Van Diemen. Dr., Dieffenbach. 

4. Triton leucostomum. 

Inhabits New Zealand ; Cook's Straits. Dr. Dieffen- 
bach. 

5. Triton Spengleri. Murex Spengleri. Chemn., xi. 117, 

t. 191, f. 1839-40. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Stanaer. 

6. Murex Zelandicus. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., ii. 

529, t. 36, f. 5-7. 
Inhabits Cook's Straits. Quoy. B. M. 

7. Murex octogonus. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., ii. 

531, t. 36, f. 8, 9. 
Inhabits Bay of Islands. Quoy. 

8. Murex foliatus. Gmelin, 3329. M. purpura alata. 

Chemn. x., t. 169, f. 1538-39. Wood, Cat., f. 13. 
Purpura foliata. Martyn y U. C., ii. 66. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Humphreys. King George's 
Sound. Martyn. 

9. Murex Lyratus. Gmelin, 3531. M. Glomus cereus. 

Chemn. x., t. 169, f, 1634. Buccinum lyratum. 
Martyn, U. C., ii., t. 43. 
Inhabits New Zealand, King George's Bay. Martyn. 

10. Pollia linea. Buccinum linea. Martyn, U. C., t. 48. 

Murex lineatus. Chemn., x., 278, t. 164, f. 1572. 

Murex lineatus. Dilwyn, Cat., 105. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn. 
Fusus lineatus, Quoy et Gaim., t. 34, f. 78, is perhaps 

only a slender variety of this species. 



230 FAUNA OF TSIEW ZEALAND. 

11. Pollia lineolata. Bucc. lineolatum, Quoy et Gaim. 

Voy., Astrol., ii. 419, t. 30, f, 14-16. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Stanger. B. M. 
The throat is grooved. Called Onareroa. 

12. Pleurotoma rosea. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol., ii. 

314, t. 35, f, 10, 11. 
Inhabits 

13. Fusus nodosus. Bucc. nodosum. Martyn, U. C. t. 5. 

Murex raphanus. Chemn. x., f. 1558. Fusus ra- 
phanus. Lam. viii. 128; Encycl. Method., t. 435, 
f. 1. Bucc. raphanus. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astro], 
ii., 428, t. 31, f. 5, 6. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Quoy et Gaim. Cook's Straits. 

14. Fusus dilatatus. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. ii. 

498, t. 34, f. 15, 16. 
Inhabits Bay of Islands. Quoy. 

15. Fusus Zealandicus. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. ii. 

500, t. 34, f. 4, 5. 
Inhabits Tasman's Bay. 

16. Fusus Stangeri. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Stanger. 

Shell small, ovate, fusiform; brown, regularly and closely cen- 
trically striated ; spire acute, rather shorter than the body whorls ; 
the upper whorl with 2, and the body whorl 1 ; with 8 con- 
tinued distant spiral ribs, the hinder ones farthest apart, and 
most raised ; the mouth dark brown ; the canal short, open ; axis 
f of an inch. 

Like Murex Lyratus in miniature. 

17. Fusus caudatus. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. ii. 503, 

t. 34, f. 20, 21. 
Inhabits New Zealand. 

18. Fusus mttatus. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. ii. 504, 

t. 34, f. 18, 19. 
Inhabits Bay of Islands. 

19. Fusus duodecimus. 

Shell ovate, fusiform, pale yellow, longitudinal, costate, spire 
conical, acute, whorle rather rounded, last whorle about half the 
length of the shell, with twelve concentric rounded ribs, and a 



SHELLS. 231 

central white band, with some spiral ridges in front, crossing the 
varices, and closer over the short open canal. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair. 

*20. Conus fuscatus. Born, Mus. 147 ; Chemn. ii. t. 62, 
f. 692-3; Encyc. Meth., t. 319, f. 3. Conus impe- 
rialis, & Gmelin. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Favanne. Other authors say 
this species comes from India and Madagascar. 

*2l. Conus hycena, Brug. Chemn., xi., 1. 181, f. 1750-51. 

Enc. Meth., t. 327, f. 5 and 7. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Favanne. 

*22. Conus fulmineus. Gmelin, Martini, ii., t. 58, f. 644. 
Conus fulgurans. Lam., H. N., Brug., E. M., t, 3376. 
Conus Spectrum. 2. Gmelin. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Favanne. 

*23. Conus distans. Solanders MSS., Brag., E. M., 634, 
t. 32 1, f. 11. Conus mennonitarum. Chemn., x., 24, 
t. 138, f. 1281. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Brug. South Sea and Nicobar. 
Chemn. 

*24. Conus informis. Brug., E. M., t. 337, f. 8. Conns 

spectrum Sumatrae. Chemn., x., 91, t. 144, a, f. g, and 

h. Var. /3. Conus rudis. Chemn., x., t. 144, a, f, e, f. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Favanne. American Ocean. 

Brug. 

25. Conus eques. Brug. Enc. Meth. t. 335, p. 9. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Favanne. 

26. Struthiolaria vermis. Bucc. vermis. Martyn, U. C. y 

t. 53. Struth. crenulata. Lam. viii. 148. Quoy et 
Gaim. Voy. Astrol. ii., 430, t. 31, f. 7 and 9. Murex 
australis. Gmelin, Spengler, Naturfoscher, xvii., t. 
2, f, c, and d. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn, 17 84. Tasman'sBay; 
called Takai. Quoy. 

27. Struthiolaria papillosa. Bucc. papillosum. Martyn, 

U. C., t. 54. Murex stramineus. Gmel. 3542. 



232 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

Wood's Cat., f. 62. M. Pes. struthio Cameli. Chem- 
nitz, x., t. 160, f. 1520-21. Spengler, Naturf., xvii., 
24, t. 2, f. A andB. S. Nodulosa. Lam. S. Strami- 
nea. Sow., Gen. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Marty n, 1784. West coast 

N. Island. Dieffenbach. 

They live in the sand like the olives, and have an exceedingly 
small operculum. The shell, before the mouth is formed, is very 
brittle ; they are then usually longitudinally banded with purple. 

28. Struthiolaria scutulata. Bucc. scutulatum. Martyn, 

U. C., t. 55. Wood's Cat., f. 81. Struth. oblita. 
Sow., Chemn., and Vig. 21, f. C. and D. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn. 

Fam. BUCCINID^E. 

29. Buccinum melo. Lesson. Rev. Zool., 1840, 355. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Lesson. 

30. Buccinum Triton. Lesson. Rev. Zool., 1841, 37. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Lesson. 

Is this distinct from Fusus Nodosus ? 

31. Purpura. Bucc. striatum. Martyn 3 U. C , t. 41. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn. 

Perhaps only a young specimen of the next species. 

32. Purpura succincta. Lam. Bucc. succinctum. Mar- 

tyn, U. C., t. 45. Bucc. orbita. Chemn., x., 199, t. 

154, f. 1471-72. Wood's Cat., f. 75. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn. 
Purpura emarginata, Desh., Mag. Zool., 1841, t. 25, 

appears to be only a monstrosity of this species, with 

a notch in the outer lip. 

Grows to a large size ; the axis 4J inches long, and 1 in dia- 
meter. Dr. Stang r. 

33. Purpura textilosa. Lam. viii., 242. Enc. Meth., t. 

398, f. 4-6. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., ii., 552, t. 
37, f. 1, 3. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Passe des Fran$ais. Quoy. 
A variety of the former, most probably. 



SHELLS. 233 

34. Purpura scobina. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., ii., 

567, t. 38, f. 12, 13. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Passe des Franqais. Quoy. 

*35. Purpura crassilabrum. Lesson, Rev. Zool., 1842, 

103. 
Inhabits New Zealand? Lesson. 

36. Purpura Novce Zelandice. Lesson, Rev. Zool., 1841, 

355. 
Inhabits New Zealand. 

37. Purpura tesselata. Lesson. Rev. Zool., 1840, 356. 
Inhabits New Zealand. 

38. Purpura rugosa. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., ii., 

569, t. 38, f. 19-21. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Quoy. 

39. Purpura lacunosa. Bucc. striatum. Martyn, U. C., 

t. 7. Bucc. orbita. Var. Dillw., ii. 618. Bucc. orbita 
lacunosa. Chemn., x., 200, t. 154, f. 1473. Bucc. 
lacunosum. Brug. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn. 
Perhaps only a slender variety of B. succincta. 

40. Purpura maculosa. Bucc. maculosum. Martyn, U. C., 

t. 8. Bucc. testudineum. Chemn., x., f. 1454. Lam. 
265. Quoy et Gaim., 415, t. 30, f. 8-13. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn. 

41. Purpura albo marginata. Desh., Mag. Zool., 1841, 

t. 44. 
Inhabits New Zealand. M. Deshayes. 

42. Purpura haustrum. Lam. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. As- 

trol., t. 37, f. 4-8. Bucc. haustrum. Martyn, U. C., 
t. 9. Bucc. hauritorium. Chemn., x., f, 1449-50. 
Bucc. haustorium. Gmel. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn. 

43. Purpura lamellosa. Bucc. lamellosum. Gmel. Wood's 

Cat., f. 60. Bucc. plicatum. Martyn, U. C., ii. t. 
44. Bucc. compositum. Chemn., x., 179. Vign., 



234 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

21, f. A, B. Bucc. crispatum. Chemn.) xi., 84, t. 

187, f. 1802-3. Murex crispatum. Lam. 174. 
Inhabits New Zealand, King George's Sound. Chemn. 

Martyn. Coast of Columbia. 

44. Purpura turgida. Bucc. turgidum. Gmel., 3490. 

Chemn., x., t. 154, f. 1475-76. Bucc. turgitum. 
Gmel., Dillwyn, ii. 6'21. Bucc. maculatum. Mar- 
tyn, U. C., ii. t. 49. Bucc. auspersum. Brug., E. M. 
265. Chemn., x., 201, t. 154, f. 1475-76. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn. 

We have three distinct varieties : 

Var. 1. Whorls regular, spire acute. 

2. The hinder part of the body whorl swollen, ventricose. 

3. The hinder part of the body whorl impressed, and rather 
irregular. 

45. Purpura catarracta. Bucc. catarracta. Chemn. , x., 

188, t. 152, f. 1455, 

Inhabits New Zealand. Chemn. Cape of Good Hope. 
Humphreys. 

46. Purpura (ricinuld) rodostoma. Lesson, Rev. Zool., 

1840, 355. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Lesson. 

47. Monoceros calcar. Bucc. calcar. Martyn, U. C., t. 

90. Monoc. imbricatus. Lam. 
Inhabits New Zealand. 

48. Monoceros tessellata. Lesson, Rev. Zool., 1840, 356. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Lesson. 

49. Dolium variegatum. Lam. ? 

Inhabits New Zealand; Cape Maria Van Diemen. 
Dr. Dieffenbach. 

50. Terebra spicatus. Limax spicatus. Martyn, U. C., 

t. 121, f. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn. 

51. Bullia Martin ii. Limax f'uscus. Martyn, U. C., 

t. 121, f. 2. 
Inhabits 



SHELLS. 235 

52. B-uttia? fmcus. Limax fuscus. Martyn, U. C., t. 

121, r. a 

Inhabits 

53. Oliva erythrostoma. Lam. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Stanger. 

54. Ancillaria albisulcata. Sow. Spec. Conch. 1, t. 1, 

f. 14-19. Quay et Gaim., Voy. Astrol. iii. 19, t. 49, 
f. 5-12. 
Inhabits New Zealand ; Cook's Straits. Quoy. 

55. Ancillaria Australis. Sow. Spec. Conch. 1, f. 44, 47. 

Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol. iii. 20, t. 49, f. 13-17. 
Inhabits River Thames. 

Fam. VOLUTID^. 

56. Voluta arabica. Gmelin. Bucc. arabicum. Martyn, 

U. C., t. 52. Vol. pacifica. Solander. Lam. viii. 
344. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol. ii. 625, t. 44, f. 6. 
Vol. insularis. Solander. 
Variety small, slender, Voluta gracilis, Swainson. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn, 1784. Cook's Straits, 
and Harbour of Manukao. Dieffenbach. 

These shells are often eroded, green, and worm-eaten while 
on the living animal. The variety is very small and slender. 

*57. Voluta magnifica. Chemn., xi. t. 174, 175. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Chemn. New Holland, New 
Caledonia. 

58. Voluta fusus. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol. ii. 627, 

t. 44, f. 7, 8. 
Inhabits Tasman's Bay. 

*59. Mitra aurantiaca. Lam., Desk., Mag. ZooL, 1832. 

t. 6. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Desh. 

Pam. CYPR^AD^E. 

*60. Cyprce a aurora. Solander. Portl. Cat. 10. Chem. xi. 
34, t. 180, f. 1737-38. C. aurantium. Martyn, 
U. C. ii. t. 59. Lam. 



236 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Chemn. Otaheite. Solander. 

Friendly Islands. Martyn. 
I believe that Chemnitz is wrong in his habitat. 

61. Cyprcea Caput. serpent is. Linn.' 
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair. 

62. Cyprcea Arabica, var. maculata. C. maculata. 

Barnes. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair. 

Fam. TURBINID^. 

63. Imperator heliotropium. Trochusheliotropium. Mar- 

tyn, U. C. t. 30. Tr. Imperialis. Lam. viii. 10. 
Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol. iii. 224, t. 61, f. 1-4. 
Tr. Solaris imperialis. Chemn., v. t. 173, f. 1714-15. 
Wood, Cat, f. 68. Imp. aureolatus. De Montf. ii. 
199. Turbo echinatus, var. Gmel. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn. 

64. Imperator Cookii. Trochus Cookii. Gmel., 3582. 

Wood's Cat., f. 42. Lam. } vii. 17. Tr. Cooksianus. 
Chemn., v., f. 1540-51. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., 
iii., 224, t. 60, f. 19-23. Tr. sulcatus. Martyn, U. 
C., t. . Turbo sulcatus. Gmel., 3592. 
Inhabits New Zealand, Tasman's Bay. Chemn. 

*65. Imperator inequalis. Trochus inequalis. Gmel., 3582. 
Martyn, U. C., t. 31. Tr. gibberosus. Dillw., Chemn., 
x., 287. Vig., 23, f. A, B. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Favanne. Friendly Islands. 
Martyn. 

66. Turbo granosus. Trochus granosus. Martyn, U. C., 

t, 37. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn. Cook's Straits. Dr. 
Dieffenbach. 

67. Turbo stramineus. Helix stramineus. Martyn, U. C., 

t. 71. Turbo torquatus. Gmel., Chemn., x., 293. 
Vig., 24, f. A. A. Lam., 40. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn. 



SHELLS. 237 

68. Turbo smaragdus. Lam., viii., 45. Quoy et Gaim., 

Voy. Astrol., iii., 219, t. 60, f. 6-8. Wood's Cat., 
f. 22. Helix smaragdus. Martyn, U. C., t. 73, 74. 
Inhabits New Zealand, Tory Channel, in Cook's Straits. 
Dieffenbach. 

69. Turbo argyrostomus. Gmel., Chemn., v., t. 165, f. 1562- 

63. Trochus atramentarius. Callone. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Favanne. 

70. Turbo Lagonkairii. Delphinula Lagonkairii. Desk., 

Mag. Zool., 1839, t. 6. 
Inhabits New Zealand. M. Deshayes. 
* Phasianella bulimoides. Buccinum Australe, Gmel^ was for- 
merly said to be a fresh-water shell from New Zealand. 

Fam. TROCHID^. 

*71. Ziziphinus canaliculatus. Trochus canaliculatus. 
Martyn, U. C., t. 32. Trochus dolarius. Chemn., x., 
f. 1579-80. Wood's Cat., f. 96. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn. California. Capt. 

Belcher, R.N. 

*72. Ziziphinus annulatus. Trochus annulatus. Mar- 
tyn, U. C., t. 33. Troch. virgineus. Chemn., x., f. 
1581-82. Wood's Cat., f. 98. Troch. caelatus, /3. 
Gmel. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn. California. Capt. 
Belcher, R.N. 

73. Ziziphinus Cunninghami. Gray, Griffith, A. K. t. 
Inhab. New Zealand. Allan Cunningham, F.L.S. $c. 

74. Ziziphinus tigris. Trochus tigris. Martyn, U. C., t. 

75. Troch. diaphanus. Lam. vii., 45. Quoy et 
Guim., iii., 255, t. 64, f. 1-5. Troch. granatum. 
Gmel, 3584. Chemn., v., t. 170, f. 1654-55. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn. 

75. Ziziphinus selectus. Trochus selectus. Chemn., xi., 
f. 1896-97. Wood's Cat., f. 101. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Chemn. 
May be the young of the former. 

76. Ziziphinus punctulatus. Trochus punctulatus. Mar- 



238 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

tyn, U. C., t. 36. Troch. punctulatus. Gmel. Troch. 
diaphanus. Gmel. Troch. asper. Chemn., v. 26, t. 
161, f. 1520-21. Spengler, Naturf., ix., 152, t. 5, 
f. 2. 

Inhabits New Zealand. B. M. 

77. Troch. (gibbium) sanguineus, n. s. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Stanger. 

Shell top-shaped; white, with rows of numerous blood-red 
spots; whorls flattened, the last obscurely keeled; the front 
rather convex, with sharp-edged, low, spiral ridges. 

78. Rotella lineolata. 

Inhabits New Zealand, Kawia, W. Coast of N. Island. 
Dr. Dieffenbach. 

79. Monodonta angulatum. Trochus angulatus. Quoy 

et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., iii., 259, t. 64, f. 16-20. 
Inhabits Bay of Islands. 

80. Monodonta reticularis. Gray. Yate' s New Zealand, 

App. Trochus reticularis. Gray; Wood. Cat., Sup. 
f. 21. Troch. Zelandicus. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. 
Astrol. iii. 257, t. 64, f. 12-15. 

Inhabits Race of the Astrolabe ; Cook's Straits. Dr. 
Dieffenbach. 

81. Monodonta tricarinata. Lam. Trochus asper. Chemn. 

v., t. 166, f. 1582. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Favanne. 

82. Monodonta subrostrata. Gray; Yate's New Zealand, 

App. 

Inhabits East Coast. Yate. 

Shell conical, suborbicular, solid, black, with close wavy longi- 
tudinal yellow lines ; spire short, whorls 5 ; last large, rounded, 
hinder part with 3 to 6 spiral keels ; axis imperforated, throat 
smooth and silvery. 

83. Polyodonta elegant;. Gray ; Yate s New Zealand, 

App. Trochus tiaratus. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. 
Astrol., iii., 256, t. 64, f. 6, 11. 

Inhabits East Coast. Yate. Race of the Astrolabe. 
Quoy. Cook's Straits. Dr. Dieffenbach. 



SHELLS. 239 

Shell conical, white, purple dotted ; whorls flat, with an elevated 
upper edge, and 6 or 1 spiral rows of beads ; base flat, closely 
beaded, and purple dotted ; umbilicus conical, deep, smooth, opake, 
white. 

84. Polydonta tuberculata. n. s. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Dieffenbach. 

Shell conical, rather produced, whitish; whorls flat, with 4 
series of large rounded tubercles; the front of the last whorl flat, 
with rather close spiral ridges, the inner ones the largest, and the 
outer ones very small ; umbilicus conical, with three spiral ridges ; 
opake, white. 

85. Elenchus Iris. Humph. Cal. Cat. 25, n. 434. Lima- 

con opalus. Martyn, U. C., t. 24. Trochus Iris. 
Gmel 3580; Chemn. ,v., f. 1522-23. Turbo piarag- 
dus. Gmel., 1 12. Cantharidus Iris. Montf., ii. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn. Cook's Straits. Dr. 
Dieffenbach. 

86. Elenchus purpuratus. Limax purpuratus. Martyn, 

U. C., t. 68, f. 2. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn. Bay of Islands. 
Dieffenbach. 

87. Elenchus elegans. Trochus elegans. Gmel., 3581 . 

Zorn. Naturf., vii., 167, t. 2, f. D 1 and D2. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Chemn. 

Fam. HALIOTID.E. 

88. Haliotis Iris. Martyn, U. C., t. 61. Wood, Cat., 

f. 13; Chemn., x., f. 1612-13. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn. Cook's Straits. Dief- 
fenbach. East coast, abundant. Dr. Sinclair. 
" The foot black when alive. The * mutton-fish 1 of the colonists ; 
eaten boiled, but very tough. Pieces of the shell are used as bait 
to fish-hooks." Dr. Sinclair. 

89. Haliotis Virginia. Chemn.x., 314, t. 166, f. 1607-8. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Chemn. 

*90. Haliotis Australis. Gmelin. H. rugosoplicata. 

Chemn., x., f. 1604-5. 
Inhabits New Zealand, New Holland. Chemn. 



240 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

Fam. FISSURELLID^E. 

91. Emarginula striat ula. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., 
ill., 332, t. 68, f. 21, 22. 

Inhabits New Zealand. 

92. Emarginula fissurata. Patella fissurata. Humph. 
Conch. 20, t. 4, f. 3. Chemn., xi., 188, t. 197, f. 19. 
29, 30. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Favanne. 

93. Tugali elegans. 

Inhab. New Zealand, Great Barrier Island. Dr. Sinclair. 

Shell oblong, white with close radiating stria, and cancellated 
by a concentric ridge, which forms arched ribs across the striae. 

Nearly allied to Emarginula Parmaphor aides of Quoy, 342, 
t. 68, f. 15, 16, from New Holland, which appears also to belong 
to this genus. 

In this genus the shell is oblong, narrower in front, and radiately 
striated, the apex conical, subposterior recurved, the margin of 
the shell deeply crenulated with a broad sinuosity in front, and 
no notch. It ; appears to be intermediable between Parmapho- 
rius and Emarginula ; it has the front lobe of former, and the 
conical shape and radiated subcancellated surface of the latter. 

Fam. LOTTIAD^. 

94. Lottiafragilis. Patelloida fragilis. Quoy et Gaim., 
Voy. Astrol., iii., 351, t. 71, f. 28-30 ; Chemn., 1. 197, 
f. 1921. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Quoy. 

95. Lottia pileopsis. Patelloida pileopsis. Quoy el 

Gaim., Voy. Astrol., iii., 359, t. 71, f. 25-27. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Quoy. 

Fam. NERITID^. 

96. Nerita nigra. Quoy et Gaim. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Quoy. Manukao, N. Island, 
W. coast. Dr. Dieffenbach. 

Nerita bidens (from Favanne, t. 10, f. R. lower) is said to be 
found in New Zealand. 



SHELLS. 241 

Fam. jANTHINIDjE. 

97. Janthina exigua. Lam. Sow. Gen. f. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Coast of Taranaki N. Island. 
Dr. Dieffenbach. 

Fam. NATICID.E. 

98. Natica Zelandica. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., ii. 

237, t. 66, f. 11, 12. 

Inhabits New Zealand. E. coast, N. Island. Dr. Dief- 
fenbach. 
The operculum is shelly, rather concave externally. Mr.Bidwell- 

Fam. LITTORINID^E. 

99. Cerithium bicarinata. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Stanger. Bay of Islands. 

Dr. Sinclair. 

Shell turreted, brown ; whorls rather convex, strongly spirally 
striated, and indistinctly transversely plicated ; the body whorl, 
with two ridges on its outer edge, separated by a concave groove ; 
mouth ovate, with a short canal in front. 

100. Cerithium australis. 

Inhab. New Zealand, Bay of Islands. Dr. Sinclair. 
Shell ovate, rather turreted, black, slightly longitudinal plicated, 
whorles nearly flat, with two distant spiral grooves on the hinder 
half. The front of the last one with two distinct prominent spiral 
ridges, the hinder rather in front of the back edge of the inner lip, 
and the anterior one round the canal ; mouth ovate, inner lip with 
a distinct ridge behind ; canal short, open. 

101. Amnicola antipodanum. 
Inhabits New Zealand, in fresh water. 

Shell ovate, acute, subperforated (generally covered with a brown 
earthy coat) ; whorls rather rounded, mouth ovate, axis 3 lines ; 
operculum horny and subspiral : variety, spire rather longer, 
whorls more rounded. 

This species is like Pajudina nigra of Quoy and Gaimard, but 
the operculum is more spiral. Quoy described the operculum as 
concentric, but figured it subspiral. Paludina ventricosa of Quoy is 
evidently a Nematura. 

102. Amnicola ? Zelandice. 

Inhabits New Zealand, in fresh- water ditches. 

VOL. II. R 



242 FAUNA OF FEW ZEALAND. 

Shell ovate, turreted, imperforated, pellucid greenish, generally 
covered with a brown earthy coat ; whorls convex ; mouth roundish 
ovate, rather reflexed ; operculum horny, subspiral ; axis J of an 
inch. Like the former, but smaller and more tapering. 

103. Liitorina coccinea. Limax coccinea. Marty n, 
tf.C, t.68,f. 1. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn. 

104. Litlorina Diemenensis. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. As- 
trol., ii. 479, t. 33, f. 8-11. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Quoy. Dr. Sinclair. 
With a white band in front of the mouth. 

105. Littorina cincta. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., ii., 
481, t. 30, f. 20, 21. 

Inhabits New Zealand. 

106. Turritella rosea. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., ii., 
136, t. 55, f. 24-26. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Dr.Stanger. Mangonui,E. coast, 
N. Island. Dr. Dieffenbach. 

Fam. VERMETID.E. 

107. Vermetus cariniferus. Gray. 

Inhabits New Zealand, Parengarenga, N. Cape, N. 

Island. Dr. Dieffenbach. 

Shell thick, irregularly twisted, opake white, with a high com- 
pressed wavy-keel along the upper edge ; mouth orbicular, with 
a tooth above it, formed by the keel. Operculum orbicular, horny. 

108. Vermetus Zelandicus. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., 
iii., 293, t.. 67, f. J6. 17. 

Inhabits Bay of Islands. 

109. Vermetus roseus. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., iii., 
300, t. 67, f. 20-24. 

Inhabits River Thames. 

Fam. CREPIDULID^E. 

110. Crepidula costata. Sow., , f. 3. Deshayes. Quoy 
et Gaim., Voy Astrol,, t. 72, f. 10-12. 

Inhabits Bay of Islands, East coast of the N. Island,. 
Dr. Dieffenbach. Great Barrier I si and. Dr. Sinclair. 



SHELLS. 243 

Are very difficult to be taken from the stones enti.e. They are 
found on stones in deep water. Bidwell. 

This species is very variable in its shape, according to the form 
of the body to which it is attached. It is usually convex, with 
a deep cavity beneath, but it is often quite flat above, and the sep- 
tum is raised above the margin of the cavity beneath ; and lastly, 
the two ends of the shell are often bent towards each other below. 
The ribs are almost always present, as is also the dark colour, but 
sometimes the shell is quite white. 

111. Crepidula contorta. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., 
iii. 418, t. 72, f. 15, 16. 

Inhabits Bay of Islands. 

Always white and smooth ; differs greatly in external form and 
the depth of the cavity. 

112. Calyptrcea dilatata. Sow., Gen., f. . Cre- 
pidula maculata. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., iii., 
422, t. 72, f. 6-9. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Yate. Bay of Islands. Dief- 

fenbach. Great Barrier Island. Dr. Sinclair. 
The normal form of the shell is to have a round outline beneath, 
but in the smaller specimens, which have grown in a confined 
space, the front of the aperture is often produced, and the right 
side so contracted that the shell assumes an elongated shape like 
a Crepidula, from which it is chiefly to be distinguished by a small 
cavity on the axis, near the angle of the inner lip, and its more 
acute spire. 

Fani. BULLION. 

113. Eulla Quoyii. Gray, n. s. Bulla striata. Quoy et 
Gaim., Voy. Astrol., ii., 354, t. 26, f. 8, 9. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Quoy. Stanger. 
Shell ovate, smooth, marbled with purplish-grey and white dots ; 
spire perforated. 

Like Bulla striata, Lam , but quite distinct. 

114. Bulla Australis. Gray. King's Voy. N. H. Quoy et 
Gaim., t. 26, f. 38, 39. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Yate. 

115. Bulla Zelandice. Gray, n. s. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Dieffenbach. 

Shell ovate, subglobose, imperforated, thin, pellucid, very slightly 

R 2 



244 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

concentrically striated, covered with a very thin greenish perio- 
straca, the inner lip rather spread over the pillar in front, smooth. 
Very like B. hydates of England in size, but rather more ven- 
tricose. 

Fam. PTEROTRACHEID^E. 

116. Carinaria Australis. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., 
ii., 394, t. 29, f. 9-16. 

Inhabits sea between New Holland and New Zealand. 

Fam. ARGONAUTID^S. 

117. Argonauta nodosa. Solander. A. tuberculata. Shaw. 
A. oryzata. Musgrave. 

Inhabits Great Barrier Island. Dr. Dieffenbach. 

Fam. DORID^. 

118. Doris carinata. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., ii., 
254, t. 16, f. 10-14. 

Inhabits New Zealand. River Thames. 

Fam. TRITONIAD.E. 

119. Eolidia longicauda. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., 
ii., 288, t. 21, f. 19, 20. 

Inhabits New Zealand, Cook's Straits. 

Fam. PATELLID.E. 

120. Patella denticulata. Martyn, U. C., t. 65. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Martyn. 

121. Patella radians. Gmel., 3720. Chemn., x., 329, t. 
168, f. 1618. Patella argentea. Quoy et Gaim, Voy. 
Astrol., in., 345, t. 70, f. 16, 17. 

Inhabits New Zealand. 

122. Patella stellularia. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol., 
iii.,347,t. 70, f. 18-21. 

Inhabits New Zealand. jB. M. 

123. Patella inconspicua. Gray, n. s. 
Inhab. New Zealand. 

Shell conical, oblong, with about 20 radiating ribs, the apex 
erect, disk white, rather greenish under the tip, length 1 \ inch. 



SHELLS. 245 

124. P. stellifera. Gmel. P. stellata sen stellifera. 
Chemn. x. 329, t. 168, f. 1607. 

Inhab. New Zealand and Friendly Islands. 

125. P. margaritaria. Chemn. xi., t. 197, f. 1914-15. 
P. ornata. Delwyn, 1029. 

Inhab. New Zealand. Chemn. 

126. Patella Cochlear. Born Mus. 420, 1. 18, f. 3. P. 
caudata. Mus. Lever. 242. 

Inhab. New Zealand, Favanne. Cape of Good Hope. 

127. Patella nodosa. Hombrom et Jacquenot, Comp. 
Rend., 1841, 221. 

Inhab. New Zealand. 

128. Patella stermus. Hombrom, 1. c. 
Inhab. New Zealand. 

129. Patella radiatilis. Hombrom, 1. c. 
Inhab. New Zealand. 

These three species are only indicated, and not described. 

Fam. CHITONID^E. 

130. Acanthopleura nobilis. 
Inhab. New Zealand. 

Mantle rugose, rough, with scattered long tapering brown 
bristles ; valves brown, convex, evenly rounded, with very minute 
dots like shagreen, the lateral area slightly marked with 3 or 4 
indistinct rays ; inside white ; length 3 inches. 

131. Acanthoplehra aculeatus. Chiton aculeatus. Gmel.? 

Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. iii. 373, t. 74, f. 1-5. 
Inhab. New Zealand. 

32. Acanthopleura longicymba. Chiton longicymba. 
Blainv. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. iii. 390, t. 75, 
f. 1-6. 

Inhab. New Zealand, Bay of Islands, and Great Barrier 
Island. Dr. Sinclair. 

133. Acanthopleura undulatus. Chiton undulatus. Quoy 

et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. iii. 393, t. 75, f. 19-24. 
Inhab. Bay of Islands, Great Barrier Island, and Van 
Diemen's Land. Dr. Sinclair. 



246 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

134. Chiton canaliculate s. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. 
iii. 394, t. 75, f. 37-42. 

Inhab. Tasman's Bay, New Zealand. Dr. Stanger. 

135. Chiton pellis-serpentis. Quoy et Gaim., iii. 381, 
t. 74, f. 17-22. 

Inhab. New Zealand, Bay of Islands, and Great Barrier 
Island. Dr. Sinclair. 

136. Chiton viridis. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. iii. 383, 
t. 74, f. 23-28. 

Inhab. New Zealand. Quoy. Bay of Islands and Great 

Barrier Island, on shells, &c. Dr. Sinclair. 
Variety pale reddish brown. Variety green brown, rayed. 

137. Amicula monticularis. Chiton monticularis. Quoy 
et Gaim. Voy. Astrol., iii., 406, t. 73, f. 30-36. 

Inhabits New Zealand, Bay of Tasman; called Karimon. 
Quoy. 

138. Acanthochcetes biramosus. Chiton biramosus. Quoy 
et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. iii. 378, t. 74, f. 12-16. 

Inhab. New Zealand. 

139. Acanthochcetes violaceus. Chiton violaceus. Quoy 
et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., iii,, 403, t. 73, f. 15-20. 

Inhab. New Zealand, Bay of Islands, and Great Barrier 
Island. Dr. Sinclair. 

140. Chitonellus Zelandicus. Chiton Zelandicus. Quoy 
et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., iii., 400, t. 73, f. 5-8. 

Inhab. New Zealand. 

Fam. HELICID^E. 

141. Limax bitentaculatus. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol. 
ii., 149, t. 13, f. 1-3. 

Inhabits New Zealand, Tasman's Bay. 

142. Helix Bmbyi. Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist., vi., 1841, 
317. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Mr. Busby. 

Shell depressed, subdiscoidal, largely umbilicated, opake white, 
covered with a very thick dark-green smooth periostraca, which is 
inflexed over the lips. The spire flattened, rather rugose, outer 
whorl smooth, depressed, rounded ; the mouth large, bent down 
towards the axis. 

It is much like H. Cunningham^ of New Holland, in form and 



SHELLS. 247 

size, but is very peculiar, on account of the thickness and colour 
of the periostraca. 

143. Helix Dunnicr. Gray, Ann.Nat. Hist., vi., 1841, 317. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Mr. Busby. 

Shell depressed, large, umbilicated, pale-brown, outer whorl 
rather angular, smooth. 

144. Helix (carocolla) Zelandice. 
Inhab. New Zealand. 

Shell rather depressed, top-shaped, perforated, pale horn-colour- 
ed, pellucid, varied with reddish-brown dots, and finely concen- 
trically striated ; spire convex, whorl scarcely raised, the outer 
one with a short ridge-like keel, front rounded, convex, umbilicus 
deep, narrow perstome, thin. 

*145. Helix cornu. Chemn. xi., f. 2051-52. Helix vesi- 

calis. Lam. 

Of the Cape ; has been said to come from New Zealand. 
*146. Achatina sultana. Helix sultana. Wood, Cat. f. 75. 
Of S. America ; has been said to come from New 
Zealand. 

147. Bulimus antipodarum 

Inhab. Kaitaia, New Zealand. Dr. Dieffenbach. 

Shell oblong, imperforated, smooth, pale-brown, covered with a 
pale-brown, rather opake periostraca, varied with darker streaks, 
especially near the suture; apex reddish, bluntly rounded, whorls 
slightly convex, mouth 

Described from a young specimen with only four whorls, and 
an unformed mouth, which has an axis 1 inch long, and the last 
whorl is 1 inch in diameter. It is very like in character to the 
Bulimus Julgetans, Brod., from the Philippine Islands. 

148. Bulimus Jibr at us. Helix aurantia. Ferusac, Prod. 
47. Perry, t. 29, f. 1. Bulimus bovinus. Brug. Limax 
fibratus. Martyn, Chemn. ix.t. 121, f. 1039-40. Vo- 
luta australis. Diellwyn. Auricula aurisbovina. Lam. 

Inhab. Cape Maria Van Dieman. New Zealand. Dr. 

Dieffenbach. 

Two dead washed specimens, with the outer lip thickened in- 
ternally, and broadly sinuated. 

FAM. ONCHIDIAD^E. 

149. Onchidium patelloide. Quay et Gaini. Voy. AstroL 
ii. 212, t. 15, f. 21-23. 

Inhab. New Zealand, Tasman's Bay. 



248 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

150. Onchidium nigricans. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. 
ii. 214, t. 15, f. 24-26. 

Inhab. New Zealand, " Anse de FAstrolabe. 5 ' 

Fam. AMPHIBOLID^E. 

151. Amphibola avellana. Helix avellana. Gmel. 3640. 
Wood, Cat. f. 46. Chemn. v. f. 19 19-20. Ampul- 
laria avellana. Lam. vi. Ampullacera avellana. 
Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. ii. 176, t. 15, f. 1-8. 

Inhab. New Zealand. Sunk in the sand. 

Eaten by the natives. Quoy, ii., 199. 

They live on mud-flats where mangroves grow, and in such-like 
places. One specimen had the whorls nearly on a plane, and the 
ridges very much raised. 

Fam. SIPHONARIAD^E. 

152. Siphonaria australis. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. 
ii. 329, t. 25, f. 32-34. 

Inhab. New Zealand, Cook's Straits. 

1 53. Siphonaria Zelandica. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. 
ii. 344, t. 25, f. 17, 18. 

Tnhab. New Zealand. Quoy. 

154. Siphonaria scutellum. Desk. Mag. Zool., 1841, 
t. 35. 

Inhab. Chatham Island. M. Desk. 

Fam. LYMNEAD.E, 

155. Physa variabilis. Gray. 

Inhab. rivers with Amnicola antipodarum. 

Shell ovate, spire conical, apex often eroded, whorls ventri- 
cose, swollen, and often flattened and keeled behind. The young 
shells have an acute spire. 

These shells vary so much in appearance, that if I had not re- 
ceived them all in one parcel, as if from the same locality, I should 
be inclined to have regarded them as different species. They vary 
not only in size from f to i of an inch, with the same number of 
whorls, but also in the hinder part of the last whorl being rounded 
and in others flattened and edged with a distinct keel; in the 
height of the spire, which is generally about two-thirds the length 
of the mouth, and in others scarcely raised half that height ; and, 
lastly, some, instead of being short and swollen, as is their general 
character, are elongated and tapering. 



SHELLS. 249 

Fam. VENERID^E. 

1 56. Arthemis subrosea, Gray. Yale's New Zealand, App. 
Inhab. New Zealand, East Coast. Yate. 

Shell orbicular, rather convex, opake-white, rosy-purple on the 
umbones, with close, regular, minute, concentric grooves, crossed 
by a few very obscure radiating striae, lunule short, cordate, inside 
white, disk opake. Var. Lunule rather smaller. 

Live sunk 9 inches in the sand, and are only to be got at spring- 
tides. They are not common, and only to be procured by industry. 

157. Arthemis Australia. Venus Australis. Quoy et 
Gaim. Voy. Astrol. iii. 528, t. 84, f. 11-12. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Quoy. 

158. Dosina Zelandica. Gray. Yale's New Zealand, 
App. 

Inhab. East Coast. Yate. 

Shell ovate-cordate, ventricose, solid, brown, with close, regular, 
slightly elevated concentric laminae, which are higher at each 
end ; lunule large, ovate- cordate, inside dead- white ; hinge margin 
moderate ; hinder slope simple, without any flat shelving space 
on the left valve. 

Very like D. rugosa, but the ridges are thinner, closer, the shell 
more oblong, the hinge margin thinner, and the lunule much 
longer and narrower in proportion. 

The Dosince have a small anterior additional tooth on the hinge 
margin. Lamarck refers them to Venus ; they are intermediate 
between Venus and Cytherea. 

159. Dosina oblonga. 

Inhabits New Zealand; between stones in mud, or 
rather gravel. 

Shell oblong, cordate, white with a few red rays near the umbo ; 
very slightly radiantly striated, with numerous narrow, close, 
rather regular, high rounded edged concentric ridges, which are 
rather more laminar at each end ; lunule cordate. 

The edge is very finely crenulated, and the folds on the front 
side of the shell are rather crenulated by the radiated striae, but all 
the rest of the shell is nearly smooth ; the inside is white ; the 
anterior lateral tooth is distinct but small. Varies in being rather 
more attenuated and produced behind. 



250 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

160. Venus Yateii. Gray. Yale's New Zealand, App- 
Inhab. East Coast. Yate. 

Shell ovate, rather truncated behind, solid, brown, with rather 
distant, thin, concentric laminae, which are higher behind and 
before, and waved ; hinder slope depressed, lozenge-shaped ; 
lunule laminar. Like V. plicata, but rather shorter ; concentric 
plates higher, waved, and torn on the edge. 

161. Venus Dieffenbachii. Gray. 
Inhabits New Zealand. 

Shell trigonal, cordate, solid, thick, white ; umbones brown, with 
broad radiating ribs and distinct, erect, sharp-edged concentric 
ridges ; the front side with close concentric sharp-edged ridges ; 
the hinder side smooth, with indistinct broad radiating ribs ; the 
hinder slide flattened; the lunule cordate; the disk of young shell 
and the hinder edge and hinge of the adult shells purple. 

The younger shell is sometimes more oblong, being produced 
behind. 

162. Venus Stutchburii. Gray. Wood's Cat. Supp. f. . 
Venus Costata. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol.iii. 521, 
t. 84, f. 1-2. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Quoy. B.M. 

163. Venus Zelandica. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. iii. 
522, t. 84, f. 5-6. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Quoy. B.M. 

164. Venus crassa. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. iii. 523, 
t. 84, f. 7-8. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Quoy. B.M. 

