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Full text of "Travels in South Africa, undertaken at the request of the Missionary Society"

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TKAVELS 



IV 



SOUTH AFRICA, 



UNDERTAKEN AT THE REQUEST 



OF THB 



MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 



SbumH VHMm, CottetttH. 



BY JOHN CAMPBELL, 

. M'miittr qfKingiUtttd Cluxpel. 



ILonUon X 

PRINTED FOR BLACK, PAIUHT, & CO. LEADENHAIiL-STRKET, 
AHDUHA3ni)TOir,:33, PATERNOST,ER-SOW. 



1815. 



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r::"'^ • 




W. Flint, Frinter, Old Bailey, London. 



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TO 

GENERAL 
SIR JOHNFRANCIS CRADOCK, K.B. 

LATE GOVERNOR OF THE 
COLONY OF THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE; 

Sj^f {oUotoing ysgctf, 
contauhng a plain narration of the visit of the 

REV. JOHN CAMPBELL, 

AT THE REQUEftT OF THE MISSIONARY SOCIEIT, 
TO THEIR SEVERAL STATIONS IN AND NEAR THE COLONY, 

LATE UNDER HIS AUSPICIOUS GOVERNMENT, 
WITH THE MOST GRATEFUL RECOLLECTION OF HIS 

CONDESCENDING KINDNESS TO THE AUTHOR, AND OF THE FACILITIES 

SO GRACIOUSLY AFFORDED IN THE PROPAGATION OF 
' CHRISTIANITY AMONG THE NATIVES, 

Are most respectfully inscribed by 
THE DmECTOUS OF THE MISSIONARY SQClSTYs 



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ADVERTISEMENT. 



THE Missionary Society, instituted in London, ii^ 
the year 1795, for the sole purpose of diffusing tho 
Gospel in Heathen and other unenlightened countries^ 
first directed their views to the islands of the Pacific 
Ocean ; after which their attention was turned to the 
yast continent of Africa. That long neglected and 
much injured country appeared to the Directors to 
have powerful claims on their regard. Accordinglyi 
in the year 1798, Doctor Van der Kemp, a respectable 
physician of Holland, who had devoted himself to the 
arduous and honourable office of a Christian Missionary 
to the Heathen, went forth from England under the 
aui^pices of the Society, accompanied by Mr. Kicherer 
and other pious men. Not succeeding in the establish- 
ment of a. mission among the CafiFres whom he first 
visited, he removed to Bethelsdorp near Algoa Bay, 
where, with the assistance of Mr. Read and others, he 
formed a settlement. To this spot he was directed by 
the Governor of the Colony, (General Jansensj) who 
granted a portion of land, with cattle, and other requi- 
sites for the accomplishment of the object. Here a 
considerable village was formed, the knowledge of use-* 
ful arts was introduced, and, as the primary object, the 
Gospel of Jesus Christ was preached, and religious in* 
struction afforded ; so that, by the Divine blessing, a 



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vi ADVERTISEMENT. 

great number of the degraded Hottentots became sincere 
Christians and useful members of society. The pro- 
gress and present state of this settlement will appear in 
the following pages. 

By the diligent and zealous efforts of Dr. Van der 
Kemp, Messrs. Kicherer, Anderson, Read, Ulbricht, 
Albrecht, and other missionaries, the same plan was 
adopted in several other parts of South Africa, particu- 
larly at Zaak River, Klaar Water, near the Great or 
Orange River, and in the Great and Lesser Namacqua 
countries. Considerable success, though in various 
degrees, crowned their labours. 

At length it pleased *God to remove by death that 
valuable man who superintended the African missions ; 
when the Directors thought it expedient to request one 
of their own body, the Rev. John Campbell, to visit the 
country, personally to inspect the different settlemients, 
and to establish such regulations, in concurrence with 
Mr. Read and the other missionaries, as might be most 
conducive to the attainment of the great end proposed — 
the conversion of the heathen, keeping in view at the 
same time the promotion of their civilization. 

Mr. Campbell readily undertook the arduous task. 
He sailed from England, June 24, 1^12, and arrived at 
the Cape on the 24th of October. 

After obtaining from his Excellency Sir John Cradock, 
letters of introduction to the several Landdrosts through 
whose districts he had occasion to pass, as well as all 
needful information from the Colonial Secretary, Henry 



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ADVERTISEMENT^ vii 

Alexander, Esq. respecting the former comnnimcatioBS 
of the missionaries with the government of the Cape, 
Mr. Camphell proceeded first to Bethelsdorp, ttbout five 
hundred miles ^eist of the Cape ; from thence northward 
to Graaf Reynet, then to Griqua town, and from thenoe 
to Lattakoo, a popnlons city scarcely known, to Euro- 
peans: he afterwards visited several tribes of people, 
some* of whom had never before seen a white man; 
several of their chiefs expressed their readiness to receive 
christian instructors. Mr. Campbell then returned to 
Griqua town, from which place he travelled westward 
as far as Pella on the other side of Africa, near the 
mouth of the Great Orange River, and from thence 
travelled southward, parallel with the west coast of 
Africa, till, after a laborious and perilous journey of 
nine months, he reached Cape-town in health and 
safety. 

Having obtained the great objects of his journey, nnd 
settled the affairs of the Society in a satisfactory man- 
ner, Mr. Campbell sailed for England in the Brig 
Venus, Captain Kilgour, on the 13th of February, and 
arrived at Plymouth on the 4th of May, 1814. He im- 
mediately-pressed forward to London, and arrived just 
in time to be present at the Anniversary Meeting of the 
Society, when he had an opportunity of gratifying 
numerous assemblies with a general account of his pro« 
ceedings. He was received by the Society with grate- 
ful pleasure, and the warmest thanks of the body were 
voted to him with perfect unanimity. 

By the earnest request of the Society, Mr. Campbell 
was prevailed upon to transcribe for the press the ^b- 



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vlM ADVERTISEMENT; 

tftanceof his journal; ati,d the volume is now presented 
to the public as a memorial of his diligence, fortitude, 
and prudence. It is hoped that the work will be 
perused, not only by the Members of the Society, but 
by every Chri^stian Philanthropist, with pleasure and 
advantage. 

By ORDER OF THE DIRECTORS. 

London, Dec. 23, 1814. 



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CONTENTS. 



BBSB 



chap; I. 

Page 
Voyage to the Cape of Good Hope • • 1 

CHAP.ni 
Cape-town — Groene Kloof. ••• • ^ 3 

CHAP. in. 
Stellehbo8ch « 9 

CHAP. IV. 
Journey to the Moravian Settlement, at Genadendal, or 

Bavian's Kloof— Caledoo, formerly Zwarteburg 10 

CHAP. V. 
Journey to Bethelsdorp— Occurrences in trarelling ta 
George, with visits to Zurebrak and Hoghe, Hot- 
tentot Kraals • • • 24 

CHAP. VI. 

Occurrences in travelling from George to Bethelsdorp . . 46 

cgAP. vn. 

Occurrences and Investigations at Bethelsdorp « • • • 70 

CHAP. VIII. 
Departure from Bethelsdorp— Travels in Albany — Arrival 

at Graham'sTown • • • 05 

CHAP. IX. 
Departure from Graham's Town-^Visit to various military 
posts — Interview with a Caffre Family — Arrival at 
GraafReynet... • 116 



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X CONTENTS, 

CHAP. X. 

Page 
Occurrences at Graaf Reynet, aad during a Journey in 

Sneuberg — Arrival at the Boundary of the Colony.. • 125 

CHAP. XL 
Journey across the Bushmen's Country • • • • • 137 

ciiAP. xn. 

Amvtkl at the Great River-^Bern's Kraal — ^Travelling on 
the banks of the Great River — Bushman ' baptized — 
Crossing River 152 

CHAP. xni. 

Journey beyond the Great River — Arrival at Klaar Water, 

or Griqua Town — ^Journey to Lattakoo • • . . . 161 

CHAP. XIV. 

Arrival at the city of Lattakoo— Our reception — Murder of 
Dr. Cowan and party— -Meeting with-the chief men- 
Visit to different parts of the city • 179 

CHAP. XV. 

Strange method of softening skins — Festival — ^Articles ma- 
nufactured — City districts— ^Female • painting — Con- 
versation with the king's uncle — Makrakka, a neigh- 
bouring Chief 185 

CHAP. XVL 

Public shews — Messengers return without the king — 
Further accounts of Dr. Cowan's murder • 191 

CHAP. XVH. 

Looking-glass excites wonder — Qiieen objects to our 
leaving the town — Endeavour to make the queen 
understand the use of writing and printing — ^Her 
inquiries — Afraid of a watch — Population of the city 
— Sehoiya^Lattakoo wells. • • 198 



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CONTENTS. xi 

CHAP. XVIIL 

Page 
Mateere*s expedition— News of the king's approach^-Ris 

arrival — list of Matchappee kings, &c« — First inter« 

▼iew with the king — He asks for a gun — Dining of the 

royal family—Public meeting with the king and his 

people — A frolic — King^s account of Cowan's murder 204 

CHAP. XIX. 

An Account of countries beyond Lattakoo, received from 

Mateebe and Mhers ••••• • 21G 

; ,: . ^ ;. CHAP. XX. 

D^]^artareirom Lattakoo. ••«••. • « • • • QS(t 

CHAP. XXL 

Journey beyond the Great River*-From Lattakoo to Mala- 

peetze ••• •••••....• 225 

CHAP. XXIL 

Malapeetze— Interview with the natives — Their account 

of Dr. Cowan's murder 290 

CHAP. XXIII. 

Departure from Malapeetze-— Come in tight of the River 
Malalareen-^Makoon's Kraal — ^Travel aloi^ the Mala- 
lareen — Arrive at a Griqua village. ••••••• 234 

CHAP. XXIV. 

Arrival at the Great River— Deliverance from lions 240 

CHAP. XXV. 

Visit to the Great Fountain— Account of Bailey — ^Boot- 
chuana dance— Coranna kraal-^Junctioo of the Alex- 
ander and Cradock Rivers with the Yellow or Great 
River — Arrival at Griqua Town 244 

CHAP. XXVI. 

A murder — Insanity * — Camel*leopard killed — Caffre 
method of attack— Bushmen oti Yellow River — Gri- 
quas resolve to adopt laws— Laws approved — Resolve 
to contribute to Society's funds— To have money 
coined • • 249 



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in CONTENTS. 

CHAP. XXVIL 

Number of people in Griqu^land — Church tchoolp-Wag^ 

goBs— Trades •••• 256 

CHAP. xxvm. 

Visit Hardcastle-w Asbestos MountaiDs—Rowland^H ill-dorp 

— Crossing the Great River 258 

CHAP. XXIX. 

Impeditftents— Our motley company — Pass a Coranna 
kraal — Escape from a lion — Filps Kraal — Whirlwind 
-— Huiman's Kraal ...•••..•« • 271 

CHAP. XXX. 

Departure from Huiman's Kraal — Obstructions — Ox 
^ . • . .... • ,• • 

Riding — Kok*s Kraal of Orlams, &c. — List of differ- 
ent Coranna tribes — Koker tree * • • . • • • 280 

CHAP. XXXl. 

Departure from Kok's Krliil— -Assemblage of rocks— In 
difficulty — Hottentots drink poison of snakes — ^Escape 
from lions — Singular nests— Wild Bushmen shoot a 
Hottentot and capture our cattle — Steps taken — Re- 
gain our cattle— Hottentot dies— ^Joined by Namacqua 
missionary—Arrival at Pella 285 

CHAP. XXXII. 

Occurrences at Pella—- Excursion — Singular disease among 
sheep 300 

CHAP. XXXIH. 

Account of Great Namacqua country 307 

CHAP. XXXIV. 
Account of Damara country • • 311 

CHAP. XXXV. 
Nations beyond Damara •••••<.•••••••«••« •••>.•• 313 



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CONTTINTS. xiii 

CHAP.XXXVL 

. - Page, 

Departure from Pella — Crossing a desert — Arrival at 

water— Reach Silver Fountain— Conduct of scorpions 

—Cure of sting— Death of Mrs. Sass •••••• 318 

CHAP, xxxvii. 

Leave Silver Fountain— Meet a boor — Knew nothing of 
the state of £urope~Reach first house in the Colony 
— tJome in 'sight of Ethiopic Ocean— Mosambique 
slave—- Great heat— Bad water • • • • • 327 

CHAP.XXXVIIL 

Arrival at Elephant's River— At VanzaiPs Place—* Deep 
sand— Cedar mountain-*- Anecdote of bees— Deep 
sand-^Female sjave . • • •« • • 334 

CHAP. XXXIX. 

Arrival at Tulbach — Rodezand—Zwartland— Animals 

Icilled on the journey— ^Return to Cape-town 339 

CHAP.XL. 
Occurrences after return to Cape-town •••••••'• /• 349 

CHAP. XLL 
Vt>y«ge to £ngkad • .««••,«•«.•«•,...«•«« 3S$ 



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»v CONTENTS. • 

APPENDIX. ^''" 

No. I. 

CHAP. I. 

Miscellaiiedus Account of Caffraria— Religion— Manners 

—Sickness—Hunting 365 

. . CHAP. II. 

Traditions— Amu8ements-—Punishments, &c. •••••••••• 368 

CHAP. III. 

Dress—- Subsistence— Property-"-House8— Ammals S69 ' 

CHAP. ir» 
Caffire king — Grosvenor Indiaman— Gika asks rain—- 
Caffre chiefs 371 

CHAP. V. 

Origin of the Caffre war with the English 374 

No. II. 

History of Africaner, a plundering Chief on the Great 
River 376 

No. III. 
Account of Stephanusy an impostor •..•». .^.••. 377 

No. IV. 
Account of John Bloom, an African robber ..••••.••••• 378 

No.V. 
ISLAND OF MADAGASCAR. 

CHAP. I. 

Stuation— Extent— Productions— Character of the natives 379 

CHAP. .II. 

Religion— Treatment of the aged— Matrimony — Ceremo- 
nies relating to children— -War— Commerce— Slaves, 
kc tt .•/•••••••••«• 38S 



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CONTENTS. XT 

% 

No. VI. ^ 

Account of the Isle of France 986 



No. VII. 

The Lord's Prayer in the Hottentot and the Coranna lan- 
guages— Namacqua words and phrases. • • • , 3SS 

No. yjii. 

Provisional Church Regulations for the Batavian Colony at 

the Cape of Good Hope , 3go 

• No. IX. • 
Inq^uiries •••••.••• 390 



No.X. 

Missionaries in.South Africa •.••••• 303 

No. XL ' 
Statement of the Population, &c. of the Cape of Good 

Hope in 1810 394 



No. XII. 
Unsolicit^ contributions received during the journey in 

aid of it 395 



No. xin. 

Remarks on Hr. Lichtenstein*s Observations respecting 

the Missionaries in Africa •••••• 396 

No. XIV. 
Re«narks on *^ Journal of a Residence in India" 398 

No. XV. 

Letter from Mr. Schmelen, Namacqualand t 399 



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INDEX TO PLATES. 



F«oMtxiiMt!e«« 

Map of South Africa. Sig. B..... ...••- 

Bethelsdorp.... • - • • •- 

Palace of Mateebe at Lattakoo #..... * • . 1* 

Negotiating with the king, &c. at Lattakoo .- •• i 

View to westward of Lattakoo r-. • • . .il 

Bootchaana ornaments and utensils ,..•.•••.••••••••• • • 23" 

Bootchuana weapons «•••..*••• • • • - ij 

Junction of the Yellow and Cradock River ••.••••••• •241 

Janction of the Yellow and Alexander Rivers • ••••••• ib 

View of Griqua town , o ..••••.. I^"! 

Two nests built and inhabited by many birds .-. • • S6d 

Hardc'astle in Griqua Country 1.' • 'A- 

South entrance to Silver Fountain Valley •• >*>• 

Flip's Coranna Kraal on the Great River. • • • 37^ 

Building a Coranna Kraal - • • • — • • »^* 

Hans •Htiimans'-Coramia Kraal.... i.i • ♦ •• ^^' 

Meeting-house, and Mr. Albricht's house, Pella 300 

The house of Messrs./Ebner and Helm, Pdla ; • • • ib. 

Mountains in Namacqua Country ib« 



Plate IV. 

Boot,ctmana Ornaments and Uttnsils. 
1 and^. Arm ribgs made from ElepbaDts' 

Teeth. 
3. Coppef fiflgs for" arms and above the 

knee. 
4 and 5. Copper rings. 
6. Many ringa uiiited. 
7 and 8. Breastplates. 
9. Necklace. 
. lo! Mid4l« Uc? composed of slices of small 

bones. 

11. Ear plates. 

12. Ear rings. 

13. Elcphant'a tooth, part cut iqto rings. . 
14, 15, i€. Wooden vessels for holding water. 
17 and 18. Ditto ditto for eating meat from. 
19 Milk pot. 

SO. Leather milk holder. 
.21. Ditto before being sewed* 
22. Cora holder made of clay six or seven 
feet high. 



23. Lid or cover to ditto. 

24. Clay pot. 

Plate V. 
. , . BvtflmawiK Wtat^nh . 
|. Bushman's bow. 
'2,3,4. Ditto arrows. 

5. Ditto quiveis. 

6. Bootchuana knif^. 

7. Case of ditto. 
8.Whrstie. ' 

9. Dice. 

10. Horn for holding grease for rubbiogover 

the body. 
11 and 12. Needle and case. 

13. Club for defence made of a rbiabfeioai 

horn. 

14. Pick axe for digging. 

15. Axe. 

Itf, 17. 18, 19, 20, 21. Different kinds of 
assagays or spears about six feet long. 



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TRAVELS, 



CHAP- I. 
VOYAGE TO THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE* 

C^N the twenty^-fQurth of June, }8i2« ^cofii^aiiied bjr 
my friisod Mr. G^OiTge Thomp ^ Missipwry, then tatended 
Ipf CalciiU^, I wejQt Qh board the Isal^ell^ nt GraTeaead, 
^Qffiinaoded by Captaia Pea^be. Iq cpn^eqiience of a 
gale of windy we were uuder the necessity of goiog into 
FpjrteQiouth to repair the Tei^el, wbera yre nefnained 
imtilibe 8th of July, wb^n we set m\ with a fair wind. 
On the ^th we passed the Canary isl^nd^, where the 
pUgi^e at that time was carrying offoiaay ofthemba<i* 
bitaptfl. We bad a view of the faopiOMs Peak of Teneriff^ 
whose b(ead rose majestically above the clouds. On the 
dd of August W/e cam^ in sight of Bonavista, one of the 
.C?pe d^ Verd islands; and on the ev!eain|p of the 5ih we 
ca^t anchor off Port Praya, in the island of St Jago. Next 
jsiorning we iiircpt Oin i^hore* White there we visited the 
Roman Catholiic priest^ who treated us with much 
pivJAity. He shewed us his library, which hrkept in a 
chest, but in which the volume of inspiration was not to 
be found: pa perceiving thi3» Mn Thorn promised him a 
N^w Teatament in the Portuguese language when we 
came next on shore, which he expressed a wiUingnen 
to receive. 

B 

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2 VOYAGE TO THE CAPE. [1812. 

We left Port Praya on the 10th of August, and crossed 
the Line on the 21st, when the usual formalities were 
minutely observed by the seamen. On the 11th of Octo- 
ber, when in full expectation of reaching Cape-town on 
the succeeding day, the wind changed to ,the S. E. and 
blew directly against us with so much violence as to raise 
the sea mountain-high. The day following it blew with 
redoubled fury, which obliged us to lay to unde^ a reefed 
topsail and driving away from our port. On the 14tb the 
sea continued tremendously awful ; about three o'clock 
in the morning we were almost overset by a dreadful sea 
breaking over us : the falling of chairs, and the rattling of 
plates and glasses, prevented all sleep. When preparing 
for breakfast, a sea, with a sound like thunder, broke upoa 
the vessel, aiid strewed the floor with our shattered tea 
things. Perhaps of all scenes which the human eye caa 
possibly behold, soch a storm, in such a latitude, is the 
most grand, majestic, and awful. In the evening the 
,wind began to abate. On the following day, at noon, we 
found the storm had driven iis more than a hundred miles 
beyond the latitude of the Cape, and two hundred miles 
further to the westward in longitude. At noon we were 
able to direct our course once more towards the Cape; 
but on the 17th, when within about a hundred miles of 
it, violent squalls from the S. E. drove us out to sea again: 
that evening the sea rose and raged as high and furious 
W ever. About nine o*clock the elements seemed con- 
spiring to effect our destruction, which produced a very 
serious meeting for prayer in the cabin, for our preserva- 
tion from the fury of the raging storm. During prayer, 
the violent heaving of the ship rendered it almost impos- 
sible to remain in one posture. Every cup and saucer 
we had in use was broken to pieces. At one, next morn- 
ing, a powerful sea broke over the stern, and came rushing 
down into our cabin : when at breakfast the same thing 
:was repeated. On the 20th, our allowance of water was 
a second time reduced. On the 21st, at five, P. M. a 



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aH^ndan from' the ii)iiiit»head descried land^ which' on the . 
following day ^^e fbund to be the south side of the en- 
trance to Saldauba bay, Having' seen no land for ten 
weeks, the sight was peculiarly gratifying. At eleven^ 
A. M. Table Mountain^ which stands immediately behind' 
Cape-tbwn, was^ seen- from the deck. On the 2dd,iit two* 
o*clockin the morning, a squall, which lasted three hours^ 
drove us again out to sea; but at noon the wind becoming 
favourable, we wer^ brought by the evening within 
eighteen miles of our port, and next morning at ten A. M. 
by the good providence of God, we cast anchor in Table: 
Bay, opposite to Cape-town ; exactly four months after 
aailing from Gravesend. I went ashore with* my good 
&iend Mr. Kenneth Duncan, merchant in Cape^town; 
who bad come to the vessel in a boat, and was kindly 
received as an inmate under the hospitable roof of liis 
filther-in-law Mr. Oncruydt, President of the Burgher^ 
Senate. Various occurrences took place during the first 
eight or ten days after my arrival, with a recital of which* 
it is unnecessary to trouble tb^ public. 



. CHAP. 11. 



Cape- Town — Groene Kloof-^Stellenbosh — Genadendah^ 
Caledon, formerly Zwarteberg. 

. Mr, Kicherer, minister, from Graaf Reynet,* who had 
not been in Cape-town for two or three years, arrived on 
the fourth of November, and I rejoiced in the opportunity 
of consulting him about my intended journey into the 
interior.^ He. advised me, very seriously, to defer the 

* Formerly a missionary at Zak River. He visited Holland 
and England in the year* 1803, accompanied by three coilverted 
Hottentots. 

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jf^titniff^ tiBtht sUlAi^ ii4itim#r teo&the riiovU lie Mer> H' 
be theughft)my co-tittlitu^JOn^ vrkich tod been weai^eai^ 

f|it%o^ . ilr^fiaktebrri of SMiiMiMwIi, who tod^Uo qHim 
tb:iovti, ifl»Jirflbe:tliiie<^f)im; tod b0l/b^d¥liBe4 iQe 
to ftttfe iik>:SkeUefi%ostH ftboiit < tvevly'^ve «»ile$ 4iBt$iot« 
^fisooiiMiikiy 4>iM(iwBtt.i«iCq»ey^Qwo^b(i>uid be.fiQi6b<^.> 
FtTDin tbeliteii they bbsorve^^ i . iQ^bt tsrice^fltfaort Joumlei^ 
nirhicb wpuld.fM-epare me^ Uiq iMended t^^r. This 
aflvice cofDHiending itself tl^ my jvAgmetd, I t^^^wed ta 

-, Iliad, fjia^uent. opfyirtiin^'lies of ^oOvensk^ iBv^ib ,Mr, 
Kicbei^ oli:¥aricNJ8fK>iiiU wkile. t^ fesiaiDed in tow% 
nrhtch-affotded ore. mnebis^tiaftictiOfl* He lirangil^t witb 
l^iifii Maf&ha,<wfao.f0rdieriy aeeofnpwied hian on hj^ visit 
tOiEogUod^ aiid4)er«#pl^io varioits quostiois I/piro-» 
posied 00 suivefc^s^tf a n^igiptts ntture, pfift^sed «ie iMicb. 
. I received a:parttt&tiiIai'.aK:eooQi<^ two^eartiiqoak^ 
peculiarly terrific olitw?^ rf\H^ik ocwrmd ^sooie tiae be«^ 
lore my arrival. The piace^.oflviMrsUip weie but thinly 
attended before theseeartbquakes happened, but now they 
are crowded. The sauiU^fKKK «oi»ing into the colony 
immediately after* was a remarkable viaitation of God ; 
for like a plague, it &)^ridfd .ladtbter old nor young, but 
awept tbem away as with the besom of deatruction^ so 
that churches, coffee*bouses, the tbeatie^and shops, were 
alj shut up. A white ^^ >was rehired to be suspended 
firom houses iu which the disease prevailed ; and persons 
coming from them were obliged to w^ar a white ribbon 
round their arm. ThdBe siwful evisnts led many to l^beir 
bibles and to their ktiees betore'God, for which they will 
have reason to thank him for ever. 

We received a ticencie from the gdVeiUment to preadh 

while we remained in the icoioliy, and liWing dblaitied 

from the Cape Society the u^e of the Great Meeting?- 

'bouse, we began preaching there, attended chiedy bjr 

scddiers of tlie 53d and 83cl regiments^ with soote iron 



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^ tl8t Hght dragoons, to the mimber of three or ftmt 
liundi^ed. - , r 

M»1io9)et8nitm it greatly on theiiv6?eft8e in Cape-tov^. 
Thei^tMH^e!, I heliere^ fine moe<)tf^, in t^fiieh tbejr eiMfembW 
ibr their woi*9hip. A bout iwmty ft46 Mtbometane cliA 
-together, end mit a large bouse, to \#hich they iirviH 
|»oof ignorent slaves^ to gain tbem over to their parftyi 
By this method, an ^lartnfog etf *>her hate been' per^ued^ 
•to jotti.tbeinv ^nid rendered ten times 'iik)Po prejudiced 
«igaii^t trvthi -mud agamst ail white people, or persooi 
calli^ Christians, tbav they were before. The masfert 
•seytliat such hodsei are d^fns of thieves, andreoeptaetel 
ef goods w^bioh the stetee steal iVotn them. Perhaps thtt 
circumstavlce nay indace masteN to attend bettef Ifo the 
InitrocttoQ of their slai^es; wbioh may ultimatdy-p^ove a 
Messing and a security to ibe colony: Iti generai, the 
el«v«»«pe treated With tenderness inCape^to^n. In tbb 
boose where I lodged they are treated as if they were their 
lowa cbildren, and mosl^^ them would be Very utiwilling 
to le^ve the family. Their ehildi'en are put to sehoot 
waid play about the rooAi, where thelhfnily sit at their 
meals, with tts much'freed(im,SRVd^ecei^ as much atten- 
tion as if they were their own ehlldren— but alasl ttrey 
)BFe slates !->-«i condition whieh shodis human MtureL 
-All the children of a-female slave are the propeHy of her 
imster, whether the father be bond or free; of course it ill 
the interest of Che master to see that even the mn^Aitk 
treats the child wel1« oti th^ same priociplo on wbieh'tbc 
fiirm^r takes care of his young foals, because: by tMk 
death, or their disease, he becomes a loser. Slaves ariB 
fibt permitted to marry; wbiob is Tiotenly "^n act of g«eflt 
injustice towards them- bat a heinous sin aganost God« 
"There are, however, many slaves who oomider them- 
selves, by their o^ mutual consent,'bouBd to eiwh ptbeff^ 
<s hiisbandsand telves. 

•' A slave ship, containittg many slaves from Madagascar 
md Mtoeambiqtte, was .lately captured by one of mil 



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« ICAPE-TOWN. [1812* 

«ruizeirs. The slaves w:<^re landed at Capj^-toWn, and ap- 
prenticed to ma&ters for fourteen years, who are bound 
Iby agreement to treat tbem well, to teach them a trade, and 
to instruct them in reading and in the principles of the 
^Christian religion 5 all which, in some cases, will be pef- 
forin^d. I visited a sqhool of twenty of these strangers, en- 
tirely supportedjby CiwnmissionerShjelds, They allappear- 
ed to be from eighteen to twenty-four years of age* Several 
of them read the New Testament tolerably well, and i©- 
peated qy^stions from Watts's Catechism. On the Lord's 
day tb^yjarp w^sU dressed in a kind of uniform, and alitaad 
jthe church* I have no doubt that: their temporary cap>. 
livity will not only prove a blessing to themselves, but 
also to their own coutitry, should they ever return to it* ^ 
r On the 10th pf Novemberj at four o'clock la : the 
mornii^g, a party of ns set off oo.a visit to the Moravian 
.settleme^it at firoe^e ,Kloof, (or Green, Opening in mouni- 
•Jains,). thirty-ftve miles from Capc'town* The morning 
was cool and pleasant. The sun rose beautifully from 
^hehiiAd Tig^r Mountain, as we were .leaving the town. 
Many people were walking about, the morning being the 
J?est tirn« for taking exercise ; the sucQe^diiig part of thp 
-day, in, summer b^ing too hot for mneb (^xertipn. After 
.travoli^ng. about ten miles we baited to :tak:e bfeak&s/t 
•pmongtbe btishes* The whole country in ey^ry di|"fe^ 
.•tjon .w.aa,co?^?ed with flowering bushes full of ,beauty, 
'Ifhough at a; distance, all.appeared like a beathi. Many 
<of the plants are such a& we are accustojuied in En^- 
iand to see in our green-bouses. , We killed a bls^k 
:§nake, measuring five feet and a half in length, and about 
»ix inches in ciTcumference in the middle. The strokes 
.by jwhich he. was killed, were all aimed at his he^, 
•which ihe. creature seemed to know was his most vqlner- 
,abJe, putt,. for be put it under his breast. At six P. M^ 
we arrived at the settlement, which stands among trees^ 
the first tve b^d seen after leaving Cape-town^ The ' 
;bi:ethrc»i. received .us very kindly- A fter an early su pper 



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tv^ retired to the chapel, where nearly a hundred Hot-^ 
tentots were assembled, sitting in a serious manner,, the 
males at one end, the females at the other. After re- 
maining in silence for a minute or more, Mr. Smit coro-^ 
menced the service by singing a hymn, in which the 
Hottentotsiqstantly joined in a pleasant and apparently 
devout manner. Mr. S, then read a portion of scrip- 
ture, from which he gave an address, and spoke much of 
the Saviour; after singing another hymn, all retired. 

11th. We rose at five o'clock and walked about the 
premises till breakfast, after which we attended a meet^ 
ing with the young people, when the service was con- 
ducted as before. .Mr. Bonatz gave the address. We 
visited every Hottentot family in the settlement, about 
forty in number. Their houses, though mean huts,' 
were^cIean, and their dress, upon the whole was decent, 
though there were some exceptions. Some being askedi 
what they should do if their teachers were to return to 
Europe, said, they would follow them — others, that they 
should not be able to live. We observed one young 
Hottentot weeping-— being asked the reason, she said, she 
could not but weep when she thought of people coming 
from such a distant country to see poor Hottentots. In 
the cool of the evening I visited Mr. Smit's carpenters* 
shop ; when stinding before it, he pointed to a spot on 
a ileighbouring hril, where twelve months ago, about 
forty of them had gone to hunt wolves, which had com- 
mitted various depredations among the sheep. While 
searching for them, a tyger sprang from a bush, and seiz- 
ed one of the Hottentots.by the forehead. ** I could not 
leave the Hottentot to be killed," said he, ** therefore I 
went with my gun to shoot the tyger ; on ob8ei*ving me^ 
he left the Hottentot 'and attacked me; my gun waa 
useless, fdr he caught my arm in his mouth in a moment, 
baving directed my elbow towards him to guard my face. 
i held his throat jdown with my other band, with my 



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k»ee on bis belly, dnd called oMt to tbe HotfeentoCs l» 
Gooie to uiy assistance. When th^y heard I was in dan* 
ger^tb^y ventured tbeir. lives t<> sate rtiiaee they cilme 
lUBoin^, and oile.of tbem shot him deftd; and we brdogbfe 
bom^ bisskin/V His tsetb went todbe wry boae of Mn 
SniiVs arm, iod ifc was a long time before be recovered* 
We saw the Hottentot who was first attaoked^ bie oaT^ 
llies. the mai'k of the, tyger's teeth in bit lidrehead, amd 
will doao all his.day& .WedrankteamatliiclDetoftre^ 
Bear the house^ wbich w.as Fefireshiiigl3roool^ dalritig which 
aboul) a dozen girls read the scriptures and siing a hymn; 
Jn the evoaing we: had a meethig in the t^pel ; the 
service as before. On rettirniUg jbo the misiitoa-Jioase^ 
we United in prayer for thb soecess Of the .m»^n at 
Groene Kloof. 

On the l-2th We all rose at four o^cltek in the morn«> 
ifigj tookc6iiiee withthe brethren and their wiVes, who 
appear 'Midps^mcet;" aftear wbic^hWeitek our seats in 
the wagggn ; when a few Hottentot females sang k 
hymn, which wss a prayer for us ; when we took leave* 
Oti clearing the thicket, and passing the end of the vil*- 
lage, we found about forty Hottentots in a group, who 
sang a fhrewell hymn, which we answered by singing, 
*' Praise God from whom All blessiogs flosr, &c;' The 
whole looked as if we bad returned to the .Paradistao^ 
ege. Dreadful must be the wickedness vi that part of 
the world .where suoh institutions as these can be opi* 
posed. Great good they mayeffi»ct, buibarm they can4» 
not do. The government 4>f the cok)ny, highly to their 
honour^ bals been kind to them. The poor Holtentols^ 
hi their own way, all bid us Farewell, which Iras return*, 
ed, and not by any dne without emotion. Tbey stood 
looking after us as Ibng as we were in sight* * 

On Dur return to Gape*town, we found that Mr. and 
Mt^w f^i iniSBtonaries from Silver Founlaini liad arrived, 
«tlb 4l»aiylMfn«6fe^ ttm ihe same phce, with tth*s6 



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wn had ttuok OQOiwmtioii ateut the Bt$t€ of affairs is 
ttail'dMOitry*, 

, On the 17th I Tititdd, lo' the moaning, Mrs. Smilfs fre« 
flcfaoot'te slates^ wbidiUMiets two Of three times a weekp 
aatiooiitaiiiifi^ about 100 peopfe, ' Mack and b^wh, from 
fix tatbirty years dfag^ Mr». Snik sat on an elevated 
l^e ill the tentre of the. meetierg^hoyse; where she 
tflMzbei' to read, leads the siagiti^, aod cooelade^T ttie *8er<i 
tics by a aolefna prayer. S<Hi«rt! ladies,' and three or 
iom malesx assiit in the iostriiiction of the nchdimi. 

fjliiil .iiilHilii'iiiafi 



ST^LLEMBOSH. 

Hatiho finished my busitiess ih t^pt^^toi^rs, I left it 
*t fite o^olock iothe morfifAg, N6v. «1, for Stellenbosh,' 
to reanaiQ there till the hot weather Kbould be over. I 
tirateUed>^th my fHond Mr. Diineiiii in the post- waggon, 
drawn by ten horsea. l%otigh great part of the road 
was over deep sand, yet we were drawn by small/ highi- 
ipiritedi African horses/ about six mifes ' an* hour. We 
observed no cultivation, except- on the side of Tiger 
Moutttatn, tin We eame to Mynbee^lati8enX the half- 
way house, where we halted to takfe breakfast, which 
consisted <€ ccAd salted mutton, hot roast lamb, ham, 
^ga,{md tea. The master,* mistress,' and shves could 
fl^k Btigfisfa; and all were attentive to therr company, 
for which we paid a rix-*dollar, or four shiHings currency 
a'hcad. -' ''/ .....>'.• 

' The remaiutag^ half of the road not being so sandy, 
Wfe had only eight horses, bat we tad tb ascend a consi- 
derable faitt, up which th^'hbrses went atfdll gallop, as 
ii'tustbiiiary throughouft the colony. On the hill are 
iieteral^Mdfaym houses, sunrouaded by fields; but the 



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10 STELUSNBOfiH; ' [ISK: 

crop& wet^ so thin, that EbgUsb farmers Would hardly^ 
be at the trouble to cul^ tbem down. They coosigted 
cbrefly of wheat. W© readied Stelteeboah by eleven, 
A» M. where we were kindly received by Mr. and Mrsi 
Kqyper, under whose' friendly roof I was to rem&in; 
After dinner, Mr- Duncan retur^ied to Cape*town in a 
hired waggon, for which they demanded thirty rix*dol-» 
lars* I visited our missionary Mr. Bakker, in the eveo-i^ 
ing- He instructs poor slaves, both on the sabbath add 
through the week. He told us that, that day nine and 
twenty years, a man of war, in which he was, after being 
alhiost a wreck by a;loDg storm, sunk in the ocean off the 
coast of America, when out of three hundred men, only 
about forty were saved, by getting in boats on board 
another vessel. 

The town of Stellenbosh stands at the head of a valley 
surrounded by mountains, some of which are extremely 
high, and crowned: with rugged tops, "Most of the 
houses are built jipart> with gardens behind: the bouses 
have much carved work in front, and like those in Caper 
tpwn, are all painted white. The streets baye a row of 
oak trees on each side, which affords a shelter from the 
heat of summer. n 

22d. At half past two o'clock I attended Mr. Qakkier's 
slave ineeting, which was a very interesting scene. They 
met in a large room in his house. About 180. were pre- 
sent, the majority of whom were, females* Some had 
very interesting countenances, indicating much mind ; 
others discovered very little. The service began by Mrs« 
B. reading a chapter of scripture. Mr. B. then gave out 
a psalm, after which Mr. Kicherer addressed tbem^ 
Every one seemed to hang on his lips : one was . singur 
larly earnest in listening, which attracted Mr. Kicherer's 
attention so much as to induce him, in the middle of bis 
discourse, to ask him two or three questions about 
Jesus, which he, answered wit^ a pleasing smile on his 
sable fac?. The slaves sung as well ^ the people; ca}M 



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.nov.j ' STELLENBOaa^ II 

•x:hristians, which means, in South Africa, white people. 
Several came to Mr. K. after he retired, and gpake about 
Jedus : one female spoke with peculiarferroar, regardless 
of' all about her^ The sc^ne was a sermon to me. 
•Though I understood none of her expressions, yet her 
gestures enabled me to conjecture what she was saying, 
' 23d. I inquiired respecting the slave who had an* 
fswered Mr- K. during his discourse, when I was informed 
•that lie h^ lotig been an excellent christian : that fori 
•merly iiis master would not permit him to attend Mr. 
iBakker/ and one day assured him he would.flog him if 
he went. The poor slave with christian gentleness, said 
^in reply, *• 1 niust tell the Lord .that." The saying so 
MrroUght upon his master's mind, that he not only per- 
mitted him to go, but likewise all the slaves in hid house.; 
tiijd yesterday this gentleman and his lady attended'the 
%lave meeting themselves. This slave thanks God for 
bringing him from Mosambique, hit native coututry. ; 
' Mn B- related the. following history of the female who 
. addressed-Mrw K* after the service : f* Shie lives at a dis^ 
•tance in the coiintfy. About three weeka ago riie made 
iier first appearance at his meetiBg. His sermon req>eot* 
txi the strayed dbeep. When he had. finished, she camie 
•forward -and c<ynfessed\she waiff that stri^yed sheep, and 
^sked further instruction concerning Jesus Christ. She 
^confessed she had often spoken against the slave meeting, 
1)ut added, she loved it now. On the following sabbath 
TBhe «aid/ Jesus at first brought her to himself, but she 
"must come to him every day, wicked and unworthy as 
«he was. = She attends regularly and hears attentively. : 
When visiting our missionary, Mr. Messer, who lives 
Vith MY. Roos,'a farmer about five miles from Stellen- 
tosh, instructing his and the neighbouring slaves, I dis* 
trovered'^^v^tiat I did not expect. Mr- Newton, late rector 
of St. Mary Woolnoth, many, years ago sent me a little 
Voli^ne, entitled, •* Seven Letters; f^om a foreign Clergy^ 
4nan to* Mr. N—n^ and translated. from the Joriginal 



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IS STBtLBNBOSff; [l«lt 

Latin by Mr; Cowpeft ;•• but wbo, or^hei^th^ Otergyf 
iDalv resided^ W9& coQcealod. I discoYered th^t ibip 
.el^ilgymav was HelpeFo» Bitaemlt van Lt^r» mini^ler ^f 
.tim Ki^formedChiiTehatCap^towa; South Africa, wh^re 
lici died March 17 th^ i793y aged tweaty-6igbCyear» i|tid 
&ve montlia. ' A little before hisdaatb being iofori^ed bf 
kia pbysicifm thai hia departure wae At baDd, he e^cjei%iin« 
M '^Trianpbl Triumph! Tlriumphl Ble^eA bfe G^ 
^ I bare overcome through: the blood t{ th^ Lamb! Ha^ 
<MeIujahi:eanelujahl Hdidujabr Having aaid ^his, 
hia spirit fled from his iirdniHCMii body to the ifumortal 
*roTld»' 

' From Mr, Burcherg, minister ofSteIieubos)i,' I received 
the foUowing account of tbefmt of the twoeartbquaJ(e8» 
which occorred here aboat three years ago« 
' ^* The church at Faarl/ about eight miles distant^ W9$ 
then Tacant The governor desired me to prcfacb once a 
month there. On a Saturday^ befotre setting off to 
that place, I felt exceedii^ly dull and iodoJent On 
Sabbath morning my wife aad I went td PaarL Od. 
reacfaing^ it I fidt vary feeble, and asked for some water^ 
but coald not drink it, for it was luke-warm. They said 
it was brought from the fountain. I seat my own slave 
to the fouolfain, but wha^ he brdugbt was warm also. 
I went myself, add found it the same* We could not 
account for thit& While preaching, I found myself 9f^ 
dull, I hardly knew Mrbat I said. I mentioned my feelingfi 
to some of the.tpeople after aermod^ who said they felt 
in the sane way, 'Next morning we returned toStellea- 
bosh. All day my fhmily, myselC and slavap, and eve^ 
the dogs, were unwdi 

• V At ten o'clock at night we were all alarmed with a 
iK>ise reaemUfng that of a thousand waggons nipnine 
along, the streets. We did not know what it vfaa^ bujt 
all my Abmily was terrified. A great Ught ahene info the 
Toom. ' Stt|>po6isg it, bad beeik thunder, I desired them 
tetto be afraid^ fdr the dati^ waaover^ tte Hghtninf 



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i>mi} STF^UJariMWR l$r 

hmig^t^Wt /While ipetkwg, libe ts^mt tmat «b befoie 

w^r^f^eait'ed^ 9ml every ihitig^fibook. Qtt! said. I» it is un 

e^rttiqMte e come all o.n t of tbe hoiue into Aeglur^. Wti. 

{;«lt; «9 if tbism bad beea no . life in «m, as the Bcripturd ex<% 

pKMses it* Tbere w«s tben a tbird abisck^ wUcb "wt^ 

ioftsrior to. thia £cKliier ivo« Tbe noise was not only/ 

awfuU becatiae. of its l(MidM8a« but ako.fnMa the lUKtum' 

of. the soiind<r»-it Unas it kind of melaaeboly jgioao lott, 

hotrL The dogs and ibiods •hewod* by their noise, thafe 

tbi^ were tenri£ed» which added to tbe horror of .th0t> 

night. The night was :v)ei^ still; there was no wind*. 

l|iti I observed A great number of small fiery meteors*. 

\ ,notked some littte ctouds, in differeslbidiredtionsy like 

thimder clouds^ bnt t}iey bad sometbiiiig. new in tbear 

aspect, .The people all camie ifeckingto nw in tiie gac^ 

d(^i^.pi;rcb alai-ned,. I said what I oould to support 

tfinir ndDds* M leagtfa W!e iventored again into oar btm^tn 

when we Umd to get a little sleep to refresh us, iMit we 

tned in vain.'* , . 

. Oecembear 2d« Went to Cape-town, to. procure tn^r 
fisrdnatltm jeespecting tbe idand of Madagascar, .to jwbida 
^Soeifi^ are^Bxious tosend a mission* LoMaitned 
eonsideraiUe infomation irom Messes^ Qncruydt an4 
T.riiter,:-Wtbo:hadifa6t;b beiaa there.; Abe former twice, Ibn 
latter x>^6^ JH^P.Oncraydt, among other tbbg^, ie«, 
latedithefoUoarioganecdiMe.. i : . \ 

. i*o&. i^rencb afaip^ bad been stranded on the west peast of 
Madagasctsr about twelve months fbefkire the aitLiBal of 
Mh pncitnydti . The oaptain, {officers, ^and men,, iiaii 
resided all that time with the natives. Oh.Hieeiog .She 

Xkotefe ship arrive^at i^he month of, *he rtvcr,.Mj m - * ' 

ibeoaptain, and crew, caoie off to her^ and splic^ed :a 
pessageAo.tbe .Gape^ to w^hicb Mr.'O.aisaupeKQaigo, and 
IhecaptainiGOBt^nted. They clothed the Frenckmen, and 
ifOQtashpre with'them to the king. They soon mached 
a considerable town^' where an offioer, oaUed <the second 
kmg, resided. Byfaim they wens well xeceiitd, and i 



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14 CAPE-TOWN. [l«m: 

off with a number of attehdants'to the firstking. They 
came to a broadband rapid river^ but seeing neither bridge 
nor boat, they looked at each other, wondering how they 
should get across. They had two chests, full of presents 
for the king.. Six men took up one of the chertis, went 
with it into the i¥ater, three on one side and three On the- 
other, and suspended it above water, by each applying' 
one of his bands to it. In this way they carried it over > 
perfectly dry :— in the same way they carried over the* 
^ther chest, and all the Dutch and French who were in the- 
company. One of the sailors, not choosing to be carried 
over in so awkward a manner, stripped off his clothes,' 
and^tying them about his head, jumped into the vvater^ 
and swam towards the other side ; but on reaching the* 
middle of the river, the current was too strong for biipv 
so that he was carried down before it, and would certainly> 
have been drowned had not some of the natives gonei to^- 
his assistance. Soon after crossing the river, they arrive^' 
at the town where the king resided, which was con-*' 
siderably larger than that which they had seen before. 
On being introduced to the king, he expressed' his sur- 
prise at seeing the Frenchmen all well clothed : and wheii' 
on inquiry, he found they had received these clothesr 
from the Dutch, who were of a different nation from 
them, he was still more, surprised ; and looking, at his 
attendants, who stood in a row behind, said, " Mark 
this: these do not belong to the same nation with the 
French; yet you see they give them clothes; learn to do 
so too."^ A house and attendants were provided for them' 
all by the king, where they lived very comfortably .for 
five months." 

- On another occasion, when Mr. O. was with the second 
king alone, while viewing from his window a great storm 
at sea, he said to Mr. O, ** I heard from my graadfather^ 
and from my uncle, that all these things were made— i 
did you ever hear that?*' ** Made?" said Mr. p. to try 
him, *^ Do you mean that the sea made itself?" " No^ 
no; I do.not mean that: I mean made by' its Maker.!! 



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Mc.]; cape-town: is 

" O yes," said Mr. Oncruydt, " all white people know 
that." Then he said, " I have told you who told me, 
now tell me' how you know it" On which he informed 
him of the Bible. 

Many of the natives can speak a little English. They 
smelt iron, copper, and silver, land make various articles 
from them. They also manufacture, in a rough way, 
articles of pottery. They not only raise a.sufficiency of 
rice to support themselves, but sell considerable quantities 
to ships which touch there. 

• The heat is great from nine in the morning to three.in 
tlie afternoon ; but the other parts of the day are very 
pleasant, and with proper caution health "may be pre- 
served. So far as the gentlemen could judge of the 
whole island from what they saw, they suppose the po- 
pulation must be very great. The inhabitants in the 
interior are completely a different people from those on 
the sea coast. 

Mr. Alexander, the colonial secretary, informed me that 
the king of ' the island of Joanna, which lies near the north 
end of the island of Madagascar* had lately sent an am- 
bassador to the governor of the Cape, soliciting assistance 
against the people of , Madagascar, who, as they alleged, 
fitted out ships that would contain from fifty to sixty 
persons, in which they sent small detachments to niur- 
der and plunder their neighbours, without provocation. 
The governor, however, would not interfere. It seemed 
,to indicate a change of character since the time that 
Messrs. Oncruydt and Truter had visited them, which is 
more than thirty years ago. But as Augustine and 
Tulier, which they visited, lie on the south or opposite 
.^nd of that extensive island, perhaps the inhabitants of 
:that district may not discover the same character, 
. S6th- Retiirned to Stellenbosb. 



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^ t;^6«TMa(^ [I8ia^ 



CHAP. IV. 



Sdumey io ihe Mimtoittn Settlement at CenadeniaU or 
Saviant Klorf, and Cakdon^formerly Zwarttberg. 

Decevbbr 29. 
Mb* Boos, d&rmer near Stellenbosh, haying kindly 
offered to take roe to visit Caledon and th^ Moreriao 
settlement at Genadenda), we left bis house befolfefi?« 
o'clock in the morning, in his waggon with eight hone*, 
accompanied by three slaves. The morning was cool and 
pleasant. We soon came to a district called Hottentot 
Holland, from whence we had an extensive view of the 
sea and Simon's bay. 

There is a chain of high mountains at this distanott 
from the Cape, which is tbirty<^iK miles.icioaimedciiig at 
the shore.on the eastern side, and r uniting m<»e thin half 
across to the western*. The sides of these mouiitaiiis«re 
so steeps las to resemble a ^a|il raised to the heavens, to 
prevent all access to the ipterion I have heard oaly ^ 
two places where they can be crossed; the. one only by 
horses, the other by waggons. This }aat we were now 
to. ascend. To me it would have appeared impracticable, 
only I knew it had been performed by others; and our 
horses appeared as good as any I had seen in the comitry. 
\ scrambled up on foot, and witnessed, with pain, the 
atruggling of the horses to dr^g the waggon «p the cliff. 
The flowers which every whve adorned the front of the 
mountain were very beautiful, as if designed to cheer the 
traveller's mind while ascending the rugged precipice. 
On reaching the summit, an extensive desert came at once 
into view. I think a thousand men could defend this pass 
against all the armies of the world* The descent on 



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»£€.} JOURNEY TO GENADENDAL 19 

the north side is far more gradual, and the road being 
aandy rendered it easier to go down. At the bottom of 
the descent we halted at a^ brook of water to refresh oar« 
selves and horses ; where there was another waggon with 
some females, attended by slaves, who were on their 
way to visit Genadendal, to be present at their so- 
lemnity of closing the yean In the evening we halted 
at the house of a boor, who was a deacon of the church 
at Caledon, who treated us kindly. . 

dOth. Departed itt s^ven, A. M* and reached Mr. 
Vo8*s» the minister of Caledon, by nine o'clock. He 
received us with much kindness. A new town haa 
lately been formed here ; but it can never be a large 
one, for want of a sufficient quantity of water. 

31st. Rose at three o'clock iia the morning, in order to 
arrive at an early hour at Bavian^s Kloof, now called 
Genadendal, or Grace Vale. About three miles on our 
way we struck into a field, in order to ^et sooner into 
the great road ; by this attempt, however, we lost much 
time,'and got among tall bushes on the side of a hill* 
where we found that some marshy ground lay between 
us and tbe road we wished to reach. In this dilemma, 
a slave was dispatched to search for a way across, and 
he soon waved his , hand as a signal he had found one. 
When I viewed it, I was sure no Englishman would have 
considered it a way for a waggon to cross. The opening 
^ among the bushes was a small pool, with steep sides 
'several feet high, only not so perpendicular as at other 
parts. When Mynheer Roos viewed it, he pronounced 
it passable. I could give no opinion for want of the 
Dutch language, and waited in silence to witness the 
consequence* The waggon went down one side, with 
great force, into the water; and by smartly applying the 
whip, we were soon dragged up the other. 

Nothing bofbarren hills appeared, in every direction 
for several miles : at length tbe eye was relieved by a 
farm-house comipg into view,. with a vineyard and some 

C 



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IS JOUaXBY TO OENAnEMDAt. . []Sl$U 

fields, i little it Ihm ligUt* Travtiling SofWVri aifAoog 
hills tUl about elevem A* M4 wer«ttciMdliie UMvbeiOii^ 
kig to the Moratian aittieineiif^ ami p^ted b<»ivremi 
many of tfaeir fiekk^ but were sorry lo obaenra «o poo« % 
eropi iFaflber on we wieie idf6cfiied by a^ Hotteotol! 
tbat we had abroad river to gp oireir, aAd h» would fic»r 
eompilny us to point out theibrd^ Genadefid^l was fuU 
in Ttew before ua. Their large church wat vary caaapi«* 
cuous at a distance. Tbe aettlemeiit lies at ttatf e»d ^% 
vfiUey^ cfasaely fatrrodnded^ QKcept ia otie direction* with 
gr^t mottntains* A t ar disthnce ilk has nore the appear^f 
auce of a garden /(ban a to«hi» As we ptose d the bottse** 
we were gratified by the civilized apptarance eif inaiiy of 
the Hottentota, although otbera were dressed in their lo^ee 
sheepskins. They saiuted ub in a fetendly Htanner^aiid 
the children eeemed highly diverted to fiee tis jnoving 
along* At length we arrived at the heases of fch^mi^i^ 
cMry biedtneo, whene wv w^e received with mneh 
christian afibctioti. A tnove pleasant spot than ibeA in 
which they dw^l can haiidly be imagined 5 and tba 
consideration that aU was^a harren wiMemess whiew 
they came tbere^ added greatly t» the pteasfune Mtt hit i» 
viewing it 

Not k>ng after our arrival Ae bett rang for diiMier, and 
we Were conducted to-a large apaftment whem tfiey aU 
dine together. Tbe table was plewti£uliy sapi^ted.httt 
there was nothing sttperfUiowk lHK>se who served w^f^^ 
Hottentots, except -one Cafire gitl. Tbey did efirery 
thing with ^^ much propriety and expeditiminaour heat 
EngKsh ^9erT«ints could have done. Before and after.dii>f 
ner alt joined in singing an appropriate bymn. 

'After dinner we took a circuit sound, the settkment^ 
callingataeVeral houses of tbe Hottentots^ which were 
neat and clean.-Home of the ho«ises had lour apartments, 
which were whitened, and had aonse artides of fursuture ; 
hut many other houses were as mean »b those I after** 
wards saw atBethelsdorp: every housi^ however^ bad a 



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»»,1 J00i«tg?( TP W^Af^»4k?i I? 

f^9^ of 4i^ p^^T^JFf^t St lb*» tjijui? feUiaf ft^il. ^bipfc 
th^jj rtf j^ ia H^ w» % fw4 ift wiij^f F. f ^M f iirpiJMfl 
.9rt ^l>^jijiraQ«§#9' of tMr t^eeji, ru^py pf y^|;^9^^[HM^f«4 
li^ iq§ £c»rty or -^fty yf^rf 914^ b^t tt^ey B§m^ ^ W 
«U l\w} to^A Pia|^|l<?4 wUfi'kA ^bt^r)^ y^r§t m^ept <i#fs 
which .^94 ly^l^plftfltfa l^yU^jr WWQPW* W\is^ btti 
ftttt«i?ted. ^ «f ttlefj^nt thfiT§, WTdPty y W^ 909; l)M^ was 

cblig^fi lE>y pf^Keguti^ \9 lw^y# ^b# pl^P^, Ti^oy n^^ 

A^ tifi(i \k^tk ma v«rt«d il^fr jtba( mM^^ary • . SM» ]|^ 
A NftHT .T«fl»mfi8t dMfiag tb^ fifty yfiftTg" jlb^e^fle Qf (tie 

Jiiefl^iiig k^v m^\ «dive tQ (3^4 dicing bi^A wniury- . Sb^ 
«mldl Mtr^^Nt 9J»^ g$>t aqfiilHfc mfwm ^ rm4itip 

her. O how her soul rejoiced on tim ve^tf^pf tke miwio- 
aef tnii 1 U wd9 to b^r lik« liC^ frpm tb« ^k#/^^ 

lo oar wiUi M^e p^es^ Ui« bfim^ of 9t ;»ia9 wfa^ i« |i 
{€|H^r, but h^9 mind h mpp^eA ky t)m c^^QxM of tk^ 
ga&pah His bodly wm ddrk-bmiv», biit the l«prou» jmU 
wfiBc irbite^ We viewed also Abie b^rywg g?w«4. Tl*#y 
fiDkiloi out ibe tpol ^Uc^t^ tfi t\m mi^pn&ry .bratbin^p ; 
MDtbas wh«fe t]ie ^istoffs fir# intorced 1 iM^tb^r for |tj[i|t 
jMf*itz«d ]ittiU.IlaUM(ote ; Motb^i for ithe {^mAl^fl ; %pi4^ 
lUmvm ^'^«f>ar»t# f 1%$:^ lor l^lv^ f^biktoen. A« (h^rfi wiU 
b3 BoMi^iac^ioA bet^v^^o ro^l^ m4 hvv^» yapng or q14 
ftt ih« r«Aurr<^i€«)y I jwttt a Iq^^ io conceive, a^d I fipi^t^ 
to inqnico, Uuif reaaoo for 9€t|iMating tbeoi now. Ti|[bsy 
«n&i|.atty, in jl body^ vii^t (tbiB repositoi^y af tbd deiyd* 
4iiiitiAg in pra>y£f mid pcaise, ^luiboldiDg fellowship witb 
the aouls of theni who are with Jiettus Christ. Na deiibt 
thiriatist he an impjse^uv« §ceM, aad muat a^wakea ditir 
iamemb^ttoft of miuiiy oifcuiBStaacfis respecting tbedfiad, 
#ft vbosejliii* Ahdy are teeading. After vi^viog tbft 
burying ground^ we. walked to Aha gaKlfia i>f the mijiaior 

C2 



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^ jmiRNEY TO «EIf AI^NlhlL [1^2, 

oaries, which is extensive, well laid out, and Well watered. 
With peculiar seDsations we sal down nndcr the shade 
of that tree, which was ptanted seventy years ago by the 
first missionary; The conversation naturally turned to 
bis labours to introduce the gospd of Jesus to this wild 
region, and the regret with which be left it ; and the 
mind naturally soared to the Heavenly Jerusaleno, and 
bis happiness in that contemplated region of bliss. 

After *tea we ascended one of the bills, to obtain a 
complete view of the whole settlement^ which is ahouta 
mile in length, and a quarter of a mile in breadth : the 
gardensbeing so numerous, the whole resembleda city 
in a wood;- I viewed it as a garden of the Lord, a field 
which he had blessed. I could not but reflect on the 
fortaer ignorance and present knowledge of its inhabits- 
ants, and of Jehovah's dwelling graciously in many ol" 
its huts, far removeclfromthedin of war, and the distrac- 
tions of the busy world. 

Descending the mountain, we walked to th<e houses of 
some Caifres, who had lately come for instruction. Their 
huts were in a corner by themselves. They are taller 
and better formed than the Hottentots, and from their 
countenances appear to be possessed of more intellect. 
Perhaps God may design to employ some of them to 
spread the knowledge of his name in Caffraria and the 
regions beyond it. Had we seen the Galilean fishermen^ 
quietly mending their nets, could we have conjectured 
that such humble labourers would afterwards regenerate 
the world, would shake and overturn the idolatries and 
iBuperstitions of ancient empires and states, and that their 
instructions would be joy fully received, hundreds (tf years 
afterwards, from the rising to the settii^ sun,. to tbe ut* 
most boundaries of the earth ! The same God can make 
of these Cafi'res, Peters, and Johns, and Pauls. His. pro* 
vidence brought them to tbe missionaries ; his grace has 
brought some of them to Jesus ; and what he may yet 
do by them, none can telL 



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Ateigbt'o'clook;^wei!8ptir«d to tbeirchapel^ which will 

corbtaia Upwards of a* tbM8md:people»: every part of 

.wbicfb was filled .witk Hoitteatots, many of whom had 

come from afar to conclude flic year together^ . They 

sang well, and with becaming soiemnity ;• and listened 

with attention to an address fix>m one of the missionaries. 

This meeting was concluded about nine o'clock; and on 

account of its being the last evening in the year, they 

assetnfbled again at half past eleven. After singing, and 

receiving an address from the senior missionary, the 

liv^/ihpur struck, when all felidown on their knees and 

joiiusd in a solemn address to God. When they had sung 

an hymn, all retired to rest Thus, during the meetings 

one year concluded and another commenced. 

The Moravian meetings fdt* prayer and instruction are 
pretty frequent ; but none that I have attended have 
been long, which shews wisdom in the missionaries, and 
their acquaintance with human nature. 

Jait. 1, 1813.— We l6ft Genadendal at four o'clock in 
the morning, after taking leave of the missionaries. We 
were accompanied by Mr. Wessel, from the neighbour- 
hood of Caledon, in his waggon. We returned to Caledoa 
by a different road from that by which we went, and w9 
bad the pleasure to observe much more cultivation* 
About nine, A. M. we reached Caledon, where we found 
about forty waggons, filled with people, who had come to 
be present at the opening of the new churchy Mr. Vos 
preached from Isaiah iL 2. after which he thanked the 
landdrost, wardens, deacons, people, and his brethren, for 
their attention and assistance in building the. church. 
Aboujt 385 rix-dotlars were collected at the conclusion 
of the service. The church and minister's house will 
cosi 30,000 rix^ollars, mv sItc thousand pounds currency. 
Here I had an opportunity of meeting Mr. Pacalt, one 
of our missionaries, and conversing with him respecting 
bis proposed mission to Madagascar. I read to him all 
the information which I bad obtained respecting tbai^ 



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Wjihstincfeb. H6 i^maitifed HrrA in liis dtt^rftitnatten t6 
gi6, (jTbVMed a feUiitkbtt pmctti feottld be fbtitid 16 aJccbm* 
]^^fijr bith. 

4a. ViVitfed fte hbt bath ifi the trei^hbotirhbddi \ht 
'ftrktet bf f^hich itr^fe so hot Ibkt I t^ould iibt hold rtiy fing^lr 
i'ii it ftbbte i S^toiid. My, Hdsstier, thfe jJr^pnetbV, ghv^ 
Wife tnahy ysiefiil hiht^'abbut tr^\'=ellin^ in the itttetibt. 

Sd, Aftei- thts ^orshif)'of tbfe Sabbafh ^^s cbhbludrd. 
H^' t56t[ 1'eaV6 of Mr.' Vt>fe, atid afctohipaniied ^'ftittin^i: 
Vrtth <vh6rti W^ i^ete tb tedge tfi^t Viig^it. W6 trkVtelM 
l?il*fe hnuffi i^Rfd k h^lf TCithbtit feeeing afiy botisf^, bttiif 
tuAmfitiah, till x;^e Arrived at tbe fattrter'^ flWeiHitig, 
which was full bf fchildi'eh ahd fel^ve^. Mf. HobJJ ptb^^ 
Sutfefl ti fettiall thiintisbrif)t book of hyiiin*, which the 
fStrfaiiy ^eetmA W pftzfc Ah ihofe l)i'eeibUs t<i*ati gold. 'The'f 
teWned k bii^le, aiVd ^uh^thr^fe dv fbuf hyrttns withbdi 
intermission, 

' 4th. i left Nvttb ihb tktttily soitte l>dtch kVid Eh^lish 
trtfcts,>*^hftb they rfeti^ivfed with tnuth ^Jjl^as^l^e. Thfey 
Wftttfe anSrfbrffe to uttderfetind thfe EftgU^li lah^uagfe, kh\l 
Wgt^fed they fead no ttiektA tb kcQaihe it Abbut ^Jc iti 
Mife ttiVyrnfe^ Ve fjkrfed fibin thi^,*feiq\Wf^Betfed lehriAiJitt 
'fehiily : W^ observed thto Ibbkittg hft^Y us tfll, turititlg 
Vhe tforfferbfa hill, they vftfe cbntrealed ftbm olir '^fe'^-. 
On 84bi^n'di\i^k tnountki'il W6 ehtet^d 'A vibM, itt i^it:h 
We^mtfelledhklfjintlbur, duHng ^vhiiJh tirt^ Wfe 'hW* 
fell df miii. Thete Wlls Wfeffe decked with k glt«:'VatYtfety 
W bciautiftd flbtHrets. At dfeVtih, A. ^, Ve hh'ltfed, 
a'hdiiiashbrttifrtfeW^rfejoiTffed by tlrf^ Whrg^'rts f irtl bf 
Mends frbtoCateaofi. thi^y febbn lighted ti{)kfrt^khd 
Ihade fc6*fee fbi- bWkltitet Wfe •d^part^d at tJhfe, ftrid^^t 
«kfely bVfef Hottentbt HbUabd Yttotifttnih, lartd kfriineaW 
MK tlbift^fe-a m^ iaftet stih^itet, Tho^ thel^^#fere 
l^ewty \i^opU, ^ho'csittte utieljtpectedly, the feltiily i^tH 
*rbl Ihtftfe ie^it discbrtdfeftfed ; buV dt¥ivlil l^k^ f^ktdfed 
Ai tn bfdlMfy obeuttettee. tlAcrfs were ttsah bdVefttl 



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ii^itb beds, and the table with dishes ; and the numerous 
guests had retired to rest by ten o'clock. 

At nine on the following morning I arrived at Mr. 
Kuyper's, at Stelienbdsh, which was my home. 

lltb. Occupied the forfioooa in visiting the friends of 
missions^ in company with pur missionary Mr. Bakker. 
The first we tinted was a person in business, whose wife 
became a convert to pbristianity under the ministry oj* 
Mr. Bakker, and has continued twelve years stedfast in . 
the faith. She was once a slave. They are rich, have a 
g(»pd business, and iaaay slav^g. 

A young foioale slaye, broqgbt to the knowledge of 
tbe gospe) by Mr. Bakkei^s instnuuentality, was 4ying 
m th^ faith. He Mked bars l»st nifsbl, wbjr she expected/ 
^ g9 to heaven* aioce ati wbo died did not go there : 
U» which she repli<ed, ** Because I believte in JeMisCbrist."* 

Mr. Bakker is a fautuble, «Seot«onate, gentle, quiet 
mafi ; be prays mucb» and aaya little : is little kfiowa 
find little spoken of« exoept in .hb itn mediate circk ^ *but 
Giod bis grealJy owmed bia labours, 

20tb^ After baving nemained two months in Stellett*- 
jbpshy wAitiog till tbe Mdtry weather tboald oease, that 
I might commenoe juy jourcey into the interior, i left it 
{early in tb^ aKMrning, accocD^iiied by my good friend 
Mj^p K My per, for Cape-^wn^ where we ardved at one 
^•clpcJc, wihen I again took tip my retidenoe under the 
boapitable roof %£ Mr. Oncmydt. I bad the bappineis 
t^ meet with Mr..and Mrs. Miloe, on their way to join 
Mr» Morritoa in China* and likewise Mr. and Mrs. 
fitfingtoa from Calcatta, .who w«re«n a visit for the 
Jbealte of Mr9» H* . I was also greatly pleased to find the 
•0ieJ4i^ni' l»eeting, under Mr. Tbotn^ prospering gveatly. 
My tiw^9 wiiil my depariuise, was taken up in attend*- 
iagto Ywrious.cQDoenia^ which it ituimeoesBary here to 
detail. 



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H JOURNEY TO BETHEUSDORP. psi* 



CHAP. V. 



joi)rney to BETHELSDORP. 

Occurrences in travelling to George — with Visits to 
Zurehrak and Hoghe, Hottentot Kraals. 

Ous two waggotw being packed by eigbt in thd 
morning of Saturday the 13tb o£ February, they called 
for me at Mr. Oncruydf s in Strand-street, when I took 
leave of this kind family, and commenced a joiimey to 
Betbelsdorp, and the other missionary settlements in 
South Africa. The greatness of the undertaking pressed 
80 powerfully upon my mind as almost to overwhelm me^ 
and compelled me to implore the special assistance and 
direction of Him who holds the stars in his hand, and 
guides all things by the counsel of his own will. Mr. 
Milne, missionary to China, went with me in the waggon 
till we got to a little distance from the town^ When he and 
Mr. Thom bade us farewell and returned. 

We travelled in two waggons, one of which was drawn 
by twelve, the other by fourteen ^oxen* Our two drivers 
were Cupido, a converted Hottentot, belonging to 
Bethelsdorp ; and Britannia, a Oonacqua : John and 
Michal, Hottentots, were leaders of our oxen, and 
Elizabeth and Sarah accompanied us for the purposes 
of cooking and of washing. About four miles from 
town we took an early dinner at Mr. D.*d, and at one, 
P. M. proceeded on our journey over deep sand till four 
o'clock, when we halted at a place where there was 
water, for the refreshment of our oxen. Our females 
soon lighted a fire, and presented us with a cup of coffee 
on a mat spread upon the grass. At seven, P.M. we 
d^parted^ the moon shining with all her brightness. 



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rm] JOURNEY TO BETHEU3D0RP.' » 

wbich rendered the evening pleasant ; but being obliged 
to walk^ in order to relieve tbe oxen virhile travelling over 
sand^ we found it rather fatiguing. At nine, we got out 
of the road afnong Band^bills; and in a hollow, one of 
our waggons stuck so fast that it was tualf an hour before 
it could be extricated. About midnight we again lost 
the road, and were in search of it an hour before it was 
recovered. In Africa, however warip the days, the 
nights are cool : this was piercingly cold ; we proceedfd, 
however, and about four in the moroing, we reached tb^ 
bouse of Mr. Roos, a wine boor,^ who. was up at that 
early hour in expectation of our arrival. 

14th. Mr.. Messer, the missions^ry, who has been engaged 
in the instruction of the slaves here for the last thirteen 
months, but is shortly to remove to one of the stations 
in tbe interior^ preached a farewell discourse to his sable 
congregation. , Many of them were, so much affected, 
that they leaned against the wall and wept, saying. How 
shall we get on the way now ? . 

15th. When on tbe eve of departure, at six, P. M. 
we discovered that two additional oxen which we had 
purchased in the morning, .had. strayed : two of pur 
Hottentots .were . dispatched in search of them to the 
boors from whom we purchased them., from whenqe they 
were brought back about eight o'clock, when we pro* 
ceeded on our journey, after taking leave of the hospita* 
We family. At eleven, P. M. the wind began to blow 
very hard, and by midnight increased to a violent storm, 
wbich made me feel for Mr. and Mrs. : Milne, who were 
to sail for the Isle of France pn the preceding day. This 
storm made us. bait upon the highway, and wait till it 
should be day. I spent a waki]^» uncomfortable night ; 
but. tbe Hottentots, in their sh^p-skins, slept as soundly 
as if in the best chamber on a bed of down. 

16tb. At five in the morning we were again in motion 
towards Hottentot Holland-Kloff, a steep and difficult 
paaa over mowtai^s. We were three hours before botli 



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m jovRKKYtDseriiEt^iMtip. [imaw 

Waggons wer^ biought ^ %ht iommit. A t flm we h0|>ed 
Ibiit «acb yok^ of oxen woirid be Me to drag tbeir <»vir(i 
witggoo to the t(»p, but ffi tbU we wer« disappoints^ for 
Wfter ^c^dttig but i small part <»f the faiti» both waggont 
flaaAe a dead bait ; m mch tbrtber^ wttb all tb« aMki«iiK?e 
«re ooaid give tiietn^ tbey wcvld not moire« Oi f>auing 
a^r Iwenty^fouf oxeti t<> each waggM, Ib^ dfugg<exl 
tb€m t(^ tb« tbt^ wkb cotMideraMe dkfieulty. At nhie 
o*ck>ck, A. M. we baited at a brook till the beat of th« 
day waa oven At luxm it was almost iMupponabie, 

At aix, P. M. we weot forward. We killed a grey 
serpent, wbicb sboiie in tbo dark^ aftd etaitted a rattliDg 
aound, evidently intended by pfovidonee to warn people 
^ il9 approach* Having had no sleep the preceding 
night, I attempted now to get a little tectt, even while 
the waggon wa« in wiotion^ and 1 cowipteteiy aacceeded. 

17 tb. At four in the morning I awoke^ fully aatiafied 
with theeotfnd si«ep I had enJoyed» and we proceeded 
on our journey about six. T4w road being hilly, rocky; 
md saady, we wei* oMiged to walk the whole of the 
atage, and the waggons were aevamt times nearly ovev-^ 
tumed. About ten, A. M, we pitctied our tent among 
the great boshes wbicb skirted the Bot*nver. l^ a shoft 
time after hi^ltiog, our Hottentots preaented ns witH 
coffee, which led me to feel ^ati^^il for the facility vrith 
which the eteMent Off fire can be obtained, and to think 
with pleaitare that I was now experiencing a life tt^ 
fipetnbling that wbioh Abrabam and the other patriarcba 
lived Hi tbaiv Aay ; end tboagh it was new to me, I begion 
to feeltjntte feconci*ed to it* The liver being brackiiA^ 
I a^ked for a dKan^gbt of water, but I Iband that the 
cork havrng come out of o«ir keg^ tbe gOKid water waa 
all g^tte, «ad we ctnitd expect no mona till vipe abouid 
have travelled abOilt ten aaii«s fui«her^-witfriu abo«t 
eight lilies, bowefver, Biiaaboch dtacovored ^ pure 
stream of water, which afibfded us high gratilioation. 

Tbe six Hottentots who accoaipanied us 9el«k>ea 



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fought shelter fpom Ibe sm ; it dots ixittwcait td aflSBtt 
tll«tl§^t<)^y V9%re fa«altihyt chmtftil, and h^ppj ; at om 
ti^e Irtw^ttg a hyftin, at aaoiAi^ jointDg i«i grayer* and 
Itilistiitig ii» M address firom Oupido, mbme hAK>oii 
W«N|bte8l«d to ttie eonvarsidn of dne Maiiotnodan sUtc 
to Cap«^tiiwfi« Ataiac, tc« tti^»vad ferfrard, and halted 
at Mgdi^ Ofk a rfaitvg grcrand^ wb^re tm had fv«rsfaif»« 
aptid a dia^^iMe tmn Ci:kt>ldo, whitb beisig te Dutoh» i 
mWf iBip*rfefclIy tlhdumacrd* 

At tw(i o*ist(ysk in ttia tMVtting ^ ^mtiiKiod our joar* 
^9^1 and W^i% a«fe<s(«d \t4th atiiich iighcningt diiriag tha 
dark)¥es^ W<e fbaftd aa «0e ^alk«d atmf ftenarai «hteiit 
6f «he land tonoiad) which bud lately ^ma kilted Hy tha 
eh^W, ^t\^ !*at6eft ih^m into tite air, ttiien atve l^dls th«tii 
fail (sit^et rkpbti atowea W ^a¥d gmvitid, l^y Wilkh «l^ 
ihtell^ ^t« turok^, tttid tti^y Heodm^ an ea»y prty. Pof 
the first time we found two different kinds ^f bramhaa 
gttv^iafg KHi th^ sMM tt^« T%ii6 ia oQfOasimiad ^ asi in- 
tflftMl iftoad^ %«f % bird T^ith its Mak iti (a ti«« in wbidi 
fcttdttjp^asfeed whfch prt>duer«f a large irancti rf me* 
Akiiftal (>w^fei. Atisl^ht A, Ml. we ftafted lu « t»ltef 
itbdut %W6^ited fV^m CMed^^, Wb^re w« tmakfaAtad^ 
ftMi wly^ce we tt)Y)i^ed ¥brwi&Y4 at nooti t6 Oaledon^ 
Whfetfe "We sppfttthfe^ boufj Very eoiftftttably \^jth lifn 
hiid Mts. Vos, wfrote w6 !€fft atthr**, and 'Airii^fed at Mn 
Vessels, atnixltifthe eveiiiftg. 

• ih fcottueqiHenceor thera«tt,'Oul'de:!^rtur<fe on theimk 
w^s .p(3tttt)6ned tin two •6'ctock P. M, whea ive set dff 

with an additional supply of ten oxen, which Dr, Van* 
A^etop liad WFt With ^t, VP'cftsel, afe^ut tf^^lve 
M6tittrs befbfe. At (life, We haOed at Satid F^trntain^ 
tb whieh Mr. W^****^ TaVi(!)toVed urs W»!(ih ^Xftti fbr Ofta 
ta *uirWaggenis*^atwMsii We proceeded, ^fid tittltedtn 
IL Wild«li:ies8'<lii¥ftife the night. Where we«Mind it wiy 
dilfittslt topft)dtrt!« fifevWi ei^ry ttrthg w«» wet. 

We ckp(-elf*d at elet^ P. M. yy hftfe prosecuted twt 
)»uiiiey, tmt ta con^eiet^tettee^win^ «f^^w cattle %iiitiiig 



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2» JOURNEY TO 6ETHELSD0RP; [18ia 

fitrayfid rn search of water, we coiild not remdv^tHl after 
sist in the morning. About ^ eight we caihe to asmatl 
salt'brookjn which one.of our waggons stuck so fast, that 
we were detained nearly an hour ; four and twenty oxen 
with difficulty pulled it out At ten A. M. we stopped 
at what is called River-without^end. Having caught a 
acorpion near our tent, we tried whether naturalists were 
accurate in relating, that if that animal be surrounded 
with fire, and sees he cannot escape, he will sting* him^ 
self to death. However, it died as quietly as any of%er 
animal,' only darting its sting from it, as if to oppose 
any (H'dinary assailant. We saw another animali which 
exactly resembled an animated piece ot straw, with 
wings and legs. Having made enquiry of the Hottentots 
coBi^erning it^ they said, the boors named it the Hotten^ 
tot*s god. .At six A. M. the thermometer was 6$; but 
at two^ P. M. 83. , 

On the dlst we departed about one in the morning, 
and at seven arrived at Thorn Place, where we halt^ 
for the day. Ateleven the thermometer was 0% in tbci 
shade, and at three P. M. 94. Just before our departure at 
eight, I learned that an ox had been left behind sick; 
when: thc^ afterwards; returned to the place where they 
bad .'left it, it was gone, having, no doubt, recovered. 
At.ten, P. M* we crossed Broad River, which is deep 
and wide, and in the winter season frequently impasa^ 
able. On ascending its sides we baited for the night, 
where Cupido .preached^ to us under the, canopy of 
heaven. 

. On the S2d, we left/ Broad River, at six A. M. and 
after trayelling over many a hill we reached Zwellendam 
fibout mid-day, the seat of the^Landdrost, who governs E • 
very extensive d^trict. It is a small town, lying in a 
valley surrounded by bills. A chain of mountains 
passes the west end of the town, of great height, and it; 
is the same chain which had been on our left ever since 
we ^jtqss^ji. Hottentot HoUand Kloff. The bouses of 



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M:m] JOimiiiSTTO BBTBELSEKHIP; 89 

ZwieHeadam are bamkome, and hwe a fine appeapaitice 
JQ the middle ofadesart. An old man whom weinet 
nt Broad River assured 118. we could get everything in 
ZwellendaiD. We were aorry to .find that exactly the re* 
verse was truth, forwe wanted a second chain to our 
wheels, a spade,* and a little butter, but none of these 
urtictes oould be procured at Zwellendam. We likewise 
wanted a block for tha waggon wheel to rest upon when 
dialed, but they had no timbfer large enough for such a 
p«»rfN»se* 

,. At one, Mr. Hr and I left Zwellendam in a hired 

waggon to visit Mr. Seidenfaden's missionary station at 
Ziirebrak. The waggon was packed so full of various 
articles, that -we could not sit erect, and we had ao 
unpleasant jwrn^ of six hours. Often I was afraid lest 
tb^ wi^^Q ahottkl have been dashed to pieces from the 
TUggednessof the road, and the steep places it had to 
descend; however, a slave girl about seventeen years 
of. age, led the oxen< cheerAiUy forward through every 
difficulty. I wafli surprised at her boldness, for sometimes 
I expected ^oiieD and waggon to fell upon her. At length 
an extensive valley opened to our view, where ' Mr. 
SeideofadW' labours among aS^raalof Hottentots, and 
wberabe has builta house, and cultivated a consideraUe 
portion of land^ 

' At seven the bell was rungi when about fifty Hotten* 
tot men Md women assembl6d--^the meeting began by 
singing a hymn ; when after reading part of a chap- 
ter, he addressed them from it, to whicb» sitting up<m 
the floor, they listened with seeming intei:^t. The ser- 
vice was concluded by singing a hymn, the subject of 
whieh- was an evening prayer. * 

A little after five in the morning a bell was rung as a 
signal iortiiescbool to- assemble, when about eighteen 
women and four boys came together, and read out of 
their catechism for about an boor. A leader spells and 
pronoiinceseach syllable^ which all prooouncie after ber^ 



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M JQUKVBV TO BerHBLf MRP. . [Mid. 

Tti^y ftivg at ike bcffinniagr ^d cMclusiMb. Tlieir pl«i 
lequires mucli imprbveiiuitfl;. .Aflervisiiinf tindeonveffs^ 
ing with the Hcdbtontota in iJieir Iioiwm» aitti TiQwiQ^ tke 
gfDuad tkai was cuUiuactd^ wt Mtorofid to Zw^ltendcim 
nbout M P.M. wliefe im foiuod that }6u Pafiftk, mi^ 
•iMary, \\aA arrived/mtk kia luggage to ^ccom^iapjf oa i^ 
6corg6 Drosdy, near which we e«^o|ed be would Inr 
aettWd, ajb laast for a tiaae, wi^ng a Kraal 0f Hottoatoftt ; 
but ottr.waggooa being. alma4$^ t>revlo^dfi4» tb^y f^wiA 
admit of no addition ; we were therefore obliged to hwfp 
him to labour at aoH aroMd ZivaUaudaio XiH, ^^i^st/Q op- 
popiunity abojild occur «if jreacbing Q^prg^« 

We left Zm^liandan abMi fi^Yen P* Af . Tk^ mgbt 
was cool nd wki(}y« yft not ttaploaaMt^ai^d this Jiaavtw 
were atuddfid with ataiB. One^ tbf tbr^ i>6f pietHai clouda 
ealled by aaamcn The Ca^9 Cioudfi, ap|^r<»4 J^afQJi* bul 
I was satisfied tbat it is oidy a pait of tbe Via LaiCtf^^ or 
Milky Way, wbick keing iisftf daatitul^ ^ brigbtMaa* 
but eaaojnpaased by ttte tuatf^ 9S the aunounding stem* 
has in a dear nigbit diie 2i9pe$MdiM» of » d«i^k clouds 

This being tk» driast aeat^n io iba j)f«iir, t^d boora 
born the heath aad dry gfassufnoo tbair esteefiirognpuod, 
after which, if it bappeoa to rtiR» good graas aprii^ up 
taathorltime. Weaajv two, of Ibeae great fifoa at « 
distance, which afforded us some amusenient, but«toiua| 
hawheen.fiital tomyriada pf ooxious vermin iaod rep- 
tiles. The iknaa^ ^ygera, and otb«ar bosata. aiMb:^ft» ex« 
{lerienoe a ttotpocary ifv^oArenienciev We tuiviellad tJaa 
whole nigiht, tiU about six ne^ct oHtfaing* X confess i 
was Bttrt)rised that the ojEeii iOOuU i:ii»iitiwa to taaarel 
flevaa bouia Aogetbar. 

24th. The place where we belted iaoailiedCbyfo-aoilkv 
Valiey, wbid> i^ f«U <rf tr^^w, all pf vi^k ^r^ u^ve^ of 
AfriiSu Therono^^t^r, at £^ ?• }/i, iff .the iihi^d^ 79$ 
Ax &v^ w^ lef( this mUey^ dir^tipg.^r po.ura? ^laijt^ard 
wkb the aansi^ .i:b^iA of h^ ^^^oUcips on wx i^ft T^o 
9wntry b^to? *!»»# 40d tow;^^ tbo Ma PR OMr Jiigbt, i«|a 



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waA JOUBMET TO SCTREtSDOItP. dl 

tov^fed with anuUi hills, iBQny ef which reaemblad Ta* 
bit Moontftin si the Cape.. I ba'ye ff^veptty remarked 
wfand tiAveUing inSbotland and England, that wheo one 
hill appear* of a particular shape, there are oithera in th^ 
TiCiiiityaf a eitnilar fbrm: the fiame thing occtirs iu 
AfncB* 

At Bttn-Mt we croseed Slang (of Serpent^ riven I 
taaled of H» water, hut it wns ao brackish, that I twiA. 
wH drink it* The boor in the Beighbourhfiod is obliged. 
la briitg his water frem htiU ten miles distant The 
eoNMMry around is tbiuly inbaUted, and the people ard 
destitute of all meam of informaition, reepecttng the pi^ 
sent sffid thefuture world. Their life appears to roe, mdn^ 
aeimel «3&istence. When will tfais wilderness be tcs5Mh 
formed into a garden of the Lord ? It is an act of the 
Ugbeftt phHsothiropyy ttad a most exalted dtspiajr of the 
p«wer of Christian principles, for a missiooaiy, frost iove 
to J^sna Christ and thesoiils of men, to leare European 
<<K?iety, ami retire to thie gloomy wildemosa, aoemly to do 
good to its seattered end ^isermble ihbabitania. Tbo 
aoiMfi who hee been bcfm here, and xsonsequentiy is igno^ 
raot of Ibe advantages of other iands, cannot know tlM 
wrelcbedneas of his.owo cirounistaQces. Our road heisg 
eoBStontly %ip snd down hiiU greatly fatigued our oxen* 
At nakinigbt we crossed Dunehox river, where we took 
m a supply of good water, the value of whiefa to SMcb a 
country, and at such a season is inestimable. 

Sd» At oee in the morning our toad was up hill, and 
«ery baid, fuU of deep excavations made by the raisi, 
wbicb m the rainy sessoa falb in tomtnts. Into one of 
these deep holton^s ttie two right wheels of one of our 
waggOHs sufldc, out of which the oxea oould not drag it, 
without the aasistance of fiMtrteen from the other wag« 
gon. fiefoie two^ we came to Krombeek river, where 
we halted, bavis^ tmveiled sipwasds of twenty miles 
at a stretch. The place was sisri!ounded with low trees, 
ssmI these wens ^otiiclod by email hilts. Having slcqpt 



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32 JOURNEY TO ftBTlIELSDORP. [181S^ 

in the afternoon and former part of the night, I could 
not sleep now ; I therefore rose, and walked outside by 
moonlight* About three o'clock a brightness appeared 
in the east, and when the sun's light began to overcome 
that of the mooy, many birds by their notes hailed the 
approach of day. During all this time the Hottentots 
were fast asleep upon the ground — when these go to rest 
they have only to lay down a mat, and to cover them* 
selves with their sheepskins, and they sleep comfoftaUy 
until morning. After breakfast, some of us visited 
Krombeck, (or crooked back) river, the water of which 
we found to be pure and well tasted ; the trees on each 
side formed a complete arch over it, which protected it 
from the penetrating rays of the sun, so that the water 
was delightfully cool. 

Though the day was cloudy at noon, yet the thermo* 
meter stood at 00. The place is rather out of the way 
to Bethelsdorp, but we came in quest of timber to 
make blocks for the wheels. Without ceremony they 
cut down a considerable tree, which they sawed in pieces 
to make whiat they wanted. I could not but notice a 
remarkable difference between an African and Euro* 
pean climate. In. England, if I sat or slept in the least 
draiight of air, it was sure to be followed by a sore throat; 
but here though I had now slept eleven nights in the . 
waggon, with cold winds blowing through it, I sustained 
no inconvenience. 

About four, P. M. we left Krombeck river, and ascend- 
ed a hill by a stony path, from the top of which we 
had an extensive prospect ; but all waa heath, no field 
or house visible, except a boor's immediately behind us. 
Many inconsiderable hills lay before us, and towards 
these we advanced. For some time we travelled among 
trees on the banks of the bed of a river which was dry. 
Large aloes grew abundantly on the sides of the road, 
and to the very summits- of the hills, some of which were 
ten or twelve feet besides the £to wen At sun-set we canm 



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WB.] JOURNEY TO BETHEUSDORP. 83 

to tte ^nd ^ the pteaaaat- valley in which wc had tra- 
tellad for some time,- aud ascended a steep hill, which 
obl^ed our oacen to make great exertions, and wq found 
the descent nearly as troublesome ; however, we got safely 
along, though the night was tlie darkent we had experien- 
ced on our-jonrney. A monkey near us seemedvery angry 
from his cries, but we could not see him. Some oxen 
were driven past us, which gave us uneasiness lest some 
of our loose ones had gone with them. It was. long be- 
fore: we could satisfy ourselves as to this point, though 
the number of ourspare oxen was only twelve. At ten, 
P. M. we were obliged to halt from the darkness of the 
night. Our oxen were hardly out of the yoke when the 
clouds poured down raiii very plentifully, which conti- 
nued until morning. 

^th. In the morning every thing around looked lively 
and refreshed by the rain. — At five, we proceeded on our 
journey. Two stupendous mountains were on our left, 
whose tops .reached the clouds, and formed part of the 
great chain. . At nine, we crossed the Vat .rjver, and 
halted during the day on its opposite banks. We applied 
to a neighbouring boor to sell us some provisions, but he 
had. none to spare; however, after coming toourwagr 
gops, andconvernngwitlv ua a little, he found he could 
spare us some grapes and butter. The wind began to 
blow so hard about noon, that we found it difficult to 
keep up our tent, and the rain fell copiously. An oak, 
under which pur tent stood, defended us for a while, bujt 
at length wb: wereilooded out, and obliged to take re- 
fuge in our waggons. 

At three, P. M. we left Vat river. At five, crossed 
Caffire^Schcds river, then .ascended a hill on the top. of 
wbtdi; stood a farm .house, the windows of which were 
crowded- by the poor slaves, who were curious to see us 
pass. A little after sun-set it became so dark, that the 
road could not be discerned ; we were therefore obliged 
to b«lk until day. Here the Hottentpts constructed^ ia 

D 



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t few iniaiit«s» k portaMe hotise. It is mirie of rutfifig, 
and resembt^ft a stair carpet, aixnit mx feet mA\t, 
which they raise upon its sides, making the two npper 
#ides meet for>a w&f, and the two end» for « door, extend* 
ing the two undersides for a chamber, md a vpare piece 
they lay down for a carpet. I went into it, and found it 
very comfortable, in this rush house^ wet as they were 
by the rain, tliey satin the datk, singing hymns for abool 
-an hour. 

• 97th. After ^ix boors steep 1 awoke about tta'ee 
in the niomii^, when I was glad to find the rain bitd 
ceased, and a small remnant of that moon w4iicb liad 
been so nseful to us on the journey, was shinnig from bear 
theborizon. About four, the morning star rose ri>oye the 
hills, and it was not long before the sup sprang up and 
thie darkness Bed away, and the birds as ufhSLVli^ testified 
'^ir joy. At six, the oxen were yoked to the wsggOns^ 
ready to render us all the service in their poWen They 
%erve sirlently, without ostentation,, boasting, or desire of 
^ward : allow tbem to eat their Makers grass, and tkq^ 
ask no more. During the nighty for the first tite^, aft^ 
they had eaten awhile,, they drew all i'ound our waggom 
and 'slept. I supposed this was for protecticpn from the 
'wild beasts, which they must bave seen, or beard, or 
%mened. 

Our sta^e In the morning was tcriemMy good, only iriiiy. 
One of ^our company, when in search of the roebuck, 
^W three ostriches. We saw only one fintia diiring 
a journey of four hours, and he wlis on a hitU a mik 
distant— indeed, human beings, besides ourselves, weite 
beginning t6 be as great i^rities as the ostrich. At ten, 
'A.M. we halted atFalse river,, in thefliiddleo^asmldl 
plain, full of bushy trees, and sijilow bills* fenMd a 
circle around usw Weresuch a spot witfatib fii^e miiesof 
London, it would be of immense value,' hut here k is 
"worth only a few dollars. If there be any Hottebto^ 
in the neighbourhood, it woidd be a. cliamitng'^tatiofi 



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^n.l JODKNEY TO BETHBLSDOBP. 9& 

for « nissioo, a* them miiat always be good water sincfs 
there is auob plenty id the liverp though it be the drieat 
Masoo inth# year. 

At Ca^^oi^tt I was UM that ^ur table would bfs 
plantifiil]^ aQpfilicd with game by the Hottentots ; but 
Jiad our liFeadepended on ao precarioua a ^upfriy, w^ 
BMwt ail have perisbfid. Indeed^ v^ry littW of the in- 
formation I veoeiwed there haa proved quite oorr^t 

Tliere is not that diiSerence between the appearance 
4>f one country and another, aa people who remain aU 
abeic dflya at home ane rmiiy to imagine. Caltiv^tioii 
and |M»pui«tian,. and the ahaenee of tiieae* are the tw9 
.ofpoeitea* As to the idiSerence ^ trees, flowers, &c» 
it is. but itttk ; for, in a week« foreign trees and Aoweif 
jbeoosAeasftmiUar to the qre, as tlie fursseaad broom 
buahas are to Eoglisbmenb TbiSf with other considerate 
Horn, satisies me that nothing hut the unsearchable 
Jehavab, as a man's fKMrtion« can fuUy gratify bis im^ 
mortal mind. A man ^vjbo bas travelled mhcb will meet 
wMi little ^terwacd^ to excite his admiration ; and if his 
happiness be confined to the production of wonder by 
tciaible objects^ I shotild not wonder if be becaroa 
dreary of this, aod bedeaiEoas to visit other worlds, or 
other systems; as Alexander, whose happiness was 
chieiy derifted from his conquests, after be had con^ 
quired Abe WK>rld# JiegratAed /that there were no mora 
iworids to conquer* 

Thermometer, at seven, A. M. ()4 : at nooo^ 66, like 

a spring day in Eagland. I know not how many .of the 

boom in JSoiith Afiiqa would be able to consume their 

time, were it inot for the aid of tobacco. They seem 

to have no mietntid resources ; no taste lor read^ 

ing ; <many, indeed^ have no books to read :) few sabp. 

jecte OQCitf for conversation : they seem, therefore, un* 

der tbe dfeadfui necessity of murdering time by smoking 

pipe after pipe. 

. LdiFalse riyesr at thxee^ P. M. aad walked on before 

D2 



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86 JOURNEY TO BETHEL8D0RP. [U19. 

the waggons. While waiting for their coming up, I 
often recollected the counsel of the wise man, who says^ 
" Go to the ant, thou sluggard," viz. for instruction and 
reproof; and the more frequently I do so, the morel 
admire the wisdom that taught him to select this insect 
as a pattern of activity ; for, of all the creatures God has 
placed on our globe, this seems td be the most active and 
industrious. All their nests that I have watched have 
exhibited the utmost activity. Every one appears in 
such haste to accomplish his object, that they resemble 
the inhabitants of a city when on fire in all quarters ; and 
this activity is not confined to particular nests, or parti- 
cular times of the day, but is-an universal virtue among 
ants, exhibited from sun-rise to sun-set. Viewing their 
motions while the waggon approached, I observed a little 
ant, with great exertion, bringing a large prickly seed 
borne to the general magazine,"^ which it carried in its 
mouth. When its progress at any time was impeded by 
a stalk of grass lying across its path, it immediately 
turned about and dragged it after it. I observed great 
ingenuity in this contrivance. On arriving at the mouth 
of its nest, whrch was under-ground, it left the seed 
above, ran into the hole and soon' brought a large ant, 
who laying hold of the seed carried it down with the 
greatest ease. Hovy it conveyed the information to the 
other that his assistance was required, I could not con- 
jecture, but the great ant seemed perfectly aware of the 
business on which he was called. 

In about half an hour after setting out, we came to ft 
steep declivity on the side of a hill, which we descended 
without receiving any damage. When we spoke to 
Cupido of the badness of the descent, he said it was a 
Moypat (or fine road) compared to some we must yet 
descend. When dark we baltfed on the road, nenr a 
place called Hell. We soon kindled a large fire, being 
surrounded with fuel, took a cup of coffee, and then en- 
gaged in divine worship, Cupido's heart was warm, for 



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*ife».J JOURNEY TO BETHELSDORP. 37 

he spok€ to us of the second coming of the Son of Man, 
till a considerable part of a candle had bujnf^d to the 
socket At boe time he compared this to (he sudden 
attacks which the Bushmen make. When one of our 
company offered Cupido a little Cape brandy, as he had 
walked the whole stage, he refused it» saying, he had 
Dcver tasted spirits since the Lord opened his eyes. 
; The immense variety of flowers, and flowering plants 
and treeSy in Africa^ is. truly wonderful. They procluiul 
tbe handy works of the Lord.; and he must have some. 
particular r^ison for affording such a display of his wis- 
dom, and power to the inhabitants of Africa. Some 
would tellme that it results from the soil and. elements; 
but this conveys no more information on tl>e .subject than 
if, when inspecting a noble edifice, one should tell me 
It was produced by hammers, and chisels. True, these 
were the instruments, but an architect and his assistants 
were the agents ; and they had a particular design to 
answer by rearing such a building« 
- 28th; We left our night's residence at six, A. M. and 
came to wbat is iniproperly. named Hell. It is a small 
plain, with a river running past the end and one side of 
it, which appears from the road far below, and is so sur- 
rounded by hills that it was some time before we dis- 
covered by what avenue the river entered it. The road 
also has two very bad descents, where many waggons 
have been dashed to pieces. The remains ol* one that 
had broken down lately were lying at the head of the 
first descent : ours, however, descended without harnu 

Now we had to cross the broadest river I had «een in 
Afritia, called Hous river. Before we ventured across, 
Cupido waded into it to ascertain its depth, and having 
pronouncQ^ it passable, we crossed through a strong and 
deep current, and it was well we did so at that time, for 
in less than an hour it rose so high, in consequence of the 
late rains, that we could not have effected our passage/ 
Its bed^ in winter, appears to be more than a quarter of a 



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3g JOURNEY TO BETHELKDORP. [IMS. 

inil6 wide, when it id completely itnpa^s&ble by all kinds 
of travelletB/ in the winter bed of the riv^r we met with 
ati entii^ely new clal8S of trees. * That' kind which was 
niost numeiM)U8, much resembled our larch, only it bore 
a stnall flower, and beautiful red berries df an oval shape. 
We halted about a mile beyond the river, and C!upido 
preached ; when the bpor's wife and family attended* 
We gave her Dutch tmcts^ and I spent some time in 
teaching her children their letters. She gave us plenty 
of churned itiilk' and butter. None of the chiidTea knew 
one letter in the alphabet * they were remarkably shy, 
baving perhaps never seen so many people together be* 
fore. Thermometer at noon 71. At two, P. M. four 
Hottentot women, an 6ld man, and four children, came 
to have contersation with Cupido. When be and they 
had seated themselves on the grass, I adintred the facility 
with which he introduced a conversation with each. He 
asked the old man if be knew any thhig of God, which 
began a long conversation with htm : he inquired of ano* 
tbei* if she bad ai^y love to God, which served as a foun- 
datioiiti of a conversation with her. In this way he had a 
particular conversation with each. This lasted for an 
hour and an half> and I hope it will not soon be foiw 
gotten. 

' At sun-set we departed ftotn Hous river, and trafveited 
ilntil eleven^ P. M. along a narrow pass, not il^cwe than: 
500 feet wide^ between two chains of hills. In theday 
it would have been pleasant, bnt in the night it was 
gloomy. We crossed the bed of a riv«r four or &rb 
times, \^hieh iliust r^er it troublesome in the rainy 
season^ We passed three boors' houses, which, from 
^eir nearness td each btber, proves that tho grootid is 
good, so little of it being ahie to support three families'; 
and likewise n rock, wtiich in tbe dark resembled fm^ 
from its peculvfltr whiteness : it is called Hooey rock. Oh 
hi^lting aino^g the hills, a smalt hamper suad a blanfc«l 
were missed frMi tlie ha^gage wagf on« John "and JMsihal 



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vetunied. ta seaich fbf them on the iwL Ttaiey r6turDe4 
witik ttiem t va or tbite baurs after* 
, M^rcb !• About six, A. M. all beyag leady^we pro* 
oeed^d tawards tbe bead of the paw, where we bad to go 
0vec a eonaideiahle biU, whea an exteoaive prospecl; 
opened, of a valley and hiUa beyond hilis, but aU low, 
OEO^I Iktt raiig? c^ high akountaina ^hicb itiU continued, 
fin our left, to van noilh like a atupeadeu^ waU. Oui^ 
party made many attempts to kill game, ht^t hi^ertq 
witbouit auoDeaa, Passed two boora* boufes,^ crpgis^ 
Mafch Rimr, and balled on a ^oe plain to refte^h om 
axen and oufaeWea. After breakfaal^ CupidQ pieadbed^ 
About eleven, I teak a walk cm the, l^nka of tbe t iver« 
ami sauntered forward till it brought me to two hilla, 
whoae rocky aidea nearly touched each other, leaving only^ 
aufficient tpacelnr the passage of the rivers. I sat down vp* 
sm « tmk in this.aetitary plaoe, and put my feet ii^to tbe 
wm%SM69 which, fiom the aun'i beat, was Inkewaroo* While 
ailtiiig 0n thif rook, out oS the yiew of all human beings, 
I racolleeted I was in |he land of lions, tgrgers^ w^lveas 
|i€s» I mus^d upon this till I ali^cAt imagined one of 
^b^n fFas al my back. I looked up the pa9« tqwarda 
where it closed, wbicb was not above 9QQ yavda beyoud 
me, and imagination fancied dens of liona there ; but tbe 
apipeaienee^a little .c;iah, meving at my ^pet, diverted 
nay mind from these frightful imaginations, till my fant 
eina retuifliil^ I thought it right to decamp. While ret 
tifinib 9i I walked on the und of the river, observing 
tbe footsteps of a man, like Robinson Crusoe, I shrunk 
liaefc ; but en looking around I found that the footsteps 
pinat bi^ve been my own. 

We left Marish fiver (as we called it for went of its 
asal name) at three o!olock» P. M« and at four had a 
gUmpse of If uaiel Bay* As we travelled along, we found 
the read strewed with dead beetles, most of which die 
eiae of the most painful deaths conceivable. Their en* 
(taUi am eate^ aaxoy bf some little ^nsecta. I hf^vq found 



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40 JOURlSEY TO BETHELSDORP. [ISW, 

some walking along with little itiorc than their hearts 
left. Before sun-set we reached Littl6 Brak river; and 
we arrived very opportunely, for the tide from the ocean 
which comes up every twelve hours, had returned, and 
a postman who knew the crossing well, came up just at 
the time when we had occasion for his counsel. He rode 
foremost, then our spare oxen followed, and after them 
our waggons; and we all got over safe, though our oxen, 
at one time, had only a few inches of- their bodies above 
water. In ten minutes we had to cross another -wide 
branch of the same river, which, though not sohroad os 
the former, was deeper. Cupido gave some serious ad- 
vice to the black postman about salvation. We went 
forward in the dark till about nine, P. M. when we were 
glad to halt at a pool of water, being considerably fatigued. 
* 2d. When I awoke, at four in the morning, I found 
tre were surrounded by a thick fog. Walking to 9- 
little distance from the waggons, I perceived the fog to 
be confined to the lower part of the valley, between the 
hills ; for while walking, at one place it was dark like 
night, but a hundred yards farther on I enjoyed a clear 
atmosphere and pleasant sun-shine. In about a quarter 
of an hour the sun dissipated the whole, which reminded 
mo of the scripture, which describes the goodness of some 
as resembling '^ the morning cloud, which passethnvray:** 
I never before witnessed so striking an exemplification of 
this simile. At eight, we crossed a plain, eocircled with 
hills, beautifully covered with trees and bushes, aboot 
five miles in circumference, through which the Brak 
River runs in a serpentine course. This river we crx)68ed 
immediately on reaching it, when three other waggons, 
that had been waiting for the retiring of the tide, fol- 
lowed our example by crossing also. It was broad, and 
at one part very deep ; but the worst wag to come ; for 
almost immediately we had to ascend a steep hill, which 
required, for a long time, the utmost exertion of our oxen 
to drag up their, heavy burdens. Oq reaching the siuumit^ 



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HWCH.] iOURNEY TO BETHEI5D0RP, 41 

we found ourselves on the margin of an extensive plain, 
called Greenlaild, from which; there is a charming viewof 
Mussel Bay. On this plain we halted at nine, near a pool 
6f water, which, compared to \Vhat we had been drinking 
for some days; was very good : opposite to which, on an 
adjacent hill, we saw many sheep -feeding, which our 
people said were all runaway sheep, which now belonged 
to no one. 

- Beforedinnet I walked to a wood below us, but found 
it impenetrable, owing to the thickness of the underwood : 
it formed a most'CTonvenient retreat for wild beasts. I 
squeezed many of the surrounding plants between my 
finger and thumb,- and found - they emitted a pleasant 
scents To observe the diversified forms of the leaves of 
plants and tre^s affords great gratification. Though all 
differed, yet their forms were so simple, that I wondered 
I had not conceived of them before. I observed no part 
of the wood that had been penetrated by man, but many 
that seemed to .have been visited by wild beasts. Our 
view of the surrounding country was extensive, but in all 
.the range not* one cultivated spot was visible. While 
Cuptdo was exhorting at noon, three boors, on Korse- 
back, stopped for some time, seemingly astonished at 
what was going forward. Thermometer, at seven, A . M. 
T4: at noon, 76. • . ' 

• Leaving Greenland at three, P. M. we travelled over t 
plaitf untfl six in the morning, when we halted at Mr. 
Barnard's, Kleinfootein, who received us with much kind- 
ness into his house. While walking about alone I came 
to a small hut, in which I observed a very aged black 
woman, crouching by a small fire, for the evening was 
cold. She was covered only with a sheep-skin, and was 
very infirm and nearly blind with age. I asked if she had 
ever heard of Jesus Christ, but she could not understand 
me; wherefore I went in search of Cupido, whom I 
brought to her, but he could make nothing of her. A 
woman came who informed us that this aged person was 



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4& SOVnW&Y TO PCTH^WDOIitF. [18J3;. 

her grwdmother, that h€f miiyl wm w^U, m4 a^ 
bQew QothiQg* Of €our«e yre l^ft her in tb^ b^pda of 
^rod, who is tli^ judge of aU the e^r^b, wA will i|ct righ^ 
tepusly tQ^^ardu ber. At eight P. M* CupidoA ^(ot^ 
prayer, addiessed the fai»ily> alaire^, 9n4 om ^pprnpig^y^ 
wbo together fonned a tolerable coi^regaitiQQ^ 

34. Rose at five> Imt ftA^ing the «K)iiuiig fpg|y» aod tf^ 
grass wet, I walked only in an orange grove beficH'e Mmi^ 
bou.9^ wberel oboerved tiw p^asion flewev gn^w^ipg lux- 
wrianily among the tre?a and UM^b^a* We found oiiw^vei, 
about five bouifsjounwy from George Dio«dy» and tbf 
yo94 beiog very bad, the boor I^ii^d^y offered t^ 9aaiat ua 
with frfsb and ^troiig qx$u to the ]>rQ9dy» Vhicb w^ 
thankfully accepted. Aq^ordiugly, aftei wor»hip a94 
Iweakfast, he put tweBty-fpur good (fffo to our w^ggou^,^ 
end accompanied ua bimself« Itk half an hour oijir gn^r. 
titude to the boor for.bia an^i^t^iuoe waa greatly iwref^^ 
when we perceived two steep, rociry pUffe we h^ to d^ 
e<;end wi to cUmb. TbQ wen w^fe frequently cm tl^f 
Ij^oeef while ascending the latti^, in wnwqu^pce of raui)<i 
projecting rocka th^ bad to auriUQunt^ on wbich \h^ 
could not stand: however, by lyiuf down, the poor 
creaturea kept their places until their compwion^ got thet 
wiiggon to ino¥^ a little forward., ^fbun, they ro^ ^^i% 
upon their feet and drew . with all theif plights Aftei^ 
wucb noiae by tonguen and wbipa,. mmy falls, and omch 
bard puUingt we reached the aummit without any w^h 
dent. We surufwuntad three other similftr cuta b^tw^n 
mountaina with ain^ii^r awcfie^p, hut none tf t.he»i werf, 
quite so difficult aa tb# 6r*t We then ca^e to a d#«o^ut$ 
of thirty yards only, but ateep^ than any w# bftd ynfc 
encountered ; it seemed like dropping the waggons dowR 
from the top to the bottom. When the attempt wee 
nade, every eye waa directed to the weggon* and non^ 
wens unconcerned spectator*- However, they comMtedl 
me with this conaideration» that th$9e were not ab l^aa 
aoroeoJiffa webad yet to pmomi^r^ In tbia WAyl bftve 



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Bftk«cfl.i . JDOUfET TO KTHEtSDORP. 4a 

faieen amusfed during thie whcrfe journey — ^I could not con* 
tradict, because the regions were utterly unknown to me. 
As we approached the Drosdy, two Hottentots ou 
liorseback met us from Hooge Kraal, where we intended 
to fix a missionary. Having beard a report that morning 
of our approach* the captain of the kraal dispatched them 
tb tDquire into the truth of it They both appeared to be 
agreeable young men, and rode along with us till we were 
aafe over the last bad part of the road, when they gal* 
loped off in high spirits, with the tidings of our bemg at 
bteifd; and were soon out of sight. 
. At one, P. M« we arrived at George, which is so named 
after bis present majesty. The buildings commenced only 
sibout eleven months ago. The situation was selected by 
Lord Caledop, jthelate goveraor^and it has, I think, beea 
judiciously chosen as a proper place for a town. A more 
pleasant one I have not yet seen in Africa. It abounds 
witb' wood, water, and m^estic scenery. The neigh- 
bouring wood is extensive, full of all kinds of trees be- 
longing to the climate, and sufficient to supply them 
with timber for a thousand years. The ground is good, 
either for com or pasture; there is plenty of clay for 
making bricks, and abundance of lime on the sea shore, 
whicb IS only a few hours distant. The Landdro&t's bouse 
is building — the prison and court-house are fiuished^- 
theSecretary*sand some other houses are nearly finished*— 
tbe two principal streets are to cross each other at right 
angles, and the church- is to stand in the centre. The 
ati'oets will be two hundred feet wide; on each side of 
tbem is to be planted a row of trees, not only for orna- 
inent, but for defending passengers from the scorching 
XAys of an almost vertical sun. 

Soon aft^r my arrival, I waited on the Landdrost, wbo 
received me with much frankness, and shewed roe every 
atteotioo. We^ went- in bis ^curricle to visit tbe neigh^p 
bouring wood^ whicb was a gratifying object, from the 
great hei||giit cf tbe trees, and their all being new to me ; 



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44 JOURNEY TO BETHEL^ORP, 7 [18J8. 

and that which lenhances their value, is, they are all. 
evergreens. With tnuch labour a considerable stream* 
of water has been carried across tlie wood from a neij^h- 
bourincr mountain to supply the rising town. The wa- 
ter resembles in colour, Lisbon wine, yet has an asfree- 
able taste. The timber not only of the iron tree, but of 
most of the others, was solid and heavy, like si piece of 
marble. The nnderwood and "weeds growinfiT among 
the trees were likewise novelties to me. Indeed, it 
would require one to live to the age of Methuselah to' 
view all the variety of objects the Creator has placed* 
upon this world, and perhaps eternity Would be requi- 
site tq explore all the varety existing in the boundless 
empire of Jehovah t for " who by searching" can find out 
God, who can find out the Almighty unto perfection!*' 

The Hottentot captain of Hooge, KrAal, whose name 
is Dik Kop (Or thick head), was at the Dro^y bfefore U8> 
and In the afternoon about sixty people from his Kraal 
visrted us also, when Cupido preached to them— they 
wei*e mostly females, the men being en^asred in working 
at the t)rosdy. They remained sleeping round our 
waggons all night. They were all anxious to have a 
teacher sent to them. Their anxiety arises from brother 
Read having preached some time asfo at the Drosdy/ 
while attending the Circuit Court. The Landdrost rea- 
3ily granted permission for a missionary to settle among* 
them. 

. 4th. On intimating my intention to the Hottentot 
captain, of visiting his Kraal, he instantly dispatched 
two of his people for horses to carry me and Brother 
Bartlet, who was to act as my interpreter. At one, P. 
M. we set off, the captain and the others having gone 
forward on foot. On arriving at the kraal, which wa$' 
about three mi]es from George, we collected the people 
in and around the captain's hut, which was sm^ll, and 
composed of'rushes and branches of trees. The furni- 
ture consisted of two low stoolsy and two or three pail»c 



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A pkiL. J JOURNEY TO BETHELSDORP. 45 

for containing water. A very agod man, almost desti- 
tute of clothing, came into the hut, wt down at my side., 
kissed my bands and legs, and by the most significant ges- 
tures expressed the greatest joy and gratitude that a mis- 
sionary was to be sent thero.^ We asked him if he knew 
any thing of Jesus Christ. His answer almost petrified 
me. ♦* I know no more, (said he,) about any thing than 
a beast," Could [ but have brought the great missionary 
meetings of the month of May, to this kraal, to witness 
the scene that passed, I think they would have thrown 
in handfuls of gold to aid the missionary funds, till the 
Directors should be alarmed, and cry out-like Moses at 
the tabernacle in the wilderness. Stop, brethren, you are 
giving more than is necessary. Six or eight and twenty 
of us were packed into a small hut; a crowd at the door: 
every. eye and ear watching the motion of my lips^ to 
know when I should assure them that a missionary 
would come among them. The captain offered to go to 
Zwellendam and bring brother Pacalt, which is a fort- 
night's journey. They offered the largest house they had 
for his present accommodation, and promised immediately 
to begin building a better.. After further conversation, I 
assured them he should come, and wrote a letter to Mr, 
Pacalt in their presence, which I gave to their captain, 
who engaged to go with It as soon as his waggon return- 
ed froni the mill, where it* was sent for some meal. We 
then got all the young people under twenty years of 
age collected before us — there were about forty, many 
of them interesting figures — they all expressed their 
desire to be taught to read, which not one in the 
kraal can at present. We then walked to a rising ground 
behind the kraal, to obtain a view of their situation, to 
which we were accompanied by almost the whole kraal, 
men, women and children. The young people played 
around us with uncommon cheerfulness, and brought me 
as presents many of the fine flowers that grew spontane- 
ously in the fields. I doubt if they had ever before 



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46 lOURKEYTOBETHELBDORP. ^ [IMS, 

witnessed sd bappy a d«y in thdr ki«al. i ixmt tbii « 
a peo'ple prepared of the Lord for receiving the gift of 
eternal life throngb Jesw Christ our Lord. 

