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Full text of "Travels into North America : containing its natural history, and a circumstantial account of its plantations and agriculture in general, with the civil, ecclesiastical and commercial state of the country, the manners of the inhabitants, and several curious and important remarks on various subjects"

UNIVERSITY OF PlTi'SBURGH 


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Darlington .Alemorial Litrary 



V^a\"l'v^ ,"Per^ nTIG- \"7T'^ mbmoriai uBRABy 

•^ • ' UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH 

TRAVELS 

INTO 

NORTH AMERICA; 

containing 
Its Natural History, and 

A circumftantial Account of its Plantations 
and Agriculture in general, 

W I T H T H E • 

CIVIL, ECCLESIASTICAL AND COMMERCIAL 
STATE OF THE COUNTRY, 

The MANNERS of the inhabitants, and fiveral curious 
and IMPORTANT REMARKS OH varlous Subjedls. 

By peter KALM, 
Profeflbr of Oeconomy in the Univerfity of Aolo in Swedifh 
Finland, and Member of the Sn/jedijh Royal Academy of 
Sciences. 

TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH 

By JOHN REINHOLD FORSTER, F. A. S. 

Enriched with a Map, feveral Cuts for the llluftration of 
Natural Hillory, and fome additional Notes, 

VOL. L 

WARRINGTON: 
Printed by WILLIAM EYRES. 

. MDCCLXX. 



V 



7/5 









TO THE HONOURABLE 

* DAINES BARRINGTON, 

One of his Majefty's Juftices of the 
Grand Seffions for the Counties of 
r Anglesey, Caernarvon, and 
Merioneth* 

S I R, 

IPrefume to prefix your name to 
a performance which will in fome 
meafure difplay to the Britijh 
nation, the circumftances of a coun- 
try which is fo happy as to be under 
its protection. 

Every lover of knowledge, efpe- 
cially of natural hiftory, muft be fen- 
fible of YOUR zealous endeavours to 
' promote every branch of it. It was 
my great happinefs to fall within your 
notice, and to receive very fubftantial 
and feafonable favours from your 
? a 2 patronage 



iv DEDICATION. 

patronage and recommendations. I 
fliall ever remain mindful of your 
generofity and humanity towards me, 
but muft lament that I have no other 
means of expreffing my gratitude than 
by this publick acknov^ledgment. 

Accept then, Dear Sir, my ear- 
neft v^ifhes for your profperity, and 
think me with the trueft efteem. 



Your moft obliged, 



Warrington, 
July 25th. 1770. 



and obedient 



humble Servant, 



John Reinhold Forfter. 



PREFACE, 



THE prefent Volume of Profeflbr 
Kalms Travels through North 
America, is originally written in 
the Swedijh language, but was 
immediately after tran dated into the German 
by the two Murray %, both of whom are 
Swedes, and one a pupil of Dr. Linnceus, 
and therefore we may be fure that this tranf- 
lation correfponds exactly with the origi- 
nal. 

Baron Sten Charles Bielke^ Vice prefi- 
dent of the Court of Juftice in Finland, was 
the firil who made a propofal to the Royal 
Academy of Sciences at Stockholm, to fend 
an able man to the northern parts oi Siberia 
and Iceland, as places which are partly un- 
der the fame latitude with Sweden, and to 
make there fuch obfervations and colledti- 
ons of feeds and plants, as would improve 
the Swedijh hufbandry, gardening, manu- 
a 3 failures. 



vi PREFACE. 

fadtures, arts and fciences. Dr. Linnceus 
found the propofal juft, but he thought that 
a journey through North America would be 
yet of a more extenfive utility, than that 
through the before-mentioned countries ; 
for the plants of America were then little 
known, and not fcientifically defcribed, and 
by feveral trials, it feemed probable that the 
greateft part of the North American plants, 
would bear very well the Swedijh winters ; 
and what was more important, a great many 
American plants promifed to be very ufeful 
in hufbandry and phyfic. 

Thus far this journey was a mere fcheme; 
but as Captain Triewald^ a man well known 
for his abilities in England, gave his Obfer- 
n) at ions on the Cultivation of Silk in a feries of 
Memoirs to the Royal Academy of Sciences, 
and mentioned therein a kind of mulberry 
tree, which was difcovered by Dr. LinnauSy 
and which bore the rigours of the SwediJJo 
climate as well as a fir or pine tree y this 
circumftance revived the propofal of fuch a 
journey in the year 1745. Count TeJ/in, a 
nobleman of eftablifhed merit both in the 
political and learned world, becoming pre- 
iident of the Royal Academy, it was unani- 
rnouily agreed upon to fend ProfelTor Kalm to 
North America. The expences were at firft 
a great obftacle ; but the Royal Academy 

wrote 



PREFACE. vii 

wrote to the three univeriities to affift them 
in this great and ufeful undertaking. Aobo 
fent firft her fmall contribution, Lund had 
nothing to fpare, but Upfala made up this 
deficiency by a liberal contribution. 

Count Piper was intreated to give a fa- 
mily exhibition to Mr. Kalm, which he 
readily promifed, but as the Academy had 
obtained from the convocation of the uni- 
verfity of Upfala and the magiftrates of 
Stockholm, another exhibition of the family 
of Helmsfield for Mr. Kalm, Count Piper 
refufed to grant his exhibition, as being 
contrary to the ftatutes of the univerfity and 
without any precedent, that one perfon 
fhould enjoy two exhibitions. The prefent 
king of Sweden being then prince royal, 
fucceflbr to the throne, and chancellor of 
the univerfity, wrote to the convocation, and 
exprefi^ed his wifhes to have from the trea- 
fury of the univerfity for fo ufeful a purpofe, 
about I GOO plates, or about 150I. fterling. 
The univerfity complied generoufly with 
the defire of her chancellor, and gave or- 
ders that the money {hould be paid to the 
Royal Academy. The board for promoting 
manufadures gave 300 plates, or about 
45I. Mr. Kalm fpent in this journey his 
falary, and befides very near 130I. of his 
own fortune, fo that at his return he found 
a 4 himfelf 



viii PREFACE. 

himfelf obliged to live upon a very fmall 
pittance. The reft of the expences the 
Academy made up from her own fund. 

We on purpofe have given this detail 
from Mr. Kalms long preface, to fhew the 
reader v^rith vi'hat public fpirit this journey 
has been fupported in a country where mo- 
ney is fo fcarce, and what a patriotic and 
laudable ardor for the promotion of fciences 
in general, and efpecially of natural hiftory 
and hufbandry animates the univerfities, the 
public boards, and even the private perfons, 
in this cold climate, which goes fo far, 
that they chufe rather to fpend their own 
private fortunes, than to give up fo benefi- 
cial and ufeful a fcheme. We have the 
fame inftance in Dr. Hajfelquiji, who with 
a iickly and confumptive conftitution, went 
to A/ia Minor, Egypt and Palejiiney and 
colle<fted fuch great riches in new plants 
and animals, that Dr. Linnceus's fyftem 
would never have contained fo many 
fpecies, had he not made ufe of thefe trea- 
fures, which the queen oi Sweden generouf- 
ly bought by paying the debts of Dr. Haffel- 
quijl, who died in his attempt to promote 
natural hiftory. The Reverend Mr. OJbeck 
in his voyage to China, made an infinite 
number of ufeful and interefting obfervati- 
ons at the expence of his whole falary, and 

publiftied 



PREFACE. ix 

publiflied them by the contributions of 
his parifli. The Reverend Mr. Horeen 
died by the fatigues of the fame voyage, 
and left his letters publifhed along with 
OJbeck, as a monument of his fine genius, 
and fpirit for promoting natural hiftory. 
We here look upon the expences as tri- 
fling, but they are not fo in Sweden, and 
therefore are certainly the befl monuments 
to the honour of the nation and th« great 
Linnaus, who in refped: to natural hiftory 
is the prmf4m mobile of that country. 

Professor Kalm having obtained leave 
of his Majefty to be abfent from his poft as 
profeiTor, and having got a paflport, and 
recommendations to the feveral Swedijh mi- 
nifters at the courts of London, Paris, Ma- 
drid, and at the Hague, in order to obtain 
paflports for him in their refpedlive ftates, 
fet out from Upfala, the i6th. of 05lober 
1747, accompanied by Lars Tungfircem, a 
gardener well fkilled in the knowledge of 
plants and mechanics, and who had at the 
fame time a good hand for drawing, whom 
he took into his fervice. He then fet fail 
from Gothenburgh,\\\e nth. oi December but 
a violent hurricane obliged the fliip he was 
in to take fhelter in the harbour of Grcem- 
Jiad in Norway, from which place he made 
excurfions to Arendal and Chrijiianfand. He 

went 



X PREFACE. 

went again to fea F^/^rz/^ry the 8th. 1748, 
and arrived at London the 17th. of the fame 
month. He ftaidin England iiWAuguJi 1 5th. 
in which interval of time he made excur« 
lions to Woodford in Eff'exy to little Gaddefden 
in Hertfordfiire, where William Ellisy a man 
celebrated for his publications in hufbandry 
lived, but whofe pradtical hufbandry Mr. 
Kalm found not to be equal to the theory 
laid down in his writings ; he likewife faw 
Ivinghoe in Buckinghamjhirey Eaton and fe- 
veral other places, and all the curiofities and 
gardens in and about London : at laft he 
went on board a iliip, and traverfed the 
ocean to Philadelphia in Penfyhania, which 
was formerly called New Sweden, where he 
arrived September the 26th. The reft of 
that year he employed in collediing feeds of 
trees and plants, and fending them up to 
Sweden; and in feveral excurfions in the en- 
virons of Philadelphia. The winter he 
pafled among his countrymen at Raccoon in 
New Jerfey. The next year 1749, Mr. 
Kalm went through New Jerfey and New 
Tork along the river Hudfon to Albany, and 
from thence, after having croiTed the lakes of 
St. George and Champlain, to Montreal and 
^lebecy he returned that very year againft 
winter to Philadelphia, and fent a new cargo 
of feeds, plants and curiofities to Sweden. In 

the 



PREFACE. xi 

the year 1750, Mr. Kalm faw the weftern 
parts of Penfyhania and the coaft of New 
Jerfey -, Tungfircem ftaid in the former pro- 
vince all the fummer for the coUeftion of 
feeds, and Prof, Kalm in the mean time 
pafTed New York and the blue mountains, 
went to Albany^ then along the river Mo- 
hawk to the Iroquois nations, where he got 
acquainted with the Mohawk's, Oneida's^ 
Tujkaroras, Onandagas and Kayugaw's. He 
then viewed and navigated the great lake 
Ontario, and faw the celebrated fall at Nia- 
gar a. In his return from his fummer ex- 
pedition, he croiTed the blue mountains in 
a different place, and in OBober again reach- 
ed Philadelphia. 

In the year 1751, the 13th. Qi February, 
he went at Newcaftle on board a fhip for 
England, and after a pafTage fubjed to many 
dangers in the moft dreadful hurricanes, he 
arrived March the 27th. in the Thames, and 
two days after in London. He took paflage 
for Gothenburgh May the 5th. and was the 
1 6th. of the fame month at the place of his 
deftination, and the 13th. of June he again 
arrived at Stockholm, after having been on 
this truly ufeful expedition three years and 
eight months. He afterwards returned 
again to his place of profefTor at Aobo, where 
in a fmall garden of hi$ own, he cultivates 

many 



xii PREFACE. 

many hundreds of American plants, as there 
is not yet a public botanical garden for the 
ufe of the univerlity, and he with great ex- 
pedation wifhes to fee what plants will bear 
the climate, and bear good and ripe feeds fo 
far north. He published the account of his 
journey by intervals, for want of encou- 
ragement, and fearing the expences of pub- 
lifhing at once in a country where few 
bookfellers are found, and where the author 
muft very often embrace the bufinefs of 
bookfeller, in order to reimburfe himfelf 
for the expences of his publication. He 
published in his firft volume obfervations on 
Englandj and chiefly on its hufbandry, where 
he with the mofl minute fcrupuloufnefs and 
detail, entered into the very minutiae of this 
branch of his bufinefs for the benefit of his 
countrymen, and this-fubjed: he continued 
at the beginning of the fecond volume. A 
paiTage crofs the Atlantic ocean is a new 
thing to Swedesy who are little ufed to it, 
unlefs they go in the few Eaft India fhips 
of their country. Every thing therefore 
was new to Mr. Kalm, and he omitted no 
circumftance unobferved which are repeated 
in all the navigators from the earlier times 
down to our own age. It would be a kind 
of injuftice to the public, to give all this at 
large to the reader. All that part defcribing 

England 



- ^* 



PREFACE. xlii^ 

England and its curiofities and hufbandry we 
omitted. The. particulars of the paiTage 
from England to Penfyhania we abridged ; 
no circumftance interefting to natural hiflo- 
ry or to any other part of literature has 
been omitted. And from his arrival at 
Philadelphia, we give the original at large, 
except where we omitted fome trifling cir- 
cumstances, viz. the way of eating oyfters, 
the art of making apple dumplings, and 
fome more of the fame nature, which ftruck 
that Swedijh gentleman with their novelty. 
Mr. Kalm makes ufe of the Swedijh mea- 
furej its foot is to the Enghfi footy as 1134 
to 1350. For his meteorological obferva- 
tions, he employed the thermometer of 
Prof. Celjius generally made ufe of in Swe- 
den, and his was of Celjius % own making 5 
the interval from the point of freezing to 
the point of boiling water, is equally divi- 
ded in this thermometer into 100 parts. \x\. 
the names of plants, we have chiefly em- 
ployed after his directions the Linncean 
names in the laft edition of his Spec, Plan- 
tammy and Syjlema Natures, Vol. 2. But 
as his defcriptions of animals, plants, and 
minerals are very fhort, he promifes to give 
them at large fome time hence in a Latin 
work. He excufes the negligence of his 
flile, from the time in which he methodi- 



xiv PREFACE. 

fed his obfervations, which was commonly 
at night, after being fatigued with the bu- 
finefs of the preceding day, when his fpi- 
rits were almoft exhaufted, and he, incapa-s 
ble of that fprighthnefs which commends 
fo many curious performances of that nature. 

He gives you his obfervations as they oc- 
curred day after day, which makes him a 
faithful relater, notwithftanding it takes 
away all elegance of fl:yle,and often occafions 
him to make very fudden tranfitions from 
fubjeds very foreign to one another. This 
defedl we will endeavour to fupply by a very 
copious index at the end of the whole work, 
rather than derange the author's wordsy 
which are the more to be relied on, as be- 
ing inftantly committed to paper warm from 
his refledHons. 

At laft he arms himfelf with a very 
noble indifference againft the criticifm of 
feveral people, founded on the great aim he 
had in view by his performance, which 
was no lefs than public utility. This he looks 
upon as the true reward of his pains and 
expences. 

These are the contents of his long pre- 
face. We have nothing to add, but that 
we intend to go on in this work as foon as 
poffible, hoping to be fupported and en- 
couraged in this undertaking, by a nation 

which 



P R E F A C E. XV 

which is the poffeflbr of that great conti- 
nent, a great part of which is here accu- 
rately and impartially defcribed, efpecially 
at this time when American affairs attract 
the attention of the public. 

We intend to join for the better illuftra- 
tion of the work, a map and drawings of 
American birds and animals which were not 
in the original. They will be copied from 
original drawings and real birds and ani- 
mals from 'North America, which we have 
accefs to, and muft therefore give to this 
tranflation a fuperiority above the original 
and the German tranflation. 

An encourager of this work propofed it 
as an improvement to the tranflation of 
KaM% travels, to add in the margin the 
paging of the original, as by this means 
recourfe would be had eafily to the quotati- 
ons made by Dr. Linnceus. We would 
very readily have complied with this dejide- 
ratwUi had we had the Swedijh edition of 
this work at hand, or had the work not 
been too far advanced at the time we got 
this kind hint : however this will be 
remedied by a copious index, which will 
certainly appear at the end of the whole 
work. 

As we have not yet been able to procure 
a compleat lift of the fubferibers and encou- 

ragers 



xvi PREFACE. 

ragers of this undertaking, we choofe rather 
to poftpone it, than to give an imperfedt 
one : at the fame time we aflure the public, 
that it fhall certainly appear in one of the 
fubfequent volumes. 

We find it neceiTary here to mention, 
that as many articles in Mr. Kalm^ travels 
required illuilrations, the publifher has taken 
the liberty to join here and there fome notes, 
which are marked at the end with F. The 
other notes not thus marked were kindly 
communicated by the publifher's friends. 

Lastly, we take this opportunity to 
return our mod lincere thanks in this pub- 
lic manner to the ladies and gentlemen, 
who have generoufly in various ways exert- 
ed themfelves in promoting the publication. 
of thefe ufeful remarks of an impartial, ac- 
curate and judicious foreigner, on a country 
which is at prefent fo much the objed: of 
public deliberation and private converfation. 



PETER 



PETER KAL M's 
TRAVELS. 

Augujl the 5 th. 1748. 

I WITH my fervant Lars Yungftrcem 
(who joined to his abilities as garden- 
er, a tolerable fkill in mechanics and 
drawing) went at Grave/end on board 
the Mary Gaily, Captain Law/on, bound for 
Philadelphia -, and though it was fo late as 
fix o'clock in the afternoon, we weighed 
anchor and failed a good way down the 
Thames before we again came to anchor. 

Auguji the 6th. Very early in the 
morning we refumed our voyage, and after 
a few hours failing we came to the mouth 
of the Thames, where we turned into the 
channel and failed along the Kentijh coaft, 
which confifts of fteep and almoft perpen« 
A dicular 



2 -^f^gnft 174B. 

dicular chalk hills, . covered at the top with 
fome foil and a fine verdure, and including 
ftrata of flints, as it frequently is found in this 
kind of chalk-hills in the refl of England. 
And we were delighted in viewing on them 
excellent corn fields, covered for the greatefl 
part with wheat, then ripening. 

At fix o'clock at night, we arrived at 
Deal, a little well known town, fituate at 
the entrance of a bay expofed to the fouth- 
ern and eaflerly winds. Here commonly 
the outward bound fhips provide themfelves 
with greens, frefh victuals, brandy, and 
many more articles. This trade, a fifhery, 
and in the laft war the equipping of priva- 
teers, has enriched the inhabitants. 

Augujl the 7th. When the tide was 
out, I faw numbers of fifhermen reforting 
to the fandy fhallow places, where they 
find round fmall eminences caufed by the 
excrements of the log worms, ovfea worms, 
(Lumbrici marini. Linn.) who live in the 
holes leading to thefe hillocks, fometimes 
eighteen inches deep, and they are then 
dug out with a fmall three tacked iron fork 
and ufed as baits. 

Auguft the 8th. At three o'clock we 
tided down the channel, pafTed Dover, and 
faw plainly the opinion of the celebrated 
Camden in his Britannia confirmed, that 

here 



i'he Channel. J 

here England had been formerly joined to 
France and Flanders by an ifthmus. Both 
fhores form here two oppofite points 5 and 
both are formed of the fame chalk hills, 
which have the fame configuration, fo that a 
perfon acquainted with the Englijh coafts 
and approaching thofe oiFicardy afterwards, 
without knowing them to be fuch, would 
certainly take them to be the Englijh ones.* 

Aiigujt the 9th — 1 2th. We tided and 
alternately failed down the channel, and 
pafled Dungnefs, Fair light, the IJle of Wight, 
Fort/mouth, the Feninfula of Portland and 
Bolthead, a point behind which Plymouth 
lies 'y during all which time we had very 
little wind. 

Augiifi the 13th. Towards night we 
got out of the Englijh channel into the Bay 
of B if cay. 

Augujl the 14th. We had contrary wind, 
and this increafed the rolling of the fhip, 
for it is generally remarked that the Bay of 
Bifcay has the greateft and broadeft waves, 
which are of equal fize with thofe between 
America and Europe ; they are commonly 
half an Englijh mile in length, and have a 
height proportionable to it. The Baltic 
A 1 and 

• The fame opinion has been confirmed by Mr. Bufon in 
his Hiji. Naturelle. torn. I. art. xix. Vol, 2. p. 419 of the 
edit, in twelves. F. 



4 Augujl 1748. 

and the German ocean has on the contrary 
fhort and broken waves. 

Whenever an animal is killed on board 
the fliip, the failors commonly hang fome 
freih pieces of meat for a while into the 
fea, and it is faid, it then keeps better. 

Auguft the 15th. The fame fwell of the 
fea flill continued, but the waves began to 
fmooth, and a foam fwimming on them 
was faid to forebode in calm weather, a 
continuance of the fame for fome days. 

About noon a north eafterly breeze 
fprung up, and in the afternoon it blew 
more, and this gave us a fine fpedacle; for 
the great waves rolled the water in great 
flieets, in one diredion, and the north eaft- 
erly wind curled the furface of thefe waves 
quite in another. By the beating and dafli- 
ing of the waves againft one another, with a 
more than ordinary violence, we could fee 
that we pall'ed a current, whofe direction 
the captain could not determine. 

Auguft the i6th— 2ift. The fame fa- 
vourable breeze continued to our great com- 
fort and amazement, for the captain ob- 
ferved that it was very uncommon to meet 
with an eafterly or north-eafterly wind be- 
tween Europe and the Azores (which the 
failors call the Wefiern IJlands) for more 
than two days together; for the more com- 
mon 



Sea between Europe and America 5 

mon wind is here a wefterly one : but be- 
yond the Azores they find a great variety of 
winds, efpecially about this time of the 
year ; nor do the wefterly winds continue 
long beyond thefe ifles ; and to this it is 
owing, that when navigators have pafled 
the Azores, they think they have perform- 
ed one half of the voyage, although in rea- 
lity it be but one third part. Thefe ifles 
come feldom in fight -, for the navigators 
keep off them, on account of the dangerous 
rocks under water furrounding them. Up- 
on obfervation and comparifon of the jour- 
nal, we found that we were in forty-three 
deg. twenty-four min. north lat. and thirty 
and a half degrees weft long, from London, 

Auguji the 22d. About noon the cap- 
tain aflured us, that in twenty-four hours 
we ftiould have a fouth-weft wind : and 
upon my enquiring into the reafons of his 
foretelling this with certainty, he pointed 
at fome clouds in the fouth-weft, whofe 
points turned towards north-eaft, and faid 
they were occafioned by a wind from the 
oppofite quarter. At this time I was told 
we were about half way to Penjyhania. 

Auguji the 23d. About feven o'clock 

in the morning the expeded fouth-weft 

wind fprung up, and foon accelerated our 

A 3 courfe 



6 -^uguft 1748. 

courfe fo much, that we went at the rat© 
of eight knots an hour. 

Auguji the 24th. The wind fhifted and 
was in our teeth. We were told by fome 
of the crew to expedl a little ftorm, the 
higher clouds being very thin and ftriped 
and fcattered about the fky like parcels of 
combed wool, or fo many fkains of yarn, 
which they faid forebode a ftorm. Thefe 
ftriped clouds ran north-weft and fouth- 
eaft, in the direction of the wind we then 
had. Towards night the wind abated and 
we had a perfedt calm, which is a fign of 
a change of wind. 

Auguji the 25th. and 26th. A west 
wind fprung up and grew ftronger and 
ftronger, fo that at laft the waves waftied 
our deck, 

Auguji the 27th. In the morning we 
got a better wind, which went through va- 
rious points of the compafs and brought on 
a ftorm from north-eaft towards night. 

Our captain told me an obfervation found- 
ed on long experience, n)iz. that though 
the winds changed frequently in the Atlantic 
ocean, efpecially in fummer time, the moft 
frequent however was the weftern, and 
this accounts for the paffage from Ame- 
rica to Europe commonly being ftiorter, 

than 



Sea between Europe and America, 7 

than that from Europe to America. Befides 
this, the winds in the Atlantic during 
fummer are frequently partial, fo that a 
ftorm may rage on one part of it, and 
within a few miles of the place little 
or no ftorm at all may be felt. In winter 
the winds are more conftant, extenfive and 
violent ; fo that then the fame wind reigns 
on the greater part of the ocean for a good 
while, and caufes greater waves than in 
fummer. 

Auguft the 30th. As I had obferved the 
night before fome ftrong flafhes of lighten- 
ing without any fubfequent clap of thunder, 
I enquired of our captain, whether he could 
aflign any reafons for it. He told me thefe 
phoenomena were pretty common, and the 
confequence of a preceding heat in the at- 
mofphere ; but that when lightenings were 
obferved in winter, prudent navigators were 
ufed to reef their fails, as they are by this 
fign certain of an impendent ftorm ; and fo 
likewife in that feafon, a cloud riling from 
the north-weft, is an infallible forerunner 
of a great tempeft. 

Septe?nber the 7th. As we had the firft day 
of the month contrary wind, on the fecond 
it fhifted to the north, was again contrary the 
third, and fair the fourth and following 
days. The fifth we were in forty deg. 
A 4 three 



8 September 1748. 

three min. north lat. and between fif- 
ty-three and fifty-four deg. weft long, 
from London. 

Besides the common waves rolling with 
the wind, we met on the 4th. and 5th. 
inft. with waves coming from fouth-weft, 
which the captain gave as a mark of a 
former ftorm from that quarter in this 
neighbourhood. 

September the 8th. We croffed by a 
moderate wind, a fea with the higheft 
waves we met on the whole paffage, attri- 
buted by the captain to the divifion between 
the great ocean and the inner American gulf; 
and foon after we met with waves greatly 
inferior to thofe we obferved before. 

September the 9th. In the afternoon we 
remarked that in fome places the colour of 
the fea (which had been hitherto of a deep 
blue) was changed into a paler hue -, fome of 
thefe fpots were narrow ftripes of twelve or 
fourteen fathoms breadth, of a pale green 
colour, which is fuppofed to be caufed by 
the fand, or as fome fay, by the weeds un- 
der water. 

September the 12th. We were becalmed 
that day, and as we in this fituation ob- 
ferved a fhip, which we fufpeded to be a 
Spanifh privateer, our fear was very great ; 
but we faw fome days after our arrival at 

'PbiladeU 



Ocean between Europe and America, 9 

Philadelphia the fame (hip arrive, and heard 
that they feeing us had been under the fame 
apprehenfions with ourfelves. 

September the 13th. Captain Lawfon^ 
who kept his bed for the greater part of 
the voyage, on account of an indifpofition, 
affured us yefterday we were in all appear- 
ance very near America: but as the mate 
was of a different opinion, and as the failors 
could fee no land from the head of the maft, 
nor find ground by the lead, we fteered on 
diredtly towards the land. About three 
o'clock in the morning the captain gave or- 
ders to heave the lead, and we found but ten 
fathom : the fecond mate himfelf took the 
lead and called out ten and fourteen fathoms, 
but a moment after the fhip ftruck on the 
fand, and this (hock was followed by four 
other very violent ones. The confternation 
was incredible j and very juftly might it be 
fo ; for there were above eighty perfons on 
board, and the fhip had but one boat : but 
happily our (hip got off again, after having 
been turned. At day break, which fol- 
lowed foon after (for the accident happened 
half an hour paft four) we faw the conti- 
nent oi America within a Swedijh mile be- 
fore us : the coaft was whitifh, low, and 
higher up covered with firs. We found 
out, that the fand we ftruck on, lay oppo- 

fite 



lo T^he Bay of Delaware, 

fite Arcadia in Maryland, in thirty-feven 
deg. fifty min. North lat. 

We coafted the fliores of Maryland all 
the day, but not being able to reach cape 
Hinlopen, where we intended to take a pi- 
lot on board, we cruized all night before 
the bay of Delaware. The darknefs of the 
night made us exped: a rain, but we found 
that only a copious fall of dew enfued, 
which made our coats quite wet, and the 
pages of a book, accidently left open on 
the deck, were in half an hours time after 
fun-fetting likewife wet, and we were told 
by the captain and the failors that both in 
England and in America a copious dew was 
commonly followed by a hot and fultry 
day. 

September the 14th. We faw land on 
our larboard in the weft, which appeared 
to be low, white, fandy, and higher up the 
country covered with firs, cape Hinlopen 
is a head of land running into the fea from 
the weftern {hore, and has a village on it. 
The eaftern fhore belongs here to New Jer- 
fey, and the weftern to Penfylvania. The 
bay of Delaware has many fands, and from 
four to eleven fathom water. 

The fine woods of oak, hiccory and firs 
covering both ftiores made a fine appear- 
ance, and were partly employed in fhip- 

building 



River Delaware. • ii 

building at Philadelphia ; for which purpofe 
every year fome Engli/b captains take a 
paffage in autumn to this town, and fuper- 
intend the building of new fhips during 
winter, with which they go to fea next 
fpring : and at this time it was more ufual 
than common, as the French and Spanijh 
privateers had taken many Englijh merchant 
{hips. 

A LITTLE after noon we reached the 
mouth of Delaware river, which is here 
about three Englijh miles broad, but de- 
creafes gradually fo much, that it is fcarcely 
a mile broad at Philadelphia. 

HEREweweredelighted in feeingnowand 
then between the^ woods fome farm houfes 
furrounded with corn fields, paftures well- 
ftocked with cattle, and meadows covered 
with fine hay; and more than one fenfe 
was agreeably affected, when the wind 
brought to us the finefl effluvia of odorife- 
rous plants and flowers, or that of the frefh 
made hay : thefe agreeable fenfations and 
the fine fcenery of nature on this continent, 
fo new to us, continued till it grew quite 
dark. 

Here I will return to fea, and give the 
reader a fhort view of the various occur- 
rences belonging to Natural-Hiflory, during 
pur crofiing the Ocean. 

Of 



1 2 Ocean between Europe and America. 

Of fea weeds fFucuslinnJ we faw Au^ 
gufi the 1 6th. and 17th. a kind which had 
a (imilarity to a bunch of onions tied toge- 
ther, thefe bunches were of the lize of the 
fift, and of a white colour. Near thecoaft 
of America within the American gulf, Sep- 
tember the nth. we met likewife with fe- 
veral fea weeds, one fpecies of which was 
called by the failors rock-weed-, another 
kind looked like a firing of pearls, and ano- 
ther was white, about a foot long, narrow, 
every where equally wide and quite ftrait. 
From Auguft the 24th. to September the 
nth. we faw nci other weeds, but thofe 
commonly going under the name of Gulf- 
weed, becaufe they are fuppofed to come 
from the gulf of Florida; others call it 
Sargazo, and Dr. Linnaus, Fucus natans, 
\tsjialk is very flender, rotundato-angulated, 
and of a dark green, it has many branches 
and each of them has numerous leaves dif- 
pofed in a row, they are extremely thin, 
are ferrated, and are a line or a line and a 
half wide, fo that they bear a great refem- 
blance to the leaves of Iceland-mofs ; their 
colour is a yellowifli green. Its fruit in a 
great meafure refembles unripe juniper 
berries, is round, greenifh yellow, almoft 
fmooth on the outfide, and grows under the 
leaves on fhort footftalks, of two or three 

lines 



Ocean letween Europe and America. 1 3 

lines length ; under each leaf are from one 
to three berries, but I never have feen them 
exceed that number. Some berries were 
fmall, and when cut were quite hollow and 
confifted of a thin peel only, which is cal- 
culated to communicate their buoyancy to 
the whole plant. The leaves grow in pro- 
portion narrower, as they approach the ex- 
tremities of the branches : their upper fides 
are fmooth, the ribs are on the under fides, 
and there likewife appear fmall roots of 
two, three or four lines length. I was told 
by our mate that gulf weed, dried and pound- 
ed, was given in America to women in 
childbed, and befides this it is alfo ufed 
there in fevers. The whole ocean is as if 
it were covered with this weed, and it muft 
alfo be in immenfe quantities in the gulf of 
Florida, from whence all this driving on 
the ocean is faid to come. Several little 
jhells pointed like horns, and Efcharce or 
Horn wracks are frequently found on it: and 
feldom is there one bundle of this plant to 
be met with, which does not contain either 
a m'mutejhrimp, or a fmall cra6, the latter 
of which is the Cancer minutus of Dr. Lin- 
naus. Of thefe I colledted eight, and of 
the former three, all which I put in a glafs 
with water: the little fhrimp moved as 
fwift as an arrow round the glafs, but fome- 

times 



14 Ocean between Europe and Americd* 

times its motion was flow, and fomctimes it 
flood ftill on one fide, or at the bottom of 
the glafs. If one of the little crabs ap-- 
proached, it was feized by its forepaws, 
killed and fucked ; for which reafon they 
were careful to avoid their fate. It was 
quite of the fhape of a fhrimp ; in fwim- 
ming it moved always on one fide, the fides 
and the tail moving alternately. It was ca- 
pable of putting its forepaws entirely into 
its mouth : its antennae were in continual 
motion. Having left thefe little fhrimps 
together with the crabs during night, I 
found on the morning all the crabs killed 
and eaten by the fhrimps. The former 
moved when alive with incredible fwiftnefs 
in the water. Sometimes when they were 
quite at the bottom of the glafs, with a 
motion fomething like to that of a Puceron 
or Podura of Linnceus -, they came in a mo- 
ment to the furface of the water. In fwim- 
ming they moved all their feet very clofe, 
fometimes they held them down as other 
crabs do, fometimes they lay on their backs^ 
but as foon as the motion of their feet ceafed, 
they always funk to the bottom. The re- 
maining fhrimps Ipreferved in fpirits, and the 
lofs of my little crabs was foon repaired by 
other fpecimens which are fo plentiful in 
each of the floating bundles of gulf-weed^ 

For 



Ocean between Europe and America. 1 5 

For a more minute defcription of which I 
muft refer the reader to another work, I 
intend to publifli. In fome places we faw 
a crab of the fize of the iilt, fwimming by 
the continual motion of its feet, which be- 
ing at reft, the animal began immediately 
to link. And one time I met with a great 
red crawfjhy or lobjier, floating on the furface 
of the fea. 

Blubbers, or Medufoe Linn, we found of 
three kinds : the firft is the Medufa aurita 
Linn j it is round, purple coloured, opens 
like a bag, and in it are as if it were four 
white rings, their fize varies from one inch 
diameter to fix inches j they have not that 
nettling and burning quality which other 
blubbers have, fuch for inftance as are on 
the coaft of Norway y and in the ocean. Thefe 
we met chiefly in the channel and in the 
Bay of B if cay. 

After having crofled more than half of 
the ocean between Europe and A??ierica, we 
met with a kind of blubber, which is known 
to Sailors by the name of the Spanifi or 
Portugueze man of War y it looks like a great 
bladder, or the lungs of a quadruped, com- 
prefifed on both fides, about fix inches in 
diameter, of a fine purple-red colour, and 
when touched by the naked fkin of the 
human body, it caufes a greater burning than 

any 



1 6 Ocean between Europe and America, 

any other kind of blubber. They are often 
overturned by the rolling of the waves, but 
they are again {landing up in an inftant, and 
keep the {harp or narrow (ide uppermoft. • 

Within the American gulf we faw not 
only thefe Spanijh men of War, but another 
kind too, for which the Sailors had no other 
name but that of a blubber.. It was of the 
lize of a pewter plate, brown in the middle, 
with a pale margin, which was in continual 
motion. 

Of the Lepas anatifera Linn. I faw 
on the 30th. of Auguji a log of wood, 
which floated on the ocean, quite covered. 
OiinfeSis I faw in the channel, when we were 
in fight of the IJle of Wight feveral white 
butterflies, very like to the Papilio Brafjicoe 
Linn. They never fettled, and by their ven- 
turing at fo great a difl:ance from land they 
caufed us juft afl:onifhment. 

Some common flies were in our cabbin alive 
during the whole voyage, and it cannot 
therefore be determined whether they were 
originally in America, or whether they came 
over with the Europeans. 

Of Cetaceous fijh we met with Porpejfes, 
or as fome failors call them Sea-iogs^fDeU 

phinus 

• The name of Porpe£i is certainly derived from the name 

Pone" 



Ocean between Europe and America, 1 7 

phinus Phocana, Linn.) firft in the channel 
and then they continued every where on this 
fide the AzoreSy where they are the only fifh 
navigators meet with; but beyond thefe ifles 
they are feldom feen, till again in the 
neighbourhood of America we faw them 
equally frequent to the very mouth of De^ 
laware river. They always appeared in 
fhoals, fome of which confided of upwards 
of an hundred individuals 5 their Avimming 
was very fwift, and though they often 
fwam along fide of our fhip, being ta- 
ken as it were with the noife caufed by the 
fhip cutting the waves, they however foon 
outwent her, whepi they were tired with 
flaring at her. They are from four to eight 
feet long, have a bill like in fhape to that 
of a goofe, a white belly, and leap up into 
the air frequently four feet high, and from 
four to eight feet in length j though their 
fnoring indicates the effort vi^hich a leap of 

Porcopefce, given to this genus by the Italia^is ; and it is re- 
Kiarkable that almoft all the European nations confpired in 
calling them Sea-hogs, their name being in German Meer 
Sch-wein ; the Danijh, Svoedijh, and Norwegian, Mar/uin, from 
whence the jFr^«fi> borrowed their Mflr/oa/«. The natives of 
Iceland call them Suinhual, i. e. a S-uuine-'whale, and fo like- 
wife the Slavonian nations have their Snjuinia Morjkaya. Whe- 
ther this confent arifes from their rooting the fand at the bot- 
tom of the fea in queft of Sand-eels and Sea-worms like 
fwine, or from the vaft quantity of lard furrounding their 
Bodies is uncertain. F. 

B that 



1 8 Ocean between Europe and Americd, 

that nature cofts them. Our failors made 
many vain attempts to ftrike one of them 
with the harp iron from the forecaflle, 
when they came within reach, but their 
velocity always eluded their fkill. 

Another cetaceous fi{h, of the Dolphin 
kind,* with which we met, is called by the 
failors Bottk-nofey it fwims in great fhoals, 
has a head like a bottle, and is killed by a 
harpoon, and is fometimes eaten. Thefe 
fifh are very large, and fome fully twelve 
feet long; their fhape, and manner of 
tumbling aiid fwimming make them 
nearly related to Porpefles. They are to be 
met with every where in the ocean from 
the channel to the very neighbourhood of 
America. 

One Whale we faw at a diftance, and 
knew it by the water which it fpouted up. 

A Dog-Jijh of a confiderable lize followed 
the fhip for a little while, but it was foon 
out of fight, without our being able to 
determine to which fpecies it belonged : 

this 



* Mr. Kalm is certainly miftaken in reckoning the Bottle- 
nofe amongft the Do/phhi kind ; it has no teeth in its mouth 
as all the iifti of that clafs have, and therefore belongs to the 
firft order of the Whales, or thofe that are without teeth. See 
Mr. Pennant\ Britifh Zoology Vol. 3. p. 43. where it is 
called the beaked Whale, and very well defcribed ; a 
drawing is feen in the explanatory table, n. I. Perhaps it 
would not be improper to call it Baleena ampuUata, F, 



Ocenn between Europe and America, 19 

this was the only cartilaginous fifh we faw 
on the whole pafTage. 

Of the bony fifh, we faw feveral beyond 
the Azores, but never one on this fide of 
thofe ifles, one of them was of a large fize, 
and we faw it at a diftance , the failors 
called it an Albecor, and it is Dr. Linnaus^ 
Scomber Thynnus, 

TuE Dolphin of the Englijh is the 
Dorado of the Fortugiieze, and Dr. Linnceus 
calls it Coryphcena Hippuris , it is about 
two feet and a half long, near the head 
fix inches deep, pnd three inches broad > 
from the head the Dolphin decreafes on 
all fides towards the tail, where its per- 
pendicular depth is one inch and a half, and 
its breadth hardly one inch. The colour 
of the back near the head is a fine green 
on a filver ground, but near the tail of 
a deep blue 3 the belly is white, and 
fometimes mixed with a deep yellow, 
on the fides it has fome round pale brown 
fpots. It has fix and not itv^n fins as was 
imagined ; two of them are on the breaft^ 
two on the belly, one at the tail extending 
to the anus, and one along the whole back, 
which is of a fine blue : when the fifh is 
juft taken the extremities of the moft out- 
ward rays in the tail were eight inches one 
from another. Their motion when they 
B 2 fwam 



20 Ocean between Europe and America, 

fwam behind, or along iide of the {hip was 
very flow, and gave a fair opportunity to 
hit them with the harpoon, though fome 
are taken with a hook and Hne, and a bait 
of chicken bowels, fmall fiih, or pieces 
of his own fpecies, or the flying fifli, which 
latter are their chief food : and it is by 
their chaflng them, that the flying fifli leave 
their element to find fhelter in one to which 
they are flirangers. The Dolphins fome- 
times leap a fathom out of the water, and 
love to fwim about cafks and logs of wood, 
that fometimes drive in the fea. They are 
eaten with thick butter, when boiled, and 
fometimes fried, and afford a palatable food, 
but rather fomewhat dry. In the bellies of 
the fifli of this fpecies which we caught, fe- 
veral animals were found, viz. an OJiracion-, 
a little fifh with blue eyes, which was yet 
alive, being jufl: the moment before fwal- 
lowed, and meafuring two inches in length -, 
another little fifli ; a curious marine infedt, 
and a flying fifli, all which not yet being 
damaged by digellion, 1 preferved in fpirits. 
The Flying Fijh fExocoetus njolitans, Linn. J 
are always feen in great flioals, fometimes 
of an hundred or more getting at once out 
of the water, being purfued by greater fifh, 
and chiefly by Dolphins ; they rife about a 
yard, and even a fathom above the water 

in 



Ocean between Europe and America. 2 r 

in their flight, but thislatterheight theyonly 
are at, when they take their flight from 
the top of a wave; and fometimes it is faid 
they fall on the deck of (hips. The 
greateft diftance they fly, is a good muflcet- 
(hot, and this they perform in lefs than 
half a minute's time ; their motion is fome - 
what like that of x\\t yellow-hammer, (Em~ 
beriza Citrinella, Linn.) It is very remark- 
able that I found the courfe they took al- 
ways to be againfl the wind, and though 
I was contradicted by the failors, who af- 
firmed that they went at any diredion, I 
neverthelefs was confirmed in my opinion by 
a careful obfervation during the whole voy- 
age, according to which they fly conftantly 
either diredly againfl the wind, or fome- 
what in an oblique diredion.* 

We fav/ likewife the fifh called Bonetosy 
f Scomber Pelamys, Linn.) they were likewife 
in fhoals, hunting fome fmaller fiih, which 
chafe caufed a noife like to that of a caf- 
cade, becaufe they were all fwimming ciofe 
in a body ; but they always kept out of the 
reach of our harpoons. 

B 3 Of 

* In Mr. Pennant*^ Britijh Zoology vol. 3. p. 282. is the 
bell account of this fifh to be met with ; atid in his Britijh 
7.oology, illujlrated hy Plates and brief explanations is plate 
xliv. a good and exadl drawing of th6 fifti, the Upper figure 
reprefenting it in front, the lower fideways. F. 



22 Ocean between Europe and America. 

Of amphibious animals, or reptiles ; we met 
twice with a Turtle, one of which was 
ileeping, the other fwam without taking 
notice of our fhip -, both were of two feet 
diameter. 

Birds are pretty frequently feen on the 
ocean, though Aquatic Birds are more com- 
mon than Land Birds. 

The Petrel fProcellaria Pelagic a, Linn.) 
was our companion from the channel to the 
{hores oi Afnerica. Flocks of this bird were , 
always about our ihip, chiefly in that part 
of the fea, which being cut by the fliip, 
forms a fmooth furface, where they fre- 
quently feem to fettle, though always on 
the wing. They pick up or examine every 
thing that falls accidentally from the {hip, 
or is thrown over board : little fifh feem to 
be their chief food ; in day time they are 
filent, in the dark clamorous ; they are re- 
puted to forebode a ftorm, for which rea- 
fon the failors difliking their company, 
complimented them with the name of 
witches-, but they are as frequent in fair 
weather, without a ftorm following their 
appearance. To me it appeared as if they 
flayed fometimes half an hour and longer 
under the waves, and the failors alTured me 
they did. They look like fwallows, and 
like them they fkim fometimes on the 
water. The 



Ocean between Europe and America, 23 

The Shearwater ( Procellaria Puffinus, 
Linn. J is another fea-bird, which we faw 
every where on our voyage, from the chan- 
nel to the American coafts ; it has much the 
appearance and fize of the dark-grey Sea- 
gull, or of a Duck ; it has a brown back, 
and commonly a white ring round its neck, 
and a peculiar flow way of flying. We 
plainly faw fome of thefe birds feed on fifli. 

The Tro/)?V bird (Phaeton cethereus, Linn.) 
has very much the fhape of a gull, but two 
very long feathers, which it has in its tail, 
diftinguifh it enough from any other bird -, 
its flight is often exceedingly high : the 
firfl: of this kind we met, was at about for- 
ty deg. north lat. and forty-nine or fifty d^g, 
wefl: long, from London. 

Common Gulls fLarus canusy Linn. J we 
faw, when we were oppofite the Land's 
End, the moft wefl:erly cape of England, 
and when according to our reckoning we 
were oppofite Ireland. 

Terns (Sterna hirundo, Linn.) though 
of a fomewhat darker colour than the com- 
mon ones, we found after the forty-firft 
deg. of north lat. and forty-feventh deg. 
wefl: long, from London, very plentifully, 
and fometimes in flocks of fome hundreds -, 
fometimes they fettled, as if tired, on our 
Olip. 

B4 WXTH- 



24 Ocean between Europe and America, 

Within the American gulph wedifcover- 
cd a fea-bird at a little diftance from the 
fhip, which the failors called a Sea- hen. 

Land-birds are now and then feen at 
fea, and fometimes at a good diftance from 
any land, fo that it is often difficult, to 
account for their appearance in fo uncom- . 
liion a place. Angufi the i8th. we faw a 
bird which fetled on our fhip, and was per- 
fectly like the great Titmoufe, ( Par us major 
Linn:) upon an attempt to catch it, it got 
behind the fails, and could never be caught. 

September the ift. We oblerved fome 
Land- birds flying about our fhip, which 
we took for Sand Martins (Hirundo riparia 
Linn. J fometimes they fettled on our fhip, 
or on the fails; they were of a greyifh 
brown colour on their back, their breafl 
white, and the tail fomewhat furcated ; a 
heavy fhower of rain drove them afterwards 
away. September the 2d. a Swallow flut- 
tered about the fhip, and fometimes it fet- 
tled on the maft; it feemed to be very 
tired ', feveral times it approached our cabin 
windows, as if it was willing to take fhelter 
there. Thefe cafes happened about forty 
deg. north lat. and between forty-feven and 
forty-nine deg. wefl long, from London, 
and alfo about twenty deg. long, or 

more 



Ocean between 'Europe and America, 25 

more than nine hundred and twenty lea 
miles from any land whatfoever. 

September the loth. within the American 
gulph a large bird, which we took for an 
Owly and likewife a little bird fettled on 
our fails. 

September the 12th. a Wood-pecker fettled 
on our rigging : its back was of a fpeckled 
grey, and it feemed extremely fatigued. 
And another land- bird of the pajjerine clafs, 
endeavoured to take fhelter and reft on our 
fliip. 

Before I entirely take leave of the fea, 
I will communicate my obfervations on two 
curious phcenomena. 

In the channel and in the ocean we faw 
at night time, /parks of fire y as if flow- 
ing on the water, efpecially where it was 
agitated, fometimes one iingle fpark fwam 
for the fpace of more than one minute on 
the ocean before it vanifhed. The failors 
obferved them commonly to appear during, 
and after a ftorm from the north, and that 
often the fea is as if it were full of fire, and 
that fome fuch ihining fparks would like-* 
wife ftick to the mafts and fails. 

Sometimes this light had not the ap- 
pearance of fparks, but looked rather like 
the phofphorefcence of putrid wood. 

The 'Thames-'W2iiQv which made our pro- 
vifion of frefh water, is reputed to be the 

beft 



26 Ocean between Europe and America, 

beft of any. It not only fettled in the oak 
cafks it is kept in, but becomes in a little 
time {linking, when flopped up -, however 
this naufeous fmell it foon loofes, after being 
filled into large ftone juggs, andexpofed to 
the open frefh air for two or three hours 
together. Often the vapours arifing from a 
calk which has been kept clofe and Hopped 
up for a great while take fire, if a candle 
is held near them when the cafk is opened, 
and the T&ames wzter is thought to have 
more of this quality than any others though 
I was told that this even happened with 
any other water in the fame circumilances. 
Now I can refume my narrative, and 
therefore obferve that we afterwards failed 
on the river with a fair wind, pretty late at 
night. In the dawn of the evening we paf- 
fed by Newcaji/e, a little town on the weft- 
ern fhore of the river Delaware. It was 
already fo dark, that we could hardly know 
it, but by the light which appeared through 
feme of the windows. The Dutch are faid 
to have been the firft founders of this place, 
which is therefore reckoned the moft an- 
cient in the country, even more ancient 
than Philadelphia. But its trade can by no 
means be compared with the Philadelphia 
trade, though its fituation has more advan-r 
tages in feveral refpeds ; one of which is, 

that 



River Delaware. 



27 



that the river feldom freezes before it, and 
confequently fhips can come in and go out 
at any time. But near Philadelphia it is al- 
moft every winter covered v^^ith ice, fo that 
navigation is interrupted for fomc weeks 
together. But the country about Phila- 
delphia and farther up, being highly culti- 
vated, and the people bringing all their 
goods to that place, Newcajile muft always 
be inferior to it. 

I MENTIONED, that the Dutch laid the 
foundations of this town. This happened 
at the time, when this country was as yet 
fubje(fl to Siveden. But the Dutch crept 
in, and intended by degrees to difpoflefs 
the Swedes, as a people who had taken 
pofleffion of their property. They fuc- 
ceeded in their attempt ; for the Swedes 
not being able to bear with this encroach- 
ment, came to a war, in which the Dutch 
got the better. But they did not enjoy the 
fruits of their vidory long: for a few years 
after, the EngliJJo came and deprived them 
of their acquisition, and have ever fince 
continued in the undifturbed pofleffion of the 
country. Somewhat later at night we caft 
anchor, the pilot not venturing to carry the 
{hip up the river in the dark, feveral fands 
being in the way. 

September 15th. In the dawn of the 

morning 



28 September 1748. 

morning we weighed anchor, and continu- 
ed our voyage up the river. The country- 
was inhabited almoft every where on both 
fides. The farm-houfes were however 
pretty far afunder. About eight o'clock in 
the morning we failed by the little town of 
Cheftery on the weftern fide of the river. 
In this town, our mate, who was born in 
Philadelphia, fhewed me the places, which 
the Swedes ftill inhabit. 

At laft we arrived in Philadelphia about 
ten o'clock in the morning. We had not 
been more than fix weeks, or (to fpeak 
more accurately) not quite forty one days 
on our voyage from Grave/end to this place, 
including the time we fpent at Dealy in 
fupplying ourfelves with the neceflary fre(h 
provifions, &c. our voyage was therefore 
reckoned one of the fhorteft. For it is 
common in winter time to be fourteen, 
nineteen, or more weeks in coming from 
Grave/end to Philadelphia. Hardly any 
body ever had a more pleafant voyage over 
this great ocean, than we had. Captain 
Lawfon affirmed this feveral times. Nay 
he affured us he had never feen fuch calm 
weather in this ocean, though he had croff- 
ed it very often. The wind was generally 
fo favourable that a boat of a middling fize 
might have failed in perfect fafety. The 

fea 



Penfyhania, Philadelphia. 29 

fea never went over our cabin, and but once 
over the deck, and that was only in a fwell. 
The weather indeed was fo clear, that a 
great number of the Germans on board flept 
on the deck. The cabin windows needed 
not the (butters. All thefe are circum- 
ftances which ihow the uncommon good- 
nefs of the weather. 

Captain Law/on s civility increafed the 
pleafure of the voyage. For he fhewed me 
all the friendfhip, that he could have (hewn 
to any of his relations. 