165. Venus intermedia. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. iii. 
526, t. 84, f. 9-10. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Quoy. B.M. 

166. Veneruiis reflexa. 
Inbab. Rocks, New Zealand. 

Shell oblong, very irregular; rounded in front and truncated 
behind ; surface with thin sharp-edged, reflexed, concentric 
ridges, which are highest and most bent over and back at the 
hinder edge, and they generally have two or three lower concen- 
tric ridges between them ; hinge teeth, 3. 3. ; inside yellowish, 
hinder half blackish purple, with a yellow edge. 



SHELLS. 251 

Are sometimes oblong, elongate, and regular, but are generally 
distorted ; the regular ones are rarely white within, and their teeth 
are always more oblique and less prominent than in the distorted 
specimens. 

167. Venus Mesodesma. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. 
iii., 532, t. 84, f. IMS. 

Inhabits New Zealand. 

This shell varies in the degrees of its convexity, and the regu- 
larity and height of the concentric ridges. 

168. Venus violacea. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. iii., 
533, t. 84, f. 19-20. 

Inhabits New Zealand. 

*169. Venus plumbea. Gmel, 3280. Crassatella incras- 
sata, Lam. 

A Paris fossil ; was figured by Chemnitz as coming from New 
Zealand. 

Fam. MACTRID.E. 

170. Mactra discors. Gray, Mag. N.H., L, 371. 
Inhabits New Zealand, West Coast, N. Island. Dr. 

Dieffenbach. 

171. Sj)isula ovata. Gray, n. s. 

Inhabits New Zealand, West Coast, N. Island. Dr. 
Dieffenbach. 

Shell ovate, ventricose, inequilateral, thin, slightly concentri- 
cally wrinkled ; rounded in front, rather attenuated, and produced 
behind ; white, covered with a thin pale brown periostraca, much 
produced beyond the edge behind ; inside yellow ; lateral teeth 
short, very high and subtriangular. 

172. Spisula elongata. Gt'ay. Mag. N. H., i., 271. 
Mactra elongata. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. iii., 
518, t. 83, f. 1-2. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Quoy. 

173. Luiraria acinaces. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. 
iii., 545, t. 83, f. 5-6. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Quoy. 



252 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

Fam. MESODESMID^E. 

174. Mesodesma Chemnitzii. Desk., Enc. Meth. ii., 443. 
Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. iii., 504, t. 82, f. 9-] 1. 
Mya Nome Zelandise. Chemn. vi., t. 3, f. 19-20. 
Paphies roissyana. Lesson, Voy. Coq. ii., 424,, t. 
15, f. 4. Mya Australis. GmeL, 3221. Mactra 
Australis. Wood's Cat., f. 24. Machsena ovata, and 
M. subtriangulata. Leach, MSS., Brit. Mus. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Chemn. Tasman's Bay. Quoy. 
Called Pipes by the natives, who eat them as food. They are 
very abundant at the Bay of Islands, in brackish water. Dr. 
Sinclair. Everywhere. Dr. Dieffenbach. 

175. Mesodesma ventricosa. Gray, n. s. 

Inhabits New Zealand, North Shore, Cook's Straits. 
Dr. Dieffenbach. 

Shell ovate, wedge-shaped, truncated behind, thin, ventricose, 
opake-white, smooth, slightly concentrically striated ; covered with 
a thin, nearly transparent, horn-coloured periostraca, edge thin. 
The lateral teeth short, smooth, compressed, close to the cartilage 
pit, the front one of the left valve the largest. The syphonal in- 
flection does not reach to quite the centre of the disk. 

Like the American cuneiform species, but shorter, higher, 
thinner, and more ventricose, and the teeth different. 

176. Mesodesma subtriangulata. Erycina subtriangu- 
lata. Gray. Ann. Phil. 

Inhabits New Zealand, West Coast, N. Island. Dr. 
Dieffenbach. 

SAXICAVID^E. 

177- Hiatella Minuta. Solen minutus. Linn. 

Lam. Hiatella arctica. Lam. Donax rhomboides. 
Poli. Saxicava rhomboides. Desk. 
Inhabits New Zealand. 

I can see no character by which I can separate the two New 
Zealand specimens I have seen from the English specimens. It 
appears to differ from S. Australis, Lam. 

Fam. CARDIADA:. 
178. Cardium pulcliellum. Gray, n. s. 



SHELLS. 253 

Inhabits New Zealand, East Coast, N. Island. Dr. 

Dieffenbach. 

Shell subcordate, rather ventricose, thin, rosy white, varied 
with red ; hinge, margin, and two centrical rays bright, with 
numerous, 60 or 65 narrow, rather nodulose ribs, hinder slope 
slightly flattened ; inside white, varied with bright red. 
Described from a single valve; probably young. 

Fam. TELLINID^E. 

179. Psamnobia Stangeri. Gray, n. s. 
Inhab. New Zealand. 

Shell oblong, solid, rounded in front, and rather obliquely trun- 
cated behind ; greyish, with purple rays, slightly concentrically 
striated, more deeply in front, inner surface and fulcrum of hinge 
purple; teeth large. 

Very like P. vespestina in appearance \ the hinder slope of both 
valves are equally smooth, the syphonal inflection reaches to some 
distance before the umbo. 

The younger shells are covered with a smooth brown periostraca 
and are generally deeper purple within, and redder externally; some 
are orange, and others whitish within. 

Named in honour of my friend Dr. Stanger, who kindly pre- 
sented these and other New Zealand specimens to the Museum, 
and who is well known for the arduous duties that devolved on him 
during the return of the expedition of the African Society. 

I have seen this shell named B. Tongana, Quoy, but it is much 
higher than his figure. 

180. Psammotia nitida. 
Inhab. New Zealand. 

Shell oval, oblong, thin, pellucid, porous, rounded in front and 
rather tapering behind, covered with a hard polished horn-coloured 
periostraca ; inner surface purplish white, or purple ; hinge teeth 
small. 

This shell is allied to Psammotia flavicans, Lam. (which is also 
Sanguinolaria livida and P. alba, Lam.), but is not so high nor 
produced below, and is thinner, and the syphonal inflection is not 
quite so much produced towards the front edge. 

181. Psammobia lineolata. Gray. Yate's New Zealand, 
App. P. livida. Lam. 17? 

Inhab. East Coast. Yate. 

Shell oblong, transverse, compressed, obliquely truncated be- 



254 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

hind, purplish rosy, with rather darker concentric belts, and very 
thin anastomosing, radiating lines. 

182. Tellina alba. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. iii. 

500, t. 81, f. 1-3. 
Inhab. Tasman's Bay. 

183. Tellina lactea. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. iii. 

501, t. 81, f. 14-16. 

Inhab. Tasman's Bay. Quoy. Wain^aroa, N. Island. 
Dr. Dieffenbach. 

This shell, often rosy externally and yellow within, and covered 
with a pale brown periostraca; it differs considerably in the height, 
width, and convexity of the specimens. 

There are two distinct varieties from different parts of the 
island : one short, high, and swollen in front, like Quoy's figure ; 
the other comparatively longer, and more compressed. 

" They live among stones about low-water mark, and at least as 
far as three fathoms deep. 

" The animal is very small, and has a small foot. The tubes are 
6 or 8 inches long, reaching to the surface of the sand. They lie 
horizontally in the sand with the left or flattest valves beneath." 
Dr. Stanger. 

Fam. PHOLAD.E. 

184. Barnia similis. Gray. Pholas similis, Gray. Yates 
New Zealand, App. 

Inhab. East Coast. Yate. 

Shell oblong, rather elongate, acute in front, tapering behind, 
with rather close concentric laminae ; the anterior part with rather 
close and radiating grooves ; hinge margin reflexed, simple be- 
neath ; dorsal plate single, elongate, acute in front, truncated 
behind ; very like Pholas parvus t but larger, broader, and more 
acute in front. 

185. Talona tridens. Gray. 

Inhab. New Zealand, in limestone. Bidwell. 
Shell ovate, with a deep central groove ; the front half with 
closed, waved, concentric ridges; the hinder half with distant 
regular concentric grooves. The front gape large, broad, ovate, 
at length closed up; the two hinder processes forming together a 
cup about as long as broad, each furnished with a submarginal 
and central rib. 



SHELLS. 255 

This genus, which is characterized by having the abductor 
muscles enclosed in a shelly case formed by the reflexed edge of 
the valve, furnished at its hinder end with two small additional 
valves, has the faculty of closing its anterior opening, and of form- 
ing a cup- shape process for the protection of its tubes at its hinder 
end when it arrived at its full growth. Other species are found in 
England, as Talona papyracea ; in Africa, as T. dausa ; and I have 
seen another from South America. 

186. Teredo ? 

Inhab. New Zealand. Dr. Stanger. 

This species forms, at distances in its tube, close imperfect septa, 
pierced with a large central, simple, oblong hole, surrounded by a 
reflexed edge ; the tube is thin, of a prismatic crystalline texture. 
I have not seen the valves or pallettes. 

Fam. SOLENID.E. 

187. Panopea Zelandica. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. 
iii. 547, t. 83, f. 7-9. 

Inhab. New Zealand. Quoy. Yate. 

Fam. ANATIMD^E. 

188. Panopea Solandri. Gray, n. s. 

Inhab. New Zealand, Turanga. Dr. Dieffenbach. 

Shell oblong, ventricose, rounded in front, rather narrower 
and truncated behind, smooth, white. 

Very like the European P. Aldrovandi, but smaller and more 
contracted behind ; much more ventricose than the P. Zelandice. 

Named in honour of Dr. Solander, who accompanied Captain 
James Cook in his expedition, and who did much to illustrate the 
natural history of New Zealand and other parts of the world. 

189. Myadorastriata. Pandora striata. Quoy et Gaim. 
Voy. Astrol. iii. 537, t. 83, f. 10. 

Inhab. New Zealand. 

The periostraca is beautifully marked, thin, transparent, and 
covered with many series of small oblong scales, divided into 
groups by the radiating lines ; it is reflexed into the edge of the 
mantles within the edge of the valves. 

" It is extremely difficult to separate the valves of these shells. 
The foot is small and square when contracted." Bidwell. 



"256 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

Fam. CORBULID^E. 

190. Corbula Zelandica. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. 
Hi. 511, t. 85, f. 12-14. 

Inhab. River Thames. 

Fam. SOLENOMYADiE. 

191. Solenomya australis. Lam. ? 

Inhab. New Zealand, Tauranga, Bay of Plenty. Dr. 
Dieffenbach. Common. Bidwell. 

Shell oblong, brown, paler rayed, rounded in front, and rather 
more truncated behind ; periostraca dark brown, much produced. 

This species is very like the one found in the Mediterranean ; 
but it appears rather shorter, higher, and more ventricose. 

Length 1 T 2 in., height / in. ; periostraca extends beyond the 
margin of the shell for 3 or 4 lines. 

" The foot is very curious : it is divided at the end and fringed ; 
when the animal puts it forth, which it can do to full two-thirds of 
its own length, it opens and turns back like an umbrella or mush- 
room anchor ; it serves for the purpose of taking a greater hold 
than would be permitted to the common sort of foot. 

" They live at the verge of the extreme low-water, and below, in 
greasy mud about 6 inches beneath the surface, and are in all sorts 
of positions." Bidwell. 

Fam. CARDITID^. 

192. Venericardia. Quoy. Venericardia australis. Quoy 
et Gaim.-, ii. 480, t. 78, f. 11-14. 

Inhab. New Zealand. Quoy. Turanga, Dr. Dieffen- 
bach. B. M. 

Ovate, with 22 rounded nodulose ribs ; inside rosy, the hinder 
part brown. 

Fam. LUCINIDVE. 

193. Lucina Zelandica. Gray. Yates New Zealand, 
App. 

Inhab. East Coast. Yate. 

Shell suborbicular, rather compressed, rather solid, opake white, 
smooth, very slightly concentrically striated, and covered with a 
thin, smooth periostraca. Like L. lactea, but more compressed 
and opake. Ligament linear, external, marginal. 



SHELLS. 257 

194. Lucina divaricata. Lam. '27. Tellina divaricata. 
Linn, 

Inhab. New Zealand. 

"They live about a spade deep (10 inches) in the sand on the 
coast, and are not common." Bidwell. 

This is one of the generally-spread species of Mollusca, being 
found on the shores of Europe, India, Africa, America, and Aus- 
tralia. 

Fam. UNIONIM. 

195. Umo Menziesii. Gray, n. s. 

Inhab. New Zealand. Rivers in the N. Island and 
Lake Taupo. Dr. Dieffenbach. 

Shell oblong, high, compressed, thin, obliquely truncated be- 
hind ; covered with a thin olive periostraca, and much excoriated 
near the umbo. The hinder lateral teeth elongated, only elevated 
on their hinder extremity, where they are crowded; the inner 
anterior tooth of the right valve large, thick, ovate, rugose ; the 
rest small, compressed ; the disk of the shell brown, varied. 

Var. Shell elongate, lower, rather produced, and rounder be- 
hind ; the hinder part of the posterior lateral teeth straight. 

Named in honour of the late Mr. Archibald Menzies, F.L.S., 
who accompanied Captain Vancouver, as surgeon, in his expedition. 

196. Unto Aucklandica. 

Inhab. New Zealand, Bay of Islands, and Auckland, 
in the Bay of Amabrusa. Dr. Sinclair. 

Shell oblong and rather thick, rounded in front, and rather 
obliquely truncated behind, covered with a thick olive periostraca ; 
umbo black, decorticated, cardinal teeth low, blunt, oblique, hinder 
lateral teeth laminar, far off; the inner surface pearly, purplish 
near the umbo, greenish on the hinder edge. 

The inner surface of the shell (dead ones ?) is often so exfoli- 
ated that scarcely any thing but the periostraca remains, so that 
the shells can be bent about in any direction when wet. 

Fam. ARCADE. 

19?. PecLunculus laiicoatatus. Quoy ct Gaim. Voy. 
Astrol. iii. 466, t. 77, f. 4-6. Pectmiculus ovatus. 
Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. iii. 467, t. 77, f. 1-3. 
Inhab. New Zealand. 

Regular when young, becoming thicker, higher, and more or less 
VOL. n. s 



258 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

truncated on the hinder side. Hence they have been considered 
as two species by Quoy and Gaimard. 

198. Pectunculus. 

Dr. Sinclair has brought me a series of specimens of another 
species of this genus, found in a fossil state near East Cape, in 
company with a Cardium? a Nucula, an Ostrea, and three 
species of Univalves : two of them are probably Fusi, and the 
other is quite a new form to any I have hitherto seen. 

"It has been stated that fossil shells are riot found in the 
islands." Dr. Sinclair. 

199. Nucula australis. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. 
iii. 471, t. 78, f. 5-10. 

Inhab. New Zealand. 

Fam. MYTILID.E. 

200. Mytilus canaliculatus. Martyn, U. C. t. 78. 
Wood, Cat. f. 47. Mytilus latus. Ckemn. viii. 167, 
t. 84, f. 747. Dillwyn, R. S., 311. M. durus. 
Solander. 

Inhab. New Zealand. Martyn. Cook's Straits. Dr. 
Dieffenbach. 

This species, like the common Mytilus of the English sea, ap- 
pears to vary in size, form, and thickness of the shell, according 
to the locality in which it happens to be placed. 

The one variety is elongated, white within, with a purplish tint 
on the submarginal muscular impression ; and the younger spe- 
cimens are thin, and covered with a thin periostraca : but this 
variety sometimes grows to a large size, as, for example, to 7 inches 
in length, and 3 inches in width. The periostraca of these spe- 
cimens is blackish, and bright verditer green on the edge. 

The second variety is thicker, more solid, much broader, and 
rounded. The valves are covered with a dark-olive periostraca, 
paler on the ventral side, purplish brown, and pearly near the 
hinder muscular scar. Some specimens of this variety have the 
hinder edge of the valves purplish black. 

Inhab. the North of the Thames and East Cape, New Zealand. 
Dr. Sinclair. 

It differs from M. smaragdus of China in the young shells being 
more ventricose, thinner, and rayed with brown. 



SHELLS. 259 

*201. Mytilus polyodontes. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. As- 

trol. iii. 462, t. 78, f. 15, 16. 
Inhabits New Zealand. 

202. Modiola albicosta. Lam. ? 

Inhab. New Zealand, Cook's Straits. Dr. Dieffenbach ; 
and Van Diemen's Land. R. Gunn, Esq. 

203. Modiola securis. Lam. ? 

Inhab. New Zealand. Dr. Dieffenbach. 
Only a single small valve has yet been sent. 

204. Lithodomus truncatus. 

Inhab. New Zealand, in stones. Dr. Stanger. 

Shell oblong, subcylindrical, thin, short, and roundly truncated 
in front, contracted in the middle, and rather produced and taper- 
ing behind, covered with a dark brown periostraca ; umbones 
rather prominent, inflexed ; inner side purplish, rather pearly. 

Easily known by the truncated appearance of the front end and 
the prominence of the umbo. The hinder half of the shell is 
covered with a coat formed of green regular laminae, perhaps alga. 
Common in the Greywakke rocks on the East Coast. Dieffenbach. 

205. Modiolarca impacta. Mytilus cor. Martyn, U. C. 
t. 77. Myt. impactus. Hermann, Naturf. xviii. 147, 
t. 3, f. 5-8, xix. 183. Wood, Cat. 59, f. 40. M. 
discors. Australis. Chemn. viii. f. 768. Modiola dis- 
cor, Lam.vi.-p. 16. Myt. lanatus. Calonne. Cat. 43. 

Inhab. New Zealand. Dr. Solander. Bay of Islands. 
Dr. Sinclair. East Cape. Dr. Dieffenbach. 

Fam. PINNID.E. 

206. Pinna Zelandica. Gray. Yale's New Zealand, 
App. Gmel. 3166. Wood, Cat. 60, f. 10. P. 
adusta. Gmel. ? 

Inhab. East Coast. Yate. Bay of Islands. Dr. Dief- 
fenbach. 

Shell triangular, elongate, blackish; inside purplish pearly; 
valves convex, with rather close longitudinal ribs, armed with 
close, short, semi-cylindrical, hollow spines. Differs from P. squa- 
mosa, in being smaller, black, and in the end being more truncate. 
It may be Pinna adusta, Chemn. viii. 237, t. 91, f. 782. P. ex- 
usta, Gmelin, said to come from New Zealand, by Humphreys, 
and Manilla, by Chemnitz. 

s 2 



2f>0 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

The gigantic mussels, Cook, Third Voy. ii., Polack, i. 324, are 
probably Pinnce* as they have the habit he describes. 

Fam. PECTINID^E. 

207- Pecten Zclandia. Gray, n. s. 
Inhab. New Zealand. 

Shell with numerous (about 40) close unequal sharp-edged 
squamose ribs; purplish ; the ears unequal, with radiate scaly ribs. 
The valves subequal ; the right most convex. 

Like P. varius, but the ribs are more numerous. 

'208. Pecten laticostatus . Gray. Yate's New Zealand, 

App. 
I nhab. East Coast. Yate. Bay of Islands. Dieffenbach. 

Shell inequivalve, with 16-18 radiating ribs, purplish white ; 
right valve convex, ribs smooth, the larger one depressed with one 
or two interrupted longitudinal grooves ; left valve rather concave, 
smoothish, purple brown, and purple near the umbo ; the ribs dis- 
tant, narrow. 

"Taken with a landing-net from the bottom of the bays. The 
flavour is very excellent, and the oculiform tentacles are ex- 
tremely like eyes. 

" It is impossible to get the scallops perfect ; the edges are so 
thin, that they generally break." Bidwell. 

209. Lima linguatula. Lam. vi. 157. Quoy et Gaim. 
Voy. Astrol. iii. 453, t. 76, f. 11, 12. 

I nhab. New Zealand. Quoy et Gaim. 

Fam. OSTREID.E. 

210. Ostrcea ? 

Inhab. New Zealand, Waitamata, East Coast of N. 

Island. Dr. Dieffenbach. B. M. 
A solid plicated species ; not in sufficiently good state to describe. 

211. Ostraa ? 

Inhab. New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair. 

A small species, much like (). edulis, scarcely to be distin- 
guished. The two species are most abundant; they cover the 
shores everywhere from East Cape northward. "The one like 
0. Edulis are better flavoured than the cock-combs." Dr. Sinclair. 

Fam. ANOMIADJB. 

212. Anomia Zelandica. Gray, n. s. 

Inhab. New Zealand, on the inside of mussel -shells. 



SHELLS. 261 

The shell suborbicular, whitish, smooth, with distant radiating 
ridges near the edge ; internally dark green ; the notch in the 
lower valve large, ovate, triangular ; the plug thin, shelly, near the 
apex, and formed of parallel horny lamellae for the greater part 
of its length. 

The animal has the power of absorbing the surface of the 
shell to which it is attached before it enlarges the size of the plug. 
The plug is evidently only a modification of the kind of laminal 
beard formed by the end of the foot of the arcs, for, like it, it is 
formed of numerous parallel, erect, longitudinal, horny laminae, 
placed side by side, extending from the apex to the margin, and it 
is on these plates that the calcareous matter is deposited when the 
attachment assumes its shelly substance. The same structure is 
to be observed in the plugs of the European Anomia Ephippium. 

" The specimen was taken up with the dredges affixed to a piece 
of Mytilus. While alive the animal kept opening and shutting its 
upper valves, with a snap just like the Pectens. Rare." BidwelL 

Fam. TEREBRATULID.E. 

213. Terebratula recurva. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. 
iii. 554, t. 85, f. 10, 11. 

214. Terebratula sanguinea. Leach. Zool. Miscel. 76, 
t. 33. Lam, vi. 247. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. 
iii. 556, t. 85, f. 6, 7. T. Zelandica, Desk. Mag. 
Zool. 1841, t. 42. Anomia sanguinea. Solanders 
MS. Calonne, Cat. 45; not Chemn. A cruenta. 
Dittwyn, R. S., 295. 

Inhab. New Zealand. Humphreys. Tasman's Bay. 
Quoy. Turanga, East Coast of N. Island. Dieffen- 
bach. 

215. Terebratula lenticular is. Desk. Mag. Zool., 1841, 
t. 41. 

Inhab. New Zealand. Desh. 
Perhaps only a smaller variety of the former. 
Fam. OCTOPODID^E. 

216. Octopus cordiformis. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. 
ii. 87, t. 6, f. 3. 

Inhab. Ne\v Zealand, Bay of Tasman. Quoy. 
Fam. SEPIAD^E. 

217. The Sepia, or Cuttlefish, forms an article of native 
food. Polack, i. 326. 



262 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 



Fam. 

218. Spirula fragilis. Lam. Syst. Nautilus spirula. 
Linn. 

Inhab. New Zealand, West Coast of N. Island. Dr. 
Diejfenbach. 

219. Venus intermedia. 

" Called ' Pepa ' by the natives ; they are extremely abundant, 
and are eaten as food by the natives. The name appears generic 
for this edible bivalve." Dr. Sinclair. 

" East Coast ; much eaten by the natives ; called Pipi." Dr. 
Diejfenbach. 

220. Nanina? Kim. 

Inhab. New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair. 

Shell top-shaped, imperforate, thin, white; spire subconic, 
blunt, whorls slightly raised, strongly concentrically striated with 
short, irregular, oblique, purple brown cross streaks; last whorl 
rounded; front rounded, white, smooth; mouth broad, lunate, 
with the outer lip slightly reflected over the axis. Diameter & 
of an inch, axis -f^ of an inch. 

221. Nanina Maria. 

Inhab. New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair. 

Shell trochiform, slightly perforated, pale brown, with oblique, 
close, transverse bands ; spire short, conic ; whorls nearly flat, 
sharply keeled, front convex. 

The brown bands are sometimes crossed, leaving small square, 
pale spots, especially on the front side of the last whorl. 

Differs from N.Zelandicein being more depressed and strongly 
keeled, and in the axis being very narrow. 

N. Zelandice is pale brown, the whorls have opake white, wavy, 
cross bands near the suture. 

222. Acanthochcetes Hookeri. 

Inhab. New Zealand, Great Barrier Island, Bay of Is- 

lands; and Van Diemen's Land. Dr. Sinclair. 
Valves half ovate, covered with crowded flat-topped granules, 
gray and green striped ; the central ridge olive, smoother. The 
interior valve evenly granulated, without any ridges. The man- 
tales hirsute, the tufts of spines large and green. 

This species is most like Acanthochcetes fasciculatus of the Eng- 
lish coast; it differs from A. violaceus in the size of the tuft, and 



SHKLLS. 263 

the front valve not being rayed. I have dedicated this to my 
young friend Dr. Joseph Hooker, the assistant -surgeon to H.M.S. 
Erebus, in whose company Dr. Sinclair collected it. 

223. Chiton Sinclain. 

Inhabits New Zealand, Great Barrier Island. Dr. Sinclair. 

Pale brown, polished, the terminal valves with many, and the 
lateral area with few indistinct broad nodulose ridges, the central 
area polished, with pale longitudinal streaks, and with a few short, 
deep, irregular longitudinal grooves on the hinder edge of the sides. 

This species is very like C. pellis serpentis, but is polished, 
and the central plates are smooth, except at the outer angles. 

I have dedicated it to my friend Dr. Sinclair, of the Royal Navy, 
who, during the passing of the list through the press, has pre- 
sented to the British Museum a series of shells from New Zea- 
land, which were collected during his stay in those islands in com- 
pany with Capt. James Ross, of the Antarctic expedition. 

224. Zonites coma. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair. 
Shell depressed, largely umbilicated, pale brown, whorls rounded, 
with close, sharp-edged, elevated, concentric ridges ; spire nearly 
flat, with broad brown, concentric bands, umbilicus conical, 
showing the whorls ; mouth rather small, peristoma thin ; dia- 
meter 3 lines. 

225. Melanopsis trifasciatus. 

Inhab. New Zealand, Bay of Islands, Waitanga Falls. 
Shell ovate, thin, dark olive ; spire short, conical, about one- 
third the length of the body whorl ; the last whorl with three 
equidistant chestnut bands ; the callosity of the inner lip yellow. 

TUNICATA. 

226. Salpa costata. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Uranie, 504, 
t. 73, f. 2. Voy. Astrol. iii. 570, t. 86, f. 1-5. 

Inhab. 

227. Salpa infundibuliformis. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. 
Uranie, 508, t. 7, f. 13. Voy. Astrol. iii. 587, t. 89, 
6,7. 

Inhab. 

228. Ascidia erythrostoma. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. 
iii. 609, t. 91, f. 4, 5. 

Inhab. River Thames. 



264 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

229. Arcidiajanthinoctoma. Quay et Gaim. Voy. As- 
trol. iii. 610, t. 91, f. 6, 7. 

Inhab. River Thames. 

230. Ascidia coerulea. Quoy et Gaim.. Voy. Astrol. 
iii. 611, t. 91, f. 8,9. 

Inhab. Bay of Islands. 

231. Botryllus racemosus. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. 
iii. 620, t. 92, f. 7, 8. 

Inhab. River Thames. 

RADIATA. 

" Medusae, or marine gelatine, is thrown in animated masses on 
the rocky shores." Polack, i. 309-325. 

232. Stephanomia imbricate. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. As- 
trol. iv. 71, t. 3, f. 13-15. 

Inhab. New Zealand. 

233. Actinia viridula. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. iv. 
161, t. 13, f. 15-21. 

Inhab. Sea between New Zealand and Friendly Islands. 

234. Actinia striata. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. iv. 
164. 

Inhab. Bay of Islands. 

235. Turbinolia rubra. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. iv. 
188, t. 14, f. 5-9. 

Inhab. Cook's Straits. 

236. Dendrophyllia rubeola. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. As- 
trol. iv. 197, t. 15, f. 12-15. 

nhab. River Thames. 

237. Alcyonium aurantium. Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol. 
iv. 277, t. 22, f. 16-18. 

Inhab. River Thames. 

238. Pennatulce, or Sea Pen. Polack, i. 327. 

239. Echini, or Sea Hedge-hogs. Polack, i. 326. 

240. Echinarachnius Zelandice. Gray, n. s. 

Inhab. Western Coast, Northern Island, New Zealand. 
Dr. Die/enbach. 



ANNULOSE ANIMALS. 265 

Body depressed, with a slightly elevated centre, with the iriter- 
ambulacral area rather more depressed, the ambulacral and inter- 
ambulacral area nearly equal, the ambulacra not converging toge- 
ther at the end. 



LIST of the ANNULOSE ANIMALS hitherto recorded as found 
in NEW ZEALAND, with the Descriptions of some New 
Species by Messrs. ADAM WHITE and EDWARD DOU- 
BLED AY, Assistants in the Zoological Department of the 
British Museum. 

Class CRUSTACEA. 

1. Paramithrax Gaimardii. M. Edwards. Hist. Nat. 

des Crust., i., p. 325. 
Inhabits New Zealand. M. Edwards. 

2. Chlorodius eudorus. M. Edw., 1. c. i., p. 402. Cancer 

eudora. Herbst. iii., pi. 51, f. 3. 
Inhabits New Zealand. M. Edwards. 

3. Portunus catharus. White, n. s. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Collection of the British Mu- 
seum. Dr. Andrew Sinclair, R.N. 

This species comes near P. marmoreus, Leach (Malac. Pod. 
Brit. Tab. viii., f. 1, 3), differing from the European species in 
being wider, in having 4 teeth in front of the carapace, the inter- 
mediate pair close together. There are 5 teeth on the sides of the 
carapace, and 1 tooth on the outer part of the sinus over the eye. 
The carapace is very smooth, has two impressed lines converging 
behind, and widest in front. The colour of the carapace is brown- 
ish yellow, spotted with minute brown dots ; the dots forming a 
lunated line between the impressions on back the most distinct; 
the penultimate joint of the tail the largest and narrowed in 
front. Breadth of carapace of a male specimen, 1 inch 2 lines. 
Length 10 lines. 

" Common Crab" Polack (New Zealand, i., p. 326) 
speaks of this as inhabiting New Zealand. 

4. Grapsus strigilatus. White. In Gray's Zool. Misc., 

1842, p. 78. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Dieffenbach. 
Carapace with the front part depressed, horizontal, and occupy- 



266 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

ing more than half its breadth in front, measuring from spine to 
spine ; lateral margins in front with three teeth ; many strice on 
the sides ; hands large, swollen ; sides very smooth ; upper edge 
with a few wart-like excrescences. Colour : sides of carapace 
red, slightly mottled with yellow ; in front and on the back black, 
with large yellow marks ; legs reddish, tinged with blue. 
A species in form, &c. agreeing with G. varius. 

5. Cyclograpsus sexdentutus. M. Edw., 1. c. ii., p. 79. 
Inhabits New Zealand. M. Edw. 

6. Plagusia clavimana. Latr. Desm. Consid., p. 127- 

M. Edw., 1. c. ii., p. 92. " Cancer planissimus. 
Herbst. pi. 59, fig. 3." Var. PI. serripes. Lam. 
Seba, t. iii., pi. 19, fig. 21. 

Inhabits New Zealand. M. Edw. British Museum. 
Dr. Sinclair, R.N. 

7. Leucosia 1 ? orbiculus. Cancer orbiculus. Fabr. Ent. 

Syst. 402, 13. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. 

8. Pagurus cristatus. M. Edw., 1. c. ii., p. 218. Edw., 

Ann. des Sc. Nat., ser. 2, vi., p. 269. 
Inhabits New Zealand. M. Edw. Brit. Museum Dr. 
Sinclair. 

9. Pagurus pilosus. M. Edw., 1. c. ii., p. 233. Ann. Sc. 

Nat., vi., p. 282, pi. 14, f. 1. 
Inhabits New Zealand. M. Edw. 

10. Porcellana elongata. M. Edw., 1. c. ii., p. 251. 
Inhabits New Zealand. M. Edw. 

11. Palinurus ? sp. " Lobster, or Sea Cray-fish." Cook. 

" Cancer homarus, L." Forster, Voy., i. p. 144. 

" Kohuda, or cray-fish," Kohura. Dieffenbach. 

Polack, i. p. 326. 

" The highest luxury which the sea afforded us was the lobster, 
or sea cray-fish, which are probably the same that, in the account 
of Lord Anson's Voyage, are said to have been found at the island 
of Juan Fernandez, except that, although large, they are not quite 
equal in size. They differ from ours in England in several par- 
ticulars : they have a greater number of prickles on their backs, 
and they are red when first taken out of the water. These we 



ANNULOSE ANIMALS. 267 

also bought everywhere to the northward, in great quantities, of 
the natives, who catch them by diving near the shore, and finding 
out where they lie with their feet." Hawkesworth, Voyage of 
Lieut. Cook, iii., p. 440, and vol. ii., pp. 325 and 328. 

Captain Cook called a place where he and his party partook of 
these cray-fish " Luncheon Cove. " i., p. 78 (London edition, 
1777). 

12. Paranephrops planifrons. White, in Gray's Zool. 

Miscell., p. 79. 
Inhabits New Zealand, R. Thames. Dr. Die/enbach. 

The eyes are large, as in Nephrops : the sides of the second 
thoracic segment, in the middle in front, with a spine, as in Pota- 
mobius, and a shorter one beneath it : the lamellar appendage of the 
outer antennae extends considerably beyond the thickened basal 
joints of these antennae, and on the inside is nearly straight, and 
margined with longish hairs : the first two joints of the outer 
"foot-jaws" are spined within : the sides of the abdominal seg- 
ments are not nearly so acutely angulated as in Nephrops : the 
middle plate of the tail is of one piece, as in Nephrops, and has 
the spine removed further back from the much-rounded extremity : 
the first pair of legs is rather more slender than in Nephrops ; the 
claws inside are nearly straight, and furnished with moderate- 
sized teeth ; the hands are but slightly grooved, and have a few 
rows of spines, largest on the inside : the second pair of legs is the 
shortest of the four hind pair (while in Nephrops the fifth are so), 
the second are the longest, the fourth and fifth being nearly equal 
in length. 

This species, from the River Thames in New Zealand, connects 
the two genera Potamobius and Nephrops, in having the habit of 
the former, and combining the characters of both. 

The carapace of this species is almost cylindrical ; the beak 
reaches beyond the pedicel of the inner pair of antennae, is straight, 
broad, flattened, and somewhat hollowed out above ; the sides have 
three teeth ; at the base to the side are two teeth, one placed before 
the other ; at the base of the beak, in the middle, there is a slight 
longitudinal abbreviated ridge ; the sides of the carapace, outside 
the outer jaw-feet, have many short bent spines ; the abdominal 
segments are smooth above; the caudal appendages are finely 
striated at the end, and tinged with pinkish-red ; the thorax 
covered with minute hairs ; the abdomen is of a yellowish, some- 
what mottled colour; each segment behind with a very narrow 



268 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

edge of pink. Length of largest specimen, 3 inches 8 lines, from 
the end of the tail to the end of the beak ; length of smallest 
2 inches 8 lines. 

13. Hippolyte spinifrons. M. Edw., 1. c. ii., p. 377. 
Inhabits New Zealand. M. Edw. 

14. Palamon Quoianus, M. Edw., 1. c. ii. p. 393. 
Inhabits New Zealand. M. Edw. 

" Shrimps." 

The quantities of shrimps and their families are unbounded. Po- 
lack, i., 326. 

15. Talitrus brevicornis. M. Edw., 1. c. iii., p. 15. 
Inhabits New Zealand. M. Edw. 

16. Orchestia Quoyana. M. Edw., 1. c. iii., p. 19. 
Inhabits New Zealand. M. Edw. 

17. Cilonera MacLeayi, Leach? 

This, or an allied species, was found by Dr. Sinclair on the New 
Zealand coast. Dr. Leach's specimen exists in the British 
Museum Collection, but whether he described it or not I have not 
been able to ascertain. It will come after the genus Olencira of 
Leach (Diet, des Sc. Nat. xii., p. 350). 

18. J&ga sen Sphceroma ? Oniscus imbricatus. Fabr., 

Syst. Ent. 296. 2. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. 

19. Sphceroma armata. M. Edw. 1. c. iii., p. 210. 
Inhabits N. Zealand. M. Edw. 

20. Dinemoura affinis. M. Edw., 1. c. iii., p. 465, pi. 38, 

f. 15-18. 

Inhabits New Zealand. M. Edw. 
*20. Cypris Nova Zelandice. Eaird. MSS. 
" Shell ovate, elongated, both extremities of the same size ; 
somewhat turgid, and slightly sinuated in centre of anterior mar- 
gin ; white, smooth and shining, perfectly free from hairs. Ap- 
proaches Gyp. detect a of M tiller, but differs in the shell not being 
flat, as in that, but turgid or rounded, being less sinuated on anterior 
margin, and more rounded on dorsal surface. The shell does not 
appear to be transparent." Baird. 

Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Stanger. 



ANNULOSE ANIMALS. 269 

(ClRRHIPIDES.) 

21. Anatifa spinosa. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., iii., 

629, t. 93, f. 17. 
Inhabits New Zealand. 

22. Anatifa elongata. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., iii., 

635, t. 93, f. 6. 
Inhabits Bay of Islands. 

23. Anatifa tubulosa. Quoy et Gaim., Voy. Astrol., iii., 
643, t. 93, f. 5. 

Inhabits New Zealand. 

24. Lepas balcenaris. Gmelin. Chemn. viii., t. 99, f. 845- 
6. Balanus circulus. Mus. Genev. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Dieffenbach. 

25. Tubicinella trachealis. Lepas trachealis. Shaw, N. 
Miscel. xvii., t. 726. L. tracheae form is. Wood. 
Conch. 31, t. 10, f. 1-3. Tubicinella major et 
T. minus. Lam., Ann. Mus. H. N., vi. 461, t. 30, 
f. 1-2. 

Inhabits the Skin of Whales. New Zealand. 

26. Elminius plicatus. Gray, n. s. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Mr. Yate and Dr. Dieffenbach. 

" Valves yellow, strongly plicated and folded, especially at the 
base ; opercular valves thick. 

The apical part of the valves are generally much worn ; like 
E. Kingii, the valves are solid and not cellular. When young the 
valves of these shells are purplish white and low. There is another 
species of this genus found on the Concholepas, which is folded 
below like this, but purple and depressed." E. Peruviana. Gray. 

27. Conia depressa. Gray. 

Inhabits New Zealand, on Haliotis Iris, Bay of 
Islands. Dr. Sinclair 

28. Balanus. ? 

Inhabits New Zealand, on Mytilus smaragdus. 

29. Balanus. ? 

Inhabits New Zealand. 



2/0 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

Class MYRIAPODA. 

30. Scolopendra rubriceps, .$. Newport. MSS. 
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr.Dief- 

fenbach. 

" Head, labium, and mandibles very dark red; body blackish 
brown, somewhat flattened ; very much narrowed in the anterior, 
but dilated in the posterior segments. Antennse and legs reddish 
olive. Posterior pair of legs, on the under surface, with 7 spines 
arranged in two oblique lines, and 3 spines on the internal supe- 
rior margin. Length 4f inches." Newport. 

Polack (i. p. 322) speaks of a species of " innocuous " cen- 
tipede as occurring in New Zealand. 

31. Spirotreptus antipodarum. Newport. MSS. 
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair. 

" Brown, with the head smooth, and deeply excavated at the 
sides behind the antennae ; first segment with the sides triangular, 
subacute without plicae; anterior portion of each segment sub- 
striated diagonally, and mottled with orange ; posterior portion 
almost smooth, with very faint longitudinal striae. Preanal scale 
short, rounded." 

" These specimens are in their immature state, and have but 
35 segments to the body, the adult number being about 50, and 
the length of the individual from li to 2 inches." G. Newport. 

Class ARACHNIDA. 

A spider in New Zealand (at Mawi) is named pon- 
werewere. Walckenaer, Apt, ii., p. 519. 

32. My gale antipodiana. Walck. Apt. i., p. 230. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Walck. 

33. Segestria saeva. Walck. Apt. i., p. 269. 
Inhabits New Zealand, Walck. 

34. Lycosa nautica. Walck. Apt. i., 340. 
Inhabits N. Zealand. Walck. 

" Aranea viatica' the wandering spider." Polack speaks of this 
being met with continually in New Zealand (i. p. 321). It may 
be some species of the genus Lycosa. 

35. Dolomedes mirificus. Walck,. Apt. i., 355. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Walck. 



ANNULOSE ANIMALS. 271 

36. Attus abbreviatus. Walck. Apt. i., p. 477. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Walck. 

37. Attus Cookii. Walck. Apt. i., p. 478. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Walck. 

38. Tegenaria Australensis. Walck. Apt. ii., p. 12. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Walck. 

39. Epeira antipodiana. Walck. Apt. ii., p. 93. Epeire 

plumipede. Latr., Hist. Nat. des Ins., t. vii., p. 275, 
No. 86. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Walck. 