The Landdrotft's ladjr has a taste for coltectti^' the min 
tural cariosities of tbe country, and has been prelty 
successful. I was gratified by a sight of many of thaoa, 
ibut the little time I had to spare prevented Die from i 
Ing many more. 



CHAP.VL 



t>CCURR£NCii£; IN mAVELLING F&OM 6EORGS fQ 
BBTBELS90RP. 

After taking leave of the Landdrost and family^ 
thanking them for their kind attention, we left George 
at five P. M. Most vivid lightning issued Irom the 
clouds wtiich hung upon the high mountains on our left^ 
and we had a few loud peals of thunder* The darkness 
of the night about seven o'clock caused the flashes to ap- 
pear with peculiar grandeur. We were travelling to a tinw 
ber boor's (M.Standard,) at Papoon Kraal^ w.ho bad kindly 
offered his oxen to take us over.an extremely bad cliff. 

There are various ways of helping forward the work— 
the poor slaves and Hottentots^ who had neither silver 
nor gold, to give, assisted in yoking onr oxen to the wag- 
gon, which is always a troublesome business — a black 
man offered to drive our spare oxen a stage, jind thij» 
boor to lend us oxen to take us over the cliff-— indeed the 
boor's wife told us that the cliff is so distressing to their 
beasts, that had one of their neighbours offered twenty 
dollars to take two of their waggons oyer it, she would 
refuse, but she did this for the cause of God, and well 
she may, for she owes even her own soul to the mission- 
aries, as God's instruments; and her husband^ I trust is 



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'eqtelly iiideb«e4 to tk^m, Md mtny ift^ers •catUfred 
^ir^ibis f>brt ^ AfHct^ Hi^ toM me, l^t before the mts- 
ii^fonltfies cMut MMog thefll, the people 8i^n4» who 
called themselves christians, knew little more than their 
*ealtle \ now tbefe«att lehrtstiws inxU^, here and there ; 
-ell, dlt^ectly or indirectly, the result xd ttHSsionary la- 
bMfs. MMy <»f these grai«is of wheat have eprung up 
altnost imperc^tibly. The knowledge of divitie tbii^ 
1ms been handed Onm person to person^ according to the 
)MtrsftAe of o'ur Lerd ' coneemiiig the leaven )»ut into a 
ineasfune 6f tneal. t^he wisdom tlisplayed by the Re- 
"deefner in bis parables, and many of his sayings ba& 
struck me more forcibly since I went into Africa, than 
^tt before. 

tn the etening 'Cupidohad an opportunity of preach- 
ing at Mr. Standan*s, to upwards of ihiTty people almoift 
all blacks. Several belonged to waggons thi^, like owr 
own, had ^halted fot the tiigbt* 1 never felt'a stronger 
desire t6 be able to pre»6h in the Dutch )iing«»ge than 
upon this occasion. While writing, four btaek fstnalea 
were passing my tent door, each saying Good efetf 
ing, sis they were aboet to depart with their master. I 
inquired if they conld read^with me^t signfficaiit shaken 
df Aeit heads, they all 'said. No ; but that they had heard 
frotti Mf. TEteafl it was good for the soul, and that upoft 
their knees tltey ought to pray unto God. After a little 
cottVersWion tfeey walked dflF suddenly, in consequence, 
i suppose, of bearhig the sound *ofKbfeir master'* waggoti 
departing. 

In the hour's htfu«B thwe wete two apartments. I 
thitik ibodt ten of us ^lept in one. The greater nucisbev 
lay upon the floor; however, I gdt my own TnattrasB and 
'bed cldthes from the waggon, and sl«pt comfortably titt 
the day %tgtin fo'dttWn, but after that, it mm impowibte^ 
so great Was the cMfused noise of cows, dogs, and 



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48 JOURNEY TO BETHEiSDQR?. £1S13^ 

5th. Our departure was postpoaed till the morrow^, 
"whicb gave Cupido aB op(>ortunity of preaching to about 
sixty people^ many of tbem travelters» baltipg for the 
night. 

6tb. Rose at five in hope of getting forward on our 
journey. Those who b^d been sleeping around bad 
only to shake themselves and stroke down their clothc^s, 
and then go to work* When every thing was made 
ready for departing, it began to rain; the people then 
told us, it would be impossible for their oxei) to draw 
the waggons over the kloofs, or cliffs, we must there- 
fore remain patiently till the rain should be over and th^ 
roads, dry. 

The place is called iPapoon, (or pumpkip) kraal, of 
which Vaillant in his Book of Travels says many fine 
things, and certainly it is a charming place. The boor 
is a simple hearted, friendly man, and appears to fear 
the God of Israel. Hi^ wife i& a sensible and zealous 
Christian. She has many opportunities of improve- 
ment, as her house is visited by travellers almost every 
evening. • 

During a suspension of the raiu,^ two of us walked 
to a neighbouring wood, where every thing appeared in 
a state of nature, never having experienced human' in- 
terference. The apparent disorder in which the trees 
and shrubs stood, was far more enchanting to the be- 
holder than any human .arrangement could have made 
them, like the unequal length of the fingers on the 
hand, whose inequality is an ornament. Many trees of 
antiquity, rendered feeble by the lapse • of time, were 
unable to support themselves, and therefore reclineii 
io (various positions, on those that were able to support 
them ; and as they bad lost all their owi^ ornaments of 
leaves and flowers, other plants, such as ivy and wild 
vines w^re rapidly supplying this defect. Many beau- 
tiful myrtles were growing to the height of fifteen or 
twenty fieet. 



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ariiek] JdURNEY TO SETIIELSDORP: 40 

- The wood lay between two liiountaiiiB/ and a river 
flowed between; but so tall are the trees, and so 
abundant their foliage/ and so thick are the shrubs on 
each . aider that even at mid*day the river flows in an 
agreeable obscurity. With great' pleasure we walked a 
little i^ay along the left bank of this concealed river, 
under the: shade of heatUiy evergreens. No place could 
be more.retired. But while enjoying this sublime gra« 
tification, I observed a scorpion near my foot, which we 
killed. Cupido preached to about sixty people in the 
evening. 

7tb. Rose at six, and found the rain continuing to 
fall pretty plentifully. The thunder rolled around ns 
the. whole forenoon. It continued for a while on our 
side of the mountains, then on the other, after which 
it returned, and was succeeded by much rain, which 
threatened to swell the rivers, to protract our stay at 
Papoon kraal, and to try our patience. I sf>eht most 
of the day in musing on Stephen's last and dying speech, 
which is a noble example of fidelity to his master and 
to man. His life was in the hands of his audience, ne* 
vertheless he testified to them the most cutting truths, 
even when dying one of the. most painful deaths which 
imagination can fancy, be was uuquestronably the hap« 
piest man in the whole multitude. 

A waggon which left Papoon kraal three days before 
stuek fast in the mud, and there it remained immove- 
able. The wolves were beginning to be rather trouble- 
some.. On Wednesday evening, while Cupido was 
preaching at George, one of them attacked two cows 
hard by, wounding the one and killing the other. Two 
of the Hottentots who attended the worship, mounted 
their horses and rescued the wounded animal. 

Towards evening the rain began to descend in tor- 
rents, which. bad a gloomy aspect to us travelers. I felt 
much ai^ in a calm at sea, when- the ship lies like a log in 

E 



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0» awaitSY 19 IE18BUtiKliW^. r;£}9Ui 

the wator. Cupido pmacbal at; tev^n id the ewving, 
md nt 8e,v«Q next morningk 

64h. Thfe nauii. cofttintiiDg lbe^wJbQhi nigfal, I aw^rite ail 
four i» the nioraiftg, by the drops fttUing upofif ny py» 
low. At Mven, the; ckmds began tjsf diapatee^ aod tip 
TRin to ceaflfl^— at vine, the stin begau tx> shine; and vtt 
badf soaii if^bat is called; a fine day« Tbtee peraons. were 
dispatched to examine the state of the river aiid^ diffl 
On mtmrniAgy tliey Tepoited it would be pas^aUb tbe 
net t day, .if tfhera were na more raio^ 

There are three female slaves here, who canofi firom 
very dirffersDl^ countries; ones ivom the Easklhdies»:the 
second from Madagascar, and tba thirdi from Mesamn 
bique, yet they seem cheerfial and bapfQf ; but no man, 
enless be vievn them, with an adainantiiie heant, dan Gb« 
serve th^m witboot pity. They Bxe removed: foe eves 
froqi the place that gave^ them bisth, from patieBt% bro<« 
them, sisters, all their velattons, and aU/ the eompaniofis 
gl tbeir youth. In returemen^, reftectiont on tluiaei pri« 
TatioQS must frequently occasion the* most pungent sop* 
low. Tbe original captors, and dse holders of. sbjves, 
are not aware of tbe miaeity they are entailing, upon that 
pait of the husian. apeeies. The reason why tbey ate 
nqt aware of il is^ because it adds to the riches; e^ the 
one and the convenience of tbe other; but certainly 
both sire guilty of far greater crimes than maay i» Eng- 
land wbo ase punished by transpprtatio^ or death, 8Mb; 
as shoplifting and forgery ; but this will nothe ajpknowit 
ledged by tbje present. rs^e^ till they appear^ before> the 
tribunal of tb^ Sw of God, 

Skavejai and fifpUQutols seem m^ttoregacd being then 
r^mgbly wet; they mfike us^ of no te/eana lo.keep them<4 
selves dry. . Many of them canoe in tbe evenisg to wom 
ship dreii^cbed with rain, yet aat( down iifieo the floor as 
copt<^nted as if th€^.had been perfectly drf.. Our Holii 
4entot%u#« n^li«; ta d^fmd themeeiviea fiom tihe pcmrei^ 



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wkJkMct.} JOUKMEY TO BirTHELSOBOKP. 51 

All ny« of the sun, but it appem tothem of no conse* 
quench to be sheltered from the rafin. 
* I conftM that I deriyed much pleuure from beholding 
ftbe noveltiei of Africa; yet I would rather see a belieyer 
iiif Jems than a mountain of ^hrystal, oonsidering the 
fbriner to be a more wonderfol work of God than the 
latter, though I am aware, fev^ comparatiTely will con« 
eur ^rth my sentiment; at the same time I must ac* 
knowledge, tbiit I derive great pleasure from examining 
the works of creation, as displaying the wisdom and- 
po^ivier of him who created them* 

After dinner, Mr. &+-<t and I set out upon a ramble 
in a wood to the eastward, and to examine the state of 
the river after the rains^ We endeavoured to force our 
way down the hill, through the underwood, but after 
tosling for an hour^ we found we had ntiade little pro« 
gresa, and the difficulties before us appearing insar^* 
mociiitable, we returned to the margin of the wood* We 
attempted to reach the river by another part of the wood 
but were equally unsuccessful ; yet our attempts to pe^ 
netrate the wood were not altogether froitiess, for there* 
by i^e had many views which were very gratifying* In 
our excursion we came to a tree which bad apparently 
many thick ropes hanging from its highest boughs, 
which were really as pliable as ordinary ropes; but how 
these plants ascended to so great a height, without 
twiatit^ round the tree or being aided by its branches, 
we could not conjecturew It is called by the natives 
Bavian*s tow, or Baboon's rope. The wild vijues were 
also abundant) some of which might have measured two 
huBdred feet in length. Returning a second time to the 
skirts of the wood, we proceeded in search of some path 
by wbidi we might reach the river; and such a patbi at 
length, we found* It was six or eight feet wide, arched 
over by the branches of trees, and sometimes by super- 
annuated trees lying across. Along this path we walked 
about half a mile before we reached the river. This we 

E2 



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62 JOmatEY TO BETBEUBXmr. : [1813. 

found to be about thirty feet broody We got up^o 8. 
small island in the middle^ w.here we halted a liuj^ to 
observe the surrounding scenery. .The siteep side^s o( the 
hills. were eoinpletely.covei^d with ancient trees,., and 
appeared to hang over us. The first words on Joking: 
up to theoQ» which I almost felt impelled to utter, were« 
Grandeur upon grandeur ! Indeed I fouad our language 
inadequate .to. convey an idea of my feelings while view-* 
ing these wonderful works o€ the Loud. The sun which 
was within an^ hour of retiring, so gilded about half of 
what we beheld, as to throw an additional splendor oi» 
the scene. ..The river waa evidently swelled by the late 
rains ; it was deep and rapid in its course. We returned 
before s-uuset much gratified by our excunionv ; 

At the side of my bed at night, hung ttie carcase of a 
fet sheep* that bad been killed in the day.. When a mai> 
has made up his mind to take every thing as it comes/ 
such extraordinaries will make but a triflineg iinpresaion ; 
though I never before was placed for a night so near a 
carcase that was to be eaten: however this occurrence 
scarcely occupied my thoughts for five minutes. 

We all rose in the morning by break of day, in the 
hope of recommencing our journey. Mr. Standard 
yoked thirty-two excellent oxen to our two waggons^ and 
happily we got once more in motion : after travelling 
about four miles we reached the cliffs that had en- 
grossed a great part of our conversation for several days 
paat. I confessed they exceeded what I bad previously 
conceived. At one place I observed a step in the rock 
whioh crossed the road, and must have been two feet 
and a half in perpendicular height; there was also a 
quick; dangerous turn in the descent where the rock was 
as smooth as glass. Here one of our waggons took a 
swing, and was within half a foot of being over the 
edge of the path, when it must have fallen several hun- 
dred feet of perpendicular height. The descent conti- 
nued for about half a mile, when we crossed a river 



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-MARCH.] JODRNET TO BETBELSDOfcP. 53 

about two hundred yards above its entrance into the sea* 
It was not deep, aa the tide was down, but it was trou* 
tflesonde from the many large stones that covered the 
(bottom. When I viewed the cliff we had to climb on 
t^e other side, I tfetobled fbr the poor oxen ; however up 
they went, and after many a lash, and many a fall* and the 
Idss'of some blood, they dragged all safe to the sunihiit, 
where we had great reason to thank our kiad friends for 
the service they had doneus. 

' After halting about two hours in the vicinity of a 
bro6k,' we p]k>ceeded on our journey. ^ At threfe,,P.M. 
we came to a cliff somewhat like the former^ but not 
quite 80 bad, which, alter consuming, much time, we also 
surmounted^ A little after 6ai>-set ' we halted near a 
wood, which our Hottentots told us was infested by 
^epbants, none of whom, however, were seen or beard 
by liny of us. : 

10th. At six in the morning we were again in motioui 
and in a few minutes entered tb6 Wood, across which our 
road lay. It had ai most venerable appearance, from the 
extraordinary loftiness and great thickness of the trees, 
many of which must have flourished in the ages of anti« 
quity. A thousand trees taken from this extensive forest 
could scarcely be missed, yet could they be transported 
to London, they would probably produce for the pro- 
prietor twenty or thirty thousand pounds, biit they dre 
of trifling value here, for the value of any artide of 
course depends upon the situation where it is found* 
We continued for some time admiring the immense sise 
of this and that tree ; but a prospect was soon. presented, 
which completely diverted our attention from such 
objects of curiosity. It was a long, rocky, and steep 
ascent- The first waggon, though twenty-six oxen were 
yoked to it, was two hours before it reached the summit, 
and the second,- with the same oxen, was three hours . 
The bustle and anxiety of pur minds during these five 



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» .JOURMEYTQBBTHEMIDQiUr. r {fBU. 

hours can only be conceited of hy t\k<w who baye ,been 
fiiaced in similar drcmnsUinees. Ttve^ last waggQj^ wa» 
about two houfs in moving fprfy yards^ tbe o^ep aoin^> 
times falling, ineffectually dravringi gettitiig iiito disor4e5 
or resting. Could the long string of oxep be got tppuU 
exactly at the same time, sucb diSicuUies would be morf 
^sily surmottnted ; but perhaps wbile soine of the fore* 
most are drawing* PtberA hebtnd them are standing witb 
their beads where their tails. shoi«klbte*jn cons^q^ntpe of 
no traces bieing us^, and <wM)e getting tbcise to w^eel 
aboQt,, the. front .ones get intp.dlisorder; and tbougb 
twenty draw: b>g^her» yet if th^ ^wj(> nearei^t the wag* 
gon^ 4o not ad tbeir pari propierly* t)ie labour of the r^ 
muBt be useless^, I enter into \he9^ paipticulars to assist 
frifenda at.bomein forliUog.li just conception of tntvelling 
ky oxen. While ^tbese tbii)ga were going ^ forward, 
Mr. Bartlet and I were busily employed in. c?p{SNr^ aa 
muck of ^he road aa we cpitld^ levieUiiig rctcjistftnd iBlifng 
up holes: we completaly repairj^d abo^t ahnnflriSiiif^ty 
and a Uttle impro?ed the retfpaiod^r^ wbi^b e^tfqdod 
about half a mile to the t^pw Afa^y of the alpnea wbi^bi 
we remoTed bad probably lain in the middle of tbe pi^li 
tot a himdred' years, and d» mftged many a wa^on^ but 
because it wan equially the d^ty of every one that pasaecl 
that way to rcsnoive them* no one did it. 

On arriving it 4be summit of t^ia rocViy n^fw%, w^ feU 
like people at sea after weatheiing a severe, storm $. we^ 
bad soon howevttr something fx£ a difierent nature to 
cacouBtar; the rain desoendqd» and dvencbed mo^ of w 
t6tbesinq. But forthemin and fog. this pai^tof |ba 
void woald havse been pleasant, being surioundfidf with 
flpwering shrabs of Tarfojas foraia and tinHa, all of which 
woiitd have been adminable aiuiostliea in Borland.. We 
traveUed on higb gtound^ yet we ca«ie to the base of i^ 
kigb mountain whoae top waa hid in a cloud, over wbicb 
it seemed oatr wvggena muat pass. We tbevefapa halted 



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itli^t.] JDURNinr TO aE91IBLBD0IU>. \A 

lorefi^^, andprepoire our exenfdrtbe tiretoikie taidk. 
We 8900 lighted ttfi a gfett fine^ l;ut ^8 the min M\ &9t 
m^ c0$ki not get .^ur ekithes dried. 
^ fM tJiapee, P. M. Ire begah to aioend tii« Unoadfesin ; on 
fdaehifig its summit a viery <dxten8ive view iopMed to tia? 
at five, tve desoended a long atsd ste^p deelirity, at tbft 
boMDifti.!0f wiblch 18 a plaet €alied LitMe Hell ; for what 
veatoD I do birf hn<>#i ai tbere i^ nortittig terrific a1)0iit 
it: irote the loimt pert of tbe road, iiide^, yoa look 
ik)|w« to a dee(t hoUow, but tbere is no diff or preci|^io6i 
We had now a still higher mountain to g^t over, wkob^ 
Uiif vft had rat yet seen, it being covered with clouds. 
Slbough the eUB had tedrly OAitbed his race, to kMen 
the labour of the tiextday, we determitiefd to ascend part 
df iu We tsctamblod up about a qmrter of a milei, a»d 
tbere baited fdr the ni|^t. The night being <k)01, and 
our qloibes ^mp in coasdqitende of tUe rain, every on^ 
asaisted to coHfe^t niateriallg for nlakiag a fire, and wd 
soon had m Jai^ oae. I wis aA*aid we 8hduld not pro^ 
0414*6 water on siicb high ground, but our iiotte&t«t 
woioeti sQOn found 80»e that was viery good-^indeed 
tbey find. water with facilibf where an Eorc^pean would 
perish with thirst 

, llfb* We got out of the wag^ before sun^rise; the 
ai4>rmiig was pleasant, the Ay a^ene* While the people 
were coU^bi^g aad putting in the oxen^ we made a great 
fire, aild bad some coffee. We began to climb the moud^ 
taiii idbmt batf after five in the mornibgi itid reached tbe 
sufdmit about nine. The oxen of the two ^joggons werd 
obliged to be yoked for some time to our jliiggage wag^t 
gen. At one torn in the hill, we spent an boor i^nd a 
half. ID getting rouiid it, owing to the great length to. 
which twenty^six oxen leach, and the dharf^iiess of thi9 
turn; when they all pulUd; it was neaiiy impossible . to 
prevent the w^gon being toraed over the prectj!>ito^ 
If Ikieh iaust have daabed it to atoms. The remaiad of 
twp ifiraggoni were lying . it the bottom of this etiff. 



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so JOURNEY TO BEIMmSDOBP. [ {1819. 

which served as a warning, to us to beware of the daiigan 
The fore wheel at one time got to the top of the -mud 
fence, when all hands went to work, in order to lift the 
fore part of the waggon back into the road^. which we 
happily effected : for some time this was necessary to be 
done almost every yard the waggon advanced; however, 
we reached the top of this ascent in safety, and sooo 
after we all arrived on the summit pf the hill, when^vcrry 
ppe seemed pleaded, and ready to congratulate toch otfaer 
on the occasion. .This summit is called Bevirs Kop, (ok 
JDevil's^Head.) . . 

. . I do not know how high tlie, roads may lie over the 
Appenine mountains in Italy, but I question if waggons 
loaded so heavy were . ever ipounted higher in the air^ 
than .those which crossed this mountain. The surroiiiKi« 
ing prospect was. highly, interesting. FlatenburghBay 
formed .part of it. But neither house, nor tnan, iioe 
b€(ast, nof any cultivated spot being visible, gave rather b 
dullness to the prospect. Elephants and buffaloes: tra*^^ 
verse these mountains, but none shewed themselves to^is: 
Elizabeth pointed to a cliff in the old road, where- u 
waggon and oxen fell over, and were literally dashed to 
pieces. . . ^ 

L. After many ups and downs, we arrivedat White River^ 
about eleven, A.M. The -cwily occurrence di!kringtbtfl 
part of the journey .w^s, that the chain confining one of 
the wheels broke whiledescending a very steep and stojiy 
part of a hill; b^t by keeping the oxen running as fastas 
they were able before the waggon, they reached the bot- 
tom in safety.. They told us that the greatest liinpedi- 
ments during the remaining part of our joUi^ney to 
Bethelsdorp» would be the rivers. We were now in a 
plain called the Long Kloof. Thermonk 70. 

Left White River at five, P. M. A little before sun- 
^t. Gasper killed a brace of fine partridges, and attempt* 
ed to shoot two roe-bucks^ but they saved their lives by 
a speedy ff ight At eight, P. M. we came to Sondag (or 



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Mjkttn.} JOURNEY TO BETHELSDORP. 67 

Suoday) Place,^ on Koorbomes River. Oor HottentoU 
called at the boor's to purchase flQur, bat be bad none to 
spare. I walked after them» and found the boor could 
speak English. . The family and slaves were together in 
a large room^ which was a comfortable one. Though 
the boor co«id spare nothing for us^ he anxiously solicit- 
ed some snuff from us, when I gave him a little out of 
jtty box. Tobacco, 'snuff, powder, tinder-boxes, and 
flints^ are the chief articles in request in these parts.' On 
leaving Sondag Place, lyecross^ a fen in which were 
mapy pools of water, through which our road lay. 
There is a chain of hills runs on each side of this long 
vall^, which: by planting trees, er by cultivation, might 
be;made one of the most delightful spots in Africa: at 
present it is a londy wilderness, having nothing to relieve 
the wearied eye except the variously shaped mountains. 
At elevlen,' P.M.* wie ^passed another boor's place, and 
were saluted with the barking of many dogs, which 
seem to abound in Africa more than men. These ani- 
taials are only; useful as watchers. A shepherd's dbg from 
Britain would have assisted us more in driving our spare 
cattle, than a tliousaiid African ones. It would be well 
if some of tbese were sent over to instruct African, dogs 
to be more useful to their masters. Perhaps were the 
people here to witness their sagacity, they would suspect 
they were rational beings. The moon retired about 
midhight, and we halted where the hills, on each side, 
nearly met. 

13th. We could not travel a stage in the morning, as 
the oxen were not sufficiently rested. We sent to a 
boor's plac^e, abbut a mile distant, in search of provisions : 
it was [called Wildeboom (or Wildtree) Place. The 
family had much the appearance of a farmer's, family in 
England. We dined with them. Water is the oiily 
drink at this meal: whatever may be eaten, little is 
drank. Perhaps it would be the same in England were 
water only provided. The people might have plenty of 



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5a JDURimYTOBtBTHBLSDORF. t^Siai 

Wine, if they chose to be at tbe trouble to plant ^ fiuffi«' 
cient number of vines; and there arie millibf^s^of eteiptf 
acres on which to ptent them. When we had>etofCK§d 
from a walk in the garden, the mistreBa reproved her MA 
for taking, us there; for, in consequence of long wild 
gross grot?ing in many parts of it, she sild^ h was ftiir ^ 
fferfyents; aind none of xis^ wote boots; 

We ^penlt much of our tirne while, tere with Mr. fiark*- 
faotise, son of the boon ^^^ li^«0 ^^ ^ *i»&n distMce. 
He is rather a singillar cbaf^ictefi havjtig beeti dumb fr6m 
a child. : He ^never was tavight any trade; yet h6 i& 4 
good carpenter, waggon makers foun<)er^ and smitih. ISe 
ttmkei eveiy thing abocrt .a tniisfceib ^acoeptl tike barrel and 
tbe:k)ck, with m^ny other articles, especially triftltfry'; 
and all are executed nearly as well as if diOue by the best 
workmea in Europe* He knows exactly what every 
fhiag he does ouj^t to be charged, tnit how be kaowtf It 
I catinot conceive. While I was with himi be pointed 
significantly first to his ears, then td his imovtfa, aad tbea 
to the hei^fttDs; evidently intiiaating that the Gori of 
heaven had chosen to make bim what be ulris, deprived 
6f two; of the Inost valuable faculties of man, heafhsg 
and specich. Hiii^ bed^cartsids attracted my attttntfon> 
bcfuig entirely cotupoaed of rushes, and looked very weH* 

After dinner 1 italked to a br4>ek of chatming water^ 
to indulge tnyself with a draught of its Crystal streooi. 
A slave, abocit, thirty years of age^ vrlio had watehed my 
motions, came running to me, and asked me if be should 
bring me a bason to drink out bf. On bringing it, be 
seated himself by the side of the brook, and told m^ 
that all the slaves tbere tvonld like to ^ to jbfae schoois^ 
(a name given hereto missjiontry stations,) to learn to 
read; but,, said he, we are obliged to work, and oannot 
g>l bat could not one of theiti cottte to us? We work 
from 8i± in the mcfrningto six ki the evenings and should 
have pleaty of. time before and after that to learn^ 
Keitbo' Cicero .nor Demo8|bea^ could faaye said any 



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t^'m^ to' IxMiph i»y b^^rt morq Vs^m the words of tbj,8 
pQ0F Ua(^k ^ave* fftd I poeseeseid tj^e po wef , I certainly 
#bouUi ba^e iDsteritly qrented a ipissLon^ry,; aii^ tberie 
iimv% Mi hij|» witti tb/9n[i. I a^hed ,bim if tbere woul^ 
fee ft smiBGieBl; numix^r of ^people in tb^ kloof for a mif- 
ttdailiy 16 labdtir ftttiong. : Q pl^ty! pi^ptyl said ji|e. 
ITn^t it mMiM require; a tal«9ei>pQ tq^.see frpm one boi^sp 
to jsnoiten But the tQaD Mra» ia £Ood earnest for io8tru<> 
ti0it< I gam bim^flQkiie ^Df30t)rag«(n|eot to expect amst- 
mk^Gi! as sotni aflf )it migbtilMi ip tb^ pt^Mi^ef .of tb^ society 
to affotfd'it; I inquired; of tb9 &n^ity b^^v; tbey apenl: 
tbw tiibeibo ^b^tl|dayi9»:rasitig tb^y wqr^ many daya* 
Ji^omel^ from any plade of ;W0r9b4i>« Tbfsy aaK), ip readi- 

" Stt'lbe viiiit€V tbay htkvfi son^iipes much snow andic^ 
in the MtodP; &t .tbougb it\» > valley, at tb^ bottom of 
Mitt, yet it lies several, btindred feet i^bpve the kyel of tb^ 
sea, and fot want of cultiTaticm the gropod is diaipp. 

We left Wildeboiml at sis, P* M. ascended a long steep 
bitlj and iraTeiled for some time along tbe ^i$le of .oijke» 
when we oaine again intP a narrow valley» between 
]iK>uiitaiii& I sever hsfore adverted ipp<^;tQ tbe utility 
of £pogB; i eannot say tbat wherever tbei;# i^.watei* tber< 
are frogs^ but goM^raily wberevfir tbereare frogs you will 
ftid watery audi in a still evening tbey are Iteard when 
kiatf ft f»ite.di8tsn)l; so. that by tbeir croaking tbey seem 
tK^ c^ll vpoci the tbiisty to oome and drink* A.Uttli aft/6ff 
midn^bf we balUd. . . < 

' l^b. Aiseveiii A.M. we wefe again in tnotioia: flit 
Sight, tboogb^ etoudy, : tbe <bernBom6ti6x was at S5. 
Flowers seein to bave tb^r native districts as well as 
itt^s we m^ with many new ones tbis day. We balt- 
^ abdttt.nibe, A.M. at aaother place called Sondag* 
Thess^ who have lived all tbeir days in tbis retired cor- 
ner, tthiet baveaacoiyfiBedconceptionftof the wprld tbey 
dwell ilk, as those who haviS never been, out of tbe little 
iMfand df St Heleoa. NoSbmg could be obtained fot^ 



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«0 JOURNEY TO BETHBLSaDORP. , [18ML 

money froaa the boor ; indeed the fan^ily, and mo»i of 
the slaves, kept at as resj^ectfiil a distance as if we had 
been an invading eneifiy. If I might judge from the 
meagre appearance of the dogs, v^tich made various at* 
tempts to plunder oiir waggons, food must he very scarce. 
At five, two waggons halted on the other side of the 
river. They came from Namasia to attend a vendue* (or 
auction,) which was to be at this place on the morrow. 

In the morning our Hottentot, John, was sent back to 
search for an ox that had fallen behind during the night* 
He returned with it about nine at night: he Imd bees so 
persevering as to go back to Sondag Place, which wais at 
ieast twelve or fourteen miles; .and on his return I could 
not but notice his apathy* Notwithstanding hiis having 
walked about four and twenty miles, without tasting any 
thing but water, yet on his arrival he sat carelessly down 
by the fire, and said nothing of his long walk, want of 
food,' or success in finding the ox. Nor did the other 
Hottentots ask him one question about thematter : they 
knew that the ox was foui^, and that John ivas alive; - 
and that satisfied them^ In England such an occurrmoe 
would have afforded matter for talking at least half an 
hour. Though the moon was risen, yet as it wl^ dark 
from the density of the clouds, and as the road we had to 
travel was rather intricate, we judged it prudent to defef 
our departure until the morning. However, about tei| 
o'clock, P. M. the clouds became lighter, which encou--^ 
raged us to proceed on our journey. . Little descents of 
thirty or forty feet frequently occurring, were . r^th^c 
troublesome. At four o'clock in ,the morning we halted 
at Roy Crans River, among mountains. , , , i 

- I4th. On the halting of the waggon, I<took a solitary 
walk along the river,, observing the gradual approach of 
day« All was still : our oxen were asleep around our 
waggonji;. and so seemed every thing that had lif^, ex*? 
eept> frogs. and crickets, which incessantly make; a noise 
w^ilethe darkness. continues, thua. contcibuti^ng all in 
their power to remove the gloom. During this walk my 



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HAftcA.] JOURNEY TO BETHELSDORP. 61 

miiid mused upon' many tbings connected with a land 
which was then fiEir off. I compared the advantages of 
that country with the miseries of this wilderness; where 
ignorance of those subjects which are of eternal moment 
reigns without control. May •* the Angel of the Cove- 
nant work wonderously*' for poor Africa! I hope the 
day is not far distant, when this desert land shall be peo-' 
pled and cultivated, and men deserving to be called 
** trees of righteousness" shall flourish here, and glorify 
the God of Israel. 

At eleveti A. M. Cupido preached. He spoke of every 
thing proceeding from God : he asked, *' Who made the 
trees ? You will say. They came from other trees. Well 
then, (said he,) who made the first tree ? It could not be 
man, or he woutd be able to make them still ; but it is^ 
beyond the power of man to make a tree; it must be 
God.^' At eight, A. M. thermometer 70: at noon, 78. 

At five, P. M. we proceeded on our way : there was 
much thunder on our left, but it did not come hear us, 
and we bad only a small portion of the rain that fell. At 
seven, we passed a bopr's who had nothing to spare. At 
ten, we crossed Deep River, which at that time did not 
correspond with its name, being very' shallow, but in the 
rainy season it may be deep enough. The ground spark- 
led with glow*worms, like the starry heavens^ Natu- 
ralists suppose the females are furnished with this lumi- 
nous appearance to discover to their mates where they 
may be found, I cannot refute this supposition ; yet I 
imagine it may answer another purpose, viz. that of 
defence. Providence has kindly furnished every living 
creature with some means for defending its own life: to 
some he has given stings; to others horns, or sharp 
claws, or coats of mail, or wings, or swiftness, or tusks, 
or power to make a terrifying noise, or muscular strength, 
or a strong castle to retreat into, like the tortoise and 
other shell animals ; and perhaps God has given this little 
star to the glow-worm to frighten away some particular 
foe. It is certain that the light of fire in the night 



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m iOvtoBsr to iKiHEtaDcuip;. f uis 

frightens iway the most ferocious animH].; Hence ^hen 
God promises the utnioflt protection to bisoboroh^ he 
says be will be as a wall of fire aroand, which eeitbeoliontf 
nor tigers will penetrate. Perhaps many inferior atri male- 
are equally afraid of that element. 

15tb. We halted at five o'clock in the moniing; bat 
how the oxen, were . able to continue twelve hours drag# 
ging our waggons I. know not; however, Cupidc^, who ie 
our travelling director, and I believe a humane Hotten^ 
tot, ordered it, wherefore I conclude it was rigbt*^ 
Thermometer St nine A. M. 78, at five P..M.. 71* 

A. neighbouring boor made us a visit after breah&st^ 
After returning to h» bouse, be sent me some buiicbee 
of gVapes, and some excellent milk. H^ offered us af 
oheese for a bottle of our wine, to which exchange we 
leadily assented. He afterwards sent his own bottle for 
the wine; it was well for him he did so, for it wonld 
bold twice as much as our bottles. Tbe-boor.frdnl the 
other side Kimkel river, kindly sent a horse to bring me 
over the river ta dine with him. After dinner I walked 
about his premises. While walking about, I observed 
one of the Hottentots going, to chastise a dog who bad 
done some damage in the vineyard, though the dog- had 
astick tied to his neck to prevent his entering. The 
Hottentot took him near the spot vrhere the oflTence was 
committed, where he gave him his cliastisement. The 
instant that the culprit was set at liberty, the other dogs, 
about thirty I believe, thought they were bound to give 
him a second drubbing. They ruthed upon bim from all 
directions, but his treating pretty roughly two or three 
of his first assailants, made him respected by the other 
dogs, when they received him back to their society as a 
friend, and he seemed to indicate tbat be was happy at 
having got over this affair. When this business was 
finished, a curious frolic was exhibited by anotheV Hot- 
tentot, who appeared somewhat of an eccentric cbarac* 
ter. By sounds and signs he got all the dogs to sur»>und 



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ifikMH.] ^ei«KET TO BEiHixaBan. . n 

kini, and appeav a» if ivrof ryi^g hrm to. deatb. lii conse* 
<|ueace of the seenung wounds he bad veoeived from 
tiieiD^ he graduaUy auak down amoftg them, Wbenby 
the number that stood around and upeti him, he wag 
completely out of sight; after wbick he rose smiling^ 
when the doga went away as if satisfied thdy badperferttS' 
ed their parts weH, seeing the man had sustained no iif^jufy. 

Near the house, I counted twenty^nine aloes in flower? 
some of the slalhs ineasured thiny-eigbt feet in height, 
and two feet and a half in circuoiferenee at the bottom 
-^a wonderful growth in one year! what a'curiositjr 
wMild these be esteemed in tbd vicmity of Lon« 
don, where it is betieved they only come into flower once' 
in- a hundred years, at which imposition on London ere-* 
dulity the Africans laugh heartily. If an aloe produce 
0eed when it sends up a flower^ it dies that year, if not, 
it lives and sends forth a flower again. The boor enter- 
tained us at dinner by relating the feats of tigers in the 
neighbouring hills. The slaves and Hottentots all seem- 
ed happy at this house ; of course they were well treated. 

We parted from this kind family about four P. M. and 
im>c6eded on our journey. We passed another boor^s' 
place about six, and then crossed a river; at eleven, 
F.M; we descended to a deep hollow, of a circular form, 
surrounded by hills^ andilear the Source of Krobrh river, 
which is the boundary of separation between the Dros* 
dies of George aftd Uitenhagen, and there we halted dur- 
ing the night: 

l6th. The morning light discovered the beauty and' 
lonol^iness of the place wh^re we had spent the night. 
Oteir waggon stood as in the centre of a basin, across 
whicbranan excellent stream of water, and large gera- 
niums, with many other handsome flbwers, grew around. 
There was a fog oh the hilfe, which fofmed a canopy only 
a little higher than the waggons ; but none of us had 
oaugbt any cold whilst asleep, though much exposed to 
these damps; We found many of the plants had a scent 



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U . JOURNEY TO BBTHELSDORP- [1813. 

similar to sage. The valley lower down, for about ten 
miles between the mountains, is entirely a morass in 
wbicb nothing but taU rusbes and other water plants 
grow. I observed a great number of rusbes such as grow. 
abundantly in Scotland, whose roots sunk very deep into 
the eaith. I noticed a snail crawling along with its 
house on itn back, at least four times as larg^ as the 
largest I have seen in England. 

I find the world span to be . used in various ways in: 
Africa: a span of oxen means a st^fficient number to draw 
a waggon: to take the oxen from the waggon in order 
to feed, is, to ouiipan : yoking them again is to itispan :■ 
oxen feeding on a journey are said to he spanirig : the 
place where they feed is called a spaning-place. Thermo-, 
meter at ten A.M. 84-^ditto at two P. M. 83. 

Notwithstanding the very distracted state in which 
Europe was involved when I left it, scarcely a creature 
here knew any thing of its trouble. Were they bettier 
acquainted with revealed truth, perhaps this would be a 
happy ignorance. ' • ' 

The hills a little to the south df our spaning-place are 
extremely barren, being almost entire rocks, whose forms, 
however, are interesting. Departed at four P. M. still 
travelling in a wilderness. Indeed the country hardly 
deserves to be called inhabited ; for there is not one fa-» 
mily in every ten miles, and it is remarkable, that where* 
ever there are few inhabitants there are few birds ; for 
though the feathered tribes fear, yet they court the so- 
ciety of man. Thus the country wears the aspect of de- 
solation ; all things remaining as the deluge left them in 
the days of Noah. At seven P. M. we halted for worship 
and supper ; when beginning the latter, we discover d 
that the vessel which contained all our butter had fallen 
'from the waggon. Our first messenger returned with- 
out it ; but a second being sent off with him, they found 
it in the middle of the highway, about two miles distant. 
Being full moon, we were encouraged to proceed about 



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m^e d'm^bn bur ikkf, irhich fay Uc\ ftillB.&nd ivl 
WdAed ltro6fb TtVier ttt)^ tithes. I sl^iitintiiewlggol^ 
-^ it ihoVed a1B% ti^ ele^A P. M. ^11 tWo in thfe iiioim- 
t\[k^, i^Iien tlt^t y>rik^Wiiit fo ftl^t, iis ^ yHvt cBniet6 
I& sffeSp dc98Mt Seiretil «lii)ii of fi^ dtiiieb«d in tfie aii>, 
#hiclivin{IIiett IKritfa a liltle exptoBi'dk 

17th. We CbBtSotiM odr joUMii^ Wftt^fieii niduhtalfti 
kii^ alohl; ttkebtlMciiJf IHe Kh>o^ tHI foli^ h'c\<ick ih the 
morning. This was washing day, but it aoes nbt otfci^ 
Sfdli litubti Irbubtd; is ibey w^h SviEny tHIhg It) cbli 
iv^stfef; ydftli^ihakidtfafe 4inen as ^h'ite ^ anytfev^f 
ifftW-. Sritoftt river bonjideribfy incirdiiied a^ wtlde^adei); 
ttHd the iMkt y^iii ejtidleiit. 

The Hottehtdt#,^fiodi^ Ihekfilorlgiiies of itlis <^6i)titi^; 
Hrei 0M|ile neilrty extihct ; a f^^ kraals cjbly i^ifilliM^J 
Witiiin the Hhiits of the cotbny. t (ley iti fir fl-om B@!ii| 
t» hiMi^bi kncei^ tHey tlrt tisuaii^ iiipbiSsyd U Mb b^ 
Surbpeaii, Who ifl ttieir ordlniiry dilk ^ili siij^, ^^ \^ir(f 
a* ai H<rttehtdt— ^s Hii^gk ai )( Dottehtdt: kb:jiikt Sa Mf 
Mji iH f idU U H Je#^-^ cbrftting «i i m. tkej ttivd 
ft0tblH^.iftdfi>«airiig6 dboUt tfibft CElilii th^ (li^^itirj^ lU 
En^iiid. I bbvis i^xi ftmiliei ih Londoti li^Ibg Jit iJfdAI 
aiHy btfteis tbiid eHf I inHr Hott^KtotsV ^nd nlMf iH 
LdMAoli bita cdWttiittM iifore StrdciMbs d^S Mibi afl^ 
I hk¥s ^6r Uei^d ttAi kdttehtots cHWgSd ^i«h. I Aifit^ 
the Hbltettlde tbidd i^ betttifcifltllitM ihiH tK«mtA9^ of 
iMtiny ifl ihH rw^est rMKI id L(^dbt) ; HiA I dfidif(9 
cixpeit tb ti« Mta6Et better servdO; dhd td bd tiioi^ li^ iti 
tfa^eilidg «rKh tir^ Roetebtot^, tb^ii with i^ia^r 
Butt^im. Thb htiinflnKti^ down fit (drMn^Bs; thfe b±^ 
could not proceed ; we therefoft' ttM4it it iitS, F. bIl dM 
viratt^ fdf b^ Wither. 

iSth. W6 b^n bur j^uH^y at kii, M. M. tHrdd^i A 
tbicR fog tod fsid ; of ciMtHe Mfd ei'it bbtHid^ buiwh!dfc 
iH«r in 6tii ioidiedrati n^ghhoiiilibiM. f^tBS 4 h6<h'4 
Ifoaitf (ft %ht,iirhere #e obttfTned thi^ loih^el. At eT4^^; 
Jt. M. #«hnHted^<yb a baTrren i^nhie; iurroutfdedlby ^ilb IE 

F 



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66 JOURNEY TO BETHELSDORP, [IMa 

^little distance. I .walked to an eminencei wbence I bad 
,an extensive view of the wilderoesa around. Lions and 
tigers have surely a right to reign and roam here, as nei^ 
,tfa^r men nor. domesticated animals appear to inhabit it ' 
The sigbt of a bird does not remove the gloom, whicb 
seems to overhang every tbiug ; for its solitary situatiott 
rather excites gloom than conveys pleasure, ; 

. Thermometer at six, A.M. 66 :— at noon, 64 ; cloudy ; 
—at five, P.M. 62. « 

. Proceeded at, three, P.M, At. four, the bills were so 
near each other, that tli^re was barely room between 
them for the waggon and a small brook, the water; of 
Which resembled soap suds, owing probably to a mixture ' 
of white clay. Our oxeii trod upon a serpent, which- we 
afterwards killed. When dark we travelled over hills 
among long, grass. At nine, P. M. we arrived at Zuur 
Bfoji^ (Sour well,) inhabited by three Hottentot brothers 
and their females. They are about to remove to Betbels* 
dorp, being ordered away by a boor who has lately pur- 
chased the neighbouring farm, of which the ground Which 
they bad been allowed to occupy is considered a part. As 
they have resided there a long time tbey seem reluctant 
to leave it. We carried our supper into th^ir house, and 
i^te itin the midst of them. About twenty people were 
assemUed .in this small house; but Hottentots, when 
sitting, occupy a small space. After supper, Cupido 
gave an exhortation before prayer.- When on the eve of 
departing, the Hottentots offered, if .we would stop till 
tbe morning, to lend their oxen to help us over a very 
rough part of the road. To this proposal we readily con- 
sented, and soon fell asleep. 

19th« When I awoke, about three in tbe morning,! 
found all- .were ready for departing. We were obliged to 
turn put,;and walk down a long, steep, and stony dc^oeot. 
We crossed several river8,.one of wMch, called Bampto^ 
is wide and deep. • Travellers are sometimes stopped a. 
week by the rising of thisriver. We halted at six, .A;M. 



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HAiuai] JOURNEY TO BEKI^LSDQilR m 

on a ioidll charming plain, only a few hundred yards in 
circumference, surrounded by hills and shrubbery. Mr. 
Bartlety with tiis axe, soon cut out an opening in a 
thicket of trees, where we had worship and breakfast, and 
wbem I Sat writing itiost of the morning : indeed I hardly 
ever saw a little spot more suited to my taste. A small 
riverofgood water winds almost round it Thermometer 
at seven, A.M. 64 ; a few clouds : — ^at noon, 78 ; — at five, 
P.M. 74. 

The delightful spot on Klein Rrver^ I understand 
belongs to tio one. It would-be a charming situation 
for a missionary station. As there is water at present, 
immediatdy after sutnmer, there is probably waterfall 
the year : and the grass is good. I observed two kinds 
of bi€lom, one bearing a yellow, and thd other a blue 
flower. Ants* nests are numerous : in shape they resem- 
ble a baker*s oven, and are from two to four feet high. 
These industrious creatures have their enemies, espied* 
ally a creature about the size of a fox, who, after pierc-' 
ing a hole in the side of the nest, pushes in his tongue, 
when the unwary ants rush towards it in order to 
examine what has happened. The tongue being cover- 
ed with these insects, Jie draws it in, and swallows' 
the whole. This he repeats till he has devoured vaxU 
lions. The bees also sometimes covet and take posses- 
sion of the house they have reared with so much labour. - 
The boors also, when travelling,, frequently clear out 
these nests, and use them as ovens for baking their' 
bread.. ' *• \ 

A< female Hottentot belonging to Bethelsdorp, with 
her two children, joined our company. When I asked* 
the age of her children, she a^tned as much surprised' 
at the ^^ question, as if I had inquired how many hairs 
they bad upon their heads. I then a%ked her how many' 
tiotie$ tbe siin had come near tbem since her eldest 
Aughterwas born: she supposed^ three times; which 

F2 



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t jirigttl to hecoTi^Qi, ^^ tbe cUild app^ar^d to he^l^o^ 
three yiMtBi^d, 

, ijVe coim^efad our present progress t^ be alow ; but 
^U^ acid swift are oaly comparative terms^ Tbi^ nm\ 
^pacb ip ^iiglan4 tnovas flowly copipar^ witb tW 
fligbt of a pigeon ; ^sd the motion of a pigeon i^ 09-^ 
^bi^g' vbf^^Q^F^ witb tbat of apl^pet ; apd that of.^ 
plfifiet is slow wbeQ <;Qinpared witli tb^ mption pf light 
The progress of our oxen is swift when compared yritk 
tb^t of a smil or cameleoti, $u£b opnsider^ioQS |^ro- 
100^ p^ie^ce, 4t six, P. 14. we had a view pf tbf 
ocean, wbicb helped tP vary the.scene. Cupido pojptied 
^: a^i^t^nf hill tbat was wUbin twp boars* jpurney of 
^i^lsdfNrp. At seven, ?.% we came down, a steep 
descent, wben t^e binder wheeU of pur Wjig^boa wer^ 
firequefitly raise4 fnom the ground, Fouf yeairs, ago 
a bpor w^s ^ULed when going down the Sfime pla,pet 
1^ tbe waggon overturning uppn binu At the rising 
Qf the moon w§ w^re v^wh gratified by tbe ^igbt of a 
lunar rainbow. About ^ine tny waggon waa n/early 
pi^rtuco^d by 9^e of tb? wheels sinking intp a de^p bole* 
t)uring tbe night there was mn^lx vivid lightning; atr 
t^ded witb thunder and rajn, 

, ^b, Qalt^d about four in t^e mpming* on a bill 
nearly covered wit;h txp:^^ and not far IroHi tke oq^im* 
In tbeab^uce of all other sounds, the noise, of tlpp .a« 
Vi^aa very splemp* As it fained fast froo^six to ei^t 
pTclock in the inorniog» we .feared we should make nq 
progress during the day, tbe roads being very soft. 
Qpwever, Cupidp^ py^ commanderj, after ^xaminiog the 
ipad, resolved to make a trial to proc^d. Whi)6t)i€i 
,qx^ wer^ pqtting to the waggpns^ I waifce4 dftWil: a 
pretty opening in tbe WQod»whereI had a pleasant view 
of the sea, two or tbre^ miles distant 

Imipediately aft^t Qur departure, our roa^ lay dovnif 
1^ Ipi^^ steep, and rocky descd)t. We found it a trjoubtef. 
some business, and it was eleven o'clock A.M. before 



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mtitk] JOUkMflT tft ftSflfeXSDORP. M 

both waggons reached the bottom, where we found 
Vanstade River and an extensive forest. About noon 
we halted on a hill, where we were joined by a waggon 
belonging to Bethel8d<5r(>; at)d likewise by twelve men on 
horseback, who were a patfole search ing4imong woods and 
bushes forCaffres^ as^ the coteny is* at present at w^r with 
that people* When commencing our last stage to long« 
desmd' B^t^lsdorp, we were joined by three waggons 
^fAbg to Uitenbagen ;« so that the six waggpns and the 
IMi^tiele made a formidable appearance, as if w)e bad 
beeiikar eommando (or an expedition), against the CaffreSj^ 
fHpeciidly as we travelled in. a deseit, where no beinga 
ifiar0 visible' but ours^es.. 

About midnight we came to the head of the descent! 
wbieb leads down to Betbelsdorp. Though the mooir 
was* risfsoyet still it waa dark)' in consequence of th^ 
bdsrrens • being overspread* with thick clouds. Howeverg 
98opnuodeifit0odthat we approached near to the settle<n 
tiieiit,, by some of our people firing their muskets,,as^ 
tiigiAls»«fouB#mvaJ, which were soon answered by some; 
discharge fiom the settlements Many of the young 
people^ in high spirits, came out to meet us : then Mr, 
Read) tfodUbe other brethren; with many others, arrived^ 
aad^tteua^ft hearty welcome^ From the solitanry, roa4 
<«i wbieli we bad been traveHing; a concourse of people, 
andlttie somd of many voiee^,' produced a peculiar sen^ 
salieni i ielt^ as if instanttineouslyf introduced into anew 
woridi' OoireichingM^ R6ad'# house, many surroMu^ed 
it;iiti order'to see the strangers who bad>co«»efkomfafar< 
Isoppoee someof the youn^ peopteslept IHtle tfaat^ight^ 
for*iheard> tfaem runnibg about'at three jp*olook kn-tlM^ 
niokiiingi after whidi I'fell asleepi 



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ra «STQB(4i>0itl'* ; lil^^^ 



CHAP, VII. 

* Occurrences and Investigations at Bethehdorp. 

MAiBCQ2a. 

About slin^^rise, the bell called the people to Worship 
in the irieetirig-bouse; the seVvice continued a little niote 
than half an hour. At ten o'clockj the church at*d con- 
gregation assembled, when, after praise, prayer; and 
reading of the scriptures, Mr. Wimmcr delivered an 
animated discourse, not standing, but sitting, as oiir 
Lord did when be preached in the sytiagogue of Katm* 
rcth, (Luke iv. 20.) The asteiitibly was large and attM« 
tive. In the afternoon, a Hottentot, a member of tbe^ 
church, began the service by engaging in prayer; and 
when they bad sung an hymn, any member of the 
church, TV ho chose, being permitted to give a w6rd of 
exhortation, a Hottentot spoke with mUch modesty and 
ptDpriet^. After uniting again in prayer and praise, the 
people were dismissed; when the membe)rs had what 
they called a love feast, each person having a cup of 
coliee potlred out to him from a kettle, and a small 
biscuit given him, which was done without the smallest 
bustle or confusion. Diiring this, several short remarks 
were made by the brethren, after Which I mentioned a 
few things which I thought might interest them* We 
llien celebrated the Lord's supper together, as is their 
custom every first day of the week. When, the wine'be- 
^an to be distributed, they sung an hynm, after ^faiclf 
the church separated. This ordinance was short, yet 
very animating.* 

In the evening they met for worship, when Mr. Comer, 
a black, from the West Indies, led the service. Though 
3put out by the Missionary Society but little more thftf^ 



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MARCH.] BETHfiMDORP. 71 

a year ago, he lias made such progress in the Dutch lan- 
guage, that he can already exhort in it. He is a c^r-* 
penter by trade, has two or three apprentices, and is a' 
nsrful member of the community. 

'dlst. [ had heard much against Bethelsdorp, since my 
arrival in Africa, and I must confess it has a most mi« 
aerabte appearance as a village. The houses are mean in 
tfa^ extreme, and apparently very irregularly placed;' 

^ t3>ey sayj however, that the htits were arranged ac- 

, cording to n plan, which I believed after it was poinV 
ed out to me, but in consequence of s6me having* 
fallen down, and their owners having built ehe^. 
where, others having gradually decayed- in conse- 

.quence of the people leaving them to go into the ser*' 
▼ice of the farmers, and others of the inhabitants being 
called to public service, the original plan has been coni«' 

.pletely deranged; and now it appears as irregularly built 
as the city of Norwich or the town of Manchester. The* 
ground on which it stands is barren* in the extreme, so 
that nothing green is to foe seen near the houses: this also 
adds to the gloominess of the yiliage. There are neither 
trees nor gardens to relieve the eye; but all this arises 
from the total want of good water, except near the bar** 
ren spot where the village stands. In consequence of the 
miserable appearance of the viHage, the settlers are by ^ 
many people reported to be extremely indolent. 
• That th^re are indolent people at Betbelsdorp, as well • 
as in all other places, especially in South-Africa, I have 
no doubt ; but from what t have seen and heard, I belfeve 
there are also many who are industrious and activie.-^^ 
People, in general, make np allowance for their eaiiy 
habits of indolence in the houses of boors, whefrc tbcy^' 
have very little real work to employ their time, and few • 
people who c*all there ever enquire what work is perform^ • 
ed, or what ground is cultivated. I visited their ferms * 
in the afternoon, which lie about a mile and a half distant^ ' 
#n Little Zwartkops Kjver. I there found landcultivate^'' 



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«#..l>9tb »He8f of tjhft^f^r fo^ viw»^fr^,of ^w*.iwl<». J^k '. 
dfi^ I J»ad 90t ff^ sp. qiy^h cqltivf tfi lapd tQ i^ny: p^ . 

is to be seen at Baviao-'a }^\fi(>f» ^i^ligh ^^ u. a^ ol^. 

Afteii w4l«»g.^g M»e Gulii»»t(|d grpiind, I:ca||«Q.t<^ 

S^sept in S(ni;b^4 X ^W WiV sft qi««y togipt^ra 

t^pf^fp o£ t^o^,anin)»jl^ W^ ij^ujrq^d ta B^^doq^ 
jx^ ,in tiip^f for, tb^ir ^\mfig wpiisbip. Tbernqotp^t^j 
qj^qppp, Q2. 990^*^^ i° ^poyenaMoi:! ^^ith the br^; 
tbl^ U}li *-^eif %'clook, ia the nfprning. 

9^ %,t 9ft' ^<| ^Tiip^A' S|. wi^b bretbrea V^l^icbV 
«N), 4%r;l;ii|^> to U^tfq))^iv wfa|fere tb^ cooimapd^taiii;!) 
1^ftlil^i(/i)ttrm^, vWicl^'is about, Ajn^ miles from B^^ 
t^lpdoip, Vj^ljft^ tfi crpiA Z;«fafitl^oB^ tiver, Mjbicb vra*; 
yg^e. ^: d^^ i^ . qop^u^c^, of, tb^ lat^ Vfm. The. 
ySkWi-^Vi^.Vm'^Vfi^^^^ ^% bpttoija of our.wAggQp. 
C^lo^s), \^iFl^^ wba,is Civi) apd Military coamiaqd^r,; 
<4ftinft fm' >%^i^ Ah^P^ r^w^ »«! in **»« most 
ft«BdJlK n»»9B«» %«4 WliJWx <^i«4 tq,vr;ve,ipein.aRjr^ 
"•war iPilMMp^^P- He e35|tf!88|^ tl^esftno^ awtimwM. 
t^t I, e|)fs;;^p^ with, refpefit tq tbp,^xlam9l,^R{)^^, 
ance of B^tf^i^rpi i^pfl t^utgbt. ^ civ|ilizs|iqa,of, tb^, 

MtfMfib th« lv%M ■• ■ ' 

HIBSS^-Vith t\|§Jfif,iimw l l\?^d,of,^etbel8(}prp, much. 
ii^t^a{)g)Q^^mr %.h«,biKl>l^n.; \^^t pa e^xaininatipn, I] 
fqfV4 t'»fi!%'?«i!Jt<3"W»4W.fe*Sh thw>VW»<Wr>^.c<H»W TOl^. 
c9RlfWlir:«*»Jjt|»«, hAj|,aJflf«8 8m»pflB«J tfeey ba^no. 
9tffff^Jpx.^^l,c9plLi^inxu!fi,^tbfA plfu^, qmog tp i|«. 
WffWPfW^AiyJi^tJt^r con9)d^ti<»^i. tlp^stbf;^ b^tb«i^« 
fofuJlwItfci^Rij: )ioifafis,qifii);sd>i,; ^Ijjcji,. tb,ongb< thfjr lookk 
▼»|t*Vfl!lia1iii«t, •Q8P:%)l:iim.4fi9iy<» and awwanfi »»i»i«. 



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worn appeanooi: ^nd that fiton. thenubWr ^ tbe fieo* 
pie constant^ io the lerrice oi tbe bton^ end fte BftMt 
actire b^g qdJed to perfoBm pubKc ^^rvice^ sucb at 
gaing agaiml tlie Gaflfroa, aai semag aa g^daa^at ((la 
diffiiieQt atiilitaisf; porta» &»r wkMi tbej bate hil^iito vat 
ceiifed Doreniiifl|3TatiaOk tbeir fMliltfia bana baen atarving 
at homeu Fos tbe aaku of ^lawpkib 1 stliuM Ibat only 
lira daya ago; t«6lTemeQ/wemd^iBa«dad40 fo ag?iiiia| 
«heC|^aEi«&; andyaab^rdiBr*. fiftaen maoy ^itb tb^ir paok 
(tteo» wer^ ordrmd to. ijapaiff to tbediffereat eailitaiy^ 
ppata Kgiii<fei^ {be. Noir bad xk^B^ meo be^a buildiog 
bMaea ofi^ay:* ai^bidi lare tbpugi^t tha bast tbat <?aift b« 
awed JMii tbll. ppr<: q< AfrK5a^ tbey wpmW either bci 
mouldered or washed i^wn before thejf ^quldf TisMiira tq^ 
fais)!, tbeta^ Tin? p^ppla^ linqvvf tbl»> apd are thereby 
^i^P^i^S^di froffi jqaf iag H^oiia pfinpapaqt boildingi, t 
q^eotiovii^. that l, iiia^ npt fl^tating tbe^ tjhinga, a^ coa^n 
j^mtf^ 4gaipat Gpvernmeiit^ f^r perbfHpa tbf9 stata of a£^ 
fairs reodej^tb^m iadiapeppably nepesaao^* bmt meotioaecl 
tb^9^.i(9i a^uf^ of; the preaeni app^rap(¥ Qf the aettle<> 

Aa^Gpi^€^aroen^. b^d^fiered to tbci missipnaiy aooietjr/ 
qiie or tii^|d|ice& i% Zuurveld^ the (i^qlpi^^ ppmted omI* 
in A map^wb^ei^ I] a|)p^^ b^ li)c^ly to Qiyl situatifmatrbab 
would lis^afiiiAblfi, 

8a4> Raited i)pp^iyi^'or?Cuylfirr th^Xaaddro^)V wbo 
1^ bqc;^ from hQvn§ fct^e^pre^af^iagday^ vti^ 9ff^9m li 
waaanxiQfip tp t^ftvi&aicpuveraatip^ qq ti\p causea of: tba> 
IClQ^ di^^iltes that had, aubsisted, bejtween. hioi audi Dr^: 
V,ajulei^€ii^pu aad. Mr. Read, which ha deQlijajed^ upoui 
t||^^oiip(i| thattb^y v^e^c; all p?^t^ au^ that .^ waauQ«t 
q^^aary.tp, r^c;ur to. the^ agf^in^ He,tb<^, appke.(tf dU 
v5^iwgJtUiS'laod«'Of,BeJh?WQrftintp4Qt#^ t^ beg(V«|i.t% 
t|e,mi98iop^ried ap0 sf^ttlers^ Istatedf^thal: I pep^ei^^ 
difficulties ip thfitrbi|pioefla» a^ui would beglad oft l^ajifi^^^ 
▼ice. Supposing l^tt^, q|, iand.tpbe gtv^A^ iu; parpetUia), 
p^psses^^i^^Jtptbeaetrtafa^^^^^^ squui of.tbfaia he% 



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€Mie ii ndsaWe totUeiistitiltion, ;tbe missiraama 
Mrdiild not have it in tbeirpcMw^er to remove tb&n frotn 
the settlemmit, yet tbeir coiitii^uailceinigbtbe.tery.iii^ 
jttwotitfto iw w^lftwre. I ktiw <a difficulty on the otfier 
hmoA; fop if the' lawd were, not ftt^Hy t^eir own,: there 
woiiM not be the btnienvdui^einiBQttalaiproveit IMem 
xequesled of thi&LaoddfO(lt,'ir be coukiidevke a midair 
path, thtot b^ ilrottid give me bit coua^L' fie said f« 
might be uiade a condition in tbe grant of the lot^/ tbaft 
abonld tfaeir conduct bei;dme. injurious to tbe inatrtiittooy 
they should he deprived* of their land, and that they 
should' receive an allowance forwhat improvcmenU they 
may havtf made tvbile it was in their posseasioti. ' TKia 
Speared' to me a wise suggestion. • ^ 

Leaving the Landdrost, I again waited on Colowil 
Vickers, who kindly favoured me with lettere of intr<^ 
dttction to gentlemen in different parts where 1 expected 
to travel Mr.Menzies, a young officer, also voluntarily 
ffivonred me with an iatroductpry letter to a friend. ' 
" Walking to the barracks, I found the storekeeper was^ 
a native of Sutherland, in Scotland, who had been fourteen* 
yi^ars in the army, and during that time, much to his 
^credit, had learned bofh to read and write. He bad, how^* 
ever, no books, which want I promised to supply froi^ 
Betbelsdorp, whither we returned in the afternoon. 
• fiith. Mr. Read Has a meeting with twenty or thirty 
thBdrei^, every evening, a short time before the meeting 
for worjfbip, when he asks them a few questions. This' 
mcetinfearose from his examining his own children ; other 
children came, then more, till it arrived at its present 
state— it IS wholly voluntary on the part of theyoang 
people. When we came to the door of the small house 
yffhere these Children were waiting for Mr. Read, they' 
were singing a hymn together~we listened behind thfe 
door with much pleasure till they had finished. lunV* 
derstood all the questions that were asked, and 'th^' 
«»wers given to them, though in Dutch, and veas mwcJi 



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nkkm.} - BEtHELSDORF. 75 

pleftsed. Kaje, a ^6tidg female HoUeivtot, who ia one 
of this little meeting* is an orphan, eleven years of age« 
^ho lived' at George, aboiit a fortnight's journey distant 
froin Bethdsdorp ; but after Mr. Read had preached there 
awhile, she cried so much lo accompany him home^ 
that he was obtigeid to take her, with the consent of her 
Intends, and n\i^ now lives in his house as one of the fa« 
mily. Thermotneter at noon 80. 
' iOth. In the afternoon, Cobus, who is blind, ^nd bis 
vrife,: came ffom four hours distance with their child to 
be baptised 09 the o^orrow. They are both members of 
t{i6 church at.fieChellMorp. The wife knew the Lord first, 
and soon after Cobus was deprived of bis sight; *6od 
opened the eyes of his understanding, and he says he ne- 
ver was SO; happy, as since he believed in Jesus, Indeedi, 
ffOih tbe pleasant smile on. his . countenance when be 
spake of the Saviour, peace was evidently within. He 
wroafh edibat Jhaus bad hitherto kept him from falling, 
and be trusted be would keep him to tbe end, and bring, 
bim to his heavenly kingdom anJ glory. Huswife said, 
that she bad. obtiained this child fronv the Lord, and wish«< 
ed to give her to him again — that she had no wish that 
her child should be great or rich, but she wished she 
might have grace, and be a cbikl of God. 

About ten o'clock at night, while sitting at Mr. Read% 
we beaid, for a considerable time, a female weeping bit* 
tarly at a little distaQc^bebind, on which Mr. R. went to 
inquire into tbe cause. On returning, he said it was a 
ifew people conversing tpgethfsr, one of whom was muci| 
^Secteni with something that bad been said. 

In their state of society they have no idea of suppressi^ 
ing their feelings until a time when it may be seasonable 
|o give them vent, but tbey instantly act as they feel.--^ 
^mpng uncivilized nations this will generally be found 
to be tbe case. In Betbelsdorp, though most of their 
9iind^ may be said to be civilized, yet their manners are 
not. . Tb^ christians (here love Qod and all wbo ^ar bia 



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yg tEmsmmoBSi im») 



'K 



itnagtf ; they Vi^vt reliftqui«6ed sinfttt ODodiBKcf, ajuji are 
looking for tiie comiBg of th« Swi of man ;^ jiet tfifey can 
fikep on the b^re groi^Dd as eofnfortably as l^e EoropeaA 
on his bed of down — nop do they fyefceive>the neceasitart 
for the sanre dieKcacy in dveasing ts^he does^ because t'heyr. 
have been accustomed tb aooeher^ mode from theis iu-: 
ftmcy *, but many of them ar^inr a^stafcle' of progreaaiiMi m\ 
to these things. 

i7th.' Mri Cbrner preached toiss in ttlt morniiig, after 
t^hich ttie whole cotigregation walkKid^dowii to.tbe rjveir/ 
wl^en two childten were baptized by^brotlbenr Wimao|eii^ 
H^ 9tood^ in the middle of thei Htllis^river^ faaldiiig tto 
child, and pouring' water uponitfe bead^ be pronoutided' 
theusuaLword^, after which* the si>rfouirdittg assembljin 
aaug a- by nfn. The service appealed- to fee iinpressfiw.-»w 
The many young Hottentots around, as well a$ theieldar^. 
behaved with great propriety. ' 

» On retummg'bome, a* person whom Di^ VanderkiAnprr 
redeemed from slavery only Ave year^ ago/ foUowed! v» 
to my room. Among other things wbtchsliementiOD^i. 
she said 'she had tiiree' sons dead^ Abraham, Isaac,* andl 
Jftcob; Ota- saying so, shcr turned her face ten the wall) 
and wept Bitterly^ and could notfor half an hour b^ ps«< 
cified. The scene was extremely affecting*. Bwiahed-aUi 
*he advocates for slavery in. the whole world ba* beci 
present, especially those wKo asaerttbat AfHcaii ^staver 
have no affiection for their offisprhlgt Many mch A^icwp, 
F am persuadefj; were they to bear that some of out* 
fttsbionables in London, though living' imd^r the sam^ 
roof with their children, scarcely see them once' a d&y^ 
would cry oub— What savagesi 

Mr. Read preaidhed»to the soWlets at Ftort Freder^> 
Algoa Buy. ©w retumibgi he mentioned that the- for* 
mer who is next^ neightlour' to' Betfadsdorp tokl bim,* 
that last week w<ben gomg home, a lion met him' in the 
road<^they stood some timelookingut each other, wbeif 
the animal chose tawatfe'qiHetly* away. He Uad^ how^ 



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«Ter;devdtfVsd tH 168 belMgiog 4x> tbe fiarmer* P6iiia|» 
ilK dclitb of the ass preteoHed that of tbe farmer ; baring 
-alscftdy bad a good n^ be bad less ocoasicm to devoiur 
4Amp but JMd ihity lieta little soooer, wbeu tbe lion was 
more bungry , ht migbt have fared very difiereotl|y« 

▲ Hottentot calling after worsbip^ who came fiom a 
^istancet and wbo was a member of tbe church, led Mr* 
Bead to jelate tbe following account of bin nwster^s 
ftmiljr^ 

Some time ago, B- , a mem}>er of tbe cburcb of 
Betbel9dorp, wa$ travelling to a distance, and baiting 
i|t a &nner*8near tbe mouth of tbe Camtoos river; be 
'collected the fanHer^s slaves together, and informed them 
that tbe Son of God bad come into tbe world to sare 
sinners. What he said caused a great stir among them 
about the salvation of their souls. A poor slave firooi 
Moeambiiiue, ofiposite tbe bland of Madagasear, was 
particularly affected. Tbe providendb of God afterwards 
brought tbem to work at the Drosdy of Uitenbagan, about 
nine miles from Betbelsdorp, which afforded tbem an 
opportunity of attending the preaching of the gospel 
there. The poor Mosambique slave made rapid progvess^ 
^oogb be was but little acquainted with thq Dutch Ian* 
gufge« Wl;en tbey leturnctd borne to their masters at 
Camtoos river, be became their mitiisier, ineetiog witb« 
and exhorting tbem daily. When tbe boor becanae 
acquainted with what was* going on, be was very angry ; 
bowever, tbey continued to meet in a little place wbicb 
they bad fitsed up for tbe purpose* Upon one occasion^ 
%daie<tf tbe iSunMy went within bearing of tbem, unper* 
eeiv^, and tbere listened to what was going forwards 
Tbe boon's wife, wbils listening to her poor slave preaclv- 
iDg J^stts o(f NTafzaretb and tfae.Resurrection, felt the force 
of trutb iOi bifr heart* She invited tbe company to 
9)oet in her bouse, when sbe read tbe scriptures to tbem» 
yiki tbe» slave prayed and exhorted, and this practice i^ 
atiU continued^ The boor saw Mr. Read lately, w:hen 



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76 'ftEfft^DdftR : [1610; 

hed^Iared tbflt HiBskiv^mtt^'eertahily 0(^«ait from the 
Sprrit of God, for, «(iid he, he knows fsr cnore tb^n we 
cbristiafns who have had tbetHblealtour dtysiand besm^ 
ly could not: gtt all his knowledge in %ke short titaie be 
staid at Bethelsdbrp; and be cannot rdsd. . 
* Thus the gospel spread dt first, Wb^n singers ftere 
tronverted to God in tile city ot'Tbessatonita^ from thence 
ihegospri "sounds tbrougii all tbe r^igion roisnd aboutl** 
So, I trust, it is at Bethelsdorp, and I trust it is the pur^ 
iniitiixed|3;6^pel df Christ. - ;' ' 

30th. Went to For t Frederick on Algoa Boy, abo^t 
nine mil^s from Bethelsdorp* where Dr. Vanderkemp 
and Mr. Read resided ahnost a year, by permission of 
Genetal Duhdas, prior to their fixing' at Befbelsddrp; 
There wt found a small fort Mid a few bouses^ but there 
is no harbour^ which renders it very difficult to' land 
gocfdsfrom tbe sbipis^ which are sent n6w and then with 
provisions, from the Cape, for there is cous'tantly a 
dangerous surf We spent a great part of the dny with 
Major Andrews, a gentleman of reading and observation. 

April I. I received this ndoming a parcel, per post, 
from his excellency the Governor, containing six copies 
of a sernidii by the ReVi Mr. Jones^ colonial chaplain^ 
published by desire of Sir John Craddock, with tbe 
excellent design of ameliorating the circumstances of 
•the poor slaves and Hottentots. This benevolent object 
cannot be accomplished in a day, notwithstanding thef 
great pdwer invested in the Governor, and his laudabre 
anxiety to exert it for the public good. It must be a 
work 6f time. Many of the boors Will not allow theif 
female Hottentots to be called women, but maids, m 
order to make a distinction between them and their 
wive^ and daughters; metiers being considered by them 
as an inferior title. N6w such as have fVom childhood 
been trained up with those low ideas of tbe Hottentot 
people, cannot by any law be made soon to respect them.' 
Their tninds must be' tutored : they must learn that *^ of 



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one |>lood» God ^ad^; all the. paMj9»^. .that. dwj^U on. t|ie 
.&c&of the earth ;* • and that ** all ipaukiifd niu^lt appear 
})efore the j|ii4gmfqt-§eat gf Cbr^t^V ejj»fiUy.,^0 aoswei* 
to him. for the djeefla dcm^ .)» tbtajife« ,wbeilier good .or 
evil. ' ' . .\'- ' ' ■ ' : , ^ i 

Tbegoataare cpostantly ^poiliBg the gardens at Bethels- 
dorp,; QO feoce they can devise will ke^ them ^ut^ t\^y 
are «o mia^hieypus* I inquired* .vrby, in tbi$ , country 
goats are uniformly mixed yvithsheep. It u b^cavsO: cf 
their boldn^esff^ and desire to get forward: thius th^ 
lead on the sheep i^ travelling, ai^d encourage tlieaxby 
their. example, to cro^s riverSf ..&c«. Tb^r(nometieJ*j at 
aooDTS. MAich ligbtniijig, . 

2d. I walked about the village ^«ith,three of the bre-^ 
threq. Id the firf t house we eat^i:ed thierq were: four h^yt^ 
drivmg abo^t a rnillj, «f a peculiar construction^ for. 
grinding v^heat : a jroung v^omaa was f^ing tl>e mili 
by gradually ppurjng wheat into a bole in the ceotre o£ 
the upper grinding stone; and .a little girl at termed liie. 
sack which caught the meal as it fell. /At pne.ead oi 
the hoMse they were makiqg soap of sbeep'a fat» aad the 
ashes of a tree that gro^s in the neighbourhood*, whiuclt) 
they say its preferable. topot«asb^ At the:Other e«idof 
the aparti^ent^ two, female tailor? were, ^wing in««*«i 
appafel.^^ In the next house we eat^red* several men: 
were eipploy^^ in cutting dovv^. t|ie jskin of; the .bfiffalo 
to be. furniture for waggons and harness for oxep. lii s^ 
thrrdbqusel examined inany. large mfits which they had 
jiist fini^ed; these are used by the purchasers instead off 
carp^ and fo^^^^* ^^ then wentfprward to the re- 
ceptacle of the dead« which i^ hedged rppud with aloes : 
the gpives arf distinguished by stones raised upon thecn*, 
TJier^metar 70. Cloudy. Lightoing at night. 

3d. In the naorniog we went i^a waggon to vie^ a- 
salt lab^ in tbe vicinity of Bethelsdprp, which is several 
miles in circum&ren<;e. A cpnsiderable p^rt of the b^d 
was 4ry^ afld^wbite as snow^ being, co.vered Yfi\h salt, t^ut 



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fib KOIffiJSDORP. {WIS* 

iK> tbiibly 9catttr^ ^ Mt to M giklterefl Wftllbut & iiffli^i 
lure c^ sand. It hato ^xMrtly U)eia}>^niiiti6 bf iti ekl^^ 
iBite fidd of 8110^; aod locked grftud froth the m^iridttii 
tandhiiiing^lBiOst df^etotH^ ilo#ii itpto iti Ih^grlutt Alfld; 
numerous bushes, and elegant plants with which it*¥ridl 
surrounded, add^ #^^tiy to ih^ beauty of Mb iM:^^. 
On the ttiargih of ihe laki^Wb ^tt^hed il)> tta^jf" pmiA 
bf trees, coroplel^ petrifi^, or enertibt^ W4tll iAdbki 
Mire likewisb ^kandined a cilribu^ platit^ full bf t ^trib^ 
Stance reSemHlitig tutik. When likety toiMl6 th^r Aghi 
6f an eye. Dr. VaodetHbrnj^j iirifchhb botanibMikttt^Wtti 
investigating this plaM^bKiEtkiti^ otie of its ^l^^, a 811^ 
of the milk went into his disused qre, Which caiiliM 
excruciating pairi, imd litaiie hilii febr tBe entife loSi^ of 
the sight : but iff a shoft titie, tb^ pikiti Sub^d^l, arid Wi 
foundthe sight of that eye p«rtelitly restd^eA« Thet^lUiit 
is called Eupborbiunt. W<& found also a %niii}l SpHi% abmit 
fifty yafds frbm the lake^whdse watftf'ttoti^ M^altil^ th^ 
sea. On returaiog hbtoe, i^ passed otei* a iafgfe pleee 
0f ground which bad b^n fortnetly cleired and eultivated 
by the settlers, whicbjOii triaVproduted hdtMng^ arisil^ 
chiefly from a defieieney of water. 

Thermometer 70 ; cloudy-^tHMh rilM HgiitMii^, diic^ 
or twice every minute; Td night it btld ^enMlfy^ tte 
appeaianee of a moon gfaady ext^ded in letigth* I'HiM 
highly gratified while bfehcdding this gi^nd diiiplajr 6f tfe^ 
6reatop*s power. 

' 4tb. Mr. R^adpteatbed in the moitiiii^,ii{lef Which ht 
married five eoupte^ who Were neiMy drcissied, iM hls^ 
baved with mtich propriety. They stobd tn a ifem1i^ii<c% 
before the pulpit. Whenf the congrq^ion 1t^ SR^itAisiiS, 
each bridegroom fed bis bride home by tbef tfMd. 

In the afternoon, two IJbttentoi menibeb df <be tWt^i 
viz. Boo2»k and Cuf>id6 gave exb'brMttoi^ 

5tb. The boi^rs in tbia part of the c61<»iy are^neVer 
siatigfiedr unless they baLv6 twenty* (Mr fbirty BottMltota 
l^umuig about ibemf, WheA Ihey bapptiJr to IHMt^er, 



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H&RCH.] .BETSELSDORR 81^ 

tbey are full of complaints against Bethebdorp. They 
lave not employmeot for more than four or five, except 
s^^e ploughing and reaping sea^ns. Hottentots being 
90 ^ttsily obtained, is a great injury to the boor, and to 
them. ' Many of the boors have foiir or five stout sons, who 
in consequence of the fcroud of Hottentots about the 
'bdOBe, bate no occasion to put their hands to any work, 
■trti6ref0re they sit with their legs across, the greater part 
Krf'theday, or else indulge in sleep. They sometimes 
iie^tir tfaeniselves to shoot for an hour. In this way their 
Jays and years pass oh in miserable idleness. Perhaps 
tb* only thing which a Hottentot will have to do during 
a whole day, is to bring his master's whip from the next 
rodft) ; another will have to bring his mistress's fire box, 
frlader it' under her feet ; a third, to bring, two or three 
tlfcdfes, Wood'firom the fire^ to light her master's pipe. 
Ih this way the Hottentots have their habits pf idleness 
tortfirraed and increased : the boor's feel life a burden, 
because they have nothing to do, or to talk of,^ and feel- 
ing themselves miserable, tbey endeavour to derive plea- 
sure from tnaking others miserable also. This account of 
a boor's life has been related by various persons to me, 
and appear^irom what I saw to be a true picture of many, 
though not of alF. 

-i' Were boors restricted to a certain numbei* of Hbt- 
t^tct'serVants, according to the work they had for them, 
it would ultimately prove a blessing to them, and to the 
|K>ei' Hoft6ntot8* At thef same time, were such a regu- 
latiorf introduced, I believe it would occasion much un- 
eadiness arid c6naplaint, and their places would appear 
4^§efted for ^ant of Hottentots to attend them. 

Were ^.bfe families of the boors compelled by necessity 
to put tbeir "hands to the plough, they would gradually 
acquire habits 'OP industry, and" would not be satisfied 
'#ttK bavinjg a few acres of land cultivated on a farm of 
tW€il€y ittiles circumference. Sobn there 'would be no 
occa^on^ to send to the Cape for corn to feed the few 

G 



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fBL SETHEISDORP. [laiS. 

soldiers wbo are quartered here, which ia a disgrace to th^i 
part of Africa. However> the want of harbours in south. 
Africa will always form a great obstacle to the expor-. 
tationof com and other articles which might be produ^qd. 
in it, and consequently will impede the progress of cul- 
tivation. 

Here I was interrupted by the arrival of a Hotten- 
tot chief, whose name is Beoedictas I^atje Roytdrs> .wji«f 
taid he came from a day's journey off, on hearing that I, 
had arrived from a far country, and in order to thank me 
for coming. He wore a short blue jacket, and white; 
trowsers, but neither shoes nor stockings. He had a white 
lace epaulette on the right shoulder, and held in his bai^d 
a formidable staff about six feet long, with a large brass 
head, on which were his. Majesty's arrns^ presented to 
him by Government. He said, that all thia^oountry, ajnd 
also the Zuzereveld belonged to his grandfather, but they 
bad been deprived of it by the boors and Caf nea. He 
complained bitterly against the boors for the cruelties they 
bad perpetrated agait»t his helpless countrymen. He 
appeared somewhat clever. His wife was with him, with 
an infant at her breast, a fine child, about four years old, 
with two rowa of beads wound its neck, but witboul 
any other clothing. 

There are several great Hottentot captains buried in 
the rnterior. When a Hottentot passes their graves^ he 
tibrows a stone or branch upon it ; should be neglect to 
do this, be thinks he shall be drowj^ed in the first river 
he attempts to cross. Cupido, our Hottentot driver 
having surmewied this superstition, when passing any 
erf* these graves, used'quietly to get from the weggoiw aa4 
scatter the branches and stones vvbich happened to be on 
th<efn, and resumed his seat without a word. 

In the evening, the first Monday in the month* we 
united with the christians ii^ England, and in XBtaiy otb^ 
parts of the world, in. prayer for the extension of the 
kingdom of Jesus Christ among the heathen. I gave a 
discourse,, through Mr. Read as interpreter, from Matth.. 



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APBIL.] BETHELSDORP. SS 

xxiv.l4. ** And tijiifl gospel of the Kiogdom shall be 
preactied in all the world," See. At the cooeiiision, twehe 
rix dollars were collected* from the Hottentots to aid 
missions to the heathen. Well done Hottentots! Perhaps 
this sum was more in proportion to circumstances, than 
was collected that nigkt upon the same occasion in Lon- 
don. The whole of it was in very small sums. 

AH the inintbitants of Betbelsdorp were called out 
ffais mortaihg to be numbered. They had indeed a 
motley appearance^ being nostly clothed in sheep skins* 
The young people enjoyed it iQuch, though^ several of 
those who were very young, seemed greatly terrified at 
the number, noise, and bustle with which they were 
flurrounded-^they screamed incessantly till their mother^ 
removed them from the scene. — Thermometer n. ?5. 

6th. A pleasing circumstance occurred. Having 
heard a few. days ago that my valuable correspondent^ 
the late Rev. Mr. 'Newton, of London, had written an 
excellent letter to Dr. Vanderkemp, soon after A is arrival 
in Africa; I v^as anxious to see it. Mrs. Vanderkemp, 
(bis widow,) kindly promised to search for it. During 
a fruitless search for this letter, she found what bo one 
knew existed, viz. a life of the Doctor, written by hiin- 
self. I had inquired both atCape*town and at Bethels- 
dorp on my arrival, whether the Doctor had left any 
thing of this kind behind him, but they assured me he 
had not, which they accounted for by relating some 
things he had said while he'was with them. 

7th. 1^6 Landdrost came to the settlement this morn 
ing to mark the limils of their ground, but after much 
conversation, it was judged preferable to measure the 
ground completely and inake'a chart of it, which was 
to be done in a few days. 

A CafFre, the son of one of the chiefs in Caffrarja, and 
who has been a considerable time at the Institution, 

* AboUitbirty-six shilUogs sterling* 



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84 BETHELSDORP. [1813. 

and taugbt carpenter's ^ork, made me a convenient box 
for containing any varieties I might happen to obtain 
higher up Africa. 

8th. Three very aged female Hottentots came to Mr. 
Read's house, where I lodged, dressed in very gaudy 
caps, v^bich they had been accustomed to wear on par- 
ticular occasions on former days, but this was the last 
time they were to wear them ; for after taking them off, 
tbey presented them to me to take as curiosities to Eng- 
land, for which I promised handkerchiefs for their heads. 
Their names were Meetjee, Sabina, and Dortje. Tliey 
likewise gave me a piece of something like rozin, which 
is found on the sea shore. Before their husbands went 
to hunt, they used to set this on 'fire, and while the fire 
ascended, they prayed to the Great Being for their suc- 
cess. Sabina has had ten children, but not one, she said, 
died a natural death,t being killed by lions, tygers, or 
serpents! 

The following u a correct statement of the population 
of Bethelsdorp : 

A. Number of Hottentots received at Be-? ^^^j 

thelsdorp since the commencement 3 
B« Number belonging to the Institution, April 
1st. 1813. 
Men . • . , . 2i3 

Wqmen 338 r jo5^ 

Boys 243 ( 

Girls 248 

C. Present at the Institution. 

Men 94" 

Women . . , . . 206 > 608 

Ghildren . ' . . ' . 308 

Of the ninety-four men, forty are inca- 
pable of public service. Of the lifly^four 
able men, ten are herds, constantly attending 
the cattle; ten are arbiters, always employed 
for the public benefit of the settlement. 



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APEiL.] BETHELSDORP. » 

D. Born at the settlement . . • 239 

These only are found recorded in the books; 
but matiy of the parents, especially those who 
go into the service of the boors> neglect to 
report the birth of their children. 
£• Of those mentioned (letter A.) have died 142 

Of these about thirty died of the measles, 
(chiefly children,) in the year UB07. 
G. Murdered by the CaffreH, &ۥ . 16 

Of these, eight were in the service of the 
boors at the time of their murder. 
H. In Military service, abojjt . , '^^ 

In the above are not included the wives 
and children who are with them, which 
would probably make an equal number. 
I. Of those who are absent belonging to J 

letter B. in service of government without > ^8 

pay* J 

J. Those at work in ditto with pay . 20 

Dismissed the Institution for disorderly 
conduct ... . • 15 

Those not accounted for in the above 
statement, (except a few who may be dead) 
are in the service of the boors and other 
inhabitants. 
Adults.baptized . . . . 8?! 

Children ditto . . • . 113 J ^^ 
Marriages . • ... . . . 195 

Stand excommunicated from the Church 4 

There is no regular attendance at the school of a cer- 
tain number of children, but as the new method of teach- 
ing is to be introduced as soon as the plan can be ob- 
tained, it is very probable that the regular atteqdance will 
be from two to three hundred young people, though now 

* 1 believe when the Governor afterwards visited the interior 
of the colony, he ordered that none should serve government 
without somecompeasation. 



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W BETHELSDORP. [I&I3. 

sot above fifty regularly attend, aod many atbevs occa- 
wonally. 

Duriug my residence at Capetown "ifter my firrival, 
and when Cfn my journey to BetbeMorp, I h^d many 
unfavourable reports, concerning that mtsaionary aettle- 
metity. especially concerning the wretchedness of their 
habitations^ the idleness of the peopie, the want of 
civilization, the diminution x>f the property of those who 
joined it, and its being a seat of debauchery. On my ai* 
mal there, I must confess that, neither the appearance of 
the place, nor of the people came up to tire expectations 
I had formed when in Europe. In order that theSociety 
and the public may have documents on which to foxm 
their sentiments,, bow far the missionaries are ' to be 
justified 0r condemned, I shall subjoin the substance of 
Biv investigation of these matters. 



Substance of conversations mtb the niimonaries at 
BttheUdorp^ in reference to the- civil staie of that 
settlement^ at meetings held in Mr. Read's house^ 
March ^Isi. Sfc. I6l3. Present Messrs. Read, 
IJlbrichi, Wimmer, Snfiith, Corner and Bartlet. 

ON .THE CULTIVATION OF LAND, 

They stated that they bad tried to cultivate different 
p^rts of the lands of Bethelsdqrp in vain,, before they 
tame to the present place^ which tbey have now colti- 
vated with success* 

Question-^Clould you not dear part of the bill on the 
€alit^ideofZwartta)pts river? : 

Am^tv^^Tfae bushes are ftlwayt giieen, suid will not 
t)um— we tiav« tried it freqwottly* bwt witbout success. 

Q. Could you not try to inaprove some other parU of 
the lands, according to the methods enopioyed in Europe, 
which you might learn from tooks on agricukOTe ? 

A* Mr. Wimmer, who is very indostriDus ht^ulti^rating 



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▲VEliO BBTHEI3IKntP. 97 

the groiuid allotted to bim, insisted that the means.ero* 
ployed in Eirrope» would be of no use in Africa. I slated 
ill reply, that agriculture was an extensive science-^that 
diii^rent kinds ofinanure suited diffisrent grouiids« which 
ban been discovered by a variety 4>f experiments ; and 
obBerved, that it might do good were the Society to send 
out some publications on that subject 

I next stat^ the various complaints made against the 
miserable afpearattce of the village. 

A. The people have had many discouragements from 
building better housesr-^ncertainty of being permitted to 
remain at Bethelsdorp— rmany (calls opon the people to 
public $ervic&— th6 preeeat boiises looked much better 
when they W€fre fii«t built. 

' I eitated that it wciuld have a comfortable appearance, 
b%d eveiy house a garden bebind'it like those of the Mo* 
raviana<at Bavian's Kloof. 

A. The people are discouraged from doing so hy the 
barrenness of the ground wbepe the viUsige stands — the 
want of water^-the depredations of goats» &c. 

Q. Could not the small river which mos across Bethels- 
dorp be conducted so as to water these gardens ? 

A. The river is often dry, and likewise . it cannot be 
conveyed to ground so high as that on which the village 
stands. 

Q. Could the bouses be -built farther down that river, 
where the sides are lower ? 

A. The lower down the river, the less winter there is, 
andit becomes brackish, (or impregnated with salt^pe* 
tre.) 

Q. Could not the village fas built on Zwartkopts river f 

At No ; the w^ter is braqkish, and. unfit for use. 

Q. Could not more trees be planted about the vil- 
lage? 

A. The ground is so rocky and dry, they will not 
grow. 



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8S BETHELSDORP. . [18ia. 

^ Q. Could not the boys be persuaded lo dress them- 
selves ; it is shanmeful to see them running dbout in their 
present condition ? 

A. Though they were to. receive a present of clothes 
to day, they would be fond of them for a few days, and 
\ye proud oF the£n» but would soon lose or throw tbem 
away — it is not so easy as many persons suppose to pro- 
duce a change of habits among such people; 

Q. Could not the females be prevailed upon. to dress 
better ? ' 

A. They have often been' advised to do so, and many 
dress better than they did« 

In consequence of it being currently reported in the 
colony, that the settlers at Bethelsdorp had brought' widi 
them about six thousand cattle, which had been reduced 
to two thousand, from their idleness, I made the following 
investigation of this matter in the presence of Mr; Read 
and six Hottentots belonging to the settlement. ' 

In Mr. Read's book, it is stated, that in the year 1803, 
the number of cattle at the settlement was 218. ' 

In 1808, the next year of which there was any record, 
there were li81,of which number about 300 were calves 
of that year. 

In 1812, the number was increased to 1904. 
In 1813, they were increased to 2206. 400 of these 
were calved that year. 

Tliereisa disease to which calves are subject,' which 
carries off, upon an average, about one hundred pet 
annum. 

From every enquiry that Mr. Read has made, he can- 
not find that more than fifty head of cattle have been 
slaughtered in any one year. Six of the best informed 
Hottentots being present at this investigation, could only 
recollect ten that had been slaughtered during the last 
twelvemonths. 
Besides the number of cattle slaughtered, and calves 



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Af^Ei!..] BETHELSDORP. M 

dying, many have been stolen by the Caffres, and many 
destroyed by wolves and other wild beasts. 

William Valentine, present, said, that when he joined 
the settlement he had nine oxen, and that now he has 
seventeen and a waggon, besides five oxen he gave for a 
horse that died, and five be has lent out; he has one 
fedrse. 

Andrew Pretorius, (a bushman,) stated, that when he 
came to Betbielsdorp he had four oxen, and has now ten and 
a waggon, and one horse, beside^ four stolen by the Caffres, 
He stated, that from childhood until he joined the Institu- 
tioQ in 1806, his thirty-third year, he had served a boor, 
for which long service he received one heifer and six ewes. 
Being asked how he had four oxen when he came to, the 
settlement, since he had received only one heifer from 
the boor; these oxen, he said, he procured by making iron 
rings at leisure hours in the evehihgs. In one year at the 
Inistitution he earned two hundred dollars, with which he 
purchased a waggon from his former master. He has 
large fields and a plough ; and provides for a vvife and 

eight children of his own, and two orphans. 

John Valentine, uncle to the above, said he had no 

oxen when he came to the settlement — he has now six 

and a waggon, for which he gave eight oxen. He has 

two horses, for which he gave three oxen. 

Boosak stated, that he had two oxen when he came to 

Bethelsdorp^ — has nine oxen and ayvaggon. Has to 

provide for a wife and seven children. 

Cupido bad four oxen and a cart when he came to 

Bethelsdorp-T-has now ten oxen and a waggon. 

Cruse Windfogil had two oxen enjoining thelnstitu- 

tion-^has now ten oxen and a waggon. 

William Plagy who came six years ago, and had 

nothing— has^ now six oxen, and provides for a wif(Q, our 

children and his wife's father and mother, who are old and 

infirm. 



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90 QBT9fiLSD01». [18tS; 

Piet Manual brought with him a waggon and ^ved 
oxen^ about four years ago, has now eight oxen, apd has 
sold three, and two were stolen from him by the Caftres. 

I inquired if they knew of any belonging to the settle- 
irient, who brought more oxen than they possessed at 
the present — after much conversation among the six 
Hottentots, they said they recollected none ; but one; of 
them (William Valentine,) stated, that his aged father 
who came to Bethelsdorp two years ^o with nine oxen^ 
has now sixteen. 

It is proper to remark here, that all the above have 
cows ; but I only took an account of their oxen, as be- 
ing more connected with their industry. They appear 
more desirous to obtain some substantial property that 
will bring in something for the support of their families, 
such as waggons and oxen, than they are to obtain drea% 
good houses, furniture, &c. supposing that these othef 
things must follow the obtaining waggons and o^eq. 
Many are living sparingly, to save money in order to pro- 
cure, waggons and oxen, because little can be done to 
obtain a living in this part of Africa without these. 

Those who have obtained most property; are such as 
have remained most constantly at the settlement; while 
those who have been much in the service of the boors 
have gained little. Some of those who were present 
have Hottentots in their service, to whom they give 
twelve.dollars (with other advantages) m the year. 

Boosak, stated, that with his two Hottentot servants, be 
had during the last month, earned fifty-two dollars, a^nd 
had lent his waggon to a merchant of Uitenbagen, to 
go. to Graaf Reynet, for thirty dollars. Another Hot- 
tentot, with his two servants, by cutting and sawiqg 
wood,, earned in two weeks, some time ago, .one hun- 
dred dollars-rbut in consequence of the great number 
constantly called away, during the last twelve months 
to public service, few have been able to earn m^ch^ 



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iHit tbey hope tbU hiiMitance willoDlyxoalioue a short 
time. 

Inquicp r&p€cting Sikep and Goats. 

I inquii'ed, if at any former period tbey bad more of 
these BBimals than there are at the settlement at pre« 
6ent. 

Tbey unanimously declared, that there are as many 
^t Bethelsdorp now, as at any former period. Boosak 
aaid, that whien he came to the settlement, he bi*ought 
with him a hundred sheep and gdats, bnt that having 
afteirwardB gone with them to the place of Mrs. Varoy, 
tnb8tt>f th^m died of a disease, prevalent at that time; 
he then -sold the remainder, lest they should die also. 
There are at present belonging to the people at Bethels- 
tlorp, about fourteen hundred sheep and goats : and a 
few months ago an order was given to settlers, that no 
^we fit for breeding should be killed> 

Disease. 

Spent part of April 2d and 5th, in the examination of 
ten men and two of their wives concerning the truth of 
the report I had heard that Bethelsdorp was a seat of 
n loathsome disease. 

I found that it was so» in \ the same way that the 
Lock Hospital, Peuiteotkiry, Magdalen, or other hospi- 
tals in London may be so considered-«**that four men 
and seventeen women had beett affected with it-^hat 
every one of these brought it with them to the set« 
tlenient ; and I have the names of .all the families firon 
whence they came, (except one H^entot, who brought 
it with him from the trunk (or prison) ui Cape-town, 
where he had been confined a» a witness called up to a 
trial,) which for prudential reasons. I iarbear publish^* 
ing. 

"f he mis^ienaries are not sent to such countries to 



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92 BETHELSDORP. £18I3« 

call the righteous but sinners to repentance, and wete 
they only to receive Hottentots of good character to -their 
settlements, they would appear ridiculous to the whole 
world. Physicians ar^ not intended for the healthy, but 
for the sick ; in like manner the great concern of a good 
missionary should be the instruction of the ignorant, 
. and the reclaiming of the vicious. If such as circulate 
reports like the above, in order to prejudice the minds 
of governors against missionary institutions, could prove 
that missionaries receive and retain bad characters in 
their churches or christian societies, their complaints 
would be just, and deserving immediate attention ; but I 
do not believe there is a missionary in South Africa ca- 
pable of so glaring a breach of the commandments of 
Jesus Christ. 

J I have briefly touched upon this delicate and dig*. 
agreeable point, chiefly for the sake of the white inhabit- 
ants of the colony of the Cape of Good Hope, with whom 
the poor Hottentotlfe are intermixed, that they may be 
informed of the true state of the case« 

Charge of Idleness at Bethelsdorp. 
That many of the inhabitants are inclined to be idle 
I have no doubt ; many such are to be found in the 
most industrious towns in England, though undoubtedly 
there is a far greater proportion among Hottentots; but 
is this wonderful, when we attend to their early habits ? 
Their wants bdng few, work is neglected; they have not 
the same inducements to active exertion as the inhabit- 
ants of such a country as England. If a Hottentot ob»- 
tain barely enough to support nature he is satisfied, and 
.can sleep contented in his. sheep skin, under any bush. 
If brought up in the service of a boor, Jie has so many 
fellow. servants, and the boor so little work to perform, 
that very little labour falls to the lot of an individual. 
< A farmer's servant in England has more actual labour 
to accomplish than is assigned to six servjiuts of an Afri« 



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AP&iu] BETHELSDORP. 93 

can boor. Thus being accustomed to a life of inddlence 
in youth, it is a very diflScult matter indeed to acquire 
a habit of industry in riper age. Those who have been 
brought up in Hottentot kraals^ have been accustomed 
still more to idleness and sloth than even those who 
have been reared in the service of the boors. Mr. Ki- 
cherer, minister of Graaf Reynet; once remarked to me, 
that a bushman would willingly go a journey of two 
days for a piece of tobacco ; but he would not dig five 
spadefuls of earth for the same reward ; and from what 
I have since seen of that people,! believe Mr. Kicherer's 
testimony to be correct. 

Labour and civilization are not to be forced instantane- 
ously on any people, but must be effected by gradual 
progression. The Spaniards in South America had &o 
intense a thirst for the golden ore, after its discovery and 
conquest, that they had not patience to lead forward the 
feeble natives of that region by degrees to labour in their 
mines, but compelled them to work like men that had 
long been inured to hard labour; the result was, the 
almost entire depopulatioti of the country. 

That many of the Hottentots of Bethelsdorp are in- 
dustrious, will appear by the statement of various facts. 
I found among them eighteen different employments, viz. 
smiths, carpenters, waggon-makers, basket-makers, 
blanket-makers, (viz. of sheep's skins sewed together 
very neatly, bought by officers in the army, &c.) tobacco 
^pipei*makers, sawyers, turners, hewers of wood, carriers, 
soap-boilers, mat-manufacturers, stocking makers, tay- 
Jors, brick-makers, thatchers, coopers, and lime-burneis, 
likewisje an auctioneer and a miller. That these eighteen 
trades exist at Bethelsdorp, I have no doubt ; but should 
a man think of a trade at Bethelsdorp as he thinks 
of a trade in England, he would say there are only snmvths, 
carpenters, farmers, and thatchers ; but that would be as 
ridiculous, as if a person going to a friend's house to see 
his first born son on the day of his birth, should expect 



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04 BETHEUDORF. [1813. 

to find a man six fert higb^ and go away disappointed^* 
telling M the world that be saw noson, bat only a little 
creaturcr a span long. Peopte foiget that arts among Hot*** 
tentots are only in their infancy. Great as trades aie 
now in England, tinne was, wben they were as inconsider«*^ 
abe as now at Bethelsdorp. 

I found also a fund maintained by the memb^ra of 
the institution for the support of the poor and eidt/ 
which at present amounts to two hundred and fifty rix 
dollats. Each rrx dollar is fb«ir shillings currency. The 
peopk have also oftered to build an asylum fbr their ve^ 
caption. 

There is another fund called the comfoon fund, for de- 
fraying expences incurred for" promoting tile geDeral 
prosperity of the institution, which amounta t» one! 
hundred and thirty dollars, and about tliirty liead of cattle. 
The original stock of these cattle were preseAted to tlie 
institution by General Dundas, when he was Got^ernor ot 
the Cape, and they have m<ultiplied to the libove* number* 

They have also collected, during the last twtkv9 
months, seventy rix<-doUars, to aid tbe fund of the Mis* 
aionary Society. They have likewise, with great labour, 
cleared and cultivated many fields. Though I cannot 
aay all I should wish to be able to say, in favour of 
Bethelsdorp in a civil point of view, yet the above facts 
will be pleasing to the mind^ of the unprejudiced^ and 
induce them soon to expect to hear of greater things.- - " 

No man who knows any thing of the Moravians will 
condemn them for want of exertion to improve their 
people in civilization ; yet in visiting their 8ett4ements, 
you will find Hottentots in their original, native, scanty 
skin dress, the same as at Bethelsdorp, and living in as 
mean houses; and you will hear the missionaries speak* 
ing with regret concerning the indolence of many of the 
settlers. Troth however obliges me toconfesn, that had 
the founder of Bethelsdorp (Dr* Vanderkemp,) been 
more aware of the importance of ciYilizaCiQn> there 



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APMA«1 BBVIlECaDOltP. ^ 

might at leftst have betti more external tf>pearaitce of it' 
than there now is.. He seeois to have judged it nteces* 
saiy, lather to imitate the savage ^in appearance, thafi to 
induce the saTage to imitate hrm-^erbaps, conaidering> 
hie cofidiict eouiiteoanced by what Pael says, of his bei* 
coming all things to all men, that be might gain some* 
The Doctor would appear in public witbouthat/stock- 
iiq[s op sboea, and probably without a coat. I leave it t^ 
conbieDtatorA to determine bow far tbat passage did or 
di4 not Muntenance his practice ; but I never fae^rd of 
ai)f other missionary following his example* 

I know that the flying reports against Bethelsdorp in 
the colony, have been shipped oft to London by gentle'- 
men of various casts; and though some of them can say 
tbat they have seen Bethelsdorp, which natumlly gives 
currency to their reports, yet I must say that I never 
heard of one man (though I made inquiry,^ who ever 
rMtiained a sufficient time to know what Bethelsdorp 
really was. Had the ground on which the village stands 
been fertile enough to raise trees and gardens, this would 
hav0 satisfied most; they would have written in praise of 
the beauties of Betbetsdarp; but glory to God, Bethels^ 
dorp has been the birth-place of many a child of Ood» 
many an hetr of eternal life; yet this indubitable fact ia 
seldom put jnto the opposite scale. 



CHAP. vm. 



Depdrtureffom BetheUdorp — Traveb in Albany — Arrival 
at GrahanC$ Town. 

Albaut, (formerly called Zure*Feld,) was once the 
country of the, Gonaquaas, a nation now extinct, ia con- 
sequence partly of intermarriages with the Hottentots on 
the one hand^ and the Cailreson the others but chiefly by 



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96 JOURNEY TO ALBANY. [181ft 

tile murders committed by the Caffres. The Caffres had 
long maititatned possession of Albany,, from which they 
have lately been driven as intruders^ which it appears 
they were, and this is one principal cause of the present 
Caffre war. Albany is bounded on the east, by the 
Indian ocean; On the north by Caffraria, from which it 
is divided by the Great Fish River ; on the west by the 
Drosdy of Graaf Reynet; and on the south by the 
Drosdy of Uitenhagen, from which it is separated bythe 
Sondag* river. It is a country which remains to be peo- 
pled, as there are few inhabitants, except at military 
posts, which have been erected toch^ck the incursions of 
the Caffres, who are a bold, plundering, and enterprizing 
nation. Notwithstanding the utmost vigilance of the 
military at these posts, the Caffres are continually mak- 
ing depredations upon the colonists, and carrying off 
their cattle; 

The government having kindly offered one or two 
places in that district for new missionary stations, I re- 
served to inspect it with the view of selecting suitable 
situations. While I remained at Betbelsdorp, I obtained 
much infotrtiation respecting it from Colonel Vickers, 
civil and. military commandant of the interior districts, 
to. whom I h:id been kindly recommended by letters from 
his excellency Sir John Cradock, the governor, and 
H. Alexander, Esq. colonial secretary. 

Having remained about tbree weeks at Betbelsdorp, 
I determined to take my departure on a journey to Al- 
bany on the 9th of April, 1813, accompanied by my 
worthy friends Messrs. Read and Ulbricht, missionaries: 
the former designing to travel with me to all the stations, 
the latter only to Albany. Most of the inhabitants of 
Betbelsdorp came out to witness our departure, and bid 
us firewell. We had two waggons of our own, and four 
belonging to the people of Betbelsdorp, who were to 
accompany us as friends for a few days. Our own oxen 
and a third waggon were to join us at Graaf Reynet, 



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AtWj.] .lOURNWr TO, ALBANY. « 

Vbera yp^ ^expected to arriviB m{ abtfui^j t fortnight^ 
Upwards of a buudred people follQ^ed us from.the Bet*- 
.tlemeot for, some time. .fe*it,a» we advanced or opr joui> 
my 9 they gj^adually left u^ and i*eturaed bame* 

At teo, . A»M, we cros^eri Zwartkop's river^ and a lit* 
tie afterwards we baited at a salt jake» abou,t a. mile a^ 
a half in circumference, i^^bicb supplies nW tbe fiiurround-^ 
ing country with that n^c^ssary article, by tbQ cpllectin^ 
^hd transporting of wbicb,,som.e of tbe settlet^at fietbelsr 
doip obtain {mrt of their, living* It. exactly i r0iieinbl£[d a 
£eldpf snow, and imsiediatejy remind^ tne<4 the re- 
gion9 of, the nor^tb during winter. Tho^\\:^e ,h^!^ 
oojy for. a few o^in^tes,. our people filled two sactk^ tffiXk 
salt to^sejTve os .01^ our jc^rney. Tbe noal^ at tbis&im^ 
was aboti^ti eighteen infi^iQs deep, and tbd Whole bottom 
wa^ covered with ^ cruat o]i*«alt about, an inch, .and a balf 
thick; but what we collected was found lying .h>o^ ait 
the side, beipg driven thither by the Uttle w^n^ raised by 
the ^ind* : . . - , : . ' : . 

At nopn w^ c)*06sed the Cougha riVer, and halted at 
Ooe P, a^.; for the sak^ of water, an ekcellcnt foutkiambt 
which .vfas on the, sid^ of a brook of boackRh watery 
which bad ft nauseous taate; yet. this. fountaiil baa pim 
bably rqa^ain^d forjcenturies past oboaked pp(and:aikrtt)st 
inyisiblebx rushers ^and w^eds, because it ivouidTeqiure 
^en or twen^ minutes labour to remove these vobdbruc^ 
tionij. On. viewing^ it through, the rushes,, a spade was 
sent for, and all present invited, to assist inclearing away 
^bat concealed it,, while; Messr§« Read and Bartlet dug 
put the mud^ and formed it into a proper shape* In ft 
very short time it a^umed the appearance oC a n^at and 
cleait well, inviting to all .wlw.viewed it. We named it 
Bartlet's Fountain, because be. was chief workman on the 
occasion. . 

About thirty. p€a«ons> besides, our owii party, dined 
upon tb^ grass, ,; After dinner, a Hottentot belonging to 
Bethelsdorp approached us^ mounted upon an ox. Being 

H 



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9» 30V6m.Y1XfAtRAm. [iSJS. 

«l$ked trkert b% had b0eit> he'safd ^erj »imp]f, tii^be 



tifld bel^n^^ok place iti Aibarty in stearcb of ft Rf^i^iB lie kad 
Mt b^b4Kid>lirmi^t«ta^d tber6,^^d that beh^fdtind i4^ 
This was^jcmj-riey^of^kif ttules for 4 ctaejpki^i^, v^hocii 
iii'ty d«lo1tyiis' dnl3> tWfih '^b«eett-p«bce(,ir«<^T8|)Wtive 
iaf the baSaFd>d$ ni^ il.tldifig it'^Affonf the'g^^^ : . - 
• At fivfei^ ^, Mi w« 4feS(^nded Mura^j'ef*"^ Height, s» 
^ail^ in eciilse4uei][c^<^f^6^eC^frres' tiavinj^'iflui^jred. 
•a titihibe^'^ tidtte^tbt^ t1l«fr^,^ aboilt t^^tt*y y€tty^ igiJii 
A lime ^fer /^tttt-det we ^ttife t^the barito of the $6a^ 
tlag,s (dr Si^a^^ river,'ivliteb-m 1^*% of tfie^tefgfefefc totbii 
Jpaiif> 6f Africa aiifl d i V^M^ fb^.©^piity Di'dsdy bj? ABM^iiy 
<p^» tJb Dw»% of tf Itenftagiftd.' Wfcj i«*al*:ed^a(t^#iV.'tf*« 
«t(3e^< sid^i^ t^^the river *tb'^l(^in'ifiC^ i^ de^lh, ;!& fwd 
Wdggofa»'<ba^ b€l4n 4>tei*iatbaEl two day^ b6ff<il^ by tfa6 
atmiigthJ^f tht cui¥ent^ \ibfiri aft^itipting to criws It, tod 
^ete With dilBculty. sav6^d. The stream was bfiad' and 
rApkJ; ' Om df our Hottentots examinckl ther *9^td on 
horseback, pointing out the -shallowest place for ouir 
Iva^gOBsito cross. My waggdtl Was allowed the honour 
of cklBsing first. If ffiine had be^ti eieirried doWi^ by tbe 
current, the others would not' bttye dtteuipted f6 cross, 
till the following n!iori)ibg;bti«tber^ was anotheir and 
better lieasoii.? as ibe 0xen in liajr waggon Were tfte best, 
Ibei^ jcrdsdiDg/would iadte the ^th^i*s to fdflow. In tTi^ 
coiuise ©f an hocrr ail out five waggons land the drit«tt 
ojsen safely arrired on the opposite side 6f the titter. 
Two of the oxen in one of the Waggons Idy down in the 
middle of the stream, seemingly frdm terror, •which 
pcpisioned some trouble. However, by adding ten oxcti 
t9 the twelve that were already ybked to tlie Waggoh,lh6 
passage wasr effected. We halted^ for the night slbout 
tbre^jmilea higber up the river. 

10th. We were all on foot at sun-rise, and, aft^^ 
WQB^bip luttd bnaafcfeat, were ready to proceed on our 
JQurney ; but the oxeil haviug strayed, not ohe could be 
found. . This was occasioficA by the coUtitry beii?g 



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-ii'ftiL.] ^Wjll*ffeY TO AtBAl^Y. ^ 

Covered wJ<h tall bashes, much hrgher than the cattle, 
consequ^titly they cahnot be sjfeen at a distance. How- 
ever in stbout thre6 hours, twelve of oUr people returned 
driving thie cattle brfore fhem, tvhicb was an Jigreeablfe 
i\ghti Abotft ti?o o'clo?6Tc we halted urtdef trees at the 
hill A<ldo', whfere an att of gehefalship had been per* 
formed by a party of CafTres, against a commando of 
Dk3K^, Who, With their Hottentot servants came' to oppose 
th^iW- Th^advancfe of thfe Dutch arrtiy was along the 
!o# coutitry. The CdfTres cut dowifi many trees and 
bt(^bei»; with which they blocked up the road, placing 
V a deMehfttent bi»hihd. On the boors coming up, they 
attempted to retnove this (jrbitrtctiett. While thufe em- 
filoyed,- the taflFi*es dispatched patt of their company 
by another way, who eotoitng behind the boors, surromid* 
ed thefti. Tb'ey called foif quartef, and obtained it, whea 
they cgrm^ td ad dgrteftient, thiit the bo'ors should return 
home, and not further molest them; upon Which the 
CaiR-es re*t6red to them their arrhs, and bid them depart; 
brt the perfidious boo 1*8 ftfaving secretly sent off a persoli 
U> haetert the march of those behind, they came upi 
ifrhen t\\ the boors fell updn the unsuspecting Caffres, 
afifd af e said to have destroyed them all 

Departed fmni Addo hill about five P.M. and at eight 
o'clock Itelted niear a clunip of trees iA an open country* 
The trtiesi were low evergreens, so thick that they were 
hrtpen^ftHtWe, e^tcept at about three places, two of which 
appear^ to be made by- the wild beasts; the other wa9 
a kind of house, cut out prbbably by the Cafl'res, Thi^ 
gteen-hbu^e affbtded very cdmfortable shelter during th^ 
Aighrt ffdm thie Wfnd, Which blew eoW. In the middW 
of this green-house, a large fire was speedily Kindled, 
Which our company surrounded, when Mr. Ulbricht, by 
the assistance of fife and candle, read d chapter of scrip- 
fare, afitd addf eslsed us froth it*; after which We engaged 
ift prayer and prdlse, as Wai dui* tustoni during the jotff* 
ii<Jy. A psilnfmg of Irfie various countehanc^ 6t ih€ 

H2 



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100 JOURNEY IN ALBANY, : [1818. 

companyy and the curious postures in which tbey sat, as 
discovered by the fire-light, would have been highly gra- 
tifying to friends in England. Worship being over, the 
company dispersed to five separate fires, and we repaired 
to our tents to sup. Mats were then spread under the 
thicket, where most of our people had a good nigbt's 
rfest 

11th. After sun^rise, Mr..Read led the worship, when 
we departed wkh the view of reaching a boor's place, 
where there was a military stationv that they might have 
an opportunity (being the Lord's day,) to hear the gospel 
of Jesus Christ. The country through which we travel* 
led^ though completely in a state of nature, was beau ti* 
ful in the extreme, much resembling a nobleman's park 
in England. The ground was covered with the finest 
grass, tuterspersed with single trees and clumps of treea 
in all directions, which appeared a charming spot for a 
missionary settlement/ 

About eleveuy A M. arrived at tliie military station.*-^ 
The officer with his soldiers^ and the boor with his fa^ 
niilyf attended our meeting for worship, and thankfully 
received the tracts we had for distribution. There being 
another military station about three hoursjoumey distant, 
where many of the Betbelsdorp Hottentots, belonging to. 
theX7ape regiment were, we employed one of our wag« 
gons, and went to visit them* Our road waa a kind of 
foot path over hills, and was attended with some diffit 
culty to tbe waggon. At five P. M« we came insight oC 
a beautiful valley between the mountains, of about four 
miles extent* The sides of the mountains were covered 
with Cafire gardens, among the trees, frOm whence they 
bad lately been driven by the military. The skeletons of 
many of their houses remained, anid some tobacco was 
still growing; but all their corn fields were destroyed. — 
The hills were covered with trees to the top, and were 
divided by the course of a riven Formerly the whole 
was covered with Cafire villages^ but now there is not 



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^PRIL.] JOURNEY IN ALBANY. 101 

a living soul, but stillness every where reigns. On reach- 
iqg the bottom of the valley, we turned round the hill 
ivbich formed the opposite side, on our right, which in- 
troduced us into a small circular plain, yielding abund« 
ant grass of the richest kind. The scenery around was 
romiantic and grand in the highest degree. The road from 
this plain to the fort lay through a narrow pass between 
im^^ending mountains, clothed with the trees of foriner 
ages. It was nearly dark, and we had reason to suspect 
thtt tbe Caffres lay concealed in the woods. Owing to 
the windings of the river, we were obliged to cross it se- 
veral times, and the steep ascents and descents afforded 
additional trouble. At length we arrived at the desired 
fort, where I found both the officers who commanded 
were my countrymen; Messrs. Bo^e and Mackinnes, 
from Glasgow and Galloway, who received us very kind- 
ly. Their situation is so retired and renrote from the ha- 
bitations of other men, that they seem to live almost oat 
of the world. The Hottentots who accompanied us were 
received joyfully by their brethren^ the soldiers in the 
fort, who were about fifty ; indeed the whole garrison 
consisted of liottentots, except the two officers and two 
of the Serjeants. After a cap of .coffee, Mr. Read, with 
tbe approbation of the commanding officer, preached to 
Ifae people of the garrison, our company, and the Hot- 
tentots Who had taken refuge under the protection of tbe 
fojrt, in B^imber about a hundred. After much conversa- 
tion we retired to rest. 

l^tb. During the night there was much rain^ At se- 
ven, A. M. Mr. Ulbricht preached to the people; who 
were, as on the former occasion, veiy attentive. Mr. Bogle 
bad resided here eighteen months, during which time he 
bad received but three visitors, all officers. It is won- 
derful that men are found willing to make so great a sa- 
crifice, for such an object Their country can scarcely 
r^y them. . Tbe garriison is surrounded by a ditch and 



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P^ JOURNEY IV ALBANY> [1813, 

pali^adpes syiBcieot to prevent surprise fraixi' tli^ CaffretK 
in th<e night. 