As foon as we were come to the town, 
and had caft anchor, many of the inhabi- 
tants came onboard, to enquire for Letters. 
They took all thofe which they could car- 
ry, either for themfelves or for their friends. 
Thofe, which remained, the captain or- 
dered to be carried on (hore, and to be 
brought into a coffee-houfe, where every 
body could make enquiry for them, and by 
this means he was rid of the trouble of de- 
livering them himfelf. I afterwards went 
on. (hore with him. But before he went, 
he ftridrly charged the fecond mate, to let 
no one of the German refugees out of the 
(hip, unlefs he paid for his pa(rage, or 
fome body elfe paid for him, or bought 
him. 

Om my leaving London I received letters 

of 



3<5 September 1748. 

of reGommendation from Mr. Abraham 
Spaldingy Mr. Peter Collmfon, Dr. Mitchel, 
and others to their friends here. It was 
eafy for me therefore to get acquaintance. 
Mr. Benjamin Franklin, to whom Penjylva- 
nia is indebted for its welfare, and the learn- 
ed world for many new difcoveries in Elec- 
tricity, was the firft, who took notice of 
me, and introduced me to many of his 
friends. He gave me all neceffary inftruc- 
tions, and (hewed me his kindnefs on many 
occafions. 

I WENT to day accompanied by Mr. 
'Jacob Bengtfon, a member of the Swedijh 
confiftory and the fculptor Gujiavus Heff'e- 
liusy to fee the town and the fields which 
lay before it. (The former is brother of 
the rev. Meflrs. Andrew and Samuel HeJJ'e- 
litis, both minifters at Chrijiiana in new 
Sweden, and of the late Dr. J ohn Heff'elius 
in the provinces of Nerik and Wermeland) , 
My new friend had followed his brother 
Andrew in 1711 to this country, and had 
fince lived in it. I found that I was now 
come into a new world. Whenever I look- 
ed to the ground, I every where found fuch 
plants as 1 had never feen 'before. When 
I faw a tree, I was forced to flop, and afk 
thofe who accompanied me, how it was 
called. The firfl plant which flruck my 

eyes 



Penfyhantat Philadelphia, 31 

eyes was an Andropogon, or a kind of grafs, 
and grafs is a part of Botany I always de- 
lighted in. I was feized with terror at the 
thought of ranging fo many new and un- 
known parts of natural hiflory. At firft I 
only confidered the plants, without ventu- 
ring a more accurate examination. 

At night I took up my lodging with a 
grocer who was a quaker, and 1 met with 
very good honeft people in this houfe, fuch 
as moft people of this profeffion appeared 
to me, land my Tungjircem, the companion 
of my voyage, had a room, candles, beds, 
attendance, and three meals a day, if we 
chofe to have fo many, for twenty (hillings 
per week in Penfyhania currency. But 
wood, wafliing and wine, if required, were 
to be paid for befides. 

September the i6th. Before I proceed 
I muft give a fhort defcription oi Phiia- 
delphia, which I fhall frequently mention 
in the fequel of my travels. 1 here put 
down feveral particulars which I marked 
during my ftay at that place, as a help to 
my memory. 

Philadelphia, the capital oi Penfyha- 
niay a province which makes part of what 
formerly was called New Sweden is one of 
the principal towns in North- America-, and 
next to Bojion the greatefl. It is fituated 

almofl 



3« September 1748. 

almoft in the center of the Englijh colonics^ 
and its lat. is thirty nine deg. and fifty 
min. but its weft long, from London near 
feventy five deg. 

This town was built in the year 1683, or 
as others fay in 1682, by the well known 
quaker William Pen, who got this whole 
province by a grant from Charles the fecond, 
king of England ; after Sweden had given 
up its claims to it. According to Pen's 
plan the town was to have been built upon 
a piece of land which is formed by the 
union of the rivers Delaware and Skulkill, in 
a quadrangular form, two Englijh miles 
long and one broad. The eaftern fide 
would therefore have been bounded by the 
Delaware, and the weftern by the Skulkill. 
They had adually begun to build houfes 
on both thefe rivers ; for eight capital 
ftreets, each two Englifi miles long, and 
fixteen leiler ftreets (or lanes) acrofs them, 
each one mile in length, were marked out, 
with a conliderable breadth, and in ftrait 
lines. The place was at that time almofl 
an entire wildernefs covered with thick 
forefts, and belonged to three Swedijh 
brothers called Svens-Scener (Sons of Sven) 
who had fettled in it. They with difficul- 
ty left the place, the fituation of which was 
very advantageous. But at lafl they were 

per- 



Penjytvdnia, Philadelphia, 3^ 

perfuaded to it by Petti who gave thefti a 
few Englijh miles from that place twice 
the fpace of country they inhabited. 
However Pen himfelf and his defcendants 
after him, have confiderably leffened thd 
ground belonging to them, by repeated 
menfurations, under pretence that they had 
taken more than they ought. 

But the inhabitants could not be got inf 
fufficient number to fill a place of fuch ex- 
tent. The plan therefore about the river 
Skulkill was laid afide till more favoura- 
ble circumftances (hould occur, and the 
houfes were only built along the Delaware^ 
This river flows along the eaftern fide of 
the town, is of great advantage to its trade^ 
and gives a fine profped:. The houfes 
which had already been built upon the 
Skulkill were transplanted hitherto by de- 
grees. This town accordingly lies in a very 
pleafant country, from north to fouth along 
the river. It meafures fomewhat more than 
an Englijh mile in length -, and its breadth 
in fome places is half a mile or more. 
The ground is flat and confifls of fand 
mixed with a little clay. Experience has 
fhewn that the air of this place is very 
healthy. 

The ftreets are regular, fine, and mofi: of 

them are fifty foot, Englijh meafure, broad ^ 

G Areh-^ 



34 September 1748. 

Arch-ftreet meafures (ixty fix feet in breadth,- 
and Market-Jlreet or the principal ftreet, 
where the market is kept, near a hundred. 
Thofe which run longitudinally, or from 
north to fouth are feven, exclufive of a 
little one, which runs along the river, to 
the fouth of the market, and is called 
Water-Jireet. The lanes which go acrofs, 
and were intended to reach from the De- 
laware to the Skulkill, are eight in number. 
They do not go quite from eafl to weft, but 
deviate a little from that diredion. All the 
ftreets except two which are neareft to the 
river, run in a ftraight line, and make right 
angles at the interfedions. Some are paved, 
others are not ; and it feems lefs necelTary 
fince the ground is fandy, and therefore foon 
abforbs the wet. But in moft of the ftreets 
is a pavement of flags, a fathom or more 
broad, laid before the houfes, and pofts put 
on the outfide three or four fathom afunder. 
Under the roofs are gutters which are 
carefully connected with pipes, and by this 
means, thofe who walk under them, when 
it rains, or when the fnow melts, need 
not fear being wetted by the dropping from 
the roofs. 

The houfes make a good appearance, 
are frequen iy feveral ftories high, and 
built eitiier of bricks or of ftone ; but the 

former 



Penfyhania^ Philadelphia, j^ 

former are more commonly ufed, fincef 
bricks are made before the town, and are 
well burnt. The ftone which has been' 
employed in the building of other houfes, 
is a mixture of black or grey glimmer^ run- 
ning in undulated veins, and of a loofe, and 
quite fmall grained limejionet which run 
fcattered between the bendings of the other 
veins, and are of a grey colour, excepting 
here and there fome fingle grains of fand,' 
of a paler hue. The glimmer makes the 
greateft part of the ftone ; but the mixture 
is fometimes of another kind, as I fliall re- 
late hereafter under the article, eleventh of 
OSiober. This ftone is now got in great 
quantities in the country, is eafily cut, and 
has the good quality of not attracting the 
moifture in a wet feafon. Very good lime 
is burnt every where hereabouts, for ma* 
fonry. 

The houfes are covered with fhingles. 
The wood for this purpofe is taken from 
the Ciiprejfus thyoides, Linn, or a tree which 
Swedes here call the white juniper- tree, and 
the Englijldy the white cedar. Swamps and 
Morafles formerly were full of themy but 
at prefent thefe trees are for the greatefb 
part cut down, and no attempt has as yet 
been made to plant new ones. The wood 
is very light, rots lefs than any other iii> 
G 2 this* 



36 September 174B. 

this country, and for that reafon Is exceed- 
ing good for roofs. For it is not too heavy 
for the walls, and will ferve for forty or 
fifty years together. But many people 
already begin to fear, that thefe roofs will 
in time be looked upon as having been very 
detrimental to the city. For being fo very 
light, moil people who have built their 
houfes of ftone, or bricks, have been led 
to make their walls extremely thin. But 
at prefent this kind of wood is almoft en- 
tirely deftroyed. Whenever therefore in 
procefs of time thefe roofs decay, the peo- 
ple will be obliged to have recourfe to the 
heavier materials of tiles, or the like, which 
the walls will not be ftrong enough to bear. 
The roof will therefore require fupports, 
or the people be obliged to pull down the 
walls and to build new ones, or to take 
other fteps for fecuring them. Several 
people have already in late years begun to 
make roofs of tiles. 

Among the publick buildings I will firft 
mention churches, of which there are fe- 
veral, for God is ferved in various ways in 
this country. 

I. The En^Iijh ejlablijhed church ftands 
in the northern part of the town, at fome 
diftance from the market, and is the fineft 
of all. It has a little, inconfiderabl& 

ileeple. 



Penjylvania, Philadelphia. 37 

fteeple, in which is a bell to be rung when 
it is time to go to church, and on burials. 
It has likewife a clock which fttikes the 
hours. This building which is called 
Chrift church, was founded towards the end 
of the laft century, but has lately been re- 
built and more adorned. It has two mi- 
nifters who get the greatefl part of their 
falary from England. In the beginning of 
this century, the Swedijh minifter the 
Rev. Mr. Rudmann, performed the fun(^ti- 
ons of a clergyman to the EngHfh congre- 
gation for near two years, during the ab- 
fence of their own clergyman. 

2. Th'e. Swedijh church, which is other- 
wife called the church of Weekacko, is on 
the fouthern part of the town, and almoft 
without it, on the river's lide, and its fitu- 
ation is therefore more agreeable than that 
of any other. I Ihall have an oportunity 
of defcribing it more exadly, when I (hall 
fpeak of the Swedes in particular, who live 
in this place. 

3. The German Lutheran church, is 
on the north-weft fide of the town. On 
my arrival in America it had a little fteeple, 
but that being but up by an ignorant 
archited:, before the walls of the church 
were quite dry, they leaned forwards by 
Its weight, and therefore they were forced 

C3 to 



2 8 September 1748. 

to pull it down again in the autumn of the 
year 1750. About that time the congre- 
gation received a fine organ from Germany, 
They have only one minifter, who likewife 
preaches at another Lutheran church in 
Germantown. He preaches alternately 
one funday in that church, and another in 
this. The firft clergyman which the Lu- 
therans had in this town, was the Rev. Mr. 
Muhlenbergy who laid the foundations of 
this church in 1743, and being called to 
another place afterwards, the rev. Mr. 
Brunholz from Slefimck was his fucceflbr, 
and is yet here. Both thefe gentlemen were 
fent to this place from Hall in Saxony, and- 
have been a great advantage to it by their 
peculiar talent of preaching in an edifying 
manner. A little v/hile before this church 
was built, the Lutheran Germans had no 
clergyman for themfelves, To that the 
every-where beloved Swedijl: minifter at 
Weekackoy Mr. Dylander, preached like- 
wife to them. He therefore preached three 
fermons every funday j the firft: early in the 
morning to the Germans j the fecond to the 
Swedes, and the third in the afternoon to 
the Etiglifh, and befides this he went .all 
the week into the country and inftruded 
the Germans who lived feparately there. 
He therefore frequently preached fixteen 

fermonq 



Penjyhaniat Fhyladelpbia, 39 

fermons a week. And after his death, 
which happened in Novemberij/\.iy the Ger^ 
mans firft wrote to Germany for a clergyman 
for themfelves. This congregation is at pre- 
fent very numerous, fo that every funday 
the church is very much crowded. It has 
two galleries, but no veftry. They do not 
fmg the collects, but read them before the 
altar. 

4. The o/d Prejbyterian churchy is not 
far from the market, and on the. fouth-fide 
oi market-jirtet. It is of a middling fize, 
and built in the year 1704, as the infcrip- 
tion on the northern pediment fhews. 
The roof is built almoft hemifpherical, or at 
leaft forms a hexagon. The whole build- 
ing ftands from north to fouth, for the 
prelbyterians do not regard, as other people 
do, whether their churches look towards a 
certain point of the heavens or not. 

5. The new Prejbyterian church was 
built in the year 1750, by the New-lights 
in the north- weftern part of the town. By 
the name of New-lightSy are underflood the 
people who have, from different religions, 
become profelytes to the well known 
Whitefieldy who in the years 1739, 1740, 
and likewife in 1744 and 1745 travelled 
through almofl all the EngliJJ:) colonies. 
His delivery, his extraordinary zeal, and 

C 4 other 



4© September 1748. 

other talents fo well adapted to the inteleds 
of his hearers, made him fo popular that he 
frequently, efpecially in the two firft 
years, got from eight thoufand to twenty 
thoufand hearers in the fields. His inten- 
tion in thefe travels, was to collect money 
for an orphans hofpital which had been 
ereded in Georgia. He here frequently 
colled:ed feventy pounds fterling at onefer-r 
rnon j nay, at two fermons which he 
preached in the year 1740, both on one 
funday, at Fhiladelphiay he got an hundred 
and fifty pounds. The profelytes of this 
man, or the above-mentioned new-lights^ 
are at prefent merely a feft of preibyterians. 
For though Whitejield was originally a 
clergyman o'i the EngiiJJ:) church, yet he 
deviated by little and little from her 
doctrines; and on arriving in the year 1744 
at Bojion in New England j he difputed with 
the Preibyterians about their doctrines, {o 
much that he almoft entirely embraced 
them. For Whitejield w^s no great difpu- 
tant, and could therefore eafily be led by 
thefe cunning people, whitherfoever they 
would have him. This likewife during his 
latter rtay in A?nerica caufed his audience 
to be lefs numerous than during the firft. 
The new-lights built firft in the year 1741, 
a great houfe in the weftern part of the 

town. 



Pettfyhania, Philadelphia. 41 

town, to hold divine fervice in. But a di- 
vifion arifing amongft them after the de- 
parture of Whitejield, and befides on other 
accounts, the building was fold to the town 
in the beginning of the year 1750, and def- 
ined for a fchool. The new-lights then 
built a church which I call the new Prejby- 
terian one. On its eaftern pediment is the 
following infcription, in golden letters : 
Templum Prejbyterianumt annuente numine, 
eredlum. Anno Dom. MDCCL. 

6. The old German reformed church is 
built in the weft north-weft part of the 
town, and looks like the church in the 
Ladugoor d field v\t2.x Stockholm. It is not yet 
finifhed, though for feveral years together, 
the congregation has kept up divine fervice 
in it. Thefe Germans attended the German 
fervice at the Swedijh church, whilft the 
SwediJJj minifter Mr. Dylander lived. — But 
as the Lutherans got a clergyman for them- 
felves on the death of the laft, thofe of the 
reformed church madelikewife preparations 
to get one from Dordrecht ; and the firft 
who was fent to them, was the Rev. Mr, 
Slaughter y whom I found on my arrival. 
But in the year 1750, another clergyman of 
the reformed church arrived from Holland, 
and by his artful behaviour, fo infmuated 
himfelf into the favour of the Rev. Mr. 

Slaughters 



42 September 1748. 

Slaughter ^ congregation, that the latter 
loft almoft half his audience. The two 
clergymen then difputed for feveral fun- J 
days together, about the pulpit, nay, people 1 
relate that the new comer mounted the 
pulpit on a faturday, and ftayed in it all 
night. The other being thus excluded, the 
two parties in the audience, made them- 
felves the fubjedt both of the laughter and 
of the fcorn of the whole town, by beating 
and bruifing each other, and committing 
other excefies. The affair was inquired 
into by the magiftrates, and decided in fa- 
vour of the rev. Mr. Slaughter, the perfon 
who had been abufed. 

7. The new reformed church, was built 
at a little diftance from the old one by the 
party of the clergyman, who had loft his 
caufe. This man however had influence 
enough to bring over to his party almoft 
the whole audience of his antagonift, at 
the end of the year 1750, and therefore this 
new church will foon be ufelefs. 

8. 9. The fakers have two meetings, 
one in the market, and the other in the 
northern part of the town. In them are 
according to the cuftom of this people, nei- 
ther altars, nor pulpits, nor any other or- 
naments ufual in churches; but only feats 
and fome fconces. They meet thrice every 

funday 



Penfyhaniat Philadelphia. 43 

funday in them, and befides that at certain 
times every week or every month. I ftiall 
mention more about them hereafter. 

10. The Baptijh, have their fervice, 
in the northern part of the town. 

1 1. The Roman Catholieksy have in the 
fouth-weft part of the town a great houfe, 
which is well adorned within, and has an 
organ. 

12. The Moravian Brethren, have hi- 
red a great houfe, in the northern part of the 
town, in which they performed the fervice 
hoxh mGer man znd. in Englijh; not only twice 
or three times every funday, but likewife 
every night after it was grown dark. But 
in the winter of the year 1750, they were 
obliged to drop their evening meetings; 
fome wanton young fellows having feveral 
times difturbed the congregation, by an in- 
ftrument founding like the note of a cuckoo, 
for this noife they made in a dark corner, 
not only at the end of every ftanza, but 
likevi'ife at that of every line, whilft they 
were finging a hymn. 

Those of the 'Englifi church, the New- 
lights, the Quakers, and the Germans of 
the reformed religion, have each of them 
their burying places on one fide out of 
town, and not near their churches, though 
the firft of thefe fometimes make an excep- 
tion. All the others bury their dead in 

their 



44 September 1748. 

their church-yards, and Moravian brethren 
bury where they can. The Negroes are 
buried in a particular place out of town. 

I NOW proceed to mention the other pub- 
lick buildings in Philadelphia. 

The Town-hall, or the place where the 
alTemblies are held, is fituated in the weftern 
part of the town, it is a fine large building, 
having a tower with a bell in the middle, 
and is the greateft ornament to the town.. 
The deputies of each province meet in it 
commonly every OBober, or even more 
frequently if circumftances require it, in 
order to confider of the welfare of the coun- 
try, and to hold their parliaments or diets in 
miniature. There they revife the old laws, « 
and make new ones. i 

On one fide of this building flands the 
Library, which was firfi: begun in the year 
1742, on a publick fpirited plan, formed and 
put in execution by the learned Mr. 
Franklin. For he perfuaded firft the mofl 
fubftantial people in town to pay forty ^ 
{hillings at the outfet, and afterwards an- 
nually ten fhillings, all in Penfylva?iia cur- 
rency, towards purchafing all kinds of ufeful 
books. The fubfcribers are entitled to 
make ufe of the books. Other people are 
likewife at liberty to borrow them for a 
certain time, but muft leave a pledge and 

pay 



Penjyhania, Philadelphia. 45 

pay eight-pence a week for a folio volume, 
fix-pence for a quarto, and four-pence for 
all others of a fmaller fize. As foon as the 
time, allowed a perfon for the periifal of 
the volume, is elapfed, it muft be return- 
ed, or he is fined. The money arifing in 
this manner is employed for the falary of 
the librarian, and for purchafing new 
books. There was already a fine colledi- 
on of excellent works, moft of them Eng~ 
Ufi', many French and Latin, but few in 
any other language. The fubfcribers were 
fo kind to me, as to order the librarian, 
during my ftay here, to lend me every book*, 
which I fhould want, without requiring 
any payment of me. The library was open 
every faturday from four to eight o'clock 
in the afternoon. Befides the books, feveral 
mathematical and phyfical inftruments, and 
a large colledion of natural curiofities were 
to be feen in it. Several little libraries 
were founded in the town on the fame foot- 
ing or nearly with this. 

The Court Houfe ftands in the mid-die of 
Market flreet, to the weft of the market, it 
is a fine building, with a little tower in 
which there is a bell. Below and round 
about this building the market is properly 
kept every week. 

The building of the Academy ^ is in the 

wertern 



46 September 1748;. 

weftern part of the town. It was formerly 
as I have before mentioned, a meeting-houfe 
of the followers of Whitefield, but they fold 
it in the year 1750, and it was deftined to 
be the feat of an univeriity, or to exprefs 
myfelf in more exadt terms, to be a college, 
it was therefore fitted up to this purpcfe. 
The youths are here only taught thofe things 
which they learn in our common fchools ; 
but in time, fuch ledures are intended to be 
read here, as are ufual in real univerfities. 

At the clofe of the laft war, a redoubt 
was eredled here, on the fouth fide of the 
town, near the river, to prevent the French 
and Spanifi privateers from landing. But 
this was done after a very ftrong debate. 
For the quakers oppofed all fortifications, as 
contrary to the tenets of their religion, 
which allow not chriftians to make war 
either offenfive or defenfive, but direct them 
to place their truft in the Almighty alone. 
Several papers were then handed about for 
and againft the opinion. But the enemy's 
privateers having taken feveral veflels be- 
longing to the town, in the rivei, many 
of the quakers, if not all of them, found 
it reafonable to forward the building of the 
fonification as much as poflible, at leafl by 
a fupply of money. 

Of all the natural advantages of the 

town^ 



Penfyhaniay Philadelphia. 4.7 

town, its temperate clitnate\% the moil con- 
iiderable, the winter not being over fevere, 
and its duration butihort, andthefummernot 
too hot; the country round about bringing 
forth thofe fruits in the greateft plenty, 
which are raifed by hulbandry. Their 
September and OSiober are like the beginning 
of the Swedijh AuguJL And the firft days 
in their February are frequently as pleafant, 
as the end of April and the beginning of 
May in Sweden, Even their coldelt days in 
fome winters have been no feverer, than 
the days at the end of autumn are in the mid- 
dlemoft parts of Sweden^ and the fouthern 
ones of Finland, 

The good and clear water in Philadelphia ^ 
is likewife one of its advantages. For though 
there are no fountains in the town, yet 
there is a well in every houfe, and feveral in 
the ftreets, all which afford excellent water 
for boiling, drinking, wafliing, and other 
ufes. The water is commonly met with 
at the depth of forty feet. The water of 
the river Delaware is likewife good. But 
in making the wells, a fault is frequently 
committed, which in feveral places of the 
town fpoils the water which is naturally 
good ; I fliall in the fequel take an oppor- 
tunity of fpeaking further about it. 

The Delaware is exceeding convenient 

for 



48 September 1748. 

for trade. It is one of the greateft rivers irt 
the world : is three Englijh miles broad at 
its mouth, two miles at the town of Wil- 
mington, and three quarters of a mile at 
Philadelphia. This city lies within ninety 
or an hundred Englijh miles from the fea, 
or from the place where the river Delaware 
difcharges itfelf into the bay of that name. 
Yet its depth is hardly ever lefs than five or 
fix fathom. The greateft fhips therefore 
can fail quite up to the town and anchor in 
good ground in five fathoms of water, on 
the fide of the bridge. The water here has 
no longer a faltifh tafte, and therefore all 
deftrudive worms, which have faftened 
themfelves to the fliips in the fea, and have 
pierced holes into them, either die, or drop 
oif, after the fhip has been here for a while. , 

The only difadvantage which trade la- I 
hours under here, is the freezing of the ri- 
ver -almoft every winter for a month or 
more. For during that time the navigati- \ 
on is entirely flopped. But this does not ' 
happen at Bofiouy New Torky and other . 
towns which are nearer the fea. 

The tide comes up to Philadelphia^ and 
even goes thirty miles higher, to Tretiton. 
The difference between high and low water 
is eight feet at Philadelphia. 

The cataracts of the Delaware near 

Trenton, 



Fenfyhmia, Philadelphia. 4^ 

'Trenton, and of the Skulkill at fome diftance 
from Philadelphiuy make thefe rivers ufelefs 
further up the country, in regard to the 
conveyance of goods either from or to Phi- 
ladelphia. Both muft therefore be carried 
on waggons or carts. It has therefore al- 
ready been thought of to make thefe two 
rivers navigable in time, at leaft for large 
boats and fmall veflels. 

Several fliips are annually built of 
American oak, in the docks which are 
made in feveral parts of the town and about 
it, yet they can by no means be put in 
comparifon with thofe built of European 
oak, in point of goodnefs and duration. 

The town carries on a great trade, both 
with the inhabitants of the country, and 
to other parts of the world, efpecially to 
the Weji Indies, South America^ and the 
Antilles -, to England, Ireland, Portugal, 
and to feveral Englijh colonies in North 
America. Yet none but Englifi ihips are 
allowed to come into this port. 

Philadelphia reaps the greateft profits 
from its trade to the Wejl Indies. For thi- 
ther the inhabitants fliip almoft every day 
a quantity of flour, butter, flefh and other 
viduals ; timber, plank and the like. In 
return they receive either fugdr, molaffes, 
rum, indigo, mahogany, and other goods, 
D or 



$p September 1748. 

or ready money. The true mahogany, 
which grows in Jamaica, is at prefent al- 
moft all cut down. 

They fend both Weji India goods, and 
their own productions to England -y the lat- 
ter are all forts of woods, efpecially black 
walnut, and oak planks for fhips -, fhips 
ready built, iron, hides and tar. Yet this 
latter is properly bought in New Jerfey, the 
forefts of which province are confequently 
more ruined than any others. Ready mo- 
ney is likewife fent over to England, from 
whence in return they get all forts of goods 
there manufactured, viz. fine and coarfe 
cloth, linen, iron ware, and other wrought 
metals, and Eafl India goods. For it is to 
be obferved that England fupplies Philadel- 
phia with almoft all fluffs and manufaftur- 
ed goods which are wanted here. 

A GREAT quantity of linfeed goes annu- 
ally to /r^/^W, together with many of the 
fhips which are built here. Portugal gets 
wheat, corn, flour and maize which is not 
ground. Spain fometimes takes fome corn. 
But all the money, which is got in thefe 
feveral countries, muft immediately be fent 
to England, in payment for the goods which 
are got from thence, and yet thofe fums are 
not fufficient to pay all the debts. 

But to fhew more exadly, what the 
town and province have imported from 

'P-nffland 



Penjyhania, Philadelphia, 5 1 

England f in different years, I fliall here 
infert an extrafl from the Englijh cuftom- 
houfe books, which I got from the engi- 
neerj Lewis Evans^ at Philadelphia, and 
which will fufficiently anfwer the purpofe. 
This gentleman had defired one of his 
friends in London to fend him a compleat 
account of all the goods fhipped from 
England to Penfylvania in feveral years. 
He got this account, and though the goods 
are not enumerated in it, yet their value 
in money is calculated. Such extrads from 
the cuftom-houfe books have been made 
for every North- American province, in or- 
der to convince the Englijh parliament, 
that thofe provinces have taken greater 
quantities of the goods in that kingdom, 
ever fince they have turned their money 
into bills. 

I HAVE taken the copy from the original 
itfelf, and it is tobeobferved that it begins 
with the chriftmas of the year 1722, and 
ends about the fame time of the year 1747. 
In the firft column is the value of the 
foreign goods, the duty for which has al- 
ready been paid in England, The fecond 
column (hews the value of the goods ma- 
nufadurcd in England and exported to 
Penfylvania. And in the laft column thefe 
two fums are added together, but at the 
bottom each of the columns is caft up. 

D 2 But 



^.2 September 1748. 

But this table does not include the goods 
which are annually {hipped in great quantitie 
to Penfyhania from Scotland and Irelandy a 
mong which is a great quantity of linen. 



1 The Value of the Goods annually fhipped from 1 


Irt n "^j £«j-/fl:Wt0 P£«/y/x'fi»/«. ^ 


le Year, from 
ne Chriftmas 
) another. 


Foreign Goods for 
which the duty has 
already been paid, 
& which therefore 
onlyreq. receipts. 


Englijh manufac- 
tured Goods. 


TheSumsofthefc 
two preceding co- 
lumns added to- 
gether. 




/. s. d. 


/. J. d. 


/. .. d. 


1723 


5>99 


»3 


5 


10793 


5 » 


15992 


19 




1724 


9373 


15 


8 


20951 


5 


30324 


16 




1725 


10301 


12 


6 


31508 


I 8 


42209 


H 




1726 


9371 


1 1 


6 


28263 


6 2 


37634 


17 




1727 


10243 





7 


21736 


10 





31979 


10 




1728 


14073 


13 


3 


23405 


6 


2 


37478 


'9 


II 


1729 


12948 


8 


5 


16851 


2 


5 


29799 


lO 


10 


1730 


15660 


10 


u 


32931 


16 


6 


48592 


7 




»73i 


11838 


17 


4 


32421 


18 


9 


44260 


16 




1732 


15240 


H 


4 


26457 


19 


3 


41698 


13 




1733 


13187 





8 


27378 


7 


5 


40585 


8 




1734 


19648 


^5 


9 


34743 


12 


I 


54392 


7 


10 


1735 


18078 


4 


3 


30726 


7 


1 


48804 


II 




1736 


23456 


^5 


II 


38057 


2 


5 


61513 


18 




1737 


14517 


4 


3 


42173 


2 


4 


56690 


6 




J738 


20320 


19 


3 


41129 


5 





61450 


4 




J739 


9041 


4 


5 


45411 


7 


6 


54452 


11 


II 


1740 


10280 


2 





46471 


12 


9 


56751 


H 




1741 


12977 


18 


10 


78032 


13 


I 


91010 


II 


II 


1742 


14458 


6 


3 


60836 


17 


I 


75295 


3 




^743 


19220 


1 


6 


60120 


4 


10 


79340 





4 


1744 


1 468 1 


8 


4 


47595 


18 


2 


,62214 


6 


6 


J 745 


13043 


8 


8 


41237 


2 


3 


'54280 


10 


11 


1746 


18103 


12 


7 


55595 


^9 


7 


73699 


12 


2 


1747 


8585 


H 


11 


73819 2- 8»;82404' 17 1 7 | 


Total. 


343,789 16 969,049 I 6 1,312,838 17 6j 


1 


1 




















1 



Penfyhania, Philadelphia. 53 

The whole extent of the Philadelphia 
trade may be comprehended from the num- 
ber of fhips, which annually arrive at and 
fail from this town. I intend to infert here 
a table of a few years which I have taken 
from the gazettes of the town. The ihips 
coming and going in one year, are to be 
reckoned from the twenty fifth of March 
of that year, to the twenty fifth of March of 
the next. 



The Year. 


Ships arrived. 


Ships failed 


1735 


199 


212. 


1740 


'',^7 


208. 


1741 


292 


309- 


1744 


229 


271. 


1745 


280 


301. 


1746 


273 


293- 



But it is much to be feared that the trade 
of Philadelphia, and of all the Englijh colo- 
nies, will rather decreafe than encreafe, 
in cafe no provifion is made to prevent it. 
I fhall hereafter plainly fhew upon what 
foundation this decreafe of trade is likely to 
take place. 

The town not only furnifhes moft of 

the inhabitants of Penfyhania with the 

goods which they want, but numbers of 

D 3 the 



54- September 1748. 

the inhabitants of New J er/ey come every 
day and carry on a great trade. 

The town has two great fairs every year; 
one in May, and the other in November, 
both on the fixteenth days of thofe two 
months. But befides thefe fairs, there are 
every week two market days, viz. Wednef^ 
day and Saturday. On thofe days the coun^ 
try people in Penfylvania and New Jerfey, 
bring to town a quantity of victuals, and 
other produdions of the country, and this 
is a great advantage to the town. It is 
therefore to be wifhed that the like regula- 
tion might be made in our Swedt/h towns. 
You are fure to meet with every produce of 
the feafon, which the country affords, on 
the market-days. But on other days, they 
are in vain fought for. 

Provisions are always to be got frefh 
here, and for that reafon moil: of the inha- 
bitants never buy more at a time, than what 
will be fufficient till the next market-day. 
In fummer there is a market almoft every 
day; for the victuals do not keep well in 
the great heat. There are two places in 
the town where thefe markets are kept ; 
but that near the court-houfe is the princi- 
pal. It begins about four or five o'clock in 
the morning, and ends about nine o'clock 
in the forenoon. 

The 



Penfyhaniay Philadelphia, 55 

The town is not enclofed, and has no 
other cuftom-houfe than the great one for 
the fhips. 

The governor of the whole province lives 
here ; and though he is nominated by the 
heirs of Pen, yet he cannot take that office 
without being confirmed by the king of 
England. 

The quakers of almoft all parts of North- 
America, have their great aflembly here 
once a year. 

In the year 1743, a fociety for the ad^ 
vancement of the fciences was ereded here. 
Its objedts would have been the curiofities 
of the three kingdoms of nature, mathe- 
maticks, phyfick, chemiftry, oeconomy, and 
manufactures. But the war, which enfued 
immediately, flopped all defigns of this na- 
ture, and fince that time, nothing has been 
done towards eftablifhing any thing of this 
kind. 

The declination of the needle was here 
obferved on the thirtieth of OSlober 1750, 
old ftyle, to be five deg. and forty-five 
min. wefl. It was examined by the new 
meridian, which was drawn at Philadelphia 
in the autumn of the fame year, and ex* 
tended a mile in length. By experience it 
appears, that this declination lelTens about 
a degree in twenty years time. 

D 4 The 



^& September 1748. 

The greateft difference in the rifing and 
falling of the barometer, is according ta 
the obfervations made for feveral years to- 
gether by Mr. James Logan, found at a8'' 
59 and 30" 78. 

Here are three printers, and every week 
fwo Englijh, and one German news-paper 
is printed. 

In the year 1732, on the fifth of Septem- 
ber, old ftyle, a little earthquake was fek 
here about noon, and at the fame time at 
Bojion in New England, and at Montreal in , 
Canada, which places are above fixty Swe-^^ 
dijh miles afunder. 

In the month of November of the yelr 
iyTfJ, the well known prince from mount 
Lebanon, Sheich Sidi came to Philadelphia, on 
his travels through moft of the Englifb 
American colonies. And in the fame year 
a fecond earthquake was felt about eleven 
o'clock at night, on the feventh of Decern^ 
ber. But it did not continue above half a 
minute, and yet, it was felt according to 
the accounts of the gazettes at the fame 
hour in Newcaftle, New Tork, New London, 
Bojion, and other towns of New England. 
It had therefore likewife reached feveral 
ihiles. 

The count Sinzendorf* arrived here in 

* Head of the Moravian Brethren. F. 

the 



Penfyhania, Philadelphia, 57 

the December of th^ year 1741, and conti- 
nued till the next fpring. His uncommon 
behaviour perfuaded many Englijhmen of 
rank, that he was difordercd in his head. 

I HAVE not been able to find the exad: 
number of the inhabitants of Philadelphia. 
In the year 1746, they were reckoned above 
ten thoufand, and fince that time their 
number is incredibly encreafed. Neither 
can it be made out from the Bills of morta- 
lity, fince they are not kept regularly in all 
the churches. I Ihall, however, mention 
fome of thofe which appeared either in the 
gazettes, or in bills printed on purpofe. 

Year. Dead. Year. Dead. Year. Dead. 

420 
672 

758 

716 

From thefe bills of mortality it alfo ap- 
pears, that the difeafes which are the moft 
fatal, are confumptions, fevers, convulfi- 
ons, pleurefies, hsemorrhagies, and drop- 
fies. 

The number of thofe that are born can- 
not be determined, fince in many churches 
no order is obferved with regard to this af- 
fair. The quakers, who are the moft 

nume- 



1730 


227 


I74I 


345 


1745 


1738 


250 


1742 


409 


1748 


J739 


350 


1743 


425 


1749. 


1740 


290 


1744 


410 


1750 



58 September 1748. 

numerous In this town, never baptize their 
children, tliough they take a pretty exadt 
account of all who are born among them. 

It is likewife impoffible to guefs at the 
number of inhabitants from the dead, be- 
caufe the town gets fuch great fupplies an- 
nually from other countries. In the fum- 
mer of the year 1749, near twelve thoufand 
Germans came over to Philadelphia, many 
of whom ftaid in that town. In the fame 
year the houfes in Philadelphia were count- 
ed, and found to be two thoufand and feven- 
ty fix in number. 

The town is now quite filled with inha- 
bitants, which in regard to their country, 
religion and trade, are very different from 
each other. You meet with excellent 
maflers in all trades, and many things are 
made here full as well as in England. Yet 
no manufactures, efpecially for making fine 
cloth are eflablifhed. Perhaps the reafon 
is, that it can be got with fo little difficul- 
ty from England, and that the breed of fheep 
which is brought over, degenerates in pro- 
cefs of time, and affords but a coarfe wool. 

Here is great plenty of provifions, and 
their prices are very moderate. There are 
no examples of an extraordinary dearth. 

Every one who acknowledges God to 
be the Creator, preferver and ruler of all 

things. 



Penjyhaniay Philadelphia, 59 

things, and teaches or undertakes nothing 
againft the ftate, or againfl: the common 
peace, is at liberty to fettle, ftay, and car- 
ry on his trade here, be his religious prin- 
ciples ever fo itrange. No one is here mo- 
lefted on account of the erroneous princi- 
ples of the dodtrine which he follows, if he 
does not exceed the above-mentioned bounds. 
And he is fo well fecured by the laws in 
his perfon and property, and enjoys fuch 
liberties ; that a citizen oi Philadelphia may 
in a manner be faid to live in his houfelike 
a king. 

On a careful confideration of what I have 
already faid, it will be eafy to conceive how 
this city fhould rife fo fuddenly from no- 
thing, into fuch grandeur and perfection, 
without fuppofing any powerful monarch's 
contributing to it, either by punifhing the 
wicked, or by giving great fupplies in mo- 
ney. And yet its fine appearance, good 
regulations, agreeable lituation, natural ad- 
vantages, trade, riches and power, are by 
no means inferior to thofe of any, even of 
the moft ancient towns in Europe, It has 
not been neceflary to force people to come 
and fettle here j on the contrary foreigners 
of different languages, have left their coun- 
try, houfes, property and relations, and 
ventured over wide and flormy feas, in order 

to 



6o September 1748. 

to come hither. Other countries, which 
have been peopled for a long fpace of time, 
complain of the fmall number of their in- 
habitants. But Penfylvaniaj which was no 
better than a defart in the year 1681, and 
hardly contained five hundred people, now 
vies with feveral kingdoms in Europe, in 
number of inhabitants. It has received 
numbers of people which other countries, 
to their infinite lofs, have either negleded 
or expelled. 

A WRETCHED old wooden building, on 
a hill near the river fomewhat north of the 
Wickako church, belonging to one of the 
Sons of Sven, of whom, as before-mention- 
ed, the ground was bought for building 
Philadelphia upon, is preferved on purpofe, 
as a memorial of the poor ftate of that 
place, before the town was built on it. 
Its antiquity gives it a kind of fuperiority 
over all the other buildings in town, though 
in itfelf the worfi: of all. This hut was in- j 
habited, whilft as yet flags, deers, elks, " 
and beavers, at broad day Hght lived in the 
future ftreets, church-yards, and market- 
places oi Philadelphia. The noife of a fpin- 
ning wheel was heard in this houfe, before 
the manufaaures now eftablifhed were 
thought of, or Philadelphia built. But with 
all thefe advantages, this houfc is ready to 

fall 



Penfylvaniat Philadelphia, 6i 

^11 down, and in a few years to come, it 
will be as difficult to find the place where 
it ftood, as it was unlikely at the time of 
its eredion, that one of the greateft towns 
in America, ftiould in a fhort time ftand 
clofe up to it. 

September the 7th. Mr. Peter Cock, a 
merchant of this town, affured me that he 
had laft week himfelf been a fpedator of a 
fnake's fwallowing a little bird. This bird, 
which from its cry has the name of Cat 
birdy ( Mufcicapa Carolinenjis, Linn.) fiew 
from one branch of a tree to another, and 
was making a doleful tune. At the bot- 
tom of the tree, but at a fathom's diftance 
from the ftem, lay one of the great black 
fnakes, with its head continually upright, 
pointing towards the bird, which was al- 
ways fluttering about,! and now and then 
fettling on the branches. At firft it only 
kept in the topmoft branches, but by de- 
grees it came lower down, and even flew 
upon the ground, and hopped to the place 
where the fnake lay, which immediately 
opened its mouth, caught the bird and 
fwallowed it ; but it had fcarce finiflied its 
repaft before Mr. Cock came up and killed 
it. I was afterwards told that this kind of 
fnakes was frequently obferved to purfue 
little birds in this manner. It is already 

well 



62 September 1748. 

well known that the rattle fnake does the' 
fame. 

I WALKED out to day into the fields in 
order to get more acquainted with the 
plants hereabouts, I found feveral European 
and even Swedijh Tp\2inis among them. But 
thofe which are peculiar to America, are 
much more numerous 

The Virginian maple grows in plenty on 
the Ihores of the Delatvare. The Englijh 
in this country call it either Buttonwood, 
or Waterbeech, which latter name is mod 
ufual. The Swedes call it Wattenbok, or 
Wajbok. It is Ijinnceus% Platanus occidentalism 
See Catejbys^zt. Hift. oi Carolina, vol. i. 
p. 56. t. 56. It grows for the greatefl part in 
low places, but efpecially on the edge of 
rivers and brooks. But thefe trees are 
eafiiy tranfplanted to more dry places, if 
they be only filled with good foil ; and as 
their leaves are large and their foliage 
thick, they are planted about the houfes 
and in gardens, to afford a pleafant fliade 
in the hot feafon, to the enjoyment of 
which fome feats were placed under them. 
Some of the Swedes had boxes, pails, and 
the like, made of the bark of this tree by 
the native Americans. They fay that thofe 
people whilft they were yet fettled here, 
made little diflies of this bark for gathering 

whort- 



Penfyhaniat Philadelphia, 6^ 

whortleberries. The bark was a line in 
thicknefs. This tree likewife grows in 
marfhes, or in fwampy fields, where a{h 
and red maple commonly grow. They are 
frequently as tall and thick, as the befl: of 
our fir trees. The feed flays on them till 
fpring, but in the middle of ^pril the pods 
open and fhed the feeds. Query, Whether 
they are not ripe before that time, and 
confequently fooner fit for fowing ? This 
American maple is remarkable for its quick 
growth, in which it exceeds all other trees. 
There are fuch numbers of them on the 
low meadows between Philadelphia and the 
ferry at Gloucejier, on both fides of the 
road, that in fummer time you go as it 
were through a fhady walk. In that part 
of Philadelphia which is near the Swedijh 
church, fome great trees of this kind ftand 
on the fhore of the river. In the year 1750, 
on the 15th. oi May I faw the buds ftill on 
them, and in the year 1749 they began to 
flower on the eighth of that month. Several 
trees of this fort are planted at Chelfea near 
Londoriy and they now in point of height 
vie with the talleft oak. 

.S^/^^^/^i^^r the i8th. In the morning I 
went with the Swedijh painter, Mr. He£e' 
lius, to the country feat of Mr. Bartram, 
which is about four Englijh miles to the 

fouth 



^4 S^tfmher 1748. 

fouth of Fhiladelphiay at fome diftance from . 
the high road to Marylandy Virginia, and I 
Carolina. I had therefore the firft oppor* 
tunity here, of getting an exa<ft knowledge 
of the ftate of the country, which was a 
plain covered with all ^i^inds of trees with 
deciduous leaves. The ground was fandy, 
mixed with clay. But the fand feemed to 
be in greater quantity. In fome parts the 
wood was cut down, and we faw the ha- 
bitations of fome country people, whofe 
corn-fields and plantations were round their 
farm-houfes. The wood was full of mul- 
berry-trees, walnut-trees of feveral kinds, 
chefnut-trees, faffafras, and the like. Se- 
veral forts of wild vines clafped their ten- 
drils round, and climbed up to the fummits 
of the higheft trees ; and in other places 
they twined round the enclofures, fo thick, 
that the latter almoft funk down under 
their weight. The Perjimon, or Diofpyros 
Virginiana, Linn. fp. pi. p. 15 10, gr^w 
in the mar(hy fields, and about fprings. Its 
little apples looked very well already, but are 
not fit for eating, before the froft has aflfedt- 
ed them, and then they have a very fine 
tafte. Heffelius gathered fome of them, and 
defired my fervant to tafte of the fruits of 
the land -, but this poor credulous fellow, 
had hardly bit into them, when he felt the 

qualities 



Penfylvania, Philadelphia, 65 

qualhies they have before the froft has pe- 
netrated them. For they contrad:ed his 
mouth fo that he could hardly fpeak, and 
had a very difagreeable tafte. This dif- 
gufted him fo much that he vi^as vi^ith dif* 
iiculty perfuaded to tafte of it during the 
whole of our ftayin -America^ notwithftand- 
ing it lofes all its acidity and acquires an 
Agreeable flavour in autumn and towards 
the beginning of winter. For the fellow 
always imagined, that though he Should 
«at them ever fo late in the year, they would 
ftill retain the fame difagreeable tafie. 

To fatisfy the curiofity of thofe, who are 
willing to know, how the woods look in 
this country, and whether or no the trees 
in them are the fame with thofe found in 
ourforefts, I here infert a fmall catalogue of 
thofe which grow fpontaneoufly in the woode 
which are neareft to Philadelphia, But I 
exclude fuch fhrubs as do not attain any con- 
fiderable height. I {hall put that tree firft. in 
order, which is moft plentiful, and fo on 
with the reft, and therefore trees which I 
have found but iingle, though near the 
town, will be laft. 

I. ^ercus alba, the White oak in ^ood 
ground. 

E 2. ^uercus 



66 September 1748. 

2. ^ercus rubra, or the black oak. 

3. ^ercus hifpanica, the Spanijh oak, a 
variety of the preceding. 

4. JugJans alba, hiccory, a kind of wal- 
nut tree, of which three or four varieties 
are to be met with. 

5. Rubus Occident alts, or American black- 
berry fhrub. 

6. Acer rubrum, the maple tree with 
red flowers, in fwamps. 

7. Rhus glabra, the fmooth leaved Su- 
mach, in the woods, on high glades, and 
old corn-fields. 

8. Vitis labrufca and Vulpina, vines of 
feveral kinds. 

9. Sambucus canadenjis, American Elder 
.tree,_ along the hedges and on glades. 

^10. ^ercus phellos, the Iwamp oak, 
in moraffes. 

1 1 . Azalea lutea, the American upright 
honey-fuckle, in the woods in dry places. 

12. Crataegus Crus galli, the Virginian 
Azarole, in woods. 

13. Vaccinium , a fpecies of 

whortleberry fhrub. 

14. §luercus prinus, the chefnut oak in 
good ground. 

15. Cornus ftorida, the cornelian cherry, 
in all kinds of ground. 

1 6. Liriodendron 'Tulipifera, the tulip tree, 

in 



Penjyhania, Philadelphia. 67 

in every kind of foil. 

17. Prunus 'virgim'ana, the wild cherry 
tree. 

1 8 . Vaccijiium -, a frutex whor- 
tleberry, in good ground. 

19. Prims verticillatus, the winterberry 
tree in fwamps. 

20. P lat anus Occident alis, the water-beech. 

21. Nyjj'a aquaticay the tupelo tree ; on 
fields and mountains,* 

22. Liquidambar Jiyraciflua, fweet gum 
tree, near fprings. 

23. Befula Alnust alder, a variety of the 
Swedifi-y it was here but a {hrub. 

24. Fagiis cajianea, the chefnut tree, on 
corn-fields, paftures, and in little woods. 

25. Juglans nigra, the black walnut 
tree, in the fame place with the preceding 
tree. 

26. Rhus radicans, the twining fumach, 
climbed along the trees. 

27. j4cer NegunJoy the alh-leaved maple, 
in moralTes and fwampy places. 

28. Prunus do??ieJiica, the wild plumb 
tree. 

29. Ulmus Americana, the white elm. 

• Dr. Linn^us mentions only one fpecies oi Nyjfa, namely 
NyJJa aquatica ; Mr. Kalm does not mention the name of the 
fpecies ; but if his is not a different fpecies, it muft at leaft be 
a variety, fince he fays it grows on hills, whereas the aquatica 
grows in the water. F. 

E 2 QO. Pru- 



15^ S^iember 1748. 

30. Prunus fpinofa, floe flirub, in low 
places. 

3 1 . Laurus fajfafras, the faffafras tree, ih 
a loofe foil mixed with fand. 

32. Ribes nigrum, the currant tree, grew 
in low places and in marfhes. 

3 3 . Fraxinus excelfiory the afh tree in low 
places. 

34. Smilax laurifolia, the rough bind 
weed with the bay leaf, in woods and on 
pales or enclofures. 

35. Kalmia latifoUa, the American dwarf 
laurel, on the northern fide of mountains. 

36. Morus rubra, the mulberry tree on 
fields, hills and near the houfes. 

37. Rhus vernix, the poifonous Sumach, 
in wet places. 

38. ^ercus rubra, the red oak, but a 
peculiar variety. 

39. Hamamelis virginica, the witch hazel. 

40. Diofpyros virginiana, the periimon. 

41. Pyrus coro7iaria, the anchor tree. 

42. Juniperus virginiana, the red juniper, 
in a dry poor foil. 

43. Laurus ajivalis, fpice-wood in a 
wet foil. 

44. Carpimis ojiry a, ^ifpeciQS of horn beam 
in a good foil. 

45. Carpinus betulus, a horn beam, in 
the fame kind of foil with the former. 

46. Fagus 



Penfyhania, Philadelphia. 69 

46. Fagus fyhatica, the beech, likewife 
in good foil. 

47. Juglans r, a fpecies of wal- 
nut tree on hills near rivers,* called by the 

Swedes Butternufira. 

48. Pinus Americana, Pen fyhanian fir tree; 
on the north fide of mountains, and in 
vallies. -j' 

49. Betula lenta, a fpecies of birch, on 
the banks of rivers. 

50. Cephalantus occidentalism button wood, 
in wet places. 

5 1 . Pinus tada, the New Jerfey fir tree, 
on dry fandy heaths. 

52. Cercis canadenjis, the fallad tree, in 
a good foil. 

53. Robinia pfeudacacia, the locuft tree, 
on the corn-fields. 

54. Magnolia glauca, the laurel-leaved 
tulip tree, in marfhy foil. 

55. T^ilia Americana, the lime tree, in a 
good foil. 

56. Gleditjia triacanthos, the honey locuft 
tree, or three thorned acacia, in the fame foil. 

t^']. Celtis occidentalis, the nettle tree, in 
the fields. 

58. Annona muricata, the cuftard apple 
in a fruitful foil. 

E 3 58. An- 

• Quere. Is this the Juglans haccata of Linnaus ? F. 
t This fpecies is not to be met with in Linn, /pec. plant. F. 



JO September 1748. 

We vifited feveral Swedes, who .were 
fsttled here, and were at prefent in very, 
good circumftances. One of them was 
called Andrew Rambo ; he had a fine houfe 
built of ftone, two ftories high, and a great 
orchard near it. We were every where 
well received, and flayed over night with- 
the above-mentioned countryman. We 
faw no other marks of autumn, than that 
feveral fruits of this feafon were already 
ripe. For befides this all the trees were yet 
as green, and the ground ftill as much co- 
vered with flowers, as in our fummer. 
Thoufands of frogs croaked ail the night 
long in the marfhes and brooks. The lo- 
cufts and grafshoppers made likewife fuch a 
great noife,, that it was hardly poflible for 
one perfon to underftand another. The 
trees too, were full of all forts of birds, 
which by the variety of their, fine plumage, 
delighted the eye, while the infinite varie- 
ty of their tunes were continually re-echoed. 

The orchards, along which we pafied to- 
day, were only enclofed by hurdles. But 
they contained all kinds of fine fruit. We 
wondered at firfi: very much when our lead- 
er leaped over the hedge into the orchards, 
and gathered fome agreeable fruit for us. 
But our aftonifhment was ftill greater, when 
we faw that the people in the garden were 

ft 



Penjyhania, Philadelphia, y i 

fo little concerned at it, as not even to look 
at us. But our companion told us, that the 
people here were not fo exadt in regard to 
a few fruits, as they are in other countries 
where the foil is not fo fruitful in them. 
We afterwards found very frequently that 
the country people in Sweden and Finland 
guarded their turneps more carefully, than 
the people here do the moft exquifite fruits. 