40. Epeira crassa. Walck. Apt. ii., p. 127. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Walck. 

41. Epeira verrucosa. Walck. Apt. i., p. 135. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Walck. 

42. Tetragnatha (Deinagnatha) Dandridgei. White, 
n. s. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Brit. Mus. Dr. Sinclair, R.N. 
Brownish yellow, hooks of chelicera and ends of the legs darker ; 
eyes black (in one specimen pink). The chelicera are longer than 
the cephalothorax, narrowest at the base, with five spines at the 
end, the three on the upper side larger than the rest ; inner edge 
with two rows of small teeth, the under row containing more than 
the upper ; the claw is very long and curved at the base, the tip 
also is slightly bent. Eyes eight, placed on two slightly-hmated 
parallel lines, the two middle eyes of anterior line nearer each 
other than they are to the side eyes ; they are placed on the sides 
and the base of a slight projection. Maxillae long, sinuated on 
the outer margin, dilated at the ends, which are abrupt and very 
slightly rounded on the angles ; palpi, with the second joint very 
long, the third thickest at the end, and shorter than the fourth, 
which is hairy and considerably thickened at the end ; the globular 
process in the male near the base of fifth joint, much as in Dolo- 
medes mirabilis (Clerck, Aran. Suec. tab. 5, fig. 4), only much 
more complicated. Mentum rounded at the end, with an im- 
pressed line near the margin going round it : there is a slight im- 
pressed line down the middle. Cephalothorax of a longish oval 
figure, narrowed in front, depressed, with two deep impressions 
about the middle. Legs long, first pair the longest, the fourth 



27*2 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

apparently longer than the second, the third very short. Length 
of a shrivelled-up male from end of body to end of chelicera 6 lines. 
I have named this spider after one, many of whose drawings 
and descriptions seem to me to have been copied by Eleazar Albin, 
in his ' Natural History of Spiders,' published in 1736. Bradley, 
in his ' Philosophical Account of the Works of Nature ' (1721), 
refers to "the curious Mr. Dandridge, of Moorfields," as having 
" observed and delineated " " a hundred and forty different kinds " 
of spiders "in England alone" (pp. 130 and 131). The Baron 
Walckenaer> in his elaborate list of arachnologists (Apteres, i., 
pp. 24-29), has not included Dandridge, though, had he been 
aware of his labours, he would doubtless have given him a distin- 
guished place amongst his " Apteristes iconographes, descripteurs 
et collecteurs." I have formed a new subgenus for this spider, 
which, with the Tetragnatha (Anetognatha) bicolor of Tasmania 
(Annals and Mag. of Nat. Hist., vii., p. 475), will form two sec- 
tions of this family. 

" Aranea calycina" 

Mr. Polack (New Zealand, i , p. 321) says that in New Zea- 
land " the innumerable spider-webs (aranea calycina) have the 
resemblance, when the morning sun shines on them, loaded with 
the dew of the preceding night, of so many hyads or watery stars." 

" Spiders are found in vast abundance amongst the fern." 
Vote, p. 73. 

" Scorpion," " small and harmless." 

Inhabits New Zealand (under bark of trees). Polack, 
i., p. 321. 

Class INSECTA. 

COLEOPTERA. 

43. Cicindela tuberculata. Fabr., Syst. Ent. 225. 

Oliv. 11, t. 3, f. 28. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. 

Mr. Charles Darwin and Dr. A. Sinclair also found specimens 
there which they presented to the British Museum collection. 

44. Cicindela Douei, Chenu. Gnerin. Mag. de Zool. 

1840, pi. 45. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Chenu. 



ANNULOSE ANIMALS. 273 

45. Cymindis Dieffenbachii. White. C. australis. Hom- 
bron arid Jacquinot, (nee Dej.) D'Urv. Voy. au 
Pole Sud, Ins. pi. 1, f. 7. 

Inhabits Otago. Messrs. Hombron and Jacquinot. 

46. Lebia binotata. Hombron and Jacquinot. D'Urv. 

Voy. au Pole Sud, Ins. pi. 1, f. 8. 
Inhabits Akaroa. Messrs. Hombron and Jacquinot. 

47. Heterodactylus Nebrioides. Guerin, Rev. Zool. 

Cuv., 1841, p. 214. 
Inhabits Auckland Islands. Guerin. 

48. Promecoderus Lottini. Brulle, Hist. Nat. des lu- 

sectes, iv., p. 450. 
Inhabits New Zealand. 

Mr. Waterhouse regards this as " a true species )J of Mr. G. R. 
Gray's genus Cnemacanthus . Charlesworth's Mag. of Nat. Hist., 
1840, p. 355. 

49. Anchomenus atratus. Hombron and Jacquinot. 
D'Urv. Voy. au Pole Sud, Ins., pi. 1, f. 15. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Messrs. Hombron and Jacqui- 
not. 

50. Feronia (Platysma ?) australasice. Guerin, Rev. 
Zool. Cuv., 1841, p. 120. 

Inhabits New Zealand (Bay of Islands), Portotago. 
Guerin. British Museum. 

51. Feronia (Platysma?) subanea. Guerin, Rev. Zool. 
Cuv. 1841, p. 122. 

Inhabits New Zealand (Portotago) . 

52. Oopterus clivinoides. Guerin, Rev. Zool. Cuv., 1841, 
p. 123. 

Inhabits Auckland Islands (Guerin). 

53. Staphylinus oculatus. Fabr., Syst. Ent. 265, 4. Oliv., 

t. 11, f. 19. Boisd., Voy. Astrol. ii., 54, t. 9, f. 1. 
Erichs. y Staphyl., p. 352. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Boisd. 

54. Micronyx chlorophyllus. Boisd. Voy. Astrol. ii. 189. 

Rutele chlorophylle, t. 6, f. 18. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Boisd. 
VOL. ii. T 



274 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

55. Stethaspis suturalis. (Fabr.) Hope. Coleopt. Ma- 

nual, i., pp. 104, 404. Melolontha suturalis. Fabr., 
Syst. Ent. 34. 12. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. 

56. Cheiroplatys truncatus. (Fabr.) Kirby. Hope. Cole- 

opt. Manual, i., p. 29 and 84. Scarabseus truncatus. 
Fabr., Syst. Ent. 6-12. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. 

57. Pyronota f estiva. (Fabr.) Boisd. ii., 214. Melo- 
lontha festiva. Fabr., Syst. Ent. 36, 23; Oliv. i. 
t. 5, f. 48. Calonota festiva. Hope, Col. Man. i., 
p. 40. Var. Melolontha laeta. Fabr. Sysi. Ent. 36, 
24. Oliv., i. t. 6, f. 56. Pyr. Ireta. Boisd. ii., 214. 
Calonota laeta. Hope. Col. Man. i., p. 41 and 107. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. British Museum. 
Dr. Sinclair found this species abundantly at the Bay of Islands, 
but did not bring the variety. The Rev. F. Hope has given the 
generic characters in a much more detailed manner than Dr. Bois- 
duval, who merely indicates the genus. Boisduval's name, how- 
ever, is, I believe, prior to that given by Mr. Hope. 

58. Opatrum Icevigatum. Fabr., Ent, Syst. i. 89. 5. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. 

59. Opilusviolaceus. Fabr. Klug.Abhandl., Berlin, 1840. 

p. 391. Notoxus violaceus. Fabr., Syst. El. i., 297, 2. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. 

60. Notoxus porcatus, Fabr. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Hope, Col. Man. iii., p. 137. 

61. .Dryopslineata. Fabr., Syst. El. ii., 68, 4. Lagria line- 

ata. Fabr.,Syst. Ent. 124. 3. Nacerdessp.? Stev. Dej. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. Brit. Museum. Dr. 
Sinclair. 

62. Pseud-helops tuberculatus. Guerin, Rev. Zool. Cuv. 

1841, p. 125. 
Inhabits Auckland Islands. 

63. Brentus barbicornis. Fabr. Oliv. Curculio barbi- 
cornis. Fabr., Syst. Ent. 134. 41. Ent. v., t. 1, f. 5, 
t. 2, f. 5. Schoenh. i., p. 353 ; and v., p. 578. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. British Museum. 



ANNULOSE ANIMALS. 275 

Dr. Sinclair, in company with Dr. Joseph Hooker, found a 
specimen of this species in a chink between the bark and wood of 
the Cowrie (Damara Australis) : it is now in the British Mu- 
seum collection. 

64. Brentus assimilis. Fabr. Oliv. Ent. v., p. 433, 
pi. 2, f. 6. Curculio assimilis. Fabr. Syst. Ent. 
134. 42. Schcenh. \., p. 356. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. 

65. Brentus cylindricornis. Fabr. Schcenh. i., p. 368. 
nhabits New Zealand. Fabr. 

66. Rhadinosomus acuminatus. Schcenh,, Cure, vi., p. 473. 

Leptosomus acuminatus. Schcenh., Cure. ii. p. 169. 
Waterhouse, Trans. Ent. Soc. ii., pi. 17, f. 2, 
pp. 192, 193. Curculio acuminatus. Fabr., Syst. 
Ent. 152. 132. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. British Museum. 

67. . Rhynchaenus bidens, Fabr., Syst. 

EL ii. 457, 96. Curculio bidens, Fabr., Syst. Ent. 
136. 51. Oliv. Coleopt, pi. x., f. 113. 

Inhabits New Zealand. 

68. Cryptorhynchus ? bituberculatus. Curculio bitu- 
berculatus. Fabr., Ent. Syst. ii., 414. 90. 

Inhabits New Zealand. 

69. Cryptorhynchus 9 modestus. Curculio modestus. 
Fabr., Ent. Syst. ii. 453. 250. 

Inhabits New Zealand. 

70. Psepholax sulcatus. White, n. g., n, s. 

Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair, 
Beak short, perpendicularly bent down, wide, somewhat dilated 
at the end, near which arise the antennae. Antennae spring from 
the end of a deep groove, twelve-jointed; first joint as long as 
the next seven taken together, the tip nearly, if not quite, reaching 
the eye, very smooth, and gradually thickened to the end ; the 
second joint minute; the five preceding the club somewhat moni- 
liform ; club large, oval, pointed at the end, (of four joints ?) co- 
vered with minute hairs. Eyes roundish, of an ovate- elliptical 
form. Thorax behind nearly as wide as the elytra at base ; elytra 
widest a little behind the base. Legs rather stout. Femora thick - 

T 2 



276 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

ened, those of the first pair with the margin sinuated, bulging into 
a broad blunt tooth ; tibiae of second pair with a strong tooth near 
the end. 

This little Curculionideous genus comes, I believe, near Gronops 
and Aterpus of the scientific Schcenherr (Gen. et Spec. Cure, ii., 
pars 1, pp. 250252). 

The species is of a deep pitchy brownish black; the thorax 
above with three distinct brownish ashy lines ; the lateral ones 
broadest and somewhat irregular. These lines are formed by 
distinct coloured scales. The elytra are ribbed, each having, at 
least, six raised ribs, two of which meet at the end ; some of them 
have erect scales along the irregular edge ; between each is a line 
of impressed points. The sides of the elytra, at the broadest part, 
are especially hairy. The legs are punctate, and, like the under 
surface of the body, have brownish ashy hairs, longest on the 
posterior part of the tibiae and tarsi. Length about four lines. 

71. Aterpus ? or Hippor hinus ? Curculio tridens. Fair. 
Inhabits New Zealand. 

72. Eurhamphus fasciculatus. Shuck., Ent. Mag. v., p. 

506, pi. 18. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Shuckard. 

73. Nitidula abbreviate Fabr., Syst. El. i., 348. 5. 
Inhabits New Zealand. 

74. Apate minutus. Fabr., Syst. Ent. 54. 4. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. 

75. Dermestes cnrnivorus. Fabr., Syst. Ent. 55. 2. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. 

76. Dermestes navalis. Fabr., Syst. Ent. 56. 9- 
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. 

77. Pristoderus scaber. (Fabr.) Hope, Col. Man., iii., 
p. 181, and p. 81. Dermestes scaber. Fabr. Syst. 
Ent. 57. 16. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. 

78. Dermestes limbatus. Fabr., Ent. Syst. Eleuth. i., 
318. 36. Inhabits New Zealand. 

79. Prionoplus (Prionus. auct.} reticularis. White, n. s. 
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair. 

Pitchy brown ; the margins of the abdominal segments beneath 



ANNULOSE ANIMALS. 2?7 

paler; the elytra margined, and of a lighter colour, with three 
longitudinal veins springing from the base, and connected together 
by yellowish nervures, forming irregular reticulations, not corre- 
sponding on each elytron ; the elytra have a short spine at the 
end close to the suture. The head, thorax, and general surface of 
the elytra are irregularly punctured and vermiculated. 

The thorax is short, transverse, not nearly so wide as the 
elytra, and covered with many short woolly-like hairs, which 
give it a brownish hue, and seems to have a longer tuft on each 
side behind ; the sides have a strongish spine about the middle, 
which spine is angulated at the base. 

The femora have two spines at the end, and the tibiae have 
three spines, two shorter on the inside at the end, and a longer 
one on the outside. 

The face between the antennae is hollowed out; the shortish 
strong angulated mandibles are punctured on the outside; the 
trophi are prominent, and somewhat clubbed at the end. The 
eyes are large, and are separated both above and beneath by a 
rather narrow division. The antennae are somewhat more than 
three-quarters the length of the insect ; the first joint is strong, 
short, and thickest at the end; the second is very small, and 
sumewhat cup-shaped ; the next eight have a spine at the end of 
each, the third being the longest joint of the antennae, and the 
others gradually shorter; the terminal joint is bluntish at the 
end ; the last joints are somewhat flattened. The sides of the 
scutellum are nearly parallel, the end abruptly rounded, and down 
the middle there is a smoothish ridge. The elytra are longish, 
rounded at the end, and narrowest there ; the margin is slightly 
turned up. Length 1 inch 6 lines; greatest breadth of elytra 
about 6J lines. 

This Prionus forms a section or subgenus distinct from Sceleo- 
cantha and Toxcutes of Newman (Annals and Magazine of Nat. 
Hist., v. pp. 14, 15), the latter founded on the Australian Prionus 
arcuatus, Fab. ; it differs essentially from Malloderes Dupont 
(Guerin, Mag. de Zool., 1835, pi. 125) and Aulacopus, Serville 
(Anuales de la Soc. Entom., 1832, pp. 144, 145), of the characters 
of the species of which it partly partakes. 

80. Callichroma (Calliprasoit) Sinclairi. White, n. s. 
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair. 

Above of a grass green, beneath silvery-grey, with silky scales 
or hairs; the abdomen is reddish- brown where seen through the 



278 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

silvery-grey. Legs, antennae, and cibarial organs reddish ; parts 
about the mouth with grey hairs. Head and thorax above darker 
than the elytra, in some places inclined to blackish. Elytra strongly 
margined ; margin yellowish brown, upper surface minutely punc- 
tured, with three rather indistinct longitudinal ridges. Length 
4J lines. 

Head behind the eyes not wider than the thorax. Eyes very 
large, prominent, very slightly (if at all) notched near the insertion 
of the antennae. Antennae eleven-jointed; first joint longest, 
dilated at the end; second minute; third, fourth, and fifth the 
most slender; third and fourth knobbed at the end; the fifth 
gradually, and the terminal joints slightly, dilated. Thorax longer 
than broad, narrowed in front and behind. Sides with a short 
spine behind the middle. Legs long, slender. Femora clavate. 
Elytra long, gradually growing narrower towards the end, which 
is simple. 

I have placed this delicately pretty little longicorn beetle in 
a new subgenus, which in the system seems to me to come near 
the genus Promeces of Serville : it is larger than the Encyclops 
pallipes, Newman (Entomological Magazine, v. p. 392), to which 
North American species, discovered by Mr. Edward Doubleday, 
it has some resemblance at first sight. I have named it in com- 
pliment to Dr. Andrew Sinclair, surgeon, R. N., who found the 
insect in New Zealand, and presented it, with many other New 
Zealand Annulosa, to the British Museum. This insect (like 
Encyclops) seems to be one of the links connecting the Ceram- 
bicidae with the Lepturidae, a family by no means abundant out of 
America, Europe, and Africa. 

81. Phoracantha dorsalis. (MacLeay.) Newm. Annals 

of Nat. Hist., v. p. 19. Stenochorus dorsalis. Mac- 
Leay. Appendix to King's Survey, ii., p. 451, sp. 
85. 
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair. 

82. Coptomma variegatum. (Fabr.) Newm. Tmesis- 
ternus variegatus. Boisd. Guer. Callidium varie- 
gatum. Fabr. Oliv., t. 5, f. 58. Coptomma vitti- 
colle. Newm., Ann. Nat. Hist., v. p. 18. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. British Museum. Drs. 
Dieffenbach and Sinclair. 

83. Coptomma sulcatum. (Fabr.) Callidium sulcatum. 



ANNULOSE ANIMALS. 279 

Fabr., Syst. Ent., 189. 11. Tmesisternus, sp. Latr. 
Guer. Voy. Coquille, letter-press, ii., p. 130. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. 

84. Coptomma lineatum. Fabr. Callidium lineatum. 

Fabr., Syst. Ent. 189. 10. Tmesisternus, sp. Latr. 
Guer. Voy. Coquille, ii., p. 130. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. 

85. Lamia heteromorpha. Boisd., Voy. Astrol. ii., 505. 
Inhabits New Zealand. 

86. Lamia crista. Fabr., Syst. Ent., 170. 3. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. 

87. Xyloteles griseus. (Fabr.) Newm., Entomologist, No. 

12. Saperda grisea. Fabr., Syst. Ent. 186. 9. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. British Museum. Drs. 
Dieffenbach and Sinclair. 

88. Xyloteles lynceus. (Fabr.} Newm., Entomologist, No. 

12. Saperda lyncea. Fabr., Syst. Ent. 185. 8. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. 

89. Saperda tristis. Fabr., Syst. Ent. 186. 11. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. 

90. Saperda villosa. Fabr., Syst. Eleuth. ii., 320, 13. 

Saperda hirta. Fabr., (olim.) Syst. Ent. 184. 4. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. 

91. Clytus minutus. Fabr. Callidium minutum. Fabr., 

Syst. Ent. 192. 23. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. 

92. Phaedon brunneum? (Fabr.) Colaspis. Fabr. Hope. 

Coleopt. Man. iii., p. 97. Chrysomela brunnea. 
Fabr., Ent. Syst. Eleuth. i., 439. 104. Donov., Ins. 
New Holland, pi. xx. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Donov. 

ORTHOPTERA. 

93. Blatta Americana. 

Inhabits New Zealand. (Introduced by the whale- 
ships. Polack, i., p. 320.) 



280 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

94. Locust grasshopper. Yale's New Zealand, p. 72. 

Polack, i., p. 319. 
Inhabits New Zealand. 

Dr. Sinclair has Drought from New Zealand two or three species 
of Locustidse. 

95. Mantis. 

Dr. Sinclair brought the egg-case of a species of Mantis from 
New Zealand. 

96. Deinacrida (Anostostoma, G. R. Gray}. Hetera- 

cantha. White in Gray's Zool. Misc., 1842, 78. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Drs. Dieffenbach and Sinclair. 

Hind legs nearly twice the length of the insect ; tibiae quadran- 
gular, broadest behind, the edges armed with spines coming out 
alternately ; spines very strong and sharp : body brown, beneath 
yellow : head punctured on the vertex : antennae at least 2J times 
the length of the insect : thorax punctured, with some small 
smoothish spaces in the middle ; the lateral margins somewhat 
thickened. The head is not nearly so broad nor so large as in Anos- 
tostoma; the mandibles much shorter; the labial palpi have the 
terminal joint swollen at the end ; when dry it is slightly compressed 
from shrinking; the maxillary palpi are very long; the three last 
joints cylindrical, the last longest, gradually clubbed at the end. 

The length of the specimen brought by Dr. Dieffenbach, mea- 
suring from the forehead to the end of the abdomen, exclusive of 
appendages, is 2 inches ; from the end of the tarsus of hind leg to 
end of antenna stretched out this specimen measures at least 
12J inches. The specimen may be in the larva state. The prae- 
sternum, as in Anostostoma, with two spines, approximating in the 
middle ; meso-and meta-sternum deeply grooved behind, with a 
strong tooth on the sides behind. 

Dr. Andrew Sinclair, since my short description was published 
in the second part of Mr. Gray's Zoological Miscellany, has 
brought from New Zealand a specimen of this species, which, 
with its hind legs and antennae stretched out, is at least 14 inches 
long ; its head and body, exclusive of appendages, being 2J inches. 
The specimen is a female ; its ovipositor is rather more than an 
inch long ; is slightly bent upwards, and compressed through the 
greater part of its length, the 2 cultelli, forming its principal part, 
being somewhat angular at the base. Nearly the whole insect is 
of an ochry-yellow colour, the end of the ovipositor, and the ex- 



ANNULOSE ANIMALS. 281 

treme tip of the spines on the legs being brown ; the margins of 
the abdominal segments are of a lighter colour ; the transversely- 
ridged and rough-surfaced femora have many light-coloured 
streaks. The greater portion of the dorsal part of the thorax is 
somewhat ferruginous. This specimen was found by itself on 
the Marsh Pine in Waiheke, in the Firth of Thames. Five other 
specimens of smaller size Dr. Sinclair found congregated under 
the bark of trees. The Deinacrida, according to the Maouries, 
generally keeps high up on the trunk, which the natives are afraid 
to climb, as the insect, especially the dark-headed, long-jawed 
male, bites severely. 

The fore tibiae have no spine in the middle in front, and the 
head is much smaller than in Mr. George Gray's Anostostoma, 
of which it may, however, be a species merely. 



Kikdraru. Polack. 

Inhabits New Zealand (Spear-grass). Polack, \., p. 329. 
" The most disgusting insect in nature." Polack. It is impos- 
sible to say to what order this insect is to be referred. 

NEUROPTERA. 
Libellula ? Dragon-fly. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Yate, p. 373. 
Dr. Sinclair brought five species of Dragon-flies from New 
Zealand : two of these are Agrionideous ; the largest is described 
below. 
97- Petalura Carovei. White, n. s. 

Inhabits New Zealand. (Auckland.) British Museum. 

Dr. Sinclair. 

Dilated anal appendages, somewhat rounded at the end ; an- 
terior margins of wings dark brown ; the tips, especially of second 
pair, are slightly tinged with dusky. The yellow-coloured plagae 
on the thorax are wide, and more distinct than in P. gigantea, 
Leach. Total length from 4 inches 5 lines, to 4 inches 8 lines. 

In the type of this genus, established by Dr. Leach in the Zoo- 
logical Miscellany, ii., p. 96, tab. 95, the anal appendages are 
notched or sinuated near the end within, and the anterior edge 
of both wings is varied with white ; the forehead is wider, and 
the frontal ridge somewhat different ; the femora are dark, while 
in this they are ferruginous. 

Those who have read * The Storv without an End,' translated 



282 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

by Sarah Austin from the German of F. W. Carove, and illustrated 
so beautifully by W. Harvey, will know why I have given the 
above name to this fine large Dragon-fly. 

Ephemera. 
Two species found by Dr. Sinclair in New Zealand. 

HYMENOPTERA. 

98. Ichneumon lotatorius. Fabr., Syst. Ent. 330. 16. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. 

99. Ichneumon solicit orius. Fabr. 1. c. 332. 30. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. 

Dr. Sinclair found this species there also ; his specimens are in 
the British Museum collection. 

100. Ichneumon decoratorius. Fabr. Syst. Ent. 333. 32. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. 

Formica ? Black ant. Polack, i., p. 320. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Polack. 
Cook also speaks of Ants. 

101. Ophion? Ichneumon luteus (L). Fabr., Syst. Ent. 

341. 75. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. 

102. Sphexfugax. Fabr., Syst. Ent. 350. 27. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. 

HOMOPTERA. 

103. Cicada Zelandica. Boisd., Voy. Astrol. ii., 611, t. 

10, f. 6. 
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. 

104. Cicada cingulata. Tettigonia cingulata. Fabr., 

S. Ent., 680. 9. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. (British Museum.) 
Dr. Sinclair found this " very noisy " species at Auckland in a 
marshy spot, where the Phormium tenax abounds. This may be 
one of the " scorpion flies with whose chirping the woods resound," 
referred to in Cook's ' Third Voyage,' i., p. 153 (2nd edit). 

105. Cicada cruentata. Tettigonia cruentata. Fabr., S. 

Ent, 680. 10. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. 



ANNULOSE ANIMALS. 283 

106. Cicada muta. Tettigonia muta. Fabr., S. Ent, 

681.17. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. British Museum. Dr. 
Sinclair. 

HEMIPTERA. 

107. Forest Bugs. Fate, p. 73. 
Inhabit New Zealand. 

Dr. Sinclair brought a green-coloured Pentatoma, allied to P. 
prasina. 

108. Reduvius (Pirates) ephippiger. White,n. s. 
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair, 

Black, with reddish-yellow legs and antennae, and an ochraceous 
patch on the inner edge of each hemelytron near the base. Length, 
9 lines. 

109. Kutu. Polack, i., p. 320. " Pediculus humanus." 

Polack, i., p. 320. 
Inhabits New Zealand. 

LEPIDOPTERA. 

110. Lyccena Edna. Doubleday, n. s. 

Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair. 

Exp. Alar., 1 unc. 2-4 lin. 

Male with the wings above bright copper-colour; nervures 
slightly, the outer margins very distinctly bordered with black. 
Anterior wings with two rounded black dots before the middle ; 
a larger quadrate one on the false nervure, closing the discoidal 
cell, midway between which and the outer margin is a curved 
series of 5 or 6 rather obsolete black dots. Near to the outer 
margin is a more distinct row of black dots, occasionally slightly 
confounded, especially near the apex, with the border itself. Pos- 
terior wings, with a discoidal lunule, and a waved maculiform 
band beyond, of a dusky hue ; and towards the anal angle three 
marginal black dots. Cilia fulvous. Beneath, the anterior wings 
have the disc of a paler fulvous ; the base, anterior, and outer 
margins dull yellow; the discoidal spots and the first macular 
band very distinct; and three rather large spots of the same 
colour at the anal angle. Posterior wings ochreous yellow, with 
two small black dots near the base, and 5 or 6 similar ones near 
the outer margin ; the disc, with fuscous markings, in the same 
situation as those on the upper surface. 



284 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

Female with all the wings dusky at the base ; anterior with 
the discoidal spots more distinct than in the male ; the first series 
of dots united together so as to form a distinct curved band, the 
second almost entirely confounded with the border. Posterior 
wings with the discoidal spot very distinct. Beyond the middle 
are two macular bands, the second more or less confounded with 
the border. The under surface, especially of the posterior wings, 
is more obscure than in the male, and the markings less distinct. 

111. Hamadryas Zoilus. Boisd., Voy. Astrol., 91. 

Nymph. Nais. Guerin., Voy. Coq. t. . Pap. 
Zoilus. Fabr., Ent. Syst. iii., 128. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. 

112. Vanessa Gonerilla. Boisd., Voy. Astrol., 122. 

Papilio Gonerilla, Fabr., Syst. Ent., 498. 237. 
Don., Ins. Ind. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. 

113. Vanessa (Itea.) Fabr. Boisd., Voy. Astrol., 122. 

Papilio Itea. Fabr., Syst. Ent., 498. 238. Don. 
Ins. Ind. 

Inhabits New Zealand and New Holland. Boisd. 
Sphinx ? 

" The caterpillars feed on Convolvulus batatas. The Sphaeria 
Robertii, Hooker, is found parasitical on this caterpillar, which 
only occurs at the roots of the rata-tree (Metrosideros robusta)." 
Dieffen bach . 

1 14. Hepialus virescens. Doubleday. 

Inhabits Waitemata, New Zealand. British Museum. 

Dr. Dieffenbach. 

Anterior wings triangular, very slightly falcate, pale greenish, 
marked with numerous darker clouds, giving them a tessellated 
appearance. Beyond the middle is a duplex, transverse fascia, 
greenish exteriorly, pallid internally ; the outer margin and the 
costa at the base being of the latter colour; posterior wings 
greenish; thorax pallid, greenish anteriorly; abdomen greenish. 

115. Leptosoma annulatum. Boisd., Voy. Astrol. , 197. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair. 

116. Heliothis Peltigera. Ochs. 

Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair. 
The specimens brought home by Dr. Sinclair appear to be 



ANNULOSE ANIMALS. 285 

identical with the European species; they are however in rather 
faded condition : perhaps, if more perfect specimens be obtained, 
some slight distinction may be detected. 

117. Plusla eriosoma. Doubleday, n. s. 

Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair. 

Exp. Alar., 1 unc. 10 lin. 

Anterior wings purplish-ash, glossed with copper in various 
places, especially towards the outer margin. Across the middle 
of the wing is a broad brown bar, less distinct on the costa than 
on the inner margin, bounded externally by a very indistinct, 
waved, fuscous striga, and internally by a bright silvery line ex- 
tending obliquely from the inner margin to the median nervure, 
upon which, a little beyond this line, is a V-shaped silvery mark, 
followed by an oval silvery spot. Near the apex, in certain lights, 
there is an appearance of an oblique dusky striga approximating to, 
but not connected with, a similar striga ascending from the anal 
angle. Posterior wings fuscous. Abdomen, with the extremity 
and the sides beyond the middle clothed with long fulvescent hairs. 

118. Aspilates? subochraria. Doubleday, n. s. 
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair. 

Exp. Alar., 1 unc. 1-2 lin. 

Anterior wings ochraceous ; the costa, a very faint striga near 
the base, a broad transverse fascia beyond the middle and parallel 
with the outer margin, brown ; the space between this and the 
margin tinged with light brown, darker on the margin itself. 
Disc with a small rounded black dot. Posterior wings pale ochra- 
ceous, immaculate. Below, the anterior wings of the male have 
the disc fuscous, the margins ochraceous, the posterior one darker 
than above, and irrorated with brownish scales, almost condensed 
into transverse bands. The female is ochraceous, with a common 
transverse striga and a distinct spot. Male with the pectinations 
of the antennae very short. Antennae of the female simple. 

1 19. Cidaria rosearia. Doubleday, n. s. 

Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair. 

Exp. Alar., 1 unc. 

Anterior wings pale brown, tinged with rosy purple, fuscescent 
at the base ; this portion bounded by a waved fuscous striga. Be- 
fore the middle is a waved transverse fuscous band, and a similar 
but broader one beyond the middle ; both less defined near the mar- 
gins of the wing, appearing composed of three coalescing strigae. 



286 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

Beyond these are a few scattered blackish dots, chiefly on the ner- 
vures and outer margin, and in some individuals there is a slight 
fuscous cloud near the apex. Disc with a small black crescent. 
Posterior wings pale, with an indistinct transverse striga across 
the disc. 

120. Cidaria ? cinerearia. Doubleday, n. s. 
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair. 

Exp. Alar., 9 lin. 

Anterior wings acuminate, very slightly falcate, pale brownish- 
ash, with numerous fuscous strigee, mostly very slender, but occa- 
sionally uniting to form transverse bands, of which one, not very 
distinct, is situated near the base, another a little before, and a 
third a little beyond the middle, these two being very distinct 
near the costa, but almost obliterated near the inner margin. 
Near the outer margin, which is rather darker than the ground- 
colour of the wing, is a slender much-waved whitish striga, and 
near the middle of the costa is a minute white dot. Posterior 
ashy-white, rather shining, with numerous indistinct fuscous strigse. 
Antennae of the male emitting from their lower surface two stout 
pectinations of unequal length, closely approximating at their 
origin, clothed with a delicate silky pubescence ; at the base and 
apex these pectinations are very short. Palpi rather long. 

This interesting little species will undoubtedly some day be 
found to constitute a genus distinct from that in which I have 
provisionally placed it, but only having seen one sex of it I was 
unwilling to attempt to characterise it generically. 

121. Acidcdia pulchraria. Doubled ay ,n.s. 

Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair. 

Exp. Alar., 11 lin. 

Anterior wings elongate, trigonate, posterior subquadrate ; all 
pale greenish-white, marked beyond the middle with five common 
transverse strigae, composed of faint lunulated dots. The poste- 
rior wings have a faint indication of two or three strigee near the 
base, and a small greenish discoidal dot. 

122. Ptychopoda? rubraria. Doubleday, n. s. 
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair. 

Exp. Alar., 9-10 lin. 

All the wings pale brownish, irrorated with fuscous, the pos- 
terior slightly tinged with reddish, the outer margins with a series 
of small black dots. Anterior wings with a slender much-waved 



ANNULOSE ANIMALS. 287 

striga near the base, a second similar striga near the middle, on 
which is placed a distinct black dot ; a broad indented fascia near 
the margin, followed by a series of oval or rounded spots, all fus- 
cous. Posterior wings with a slender-waved striga near the 
middle, two approximating ones beyond the middle, and a row of 
oval or rounded spots near the outer margin, all fuscous. Antennae 
of the male strongly pectinated ; of the female simple, annulated 
with black and white. First and second pair of legs in the male 
very long, the anterior tibiae simple ; those of the second pair of 
legs furnished with two spurs at the apex ; posterior legs short, 
stoat, compressed, furnished with the usual tuft of hair; claw 
wanting. Female with all the legs elongate ; posterior tibiae with 
one long and one short spur at their extremity ; tarsi long. 

123. Ptychopoda rubropunctaria. Doubleday, n. s. 
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair. 

Exp. Alar., 9-10 lin. 

All the wings brownish white, with numerous delicate very 
much -waved transverse darker strigae ; a small red dot beyond the 
middle towards the anal angle, and a marginal series of minute 
black dots. There are also three series of more or less distinct 
minute black dots, one near the base, one just before the middle, the 
third a little beyond the middle of the anterior wings ; the second 
and third being continued on to the posterior wings. 

124. Diasemia grammalis. Doubleday, n. s. 

Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair. 

Exp. Alar., 7-8 lin. 

Anterior wings rufous brown, the rufous colour predominating 
near the base ; inner margin with a black dash at the base, and 
before the middle a black triangular blotch, preceded and followed 
by a whitish patch. Beyond the middle is a transverse white 
line, not quite reaching the inner margin, where it bounds ex- 
ternally a second triangular black blotch. Posterior wings rufous 
brown, more or less irrorated with fuscous, with two irregular 
transverse whitish strigae, between which is a black patch. Cilia 
of all the wings varied with black and white. Antennae black. 
Legs elongate, rufous. 

125. Margaritiaflavidalis. Doubleday,u.s. 

Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair. 
Exp. Alar., 8-9 lin. 

All the wings ochraceous, the outer margins with a series of 
minute dots. Anterior wings with a faint striga near the base, a 



288 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

still fainter one near the middle, and a more distinct much-waved 
one near the outer margin, and two discoidal stigmatiform spots 
fuscous. Posterior wings with a discoidal spot, preceded towards 
the anterior margin by a smaller one, a transverse striga beyond 
the middle, and the anal angle fuscous. 

126. Margaritia quadralis. Doubleday, n. s. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair. 

Exp. Alar., 10 lin. 

Anterior wings fuscous, clouded with ochraceous, especially at 
the base and along the costa ; a paler ochraceous spot near the 
middle, not far from the costa. Towards the outer margin is a 
waved, slender, fuscous striga. Posterior wings fuscous ; darkest 
at the anal angle. 

127. Margaritia polygon alis. Treits ? 
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair. 

The only specimen of this species brought by Dr. Sinclair being 
much rubbed, I cannot be positive of its identity with the European 
polygonalis. 

128. Margaritia ? cordalis. Doubleday, n. s. 
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair. 

Exp. Alar., 1 unc., 1 lin. 

Anterior wings subdiaphanous, very pale straw-colour, slightly 
irrorated with fuscous and rufous ; the base, a heart-shaped spot 
before the middle ; a quadrate one on the costa beyond the middle, 
and the apex rufescent : the apical spot edged internally with 
fuscous. Costa towards the apex, and the outer margin marked 
with fuscous dots. Posterior wings subdiaphanous, with three 
fuscous spots ; one towards the middle of the anterior margin, a 
second below it near the hinder margin, a third near the apex. 
Outer margin dotted with fuscous. Legs pale, dotted with fus- 
cous. 

129. Cr ambus ramosellus. Doubleday, n. s. 

Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair. 

Exp. Alar., 1 unc. 

Anterior wings acuminate, brown, with a longitudinal silvery 
stria branching before and again after the middle, edged below 
from the base nearly to outer margin with a black line broken for 
a short space beyond the middle. Near the apex is a curved 
series of six or seven minute black dots, and on the margin itself 



ANNULOSE ANIMALS. 289 

a similar series. Cilia, except at the apex, fuscous. Posterior 
wings fuscous, immaculate. 

130. Crambus flexuoscllus. Doubleday, n. s. 

Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair. 

Exp. Alar., 10 lin. 

Anterior wings brown, marked a little below the costa with a 
slightly-waved silvery vitta, scarcely attaining the outer margin, 
which it only touches just below the apex, at which point the cilia 
are silvery. On the disc, immediately below this vitta, are two or 
three small brown spots ; and on the outer margin, also below the 
vitta, are four brown dots. Cilia, except near the apex, fuscous. 
Posterior wings fuscous. 

131. Crambus vittellus. Doublcday, n. s. 

Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair. 

Exp. Alar., 10-12 lin. 

Anterior wings acuminate, brown, divided longitudinally by a 
silvery vitta extending from the base to the middle of the outer 
margin. Outer margin very delicately edged with black; this 
colour extending slightly along one or two of the lower nervures. 
Costa beyond the middle rather pale. Posterior wings, and cilia 
of all the wings, fuscous. 

This species seems to vary a little ; one specimen, which I be- 
lieve to be only a variety, has the costa beyond the middle silvery- 
white. It is even possible that the preceding species may ulti- 
mately prove only a variety of this. 

132. Argyrosetia stilbella. Doubleday, n. s. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair. 

Exp. Alar., 7 lin. 

Anterior wings silvery-white, slightly tinted with yellow along 
the inner margin, marked with a longitudinal brown vitta extend- 
ing quite from the base to the apex, occupying about one-third the 
width of the wing. The costa, except the middle, slenderly edged 
with black, emitting near the apex an oblique line to the central 
fascia. Cilia at the apex long, silvery-white, tipped with brown. 
Posterior wings fuscous. 

In addition to the species of Lepidoptera described above, I may 
record the existence of the genera Phycita, Aphelia, Anacampsis, 
Depressaria, and, I believe, Eudorea ; but unfortunately the speci- 
mens brought by Dr. Sinclair are not sufficiently perfect to admit 
of their being described with the necessary minuteness. 

VOL. II. U 



290 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

DlPTERA. 

Simulium? Namu, or sand-fly. Polack, New Zeal., 

p. 319. 
Inhabits New Zealand. 

Most numerous on the beach and by the sides of creeks and 
rivers. Yate, New Zealand, p. 72. 

To some insect, of a genus allied to Simulium, is to be referred 
the New Zealand sand-fly alluded to in the following passage : 
" A sort of little crane-flies (iipula alis incumbentibus) became 
remarkably troublesome during the bad weather. They were nu- 
merous in the skirts of the woods, not half so large as gnats or 
musketoes, and our sailors called them sand-flies. Their sting 

was extremely painful All, however, were not equally 

affected." Forster, Voyage, i., pp. 135, 136. 

" The most mischievous animals (at Dusky Bay) are the small 
black sand-flies, which are very numerous, and so troublesome, 
that they exceed everything of the kind I ever met with : wherever 
they bite they cause a swelling, and such an intolerable itching 
that it is not possible to refrain from scratching, which at last 
brings on ulcers like the small-pox." Cook, Voyage in Reso- 
lution and Adventure, i., p. 99. 

Culex ? Waiwai-roa, or Mosquito. Polack, 1. c. i., p. 319. 
Inhabits New Zealand (swamps). Polack. 

" Musketoes abound in the woods, and by the side of streams ; 
but they are only lately imported. According to Cook, these insects 
were found on his first visit in great abundance in the woods. The 
natives deny this." Yate, p. 72. 

On Lieutenant Cook's voyage in the Endeavour, these flies are 
mentioned as follows : " Of mosquitoes and sand-flies, however, 
which are justly accounted the curse of every country where they 
abound, we did not see many : there were, indeed, a few in almost 
every place where we went on shore, but they gave us so little 
trouble, that we did not make use of the shades which we had pro- 
vided for the security of our faces." 

133. Thereva bilineata. (Fabr.) Wicdem., Aussereur. 

Zweifl., Ins. i., p. 229. Bibio bilineata. Fabr. 
E. Syst., 757. 3. 
Inhabits New Zealand. 

134. Eristalis trilineatits. (Fabr.) Wiedem., Aussereur. 



ANNULOSE ANIMALS. 291 

Zweifl., Ins. ii., p. 168. Syrphus trilineatus. 
Fabr., E. Syst., 766. 16. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. 

Dr. Sinclair brought home a small species closely allied to this, 
if not the same. 

135. Eristalis cingulatus. (Fabr.) Wiedem. 1. c. ii., p. 

162. Syrphus cingulatus. Fabr., E. Syst., 767. 
23. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Fabr. 

136. Musca (Sarcophaga) Icemica. White, n. s. 
Inhabits New Zealand. British Museum. Dr. Sinclair. 

Thorax and scutellum black, slightly tinged with hoariness ; a 
few longish stiff hairs scattered over the surface, which is covered 
with minute hairs. Abdomen above of an obscure metallic green, 
in some lights yellowish, caused by minute yellow scales and hairs 
profusely spread over it ; beneath it is more yellow, the green 
varying in some lights. The legs are yellow, with some obscure 
hairs ; the tarsi blackish-brown ; wings at base with a yellowish 
hue; head in general yellow, between the eyes brown, and with 
two longitudinal lines of stiffish hairs. Length of female 6 lines, 
of a male 4|. Agrees pretty nearly with the genus Sarcophaga, 
Meigen., Syst. Beschr. Europ. ; Zweif., Ins. v., p. 14, taf. 43, 
fig. 1-10. 