We r^olved to depart ip «iearch of a pl^e w^biqb 
Cqionei Vick.ers recoromepded as proper for a missioo^ry 
^tftt'iop, bi||tfouHii it d^^cult to ascertain w^ere it waa^ 
as hi^rdly any pipce m that paradjsie of a country baa r^r 
ceived a naipe. Nodo^bt the Gopaqiias, iand after tk^pfs 
the Caffres, gave names to many of the bilis^ rivers* ^iHi| 
brooks, but most of these are upknown. 

IJad there not bee)9 war* we certaipiy shpji^Id h;^ve yU 
sited Geika, tbeCaffre' king, ivjiose reaidepce is ac^iceljF 
five days journey from Mr. BjQg^> post 

At eleven we departed, attended by 'the guide we bf4 
brought from the fort at Sand^flat, where tl|e rest pf o^^ 
waggons remained, and si^^ Hptteptots frppi Mr. BQgIe« 
to whom he had given passes. One of theoa w^s a §eiv 
jeantwho, having symptoms of . a decline, was anxio.u^ 
to embrace the opportunity of going with ps to the 
Droady to consult the medical gentlemen ther^. Wir* 
Bc^lc, with great humanity, takes care of a Caff/e girl 
about five years of age, whose mother was accidentally 
killed in a skirmish, and whose falser flied wijbb hi^ 
countrymen into Caffraria. Sbe baa a pleasant appear- 
ance, and s^ms at home in tfaegaKison- Her seeiiig ber 
father again diepends on peace being restoi^d between the 
colony and the Caffres, which in aU probability will iK>t 
be soon. The water at the post is good, yet has the ap«« 
pearance of being mixed with milk. 
- At noon, the nain began to fall veiy fast, ip^hiietiia^^I. 
ling along the Zuurberg, (or ISoar-hill,! wbicb rendered 
the descent so slippery, that it was diificjilt to aaanageihe 
waggon, the oxen being unable to keep it back. Tb^ lafi? 
pearance of the country was beautiful, and alioup4le4 
with hills, trees, and verdant grass. We again pa$i^ 
many Caffre gardens^ which liad lately beeo destf<>}refi 
by the soldiery, lest tbey shonU be a temptaiioii to tjii^ 



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^9fies to* ut^Tu^ Pq examining the groju^d nrhi^tlfr^ 
Buppqmd .W|^ tbfit wbicfa had been recompc^p^l^ ff^v «^ 
ipimo^ary statioB, there did <ioJt appear to b^ a ^ufflqiont 
<}ttaQtity of wat|sr« and th(i( popls we sayf. are pfpbfbli)^) 
wilboiH lf%ter ^Upg^tber in tb^ 4ry ae^^u^* There im 
ifi^l9^ jlkenty lof ^o^ for biiildipg. Pi^ vanoiid p^U./p£ 
tiie gr^n^, th^ gnu^s is gpQd> and tinqiber for bnildkng; 
abwnAi io ev^ry diffeetvoi}* . 

W^.arrivedahoftitfpgr Pf M. at 0iir.waggpT>safc3»Bdr. 

flaiu Th^rP h9d (>Qe^ an uo<:MG|moji &U4^3w>w during 

Qqr at>9Qnci?, Though tve bad tra«ell§d oyer, a part of. 

the cpMfijtry w-bj^ns ^<^phatit8.and other w tld beasis ahouad^ 

I zsd wh^m Caffres oft^q lurk, we mitbfft saw nor faeaidf 

When all our w^aggpns were' packed, and nearly n^tdy^ 
<;d defmt, it jw'aa j udged h&tter . to . poatpone our jouraey 
iwtii the n)orning» rather than begin it only an ho«r bej 
f^i^.^m^i-aet^ ^ tk^ road was somewhat tn^ci^ttt. W« 
iriaited Li^nienani: Flecbwood» the officer atibeaiiiitarjr 
]^t^ wbooi we found sitting in hiy but, attentively p<H 
ri«Hiig tbe newspapers I had left with. him. He is the 
aoiy o^ioerai thi» post* wfauch mnders bis aituftion exw 
treaiely.«olilBry» having none to associate with except 
the cpmaftda 4didieiB, and a boor and family who fcnew> 
aadiiiif*' He ia a;nattTeiof HesS(e, in Germanyy*wh€[R» 
baviiig^.aidedl in a«i insurrection against the Frenebv/ in 
which most of the insurgents were sitting bs escaped, witW 
tivro odiers, to England; and obtained fironutbe Duke of 
Tork, a oommnaion U\ the .fiOth regilneilt; :^l|i8 Ubmry» 
aoDsts^d only of a Dicltonary and AltiMtnack, which ren^ 
dered hdsiituatioQ the more irksome; hja-made, howeveiv 
9D co«^)laint8» . . . ; r. .j 

- Thr ^nts. -we. remarkably troiibtes4me tbera* Lleol/ 
Fleebwpod tpid os, U^athis augar and 4)utter were cM^ 
stantty irtiested by t\yem* Mr. Read recommended placing 
theai:4ittiieilttiddli^of4ibaMa of waters as theoniy pr6# 



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i^ JOURNEY !N ALBANY, [ISIftt 

Vditlve, fbr ev^n though suspended from the rt)bf by «( 
SHiall cord, they would find their way by that cord. 

13th. Left Sand-flat at seven in thiemdrnirig', and soon 
(dame in sighfeof some Springbucks, wbkh afforded great 
imt^rtainment, from their springing at le^t six feet everj>* 
leap in height, and several yards' in kngth^ However 
Bear a person may be to ttietii, no motion of their leg»^ 
can be perceived ; the instant they toiiichtbegroiindaftef' 
one spring, they rise agaiia into the air, which makea 
their motion resembie flying% At nine, A. M. we pass*, 
edamiiitaiy post, commanded by Lieutenant £as6oti} 
sear it I observed an ant-hill, the largest I had aaen^ ap^ 
parently- about five feet in height, and twelve m circum* 
ference: we then crossed Bushman^s river, and halted for^ 
worship andrbfeakfa«t on tlie other side^ 
'/ Departed at three P." M. travelling over a level country, 
without .tree or bush, till eight in the evenihg, when we 
halted at Aaaagai Buah, near to which stands a fort and ^ 
boorV houfiib^ : The boor told us they bad been bunting 
two liona the greater part of the day, without success^ 
owing to the. nomber of bushes, and that they hltd seen 
many elephants on the ptaiaa; noneof usy hdwever^ were) 
anxious to. see tfaeoi« being of the same mind with an; 
officer^ whaBiaidibe never wished tasee witd beo s tn ^ ea^ 
eept when he bad to p^y for tbe ^sigli t ; then be believed 
be wds aafa. .The lugfat was wet andmndomfOrt^ble*-^' 
Tberptonp^ter sA noon, 65« 

l4tlu Detiaitteda%eigbtA:M. and. tmveUe^ over* ait 
^tcndfed|llaiaitilUwaP. M. During this mawmentwe 
saw four' di:o^«9 ol qiiachas, wbicb«^em. to be a specia* 
^)tt«e sebra* ahaplec) like an ass, but tbe sixe of a mulct-** 
two droves of eiland (or elk) about the size of aa o^ 
Ylliti Aong straight horns, which lie mueh upon tbe 
sbauldera..wben mt^mpg. We killed a young one,:wlii€l4 
was. immediately -skinned and tutup, and part of it eatei^ 
fQr^iD^§^ We ;v;er^ alsp gtatified by anofbtiser sigbt «t 



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A^wf fi] JOURNEY IN ALBANY, )05 

•priagbuilks, wbea the height tbey- sprang was almost 
iocredible; the ground on which tbey lighted seemed 88 
if it had been elastic. 

During the day^ one of our Hottentots saw five ele# 

pi^aata on the other side of a small hill, near the place 

where we halted* tn Iheevening, not being able to get 

forward in consequence of the rain» I invited three well 

informed Hottei^ats into my tent» who had resided in 

Caffipe^and, in order to obtain as much additional infor^ 

mation <as I oonld, respecting tbat people^ Having about 

sixty questions written, I proposed these in their order* 

When we Juid got about half through the list, the Hot«» 

tentots feeling themselves greatly -fatigued by the eSbrf 

of mind *which the answers required, begged tbat what 

remained might be put off to another time, upon which 

our company broke up. The rain coming fast through 

*tbe tent, induced us to try a fire in the insjde to keep it 

dry; bpttlieso^oke soon obliged us to remove it, 

. l:5thr The people. were dispatched at an early hour to 

collect and bring in our cattle» in order to proceed on our 

journey: While at breakfast, we observed Boozak on 

borsebsKsk, galloping down a hill opposite, when I pre- 

dieted he was a -ipessenger of bad tidings, — that the 

Caffres bad o^Med off our cattle, On arriving, he ran 

to hisgun, saying, the Caffres had carried off the oxen * 

In a few toiiiutes, sfijt of ' our people were dispatched in 

searebbf them, and a messenger on horseback sent to 

irieutsnaidt Gare, whooommanded the nearest military 

)H>6t, with the information, rec^^uesting his assistance to 

recover tbetn^ We retained two or three armed men for 

eur*owt) protection. This was a new situation in* which 

we were f^laced, having waggons, but not a single animat 

todt-aw them, and the heavens pouring down rein in tor* 

reals. At nineA«Mv we heard distinctly the repqxt of 

three guns, wbrcb our people conjectured was a signal 

1^ the oxen were reeovered. At ten A.M. Mr. Read 

filled to me tbat the cattle were in^ sight^ soon after 



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1^ J^VftHBY W ^V94mA. [ltm$t 

^bich tbi^y arrived- Ifrdidnot 9pp^r'ib%t 'tiie cattlf» 

baid been ipafried qShy.ib^ CW/ee, but mtber l^hat a liism 

or wolf had driven them into a woodj mi^ich ih&y ^Q^u 

do t,o I^eep tbeiB fpr fat^vfi ^cQf^'i^m 9^ Q^o^Mi^.. .This 

QCCur^eA<?e i;t9|]jivi^pe4 A^ ^b^t^th^ ci|t(l^ oi^gblt t»,il«:kie^ 

n&^f)t the waggppp in Ui^ xiigkt, 9n4 thiit one f>0raon a* 

I^au4 al^ou'lfl b^ ^ppqinted tg ^^k t\mnu A^^mudmee^ 

s/^pger w^ imme^iat/ely djipMi^h^d. t^ Lienteoant Crure^ 

tp inform him of th# Pf oov^fy of tbf je^tle, tp pri^enA 

trouble to biip or his 6c4dte«9. .Tb^rn)ome4:^r« 34: ndon^ 

58^ aqd miiclir^in. Someof puf pi^opl^ wer«e of ^inij&n 

that f be cattle wer^ taj^en ^^y hy tiusQaffxe^s and. that 

they had driven them intp tb^e iEVpo4 to .Q(;Kiiceal tbem 

during the day, and bad fl^d m cQPft^iience of fiCfting 

tbe Hottentpts .approaclji fvith tbeii mu^ket^*. Al five^ 

t^. M* a qorporal and e^b^ Hpt^entot, soldiesrs/ajerivediafteo 

a fruitless search for pur cattle. Though it bad rained 

*ard the wbple tinje tji/ey bad begn traY»ltog» th^ ipado 

DP ipomplaiut, Jior indeed did th^y .#peak a ward; about 

tb.efrJp|Lfrpjey, but shoipl^ hands witb.thejr friendii who 

M^i^re with us, and cpnyersed with th^fia* vvbile w0 luade 

a littl^ tea fpr (heir ftefr^sbm^ nt The corporal add ^f^ 

y^r^l others belopgpd tp Bf thel#dprp. Wbueii> the oxen 

Wjere found, they wpre very fi^;^rm, #nd ftpjtitcjd 0i«tt|iey 

<?Q^Id hardly be driyen b^pk* In coQSf^pijejppjepf tbd.min 

9pnjtinuing to fall the wfepte dw» W^ cojild npt imwior* 

Vrar4, for the ojceu pfinpot ^dwe^ ti»yeU.iiig in it^ a« it 

injurepi their necks sp }[jfii^h by r^ubblAg ^gwa^t tbg jrok^i 

I ^pent pioft of tbe aft;erw^^i^ ^ evening in oblaiitog 

i;ifor;n5^tipn retspectiiiig , thp CSaffr<^ mtW^ friW»oiv H<Htt 

tejotPt^' ; Qnr tent waji^. pifeQb^4 ftt.thQ:si^pjf Ahfe-roijisirf 

^ boor*s bpiyise, iyh.O|§e n^ja^ w^^ .Cr*H)bter, lybp witk 

anptU^r j&frmex was pHir4^red. (b^De by .tjbif^ (Jftfff «8. iQm 

pf oj]^r HQtj;ei^totswa8 prq^fip^ wb^n tb^PMirdeilvasiQOiBf 

ipxitte^. Tbermometpr ^8. j •. i 

Idth* T'he vtr^ther was jso i9^|troTed that mi^ were abld 

tp/ompvg/rom Gt^l§f'^ pjy^ci^iit/caght^ AiM. fihortli)^ 



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APBit.] WURMEY IN ALBANY, iq7 

»Rer our d^partMre, our people,, in.cluditpg tbe soldiers^ 
jto th^enuipber of about twenty, surrounded a flock of 
Hartbucks, but though shots were fired in all directiojui^ 
and ope or two were wounded, not one fell. We fre- 
quently passed tb,e holes of wolves, jackals, &c The 
jl^ouths of some of t^em w^re so concealed by the grasi^ 
that caution wait necessary to escape falling into tfaem.^^-r- 
The sight of th^in often reminded me of the saying ojf, 
JesuS) that the foxes have holes, and the bird^ of the air 
^ave nest9^ \>nt t^e Son of man hath not where to lay 
Jiisbead, 

At ten, A. M. we crossed the Kareka river, which ip 
^he deepest we h^d passed. The road was strewed witl^ 
the dung of elephants. At noon we came in sight of the 
Jndian Ocean, which made apleaimntfinish totbecjiarmr 
ing prospect before us. The scene was beautifully dir 
versified by the various forins of th.e low green hills, 
studded with tufts of trees, somewhat resen^blii^ a par]|: 
in England. 

At one, p. ]^. we caipe to Lon^bard*s Fort,, commandr 
ed by I^jeutenant^ Gare (from JFortrosp) apd f-aycock^ 
whose l^dy was the first I ha4 seen in the district of Air 
hany. I fpit for k^r as a poor solitary. We thanked thenf 
moat sincerely fpr their kindness ii^dispatchipg so .readily 
a party, after our cattle, wbep supposed to be carried ofjT 
by th^ CafTre^, and for tb^ir obliging ofil^r to assist us ii| 
^y other way in their power. The grpund there seeme4 
extremely fertile, which the state of the garden abund* 
^tly proved, in which every thing was growing Iuxut 
riantly. I had no^ seen any Jtrees i^ Africa so loaded 
with oranges, ^s a row which separated the garden from 
a wood behind, frppi v)^hich }/It. Gftre gave us a libera^ 
supply. After dif^iug with bim# we setoff at fctie going 
4owfl of the sjLio^ ^and reJ^ched I^ieuten^nt Sutherland's 
post, who received us in the must, friendly piawor, and 
thrnisbed us with a^pply of candles, of which wewer^ 
desti^utp^ and e;fpef.ted tp xema^ §9 till our jieople 



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108 JOURl^EY TN ALBAISY. • [WIS. 

should have leisure to make some from the fet of the 
animals we killed. The Hottentot soldiers who could 
•be spared from duty, were permitted to attend our 
•^yorship at the waggons. 

i7th. At eight, A.M. t^e breakfasted in the fort, and 
«tten aeparted. Seven of the people accompanied us 
j>art of the way on oxen, through a country uncommonly 
beautiful ; the hills were green to the top like those io 
Sussek, and the grass high and good. At noon we camtf 
to Reed River Fovt, commanded by Captain Linch, who 
likewise shevyed us every attention. We dined with 
liim, and before parting he presented me with a large 
tooth of the Hippopotamus. The skin of this animal id 
Bbqut an inch and a h^lf thick. ' A bullet, which had 
been shot at* that which I saw, had not penetrated above 
talf through the skin. 

• This fort is the last towards the ocean; of course, 
when we left it, at three, P. M. we had no mOre visible 
path. We travelled among long grass on the sides of 
the bills, accompanied by two Hottentot soldiers as 
guides, to the mouth of the Cowie or Buffalo Iliver, 
which is the only ptece in that quarter where* it can be 
crossed, and there we arrived about sun-set. The light- 
ning, which is almost every night ip Caffrcland, near 
which we then were, was uncommonly vivid; about 
twenty flashes every minute, attended with much tbun^ 
der over our heads. The sea raging and foaming only a' 
few hundred yards distant, added much to the grandeni^ 
of the scene. The tent in which I was writing stood 
among trees. The night was dark and dismal; but the 
lightning now and then made it resemble mid-day^ 
When going to bed in the waggon, I readfly fduiKl every' 
thing I wanted, by means of the lightning. 

18th. After a good night's rest, I was pleased to find 
eveiy thing tranquil in the morning. After worehip and 
breakfast we walked along the bea)ch, admiring the 
ocean's foaming billows, as one of the works- of God,' 



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Amu] JOBUNBYINALBANV. 10ft 

and DOi^ of the least wonderful; When Mr. Smith had 
preached to our company, our guides considered the tide 
nearjy ^t its lowest ebb, wherefore we prepa^pd to cross 
the river, by putt'mg such tilings as were Ukely to be. 
most injured by salt water, as high in the waggxjn as 
jM)S8ible. ^ About eleven. A, M. we entered the rivier, a 
few hundred yards from its mouth : it had a formidable 
aspect, being at least a quarter of a mile broad. . A. soU 
dier on horseback Jed the way, to shew us the bes|t pasi 
sage. Two or three times his horse's head only appeared 
above water: it was the same with our oxen, their backs 
being in the water^ ^nd at one place they were obliged to 
have recourse to swimming.. When the last waggon vvaa 
within about a hundred y^rds of the other side, one o£ 
the leading oxen sunk in a swamp nearly to tlie.n^ck, 
aijd with considerable difficulty was extricated frooi it, 
tmmediately on arriving at the beach, we were obliged 
to ascend a narrow ;ind nearly perpendicular path across 
a wood, which was also troublesome in consequence of 
some of the trees projecting over th^ path, which obliged, 
us to cut down lar^e, branches, to give room fpr ouj wagw 
gons to pass. Limbs^of trees, broken off by the sboiilders 
of elephants when passing,: fornied also obstructions. 
I examined one of the foot-marks of this huge anijnal, 
which appeared about fifteen inches across. (I^d any of 
them, when com ibg down that long and narrow pass to 
drink in the river, met us, I know hot what nyght have 
been the consequence, as there was no room for our 
waggons to turn, and elepliants, Mt seenis, will not give 
way; as for our bullets, being only lead, they would jiot 
have felt them. Many of their footsteps were but newly 
ipade, which our Hottentots knew, from the grass which 
they had pressed down not being then risen up. How- 
ever, by a kind providence/ wis got safely through the 
Wood, which extended upwards of a mile across, and bid 
farewei to the eastern coast of Africa, and the Indian 
Ocean, to travel acroiss the continent till we should read* 



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lid je*Tft»EViNALBAfrr. [1814: 

the W^rfern s^6res,'and the Ethiopic Ocfeatt, which 1 
hoped to find practicslbie. ^ 

Od ttie beacfa near th^' nroifth of BftifPalof Ri^efr, i^oraef 
soldters beicmg'ing to 6x\e ot the forts Haxi tkfen fishing, 
irid having thrown the 'erttraik of tfie fishfes they cadgh-t 
into th^ sea, a number bf shai-ksr tvas thereby collected^ 
As one of th^ soldierV childi*en wds' ^iJking li^ar thel 
tcatet; a lihark made a i^pririg at hitn, and neady 6(*izecf 
him in his mo(it!h. A rfed' frock ivhith the child word 
was thodght to hate ^ngitged fhe attention 6f {his rave- 
nous anitn^K" 

Onr tra'vellirtg wai no-v^r in trackless deserts, fcrf thei'd 
trete' no paths, exce[it stidh a» had been formed by i(ril(f 
beasts 'goitig to drink.' One of oui' Hottentots htotiglii 
me, ftom a pool wfliA we ^dre passing, o6e of the finest 
water flowers I h&cf evet seen. It Was nearly the si«^ 
dnd ship'e of an ordinary sun*flower, but its colourd 
tesembled those of the pafssSon-flower, and the' ^cent wa^ 
very grateful, sdtiiewhat tesertibling the sweet pea. It 
grows In the water, near' the side. The outer leaves are 
bf a very light blue; the first row of petals are dark 
brown, having each a light blue ball at its top ; the next 
tows, which are more thinly scattered, are light yellow,' 
with darker blue trtps ; the centre. Which is about the 
size of a six-pence, is Stilt darker yellow. Being no 
botanist, I knew not its name, or whether it has a name; 
but it deserves to be called the Star flower. Mr. Utbricht 
brouglit me a wild fruit, nearly of the shape of a hen*s 
^gg; the uppet part was red like a cherry; it was taper- 
ing towards the bottom, and yellow was most curiously 
irjiterniingled with the red ; and about half an inch from 
the stalk it was dark ^reen, so that at first sight I thought 
it was a cup to the fruit. Its external appearance was 
elegant, but the taste was hauseous. After travelling 
about an hour we halted at a pool of water, which was, 
at about three hours distance from CafJraria. Though 
W€ had about thirty Hottentots in our company, not one 



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ArtiU] JOURNEY tl* ALBANY. Itt 

fcad'^ver bfefoife be^h iu ihkt part df Africa; In f be after- 
lickfti itV6 6f otiV people fell in V'^ith & large elepbaof, but 
tb(^y^t7iei*e^ yprMd to fttofest hind, by 'aUempting to shofot 
Mfb,' a^ it ^il^sfe in* Jt j!\i\xi, and there* was no place of 
^^^rJeiH ^Tbe l'igtit:tiiri^ commenced at son-set, .and, 
<hei tBunder' afetoiif fiilf after, sijf. Thermometer, ^ at 
Aobn, ')'l. ' • '***' ' ' ' "\ *," ' 
* l9th'. BeforS' feun-ri^fe I bearcl ^ volley of muskets 
flfefd off, ' bbir'KfteW 60^ on what occasion, till the good! 
hevHi Wai bi^gbty 'that a' liuffalo was k filed, which; 
t pfercdivfed 'affi^Wbd great pleasure lo ouf Mottentots, 
iirhdi fr6rtif'tB^fr haSlts,' Wisli t'o ifve atmost entirely upon 
im'mal-food. ' 6tf gf6ttihg out; of ith^ waggon I w;alked[ to 
th^ ^ot, iVWere I found tbem busy in skinning the ani- 
Inai, ivhicfh ' W&s Very' largie-r-t' suppose half as large 
^gaiti as (iii^bf our oxen, with most formidable horns^ 
ttrhidh 1 brdught'with me to England. In about an hour 
they' had cut up the buffalo, and put the pieces into 
fhr^e <vaggon's, ^fter "which 'we proceeded on our journey, 
Tbe ttiorntrtg ffelt cold. At hide, A. M. the thermbmetei^ 
iStoofd at 62^; . dh our way we saw six ostriches running 
tery ^Mfti'y along, but our dog. Siicco following them, 
they t^e^e obliged to have recourse to their wings to 
&ssl&tfn itt^kTrfg their escape, which made it half run-i 
hitfgi half flying. Many quachas were seen at a distance, 
and otid drove* passed very hear us. They, like mostof. 
the ^d^ild beasts We fea'w^ r^n.iii a continued line, one fol- 
lowing 'litiother. At ten, A.M. we came to a wood, 
Wfiefa a flo^t^nfot was sent forward to examine an open- 
irig, to see if the waggons c6uld pass. A road made by 
th^ ell^phants was found to be a good one. We observed 
two trees^ and a large branch of a third, lately broken 
down by tlierft, Which, our people said, they do when 
out of humour. On the summit of a hill before us we 
observed soibe men descending towards us. We found 
they v<rere a party of soldiers kindly sent by Captain 
tin6h* tti quest of us, to leara if we Were safe, and had 



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in JOURNEY IN ALBANY. ft«IA 

found our way. I believe we ought to have Bolicited; air 
escort while travelliog within sight of .CaiFr,^land» apd 
beyond all military posts. This had not wcurj:ed ta me 
as at all necessary ; and thoqgh it did. occur to M^.,,Read^ 
his modesty prevented bis mentioning it to Captaia 
Linch before we left his fort. The soldiers had abot a^ 
hart, but had left it behirK). We sent a pack o% ta brings 
it to our Iialting place, which arrived soon, sf^er we bad 
teached.it. It was about the size of a mule^and ffom 
its shape appeared to be made for swiftne^- r While at 
breakfast one of our parties brought an elk, cyt up^ and 
hanging upon the backs of 'four Oisen. : We.l^ now. a 
store' of flesh suflBclent to serve us for afprtnigbt. The 
inount5tins of Caffraria were v^ry visible, a li^klQ to the 
eastward.. The grass around us was tall, iUfick, and 
sweet; but We saw tio other inhatiitants than the, wilci 
beasts, and no other paths than those which they m^de ia 
travelling to pools of water. Thermctnieter^ at BQoti,.74- 

Our people, divided into parties, . were variously eip- 
ployed. Some were busy in cutting the flesh of the 
animals killed, into thin slices; others in^ hanging what 
bad been cut upon the thorn trees, which exhibited a 
peculiar appearance. The meat thus exposed is intend-^ 
ed to be dried in the sun. Others wepe cutting it into 
long thick pieces, to make what tbey terngi bill'tongue;^ 
others were salting the bill-totigue, whicb eats reoiarkr 
ably well when dried, without any other preparation. 

The Hottentot manner of drinking water, froip a pool 
or stream is very curious : they throw it up with tUeir 
right hand into their mouth, seldom bringing the band 
nearer than the distance of a. foot from the mouthy and 
so quickly, that however thirsty,, they are soon satisfied « 
I tried frequently to imitate this practice?^ but without 
success. ' * 

, The country in which we were now travelling lies be-' 
tween the .Buffalo and Great Fish Rivers. When th^ 
CaS^res under Congo and Slamba dwelt ini Alba{iy,.the/ 



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Mmoi.} JDORMBY IN ALBANT. lU 

slwsys altowed this district to remain without inb^bit- 
SAty in ordjer to serve as a defence betv^reen tbem and 
OeikSy the chief of the other Caffres.. 

Departed about two, P. M. Part of the soldiers^ and 
nix of our own armed Hbttenjtots, kept about a quarter 
ofa mile ahead of us; the other soMiers kept at some 
dist^nee on out righti between os and Caffrarta ; and a 
few of our own people remained with the waggons. It 
was athumi^ to see the men riding upon the oxen with 
their gons^ for they had . a very odd appearance. Two 
ostriches crossed immediately before the waggons^ ruiH 
Mug swiftly^ though awkwardly^ from the great dispro-* 
porticMi between the length of their legs and the sixe o^ 
their bodies^ They are gregarious, for you seldom meet 
with single ones. > 

At four, P« M. we entered an extensive plain, to which 
w%saw no bouftds before us, or to the right .The soldiers 
teft us soon after our reaching this plain» to return t0 
their po9ti Tbey were commanded by a clever young 
Hottentot, Piet Bruntges, son to William Bruntges of 
Stt^ian's Klopf^ who dondueied Dr. Vanderkemp to 
Caitntrta, and who is Supposed to be the oldest man m 
^tttb Africa* Piel belongs to fietbelsdorp. He and 
Bo^ak bare been the priacipal conductors of all thd 
Ciommatidoes agdinst the Caffres. 

Thfiplain was in many parts marshy, owing to the late 
mns, wbieh, with the want of wood for out fires, pre;^ 
Tinted our halting at sun-set When the sun was going 
4ciwti> w^ looked wishfully in every direction, but oould 
disoorver neither tnt nor bush. We went forward in the 
dark, till fvbout nine o*clock, when we came both to trees 
and water on the side of a faille which induced us to 
Ml fbr tb<S nigbl^^ which wks rery cold^ 

20lb« On exasoiiliifig the ground here, it apf)eared 
tolerably well adapted for a settlement) and likely to 
have' witer till the year, though not ns abundance; but 
ather spota mloMt^ wo hai^ seen, especially that neaf 

I 



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114 JOURNEY IN ALBANY, [181S. 

Captain Linch*s post, appear preferable. Ever since wc 
left Cape-town, we had been generally travelling almost 
due east, but now we altered our course towards N. W, 
byW. . 

About sun-rise we departed, travelling among low 
green hills, and now and then crossing brooks which 
separate the hills. We met Captain Fraser, Deputy 
Landdrost, on his way to the Grpat Fish River, which 
divides CafFreland from Albany, to examine its banks* 
to judge if it were practicable to render it an obstacle to 
the Caffres' carrying off the cattle which they steal from 
the boors in the colony. The captain assuring us that 
he would return to Gr£^ham's-town on Thursday, we re- 
solved to wait until that time to meet with him. At 
eleven, A.M. we came to a charming place, called Blue 
Rock, surrounded with rising grounds, covered, or rather 
beautifully interspersed, with the camel thorn tree. There 
a military post was lately erected, commanded by Lieu- 
tenant Leydenham from Edinburgh. His house not 
being fiuishedi he lived in a comfortable tent, where we 
partook of an early dinner, and he kindly wished our 
stay to be protracted as long as possible. The place 
appeared well suited for a station, though the water is 
not very abundant. Mr. Leydenham very politely a(c- 
companied us half a mile from' his post, when we took 
leave for Graham's-town. About three miles forward vve 
looked down from the edge of an extensive plain upon a 
valley that appeared to haye been excavated from the 
plain and the hills to the eastward, and likely always 
to have plenty of grass and water. Darkness came upon 
us before we could, reach Graham's-town ; however, we 
were satisfied that we were not far distant, first by hearing 
the sound of a trumpet, then by observing lights, and sooa 
after by the arrival of a Hottentot on horseback to be 
our guide into the town ; he was sent by the Rev. Mr. 
yanderlingen, chaplain to the Cape regiment: of Hotten- 
tots, who was formerly oae of our missionaries. With- 



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xmu] JOURNEY IN ALBANY. 115 

out the asristance of this guide we certainly should have 
found difficulty in getting forward in the dark, the road 
being rather intricate. At eight, P. M, we reached Mr, 
Vanderlingen's, and were hospitably received. 
: aist. Graham's-town is named after Colonel Graham, 
who commanded the troops senl against the Caffres, 
Vhen they were driven beyond the Great Fish Hiver. 
The situation is pleasant and healthy, and enjoys suffi- 
cient water all the year. The houses are built of mud 
and reeds. It is the residence of the deputy Landdrost, 
and the head-quarters of the military stationed in Albany. 
Some of the officers have already good gardens, though 
the town has not existed a year. 

Mr. Vanderlingen, who was sent out as a missionary 
from the Rotterdam Society, has acted several years as 
chaplain to the Cape regiment, to which, I believe, God 
has nfiade him a blessing. 

In the morning we received visits from various officers, 
and in the afternoon visited some of them in their own 
houses, which, though small, and built of mud, are 
pretty comfortably. 

22d. In. the forenoon I rode with Major Prentice, in 
his waggon, to a boor's, a few miles distant, who was 
lately plundered of sheep by the Caffres. A son of his, 
a stout young man, lately left him from dread of being 
murdered by them. The family are obliged to be in 
constant readiness to repel any attack that may be made 
upon them, which undoubtedly is a most irksome situa- 
tion to be placed in; yet people by habit may become so 
accustomed to perils as to regard them but little, which 
I myself afterwards experienced ; but I should greatly ' 
prefer that peace of mind in the midst of dangers, which 
proceeds from confidence in the divine protection, to 
that freedom from anxiety which is merely the effect of 
habit. 

At five^ P. M. we dined at the officers' mess, when 
we were glad to find Captain Fraser was returned, being 

12 



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Hi JOURNEY tS AL6Afinr« [IStSw 

anxious to consult him respecting the best place in bis 
Atstriet for a mHiionary settlement. He was very wi)«» 
liog to give all the information in his power^ and no one 
is better qualified. 

dSd. Breakfasted with Captain Fraser, who afforded 
all the information we wanted, and likewise gave ad 
order to the commanders of military posts within his dis* 
Irict to furnish us with escorts from post to post, and to 
the formers, should we have occasion, to furnish us with 
oxen, ice 



eHAP. IX. 



Departure from GrabanCs^town — Visit to various Milkaryi 
Posts^— Interview with a Cqffre Family — Arrival at 
^ ,Graaf Reynet. 

After taking an early dinner with Mr. (Adjutapt) 
Hart, we expected immediately to leave GrahamVtown^ 
but two of our oxen having strayed, we were detained 
fill four o'clock, when we were again in motion. About 
thirty of the iiriiabitants followed us a mile from the 
town, and bade us adieu. A poor serjeant of the 91st 
dragoons, whose mind was greatly harassed, walked by 
the side of my waggon, relating his doleful tale. I had 
no doubt that he stood in need of medical aid, as well as 
of any counsel I could give. His nerves were much 
afFected) and bis strength Ofbody greatly reduced. The 
officers spoke very favourably of his character and con- 
duct as a soldier. 

About two miles further, we came to two paths, one 
leading to Graaf Reynet, and the other to Betbelsdorp. 
Here, Mr. Ulbricht, Boozak, and a few others who ac«- 
eompanied iis for a fortnight, left us to return to Betbels- 
dorp. My eyes followed them till the intervention oft 



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«m^] JOURNEY W ALBAinr. IB 

bifl deprtT^d ^me of the sight of those, iTt^hom I expected 
to see no more in this world. A little after min-set W6 
b«lted at Captain M^Niel's post for the night, from wfaom 
.1 met with a friendly reception. 

With tb^ assistance of some of his Hottentots he has 
built a comfortable house. Their hands were the only 
trowels used upon the occasion. Without the personal 
iissiBtance of the officers^ little can be done, which neces- 
sity will be of service both to officers and Hottentots. 
Mr. Vanderling^n/ who, With Mrs. V. accompanied ns to 
Graaf Reynet, preached to the garrison. 

24th. We departed a little after sun-rising with an 
.escort for protection, and at nine A. M. halted at a small 
brook on the side of a wood. On our way, we observed 
a place seemingly well suited for a missionary station. 
A little before sun-set we came to a boor^s place, among 
trees, where there was a small military post, to which 
.Mr. V. had gone on before us, in order to preach to the 
joldiers. Tbs boor had abundance of cattle and sheep* 
During the short time we spent with the fiimily, I 
observed the female Hottentot seiirants laughing very 
impudently at the dress of some of our party, but I 
could not perceiTe which of us they had in view. The 
place was solitary, but otherwise pleasant, nearly enci^- 
ded with hills, at the bottom of which were many 
orange, peach, and other fruit trees. 

It was almost dark when we left this place, with font 
soldiers for our escort. The road, which lay over hills, 
was rough, with steep descefits now and then, which 
made it trouUesome to travel in the dark. At seven 
P.M. we halted at a boor*s place, (Vandyke,) where a 
Serjeant's party is stationed, to whom Mr. V. preached 
ia a house, and Mr. R. to our people at the waggons. 
Thermometer, at (joon, 78. 

fi5th. Left Vandyke before sun-rise, taking ♦he adran*. 
tage of the light of the waning moon, which rose h^f&rt 
four in the morning. At nine A.M. after travelling 



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H8 JOURNEY IN ALBANY, [1S13. 

among low hills, and woods of bushes, we reached 
Z wart-water* port, where there is a fort commanded by- 
Lieutenant Ellert, a German gentleman, who was very 
kind and attentive to our comfort. The soldiers at eleven 
A. M. were marched to our waggons, when Mn Vander- 
lingen preached. The place is called Port, because there 
is a narrow pass through the mountains^ which appear to 
have been divided by some convulsion of nature in for- 
mer ages. Indeed, the two stupendous perpendicular 
sides of the pass are of such shapes, as indicate a former 
union. At some places the sides are not a hundred feet 
apart, and a small river runs between. On the sides are 
caves above caves, and trees projecting from the rocks. 
"We went through the pass. to visit some Hottentots sta- 
tioned a little beyond the other end. As we went alobg, 
the baboons from the heights looked down upon us with 
an angry roar. On coming to the Hottentots, Mr. Read 
found one or two of his. friends prospering in their souls, 
and happy in the knowledge and love of Jesus Christ* 
^From this place no signs of human society or cultivation 
appeared in any direction. On returning to the pass, a 
Jioney bird (which leads travellers to hives of bees,) . in- 
vited us by its chirping to a place where honey might be 
-found. One or two of our escort went towards it, when 
it flew from tree to tree, chirping; but, as the hive 
appeared too distant, they returned. Thermometer at 
noon, 80. 

After dining with Mr. Ellert, we departed about sun- 
set, and arrived at a post commanded by Lieutenant 
Devonish, about eight P. M. who received us very kindly. 

Caffreland being niear, Caffres are often lurking among 
the bushes, but the soldiers have never been able to seize 
one, they are so expert in pu3hing through, what to 
others is, impenetrable underwood. They wrap them- 
selves up in their carosses or skin <Moaks, which is their 
only dress, and, leaping into the closest thickets, will get 
through without a scratchy where none can follow so as 



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APRIL.] JOURNEY IN ALBANY. 119 

-to overtake them. Now and then they listen to hear if 
their pursuers are near, when they dart forward in ano- 
ther direction, and always escape. 

Left Mr. Devonish's post at seven A.M. Crossed the 
Little Fish River at eight, which was deep though nar- 
row. At nine, baited at the post of Captain S«tton, 
from Edinburgh, where a court-martial was sitting upon 
two soldiers of the 60th regiment. Walking silone on the 
shaded banks of a brook, a few willows appeared which 
arrested my attention, as they were the first I had seen 
in Africa. 

A boor and family attended our worship, at which 
iSm address is always given frdm the part of scripture 
^read upon the occasion ; after which we walked with 
them to their house. They did not appear social at 
their meal, for two of the elder daughters sat by them- 
selves in one part of the large room, eating boiled pump- 
kins; and two smaller girls sat on the floor in another 
quarter, employed much in the same way; while the 
parents treated us with a dish of coffee at another corner. 
The boor's wife had serious thoughts respecting tlie judg- 
ment to come, and many fears, but her husband said, he 
knew that whatever kind of a man he was, he had grace 
within him, and that he had no fear. Poor creatures, 
tbey are far removed from all means of instruction, and 
like most of the boors in the interior, have almost 
nothing to do, in consequence of living by their cattle, 
without cultivating the ground. This idleness produces 
a sottishness and stupidity evident in many of ^their va- 
cant countenances. Here tbey have only to smoke their 
pipe, a,nd once a day to count their cattle. 

In consequence of an invitatiqn from Captain S. we 
waited on him, and conversed for. an hour. At four P.M. 
we prepared for our departure, when several of the offi- 
cers attending the court martial came to take leave of us. 
^e now travelled within about a mijft of Caffraria, and 
without an escort Heavy showers of rain fetf roun4 



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Iifbaut^ bi|t DOiie wbe^re we weie. We pb^ervad no mh9f 
bitant^ pr hut, ip that p^rt oi* Caffrari^ which lay qpfifi 
our right ; indeed, none of tbeii; villageg are nearer ^han 
4wiO'day»JQurn^ beyQnd the Great Fish River* At seven 
J^M' we arrived at the post pf Lieutai^ant Fprbiess^ >^itllili 
a f<?w hundred yar4s of the rivar. 

5l%ih. Departed at sun^rise, still tfayelUng in vipwiF <pf 
CaSr?uria. We passed two large flocks pf ^be#p» wbioii 
are safer there than cattle^ as tb^ Cufl^eii car^ Httl^ lor 
she^p. Our Hotteqto^ i^pt spme of their aequ^oliMl^ 
on the road, whom they kissed very affection^t^lf » tlit 
men holding tbeif hats, aboiit h^If o9 tjhfy^r h^ad^ vfyen 
tte«y gave tl^is frie|^4ly.fi^l^tatioIv At nine AilMU irt 
C9^»e to {^ieutei^aqt Rp^seau's j^ost, with mbiom we 
stopped a lew minutes* His and Ihe oth^r bou^t s wete 
Jately W'tshed away, hy a audden and ixncomtpon mae df 
the river*, lie Uad hut just time to vun eut to siave bis 
Uf^; and what was sw^vising, when the liver aubfitidrtid; 
k0 rfcov^ed aU hi» wine glaasea^ cupsi» and so forth, oiil 
pf the n^u4 with/put pne being injured^ The houses, wm^ 
hqilt of play, and have all bseen rahuilt 

Arrived at ahput tea A«M* at Captain Andrewa' pasti 
The fort is ^rect^d pn the aide of the Fish BiMef,rwhere 
fee hai hyiU thie be^t bouse I havc^seen in Albany ; acting 
ll^ caifpe^tei! hijnself, and inatru<^tii^ ^he Hottentots to 
ffisisit him. He haa a^Iso a good garden, and has.«iade. an 
engine to raise water, about thicty feet firom tha river, to 
w^ter his geofd^n, whiQh n^. l«ss s^tooisj^es the boom, than 
the Hottentots^ He waa very anxi^^ius thW tb© boor, who 
liiveift near tbefort^shovjid euUivat^a pieee: of hist &rm to 
raise a little grain for hiead 5 and as. an; indncenieql to 
bis cpn^enting to the proposal, he pflfered to bdiig the 
wat^r of two ni^ighbosutring founiiiainato^aleirhiagsottnd; 
l^tall his. axgunients n»ado no impression on tba lnqr 
l^tpor, who said it wouLd be bj/» {or aupe0fiuoua> tnwjbiei 
Ho would rather sqid fiye.days journiey to p«utAaaeiflou9, 
^n b^at the trouble to {doughy sow, and. reap hi&divii 



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AtM*.] WWWEY IN AL»A»Y. t2| 

groQfid. After dining with the captAio» and expectiog 
to depart^ lAse were informed that all our oocen were 
ji»iflaiDg» Md iMjur people all goue to search of them. 
Whe» the Captain heard of this» hoiaM^ntly djgp^tcbed 
fparty of soldiers in pursuit. Being so near CaflFreland^ 
the Caffees were supposed to be the thieves. In two 
bovrs all were broMght back in triumph ; but being al- 
mo^ dajrk» y^e judged it prudeat not to more till the 
saomng. In the evening we found Captain Andrews' 
eonifeiaatipn* very lateresting* as he bad been in Spain 
the greater part of the wan 

98tb« An hour before sna^rise, batfing packed every 
thing in our wagg<uis» we departed under the protection 
of an lesoort The mdrning and the scenery around were 
pteaai^ The first part of the road lay along a wide 
lFsUey» bounded by hills on each side^ and afterwsrds 
over an «9tended plain, which certainly has never been 
difltmrbedby tiie application of either ploughs or spada 
A few aprii^bucks seei»ed to be the unmolested lords of 
that green wilderness. 

At nine A.M. we crossed the Little Fish River, and 
haltsed on the opposite bank, near De Clerk's Piace» 
After breakfiist, our esoort left us, to be succeeded by no 
other, Caffraria being left behind. We moved forward 
at two/PiM. ovea^ an extensive plain, full of gamei, though 
we hapfiened not to kill any# Passed by the places of 
two boors, who possessed the largest flocks of sheep I 
had ever seen. Before sun^set we turned round bills that 
had bee» on. our right all day, so that our route was 
N.W. by N. instead of W. Halted at eight P.M. in a 
wood of camel them treas^calledUnder BruntjeesHoogte, 
or Hei^t. 

29tk Departed at seven A.M. and reached Bruntjeea 
Hoogte by eight A.M« The. descent is loug and winding, 
bj^ tile side of a steep mouRtain. In rainy weather,* 
wh«n the road is stippery, it must be very dang^ous; for 
should the waggon slide only a few inches to the left, it 



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122 JOURNEY To ORAAf* REVNET. {18ia 

would inevitably be precipitated many hundred feet to 
the bottom of the mountain. Near the end of the de<- 
«eent» we found a Caifre family, consisting of husband, 
wife, knd daughter, sitting ^^^y^ fire. They ^aid they had 
come from the Sea^Cow Ri^er, in consequence of the 
Btisbmen constantly killing the Catfres, and were returfw 
ing to Caffreland. The man was remarkably well shaped, 
was slightly covered with a skin cloak, and had several 
TOWS of beads round his neck, hanging over his breast 
like a chain. His wife and daughter had a little more 
clothing. The former was in a decline, and her weak* 
ness had prevented their proceeding with some of their 
friends who were a little before them. We gave tbeni 
some wine for the sick woman, with a little bread, which 
they received gratefully; When the girl had drank the 
half of her share of the wine; her father seized it and 
drank it himself, saying, with a smile/ It is good. He 
bad six assagays, or spears, With him, which are the 
principal weapons used in war and in self-defence* They 
were all painted nearly of the same coloqr as mahogany. 
Their countenances were agreeable ; their hair was short 
black wool, nearly resembling that of the Hottentots. 
The girl, about fourteen years of age, wore two short 
brass chains, hanging from her hpir over her temples. 

The .hills on our right were beautiful, of various 
shapes, and covered with lively green. They seemed to 
consist of different stories, by means of regular strata, 
which projected beyond the grass, and added greatly to 
their picturesque appearance. At eleven A-IVL we halted 
at a pleasant spot under a hill, where we took our break- 
fast, but found our bread and flour were exhausted ; we 
obtained, however, a piece of a loaf from a boor who was 
passing. Our Hottentot, Cupido, was born in this part 
of the country; he halted the preceding day at a boor's, 
where he preached in the evening and morning, who on 
his leaving, gave him a horse to overtake us. Thermo* 
meter sit noon^ 84. 



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APRIL.] JOURNEY TO GR AAF REYNET; 123 

Having passed Bruntjees Height, we left Albany be- 
- hind, Graaf Reynet being our next diestination. We 
moved forward at two P.M. and in about an hour passed 
a boor's place, consistin^of three miserable huts, sur- 
rounded by no cultivation, all lying in a state of nature. 
About eight in the evening we halted at De Toyt's Place, 
"whiere we had worship with our Hottentots, the boor% 
family and servants, which made 'a considerable congre- 
gation for such a barren wilderness. The family were 
•very agreeable and kind, some of whom appeared to be 
sincere christians 

30tb. The morning was very cold, the thermometer at 
sun-rise being as low as 45. Observing some houses in 
ruins, I enquired how they had been destroyed, and 
learned that some years before, the boors in that part of 
the country went in a body, and drove the Landdrost from 
Graaf Reynet, because somie of his proceedings dis- 
pleased them. While thus employed, the Caffres seized 
the opportunity to make aa attack on their defenceless 
places, when they destroyed many of their bouses, and 
carried off much cattle. 

Waiting for the purchase of bread, we delayed our 
departure until eight in the morning. We crossed Fogil 
(or Bird) river, and travelled on a plain, having the 
mountains of Sneuberg immediately on our right. At 
ten A.M. while the cattle baited to rest awhile, Mr. Read 
and I walked forward, when feeling the heat becoming 
oppressive, we took shelter under a spreadfrig bush. A 
road made by ants to their nest passed the place where 
we stood. We observed thousands of these little crea- 
tures passing and repassing: those travelling south, car- 
ried burdens : those going north, were in search of some- 
thing to bring home. In part of this path I observed a 
great error they had committed at the original planning 
of it, for they had to ascend a cliff of almost two feet 
perpendicular height, while ascending which, I observed 
three or four who were dragging little berries, fall with 



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IM JOURNEY TO GRAAF REYNET. {1818. 

iheir loads from projecting parts to tbe Teiy bottom of 
the cliff; $tnd they were ^o stunned by the Ml, that not- 
ivitbsts^ndiog their activity^ it. was almost a minute befoits 
tfaey recovered* and hegw to make a fresb attempt, 
. Yesti^day we. shot three bucks, and this .morning om^ 
which saved oor sheep. The earth, or mould, hi ibis 
p^rt of the country is red^' covered with heath mixed 
with grass* At eleven we baited at Hang-bnsb, noo' 
a small pool of water, the colour of soap suds. We 
found that the party of Caffres who were flying from tbe 
bushmen's country to their own, had lately stopped here, 
m their temporary huts composed of branches of trees 
;Wereentire»and the leaves. on the branches were but little 
withered. Thermometer at noon, iS8. 

At foiir P. M. we proceeded on oiar journey, admiring 
4he diversified forms of the mountains on our right At 
.eight we halted for half an hour at a boor's called Groblar 
who was eighty^^tbree y^^ars of age» Though, the night 
was very cold, yet for the sake of water we travelled till 
near midnight, when we reached l>ions' Fountain. At a 
little distance we observed a great fire, andpeopte dancing 
around it, because iik was new moon. I observed Cupido 
quietly walk up tothem aodl^ld some con veraatioo, when 
ihey ran off. 

3l3t. Though we were inlbrmed that manyitooB were 
in the neighbourhood, we were not molested during the 
night At sun-rising, the thermometer stood at 4a At 
ten A.M^ we halted at a river, almost dry, wbera three 
boors' waggons were also halting. Some of the people 
attended pur worship* They were also travelling to 
.jGraaf Reynet, from which we were only two hours di»- 
iant» though there were no signs of cultivation in any 
direction, nor any other appearance of ^>proachiiig a town. 
Thermometer at noon, 89. 

Departed at three FM> and in about an hour were 
met by our friend Mr. Kicherer, minister of Graaf Rey- 
net, with a horse waggon» in which he conveyed us with 



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hat] graaf retmet^ la 

speed to his boa|M table home. We had twice ta crofas the 
Sondag river ; but being low, it was easily aecoihpirisbrdl 
Glad was I to find that Mr. Burefael, who lately i^turtt^d 
from inakiQg.bota^Gal researches higher upth^ interior; 
was not gone; but had kindly postponed bis departure ia 
expectation of my arrival. He was the first peisson who 
tatv^Ued direct frona Graaf Reyjiet to our missionary 
station at Klaar Water, beyond the Great RriYer,fay which 
foute be thought we might aocomiplish the journey in a 
modtfa. He returned by another road,, which would re« 
quire two months ; but he recommended the shortest^ as 
one of bis people had consented to be our gaide^ and bt 
adrised ua t0 use. t;be. utmost cautiou in guarding our 
cattle while travelling among tbe buthmeny as they muri^ 
der only, for tbe sake of cattle, and should they observe 
Uff to be off our guard xhey would make attempts to 
obtain them. Duiingtbe afternoon I saw Martb^t and 
Mary> who were in England about ten years whor hve ai 
Graaf Reynet, as does John also, the husband of Maryi 
Mr.Burthel favoured us in the evening with his com{>any, 
when he also communicated much interesting intelli^ 
gepce from the interior of i^frica, in return for whicbi 
I related to him the news of^European affairs. . i 



CHAP. X. 



Occurrences tit Grmiflteynet, and during Journey in SneU" 
befg — arrrvnt ai the Boundary of thi Colony* 

Attended worship in the church at nine A.M. wbeij 
Mr. Kicherer gave us two discourses from a part of the 
Creed, after which six couple of white people wqre mart 
Tied. Ii^ the evening Mr^ Read preached in what isp 



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126 GRAAF REYNET. [181S. 

called the' Heathen's MeetiDg-bouse, to many people 
both white and black. 

3d. Attended in the evening the monthly prayer meet* 
ing for the conversion of the heathen; Mr. Smith; from 
Bethelsdorp, gave the address. 

4th. Was present at the slaves' meeting, where two 
slaves and three whites engaged in prayer. The ^ two 
latter gave many exhortations in a serious and affectio- 
nate manner to the poor slaves. I also visited a meeting 
of females for prayer and christian conference, when about 
twenty were present; I made a few remarks, which were 
interpreted by Mr. Kicherer. 

' 5th. In the evening I preached to a full house, by tbe 
help of Messrs; Read and Kicherer as my interpreters. The 
Landdrost and family were present, whom many were 
glad to see in the slave meeting. While thus employed* 
I could not but reflect with pleasure, that some ministef 
was at. the same time preaching at the Annual Meeting of 
tbe Missionary Society in London. 

' 6th. Dined with the Landdrost (Mr. Fisher), and a 
large party. Every thing at dinner was served up exactly 
in the European style. He kindly offered td serve me 
in any way in his power. 

8th. Dined with the Secretary Mr. M , together 

with a large party. * The extent and progress of every 
thing in his garden surprised me much, when I heard 
that all had been accomplished in three years. It proved 
the proprietor's assiduity, and the rapidity of vegation in 
that quarter. 

9th. Attended at Mr. Kicherer's place erf worship, 
where we had two long sermons and two short prayers. 
In the eveuing the Schoolmaster addressed the slaves. 
Mr. K. sets every one to work who he thinks has a 
talent for it. 

10th. The Landdrost sent a slave with a young lion 
to shew me as a curiosity. A person in the neighbour- 
hood had lately shot its father; on seeing which the 



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MAY-l GRAAF REYNET. 127 

lioness spmng from her den upon the murderer of her 
mate, and in an instant laid him on the ground and begaa 
to tear him ; his brother, who was near, fired his musket 
on her, and the ball penetrating the animal's throat, 
brought her to the ground, and rescued the pgor niau 
from the jaw« of death, but not before he was terribly 
lacerated. In this way the young lion was obtained. I 
saw the skins of its parents at the Landdrost's. That of 
the male is black at the shoulders and pact of the back, 
which is rather unusual in that part of Africa. The hair 
hanging from the head and neck is about twelve . inches 
long, and as the lion has power to make his hair stand 
erect, this animal, when aliye, must have had a terrific 
appearance. In the evening I preached a farewell dis- 
course, by means of my two interpreters. 

11th. .About eleven o'clock, while our waggo^ns were 
before the door, ready to depart, we engaged in prayer 
with many friends who came to bid usfarewell, ^ind many 
waited in the street for the same purpose — after wbiqh 
we parted from this . kind people, accompanied by.Mr. 
Kicherer and four of his friends. .Two boors from Sneu- 
berg, to which we were going brought their horse 
waggons to convey us more quickly thither. The^e, with 
our own three ox wi^ggons left the town togetheJ,^ 
which, with our driven oxen and the armed Hottentots 
who.accompanied us, had much of the appearanceof an 
eastern caravan. I felt; pain in separating from so many 
kind friends, whom I was never likely to meet again on 
earth; but our work required it Graaf Reynet was 
soon out of sight, when an extensive plain, sorrpunded 
with hills, presented itself; on crossing which we ascend- 
ed Sneuberg, {or Snow-mountain,) from whence a large 
districtof the colony derives its name. At two P.M. we 
dined at Magis-fountain, about twenty miles north-west 
of Graaf Reynet. Near the house is an excavation at 
least sixty feet deep, made by a. small river which runs. 
QiEer roqks till opposite the boor's house, when poming af 



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1» CRAAF REYKEI. (1S1» 

once lo a tandy soil, it has carried the sand away to the 
depth of sixty or seventy feet^ and falls over the rocky^ 
elitf at three diiferent places, so as to form a very 
striking object* About half an hour after leatiag. Magi»« 
fountain, we passed a tiik^ibir excavation and a water-falU 
only deeper and still more grand in its appearance. Af tei 
travellrng two or three hours by moon-Jight^ we reached 
the residence of Mr« Beerden, who bad kindly driven us 
in bis eight hOrse waggon^ about forty miitta nortb-vireas 
6f Graaf Reynet. 

12th. About seven waggons witii people arrfved during^ 
tbeday^ to attend dtvitiia worship in the evening* At aix 
o'clock I preached to them m a targe room. Our waggotiis 
arrived during seraMW. . . 

Idtb. Mr. Heerdeufttrnished us with many usefeil a«,. 
ficlei^ fofour joaroey, among which was a horse, which. 
be presafited to the Society* He baa several buabmen m . 
bis service, tbree Of four of whom be brought into the 
/oofntolet usaee them* They were esitiemely tiitiid^ 
and seemed glad to get away. Mr. Kicberer preached 
m the fo*^enoon, and at four P. M* we departed^ acoonw 
panied by tnosc of the family. After travelli«g with great; 
apeedi along the banks of the BtfiRilo River, for an huuf 
and a half, between tow Mils, we ari'ivedat Mr. Burohar*s^ 
wbicb i« a lively place, in a phrin, bounded by low biKo 
at a little distance. A snaall stream which tarns aflomr 
mrn pa»sea before fbehouso, and only a kandited yard^ 
beyond it niffs the Bufifola River, in a bod formed out 4^4^ 
rock, where therein a waterfall of about twenty feef^ att^ 
which contributes 10 the beauty of thef place» Abotit> 
twelve waggom had arrived before uci, whm Mr ^ ReaiA' 
preached to a godd congregation in the large rooriir* Tfh^ 
people were very attentive, asr indeed they dlway* am- iii/ 
this part of the cotony. 

14th. In the mtyrning the ground waa Wbite^ it^ cooso*^ 
quence of the frost during the night, tfaia being, tbe firat 
month of their winter. At noon, though t^te WM^ 



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MAV.T JOURNEY IN SNEUBERG. 12d 

pliant sun-shine; the th^rmomet^^w^s as' low as 4&* 
A Hottentot came into the room where I was, to say thafe, 
he had brought oxen from the next boor's to draw ouc 
waggons there, in order to ease our own; He answer-# 
led several questions concerning God and the Saviour, 
which Mr. Kicherer asked hi m> and said he prayed every 
day fof the forgiveness of his sins, and that sin might 
be pot but from his heart.- The slaves * at Mr. Burchar*3 
.asked and obtained liberty to follow us to the next booFs 
place to hear the gospel. *. .- . . ' : 

' At three, P.M. * we left ,Mr. Burcliar*^ Place: in hift 
horse waggon. 'InV a .narrow -pass, between hills, we 
observed stoliesso regularly : pried one above another; 
find so atranged that they resembled rqins of Sonie 
ancient structure. /. There we caught a^lai^e land tor-^ 
toise, that was creeping among the bushes. Before sun-« 
set we arrived at Three Fountains, where Mr. Kicherer 
preached in the evening. < 

' 15tb. In the 'morning I took a walk to the top of 
some biHs to have a view of the surrounjdKng country* 
The brdadsuininit of one was » spread over with largq 
flat btoaes. There was altttk cultivation near the boor's 
bouse, buj; the sursounding, country, as far as could be 
seeft) from tbe4iills, was extremely i>arren, . prodticing 
nothing but heath or -wild boshes. The slaves who had 
followed us from Mr. Burcbar*s tdok leave of us to return 
home, although their countenances expressed a desire to 
follow us farther.^ About three, P.M. ly^ l^ft Three Foun- 
tains in* the boor's, waggon, drawn by .eight excellent 
horses; and travelled at the rate .of seven milea an hour* 
Reaobing.th.e summit of some rising ground, an .^^tensive 
plain presented ijtself before us, studded with many small 
billaD^intefe8t»9gforms,:w^ich.bad a.pleasing appearance^ 
Though notan inch of cujtivatiop was visible, yet the see* 
i|effjiiwa3 cheering. At five P.M. weamvedat Mr.Vanderr 
tceiv^rs Pl^cQi^hich ^as pleasantly. situated. Immedir 
ately to t^e right of the hpuse was a most romantic exca^ 
V^tio^ of th^ earth, from two to three hundred yards 



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ISO JOURNEY IN WteB/Ofi^ [ISIS^ 

ivide^ahahdredfeetdeep^ and half a inilelongi botU 
iide& .were composed of huge rocky clifisr the lower 
part of thehoUow wa&corvered with gafdetn and fields^ 
wh^re the or^tnge trees grew luxuriantly ; ^nd in the mid'* 
die a river glided gently along. In the evening I preached 
to the people through my usual interpreters. 

Idtb. In the mbvning, being tho Lord'is day, Mr. IL 
preached to the white people in thebouse, while Mr. tL^ 
preached without, at onr waggons^ to slaves, Hottentots^ 
and Bushmen. Some of our Hottentots, were very 
aetif« in doing good here, and at . other, places, to? 
the slaves and to their brethren. In the evening Mr«. 
Read preached again at the waggons. On finishing 
hii^ discourse, he asked Cupida and Boozak (converted 
Hottentots^ to speak to the people if they were sq Jn« 
clined. Both addressed the heathen. Boozak said ta them^ 
^ Before the missionaries came to us, we were as igno^ 
rant of every thing as you now are. I thought then I 
w^ thfe Mmeas a beast; that when I died there would be 
aio end of me; but aft^r hearing them, I found I had » 
sk>ul that muet be happy or miserable for ever» Then I 
became afraid to die. E was alraid to take a. gun Into 
my hand, lest it slfould kill me, or to meet & serpent,, 
lest it she^hl bite me* I wa» afraid then to go to the hill 
to hunt lions or elephants, lest they should devour me; 
But when I heard of the Son of God having come iat<» 
the world to die for sinners, all that fear went away* I. 
took my gun again, and without fear ofdieai^ wtntta 
bunt lions and tigers, and elephants. You shall woa 
have an opportunity to be taught the same things." 

17th. I went in the morning with ten or twelve of 
our p^ple, to examine a cave in the deep excavatiooi, 
which tunied out to be a far more formidable adyeo'^. 
tjOrc than I had expected. It was on the side of a bigk 
ekft; separated from an opposite cliff e^aliy high, oaily 
by a few yards. For about twalundred yaids we b^ui, 
to walk on projecting rocks newr the middle of the oppfo^^ 
*it^.<:liir. We were soon obliged to take oif oot ab^ 



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liA^.l JOURNEY IN SNEUBSKG. l8l 

kst vre should «Ikle dov^n the ro«ks^ atid advancitfg a feW 
yards fartbervre vipers ard vised to take off our stockings^ 
as more likely to prevecit our dltding down. When wo 
came opposite to the cai^e, with great cautioa we de^ 
scended to the bottom of the eliff ; then two of out^ 
Hottentots went into ft pool formed by the river, on pur« 
pose to sound it, as we had to cross it to reach the cave. 
Theyfbundit two feet and a half deep^ trll within two 
3rsifds of the other side, over which they placed a laddei^ 
they bad brought with tbem« Michal mounted fifst^ 
Wheii ^iglimbidg the roek be slipped, and rolled down 
mto the water, completely over head, which appeared 
to the other HoHentots a mere trifle, for they only smiled 
about balf ft minute^ and l^ressed forward* A friend from* 
Gtaaf Reyftet, Who was tall and strong, carried me over 
M Mb back. It was no easy matter to climb up to the 
cave's mouthy from the steepness and smoothness of thd 
itxtk; A light being struck, we ventured in with thfee 
candle* On the roof of the cave, which resem<«' 
bled that of a cathedral in miniftture, hung hundreds of 
bats fast asleep« Our light aWoke many of them, and 
they flew about us to the no small dftnge^ of extinguish-* 
ihgoarligfats« Within the cave we sunk half way up 
tbe leg into their dung, which probably has been collecting 
ibr many centuries. The bats hang by their feet so close 
td^ber, that at first sight it appeared to be carved work: 
Mtheroof* After tieWing different apartments in the 
dive, which appeared singularly gloomy and dismal, wo^ 
found considerable difficulty in returning. 

Oa arriving at Mr. Vanderkervers they brought to m4 
iMnr Btishwomen and five or six Hottentot women 
edvefed only with sb^p rifiins carelessly tbrovrn overtheiif 
shoulders. Z addressed them by means of A^r. Kichener,! 
•ttd a Hottentot girl who understood both Dutch and the 
BuabmenV langiiage« None of tibem seemed to know^ 
any thing of God, esicept one vi^man, who said her grand* 
iiitb^ had told her there wasaGod^or Oreat Maittr* 



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132 JOURNEY IN SNEUBERG- [1813- 

They appeared much pleased to hear that they were soon 
to be taMght the same things that white people know. 
Tbey shew^ me a Bushman's boy, who, they said, when 
first brought, there was as wild, as a lion, and would bite 
any thing that came near him ; no doubt from the horror 
be felt at being brought amongst white people, of whose 
murders of his forefathers he perhaps bad often heard* 

About noon we departed in a waggon with stx horses, 
our own ox waggons having gone on before, and halted 
at one^ P.M. at the place of Nicholas Vanderkervel. A 
Busbwoman about sixty years of age, who only mea- 
sures three feet nine inches, was introduced to us. She 
knew no more abqut God than the very cattle, although 
she lived amongst white people ; yet she expressed satis-. 
faction on hearing that missionaries would come sQpn to 
instruct her and her people. There were some otbec 
persous younger, but equally ignorant. 

On travelling a little farther we came to M. Pinnar's 
place, which, thougli not at the utmost boundary of 
tl^e colony, is the last habitation of white men. In 
conversation with some Hottentots by means of an inter* 
preter, I obsei'ved one man smile, as if much pleased, 
when he heard that people were coming from a distant 
country to instruct them. I could not but hope that. 
Jesus had thoughts of mercy toward this man. I visited 
a small reed hut, which stood at the foot of a hill be- 
behind the boor's house, in which an old blind Busbmaa 
lived. We found him asleep in a sheep, skin, which 
was his only dress ; indeed there was not another article 
within his hut When be awoke he slowly sat up : and 
from the blackness of bis skin, his long beard, and 
probably not having smiled for many years^ he had an un- 
commonly grave and peculiar appearance. A friend from 
Graaf Reynet was my Dutch interpreter, and a Hottentot 
girl about' twelve years of age, interpreted into the Bu3b- 
ipan's language,, kneeling on the ground, with her black; 
sheep skin thrown over her shoulders, and her clasped 



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MAir.X JOURNEY IN SNEUBERG/- 133 

hands under her chin. She spake to the old man' what 
she was desired, with a gravity that astonished me. It 
was so simple and so singular that it couid not easily be 
imitated. The whole scene would have merited the 
pencil of a Raphael to paint it. A small group of chiU 
dren stared into the hut. The poor man knew nothing ; 
s^nd when the girl told him that an institution was soon 
to be estabhshed to teach him and others the things of 
God, which would make them happy» he made no verbal 
answer, but he intimated in a very significant matiner, 
that he understood what she told him» but that the re«, 
port coming from white people, he would not believe it 
till it took place. ^ 

The master of the house, a young man, had his hand ' 
lately shot off by a musket: another young man, who 
appeared to be his brother, had his leg broken lately by a 
fall from his horse; and the mistress had been confined 
only four days. The family were very friendly to us^ 
After halting about an hour we proceeded on our journey, 
and a second time left behind us the habitations of civi*t 
lized men. The country is covered with heath ; only 
here and there, at great distances froiQ each other, in 
thete any grass. 

A little after sun-set, by means of our friend's strong 
oxen, we reached a foi^ntain where our waggons had 
halted for some time; these soon went forward, and 
we followed in about an hour. At eight; . PtM. we 
^ame up to them, and travelled together for some 
time, when we again left them and pushed for\g|rard, 
accompanied by ten armed horsemen, - boors and their 
slaves. At pine, P.M. we halted among low hills, 
Wh^re* there was grass. Our tent was erected, a fire 
lighted, and coffee prepared by the time the other wag- 
gons arrived. The boors remarked that the place should. 
he called Lions* Valley, because they greatly abound 
there. We had much lightning and a little thunder, aftei^ 
iyhich followed abundance of x^ix\. 



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' letb; Tb^ ratm oontmued to lall during the wfaoU 
Bight, and this day till three, P. H> ^Hiea it abated^ and 
luceiided to tbesmiiiiiit of alow hiU txi view theaanh 
Toundtng countty. Whm tm the hill, two of the bQor% 
Mr. KicheFer, and an armad HotteDtot, came to ioform 
Ine it waB.daageroaa to ws^lkaloqe in such places, aa Busb^ 
inen Jpight be concealed atnoiig the rocks. I was Ml 
aware of this, tiqd thanked tftiem for thdr attention to 
my safety.v It being impossible to ne»pb the next ficma* 
tain before night* we fesoli^ to postpone our dep&rtttra 
until the morrow. ' We nbw commenced keeping watch 
during the ^ight, knmediat^y after sni^i-Bet. I obserre} 
that the Hottentots watched chiefly op the lee side of 
the waggons; the reason fdr which I understood to 4>e, 
that a lion or a Bjishmian never makes an ftt^ackfrom tba 
windward side, because then the dogs «oon smelt tfaeni^ 
l^nd give tbe alarm. The night was cold and tbe groumi 
damp. 

• 19tb. After prayer for protection, we again proceeded 
on oor joiirhey at seven, A.M. having now no road. Wc 
Crossed a valley covered With beatb, in which we obsenr- 
^d the footniarks of a company t>f tions %hat had paasai 
that morning. At ten, A.M. we entered a pass be^ 
tween hills, which Mr. Kichierer and friends were pleas« 
ed to name Carapbeirs Pass. In consequence of tfaef 
latd rains, the boors said the marks of our waggon wbeds 
would be visible for four years: as we wfere thus com- 
iiiencing a path which perhaps may be travelled for htni-f 
dreds of yeiars to come- we endearvoured to proceed ii| 
the liost level and direct wsiy we could/ When out peo<« 
pie who were mounted we^re chasing some quachas^* a %t 
and fatigued one fell behind his companions, i^htth wag 
soon surrounded by oor horsemen, and brought with tbem 
to the waggons. : ^ . . 

When we approached the fpmrtaiti we bad cotae to 
examine, respecting its suitableness fbr a tnfssiomny 
st^tion^ two of our horsemen cahie bastHy tow^is onV 



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ji AT«1 JODRHET IN SmCDBItRe. fSi 

^sggons, on Which the dftver of our waggon 6ai4» thtf 
hetd seen a lion : we ioquired how he knew it ; be sai4 
he knew it hy their faces. But, like aH other Hotten^ 
tots, he had good eyes, for not one ^f us could at thai 
distance distinguish one featuie in their countenances. 
On reaching us they is^brmed us that two lipns were 
crouching among the reeds below. - All the waggons 
^ drew up -on an ascent immediately opposite the plaoe 
where liiey lay; and the wheels were chained, lest the 
fonring or appearing of the lions should terrify the 
oxen and make them run oiT, which frequently hap* 
^na ^nt such occasions. Thirteen men then drew up 
li.bout fifty yards from the lions, with their loaded 
aaiiskets, and we who were only to be spectators stood 
mpon a heap of roc^s about fifty yards behind them^ 
guarded by three armed men, lest the lions should 
lather not bewounded, or only slightly, and rush upom 
us* When all was in readiness, the men below poured 
4 voUey of slaiot towards the lions, when one of them^ 
4h^ male, made off, seemingly wounded slightly; but 
tk» ether was disabled^ so that it remained* The d(^s 
fan towards her, making a great noise, but ventured 
mo nearer than within five- or six yards« On the second 
fire .she was shot dead* ^he was a large and fat lioness^ 
wiih a ftirious countenance. She was dragged from the 
M^dis while yet warm, and skinned directly. A bullet 
waa found under the skin, within a few inches of th^ 
tail, which she must hai^e received long ago, as the wound 
vras healed. She bad receii^ many wounds from our 
people, pajticularly a severe one in the inside of her 
Month. 

^ We halted at Buck's Fountain, which was only a few 
bundred yanis beyond where, we had killed the lioness; 
this was the place we had come purposely to ei^amine^ 
but we found only a small stream, insuffipient to water 
«aucb ground. Having heard that there is a much greater 
tftream at Rhinoceros Ber& about a week's jpuxney dis- 



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136 . JOURNEY INiSffEUBSftp. fWiSk 

taot, .io a different direction ffom our route, Mft. 
Kichercr and the boors who were with us, kindly offer-* 
ed to visit it for. us, and to write their opipion of it to 
Cape-tpwn. , . 4 ' 

During supper, while talking of the feats of lions and 
)ion hunters, we hear/d a lion roaring attsonie distance,, and 
soon after the roar was heard from no great distance be- 
}\ind our tent, which probably was the naale lion come 
in search of his mate. If he found her carcase, the boors * 
Siaid he.wopld eat it ; and asserted, (what is yery horrid,) 
that the Bushmen often threw their childFen to the lipn 
to. preserve themselves; which has greatly encreased the 
desire.of these animals after faun[ian flesh, especially, the 
flesh of ^/iishmen ; so much so, that were a lion to fin^ 
a white; man and a Bushman asleep together, he woul^ 
take the Bushman and leave the white n\an. At present 
these ferocious animals are said to kill more Bushmea 
^han sheep. 

A lion, one day, sefeed a Hottentot by the arm, but 
the Hottentot's dog getting hold of;, the lion by his 
jleg, he let go the Hottentot, to drive away the dog, 
by which means the Hottentot escaped the jaws of death, 
When^ lion overcomes an ox, he carries him. off pa his 
back, but a sheep in his mouthy t^hicb of course may be 
accounted for by the difference in the weight of the tsfo 
animals.. Mr. Kicherer meqtipneKl,,that when his sexton 
and his wife were asleep under their, waggon, and their 
Jittle dog at their feet, a lion .came and, carried off the^ 
dog without injuring them. It was, long, after we ^haci 
{killed the lipjness^beforp.we^niissed the quacha which had 
beeti brought to our waggons alive ; but while our attent 
tion had been occupied ,by the lion, the.quacha was neg- 
lected; and made its escape, so tl^at the death of the 
)ioneBS,sav^4 its life* . 



V 



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#«•! BUSHMEN'S COUNTRY. \i. C^v 137 



CHAP. XL 



Journey across the Buskmen^s Country. 

Mat 20. '[ 

Now we were to part from our friends who had aci 
tH>mpanied us ten days. Mr. Kichcrer preached to us in 
the morning; we then partook of an early dinner; after 
which we united in prayer' to God, commending each 
other into his hands, and after saluting one another, we ., 
separated in silence, perhaps to see each other no more 
until the judgment of the great day. We then entered 
the Bushmen's country, now and then casting a look after 
the dear friends we had left behind. We travelled across 
la plain until the setting of the sun, when we came to 
water that had been collected in holes during the lat^ 
rain.- Some of our stragglers brought to us three young 
Bushmen, whoih they had met on a journey. They pos* 
sessed more lively and interesting countenances than the 
Hottentots. Their father, an old man, they said was 
lodging in a hole among the rocks at a little distance. 
We informed them we had come from a distant country, 
had taught the Hottentots many good things^ and de« 
signed also to send teachers to their nation. They said 
they were' glad' to hear it; and one of them offered tcJ 
accompany us on our journey to the Great River. Th* 
other two went off with the food we had given them for 
their father; they carried along with them pieces of 
lighted wood to frighten away lions. Ti*avelled N. E. 
hyN.'^ ■ 

21 st«* The frost was so keen during the night, that* 
water in the bottom of a large dish which stood in the 
open air was completely frozen. The Bushman's family' 
f^ame to us at eight in themomingi consisting of th< 



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136 JOURNEY ACROSS TUB imOi 

&ther, luB two sons^ with the wife of one carrying a child 
About ten DK>nths old. When we went to prayer, (the 
nature of which had been explained to them,) they lay 
prostrate on the ground, in imitation of our Hottentots. 
The woman had rather an interesting appearance ; her 
eyes indicated natural talent, and her child looked well» 
notwithstanding its copper colour. She gave me three 
rings, made of cord, which her child wore on its arm^ 
and I presented her with some beads to put in their place. 
The child wore nothing more than a few strings of ber^ 
ries, as substitutes for beads^ intei*spersed with circular 
pieces of the ostrich egg. When preparing to sh^tve, I 
held myIooking<>gIass before each of them; All expressed 
astonishment at beholding their faces, which they koi^w 
to be their own» by opening their mouths wide, and hoid# 
ingput their tongues, which they perceived to be done 
at the same time by the figure in the glass. They all 
turned away their, heads, and hold up their hands before 
their mouths when they first saw themselves, as if di«F 
gusted with the sight The woman, in order to be quic« 
certain that it was herself she saw in the glass, tun)fs4 
round her babe that was tied lo her back, and on seeii^ 
it also, she seemed satisfied. They were clothed in she^p^ 
skins. At ten A. M. two lions appeared at a little dia^ 
tance, which were first noticed by the Budnoei^yVrbofixe 
much afraid of thenl; we dispatched a party to drivi^ 
them away, which they effected. They told us that spsie 
time ago, a lion came and dragged a fnan out of hit 
bouse, and then devoured him* 

These strangers sat the whole time they were with i% 
without once risings They were employed in ^ookiBg 
and eating meat till we separated. Ghur Hotteiitots re^; 
marked, that Bushmen would eat constantly for.thref 
days, and then fast three days. When our waggoaa^et 
off, one of the young Bushmen who had eitpressed a de^^ 
sire to accompany us to ;»ee other lands, on cpnditioQ 
that we should afterwards send him hack; to ^|s ,owi| 



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«».] mn^nBiirs country^ ^9$ 

m^unttf^ roee up from tiie fire aroand which his friendft 
Mitxe «it^ing, ^ithout.taking the mnallest notice of tbein» 
«r bf^ding (tlieJn.farfewell; indeed, one Would have 
Ikfmt^thj the maoor of his iqpaftofe, that be intended 
IQ* return in five minutes* I did not think he was gone 
jfcjjlioaet^f our plebpfe told me he was in the first waggon 
Iha^ had oHwed, Before partingi^ I ^!Ook their child in my 
jirins for some time^ stroked it and restored it to the 
rightful owner. Not one of them had a name except 
tb^father^ whom they calied Oid Bay in their language; 
I advised the troman to wash ber fkce, which was ex« 
ttemdy dirty; but by a significant shake of berbead^ 
aKe expressed aversioti to such an operation ;. upon which 
i6ur Hottentots by way of apology for ber, said, thai 
^iisbn>en thought dirt upon their skin kept them warm^ 
Sad^ of tfaem had a ja,ckars tail fixed on;a stick to wipe 
the sweat from their faces in hot weather. They bad also 
a quiver of poisoned arrows. They bad left the old W04 
man, the motber>in tb^ cave where they bad slept during 
thenight They had been visiting a distant kraal, and 
wore^ returning to their own* When we had advanced a 
|bw ihiles, I learned that the young man who- accom* 
panted us had & i^ife and child at home^ Thermometer 
atttooD, 68« 

' Thiii season mi^ be called tbe Bushman's harvest, for 
the ground' being softened by the rain, tfaey can easily: 
ptttl dp roots not only for present consumption, but, if 
they choose, for future use also, {n summer they are 
sup^ied with locusts, which they dry and pound into 
powder, which serves as a substitute for flour. 
' Oor being accoa»panted by the young Bushman ap* 
peered to be a singular ftvonr from Providence, for bad 
he not been with us, it is probable we should neither 
Itevefeund grass, nor water, nor wood for fire at nightJ 
We bad not seen a blade of grass through the first day's 
joomty; but a little after sun-set he led us oiit of our 
tmckj up a n^fQW pass between two hitts on our ri|^ 



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146 JOURNEY ACROSS THE |[l81» 

to a sinall sequestered valley, where there was a fouhtalii^ 
grass, and abuBdance of fire-wood. I looked oq him, as 
Elijah may be supposed .te have looked od the rav^s 
that fed him in the wilderness, as God'a instrument for 
fulfilling his gracious will to us, in answer to the prayers 
of distant friends. He was cheerful and happy, appear* 
iag to consider himself . perfectly safe with us, which is 
wonderful, considering bow cl'uelly his nation basJo 
former times been treated by the colonists.. We soon made 
a large fire of the turpentine plant, which afforded both 
light and beat. The night was so cold, that while writing 
in the tentj was obliged to have a hot stone under ray feet 
About ten P. M. a wolf came to see what he could make 
of MS,, bnt Qur fires and the barking of our dogs obliged 
bim to keep his distance. . .. 

sad. At sun-rrise the thermometer was 32. We nained 
our fountain, Hardcastle fountain. I overheard some of 
our Hottentots telling the young. Bushman what things 
he was likely to get when he should arrive at Cape-town* 
They told him that probably he would get a, looking-* 
glass to see himself in, like that which I had held before 
bis face ^ but turning round bis he^d, he said be did not 
like it— like thousands who refuse to see their own cha- 
racter depicted in Scripture, turning from it with dii^ustji 
Mi*. .R. sowed some peach sej^ds, and I some orange 
seeds, near the fountain, which, if they come to perfec-^ 
tiop, may furnish the natives with food. The. passage 
leading from Hardcastle Fountain points nearly north, 
having Kombuis Mountain in full view, at the distance of 
seven or eight miles. . , ^ 

We departed at noon, when the thermometer was $2. 
The first ha]f of our journey lay N. E. and the last halj^ 
N. and generaUy over rising ground : the ear.th was red, 
and for the most .part covered with tall heath. In the 
evening, Mr. Read and I, with three armed Hottentots 
and the Bushman, walked considerably a-head of the 
y^^f9^^i in search 9? watw; Ije tpld qs tl^evp wa§ pft 



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may;> BtSHMEN'S COUNTRY. HI 

fountain infthHt part; bbt in consequence of fche late 
rain, holes near the foot of the hills were likely to be 
full of water. When it was dark, we heard a Hottentot 
call out Water! from a distance, but could not ascertain 
from what direction the voice' came. Oh ! said one of the 
Hottentots, it is this way, for that carane (a fowl) we 
Heard, has just risen from water; and so we found it, 
but there was not a blade of grass for tlie poor cattle, 
only heath bushes. We observed a Bushman's fire[lighted 
up about twelve miles off, upon the hiUs. A short time 
after our fire was lighted, oar three horsemen* arrived 
with a young elk they had caaght, wbiefa was about the 
size of a large calf. It was immediately killed for the 
next day's provision. They saw five lions in company, 
when they Wjere chasing a flock of elks, and the li'omp 
followed the example of the elks, in running away; I 
did not hear of the men pursuing them, but suppose they" 
took to their heels also, so that they were all fleeing from 
each other. 

23d. At seven A. M. at the prayer meeting, three Hot- 
tentots engaged in prayer ; and at eight we were obliged' 
to move forward in quest of grass for the cattle. At 
starting, we roiised from sleep a wild cat, which our 
dogs pursued without success. Though there was no' 
grass, yet there was plenty of the Bushman's plant on the 
way. It is a bulbous root, about the size of a crocus, 
and resembling it in appearance : when roasted, it tastes 
like the roasted chesnut. By the Bushmen it is called' 
Ok : by the Hottentots, Ow. I partook Of some which 
our Bushman had roasted,'and liked them very much. 

This part of Africa, without a miracle, must, for want 
of water, remain a w'ilderness to the end of time; it- 
cannot be inhabited, though its general appearance is' 
charming. 

At ten A. M. We came to a narrow path made by' 
quachas,, who travel as wild ducks fly, in a line, onle be- 
hind the other. . We hoped this path would lead ustoa^ 
fountain, but in less than a mile it became invisible. 



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144 SaOKtaSY ACROSS iHig fl81^' 

pot th€ last three days i;^ htd be^n graddatfy asccfndU 
ing» but we a{^>eared now f6 hav^ reachdd the sun>Aiit; 
from which there ia a very cittenaive progpeot, fbt'at tea«V 
aixfty miles before u«» and we judged it likely that 'wi^ 
abould contioiie to deacerid until we reached Die Gredt 
River. Thermometer at nooo waa 6S; at one P.M. it 
rose to 80; and at two, it was dO«. Pretty iTelt ifi the 
middle of an African winter! 

Our Buabman Waa generally aale^fp after joining us, est-i 
cept when^eating; but be was now running with rem^rk-f 
able fpeed after our adtunced party, to point towanla 
water. He loiew nothing about the findmg of gra^^, bM 
that is no concern of Bushmen, ti^ho possess no cattle.' M! 
gfoup of thirteen hills were in sfght, arf shaped like H 
sugar loaf, .oidy moro extended at the base^ The ftmelt 
arising from the bushes crushed down by our iKfiggdp 
If beels^ resembled that of an apothecary*s shop* Muctt 
did I feel for our oxen, who had fsisted nearly two dajrsi 
for want of grass, but at three P« M. our hopes of relief 
were raised^ by obserting smbkis rise at a distance, as a 
Signal from our horsemen, that water M^as found. It was 
near a chain of hills due N. of us. At four P. M. somd 
of us reached the spot on foot» where we found plenty of ' 
grass and water-**^ gratifying sight indeed ! On tbe niV 
rival of the oxen, it was pleasant to see them running to^ 
grass and water, after fasting so Idtog. Obiie^rving foiii^ 
lions, a little to the eastward,- we lient elei^n men td eh^ 
deavour to drive them away, to prevent their distnrbing' 
us in the night iime, which tbey effected. Except thitf 
four. Kons, we saw neither beasts^nor birds during the day.' 
It appeared to be a land -forsaken by every creatur^e on 
account of the scarcity of water. The appearance of ther 
Qountry, however, is charming i the extensive plains are 
interspersed with hills of various but beautiful forms. The* 
weather, though winter, was ddightfuL ^ 

In the evening I asked our young Bushman to com^ 
into the tent^ with htsiatequ^r,tbatl might have soim 



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conversatidi^^triitii him. I: iBi|«irf4 wto^ be tboughtto- 
be the worst thipg a man could doi It ymi qome tim^. 
before we could make him uDderstand what was meant^ 
by a bad thing f for he. had neTer beard that one thing waa 
wodf e than aootber.: When, he appeared to form .^me- 
idea. of the meaniogi dbad, I asked what he thought was; 
the worst thing, he had ever, seen done ia bia kraaU Ho, 
said they o£ben quarrelled^ and when any of these quarn 
rela ended in killing one another, it was fine* good sport; 
it shewed courage. He.sold all their quarreb were about 
their wives t one was for having the other^s wife^ which; 
be did not think was bad. Being aaked if he woold con^ 
sider it bad. if any in the kraal .wiere to take Ait wife while 
be waa with us, he answered. Bad! bad! He .said it waa; 
fine; to take others* wives, butqat fine to take bis» tHe 
said be never atole. He acknowledged it was bad to quar« 
icU steal, murder^ and to. commit adaltery. On being 
asked which was the worst jo£ these, he said he €0ul4 
not tell. . . : ' . 

. i then adced hini what he tboii^ht was the bed thing 
a msaQ could do? His reply to this question was ex«* 
tremely Sfffeetingv '^ All my life, (said be,). I have only 
seen evil» and never any good, wherefore I' carniot teU 
what ia best'^ The questions appeared to him, however^ 
as mere sport, for in the very mid&t of the convierSatioii 
he. obmplained that he had a bad cap. He informed ua 
that a booronc^ came and attacked their kraal, and they 
knowvOot why, bat. he and those with him killed tet} 
men, women, Sind children, of the kraal. We asked 
if hie ^^er had given him any good advice before he 
kft him to come with «&, He replied, ** My fiitber ^id 
I waa going with s^eange people, and must be obedient, 
and perhaps I sbouM get something ; and while witb 
tbem be should lake care of my wife and child, and wbeii 
I got education aqd returned I should be able to teacli 
Ihf ro.^ 
Mtibr. Ott^ Buetoaa waa in the babit of smokinf 



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144 JODRNET ACROSS TH& [1813;. 

wild hemp» which stupifies and ^constantly' inclines to 
deep. At one, we were all in motion/ ascending to a 
pass between hills, which was full of bushes and stones. 
A plant called the Bushman's Soap was very plentiful, 
which much resembles the ice plant; the shining par-' 
tides with which it is covered^ on being touched, turned 
out to be only small globes of water, which the plant ba9 
the power of retaining, which probably affords drink ta 
birds, insects, &c. 

During the day we travelled through three passea 
among large rocks, which we found like the Scylla and 
Charybdis of the ancients — in trying to escape ^one, we 
sometimes struck against another. Our men, who were 
in advance, saw* three !lions pursuing a herd of quachas,; 
who fled towards them ; on seeing, which^ our men fled 
also towards the waggons, followed . by the lions, but^ 
they did not disturb us.^ The one half of this day's jour- 
ney was N. W. by N. the other half nearly E. Thermo-^ 
meter, at noon, 60. at three, P. M. 70. at sun-set, 68m 
Sohife fcf bur people were employed part of the evening 
io teaching the Bushman the letters . of 'the alphabets 
After supper we brought him into the tent, and asked 
him a few more questions. We asked him .wbath^ 
thought the most wonderful thing he had ever seen? 
^ns. I do not think one thing more wonderful than anor 
fher-- «11 the beasts are fine. Q. If he could get any 
thing he wished, what would he desire to have? ^ns, 
I woiild have plenty of beads, knives, tinder-boxes, cat^ 
tie, and sheep. Q. What other countries had be heard 
of? Ans. I have heard of the Caifres, Dutch, and Eng-r 
lish, but I have not seen any English. Q» What kind of 
food he would like best to have every day ? Jns. Bread 
and sheep's flesh*. We had given, him som^ bre^d,^ pro-, 
bably the first he had ever jieen, which he was vejy: 
fond of*. . • • X 

^5th. There was ice on the water in the morning: 
^ftxoiit the t&ickn'esS of a dolUr. . Thetragmpte/i M^l^^* 



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*kt\] BCSBMES« OOUJTTRY. ' 148 

tise,^ 45. at tiboia,, 70. About two, P. M. we came to the 
edge of ati extensive plain, pethaps an hutidred toiler itai 
elrcutnference, having a considerable lake aik the W^st 
end of It. This lake, which perhaps nO European ev^t 
5aw before, we named Burdef*s Lake, after the Secretary 
to the Missionary Society. There is perhaps no extent of 
country known in the world, favoured with so feW lakert 
as those parls^of Africa. Although I had now travelled five 
months in South Africa, this was the first I had seen 
which deserved the name of' a lake ; two others, in Al-^ 
batty, are only large pools. It being too early in the day 
to halt, w*e passed to the right of it. We found the? 
whole of Burder's ^lain, especially in the vicinity of the 
lake, abounding with game, and particularly with vari- 
olic kinds of bucks. We ^hot nine bucks, one quacha, 
^hd one ostrich. The quacha was only wounded, and 
ran lame. Our Bushman, who was extremely fond ot 
that creature's fleish, though a species of h6rse, on ob- 
serving it to be lame, leaped from the Waggon, threw tft 
his sheep's skin, ran towards it, and With great exertion 
threw a stone which sunk into its forehead; on which 
he drew out his knife and stabbed it. Wheti dead h« 
cot out a large slice from its loins with the skin upon it^ 
and deposited it in the waggon, where we permitted him 
to sleep during the day. He likewise carried off the tail 
With him. 

We travelled forward among low bushes till seven 
tfclock in the evening, in search of grass and water, 
without finding either, and were obliged to halt In con* 
sequence of the'darkness ': of course our tired 03teft Were 
obliged to go to sleep without food or drink. At suppef 
We found there was not a drop of water remaining iri 
our casks, all having been consumed by our men, who 
Came in weary from hunting. Mr. Read and myself 
Were of opinion that no traveller should be advised to 
cross the Bushman country by the route we had chosen, 
but to enter more to the eastward ; for had it not been 

L 



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146 JOtlRMEY ACKOaS THE : [1813^ 

for a providential fall of rain, ten days before, we shouJid 
only have had water twice during seven days, viz. at 
Hardcaslle's Fountain and at Burder's Lake; and the 
first of these we should not have discovered but for tb^ 
young Bushman who accompanied us, without whose 
9S9i8tance we might not have been able to discover tbe 
boles which retain the rain. 

. 26th. Departed before sun-rise, in search of grass J^nd 
water, when the thermometer was at 45. We had not 
travelled more than a few hundred yards, when, to our 
surprise and joy, wc reached the Brak river. This river 
seldom runs, except after great rains ; at other times it 
con8is|:s of a chain of small pools in tbe bed of the river, 
containing good water; though in the summer, when the 
quantity must be greatly reduced by absorption and ex- 
halation, it probably is all brackish, as the gronod cpjor 
tains much saltpetre. We travelled along, the si^e of 
these pools until nine, A. M. when we halted to refresh 
our oxen in a narrow valley. Here we remained untijl 
two P.M. when we were again in motion. On clearing 
this small yalley, bounded by rising ground, we entered 
9 plain, containing here and there some small hills. Oo 
advancing about a mile, we observed smoke 09 Qn^. of 
the hills. On advancing about a mile, we observed smoke 
on one of tbe bills to our left, wbic|i our Hottentotfi said 
was a signal from some of our people that they bad shot 
^n elk^ and wanted our assistance to carry it off. Ac- 
cordingly we ascended with our vvaggons .towards th^ 
place from whepce the smoke proceeded. While doing • 
so our Bushman left us unobserved. Our Hottentots 
copjectured that he had supposed we we]:e .boors, aDd[ 
that we meant now to attack a kraal of his countrynieii 
to murder and, to take.prisoners, and had therefore fled, 
leaving behind him his bow and arrows. On travelling 
about two miles, we foqnd s^n elk had been killed aqtt 
cut up, with which we Joaded our waggons, and were 
obliged to. leave part behind for the wild beasts. Four 



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liAV.)] BUSilM£N« COUMTRT. ' l47 

black ftod'wbite crows foUowied ua fbr fl' weekj to pick 
up any thing we might leave behind at our halting places. 
We halted a little before sun-set. As soon as it was 
dark, a fire was msule on the top of a neighbouring hill, 
as a signal t6 inform our Bushman where we were^ should* 
be be desirous of returning. We observed some signs of 
Bushmen having been here- lately; by* their f60t-marks, a 
little platted hair, and a piece of stick newly peeled. As 
We had not seen a living soul since the first day we en-> 
tered the country* we ail narrowly inispected these ^indi- 
cations of inhabitants, and formed various conjectured. 
None of us doubted that the Bushmen wer6 watching, 
our motions from the neighbouring itibcintains, with the 
view of attacking us« should a favour^M^ opportunity offer 
itself. The river as far as we'obdervfed it, runs in a N, W. 
direction. 

127th. During the . night our sheep fled f^om our 
waggons with gr^at precipitation, and though all our 
people went in pursuit of thi^m, it was long before 
they were found* Their fright and flight were pruba* 
bly owing to the appearance of a lioij or wolf. We 
departed about sun-rise, but in less than an hoiir were 
obliged, on account of the rain, to bait, as the oxen 
cannot travel in it, their shouldei^ being^ soon galled' 
by the yoke. Had we been in Caff'raria, we should 
have been most exposed to an attack during rain, be- 
cause the Cafires know that wet and darnp weathe* will 
aflfect;po'wder, but does no injury to their assagays or 
spears ; but in rainy weather Bushmen can do nothing, 
as their bow-strings are made of the entrails of animals, 
and consequently stretcli and break. Thermbtiieter at 
noon^dO.: - 

About one P. M. the rain^ceasiAg^ We again proceeded 
oi^'OUF journey, add id balf an hour catne toan opemag 
in the hills which led to what w6 named Wilks*s Plain. 
To view it inevery direction, was fatiguing to the eye, 
ad notiiing was visible but short l|iushes of i^ dull black 

h2 



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hue, ft li^iig winten We trsced the^bed c»f the BrUk 
Rifer in a N. W. 4iniQliM till tb^ eremog^ when w» 
imUed Mftr t littia water* 

SBtfa. Tfaeniitbt; wm ^ilremely cold, whai I feufif} mf 
•beepskinfeoveiHQg of gratt Ad?a«itage. In the movmng 
ive bml fi^veral bftil ^pnrers, Ai eight A* M. we dii^ 
pa(gbe4 oflif interpreter an^ a Hottentot to visit a krul 
@f B|is)ir9^n whp were repoirted |o livc^ abovt ten wlw 
olF, ^p jnfofHp tl^nni ftf pi#r deign to be there in the afters 
pooni *nd to indnee t,bem tp prevail pn tbeii* chief to 
come and me^t u9« They returned with the infaroM^tipa 
that thie kraal waa deiierted, and having aeen no peiapa 
they ^PMld not learn where thejmrwpe gone* 

I have f^b^erved. three dtflferent naethoda wbieb our 
I^pttentpt tforvepts ha¥e of baking bread, U Tbey plaee 
the loaf on a gridiron over the fire. 2. They cover the 
Ipaf with hat aihei* 3- After aweeping the ground upon 
which 9 pre ba^ beep fpraome time^ tbey place tbelorf 
tbefCj and coyer it with e pot which tbey surround with 
fire* Perhaps the la^t is tbe best of the three methods. 
XherniQni.eter at upon, 44, 

We qpntinuaUy met with a speeieaof graea which i* 
very trpubje^oinei Xf it even attach itself to the. outside 
9f the gj^eat coat, the aeeda wiU worl^ their way to the 
abiinj, wh^:b produces much uneasiness. . Qup elothes 
required to be pies^fed of tbe^e viait^^v after every wall^ 
or we suffered by the neglect 

Inuring the. day, qmjt waggons had spvtral n^tf^^ 
escapes frpj^ falling intppits made by the Bushmen for 
catching beafts, Thfy nre five or six feet deep ; at the* 
bottpm pf ivhfch i^ stuck a poisoned sUke^ lad the 
mouth is concealed by a slight covering of hranpbes, 
strewed over with grae*# tbat the unsuspecting creature 
WaJking over, njay *ink down and be taken. Thpae we 
passed were old ones, . 

At the Rjlaoe where we arrived about sm»-sety the Brak 
River fJeaied tp have a bed a the grPund beiqg fl^t ^ 



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llMst ftyrm itsdf in the rainy sesAon itrtty ^nr eisltciisive 
hke, as is erident from the dbsence of busb^s on 
the ground, and the kitid of graBS ^blch coV^i^ it, 
#hicfa at this sea^M, beittg withered, hhs mtfdi the 
Jti)p^arance of a corn field fb antutnn. The dtm Was set 
h^Me we c6iiM reach any Water, which oMrg^ed tls to 
dtop, lest \h the dark we shotild Ml ititd somdof thepit^. 

49tb. Departed about sui^-'ttse id search ef ^ter. 
Themiometer 42. In about kti hottr we catiief to* a little 
Water in a bole, zi which We nriyok^ the* oiteti to 
let them drink, wh?ch th€!y did eagerly, and nearly 
^ptied it. At ten A. M. we arrived at pletity'of WWer, 
teftby the hirt rain wbltfb happen^ two days Befdftf. 
fiftleed, bat for that At)Wer, we ihust have been Without 
Jl drop of water. > In this matter Pmvidencehad kinrfly 
bterposed in otrr favour. Mr. Head having offered td be 
ifty interpreter, at our momiftg Worship, I gave the 
^^hortationfrdtn 1 Thess. i. 8f-^10, ap^fying the wotda 
to the beHevers at Bethefedorp. I smiled a:< the remsttk 
6f One of our Hottentots, (Booz^,) after ill Was over 
** The truths from that passage, (said he,) have made me 
as Kght as a feather " Tfreriiiometer at no<m, itf. 

At two o'clock, we were again movmg forWArd, wcftst- 
^ly, over a flat country. With tfiUs m vartdu* dhrfedtions 
at a dfetance: the soil wtfs rtd clay, add doVeted WMh 
btreBe^. Several of us walked a-heacf iii seakiih of Wirtef 
ttntrl it watf dark; but recoflectirig that ftoile of txs hatf H 
nkrsfeet, and that Consequently we shotfM Be defeif^eleis 
if attacked by a Iron, k tiger, or amy oGt&t tttAiAtl, We 
jirdgerf it best to halt f<yr the waggohs. "While thus Waft- 
ing, we observed a fire lighted upon the left. Which we 
dwisfdcred as a signal from otir horsemen that they had 
fbttttd water; and On pushifrg-td the spot through the 
btishes, we found that they* had ajgaJn* discovered the 
Brak River, whrcfh had dteappeared for some time. The 
Water we had used for some days Was no purer thari the* 
thickest soap-suds^ but what we had now to use was stiR 
thicker. 



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160 JOURNEY ACROSS THE JlW«* 

Our two Hottentots who belonged ta the Zak River 
mission, mentioned another conjecture as t<t the reason 
why our Bushman George had so suddenly decamped. 
I'he Bushmen in that part of the country from whence 
he came, are always at variance with those who dwell in 
the mountains where he left us, and often steal frowi 
them. Of course when he saw us alter our direction, by 
striking up to these mountains, in consequence of the 
signal fronS our men that they had shot an elk, from a 
dread that we might visit some kraals there, he embraced 
a favourable opportunity to leave us. 

30th. In the morning, at sun-rise, the thcrmdmfeter 
was 34, and ice, about the thickness of a dollar, was on 
the pools. Many wild cotton trees surrounded us. Aftcf 
Mr. Read had preached, seven of us united together in the 
Lord's Supper; viz. Mr. Read, who is pastor of the church 
atBethelsdorp; Cupido, who isadeacon; four Hottentot 
members, and myself. We continued to observe this 
ordinance during the remainder of our journey on the 
first day of the week, f nd no doubt that was the first 
time it had ever been celebrated in that part of Africa. 
Understanding that we should find no more water that 
could be used, till we should reach the Great River, be- 
tween forty and fifty miles distant,* we went forward a 
few miles in the evening, to enable us to reach it'on the 
following day. We halted at water as salt as the sea; 
a,nd Cupido preached; after which we had much forked 
lightning, succeeded by what resembled sheets of fire, 
followed by thunder and rain. About nine at night the 
loudest thunder I ever heard rolled over our heads, but 
our people seemed not at all discomposed by it. 

31st. Early in the morning I was awaked by some 
extremely loud claps of thunder, which made either 
myself, or the waggon in which I slept^ to tremble ; but 
after it was repeated three or four tinjes, I fell asleep 
again, and heard it no more. After prayer, we departed 
before sun-rise, to push forward to water. Wc travelled 



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MAT.] BUSHMEN'S COUNTRY. l&l 

chiefly over sand and low bushes. No wild beasts, ex* 
cept two elks, were seen, and only a few birds. 

A short time after day-light appeared, we discovered 
the track of one or two waggons, which made me feel 
as Robinson Crusoe did on observing the footsteps of a 
man in the sand, on the uninhabited island of Juan Fer- 
:handes. We concluded they had been waggons from 
Klaar Water settlement, that had come to hunt in the 
desert We 6oon lost these waggon marks, when we 
travelled among long grass, which, with the sand, ren- 
dered travelling very heavy and fatiguing both to our- 
selves and oxen. At nin^ A. M. the plain over which ' 
we had been travelling for several days became narrow, 
the gjTOund rising on each side. We named a range of 
hills to the westward. Society Hills. At ^en, A. M. the 
bushes were larger than we had been accustomed to, and 
low trees appearing at a little distance, we considered 
them indications of our approach to the Great River. 
We passed some wild Bushmen's huts formed of the 
branches of trees, but without any inhabitant. We left 
the Brak River, whose water continued salt, and travel- 
led due N. We proceeded over a rise of red sand and 
tall grass, which extended about three miles; we then 
pas^ over sand mixed with stones of various kinda, 
many of which would probably have been prized by 
Buropean lapidaries, a few of these J picked up. Thef^ 
oiometer at noon, 64. 



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Itt JCXnilSIflr AGRCMM THB [Ml» 



CHAP. XIL 



^mvaf at the Great liiver — B^riis Kraal — Travelling on 
. ihf BankSiOfthe Great River-rr-Bushman baptiud'^Cros^ 
. ing p,iven» 

Arriving at the summit of a long ascent, about tw6 
Q*clock, we had a view of thelong wished for river. The 
eyes of all wer^ directed towards it, admiring jts grand 
^nd majestiq appearance, and expressing a strong desire 
ta drink of its pure wat^s. Now that web<iheld this 
tempting object, we' grudged every minute whibh' def 
tained us from it. It Qii^ht already, in a certain sense, 
be called " ^ river of life ;"^ for even the sight gave fresh ' 
sty^ngtlv, vigour, and ^nima.tiou, to every one of us. W^ 
fpv^nd it farthei: pifthan our wishes at first lied us to con- 
ceive, for we did not reach its banks till three o*clock*, 
wbei\ every one rushed towards it, and djrank eagerly, 
till . satisfied. Being accustom.ed to thick and brackish 
water, w^ extolled the purity and sweetness of theOreat 
R^ver water, ' Neither the thickens, with which i is banks 
wejrepovered, i^or tl^e steepness pf fts sides, seemed! an^ 
impediment to the cattle approaching it; they pushed 
heedlessly forward till their mouths reached it, when the 
rapid motions of every tail indicated satisfaction and en- 
joyment. As we had eaten nothing since the preceding 
day, inconsequenceof our haste to reach the river, we 
had no sooner satisfied our thirst than we felt our hunger, 
and hastened to remove that also. The cattle had thou- 
sands of acres of high grass at hand, to which they in- 
stantly ran, on iquenching their thirst. 

Being uncertain how far we were from our settlement 
at Klaar Water, after sun-set we made a fire of six or 
eight rotten trees where vve halted, and another of a 



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nm] KJSHMBirS COUNTRY. 353 

mmilar sizeoii aneigbbouring bUl.as a sigaal to annoance 
our arrival Tbe river being as broad as tbe Tbamea, at 
Loodon bridge, being also deep and rapid, tbe crossing 
with waggonB appeared somewbat formidable^ 

It if r^^eo: tmgulflkr that we should have crossed the 
Bushman's country without meeting one human being, 
except one family on tbe day we entered It That even 
tS^ part wbieb we crowed has some inhabitants I have no 
jdoutTty from tbe remains of huts which we discovered in 
two or. three places; but their oiimber must be y^ery 
•tBlaUu It fills the miod with regret ta see so large and 
JbasiolifUl a pe^tlioo of Ood's earth so destitute of popula^^ 
jbioD, mi to thjknkof.itK producing, year after year, pro** 
^WQder sidikiient tQ support millions of cattle, whilst 
ODly a Mew wild heaoto roam^ over it. . Many of the ways of 
.God are iescviKtoblr, and the permission of, this seems to 
.lw<MieQf tbatu 

. Jfuoe 1; Thii aaofmig two Bustusoien came to us, in 
consequence of hearing tbe report of our rausketa. They 
engaged^, for a little tdbcceo, to carry a letter to Mr. An- 
dera6n» qiur nHS»otiary friend at Klaar Water> (which is 
two days' journey beyond the Great Rkveri) that be and 
some of bia frienda might comd tf> our aaristance in crossn 
iag the rives. Ai>errecei^iiDg'the letter, they continiied wati<> 
ittgforsoase^time,. and we. could uotcbBJecture the leaflon 
why they did not set off inocnediiitely ; iMof couid we in« 
quire, as none of ouTtDtevin^tsra wereal haadr atloagth, 
sefqpostnglhey expected tbe tobacco previousiy to per* 
fbrmiog tb^ se? vice,, we presented each of them wtib a 
piece, on receiifTngwUch ^bey inittediately proceeded on 
tbisir jonrney. Theyinometer, at moonv 66. 

At two,' R M. when- on the eve erf departure, in order 
to^ reach- the lerd higber up the rioter, the Chief of a Bosh-' 
man's kraal joined us to conduct ti» to tbe ford, fife wa« 
aecOTcipanied by nine of 1m people riding en.osea, with 
som^ p^^striamr. THe ClMf wore a hat, » short bluet 
cokt; attdskin t»oirwk^ fbk 0tfaertf wore oaky sfaeep^ 



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154 JOURNEr ACROI^ THE pttS. 

skin cloaks, loosely thrown otrer liiem. Mostoftbem 
had their faces and hair rubbed over with r6d paint The 
Chief could speak the Dutch language, and once* resided 
at the Klaar Water settlement, Which he lejft in order to 
have two wives, which is not permitted at ther institu- 
tion. 

We travelled along the banks of the Great River in an 
easterly direction, among tall withered grass, in the fol- 
lowing order: 1st. Eight Bushmen riding on oxen^ 2d. 
Our baggage waggon and twelve oxen. 8d. A -BKsii- 
man on oxback^ and our guide an horseback, 4th. My 
waggon and ten oxen. 5th. Obr flock of sheep and goats. 
6th. Our third waggon and ten oxen. 7th. Thecfaief'aDd 
his son on Oxen, with two of our people on horseback.'— 
8th, Our spare oxen. 9tb. Ouj armed Hottentots, walk- 
ing scattered. The whole formed. a curious caravan, 
'which, had it proceeded along the streets of London, 
would have collected a crowd of spectators equal to that 
on His Majesty's going to St. Paul's. 

We arrived at a place opposite to the ford a little after 
sun-set, when the chief rode off to his kraal, to bring 
more of his people to attend our evening worship. . In 
about an hour he returned with them. We invited him 
to our tent, and gave him a cup of coflFee,- which he re- 
lished. While taking it, Mr. Read asked hina if he knew 
Srieuberg, in the district of Graaf Reynet, v^hich he said 
he did. He then asked him how long he thought we had 
been in travelling fr6m thence to the place where we now 
were. After thinking a little, he said, he supposed two 
months. He was greatly surprised when we. informed 
him we had only taken twelve days; for:the road by 
which he supposed we must have come w^s iextremely 
circuitous: of course he had no conception that be bad 
been living so near the colony. 