September iho. 19th. As I walked this 
morning into the fields, I obferved that a 
copious dew was fallen -, for the grafs was 
as wet as if it had rained. The leaves of 
the plants and trees, had contrad:ed fo 
much moifture, that the drops ran down. 
I found on this occaiion that the dew was 
not only on the fuperior, but likewife on 
the inferior fide of the leaves. I therefore 
carefully confidered many leaves both of 
trees and of other plants ^ both of thofe 
which are more above, and of thofe which 
are nearer to the ground. But I found in 
all of them, that both fides of the leaves 
were equally bedewed, except thofe of the 
Verbafcum Thapfus, or great Mullein, which 
though their fuperior fide was pretty well 
covered with the dew, yet their inferior 
had but a little. 

Every countryman, even a common 

peafanr, has commonly an orchard near 

E 4 his 



72 September 1748. 

his houfe, in which all forts of fruit, fiich 
as peaches, apples, pears, cherries, and 
others, are in plenty. The peaches were 
now almoft ripe. They are rare in Europe^ 
particularly in Sweden, for in that country 
hardly any people befides the rich taile 
them. But here every countryman had an 
orchard full of peach trees, which were 
covered with fuch quantities of fruit, that 
we could fcarcely walk in the orchard, 
without treading upon thofe peaches which 
were fallen off; many of which were always 
left on the ground, and only part of thetn 
was fold in town, and the reft was confu- 
med by the family and ftrangers -, for every 
one that paffed by, was at liberty to go in- 
to the orchard, and to gather as many of 
them as he wanted. Nay, this fine fruiu 
was frequently given to the fwine. 

This fruit is however fometimes kept 
for winter ufe, and for this purpofe they 
are prepared in the following manner. 
The fruit is cut into four parts, the ftone 
thrown away, and the fruit put upon a 
thread, on which they are expofed to the 
funfhine in the open air, till they are fuffi- 
ciently dry. They are then put into a vef- 
fel for winter. But this manner of drying 
them i« not very good, becaufe the rain of 
this feafon very eafily fpoils and putrifies 

thern, 



Penjylvaniai Philadelphia, 73 

them, whilft they hang in the open air. 
For this reafon a different method is fol- 
lowed by others, which is by far the moft 
eligible. The peaches are as before cut 
into four parts, are then either put upon a 
thread, or laid upon a board, and fo hung 
up in the air when the fun fhines. Being 
dried in fome meafure, or having loft their 
juice by this means, they are put into an 
oven, out of which the bread has but juft 
been taken, and are left in it for a while. 
But they are foon taken out and brought 
into the frefh air ; and after that they are 
again put into the oven, and this is 
repeated feveral times till they are as dry as 
they ought to be. For if they were dried 
up at once in the oven, they would ihrivel 
up too much, and lofe part of their flavour. 
They are then put up and kept for the 
winter. They are either baked into tarts 
and pyes, or boiled and prepared as dried 
apples and pears are in Sweden. Several 
people here dry and preferve their apples in 
the fame manner as their peaches. 

The peach trees, have, as I am told, 
been firft planted here by the Europeans. 
But at prefent they fucceed very well, and 
require even lefs care, than our apple and 
pear trees. 

The orehafGS have feldom other fruit 

thai) 



74 September 1748. 

than apples and peaches. Pear trees are 
fcarce in this province, and thofe that 
had any of them, had planted them in 
their orchards. They likewife have cher- 
ry trees in the orchards, but commonly on 
the fides of them towards the houfe, or 
along the enclofures. Mulberry trees are 
planted on fome hillocks near the houfe, 
and fometimes even in the court yards of 
the houfe. The black walnut trees, or 
"Juglans nigra, grow partly on hills, and in 
fields near the farm-houfes, and partly along 
the enclofures -, but moft commonly in the 
forefts. No other trees of this kind, are 
made ufe of here. The chefnuts are left 
in the fields ; here and there is one in a dry 
field or in a wood. 

The Hibifcus efculentus, or Okra,^ is a 
plant which grows wild in the Weji Indies, 
but is planted in the gardens here. The 
fruit, which is a long pod, is cut whilft it 
is green, and boiled in foups, which there- 
by become as thick as pulfe. This diHi is 
reckoned a dainty by fome people, and ef- 
pecially by the negroes. 

Capsicum annuum, or Guinea pepper is 
likewife planted in gardens. When the 

fruit 



* In Miller's Garden. Diftionary, It is called Ketmia Indi- 
ca folio ficus, fruSlu pentagono, recuwo efculento, graciliori, et 
longiori. 



Penjyhania, Philadelphia. j^ 

fruit is ripe it is almofi: entirely red, it is 
put to a roafted or boiled piece of meat, a 
little of it being ftrewed upon it, or mixed 
with the broth. Befides this, cucumbers 
are pickled with it. Or the pods are 
pounded whilfl they are yet tender, and be- 
ing mixed with fait are preferved in a bot- 
tle ; and this fpice is ftrewed over roafted 
or boiled meat, or fried fifh, and gives them 
a very fine tafte. But the fruit by itfelf is 
as biting as common pepper. 

This country contains many fpecies of 
the plant, which Dr. Linnaus calls Rhus, 
and the moft common is the Rhusfoliis pin- 
natisferratis lanceolates retrinque nudisy or the 
Rhus glabra. The Englijh call this plant 
Sumach. But the Swedes here, have no 
particular name for it, and therefore make 
ufe of the Englijh name. Its berries or 
fruits are red. They are made ufe of for 
dying, and afford a colour like their own. 
This tree is like a weed in this country, for 
if a corn-field is left uncultivated for fome 
few years together, it grows on it in plen- 
ty, fince the berries are fpread everywhere 
by the birds. And when the ground is 
to be ploughed the roots ftop the plough 
very much. The fruit ftays on the ftirub 
during the whole winter. But the leaves 
drop very early in autumn, after they are 

turned 



j^ September 1748. 

t-arnjed reddifb, like thofe of our Swedijh 
mountain afh. The branches boiled with 
Ijbe berries afford a black ink like tindlure. 
The boys eat the berries, there being no 
danger of falling fick after the repaft -, but 
they are very four. They feldom grow 
above three yards high. On cutting the 
ftea>, it appears that it contains nothing 
but pith. I have cut feveral in this man- 
ner, and found that fome were ten years 
old j but that moft of them were above 
one year old. When the cut is made, a 
yellow juice comes out between the bark 
and the wood. One or two of the moft 
outward circles are white, but the inner-^ 
moft are of a yellowifh green. It is eafy 
to diftinguifh them one from another. 
They contain a very plentiful pith, thg 
diameter of which is frequently half an 
inch, and fometimes more. It is brown, 
and fo loofe that it is eafily pufhed out 
by a little ftick, in the fame manner as 
the pith of the elder tree, rafpberry and 
blackberry buihes. This fumach grows 
Bear the enclofures, round the corn-fields, 
but efpecially on fallow ground. The wood 
feemed to burn well, and made no great 
crackling in the fire. 

September the 20th. In the morning we 
walked in the fields and woods near the 

town. 



Penfyhania, Philadelphia, 77 

t6^D, partly for gathering feeds, and partly 
for gathering plants for my herbal, which 
was our principal occupation i and in the 
autumn of this year, we fent part of our 
colledtion to England and Sweden,. 

A SPECIES of Rhus y which was frequent 
in the marflies here was called the poifon 
tree by both Englifh and Swedes.^ Some of 
the former gave it the mmt^oi fwamp^ 
fumach, and my country-men gave it the 
fame name. Dr. Linnaus in his botanical 
works calls it Rhus Vernix. Sp. pi. i. 
380. Flora Virgin. 45. An incifion being 
made into the tree, a whitifli yellow 
juice, which has a naufeous fmell, comes 
out between the bark and the wood. This 
tree is not known for its good qualities, 
but greatly fo for the effea: of its poifon, 
which though it is noxious to fome people, 
yet does not in the lead affed others. And 
therefore one perfon can handle the tree 
as he pleafes, cut it, peel off its bark, 
rub it, or the wood upon his hands, fmell at 
it, fpread the juice upon his fkin, and make 
ttiore experiments, with no inconvenience 
to himfelf 5 another perfon on the contrary 
dares not meddle with the tree, while its 
wood is frefh, nor can he venture to touch 
a hand which has handled it, nor even to 
ibxpofe himfelf to the fmoak of a fire which 
is made with this wood, without foon 

feeling 



7^ September 1748. 

feeling its bad efFeds ; for the face, the 
hands, and frequently the whole body fwells 
exceffively, and is afFeded with a very accute 
pain. Sometimes bladders or blifters arife 
in great plenty, and make the fick perfon 
look as if he was infedted by a leprofy. In 
fome people the external thin fkin,or cuticle^ 
peels of in a few days, as is the cafe when 
a perfon has fcalded or burnt any part of 
his body. Nay, the nature of fome perfons 
will not even allow them to approach the 
place where the tree grows, or to expofe 
themfelves to the wind, when it carries the 
effluvia or exhalations of this tree with it, 
without letting them feel the inconvenience 
of the fwelling, which I have juft now 
defcribed. Their eyes are fometimes fhut 
up for one, or two and more days together 
by the iwelling. I know two brothers, 
one of whom could without danger handle 
this tree in what manner he pleafed, where- 
as the other could not come near it with- 
out fwelling. A perfon fometimes does not 
know that he has touched this poifonous 
plant, or that he has been near it, before 
his face and hands fhews it by their fwel- 
ling. I have known old people who were 
more afraid of this tree than of a viper 5 
and I was acquainted with a perfon who 
merely by the noxious exhalations of it 

was 



Penfyhania, Philadelphia. 79 

was fwelled to fuch a degree, that he was as 
ftiiF as a log of wood, and could only be 
turned about in fheets. 

On relating in the winter of the year 
1750, the poifonous qualites of the fwamp 
fumach to my Tungfircemy who attended 
me on my travels, he only laughed, and 
looked upon the whole as a fable, in 
which opinion he was confirmed by his 
having often handled the tree the autumn 
before, cut many branches of it, which he 
had carried for a good while in his hand in 
order to preferve its feeds, and put many 
into the herbals, and all this, without feel- 
ing the leafl inconvenience. He would 
therefore, being a kind of philofopher in 
his own way, take nothing for granted of 
which he had no fufficient proofs, efpeci- 
ally as he had his own experience in the 
fummer of the year 1749, to fupport the 
contrary opinion. But in the next fummer 
his fyftem of philofophy was overturned. 
For his hands fwelled and he felt a violent 
pain, and itching in his eyes as foon as 
he touched the tree, and this inconvenience 
not only attended him when he meddled 
with this kind of fumach, but even when 
he had any thing to do with the Rhus ra^ 
dicans, or that fpecies of fumach which 
climbs along the trees, and is not by far fo 

poifonous 



86 Septemher 1748. 

poifonous as the former. By this advehttiffe 
he was fo convinced of the power of th6 
poifon tree, that I could not eafily perfuadfe 
him to gather more feeds of it for me. 
But he not only felt the noxious effeds af 
it in fummer when he was very hot, but 
teven in winter when both he and the wood 
were cold. Hence it appears that though 
a perfoQ be fecured againft the power bf 
this poifon for fome time, yet that in lengtli 
of time he may be affedled with it as well, 
as people of a weaker conftitution. 

I HAVE likewife tried experiments 6f 
every kind with the poifon tree on myfelf. 
I have fpread its juice upon my hands, cvit 
and broke its branches, peeled off its bark, 
and rubbed my hands with it, fmelt at it, 
carried pieces of it in my bare hands, and 
repeated all this frequently, without feel^ 
ing the baneful effects fo commonly annex- 
ed to it ; but I however once experienced 
that the poifon of the fumach was not en- 
tirely without effed: upon me. On a hot 
day in fummer, as I was in fome degree of 
perfpiration, I cut a branch of the tree, and 
carried it in my hand for about half ah 
hour together, and fmelt at it now and 
then. I felt no effeds from it, till in the 
evening. But next morning I awoke with 
a violent itching of my eye-lids, and thfe 

parts 



Penjyhania, Philadelphia, 8i 

parts thereabouts, and this was fo painful, 
that I could hardly keep my hands from 
it. It ceafed after I had wafhed my eyes 
for a while, with very cold water. But 
my eye-lids were very ftiff all that day. 
At. night the itching returned, and in the 
morning as I awoke, I felt it as ill as the 
morning before, and I ufed the fame reme- 
dy againft it. However it continued almoft 
for a whole week together, and my eyes 
were very red, and my eye-lids were with 
difficulty moved, during all that time. My 
pain ceafed entirely afterwards. About the 
fame time, I had fpread the juice of the 
tree very thick upon my hand. Three days 
after they occafioned blifters, which foon 
went off without affeding me much. 1 
have not experienced any thing more of the 
effeds of this plant, nor had I any delire fo 
to do. However I found that it could not 
exert its power upon me, when I was not 
perfpiring. 

1 HAVE never heard that the poifon of 
this Sumach has been mortal ; but the pain 
ceafes after a few days duration. The na- 
tives formerly made their flutes of this tree, 
becaufe it has a great deal of pith. Some 
people aiTured me, that a perfon fufFering 
from its noifome exhalations, would eafily 
recover by fpreading a mixture of the wood, 
F burnt 



82 September 1748. 

burnt to charcoal, and hog's lard, upon the 
fwelled parts. Some afferted that they had 
really tried this remedy. In fome places 
this tree is rooted out on purpofe, that 
its poifon may not afFedt the workmen. 

1 RECEIVED to day, feveral curiolities 
belonging to the mineral kingdom, which 
were colledted in the country. The fol- 
lowing were thofe which were moft worth 
attention. The firft was a white, and quite 
tranfparent cryftal.* Many of this kind 
are found in Penjyhaniay in feveral kinds of 
ftone, efpecially in a pale-grey limeftone. 
The pieces are of the thicknefs and length 
of the little linger, and commonly as tran- 
fparent as poffible. But I have likewife 
got cryflals here, of the length of a foot, 
and of the thicknefs of a middle-fized man's 
leg. They were not fo tranfparent as the 
former. 

. The cubic Pyrites of Bijhop Browallius,-^ 
was of a very regular texture. But its 
cubes were different in fize, for in fome of 

the 



* Nifrutn Cryft alius montana, Linn. Syft. nat. 3. p. 84. 
Cryftallus hexagona pellucida non Colorata. Wallerius's Minera- 
logy, p. 100. Cryjiallus montana^ colourlefs cryftal. For- 
Jler's Introd. to Mineralogy, p. 13. 

f Pyrites cryftallinus, Linn. Syft. nat. 3. p. II 3. Marcha- 
fit a hexaedricct tejfelares. Wallerius's Mineralogy, p. 2H. 
Marcafita, vel cry/ialli fjritacei, M^rQaHtQS, Forfier's IntiOd, 
to Mineralogy, p. 39. 



Penfyhaniay Philadelphia. 83 

the cubes, the planes of the fides only- 
amounted to a quarter of an inch, but in 
the biggeft cubes, they were full two inch- 
es. Some were exceedingly glittering, fo 
that it was very eafy to be perceived that 
they confifted of fulphureous pyrites. But 
in fome one or two lides only, glittered fo 
well, and the others were dark-brown. 
Yet mofl of thefe marcafites had this fame 
colour on all the fides. On breaking them 
they fhewed the pure pyrites. They are 
found near Lancajier in this province, and 
fometimes lie quite above the ground ; 
but commonly they are found at the 
depth of eight feet or more from the 
furface of the ground, on digging wells and 
the like. " Mr. Heff'eliiis had feveral pieces 
of this kind of flone, which he made ufe of 
in his work. He firft burnt them, then 
pounded or ground them to a powder, and 
at lafl rubbed them flill finer in the ufual 
way, and this afforded him a fine reddifh- 
brown colour. 

Few black pebbles are found in this pro- 
vince, which on the other hand yields ma- 
ny kinds oi marble y efpecially a white oney 
^with pale-grey bliiijh fpots, which is found 
in a quarry at the diftance of a few Englijh 
miles from Philadelphia, and is very good 
F 2 for 



$4 September 1748. 

for working, though it is not one of the 
fineft kind of marbles. They make many 
tombftones and tables, enchafe chimneys 
and doors, floors of marble flags in the 
rooms, and the like of this kind of marble. 
A quantity of this commodity is fhipped to 
different parts of America, 

Muscovy glafs^^ is found in many pla- 
ces hereabouts, and fome pieces of it are 
pretty large, and as fine as thofe which are 
brought from Rujjia. I have feen fome of 
them, which were a foot and more in 
length. And I have feveral in my collec- 
tion that are nearly nine inches fquare. The 
Swedes on their firfl: arrival here made theic 
windows of this native glafs. 

A PALE grey fine limefl:one,-f' of a com- 
paft texture, lies in many places hereabouts^ 
and affords a fine lime. Some pieces of it 
are fo full of fine tranfparent cryilals, that 
almofl: half of the flone confifts of nothing 
elfe. But befides this limefl:one, they make 

lime 

* Mica memhranacea, Linn. Syft. nat. 3. p. 58. 

Micamembranacea pellucidijftma fiexilis alba. Walkrius*s Mia. 
p. 120. 

RuJ/tan glafs, Mufco'vy glafs, Ifinglafs, Vitrum ruthenicu»h 
Vitrum Maria. ForJi£r\ Introd. to Mineralogy, p. 18. 

f Marmcr rude, Linn. Syft. nat. 3. p. 41. 

Calcareus particitlis fcintillantihus. WalL Min. p. 39. 

Calcareus feint illans, glittering limeftonc. Forfter^i Introd. 
•& Mineral, p. 9. 



Penfyhaniay Philadelphia. ^^ 

lime near the fea-fhore, from oyfter fhells, 
and bring it to town in winter, which is 
faid to be worfe for mafonry, but better 
for white-wafhing, than that which is got 
from the limeflone. 

Coals have not yet been found in Pen- 
fylvania ; but people pretend to have {^Qn 
them higher up in the country among the 
natives. Many people however agree that 
they are met with in great quantity more 
to the north, near Cape Breton.^ 

The ladies make wine from fome of the 
fruits of the land. They principally take 
white and red currants for that purpofe, 
fince the flirubs of this kind are very plen- 
tiful in the gardens, and fucceed very well. 
An old failor who had frequently been in 
New-foundland, told me that red currants 
grew wild in that country in great quanti- 
ty. They likewife make a wine of ftraw- 
berries, which grow in great plenty in the 
woods, but are fourer than the Swedijh 
ones. The American blackberries ^ or Rubus 
occidentalism are likewife made ufe of for 
this purpofe, for they grow every where 
about the fields, almoft as abundantly as 
F 3 thirties 

* This has been confirmed, fince Cape Breton is in the 
hands of the Englijh^ and it is reported that the ftrata of 
coals run through the whole ifle, and fome baflet out to day 
near the fea-lhore, fo that this ifle will afford immenfe trea- 
fures of coals, when the government will find it convenient, 
to have them dug for the benefit of the Nation. F. 



86 September 1748. 

thiftles in S-weden, and have a very agreea^r 
ble tafte. In Maryland a wine is made of 
the wild grapes, which grow in the woods 
of that province. Rafpberries and cherries 
which are planted on purpofe, and taken 
great care of, likewife afford a very fine 
wine. It is unneceflary to give an account 
of the manner of making the currant wine, 
for in Sweden this art is in higher perfection 
than in North America. 

September the 2 1 ft. The common Privet, 
or Ligujirum vulgarcy Linn, grows among 
the bufhes in thickets and woods. But I 
pannot determine whether it belongs to the 
indigenous plants, or to thofe which the 
^nglijh have introduced, the fruits of which 
the birds may have difperfed every where. 
The enclofures and pales are generally made 
here of wooden pianks and pofts. But a 
few good oeconomifts, having already 
thought of fparing the woods for future 
times, have begun to plant quick hedges 
round their fields ; and to this purpofe they 
take the above-mentioned privet, which 
they plant in a little bank, which is thrown 
up for it. The foil every where hereabouts 
is a clay mixed with fand, and of courfe 
very loofe. The privet hedges however, 
are only adapted to the tamenefs of the 
pattle and other animals here 5 for the hogs 

ail 



Penjyhania, Philadelphia, 87 

all have a triangular yoke about their 
necks, and the other cattle are not very 
unruly. But in fuch places where the cat- 
tle break through the enclofures, hedges of 
this kind would make but a poor defence. 
The people who live in the neighbourhood 
of Philadelphia, are obliged to keep their 
hogs enclofed. 

In the afternoon I rode with Mr. Peter 
Cock, who was a merchant, born at Karl- 
fcron in Sweden, to his country feat, about 
nine miles from the town, to the north- 
weft. 

The country on both fides of the road 
was covered with a great foreft. The trees 
were all with annual leaves, and I did not 
fee a fingle fir or pine. Moft of the trees 
were different forts of oak. But we like- 
wife faw chefnut trees, walnut trees, locuft 
trees, apple trees, hiccory, blackberry bufli- 
es, and the like. The ground ceafed to 
be fo even as it was before, and began to 
look more like the Englijh ground, diverfi- 
fied with hills and vallies. We found nei- 
ther mountains nor great ftones, and the 
wood was fo much thinned, and the ground 
fo uniformly even, that we could fee a great 
way between the trees, under which we 
rode without any inconvenience ; for there 
were no bufhes to ftop us. In fome places 
F 4 where 



88 September 1748. 

where the foil was thrown up, we faw 
fome little ftones of that kind of which the 
houfes here are fo generally built. I intend 
to defcribe them in the fequel. 

As we went on in the wood, we conti- 
nually faw at moderate diil:ances little fields, 
which had been cleared of the wood. Each 
of thefe was a farm. Thefe farms were 
commonly very pretty, and a walk of trees 
frequently led from them to the high- 
road. The houfes were all built of brick, 
or of the ftone which i? here every where 
to be met with. Every countryman, even 
though he were the pooreil peafant, had an, 
orchard with apples, peaches, chefnuts, 
walnuts, cherries, quinces, and fuch fruits, 
and fometiraes we faw the vines climbing 
along them. The vallies were frequently 
provided with little brooks which contain- 
ed a cryftal ftream. The corn on the fide§ 
of the road, was almoft all mown, and no 
other grain befides maize and buckwheat 
was ftanding. The former was to be met 
with near each farm, in greater or lefler 
quantities ; it grew very well and to a great 
length, the ftalks being from fix to ten foot 
high, and covered with fine green leaves. 
Buckwheat likewife was not very uncom- 
mon, and in fome places the people were 
beginning to reap it. I intend in the fe- 
quel 



Penjyhania, Germantown. S9 

quel to be more particular about the quali- 
ties and ufe of thefe kinds of corn. 

After a ride of fix Englifi miles, we 
came to Germantown -y this town has only 
one ftreet, but is near two Engiifh miles 
long. It is for the greateft part inhabited 
by Germans, who from time to time come 
from their country to North America, and 
fettle here, becaufe they enjoy fuch 
privileges, as they are not pofleffed of any 
where elfe. Moft of the inhabitants arc 
tradcfmen, and make almoft every thing in 
fuch quantity and perfedion, that in a 
fhort time this province will want very lit- 
tle from England, its .mother country. 
Moft of the houfes were built of the ftonc 
which is mixed with glimmer, and found 
every where towards Philadelphia, but is 
more fcarce further on. Several houfes 
however were made of brick. They were 
commonly two ftories high, and fometimes 
higher. The roofs conlifted of fhingles of 
the white cedar wood. Their fhape refem- 
bled that of the roofs in Sweden, but the 
angles they formed at the top were either 
obtufe, right angled, or acute, according 
as the flopes were fteep or eafy. They 
fometimes formed either the half of an 
odtogon, or the half of a dodecagon. 

Many of the roofs were made in fuch a 

manner. 



go September 1748. 

manner, that they could be walked upon, 
having a baluftrade round them. Many of 
the upper ftories had balconies before them, 
from whence the people had a profpedt in- 
to the ftrcet. The windows, even thofe in 
the third ftory, had fhutters. Each houfe 
had a fine garden. The town had three 
churches, one for the lutherans, another 
for the reformed proteftants, and the third 
for the quakers. The inhabitants were fo 
numerous, that the ftreet was always full. 
The baptifts have likewife a meeting-houfe. 

September the 2 2d. After I had been at 
church, I employed the remainder of the 
day in converfing with the moft confidera- 
ble people in town, who had lived here for 
a long while, and I enquired into the curi- 
ofities hereabouts. 

Mr. Cock had a fine fpring near his 
country feat ; it came from a fandy hill, 
and afforded water enough conftantly to fill 
a little brook. Juft above this fpring Mr. 
Cock had erected a building from thofe 
above-mentioned glittering ftones, into 
which were put many jugs, and other ear- 
then vefiels full of milk ; for it kept very 
well in cold water during the great heat 
with which the fummer is attended here. 

I AFTERWARDS met with many houfes 
which were fituated like this on fprings, 

and 



Penjyhania, Germantown, 91 

and therefore were deftined to keep the 
meat and milk frefli. 

. Almost all the enclofures round the 
corn-fields and meadows hereabouts, were 
made of planks faftened in a horizontal di- 
rection . I only perceived a hedge of privet 
in one fingle place. The enclofures were 
not made like ours, for the people here 
take pofts from four to fix feet in height, 
and make two or three holes into them, fo 
that there was a diftance of two feet and 
above between them. Such a poft does the 
fame fervice as two, and fometimes three 
poles are fcarce fufficient. The pofts were 
faftened in the ground, at two or three fa- 
thoms diftance from each other, and the 
holes in them kept up the planks, which 
were nine inches, and fometimes a foot 
broad, and lay above each other from one 
poft to the next. Such an enclofure there- 
fore looked at a diftance like the hurdles 
in which we enclofe the flieep at night 
in Sweden. They were really no clofer 
than hurdles, being only deftined to keep 
out the greater animals, fuch as cows and 
horfes. The hogs are kept near the farm- 
houfes every where about Philadelphia, and 
therefore this enclofure does not need to be 
made clofer on their account. Chefnut 
trees were commonly made ufe of for this 

purpofe. 



92 September 1748. 

purpofe, becaufe this wood keeps longeft 
againft putrefaction, and an enclofure made 
of it can ftand for thirty years together. 
But where no chefnut wood was to be got, 
the white, and likewife the black oaks were 
taken for that purpofe. Of all kinds of 
wood, that of the red cedar holds out the 
longeft. The . greateft quantity of it is 
bought up here ; for near Philadelphia it is 
not plentiful enough, to be made ufe of for 
enclofures ; however there are many enclo- 
fures near the town made of this wood. 

The beft wood for fuel in every body's 
opinion is the hiccory, or a fpecies of wal- 
nut ; for it heats well ; but is not good for 
enclofures, fince it cannot well withftand 
putrefadion when it is in the open air. 
The white and black oaks are next in 
goodnefs for fuel. The woods with which 
Philadelphia is furrounded, would lead one 
to conclude, that fuel mull be cheap there. 
But it is far from being fo, becaufe the 
great and high foreil near the town is the 
property of fome people of quality and for- 
tune, vvrho do not regard the money which 
they could make of them. They do not 
fell fo much as they require for their own 
ufe, and much lefs would they fell it to 
others. But they leave the trees for times 
to come, expeding that wood will become 

much 



Penjyhania, Germantown. 93 

much more fcarcc. However they fell it 
to joiners, coach -makers, and other artifts, 
who pay exorbitantly for it. For a quan- 
tity of biccory of eight foot in length, and 
four in depth, and the pieces being like- 
wife four foot long, they paid at prefent 
eighteen (hillings of Penfyhanian currency. 
But the fame quantity of oak only came to 
twelve fhillings. The people who came 
at prefent to fell v^^ood in the market were 
peafants, who lived at a great diflance from 
the town. Every body complained that 
fuel in the fpace of a few years, was rifen 
in price to many times as much again as it 
had been, and to account for this, the fol- 
lowing reafons were given : the town is 
encreafed to fuch a degree, as to be four or 
fix times bigger, and more populous than 
what fome old people have known it to be, 
when they were young. Many brick-kilns 
have been made hereabouts, which require 
a great quantity of wood. The country is 
likewife more cultivated than it ufed to be, 
and confequently great woods have been 
cut down for that purpofe ; and the farms 
built in thofe places likewife confume a 
quantity of wood. Laftly, they melt iron 
out of the ore, in feveral places about the 
town, and this work always goes oa with- 
out interruption. For thefe reafons it is 

concluded 



94 September 1748. 

concluded in future times Philadelphia will 
be obliged to pay a great price for wood. 

The wine of blackberries, which has a 
very fine tafte, is made in the following 
manner. The juice of the blackberries is 
prefled out, and put into a veflel; with half 
a gallon of this juice, an equal quantity of 
water is well mixed. Three pounds of 
brown fugar are added to this mixture, 
which muft then fland for a while, and 
after that, it is fit for ufe. Cherry wine is 
made in the fame manner, but care muft 
be taken that when the juice is prefTed 
out, the ftones be not crufhed, for they 
give the wine a bad tafle. 

They make brandy from peaches here, 
after the following method. The fruit is 
cut afunder, and the flones are taken out. 
The pieces of fruit are then put ifito a 
vefTel, where they are left for three weeks 
or a month, tilt they are quite putrid. 
They are then put into the diftilling veffely 
and the brandy is made and afterwards dif- 
tilled over again. This brandy is not good 
for people who have a more refined tafle, 
but it is only for the common kind of 
people, fuch as workmen and the like. 

Apples yield a brandy, when prepared 
in the fame manner as the peaches. But 
for this purpofe thofe apples are chiefly 

taken 



Penfyhania, Germantown, 95 

taken which fall from the tree before they 
are ripe. 

The American Night- jhade, or Phytolacca 
decandra, Linn. S. N. grows abundantly 
near the farms, on the highroad in hedges 
and bufhes, and in feveral places in the 
fields. Whenever I came to any of thefe 
places I was fure of finding this plant in 
great abundance. Moft of them had red 
berries, which grew in bunches, and look- 
ed very tempting, though they were not at 
all fit for eating. Some of thefe plants 
were yet in flower. In fome places, fuch 
as in the hedges, and near the houfes, they 
fometimes grow two fathom high. But 
in the fields were always low ; yet I could 
no where perceive that the cattle had eaten 
of it. A German of this place who was a 
confecftioner told me, that the dyers gather- 
ed the roots of this plant and made a fine 
red dye of them. 

Here are feveral fpecies of Squirrels, 
The ground Squirrels, or Sciurus Jiriatus, 
Linn. S. N. are commonly kept in cages, 
becaufe they are very pretty : but they can- 
not be entirely tamed. Th^ greater Squir- 
rels, or Sciurus cinereus, Linn. S. N. fre- 
quently do a great deal of mifchief in the 
plantations, but particularly deftroy the 
maize. For they climb up the ilalks, cut 

the 



g6 September 1748. 

the ears in pieces and eat only the loofe and 
fweet kernel which lies quite in the infide. 
They fometimes come by hundreds upon a 
maize-field, and then deftroy the whole 
crop of a countryman in one night. In 
Maryland therefore every one is obliged an- 
nually to bring four fquirrels, and their 
heads are given to the furveyor, to prevent 
deceit. In other provinces every body that 
kills fquirrels, received tw^opence a piece 
for them from the public, on delivering 
the heads. Their flefh is eaten and reck- 
oned a dainty. The fkins are fold, but are 
not much efteemed. Squirrels are the chief 
food of the rattle-fnake and other fnakes, 
and it was a common fancy with the peo- 
ple hereabouts, that when the rattle fnake 
lay on the ground, and fixed its eyes upon 
a fquirrel, the latter would be as it were 
fafcinated, and that though it were on the 
uppermoft branches of a tree, yet it would 
come down by degrees, till it leaped into 
the fnake's mouth. The fnake then licks 
the little animal feveral times, and makes 
it wet all over with its fpittle, that it may 
go down the throat eafier. It then fwallows 
the whole fquirrel at once. When the 
fnake has made fuch a good meal, it lies 
down to reft without any concern. 

The quadruped, which Dr. Linnceus in 

the 



Penfylhania, GermaHtown, ^f 

the' memoirs of thfe FLoy«l Atadehiy of Sci- 
encesi has defcribed by- the naiiie of JJrfiti 
caudk eUn^ata, and- which- he calls Urjitt 
Latdr, in his Syftema NalUfae^^ is here call^^ 
Q.6.' Raccoon, If is found v6ry' frequently; 
anddeftroys marty-chickeiis: It is huntfed' 
bydogs, and when if runs upon a ttfee to 
fave itfeifi a mart climb's upkyn the tree af^-- 
ter it; and fhak-es it' dbwn to the gtourtdi 
where the dogs kill it. The flefh is eaten^ 
and is reputed to t^ft^ wfell. The bone 'of 
its male' parts is mad6 life of'f6r a tobacco-i* 
flopperi The hatters purchafe thieir fkins^i 
ai^ Jnfyak^ hats out of thfe hair> which are ■ 
iveJct' in goodnef^ to beavers; The tail is^ 
worn- rouftd the neckin winter, and thefei-^ 
f&reis Ukewife valuable. The' Raecoon'h' 
frequently the food of fnakes. 

SoME^ £;?^/^^/«f« aflerted that nfea^ th^' 
vwQt Potomack-'m Virginiaj a great qtiantif^^ 
of oyfter {hells were to be met with, ahd'^' 
that they themfelves had feen whole moun- ' 
t^itis of^hem'. The place wher6 they arei- 
f6und is f^id to be about iwo Bhglip nlile^"^ 
diftant from the fca-fhOre. The prOprietof^ 
of that ground btirns lime' oUt *of theW9 
This ftratum of oyfter-fheHs is two fathbftfi 
aAd more deep . Such quan titie^ of fh^ife i 
have likewif<f'beeft found ' in oth6r placfeV' 
e^jledally in ^NtW'- T'drk, oh dfggiftg- irt th^Sf - 
G ground i 



98 September 1748. 

ground > and in one place, at the diftance 
of fome EngliJJo miles from the fea, a vaft 
quantity of oyfter-fliells, and of other fhells 
was found. Some people conjedured that 
the natives had formerly lived in that place, 
and had left the fhells of the oyfters which 
they had confumed, in fuch great heaps. But 
others could not conceive how it happened 
that they were thrown in fuch" immenfe 
quantities all into one place. 

Every one is of opinion that the Ame- 
rican favages were a very good-natured peo- 
ple, if they were not attacked. No body is 
fo ftri6l in keeping his word as a favage. 
If any one of their allies come to vilit them, 
they (hew him more kindnefs, and greater 
endeavours to ferve him, than he could have 
expected from his own countrymen. Mr. 
Cock gave me the following relation, as a 
proof of their integrity. About two years 
ago, an Englijh merchant travelling amongft 
the favages, in order to fell them necefla- 
ries, and to buy other goods, was fecretly 
killed, without the murderer's being found 
out. But about a year after, the favages 
found out the guilty perfon amongft them- 
felves. They immediately took him up, 
bound his hands on his back, and thus fent 
him with a guard to the governor at Phila- 
delphia, and fent him word, that they could 

no 



Penjyhaniay Germantown. 99 

no longer acknowledge this wretch (who 
had been fo wicked towards an Englijhman) 
as their countryman, and therefore would 
have nothing more to do with him, and 
that they delivered him up to the gover- 
nor, to be punifhed for his villainy as the 
laws of England dired:. This Indian was 
afterwards hanged at Philadelphia. 

Their good natural parts are proved by 
the following account, which many people 
have given me as a true one. When they 
fend their ambaffadors to the Englijh colo- 
nies, in order to fettle things of confequence 
with the governor, they lit down on the 
ground, as foon as they come to his audi- 
ence, and hear with great attention the go- 
vernor's demands which they are to make 
an anfwer to. His demands are fometimes 
many. Yet they have only a ftick in their 
hand, and make their marks on it with a 
knife, without writing any thing elfe down. 
But when they return the next day to give 
in their refolutiohs, they anfwer all the go- 
vernor's articles in the fame order, in which 
he delivered them, without leaving one out, 
or changing the order, and give fuch accu- 
rate anfwers, as if they had an account of 
them at full length in writing. 

Mr. Sleidorn related another ftory, whi'ch 

gave me great plcafure. He fajd he had 

G 2 beea 



too Septmbt^ 174^^ 

beer) 2X.^lS[e^Xorkt and bM, found ^iVj^n^ 
rable old American favage an^ppgft feveral 
others in an inn. This old map began to .talk 
with Sleidorn as fppn as the liqjapi: \yas.giqtf: 
ting the better of his head, and boal^dthat 
he could write and. read in JS«^/^. Sleid^rr{ 
t.herefore defired leave to aik a queftipn^ 
which the old, man readily granted;. Sleidorn 
then afked him, whether he. knew, s^ho 
was firft circunjcifed ? and the old ii^^n im- 
mediately anfwered. Father Abraham^ h\x% 
at the fame tjme afked leave to prpppfp a 
queftion in his turn, which Sleidorn^ gr^llr. 
ed ; the old man then faid, wh,o was. the 
firA quaker? Sleidorn faid it was uncer,tainy 
that fo^le took one.perfon for it, and fopi?; 
another ; but the cunning old. fellow 1914 
hirn, you are miftaken, fir ; M^rdecfli, wa^ 
the firft quaker, for he would not take, off 
his hat to Haman. Many of thp favages, 
who are yet heathens, are faid, to havQ 
fome obfcure notion of the deluge, ^ut I 
am convinced from my own ej^perienc^, 
that they are not at all acquainted with it. 

I MET with people here vi'ho maintained 
that giants had formerly lived in thefe pajts, 
and the following particulars confirmed them 
in this opiniofi. A few years ago fomcj 
people digging in the ground, met witji a 
g|rave which contained human bones of an^ 

afloniih- 



Fenfyhania, Germantown, loi 

aftbnlfhifig lize. The Tibia rs faid to have 
been fourteen feet long, and the os femoris 
to have meafored as much. The teeth are 
Mkewife faid to have been of a fize propor- 
tioned to the reft. Bat more bones of this 
kind have not yet been found. Perfons 
ikilled in anatomy, v^^ho have feen thefe 
bones, have declared that they were human 
boneis. One of the teeth has been fent to 
Hahiburghy to a perfon who collected natu- 
ral cilriofities. Among the favages, in the 
neighbourhood of the place where the bones 
^ere found, there is an account handed 
down through many generations from fa- 
thers to children, that in this neighbour- 
hood, on the banks of a river, there lived 
a Very tall and ftrong man, in ancient 
times, Who carried the people over the ri-^ 
Ver on his back, and waded in the water, 
though it was Very deep. Every body to 
whom he did this fervice gaVe him fome 
maize, fome ikins of animals, or the like. 
In fine he got his livelyhood by this means, 
and was as it v^^ere the ferryman of thofe 
who wanted to pafs the river. 

Tnfe foil here confifts for the greateft 

part of fknd, which is more Or lefs mixed 

iVith clay. Both the fand and the clay, are 

of the colour of pale bricks. To judge by 

G 3 appear-- 



I02 September 1748. 

appearance the ground was none of the 
beitj and this conjedlure was verified by 
the inhabitants of the country. When a 
corn-field has been obliged to bear the 
fame kind of corn for three years together, 
it does not after that produce any thing at all 
if it be not well manured, or fallowed for 
fome years. Manure is very difficult to be 
got, and therefore people rather leave the 
field uncultivated. In that interval it is 
covered with all forts of plants and trees j 
and the countryman in the mean while, 
cultivates a piece of ground which has till 
then been fallow, or he chufes a part of the 
ground which has never been, ploughed be- 
fore, and he can in both cafes be pretty 
fure of a plentiful crop. This method 
can here be ufed with great convenience. 
For the foil is loofe, fo that it can eafily be 
ploughed, and every countryman has com- 
monly a great deal of land for his property. 
The cattle here are neither houfed in win- 
ter, nor tended in the fields, and for this 
reafon they cannot gather a fufficient quan- 
tity of dung. 

All the cattle has been originally 
brought over from Europe. The natives 
have never had any, and at prefent few of 
them care to get any. But the cattle dege^ 

nerates 



Penjyhaniaj Germantown, 103 

nerates by degrees here, and becomes fmall- 
er. For the cows, horfes, fheep, and hogs, 
are all larger in England, though thofe 
which are brought over are of that breed. 
But the firft generation decreafes. a little, 
and the third and fourth is of the fame fize 
with the cattle already common here. The 
climate, the foil, and the food, altogether 
contribute their fhare towards producing 
this change. 

It is remarkable that the inhabitants of 
the country, commonly fooner acquire un- 
derftanding, but likewife grow fooner old 
than the people in Europe. It is nothing 
uncommon to fee little children, giving 
fprightly and ready anfwers to queflions that 
are propofed to them, fo that they feem to 
have as much underftanding as old men. 
But they do not attain to fuch an age as the 
Europeans, and it is almoft an unheard of 
thing, that a perfon born in this country, 
fhould live to be eighty or ninety years of 
age. But I only fpeak of the Europeans 
that fettled here. For the favages, or firft 
inhabitants, frequently attained a great age, 
though at prefent fuch examples are un- 
common, which is chiefly attributed to the 
great ufe of brandy, which the favages have 
learnt of the Europeans. Thofe who are 
born in Europe attain a greater age here, 
G 4 than 



^P4 M^t^e^rkr 1.748. ; 

than thofb who are born Jiere, of Eurc^^au 
p^^repts. In the laft war, it plainly appear- 
je^ ,tl?at ,thefe new Americans w,ere by far 
I^jCs jbardy than the Europeans in expediti- 
C).i?5^ fiegeg, and loxig fea voyages, and died 
i^. pu 01 hers. It is very difficiult for then* 
IP ufp thenifelyeg Ko a plimate diferent froca 
|J>eir p^iV'D. The wpmtn ceafe bearing chil- 
idreu fooner than in Europe, They feldoQi 
or never have children, after they ar« forty 
or forty- five years old, and fom^ leave off 
ia ^be thirtieth year of their age. I enquir 
red into the caufes oi this, but no one could 
giv^ me a good one. Some faid it was owt 
ing to the affluence in which the people 
Jive h?re. Sonne afcribed it to the incon-r 
/lancy and changeablenefs of the weather, 
and believed that there hardly was a coun^ 
try on earth in which the weather changes 
fo pftep \n a day, as it does here. For if 
it were ever fo hot, one could not be cer- 
tain whether in twenty-four hours there 
would not be a piercing cold. Nay, forne- 
times the weather will change five or fi^c 
times a day. 

TuE trees in this country have the fam^ 
qualities as its inhabitants. For the ihip$ 
l^hich are built of American wood, are by 
no means equal in point of ftrength, to 
tl).pfq vifhich are built in Europe, This i^ 

what 



Penfylvdnia, •Germmt'Qwn. lOJ 

Wibat nobody attempts to 'contradi<9:» Wheii 
a ibip wliich is bmit here, has lerved eight 
or twelve years it is worth little ; and if 
one is to be met with, which has been in 
ufe longer and h yet ferviceahle, it is reck- 
oned very aftonifhing. It is difficult t6 
find out the caufes from whence this hap^ 
pens. Some lay the fault to the badneft 
of the wood : others condemn the method 
of building the (hips, which is to make 
them of trees which are yet green, and have 
had no time to dry. I believe both caufes 
are joined. For I found oak, which at the 
utmoft had been cut down about twelve 
years, and was covered by a hard bark. 
But upon taking off this bark, the wood 
below it was almoft entirely rotten, and 
like flour, fo that I could rub it into pow- 
der between my fingers. How much long- 
er will not our European oak ftand before 
it moulders ? 

At night we returned to Philadelphia, 
September the 23d. There are no Hares 
in this country, but fome animals, which 
are a medium between our Hares and Rab- 
bets, and make a great devaftation whenever 
they get into fields of cabbage and turneps. 
Many people have not been able to find 
out why the North American plants which 
are carried to Europe and planted there, for 

the 



io6 September 1748. 

the greateft part flower fo late, and do not 
get ripe fruit before the froft overtakes 
them, although it appears from feveral ac- 
counts of travels, that the vt^inters in Pen- 
fyhaniay and more fo thofe in New Tork, 
New England, and Canada, are full as fevere 
as our SwediJJo winters, and therefore are 
much feverer than thofe which are felt 
in England. Several men of judgment 
charged me for this reafon to examine and 
enquire into this phoenomenon with all 
poflible care. But 1 (hall inftead of an an- 
fwer, rather give a few remarks which I 
made upon the climate and upon the plants 
of North America, and leave my readers at 
liberty to draw the conclulions themfelves. 
I. It is true, that the winters in Feu' 
fylvania, and much more thofe in the more 
northern provinces, are frequently as fevere 
as our Swedijh winters, and much colder 
than the Englijh ones, or thofe of the fouth- 
ern parts of Europe. For I found at Phila- 
delphia, which is above twenty deg. more 
foutherly than feveral provinces in Sweden, 
that the thermometer of p^ofeflbr C^^z//, 
fell twenty-four deg. belovi^ the freezing 
point in winter. Yet I was afTured that 
the winters I fpent here,- were none of the 
coldeft, but only common ones, which I 
couU like wife conclude from the Delaware'^ 

not 



Penfylvania, Philadelphia. 107 

not being frozen ftrong enough to bear a 
carriage at Philadelphia during my (lay, 
though this often happens. On confider- 
ing the breadth of the river which I have 
already mentioned in my defcription of 
Philadelphia, and the difference between 
high and low water, which is eight Englijh 
feet y it will pretty plainly appear that a 
very intenfe froft is required to cover the 
Delaware with fuch thick ice. 

2. But it is likewife true, that though 
the winters are fevere here, yet they are 
commonly of no long duration, and I can 
juftly fay, that they do not continue above 
two months and fometimes even lefs,at Phi- 
ladelphiai and it is fomething very uncom- 
mon when they continue for three months 
together, in fo much that it is put into the 
gazettes. Nearer the pole the winters are 
fomewhat longer, and in the quite northern 
parts they are as long as the Swedijh win- 
ters. The daily meteorological obfervations 
which I have made during my ftay in Ame- 
rica, and which I intend to annex at the 
end of each volume of this work, will give 
more light in this matter. 

3. The heat in fummeris exceffive, and 
without intermiffion. I own I have feen 
the thermometer rife to nearly the fame 
degree at Aobo in Finland. But the differ- 
ence 



io8 September 174^. 

cnce i^, that when the thermometer of prtfi 
fcfibr Qelfius rofe to thirty ^^. abdVe the 
fix^ezing point once in tvvo or three fuiftmerfe 
at ;,4(?^(?, the fam^ therrtibmeter did hot oiliy 
For three months together ftaiid at the fame 
degree, but even fometimes rdfe higher 5 
hot oAly in i^ehjylvania, but iikfeWife ift 
Mw Torky Albany, and a great part bf Ca^ 
nada, Durihg the furamers which I fpent 
at Philadelphia^ the thermdni'eter has two 
or three times tifen lb thirty-iik deg. above 
the freezing point, ft ttiay therefore with 
great certainty be faid* that ih PehJ^Puania 
the greateft part of April, the whole May^ 
and all the following months till OBober-, 
are like our Swedifi months of June and 
Jte^i So exceffive arid continued a heat 
muft certainly ha\^e very great efFedts. I here 
again tefer to my meteorological obfervati-i 
ens. It ihuft iikewife be afcribed to the 
eifeds of this heat that the common tiielonsi 
the water melonSj and the pumpions of 
different for ts are foWri in the fields with-i 
mit any bells or the like put over theth, and 
yet ai-i2 ripe as early as July', further, that 
cherries are ripe at Philadelphra about the 
i^th. of MiT^j arid that in Pehfylvania the 
t»4ieat is frequently reaped in the middle of 
Jufii, 
#. The ^hole oiSepnmber, and half, if 

not 



Penjyhanifi, Philadelphia, iog. 

np^ the whole o£ QSlaber^ are the. fineH 
months, in. Fenfyhaniay £bn the preceding- 
on^s aj-e too hot. But thefe reprefent- 
our July, and hal£ of Augufi, The greateft 
partof the plants are in flower in SepUmher, 
aji4 nj.any, do. not begin to. open their flow- 
ers before the latter end of this naonth, P 
make no. (Joubt that the. goodnefs of the 
feafon, wJiich is enlivened by. a clear {ky^, 
apdi a^ tolerably hot fun-fhine, greaJtly- con- 
tributes towards this lafl efforts of Elor^. 
Yet, though thefe plants come, out fo late^ 
they are quite ripe before the middle of^' 
O^ober. But I am not able, to account for- 
their coming up fo. late.in a,utumfl, and t 
rather alk, \y.hy do not theCentaurea Jacea^ 
the Gentiana., Amarella and Qentaurium oi^ 
Linneeust and the common- golden, rpdi 
QX.Solidego Firga urea fiowtr before theend* 
oXfummer ? or why do the common noble- 
liverwort, or Anemone Hepaficay the- wild^ 
violets. (Viola marlia, Linn. J - the mezereoa: 
(-Daphne Mezereum, ii/;w./ and other plants 
fhew, their flowers fo early in fpring?^ It has 
pleafed the Almighty Creator to give to 
them, this difpolition. The weather at 
Philadelphia during thefe months, is {hewn 
by my meteorological tables. I have, taken, 
the greateft care in . my, obfervations, and ; 
have always avoided putting the thermo - 



no . ■ September 1 748 . 

meter into any place where the fun could 
{hine upon it, or where he had before heat- 
ed the wall by his beams; for in thofe cafes 
my obfervations would certainly not have 
been exaft. The weather during our Sep- 
tember and OBober is too well known to 
want an explanation.* 

5. However there are fome fpontaneous 
plants in Penjyhania, which do not every 
year bring their feeds to maturity before the 
cold begins. To thefe belong fome fpecies 
of Gentiana, of Afters ^ and others. But in 
thefe too the . wifdom of the Creator has 
wifely ordered every thing in its turn. For 
ajmoft all the plants which have the quali- 
ty of flowering fo late in autumn, are peren- 
nial, or fuch as, though they have no feed to 
propagate themfelves, can revive by fhoot- 
ing new branches and ftalks from the fame 
root every year. But perhaps a natural 
caufe may be given to account for the late 
growth of thefe plants. Before the Euro^ 
peans came into this country, it was inhabit- 
ed by favage nations, who pradtifed agri- 
culture but little or not at all, and chiefly 

lived 



* The Englijh reader, who is perhaps not fo well acquaint- 
ed with the weather of the Sivedijh autumn, may form an 
idea of it, by having recourfe to the Calendarium Flora, or 
the botanical and ceconomical almanack of S^weden^ in Dr. 
Linnteus'% Amcen. Academ. and in Mr. Stillingfleet'i S-iuediJh 
trafts, tranflated from the Amcen. Acad. 2d. edition. F, 



Penjyhania, Philadelphia. 1 1 1 

lived upon hunting and fifhing. The woods 
therefore have never been meddled with, 
except that fometimes a fmall part was de- 
ftroyed by fire. The accounts which we 
have of the firft landing of the Europeans 
here, (hew that they found the country all 
over covered with thick forefts.* From hence 
it follows, that excepting the higher trees, 
and the plants which grow in the water or 
near the (hore, the reft muft for the great- 
eit part have been obliged to grow perhaps 
for a thoufand years together, in a fhade, 
either below or between the trees, and they 
therefore naturally belong to thofe which 
are only peculiar to woody and fhady places. 
The trees in this country drop their leaves 
in fuch quantities in autumn, that the 
ground is covered with them to the depth 
of four or five inches. Thefe leaves lie a 
good while in the next fummer before they 
moulder, and this muft of courfe hinder 
the growth of the plants which are under 
the trees, at the fame time depriving them 
of the few rays of the fun which can come 
down to them through the thick leaves at 
the top of the trees. Thefe caufes joined 
together make fuch plants flower much 
later than they would otherwife do. May- 
it 

* Vide Hackluyt'i collect, voy. ui. 246. 



\\ not; th before be faid-,. that in^fo^ntahy/ 
ceniturie^ thefe pUnts hftd; at Uft contraftedj 
2^ktihit of Goming up verylatej. atid tshat- it- 
would now r^uire a great fp3£e of time to! 
makp them lofe this. habit, and ufe themtoi 
^uickeji their growth ? 