Dr. Sinclair informs me that the Rev. Mr. Taylor, of Waimate*, 
has made beautiful drawings of many of the insects around his 
station; and, amongst others, has delineated the transformations of 
this flesh-destroying species. It is to be hoped that this mission- 
ary will publish his researches on the natural history of the island. 
This may be the "gad-fly, or oestrus," referred to by Polack 
(New Zealand, i., p. 320), as being "a great nuisance at table;" 
and the "flesh-flies very like those of Europe," mentioned in 
Hawkesworth's relation of Cook's Voyage of the Endeavour, hi., 
p. 439. 

APHANIPTERA. 

137. Pidex. Keha, or flea. Polack, 1. c. i., p. 321. 
Tuiau. Dieffmbach. 

Inhabits New Zealand. 

The natives say that fleas were introduced by the Europeans, 
and for that reason call them sometimes "he pakea nohinohi," the 
little stranger. Dieffenbach. 

u 2 



292 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

Additional RADIATED ANIMALS and ANN ELIDES. By J. E. 
GRAY, Esq. 

Fam. FLUSTRAD^. 

138. Membranipora pilosa. Johns, Brit. Zooph., t. 24, 
f. 10, 12. 

Inhabits New Zealand, on Fuci. Dr. Sinclair. 

139. Menipea cirrata. Ellis, Zooph., t. 4, f. 1. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair. 

Tricellaria of Fleming, and Crissia tricythara, Lamx. Pol. 
flex., t. 3, f. 1, belongs to this genus, and Menipea hyalcea. 
Lamx. Pol. flex, is a Catenicella. 

140. Acamarchis prismatica. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair. 

Coral reddish brown, with prismatic reflections \ the cells two- 
rowed, elongate ; ovarial cell globular, polished white. 

141. Selbia Zelandica. Gray. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair. 

The coral of this new genus is frondose, forked, continuous ; 
the cells are ovate, alternating, forming two rows on the upper 
surface of the frond, and each furnished with a bristle-like fibre; 
the other surface of the frond has a central ridge, and diverging 
grooves. It much resembles Cabera and Canda of Lamoroux, 
both genera very badly described and figured by that author ; 
but it differs from the former in only having two instead of four or 
six rows of cells, and from Canda in the fibres being free and 
bristle-like, while in that genus the fibres are thick, and go from 
branch to branch, forming the coral into a broad netted frond. 

142. Hal ophil a Johnston ce. Gray. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Rev. W. Yate. 

Coral ridged, straight, horn coloured. This genus is peculiar 
for being horny, and formed of t\vo alternate series of half-ovate 
coriaceous cells, all placed on one side, and forming a continued 
linear frond. It differs from Selbia in being destitute of any 
root-like fibres, and in the cells being farther apart. It more 
closely resembles Bicellaria, but it differs from that genus in not 
being calcareous, circinate, nor jointed. Named in honour of Mrs. 
Johnston. 



ANNULOSE ANIMALS. 293 

Fam. CELLEPORID^E. 

143. Elzerina Blainmllii. Lamx. Pol. flex., 123, t. 2, f. 3. 
Very bad. Blainv., Man. Actin. 

f n habits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair. 

Lamoroux's figure very incorrectly represents this species. The 
cells are of the wrong shape, and too numerous. It may be de- 
scribed thus : Coral, horny, flexible, branched, forked, sub- 
quadrangular, not jointed, formed of four series of ovate convex 
cells, with an oblong margined mouth, and scattered with flexible 
root-like fibres. 

144. Margaretta cereoides. Gray. Cellaria cereoides. 
Ellis, Zooph., t. 5, f. 6. C. hirsuta. Lamx., P. F., 
t. 2, f. 4. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair. 

Frond subcylindrical, cells white, beautifully frosted with small 
pellucid dots ; the axis brown when dry. This coral forms 
a peculiar genus, which may be thus defined : Coral subcylin- 
drical, forked, jointed, rather crustaceous, pellucid, formed of four 
or six series of ovate cells, with a subcylindrical subtubular 
mouth, and having elongate bristle-like fibres. I can see no 
difference between the New Zealand specimens and some from the 
Cape of Good Hope, which I received from Dr. Kraus. It is also 
said to be found in the European seas. 

Salicornaria differs from this genus, in being destitute of fibres, 
and in the cells being six-sided, with a sunken mouth. 

Fam. CRISSIAD/E. 

145. Catenicella bicuspis. Gray. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair. 

Coral white, pearly; cells half-ovate, truncated, with a small 
compressed point on each side ; the mouth round. 

The coral branched, forked, circinate ; each joint formed of a 
single cell, with the mouths all placed on one side ; the joint at 
the divergence of the forks is formed of two united cells. 

146. Emma crystallina. Gray. 
Inhabits New Zealand. 

The coral of this new genus is circinate, branched, forked, and 
jointed ; the cells are all on one side of the coral, placed together in 



294 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

pairs, forming a cordate joint fringed on the side, and separated 
from each other by a very narrow cylindrical articulation ; the 
coral is glassy, and nearly transparent. 

Fam. SERTULARIAD.E. 

147. Dynamene bispinosa. Gray. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair. 

Coral slender, branched ; the cells rather distant, small, in 
pairs ; the tubular mouth, obliquely truncated, ending in two 
minute spines : vesicule large, ovate, oblong, with a small tooth 
on each side near the top, near D. operculata. 

148. Dynamene abietinoides. Gray. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair. 

Coral slender, branched, branches pinnate, compressed, simple ; 
cells rather close, subopposite, ovate, tubular, mouth denticulated ; 
vesicules large, oblong ovate, with a long process on each side 
near the mouth. 

Like D. abietina, but the vesicule with two long horn-like 
processes, and the mouth of the cells toothed. 

149. Sertularia Johnstoni. 

Inhabits New Zealand Dr. Sinclair. 

Coral slender, branched; cells small, distant, alternate, tubular 
short, oblique, with three or four short teeth round the mouth ; 
vesicules rather large, oblong, swollen transversely, wrinkled. 

Like Sertularia rugosa, the vesicles resemble the figures 
(Johnst., Brit. Zooph., t. 8, f. 4, 6) of the cells of that species. 
May not the true cells have been overlooked ? 

150. Plumularia Banksii. Gray. 

Inhabits Dusky Bay, New Zealand. Sir Joseph Banks. 

Stem compound, branched ; branchelets simple, opposite, pin- 
nate, unilateral, incurved ; cells close, rather crowded, bell- 
shaped, toothed at the mouth ; vesicles ? 

Allied to P. myriophyllum (Johnst., Brit. Zooph., 145, t. 29, 
f. 4 and 8), but more branched. 

151. Thuiarii Zelandica. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair. 
Pale brown, erect, branches oppositely pinnate; cells small, 



ANNULOSE ANIMALS. 295 

exactly opposite, triangular, mouth truncated, with a small central 
tooth. 

Differs from Th. articulata (Johnst., Brit. Zoopli., f.3,4) in the 
form of the cells. .There are no vesicles on my specimens. 

Fam. TUBULIPORID^E. 

152. Tubulipora patellata. Lamx. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair. 



Fam. 

153. SpiroMs Zelandica. Gray. 

Inhabits New Zealand, Great Barrier Island, on Patella 

Hookeriu 

Shell reversed, whorls two or three, rapidly enlarging ; the last 
with three spiral ridges, the middle rib most prominent. 

Fam. SPONGIAD^E. 

154. Spongia Sinclairi. Gray. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. A. Sinclair. 

Branchy ; branches cylindrical, forked ; apices conical, yellow ; 
surface with branched subcylindrical grooves, in certain spots ; 
ostioles small, numerous. 

Var. 1. Branches elongate, cylindrical, free. 

Var. 2. Branches short, repeatedly forked, apices often anasto- 
mosing. 

155. Spongia ramosa. Gray. 
Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair. 

Pale brown, soft, spongy, branchy; branches elongate, sub- 
cylindrical, of a very fine uniform texture, with a few small scat- 
tered ostioles in a line on each side; fibres horny, very thin. 

Var. 1. Branches moderately elongate, sometimes anasto- 
mosing. 

Var. 2. Branches very long, free. 

156. Spongia varia. Gray. 

Inhabits New Zealand. Dr. Sinclair. 

Pale brown, soft, flexible, branchy ; branches elongate, sub- 
cylindrical, soft, of a fine texture, with large scattered ostioles ; 
tips of the branches subclavate, sometimes united to one another. 

Like the former, but of a larger size, rather looser texture, and 
with larger ostioles. 



296 FAUNA OF NEW ZEALAND. 

ON THE FOSSIL SHELLS FROM NEW ZEALAND. By 
J. E. GRAY, Esq. 

Under Pectunculus, I have referred to some fossil shells 
which Dr. Sinclair brought with him from the East Cape of the 
Northern Island : since that notice was printed, Dr. Dieffenbach has 
shown me some specimens from the same locality, from Parenga- 
renga in the Northern Island, from Kawia and Waingaroa, and 
from Chatham Island. 

The specimens from the East Cape, in addition to the Pectun- 
culi brought by Dr. Sinclair, contain a Natica ; some fragments of 
a large Dentalium ; a specimen of Pyrula, like P. Smithii, but 
smaller ; many specimens of a Fusus, and of anAncillariavfiih a 
very callous apex. All these specimens so much resemble in form 
and condition, and in the character of the matrix, the shells found at 
Bognor, in Sussex, that they might easily be mistaken for speci- 
mens coming from that locality. 

The specimens from Chatham Island consist of the two lower 
valves of a large Ostrea with a very large area, allied to 0. gigantea, 
or 0. expansa, and having the calcareous deposit of the abductor 
muscle destroyed by fossilization in the same manner as the speci- 
men of O. expansa figured by Mr. Sowerby, t. 238, f. 1, and pf 
several specimens of the convex valve of a vesicular Gryphcea near 
G. Columba. They appear to belong to the greensand formation. 

The specimens from Parenga-renga are in a conglomerate, and 
all consist of fragments of a species of Turritella, with smooth finely 
spirally striated flat whorls, the animal of which fills up the cavity 
of the upper whorl of the shell. 

The specimens from Kawia and Waingaroa consist of a very 
thick ponderous Ostrea, three specimens of Terebratula, a Pecten 
like P. Japonica, and a Spatangus. They are in a limestone 
matrix. 



Vespertilio luberculatus, p. 181. I have just received two speci- 
mens of this bat : it is a new genus, differing from Embalonura, 
Kuhl, and Urocryptus, Temm., in having only two large cutting 
teeth in the middle of the upper jaw ; the fur is close, erect, dark 
brown, with minute white tips to the hair; the under surface is 
paler; the face has a series of short, rigid, black bristles round the 
base of the muzzle, the wings near the body and bones of the limbs 
are thickened and transversely grooved ; the tragus is elongate, 
subulate. It may be called Mystacina tuberculata. J. E. GRAY. 



PART II. 



ON THE LANGUAGE OF THE NEW ZEALANDERS, 



CHAPTER I. 

Introductory Remarks. 

IT is shown by the researches of Ley den, Hum- 
boldt, Marsden, Chamisso, Bopp, and others, that 
the languages which are spoken by all the 
islanders in the great ocean, excepting the Austral 
negroes, with whose languages we are not suffi- 
ciently acquainted to judge, are more or less related 
to each other. Such relationship has been proved 
between the Tagalo, Bisayo, in the Philippine 
Islands, the Kawi language in the island of Java, 
the languages of the different divisions of the Poly- 
nesians, and the Malayan language properly so called. 
The last has been regarded as the mother tongue, 
and has in its turn been shown to be connected 
with the Sanscrit. But although the Malayan lan- 
guage is most widely spread, we are scarcely justi- 
fied in calling it the parent root of all the rest, the 



298 LANGUAGE OF NEW ZEALAND. [PART II. 

fertile source from which they have all originally 
sprung. The Malayan can, perhaps, only claim the 
relation of a sister dialect to the other Polynesian 
languages : in consequence of the commercial inter- 
course of the people speaking it with many other 
nations, with the Chinese, the Hindoos, and the 
Arabians, they have adopted many foreign elements 
into their language, which has obtained in that 
manner quite a mixed character. It is evident that 
the nations speaking these languages, which are the 
same as regards their root, must have been sepa- 
rated in very ancient times ; but where their true 
birth-place was, and where the true cradle of their 
dialects is to be found, we do not as yet know. 

The idioms in the languages of the islanders 
whom I have called the true Polynesians, and to 
whom the New Zealanders belong, have a closer 
connection with each other than the general one 
just mentioned; and this closer connection more 
than anything else proves them to be one grand 
subdivision of the Oceanic race. This is especially 
the case between the Tahitian, the Sandwich Islands, 
and the New Zealand languages, with which we 
are most intimately acquainted. Although living 
at such an immense distance from each other, there 
is certainly not more difference between their dia- 
lects .than between the Dutch and the German. 
The language of the Friendly Islands, of which 
Mariner has given such an excellent account, pos- 
sesses more foreign elements, as do the people them- 



CHAP. I.] INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 299 

selves. Almost the only difference between the 
dialects of New Zealand and Tahiti consists in the 
use of softer or harder consonants; for instance, the k 
of New Zealand is exchanged for t, the r for /. In 
the Sandwich Islands, consonants at the beginning 
of the words are often thrown out : olelo, to 
speak, is borer o in New Zealand, and so on. I 
should say, indeed, that the difference is less than 
between the Dutch and the German ; at least, a 
native of Tahiti who was along with me under- 
stood the New Zealanders immediately on arriving 
amongst them, which is not the case with German 
and Dutch. The differences existing form a good 
instance of the influence of physical circumstances 
in altering a dialect to a certain degree, without 
any admixture from without, and this alteration 
has kept pace with the variations which climate 
and the geographical features of their respective 
countries have effected in the people themselves. 

The Polynesian language is in its whole forma- 
tion and construction by far more primitive than 
the Malayan and the rest of the Javano-tagalo 
languages. Its whole cast is ancient : it belongs to 
a primitive state of society. The roots are mono- 
syllables, which, however, is also the principle of the 
Indo-Germanic languages, and the words are often 
an imitation of the natural sound or voice, especially 
the names of animate objects. The polysyllabic 
words are often formed as children form words, by 
reduplication of the root, and repetition often 



300 LANGUAGE OF NEW ZEALAND. [PART II. 

strengthens the root, as in Italian, and forms a su- 
perlative. The root is a sort of infinitive, and is 
inflexible, including indifferently the senses of noun, 
adjective, adverb, participle, or verb. Flexion is 
obtained by prefixes and affixes : thus the passive of 
verbs is formed by the addition of certain syllables 
to the root. To form abstract substantives a compo- 
sition of words takes place, which thus become 
single words : some, however, of this kind, which are 
found in the vocabulary, are not compatible with 
the original simplicity of the New Zealand lan- 
guage, and seem to have been formed as the ideas 
of the natives began to expand by their contact with 
people who had modes of thinking quite different 
from their own, especially with the Christian mis- 
sionaries. This compounding of words is, however, 
a remarkable feature in the language, and renders it 
very flexible, as the adding certain syllables to the 
root gives it the power of expressing various mean- 
ings. By the same licence, Greek and German 
have become such rich languages, as they could in- 
crease their stock of words without borrowing from 
any other. If the New Zealander has adopted a 
root from a foreign language, he does not adopt all 
the derived words, but forms the latter according to 
the genius of his own tongue. The New Zealand 
language is therefore capable of being further deve- 
loped, and is already a decidedly rich language. It 
is not necessary to substitute another language for 
their own. If we consider over what an immense 



CHAP. I.J INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 301 

space one language, differing only in dialect, is 
spoken, and what a field is opened amongst the 
various people for European intercourse, and for 
the light of Christian civilization, we should rather 
seek to create one Polynesian language, than to in- 
troduce another tongue entirely different in its root. 
Of all languages, the English is perhaps the one 
they are least capable of learning, arid for this 
reason that they have not sufficient sounds in their 
own language to pronounce the English words, and 
they want also some of the consonants. Judg- 
ing from my own experience, I am of opinion that 
all attempts to teach the natives the English lan- 
guage can only end in their acquiring an unintel- 
ligible jargon. 

The New Zealand language abounds in prefixes 
and affixes. Both must be regarded as corrupted 
words, the sense of which has been lost. It is well 
known that they are common in the more western 
dialects, especially in Hebrew. It appears that 
euphony often forms the only rule by which in 
certain phrases one particle is used and not the 
other, and it is evident that their use is sometimes 
quite arbitrary. 

There is nothing to lead to the belief that the 
New Zealanders ever possessed the art of writing, 
nor even that more simple mode of communicating 
events to posterity by figures of animals and objects, 
which has been lately discovered to be in use amongst 
the most barbarous tribes of Northern America, and 



30*2 LANGUAGE OF NEW ZEALAND. [PART II. 

which might properly be termed picture-writing. I 
have, however, already observed that certain carv- 
ings represent historical, and especially genealogical 
facts ; and the spiral lines of their tattooing, and the 
arabesques painted on their houses, are perhaps the 
remains of an ancient art of that description, 
although they certainly are not used for that pur- 
pose at the present time. Tui, or tuhi, means to 
paint or to carve ; and the same word has been 
adopted to express writing, with which art many of 
the natives are now acquainted. 

It may appear superfluous that I should have 
troubled myself to give a vocabulary and some gram- 
matical notes on the language, as it could not be 
expected that I should have acquired a sufficient 
knowledge of the language in the short time of 
eighteen months. I disclaim any pretensions to 
the character of a linguist, as I am too well aware 
how perfectly a man must be acquainted with a lan- 
guage before he can enter into the niceties of its 
component parts, and of its grammatical structure ; 
as William von Humboldt has done with the Kawi 
language of the island of Java, and its sister- 
languages the Polynesian dialects, in his book, at 
which I could, unfortunately, only glance after I 
had written my grammatical notes. What has de- 
termined me not to keep back the few observations I 
had made on the language, and my collection of 
words, is, that in the only vocabulary of the New 
Zealand language which has been published, that 



CHAP. I.] INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 303 

by Professor Lee, at Cambridge, in 1820, the style 
of orthography is certainly not correct. The native 
who was had recourse to when that dictionary was 
compiled must have pronounced certain sounds dif- 
ferently from most of his countrymen, or errors 
must have been committed in catching the sounds. 
The missionaries, whose translations were of great 
help to me in compiling the dictionary, have adopted 
the orthography as I have given it. I also thought 
that my dictionary and grammar would be of service 
to the emigrants, as Professor Lee's work, which is 
meritorious in every other respect, is now out of 
print. 

We are still very deficient in our knowledge of 
the Polynesian languages. No one of the mission- 
aries has shown himself to be a good linguist ; no 
one of them has succeeded in deciphering the native 
traditionary poetry, which undoubtedly would re- 
compense the labour of the historian and ethnologist. 

The importance of a more exact study of languages, 
as the means of understanding the mind of these 
nations, is not yet sufficiently acknowledged amongst 
those who could contribute most largely to increase 
our stock of knowledge. " To search into the dif- 
ference of the structure of human languages, to 
elucidate their essential condition, to arrange their 
apparently infinite variety in a more simple manner, 
to trace the sources of that variety, as well as its 
influence on the thoughts, feelings, and sensations 
of men, to follow the intellectual development of 



304 LANGUAGE OF NEW ZEALAND. [PART II. 

mankind through all revolutions of history, led on 
by language, which in deep and intimate connection 
accompanies it, is the important and comprehensive 
object of general philology."* 

If a man competent to the task were to trace the 
Polynesian dialects from island to island, and de- 
cipher the ancient traditionSj which are contained 
in the songs and in the mystic invocations of the 
priests, we should soon have a more correct idea of 
the connections of these languages, and of the migra- 
tions of the people themselves. But the dialects 
are now rapidly altering, in consequence of the more 
frequent intercourse with foreign nations ; and the 
traditions in some places, as in Tahiti, the Sand- 
wich Islands, and New Zealand, are, for the most 
part, already forgotten. 

In consequence of the general circulation of the 
translation of the Scriptures, the language has also 
been greatly remodelled : new conceptions, new ideas, 
are pouring in upon these simple and interesting 
islanders, which importantly affect their language. 
Every day diminishes, therefore, the chance of re- 
cording the different dialects in their purity, as the 
possibility of obtaining original pieces of composi- 
tion, and still more of obtaining a correct explana- 
tion of them, decreases. In New Zealand, for 
instance, it is only the old who can give any ac- 
count of the meaning of certain songs, incantations, 

* Wilhelm von Humboldt, ' Ueber die Ka\vi Sprache auf der 
Insel Java,' vol. iii., Introd. 



CHAP. I.] INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 305 

and invocations. It is, therefore, very important 
that the study of the Polynesian languages should 
be carried on by travellers amongst the people them- 
selves, and that this should be done at as early a 
period as possible. 



VOL. IT. X 



306 [PART n. 



CHAPTER II. 

SPECIMENS OF THE NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. 

I COULD have wished to have given more copious 
specimens of the New Zealand language a greater 
number of original pieces of composition than I 
have done. There exist numerous songs, of various 
character, in the mouths of the people ; and I have 
no doubt that a large collection of Indian lore could 
be formed. I have myself made such a collection of 
about eighty pieces, principally of a lyric, erotic, or 
mystic character, which were written down on the 
spot from the mouths of the natives, and often by 
the natives themselves who had acquired the art of 
writing. But in attempting to translate them I 
have found difficulties which to me were almost in- 
surmountable* although I had the aid of intelligent 
natives. One of the chief of these difficulties was, 
that many of their songs, especially those of a reli- 
gious character, contain numerous words which 
would seem to be now lost, or, at least, their mean- 
ing is no longer understood. They are, perhaps, the 
ruins of an ancient tongue, which was either the 



CHAP. II.] LANGUAGE OF NEW ZEALAND. 307 

foundation of the different dialects which we now 
find dispersed over so great a space, or it was the 
language of the priests. Of this class is the pike, 
or celebrated funeral ode, already communicated, of 
which I can indeed translate many words and phrases, 
yet its meaning is at parts all but unintelligible. It 
embodies, no doubt, a portion of the mysterious 
creed of Maui, and of a legislation, the traces of 
which are found spread over so many of the Poly- 
nesian islands, and of which we can give so little 
account. The religious idea, an opposition of life 
and death, and of this and another world, seems 
evident. In other songs the aphoristical and un- 
connected character, the occurrence of names and 
local allusions, the entirely novel mode of expres- 
sion, present obstacles to their translation. A mere 
superficial knowledge of the language is here in- 
sufficient : we must enter deeply into the native's 
way of thinking, must associate with him during 
many years, and must comprehend his feelings and 
emotions by participating in them, in order to obtain 
from a collection of poetry a history of the Indian 
mind. I will here, however, give one or two speci- 
mens in confirmation of my view. 

To begin with their proverbs, which afford a fair 
specimen of the difficulty attending the translation 
of New Zealand compositions into our language, 
and their figurative manner of expression. I sub- 
join a literal translation under each word : 

1. No te uri o te Arawa koe. 
Of the family of the Arawa thou. 

x 2 



308 LANGUAGE OF NEW ZEALAND. [PART II. 

According to the tradition, one of the canoes in 
which the first settlers arrived in New Zealand 
was called " Arawa." In that boat, whilst the hus- 
band was at the head, a man in the middle of the 
boat seduced his wife, upon which the boat, highly 
indignant, immediately stopped, and refused to 
move on until the guilty person had been punished. 
It is clear thence that " to be of the family of the 
Arawa" means to be a person that breaks a trust, 
and the proverb is accordingly used in speaking of 
a cheat and a liar. 

2. Tou kai waewae he tuku mai ki ahau kia 
Thy life feet a bringing hither to me that 

kuwaru atu e drotau ana mai. 
think I shall a love being hither. 

The sense is : What is real (life) are only his feet : 
he brings them to me : may I delude myself that 
this is continued love? evidently an antithesis, 
the first part : the reality, the lover's presence, arrival 
(feet), and opposed to that a mere thought, imagi- 
nation, untruth ; his continued love. 

3. He takapau pokai nga uri o paheke. 
A mat rolled the son of hardness. 

" Son of hardness " is here, as in Hebrew, used 
adjectively ; hard, like a rolled-up mat. It is 
applied to unfeeling avarice. 

4. Na huhu na wera to kai e mangere na. 
Of grub of fire thy food a lazy (affix). 

This is applied to a lazy fellow that eats much. 
The sense is less clear. The first words, " of the 



CHAP. II.] SPECIMENS. 309 

grub," answer to the French genitive partitive, 
meaning thy portion ought to be grubs; grubs 
being eaten by the New Zealanders when in want 
of food produced by their industry. These grubs 
they roast, so that the general sense will be : Take 
grubs from the fire ; that is thy food, lazy fellow. 

5. Ta te tangata kai he kai titongi kaki mahi 
The man's food a food a waste full work 

(genit. possess.) 

E tona ringa tino kai tino makona. 
His hand plenty food plenty filling. 

The proverb is applied to a man that, having been 
invited by another, leaves his house with an empty 
belly. The sense is : This man's food is a full 
waste, a mere nothing; but if a man is laborious 
himself, he will always have plenty of food and 
plenty of filling for his belly. 

6. Hohonu kaki papaku uaua to kakawai ngako nui 
Deep gizzard thin sinews thy salmon fat much 

To aroaro tahuri ke. 
Thy face turn away. 

This also alludes to a man desirous of eating 
much and doing little. The original contains a 
kind of parallel much in the manner of Hebrew 
poetry. In the first part there is an antithesis, 
namely, an ample stomach and puny sinews, that is 
to say, much voracity and little strength or little 
inclination for work : in the second part there is 
another antithesis ; first, a fat salmon, and then the 
impossibility of eating it by turning away the face ; 



310 LANGUAGE OF NEW ZEALAND. [PART II. 

as if it had been, There is a fat salmon for you : but 
you turn away your back ; how can you eat it ? 

7. Ki tata ki tau ke. 
To approach in a year. 

This is another of their favourite antitheses : You 
say you will come soon yes, in a year. 

8. Ta raua he kaka kau akitahaki tena titiro 
For them the fibres only throw down that look 

Iho ka puehuehu ma tana waiaro tenaka. 
Down it is mealy before himself put that. 

This saying is used by a free man who discovers 
his slaves eating the best (i.e. the mealy) fern-root, 
and leaving for their master that which is stringy. 
The sense is easy, if we bear in mind that only the 
mealy fern-root is eatable, and the stringy and 
fibrous unfit for food. The master, therefore, says : 
For fellows like you, the fibrous ; well, the stringy 
parts (unfit for eating) fling down, slave, to the 
ground (ironically) : they are mealy ; pick them up, 
and put them before your mouth and eat them." 

The following He Waiata Aroha, or Love-Song, 
expresses loneliness and despair. A woman com- 
plains in it of the faithlessness and desertion of her 
lover. It is sung, without action, in a low, plain- 
tive, and not unpleasing tune : 

He Waiata Aroha. 

Tera te wetu tutaki ata 

There (at a distance) the star meeting morning 



CHAP. II.] SPECIMENS. 311 

Ka moiri kirunga, tuku iho kiraro. 

Has risen above, descends down below. 

He mea nei Hapai ka tatata 

A thing (person) there, Hapai (a name of a man), will approach 

ki tawiti 
at a distance: 

E te ngakau hoki e wawatai i te ahi-ahi 
The heart is broken in the evening : 

Ko wai ra kia hoki me wakatitahatia 

Who truly will return and (if) leaning 
Hei Waihoura, hei a te Ripera, 

Here Waihoura (a woman's name), here to Ripera, 

hei te moenga takakau 
here the bed friendless, 

He moenga takakau. 
The bed . of a virgin. 

E kore e tahuri mai ka taiakotikotia nga mea 
Not turn to me worn out things (person) 

i ahau nei 

mine, but 

Kati hoe au ki tawiti 

Enough sail I to a distance. 

Taihoa ahau e hoki ki taku moenga tupu 
Soon I return to my bed born (birth-place), 

Kia poutu te marama, kia hina pouri mai. 

When dark the moon, when threatens darkness comes. 

The division of the song is in the following 
manner : 

Tera te marama tutaki ata 
Ka moiri kirunga, tuku iho ki raro 
He mea nei Hapai ka tatata ki tawiti 
E te ngakau hoki e wawatai i te ahi ahi 
Ko wai ra kia hoki me wakatitahatia 
Hei Waihoura hei ate Ripera, hei te moenga takakau 
E kore e tahuri mai, ka taiakoti 
Kotitia nga mea i ahau nei 



312 LANGUAGE OF NEW ZEALAND. [PART II, 

Kati hoe au ki tawiti 

Taihoa e hoki ki taku moenga tupu 

Kia poutu te marama, kia hina pouri mai. 

Yonder is the star, meeting the morning, 
Which has risen on high, and will descend below. 
Hapai must soon approach from afar. 
Alas ! Love broke my heart in the evening ; 

But will he return to me, if he loves Waihoura ? 
If he leans over the bed of Ripera 
He will never turn his eyes to me ; 

I am old and worn out. 
But I will sail far away, 
And will return to my birth-place, 
When night comes on, and hides in darkness. 

The following is a modern nursery-song: 



E Hohepa e tangi kati ra te tangi 


Joseph crying enough truly the crying 


Me aha taua i 


te po 


For what we at 


the night 


Inoi i te po 


kauwau 


Praying at the night 


preaching, 


Me kokiri koe 


ki te wai Horana, 


For dip thou 


in the water Jordan, 


Kia murua te 


kino, kia wehea 


That be washed off the 


bad that may be taken away 


te hara, 




the fault, 




E tama, e 




child, 




Me kawe ake koe ki 


te ware ia te Tana, 


And carried thou in 


the house that of Turner, 


Kia tohutohungia 


ki te rata puka puka 


That you may be shown 


the letters book 


Te upoko tuatahi te 


upoko i a Kenehi 


The book first the 


book in the Genesis 



CHAP. II. J SPECIMENS. 313 

Te rongo pai o Matui 
The message good of Matthew 

Kia wakamatau ai 
That may understand 

Kia kite te kanohi o te tinana 
That see the light of the body 

E tama, e 
son, 

Translation. 

Joseph, you cry ; hut dry your tears. 
What shall we do on the night of the prayers, 
On the night of the preaching? 
You must be dipped in Jordan's stream, 
That your sins may be washed, that your faults may be taken away, 

My son, my 

You must be carried to Turner's house, 
That you may be shown the letters of the book, 
That you may read 
The first chapter of Genesis, 
The gospel of St. Matthew, 
That you may understand, 
That your eyes may see the light of the body, 

My son, my 

He Waiata Aroha. 

Ka waia te kanohi ki te putanga mai 

Nga taumata ra o wakapau mahara 

He manu koa nga au e taea te rere atu 

E taea te hoka hoka hari rau mohoku 

Kino ai tatou ki te noho tahi mai 

Ka motu au ki tawiti ka rau aku 

Mahara no te roimata ra e pah eke i aku kamo. 

(Translation.) 
A Love- Song. 

My tearful eyes are overflowing ; 

The bridal-day takes away my thoughts; 

A joyful bird comes to me in quick flight, 



314 LANGUAGE OF NEW ZEALAND. [PART II. 

In his claw (boka hoka, fork, beak?) he brings 

To me a salutation (hari rau, perhaps equivalent to the English 

"How do you do?") 
I have finished : my thoughts are at a 
Distance : tears are under my eyelids. 

As a specimen of native epistolary style I will 
give the following letter from the chief E Reweti, 
at Waitemata : 

E hoa E Paki ? 

Kia ronga mai koe ! Kua mate taku wahine eonu nga ra kahore 
ano i kai kotou aroha kiau kia homai e rongoa motaku hoa kei 
tona matenga te mate kei tona tinana i penei te kapura e hoa ki 
aroha koe ki toku hoa kia mai e koe he rongoa. 

Heoi ano, 

NA TE REWETI. 
(Translation.) 
Friend Dieffenbach, 

Listen to me ! My wife is ill six days ; she does not eat at all ; 
you all love me, and give me therefore medicine for my com- 
panion ; her head aches, and in her body she has the fire (fever). 
Friend ! have love to your friend, and give medicine to me. 

That is enough from 

TE REWETI. 

The following (the fifty-second chapter of Isaiah) 
may serve as good specimens of translations into the 
New Zealand language : 

Upoko 52. 

Maranga, maranga; kakahuria to kaha, e Hiona; kakahuria o 
kahu wakapaipai, e Hiruharama, e te pa tapu ! Heoti ano hokite 
haerenga mai ki a koe o te mea kokoti kore, o te mea poke. 

2 Ruperupea atu te puehu i a koe, wakatika ake, noho iho, e 
Hiruharama: wetekina atu te mekameka i tou kaki, e te tamahine 
herehere o Hiona. 

3 E penei mai ana hoki te kupu a Ihowa, Kua hokona kautia 
atu koutou e koutou ano; na, ehara i te moni mana koutou e 
wakahoki mai. 

4 Ta te mea hoki e penei mai ana te kupu a te Ariki, a Ihowa, 



CHAP. II.] SPECIMENS. 315 

I haere atu toku iwi ki Ihipa i mua, ki reira noho ai ; na, ka 
wakatupuria kinotia noatia ratou e te Ahiriana. 

5 Na, he aha ra taku i konei, e ai ta Ihowa ; ka kawakina 
kautia atu nei hoki toku iwi, tangiaue ana ratou i o ratou rangatira, 
e ai ta Ihowa, a, wakahaweatia tonutia ana toku ingoa, i tenei ra i 
tenei ra. 

6 Mo konei ka mohio ai toku iwi i toku ingoa : mo konei ka 
mohio ai ratou, i taua ra, ko a hau te korero nei, rere, ko au nei. 

7 Ano te ahuareka o nga waewae, i runga i nga maunga, o te 
kai kawe i te rongo pai, e kauwau ana i te maunga rongo ; e kawe 
mai ana i te rongo wakahari o te pai, e kauwa ana i te oranga ; e 
mea ana ki a Hiona, Ka kingi tou Atua. 

8 Ka wakanuia te reo o o tutei ; ki te reo e waiata ngatahi ai 
ratou j ta te mea hoki, ka kite atu ratou he kanohi, he kanohi, ua 
wakahoki a Ihowa i a Hiona. 

9 Kia rere ngatahi koutou ki te hari, ki te waiata, e nga wahi o 
Hiruharama kua ururuatia ; kua wakamarie hoki a Ihowa i tona 
iwi, kua hoko i Hiruharama. 

10 Kua huhu a Ihowa i tona ringa tapu ki te aroaro o nga 
tauiwi katoa, a, ka kite nga pito katoa o te ao i te wakaoranga a to 
tatou Atua. 

1 1 Maunu, maunu, haere atu i reira ; kaua e wakapa atu ki te 
mea poke : haere atu i roto i a ia ; kia ma koutou e mau ana i nga 
oko a Ihowa. 

12 Ta te mea hoki, ekore koutou e haere potatutatu atu, ekore 
ano hoki e tuawati ta koutou haere ; no te mea ka haere a Ihowa 
i to koutou aroaro; ko te Atua hoki o Iharaira hei hiku mo 
koutou. 

13 Rere, ka mahi tupato taku tangata, ka wakatiketikea, ka 
wakanuia, ka wakakakea rawatia. 

14 Me te tini i miharo ki a koe, (no te mea i kino iho tona 
kanohi i to te tangata, tona ahua hoki i to nga tamariki a te 
tangata ;) 

1 5 Waihoki, ka tauhiuhia e ia nga iwi maha ; kopi tonu te 
waha o nga kingi ki a ia; ta te mea hoki, ko nga mea,kahore ano 
i korerotia ki a ratou, ka kitea, ko nga mea hoki kihai i rangona ka 
wakaaroaroa. 

The Lord's Prayer. 

E to matou matua i te rangi, kia tapu tou ingoa tukua mai tou 
rangatiratanga. 



316 



LANGUAGE OF NEW ZEALAND. [PART II. 



Kia meatia tou hiahia ki te wenua me tou hialiia i te rangi. 

Homai ki a matou aianei ta matou kai mo tenei ra. 

Murua mo matou o matou hara, me matou hoki e muru ana mo 
ratou e hara ana ki a matou. 

Kaua matou e kawea atu ki te wakawainga, otiia wakaorangia 
matou i te kino : Nau hoki te rangatiratanga, me te kaha, me te 
kororia, ake ake ake. Amine. 



SENTENCES. 



What is your name ? 
Where do you come from ? 
When do you go back ? 
How many days do you stay in 

that place ? 
You stay here till I come back, 

and mind what I say to you. 

Do not let any one come into the 

house. 
Who gave you this thing ? 

Where was it ? Where from ? 
We have not seen. 
Where are you all ? 
Well, what do you all say ? 
It is not good for us. 
The things I have to do keep 
me from coming to see you. 

Do not be confusingme with your 
questions. Speak straight, 
and do not talk so fast. 

Tell me your wants, and perhaps 
I can give you something. 

Tell me your mind on this sub- 
ject. 

How long have you left that 
place? 

I am going a long way off. 



Kowai tou ingoa ? 

I haere mai koe ihea ? 

Mo ahea koe hoki ai ? 

Kiahia nga ra enoho ai koe i 

tenei kainga? 
Enoho koe kikonei ki hoki mai 

ahau kia mahara koe ki taku 

kupu. 
Kaua tukua mai tetahi tangata 

ki roto i te ware. 
Na wai ho atu tenei mea kia 

koutou ? 
Nohea koia? 
E kore e kitea a matou. 
Kei hea koutou ? 
Na, he aha tou koutou korero? 
E kore e pai kia taua. 
E pohehe ana ahau i aku mahi 

no reira ahau te haere mai 

aha te titiro i a koe. 
Kaua ahau e wakapohehetia 

kiau kupu, kia tika toe ko- 
rero kaua wakahohorotia toe 

korero. 
Korero mai koe ki au e hiahia 

ai koe, inaku pea e oatu 

tetahi mea kia koe. 
Au mai toe wakaro ki tenei 

mea. 
Nonahea koe i wakarire ai tera 

kainga ? 
Haere atu ana ahau ki tawiti. 



CHAP. II.] 



SPECIMENS. 



317 



Go in peace, farewell. 
Friends, where are you going ? 
What is it to us? 
I will not give it. 
We are going a-fishing. 
Why do you make me speak so 
angrily to you ? 

I am surprised you have no 
shame. 

You are as lonely as a shag 

upon a rock. 
Here is thy load. 
Soften thy anger towards me. 
I told him to give the dog food. 

My son is asleep; make no 

noise. 

Ask thy friend. 
And he said to me. 

Show me how much land you 
have here ; where it begins, 
and where it ends ; and how 
many chiefs are there that 
own it. 

And tell me all their names. 
Friend, do not be angry with me. 

Who is this? Who is that? 
Who is that woman? 

Give me some food. 
I am sick for want of a draught 
of water. 

I am coming ashore. 
A great deal of anger. 

It is very true; he will not 
come. 

Whose vessel is that in the har- 
bour? 

You have sold yourselves for 

nothing. 
Do not tell anybody of this. 



Haere marie, hei koe ra. 
Emarama, haere koutou keihea? 
Heaha tenei kia taua ? 
E kore ra ahau ho atu. 
Ka haere e matou ki te mahi ika. 
Mo te aha koe i mea iau kia 
kupu riri ai ahau ki a koe? 

E miharo ana hau ki a koe e 
kore wakama nou. 

E moke moke ana koe me te 

kauwau irunga i te toka. 
Tenei ano tou pikau. 
Wakarangimarie to riri kiau. 
Ka meatu ahau kia ia oatu 
tetahi kai ma te kuri. 

He moeanatakutamaiti ; kaua 

he tutu. 

Ui atu ki tou hoa. 
A ka mea ia kia au. 

Tohu tohungia mai to kainga 
i te nuinga i te timatanga, i 
te mutunga, ehia hoki nga 
rangatira e tutana tenei kain- 
ga. 

A korero tui mai o katou ingoa. 
Emara kati tou riri ki ahau. 

Kowai tenei ? Kowai tera ? 
Kowai tera wahine ? 

Ho mai tetahi kai ki ahau. 
Ka mate ahau ki te inumia te 
wai. 

Ka haere mai ahau ki uta. 
E nui rawa te riri. 

He pono ra hoki ; e kore ia e 
taea. 

Ko wai koia tera kaipuke ki te 
kokororuitanga ? 

Kua hokona kautia atu koutou 

e koutou ano. 
Kaua e korero kia ratou o tenei 

mea. 



318 



LANGUAGE OF NEW ZEALAND. [PART II. 



Why do you make me speak so 
angrily to you ? I am sur- 
prised ; you have no shame. 

I tell you the straight way of 
talking to these strangers, for 
you do not understand their 
ways. 

Look for the thing, and don't 
come here till you find it, or 
I shall be angry with you. 

We have no persons to show us 
the road ; we will give pay- 
ment if one man will show 
us the road, for we have lost 
it. 

Don't tease me, but let me sleep. 

I am angry with these fleas; 
they make me itch. 

Run like a rat up a patuka. 

Your legs are too weak to carry 
your body. 

Your breath smells. 

A brave man fights, and looks 
his enemy in the face , but a 
coward runs away. 



A coward will kill his enemy 
treacherously ; but a brave 
man would die of shame if he 
did so. 