2d. There was an intense white frost during the nighty 
and at sun-jrise the thermometer was at 36. At nine, A.M« 
some of us walked to Bern's kraal, two n^ ilea higher up 



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ivm.} JWJSHMBN'S CQUNIRY. 155 

the. jriver. It stopd on a barren spot, all gravel, without 
^ii:inch of cultivatioo; but the scenery abput the river 
WHS c^rmixig* . Another part of the kraal was on the 
front of a hill about, half a mile to the south* Bobza^ sat 
in the middle of. a group for about ^ two hours, telling 
them of the. true God, and Jesus Christ, whom be had 
^endtinto^ibje W9rM.t0;Save sLiuaers. Tbeinterestwhicha 
youag map, .who 3at immediately beside him, seemed to 
take in what he said, I .shall not soon^ forget. After it 
leras pver, this youog man said, '* From what I hsfVe just 
I^ard, .1 feel as if. I were a new man ; as if I bad entered 
into a i^eiy life.. I .wonder that God has preserved me 
.from . lions, i tigers, and elephants, which I have encoun* 
jtered|,tbat I might hear.the things which I have been told 
to-diiy." His eyes were constantly fixed on the lips of 
Boozsdc, and a. moat significant smile was continually on 
bis countenance. The people expressed willingness t^ 
join any. mission we might establish among theiii. The;f 
assured us.that no .more people could live at Klaar Water 
timn were already there, and that some belonging to the 
settlement were obliged to live as far from it as they wer^ 
[ * The day was oppressively hot, notwithstanding ttfe 
cioplnesa of the morning. The thermometer in the sup, 
atpoon, was.SO.. Most of the kraal followed as to our 
^waggons, when Boozak addressed them again.. < 

.. When sitting by.myself on the bank of the Great Riyeir, 
jainong-the trees,, taking a sketch of it, two men on t^e 
opposite ftid^ observed, me,^ and called out something in, a 
l<^ud voice, but in a language I could hot understand. I 
oa)l?d lo them that th^y might know I heard them. They 
couid see me much better than I could see them ; for the 
sua^honeover th^ hill upon, me, while they were in the 
.Sibade. At seven in the evening a large company, to be 
in such a wilderness, attended Wtorship. Besides our own 
people,' there were about thirty Bushmen and Corannes« 
When Mr. R. had delivered am address from the memo- 
fablastoryx>f the jailor at Philippi, Boozak sat in the 



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1 M JOIIRRBY ACROtB TUB [ISlSr 

inidst of the ^traiigers, and repeated to tb^oiy-^in tbe Hot^ 
tentct tongue, the substance of what bikd been said, with 
many remarks of his own. He also addressed ai» old 
man, who after e?ery short sentence gave bis assent^ or 
repeated it: frequently several at the same time called 
out, aaiJ or yes. The sight wa3 strange and truly iii^ 
teresting. Tbey remained till near midnight ; aiMl htm 
tbe number of tongues talking at the same time^ we could 
hardly hear one anotber in tbe tfent^ . 

dd. The nigbt was cotd. Thermometers at mnrkmf 34. 
Most of the Bushmen remaioed alhnigbt . i amustd them 
a little by letting each lee himself in k looking^ glassy at 
which most of them stared with inucb gravity. While 
fitting by tbe river several birds amused me by theirnotesu 

Atkr White frost during the night. Theim^m^tet^ at 
uoon, 70. Tbete was no appearance of help from tbe > 
4;therside: perhaps Providence prevented our renooval 
f^r the sake of the poor kiaal whom we wereinstfuctii^g^ 
Ih the evening I addressed them from EpiLVu 11 ^kct^rf^ 
Mr. R. interpreted to Bern, their Gbief^ in Distcb; and 
Jhe repeated it in the Coranna toogoe^ with a naluiral ora^ 
tolry extremely interesting. After |nrayer, Mr. R* S8i4 
adme things which Bern interpreteii : tlscn Copido m^ 
tioned some things to faira that he might tell tbe pefiiplCf 
Our sheep were all mrsteiug for seme time ; but sis of^ur 
pf;opIe^ who went in sflarch of them, found them^ an4 
brought them back to the waggons. Soipe of our Hoi^ 
tembta ivent acrosa the river cm, purpose: to try its dept^^ 
bi;|t effected it with'great difficttlty,, owing to th^ stver^t^ 
of the current. However,, it appeared to be.feHiog? 
tb4>ugb siofwly. Tbiousands of acres of fioie bay» upwaflrdt 
of two feet long^ surrounded oni waggoas!} bu4 it ttu»t 
be allowed to rot^ beiiag: of little usein tbil fonaakenkipd^ 
CoiiW it be trahspbrted, free of expense, to toftdoiii 
whiat a fuad for doing good would it not produ^^ ! O^c 
sbdep were again missing^, and wexanbt found .tiU tkx^ 
ho4Ts«,after sun-set 



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Hm&] BCSHMKIfS t OCnTRr. W 

5ifa. Thermometer, at sun^riBey 40: at nooti^ 70. A 
person arrived irom Mr. AntierBon, with a letter, ackn^w' 
ledgitig the receipt of mine; but obeerTmg, that n(H be^ 
rng able to learn at what ford we were, he had put bff 
coming to us till he shoold obtain this iinfortnation frortC 
some of his people. However, a captain, or chief, con^' 
Bected with Klaar Water, came to the other side t6 assist 
us. The kraals on this side are under him : the cattle^ 
are all his property, only the people have the milk fbi* 
attending to them. Bern, the head or chief, ' is hii^ 
brother, and employed by him. He informed us of af 
ford, a iSew days higher up the river, which he was cbn- 
fident we should be jible to cross without the trouble o^ ^ 
taking our waggons to pieces, and carrying them over on 
rafts composed of trees tied together. On receiving this 
information, we instantly began to prepare for proceeding 
tAvrardsit; but why he concealed this information for 
four or five days I knew not, unless to secure our com- 
pany. When every thing was ready for departing, ex- 
cept yoking the oxen, we found they were missings* 
through the inattention of our Hottentots, which detain- 
ed us till after sun-set, (five, P« M.) when tve again got in 
motion, to the great joy of our dogs, who expressed it in 
a very diverting manner. 

We stopped for some time at Bern's kraal as we passed; 
The poor creatures expressed regret at our leaving them; 
especially one young man, ta Mr. R. I visited several of 
their huts, in which iiardly any thing was to be seen but 
the fire; yet they appeared to be cheerful and contented: 
In one hut I observed five or six young people scrambling 
among ashes for small roots resembling the crocus, which' 
they had roasted, eating them greedily as they found 
them. Many of the people said in Dutch, ** Good night." 
We proceeded till aboiit eight, P. M. when we halted 
near the river, a|id found plenty of firewood. We passed 
a few huts about seven o*€k>ck. We observed a signal 
made by our friends qa the other sid^, intimating that 



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158 JOtJRNEY ACROSS THE fiaWi 

they were tratelliqgto, the eastward along with us. . Such 
an occurrence is peculiarly plefasidg, after' travelling. so 
many days in a desert without seeing one inhabitant. 

6th. Thernoorpetcr, at sun-rise, 50. Though the fiftb 
week in winter, at nine in the morning the heat began to 
be oppressive ; the swaUows and butterflies were flying 
every wh^re around. I observed a Bushiiian^s pitiseven 
or eight feet deep, near our waggOns# The bed of the 
river appears here to be about half a njile wide,T)tit $eem9 
only to be entirely covered after great r&ins.' Thermo- 
meter in the shade, at nine, A. M. 66: at noon, in ditto, 
76: in the sun, 84. There was much distant thunder, 
but we enjoyed sun-shine all the day, • ' • 

Pretorius, a Bushman belongiiig to our company, who 
had lived a considerable time at Beth^Isdorp, on making' 
a confession of his faith in Christ, was- baptized by "^ 
Mr. R. in the Great River, which.was'a 'sokm'nand 
affecting service. 

. At two, P.M. Bern drove thirty oxen across to us- 
from the other side : the stream carried them dbWn with ' 
great speed for a quarter of a mile, and all got over- ex- 
cept one which returned, and would not enter the riv0r 
again. Two men followed the oxen on what they call 
a wooden horse, which is a thick branch of a tree, with ' 
a long pin stuck into it. On this they lie flat, suspend- 
ing their clothes on a stick, and driving themselves for- ; 
ward by their feet, as a person swimming. ' A fhird 
crossed on a real horse; for a considerable time nothing 
was seen above water but their heads. 

7th. In the morning we found, from fresh footsteps 
which we saw, that a.lion had approached very nea,r us 
during the night, without doing any harm. At sun-rise 
we proceeded along the banks of the river, travelling over. . 
•tones of all sizes until ten A. M. when we halted. On 
our way we pbserved the fresh footsteps of an uncom- 
monly large lion, such as our new friends told us abound 
in this quarter. One of our people found three Idrge 



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^«Nfi.l BUSHMEN'S COUNTRY. 159 

ostrich eggs in time for dinrnpr, otie of whiclyQearly dined 
four of us, and tasted remarkably well. ! . 

• At eleven, A. M. I was .informed' that three waggons 
were come in sighton'the other side of the river to meet 
us» but the stream seemed to present a. formidable ob-* 
stacle to our union. Thermometer, at noon, 84. 

• There is a bush abounding here, significantly named 
St6p'a*whik. Its branches are ful 1 of thorns, e^^actly the 
shape of a fishing hook; so. that if they catch liold of 
your clothes as you pass, you must "stop a while, some- 
times a lofig. while, before you can get clear of them, as 
I frequently experienced afterwards. In clearing. one arm 
from it, the other is caught ; and without the cautious 
assistance of a second person there is no escaping from 
its hold, but by main force, and losing part of your 
dress." 

We departed at three P.M. as did the waggons on the 
other side. About four o'clock we came to a plain of 
great extent,, indeed without any visible termination 
either to the S. or E. producing only heath," intermixed 
with spots of tall withered grass. We conjectured that 
this was the north side of Wilks' Plain. 

There .was the appearance of lime in different p^irts 
we passed. .' The soil is red, with here and there gravel 
mixed with stones of considerable size, which tried the 
strength of our waggons. The primrose and several 
flowers were in bloom. At nine P.M. we reached the 
ford. Our friends on the other side had lighted up two 
fires to point it out, but we had to wait for day-light be- 
fore we could attempt to cross it. 

Some of our people who preferred travelling along the 
Bide of the river to going round a mountain with the 
waggons, fell in' with five lions at ditle rent times, and 
Mr. R. particularly was in'uch exposed to one of them, 
which bit and wounded one of our dogs very severely, 
leaving the marks of its large teeth in the. creature's 
back. It suffered much, but in about a month it was 



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160 CROSSING THB GRBiLT RIVER. (lSia»^ 

completely r^oVeredj Tbey also shot at thiiee sea te^^' 
but killed none, in.conseqUCTce of firing too early* 

8th, Now arrived the time for crossing, f he* formidable 
river. The .morning was providentially fine. Soon- 
after day-break, one of mr people entered the river oft' 
horseback, tp ascertain its depth, and got across without- 
much difficulty.. Eleven Griquas returned vvith our 
Hottentot on horseback^ to assist us in crossing. Ail- 
were employed in elevating the baggage in our waggons 
as h igh .as possible, by means of stones and timber put' 
^ndpr them, to prevent the water re3chin^ them. At 
ten A.M. everything being in readiness, we advanced' 
towards tUa .river, .and went over in the foUowii^- 
order : — - i 

1st. Part of our loose oxen driven by three HQtteQtot6> 
on horseback. 

2d. My waggon, with three, mounted Griquas on 
each side, to prevent the oxen, turning out. of th» 
right way. ■ 

3. More loose oxen driven by tWo mounted Gii^uag. 

4. The second waggon, with two Griquas on-esiefa side^ 

5. The baggage waggon, with three Griqoas on eaeb«ide^ 

6. Hottentot on horseback, carrying a parcel. 

7. Four of Our dogs driven dowa by the current. 

8. Sheep and gpats driven by three Griquas swimmiDg 
on wooden horses. They dlso kept up the heads of threei. 
goats which were bad swimmers. 

9. More oxen driven by three Griquas on wooden 
horses. .. , ; : ' ; 

Nothing was now left behind but two dc^sthat were 
too timid to venture over. However, in about half an 
hour one attempted, and succeeded in* reaching us ; tha 
Other then threw himself into the river, and was equaUj 
successful; so that by two o'clock in the afternoon all 
were safely arrived in Griqualahd, through the kindnesff 
of agraciou.s Providence. We received a hearty welcomo 
tio the country from Bern^ a flaptaia or Chief of tb« 



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Mil^3 JOURNEY BEYDItD THE GREAT RIVEIL l«I 

9» whose oxen bad drawn tMir .wagons along for 
^two4aya. . 

eter at noon, 73* We dined on Guinea fowl8» 

our people* In the evemag our €ongregatioa 

locfa increased by the addition of the Griquas. 

9 P.M. we heard the sound o£ a waggoii approacfap 

iicb we expected would bring Mr. Anderson ; in 

minutes he arrived. We were glad to aee our 
' in «o remote a region, and he appeared no less 

to meet with us. After conversing till midnight 



CHAP. XIII. 



Jij p y a y beyond the Great River, ^•^Arrhal at KlaarW^nter^ 
<^ i0. or Griqwa Tornn^^^pwrmty to Lattakoo. 

\^. 

Juvs9,1814. 

^iieveiL A.M. after an address by Mr. Anderson, ftn4 

r, we tookteave of fiem and bis people^ and quitted 

Biver .; but we had not travelled *bove an hoar 

[ Jkarifis hprraemeii overtook u$/ inforwng us thiit 

iiately on our leaving the river, it b^jgan to rise* 

•became impassable; .this was no doubt in <yon« 

ce^of^mat sains having fallen higher up the riv^. 

t|llleiUigenQe;0iade us admire the good providence of 

libat brougbt us to Read's Ford« at (jhe proper time^ 

we been four and<twenty hours later, we might 

diii|e jbeen^detain0d imany days, (which often happens,) 

mf^mit pfovifsions ^might have been entirely consumed. 

ilB|ii4* t haveobeerved a chain of favourable providences 

•ddpig .the wh(^Ie Journey, which I viewed-as answers to 

"Ibt^tmajrers ^o£ many^christians in Britain, on behalf of us 

^HfJareis travseUingin the wikferness. ' 

. '' . . M 





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102 RESroENCE AT ^ flSISr 

'. At eleven A. M, we halted a little while tp- Tisit a 
Bushman's kraal, on a rising ground, to the left of the 
road.' The people were employed by one of the Griqua 
captains to watch his cattle, for which service they are 
allowed to use the milk of the Co^s, and Bushmen are 
{^^nerally found to be faithfdl herdsmen. Their huts 
"were similar to those we saw on the south side of the 
river — ^low, shaped like an oven, and covered with mats 
afnaide of reeds. The people were the picture of wretched- 
i)es», with little clothing, yet Ihey appeared cheerful. 
They had some fine children, who wore nothing wha4« 
ever except a row of beads round their necks. A young 
' woman had a long piece of copper hanging from one ear,, 
and a round piece of the same metal, about the size of a 
dollar, hanging froni the other: another person, whom 
I supposed to be her husband, had exactly the dame. 
The only warlike weapons which I observed, were three 
Jiandsiome CafFre, assagays. 

At one P. M; ioming to a clump of trees^ we halted to 
refresh our oxen and ourselves^ but there was no water; 
indeed there is none from the river to Klaar Water 
•atailion, which is a long day's jowrney. At ten P: M. 
Hvhen within half a mile of the settlement, our people 
fired to announce our approach, aud the salutatioo was 
^'«oon returned ; after which we arrived, and received a 
mondial welc6me from our friends. 
- l<M:h. At 8 A. M. we attended their ordinary, morning 
worship, at which two or three hundred were present 
-The day was spent in conversing generally about mis- 
tioniry affairs ; and in the evening Mr. Read preacted 
to a lafge congregation, who all seemed attentive* 
• lltb. 'After Ijreakfast we visited eight families who 
•lived at a» little distance. In one house I noticed a large 
•Dutch qa^rto Bible; and in two other houses, parts of 
»thfe New Testament. In one hut a black girl was grind- 
^tng wheat, in a manner that attracted my attention. She 
had a large fiat stone, on which she laid a handfol of 




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MH£.] KLAAR WATER. »» 

^heat, and with around black stone, bruised about twenty 
grains at a time, by repeated strokes. When beaten 
suiBcientiy small, she moved the flour to the side, and 
brought forward a few grains more to be beaten. I re* 
marked that a hungry man could eat faster than she 
could grind, which those present confessed to be very 
possible. 

. We examined the fountain^ or spring from whence 
tbeir water comes, which was abundant and well tasted, 
Jbut when it arrives at the village, which is only about 
half a mile distant, it is a little brackish, owing to the 
i;round through which it runs being mixed with salt- 
petre. Some of the people have small gardens, producing 
pumpkins, cabbages, kidney beans, peas, tobacco, miHet 
or Indian corn, &c. The garden belonging to the mis- 
«ioaaries is large and very productive. I have not seen 
larger or better potatoes in Africa. The plumb and 
peach trees are also tall and thriving, and their vineyard 
has this year begun to yield a little fruit In the after* 
OQon attended to the concerns of the settlement. 
.. 12th. Visited the smith's shop, where some of the 
people M'ere at work in- the best manner they could, but 
having no one to instruct them» they are not great pro« 
jScients in the art. 

13th. At the morning prayer-meeting, Cupido from 
Betbelsdorp, Bern the Captain, with Messrs. Anderson 
amd Read engaged in prayer. Thermometer at eight, 
A.M. 49, and ice a quarter of an inch thick was on the 
water. While reading, on a hill behind the village, the 
ibell rang for worship, the sound of which amongrthe 
bills at once strongly brought to my recollection the 
,l»untry now very far distant, where I spent my earliest 
.years. After Mr. Re^d had preached, we partook together 
of the Lord's Supper, at which were present, G^iqilas, 
JBottentots, Dutch, English and Scotch, commemorating 
^e deaith of^Him. who died for J^he salvation pf ^en of 
aiijs^nds under heaven, and whose gospel is suited to the 

M 2 *■ 



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JOURlfeY iti tAlTAKOa ^Vi& 

wants oifall the tribes of the earth, tn the afternoo'ti t 
preached through two interpreters, to the Cofannis. 
when I liad spoken k sentence in English, Mr. Andets6ti 
repeated it in Dutch, and a third person, (Captaiti Kdk,^ 
In the Coranna tongue. Thi^ process w^s not so ted¥- 
^6us as miight be supposed, but I observed that it required 
at least double the time to express it in the Coranna tah- 
^uage, as in English or Diitcb. Tbi3 tes^t wjte i tet. ii. 2. 
•About three btindred 'attended, iiianytrom coiiSideVaWe 
distances. Several of the Griqaas were dressed miicti 
like the corttmon pedpfe in fengrand/ TbeCpr^n^a'ffi- 
terpreter stood ivith his coiat ofr, and seeftned ikti^uecl Irjr ^ 
«peiik>rig so often. Most of the peopleskt (m tbe gf otitid, 
¥or they are not accustomed in their bouses to stt ob 
seats. Those who had seats, at least some of thetn, ap* 
'peared tobe tired by sitting so long in that postute, 

14tb. Having resolved fo visit the city of Liitts^kdb, 
Considerably higher up Africa, we XKJCupied the tote- 
'noon in inaliirfg preparation for it. After dinner, six <if 
us rode to a small hill abont four inil^s to the e^^tvv^krd^ 
which is studded Svith chrystal, many Sexagonical pieces 
*^Df which Ve gathered, and hdd We had a hammer tvfe 
'inight have brought away some better specifaefas. l*hfe 
ground around it is full of saltpetre, and of couSrse t>rt^ 
*duces little pasture, only bushes and rushes. 

They expect some fain bere In September^ but ^thehr 
-rainy season is in Novembier, Debetnber, iriA JatauSslrj. 
Their cows give lio milk efxccpt while the talves tontinde 
'to suck. * 

15th. Every thhf^g beihg ready for oiir jdiiirbfey ^ 
Latfafcoo, we went into tbe meeting hotMfe^* abd Wdlfe 
comtnend^d by thfe church to the guidance Slid |raci6lh^ 
" protection t)f God, in the presence bf ail the iAtfabilSfi!2B'> 
after which, atfoLr P. M. wis departied, aceoni{>iilied Wy 
Mr. Anderson and Adam Kdk, foll6wcd by tHfe fel'e^etli^^ 
of tbe jieopie. We Were ih thrte \*tiggoi!s; But twto 
^©tbersulrere to follow on tbe6i<*rdw. ^Abtmt'fiveo'iiiofcfc, 



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M^^] jopnnEy TO ^AiT4Koa- le^ 

^ UUle before 9un*$et, we observed ibur or five lions oi^ 
^ rising ground a little to the right of the path. On our 
approapMvg oearer they turned round and looked towards 
us; buf; a^ they seemed willing to let us pass without 
iQole^ti^tion^ we gave them none. 

Npt far from the sanae place where these lions were, 
(be priquas. a short time ago, shot a lioness, that h^d ' 
three yPWg ones folbwing ner, which they* brought 
home and b:ept for ^ome time; but when they began to 
^iU the laml^ and attack the sheep, they judged it time 
to! put tbein to d^ath. Ouf ^va^^ons were now and theq 
i^early in the Bujshmen's^its. 

* Lately there was a lion that did much miscbief, and 
tbey could not get hin^ shot ; but they contrived a snare 
which succeeded. They surrounded a fountain of water 
with, a hedge of bushep, leaving only a small entrance ; 
i^p the side of whjch tbey placed a loaded gun, with a 
cpfd fa8tene4 to the trigger, which went across the en- 
trance, at a proper height. The unsuspecting lion, being 
(hifsty, came to this fountain to drink: on entering, his 
foot cafne upon the cord, which fired /off the contents 
|nto bis body, and he fell dead upon the /spot. 
/ After five hoiirs tiaveUfng we halted for the night ^eay 
Pi^eluck Fountain. We heard the roa,ring of several 
jjon^ liot fa/ of . , 

.J6th. At suorripe the therniometer was 40. A Bootr 
chuana man came to us from a neighbouring kraal, to 
jinqi^ije abou|; his son, who had been detained by a bpor 
ill t^e cqlopy when accompanying some Klaar Water 
^ag^gons to Cape-town. Poor man, be seemed much 
(Cpj9cerne4 for the captivity of his son among the white 
people. We promised, on our return to the colony, to 
€2i4eavour to procure his r^elease, which appeared to af- 
ford hiip a little satisfaction. When leaving us be called 
several timep to his dpj^, Bi4ssem Mentay^ which means 

affectionate wife. About pine, A.M. we walked to the 
kraal frona wjieQce Jie c^me, which lay about three miles 



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166 JOURNEY TO LATTAKOO. {lfflS2 

to the westward. We travelled along a serpentine valley 
between low hills, among tall grass, which had a fine 
appearance. Though almost in the middle of winter,' 
we found it oppressively hot. On our way to the kraal 
we came to Ongeluck, or Unfortunate Fountain. It 
received this name from some Griquas, who had been 
shootingthere, who rested themselves under the shade' 
of a camel-thOrn-tree, the root of which only now re- 
mains. While resting, the gun of one, who was sharpen*^ 
ing his flint, went off, and shot his neighbour who sat by 
him. The poor man, after lingering a few days, died. 
At one time there were hopes of his recovery; but a* 
person letting off a gun near the hut where he lay, 'so 
alarmed him in his weak state that he died soon 
after. 

On arriving at the kjraal, I went into the Captain*s hut» 
and sat down upon the only stool in it. They made an' 
apology to Mr. Read because they had not a sto6l fo^ 
him and Mr. Anderson, who were standing without, say- 
ing that they were always accustomed to sit bn the 
ground, and had no occasion for stools. Thfe Captain 
went behind and brought out an empty snuff-box, whicfe 
he began to scrape, as if in order to find snuff. I under- 
stood him, and gave him a supply from my box. Hia 
wife, and some others in the hut, were covered witH 
beads, and with brass, copper, and ivory rings roun<} 
their arnas and legs. 

We visited various huts, and found several personsr . 
who could read their letters, having been taught thehi 
at Klaar Water. They appeared to have nothing to da 
but to sit talking on the outside of their huts. Afte^ 
conversing with them about an hour, we took leave, and 
returned to our waggons. I trust Mr. Anderson, on his 
return home, will send some of his people to them to 
teach some of them to read, and they will teach others; 
and as they understand the Dutch language, they will- 
thereby be able to read the word of God. Our walk wa§ 



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^hmB.} JOORSEYirOLATrAKOQ. . JGT 

pleasant, the day resembling a fine English summer day. 
Several bushes were in beautiful flower* which made us' 
forget it was winter. The people though destitute, as ' 
Europeans would think, of every outward comfort, were 
ckeerful. andi apparently happy; but this appearance 
might arise from the novelty of our visit. Most^if ibeir 
children were . extremely terrified when I approached 
thei»» screaming with all their might, taking refuge 
Hinder their mothers* sl>eepskin cloaks, their, only co^ 
veri»g. I was pleased to observe a waggon, though an 
©Id one, which no.doubt was the property of the Head* 
man. Thermometer, at noon, 70. 

Departed at two, P.M. travelling in a valley bounded 
by ranges of hills on the right and left, about ten ot^ 
twelve miles distant from each other. The range to the 
westward commences at the Great River, and runs seve- 
ral days journey into the interior. The soil is red earth, 
9t present covered with tall withered grass, reaching 
above the bellies of the oxen, in which we could not 
walk without much . pain arising from the prickly seedy 
of it attaching to our clothes, and working their way 
through to the skin, and not easily extracted. 
' At five, P.M. we passed a place, where an affecting 
event happened about twelve years ago. Two brothers 
of the name of Bergover, (bastard Hottentots,) with 
tbeir families, had left the Cedar Mountains in thci co-* 
lony, along with one Kok, and another person, to settle 
en the Krooman river, where they remained for some 
time^ and were returning in a waggon. A little higher 
up the country they were attacked by a party of wild 
Bu9bmen, and one of the brothers was killed. The 
ether defended the waggon with his gun, till the yirives 
and children yoked the oxen. Then he drove it, and 
defended them for a long time with his musket, which 
he frequently fired off, bat only with powder to frighten 
tliem, not having time to load it with ball When he 
came to this place, some of the Bushmen, who had got 
tbejre before, and lay concealed behind a busrh which he 

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IBS JOURNET TO LATTAKOa ]^8l*i 

vrBfi to. pass, abot him d6ad with their p<H8GDed arrowfti 

ThecousterQation of the two helpless wido^wft^ and thetr 

fatherless children^ maybe more easily conceived than 

exprjsssed, when they saw the only remaiain^ loaQ 

breathe bis last, and themselves at the mercy of the nenst 

savage of mankind'; but that God who is the widow's 

friend bad help at baqd. At this interesting crisis a 

Landdrost, who was travelling in the interior, oame in 

sight with his people^ qn which the Bushmen ran off 

)Krithout obtaining the booty they had so eagerly desiledt 

Thus these poor widows and fiitberkss children v^re 

almost miraculously rescued from the bands of the cfiiel 

barbarians, ^hen just lifted up to destroy tbena4 lom 

formation was immediately conveyed to Klaar Watei? 

. from whence a party was instantly dispatched U> guard 

them thither^ Kok was also murdered some time afierri. 

, Haltedat seven, P« M» by the side of some talltbom 

|re0s, but there was no waten The moon shone very 

plefisMtly^ but tlie night was cold; however, this was 

counteracted by a large fire, plenty of firewood bdng 

at. hand. 

17 th, Thermometer at sun«rise, 34. Set off at eigbli 
A« M. and reaehisd John Bloom's Fountain about eleven. 
This fountain derived its name ffom a person wha died 
about fourteen years ago, who was a runaway from the 
colony, add put himself at the bead of many Bashaaeii» 
Corannas, and Hottentots, and lived on the plunder of 
other kraals. As he resided chiefly at this fountain, it 
was called by his name* It is full of reeds ten or twelve 
feet high, with many birds* nests hanging like bags from 
theita. Thet*mometer at noon, 70. 

At two, P.M. we were again on our way. At four wa 
halted, at Blink Fountain^ at the bottom of Blink (or 
Shii!iing) Hill ; so called on account of a shining stone 
resembling the lead of which pencils are made in Eng* 
laud. This the Bootehuanas and others grind to powdeti 
which tbey use in the same way as hair powder is used 
in Europe. The red «toue with which the surrounding 



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i9nx.l WenilBY TO LATTAKOO. Wf 

naltops paiivt tbtir bodies conies also froin tbis hiU» and 
no doubt, forms an article of trade or exchange. The 
bill i« low and ilat on the top, where there are several 
boge rocks,, of a dark brown colour, which are very <:u-i 
rious. We ascended to these rocks, the sigbt of which 
amply repaid us for the labour. There are many indica«* 
tions that the bill* has been produced by some volcanic 
eruption ; roost of the stones lying {tbout have the ap« 
pearance of having been burnt to a cinder at some remote 
perio4 of antiquity. 

.. About sun-set our horsemen arrived, with the tidings 
t^at they had kili€:d oae buffalo,' and wounded two. The 
\Miffaln is often. extremely furious when wounded 'and 
not disabled. Should the person climb a tree, in order 
to escape, he is far from being out of danger^ for tbe 
buffalo will run with violence and strike the tree with 
^is massy horns, whicb cover as with a helmet the crown 
of his bead ; the stroke of whidh Will so shake tba largeist 
^ceesy as to require a firm hold indeed to prevent the perir 
9f>n from falling to the ground, and being consequeiitlx 
tossed into the air by the horns of the enraged auiipal> 
Out two additional waggons from Klaar Water joined u4 
^ut fiieven, P. M. so that now we were a cooRiderable 
^KKly, having five waggons and four horses. 

Tbei'fountain being at a small distance from the plaos 
at which we baited, our people brought water fro>m a 
hole at hand, ' which tasted tolerably well« ;thoagb 
it bad a taofe, foul appearance than any X bad seei^ 
thiown away in England. To find this bole readily 
:after dark, one of our people lighted up a fire among 
the tall reeds where it was. Contmry to bis inten* 
tion the fire spread over tfae whole plain as lar as tbe 
rushes extended, and produced one of the grandest 
^lyectslever beheld;, like the burning of a city; but 
grand as it was, hardly any of our people k>oked over 
ti^j^rsbouldjsrs to. observe it^: there was a reason for it, 
bpwever^for they were very hungry, and were either 



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170 JOURNEY TO LATIAKOO. pslS. 

eating or expecting toon loeat, with wbicfa nothing mu»t 
interfere: yet tbey often fast long without uttering 
a comi^laiiit. Three things, exclusive of religion, com«« 
prehend all that engages the attention of South Africans 
^-money, food, and tobacco. The wonders .of God's 
.creating power around them are viewedi with the eyes of 
cattle. Two or three of our people having observed my 
attachment to flowers, brought me a curious flower as 
we passed along ; but they brought it with as little in* 
terest as a servant in Britain brings a newspaper to bis 
master, evidently uninterested in what they bring. The 
firmament in vain preaches to multitudes the bandy' 
works of the Most High in this remote region. When 
the conflagration passed our waggons, without tnjuriog 
them, we went quietly to rest 

18th. Thermometer at sun-rise 44. Blink or Shining 
Mountain, at the foot of which we were, is a kind of 
Mecca to the surrounding nations. They are constantly 
making pilgrimages thither, not indeed to pay religious 
homage, but only to obtain fresh supplies of blue powder 
to ornament tbeir hair. For how many ages this custom 
has existed, none can say; it is frpm time immemorial, 
and no doubt will continue till some great revolution in 
the sentiments of the people shall take place. In the 
present state of society such a journey must afford much 
entertainment, bating little at home to make one day 
differ from another. This constant sameness has a ten« 
dency to bring the mind into a kind of torpid state, 
which it is distressing even to witness. The gospel is. 
remarkably fitted for rousing such sleeping, inactive, 
minds, by placing before them the majesty and glory of 
the infinite Jehovah, the endless, unbounded felicity of 
the blessed, and the unspeakable misery of th6 wicked in 
the world to come — ^subjects which in all ages have pro« 
duced wonderful effects on the human mind. 

After breakfast, Mr. Read and I, with one of ouf 
Hottentots carrying a lighted candle^ proceeded to ex* 



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jtJNkj JOURNEY TO LATTAKOO. 171 

p!bre this powder mine. After having descended with' 
some difficult^, we went towards the centre of the 
mountain^ dnd soon lost sight of the worlds sotnetivnes 
wading half way up the leg, in black lead dust. The 
arched roof was full of projecting pieces of the sbiniiig 
rbck, and l9^e cavema B{»peared on each side as w^ r 
advanced. The roof at one ptace, appeared* curiously 
<jarved, as if the work of art, part of which we were able 
to reach. On touching this carved work, we perceived 
it had life, and on examination, we found it to be com- 
poised of a multitude of bats, hanging asleep from the 
roof and the projecting rocks on the sides of the cave. 
Moving them backwards and forwards neither awoke; 
nor made any of them lose their hold of the rock on' 
whiclf they hung by the claws of their binder legs — ^but 
holding the candle at a little distance under one of them^ 
awoke'it, When it flew to another part of the cave. Per- 
haps we penetrated about a hundred feet into the moun-^ 
tain, when it became so low and narrow that we could 
proceed no farther iti that direction. W6 returned, and 
went' by a passage leading to the right, deeper into the 
niountain: at the bottom of the descent we entered a* 
large cavern, the floor of which was strewed with the 
bones of animals, and some parts indicated flres having 
been inade in it; perhaps by people taking refuge from 
enemies; for it was too gloomy and terrific to be chosen 
as a residence even by wild Bushmen. After collecting 
some, samples of the rock, and powder, we returned to 
themouth of the cave, nearly as black as chimney sweep* 
ers by the powder, which flew about so as almost to 
^tinguish our lights. 

We were detained at our station until three, P, M. 
by two circumstances — the straying of our cattle in dif- 
ferent directions, and the bringing the buffalo that was 
shot the day before. We feared the lions would devour 
It during the nighty but they did not^ so we had food for 



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}[f% JQlIRjneyTOLATTAKOq, 

Qur^eWesand followers ^r several days, wUbQUt diinip.isl^* 
V^g the number of our sbee{v 

/ Leaviog BUok FountsiiD, we travelled N. amoqg tall 
grass tiU six in the evening, ^hen, the star^ ^ing ob« 
flcured by cloqds, it became ao dark, we judged it pTu4<ept 
tabalt till the rising of tbe lupon should furnish sujBcJietit 
Ugbt to proceed. Waters and plenty of wood beipg at 
hand, W«j iiiadled t^cee large fires, ?^nd m^i^, ^Qffefjj 
iprbicb contributed much to our comfort in a cold ^vt^ 
windy night. The water bad tbe fl^vpur pf 6\\pmi^ 
but was pure« Part of the curtain which covered the 
heavens being drawn ^ide, we found suiBcippt star-light 
to go forward at eight P.M. We cootiijued ip mqtiQp 
till after midnight, wh^n we halted at T^ui^^^Q^ F^W- 
tain, under the shelter of camel-thorp trees, which af 
forded considerably protection from th§ wind and sVee^ 
which fell, but did not remain on tbe grpundi We got 
to rest aboMt two o'clock in the mprning. 

letb. Tb^rmopaeter at nine A. M- 36.-r-at poop, 44.-r 
ft twQ P. M. 50. A few years ago, tho w»ter emitte4 
frojnj Tamanay Fountain was hardly visible;, but ofJ»te, 
the quantity of water sept forth ha^ bepn aiippaUy ip? 
creasing;. The same thing has Jiappeped- at ptjier fopor 
(aips or springs of water in this country. Sboul4 this 
become geperal in Soptb Africa, it will bepowe a mm 
fertile and pleasant cpuntry, and more popi^lpij^.. ~ 

As the pei^t fountain was only fopr. hours distant, aof^ 
Abe nej^t beyond it twelve hours, J>ptb i:Quld W* bp 
reached on the same day, w^ did not ^h^reforp l^avp 
Tamanay until two P^IVJ. int^pdipg pj^ly tp reach tUf 
nearest that day. Our way as usual was tbrpngb Iwj 
fmss and bushes. The soil was-red and aandy. A c^am 
<)fhills, running, northward w.aaafew pailea frorp ^jM> 
the right, or east of us. 

Some may have wondered how Ajbuabaip aQ^otbie;r 
^patriarchs, in the ages oS apti9uity, wer^ pi^rwM ||t 



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pteac^re fo t&\st trp their k^idebce, with nufnerouv 
^pckB^ in couiitries ^here they w^re fitrangiefs, afid with-^ 
out ritakfng utiy coriip^ftation to the native inhabitants ; 
but the ^safoie practice is custoitiaiy in th^ interior «f 
Sbixdh Africa, Kraals of Busbmen come tfAd take iip 
their Misitleiice in tlie Ooranna iE:6ufitry as Ibng as they 
please, without being considered intruder^; atid the 
Cdrafniilas 'do 'the satn^ in the Btfshnmn oountry^ dr in 
kify ^ tht other cotnitrieci. la this *way fhdre 16 both a 
Aixtiine of blood and of languages aiiKing thie inbat>it« 
ihrts 6f thfese fegiottfe. 

M aM«»et 'ifrb ^s^ed Little Kosie Fountain^ 'anod at 
«ik P.M. hartti^a tit Ihe Great Kosie, in a small wood of 
^liin)6Ktbo^h ttte^. £6sie k a Sootchuana word, whidh 
signifies rich, and pefbaps ia appliM to this fottntai»^ 
ft«Mn ttieir alt^ys %Eidi«g watcfr in it. It was at this 
IbUfitaifi tbtit the two Bergoveirs wei^e first attacked (by the 
fittfi^Aveh, afnd thatlhe'firat wa% slain ; and the4ast time 
fidk^b Uncle Wa^ ^here, n^twithi^tending tbe vigilance ^of 
iiffi^'peopYe, knowing by the barking of the 4iig8 tbat 
BOAdtien wete tieaf , mie of his oxen waa Carried off at the 
¥ety4\md tk»t4ie and hispeilpte were j^yking the rest. 
£^^ee][ft €be ^kiml We viaited at Unfortunate FoMtain^ 
%e Md <D^ s^en one inbaMtant ^of the 'country since 
lAMtat ^^^^ WbM*, ^atid ^bia ims the ^fth day. 

In ^he wood tfe two forsaken Coranna huts, 'composed 
^f bnmiiJhes (rf^trees and rieeds, the shape of balf e globe 
^tkobt a lEi<6nt; 'but by itieams of the trees %be inhabiu^ 
IMa'Wbtrid »^ toferably sheltered from tbe treather in 
4(itoi. In the ^front they btifVe ^ fire during nigbt to 
^p their "feiet Wslta'^ite asleep, and to protect from 
Ihe ihtrUsions of Wikl beaidts. About ten at night a wolf 
t^t&e'near us, but «lter a few angry roars, he walked ofi^. 
4%ej!adkals were also noisy, but their cry 4s more amus- 
tllgHhtlii^t^rrtfic. 

' ^tb. Tbe nigbt feh extreme^ cold, and in the mota* 
4ttg iAieft(^mi vras covered with hoar frosty and the ice 



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tH lOURNEY TO LAtTA^OO. i^^^ 

was half ^n inch tbick. T^ermoiiieter at eight A. M. 28 ; 
thermometer at noon in tbe8hade9 64; in the sun» >S4. 
Towards evening we left the Great Kpsie Fountain^ and 
at midnight reaeh^ the noountains which form the 
boundary to the S. W. of the Bootchuana cou&lsries. 
These mountains having no pame» we called them Rey^ 
ner Mountains. 

' Slst, At one o'clock in the morning we entered :the . 
Matchappee country^ and at balf past three o'clock we 
happily arrived at what we named Steven Fountain. . A 
wolf who ran into the midst of our poor sheepy lost his 
life in the attempt ; and a little dog, that belonged to the 
young Bushman who accompanied us for a few;: days 
after entering his country, was crushed ta deatb by ' the 
wheels of two waggons going over bira. . .-. 

. After breakfast we walked about three miles feam 
Steven Fountain to view Kropman ■. Fountain^ from 
whence the river of that; name proceeds. It is the most 
abundant spring of water I ever had an opportunity to 
examine. I measured it at about a yard's distance from 
the rock from whence it flows, and found it three yards 
wide, and from fourteen to eighteen inches deep, bttt 
after a course of fifty or sixty miles it becomes, inrvisiUe 
by running into plains of sand. Perhaps by leading it 
into another direction, or cutting a bed for it acrosathe 
jsands, it might become a m<ore extensive blessing to the 
country. The last experiment is likely to be the lea$t 
8MC(:essful, as probably the first storm of- wind would fill 
up the new bed. We entered the cave from whence it 
proceeds on purpose to examine it. The entrance waa 
narrow, but'we soon reached a kind of central room^tbe 
roof of which resembled in shape, though not in bei^t^ 
the dome of St. Paul's Cathedral in London, from which 
went four passages in .different directions, in all wtiich 
streams of water flowed. Though we had lighted caji-* 
dies with us, we Could discover.no end to any of these 
passages. Within, the wat^r was almost lukewarm ;» bufr 



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nvv.\ JOURNEY TO LATTAKOa 17» 

m the outeide it wto very. cold. The rock is composed 
of limestone. 

: Kere Joha Kok» a boor from Cedar Mountain, and 
another, settled, when the Matchappees resided on the 
£rooman. Kok collected so many elephants! teeth, that, 
on his, first journey to the Cape, he cleared several thou« 
sand doUara, which he spent foolishly on horses, dress, 
&c. before he returned to the Krooman, He was soon 
after murdered by two Matchappees, whom their chief 
delivered up to his widow to be shot; but two of bis own 
Hottentot servants were afterwards considered the^hief ag« 
gressora,'having prevailed upon the others to do it. Kok*s 
companion immediately retired from the interior, and ob- 
^tained a farm in the colony. We viewed the remains of 
Kok's house, and his garden, and after searching, for 
•scHne iime among the long grass, we discovered his grave 
jftiso, which none of us qguld view with indifference, 
f Our people supposed that Mateebe, the Matchappee 
king, was already informed of our approach, as be has an 
t>utpost not far from the Krooman Fountain ; and should 
•any of the inhabitants while hunting, or travelling, ob« 
serve a stranger, and not instafntly repair to Lattakoo 
rwith the inibrmation; the punishment would be death. 
. Left Steven Fountain at four P. M. travelling north- 
ward among grass from three to four feet high, and 
hushes, with Reyner Mountains in a N. W. dir^action. 
At.sLx P. M. when almost dark, the oxen in our waggons 
look fright, dragging the waggons full speed in different 
directions : at seven, the same scene was repeated, which 
-.was alarming, as the waggons might be dashed against 
^each other, or by being dragged through great bushes be 
overturned. Perhaps their fright was occasioned by 
the dogs being only seen among the long grass when 
they leaped up, for none of us heard the roar of any 
iion. . 

T Two Matchappee men joined us, who had been hunt- 
;ing,.and who had probably been awaked from sleep under 



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176 JSOIiNCrrTOlATTAKOOw iltOB. 

n bacdi isy the cracking. of oar wU{», wiiidi from the 
stillness of the night was heard at a great distaace. They 
Iralked dloog with us until «ig)ht Ps M.' wiien we reaciied 
Tbwmseod Fountmin, where we judged U prudent to halt 
litlthe momiBg, as the oa»n were become eo tmid. On 
our kindling afire, tl» two strangers mA 4own near it. 
One of them in a lively manner ariced many <}ue8tio»6 of 
some of our GriqnaB. When any thing s^feen pteased 
bim mnch, be repeated the prindpal word in the sen- 
tence five or si:)c times with a loud TOi^, wtikh I under^ 
ftood was designed to shew thfat be was attending to 
w^bat wiks Bpaken, and nsas pleased willi the informaition. 
When he saw^dam Kok was with M, whom be knew,atid 
lieard we were going on a visittoL^ttakoo tx> do thetngobd^ 
be said be was giad tbat he fotlbv^d tbe footsteps of b» 
iatfaer, who had been their^'frieud. Be likewise express- 
ed much satisiaction that we |»d not visited Leejte*ift 
Place, (which iis a cofxsidentble town on the Krooman 
River, which we bad left behindj before we bad visited 
BSateebe, at Lattakoo, as at present he was aot on verf 
&^ien4*^y tomiB - with lieeyse. Tbey are darlc coppeiw 
coloured, tail and well shaped. 

The paths in the (Cora»na district, atid in this eoantry 
ate aU narrow, beoausc the people walk, as wild geese Ifly^ 
one iormedialsly bebiild the other, m custom perhaps 
awing to a scamiity of tebjectsfdr tonvevsaition. Abo«vt 
nine A. M. tbe. strangiefrs moved quietly fcbm t>ux five, 
and as we. supposed, went to aadther of ouficompatiy ; 
but we learned afterwards they bad gone oSl 

^ad. Tbermouaeter at -sun-Tise, M^ At which lime: 
our Matcfasppee friends rejoined us, baTing been with 
vdme comYades during the night ^ 

At one, P.M. left Townsend Foontatn, and travelled 
among tboQsands of acres of loi}g^rass,.OT hay» Teaching 
sometimes as high as the backs of the oxen, it is 
^rievocrs to ^see so much of the world temaining in a wil* 
demess state, and so much of tbe anapal producliooi <tf 



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iuMfe;] JOURNEY TO LATTAKOO. 177 

the ground perishing without being useful either to nian 
or beast. Much money must be given in most countriea 
for a small spot of ground; but here, a cask of tobacco* 
or a parcel of. beads, would purpfaaae a district as laif^e as 
Torkshire ; but I hope better times are coming tp this 
miserable land. . ^ > 

At half past four, P«M. we came to a fountaih4)f ex- 
cellent water, shaded by a beautiful clump of cameU 
thorn trees, which we named Waugh Fountain, and the 
immense plain with which it is surrounded, Pellatt Plain» 
At this fountain a Matchappee, who had been on a visit 
Jto a distant kraal, joined our company. . He was a fibe 
looking young man, clothed with tanned sheepskiufu 
icolbured with the red stone found at Blinkhill, and .hi# 
skin painted with the same. Our people felled a tree for 
some necessary purpose, but had no man's permission to 
iisk before they proceeded to work. This, being the 
ahortest day in the year, We observed the sun set abo^ ft 
quarter before five o'clock; and being in a plain, without 
visible bounds, and without clouds, the scene resembled 
sun-setting at sea. Here we first discovered the track of 
Mr. Burchel's waggon, the only £uropean now alive who 
ever visited the city of Lattakoo, where it now stands* 
The sanie people once lived three or four days' journey 
nearer the colony, where they were visited by Mesers. 
Truy ter, Vanderlingen, aAd Janz. 

We stopped only about half an hour at Waugh Foun^v 
tarn, when we proceeded, accompanied by the Matchap- 
pee until six, JP. M. when we halted for the night, which 
proved to be a very cold one. However, having plenty, 
of thorn branches at hand, we made both a warm and> 
bright fire, which rendered the night more agreeable* 
Our days resembled fine English days in summer, and- 
our nights those of winter. In the day we had almost 
constant sunshine : in the nighty constant moon or star; 
light, which, with the aspect of the country, resembling' 
aa endlesa field of ripe corn, made this part of the jour*. 

N 



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178 JOURNEY TO t ATTAICOO. [1818. 

nejr extremely pleasant Though we had only sefQ one 
•mBll Qriqua kraaU aod three .Malchappee men during 
the last nine days, we did not feel aa aolitariea. for our 
mxm, goats, horaes, abeep, and dogs, afforded entertaia*' 
ment, and our spirits were raised as we drew netr lo the 
city of Lattakoo. 

fiSd. At sun-rise we left <>ur encampment, and at 
fiine, A»M. halted for refreshment, at a fountain covered 
with ice near half an inch thick, whose Bootchuana 
name ia Hatalakomoo, or Bones of a Bea$fs Head^ the 
Water of whiclt was excellent. Near this fountain our 
people shot a kooo, about the size of an ordinaty ox, 
and greatly resembling the buffalo in the shape of itt 
bead and homa^ with skin resembling the zebra. Our 
people were always pleased to see a slaughter of this 
kind, for they had been accustomed from infancy to li?e 
almost entirely on ^eab. Thermometer at noon G2. At 
one, P«M. we went forward, taking the knoo into our 
waggons as we passed : it was cut to pieces, and the skin 
iaited that I might carry it to England for the gratifica* 
lion of friends. We had been travelling in PelUtt Plain 
&r three days, and liad seen no appearance of a-termina* 
ti6a to it. At three, P. M. a distant hill before us, due 
N« oame in sight, at the bottom of which was said to 
stand the dty of Lattakoo. At six, P. M« we halted on 
some rising j^round, and near an excellent fountain of 
water, which we named Shrubsole Fountain. 

24th. Thermometer at sun-rise 34. Two Matcbap^ 
pees caote to our waggons» who informed us that Mateebir, 
the king of Lattakoo, was absent on a hunt with k large 
party, in consequence of its being the time of the annual 
circumcision. A t our morning worship the Matcbappeea 
sat very still s and in time of prayer they imitated our * 
Hottentots in kneeling and bending their heads toward 
tjie ground. Some of our cattle were unruly when 
yoking, and ran off. The strangers shewed great agility 
and expertnesa in catching them. Tfaermomiateri^ noon» 



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IHiJUtin.papr 2.fJ 




jTr/Zz/rr ufJkfafeedr fitlsatriA^oo. 















T/rw fr^ f//r 7)r/hrifrf/ ofJ[,ata/r(HK 



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ailtlfc.] . JOnHNBYTOLATTAKOO^ iTb 

eS; at wliicb tiiAe we'began our last stage to LatUkoo. 
At one» P«M. we pas^d Cbwie Fountain^ the pujr« water 
' of which was so inviting, that most of us regaled our- 
Belves with a draught of it. A little further on, four 
young^meii, about sixteen years of a^, came up to us* 
.whose faces were painted red and stroked with whitfe 
paint m a regular way, which had a v^ry odd appear- 
ance. They had lately l^een circumcised, as a sign of 
4heir having attained the years of manhood. One of the 
Ibur was son to the late king, Mallayabang. They were 
all well'-sbaped, their bodies painted red, and their hair 
powdered with blue powder* They askfed Very mode^ly 
for a little tobacco, which we gave them. They all car- 
ried assagays, or spears; over their shoulders, and woiie 
brown coloured skin cloaks, with a rouhd musk-cat skiti 
sewed over the cloak between the shoulders, which made 
them resemble aoldiers with their knapsacks. At two, 
P. Mi We came to indo^ fields, into one <rf which I 
went, and found the last crop had been Indian or Caffre 
<iOTn* In about half dn hour we crossed the Lattakod, 
« small river of charming water. Here the four youths 
4eft us, perhaps not bei«g permitted to cross it till a cer- 
tain time iii the day^ for we afterwards observed theth 
.I^ve the town in the morning and never return until tte 
fivfening. 



CHAP. XIV. 



Arrival at the city of Lattaioo — Our nceptian^^Mutder 
0/ Dr. CwBon and party — Meeting with the chief mtnr^ 
'Visit t^ digirent parts <^ the city. 

Hating crossed the river, we immediately began to 
ascend rising ground* Many footpaths became visible, 
all running in one direction, toward thieN.E* which in- 



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180 BECEPTIONATLATTAKOO. [ISB. 

dicated our approach to the city. At three, P. M. reach- 
ing the summit of the bill, Lattakoo came all at oD<fe 
into view, lying in a valley between bills, stretching * 
about three or four miles from E. to W. On descending 
the hill towards this African city, we were rather sur- 
prised that no person was to be seen in any direction, 
except two or three boys. Though come within a bun* 
dred yards of the bouses, stitt no inhabitant appeared. 
When my waggon got to the entrance of the priucipa! 
street or lane, a man appeared, and made signs for us to 
follow him. Proceeding amidst the houses, every thing 
remained as still as if the town bad been forsaken of its 
inhabitants: this was the case till we came opposite, to 
the King's house, when we were conducted into a 
square, formed by bushes and branches of trees laid one 
above another, in which were several hundreds of people 
assembled together, and a number of tall men with 
spears, draw lip in military order on the north side of the 
square. In a few minutes the square was filled with 
.men, women, and children, who poured in from all quar- 
ters, to the nun)ber of a thousand or more. The noise 
from so many tongues, bawling with all their might, was 
rather confounding, after being so long accustomed to the 
stillness of the wilderness. We were soon separated^ 
and lost sight of each other in the crowd. At first, the 
women and children fled if we pnly looked at them, but 
they gradually becarhe bolder* I observed some of the 
children, whose heads I had stroked, tbrowing themselves 
in ray way, that I might do it again ; when they looked 
at their more timid companions, as if they had said» Are 
not we courageous? The crowd so increased, that we 
•could hardly find out each other, and wondered when 
we should be permitted to take some refreshment. We 
adopted a scheme, which after a while answered out 
purpose ; we drew up tire waggons in the fomi of a 
square, and placed ouf tent in the centre. Wfe werfe 
tntroduecd to Mufian^ets the uncle, and to Salaikootbd, 



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4MK t;] RECEPTION AT LATTAKOO. 181 

the broths of the late king Mallayabang, who stood in 
the middle of tiie apearmeii. A bouse in the square, 
* ..used by them for some public purpose, was assigned to 
fis for a kitchen. 

On getting into our tent, a crowd of the chief men 
jollpw.ed us and filled the tent to the outside, and the 
^(quare ^fprojed by our waggons was like a bee-hive, in 
which the confused noise rendered conversation almost 
iinpossible. On something being put down on our table^ 
.we were, agreeably surprised to find the crowd imme* 
.diately retire. Whether this proceeded fron> a sense of 
xlecorum, or in consequence of orc^ers from Munaneets, 
ihe uucle and deputy of the king, J could not learn. . 
, We were now completely at their mercy, and pur 
pxen bad left the town for pasture; but we considered 
purselves safe: at the same time we judged it prudent to 
pMablish a regular watpU for the protection^ ojf our 
property. 

About seven years ago, Lord Caledon, when Governor 
of the Cape, sent up a party, consisting of Dr. Cowan, 
lieutenant Denovan, twenty of the Cape regiment, ar 
boor, and a person from Klaar Water, to explore Africa 
as far as the Portuguese settlement at Mosambique, since, 
which they had never been heard pf by the government. 
The whole party having been murdered by the Wanket*' 
^ens, the next nation or tribe beyond Latiakoo, we learn* 
ed tbi'it the people .were whispering to one another, that 
9ur coming was to^venge that murder, vtrbich suspicion 
was undoubtedly the cause of the strange silence of the 
^ity on our entering it . Although king Mateebe was 
from home, yet in consequence of this information, we> 
judged it necessary to invite the chief men to a confe* 
lence with us that evening, to remove these suspicions 
by infor^ming them of the real object of our visit. . 

In consequence of our invitation, nine of the principal 
men .came into our tent, a little after sun-set, and sat 
4o))ira upon the ground. Their countenances indicated 



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18t RfiSOMBNCEATLATrAllOQ. £I«19l 

the possession of good natural parts, and had they bccifc 
dressed with wigs and gowns, like our English judges, I 
think their appearance would have been highly respect- 
able; but their faces were painted red, and their hair 
covered with blue powder. 

Through three interpreters, viz. in the Dutch, Coran* 
na, and Bootchuana languages, I informed them that I 
had come from a remote country, beyond the soti, where 
the true God, who made all things, was kn6wn — ^that the 
people of that country had long ago sent some of their 
brethren to Klaar Water, and other parts- of Africa, to 
tell them many things which they did not know,inordet 
to do them good, and make them better and happter-i-*- 
that having heard since I came into these parts, to see 
how our friends were going on, that the Matcfaappe^i^ 
Were a people friendly to strangers, I had come to Latta- 
ftoo to inquire if they were willing to receive teachers—^ 
that if they were willing, then teachers should - be sent 
to live among them. 

They replied, that they could give no answer to what 
1 had said till Mateebe should arrive from his jackal 
hunt, and promised to dispatch a messenger in search of 
him early in the morning. 

The following are the names of the persons assembled: 
Munaneets, the king's uncle* I Tesene, Mootzazeen, Mampe, 

and governor of the city. I Knlipan, M«oteeree, Mo<04 
Salakootoo, the king's uncle. | kalluk, and Quarakan. ^ 

After the conversation, Salakootoo remarked, that he 
bad not tasted any of my tobacco yet, which remark pro- 
duced a present of some. One of the queens brought 
some milk, for which she and those with her received a 
little tobacco. She asked Mr. Read for some snuff; be. 
said he did not take snuff; to which she shrfewdly re- 
plied, " He would have the more to give away on tbtife 
account/' 

While we were at dinner in the tent, an old man came 
opposite to the tent door, knelt down, aaad remaiited fbr 



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jfVfx^] fUSHlBMCE AT LATTAttW. 18S 

isome time in that podture, afker which he arose and 
talked off. 

25t^« During morning worship in our kikcben, which. 

was cnttrely^opea in front, dome of the people attended, 

and behaved very well. One, being asked afterwards 

if he knew What we had been about, said we prayed, but 

he did not know to whom. When told it was to the 

Great Being, lie said he believed there was a Great Beings 

but they did not know him, for they bad never seen hirn« 

' In the forenoon We visited a district of the city, abouf 

half a mile to the eastwanl of our waggons^ It had also 

d square for public resort, like that in which our Wag« 

gons stood, where some of the men were employed id 

stretching skins with pins on the ground ; others in rub« 

bing the inside of skins with rough bones, which gives 

them much tbe'appeai*ance of woollen cloth. Some skint 

*were extended and covered with eow dung in order to 

tan them. Four men were employed in sewing a skin 

cloak, which they did with a straight awl, nfruch in the 

sanye way as shoemakers in England. The women liad 

made something like porridge, which they sent us m 

the pot in which it had been made, but unaecoupanied 

with spoon or any instroment with which to eat it : we 

made signs that we bad lately been eating, ^hey sent 

us also thick milk in a calabash, of vfhith we took a 

little. Though the young people appeared veiy anxious 

to see us, yet the timidity of most of them prevented 

tbem from gratifying their curiosity. The parents, how*- 

ever, brought some of them by force, when tfcey screamed 

excessively, and seemed as terrified as if we bad io^ 

fended to eat them. We gave the people some tobacco^ ' 

tvbich they immediately began' to grind into snuff. 

We next visited the wife of Salakootob, the king's 
uncle. She was sitting in the inclesufe in front of the 
kouse, grinding tobacco between two stones* Exceptinf 
the qneen, she was the best looking won^an we bad see* 
to LattakoOj'-aiid had someJine children aroimdher^ wbo 



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IM RBSIDBNCE AT LATTAKOO. [1619^ ; 

were 80 alatmed at our appe.a]:ance, that they clung to 
their mother* when we seemed at any time to approach 
them. We likewise visited the queen, who had also a 
family of fine children, who were sitting round a fire ia 
the corner of the yard« 

While writing in the lent* some of the principal peo- 
ple came in and seated thenieelves around me ; but in 
consequence of their talking so much, and so loud,, about 
my writing, dress, and so forth, I was obliged to desist, 
To make something of time, I took down their names* 
which were Lahalla, Humay, Jabaleech, Sboomuliky, 
Muteer, Shoomiliky, Pallamma, Murakoomaille, Moota- 
buche, Mouqua, Mobalaily, Chinkanny, and Sheecolee. 
I then took down the names they gave to the different 
parts of the human body, and their numbers up to twenty* 
all which afforded them much entertainment. After rer' 
cording a few words, I generally read them over to them, 
to find whether I had taken them down correctly, and 
pronounced them properly, as srell as to assist them iq 
forming some idea of writing. At my manner of pro*, 
nouncing some of their words, they laughed so immo-? 
iderately loud, as almost to make me deaf. When I could 
not catch the sound of some of them, so as to be able to 
put them down, perhaps five or six would pronounce 
them at one time, which only increased my diQicaity« 
I then waited for silence, and held my ear to the mostr 
aensible looking countenance, and obtained it in thi^ 
•way. They were much entertainfed by the red covering' 
of my journal^ which each of them cautiously touched 
^ith his fore finger. 

. While I was recording the transactions- of the day, (si» 
P. M. and dark,) about twelve people were sitting a fetf 
.yards distant from the tent, singing one word, wkh a 
little variation, viz. Hailylallay^ — Hielaylallay. Afterre7 
peating it six or eight times in chorus* they paused, and 
began all at once again. I heard many companies in dif^ 
ierent parts of the tcw» engaged loudly in the sami 
exercise. 



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40to;3 RESIDENCE AT LATTAKO0* Hi: 



CHAP. XV. 



Strange Method of softening SkitiP^Teftivalr^Artide$ 
manufactured — City Di$thct$-^Female painting- — Com" 
versation vbith the King's Uncle — Makrakka^ a neighbow^ 
ing Chief. ' * 

WiiEK writing after dinner, I was hastily called out 
towitness something extraordinary. There was a hard 
smooth skin laid upon the ground, on which was put 
another skin which they intended to soften. Twelve mea 
oii their knees surrounded it : every second person^wbich 
made six of the tircle, at one instant plunged dowa 
upon the. skin, like one diving into the sea ; each person 
driving it from him, the whole skin was shrivelled into a 
heap in the centre; but in raising their bodies again, they 
pulled it to them, which made it as jflat as before, and 
made room for thjs other six to plunge down upon it in 
the same way* Both sets of workmen alternately copti<«' 
nued a long time at this exercise, as if they had been f 
machine, keeping exact time in falling and rising, by 
means of words which they sang, intermixed with frigbt^i' 
fui screams and bowling. They frequently appeared 
frantic and furious ; but the jnstant the operation ended,^ 
their countenances resumed their former aspect^ as if 
nothing had happened. 

Our attention was next attracted by a crowd of women 
ftpproacbing the square, holding long rods in their bands^, 
and having their faces disfigured by white painted strokeia 
In various forms* They marched at a slow pace, closejy 
crowded toget^ier, making such bawling as required ada<^ 
mantiae lungs and throats of brass. They were preceded 
by a number of matrons dancing and screaming. On 
leaching the entriince to the squarej there was a feigned 



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IM HBBISINCE AT LATTAXlOO, [18t«> 

battle between the aged and the younger women, which 
the younger were allowed to gain, when they entered in 
triumph. The people then. formed a large circle, six or 
€ight persons deep, when upwards of forty giris entered, 
from twelve to sixteen years of age, having their persons 
whiteiied with, chalk. They danced in a kind of mf^f^ 
aured irregularity, sirikii^ the ground most violently 
with, their feet Many of tbem ha4 msM shielda in thf ir 
l>ands, which they moved very dexterously in;froQt of iiU 
parts of their bodies, as if warding olT arrows shot against 
. them. Every one's eyes were constantly fixed on the 
ground, and they retained a gravity of countenance the 
whole time^ which I shall not soon forget After danc- 
ing about a quarter of an hour, on some signal, given^' 
they instantly retired from the circle, were out of sight a 
few minutes, when they returned^ and immediately com*** 
menced dancing in the same manner. This dai^cing, re« 
tiring, and returning, continued about an hour and a half]^ 
when the meeting broke up. - 

A Matchappee, being told that cows, oxen, sheep, anti 
other animals were made for certain purposes, such as to 
feed and clothe men, was asked for what purpose be 
thought man was made. He answered. To go on plun- 
dering expeditions against other people. According to 
this doctrine, the chief iend of man is to fight one with 
another. 

26th, The people here obtain copper and iron from 
some nation beyond them, but studiously conceal from 
which. -It is understood that there are copper mountsiins 
-not very distant from Lattakoo, but it is probable that 
these metals may come from Europe by means of the set- 
tlements of the Portuguese on the Mosambique coast^ 
who trade for slaves with nations in the interior, in ex* 
change for these metals^ which are handed from nation to 
nation till they reach.Lattakoo. The people of this city " 
appear to be ingenious, from the articles they manufacture 
from these metals^ such as laxes^ adzes, knivesy sjpeara^'and 



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5lm<.3 BBfflDENCB AT LATTAXOO. far 

l^kiBsfrom iroa ; rings far the Ieg9» «rqi&» fingers^ an4 
tarsn fixm eoppar; and likewise from the coastruqtioiKif 
tbsir hou«e», wbiqh are far superior to tbose of the mr 
tions nearer the colony. T^eir cloaks are made and 8ew€4 
at w^n as could be doae by Europainst one of these 
doaksi compost of ^Ibovt forty oat aki^s, most dexter 
wttriy iewed, I broug^it with me^ wbicb^ with mwg 
otiber oiirtous articles may be seen at the Society's xoqqmi^ 
%, Old Jewry, London. 

' The city 1$ divided into a number oC districts, .perbajMf 
fifty, sefrarated froin each other, having each a Headman^ 
(fit Aicferman,) and a place enclosed for public resort* 
'Where the men spend the greater part of the day together^ 
dfesaing skins, and making knives and various articles* 
We spent about three or four hours on this day in visiting 
some of those districts, but did not see above half of 
them* All the Headmen came to us soon after our en^ 
tering the place of public resort, took, us to their bouses^ 
and treated us with thickmilk, boiled wheat, or porrid^ 
made of ground wheat 

At the bouseof oneof the Headmen, who was most 
irenerable in his appearance, bis two young wives wer^ 
preparing to attend the public diversions before our wag<* 
gofjis. ' They sat together in the front of the house within 
the enclosure. The one was painting her body with stufT 
composed of red chalk, ground to a powder, and mixed 
ttp with grease. It was contained in a wooden bowl 
wbich» stood at her side. This she spread on the palm$ 
of Her hands^ and rubbed it carefully oyer her skin. T!i^O 
dtherwife had black lead dust mixed with grease, which, 
l^Ut upofR her hair^i ga;veit ablue and sparkling app^sv* 
ance. Notwithstanding our being introduced to theoij 
they wenl on with the process^ and with the utmost com- 
posure^ till it was finished. The husband^ though a^o 
painted red, yet from the figure of his person* the dignity 
a^nd gravity of bis couotenance, the elegance of his fur 
i^be^ and vafious oraameats on his breast^ ha4 m noHA 



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188^ RISmSNCE AT LATTAKOO. {ISU; 

an apj[>earance as aoy person I recolledt to hate seen any 
where. His bouse was neat and clean, and his back yard 
had much of an English appearance. Indeed all the 
Headnien we saw looked well 

• At one o'clock, the women advanced towards our 
square in the same manner as before, moving slowly 
along, holding rods in their hands, dancing and making a 
great noise. On arriving they formed themselves into a 
circle, and after singing ahd dancing for some time, the 
girls came and were received into the ring, and in the 
course of two hours we understood a ceremony was per«^. 
formed^ at which none but females were allowed to l^ 
present. When all was over, the women formed them« 
selves into a solid body, with the girls in the middle o{ 
them. Then a rope made of skin was tied round the 
whole company, and they danced in a solid mass, those at 
one end pulling those at the other to the side of the court, 
after which the others prevailed^ and dragged them .by> 
IQ&in force to the other,. dancing the whole time with 
tumultuous noise. Upon a signal given, the whole fled, 
and were instantly out of sight. All this time the men 
sat conversing together, apparently unconcerned aboutr 
what was going forward. 

During the evening our waggons were surrounded. by a. 
multitude of persons whose noise was equal to that of 
the busiest inn in London; during which time we had an 
interesting conversation with Munaneets, the king*s uncj^e. 
and Kotcha one of the principal. men. We asked Mu*- 
iianeels if he would like instruction ; he referred the, 
question to Kotcha for an answer. He said, ^* I do not 
like to tell my thoughts on it at present"— perhaps 
m^iioing till the arrival of the king. 

"Well, I will tell my mind," said Munaneets^ " I 
sholild like it. When X bear these people sing, it pleases 
me like a dance, and I would wish to be able to do it too. . 
Ever since the teachers came to Klaar Wa^er^ we hatvet 
^ad peacei they have been like a shield to us ; .we hav$: 



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itj«i.l RESIDENCE AT LATtAKGO; 1S9 

had less trouble. I am grieved thAt this custom (mean*- 
tng the dancing,) has happened at the time you came 
here, but I cannot prevent it ; it is the king's orders, and 
it will last every day till next full moon/* 

In the afternoon I walked to a neighbonring htll, to 
Bnjoy a little quiet among the rocks. ' Several boys and 
girls accompanied me part of the way, for their diversion, 
asking me little questions in sport; repeating frequently 
the same thing, with a laugh each time ; I was grieved I 
coiald not understand a single word, but this very cir^^' 
cumstance afforded them much entertainment. As I ad* 
vanced, they gradually dropped away, one after another, 
till only three remained, when these sat down and foU 
lowed nie with their eyes. While sitting on a rock at 
ibe head of the hill, two men from the town came to me; 
virbo after sitting some time by my side, asked for some 
tobacco for the trouble they had taken to come to me. 
Little did they know I would rather have given them* 
some to have kept away. They followed me to thi 
waggons, in expectation of getting some, but I gave 
iK>ne,. lest the practice should become common, and I 
should not be able to obtain any retirement; for had they 
supposed, that all who chose to foliovir us any where 
would be rewarded with tobacco, we should constantly 
hasrebben surrourided with people. • ' > 

We disdoyered, in' conversation, that the people under 
Makrakka, lanother chief, are called Mpi^Iongs, and those 
iitider Leeyse are called Bamachaas, aind that both, as 
well as inany other nations or tribes are called Boot* 
chuanas, and speak the same language. T)iis is very 
importarit, becaiuse a missionary, learning the language of 
Latlakoo, will be able to converse v^ith the people 'bf 
many other nations, and to translate portions of the Scrfp- 
tures, which the young people of Lattakoo, when taught 
to read, could communicate to various nations, thus pre- 
paring them ta receive missionaries. 

Makrakka and bis people were formerly imited witU 



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IM RBRDKNCSATLATTAKOOl [ISift 

Mateebe*fl people, and w^re dtiibject t6 Mallayabang, hit 
father; but Mallayabang having had a criminal inters 
<our^e with the wife of Makrakka'8 son, add the oni 
thinking the witchcraft of the other to be stronger than 
his, in con$equence of more people dying in the district 
^ the one than in that of the other, a separation took 
place, and a species of war was carried t>n for some titiie«. 

About seven or eight months ago, a chief belonging to 
Makrakka^ came on a visit to Mallayabang. During bit 
visit, he persuaded the king to cut down a tree ilrhich 
stood a few yards from our waggons in the square^ and 
they say, buried a stone fiear the foot of the trefe« Om 
returning home, he sent back a present of corfi to IML^ 
kyabang^ who died soon after the receipt of it; oil 
which his people interpr^;ed the cutting down the trdt 
as signifyitig the king's death, and the burying Uie alone 
as his burial; and assert, that poison was in the cotm 
Thift matter has renewed the misunderstanding between 
the two tribes, yet they do not consider themsetyes k» a 
state of war. 

Salakootoo sometimes ^oes Out v^ith a p&rty profess* 
ediy to hunt: is absent a long time, and returns with 
many cattle he her stolen. When Maiteebe sees this^ hft 
appears to be enraged, but a present of part of the )riaii»> 
der soon pacifies him; and ibouki the party iikjuttd 
^mplajti, h^ takes it upoti himself to sMtsfy tbetn* 

Wars chiefly arise from two eauses, dispute aftolfi 
ibeir wives, or abusing each other's people; «tbfe iphittf^ 
iiyured then invades bis peighbour's territory^ avryiq^ 
destruction wherever he goes. 

It i^ the province of the women to Iniild th^ir faousea^ 
to dig the fields^ to sow and reap ; and: that of tfasr amn 
10 milk the cowB, make their clotfaes>and go to warr 



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i^mj manSEftCEm LATTAK«»4 m 



• CHAP. XVL 



PttiUc Shows ^Messengers return wkkwi the K^^-^ 
Further Accounts of Dr. dawatis Mutden 

June i7, 1613. 
; . Aboct^ eight o'clock in the morniog there was a pro- 
43eisioQ,of the women and gir>i» attended with muqb .noisy 
aiDgiDg^and dahcing', carrying poles mounted with ostrich 
ftachefs. During the forenoon all was quiet, sq tbi^t oufr 
worship pix>ceeded without mx^lestatiop. Aboqt ^fqrty 
of the men sat round us very quietly during the whole 
tiae^ 

At two o'clock all about us was coii^fMsic^. The wp» 
nie» brought the girls, mO)it faotafti^^Uy pressed, ai^ 
when a circle was formed, about four and-tlrenty wometi^ 
dftubed wilh' white spots of pltint» in imiti^tian of l,eopa;rd8^ 
entered and danced for some time. NeKt^enterid a w€^ 
tmti liresaed entirely in straw, so. that notbing but lier 
biAds were visible. She had much the. &ppi^ara«c6, of $. 
bmr ivalkii^ on his hind legs. Tber^ wa& mtich sbout«- 
ing, lAoghing^and clapping of hands ;tit this paD( of |he 
HQtertaiiiiiiient. Then entered the giris, who;da{i(:ed for 
ajniitiute) when all of them suddenly dispersed, iind out 
i|utet was I'evtered. 

MunaneetB came to us in the evening, bringing our iai» 
tttrpreter with him, when we had mnch iuterestiug con« 
vsyrsatioir. < We enquired of bite their reason jkir practise 
ing circumeision. He said it came to them from fatbef- 
to son. We then asked. Do you not know why ycur fa# 
thers did it ? They shook their heads, saying, No. W« 
told them that oar book informed us how it began in the 
world, and gave them the names of Abraham, bhmael^ 



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tVi .RESIDENCE AT hATt^KHQ. [1«1S. 

and Isaac, as the 6rst persons who were circumcised. 
This appeared to them very interesting information, and 
they all tried to repeat the names we had mentioned, over 
and over again, looking to us for corfection, if they pro- 
nounced any of them wrong. Munaneets, and the others 
who joined the company, appeared anxious to have theul 
Hxfii on their memories. , . 

We asked them if they knew any thing, of tbo^ origin of 
mankind, or whence they came. They said they came 
from some country beyond them, pointing to the N« which 
is the direction in which Judea lies. That two men came 
outof the water; the one rich, having plenty of cattle, 
the other poor, having only dpgs. One lived by oxen, 
the other by hunting. - One of them fell, and the.mark of 
his foot is op a rock to this day. We endeafroored to 
^xplaiq to them how knowl^ge, conveyed by means of 
books, was ^lore certain than that <^onveyed by memory 
-from father to son. Here Munaneets asked. if they should 
be taught to understand books. We answered they would; 
-and when the person we should send ( provided. Mateebe 
<;onsented), had learned their language, he would change 
*tbe Bible from our language into theirs. , > 

Munaneets said— ^^' I have heard more this evening than 
iti all my life before. We must shut our mouths, and 
only hear !*' (looking at his companions while he spoke,) 
** I acknowledge the things you have to tell us are good^ 
from the change they have made on the. Griquas and 
Corannas^at Klaar Water. Sometimes when we have no 
rain, food is very scarce; wherefore, I fear that- those 
vhom you shall send will not be satisfied, and wilLleave 
us.*' Mr. Read told him, thatsoon.after he came.totbe 
Hottentots, they were in the situation iie bad m.entioiied, 
and lived upon roots. Mr. Anderson likewise stated^ that 
w^n bis people w^re in thai sUuatioo, he travelled along 
with tbem from place to place, in quest of water and 
grass. Munaneets wassatis^ed with, these answers, and 
iaii|l&rked> *' that all white persons who bad gone beyond 



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iM^] HESKDEIfCB AT LATTAflSK). \m 

Lftttatcoo liftd beeh ttiirrdefdl> ^ jcoefrt b)i6. who had gbne 
to a place 4 little beyotid thi^hi/but htidfieKlfttd tWt)'diay)» 
Itmger, he wciuld fauve be^ inurti^md l{kew<^« Wti^ 
i^rtoid tWevk th^ir datig^V add^d MuMt|i$^t§a «*^1i«y 
would n^t beiiete trs, they Ibooght St was 6nv cxmi\^fe^ 
n«6B/that wi^ ^shed to have all tbi^ir beiK]s." 

I thtiik there tb littte doubt hut M^tift^be hud hit pmplb 
ane de»)rou6 that whitfe tntsti »{imM hot fbm tn^tfbnmc^ 
tion with tribei b^oivd tbetn, on pot-^d^ that th^y ft^ay 
always be the channel through which ttU E*Vo|Miah arti- 
cles may hereafter pafi» tb the Matibds tidrth df Laniikdo. 

They mentioned a tribe oif bihok ptsoplid calli^d the 
Wanketzena^ if^rho liVed net for beyottd them-^-they feaW 
that they iMere ther^ tatety, abd had^eeti ^und, esfip^d^lly 
a snlall tjne, which they biriieined ^s Df. CoWati'b, abd 
that these were the people Who had muiUered Dl*. €bMti 
and all hie tcompabibns. 

MunaneetB being beht fbr by his Wife> abtDptly pui ah 
end to Ibe conversation. White we t1^et« enfrdged in it, 
an bid man who is avisrse to ouf* sending teabhetn^ astogd 
how we made candles, pointing to that Which Wai Oft olter 
table. He also said^ he did noit need instruction fi-otn any 
dne, for the dice which hung fVbm his beCk Ibfornied hith 
c^evefy thtn^ Irhich happen^ at a distance; and added, 
if they were to attend to inatrticthxnsi they Wbuld havfe ift> 
tibafe to bunt or to do any thing. 

«ethi The wind beibg high, and the air iVolty, I felt it 
extremely cold in the v^aggon during thfe bight* Tim- 
ibometer at sun-rise, 40. Ther* wa$ no procesfcibb by 
the w^ibcn ih the morbinf , but maby of thdrti cAttie ill a 
body to the sq^re, and scolded the KeaUbieh, for altbv^- 
mg^bem sttch lean oxen for the feast. Mbnaiicfets, #&o 
acted as king's deputy, toid them that these Wet^ the 
four oxen which Mateebe had ordered to be giVeb^thebi^ 
abd they should have no othen We expected Mateebe 
would arrive this day, bbl we teeeited fto IflWaigWitfe 
#f him. 

O 



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.194 RESIDENCE AT LATTAKOO. {IS13. 

Having heard of some paintings in Salakootoo^s bouse, 
we wc!nt after breakfast to view them. We found them 
very rough representations of the camel-leopard, rhina- 
ceros, elepbanty lion/tiger, and stein-buck, which S^la- 
.kootoo's wife had drawn on the clay wall/ with white and 
black paint.. However, they were as well done as we 
expected, and may lead to something better. The wo- 
men were very quiet, and were feastiiiig during the day, 
but after sun-set they became noidy ; bawling and scream- 
ing in all directions. 

29th. The women, in large parties, were singing the 
whole night. After breakfast, y«re had a formal hieeting 
with Munaneets, to enquire respecting Mateebe's return 
as we had waited six days for the return . of the messen- 
gers sent in quest of him, without having received any 
information. He said it was probable he might return 
on the morrow or the next day.. After our interpreter 
had expressed in the hearing of Munaneets what we 
bad desired him, he made no reply, till one of his peo« 
pie who sat on his left hand repeated our inquiry. This 
appears to be a state form. 

We employed the forenoon in visiting the districts in 
the S.W. corner of the city, when we conversed a little 
with the Headmen and others in each district. We ob- 
served due man shaping a cloak from a large skin, which 
he did very expertly. On our return we saw a child, 
about eight years old^ standing in the middle of the street 
weeping, and, being almost a skeleton, it attracted our 
attention. We enquired respecting its disease, when the 
women told us, the child was well enough, but that want 
of food had brought it into that state — ^that the father 
and mother were poor — that he had gone away with an- 
other woman, and was hunting in the south — that the 
mother was gone to the westward, searching for food. 
Neither the men, women nor children present seemed by 
their countenances to express the least syrnpatby or feel- 
ing for this forsaken, starving child. They said, lauj^ 



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JUNE.] RESIDENCE AT LATTAKOO. 195 

ing, that we might take the child with us if we pleased': 
This reminded me of what the Scripture says of the dark 
places />f the earth, that they are the habitations of cruelty; 
I was certain that the sight of this little girl in the streets 
of London would have excited pity in the hearts of thou- 
sands. We took the child to our waggons, desiring the 
people to inform its mother, when she returned, where 
she might find her. When some meat was given to the 
child, she devoured it with the voracity of a tiger. Ther- 
mometer' at noon, 67. 

At two P.M. the bustle commenced in the square, by 
the dancing of the girls, who had made some addition to 
their former dresses. Some of them had one side of the 
face painted black, and the other white ; others, the upper 
part of the face wljite, and the under, black. They had 
pieces of reeds, about six inches long, strung like beads^ 
and made^into the form of a petticoat, hung round theni 
from the middle almost to the ground, which made ^a 
strange noise when they danced. They had likewise, a 
great quantity of straw rope wound round them, pro- 
jecting twelve or fifteen inches from the middle of their 
backs^ and also in front, which gave them a very odd 
appearance. The queen afad several others, who acted 
as musicians, by bawling aloud and clapping hands, wore 
cloakis composed of about a dozen fur tippets, hanging 
from their shoulders to the ground, under which they 
had a skin cloak, without the hair. A few wore leather 
caps, but the greater part had no covering on their heads. 
Almcwt every one wore sandals, except the dancing girls. 
When the girls had retired, some old women brought 
forward a horned serpent, which they drew on a flat 
board. It was made of clay, daubed over with red; 
white, anil black paint. This being placed within the 
circle, two women came forward, fantastically dressed, 
who seemed to be actresses. They danced- round the 
serpent in a strange manner, with rods in their hands, 
decked with black ostrich feathers, arid keeping their 

02 



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m »Ks©BiraB AT UTTA«oa tiaia 

poiixting to it witb tMr ^od», s^d Iti^Q poinAiitg to the 
^P6tw'4r(J4 a^ the quJ^fter wfeefe it l^ad bcw foyqcj^ Tl^^y 
^ftee appe^rqcj ?» if mi|qh t^rri§e4 at t^e 8tig^ pf it, 
a^ ^ividenly sprang froipji it. Tbey ^emed to jjct tbeir 
y^rts very weU, an4 t^e 6iAfroutt4ing rnMUitud^ app^e^i^ 
^igbly ei^t^rt9;iae4 ^y t^ii^ part of the #how, AMwt six 
^f^ se^en hundFed were presept. 

)n th& eveiv^ng the twa rx^^s^^x\ge^ \irba bs^d been setot 
for Mateebe returned, without having fpwqd bim, io Con- 
§cqueace» a& wa,9-r9ported to us, of oae o$ tbem bs^^ing, 
op thj8 thJA'd day, hurt bi^ 1^, \^hicb obliged tbena to t^ 
^mn^ We b^i b^weves, $^cret information, %\k»t bs^viog 
fe^A soiBe w^ld Bgsbaien^ tbey were afraid to< proceed* 
f^i^ fled back ^% fast as t,h$y ooMld, but b^i^g unwiUiof 
tp e^po^e theU cowardice to ms^ tbey cquq^^M tbe real 
ea^9^ of tbeir yf^turn. 

A RUoi;t tii^e after the return of tibe mBweng€rr$, we 
^btaiii«^>a tp^ieetipg with MMi2an€^t9, wA ^^ or seveo^ «f ' 
tbe prii^cipal; ii^eo, lo coa$uU wh^t was now to b^^ d^^ne^ 
J^fter nauch, cqaversatjq^, MMoaoaets offered U:^ go^ biW" 
f§I^ provided two, qf oifj^ iQen would ^oopmpapy hMn 
with Qftju^ketsi to defeod him frooi the Bushmen^ wbo 
wer« often strolling ^bout theii* cqimtry ; provided 9JaQ^ 
that w« would: engage to wait \^ i^etiuni* Wq prq^oi^ 
this to^ our people, and ss^id we sbQidd b^ glad if t}w<^ or 
tbref^ of them would vohmibeer on the serviee* AJEii^r 
considering tbe matter, three of then^ qffi»red* to accooe^ 
pany Munaneetsk We proposed' to go oiirseUcis vBk out 
waggons, but that was disapprOj^edi by IM^te^be's council 
*^they wished u& to remain in the city^ ' We enfiuirod 
if we might instruct the people in the mee^ tine, as oat 
situation was qapleasanli, b^^rng nqtbing t^ da» They 
said tbey could giite no answer till Mateebe eame^ I titen 
told them, through tbe interpreters, tba^ I caflAseftam tine 
s^jne country s^s Dr^Cqwan, aad ttHtt no dcmbit bis friends 
would be aq2(;iqi|s to b^ai^ any tbijig c^iaicimmff bim^ and 



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^vm.*] RmWeitOR AT UTTAKCDi IW 

would be much obliged by their favouring me with all 
they knew concerning Wrii aiid bife tompany after leaving 
Lattakoo. 

They eaid that he and his people were murdered near 
the to^fi 6t Mdita, ^bottt fi>^d d^§ j6uthfey M the ^. ft- 
^hich is m thd Cdtlht!*y bf thd Wiilkfe£k6fi§, Wioifee chiers 
iiaftfi is Makkdhbd. Sotne pf^^eht, fei^ft^i&fly ont Boot- 
chiiana iritfefpf6t«, (6f Wh'6s6 hbi^^ty W6 *l1I Ksd a gbod 
ifpiiilon,) atgeYted) tb9ft wfavn on i Gdramaado along With 
the Wadfc^ttfenitf they bad sefen Dn Cowan's ttot, sheep, 
ip^Od^^ Kifd clothes. We itiqbirtd res()ecting th^ cokXtr 
of th6 clothes*^ th^ said whM imd red. They" said th^ 
iren? ^4 ^t bad tfol spoken on thdt suhjc!et publicly, as 
mstiif 6( these WanketzeilA wer^ iterW in Lattakoo* Afti^ 
a iHtle fifftber eoif Temalioo^ tbey told trs tibat sohiei of thfe 
t|Ml^«0 wtrt m tliftt disttr^t of Lattlikoo^ whldh we visited 
ldd€ Sbt^day. We did not deem il prad^nl however to 
t^ tti ^ sight of tham> antes tltey shouki themselves 

One iUmg w^bi^ Ibahe^ tm AfrieiifV town appear to a 
Ear6piah sis 4n\l and deserted is, tbedltnost (6tal absence 
of sfRioke;^ but White tire wete walkings ilboat ^limset; on 
the bvoW^ of a hitl opf^isite to tbe city^ tbe firto were 
Hg^ed up^ it being a feltfft day, atfd tbe ekmd of smloke 
which in consequence hovered ov^t tbe city^ reminded 
loe of London. . 

The TomeB of tfae^ Headm^ rri the districts v^e visited 
tbi» day, v^erd^ Orafneifsaohfiko, Acloo^ Mewslttassang, 
Habhooioery Mootobeer'» and HotMH. 

30tb. Thehrnvonet^r at 9^*tiM, 40. Ecttly in the mom^ 
lAgy MonaiieetS) witfa> serme of hisr people^ and three of 
6«is, departed in sedfch of Mateebe^ and he left tbe go* 
ternmeDt of the city^ in ib^ bands' of Mateere^ ndt of bnl 
bfMh^r SsUboot¥6 as ^e expeeted - 



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106 RESIDENCE AT l^ATTAKOO. [1813. 

CHAP. XVII. 



Looking-glass excites raonder— Queen objects to our leav^ 
. tug the Town — Endeavour to make Queen understand the 
use of Writing and Printing — Her enquiries — afraid of a 
Watch — Population of City — Selmya-Lattahoo Wells* 

A FT Ell shaving in the forenoon, I happened to shew 
a person his ovtrn face in the looking glass which was in 
the lid of my box,' and this gave jme employnrjent 
enough, for he rah off to bring his wife and other friends 
to see themselves. Every one was afraid at first sight 
obtained, starting back from the glass ; most . of them 
looked behind the glass, to see if it was no de- 
ception. • The crowd increased every minute, and the 
press to get forward was so great, that the tent was 
often in danger of being overturned. They all touched 
some part of their face with their finger, to ascertain 
whether it was really themselves that they saw in the 
iiiirror. When both my arms were completely tired 
with holding the glass before them, I was obliged %o 
request a respite to some future period, and on laying it 
aside, they walked away greatly entertained. . Ther- 
mometer at none, 70. 

The dancing continued to day as usual. . In the morn- 
ing we had proposed to Mateere, the governor of the 
town in the absence of Munaneets, to visit a large village 
about a day and a half's journey higher up the country, 
to occupy our time till MateebcV return, and he engaged 
to accompany us. In the evening he came into our tent, 
and sat silent for some time; he then went out, and 
brought with him the interpreter ; of course we perceived 
he had something to communicate. When seated. Ma- 
hootoo, the queen, entered, and Seetazoo; the king's sis^ 
ter, who can speak the Coranna language: she told 
Adam Kok, that the queen was averse to our going any 



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JOM E.] RESlIffiNCE AT LATTAKOO. 199 

where till Mateebe came. After some conversation, she 
proposed^ that if we went, we shoold leave part of oar 
waggons behind. We told ber we never should have 
thought of leaving Lattakoo even for a day before Ma^ 
teebe's return, bad we been permitted to instruct the 
people; but that having nothing to do, we wished to 
visit that village, and likewise to bunt, as our stock was 
getting low. She said, that owing to the bad harvest they 
bad had, they could not supply us as they wished. We 
then asked, why she wished part of our waggons to re* 
main behind us. She said, because she desired to have 
company, which undoubtedly was not the real reason. — 
I suppose th^y were afraid lest Mateebe should come 
before we returned^ and would be disappointed and dis- 
pleased to 6nd no strangers. Perceiving this, we said 
we would all remain with her: indeed we did not think it 
prudent to divide'our strength. . / 

Tbis matter beitig settled, we endeavoured to convey 
spme information* We explained to her tbe nature of a let- 
ter^ by means of which a person could convey his thoughts 
to a frientjl at a distance; Mr. A. shewed ber one he had 
received from his wife^ by which be knew every thing 
that had happened at Klaar Water fpr two days after he 
left it. This information highly entertained her, especi- 
ally wbeo told that A. Kok, who brought it, knew no« 
thing of what it contained, which we explained by teUing 
her tbe use of sealing wax. The bible.being on the table 
gave occasion to explain tbe nature and use of a book, 
particularly of that book — how it informed us of God^- 
who made all things ; and of the beginning of all things, 
wluch seemed to astonish her, and many a look was di- 
rected towards the bible. 

Mahootoo asked tbe following questions, evidently as 
things she had formerly thought ofr-" Will people who 
are dead, rise up again ?*' " Is God under the earth, or 
Where is he ?*' After we had answered her questions, she 
said, when Mateebe came home she would advise. \nta to 



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9M) KSamVCB AT LATltAJiaa [1813. 

I#9<jk.hi3«»n^a»tot« go aad huntjiskaltv and remaan bira- 
$^^% li^ttakoo, for tb^re w^lienoiiigh foi hui) lo^diiztT^ 
^hiP^h^ 894(1 ta9MpfN>rt her hushaiKl's caredilio our eati- 
jpnatiwt faring we should dunk ksi of liioi 6n account of 
l^inf sq lQilg'Qnt$lgi>d.in Ipuoliflg jstckab^ She haa t^ee 
A9m m^ tm> ^^&fn^ Ma(}£tthe Cook aaoUier .w<ftaiM 
t^ bQ Jm w^ uQtiji. JVt^hootoei nbotuld Ixi. <)f ag9 to niarf^ 
Vy v^l%Q9^ be bte bad two aoutand tv«i daugtMtcr^.; bnt 
ifil^hoofmt U^Qugb th« youi^c wofidaa, is esiUed tja^ 
o)4^ 4tt9efi£^s^tf ^7S«pj), Ofay sofoeeed ^0 {f}di/^Qjbi9^Qm»QenU 
Wb^Q tb% CM^^$»tH»b was 6Q4e(^ ^e aheiwedl them » 
w^turt^^ which hott^Mtoniahed aiid tctrrtfed thm?^ On ^ 
ffffi^i^ig lilMi. wof k in moiioDy tbey ceni^Uid^ tb»ti it- pMst 
b^ PiUvje>. and on offe^H^ to put it. tq th^r eara» t^ ^fmt 
It «i)iu¥)5,^b^ hiM u{i their bgDd'solot drive it asvfty 99 if 
it Mad b^na8evpefiti> . 

Our interpreter said Hom^^ing-ttSk tbem which nladq 
ittem^biugih iuMUoderataly^ .We^ fou^d; iie bad mii, that 
teft)Vd hetwent taKlaar^watwr^ he>wa9 aa ignoiaat aisttJii^ 
n^eoQ^y but tfaare be had been, tc^ughb many good} t|iil:\ga# 
Mdchitbcjr also would he^aoght if Mateebe l^snaitt^ 
laiiififiBOBftries to settle among' them^ 

ItiB faeaitfe»i ending to ^litnesa, ftxun.mmniqg to eY^tng^ 
aa great a nhonbei:^ 6fi frm otevfinjsouik^ people pl^yinS 
abou/t, having Dotbing to le^m or. to do#. Tbeii^ P4repiti9t 
9fDfM8ai totimchtheoi nothing.; foe though tatkimi^ Mftii^i^ 
are madnfadmredi ainong them, yet tjiity ace' m»^y i^t.s^pi 
^trade^ but &r' amuaeoifiot ub. the puMio pidQQii %^ il a 
London esigra^aen Wjere to car-ry a plate of jeop^^or tOi tilna 
Bpyai Qttcbange, to i^ioi^k up^Mv^ila conivei^ltts H^i^W 
Kia frtofidjk I dor not kaow.kaw^tbeiiiaii treial^ tJi9 w^>|]^«^ 
at home, but it is rare to see a mtm tuk&sttiiy .mtmeoCai 
woman out of. dfoofia. Hiti tli^ W)0«iieiiid6EOti(apf98ftr'Uj|4er 
any^restniafint iti the pfeBenc^>oirthi|<men^ but are f9Q» a(^ 
obearfui; I obae#ued one^of' tbem.$cold^v&ar,^m«iK 
beoauae Hhey did iio<> remove fi'om a Ave. anoMfidt w-h^W 
tshey were silttng w4ienth«>dQnoiDg^^girlawtto pMSjDg* 



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M»^ BBUHBIfCB AH LATFAXftCft; 201 

I VDdefstood tb«t to be a piece ol etiquette cysiloniary 
eaauch an oocasioik The mem madie no t^pif, iHit con<* 
tiaued to look stodfastijr to tbe Are, like persons eensei^ 
ousof havrng^dotie wrotig in t^maining wbere tbey were, 
ImiI so tnzjr that tbey <lid tiottib€<i^ risei 

iufy 1. K tft very d^Oei»lt ifokitow, \rhen these peo^ 
pie are talking, whether they arre iiva rag^ or mgood 
bunour. i had ganerafl'ty to Ksten wbetber they lauglied 
or iK>t, beifore I could detentin^^ if n(A within sight of 
iMl* oounteMDisei^ 9 for wbeti they become tbe least itttm 
rested kt what they are qajnag, tt»ey i^peftk with aU tbeit^ 
imgU, as iB addreserng people d« a great distaneek Wbile 
sifctiail^ in the wag^goo this forendow, there was an entnh 
oodKQanf uproar wiljuHit, w.bick anade tm Vmk oiiit to 
know the cause* Some one bail stokeh two bii«tooi 
from t\m tmwsers of oav Bootdximna interfNieter^ and 
they ifsieoe charging one auqlher 'With th(B thftft ; but had 
it been tbei great veal of fingl&iid that bad been atoton^ 
there couldi not bave beea a more secioaa aifiray. The 
ihie£ was fomidv a good kntkingcyoiMSg men,, whom tbe 
interpreter drotva wot of the fiquire, in the presence of 
BOflaerouB spectatovs^ wboiidi seecpcdt teapiprove of tbe 
punislMDeiit. TMe was^ tbe irst fobbavy I had beaH; of^ 
tb<»ugb ot^ny o£ oup thioga^ were eispoaed tbe wbvte dajp* 
Tbermomeler as noon, 70. 

Tbi» day tbe poUie eho^ws rtmcmA to tbe msisAf distrkrt 
west ftptn tis^ which aflbrded ue much mone quiets 

Ttie women here are tbe fajweM Even tbeqiieefl 
digs tbe groufidl ttlong with tke ocbep femalesi The 
instratneut they ase is a.ktnd o# piob-aiiei They aU sing 
wbiteat worki and stvitee the^gwund witb their axes ac* 
cording to time, so that no otie^gives^ a stroke more than 
another; thus they make l«bo»# an aimiseineiit. They 
seem in many respecte to be a eteaiily people, having ob- 
served no filth of any kind ly*ng« abea»t their bouses, nor 
indeed in any part of the town. • 



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202 RESIDENCE AT LATTAXOO. 11818. 

From the best calculation we have been able to make, 
there jB|>pear to be. about Ofteen hundred houses in Lat* 
tak<;K> ; of course, allowing five persons to each house, 
which perhaps is a low computation, there must be seven 
thousand five hundred inltabitaiits. It is reported that 
thej^ have more th^n a thousand places, called out- posts, 
wbeiQ these are people and cattle. 
' ] ,%iii >When. at breakfast, Mosbuai, Mamulalla, and 
lieapa, the widow of Malliiys^bang tha late . king, came 
into the tent,: and procured gome iobsK^o, of which they 
^re all immoderately fond. Leapa is mother to Mateebe; 
Theshojv8;returned to oar square this day. They began 
by a number of women, among whom :was the i^ueen^ 
dancing. in a barbarous sj;yle,.and singing, not a. song,, but 
t\x^w,oxAiAylatcheti. Ayhtdue-' «. 

! There was a clever girl, about ten years, of age, whose 
name was Sefaoiya^ .who frequently visited our waggo»l. 
She sometimes triad to. teach me a few of their words. 
This day she introduced three of her companiohs, whose 
names werq Heylobaliy, Kaadje, and Mama. They ail 
1>ecame my teachers,, and no doubt considered me a dull 
scholar, for I seldom pronounced a word so as to please 
them, but it wafs their own fault, for no sooner.had one ut- 
tered half a word, than the other three caught it, and caU^ 
ed it out as loud as if they had supposed me as deaf as a 
rock. By this confusion of tongues, I could make nothing 
of their teaching, and though I was .the only- one present 
who perceived the cause^. I could not explain it to tb^xi 
for want of a knowledge of their ]angua,ge. Many chiU 
dren .were highly entertained by one of our people ailow* 
ing them in rotation to smoke his t^obacco pipe for about 
a minute each. From the highest to the lowest they are 
not ashamed to beg any thing. 

. Two boys, .who should h^ve been attending their fa-< 
ther's cattle, were playing by our waggons, vben their 
father entered the square. .. The instant he saw them, he 
ran towards them rn the most furious savage manner, 
and lashed them with all his might. They fled as if for 



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jbLY.] RESIDENCE AT LATTAKOO. 203 

life, but OD getting out of his reach, they appeared to 
have been accustomed to such treatment, for they walked 
off with great deliberation. * ' 

When seated on the front of my waggon, the first iadies 
of the city came and offered me their arm-rings and ear- 
rings for a little tobacco; and the children even of eight 
or nine years of age made most significant intimations 
that they wanted sniiff. In the evening many people 
returned who had fled from Lattakoo, on our arrival, 
from dre^ that we bad com6 to revenge the death 
of Dr. Cowan. « ' - 

When Mr. A. was engaged in prayer among us this 
morning, a boy stood gazing at me for some time, hut a 
Matcbappee observing him, in an 'angry tone, ordered 
him off, which shewed they formed some con^efitions of 
pmyer. * 

dd* lo the moroing I walked into the cattle kcaal, to 
see them milking the cows. They tie the two hind legs 
very firmly together, then allow the old calf to suck a 
little, without which th^ cows in this country would 
give no milk. One English cow would give as much 
milk as eight or ten African cows. 

Whei> a family desires to go to sleep during the day, 
as is often the case, and do not wish to be disturbed, 
they place one or two flat stones on tlie outside of their 
^oor as a signal for none to enter. 

The water by which the town is supplied is obtained 
from some holes at the end of a hill, about a mile to the 
westward. Each hole is about a foot in diameter, and 
two feet deep. The river Lattakoo is too distant to bring 
it from thence* From fifty to a hundred women are to 
be found at these little wells from morning to evening. 
By ten o'clock in the morning, all the water that has 
been collected during the night is taken away, so that 
all who come later must gradually obtain it, as it rises 
from the spring. No person having a head ache should 
approach within a hundred yards of this well, the tongue- 



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904 RESISEVCB MI LATTAKOO. [iai& 

vproarisBOgrrait MiMwrSw R. A. and three of oar peOn 
pie vrmt in the marninf to dig tbi^ite r propef welU By 
two P. M. it was eight feet squard^ but owing lo a rock, 
only two tett aud a half deep. 



CHAP. xvm. 



His Jrrival — List of Matchappee King^ ife4'^Pirti 
IntervieBomth the King-^He uskBfaf a Oun-^Dinir^ of 
the Rayal Family*^Pubiic Meeting with the Kitfg iHtS 
hiM Feopi^^A FroUc'^^Kitig's Aeteum of C^mutii 

Mateehe with two others paid us a visit in oul^ IMt 
fft the evening* They related «ti e^rpeditiidti f^ stenlkig 
eaitldj in wMeh they were engagfed sortie ti)n9e> dg6, whielr 
ksted ten niotith^r. They travelled N. W. ^md tbeti Aifeet 
to E« till tii«y C9tme to ist ktrge w^tet, wbi^b probabff 
wa0 the Indian ocean ; but wh^tt, Mowished m Ws»> tttii\t 
relating it as if it were a fortuiM^te and cottim^fiidable en- 
terpriae, that they e^fne to a peo|^ Mrh^^ b^d M itistru- 
niettts of defence, killed many of tben^^ and darned off H^ 
great many eattte. On which Mr. Ailderd()ti f^mtaUeii 
that the more people any of these oven kill, the higgef 
it raieea their charaeter ; and tea murder one t^htte man 
gaifis more fame than mui^dering twd bldcK and be h^ 
no doubt \mt the ntturder of podr Cdwanf and tf^stfb^^fM, 
with- tbeir pdrty, bad added greatly to the re'newtf of the 
WankeCzene amoiig all th^ oeigbbouring ttdtkm^. Af^ 
the conclosiow of the conter^tloni Mateei>e UAd^ usr, ihtftf 
bis dice said to him that Mateebe would be et Lat^atcoe^ 
toj-morrowr 

4tb« After breakfast Munaneees arrived from^hisf j6ut^ 
«ey in quea of Mateebe^ Aa he returned without oui* 
three men who went to protect bimi we Woife linxioiiil' 



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W,.T.] RBWPPNCE AT LATTAKOO. 90ft 

to know tbe resulUbub he said be wooid toll nothing, till 
be bad giren aa aooounl of his journey to the chief men, 
which be soon did. They sat in a circle near our wag«- 
goae, when be gate an aocount of his journey to tbeni. 
When )heir meeting broke up, be informed us that ht 
reached Mataebe on the eyening of the second day, wbea 
our man were greatly fatigued, having killed nothing for 
food during tbe jouroey-*-that he left Mateebe in haste 
next morning, if possible to reach us before we had pro« 
ceeded up the country, as w^ had proposed^ that we 
night be at Lattakoo on tbe arrival of Mateebe, which 
he expected would be on the morrow. This informa- 
tion gave us much satisfaction, as we bardly expected 
him so early. 

My young friend, Sehoiya, in tlie morning, iQtro« 
duced to me four more of her companions. Euclitsee^ 
Demaymoy, Tsai, and Nakaye; all were from nine to 
eltveck yenhi of age, and their features and figure com- 
pletely European, only they were black. 

Whan at dinner in tbe tent, M unaneets the Governor, 
Mal^ere, tbe Lietttsnant-Gareraor, with two otliers, were 
present. Mateere observed ua taking a little Cayenne 
pepper; when the icdaessF of it attracting bis at«- 
tention, be asked for a little, which we gave bim. 
Gin feeliag its pungisncy, he shut bis eyes, hastily 
put bis hand on bis mootb, and held down his 
head. He cckQcealed his pain, and slily touched Mi^ 
Read with his foot, to intimate that he should say 
BoKSbtng, but give the same do^e to the others. Mu« 
teoeets partook ne^t, ahd as soon as he c^ould speakj 
he asked a little for his wife. Tbe others likewise 
tasted it 

5th. Two parties, as forerunners, of Mateebe, arrived 
in the morning, and at noon he arrived himself, with 
many attendants carrying spears, and poles dressed 
with black Qstrick feathers, which are stuck into the 
ground around places where they halt to frighten away 
lions, who it seems are Dot f9nd of their appearance* 



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206 RESIDENCE AT LATTAKSo. [1810* 

The ahrivalof Mateebe occasioned ho more stir in the 
town than usual. On cpming into the square, he took 
no notice of us or our waggons, but acted as if ignorant 
that .straugers were there. He then with his people 
crouched down in the form of a circle, when Mateere 
related to him every thing that had taken place during 
his absence. He then related the circumstances of his 
own excursion, both of which speeches did not occupy 
ten. minutes; after which, in consequence of orders, we 
walked up to him, when, without looking towards us, he 
stretched out his right hand, which we shook, saying to 
him, '" Mateebe, O Iss," which is the salutation given 
to the king. During all this there was not the smallest* 
alteration in his countenance. He appeared thoughtful, 
deep, and cautious, extremely like the portraits I have 
seen of Buonaparte, which M'ere taketi ten or twelve 
years ago. 

After conversing some time with his chief men, Ma- 
teebe stepped into the house which we called our 
kitchen, sat down by the fire, and conversed with 
Adam Kok, who accompanied us from Klaar Water, 
evidently to sound him respecting our intentions. After 
remaining about two hours in the square, without ap/» 
pearing to notice us, he went, across the road to bid 
house, having hinted to A. Kok, that when he had 
rested,, he should converse with us on the object of 
our visit, which would be about the going down of 
the sun. 

The following is a list of their kings and royal families 
as far back as their oldest men knew, which we collected • 
before the arrival of Mateebe. 

KOOLA. 

Makkoshee. 

Masooche. 

Malathabang. 

Salakooto, ? o- r ^i »• • 

,- > liis brothers now hvms, 

Munaoetits. ) ° 

Leappa, His sister. 

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JULY.] 



RESIDENCE AT LATTAKOO. 



207 



Mateebe. 

Mahootooy ) __. 



Mateebe's Brothers. 
Mtilema. 
Malaala. 
Mahoora. 
Mapareeba. 
Maperera. 
KatiDakamora. 
Heekane. 



Mateehe's Sisters* 
Setezoo. 
Koee-ee. 
Karoweetz. 
Mareii. 
Shuai. 
Maruyjanee. 



SONS. 

Pechee. 
Peaabooran. 
Jangee. 
Mozebee. 



Mateehe's Children* 



DAUGHTERS. 

Matjaragee. 

Matzetyanee. 

Mmharree. 



All the history of these kings which we could learn 
upon the occasion of taking down, their names was — 
That during the reign of Makkoshee, the Morolongs 
asked from him the breast of every ox killed by bis peo« 
ple^ which would have been acknowledging depend- 
ence on him. He replied, *• Am I then your servant ?" 
The refusal caused a war, in which Makkoshee and his 
people were driven to three different places at consi- 
derable distances from each other. 

About sun-set, Mateebe, attended by his brother, an4 
some of his chief men, approached our tent. On enter- 
ing, he sat down and remained in silence, first to receive 
our present, and then to hear what we bad to say,, I 
made him a present of some trinkets furnished me by 
the ladies pf Kingsland, accompanied by the ;lid of my 
ahaving box, which happened to contain a loo^ign-glass. 
When taking out the different articles, I observed him 



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^m RESlDBirCS AT LATTAKOO. J^^ 

slily looking towards the parcel, to . dtaoov^f what wm 
coming next. During tbe n^hgle pr6d«eding, be sat iioo- 
tionless, but when he BawnO iSM^ presents werecomiog, 
he condescended to open his mouth, and said, *' Tou 
would have been perfectly safe, though yo«i bird not htA 
Adam Kok and btft friends With you, or thon;gh I bad 
received no presents. So sdon as I was informi^d by 
Munaneets of your arrival, I came to you.** He IhjBn 
desired A. Kok to consider himself as much at home. in 
Laitakoo as at Kiaiar Water. k.On which A. Kok thdnkad 
him, and told him that Mr. Anderson and Mr. jElead had 
both presents of tobacco for him. He said — ** Do not give 
me the tobacco just now, or these people, (pointing to 
£hose without the. wttggons) will i|k it all away from 
me. 

With the advice of my two friends, I proceeded to tell 
him, that I came from the same country, from, whoace 
the missionaries b/id b^en setit ^o instruct the nations, in 
Africa. That I came over tl>e great water in a wooden 
house, which the wind took four moons in blowing to 
their eounlry, to see bow tbe misdioiiaries Were fictitig to 
tbe African people. That when I came to £l«)r Water, 
I heard bis ^opie would be glad to have teachers aft wkl 
us <»tlier nations, wherefore I had under takeii a journey 
io his conntty to ask his permission to send lUtias, apd 
bis protection for them when with bim^ He objected to 
their comings by saymg bis people bad no time to attend 
to their* instructions, because they had to attend to their 
cattle, to sowing, reaping, and laaiiy Other tbinga;^* be- 
vides^** said be^ ** the things wbieb tbis people t$ach 
are contrary to all our -customs, wbich tbe people will 
not give up. It would not do tor them to live at Latta* 
koo, but should they be willing to livl) at a distance, I 
should have no objection^to send tome of the cbildrto to 
(hem to learn the Dutch language/' 

I stated to him that tbe lechers we should send, 
would convey information of Uve true God Who made 



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JCLT.] RESIDENCE AT LAtTAKOO. 209 

the heavens, the etrth and all creatures and things in 
them— of his love to the world— of tb« laws he has giveii 
fespecting good and evil, and pointing to a bible which 
lay on the table, I assured him that that book con* 
^ined eviery thing missionaries had to make known to 
him and his people, and that when missionaries should 
learn his language, they would change all its contents 
into his language. He seemed, by a significant shake 
of his head, to intimate that he considered what I said, 
an impossibility. To convince him that things could 
be written in bis language, we read to him the names 
of his predecessors and all his family. For the first 
time he smiled, on hearing their names read over, and 
seemed full of astonishment and pleasure. We then 
assured him, that instruction would not interfere with 
industry; that the inhabitants of my country were in- 
dustrious, as he might be convinced of, by our clothes, 
waggons, and so forth, which they made — ^that his peo« 
pie would not be compelled to receive instruction, for 
only those who were willing would be instructed, and 
they would not interfere with his government After 
answering some other objections, the king said, ** Sekd^ 

INSTRUCTORS,. AND I WILL BE A FATHER TO THEM.** 

Adam Kok, on a late journey to the Cape, having with 
some of bis people been exceedingly maltreated by bdora 
and others near Tulbach, the report of it had cir- 
culated as far as Mateebe, who enquired respecting 
Kvhat he had sufiered among the white people. He also 
enquired respecting two boys belonging to his people, 
who were kept in .captivity by the white people. He 
was informed that I would enquire about them, ^hen 
I returned to the colony.* The King then rose up, shool^ 
bands with each of us, and went away. 

We could not avoid wishing that our English friends 
could have witnessed this scene, and it certainly was rcr 

*The Laaddrost of Tulbach engaged afterwards to maka 
eiiquiry respectbg these boprs. 

P 



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ftft RDaRISrCB IT LATTAKOa [IfitSk 

narkable On! it happened on tine evening of t|;te fini Mo»« 
Aay in the month, whenChrigtians in most quartern of the 
irofld were met to pray far the ^xtendion of Christ's hipg« 
doip tbFOughout the earth. The time of meeting was npl 
selected by us, bot by a heathen king, who knew nothing 
of what chrietians were about. We had our prayer and 
tbankagivtag meeting in the square after the business was 
•ver. 

6lh. A£tor bfeahfait I walked oTer to^tiie king's bouses, 
aod made a present of a pair of earrings to each of the 
qttcens. Mateebe now embraced the opportunity to arifi 
what seemed to have all along been in his hearty viz. fov 
t gna I assured him I had not one gun. He said he 
bad seen us have plenty* I told bim the guns be haci 
seea were not mine, but every gun belofiged to the per* 
son who bad it, and that I had put myself under tb^r pro» 
tection-^that we bad a long journey of several moonayet 
beftn-e us, intending to cvossover to the NamaGqfia country, 
and that as a great poFt of the journey was to be among 
wiM Bushmen, he wbiJd certainly think we had pol 
more than wan necesaaj-y. Then, said he^ Adam Koh 
nust give his gun for mine, which is a bad one. 

Th« roffalfamfy wett at dinner, in the corner of tbeii 
yard, o«iitsid£ the house. The king's distinction seemed 
to consist in his sitting next the pot that coqiained tho 
boiled beans, on which they were dining, and having th# 
only spoon we saw, with which be helped himself and 
his friends, by potting a portion into each hand as it was 
held out to hnn. One of the pfinces$e$ was employed in 
cutting, with an axe» a dried pauoeb, into small pieces, 
and putting them into n pot to be boiled, either to com« 
plete that repast, or to serve for another soon aflet • One 
ofMateebe's sisters was cuUing up a filthy tooking piece 
of flesh, and putting it into the same pot Certainly an 
Englishman would be dying for want of food, before be 
accepted an invitation to dine wit^ t|te \vagQilM^^90\ 
otherwise the sight of bis dinoec W04»hi nflofd BK>repain 



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t3l^^ plfiftWir^ Tbef(8 , people ate ftr frgm p<^9e^i»g 
nic^ 9tQ«>^b9^ fdi tbey c^p ^at witb relis^, tl^e f)e«l| of 
elephants, lions, tigers, g^mel-leppfir^?, qu^cha^, <cc, 
yesterday I ob^rved on^ pf tb«rp kiU 4 goat by tbrvwting 
mto it9 b^Ily a lopg s|wl, wbicb $ippaiire4 a f^rud g^x^ 
tipn, }f^t it in tb^ir wietbpdt 

At noon we had a pufaliq loe^tiqg \w (he squ^ri by 
4i^ire^ Mateebe^ with bim^elf^ 9n4 9^9 n^^ny of l^ui pbief 
jnen a^ cbpae (o attend. Th^ King w^a i^te^l pq qq^ 
Qf .our sitpQis ; I sat on bi9 right, Mr, Re«4 on bis lef|, 
^OfJ Mf» 4'^(}^9pn qe^t. Owr twp interpreter!? aat qq |J|^ 
grauiw} be/ore fJ9, Md tbe qWef wew and ih^ people §|^ 
in l|^.f circles beyond them^ We fcegau by statii:^ the 
trntbi; which pur oiissiaui^ries woiuld teach. M^teel^ r^r 
peated hpw little lei^jur^ hi3 people bad tp learn. M^^p 
told hiqfi we had daily pbiserved jn^ny men, wpmen a.Qd 
i:hildren dping qotbiog, wd tb^t a mi^f ionary woyjd h.^'^e 
f\^Uty q( wprl^ to t^apb ^wh- He expressed ^rpri?^ 
tb$tt if i\\ iqeR cs^(ne fr<»n Qoe father aad fnotber, f^ 
white fo^n assert, tbey §p differed frpiq pne anptftej;. 
Wegheer^ed that in one feqi^ily the di^ppgitjong ftf 
(cbildreia ojltep differed- He ^aid the missionaries WQulfl 
bie s^fe, for wh,eq twp pf bi^ people murdereji Jalw 
^ol^, Jie IbJ'oygbt thteui to bis wife t9 .sbopt J^nj, 
»hat wj^efl $be >vo^ld not, he did it. We tpW fjioi tb^ 
i9 that eas^ be act^d sujcording tp the djrArtipns \n phf 
if^, whijcb 9Ry^, " be that ^hftddetl) pi9.n's ^Ipod^ by 
mw s^hftU his bipod be shed/' H.^ said, " Wljepeypr tbp 
mif^i^Qi^l^ baire got enqqgb, tbey ab^tl) h^ at lijbierty t9 
^fjpar^," bavipg flp idj^a that they can havp ^ny pthe/r 
-v^^Mr^WJPiflg Uu^gaip, He said, ** I baliei^e there is ^ 
God whp made all things, who gives prg^i^rity, sickaeif^y 
and de^tb^ bj^t { do npt know him/' Tb^e knp^ledge he 
4)JV5, vn^piihtedly c^J»e from the missionary station 4 
pillar W^V^r. ^bout a bwndred persons were prefa^eojl^ 
|ip4 the cpi>Yer«atioo Usted two hours. 
In the ^ternoop a person stated as. gin pbjpcti^n t,f 
. P2 



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ttW TUQJIBENCE At LATTAKOO. pMft 

missionaries coming, ^ that i;i(hen praying, they would 
not see the enemy coming upon tbem"-^-and another said; 
•* they never would be able to srng." 

One of our people ofer-heard Mateebe say to some 
of his people, who were sitting at a fire hi our kitchen— 
*' These men have been born before lis — they know more 
than usr-^they make us dumb.** 

Mateebe mentioned, that when on an expedition along 
with tbe Wanketzens, Makkabba their chief, and hia 
'Servant appeared at a dance dressed in the clothes of Dr. 
Cowan, red and striped. He advised him to treat white 
people as he did, and he would get such things also. 