September the 24.th. We employed this) 
whole day in gathering the feeds of piantsi 
of all kinds, and ia putting fcarce plantss 
into the: herbal. 

September the 2 5th . Mr. Heffelius raad*^) 
me a prefent of; a little piece of petrifiedl 
wood, which was found in the ground herc^. 
I^ was four inches long, , one inch broad}, 
and three lines thick. It might plainly be: 
Uen that it had formerly been wood. For. 
in the places where it had been: polifljied*;! 
all the longitudinal fibres wereeafily diftin^ 
guifliable, fo that it might have been taken 
for a piece of oak which was cut fmooth. 
My piece was part of a (till greater piece; 
It was here thought to be petrified hiccory. 
I afterwards got more of it from other peo- 
plci Mr. JLewis £^'tfffJ toldme that on. the 
boundaries of Virginia, z greats petrified 
block of hiccory had beeo found in the 
ground, with the; bark.oa.it, whicli was 
likewife petrified. 

Mr. "John Bar tram is an Englijkmarii 
who lives in the eountry about four miles 

from 



Penjyhania, Philadelphia. lij 

from Philadelphia. He has acquired a great 
knowledge of natural philofophy and hifto- 
ry, and feems to be born with a peculiar 
genius for thefe fciences. In his youth he 
had no opportunity of going to fchool. But 
by his own diligence and indefatigable ap- 
plication he got, without inftrudtion, fo far 
in Latin, as to underftand all Latin books, 
and even thofe which were filled with bo- 
tanical terms* He has in feveral fucceflive 
years made frequent excurfions into differ- 
ent diftant parts of North America^ with an 
intention of gathering all forts of plants 
which are fcarce and little known. Thofe 
which he found he has planted in his own 
botanical garden, and likewife fent over 
their feeds or frefh roots to England. We 
owe to him the knowledge of many fcarce 
plants, which he firft found, and which 
were never known before. He has fhevvn 
great judgment, and an attention which 
lets nothing efcape unnoticed. Yet with 
all thefe great qualities, he is to be blamed 
for his negligence -, for he did not care to 
write down his numerous and ufeful obferva- 
tions* His friends at London once obliged 
him to fend them a fhort account of one of 
his travels, and they were very ready/ with 
a good intention, though not with fufSci* 
eat judgment^ to get this account printed^ 
H Biit 



114 September 1748. 

But this book, did Mr. Bartram more harm 
than good; for as he is rather backward in 
writing down what he knows, this publi- 
cation was found to contain but few new 
obfervations." It would not however be 
doing juflicc to Mr. Bartram s merit, if it 
were to be judged of by this performance. 
He has not filled it with a thoufandth part 
of the great knowledge, which he has ac- 
quired in natural philofophy and hiftory, 
efpecially in regard to North America, I 
have often been at a lofs to think of the 
fources, from whence he got many things 
which came to his knowledge. I likewife 
owe him many things, for he pofTefTed that 
great quality of communicating every thing 
he knew. I (hall therefore in the fequel, 
frequently mention this gentleman. For I 
fhould never forgive myfelf, if I were to 
omit the name of the firft inventor, and 
claim that as my own invention, which I 
learnt from another perfon. 

Many Mufcle pells, or My till anatini, 
are to be met with on the north-weft fide 
of the town in the clay-pits, which were at 
prefent filled with water from a little brook 
in the neighbourhood. Thefe mufcles feem 
to have been wafhed into that place by the 
tide, when the water in the brook was high. 
For thefe clay-pits are not old, but were 

lately 



Penfyhania, Philadelphia. 1 1 5 

lately made. Poor boys fometimes go out 
of town, wade in the water, and gather 
great quantities of thefe fhells, which they 
fell very eafily, they being reckoned a 
dainty. 

The Virginian Azarole with a red fruit, 
or Linnaus's Crataegus Crus galliy is a fpe- 
cies of hawthorn, and they plant it in hedg- 
es, for want of that hawthorn, which is 
commonly ufed for this purpofe in 'Europe, 
Its berries are red, and of the fame fize, 
ihape, and tafte with thofe of our haw- 
thorn. Yet this tree does not feem to 
make a good hedge, for its leaves were al- 
ready fallen, whilft other trees ftill preferv- 
ed theirs. Its fpines are very long and 
fharp ; their length being two or three 
inches. Thefe fpines are applied to fome 
inconfiderable ufe. Each berry contains 
two {tones. 

Mr. Bartram alTured me, that the 
North American oak, cannot refift pu- 
trefaction for near fuch a fpace of time, as 
the European. For this reafon, the boats 
(which carry all forts of goods down from 
the upper parts of the country) upon the 
river Hudfon, which is one of the greateft 
in thefe parts, are made of two kinds of 
wood. That part which muft always be 
under water, is made of black oak; but 
H2 the 



ii6 September 1748. 

the ttpper part, which is now at)6ve and 
now under water, and is therefore more e*-- 
pofed to putrefadtion, is made of red cedar 
or Juniperus Firginiana, which is reckoned 
the mod hardy wood in the country. The 
bottom is made of black oak, becaufe that 
wood is very tough. For the river being 
full of ftones, and the boats frequently run- 
ning againft them, the black oak gives 
way, and therefore tioes not eafily crack. 
But the cedar would not do for this pur- 
pofe ; becaufe it is hard and brittle. The 
oak likewife is not fo much attacked by 
putrefadtion, when it is always kept under 
water. 

In autumn, I could always get good 
pears here ; but every body acknowledged, 
that this fruit would not fucceed well in the 
country. 

All my obfervations and remarks on the 
qualities of the Rattk-fnakey are inferted in 
the Memoirs of the Swedifh Academy of 
Sciences, for the year ij^z, p. 316, and 
for the year 1753, p. 54, and thither I re- 
fer the reader.* 

Bears are very numerous higher up in 
the country, and do much mifchief. Mr. 
Bar tram told me, that when a bear catches 

a cow, 

* Vide Medical, &c. cafes ai^ experiments, tranflated from 
the Svjidijh^ London 1758. p. 282. P. 



Penfyhaniay Philadelphia, iiy 

a cow, he kills her in the following man- 
ner: he bites a hole into the hide, and 
blows with all his power into it, till the ani- 
mal fwells exceffively and dies j for the 
air expands greatly between the flefli and 
the hide.* An old Swede called ISIils Guf- 
tave's foriy who was ninety-one years of 
age, faid, that in his youth, the bears had 
been very frequent hereabouts, but that 
they had feldom attacked the cattle : that 
whenever a bear was killed, its flefli was 
prepared like pork, and that it had a very 
good tafte. And the flefh of bears is .ftill 
prepared like ham, on the river Morris, 
The environs oi Philadelphia, and even the 
whole province of Penjyhania in general 
contain very few bears, they having been 
extirpated by degrees. In Vrrginia they kill 
them in feveral different ways. Their flefh 
is eaten by both rich and poor, fmce it is 
reckoned equal in goodnefs to pork. In 
H 3 fome 

•This has all the appearance of a vulgar error: neither 
does the fucceeding account of the American bears being car- 
nivorous, agree with the obfervations of the moft judicious 
travellers, who deny the faft. P. 

^ But however it might be eafible to reconcile both opi- 
nions. For Europe has two or three kinds of bears, one fpe- 
cies of which is carnivorous, the other lives only on vegeta- 
bles : the large brown fpecies, with its fmall variety, are 
reputed to be carnivorous, the black fpecies is merely phy- 
tivorous. In cafe therefore both fpecies are found in North 
America, it would be very eafy to account for their being both 
carnivorous and not. F. 



Ii8 September 1748. 

fome parts of this province, where no hogs 
can be kept on account of the great num- 
bers of bears, the people are ufed to catch 
and kill them, and to ufe them inftead of 
hogs. The American bears however, are 
faid to be lefs fierce and dangerous, than 
the European ones. 

September i\\Q 26th. The broad plantain, 
or Flantago tnajor, grows on the high- 
roads, foot paths, meadows, and in gardens 
in great plenty. Mr. Bartram had found 
this plant in many places on his travels, 
but he did not know whether it was an 
original American plant, or whether the 
"Europeans had brought it over. This doubt 
had its rife from the favages (who always 
had an extenfive knowledge of the plants 
of the country) pretending that this plant 
never grew here before the arrival of the 
Europeans. They therefore give it a name 
which fignifies, the Englijhmans foot, for 
they fay that where a European had walked, 
there this plant grew in his foot fteps. 

The Chenopodium album, or Goofefoot with 
linuated leaves, grows in plenty in the gar- 
dens. But it is more fcarce near the houfes, 
in the ftreets, on dunghills and corn-fields. 
This feems to fhew, that it is not a native 
of America^ but has been brought over 
amongfl: other feeds from Europe. In the 

fame 



Penfyhaniay Fbiladelphia, 119 

fame manner it is thought that the Ttanfey 
fTanacetum vu/gare, Linn.) which grows 
here and there in the hedges, on the roads, 
and near houfes, was produced from European 
feeds. 

The common vervaint with blue flowers, 
or verbena ojicinalis, was (hewn t6 me by 
Mr. Bartram, not far from his houfe in a 
little plain near Philadelphia. It was the 
only place where he had found it in Ame- 
rica. And for this reafon I fuppofe it waS; 
likewife fown here amongft other European 
feeds. 

Mr. Bartram was at this time building 
a houfe in Philadelphia y and had funk a 
cellar to a confiderable depth, the foil of 
which was thrown out. I here obferved 
the following ftrata. The upper loofe foil 
was only half a foot deep, and of a dark 
brown colour. Under it was a ftratum of 
clay fo much blended with fand, that it 
was in greater quantity than the clay itfelf j 
and this ftratum was eight feet deep. Thefe 
were both brick coloured. The next ftra^ 
turn confifted of little pebbles mixed with 
a coarfe fand. The ftones confifted either 
of a clear i or of a dark ^artz 5* they were 
H 4 quite 

• ^artzum hyalinutrit Linn. Syft. nat. 3. p. 65. 
^artzum folidum pellucidum^ Walhrii Miner. 91. 



I20 September 1748, 

quite fmooth and roundifh on the outfide, 
and lay in a ftratum which was a foot deep. 
Then the brick-coloured clay mixed with 
fand appeared again. But the depth of this 
ftratum could not be determined. Query^ 
could the river formerly have reached to 
this place and formed thefe ftrata ? 

Mr. Bar tram has not only frequently 
found oyfter-fhells in the ground, but like- 
wife met with fuch fhells and fnails, as 
undoubtedly belong to the fea, at the diA 
tance of a hundred and more Englijh miles 
from the (hore. He has even found them 
on the ridge of mountains which feparate 
the Englijh plantations from the habitations 
of the favages. Thefe mountains which 
the Englijh call the blue mountains, are of 
confiderable height, and extend in one 
continued chain from north to fouth, or 
from Canada to Carolina. Yet in fome 
places they have gaps, which are as it were 
broke through, to afford a paffage for the 
great rivers, which roll down into the 
lower country. 

The CaJlia Chamcecrijla grew on the 
Toads through the woods, and fometimes 

on 

The common ^artz. Former's Mineralogy, p. 16. 
And ^artztwi coloratum, Linn. Syft. nat. j. p. 65. 
^artzum /olidum opacum coloratum. Wall. Min. 99. 
The impure ^artz, Forft. Min. p. 16. 



Penjyivanid, Philadelphia, I2I 

on uncultivated fields, efpecially when 
(hrubs grew in them. Its leaves are like 
thofe of the Senfitive plant, or Mimofa, and 
have likewife the quality of contracting 
when touched, in common with the leaves 
of the latter. 

The Crows in this country are little dif- 
ferent from our common crows in Sweden^ 
Their fize is the fame with that of our 
crows, and they are as black as jet in every 
part of their body. I faw them flying to 
day in great numbers together. Their 
voice is not quite like that of our crows, 
but has rather more of the cry of the rook, 
or Linnceus^ Corvus frugilegus, 

Mr. Bartram related, that on his jour- 
neys to the northern £«^/^ colonies, he had 
difcovered great holes in the mountains on 
the banks of rivers, which according to his 
defcription, muft exadly have been fuch 
giants pot s,'^ as are to be met with in Sweden^ 
and which I have defcribed in a particular 
diflertation read in the Royal Swedifi Aca- 
demy of Sciences. Mr. Bartram has like- 
wife addrefled fome letters to the Royal 
Society at London upon this fubje(ft. For 

fome 



• In Snvedetif and in the north of Germany, the round holes 
in rivers, with a ftoney or rocky bed, which the whirling 
of the water has made, are called giants pots; thefe holes are 
likewife mentioned in Mr. Grojleys ne^w obfervations on Italyt 
Vol. I. p. 8. F. 



122 September 1748. 

fome people pretended, that thefe holes were 
made by the favages, that they might in 
time of war hide their corn and other valu- 
able effedts in them. But he wrote agaihft 
this opinion, and accounted for the origin 
of thefe cavities in the following manner. 
When the ice fettles, many pebbles flick 
in it. In fpring when the fnow melts, the 
water in the rivers fwells fo high that it 
reaches above the place where thefe holes 
are now found in the mountains. The ice 
therefore will of courfe float as high. And 
then it often happens, that the pebbles 
which Were contained in it, ever fince 
autumn when it firfl: fettled on the banks of 
the river, fall out of the ice upon the rocky 
bank, and are from thence carried into a cleft 
or crack by the water. Thefe pebbles are 
then continually turned about by the water, 
which comes in upon them, and by this 
means they gradually form the hole. The 
water at the fame time polifl^es the ftone 
by its circular motion round it, and helps 
to make the hole or cavity round. It is 
certain that by this turning and tofling, 
the ftone is at laft unfit for this purpofe ; 
but the river throws commonly every fpring 
other ftones inftead of it into the cavity, 
and they are turned round in the fame man- 
ner. By this whirling both the mountain 

and 



Penjyhaniaj Philadelphia, 123 

and the ftone afford either a fine or a coarfe 
fand, which is wafhed away by the water 
when in fpring, or at other times it is 
high enough to throw its waves into the 
cavity. This was the opinion of Mr. 
Bartram about the origin of thefe cavities. 
The Royal Society of Sciences at London, 
has given a favourable reception to, and ap- 
proved of them.* The remarks which I 
made in the fummer of the year 1743, 
during my ftay zt Land^s-Ortt in my coun- 
try, will prove that I was at that time of 
the fame opinion, in regard to thefe holes. 
I have fince further explained this opinion 
in a letter to the Royal Academy of Scien- 
ces ', and this letter is ftill preferved in the 
Academy's Memoirs, which have not yet 
been publifhed. But there is great reafon 
to doubt, whether all cavities of this kind 
in mountains, have the fame origin. 

Here are different fpecies oi Mulberry 
trees, which grow wild in the forefls of 
north and fouth America. In thefe parts 
the red mulberry trees are more plentiful 
than any other. However Mr. Bartram 
alfured me that he had likewife feen the 

white 



• How far this approbation of the Royal Society, ought 
to be credited, is to be underftood from the advertifements 
publiftied at the head of each new volume of the Philofophi- 
cal Tranfadions. F. 



124 September 1748. 

white mulberry trees growing wild, but 
that they were more fcarce. I afked him 
and feveral other people of this country ; 
why they did not fet up filk manufadurcs, 
having fuch a quantity of mulberries, which 
fucceed fo eafily ? For it has been obferv- 
ed that when the berries fall upon the 
ground where it is not compadt but loofe, 
they foon put out feveral fine delicate fhoots. 
But they replied that it would not be worth 
while to eredt any filk manufactures here, 
becaufe labour is fo dear. For a man gets 
from eighteen pence to three (hillings and 
upwards, for one day's work, and the women 
are paid in proportion. They were there- 
fore of opinion that the cultivation of all 
forts of corn, of hemp, and of flax, would 
be of greater advantage, and that at the 
fame time it did not require near fo much 
care as the feeding of filk worms. By the 
trials of a governor in Conne£iicut , which 
is a more northern province than New Tork, 
it is evident however, that filk worms fuc- 
ceed very well here, and that this kind of 
mulberry trees is very good for them. The 
governor brought up a great quantity of filk 
worms in his court yard -, and they fucceed- 
ed fo well, and fpun fo much filk, as to 
afford him a fufficient quantity for cloath- 
jng himfelf and all his family. 

Several 



Penfyhania, Philadelphia. 125 

Several forts of Vines likewifc grow 
wild hereabouts. Whenever I made a lit- 
tle excurlion out of town, I faw them in 
numerous places climbing up trees and 
hedges. They clafp around them, and co- 
ver them fometimes entirely, and even 
hang down on the fides. This has the fame 
appearance at a diftance, as the tendrils of 
hops climbing along trees. I enquired of 
Mr. Bartram why they did not plant vine- 
yards, or prefs wine from the grapes of the 
wild vine. But they anfwered, that the 
fame objection lay againft it, which lies 
againft the eredion of a filk manufadure, 
that the neceffary hands were too fcarcc, 
and it therefore was more rational to make 
agriculture their chief employment. But 
the true reafon undoubtedly is, that the 
wine which is preffed out. of moft of the 
North American wild grapes is four and 
iharp, and has not near fuch an agreeable 
tafte, as that which is made from European 
grapes. 

The Virginian Wake- robin, ox Arum Vir- 
ginicum, grows in wet places. Mr. Bar- 
tram told me, that the favages boiled the 
fpadix and the hrries of this flower, and 
devoured it as a great dainty. When the 
berries are raw, they have a harfli, pungent 

tafte. 



126 September 1748. 

tafle, which they lofe in great meafure up- 
on boiling. 

The Sarothra Gentianoides, grows abun- 
dantly in the fields and under the bufhes, 
in a dry fandy ground near Philadelphia. 
It looks extremely like our whortleberry 
bufhes when they firfl begin to green, and 
when the points of the leaves are yet red. 
Mr. Bartram has fent this plant to Dr. 
Dilleniusy but that gentleman did not know 
where he fhould range it. It is reckoned 
a very good traumatic, and this quality Mr. 
Bartram himfelf experienced; for being 
thrown and kicked by a vicious horfe, in fuch 
a manner as to have both his thighs greatly 
hurt, he boiled the Sarothra and applied 
it to his wounds. It not only immediately 
appeafed his pain, which before had been 
very violent, but he likewife by its affifl- 
ance recovered in a fhort time. 

Having read in Mr. Millers Botanical 
"DiBionaryy that Mr. Teter Coliinfon had a 
particular Larch tree from America in his 
garden, I afked Mr. Bartram whether he 
was acquainted with it, he anfwered, that 
he had fent it himfelf to Mr. Coliinfon, 
that it only grew in the eaflern parts of 
New Jerfey, and that he had met with it 
in no other Englijh plantation. It differs 
from the other fpecies of Larch trees, its 

cones 



Penfylvaniat Philadelphia, 127 

cones being much lefs. I afterwards faw 
this tree in great plenty in Canada, 

Mr. Bartram was of opinion, that the 
apple tree was brought into America by the 
Europeans, and that it never was there be- 
fore their arrival. But he looked upon 
peaches as an original American fruit, and 
as growing wild in the greateft part of 
America. Others again were of opinion, 
that they were firft brought over by the 
Europeans. But all the French in Canada 
agreed, that on the banks of the river 
Mijifippi and in the country thereabouts 
peaches were found growing wild in great 
quantity.* 

September the 2yth, The tree whichthe 
Englijh here call Perjimon, is the Diofpyros 
Virginiana of Linnceus. It grows for 
the greateft part in wet places, round 
the water pits. I have already mentioned 
that the fruits of this tree are extremely 
bitter and (harp before they are quite ripe, 
and that being eaten in that ftate they quite 

contract 



* Thomas Herriot, fervant to Sir Walter Raleigh, who was 
employed by him to examine into the produftions of North 
Jmerica, makes no mention of the peach among the other 
fruits he defcribes, and M. du Pratz, who has given a very 
good account of Louifiana and the Mijftjippi, fays, that the na- 
tives got their peaches from the Englijh colony of Carolina, 
i>efore the French fettled there. P. 



1 28 September 1748. 

contra(9: ones mouth, and have a very difa-f* 
^reeable tafte. But as foon as they are ripe, 
which does not happen till they have been 
quite foftened by the froft, they are a very 
agreeable fruit. They are here eaten raw, 
and feldom any other way. But in a great 
book, which contains a defcription of Vir- 
gtm'a, you meet with different ways of 
preparing the Ferfimon, under the article 
of that name. Mr. Bartramy related that 
they were commonly put upon the table 
amongft the fweet-meats, and that fome 
people made a tolerably good wine of them. 
Some of thefe Perfimon fruits were dropped 
on the ground in his garden, and were al- 
moft quite ripe, having been expofed to a 
great degree of the heat of the fun. We 
picked up a few and tafted them, and I 
muft own that thofe who praifed this fruit 
as an agreeable one, have but done it juftice. 
It really deferves a place among the moft 
palatable fruit of this country, when the 
froft has thoroughly conquered its acri- 
mony. 

The Verbafcum I'hapfust or great white 
Mullein, grows in great quantity on roads, 
in hedges, on dry fields, and high mea- 
dows of a ground mixed with fand. The 
Swedes here call it the tobacco of thefavages, 
but owned, that they did not know whe- 
ther 



Penjyhania, Philadelphia^ \%^ 

ther or no the Indians really ufed this 
plant inftead of tobacco. The Swedes 
are ufed to tie the leaves round their feet 
and armSj when they have the ague. Sonne 
of them prepared a tea from the leaves, for 
the dyfentery. A Swede likewife told me^ 
that a deco<iion of the roots was injedted 
into the wounds of the cattle which are full 
of wormSi which killed thefe wormSj and 
made them fall out.* 

September the 28th. The meadows 
which are furrounded by wood, and were 
at prefent mown, have a fine lively verdure. 
On the contrary when they lie on hills, or 
in open fields, or in fome elevated fituation, 
cfpecially fo that the fun rnay be able to adt 
upon them without any obftacles, their 
grafs looks brown and dry. Several people 
from Virginia told me^ that on account of 
the great heat and droughty the meadows 
and paftures almoft always had a brown co- 
lourj and looked as if they were burnt. 
The inhabitants of thofe parts do not there-" 
fore enjoy the pleafure which a European 
I feels 

f These worms are the Larva's of the deftrus or Gad^y^ 
.which depofite its eggs on the baclj: of cattle, and the Lar- 
va's being hatched from thefe eggs, caufe great fores, where- 
in they five till they are ready for dieir change. In the foCitfe 
.«f Rugia they ufe for the fame parpofc the decoftioa of Vera- 
trurrii or thi itibite Hellebore. F, 



130 September 1748. 

feels at the fight of our verdant, odoriferous 
meadows. 

The American Nightjhade, or the Phytolacca 
decandra^ grows abundantly in the fields, 
and under the trees, on little hills. Its 
black berries are now ripe. We obferved 
to day feme little birds with a blue plu- 
mage, and of the fize of our Hortulans and 
Tellow Hammers (Emberiza Citrinella and 
Emberiza Hortulanus) flying down from 
the trees, in order to fettle upon the night- 
fhade and eat its berries. 

Towards night I went to Mr. Bartram*s 
country feat. 

September the 29th. The Gnaphalium 
margaritaceum, grows in aftonifhing quanti- 
ties upon all uncultivated fields, glades, hills, 
and the like. Its height is different accord- 
ing to its difi^erent foil and fituation. Some- 
times it is very ramofe, and fometimes very 
little. It has a ftrong, but agreeable fmell. 
The Englijh call it Life everlajiing -, for its 
flowers, which confift chiefly of dry, fhi- 
ning, filvery leaves (Folia calycina) do not 
change when dried. This plant is now 
every where in full bloflbm. But fome 
have already loft the flowers, and are be- 
ginning to drop the feeds. The Englijh 
ladies were ufed to gather great quantities 
of this Life everlajiing, and to pluck them 

with 



Penjylvania, Philadelphia, l^l 

with the ftalks. For they put them into 
pots with or without water, amongft otheif 
fine flowers which they had gathered both 
in the gardens and in the fields, and placed 
them as an ornament in the rooms. The 
Englijh ladies in general are much inclined 
to have fine flowers all the fiimmer long, 
in or upon the chimneys, fometimes upon a 
table, or before the windows, either on ac- 
count of their fine appearance, or for the fake 
of their fweet fcent. The Gnaphalium2hovt^ 
mentioned, was one of thofe, which they 
kept in their rooms during the winter, be- 
caufe its flowers never altered from what 
they were when they flood in the ground. 
Mr. Bartram told me another ufe of this 
plant. A decodion of the flowers and 
ftalks is ufed to bathe any pained or bruifed 
part, or it is rubbed with the plant itfelf 
tied up in a bag. 

Instead of flax feveral people made ufe 
of a kind of Dogs bane^ or Linnceuss Apo-^ 
cynum cannabinum. The people prepared 
the ftalks of this plant, in the fame manner 
as we prepare thofe of hemp or flax* It 
was fpun and feveral kinds of ftufts were 
woven from it. The favages are faid to 
have had the art of making bags, fiftiing- 
ncts, and the like, for many centuries to^ 
gether, before the arrival of the Europeans^ 

I 2 I ASKEE^ 



i;32 . September 1748. 

; I ASKED Mr. Bartramy whether he had 
€>bferved in his travels, that the water was 
fallen, and that the fea had formerly cover- 
ed any places which were rvow land. He 
told me, that from what he had experienc- 
ed, he was convinced that the greateft part 
pf this country, even for feveral miles to- 
gether, had formerly been under water. 
The reafons which led him to give credit 
to this opinion, were the following. 

1. On digging in the blue mountains, 
which are above three hundred Englifi 
miles diftant from the fea, you find loofe 
oyfter and other forts of fhells, and they 
are alfo likewife to be met with in the 
vallies formed by thefe mountains. 

2. A VAST quantity of petrified fhells 
are found in limeftone, flint, and fandftone, 
on the fame mountains. Mr. Bartram af- 
fured me at the fame time, that it was in- 
credible what quantities of them there 
were in the different kinds of ftones of 
which the mountains confift. 

3. The fame (hells are likewife dug in 
great quantity, quite entire and not moul- 
dered,, in the provinces of Virginia and 
Maryland, as alfo in Philadelphia and in 
New Tork, 

4. On digging wells (not only in Fbila^ 
delphiay but likewife in other places) the 

people 



Penfyhania, Philadelphia, 133 

people have met with trees, roots, and 
leaves of oak, for the greateft part, not yet 
rotten, at the depth of eighteen feet. 

5. The beft foil and the rieheft mould 
is to be met with in the vallies hereabouts. 
Thefe vallies are commonly croffed by a ri- 
vulet or brook. And on their declivity, a 
mountain commonly rifes, which in thofe 
places where the brook pafles clofe to it, 
looks as if it were cut on purpofe. Mr. 
Bartram believed, that all thefe vallies fot^- 
merly were lakes ; that the water had by 
degrees hollowed out the mountain, and 
opened a pafTage for itfelf through it ; and 
that the great quantity of flime which is 
contained in the water, and which had fub- 
fided to the bottom of the lake, was the 
rich foil which is at prcfent in the vallies, 
and the caufe of their great fertility. But 
fuch vallies and cloven mountains are very 
frequent in the country, and of this kind 
is the peculiar gap between two mountains, 
through which a river takes its courfe on 
the boundaries of New Tork and Penfyha- 
nia. The people in a jeft fay, that this 
opening was made by the D — 1, as he 
wanted to go out of Penfyhania into New 
Tork. 

6. The whole appearance of the blue 

mountains, plainly fhews that the water 

1 2 formerly 



134 September 1748. 

formerly covered a part of them. For 
many are broken in a peculiar manner, but 
the higheft are plain. 

7. When the favages are told, that {hells 
<are found on thefe high mountains, and 

that from thence there is reafon to believe 
that the fea muft formerly have extended to 
them, and even in part flown over them ; 
they anfwer that this is not new to them, 
they having a tradition from their anceftors 
among them, that the fe^ formerly fur- 
rounded thefe mountains. 

8. The water in rivers and brooks like- 
wife decreafes. Mills, which fixty years 
ago were built on rivers, and at that time 
had a fufficient fupply of water alnioft all 
the year long, have at prefent fo little, that 
they cannot be ufed, but after a heavy rain, 
or when the fnow melts in Ypring. This 
decreafe of water in part arifes from the 
great quantity of land which is now culti- 
vated, and from the extirpation of great 
forefls for that purpofe. 

9. The fea-fhore increafes likewife in 
time. This arifes from the quantity of 
fand continually thrown on fhore from the 
bottom of the fea, by the waves. 

Mr. Bartram thought that fome peculi- 
^x attention fhould be paid to another thing 
relating to thefe obfervations. The fliells 

which 



Penjyhaniat Philadelphia, 135 

which are to be found petrified on the nor- 
thern mountains, are of fuch kinds as at 
prefent are not to be got in the fea, in the 
fame latitude, and they are not fiflied on 
the fhore, till you come to South Carolina, 
Mr. Bartram from hence took an occafion 
to defend Dr. T^homas Burnet's opinion, that 
the earth before the deluge was in a differ- 
ent pofition towards the fun. He likewife 
afked whether the great bones which are 
fometimes found in the ground in Siberia, 
and which are fuppofed to be elephant's 
bones and tufks, did not confirm this opi- 
nion. For at prefent thofe animals cannot 
live in fuch cold countries.; but if according 
to Dr. Burnett the fun once formed different 
zones about our earth, from thofe it now 
makes, the elephant may eafily be fuppofed 
to have lived in Siberia. * However it 
1 4 feems 

* The bones and tufks of Elephants are not only found 
in RuJJia, but alfo in the canton of Bafel in Swifferland, in 
the dominions of the Marquis of Bareith in Franconia, and 
more inftances are found in the Protogaa of the cele- 
brated Leibnitz. Lately near the river Ohio have been dif- 
covered, a great number of flceletons of Elephants with their 
tuflcs, and very remarkable grinders ftill flicking in their 
jaw bones were fent to t)\t Britijh Mufeum; the late Dr. 
Littleton Bifhop of Carlijle, alfo lodged fome teeth flicking in 
their jawbones in the Mufeum of the Royal Society, which 
were brought from Peru. The rivers Chatunga and Indi- 
ghirka in Siberia, are remarkable for affording on their banks 
great quantities of bones and tufks of Elephants, which 

being 



t%(> Sepiemher 1748. 

feems th^lall which we have hitherto men- 
tioned, may have been the efFe^ of differ- 
ent caufes, To thofe belong the univerfal 
^elugej theincreafeof land which is mere- 

•y 

bfcihg f>itfertf(Sd thefe by the grtst froft, and in the Ihoft 
fumttief of a few weeks, the rain being rare, thefe tuiks are 
commonly fo frelh that they are employed in HuJ/ja, as com- 
fttbft ivoi-yj oh account of the great quantity brought froiA 
thefe places to Rnjia j fome of them were eight feet long, and 
of three hundred pounds weight. There have been found 
grinders of nine inches diametef. Biit tht Jmericnn grindew 
t)f Elephants from near the Ohio are vet more remarkable* 
on account of their being provided with crowns on their 
tops, fuch as are only found in the carnivorous animals, and 
fach is feed on hard bohes or nut«. Whilft on the contrary. 
Elephants at prefent feeding on graffes and foft vegeubles 
fave no fuch crowns at the tops of their grinders. Z%, it 
ii tr\it, iiikkes a diftinaion between th.t :Aftatk or Indian 
Elephants, and the J^rican ones ; and remarks the latter to 
be inferior to the former in fize and vigour ; but whether 
the teeth ih thefe lanimals are fo much different from thofe 
bt the dther variety, has never been atteaded to. This cir- 
cumftance of the difference in the folTil grinders of Ele- 
phants, from thofe in the living ones, and the place where 
thefe Skeletons were found in, viz. Siberia, Germany and 
iihttricay where at prefent no Ehqjhants are to be met with, 
tJpetis a wide field to x:onje«5Vores in regard to the way, by 
^hich thefe animals were carried to thofe ^ots. The flood 
4tt the deluge perhaps ha6 carrifed them thitlrer : nor is it 
tontrary to reafon, hiilory or revelation, to believe, t^efe 
fteliptbns to be the remaindets of amimals, which lived on 
thefurface tf this globe^ anterior to the Mofaic creatitm, 
Whidi -may be eonfjdered only as a new modification of the 
creatures living on this globe, adapted to its prefent ftate, 
<tmder which it will iiemain till circumftances will make a new 
-chahge neceffary, and then our globe will by a new creation 
^ffevolutJon appear ihore adapted to itsitate, and be docfc- 
ffcd twth a fet of animah more Suitable to that ftate. Eveiy 

maq 



Penfylvania, Philadelphia, 137 

ly the work of time, and the changes of 
the courfe of rivers, which when the fnow 
melts and in great floods, leave their firft 
beds, and form new ones. 

At fome di fiance from Mr. Bartrarri^ 
country houfe, a little brook flowed through 
the wood, and likewife ran over a rock. 
The attentive Mr. Bartram here {hewed 
me feveral little cavities in the rock, and 
we plainly faw that they muft have been 
generated in the manner I before defcribed, 
that is, by fuppofing a pebble to have re- 
mained in a cleft of the rock, and to have 
been turned round by the violence of the 
water, till it had formed fuch a cavity in 
the mountain. For on putting our hands 
into one of thcfe cavities, we found that it 
contained numerous fmall pebbles, whofe 
furface was xjuite fmooth and round. And 
thefe ftones we found in each of the holes. 

Mr. Bartra?n Shewed me a number of 

plants 

man ttfed to philofophy and reasoning will find, that this plan 
gives a grand idea of the Creator, his oeconomy and ma- 
nagement of the univerfe : and moreover, it is conformable 
to the meaning of the words of a facred writer, who fay« : 
Ff. civ. 29. go. Tbou hideji thy face and they (fmall and 
great beafts) are troubled; thou takeft a-way their Breathy they die, 
^tnd return to their duft. Thou fendeji forth thyjpirit, they are 
treated ; and thou renmueji the face of the earth. See Dr. 
Hunter's, remarks on the above-mentioned teeth, in the Phi^ 
hfofhical Tranf. Vol. Iviii. F. 



138 September 1748. 

plants which he had colleded into a herbal 
on his travels. Among thefe were the fol- 
lowing, which likewife grow in the nor- 
thern parts oi Europe, of which he had ei- 
ther got the whole plants, or only broken 
branches. 

1 . Befula alba. The common birch tree, 
which he had found on the cats-hills, 

2. Betula nana. This fpecies of birch 
grows in feveral low places towards the 
hills. 

3. Comarum palujire, in the meadows, 
between the hills in New Jerfey. 

4. Gentiana lutea, the great Gentian, 
from the fields near the mountains. It was 
very like our variety, but had not fo many 
flowers under each leaf. 

5. Linncea borealis, from the mountains 
in Canada, It creeps along the ground. 

6. Myrica Gale, from the neighbourhood 
of the river Sufquehanna, where it grows in 
a wet foil. 

7. Fotentilla fruticofa, from the fwampy 
fields and low meadows, between the river 
'Delaware, and the river New Tork. 

8. Trientalis Europaa, from the cats- hills. 

9. Triglochin maritimum, from the fait 
fprings towards the country of the five na- 
tions. 

Mr. 



Penjylvania, Philadelphia. 139 

Mr. Bart ram fhewed me a letter from 
]E>aJi Jerfey, in which he got the following 
account of the difcovery of an Indian grave. 
In the April of the year 1744, as fome 
people were digging a cellar, they came 
upon a great ftone, like a tombftone, which 
was at laft got out with great difficulty, and 
about four feet deeper under it, they met 
with a large quantity of human bones and 
a cake of maize. The latter was yet quite 
untouched, and feveral of the people pre- 
fent tafted it out of curiofity. From thefe 
circumftances it was concluded that this 
was a grave of a perfon of note among the 
favages. For it is their cuftom to bury 
along with the deceafed, meat and other 
things which he liked beft. The ftone 
was eight feet long, four feet broad, and 
even fome inches more where it was broad- 
eft, and fifteen inches thick at one end, but 
only twelve inches at the other end. It 
confifted of the fame coarfe kind of ftone, 
that is to be got in this country. There 
were no letters nor other characfters vifible 
on it. 

The corn which the Indians chiefly cul- 
tivate is the Maize, or Zea Mays, Linn, 
They have little corn fields for that pur- 
pofe. But befides this, they likewife plant 
a great quantity of Squajhes, a fpecies of 

pumpions 



1 40 September 1 748 . 

pumpions or melons, which they have al- 
ways cultivated, even in the remoteft ages. 
The Europeans fettled in America^ got the 
feeds of this plant, and at prefent their gar- 
dens are full of it, the fruit has an agreeable 
tafte when it is well prepared. They are 
commonly boiled, then cruflied (as we are 
ufed to do with turneps when we make a 
pulfeof them) andfome pepper or other fpice 
thrown upon them, and the difli is ready. 
The Indians likewife fow feveral kinds of 
beans, which for the greatefl part they 
have got from the Europeans, But peafe 
which they likewife fow, they have always 
had amongft them, before any foreigners 
came into the country. The fquafhes of 
the Indians, which now are likewife culti- 
vated by the Europeans, belong to thofe 
kinds of gourds {cucurbita,) which ripen 
before any other. They are a very deli- 
cious fruit, but will not keep. 1 have 
however feen them kept till pretty late in 
winter. 

September the 30th. Wheat and rye 
are fown in autumn about this time, and 
commonly reaped towards the end of June, 
or in the beginning of July, Thefe kinds 
of corn, however, are fometimes ready to be 
reaped in the middle of June, and there 
3re even examples that they have been 

mown 



Penfylh3ania, Philadelphia, 14 1 

mbwn in the beginning of that month. 
Barley and oats are fown in April, and 
they commonly begin to grow ripe towards 
the end of July. Buck-wheat is fown in 
the middle or at the end of jFa^, and is 
about this time, or fomewhat later, ready- 
to be reaptfd. If it be fown before the 
above-mentioned time, as in May, or in 
June, it only gives flowers, and little or no 
corn. 

Mr. Bar tram and other people afTured 
me, that moft of the cows which the En^ 
glijh have here, are the offspring of thofe 
which they bought; of the Swedes when they 
were mafters of the country. The Englijh 
themfelves are faid to have brought over 
but few. The Swedes either brought their 
cattle from home, or bought them of the 
Dutch, who were then fettled here. 

Near the town, I faw an Ivy or Hedera 
Helix, planted againft the wall of a ftone 
building, which was fo covered by the 
fine green leaves of this plant, as almoft to 
conceal the whole. It was doubtlefs brought 
over from Europe, for I have never perceiv- 
ed it any where elfe on my travels through 
North' America. But in its ftead I have 
often feen wild vines made to run up the 
walls. 

I ASKED Mr. Bartramj whether he had 

obferved. 



142 September 174-8. 

obferved, that trees and plants decreafed irf 
proportion as they were brought further to 
the North, as Catejby pretends ? He an- 
fwered, that the queftion fhould be more 
limited, and then his opinion would prove 
the true one. There are fome trees which 
grow better in fouthcrn countrit-s, and be- 
come lefs as you advance to the north. 
Their feeds or berries are fometimes brought 
into colder climates by birds and by other 
accidents. They gradually decreafe in 
growth, till at laft they will not grow at 
all. On the other hand, there are other 
trees and herbs which the wife Creator def- 
tined for the northern countries, and they 
grow there to an amazing fize. But the 
further they are tranfplanted to the fouth, 
the lefs they grow j till at laft they dege- 
nerate fo much as not to be able to grow 
at all. Other plants love a temperate cli- 
mate, and if they be carried either fouth 
or north, they will not fucceed well, but 
always decreafe. Thus for example Pen- 
Jyivania contains fome trees which grow 
exceedingly well, but always decreafe in 
proportion as they are carried further oiF 
either to the north, or to the fouth. 

I AFTERWARDS on my travels, had 
frequent proofs of this truth. The Sajfa- 
fras, which grows in Penfyhanta, under 

forty 



Penjyhania, Philadelphia, 14 j 

forty deg. of lat. and becomes a pretty tall 
and thick tree, was fo little at Ofwego and 
Fort Nicholfon, between forty-three and 
forty-four deg. of lat. that it hardly reach- 
ed the height of two or four feet, and was 
feldom fo thick as the little finger of a full 
grown perfon. This was likewife the cafe 
with the 'Tulip tree. For in Penjyhania it 
grows as high as our talleft oaks and firs, 
and its thicknefs is proportionable to its 
height. But about Ofwego it was not above 
twelve feet high, and no thicker than a 
man's arm. The Sugar Maple ^ or Acer 
faccharinumy is one of the moft common 
trees in the woods of Canada^ and grows 
very tall. But in the fouthern provinces, 
as New yerfey and Penjyhania, it only 
grows on the northern fide of the blue 
mountains, and on the fteep hills which are 
on the banks of the river, and which are 
turned to the north. Yet there it does 
not attain to a third or fourth part of the 
height which it has in Canada. It is need- 
lefs to mention more examples. 

OBober the ift. The gnats which are 
very troublefome at night here, are called 
Mufquetoes. They are exadly like the 
gnats in Sweden, only fomewhat lefs, and the 
defcription which is to be met with in 
Dr. Linnaus's Syjiema Natura, and Fauna 

Suecica. 



144 OSlober 174S. 

Suecica, fully agrees with them, and thejr 
are called by him Culex pipiens. In day 
time or at night they come into the houfes* 
and when the people are gone to bed they 
begin their difagreeable humming, approach 
always nearer to the bed, and at laft fuck 
up fo much blood, that they can hardly fly 
away. Their bite caufes blifters in people 
of adelicate complexion. When the weather 
has been cool for fome days, the mufquetoes 
difappear. But when it changes again, 
and efpecially after a rain, they gather fre- 
quently in fuch quantities about the houfes, 
that their numbers are aftonifhing. The 
chimneys of the Englijh which have no 
.valves for (hutting them up, afford the gnats 
a free entrance into the houfes. In fultry 
evenings, they accompany the cattle in 
great fwarms, from the woods to the houfes 
or to town, and when they are drove before 
the houfes, the gnats fly in wherever they 
can. In the greateft heat of fummer, they 
are fo numerous in fome places, that the 
air feems to be quite full of them, efpeci- 
ally near fwamps and ftagnant waters, 
fuch as the river Morris in New y^rfey. 
The inhabitants therefore make a fire be- 
fore their houfes to expell thefe difagreea- 
ble gueft by the fmoak. The old Swedes 
here, faid that gnats had formerly been 

much 



Penfylvania, Philadelphia^ 14^ 

much more numerous -, that even at prefent 
they fwarmed in vaft quantities on the fea; 
fhore near the fait water, and that thofe 
which troubled us this autumn in Phila- 
delphia were of a more venomous kind, 
than they commonly ufed to be. This laft 
quality appeared from the biifters, which 
were formed on the fpots,- where the gnats 
j had inferted their fting. In Sweden I never 
felt any other inconvenience from theit* 
fting, than a little itching, whilfl they 
fucked. But when they ftung me here at 
night, my face was fo disfigured by littld 
red fpots and blifters, that 1 was almoft a- 
fhamed to {hew myfelf. 

I HAVE already mentioned fomewhat 
about the enclofures ufual here ; I now add, 
that moft of the planks which are put ho- 
rizontally, and of which the enclofures in 
the environs of Philadelphia chiefly confift, 
are of the red cedar wood, which is here 
reckoned more durable than any other. But 
v/here this eould not be got, either white 
or black oak fupplied its place. The peo- 
ple were likewife very glad if they could 
get cedar wood for the pofts, ot elfe they 
took white oak, or chefnut, as I v^ras told 
by Mr. Bartram, But it feems that that 
kind of wood in general does not keep well 
in the ground- fbt' a eonfiderable time. I 
K faw 



146 OBober 1748. 

faw fome pofts made of chefnut wood, and 
put into the ground only the year before, 
which were already for the greateft part 
rotten below. 

The Saff'afras free, or Laurus Saff'afraSy 
Linn, grows in abundance in the country, 
and ftands fcattered up and down the woods, 
and near bufhes and enclofures. On old 
grounds, which are left uncultivated, it is 
Ciie of the firft that comes up, and is as 
plentiful as young birches are on thofe 
Sivedijh fields, which are formed by burn- 
ing the trees which grew on them.* The 
faffafras grows in a dry loofe ground, of a 
pale brick colour, which confifts for the 
greateft part of fand, mixed with fome 
clay. It feems to be but a poor foil. The 
mountains round Gothenburgb, in Sweden, 
would afford many places rich enough for 
the Sajfafras to grow in, and I even fear 
they would be too rich. I here faw it 
both in the woods amidft other trees, and 
more frequently by itfelf along the enclo-. 

fures. 



* In Mr. OJhecK's Voyage to China^ Vol. i. p. 50. in a 
note, an account is given of this kind of land, which the 
S'wedes call S^edieland, where it is obferved, that the trees 
being burnt, their alhes afford manure fufficient for three 
years, after which they are left uncultivated again, till aftet 
twenty or more years, a new generation of trees being pro4 
duced on them, the country people burn them, and cultivate 
the country for three years again. F. 



Penjylvania, Philadelphia, i^y 

fures. In both it looks equally frefh. I 
have never fecn it on w^et or low places. 
The people here gather its flowers, and ufe 
them inflead of tea. But the wood itfelf 
is of no ufe in oeconomy j for when it is 
fet on fire, it caufes a continual crackling, 
without making any good fire. The tree 
fpreads its roots very much, and new fhoots 
come up from them in fome places ; bufi^ 
thefe fhoots are not good for tranfplanting^o 
becaufe they have fo few fibres befides the 
root, which connedts thern to the main ftem, 
that they cannot well ftrike into the ground. 
If therefore any one would plant Saffafras 
trees he muft endeavour to get their berries, 
which however is difficult, fince the birds 
eat them before they are half ripe. The 
cows are very greedy after the tender new 
fhoots, and look for them every where. 

The bark of this tree is ufed by the 
women here in dying worfled a fine laft- 
ing orange colour, which does not fade in 
the fun. They ufe urine inftead of alum 
in dying, and boil the dye in a brafs boiler, 
becaufe in an iron vefTel it does not yield 
fo fine a colour. A woman in Virginia has 
fuccefsfuUy employed the berries of the 
SafTafras againfl a great pain in one of her 
feet, which for three years together fhe 
had to fuch a degree, that it almofl hindered 
K 2 her 



148 OBober 1748. 

lier from walking. She was advifed to 
broil the berries of faffafras, and to rub the 
painful parts of her foot with the oil, 
which by this means would be got from 
the berries. She did fo, but at the fame 
time it made her vomit -, yet this was not 
fufficient to keep her from following the 
prefcription three times more, though as 
often as fhe made ufe thereof, it always had 
the fame effedt. However fhe was entirely 
freed from that pain, and perfedtly re- 
covered. 

A BLACK Woodpecker with a red head, or 
the Picus fileatus, Linn, is frequent in the 
Fenfyhanian forefts, and flays the winter, 
as I know from my own experience. It is 
reckoned among thofe birds which deftroy 
the maize; becaufe it fettles on the ripe 
ears, and deftroys them with its bill. The 
Swedes call it Tillkroka, but all other wood- 
peckers, thofe with gold yellow wings ex- 
cepted, are called Hackfpickar in the Swedijh 
language. I intend to defcribc them alto- 
gether more exactly in a particular work. 
I only obferve here, that almoft all the dif- 
ferent fpecies of woodpeckers are very nox- 
ious to the maize, when it begins to ripen 5 
for by picking holes in the membrane 
round the ear, the rain gets into it, and 
caufes the ear with all the corn it contain* 
to rot. OSfober 



Fenfylvaniat journey to Wilmington. 149 

OSlober the 3d. In the morning I fet 
out for Wilmington^ which was formerly 
<:alled Chrifiina by the Swedes^ and is thirty 
Englijh miles to the fouth weft of Phila- 
delphia. ' Three miles behind Philadelphia 
I paiTed the river Skulkill in a ferry, beyond 
which the country appears almoft a conti- 
nual chain of mountains and vallies. The 
mountains have an eafy flope on all fide&, 
and the vallies are commonly crofted by 
brooks, with cryftal ftreams. The greater 
part of the country is covered with feveral 
kinds of deciduous trees; for I fcarcely faw a 
fingle tree of the fir kind, if I except a few 
red cedars. The foreft was high, but open 
below, fo that it left a free profped: to the 
eye, and no under-wood obftrud:ed the paf- 
fage between the trees. It wokH haye 
been eafy in fome places to have gonb un^ 
der the branches with a carriage for a quar- 
ter of a mile, the trees ftanding at great 
diftances from each other, and the ground 
being very level. In fome places little 
glade^ opened, which were either meadows, 
paftures, or corn-fields j of which latter 
fome were cultivated and others not. In a 
few places, feveral houfes were built clof@ 
to each other. But for the greateft part 
they were fingle. In part of the fields the 
wheat was already fown, in the Englijh 
K 3 manner 



15^ OSlober 1748. 

manner without trenches, but with furrows 
pretty clofe together. I fometimes faw the 
country people very bufy in fowing their 
rye. Near every farm-houfe was a little 
field with maize. The inhabitants herea- 
bouts were commonly either Englijh or 
Swedes. 

All the day long I faw a continual vari- 
ety of trees j walnut trees of different forts, 
which were all full of nuts 3 chefnut trees 
quite covered with fine chefnuts -, mulber- 
ries, faffafras, liquidambar, tulip trees, and 
many others. 

Several fpecies of vines grew wild 
hereabouts. They run up to the fummits 
of the trees, their clufters of grapes and 
their leaves covering the ftems. I even faw 
fpme young oaks five or fix fathoms high, 
whofe tops were crowned with vines. The 
ground is that which is fo common herea- 
bouts, which I have already defcribed, viz. 
a clay mixed with a great quantity of fand, 
and covered with a rich foil or vegetable 
earth. The vines are principally feen on 
trees which ftand fingle in corn-fields, and 
at the end of woods, where the meadows, 
paftures, and fields begin, and likewife 
along the enclofures, where they cling with 
their tendrils round the trees which ftand 
^here. The lower parts of the plant are 

full 



Penfyhania, Journey to Wilmington. 151 

full of grapes, which hang below the leaves, 
and were now almofl ripe, and had a plea- 
fant fourifh tafte. The country people ga- 
ther them in great quantities, and fell them 
in the town. They are eaten without fur- 
ther preparation, and commonly people are 
prefented with them when they come to pay 
a vifit. 

The foil does not feem to be deep herea- 
bouts ; for the upper black flratum is hard- 
ly two inches. This I had an occafion to 
fee both in fuch places where the ground is 
dug up, and in fuch where the water, du- 
ring heavy fliowers of rain, has made cuts, 
which are pretty numerous here. The up- 
per foil has a dark colour, and the next a 
pale colour like bricks. I have obferved 
every where in America, that the depth of 
the upper foil does not by far agree with 
the computation of fome people, though 
we can almofl be fure, that in fome places 
it never was ftirred fmce the deluge. I 
fhall be more particular in this refped: af- 
terwards.* 

K4 The 

* The learned Dr. Wallerius, in his Mineralogy, §. 8. in 
the note to the article, Humus communis atra, mentions that 
fome people were of opinion, that the mould of our globe in- 
creafed gradually from the yearly putrefaftion of plants and 
their parts, efpecially in fuch places as had been uncultiva- 
ted ever fmce the deluge, and that thus in a hundred years, 

half 



15^ ^5tober 1748. 