Does your eldest son have your 
land when you die ? 

Or your daughter, or the hus- 
band of your daughter ? 

We came to Kareka, and gave 
the people four heads of to- 



Mo te aha koe i mea iau kai 
kupu riri ai ahau ki a koe, e 
miharo ana hau ki a koe e 
kore wakama nou. 

E korero atu ana ahau kia koe 
i te kupu tika, e korero mo 
ki enei tou hoe, mo te mea 
kahore koe i matou ki nga 
ritenga o enei tau hoe. 

Ki mira ki te mea kaua koe 
haere mai kia kite ana te mea 
me mea kahore ka eriri aha 
kia koe. 

Kahore kou e tangata e tohu 
tohu i te ara a me oatu tetahi 
utu ki tetahi tangata me a mea 
ka haere ia ki te tohu tohu i 
te ara, kua ngaro poki a 
matou. 

Kaua wakatoia ahau, otiira me 
tukua ki a moe ahau. 

E riri ana ahau ki enei purui 
e mungea noku. 

Me oma koe me te kiore irunga 

i te patuka. 
Engoi kore au ou wae wae ki te 

hapai toe tinana. 

Ka pirau toe maniwa. 

Ko te tangata e tou ana e riri 
ana ka tiro ia tona hoa riri 
ki te eanou otira ko te koau 
eoma ana, e waka rire ana 
ona hoa. 

Ko te koau e kohuru ana tona 
hoa riri tena ko te tangata 
toua, e mate ana ia i te wa- 
kama mo tera kohuru. 

Ka mate koe ka houri eriro toe 

wenua i toe tamaiti mata 

mua? 
Toe tamahine ranei te tane 

ranei o toe tamahine ranei ? 
Hae mai matou ki Kareka, a 

oatu ana ki nga tangata ewa 



CHAP. II.] 



SPECIMENS. 



319 



bacco for carrying some things 
from Terawera, and they 
were bad enough to steal two 
shoes. 

We shot a pig, and left an iron 
pot as payment for it; we 
had no potatoes, but lost our 
road, and came to a plantation 
where we found plenty. 

I told him to give the dog food. 

He told me he would do so. 
It was good for me to stay, for I 

should have lost my things if 

I had left them. 
Shake the blanket. 
Here is thy load. 
The ship's bread is hard. 

A scenting thing. 

Go thou away. 

Ask thy friend. 

Walking naked. 

I am waiting for thee. 

The wind blows. 

A cold wind. 

A scorched face. 

The water boils. 

A bowsprit. 

The man is come near. 

And he said to me. 

Put some water into the pot. 

Put some of both in. 
Don't give it to him. 
Don't be in a hurry. 
You are joking. 
Don't bother me. 
Be careful with that thing. 
Don't be angry. 
Which is the road ? 
Is this a bad road ? 



toa nga wire te tupeka e utu 
mau ratou hoki kouwi tetahi 
ra matou mea a tahae ana ra- 
tou ia mato e hu. 

Puhia ana tetahi porka e matou 
a waihua iho ana tetahi kohua 
e utu, kahore kou e rewai o 
matou kua mahue tou matou 
ara a tai mai ana matou te- 
tahi kainga hua kai. 

Ka meatu ahau ki aia oatu te- 
tahi kai ma te kuri. 

Nana i mea mai maua i mea. 

E mea tika ki enoho a au, me 

mea e mahua ana ana aku 

mea ka mahue. 
Rui ruiha te paraketi. 
Tenei ano tou pikau. 
He mea pakeke te taro kai- 

puke. 

He mea kakara. 
Haere atu koe. 
Ui atu ki tou hoa. 
He haere kau ana. 
He tatari ana ahau ki a koe. 
He pupui ana te hau. 
He hau makariri. 
He mata wera. 
He korupupu ana te wai. 
He rakau mo te ihu. 
Ka puta mai te tangata. 
A ka mea ia ki a au. 
Panga tetahi wai ki roto ki te 

pata. 

Panga tetahi o tetahi ki roto. 
Kaua e oatu kia ia. 
Kaua ehohoro. 
Ehanga reka ana koe. 
Porearea tahi ahau. 
Kia mahara koe ki tera mea. 
Kaua koe te riri. 
Ko tehea te ara? 
E huarahi kino tenei? 



320 



LANGUAGE OF NEW ZEALAND. [PART II. 



Is there much wood there ? 
Are there many people there ? 
When will you go ? 
What do you come for ? 
What are you so unkind to me 

for? 

You have a bad heart. 
Why did you steal from me ? 
Don't stop here. 
Let us get there before night. 
Can we get there by night. 

Let us travel at daylight. 
Call me at daylight. 
Wake me at sunrise. 

Let us get to the end of our 

journey by sunset. 
Shall we get to Roto-rua by 

sunset ? 
How many days will it take us 

to Turanga ? 
Where can we buy food on the 

road? 
Make a fire and cook some food. 

Give me that first. 
Their village, or place. 
This is for you. 
I gave it to him. 
I will give it you. 
Did I give it you ? 
When will you get it me ? 
When will he come ? 
Tell him to come directly. 

By and by you will see. 
Drive them out. 
Is it a short road ? 
Always lying down. 
Will he not leave it ? 
You are lazy. 



E nui ana ra nei te wahi ? 

E tini ra nei nga tangata i reira? 

A hea koe haere ai ? 

E haere aha mai ? 

Eha tou i atua mai kia hau ? 

E ngakau pakeke tou. 

E haha koe i tahae ai ? 

Kaua e noho ki konei. 

Kia hohoro tatou te tae rewa po. 

Ko tae ranei tatou ki reira i 

mua o te po. 

Me haere tatou i te atatu. 
Karangatia a hau i te atatu. 
Waka arangia ahau i te witinga 

mai o te ra. 
Kia hohoro ta tatou haere kei 

wato te ra. 
Ka tae ranei tatou ki Rotorua 

ki te tonga o te ra ? 
Ehia o nga ra ka tae tatou ki 

Turanga ? 
Ki hea tatou hoko tami ai ? 

Hanga tetahi ahi ai tunu kai mo 

tatou. 

Matua au mai tera. 
Ko te tangata nana te kainga. 
Mau tenei. 
Naku e hoatu ki aia. 
Maku e oatu. 

Naku ranei i hoatu ki a koe ? 
Ahea koe tiki ai te mea maku ? 
Ahea ia tae mai ai ia ? 
Karangatu kia ia ki ho horo 

mai. 

Ka kite koe amua. 
Wiu oatu. 

E huarahi poto tenei ? 
Tokata tono. 
Ekore i anei waiho ? 
Mangeri ana koe. 



CHAP. II.] 



SPECIMENS. 



321 



My head is greasy. 

A thin pig funny. 

Why do you stop ? 

I can't stop. 

It will be spoilt. 

I have lost it. 

Coming for nothing. 

Don't wet it. 

Why don't you listen ? 

A dry thing. 

A wet thing. 

An old man. 

An old woman. 

What of it ? 

Who said it ? 

I am idle. 

Stand it up. 

Drive it down. 

For you. 

The flies are gathering round. 

Five days ago. 

Four days ago. 

Three days ago. 

The day before yesterday. 

The day after to-morrow. 

Two days after to-morrow. 

Three days after to-morrow 

When did he do it ? 

Why does he do it? 

Why did he tell me ? 

Does he think I am a fool ? 

I will not give it. 

Has he no shame ? 

You talk nonsense. 

Whom did he give it to ? 

He gave it to me. 

Who did it? 

It does not belong to him. 

I will give it to you by and by. 



E inu tako mahuriga. 

Poaka iwi kau hangareka. 

Eaha koe inoho ai ? 

Ekore hau inoho. 

Ka kino hoki. 

Kua ngaro iahau. 

Man mau haere noa mau. 

Kei wakamakuku rea. 

I te aha te rongo ai ? 

E mea maroke. 

E mea maku. 

Koroheki. 

Kuruhi. 

Eha rua ? 

Na wai ki ? 

E weto. 

Wakaturia. 

Patua ihu. 

Mau ano. 

Meui meui e ngaro. 

Ina waki nui atu. 

Ina waki. 

Ina tetahi ra. 

Ina tai ra. 

A te tahi ra. 

A waki. 

A waki nui atu. 

No nahea iai mea ai ? 

Mo te aha ia i mea ai ? 

Mo te aha ia i korero mai ki 

ahau i mua ? 

E mea pea ana ia e kuare ahau ? 
Ekore ahau e hoatu. 
Kahore ona wakama ? 
E korero hangareka ana koe. 
I hoatu eia kia wai ? 
Nana i hoatu kia hau. 
Na wai i mea ? 
Naku i hoatu ki aia. 
Maku e hoatu kia koe a mua 

mua ake. 



VOL. II. 



322 



LANGUAGE OF NEW ZEALAND. [PART II. 



Why does he not do it ? 

Do not stop there. 

It is good to suck. 

It will bite your finger. 

It is as dry as a stick. 

It smells like fish. 

It has long teeth in its mouth. 

He cries very often. 

That's wrong. 

You tell a story. 

Do not do it. 

Why don't you listen to me ? 

He said to me. 

She said to me. 

Have you eaten ? 

I doubt it. 

Is it true? 

You will be drowned in rain. 

Are you his slave ? 

Do that first, and don't be lazy. 

How many men went to that 

fight? 

You are always grumbling. 
How many days have you been 

sick? 

Is it yours or your friend's? 
What did you give for it? 
When did you get it ? 
I will get it for you. 
Don't be suspicious. 
Let us two keep together. 
If I say I will do it, it is true. 
Let us keep close together. 
Don't run away from it. 
It will not hurt you. 
Is the road like this one all the 

way to your place ? 
How do you cross the rivers ? 



Mo te aha ra te mea ai ? 

Kaua enoho kireira. 

E mea pai ki te momi. 

Ka ngaua toe ringa ringa, 

E mea maroke me te rakau. 

E mea haunga me te ngohe. 

E niho roa ki roto i tona mangai. 

E tangi tonu iaia. 

Ka hae tera. 

Ka hae koe. 

Kou waka e mea tia. 

Mo teaha koe tae hirongo ? 

Ai ki au. 

Eki ki au. 

Ko kai koe ? 

E kore i ahau wakapono. 

E pono ana ? 

Ka mate koe te ahu. 

E taureka reka koe nona ? 

Meatia tenei kia tuatai kaua 

mangeri. 
Toko hia e haere ki tera taua 

nga tangata ? 

E amu amu tonu ana koe. 
E hia nga ra mate ana koe ? 

Nau ra nei, na toe hoa ra nei ? 

Eaha te utu i oatu akoe ? 

No nehea e riro ma ia koe ? 

Maku e tiki mau. 

Kaua koe e tupato. 

Ki ara tahi taua. 

E pono ana tako ki. 

Ki haere tahi tatou. 

Kua ua eoma no tera mea. 

Ekore koe mate ki tera. 

E rite tenei ara ki tera haere 

noa ki toe kainga ? 
Me pewea te wakawitinga ki te 

awa? 



CHAP. II.] 



SPECIMENS. 



323 



Give me that thing first, for 

you are deceitful. 
Will you go, if I go ? 

I am surprised at you ! 

When did you wash your 

clothes ? 
You are lonely. 
Keep close to me. 
Dont stay behind. 
Let us make haste. 
Is the food done? 
Empty it out. 
Tie that up. 
Untie that. 
Wait till evening*. 
Middle of the night. 
Did they coTne here to fight ? 

How many did they kill ? 
Did they take many slaves? 

Where are all the people gone 
to from this place ? 

What is the name of the tribe ? 

You have no shame. 

Do you recollect ? 

Cause yourselves to recollect. 

I have lost it. 

You find it. 

I left it behind. 

Look this way. 

Fix this tent. 

We say that we shall return. 

They are all gone. 

Are the things fixed or ar- 
ranged ? 

A decoy, as stratagem. 

I went in twice. 

I went in. 

Ask him. 



Matua au mai tera, e tangata 

tenihanga koe. 
Ka haere koe, me mea ka haere 

ahau. 
E tino ! 
Nona hea koe i orohia i eo ka 

kahu? 

E moke moke ana ki akoe. 
Ki a pu mau koe ki ahau. 
Kaua e tatari ko ki muri. 
Kia hohoro tatou. 
Kua mawa ra nei te kai ? 
Ringitia. 

Herehia tera mea. 
Wetekine tera. 
Tarie ki ahiahi. 
Wanganui po. 
I haere mai ra nei Tatou ki te 

riri? 
E hia nga tangata patua e 

ratou ? 
Hangohia ranei e tini o nga 

taureka reka ? 
Kua riro nga tangata a tenei 

kainga kihea ? 

Kowai te ingoa o tenei hapu ? 
Kahore ou wakama. 
Ekore koe mahara ? 
Wakamaharatia koe. 
I ngaro i a hau. 
Rukea. 

Kua waihu e ahau ki muri. 
Kia kite mai koe. 
Wakaritea the ware. 
E meana matou ki a hoki. 
Poto rawa. 
Ko mini mai te mea ? 

Wakahawa. 
Wakapokokoko. 
Wakapoko ahau. 
Hui atu iaia. 

Y 2 



324 



LANGUAGE OF NEW ZEALAND. [PART II. 



To be saucy. 
The things are ready. 
I am the person guarding. 
Listen quietly. 
To lie down. 
A dead person. 
Who is going ? 

I will not leave you comfort- 
less ; I will come to you. 

If you love me, keep my com- 
mandments : and if I go and 
prepare a place for you, I will 
come again and receive you 
unto myself, that where I 
am, there you may be also. 

And Thomas saith unto him, 
Show us the Father, and it 
sufficeth us. 

You are my friends, if you do 
whatsoever I command you. 

Leave me here and go on to the 
village. 

Do that first. 

Tell me your mind on this sub- 
ject. 

When do you go back ? 

You like blankets and the 
white man's trade. 

I shall come and see you soon, 
and will bring you some pre- 
sents. 

Don't let any one come into the 
house. 

The things I have to do keep me 
from coming to see you. 

If you want your payment, recol- 
lect what you have to do for 
it. 



Wakatoi. 

Kua rite. 

Ko ahau ano te kaitiaki. 

Ki ata herongo. 

Takato. 

Tupapaku. 

Ko ai nga tangata haere ana ? 

E kore koutou e waiho pani 
eahau ; e haere mai ana ahau 
kia koutou. 

Me he mea e aroha ana koutou 
ki ahau : a ki te haere ahau 
ki te taka i te wahi mo koutou, 
ka hoki mai ana ahau ka 
tangohia koutou ki ahau kia 
noho, ai hoki koutou ki te 
wahi e noho ai ahau. 

Ka mea atu a Tamati kia ia 
Wakakitea mai te matua kia 
matou aka tatu o matou 
ngakau. 

Ka koutou aku hoa ki te meatia 
e koutou aku e mea ai ki a 
koutou. 

Waihu ahau ki konei me haere 
tonu koe ki te pa. 

Meatia tera i ta tuitahi. 

Au mai toe wakaro ki tenei mea. 

Mo ahea koe hoki ai ? 

E pai ana ra koe ki te paraketi 

me nga taonga o te pakea. 
Me ki haere mai ai ahau te 

titiro ia koe a maku e au mai 

etahi mea oatu noa. 
Kaua tukua mai tetahi tangata 

ki roto i te ware. 
E pohehe ana ahau i aku mahi 

no reira ahau te haere mai 

aha te titiro i a koe. 
Me a mea e mea nakoe ki tetahi 

utu mau kia mahara koe, toe 

mahi e utu. 



CHAP. II.] 



SPECIMENS. 



325 



Speak on, and so that I can 

understand you. 
I went to Mokau, and there I 

saw some people from Kapiti. 

Show me the road to Taupo. 
Look for the holes in the road. 
Must I go the right road, or 

the one to the left ? 
Mind you don't lose anything. 

You are a covetous man, and 
do not deserve anything. 

Has the chief of this place no 
liberality to his visitors ? 

I have seen many great chiefs 
in their villages, and they 
have been ashamed to show 
any stinginess to me. 

Show me a chief that is born of 
a great father, and tell me 
who are slaves, that I may 
not speak angry to the chiefs. 

My things are gone, and how 
can I give you any ? I have 
paid them away to people on 
the road I came. 



Korero tonu, kia mohio ai ahau 

ki ou kupu. 
I haere an ki Mokau, kite ana 

ahau e telahi tangata no 

Kapiti. 

Tohungiamai te arahi ki Taupo. 
Tiroia ki nga rua i te ara. 
Me haere ra nei ahau, ki tera 

ara ? 
Ki a mahara kia mahue tetahi 

mea. 
E tangata apo koe, e kore e pai 

ki oatu tetahi mea ki a koe. 
Kahore ra nei e atamai o tenei 

rangatira ki ona manuwiri ? 
Ka tini nga rangatira o era pa 

kua kite ahau e wakama ana 

ratou ki te kai pune ki ahau. 

Tou tohungia mai tetahi ranga- 
tira tona popa e rangatira nui 
tohu tohu mai ina taureka 
reka, kaua korero wakatuka 
riri au ki nga rangatira. 

Kua riro oku mea, a me pehea 
toku hoatu ki akoe ku au utua 
e ahau ki nga tangata i te 
ara i haere mai ai. 



326 



[PART in. 



GRAMMAR 

OF THE 

NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. 



PART III. 



CHAPTER I. 

ON PRONUNCIATION. 

IT may be said that there exists but one language in the 
whole of New Zealand, with slight differences in pronun- 
ciation, and with the occasional use of different words by 
particular tribes for one and the same object. This arises 
partly t from the singular custom of discontinuing (making 
tapu) the use of one word, and adopting another instead, 
which is, however, less the case in the New Zealand than 
in other Polynesian languages. The variations, however, 
are not sufficiently great to constitute different dialects. 

The written alphabet of the New Zealand language com- 
prehends only fourteen letters. The vowels retain their 
pure sounds/ as in most languages, and the alphabet is as 
follows : 



a is pronounced as a 



in after, 
e in bend, 
i in fish. 
6 in fort, 
oo in foot, 
g, with a strong nasal sound. 



retaining their simple sounds. 



CHAP. I.] THE GRAMMAR. 327 

OBSERVATIONS. 

These letters express exactly the sounds as the language 
is spoken in most parts of the island, and especially in those 
where, from the slight intercourse between the natives and 
Europeans, it must, be regarded as most pure. These letters 
are also used by the natives in writing, from having been 
adopted by the missionaries in their translations of some 
parts of the sacred writings. 

In Cook's Straits the / often appears very distinctly 
instead of the r, which forms a dialectic difference between 
the New Zealand language and that of the Sandwich Islands, 
and is also very common in Greek ; the b instead of the /?, 
or the b for the w, or the d for the r. The h, as aspiration 
before vowels at the beginning and in the middle of words, 
is more frequently used in the northern than in the southern 
parts, which is of no importance, as it is also very often the 
case in other languages. 

The w is not the English w, but the German : in some 
words it is the French v, or even the f; for instance in 
wenua, the land, it is in the southern parts of the island 
fenua, in other parts venua. 

There exists a letter which cannot be expressed correctly 
by any of the English letters : it most nearly approaches to 
the th, and is formed by the tongue, but not to the same 
extent as the th. It is the Anglo-Saxon dh, as in that. 
In the alphabet the r and the d are used for it, as in the 
pronunciation of some natives the sound really is an r or a 
d ; for instance - 

riri . . . angry, 
might also be written 

ridi, or rithi. 

Tongariro (name of a mountain) could also be spelled 
Tongarido, and Tongaritho. 

It is not essential for this difference of pronunciation that 
the number of letters should be increased. 

The s is also an occasional dialectical difference, especially 
if the word begins with a vowel and an aspiration : for in- 



328 NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [PART III. 

instance, Hokianga sounds sometimes like Shokianga,hongi 
like shoiigi, and also pushi instead of puM. 

Th and dh, as difficult letters, were also dropped in Ger- 
man, but were retained in English. 

As regards the accent, it is, in words of two syllables, 
generally on the first ; in polysyllabic words, generally on 
the penultima. 



CHAPTER II. 

OF THE ARTICLE. 

THE definite article is te, corresponding to the. The inde- 
finite article is e or he, or hei (probably dialectic differences), 
corresponding to our a or an ; thus : 

te manu . . . the bird, 
he manu ... a bird. 

Sometimes the indefinite article is expressed by e tahi or 
tetahi, which means one or some. 

The plural of both articles is expressed by the word nga ; 
thus : 

nga manu . . . the birds, or birds. 

In like manner, if tetahi is used, it is preceded in the 
plural by the word nga : 

nga tetahi manu . . . birds, or some birds. 
It will be seen in the following chapter how the different 
cases of the article are formed. 



CHAPTER III. 



OF THE NOUN SUBSTANTIVE. 



NOUN substantives are indeclinable ; but the singular and 
plural numbers, and the different cases, are distinguished by 
the changes of the article. 



CHAP. III.] THE GRAMMAR. 3*29 

SINGULAR. 

Norn. Te manu the bird. 

Gen. No (or na, or o, or a) te manu . of the bird. 

Dai. Ki te manu to the bird. 

Ace. Te manu the bird. 

Voc. E te manu O bird. 

, Abl. I (or e) te manu from the bird. 

PLURAL. 

Nom. Nga manu the birds. 

Gen. No (or na, or o, or a) nga manu . of the birds. 

Dat. Ki nga manu to the birds. 

Ace. Nga manu . the birds. 

Voc. E nga manu birds. 

Abl. I (or e) nga manu from the birds. 

The change of the vowels o and a in the article depends 
upon euphony, i. e., upon the vowel that precedes or follows 
the article. Perhaps o or a is originally the singular form 
and nga the plural. 

If the indefinite article is expressed by tetahi, it is declined 
in the same manner. 

SINGULAR. 

Nom. Tetahi ika . . . . . . . some fish. 

Gen. No (or o, or a) tetahi ika . . . of some fish. 

Dat. Ki tetahi ika to some fish. 

Ace. Tetahi ika some fish. . 

Voc. E tetahi ika O fish. 

Abl. I (or e) tetahi ika from some fish. 

PLURAL. 

Nom. Nga tetahi ika some fishes. 

Gen. No (or na, or o, or a) tetahi ika . of some fishes. 

Dat. Ki nga tetahi ika to some fishes. 

Ace. Nga tetahi ika some fishes. 

Voc. E nga tetahi ika O fishes. 

Abl. I (or e) nga tetahi ika ... from some fishes. 

OBSERVATIONS. 

1. JVb or o of the genitive case is generally used for de- 
noting possession ; thus : 

Etako's house te ware o Etako. 



330 NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [PART III. 

Also to denote the place of birth, or the dwelling : 
Te Pakea o Uropi . . the stranger from Europe. 
E nga iwi o tawiti . . you tribes from afar. 

A and na are used in expressing relationship; as: 
Te Tama a Warepouri . the son of Warepouri. 
Te Tuwahine na Erangi . Erangi's sister. 

Or to denote an action; as: 

Te korero na Kauwau . the speech of Kauwau. 
2. Very frequently, instead of these different expressions 
of the genitive case, to or ta is used ; and in that case the 
construction is in the following peculiar manner :- 
The village of Epuni . ta Epuni kainga. 
The custom of the natives to maori ritenga.. 
Proper names are declined in the following manner : 
Nom. Ko Etako, or Etako. 
Gen. Na or no, a or o Etako. 
Dat. Ki Etako. 
Ace. Etako. 
Foe. Etako. 
Abl. I a Etako. 

If the word begins with a vowel, the e of the vocative is 
omitted ; if with a consonant, the article is e, or e te : for in- 
stance, e Paki, oh Paki, or e te Paki. 



CHAPTER III. 

OF GENDER. 

THE gender is expressed in man, animals, and some plants 
by adding the word signifying male or female to the noun. 
It is remarkable that the natives early observed the differ- 
ence of the organs of fructification in different individuals of 
the same tree or plant, and expressed it in their language. 
The words used are tane for the male, and wahine for the 
female ; thus : 

He matua tane , . . a father. 

He matua wahine a mother. 



CHAP. IV.] THE GRAMMAR. 331 

He pononga tane a male servant. 

He pononga wahine .... a female servant. 

He tane manu a cock-bird. 

He wahine manu a hen-bird. 

It is, however, more general in speaking of animals to 
use the words touarawa for the male, and huwha for the 
female sex ; as : 

He touarawa ika a male fish. 

He huwha ika a female fish. 

Particular words serve for expressing different relation- 
ships : 

Teina a younger brother. 

Tuakana an elder brother. 

Tungane .a brother. 

Tuwahine a sister. 

Tamahine daughter. 

Tamariki son. 

In other cases the words tane and wahine are added ; 
as: 

Hungawai tane father-in-law. 

Hungawai wahine mother-in-law. 

In other cases no distinction is made : 

Matua ke uncle and aunt. 

Mokopuna niece and nephew. 



CHAPTER IV. 

OF ADJECTIVES. 

ADJECTIVES, if used without a substantive, have generally 
the prefix ka ; for instance: 

Pai good. 

Kapai good. 

When they are joined to a substantive this prefix is 
omitted ; thus : 

Te taro pai . . ... . the good bread. 

In this case the adjective follows immediately after the^ 
substantive. 



332 NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. PART III. 

If we wish to express the quality of an object, by inter- 
posing in our language the auxiliary verb to be, the latter 
is often omitted in the New Zealand language, and the 
adjective, with the prefix, is placed before the substantive ; 
or if the prefix is given, the indefinite article e or he is placed 
before the adjective ; for instance : 

Kapai te taro 

E pai te taro the bread is good. 

GRADATIONS. 

A gradation, without comparison, is often expressed by a 
repetition of the root, as in Italian : thus : 

Pai good. 

Paipai very good. 

Or by adding to one of these forms the auxiliary verb 
waka : 

Wakapai good. 

Wakapaipai very good. 

Or by adding the word tino, much : 

E paki te ra the day is calm. 

E tino paki te ra . . . . the day is very calm. 

A gradation is also very commonly formed by the words 
nui (large) or nuinui, contracted nunui ; or by the words 
nohi or nohinohi, contracted nonohi ; thus : 

He puke nui a high hill. 

He puke nunui, or nuinui . . a very high hill. 

He waka nohinohi .... a very small canoe. 

Sometimes it is expressed by the word rawa : 
Ka riri rawa ia .... he became very angry. 

COMPARATIVE DEGREE. 

1 . Comparative of Equality. 

This is formed with the adverbs penei (like this) or me 
(a conjunction meaning and) ; thus : 

He Rangatira nui ko Heu Heu me (or penei) Rauparaha. 
Heu Heu is as great a chief as Rauparaha. 



CHAP. IV.] THE GRAMMAR. 333 

2. Comparative of Superiority. 

It is formed with the word ake : 

Nui great. 

E nui ake greater. 

With the word alu : 

Rahi great. 

Rahi atu greater. 

Or it is expressed by the word nui (great) on one side, 
and the word iti (little) on the other, which is the most 
simple way. 

In the first and second cases the conjunction i, which may 
be regarded as the ablative of the article, or me (and), follows 
the comparative. 

Thus the sentence, ' ' this boat is larger than the other," 
may be expressed in the following different ways : 

He nui ake tenei waka i (or me) tenei. 
He nui atu tenei waka i tenei. 
He nui tenei waka, he iti tenei. 
Or: 

He waka nui ake tenei i tena. 
He waka nui atu tenei i tena. 
He waka nui tenei, he iti tena. 

3. Comparative of Inferiority. 
It is expressed negatively in the following manner : 

The tribe of the Nga te Awa is smaller than the tribe of Wai- 
kato. 

E kore hoki ko te iwi Nga te Awa e nui i te iwi na Waikato. 

The tribe of the Nga te Awa is not so large as that of the Wai- 
kato. 

It may also be given by the word nui (large) on one side 
and iti (small) on the other : 

E nui ko te hapu Waikato, e iti ko te hapu Nga te Awa. 

SUPERLATIVE DEGREE. 

The superlative is formed 

1. By the word rawa being added to the adjective. 



334 NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [PART III. 

2. Bv the word rahi ; for instance: 
Te kaipuka nui rawa .... 
Te kaipuke nui rahi .... the greatest ship. 



CHAPTER V. 

OF THE VERBS. 

THE conjugation of verbs in the New Zealand language is 
attended with little difficulty, on account of the noun sub- 
stantive serving also to express the verb; or rather, the verb 
is the principal word of the language, the infinitive being the 
root from which the noun is derived ; thus : 

E karanga a call. 

E karanga ahau I call. 

But there are certain particles in the language, which, 
although often omitted, appear to be of use in the formation 
of the verbs, and may be regarded as auxiliary. 

These particles are ana, ano, hoki, ra, or ra ho/ft. In 
adding one or several of these and the personal pronoun to 
the substantive, the latter is at once transformed into a verb; 
for instance : 

E mohio . a knowledge, or I know. 

E mohio ana ahau .... I know. 

E mohio ana ano hoki ahau . . I know. 

E mohio ano I know. 

It seems to depend greatly upon euphony which one of 
these particles is chosen, or how many of them ; and such 
is the simplicity of the language, that, they, together with 
the personal pronoun, may be omitted ; and the mere root 
serves in this case as a verb. 

Auxiliary Verbs. 

Not less simple are the auxiliary verbs to be and to have, 
both of which are generally omitted ; for instance : 
Kei hea koutou ? 
Where you all ? 
Where are vou all? 



CHAP. V.J THE GRAMMAR. 335 

He aha tenei kia taua? 
A what that to us? 

What is that to us ? 

He wakapaipai tou kakahu. 
A very beautiful thy mat. 

Thy mat is very beautiful. 

Ka nui taku aroha kia koe. 
(It is) great my love to you. 

I love you much. 

He ware pai ki ahau. 
A house good to me. 
I have a good house. 

Sometimes, especially in giving an answer, the particle 
ano or ra may be regarded as the auxiliary verb, and may 
be translated by " it is/' or " truly ;" for instance : 
Emarama apopo e matou ki te main ? 
Friends to-morrow you to the work? 
Friends, will you work to-morrow? 

Kahore, e ra tapu ano apopo. 
No, to-morrow is a sacred day. 

Of Active and Passive Verbs. 

A distinction is not always made between passive and 
active verbs ; the passive, however, is in most cases formed 
by adding a syllable to the infinitive of the active verb. 

1. The syllable most commonly used for forming the 
passive is tia ; for instance : 

Wakakororia glorifying. 

Wakakororiatia glorified. 

Wakangaueue shaking. 

Wakangaueuetia shaken. 

Wakahawea ...... despising. 

Wakahaweatia despised. 

2. In other cases it is the syllable hina : 

Aroha loving. 

Arohahina beloved. 

(Also arohatia.) 



336 NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [PART III. 

3. In others na : 

Arahi guide. 

Arahina guided. 

Aki tossing. 

Akina tossed. 

Kongo hear. 

Rongona heared. 

4. In others hia : 

Wakatangi sounding. 

Wakatangihia sounded. 

5. In others a : 

Wakapoto shorten. 

Wakapotoa shortened. 

6. In others mia, or ngia. 

I have not been able to determine upon what depends the 
choice of any one of these affixes : often one is taken arbi- 
trarily for the other, and custom and euphony seem to 
decide it. 

In the Vocabulary I have endeavoured to give the passive 
forms most commonly used. 

Of Impersonal Verbs. 

They are infinitives or roots, with the particle ana, which 
is again the auxiliary ; thus : 

E ua ana ...... a rain it is, or it rains. 

Of Causative Verbs. 

It is a peculiarity of the New Zealand language that, by 
prefixing the particle waka, a causative verb can be formed 
from any verb ; thus : 

Kongo hear. 

Wakarongo cause to hear or listen. 

Matau to know. 

Wakamatau cause to know or teach. 

In most cases waka corresponds to the French " faire." 
This peculiarity enriches the language without complicating 
its acquisition, as, from knowing a simple root, which is 
substantive, adjective, and adverb, the verb can be formed 



CHAP. V.J THE GRAMMAR. 337 

by merely adding a particle ; and from the verbs not only 
its abstract substantive, but, also the causative verb and its 
abstract substantive can be formed. Although not strictly 
belonging to this place, it will not be amiss to mention 
that the abstract substantive is formed from the verb and 
causative verb by the words nga, tanga, or ranga, or kanga. 
An example will illustrate this etymology in the shortest 
manner : 

Marama . . Subst. . . moon, light. 
Adj. . . light, clear. 
Adv. . . peacefully, clearly. 

Marama ana . Verb . . . to be light. 

Maramatanga . Abstr. sub. . light. 

Wakamarama . Cans, verb . to enlighten. 

Wakamaramatanga Abstr. cans. sub. enlightening. 

Matau . . . Adv. . . knowing, knowingly. 

Matau . . . Verb ... to know. 

Matauranga. . Subst. . . understanding. 

Wakamatau . Caus. verb . teach. 

Wakamatauranga Abst. cans. sub. doctrine. 
In the formation of abstract substantives the New Zea- 
land language is not of an inferior order, and at the same 
time its derivations from one root are characterised by great 
simplicity. Which of the three affixes is used depends upon 
custom, perhaps upon a dialectic difference. The abstract 
substantive very often signifies the time or the occasion when 
an act is done. 

To return to the conjugation of verbs. 

Active Verb. 

MOODS AND TENSES. 

The present tense of the infinitive mood is nothing else 
than the substantive ; thus : 

Kakino te tahae it is bad to steal, or bad 

is the theft. 

The past infinitive is formed by changing the construction : 
Ka korero ia i kai ai tangata. . he acknowledged to have 

eaten human flesh. 
VOL. II. Z 



338 NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [PART III. 

The participle is formed with the particle ana : 

E korero ana speaking. 

Also with the syllable ka; for instance: 

Ka korero ia him speaking. 

The present indicative is formed from the participle with 
the personal pronoun ; thus : 

E aroha ana ahau .... I love. 
But ana may be omitted, or it may be used with another 
of the customary particles ano, ra, ra Jioki ; or the latter 
may be used alone, as already observed. 

The past tense is formed by prefixing the syllable kua ; 
for instance : 

Kua kite ahau I saw, or have seen. 

The past tense can also be formed by the syllables i and 
ai, or one of them alone ; thus : 

Taku matua ahau i karanga . . my father has called me. 
Taku matua i karanga ai ahau. 

I rongo ai matou we have heard. 

The future tense is formed by the syllable ka, or the 
syllable ai, or by both together ; for instance : 

Kai ai ahau } 

Ka kai ahau > I shall eat. 

Ka kai ai ahauj 

The imperative either is merely the root of the verb, or is 
formed by the syllable ka or kia being prefixed to it : 
Kia tu ngatahi taua . . . . let us stand together. 
Kia tata mai kira au . . . .let him come near to me. 
The subjunctive mood is formed by prefixing the syllable 
kia, and affixing the syllable ai to the verb : 

Kia hoatu ai ia that he may give. 

The conjugation of the causative verbs is the same as that 
of the active verbs. 

I will now give an example of the conjugation of verbs. 



CHAP. VI.] THE GRAMMAR. 339 



CHAPTER VI. 
EXAMPLES OF THE CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 

EXAMPLE. 
Tekai . . . To eat. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
PRESENT TENSE. 

SINGULAR. 

E kai ana ahau ... I eat. 

koe .... Thou eatest. 

ia .... He eats. 

FIRST OR ABSOLUTE DUAL. 

taua .... We (two only) eat. 



-- korua . . . You - 

- raua .... They - 

SECOND OR RELATIVE DUAL. 

E kai ana maua . . . We (two on our side) eat. 

FIRST OR ABSOLUTE PLURAL. 

- tatou . . . We (all together, more than two) eat. 

- koutou . . . You 

- ratou . . . They -- 

SECOND OR RELATIVE PLURAL. 

- matou . . . We (all on our side) eat. 

PAST TENSES. 
SINGULAR. 

, . , (I have eaten, or I was eating, or I 

Kua or ka kai ahau . . - 



koe . . . Thou hast eaten. 
ia He has eaten. 

FIRST OR ABSOLUTE DUAL. 

taua . . . We (two only) have eaten. 
korua . . You 
raua . . They 

z 2 



340 NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [PART III. 

SECOND OR RELATIVE LUAL. 

Kua or ka kai maua . . We (two on our side) have eaten. 

FIRST OR ABSOLUTE PLURAL. 

(We (all together, more than two) 
\ have eaten. 

koutou . . You 

ratou . . They 



SECOND OR RELATIVE PLURAL. 

Kua or ka kai matou . . We (all on our side) have eaten. 

ANOTHER FORM OF THE PAST TENSES. 

I kai ai au I have eaten. 

koe . . . Thou hast eaten. 

ia He has eaten. 

And so on. 



FUTURE TENSE. 
SINGULAR. 

Ka kai au (ahau), or kai ai) T -, -,-, 
ahau, or ka kai ai ahau . J 

koe . Thou shalt eat. 
ia . He shall eat. 

FIRST OR ABSOLUTE DUAL. 

taua . We (two only) shall eat. 

korua . You 

raua . They 

SECOND OR RELATIVE DUAL. 

maua . We (two on our side) shall eat. 

FIRST OR ABSOLUTE PLURAL. 

tatou . We (all together) shall eat. 

koutou You 

ratou . They 

SECOND OR RELATIVE PLURAL. 

matou We (all on our side) shall eat. 



CHAP. VI.] THE GRAMMAR. 341 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

SINGULAR. 

Kai koe, or kai ra koe , . Eat thou. 

Kia kai ia, or kia kai ra ia . Let him or her eat. 

' FIRST OR ABSOLUTE DUAL. 

Kia kai (ra) taua . . . Let us (two only) eat. 
Ka or kia kai (ra) korua . Do you 

raua . Let them 

SECOND OR RELATIVE DUAL. 

maua . Let us (two on our side) eat. 

FIRST OR ABSOLUTE PLURAL. 

Ka or kia kai tatou . . . Let us (all together) eat. 

(ra) koutou . Do you 

ratou . Let them 

SECOND OR RELATIVE PLURAL. 

matou . Let us (all on our side) eat. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

SINGULAR. 

Kia kai ai ahau ... I may eat. 

koe .... Thou mayest eat. 

ia .... He may eat. 

[FIRST OR ABSOLUTE DUAL. 
Kia kai ai taua .... We (two only (may eat. 

korua .... You 

raua .... They 

SECOND OR RELATIVE DUAL. 

Kia kai ai maua . . . We (two on our side) my eat. 

FIRST OR ABSOLUTE PLURAL. 

tatou . . . We (all together) may eat. 

koutou . . . You 

ratou . . . They 

SECOND OR RELATIVE PLURAL. 

matou . . t We (all on our side) may cat. 

The other tenses seem to be deficient in the language. 



342 NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [PART III. 

Example of a Passive Verb. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 
E aroha ana ahau ... I love. 
E arohahina ana ahau . . I am loved. 

koe . Thou art loved. 

PAST TENSES. 
Kua arohahina ahau . . I was or I have been loved. 

FUTURE TENSE. 
Ahau e arohahina ai . I shall be loved. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Arohahina koe, or arohahina 

ra koe 

Kia arohahina 

hahina ra 



in. ia, or Ida aro-1 him gr her be Ioyed . 
am. . . . j 



FIRST OR ABSOLUTE DUAL. 

Kia arohahina ra tana . . Let us (two only) be loved, 
korua . You 
raua . . They 

The other persons and numbers are expressed by the 
change of the personal pronouns. 

The other tenses can be easily formed by changing the 
active root aroha into the passive arohina. 



Example of a Causative Verb. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

ACTIVE FORM. 

E matau ana ahau ... I know. 
CAUSATIVE FORM. 
SINGULAR. 

E waka matau ana ahau . I cause to know or teach. 
koe . . You teach. 






CHAP. VI. J THE GRAMMAR. 343 

PAST TENSE. 
Kua or ka waka matau ahau I have teached. 

FUTURE TENSE. 
Ahau e waka matau ai . I shall teach. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Waka matau koe . . . Teach thou. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 
Kia waka matau ahau . . I may teach. 

PAST TENSE. 
ai ahau . I should have teached. 



Examples of Impersonal Verbs. 

He ua ana It rains. 

He hau papa ana . . .It snows. 

He watitiri ana .... It thunders. 

He wira ana .... It lightens. 

He witi mai ana . . .It appears. 

He hau auru ana . . It blows from the west. 



Formation of the Passive Verbs from their Active Form. 

ACTIVE FORM PASSIVE FORM. 

Aroha . . To love. Arohahina . To be beloved. 

guided. 
followed. 
thrown. 
tossed. 
put out. 



Arahi 
Aru 


guide, 
follow. 


Arahina 
Arumia 


Akiri 


throw. 


Akiritia . 


Aki . . . 


toss. 


Akin a 


Ti . . . 


put out. 


Tinia 


Urunga . 


repose. 


Urungatia 


Huti . . 


weed. 


Hutia . . 


Karanga 
Kino 


call, 
hate. 


Karangatia 
Kinotia . 



weeded. 

called. 

hated. 



344 



NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [PART III, 



ACTIVE 


FORM. 


PASSIVE FORM. 


Koropupu . To 
Korero . 
Mahara 


boil, 
speak, 
consider. 


Koropuputia . To be 
Korerotia . 
Maharatia 


boiled, 
spoken, 
considered. 


Mea . . 


do. 


Meatia 


done. 