About the going down of the sun we heard an 
-uproar in front of Mateebe's house ; the greatest scuffle 
in the streets of London deserves to be called stillness 
<x>mpared to it. We understood it was only a frolic— 
Tiiey continueidf outside of the square till our worship was 
•over, whether purposely or not I cannot tell, but thea 
"they sfallied in and danced, sang, clapped liands, roared^ 
^nd played on some instruments till about nine o'clock, 
tvhen they auddenly retired. Mateebe, Munaneeta, ttnd 
'Mateere^ the three principal men in Lattakoo, attended 
our evening worship. The two latter came to eur tent 
afterwards, the former of these (MunaneetsJ all of tia were 
attached to. There was something apparently mild* 
amiable, sincere^ and friendly, in his deportment^ He 
told uis he bad much grief at the returning of the'tteree 
men he sent in search of Mateebe without finding him; 
be determined to trust no other, and that was tbe resaon 
why he went himself. He also wished to prepare the 
tnind of Mateebe to accede to our wishes. He promised to 
visit Klaar Water next moon, tobear more of these things* 
Aftelr tbe arrival of Mateebe, Salakootoo, his ui»cle, 
a noisy, iinpttdent and forward man, hardly ever appeiered 
in the square ; before, he was constantly visiting wad 
teazing us for something. Whether be was in disgrace 
for his frequent robberies or not, I do not knew. Wa 



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ai^T.] RESIOEWCE AT tATTAK€0. SIS 

jwere not troubled w»tb people crowding into our tenJt 
after Mateebe's ftrrival. which shews his influence to be 
considerable, 

• News arrived this day, that Makrakka, the chief who 
Tevolted ftoaa Mateebe, and Makkabba* the Wauketzen 
chiefs with whom be formed an aUiance, had had a dift 
feisence, and that Makkabbe threatens an attack after 
seed time. Some of his people, from dread of this attack, 
liave left him and taken Kfuge in Lattakoa The people 
iu the west end of the town (which is the court end,) are 
of opinion, that Makrakka will return and submit to 
Mateebe. 

When expressing doubts to Mateebe of the murder of 
i)r. Cdwan, he said you may depend upon it» they are 
' murdered^ and the waggons burned — that when among 
the Wanketxens, ihe observed some of the barrels of tho 
<§ttttB used in smoothing >the seams of their skin cloaks-^ 
that when on an expedition against Makrakka's people^ 
die foiind a Wanketzen woman, wha told him that they 
had first tnken the loose cattle and sheep fix>m Dn 
.Cowan, that then a party went to inform Dr. €owaa 
.#f what the :Others bad done, and that when they 
wen^ preparing to* sett off ia pursuit of ihe robbers these 
snen seized and cpurdered theou 

Furiher 4^eouiiUi rf the W4mkeizeiu. 

- The Wanketzens are the next tribe or nation north of 

Lattekoo; they are numerous, treacherous, and cruel. 

Through them the Matchappees. (Mateebe's people,) 

NObCain their copper rings, which are reported to be n(iade, 

Bot by them, though the copper mountains are in their 

country, but by a nation lo the eastward of them, or 

nearer to the Indian ocean. An instance of the treachery 

4fthe Wanketzens happened lately. They obtained a 

party of Matchappees and Corannas to assist them in an 

* expedition beyond them. On their arrival they marched 

' •' ^^gether to attack the enemy. On the field of battle^ be* 

» < fonet iSconunenced, the Wanketzens left the Matphappees 

and Corannas to fight it by themselves^ when about 



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il4 RfiiiftfeNCt kt lAtTAROO; [l8Mr 

iig^ty df tbetti Were killed. Thtey cwisldAfW thitttansai^ 
: lioi^ as k snai'e h'rA fdt them. 

It was while on this expedition that they Earned tit» 
ftte of p66r Cowaii artd Mft cdittpiiiyk They swd that 
these people Wftt6bed an dpjSortutiity wBen life mid iit» 
peopfle Alight be ii^par^t^, wtiicffa B6on obcrurredl, .Wfate 
Dr.C. and Lifeut. Dertdv^n irewj btethlrtg ih a pool at it 
little drlitincfe frdtti their Wfeggtms* and thfe cmttte ao4 
Sh^p wer6 feeding Ih kfibther dinsctiob, g'oard^d by part 
df Ibe j!>iiople. thtisb i?^ho goaMed the fcattte were fivsi 
attacked «nd dvenibme, then tb* p«6^Ie Jit the vmfggonw^ 
and last of all the Doctor and his companion. Only ottife 
kclped, ^ hfian bd6tiging tA Kk«r Waeer, who fled to 
Milkrakka, by Whotti h* also Wafe murdered. Ttiaa fttA 
Stte Wa* Ifeft to darry bdck tidings of thfe tabtsfro^he^ 
Which t6ok "ptex:^ lieAr thd city 6f Mdittt, under %b* 
i!iTecti6h of Mdkkal)Wi, Who hM bb#6l«te p5#^r ttveir 
hid ^feo|f)le: hi^ drd'ers, bowfcy^r hafeartl^Ai tbi6 s^rf lite, 
ttu4t be oft^eye<i. Art inattnefe iti pr56f bf this Wiis stated 
fb usi Jbhh in6o[ii, a deiiperad6, htA pift hirti8<!)f at tDh 
fcfeild t^f d plundering patty s Wh«h h% And hh pkrty w^rfe 
III the*6untry of the Wank^tzettl, tb^iir chief ord^f^fl otife 
^ Wftite peopU tb go hod tft tird^f John. The thM WBnt ^d 
murdered another persoh irtstfeftd bf lohh Bl6brh/a!MS 
then fled, but being pufsutid h^ W4i^ bVlsrt&ken and put 
todfeftth. 
fkefollotting is nh tccbunt ofiht JdUrh\^ dfJikn SfmJMt, 

a Griqua, tb ike Watikeixerts, di ht ftfatiBd k bt 
' Lattakoo. 

Hife object Wife to shbbt, artd td bkrtfer tat ckttld. Hfe 
tkmk fifst to Lattakoo, frotA Whi&¥ice^d traveled ek^t- 
Ward to a people dalled by the Mktchkppfee*, lUfed CafiVfe'd, 
tut whose i^eAl namt k Tam^ktat. They appeklred tb fcfe 
^ rtbhgrd I'icfe, between the Mktcbkppee^ knd BusftWfeYi, 
^ird thfey jfjairtt thtemselVeH ted. Their hbiili^fe^tferbUnfl 
' tttfeds, lik» fhoste bf thh Ooranrtks, b« brt Wr 
iifefyt tJtektW*. Tbtey kl** tibt ^b tafl *(« 
' tbb;ft^hlfv6birttte,slM^^dtxttg<)&tt, 




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J«t%^] tlfiSIDBNCiE: AT LATT ASOO. ^ 

maA Mve together m towns, but not'so large. as those of 
the MaltchAppeea. They sow cx)rn» pum:pftiQ&, kc. Thfc 
^fst of their villages lies four days' journey from Lattalooo, 
and the chief's name is Reebe. 

From thence be went to ttm rity of Moosso, a chief of 
the MoroIoogSy who is co«isio to IV^krakka and Lesooma. 
They are children of three brothers, who could not agree 
who should be chief; wherefore they separated and 
tectms iodtepeivAeiit. ^oosso^nd LeBooihatirve in one 
town, which is much laig^ than Lattakoo, perhaps con* 
taiaiiig ten or twelve thousand inhabitants. It lies six 
tiays" journey, N. E. from Reebe. Tbeir manners an4 
customs are nearly the same a^ the l^^tchappees at 
Lattakoo. 

Leaving Moosso^ he travelled north to the Wauketaen^ 
and in three days reached the town of Melita« which is 
under the government of Makkabbi* His father and 
•grandfather were both of the name of Wanketz, in conse- 
jQueiice of which their people were called Wanketaem. 
Melita is smaller then Moosso: the language^ manner^ 
and customs, are nearl|^ the same as the, other Boot* 
chuana nations, only they have large store-houses fiy 
icontaining firovisioas, and large earthen vessels for bold* 
jiog tb.eir corn. They cultivate more ground, acd ha^MS 
l^eater abundance of cortOi beans, peas and water meloui^ 
than any of their neighbours/ They do not paint them- 
aelves so much aa Mateebe's people-^are cleanly in their 
houses* in cooking and eating; Their air is more damjp 
than towards the Oreat River. The grass is niore soui^ 
yfi^h a, flat leaf, resembliqg wkat giow% near the sea coast. 
In somepartSi th^ woods arOfextenaive. The thorxi« a tree 
known at the Cape by tbe name of whi'te-tree, and another 
called there the waggon-tree, abound in tbe country oif 
the Wanketzens, The Chief exercises more authority 
then any other of the Bootcbuanas, and his commaud^ 
are implicitly obeyed. 

John Hendric returned iii a wester^ direction by the 
town of Makrakka and the river Molopjpo^ from 

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m» RB8IDENCE IN LATTAKOO. ^[4818. 

whence be reached Klaar Water, where he soon after 
learned that Makkabba bad a design to murder him and 
his companionsj and would accomplish it if he ever, 
returned. 

CHAP. XIX- 



Account of Counirie$ bmfond Lattakoo, received from 
Maletbe and atheru 

The first nation to the N. E. is a people called Mak« 
quanas, whose chief's name is Seechaama. Their city if 
three times the size of Lattakoo : their manners and 
custonis are in every respect the sanie : they are exceed- 
ingly rich in cattle. The Wanketzens are continually at 
war with them for the sake of plunder. 

Beyond the Makquanas, are the Magalatzinas^ froxn 
whom the former and other tribes obtain articles of 
clothing, and beads of European manufacture. They 
ride upon elephants, and use buffaloes to draw car- 
riages—are of a brown complexion, and have long 
hair. 

Next tp them, E.S.E. of the Wanketzens, are tbe 
Maklootuas, after whom come the Moonshuyanes ; ihtstk 
the Mookoobes: then the Makoanees ; then the B^« 
quanes ; beyond them the Boramateezas ; then the 
l^egoeeyas ; then the Bochakapeeles ; then the Bamoots- 
laatzas; then the Bprapootzaans ; then the Bakotes; 
then the Mapantues. 

On the south side of the Yellow River are the 
Moleezanyanas, and beyond them in a N. E. direction 
toward Delagoa Bay, are the Maquapas; and beyond 
them, in the same direction, the Matzslakoo. A nation 
of Cannibals is reported by the Matchappees tolivie be^ 
yond them. The same also is reported by Hottentota 
and Bushmen. 

A nation east from the' Wanketzens are callra %e 
Marootzees^ whose chiefs liame & Seebechoone^ aiid the 



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^vxr«) JtSSIDSRCBATLATTAtliK 21f 

are similir in inanQen to tbem. Thegr sow eorn and 
4;obacco» and abound in cattle. Their city is larger than 
LattakoOi and their cattle kraal, (or inclosure for secur- 
ing cattle in the night time*) is so laige that Ibey frei- 
quently graze in it It is said to be cold, perhaps on 
account of standing in an elevated situation. The grass 
ifl peculiarly short and sweet. Tb^ cottotry abounds in 
^ood, particulariy in one sort called Mangyena, (of 
which they make laige bowls^) which ^ws tall and 
thick. They have another tree» called Magguana, and $ 
black wood called Mola, which is very beaotifbl. From 
•that nation thi Matchappees obtain copper rings which 
they manufacture, and iron for making their assagaysi. 
The Marootzees get their copper from the mountains. 
The ore is said to resemble the earth when dug from the 
mountain, after which they smelt it^ and manufacture it 
into various articles. The iron is dug out in stones, and 
undergoes the same operation. Those who work in the 
^inines are said seldom to come out of them, which ap« 
pears as if they were condemned to that employments 
iSTear the Marootze is a river which runs to the eastward^ 
'Either into the Great River near its source, or into some 
9ther river which loses itself in the Indian Ocean. The 
rivei^ Moloppo rises in the country of the Wanketzens^ 
' ^d tuns into the Krooman. The Marootzees are two 
'days' journey from the Wanketzens; and these are five 
days* Journey from Lattakoo. 

^^^^^^^^ 

The /oUcmng ii an Jccouni of the Journeif of Mooteere, 

who is generally employed by Mateebe as Jmbauador to 

other Chirfs, related by hinuelf 

He went with a party on a plundering expedition 

jiome time ago* He travelled first to the north by Honey 

:Valiey, and afterwards west They travelled over exten* 

Mye deserts, destitute qi water, but wild water melons 

were a substitute for food and drink : these they found 

in abundance strewed over the desert After a journey 

irffivemonthSi they reached a nation called Mampoor 



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«16 VaOKKOt At LATT ABDD. I fUML 

Vfho reside on « gl^at. water> aoron iviiicft tbejr eouM 
observe aa Uind^ and Ofi wlucb tbcy obaervM tbe ma tb 
«t. Ttey saw tfae people go 06 tbe water iv bowla, (b)r 
wbicb they no doubt mesint bcata,) and bad fieoea of 
iimbef whicll &bey t)iit iislo the Heater, and psaheii tb(»»- 
Melvfs forward. Sk Remarked 4hat thtf mete a paM#- 
able aind unauspectiiqg jpeople-^bat bemardend a freat 
many of ibeoi/andUlok away tbeir catttt^iMtb wbicbtbcy 
retunaed in five ibMna to Laiiakoo* Tboae wbdm ibajf 
did not kill fied, and lefli tbem to cany off tbeiriiatdfe 
without moidstatioB^ Sfaads Modtei^'a velonr^ Saisi- 
kootoo, the king's uaiOle^ has made seTeral auceessfnl ed^ 
pedition^ ilgaiast 4h^ same people. 

ThefoUomng si <rn JcoMnM bfPtatei hi&M to tht fJM^s, 
mko fkie^ i»kk as ai LalHJcoo. 

WfiST.FBOM LATTAKOO. 

tatanee is distant three days', journey. The chief's 
bkin^ is Leyeisy, and the number of inhabitants about 
"fifteen* hundred. I'he^y sow corn, pumpkins^ beanSji &c* 
'Their houses and manners are tbe same as at Lattakoo. 
Lfeyeisy, during 'the hunting months^ viz. from May to 
Se^teihber, resides at kuissee, six days* joivxiej N. "W^- 
\of Lattakoo. This people vvere more dependant on the 
former Icing of Lattakoo than they are on the present. 
Their connection at present consists in their not engaging 
in any wars or expeditions without Mateebe's consent ; 
and it is probable their receiving, missionaries must de- 
pend Oft the Witt of Matefei)e. tn all other respects tbey 
appear perfectly indepeixjeht. 

NOATHOF LAVTAKPO* 

Chue^ wbich means tbe Honey VMley, Has betweoa 
three and four days' journey. from Latiakoo. The ifih^ 
bitants are called Maakarabaiee^ or Poor BoeichaaMC^ 
becanse tbey neither bave^ iior» in tlteir fN«seBl: oitvatioi^ 
can ^ave cattle or sbeep. Th^r chief's wme is Loovor 
kue; yet tbey acknowledge tberoaelves depetodeot ontte 



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/tflLtJ RBBDmrCEATLATrAKOOi itl^ 

lieigbMaring 6bieff and rhch pef^nn Itround. Tfaeir 
$OM^ fot iMMOiph, acknowled^ t(i<»tnse(iri^ to b^, to ^ 
tj^rtaui degree, in fiufajectioii fo thig ^n of him whom 
Ibeiv father Becr^d* They bimt with th^ dbg^ belbngihg 
to tbeae rtch meti ; ihfa skiaa also of the Ami^Diils they 
litil they brim^ ta these men ; the f^ i% th^it own. 
fib^M they bitt aa elephtat, tbe teetb fbdM be brought 
to the«6 svperiors^ Tbey not otily use the aMgay iti 
banting, but also, like the Bushmen, dig deep holes iti 
tbe ^ground to take the anitfnaiB. When e&lled Oiit to 
aaaiat in pltmderiBg cx]»editioti» a^4ti8t th^it* heigh bouril, 
•U tbey acquff e hiust b^ giveA to their sup^riots, dnd 
Ihey de|rend upon their geoeitwity fot arty share. They 
luce, not permitted to wear cloaks of jackaii^' skibs, or any 
dress which indicates rank or fortune ; they Only Wear 
eabb skina as aft aot worn by the ri^b. Though tiume* 
joaa, they live in a iiftttered iMY^tier, «ynly kn itteondi* 
dereble number life witil ethe chief. A§ti reward for 
their Uboyrs, tbey revive ftoM the fieh fkihilieS tb 
Whom tbey are in svbjeieiidia, as^&gay^ and tobacco. 
Tbey m-e kinder the protetetioti of Matedhe and Leyi^fse tti 
Icaae tbey are attacked^ who dilMc^titeMttice My inter- 
course between them and the people nearer Ihe colony, 
iwbo brivg articles of trlule* 

N'ORttt-fiASt FftOM tATTAKOO. 

Tbe town of Setaabee lies on a river of the aam^ 
XA)aih, which in the rainy season is a branch of the 
Meloppo, which is a d^y*s journey^ to the eastward of 
^taabee. Setaabee lies seven days* journey from Latta- 
^00. l^ive years ago this was tbe residence ot Makrakka» 
iProm Whience he was driven by Mallayabang, Mateebe'a 
ifikther. l^his was occasioned by Makrakka's people steal- 
Itig C^attle from tbe subjects of Mailayabang. Part oi 
)i{6 subjects revolted and joined Mailayabang i and the 
ir^t, \0 tbe number of about two thousand, %veQt with 
Whi to live in the vicinity of the Wanketzens^ 

*rbe river Meloppo, which comes fram tbe eastward, 
tete^bfetidand slrong current till it reaches Setaabee, 



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S20 ItSSIDENCB AT LATT AKOO: £IS1& 

when running among many large and deep holes^ and 
over flat marshy ground, it is so weakaied before it 
joins the Krooman river at Kutssee, that it is completely 
dry except in the rainy season. All the rivers in the 
vicinity of the M^loppo, as well as : those between the 
Krooman and Lattdkoo^in the rainy season empty them* 
selves into the Krooman, which then runs into the Great 
River ; but in all Qtber seasons not a drop reaches that 
river. 

To the west of Kuissee the country is inhabited by 
poor Bootchuanas and Bushmen, acroiss Africa* to the 
Namacqua and Damar^ countries* It is reported ^hat 
beyond Teunee to the N. W. there is a people called 
Ghou Damara, who are numerous and have cattle, and 
also houses resembling those of the Corannas* 

Some years ago a party of Bastard Hottentots, with 
waggons and cattle, were hunting among the Bootchuanas. 
At a town where they were, the chief made them a pre^ 
sent of ^two oxen to kill, one tame, the other wild. The 
last ran off, and the greater part of the Hottentots ran in 
pursuit of it. While thus scattered and entirely off their 
guard, the Bootchuanas fell upon them and murdered 
the whole party. 

Two brothers of the name of Grika some yiears ago 
fled from the colony, in consequence of having com* 
mitted forgery ; the one was trodden to death by an 
elephant he had wounded, the other accompanied Dtk 
Cowan, and was murdered along with Him. 

A party of Bootchuanas, when hunting wild horses^ 
came to a pool frequented by these animals inihe night 
time for drink. They lay down near it to wait their 
arrival. About midnight they heard the approach of 
animals whict they concluded were wild horses, on 
which all, except one who was asleep, hastened toattadc 
them. By the light of the moon they discovered that 
instead ^ f wiid horses it was a herd of young elephant^ 
which Are most dangerous to approach. On this disco* 
very every one fled from them as fast as possible. Wbe» 



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^ {^' J^- '^*^f 





I -77 






\ 



Jiooteknianas Omarie$i ^ 

JbyGoO^I 



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^utT.] RESIDENCE AT LATTAKOO. 22t 

they returned to the pool In the morning, they found 
their companion, whom they had left asleep, trodden to 
dcvath by the elephants, and bis body as flat as a board. 
Upon another occasion, when a party were hunting 
elephants, and had wounded several, one turned upon 
them, caught bold of a man with bis trunk, and threw 
him on the ground betweeo his fore legs that he might 
tread him to death,; but the man happily got from under 
him and rap off; but from the bruise he received from 
the animal's trunks and the fright, ^bis life was for some 
time despiaired of. The Bootchuanas observe such indi« 
cations of wisdom io the elephants, that they do not 
consider ^ttiem as beasta, but as a species of very superior 
animals. 



• -■ 


BOOTCHUANA WORDS. 




Macookoo 


*y« 


Kamma 


cloak 


Moorlucb 


hair 


Lekallo 


ring 


Inco 


nose 


Mabelle 


com 


Mooloo 


mimtk 


Hailla . 


hear you 


Menno 


teeth 


Haracho, also 


I father 


Chebbey 


ear 


Haare 


Luleme 


tongue 


Macho 


mother 


Monanwa 


finger. 


Kanserii^e 


sister 


li^uaalla 


nail . 


Quanage 


chUd 


Seakka 


hmd 


Munaaoo 


brother 


Lechocho 


arm 


Menaate 


deliciou§ 


l^ilelu 


chin 


Mutchucoo 


tobacco 


teefaalee 


shoulder 


Sebaata 


snuffbox 


leiihamma 


cheek 


Tchona 


our 


Loonowho 


foot 


Keeoo 


that 


Moomo 


leg 


Obella 


in 


Lemolle 


knee 


Httremo 


heaven 


LeclialKJKH), 


]' sun 


Linayahaat- 


1.1 


alsoSatzee 


chocb 


Ij thtfwtmt 


Moo 


earth 


Mash 


milk 


Shekoonoo 


elbow 


Seho 


uc/aiabash 



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3^ 



BBSID8N0& AT LATTAEQO* 




Nyn- 
PpQla 
Maroo 
Peehoo ha- 

poola 
Peoua mocony 



Peooa amora. 



I 



rainy wind 

east wind, 
south eojft 
wind. 



Which i$ flfi^etimes ca1lf4 B^^h- 
men^t mnd, becauae they live in that 
direction. ' 

Bossikoo dark 

Kuyitt moan 

Linaree sMirs 



Kamma 

J^ookoo 
S^tzee oprttQa 
Mootzeekoore 
Moohella 
Hoobeede 
Hoorugli 
HooDe 
HoochaDoo 
Marrootar 
Quashoopa 
Quareha 
QuahenL 

Hootcha 
Hoobedee 
iioovaroQ 
Hooaai 
Hootannoo 
Hooratardo ' 
Quashoo)^ 
MebeleQ 
Moongabail 
I Shoome dioeme 



s^lWJa 



CHAP. XX. 



! ris^ 
tunsft 
day 
mte 
ttto 
three ' 
ftmr 
Jive 
six, 
seven 
eight 



leit 
elevm 
twehe 
thirteen 
Jburteen 
Meen 

seventeen 
eighteen 
nineteen 
twenty. 



DepMtrrefrQfn Laitahk>4 

Ti^E children ib general are cheerful and playful, i>ul 
their diversions do not appear t^ be numerous* Tb^ 
only ones I observed wj^re — beatLpg ^ach otl>^r with 
wands, viUi4 defending thetnseives with their lUt]^ skiR 
cloaks, usteg them as shields — beating sand with sttcto 
towandbi 6Ach other-i»4i!iQotiiig with bows and arroinir^ 
tw9 parti^^ ^rowitig wnatl pieces of turf at each otbef 
—and throwing pieces of wpod in imitation of a»s&gay» 
OF darts. 

7th. Wte began early in the mornfctfg to prepare Rf 



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nfvt.1 SfyARIUBBFROHLATTAKOa tS3 

karing Lattakoo* Matedye made a present of an ox to 
Mr. Ready and another to myself, which he said was the 
custom of his father Mailayabang, when visited by stran-*^ 
ger8« We stated that we had heard that he aad his peopte 
mfended to remote to the Krooman river, three day* jour* 
aey nearer to Klaar Water, and ^e should like to know 
whetbtr it was biedofk^n so to do. He said they would only 
temove, for the present, to Lattakoo river, which is ovef 
the hill about two niiles south of the [M-esent scite of the 
city, and there they would remain until the miasiooaries 
came, and would conslilt with tbein about their greater 
removal. . He then asl^ed for a neckcloth; we pra^ented 
him with two^^^-oiie he put round bis neck, and the other 
av«r bis be%d as a night cap, which completely distin^ 
guished hini from ail his subjects-^but they were soon 
nearly vsd with the paint with which his body was co* 
vered« 

As Miv Aqderson had invited the poor woman and her 
two starving children to Klaar Water, because no crea- 
lure at Lattakoo trould assist her, we asked Mateebe's 
permission. ^' O yes," said be, *' you may take them.'* 
' I wished to find my young friend Sehoiya^ and od 
oalling out her name, it was repeated by the children as 
}oud as they could bawi, which soon brought her, when 
I presented her with -about a yard of gilt chain, with 
whichsbe ran off to shew It to her parents* 

As they had neither fowls, nor ducks, nor geese, the 
introduction of these would greatly assist thenH**^s also 
of potatoes, onions, cabbages, beans. Oak trees, which 
grow well in the colony, might also be planted, and 
afford a pleasing shelter from the sun's rays in summer. 

Otir waggons moved to the outside of the square as 
our oxen we^re yoked to them, amidst the shouts of hun^i^ 
dreds of spectators* In conversation, Mateebe observed^ 
that some of his people died by the hand of God, and 
otbersi by witchcraft. 

About a month ago, Makkabba sent another chiqf. 



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fiSI DEPARtUREFROMLATTAKOO. {Wi* 

who is residing with him at present^ oq an expedition 
against a neighbouring chief, in which he killed that 
ehief» and carried away all the cattle, which must have 
reduced, that people to a most miserable condition, for 
the dependence of all in this part of Africa is chiefly on 
their cattle. It is very probable that Makkabba's succesi^ 
on this occasion arose from bis having Dn Cowan*s gm»^ 
powder, and shot. 

The desire of knowing the interior x)f Africa is veiy 
strong in Europe, and probably can only be gratified by 
missionaries gradually penetrating into the country. Mis- 
sionary stations are surrounded by moral atmospheres^ 
or have a moral and civilizing influence to a considerable 
distance around, beyond which it is extremely hazardous 
for white men to go. But when a missionary settlement 
has existed some time at Lattakoo, another may easily 
be introduced among the Wanketzehs and others^ whQ 
on their visits to Lattakoo will become acquainted with 
the missionaries-^will witness the advantage derived from 
their residence among that people-^will hear various 
things which the missionaries teach, and on their return 
to their own lands will report what their eyes have seen^ 
and their ears heard. This intelligence will probably 
produce a desire that missionaries may visit them also, 
and thus invitations will be sent to Lattakoo, requestiug 
that white men may be sent to instruct them also. 

The waggons being nearly all ready, I mounted my 
seat. Mateebe came and leaned with his head on tt^e 
side of the waggon where I sat for several minutes, till 
a person pointed out his dauger from the wheel, should 
the oxen move. 

Mateebe, who seemed at first to have a forbidding 
aspect, every hour grew in . our estimation, and I felt 
much at parting from him. Not one article had been 
stolen or taken forcibly from any of us, except two but* 
tons, for which the culprit was driven oqt of the puUic 
square. 



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irLY.l JOtJRNEY BEYOND THE GREAT MVEll. 2® 

To teach these Matchappees to sit on chairsinstead of 
the ground, or to sleep on beds instead of skins, or to 
eat ^itb knives and forks at a table instead of tbeir'fingers, 
would be no easy task ; but they consider such drilling 
as this to be the chief object :of .missionaries coming 
aracyig them, not being able to conceive the wonderful 
impoT|;ance of receiving the knowledge of revealed trutb» 
as connected either with their present or everlasting in- 
terests. 



CHAp. XXL '- ' 



JOURNEY BEYOND THE GREAT RIVER; 



From Latiakoo to Malapeetzeem 

July 7th, 1813. 

Exactly at noon our waggons began to move from 
Lattakoo, ' surrounded' by a gazing multitude/ Our 
journey was now to be directed eastward, to a part of 
Africa hitherto unexplored by any European traveller; 
biit having' heard that a considerable nuiribei' of people 
inhabited these parts, who would be accessible by mis- 
sionaries, we deemed it desirable to pay them a visit, 
in hope of being able hereafter to send missionaries 
aihbng them. ' 

While moving from Lattakoo, I could not but continue 
looking back towards it, so long as it remained visible, 
as ah interesting place — ^a city which may' yet become a 
Jerusalem to Africa. Paul had talents, before his con- 
version, suited to the work he had to perform after it. 
In point of natural abilities, they appeared fo me supe- 
rior to any of the African nations we had seen. They 
are a sprightly and ingenious people. 

At, two, P. M. we halted at a brook called Kookbo, 
(or Sunrise,) perhaps because it lite east from Lattiidcob 

Q 



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JB9 aOVItlVTBRrOK&IlteGSEATSIVEt. AlSO. 

'.vherewe filled our water v^aelau Atthree, P.IMf, we 
Imlted for a while tt a small sbepberd^s phee called Mat- 
^matchbo, which lies near another brook of water. 
Around botb piaces maay cattle were feeing among high 
.grasa. At four, P. M: w^ passed another ehepherd*^ 
jplace called Kakania. At sik in the eYdning we hatted 
,at the side of a wood/ where tbere w^u» no water. The 
water was two miles fu^tber, but we purposely baited 
here, lest our fires should frighten away the buffaloes, 
which we hoped to shoot in the morning on their way to 
that water. 

We travelled all day over ground which had a gen- 
tle ascent, with a hilly -couutry to the north and 
south : the first part of our joiirney lay io^ ^/^^^ tN 
last to the N. E. The country before us had the ap- 
pearance of a corn field, bound|sd by the horizon.^ Ther- 
mometer at \ioon, 68. 

8tb« In the morning the ground was covered with boar 
frost. Just before sun«-rise we killed a buffalo and her 
calf, which gave great pleasure to the eleven Matchap- 
pees who acGompanie4 us as guides. They petitioned 
very earnestly for the bre^M pf the calf^. which is the part 
allotted to the 3potchuana chij&Cs of every beast t^iat is 
killed. They seemed truly anxious to taste this forbid- 
den part; for they bear the image of father Adam 

The morning light discovered tons many a ve^^n 
tree that had withstood the storms of past ages, bqt ws^ 
now crumbling to pieces by the l^a^d qf time. A^ nine^ 
A. M.. we went forw^ard; ou^dogs aoon discovered yf9t^r 
.among reeds, to which some of our people ran, ao4 4l?uik 
along with the dogs, whq wopl4 pot part if itb their right* 
After piwepding if Ijttlp fvjrthftr we JialM ip frwt of » 
wood near wa|er« ThisfDipaifltec ^ aiiii*rise (^vfo) 
JS.4: atnoon, 60. . ./, 

This was a very ][>iisy fprfiQopp tp.otMi^Miatqbsipppcf, 
for we a^ouQ4ed iq bpfulp fle^ht ;»n4 tliey eotplpyed 
(heur ti|^ d^fgfpt^ iarp^og 9ll4 devouring it« ,,Tj^ 



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Mtt.} jmTRNETBETONP.THB GREAT RnrSt 327 

teemed as if thejt feared that such an o{>pbrtunity for 
ft$isting would never occur agaiu. When sitting by the 
fire; they were cooking with one hand and feeding thenn 
selves with the other : if they left the fire for a little tirne^ 
they were sure to carry \k large bone ftf tneir hand, pick« 
ifi^g' it as they walked, and when it was done they re^ 
turned for more. We named this Alers Fountain. ^ 

Our sheep having strayed, we could not depart till 
three, P. M. when our journey continued among tall 
grass and bushes until six, P. M. wh^h we halted at a 
fountain of Water. Some of our people had killed a bu& 
falo, which lay at a little distance; but having heard 
Rons and wolves at hand, it was judged prndent to defer 
cutting it up till the morning, judging it better tbatthd 
csxc^ae should be e^xposed to the rft?enou^ lipnsj thaQ Q^r 
c^wnpeopte. 

' '9tb.- Baying been contiiiually ascending ever since we 
left Lattakoo, we were now on high ground, which the 
thermometer seemed to indicate, at sun-rise, for tben It 
stood at 14, and the ice was half an inch thick. As the 
cattle had strayed among the bushes, we could not depart 
till ten. We toofc into our waggons, as we passed, the 
Iwiffalo that was killed the night before, which nejther 
lions nor wolves had discovered. It was all cut to pieces 
before we reached it, chiefly by the Matcbappees. * At 
eleven, we passed a pool of pure water, which we named 
Nf^ton FountaiBy in memory, of the late valuable rector 
of, Sfc. Mary Woolnotb* By the number of buflfalb-paths 
leading to that fouptain, it must be frequented by very 
many. We observed smoke ascending at a distance to 
the nortbj fr6m the bulrnrng of withered grass. The 
whistling of our Matcbappees so much resembled the 
singing of bhrds, that I was often at a loss to distinguish 
between them. Theriaometer at noon, 60. 
• At noon we saw numerous flocks of ^ springbucks, and 
some of our people fell in with some wandering Bnshh 
ttKtf^ wlid app^^&rsd to menace them. Distant bitttt to 



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828 JOURNEY BEYOND THE GREAT RIVER. [1813- 

the eastward came in view^ and a plain, which, in most 
directions, had no visible termination. This we named' 
Bogue. Plain. At five, P. M. we arrived at a Bootchu^na 
Bushman village, which had the appearance of extrome; 
wretchedness. It is called Marabay, which is the name 
of; a plentiful fouutain aud stream, of excellent water, at 
a few hundred yards distance. At this fpuntain we tool? 
tip our residence for the night. The people, were greatly 
alarmed at our approach, not knowing what. to. make. of 
us, having very probat>ly pever seen waggons .or. wbjte 
people before. The village; was composed of ten hutSj 
shaped like an inverted tea-cup. .'.:,'.'* 

Here I took dayvn the naiiK^s of the Matchappees who 
accompanied us as guides to Malapeetzee. : :: > 

1. Maroomachiaf or, Village Aseagay, . who is cousia toMa- 

teebe, and is the person we engaged foe oao 
guide, the others accoitipaMyiog him . as 
guards on .his return. , 

2. Macf^anoq, The roof of the paoath, so named because 

his father, when cattle vitre ^lain, was par-^ 
tial to that part of the animal. ' 

3. ToWf A lion. 

. 4. Leraa^ A commando, or party for stealing.' 

6. Tchehovre, ' Mad» 

6. Inquagee, . A thorn.' 
' 7. Carosooe^ Entrails, ' * 

8. Meoonsfweet Black. t * ' 

9. Ompooree, A female, so named' because bom on the 

day when Mateebe returned from a ten 
months* expedition against that and other 
people. , . , . 

10. Serebaal, . A child forsaken. (Omporee*s daughter.) 

11. Senehai, No home, (ditto son;) 

Both which names are very descriptive of their pre- 
sent circumstances, being forsaken by. th^ir father, an4 
from compassion we were bringing them to Klaar Watei', 
there to assist them to obtain a living. 

10th. Ther^. was ice in the loofning on the njittei. 



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JULY.) JOURNEY BEYOND THE GREAT RIVER. 229^ 

At eleven we left Marabay Fouhtaih, and travelled aloog^ 
ks banks, over flat rocks : resembling pavement, till it 
joined a river coming, from the S. W. by which junction, 
a cotisiderable stream was produced, which we named 
Arrow&mith River, ii^ reference to. that gentleman^s lau- 
dable attention to the improvement of maps. Thermo- 
meter at noon 68. Travelled till two, P^M. in a S.E. 
direction, when we entered a long narrow valley, ia 
which our course was to the S. At five, P. M. crossed a 
deep rocky channel of a rivefj which was then dry, but 
in which, from its appearance, much water must flow in 
the rainy season. , We killed a. beautiful quacha at a lit- 
tle distance from the river, which, though a species of 
horse, gave much satisfaction to our Matchappees; .the 
fldbh being sweet it pleases their, palates. We had been 
pushing forward all'day, if possible to reach Malapeetzee 
at night, that we might spend the Sabbath there ; but 
finding this would be impossible, we halted among some 
bushes, not far from a little water. 
. 11th* Being informed that we might reach Malapeet* 
zee in two hours, we went forward about eight, A.M. 
We crossed the plain. in a S.E, direction, towards the 
mouth of a pass, through hills which divide the Boot« 
chuana and the Coranna countries. About a mile from 
what we named Wilberforce Pass, we found near a hun- 
dred Lattakoo people, who had left it after us, having 
come by a nearer way across the hills. Their object was 
to gather ounshes* roots for food. They had slept 
among the bushes all night, though it was a very cold 
one. They seemed pleased to see us again, and soon 
b^an their old trade, of begging snuff and. tobacco frdm 
vs. Exactly at the mouth of Wilberforce Pass, we came 
to a sjmaU village of Red Caffres, who on our approach 
fled to the top of a hill behind, the kraal; but on per- 
ceiving we were accompanied by some Matchappees, the 
men ventured dowii, and afterwards, on their calling, to 
them^ the women descended also. Their appearance in* 



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mo^ JiAmHET BEYOND TBEOBSAtniVSIt [Ifiin 

dicaled wrctcbedneeg in the extreme, and they seemed td> 
bebdd us with aitonishmeDt, being, a most novel aigkt la 
tiiem. Their dwellings* were so low as to be hardly risi*; 
ble among the bushes till quite close to them. They 
were the shape of half a hen's egg, with the open par); 
exposed to the weather, which must be extremely incoiw 
vmient in the rainy seasok), unless they are able ta tUm 
l^e indosed side to the stcnm, which might easily be 
done. For a christian man to speikl his days m d0ltv€P» 
ing such beings from t^eir wretchedness in ttiis remote 
part of Africa^ would be one of the noblest acts of bene« 
volience which could be recorded in the historic page^ 
God is able to produce such men, and to bless theif 
efforts. . They were so covered with dirtj mixed with 
spots of very red paint;, that it appeared probable ndM 
of them had had any part of their bodies washed sinc^ 
they were born. 

After tfaTellingin a N.E. direction for three miles^ oil 
Wilberforce Pass, we entered a romantic square, formed 
by bills, eharmingly covered with tufts of trees here and 
tbere, at the east side of which lay the town of Malapeet» 
zee, to visit which we came in thip direction ftotk 
Ittttakoo. 



CHAP. XXll 



Mahpeetxee'^Interview with the Natives — Their Account of 
Dr. Cowdn*s Murder. 

Mala.p£etzbs is the nami^ of a place, n^ar the rivap 
Makfcarab ; but the Ckxranna pieople are known by the 
name, of Tybuss Kraal, and^ also Makboloyank £i«al# 
The inhabitants seemed to gaze at our appi'oach n^ithl 
mixture of ftar and astonishment. They stood in groups, 
viewing m from a distance, for s<Mne .time after our ard^. 
vaL At taajgth we obtained a meeting with the peoph^ 



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j«Lt.^ JCHJBRESr BEnXHStHE GRSAT RITEK. 9SC 

til iDfofm tfaeni of the object of our vteit^ that we mtgbll 
pat Ibeir ratodit at rc»t on th&t head. It was some titne 
Issfon^ we coiikl leani wbo was thieir chief. First they 
SRid'they had tio chief; then/ that it was a person of th^ 
naktie of Tybiiss, wh6 wjas not dow with tb^m ; then> that 
Oukey who was present wab dbief in his absence. Wei 
addressed odrselFes to biBi as to the object of our visit 

The chief told us that he hlid been for some time al 
Read's Foun^in, when mtssionaHes were tbefte, and had 
h&atd that the kndwiedge of<jod was to be sent to all 
meH) and be tbought our coming shewed the truth of 
ijbat^ As for himself he had no obj^tion to n missionary 
GOQisng among them, but be could ohiy speak for him-4 
sdlf, fos though they called him their chief, they wouhf 
not take his advice—" For instince,'* said he, <• the son 
of Tybuas, with some, others, would go on an expedition 
with the Wanketzeus; I advised them against it, ye€ 
tfiey Vent, and were murdered. • They aye," continued 
be, V a divided people ; you see they Will not tell What' 
they think.'* We said we did not press for ah answer* 
at pieSent; they might consult together, and give us an 
answer on the morrow. Thermometer at noon, 73. 

While sitting before- us, w^ observed a silver bugle-*' 
horn in the front of one of their principal men's hair. 
We concluded this miist have belonged to the regtniehtal 
dr^ss of Dr. Cowan, or Lieutenant Denovan. Mr. R. 
employed one of our people to purchase it with tobacco; 
which he effected. The man said he obtained it from 
the people beyond tbein to the north. 

We had meetings for worship amolig ourselves, and in^ 
the Evening met with the inhabitants for tbeii^ instruction, 
when Mr. Anderson spoke to them by means of an inter«^ 
preter. 

iSth. Thermometer at sun-rise, 32. "iThere are fifty* 
sIk buts ; about three hundred inhabitants ; two thou« 
satld cows at this, and as many at two other stations^ 
Tbey live almost entirely on their cattle, especially on^ 
the milkj so that they have little else to do but to milk 



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^ JOVRNETBETONDTHE GREAT RIVER. t^SiaL'. 

tiieir cows. They were fonnerly under the government 
of two brothers^ Linx and Abby, who not agreeing, sepa** 
rated ; some of t\ie. people following the one, md somei 
the other. Those who at present reside at Malapeetzee 
cleaved to Lipx, who is dead, but Ahhy continues at the 
head o/ a numerous Kraal to the N.E« 

Xp general they are neither so tall, nor so black as th«: 
Matchappees; they do not seem to paint or powder, so 
much as they, nor are they so industrious^ They get 
both their assagays and skin cloaks from them. The' 
persons and dress of the females seem much the same as 
those of the Matchappee women. They appear from* 
their cpuntenanoes to be clever, but. from their affluenee^ 
in cattle, and having few want^, they are very indolent.^ 
Qukey told us they intended to separate soon, but thai 
he and bis friends were determined to remain at Mala<»^' 
peetzee. . / 

We had a meeting with the people about nine A. M.' 
when most of the inhabitants attended. Mr. R. ad-: 
dressed them, through an interpreter, givihg them a' 
sun^mary of bible doctrine, to which they listened with 
seeming attention, and appeared to be. pleased with oor 
singing. We afterwards had. a meeting with them re- 
specting their willingness to receive a missionary — they- 
-were cautious in declaring their minds ; however, some 
said, they would be very glad if we would send some 
one to teach them. A Coranna female of our com- 
pany said the women were much displeased with the 
men for not speaking their minds freely, for, said 
they, it is the very thing we have long desired. There 
is no doubt but missionaries would meet with a kind re-' 
(ception*. 

* Since my return to England, I have received a letter from 
Mr. Anderson, in which he says, they are bnging for the arriw»l 
of the expected missionaries. This post, in relation to the other 
Kraals of Corannas near them and the nations beyond them, is 
extremely important. 



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^ntr.l JOURNEY BEYOM) THE OftE AT RIVMfi. dm 

;: An , uncle 'OfMateebe, who lin^s here, stated As an 6b- 
jeo^iMi ta a missioiiary' coming* to^them, bis inability to' 
^iS9k tb^ir }aBguage» consequently be oould he, be s^id; 
4if no use>to: tbem. We said they would b^ young men, 
and coosequently would soon learn their language; afid' 
before that, he would be able to tell tbetn'many things' 
by means, of an interpreter* • This anftWer gave satis- 
faction * • 

i; Having: enquired respecting Dr. Cowan and his com^ 
panyi they stated, that they had been oxi an expedition 
jj^insLtl^e Kraal of iMakrakka, and had ^en there ma- 
ny knives and an epaulette — that they we^e informed by 
a woman they had taken, that his sheep were first cap- 
tured, then the waggons were attacked, taken, and burn- 
ed — the guns were with Makkabba — they had heard of 
the murder long ago— that Makkabba had some time ago 
an assembly of people from various quarters, on which 
occaBion he boasted that his father, though a great waiw 
ri6r, bad never conquered people with guns — thatJVfak* 
rakka had brought Dr. Cowan to the Wanketzens, where 
he was murdered, and thus he is suspected to have had 
a hand in the murder* 

Our guides who came with us from Lattakoo said' 
they had been on the same expedition, and had seen 
Dr* Cowan's clothes, many knives and forks, spoons, 
and guns* A man of the name of Tow had brought 
with him to Lattakoo a night gown, which had be- 
longed to a boor who accompanied them, and it was 
still there* They heard that the waggons had been 
burned and the horses shot — that the women wore their 
button^ — and that the sheep and oxen were still alive in 
different places* 

• At three P. M. we took leave of our eight Matchap- 
pee friends^ who had accompanied us as guides from 
Lattakoo, sending by them our respects to Mateebe. 
We rewarded them for their trouble, by giving each a 
little tobaccoy with which they were well satisfied* lo 



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^ JOURNEY BEYCSNir.THE GSBAT KIVER: [MIS;. 

lieu of these attendftDta^ !we obCaiued s^veii Gon^ia 
gt^ides; for %im part of Africo w«$ ciiUrely milm^Ap. 
to my of o»r compaityw We had hmtA of tte lifcr 
Maialareen, on the hmkd of wbich BoAoy. Bushoi^ft 
ware reported to live; and we were {NHrsMded, tbat 
a>Qld we fail in with tbia riter, it would oo^iduct ua t» 
the Great River; we t^^erefoce requested our Gorans 
guides to lead us to ti^t river, after which they m^bt 
j^turq to Maiapeetze; One ^f the ehief men made uftaf 
p/esent of a goat c on couotiog our iihe€lp» we found oae 
with its lamb ivas missing. W^ did Hot snppose they 
bad been stolen^ but bad stiayed. 



CHAi^. xxiit 



Btpmrtmnff^m Msiapeetzee-^Conie in sig^ of the JWmt 
Malalareen'^Makoons Ktatkl— Travel along the Mak^ 
Jareen^Arrive at a Griqm VUhge. 

After taking leave of the inhabitants, who all came 
Qut to witness our departure, we left Malapeetzee. We 
travelled southward, in an open country, with low hilla 
to the east and west, but in general over the most rough, 
I'ocky ground we had met with during the whole of our 
journey. It was surprizing that our waggons were not 
broken to pieces. We travelled in search of water till 
Bine P.M. without finding any; when we descended over 
rocks to a small valley enclosed by hills, in which there 
was a deep, rocky bed of a river, but no water. Here 
we halted during the night. 

13th. At sunrise we left our retreat, ascending a hill 
ilnmediately behind it. On reaching the summit, one 
^f the most charminor countries we had s^q in Africa^ 
camb all at once into view. The hills were beautifully 
ornamented with trees to their very tqps, .and the vialleys. 



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a»L¥.] JiraSnETHETORDTHEGBEATRIirEB. JK! 



resembled ttie finest patks tn England ; but what 
tiatly contributed to add lustre to the scene, in the estir 
mation of thirsty travdlers, was the wiitidings of the .Ma« 
kiateen river in the front of the hiils. There vasiikewise 
the appearance of distant forests. The k>ng.wtthei«d 
grass iamongtuft^ of trees rendered the descent frona thee 
hill extremely pleasant We looked at each other as if 
wa had got into a new world ; it was so different fronts 
the country we bad left on the other side of the bilL At 
nfut A. M. ^e apptoacfaed a Bushman Kraal^ consistii^ 
of a fp^ huts. The Bosbmen suppoiEiing we were ene«i 
mies approaching to ^attack them, hastily turned out« 
and drew up in battle array. The chief brandished faifl 
bow, and jumped into the air, endeavouring to intimi- 
date us. Our men, who were in front, made signs that 
we came as friends, and on a nearer approach they so far 
convinced them of it that they laid aside their bows and 
pomdned arrows ; but their women concealed themselTes 
in thdr huts« 

After conversing a little with the chief, whose nanw 
is Makoon, I stepped aside to his hut, and stooping down^ 
looked into it, but the terror depicted in the counter 
nances of bis two wives when they saw me, I shall not 
soon forget; had it been a lion or a tiger they could not 
have expressed greater alarm. With a view to conciliate^ 
1 took out my watch, opened it, and held it before %hetnt 
on observing its motion, they evidently concluded it must 
be a living animal, and my offering to hold it near their 
ears, to hear its sound, seemed to convince them it MfSA 
some dangerous creature, by which I intended to injure 
them, for they almost overturned the hut in order to 
eseap^ from the watch. On observing that their terror 
was not affected, s but real, I left them, and carried the 
watch open to Makoon, which he and his men viewed 
from a little distance with fear and surprise. On ofier* 
ing to hold it near bis ear, he shrunk back, but to display 
biS cMrage before his people^ he summoned up all his 



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236 JOURNEY BEYOND THE GREAT RIVER; [IfilS^ 

resolution, and veptured 16 listen to the beating of the 
watch. On observing that the chief was uninjured^ tho 
others ventured to allow the watch to be held near their 
ears also. For some time every eye was directed to Ibis 
wonderfal phenomenon. We then made them a pre- 
Bent of tobacco, which being an irresistible temptation 
to the ladies in thehuts^ induced them to abandon their 
concealment, and to ventui'e near us to.solicit a little al30: 
they, then allowed the watch to be held near their ean^ 
on which they all. sat down to smoke. Makoon's tw& 
wives were only about four feet in height^ and not. the 
least deformed^ and eyach had a very small infant tied to 
her back. 

Having, never seen white people before, it was, not 
surprizing to find. them alarmed at the sight. They bad 
never, beard. of Klaar Water, or of missionaries. We^x- 
platned to Makoon our reason for visiting his country*-^ 
convinced him we could inform him of many things tiiat 
would do good to him and his people, especially con- 
cerning the Being who made him, and bis people; the 
sun, moon, mountains, trees, &c. and that Jf he cpn^ 
sented, we should send, from a distant laqd, two persons 
who would teach his people these things. His leply 
was short, but comprehensive, vi^. ** I shall be very glad 
if any person .will come- to. my country, to tell me^pd 
my people what we do not know.'* He added, " I 
have many people over there," pointing to the eastwaid.- 
V We are peaceable Bushmen; so. was my father, and 
his father, they never stple any thing from their neigh* 
hours ;" and, apparently, to encourage us to send teacher, 
he ?aid, " We have plenty of gs^me and of water." Sof»e 
of their, faces were frightfully sipeare4 with red pa^pr^ 
perhaps hastily. put on to terrify us^ had we proved 
enemies. 

Here we hs^lted, near the river, about half past nine 
A.M. This, river is. called. Malalareen by the,Bootcbua* 
nas, Hhou by the Corannas^ and by others^ the Heart. It 



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JIJLY.] JOURNEY BEYOND THE GREAT RIVER. 237 

was a singular pravidence that we were led to the very 
spot where the chief of all the Bushmen on that river 
happened to be; for had we crossed the hill only half 
a mile higher up, we could not have discovered* the 
Kraal, and consequently should not havefffected the ob- 
ject of our Visit to that hitherto unknowh region. The 
thing was of the Lord, and augurs wel( in favour of these 
poor Bushmen. Makoon is evidently a clever man, but 
be appeared to us to be possessed of nothing but the skin 
cloak that covered him, and his bow and arrows. Those 
missionaries who may cheerfully spend their, days for 
the benefit of such a race of men^ so remote from the 
habitations ,of civilized life, well deserve the thanks and 
support of all the churches of Christ. 

At half past two P.M. we took leave of Makoon and his 
people, and crossed the Malalare^n at, what our Hotten- 
tots wished should be called, Missionary Ford.. We pro- 
ceeded chiefly S. and sometimes S. W. A little before 
sun^set some of our people fired at some carael-leopards» 
which they judged were about eighteen feet high* I saw 
them scampering away. They appeared huge animals, 
but at the distance I was from them, I could not judge 
accurately of their height, they are however certainly 
the tallest animals with Which we* are acquainted. At 
eight P. M. we baited on the banks of the Malalareen, 
under the shade of some trees, where we found various 
horns of wild animals strewed about, and plenty of fire« 
wood. A Bushman family from a little distance paid aa 
a visit. 

Mth. Thermometer at sun-rise, 27. Left Vander- 
kemp Plain at noon, when the thermometer stood at 7& 
The Malalareen runs here in the form of a bow; of 
course we travelled as along the string to the ,£• The 
plain was well stoc^d with game. We shot • a knoo; 
about the size of an ordinary cow; part of which we 
gave to our seven Corannas, who accompanied us as 
gujides from Malapeetzee, after which they left us. Tbeir 
najroes were . , : r : 



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. t88 JDIJRKEr BEanOHD THE GREAT KIVEIL {ISfc 

Maifnf^e^hfareti or lively SBntUne, ' ... 

iKwrf^ft . , A w^it? at9oe. 

itfaqgw^fy; To seo^ihiog/rigl^t, 

Cheebeea^ 

KeifseckOf , Fofenioat. 

Teoonhavcl^ ,^ . An iiuftuccessfulfaan^, 

Mbokka, Sharp light* 

the country db the opposite^ or east side of the Mah'4 
lareen,^ is beautifully covered ^ith trees, the prospectlii^ 
iug bounded by love and distant hills. ' At seven^ P. M. 
We fell m with the river again, abd halted for then^kt 
A wolf soon got the«cent ^ our sheep,; and drew neir, 
but finding we were too* strong for him/ he onljr toarM 
at us a while, and walkedoflF. The night being cbM and 
firewood scarce, we retired to sTeep as ^obn as possibte. 

15th. Thermotbeter at sun-rise 42^ with sttftng and 
cold wind/ Our tea and coffee b^ing expended, we 
tried, as a substitute^ Gaffre cof^n, which did very wetL 
Haying beei^ destitute of flour for bread for the tast* two 
weeks, we found Bootcbuana beans a good subAtltuter 
for butter we used the fat of our sheeps* taila^ which 
when properly prepared, tastes much like fresh btSrtfer. 
Walking along the bank, of t^e river^ I nearly fell into 
t, concealed Bushman*8 pit, which would have been the 
same ^ foiling upon the point of a speAr, a -i^harp ^take 
being fixed at the bottom. Thermometer at noon 79; ^ 
which time we departed S. W. At one, P. M. we erois^ 
ed the Malalareen, and in half an hour had to recross it: 
in doing so, one of our waggons stucic fast in the middle, 
of the strean>, in consequence of the fore wheel sinking 
into a hole; however, after great exeftion l>y ttte Hot* 
tentots and the oxen^ it wail happily draggis^ out 
About sun-set our people killed aquacha. Th^ diffigrenee* 
between- these animate on the north and south sidesl'of 
the Great River is constder^bte. Botb are Griped - over 
the whole body, but tho^eon thenoith side have' black 
ted white stripes, While those on the south are tflack 
and brown: of the cause of so great a difference I can* 



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^tir,} JSBBKVr BEVORD TOE CHEAT RITBl. asft 

mot fcazalil a ooiydctttfe. After aevetel hours traveUing there 
WHS no appeafanee of jouc fritodiy river, and we began 
.'to fear we should not soon find it ; however, at ten, P. M* 
.we reached it. • 

. ^ Tbermomeler at san^-rise 38-^at noon 60, when we 
.departed* and passed the end of Hatnpnes* Hills, on the 
west side of the river. We soon got into a place of deep 
^o^^ concealed by tall withered grass, in which the 
vfixenbeginning to sink almost to their knees, like yeasels 
in a storm trying to make the nearest port,, each waggon 
made baste to the nearest point of firm ground. During 
this bustle we shot a wild peacock, which measured ai^ 
feet from the tip of one win^ to thfit of the other. At 
two, P.M. we crossed to the east side of the river, on 
which we entered a beautiful level plain, which we. named 
Kittgstand Plain, where an affecting incident occurred. 
. A poor knoo had its hind leg broken by a shot a little 
sibove the foot, when it ran towards our waggons about 
a mile on its stump. It halted about a hundred yavds 
from our waggons to drive, away the dogs who were 
teazvng it. One of them was nearly caught by its horns, 
which are almost of the shape of hooks', and with thesfe 
be is able to da great execution. He made a noble de« 
fence, but a shot entering his forehead, he gave up the 
contest, laid himself on the ground, and almost instantly 
expired. Two springbucks also were killed in the same 
plain. 

Tw« Bushmen, with much timidity approaehed us 
while cutting up the knoo, to whom we made a pre* 
^sentof the back bone, covered with fleshy for which 
they seemed grateful ; but while cutting it they held 
theif bows and poisoned arrows in their hands, as if jeSilous 
trf their safety among sseh strange visitors as never were 
•eon in t^r .part of the world before. 

About seven, P. M. we again fell in with the Mala« 
lareeo, which my ws(ggon attempting to cross^ stuck 
fm ia ii» mild, when ono c^ the oxen falling on his 



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-240 . JOURNElf BfiYOUD THE CfR^AT RIVBR^[«M; 

side was so entangled he could, not be ratsedv £if«i 
•being tigbted upriaround, to eiaable us to ftei^-wbsl 
■obstacles opposed; discovered the opposite bank tcb^ 
80 steep that the oxen could not drag up the wsg^oit. 
^J^ bout sixteen oxen being yoked to the hinderr part- tif 
ihe iiraggon» we were drawn backwards to ti^ laodi^ 
after having been ati hour in the ri:?er« . I > waff ghui^ lor 
the. sake of our people who had stood Idng in the w^tei^ 
ih«t itiere was abundance of wood .to make good fiies l» 
warm and dry them. Had travelled S; W* . . i t r 



CHAK XXIV. 



Arrital at the Great River^Deliverahce from Lions. ■ 

■ '■ ' ' - , .'July 17th.. 
At seven, A.M. we crossed the river very Easily, a 
few htludred yards higher up. At t^n, A. M- after de»i 
soending a condidera^ble time^ we again, fell in with the 
river, where we met four -Busbm^,' who in&)ri|i$d us we 
were not far frord the mputh of the river. At'^leveil We 
observed oxen feeding at a distance^ which' we aft6rwar<fa 
found were sent from our friends at Klaar Water, to re- 
lieve our weary animals. Soon aft^r we ca,t|ie in sight of 
three waggons belonging to. thesp.friei|ds» ^whp bad come 
there to hunt sea cows. At noon we arrived at the Yel< 
l^w River y-intQ which the/Malalareiep etrnpticis ttseUL. Hie 
yellow river is considerably larger thaa the TbameB^^Aonfi 
th^ tide, and is also ipuch incr^sed- by lAe Jimc^tkoi * ol 
tb.e:other« At this confloervceasione.of the mtot charming 
^pnots on earths the river aaid its elevated baitteB'beiaf' 
colored' with :trees; This pa(t('of<the Great Rivarn^aa 
never before visited by white^men; :Tben»0iiMiter at 
upon 69* ^ Travelled to^jiyS*. W;, . . , . 

l^th. Thermometer at aun-rise SO:- at nooo' eSk A 
Btfshman with rbis two ^wjives visiM un. Tb^iy V7itiia»' 



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jm.t.'i jqORNEY BEYOND fli6 tUlBAT RIVEIL fliUL 

td ottr woAsbip, but sewied to take Vjdty little notice of 
lis After our worship* I wevA> to a retired emiaence oa 
^e liaiik&of tbe riv^r» The views to the N. E,, E., and Sv 
£• w.ere very extensive. The reflectioa that up Euror 
^an eye kail ever surveyed these plains, aud mpuptaius^ 
and rivers, and thai I. was ten thousand mi^es from hornet 
made a soleranimpreasion.on my mind, which was deep* 
«Md by the stillness which at. that time prevailed* I 
•natebed a icrap of paper from my pocket, on whioh I 
wrote tiie following lines:. . 

I'm far from whsl I call my home, • 
Is regions where no white men come $ 
IPHiere wildfl and wilder menf are found. 
Who neter heard the gofpei souad. 
Indeed tbey know not that tbere% one 
Ruling on highi and ODD alon^.*-* 
in dajff and mghtt for fire monUia paa^ 
I've trai«ird much ^ am h«re at last^ 
6r banks of stream well named Greats 
1*0 drtnk iti water is a treat.-> 
' ' Bai here to hate the living word* 
Baridiiag trearare; Spinl'f iwoid| 
.A Ayoar this thai em'l b« Ipid* 
In iporih turpassing fioeit gold. 
May Bushmen and the Bootchuanaf^ 
The Namacquaas and the Corannas, ' ' 

Ail soon possess this God-like feast, 
4^ iMraiMthe Lofd Ihim west to oast, 

' iefli«. All wem in mottcm before mn-rise, to fifepart 
{or departing. Adam Kok, who was the only one im 
^urfittmpany who knew the way hy which we w«re to 
.travd, not having foeah oxen, wen^ on before us, and 
wew^setoiollow ttbetiackof his waggon. At eleven 
A.M. we left the conflutepo^ of the Tdlow and Malar 
laieen riven, and soon came to rocks "which weite jvary 
tseliblesoflse to get over, endai^ering the wa^^ons. At 
iwo, P.M» we lost Eok's track, and got among worse 
MoksiB a luuTfow valley between moantains. iCtout 

R 



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a4a JOURNEY Bl^OND THE GREAT RIVER, [im^ 

f'Un-set I observed one of oiir men standing /^r sev^M 
tniiiutes motionless: when oyr w,aggons canie near)|& 
turned about, and walked to ua rather agitated. On'Wir 
quiry \v^ fourwi he had ednie suddenly on two Uons, ani^ 
they stood looking at each other, until the great noise oJE 
our waggons among the stoites inclined thetn to walk loiK^ 
Had he not.possessed sufficient fortiftude to cpx^in^e^loo^f 
ing- directly at them, he certamly would baw bjeen 
torn to pieces.; but ^p Jong as you c^an steadily iook aiio^ 
' in the face, bQ will not attack you. He declared.. that, 
he trembled before ever he ^aw the lions. At one time rny, 
V oxen made a dead halt, and would not go forward^ int 
consequence of fttigue; however, by much exeptipq^ 
we got them to pushiorward a little furthcjr^tbrou^, t^ 
bushes^ which soon became almost iiQ{>eoeM^hle^; f^Ar^ 
it being dark, wc could discover no way of getting out ^f ,. 
this thicket; of course we were under the necessity .q{ 
halting where wie were, at seven, P.M. We Ugbted a 
great fire, aud atso fired two musket shots as '^igiiais%tQ 
Adam Kok, but they were not answered. A great $re., 
appeared on a hill po the south; but this wa3 made. by. 
Bushmen. We knew of no water, fw the Great Blvci^ 
look a turn many miles to the south, which obliged up? to 
leave it ' 

20tb. The morning light discovered that we I)a4 ^ 
been in the middle of a forest of trees zfjd husb^.. 
v^ith mountains in every direction; and by the pQwer.ff* . 
«niell or instinct our cattle had found out water ia k cofT>t 
ner among the hills. Thermometer at sun-rise 34i^ f<W.:>' 
Bushmen and a woman came to us early, v^^o.infonntd iu^,. 
where we should Qext obtain water. At nine, «A« M# . 
we went forward, and by.. turning romid the ^td of.*i, 
bill, atreleven, A. M.vire regained the right way.,. We 
passed: many wild qatton tfee9,-.^biGhfnight.,be ciUtivate4 
to' any extent in this part of Africa^ and r^idered a valiui* . 
ble article of trade; |he, great distaa;Ce from.thr>.sea. 
would be the only obstruction. . Millions of acrea of .laod *. 



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jiiLV.] JOURNEY BEYOND THE GREAT RIVER. 2« 

wouldbeffee to any man who would be at the trouble to call 
them hi's own. ' Some of our advanced pedple saw eleven 
eamel-leopardB, but they fled towards the river before thfc 
tvaggons came up. At uooix we baited at excellent water^ 
which we named Steinkopff Fountain, where there was 
aljjo abundance of firewoba/ At two P.M. we proceeded 
on bur way through a forest; bounded by hills close on our 
right. We saw a variety of gatne,but though we had grejy: 
occasionforasupplyof fleshy we killed none. After sun- 
set we passed a Bushman^s kraal Ut aiittle distance, vt^here 
they had a good Are, but none of tbem came near. us. 
H^re we piet a messenger on horseback in search of 
A'd^m KokJ He had come from one of the outposts con- 
nected' 'With Klaar Water, and wias 'mucTt disappointed «t 
ritt'finding him With us. ♦'He was armed w*ith in gim, 
aftd pursued his journey 4n expectation of reaching hihl 
-soon; We lighted a lanthorn to enable us to find our' 
•wayalittle further. At eight tfoiocfc, coming 'to plenty 
of *fifeWooa, we halted, "land soOb lighted some large fires', 
which pleased all, for the night was piercingly cold. We 
•set ftt^lo sortie decayed' trees, which afforded both light 
•and heat. Travelled S. W. 

2lst. Departed at eight, A.M. to hasten forward to 
Water. The bushes were uncommonly troublesome, 
^pedially that called, Stop-a-while^ tearing the oxen, 
'WtTg^dhs, and our clothes. I was so completely laid hold 
^ By*6tt^ bush, that with much difficulty I got extrica- 
•led^,fbrnosdoner had I got diisengaged from one hook, 
than I found two others had got hold of some other 
*|Jafrtf]f my clothes; or wlien breaking 'thef twig by wHich 
1 1/^as detatheijl, another caught the arm that broke it. At 
•^leVi*n,'A.M.,we turned round the point of a hill, when 
biiV tvajriiy S. \V'. by W. and at noon we reached a vil. 
Ja^Jcontiected \Vith Klaaf Water: when I iasked the 
na^tHfeljf hr, I was told it was Campieih The people re- 
ceh^*u»*very kindly : brought pteirty both of thick and 
thin milk, of which we had tasted none since we left 

R2 



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844 JOURNEY BETOND THE (3RBAT HIVER. (UiHi 

X«Bttakoo. Our congregatioo ^t eveiy time df WoMn^ 
wa» numerous* The night was cold, accompanied hj*i 
piercing wind. 



CflAP.XXV. 



Visit to the ^reat Fbuntmiir^Actomt of Balky^So^ 
chumu Danet-^C0rmnn4 Kraal-^Jvnctiom ofikeJier' 

' ofider and Cradock Rivers ' »itfi^ the Yidttm, or Gredt 
River — Arrivals Griqua Tottn. 

The road was betweeir h^Us to.tlhe :iiprtii» tfeuroiitb 
a narrow valley full of trci^, wHiz.a cJianntBg cigfi^ 
{Stream meaHdei;ing along U» Uti wfi pume to the Great 
.Fountain, which is about jtwo niites.frpm the ptaee we Ie{t 
Here is a smaU* village^/qo^ntainkig abqut tfair^ :peopfe» 
surrounded wUb little lpuBtaiiip,^;bi\b^[ and trees W^ 
pletely sequestered from the worid^ .Though aft ipiesettt 
JB its natufal state, it appeared |tc^ me a sei?«Hid paradise. 
The people have only lately coinielo this spot, afid fMbe* 
^inuing to cultivate the surrounding ground* ' [ 
. Adam Bailey, a Griqua* and a i]D€;mber of the chilicb 
'at Klaar Water^ reads the scriptures* to the people, IM 
]fHes sometimes to say a little totbemfroin, what he f«iids» 
and remarked tbat be hoped after .4 while to be a|yte toiiy 
a little more* JEIe gave us the following aceoIltl^ef 
liiinselt . . :'.''< ^ :'. T "*'' 

'* The first thing that led me to think of- T^%i«idi %M 
observing two Hottentots^ who bel^niged 16 Z^'iSfft 
mission, giving thanks when eating« I weot. i^ep* 
"wardsto that settienient, where I heard miny4btiiga,6iit 
felt no interest in them. Bpt one day^ when alooei Uk ili0 
fields, I looked very seriously at a mountain, as tbeiR^rk 
of tbat God of whonpi I had heard. Then I looked* t^tay 
two bauds, and for the first time&oSced that t^rrlVhif 



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M^T.j JOBKNE? BETQND^ THE GKIAT RITES. S4S 

thf woeoutpber of fiog^aQD efdb. I ai»lced»wby am 
|li$pe-^t fiv^ qa thU band, aod three Qnthal; it must be 
Gbd tbatmade.them 90. Then I examined my feet, aoii 
wondered to find tbem both flat> not one flat and the other 
round- God must have done this, said I, In this way 
I considered my whole body»* which made a deep im^ 
presaion on my miad* and disposed m& to bear with mora 
intejrest* tiUI wa^ brought to trust that Jesus died for my^ 
«ins/* . 

^" He said be would accompany us part of our journey^ 
that he might hear a Uttle more* The people of this 
little village seem to live as one family ; for a large, poti 
full of^ qqacba flesh, was oi> tho fire in the open air, 
W:lHcbi co^t^ij^d aa much Aesh as wpuld.dine aU tb^ 
wMbitaift^. 

^ ^Itpetre abounds greatly lat this placej m aome partii 
ibe^giQundis covered as with snow^ half an inch thicks 
jret/iyhe j^ratef of the aprings is .not b.rackish, as in every 
yther j^Is^ce I have yet seep, where there is ^nugb saltpetre 
on the ground* The day was pleasaot, and though winter 
aKflon bigjb ground,, several fine flowers displayed their 
^bN^^y; , AJTe returned to our waggons to dinner. 

Five languages are spoken in the village^ viz. Dutch ^ 

d^QIfmiia, Bootcbuana,. Hottentol^ and Bushmen* The 

j|uabi(ienlive by themfelves on th§ east aide, ancji next 

. iq them the Bpotcbuanas, who are b<^re only as tempos 

.jwry servants. In the evening I visited their huts. The 

. Bi^men i^iped particulfirly pl^^^ by my calling oa 

tbem, and noticing their children. The Bootchuana^ 

:W^ dai^ing, in a savage kipd of way« around a fire ; the 

.inromfn beating time with their hands, and'singing, ex-! 

,ffft\y as 1^ Lattakoo; Their attitudes were dinguatin^ and 

ie^rific. While they were thus engaged, I was thinking 

bqw thejr present conduct will appear to themseiv^, if 

, ^rtb^jf are brought to the knowledge of God, and of 

,j|^ Scm Jesus Christ, whom^ truly to know isjife eter. 

^]F^ Tbe^ will certainly say^ ** I was as a beast before 



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m JOURNET BEYOSD THE GREAT mVSft. [WIS; 

thee» O Lord.'' I was gratilkd to bear ttmt ihe^BiMiufM 
ivere to assise this year m cultivating the ground,' ^and 
were to receive a portion- of the -prodiiee. Tastmg the 
sweets of industry tnay produce the spirit of i^' ^^ . <- :< 
'] 28d. Thermometer r at sun-rise, 4-2. An old 'ftvKh* 
man toeing informed what was ourbusittess in thi» cmm^ 
try, fattd that the Matcbappees^CoraDnaSy and hia evrD 
countrymen on the Malalaiseen^^ bad agreed ta> receive ifr 
structors» said, *' Instruction was. good, for tbey bad 
bad peace ever since it caiDe into the cbuntry. 

We departed at ten A.M. travelling S. to another oiil« 
post, connected with Klaar Water, wfaicfb at present is 
on tlie bftnkS'Ofi the Great River, or as it is calted'heret 
the Ydtow River, the same as it is named above ittgano^ 
tion with the Malalareen* Liketbe Arabs^ the pe6pte.at 
this post wtoder fh>m place to place, according as- titey 
find pasturage for their cattle/ We travelled to itcbii^y 
over gravel and sand. Arrived at two P.M. Tb^mMM 
meter at noon, 70. In the evening Mr. R. pteacbed^to 

about seventy peopte. • ? 

' 24tb. Thermometer at snn^riise, dd. - At titne A.i/t: 
after Mr. R. h^ addressed the people, the waggons set 
ofFby the most direct -road^ to fall in. with the river after 
its making a semicircle towards the south. Mr. it. and t 
went on horseback, accompanied by Adani Kcdc' uni 
tliree Griquas, to examine the reported jimctioD of. 
two other fivers with the Yellow River, a few mde» fc^ 
tberdown. We kept close by -the river. The first part 
of the ride, particularly, was uncommonly pleasant. ■ The 
<lay -was fine ; small parties of cattle^ sheep, and gooits' 
were now and then visiting tbe river to drink of its crysbil' 
water; the wide stream glided silently along, as ifafrai* 
to interrupt our discourse: the banks Were ornamented 
T^itb trees, decked in green and yellow. The JWbcte 
scene appeared charming arid enchanting, far sur*- 
passing the beavert described by Mahomet. In aff« 
hour wecariie unexpectedly on aCoranna*Kraai of sixtj^' 



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jeuxT J iOVRNRY BSyOKP THE^ eHEAT RIVEIl. 241 

9r /seventy per9on«» dwelling in a beautiful hollow, close 
hyXbe rtver* Indniired the spot tbey had selected (or a 
teaiperary residence. They were .e^miUy surprised Co 
see U8, as we were ta see (hero. Tb9 Ki*aa^l is caUed Ma^ 
booeboofie. They are not confined to aoy particular 
$pot^ butdnove up aud down the river/ as pipvision for 
tbeir cattle is pleotiful oriscarcssu These people never 
beaid of £urope or My !of <Us distfactions» but like her« 
Iftits^ live without care, aftacttogly contented with theijr 
ignorance of God, of the Savioii^r,.^nd of the rest of 
naqkind* About n dozen women weie busy in digging 
e certain kind of root which emits a plosamt smell. This 
tkey pound down and mix with their ned paint and grease, 
with whieh they smear their bodies, to give tbeni a more 
agreeable scent, like our fashionables in England. In 
England the cheeks only are smeared vith paint, in 
France they add tbe neck and bosom, but in tbid t:ountry 
tbey lay it on from bead to foot. 

In;this part of Africa there are erery. where to be 
found, inexhaustible mag^zined of materials for rearing 
great cities; especially stone, lime, and slate; there is 
also itgreat river, adapted to navigaiion by small craft, 
wbicb seems providentially to prognoMicate great, things 
to Africa: for the alUwise Creator makes nothing in vainJ 
H what heb^ made in one quarter does not suit the - 
pur]pi06e and pursuits of one generation, it may suit those 
of another^. At present all is lyxng as useless as the 
ruins of Palmyra or Persepolis. 

At eleven A«M. we arrived at the cc^nfluence of tlietwo 
rivers; both of which w^re iarge^ bu( tbe Ydlow River 
bad the pre-eminence^ We coh14 see up tbe new river 
wbicb'came from the Ss E. about two miles; the rising 
banks of wliicli», being covered with trees, had an elegant 
appearance. We inquired if it h^d^ny name, when our 
Gfiquas told us that this, river» and one a little , below, 
yvbich. was still larger, had only been lately known to 
^emi of course they had no. names for them^ except 



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24S JOUIWBY VEfOSD IBB ORlSAT RlVEtl. [ISIS. 

that they spoke of this as the mud and the other as the black 
jflven From this infortnatioo we agreed to name this the 
AlbxAnber RirtK, after the Colonial Secretary at Gape^ 
lown^and the other the Cradock RiVER^fter His Exoel^ 
lency Sir John Crddock, the Governor of the colony of the 
Cape of Good Hope* We informed them that both thene 
gentlemen were good friends to Hottecrtots. They seem^ 
ed pleased with these names being given to the rivers, an4 
frequently repeated them, to fix them on their memoriasi 
The scenery being so grand, we felt reluctant to leave it^ 
l^owever we tore ourselves away from it, and reacted 
our waggons abotit one P. M; and proceedffd With speed iti 
hopes of reaching the junction of the Yellow and Cra* 
dock rivers before dark, which we did in time to view it 
I tonsidered the scenery here superior to any thing i bad 
seen in Africa, or in any other country. Both these rivers, 
the Alexanderand Cradock, seem to come from a S. £; 
direction, and the Tellow, upon the whole, to run from 
N. E. to S. W. These four rivers may be considered as the 
sources of the Great River, viz. the Yellow, the Mala* 
lareen, the Alexander, and the Cradock, for hisving after« 
wards travelled on its banks across the continent of Africa, 
nearly to its mouth, we never found another river joining 
it Thermometer at noon, 70^. , 

2^h. Thermometer at sun-rise, 32* at noon, 68. A 
Bushman with bis wife, and his brother's wife^ ciiMe and 
spent the day with us, attending our worship. He said 
be was partial to white men, and on that aecount aome^ 
times visited Klaar Water, but he knew nothing. He 
told uatbat a boor, who Imd fled from the colony, lived 
fbr some time where We were, but hearing that the 
Biishmen were concerting measures to kill him, he bad 
femoved farther down" the riven Towards evening, we 
went forward to a fountain, that we might be abi<^ to 
jreach Klaar Water on the morrow, but we found it far^ 
therthan we expected, as we did not reach it till eight 



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idle n. 



Fa^c 342 




\:!'.T:'7r3. lR:r'v':ERs. 



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JUJLT,] JODRBfBY BETOND TBE GREAT RIVER. 24« 

P.M. We named it Fi$ber Fountain, after the Landdrost 
Cff Graff Reynetf Our last remaining piece pt candle 
•erved barely to light ua to eat our supper^ but a large 
wood fire supplied the place of caadle light. 

26th. Our people^ being anxious to reach Griqua 
town early, had all in motion before day light, so that 
wj^ arrived ther^ about eleven A. M. onr journey to Lat- 
takooand Malapeetzee having occupied us six weeks. 

Our three Hottentots, who did not accompany us to 
Lattakoo,,when they heard the others recount the won* 
ders they bad seen there, were exceedingly vexed that 
they had loitered behind, and surprised at their own con- 
duct ; but had we all been murdered like poor Cowan, 
they would have thought very differently. 

Now we had reached a temporary rest, and could truly^ 
sdy. Hitherto God hai helped, and certainly be should 
l)ave the glory. 



CHAP. XXVI. 



jl Murder-^imamtjf'^Camel^Leopard killed-^Caffre Me* 
ihod of Attach^Bmhmm on Yellow River— Griquae 
resolve to adopt Laws — Laws apfproved — Resolve to con^ 
tribute to Sodttj/s Funds-^^o have Money coined. 

JfvLY 27th. Thermom. at noon, 54. 
Mb. Janz related at breakfast an account of a wild 
Bushman, whom he knew — That he and his brother had 
^dispute, which of them should obtain a certain woman 
for wife, to whom both were equally attached. His 
brother succeeded in obtaining her, but afterwards, when 
passing the hut in which the couple lay fast asleep, he 
strung his bow and shot a poisoned arrow through bis 
brother's heart. When relating this story, he repeated it 
as if It bad been a jocular affair. 



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®0 JOERNEY BEYOESD THE GRfeAt AlVER. [1^9. 

* It 18 a remarkable fac^, ttiatinsanity h a disease almoin 
unknown among the t)atiT68 of South Africa. Maytlii^ 
he ascribed to their cbmtilete Exemption firom the caretrot* 
life., both as it respects the present and the future woH#? 
They caii sleep as soon, ^ and as sound, wbeitthey bave 
not a morsel to^eat, as'.when their bags are full of 4b6d; — 
.They calculate no titne, consequently have ifd c^ffete^ 
specting old age, never connei;|mg death wHh tbe^1«^gtH 
of time they niay have lived j and even if they did sfo eon* 
Aect it, little uneasin^ess would follow, for, \fiice tb^ 
French philosophers inthe mad. days of Robespi^re, tbejf 
consider death as an eternal sleep. These phi Iosioiph'<^r9 
bad evidently reverted tothe opinions of their fofiefediM} 
%vhen in the .savage state. I 4iope many^itb^itt^sai? 
their error before they fdt it,* wben too late. • •" " 
la tlie evening we attepded an c»caminatiod^ the pe^ 
pie, from a Dutch catechism, which is cuytxm*!^ oMif 
a week. 

31st. Having been employed «ver since our arrival, in 
writing letters to the colony and to England, about sun- 
set some musket*shots were fire^d TuVk littledistance which 
I concluded were announcing the arrival of some 6f oar 
people and the Griquas, who were left behind at the 
i:pnflua)ce of the Yellow alid Malalareen. rivers; to shodi- 
^ea cows; but a messenger soon announced that a davtiet^' 
leopard bad been shot, and tliey wished me tOr.sM^ir^be*- 
fore it died: of cQurse we hastened .to the spof, but'4ief' 
had fallen down and expired hefore we arrived. ''Tb«l- 
length of his fore legs measured nearly six feet, M 'thai!* 
a high horse could have walked under his belly: fVom 
the hoof to the top of the head he measured fifteen feet. 
'J'lie person who shot it made ine a present of the skin to 
carry to England, 

August 1. We had three public meetings for worship, 
Which were all well attended, and the people- seemed. t0 : 
listen with attention. . ..• 

2d. Opeofourpeople, who, on our. first cpmil)g| to- 



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Ai7«»,l JOORNEY B£YdMD THE GREAT llIVER. 251 

the G»eat {liver, bad collected many different kinds of 
iltoneSy was loobing over and tbcowing many of then) away, 
baving no better ktK>wledge of the article. Age ami ex- 
{lerience disooter many things to be trifles which in 
yoatbfiil days were bigbly esteemed. 
: 3d. A little after midnight a messenger arrived with 
the information, that a large party of Cafires, who had 
for gome tijne beeb residing at Zak*River, were, with a 
party of Biisbmen^ marching to attack tbe^settlement.*^ 
The bell being rung, the inhabitants were immediately 
eoUected, to consider Vbat was best to be done on^tbe 
oc€ast<Mi« Th^ agreed first to dispatch a few armed 
mete to gam intelltgence as to the truth of the report. 
. Th^Okfl^es have an artful way of nraking their attacks/ 
They roarcb^ at a moderate rate, till they come within 
abdattwadayil journey of those whom they mean to at- 
tadk, when they halt, kill a cow or ox, . and 'eat as much 
as they can ; after wliich they set off in the evening, and 
GCintiniie funning at a great pace tbe whole night, that 
they .may fcll upon the people l^ surprise in the morn* 
ing* • By this means tbey are frequently successful. We 
i^iailcd th^r botying ground, wiiieh lies in a tetired 
eofiier, among hills, about a mile S. 'W. of the settled 
taenti 'They dig their graves deep; and a; they do not 
tiae-ooffios, but wrap the body in skins, they dig a plape 
out of the sideof the grave hear tbe bottiDm, like a shelf; in 
i^cb they deposit the body, lest the stones which: are 
thiovrn hi ahoald press too hard upon it. On the surfice of 
th^ gro^d a large stone is placed at each end of the grave; 
On a bill, a few hundred yards off, is a heap of stones 
rais^ against a small cliff, which is reported to be a Bush'^ 
man% grave, imd probably is cut out of the rock* So 
sacf^, however, are the repositories of the* dead cousU ' 
dered here, that even though there are reports that pro- 
perty lies concealed under the stones, it never has been 
examined. Nothing can beconceived more solitary than 
these receptacles of the dead, being chiefly visited bjr 



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|k>na» wplvea, and otbec wUd beaifta;. but the: So&jpf 
God shall discover, .them at the tennioatiotf of time; thejF 
shall bear the sound of the resurrectioa and judgmauk 
trumpet, and hasten frpnti retirement tp mingle witKiib 
numerable multitudes who fiball assfimble. on that ^wfifl 
occasion. Th^y aje h<appy who can think of it wit|i 
pleasiire. 

Qoozakf.one pf onr^e^loiis chri&tia.n Hottentots, Droi^ 
BQtbelsdorp,. remained with some of the Griquas behind 
at the mouth of the Malalareen> to shoot the hippopot^ 
mus. They went about a day and a.^alfs. joui^nfty high|y 
up the Tellow River* where they foiind a. largQ kjCPAl^f 
iBushmen, .with about two hundred of whom« h^.-|ud 
John Hendric had various meetings for instrjucti^Q|,.)qr^cii 
pleased them ao mi,»ch; that they requested tbe.9ie^|ifi|gs 
to he mor^ frequent* They mentipfied our pMrpoee^in 
coming to this part of Africa, when tl^y ei^piysfftiia 
.desire to have a teacher ^ent to then\ also. The misaioi 
to the Malalareen Bushmen will probably i^cli^de tbMIt • 

5th. Our Caffre news turned out tQ be a hoax by^^the 
Bushmen. -i , 

6tb.. The people in this ps^'t, being a mixed .rac6» wfpft 
by the name, of Bastards ; but liaving represenM tj9 Ae 
principal persons the offensiveness <3tf the, word to-jin 
English or Dutch ear, they resolved to assume someotbtf 
name. On consulting amo^g theinselves^ th^ found the 
majprity ijirere descended from a person of the nanMijrf 
Griqua, and they re§olyed hereafter to be called.Git%was* 
In theevening there was thunder, butnoiain^. 

7tb. There fell during the night a considerable qoaAMly 

of rain. We had a meeting with fill the male inbabit^^^ 

of the settlement who were in the town, to copsjder va« 

lious points, especially about regulations for.tiie pi'Qteo- 

. t^pn of tbe lives and property of the community. 

I. endeavoured to explain to them the nec^ity ^iiji;de* 
sjgn of laws for tbe government of every societj/^thal . if 
there were no law against murder^ and po pupift^a^^ 



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at6«] jbURISEY BEVOHD TltS GB3SAT VfVmL «• 

4Uinexed to the commission of it ^ th^n every roan^s life 

Vas iii dagger of being ti^ken from him, even on the most 

frivolous occasion — ^if no law against theft, then the pny- 

p^rty of the industrious was at die mercy of the idle; and 

in case they should become a much itiore numerous peou 

pie, which was not improbable, should they remraih with- 

<Rit laws, all would be anarchy and confusion^^that by 

appointing Tulers or judges' to execute the laws they migtt 

Wdopt,. th^ were not giving away their power, but only 

lending it to the judges, for their reciprocal' dtf vantage-*- 

and that in the history of the world there was no account 

pf isny people existing and prospering wfth<Hit lUv9%. I 

'iibtniDended them highly for having relinquished a wan* 

'iderittg' ftfe^ mud beJcomie n stationary people, and said I 

^wifti happy that they were, frotn experrence, convrticM 

Ipf hs4]tiHty ; and assured them that i& profloftibn to the 

kngthdf time they i^tMathedbdie^ they and their ehiMr«ii 

'would become attached to the spot, and be> desiroi!is to 

pitiataote Us prcttperity^ ; that th«y wcmid feel iit become a 

''home, oTwhich, while wanderers, they wete destitute* 

' After Mr. Read had sAiated various pariieulars^^ respecting 

'tBtirprocettliiigs at Betbeyi^rp.* felRdweMt by vetimrks 

^tnm Missra.' Anderson, Janz,atid the two iiative Captains 

^w Chiefs, every person present consented tfctt laws sh^tfld 

^^ttiatfe; aitdj'iidgee or magistreftes chosen to put them 

fill iestedutiqut «iid tljit a meetif% sttotitd be held in the 

'%ftethoon to consider what laws shbdld immedtdtety be 

*^ittisie Jvi^{b^eta<l^e chief crimes geiiHtalty committed, 

mid tbi^ the ftamhig otlterr taws respecting inferior crimes 

"•'- should be deferred till circumstances^ wh^h might arise, 

' tteuld point out tfaftir necessity. ; 

' It v^ agf^d that their two Captains, or Chiefs, shooUl 
" wiliimie to acit as ^(^mmahdetn in things requiring the 
public safety against foreign attacks. The whole people 
;^'1ikew»e resolved that hen4;eforth they should be called 
^'^^uas^ insteiad of Bastard Roltentots, and the plice 
"^ «i^M&riqtia.toWki, iiisteadofKlaa^ 



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8M JOURWEY BEYOND THE GREAT KlVmC. [IMS. 

During the interval bet^^r^sen the gteetin^gs^ I drew ap 
some generdf law8, and the following "were agreed to \rf 
all present. 

. h That wilful murder be in every case f>uiiiihed by the* 
df ath ol^the murderer. The execution to be tilway^pubi- 
lic, cither by hanging or ^looting. • 

IL That housebreaking be punished by public whip* 
ping^^for the second oflfence^ whipping and bard tabburv 
Uurifig a term which the judgesmay consider proptfr, or 
which inay be afterwards Agreed .to. ' 
, IIL Stealing a bull, ox» cow, horse, sheep, of goat^ 
to be ptraiabed by restoring dduble, or more; as*sbafibe 
decided by the court — ^for a ^cond similar offence, wiffji^ 
ping and restoring double^^-for a third similar offenttr, a' 
tevm of labour to be added to the fornner punisbmeht.* * 

IV. For atealifig from a garden,, either whipping, vor a 
term of labour for the person in whose .gardes !the rob^ 
bery was oonmitted. * 

V. Foi'robbidgfroai a field in autunin^ donUe resto^ 
ration. * . ' 

VI. For allowing cattli^ to feed near growing corn, if 
they go into that field, and eat or destroy the grain,. the 
proprietor of the cattle to pay double the loss tiiat may 
have been sustained. •» 

VII. If a Bushman, Cordnna, or any stranger be murr* 
dered, the murderer shall receive the same pumsbment 
as for murdering a Griqua. 

VIII. Going upon a qommando for plunder, to be'pOi^ 
nished by a te^m of labour, atul the property taken to be 
restored to its owners. 

IX. If a Bushman, Cornona, or other stranger, cotatimit 
murder, theft, or any other crime within the limits of 
the Griquacountry» the punishment to be the same as if be '^ 
had been a Griq^a. ' 

X. That no person shall take it upon him to ptinisb 
another, whatever injury he tnay have received from him, 
but must bring bis charge against that person^ and provf. 



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AW.], JOURNEY BEYOND THE GREAT RIVER. 255 

it by witnesses before the cbQit^ which Bball determine 
what is lit to be done. 

XL I'hat no person* who is to be n judge in miy couse^ 
is to reoeive'a present, directly oriodifeaHy, from any of 
tl)e parties whose cause is to be tried before him; . . t 

XII. In order to evade rule eleventh^ should at |ic*rson 
promise, to give at a future time a present to any of the 
judges who are to try hiscause, thai p^rsoa shatl be fined; 
and if unable to pay the fine, shall be a(\)udged to give a 
term of labour in proportion to^the value of the |ihe. 
. XXIL That all peisoos flying from joBtice in the colony, 
iQ consequence of some crime they have committed^ and 
coming among theni, shall be delivered up to such per* 
sons as may be sent in, pursuit of, them. 

XIV. That every person Who shall endeavour to pre- 
vent the execution of the law«, -shall be punished as the 
court shall judge proper^ . ^ , • 

They likewise resolved, that nine magistrates should 
be chosen to act as judges at Griqua town, and one at 
each of the two principal out*posts, who is to judge in 
smaller cases, but others are to be reoutted to the judges 
at Griqua town 

That the two captains, Bern- and Kok, with Messrs. 
Anderson and Janz, be a court of appeal. 

Th^t thelimits of their country 'be marked out in the 
course of one montli, and the nutgistrates chosen. 

The .people having expressed a ^^sire that the ]^is« 
sionari^ Society should send missionaries to the principal 
out;ppsts, we stated to. them the great expend^ to the 
Society, which even one missionary would occasion, by 
the timd he reached their country, for his education, out- 
fit, passage, and journey to Griqua land ; wherefore, that 
as. Providence haji increased their worldly substance, they* 
should endeavour to aid the Society in setidiag teachers 
'to them. One man might engage to give an ox annually 
to the funds, others a sheep, or goat, or elephant's toothy 
&c. To this proposal they unanimously consented. 



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<S6 joDRNcr SEVoim TRit catEAT fuiTBit {mi: 

It was likewise resolved^ that as they bad no circulate 
ing medium amongst them, by which they could purcbasa 
miy small articles^ such as knives, scissars, clothing, &c. 
sapposiiig a shop to be established amongst tnem, which 
they were anxious that there should be-^hey should ap# 
ply to the Missicmary Society to get silver pieces of dif- 
ferent value coined forthem in Enghind, which the mis* 
aionaries would take for their allowance from the Society, 
having the name of Griqua town marked ou them. It is 
probable that, if tbw were adopted, in a short time they 
would circulate iamong all the nations round about, and 
be a gr^t convenience - 



CHAP. XXVII. 



Number of People in Griqua Land^-^hurck— School-^ 
Waggom-^Trades. 

Thb fdiowiog is the number of Griquas who reside 
9t Gdfigua town, and tb^ oat*posts connected with iu 

Men i 291 

UTimien*... ^.....SOe 

Bi^s ...310 

Gtris ........366 



1266 

The number of Corannas who consider themselves c(XH 
nect^d with theGriquas, for the sake of protection^ many* 
of whom attend occasionally for instruction^ and soma 
statedly, are, as nearly as can be ascertained 1341^ making 
the total of Gjiquas and Corannas S607. 

The chur<:h, or christian society, consists of tv^ty* 
six men, and sixteen women. There have been addc4^ 
during the last twelve months, two men and two women* 

Several of the members endeavour to teach others tlie 
tbin^ of God^ eapecially on their journies. Likewise «t - 
different out*posts there are members 6f the cburcii ' ' 



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AVQ.y JOURNEY BEYOND THE GREAt RIVER- 267 

meet with the people, frequently on week days; and aU 
ways on the Lord's day, to converse with them, to read 
the scriptures, and to unite in prayer and praise. 
^Tbe number who attend the school at Griqua town ia 
variouB according to circumstances, but those who attend 
at different times are stated at two. hundred and ten. At 
Haidcastle, an out-post, forty are taught by a daugbteJT ' 
qf Fortuyn, a member of the church. At other outrposts 
the care of youth is committed to different members of 
the church, who canread. It ia supposed that upwards 
of a hundred persons can read, and a few can write* 
. Many of the people have gardens, but tobacco holds a 
distinguished place in them all. Many acres of l^nd, in 
different parts of the country, especially around Griqua 
town, are cultivated* Thj^y.have a considerable number 
of cattle, sheep, and goats; and these, with other out* 
ward comforts, the people acknowledge, have consider- 
ably increased, since they became a stationary people.—- 
F^r the first five years.after tb$ missionaries came among 
then^, like. wild Arabs,, they wandered about from place 
to place, notwithstanding frequent expostulations by the 
missionaries. All was in vain till they gained over to 
their sentiments the two captains, and a few of the prin- 
cipal men. The iiiissionaries deserve great credit for their 
patience in submitting so long to that wandering life. 

Twenty-four waggons belong to the people, but most 
of tbem are nearly worn out by use, as from their igno- 
rStMe and simplicity, they are often taken in, by the 
bdoris in the colony, from whom they purchase their old 
v^ggons. The boors iiave only to cover them with pitch 
or tar, and though rotten^to the heart, the simple Griquas 
wHl purchase them as good and «ew, and however fre- 
qiiently they may have been taken in forraetly, it makca 
tbem no niore cautious in purchasing the next ; a few 
ftee words from the boor makes all right If any of i hem 
ijtirarelling thro«gb the ciQloi^^,:exp[r«sa a desire tp be 
aMr^o purchase a wi^goo, there a» bardly a boor who 

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SSa jaCKKBX AdKOSf THE [1M9. 

will not give tbem one on cMdtt, if be has it to dispow 
of; tb^y are so faithful in paying their debts* Iq thi9 
fnanner many a velecaa wagg<m baafottiul it* way toGri*' 
i|ua land, tbere to deposit itg dust 

Tmles cap scarcely be said to' exist in Gri^ahuid;-«-* 
Tbereaie some who may be termed bsmbus^makefs, Of 
liiakers of vessels of wood for holditieg milk or Waten^^-i- 
Some ean do a little at smith Vwork, in repairing wag^ 
gonsy and one man (Fortuyn at Hardcastie) can construct 
Ik waggOiK From the appearance of the new meeting* 
house they are bttitdiiig, which stands unfinished, there 
must be tolerably good masons among tbem. The women 
iftiake mala of rushes. 

Upon the whole, I believe this mission bas been a gvent 
blessing to this part of Africa. Here I reoeired asoeli 
attention from the missionaries and their femiJies, and 
from many of the people, afid felt pain at the thougfat of 
soon parting from them, to see them nomore, 

Sthv During the night a wolf was so bold imd vofScioue 
that be entered the town, and devoured three sheep. As 
we were ready to depart on the morrow, Mr. Read preadi* 
feci a fiir^well discourse in tbe morning f^om Rev* vi. 8,. 
and in tbe evening I preacbed iiT>m 'i Cor. xtii. 11. fttoot 
three hundred people were present each time. 



CHAP. XXVUL 



JOURNEY ACROSS THE (^ON]SINENT OF AFRICA^. 

Dorjh^Vrossing the Great Hiver. 

T^MiitaissioBarystationtolKviaitad was in Na- 
ina<iaa4and» whkblies •o tAie wwtem coss«of Africa 



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jtM.3 coNtamt oi? AtaicA. 9» 

jum- the vtioiab ^f tbe Great Ri ver« while Ghrtqtm iand lies 
■ tofwards the eastern shores. Only two ways presented 
themselves, either to return Aliooet to Cape town, and 
travel to Namaqualand along the western coast, which 
wotitd be a joaroey of at least three or four months, aop- 
posingthat our cnttie should Be able to hold omt, whidi 
nras exioemely doitbtful ; the other was to go directly 
aieross Afnca> foliowiog the course ^ the Great River, 
mkkh bad befone been attempted by Iwo Europeans, btzt 
they failed, in consequence of ridges of rotks runnis^ mp 
itom itbe6rfi»t River for upwards of twenty miles inland, 
oner which no waggon^could traiael, and the. country ap- 
peared so barren and dry, that they seturaed to Griqua 
4mi(m» The probability of our crossing over to Namaqua 
imfd m four or five weeks, and thereby saving two or 
three months, and likewise of diacovicring what was in 
tbe niery heart of Africa, were such irresistible induce^ 
meats as ^ietermined us to ha^Murd the attempt. 

£arly in the mormng, our {people began^ to pack the 
/waggons, and every thing was ready for our departuiie by 
tea o'cioek s bui our oxen had broken out of the enclosure 
in whidi they wegre kept dufiing tlie night, and no one 
J&amv in what direction they had slandered People were 
sent in different directions to search for tbem^but we were 
kept in aaapence respecting their return the whole day, 
uvtil six in Ihe evening. But as it was moon«light, me 
fCSoWed to aet off <Urectly, which we did on taking leave 
of our friends. Mr. Janz aoeompanied tM in his waggoa 
with sosae of his friends, together- with three waggons 
tielongingto the£rriquas, intending to see us safely across 
the^Great Riner. When abont half a mUe distant, they 
firadalarewellaaliite iirom different parts of the fettle* 
ment, as is thaxuatom tn the colony. At two o'clock in 
the morning, afikr toavelling between hHis from Griqua 
town, me arrived at wku we named Ewing Fountain.*^ 
The night being cold, and the ground covered w«A hoar 

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26» JOURNEY ACROSS THE [ISl*. 

frost, and fire-wood being sciirce, after our w^orship wfc 
hastened to rest. Travelled S. W.- 

10th. The rising sun discoveredtbaft we were in a beaif- 
tiful small plain, surrounded with hills. At nine, A.M. 
we left Ewing Plain, and, after a pleasant journey of two 
hours, arrived at a Coranna kraal in Milk Valley, where 
Mr* R. preached, through a Coranna interpreter, to the 
people. Afterwards the laws naade for Griqualand were 
tead to them, most of whom consented to them, and therr 
nanies were taken down. 

I should have noticed, that two of our Hottentots frona 
Bethelsdorp, when on the eve of leading Griqiiatowi>, 
iniBide known their attachment to two females whom they 
wished to marry and take with them ; but it being impos- 
sible to get the consent of friends so suddenly, they could 
not obtain their brides, though both the females were 
very willing to go with the men. Mr. Anderson waa 
guardian to one of them, but her brother was absent, 
however he said thatanother man was paying his addres- 
ses to her, and that 'he was sure that her only reason for 
preferring this one, was the idea of a long ride to Bethels- 
dorp; and when you are gone, said he, it will all be for- 
gotten by the two girls ; for, added he, these people are 
all children. 

. At four, P* M. we left Milk Valley. Passed Read 
Fountain, where Mr; Kicherer and others had a missiona^ 
ry settlement some years ago, but they remained there 
only a short time. The situation is on a plain, surround- 
ed by hills, ^^t that time the'fountain was a good one, 
but now it is almost dried up, perhaps by reaching a body 
of sand underground.. At nine, P.M. we reached Hard*- 
castle; one of the outposts belonging to Griqua town* 
where we were kindly received by Bern (one of the Cap- 
tains) and the people who were soon collected into a large 
room built for a preaching place, where Mr. R. preached 
to them- Travelled S.W. 



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m;: :zyz''^:..rv 



X K :•• n>T _^ ■ 



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Atio;] CONTINENT OF AFRICA- 261 

. 11th. Day-light discpvered the hfeauty of the scenery 
that surrounded Hardcastle. It lies in a valley i^ot above 
three oiiles in circmnferfence, ^urrouoded by. the Asbestos 
Aloun tarns ^of diversified shapes. There are four long 
passes between the mountains, leading from it in d^fTeirent 
directions, which not only iocrease tbeconveni^ce of the 
situation, bat add greatly to thegrandeur of the prospect 
around. Some, of us walked after breakfast to es^amine 
the asbestos rocks, where we found plenty of that rare 
cirneral, between strata of rocks. That Which becomes, 
jby a little beating, soft as colftoo, is all of Prussian blue. 
/When ascending a moi^rntain alone, I found sotne of the 
<:plo.ur of gold, but not soft, or of a cotton texture like 
the blue; some I found white, and brown, and green, 
&c. Had this land been known to the ancients in the 
days of imperial Rome, many. a mercantile pilgrimage 
would have been made to the Asbestos Mouutains in 
Gjiqualaqd. Were the ladies' gowns in England woven 
of this substance, many lives, would annually be saved, 
that are lost by their dress catching fire; for cloth made 
frooa it endures the fire, and the ancients burned their 
dead in such cloth to retain their ashes. A considerable 
portion of it is used in making their roads. It is very rcr 
markable that it is called by the Griquas, Handkercldef 
stone. 

The Bushmen over the whole country lay claim to all 
the honeyrin the mountains as their property. They mark 
the hives in the rocks, as farmers mark their sheep; and 
should they find, on their regular visits, that any hive 
has been robbed, they are sure to carry off the first cow 
.or sheep they meet. They. say that Corannas, Matchap- 
.peei^, and Morolpngs, have cows and sheep that live upo» 
the grass of . the land; that they have- none, wherefore 
.they have a right to the bees who live only on the flowery 
.Their right is not invaded, because all find it their interest 
to let the Bushmen obtain the honey, and then to pur- 
;chase it of thern. i 



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4i2 JOURNEY ACROSS TBS (W9i 

At ion«86t, thirteen Conmoad riding on oxen» arrMed, 
who made an odd appearstnce. They belong to a Height 
bouring kraah After the laws lately made at QtHi{alt 
town bad been read and explained to the fSeopirat Havdt* 
cattle, they were also read to the Corannas, who atlcii^«- 
aenteri to conform to tbem. Moat of tbetn isxpvaaaed 
aatiafaction that now they were to have rales, being- eoaa^ 
tinced, from experience, of the ineonvenieiiee o£ iitmg 
Wltb6at law. 

A meeting-hoase of stone stands unfioialied bem^ lAt 
same as at^ Griqua town : the beat bouse at 6fiqti»|owii 
is >al80 in the same state, and so is the best bodar-tew^^ 
They are tery defective to perseverance ; but they ham 
engaged soon to finish all theaa works. 

Mr. Janz preached at seven, A^ M. Mr. Read at tW0, 
P. M. and I at seven, P. M. when upwards of a kandnai 
fiefsons were present. 

12th. During the day many Griquas arrived, oa oxeir, 
iVom diflferent parts of the country aroand. We mteoded 
leaving Hardcastle early in tbeaftemood^ but PfovkkMe 
overruled our purpose by twa eircumstaneea, the sttraying 
of five of our oxen, and a supply of aheep for out j.oui«ey 
across the continent not aniviag, which afforded aiiotbor 
opportunity of preaching, first to the Corannaa who kad 
come from a distance, then to the Griquas; after Whkh 
the laws made for Griqualand were read tben^, to which 
they all assented, and promised to obey thetn. An old 
Coranna, when his opinion was asked concerning tbe 
laws, said that he approved of them as good and necessa- 
ry; not for himself, for he never did any thing wrotig; 
hut he approved Of them as good for others, pointing pjkN 
ticularly to his countrymen around him. Had he been a 
Jew, we should have put him down for a Pharisee. When 
their names were given in to be recorded, aa hatitig cofl- 
aented to the laws, they appeared highly diverted at bear- 
ing each others names. They latighed mosft when An 6ld 
man said bis name was Wolf. Indeed the old man seeti^^ 



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4mfH] coNTmsirr of africiL: mi 

to be ashamed of his own aame, for aU are eoenies to 
woIifcb; but we told him that oiie^f the gmateat com^ 
wanders in our coinitry had the ^auoe of Woife, wbkb 
put an end to the iaugfater. 

- Moat of the stones of which the mouatains here are 
<XNBpoaed are yellow, and soand like beU*i»etai on falling 
against each other: they are conventently ferased for 
IraildKng, beiog generaUy iat. Tb^ kitend inamediateiy^ 
to begin erecting a meeting-house for the worship of Ood« 
On finishing this^ Bern» their Captain, and some o^rs^ 
ihsa^fn to biiild betler bouses &r themselves, to which wt 
iMte fte%uentiy urged them, aa oalcnlated to wean them 
mope effBctually from a wandering life, to which tbey 
still feel a propensity; €nd, as an ox can carry on its 
back any of the houses in which most of them now Itrei 
Ihey areenpoaraged, by this facility of remoidng, often 
to tdce long and needless joumies with their cattle. They 
likewise consented to build immediately a-lacge passi^e^ 
hMU for at>ssing tbe Great River with passengers, from 
whkh they are only about eighteen miles distant: w^ 
Watted in vain Ave days to get across. We reeommended . 
4beir building a shed for the boat at a^ mfe distance from 
th« itver^ which -no rising of it could reach. They have 
several acres of land cultivated, in a beautiful vale a little 
to the south of the village. 

Numb^ of persons at ilardcastle and district connected 
Withit:--* 

Men.... 110 

Women.. *ie& 

Boys*. tie 

Oiils. *...100 

CoFaa&aa..«.«.« 400 



.885 
ISfti. Left Hardcastle at eleven, A. M. at. which timp 
;Our. caravan consisted of eight waggons, besides honses, 
oxeo^ and sheep; but most of these were to leave us ip 



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264 JOURNEY ACROSS THE ^ [lS13; 

«don as we should get across the Great River. The day 
was pleasant, but the wind rather strong for so sandy a 
part of the country, for it blew the sand in clouds upon 
us,- and rendered it uncomfortable to travel, -At Reed 
Fountain one of our waggons left us, to go eastward to 
Griqua town, and we continued ' trayellihg directly north, 
among the mountains. At six, P. M. .we halted at Paard- 
l>erg, (or Horse Mountain,) so called, because in the 
sickly season for horses, they are frequently sent hither 
to escape the disease, and generally with success, owing 
to its height. There is a Coranna kraal and a fountain of 
water in a circular valley at the bottom. We visited the 
kraal, and were Kindly received ; but some of the children 
were. excessively afraid. Most of the Corannas attended 
pur worship at the waggons. 

14th. Forty-six Coraiinas attended worship in the 
morning, when many things were told them, through an 
interpreter, abdut God and the Saviour. The laws fbr 
Griqualand were also read. to them, with Which they ex- 
pre^ed themselves much satisfied. Left Horse Mountain 
Viilley at noon, (thermometer 66,) and after a pleasant 
journey among hills till six, we arrived at a Griqna village, 
where Nicholas Bern, brother to the Captain, resides.^ 
TrayelledN. 

Rem^rkablfe is the attachment which the natives of 
warm climates have to the manners and customs of their 
forefathers. The Chinese, Hindoos, Turks, and many 
other nations, dress, build their houses, &c. in the very 
fiameway as their, progenitors .did two thousand years 
ago. In South Africa it is the same. If you see only one 
Matchappee, Coranna,- or Pushnnan's hbuse, you see an 
exact model of every house belonging' to that particular 
nation. As birds of the same kind build their nests ex- 
actly alike, so do the diiferent African tribes, hardly ever 
diflFeringin size. 

loth. Mr. R. preached in the morning in'Dutch to the 
Gnquas, and at the same time Mr. Janz preached, through 



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4v«.a%lf CONTINENT QF AFRICA; 266^ 

^n lAterpreter, to thirty-two Corannas, who came from 
the neighboiirhood. Jo the afteraoon they reversed it-r- 
While we were celebratiog the Lord^s supper, the Go-* 
rannassat witnessing it witb seriousness. •• i 
. ]JfjBar our waggons I observed a camel-thorn tree slrip- 
ped.of its leaved by the winter which was just over, ^bnti 
there wer6 three branches of a different kind of tree, or 
bush, which bad been ingrafted into it by a bird, whicb 
is. a qomagkon occurrence in this country ; these three bran^ 
pbes were full of leaves. * 

16th, We named: this out-^post.RowIand Hill Dorp. — 
Thermometer at noon 76. At one, we departed; and 
till three, .travelled due N. when turning round th6 point* 
pf f( hill we travell^ westward over ^ desert of sand until 
eight, P.M. when we reached Vansittart Mountains, atid 
{travelled S. W. in which direction we continued till half 
an hour after midnight, when we halted in a cprqer 
formed by the hills, where there wks no water. We 
named it World*s-end-corner, from the remarkable sol ita* 
riness of the place. ♦....- 

We halted several times during this long and fatiguing 
journey over sand, especially after the going down of the 
sun, for among seven waggons there must often be some* 
thing going wrong, either an ox becoming restive, or some 
part of the harness breaking; and when one waggofa stops 
•in such a country as this, the rest must wait for it, as it 
Is dangerous to travel alone. '• • . . ^ 

17 th. When day-light appeared, to our great mortifica- 
tion, we found that a fountain from whence we expected 
-water, was dried up : the disappointment was the greater 
from knowing that we were two good days' jouriiey from 
the Great River, which was the nearest place from whence 
we expected even a cup of water; but it was necessary, 
by a great exertion, to travel two days' journey in one.— 
Some Bushmen, with their chief, whose name was Owi^ 
visited us, and gladly received a present of a little tobacco. 
The view from World's-end-corner was very extensive 
over the desert, in which the eye was relieved by little 



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«6 JOURNBl .^CIUMS TUB [tSlt^ 

failU of variouB sbafics rising tip out of the siiid. 
Tbermometer at Doon 80, at vfhkh time we begm cnasa^ 
kig Vansittart Mountains, which abound Griqualaod to 
the westward* 

We plucked some red berriea from a brtticli angvafted 
by a bird on a different kind of tree. They are filledi 
with a glutinous substance, which is used as bifd lime^ 
for catchisig birds. On clearijuig Va&sittart Moaataiii8» 
we entered a desert of sand, which, oommeiicing.at the 
Great River to the south, runs up Africa to the «ortb« 
BO one knows how far. However, I think it irery pro* 
bable that this deiert is the same in which Matters and 
other M,atchappeBs tratelied about five moons, nearly Ib 
one direction, living entirely on wiU water aieloq6y\of 
which we saw many strewed about, whicb^ though of a 
trery nauseous taste, may, on an emergency, serve botb 
for food and drink. Many a melancholy groan proceed* 
ed from the poor thirsty oxen, while dragging our wag* 
gons through deep sand across the desert. What a 
mercy the wind did not rise and buiy us in waves of 
aand! Many a longing look was directed towards that 
quarter where we expected to find the Great River; but 
when the sun forsook us and went to iUuntine other lands, 
there was no indication of our approach to water; no^ 
tbiDg but parched sand, scantily interspersed with smaU 
tufts >of withered grass. No beasts nor birds, and but 
few insects, were visible; the land was forsaken; andpo 
doubt it is the desire of every traveller to get out of it 
as soon as possible. In a word, there was nothing in it 
either to please the eye^ to gratify tb€| taste, or to quench 
the thirst. Exactly at midnight, the cry of River! 
River! relieved us all, and made us at once foigetour 
toils. Our oxen having tjtsted no water during two long 
and toileome days' journey seemed as if unable to con- 
tain as much water as they felt they required. The 
mountaiuf), which bounded Duncan Desert to the west« 
ward, we named Teignmouth Mountains* 
I8tb. When every thing seemed almost ready for 



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A««.) OaBmNENT OF AFRICA. tm 

GioMog the Great River^ bdioMj cHir spare oxen Mrere 
missing. The day before they were sent fonrard under 
the care of three of our men, but towards evening tome 
elks appearing, the men left the oxen and pursued tihem, 
and theoxen> they said, having smelted the river,- pro- 
ceeded with such baste towards it, that they lost si^^ht of 
tbeto, and could not afterwards trace them out. These 
men went in search of them early in the mornings and 
were ^spected every hcftir. In the afkernoon, ibout 
IWealy people from Oriqualsmd joined us, who iMdnded 
to visit some of their relatives farther down the iHvef, 
and to travel with iis for the sake 6f protection/ They 
observed no traces in crossing the desert either of our 
men or oxeo. Of course we bega« to fear our oxen had 
Mien into the hands of wild Bushmen, for they are 
generally blamed for all the mischief that H done. 
About nine P.M. I found there were no tidings of our 
oxen, for our men had returned without finding them, 
but some people from Grtqualand, who had just arrived 
on ox^^back, bad observed the footmarks of ours, and 
some were appointed to go in search of them early in the 
morning. 

On the banks of the river, near our wi^g(ms, were 
twY> reed bouses pretty well made, apd several spots of 
ground planted with tobacco, one of the old stalks of 
whicb measui*ed eight feet, the property of some bastard 
Bushmen wbo reside here while it grows, to guard it till 
h comes to perfection. 

The river divides, immediately opposite the spot in 
which we baited, into three streams, occasioned by two 
isdands, but after passing tbe islands they reunite. It is 
considered a good place for crossing. 