The Datura Stramonium, or Thorn Apr 
fhy grows in great quantities near ^11 the 
villages. Its height is different according 
^o the foil it is in. For in a rich foil it 

grow$ 

half an inch of mould was produced. But he obferves in the 
fame time, that this obfervation was not at all exaft; for as 
the common mould feldom exceeds a foot, it muft from 
the^ce follow, that fmce the deluge no more than 2400 years 
were elapfed, though the fcripture chronology reckons up,- 
*vards of 4000 years fince that event : befides this, he re- 
marks, that moujd always becomes more dry and comprefled, 
>vhere it is out of the reach of rain and fnow ; and where i^t 
is expofed to rain, it is carried oiF to lower places, and 
.therefore increafes and decreafes according to the qualities of 
its local fituation. Moreover, vegetables it is known profpei" 
che beft where mould is found. As the furface of oiir globe 
has been covered with vegetables fmce the deluge, they muft 
have had a mould to grow in ever fince that time ; confer 
quently it is highly probable, that there muft have been a 
mould covering the furface of our globe, ever fince the firft 
origin. I fhould be led by feme other confiderations, tp 
doubt of the infallibility of this rule for the iijcreafe of 
mould. In Rufta, on this fide the river Vclga, are high and 
extenfive plains, which have been uncultivated ever fmce the 
deluge, for we know froip hiftory, that the Scythians, Sarmar 
tians, Huns, Chazars, and Mogols, were fucceffively the 
piafters of thefe vaft countries, and were altogether nomadic 
nations, who lived without agriculture; the country has 
been without wood fmce time immemorial, nor could there 
even fpring up any wood whatfoever, fmce its rambling pof- 
felTors every fpring fet fire to the old dry grafs, in order to 
make room for the new grafs, which in the latter end of Ma>', 
I found come up very near to my waift. And thefe vaft, de- 
ikrt plains, I faw every where covered with at leaft two feet 
fnould ; nay, in fome places it amounted to four feet ; this 
would give according to the former rule of half an inch per 
century, 4800 years, in the firft inftance, and in the fecond, 
9600 years, and therefore fhews that this rule for calculatinc^ 
the increafe of mould, is very precarious. The chemical 

analyfis 



Penfyhania, Journey to Wilmington. 153 

grows eight or ten feet high, but in a hard 
and poor ground, it will feldom come up 
to fix inches. Thh Datura, together with 
the Phytolacca, or American Nightfiade^ 
grow here in thofe places near the gardens, 

houfes. 



analyfis of plants, fhews that they confift of water, earth, 
acid, alkali, oil, and an inflammable principle, independent 
of the laft fubftance, and called by a late German chemift the 
caujik : thefe fubftances muft enter yearly the new plants, 
and make their fubftance, and are as it were regenerated in 
thefe new plants, after being fet at liberty from the ftrudure 
of the laft year's plants by putrefaftion, or by fire. Mould 
chemically examined, has the fame analogous parts._ Acid 
and cauftic are plentifully contained in the common air, and 
rnay alfo eafily be reftored to the mould, and thus circulate 
through a new fyftem of plants. Water comes likewife from 
rain and fnovv, out of our atmofphere : alkaline and oily 
particles, or a kind of foap, are the only things wanting, 
which when added with the former to any fubtle earth, vyill 
make a good mould, and thefe are produced by putrefaflion 
or fire, from vegetable and animal fubftances, and are the 
great promoters of vegetation. 

But the great queftion is, from whence thefe various 
fubftances necefl'ary ^ for vegetation originally came ? T6 
believe they are produced from putnfied vegetables is 
begging the queftion, and making a circulus 'vitiofus 
in the argument. There is therefore no evafion ; they 
were certainly produced by the great Creator of the unir 
verfe, and endowed with fuch qualities, as make then| 
capable of producing in various mixtures new bodies ; and 
when they are introduced by moifture, into the firft ftamin^ 
of a plant, or a feed, they expand thefe ftamina, and conftitute 
a new being, capable of affording food to the animal creati- 
on. It is evident, Mr. Kabn hinted at the above-mentione4 
opinion of the increafe of mould, and this gave me an oppor- 
tunity of confirming his argument, and of ftating fairly the 
great queftion on which agriculture, the mofl: neceffary branch 
of human arts depends. F. 



154 Odiober 1748. 

houfes, and roads, which in Sweden are co- 
vered with nettles and goofe-foot, which 
'European plants are very fcarce in America. 
But the Datura and Phytolacca are the worft 
weeds here, nobody knowing any particu- 
lar ufe of them. 

TuRNEP-FiELDs are fometimes to be 
feen. In the middle of the highroad I per- 
ceived a dead black fnake, which was four 
feet fix inches long, and an inch and a half 
in thicknefs. It belonged to the viper 
kind. 

Late at night a great Halo appeared 
round the moon. The people faid that it 
prognofticated either a florm, or rain, or 
both together. The fmaller the ring is, or 
the nearer it comes to the moon, the foon- 
er this weather fets in. But this time 
neither of thefe changes happened, and 
the halo had foretold a coldnefs in the air. 

I SAW to-day the Chermes of the alder 
(Chermes Alni) in great abundance on the 
branches of that tree, which for that reafon 
looks quite white, and at a diftance ap- 
pears as it were covered with mould. 

OBober the 4th. I continued my jour- 
ney early in the morning, and the country 
ftill had the fame appearance as I went on. 
It was a continual chain of pretty high 
hills, with an eafy afcent on all fides, and of 

vallies 



Tenfylvania, journey to Wilmington, 155 

vallies between them. The foil confifted 
of a brick coloured mould, mixed with 
clay, and a few pebbles, I rode fometimes 
through woods of feveral forts of trees, and 
fometimes amidft little fields, which had been 
cleared of the wood, and which at prefent were 
corn-fields, meadows, and paftures. The 
farm-houfes flood fingle, fometimes near 
the roads, and fometimes at a little diftance 
from them, fo that the fpace between the 
road and the houfes was taken up with lit- 
tle fields and meadows. Some of the 
houfes were built of ftone, two flories 
high, and covered with fhingles of the 
white cedar. But moft of the houfes were 
wooden, and the crevices flopped up with 
clay, inflead of mofs, which we make ufe 
of for that purpofe. No valves were to be 
met with in the chimneys, and the people 
even did not know what I meant by them. 
The ovens were commonly built up at fome 
diflance from the houfes, and were either 
under a roof, or without any covering 
againfl the weather. The fields bore part- 
ly buck-wheat, which was not yet cut, 
partly maize, and partly wheat, which was 
l3Ut lately fown -, but fometimes they lay 
fallow. The vines climbed to the top of 
feveral trees, and hung down again on both 
lides. Other trees again were furrounded 
by the ivy (Hedera quinquefoliaj which 

with 



Ij6 O5iober 1748. 

with the fame flexibility afcended to a great 
height. The Smilax laurifolia always join- 
ed with the ivy, and together with it twitt- 
ed itfelf round the trees. The leaves of 
the ivy were at this time commonly red- 
difh, but thofe of the vine were ftill quite 
green. The trees which were furrounded 
with them, looked at a diftance like thofe 
which are covered with hops in our coun- 
try, (and on feeing them from afar off, one 
might expedt to find wild hops climbing 
upon the trees.) Walnut and chefnut trees 
were common near enclofures, in woods, 
and on hills, and at prefent were loaded 
with their fruit. The perlimon was like- 
wife plentiful near the roads, and in the 
woods. It had a great quantity of fruit, 
but they were not yet fit for eating, fince 
the froft had not foftened them. At fome 
diftance from Wilmington^ I pafled a bridge 
over a little river, which falls north into j 
the Delaware. The rider pays here two- 1 
pence toll for himfelf and his horfe. 

Towards noon I arrived at Wilmington, 
Wilmington is a little town, about 
thirty Englijh miles fouth-weft from Fhila- 
delphia. It was founded in the year 1733. 
Part of it ftands upon the grounds belong^, 
ing to the Swedijh church, which annually 
receives certain rents, out of which they 

pay 



Penfyhaniai Wtlmingfon. ij7 

pay the minifter's falary, and employ the 
reft for other ufes. The houfes are built 
of ftone, and look very pretty; yet they 
are not built clofe together, but large open 
places are left between them. The quakcrs 
have a meeting-houfe in this town. The 
Swedijh church, which I intend to mention 
in the fequel, is half a mile out of town 
eaflwards. The parfonage is under the 
fame roof with the church. A little rivef 
called Chrijiina-kill palTes by the town, and 
from thence falls into the Delaware. By 
following its banks one goes three miles 
before one reaches the Delaware. The river 
is faid to be fufficiently deep, fo that the 
greateft veffel may come quite up to the town : 
for at its mouth or jundure with the Dela-' 
ware, it is flialloweft, and yet its depth even 
there when the water is loweft, is from two 
fathoms to two and a half. But as you go 
higher its depth encreafes to three, three and a- 
half, and even four fathoms. Thelargeftfhips^ 
therefore may fafely, and with their full 
cargoes come to, and from the town with 
the tide. From Wilmington, you have a fine 
profpedl of a great part of the river Dela- 
ware, and the Ihips failing on it. On both 
fides of the river ChriJlina^kill, almoft from 
the place where the redoubt is built to its 
jundure with the Delaware, are low mea-^ 
dows, which afford a great quantity of hay 

to 



158 05iober 1748. 

to the inhabitants. The town carries on * 
confiderable trade, and would have been 
more enlarged, if Philadelphia and New- 
cajiky which are both towns of a more anci- 
ent date, were not fo near on both fides of it. 
The Redoubt upon the river Chrijlina- 
killf was eredted this fummer, when it was 
known that the French and Spanijh priva- 
teers intended to fail up the river, and to at- 
tempt a landing. It ftands, according to the 
accounts of the late Rev. Mr. Tranbergy 
on the fame fpot, where the Swedes had 
built theirs. It is remarkable, that on 
working in the ground this fummer, to 
make this redoubt, an old Swedifi filver coin 
of Queen Chrifiina, not quite fo big as a 
(hilling was found at the depth of a yard, 
among fome other things. The Rev. Mr. 
Tranberg afterwards prefented me with it. 
On one fide were the arms of the houfe of 
TFafa with the infcription : CHRISTINA. 
D. G. DE. RE. SVE. that is, Chrijiina, by 
the grace of God, eleSied ^een of Sweden-, and 
near this the year of our Lord 1633. On 
the reverfe were thefe words : MONETA 
NOVA REGNI SVEC. or, a new coin of 
the kingdom of Sweden. At the fame time a 
number of old iron tools^ fuch as axes, 
fhovels, and the like, were difcovered. 
The redoubt, that is now ereded, confifts 

of 



Penjyhamaf IVilmington. 1 59 

of bulwarks of planks, with a rampart on 
the outfide. Near it is the powder maga- 
zine, in a vault built of bricks. At the 
ered:ion of this little fortification it was re- 
markable, that the quakers, whofe tenets 
reject even defenlive war, were as bufy as 
the other people in building it. For the 
fear of being every moment fuddenly at- 
tacked by privateers, conquered all other 
thoughts. Many of them fcrupled to put 
their own hands to the work ; but forward- 
ed it by fupplies of money, and by getting 
ready every thing, which was neceflary. 

OSiober the 5th. It was my defign to 
crofs the Delaware, and to get into New 
Jerfey with a view to get acquainted with 
the country ; but as there was no ferry 
here to bring my horfe over, I fet out on 
my return to Philadelphia. I partly went 
along the high road, and partly deviated on 
one or the other lide of it, in order to take 
more exadl obfervations of the country, and 
of its natural hiftory. 

The maize, was fown in feveral places. 
In fome its ftalks were cut fomewhat below 
the ear, dried and put up in narrow high 
flacks, in order to keep them as a food for the 
cattle in winter. The lower part of the flalk 
had likewife leaves, but as they commonly 
dry of themfelves, the people do not like to 

feed 



i66 05lober 1748, 

feed the cattle with them, alF their flavour 
being loft. But the upper ones are cut, 
whilft they are yet green. 

The vallies between the hills commonly 
contain brooks : but they are not very broad, 
and require no bridges, fo that carriages and 
horfe can eaiily pafs through them 5 for the 
water is feldom above fix inches deep. 

The leaves of moft trees were yet quite 
green, fuch as thofe of oaks, chefnut trees, 
black walnut trees, hiccory, tulip trees, 
and fafTafras. The two latter fpecies are 
found in plenty on the fides of the little 
Woods, on hills, on the fallow fields, near 
hedges, and on the road. The perfimort 
likewife had ftill its leaves ; however fome 
trees of this kind had dropt them. The 
leaves of the American bramble were at pre- 
fent almoft entirely red, though fome of 
thefe bufhes yet retained a lively green in 
the leaves. The Cornelian cherry likewife 
had already a mixture of brown and pale 
leaves. The leaves of the red maple were 
alfo red. 

I CONTINUED my journey to Chichejierf 
a borough upon the Delaware, where tra- 
vellers pafs the river in a ferry. They 
build here every year a number of fmall 
ihips for fale. From an iron work which 



Penjyhania, Return from Wilmington, i6i 

lies higher in the country, they carry iron 
bars to this place, and fhip them. 

Canoes are boats made of one piece of 
wood, and are much in ufe with the farm- 
ers, and other people upon the Delaware, 
and fome little rivers. For that purpofe a 
very thick trunk of a tree is hollowed out; 
the red juniper or red cedar tree, the white 
cedar, the chefhut tree, the white oak, and 
the tulip tree are commonly made ufe of 
for this purpofe. The canoes made of red 
and white cedar are reckoned the beft, be- 
caufe they fwim very light upon the water, 
and laft twenty years together. But of 
thefe, the red cedar canoes are moll prefe- 
rable. Thofe made of chefnut trees will 
likewife laft for a good while. But thofe 
of white oak are hardly ferviceable above 
fix years, and alfo fwim deep, becaufe they 
are fo heavy. The Liquidambar tree, or 
luiquidambar fiyracifiua, Linn, is big enough 
but unfit for making canoes, becaufe it 
imbibes the water. The canoes which 
are made of the tulip tree, fcarce laft 
fo long as thofe of white oak. The fize 
of the canoes is different, according to 
the purpofes they are deftined for. They 
can carry fix perfons, who however, muft 
by no means be unruly, but fit at the bot- 
tom of the canoe in the quieteft manner 
L poflible. 



1 62 OBober 1748. 

poffible, left the boat overfet. The Swedes 
in Penfyhania and New Jerfey near the 
rivers, have no other boats to go to Phila- 
delphia in, virhich they commonly do twice 
a v^^eek on the market days, though they 
be feveral miles diftant from the tovt^n, 
and meet fometimes w^ith fevere ftorms ; 
yet misfortunes from the ovcrfetting, &c. 
of thefe canoes are feldom heard of, though 
they might well be exped:ed on account of 
the fmall lize of this kind of boats. How- 
ever a great deal of attention and care is 
neceffary in managing the canoes, when 
the wind is fomewhat violent ; for they are 
narrow, round below, have no keel, and 
therefore may ealily be overfet. Accord- 
ingly when the wind is more brifk than 
ordinary, the people make for the land. 

The common garden crefTes grow in fe- 
veral places on the roads about Chicbejier, 
and undoubtedly come from the feeds, 
which were by chance carried out of the 
many gardens about that town. 

The American brambles are here in great 
plenty. When a field is left uncultivated, 
they are the firft plants that appear on it 5 
and I frequently obferved them in fuch 
fields as are annually ploughed, and have 
corn fown on them. For when thefe bufh- 
es are once rooted, they are not eafily ex- 
tirpated. 



I 



Penfylvania, Return from Wilmington. 163 

Itirpated. Such a bufn runs out tendrils 
fometimes four fathoms off its root, and 
then throws a new root, fo that on pulling 
it up, you meet with roots on both ends. 
On feme old grounds, which had long been 
uncultivated, there were fo many buflies of 
this kind, that it was very troublefome and 
dangerous walking in them. A wine is 
made of the berries, as I have already men- 
tioned. The berries are likewife eaten 
when they are ripe, and tafte well. No 
other ufe is made of them. 

Odlober the 6th. The Chenopodium an^ 
thelminticum is very plentiful on the road, 
and on the banks of the river, but chiefly 
in dry places in a loofe fandy foil. The 
Englijh who are fettled here, call it Worm^ 
feed and fe7'ufalem Oak. It has a difagree- 
ablefcent. In Penfylvania and New Jer* 
fey its feeds are given to children, againft 
the worms, and for that purpofe they are 
excellent. The plant itfelf is fpontancous 
in both provinces. 

The environs oi Chichejier, contain many 
gardens, which are full of apple trees, 
finking under the weight of innumera- 
ble apples. Mod: of them are winter fruit, 
and therefore were yet quite four. Each farm 
has a garden, and fo has each houfe of the 
better fort. The extent of thefe gardens is 
L 2 likewife 



164 Odloher 1748. 

likewife not inconfiderable, and thereford 
affords the poffeffor all the year long, great 
fupplies in his houfe-keeping, both for eat- 
ing and drinking. I frequently was fur- 
prized at the prudence of the inhabitants of 
this country. As foon as one has bought ai 
piece of ground, which is neither built up- 
on nor fown, his firft care is to get young 
apple trees, and to make a garden. He 
next proceeds to build his houfe, and laftly 
prepares the uncultivated ground to receive 
corn. For it is well known that the trees 
require many years before they arrive to 
perfedion, and this makes it neceffary to 
plant them firft. I now perceived near the 
farms, millsy wheels, and other inftru- 
ments which are made ufe of in crushing 
the apples, in order to prepare cyder from 
them afterwards. 

From Chichejler I went on towards Fhi^ 
ladelpbia. The oaks were the moft plenti- 
ful trees in the wood. But there were fe- 
veral fpecies of them, all different from the 
European ones. The fwine now went about 
in great herds in the oak woods, where 
they fed upon the acorns which fell in great 
abundance from the trees. Each hog had 
a wooden triangular yoke about its neck, 
by which it was hindered from penetrating 
through the holes in the enclofures 3 and 

for 



Penjyhania, Return from Wilmington, 165 

for this reafon, the enclofures are made 
very llender, and eafy to put up, and do 
not require much wood. No other enclo- 
fures are in ufe, but thofe which are fo like 
(heep hurdles. A number of fquirrels were 
in the oak woods, partly running on the 
ground, and partly leaping from one branch 
to another; and at this time they chiefly 
fed upon acorns. 

. I SELDOM faw beach trees ; but I found 
them quite the fame with the European ones. 
Their wood is reckoned very good for 
making joiner's planes of. 

I DO not remember feeing any other than 
the black AntSy or Formica nigra in Fenfyl- 
njania. They are as black as a coal, and of 
two forts, fome very little, like the lead of 
our ants, and others of the fize of our com- 
mon reddifh ants. I have not yet obferved 
any hills of theirs, but only feen fome run- 
ning about fingly. In other parts of Ame- 
rica, I have likewife found other fpecies of 
ants, as 1 intend to remark in the fequel. 

The common Privet, or Liguftrum vul- 
gare, is made ufe of in many places, as a 
hedge round corn-fields and gardens, and 
on my whole voyage, I did not fee that any 
other trees were made ufe of for this pur- 
pofe, though the Englijhmen here, well 
know that the hawthorn makes a much bet- 
L 3 ter 



1 66 OSfober 1748. 



i 



ter hedge. The privet hedges grow very 
thick and clofe, but having no fpines, the 
hogs, and even other animals break eafily 
through them ; and v^rhen they have once 
made a hole, it requires a long while before 
it grows up again. But when the hedges 
confift of fpinofe bufhes, the cattle will 
hardly attempt to get through them. 

About noon I came through Chejler, a 
little market- town which lies on the Dela^ 
ware. A rivulet coming down out of the 
country, pafles through this place, and dif- 
charg€s itfelf into the Delaware. There is 
a bridge over it. The houfes ftand difperf- 
ed. Moft of them are built of ftone, and 
two or three ftories high 3 Tome are how- 
ever made of wood. In the town is a 
church, and a market-place. 

Wheat was now fown every where. In 
fome places it was already green, having 
been fown four weeks before. The wheat 
fields were made in the EngUJh manner, 
having no ditches in them, but numerous 
furrows for draining the water, at the dif- 
tance of four or fix foot from one another. 
Great flumps of the trees which had been 
cut down, are every where feen on the 
fields, and this ihews that the country has 
been but lately cultivated. 

The roots of the trees do not go deep 

into' 



I 



Penfyhanid, Return from Wilmington, 167 

into the ground, but fpread horizontally. 
I had opportunities of obferving this in fe- 
veral places where the trees were dug up ; 
for I feldom faw one, whofe roots went 
above a foot deep into the ground, though 
it was a loofe foil. 

About two Englijh miles behind Chejier, 
I pafTed by an iron forge, which was to the 
right hand by the road fide. It belonged 
to two brothers, as I was told. The ore 
however is not dug here, but thirty or for- 
ty miles from hence, where it is iirft 
melted in the oven, and then carried to 
this place. The bellows were made of 
leather, and both they and the hammers, 
and even the hearth, but fmall in proporti- 
on to ours. All the machines were work- 
ed by water. The iron was wrought into 
bars. 

To day I remarked, as 1 have fince fre- 
quently feen on my travels in this country, 
that horfes are very greedy of apples. When 
they are let into an orchard to feed upon 
the grafs, if there are any apples on the 
ground, they frequently leave the frefh 
green grafs, and eat the apples, which, 
however, are not reckoned a good food for 
them ', and befides that, it is too expensive. 

The red Maple, or Acer rubrum, is f^len- 

tiful in thefe places. Its proper fituations 

L 4 are 



1 68 OBober 1748. 

are chiefly fwampy, wet places, in which 
the alder commonly is its companion. Out 
of its wood they make plates, fpinning- 
wheels, rolls, feet for chairs and beds, and 
all forts of work. With the bark, they 
dye both worfted and linnen, giving it a 
dark blue colour. For that purpofe it is 
iirft boiled in water -, and fome copperas, 
fuch as the hat-makers and flioe-makers 
commonly make ufe of, is added, before 
the fluff (which is to be dyed) is put into 
the boiler. This bark likewife affords a 
good black ink. When the tree is felled 
early in fpring, a fweet juice runs out of it, 
like that which runs out of our birches. 
This juice they do not make any ufe of 
here ; but in Canada, they make both trea- 
cle and fugar of it. Here is a variety of 
this tree which they call the curled Maple, 
the wood being as it were marbled within j 
it is much ufed in all kinds of joiner's work, 
and the utenfils made of this wood, are pre- 
ferable to thofe made of any other fort of 
wood in the country, and are much dearer 
than thofe made of the wood of the wild 
cherry iTttsfPrunus Virginiana) or of black 
walnut trees. But the mofl valuable utenfils 
were thofe made oi curled black walnut, for 
that is an excefTive fcarce kind of wood. 
The curled maple was likewife very un- 

com- 



Penfyhania, Return from Wilmington. 169 

common, and you frequently find trees, 
whofe outfides are marbled, but their infide 
not. The tree is therefore cut very deep 
before it is felled, to fee whether it has 
veins in every part. 

In the evening I reached Philadelphia. 

OBober the 7th. In the morning we 
croffed the Delaware in a boat to the other 
iide which belongs to New Jerfey, each per- 
fon paying fourpence for his palTage. The 
country here is very different from that in 
Penfyhania ; for here the ground is almoft 
mere fand, but in the other province it is 
mixed with a good deal of clay, and this 
makes the ground pretty rich. The dif- 
coveries which I made to day of infed:s 
and plants, I intend to mention in another 
work. 

A SOIL like this in New feffey, one 
might be led to think, could produce no- 
thing becaufe it is fo dry and poor. Yet 
the maize which is planted on it grows 
extremely well, and we faw many fields 
filled with it. The earth is of that kind 
in which tobacco commonly fucceeds, but 
it is not near fo rich. The flalks of maize 
are commonly eight feet high, more or 
lefs, and are full of leaves. The maize 
is planted as ufual in rows, in little fquares, 
fo that there is a fpace of five feet and fix 

inches 



170 OBober 1748. 

inches between each fquare, both in length 
and breadth ; on each of thefe little hills 
three or four ftalks come up, which were not 
yet cut for the cattle j each flalk again 
has from one to four ears, which are large 
and full of corn. A fandy ground could 
never have been better employed. In fome 
places the ground between the maize is 
ploughed, and rye fown in it, fo that when 
the maize is cut, the rye remains upon the 
field. 

We frequently faw Afparagus growing 
near the enclofures, in a loofe foil, on un- 
cultivated fandy fields. It is likewife plen- 
tiful between the maize, and was at prefent 
full of berries, but I cannot tell whether 
the feeds are carried by the wind to the 
places where I faw them; it is however 
certain, that I have likewife feen it grow- 
ing wild in other parts oi America. 

The Worm-feed, is likewife plentiful on 
the roads, in a fandy ground fuch as that 
near the ferry oppofite to Philadelphia. 
I have already mentioned that it is given to 
children, as a remedy to carry off the 
worms. It is then put into brandy, and 
when it has been in it for one hour, it is 
taken out again, dried and given to the, 
children, either in beer fweetened with 
treacle, or in any other liquor. Its effe(fts 

are 



Penfyhania, Return from Wilmington, 171 

are talked of differently. Some people fay 
it .kills the worms, others again pretend 
that it forwards their encreafe. But I know 
by my own experience, that this worm- 
feed has had very good effeds upon children. 

The Furjlain, which we cultivate in 
our gardens, grows wild in great abundance 
in the loofe foil amongft the maize. It 
was there creeping on the ground, and its 
ftalks were pretty thick and fucculentj 
which circumftance very juftly gave reafon 
to wonder from whence it could get juice 
fufficient to fupply it in fuch a dry ground. 
It is to be found plentiful in fuch foil, in 
other places of this country. 

The Bidens bipinfjata, is here called Spa- 
nijh Needles. It grows fingle about farm 
houfes, near roads, pales and along the 
hedges. It was yet partly in flower ; but 
for the greatefl: part it was already out of 
bloffom. When its feeds are ripe it is very 
difagreeable walking where it grows. For 
they ftick to the cloaths and make them 
black ; and it is difficult to difcharge the 
black fpots which they occafion. Each 
feed has three fpines at its extremity ; and 
each of thefe again is full of nnmerous little 
books, by which the feed faftens itfelf to the 
cloaths. 

In the woods and along the hedges in 

this 



172 OSfober 1748. 

this neighbourhood, fome fingle red Ants, 
(Formica rubra) crept about, and their • 
antennae or feel-horns were as long as their 
bodies. 

Towards night we returned to Phila- 
delphia. 

: Oeiober the 8th. The fhore oi Penfyl- 
vania has a great quantity of the fineft 
oyflers. About this time the people began 
to bring them to Philadelphia for fale. 
They come from that part of the {hore, 
which is near the mouth of the river Dela- 
ware. They are reckoned as good as the 
New York oyflers, of which I fhall make 
more particular mention afterwards. How- 
ever I thought that this latter fort of oyfters 
was generally larger, fatter and more pa- 
latable. It is remarkable that they com- 
monly became palatable at the time when 
the agues had left off their fury. Some men 
went with whole carts full of oyfters, cry- 
ing them about the ftreets ; this is unufual 
here when any thing elfe is to be fold, but 
in London it is very common. The oyfter 
fhells are thrown away, though formerly 
a lime was burnt from them, which has 
been found unnecefTary, there being ftones 
for burning of lime in this neighbourhood, 
and the lime of oyfter fhells not being as 
good as this other lime. The people fhew- 

ed 



Penfyhania, Philadelphia. ly^ 

cd me fome houfes in this town which 
were built of ftone, and to the mafon work 
6T which the lime of oyfler fhells had been 
employed. The walls of thefe houfes were 
always fo wet two or three days before a 
rain, that great drops of water could plain- 
ly be perceived on them ; and thus they 
were as good as Hygrometers.* Several 
people who had lived in this kind of houfes 
complained of thefe inconveniences. 

October the 9th. Pease are not much 
cultivated in Penfyhania at prefent, though 
formerly, according to the accounts of 
fome old Swedes, every farmer had a little 
field with peafe. In New Jerfey and the 
fouthern parts of New Tork, peafe are like- 
wife not fo much cultivated as they ufed to 
be. But in the northern parts of New 
Torky or about Albany, arid in all the parts 
of Canada which are inhabited by the 
French, the people fow great quantities, 
and have a plentiful crop. In the former 
colonies, a little defpicable infedt has obli- 
ged the people to give up fo ufeful a part of 
agriculture. This little infedl was formerly 

little 



* As the fhells of oyfters are a marine animal produftion, 
and their cavities are full of particles of fea-water, the moif- 
ture of it flies off, leaving behind its fait ; when the fhells 
are burnt, and the lime is flacked, the fait mixes with the 
lime : and though the mortar of fuch a lime grows ever fo 
dry, the particles of fait immediately attraft the moillure of 
the air, and caufe that danjpnefs complained of here. F. 



174 O£ioher 1748. 

little known, but a few years ago it multi- 
plied exceffively. It couples in fummer, 
about the time when the peafe are in blof^ 
fom, and then depofites an egg into almoft 
every one of the little peafe. When the 
peafe are ripe, their outward appearance 
does not difcover the worm, which, how- 
ever, is found within, when it is cut. 
This worm lies in the pea, if it is not ftir- 
red during all the winter, and part of the 
fpring, and in that fpace of time confumes 
the greateft part of the infide of the pea : 
In fpring therefore little more than the 
mere thin outward ikin is left. This worm 
at laft changes into an infedt, of the coleop- 
tera clafs, and in that ftate creeps through 
a hole of its own making in the hufk, 
and flies oif, in order to look for new fields 
of peafe, in which it may couple with 
its cogeneric infedts, and provide food fuf- 
ficient for its poilerity. 

This noxious infe<ft has fpread from 
Tenfylvania to the north. For the country 
of New Tork, where it is common at pre- 
fent, has not been plagued with it above 
twelve or fifteen years ago j and before that 
time the people fowed peafe every year 
without any inconvenience, and had excel- 
lent crops. But by degrees thefe little 
enemies came in fuch numbers, that the 

inhabitants 



Penfyhaniay Philadelphia. 175 

inhabitants were forced to leave off fowing 
of peafe. The people complained of this 
in feveral places. The country people 
about Albany have yet the pleafure to fee 
their fields of peafe not infeded by thefe 
beetles, but are always afraid of their ap- 
proach ; as it has been obferved they come 
every year nearer to that province. 

I KNOW not whether this infedt would 
live in Europe, and I fhould think our 
Swedijh winters muft kill the worm, even 
if it be ever fo deeply inclofed in the pea; 
notwithflanding it is often as cold in New 
Tork (where this infedt is fo abundant) as in 
our country, yet it continues to multiply here 
every year, and proceeds always farther to 
the north. 1 was very near bringing fome 
of thefe vermin into Europe, without know- 
ing of it. At my departure from America, I 
took fome fweet peas with me in a paper, 
and they were at that time quite freih and 
green. But on opening the paper after my 
arrival at Stockholm, on Auguft the ift. 
1751 s I found all the peas hollow, and 
the head of an infed: peeping out of each. 
Some of thefe infers even crept out, in or- 
der to try the weather of this new climate -, 
but I made hafte, to fhut the paper again, 
}n order to prevent the fpreading of this 

noxious 



ly^ OSlober 1748. 

noxious infed:.* I own, that when I firf! 
perceived them, I was more frightened 
than I fhould have been at the fight of a 
viper. For I at once had a full view of 
the whole damage, which my dear country 
would have fuifered, if only two or three 
of thefe noxious infers had efcaped me. 
The pofterity of many families, and even the 
inhabitants of whole provinces, would have 
had fufficient reafon to deteft me as the 
caufe of fo great a calamity. I afterwards 
fent fome of them, though well fecured, to 
count 'Tejiny and to Dr. Linnaus, together 
with an account of their deftrudive quali- 
ties. Dr. Linnceus has already inferted a 
defcription of them in an Academical Dif- 
fertation, which has been drawn up under 
his prefidency, and treats of the damages 
made by infeds.f He there calls this in- 
fed the Bruchus of North-America. % It 

was 

•Though Mt. Kalm has fo carefully avoided peopling 
Europe with this infeft, yet Dr. Linnaus affures us in his 
Syjlema Nafura, that the fouthern countries of Europe are al- 
ready infefted with it ; Scopoli mentions it among his In/eSia 
Carniolica p. 63. and Geoffroy among his Parijian In/eas, 
V9I. I. p. 267. t. 4. f. 9. has given a fine figure of it. F. 

t DifF. de Noxa Infeftorum, Amcen. Acad. Vol. 3. p. 
347. ^. 

X In his Syftema Naturae, he calls it Bruchus Piji, or the 
Peafe Beetle ; and fays that the Gracula ^i/cula, or Purple 
daw of Catejby, is the greateft deftroyer of them, and though 

this 



Penjylvania, Philadelphia. ijy 

was very peculiar that every pea iri the 
paper was eaten without exception. 

When the inhabitants of Penfyhania 
fow peafe procured from abroad, they are 
iiot commonly attacked by thefe infedts 
for the firfi: year -, but in the next they take 
pofleffion of the pea. It is greatly to be 
wifhed that none of the fhips which annu- 
ally depart from New Tbrk or Penjylvania, 
may bring them into the 'European coun- 
tries. From hence the power of a lingle 
defpicable infect will plainly appear; as 
alfo, that the ftudy of the oeconomy and of 
the qualities of infedls, is not to be looked 
upon as a merepaftime and ufelefs employ - 
ment.* 

The Phus radicans is a fhrub or tree 
which grows abundantly in this country, 
and has in common with the ivy, called He- 
dera arborea, the quality of not growing 
without the fupport either of a tree, a 
wall, or a hedge, I have feen it climb- 
ing to the very top of high trees in the 
M woods. 



this bird has been profcrlbed by the legiflature of Penjyl'va- 
nia, Nenu Jer/ey, and Newo England as a maize-thief, they 
feel however the imprudence of extirpating this bird ; for a 
quantity of worms which formerly were eaten by thefe birds' 
deftroy their meadows at prefent. F. 

* If the peafe were fteeped before they are fown, in a lie 
of lime water and fome diltolved arfenic, the pupa or aurelia 
6f the infeft would be killed. F. 



178 OSiober 1748. 

woods, and its branches flioot out every 
where little roots, which faften upon 
the tree and as it were enter into it. 
When the ftem is cut, it emits a pale 
brown fap of a difagreeable fcent. This 
fap is fo fharp that the letters and charac- 
ters made upon linnen with it, cannot be 
got out again, but grow blacker the more 
the cloath is wafhed. Boys commonly 
marked their names on their linnen with 
this juice. If you write with it on paper, 
the letters never go out, but grow blacker 
from time to time. 

This fpecies of Sumach has the fame 
noxious qualities as the poifonous fumach, 
or Poifon-tree, which I have above defcribed, 
being poifonous to fome peo'ple, though 
not to every one. Therefore all that has 
been faid of the poifon tree is likewife ap- 
plicable to this ; excepting that the former 
has the ftronger poifon. However I have 
feen people who have been as much fwelled 
from the noxious exhalations of the latter, 
as they could have been from thofe of the 
former. I likewife know, that of two lif- 
ters, the one could manage the tree without 
being affeded by its venom, though the 
other immediately felt it as foon as the ex- 
halations of the tree came near her, or 
when ever ihe came a yard too near the 

tree. 



Penfyhania, Germantown. 179 

itree, and even when fhe flood in the way 
of the wind, which blew diredlly from this 
ihrub. But upon me this fpecies of fumach 
has never exherted its power, though I 
jmade above a hundred experiments upon 
imyfelf with the greateft ftems, and the 
Ijuice once fquirted into my eye, without 
doing me any harm. On another perfon's 
hand which I had covered very thick with 
it, the fkin a few hours after became as 
hard as a piece of tanned leather, and peeled 
off in the following days, as if little fcales 
fell from it. 

OSlober the loth. In the morning I ac- 
companied Mr. Cock to his country feat, 
which is about nine miles from Philadelphia 
to the north. 

Though the woods of PenJ^lvania Sifford 
many oaks, and more fpecies of them thaa 
are found further north, yet they do not 
build fo many {hips in this province as they 
do in the northern ones, and efpecially in 
New England. But experience has taught 
the people that the fame kind of trees is 
more durable the further it grows to the 
north, and that this advantage decreafes 
the more it grows in warm climates. It is 
likewife plain that the trees in the fouth 
grow more every year, and form thicker 
ringlets than thofein the north. The for- 
M 2 mer 



l8o 06lober 1748. 

mer have likewife much greater tubes fot* 
the circulation of the fap than the latter. 
And for this reafon they do not build foj 
many fhips in Penfylvania, as they do 
in New England, though more than irt 
Virginia and Maryland; but Carolina 
builds very few, and its merchants get all 
their fhips from New England. Thofe 
which are here made of the beft oak, hard- 
ly are ferviceable above ten, or at moft 
twelve years ; for then they are fo rotten, 
that no body ventures to go to fea in them. 
Many captains of fhips come over from 
England to North- America, in order to get 
fhips built. But moft of them choofe New 
England, that being the mofl northerly 
province -, and if they even come over in 
fhips which are bound for Philadelphia, they 
frequently on their arrival fet out from Pen- 
Jylvania for New England. The Spaniards 
in the Weji Indies are faid to build their 
fhips of a peculiar fort of cedar, which 
holds out againfl putrefaction and wet ; but 
it is not to be met with on the continent 
in the Englijh provinces. Here are above 
nine different forts of oak, but not one of 
them is comparable to the fingle fpecies we 
have in Sweden, with regard to its good- 
.nefs. And therefore a fliip of European 
oak cofls a great deal more than one made 
of American oak. Many 



Penjyhania, Germantown. \%i 

Many people who chiefly employed 
ithemfelves in gardening, had found in a 
fuccellion of years, that the red Beet, which 
grew out of the feed which was got from 
JSlew Tork, became very fweet and had a 
very fine tafte ; but that it every year loft 
part of its goodnefs, if it was cultivated 
from feeds which were got here. The 
people were therefore obliged to get as many 
feeds of red beet every year from New Tork, 
as were wanted in their gardens. It has 
likewife been generally obferved, that the 
plants which are produced from Englijh 
feeds are always much better and more a- 
greeable, than thofe which come from feeds 
of this country. 

In the garden of Mr. Cock was a raddifh 
which was in the loofe foil, grown fo big 
as to be feven inches in diameter. Every 
body that faw it, owned it was uncommon 
to fee them of fuch a fize. 

That fpecies of Convolvulus which is 
pommonly called Batatas, has here the 
nzvntoi Bermudian potatoes. The common 
people, and the gentry without djftindtion 
planted them in their gardens. This is 
done in the fame manner as with the com- 
mon potatoes. Some people made little hil- 
locks, into which they put thefe potatoes i 
but others only planted them in flat beds, 
M 3 Th© 



i82 OSlober 1748. 

The foil mull be a mixture of fand and earth, 
and neither too rich, nor too poor. When 
they are going to plant them, they cut them,,l 
as the common potatoes, taking care how-' 
ever that a bud or two be left upon each 
piece which is intended to be planted. 
Their colour is commonly red without, and 
yellow within. They are bigger than the 
common fort, and have a fweet and very 
agreeable tafte, which I cannot find in the- 
other potatoes, in artichokes or in any 
(Other root, and they almoft melt in the 
mouth. It is not long fince they have been 
planted here. They are dreffed in the 
fame manner as commom potatoes, and 
eaten either along with them, or by them- 
felves. They grow very faft and very well' 
here ; but the greateft difficulty confifts in 
keeping them over winter, for they will bear 
neither cold, nor a great heat, nor wet. 
They mufl therefore be kept during winter 
in a box with fand in a warm room. In 
Penjylvania where they have no valves in 
their chimnies, they are put in fuch a box 
with fand, at Tome diftance from the fire, 
and there they are fecured both againft froft 
and againft over great heat. It will not 
anfwer the purpofe to put them into dry 
fand in a cellar, as is commonly done with 
the common fort of potatoes. For the 

moif- 



Penjyhania, Germantown. 1S3 

moifture which is always in cellars, pene- 
trates the fand, and makes them putre- 
fy. It would probably be very eafy to 
keep them in Sweden in warm rooms, 
during the cold feafon. But the difficulty 
lies wholly in bringing them ever to Swe- 
den, I carried a confiderable number of 
them with me on leaving America, and 
took all poflible care in preferving them. 
But we had a very violent ftorm at fea, by 
which the fliip was fo greatly damaged, that 
the water got in every where, and wetted 
our cloaths, beds and other moveables fo 
much, that we could wring the water out 
of them. It is therefore no wonder that 
my Bermuda potatoes were rotten -, but as 
they are now cultivated in Portugal and 
Spain, nay even in England, it will be eafy 
to bring them into Sweden. The drink 
which the Spaniards prepare from thefe po- 
tatoes in their American pofleffions is not 
ufual in Penfyhania,^ 

Mr. Cock had a paper mill, on a little 
brook, and all the coarfef forts of paper are 
manufactured in it. It is noW annually 
rented for fifty pounds Penfyhania cur- 
rency. 

M 4 OSfober 

* Mr. Miller defcribes this liquor in his Gardener's Difti- 
onary under the article of Cenvoivu/us, fpecies the 17th. and 
1 8th. 



iB4 OBober 1748. 

OBober the nth. I have already men-f 
tioned, that every countryman has a great-r 
er or lefTer number of apple trees planted 
round his farm-houfe, from whence heget^ 
great quantities of fruit, part of which he 
fells, part he makes cyder of, and part he 
ufes in his own family for pyes, tarts, and 
the like. However he cannot exped: an 
equal quantity of fruit every year. And I 
was told, that this year had not by far af- 
forded fuch a great quantity of apples as the 
preceding ; the caufe of which they told 
me, was the continual and great drought 
in the month of Mayy. which had hurt all 
the bloflbms of the apple trees, and made 
them wither. The heat had been fo great^ 
as to dry up all the plants, and thegrafs in 
the fields, 

The Polytrichum commune^ a fpecies of 
mofs, grew plentifully on wet and low 
meadows between the woods, and in feve- 
ral places quite covered them, as our mofTr 
es cover the meadows in Sweden, It was 
Jikewife very plentiful on hills. 

Agriculture was in a very bad ftate 
hereabouts. When a perfon had bought a 
piece of land, which perhaps had nevef 
been ploughed fince the creation, he cut 
down part of the wood, tore up the roots, 
ploughed the ground, fowed corn on it, 

and 



Penjyhania, Germantown, 185 

^nd the firft time got a plentiful crop. But 
the fame land being tilled for feveral years 
fucceffively, without being manured, it at lafl 
muft of courfe lofe its fertility. Its poflefTor 
therefore leaves it fallow, and proceeds to 
another part of his ground, which he treats 
in the fame manner. Thus he goes on till 
he has changed a great part of his poffeffions 
into corn-fields, and by that means depri- 
ves the ground of its fertility. He then 
returns to the firft field, which now is pret- 
ty well recovered; this he again tills as 
long as it will afford him a good crop, but 
when its fertility is exhaufted, he leaves it 
fallow again, and proceeds to the reft as 
before. 

It being cuftomary here, to let the cat- 
tle go about the fields and in the woods 
both day and night, the people cannot col-^ 
led; much dung for manure. But by leaving 
the land fallow for feveral years together, a 
great quantity of weeds fpring up in it, and 
get fuch ftrength, that it requires a confi- 
derable time to extirpate them. From 
hence it likewife comes, that the corn is 
always fo much mixed with weeds. The 
great richnefs of the foil, which the firft 
European colonifts found here, and which 
had never been ploughed before, has given 
fife to this negled of agriculture, which is 

ftill 



l86 OBoher 1748. 

ftill pbferved by many of the inhabitants. 
But they do not confider, that when the 
earth is quite exhaufted, a great fpace of 
lime, and an infinite deal of labour is 
ileceflary to bring it again into good or- 
der; efpecially in thefe countries which 
are almoft every fummer fo fcorched 
up by the exceffive heat and drought.. 
The foil of the corn-fields confifted of a 
thin mould, greatly mixed with a brick 
coloured clay, and a quantity of fmall par- 
ticles of glimmer. This latter came from 
the ftones which are here almoft every 
where to be met with at the depth of a foot 
or thereabouts. Thefe little pieces of 
glimmer made the ground fparkle, when 
the fun {hone upon it. 

Almost all the houfes hereabouts were 
built either of ftone or bricks ; but thofe 
of ftone were more numerous. German- 
town, which is about two Englijh miles 
long, had no other houfes, and the coun- 
try houfes thereabouts, were all built of 
ftone. But there are feveral varieties of 
that ftone which is commonly made ufe of 
in building. Sometimes it confifted of a 
black or grey glimmer, running in undulated 
veins, the fpaces between their bendings 
being filled up with a grey, loofe, fmail- 

grained 



Fenfyhaniay Germantown. 1%J 

grained limeftone, which was eafily friable. 
Some tranfparent particles of quartz Were 
fcattered in the mafs, of which the glim* 
mer made the greateft part. It was very 
cafy to be cut, and with proper tools could 
readily be fhaped into any form. Some- 
times however the pieces confifled of a 
black, fmall-grained glimmer, a white 
fmall-grained fandflone, and fome particles 
of quartz, and the feveral conftituent parts 
were well mixed together; and fometimes 
the ftone had broad flripes of the white 
limeftone without any addition of glim- 
mer, but moft commonly they were much 
blended together, and of a grey colour. 
Sometimes this ftone was found to confift 
of quite fine and black pieces of glimmer, 
and a grey, loofe and very fmall-grained 
limeftone. This was likewife very eafy 
to be cut, being loofe. 

These varieties of the ftone are com- 
monly found clofe together. They were 
every where to be met with, at a little 
depth, but not in equal quantity and good- 
nefs 'j and not always eafy to be broken. 
When therefore a perfon intended to build 
a houfe, he enquired where the beft ftone 
could be met with. It is to be found on 
corn-fields and meadows, at a depth which 
varies from two to fix feet. The pieces 

were 



1 88 OSiober 1748. 

were different as to lize. Some were eight 
or ten feet long, two broad, and one thick. 
Sometimes they were ftill bigger, but fre- 
quently much lefs. Hereabouts they lay in 
ftrata one above another, the thicknefs of 
each ftratum being about a foot. The 
length and breadth were different, but 
commonly fuch as I have before mentioned. 
They muft commonly dig three or four 
feet before they reach the firft ftratum. 
The loofe ground above that ftratum, is 
full of little pieces of this ftone. This 
ground is the common brick coloured foil, 
which is univerfal here, and confifts of fand 
and clay, though the former is more plen- 
tiful. The loofe pieces of glimmer which 
fhine fo much in it, feem to have been 
broken off from the great ftrata of ftone. 

It muft be obferved that when the 
people build with this ftone, they take care 
to turn the flat fide of it outwards. But as 
that cannot always be done, the ftone be- 
ing frequently rough on all fides, it is eafi- 
ly cut fmooth with tools, fince it is foft, 
and not very difficult to be broken. The 
ftones however are unequal in thicknefs, 
and therefore by putting them together 
they cannot be kept in fuch ftraight lines as 
bricks. It fometimes likewife happens that 
pieces break off when they are cut, and 

leav^ 



Penfyhania, Germaritown, 189 

leave holes on the outlide of the wall. But 
in order to fill up thefe holes, the little 
pieces of ftone which cannot be made ufe 
of are pounded, mixed with mortar; and 
put into the holes ; the places thus filled 
up, are afterwards fmoothed, and when 
they are dry, they are hardly diftinguifh- 
able from the reft at fome diftance. At 
laft they draw on the outfide of the wall, 
ftrokes of mortar, which crofs each other 
perpendicularly, fo that it looks as if the 
wall confifted wholly of equal, fquare 
ftones, and as if the white ftrokes were the 
places where they were joined with mortar. 
The infide of the wall is made fmooth, co- 
vered with mortar and whitewafhed. It 
has not been obferved that this kind of 
ftone attradts the moifture in a rainy or wet 
feafon. In Philadelphia and its environs, 
you find feveral houfes built of this kind of 
ftone. 

The houfes here are commonly built in 
the Englijh manner. 

One of Mr. CocJis negroes fhewed me 
the fkin of a badger fUrfus MelesJ which 
he had killed a few days ago, and which 
convinced me that the American badger is 
the fame with the Swedijh one. It was here 
called Ground Hog, 

Towards night I returned to Philadel- 
phia. OBober- 



I9P OBoher ly^^. 

OBober iht 12th. In the morning we 
went to the river Skulkill^ partly to gather 
feeds, partly to colled plants for the herb^ 
al, and to make all forts of obfervations. 
The Skulkill is a narrow river, which falls 
into the Delaware, about four miles from 
Philadelphia to the fouth -, but narrow as it 
is, it rifes on the weft fide of thofe high 
mountains, commonly called the blue moun- 
tains, and runs two hundred Englijh miles, 
and perhaps more. It is a great difadvan- 
tage to this country, that there are feveral 
cataracts in this river as low as Philadel- 
phia, for which reafon there can be no na- 
vigation on it. To day I made fome de- 
fcriptions and remarks on fuch plants as the 
cattle liked, or fuch as they never touched. 

I OBSERVED feveral little fubterraneous 
walks in the fields, running under ground 
in various directions, the opening of which 
was big enough for a mole : the earth, 
which formed as it were a vault above it, 
and lay elevated like a little bank, was near 
two inches high, full as broad as a man's 
hand, and about two inches thick. In un- 
cultivated fields I frequently faw thefe 
fubterraneous walks, which difcovered them- 
felves by the ground thrown up above them, 
which when trod upon gave way, and made 
it inconvenient to walk in the field. 

These 



Penfyhania, Philadelphia, 191 

These walks are inhabited by a kind of 
mole,* which I intend to defcribe more 
accurately in another work. Their food is 
commonly roots : I have obferved the fol- 
lowing qualities in one which was caught. 
It had greater ftiffnefs and ftrength in its 
legs, than I ever obferved in other animals 
in proportion to their fize. Whenever it 
intended to dig, it held its legs obliquely, 
like oars. I laid my handkerchief before 
it, and it began to ftir in it with the fnout, 
and taking away the handkerchief to fee 
what it had done to it, I found that in the 
fpace of a minute it had made it full of 
holes, and it looked as if it had been pierc- 
ed very much by an awl. I was obliged to 
put fome books on the cover of the box in 
which I kept this animal, or elfe it was 
flung off immediately. It was very irafci- 
ble, and would bite great holes into any 
thing that was put in its way; I held a 
fteel pen-cafe to it, it at iirft bit at it 
with great violence, but having felt its 
hardnefs, it would not venture again to bite 
at any thing. Thefe moles do not make 
fuch hills as the European ones, but only 
fuch walks as I have already defcribed. 

O^ober 

* This animal is probably the Sorex criJJatus of Dr. Lipnaus^ 
who fays it is like the mole and lives in Penjylvania. F, 



t^i OBober 1748. 

OBober the 1 3th. There is a plant herCj^ 
from the. berries of which they make a kind 
of wax or tallow, and for that reafon the 
Swedes call it the Tallow Jhrub. The £«- 
glijh call the fame tree the Candleberry-tree, 
or Bayberry-bujh ', and Dr. Ltnnceus gives 
it the name of Myrica cerifera. It grows 
abundantly on a wet foil, and it feems to 
thrive particularly well in the neighbour- 
hood of the fea, nor have I ever found it 
high up in the country far from the fea. . 
The berries grow abundantly on the femaleJ 
fhrub, and look as if flower had been^ 
ftrewed upon them. They are gathered 
late in autumn, being ripe about that time, 
and are then thrown into a kettle or pot 
full of boiling water -, by this means their 
fat melts out, floats at the top of the water 
and may be fkimmed off into a vefl^el ; 
with the fkimming they go on till there is 
no tallow left. The tallow as foon as it is 
congealed, looks like common tallow or 
wax, but has a dirty green colour ; it is for 
that reafon melted over again, and refined, 
by which means it acquires a fine and pret- 
ty tranfparent green colour : this tallow is 
dearer than common tallow, but cheaper 
than wax. In Philadelphia they pay a fhil- 
ling Penfyhania currency, for a pound of 
this tallow j but a pound of common tallow 

only 



Penjyhania, Philadelphia. 193 

Only came to half that money, and wax 
cofts as much again. From this tallow they 
make candles in many parts of this pro- 
vince, but they ufually mix fome common 
tallow with it. Candles of this kind, do 
not ealily bend> nor melt in fummer as 
common candles do i they burn better and 
flower, nor do they caufe any fmoak, bat 
rather yield an agreeable fmell, when they 
are extinguished. An old Swede of ninety- 
one years of age told me, that this fort of 
candles had formerly been much in ufe with 
his country men. At prcfent they do 
not make fo many candles of this kind, if 
they can get the tallow of animals ; it be- 
ing too troublefome to gather the berriesw 
However thefe candles are made ufe of by 
poor people, who live in the neighbourhood 
of a place where the bufhesgrow, and have 
not cattle enough to kill, in order to fupply 
them with a fufficient quantity of tallow. 
From the wax of the candleberry tree they 
like wife make a foap here, which has an a- 
greeable fcent, and is the beft for {having. 
This wax is likewife ufed by doctors and 
furgeons, who reckon it exceeding good 
for plafters upon wounds. A merchant of 
this town once fent a quantity of thefe can- 
dles to thofe American provinces which had 
Roman Catholic inhabitants, thinking he 
N would 



194 OBober 1748. 

would be well paid, fince wax candles are 
made ufe of in the Roman Catholick 
churches; but the clergy would not take 
them. An old Swede mentioned that the 
root of the candleberry tree was formerly 
made ufe of by the Indians, as a remedy 
againft the tooth ach, and that he himfelf 
having had the tooth ach very violently, 
had cut the root in pieces and applied it 
round his tooth; and that the pain had 
been leffened by it. Another «S'Z£;^^<? affu- 
red me that he had been cured of the 
tooth ach, by applying the peel of the root 
to it. In Carolina, they not only make 
candles out of the wax of the berries, but 
likewife fealing-wax. 