Motu ke 
Patu . . 


separate, 
kill. 


Motuhia ketia 
Patukia 


separated, 
killed. 


Ringi . 
Rupe rupe . 
Takahi . . 


fill, 
shake, 
thread. 


Ringihia . 
Rupe rupea . 
Takahia . . 


rilled, 
shaked. 
threaded . 


Rongo . 
Tata . , 


hear, 
bruise. 


Rongona 
Tatahia . 


heard, 
bruised. 


Mahanga 
Tahuri . . 


offend, 
turn. 


Mahangatia . 
Tahuritia 


offended, 
turned. 


Wakatangi . 
Wakakino . 
Wakaora 
Weteki . . 


sound, 
corrupt, 
deliver, 
loosen. 


Wakatangihia 
Wakakinongia 
Wakaorangia 
Wetekina 


sounded, 
corrupted, 
delivered, 
loosened. 


Wakakakahu 


clothe. 


Wakakakahuria 


clothed. 


Wakama 


clean. 


Wakamakia . 


cleaned. 


Hua . . 


call. 


Huaina . 


called. 


Wakakororia 
Wakahawea 
Wakarihariha 
Tuhea . . 


glorify, 
despise, 
abhor, 
desert. 


Wakakororiatia 
Wakahaweatia 
Wakariharihangia 
Tuheatia 


glorified, 
despised, 
abhorred, 
deserted. 


Tango . 
Wakateitei . 


take off. 
exalt. 


Tangohia 
Wakateiteitia 


taken off. 
exalted. 


Wakamatara 


remove. 


Wakamataratia 


removed. 


Wakapoto . 


shorten. 


Wakapoto a . 


shortened. 



CHAP. VII.] 



THE GRAMMAR. 



345 



CHAPTER VII. 



SINGULAR. 

Ahau, or au . 
Koe . . . . 
la 



OF PRONOUNS. 

Personal Pronouns. 

FIRST DUAL. 

I Taua ... we (two only), 

thou Korua , . you 

he Raua . . . they 



SECOND DUAL. 

Maua ... we (we two on our side). 
FIRST PLURAL (more than two). SECOND PLURAL. 

Tatou . . we (all together). Matou . . we (we all on 
Koutou . you (all together). our side) 

Ratou . . they (all together). 

1. The nominative of the first person of the personal pro- 
noun is generally preceded by the prefix ko : 

Ko ahau te kai tiaki . . I am the guardian. 
In this case it begins the phrase : in the conjugation of verbs 
it follows the verb, thus : 

E aroha ana ahau ... I love. 

2. The use of two duals and two plurals in the first per- 
son is common to all the Polynesian languages, and is found 
also in some of the American dialects. 

a. The first is used if one speaks for himself and an-^ 
other with him, no one else being present; for instance : 

Kia haere taua . . . let us go (you and I). 

6. The second is used, when, in the presence of others, 
one addresses himself to another ; for instance : 

Kia haere maua ... let us go (you and I), and 

the others stay behind. 



316 NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [PART III. 

The second and third persons are alike for both duals ; 
for instance : one meets two on the road ; he salutes them 

Tena ra korua? .... how do you do? 
Or, 

Nahea raua ? .... where do those two come 

from ? 

c. The first plural is used with the same distinctions : it 
speaks for all present ; for instance : 

Kia haere tatou ki te atata . let us all travel at daylight. 

The second plural speaks to a number of persons with 
reference to another party ; for instance : 

Kia haere matou ... let us go. 

Declension of the Personal Pronouns. 
The personal pronouns are thus declined : 

SINGULAR. FIRST DUAL. 



Nom. Ahau . 


I. 


Taua . 


. we (two 


Gen. Naku . 


of me. 


No, or o|. 

XT f 1 


;aua . of us 






Na, or a) 




Dat. Ki ahau . 


to me. 


Kia taua 


. to us 


Ace. Ahau . 


me. 


Taua 


. us 


Abl. I ahau 


from me. 


la taua 


. from us 



SECOND DUAL. 

Nom. Maua .... we (two on our side). 



Gen.\ L - 9 >maua 
INa, or a) 

Dat. Kia maua . 
Ace. Maua . 

Ah/ TQ maun 


. to us 
. us 

fvnm nc 






FIRST PLURAL. 

Nom. Tatou .... we (all together). 
' or tatou . of us - 



a, or a 

Dat. Kia tatou . . . to us 

Ace. Tatou .... us 

Abl. la tatou . . from us 



CHAP. VII.J THE GRAMMAR. 347 

SECOND PLURAL. 

Nom. Matou . . . we (all on our side). 
. of us - 



Na, or a) 
Dat. Kia matou . . to us 
Ace. Matou .... us - 

Abl. la matou . . . from us - 
Note. The first person ahau is often abbreviated into au. 

Declension of the Second Person. 

SINGULAR. 

Nom. Koe . . . thou. 

Gen. Nau, or nou . oftbee. 

Dat. Kia koe . . to thee. 

Ace. Koe . . . thee. 

Foe. E koe . . . O thou. 

Abl. la koe . . from thee, or with thee. 

DUAL. 
Nom. Korua . . you (two only). 

PLURAL. 

Nom. Koutou . . you. 
The other cases as above, the pronoun not being altered. 

Declension of the Third Person. 

Nom. la ..... he*or she. 

Gen. Nana, or nona . . of him or her. 

Dat. Kia ia .... to him or her. 

Ace. la ..... him or her. 

A bl. la ia ..... from him or her. 

DUAL. 

Nom. Raua ..... they (two only). 

PLURAL. 
Nom. Ratou ...... they (all together). 

Possessive Pronouns. 

Taku, or toku .... my or mine. 
Tau, or tou , " . . . thy or thine. 

Tana, or tona . . . his or her. 



348 NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [PART III. 

Declension of the Possessive Pronouns of the First Person. 

SINGULAR. 

Nom. Toku or taku, aku or oku . . . my or mine. 

Gen. No or o, na or a, toku or taku . . of mine. 

Dot. Ki toku or taku, or maku or moku . to mine. 

Ace. Toku or taku mine. 

Voc. E toku or taku O mine. 

AbL I a toku or taku from mine. 

FIRST DUAL. 

Nom. To or ta taua . . . our (belonging to us two only). 

The other cases are formed by changing the article, as 
usual. 

SECOND DUAL. 

Nom. To or ta maua . . our (belonging to us two on our 

side). 
The other cases by changing the article. 

FIRST PLURAL. 

Nom. To or ta, o or a tatou our (belonging to us all together) 
The other cases by changing the article. 

SECOND PLURAL. 

Nom. To or ta, o or a matou . our (belonging to us all on our 

side). 
The other cases by changing the article. 

Declension of the Possessive Pronouns of the Second 
Person. 

SINGULAR. 

Nom. Tau or tou, or to, ou or au . thy or thine. 

Gen. Nou or nau of thine. 

Dat. Ki tou to thine. 

Ace. As the nominative thine. 

Voc. E tou thine. 

Abl. la tou . . from thine. 

DUAL. 

Nom. To or ta korua . . yours. 
The other cases with the usual particles. 

FIRST PLURAL. 

Nom To or ta, o or a koutou . your (to you all together) 



CHAP. VII.] THE GRAMMAR. 349 

THIRD PERSON. 

Norn. Tona or tana, ona or ana . . his or her. 

DUAL. 

Nom. To or ta, o or a raua . . . 

PLURAL. 

Nom. To or ta, o or a ratou . . . their. 
The other cases are exactly the same as the personal pronouns. 

Observations on the Possessive Pionouns : 

1. The possessive pronoun precedes the substantive; for 
instance: 

Taku matau tenei . . this is my fish-hook. 

2. Generally the prefix ko is used, and precedes the pos- 
sessive pronoun, as ko taku matau tenei. 

Interrogative Pronouns. 

Wai or ko wai who. 

Ma or mo wai for whom. 

Na or no wai whose. 

Tehea or kotehea .... who. 

He aha or aha what or which. 

No or na, or mo te aha ... of which ? why ? 

Ki te aha for which or what. 

The personal interrogative pronouns precede the object. 
The rest are used for things, and are often placed at the end 
of the phrase. 

E korero ana koe kia ratou ki Why do you speak to them in 
nga kupu wakarite ki te aha ? parables ? 

Literally : 

A speaking to them in a likening speech for what? 

E aha koe e noho ai ? What do you stop for ? 

E haere aha mai ? What do you come for ? 

Ko tehea te ara ? Which is the road ? 

Observations on the use of the Interrogative Pronouns : 

Wai or ko wai \ 

XT . 1 are used with the persons and names : 

Na or no wai > . 

A , for instance : 

Ma or mo wai J 



350 NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [PART III. 

Mo wai tenei pikau . . Whose or for whom is this load ? 

(who has to carry it ?) 
Na, or no wai tenei pikau . To whom does this load belong 

as property ? 

Kowai to ingoa . . . What is thy name ? 
Kotehea tangata o koutou . Who or what man of you ? 
Kotehca is also used for things. 

Demonstrative Pronouns. 

SINGULAR. 

This or that . . tenei, if very near. 

. . tena, if in sight. 

. tera, if at a distance. 

PLURAL. 

Those . . enei, if very near. 

. . ena, if in sight. 

. . era, if at a distance. 

That . . taua. 
For instance: 

i taua ra . . . at that day. 
Those . . ana. 

Relative Pronouns. 

These are wanting in the New Zealand, and must be 
expressed by the use of the participle of the passive, for 
instance : 

The word which you have heard. 

Te kupu i rongona e koutou. 

The word heard by you. 

Or by the perfect tense of the active : 

Te kupu kua rongo koutou. 
The word you have heard. 

Or by the genitive case of the personal pronoun nana : 
The man who showed us. 
Te tangata nana i wakakite mai ki a matou. 
The man of him has shown to us. 



CHAP. VIII.] THE GRAMMAR. 351 



CHAPTER VIII. 

NUMERALS. 

THE decimal system is that in use among the New Zea- 
landers. 

CARDINAL NUMBERS. 

Tahi ... 1 Ono ... 6 

Rua ... 2 Witu ... 7 

Toru ... 3 Waru ... 8 

Wa . . 4 Iwa . .9 

Rima ... 5 Ngahuru, or te kau . 10 

In this single form, however, the numerals are only used 
when joined by the conjunctive particle to others ; for in- 
stance, te kau ma wa, fourteen ; etoru ma toru, three and 
three. In all other cases a prefix is used, and euphony alone 
seems to decide to which prefix the preference is given. 

1 Etahi, or kotahi, or tokotahi. 18 Kotahi te kau ma waru. 

2 Erua, korua, tokorua. 19 Kotahi te kau ma iwa. 

3 Etoru, kotoru, tokotoru. 20 Erua te kau. 

4 Ewa, kowa, tokowa. 21 Erua te kau ma tahi. 

5 Erima, korima, tokorima. 30 Etoru te kau. 

6 Eono, koono, tokoono. 40 Ewa te kau. 

7 Ewitu, kowitu, tokow'itu. 50 Erima te kau. 

8 Ewaru, kowaru, tokowaru. 60 Eono te kau. 

9 Eiwa, koiwa, tokoiwa. 70 Ewitu te kau. 

10 Ngahuru, kongahuru, toko- 80 Ewaru te kau. 

ngahuni, or kotahi te kau. 90 Eiwa te kau. 

11 Kotahi te kau ma tahi. 100 Kotahi te rau. 

12 Kotahi te kau ma rua. 101 Kotahi te rau ma tahi. 

13 Kotahi te kau ma toru. 110 Kotahi te rau ma te kau. 

14 Kotahi te kau ma wa. 200 Erua te rau. 

15 Kotahi te kau ma rima. 300 Etoru te rau. 

16 Kotahi te kau ma ono. 1000 Kotahi mano. 

17 Kotahi te kau ma witu. 2000 Erua mano, and so on. 

Note. In numerals the syllable ma is always used as 
the conjunctive particle, never the syllable me; for in- 
stance : Kotahi te kau ma toru, thirteen. To express an in- 
definite number, the word tini, or tini tini, is generally used. 



352 NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [PART III. 

ORDINAL NUMBERS. 

The first . Te tuatahi, or Ko tetahi. 

The second . . Te tuarua, or Ko terua. 

The third Te tuatoru, or Ko tetoru. 

The fourth . . Te tuawa, or Ko tewa. 

The fifth . Te tuarima, or Ko terima. 

The sixth . Te tuaono, or Ko teono. 

The seventh . . Te tuawitu, or Ko tewitu. 

The eighth . . Te tuawaru, or Ko tewaru. 

The ninth Te tuaiwa, or Ko teiwa. 

The tenth . . . Te te kau, or Ko te tekau, or Te ngahuru. 

The eleventh . . Te te kau ma tahi. 

The twentieth . . Te tuarua te kau. 

Note. The ordinal numbers, when joined to substan- 
tives, are thus formed : 

The first day . . <. Te ra tuatahi, Ko te ra tetahi. 
The first woman . . Te tuatahi wahine. 
Takitahi .... Counting by single numbers. 

Adverbs relating to Place. 

Nahea, 1 tive, nga tangata o mua atu i 

Nohea, > whence. a koutou, men who were be- 

Ihea, J fore you. 

Keihea, where, whither. Ki mua, before. 

Kohea, which way. Kiwaho, out. 

Konei, j ^^ Aroaro, before, in the presence 

Kikonei, J of; used with the Genitive 

Nokonei, of this place. case, ki te aroaro o nga tan- 

Koneimai, this way. gata, in the presence of men. 

Koina, there. I roto, within ; used with the 

Koinatu, that way. Ablative case, i roto i te ware, 

Tenei taha, this side. within the house. 

Tera taha, that side. I, in. 

Tawiti, far. No roto, out of. 

Tawititawiti, very far. Ki muri, behind. 

A tawiti,* a great distance. Tetahi wahi, partly. 

Ki, into, in, to, upon, of. Mai, hither, here. 

Kirunga, upon ; with the Da- Ki matau ki maui, right and 

tive, kirunga ki te maunga, left. 

upon the mountain. I te reinga, in the other world. 

Kiraro, down, below. Kikoina, there. 
O mua, before ; with the Abla- Heikonei, here. 

* The sound of the A is drawn out. 



CHAP. VIII.] THE GRAMMAR. 



353 



Adverbs relating to Time. 
These are particularly numerous. 



Ahea, when ? used for the future. 

Mahia, when ? used for the past. 

I te timatanga, at the beginning. 

I te mutunga, at the end. 

T reira, then, at that time. 

Aianei, to-day. 

Inaianei, to-day. 

Inanahi, yesterday. 

Apopo, to-morrow. 

Atetahi ra, the day after to- 
morrow. 

Awaki, two days after to-mor- 
row. 

Awaki nui atu, three days after 
to-morrow. 

Ina tahira , the day before yes- 
terday. 

Ina tetahi ra, three days ago. 

Ina waki, four days ago. 

Ina waki nui atu, five days ago. 

I te ao, by day. 

I te po, by night. 



I na mate, anciently. 

na mata, in the days of old. 

1 mua, formerly. 

mua, formerly. 
A muri, hereafter. 

Muri, hereafter, afterwards. 

1 muri, idem. 

A te ahi ahi, in the evening. 

I te witinga o te ra, at sunrise. 

I te toenetanga ote ra, at sunset. 

I tenei ra i tenei ra, continually. 

Ina po, last night. 

I te ata, in the morning. 

I te atata, idem. 

A i waenganui po, at midnight. 

Kawatea, noon. 

I te awatea, at daybreak. 

Aku<inei, directly. 

Akenoi, until. 

Atavvatea, midday, noon. 

Tetahi wahi, a moment. 

Wawe, suddenly. 



Adverbs of Affirmation. 

Ae, yes. Koia ra, certainly. 

Ae ra yea, no doubt. Ara, truly. 

Koia, yes. 

Adverbs of Negation. 

Aua, no, I don't know. Ehara, not. 

Kaua, do not. 

Ekore, no, not. 

Ekore rawa, by no means. 



Kihai, not. 



Hore, no. 

Hore rawa, never. 



Ahore, not. 
Ana raia, but not. 
Kanaka, neither. 
Kei, not. 
Kahore, not. 
Kore, no. 



Adverbs of Interrogation. 

Ke ihea, where, whither ? Ahea, when ? 

Kohea, which way ? E aha, what ? 

I^ohea, whence? E hi a, how many ? 

Ihea, whence? Mahia, when ? * 
Mo te aha? why? 

VOL. H. 2 A 



354 NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [PART III. 

Adverbs of Doubt. 

Pe, or pea, perhaps. Koia pea, probably. 

Ana pea, perhaps (ironically). 

Prepositions. 

Mo, for, from. No, for, of, from. 

I, in. Ki, to. 

Conjunctions. 

Me, and. Me, or. 

Ma, and, used only with name- Me, like, 
rals. 

Interjections. 

A ! interjection of surprise. Hi ! interjection of anger. 

Aue ! woe ! interjection of grief. Aha! interjection of contempt. 
E! behold. Na! behold. 



CHAPTER IX. 



DICTIONARY OF THE NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. 



A. 

A of the (genitive of the arti- 
cle) 

A ! interjection of surprise 

A if the sound is prolonged, it 
denotes a continuation of the 
thing spoken of. It has this 
signification from being a 
root, meaning existence, 
light, action, continued ac- 
tion, eternity. In this sense 
it enters into the composition 
of many of the following 
words 

A and 

Ae ra ! yea, yes, truly ! 

Ae yes 

Ai speak, say, speech 

Ai a paiticle, used for forming 
the conjugation of verbs 

Aianei to day, now 

A i waenganui po at midnight 

Ao world, light, earth, gather 

Ao o te rangi the light of hea- 
ven 

Aoatea, i. g., awatea, daybreak 

Aonga daybreak 

Aonga o te ra sunrise 

Au abbreviation of ahau I 

Au abbreviation of tau thy 

Aua those 

Aua no, I do not know 

Aua hoki I do not know 

Aue ! woe ! 

Aue the lamentation, the woe 



Auetanga groaning, groans 

Ahaha? What do you say ? 

Aha? what? which? Mo te 
aha for what or why 

Aha rau a hundred whats or 
questions 

Ahea? when? 

Ahau I 

Ahakoa nevertheless, whether 

Aha koia ? what is it ? 

Ahi, contracted ai fire, light, 
fiery, to beget, copulation, 
generation. Ai, to speak, is 
no doubt the same root 

Ahi na Maui the begotten of 
Maui (native name of New 
Zealand). By others Ika na 
Maui, the fish of Maui 

Ahinga time of copulation 

Ahinga tapu a house or sleep- 
ing-room for a man and his 
wife 

Ahi ahi evening 

Ahinei, i. g. aianei to-day 

Aho a fishing line, string, the 
woof of a cloth, or mat 

Ahu heap together 

Ahu ahu name of a place 

Ahua image, likeness, form, 
shape 

Ahuatanga appearance 

Ahunga entrance 

Ahuareka form 

Ahuareka o nga wae wae steps 
of the feet, footmarks 

Aka, i. </., haka 

2 A 2 



355 



NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [PART III. 



Aka angular, the knee of a 
ship's beam ; he pou aka a 
box 

Akau a cliff, sea-coast, sea-side 

Akari, i. #., hakari 

Akataina ! an expression of 
wonder 

Ake up; for instance, Wakatika 
ake, stand up 

Ake in future 

Ake ake ake signifies continu- 
ance of existence, eternal, for 
ever 

Akenei until 

Aki to push along, close to, 
against 

Aki a rambling shrub (Metro- 
sideros buxifolia) 

Akina stoned, tossed 

Aki aki a sea-bird 

Akiri or Akiritia cast off 

Ako doctrine, teach, instruct ; 
part, pass., akona 

Ako ana leaching 

Akonga disciple 

Aku mine or my 

Akuanei now, presently 

Amata formerly 

Amu amu murmur, grumble 

A mama gaping 

Amo to bear, a litter 

Amowia carry thoti 

Arnai tempestuous 

Amaitanga tempest 

Amani a cartridge-box 

Amu eating by morsels 

Amua tonu everlasting 

Amua time to come, future, in 
future 

Ana his, hers 

Ana den, cave 

Ana corresponding to our do- 
ing or being 

Ana koa indeed, it is so 

Anake only ; also nake nake 

Anamata some time hence 

Anei these 

Aniwaniwa rainbow 



Ano corresponding to being, 
doing, remain, rest ; also used 
like an adv., like. Often it 
can be translated with truly 

Anoho to sit, settle 

Anuanua the rainbow 

Anga work; also hanga en- 
gage, work 

Anga atu turn 

Anganga to meddle, the skull 

A n ga Anga coalition, cohesion, 
agree 

Angareka, i. g. t hangareka 

Angi angi thin as a board or a 
blanket 

Apa, i. g , hapa 

A pi clubfeet 

Apiti to curse 

A po h ard dealing, bad , wicked , 
covetous, to covet 

Apopo to-morrow 

Apu, i. g.j hapu 

Ara ! right ! true ! 

Ara street, road, arise 

Ara ake ! arise ! 

Arahi part, pass., arahina; 
also araerahi guide, con- 
duct, lead 

Aranga resurrection, re-ap- 
pearance 

Arara a fish 

Aratakiu conducted 

Arawata a ladder, bridge, 
stairs 

Arekeke undressed flax 

Arenga calling, a mat so called 

Arero tongue 

Ari, i. g., hari and its com- 
pounds 

Ariki a lord, a chief; the 
eldest son or daughter being 
the heir 

Aro skin, fat of the belly, to 
flay or skin 

Aroaro in the presence of, 
front. Ki te aroaro o nga 
tangata katoa in the pre- 
sence of all men 



CHAP. IX.] 



THE DICTIONARY. 



357 



Aroha love, to love 

Arohahina beloved 

A rohatia beloved 

Aropaua a double net for 
small fish 

Arotau true, faitbful 

Aru follow, pursue, drive, woo, 
courtship, wooing 

Aruaru to woo, pursue, also 
a short fishing-net 

Aruhe, also aroi, arohi, and 
arue fernroot 

Arukanga, also arunga, arua- 
ruarunga, arumanga (ab- 
stract of aru) persecution, 
wooing, following 

Arumia, i. g., aru 

Aruru name of a place 

Atapai well disposed 

Ata shadow 

Ata prosper 

Ata the morning, sunrise 

Ata po daybreak 

Atawatea, or atewatea mid- 
day, noon 

Atatu early in the morning 

Atawai attachment, good will, 
grace. Matua atawai fos- 
ter-father 

Atawaitia to have mercy 

Atawaitanga, i. a., atawai 

Ataahua favour 

Atamarietanga humiliation 

Atata daylight 

Atamira bed, coffin, tomb, 
house for the dead 

Ateahiahi in the evening 

A taran gi shadow 

Atetahi ra the day after to- 
morrow 

Ate liver 

Ati ati drive out 

Atuwaana to distribute 

Atua God, gods. The Su- 
preme Being 

Atuahua fair, beautiful, lovely 

Atu motion from; haere atu 
be off! thither, forth 



Atu used in forming the com- 
parative degree of adjectives 

Awa river 

Awa aw a valley 

Awaki two days after to- 
morrow 

Awaki nui atu three days after 
to-morrow 

Awangawanga hope ; to hope 

Awaroa name of a river 

Awatea light, daybreak 

Awi draw near, entwining, 
entangling 

Awinatia drawing near, help- 
ing 

E. 

E, or He indefinite article a 
or an 

E used for forming the voca- 
tive case : it is either used 
alone, or with the nom. of 
the definite article te. E is 
also used with verbs, and is 
in that case only the article, 
the substantive being nothing 
else but the participle or infi- 
nitive ; for instance, E noho 
ki raro sit down. Literal, 
a sitting down. The infini- 
tive stands in this case for 
the imperative 

E! exclam. Behold! Alas! 

E verb. See He 

Eaha? which? 

Eaoia ? wherefore ? 

Eono six 

Ehara negation. No, not 

Ehea? which? 

Ehia? how many ? 

E hoa friend, form of address 

Ebore negation. Not 

Ekara sir ! 

E'ko to a little girl ! 

E'mara friend ! 

E'marama friends ! 

Engari that is good 



358 



NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [PART III. 



Engaringari that is better 

Ena those 

Enei these 

Era those, others 

Erangi a female name 

Erangi it is better, rather 

Erangirangi, idem 

Erima five 

Erua two 

Erua erua both 

Etahi one 

Eta ta little boy 

Etoru three 

Eke go, walk 

Ekenga fare, conveyance 

Ekore no 

Ekore rawa by no means 

Ewa four 

Ewaru eight 

Ewitu seven 



I. 



I in (see Grammar) 

I ablative of the article 

I sign of the past tense 

I than, following a comparative 

I a central point, a centre of 
motion, pressure 

Ina te hau piercing of the wind 

la he, she, it 

la direction, course 

laha why, what for 

j a i beget, to lust after, lust- 
ful ; the root ahi or ai 

la ia cross veins 

linu thirsty, drink 

Iheko skin of a person, bark 
of a tree 

Iho down, tradition 

Ihu nose, head of a canoe 

Ika fish, to fish 

Ike ike height, high; also 
with an aspiration 

Iki nursing, lifting up in the 
arms ; imperat. ikitia 

Iko na ra farewell 

I konei here 



Iku tail 

Iku rangi name of a mountain 

I mu a formerly 

Ina affirm, surely 

Ina an old man, grey-headed, 
hoary, growing hoary 

In ahi a when 

Inaianei to-day 

Ina mata anciently, a long 
time ago 

Inau. See Hinau 

Inanahi yesterday 

Inapo last night 

Ina tahi ra the day before 
yesterday 

Ina tetahi ra three days ago 

Ina waki four days ago 

Ina waki nui atu five days ago 

Ine a maru a bare-headed 
woman 

Ine ono a scolding woman 

Inengaro. See Hinengaro 

Inoi; also Hinoi ask, pray, 
beg, importune 

Inoinga prayer 

Inonoti painful 

Inn oil, drinkable, to drink, 
greasy, oily ; often with as- 
piration 

Inumia drink thou 

Inu inu marrow 

Inga. See Hinga 

Ingoa name 

Ipu bottle 

Ipunamu bottles 

Ira a mole on the skin 

Ira mutu nephew, niece 

Ireira then, at that time 

Iri hanging, suspending 

Iringa a hanging up, suspen- 
sion 

Iri iri baptize, sprinkle 

Iri iringa baptism, sprinkling 

Iro grieve 

Iroto within ; iroto i te ware 
in the house, amongst ; i 
roto i a koutou amongst 
you 



CHAP. IX.] 



THE DICTIONARY. 



359 



Irunga upon 
Ite ao by day 

Itenei ra, i te tenei ra conti- 
nually 

Ite ata in the morning 
Ite atata in the morning 
Ite awatea at day-break 
Ite tahi ra the day before yes- 
terday 

Ite wahinga nui po the mid- 
night past 

Ite watea the noon past 
Ite witinga o te ra at sunrise 
Ite toenetanga o te ra at sun- 
set 

Iti little, small; iti rawa 
least ; causative, wakaiti to 
diminish 

Iti iti small, little, very small 
Itinga smallness 
Iwa nine 

Iwi people, tribe, nation, bone 
Iwi kau bones only, lean, thin 
Iwi rau a shell-fish 
Iwi tuararo back-bone 

O. 

genitive of the article, de- 
noting possession 

O thy 

O move, convey, give. See 
Ho 

O e aki give up, be quiet 

mai give ; properly, move 
hither 

01 sufficiently; more fre- 
quently heoi 

Oioia wagging 

Ou a feather 

Ou oh ! 

Ou thy 

Ouma absconding 

Oho answer, to answer 

Ohokai jump 

Ohiohi, to rinse 

Ohu ohu trouble 

Oka ; also Hoka a sharp - 



pointed instrument, a bayo- 
net, a fork, a spear 

Oka oka id. 

Okahi stepping or skipping 
over the ground 

Okahinga stretching out the 
feet 

Okahu name of a place 

Okaka name of a river 

Oke oke a fish 

Oki, or Hoki to be, return 

Oki trust 

Oki oki refresh 

Okinga return, time of re- 
turning 

Okiokinga rest, repose, re- 
turn, time of refreshment 

Okiokiana rested 

Oma fly, run 

Oko. See Hoko to buy, ex- 
change 

Oko a vessel to hold a fluid in 

Oku my 

Okura name of a place 

Omanga course 

Ona his 

Onamata of old, formerly 

One earth, soil, sandy shore, 
ground 

One one id. 

One smelling, lusting as a dog 

One pu sand, sandy soil 

Ono. See Hono. He rakau 
ono a spliced piece of wood; 
onoa unite 

Ono six 

Ono te kau sixty 

Ono te rau six hundred 

Ono woof of a mat 

Ono quarrelsome 

Onu spring water 

Ongi salute by touching nose?, 
saluting, smelling 

Ora -life, health, healthy, 
healing, well 

Oraoraia dry 

Ora spread; orangia spread! 

Oranoatanga peril 



360 



NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [PART III. 



Oranga recovery, renewal, pre- 
servation, life, preserved 

Orangatanga id. 

Ore, or Hore no 

Ore rawa not at all 

Ore the boring of a hole 

Orokohanganga foundation, 
creation ; o te ao creation 
of the world 

Orokomeatanga the beginning 

Oro. See Horo polish, gargle 
the throat 

Ota raw 

Ota ota all wild herbs, plants, 
weeds 

Oti isit? 

Otiia but 

Otinga the finishing 

Otira but, on the contrary 

Otiraia but, yet 

Owa salute, to salute 

Owanga nest 

Owatanga greeting, salutation 

U. 

U bird's egg, the breast, nip- 
ple, the paps ; wai u milk ; 
kai u suckle ; he tamariki 
kai u a babe, motion, junc- 
tion, trust, strengthen 
E ua ana it rains ; also bring- 
ing forth or maturing fruit; 
he po ua a rainy night 
Ua rain, rainy, to rain 
Ua \vatu hair wrought into a 

mat 

Uaua a vein, sinews 
Uaua hard work, travail 
Uaki open ; uakina open ! 
Uarahi. See Huarahi 
Ue te wenua a fertile spot 
Ue. See Hue 
Ueo. See Hueho 
Ui ui beg 

Ui inquire, ask, solicit 
Uia a bird (Neomorpha) 
Ui tanga roa a long solicitation 



Uinga a consultation, question 

Uira lightning 

Uoro a kind of eel 

Uhi a covering, curtain 

Uka snow, sugar, froth of the 
sea, tassels on a mat, foam 

Uka uka hair woven with the 
tassels of mats 

Uma breast, bosom, arms 

Umu oven 

Unga order, command 

Unu pincers, a blacksmith's 
vice. 

Upu seize ; upu kia seize 
thou 

Uke umu draw the oven 

Upoko head 

Unu draw a sword 

Unuhanga removal 

Uri generation, seed, pro- 
geny ; penis, child, son, re- 
volution, succession, posterity. 
See Huri 

Uri papa the posts or props 
of a bier 

Urongi helm, or rudder; to 
steer 

Urunga a pillow 

Urupa sepulchre 

Ururuatia deserted 

Ururua deserted, laying 
waste, choke. Wahi ururua 
ruins 

Uru life, light, beams, fel- 
lowship, partake, glory ; kia 
uru let there be glory 

Uru uru wenua name of a 
certain shrub 

Uru pua puai name of a cer- 
tain wind 

Uru wawahi waka name of a 
wind 

Uta shore, coast 

Utongatia branded 

Utu reward, pay, fine, price ; 
he utu ano there is the price 

Utu draw ; utuhia draw 

Utua pay 



CHAP. 1X.J 



THE DICTIONARY. 



361 



Utunga ware?, goods 

U\va used to express the fem- 
inine gender in animals 

Uwa uwa tough, veins or 
main arteries 

Uwata a spear 

H. 

Ha breadth, savour, odour 

Ha what! 

Hae rent, tear, dispute, envy 

Hue hae id. 

Haere go; also airc or acre 

Haere mai come 

Haere atu go out, leave 

Haerenga a walk, arrival 

Haerengatanga a journey 

Hao catch 

Haerere walking about 

Haere marie go in peace 

Hau abbrev. for ahau, I 

Hau strike, hew, chip with an 

adze 

Hau wind, air, whirl, blow 
Hauhake labourers in the har- 
vest, gather, take up 
Hauhakinga harvest 
Haumi joints at the head and 

stern of a canoe 
Haumumu a silent person 
Hau auru west, west wind, 

blowing from the west 
Haue sooth 
Haueunga ice 
Haukomingo a whirlpool 
Hauraro north-west, north- 
west wind, blowing from the 
north-west 

Hauhautanga coolness, cool 
Haurahi dew 
Hauru name of a shellfish 
Hau nui a tempest 
Haupa a beating wind 
Hau papa snow, ice 
Hauparo a long beating wind 
Hauraki name of a place 
Haurake a steady pace, mov- 
ing steadily 



Haururutanga blowing of the 
wind 

Haunga ano, haunga with ex- 
ception, because, besides 

Haurangi a fool, drunkard, 
foolish, drunk, mad 

Haurangitia - foolish 

Haurorangi to hang up, to 
suspend 

Hauroro a long wind 

Hauna a piece of wood joined 
to the stern of a canoe 

Haute a play so called 

Hautoke winter 

Hauwenua a land wind 

Hah are sealing-wax 

Hahi church, Anglic. 

Haka a dance, a song, a war- 
dance. He tangata haka a 
dancer 

Hakari a feast of peace where 
presents of fish are brought 
by the visitors ; also birds' 
eggs, roe of a fish, seed of 
anything 

Haki neck 

Hamama yawning, gaping ; 
also Amama and Hamumu 

Hana a vault for the dead 

Hanahana lustre, brightness, 
bright, glorious, shining, 
to shine 

Hane a war instrument 

Hani water 

Hanga work, labour, to work, 
make 

Hangarau deceitfulness 

Hangareka funny, joking, a 
joke 

Hanganga buildings, work, 
creation 

Hangi a native oven 

Hapa crooked, indirect, un- 
fair, neglected 

Hapainga lifting up, raising 
up 

Hapu tribe, family 

Hapu pregnant, be pregmnt 



362 



NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [PART III. 



Haputanga pregnancy 
Hara crime, debt, sin, trans- 
gression 

Harakoretanga innocence 
Hari, sometimes without the 
aspiration; ari dance, joy, 
happy, blessed, joyful, en- 
joy, leap, rejoice, joyfully 
Hari ana, \vaka hari causing 

a jy 

Haringa joy 

Hari hari transported with 

joy, leaping with joy 
Haro dressing flax 
Haronga the dressing of the 

flax 

He the indefinite article aspi- 
rated 
He a fault, unjust, mistaken, 

erring, erroneously 
He hunga he bad men 
He ! exclamation of surprise 
Heaha what 
Heanga a mistake 
Hei here 

Hei like; the indefinite article 
Hei necklace, keepsake 
Heoi ano it is enough, that 

will do 

Heoti henceforth 
Heu a razor 
Heke come down, destroy, 

vanish 
Heke a wreck, a slip, change 

of a place, descend 
Hemo slip, change the place, 

faint 

Hera gaping 
Herakiaki green dried flax 
Here a spear for pigeons 
Herehere captive, slave 
Herenga cord, string 
Hem a comb, combing 
Hewa sneeze 
Hi! exclam. of anger 
Hi threaten 
Hi fishing 
Hia an affix to verbs for form- 



ing the imperative mood and 
passive form 

Ilia how many; po hia how 
many days 

Hianga lying, offence 

Hia hia wish, desire, will; 
construct with ki 

Hiahiatia desire 

Hiainu thirsty 

Hiakai hungry 

Hiako skin, leather, made of 
skin or leather, thongs, a vine 

Hiamoe sleepy 

Hiawero tail of a dog 

Hihi beams of the sun, hair 
tied like horns on each side 
of the forehead 

Hihi karu the whiskers of a 
cat 

Hihi o te tote sparkling of the 
salt 

Hikaro pluck out 

Hiku reward 

Hiko tail 

Hikorangi name of a moun- 
tain 

Hinamoki a seahorse 

Hinau a tree, the bark of 
which is used as black dye 

Hinengaro kidney, desire, de- 
sirous, mind, conscience 

Hinu drink, drinkable 

Hinu oil 

Hinu hinu marrow 

Hinga a fall, falling 

Hinganga fall 

Hipoki cover, a cover, lid 

Ho to give ; also homai 

Hoa friend, neighbour, gene- 
rous 

Hoa riri enemy; e hoa ma, 
friends 

Hoa wawai enemy 

Homaitanga gift 

Hoari sword 

Hoatunoa a gift 

Hoatutautanga an offering 

Hoatutanga gift 



CHAP. IX.] THE DICTIONARY. 



363 



Hoe an oar, paddle ; row, 
paddle ; he waka hoe a 
rowing-boat; he waiata hoe 
a boat-song 

Hoe hia sail, or paddle: let 
us paddle 

Hoe hoe side fins of a fish 

Hoenga sailing, pulling, time 
of sailing 

Hou spade 

Hou new, sweet, strange 

Houtanga newness, new 

Houhia he rongo to forgive 

Hohou making peace 

Hohou rongo peacemaker 

Hohonu deep, the deep, depth 

Hohonutanga depth, deep- 
ness, deep 

Hohoro run, to be in a hurry, 
quick, quickly, swift 

Hohuro, also Hohuro anga a 
mill 

Hoki particle, used in forming 
verbs as a kind of auxiliary 

Hoki mai come back 

Hoki and oki return, contrary ; 
for instance, the wind 

Hokinga time of returning 

Hokianga name of a river, 
name of a place 

Hoko buy ', he tangata hoko 
a trader 

Hokonga an exchange, a bar- 
gain 

Honoanga, also Hononga a 
union, a splice 

Hono a joint, a splice, join, 
splice ; he rakau hono a 
spliced piece of wood 

Hori hori a lie 

Hopuatanga a place 

Hopukina to perceive 

Hope loins, abdomen, body of 
an army 

Hopenga refuse of an army, 
rejected party 

Hopua a river, to drain 

Horahi, also Hora spread 



Hore not 

Hore rawa rawa not at all 
Horo mia swallow 
Horongia -to swallow 
Horohi soap, wash 
li orohia washed 
Hotete a caterpillar, the so- 
called vegetable caterpillar 
Hotoke, also Hautoke winter 
Hoko hoko exchange, to buy 
Hokoko to sell 
Hokonga a bargain 
Hongia to salute 
Hua fruit; te po hua the 

time of fruit ; e hua ana be 

fruitful 

Hua kore unfruitful, barren 
Hua call, name ; huaina 

called, named 

Huanga kindred, relations 
Huanui high road 
Huarahi way, road 
Hue, or ue a gourd, calabash, 

cucumber 

Huehue side by side 
Hueho the navel-string 
Huere saliva 
Hui gather, knit, unite 
Hui huia id. 
Hui huinga gathering 
Hui huitia together 
Huhi affliction, afflict 
Huhu moth, grub 
Huhu strip, lay bare 
Huhuti, i. (7., huti 
Huhuatanga beauty 
Huka, i.y.y uka snow, frost, 

sugar 

Hukarere snow, frost, hoar 
Hukerikeri work, toss ; used 

of the sea 
Hu, or Huna concealment, 

hide, concealed, privately 
Huna hunanga a concealment 
Hunaonga daughter-in-law 
Hunga people, an appendage 
Hunga mate patients 
Hunga ora healthy people 



364 



NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [PART III. 



Hunga noho guest 

Hunga wai, or Hunga wai wa- 
hine mother-in-law 

Hunga rawa nui rich people 

Hunga rawa kore poor people 

Hunga tapu a priest 

Hunga onga wahine daugh- 
ter-in-law 

Hupe smell, secretion of the 
nose 

Hura revealed, opened 

Huri grind, incline, overthrow 

Hurihia overthrown, turn it 
round 

Huri huri revolve 

Huringa a turn round 

Hurianga id. 

Htiru (see Uru) hair, light, 
beams, a mat so called 

HUTU hum hair; huru huru 
hipi sheep wool 

Huru rua choke 

Huru tara feather of a gannet 

Huti weed, root up, turn 

Huti huti id. 

Hutia weeded, plucked 

Hutinga a turn, a place clear- 
ed of weeds 

Huwa thigh 

Huware spittle 

K. 

Ka a prefix used in forming , 
the participle, the perfect 
and future tenses of verbs; 
also a mere prefix at the be- : 
ginning of phrases, when it 
serves as an auxiliary verb 
it i?, or this is 
Ka a rising flame, animation, | 

vigorous, burn 

Kaahatia -it cannot be helped 
Kaeo taiepa rail for a fence 
Kai food, victuals, eatable, to j 
eat, taste, live, men, people ; j 
also a kind of kumera 
Kai aho biting the fishing 
line 



Kaia stump of a tree to hang 
tabooed things on 

Kai kawe messenger 

Kai iriiri people that baptize 
or sprinkle 

Kai hauhake labourers in the 
harvest 

Kai wakaatu witness 

Kai tara food for gannets 

Kai tiaki guardian 

Kai toke food for worms 

Kai tohe a man who tempts 

Kai tuku fisherman 

Kai tangi mourner, mourners' 
food 

Kai mahi labourer 

Kai mahi o te kaipuke sailor 

Kai mata raw food 

Kai tuku traitor 

Kai rawa a greasy mouth after 
a meal, the remains of vic- 
tuals 

Kai rui a sower 

Kai wakaako teacher 

Kai poka witness 

Kai waki witness 

Kai ora wholesome victuals 

Kai para name of a place 

Kai puke a ship 

Kai taka name of a fine orna- 
mental mat 

Kai atua name of a tree 

Kai ahi ahi supper 

Kai po night's meals 

Kai pormhia spare 

Kainga hokc a market 

Kainga village, country, place, 
a home, a meal 

Kaihu name of a place 

Kai hune ! an oath 

Kai manu bird's food 

Kaiwaka name of a place 

Kai wakahau a leader 

Kai wakato te ture teachers of 
the law 

Kai we food for caterpillars 

Kai kaha wholesome victuals 

Kaokao side 



CHAP. IX.] 