19tb. Several of our people went off early this morning 
tn search of the cattle lost two days ago, and of others 
which bad strayed siuce that time. The scarcity of grass 
at this season, being immediately after winter, disposes 



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^es JOURNEY ACROSS THE {IBiaT 

the cattle to move farther and farther off in the hope of 
findikig more. - 

Alter breakfast I took a. solitary .walk for about a mile 
higher up, in the bed of the ri?er, on purpose to make 
^sketches of sonoe parts which, yiewed from a distance, 
'appeared interesting. I ascended to the top of a high 
jock, nearly ip the hiiddle of the bed of the river, which 
liere;is more than a. quarter of a mile broad, lined with 
high; banks covered with tr^s^ so that .none of the coua- 
•try can b^ Been beyond them^ except looking either up. or 
4owi) the river which Tenders the scene retired and/ ro- 
niaiitic. On takings out my paper and pencil, I was 
atruck, as I imaging, with the lioise of men driving 
cattle^ which I hoped might prove to be our lost oxen 
returning. This supposed sound led me to descend from 
my rock, and hasten to the isouth bank to know the 
truth, I reached a little eprtinence among the trees, from 
whence I could neither'see our oxen. nor man,tind though 
there was not a breath of wind to cause noise, I could 
hear nothing stirring. On turning my ear, northward I 
lijtened with , deep attention, but could distinguish no 
s6und, though sometimes I fancied I heard a distant loar 
of a lion, and' at pther times the: barking, of a dog. I 
turned my ear eastward, and westward, ai\d southward, 
listened and listened again, but nothing was audible ex^ 
cept the distant cry of the i:aven, or the. 3till chirp o^ 
some solitary bird — uo rattling of carriages, pcanciog of 
horses, or cracking of whips, as in Cheapside or the 
Strand; no, a dead terrifying silence brooded; .over, the 
land. I hesitated for some time whether to resiume my 
seat on tl^e rock, or return to the waggons in qu^t of in- 
telligence; my inclination preponderating to the latter, J 
walked thither, but found nothing was known respyecting 
our oxen. However, soon after, we determined to .qross 
the Great River, and on the other, side to wait for our 
missing cattle, for the river might piossibly risjB while 



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Aub.] CONTINENT OF AFRICA. 26^ 

waiting on the north sideband put a stop to our proceed- 
ing for many days. It was surprising we did .not thihk 
of this sooner, as . we had made so narrow an escape al 
our former crossing it. / ; 

The bank of the river being between forty and jjfty 
fieet bigh^ and almost pecpendicular, Our people employed 
themselves very laboriously in cutting it down in su^rh a 
manner as that the waggons might get to the channA of 
the river. By two o'clock all was in readiness for cioss* 
ing. Our three waggons were got down the steep bank 
without any accident. The first branch of the river was 
completely, dry; of co\irse we all travelled with easie to 
the west point of the first island, which was about a q«ar- 
ter of a mile distant, at which place the real cros«ng 
commenced. Captain Bern, John Hendric, and one or 
two others, first entered the stream on horseback to exa- 
mine its depth. The current was strong, and it vwis 
about three hundred yards wide. An ox, carrying 6n 
his back the materials of a house, above which sat a little 
naked boy, was the first of our train that entered, fo^ 
lowed by the loose oxen, the sheep, and the goats; most 
of the last two were to be dragged by the men till they 
got beyond the strongest part of the stream; durii^g 
which they ilade no small noise, resembling the scream- 
ing of children. Our three waggons followed — then eight 
or ten Griqua women riding on oxen, most of whom 
had children tied to their back— next came several men 
ihbunted on oxen, some of whom had females in tow, 
holding them by the hand, to assist them against th« 
current. I observed a little boy holding fast by the 
tail of an ox, the whole way across, violently screaming 
while the current Was strong. The procession was closed 
by a mixed multitude of men, boys, girls, dogs, loitering 
oxen, sheep, and goats. A great many, of the oxen, 
sheep, and goats were the property of the Griquas who 
went with us on a visit to their friends down the Great 
River. 



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719 JOUKMEY ACftOSB THE ' (]««. 

I We were all now cm ra itUmd, eonpktely siimmBdMi 
bjr water. We walked to ite westehi poiki, froMi wHeiiee 
we crossed tha next arm <if the tntf, wbicb waa about 
two hundred yards over^ in the saase order, and wttfi the 
aame success as tbe former, and came to anotber lalaAd ; 
walking across i(t, vre came to the last bmnob ivf ttie 
riv6r« wbicb might be about two bundled and §[tf yaiAs 
wid^i which we crossed much in tbe s«ne way, only ike 
shaft of my waggon split when descending tbe ateep sfile 
of tihe islasud; it held, boffireirer« tboogh when ascending 
the opposite hank^ wjiicfa was steep also, it gave some 
serious craek«, as if on tbe eve of bfeakiog to pieces^ when 
we ex:pected every minute the waggon would violently 
roll back into the riv^, but, after .all, we landed aafely. 

, When we had all got «afe op the south wde 4^ the 
Crf eai; Bjfner, the gneateat difficulty aeemod to veaaain, far 
wefound •otirselves apparently hemmed in by a tbi^ekat 
of treelB a quai^er of a mile 4ifiep^ wbicb appeared to be 
impenetrable by waggons. Thia was a aerkwa obetnuc- 
fion* Weiboaght of baiting on the spol;,e0d cutting a 
jpatb aoposathe wood ; Init tlus wo«ikl he a wdifc of time; 
and likewise ito halt on a level with the rimr^ aj»d ao )ieir 
it, atigbt prove extremely hazardoaa, for should it swell 
in coQseqiueoce of rain higher up, ev<ery 4tfy^g m^ p6^ 
•seeeed wonld be aw^pt 4ow». by the aUteaaa ; and ahoiild 
tim happen in the oight« when we wei» a^eep^ we alio 
should he cvfiied ^away togeth(er with i^tir^yropairQ^ 
and aiicfa ris<«gs of the river frnq^eatty occar id the 
4^urae of half a» hour. After natieb exmnioation. an 
opening in the thicket appeared a little -higfier np tte 
riv^« which we autered* and alter iEyei>atra^mg th^figh 
vwions obatractioM^ and passing difi^sendaaoefUaa^l 4$^ 
aeenU of the ground, in a winding direction, we at kjBgMi 
reached the extremity of the wood, to tbieinoiaimll saljlr 
lactionof ns all. We wore abaMt three houm iai aoc^iA^ 
pUfibing ibis formidable busioeas of cipaaing tkM^ w^bh 
river. Our kind Griqua friends, whosewaggons w«i# m 



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4tfG.] CCHIUNENT OF AFRICA. 271 

^e other sii», were obliged uMiediately to separate from 
m/«ft tbe eun waft:goiie clowa» aodihey scaicely had light 
lo find their way acrdsa to tbeiv frieBde^ who bo doubt 
were ansioiiriy expecting them. We feit iniH:h a4 part« 
iog» especially with John Heodrie, who had never left us 
from bis first joimi\g ns on this side id the Gffea£ River, 
liBmediateiy after we bad crosaed the BusJMaao country, 
about thiee montba before, but h»d foikywed us in all 
our joumeyiogs* 



CHAP. XXIX. 



— Micofefr^m a Lion-^Filps Kraidr^WHThmd;-^Hui^ 
man*9 KraaL 

Au<s. ^th. 

Titouoii arrif ed safely on the south aide of the Giseat 

Iliver, we bad atill something to. trouble us from the other 

lude, f0r there were no tkltngs of the recovery ^ our 

eighteen oxen, though it was the fourth day since they 

w^are misaiiig. Phije, my waggon driver^ every iactive 

J^^^Mi^ntat, returned from the search in coosequenoe of 

hp ikocse being unaUe to travel any further on the de^p 

Aap4* [ One horse, belonging to a Grii|uap died ttyrongb 

jMtigue. There weie other oxen besides ours also mia»- 

ing. In other p«rCB of the country they woukl have 

ttBGtd them by Iheirfootstepa long ere now, but in that 

nandy, desert there are flecks of eUu conilantly travef sii^ 

. it, by which meana the footmarks of our oxen are ren*' 

4ered inviaible^ as well as -tef the driftiag of the aa«d» 

Om position wns very pkasasit, in a hollow, 8urj9Q4inded 

by trees, and, though not witiiin sight, we irere within 

heafiqg of the river ; and isom the ravages of tnne lopoa 

many of the trees» «re bad aJtHmdaace of fi^wood* To 



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272 JOURNEY ACROSS TH£ > [1S13* 

witness geperations of trees piled one upon another is 
solemn, impressive^ and instructive ; one cacHiot Mp 
musing on 'this striking representation ^of the ravages of 
time on the generations of mankind. ThermonNiter at 
sui^-rise 40: at noon 76. - 

, 2ist. Thermometer at suu-riseTSf with strong wind 
blowing ctouds of sand upon us. We had a little boy^ 
named Doiokstens^ (or Asbestos,) travelling wt<>h us* i 
had supposed that much of bis blackness was owing, to 
dirt covering his skin ; I therefore took him to the Great 
River, to try if I could wash him white; but though I 
washed long, with the aid of soap^ -I found him to be the 
Ethiopian, whose skin could not be made white. 

A little before dinner we were gratified by the sight of 
our strayed oxen again. There were altogether upw^r Jt 
of fifty, .thirty-three of which belpnge4 to the society, 
instead of eighteen, as I at first understood* Tb'^* bad 
actually returned to Rowlaud-HilUDorp, just at the time 
sotne Corannas arrived there who were to accompany us 
down the river, who brought them along with- them. 
Our people had returned to the otber side of the river 
after a very laborious though uilsuccessful search for them 
in the desert. One of them, Keyser, had nearly lost his life 
for want of water. He felt as if fire had b^ about the 
middle of his back; he< frequently thrusthis- bead into 
the middle of a bush to smell the datnp. that might be 
there, while those who were with him dug vp cold^sdttd 
and put it on his back, wbieh he was obliged to do, tr^att 
bush'to bush, until be reached the river. 

22d< Mr. and Mrs. Janz, Bern, Hendric, and IT. 
Bern, came across in the morning and spent the day .with 
us in worship, which, obliged tis to undergo, a second 
time, the pain of parting^ Mr. Janz preached in the 
morning, Mr. Reed in the afternoon, and I in- the even- 
ing. Thermometer at noon, 76- 

23d. Began at day^light to prepare for moving down 
the river, which we found very difficult to accomplish^ 



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AUG.] CONTINENT OF AFRICA. 273 

owing'to a mixing of the cattle belonging to our friends 
on the ©ther side, with 'ours, and likewise to our having 
sbine additional cattle with which our people were not 
so well acquainted. The Corannas and Griquas were 
ready firstj ahd set off before us. Truly it was a novel ^ 
sight. Were such a party to traverse the streets of Lon-. 
don,' I fhink the crowd such a sight would occasion 
would be inferior to none that ever assembled before. .1 
counted twenty-one persorts mounted on oxen^ chiefly 
women in skin cloaks, most of them seated on the top of 
their stuff, liigh above the backs of their oxen. There 
wferc also' three flocks of cattle, and one of goats and 
sheep, belonging to the society, GriquSis, and Coran- 
nas, with'Variotis pedeistrians. At ten, A. M. our wag« 
gons followed in the rear, guarded by our Hottentots 
carrying mttskets. At eleven, A. M. we passed a Co«- 
ranna kraal^ who had come only on that morning to re« 
side there. The women -were all busy in raising their 
huts, which is a business exclusively allotted to them. 
They seemed considerably alarmed at seeing us, and 
pejrhaps the more so as their men were not come for- 
wards I observed a verterabte old woman who was 
blfnd^ arid appeared the oldest person I had seen in 
South Africfa. The skin of her body did not af>pear to be 
united to her ^esh, but' rather resembled a loose sheet 
wrapped found her. The women corrtinued very busy at 
work dis if they did not observe us, but this was evidently 
theefiec^of fear* 

' The* appearance of the country was interesting, froni 
the variety of hills that were in view, and the windings 
of the Great River, but all barren in the extreme, and 
seemingly incapable of cultivation, being either sand, gra- 
vel; or covered with stones& The thermometer, in the 
shade* at noon, was 80;- oficourse travelling in the sun was 
truly oppressive. Except the Gdranna kraal, we did not 
see a human being the* whole day, nor any animals ex-* 
cept a few fowh,^ At four, P. M. we halted for the 
, T 



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tM JOiKHEYACItt9B$na (UH^ 

Bight, afl the hea^ iad been visry ^pprdfisive la our oxeifi 
We bad tbe reMmblaoce of aa encaiopiaeiil;, tbeire b^ing 
about eight or nma Q^r^, surrounded witb peqpto cooh» 
ing victuaJbi and cooveraii^ cheerfully togelber* tboug|» 
many of tbem knew npt where tbe nestt day's »eal waf 
JLo be obtained, iiakss th«y killed aomeof their sheep oif 
goats, which tibey are not willing to do if they can avoi4 
it Their dependaacQ ia chiefly on game. Trai^led W^ 
*rhriee of our people were sick* 

%4th. We had rested at what may be called >n elbow 
of tbe rtver^ for instead of running to tbe westward it 
here turns towards tbe north. The place, wfaicbt ya^ 
named Eraser Place, (after the Landdroat of Albany) lk9 
between a bill of rocks thrown together in a confused 
mess and tliA river, and. is a most charming apot. We 
left it at eight A. M, 9nd travelled over sand and ^pmei* 
times, small gravel, till half past nine, wten the beat bi^ 
came 90 oppressive that we were obliged to halt msff the 
river, at tbe foot of a small hiU« composed chieQy of 
loose rocks, oi blue flint and white marble. Hera W0 
hilled a black serpent, four feet and a half long, and eight 
inches in circumferesace ; tbe day before,, we killed; a 
similar one, two feet and a half Iong» Tbe birds heue 
seem t^ live in kraals like the people, fpr tv^qty. qc 
thirty nests frequently appear on a treev without a^y 
etheta in tbe immediate vicinity. We were lolenil^^ 
well ahaded by the trees ducii^ the hottesjb fs9%. oi 
the day ; that under whigh we dined farmed a eofO* 
plete canopy aad curtain aroiimd us by it9 hanging 
branches. 

At three, P. M« we went forward, tra^ftii^ over aand» 
in which weie n>any large stones aad some small ^haqs 
ones, which are very mjurious to the hoofa <tf the oi^aft 
The dry beds of rivers which nm. in the rainy. nirtnMi^ 
from tbe steepness, of their sides were sometimes vei*y 
troublesome. We bad hilla on our left the^ whole dagp^ 
to ^et round which occvioned tbe winding of the nw 



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£d6.J CONTINENT OP AFRICA. tTA 

add our being obliged to travel N. We halted al ^fyeng 
F. M« Oiir fires were made under the thick spreading 
^ughs of tfbflt is calle4 the White-hole tree, of which thd 
Matdhappees make Their spoons. Hottentots and others 
fteqiiently sleep on the top of this tree, as on the roof of 
a bouse, to avoid the lions during the night. On such wot 
^ecaision a Hottentot, while asleep on one of them, fell 
down upon a lion that happened to be asleep under the 
tame lree« The lion was so alarmed by the suddeniiess 
of the stroke, that he fled far enough to permit the Hotw 
tentbt to regain bis situation on the top of the tree, but 
it is very probable he slept no mote that night No na** 
tives were seen this day ; all was a silent, forsaken wiU 
4ernes8. Thermonieter at slun^^rise 44: noon S4: mid# 
Bight 64. 

^5th* In tbe mom^ng^ day-light discovered tbatouit 
situation wail very pleasant, surrounded with hiUs at 
various distances, with a fine view of tbe riVer. Being 
now f^r from the sea in every direction, there was nona 
of that moisture in tbe air which the sea communicates^ 
bcit a peculiar dryness, so that my ink was, almost 
iiista»>ily dried up in the pen, and however wet the pe»^ 
cil I used for my sketches in water cofenirs, it was almoed 
dry^ before it could touch the paper. We removed at 
two, P.M. when we wdre obliged to leave the rive?, in 
mdei to get round some hills which it a^rpached. The 
tvay '^csktiid more difficult, not only on account of its 
tmeveniiesi, but also from the number of stones, or pieces 
^ iffalrMle^ Whleb were thickly seattered about We bad 
likewise about six times to cross the sandy bed of ^ river^ 
With stfeep* sides, which was very troublesome. This 
^tof Africa seems to be completely deserted by ani*< 
mills of every kind. About four, P.M. two Corannas 
came to us, one having a sheepskin over bis shooldery 
the other an old man> had no clothing. They begged 
hard fot tobacco. 
About sun^seii we aipproached two Coramna towns; 



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276 JOURNEY ACROSS THE psiai 

many of the inh^itants walked to the'top of a neigh- 
bouring hill to view us. We halted at siic, P,M. at a 
little distance from them. They bad many hundred 
oxen, cows, sheep, .and goats. Atiout forty- of thfin 
were sitting before our tent, feasting their eyes by gating 
on us. They brought uS plenty of 'milk- to ^ba^ter. 
Travelled N. all day, Thermotneter at sun-rise^64:'at 
noon 83. 

26th. The kraal is called Filp Kraal, and^^ontakiSr 
about one hundred and fifty iiihsibitants. About hatf-> 
^ile.on each side, is a small* kraab of seven or 'le^^ 
houses each. - Most of them would be glad to receive a 
missionary; but by their own confession ttey vttsm 
divided people, and seemed reluctant to give a itoi^ 
answer. They neither sow nor plant, but depends 
ly on.their cattle for subsistence; of course, hmi 
labour to engage their attention, it is probable theyf 
away the greater part of their life. Wbat a bliegsii^ 
would be to have the gospel and the arts of civiliz 
introduced among them! They appear to-be* a^i 
gloomy, and indifferent people. Our arrival - seer 
make no impression on any mind,.e;xcept in prbducii^H>« 
little curiosity; and they were as indifferent about otif ^ 
departure, as. if they had said," You rnay coine, or slay§^' 
or go; it is the same to us. They are so immured in the 
heart of this great continent, that probably none of them 
have heard of any sea. At our departure, (at two, P. M.) 
a few women and children went, to the top of some 
rising ground, and witnessed our moving along, but with 
a dull, unmeaning stare. 

On the porth side of a river there is. a plain witbpjut 
any visibly end, as void of trees a& of hills, producing 
only broivn heath. Qu* way was cBjlE^y over hard Tof^e 
9tones, chiefly marbk, white, blue, and purple, which 
was very trying to our waggorf wheels. . At five, t}^^. 
iron ring of one wheel was knocked off^ which oblig^||S' 
us all to halt for the rjigh|... Travelling N. W. Tb€fflt^ 
meter at sun-rise 44 : noon £2. 




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riiXUlK.pa^eS,^^. 





^o'«^.\: ;'.^ '-• ^/- ■';. , 



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ADO.] CONTINENT OF AFRICA. 2?7: 

■ ^7th. Thermometer at sun-rise 42 : at noon 84^ Near 
our waggons was a solitary, grave, having a heap of 
stones raised above it, and. two long ones placed in the 
centre. Whether Bushman or Coranna was buried 
there, none of our party knew. On the other side of the 
river, to the north, was a plain, bounded only by the 
horizon, without trees, and covered only with heath, 
which very probably is a part of the same desert we had 
seen higher up. The Great River might be led out to 
this plain, and made to run in various branches, which 
would spread fertility as far as these branches extended ; 
but in this land there are no people who have head or 
heart for such an undertaking, yet the time may come 
when such an improvement may be made. A cooling 
wind generally rises a little after noon, which is pecu- 
liarly acceptable in. such scorching days. While at din- 
ner a whirlwind had nearly carried the tent in which we 
sat into the air. OUr table and dishes were covered with 
sand, so that no one could taste a morsel more. At four, 
P. M. we departed, having been detained by the repair- 
ing of our wheel, and travelled N. W. till six, P. M. when, 
on account of the roughness of our way, we were obliged 
to halt for the night. 

28th. Thermometer at sun-rise 46 : at noon 66. The 
^norning being cool, we departed at seven, and continued 
.travelling over stones and red sand until eleven, when we 
again reached the river, which makes a circuit round the 
north point of a range of hills, the south eind of which 
we passed, and named them Stuart Hills. At three we 
proceeded. As the waggons were again obliged to. pass 
.round some hills bdfore they could rejoin the river, three 
or four of us walked along its banks, but though pleasant 
it was. extremely fatiguing; there were many rocks to 
climb over, and thickets of trees and bushes to penetrate 
through; however^ I was repaid by a sight of the hippo- 
potamus, or sea cow, which stood in the river nearly 
covered with water, into which it^sunk, and rose at inter- 



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«jt iiHmam Ajcaasi ram fisia 

tais to get 6nah %in. : Tber« U reiii«iM» and fieels enjdy^ 
iDoeitt from doii^ 8p» the whole dayi and during the 
night it gnxes in the vicinity ef the river. At teveOf 
V* M« we and Che waggons aerified at the same spot 
Bear the iiver« Their way vas very rough as wdi st 
ours. 

We saw several qiots where tobacco had been .planted 
by some peo);)le, and there are none to steal it, foir the 
land seems, destitute of inhabitants. The country on the 
nprth side of tbe river oontinues still to be a plain, wiih<* 
put any visible end. 

t tttibi. Tbensftomeiber at aun-rise, SO. At noon, 6& 
W« w^ee allied to find the air a little coder, but ewr 
igiv^fjg&m sut&i>ed from the abaenoe of moisture in tlic 
atmosphere, as tjbee timbers were all shrinking. At thrae 
PkM. viredfiparji^ in tbelM^pe of reaching a Coraaaa 
kraal in thnee hours. The road was at first over stonest 
thea bard» and at last deep sand. At six we oatne U> tte 
j^laoeiwbere we expeoted to il»d the Corenna kraal, bat 
ihey had temoved lover down the river, wherafom we 
Jhidted* I praaehed in the foraM)onasid Mr. Read in the 
evening, but we yfi&re sorry we had not the congregatiaa 
of Corannas we expected. Travelled W. 
' 90tbii Thermometer at sun-rise, 3S« At sev^n'wede* 
iwrtiedand travelled & W. u»til nine, when we arrived 
4it (tie Coranna kraal belonging lo Hans Huiman, a 
•^utch (€^r bitstardj Hottentot W^ saw nothing worth 
feooidii^ ; every thing wie in a state of nature, ^U wiU 
•deraess* eitcept the charming mer which kept as coi»- 
tiNmy on ^r right, whose bud» continued luied with 
tiPees ^m both sidefl^ T^hree man belonging to Kak^ 
iiraal ^bo joined us the cby hefore on their way t* 
(Griqua town, returned with w tp Huiman's ioaal this 
meiaiii^, ass th^ said Kok wished to consuU ns about 
-reniQVing tiot Qriqualand ; apd they wished Ito be pi^ 
^mntk They went forward to apprise &ok of our ap* 
-proach* £ok*s kraaJ, when nearer Griqualand soBse 



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years ago, was visited by Dr. Somerville and Mr. Truter 
of Cape-town. 

Atlter Weshiast, I walked over to ^ pirt of Hukiuui*8 
krtidi, which sloodia Ifaeiniddhof 2ilhicketoftre«B^abaut 
half a mile distant. It is upon atsi emiaeAce* ai tb« b#t« 
torn of which niw a small brook, whiK:b comes from tb« 
Great Rirer. The village consists of six houses, and 
about tbrty inhabitants^ so com^eteiy concealed in a 
small square stuTOunded wiCfa tall trees, that it cannot 
be s0en ftMB any pomt whe» arpprotching it, till you ace 
among the trees^ Sorry was I that I could not converse 
with the people ; we could only look at each other, but 
on vetuming to the waggons I got Cupido to go and tell 
them something about the Son of God aani bis great saL* 
vation. Mr. Read conversed with an aged blind man at 
the KraaU wbo couhl speak Dutch, whom he found very 
ofsrse to listen to any thhig about the gospel. Huimaa 
said, that if a missionary came to Kok's kraal, he should go 
and reside there. As they abound in cattle^ we had plenty 
of milk white we remained. The people seemed to have 
nothing to do but, like theirdoga^ to lie squtft upon the grasa 
enjoying the sunshitie nntil the next meal. It is heart- 
rending to see so many clever looking young people hav- 
ing nothing either to do or to learn ; their parents having 
no more to inform them of than the cattle have to teU 
their young. M'^y the Ood of Israd pity them, and dis- 
pose his people in England to ex&tt themselvea to the 
utmost, to relieve them from their present state of 
wretchedness. Their language, owing to the strange 
claps of the tongue on the roof of the mouth, must be 
difficult for a European to acquire, but I hope not insur- 
Biountable. Surely itctnnot be so difficult to acquire aa 
Hie Chinese. It cannot be a copious language, as they 
have so few things to talk of, but must be a pastoral 
language, only having words adapted to the pastoral 
fife. 



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380 JOURNEY ACROSS THE [1613. 

CHAP. XXX. 



Departure from HuimdrCs Kraal—Ohitrpctions — Ox-Rid^ 
ing — KoKb Kraal of Orlamsy i^c. — List of the different 
' Coranna I'ribes — Koker Tree. , 

We departed at three p. M. when almost the whole 
kraal was collected to witness our leaving them. Over 
many a bard rock were our waggons dragged; at other, 
tinoes through deep sand ; dry'beds of rivers were fre- 
quently .occurring, which were very troublesome to pass, 
and which often made us anxious about our waggon; 
wheels. At five* we passed a building in ruins,, which 
had bedn erected by one Stephanas, whom I have for- 
merly mentioned as having fled from the colony, on ac- 
count of having committed forgery. It had been intend- 
ed for a large substantial building for such a country as 
this, and perhaps may yet be applied to some, useful 
purpose. It stands in a very rocky part of the cojUntry, 
only a few hundred yards from the river. ; It is well 
built, for Stephanas was a mason, and all was. done by 
himself or under his direction. At seven, coming to 
plenty of fire-wood, we halted for the night, which was 
piercingly cold, though at noon the thermometer, was 82. 
Such extrenie and sudden changes . frpm cold to heat, 
and from heat to cold, must considerably aflect the con- 
stitution. Many a rotten tree that had lain unmolested 
since the ages of antiquity now perished in a blaze. 

31st. Thermometer at sun-rise, ,34. At noon, 84. 
Departed at seven A.M. Several, of us walked by the 
side of the river, as the waggons were obliged to make a 
circuit round some hills. In two places I observed rocks 
piled above each other in the form of piers, running 
from the hills nearly to the river, which ip after ages 
may be turned to some advantage, when I hope the 
country will be increased in population and civilization. 
We reached the halting place at nine, but the waggons 
did not arrive till eleven. At five P. M. we were again 
in motion, and travelled till seven, one of the worst stages 



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SEW.] CONTINENT OF AFRICA. . 281 

during the whole journey ; sometimes the wheels sunk 
into the sand as deep as the axletree, at other times the 
way was so covered with large stones, that there was no 
choice. of road. We. often paused to consider what was 
to be done, as we feared it was impossible to bold on 
much longer,. without having the waggons shivered to 
pieces. But after looking round in every direction,, 
without observing any way of escaping these obstruc- 
tions, we were obliged to proceed, and Providence 
brought us to a resting place at ten, without suffering 
any material injury. We found a waggon standing 
upder a tree. It be^longed to a Griqua, vvho had been 
obliged to leave it there, in consequence of his oxen 
being unable to drag it farther. Travelled W. 
, Sept. 1.. We. were, now within one ^tage of Kok's 
kraal, and as the waggon-way thither was very circuitous, 
ten of us rode on oxen by the river at nine A. M. The 
way over the hills was almost impassable even to oxen, 
being covered with rocks in every direction — my ox was 
sometimes on bis knees, and on rising. I was sometimes 
in danger of having my eyes pierced by his horns ; how- 
ever, in ivr0 hours we arrived at the kraal, which is situ- 
ated in an extensive square plain, bounded on all sides 
by low hills. The plain is sand with tufts of grass scat- 
tered over it. The majority of the people are Orlams ; 
and there are some who forsook Griqualand, quietly to 
enjoy a plurality of wives, and to live in every other 
respect without restraint; of course much wickedness 
exists among them. Our waggons did not arrive till 
four P. M. the way being long and rough ; at one place^ 
all the twelve oxen. which drew the baggage-waggon lay 
down upon the ground, being unable to proceed. They 
were obliged, to leave two oxen by the way, being quite 
wori) out and unable to travel ; one of them bled both 
at his mouth and nose. They were two of our fattest 
oxen ; indeed, such in general fail first. No wonder the 
earth here is turned into sand, for they had not had a 
shower of rain for six months. They know of no inba* 



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JOURNEV ACROSS THB 



\\ilS. 



^itants in the country immediately beyond, nor nortb of 
them ; indeed, they say it is impossible for peopk to 
exist in it, as there is not a drop of ifater to be had. 
They only know of a few Bushmen, tvho liVe south of 
ib^m, till you come to the colony ; yet the country has 
its beauties.' The hills arie covered here and there with 
line trees and charihing shrubs, and that which is imme- 
diately behind the kraal, to the westward, abounds with 
rocks of crystal, sparkling like diamond®, and also of 
narUe. Were a lapidary here, I hate no d6ubt that be 
would soon collect a waggon load of valuable stones. 
There are tond hills in sfght, on the north sid^ of the 
river, red as scarlet. The poor inhabitants are enveloped 
in ignorance and vice. We dined enfirely on flesbi they 
have no j^rain of which to make bread. Here we had 
%6 leave aInK>st all the people who accompanieci ns IkHh 
Griqualand, 



Naines tf the diferent 

Karossdragers, 
Sprimghokhirs, 

JT^rcfcn^, o? JTMniofKr, 
^•oMQir Wmg$9 

HoogienSf 

Zeekoe-dragerSf 

Kutmenchcn^ 



Tovemaansj 
KokefbooHUi 

Spimidkcifmoger^ 



Tribes of Cotannw on the Gnat 

Rivet. 
Stabbers. 

Weavers of kar osses w cbwks. 
Springbucloiy being ntHncnoai bfa^ 

that a&imtl. 
Little spotsfeed* 
Nacrow chedk^. 

Letter book. 
Cutters, or taylort. . 
Heigh tis. 

BearerjB of sea-cows. 
Cat-people, on account of their har- 
^ ing pursued a hartebeast across a 
fcrd called Cat-ford, 
Wizards. 

Quiver trees.^ Trees from which the 
Bushmm make th^ airrows. 

StaodiDg^ t» ^ l^^this r«fin» t» 

those at Malapcetzee. 



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<Ktt.} COmiHEIlf>aFAntlCA. MS 

9iL £acb of us coitectod a few elyg&anazatioM fron 
tiie bill behind the kiaaL Tbe mativot smtted at our 
empk^meot, jii$t as Londooa people would, were they to 
886 some Chinese visitors ptckiag up brokexi pieces of 
hricks front the stfieets, and putting thera Iq their 
jiockets, to car ry^henBe as cttriosities. Ab many of these 
isqpiirl^liiig stones migbt easily he qoikcied as wo«ld cover 
the front of a house, which when the Stt« shines, wooid 
oartaiiyy* in pov&t of magnificeiioe and grandeur, vie 
watii eiqr hotiae in Maiiocnet'si KBagioary paradise^ $ 
n^, even outshine the tempU of Soloinon at Jeru- 

When walking towards a bill to take a dravruig of the 
kok^r tree^^ ("bhe leavies of which peeemble the aloe, and 
which nre h^d seen im no efbher part of Africa, though 
(hegr we very rnvmeriMis hei«, especially on the summits 
of tfMinUs,} fifune yoong people wepe advancing towards 
Pie, biit no aooner did they i^hserve me, than tbey fled 
teriifiod, ^s from a lion. White tbey were running, full , 
oi terror, I stood wondering how they could possibly 
ruo to fast ia so hot a day. In five minutes all were out 
mS sight, eonpealed among the huirties. Tbey were rtot 
indeed incaeabered by any dvess. 

The keker tree seems to delight to grow from the most 
dry and iocky ground on the bills, ^nd is esrtremely shy 
to descend into -the plain, standing almost vmformly aloof 
on the iopa of hills. Many of them are about ten or 
twelve feel: im circumference at the bottom, and quickly 
dimitttah in ^i»e till tthe beaaohea ooBMnenee, which is at 
% b^ht seldoQA saose than seven or eight feet ? the «bape 
fitf the cluster of braaches resembles that of an inverted 
hasoei ; the bank is white, inteirmixed wifh light yellow; 
wi haa a shiniag appearance like satin. I have not seen 
one in flower; Altogether itsekiom exoeeds sixteen feet 
la height ^ 

Mr. R. {rreached last i)igbt, CupMo the Hottevtot this 
isaminii^ and I in the evening. Cuf^do illustrated the 



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284 JOURNEY ACJROSS THE £l81> 

imro.ortality of the soul by alluding to the serpent^ who, 
by going between two branches of a bush which press 
against each other, strips himself once a year of his skin- 
" When we find the skin," said he, *{ we do not call it. 
the serpent ; no, it is only its skin : neither do we say the 
serpent is dead ; no, for we know he is alive, and has only 
cast his skin." The serpent he compared to the soul, arid 
the skin to the body of man. . 

Kok related to us that he went lately with a large party 
of his people on an expedition against elephants on the 
other side pf the river, and that though they^ travelled 
five or six days* journey up the country, (or to the north), 
they did not find one fountain of water. On inquiring 
how they lived without water, like the Matchappees, x>( 
whom we made the same inquiry^ they said> that water 
melons were every where scattered over the ground, 
which, after being roasted on the fire, yielded good water* 
3d. C. Kok seemed disposed to receive a mi^sionaiy^ 
but bad not much desire of it ; he wished to leave th€ 
decision to his father, old C. Kok, at Silver Fountainy 
whom we expected to see on our return from the Namac** 
qua mission. In his kraal there are, of persons ^wbo 
speak the Dutch language, and who are called 

Orlams - * - 216 

Corannas • • . 130 

Bushmen - *- 30- 

total 426 
It is extremely desirable tamake this a missioiiary^ti- 
tion, as it would unite, by a kind of link, the missiom 
on the eastern and western coaists of Africa. Some (rf 
the peojJe are very anxious for instruction. There isone 
man who can read ^ little, and Kok himself knows the 
letters. We urged him to persevere in learning to read, 
pointing out its importance, should he obtain a^ copy of 
the scriptures. He made us a present of a young bull, 
which appeared a little wild ; however, one of our fito^- 
teptots caught it very dexterously by making a loop at 



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SEPT.] CONTINENT OF AFRICA. 265 

the end of a rope, which he {threw at the animal while 
running full speed, and caught in it his hind legs, which 
wHen drawn close, laid him on his side, when they killed 
him. Kok likewise lent us fourteen strong oxen, to assist 
us in travelling to N'amacqualand. 



CHAP. XXXL 



Departure from Kok' s Kraal — Assemblage of Rocks-^In 

Difficulty— Hottentots drink Poison of Snake— Escape 

.from LionsrSingular Nests — Wild Bushmen shoot a 

Hottentot, and capture our Cattfe — Steps taken— Re- 

Sin our Cattle— Hottentot dies^ Joined by Namacqua 
issionary-^Arrival at Pella. 

The next halting place on the side of the Great 
River, is only ten miles from Kok's kraal by the side of 
the river; but being extremely rocky, >we were obliged 
to make a circuit of thirty miles round the mountains, 
to accomplish which we left the kraal at five, P.M. The 
road proved very- good |or many ipiles, and lay among a 
great number of small hills, composed of brown rugged 
rocks. About midnight we got so entangled among 
rocks, that for some'timew^ knew not how to extricate 
ourselves: at length, however, we surmounted them, and 
proceeded until the moon set, which was at one o'clock, 
when we were under a necessity to halt without v^ater. 

. 4th. Every one awoke with a headache this morning, 
which we concluded was owing to the great heat pf the 
past day, especially as reflected from the sand. Departed 
at seven, and reached the river by nine, when all had an 
opportunity of satisfying their thirst. Thermometer at 
noon 86. 

We foun4 a boor from the colony at Kok's kraal, who 
had fallen deeply in love with a black woman, and who 

on account of the opposition of friends to his marrying 



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«9 J0V1U9BY AiCRon TUB pns, 

ber» add liktwi^e q£ the miQt8l»r!t refosiag to perform 
fa]»office» bad left tte colony and wasdered Ihitten They 
eame by Sneuberg t6 the Cradodc River, which be with 
the other boors bad fornierly* considered to be the Great 
River, bat he travelled dowb its bante till it btought him 
to the Great River. The couple app^r low spirited, and 
no wonder, for in a sense they are out of the world while 
in it. They have a fine btjy as white as any European 
child, though the mother i& as black as a native of Mo- 
aambique^ No doubt she must have her quaking mcv- 
menttt, lest her lover should grow weary of his banifth- 
rnent^ and forsake her to rejoin his friends and civilized 
society. 

Being Joined by our people, cattle, and strangers who 
Wete to come by the short road, we departed at four, 
P. M. and travelled over iieep sand to the W. until six, 
when we halted near the river. The cotmtry around was 
level, sandy, and full <yf marble rocks, shewitig their 
white heads above ground. 

5th. Thermometer at sun -rise id: at noon Si. Re* 
mamed till four, P. M. when, understanding that our 
next baiting place was only two hours distant, we de« 
parted, travelling N. W.* but we did not reach it till 
eleven o'clock, so much was our guide mistaken as to the 
distance. The first part of the road was among low 
barren hills, the remainder on a plairt. 

ath. Having heard of a waterfall at no gre^t distance, 
several of us set off at nine A. M. with our guide tb see 
it. We soon reached what might be catted the metro- 
polifif of rocks, for so esctensive a collection I saw lid 
where else. They lay on the surface of ma?ny miles. 
The most conspicuous is abdut half a mile in length, and 
five hundred feet high. It has the appearance of an iron 
hill. Many low and high hills are ^ composed of huge 
tocks piled above each other, and thousands of ponderbus 
one§ lie scattered over the ground in every direction, to a 
great distance, as if they had been transpottied thither 



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,] COiTf INENT OF APBICA« , 2»i 



by some traiseodous eruption. The rfrer dii^idet itadif 
into several branches which nan ia deep cbtsms,. cut 
out of solid rock perhaps five hundred feet deep. As the 
sides were perpendicular,, it was impossible to get down 
to the river. A stone thrown from the top was a \Qmg 
time before it reached the river. We had heard of the 
waterfall from various natives when we were travelling 
down the river, but none of them had leen it« Several 
had seen the mist arisiog from it» but the sound bad sd 
terrified them they were afraid to approach it After a 
search of several hours no vraterfall was either seen or 
beard. Our people who came on foot by the side of the 
river from Kok's kraal saw a smaU fall of the river, but 
that which we were in search of was reported to be far 
greater. We observed many parts of the river in these 
chasms, which in the rainy season, when the river is 
swelled, must have a most terrifie appearance^ fVom the 
quick diBscent among huge rocks ; and being so £eir her 
neath the surface from whence it is viewed, it must be one 
of the grandest scenes imaginable. But at such a seasong 
it is probable, no haman eye luts yet seen it^ the couricry 
being without inhabitants^ 

Having descended about two hundred feet down the 
clifi^, in order to take a sketch of one part of the rivet 
which was curious, our guards above went away, not 
knowing where I was*, On returning to the top» thej^ 
^11 were gone. While wondering v^hat was become of 
them, I was joined by Mr. Read, who was e^uaUy sut^ 
prified at their departure. Our danger lay in meetiiqi 
with lioQS or tigers, while we had no means of defence* 
The hill, composed of one rock, was our compass by 
which we were guided towards our wa^gonsi It was 
about noon, and intensely hot— we both considered it 
imprudent thus to h»ve exposed ourselves to the suaVs 
scorching rays, Afteir scrambling over rocks about aoi 
hour,, w^ readied the river which we grestiy longed to 
TecntUt thai by me«M ef its cooliag waters we. ms^ht 



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288 JOURNEY ACROSS THE [1S13. 

allay our heat and thirst We had the precaution not to 
drink a drop of water till we had held our hands and feet 
for some time in it^ which soon produced a coolness all 
over' us — then we washed our heads, after which we 
ventured to drink, which was more gratifying to our 
taste than the best Constantia, Champaign, or Madeira. 
We observed a rock near us, about the size of an ordi- 
nary house, which, by. some great swell of the river, had 
been driven from- its place, and so inclined against another 
as to form a roof capable of protecting man or beast 
from the powerful rays of a vertical sun. This rock 
seemed to invite us to take shelter under it, which we 
did for at least half an hour. While sitting under it, 
delightfully cool, we^could not but reflect upon thtf 
scripture which compares the Saviour to " the shadow 
of a great rock in a weary land." From beneath the 
shade of this rock we came as cool and comfortable as 
when we set out in the morning. There not being a breath 
of wind, and the river gliding gently along, and the heat 
having silenced the feathered songsters, there was in the 
abll^nce of human beings a stillness almost fearful. We 
found some difficulty in getting from the bed of the river, 
as it had many narrow streams and pools, lined with im- 
penetrable woods of the mimosa and other trees. Having 
cleared one stream, we soon came to Another, which had 
all invisibly run under the gravel at the place whisre we 
liad entered the bed of the river. We had to search for 
passages through the thickets made by the wild beasts ; 
at length after passing along naany windings, we- cleared 
the wood, and reached our waggons about two o'clock, 
tired, thirsty, and hungry, in consequence of walking al- 
most constantly for five hours over rugged rocks, and 
without effecting the object of our journey. But' it is 
not surprising that this part of the river is so little known 
among the natives of this region, as all access to it is so 
extremely difficult. How these deep cliffs, or excava- 
tions in solid rock (of a reddish hue), as hard as flint; 



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tePT.] CONTINENT OF AFRICAr 289 

through which the various branches of the river runs^ 
have been formed, I cannot conjecture, unless by some 
most awful convulsion. It seems surprising that such a 
ironderful work of God should lie concealed from the 
inspection of mankind, in the bosom of wild Africa. We 
saw many serpents but received no injury; indeed thfs 
chief danger arises from treading on them unawares among 
the long grass, when they will instantly turn upon yoii 
and bite, otherwise they will generally endeavour to 
escape from you. 

It is very common among the Hottentots to catch a 
serpent, squeeze out the poison from under bis teeth, and 
drink it. They say it only makes them a little giddy, 
and imagine that it preserves them afterwards, from 
receiving any injury from the sting of that reptile. I 
have no doubt, from the testimony of the Hottentots 
who travelled with me, of the fact, that they do take it; 
but whether it be calculated to produce the effect which 
the Hottentots pretend, I leaire to the decision of medical 

men. 

At five P. M. the air becoming more cool, we left our 
baiting place, and on our way passed two hills, each of 
v^hich was composed of a single rock, without grass or 
bush on any part of them. They had exactly the ap- 
' pearance of immense masses of iron, and though curious, 
they had a dull gloomy aspect One of them had a fiat 
rock, level with the surface of the ground, extending 
from its west end for about a quarter of a mile — it was 
between thirty and forty yards wide, and resembled a 
pavement of one stone. The sand in the neighbourhood 
was red, producing no grass, but only small, half withered 
bushes here and there. We travelled till midnight, which 
was as cold as a Decemberijight in England. We baited 
where there was neither water, nor grass, nor wood to 
burn ; for in consequence of ridges of rocks running up 
the country from the very edge of the Great River, we 
were obliged to travel considerably south of it After 

U 



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^ jAi^itNEV kiMss rim ' lm»: 

^orthJp \teaM h'Asfened io go toWeepthfe besft *wa]^ ^^i 
V?6irtil 'Without miy bupper. Thernfioineter at nooii,^. 
^i^aveUing W. 

7^h: We plroceed^d on out jdui^ne^y ^t seven A. M. 

*1:^hefe wks A chain 6f hitls MSiit t^n miles to dor right, 

CT north, 6l^boiitit{itif rrtfles iti extent, wtidilittd'thfe 

apipeariance of k great 'Wall, indefed it remittfled us dfthh 

gr^t Wb\1 In 'ChiniBU In the toorhifig at Sun-rise; thfe 

^thermometer stcxOdits !o<¥ h's '46, attd at nooti 66,tvhich 

was extremely favourable to our cattle, afe'we trere obWgei 

^o continue ubtil tV6 h^. j)tlshibg 'fdrw'arJ! tbtV«er, 

'wh^^eive mitedltiW sandy tilace at the iotiv&f Whtftl 

'called <lfe ll^ldkiiiE^n Moimtaiifs. ll^re'We bali^treW 

'dperatibn to'peffoi*tti, ^iz. tb digforV^ter in iHe*&i-y *b^ 

'bf ii river, Whfen Ve f6und plidfafy for ^6uW^ve6, 'alKrtft 

Yive'feel under the sUrfade of the sabd. It appeared Vo Me 

'a stream whldh Htx drider gf bund tbv^^ai'dsl^hfe GreitltiV^r, 

'and Was reported'toToTiii itself intb' pools lbWBr<J<Wrh* 

' Though this prfrt of ^ffufa'be t^^arly fdrsakfeh'bf ^en, 

.it has .plenty of inhabitants — hundreds . of lizards andfTdU 

-mice were almost constantly visible, and so uriacquainted 

.'with man ihat they amilsed themselves ' rdiihtl abbut oiir 

waggons — ^ahd during the afternoon^ nine lions '.were 

seen in the vicinily. '6ne of our HotteAtdts was m- 

' imminent danger of being ciestrdyed'by * three oif thefti 
which he came upbn unawares among bushes. 'Fh^y 
'^slobd looking towards' each pther for some" time ; wftW Be 
turned about'tb make a sign to bis cohipanidhs to come 
'to his assistance they advanced ; biit imixiedfately, ^ 
! turning his eyes again towards them,'they madeabalt; 
' when the other came up with hisgii'n, they walked off. 

. We' killed'a large piiSHT adder 'which is'a very vendmoiis 
species' of -Serpent. The* evening was cool wVicV made 
Whaslen tdr*st,»dtbat I*helieve ridt one of lis was awake 

*'in1ijcb after ten. 'A'feW'cIOTids apjieared in the ^vi&ning 

/ lit 'the Attorn of the horlzdn' to ' £hQ westward, which 



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IKerp ylfyr^ as a rarity, ha,vj»»g rfaad ^Ijnps^ qoi;i^t^^t ^uq<« 
shine, .)xr.itb a^cl^ar s)^y, for inqre lhf\n t^ree mouthy. 

»tl;i, yhprmopaeter at, sun rise, 46. Ajt 11900,70.— 
W^ plP9pqs^d comn^encing pur j^uriiQy in the afteiT/Pooa 
$;houl4 ^r oxen return irom .w^ter, iji^^cbof yrhicl^ 
yre 4j9|)$itcbed tbr^ HotteptQts,^itb.t))^n[iQPitbepreqed« 
ipgdpy. 

; ThePsaJmi^t, in bi|» $^3d E^hp^^s^peftkB Qf the ^0^4 
leading him " in green pastures, beside still waiters."-7 
5!<ift be^fity aqd fprce ,pf this ej^pr^^^ipp can hfttdly be 
poi|cei.ved by on^ ivtion^ver ^asppt.pf Epgl^nd. Fivp 
^pn^bs ihad ^lapsed j^^nce w^.hafl j|eengre«/i.past)irc»B, 
^Irb^jvi^g |;)een withered gr?i?s, whipb i> ^either so ple^Sr 
Mg tp :the ey^, ppr so nutritious to,tb/8xattIe. I Jong^^ 
,<o.9^ gre^a hiUs or plains, and^ riy^r g^ptjy glidii^g 

Nipa p*c)ock 4t iMgI)t ca^e, .]}^t there is^as ^ ^p-* 
fie^rqipce either of , our.p,Xj^p,or Hplfteotots ^ho w,ere s^ftt 
ito^iiard tjhep. We had .varip^s j9Qiyqcture8 as to t^e 
,cai]^a; iperbaps while the^ wen, sjept, the.ox.^nstrayedi^r 
•^h^:5usj)in^p pp the rivj^ h<ad ,gtpl«n thena. ^ur^t^jy^o 
rmiH^ jgppts i?%n ^ff, ,ai^ jWej^ .^spjjght ^ipr '^n v^ain-rfi^e 
lli^v^ njight (ii^vpur^efn,<Juf ipg the nigjit. 9,ur^i|;uati(^ 
•iw.as Hnplea^^nt, ^r eyisry thjug ,yyji8*paQb;ed up andT^^y 
*jfor setting pfl>biut without pur oxien .we qai^ld^not^fjipi^e 
( »a iuchi jand jW^e were in the midst of a harren des^ert- 

lOfh* Theraiom^ter at. sun-? rise, 4^. In ..the mornjUE^ 
.jiK!e>ad no injtelUgenpeof pur oxen pr goats, P^rti^s 
.y9iere cJisp^tobjBd in sejarqh of both. 

jThe jbjifh ; Iftuf e, as it is called, became yexy , trouh^e- 

' ftfjose ^ ,V^7^•it is bla^k and about t^e.^ze of ,a lajcge ji?.ug* 

iWMo itf.fi|c^pi^the§kin o£a per^n,it)shar41y;pwsvhie 

to get H pff without cutting it to.pie9e8; indeed it^sljicks 

,BQ qlpse^o the pkjp, that i| 9?innpt be felt byjihe^ tp,wcb. 

If you fty^ to scrape it off ^ifth thekftiffi, .tl|e,lcflife fiid^ 

^ c\r^r it* Oitifiigx^pt^n^y, wrist ; po mpans w.hiqh I.jis^d 

: .to trfte it^aw^y ftwcej^lisd. Ope of our p^cyjle poujed J;^e 

U 2 



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292^ JOURNEY ACROSS THE [181S.- 

juice of tobacco upon it, which made it raise itself a little 
above- the skin, when he seized it and tore it away.— 
When it has sucked itself full of blood then it falls c^of 
its own accord. The poor cattle are sonietiipes covered 
with them, which when the crow perceives, he comes 
and stands upon the cow's back till he has picked as many 
as satisfies his hunger. The cow is so pleased with his 
employment that she gives him po molestation till be has 
finished his repast. 

A tree at a little distance from our waggons bad two 
remarkable nests on it. The one was about four yards 
*in circumference, and the other three, and'about a yard ia 
depth. They are formed of coarse grass, by a amali bird 
which resembles our goldfinch. One of thefee nests had 
seventeen holes in the bottom by. which the birds enter, 
the other had seven. At one time I saw about a hundred 
birds come out of them. Instead of beiog the nest of a 
single pair of birds, they seem to be kraals, or towns of 
birds. Perhaps one may be the property of a single pair,in 
which they accommodate all their descendants. A horned 
oWl ha<) taken possession of the outside of the roof of the 
largest for a nest : she was sitting on it, and it appeared 
from the bones and hair strewed under that she lived 
upon the field mouse. I bad the curiosity to climb the tree 
on purpose to examine this phenomenon in nature. Tbe 
roof was neatly thatched, and a hollow in the middle to 
contain the owl, but no passage leading (^ the inside. 
I had no way to examine the apartments within, with- 
out destroy ing a great part of the nest, which would bare 
been a cruel operation; wherefore I left it in the saiaie 
state in which I found it, contented with taking a sketch 
of the tree and the two nests. Thermonieter at noon, 84. 

I was for some timeslirprised how such multitudes of 

• lizards and mice, as inhabit the desert, could live without 

water: but I observed many succulent plants,, of various 

kinds, hanging full of small berries containing water. I 

poured out of one larg^ berry about three tea spoonfuls of 



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9BPT.] CONTINENT OF AFRICA. 283 

water^ and I witnessed, the mice dragging them 4oto their 
boles, just as seamen take casks of water it) to their ships. 
This is a wonderful provision God has. made to supply 
the wants of these little animals. 
; I gently, threw a small stone at a lizard, without any in- 
tention to hurt it, which struck off its tail, the tail leaped 
about for five minutes, and moved somewhat like a ser- 
pent,' to three yards distant. The poor lizard as well as^ 
ii^yself, stood wondering. at this exhibition. When I 
mentioned this circumstance to our Hottentots, they in- 
formed me, that like serpents after their heads are cut 
-off, they live until the going down of the sun. 
^ Nine o'clock at night arrived again, without our gain- 
ing any intelligence of our men or oxen, only we thought 
.we heard the report of two muskets fired at a distance. 
About half past nine, immediately after our worship, we 
heard a musket shot at no great distance, then a. second, 
.and a third, which led us to conclude something was 
ivrong ; of course we dispatched five or six of our people 
with- muskets to the place from whence the firing pro- 
ceeded. It w^s but a little while before part of them 
returned, with one of the three men who had been witbi 
the cattle. He said they had been attacked by wild 
Bushmen, who had wounded Peekure in the back, im- 
mediately under his neck, with a poisoned; arrow, and 
Jiad carried off all the cattle. While relating the doleful 
,tidings,' poor Peekure, and the third young rnaix who 
had been with the cattle came up. His wound was large, 
owing to the difficulty they ha<]i of getting out the pieces 
of the arrow which remained in the wound, which they 
- picked out withan awl. Our men ran to their arms, to. en< 
deavour to retake our cattle. By ten o'clock, ten of them 
were ready to set off. Mr. Read begged them, if possi- 
ble, to spare the lives of the Bushmen; to endeavour to 
get between them and the Great River, and to come 
upon them by surprise. Without this precaution we 
,were afraid they would shoot the cattle and run off. A 



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time ftusWttan frota fJri^di toilm t#6irf 6ff i^itB tfi^; 

Our 6iiiiafti6tt* Mk lid^ Urf flisfrei^n^, Bfeifi^ iii fh* 
midst of a desert^ with three fo^agd t^ag^dftsf, 4iid Bbt «l 
single &i Jti oCfr possfeiSdfi io <ifd\fr tl^. ]^ive BiiitArd 
idtientbl:^, WhfO iiveh bit d hcriititf^ ix^idiiioH, iM^ 
liiitefl avN^Mf^ Vifith titf lii ffle indrmtig', «^6 ttMvf w^fe W 
^fe at sofne |)1ac:e t^ th%^ sbuth-We.^t, 4t a(t)o*e flVe hWfri 
diitance. We diS|)StfcKfe'4 four meri, io inform them of 
our sitliatioh. k\kb, K^t ^k fehoUld W attafcked duritig 
the aU%nce ot" 86 rHkiif bi out ttferi, Vre exfcrnifiea t^Biii 
were our iheani of defeiifce; We fbtind ffadl thrfee dT 
our people Had sdld, orWthfer fexchatig^di tfa^ir ttius- 
ieis for cattle ' at tJn([|ufel lo'\Vn, sbpposin^, WiflidUt 
Amy reason feul; Ihfeir dwh 'igtibfance of i<rhat ri?- 
liiaihecl of our jbul-hey, thftt thfe daligetbus pah: bf it #te 
bver when i*r'efel:urhea ifrofaii Ikttakbb. Mr; RihA i&A 
me thiai the ttbttentofe ^etfe Ignorknt where bt liotir 1*^fe 
were trivellih^ ; that th^y colitd tibt tiiijfletistslrifi how iBfe 
sun at brie part of thfe jburhey iroie on th^ir H^t Uand"^ 
and on their Tetlt at another ; but thfey htid feuch full coh- 
JTidehdfe in hiiii; that t believe h^d therfe bieiii t way bjr 
^hich be cbuld haVe tdkfen Ihertt ^down to Ihebthe^ sliife 
of the World, hid he gone firfet, tlidy Would haVfe fofc. 
Jo#ed him : bf couyse thejr lia'd no care, bnTy to follb\*r 
Wk. Gnijr Bve gun^ Vrere found to be with thfe vir*|f- 
)^ons; the others had al^sagays aM Bushmen's bbV\^ 
iiid;irit)W6; 

We cbriifdetted it our 'duly ferst V6 attehd fc 'the«fe 
Ifiife^sWe^'and fcretdiit^cfefe/kfter \^hlch tb fia?rfefet*Uf* 
Yo tiie|rktfd ifefti^ IVi times of ti^DUble-^flie thVone bf 
^mCe: Wef VsiifetAWfed tbgetlher, and united in iSftyer. 
iir. Rfead kbd Ctfpidli ted itii wortfti^. We did fevei^ 
thitfg in b'ur piweV Wi- t'he pobr Vb*iirtd^a miti, V/rtiotetl 
a \Vite in'd ttr^e'sitoaA cht^difei ^t fitthdfedfci^, fgtioAWt 
of Hfe iftuitt^n. ^ ^ 

' Sihrfe'cTf btJt ^ebpfe ^eft W di^ttH%),, Mdfet Wife BiftlT-^ 



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swyp.!^ CONgfipi^T Qi? AK8*CA^ . ^y 

BftW. had ' be^. W%^¥« ; m^ ^ wp^iw* ti»^ » ^bfll^: TTW^- 
4am?n, th^ jiv^, fV>4^Iff^ <^q8^ tq m#[^ \kf^ ^ttjj9J^ ^| 

Su^^l^Qi^ Vfbq ^a^ 4(^Hf4 tia w^ ],4 conoeftiotn i^it^ 
Afci^aiiff;* a pandering ;cl^£|,w^ is ^)ie ^rror €)( that 
part Pf Affioa, ^BfJ iljijtf, th«Qnly pnecp^ed ^l<9 gr^fl^ 
atMu?k* Qtheps ^^r§ f ert^ig^ (hat a^f pu;*. ^^tfle w^^uld be ^ 
l^il^fdji)^ it ]B|^t)g (he CDptqm.pf fi^8hn)an ^ben tbey tqqif:. 

9i^^y iBany, to ^lect s few 8? t^fi ^>^tj and tp ^Qot tjaf 

, Ail r^ifta\?ic^ ,^iY»Ke but wysplf; b^t b^jqg TfitllfiH^ 
opeaps ©f ei^bfp c)|fl«npe pf def^n^e, and ey^ry thjflg. 
beH». in ^^ g9jO<jl prd^f ?» w^ qpqlfi puj fhpin, I jvfpfi 
?aid^,^ ^al^p^a Ijttle r^^t, I )i§f| ^rd|y laip dpijrp T»hW 
9ne cague §|)d ftdiri^ed pi^ qqt |^ ^l^ep. An J^oij^t aft/sr, I 
-gr^s infqrmftd Jtbftt ppr f»^ ^^rS ia PPPbat ^ith t|^g 
^iifbi^pn^ YfWql^ I did not l^gli^v^, bayiijg b^en 9W^k^ 
\^^{ ap l^vr ^p4 b^evd W#ipgr Af tjifpe q'qlocji in tbei 
9^PrpiftSi ^l?W^v^^ I ^^<1 ^FPi^M^lM^s ^Kl^d, ai^d t}}^^ 
^h}j4 On Jjiij I Jieia tljp P3ggc^, lyhen ope of tb/s ^o^- 
tf;nJto^ it^WS^jk^ 4>^fl>>e4 9P<i a grs?^ cloud pf dupt, wjiiclj 
th^ jd»p<)r| jg^ rwd«r^ vJpiW^* a«ifl ^a? fli^a^ipj^e^ by. 
t^jB mot^Qu, 0/ jwjir :Cf|t|Jf . Tbey yfpT§ r^pnjpg quicjc, fof 
tiJ^p clpud «>prc5^f4 us jGi^U ^t Iffl^t^ thp RfpVi be- 
cain^ yJ8^b)p4 ^H^ V^^ WPf^ ^ff¥d i^^ fPP^P^c^l^ t9 befti; 
tja^ feport of .o#r i^p, flfejiijiiflg ^M* fpjpp livf s ,^^ bpe?» 
V»t ixi % repap^rfr Wf W»re mf^^ ^9 ^^f^y Md 
obtained the cattle without rissj^a^pe. fiei^ng. 9Jgj^ }ff^ 
(jaftl^ np)t^OMj;»t t^fidittjii^^ §p;wp werp ismi^P vt^^er 
we had ^u»tBti npd m;ky |qss. 4f ^F Pil^^^S t9 J^^V'P }^l^^!^ 
t^ God fflr f l\?: r^ftiping of ##r c^j^tte, ly.? w^pt ^ rppt^ 
leaving some to wa^cb. 

lOtb. Af «oop as 4*y-yi*)^ *R£»awd *^? ^pra^tjered 
C^pf cattle^ ^d ifef§ (rfeaj^ to ^pd ^^ pot qpe waa 
piissing. Our tbijee Hot^^Mts w\^ yye^e mtk t^Q 
l^t^e^ viz. P,eelcu^^ Fn^d^riq, apd ^^K^l* g^ye us tba 
fe^ofvjp^a<x^9uat fif ^h^ip^^ thM POt .fipdipg WJt 



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296 JOIIRNEY ACROSS THE [1818. 

pools lower down the diy bed of the river, they went 
forward till they came- to the Great River, which was 
upwards of twenty miles. They observed, while they 
halted at the river, some Bushmen at a distance, lurk- 
ing among the bushes. * They had not seen inore than 
four. On leaving the river, the Bushmen followed 
them» but concealed themselves as much as possible 
among the bushes. Wbeti almost dark, they bad 
taken their aim at Peekure, being a tall and strong man, 
perhaps supposing if they cduld bring him down, they 
would easily overcome the others, who were young. 
When he found himself wounded, he ran to one of his 
companions, and desired hint to pull out the arrow. He 
did so ; but two pieces of it remained in the wound, 
which he had the fortitude ta pick out with an awl, while 
the other young Hottentot kept off the Bushinen with 
his musket, which he fired towards the place from whence 
he thought the arrow proceeded. They then left the 
6xen» that they might bribg their wounded companion 
to the waggons. When at a considerable distance they 
fired two shots, which no doubt were those we supposed 
we heard. Perhaps the Bushmen did not know that the 
oxen were. completely given up to them, but might sup-» 
pose the men were concealing > themselves among the 
bushes f6r their protection*, and that the shots fired by 
them at a distance, as they advanced towards the wag« 
gons, were from people coming to their assistance.* This 
is the onljr way by which we could account for none of 
the oxen being carried off. ' ■ ■ , 

We did every thing for the poor wounded man Jn our 
power, by cutting out the flesh all round the wound, 
administering €au de /nee, and laudanum to mitigate the 
pain; but he lay groaning the whole night. 

The five Bastard Hottentots to whom we had sent an 
account of our situation, came to our assistance at five 
o'clock in the motning^ to whom we expressed our grati* 
tude. There being no water for our oxen, we* were 
obliged to depart at ten, A. M. moving ^lowly fox th^ 



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SEPT.] CONTINENT OF AFRICA. 287 

sake of 'our wounded tnfln. At half past ODe» his pain 
was so great, that we were obliged to halt at the foot of 
a mountain composed of black loose stones, and to lay 
bim down under a bush from which he was never to 
rise. His appearance alarmed us, being greatly swelled* 
particularly about the head and throat- He said that be 
felt the poison gradually work downwards to his very 
toes, and then ascend in the same manner; as it ascended 
his body swelled. He felt very anxious, often turning 
im his face, and crying to Jesus for mercy for his soul. 
He thought he felt the chief strength of the poison to 
lodge in one of his cheeks, and requested that the cheek 
might be cut off, which we. did not comply with,. per- 
suaded that. his whole frame was equally contaminated. 
The Bushman we had with us said in the morning., that 
Peekure would die immediately on the going down of 
*the sun, which he certainly did ; for. the sun had not 
dipped beneath the horizou five minutes before he 
breathed his last His countenance was frightful, beiiig 
so disfigured by the swelling. On his brow was a swell- 
ing as large as a goose egg. He has left behind him a 
^vidow ^nd three children. 

As we were under the necessity of halting all nigh t» 
though without water, our people fortified the place by 
surrounding the fires with a wall composed of bushes 
which they cut down, lest the Bushmen, whom. we un- 
derstood to be numerous in that part, should attack us 
during the night. We likewise sent forward ail our oxen, 
retainihg only as many as were necessary to draw .our 
•waggons, that they might get water as soon as possible, 
-which divided our strength^ but there was no alterna- 
tive. Thermometer at noon T6. 

On conversing again with the two surviving Hotten- 
tots, who went with the cattle, for water, we had the fol- 
lowing additional particulars. The three went on the 
7th to search for a place a few miles below our waggons, 
where water was reported to be ; and were desired, if 
they did not §nd water^ to send one of their number to 



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iM jouBHUY Avn^m "im : fists, 

M i^ilb'tbe ioforaiatiosi. They piM^ tbe fi^w ^ith^ii 
JDtmmog it; dud €Nie of tb^ jsoiAog mw fr^i^^tij ^ 
irised that they atiould pioisted ^imrd tp tM 6i^^ 
Biver> wbidi certaintjr iR^aa impijopQ^ efli tib« c^tlK: ffUQi 
lU di«laneey must havQ beta as fibirtty^oo timi^r^loru Ur 
the walggati6, as when tb^y d«]«irted i hut he 4i4 it tf jtfc 
the irtew'df sbootingsai cowH. Peekure wi^ alfrny^ 
ftgaim^t th4s yhat tw& bdag against bim, Ibey procef)^ 
tiy th« ritei!.' While thare,. they observed four Bu^brnta 
atadtslance^ but did not mipd. them «[)6di./TbQ h^% 
wad so great oq Tburiday, (Sept^dj) wbeo votumiftg^ 
that they travelled r^iy. eiawfy, butobsefved qq Bnabt 
Bieil.. When it grew cooler, they foicVaned their {h|qc^ 
A litl^ after 6uii*8et;> aa arrow was sbf^t- fjrom bebind a 
busby but beiogaloHmt dark, they perceived no pes9Pa 
near tbem. Oae or two of tbeiu fired towards the bu^ 
but saw A^^flfect. By this single «hat poor Peefeuaefa 
^alii was occasioned^ It is Msnatkable, tbai be wf» 
iibt invited to eoflfie with us from Betbeladdrp oa lbi> 
jouroey, but he followed ug to GraafSbeyaet, to r»t|ae9t 
^s to take bim with us a» one nff our guands : nor was hf^ 
at the time he was shot, desired logo with the nlt]e>s 
but obBeirting one who bad been \grtt«ibliaig at the ^p- 
pointf&enty tie went up pe bim,' a^d his guo, aad imi 
he would go for him* TheroaoHiefeerat noon 16. , . ; 
- 1 Itb. T^ our no small aurpiise 4nd igratiiiQationA abp«*t 
ttidnight we were joiped by.Mr. Scbnielea« a adiasiiNiary^ 
«Hd«eferal people bctonging Jto die Namscqua fi|iMOi» 
wbe liappeoed to be at an on tpost^ aiid hearAiaf 9m ajftuft- 
4ton from the persons we bad diispatebed to seek JMp^ 
-Tbeir^rmal reminded 4&e.of jPauf« fiaelings al; . Aff»^ 
forum : when the brebbven ff om fionse met ibin)» JM^ 
-^ thanked God atod took oourage/'* Theae friends in- 
formed fis that Bushtneo fa^d fdlowied 4islraiii ibe.Wil* 
lerfaH, watchifig ibr an opperUmiity tofdumder {i^rlfait 

* Aflts xxviii* J&. 



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these poor creatures had been so ill treated by the boon 
from the colony, that they bow endeavour to murder 
every man who wears a hat, which is the only way by 
which they can distinguish a Boor. They are connected 
with Africaner, gii^g tfiM H slbafe df what plunder they 
take, especially if they find powder. 3 

At seven in the morning we interred the remains of 
poor Peek u re, at the foot "of the mountain behind our 
wi^gdnfif. fiis body was tied up in his caross, or shep- 
li«i4's (gi^ak. At tfi^ graVe Mr. Read gaire an addressp 
iiftiet whifeh wcf jolndd in pi*ayer and teng a hymn. 

At ten, AiM/ we left I>eaih^vale, and lit a liitie dt»- 
tanee we killed % 5^1ow «^rptot about six feetlong^ tt|e 
Hfsi 0f that kind wi hold seiHi od our j<a«ttt6yi We tni*- 
mited westward e^et ^ d^f saindy pleiti, with bilb lb 
tte right and Itft A^^lit^r watf^t wa» ^Kpended» iwt 
^ere obliged iti^ceBsatitly to proceed' till We should uMlte 
.to seme fountain; bat w^ did not arHve nt <me till lialf 
past ten o'clock at night, when we reached Kabas Foliii- 
teitn; ifebich lay befainid a rahgt^ of mountains which «^ere 
4n vfew tiie whole of the day. The sight of water w^ 
tNily ptea«lant Id man afnd beast. Here we found C>ur 
cattle that bad been sent on before. Sortne of our cxf^k 
iMtd t)Ot tested water for thre^ days; they dmnk, aiciil 
dr^nk a^in, and «eetn^d loiith m \^k\^e kt. 

l%th. In the niorning M^ foutid, tha;t tliotigb there was 
wat^r^ yet there v^s not It bteiiie of ^u for ocr ^pcmc 
worn oiit diten v& e^t; igotisequ^Mly> though the Lord% 
dKyi we wereobiigted to hastai -awaiy &s fest as pGttnbkt; 
wherefore, at ten, A. M. we traV^Jfed N. klo«g tte *«it 
of £.ibaxi Moomailis^ ov^r ^atiH and t^k^, till ^ai-lbur, 
♦K M* wtien we avim td ^ r^»mtot*c eorn^, whcfire w^ 
ft^hd Pdla, the Namacqwa tntsstoiiary station, and widi 
intldi pleasure nnnet the bvetli ren. in the even i^ weixad 
a meeting to return thinks to God £c^ out pi^servartfon^m 
wii- j^oumey. Th-ermometefr at noOn «o : at three, i<i fehe 
^V^i^^ tltrhnSe iteiscending the Ifong l$and billlx>^elia)98% 



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800 . NAMACQUALANt^. [181% 

CHAP. XXXII. 

NAMACQUALAND. 

Occurrences at Pelh-^Excursion'^Sipgular Disease among 
' •■ '• Sheep. ■ 

, Empxoyed the greater part of the dayin collectiog 
inf6rniation respecting the Damara, and other nations 
beyond Great, or North Namacqualand. The Namac- 
quas who were collected., to. give the information -were 
surprised and amused by many of the questions asked» 
being unable .to conceive why I wished to know such 
things about a people I . liad never .seen. To observe 
•their significant smile while answering some of my ques* 
lions was very entertainii^.. Thernfto^ieter at sun-rise» 
•50. At noon, 88. . . / . . 

The Namacquas live in low circnWr huts, like the 
Corannas, composed of branches of trees bent, and stuck 
into' the ground at bo.th ends, with mats invade pf rushes 
•thrown over them. They differ from the Corannas in 
this, that in the inside they dig about a foot, or a foot 
and a half into the ground, which they lie in to protect 
tfaem, they say, from the wind. A more barren. looking 
spot can hardly be conceived than Pella, all around being 
white sand, interspersed with a few bushes; two sides 
of which space, the N. and £• are bounded by high, 
rugged, black .mountains. .... 

We visited their gardens in the afternoon, the sight of 
which cast a gloom on every countenance. It was the 
second month in their spring, many seeds liad been 
'sown, but most had perished, in consequence. of the salt- 
.petre with which the ground was impregnated, : as soon 
asr they had raised their heads above ground— rotbeis 
.seemed struggling to live. I do not recollect pbservioff 



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ria(i-x.r,iocUf 




iixt>\rj":^^ wt: \\{ ?i/. 



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SEPT.] NAMACQUALAND* 801 

a single smile in any countetiance^ while viewing the 
garden. The water is the only temptation they have to 
remain at Pella. The banks of the Great River, which 
are only about four miles distant, are so covered with 
rocks that they cannot live on it. ' 

14tb. Thermometer at noon, 84. We had still unin« 
terrupted sun-shine, but though cheering to look up« 
ward, it was gloomy to look downward, for every thing 
had a sickly, dying aspect. At dinner a whirlwind came, 
which filled the house full of dust, and obliged us to 
spread a cloth over what was on the table till it subsided* 
I was greatly pleased with an exercise which Mr. Helm 
had with the young people in the morning, viz. reading 
«ome verses out of the Bible, and explaining them in a 
simple way by question and answer. As most of the 
people understand only the Namacqua language, the 
missionaries are obliged to address them through inter- 
preters, of whom they have two, who appear well qua- 
lified for the office — ^they speak with readiness and ap- 
parent interest. 

15th. In the morning we took a ride through the 
kloof, or defile to the Great River. In our way ran a 
brook of brackish or salt water, which disappeared among 
sand apd appeared again about eight times. We had 
been only a few minutes at the river when Mr. Read 
caught a large fish among the stones, which directed the 
attention of all to the obtaining more, and they obtained 
near two dozen of various kinds in the course of an hour. 
Perhaps this little circumstance may increase the comfort 
of the settlers at Pella, who were not aware that fish 
could be so easily obtained. The people are not fond of 
fish, yet to save their sheep, they may be induced to 
catch a few now and then, which may in time produce a 
fondness for that kind of food. . 

The river was bounded by extremely barren and high 
mountains on each side, which barely allowed it room to 
flow. Those on the north side are almost black, with 



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Md'Jtihere; ithoseton tti^^outb aicte 9oe coinppsed^ i^prnf 

d£ i)ed,,obfaer8Qf'to)VD:8tOQa» ynhkik .^pv^mi 9» itf l^i)? 

Mjface had bean io ? £uFfiace» mtii tbe Mhffi^XGV^i 

over them. The heat wbicb tbey endure Jfnu^t be gr«94 

fer their aspect isidiredtly {fackig tbe sun. Tihe ii^ly 

fr«ea cf tbe tr^es which Una ithe ^ver on ^bolh ^ideil* 

:fon»6 n striking pootfast with ithemelanobolyvdeat^-'like 

^uppearanceiOf these mountains. The structure <^ the 

anountaiiis is their qnly ^beauty, wbicb is iso diversified 

«8Dd atupendoas as toxompel one to vit^wctb^m with wQfr 

ider»:tbougb I believe tbay hav6 Ihadibpt few adfliirers 

^mce itheir' creation. We irode alopg the south ,\mok ii 

/the liver :above five or six unlles doxvn* VfkeVi s^^rtuumi^ 

rmp^liy a narrow cut» vtfarough tihe &ioi;|ntains,;id)Qut two 

'miles of wbidh «Qseakbkd a giant'^ staiixaae-rrweiaaQepd^ 

•^Hilfeorseback^ 9tq). after. stepr wbicb was vecy troubto- 

-toine to ouDbonse^) w some tif.the steps 9V£jre ab^ut iyrp 

-feet high, and many, of tlie iH-o^d iflmt rocka ov^er wbicb 

they had to go, were smooth and slippery* Thp ,wp 

sw&siiiearly dojwn before we readbedJi)e;sumii)ito£Athis 

:;ii«m)w pass, svbich.iQ'mostpl^es.wafl Qnly.afew:yanls 

wide!:;.tho«i^b tbeisidfs/^yemtnany bundled; feet. in psr- 

..pendieulai: ; bejgh L Some . paiis . ikf tbe . cut^f ^:iit .^tbe 

; sutiamit were .so thickly strewed .with «/salt)ftetre».>that it 

•ap^red ;as ifieoyared.witli.&tDOw. By dicing in ithe 

iisaod at /ode (|DtaQetwe found watentojalbiy jour itbiiat, 

.iTfaemwie rede for two; hours Ata quick raie brfore «e 

ii:i^Bie'in*aigfat <if the i tights of.Peiia, jwbere we /arrived 

ijabV^ eigfato'doisk. .We to6k Uiia circuitous way home^ 

' lO'ekjaminea^fa^wtain wJiich Mr* AlhrJoht wishedus'to 

^•866; butiour gi^ide f^igot^ljpdfidint itputto us .wfaep ivre 

/:w«f6pafsiD9tiflar4t^aatdias.nv9bt wais Tcomingon before 

we discovered the error, .sre. could. linot setum to .Aeamh 

:i^it. . . ., : 

'We fouaditiwcviyAd'ibe^ooiAasysmalteff^ 
. PdIaiuB£cMre;!lheji»iny. 8^aiOftinjJaiuiary» ma % wideode- 



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^bpt.3 mMAaSDALKSfOL MS 

nertVie^ h^texiit and the eoloby. The inigsiobaiikn 
metk at^aaiiited wittti ttyree ways. In the east way^ there 
ift no waterier three lotig days' joumey^-^in the middle 
way, no witer fbr dvree 'days* journey, land ^ Hhat ttemssm 
%ven libe foatltsff h'or pool woutd he dry-*— the west /way is 
ttown the 6T8»t River for sievenil days' joiirrn^y, most wf 
fthJb road being stdny and rocky, and much exposed to 
*wnd 8«i^ihen:^ srfterHeliving the river 'there are> two long 
^dtfys!jolirn«^ acmes the^esertto Kamis Mountain with- 
out water. The missionaries advised we should ssBiala 
.tin January ^i^heh'the rains are ex{)eoted. The .'nftiddle 
9oad being ^impassable, and the liver road being doubfe 
the distance, and so rocky as to eodanger our wpaggens, 
'We'Wsre'tesblved to ;try tbeeaBtefnTOad* 

16th. fl^iker itioibeter «Et nopn, 64. A ^raryidestruiEtilve 

•dtseaaelal^iyfsrevaited among the ahei^pia tlie IJIasiac- 

^qda country,, wiiich 'has tedooid tseirensil persons ifrom a 

^tatejofafflueiiee 10 poverty. In. 'the night time, iviien 

the sheep are asleep in the kraal, ait at once thisy will 

'WiAf^ upas in* a fright, in cbissequdnce of which many of 

4tMB ^e found Withb?oken legs in the morning* One 

^man hitely lost three-hundred -sfaettp'in this way« 

. Wihenaf family icfU la^sheep, :|hey can only:obtaift-a 

share of it, as the neighbours who all know twinthas 

rbeen'doae, ropairrtothei hofu^e, add the whole is .eaten 

.up befof^ tfaey leave it. This «ieem8^, foom custom, to 

^beta^kiad oflaw«ai)io$g Hhein,.. whkh it woiiUi ht^ diffi- 

.oM;U for aiiMnily to set<a£>id^, Th^y come d^t ^dtfl^ent 

~tmi#s«oftbe day to the^ door oft th^^missionartes^ add 

.wbontliey salute (hem. with Qoed inom^g, it i^ l^e 

aame as telliiQg tM^ithj^ have eat i^ptbiiig thaybidi^y. 

17tb. ThePimometter iat t^n.rise 48* . At noon^ :85. 
. We* had m^e^tog ^ith- the missioiiarid^ wIh^ tested 
rthe wl^ole day, -eonversiAg ^oa the • coQcerns <of ttte-^mife- 
.fusion, ^he »»)!issionaries f^pipe^red to be worliby 'Qiea : 
(S^n^-froni tbe extreme Mrt€fiine^s:pf the toil ; Ae. .uoi* 
versal sand with which the country is covered; its 



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904 NAMACQjUALANir. [1813. 

nakedness, together. with the grdat heat, they have to 
endure greater hardships than any of the other brethren 
in South Africa. They were very anxious that newspa* 
pers might be sent them from England^ that they might 
know what was transacting on the greait theatre of the 
world. They agreed that their settlement should be 
named Pella/asit had been a refuge to them from the 
ravages of Africaner, as ancient Pella had been to the 
Jewish Christians when Jerusalem was invaded by the 
Romans. 

18th. Therinometer at sun-rise, 50. At noon, 83. 
Net with the missionaries the whole day considering the 
.affairs of the mission. 

Observing two families removing their huts only to 
about fifty yards distance, I enquired the reason, and 
found they had been overrun with fleas, and their remov- 
ing was in older to escape from them. It is probable 
the fleas of the old huts would disperse among the sur- 
rounding habitations. . 

19th. Mr. Albricht preached in the morning; after 
vi^hich the church commemorated the dekth of Christ- 
Mr. Read preached in the afternoon and I in the evening 
— about two hundred pe^^ons were present at the differ- 
ent meetings. 

SOthi. Held a meeting with all the rtales belonging to 
the settlement The two captains, viz. Owib the fether, 
and Ws son Bundelzwart With their people, who 'fled 
witWhe missionaries from Warm Bath in Great or Notth 
Namacqualatid, are resolved to return. Fleurmuis (or 
Bat) another Namacqua chief also designs to return ^ 
soon as he can find a fountain sufiicient for his pedple. 
The Bastard Namacquas likewise appear tired of this 
barren place, and propose moving higher up the river. 
The conduct of the missionaries will depend Upon these 
resolutions being carried into effect— but it is desirable 
that Pella, or Bysondermaid, be a missionary station to 



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««^T«3 ^AXAOSJALASB. SOS 



eofi<Q«ct tne tuissionft Id Otett NamaoquaWmd wSkb the 
colotigF. All who wish to refRove ale anxiolia tbat a 
lOidsidDary ahould accompany tbem, witfaoal wbicli I 
hardly 4^liiDb liiijr of them will raiiiote* 

The <mty 0l]jeetiaci of iitifiortaiice to their a^paratidg 
tiEr^ that it dtrid^^ Cheir strength, ted congequenlly ia 
likely to indttce the plmiderifig Afncaoer to attack themi 
Therndofneter at noon, 96: at 4, 91. The day geoerally 
fUcreases in warnith till four o'clock, after which it 
grad uaHy beeomes cooled. 

The lliea are very ntfflMroita aod teiy troubtejEK^me all 
th^ year. Tbey bai^ a stmtige tuetfartyd of obtaioiog 
lend porary relief frodi tbeal^. Tbey rub tailk over their 
aheep, and plaeirig them before the door, drive out tbd 
flfea, which idstantly light upon the aheepwHosd baoka 
«re wet with milk, when they are driven to a dis^nce, 

ntit. The people again ataeiabied^ wheii tbey agreed 
to e^abtkh amoffg. them th« aame laws, which bavie bead 
UdOpiedin Griqfualdfnd ; they c^kisb persona who were 
to act a» judges ii» c^^iir^ati^tioi} with the cafftains, and 
fixed t] pod the limits of the land which th^ oeeupyi 
wher^ fbef laws ane to be enforced. Eocbufaged tti« 
peo^ple to beg%i mme trade with' the CoraoMtil, G#eai 
Nari^aequas, Dan^aras, &c 

Tber*xMa€ftet at nooaii 8t. Many cloiids ware aemi 
this day at the bottom of the horizon towards Ule &W4 
irtiicb occurred seteml times before^ but they hevar ^* 
proached nearer, it was near the dose of tdie rainy Jm^ 
son at aboat seventy niiles distance m that direction^ yet 
there was cofYStant saiY^shine at Pelia, wilibouiku minata 
of inteirapcion, and no rain w|is expeeted befiwe Decern' 
her or January. 

1 wrote a <»4»eiliatory letter to Africaner, to bring 
hit9, if possible, to coMent to live in peace with the om^ 
sionary settlements. I mid« up « present to acoo||0)Miny 
the letter, which two Bushmen engaged to convey to him. 

The missionaries say that the Namacqups are naturally 

X 



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aM JUMACQUALANB. ^181* 

a timid people. For a long time after they had fled across 
the Great River, from a dread of Africaner, the le^st ris- 
ing of dust or sand excited great consternation ; they 
were sure it was Africaner. coming against themw Few 
of them are tall, anti generally they are of a slender make* 

The inhabitants of Fella living entirely on their cattle, 
and haying no trades and few wan t$». seem to spend most 
of their time in little grow pes conversing together; witb 
the exception of those win) understand and Ipve the gos- 
pel, their conversation must be extremely frivolous^ The 
only occurrence I ob^rved, iias the departure of their 
cattle in the morning, and thei-r i^turnin the. evening. 
They are a very honest people, so that I was informed 
that stealing is a crime little known among them. The 
water they use is a little braclush and of an aperient qua^ 
lity. : ' . 

I observed, on a Pefickly bush a beautiful inseqt^/aboat 
half an inch long, covered with scarlet, with yellow spots 
here and there. Though it had wings it seemed not 
more inclined to use them than a tame duck. What 
phiefty drew my attention to it, was it3 manner of de» 
scending the bush when disturbed ; It drew in its wings 
and its body, till it became as round as a pea, and rolled 
from leaf to leaf till it was lo9t in the grass.. This the 
same creature did several times when I attempted to 
touch it. 

- The missionaries meet with the people twice every day 
for instruction, and three times on the Lprd*s day. The 
number of men belonging to the settlement is one hun- 
dred and seventy-four, women two hundred and three^ 
young men twenty-two, young women forty-six, chil- 
dren one hundred and ninety-one. The church consists 
pf nineteen members, and the school contains one ban- 
dred and fifty. Mrs. Ebner and Mrs. Helm (aughl 
twenty-five girls needle^ work. 



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$E»T.l GREAT NAMACQUA COUNTRY. 80t 

t 

CHAP. XXXIIL 



Account of Great Namacgua Country. 

I HAD a meeting with two Great Naniacqua chiefs and 
teveral others, from whom I derived the following in- 
formation respecting that country. 

It lies N. and S. between the Great River and the 
Damara country, which is about twenty-five days* jour- 
ney i« an ox waggon, or nearly five hundred miles, not 
in r«al latitude, but in travelling. . It lies chiefly along 
the sea coast,, or Ethiopic Ocean, and does not extend 
up, or east, from it above ten days* journey. It is, in 
general, hilly and stony. . The inhabitants have a word 
in their language to express a supreme being, viz. Suiquap, 
or wounded knee, but they, know nothing of him ; nor 
do they. know that they have" soUls, but suppose they 
die as the beasts do. When there is an eclipse of the siin 
or moon, they are much alarmed, for they expect great 
sickness wiH succeed. When certain stars appear in the 
heavens, they expect certain roots which they eat will 
then be ripe, and dig for them accordingly. When they 
see the planet Jupiter, which they call Koumhoop, they 
say, now is the fruitful season : the name signifies lambs 
loose,, or lamb time. Three stars in a row (or Orion's 
bdt) which the Dutch call the three kings, they ctall 
Kooreekoo, or wild horses. The sun they . call Sooris; 
and the moon, Kaap. All the stars together they call 
KameroQ. When they observe any luminous appear- 
since, resembling the Aurora Boreali^, they consider it 
a^ an unlucky sign. They know no more of the world 
• than what is round about them. They dance to music 
from flutes made of reeds and the root of the camel- 
thorn tree, and use drums made of skins. They manu- 
facture wooden vessels for holding milk, and bowls, assa- 
i^y^f rings, a j:es of iron, and knives ; they dress hides, 
and dig wells, &c. 

X2 

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GMAT 9AMAC€S0A eOtMHT. {t&mi. 

They abound in horned cattle, goats and sheep ; tak- 
ing care of which is Ihe o^\y worH aligned to their chil- 
dren. The women mak& mats of rushes for covering 
their huts, milk thecowb, buitd the« huts, and dig root» 
for food. Wbe» they many, tX\^ husband gives cattle 
to the parents of the female, and also slaughters sopie 
for a feast. The sporty of qbildren are, riding on shee^^ 
6hooling or throwing arrows at each other^ and fre^uen^v 
ly combats wi.th sma]l stones. Two parties ofte^. ^ve 
a set fight ; they who conquer seize on thq cows of tjl^eir 
Opponents and dripk their milk, after which they tsp 
turn them* . r ; 

Parents appear to bavQ m affection, for tUeir cbi^n^t 
and^ldptii beat tbepi, even whep tbey deserve it^ fa^uik 
tbechildret), when tbey grpw up, often beat tb^^ir ^ 
lents. Shoutd any of them happen to break ^ liru^j^ tb^ 
lie splinters of' wood round it, like a boot, wl)ii(Qb ist 
worn* until the licpb be healed* Tbi^y are ^enei^aUy k}fA 
to the sick;, and rub over with fet tho^e parts, wbej:e,thf 
patient feels most pain. They are afraid at thq approacjjt 
of disath, but none coutd inform, me of the caj;ise of tbeU 
fear. Some of them treat their aged and infv'.m friejqidii 
with kindness ; but others, when they are about tp x^ 
inove fron^ one part* of the, country to anptberoi ipak^a 
smaH inclosi^re with bushes, in which tbpy; put thieix 
aged father or mother who cannot walk,, apd Un^ygf ni^ 
them some food and water, perbaps, a sbe^p,, wkich 
h intended to be their last food; aft^i; whi^b tbey. Ift^yt 
them to die : sonie, from poverty, can leayq tbftn^ i\Q^ 
thing* They bury their dead in a rotund bole. • . 

They exercise something like witchcraft,;, for. wbcn^ 
person is ip great pain, they frequently perfo.fm.oon^ 
motions over the place where the pain is ; som,etim^ tbfift 
let asm^atll piece of wood drop upon, it from tbfiir, OQW^i 
which they assert qaipe ogt of the isick persoA!^. fl^bii 
At othe^ti'm^s they kill ap. animfil,, and ipak^ a, glastei^ 
otitsfet^ vyhicb they It^ over the plagej^^ acQQO^aqi.oil 



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M»^} «REAT SAMlltJQUa COUNTRY. »» 

^itli maoy motioos of a ItB^itbr kiiid. Tfaey iikewi^tt 
frequently /make an inoifibn into Ihepart where the pain 
ill. Tkey lire greatly afraid of tti^ ineteof w^h m 
vulgarly called a falling star, for they cowid^r it ^ 
#i^ that sitkneaa is coiling u^on tbeic oittle^ and to 
fescape it they v^itl imtnediatdy drive theHi to eom<e other 
fiiarts .t)f the country* Ttoey call otst 16 the ^ar how 
tany cattle tfaey hare^ and beg of it not to«^iid «tckn69l« 
ft is Very rare for a Namacqua to loaTe his OWo «ouiitiy« 
«teff on a ti^ropdrary tisit to another. 

Their population hfts been reduced by the ware of fdt^ 
liier times^ and by broils among thennrivesi Their 
wars generally originate in dieputee abont datlie, in 
Which consiiststheil- chief wealthy and frequently in 6M 
tflbe boH^inlf of it% lUpeHority toanoth<2r, which roua^ 
li% the j[>ride and rage Of the pariy insnlted^ they fly t9 
Itrtn^nierel]^ id ascertain Which tribe ia sti'dngeat Tbeit 
otj^ct iti war ia tb r6b ^ch ^ihtt df tbeit' tftttle^ and tbit 
gives fi%(a to their fighting i ^f tourftev th^ batkhs* att 
<i1way8 in the vicinity of thelir caUle Kfaaki; They take 
ptii^het^, tmsk each tether, iftotne of whKNti M the conclu* 
^n tof the war are killed, and others libdrftt^^ Some of 
(beOreat^Iiraii&abqiiai hft^ tiiA<^elled ns ftr «6 Ci^-towtt^ 
%avfe #<>nde^ed at #bal they lavT there, %ut nmiehat* 
is^ernttenfirpl^ lollttilate ai^ thing Whteh th^y ^v^, fbr 
ih^ttoVCrino ambition to dWt^ in thf (hifig ftdtn th« 
manners and customs ^f their fbrefilthM. 

Their principal method of killing game is, by a 
wbot^'kr^al W town turning out and forming tbemsi^lves 
into a circle, surrounding the ground where the game ia. 
aupposed to be, t^en contracting the circle till the game 
^Ibrought within a snmll compass, when they attack and 
kilt them with their asaagays or spears. 

Old age is very comm^^ among them, and you will 
frequently meet persona no infirm by age* thai they l^e 
incapable of Aloving. The .eldest son in the family 
Iniierila all his fatbisr's priqp^rty : if any otller bnthto 



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810 GREAT NABfACQUA COUNTRY. (1818. 

obtains any thing, it must be by dmt of fightii^. What 
js a very unfeeling Guatom is» that the poor widow gets 
nothing. Their only liquor, as aaiong the Bushmen, is 
made from honey. 

When their sons are declared to be men, they erect a 
shed, kill an animal, and tie its fat on his head and round 
his neck, which according to custom he must wear it 
till it gradually rots and falls off. They likewise^cut several 
strokes on his breast with a sharp instrument. They 
also collect all the milk belonging to the kraal, with 
which they make a feast in honour of the occasion ; after 
which he remains eight days under the shed, when they 
have a dance. The entrails of the animal whidi was 
killed at the commencementof the ceremony, being dri6d 
and pounded into a powder, are now n^ixed with waiter 
with which he is rubbed all over, and he is then declared 
to be a man in the presence of the whole kraal. During 
the ceremony he is allowed only to drink cow's milk} 
should he taste any other food,'all that is past of the ce* 
remony must be repeated. He who does not submit to this 
ceremony eats only with women, and is despised. When 
a man, for the first time, kills an elephant, sea-^aw, or 
rhinoceros, particular honour is attached to hira, which 
is expressed by insignia similar to those in Europe, only 
made of different materials. They compose rings ci 
the entrails of the slain animal, which they put on bit 
arm, and these he constantly wears. 



Names of the differefU tribes, and their chiefs, in Greai 
Namacqua country. 

TRIBBS. CHIEFS. 

KammuqwMU Karrimeoss. 

Karakakoois Kachap: these live on the 

coast. 
Oicais, or Mountain Tribe, Kandelaar : these live oa 

. the Karis Mountain. 
Naumnkasii Karrawap, near the Fish 

Riven 



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fifipT.l BAMARA COUNTRT. an 



dme of tribe UDknown] • . Sauganuip, near the same' 
JSTotii^y <a nameroat tribe • « Saumap, more to the north. 
JTatiMn^, ditto ...... Marramap^ ferther to . the 

oortb. 

Koomiss, .,.,.; [Chief unknown.] 

JKookaus^ .♦....- Haukauma^ to E. or up from 

foast. 



CHAP. XXXIV. 



Account of Ddmara Country. 

, The Damara country ifes along the W. coast of 
Africa/immediately N* of ^be -Great Namacqua countiy, 
%bo«it 'twenty-five days' journey beyond the mouth of 
Great River. The ^jeqple are divided into two classes^ 
Ae rich and the pooc The latter live in the vicinity of 
the ocean, and frequently engage as servants to the Na« 
macquas. The riohes ^f the other consist in cattle. 
They work a little in iron and brras, making assagays^ 
knives, and rings. There is a copper mine 4n Damara^ 
from which they manufacture rings for the ears, arms, and 
legs/ with which they carry on a trade with their neigh-* 
hours. They also manufacture iron vessels. Their 
houses resemble those <»f the Hottentots, shaped like 
baker's ovens. The poorer sort cover themselves with* 
grass and cow dung: the richer are clothed with cow 
skins. They are as black as the natives of Mosambique 
on the eastern coast, and like th^m have large lips, and 
their language is similar. 

Five tribes compose the Damara nation, 1st. Kuiwip, 
en the sea coast. — 2d. N. of them is Komass. — 3d.' 
Houdam— 4th. Soudamma, to the eastward — 5th.Koop. 
The poor Damaras are called Gauw, and the rich Goo-, 
macha. The Damaras are a nunaerous people in the es- 
timation of the Namacquas. 

.' Their chief amusement is dancing to music from a reecJL 
They beat also on an instrument made of skin^ resem*, 



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n» SAMAEA. ooranniii fittti 

bliog a dttim. On siwh obcasiDf a Ihisjf ba«i tfapir oMift- 
collected* and dtMe tefort tliem, 16 tba pioperty Ihejf 
diiefly delight in. ^ They inafcruct their ehiidrea J«9w ta 
kill lions, and to make troughs of wood for their cattle 
to drink out of. 

Marriage can hardly be aaid to ^xiat among them. 
They take a woman lind keep her, till they are tired, or 
quarrel, or see another they lik€ better. Circumcis|oii 
pbtams among them. They also, li)ce the Namacquas, 
are terrified at the approach of death, but I could not 
learn the cause of their fear. They ar^ kind to their 
friends in war, for if any of^ them be Wounded, they 
carry them off the field. 

On the death of a rich man, they cover his grave witk 
the horns and bones of the cattle he had killed, when alifse^ 
ae a proof, frotto their number, that he was rieh. It i» 
wonderftii that in every country nchas attach more ioipor^ 
tance to the possessor than real worth or ei^ccellence^ 
which proves the universal degeneracy of tai^te and wiSf^ 
doin. Riches cover a multitude of imperfections. Wbit^ 
th^ worthy poor man Is fbrgotter» in a day, the unwdrtbg^f 
rich is remembered long. Such diatinctiona are mi^ 
kfiown beyond the grave. There, character d^ods qsi 
genuine worth.' 

' The Oan^Foa are often at war with the Na^ainpiaa^ 
These wars are generally in consequence of tbeii! 
stealing women from each other* In these, theii enden* 
vours are directed to the obtaining €Mh otbef^ cattily 
The prisoners taken by the Damaras ire not put to de>t^ 
but are made either servants or interpieters. 

If strangers visit them peaeeabty, they are ktwily 
treated. They have gardem surrounded by itedges* im 
which they raise calabashes, pumpkins, &e. The men 
wear no clothing except a small apron before, nmli 4f 
women a piece of skin wrapped around theif mid4|f^ 
The countrj^ has few hills, few Iroea, batdfy My baaN^ 
bet fhuch grass, thoegil the soilis ehiafiy sandy^ leould 
only bear of two fiHn, the Koeyopanit diolto«jiO|V 



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CHAR xxxv. 



i t 9 < Hi " M 



Nations b^md D(uiu»a. 

tit the^ Very little xi known by the NlflMtcqiMiu 
There isa n<iHon M the w^-cMet called Kabbe^ wb6'aH0 
black, and their hair like that of the Hottentots, growi 
in little woolly tufta. /from these people the Dutch^ in 
(&e days <€ the s|«?e innle, frequeat^ brought slaves. 
They manufacturQ se?eral articles from if oii which they 
sell te the Damaras. Ther^ is alfo . a natioQ caUed 
NavisS, which is raported to be a mimeroas apd powerful 
people. They live more to the eastward^ or higbef in 
the interior than, the Kid>be. 

The liftle information which I eouM obtain concerning 
the nations beyond the Great River on the western shores 
of Africa^ conviiicied.metbat it woqld be highly gratifying 
to th^ society, and likewise to the fHiblic mt l^ge, to 
eaase these countries to be explored^ beopiuae it is proba« 
hie a most extehsvve. field should tbei^Vy be laid open foi; 
the ^xerttonof 'ehsistian benevolence* ]yf y fellonF-traveU 
)«r Ml*. Read,^ and the brsthrw at Pellat eotartain^ tbs^ 
same sentiments. Accordingly it was proposed to Mr* 
Schmelen, an nctive isaloiit missionary* Ibat whop tbo 
niny season commmced^ ^bidi nstially is iq J(aawMfy, ha 
Aould first explore the month o( the. Qct^ Riv^* ^ 
see if there be any spot suited for a intsaioaiury sta.tiott« 
and if there he any safe harbour or anehforage for shiph 
hjr which goods from CapMowo might be broiig^t by 
whaling vessels to the missionnry ^Uemsnts on Um( 
Qreat River, which wbnM he a great snvii^ of expense 
to the Society, and of toil and peril to the oiissiooarjea. 
It was prO|)08ed that he sbootd then tmvol along the 
shores of Great Namaequaland^ searching for inlata« 
harbours, rivers, fonntaina, and land capnbla of im* 
provement^-^that hie should ascertain the. number of 
hthahitanti^ Ikeir maftBcta and ousloms, whether willing 
to recent ittrtrmtion among tfaem^ and varipus oth^r 



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314 BUSHMEN* mu^ 

circumstances which were stated to bim-^-*thens if be 
found it practicable, that he should proceed along, the 
Daroara coast, making the same enquiries, without at« 
lempting to proceed farther in a nortberjy direction, but 
that he should obtain all possible informatioft coiicerQiiig 
the nations beyond the Damaras.* 

BUSHMEN. 

• It is difl^cult to ascertain, with any precision, what 
may be called the Bushmen*s country ; the people live' 
in so scattered a manner, and so • frequently £ake * up a. 
temporary residence in various parts of South Africsl. 
The greatest number of tbem seem to reside upon the 
four rivers which may be termed tbe four sources of thb 
Great River, viz. the Malalareen, Yellow, Alexandbf, 
and Cradock rivers, which lie towards the eastern coast 
of Africa. Caffraria, and the countries of tbe Tam-^ 
bookies and Mambookies are between them and the 
Indian Ocean. Some of tbem wander about the sides 
of the Great River from the junction of the four rivers 
which compose it down to the very mouth. Tbe tribe 
of Bushmen who live towards the mouth of the Great 
Biver are called Navii Ikaa. The name Bushmen per* 
haps origiuated from two causes: 1st. From their coun- 
try, which lies between the Great River on the north, 
and Sneuberg, &c. in the colony on the south, and is 
bounded by Caffraria, on the east, being almost destitute 
of trees, but much of it being covered with bushes : 
Sd. From their ineihod of assault, as they never attack 
man or beast openly but froni behind bushes. 

I understand that some of them have a confused idea 
of a Great Being, and actions which they consider it im- 
possible for man to effect they ascribe to^that Being, but 
they have no knowledge that they are possessed of souls 
any more than beasts; of course they have no knowledge 
of a future state of existence. The inhabitants of the 

* Intelligence t just been received of Jlfr. Schmelen's rc-.^ 
turn af r a jour » y of .five months in these countries^ some ac-. 
count of which will be inserted in the Appen^su ' ' 



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•fin.) BUSHMEN. Zlfk 

middle regionsof Africa.such as those nations on the coast 
4Df Guinea, and in the interior from it, have some confused 
idea of an existence after death, for many of them who 
have been dragged from their native climes to slavery in 
our West India Islands have derived comfort in their 
doleful oondicion, from the forlorn hope, that when they 
die, they shall, return to their own country: but this 
supe ior knowledge may arise from two causes, their be* 
ing much nearer to Judea the fountain of all sound know- 
ledge of God: audlikewise to Arabia, the original seat 
«f Mabometanism ; and especially from Mahometan 
Moors frequently traversing these regions. But those 
parts of South Africa which are inhabited by Hottentots, 
Caffres, Bushmen, Corannas, Bootchuanas, Namaquas, 
«md Damaras, have been far more distant from these sour-^ 
cesof information, and perhaps in some parts so separa- 
ted by trackless and waterless deserts, that few persons 
possessing any valuable information have been able to 
cross them, consequently it is not wonderfdl to find 
these nations who live at the southermost parts of the 
^arth, which were inaccessible before the days of ex- 
.^ended navigation, so ignorant of revealed truth. But 
the God of heaven, who is rich in mercy, has in these 
last days led men to find out methods for circumnavi« 
gating the globe^ and carrying bis treasures of truth iuto 
every land. 

The Bushmen are said to be kind to their own offsprings 
though there are frequent instances of women who have 
had children murdering them, if the father refused to 
provide for them. 

Thechief amusements of their children are shooting 
arrows at insects and beasts, and throwing assagays. Their 
i^nly employment is to fetch water for the family. The 
parents only teach their children how to act in war, and 
counsel them to be faithful to each other. They very 
seldom chastise their children, but when they do, even 
the least of them will resist by throwing stones at their 
parents. 



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They make nothiDg but bows/arrowti mi pdtt of 
clay. They generally jcariy their wajter io 09irkh ^gg 
shells, and the shell of ,tbe lan4 tortoise; they iikewiid 
use the latter as a (}ish| out of whkh tbey eat^ 

They use uo fqrin in their marriages. A young man 
courts the object of bis affecti^n-^teaEes her in th^ tli^ 
time to take him to ^ her husbaDd* and tf Ul eomttimM 
pull her out of tl^e hut while asl^p, and teate her ttU 
he obtains her cooseut He need not ask th^conaent of 
her parents^ or even tell tham» but on knarrtage fa^ makei 
a feast for them, when be gives theo^ a preflsot Cff k bow 
and arrows, or an assagay^ or a skin aack* 

The prevailing disease^ among tbem are fevers and 
consumptions. They use no medicioes except a.certain 
root. They have also what tbey term a snonng OTef the 
sick, when they pretdnd to take animals froroi tbeoi* 
When any of th^m has a broken limb, tbey aow a pitoa 
of skin tight roui^.it. Tbey ana* considerably affecied 
when afnypjsrspu is Ukely to die, and make lamentationa 
over bim, and continue doii^ so for several days. Tha 
fri^nd/s of th^ d^c^ased attend his funeral; and irhea 
buried, ttiey deposit, his bow apd staff into the graven 
and surround it with a hedge. . iSometimea when ^ pel^ 
pon is sick, they will s^nd for one who is reputed a witch 
pr wizard^ who danc?^ round them,, an^ exerciaes some 
pretended influence. Tbey believe that such a person 
has power to inflict death i indeed they tbiftk tbat but 
for them nq person yfoM dt^* 

, They,89n^e.tia)ies <iuarre\ amopg themaelves, and £gfat 
with their poisoned arrows, but generally these quarrels 
are soon over» when they become, good friends again. 
The manner it^ which toy discover teiperiority of trieni 
is by speaking mpre fluently, making better bows and 
arrows, and being q»ore expert in. shooting gaiOie. Tbqr 
have frequent wars with, their neighbours, as trell as 
among themselves. Their wars with their neigbbo«ia 
^riae froip their stealing catUe fn>aa theia;and tlMe 



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aoiotig tbems^lTieft ate about thtir ground, for each has a 
range wfaicfe he calk his Oviw, m> that if others pick roots' 
«Bed for food frodt it, or gather honey on it, they are 
considered aa a^iressDrs, 

' Their nunaber cannot b<s great— -not more than a few 
tiiMsands. Sitnie of ishen^ begin to keep cattle, which 
thay i^ep did b^tonk Whaii th6 ground is so dry that 
none of their instruments can penetrate it, so as to dig 
up roots, they suffer exceedingly. Their huts are the 
smallest of any of the nations I visited, and many of 
them have not even that accommodation, but sleep in 
dens and caves on the mountains. Their country being 
next to the colony of Good Hope, some of them have 
seen the habitations and other coo^ewencesr of civilizec^ 
then, and likewise those of the miasiooary statious^ i|ut 
they do nb't consider tlieir €onditioa as woKse thasx t/tie 
condition of the civilized. When people are kind to 
th^nift.apAgain their friendship, they may be confided in, 
but if t^ajT ^^. Qfifeade4 thby wi4i try to* murder 'in 
reveoge foe tWofienceik. 

Th^y hatVf) n0>Qllreii aiiimais than dogs^ lind Aiey use 
tbem. ne)i. Tbey txften dbtain. gMie by means of thefr 
boiw ap^ aiifOWfi^. and;akK> fay making deep liblea^ itt tb<^ 
oartJi^ ipt^ wbiqbi tbw gme ialls, and sometitned hf 
pn^isfduing th^ v»at«mto whidi'tbe aniiiia^ieome to drink. 
Tiiey srr^alji foiid of tohncco. Many of tHem Ifte to » 
qo{isidei?abka.ag&: They make no prortsion for tikyse 
whqoi they aie to leave: befaandk when they dke. 

Tho: Buahsmi near tke^ mciiatb of tlie Grenfe Rfver,. on 
tj)a^ birtli Of tbeiar children,^ rub trhem* alt o^ver with mti^ 
and; ^hm a wei^kold, buDn off ail' the kair that nray be 
€(n> their besKtoiwith futithated gvasd^ because they think 
tbi^firafcbfUA ia not^gyHMh Wbetlier the* castdm^ be unt* 
Horaal aoaooj;: tdii^ pc»pfe I eouM not team. 

Thii^ ftuabneii and: Namaeqms affirm^ that persons 
undergoing a certain process cannon be^ poisoned. Thi^y 
^Itra afMipiooSiBftdltiiK) kiiiria^of serpent^' to- sting* them 



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ai» NAMACQUALAND. |18Ja 



K* 



in many different parts of the body, after which they 
ftwallow some of their poison, which they think coun- 
teracts the effect of the sting. They affirm that if ?i 
person who has undergone this preparation, is walkings 
and meets a serpent, if he takes the jackal's tail which he 
carries, and rubs off the sweat frona under his armsund 
throws it before the serpent, he will stop and allow hiitt' 
self to be taken. 



CHAP. XXXVL 



Departure from Pella — Crossing a Desert — Arrival at 
Water — Reach Stiver Fountain — Conduct of S<^orpion9^ 
Cure of sting — Death of Mrs. Sass* 

Sept. 23dl 
Our. business being settled at Petla, and having ob^ 
tained all the information we could respecting the coun* 
tries beyond them, we prepared for our departure across 
the desert. It Was long before the oxen were yoked, at 
some of them, being young, were unwilling to com- 
menfie a life of servitude; one in particular made a 
strong resistance to the yoke. They were obliged to 
hold him, lying on his side on the ground, before he 
would fiUow the yoke to touch his neck. At length all 
being ready, we went into the meeting, an^d joined in 
prayer with the people, that we might have a prosperous 
journey by the will of God, after which we bade, them- 
farewell, and departed about four P.M. accompanied by 
Mr. Albrecht and Mr. and Mrs. Helm, and contiiitted 
travelling until half past nine, when we halted without 
coming to water, owing to the bushes becoming longandT 
the ground uneven. The night felt very cold 9&et the, 
powerful heat of Pella. 
23d. The ground was covered with white frost iatb«v 



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ntPt.J 'SAMAcaUALANtt. 3l§ 

mornitig. Thermometer at sun-rise, 40. On looking 
round I observed that though the ground around was 
level, it lay as high as the tops of the highest mountains 
on the side of the Great River to the north, so that vre 
had certainly been ascending the whole journey of the 
past day. We departed at seven A.M. and reached 
Rosine Fountain (Raison) at half-past nine. Travelling 
S. W. by W. Thermometer at noon, 78. 

There is a species of serpent which, on seeing man or 
beast approaching, endeavours to get to the windward, 
when it spits its poison that it may be blown into the 
eyes of the enemy. If the least particle gets into the 
eyes, the person will be blind for some days. This is the 
means of deffence with which Providence has furnished it. 
The missionaries remark, that in Namacqua land, where 
there is good ground there is no water, and where there 
is water there is no good ground. 

Departed at four P. M. after the oxen had taken their 
last draught, till they should have accompHsheid a three 
-days journey, over a desert of sand. We were favoured 
by a cool afternoon.' As we .passed along I observed an 
ifisect that emitted a sound resembling the Scotch bag«' 
pipe. 

a4th. At two o'clock in the morning we had to en- 
counter a sand hill which was a formidable obstruction to 
our progress^ and greafly fatigued our oxen. In ascend- 
ing it, the wheels nearly sunk to the axle. Every one 
aided them with all his might. Thermometer at sun-rise 
46. Halted at seven, after continuing fifteen faours in 
motion, without water. Wherever t^e eye turned there 
was. nothing but the perfection of sterility: the hills 
appeared a brown burnt colour, and the plain was deep 
sand, strewed with tufrs of withered grass. The consi- 
deration of being so far from any cooling stream or foun- 
tain of water, no doubt added to the gloominess of that 
desert, to which there was no visible termination. Adam 
£ok^ a captain of the Griquas^ once nearly lost bis life In 



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crowing Um same desert Tura bofse^ wbi&h he rod« 
4ied» and be woi^d bare died likewise^ bed oat some 
vfhQ accompanied him persevered ia IbiWviog cold sasdi 
on bia brea»t tUl be veacbed water. 
. Wbile I was sitting in a retired coro^ utidtr a rock; a 
Uttk pfetfty solitary bird bopped around ine, withiB a 
yardVdi/itaucei unconaeious of danger from the bntnaii 
species. I did nolhing to injure our character ii» iita tfstU 
mation. Mankind anust be a raie atgbl to an ihbtfaltant 
of such a desert* It seemed to come aa if on purpose td 
divert my.atteotion from tfa^ dreary scene before me; if 
mi it eflTectedits purpose, for the sight of it led to a tfatn 
of tliought very different* 

Departed firom the rang^ off rocks whese tf0 bad halt-' 
^ to rest ourselves and oxtn> at aoon» when the tberm6«' 
meter was 7& We bad been travelling ia deep sand all 
day. The lowing of the oxen> and the howlitog of the 
dogs- fbrwater, wera painful tq hear^ add it was ni0re 
painful, te leflect how much more fatigued and Ibiraty 
tkbey muat be be^e amy relief qouU be ^taiMd« Tli« 
l^ottentots'in^ucha <(a8e> aayj " Sbutyouf ayes and. eajs, 
i|nd pfesa ferwand tttl you giet out of auch a co^oatry aa 
this:" that is, do not from pity to the oxen halt, for .tbalt 
woulii (m4j iocfeaae their misery, by deftaiaing tbem. 
l/pnger iaos^ waler. The wad with whjiitl the camlry ia 
ceveied is^redt * . ^ 

. 4tniim, PJi*i we passed some BushnaHv wlio. w«re 
mtti^g round afire at the fodt of a bilk . Ar Nankac^fouy 
whom. Mr* AUarocI^^ bad sent forwavd adtb Una bonaa 
and^iien, b^ found Mtering with the BashihanjnstBad 
9f basteping iarward* to- traler^ to srvb th^ life of bia 
boi9e» which couM not wdui« tkiist sa I<ntig aa aa ocr^ 
This lajj^ man said that he could not go farthea tlA be 
had had. a ata^p ; aa we k& hm^ but drove on the ose* 
anA horse. At midoigbl the coUl was piercing and tba 
eand de^p» especiaHy wh^ tiaveiiing mer befgiits^ 
7ravolledS.W.JvW. ^ 
25tb, A little before sun^r^se our loose oxen instantly 



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SB^.] NAMACQDALAND* 321 

set off' at full speed towards a corner aoion^ hills. Tbey 
had smelled water, but tbougb there certaioly was water . 
in the corner to which they had hastened, yet. there wias 
none above ground, and they felt disappointed. They 
stood snuffing in the air in every direction for the space 
of a minute, after which they again set off full speed in 
another direction, and were not disappointed, for they 
came to what is called Quick Fountain^ which consists of 
two pools of water. They, all rushed into the pools, and 
the sheep and dogs, who reached the water nearly .at 
the same time, pushed under the bellies of ibe oxen, and 
all drank together, at least as many as the pools could 
bold. Such as could not gain admission ran with vio- 
lence against thos^ who were standing, in the water, by 
which they obtained as much room as permitted their 
mouths to reach it. tSeveral went away twice, as i£ 
satisfied, but soon returned . to drink mor^. Jt was exs- 
tremely difficult to detain the oxen t^at were yoked in. 
the waggons till their yokes were taken off. As they got 
free, every one ran tow^ards the water, . without .w^ting^ 
for his fellow. None,. of them, had tasted water for 
thirty-eight hours, perhaps some of them for several 
hours longer, and had dragged: waggons through deep, 
sand for about ninety miles. It was remarkable, that* 
not one ox. perished in the desert, for which. we met to. 
give thanks to Him to whom it was due. Quick FQun«. ' 
tain proceeds from the bottom of. a mountain composed 
of one solid rock. Travelled S. W. by WT.; . . . / 

We intended to have left Quick Fountain, in .consent 
quence of the great scarcity of grass, at. noon;, but the 
oxen had ' strayed in search of grass, and. could not.be 
found: Bushmen being in the neighbourhood, we were^ 
anxious respecting their safety. . I was amused by seeing. 
the Hottentots shoeing an ox, that walked lame in conse*. 
quence of his hoofs being injured by the sharp stones. 
He lay, with his l^s tied together, on the ground^ while 
they fastened shoes of skin over the hoofs. 

•Y 



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tSA NAUAPQDALAND. [IfilS; 

26tb. Z itras glad to hear, itaiinedtately on awaldng in 
tbe morning, that during the night the oxen had beeik 
found; bnt they said we must leave Quidc Fountain 
directly, as the oxen could get nothing to eaL We 
accordingly got all in readiness by eight, and depilrted* 
Thermometer at sun^^rise 44 : noon 62. Our approach . 
to the Ocean was both felt and seen ; felt by the asoU 
hess, and aeen by the heavens being covered with clouds^ 
a sight we had not beheld for several montlfs. We tra-^ 
telled westward among low hills till we came to grnl, 
at three, P. M. where we halted, and attended to wonhip 
"^hile our oxen were feeding. 