October the 14th. Penny Royal is a" 
plant which has a peculiar ftrong fcent, 
and grows abundantly on dry places in the 
country. Botanifts call it Ciinila pulegioides. 
It is reckoned very wholefome to drink 
as a tea when a perfon has got cold, as it 
promotes perfpiration. I was likewife told, 
that on feeling a pain in any limb, this 
plant, if applied to it, would give imme- 
diate relief. 

The goods which are fhipped to London 
from New England are the following : all 
forts of fifli caught near Newfoundland and 
elfewhere ; train-oil of feveral forts ; whale- 
bone > tar, pitch, mafls> new ihips, of which 

a great 



Penjyhaniai Philadelphia^ tgj 

a great number is annually built ; a few hides, 
and fometimes fome forts of wood. The 
Englijh iflands in America, as Jamaiea and 
Barbadoes, get from New England, fifh, 
flefh, butter, cheefe, tallow, horfes, cattle^ 
all forts of lumber, fuch as pails, buckets, 
and ho^fheads ; and have returns made in 
rum, fugar, melafies, and other produces 
of the country, or in cafh, the greateft part 
of all which they fend to London (the money 
efpecially) in payment of the goods received 
from thence, and yet all this is infuffieient 
to pay off the debt. 

OBober the 15th. The Alders grcvf 
here in confiderable abundance on wet and 
low places, and even fometimes on pretty 
high ones, but never reached the height of 
the European alders, and commonly flood 
like a bufh about a fathom of two high. 
Mr. Bartram, and other gentlemen who 
had frequently travelled in thefe provinces, 
told me that the more you go to the fouth, 
the lefs are the alders, but that they are 
higher and taller, the more you advance to 
the north. I found afterwards myfelf, that 
the alders in fome places of Canada, are 
little inferior to the Swedijh ones. Their 
bark is employed here in dying red and 
brown. A Swedijfj inhabitant of America, 
told me that he had cut his leg to the very 
bone, and that fome coagulated blood had 
N 2 already 



196 OBober 1748. 

already been fettled within. That he had 
been advifed to boil the alder bark, and to 
wafli the wound often with the water : that 
he followed this advice, and had foon got 
his leg healed, though it had been ver}^ 
dangerous at firft. ' ^ 

The Phytolacca decandra was called Poke 
by the Englijh, The Swedes had no parti- 
cular name for it, but made ufe of the £»- 
glifi, with fome little variation into Paok, 
When the juice of its berries is put upon 
paper or the like, it ftrikes it with a high 
purple colour, which is as fine as as any ift- 
the world, and it is pity that no method is 
as yet found out, of making this colour laft 
on woollen and linen cloth, for it fades 
very foon. Mr. Bartram mentioned, that 
having hit his foot againft a ftone, he had 
got a violent pain in it ; he then bethought 
himfelf to put a leaf of the Phytolacca oqv 
his foot, by which he loft the pain in al 
fhort time, and got his foot well foon after.' 
The berries are eaten by the birds about 
this time. The Englijh and feveral Swedes 
make ufe of the leaves in fpring, when 
they are juft come out, and are yet tender 
and foft, and eat them partly as green cale, 
and partly in the manner we eat fpinnage. 
Sometimes they likewife prepare them in 
the firft of thefe ways, when the ftalks are 
already grown a little longer, breaking off 

none 



Penjylvaniay Philadelphia, i<)j 

none but the upper fprouts which are yet ten- 
der, and not woody ; but in this latter cafe, 
great care is to be taken, for if you eat the 
plant when it is already grown up, and its 
leaves are no longer foft, you may expecft 
death as a confequence which feldom fails 
to follow, for the plant has then got a 
power of purging the body to excefs. I 
have known people, who, by eating great 
full grown leaves of this plant, have got 
fuch a ftrong dyfentery, that they were near 
dying with it : its berries however are eat- 
en in autumn by children, without any ill 
confequence. 

Woollen and linen cloth is dyed yel- 
low with the bark of hiccory. This like- 
wife is done with the bark of the black 
oak, or Linnaus's ^ercus nigra, and that 
variety of it which Catefiy in his Natural 
Hijiory of Carolina, vol. i. tab. 19. calls 
^ercus marilandica. The flowers and leaves 
of the Impatiens Noli tangere or balfamine, 
likewife dyed all woollen fluffs with a fine 
yellow colour. 

The Collinfonia canadenjis was frequently 
found in little woods and bufhes, in a good 
rich foil. Mr. Bar tram who knew the coun- 
try perfeftly well, was fure that Penjyha- 
nia, and all the parts of America in the 
fame climate, were the true and original 
places where this plant grows. For further 
N 3 to 



19S QBober 1748. 

%Q the ibuth, neither he nor Meffrs. Clayton. 
and Mitfhel ever found it, though the lat- 
ter gentlemen have made accurate obferva^ 
tions in Virginia and part of Maryland, 
And from his own experience he knew, 
that it did not grow in the northerly parts. 
I have never found it more than fifteen 
inin. north of forty-three deg. The time 
of the year when it comes up in Penjyhaniaj 
is fo late, that its feed has but juft time 
fufi&cient to ripen in, and it therefore feems. 
unlikely, that it can fucceed further north. 
Mr, Bar tram was the firft who difcovered; 
it, and fent it over into Europe, Mr. Juf- 
Jeu during his flay at London, and Dr. 
' Lannceus afterwards, called iiCollinfonia^Uovs^. 
the celebrated Mr. Peter Collinfon, a mer^ 
chant in London, and fellow of the Englijh. \ 
an4 Swedijh Royal Societies. He well de-* 
ferved the honour of having a plant called 
after his name, for there are i&w people 
that have promoted natural hiftory and all 
iifeful fciences with a zeal like his ^ or that: 
have done as much as he towards colleding,, 
cultivating, and making known all forts of; 
plants. The Collinfonia has a peculiar fcent, 
which is agreeable, but very ftrong. It al- 
ways gave me a pretty violent head-ach 
whenever I paffed by a place where it flood 
in plenty, and efpccially when it was in 

flower. 



Penfyhania, Philadelphia. 199 

flower. Mr. Bartram was acquainted with a 
better quality of this plant, which was that 
of being an excellent remedy againft all forts 
of pain in the limbs, and againfl a cold, 
when the parts afFedted are rubbed with it. 
And Mr. Conrad Weijfery interpreter of the 
language of the Indians in Penfyhania, had 
told him of a more wonderful cure with 
this plant. He was once among a com- 
pany of Indians, one of which had been 
flung by a rattle fnake, the favages gave 
him over, but he boiled the collinfonia, 
and made the poor wretch drink the water, 
from which he happily recovered. Some- 
what more to the north and in New Tork 
they call this plant Horfeweed, becaufe the 
horfes eat it in fpring, before any other 
plant comes up. 

OSiober the i6th. I asked Mr. Pranks 
tin and other gentlemen who were well ac- 
quainted with this country, whether they 
had met with any figns, from whence they 
could have concluded that any place v^hich 
was now a part of the continent, had for- 
merly been covered with water ? and I got 
the following account in anfwer. 

I. On travelling from hence to the 

fouth, you meet with a place where the 

highroad is very low in the ground between 

two mountains. On both fides you fee 

N 4 nothing 



20O OSlober 1748. 

nothing but oyfter fhells and mufcle (hells 
in immenfe quantities above each other; 
however the place is many miles off the 
fea. 

2. Whenever they dig wells, or build 
houfes in town, they find the earth lying in 
feveral ftrata above each other. At a depth 
of fourteen feet or more, they find globular 
ftones, which are as fmooth on the outfide 
as thofe which lie on the fea-fhore, and are 
made round and fmooth by the rolling pf 
the waves. And after having dug through 
the fand, and reached a depth of eighteen 
feet or more, they difcover in fome places 
a llime like that which the fea throws up 
on the fhore, and which commonly lies at 
its bottom and in rivers : this llime is quite 
full of trees, leaves, branches, reed, char- 
coal, &c. 

3. It has fometimes happened that new 
houfes have funk on one fide in a fhort 
time, and have obliged the people to pull 
them down again. On digging deeper, for 
a very hard ground to build upon, they 
have found a quantity of the above flime, 
wood, roots, &c. 

Are not thefe reafons fufiicient to make 
one fuppofe that thofe places in Philadelphia 
which are at prefent fourteen feet and more 
imder ground, formerly were the bottom of 

the 



Penfylvania, Philadelphia. 20 1 

the fea, and that by feveral accidents, fand, 
earth, and other things were carried upon 
it? or, that the Delaware formerly was 
broader than it is at prefent ? or, that it 
has changed its courfe ? This laft ftill of- 
ten happens at prefent ; the river breaking 
off the bank on one fide, and forming one 
on the other. Both the Swedes and Englijh 
often fhewed me fuch places. 

OBober the i8th. At prefent I did not 
find above ten different kinds of plants in 
bloflbm : they were, a Gentiatta, two fpe- 
cies of After t the common Golden Rod, or 
Solidago Virga aurea, a fpecies of Hieracium, 
the yellow wood Sorrel, or Oxalis corniculata, 
the Fox Gloves, or Digitalis purpurea^ the 
Hamamelis Virginianaj or Witch Hazel, our 
common Millefoil, or Achillea Millefolium, 
and our Dandelion, or Leontodon Taraxacum. 
All other plants had for this year laid afide 
their gay colours. Several trees, efpecially 
thofe which were to flower early in fpring, 
had already formed fuch large buds, that on 
opening them all the parts of fructification, 
fuch as Calyxy Corolla, Stamina and Piftillum 
were plainly diftinguifhable. It was therefore 
eafy to determine the genus to which fuch 
trees belonged. Such were the red maple, 
or Acer rubrum, and the Laurus ceftivalis, 
g fpecies of bay. Thus nature prepared to 

bring 



^02 OBober 1748. 

bring forth flowers, with the firft mild 
weather in the next year. The buds were 
at prefent quite hard, and all their parts 
prefled clofe together, that the cold might 
by all means be excluded. 

The black Walnut trees had for the great- 
eft part dropt their leaves, and many of 
them were entirely without them. The 
walnuts themfelves were already fallen off. 
The green peel which enclofcd them, if 
frequently handled, would yield a black 
colour, which could not be got off the- 
fingers in two or three weeks time, though 
the hands were wafhed ever fo much. 

The Cornus jlorida was called Dogwood 
by the Englijh, and grew abundantly in the 
woods. It looks beautiful when it is adorn- 
ed with its numerous great white flowers in 
fpring. The wood is very hard, and is 
therefore made ufe of for weaver's fpools, 
joiner's planes, wedges, &c. When the 
cattle fall down in fpring for want of 
ftrength, the people tie a branch of this 
tree on their neck, thinking it will help 
them. 

OSloher the 19th. The Tulip tree grows 
every where in the woods of this country. 
The botanifts call it Liriodendron tulipifera, 
becaufe its flowers both in refpedl to their 
fize, and in refped: to their exterior form, 

and 



Penjyhania, Philadelphia* 203 

and even in fome meafure with regard to 
their colour, refemble tulips. The Swedes 
called it Canoe tree, for both the Indians 
and the Europeans often make their canoes 
of the ftem of this tree. The Englijhmez, 
in Penfyhania give it the name of Poplar, 
It is reckoned a tree w^hich grows to the 
greateft height and thicknefs of any in 
North America, and which vies in that 
point with our greateft European trees. The 
white oak and the fir in North America, 
however are little inferior to it. It cannot 
therefore but be very agreeable to fee in 
fpring, at the end of May (when it is in 
bloflbm) one of the greateft trees covered 
for a fortnight together with flowers, which 
with regard to their fhape, fize, and partly 
colour are like tulips, the leaves have like- 
wife fomething peculiar, the Englijh there- 
fore in fome places call the tree the old wo- 
man sfmock, becaufe their imagination finds 
fomething like it below the leaves. 

Its wood is here made ufe of for canoes, 
boards, planks, bowls, difhes, fpoons, door 
pofts, and all forts of joiners work. I have 
feen a barn of a confiderable fize whofe 
walls, and roof were made of a fingle tree 
of this kind, fplit into boards. Some joiners 
reckoned this wood better than oak, be- 
caqfe this latter frequently is warped, which 

the 



204 OBober 1748. 

■* 
the other never does, but works very eafy 5 
others again valued it very little. It is 
certain, that it contrads fo much in hot 
weather, as to occafion great cracks in 
IPhe boards, and in wet weather it fwells 
fo as to be near burfting, and the people 
hardly know of a wood in thefe parts which 
varies fo much in contradling and expand- 
ing itfelf. The joiners however make much 
ufe of it in their work, they fay there are 
two fpecies of it ; but they are merely two 
varieties, one of which in time turns yellow 
within, the other is white, the former is 
faid to have a loofer texture. The bark 
(like RuJJia glafs) is divilible into very thin 
leaves, which are very tough like baft, 
though I have never feen it employed as 
fuch. The leaves when crufhed and ap- 
plied to the forehead are faid to be a reme- 
dy againft the head ach. When horfes are 
plagued with worms, the bark is pounded, 
and given them quite dry. Many people 
believe its roots to be as efficacious againft 
the fever as the jefuits bark. The trees 
grow in all forts of dry foil, both on high 
and low grounds, but too wet a foil will not 
agree with them. 

OSlober the 20th. The Beaver tree is 
to be met with in feveral parts of Penjyha- 
nia and New Jerfey, in a poor fwampy foil, 

or 



Penfyhania, Philadelphia, 205 

or on wet meadows. Dr. hinnaus calls it 
Magnolia glauca ; both the Swedes and En- 
glijh call it Beaver tree, becaufe the root of 
this tree is the dainty of beavers, which are 
caught by its means, however the Swedes 
fometimes gave it a different name, and the 
Englip as improperly called it Swamp Sajja- 
frasy and White Laurel. The trees of this 
kind dropt their leaves early in autumn, 
though fome of the young trees kept them all 
the winter. I have feldom found the bea- 
ver tree to the north of Penfyhania, where 
it begins to flower about the end of May, 
The fcent of its bloflbms is excellent, for 
by it you can difcover within three quarters 
of an Englijh mile, . whether thefe little 
trees ftand in the neighbourhood, provided 
the wind be not againft it. For the whole 
air is filled with this fweet and pleafant 
fcent. It is beyond defcription agreeable 
to travel in the woods about that time, ef- 
pecially towards night. They retain their 
flowers for three weeks and even longer, 
according to the quality of the foil on 
which the trees fland^ and during the 
whole time of their being in bloflbm, they 
fpread their odoriferous exhalations. The 
berries likewife look very fine when they 
are ripe, for they have a rich red colour, 
and hang in bunches on flender ftalks. The 

cough. 



^o6 OBoher 1748, 

cough, and other perioral difeafes are cured 
by putting the berries into rum or brandy, 
of which a draught every morning may be 
taken ; the virtues of this remedy w^ere uni- 
verfally extolled, and even praifed for their 
falutary efFedls in confumptions. The bark 
being put into brandy, or boiled in any 
other liquor, is faid not only to eafe pec- 
toral difeafes, but likewife to be of fomc 
fervice againft all internal pains and heat j 
and it w^as thought that a decodion of 
it could flop the dyfentery. Perfons Vi^ho 
had caught cold, boiled the branches of 
the beaver tree in water, and drank it to 
their great relief. A Swede, called Lars 
Lack, gave the following account of a cur 
effeded by this tree ; One of his relations 
an old man, had an open fore in his leg," 
which would not heal up again, though he 
had had much advice and ufed many reme- 
dies. An Indian at lad effected the cure in 
the following manner. He burnt fome of 
this wood to charcoal, which he reduced to 
powder, mixed with the frefh fat of pork, 
and rubbed the open places feveral times. 
This dried up the holes, which before were 
continually open, and the legs of the old 
man were quite found to his death. The 
wood is likewife made ufe of for joiner's 
planes. 

OBober 



u 

i 

1 



Penfylvanidy Philadelphia, 207 

Odiober the 2 2d. Upon trial it has been 
found that the following animals and birds* 
which are wild in the woods oi North Ame^ 
rica, can be made nearly as tradtable as 
domeilic animals. 

The wildCoi^^'j zn^Oxen, of which feveral 
people of diftinftion have got young calves 
from thefe wild cows, which are to be met 
with in Carolina, and other provinces to the 
fouth of Penjyhania, and brought them up 
among the tame cattle > when grown up, 
they were perfed:ly tame, but at the fame 
time very unruly, fo that there was no en- 
clofureftrong enough to refift them, if they 
had a mind to break through it ; for as they 
pofTefs a great ftrength in their neck, it was 
eafy for them to overthrow the pales with 
their horns, and to get into the corn -fields 5 
and as foon as they had made a road, all 
the tame cattle followed them ; they like- 
wife copulated with the latter, and by that 
means generated as it were a new breed. 
This American fpecies of oxen is Linnceus% 
Bos Bifon, &. 

American Deer, can likewife be 
tamed; and I have feen them tame myfelf 
in different places. A farmer in New Jerfey 
had one in his pofTeffion, which he had 
caught when it was very young -, and at 
prefent it was fo tame, that in the day time it 

run 



2o8 OBober 1748. 

run into the wood for its food, and towards 
night it returned home, and frequently 
brought a wild deer out of the wood, giv- 
ing its mafter an opportunity to fhoot it. 
Several people have therefore tamed young 
deer, and make ufe of them for hunting 
wild deer, or for decoying them home, 
efpecially in the time of their rutting. 

Beavers have been fo tamed that they 
have gone on fifhing, and brought home 
what they had caught to their mafters. 
This often is the cafe with Otters y of which 
I have feen fome, which were as tame as 
dogs, and followed their mafters wherever 
they went ; if he went out in a boat, the 
otter went with him, jumped into the 
water, and after a while came up with a 
fifti. The Opojfum, can like wife be tam- 
ed, fo as to follow people like a dog. 

The Raccoon which we f Swedes J C2\\ 
Siupp, can in time be made fo tame as to 
run about the ftreets like a domeftic animal ; 
but it is impoflible to make it leave oif its 
habit of ftealing. In the dark it creeps to 
the poultry, and kills in one night a whole 
ftock. Sugar and other fweet things muft 
be carefully hidden from it, for if the chefts 
and boxes are not always locked up, it gets 
into them, eats the fugar, and licks up the 
treacle with its paws : the ladies therefore 

have 



Penjyhania, Philadelphia. 209 

have every day fome complaint againft it, 
and for this reafon many people rather for- 
bear the diverfion which this ape-like ani- 
mal affords. 

The grey zndjlying Squirrels are fo tamed 
by the boys, that they fit on their (boul- 
ders, and follow them every where. 

The Turkey Cocks and Hens run about in 
the woods of this country, and differ in 
nothing from our tame ones, except in 
their fuperior fize, and redder, though more 
palatable flefh. When their eggs are found 
in the wood, and put under tame Turkey 
hens, the young ones become tame ; how- 
ever when they grow up, it fometimes 
happens that they fly away j their wings 
are therefore commonly clipped, efpecially 
when young. But the tamed turkeys are 
commonly much more irafcible, than thofe 
which are naturally tame. The Indians 
likewife employ themfelves in taming them 
and keeping them near their huts. 

Wild Geefe have likewife been tamed in 
the following manner. When the wild 
geefe firft come hither in fpring, and ftop a 
little while (for they do not breed in Pen* 
fyhaniaj the people try to fhoot them in 
the wing, which however is generally mere 
chance. They then row to the place where 
O the 



210 OBober 174^. 

the wild goofe fell, catch it, and keep if 
for fome time at home, by this means many 
of them have been made fo tame, that when 
they were let out in the morning, they re- 
turned in the evening, but to be more fure 
of them, their wings are commonly clipped. 
I have feen wild gQQ^Q of this kind, which 
the owner aflured me, that he had kept for 
more than twelve years -, but though he 
kept eight of them, yet he never had the 
pleafure to fee them copulate with the tame 
ones, or lay eggs. 

Partridges, which are here in abun- 
dance, may likewife be fo far tamed, as to 
run about all day with the poultry, and to 
come along with them to be fed when they 
are called. In the fame manner I have 
feen wild Pigeons, which were made fo 
tame as to fly out and return again. In 
fome winters there are immenfe quantities 
of wild pigeons in Penjyhania. 

OEiober the 24th. Of all the rare birds 
of North America, the Humming bird is the 
moft admirable, or at leaft moft worthy of 
peculiar attention. Several reafons induce 
me to believe that few parts of the world 
can produce its equal. Dr. Linnceus calls 
it 'Trochilus Colubris, The Swedes and fome 
Englijhmen call it the Kings bird, but the 
name of Humming bird is more common. 

Catejby 



Penjyhania, Philadelphia. 2ii 

Catejby in his Natural Hijiory of Carolina, 
Vol. I. page 65, tab. 65. has drawn it, in 
its natural fize, with its proper colours, 
and added a defeription of it.* In fize it 
is not much bigger than a large humble 
bee, and is therefore the leaft of all birds,*!- 
or it is much if there is a lefler fpecies in 
the world. Its plumage is moft beautifully 
coloured, moft of its feathers being green, 
fome grey, and others forming a fhining 
red ring round its neck i the tail glows 
with fine feathers, changing from green 
into a brafs colour. Thefe birds come 
here in fpring about the time when it be^ 
gnis to grow very warm, and make their 
nefts in fumnier, but towards autumn they 
retreat again into the more fouthern coun- 
tries of America. They fubfift barely upon 
the nedar,or fweet juice of flowers contained 
in that part, which botanifts call the uqc- 
tarium, and which they fuck up with their 
long bills. Of all the flowers, they like 
thofe moft, which have a long tube, and I 
O 2 have 



* The fame Is to be met with in Edwards's Natural Hif- 
fory of Birds, page 38. tab. 38. F. 

/ f There is a much lefTer fpecies of humming-blfd, by 
Linnaus called Trochilus minimus, being the leaft bird known j 
Sir Hans Sloane's living one, weighed only twenty grains, 
and Mr. Ediuardsh dry one forty-five. It is drawn In Ed- 
•wards's birdst t. 1 50, in its natural fize, together with its 



212 OSiober 1748. 

have obferved that they have fluttered chiefi- 
ly about the Impatiens Noli tangere, and the 
Monarda virith crimfon flowers. An inha- 
bitant of the country is fure to have a num- 
ber of thefe beautiful and agreeable little 
birds before his v^indow all the fummer 
long, if he takes care to plant a bed with 
all forts of fine flowers under them. It is 
indeed a diverting fpeftacle to fee thefe lit- 
tle active creatures flying about the flowers 
like bees, and fucking their juices with 
their long and narrow bills. The flowers 
of the above-mentioned Monarda grow ver- 
ticillatedy that is, at difl*erent diftances they 
fijrround the ftalk, as the flowers of our 
mint (Mentha) baftard hemp (Galeopfts) 
mother-wort (Leonurus) and dead nettle 
(Lamium). It is therefore diverting to fee 
them putting their bills into every flower 
in the circle. As foon as they have fucked 
the juice of one flower, they flutter to the 
next. One that has not feen them would 
hardly believe in how {hort a fpace of time 
they have had their tongues in all the flow- 
ers of a plant, which when large and with 
a long tube, the little bird by putting its 
head into them, looks as if it crept with 
half its body into them. 

During their fucking the juice out of 
the flowers they never fettle on it, but 

flutter 



Penjyhania, Philadelphia. 213 

flutter continually like bees, bend tbeir 
feet backwards, and move their wings fo 
quick, that they are hardly vifible. During 
this fluttering they make a humming like 
bees, or like that which is occalioned by 
the turning of a little wheel. After they 
have thus, without refl:ing, fluttered for a 
while, they fly to a neighbouring tree or 
pofl:, and refume their vigour again. They 
then return to their humming and fucking. 
They are not very fhy, and I in company 
with feveral other people, have not been 
full two yards from the place where they 
fluttered about and fucked the flowers j and 
though we fpoke and moved, yet they were 
no ways difl:urbed -, but on going towards 
them, they would fly ofl* with the fwiftnefs 
of an arrow. When feveral of them were 
on the fame bed, there was always a vio- 
lent combat between them, in meeting 
each other at the fame flower (for envy was 
likewife predominant amongft thefe little 
creatures) and they attacked with fuch im- 
petuofity, that it would feem as if the 
ftrongeft would pierce its antagonifl: through 
«ind through, with its long bill. During 
the fight, they feem to fl:and in the air, 
keeping themfelves up, by the incredibly 
fwift motion of their wings. When the 
windows towards the garden are open, they 
O 3 purfue 



gi4 OBoher 1748. 

purfue each other into the rooms, fight a 
little, and flutter away again. Sometimes 
they come to a flower which is withering, 
and has no more juice in it i they then in a 
fit of anger pluck it oflF, and throw it on 
the ground, that it may not miflead them 
for the future. If a garden contains a great 
number of thefe little birds, they are feen 
to pluck off the flowers in fuch quantities, 
that the ground is quite covered with them, 
and it feems as if this proceeded from a 
motion of envy. 

Commonly you hear no other found 
than their humming, but when they fly 
iagainft each other in the air, they make a 
chirping noife like a fparrow or chicken. I 
have fometimes walked with feveral other 
people in fmall gardens, and thefe birds 
have on all fides fluttered about us, with- 
out appearing very fhy. They are fo fmall 
that one would eafily mifl:ake them for great 
humming-bees or butterflies, and theirflight 
refembles that of the former, and is incre- 
dibly fwift. They have never been ob^ 
ferved to feed on infedts or fruit -, the nec- 
tar of flowers, feems therefore to be their 
only food. Several people have caught fome 
humming birds on account of their Angular 
beauty, and have put them into cages, 
where they died for want of a proper food. 

Howevef 



Penfyhania, Philadelphia. 215 

However Mr. Bartram has kept a couple of 
them for feveral weeks together, by feed- 
ing them with water in which fugar had 
been dilTolved, and I am of opinion that it 
would not be difficult to keep them all win- 
ter in a hot-houfe. 

. The humming bird always builds its neft 
in the middle of a branch of a tree, and it 
is fo fmall, that it cannot be feen from the 
ground, but he who intends to fee it muft 
get up to the branch. For this reafon it 
is looked upon as a great rarity if a neft is 
accidentally found, efpecially as the trees in 
fummer have fo thick a foliage. The neft is 
likewife the leaft of all -, that which is in 
my pofTeffion is quite round, and confifts in 
the infide of a brownifh and quite foft down, 
which feems to have been colleifled from 
the leaves of the great mullein or Verbafcum 
Hhapfusy which are often found covered 
with a foft wool of this colour, and the plant 
is plentiful here. The outfide of the neft 
has a coating of green mofs, fuch as is com^ 
mon on old pales or enclofures and on trees; 
the inner diameter of the neft is hardly a 
geometrical inch at the top, and its depth 
half an inch. It is however known that the 
humming birds make their nefts likewife 
of flax, hemp, mofs, hair and other fuch foft 
O 4 materials; 



2i6 Odiober 1748. 

materials j they are faid to lay two eggs, 
each of the fize of a pea. 

OSiober the 25th. I employed this day 
and the next in packing up all the feeds 
gathered this autumn, for I had an oppor- 
tunity of fending them to England by the 
{hips which failed about this time. From 
E,ngland they were forwarded to Sweden. 

06iober the 27th. In the morning I fet 
out on a little journey to New Tork, in com- 
pany with Mr. Peter Cocky with a view 
to fee the country, and to enquire into 
the fafeft road, which I could take in 
going to Canada, through the defart or un- 
inhabited country between it and tht Engli/b 
provinces. 

That part where we travelled at prefent 
was pretty well inhabited on both fides of 
the road, by Englijbmen, Germans and other 
Europeans. Plains and hills of different di- 
menfions were i^tn alternately, mountains 
and ftones, I never faw, excepting a few 
pebbles. Near almoft every farm was a 
great orchard with peach and apple trees, 
fome of which were yet loaded with fruit. 

The enclofures were in fome parts low 
enough, for the cattle to leap over them 
with eafe ; to prevent this the hogs had a 
triangular wooden yoke ; this cuftom was 
a§ I have already obferved, common over 

all 



Penfyhaniay New Frankfurt. 217 

ftU the Englifh plantations. To the horfes 
n€ck was fattened a piece of wood, which 
at the lower end had a tooth or hook, fail- 
ing in the enclofure, and flopping the 
horfe, juft when it lifted its fore feet to leap 
over ', but I know not whether this be a 
good invention with regard to horfes. They 
were likewife kept in bounds by a piece of 
wood, one end of which was fattened to 
one of the fore feet, and the other to one 
of the hind feet, and it forced them to walk 
pretty flowly, as at the fame time it made 
it impoflible for them to leap over the en- 
clofures. To me it appeared that the horfes 
were fubjed to all forts of dangerous acci^ 
dents from this piece of wood. 

Near New Frankfurt we rode over a 
little ttone bridge, and fomewhat further, 
eight or nine Englifi miles from Philadel- 
phia we patted over another, which was 
likewife of ttone. There are not yet any 
milettones put up in the country, and the 
inhabitants only compute the dittances by 
guefs. We were afterwards brought over 
a river in a ferry, where we paid three- 
I pence a perfon, for ourfelves and our horfes. 
j At one of the places where we ttopt to 
I have our horfes fed, the people had a 
Mocking-bird in a cage ; and it is here 
reckoned the beft ttnging bird, though its 

plumage 



\ 



21 8 05iober 1748, 

plumage be very fimple, and not fhowy at 
all. At this time of the year it does not 
ling. Linnaeus calls it Turdus polyglottos, 
and Catejby in his Natural Hijiory of Caro^ 
Una, Vol. I. p. 27. tab. 27, has likewife 
defcribed and drawn this bird. The peo- 
ple faid that it built its nefts in the buflies 
and trees, but is fo {by, that if any body 
come and look at its eggs, it leaves the 
neft, never to come to it again. Its young 
ones require great care in being bred up. 
If they are taken from their mother and 
put into a cage, fhe feeds them for three or 
four days 3 but feeing no hopes of fetting 
them at liberty, fhe flies away. It then 
often happens, that the young ones die 
foon after, doubtlefs becaufe they cannot 
accuftom themfelves to eat what the people 
give them. But it is generally imagined, 
that the laft time the mother feeds them, 
fhe finds means to poifon them, in order, 
the fooner to deliver them from flavery 
and wretchednefs. Thefe birds flay all 
fummer in the colonies, but retire in 
autumn to the fouth, and flay away all 
winter. They have got the name of Mock^ 
ing-birds, on account of their fkill in imi- 
tating the note of almofl every bird they 
hear. The fong peculiar to them is excel- 
lent, and varied by an infinite change of 

notes 



Penjyhania, New BriJioL 219 

^otes and melody -, feveral people are there- 
Fore of opinion, that they are the beft fing- 
ing birds in the world. So much is certain, 
that few birds come up to them j this is 
what makes them precious : the Swedes 
call it by the fame name as the Englijh. 

About noon we came to New Brijiol, -a 
fmall town in Penfyhania, on the banks of 
the Delaware, about fifteen Englijh from 
Philadelphia. Moft of the houfes are built 
of ftone, and ftand afunder. The inhabi- 
tants carry on a fmall trade, though moft 
of th^m get their goods from Philadelphia, 
On the other fide of the river, almoft di- 
rectly oppofite to New BrifioU lies the town 
of Burlington^ in which the governor of 
New Jerfey refides. 

We had now country feats on both fides 
of the roads. Now we came into a lane 
enclofed with pales on both fides, including 
pretty great corn-fields. Next followed a 
wood, and we perceived for the fpace of four 
Englijh miles nothing but woods, and a very 
poor foil, on which the Lupinus perennis 
grew plentifully and fucceeded well. I was 
overjoyed to fee a plant come on fo well in 
thefe poor dry places, and even began to 
meditate, how to improve this difcovery in 
a foil like that which it inhabited. But I 
afterwards had the mortification to find that 

the 



220 OBdber 1748. 

the horfes and cows eat almoft all the othe? 
plants, but left the lupine, which was 
however very green, looked very frelh, and 
was extremely foft to the touch. Perhaps 
means may be found out of making this 
plant palatable to the cattle. In the even- 
'mg we arrived at Trenton, after having pre- 
viouily paffed the Delaware in a ferry. 

06lober the 28th. Trenton is a long 
narrow town, fituate at fome diftance from 
the river Delaware, on a fandy plain ; it 
belongs to New Jerfey, and they reckon it 
thirty miles from Philadelphia. It has two 
fmall churches, one for the people be* 
longing to the church of England, the 
other for the prelbyterians. The houfes are 
partly built of ftone, though moft of them 
are made of wood or planks, commonly 
two flories high, together with a cellar be-r 
low the building, and a kitchen under 
ground, clofe to the cellar. The houfes 
•ftand at a moderate diftance from one ano- 
ther. They are commonly built fo, th^t 
the ftreet paiTes along one fide of the houf- 
es, while gardens of different dimenfions 
bound the other fide ; in each garden is a 
-draw- well ; the place is reckoned very heal- 
thy. Our landlord told us, that twenty-two 
years ago, when he firft fettled here, there was 
hardly more than one houfe -, but from tha^t 

tim« 



New Jerfey, 'Trenton, 221 

time Trenton has encreafed fo much, that 
there are at prefent near a hundred houfes. 
The houfes were within divided into feveral 
rooms by their partitions of boards. The 
inhabitants of the place carried on a fmall 
trade with the goods which they got from 
Philadelphia, but their chief gain confifted 
in the arrival* of the numerous travellers 
between that city and New York -, for they 
are commonly brought by the Trenton 
Tachts from Philadelphia to Trenton, or 
from thence to Philadelphia, But from 
Trenton further to New Brunfwick, the tra- 
vellers go in the waggons which fet out 
every day for that place. Several of the in- 
habitants however likewife fubfifb on the 
carriage for all forts of goods, which are 
every day fent in great quantities, either 
from Philadelphia to New York, or from 
thence to the former place ; for between 
Philadelphia and Trenton all goods go by 
water, but between Trenton and New Brunf- 
wick they are all carried by land, and both 
thefc conveniences belong to people of this 
town. 

For the yachts which go between this 
place and the capital of Peiifylvania, they 
ufually pay a {hilling and fix-pence of Pen- 
fyhania currency per perfon, and every one 
pays beiides for his baggage. Every paf- 

fenger 



222 OBober 1748. 

fenger muft provide meat and drink foF 
himfelf, or pay fome fettled fare : between 
Trenton and New Brunfwick a perfon pays 
two (hillings and fixpence, and the baggage 
is likewife paid for feparately. 

We continued our journey in the morn- 
ing ', the country through which we palTed 
was for the greateft part level, though 
fometimes there were fome long hills, fome 
parts were covered with trees, but far the 
greater part of the country was without 
woods ; on the other hand I never faw any 
place in America, the towns excepted, fo 
well peopled. An old man, who lived in 
this neighbourhood and accompanied us for 
fome part of the road, however afTured me, 
that he could well remember the lime, 
when between Trenton and New Brunfwick 
there were not above three farms, and he 
reckoned it was about fifty and fome odd 
years ago. During the greater part of the 
day we had very extenfive corn-fields on both 
fides of the road, and commonly towards 
the fouth the country had a great declivity. 
Near almofi; every farm was a fpacious or- 
chard full of peaches and apple trees, and 
in fome of them the fruit was fallen from 
the trees in fuch quantities, as to cover near- 
ly the whole furface. Part of it they left 
to rot, fince they could not take it all in 

and 



New Jerfey, Trenton, 223 

and confume it. Wherever we pafTed by 
we were always welcome to go into the 
fine orchards, and gather our hats and pock- 
ets full of the choiceft fruit, without the 
pofleflbr's fo much as looking after it. 
Cherry trees were planted near the farms, 
on the roads, &c. 

The barns^ had a peculiar kind of con- 
ftrud:ion hereabouts, which I will give a 
concife defcription of. The whole build- 
ing was very great, fo as almoft to equal a 
fmall church -, the roof was pretty high, 
covered with wooden fhingles, declining 
on both fides, but not fteep ; the walis 
which fupport it, were not much higher 
than a full grown man j but on the other 
hand the breadth of the building was the 
more confiderable : in the middle was the 
threfhing floor, and above it, or in the loft 
or garret they put the corn which was not 
yet threflied, the ftraw, or any thing elfe, 
according to the feafon : on one fide were 
ftables for the horfes, and on the other for 
the cows. And the fmall cattle bad like- 
wife their particular ftables or ftyes ; on 
both ends of the buildings were great gates, 

fo 



• The author feems to comprehend more by this word, 
than what it commonly includes, for he defcribes it as a 
building, which contains both a barn and ftables. F. 



224 OSiober 1748. 

fo that one could come in with a cart and 
horfes through one of them, and go out a( 
the other : here was therefore under on^ 
roof the threfhing floor, the barn, the fta- 
bles, the hay loft, the coach houfe, &c. 
This kind of buildings is chiefly made ufe 
of by the Dutch and Germans -, for it is to 
be obferved that the country between Tren- 
ton and New Torky is inhabited by few 
Englijhmen, but infl:ead of them by Germans 
or Dutch,^ the latter of which efpecially 
are numerous. 

Before I proceed, I find it necefl^ary to 
remark one thing with regard to the Indi- 
ans, or old Americans. For this account 
may perhaps meet with readers, who, like 
many people of my acquaintance, may be 
of opinion that all North America, was al- 
mofl: wholly inhabited by favage or heathen 
nations, and they may be aftonifhed, that I 
do not mention them more frequently in 
my account. Others may perhaps imagine, 
that when I mention in my journal, that 
the country is much cultivated, that in fe- 
veral places, houfes of fl:one or wood are 
built, round which are corn-fields, gardens, 

and 

* This kind of building is frequent in the north of Ger- 
many, Holland, and PruJJta, and therefore it is no wonder 
that it is employed by people who, were ufed to them in their 
own country. F. 



New yer/ey, Trenton. 225 

and orchards, that I am fpeaking of the 
property of the Indians -, to undeceive them, 
I here give the follow^ing explication. The 
country efpecially all along the coafts, in 
the Englifi colonies, is inhabited by Euro- 
peans, who in fome places are already (o 
numerous, that few parts of Europe are 
more populous. The Indians have fold the 
country to the Europeans, and have retired 
further up : in moft parts you may travel 
twenty SwediJJj miles, or about a hundred 
and twenty Englifi miles, from the fea 
fhore, before you reach the firft habitations 
of the Indians. And it is very poflible for 
a perfon to have been at Philadelphia and 
other towns on the fea ihore for half a year 
together, without fo much as feeing an In- 
dian. I intend in the fequel to give a more 
circumftantial account of them, their reli- 
gion, manners, ©economy, and other par- 
ticulars relating to them : at prefent I re- 
turn to the fequel of my journal. 

About nine Englifli miles from Trenton, 
the ground began to change its colour \ 
hitherto it confided of a conliderable quan- 
tity of hazel coloured clay, but at prefent 
the earth was a reddifh brown, fo that it 
fometimes had a purple colour, and fome- 
times looked like logwood. This colour 
came from a red limeftone which approach- 
P ed 



226 OBober 1748. 

ed very near to that which is on the moun* 
tain Kinnekulk in Weji Gothland, and makes 
a particular flratum in the rock. The 
American red limeftome therefore feems to 
be merely a variety of that I faw in Sweden, 
it lay in ftrata of two or three fingers thick- 
nefs ', but was divifible into many thinner 
plates or fhivers, whofe furface was feldom 
flat and fmooth, but commonly rough : the 
ftrata themfelves were frequently cut off by 
horizontal cracks. When thefe ftones were 
expofed to the air, they by degrees Ihivered 
and withered into pieces, and at laft turn- 
ed into duft. The people of this neighbour- 
hood did not know how to make any ufe 
of it J the foil above is fometimes rich and 
fometimes poor : in fuch places where the 
people had lately dug new wells, I perceiv- 
ed, that moft of the rubbiih which was 
thrown up confided of fuch a fpecies of 
ftone. This reddifti brown earth we always 
faw till near New Brunfwick, where it is 
particularly plentiful. The banks of the 
river, Ihewed in many places nothing but 
ftrata of Lhnejione, which did not run ho- 
rizontally, but dipped very much. 

About ten o'clock in the morning wc 
came to Prince-towny which is fituated in 
a plain. Moll of the houfes are built of 
wood, and are not contiguous, fo that there 

are 



New Jerfey, Prince' town, 227 

are gardens and paftures between them. As 
thefe parts were fooner inhabited by Euro^ 
peans than Penfyhania, the woods were 
likewife more cut away, and the country 
more cultivated, fo that one might have 
imagined himfelf to be in Europe. 
. We now thought of continuing our jour- 
ney, but as it began to rain very heavily, and 
continued fo during the whole day and part 
of the night, we were forced to ftay till 
next morning. 

OBober the 29th. This morning we 
proceeded on our journey. The country 
was pretty well peopled; however there 
were yet great woods in many places : they 
all confided of deciduous trees : and I did 
not perceive a fingle tree of the fir kind, 
till I came to New Brunfwick. The ground 
was level, and did not feem to be every 
where of the richeft kind. In fome places 
it had hillocks, lofing themfelves almofl 
imperceptibly in the plains, which were 
commonly croffed by a rivulet. Almofl 
near every farm-houfe were great orchards. 
The houfes were commonly built of timber, 
and at fome diftance by themfelves flood 
the ovens for baking, confifling commonly 
of clay. 

On a hill covered with trees, and called 

Rockhilly I faw feveral pieces of flone or 

P 2 rock^ 



2;2& OSiober 1748. 

rock, fo big, that they would have requi-; 
red three men to roll them down. But 
befides thefe there were few great ftones in 
the country J for moft of thofe which we 
faw, could eafily be lifted up by a fingle 
man. In another place we perceived a 
number of little round pebbles, but we did 
not meet with either mountains or rocks. 

About noon we arrived at New Briin- 
fwick, a pretty little town in the province 
oi New Jerfey, in a valley on the weft fide 
of the river Rareton ; on account of its low 
fituation, it cannot be feen (coming froni 
Penfyhania) before you get to the top of the 
hill, which is quite clofe up to it : the 
town extends north and fouth along the 
river. The German inhabitants have two 
churches, one of ftone and the other of 
wood J the Englijh church is of the latter 
kind, but the prelbyterians were build- 
ing one of ftone : the town houfe makes 
likewife a pretty good appearance. Some of 
the other houfes are built of bricks^ but 
moft of them are made either wholly of 
wood, or of bricks and wood ; the wooden 
houfes are not made of ftrong timber, but 
merely of boards or planks, which are 
within joined by laths : fuch houfes as 
Gonfift of both wood and bricks, have only 
the wall towards the ftreet of bricks, all the 
other fides being merely of planks. This 

peculiar 



New y^rfeyy New Brunfwick. 229 

peculiar kind of oftentation would eafily 
kad a traveller, who pafTes through the 
town in hafte, to believe that moft of the 
houfes are built of bricks. The houfes 
were covered with (hingles ; before each 
door there was an elevation, to which 
you afcend by feme fteps from the flreet ; 
it refembled a fmall balcony, and had fome 
benches on both fides, on which the people 
fat in the evening, in order to enjoy the 
frefh air, and to have the pleafure of view- 
ing thofe who paffed by. The town has 
only one flreet lengthways, and at its nor- 
thern extremity there is a flreet acrofs j 
both of thefe are of a confiderable length. 

The river Rareton pafTes hard by the 
town, and is deep enough for great yachts 
to come up ; its breadth near the town is 
within the reach of a common gun fhot ; 
the tide comes up feveral miles beyond the 
town, the yachts were placed lengthways 
along the bridge ; the river has very high 
and pretty fleep banks on both fides, but 
near the town there are no fuch banks, it 
being fituated in a low valley. One of the 
ftrcets is almofl entirely inhabited by Dutch- 
men, who came hither from Albany, and 
for that reafon they call it Albany fireet. 
Thefe Dutch people only keep company 
among themfelves, and feldom or never go a- 
mongfl the other inhabitants, living as it were 
P 3 quite 



230 October 1748. 

quite feparate from them. New Brunfwick 
belongs to New Jerfeyy however the greateft 
part, or rather all its trade is to New Tork, 
which is about forty Englifh miles diftant; 
to that place they fend corn, flour in 
great quantities, bread, feveral other ne- 
celfaries, a great quantity of linfeed, boards 
timber, wooden vefTels, and all forts of 
carpenters work. Several fmall yachts are 
every day going backwards and forwards 
between thefe two towns. The inhabitants 
likewife get a confiderable profit from the 
travellers, who every hour pafs through, 
on the high road. 

The fteep banks confift of the red lime- 
ftone, which I have before defcribed. It 
is here plainly vifible that the ftrata are not 
horizontal, but confiderably dipping, efpe- 
cially towards the fouth. The weather 
and the air has in a great meafure diffolved 
the ftone here : I enquired, whether it 
could not be made ufe of, but was afTured, 
that in building houfes it was entirely ufe- 
lefs; for, though it is hard and perma- 
nent under ground, yet on being dug out, 
and expofed for fome time to the air, it 
firft crumbles into greater, then into lefier 
pieces, and at laft is converted into duft. 
An inhabitant of this town, however tried 
to build a houfe with this fort of ftone, but 

its 



New Jerfey, New Brunfwick, 231 

its outfides being expofed to the air, foon 
began to change lb much, that the owner 
was obliged to put boards all over the wall, 
to preferve it from falling to pieces. The 
people however pretend that this ftone 
is a very good manure, if it is fcatter- 
ed upon the corn-fields in its rubbifh flate, 
for it is faid to flifle the weeds : it is there- 
fore made ufe of both on the fields and in 
gardens.* 

Towards the evening we continued our 
journey, and were . ferried over the river 
Rareton, together with our horfes. In a 
very dry fummer, and when the tide has 
ebbed, it is by no means dangerous to ride 
through this river. On the oppofite fhore 
the red juniper tree was pretty abundant. 
The country through which we now pafT- 
ed was pretty well inhabited, but in mofl 
places full of fmall pebbles. 

We faw Guinea Hens in many places 
where we pafTed by. They fometimes run 
about the fields, at a good diftance from the 
farm-houfes. 

About eight Englifh miles from New 

Brunfwickj the road divided. We took 

that on the left, for that on the right leads 

P4 to 

* Probably it is a ftone marJe ; a blue and reddifh fpe- 
cies of this kind is ufed with good fuccefs, in the county of 
Bamff'vn. Scotland. 



232 OSiober 1748. 

to Amboyy the chief fea-town in New Jer- 
fey. The country now made a charming 
appearance ; fome parts being high, others 
forming vallies, and all of them well culti- 
vated. From the hills you had a profped 
ofhoufes, farms, gardens, corn-fields, fo- 
refts, lakes, illands, roads, and paftures. 

In moft of the places where we travelled 
this day the colour of the ground was 
reddifh. I make no doubt, but there 
were flrata of the before-mentioned red 
limeflone under it. Sometimes the ground 
looked very like a cinnabar ore. 

Wood-bridge is a fmall village in a 
plain, confifting of a ftw houfes : we ftop- 
ped here to reft our horfes a little. The 
houfes were moft of them built of boards ; 
the walls had a covering of fhingles on the 
outfide ; thefe fhingles were round at one 
end, and all of a length in each row : fome 
of the houfes had an Italian roof, but the 
greateft part had roofs with pediments 5 
moft of them were covered with fhingles. In 
moft places we met with wells and buckets 
to draw up the water. 

Elizabeth-town is a fmall town, about 
twenty Englifli miles diftant from New 
Brunfwick : we arrived there immediately 
after fun fetting. Its houfes are moftly 
fcattered, but well built, and generally 

Qf 



New Jerfey, Elizabeth-town, 233 

of boards, with a roof of fhingles, and 
walls covered with the fame. There were 
likewife fome ftone buildings. A little ri- 
vulet pafles through the town from weft to 
eall ', it is almoft reduced to nothing when 
the water ebbs away, but with the full tide 
they can bring up fmall yachts. Here 
were two fine churches, each of which 
made a much better appearance than any 
one in Philadelphia. That belonging to the 
people of the church of England was built 
of bricks, had a fleeple with bells, and 
a baluftrade round it, from which there was 
a profpedt of the country. The meeting 
houfe of the prefbyterians was built of 
wood, but had both a fteeple and bells, 
and was, like the other houfes covered with 
fhingles. The town houfe made likewife a 
good appearance, and had a fpire with a 
bell. The banks of the river were red, 
from the reddifh limeftone ; both in and 
about the town were many gardens and 
orchards, and it might truly be faid that 
Elizabeth-town was fituated in a garden ', 
the ground hereabouts being even and well 
cultivated. 

The gtt(Q, in fome of the places by 
which we palTed this day and the next, 
carried three or four little flicks, of the 
length of a foot about their necks 5 they 

were 



234 OSiober 1748. 

were faftened crofTways, to prevent them 
from creeping through half broken enclo- 
fures. They look extremely awkward, and 
it is very diverting to fee them in this 
attire. 

At night we took up our lodgings at 
'Elizabeth-town Pointy an inn about two 
Englijh miles diftant from the town, and 
the laft houfe on this road belonging to 
"New Jerfey. The man who had taken the 
leafe of it, together with that of the ferry 
near it, told us that he paid a hundred 
and ten pounds of Penjyhania currency to 
the owner. 

OBober the 30th. We were ready to 
proceed on our journey at fun-rifmg. Near 
the inn where we had pafTed the night, we 
were to crofs a river, and we were brought 
over, together with our horfes, in a wretch- 
ed half rotten ferry. This river came a 1 
conliderable way out of the country, and "' 
fmall veffels could eafily fail up it. This 
was a great advantage to the inhabitants of 
the neighbouring country, giving them an 
opportunity of fending their goods to New 
Tork with great eafe ; and they even made 
ufe of it for trading to the Weft Indies, The 
country was low on both fides of the river, 
and confifted of meadows. But there was 
no other hay to be got, than fuch as com- 
monly 



New Torky Sfaten JJland. 235 

monly grows in fwampy grounds ; for as 
the tide comes up in this river, thefe low 
plains were fometimes overflowed when the 
water was high. The people hereabouts 
are faid to be troubled in fummer with im- 
menfe fwarms of gnats or mufquetoes, 
which fling them and their cattle. This 
was afcribed to the low fwampy tneadows, 
on which thefe infedts depofite their eggs, 
which are afterwards hatched by the heat. 

As foon as we had got over the river, we 
were upon Staten IJland, which is quite 
furrounded with fait water. This is the 
beginning of the province of New Tork. 
Moft of the people fettled here were Dutch- 
meriy or fuch as came hither whilft the 
'Dutch were yet in polfefTion of this place. 
But at prefent they were fcattered among 
the Engiijh and other European inhabitants, 
and fpoke Englip for the greateft part. 
The profpedt of the country here is ex- 
tremely pleafing, as it is not fo much in- 
tercepted by woods, but offers more cul- 
tivated fields to view. Hills and vallies flill 
continued, as ufual, to change alternately. 