THE DICTIONARY. 



365 



Kaore no, not 

Kanaka do not 

Kauu not, do not, reject it 

Kauae beam of a house, the 
crossbeam or joist of a house 

Kau ote kanohi pupil of the 
eye 

Kau only, purely, without ad- 
dition, naked 

Kau dried sweet potatoes 

Kaua kaua (kawa) a shrub of 
the pepper kind (Piper ex- 
celsum), bitter, strong, natu- 
ral alum 

Kauhoehoe swim 

Kau swim ; kau te awa 
swimming in the river 

Kau matua forefathers, elders, 
ancestors 

Kauri a pine-tree (Dammar a 
Australis) ; also its resin 

Kauta cooking-house, kitchen 

Kautia empty, for nothing 

Kaukau wash, to anoint ; kau- 
kauria wash thou 

Kau uri a stick which, by 
friction upon another, pro- 
duces fire 

Kauweti the stick on which 
fire is produced by friction 

Kauwau a shag, preaching 

Kauwautia preach 

Kauwautanga preaching 

Kauwitiwiti a grasshopper 

Kaha power, strength, strong, 
strongly 

Kanaka a cup, calabash 

Kahawai a favourite and com- 
mon fish 

Kaheru spade, hoe 

Kahi a stamp with the foot, 
a treading upon, a pressing 
upon, or binding 

Kahi katea name of a tree 
(Dacrydium excelsum) 

Kahi katoa (Leptospermwri) 

Kahi a comb made of the 
bones of a fish 



Kami mat, garment, clothing 
Kahu ara a walking garment 
Kahu wairo name of a gar- 
ment with dog's hairs 
Kahu kiwi name of a garment 

with the feathers of the apte- 

rix. 
Kahu kura, kahu kupenga 

names of garments 
Kahu name of the hawk 
Kahore no, refusal 
Kahui a herd 
Kaka burn ; see Ka 
Kaka a parrot (Neslor Aus- 

tralis) 
Kaka fibres in vegetables, 

fern root 
Kakai gluttonous ; he tan- 

gata kakai a glutton 
Kakau the handle of a knife, 

fork, axe, spade 
Kakahi name of a fish 
Kakaho reeds 
Kakahu a garment, a mat, 

wear ; kakahuria put on 
Kakamo winking of the eye 
Kakanapa a green 
Kake to go, to ascend 
Kakenga an ascent 
Kaki neck, back part of the 

neck 

Kaki-full ; kia kaki fill it 
Kamate very ill 
Kakano seed of a tree, stone 

of a fruit 

Kanae the mullet 
Kanapa bright, green, shining 
Kanapatanga brightness 
Kakariki a green parroquet, a 

green lizard, green 
Kakara sweet odour, sweet- 
scenting 
Kako planting 
Kakou the constellation Orion 
Kakawa perspiration, perspire 
Kakawariki, i. (/., kakaiiki a 

small lizard 
Kfikuku a doubled fist 



366 



NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [PART III. 



Kamaka a rock, stone, stony 

Kanawa an eye 

Kanga corn, maize 

Kanga an oath, swearing, 
blasphemous, a curse 

Kane a file, saw, filing, saw- 
ing; kanehia saw, sawing 
the timber 

Kane kane, id. 

Kani kani a dance, to dance, 
a game so called 

Kanoe chin 

Kanohi eye, face 

Kanga kapura a fire-hearth 

Kanohi paua name of a sweet 
potato 

Kapana a potato 

Kape transgress, pull 

Kapia resin, gum 

Kapi to furnish 

Kapiti Entry Island 

Kapu an adze, tail of a cray- 
fish 

Kapua cloud, air 

Kapu na ringa ringa palms of 
the hands 

Kapura a burning fire, burn- 
ing coal 

Kara name of a certain stone 

Kara to an elder person; e 
kara ! an affectionate ad- 
dress to an elder person 

Kara ma an affectionate term 
for father 

Karahu name of a shellfish 

Karaka a fruit-tree (Coryno- 
carpus Iceviqatus), general 
name for fruit 

Karakia a prayer, praying 

Karakiatanga a time of prayer 

Karama roa a flaming torch 

Karanga call, shout, bell, call- 
ing ; karangatia called, call 
thou 

Karangahape name of a place 

Karangatanga call 

Kara ngau ngau name of a 
shellfish 



Karangu name of a tree 

Karapa squint, squinting 

Karapepe- fermenting 

Karapoi noa open, lift 

Karapoti besiege, close in 

Karapa a square, parallelo- 
gram 

Kararehe a beast, animal 

Kararehe wa tangata a horse, 
or beast that carries a man 

Kararehe wa wahia a bullock, 
or beast with horns 

Karatete proud, angry 

Kara w a, i. g., karawa kiko a 
stripe on the flesh 

Karawarawa stripes 

Karawa a dissolution, dissolv- 
ing 

Karawaka name of a shellfish 

Kare reflecting 

K arenga reflection 

Kareao a wild vine (SmiVaa?) 

Karere messenger, a signal 

Karetu name of a plant 

Karipi cutting 

Karu the head of an animal, 
fish, beast, <&c. 

Karuru- operating in a close 
place 

Kati shut, sufficiently, enough, 
be quiet, let it alone 

Katipa walking upright 

Katoa all 

Kata laughter, laughing, jocu- 
lar, merry 

Katakatangia scorch 

Katipo a black spider on the 
seashore, regarded as poison- 
ous 

Katoatia all 

Kawai name of a fish 

Kawaka pine-tree (Dacn/- 
dium plumosimi) 

Kawaki carry oil'; kawakina 
carried off 

Kawana governor (Angl.) 

Kawanatanga government 
(Angl.) J 



CHAP. IX.] 



THE DICTIONARY. 



367 



Kaware a shellfish 

Kawe a yoke 

Kawea to lead; he hunga ka\ve 
riri a quarrelsome man 

Kaweka a ridge on the ascent 
of a hill 

Kawenga leading 

Kawia name of a place 

Ke different, foreign, differ- 
ently, change ; he mea ke 
a different thing; he tan- 
gata ke a different man, a 
foreigner 

Keha a turnip 

Ke, or kei stern of a canoe, 
the point or place where a 
distant or different object is 
stationed 

Kei with 

Kei not 

Keihea where? kei hea ionei 
where ? 

Keihei where ? 

Kei konei here 

Keka the end of a bone 

Keokeonga pinnacle, summit, 
corner 

Kekerehu a beetle 

Kekeno a seal 

Keke the cramp, armpits 

Keretu clay 

Keri boisterous, being bois- 
terous 

Keri digging ; keria dig 
thou 

Keri Keri name of a river 

Keriu the bottom, as for in- 
stance, of a boat 

Kete basket 

Ketu the act of displacing a 
corpse 

Kewai fresh- water crawfish 

Ki speak ; na wai ki ? who 
said it ? 

Ki into, in, to, upon, of 

Ki conversation 

Ki fulness, full, filling 

Kinga fulness 



Kianga a covenant, conver- 
sation 

Kiano fulfil, fill 

Kia a prefix used in forming 
the imperative and' subjunc- 
tive of verbs 

Kia hari be joyful 

Kiore a rat 

Kihai not 

Kiki straight, narrow, adhe- 
sion, adhering, conversing, 
cleave together 

Kikiwa a winking, pressing 
the eyelids close together 

Kiki no bad 

Kiko kiko, also kiko flesh 

Ki koina there, pointing to 
the place 

Ki konei here, in this place 

Kiraro down, below 

Kirunga upon 

Ki matau to the right 

Ki mua before 

Ki muri behind 

Kiwaho out 

Ki maui to the left 

Kinonga badness 

Kino bad 

Kinotia hate, oppress 

Kina a sea-egg 

Kiri a pinch with the finger 

Kiritia point with my finger 

Kiri fever, skin 

Kiri e hau naked skin, skin 
exposed to the wind 

Kiri piro a stinking skin 

Kiri kiri gravel 

Kiri paka a flint 

Kita, or kitea see, discern, 
understand, perceive 

Kitenga a sight 

Kiwi name of a bird (ApterLv 
Australis) 

Kiwi kiwi, id. 

Koau a coward 

Ko a tool with which the na- 
tives plant their sweet po- 
tatoes ; perforating 



368 



NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [ PART IIL 



Ko a young girl 

Ko a particle used very com- 
monly before substantives, 
adjectives, pronouns, and 
verbs, and in the beginning 
of sentences 

Koa joy, content, satisfied, 
joyful 

Koa koa, id. 

Koara rending, tearing 

Koahea how long 

Koe thou 

Koe koe a shrub 

Koewetewete murmured 

Koi a point, sharp, sharpen- 
ing 

Koi koi point of a spear, a 
bayonet 

Koia yes, truly 

Koi he departed, dead 

Koinga the edge, a sharp 
edge, a station formed by a 
point 

Koingo mourn 

Koiripi a looseness 

Koiuru a putting together of 
heads, as into a basket 

Koiwe collecting caterpillars 

Koiwi a skeleton, a corpse 

Koura the crayfish 

Koutou you 

Koututu a small fishing-net 

Koha fog, mist 

Kohi kohia gather, collect 

Kohu a mist, fog 

Kohua a native oven, a pot 

Kohuru murder, murderer, 
murderous, murdering, slay- 
ing ; e hunga kohuru a 
murderer 

Kohurutia to lay wait and 
slay 

Kokako name of a bird 

Koki limping 

Kokiri dipping, darting, ap- 
pearing, springing up, launch- 
ing, a dart or short spear 

Kokiri tia castor dart 



Kokiritanga a time of casting 
away or darting anything 

Koko a spoon, a working tool 

Koko lean 

Kokonga a corner 

Kokopu a small fresh-water 
fish 

Kokorutanga an harbour 

Kokota a cockle so called, a 
joiner's plane 

Kokoti cut off, reap, circum- 
cise 

Kokoto name of a fish 

Kokowai red ochre for paint- 
ing the skin 

Koma a tool so called 

Koraaru sail of a canoe 

Komata mata the toe 

Koma tora an open fist 

Komimi name of a river 

Korniri cleaning 

Komo komo a blinking with 
the eye 

Komotia casting into, putting 
into 

Komukumuku rubbing 

Konanunanu mix ; he mea 
kommimanu a mixture 

Konake a slip with the foot 

Kone a slip with the buttocks 

Kongangi chewing 

Konewatanga twinkling 

Konga konga crumbs 

Kopa lame, shot, maimed 

Kopa lock of a gun 

Kopanga a place for a parti- 
tion 

Kopnpa a sort of canoe 

Kopaki husks 

Koparu paru miry 

Kope a pistol 

Kopere a bow 

Kopi shut 

Kopiko a curvature, a cripple, 
turning, bending 

Kopiri lameness of the feet 

Kopipi gathering of cockles, 
also a sort of cockles 



CHAP. IX.] 



THE DICTIONARY. 



369 



Kopiro falling into the water 

Kopu the belly, womb 

Kopu the morning star 

Kopua the bed or deepest part 
of a river, the double teeth 

Kopuku name of a garment 

Kopu pungawa reed, bulrush 

Koputa puta a shellfish 

Kora kora a spark of fire 

Koramo a shellfish 

Korau an esculent fern-tree 
(Cyaihea, medullaris) 

Koraha desert, wilderness, de- 
serted 

Korari flax 

Kore no, not, broken, the rent 

Korenga renting 

Korero kino swearing 

Korero speaking 

Korerotia spoken 

Korewatanga twinkling 

Korerotanga a speech, time of 
speaking 

Koro address; EKoro friend 

Koroeke an old man 

Koroha a bush 

Koroke a stranger, fellow (in 
contempt) 

Koro koro throat, toes 

Koroi berries of the Kahika- 
tea pine 

Koro iti little finger 

Koro matua thumb, great toe, 
a teacher 

Koropiha a pool 

Koropiko bend down, bend, 
worship, kneel 

Koro punga punga pumice- 
stone 

Koroputa neck of a bottle 

Koropupu boil ; Koropuputia 
boil thou 

Kororareka sweet penguin, 
name of a place 

Korora a penguin 

Kororerohia stir up 

Kororia glory 

Kororiatanga splendour, glory 
VOL. ir. 



Korotu the lower border of a 
garment 

Korua two, to be engaged in 
something 

Kota a plane iron, a shell for 
scraping 

Kotaha a war instrument 

Kotahi one 

Kotahitanga unity 

Koti divide, cut 

Koti koti a cutting instrument, 
scissars, cutting 

Kotinga a piece, time of reap- 
ing, harvest, boundary, cir- 
cumcision 

Kotiro a young girl 

Koto koto a rope so called, 
made use of in a canoe 

Kotore the straight gut 

Kotore pipe-clay 

Kotuwanga a sort of stone 

Konai the chin 

Kowai or K'wai who? 

Kowao a hole 

Kowara rito bud of a tree 

Kowatu stone, hail, rock, 
rocky 

Ko w era y aw mug 

Ko wiu wiu fan, broom, to fan 

Kowete wete disputing, whis- 
pering; He hunga Kowete- 
wete slanderer 

Kowititanga o te marama the 
new moon 

Ku a peg for a mat 

Kua prefix for forming the 
perfect tense of verbs 

Kua po te ra the sun is gone 
down 

Kua pau it is done ! 

Kuao a young male beast, a 
pig, a colt 

Kuangahuru the tenth, tithe 

Kuia an old woman, an affec- 
tionate term for mother 

Kuihi speech 

Kueti straight 

Kuhu a game so called 
2 u 



370 



NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [PART III. 



Kuhua hide 

Kuku anything that holds fast, 

as a vice, pincers, tongs, also 

name of a shellfish 
Kuku a pigeon, a term used 

for birds generally 
Kukumi protracted, extended, 

dilated 

Kukupa a pigeon 
Kurnara sweet potato 
Kumea pulling, drawing, 

pushing, hauling (the seine) 
Kumete a vessel to hold vic- 
tuals, water-trough 
Kumi ten fathoms 
Kumu the anus 
Kumu kumu name of a fish, 

beard 

Kupako a sound as of any- 
thing approaching 
Kupanga a corner for a ship 

to anchor in 

Kupenga a seine, fish-net 
Kupu agreement, promise, 

saying, answer, words 
Kupu huna ana speaking in a 

parable 
Kura red 
Kura kura very red 
Kura tau a year in which there 

is much battle, bloodshed 
Kuri a dog, a young dog 
Kuru the fist 
Kurua strike with the fist 
Kurupai a cross 
Kuru tou the long feathers in 

a bird's tail, the tail 
Kuru tongia thin soil 
Kuruhi an old woman 
Kuta a louse 
Kutu id. 

Kutu kutu an insect, a worm 
Kuwaha a gate 
Kuware a fool, an ignorant 

man, ignorant, to believe 
Kuwaretanga ignorance 
Kuwaru name of a shell-fish 



M. 

Ma white, pure, clean, pale; 
kia ma koutou be you clean 

Ma, i.g., mo for 

Ma conjunctive particle for 
numerals, and 

Ma giving 

Maenene soft 

Mai name of a tree, ' Dacry- 
dium* 

Mai i. g. matai 

Maia be joyful, forthcoming, 
apparent, exposing 

Mai here, hither; used as an 
affix to verbs; haere rnai 
come 

Maiatanga boldness, courage 

Mairitawaka name of a tree, 
' Eugenia Main ' 

Maieore skinning, pulling off 
the skin 

Mairi name of a tree 

Maitiko toes 

Maiki to nurse, pressing to the 
breast 

Maori indigenous, native, na- 
tural; haere maori walking, 
as a native has no other 
chance ; wai maori fresh 
water 

Maoritanga native custom, na- 
tural use 

Mau of thine, for thee 

Mau take, fetch, bear; mau- 
ria mai bring hither 

Maua we two 

Maua ripe, cooked 

Mauahara hate, malice, to 
hate, hatred 

Maui left (hand) 

Maui a person of tradition 

Mauiuitia suffer, labour 

Maumaunia wasting 

Maumau taking, waste, to 
waste, name of a fish, in vain 

Maumau uaua noa labour in 
vain 



CHAP. IX.] THE DICTIONARY. 



371 



Mauria mai bring 

Maunu bait for a fish-hook, 
baiting, biting, or being 
caught 

Maunga rongo peace 

Maunga a mountain, ripe, 
wholesome 

Mahana warmth, warm, 
warming 

Mahanga net 

M ahanga twin s 

Mahara consider ; maharatia, 
considered, wise, careful, good 

Maharatanga knowledge, pru- 
dence, thought 

Maha many, much 

Maheau verandah 

Maheoro an entrenchment, 
ditch 

Mahi work, industrious, work- 
ing ; Mahia to work 

Mahi wawe work quickly done 

Mahinga work, a job, work- 
time 

Mahiri naming a child 

Mahitia to work 

Mahue to loose, forsake, de- 
sert 

Mahunga head 

Mahuri plant 

Maka wild 

Maka casting off, throwing 
away, an eruption 

Makamaka cast 

Makarii repelling 

Makariti cold 

Makawe hair of the head 

Maki the last survivor of a 
tribe 

Mako name of a fish 

Mako wakakai an ear-drop 
made of the tooth of the fish 
called mako 

Mako mako name of a bird 

Makona fill, satisfy, satiety 

Makona tanga filling 

Maku me, I 

Maku wet 



Makuku wet, watered 

Makuru the premature falling 
of fruit 

Makutu witchcraft, bewitch- 
ing, enchanting 

Mama light, not heavy 

Mamae pain, painful, sore, dis- 
tressing, afflict, hurt 

Ma mai mouth 

Mamaha exhalation, breath 

Mamaru rays of the sun 

Maminga a lie, a liar 

Mana for him 

Mana command, authority, 
power 

Manako worthy, acceptable, 
remembrance 

Manakohanga remembrance, 
savour, acceptable 

Manakohia ana to be accept- 
able 

Manane smooth 

Manatunga keepsake 

Manawa breath, courage, 
courageous, spirited 

Manawa nui good cheer 

Manawa pa an overflowing 
spirit, envious 

Manawanuitanga patience 

Manawa tawi the islands 
called the Three Kings 

Manene stranger 

Manila a plain 

Mano a thousand, the multi- 
tude 

Manuea a shrub (Leptosper- 
mum ericoides) 

Manu a bird, a kite 

Manuka a shrub (Leptosper- 
mum scopariuni) 

Manukao name of a place 

Manuwiri a stranger, a tra- 
veller 

Manuhiri id. 

Manga branch, twig, graining 
of a tree, name of a fish 

Manga kahia a mountain so 
called 



372 



NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [PART III. 



Mangai mouth 

Mange mange a fish-hook 

Mangere idle, idling, loitering 

Mango a shark 

Mango pare a shell-fish so 

called 

Mangonui name of a place 
Mungu black, blacking, black 

dye 

Maugu mangu id. , blackness 
Mangungu break 
Mapuna enclosed in a stone 
Mara a farm, field 
Mara friend ! e mara friend ! 
Marae a yard, court 
Maraenui name of a place 
Maraetahi name of a place 
Marama moon, month, light 
Marama light, clear, pleasant 
Maramatanga light 
Marangai east, east wind 
Marangai hauraro north-east ; 

Tonga marangai south-east 
Marara ke go astray 
Mare cough, coughing 
Marere falling down, dead 
Mari it is good 
Marie peaceful, simple, quiet, 

still, serene 

Mariu spots upon the skin 
Marino smooth, calm ; for 

instance, the sea 
Maringi running out, drop- 



. 
Maringi menstrua 

Maripi knife, sword 

Maro a mat so called, extend, 

a fathom 

Marohirohi prosper 
Maroi fern-root 
Maroke dry, to dry 
Maru extinguish, "kill, break, 

bruise, tear, shadow, shade 
Maru mam a shade 
Marunga death, a murder, 

killing 

Mata face, appearance 
Mata raw, uncooked 



Matai, i. g. t mai 
Mata musket-ball 
Mataara watch 
Mataaratanga watch ; o te po 

night-watch 
Matao cold 
Matakiri eyelids 
Matakitaki look at, observe, 

notice 
Mataku, fear, fright, fearful, to 

fear 

Matauranga wisdom, know- 
ledge 
Matau to know, to understand, 

to teach, skilful, wise 
Matau right hand 
Matau fishhook 
Matapo blind 
Mata mata, also Mataue name 

of a place 
Matamua firstling, first-born, 

first 

Matanawe scar, mark 
Matangerengere hard 
Matangi the air, the extension 

of the intestines after death 
Matapihi window 
Matapiko hiding the face by 

hanging down the head 
Matara refuge 
Matarangi horizon 
Matarehe sort of fresh-water 

eel 

Matariki the Pleiades 
Matatoua looking earnestly at 

another 

Mate mate die 
Mate sick, desirous, needful, 

dead, dying 
Mate wai thirsty 
Mate kai hungry 
Mate ika illness from eating 

fish 

Mate toru thick 
Matemoe, also Materawa 

dead 

Matia an arrow, a spear, dart 
Mate awa severe illness, death 



CHAP. IX.] 



THE DICTIONARY. 



373 



Matenga head, time of death 

Mate hima fretting, concealed 
affliction 

Matinga rawa death 

Mati hau nails of fingers 

Matikara finger 

Matiki a fish-hook 

Matikuku nails, toes 

Mutikuku \vae wae toe-nails 

Mato mato green 

Matoke cold 

Matou we 

Matu flesh 

Matua a parent 

Matua tane father ; matua 
wahine mother 

One matua primitive soil 

Matua keke uncle 

Matuaranga o te po the watch 
of the night 

Mawa soft, done, cooked 

Mawera open 

Mawete untie the garment 

Mawiti coming forth 

Mawi, i. g., Maui a mytholo- 
gical personage 

Mawiti witi locusts 

Me and, or, a particle used in 
comparing, like 

Mea a thing, gift, cause 

Mea speaking, saying 

Meatia give, done, become 

Meatu speak 

Meanga word, command 

Meinga a word, a deed 

Meinga mai tell, speak 

Meireira then 

Meuimeui gather 

Meka meka chain, necklace, 
bands, halter 

Meke a dwarf 

Mere a war-club 

Merimeri the evening star 

Merekara great words, elo- 
quence 

Memenge withered, decayed 

Memeha vanish, cut off 

Meme muttering, enchanting 



Mia a particle, affixed to verbs 

in the imperative mood and 

passive form 

Miharo wonder, to be asto- 
nished 

Mihi sigh, sighing 
Mihinga sighing, moaning 
Mirni urine, urinous, make 

water 

Mine assemble 
Minamina desire 
Mimiki absorbing, drying up 
Mira a tomb, place of repose 
Mire minced meat 
Miri rubbing 
Miro name of a pine-tree 

(Podocarpus ferruginea) 
Miro thread, spinning thread 
Miro miro, id. 

Miru a bubble, a rill of water 
Miti licking 
Miti miti licking 
Mo for 
Moa fossil bones of a struthi- 

ous bird of that name 
Moana the sea, ocean 
Moaniani flat 
Moe sleep ; to sleep, dream 
Moemoea dream 
Moehewa- -vision, dream 
Moe koroha asleep in the bush 
Moenga bedtime, bed, couch 
Moenaku dream 
Moepuku forn ication 
Moe tahae adultery, commit 

adultery 
Moe tuturu placing the heads 

of enemies upon the pins 

used in making mats 
Mou for thee 
Mow take 
Moi moi dog 
Mohio to know, understand 
Mohiotanga understanding 
Moiri he hau a corpse exposed 

to the wind 
Moka worm, maggot 
Moka a shroud 



374 



NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [PART III. 



Mokai a labouring man 

Mokai kai preserved human 
heads 

Moke desolate 

Moke moke alone, desolate 

Moki name of a fish 

Moku for me 

Moko the tattooing or mark- 
ing of the face 

Mokonei therefore 

Mokomokai the preserved 
human heads 

Mokomoko a small lizard 

Moko puna a grandchild, ne- 
phew, niece 

Moko taniwa an ear-ornarnent 

Momi momi kissing, saluting 

Momo seed, offspring 

Momoe sleeper, sleep 

Momona fat, sweet, delicious 

Momoto a box with the fist 

Mona servant 

Mona for him 

More light 

Morenga - club for beating 
fern-root 

Morere a swing for children 

Morunga head on the top of 
a pole 

Moriore exclamation used in 
sneezing 

Moti last survivor of a family 

Moto a blow with the fist 

Motoi a person neglected at 
meals 

Motu an island, alone, stand- 
ing apart 

Motuke apart, separated 

Motuhia ketia separated 

Motumotu divide 

Mowiti a ring 

Mu a particle used with other 
words denoting the extremity 

Mua before ; i mua, aforetime, 
formerly 

Mua the eldest (son) 

Muhanga working at the ex- 
tremity of anything 



Muka flax prepared 

Mumura sparks of fire 

Mungea itch 

Muna the ringworm, a circu- 
lar scar 

Muna muna id. 

Muri henceforth, in future, 
behind ; a muri, after 

Muri kokai the back of the 
head 

Muringi scattering 

Muri wenua landsend, name 
of the most northern parts of 
the island 

Muri motu Endisland, an 
island off the North Cape 

Mum wiping, rubbing, po- 
lishing 

Murti forgive, spoil, rob, 
bruise ; taonga mum, prey 

Murua id. 

Murunga cleared land 

Mutu the end, ending, finish- 
ing 

Mutunga the end 

Mutumutu end, final; ekore a 
mutumutu continual, with- 
out end 

Mutunga kore without end, 
everlasting, eternal 

Mura light, flame 

Muramura id. 

Mure name of a fish 

Muwaru a grub, worm 

N. 

Na now, behold ; used in be- 
ginning a phrase, an argu- 
ment 

Na of the 

Nau come ; nau mai come 
hither 

Nahe nahe separating 

Naho a species of potato 

Nake only 

Nakoa? why not? 

Naku of me, of mine 

Namu a muskito 



CHAP. IX.] 



THE DICTIONARY. 



375 



Nana behold, because, for, 
listen 

Nana of him 

Nanu agony, groans, quarrel 

Nanakia terrible 

Napo last night 

Nara healthful 

Nawake three days ago 

Nawake nui four days ago 

Nawi a rush, the scar of a 
wound 

Ne a particle to signify a re- 
moval or change of place 

Nei hither 

Nehu dust 

Neke remove; neke mai 
come nearer ; kia nekehia 
koe remove thou ; neke atu 
go away 

Nekehia ketia depart 

Neko a garment 

Nene slipping easily 

Nia a particle affixed to the 
root of verbs for forming the 
imperative 

Nihau the gunnels of a canoe 

Niho^tooth ; mho tunga a 
rotten tooth 

Nikau the cabbage palm (Are- 
ca sapidd) 

Noof, denoting possession 

No for 

Noa free, disengaged, common 

Noatia without cause 

Nou of thee or thine 

Nohea koia ? where was it ? 

Nohea whence from 

Nohinohinga smallness 

Nohi nohi little, small, light, 
easy 

Nohoia inherit 

Noho sit down, fix, not mov- 
ing, stop, fast 

Noho puku fasting stomach 

Nohopukutanga fasting 

Noho iho sit down 

Nohoanga presence, seat, ha- 
bitation 



Nohowanga id. 

Nohu sinking with pain 

Noke walking to a distance, 

change the situation 
Nokona then 
Noku of mine 
No mua in old times 
Nona of his 

No naianei the present time 
Nonohi little, small ; nonohi 

rawa the smallest 
Nope a gnawing pain 
Nui great, large 
Nuinga abundance, fulness, 

size 

Nuinui very great 
Nuitia openly 
Nuku squeezing, pressing 
Nuku mai come close to me 
Nukua mai id. 
Numi numi afraid, confounded 

Ng. 

Ng is pronounced like a g 
with a nasal sound 

Nga article for the plural num- 
ber 

Ngau bite, gnaw 

Ngaua pains 

Ngaue tremble, quake 

Ngaueue id. 

Ngaueuetia shake it 

Ngaueue wenua earthquake 

Ngahau break forth, issue 

Ngohoro fall 

Ngakau heart 

Ngakihi a button, a shell-fish 

Ngaki tilling the ground ; to 
kai nguki wenua farmers 

Ngakinga a farm 

Ngako fat 

Ngamu, i. </., namu 

Ngamu ngamu id. 

Nga motu the Sugarloaf 
Islands 

Nganga dregs, residue, a tu- 
mult 



376 



NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [PART III. 



Nganga a human skull 

Nganga rangi a kind of po- 
tato 

Ngangatanga a concourse 

Ngangare contend, strife 

Ngangaretanga dispute 

Ngarahu the black soot of 
kauri resin, used in tattooing 

Ngarara a creeping- thing, a 
lizard 

Ngaro a fly 

Ngaro hide, secret, loose, in- 
visible 

Ngaronga secret, mystery, 
absence, absent 

Ngarautaua name of a shell- 
fish 

Ngaru the wave, surf, covered 
with waves, an uneven sur- 
face, uneven, rough 

Nga rue roots of fern 

Ngaruru an aching pain, ach- 
ing 

Ngata name of an insect 

Ngatahi together ; hui ngatahi 
to meet 

Ngatahitia together 

Ngatatatanga a gulf, a wrin- 
kle 

Nga taro roots of taro 

Nga uia tail feathers of the 
bird called uia, used as an 
ornament 

Ngawari soft, light, easy 

Ngenge weary, to be weary, 
tired 

Ngengeti an insect 

Ngere lazy 

Ngeri name of a garment 

Ngeri komeke id. 

Ngeru a cat 

Ngiru ngiru name of a bird 

Ngokingoki to creep 

Ngoi an old woman, general 
name for fish 

Ngoikore weak, faint 

Ngoikoretanga weakness, in- 
firmity 



Ngoiro name of a fish 

Ngohe loosen 

Ngongi pure water 

Ngongoro snoring noise, snor- 
ing 

Ngoto deep, pierce ' 

Ngu squids, the tattoo upon 
the nose 

Ngungu walking in a sitting 
posture, stooping low 

Ngutu lips, brim of a vessel ; 
te hunga ngutu kau people 
talking with their lips only, 
deceitful, hypocritical people 

Ngutu riwa hare-lips 

P. 

Pa a fortified village, affec- 
tionate term for father 

Paiauku gaudiness, finery 

Pai good, kind, well; e pai 
ano please, good 

Paihau beard 

Paihia name of a place 

Painga -goodness,benevolence, 
beauty 

Paipai finery, good, fine, beau- 
tiful, well-made 

Pairau proper name 

Pai roa, (i. e. hau) a south 
wind, middle island 

Pairoke name of a place 

Paitia good ; e koreroretia 
paitia of good report 

Paopaongia making slight of 
anything 

Paopao make slight, easy of 
anything 

Paoa or Paowa gall, smoke 

Paheke stinginess 

Pau consumption, expendi- 
ture 

Pau consume 

Pauka a garment so called 

Pahu a canoe-shaped piece 
of wood which was beaten 
like a drum; a trumpet, a 
drum 



CHAP. IX.] THE DICTIONARY. 



377 



Pahia bruise 

1'ahi a ship 

Pahunu terror 

Ptihuretia to hold, to pull, to 

keep fast 
Pakaka pale 
Pakaukau a kite 
Paka a garment, anything 

dried in the sun 
Paka kina kina srnite 
Pakau wing of a bird, a kite 
Pakaru breaking, bursting 
Pakarutanga breaking out, 

issuing 

Pakarunga bursting 
Pakarukarunga ruins 
Pakanae name of a place 
Pakati waistcoat (Angl.) 
Pake pake no te ra the orna- 
ment, placed at the edge of 

the sail of a canoe 
Pakea a stranger, foreigner 
Pakepakewai a garment 
Pakeke hard, difficult, proper 

name, hardly, bad, cruel 
Pakeko a barren woman 
Paki - calm, quiet, as the wea- 
ther 

Pakipaki very quiet 
Pakia covering for a man's 

back, boxing with the open 

hand 
Pakiaka root of a tree, any 

root 
Pakihi a garment for a man, 

breeches 

Pakirikiri a fish so called 
Pakirikiri the lower incisors 

of a man 
Pakihi kura red land, where 

fern-root has been collected 
Pakira a bald head 
Pakitara the corner, a wall 
Pakoa te tai low water 
Pakoi koi a fish so called 
Pakoko barren, fruitless 
Pakurakura a fish so called 
Pana a fillip, filliping 



Pane tie up, catch 

Pani an orphan 

Pani besmearing, painting 

Panikau name of a place 

Panga a casting, or removing 

from one place to another 
Pangia taste 
Pangiatia taste it 
Pangore name of a fresh-water 

eel 

Panguru a mountain so called 
Papa a thin board, a plank, a 

plain, a flat, a table, the but- 
tocks 

Papa exploding, bursting 
Papnka a crab 
Papaki smite; i nga ringa- 

ringa clap the hands, palm 

of the hands 
Papaki new 
Papaku low, little 
Papare cry 
Paparinga cheek 
Papani a fish so called 
Papapa a cup for victuals 
Papanga half of anything 
Papa pere a quiver 
Papata a cockroach 
Papatu strike 
Papataura a sponge 
Papaware the floor of a house 
Para a fish so called 
Paraharaha an iron hoop 
Paraheka semen 
Paraheka wahi awa a blue 

paint 

Parahi a game so called 
Paraparau command 
Pararohi juice of fern-root 
Pararau wings 
Paratahi the upper sideboards 

at the head of a canoe 
Parawa a sperm whale; also 

its jaw bone; the two upper 

incisors of a man 
Parawea noon 
Parangi a company of persons 

sitting in a circle 



378 



NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [PART III. 



Parare cry 

Parepare the fringe of a gar- 
ment 

Pare a ribbon for the head, 
the topknot of a bird 

Parea turning, turning round 

Pare the resin of the kauri 
pine 

Paremo sinking 

Parera a duck 

Parewarewa a fish so called 

Parewakataka the knot of a 
ribbon, worn at the side of 
the head 

Pari a steep rock, a precipi- 
tous shore 

Pari rise, flow ; for instance, 
the tide 

Parirau, wing of a bird 

Paro the hollow part of the 
hand 

Paro a small basket, used as 
a plate 

Paroa name of a place 

Parore a fish so called 

Paru mud, dirt, dirty 

Pata a garment 

Patari kaihu one of the Magel- 
lan clouds 

Patahi a garment for the waist 
of females 

Patanga a cause 

Patata surrounding 

Pate the wood which is used 
by the natives to produce fire 
by friction 

Patete a garment so called 

Pati a lie 

Pati pati to tell lies 

Patiki a fish so called, also a 
game 

Patinga o te tai flowing of the 
tide 

Patiti a tomahawk, a small 
axe 

Patota name of a place 

Patuka a storehouse 

Patu a wall 



Patu a war-club, beating, kill- 
ing ; patua smitten 

Patukia knock, a knock 

Patunga a slaughter ; patunga 
tapu slaughter for sacrifice 

Patuone slaughter upon the 
sand, name of a person 

Patu patu a war-club 

Pawara wild 

Pawa a shell-fish (Haliotis} 

Pawera fear, a fever 

Pawi a club for beating fern- 
root 

Pawi beating 

Pe perhaps 

Pea perhaps, I believe so; Pea 
phoki -perhaps it is so 

Pea the lobe of the ear 

Pe push, thrust, drive, throw 

Pehia push on 

Pehea how ? what ? 

Pehi a ship, a tossing ball 

Pehoki' a dog-fish 

Peka peka a bat, a game so 
called 

Peke remove 

Pena like that 

Penei like this, thus, in that 
manner 

Pepe a butterfly, trembling 

Pera like that, the same 

Pere remove, removal 

Pere shaft, bow, arrow 

Pere kura a war station 

Pero a dog 

Pero pero ditto 

Pi close, near 

Piu cast; for instance, a fish- 
hook 

Piu grass so called 

Piha piha rau a sort of fresh- 
water eel 

Pihe the funeral ode, singing 
the pihe the womb 

Pihi spring up, grow 

Pihoi hoi name of a little bird 

Pikau a load, burden, a gar- 
ment 



CHAP. IX.] THE DICTIONARY. 



379 



Pikaua carry a load upon the 
back 

Piki adhering, sticking very 
close, adhesion, adhesive, 
clinging, climbing, ascend 

Piki-arero the ligament of the 
tongue, a climbing plant 

Pikinga adhesion, climbing 

Piki rangi a climbing to hea- 
ven 

Piki kiki troublesome 

Piko a curve, a bend, to bend, 
crooked, a humpbacked per- 
son 

Piko piko ditto 

Pikonga a curve, or bending 
of a line, road 

Pine scowling 

Pipi cry of a bird, cry of a 
child " 

Pipi cockle 

Pipi tremble 

Pipi pi a turkey 

Pirangi desire, smile, lust 

Pirau stench, stinking, spoilt, 
rotten 

Pirautia rotting 

Piri cleaving, sticking, close- 
ness, crowding 

Piri kau a sheep from the 
closeness of its wool 

Piringa closeness 

Pirinoa name of a place 

Piro stench x 

Pirounga corruption, stench 

Pirongia name of a mountain 

Piwai refuse of sweet pota- 
toes 

Pingau a garment 

Pingore tough 

Pitao the carved figure at the 
head of a canoe, a canoe so 
called, the tattooed face of a 
woman 

Pitao waka a carved canoe 

Pito the end, the navel 

Pitone end of the beach, name 
of a place 



Pitorehu the navel-string 

Po night, darkness, season, 
journey 

Po mate kai season of famine 

Poaka pig, swine 

Poeoi a tuft of feathers worn 
as an ornament in the ear 

Poi a ball for play, to play 
ball 

Poi poi, a ball, light 

Pou a post, pillar 

Pouroto the inside post of a 
house 

Pouaka a box 

Poupou stakes 

Pou pou boils on the skin 

Pounamu green jade 

Pouri dark, dull, sorry, sor- 
rowful, darkness 

Pouritanga darkness 

Poutou cut off, chop 

Poutoutoki cut up 

Poutoa noa beheaded 

Pouturi deafness" 

Pohewahewa doubt 

Pohewa id. 

Pohehe hinder, prevent, con- 
fuse 

Pohe dead 

Poheua doubt 

Pohutukaua a timber - tree 
(Metrosideros tomentosa) 

Poka besmeared 

Pokaikaha doubt 

Pokaia disembowel 

Poka alter, cover 

Poka pit, hole, excremental 
dust 

Pokapu name of a place 

Poka noa idle 

Poke unclean 

Pokai fold, roll up 

Pokerioa wilful 

Pokarakara globular 

Pokatupapaku grave 

Poke poke to make 

Poki covered 

Pokihiwi shoulder 



380 



NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [PART III. 



Pokoura name of a place 

Pokanga cleft of a rock, a hole 

Pomare night-cough, a name 

Ponapona joints 

Ponaru widow 

Ponarutanga widowhood 

Pona a knot, making a knot 

Ponaanga a knot 

Pona pona wrist, ankle joint, 
knotty 

Pona kaua kaua a game so 
called 

Pono truth, true, truly, faith- 
ful, to speak the truth 

Pononga servant, assistant 

Ponongatanga servitude, as- 
sistance 

Ponga a pithy wood so called 

Pongere smoking 

Ponga ponga nostrils 

Popo cut into pieces 

Popoa sacred victuals 

Popoto very short 

Porae a fish so called 

Porae nui name of a place 

Porearea bother, confound 

Porohuritia to turn upside 
down 

Porahurahura trouble 

Pororarui confounded, doubted 

Poranga a purple sweet po- 
tato 

Porangi hasty, to be in a hurry 

Poropora tobacco 

Poraporo berry, fruit 

Porori hip-bone 

Poroporo aki taking leave 

Porotaka annular 

Porotaitaka closed all around, 
annular 

Porotutu kitanga borders, 
limits 

Potatutatu with haste 

Potai a hat, cap, pot-lid 

Potaitupui name of a place 

Potiki the youngest child, bro- 
ther or sister 

Poti poti an insect so called 



Poto short 

Poto poto short 

Pu a cylinder, musket, flute, 
a pregnant woman ; fire a 
musket 

Pu blow 

Pua a sowthistle 

Pua iti the small sowthistle 

Pua o te rakau flower of a tree 

Puao daybreak 

Puaotanga dawning of the day 

Puare open 

Puaki make known 

Pudut dust, uproar 

Puehuehu mealy ; used of the 
fernroot 

Puehoki blunt 

Pui the ornamented sternpost 
of a canoe 

Pui korokoro name of a fish 

Pui a hot spring 

Puhehe erring 

Puhi to shoot 

Puhi name of a freshwater eel 

Puka spade, cabbage 

Pukaha a garment so called 

Pukanana staring 

Pukapu a place so called 

Pukapuka book, paper, a tree 
so called, the lungs 

Puke hill 

Puke puke hill, low hill 

Puke hau papa Snowy Moun- 
tain, Mount Egmont 

Pukeko a bird (^Porphyrio) 

Pukepoto a mineral serving as 
a blue paint 

Puketaua name of a hill 

Pukovotuna a wickerwork bas- 
ket for catching eels 

Puku stomach, bulk of a ship ; 
noho puku a fasting sto- 
mach; moe puku, fornica- 
tion 

Puku secret, concealed, se- 
cretly 

Pukutia do a thing secretly 

Pukinvaewae the ankle 



CHAP. IX.] 