On tbe driven oxen coming op, we found they had 
been obliged to leave one ox behind, being unable to 
walk farther. On numbering all our cattle, we found 
two others were missing, when wte dispatched three 
Hottentots, and a Buishman who had accompanied its 
from Griqua town, in quest of them : the former taking 
their guns, and the latter his bow and arrows, and some 
provisions for their support. 

There being no water, we were obliged to depart at six, 
P. M. and push forward on our journey to the weatwafvd, 
among low rocky hills, till half past ten at night, wbem 
we arrived at Silver Fountain, the residence of old Cor* 
eiius Kok, and our missionary friends, Mr. and Mrs. 
ass, who received us with much pleasure. 
27th. The morning light discovered to us where we 
were. It was a valley of several miks in circnmference, 
surrounded by barren rocky mountains, having three or 
four openings between them for getting out of tbe valiey 
in different directions. Tbe grass being eaten up in tte 
valley, and its roots invisible, nothing but hard e^rtb ap« 
peared, which gave to the whole jsticene t most mk(^^ 
gloomy appearance; but oa the return of the rains* Idvstt 
the grasit springs up^^ the appearance must be gitatly h«r- 
proved. All live in huts covered with mafts of rashes, the 



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sen.) NAttACQUAlAND. 323 

same as the ordinary Hottentot houses^ only tbpse be* 
longing to Cornelius Kok and Mr. Sass are much larger, 
ao tfa&t a person can walk about in them. 

In the afternoon I visited, with Mr. Albrecht, the 
grav6 of his deceased wife, formerly Miss Bergman, who, 
aftei* a fatiguing journey of several- months fVom Cape- 
town, in which they lost about forty oxen, died on the 
eighth day after her arrival at Silver Fountain. Her 
disappointment on experiencing hardships she never ex- 
pected, no doubt contributed to hasten her dissolution. — 
She had been in th^t land some time before, viz. at Warm 
Bath, beyond the Great River, and fled with the others 
from the plundering Africaner. The women, for some 
time before their flight, sat up whole, nights together, 
apprehending an attack every moment. From what she 
npentioned to Mrs. SaM, she had expected no such ex- 
treme triab, which is n\>t surprising. She had a fine un- 
derstanding, well cultivated, but of a feeble constitution, 
ill suited to bear the deprivations to which a rtissionary 
is sometimes subjected. However^ I have no doubt but 
the exchange of worlds was most happy for her. 

Mrs. Sass, a most lively, well informed Christian, was 
ill of the tooth-ache on our arrival, but during the night 
she was relieved. She appeared remarkably qualified to 
be the wife of a missionary. Mr. Sass is evidently a man ^j^ 
of ingenuity. He had made a black hat for himself of 
skin, which, without eicact inspection, would have been 
taken fbr English manufacture. His black skin trowsers 
had also much the appearance of cloth : his shoes, like- 
wise made by himself, were the best imitation of English 
shoes I had seen in Africa : his tin boxes were a tolerably 
good imitation. They appeared to live very happy to- 
gether in the midst of a bari*en wilderness. Thermometer 
at noon 76. 

They ^ere at Silver Fountain only as a temporary re- 
sidence, till their ultimate destination should be deter- 
mined upon. They bad an opportunity of teaching a few 



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324 NAMAOQUALAND. [1813 

young people to read, and to ioforn) them of the thiogs 
ofOod, likewise of instructing the parents moraitig and 
evening; but many of the people were gone^ and old. 
Kok had it in contemplation to retire to Griqua town» to 
end his days with his sons and other relations who live 
there. It was therefore, after much deliberation, reaolved 
that Mr. and Mrs. Sass, together with Mr. and Mrs.Helni^ 
who were present with us from Pella, should go to the 
kraal of Orlams on the Great River ; to which proposal 
the parties agreed, and seemed all pleased with the pros* 
pect of reaching a greater and probably more permanent 
sphere of usefulness. 

^th. Mrs. Sass remarked to me in the morning, that 
though the preservation of children in London, who are 
exposed to so many carts and carriages, is considered a 
remarkable providence, yet that here,, divine providence 
is still more remarkable; for almost every fly, and every 
insect that crawls upon the ground, is furnished with 
poison, and they are often creeping about childi^en while 
rolling on the ground, yet they are very seldom stung by 
them. ** For example," said she, " the scorpion is per- 
haps the most venomous of all creatures, yet lately, in 
the course of one month, we found twelve scorpions in 
our house, under stones which supported our chests; and 
*>*'. once we. found a centipede (or creature with a hundred 
feet) in our bed, which is very venomous." 

In order to exhibit something of the nature of the scor- 
pion, they dug a hole, into which they put four of them. 
They soon began to fight till they killed .one another.— 
Their mode of fighting was curious. Having two claws 
like a craVs, with these they attempted to seiae each 
other by the head. When one. happened to be thus 
caught, he seemed sensible of his 'langer from , his op- 
ponent and cried out; but the other, regardless of bis 
cries, turned round his tail and gave him one sting: the 
one that' was stung, as if aware of its-mortality, re^sted 
no more, but lay down till he died; the other, as, if a ware 



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S6PT.] JVAMAGQUALAND. 32S 

of tbe same thing, gave himself no further trouble. They 
(ill had the same method of fighting, dnd all the vanqvisb- 
ed acted in the same manner; after which the surviving 
conqueror was also put to death by Mr. Sass,as a creature 
dangerous to be allowed to live. 

The remedy which the natives apply when stung by 
such creatures, is putting a living frog to the'wound, into 
which creature it is supposed tbe poison is transferred 
from the wound, and it die^ ; then they apply another 
which dies also : tb.e third perhaps only becoi(nes sickly, 
and the fourth no way affected. Wb^n this is observed* 
the poison is considered to be extracted, and the patient 
cured. Another method is to apply .a kidney, scarlet, or 
other be?in, which swells ; then they apply another and 
another, till the bean ceases to be affected, when they 
consider the poison extracted. Thermometer ^t noon B6* 

The rainy season at Silver Fountain was nearly over, 
but the rain had been so scanty, that not a blade of grass 
had appeared ; of course their prospect was gloomy. 
Though I had preached the night before, Mrs. Sass re- 
quested that, as she had not heard an English sermon for 
a long time, I would preach again in the evening, when 
»he would be able to attend. I did so, from Matt. xxiv. 
14. but little did she or I imagine that the last sermon 
she was to hear on earth was to be preached at her own 
request. During the remainder of the evening she con- 
versed cheerfully, and manifested no ordinary degree of 
good sense. 

2^th. About two o'clock in the morning Mrs. Sass was 
taken very ill, and it was not many hQurs before she was 
convinced that death was approaching, and calmly gave 
directions concerning all her affairs. Being asked by Mr. 
Read if her hopes were bright, she answered she could 
not say that they were bright, for she was enduring great 
pain, but she could say they were stedfastly fixed^pn that 
great truth, " that Jesus Christ came into the world to 
save sinners." About five, P. M. she expressed a desire 



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NAMACODALJIlfK [1»18^ 

to see me, when I stated to her some of the leading tAiths 
of the Word of 6od. After this she desired to see Mr. 
Read, to tell him what text he should improve her death 
from, tio the people. On his coming, she desired' it 
might be from Eph. ii. 8. — **By grace are ye saved, 
through faith, and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of 
God." While we were all standing round her, virithout 
any* struggle, she gently breathed her lagt She indeed 
seemed to be fallen asleep. By her death, her husband 
I^t an affectionate, exceUeot wife, and the Society a 
valuafble missionary. Mysterious are the ways of God ! 
Mrs. Albrecht and sbe, of whom great expectations were 
fetmed, both died oft the same spot in the wilderness, the 
OM soon after the other, and before either had reached a 
s^tled missionary station! It is also remarkable, that we 
should hdve come just in time to witness her exit to the 
tipper world. Our presence was also helpful to her 
afflicted husband, who otherwise would have been left 
alone among a few ignorant Hottentots. 

The loudest thunder I ever heard was about noon. — 
One peal had five or six reports or explosions, louder 
than a thousand cannon going off at the same time, 
which seemed to be only a few yards distant. I felt a 
headache immediately after, which continued the whole 
afternoon. I walked out, and witnessed with pleasing 
wonder 'the' forked lightning darting among the neigh- 
bouring hills. There was a heavy gkle of wind before 
the thunder, but it ceased with it. We had intended 
to have left Silver Fountain during the day, but we could 
not leave Mr. Sass in his painful circumstances. 

30th. We resolved to put off our departure till the 
morrow, for the comfort of our bereaved brother Sass, 
and to assist in conveying her remains to the house ap* 
pointed for all Irving. Preached in the evening in refe- 
rence to Mrs* Sass's death, from 1 Thess. iv. 13, &c. — 
Thermometer at noon 12. 

October !• At seven in the morning we followed the 



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ocv.l NJLUAOIUALAHD/ 39S! 

i^enutios of Mrs. Sass to the grave» wher« Mr. Albrecht 
g^^e an address from John xi. ll. ** Our friend Lazarus 
Qle^petl^." Mr. Read afterwards preached in the meeting 
fisiqt from Ibe text she had selected for the occasion. 



CHAP. XXXVIL 



Leave Silver Fountain — Meet a BooP'^Knew nothing of the 
state of Europe — "Reach first Home in the Colony^^Comt 
in sight of Ethiopia Ocean-^Mosambique Slave — Great 
heat— Bad Water. 

At one, i?. M. we proceeded on our journey, draw^; 
by oxen belonging to Cornelius I^ok, which were lent tp 
assist us for two or thyee days. Thermometer at noon 
84. As I walked along I almost trod upon a serpent; it 
hissed with all its might We were told, that in Na- 
macqualand it frequently happeiys, aft^r rain, that so 
many serpents come out of their holes« that it is very 
difficult to walk without treading op tbjem. We baited 
about ten, P. M. among bill9» and without water. Th« 
way was circuitous, in consequence of the bills, but 
always inclined to the S. W. 

2d. The rising sun discovered that we y(&^e^ surrouoded 
with beauty: the bushes wer^ all in flovirer of various co- 
lours; but the prevailing colours were yellow, white, and 
pink of different shades. We had observed no dew for 
a long time till now; the bushes were sprinkled with it* 
We moved at six ip the morning, and ^(t^d At Majia 
Fountain about half after seven : the roa4 was biHy« A 
boor and bis wife halted with their waggon, tbe first 
person belonging to the colony we had 9een for near five 
inontbs. We eqq^ired if be knew any tbiDg of the stat^ 
of Europe, or of the war, or about Cape Town ; but he 
knew nothing about any of them. He ^aid tbe Field 
Cornet had lately got some papers ^nd letters sent hip 
by tbe Landdrost, which he thought might be for u& 
We sent off a messenger directly to inquire, though it 



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NAMACQUALAND; [|813« 

was near twenty miles distant The boor . gave us' some 
flour and bitter oranges, and some milk, which, were 
very acceptable. Their infant child had. a hare lip, which 
we recommended to them to get closed by a sui^eon» to 
which the mother objoeted. by saying* that as God had 
appointed it, she would not alter it. Upon the same 
principle I thought if she should happen to have her leg 
broken, she ought by no means to have it set, but should 
allov^ it to dangle at the end of her stump during the re- 
mainder of her life. He had set out on a journey to 
Cape-town to obtain grain ; but having, about half way, 
obtained a sack of wheat fof an ox,' he and his family 
returned. They attended our worship, after which we 
presented thiem with some tracts in the Dutch language* 
They lived at a little distance, to which they set off about 
noon, so that they would come upon theirslaves at a yery 
unexpected season. Thermometer at noon 79. 

At four, P. M. we proceeded on our journey over a 
hilly road. About five we killed a large puff adder about 
five feet long,- and in^ the middle nearly the thickness of 
a man's leg. At seven in the evening we came to the 
first boor's house in the colony. His name is Lear: he 
has had ten daughters, who are all married. The pa- 
rents were not above fortjj^ years of age. Their servants 
are Hottentots and have the appearance of extreme 
wretchedness, being covered with tattered skins worn by 
the sheep of former times, and their bodies so filthy that 
they seem not to have been washed since they were born. 
The lady sits with a long stick in her hand, commanding 
in the tone of a general, and her orders are instantane- 
ously obeyed. 

The chief articles visible in the house were skins. 
There was a low table^ and three things which had once 
been chajrSi In the corner there was a space enclosed by 
a mud wall, about eighteen inches high, ^witfasome skins 
spread on the floor of it, which probably was the family 
bed. Their' son, a tall young man of eighteen years of 



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f^T.] NAMACaUArANO. 329 

age, was lying on his baek in it, gazing at the strangers. 
His name was Daniel, and the place where he lay reseo^ 
bled a den. They were tery kind to us, furnishing us 
with plenty of milk, some butter, and a small loaf, which 
were valuable articles to people in our circumstances. 

3d. Mr. A. preached in the morning. Thermometer 
at noc^, 80: at three, ?• M. 94, at which time we left 
Lear*8 Place in hopes of reaching his mother's and preach-* 
ing there. Atsix^ P. M. we came to a Hottentot kraal, 
where we would hare bahed for the night, but their 
fouf)tain was dried up, so that they had no wtiter for man 
or beast, and were to remove from it on the morrow. 
From their own account they had once a better place, 
but a boor having asked permission first to sow a little 
corn, then to erect a mill,, they allowed it; after which 
he applied to government for a grant of the whole place, 
which they promised, not knowing that it was in posses- 
s^ion of th^se Hottentots; of course they were driven 
from it. 

An old Hottentot told us that he remembered the 
time whenthe boors were all within five days* journey 
of Cape-tdwn, and the country was full of Hottentot 
kraats; hut they have been gradually driven up the 
cduntry to make room for the white people* 

At 8un-i4et we had our first sight of the Western or 
Ethiopic Ocean, it being nearly half a year since we lost 
siglit of the £astern or Indian Ocean On the other side 
of the continent This is, probably, the first time that 
the continent of Africa ^has been crossed so high up in 
the interior. Our journey across the^continent being ter- 
minated, our way now inclined to the S.E. instead of theW. 

At eight o'clock we arrived at Mrs. Vandervesthuis's* 
Place, and were kindly received by the old lady- Mr. 
Read preached to her numerous family of slaves and 
Hottentots. 

* Which signifies, from the west houses. 



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4th. Mrs.Yandervestbui^'^sUvea, &c. crowd the koum*- 
She 8aid^ in their preaeBce, that wbcoi any of tbjew b^ 
haves ill, ^he gives tbem £6rty stripes save one ; yefe I do 
not suppose that she treatii them baffihiy, for thqr 
seemed cheerful. Sbe w^ell renaeoabered Vai|]aiKt» whp 
lived a good while at her bouse. She sa^id be iK^yer was 
above ten days absent from bet bouse, when ba men% 
furtbef up the country, and these be sp^nt among the 
Karois Mountains opposite, seeking birds, stosiss, and 
flowers, which appeared to ber vei^ Idle en^ployiMiit* 
She also reooark^d, that the wind sometioftes blew.#Q 
violently ia that part of Africa, as to upset tbeir wagi 
gons. The water here is tbick, as if mixad with pip$ 
clay, . : 

. Having mentioned to Mre. Vandervestfaois.ttet; YiaM^ 
)ant had published an accoiuit of his travels in Africa, 
tod bad mentioned ber in it, she enquired very anxiously 
if be had mentioiied in bis book that she IhuI given b«m 
a good drubbing with a sambuck * when they were |ra« 
veiling together to Che Cape, fbr speaking improperly of 
l)er daughters; but she added — Had I been alcne be 
would have given me a drubbing too, bt)( two ^my 
sons were pre$ent, both stout young men* Sfae is a toU 
and still a stroi^ woinan, though in her 76th yeaf» 
While speaking cxf Vaillant % may vrature to say tbus 
much, that though bid work has mudi of the romantic ia 
it, yet be gives the best accoiunt'of the mtannei» and 
customs of the Hottentots I have seen. 

Mrs. Vandervestbuis has a very ckvei Mosambiqw 
slave, who is a kind of manager of her concerns* He 
was form/erly a slave at Cape<*town, but ran off from bis 
master, and cfime to her ai KlipvaUey, giving out: Ibat 
be was a Daaiara* After be bad worked some time with 
tbem forvt^ages, tbey observed an advertisemiei^'iil tbe 
Cape paper, describing a slave who had absconded from 

. * A kind of whip made of tfaie ski^ sf a s<a tow. 



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MT.] NAMACQUALAifP. S» 

bb maslef. The description being answerable to him 
be msB apprehended. He acknowledged that he waiB 
the person, and had nothing to aay against bis master, 
bas complained that he had too easy aoeess to liquor, 
wbich he could not help drinking, which made him 
(drank and good for nothing, wherefore be thought it 
best to run away from the liquon He begged that thqr 
would buy bim oflf from his master — ^accordingly one of 
ber sotis iprent to tbe Cape, and bought him from bis 
master for nine hundred rix-doUars. Like Joseph, in the 
bo«ise of Potiphar, he has charge of all tbe slaves and 
Hottentots. 

^ Though it blew a gale of wind all tbe day, the ther- 
mometer at noon was 94, and at sun-set 86. Mrs. 
Vnndervesthuis assisted us with sixteen oxen for tbe 
h^xt stage, which was both billy and sandy. We left 
Elipvalteyat fottr P.M. and after a tiresome journey 
over long hills of deep sand, we baited at eigl^t at Koris 
Fountain, where there is a boor*s house in ruins, and four 
huts for the accommodation of those who attend his 
^eep. Most of tbe country is covered with bushes, 
insny of which are of the succulent kind, and all in 
flower, which renders tbe near prospects extremely beau- 
tiful, but when viewed at a distance tilcy have no better 
etfect upon the scene than the wildest heath. 

5th; Thermometer at sun rise, 86. At noon in the . 
shadcf 101, which was rather alarming, as noon is never 
the hottest part of the day. A breeze of wind rendered 
it more tolerable than it must otherwise have been. The 
common flies were numerous and troublesome; the per- 
spiration 'on the face attracted them; and though driven 
away, they returned in an inetant, walking over the whole 
face,'espeeiaHy about the eyes. They likewise rested on 
the inky* part of my pen, so that I could not see what I 
wrote ; to drive them away was useless, it was only 
making way for successors Tbe lowness of the ground, 
which was surrounded by hills, increased the heat. At 



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332 NAMACQUALAND. [1813. 

h4lf past three the thermometer stood at. 102 whea com- 
pletely shaded from the sud. My. silver snuff box .in aif 
pocket felt as if lately taken out .of. a fir^, though I ^sat 
under covert of the tent ; all the water was warni»^ and- 
our butter turned into oil. Our dogs, though screexied 
from the rays of the sun, lay breathiilg q^ick, with their 
mouths open, and their tongues hanging out, asif in a 
high feven My ipk, though mixed with water, ^oifc 
thick in a few minutes. All was silepce around, all epi- 
ployed in sheltering themselves from the sun's scorcbiog 
rays, in the best way they could. The crows were wak- 
ing about our waggons as if we had all been dead* Ther- 
xnometer at five 99» At sunset, 95. . .Noue of ou^ cpm- 
pany had ever been* in this part of Africa. .before. At 
five P.M. we departed, ascending and descendipg hiU$ 
until three o'clock in the morning, when we baited at 
Foul Fountain, whose waters sniell very offensively. 

6th. The approach of light discovered a boor's etoipty 
house standing near our waggons, the boor only liyjijpg 
there during the rainy season, which he leaves when the 
grass is eaten up. It was to us a shadow from the 
heat during the day, yet it was very warm even there, for 
though it had neither doors nor windows to shut, the ther- 
mometer in it at noon was 96, in the covered waggon IGl. 
One of our oxen was so worn out with the jouxney, the 
heat, and the bad water, that it was not able to proceed, 
but we left him under the care pf two Hottentota to en- 
deavour to get him forward. 

Being on a height we were exposed to the wind, w])icb 
blew as hot as steam from the N. W. however, ba^ we 
been lower down, the heat must have beep greater. 
Our oxen looked poorly, which made us doubt their abi* 
lity to carry us over the desert to Elephant's River, but 
whatever might happen, no assistance could be obtained 
as the land is forsaken. 

Id. consequence of the great heat we judged it pru- 
dent to defer our departure till seven P. M. The firsft 



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OCT.] NAMACQUALAND. 333 

three hours of our journey was over hills, in deep sand ; 
most of us walked on foot the whole way. Near mid- 
night the road became a little harder, and at two o'clock in 
the morning we came to Ink Koker (or inkstand) Foun- 
tain, so called from the water resembling ink in colour 
and thickness ; of course we had no encouragement to 
stop there. We went forward till half past four in the, 
morning, when hearing a c«ck crow We halted, believ- 
ing that some house must be> near, and consequently 
water, but being dark we saw nothing. 

7th, When day light arrived we found no boor's place, 
yet there was a boor from Bokkeveld stopping/for a 
while with sheep, living in a hut. The fountain is 
very salt, yet the oxen drank it. There was neither 
rock, nor tree, nor large bush to afford the smallest 
shelter from the almost intolerably scorching rays of the 
sun, which made it a trying day. 

At noon, in the coolest part of the waggon, the ther- 
mometer stood at 97. At two 101, and at three at 98^ 
after which it gradually fell to 90. At one time we had 
a pretty strong gust of wind, which felt as if it had been 
mingled with fire. At six we left that oven, most of us 
walking to spare the oxen. The road lay along the side 
of low hills, and was tolerably hard. At eight we came 
to a fountain of salt water, mixed with filth, where we 
found a family of Hottentots, watching some cattle be- 
longing to a distant boor. It is probable they have the 
cow's milk for their trouble. We halted only for a few 
minutes, and then pushed forward to Casteel Fountain, 
where we arrived an hour before midnight. This is a small 
pool of brackish water at the bottom of a hill which is 
chiefly composed of white marble. There is a cave, only a 
few yards from the pool, in which an Englishman lived 
till lately a most solitary life. He sold some articles to 
any traveller who might pass. He was probably a deser- 
ter from some ship, and preferred the life of a hermit, in 
a desert, to that of a sailor on board of ship. 



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334 JOURWEY IN TH£ OOLONY. [IMd. 

8th. During the night the heavecift were coveted with 
clouds, and the wind blew, and the day partook of the 
coolne^ of the night, for the thermometer at hoon was 
down to 78. My bowels were greatly paired dortng 
the night in consequence of the previous heat, but the 
return of cooler air mitigated the pain. -When one of 
our people tasted the Cast<eel ^ater, he pronoctnced it 
good, at least far better thatl the last, yet the dirtiest 
puddle that ever lay in one of London ^ streets woald 
be a treat compared to it; indeed I thought do at that 
time, and would have given a dollar for a tumble/fuH of it- 
Three or four day« before, we left two Hottentots ift 
charge of an ox which could not proceed, and w^re 
beginning to be anxious about their safety, when they 
arrived during the night without the ox, being obliged 
to leave it behind, as its strength is entirely gone. Our 
two milch goats deserted and could not be found ; thehr 
loss was the more felt in consequence of the badtiess of the 
water. 

At five P. Mi we left Carteel Fountain withoat «y 
r^r^t, and at nine reached Eckland Fountain, the water 
of which was similar to Castee), sa that feeUng no desire 
t6 remain there, wd went forward. At eleven we met 
two people driving o^ten— a rare aight in the desert. At 
two o'clock in the mofrning we halted at a place called 
Dry Kraal, which is a small apot surrounded by idoiia- 
tai<ns, where we happily obtained w^Utaated vfiMi by 
digging in the satid. 

CHAP, xxxvni. 



Arritalat EiephanCs Rher-^Jt Vunzmti PUtu—Deef 

Sand-^Cedar Mountain— Ancedote qf BetBr^De^ Send 

^^Femule Slave. 

Dkrt. 9th. Thisrmometer at sun^^a^, 50 ; 
at nooja, ^ : at one 90. 

At four we left Dry Kraal. On reaching the summit 

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•teT.] JOURNEY rt tHfi COLONY. SaS 

6f an ascent, a pleasant prospect, of considerable extent, 
all at once presented itself before as, which was bounded 
to the south by stupendous mountains. This was an ani- 
mating sight, after being confined upwards of a fortnight 
among low, uninteresting hills. On6 huge wall, or range 
of mountains, like a wall, ran frotn west to ^ast for thirty 
6r forty miles ; another range ran from S. E. to W. and 
what added to our sat'fsfaction was a clouded sky, which 
appeiared itiore valuable to us than the best umbrella iri 
rain to a person clothed in the most delicate dress ; still 
the sight of much deep sand before us cast a gloom over 
th^ scene. All our comforts are mixed with alloy. 

At ten P. M. an ox which had done all he could to 
serve us for six months, could do no more, but laid him- 
self down on the road to die. We gave him a little water 
which we had with us, on which he revived and rose^ 
then looked for something to eat; but looked in vain, for 
there was not a blade of grass to be seen. We tried all 
ive could to get him forward, but he could hardly move, 
of course we were obliged to leave him behind, and push 
forward to water. With great pity and regret I looked 
back to him as long as he could be seen. 

At midnight, with much pleasure, we came in sight 
of the long looked for Elephant River, and halted on 
its b^nks. Men and beasts drank plentifully of its pure 
stream. Having walked on foot the whole journey, we 
were glad, about two in the morning, to lie down and 
rest our weary limbs, for an eight hours' walk in deep 
sand requires no trifling exertion. 

10th. In the morning I preached to the people from 
tlie conversion of the Ethiopian eunuch to the faith of 
Christ, and his baptism by Philip. Mr. Read baptized 
SKnger, one of out Hottentots, in the Elephant River, 
after he had given a satisfactory account of his fkith. 
Thermometer at noon, 78. 

The Elephant River is a considerable stream, though 
ilmch inferior to the Great River. Its b&nks are beau-* 



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836 JOURNEY IN THE COLONY.^ [1813. 

tifully lined with the willow, thorn, and other trees, but 
it is hardly possible to conceive a more barren appear- 
ance than the ground immediately beyond the range of 
those trees. It was painful to see the oxen standing 
still, a great part of the day, for want of food, while 
they looked like spectres for want of it. 

Learning from a boor who lay at the ford a little higher 
up, that we might obtain grass about four hours* journey 
up the river, we moved at four P. M. crossed the river 
without any accident, and travelled over deep sand for 
some miles, after which the road became harder, and we. 
arrived about nine at the boor's place where there was 
-grass, and we ourselves were kindly entertained by him. 
Having again walked the whole journey, rest was sweet. 

11th. At seven in the morning Mynheer Vanzails in- 
vited us to coffee, and at eight o'clock to a breakfast of! 
tea and plenty of milk, and then at eleven A.M. to dinner, 
which was three meals in four hours ; but this was the 
usual custom of the house.. His two sons, of fourteen 
and eighteen years of age, sat at a side table, though 
there was plenty of room at ours ; but perhaps, owing to 
being unaccustomed to company, they could eat more 
pleasantly alone. The boor, at the head of the table, 
wore his broad brimmed hat, and described, with much 
spirit, encounters with lions and tigers, which are the 
principal events which happen in that dreary comer of 
the earth. His wife was absent on a journey to the 
Cape ; and the other end of the table was occupied by a. 
girl, clothed with little more than her own skin, holding, 
in her hand a long stick, at the end of which was a fan 
composed of white ostrich feathers, for driving away the 
flies from those who were at table. 

At six P. M. we took leave of the boor, and, went for-. 
ward. The way lying over deep sand, we were obliged 
to walk. A fog from the westward came over the coun- 
try, and so thick, that, at one o'clock in the morning, we 
began to doubt whether we were travelling the right way; 



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«tj iowiimY m THE omym. sgf 

vv^vefott, lest we shouM go farther astray, tre halted 
for ^be night whbocit reachi:ng water. 

12th. At eight in the morning we proceeded, and be-* 
fore ten, -o^mt to a nmM pool of water, tha colour and 
tfaidkne^fi ^f mitk^ aiad fuM of insectd, at the side Of which 
we hatted. Tber|iiotoeter at noon, 76. 

At four P.M* tfe departed, a«d did not rea<5h Great 
JPountain till nine, though only about seven miles dis^ 
tarnt^ for jve bad deep sand all the way ; so much so, that 
Uiough we had fourteen oxen to each waggon, they were 
tofeliged to rest «very few hundi-ed yards; several of them, 
Pfotu Ottt with fttigue, lay down, and with great diffi- 
<;ulty were raised up to try it again. The way wais 
beautifully lined with bushes in flower, five and six feet 
bigti. I waNced the whole 9tage, and like the poor oxen 
was greatly fatigued. We happily found good grass and 
water wiere we halted, biit so tired Were our oXeu, th^t 
they tas*ed neither till next morning, Ibut immediately* 
'when they were unyoked, lay down to rest their weary 
4imbs,. 

All the cups-tod «aircers we broug^it from the Cape 
•t^cre blK]feen ; We had only half a cup left which we used 
«t breakfast, along with a wooden bowl, a bornj and a tin 
i?&mbler. 

13th. Left the Great Fountain at four P.M. and by 
igfeat exertion, traveUing through deep l>eavy sand, the 
-Waggons reached Vanwik's Place at nine P.M. As 
usual I walked on fool the whole stage. I was much 
-gratified, while day-light continued, by viewing the vari- 
ous iorm« of the Cedar Mountain, which stood about 
-fifteen miles to the S. E. The front of rt was seen to the 
extent of about thirty miles; how much farther it ex- 
«fended beyond what I sa\v, I could not learn; indeed, 
though Vanwfk's family is large, and though two other 
*oors were WitJh him at supper, aurd a schoolmaster, yet 
*there Wife tmly one person present who knew the name 
-of *hftt lemarkflble tnountain ; she was the boof*s wife's 



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9S8 JOURNEY IN THE COLONY. [191& 

mother, an aged matron. But a moaDtain to them ap« 
pears hardly worth noticing ; the cattle are the ol^ti 
that engross their attention. 

Here we heard that the French were driven out.of HoU 
land, and as a proof of its truth, it waf stated, that fifty 
Dutchmen had come in an English ship, to the Cape ^u 
their way to Batavia* The proof destroyed the credibi- 
Jity of the news. We heard also of peace with America, 
and that Bonaparte had gained so great a victory pver the 
Russians^ that they were obliged to burn the bodies of 
the dead. All which news we found afterwardgto.be 
false ; however it was news to us in the meantime^ and 
the first we had beard for eight months. Thermometer 
at noon, (id. 

14th. At eight in the morning one of our cpm.pan; 
went to John DeyseFs Valley, twelve miles distant, in 
search of letters said to be there for us. In the mean* 
time we were invited to dinner at ten o'clock by the 
.boor, about an hour after we had breakfasted, but it 
seems to be the fashion in that part of the country t^ 
cram people, like turkies, in the morning. The boor and 
his wife sat silent ,at tbi^ head of the table, also a grown 
up daughter, who seemed to have the tooth-ache, sa^ 
equally silent. The schoolmaster seemed to beMercuriap 
or chief speaker in that house. He was, what is called, 
a Rotterdamer, and fought on board the Dutch Adniiral's 
ship that was opposed to Lord Duncan's in the battle pf 
Camperdown. Thermometer at nopn, 70. 

After taking leave of the boor and family, we com^' 
menced our journey at four P, M. over deep sand. JAotp 
than two-thirds of the stage was up hill, which was ex* 
tremely fatiguing to the poor oxen. On reaching the 
summit of the hill, we observed a fire about two miles 
off, which we concluded w&s the boor's place, to which 
we were travelling, but on reaching the fire we found it 
was made by two slaves sent by the boor to shew owr 
people where to put their loose oxen, lest they j^tioqljl 
go amongst the com. * At eight P. M. such of us as were 



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OCT.3 JOURNEY IN THE COLONY. 390 

walking arrived at Mynheer VaQzairs Place in Jackal 
Valley, and the waggons arrived about half past nine. 
We supped with the family and some stranger boors. 
Mr^^ — , clerk to the deputy Landdrost of John DryseFs 
Valley, was so kind as to come to us here, and he 
brought me letters from the Cape, containing gratifying 
intelligence respecting the kingdom of our Lord, Some 
tetters to others of our company contained a long list of 
persons who had died in Cape-town, since our departure. 
The death of Mr. Oncruydt, under w hose hospitable roof 
I had lodged all thf time I bad been in Cape-town, af- 
fected me much. All the letters were silent about the 
aflbirs of Europe, which greatly disappointed us all, for 
none around us knew more of them than of the transac* 
tions.in the moon. 

15tb. Thermometer at noon 84. It is considered very 
cruel in Africa to kill bees in order to obtain their honey, 
especially as from flowers being there at ail seasons, and 
most in winter, they can live comfortably all the year 
round. A Hottentot who was accustomed to kill the 
bees, was often reasoned with by the humane to give up 
so cruel a practice, yet be persisted in it till a circum- 
statace occurred which determined him to relinquish it. 
He had a water-mill for grinding his com, which went 
very slowly, from the smallness of the stream which 
turned it; consequently the flour dropped very gently. 
For some time, much less than usual came into the sack, 
tbe cause of which he could not discover. At length he 
found, that great part of his flour, as it was ground, was 
carried off by bees to their hives: on examining this, he 
found it contained only his flour, and no honey. This 
robbery made him resolve to destroy no more bees when 
tfaeir honey was taken, considering their conduct in rob- 
bing him of his property as a just punishment to him 
for his cruelty. The geatleman who related the story 
was a witness to the bees robbing the mill. 

About five P.M. ^fter taking leave of Mr. Vanzails ^ \ 
£&mily, we again coiiimenced our jouruey, and, '- ** .. 

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3» JOURKEY IH THE CMJOHY. [1818* 

afely t>egan to a^c^nd a long 8aiid4iiU, clttd with -beauti* 
fi}| bushes, llH iib flowcfr. At six wio pws^ a ix)pr*g 
plfrc^, and 6l)serVe^ fhe fk><>r i^teteft all gaairig afte- ui, 
but hcnfie of ^bcfih ^f^pr^cbed our ^ggods. Weibdu 
conttttvied sisceriding aMIher 6and4ilU for two hours* tiit 
d^cetA of #bieh w^ «t««p; aiid deepv btevy MnA ex^ 
tended for About font tnW^. Though I walked with fite 
ht «tk df Ouir ^otti^iittAs). b&rdly a word was exdianged 
fbr t\Vo or thftefe boiirSi^Very 6iite being intent ob wadKeg 
through ^he ^nd. Tif6i^h tUe n^t was dark, yfareouft 
birds itmused uii with their plea«itif| iUort mttet. A.t 
eleveti we catiAe to a boor's plae^, ^hich wc hoped ww 
ihe s)A>t wliere we hkd agreed to buit. AH were to bai ; 
however, they called to its £bat it was t)C% Kobtse'a Pktee. 
Some of our oxen lay down upon the rotd» bait were 
got irp again. We reached Kootsre^s at one o'clMk in 
the morning, when we got to f^st as soon itt wo cduid. 
JM[6sk of our m^ ^ete behind, hliTtoglpvobabiy'pusukni 
the way. 

i6th. Thertnbhieter at san-tise 30. Our mto arrived 
*aboQt ten. They hhd been at duo time befbre us, wed 
'sat down among the bushes tiU fbe. waggons sboiild come 
up, but theie hot hiafeitig tholr a{^p«aimtice soon.tfaeyiell 
fest asleep ahd i^Iept tilt the' imortliilg light roused them* 
Thiefbiotneter at ttootl 95. 

' l!)e'paKed at liix, P. M. aiUl Svi^tit over deep stoA*Wb. 
•Pa^^ed ^ boor*^ plate ^t eleven. We went out c$ the 
way, but regained it by push4)lg through buriiieB: tiiie 
oxen Wei-e so fatigued that'the^ could pit>osed aolaHber, 
Wherfefore Vve halted tit hiHwght'oh the road. 

17th. In the'toomiiig #e foulid oursdv^B at the side of 
c6rrt-fifelds, and three of our ox^n were amoagthe «bi«* 
"Wfe had to pay half a dolter €*6h for what theyiiadcitoi, 
and ttie teme sutn for each *s a fine. Thennometer at 
boon &0. In the fevehing we went forward to a fo«ntain, 
where we halted at midnight. 

'18tb. Left the fountain at six tn the moroHig, and 
r^^ widow S^— 's place at eigh^t, where we toahed 



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for the day, tire4 of walking 4^ th^ 9^x4. T'llfxiiioipei^i; 
at noon 92^ 

'A poor fetnale^slave came secretly %o the WVSOJ^t 
while her mietre^s slept, tp h^g a bQol^. Sk^ said she 
had privafaely tes^m^d tQ read, and J^^d a kogk '^ ^9»^ 
which ahe must return, and feU pa the gTOuad h^giog 
ooe. She said ahe aQiuetim^a yvw aU^ to read a Jittl^, 
when unnoticed, in bar mistress's t>ib}e, vvliicbl^d ta)»gh| 
her she #as a tinner, and that JTes^Q vva« a $avi/a|ir. Qqr 
mitflreas telU her it was the war9i thing <i^e ey^r did IQ 
learn to read* Mi' R. gaire har much ^md advipe. 

This place is nearly aurroiMnded hy the Piclift NJ^mn 
tain, which, though very high, has vineyards and fields on 
its summit. Thermometer at noon 92. We began our 
journey at five, P. M# Th% road wae tolerably good, only 
now and then there was deep sand. We saw several 
boor&* places ut the foot of distant h^Us fo (he l^ft^ %nd 
two or thrpp along th^ foot of Picket Mqiintaw to the 
right, wt^ich mountain appears between twenty and 
thirty miles in length. At midnight our oxen appeared 
qnaUe to proc^d farther, wherefore we halted by the 
side of the road, but could hardly find any tbin^/^itl) 
which to make a fire. 

19th. In the mornipg, at five o'clock, we went forwar^ 
to a boor's place^ which was only about an hoi^r distant. 
where we received a hearty welcome. His ijapae is Gejrt 
Fisspr, and the place. Reed Fountain. Thermometer at 
noon 96. 

The country aU aroupd ia in a state of naturf , .cpyered 
with barren h^th, except a few boors' places or fiirip? 
which appear like small spjBcks herp and therp, only vary- 
ing the scene a very little. At Reed Fountajn ^e .couljtf 
purchase a little flour, which no boor that wie paw fpp 
several days before coujd spare. Our people Ifad bWn 
entirely living upon mutton for a loag time. We left 
three of our worn oi*t oxen witfi Mynheer -fi^er, till 
they should recover strength. We departed at six ia 
the evpnipg, and found the ro^d jiard, yy ith pppU irf wjiite 



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942 JOURNEY IH THE COLONY. [ISia 

Water at little distances. At midaight we halted on the 
banks of the Berg River, near Mrs. Marai's Place, where . 
there is a pious family. ^ 

20th. We were kindly received in the moraiiig by the 
worthy family. Mrs* Marai has two dumb diiugbters, a 
trial which she seems to bear with much chriatisu sub* 
, mission. At eleven, Mr. R. preached in one of the out- 
bouses; and at four P. M. we proceeded on our journey. 
At six> we reached Mr. Botman*s, who is a warm frieiKl 
to missionary exertions, as are many other faooiB in tbat 
part of the colony. At Mr. Botman*s I slept utidor/a 
roof, the first time for three months. 



CHAP. XXXIX. 



Arrival at Tulbach — Rodezand — ZTmrtland-^jirnmab 
kiUed on the Journey — Return to Cape-Town. 

Oct. 21st. 
At ten in the morning Mr. R. and I left our waggons, 
and proceeded towards Tulbach,which was distant about 
thirty miles, in a covered cart of Mr. Botman*s, drawn by 
six horses, and most of our people went, for a few days^ 
to assist in reaping the harvest. We halted about half 
Way at Mr. Edwards's, a wine boor, formerly a mission- 
ary. That part of Africa abounds both with corn and 
Wine boors, who appear all to be in a thriving condition. 
Mr. E. pffered to relieve Mr. Botman, and send us for- 
ward in his cart. At five, P. M. we set off* in his open 
cart and three horses. About three miles on our way, 
hearing that Mr. De Lange,with whom we expected to 
lodge at Tulbach, was at his farm, which was very 
near, we drove to it, and were received with much 
affection. They soon put six horses to their waggon, 
and his family and we were soon in motion on the way 
to his housb in Kirk-Street, near Tulbach. For several 
miles our way was by a narrow pass between high moun- 
tains^ so narrow in some parts that there was hardly 



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ec*,3 JOURNEY IN THE COLONY. 343 

room for Little Mountain River to pass along: of necessity 
therefore the road, with great labour, is cut out on the sideif 
of the mountains. The sun being set, and the heavens co- 
vered with thick clouds, it soon became very dark : and it 
was unpleasant travelling on a road where one wrong step 
of a horse miglit occasion the tumbling of the waggon a 
handred feet down the side of a steep mountain. In about 
HQ hour we were met by a chain of waggons, which had to 
pasa us, where there was hardly room for a boor's wife to 
pass ; but pass they must, or all must wait until the morn- 
ing light Our waggon was lifted a little way up the side of 
the mountain, when the three first waggons passed in safety ; 
but the two side wheels of the fourth went over the edge of 
the road, and had they not got the oxen immediately to stop, 
it must have rolled to the bottom of the mountain, dragging 
the twelve or fourteen oxen after it. With much difficulty 
the waggon was restored to the path. The succeeding wag* 
gon having broken down, we could not pass it till it was re* 
paired. We sat in the dark, I know not how long, till this 
waggon was mended and had passed us, after which we got 
forward out of the pass to a good road. We arrived at Mr. 
De Lange's about ten o'clock at night, where we soon for- 
got thejdif&cuities we had met with on our way to it. 

29d. Day light in the morning discovered that we had 
got into one of the most pleasant and handsome villages in 
Africa, callc^d Rodezand, and also Kirk-Street, near Tulbach* 
It consists of a long raw of handsome bouses, with terracea 
in front, and disjoined from each other by an intervening 
space* They look towards the west, and stand on a gentle 
declivity. On the opposite side of the way runs a crystal 
stream under a row of trees, from whence gardens belonging 
to each house extend to a small river at the bottom of the 
descent; along the opposite bank of which stands a low hill, 
covered with bushes siaiilar to those generally seen in green-* 
houses in England. The Minister's Paiace, (for it deserves 
that name,) stands at the north end of the street as a public 
building,, and is a great ornament to the street. A hand-^ 
some churchy built in the form of a cross, as all theDutcb 



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^ir JOWISEY IN THE XmjmY. [f 8» 

chuFcbtes fft Africa are, (a- cimt<Mii • imported' from Rome,) 
ttalnds at the south end, bcvt thi^iriew of it fnom the street 
is intercepted by a ckiiftpof twe^. The homseil being all rew 
mafkably wbite^ have a ctean. Vivify, aod cfaeerfal appear^ 

EDCe. 

In the morning the circuit court, which had been at Tul. 
bach for a iew days, left it to proceed to Graaf Reynct 
This was the third circuit the court had made. It origi- 
nated from various reports being circulated for some ttrtre 
after the Cape waa taken by the Englisir, concerning murder* 
(rf the Hottentots by the boors. A letter from one of otrf 
missionaries, containing: stH?h reports, was printed in a perr* 
odical work in Engfettid, which reached (he Cape^ dnringth« 
government of Eart Caledort, who, anxiotis to ascertafti iht 
truth of such reports, instRuted this coort, fully to inVestN 
gate the busincds^ a scheme which I titiderstood bi^ Tordship 
was previously concerting. 

' I was favoured, at the Castle of Good Hope, with the pe* 
ni^al of all the papers relating to that businifess, and perftift* 
tted to take what extracts 1 pleased ; and I must, in justice 
to Lord Caledon 8ay,that from these documents, it appeared 
that every facility was gif en to obtain the truth of these 
reports* I v^AS particnlarly pleased with the ittstruction 
given to the circuit court, in which I perceived tnuch wisdom, 
amd evidently ah atvxious desire that the poor Hottentots 
might hav^ justice done tirem, and enjoy protectiott firbm 
noUt\ct and' oppression. 

Most of the caJies which came before the court could not 
he substantiated by hgdl evidence ; for, according to th6 
Putch law, thfe oath of a Hottehtot is inadmfesible. How* 
ever, the establishment of such a court, annually to irisit thei 
interibr df the colony, will greatly amelibratie the condifidn 
of the Hottentots. 

- I understo6d that this third circuit would have s^careely 
«ny business to attend to ; nor can they have much, tiH some 
law be ifeade to adnfilt instructed Hotteritots to give evidence 
on dath ; becausfe, in the present state of the interior of the 
colony, it would be oiiepf the naost cJiflJcult things tm*gi<f« 



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oetr] somswar a the. goumt. smi 

a|ite, te gtt ooe wbke mm to witness against aaother, if it 
fcferred to an injury aa^taiaed by a Hottentots . 

In^tfae fbreaoon Mr. Sdtote*. tbe pariah nioister, rery pcK 
liteiy sent bis horse waggon to take, us to Tulbacb, a stuali 
village higher up the valley, where the Lan(jdrcslr and the 
other public officers of the districi resides. We wailed witti 
Qor friend Mr. De Lange on Mu Van de Graaf, the Lsn4« 
drost, who received us in a friendly v^ay ; and oa our ve^ 
turn halfted at Mr.BeIlote*&. 

The people luive built a good meeting, and puKiiaeed'a 
good house for our mis»oaary, Mr. Voe, who asei)liM|us(y 
laboors among the idaves tliere and in the region fou«d 
about I« the e^ning we visited the slav^-se^oot Caught bjr 
his son, and were much pleased with the progress tbesiaves 
aod Hottentots had made ifi readiag, some of whom, tboi^ 
thirty years of age, were taboaring to acquire that art. 

2dd. Spent the day in conversation with the missioaariet 
Voa and Kramer, about missiona^y concerns. 

94th. Heard a sermon in the pari^ church in the fersAOoii? 
Mr. R* preached to slaves and others in the afternoon nuA 
evening. 

35 tin Was happy lo find that neitb^ the Landdrost nor 
parish minister, had any objection toouraending missiona« 
ries to the Hottentots at Kamis Mountain, or to the Bastard 
Hottentots at Cedar Mountain. We had a pieasai^ meeting 
with friends of missions at Mr. P. F. *PherGn*s, at Winter- 
book, which ties about five miles ffM)rth of Tulbach, alnioet 
at the head of the valley*. The situation is very romantic, 
feeifftg nearly surrounded by mountains, whose tops reach 
the. clouds, and it ia abundantly supplied with ei^cellent 
vj^after.* After dinner we had a .meeting with four of the 
eiommittee who have the direction of the maans used for the 
instruction of daves in that part of Africa* Observing them 
to be worthy and aealouamen, we- [>roposed their taking the 
auperintendance of the Society's ooncerfis in the extensriiva 
district of Tulbach : to which they consented, and I have m» 
doubt that tbey will be of essential service to the interesta of 
the Society^ We. retu roed to Mr» De Lange's i n the evening. 



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34S JOURNEY IN THE COLONY. [1B13» 

86th. Attended to various missionary concerns ; among 
others Mr. Kramer consented to visit the Hottentots at 
Cedar Mountain, to examine their circumstances for tiie in- 
formation, of the Society. 

27th. At ten, A. M. we left Kirk Street on horseback, ac- 
companied by Messrs. Vos and de Lange. On arriving at 
bis farm, he conducted us to Mr. Edwards's in his waggon, 
who took us in charge, and conveyed us in his cart to our 
waggons at Mr. Botman^s. We halted by the way at a boor^s, 
who complained much that they had so few means of instruc- 
tion in that corner. Oh bow little the Christians in Britain 
are aware of the value of their privileges ! We reached our 
vraggons and people about seven in the evening, and found 
all well, but they were so anxious for our return that they 
had resolved to send a party in search of us on the following 
day. Mr. and Mrs. Botman gave us a hearty welcome back 
to their house. 

28th. From some mistake, our oxen did not return from 
feeding at a distance till six in the evening. We took leave 
of our kind friends and departed at seven* The evening 
was cool, and we bad the advantage of a moon, a quarter old, 
for three or four hours. We continued our journey until 
four o'clock in the morning ; when we halted opposite to a 
boor's place, all of us much tired with our journey. 

29th. The day being cool, we got into motion about ele- 
ven, A.M. and arrived at Zwartland Kirk, at three in the 
afternoon, where we halted, and spent three boura in conver- 
sation with Mr. Scholtz, the parish minister, who told me 
that the first place of worship he bad attended in Eng^nd 
was my chapel in Kingsland ; and what is more singular, 
that the first time two other ministers (out of sev^n)*in the 
colony spoke in . public, in the English language, was in 
Kingsland Chapel, viz. Messrs. Kicherer and Vos of Zwart- 
berg; and that the first time Mr. Bakker of Stellenbosh 
prayed in English was in the same place* I thought these 
were singular coincidences. 

, Mr. S. has an elegant house and large garden, bi^t be was 
low spirited,, having never recovered his cheerfulness since 



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•CT.3. 



JOURNEY IN THE COLONY. 



347 



ike death of his only son. Living retired and doing little, 
the loss prej^s upon his frame : nothing but Calvary can cure 
such disease}) of t e mind. 

Left Zwartland Kirk about sun-set, . and travelled until 
ten, when we halted near water. 

30tb. In the morning Table Mountain* behind Cape- 
town was full in view, which from its great height, appeared 
near, though upwards of thirty miles distant. 

The following i$ an account of the number of creatures killed 
by our people during the journey. 

Lion ••• •• 1 

Wolves 2 

Hysena 1 

Buffaloes ••• 5 

Hippopotami, or > 

Sea-cows ) 

Knoos •.... 3 

Quachas • 15 

Elks 8 

Backer 1 

Springbucks • • 38 

R«dbuck8 6 

Steinbiicks 9 



96 



9^ 

Rhebucks •.••«• 3 

Bushbuck ••• 1 

Zebras 2 

Baboon ••••., 1 

Serpents •••• 31 

Jackal •• 1 

Scorpions 17 

Ostriches • • • • 2 

Guinea Fowls 17 

Wild Geese 2 

Wild Ducks 9 

Wild Peacock ....... I 

182 



While travelling in South Africa, and visiting various 
nations, I hardly met with half a dozen of the natives who 
are corpulent ; but a great majority of the white inhabitants 
are so, especially the females. Can this be owing to the 
nature of the air, or good living and the want of exercise? 
In general they sleep much, and do little, in consequence of 
having so many slaves and Hottentots to serve them. In 
addition to a good night's rest, they sleep during the heat of 
the day, so that in fact they are deftd except in the morn- 
ings and evenings. The value of nothing is so little known 
as that of time. , 

Th€*day was warm, but a cooling breeze springing up in 
the afternoon^ encouraged us to proceed at five o'clock. 



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948 mamisx in the g^^^qny. [i8ia« 

The comitry tbroagb wbi<^ wf travelled w9S moregener^lr 
ly cuUivi^M tb^q apy oth<eF part of Afi^ica we had seen* 

We expected to reach a salt laHe, f^| tb^ siv^Qi of wfaich i9 
1^ spring of goQd water ; btvM: tbougb we went forwsird till 
one o'clock in the morning ^ibere was no appeiiiapce of it, 
ivbicb disposed u9 to ^top at a pool where tber^ w^s good 
graf». We killed a snake on tbe road^ which by U« his^iag 
discovered itself to us io tb^ dark> so th^t th« m^m \mi 
for its defence, occasioned it^ death. 
' 31st. Day-light discovered that we were in the midst of 
corn-fieldSy but we were glad our cattle had not gone into 
any of them. As it was necessary to depart froiB such a 
place as'last as possible, we left it at seven in the morning, 
and reached the salt lakes at balf past eight o'clock, where 
we halted to spend the day. We found good water within 
a few yards of the lake. Sonie waggvns from Cape-town 
were here, and we found our c|og Lion was with thero, who 
had been missing for (nore than a fortnight. On seeing ps, 
he seemed pleased %q r^Joip bis old masters, but after re- 
maining a while witb u^f bo appeared de.sirous to folloijir his 
new friepds, wheq w^ ff^t^ned him tP tbQ.wa^^QQ* 

Now Cape-itowDy Table Mo|intain« Table Bay, witb the 
shipping were all full in view. 

When the worship of the aabbath was over, Mr/ Read 
apd I walked to Cape-town ja the evening after sun-set, 
where I w^ received by my kind friend Mr. K. Pu^an 
find bis friepds, with open arms ; ouf waggQns wene 1^ foW 
low next ipQrninig. 

Thus end^d a jpurney pf ae^rly nine piontbs, ^ ^\k of 
V$ were in as good health as when we set out ; M^d^ i 
lyas much batter. Were I to ^rge( to praise tbf l^oi^d ^r 
bis protecting car^» I sbou)d be one pf the mMt u^gr^it^^ul 
things upder tbe ^un; for his goodness and o^efcy ^tt^ndf^ 
Ds evf ry ^ay» and ^ i^r as I \mQW» ev?ry qbi^Qt I bt4 » 
view in tbft jpuri^ey prospf^ed far beyond my ^^p^^tfttioa. 
Many newspapers«and about thirty letters wej^ Wf^itii»g Coc 

m^ from v0¥ifH]s q^ftrter^, bvt I b»d ismhtim %q pi4% off 
thtir Pf ruffll till,tbe fojjpwing ^ay, 



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NOV.] CAFE^TOWN: 349 

CflAP. XL. 

Occurrences after my Return to (^ape^Tau^n* 
During my residence at Capeotowa, after my relnmi 
from the iaterior. but few circiHn^tatices oocurred iror** 
thy to be related to the public, I was glad to Aiti « 
religious society formed in, the meet^g-hbtise, ooiDp«Bed 
dmost entirely of soldic^rs^ w^o had ofaoran jMfar. Tbein 
for their pastor^ and to. whom tb^ wene mucti attached. 
Besides those who -v^ere ;ineEBbers of the aooiety, a con« 
siderable number of other soldiers regtilarly attended. 
When I bad concluded the first sermon I preached to 
t\iem after my return, a serjeant said to me, ** Strange, 
$ir, that I should have come from England to AiVica, 
to become acquainted with Jesus Christ!" I replied 
that I knew a person who went much farther on the 
same errand, viz. from £ngland to the East Indies* 

November 16th. In the evening we met with about 
pixty of the friends of missions^ iti a large room at the 
bojuse of Mr. Smutz, to whom Mr. Reed gave an aooomit 
pf our journey in the Dutch language, in which the eom^ 
pany appeared to feel a lively interest. 

On the ^th there was ipucb thunder, lightning, and 
j^in the whole day. About noon the heavens were sud* 
denly overcast with such thick black clouds, as to reo> 
der it so dark I could neither read nor write by day-flight 
There were four or five peals of thunder so loud as to 
resemble the explosk>n of a mine, or the blowing up of 
a ship. The flashes of lightning were so vivid, and ex- 
tensive, and-foUo wed each other in such quick succession, as 
to remind me of what was common, on the confines of Caf« 
fraria. All the slaves in Mr. Duncan's house, except one, 
were sick at thi& time, owing, it was thought, to the state 
of the air. During the whole succeeding night, it blew 
with extreme violence from the S. W, 
On the 27th ^en of the Hottentots who bad aecom« 



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3&0 CAPE-TOWN^ [WIST; 

panied me the whole journey, set out on their return to 
Bethelsdorp. They came in a body to bid roe farewell. 
I was glad when the parting scene was over, believing 
that I should see them no more. The day was sultry — 
the thermometer in my room, with two large windows 
open, was 84. The evening being cool and pleasant, most 
of the inhabitants walked otk the terraces in front 6f their 
houses. 

December 6th. Having been invited by the friends of 
missions at P tarl to pay then! a visit, and inform them of 
the circumstances of the journey, Mr. Read and I left 
Cape-town at five in the morning, in Mr. Roos's waggon, 
accompanied by Mrs. Smit and Mrs. Sniutz, both of whom 
are warm friends to the heathen, and very active in doing 
good> in every way in their power. 

At nine A^ M. we halted by the side of a salt lake to 
breakfast) arid to refresh our horses. A cloth was im- 
mediately spread on the grass, on which the provisions 
which the ladies had brought with them were placed, 
around which we' sat and partook in the patriarchal fashion. 
We brought fresh water for ourselves, but our poor horses 
had none. They tasted the salt lake at various points, but 
could not drink of its water; had they not possessed this vaio^ 
able sense of taste, their feelings would have induced* th^m 
to drink plentifully, which must have greatly increased their 
thirst. The value of this sense never struck me niore power- 
fully than on this occasion. 

After leaving the lake we travelled along the west side of 
Tiger Mountain, till we came to a pass across the moun- 
tains* About two P.M. we halted at a boor's, and dined oa 
what we had brought with us ; and at seven arrived at 
Mr* Roosts at Paari, which is about thirty-six miles from 
Cape^town. At eight, about a hundred people assembled, 
to whom Mr. Read pf'eached. 

The christians here have frequent meetings to converse 
on the scripture, and for prayer. Every house, as is common 
throughout the colony, has a large room fit for a chapel, 
where the family generally sit during the day. These 



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Bsc] CAPE-TOWN* 351 

rooms readily accommodate a hundred people and more^ 
and their meetings circulate from bouse to house. These 
christians have erected a building capable of containing 
Jtbree hundred persons, which is intended for the instruction 
of their slaves. 

On the following evening Mr. Re^d gave an account of 
our journey to a large assembly of friends^ after which I 
added a little ; Mrs. S. then addressed the company^ and 
brought tears from every eye, while she pleaded the cause 
of the poor beatbeD, representing their wretchedness^ and 
^kinghow they would feel were their own children placed 
in similar circumstances. • 

In the morning of the eighth, accompanied by friends in 
several waggons, we went to Mr. RetiflTs at Drakenstein^ 
where Mr. Read preached at one ; after which we went to 
Stellenbosb, where we arrived, a little before sun-set, at the 
bouse of my worthy friend Mr. Kuyper, where I had resided 
very comfortably for tvi{0 months previously to my journey; 
The next day, after visiting various friends, we returned to 
Drakenstein, and the succeeding day to Paarl, where we 
found Mrs. S. bad been indisposed ever since our departure; 

In the evening, Mr. Read preached to the slaves, whea 
about two hundred slaves and free people were present. 
After sermon, the people brought me donations to assist in 
sending the gospel to the heathen whom we had visited, to 
the amount of about five hundred rix-dollars ; even the 
slaves came with their skillings and stivers, and parted with 
Ibem most cheerfully to aid the cause of missions. This 
was a most happy evening to me. It gladdened my heart 
to heboid these blessed fruits of the gospel. 

11th. We designed to have set off at four in the morning, 
on our return to the Cape, that we might avoid travelling 
during the beat of the day, but by some mistake, we all 
arose about one o'clock, and departed about three, when 
we travelled for some time by star light, but the sun rising 
in splendid majesty, the darkness fled away. At seven we 
halted near a pool of water where we breakfasted, and then 
went forward to a farm bbiise where we rested during the 



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Inmeftt pKirt bf tine dey^ About five in tba crmmg wevar* 
wred at OttpeAcmu; 

I wflfs informed ef a circumstance rdating to Caf^e-town 
wliioh greatly wprieed me^ vie. Tte( genteel fensales, 
haviog spurious children, go openly to church, aod in the 
preMKse <yf tvm tkoysaDd -people presetit tbeM to be bap« 
tized, amd, as in other ceses^ the names of mother efvdcbiU 
dren srre itiserted in the weekly nevrspsper ; the ntfndes c€ 
nch .wete pointed twt to tne. Tiiis is:a liegi^e d( bold 
efffDQtery unkMnv^i in Eiagland, especially amoftgst g^Mited 
people ; biit how todies of character can witness it,>fSy to ftae, 
rather mysterious. 

On tbe Idth of January, 1814, I waited on His EstceU 
lency tbe ficvemor, on his fetum from tlie interior, who 
sUforaivd «e tliBt he had given to the Sdci«ty one of fbe 
best places be bad seen in Africa for a new settlement, a^d 
bad nomad it Tfaeopol^s.* It is one of tbe places which I 
visfted in the Eturefeld, or Al'bany, Aot far from Gaffrarisr, 
wAmckk may oitimatety become a very importent station. 
I -waseorry to leamfrom his Excellency that, doring tkt 
three naoDtbs preoediiig, tbe Caffree hod stokn froeei tht 
oolony «i>psvard0 of two thousand bead of cattte, and kitted 
five porsoas. Orders w^ere given that on tbeniixt^eprredib* 
tion, a pasty ahoild enter their eOuntvy, and krU a saitable 
DD<*ber of their cottlecand leave them all dekd] tosbew it is not 
for phinder but punish ment The Governor expressed dia^ 
satiefaictioaf with the appearance of Betbelsdorp, amd wararfy 
reeommended to Mr. ibeari to attemptt an impvovemfeat apoo 
bis retava to that statbn.f 

On the 19th Sir Joha Cradoek, the Governor, viaited tbe 
f ree-scbool, which is condttoted on thefiritiadi piaaof^u- 
i»tion. Aboot olie bandred atid fifty yeuag people wcie 
pfeaaat, wiN» perfcnrmed their parts as readilgr as any aimiiar 

♦ ©r. City of God. 
t From letters .which I have received from Betbelsdorp djice my 
Amval in fiqglaod, I fiud that Mr. Read is Actively ,proeeeding 
accordiog to this recommendation* 



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PEB.3 CAMUTOwsr. asa 

school in England. Twelve of the best scholars were pre- 
sented by his Excellency with silver medals. 

Waited on a Mr. M— ' — , who has a grant from government 
of an island at the mouth of the Great, or Orange River.' 
He mentioned that there was an openiqg into a cliff, u, 
little to the south of that river, which would afford shelter 
to two ships-*-tiiat a bar runs across the mouth of the river, 
which has five fathoms water on it when the tide is down--* 
that there are no trees lining the sides of the river near the 
sea — that there are several small islands near the mouth, 
but he was uncertain whether they may not be overflowed 
during the rainy season— he thinks there are fountains in 
the neighbourhood, but was not sure if they have always 

water. Mr. M could at any time convey a cargo from 

Cape-town by sea to the Gceat River. 

I visited with much pleasure the military schools at the 
Barracks, in which there were about two hundred cbildreng 
who were all taught according to the British system, and 
appeared to have made great proficiency. Mr. JoneSj the 
colonial Chaplain, has, much to his credit, paid^great at- 
tention to these schools, and brought them to their present 
state. 

Having requested Mr. Kramer, a missionary, to visit the 
people living at the foot of the Cedar Mountains, in a remote 
part of the district of Tulbacb, and to inquire into their 
circumstances, be went thither, and on his return informed 
me that there were of 

White people 16 

Baptized Bastard Hottentots • • 63 
Urfbaptized Do.^ Do, . • • 168 
Slaves . . . ' . 10 

257 
Of these twenty-five can read, and they all expressed a 
desire for Mr. Kramer to come and settle among them, 
which, if the government permit, he is willing to do. 

On Friday, the nth of February, I visited a Mahometan 
mosque. The place was small—- the floor was covered 
with green baize^ on which sat about an hundred men, 

A a 

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9H qAPB*TO«N. [1813. 

chiefly slave*, Malays, and Madagaacars. All of thein wore 
clean white robes^ made in the fashion of shirts and wrhike 
pantaloons, with white cotton cloths spread before them, 
on which they prostrated themselves. They sat in rows^ 
extending from one side of the room to the other. There 
were six priests, wearing elegant turbans. A chair, having 
three steps up to it, stood at the east end of the place, whicb 
bad a canopy supported by posts, resembling the tester of 
a bed without trimmings. Before this chair stood two 
priests who chaunted something, I supposed in 'the Malay 
language, in the chorus of which the people joined. At 
Qne part of it, the priests held their ears between the finger 
and thumb of each hand, continuing to chl^unt, som^tknes 
turning the right elbow upwards and the It-ft downw^irds, 
and then the reverse. This awkward motion thej: conti- 
nued to make for some time. After thjs ceremony wa& 
^id^, one of the priests covered his bead and face with 9 
white veil, holding in hia band a long black staff with a 
ailver head, and advanced in front of th0 chajr. A^^b^ the 
other had chapted a little, he nmuntqd a steip, making a 
dead halt ; after a. second cbaunting he mounted the second 
step, and in the same w^ the third, when he sat down 
upon the ch^ir. Ha d^cended in th^ same n^ann^r. ^ 

Th« people were frequently, during tbif ceremony, pros- 
trating themselves in their ranks, as regularly as soldiers 
£X€^]cising. A corpulent priest then staiiding in a corner^ 
near the chair, with his face to the wiill, repeated something 
in a very serious aiuging manner,, when tiie people appeared 
particularly solemn; after which the aerviqe concluded. 
It appeaned all. to consist, of forms without any ipstructioiu 
How different the kingdom of Christ !r-ayccQr4in|E to which 
mere " bodily exercise profiteth little." 

CHAP. XLI. 



( Voyage to England^ 

Arf mi settling a variety of conc^ami^ ttt^saiUof of a 
fleet for Bngland, uiuter convfity ol th^ Usj/pl i4 Q^ gA^» 



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F^*} VOYAGE to EROLArak a5& 

wa» a^nouAced for the 13th of Pebruarf, on wbieh morn- 
iBg I' went on board the brig Venus, comnianded by Cap* 
tain Kilgour» accompanied by several friends. We got 
under weigh about eight in the morning, when my friendfl 
Messrs. Read, Duncan, Sheppard, &c. took leave^ and re-* 
turned to the shore. Our fleet consisted of nine sail besides 
tbe Commodore. After passing the north side of Robin 
Isiand, we got into tbe open ocean with a fair wind, and 
soon lost sight of Cape-town, and before evening of Africa' 
also, a country for the welfare of which I thinli^ I shall feel 
iiitej^ested as long as I live — a country in which I have spent 
the most n^emorable months in my life, and I hope that 
good eifeets will ultimately be produced by my visit. 

On the next day, I had a very narrow escape, while 
writing Jn the cabin, for by the pitching of the ship a 
heavy chair, on deck was driven through the sky-light, which 
was open, and struck me on the head ; but in consequence 
of its facing in an joqiined direction, the wound was slight 
Qcsopared with what it might have been. . 

On the SO^ we erossed the tropic of Capricorn, just at 
tbe time of our worship on deck, which the passengers and 
seamen attended, and which they continued regularly to 
do all the rest of the voyage, on the sabbath: they also 
r^eived tracts and booka, which most of them read with 
^parent attention.' 

On the 94th ia the morning we observed a mass of 
thick clouds far a-bead, which the captain supposed 
were attracted by the island of St. Helena, which in the &fter« 
Hoon was found to be the case, for the high land was visible, 
but being too distant to reach it during day-light, the fleet 
stood off to .windward during the night, expecting to reach 
tbe roadstead in the morning. 

Day-light next morning gave us a fine view of the south 
side and east end of the island, which bad a bleak appear- 
ance, and seemed inaccessible at all points. At ten^we 
descried about ten ships lying at anchor, and at noon we 
anchored among them opposite to James-town. Thus in 
twelvfdays w&had sailed more than sixteen hundred miles, 
having had a fair wind the whole way, 

A a2 

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8S6 VOTAGE TO ENGLAND. [1814^ 

When the ship was moored, the Captain, Mr. Beck» and I 
went ashore, and dined with Mr. Hastie from London, when 
we found that some of the Indiatneu in the roads had been^ 
waiting for convoy, three, four, five, and one of tbem, six 
months, which bad cost some of them four or five thousand 
pounds, besides greatly damaging their cargoes, and being a 
great additional expense to the passengers, about thirty 
shillings a day each ; infants at the breast are charged tea 
or fifteen shillings a day. 

Both the clergymen of the island, tlie Rev. Messrs. Boys^ 
and Jones, kindly invited me to take up my residence with 
them. I lodged with the former during my stay. 

26th. Mr. Boys accompanied me on a ride into tbe coun* 
try. We left James-town at eleven, A.M. when we instant- 
ly began to ascend the almost perpendicular side of Ladder 
Hill, by. a zig-zag path, cut out of tbe rock with great labour. 
Tbe path is secured by a parapet wall on the outside. To * 
stranger the road has a most terrific appearance, especially 
if he looks directly down upon the town as he ascends. Oor 
load was up hill for more than an hour. Many gentlemen's 
seats on the sides of the mountains, and the winding paths 
to them, rendered the scenery very picturesque, and parti' 
cularly gratifying on landing from the sea. Plantation House, 
the seat of the governor, is a neat, plain building, pleasantly 
situated among trees, having a fine view of the ocean. The 
furze and the bramble bushes, imported from £urope» grow 
abundantly all over thejsland. 

We halted for some time at Colonel Smith's charming 
place, where he has extensive gardens and orchards, laid out 
with great taste by himself. The peaches were so abundant 
that part of them were consumed by the swine. We next 
visited Dr. Baldon, whom I had seen in Scotland, who on 
account of a pulmonary complaint has resided eight years on 
the island, kept alive by the salubrity of the air and unifor- 
mity of the climate, the thermometer being seldom under 
70 or higher than 80. Returned to James-town before 
sun-set. 

27th. Heard Mr. Boys preach in the mornings and Mr* 



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TBB.] VOYAGE TO ENGLAND. 357 

Jon€8 in the evening.' Bdth were evangelical discourses; 
and I was sorry to observe so few of the inhabitants of the 
town attending, except children and soldiers : the rest seem- 
ed chiefly to be strangers belonging to the ships. Glad, 
however, was I to find such doctrine preached at St. Helena. 
On the 2Sth, after dinner, rode out with Messrs. Boys and 
Hastie, to take a view of Sandy Bay, where, there is the most 
romantic scenery in the island. The mountains form a very 
majestic amphitheatre, decorated with various gentlemen's 
seats. We halted for some time at one of them, Mr. Dove- 
ton's, who, though nearly seventy years of age, has never 
departed from the island. The ride home, over the moun- 
tains, was so fatiguing, that on arriving I could hardly dis- 
mount ; and Mr. B. must have felt much the same weari- 
ness, as in consequence of the ride he was unable to sup 
with us at Mr. Jonfes's. The most distant part of the island 
from James-town is only nine miles, consequently a longer 
Journey cannot be taken ; of course the ideas of the natives 
' respecting travelling must be very limited. 
^ A gentleman on the island had a son married in England. 
On his death, his widow and children came out to his father 
at St. Helena, who complained at the Governor's table of 
• her extravagance, in consequence, as he thought, of having 
travelled all over England ; for, said he, she had been fifteen 
miles from London ! A lady of thf island also remarked, on 
some .occasion, what a bustle London must be in when the 
India ships arrrive. Little did she imagine that few indivi- 
duals, except those immediately concerned, know any thing 
of the matter. 

There are about three thousand inhabitants on St. Helena, 
about sixteen hundred of whom are military. The military, 
and the ships that arrive, are. the chief sources of support 
to the island. The late order for the India ships to rendez- 
vous at the Cape, instead of St. Helena, will certainly injure 
t the island, except as a military station. The inhabitants^ 
who cannot rear fowls, must be content to live chiefly on 
salt provisions. I visited an excellent public school for the 
instruction of children belonging to the poorer classes 



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656 VOYAGE TO ENGLAND. IWU. 

of society under the tuition of a ivortby man. T-befT", ate 
visible proofs all over the island that it has been prodfieed 
by Tolcanic eruptions. 

The first day of March being fi:$ed for the fleet to sail, the 
Commodore fired a gun in the morning, as a signal for ail to 
get on board. About eleven, I left the friendly tiouse of Mr. 
Boys, accompanied by him and his colleague Mr. Jones, luld 
Ensign Armstrong, whose friendly attentions also I shall not 
soon forget. On reaching the pier, I found our ship's boat 
waiting forme, when, with painful feelings, I parted from 
. these kind friends and went on board. At noon the fleet, 
which now consisted of twenty-one sail, got und^r weigh 
with a gentle breeze, which gradually removed us from K. 
Helena till it was no longer visible. 

Ou the morning of the ninth we discovered the island of 
Ascension, about forty miles to the Ni W. which is abo«t 
eight hundred miles from St. Helena. The cry of '* Land** 
made every sleeper rise, and run to aee it« At four, being 
within a few miles of the island,"^ several of us were ready lo 
go on shore to catch turtle^ but a strange ship appearing to 
the eastward, the Commodore by signal ordered all to bdM 
on their course, while he, with a fast-sailing lodiaman, weQt 
in pursuit of the strange siul ; so our turtle expedition wifs 
frustrated. At sun-set we were ordered by signal to lie»to 
during the nighty when our little brig bad a narrow escape 
from being run down by one of the large Indiames. We 
were detained till noon next day, as we siipposed, for the 
turtle catchers ; and having no expectation of a abait^ we 
were all grunabling at the detention, and began to calcoiate 
how much expense was incurred by the flefet loemg eigh- 
teen hours in officers and seamen's wages, and ifiteieatof 
value of the cargoes ; and concluded that 'the aix tulties 
which were caught would oost England two thousand 
pounds : but the idea of this loss never wohM tiavie'atxiirred 
to any on board, had we been permitted to go on shonrw Two 
sleeping turtles passed qur ship within a fewyardft, butb*- 
ing judged about six or seven hundred pounds w«ighi,lbqr 
were too heavy to be lifted into a boal^ and wreic^ with a 



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general grudge, allovired t6 pads undine urbed. Th6 stn^U 
island of Ascension oan never beinlKibited^ as H cot>tains no- 
spring of water, and the surface is alrtiost entirely covered 
with a kind of cinder, on V^bich there is not the sKwillest' 
verdure. It is inhabited ' tA'iefly by sea fo\yl8 and female 
turtles, who repair thithrer to deposit their eggs; but bow 
-such a stupid^looking animal can find out this speck of 
land, in so extended an ocean, is truly wonderful : if it be 
by scent, one would suppose they could only smeH it when 
on a line with it to the north, as the wind there always blows 
from the south : if the island gives a taste to the water for 
maiiiy n)ifes round, and that taste b^ stronger as the island 
il^ approached^ stifl the currents would be an obstruction to' 
finding itotjt by taste, 

Whf*n witbia about fwe degrees of the line, the water 
trough which the ahip passed was at night so illuminated, 
that it 4idenied Bs if mingled with fiery meteor, and could a 
person baTe sat steadily on the helm,! think be might have 
read large pritot. We took npu iittle of it, which^ after hav* 
nig examined by a rhdgnifying glass, we concluded was the! 
sfpawQ of some fish. We observed many white spots in if, 
which lippeared to be the embryo oC fishes. This matter does 
not shine except when agitated by the brewing of a wave, 
or the motion of a ship forced against it. On putting some 
of it into our hands, it lost the luminous ap^arance, hut 
tirhen held up, it w^s restored. 

On the 16th, daring the night, we crossed the line, with 
light winds attended with squalls, and the swell soon be^n 
to come from the N.EL Our cabin, which bad lately been 
painted of a Trench grey colour, be'camie black from the 
influence of the beat upon the cargo, especially the sugar. 
Most of us had what is called the prickly beat, or rash, re- 
sembling measles, all over oar skin, v^hicb, though not 
painful, produced a constant desire to rub it. On the 16th 
we were much amused by several beautiful dolphins, follow^ 
ing and playing about the ship. They appeared in the 
water of a verdigris green, 'and sometimes of a beautiful 
brown colour. After several unsuccessful throws of liie 



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aaO VOYAGEiTO ENGLAND. [ISM 

harpoon, the captain at length struck it into ooe, and 
brought it on deck, to the no small gratification of such of 
us as had not seen one before. We all pronounced it a 
most complete beauty, not inferior to any creature on land, 
not excluding the golden pheasant, or the bird of paradise. 
The back was dark green, mixed with large blue spots, in 
the middle of which was a red spot like a drop of blood— 
the green as it descended gradually became lighter till lost 
in the colour of the finest gold — this yellow became paler, 
till lost in white, which was the colour of the belly. The 
fins were equally ornamented. The shape, of the finest 
symmetry. It was about three feet and a half long. When 
cut up, one large and several small flying fishes were found 
in its stomach. When boiled it was nearly as white as snow 
under the skin, and had a delicate taste. The heavens are 
generally clouded near the line, which serves as an umbrella 
to protect from the burning rays of a vertical sun. 
.. On the 2 1st the sun crossed the equator I had an op« 
portunity to see verified Dr. Franklin's assertion, that oil 
thrown upon agitated water will smooth it. A Soutb-Sea 
whaler near-us pumped out her bilge water, which was mix* 
^d with oil, when the sea, for a quarter of a mile behind her» 
became as smooth as glass. On the3lst, we passed, about 
a thousand miles to westward of the Cape de Verd Islands. 

On the 4th of April we crossed the tropic of Cancer, and 
entered the temperate zone, pleased to leave the torrid be- 
hind us, when some on board said they began to smell Eu- 
ropean air. On the 7 tb, though at a great distance from land» 
we observed much sea-weed moving past us. A whaler ran 
foul of us, which fof some minutes excited considerable 
alarm ; but providentially we got disentangled without sus- 
taining material injury. About one in the morning of the 
8th all were waked from sleep by a sudden and violent gust 
of wind, which carried away the gaff, or upper boom of our 
mainsail, and caused the overthrow of chairs, &c. in our 
cabin. It lasted only about five minutes. 

On the 10th, about eleven, A.M. the Commodore hung 
out a signal, that he supposed a storm was approaching 



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AFftIL.1 VOYAGE TO ENGLAND. 861 

from the N. W. for which all the ships, prepared. About 
noon, as we were preparing for worship on the Lord's 
day, the storm commenced, and blew very hard, especi- 
ally after sun-set Being in a sound sleep during the 
night, I beard nothing of the storm, though it had occa- 
sionalfy blown with great violence. We were lying-to, 
under only one reefed topsail, and the sea running very higb. 

At five in the afternoon the captain called me on deck, 
to witness, before the day light was gone, the awful gran- 
deur of the ocean, and the rolling. of the ships aiound us. 
A more majestic and sublime scene than such a storm, in the 
midst of the ocean, surely cannot be seen. Though twenty 
targe ships surrounded us, yet frequently not one of them 
was visible from our deck, in .consequence of the great 
height of the intervening waves. The sea seemed full of 
rage and fury, threatening to destroy all who had dared to 
venture on its surface. I viewed the scene with extreme 
interest, as an exhibition of the great Creator's power, 
and expressed a wish that my friends in London could be 
gratified with a panoramic view of it. The foam from the 
sea, blown about in all directions, added greatly to tbe 
gloominess of the scene. 

About nine o^clpck at night, the Captain again invited 
me on deck to view the scene with the additional gloom of 
night The appearance was terrific. Wonderful that our 
little brig was not dashed into a thousand pieces ! 

l^th. The wind continued violent all night, and in the 
morning only two ships were observed from our deck. At 
nine, several other ships were seen from the mast head, 
towards which we made sail, and in the afternoon we re- 
joined the fleet. In the evening the wind began to abate, 
though the sea retained its former commotion. 

At four o'clock on the morning of the 15th all were 
roused from their slumber by a sudden and violent gust of 
wind, which caused much confusion while it lasted, which 
happily was not long. At eight a gale of wind rose from 
the N.E. opposing directly our farther progress. At eleven, 
I had no sooner reached the deck, to view the majestic 



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S«2 yOYACSE TO CNOLAMD. (i6Ht 

scene that surrounded us, than ti Keia broke cMnpletely 6ver 
tfae vessel, from stem to sterti^ when ail were drenched with 
its contents. Towards evening the ^le b^g&n to abate, 

2l8t, Having heard or read that if a corked bottle were 
sunk fifty or sixty fathoms in the Ocedti, bOweVer tight the 
cork might be, the pressure witlioul wouM drive the cork 
hito the inside of lAie bottle, on tnentiooing it to the traptain, 
he readily consented to make an experiment/ which proved 
the accuracy of the assertion. 

On tbe^gth our -Cottimodot^ spoke with an Enjgtish fVi- 

• We drove« cork very %ht into am en^ty bottle. The cork 

was so large that more than half of it could not be driven into the 
neck of the bottle. We then tied a c6rd round the cork which we 
also fastened round the neck^of tbebottle^ to 'prevent the ceA 
sinking down, and put « ooat of piteh over ihe wholes By tueans 
of lead we sunk it in the water. When it was let down to about the. 
depth of fifty fathoms, the captain said he was sure that the bottie 
had initantaneousty filled ; on which he drew it up, when wefeuud 
the eork drivea down into the itisMe, «n4 i»f oovrse the bottle wfes 
full of water. 

We prepared a second bottle exactly in th^ same way, only 
with the addition of a satit needle being passed through the upp^r 
put of this cofic, which nested on the mouth of the bottle, mad. all 
completely pitched over. When about fifty fathoms down, the 
captain called out as before, that he felt by the sudden increase of 
weight that the bottle f»as filled, on which it was drawn up. We 
were not a little «tirpri«ed to find the cork in the iaihe positiMi» 
and no part of the pitch jbrofcen^ yet the bottle was full of water. 
IVone of us could conjecture hew the water got in. There was no 
part of the pitch open that would admit the point of a needlci. 
Supposing the pitch and cOrk both portm^, it ddes not appear 
easy to account for a quaiit of water passing 90 instantaneously 
through so small a space — the porousness of the glass seems to be 
the only consideration by which we can account for the luct. 

I do not know whether the same experimenft iis the second was 
ever tried before, and, therefoft'e, for the satisfaction of tfae turious 
and inquisitive, I shall subjoin answers to as many inquiries as I 
think they would make, were t present with them. 

Are you positively certain there was no water in thekecohd bottle 
before the cork was put into it ? Positively certain. 

Did the cork completely fill the neck of the bottle ? The cork 
was purposely chosen rather larger than suited the bottle, and not 
more than one half of it, as on the first experiment, could be 
forced into it. Likewise to render it still more difficult to M 
forced down^ it was firmly tied to the neck of the bottle fvitb.a 
small cord. 



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MAt.] TOYAGE TO ImtSlAHD, 363 

gat« ; and on the succeeding mornings at six o'clock/ tfal^ 

Carmarthen Indinman» after bailing as, €ihd finding vt^had 

heard ho news, telegra|>hed ae follows : 

Peace -with France! ! 
B6napartedetiiroaed t! I 
Bourbons and Stadibol^er restored ! 

France conquered ! 
The allies in Paris !! ! 

We, who had heard nothirtg of Europe later than, in 
September, 1813, were overwhelmed with astonishment on 
receiving, in the course of a few minutes, such extraordinary 
and unexpected tidings ; we were like men that dreamied. 
After congratulating each other upon the news, we all felt 
a strong desire to know the particulars which led to such 
singular events ; but for this we were obliged to exercise a 
little patienc6 till we should reach some English port. 

At one, P.M. we got soundings at ninety fathoms, a proof 
we were not at a great distance from land. The greased lead 
brought up brown sand : we how viewed ourselves as sail- 
ing over the foundation of the island of Britain. 

May 1st. At seven, A. M. a Prussian vessel passed near 
us, and at ten,'an English brig, which confirmed the news 

Did the piercing of the cork with so large a needle as a sail 
needl^ not split it ? The captain did it cautiously to preyeat 
that, and succeeded in not injuring it. 

Are you certain that every part of the cork, and especially 
round the mouth of the bottle, was covered with pitch ? Yes, 
and also about an inch lower down with a thick crust of pitch. 

Was the state of it particularly examined when taken up ? Yes, 
by the captain, Mr. Beck a passenger, and by myself, and we 
observed only one hollow part in the pitch, about the size of $i 
pin's head, that had beai a bubble in the pitch, the top of which 
was broken, bat the bottom remained covered with pitch. 

I preserved the bottle in the very state in which it was taken up, 
till the vessel arrived In the London Docks, but the cabin boy 
broke it by letting it fall when carrying it to my house in London. 

The experiment was m&de about eight hundred miles to th.e 
westward of Morocco, in calm weather. The lead which sunk 
the bottle was ihe. same that is used for trying soundings, and the 
line the same used on such occasions. It was a wine bottle. 

Captain Kilgour* of the Venus* was equally anxious with my- 
self to make the experiment. Both of us were so satisfied that 
every thinff was correctly done^ that we did not deem it necessary 
tomakeaSiirdtriaL 



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VOVAGE to ENGLAND. [1814. 

of the preceding day. At noon^ soundings were found at fifty- 
five fathoms : at the bottom there were shells and round 
stones. I preached, in allusion to the news, from Acts viii. 8. 
2d. The morning light discovered to us the British shore, 
near the Land's End in Cornwall, which was not an unwel- 
come sight, especially as we had 6een no land since we left 
the small island of Ascension on the 10th of March. Before 
evening we entered the chops of the channel. 
' 3d. We were all day beating up channel against adverse 
winds, which increased as the day advanced. About one 
P.M. the Commodore hung out a signal, advising all ships 
who thought they could make Plymouth harbour to try it, 
when ours happily eifected it ; though others of the fleet 
were obliged to run 'back for Falmouth. At five, we cast 
anchor within a mile of the town of Plymouth ; but the wind 
blew so violently it was impossible to get ashore, till next 
day about two o'clock in the afternoon, when I once more 
landed on British ground; and as the Annual Meeting 
of the Missionary Society was to take place on the following 
Wednesday, I took my passage in a London coach which 
setoff next morning at seven, in which I, and my young 
African friend Mr. Beck, arrived safe at five on Saturday 
morning, at the inn in Lad-lane, and soon after at my own 
bouse, where I was thankful to find my friends in good 
health, of whom I had heard nothing for about a year. 

POSTSCRIPT. 

I cannot close this account of my journies in Africa, without a 
grateful acknowledgment of the valuable information and assist- 
ance 1 derived from my friend and fellow-traveller Mr. Read. 
My thanks are also due to Mr. Anderson, who accompanied me 
from Griqua town to Lattakoo. I am also under obligation to the 
Griqua Chiefs, Kok and Bern ; to Jan Hendrick, a Griqua ; and to 
various Hottentots of the* company, who had been iu Cafiraria. 
I am also much indebted for useful assistance to all the mission- 
aries in Namacqualand. 

Above all, I ascribe praise and glory to Him who inclined me 
to undertake the journey ; who directed and preserved me through 
the whole of it ; who watched over my aifairs while absent from 
home ; and at length restored me in safety and health to my friends 
and flock. 



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APPENDIX. 



No. I. 



CHAP. I. 

MISCKLLANEOUS ACCOUNT OF CAFFRARIA. 



Religion^ Marriages — Sickness — Hunting, 

V^AFFRARIA commences at the Great Fish Rirer, which divides it from Al- 
bany in the ColoDy, and runs along the Indian Ocean, in a N. E. direction, to 
tbe River Bassee^ which divides it from the Tambookie country. It does not 
extend more than seventy miles up the country, or to the west, at least at the 
sooth «nd of it, being separated from the Colony and Bushmen country on that 
side by a chain of mountains. It abounds with mountains, woods, and water, 
aad is far more populous than either tbe Bushmen, Coranna, or Namacqua 
countries, Tho people also are taller, more robust, and more industrious. 
Better shaped men I never saw. They are a warlike race, and many of them 
are greiltty addicted to plundering. Like the Chinese^ they consider ail other 
people inferior to themselves* and suppose that Europeans wear clothes merely 
oo account of havinfg feeble and sickly bodies. 

They have scarcely any religion ; but some of them profess to belie%'e that 
some great being came from above, and made the world, after which he returned, 
and cared no more about it. It is very probable that even this feeble ray of light 
was obtained by means of their intercourse with the Dcitch boors duiing several 
ages. They consider man as on a level with the brutes with regard to the durar* 
tion of his being, so that when he is dead there is an end of his existence. 
• When I enquired of some of our Hottentots who had lived among the Caffres, 
if they had arty conjectures among them concerning the nature of the heavenly 
bodies, they said the Caffires did not allow their thoughts to eitend so far as the 
stars. 

. Like the Matchappees/ they have circumcision among them, though ignorant 
of what gave rise to the custom. They perform this ceremony on their young 
men at the age of fourteen years, or more. For this purpose they are caught, 
for they seldom submit willingly, and brought into a house, when the operation 
is forcibly performed ; after which they are not permitted to sleep till they are 
healed, and to keep them awake, men are employed to beat them on the ends 
of their fingers. One man performs this office for a considerable district, and is 
paid for his trouble by a calf or an assagay. They daub the person over with 
whiter so that our Hottentots said, he looks like the devil. They likewise furnish 
him with an apron made from a plant which grows in the rivers of Caffraria, and 
the young men, thus painted and dressed/ dance together at a distance from the 
Kraal, to which they are not admitted till perfectly recovered. When recovered, 
they wash off the clay in the river, and receive each ;& new garment as a present 
from the women. Then the house in which they were confined and every thing 
ill it is burned ; after wbich a young female is presented to each ; and being now 
considered as men, they are allowed to eat some part« of a beast, which are for- 
bidden till that rite is performed. When the son of a Caffre chief is circumcised, 
he becomes chief of all the youth of the same age and under, and his father re- 
tains his authority over all others: thus the power is divided between the father 
and his eldest son* 

Wh^na Caffre wishes to marry, he invites the female to whom he is partial 
to his house^ aad makes a feast. If pleased with her, he negotiates with the 



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366 CAFFRARIA. 

parents to marry her, which aeg^tiatioo chiefljr relaitea to the numiher of oattt^ 
to he given for her ;^7soec<t|i8f«l a day U a|>potate<) for %iie celehration of the 
nuptials. Co the m^mngof tbatday she appeafS^ #{tb oulya little dress, in 
presence of the whole Kraai» walking j^ast each person, with eompaoions on each 
side of her. Then she turns Her back towards her parents, iniiinatio; that to be 
the last time they shall s<^ her in tbat«tatew' Cattle are now killed, when thef 
feast and dance aslongr as they la»t 

Polygamy is very general ^mwt ^hef9> TIk^ common people have seldom 
more than one-or two wives, hut their chiefs uKually fowr or five. 

When a Caifre is sick, thpy general t|rs|tad for |i person who b considerer] as a 
physician, who pretends to extract from the body of tbe siek, terpenta, stones, 
bones, Sto^ At oibor times ho^lto^ them e« tho elbow, kiieei/ and en^.of their 
fingers, tilt (as our Hottentots ex^rtsSed it) tHese are almost rotteo---they some* 
times also kill cattle in the way of saod^joe for-Jthe person^— at other timea the 
doctor pretends to drive out tbe devil, and to Jcill him* 

When their chiefs are long sick, they SM|^pes%ft|».ba om»$ tathe condnct of 
some person in the Kraal. To find out this person they employ some womim 
who is reported totbe « witch, who, when the people imfo oUod out, w*lk8 romid 
^d round them, until she fixes upon tbe supposed: colprit, apdpAi^s himdot ; 
op which ants, formed into balls, are brought^^ whei^o^e ball is pot Mtwi^Ai^tiM^ 
upper part of his thighs, and. one under .?aclx armpit,, to hite and totmeait bite till' 
he cpi^esse^; imm^ia^teLy on which he is put to daath vithen* m«rey<^ Wbe» 
Congo* a chief, was sick, he employed one of thebe ««meii t^ ^Aoi out ther «g- 

f'ressor. She ^elected a Hottentot who pretended to- be ai doctor among ttidfli* 
[e was instantly slain* His widow is servant to one of our If issioaatlesu -- 
] When Gika,. the present king of the Ca£Dres, was sicfci he attrtboled ^lo tiia> 
encbanixoeots of pen»of)s who disliked him^ however h^ would not pemnt ttena 
t^bepnt to death. . • ' . 

They are very expert in binding up aT broken leg «« arm* OfM Of «ttr Hottaiu 
tptf br(^ his arm m Cafficaiva, and had it well sk and euced.hy »Cafii». 
[ T^^ hajTO a hai^afous costqm of exposing their- mk frienda,. wta^ in tbcir 
opinion, are not likely to recover. I'bey carry theip to btishei al a>diSftaac6frdi» 
the Kiaaly where they lea?ethem^ either tohe devonrfd h)r*^ld.'heaafea,v«vt» 
die of want. Whll^ Congo «Hith hia KfiaaX resided fqt Somo- time 00 the gtroonda 
of Bethelsdprp,, Mr. Eead hciord they bad exposed^a woman, in thia maiiMir. Il» 
wentlo<longo to inquire into the trutj^ of the report; ufao asswred htm^' that tiro . 
Mfomen attended upoahfir among the boshes. • He w^ntamA found two ws inen aa 
had b^an stated^ but be was not sure (hat they had i«»t hednseot w^a h^ «qb« 
versed with the chief. When he told them that that woman, and all mankindy 
would riso again from tha dead,, it caused nuoommcii >y am^sg ' tbe Cmlkta^ 
They faid, they should like to see their graodfathers, aad others wtfaom tiieymc"^ 
tioned. Congo inquired when it would happen^ and if it would b» toon* bat Ifiw 
l^ead could, upt gratify his wish/es on that point 

. SomeUoKiS the exposed person revivas, and returna ta the Kraal; hwtif ho 
4)0ea.nQt recover, be is agaitf»carriad to the boshes ; and sfaouid thia betrepeaM* 
they shut him up in his house with a small portioAof vicskuaK when the-Kaaalre- 
movaato some other qtvarter.. This c^uel practice' ia supposed to aviaeitom ik 
dread of the disease spreading like the plaguob When I>r. ¥haderfcemp waa i» 
CaJ&aria, he ftmnd they had other psactioes anabgous to this; such' at whttt 
any of them are in /danger of being drowned, the rest are so terrified tbait tiief 
will either run from him, or throw stones at him ^ likewiae when- a akmian is .iakfft 
in lahour, every one runs from ber« 

They bu;:y none but tbejir cbieis and their wivea; others are thrown out to W 
dfEivoured by the wild beasta. Should a person die aecidentatly'in his owk hoase^ 
the whole Kraal is desei:ted. 

When dying, they seem totally indifferent about it^ and tbe specUtors af^pear 
US iodifierent as the dying; yet a Caifre will sometimes mourn fbrthe death of 
a wife or a child. When he does so, he leaves his Kraal^ separates himself fimoi 
every one, and retires into a wood or lonely place, where he liwss for a month er 
two in the manner of a hermit; aller mhidihe thrmni away hiscioak and hq^ 
ipr another, on obtaining wjiicb ha returns to bis home. 

Many of the Cafires travel into the countries which surround them^ sometimca 



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in plonder» at otber times merely to gratify curiosity, and to bring back any 
tblug they judge useful or curiouf • Tkey always travel on foot, carrying no 
more than their cloak to sleep in ddriolp the night.' On their return they entertain 
their friends by relaxing the most, minute circumstance that happened-^where 
and what they ate, where and what kind of water they drank, and every thing 
theysaw;6ff beard, and be who 'docs, not do so is despised* When any of tbem 
hare visited Cape-towAy on their return they used- to describe how the people ^ 
dMsaadi b»w tbey washed their. moiiUM» their booses^ kc but never imitated 
orendeavonied loiotrodueeafl^of'tbeir custams. Thty expressed aurprbe at 
many things which they saw, but never thiolt the wbite men are more wife or 
skilful than ibemsekves, for they suppose they could do all that the white men do 
if tbay chose, llisy coosiden reading and writing as iasigniftcant tbbigaof no oM. 
They are remarkable for retaining the history of their forefethers, their former 
HiAga %nd ebieliB, «nd cai| relate them widi great distinetoess. When alone, they 
frequently repeat all tb^ know. of former ages» and. of friends who are dead^ 
and floftetimes weep while doing so* 

Nothing is mcure disgraceful anqong the Cacffies than for a man to lose or throat 
away his shield. One of our Hottentots wben in Caffraria, observed ^.GafTre whw 
waa as clavar as any of them, yet never alloved.to associate with them, and often 
wondeaed what coiJd be th^ reason of bis di9graoc->**^e Caffre told him it waa 
becausa he had once thrown away his shieki to save .hia life. 

They are very faithful to aay trust reposed in them* Should they get any thtn|^ 
to carry to Cape-town, our Hottentots said they would rather lose every thin^ 
they bad, than that thing with which they were entrusted, and so disappoint the 
send^.. Mr. Biead said he had aent.many an-tieles by them to their chiefs, and 
they were al/ays faithfully delivered — but they have not been very fatthfal to 
tke promises they have made to the Cape government, having often -broken them. 
Many of them are very hospitable to stj-aogers, not watting till they ask for 
luetaaUy but bringing it of their own accord, and setting it before tbem, and- al- 
ways of ahetbest ihey have. 

They never go a fishing, fish being reckoned unclean, as .are also tame fowli^ 
tfiitie, 4bc. Tbay have no canoea or beats^ even to eron a river by; this they 
f^orm by tying reeds togelbeiv on wbieh tbey are floated over. 

They often hunt wild b^tsi by a whole. Kraal turning out, aad forming a oircle 
wanA a large tract of lapd» and-by gAdually dmwiag in the circle, they enclosa 
avery beast which happena to he in that part whhin a narrow space. . Wben thia 
ia affo'^ted, they leave one narrow opening, to which whan the animal iaadvan« 
cing* thay, shoot him. 0» one of these occasions they bappeoad to enclose a 
very large ostrich, who advanced quickly to the opening in the circle of Caffires, 
and with one strukeof his foot^ struck dead tbeCaffire who waa naawtt bin, which 
excited, universal alarm ; and to this, day, wben a Caffrt passes the spot, be 
makes a low bow as an act of reverence to it Similav rsspect is paid to an anchor 
tha^ was cast npon their coast, belonging to the Doding]toti or Orosveiior India- 
tfiaa, wiecked .there, which aroae from the followinfl: circumstance. A uMiii who 
bad wrought a whole day, endeavoariog to break off a piece of iron from the an^- 
chort happened to die that same evening. The Oiffres supposing that bis death 
.waaoQcaakwied by aomethiag wbtch proceeded from the anchor^ not one of them 
has ventured to touch it ever since, but everyone makes bis obeisance to it as 
be passes. They are very superstitious. Should a person belonging to any Kraal be 
killed by ligbtniag, nione\>f the other Kraals will associate with that, accounting 
.Ihem an ahomiaation. 

Sometimes, in order to catch game, tbey make an enclosure wilb one-entrance, 
,o.verwb^h tb^ place a large bow, aa anarch* with the string extended on a 
catch. The cveatoie entering, and treading on a certain stick laid in his way^ 
the string comes with violence from off the c»tcb, and suspends him in the air. 

When the wolf la troublesome, they suspend a piece of fleib on a bough, and 
place an assa^Fay or spear ip the grouad, that the wolf whan leaping to catch the 
|le«h may foU.upoB it. 



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368 CAFFRARIA. 

CHAP. II. 

TraditiatU' — Amusements — Punishments, Sfc. 

THE Caifres have a tradition among tbem, that when some particular chief 
die?, they should drive an ox over his grave, and split his horns, and that after" 
wards this ox should be sacred, and die of old age. - On his death bis hones must 
be burned to ashes, and saluted in a solemn manner. I could not learn what re- 
suit was expected from these formaltties. 

They have likewise a tradition, that their oxen originally came out of a hole in 
the Tambookie country, to which the Caffres continue annually to pay a tribute 
of gratitude for this blessing. 

Their chief amusement is dancing ; the men on one part, the women on the 
other — the former spring. up aud-down» the latter only make motion^ with their 
heads. While dancing they bawl alou<l in a disgusting manner. Thdy likewise 
use instruments of music. One is a bow with a piece of quill hxed near one end 
of the string, on which they blow, which makes an agreeable sound. The wo- • 
lOen have a calabash buug to a bow string, 6a which they beat, and sing in har- 
moiiy with the beating. The words they use are the names of friends, rivers* 
and places they can recollect^ having no songs. They also make akind of flute 
from the thigh bone of some animal, with which they give notice to each other of 
vxu'tous affairs, such as when a meeting of the Kraal is desired. 

In time 6f peace the Caffres are fond of their children^ but in time of war 
they appear regardless of them, taking their wives with them, but leaving ibe 
children to tbetr fate* 

The chief amusements of the children are imitating the men, in fighting with 
their assagays and bludgeons. They likewise employ themBelves in making 
little gardens. Many of the boys are employed in attending the cattle. Tbey 
are generally obedient and respectful to their parents, and these are not severe 
in their punishments. 

Before the present reign of Gika, if a man committed adultery^ he might be 
killed by any one who was certain he was guilty ; and when the circurastauce 
of the slang htei* came to the ears of any of the chiefs, they used to say. It is 
right that sucji a dog should be killed, as t&ere are plenty of young ones, and no 
occasion to take another man's wife. Oika, perhaps from observing that this liberty 
of putting to death such delinquents, or supposed delinquents, led to bad conse- 
quences in many instances, prohibited it and ordeted that, such cases should be 
brought before himself; but when a person transgresses this order, a present of 
a few (»xen will appease the king's wrath — indeed murder is generally overlooked^ 
and when punished, it is chiefly owing to some aggravating circumstance in 
the case, and the punishment is only by >fine* Theft is punishedalso by fioe^ 
and sometimes by beating with a rod, in which case the king is execuiioiier. 
When a person is put to death, it is generally by stabbing him with their iissa- 
gays, or spears; at other times they split a tree in two pieces, and bending th€se 
backwards, place the criminal between them, which being let loose, crush die 
persoD to death ,on f heir retorn^g to their former position, or hoikd him last till 
he expires. 

Caffres of superior talents, discover their superiority by making better assv^ 
gays, or by discovering greater expertnes&in throwing them; others, in planning 
and making attacks on their enemies ; otheis, by discovering more art in the 
construction of their gardens; and some likewise by greater fluency In speech. 

In their private quarrels among them!>elves it is not difficult to bring them to a 
reconciliation, which is generally eff^ted by the iuterposition of friends* 

There ista rule or law, sanctioned by custom, among the Caffres, which falls 
severely upon the poor females; viz. when a fsither dies, all his property is 
seized by his surviving brother, if he has left one ; which properly is applied 
solely to the support of the male children of the family, and when tbesjs coBMef 
age, the uncle delivers up the property of their father to them— but as for the 
widow and fatherless daugnters, no provision is made for them. This is notvery 
surprising, as it will be found ia every country, civilised as we|} as bsrlMirousy 



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CAFiTtAniA. 369 

that men being t\ie stronger party, and the |nakers of the la#s, form them more 
favourably towaril their own sex. \Vhatever knowledi^e of good, tnen in toyag^ 
cotmiries may have lost, ki all countries they bav^ retained the -knowledge of 
their soperioHty to the otber sex, and act accordingly. 

. The Cadi'es'have unhappily discovered a method of making a liquor fropi eora 
or millet, resembling gin, with which they frequently intoxicate thjemselvea, apd 
having spears as their eoustant companioosy they must in such cases be firequentty , 
▼ery outrageous and dangerous. 



CHAF. III. 

THE Oaifre men dO not encumber themselves with much dfeaa, por ^o ^b^ST 
«ve( dress for the si^e of decendVy ^ut merely to pi;otect themselves from c^ld;; , 
for whroh porppse they wear ai cloak made of cQw-»skin» whioh they render alm9S!lt^ 
ns soft and pliable as c|otb ; others are made pT the skins of wild animals, and all. 
i^ive the hair completely taken off. Their colour is brown. Tbe cloaks of. the. 
chiefs are made of tiger skins. When it rseins at tjie time they are to miU the. 
cowiy they throw aside this duak, because, say thcQT, it is easier to dry our skina 
than our cloaks. Tbey wear do covering on their heads : they have sandals on 
their feet, instead of shoes, which oniy protect the soles. . Uesides the loose cloak 
and sandals, tbe men have no other coverUigi which indicates a more barharotia 
state than any otber nation which. 1 have visited. This state of nfidjty. ipade thfs 
Matchappees ait Lattakoo, who bad seen a plundering party of them, spc^ak of them 
^8 the greatest savages they hjid ever seen, and it served to intimidate them wheft 
the Caffres attacked thenr. fbey cf rry coastanily with them a walking; stjckv « 
club, and two of three assagays.. When they go to war, or to hnot lions, the); 
gaeakio.d of oblong shields. They are remarkably foiui Of ornamepts* havings 
rings and beads bn every part of their body ; and on the crown of the head they> 
wear a bunch of jackal Ps hah', listened into a handle of brass. . Their rings are 
of ivory, brass, iron, &c. . * 

Tlie women wear cloaks resembling those used by the men, tied round tjia 
middle of the body by means of leathern girdiei:. They ^generaOy aliOw tlM 
upper ha4f to hang down behind, except in carrying their children on their back» 
when tbey bring up their cloak over thena-, and tie it round their nfeok| to prevent 
its falling. Tbey wear caps roadie of the ^kin of an animal, which are long* be«i 
coming gradually narrower till they terminate in a point, which is ornamented 
with rows of bea<ls. Both women and children wear small aprons of skin, pf tb€( 
same kind as tbf ir caps. They wear metal rings on their fin^^rs and great tKfftSy 
but ne shoes or sandals. The richer sort sew rows of hnttons on tfie backs o£ 
their cloaks, and on l^eir shoulders a. bench of tails of different animals, ei^d*^ 
cially of -tigers and wild cats, . . • . t 

The merit but more frequently t^e women, adorn their arras^ backs, anfd 
breasts, with rows of small srars. These are formed by piercing the skia with a. 
pointed iron, and pulling ft forcibly up under the skin, so as to make it remain, 
prominent above tbe surface. 

They prepare the hides of cows and oxen, with which they make their cloaks^ 
by first rubbing off all the flesh and blood Jrrom the inside by a certain kind of 
•tone; after which they rub the hairy eide with the juice of what is wellknowo in 
the Colony by the name of HottFfutot's fig, then with cowduog, after whieh it 
feels sraooj^ and soft^ and has much the appearance of uur cloth. 

The Caffres use no tables, dishes, knives, or forks at their meals^ but every 
one helps himself, by means of sticks, to tbe meat that is in tbe pot, and eats it 
in his band. They obtain fire by roblring one piece of wo0d of a <;ertain kind 
against another. Some however have tinder boxe^i which they^ obtain from the 
«olo»y. They have no qarriages of any kind'; the women are used instead of 
carriages, or pack oxen. They have no hens, or other domestic fowll( net eon- 
aidering eggs to be xlesignad fsr food — nor have they atiy cats> preferring rather 
to be overrun wilh.mice. . Instei^d qf chairs, they sit upon the scuils of their^oxeii^ 
%ritb the horns still united to them. -Ttiey use salt when it can be obtaiaed. bnl 

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870 CAFFRARU. 

▼beo it eaoBOt, they sabstitote fresh cow dung, which the old Hottentots do to 
tbfai day. They are unacquainted with the making of butter or cheese freon 
milk. 

The riches of a Caffre chiefly consist in his cattle, of which bets eztraTagantly 
fond. He keeps them as carefally as the mis«r does his gold. He never uscs^ 
them as beasts of burden, except when he is removing from one place to aoo- 
ther along with his Kraal, and then they carry the milk bags, or skin bags which' 
contain- milk. He is never more gratified than when rnnning before his cattle 
with his shield, by beating on which the whole are taught to gallop after him. lof 
this way he leads them out to take exercise^ and those oxen which run quickest 
on such occasions, sfe considered his best i of these he boasts, and treats them 
with peculiar kindness. 

They chiefly subsist upon milk ; bet in part also by hunting, and by the prlcH- 
dnce of their gardens. . They sow a species of millet, which is known in the co- 
lony by the name' of Caffre.com. While growing, it very much resembles 
Indian com, only the fruit grows in closters, like the grape ; the grain is small 
and round, and- when boiled is very palatable. By parching it over a fire, dusiog 
oar journey, we found it a very good substitute for coffee. The Cstfres fre^ 
quently braise it between two stoues, and make a kind of bread from it. To sow 
it is the work of the women. They scatter the seed on the grass, after which 
they push tff the grass from the surface by means ef a kind of wooden spade,* 
shaped something like a spoon at both ends, by which operation the seed foils 
upon the groand, and is covered by the grass, from underneath which withered 
and rotten grass* it afterwards springs np. They also sow pomkins, water melons, 
5&C. and use various vegetables^ whicfh grow wild. They cultivate' tobacco, and 
smoke it, like the Matchappees, through water in a horn. 

The men spend their days in idleness, having no employment but war, bant-* 
ing, and milking the cows« The women construct the houses, inciosores for the 
cattle, utensils, and clothes | they also till the ground, and cut wood. They* 
fikewise manufecture mats of rushes, and neat baskets, wrought so close as to 
contain milk, but which are seldom washed or cleaned, except by the dog^ 
tongues. * . • 

' They can reckon no higher than to a hundred. To keep in remembrance the 
nnmber of their cattle, &c. they cut notches in wood, each notch meaning an ox 
or cow. They frequently cross deep rivers by driving in the cattle, and, laying 
hold of their tails, are dragged over by them. > 

They have names for many of the stars, and know when it is near plovghiBg 
time l^ the position of some of these. They consider a rainy and a dry season as 
a year ; so that, when speaking often yean, they would say ten of these seasons. 
They have no money, but cattle, and other articles of subsistence, are used m its 
place, by way of exchange. 

Their method of preserving com till it is necessary to Uise it, is somewhat 
curious. They dig a large hole in the middle of their cattle-kfaal, the entrance 
ofi^Mch is narrow, but is enlarged under ground, according to the size requi- 
site to contain their stotk. To secure the entrance, they plaster it first over 
with damp dung of their cattle, over which they lay dry dung about a foot in' 
depth, which becomes so firm that their cattle, when put into the Kra'al in the 
evenings, can walk over it witboift its sut^taining any injury. Why they idioosti 
their cattle-kraal for placing their magazine in, 1 could not learo, bat it fs pi#^ 
bably on account of their considering it the most secure place, as their cnfkle 
being their most valuable property will be best guarded in the night ti me or 
because, should a thief come among the cattle, the noise they would makfe would 
probably awake those who might be asleep. When a family opens their maga-? 
zinc, they take such a quantity as they judge sufficient for their consumption to 
a certain time. The neighbouring families borrow what remains, which they re- 
store at the openipg of their magazines. 

' The Caffres c^n live in those parts of the country where others cmoot, be-' 
cause they seldom use water for drinking, drinking only milk, when it is iMsHy 
sour ; consequently, however bad the water may be, if their cattle will drink it,' 
they are satisfied. 

Their houses are boilt in the shape of a dome, formed of long sticks boot inUf 
that form, thatched with straw, and' plastered in the inside with a miittireef 



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cafpraria; S7l 

e)ay and eo«r Aaug, The entrance is low, seldom higher than tiro or three feet. 
Having no chimney, the smoke proceeding from the fire, which is placed in the 
middle pf the hut, must find its way out as it can, throngh the roof or by the 
door. 

Caficaria contains of c^tiadrapeds, the wolf, lion, bufialo^ elk, large elephant, 
quacha, knoo, stag, hog, rhinoceros, sea-cow, a variety of bucks, wild dogs» 
hedgehog, baboon, and various other creatures, among which are thelisard, and 
eameleon. Of the latter animal, it is commonly reported that it changes colour 
acc(Mrding to the substaace on which it is placed. That it changes coloar, I 
have no doubt, having myself seen it ; but Or, Vanderkemp, who particularly 
fended to it, said, that he placed a eameleon on black, when it turned almost 
black, like mud $ upon dark blue it turned not so b!aok as in the former case, 
but no blue colour was to be seen ; .upou white it assumed the colour of white 
ashes: upon green, a yellowish grey, with green spots ; upon bright red it i«. 
. mained white, with a yellow hue. He then placed it in a dark b^x, expecting' 
to find it black; but on opening the box he found it white, add leaving the box 
open, it got large brown spots of a chocolate colour. These changes take place in 
one, two, or three minutes ; they aflfect not the whole surface of the body front 
their- commencemeot, bntjipotsare at first seen, commonly on the sides of the- 
body, below the oeck on the shoulders, and the eye-lids. The progress from one 
colour to the other is not umlbrm» but by intervals, slower or more rapid, as it 
were by flushes. It is not necessary to irritate the animal to make it change its 
colour, for the change takes place even when it is asleep. I have a male and 
female eameleon, which I brought with me in a glass-case to England ; of course 
both dead, but in a good state of preservation. The male is ohiefly a grey co- 
lour, intermixed with light green spots, and a considerable part in the middle of 
the sides is light green. The female is black, but appears as^ if sprinkled with 
white powder. . . 

There is a great variety of birds in Caffraria, which I cannot name, only the' 
honey bird which I have formerly mentioned, has this peculiari.ty which I have 
not formerly stated, that, when it is tamed, it will follow a person like a dog. 

CHAP. IV. ' 

Cutjffre Kmg^-^Grosvenor Indiaman^'--Gika asks Ram^^Qaffre 

Chiefs. 

GIKA, the present king of the Caffres, is not the son of his predecessor in^ 
government, Khauta, but tbe-grandsoo of his uncle, Palo; so that the govern- 
ment is not absolutely hereditary, but according to the will of the reigning pr:nce« 
Gika did not obtain the regal power without opposition ; for on the death of 
Khauta, his uncle Tz Iambi* under whose tuition he had been brought up, could not. 
think of submitting to the government of his pupil, and resolved to oppose the, 
sucpession by force of arms. Tzlaii^hi had several brothers, who were men of, 
great power, and who joined him in his rebellion, as did also the sons of the do-* . 
ceased king. The Caffres, who at that tiipe lived in what was anciently the 
Cronaqua country, lying betwixt the Sunday and Great Fish rivers, united with 
Tzlnmbi, Several battles were decided in favour of Gika ; at length the opposing 
chiefs agreed to attack, Gika from different directions on a certain day. Their 
reckoning deceived them, for half the powers attacked a day before the concerted 
tinnej and were completely overthrown ; on which Gika, following up the advan- 
tage he had obtained, attacked his uncle Tzlambi, whom he defeated, and ruined 
his army. He kept Tzlambia prisoner for two years, when he releas^ed him, and 
appointed him a captain, and i^e consults him in all matters of importance ; at. 
the same time he keeps him as much as possible from possessing real power. 
Gika, though he has a son, has appointed the youuge§t son of his predecessor 
and benefactor to succeed him ^ and^ when this young nv^n, Hielwza, comes of 
age, Gika intends to raise him to rule, foreseeing the confusion which that suc-> 
cession is likely to occasion after his death. 

The Caffre kings consider themselves men of great consequence. G ikai speaking. 
of the Landd/ost of Gra^f Reyne|| said, He is a chief modt^ I am » cjiief born*, 



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Its CAVFRAMA: 

Oikj|*4 moihn m fMBn 9l^H T«»b*o]|i0f, th##fi^ Halm b^j^ooi Om CalSr«l» 

Tb^lkJMgibap Miiv-iNM/rcp Uik H<i»lf,i«Nis«pt tk^Jbffmfi pf «v6iy. ok. or coir 
thai is kiilai, which by them is coti<tidered the osost delicate part of the aninMk 
Wheo aitny «r ih« Ifciotf** c^tlWJit p.^ti» t« die^ he ««l« to Cbt KtMla «f hifl dMefs, 
and aeloQUi mtei caiiU k«i frfaasea-^tlMtr alii^w kum lo.take them i^imy^biii tJbey» 
fo^awHir to 9iMl «l»eai UmJi m yoen «§ powibte. 