The farms were near each other. Mofl 
of the houfes were wooden ; however fome 
were built of flone. Near every farm-houfe 
was an orchard with apple trees : the fruit 
was already for the greatefl part gathered. 

Here, 



236 OBober 1748. 

Here, and on the whole journey before, I 
obferved a prefs for cyder at every farm- 
houfe, made in different manners, by which 
the people had already prefled the juice out 
of the apples, or were juft bufied with that 
work. Some people made ufe of a wheel 
made of thick oak planks, which turned 
upon a wooden axis by means of a horfe 
drawing it, much in the fame manner as 
the people do with woad ; * except that 
here the wheel runs upon planks. Cherry 
trees flood along the enclofures round corn- 
fields. 

The corn-fields were excellently fituated, 
and either fown with wheat or rye. They 
had no ditches on their fides, but (as is 
ufual in England) only furrows, drawn at 
greater or lefTer diflances from each other. 

In one place we obferved a water mill, 
fo fituated, that when the tide flowed, 
the water ran into a pond : but when it 
ebbed, the floodgate was drawn up, and the 
mill driven by the water, flowing out of 
the pond. 

About eight o'clock in the morning we 
arrived at the place where we were to crofs 

the 



• Dr. Linnausy in his Travels through Wejlrogothia, has 
given a drawing of the machine by which woad is prepared, 
on the 128th. page. 



New York. 237 

the water, in order to come to the town of 
New York. We left our horfes here and 
went on board the yacht : we were to go 
eight Englifi miles by fea ; however we 
landed about eleven o'clock in the morning 
at New York, We faw a kind of wild ducks 
in immenfe quantities upon the water : the 
people called them Blue bills , and they 
feemed to be the fame with our Pintail 
ducks J or Linnceus^ Anas acuta : but they 
were very fliy. On the fhore of the conti- 
nent we faw fome very fine floping corn- 
fields, which at prefent looked quite green, 
the corn being already come up. We faw 
many boats in which the fifhermen were 
bufy catching oyfters : to this purpofe they 
make ufe of a kind of rakes with long iron 
teeth bent inwards ; thefe they ufed either 
fingly or two tied together in fuch a man- 
ner, that the teeth were turned towards 
each other. 

OBober the 31ft. About New York 
they find innumerable quantities of excel- 
lent oyfters, and there are few places which 
have oyfters of fuch an exquifite tafte, and 
of fo great a fize : they are pickled and fent 
to the Weft Indies and other places ; which 
is done in the following manner. As 
foon as the oyfters are caught, their fliells 
are opened, and the fifti waftied clean ; 

fome 



238 OBober 1748. 

fome water is then poured into a pot, the 
oyfters are put into it, and they muft boil 
for a while j the pot is then taken off from 
the jfire again, the oyfters taken out and put 
upon a difli, till they are fome what dry : 
then you take fome mace, allfpice, black 
pepper, and- as much vinegar as you think 
is fufficient to give a fourifti tafte. All this 
is mixed with half the liquor in which the 
oyfters were boiled, and put over the fire 
again. While you boil it great care is to 
be taken in fcumming off the thick fcum ; 
at laft the whole pickle is poured into a 
glafs or earthen velTel, the oyfters are put 
to it, and the veffel is well ftopped to keep 
out the air. In this manner, oyfters will 
keep for years together, and may be fent to 
the moft diftant parts of the world. 

The merchants here buy up great quan- 
tities of oyfters about this time, pickle them 
in the above-mentioned manner, and fend 
them to the JVeJl Indies : by which they fre- 
quently make a confiderable profit : for, 
the oyfters, which coft them five ftiillings 
of their currency, they commonly fell for 
a piftole, or about fix times as much as they 
gave for them ; and fometimes they get 
even more : the oyfters which are thus 
pickled have a very fine flavour. The fol- 
lowing is another way of preferving oyfters : 

they 



New York, 239 

Ithey are taken out of the fhells, fried with 
butter, put into a glafs or earthen veffel 
with the melted butter over them, fo that 
they are quite covered with it, and no air 
can get to them. Oyfters prepared in this 
manner have likewife an agreeable tafte, 
and are exported to the Wefi Indies and other 
parts. 

Oysters are here reckoned very whole- 
fome, fome people alTured us, that they 
had not felt the leaft inconvenience, after 
eating a confiderable quantity of them. It 
is likewife a common rule here that oyfters 
are beft in thofe months which have an r 
in their name, fuch as September, OBober, 
&c ; but that they are not fo good in other 
months -, however there are poor people, 
who live all the year long upon nothing but 
oy iters with bread. 

The fea near New Tork, affords annu- 
ally the greateft quantity of oyfters. They 
are found chiefly in a muddy ground, where 
they lie in the flime, and are not fo fre- 
quent in a fandy bottom : a rockey and a 
ftony bottom is feldom found here. The 
oyfler fhells are gathered in great heaps, 
and burnt into a lime, which by fome 
people is made ufe of in building houfes, 
but is not reckoned fo good as that made of 
limeilone. On our journey to New Tork, we 

favv 



240 05iober 1748. 

faw high heaps of oyfter fhells near the 
farm-houfes, upon the fea fhore ; and about 
l^ew Torkt we obferved the people had car- 
ried them upon the fields which were Town 
with wheat. However they were entire, 
and not crufhed. 

The Indians who inhabited the coaft be- 
fore the arrival of the Europeans, have made 
oyfters and other fhell fifh their chief food; 
and at prefent whenever they come to a 
fait water where oyfters are to be got, they 
are very ad:ive in catching them, and felli 
them in great quantities to other Indians 
who live higher up the country : for this 
reafon you fee immenfe numbers of oyfter 
and mufcle fhells piled up near fuch places, 
where you are certain that the Indians for- 
merly built their huts. This circumftance 
ought to make us cautious in maintaining, 
that in all places on the fea fliore, or higher 
up in the country, where fuch heaps of fhells 
are to be met vvith, the latter have lain 
there ever fmce the time that thofe places 
were overflowed by the fea. 

Lobsters are like wife plentyfully caught 
hereabouts, pickled much in the fame way 
as oyfters, and fent to feveral places. I was 
told of a very remarkable circumftance a- 
bout thefe lobfters, and I have afterwards 
frequently heard it mentioned. The coaft 

of 



New Tork, 241 

bf New Tork had already European inhabi- 
tants for a confiderable time, yet no lobfters 
were to be met with on that coaft; and 
though the people fifhed ever fo often, they 
could never find any figns of lobfters being 
in this part of the fea : they were there- 
fore continually brought in great well boats 
from ISIew Englandy where they are plen- 
tiful ; but it happened that one of thefe 
wellboats broke in pieces near Hellgate^ 
about ten Englijh miles from JSIew Tork, 
and all the lobfters in it got off". Since 
that time they have fo multiplied in this 
part of the fea, that they are now caught 
in the greateft abundance. 

November the ift. A kind of cold fe- 
ver, which the Englijh in this country call 
Fever and Ague, is very common in feveral 
parts of the Englijh colonies. There are 
however other parts, where the people 
have never felt it. I will in the fequel 
defcribe the fymptoms of this difeafe at 
large. Several of the moft confiderable in- 
habitants of this town, aftured me that 
this difeafe was not near fo common in 
New Tork, as it is in Penfylvania, where 
ten were feized by it, to one in the former 
province ; therefore they were of opinion, 
that this difeafe was occalioned by the va- 
pours arifmg from ftagnant frefh water, from 
Q^ mar{hes> 



242 November 1748. 

marfhes, and from rivers ; for which reafon 
thofe provinces fituated on the fea ihore, 
could not be fo much aiTedted by it. How- 
ever the carelefnefs with which people eat 
quantities of melons, watermelons, peach- 
es, and other juicy fruit in fummer, was 
reckoned to contribute much towards the 
progrefs of this fever -, and repeated exam- 
ples confirmed the truth of this opinion. 
The jefuit's bark was reckoned a good re- 
medy againft it. It has however often been 
found to have operated contrary to expe<3:a- 
tion, though I am ignorant whether it was 
adulterated, or whether fume miftake had 
been committed in the manner of takinof it. 
Mr. Davis van Homey a merchant, told me 
that he cured himfelf and feveral ^other 
people of this fever, by the leaves of the 
common Garden Sage, or Salvia officinalis of 
Linnceus, The leaves are cruilied or pound- 
ed in a mortar, and the juice is preiled out 
of them 5 this is continued till they get a 
fpoonful of the liquid, which is mixed with 
lemon juice. This draught is taken about 
the time that the cold fit comes on; and 
after taking it three or four times, the fever, 
does not come again. 

The bark of the white oak was reckoned 
the beft remedy which had as yet been found 
againft the dyfentery. It is reduced to a 

powder. 



New Tork, 243 

powder, and then taken : fome people af- 
fured me that in cafes where nothing would 
help, this remedy had given a certain and 
fpeedy relief. The people in this place 
likewife make ufe of this bark (as is ufually 
done in the Englip colonies) to dye wool 
a brown colour, which looks like that 
of bohea tea, and does not fade by being 
expofed to the fun. Among the nume- 
rous fhells which are found on the fea 
fhore, there are fome which by the Englifl? 
here are called Clams ^ and which bear fome 
refemblance to the human ear. They have 
a confiderable thicknefs, and are chiefly 
white, excepting the pointed end, which 
both without and within has a blue colour, 
between purple and violet. They are met 
with in vaft numbers on the fea fliore oi New 
Tork, Long IJland, and other places. The 
£hells contain a large animal, which is eat- 
en both by the Indians and Europeans fettled 
here. 

A CONSIDERABLE commcrcc is carried 
on in this article, with fuch Indians as live 
further up the country. When thefe peo- 
ple inhabited the coaft, they were able to 
catch their own clams, which at that time 
made a great part of their food; but at 
prefent this is the bufinefs of the Dutch and 
Englijh, who live in Long IJland and other 
0^2 maritime 



244 Novemlfer 1748. 

maritime provinces. As foon as the (hells 
are caught, the fifh is taken out of them, 
drawn upon a wire, and hung up in the 
open air, in order to dry by the heat of the 
fun. When this is done, the flelh is put 
into proper veffels, and carried to Albany 
upon the river Hud/on ; there the Indians 
buy them, and reckon them one of their 
beft dillies. Befides the Europeans, many 
of the native Indians come annually down 
to the fea fhore, in order to catch clams, 
proceeding with them afterwards in the 
manner I have juft defcribed. 

The fhells of thefe clams are ufed by the 
Indians as money, and make what theyj 
call their wampum; they likewife ferve' 
their women for an ornament, when they 
intend to appear in full drefs. Thefe wam- 
pums are properly made of the purple parts 
of the (hells, which the Indians value more 
than the white parts. A traveller, who 
goes to trade with the Indians, and is well 
flocked with them, may become a confide- 
Table gainer ; but if he take gold coin, or 
bullion, he will undoubtedly be a lofer j j 
for the Indians who live farther up the | 
country, put little or no value upon thefe | 
metals which we reckon fo precious, as I 
have frequently obferved in the courfe of 
my travels. The Indians formerly made 

their 



¥■ 



New Tork, 245 

their own wampums, though not without a 
deal of trouble : but at f refent the Euro- 
peans employ themfelves that way -, efpeci- 
ally the inhabitants of Albany, who get a 
confiderabie profit by it. In the fequel I 
intend to relate the manner of making the 
wampum. 

Nove?nber the 2d. Besides the different 
feds of chriftians,' there are many Jews fet- 
tled in New Tork, who poffefs great privi- 
leges. They have a fynagogue and houfes, 
and great country feats of their own pro- 
perty, and are allowed to keep fhops in 
town. They have likewife feveral fhips, 
which they freight and fend out with their 
own goods. In fine they enjoy all the pri- 
vileges common to the other inhabitants of 
this town and province. 

During my refidence at New Tork, this 
time and in the two next years, I was fre- 
quently in company with Jews. I was in- 
formed among other things, that thefe peo- 
ple never boiled any meat for themfelves 
on faturday, but that they always did it the 
day before ; and that in winter they kept a 
fire during the whole faturday. They com- 
monly eat no pork ; yet I have been told 
by feveral men of credit, that many of them 
(efpecially among the young Jews) when 
travelling, did not not make the leaft diffi- 



246 Nevember 1748. 

culty about eating this, or any other meat 
that was put before them -, even though they 
were in company with chriftians. I was in 
their fynagogue laft evening for the firft 
time, and this day at noon I vifited it again, 
and each time I was put into a particular feat 
which was fet apart for ftrangers or chrifti- 
ans. A young i^^.^/^/read the divine fervice, 
"which was partly in Hebrew, and partly in 
the Rabinical diakft. Both men and wo- 
men were dreffed entirely in the Englijh' 
fafhion -, the former had all of them their 
hats on, and did not once take them off 
during fervice. The galleries, I obferved, 
were appropriated to the ladies, while the 
men fat below. During prayers the men 
fpread a white cloth over their heads ; which 
perhaps is to reprefent fack cloth. But I 
obferved that the wealthier fortof people had 
a much richer cloth than the poorer ones. 
Many of the men had Hebrew books, in 
which they fang and read alternately. The 
Kabbi flood in the middle of the fynagogue, 
and read with his face turned towards the 
eaft ', he fpoke however fo faft, as to make 
it almoft impoffible for any one to under- 
ftand what he faid.* 

Nev7 



• As there are no Jews in Siueden^ Prof. KaJm was an ot- 
ter ftranger to their manners and religious cuftoms, and 
therefore relates them as a kind of novelty, F. 



New York, 



'47 



New York, the capital of a province of 
the fame name is fituated under forty deg. 
and forty min. north lat. and forty {^s^n 
di^^, and four min. of weftern long, from 
London ; and is about ninety ftven Engli/b 
miles diftant from Philadelpfoia, The Situ- 
ation of it is extremely advantageous for 
trade : for the town ftands upon a point 
which is formed by two bays ; into one of 
which the river Hudfon difcharges itfelf, 
not far from the town ; New Tork is there- 
fore on three lides furrounded with water : 
the ground it is built on, is level in fome 
parts, and hilly in others : the place is 
generally reckoned very wholefome. 

The town was firft founded by theZ)z^/<:/6: 
this, it is faid, was done in the year 1623, 
when they were yet maflers of the country : 
they called it New Amfterdamy and the coun- 
try itfelf New Holland, ThQEnglifiy towards 
the end of the year 1664, taking polTeffion 
of it under the condud: of Des Cartes, and 
keeping it by the virtue of the next treaty 
of peace, gave the name of New Tork to 
both the town, and the province belong- 
ing to it : in fize it comes neareft to Bojlon 
and Philadelphia, But with regard to its 
fine buildings, its opulence, and extenfive 
commerce, it difputes the preference with 
0^4 them J 



24^ November 1748. 

them : at prefent it is about half as big 
again as Gothenburgh in Sweden. 

The flreets do not run fo ftraight as thofe 
of Philadelphia, and have fometimes confi- 
derable bendings : however they are very 
fpacious and well built, and moft of them 
are paved, except in high places, where it 
has been found ufelefs. In the chief ftreets 
there are trees planted, which in fummer 
give them a fine appearance, and during 
the exceflive heat at that time, afford a 
cooling (hade : I found it extremely pleafant 
to walk in the town, for it feemed quite 
like a garden: the trees which are planted 
for this purpofe are chiefly of two kinds. 
The fFater beech, or Linnceus's Plat anus 
occidentalism are the moft numerous, and give 
an agreeable fhade in fummer, by their 
great and numerous leaves. The Locufi 
tree, or Linnceus's Robinia Pfeud-Acacia is 
likewife frequent : its fine leaves, and the 
odoriferous fcent which exhales from its 
flowers, make it very proper for being 
planted in the flreets near the houfes, and 
in gardens. There are likewife lime trees 
and elms, in thefe walks, but they are not 
by far fo frequent as the others ; one feldom 
met with trees of the fame fort next to each 
other, they being in general planted alter- 
nately. 

Besides 



New York, 249 

Besides numbers of birds of all kinds 
which make thefe trees their abode, there 
are likewife a kind of frogs which frequent 
them in great numbers in fummer, they are 
Dr. Linnceus*^ Rana arbor'eay and efpecially 
the American variety of this animal. They 
are very clamorous in the evening and in 
the nights (efpecially when the days had 
been hot, and a rain was expedled) and in 
a manner drown the finging of the birds. 
They frequently make fuch a noife, that it 
is difficult for a perfon to make himfelf 
heard. 

Most of the houfes are built of bricks ; 
and are generally ftrong and neat, and feveral 
flories high. Some had, according to old 
architedure, turned the gable-end towards 
the ftreets ; but the new houfes were alter- 
ed in this refped:. Many of the houfes 
had a balcony on the roof, on which the 
people ufed to fit in the evenings in the fum- 
mer feafon -, and from thence they had a 
pleafant view of a great part of the town, 
and likewife of part of the adjacent water 
and of the oppofite fhore. The roofs are 
commonly covered with tiles or fhingles : 
the latter of which are made of the white 
iirtree, or Finns Strobus (Linn. fp. plant, 
page 1419.) which grows higher up in the 
country. The inhabitants arc of opinion 

that 



250 November 1748. 

that a roof made of thefe fhingles is as 
durable as one made in Petifyhania of the 
White Cedar, or Cuprejjus thyoides (Linn* 
fpec. plant, page 1422.) The walls were 
whitewflflied within, and I did not any 
where fee bangi?igs, with which the people 
in this country feem in general to be but 
little acquainted. The walls were quite 
covered with all forts of drawings and pic- 
tures in fmall frames. On each fide of the 
chimnies they had ufually a fort of alcove -, 
and the wall under the windows was wain- 
fcoted, and had benches placed near it. 
The alcoves, and all the wood work were 
painted with a bluifli grey colour. 

There are feveral churches in the town, 
which deferve fome attention. i. 'The 
Englifi Church, built in the year 1695, at 
the weft end of town, confiding of ftone, 
and has a fteeple with a bell. 2. The 
new Dutch Church, which is likewife built 
of ftone, is pretty large and is provided 
with a fteeple, it alfo has a clock, which 
is the only one in the town. This church 
ftands almoft due from north to fouth. 
No particular point of the compafs has 
here been in general attended to in erec- 
ting facred buildings. Some churches, 
ftand as is ufual from eaft to weft, others 
from fouth to north, and others in different 

pofitions. 



New Tork. 251 

portions. In this Dutch church, there is 
neither altar, veflry, choir, fconces, nor 
paintings. Some trees are planted round 
it, which make it look as if it was built in 
a wood. 3. The old Dutch churchy which 
is alfo built of flone. It is not fo large as 
the new one. It was painted in the infide, 
though without any images, and adorned 
with a fmall organ, of which governor 
Burnet made them a prefent. The men 
for the moft part fit in the gallery, and the 
women below. 4. The Frefiyterian Churchy 
which is pretty large, and was built but 
lately. It is of ftone, and has a lleeple and a 
bell in it. 5. The German Lutheran Church. 
6. The German Reformed Church. 7. The 
French Churchy for proteftant refugees. 8. 
The ^aher% Meeting houfe, 9. To thefe 
may be added the Jewifi Synagogue, which 
I mentioned before. 

Towards the fea, on the extremity of 
the promontory is a pretty good fortrefs, 
called Fort George, which entirely com- 
mands the port, and can defend the town, 
at leafl from a fudden attack on the fea 
lide. Befides that, it is likewife fecured on 
the north or towards the ihore, by a palli- 
fad.e, which however (as for a conliderable 
time the people have had nothing to fear 

from 



252 November 1748. 

from an enemy) is in many places in a very 
bad ftate of defence. 

There is no good water to be met with 
in the town itfelf, but at a little diftance 
there is a large fpring of good water, which 
the inhabitants take for their tea, and for the 
ufes of the kitchen. Thofe however, who are 
lefs delicate in this point, make ufe of the 
water from the wells in town, though it be 
very bad. This want of good water lies 
heavy upon the horfes of the Grangers that 
come to this places for they do not like to 
drink the water from the wells in the 
town. 

The port is a good one : (hips of the 
greateft burthen can lie in it, quite clofe up 
to the bridge : but its water is very fait, as 
the fea continually comes in upon it ; and 
therefore is never frozen, except in extra- 
ordinary cold weather. This is of great 
advantage to the city and its commerce j for 
many (hips either come in or go out of the 
port at any time of the year, unlefs the 
winds be contrary; a convenience, which 
as I have before obferved, is wanting at 
Philadelphia. It is fecured from all violent 
hurricanes from the fouth-eaft hy Long IJland 
which is fituated juft before the town: 
therefore only the ftorms from the fouthweft 
»re dangerous to the Ihips which ride at 

anchor 



New Tork, 253 

anchor here, becaufe the porj^is open only 
on that fide. The entrance however has its 
faults : one of them is, that no men of 
war can pafs through it ; for though the 
water is pretty deep, yet it is not fufficient- 
ly fo for great fhips. Sometimes even mer- 
chant fhips of a large fize have by the roll- 
ing of the waves and by finking down be- 
tween them, flightly touched the bottom, 
though without any bad confequences. 
Befides this, the canal is narrow; and for 
this reafon many fhips have been loft here, 
becaufe they may be eafily caft upon a fand, 
if the ihip is not well piloted. Some old 
people, who had conftantly been upon this 
canal, afTured me, that it was neither 
deeper, nor Ihallovver at prefent, than in 
their youth. 

The common difference between high 
and low water at New Tork, amounts to 
about fix feet, Englifi meafure. But at a 
certain time in every month, when the tide 
flows more than commonly, the difference 
in the height of the water is feven feet. 

New York probably carries on a more 
extenfive commerce, than any town in the 
Englijh North American provinces ; at leafl 
it may be faid to equal them : Bofton and 
Philadelphia however come very near up to 
it. The trade of New Tork extends to 

many 



% 



254 November 1748. 

many places, and it is faid they fend more 
fhips from thence to London, than they do 
from Philadelphia, They export to that 
capital all the various forts of fkins which 
they buy of the Indians, fugar, logwood, 
and other dying woods, rum, mahogany, 
and many other goods which are the pro- 
duce of the JVeJi Indies 'y together with all 
the fpecie which they get in the courfe of 
trade. Every year they build feveral fhips 
here, which are fent to London, and there 
fold ', and of late years they have fhipped a 
quantity of iron to England. In return 
for thefe, they import from London fluffs 
and every other article of Englijh growth 
or manufad:ure, together with all forts 
of foreign goods. England, and efpecial- 
ly London, profits immenfely by its trade 
with the American colonies ; for not only 
"New York, but likewife all the other En- 
glijh towns on the continent, import fo 
many articles from England, that all their 
fpecie, together with the goods which they 
get in other countries, mufl altogether go 
to Old England, in order to pay the amount, 
to which they are however infufficient. 
From hence it appears how much a well 
regulated colony contributes to the increafe 
and welfare of its mother country. 

New York fends many fhips to the Weft 

Indies 



New York, 255 

Indies, with flour, corn, bifcuit, timber, 
tuns, boards, flefh, fifh, butter, and other 
jrovifions j together with fome of the few 
fruits that grow here. Many fhips go to 
Bofion in New England, with corn and 
flour, and take in exchange, fleflj, butter, 
timber, diflferent forts of fi{h, and other 
articles, which they carry further to the 
Weji Indies. They now and then take rum 
from thence, which is diftilled there in 
great quantities, and fell it here with a 
confiderable advantage. Sometimes they 
fend yachts with goods from New Tork to 
Philadelphia, and at other times yachts are 
fent from Philadelphia to New Tork -, which 
is only done, as appears from the gazettes, 
becaufe certain .articles are cheaper at one 
place than at the other. They fend fhips 
to Ireland every year, laden with all kinds 
of WeJi India goods ; but efpecially with 
linfeed, which is reaped in this province. I 
have been allured, that in fome years no 
lefs than ten fhips have been fent to Ireland, 
laden with nothing but linfeed ; becaufe it 
is faid the flax in Ireland does not afford 
good feed. But probably the true reafon is 
this : the people of Ireland, in order to 
have the better flax, make ufe of the plant 
before the feed is ripe, and therefore are 
obliged to fend for foreign feed -, and hence 

it 



256 November 1748. 

it becomes one of the chief articles Itl 
trade. 

At this time a bufhel of linfeed is fold 
for eight fhillings of New Tork currency, 
or exadily a piece of eight. 

The goods which are (hipped to the 
Wejl Indies, are fometimes paid for with 
ready money, and fometimes with Wefi 
India goods, which are either firfl brought 
to New Tork, or immediately fent to Eng- 
land or Holland. If a fhip does not chufe to 
take inWeJi India goods in its return to New 
Tork, or if no body will freight it, it often 
goes to Newcaftle in England to take in coals 
forballaft, which when brought home fell for 
a pretty good price. In many parts of the 
town coals are made ufe of, both for kitch- 
en fires, and in rooms, becaufe they are 
reckoned cheaper than wood, which at 
prefent cofts thirty fhillings of New Tork 
currency per fathom -, of which meafure I 
have before made mention. New Tork has 
likewife fome intercourfe with South Caro^ 
Una ', to which it fends corn, flour, fugar, 
rum, and other goods, and takes rice in re- 
turn, which is almofl the only commodity 
exported from South Carolina, 

The goods with which the province of 
New Tork trades are not very numerous. 
They chiefly export the fkins of animals, 

which 



New Tork, 257 

llvhich are bought of the Indians about 
Pfwego 'y great quantities of boards, coming 
jfor the mofl part from Albany ; timber and 
;ready made lumber, from that part of the 
icountry which lies about the river Hudfon^, 
;and laftly wheat, flour, barley, oats and 
jother kinds of corn, which are brought 
jfrom New Jerfey and the cultivated parts 
jof this province. I have feen yachts from 
\New Brunjwicky laden with wheat which 
lay loofe on board, and with flour packed 
up into tuns; and alfo with great quanti- 
ties of linfeed. New York llkewife exports 
fome fleih and other proviiions out of its 
own province, but they are very few ; nor 
lis the quantity of peafe which the people 
iabout Albany bring much greater. Iron 
however may be had more plentifully, as it 
is found in feveral parts of this province, 
and is of a confiderable goodnefs , but all 
the other produdts of this country are of lit- 
tle account. 

Most of the wine, which is drank here 
and in the other colonies is brought from 
the Ifle of Madeira and is very ftrong and 
fiery. 

No manufactures of note have as yet 

been eflablifhed here ; at prefent they get 

all manufactured goods, fuch as woollen 

R and 



258 November 1748. 

and linen cloth, &c. from England, and 
efpecially from London. 

The river Hud/on is very convenient for 
the commerce of this city j as it is naviga-. 
ble for near a hundred and fifty Englijh, 
miles up the country, and falls into the; 
bay not far from the tow^n, on its weftern 
fide. During eight months of the year 
this river is full of yachts, and other great- 
er and lefTer veffels, either going to New 
Tork or returning from thence, laden ei- 
ther with inland or foreign goods. 

I CANNOT make a juft eftimate of the 
fhips that annually come to this town on 
fail from it. But I have found by the Pen- 
fyhania gazettes that from the firft of De- 
cember in 1729, to the fifth of December in 
the next year, 211 fhips entered the port of 
New Torky and 222 cleared it ; and fince 
that time there has been a great increafe 
of trade here. 

The country people come to market in 
New Tork, twice a week much in the famfr 
manner, as they do at Philadelphia -, with 
this difference, that the markets are here 
kept in feveral places. 

The governor of the province of New 
Tork, refides here, and has a palace in th© 
fort. Among thofe who have been entrufl- 
ed with this pofl, William Burnet deferves 



New Tork, 259 

to be had in perpetual remembrance. He 
was one of the fons of Dr. Thomas Burnet 
(fo celebrated on account of his learning) 
and feemed to have inherited the know- 
ledge of his father. But his great 'afiiduity 
in promoting the welfare of this province, 
is what makes the principal merit of his 
charader. The people of New Tork there- 
fore ftill reckon him the beft governor they 
ever had, and think that they cannot praife 
his fervices too much. The many agro- 
nomical obfervations which he made in 
thefe parts, are inferted in feveral Englijh 
works. In the year 1727, at the acceffion 
of king George the II. to the throne of 
Great Britairiy he was appointed gover- 
nor of New England. In confequence of 
this he left New Torky and went to Bojion^ 
where he died univerfally lamented, on the 
7th. oi September 1729. 

An affembly of deputies from all the 
particular diftridts of the province of Ne'W 
Tork, is held at New Tork once or twice 
every year. It may be looked upon as a 
parliament or dyet in miniature. Every 
thing relating to the good of the province 
is here debated. The governor calls the 
aflembly, and diffolves it at pleafure : this 
is a power which he ought only to make 
«ife of, either when no farther debates are 
R 2 neceflary,' 



26o November 1748. 

neceflary, or when the members are not 
fo unanimous in the fervice of their king 
and country as is their duty : it frequently 
however happens, that, led alide by ca- 
price or by interefted views, he exerts it to 
the prejudice of the province. The colony 
has fometimes had a governor, whofe quar- 
rels with the inhabitants, have induced 
their reprefentatives, or the members of 
the affembly, through a fpirit of revenge, 
to oppofe indifferently every thing he pro- 
pofed, whether it was beneficial to the 
country or not. In fuch cafes the govern- 
or has made ufe of his powers diffolving 
the affembly, and calling another foon af- 
ter, which however he again diffolved upon 
the leaft mark of their ill humour. By this 
means he fo much tired them, by the many 
expences which they were forced to bear in 
fo fhort a time, that they were at laft glad 
to unite with him, in his endeavours for 
the good of the province. But there have 
likewife been governors who have called 
affemblies and dilTolved them foon after, 
merely becaufe the reprefentatives did not 
adt according to their whims, or would not 
give their alTent to propofals which were 
perhaps dangerous or hurtful to the com- 
mon welfare. 

The king appoints the governor accord- 
ing 



New Tork. 261 

ing to his royal pleafure ; but the inhabi- 
tants of the province make up his excel- 
lency's falary., Therefore a man entrufted 
with this place has greater or lefTer reve- 
nues, according as he knows how to gain 
the confidence of the inhabitants. There 
are examples of governors in this, and other 
ipvovmct^ of North Am eric a y who by their 
diflenfions with the inhabitants of their 
refpedive governments, have loft their 
whole falary, his Majefty having no power 
to make them pay it. If a governor had 
no other refource in thefe circumftances, he 
would be obliged either to refign his office, 
or to be content with an income too fmall 
for his dignity ; or elfe to conform himfelf 
in every thing to the inclinations of the in- 
habitants : but there are feveral ftated pro- 
fits, which in fome meafure make up for 
this. I. No one is allowed to keep a pub- 
lic houfe without the governor's leave ; 
which is only to be obtained by the pay- 
ment of a certain fee, according to the cir- 
cumftances of the perfon. Some governors 
therefore, when the inhabitants refufed to 
pay them a falary, have hit upon the expe- 
dient of doubling the number of inns in 
their province. 2. Few people who intend 
to be married, unlefs they be very poor, 
will have their banns publifhed from the 
R 3 pulpit I 



262 November 1748. 

pulpit ; but inftead of this they get licences 
from the governor, which impower any mi- 
nifter to marry them. Now for fuch a li- 
cence the governor receives about half a 
guinea, and this collected throughout the 
whole province, amounts to a confiderable 
fum. 3. The governor figns all paflports, 
and efpecially of fuch as gotofea; and this 
gives him another means of fupplying his 
expences. There are feveral other advan- 
tages allowed to him, but as they are very 
trifling, I (hall omit them. 

At the above aflembly the old laws are 
reviewed and amended, and new ones are 
made : and the regulation and circulation 
of coin, together with all other affairs of 
that kind are there determined. For it is 
to be obferved that each Engli/h colony in 
North America is independent of the other, 
and that each has its proper laws and coin, 
and mav be looked upon in feveral lights, 
as a ftate by itfelf. From hence it hap^ 
pens, that in time of war, things go on 
very flowly and irregularly here : for not 
only the fenfe of one province is fometimes 
directly oppofite to that of another; but 
frequently the views of the governor, and 
thofe of the affembly of the fame province, 
are quite different : fo that it is eafy to fee, 
that, while the people are quarrelling about 

the 



New Tork, 263 

the beft and cheapeft manner of carrying 
on the war, an enemy has it in his power 
to take one place after another. It has 
commonly happened that whilft fome pro- 
vinces have been fuffering from their ene- 
mies, the neighbouring ones were quiet 
and inadive, and as if it did not in the leaft 
concern them. They have frequently ta- 
ken up two or three years in confidering 
whether they fhould give affiftance to an 
opprefled fifter colony, and fometimes they 
have exprefly declared themfelves againft it. 
There are inftances of provinces who were 
not only neuter in thefe circumflances, but 
who even carried on a great trade with the 
power which at that very time was attack- 
ing and laying wafte fome other provinces. 
The French in Canada, who are but an 
inconfiderable body, in comparifon with 
the Englifl) in America, have by this pofition 
of affairs been able to obtain great Advan- 
tages in times of war; for if we judge 
from the number and power of the Englijh, 
it would feem very eafy for them to get 
the better of the French in America.^ 

R4 It 

* This has really happened by a greater union and exer- 
tion of power from the colonies and the mother country ; io 
that Canada has been conquered and its pofleflion has been 
confirmed to Great Britain in the laft peace. F. 



264 November 1748. 

It is however of great advantage to the 
crown of Engla7id^ that the North Ameri- 
can colonies are near a country, under the 
government of the French^ like Canada. 
There is reafon to believe that the king 
never was earneft in his attempts to expel 
the French from their polleffions there ; 
though it might have been done with little 
difficulty. For the Efiglifi colonies in this 
part of the world have encreafed fo much 
in their number of inhabitants, and in 
their riches, that they almoft vie with Old 
England. Now in order to keep up the 
authority and trade of their mother country, 
and to anfwer feveral other pupofes, they 
are forbid to eflabliih new maimfadlures, 
which would turn to the diladvantage of 
the Britijh commerce : they are not allowed 
to dig for any gold or lilver, unlefs they 
fend them to England immediately : they 
have not the liberty of trading to any parts 
that do not belong to the Britijlj dominions, 
excepting fome fettled places, and foreign 
traders are not allowed to fend their (hips to 
them. Thefe and fome other reftridions, 
occafion the inhabitants of the Englijh colo- 
nies to grow lefs tender for their mother 
country. This coldnefs is kept up by the 
many foreigners fuch as Germans, Dutch 
and French fettled here, and living among 

the 



New Tork, 265 

the EhgUJhy who commonly have no par- 
ticular attachment to Old England -y add to 
this like wife that many people can never 
be contented with their poffeffions, though 
they be ever fo great, and will always be 
defirous of getting more, and of enjoying 
the pleafure which arifes from changing ; 
and their over great liberty, and their luxury 
often lead them to licentioufnefs. 

I HAVE been told by Englijhmen, and 
not only by fuch as were born in America^ 
but even by fuch as came from Europe^ 
that the Engllfi colonies in North-America^ 
in the fpace of thirty or fifty years, would 
be able to form a Hate by themfclves, en- 
tirely independent on Old England. But 
as the whole country which lies along the 
fea (hore, [is unguarded, and on the land 
lide is harraffed bv the Eronchy in times of 
war thefe dangerous neighbours are futiici- 
ent to prevent the connection of the colo- 
nies with their mother country from being 
quite broken off. The Englijh government 
has therefore fufficient reafon to confider 
the French in North- America, as the beft 
means of keeping the colonies in their due 
fubmifiion. But, I am almoft gone too far 
from my purpofe ; I will therefore finifh 
my obfervations on New Tork. 

The declination of the magnetic needle, 

in 



266 November 1748. 

in this town was obferved by Philip Wells, 
the chief engineer of the province of New 
Tork, in the year 1686, to be eight deg. 
and forty-five min. to the weftward. But 
in 1723, it was only feven deg. and twenty 
min. according to the obfervations of go- 
vernor Burnet. 

From hence we may conclude that in 
thirty-eight years the magnet approaches 
about one deg. and twenty five min. nearer 
to the true north ; or, which is the fame 
thing, about two min. annually. Mr. 
Alexander, a man of great knowledge in 
aftronomy and in mathematics, aflured me 
from feveral obfervations, that in the year 
1750, on the eighteenth of September the 
deviation was to be reckoned fix deg. and 
twenty two min. 

There are two printers in the town, and 
every week fome Englijh gazettes are pub- 
lished, which contain news from all parts 
of the world. 

The winter is much more fevere here, 
than in Penfyhania ; it being nearly as cold 
as in fome of the provinces of Sweden : its 
continuance however is much fhorter than 
with us : their fpring is very early and their 
autumn very late, and the heat in fummer 
is exceflive. For this reafon, the melons 
fown in the fields are ripe at the beginning 

of 



New York. 267 

[of Augujl ', whereas we can hardly bring 
Ithem fo foon to maturity under glafles and 
on hot beds. The cold of the winter, I 
cannot juftly determine, as the meteorolo- 
gical obfervations which were communicat- 
ed to me, were all calculated after ther- 
mometers, which were fo placed in the 
houfes, that the air could not freely come at 
them. The fnow lies for fome months to- 
gether upon theground; and fledges are made 
ufe of here as in Sweden, but they are rather 
too bulky. The river Hudfon is about an 
Englifli mile and a half broad at its mouth: 
the difference between the higheft flood and 
the lowefl: ebb is between flx and i^v^n 
feet, and the water is very brackifh : yet 
the ice {lands in it not only one but even 
feveral months : it has fometimes a thick- 
nefs of more than two feet. 

The inhabitants are fometimes greatly 
troubled with Miifquitoes. They either 
follow the hay which is made near the 
town, in the low meadows which are quite 
penetrated with fait water ; or they accom- 
pany the cattle at night when it is brought 
home. I have myfelf experienced, and have 
obferved in others, how much thefe little 
animalcules can disfigure a perfon's face dur- 
ing a Angle night; for the fl^in is fometimes 

fo 



268 November 1748. 

fo covered over with little blifters from their 
ilings, that people are afhamed to appear in 
public. The water melons which are culti- 
vated near the town grow very large : they 
are extremely delicious, and are better than 
in other parts, of North America, though 
they are planted in the open fields and 
never in a hot-bed. I faw a water melon 
at Governor Clintons in September 1750, 
which weighed forty feven Englifh pounds, 
and at a merchant's in town another of forty 
two pounds weight : however they were 
reckoned the biggefl ever (qqu. in this coun- 
try. 

In the year 17 10, five kings, ov Sachems 
of the Iroquois went from hence to Engla?id, 
in order to engage ^een Anne to make an 
alliance with them againft the French, 
Their names, drefs, reception at court, 
fpeeches to the Queen, opinion of England 
and of the European manners, and feveral 
other particulars about them are fufficiently 
known from other writings j it would there- 
fore be here unneceiTary to enlarge about 
them. The kings or Sachems of the Indi- 
ans, have commonly no greater authority 
over their fubje(5ts than conftables in a meet- 
ing of the inhabitants of a parifh, and hard- 
ly fo much. On my travels through the 
country of thefe Indians, I had never any 

occafion 



New Tork, 269 

occafion to go and wait upon the Sachems ; 
for they always came into my habitation 
without being afked : thefe vifits they com- 
monly paid in order to get a glafs or two 
of brandy, which they value above any 
thing they know. One of the five Sachems 
mentioned above, died in Engla?id', the 
others returned fafe. 

The firft colon ifts in New York were 
Dutchmen : when the town and its territo- 
ries were taken by the Eng/i/h, and left 
them by the next peace in exchange for 
Surinam, the old inhabitants were allowed 
either to remain at New York, and to enjoy 
all the priviledges and immunities which 
they were polTefied of before, or to leave 
the place with all their goods : moft of them 
chofe the former ^ and therefore the inha- 
bitants both of the town and of the pro- 
vince belonging to it, are yet for the great- 
eft part Dutchmen-, who ftill, efpecially the 
old people, fpeak their mother tongue. 

They begin however by degrees to change 
their manners and opinions j chiefly indeed 
in the tov/n and in its neighbourhood : for 
moft of the young people now fpeak prin- 
cipally Englijh, and go only to the Engiifi 
church ', and would even take it amifs, if 
they were called Dutchmen and not Englijh' 
men. 

Though 



270 November 1748. 

Though the province of New York hag 
been inhabited by Europeansy much longef 
than Penjyhaniat yet it is not by far fo po- 
pulous as that colony. This cannot be af- 
cribed to any particular difcouragement a- 
rifing from the nature of the foil ; for that 
.is pretty good : but I was told of a very 
different reafon, which I will mention here^ 
In the reign of ^leen Anne about the year 
1709, many Germans came hither, who 
got a tradt of land from the government on 
which they might fettle. After they had 
lived there for fome time, and had built 
houfes and churches, and made corn-fields 
and meadows, their liberties and privileges 
were infringed, and under feveral pretences" 
they were repeatedly deprivedofpartsof their 
land. This at lafl rouzed the Germans ; they 
returned violence for violence, and beat thofe 
who thus robbed them of their poffeffions. 
But thefe proceedings were looked upon in 
a very bad light by the government : the 
mod adive people among the Germans be- 
ing taken up, they were very roughly treated, 
and punifhed with the utmoft rigour of the 
law. This however fo far exafperated the 
reft, that the greater part of them left their 
houfes and fields, and went to fettle in Pen- 
fylvania : there they were exceedingly well 
received, got a confiderable trad; of land, 

and 



New York, 



271 



and were indulged in great privileges which 
were given them forever. The Germans 
not fatisfied with being themfelves removed 
from New Tork, wrote to their relations 
and friends and advifed them, if ever they 
intended to come to America, not to go to 
New York, where the government had 
ihewn itfelf fo unequitable. This advice 
had fuch influence, that the Germansy who 
afterwards went in great numbers to North 
America, conftantly avoided Ne%v York and 
always went to Penfyhania. It fometimes 
happened that they were forced to go on. 
board fuch fhips as were bound to New 
York ; but they were fcarce got on fhore, 
when they haftened on to Penfyhania in 
light of all the inhabitants of New York, 

But the want of people in this province 
may likewife be accounted for in a different 
manner. As the Dutch, who firft culti- 
vated this country, obtained the liberty of 
flaying here by the treaty with England, 
and of enjoying all their privileges and ad- 
vantages without the leaft limitation, each 
of them took a very large piece of ground 
for himfelf, and many of the more power- 
ful heads of families made themfelves the 
poffeffors and mailers of a country of as 
great an extent as would be fufficient to form 
a middling and even a great parifh. Moft 

of 



272 November 1748. 

of them being very rich, their envy of the 
Engli/h led them not to fell them any land, 
but at an exceffive rate ; a pradtice which 
is ftill punctually obferved among their 
defcendants. The Englifh therefore as well 
as people of different nations, have little 
encouragement to fettle here. On the other 
hand they have fufficient opportunity in the 
other provinces, to purchafe land at a more 
moderate price, and with more fecurity to 
themfelves. It is not then to be wondered, 
that fo many parts of New York are ftill 
unculiivated, and have entirely the appear- 
ance of defarts. This infcance may teach 
us how much a fmall miftake in a govern- 
ment will injure population. 

November the 3d. About noon we fet 
out from New Tork on our return, and 
continuing our journey, we arrived at Fhi- 
ladelphia on the fifth of November. 

In the neighbourhood of this capital (of 
Penjyhania) the people had a month ago 
made their cyder, which they were obliged 
to do, becaufe their apples were fo ripe as 
to drop from the trees. But on our journey 
through xVfw Tork we obferved the people 
ftill employed in preffing out the cyder. 
This is a plain proof that in Penjyhania 
the apples are fooner ripe than in New 
Tork', but whether this be owing to the 

nature 




Americai^ Pole-Cat. 




Penjyhania, Philadelphia. ^73 

nature of the foil, or a greater heat of the 
fummer in Fhiladelphia, or to fome other 
caufe I know not^ However there is not 
the leaft advantage in making cyder fo early: 
for long experience had taught the hufband- 
men that it is worfe for being made early 
in the year ; the great heat in the begin- 
ning of autumn being faid to hinder the fer- 
mentation of the juice. 

There is a certain quadruped which 
is pretty common not only in Penjyhania, 
but likewife in other provinces both of 
^outh and North Americay and goes by the 
name of Polecat among the Englijlj. In 
New Tork they generally call it Skunk. 
The Swedes here by way of nickname 
called it Fijkatta^ on account of the horrid 
flench it fometimes caufes as I ihall prefent- 
ly fhow. The French in Canada, for the 
fame reafon call it Bete puante or ftinking 
animal, and Enfant du diable or child of 
the devil. Some of them likewife call it 
Pekan : Catejby in his Natural Hijiory of 
Carolina, has defcribed it in Vol. 2. p. 62. 
by the name of Putorius Americanus Jiriatus 
and drawn it plate 62. Dr. Linnceus calls it 
Fiverra Putorius.* This animal, which is 
S very 

* Of this animal and of the above-mentioned Racoon is a 
reprefentation given plate 2. both from original drawings; 
the German and the Snjoedijh edition Of Prof. KrI»C% work 
being both without this plate, F« 



2/4 November 1748. 

very fimilar to the Marten, is of about the 
fame fize and commonly black : on the back 
k has a longitudinal white ftripe and two 
others on each fide, parallel to the former. 
Sometimes but very feldom, fome are feen 
which are quite white. On our return to 
Philadelphia we faw one of thefe animals 
not far from town near a farmer's houfe, 
killed by dogs. And afterwards I had dur- 
ing my flay in thefe parts feveral oppor- 
tunities of feeing it and of hearing its qua- 
lities. It keeps its young ones in holes in 
the ground and in hollow trees ; for it 
does not confine itfelf to the ground, but 
climbs up trees with the greatefl agility : 
it is a great enemy to birds 3 for it breaks 
their eggs and devours their young ones ; 
and if it can get into a hen rooft it foon def- 
troys all its inhabitants. 

This animal has a particular quality by 
which it is principally known i when it is 
purfued by men or dogs it runs at firfl as 
fafl as it can, or climbs upon a tree^ but 
if it is fo befet by its purfuers, as to have 
no other way of making its efcape, it fquirts 
its urine upon them. This according to 
fome it does by wetting its tail with the 
urine whence by a fudden motion it fcatters 
it abroad 3 but others believe, that it could 
fend its urine equally far without the help 
of its tail; I find the former of thefe accounts 

to 



Penjylvaniai Philadelphia, 275 

to be the moft likely. For, fome credible 
people alTured me, that they have had their 
faces wetted with it all over ; though they 
flood above eighteen feet off from the ani- 
mal. The urine has fo horrid a flench that 
nothing can equal it : it is fomething like 
that of the Crane/bill or Linnceus\ Geranium 
robertianumy but infinitely ftronger. If you 
come near a polecat when it fpreads its 
ftench, you cannot breathe for a while, 
and it feems as if you were flifled ; and 
in cafe the urine comes into the eyes, a 
perfon is likely to be blinded. Many dogs 
that in a chace purfue the polecat very 
eagerly, run away as faft as they can when 
they are wetted : however, if they be of 
the true breed, they will not give over the 
purfuit till they have caught and killed the 
polecat; but they are obliged now and then 
to rub their nofes in the ground in order to 
relieve themfelves. 

Clothes which have been wetted by this 
animal retain the fmell for more than a 
month; unlefs they be covered with freOi foil, 
and fuffered to remain under it for twenty 
four hours together ; when it will in a great 
meafure be removed. Thofe likewife who 
have got any of this urine upon their face 
and hands, rub them with loofe earth ; and 
fome even hold their hands in the ground 
for an hour; as walhingwill not help thcmr 
S 2 fo 



276 'November 1748. 

fo foon. A certain man of rank who had 
by accident been wetted by the polecat, 
ftunk fo ill, that on going into a houfe, 
the people either ran away, or on his open- 
ing the door, rudely denied him entrance. 
Dogs that have hunted a polecat are fo 
offcnfive for fome days afterwards, that they 
cannot be borne in the houfe. At Phila- 
delphia I once faw a great number of people 
on a market day throwing at a dog that 
was fo unfortunate as to have been engaged 
with a polecat juft before, and to carry 
iabout him the tokens of its difpleafure. Per- 
fons when travelling through ^a foreft are 
often troubled with the flink which this 
creature makes ; and fometimes the air is 
fo much infedted that it is neceffary to hold 
ones nofe. If the wind blows from the 
place where the polecat has been, or if it 
be quite calm, as at night, the fmell is^ 
more ftrong and difagreeable. 

In the winter of 1749, a polecat tempt- 
ed by a dead lamb, came one night near' 
the farm houfe where I then llept. Being 
immediately purfued by fome dogs, it had 
recourfe to its ufual expedient in order ttf 
get rid of them. The attempt fucceeded, 
the dogs not chooling to continue the 
purfuit : the flink was fo extremely great 
that, though I was at fome diftance it 
siffcded me in the fame manner as if I 

had 



j Penfytvania, Philadelphia, 277 

had been ftifled -, and it was fo difagrceable 
to the cattle that it made them roar very 
loudly : however, by degrees it vanifhed. 
Towards the end of the lame year one of 
thefe animals got into our cellar, but no 
flench was obferved, for it only vents that 
when it is purfued. The cook however 
found for feveral days together that fome 
of the meat which was kept there was eaten; 
I and fufpedting that it was done by the cat 
fhe (hut up all avenues, in order to prevent 
their getting at it. But the next night be- 
ing awoke by a noife in the cellar, flie went 
down, and though it was quite dark, faw an 
animal with two fhining eyes, which feem- 
ed to be all on fire -, fhe however refolutely 
killed it, but not before the polecat had 
filled the cellar with a moil dreadful flench. 
The maid was fick of it for feveral days ; and 
all the bread, flefh, and other provifions kept 
in the cellar were fo penetrated with it, 
that we could not make the leafl ufe of 
them, and were forced to throw them all 
away. 

From an accident that happened at New 
York to one of my acquaintances, I conclude 
that the polecat either is not always very 
fhy, or that it fleeps very hard at night. 
This man coming home out of a wood in a 
fummer evening, thought that he faw a plant 
S 3 flandin^ 



I 



278 November 1748. 

landing before him ; flooping to pluck it, 
he was to his coft convinced of his miftake, 
by being all on a fudden covered with the 
urine of a polecat, whofe tail as it flood up- 
right, the good man had taken for a plant: 
the creature had taken its revenge fo effec- 
tually that he was much at a lofs how to 
get rid of the flench. 

However though thefe animals play 
fuch difagreeable tricks, yet the Englifh, the 
Swedes, the French, and the Indians in thefe 
parts tame them. They follow their maf- 
ters like domeflic animals, and never make 
ufe of their urine, except they be very 
much beaten or terrified. When the Indi- 
ans kill fuch a polecat, they always eat its 
flefh, but when they pull off its fkin, they 
take care to cut away the bladder, that the 
flefli may not get a tafle from it. I have 
fpoken with both Englifimen and French- 
men, who afTared me that they had eaten of 
it, and found it very good meat, and not 
much unlike the flefh of a pig. The fkin 
which is pretty coarfe, and has long hair, 
is not made ufe of by the Europeans -y but 
the Indians prepare it with the hair on, and 
make tobacco pouches of it, which they 
carry before them. 

November the 6th. In the evening I 
went out of town to Mr. Bar tram, I found 

a man 1 



Penjyhania, Philadelphia, 279 

a man with him, who lived in Carolina and 
I obtained feveral particulars about that 
province from him 3 a few of which I will 
here mention. 