THE DICTIONARY. 



381 



Pumau close, confined for 
want of air, confident; pu- 
mau ana taku wakaro I am 
confident 

Pune close, tight ; ware pune, 
sleeping house 

Puna spring, root 

Puna wai a spring, a well ; 
puna awa the source of a 
river 

Pupu a periwinkle, abundance 

Pupuhi blowing 

Pupuru a cartridge, hold 

Pupuri close,near,receive,hold 

Puputu close 

Pura pura seeds, fruits 

Pura film, mote 

Puranga heap, to heap 

Puranga paru dunghill 

Puri seize, help 

Puripu canon 

Purehurehu moth 

Puremu lascivious, adulterous, 
adulterer, whoring 

Purepure spotted 

Purewa a muscle 

Puritia to, hold, keep back 

Puroku a goat 

Purorohu a current in the sea 

Puna rua a pulling match 

Puru a cork or stopper 

Puru holding fast 

Purui^-a flea 

Puta ake come up, make its 
appearance 

Puta pass through, leave, de- 
scend, appear, show ; puta 
mai-koutou show your- 
selves 

Puta an opprobrious term for 
a woman 

Putake root 

Putahi any persons or things 
derived from the same source 
or family 

Putanga egress descend, ap- 
pearance 

Putangitangi Paradise duck 



Putanga matamua the first- 
born 

Pute bag 

Putoto a bird 

Puwa thistle 

Puwenua the poles on each 
side of the sail 

Puwerewere a spider 

Punga an anchor, an odd one 

Pungaribu ashes 

Punga wera wera brimstone 

Punga wera pumice-stone 

Punga he hawato pumice- 
stone 

Pungorungoru a sponge 

R. 

Ra a particle used in the pre- 
sent tense of verbs, which 
follows the verb, and is ge- 
nerally used if we want to 
express anything with force ; 
for instance, haere mai ra 
come here ! 

Ra sun, day, time 

Ra health, strength 

Ra sail of a ship or a canoe 

Ra rise up 

Ra i tenei ra, i tenei ra con- 
tinually 

Ra ia that person, yet 

Rae point (of a coast), fore- 
head 

Raena prominent, in sight, 
within view 

Rai rai thin 

Rao rao a plain 

Ran young tops of a tree, 
leaves, a grass so called 

Rau hundred 

Raua they (they two only) 

Rauhanga wiles, temptation 

Raukaua name of a tribe 

Raumati summer 

Rauparaha name of a chie 

Raupaua a net for small fish 

Raupo bulrushes (typhd) 



382 



NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [PART III. 



Raurau a plain, a village situ- 
ated on a plain 
Raha show 
Rahi length, great, long, tall, 

enlarge, forehead 
Rahu rahu fern 
Rahui prohibition, prohibit 
Raka firmament ; he wetu 

raka the starry firmament 
Rakapika shrub (Metroside- 

ros Jlorida) 
Rakau tree, general name for 

wood 

Rakautia becoming a tree 
Rakau mo te ihu a bowsprit 
Raku a scratch 
Raku raku a small hoe, or 
anything to scrape with, 
scrape, scratch 
Rama candle, light 
Rama rama name of a tree 

(Myrtus bullata) 
Ranei an adverb added to in- 
terrogative particles ; for in- 
stance, Kowai ranei ? who ? 
Raneatanga riches 
Ranu mixture ; ranu gravy 
Ranga make, fabricate 
Rangai a crowd, a shoal 
Rangaunu name of a place 
Rangatira a gentleman 
Rangatiratanga chieftainship 
Rangi heavens, sky, light 
Rangi to be accustomed to 
Rangiatea clear atmosphere 
Rangimarie meek, still 
Rangiuru the upper regions 

of the atmosphere, heavens 
Rangitetahi a name 
Rangitoto red sky, name of a 

place 

Rangitunoa a day without em- 
ployment 
Rangona spoken, heard, made 

known 

Rapa the upright board at the 
stern of a canoe, name of a 
place 



Rapa rapa sole of the foot, 
foot, shoe 

Rape a sort of gourd 

Rapu search 

Rapua to search 

Rara rib 

Raputia seeking 

Rarau a plant so called 

Ra raku time of scratching 

Raramata name of a place 

Rarata flock, tame 

Raratuna a game so called 

Rare a sort of grass 

Raro below, under 

Raru raru troubled, uneasy 

Rata name of a timber tree 
(Metrosideros robusta) 

Ratou they (all together) 

Rawa used to form the super- 
lative degree of adj. 

Rawa a remainder 

Rawa to the utmost extent, to 
the last 

Rawatia very high 

Rawanga a remainder 

Raweke use, treat badly 

Rawengi to like 

Rawiri a shrub (Lcptosper- 
mum ericoides) 

Rea rea depart 

Rei pit of the stomach 

Reinga the other world, its 
entrance at Cape Maria van 
Diemen; hell (of the mission- 
aries) 

Reira there, therefore, thence 

Reo voice, speech, dialect 

Reo reo a shell-fish so called 

Reua oppressive heat 

Rehu chip or beat off, for in- 
stance, a flint 

Rehu a flute, pipe 

Rehurehu depart, descend, set 

Reka joking, sweet, agreeable 
to mind or taste ; agree, sweet 

Rekatanga joy 

Rekereke the heel 

Reko a bird so called 



CHAP. IX.] THE DICTIONARY. 



383 



Repo a swamp 

Reringa flight 

Rere fly 

Remo fringe of a garment, 
hem, borders 

Rere behold ! look ! 

Rewa eyelid 

Renga secretion of the eye 

Rewa rewa a tree (Knightia 
excelsa) 

Rengarenga a liliaceous plant 

Rereahi ahi evening star 

Rere break forth 

Rete a snare, to snare 

Riu the internal part of a per- 
son, canoe 

Rihi dish, plate 

Rika thin, small 

Rike rike heel 

Rima five 

Rimu herbs, seaweed 

Rimu a pine tree (Dacrydium 
cupressinum) 

Rino iron, a bolt 

Ringatahi handful 

Ringa ringa the hand 

Ringihia to empty 

Ringi fill, pour ; pass, ringitia 

Rire depth 

Riri anger, angry; ririri 
angry 

Riringa resentment, wrath, ire 

Ripeka cross 

Ripekatia cruci fy 

Ripiro name of a place 

Riri native baptism 

Riro go out, away 

Riro ke depart 

Riro riro name of a bird 

Rite fulfil 

Rite alike; rite tonu exact- 
ly alike, according 

Ritenga creed, custom, man- 
ner ; Ki te ritenga according 

Rito bud of a tree 

Riwai potato 

Ro matter 

Roa long 



Roatanga durance 

Roanga lengthening, length 

Roakatanga riches 

Roimata tears 

Rohe borders 

Rohi fern-root 

Roke hard dung 

Rokohi find ; rokohina 

found 

Roke roke a kind of potato 
Roma the wake of a ship, a 

wave 

Romi squeeze 
Roromi infanticide 
Rona the lady in the moon 
Rope throw away 
Rore kiore a game so called 
Rori scrape, gather 
Rorihi turn over 
Roro the brain 
Roroa very long 
Roroi a sort of pudding 
Roto within 
Rotu a lake 
Rotu rua name of a lake 
Rotu mahana id. 
Rotu makariri id. 
Rongi swallow 
Kongo hear, feel, tidings, obey 
Rongo an informer 
Kongo peace 
Kongongo hear 
Rongotia hearken 
Rongoa medical, medicine; he 

tangata ronga a medi cal man 
Rongoatia to heal 
Ru a shrug, to shrug 
Rua two 
Rua a hole for potatoes, a 

grave 
Ruatera an Iguana, a pit, i. #., 

tuatera 

Rua rua a few 
Ruake sickness, vomiting 
Ruanga place for two 
Ruatahi twice one 
Ruemata tear 
Ruinga outpouring 



384 



NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [PART III. 



Rui rui scatter, shake 

Rui sow, shake off 

Rurea beset, in order to plun- 
der 

Ruruhi an old woman 

Ruri ruri toss about, pitch 

Ruru rum an .owl 

Kuril close, hidden 

Rutu strike, beat 

Ruha weary, tired 

Ruku ruku a basket loosely 
tied up 

Ruku dive, diving 

Rumakina bend 

Runga above, upon 

Runanga assembly, council 

Rupe blow the nose 

Ruperupea shake off 

T. 

Ta an instrument to mark the 
skin with, a file, mark, knit 
a fishing-net 

Ta gen. poss. ; for instance, 
the fruit of the tree ta te 
rakau hua 
Taea prosper 
Taemai name of a place 
Tae mai approach, come 
Taenga atu appearance 
Taere a snare for catching sea- 
fowls 

Tai sea ; wai tai, sea-water, a 
woman bearing children, an 
affectionate term for mother 
Taia engrave, impress 
Taiapohia carry 
Taieke spri ng-tide 
Taiepa enclosure, wall, fence 
Taiepatia hedged, enclosed 
Taioa by and by 
Taihou stranger 
Taimaha heavy, load heavy 
Taimahatia heavenly, laden 
Taipa name of a river 
Taipari a flowing tide, flood 
Taipouri the dark part or hold 
of a ship 



Taitima an ebbing tide, ebb 
Tairiki riki neap tide 
Tairaki a gentle current of the 

sea 

Tai tai salt 
Taitamariki young man ; wah- 

mi taitamariki the first wife 
Tairua the sea-sands 
Taiwaka pakoa a very low tide 
Taiwaru a fresh-water trout 
Tao a long spear, stick, stave 
Taokete a brother or sister in 

law, a relation 
Taonga treasure, property, 

goods, rich ; tangata taonga, 

rich people 
Taora po eoi spear dressed 

with parrots' feathers 
Tau one revolution of the earth 

round the sun, a year ; a 

game, revolving, meeting 
Tau iho lay down upon 
Tau number ; pass, tauia 
Tau thy 
Tau stranger 
Taua war, meeting, battle, 

excursion ; nga rongo taua 

warriors ; he tangata taua 

a warrior 
Taua we 
Taua that 
Taua iti a skirmish 
Taua tapu a war with certain 

ceremonies 
Taua toto a war excursion for 

the exercise of the lex talionis 
Taua rekareka a sbive 
Tauataua name of a fish 
Tauhiuhia sprinkle 
Tauhou stranger 
Tauinu name of a shrub 
Tauiwi a strange tribe, tribes 
Tauhoe a stranger 
Taumanu the beams of a canoe 
Taumarumaru shadow, to 

shadow 

Taumarumaru tanga shadow 
Taumaro a sweetheart 



CHAP. IX.] 



THE DICTIONARY. 



385 



Taumatia espoused 

Tauna or tahuna a sandbank, 

shallow water, roast by the fire 
Taunutanga reviling, slander 
Taunutia to mock 
Taupiri name of a place 
Taupoki cover 
Taupuhipuhi stand up, confide 
Taura cord, rope 
Tan rau a century 
Taurauga a landing place, a 

wharf, name of a place and 

person 

Tauri a turn, turn over 
Taurite ready 
Tautari a tomb surrounded 

with wickerwork, name of a 

mountain 
Tautiti guide 
Tautoru three stars in the belt 

of Orion 

Tauwaru sort of fishing-net 
Taha taha the sides of any- 
thing 
Taha id. 
Taha calabash 
Taha taha ara the wayside 
Taha taha wai the waterside 
Taha wai id. 
Tahae steal, pilfer, covet, a 

thief 

Tahae tia s tol e n 
Tahaetanga theft, pilfer 
Tahaku the sides and ends 

united as a parallelogram 
Tahi one, together, or as one ; 

for instance, E wakaro tahi 

be of the same mind 
Tahihuru a dog's-skin 
Tahi tatou we all together 
Tohoho sob, pant 
Tahuri mai turn to me 
Tahuri turn, convert 
Tahu husband 
Tahu kindle 

Tahuhu the joist of a floor 
Tahuna, part. pass, of tahu 
lighted, burned 
VOL. n. 



Tahunga sandbanks, flats 
Taka fall, change; for in- 
stance, the wind ; to fall, 

change 

Takanga fall 
Takaro play, playful 
Takaia to wrap up 
Taka kau lonely 
Takapau a sleeping-mat, a 

mat 

Takapu the calf of the leg 
Takawaru name of a fish 
Takawera name of a star 
Take bottom 
Takeke name of a fish 
Takere the bottom or keel of 

a ship 

Takiwa the firmament 
Takiwa a bay having no river 
Takitahi by single numbers, 

each of them individually 
Taki rua by pairs 
Takimahatia abundantly 
Takoto kau empty 
Takoto lie down, place to lay 

anything 
Takototanga place, treasure, a 

tomb 

Taku my 
Tako taniwa a shark's tooth, 

worn as ornament in the ear 
Tama child, son, embryo 
Tama iti son, child (male) 
Tamahine daughter 
Tamahine tanga youth 
Tamara a full-grown man or 

woman 

Tamariki son, children 
Tamariki tanga youth 
Tami tami craw or stomach of 

a bird or person 
Tamuri the snapper fish 
Tana his 

Tane husband, male 
Tanekaha a pine-tree (Phyl- 

locladus trichomanoides) 
Tanihi blind of one eye 
Taniwa name of a sea-monster 
2c 



3S6 



NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [PART III. 



Tanu bury 
Tanumia bury 
Tanga syllable joined to verbs 
in converting them into ab- 
stract substantives 
Tangata men 

Tangata ke foreigner, stranger 
Tangata muru a robber 
Tangi cry, lamentation, grief, 
noise of man and animals and 
inanimate objects, report of a 
gun, cry 

Tangiaue bowl, cry violently 
Tangihanga crying, weeping 
Tango take, unite; tangohia 

mai receive 
Tango katoa altogether 
Tangohanga receiving, hand- 
ling 

Tangotango handle 
Tapa thin cloth, made of the 

bark or leaves of trees 
Tapapa a species of potatoes 
Tapeka name of a place 
Tapiri help ; tapiritia, helped 
Tapoko enter 
Tapokopoko a bog 
Tapu sacred, inviolable, for- 
bidden 

Taputia made holy, made sa- 
cred 
Taputanga the act of making 

holy or sacred 

Tara tara palings, a rock with 
uneven stones, rough, a beard; 
kakahu tara tara a coarse 
mat 

Tara a gannet, a war instru- 
ment 

Taraiti a tree 

Tarakihi locusts, name of a fish 
Tarakina kina name of a mat 
Tarapo a species of potatoes 
Tarawa name of a place, a joist 
or spar which extends from 
post to post 

Taraware storehouse for ku- 
meras 



Tarawera shell-fish, name of a 

lake 
Tarawahi the other side of the 

water 

Tare groan 
Tare n ga groan in g 
Tareureu a game so called 
Tarie wait 
Taringa ear 
Taringa pihi a horn 
Taro taro a vegetable food, 

bread 
Taro id. 
Tarona suicide by hanging, 

hanged 

Taru taru grass, weeds 
Tata near, draw nigh 
Tatau door, gate, dispute 
Tatau account, count 
Tatahi apart 
Tatahi kill by bruising 
Tatahi sea-beach 
Tataramoa thorns, blackberry 
Tatari delay, wait 
Tatari mai wait 
Tatata mat so called 
Tatera a trumpet 
Tatoka a spear 
Tatou we all 
Tawae wae foot-mark 
Tawai name of a fish 
Tawai revile, slander, re- 
proach 

Tawa inga reproach 
Tawahi the other side of the 

water, beyond 
Tawaka name of a fish 
Tawara a sort of water-cress 
Tawaru name of a fish 
Taweta hang up 
Tawi succession of wave upon 

wave 
Tawiri name of a' shellfish, 

beckon or hail 
Tawiti far, distant 
Tawiti tawiti very far 
Tawito grow old, old, original; 

pass, tawitotia 



CHAP. IX.] THE DICTIONARY. 



387 



Te the definite article 

Te empty, void, to empty, to 
clear, disperse 

Teina brothers, younger bro- 
thers or sisters 

Teina ke brother or sister-in- 
law, cousin 

Tehoa which, where? 

Tehia, id. 

Teka falsehood, lie, false, ly- 
ing, to lie 

Tena that, in sight 

Tena go on, proceed 

Tena ra be cheerful 

Tena ra kokoe how do you do ? 
good morning, good day 

Tenei this 

Tengi the odd one of the three 

Tenihanga ^deceitful 

Tera that, at a distance 

Tere swift, quick, moving 
swift 

Terepua name of a star 

Tere tere a trading voyage, or 
a sailing excursion from one 
place to the other 

Tero the straight gut 

Tetahi one ; tetahi tetahi 
one, another or some 

Teteatanga gnashing ; te te- 
teatanga o nga ihu the 
gnashing of the teeth 

Tetere trumpet, shell, a trem- 
bling, tremble, swell 

Tete a carved figure at the 
head of a canoe 

Ti the sweet root of the dra- 
gon-tree 

Tiia, i. g. t tihewa 

Tiaia dip, bend 

Tiahi a lascivious person, las- 
civious 

Tiaho light 

Tiaki rule, govern, keep 

Tiu pierce 

Tiharu a baling vessel for a 
ship, a pump, to bale or 
pump 



Tiho kakoka a shed 

Tihewa sneezing, to sneeze 

Tika to lead 

Tika -just, straight, even 

Tika tika, id. 

Tikanga justness, evenness, 
meaning 

Tikaokao cock, poultry 

Tike tike high, height 

Tiki part of the tattoo of wo- 
men 

Tiki tiki to see (Angl.-Zel.) 

Tikina fetch, bring close 

Titoki a tree, of the seeds of 
which a fine oil is made 
(Aledrynn excel sum) 

Tiko easing nature 

Tikonga the act of 

Timata begin, commence 

Timatanga beginning 

Timo timo bit after bit 

Timoro bare 

Timu ebbing of the tide 

Tinana trunk of the body or 
of a tree 

Tinei quench, bruise to death 

Tini many, indefinite number 

Tini tini, id. 

Tiniha mock, hiss 

Tinihanga mocking,deceiving, 
deceit 

Tino plenty 

Tino diligently, the first, the 
chief 

Tinopairawatanga better in- 
structed 

Tierawaki a bird 

Tira back-fin of a fish ; a 
party falling in with another 
on the road 

Tiratu the halyards 

Tiro tiro look after, guardian 

Tiro, id. 

Titaha an axe 

Titari strew about 

Titi rushes 

Titi the mutton-bird 

Titi waka a plain canoe 
2 c 4 2 



388 



NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [PART III. 



Titiro look 

Titiro ra ! exclamation, lo ! 

Tito invent; he kai tito in- 
ventor 

Tito fast 

Titohi desert, waste; titohia, 
wasted 

Titore a crack, fissure, chasm, 
cracked, or splitting, to split 

Titorenga act, or time of 
splitting 

Tiwakawaka a bird 

Tiwai a canoe without gun- 
wales, bottom of a canoe 

Tiwana the lines of tattooing 
extending from the eyes to 
the temples 

To thy 

To life, motion, give life, move, 
be pregnant 

Toa a hero,Gourageous, valiant 

Toatoa, i. g. Tanekaha 

Toanga the act of pulling, 
forcing 

Toangatanga inheritance 

Toe a remainder, an importu- 
nate unreasonable person, im- 
portunate, importune, remain, 
mistake, tempt 

Toenetanga o te ra setting of 
the sun 

Toenga the rest, importunity, 
fragments 

Toe toe a long rushy grass 
waver 

Toia immerse, dip, baptize 

Toi toi name of a bird 

Toinga immersion, baptism 

Tou tou dip 

Tou thy 

Touarawa the male of animals 

Toupua the dress of a dead 
person 

Tohatoha noa break foith 

Tohe teau strife, tempt 

Tohenga purpose, end 

Tohia dragged or forced along, 
pull, row 



Tohi drag, dip, force along 

Tohinga time or act of bap- 
tizing 

Tohora sperm whale, whales 

Tohu peace 

Tohu tohu merciful, to rub 

Tohu a sign, a mark, an idol, 
signal 

Tohutohungia sign 

Tohunga a wise, skilful man ; 
a priest ; he wahine tohimga 
a priestess 

Tohungia mercy 

Toka a rock 

Tokai coitus, the crossbeams 
of a canoe 

Toke the uvula, name of a 
fish, worms 

Toki an axe 

Tokirau name of a place 

Tokohia how many 

Toko how many 

Tokomaha many 

Tokoruatanga twice, twain 

Tokotahi one 

Tokorima five 

Toko toko stick, stave 

Tokorua two 

Tokotoru three 

Tokowitu seven 

Toku my 

Tokowaru eight 

Tokoonu six 

To ma atu to go out 

Toma mai to enter 

Tomo enter 

Tomokanga entrance 

Ton a a wart 

Tona his 

Tonoa command, order 

Tononga commandment 

Tonga south wind, south 

Tongariro a mountain 

Tonga mimi the bladder 

Tonga nui a game 

Tonu always, exactly, only 

Tonutanga eternal, often 

Tonutia continually 



CHAP. IX.] 



THE DICTIONARY. 



389 



Topa baking 

Topito end 

Tore a passage 

Torea a bird called oyster- 
catcher 

Torengi descend, disappear 

Torenga sunset 

Torengitanga o te ra sunset 

Toro spread 

Toroa an albatross 

Toroai a war instrument 

Toronga spreading of the fire 

Toropeku mai ana to come 
privately 

Torotoro the ant 

Toru te kau thirty 

Toru torn three, few in num- 
ber 

Totara a pine (Podocarpus 
totara) 

Tote salt, to salt 

Totitoki to halt 

Totohu sinking 

Toto blood, menstruation 

Totohe deceit, oppose 

Totoke stick 

Toto ran rau dew 

Totokea a shell-fish 

Towai a timber-tree 

Tu stand, stand up, brought 
into a position, beat, carve ; 
tuhi paint, write 

Tua distributable, transmis- 
sible, a tradition 

Tuangi tradition, distribution 

Tuai distribute 

Tuauriuri multitudes 

Tuakana brother, elder bro- 
ther 

Tuaki cut down; tuakina 
prostrated, hewn down 

Tuakana ke elder brother-in- 
law, or cousin 

Tuanui roof 

Tuara back 
Tuatahi the first 

Tuatara a guana 

Tuatea waves 



Tuatu a shark 

Tuawati a flight 

Tuawairoa steam issuing out 
of the nostrils of a baked 
head 

Tui tui to sew 

Tui a bird 

Tuiau a flea 

Tuohu bow, bend 

Tuhea desert, deserted ; tuhe- 
atia deserted 

Tuhi tuhi write, paint 

Tuhitanga a writing 

Tuhonohonoa tie, frame toge- 
ther 

Tuhonoa -join 

Tuhua Mayor's Island 

Tu kau to be naked, or stand 
alone 

Tuketuke elbow 

Tukemata the eyebrow 

Tuki piece of wood at the 
head of a canoe 

Tuk i n o oppress 

Tukinotia oppressed 

Tukituki beat, slay, destruc- 
tion ; tukitukia stricken 

Tuku the pit of the stomach 

Tuku give way, let go, deliver, 
descend 

Tuku peru black whale 

Tukuwai diving in the water 

Tuma threatening, threaten 

Tumau settled 

Tuma aki the crown of a man's 
head, the upper part of the 
trunk of a tree 

Tumou a slave 

Tumu tumu stump of a tree 

Tuna eel 

Tunumanga burial 

Tunewa noa slumber 

Tunu bury 

Tunumia buried 

Tunga wounds ; niho tunga 
decayed tooth 

Tunga place where a person 
stands 



390 



NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [PART III 



Tungane a brother 

Tunguru a turnip 

Tupakihi a shrub 

Tupapaku a corpse 

Tupato a jealous, prudent, 
suspicious man, suspecting 

Tupe a snare for birds 

Tupopo a porpoise 

Tupu bud 

Tuputupu the mangrove 

Tupuna nui ancestor, patri- 
arch 

Tupuna tane grandfather 

Tupuna wahine grandmother 

Tupunga grow, the ground 
where anything grows, an- 
cestry 

Turaki bring down 

Tura kina brought 

Tura-wera a hard blow 

Turanga a stand, a place, 
spot, where to place some- 
thing on it, a candlestick ; 
turanga waewae a footstool 

Ture law, commandment 

Turi knee 

Turi deaf, confused, to be 
silent 

Turiteri noise 

Turi ngongengonge lame, 
maimed 

Turoro sick, suffering ; te 
mate turoro epidemic 

Turorotangasickness, suffering 

Turutu reed for making bas- 
kets 

Tutahi dung, excrements 

Tutaka moana a place 

Tutaki meet together 

Tutakiana meet, appear 

Tutakinga a meeting 

Tutata stand by, near 

Tutata coast; he kainga tu- 
tata a coast place 

Tu tonu stand still 

Tutei guard, watchman 

Tutu a wine made from the 
berries of the tupakihi 



Tutu perverse ; mahi tutu 

violences, making rioise 
Tutukaka name of a bay 
Tutuki dash, knock, stumble 
Tutukinga stumbling 
Tuturu kneeling 
Tuwahine sister 
Tuwaina spit 
Tuwatia spit 
Tu w e r a o pen 
Tuwiri afraid 

W. 

Wa support, carry, also the 
number four 

Wae wae feet, leg ; nga mea 
waewa wa four-footed ani- 
mals 

Waea mother 

Waenga the middle of any- 
thing, centre of a canoe, mid- 
ships, also a field 

Waenga kurnera a field of 
sweet potatoes 

Waenganui middle 

Waenganui po midnight 

Waeroa long legs, muskito 

Wai water ; wai maori fresh 
water 

Wai tai salt-water ; who ? a 
fish, so called 

Waianuanua waters of the 
rainbow, waterfall 

Waiata song, sing 

Waiatatia to sing 

Waienga a farm, a place clear- 
ed for a farm 

Waiu water of the breast, i. e. 
milk 

Waiho presently 

Waihoa taria wait a little 

Waiheaua a porpoise 

Waiho make, form 

Waihepu a river, so called 

Waihu leave, desert 

Waikauau water in a running 
state, a stream 



CFIAP. IX.] THE DICTIONARY. 



391 



Waikato a river, a name 

Waikura rust 

Waikare clear reflecting water 

Waikeri a rivulet or narrow 
drain, name of a place, a ditch, 
a swamp 

Waimonga monga marrow 

Wainga time or act of dispute 

Waipa a river 

Waipapa a place 

Waipoka a well 

Waiporotaka a circular pool 

Waipu a pond 

Waipuke a flood of water de- 
scending a hill 

Wairenga a place cleared for 
a farm 

Wairete waterfall 

Wairu hair used in a mat as 
ornament 

Wairu a file 

Wairua spirit, the immortal 
part of man 

Waitaongatanga inheritance 

Waitangi noisy water, name of 
a place 

Waitemata a place so called 

Waitohungia remark, note 

Waiwatawata a place so called 

Waiwawariki a place so called 

Wao nail, a hole 

Waha bear, carry 

Waha mouth 

Wahanga burden 

Wahangu dumb 

Wahi kai pasture 

Wahi firewood, place, part of 
the body, a spot 

Wahi iti a moment 

Wahi tapu burying-place, sa- 
cred ground 

Wahina a virgin 

Wahinatanga maidenhood,vir- 
ginity 

Wahine wife, woman, female 

Wahine moepuke concubine 

Waho out, outside 

Waka a canoe 



Waka used to form the cau- 
sative verbs 

Wakaako teach 

Wakaahua form, mould, feign 

Wakaatu canoe for carrying 
the dead 

Wakaara rise, bring forth 

Wak aaran gi awake 

Wakaae consent 

Wakaaenga knowledge, as- 
surance 

Wakaaro think, thinking, 
thoughtful, esteem 

Wakaaroaroa consider 

Wakaati clean, prepare 

Wakaangahia lift up 

Wakaeke rope 

Wakaereere very great 

Wakaikeike exalt 

Wakaiwa garment for women, 
a name 

Wakairo carve 

Wakaitia diminish, debase, 
abuse 

Wakaititanga humility 

Wakaahuru cherish 

Wakaoioi shake 

Wakaorangia deliverance ; to 
heal 

Wakaora heal, save 

Wakaokioki give, make, rest 

Wakaoranga health, deliver- 
ance 

Wakau grounded 

Wakau serve, love 

Wakaua cause to rain 

Wakau nga bars 

Wakauaua making pain 

Wakautu pay 

Wakautunga taxing 

Wakahauhautanga exhorta- 
tion 

Wakahangarerekatia to make 
light of anything 

Wakahereheretia in bondage 

Wakahere offerin g 

Wakahau command ; kai wa- 
kahau commander 



392 



NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [PART III. 



Wakaharahara exceedingly 
great, deep 

Wakahaurangi to enivrate 

Wakahawa a decoy or strata- 
gem 

Wakahawea despise, blas- 
pheme ; pass, wakahaweatia 

Wakahemokanga fainting 

Wakahe deceive, offend, of- 
fending 

Wakahemo devour 

Wakahengia offended, des- 
pised 

Wakahoki buy, redeem 

Wakahoki mai redeem, bring 
back, buy 

Wakahoro throw down, over- 
throw 

Wakahohoro hurry 

Wakahoatia partake, to be- 
friend 

Wakahua mention, name 

Wakahuihui gather 

Wakaka burn, lighten, a fire 

Wakakai an ear-drop 

Wakakake make high, ele- 
vate ; he hunga wakakake 
a proud man 

Wakakahehaere lift up 

Wakakakahu clothe, dress 

Wakakakahuria clothed 

Wakakakahuranga clothin g 

Wakakapi fill ; wakakapinga 
fulness 

Wakakahore annihilate, de- 
stroy; pass, wakakahoretia 

Wakakino corrupt, despise 

Wakakororia speak high, glo- 
rify ; pass, wakakororiatia 

Wakakinongia corrupted 

Wakakahangia be strong, 
strengthened 

Wakakite show 

Wakakitenga foresight, pro- 
phesy 

Wakakiia fill 

Wakakorea loose 

Wakakoingo to be sorry 



Wakakorikori move 

Wakakuware become vain, 
foolish ; pass, wakakuwaretia 

Wakama to be ashamed, bash- 
ful 

Wakamaharatanga remem- 
brance 

Wakamahara warn, cause to 
recollect 

Wakamahana to warm 

Wakamahanga offend 

Wakamahu the porch 

Wakamaki cleanse 

Wakamamae cause sorrow, 
grieve 

Wakamakutu bewitch; kai 
wakamakutu sorcerer 

Wakamarama enlighten, light 

Wakamaramatanga lighten, 
light 

Wakamakuku water, irrigate 

Wakamarakerake desolation 

Wakamaru bruise 

Wakamarie comfort 

Wakamarietia comforted 

Wakamaroke dry 

Wakamaiengi bear, hold up 

Wakamaiengitia born 

Wakamaori translate, inter- 
pret 

Wakamaoritia translated 

Wakamaoritanga interpreta- 
tion 

Wakamatau teach 

Wakamate kill, destroy 

Wakamaro stretch forth 

Wakamatautau taste 

Wakamatara remove far off 

Wakamea cause 

Wakamine assemble, demand 

Wakamoe <;ause to sleep, lull 
into sleep 

Wakamoemititanga pleasure 

Wakamomona sweeten 

Wakamuri turn back 

Wakamutunga the last, the 
uttermost, the end 

Wakananu mix 



CHAP. 



.X.] 



THE DICTIONARY. 



393 



Wakanuia enlarge, magnify 
Wakanoa cause to be free 
Wakanoho cause to sit down, 

place, build, inhabit, fix 
Wakanehu grind to powder 
Wakanohoi a fixed 
Wakapaea teka to accuse 

falsely 

Wakapaea accuse 
Wakapai trim, make beautiful 
Wakapaipai well made, fine, 

beautiful ; he mea wakapai- 

pai an ornament 
Wakapaua cause to be con- 
sumed, spend 

Wakapaparanga generation 
Wakapakaru cause to break 
Wakapakarukaru break into 

pieces 

Wakapakeke harden 
Wakapaki lay upon 
Wakapehapeha boast ; he 

hunga wakapehapeha a 

boaster 

Wakapeke cause to remove 
Wakapenatia to become like 
Wakapakipaki to quiet 
Wakapapa causing to explode 
Wakapati pi ease 
Wakapirau put out, destroy; 

for instance, fire 
Wakapiri put close together 
Wakapipi cause to tremble 
Wakapouri causing sorrow 
Wakapa touch 
Wakapakari harden 
Wakapono causing to be true, 

believe 
Wakapakoko image, a canoe 

so called 

Wakapononga serve 
Wakaponongatanga service 
Wakapoi name of a place 
Wakapoto shorten ; pass, wa- 

kapotoa 

Wakapoti persuade 
Wakapokokoko walk in twice 
Wakapoko go in 



Wakapohehe confuse 

Wakapuaki show, let out, ut- 
ter, spread abroad, cry 

Wakapuakanga statute, law 

Wakapuaretia open 

Wakapukupuku inside, or the 
bottom of a canoe 

Wakapuranga gathering 

Wakaputa send, boast 

Wakara satisfaction 

Wakaraka step forward 

Wakara cause to rise, to be 
erected 

Wakaranu make gravy 

Wakarangimarie soften 

Wakarau making a hundred, 
collecting a number of slaves 
together 

W akararata tame 

Wakararurarua care, be care- 
fill 

Wakarawa fasten 

Wakarawa tatau a lock, fast- 
ening for a door 

Wakarere divorce, forsake, 
desert, cause to fly 

Wakarerenga divorce 

Wakariharihangia contempt 

Wakarihariha despise, abhor ; 
pass, wakariharihangia 

Wakarite perform, fulfil, 
liken, fix 

Wakariki making a priest 

Wakarikarika horror 

Wakariterite reckon 

Wakariro ke change; waka- 
riroia ketia changed 

Wakaro think, thoughtful, 
thought, purpose, end 

Wakaroa delay 

Waka roa north-east wind, 
south island 

Wakatakataka cause to fall 

Wakaruru to entangle 

Wakatatutu to sound 

Wakarongo listen 

Wakarongona cause to be 
heard 



394 



NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. [PART III. 



Wakata spying or looking at, 

a spy-glass 

Wakatakariri disperse, pro- 
voke 

Wakataka cast, throw, roll 
Wukatapu make sacred 
Wakatapunga sanctification 
Wakatakoto to lay down 
Wakatau cause to meet 
Wakatangi sound 
Wakataurekarekatanga slave- 
ry ; wakataurekareka make 
slaves 

Wakatahuritia turn 
Wakate disperse quickly 
Wakateka lying 
Wakaruaki vom it 
Wakatakariri displease 
Wakatapoko en ter 
Wakateitei exalt ; wakateitei- 

tia exalted 

Wakato sow; kai wakato 
sower, give life, cause to be 
pregnant 

Wakatokia pi anted 
Wakatorona lift up, put forth, 

spread 

Wakatu lay the foundation 
Wakaturi to put, place 
Wakatupehupehu rebuke 
Wakatika stand up, arise, re- 
sist 
Wakatiketike exalt, to stretch 

himself 

Wakatitari scatter, strew 
Wakatitore to cause a fissure, 

to crack 

Wakatuka spread 
Wakatuma threaten 
Wakatuwera open 
Wakatupato cause suspicion 
Wakatupu bring forth, be- 
come, cause vegetation, bring 
up 

Wakatupuranga birth, gene- 
ration 

Wakatorona to put forth 
Wakatorotoro imitate, mimic 



Wakatore torenga ki te rau 

the flowers of a tree, bud 
Wakatere a swift canoe, a 

place so called, move, push 
Wakatohi, cause to be immersed 
Wakatoi to be saucy, perse- 
cution 

Wakatete cause a quarrel ; he 
tangata wakatete a quarrel- 
some fellow 

Wakawite cross (a river) 
Wakawitinga crossing 
Wakawakanga judgment 
Wakawa -judgment, council, 

to judge 

Wakawaki judge, account for 
Wakawainga temptation 
Waka wair uatia s pir i tu al 
Wakawai enticing, beguiling 
Waka ware ware making a pre- 
tence, simulate, cause to for- 
get 
Wakawateatia give way, make 

place 

Wakawerewere to hang 
Wakawetai thank 
Wakawa wai to make war 
Wakawiu afflict; wakawiua 

afflicted 

Wakawirinaki rest, repose 
Wakawiti cause to shine, 

rise, to brighten 
Wakawitinga o te awa cross- 
ing of the river 
Wakawiri to roll, cylindrical 
Wakangiha kindle ; pass, wa- 

kangihaia 
Wakangoromia choke, kill, 

destroy 

Wakangaue shake 
Wakauaugetia shaken 
Wakangungupa fight in the 

pa 
Wakangote nurse, foster; kai 

wakangote a nurse 
Waki confess 
Wana tender 
Wana a kick with the foot 



CHAP. IX.] THE DICTIONARY. 



395 



Wanariki brimstone 
Wanau bring forth, bear 
(children) 

Wanautanga birth, labour ; 
ra wanautanga birth -day 

Wanaunga family, relation- 
ship, as a cousin 

Wanai breadth 

Wanake yielding 

Wapuku the codfish 

Wara a blow, a garment so 
called 

Warau a sepulchre, a stone 

Waraupo a raupo swamp 

Warahi wide, broad 

Waraki heal 

Ware na haere a house in the 
wood 

Ware ware forgetful 

Warewarenga forgetfulness 

Ware house; ware here here 
prison 

Ware pune close house or bed- 
room 

Ware papa a house made of 
boards 

Wari a servant, poor man, a 
free man 

Wariki a covering, as a blan- 
ket 

Warikiriki put on 

Waro coal 

Warn eight, scrape, shave 

Warua a fertile plain 

Warunga the hairs of the 
beard when shaved, shavings 
of wood 

Wanihia shorn or shaven 

Wata a platform, or scaffold 
for stoics, wickerwork seat 
in a canoe 

Wata parete scaffold for po- 
tatoes 

Wata tao name of a place 

Ware kupenga fishing-net 
house 

Ware poaka pig- sty 



Wati hu a wind so called 
Wati manana the heart, seat 

of life 

Watitiri thunder 
Wati broken, erring about 
Watiia bend 
Wati toka a door 
Watinga a broken piece 
Watu weave; for instance, a 

mat 

Watu hail, hailing 
Watua name of a place 
Watunga a garment in the 

state of weaving 
Wawaitanga quarrel, wrestling 
Wawai adversary, a quarrel- 
ling, quarrel ; he hoa wawai 

an adversary 
Wawahi destroy ; kai wawahi 

destroyer 
Wawaki ear of corn 
Wawao intercede, interfere 
Wawana to feel 
Wawara scatter 
Wawatia turn, break 
Wawe shortly, short, near 
Wanga a chair 
Wangaia feed 
Wangainga the act of feeding 

another, nursing 
Wangaingatahi one feeding ; 

the mutton bird, Titi, is thus 

called 

Wanganui name of a place 
Wanganui po middle of the 

night 

Wangapatiki name of a place 
Wangape name of a place 
Wangare name of a place 
Wangaroa name of a place 
Wangarura name of a place 
Wan go a groan 
We a caterpillar, proper name 

of a person 

Weoke name of a place 
Weua bone 
Wehea divide 



396 



NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE. ^ [PART III. 



Wehe wehe divide 

Wehi fear, to be afraid, dan- 



ger. 



afraid 



Weka a large bird (Rallus 

Australis) 
Wekau bowels 
Weminga sneezing 
Wenua land, the placenta 
Wenu the warp of a web cloth 
Werahia to pierce, spear 
Wera scalded, burnt, warm 
Wera wera warm, heat 
Were were hang up anything 
Wero red 
Werohi wound 
Werohia wounded 
Weru a garment 
Weta punga a spider 
Weta an insect so called 
Wetekina loosen, free, untie 
Wetengi worn out, exhausted, 
as ground tilled several times 
Weto extinguish 
Wetoi a person neglected or 

unasked 
Wetu a star 

Weturaka the starry firma- 
ment 

Wewe a boil 
Weweti loosen 
Wi a rush 



Wio whistle 

Wiunga the act of driving in, 
chastisement, flogging 

Wiu to drive in, scourge, 
strike, a rod, a switch, the 
finishing border of a garment 

Wiura lightning, lighten 

Wiua to chase, to beat 

Wiri gimlet, bore, shake 

Wiri wiri choose 

Wiria name of a place 

Wirikirikitia to clothe, to 
dress 

Wirinake name of a place 

Wiringa trembling 

Wiringa o te wenua earth- 
quake 

Wita light 

Witi rise ; e witi ana te ra 
the sun is rising, appear 

Witinga mai o te ra sunrise 

Witinga rise, appearance 

Witiki girdle, bag, purse 

Wito a dwarf 

Witu eight 

Wiwi receive 

Wiwi rushes 

Wiwia a mixture 

Wiwia a snare made of rushes, 
long grass 



THE END. 



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