N<ine «f 4he .people Uere hM enf of ihcir Q»ti)« t.U they ii«t obiAiae Koevoe 
IroiB their ohief; of eoarpe the ala^gliter eiiut coeae to the kne«led0e of tlie king, 
end it ii 4jMr«hy r^MkrH iMHse djaicakXo eheet hm^ Oe tlit* eoooeat elao-riw 
Keaaltere ell |^d to fenteriain a •tveeger, net so «ttoh from leve to U»e streagef^ 
as to theoieelves, that they may have aii<»pjpo|rt«aily <tf kiUiag one of their caitley 
vhveh 19 elweytpermkiedoasurb ee eooesion. 

4 hi^qryiwbotn I met at one eif eer.viiefienary •taitions, told me> thail he aeeoiiw 
panied the I)A«ddf>*st of 'Qraaf Hey net <who wiia 1 think Mc. Stoi-keostaum} iufee 
(Slaffrariafttof ether with meii|r Atof8,40 enquire, at the reqoAtt of thie EngliA 
Qovemmeot^-whether aey of the peffaues %\iQ eere oast eahorc from the GroRvenmr 
ladiaroaa, that «ai wracked on that ooasu bed suf Ttved. They foond tw« Indiei 
heienfieg to the Gr<MV<onr etiil e4i«e, «fto.had heee forced t,o oMffry Catfiea^ end 
bed both chMreo and graadchildren. Bftiny attached to these, tbey refosed te' 
Ifevtt t.hei3ountry, th^w^b Mr S. offered to tak« them with him,. Tbey anted- 
9jim as • 9»m— for rtftMUii te rctura tu £ng:and« that probably tbeht ftieodi 
ifew either atidead; or.se soattered that they «hoeld nrver he able to.liod ihem 
04tt; wherefore they preferred renuuninfi .«bere they ttors. Their bodbs-were 
paHit<;4,a»d tihey vened^etsed like theC^tffre women. When the LanddHMt 
aeked €ik#ft why the peeple had muidered thoae who were driven ashnre v^uo Im» 
Cft9gk, he mid, becaMsa they had no bfteinem in bis conntry* bet sheoid have kefit 
in their own, meaning the 8ea ; fur the Caffres thought they bad rlaen np fwiatk> 
ihe^ttpm of the em, hatt/'vtft teen tlm top magt Srat, then gradoaJly more mid 
mere ^U they beheld the huM, wtiicb nmde them, coedude they were imtives ei 
the pe4«v» When Dr. Vaoderkemp remooaliated with Gika, for havinip mup- 
dered the people who were cest ashore from a ship that was wrecked while he was 
there, he replied by taying^ Why do you kill wolves ? they belong to this country, 
but these people do not. 

Had the persons cast ashore from these Tessels, who escaped from the Caffires, 
and atitetn|»ied to rtach the Cape by traveHing aloa^ the eoaat^ aiimr tw^4Nrth|ee 
daysjotirney, struck up the country, hasteed of keeping by thesfatore^ they would 
soon have fallen in with Dut ch fanners ; but 1>y keepiag near the sea, they doubled 
tHe difltanee by Kjlowhig the wiodinge of the coaflit, and were likewise ent e( the 
way xif ebtelning estistawioe, as the ground wear the sea is berrett ^ mid coiiM*-' 
qoently ttni«faabited, though now, In* the sake of catting Ihnher, iehebifeettts mey 
be louud in the neighbonrhood of Plattenbufi;h's bay, aodprobebljr in ene artt« 
Other ptnoes ; bnt ihonld aey ship afterwards be wreiAted any frhei« eofufii er 
•oeth»west of the Great Fish ]liVer(io the north of whieh the Caffites are noW Mtf«)' 
it will be wise in those who reach the land, instantly to strike np into thet ^ m wtiy , 
when they will soon fall in with wsggrni tracks, by foltonhng which Hiey wilt enite 
«A )here»idenee of white men.' This is the more necessary to be made known, ne 
the number ef ships saiKng along that pert of the African oaast mast begreaMr, %tt 
eonseqtienceof the trade to ftnfia being more open than m former timea; M t 
kftow of no harbohror reAige ir.to wiiich a ship emild enter. The mootfc pfthe 
Buffalo ri<'er, though abont a qnarter of a mile wii)e, ep|ieer8 to kavft a hut 
running across it ; et aay rate the eiitrence, if ii has one, mnst be vny JBlriottte, 
eepeciully to a strawrer ; and in a storm tlie mott eKg^hl^ plaee» nenmt •» 
Caffiraffia, won4d be Aigoa hay, which might a#Nd pmtectiavi should the wind* 
blew from the 8. or S. W. bnt none if it blow frnm tfR; E. or K. £. 

AArr a long dmnght, OiltB sent to Tbikhaaa (wUcb wet Dr. Vandeiteewp^' 
Cafte name) to procute rain; who very ptoperly answered, tikat he oonldflBl 
give rain, but would pray to God for it. Ahoadtmoe of rain soon fell* QilSK^ in 
confequenc**, sent a pr«>sent ei^ 8«me cMtle to Tinkhena, for having iMKlaM^ 
. rain ^ who, however, declined accepting of thett, but desired they ehmdd be in->' 
taviied to Gika. The people when dnting them hatk were met by n Mr, 4Wb 
enquired vonceming the cattle they were dritrng. They taid Qikn httd^mA On*' 



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CATFUAUil* Ml 

4»Tiiii|iMnii, for licftey ol}lK»ad rsrt d, but thsft be woM Bdt neelv* llem. The 
btov told them it was bensM Gik« bad sieot tod i&m- fo« s* fMt a Hfwtf, thftt fit 
«bMlil t0ii^ • grtat nuNiy ttore, aikd TlnktiMMi tPtoM vMevt» tbmv 1« wat aAter* 
•aniavaparlftd tba» Qiba bmm abaut tarettr^, wbicb were hBifeercaptcdl aa<lt«licn by 
^his boor. 

Gika toMttaa l^ataidrott of^nafltrfnH, wben^on k iaMt«vbif»,th«t Ttntfaana 
aou W ^« f ais. On Iha LanddMM aaq^viirtiif lav be Mi il, Oiksb f «id lie put hiW 
bead tii«o tba ffronnd, and ealied apeniflooM penoii. b e bm to Ma#iaia> and' rain 
eanm, Qika ilrei|aeiit)y iant allerwanto is^Chtf de«ta« at Bttbaiadorpv t» ietid> raio 
to bis CO ntry. 

Mr. R«ad mentioiied, tbat ufienaiie ootneiaDy fHuH» be ^me «)fiveNh>{r #ttb 
Gtka, two boys roasted some beef for him ; One cut it into pieces when it was 
•ruasted, and the other put it into his orovtll/ 

Wh n Messrs. Vanderkrmp and iiesd aisitttfr ^iba, be took a fancy for an eld 
do^ belonging to one of their Hdttetit^tk wfio Accompanied them, for which be 
offered the H'>ttieBt'>t a coir, to which h« very rjiadiij consented.. Dr. Vender- 
bemp remaked* to iftteking', thart* be wa9^iTiiig.a'teiry eaitravagant price fur the 
dng. as it wi^ old. and witheatt^eib. 0> aaidi Oi^ Ikhall gyie bun a aoia vhboot 
4eeth al.-«o. 

The Caffre chiefa oiay be eonsideKed aa the nobility 0(1 tbatooiMMURji, eucb ae 
those in Eai^pewhen the feudal system .pr^aiied. They are nouierQiis, and 
possess aoBsiderabia power and; ioAqence^ but are all suiwrdioaia to king Gibai 
and probably were most ^fth^va raised ta tbat rank, bf t^nt or bis predpcesaora*. 

The only way f1ie«ehiefM h«Ke of checking the kin^j's jfomet iabgr witbdrawtng 
from bis lominiavs^ and carry iaf^theiz, people aleing with tben* M ao luatg 
likes to bewitbenftsobjeets, this gractibe baa often pirodiioad -an acawMMdation* 

Conga, a'diidf who formerly lived withia tbe liinitaaf iba daloosh a«e the fiffi 
to shake '«lf tbe powes of Oika, and become an. indei^ndeoi. ofaitl 9 bill ta tba 
^y ufibisdeaih be, in varions^wayst ackaow4edge4.a.kiiMl- o£<^peBdaai:a.oii binM 
Cobus O)ngo> hi« son,. must now be conipi^tely eul^aet to Qika, sinoa he haabees 
driinaiLfrom the oplony to the ^rrttory c^ Qika, 1^ the £ogliah govaromenK* 

Congp was siolc in ihe time of the war with t^e colony. Vor salati^, bie friendi 
parried him from hisKraaLto the middle of a. wood* very dilOfiultiof aoeesst theae 
being only a iKry , narrow patb. A commando of boora diacoverad tbe tncbr and 
came to the spot^ where Congo, bifson^ and a few of bia paincipal ven*. wfM all 
lying fast asleep. It is reported tbat the commando did not awake tbam, but 
ijiot fibem all dead while they weae aaleep. 

Congo named one of his sons Tiukbana, after Hr. Vaoderfcamn; ba ib noir abottt 
tea years of age. The mothcofSi who waa very todoC tba dbctoci ia stiU proad of 
bar son' bearing his name. 

. lielloosa, Miotbcr Ca#re chief, followed tbe example of Congy^ tbimr off hie 
dependence on Gika« ^od retinad. witbhiapeopleto tbecolpDgr,.frQm<iibaoGti»<after 
femainingafew-yearsv be ratarnad and. aubmitted ta^iba. 

Slamba,.eQOYbef) c(hief| #fter. having made miuonb fruitless ettempta taoblaia 
the sovereignty uf Caffraria, fled also tO'tha.oelony„.foUaife4bsi all hicpe«>plev 
wh4re he. vem/^nfMi eight Q» nine ^ars.:. during which periad bebad various 
ebirmishaB with'Qik^* He. wa^ eenstdaned the pripcipaf ebief». santhoftthe Geaat 
ITiab. Hverv which waa so popiMtua eft that time, that DJUv^Jiead ouca i«au«jted*&oni 
tba lop. off a^biJl seventy «r. eiKbt^Kmals,, cflrnsifitipA of frara Ureatyto thirty 
houses; and the vaUeyaaece cttltinated, and ao* fiull oi gaeden%, aadfieldn of 
Indian and iCafiTB eoio,.tbAt it bad a. ime and »ch appeararuoe. Slamb^baw- 
tvjvr aiae. driven bg Cobmel Oi»ham: from the colonf,, in cqnaequenceof his rek 
psftteddepeedationa^vn tbafaiiaars. WWn dr|veo>over the Great ffishi&ivor. into 
tbarterpiiorieaQf Qika, it iawsd be'carnedioQ.a; war witb.biai for seme tiffOMfftmt 
itrvofr cecanctled. 

J«B Cbaif hoo, aoB: ofi Cbacboo* a, CaHn. chief under Gika, baa tiervetgliter 
«ii«eism«at9etbalsdorB»aiidJwf learned tberDtutch. laugiiage completely ; caa 
jMMk mtei an4 caet a«;ooaBta ;. be baa wiioii^t. on\f, ailpiout eight months at the 
biiiiwws olatcarpeutftri jnat i b«s^« seen good chairs, of bia workmaothip* He 
ifit^iidffre(Loini9ftoC«U&qraa.9Bsooa as,paaca i&ve8t>rad,:and a. ijftMiguary'obi^ 
jAMMditaaoaav^aoyfafim/j biuwithoittone beaa]|abe.wilipolr^ Bii^bebavioBf. 
hai haittiTiaiBi aiMtmnlarr «»«»^ »»^ ««- amt^mtK^AA h^ ^1 ab thoiaelliamBai.' 



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W4 CAFFRAIUA. 

When victuals «re brotkght, the cbiefsaVfiays eat first, then thtf ootomou^j^iMte. 
The men never eat with tbe women. The* children eat with the mother. twMe 
in tbe bij^her ranks shew their superiority to others, by entrnetiog them with none 
of their secrets, or ever conversing wiUi them ooneeming what they eoBsider 
matters of moment. 

. A chief carries always in his hand tbe bushy pa^tt of a lion's tail, which it tbe 
only badge ttiat distinguishes him from the others. When any thing at a distance 
requires the ca]>Cain'8. presence, and be cannot oome, be sends a man with tbic 
token, who then can act in the matter as tbe chief's deputy. The chief likewise 
wears a plute of copper on his breast. 

Everf chief has a council, whom be consults in all matters of impoifanoe. 



^ CHAP.V. 

Origm of the Caffre War with the English, 

1 HAD the following account of the origin of this war from a respectable 
' qaarter, many particulars of which have been corroborated by others* 

A boor bad taken a farm on the banks of the Great Fish River, where tbere 
was a ford, across which the Cafiires frequently drove their cattle, some of which 
happened now and then to go into his garden, which no doubt offended the pro- 
prietor. To make the Cafiires more careful, he began to demand apart of the 
cattle which broke into his garden. When there happened to be three, he de- 
manded one cow or ox ; when five, he required two, as a fine for the damage be 
bad sustained. The Caffres peaceably submitt^ to these demands for some 
time. The farmer finding this to be a lucrative concern, is said to have begun to 
assist the Caffre cattle in gettiug into his garden, and then resolved to seize all 
•he found there. The first seizure after coming to this resolution happened to be 
a considerable number. Tbe Caffre complained to bis chief, who instantly 
ordered his own cattle to be driven across the Fish River at the farmer^s ford, 
^ben tbey all went into the boor's trap, or garden ; when, like the others, they 
were d<»tained by the boor. No sooner bad the Caffre chief heard of what bad 
happened, than he went with an afmed force to visit the boor. On bis arrival, 
he not only demanded therestorationof bis own cattle, but also carried off all 
the boor's. 

The other Caffres who bad lost cattle by this boor, having such an example set 
them by their chief, determined to make up their losses in a similar way« by 
carrying off cattle from other boars, though tbey had not offended them. In Ibis 
way, a thieving, plundering disposition became general among them, which aflier- 
wards made it appear necessary to tbe government to drive all the Caffret 
beyond the Great Fish River, which has been effected. Bnt notwithstanding the 
number and vigilance of the military posts opposite to Caffraria,partie8<tfihe 
Caffres have still the audacity to penetrate many miles into tbe colony, Ukd 
carry off great numbers of cattle from the boors. 

In these plundering expeditions tbe Caffres never travel on the roads* but 
through the woods ; where, in consequence of the multiplicity of obstacles, no 
European soldiers can come up with them -, but the Aottentots shewing them* 
selves to be as nimble travellers through tbe woods and bushes, govemmeht have 
chiefly employed the Hottentot regiment in opposing the Caffres. 

Sometime after the commencement of the Caffre war, one of the chiefs desired 
a conference with the British Commander, who agreed to meet him in a plain, ac- 
companied by a certain number of his men, and the Caffre to bring the like 
number. The chief asked, to whom that country belonged so many years agO^ 
A Dutch boor mentioned a person to whom it had belonged. <' O/' said the 
Caffre, *• I remember him, but it belonged to us before his time." Be that as 
It might, said the Officer, he and bis people must remove beyond the Great Fish 
River, and he recommended their doing it in a peaceable manner. They detirejl 
time to cut down their com, but this could not be granted ; but it was promised 
that it should be cut down and sent after them. The Commander obferving the 
Caffres increasing in number around, and laying hold of their assagays, tbovght 
it prudent to fill back on his^n^in body. So long as the corn remained oh the 



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CAPmARIA. 8VS 

nMiodf it WM a constant bone of csonteotioo ; wherefore orders were given that 
aPtfae growio^ corn, tobacco, Sec, should be destroyed, which wm accordingly 
done ; Moce which they have not cioseed the Fish River in such numbers as for* 
nerly ; but that river is found to be a poor boundary, being sometimes com* 
pletely dry. There is said to be a large and deep river about twenty days jour- 
ney beyond it, which some lecommend driving them beyond -, else^ say they» 
Jtbe war must he perpetual. On receiving such orders, king Gika might say, as 
a Canadian chief did on being ordered with his people to remove higher up the 
country, to make way for fresh settlers from Europe—*'* Were we not born here? 
are not the bones of our forefathers interred here ? and can we say to them. Arise 
and go with ns to a foreign land ?" But I doubt much the existence of such a 
river, for having afterwards ti-avelied much higher up on the west side of th« 
Caflfre land, I did not meet with one river or stream running towards Caffraria, 
but all running towards the opposite side of the Continent. Should it only rise 
among those mountains which beund Caffraria on the westward, it is not likely to 
be both wide and deep. 

The Caffres, being divided into many tribes, each 'of which has a chtefy bate 
frequent wars among themselves; but they are never bloody, peiliapsnot more 
than one or two men are killed during a war. They prefer stealing each other's 
cattle, destroying fields, gardens. Ace. to killing. 

Most of their civil wars arise from disputes about their womeo» cattle, and 
ground. Every chief has a particular district which he considers his own, or be- 
ioi^ing to his Kraal; others encroaching upon this occasions a war, if the in- 
truder insists on retaining it. When one chief steals cattle from another, if he 
who has sustained the loss be not satisfied with the offered redress, he resorts to 
arms. «» 

, They take prisoners in war, but only of the' higher rank, the rest are killed. 
The chief keeps his prisoners in close confinement', till they promise to be faith- 
ful subjects to him, .when they are set at liberty. 

When they march to war, each chief accompanies his people, who march !n 
disorder;, but on arriving at the field of battle, they form into a line, and first 
endeavour to intimidate the enemy by howling in a terrific manner, and then by 
threatening to cut them to pieces. 

Every child is supposed to he bom a soldier ; wherefore all serve freely when 
called upon by the chiefs and erery one learns the art of war, or to use the assa- 
l^ay. When they obtain a victory, they are rewarded by their chief, and such as 
are wounded are kindly treated. 

The Caffres are much afraid of muskets, and when they take any from the 
boors, they generally break them to pieces for the brass upon them, of which 
metal they are very fond. 

Our Hottentots, who have lived some time in Caffraria, mentioned to me a bat- 
tle between two Caffre tribes, the one under Congo's father, Chacca, the other 
i^ider Cobella^ which Chacca surrounded, when all the prisoners were either com- 
pelled to drown themselves in the sea, or were murdered on the beach ; about 
eight or ten only escaped, and fted to the colonyT-of those, a father, a cousin, 
and three uncles of one who travelled with me, and their wives, composed that 
niimber. One of these women during this flighty wds pregnant with a son who 
in DOW at Betbelsdorp, to whom the parents gave a name expressive of their cir- 
cmmstances at that time, as a time of trouble ; indeed it is customary with the 
Caffres, like the ancient patriarchs, to give significant names to their posterity. 

. I heard of a boor, at present in the colony, who had lived a long time in Caf- 
fraria, where he married both a Caffre and a Hottentot. On the English cap- 
turing the Cape, he returning to the colony, bringing along with him his two 
wives, and a Mambookls girl, from the second nation beyond the Caffires. This 
girl he caused to be well educated, when he discarded bis Hottentot and Caffire 
wives, and married her. 

Another boor, who was in Caffraria when Dr. Vanderkemp was there, on see? 
ing his printing press, enquired what it was. When the Doctor bad describetl 
the nature and use of it, the sagacious boor requested him to print for him by 
the morrow a large folio bible with plates. This same boor was given to haste ; 
for not being able in a short time to cure a sore finger of his daughter's! he cat it- 
ofi^ saying she would bt better withoqt it« . . 



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9gfi HISTORY OF 4^^If?AN£R. 

No. II. ■ ' 

Hiiiorp ofAfHcaner^ a Plundering Ch^/on, ihf G.r,ep$, Sixi^. 

A^ UHfLHum, ^Y bismurdftri and dppcedatioDS, is become the terror of a coo* 
4i4i^al^'pactof; SomJi. Africa, aojiis cousequenUy -spolteti of and feared fer and 
M^t I o|>4«9ViOWBe<l to. Obtain infoiniat^on coooerning bkn as I oould, but oot- 
•ilipiK«ta9dli)g bU fame, or xatb^r iafanayy loould not procltre much. 
^ H« «iaa orifioally a Hottentot, belovging to the colony, and wacs a considerable 
timA ip Ml« aervtoeof a.boOry in the l>iD9dy ofr Tiilbacb, uained Piet Pieraaar ^ 
ip9f\ of tbisr tiiae was empio^ad in attendiDg to ibe boor'6- cattle, ife'bich, for tbe 
mi^ of pastqre^. vare seofe at certain seasonv to the vicinity of tke Great River. 
A^iranis, be, asd Imb aoosJagerand} Titus, lived wtib Pieitiaar at Elephants 
JSlJver. Tbift vaaabout>the time that the Cape i|rat came into the bands of ibe 
^nfib8b» ir:be» a.r.epost «a« isduatriously cirdnUted by eyil minded persons, that 
mil the Hottentots were to be forced into the army, with tbe design of Sending 
^IP <>iit 'of/« Aftirn^ ' Tbis report icdac^d Afrioaner and bis sons to resolve to 
ifi^^ tb^s^looy al^<mi9iiier,.or li»e near its limits^ to escape being forced into the 
»wy. 

Tbey continued in tbe service of Piamaar, woo sometimes sent them on com* 
0N»p()«M9s, or. plumleriog^ expeditions, ^gainst tbe defeooelesa natives of the in- 
t99or9 (acaisbing Ibam witU muskets and poiider-fori that purpose. In thb way 
tbey i^.erQ taught to>iiDbfor their master, which ultimately. led to their setting up 
€gpr ^h^ma^liies. . . 

Suspifiionif, from s^une citcumstances, sosein tbe minds of Africaner- and' hit 
sons, that their employer behaved^ impropocly to their wives during their «b* 
9en<^^ and bia sending: them is^ore freijuently from home, conftrmed their sear 
|m?iot>8 }' tbey refused^ therefose» to.go any more on such expeditions. Inft^r* 
mation having come to Piemaar, that the- Busbmaii bad carried* off some, cattle 
1gH>i^ %bpor belpDging to the district ovec which be was Field Cornet, he, in fai« 
^ffi<i;i9l(Qb9«icter, commanded them to pursue the Bushmen, in order to vecaptare 
t^QaJ^e.. Tbi&or.der tliey positively ref^^ to obey/ alleging that his only 
motive for sending them ou such an expedition was, that they might foe murd^g^ 
^4 be lo^gtitc tbofieby get possessipn of their wives* 

llor fesisting his Qrder, Biemaar proceeded to flog Jager who seiecd his gnu, 
Yl|iQl^,ir4$klpS:<M.witb small, shot, tbe contjentsoCwbich he lodged, in his, mastoid' 
body. A scuffle ensued, m which the sons of Africaner shot, not onlj^ Pieaj||pr 
^iins^ deadt but also his wifie and cbild« Some say that this atrodoas deed Waa 
^SSi^x^Xxh^^'isi^^ and expostulations of the father) but athera assert be waa 
accessary to it. All however fled immediately over the Great i^iver, to Nortli' 
|^pl)9V4|juakKd* Having settJed' thiemselvesin that country for some time^ t^ 
•p>pia o€ Africaner, haaring rau!»keta and powder, which they had carried off^ firqm 
t)ieic mvinderad master, resobred upon an expedition against somoi pi|rt of tfft 
^f^iiy»,tp afetook some boor's place by surprise. In this expedition th^y ms^ 
^is>;e4iik bo9r of the name of Engelbrecbt, and likewise » bastard Hotteoto^ raft 
ifl^fn tbey carried off' much 6aUle. 

. ImnMdiately on the Missionaries arriving at Warm Bath, in Nortii,^9r Great 
]jf|iP4|M||94 country, Africaner, with his family, came and took up his'rea^nce 
%l||r ihem^ and for some time behaved in an orderly and peiscasble 9)aniigr^ 
buKa eifeua^fltatfce oeourred. which l^d to tbe ruin of the settlenteot there. 

. 'J|)|^%ita»d;TitiMi, aSLtbey dared not. to visit Cape-town themselves, after tbe 
I9l^p4ers t)|e.y, hadi perpetrated, employed a Hottentot, named Hans ^ri^efy to 
t^ tbnse ^an, or sets, oC^ot^cthitiior; with two span of, these he wa^ deaiv«4 
tip ptfrchatfea waggon. fior« them, and with the third to bring the waggon heii\e« 
4%tJ^ nay to Capetown, Hans met a boor to wliom \» was in debt, for which 
1^ boor seised the whole of the Oxeti ; upon which Hans returi&ed to Kamecqc^ 
imi^ re%sad to giae a|iy shooouoVof ibeoaien. TfaiiB' ^(induct of Han? so exaa* 
wreledithe.%oosof ildRdcader, thaVthey attacked his Kiiaal, and uiurdered bins. 
Sot V^g aftecihi^oecnsrenDe, the friends of Hans, with the assbt^iiioe of inmtf. 
IfapiMM^qnas, in tfaaii: tucn! attacked the iCraal of A^ricaeer. Africaner; to hft 
Ttf^fMif^ 9* ^^ Namaeqfias fyf. aidieg^tbe friends of Hans againi| f ' ' ' '"^' 
upon their Kraah These finding themt^i* too weak to resist him. 



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queist, s^nt oat « lar^p^ ariQ^a Pf K^y, t9 4elE|B|<l4 tb^ » whJQU4ft»«m»8«4 AAi't«aME» 
that he thr^at^ne^ destruction t» (l^e |f;^W|tt^^t 9^ Mhmt B^ He aosMn* 
Plisbej % threi^t io ]^rt« ^r i^ c&mfi. ^{iii9;)t t))e|a[\». a^^ (t^rvM off a gr^at ouvir 
>er of their caUlQ. 4 nug^f rvu|. m.^ty <^ V^^ 1$^H»4^<«¥^$ punu^d himtfr his 
l^raaO where, tbey capri?<^ <>u f kiod 9f iv^% 4h)0^IM.^.«*<^)^- oUtfir. feonhtiivid 
*^ '^ -. ^ Aft .._. - -y^ \pi^^f^% }ji^ tbfi, (kpm fko\dk 

pie, the cattfe, wbVn thirsl^* 9^9/jk %^ W^U^-^ t^« i|iM^» Wi4:Wir« ciaJrried off 
In triumj^h by. tb^ Kama,c()|^uas^, 

Africaner, \&^emu^ b^ i^^«#Ji\Mlg%a|3ipj^ tbe $3^a<K|PM.ai Warm Batb^ 
so intimidated tbeib» tbat t^y,^ viJi^tb^. ^i^ioi^riH* rtfllO^ weg, «bo grscat 
rtjver, V) tbei pfepe wbj'j;e tbJ?y w>«i ^» 'K^ \^^ %« 8w<* N/wiapsn*landw 
^ :9y incursions in^ th^e. cqIpp^» ^nd rcik^i|i|^ tb^ bopif^ npt dpltrvol oaAtie, but^ of 
tbeir mu8l$,^t8 and pQw4<^r^ ^f.^^^V^ ^•'^ b^«qq^ \My pwtciui. tte^bai bsM 
jointed by a ' runaway boor, by sotiie Bushmen, and persons from otbea trihas;; 
|L;id.shoilId.b« proqeeil nit^ut r9C«^vii)g foWf. 9ihm^ ^ fi«9»lQ|BMi9.sooa be- 
^oiQc a very fQrijai^l^lj? ^nsmX ^ ^^ colons^ 

Account of StephanaSf an Impostor^ 
HE was an European, and,. s|8 to t^Ujjoo*.iMi9: probably, a Roman Catholic. 
Tbe ship in which he sailed from E^^P® w^. stranded near the Cape ; where, 
after getting on shore, he remained for some time in very distressing circum- 
staoces, whith, he afterwards 9f4^» urge^ l)moQ t^. tbie^ com^isiiipn of forgery; 
for which crime he was arrested, and committed to prison. Ou th^ very firat 
day •f b)8 inipQaoi9«B«nU he began to devise means for etfectine bis espape. ^9 
cot a largft hole in the door otf the prison, by means of which be regained, his 
lib«r%yy afMLflsdla tbe Aoggefeid, a district in ihe interior of the colony, where hi^ 
^eoMiiaed quistiy ib« soqaetime* wMrrJ^ijag as a mason ; but bearing that search w^^ 
MUkking foftbiov^ ha^flttk higher up the country Uk a Missionary seijtlenaent theq at 
Zakriner, wkens lM^^o0i^red his servioea as a mason to Mr.Kicberer, wbp, superin- 
%nimkUio. Missioo* They were very acceptable at that time; beinj^'^bout to. 
«^ ^.fdaMof.worshiptt and knowing nothing of his .charac^r,' they readily tpqK 
lliRkinto thirit^ploy* 

• Only a shont lim^ after the boiUHng wa# begun, information from Cape-toijri},^ 
Hlfoiic^ tbe nefrapapes, reaohedt tbe settlement, that a persoqf accused qf forgery . 
ilftd ettcafifd. from piiison ; and:fiK)m the det^dription given of his per/sQo, Stephao)i|.s, 
appeared}t|k be Uie man. Halving, by some mi^aps^ learned that such, infom^- 
tkm. had bjseo reoeivedi or pei|iap9 discovering by their conduct that be was sys- 
pamed« be ltfu|til|t deoaaped, and fled across the Busbmen^s country beyond tQe. 
Qiaai Biver« oasrying wiU^ hipi a bible, wtbich he had stolen from t^e Mifi^jop- 
«rifls, 

- On.anrMring among the Griqnes, he gave himself out to be « Missionary;, s^nt^ 
t^m^ZtU tvv^ to inatmoft them. He endeavoured to make them' believe, that bo^ 
had been brought across the Bushmen country^ in a mi^i^culoas^ i^anner» hai^g' 
n^thei gpiOi nor 'sword, nqrspear '; which indeed a^p^ared to ttieqxvery ms^ry.el- 
imis, widimiuk 9 sUamg impvesstoo to his favour. They all listei^ed to bis, in- 
structions with attention. The pious people now at Griima town say, thai be 
^iKlkit wio^ about Jesus Christ, and him crucified ; which, indeed many Komai) 
Qalholics do.monethan some Brotestants. Htszeal apj^^red to be fervent, apd. 
OjjMlsidavahlci Hnpr^ssioB was made upon tbe j^oor Qrfquas. Hiey not onjy sighed. 
midrWBp|twb«lirhearing. bins, but many, whd bad been accustonied to have a. 
pIttMlity olirifus, d«idiniiiied,to liv^ acoording to the rules he produced from thf^ 
jBteriptnres. 

$ncf^. oftK ^ i iibltoisny Bis> ekertinos, dispme^ him to think highly of himself,, 
aBd'W^Mk^.tbepQoplebslianwbewas at the head of 4U Missionaries. He ap- 
pmULtQ . hlf iir ]mmk l^r^ta.wha» he heard* from Mr.Kicberer, and to have re. 



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878 IiI8T6RY OF JOHN BLOOM. 

peat«d it without jadgment. His fitime was of sbort duration among ibe most 
discerniofT, by bis paying too moch attention to dreams, visioDSy and voices, tiiat 
some of tne people pretended to have had, which was contrary to the instructions 
he bad given in the early part of his career. One of these dreamers, who was 
probably in league with Stephanas, pretended that God bad given an order that 
« grand church should without delay be erected. This imi>osItioo obtaining ge- 
neral credit, men, women, and children, went to work with alacrity and zeal ; and 
in a short time a spacious building was nearly finished, the walls of which are 
still standing, which I passed when travelling across the continent to Namacqna- 
land. Little more than a roof is wanting to complete the building. 

The Griquas say he endeavoured particularly to explain the Bible to them ; 
and frequently directed their attention to its most striking parts— such as the 
death, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus Christ, &c. « 

After a time, Stephaiias began to sanction the having two wives, like the bea- 
^thens around, and afterwards set the example by taking two himself. This also 
being opposite to his first instruction, caused many of his followers to withdraw 
fcom him* 

- About this timer be wrote an account of his proceedings to Mr.Kicherer, who, 
finding that be was deceiving the people, and propagating many pernicious an<f 
destructive principles, insisted upon bis leaving them ; which he did, and wan- 
dered backward and forward for some time in the vicinity of the Great River. 
He afterwards travelled into the Namacqua country, where he was murdered ; 
but on what account we could not ascertain, nor any of the circumstancei: that 
attended his de^itb. 



No. IV. 

Account of John Bloomy an African Robber. 

HIS father was an European, of the same name : nothing more is known of 
him, but that he lived successively in four different parts of the colony. 

His son John left the colony with the same Piet Piemaar who was afterwards 
murdered by the sons of Africaner. His object in leaving the colony was only 
to attend some cattle belonging to Piemaar, on the Great River. Some time 
after removing thither, hearing of the multitude of cattle possessed by Bo^ebu- 
anas and Corannas, and the defenceless state of these people, be resolved to make 
an attack upon them, in order to carry off their cattle, and so become rich by a 
silngle expedition. By some means or other he prevailed on many Hottentots to 
accompany him on this plundering expedition. He and his people killed many 
Of the poor inhabitants against whom they went, and captured a great number of: 
their cattle ; indeed, the number was so great that more than a thousand are 
said to have fallen to the share of Piemaar, which no doubt was the largest. 

When Piemaar transported his ill-gutten property to the colony, John Bkxmi 
remained behind, and took several wives from among the Corannas ; he also con- 
tinued to make pluudering excursions against that people. His first attempt was 
attended with a shoclcing event, for, besides those who fell by means of his Are 
arms, which greatly terrified the Corannas, many of the defenceless women and 
children ran for refuge frdm their murderers into the Great River, where they 
perished. 

He afterwards went higher up the river, and took up his residence near the 
mouth of the Malalareen. There he commenced his ravages by attacking the 
Bootchuanas, Vnany of whom were slain, and much cattle taken. • 

He found means to prevail upou many Corannas and Bushmen to join his 
standard, which probably they did to preserve their own lives. He received - 
much assistance from Jacob and Kaanel Krieger, two boors who .had fled linom > 
the colony for some crime of which they had been guilty. These supplied him- 
with additional muskets, ammunition, and people, and shared 4n the plunder 
which he obtained. 

His next expedition was against the Wanketzens, a tribe of Bootchuanas, who 
had hitherto remained unmolested; but here a check was put to his iniquitonS' 
career, for he was repulsed, and soon after died in coDsequence of drinking Jnnn a ' 



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ISLAND OF MADAGASCAR. 37^ 

IbmiUiii, the water of which was soppoBed to be pobooed by the Wtnketzens. 
Wlieo dying, be apprehended that he had been poisoned. 
.' It is Mid that the Wanketzens manifested considerable military skill and 
courage in the resistance they made against the atucks of Bloom. They are 
said to hsve raised high walls across the passes between the monntains, leaving 
small openings in \hem, like gates, which could easily be closed up at the ap- 
proach of an enemy. Many lay iti ambash j while others were stationed on the 
tops of the, mountains, who roile»i down great stones upon their assailants. It is 
not known that he captured a single beast from the Wanketzens, while he took 
thousands from the Matchappees and Corannas. 

. John could neither read nor write ; and such is the deceitfulness and wicked- 
ness of the human heart, that, notwithstanding all his barbarities, he pretended 
some respectior religion. However, hardened as he was, his conscience was con- 
siderably roused on his dying bed, and he expressed great dread of eternal ven- 
geance. 

No, V. 
ISLAND OF MADAGASCAR. 



CHAP- I. 
Situaiian-^Exient — Produettans^^Character of the Natives. 

BEING desired by the Directors of the Missionary Society, before I left Eng« 
hind, to send a mission to the large island of Madagascar, during my residence 
jn South Africa, if I found it practicable, I endeavoured of course to obtain all 
the information I could respecting it. Mr. Milne, Missionary to the Chinese 
- finspire, on his way thither, touching at the Cape of Good Hbpe, I requested, 
him on bis arrival at the Isle of France, to procure all the information he could 
respecting Madagascar, in that adjoining island. From the papers respecting 
it which I received from him, duplicates of which were transmitted to the So- 
ciety, it appears that he acted with much judgment and industry in fulfilling my 
request. To his papers> chiefly, I am indebted for the following account : 

Madagascar is an African island, distant only about forty leagues from the 
eastern shore of the Continent ; situated in the Indian Ocean^ extending from* 
north to south upward of eight hundred miles. It is called by the natives Mada- 
tasc, or MadecassR : by the Portuguese, who discovered it, St. Lawrence ; by 
the French, L' Isle Dauphin ; and by the Persiansi Arabians, &c. Serandib. 

The island is reported to be divided into twenty-eight provinces, the chief of 
which is the valley of Amboul, lying at the south end of it, which is watered by 
three great rivers, and covered with wood adapted to the coostroclion of houses, 
&c. The district is also fertilized by many small streams : it is governed by 
twelve chiefs, and supposed to contain about fifteen thousand person;, and is 
considered by some the most suitable place for a eolony ; while others prefer the 
6ountry adjoining St. Augustine Bay. On the coast, about Fort Dauphin, it is 
rendered unhealthy by the great quantity of sea weed driven upon it by certain 
currents, which being corrupted by an almost vertical sun in summer, sends forth 
contagious eflSuvia. 

' The island is said to contain two hundred millions of acres of arable ground, 
celebrated for its fertility, and the variety of its prodactions. The rivers are 
plentifully stocked with fish ; the mountains are very numerous, some of them 
rise to the height of 1800 fathoms above the level of the sea, are covered with 
wood, and many are inaccessible ; 1)ut the vallies are fertile, and covered ' with 
enttle. 

Madagascar produces six different sorts of rice, and no fewer than ten dif- 
ferent kinds of yams ; likewise the banana, which is considered and called by 
the natives, the fig tree of Adam. Near Foul Point, on the east coast, are found 
potatoes, four kinds of turnips, beans, peas, and poultry. There are mines of 
iron imd steely and it-is reported by some that there are also mines of gold, siU 



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j9P9 injijm or lUIUCkA8CAR 

iwr, aiHii««VP«ii U i{i not impHObiftblft tluM^e MoftwlHck Iiw»aftlli»«|if «| 
Lattakoo, comes from B$»dag«a«it; f»K U.U omH^ offoiilftt^ MiUk eid oi ll( 
^bouat tlice^or four banilf9(i«i»l«s kom 4hi «P«ifc, t» wiii«h i^magr kc braa^t^tad 
bArt«jr«4 fre^^ na^ioir tp miOQ* tiU it i«Mk«« \lk» eomrfvy q(A* B««koKBain#. 4ft 
▲n^ifl^aj b«X>. ra^r.«|i€r«fiwiit IfiinilA ofi Mt noroM waite ivMi4 bgr/lbb* HoclW ii 
ilb^ab#vi^it«dit; lik«wi^jmb«ir» wvt, bonngi^ attdfioftn^l. |taa, 111^90^ 
^vgaf, peppew, ai^. tob^icc^y i% Is IbqugbA, would gvoir wril tbnr. The aortlMni 
jg considered tbfi vff^ fejrUla pfurt^ i» » good 8«aa«» lih« fidda. mH\ yiiM wm 
^HA^ced fold^ 

This island, says Abbe RocboB».afi)«te » fawffft ftdd fti ^hfli boftamt ; so hmmI^ 
99.^|>»l. qn&coidd mw«^ ff^yt, lAihAttpiiMfiof a loiig> life^ tbe mrtomt Iftis* 
^y qC itg K«getaydi»q* 

Th^#^6 8a4AH»9oiitbQi<»1«ad9.Wftlitbcg»auMiiiOt«ery daogeioiia^ Crocodiles 
ab«!^md. U^ tbft KKV^RS,, wbQse «|i|pflM«Qce aUaMs tenxir nAo tbe aoalintpepiil of 
tbe inhabitants, and great caution is necessary in walking near tbe rivers. Thayp 
have been seen to drag away «Ad;de»QRr «i«k%bnUock. 

The contiguity of Madagascar to tJ|^ coast of Africa makes it natural to ascribe 
its population to that vast continent $ buC the different races of inhabitants are 
DOW so much confounded,, afi .to render it, iiQPQSsible U> enumerate them. Tbe 
race of tbe real negro* is eaaily dtstinguislted there. Some #hite inhabitants pre- 
tend to be descended from Imina, tb.e qdptber of Mahomed — others trace their 
origin to tbe Jews. There is a race of whites, who affirm that they were sent 
thither by the Caliph of Mecca, toJnstxuct tli&nattTes in the Mahomedan faith. 

Before tJ^e ^nropeans first landed on the i,slaiui» the natives had -4 jtradiiioift 
thai they would be conquered by the children of^l^e sun; and the Pi-encbt w&ea 
they arrived there to forjn a settlement., were taken, for these childnaArO^ tihe 
sun ; the people therefore readily yielded to them. Persons are also fttuod theie . 
who are supposed to have come from the Persian and Ai^abi9itgi^&» ai^l fiN»vi 
Esry^t. 

T^e people are i^i general well shaped, and abqve the middle 8i«e» of vi^'Jont 
colours, de^p black, tawny, copper, but cbieffy of an oU«e c^pnr. Thfijcphy* 
siognomy in general bears marks of a character replete with fraiykness- 

They are not considered a savage people : they do not eat humao flesh* nor 
are murders frequent among them, except in time of war. They, are not devQiA 
of intellect, at Mr. Bartlet, pur Missionary at Bethelsdorp,, fooiid, when ha ba4 
the tuition of about twenty of them at the Cape of GoodHope* llieii conld^Mtd 
English, and answer questions from a catechism with tolerfld^e'fa(:iUty« . 

I^veral instances of shipwreck on their coasts aie known,, but notona. iiifWbicli 
the people haye been ill treated. The late Mr« Oucruydt^ Presitkant of tiia 
Hurgher Senate at Cape-town, mentioned to me one instance, whioh caioa. oodat 
hi<t own review, when he was supercargo of a, l^utch ^aaX Indiamao* They 
sailed to Ttilier, or Tellear, in Augustine bay, oi) tbe east side of Uie vmtk^iuiof 
tbe island, where a French ship had been stranded upwards of twelf<. OMiiitba 
before their arrival, llie Captain, officersi and men.^ i;eatded a^ltbfttoiMl 
wfth the natives ; On seeing tbe Putch ship arriye at the mouth of ti^ lives 
Mancbard, (which probably is the same river a& that, named XMrJteqfOQt ia J^ 
rowsmith^s mpp) the Captain and the crew caoye off to her, aod solUnted a fjMbr 
sage to the C&j^e, to which Mr. Oncruydt and his Captain. oooseRted. Tim$ 
fbundthat these shipwrecked mariners had lived in perfec;t safety ». aiid.had.beai 
treated with hospitality during the whole time of their residence thenv TbC-onlX 
Uiing they were in wantof wa$.clpthes,.with which Mr^ Qn^rmfdt s«ippU»i tb^m, 
after which he. and some of his people went as^qre with theiii op. Ski iImC^ Mto 
king of that {)art of Madagascar. 

They soon arrived at a. considerable town, where an o^loyei^ aidleditJbAi«paft4 
l(ing» resided; by him they, were well recejvedi. and seat ofl^WitbAD]|inb^Q^«W 
tendants to Ramacca the first king. They canie to a broad and rapid river» h^ 
there being ^either, bridge nor any bo^t, tb^y^ loured . at QDe<a]|^^i|i,iMli>dMiiir 
hqw. they ^ould get across, fc gether With twp chests which. UifX b«^i4^)|^ fiiU ^ 
presents to the king. Six men took ^^ one of these. <;h«^.t9« ^iiLwia4 witl^ i^in*^ 
the'water, three on, one side, and three ou tbe othery/ s^^f^wc^ it aqavii^tbi^ 
water, by each applyiflg one ofbU ^»^dstQ it j i^ta K§J( Mhfy 9MrM4^ M 



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ISLAKD OP MlLDAC^ASCilR; Hfl 

^•rfceClf 4ry. Hi tlie mvm Miy tt<s^««TfiiMl 9T«r aw «Mher diesi, afti all tht* 
putcli aDd French effioarfe and iaiil^rt wko wel« m the oonpaiif. 

Que of the SMtars, nol dKxMifif 4o lie caiwied o«cr in tire «ho^ awkwtfd wsy , 
strifiped off bis olethes, Md tt>in8 t^«>> alMKid hn l»eaA^ i<Hnfi^ fiitti ttie water, 
and swam towariis the other side, bat when he came to the middle ef iibft 14te^9 
the onrrait wns too strong for Mn, te tbat he w«^ osrrlsd dowi befi>re it, tfhd 
oertai»i|r woaU have beoi dN<va^ hmi -m* wooie «f the natft«ft hfestMcM td hfir 
a^sifitaaoe. l^tt «fter enweiag the rin;iv they arrrred at€he to«li Miefe the \Hifs 
resided, whioh was oonsideraWy in%^ fehan that whleh tbef bad Men befote. 
When iacroduced to the king, he itas %wpr\ieA to find atl the FreHchtfeii iTeif 
clothed ; bat w%en be foUhil, •« enqfatty, thiil they bad receii^ed these dothes 
firem tbe Ooteb, who, be toew, werita dMbreot fiation fiwn-tbe Preach, Me was 
still more tslontahed. atri caUed to bis attetidaats, #ho ftoad ih a r{># beblhd, 
sayings « Marie tbi^ : the«edo not bekmg to the satte naiidn With CbePteft^ix, yet 
yon see cbey f ite tbeoi dothes $ ielfrn . la do •» too." A htose and at^sndMits 
wore i^rovided for them all by the kin^, where they lired vetfy oottfbrtablyfdrr ive 
notitlM.. 

On aaoiiier oecasioD, whea Mr. Oocruydt #08 wifli the seoond king Hloiie, 
while vteKing from his whtdow a threat Merm at ec«, he sakl to Mr. Otieraf^t, 
*' 1 have heard from my i^raadfatiter, and fretti my trndus that all these kings' 
weranade^" p6ititMg to the sea, &c- •< Did yon ev0r liear of that?" ** Mk&s,** 
said Mir. O. " do you me«* that the sea made itself P* '* Ko, no, (tarid be) I 
do odt mean that : I meaa made by its Maker." *' O fes,^ said Mr. O. ** all 
white 1^^ know: t|iat.*' ** I bave told yoa,»* refvlied the seoood kiftg, *^ whn 
it was that fold no, oow tell ale bow you kaowit." O* wbieh Mr. Onctuydt 
Md him aboat the Bible. 

Tliere is a race of men in the netgbbonrhood of Fort Danpbin, and 9h difaer- 
parte of Che weatera «oast, desceadod Irom soMe Arabs, who wdM shifiwi-^ked. 
Tkey say they ai>e oot original iahabiiants, but ohiHren of thl» tea ; becfatise it' 
threw out their fathers oB the isfaod. They wri«« the Madaf^a^car latignage ia 
the Arabic character, and claim an exdasive right to kill the biAltfC^^; bot thoqfe' 
who eat swine's Hash lose this right. 

k is reiMMted that a race of dwarfs, oklted KInhossfo, dweil in the infertdr Of 
Madafasear-'^hiat the mediuHt siee of the men is about three feet ttve inchest ; 
that they «Mear long beaeds ; aad that the wotnea are soflie iuclies shorter th\iii 
the men. These people ara said to sarpsups the rest of the Mtd^gaficars in points 
of iateUeer. At the Me Of Franee the esistence of these pe^^le it called tft qd«^ 
tioii bf ktis «re1l iafomsed, and treated as a Mere llci ioa. 

In so eaeensite an tslaad as MMagascar, tbere most be it varkefyof lelftthte^-; 
the ioterior is by aUtJonsidored thie. most healthy, MVtf tha SMKheili pert (horh 
heaMiy ttam thaaortham, frobaMy hceotise fuitber remofVi tflrotot the ei)iiiitM'. 
In the saoathsof Jannary, Pebroary, and March^ whR^ are the men uAlieriChy 
saaaaa^ a kind of incermtttivg fe^or fro^ontly piwalti. Behi#d the totrn df 
Timrtiafe, on thoaast euash, tlMra is a mtt momai, frhoS wb^ftcsf «hbealtby n-^ 
poars procaedk Whiah oontaammta the air. The httats in thenortfaeVo t»Arts, at 
some aeaaoah of the year, most be vary great, which, from the (\itiit9, aYistn^ 
froM stagnated water^ and tdocarfed Togetatwa, nfoet readOr the climate XMtt* 
healthy, at least at first, to European constitutions. Howcrver, it is probable thjili 
the eo* moantaHHs dnd tba anmy liwm aad stieaAs*, AtM rendei' the heht 
mora tolerable, and the air more bnaitby* 

Thiere is no (toahtthait the French garciMMiaNliotft all dtod at= FM l^OpCiiti ; 
and thatoDce they were massaaiwAand drtf en oot : hkit peHMi)^ neittofrf H the 
filftfier ta be whally attributed to tke clittiatc, nor the tetter «atifrely to th^ ft^tlge 
difposftion of ifan people; Two reasnaa am stilted by Abba RocheH, trtdcfc seem 
faJly loifeatfaQt «e this wippositiop. 

Frrst Thed«s ngc^uoas oofidttcft of the Frenoh toward* the tnffrcM, SMd «Ha 
to a Mr. La CaaC, a Frtsncbmaa, who fennd himsilf tiegl^'Med' by llhe 6^^rtit>f 
cS e-^i B ai^ ilH o, n 4»i<hstapdioy Om signal sorviees beb«i tendiN^ to the 
Kianob gorhraneaii He retired iato the pnnrtoce iHf Ansboot, and MMtied the 
da^agihtcr^i the pvinu^l cbiai Fiw tnom FreweUttiOh jollied him, and tht>utb 
h^had nu t atii in p t ii any «fnng» tm ldn' tmm i ff iuc ih yet» irtien n ^tenm^ 



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3a2t ISLAND OF MABAGASCAIf; 

seConhifllieadby tl^e French Governor, all the chi^s were faighlf enraged «f 
seeing a plan formed against the life of a man whom they so highly venerated } 
and unanimously agreed not to afford any supply of cattle, rice, &c. to the 
l^rench ; in consequence of which a famine ensued, which reduced the settlers' 
to a smiall numben 

Second. The imprudent conduct of father Stephen, a Catholic IVftsslonary of 
the order of St. Lazar. This man, either not knowing, or rather having forgotteD* 
the words of Paul, ^* The weapons of our warfare are not carnal," carried the 
bloody banners of war, and was determined to convert the people by the sword. 
Being well received by a powerful chief, who had a numerous seraglio, i^e 
tJiQught it would lie easy to convert him ; but instead of waiting for the effect of 
sound scriptural argument, he commanded the chief to put away ah his wometi 
except one : and threatened, not the displeasure of God, but to bring the- 
French arms against him if this order was not instantly obeyed, and that they' 
Would deprive him by force of his seraglio. The obief, instead of instantly pot- 
ting him to death for his insolence, as might have been expected, begged fifteen' 
days to consider the matter, during which time he privately withdrew wjlhan h»' 
wom^Q. - The Missionary- followed him^ accompanied by another bmtli^ ef the 
BBime order, and six Frenchmen, all loaded with sacerdoul habits, and fihe au-' 
thority of the bloody church with which they were connected. 

It was told Stephen^ when he overtook the chief, how vain his attempts' ^t 
conversion would be. He made no reply to this, but tore, with consecrated' 
hands, from the chief all his amulets, threw' them into' the fire, and dedared' 
war. Is it wonderful, that such an attempt to enforce .Christianity wasfbflowed' 
by the instant death of the Missionary, and all bis companions? By order of 
the chief they were all killed on the spot ; and he swore the utter destruction of 
tbeFrejDcb. - 

It is also a fact, that a considerable number of the English soldiers died, who 
went to take possession of a fort at Tametave, aflertbe capture of the Ule of 
France ; but they went at the worst season of the year, when the utmost danger 
was to be expected in that part of the island. 

It is impossible accurately to ascertain the population of a country divided 
into 80 many different tribes. Abbe Rochoni in the year 1770, estimated the 
population at about four milUons — Rondaux thinks they are abofit three mil- 
lions. If these estimates were any thing near the amount upwards of forty years 
ago, it is supposed that the population is now much greater. 
. As for the state of arts there, they work iron, and make various useful articles - 
of it. They manufacture also a strong kind of cloth from the second bark of a * 
tree, which is certainly an ingenious device. Mr. Mihne sent a fiew yards of it 
to the Society, from the Mauritius. Of this cloth they make a wide garment, ' 
resembling onr corn sacks, cutting two boles at the bottom, thusugfa winch they 
' pass their feet. The women weave very beautiful baskets, or pognas, as they- 
call them, from the filaments of the leaf of the ravten plant. They also sow a great 
deal of rice, not only for their own consumption, but as an article of trade. They 
bring it down to the shore in bags, which are wrought either of grass, or the 
inner bark of trees. They abound in wood, which they cut down with hatchets, 
and make houses, canoes, &c. They also make poUery articles in a masterly 
manner. 

It does not however appear that the arts have made much, progress in Mada-' 
gascar; nor indeed could it.be expected « since the object of all who have hitherto' 
traded with them has not been to do tbera any real good, but only to obtain their 
rice, oxen, and slaves, or to become their masters. 

In the southern parts, almost every village stands on an eminence, sorioanded 
with a double row of palisades ; within which is a parapet of compressed eaith, ' 
about four feet high ; and large bamboos, driven into the gproundy^t the distance- 
of Ave feet from each other, form a , kind of fortification. The dwelling of > the 
chief is called the Dopac, which comprises three or four large houses, enclosed- 
by a particular fence. Slaves guard the Donac night and day. Horns of the 
bullocks slain iu sacrifices, are sometimes hung round the dweUings of the ohief* 
Their towns have not regular streeU ; their houses are built of tinl^ev, and covered 
with the leaves of trees. They have ofithex locks nor bolfsi they Uveui a firvga^ 
manner. Though they have not; generally regular hours for thsir meals, yet it 



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ISLAND OF MADAGASCAR^ 388; 

is not uncommon to see tbem dine at ten in the morning, and sop at fonr in tbe, 
afternoon. Their food consists of ezcelfeot white rice, well boiled, over which' 
they pour broth of meat, or flesh, seasoned with saffron, ginger, &c. These, 
plain messes are served on the leaves of the Raven, which answers the purpose 
of spoons, plates, &c. They have only two ways of preparing their food 3 boil- 
in{( in clay pots, or roasting on the ooals. 

At Foul Point they put into their broth some leaves of the Ravensara, and a 
little sea water, salt being almost unknown to them. In the interior they use, 
instead of sea water, leaves of a tree, which is called the salt tree. They drink . 
not after meals, except sometimes water boiled with rice, which precaution is 
necessary in a country where the water is not good. Their houses are kept clean, 
and some of tl^eir towns are supposed to contain twenty-five thousand inhabitants.. 

Their government consists of a chief of each tribe, who is sometimes elected, 
but generally succeeds by heirship. Each tribe possesses the place it likes best, 
which must frequently occasion broils. In some parts, the chief always carries 
his gun, and a stick tipped wiih iron, the end of which is ornamented with cow's 
hair. .The principal ornament which distinguishes the chiefs from their subjects, 
is a cap of red wool. In some parts the power of the chief is pretty, extensive, 
though not generally so. Some small revenue is raised among tbe people and 
given to the chiefs. 

Determinations for war or peace, are generally formed with the concurrence 
and consent of the people, who are assembled ibr the purpose. The concourse 
of people on £uch an occasion is very great.' These assemblies are called Pola- 
bras', and in tbem speeches are made which display much energy and natural 
eloquence. .. 

Theft and adultery are piinished by law, which shews that private property is 
respected, and that tbe law of nature is not so entirely lost among that people 
as some affirm. 

Though they have no character that can be called their own, yet their language 
can be reduced to a system, as is evident from a Catechism and Voeabulary in it, 
which Mr. Milne obtained at the Isle of France. Their learned men, whom 
they call Ombrasses, use the Arabic character. They have some histories, and 
treatises on Physic, Geometry, and Astrology. The art of writing is thought to 
have been introdiu:ed by the Arabs. 

Paper is manufactured, in the valley of Ambonl, from the Papyrus Nilotiea^ 
and called by the natives Sooga Sanga. Their ink is prepared from the bark of 
the Aran Drato ; it is not so black as ours, but has a finer gloss. Their pens 
are made of bamboos. 

Some natives on the coa%t speak a little French and Eoglish* 

Physicians are held in great estimation among them. All their science con- 
sists in knowing some aromatic, astringent, and purgative plants, which they 
generally make a mixture of. 

They know but little of arithmetic : they count to ten, and add a branch for 
each ten more. Time is divided by moons. Sorcery is generally practised. 



CHAP. 11. 

Religion — Treatment of the aged — Matrimony^'Ceremonies reiat" 
ing, to Children^^War — Commerce — Slaves, Sfc* 

IT has been asserted that the Madagascars have no religion, but this is erro-. 
neous, for they have a religion, however imperfect it may be. They acknow- 
ledge two great principles; one good, which they call Jan har, or Oreat: Jan 
also is interpreted Jooe, and har incarnate. To him they neither build temples 
nor ofifisr prayers ; nor do they represent him under any visible forms, because 
he isgooKl, but they offer sacrifices to him. The other is bad^ which they call 
Agnaf. To him they reserve always a portion of the victims which they offer to 
the other. The head of the family, or chief, performs this office. 

The occasions of sacrifices are various, snch as extraordinary appearances in 
tbeheavensy eartb, or i«a; commencement of some grand enterprise ; conclnt 



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lortife liqdW^is Jwirtefi/ Afj 4hd tift^ ftfto t»e tlWrty "Auit tafet* it. f h^ spfealcer 
conjcirfe^ th6r tbd b^^tif^ to ^bftY)^ hftHo )(kfii6ti to (ho^ i^bb Atf R dHnk it, and 
mftcft^^fda bMk Ulife tt%itt. Afeetfrflnrg ito ttie ctrttbto 6f the aiK^^t <iat?dbs, fh^ 
most dreadful curses are pronounced on fftb^ wlTo^hill ftiitMiifnti^ It. 

A (TeAUem^ Mto%^8 fiit^^ at fIKe i^dtad bf 9t. IfiTary; wHidh ii ^os& to Ma- 
^alT^car, ibt ftiY^e tfrbriths, t^lttted oH Vik fethrfi f6 fh^ 9$1^ df fraace ttie rdiTo^- 
ftig[ ceretfidny tif fnaWig & 'drWfftiT , Miifch fe abrtcd !n tife hifonniiitf dn sArt by tfr. 
MTlne. ' ^ . . -^ 

• the int^mtloh seertii 'ioiti^ibk^ fit)B ttflit of fir^ tira«iMyy. Wh^ ^«f vf^t^Te 
iretk coltected, a iuh, ftttl ^ bdtl'^ Mtidd. n^ft^M^a iH t!he ttt/id^e (^^heib. A 
<)uantrty oT^unpoWdc^, vflb Siptstot drYWo» f(rs(s IbftfWfi itt; after #%ffdi it ^'as 
^iri'ed #ith a foo^<pf«tetJf1rMk^ tht poYdt iaf ffkkM ^tBff diflti toftched tKlh bis 
tdrtgiPe. the «l^ect 6f this oti tb^ nath^^s is to i/ttnti^f ibat tlri^ l^otJM^o may 
t'hirfg fbr t!he stfangel* ^bb tbtfs lif^Mks tberf 'bltoi^ii!^, j^M, evi^n hy dbwh tfceir 
liViss tor him. The same gch^fetoata alhfo said, that sbotfM tfbiy tfaliv« Arib^ a 
Eui^f)«a6, tb^ Chief wbCild hti(»tktotly oVdet pu'niAbi^nt, p^rhsipi deafli. 

fbe^ Have soiche cdtl^sed ftfet^ of Iftft 43i^e)itiyni. tfte lekrned aiisfriig ^eift ftfi. 
firm that the Creator of heaven and earth drew, from the body of the first tiskttg 
seren woth^h* Hfrho^re th« iiio^^i df the trtbe^. fhift tritditibi^ etidiently dk^i-- 
^at«^8 from ^aci'ed scVf^trfe. 

A ^nC!e£ha'n relate to Mr. Mtilne-a (iereiktMy, wbiefa* h« lited witneiiM in iCa^' 
dibga^car, a^id ^hicli beirrs «erti«fdremtile •mfatlti^ndt to the I»]td»i 9tip0^. '^* ik 
company is coUeftted, and a sacrifice killed. A table, covered wit& Vtttulttat 
leaves, is Set ill the twiddle. Oh tbi% a ptfrjfoia places tfai'ee stakW piee^ of bhftd, 
and p'»ec6b of th6 Ht^h 6f the ^a^rffite "ttpptsfte t6 ttilfe feff^ad, ahd a tfo1IH& filM 
with liquor. Then the master of the family offers up a prayer to €tod ^ k btjesi* 
ing on his ctitldieb iltid ^entld; after wh^ch the br^ad xi brcAc^, iftnithe ^l^le 
distributed to thfe cofnt>ftny.^ 

Aged'pfe'ttofis «r^ udiv^allv tire^iitfed ^Tth' riN^e<*6, afidnV^er n^se^^ M i^ 
^Ihe pagd^n ^iOunlYies. !Kfv. Milnte could fitft ob<^n infMnif^d^'of tbts kihd o# 
^ere'iAdny whttli tkl^es ^l9(cj6 oli th« OtrcSitSfOrt of altfrri^]^; boiii^«#, Mf i^gi^ct 
that a plurality of women is common to the cfHteHf. btit tliatime otily M legally 
betrothed ; thdft t)ie ffist ar^ c^bhsfdefed ftd eoftaub^A^ ; iliat cohsideirable becjii. 
tifei^ is enjoy^ ih th« Aatyimohl&l "itiltk, btt iliitt dlVdircfei) M^ tm uM6lftMtto« ' 

The' cirdum'<!i6l(m df chiffirfeitt Is tOmtni^h lhr<3^f hbdt iht island. Oh ^lich OC" 
casions there is a feast, the neighbours are called, and a sai*fifice ib MHiM, At 
the birth of children the soothsa^ets ate d6to(ndtedt iM tf tfaelt d^lstobs pjtovc 
unfavourable, the podr inf^nti tfte «ybdSI^ to ^# ^ifd betbt^ ih ^iHfiMfdi. they 
ifoifietilfnes tife gHxM o'nlhebtfthDf chitdr^, a^d aiw&y^ n^ m^cft caretedby lil 
the burial of tbe dead.' 

Wars are JFi'equem ill IS^dsipt&lSifr, Wtrfch flJI^t b6 es^^ted from thb number 
of iiidepeAa^At govefi]fti6)i«s, tiVkd iHk gbt!%rid igncTi^dJUf^e ^ Iheptol^le. thd 
arms used previous to tlieir intercourse with .Europeans were the bow, the laoce^ 
and the spear, which they throw with much dexterity. Swords and fire arms 
ba\'^ been carried to them by .iiirog^n^. Tbd conqueror claims «U that fi>s« 
merjy belonged to the conquered. In general, prisoners are not ill treated till 
soW to £0rof>e»os. , ,*. - * - .4 

Caitle, rice, slaves, alid cloih, torm the chief at1:ic1cs o^ export.. Ilie besc 
rice fields are iii the ihTerio>'ot tb*6 Wuniry, ^bich c(Si\tSfe tttfe p^^^ \o remove^ 
and makes the* mei^e Imsettled* Tbey bring dow« their articles to the coast, 
and continue there till ail be deposed of^ after which they retur o^ ... 

Siavfes aie persons uken in wary wtiom t^e A«al»s and ot)iers purchase fn>fl| 
th* victor, brmg down to tliecobat^ and sell to such Europeans as trs^ffic iq humav 
beings. This is one of th« priAeif al causes of MadjEtg^sear wars. Gain prompts 
ibe cMeft to ovtr^^es, on p^trpose to obtain •captives. .. 

CoSh is ahnott unknown- irt tile interior of the islapd : tbey trade by die ex- 
change of such artii&les as tiray reciprocally need. Spanish dollars pass on flb^ 
<Mnt, w«ch srrewMni-tines cut int* four paits. They are very fond of ^ow^er» 
\M\i, fi»e anas^ knives, awd oraamtatB of varies sorts, Euro^pean dQt]>i» {Uotare^ 



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I^l^AND OF MAI>AGA8CAR« 

«tc Thow who live in the towns on the sea ooasts are said to have embraced 
many of the customs of those who M4e mSlh them. 

There is a constant Irade carried on with Madagascar from Bourbon and tne 
Isle of France, both in French and EaKlisk ships. The trade te almost excl»- 
aively with the southern parts of thf island. , -. 

'The Island of Joanna, which is one of the Comora Isles, lies to the-^restwam 
of the north end of Madagascar. The chief has long been friendly to tile 
EiigKsh. He goes by the name of King George, and some of his cbildren al« 
named after some of thfe branches of- our royal frfmily. An ambasfcictor was 
lately sent from this king to the Governor of the Cape of Good Hope, soliciting 
bis assistance agamst the pe<mle of Madagascar, who came over in boats which 
held forty or fifty persons, add phmdcred their island j but the Governor did not 
comply with their request. 



The Lord's Prayer in the Language qf Madagascar. 
. Rait-sica an-danghitsi, angare ano ho fissa tife i fansap ano, evi ami« 
Father our in heaven name thy fnagnified be kifigdom % "f^ jP 
tiaiej amorompo^ano ho efa, izan tanne,oucoaaan-danghitsi. Maw«iti» 
' ut the pieoiure of thy heart Redone t« ear/A as if in keaten^ Oi9e ^ 

anaie ' ananenai anrauanne monfe abi. Tane tou Zahale, Q Zanbav ! gui 
; to ui for OUT support tfay this bread all. Remit to us^ OGodf 4rH* 
fanftahenaie rats! ahi; t>na zale mivale i fanoabe rasti agniiafi nme; 
passes our evil all; at 'we' forgiife 'iniquities tker/Ms *^ ^^JTjJ 
aca manatitse anaie vetse-^etse ratsi : fsa ano mVHeoeza anale tabm 
do not lead us in conceptions evH: but ihlni deiwir tif frofn 

ratsi abl. Amen 
'€9(1 alU Amen, 



Rec 
Koue 
Teloa 
EfKat 
l)imi 
Henne 
Fitou 
ValQH 
Civi 
Polou 

Polourec ambe 
l^oloo roue ambe 
Kone pofou 
Roue poWu rec ambe 
Telchi polou 
TeloQ polou rec ambe 
TEMaX polou 
Bffat polou rec ambe 
Bemi polou 
[ Demi poloo rec amb« 



Satnouasl 
Asobora 

Aiotarida 



Numhers* 



one 
two 
three 
four 
Jive 
six 
seven 
eight 
nine 
ten 
eleven 
tvoelve 
twenty 
twenty ona 
thirty 
thirty onS 
forty 
forty one 

fifty one 



Henne polou . 
Fitou poIoQ 
Valoo polou 
Civi polou 
Zatou 

Zatourecambo 

ZatoQ dimi ambe 

Zatou pokw amb^ 

Roue 9atoi» 

Demi satosi 
Arrive 
Dint arrive 

Folott atrive 



Heavenly Bodies* 



4kt Ssm 
thaMoam 
Mars 
Maratfy. 



Azoali 

AUttouMcfud 

Atioiareehi^ 



sixty 
seventy 
eighty 
ninety 
a hundred 
a hundred 

and one 
a hundrei 

andifive 
a hundred 

and ten 
two hun* 
' dred' 
Jive hun» 

dred 
a thousand 
five theu' 

sand 
ten ihoU" 

sand 



Jwpiter 
Fenut 

Saiturt^ 



Cc 



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8W 



Assaramtnghitf 

Asarabe 

Vatrevati 

Saffard 

Atsibi 

Valatein. 



' OF THE 


ISI.F OF 


FRANCE. 




Mimtkt. ■ 






January 


Fossa 




July 


February 


Maca 




Au^ 


March 


Hiahia 




S^tember 


April 


Sacaoiasseb' 


October 


JStay 


Sacav€ 




Naoemhtf 


June 


Voalaubitoa> 


Decemk§r 



No. VI. 

Account of the Isle of France* . 

THE climate m the Isle of France is generally considered rather Beafthf 
tVan otherwise, especially about tlie centre of the island. In the vicinity df 
Port I/)nis, the principal rendezvous for shipping, and the seat of governnent, 
the h(eat in the niontbs of October, November, and December, is particularly 
•oppressive, and at times would be insupportable if it were not for the sea breezes 
which generally set in towards the evening. About the latter end of January the 
hurricanes usually commence ; their duration is about two moo hs, and they 
.are frequently very desiructivt to shipping, plantations, and houses. 

One oi>8ervatioov whit h tends in some degree to militate agiinst the opinbn 
generally entertained of the beahhiiiess of the island is, that among the gene- 
rality of the inhabitants, there aie not any remarkable appearances of longevity;; 
nor are there any instances of that nature on record. 

Theproductions of the island are sugar, ebony, a little indigo, and cotton ^ 
the latter article is inferior to that which grows at Bourbon j bat Port Louis is 
the general mart for ail the- products of Bourbon and the other islands ; and 
in order that the other islands may be wholly dependent on the Isle of France- 
or Mauritius, the govemment levy a heavy duty on a// products of the other 
islands, when exported from the place of growth direct. Sugar is not permitted 
to be cultivated on any of the islands, except Mauritius, in order that the other 
islands may be^ dependent on her for that necessary article. 

The planters in the Isle of France manufacture a species of arrack or rum, but 
«f an inferior quality. The manioeor bread-tree has been introduced there from^ 
>fadagascar, and thrives well : maize, or Indian corn, also grows well ; this 
anrfthemanioe, form the principal ingredients of negro food. All plants and 
firuits found in tropical islands, aie generally to be met with therein great abun- 
dance. The pine apple appears to be one of the native or original fruits of the 
island ; it grows in profusion, in different s parts, without any cultitation. The 
ginger root is to be found over the greater part of the island. Aromatic plants are 
' also abundant : the effluvia arising from them is so strong, as to be sensibly felt 
on approaching the island on the N. W. side. 

Nothing.can exceed the grandeur of the scenery, which the wholie extent of 

'the island displays, on sailing towards Port Lonis. The beautiful appearance 

and variety of the plauUtions, some of which are carried to a great height up the 

'sides of mountains and hills, whbse summits are generally covered with vatioas 

descriptions of trees and evergreens — rivet the attention of the stranger, and hi- 

sensibiy create in bis mind the most pleasing sensations. 

The entrance into Port Louis is extremely difficult, and cannot be approached 
without the guidance of a pilot : it is completely surrounded with coral bauks, 
wh'ch are increasing every year. In Ihe harbour ate basons 6t to receive ships 
of the tine ; and so deep and commodious is the harbour, that ships of consider- 
abie bi«rt hen lie close iawiih the shole. 

On landing, the first object which, arrests the attention of the strimger is.tbe 

* Written, at my deshre, by a geotlema^ who bad for some time been a resident 
at Port Lotiis.r— J. €• 



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ACCOUNT OF THE ISLE OF FRANCE. .387 

lomFmnent house, an elegants exten'siTe building, partly buitt of stone and 
partly of wood :^ it. is built after the Indian mode of architecture, having 
galleries or balconies projecting out and running the whole extent of the building 
at each -story : upon the whole, it has a grand appearance, and is the only build- 
ing worthy of notice upon the whule island. The towu of Port Louis has, gene- 
raBy -speaking, a mean appearance ; the houses, built of wood, give & gloom 
which, when added to the narrowness of the streets and the dirt by which they 
are surrounded, causes considerable disappointment to the stranger, whose ex- 
peotations have been heightened from the external appearance of the island. 
The only other public buildings are the police office and court of justice, and are 
«nly to be distinguished by being built of stone, and bearing their respective 
names. 

Thjere appears to have been fofmerly a church on the island; it is now in 
ruins, and no substitute has yet been erected. On making- inquiry why the 
church was suffered to remain without any means being used to repair it,^ the 
reply was, they had no money to build another, nor were any applications made 
to the inhabitants for the necessary aid. 

The higher cUss of hihabitants have ^their houses without the skirts of the 
town. Many of them are handsome within, but generally have a mean appear- 
ance from being built of wodd ; many of ihe houses have small gardens attached^ 
which tend much to enhance their value. 

The Champ de Mars is the only place on the island exclusively appropriated 
. to the use of the public. It is a spacious plain, nearly square, and bounded by 
hills, at the foot of which are ^any elegant cottages and other buildings,, that 
give to the whole an enchanting appearance. 

Towards the upper or south east side of Champ de Mars stands part of a superb 
monument, erected in honour of a former governor general : the building has 
been begun upon a grand scale, but the expense to finish the whole far exceed- 
ing the subscriptions, they have been under the necessity of giving up the un- 
dertaking. 

In this beautiful spot the inhabitants, when the weather permits, meet in 
parties for hearing military music, promenading, riding, &c. and seldom retire 
till late: then begin their balls, concerts, &c. which .generally continue till a 
late hour the next morning. The French on the island devote the whole of their 
evenings to amusements : The laige theatre is open every night either for balls 
or theatricals. 

This propensity for amusements is habitual among. the old as well as the 
young. Their minds, in consequence of the want of religions and moral instruc- 
tion, are depraved, N immoral, and irreligious, to the utmost possible extent. 
There are, however, a few among them that are intelligent, scientific men, who 
contribute to the support of an excellent library, kep^t open for the use of the 
public; but these, compared with the great mass of the inhabitants, are few 
Indeed. 

In general, the female part of the community receive but a slender education : 
exterior accomplishments and appearance are the mam objects of all their pur- 
suits. If a lady can dance, sing, and play music well, her education is finished, 
and she is launched out into society, with a vacant mind, unsusceptible, perhaps, 
of those sentiments of viitue and principle so essentially necessary to the support 
of the female character. The education of the young men is not less slender. 
Some families, however, have taken particular care iu the education of their 
sons ; and such of them as have had that advantage have given proofs of being 
possessed of minds of no ordinary stanip. 

The proportion of slaves to white, and free people of colour, will be fully ten 
to one. Some have stated the number of slaves to be seventy, others eighty thou- 
sand ; it would appear, however, that these numbers are greatly exaggerfited, 
end that fifty thousand may be considered as nearer the mark. Most^of the 
slaves appear to be natives of Madagascar and Mosambique : the greater pro- 
portion are from the former island, and are generally considered more valuable, 
on acount of their activity, quickness of apprehension, and ready turn oi mind • 
in adquiring theFirench language ; they are also more easily taught trades, &c. 
the African 8'ik%'e8 being more passive, are generally employed on plantations, 
end not mifrequeotly substituted in the place of beasts of burthen. Alt the mer« 

CcS 



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d8# ACCOUNT OF t!tE tSLfi O* VRANOL 

ijtiandijjft 1an«e4' at the Tsle of France is pot into Ur|re wfcggons ©r drays, to ffliMfr 
•re yoked from twelve to foureeu negroes, and they drag tbeie ^^gt:ons, h^avilf 
!adcn, to various mafaxtiies 6t atores •tationed id diffe»e«t parts of Port Loais. 
H has been stared that thefe are more than five hundred slaves who are set apart 
for, and are daiVy employed in, this dejsradiog work. 

* The greater part of tbfe produce of the island is also transported id this maaoev 
from the plaoUtioas in the interior to the principal |K>rt ; and the attention and 
•pity of the rtranger are frequently arrested, to witness the distressing scene of 
females indiscriminately yoked with male slaves, to huge waggons, subject to 
the unmerciful control of a negro driver. 

The sitnation of a slave, in this qonrter of the globe, is more homiliating an^ 
oppressive than in any other with which I am acquainted. The French are par- 
ticularly nice in their d>tinction* i for' instanee, no male or female alav^, bliuk 
or white, is j>eniiitted to wear shoes j and It is from the strict adherence to this 
petty law, thjft a ftie black or white person is distingnisbed from a slare. The 
French generaUy keep all people of colour at considerable distance, and treat 
them with decided contfmpt. Free blacks and people of colour are not permitted 
to reside in tfce oentre of the town ; tfiey are obliged to take up their residt nee at 
one of the ejltremitins of Port Louis 5 and those parts are distinguished by the 
appellation of iVfalabar, or in other words, Black Towo. 

It is hardly to be expected, that people cherishing such prejudices, ean feel 
desirous of soothing the condition of those unfortunate slaves who are voder their 
control. Indeed this wretched appearance of the great bulk of the slaves, shews 
evidently that it is hardly possible to be in a worse condition than they really are. 

The various methods resorted to of punishing slaves, display an ingenoitv of 
Invention dreadfully misapplied ; for insUuce, they chain two slaves together 
with an iron' rod riveted round their necks, so thae the one cannot move or walk 
Without theconsent of the other. Slaves are frequently met in the streets having 
n large iron eoliar round their necks, from which project out, at equal distances, 
four pieces of'ron rod about ten inches long, and through which are also riveted 
iharp iron spikes, which completely disable the poorcVeature, who is doomed to 
wear it, from lying down to sleep, or even turning round bis head. Tliere ar* 
many other equally singular contrivances ; and it is perhaps from the -number 
and frequency of such cruel punishments, that the inhabitants have lost hM 
Sense of j[)ropriety and -feeling. 

The middling and lower classes of inhabitants are in general industrious, and 
there are among thfin meny excellent mechanics; all the useful trades are 
carried 00 with spirit and sticcess. The large irn foondery for casting cannov, 
fcc. and ihe extensive manufactory for all sorts of hardware, which bek>ng to 
One person, would do credit to BirmtDgham or any other manufacturing town in 
England, not only for cxtrnt, but also for the ingenuity and quality of the work- 
manship. Ship building has been formerly carried on to oonsideiabte extent ; 
and no part of the world affords more facility for that purpose. 

For these, and many other political reasons, the Isle of France becomes a 
place of comiderahle imporiance in time of war, especially to France, to whom it 
belonged from the time the Dutch evacuated it in the year ItlO. It it atpresealt 
eobject to Great Britain. 



No. VII. 

Tike Lord^s Prayer in the Hottentot Language, 

CiTA iip he naooop na, sa ons anoohe, s^ koop ha, sa ci 
Our Father the heaven in, ify name hallowed be, ihy kingthm come, iky wHl 

i hoop (>i ne nanoop na koommi, cita Ceoorobe berip mata neci, i 
be done earth on ihe heaven in at our daily ■ ' bread give us this day and 
.cit» soorootikoo oqbekata cit^ soorooti aukoo citee onbeka koomioi; i ta 
otir debt* forgive w <nu' indebted men «>a (or^pot aSf and mot 



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VARIOUS WORDS ANO rHRASES. 



w» 



keikatA, gawe ooreU tipr f a ; o mm koop ke, i ii 
temptation lead in Ui, but dehwtr ut toUfrom ; fcSr thine lk$ kingtLm is, ait^ 4ii 
keip, i de ' i«a i amo. Afteeo. 
^potrer, and the glory in eternity, 

• • i 

From this it appears that the Hottentot word t i« used in three different senses. 
48t. for b^ done — 2'1. for and — 3(i. for in. The word « is al«o tued for mil and 
•n. But they ilistinj^nish the dittemiat sMiaes ill whi^h th«y use such words hf 
toerMiti re<riarkable claps or clacks of the tongue, of which it would b« very diffi^ 
cu t to convey any iriea on paper, itowever^ wer«^ a European fully acquainted 
with the different k ndsof claps, clacks, or inarticulate aoondff^ he mtgbt he ahi# 
to reduce them to classes, and iarent certain sif^ns fat each. 





HMehlat fVOrds. 


AUip 


dog 


Kaip 


Aup 


man 


Kaka 


Anp 


bl>od 


Kaka aop 


Awi 


rain 


Kanip 


€eb 


day 


Kap 


Cisen 


work 


Kaukakas 


Een 


parents 





Cau 


power 


Oab 


Gau aup 


king 


Oeip 


lip 


fttthef 


: Om 


fs 


mother 


Tarao 


Kaap 


hifrse 


Tikas 



The Lord^i Prayer in 

Sita ienp. Tumie na kap 
tsa onee thaa tgy tgy 
tsa chaoop koo ha 
tsa tymp aapla 
le horn na kgboina aie hoop 
maadaa h(wwaa tsee koo hreep 
tnoo baa daa 

4ghaa tre siia taa whie kshobaaittoo ha > 
camaa sita ^ooripotie baa kghoinn- ( 
thaa 00 kaaidaa tfickuo na 
tso koo goo ovaedaa . . 

izaada oo has lUoo kghoo 
otghyp oien Zaap> 
« kaa teep, 



toad 
to teach 
teacher 
hook Utter 
htother 
spirit 
death 
ion 

lift 

house 

' tnwaaii 

tuler 



the Carmnha Ltikguage, 

Our Father who art in hemert 

hallowed be thy name 

thy kingdom come 

thy will be dime 

in earth as it is in heaoen 

give us this day aar daily hriad . 

and forgive us our -debU 

as we fwgive our debtors 

^and lead us not into jtenfpta^on 
' but deliver us froifs epU 
for thine is the kingjifm 
the power and the, glory 
/or ever and ever. Amen* 



So^kwap 

Kankakaas 

^N6oni6o|> 
Sores 
Kahw 
Dadsi 

Koin 

Auh 

Barrtf 

ilmni 



Namaequa Words and Phrases. 

Qodf also a sore 

hnee 
s^itf or the testeher 

qfcurhesartr 
heaven 



eternal^ eternity 



4- wtrnt, or- 



man, or hushand 



Ummi ams 

tie ooocbo aub 

Diiciioai^ 

Ne eicha a«b 

Madicah 

MoMb 

Maorry 



JKoa^di 
Bsaui 



the door ef the 

house 
ifyrichmM 
tht poor wtan 
the had tuan 
how do you do 

•** 
eyes 

fno . 

cows 

co\f 



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Bridi 

-CooMb 

Tomacoo 

Haap 

Haarn 



VARIOUS WORDS AND PHRASES. 



goats 

ox 

oxen 

horse 

horses 



Eidab 

Eidafoo 

Eama 

Ooip 

Anagba 



Jleas 
vmler 
live 
heiis 





Cajf^e 


Words. 




Upsough 


nighi 


Sieokaka 


seven 


Imine 


day 


Thoba 


eight 


^uomso 


morning 




Kwakoubzoa 


evening 


SOUOM 


ten 


Lejanga 


the <tt» 




twenty 


Injaoga 


the moon 


Umkhoulo 


hundred 


Kwiokweies 


stars 


Vella 


Sfom 


Isoulou 


the heaven 


Aa 


to 


Ammafou 


clouds 


Pag^te 


in 


Doudooma 


thunder 


Ou 


but 


Queie 


snow 


Ne, na 


and 


Moja ' 


the wind 


In 


wilh 


Thokolose 


the devil 


Impi 


an enern^ 


Invoula 


the rain 


Lamba 


hunger 


Umptzlaba 


the eorth 


Bao 


father 


Loaeaze 


the sea 


Ounina 


mother 


lotaba 
Vmlilo 


a mountain 
fre 


Umtbaka bao ' 


< father^ son, or 6ro^ 
i ther 


Ammaenzi ' 


water 


Toembi 


a girl 


Outjaen 


grass 


Indadoir 


a sister 


Emazimbo 


corn 


Klogo 


the head 


Inzlou 


a house 


Ames) lo 


the eye 


Urokaogo 


the door 


Mlomou 


thcmoulh 


Sombo '' 


spoon 


Mlume 


the tongue 


S0U8OU 


warm 


Lebe 


the lips 


3liiia 


J 


Taqama 


flesh' 


Wenna 


thou 


Zazi 


blood 


Tina 


we 


Indoda 


a man 


JLoumton ' 


they 


XJmfazi . 


awmmtm 


£wa 


yes 


Maez 


acow 


Akkou 


not 


Metole 


aca^f 


Akbou 


none 


Kabi 


an ox 


Tcnje ^ 


^ one 


Haes} 


ahorse 


Mabini ' 


two 


Inbowzi 


agpai 


Sountatoo 


three 


Inbou 


a sheep 


Sieone 


four 


Intaka 


a bud 


SieDt lauou 


Jive 


Kottkoukasi 


.a km 


Sientaeodatoa 


six 


=S5£ 





No. VIII. 

ProvisUmal Church Regulations for the Batatitm Colony at the 
Cape of Good HopeJ^ 

July 251ft, 1804. 



GENERAL PRINCIPLE AND REGULATIONS. 

Articlb I. 
ALL commanftics wnrsbipping a Supreme Being for the promotivir of Tirtu* 
and good morals, shall enjoy in this colony an equal proteiction of the laws. 

* These regulations were made by itbe Dutch Government, in the intewalbe* 
twceo the restoration and recapture of the Colony by tiit JEnglish. 



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tSENERAL PRINCIPLES AND REGULATIONS. 891 

II. 

'Every community shall confess its persuasion openly without hnpropeiiy tax- 
ing that of another, and shall perhiit every one free access to its meetings. 

III. , 

No excIosive.priFileges are attached to any religions confession in society* 

IV. 

None shall be permitted toper£>rm any divine service, nor .keep public meet- 
ings, except with the perfect knowledge-uf the Governor for the time being.^ 

V. 

Government permits every community the free explanation of their particular 
-doctrine, and never make any decinon or regulation therein. It however pre- 
serves the unalienable power to jutlge what effect such doctrine has npf^n the 
public, and npon the minds and behaviour of the inhabitants. It is oblipred tp 
oppose, prevent or moderate those effects in case they may be found prejudicial, 
liie clergymen are obliged in their public or private iustructions to conform in 
this respect .to -the regulations of Government. Any opposition ia disobedience to 
the law and a Yioiation of goud order. 

VI. 

No bouses may, for the purpose of performing divine service, of whatever 
community it may be, be erected or rebailt except with the knowledge of, and 
after having obtained due permission from the Governor for the time being. 

-va. 

No pdblic meetings of devotion may be held at any other time than the usnal 
Sundays or holidays and in public churches without due permission of the Qo* 
Ternor for the time being, and then always under the guidance an^) at the rel 
sponsibility of the qualified consistory of that community,' to which those per- 
-sons belong who wish to holti these separate meetings. The consistory must 
take care that no irregularities take place, and that no doctrine be taught in- 
consistent with good morals or with the tranquillity of society. 

VTII, 
-' Vo community' shall increase the nQmi>er of its public 'clergimien without ex* 
press 4)ermission from the Governor for the time>being> who has a right to jodge 
of the necessity thereof. 

IX. 
No community shall appoint a public clergyman who has not previously ob- 
tained the right of residence from the Governor. 

X. 
* No clergymen are permitted to preach in public who'have not previously g<toe 
through the regular universities, have given testimonies of their abilities, and 
thereby have been regularly ordained as is customary in each community. 

XI. 
No persou not being regularly ordained, being paid and subjected to particular 
societies, composed of meml>ers f rom one or more communities, shall he tolerated 
IB this colony for the purpose of exercising any part of the office of public or 
fMrivate preacher, as a missionary from such societies among any of the Cbrisiian 
communities, either at present or that may in future be established with public 
authority. 

XII. 
No one is permitted to give any public or private instruction of xeligion in this 
«olony except after having duly obtained permission to reside here, having gone 
throufch his examination, and being declared duly qualified to instruct, by the 
^consistary of that community to which he belongs. 

XIII. 
All such as have been :flant hither from Holland by JawfiU aoihority for that 
frarpose, and have given information that they are desirous of proceeding di- 
rectly from hence under the name of missionaries to teach, and eocourAge tell* 
fion, and civilize the .Heathen beyond the limits of this colony, deserve for such . 
8 laudable undertaking all possible assistance, encouragement, and support, firom 
^OTerament. 

XIV. 
The gOTomor for the time being can fis the aninber, as well at the teiidenee of 



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IM flfQUmiES. 

thote who have given inforraatioo of be|qg desirous to exercise the same dotiet 
JlPi^^g the H^tentotR, in as far as the original natives of thU colony iabvbift 
separate villages or Jtraals, removed from the ChrtfUaos and stand under the iai4 : 
mediate protection of the government of Ihis colony. 

No pne whosoever shall he allowed to do the same without haying premofstMif ^ 
ohtained permission from the Governor ; in which case bo missionary ShalH>* 
allowed to interfere any farther with the social state of these Hottentots' thaa 
may be permitted hkn by the Governor lor th^ time being. 

XV. • • • • V ' 

All indigent persons must be supported out of the donations collected by etKsfi' 
commuttity, tiiey being peraons belonging -to that commnntty. *" . 

jcvr. 

U IS permitted to any person, possessing b^s sound reason, and having attained ' 
the age of maturity, to address nimself to one or other community 'of thii place; 
according to his choice, and to cause himself to be inscribed as a member 6f thii 
commuuity; and likewise to alter,' voluntarily, as to the choice he has made. 
But as long as there is no positive declaration to the contrary, good order requlr^ 
that every person be bound to belong to some community of which his parents 
are members,, or in which he bas heeii baptized. In case the parents belquj; to 
different communities, the child must belong to that of the father ; unlesfs some^ 
Other arrangement hs^s taken place betwecui the father and mother. * 

XVII. .» 

The public schools tending for the instruction of youth do not beknig toLafty 
particular community. They are seminaries for the purpose of forining'go0^ 
citizens for the state, and as such they are under the immediate supennt^daoq^ 
and direction of God* 



No. IX. ' 

INQUIRIES. 
Tke following Hit efinqfLirieg which Iu$u€iUff i»dde m the iigkr* 
• €nt 'cmgntries which I mHied, mof probably 4L$si$t other traoekem 

and missionaries. 
, \ W^ coaccffttions have the poopte of tbia country of a saprame being > , 

5 Have they any knowledge of the sou) of flaan ? 

3 Have they any notions respecting a future state? 

4^ Baiire they any knoiirJec(ge of creation;, ot bow the thiags which they see cBdie 

intobeiag? 
3 Hav^ they any notigm ^ a pfovidence, or tbe govenusent of an invinl;!^ 

agent, or being ? 

6 What opinions do they entertain respeetinj^ the heavenly bodies ? 
^ What opinions have they respecting the extent of thfe World ? 

8 Have they any knowledge of other countries ? 

9 Is there any thing peculiar in the dispositions of their children ? 

10 How do they treat their children ? 

11 What are the amusements of their children ? ' 

12 Whatare the employments of their youth? 

13 Do parents ^\ve apy instruction to their children ? 

14 Are they severe in punishing their children ? ' 

1^ Do apy arts exist among them? * ' 

16 Do they marry, And what is the form? 

IT What diseases are they subject to ? 

18 Are ai>y medicines ^sed by them ? 

t9 Are any operattoos'on the body |>erfermed by them? ' 

90 W^at is dnne fbr heating a broken frmb ? 

fl How do they treat their sick? 

t^ How do they appear abated at the approadi AT death ? 

fH How ave they alfected by the death of Mends? 

84 What are the ceremonies of their funerals ? 

£5 Have they any |prms, or religious rites aaiQDg them? 

W b any Hblng Hke iHteliorafft ipractistd ? 



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MISSIONARIES Ui SOUXH AFRICA. 



303f 



S7 Do they «ver travel to other ImkN ? 

88 Have they any traditions amotkg thfim ? . ■ 

S9 Have they aoy knowledge of their ^ecpomihility for theiv adSons } 

90 Are they qnarretsonie ? 

SI Is it dAoult to bring parties te a rfcoucilifitioil? 

3S Are tb^y disposed to Q«e means to reconcile those who have «|iian«lled i 

93 How do persons of superior takents discoYer them ? 

94-Are mnf monntnents of antiii^ity existing among tbei|i ? 

35 Do they go to war with their neighbours? 

36 What are the ordinary causes of their wars^ 
3t What are the results of thcfir wars ? 

98 Do they take prisoners in War? 
S0 How are these treated ? . 

40 Does Slavery 0f aoy kind exist a|noD|f them ^ 

41 Is civilization on the increase or decrease among them? 

42 Do any of tbeiiatives ever visit Ca p o- town ? . 

43 What tiifluence has Such a journey on them ? ' 

44 Do tbey complaiii Datich of their hardships } 

45 What ate their sentiments respecting the civilized ? 

46 Are there any temarkable instances of fidellcy or treac'hery among them ? 

47 How do they generally treat strangers ? 

48 Are they cruel to the brute creation > 

4f D(i ihose who live on the sea coast go a lishfog ? 

50 How do they oateh game? 

51 Are4hey inclined to imitate tbe manners and cvstoms of peopfe more sifil* 

ised than themselves ? — — -^ ""^-"^ 

62 Are tbey indolent or iadustnoos^ I 

53 Do they feel inducements, or perceive motives to industry i 

54 Is old ege comnioa among them, and^w are the aged triated ^ 

55 Do th^ make any previsipo |or the faasily they are to leave hehind ?l 

56 Have £ey any method' of making mrdeoti^ifiU? ' ' * ' 

57 What are their amusettents? 

58 What ie supposed to he t heir pep ulati e n ^ 

59 What is the e^ctent of the country ? 

60 Whjit is the nature of their govii^Qment ? * . 

61 Hkve they any commerce ^' 

. 62 What articles do they ezqhangey and what do Ihey receive ih return ? 

63 Have they any fqrms at bivlhs, marriagbs, and flinerals? 



No. X. 



Names. 
Messrs. AiiBntcsT 
AwAEasoN 
Bakkk^ 

BaftTLBV 

CoRNsa 

BMsa 

Hblm 

Jaiiz 

KaaMsa 

Msisssa 

Pacalt 

Rbad 

SlIOBIIFAPXa 

Smit 

SCHMILBN 

Sass 

Tbom 

UiSBICHT 

Vos 
WiMMia 



MfiSSIONAIUES IN SOUTH i^FKICA. 



Stations. 
Namacqua Country 
Griqna Ooontry 
Stellenbom . 
Theopolis 
Bethelsdorp 
Namacqaa Country 
Oritt) KraaJ» Great River 
Griqua Country 
Tulhach Drosdy 
Bethelsdorp 
HoDge Hottentot Braal 
Bethelsdorp 
Zourbrak' Kraal 
Bultoien-Countty 
jn assaequa v>oiintry ' 
OrlamKraaly Great River 
Cape^town 
Tbeopolia 
Rodszand 
Bethelsdorp 



Native Country* 
Stittiia. 
England , 
ffoUand. 
JEngknd, 

Ara^ch* 
Meckienburgh* 
HolUnd. . 
Do, ! 

Boheiim^ 
Englknd^ 
Hester .' 
HoUapd, 

'*m9 aOvtf f • 

Prussia* 

SeatlatuL 
Saxony, 
Holland, 
Austria, 



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.s 



^f 



Si 



'9 O t- 00 'O 00 00 

<o CO ••^ r» *- «c 10 

«0 0« 09 CO f- i-« 






ilfi 



01 



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UNSOUCITED CONTRIBUTIONS. 305 

No. XII. 

Unsolicited Cuniributims received during the Journey^ m 

Aid of it. 

At Bethehdorp. 

FROM Willitm VakDliM, sen. the loan of twelre oxen from Betbeltdorp to 
Graham's town. 
' From William Valentine, jun. twelve oxen from ditto to ditto. 

From d ff'^rent penoos, the loan of twenty oxen from Oraham'i town to 
GraafReynet. 

Fromothersi the loan of twenty oxen foir the whole joarney. 



Graaf Reynet and Sneuherg. 

Mr. Kicherer, one small key of spirits, one bag of biicuits, one ditto dried 
fruit. 

Mr. Hand rick Meyntjes, one cask of wine, one sack of flour, one ditto biscuita; 
oranges and lemons. 

Jacobus Van Eerden, one horse, ten loaves^ two cheeses, one sheep ; vege- 
tables. 
^ Mr. Fisher, Landdrost, one large cheese. 

Bererd Burgers, ibar sacks of floor, one ditto bread, two sheep, vegetables. 



Griqua Country. 

Adam Kok, (a Griqua chief,) and people of Griqna town, the loan of thirty 
oxen froin the Great River to Griqua town, and ten from Griqua town to 
Hardcastfe. 

Adam Kok, one ox for slaughter. 

B. Bern, (a Griqua chief,) and people of Hardcastle, loan of thirty oxen froia 
English Ford to Read Ford on the Great River. 

Ditto, thirty oxen from Malalareen river to Griqua town. 

Ditto, thirty oxen from Griqua town to Vicars Place. 

Ditto, fourteen oxen from Vicars Place to Orlam Kraal, Great River. 

From different persons, one sack and a half of flour. 

Adam Kok, Jan Hendrick, and Cupido Kok, travelled as interpreters, with* 
■out payment, fkom Griqua town to Lattakoo and Malapeetze; a journey of 
eix weeks. 



Lattakoo^ 
King Mateebe, a present of two oxen. 



Orlam Kraal^ Great River^ ifc. 

Cornelius Kok, jun. a present of a youpg bull for slaughter : loan of fourteen 
oxentoPella. 

Mr. Albreoht, Pella, loan of forty oxen to Silver Fountain, across an extensive 
•ilesert. 

Cornelius Kok, sen. Silver Fountain ; thirty oxen for two days' journey. 

Geis Lier, a boor at Kromelberg ; loan of twentyrfour oxen for one day's 
journey. 

Mrs. Smith, at Four-and-twentieth River; four loaves, butter, and milk. 
. Mr.Ookruydt, President of the Burgher SenatCj and family, Cape-town; a 
variety of article! necemury finr the journey. 



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866 UNSOLICITED CDNTRIBimOSS. 

Mr. Cikiper Hamme«y jun. Cape-town, repaired the wa^gom, gratig, after 
the journey. 

The boors of Soeuberg, of whbta Were (lOrchased fifty sheep for a hundred rir 
dollars for the journey, sent me aii intimation by Mr, Kjicberer, on my^etucn 
to Cape. town, that they designed to returta the money, through him, to thh 
Society. 

The house of Mr. Onkruydt, and afterwards of Mr. Kenneth Duncan, hie 
son-in-law, were comfortable -homes to me, daring the whole of my residence at 
Cape^towai %ni io theaame way wa« the hou^e of Mr. Kuyper, at fiteikiibesh, 
daring my resideace in that town. ^ 

I have likewise a thouaaod eivilitiea toaeknewMge ftfon others^ wfeiom I bare 
.llot.iia«aed« 

Purchaaed for and during the journey fifty-three oxen 5 of these, 

DM ..^...... ,.,.. 10 ■ 

Left behind sick •......•.. 10 

Lost ••..;• •.•••.•••.••,• 2 

2« 

One horse, indeed our only one, died in Namaoqua land« after crossing USb 
^Qiefert. 

No. XIII. s 

Remarks on Mu Lichtenstein's Ohservaiions respecUngthe Misikm^ 
ariei in Africa. 

SINCE my journal went to press, a quarto volume has been put into my 
hands, entitled *< Travels in Southern Africa, by Henry Lichteastein," a Qeman 
^gentleman, .tha^ I might have an opportunity of examraing varioua objectiaBS 
Vhrch he britigs againU our missiona m that coontry. 

^ Hkoiigh his trateis; related in that vohime, were confined to t1»ei»loiiy, orthat 
part of Africa inhabited by Hottentots and Dutch Ikrmers, yet htsbaolt ooetaMs 
much information concerning the estate of affairs ^lieit,thO«olO(iy«aattQ4ef the 
^utdh GoVemm^t. • . - 

In page 143, he speaks of a nrdrm ^ miiiltfiiaHeff having oompletely epolM 
the ladies of Rodezatid, (ii vilhgbabouf forty mifei frotti the Capa,> booiuise 
they had laid aside what be terms, the fivety fSwlh)g8 of yo«tb,' vsA betaken 
theaiselves to prayer and praising of God, contrary, asheeayi, totbe«iabt*of 

Seir regular clergyman, who encouraged cheerfulness attoog th»|fooog people, 
e did so, and sometimes at the expense of* the tnisstonaricl.s, 'one jn fnnifl of 
'Which will expl am bis turn of mind. Oneof our Dutch tttlsftto«8no».«|iac»> 
tremely averse to riding on horse-back, as it shook his feeble frame idsMtt to 
pieces. This clergyman determined, however, that he should have a ride to 
Cape-town — Accordingly, he sent for the missionary, in great liaste, on a lord'e 
day morning, and informed him; -that he had just received an order firma^the 
Governor, desiring him to come to Cape^town^ toeonterse with hiai-OBaainofmnt 
connected with his work, and a horse was ready for him to mount. Hie poor 
yonng man, from his anxiety about this order of the Governor, got ready in a 
few minutes, and with fair and tftmbling fo# the fidnseqfiellces of a ride, wmontfid 
the horse, and.the clergyman had the satisfaction to see him. in motioii befom he 
himself mounted tbe pulpit. However, wh^n he thoogfit the miftsionny had 
been sufficiently jolted, he dispatched a man alter him, to inform him ttmt tte 
Vhole was a hoax. « • .- ' ^ .. , 

I had also an opportunity of visiting the ladles at Rodezand, and . raofli iiy 
that J withessed as much vivacity and dieerfbtnens amou^ tbett A% AttOng toy 
'oth^r ladie&'iu the 6olony, vhoiigK dot manifested m the 'manner that ^l L. 
. most approved j^ by attending dancing parties. No^did,! findthem suchrenemSii 
to music as he represents them j fbr 1 witnessed many of them anembted i»the 
'house of Our mtsftiotthry, where there was an orgftYi playing i and thhy 4»tra 

employed in singing with if , but the if^'ofds 5ret« by mnft. ^ , ..^v- 

Mr. L. not only btftises the miMtonartes -for pervertiligthe taate of tho ladieaof 



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REMARKS ON LICHTENSTEiN. 397 

ftodezand, but likewise of the foritfer cttrgyman/ wlio, be say*, was ignorant and 
i{literatei aii4 preached the doctribe of every one devoting himself entirely to thfe 
aahacion of fnsr own soul;, a doctrine, he saya, not only utterly destructive of all 
aopinl aifectiOD, but arao of all attention to the necessary occupations of life. 
"Whate^r this clergyman migbt be, his doctrine was according to scripture, only 
taking the word entirelif in a restricted sense. He ceuld not mean, that they 
^ere not to attend to the necessary duties of lift*, hat to direct their chief attan« 
tioa to that most important of all ooneerns, the everlastiDg happinast of their 
•wo «oq1s^'< The one thing noedfo]." 

. When I visited, the clergymaq whom Mr. L. represents as condemning the 
piety of the ladies of Rodessand, a short time before bis death, instead of speak- 
ing against the conduct of Onr toijfsionary there, he spoke highly in commenda- 
tion of him, and freely^consented to our sending missionaries to the Cedar moun- 
tains^ a dist&nt ^nd very destitute part of bb district. At the same time I do 
oot call In question the veracity of Mr. L. in what he says of bin sentiments, for 
he was a man who delighted in drollery; and the colony abounds with carious 
ane9dotes respecting him; Whether his drollery was suitable to thie office he sus- 
iained, Heave to the jodgmcntof Him to whose bar he is gone. - - 

' In page S35, Mr. Lichtenstein cemmences his remarks on Bethelsdorp and 
Vanderkemp. That settlement, it should be recollected, was then but lately 
begun 'y he says it was then about a mile and a half finom Algoa bay, now it is 
hbout eight ni'iles. He speaks of the Hottentot houses being mean, which un- 
doubtedly tbey must have been; however he allows that by teeaas of the io* 
structions they received, fiom being riotous and troublesome, they were become 
^aceable. In the succeeding page he asserts ** that the utility which might 
have befn, and ought to have been derived from it, was lost by the ever piQUt 
ipififf and prwd humUity of its head."^ Whatever Mr. I^. may mean by thia 
stn^Cige expression, the real Clause had not occurred to him. The Poctor, as his 
Fl^iend Mr. Read informed me, had no knowledge of agriculture; and having 
formed, early in life, habits of close study, he had no taste for field labour | he 
left it to others; and no doubt through this defect the institution greatly suiFer- 
bd : but his piety or zeal for the salvation of the Hottentots bad no eoi^cem ill 
brdducing or continuing this defect. The religion revealed in the ^few Testa-p 
ment can never be an obstruction to the temporal good of mankind, but must 
have an opposite tendency ; at tlie same time defects in its teachers may be 
tmftivourable to these. 

In the same page be informs us that the Hottentots uuder Dr, Vanderkemp 
** ssng praises to God, called upon him by prayer^ were heartily penitent fbr 
their sinsy and conversed of the Lamb of atonement, yet none were rtQlly the bet* 
ier for it.'' Vfiii any man who fears God, and believes his word, believe this ? 
Impossible 1 They might not have better houses, mere 0elds, or more cattle $ 
but if they were heartily penitent fur past sins, and loved to talk of the atoning 
Lamb of Ood, they must have been better men and women in the sight of Ood, 
and of ail wise and good men ; but things which appear eicellent in the sight of 
.God, are often despised by those who are unfriendly to true godliness. 

I observe also that from what this author writes, the reader might supposOy 
that persons coming to missionary settlements ,are supported by the missionaries : 
but the public may rest assured that no part of the Society's foods is appropriated 
to aoch a purpose ; and the missionaries are unable to do it : of nec^sity there 
i^i-e every one coming to them must in some way provide for himself. Indeed it 
would be ektremely sinful to support in idleness such as are able to work| hut 
haviag few wants tbey can more easilv support themselves than Europeans. 

The report which Mr. Lichtenstein heard whi(e his work was in the press, of 
Dr. V. having married a very young slave, whose freiedom,. with that pf her 
mother's he had purchased, is correct ; but the rest of the report I believe to bo 
inoorraet, vue. that they did not live together as man and wife, Ibr he has left 
behind him« by her, two fine boys, one I thialK about e»ght ye^cs of age aod the 
«ihf r aix. to whom and their mother he Itas l^equeathed his property. The truth 
ia, the Doctor was an •oeeaUic nam* wsd did occeatriQ thii^s, which it is n«t my 
ImsiMsvio vindittie. 



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^ REMARKS ON MISS GRAHAM'S JOURNAL. 

No. XIV. 
REMARKS ON " JOURNAL OF A RESIDENCE IN INDIA/' 

When the printer had nearly finished thi$ Appendix^ a friend com'^ 
municated to me a paragraph transcribed from the Jonroal of' a 
Residence in India,' by Miss Maria GrcAam^ page 176. This 
lady 9 it seems ^ spent a few days at Cape-town^ in her way to In^ 
dia, and with no other data thanfiimsy reports, she is bold enough 
to offer to the public the most gross misrepresentation^ of the 
laborious missionaries in South Africa. Her words are these : 
** MOST of the African missionariefl, when tbey go into the interior, coUect a 
tribeof savages, roand them, who are willing to be baptized, and to pray and 
sing psalms, as ioog as the missionaries* store of brandy lasts ; but when that is 
done, they return to their native habits, only more wretched from the artificial 
wants created by a partial acquaintance with Europeans. The Moravians, on the 
contrary, instruct their proselytes to sow corn, to rear domestic animals^ and to 
manufacture articles of various kinds, which are brought to Cape- town and sold; 
and with the produce, coarse stufiVfor clothing, and raw materials for the mana* 
factures are bought. Having thus laid a foundation for understanding the neces- 
sity of mural regulation, by introducing the comforts of society, the Moravians 
preach Christianity, with an incalculable advantage over those blind enthusiasts, 
who, neglecting to prepare their converts for the belief of real Christianity, by 
shewing them the advantages to be derived from the practice it enjoin^, address 
themselves to their passions and their credulity^ and bribe them, into baptism, 
only to leave them in a worse state than that in which they found them." JiMp-- 
nol of a Beiiience in India, p. 176. 

The foregoing. pages of this work, together with the observations on l.icbten- 
stein's travels, afford so full a refuution of Mi«s Graham's slanders, as to ren- 
der fuither remarks unnecessary. The reader will perceive by what has been 
said of Btithelsdorp, Griqua town ancl other places, that the Missionaries are 
anxious to promote, the civilization of the natives ; that they have syceeeded^ io 
various instances, to as great an extent as could be reasonably expected in the 
iimie; and that far greater degrees of cultivation may be confidently looked for. 
Civilization is much slower in its progress than the inexperienced are indified to 
suppose. It is easy to ^ay, might not this and the other thing.be introduced 
among the uncivilized ? but many are the obstacles which cannot be foreseen by 
people unaccustomed to intercourse with a ru^e and ondisciplined race. It ts- 
i;eally cruel for a writer thus wantonly, and on mere tea-table authority, to tra^ 
dnce the character of those worthy and laborious men who have relinquished the 
comfurts'of European life, for the purpose of instructing savages. Her insinua- 
tions about bribing by the brandy bottle are as false as they are base ^* nor ts 
she better informed concerning the method pursued by the Moravian Missionaries* 
— they do not first civilize in order to christianize, as she snggests ; they have 
uniformly connected tliem together ; and have found that by the preaching of 
the cross of Christ, accompanied by example and other practical recommenda- 
tions of Christianity, many of their disciples have been gradually improved, and 
led to lay aside their savage manners, and to become in every sense, ** new 
creatures." 

Tlie Moravians have only two missionary stations in Sonth Africa, and both 
these in the vicinity of Cape-towu,f while the' Missionary Society have mocs 
than twelve, and many of these very remote ; of course the former have all kinds 
of supplies at hand, and can, with much greater facility hold communications 
with their frieods in England and at the Cape : this no doubt gives them a pecu^ 
liar advantage, which I am far from regretting. 

* A person in Cape-town complaining to me of the wretchedness of Betbel8>> 
dorp, said that on his arrival there, though much fatigued by his journey, h# 
could not procure one glass of apirtts in the whole settlement. 

f So ill informed was Miss Graham concerning the Missionaries,v that- sbea^ 
firms, page 176 of her Journal, that the Moravian establishmantof Hottentots 
is ** a few hundred miles from Cape-town," whereas one of their stations IS o&ly 
thirty miles, and the other sixty miles from that town. 



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MifTER FROM MR, SCHMELEN. 36» 

. No, XV. 

LETTER FROM MR. SCHMELEN, NAMACQUALAND. 
Having requested Mr. Schmeleay missionary in Little Namacqua* 
hnd^ to explore the mouth of the Great River ^ Great Namacqua^ 
tandi and the Damara country^ he readily undertook this dan^ 
gerous journey. But not having been heard of for several months^ 
painful apprehensions were entertained as to his safety. These^ 
hQwever^ have been happily relieved, by a letter just received from 
him ; an extract from whichfollows : 

Klip Fountain, Great Namacqua Counlry, 
jM/y29, 1814. 
" MY last, dated May 10, I hope has come to hand. I was then of opinion, 
that after I should have finished my journey in the Namacqua country, I should 
return to the Great River, andljegin a mission there; but since I was there, Titus 
Africaner has made a fresh assault among the Great Namacqaas, destroyed 
several of their kraals^ and stolen some thoui^ands of their cattle and sheep. Mo«t 
of them arc now poor], and have scarcely any thing to live upon. They have takea 
refuge in the place where I now am. I'hese people, with another chief called 
Flemeriua> intreat me not to forsake them in their present circumstances. 
Africaner has terrified them by a message, threatening that he would come 
and take off their skins to make shoes of; that he would cut off their heads, and 
the breasts of the women, &c. &c. They are so alarmed, that they say if I 
leave them, they must remove entirely from the country. 

." When I heard of this, 1 went to the abode of Africaner, in order to reason 
with him, and if possible to restore peace ; but before f reached his kraal, be 
had left home for several days, and circumstances would not allow me to follow 
him. 

" I have recHved a letter from brother Helm, stating that he wishes to remove 
from his prisseet station, on account of the extreme heat of the place, which is in- 
jurious to his health ; and desiring me to find a place more airy, and nearer the 
sea. I have written to him, ^ that if he continued in the same mind, he might 
coflimence a' mission near the mouth of the Great River, to which I presumed 
brother Read and the Directors would have no objection. If brother Helm 
should decline this proposal, some other missionary should be sent thither by the 
first opportunity. Two more missionaries are requisite for the Chiefs, Tsaumap, 
Tsangamap, and Karramap, whom I have seen and conversed with. They are 
very desirous of being instructed, and are uow on their way towards Morast 
Fountain, which is their own country, about thriee days' journey from hence. I 
have not seen the place myself, but have heard from those who have lived, there 
some years, that it is a proper place for a missionary stauon. 1 think that 
missionaries should not be frightened away by the roarings uf Titus Africaner* 
but boldly enter intothe field of the Lord, believing that he is able to protect 
them from all danger. 

•* On the 18th of May I left the Great River, continually travelling northward 
though with great difficulty, but I was not able to come near the sea, on ac- 
count of the mountains, and tbe scarcity of Water. Sometimes 1 have been in a 
diaioyl wilderness for k fortnight together, without' meeting one hUmao creature. 
I eontihued travelling north as far as it was possible, wbeh oA the fifth^of July 1 
eould proceed inoforiher, and was obliged to turn m^ waggon 'southward. I was 
then entirely surrounded by wars, yet the Lord preserved me and my people 
from all danger. 

** I have not seen any considerable fountain, except that where I now am ; but I 
have heard of some very good ones, in and near the Gandemmap country ^ and 
of one river called Kooisfp : and there must be a haven somewhere, where ships 
anchor; and the chief of the Damara country told me of an island near that 
country, where ships sometimes anchor, and exchange their iron for the cattle 
of the natives. 

I shall add.|he names of the several chiefs whom I have visited on my journey 
since I le£t PeUa. David Barlj lives at tl^e mouth of the Great River Fleremiost 



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4W lETTBR FRQU MB. SCBMSOBX. 

GREAT NAMACaUAS. 

Kobus Praderidr-^-vbtre I now r«aid«. 

Kcnnimap: Koemsimap^* muoli people. 

Kanaamap arrisip (Field shoe wearer^)— mach peoj^Ie* 

Haikamniap — Krawoosip. 

Ttaomap. 

I^angamap. 

Katramap* 

Kairaoiap. 

Aimap. 

Kanmaa^Tsamrep. 

'' With all thata I ha^e cooVened» and find them Twy desiroas of being in- 
ttnictad ; but 1 have not proper places for them aU to settle aU I thia^ tiiat 
the eyes off tha Duneetors moat be more directed to the Fish River , for a mtilti- 
tude of pvopla dtrell there in the dry season. 

'^ The partienfaMs of my joorney I shall send by the firat opportunity. Re- 
member mo in yovir prayera before God. 



THE END. 



BIRECTIONS TO THE BUHJDEIW 



Page. 
Frontispiece to face Title f 

Map Sig. B • . S 

Plate n 70 

III 179 

IV. V «2l 



Fafa. 

Plate VI \ M 

VII Ml 

Vill «6I 

IX. ••» 

2C ^ • • . • • JBW 



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