Tar, pitch and rice are the chief pro- 
ducts of Carolina. The foil is very fandy, 
and therefore many pines and firs grow in 
it, from which they make tar : the firs 
which are taken for this purpofe are com- 
monly fuch as are dried up of themfelves; 
the people here in general not knowing 
how to prepare the firs by taking the bark 
off on one, or on feveral fides, as they do 
in OJirobothnia, In fome parts of Carolijia 
they likewife make ufe of the branches. The 
manner of burning or boiling, as the man 
defcribes it to me, is entirely the fame as in 
Finland. The pitch is thus made : they 
dig a hole into the ground and fmear the 
infide well with clay, into which they 
pour the tar, and make a fire round it, 
which is kept up till the tar has got thq 
confiftence of pitch. They make two kinds 
of tar in the North American colonies : one 
is the common tar, which 1 have above 
defcribed, and which is made of the fi:ems, 
branches, and roots of fuch firs, as were 
already confiderably dried out before j which 
is the moft common way in this country. 
The other way in peeling the bark from 
S 4 the 



^8o November 1748. 

the firs on one fide, and afterwards letting 
them fland another year ; during which the 
relin comes out between the cracks of the 
ftem. The tree is then felled and burnt 
for tar; and the tar thus made is called 
green tar, not that there is that difference of 
colour in it, for in this refpedt they are both 
pretty much alike ; but the latter is called 
fo from being made of green and frefh trees 3 
whereas common tar is made of dead trees : 
the burning is done in the fame manner as 
yd Finland. They ufe only black firs; for 
the white firs will not ferve this purpofe, 
though they are excellent for boards, mafts, 
&c. green tar is dearer than common tar. 
It is already a pretty general complaint that 
the fir woods are almoft wholly deftroyed 
)by this pradice. 

Rice is planted in great quantity in Ca- 
rolina : it fucceeds befl in marfhy and 
fwampy grounds, which may be laid un- 
der water, and Ijkewife ripens there the 
fooneft. Where thefe cannot be had, they 
mud choofe a dry foil ; but the rice pro- 
duced here will be much inferior to the 
other : the land on which it is cultivated 
mufl never be manured. In Carolina they 
fow it in the middle of April, and it is ripe 
m September: it is planted in rows like peafe, 
and commonly fifteen inches fpace is left 

between 



Penjyhaniat Philadelphia, 28 j 

between the rows ; as foon as the plants 
are come up, the field is laid under water. 
This not only greatly forwards the growth 
of the rice, but likewife kills all weeds, fo 
as to render weeding unnecefTary. The flraw 
of rice is faid to be excellent food for cat- 
tle, who eat it very greedily. Rice requires 
a hot climate, and therefore it will not 
fucceed well in Virginia, the fummer there 
being too fhort, and the winter too cold 5 
and much lefs will it grow in Penfylvania,, 
They are as yet ignorant in Carolina of the 
art of making arrack from rice : it is chief- 
ly South Carolina that produces the greatefl 
quantity of ricej and on the other hand 
they make the moft tar in North Carolina^ 
November the 7th. The flranger from 
Carolina whom I have mentioned before, 
had met with many oyfter fhells at the bot- 
tom of a well, feventy Englifh miles dif- 
tant from the fea, and four from a river : 
they lay in a depth of fourteen Englilh feet 
from the furface of the earth : the water in 
the well was brackifli ; but that in the river 
was frelli. The fame man, had at the 
building of a faw-mill, a mile and a half 
from a river, found, firft fand, and then 
clay filled with oyfter fhells. Under thefe 
he found feveral bills of fea birds as he call- 
ed them, which were already quite petri^- 
iied : they were probably Glojfopetrce. 

There 



ft82 November 1748. 

There are two fpecies of foxes in the 
Englifi colonies, the one grey, and the 
other red : but in the fequel I fhall fliew 
that there are others which fometimes ap- 
pear in Canada. The grey foxes are here con- 
flantly, and are very common in Penfyha- 
nia and in the fouthern provinces : in the 
northern ones they are pretty fcarce, and 
the French in Canada, call them Virginian 
Foxes on that account : in fize they do not 
quite come up to our foxes. They do no 
harm to lambs -, but they prey upon all forts 
of poultry, whenever they can come at 
them. They do not however feem to be 
looked upon as animals that caufe a great 
deal of damage ; for there is no reward 
given for killing them : their fkin is great- 
ly fought for by hatters, who employ the 
hair in their work. People have their 
clothes lined with it fometimes : the greafe 
is ufed againfl all forts of rheumatic pains. 
Thefe foxes are faid to be lefs nimble than 
the red ones : they are fometimes tamed ; 
though they be not fuffered to run about 
but are tied up. Mr. Catejby has drawn 
and defcribed this fort of foxes in his Na- 
tural hijlory of Carolina, by the name of the 
grey American fox, vol. 2. p. 78. tab. 78. 
A Ikin of it was fold in Philadelphia for two 
fhillings and fix-pence in Penfylvanian cur- 
rency. The 



Penfyhania, Philadelphia, 283 

[ The red Foxes are very fcarce here : they 
[are entirely the fame with the European 
I fort. Mr. Bartrajn, and feveral others 
aflured me, that according to the unani- 
mous teftimony of the Indians, this kind of 
foxes never was in the country, before the 
Europeans fettled in it. But of the m?n- 
ner of their coming over I have two dif- 
ferent accounts : Mr. Bartram and feveral 
other people were told by the Indians, that 
thefe foxes came into America foon after 
the arrival of the Europeans, after an extra- 
ordinary cold winter, when all the fea to 
the northward was frozen : from hence 
they would infer, that they could perhaps 
get over to America upon the ice from 
Greenland or the northern parts of Europe 
and Afia. But Mr. Evans, and fome others 
allured me that the following account was 
ftill known by the people. A gentleman 
of fortune in New England, who had a 
great inclination for hunting, brought over 
a great number of foxes from Europe, and 
let them loofe in his territories, that he 
might be able to indulge his paffion for 
hunting.* This is faid to have happened 

almofl 



•Neither of thefe accounts appear to be fatlsfaftory; 
and therefore I am inclined to believe that thefe red foxes 
originally came over from Afia, (moft probably from Kam- 

icbatia 



2% November 1748. 

almoft at the very beginning of New Engr 
land's being peopled with European inha-; 
bitants. Thefe foxes were believed to have" 
fo multiplied, that all the red foxes in the 
country were their offspring. At prefent 
they are reckoned among the noxious crea- 
tures in thefe parts; for they are not content- 
ed, as the grey foxes with killing fowl 3 but 
they likewife devour the lambs. In Pen- 
fyhania therefore there is a reward of two 
Shillings for killing an old fox, and of one 
fhilling for killing a young one. And in 
all the other provinces there are likewife 
rewards offer'd for killing them. Their 
fkin is in great requeft, and is fold as dear 
as that of the grey foxes, that is two fhil- 

lings 

tchatka where this fpecies is common, fee Miller's Account 
cfthe Navigations of the RuJJians, &c.) though in remote 
times, and thus fpread over North America, It is perhaps 
true that the Indians never took notice of them till the 
Europeans were fettled among them ; this, however, was 
becaufe they never had occafion to ufe their fkins : but when 
there was a demand for thefe they began to hunt them, and, 
as they had not been much accuftomed to them before, 
they efteemed them as a novelty. What gives additional com- 
firraation to this is, that when the RuJJians under Commo- 
dore Bering landed on the weftern coaft o^ America, they faw 
five red foxes which were quite tame, and feemed not to be 
in the leaft afraid of men : now this might very well have 
been the cafe if we fuppofe them to have been for many 
generations in a place where no body difturbed them ; but 
we cannot account for it, if we imagine that they had been 
ufed to a country where there were many inhabitants, or 
whg-e they had been much hunted. F. 



Penjylvantai 'Philadelphia, 285 

ings and iix-pence, in Fenfylvanian cur- 
rency. 

They have two varieties of Wolves here, 
which however feem to be of the fame 
fpecies. For fome of them are yellowilh, 
or almoft pale grey; and others are black 
or dark brown. AH the old Swedes related, 
that during their childhood, and ftill more 
at the arrival of their fathers, there were 
exceffive numbers of wolves in the country, 
and that their howling and yelping might 
be heard all night. They likewife fre- 
quently tore in pieces, fheep, hogs, and 
other young and fmall cattle. About that 
time or foon after, w^hen the Swedes and 
the E}iglijh were quite fettled here, the 
Indians were attacked by the fmall pox : 
this difeafe they got from the Europeans, 
for they knew nothing of it before : it 
killed many hundreds of them, and moft 
of the Indians of the country^ then called 
New Sweden died of it. The wolves then 
came, attradled by the ftench of fo many 
corpfes, in fuch great numbers that they 
devoured them all, and even attacked the 
poor fick Indians in their huts, fo that the 
few healthy ones had enough to do, to drive 
them away. But lince that time they have 
difappeared, fo that they are now feldoraf 
ieen, and it is very rarely that they commit 

any 



286 November 1784. 

any diforders. This is attributed to the 
greater cultivation of the country, and to 
their being killed in great numbers. But 
further up the country, where it is not yet 
fo much inhabited, they are ftill very abun- 
dant. On the coafts of Penfyhania and 
New Jerfey, the fheep ftay all night in the 
fields, without the people's fearing the 
wolves : however to prevent their multi- 
plying too much, there is a reward of twen- 
ty fhillings in Fenfylvania, and of thirty in 
New Jerfey, for delivering in a dead wolf, 
and the perfon that brings it may keep the 
Ikin. But for a young wolf the reward is 
only ten (hillings of the Penfylvan'ian cur- 
rency. There are examples of thefe wolves 
being made as tame as dogs. 

The wild Oxen have their abode princi- 
pally in the woods of Carolinay which are 
far up in the country. The inhabitants 
frequently hunt them, and fait their flefh 
like common beef, which is eaten by fer- 
vants and the lower clafs of people. But 
the hide is of little ufe, having too large 
pores to be made ufe of for fhoes. How- 
ever the poorer people in Carolina^ fpread 
thefe hides on the ground inftead of beds. 
. li^n-E Vif cum filament of um, oi Fibrous mijle^ 
toe, is found in abundance in Carolina -, the 
inhabitants make ufe of it as ftraw in their 

beds. 



Penfylvanicif Philadelphia. 287 

[beds, and to adorn their houfes ; the cat- 
Itle are very fond of it : it is likewife em- 
jployed in packing goods. 
I The Spartium fcoparium grew in Mr. 
\'Bartram^ garden from Englijh feeds ; he 
ifaid that he had feveral bufhes of it, but 
that the froft in the cold winters here had 
killed moft of them : they however grow 
fpontaneoufly in Sweden, 

Mr. Bartram had (ouiq 'Truffles ^ or Lin- 
naiis^ Ly coper don Tuber y which he had got 
out of a fandy foil in New Jerfeyy where 
they are abundant. Thefe he iliewed to 
his friend from Carolina, and alked him 
whether they were the Tuckahoo of the In- 
dians. But the ftranger denied it, and ad- 
ded that though thefe truffles were likewife 
very common in Carolina, yet he had never 
feen them ufed any other way but in milk, 
againft the dyfentery; and he gave us the 
following defcription of the Tiickahoo, It 
grows in feveral fwamps and marllies, and 
is commonly plentiful. The hogs greedily 
dig up its roots with their nofes in fuch 
places ; and the Indians in Carolina likewife 
gather them in their rambles in the woods, 
dry them in the fun (hine, grind them and 
bake bread of them. Whilft the root is 
frcfti it is harfh and acrid, but being dried 
it lofes the greateft part of its acrimony. 

To 



^88 November 1748. 

To judge by thefe qualities the Tuckahod 
may very likely be the Arum Virginianum, 
Compare with this account, what fhall be 
related in the fequel of the ^Tahim and 
^Tuckah. 

After dinner I again returned to town. 

November the 8th. Several Englijh and 
SwediJJo oeconomifts kept bee-hives, which 
afforded their poffeflbrs profit : for bees fuc- 
ceed very well here^: the wax was for the 
moft part fold to tradefmen : but the honey 
they made ufe of in their own families, in 
different ways. The people were unani- 
mous, that the common bees were not in 
North America before the arrival of the 
"Europeans -, but that they were firft brought 
over by the Englifi who fettled here. The 
Indians likewife generally declare, that their 
fathers had never feen any bees either in 
the woods or any where elfe, before the 
Europeans had been feveral years fettled 
here. This is further confirmed by the 
name which the Indians give them : for 
having no particular name for them in their 
language, they call them Englijh fies, be- 
caufe the Englijh firft brought them over : 
but at prefent they fly plentifully about the 
woods of North America. However it has 
been obferved that the bees always when 
they fwarm, fpread to the fouthward, and 

never 



Penfyhania, Philadelphia, 2 80 

never to the northward. It feems as if they 
do not find the latter countries fo good for 
their conftitution : therefore they cannot 
flay in Canada, and all that have been car- 
ried over thither, died in winter. It feem- 
ed to me as if the bees in America were 
fomewhat fmaller than ours in Sweden. 
They have not yet been found in the woods 
on the other fide of the Blue Mountains ^ 
which confirms the opinion of their being 
brought to America of late. A man told 
Mr. Bartram, that on his travels in the 
woods of North America, he had found 
another fort of bees, which, inftead of fe- 
parating their wax and honey, mixed it 
both together in a great bag. But this ac- 
count wants both clearing up and confirm- 
ing. 

November the 9th. All the old Swedes 
and Englijhmen born in America whom I 
ever queftioned, afierted that there were not 
near fo many birds fit for eating at prefent, 
as there ufed to be when they were chil- 
dren, and that their decreafe was vifible. 
They even faid, that they had heard their 
fathers complain of this, in whofe child- 
hood the bays, rivers and brooks were 
quite covered with all forts of water fowl, 
fuch as wild gt&(&, ducks, and the like. 
But at prefent there is fometimes not a 
T finglc 



290 'November 1^^%,. 

iingle bird upon them ; about fixty or fe- 
venty years ago, a fingle perfon could kill 
eighty ducks in a morning ; but at prefent 
you frequently wait in vain for a iingle 
one. A Swede above ninety years old, 
afTured me that he had in his youth killed 
twenty-three ducks at a fhot. This good 
luck no body is likely to have at prefent, 
as you are forced to ramble about for a 
whole day, without getting a fight of more 
than three or four. Cranes * at that time 
came hither by hundreds in the fpring : at 
prefent there are but very few. The W/^ 
Turkeys, and the birds which the Swedes 
in this country call Partridges and Hazel- 
hens were in whole flocks in the woods. 
But at this time a perfon is tired with 
walking before he can ftart a fingle bird. 

The caufe of this diminution is not dif- 
ficult to find. Before the arrival of the 
Europeans, the country was uncultivated, 
and full of great forells. The few Indians 
that lived here feldom diflurbed the birds. 
They carried on no trade among themfelves, 
iron and gun powder were unknown to 

them. 



• When Captain Amadas, the firft Ehglijhman that ever 
landed in North America, fet foot on Ihore (to ufe his own 
words) fuch aflocke of Cranes (the moji part •white) arofe under 
us ivith/uch a cry, redoubled by manj echoes, as if an armie of 
men had Routed altogether . 



Penjyhania, Philadelphia. 29 1 

them. One hundredth part of the fowl 
which at that time wer© fo plentiful here, 
would have fufficed to feed the few inhabi- 
tants ; and confidering that they cultivated 
their fmall maize fields, caught fifh, hunt- 
ed flags, beavers, bears, wild cattle, and 
other animals whofe flefli was delicious to 
them, it will foon appear how little they 
difturbed the birds. But fince the arrival 
of great crouds of Europeans, things are 
greatly changed : the country is well peo- 
pled, and the woods are cut down : the 
people increafing in this country, they have 
by hunting and (hooting in part extirpated 
the birds, in part feared them away : in 
fpring the people ftill take both eggs, mo- 
thers and young indifferently, becaufe no 
regulations are made to the contrary. And 
if any had been made, the fpirit of freedom 
which prevails in the country would not 
fuffer them to be obeyed. But though the 
eatable birds have been diminiflied greatly, 
yet there are others, which have rather in- 
creafed than decreafed in number, fince the 
arrival of the Europeans: this can mofl 
properly be faid of a fpecies of daws which 
the Englijh call Blackbirds * and the Swedes 
Maize thieves. Dr. Linnceus calls them Gra- 
T 2' cula 

* Properly pining blackbirds,. 



±gt November 1748.* 

cula ^ifcula. And together with then1> 
the feveral forts oi Squirrels among the qua- 
drupeds have fpread : for thefe and the for- 
mer, live chiefly upon maize, or at leaft 
they are moft greedy of it. But as popula- 
tion increafes, the cultivation of maize in- 
creafes, andofcourfe the food of the above- 
mentioned animals is more plentiful : to this 
it is to be added, that thefe latter are rarely 
^aten, and therefore they are more at liberty 
to multiply their kind. There are likewife 
other birds which are not eaten, of which at 
prefent there are nearly as many as there 
were before the arrival of the Europeans, 
On the other hand I heard great com- 
plaints of the great decreafe of eatable fowl, 
not only in this province, but in all the parts 
of North America y where I have been. 
' Aged people had experienced that with 
the fifh, which I have juft mentioned of the 
birds : in their youth, the bays, rivers, and 
brooks, had fuch quantities of fifh that at 
one draught in the morning, they caught 
as many as a horfe was able to carry home. 
But at prefent things are greatly altered ; 
and they often work in vain all the night 
long, with all their fifhing tackle. The 
caufes of this decreafe of fifh, are partly 
the fame with thofe of the diminution of 
the number of birds ; being of late caught 

by 



Penfyhaniay Philadelphia. 293 

by a greater variety of contrivances, and 
in different manners than before. The nu- 
imerous mills on the rivers and brooks like- 
Iwife contribute to it in part : for it has 
(been obferved here, that the fi{h go up the 
I river in order to fpawn in a fhallow water; 
but when they meet with works that pre- 
vent their proceeding, they turn back, and 
never come again. Of this I was affured by 
a man of fortune at Bojion : his father 
was ufed to catch a number of herrings 
throughout the winter and almoft always in 
fummer, in a river, upon his country feat : 
but he having built. a mill with a dyke in 
this water, they were loft. In this man- 
ner they complained here and every where 
of the decreafe of fifh. Old people afferted 
the fame in regard to oyfters at New York -, 
for though they are ftill taken in conliderable 
quantity, and are as big and as delicious as 
can be wifhed, yet all the oyfter-catchers 
own, that the number diminifhes greatly 
every year : the moft natural caufe of it, is 
probably the immoderate catching of theni 
at all times of the year. 

Mr. Franklin told me that in that part 
of New England, where his father lived, 
two rivers fell into the fea, in one of which, 
they caught great numbers of herring, and 
in the other not one. Yet the places where 
T 3 thefe 



294 November 1748. 

thefe rivers difcharged themfelves into the 
fea, were not far afunder. They had ob- 
ferved that when the herrings came in fpring 
to depofit their fpawn, they always fwam 
up the river where tliey ufed to catch them, 
but never came into the other. This cir- 
cumftance led Mr. Franklins father who 
was fettled between the two rivers, to try 
whether it was not poflible to make the 
herrings likewife live in the other river. 
For that purpofe he put out his nets, as 
they were coming up for fpawning, and he 
caught fome. He took the fpawn out of 
them, and carefully carried it acrofs the 
Jand into the other river. It was hatched, 
and the confequence was, that every year 
afterwards they caught more herrings in 
that river j and this is ftill the cafe. This 
leads one to believe that the fifh always 
like to fpawn in the fame place where they 
were hatched, and from whence they firft 
put out to fea i being as it were accuftomed 
to it. 

The following is another peculiar obfer- 
vation. It has never formerly been known 
that codfifli were to be caught at cape Hin- 
lopen : they were always caught at the 
mouth of the Delaware : but at prefent they 
are numerous in the former place. From 
hence it may be concluded that fifh likewife 

change 



Penjyhaniat Philadelphia, 295 

Ij changs their places of abode, of their own 
Ij accord. 

|| A CAPTAIN of a fhip who had been in 
j 'Greenland, alTerted from his own experi- 
I ence, that on paffing the feventieth deg. 
I of north lat. the fummer heat was there 
much greater, than it is below that degree. 
From hence he concluded, that the fum- 
mer heat at the pole itfelf, muft be ftill 
more exceffive, fmce the fun fhines there 
for fuch a long fpace of time, without ever 
fetting. The fame account with fimilar 
confequences drawn from thence, Mr. 
Franklin had heard of the fhip captains in 
Bojion, who had failed to the moft northern 
parts of this hemifphere. But flill more 
aftonifhing is the account he got from cap- 
tain Henry Atkins, who ftill lives at Bojion, 
He had for fome time been upon the fifli- 
ery along the coafts of New England. But 
not catching as much as he wifhed, he 
failed north, as far as Greenland. At lafl he 
went fo far, that he difcovered people, who 
had never feen Europeans before (and what 
is more aftonifhing) who had no idea of the 
ufe of fire, which they had never employed ; 
and if they had known it, they could have 
made no ufe of their knowledge, as there 
were no trees in the country. But they eat 
t;he birds and firti which they caught quite 
T 4 raw. 



296 November 1748. 

raw. Captain Atkins got fome very fcarco 
fkins in exchange for fome trifles. 

It is already known from feveral ac- 
counts of voyages, that to the northward 
neither trees nor buflies, nor any ligneous 
plants are to be met with, fit for burning. 
But is it not probable that the inhabitants 
of fo defolate a country, like other northern 
nations which we know, burn the train oil 
of fifhes, and the fat of animals in lamps, 
in order to boil their meat, to warm their 
fubterraneous caves in winter, and to light 
them in the darkeft feafon of the year? elfe 
their darknefs would be infupportable. 

November the nth. In feveral writings 
"we read of a large animal, which is to be 
met with in New England and other parts 
of North America. They fometimes dig 
very long and branched horns out of the 
ground in Ireland, and no body in that 
country or any where elfe in the world, 
knows an animal that has fuch horns. This 
has induced many people to believe that 
it is the Moofe-deer fo famous in North 
America^ and that the horns found, were 
of animals of this kind, which had former- 
ly lived in that ifland, but were gradually 
deftroyed. It has even been concluded, 
that Ireland, \xi diftant ages either was con- 
nedled with North America^ or that a num- 
ber 



Penfylvanta, Philadelphia, 297 

ber of little iflands, which are loft at pre- 
fent, made a chain between them. This 
led me to enquire, whether an animal with 
fuch exceffive great horns, as are afcribed 
to the Moofe-deer, had ever been feen in 
any part of this country. Mr. Bartram 
told me, that notwithftanding he had care- 
fully enquired to that purpofe, yet there 
was no perfon who could give him any in- 
formation, which could be relied upon, 
and therefore he was entirely of opinion, 
that there was no fuch an animal in North 
America. Mr. Franklin related that he had, 
when a boy, feen two of the animals which 
they call Moofe-deer, but he well remembred 
that they were not near of fuch a fize as 
they muft have been, if the horns found in 
Ireland were to fit them : the two animals 
which he faw, were brought to Bojion in 
order to be fent to England to Queen 
Ann. The height of the animal up to 
the back was that of a pretty tall horfe ; 
but the head and its horns were ftill high- 
er : Mr. Dudley has given a defcription of 
the Moofe-deer which is found in North 
America. On my travels in Canada, I of- 
ten enquired of the Frenchmen, whether 
there had ever been feen fo large an animal 
in this country, as fome people fay there 
is in North America j and with fuch great 

horns 



29B November 1748. 

horns as are forhetimes dug out in Ireland. 
But I was always told, that they had never 
heard of it, and much lefs feen it : fome 
added, that if there was fuch an animal, they 
certainly muft have met with it, in fome of 
their excurfions in the woods. There are 
elks here, which are either of the fame 
fort with the Swedt/h 'Ouqs, or a variety of 
them : of thefe they often catch fome which 
are larger than common, whence perhaps 
the report of the very large animal with ex- 
ceflive horns in North America firft had its 
rife. Thefe elks are called Original's by 
the French in Canada, which name they 
hav6 borrowed from the Indians : perhaps 
Dudley, in defcribing the Moofe-deer, meant 
no other animals, than thefe large elks.* 

Mr. Franklin gave me a piece of a ftone, 
which on account of its indeftru6tibility in 
the fire, is made ufe of in New England for 
making melting furnaces and forges. 

It 



* What gives fUU more weight, to Mr. Kalm^s opinion j 
of the Elk being the Moofe-deer, is the name Mu/u which 
the Algonkins give to the elk, as Mr. Kalm himfelf obferves 
io the fequel of his work ; and this circumftance is the more 
remarkable, as the Algonkins before the Irokeefe ox five nati- 
ons got fo great a power in America, were the moft powerful 
nation in the northern part of this continent ; in fo much, 
that though they be now reduced to an inconfiderable num- 
ber, their language is however a kind of univerfal language 
in North America ; fo that there is no doubt, th^t the elk is 
the famous Moofe-deer. F. 



Penfyhania, Philadelphia. 299 

It confifts of a mixture of Lapis Ollaris 
or Serpentine ftone, and oi AJbeJi, The 
greateft part of it is a grey Serpentine 
ftone, which is fat and fmooth to the touch, 
and is eafily cut and worked. Here and 
there are fome glittering fpeckles of that 
fort of afbeft, whofe fibres come from a 
center like rays, or Star Ajbefi. This ftone 
is not found in ftrata or folid rocks, but 
here and there fcattered on the fields. 

Another ftone is called Soapjiojte by 
many of the Swedes, being as fmooth as 
foap on the outfide. They make ufe of it 
for rubbing fpots out of their cloaths. 
It might be called Saxum talcofum parti^ 
cuius fpataceis, granatifque immixtis, or a 
talc with mixed particles of fpar and gar- 
nets. A more exaift defcription I referve 
for another work. At prefent I only add 
that the ground colour is pale green, with 
fome dark fpots, and fometimes a few of a 
greenifh hue. It is very fmooth to the 
touch, and runs always waved. It is like- 
wife eafily fawed and cut, though it is not 
very fmooth. I have feen large flones of it, 
which were a fathom and more long, pro- 
portionably broad, and commonly fix inches 
or a foot deep. But I cannot determine any 
thing of their original fize, as I have not been 
at the place where they are dug, and have 

only 



300 November I J ^^, 

only feen the ftones at Philadelphiay which 
are brought there ready cut. The particles 
of talc in this ftone are about thirty times 
as many as thofe of fpar and garnet. It is 
found in many parts of the country, for 
example in the neighbourhood of Chejler in 
Fenfylvania, The Englijh likewife call it 
Soapjloney^ and it is likely that the Swedes 
have borrowed that name from them. 

This ftone was chiefly employed in the 
following manner. Firft, the people took 
fpots out of their cloaths with it. But for 
this purpofe the whole ftone is not equally 
ufeful, for it includes in its clear particles 
fome dark ones which conlift wholly of fer- 
pentine ftone, and may eaiily be cut with a 
knife ; fome of the loofe ftone is fcraped off 
like a powder, and ftrewed upon a greafy 
fpot, in filk or any other ftuff ; this im- 
bibes the greafe, and after rubbing off the 
powder the fpot difappears : and as this ftone 
is likewife very durable in the fire, the 
country people make their hearths with it, 
efpecially the place where the fire lies, and 
where the heat is the greateft, for the ftone 

ftands 



• It feems to be either the fubftance commonly called 
French Chalky or perhaps the Soap-rock, which is common in 
Cornivall near the Lizard point., and which confifts.befides of 
fome particles of talc, chiefly of an earth like magnefia, 
which latter with acid of vitriol, yields an earthy vitriolic 
fait, ox Epfcm/ah, F. 



Penfyhanta, Philadelphia. 301 

ilands the flrongeft fire. If the people 
can get a fufficicnt quantity of this ftone, 
they lay the fteps before the houfes with it, 
inflead of bricks, which are generally ufed 
for that purpofe. 

The walls round the court yards, gar- 
dens, burying places, and thofe for the 
floping cellar doors towards the flreet, 
which are all commonly built of brick, are 
covered with a coping of this ftone j for it 
holds excellently againft all the effeds of 
the fun, air,' rain and ftorm, and does not 
decay but fecures the bricks. On account 
of this quality, people commonly get the 
door pofts in which their hinges are fatten- 
ed made of this ftone : and in feveral pub- 
lick buildings, fuch as the houfe of af- 
fembly for the province, the whole lower 
wall is built of it, and in other houfes the 
corners are laid out with it. 

The Salt which is ufed in the Englifli 
North American colonies is brought from 
the Wejl Indies. The Indians have in fome 
places fait fprings from which they get fait 
by boiling. I fhall in the fequel have oc- 
cafion to defcribe fome of them. Mr. 
Franklin was of opinion that the people in 
Penfyhania could eafier make good fait of 
fea water, than in New England, where 
fometimes fait is made of the fea water on 

their 



302 November 1748. 

their coaft -, though their fituation is more 
northerly. Lead-ore has been 'difcovered in 
Penfyhania, but as it is not to be met 
with in quantity, no body ever attempted to 
ufe it. Loadjiones of confiderable goodnefs 
have likev^ife been found ; and I myfelf 
poffefs feveral pretty pieces of them. 

Iron is dug in fuch great quantities in 
Penfyhania and in the other American pro- 
vinces of the Englifi, that they could 
provide with that commodity not only 
Englandy but almoft all Europe, and per- 
haps the greater part of the globe. The 
ore is here commonly infinitely ealier got 
in the mines, than our Swedifi ore. For in 
many places with a pick ax, a crow-foot and 
a wooden club, it is got with the fame eafe 
with which a hole can be made in a hard foil : 
in many places the people know nothing of 
boring, Ijlafting and firing ; and the ore is 
likewife very fufible. Of this iron they get 
fuch quantities, that not only the numerous 
inhabitants of the colonies themfelves have 
enough of it, but great quantities, are fent 
to the Weft Indies, and they have lately be- 
gan even to trade to Europe with it. This 
iron is reckoned better for fhip building 
than our Swedijh iron, or any other, becaufe 
fait water does not corrode it fo much. 
Some people believed that without reckon- 

iiig 



Penfyhania, Philadelphia^ 303 

ing the freight, they could fell their iron 
in England at a lower rate than any other 
nation; efpecially when the country be- 
comes better peopled and labour cheaper. 

The mountain jiax,'^ or that kind of 
Hone, which Bifhop Browallius calls Atni^ 
ant us Jibris feparabilibus molliufculis , in his 
ledures on mineralogy which were pub- 
lished in 1739, or the amiant with foft fibres 
which can eaiily be feparated, is found a- 
bundantly in Penfylvania. Some pieces are 
very fofr, others pretty tough : Mr. Frank- 
lin told me that twenty and fome odd years 
ago, when he made a voyage to Eiigland^ 
he had a little purfe with him, made of 
the mountain flax of this country, which 
he prefented to Sir Hans Sloatie. I have 
likewife feen paper made of this ftone: and 
1 have likewife received fome fmall pieces 
of it, which I keep in my cabinet. Mr. 
Franklin had been told by others that 011 
exposing this mountain flax to the open 
air in winter, and leaving it in the cold and 
wet, it would grow together, and more fit 
for fpinning. But he did not venture to 

deter- 

* Amiemtm (AJbeftus) fibrofus, fibrls feparabilibus flexili- 
bus tenacibus, Linn. Syft. nat. ?• 55. 

Amiantus fibris mollibus parallelis facile feparabilibus. 
Wall. Min. 140. 

Mountain Flax, Linum montanumt For/ier*i Mineralogy, 
p. 17. F. 



304 November 1748, 

determine how far this opinion was ground- 
■ed. On this occalion he related a very 
pleafant accident, which happened to him 
with this mountain flax : he had, feveral 
years ago, got a piece of it, which he gave 
to one of his journeymen printers, in order 
to get it made into a fheet at the paper mill. 
As foon as the fellow brought the paper, 
Mr. Franklin rolled it up, and threw it in- 
to the fire, telling the journeyman he would 
fee a miracle, a fheet of paper which did 
not burn : the ignorant fellow alTerted the 
contrary, but was greatly aftonifhed, upon 
feeing himfelf convinced. Mr. Franklin 
then explained him, though not very clear- 
ly, the peculiar qualities of the paper. As 
foon as he was gone, fome of his acquaint- 
ance came in, who immediately knew the 
paper. The journeyman thought he would 
fhew them a great curiofity and aftonifli 
them. He accordingly told them that he 
had curioufly made a iheet of paper, which 
would not burn, though it was thrown in- 
to the fire. They pretended to think it 
impofiible, and he as ftrenuoully maintain- 
ed his affertion. At lafl: they laid a wager 
about it ; but whilft he was bufy with flir- 
ring up the fire, the others flyly befmeared 
the paper with fat : the journeyman, who 
was not aware of it, threw it into the fire, 

and 



Penjyhaniay Philadelphia, 30^ 

and that moment it was all in flames : this 
aftonifhed him fo much, that he was almoft 
fpeechlefs ; upon which they could not help 
laughing, and fo difcovered the whole arti- 
fice. 

In feveral houfes of the town, a number 
of little ^w/j- run about, living underground 
and in holes in the wall. The length of 
their bodies is one geometrical line. Their 
colour is either black or dark red : they 
have the cuftom of carrying ofFfweet things, 
if they can come at them, in common with 
the ants of other countries. Mr. Franklin 
was much inclined to believe that thefe lit- 
tle infe6ls could by fome means commu- 
nicate their thoughts or defires to each 
other, and he confirmed his opinion by fome 
examples. When an ant finds fome fugar, 
it runs immediately under ground to its 
hole, where having flayed a little while, 
a whole army comes out, unites and march- 
es to the place where the fugar is, and 
carries it off by pieces : or if an ant meets 
with a dead fly, which it cannot carry 
' alone, it immediately haftens home, and 
foon after fome more come out, creep to 
the fly and carry it away. Some time ago 
Mr. Franklin ^Mt a little earthen pot with 
treacle into a clofet. A number of ants got 
into the pot, and devoured the treacle very 
U quietly. 



306 'November 1748. 

quitely. But as he obferved it he fhook them 
out, and tied the pot with a thin ftring to a 
nail which he had faftened in the ceiling ; fo 
that the pot hung down by the ftring. A 
lingle ant by chance remained in the pot : 
this ant eat till it was fatisfied ; but when 
it wanted to get offj it was under great con- 
cern to find its way out : it ran about the 
bottom of the pot, but in vain : at laft it 
found after many attempts the way to get 
to the ceiling by the ftring. After it was 
come there, it ran to the wall, and from 
thence to the ground. It had hardly beerii 
away for half an hour, when a great fwarm 
of ants came out, got up to the ceiling, 
and crept along the ftring into the potj 
and began to eat again : this they continued 
till the treacle was all eaten : in the mean 
time one fwarm running down the ftring, 
and the other up. 

November the 12th. A man of fortune 
who has long been in this province afterted, 
that, by twenty years experience, he had 
found a confirmation of what other people 
have obferved with regard to the weather^ 
viz. that the weather in winter was com- 
monly foretold by that on the firft of No- 
vember, old ftile, or twelfth new ftile ; if 
that whole day be fair, the next winter 
will bring but little rain and fnow along 

with 



Penjyhania, Philadelphia, 307 

with it : but if the firft half of the day be 
clear, and the other cloudy, the beginning 
of winter would accordingly be fair, but its 
end and fpring would turn out rigorous and 
difagreeable : of the fame kind were the 
other prefages. I have likewife in other 
places heard of fimilar figns of the weather ; 
but as a mature judgment greatly leflens the 
confidence in them, fo the meteorological 
obfervations have fufficiently (liewn, how 
infinitely often thefe prophecies have failed. 

Pensylvania abounds in fprings, and 
you commonly meet with a fpring of clear 
water on one or the other, and fometimes 
on feveral fides of a mountain. The people 
near fuch fprings, ufe them for every purpofe 
of a fine fpring water. They alfo condud: 
the water into a little ftone building near 
the houfe, where they can confine it, and 
bring frefh fupplies at pleafure. In fummer 
they place their milk, bottles of wine and 
other liquors in this building, where they 
keep cool and frefli. In many country 
houfes, the kitchen or buttery was fo fitu- 
ated, that a rivulet ran under it, and had 
the water near at hand. 

Not only people of fortune, but even 
others that had fome pofiTeflions, common- 
ly had fifli ponds in the country near their 
houfes. They always took care that frefli 
U 2 water 



308 November 1748. 

water might run into their ponds, which is 
very falutary for the fi{h : for that purpofe 
the ponds were placed near a fpring on a 
hill. 

November the 13th. I saw in feveral 
parts of this province a ready method of 
getting plenty of grafs to grow in the mea- 
dows. Here muft be remembered what I 
have before mentioned about the fprings, 
which are fometimes found on the fides of 
hills and fometimes in vallies. The mea- 
dows lie commonly in the vallies between 
the hills : if they are too fwampy and wet, 
the water is carried off by feveral ditches. 
But the fummer in Penfylvania is very hot -, 
and the fun often burns the grafs fo much, 
that it dries up entirely. The hufbandmen 
therefore have been very attentive to pre- 
vent this in their meadows : to that pur- 
pofe they look for all the fprings in the 
neighbourhood of a meadow; and as the 
rivulets flowed before by the fhorteft way 
into the vallies, they raife the water as 
much as poffible and neceirar)^ to the 
higher part of the meadow, and make feve- 
ral narrow channels from the brook, down 
into the plain, fo that it is entirely wa- 
tered by it. When there are fome deep- 
er places, they frequently lay wooden gut- 
ters acrofs them, through which the water 

flow* 



Penfyhania, near Germantown. 309 

flows to the other fide ; and from thence 
it is again by very narrow channels car- 
ried to all the places where it feems ne- 
celTary. To raife the water the higher, and 
in order to fpread it more, there are high 
dykes built near the fprings, between which 
the water rifes till it is fo high as to run 
down where the people want it. Indus- 
try and ingenuity went further : when a 
brook runs in a wood, with a dire<flion not 
towards the meadow, and it has been found 
by levelling, and taking an exad furvey of 
the land between the meadow and the ri- 
vulet, that the latter can be condudled 
towards the former; a dyke is made, 
which hems the courfe of the brook, 
and the water is led round the meadow 
over many hills, fometimes for the fpace of 
an Englijh mile and further, partly acrofs 
vallies in wooden pipes, till at laft it is 
brought where it is wanted, and where 
it can be fpread as above-mentioned. One 
that has not feen it himfelf, cannot believe 
how great a quantity of grafs there is in 
fuch meadows, efpecially near the little 
channels ; whilft others, which have not 
been thus managed look wretchedly. The 
meadows commonly lie in the vallies, and 
one or more of their fides have a declivity. 
The water can therefore eafily be brought to 
U 3 run 



3 1 o Npvember 1 748 . 

run down in them. Thefe meadows which 
are fo carefully watered, are commonly 
mowed three times every fummer. But it 
is likewife to be obferved, that fummer 
continues feven months here. The inha- 
bitants feldom fail to employ a brook or 
fpring in this manner, if it is not too far 
from the meadows to be led to them. 

The leaves were at prefent fallen from 
all the trees ; both from oaks, and from all 
thofe which have deciduous leaves, and 
they covered the ground in the woods fix 
inches deep. The great quantity of leaves 
which drop annually, would neceflarily feem 
to encreafe the upper black mould greatly. 
However, it is not above three or four 
inches thick in the woods, and under it lays 
a brick coloured clay, mixed with a fand of 
the fame colour. It is remarkable, that a 
foil which in all probability has not been 
ilirred, fhould be covered with fo little 
black mould : but I ihall fpeak of this in 
the fequel. 

November the 14th. The Squirrels which 
run about plentifully in the woods are of 
different fpecies j I here intend to defcribe 
the moft common forts, more accurately. 

The grey Squirrels are very plentiful in 
Penjylvania and in the other provinces of 
North America. Their fhape correfponds 

with 



Penjyhania, near Germantown, 3 1 1 

with that of our Swedijh fquirrel ; but they 
differ from them, by keeping their grey 
colour all the year long, and in lize being 
fomething bigger. The woods in all thefe 
provinces, and chiefly in Penfyhania, con- 
fift of trees with deciduous leaves, and in 
fuch thefe fquirrels like to live. Ray in his 
Synopjis ^adrupedum, p. 215, and Catejby 
in his Natural Hijiory of Carolina , Vol. 2. 
p. 74, tab. 74, call it the Virginian greater 
grey Squirrel -, and the latter has added a 
figure after life. The Swedes call it grao 
Ickorn, which is the fame as the Englifh 
grey Squirrel. Their nefts are commonly 
in hollow trees, and are made of mofs, 
ftraw, and other foft things : their food is 
chiefly nuts -, as hazel nuts, chinquapins, 
chefnuts, walnuts, hiccory nuts, and the 
acorns of the different forts of oak which 
grow here ; but maize is what they are 
mofl greedy of. The ground in the woods 
is in autumn covered with acorns, and all 
kinds of nuts which drop from the nume- 
rous trees : of thefe the fquirrels gather 
great flores for winter, which they lay up 
in holes dug by them for that purpofe : 
they likewife carry a great quantity of them 
into their nefts. 

As foon as winter comes, the fnow 

and cold confines them to their holes 

U 4 for 



XI z November 1748. 

holes for feveral days, efpecially when the 
weather is very rough. During this time 
they confume the little ftore, which they 
have brought to their nefts : as foon there- 
fore as the weather grows milder, they 
creep out, and dig out part of the ftore 
which they have laid up in the ground : of 
this they eat fome on the fpot, and carry 
the reft into their nefts on the trees. We 
frequently obferved that in winter, at the 
eve of a great froft, when there had been 
fome temperate weather, the fquirrels, a 
/day or two before the froft, ran about the 
woods in greater numbers than common, 
partly in order tojeat their fill, and partly 
to ftore their nefts with a new provifion for 
the enfuing great cold, during which they 
(did not venture to come out, but lay fnug 
in their nefts : therefore feeing them run in 
the woods in greater numbers than ordina- 
ry, was a fafe prognoftic of an enfuing cold. 
The /jogs which are here droven into the 
woods, whilft there is yet no fnow in them, 
often do confiderable damage to the poor 
fquirrels, by rooting up their ftore-holes, 
and robbing their winter provifions. Both 
the Indians, and the European Americans, 
take great pains to find out thefe ftore- 
holes, whether in trees or in the ground, 
as all the nuts they contain are choice, and 

not 



Penjyhania, near Germantown, 313 

not only quite ripe, but likewife not pierc- 
ed by worms. The nuts and acorns which 
the Dormice, or Mus Cricetus, Linn, ftore 
up in autumn, are all in the fame conditi- 
on. The Swedes relate, that in the long 
winter, which happened here in the year 
1 74 1, there fell fuch a quantity of fnow, 
that the fquirrels could not get to their 
ilore, and many of them were ftarved to 
death. 

The damage which thefe animals do in 
the maize fields, I have already defcribed : 
they do the more harm, as they do not eat 
all the corn, but only the inner and fweet 
part, and as it were take ofFthe hulks. In 
fpring towards the end of April, when the 
oaks were in full flower, I once obferved a 
number of fquirrels on them, fometimes 
five, fix, or more in a tree, who bit off the 
flower fl:alks a little below the flowers, and 
dropt them on the ground : whether they 
eat any thing oflf them, or made ufe of them 
for fome other purpofe I know not ; but 
the ground was quite covered with oak 
flowers, to which part of the ftalk adhered. 
For this reafon the oaks do not bear fo 
much fruit by far, to feed hogs and other 
animals, as they would otherwife do. 

Of all the wild animals in this country^ 
the fquirrels are fome of the eafiefl: to tame^ 

efpecially 



314 November 1 748 . 

efpecially when they are taken young for 
that purpofe. I have feen them tamed fo 
far, that they would follow the boys into 
the woods and run about every where, and 
when tired would fit on theif Ihoulders. 
Sometimes they only ran a little way into 
the wood, and then returned home again 
to the little hole that had been fitted up for 
them. When they eat, they fit almoft up- 
right, hold their food between their fore- 
feet and their tail bent upwards. When 
the tame ones got more than they could 
eat at a time, they carried the remainder to 
their habitations, and hid it amongft the 
wool which they lay upon. Such tame 
fquirrels fhewed no fear of ftrangers, and 
would fuffer themfelves to be touched by 
every body, without ofifering to bite. They 
fometimes would leap upon fl:ranger's 
cloaths and lie fliill on them, in order to 
fleep. In the farm houfes where they were 
kept, they played with cats and dogs : they 
likewife eat bread. 

The wild grey fquirrels likewife hold up 
their tails when fitting. As foon as they 
perceive a man, they continually wag their 
tails and begin to gnafh with their teeth, and 
make a great noife, which they do not rea-^ 
dily give over. Thofe who go a fhooting 
birds and other animals, are therefore very 

angry 



J 



Penfyhania, near Germantown, 315 

angry at them, as this noife difcovers them, 
and alarms the game. Though a grey 
fquirrel does not feem to be very {hy, yet it 
is very difficult to kill -, for when it per- 
ceives a man, it climbs upon a tree, and 
commonly chufes the higheft about it. It 
then tries to hide itfelf behind the trunk, 
fo that the fhooter may not fee it, and 
though he goes ever fo faft round the tree, 
yet the fquirrel changes its place as quick- 
ly, if not quicker: if two boughs bend to- 
wards each other, the fquirrel lies in the 
middle of them, and prelTes itfelf fo clofe, 
that it is hardly vifible. You may then 
fhake the tree, throw flicks and ftones to 
the place where it lies, or fhoot at it, yet 
it will never ftir. If three branches join, it 
takes refuge between them, and lies as 
clofe to them as poffible, and then it is fuf- 
ficiently fafe. Sometimes it efcapes on a 
tree where there are old nefts of fquirrels, or 
of large birds : it flips into fuch, and can- 
not be got out, either by fhooting, throw- 
ing, or any thing elfe ^ for the grey fquir- 
rels feldom leap from one tree to ano- 
ther, except extreme danger compels them. 
They commonly run diredly up the trees 
and down the fame way, with their head 
ftraight forward. Several of them which 

I (hot 



$i6 November 1748. 

I fhot in the woods, had great numbers of 
fleas. 

I HAVE already mentioned that thefe 
fquirrels are among the animals, which at 
prefent are more plentiful than they for- 
merly were, and that the infinitely greater 
cultivation of maize, which is their favou- 
rite food, is the caufe of their multiplica- 
tion. However it is peculiar, that in fome 
years a greater number of fquirrels come 
down from the higher countries into Pen- 
fyhania, and other Englijh colonies. They 
commonly come in autumn, and are then 
very bufy in the woods gathering nuts and 
acorns, which they carry into hollow trees 
or their ftore-holes, in order to be fuffici- 
ently provided with food for winter. They 
are fo diligent in floring up of provifions, 
that though the nuts have been extremely 
plentiful that year, yet it is difficult to get 
a confiderable quantity of them. The peo- 
ple here pretended from their own experi- 
ence to know, that when the fquirrels came 
down in fuch numbers from the higher parts 
of the country, the winter enfuing was un- 
commonly rigorous and cold, and for that 
reafon they always look upon their coming 
down, as a fure fign of fuch a winter. Yet 
this does not always prove true, as I experi- 
enced in the autumn of the year 1749: at that 

time 



Penjylvaniai near Germantown. 3 1 7 

time a great number of fquirrels came down 
into the colonies, yet the winter was very 
mild and nocolder than common. But it ap- 
peared that their migration was occafioned 
by the fcarcity of nuts and acorns, which 
happened that year in the higher parts of 
the country, and obliged them to come 
ihither for their food. Therefore they ge- 
inerally return the next year to the place 
from which they came. 

Some people reckon fquirrel flefh a great 
dainty, but the generality make no account 
!of it. The fkin is good for little, yet fmall 
ftraps are fometimes made of it, as it is very 
tough : others ufe it as a furr lining, for 
want of a better. Ladies flioes are like- 
wife fometimes made of it. 

The Rattle fnake often devours the 
fquirrels, notwithftanding all their agi- 
lity. This unwieldy creature, is faid to 
catch fo agile an one, merely by fafcination. 
I have never had an opportunity of feeing 
how it is done : but fo many credible peo- 
ple affured me of the truth of the fadl, and 
alTerted that they were prefent, and paid 
peculiar attention to it, that I am almoft 
forced to believe their unanimous accounts. 
The fafcination is effedted in the following 
manner : the fnake lies at the bottom of 
the tree upon which the fquirrel fits j its 

eyes 



318 November 1784. 

eyes are fixed upon the little animal, and 
from that moment it cannot efcape; it be- 
gins a doleful outcry, which is fo well 
known, that a perfon paffing by, on hear- 
ing it, immediately knows that it is charm- 
ed by a fnake. The fquirrel runs up the 
tree a little way, comes downwards again, 
then goes up, and now comes lower again. 
On that occafion it has been obferved, that 
the fquirrel always goes down more than 
it goes up. The fnake ftill continues at 
the root of the tree, with its eyes fixed on 
the fquirrel, with which its attention is fo 
entirely taken up, that a perfon accidental- 
ly approaching, may make a confiderable 
noife, without the fnake's fo much as turn- 
ing about. The fquirrel as before-men- 
tioned comes always lower, and at laft leaps 
down to the fnake, whofe mouth is already 
wide open for its reception. The poor lit- 
tle animal" then with a piteous cry runs in- 
to the fnake's jaws, and is fwallowed at 
once, if it be not too bigj but if its fize 
will not allow it to be fwallowed at once, 
the fnake licks it feveral times with its 
tongue, and fmoothens it, and by that 
means makes it fit for fwallowlng. Every 
thing elfe remarkable at this enchantment, 
I have defcribed in a treatife inferted in the 
Memoirs of the Royal Swedijh Academy of 

Sciences^ 



Penfyhania, near Germantown. 319 

Sciences, in the Volume for the year 1753, 
I therefore am not fo circumftantial here. 
The fame power of enchanting is afcribed 
to that kind of fnake, which is commonly 
called the black fnake in America^ and it is 
faid to catch and devour fquirrels in the 
fame manner as the former.* 

But thefe little animals do confiderable 
damage to the maize, not only whilil: it is 
upon the ftalk, as I have before obferved, 
but even when it is brought home into the 
barns : for if they can come at it without 
any obftacle, they can in a few nights bring 
a whole bulhel away into their lurking 
holes. The government in moil; of the 
North American colonies, has therefore 
been obliged to offer a certain premium, to 
be paid out of the common treafury, for the 
head of a fquirrel. it feems inconceivable 
what a fum of money has been paid for 
grey and black fquirrel's heads, in the pro- 
vince 



• It has been obferved, that only fuch fquirrels and birds 
as have their nefts near the place where fuch fnakes come to, 
make this pitiful noife, and are fo bufy in running up and 
down the tree and the neighbouring branches, in order to 
draw ofF the attention of the fnake from their brood, and of- 
ten they come fo very near in order, to fly away again, that 
being within reach of the fnakes, they are at laft bit, poi- 
foned and devoured ; and this will, I believe, perfectly 
account for the powers of fafcinatLng birds and fra all creatures 
in the fnakes. F. 



j20 November 1748. 

vince of Penfyhania only, from the firft of 
January 1749, to the firft of 'January 1750 j 
for when the deputies from the feveral dif- 
tridls of the province met, in order to deli- 
berate upon the affairs of the province, 
each of them complained that their treafu- 
ries were exhaufted by paying fo much for 
fquirrels : for at that time the law had ap- 
pointed a reward of three-pence for each 
fquirrel's head. So far extended the ven- 
geance taken upon thefc little creaturesy 
i. e. upon the grey and black fquirrels. It 
was found, by cafting up accounts, that in 
that one year eight thoufand pounds of Fen- 
Jyhania currency, had been expended in 
paying thefe rewards : this I was affured of 
by a man who had looked over the accounts 
himfelf. 

Many people, efpecially young men, 
left all other employment, and went into 
the woods to (hoot fquirrels : but the go- 
vernment having experienced how much 
three-pence per head took out of the trea- 
fury, fettled half that fum upon each fquir- 
rel's head. 

Flying Squirrels are a peculiar kind, 
which feem to be the fame with thofe which 
inhabit Finland^ and which Dr. Linnaus 
in his Fauna Svecica, No. 38. calls Sciurus 
volans. The American flying fquirrel at the 

utmofl 



Penjyhania, near Germantown. 321 

titmoft is only a variety of that which we 
have in Finland. Catejby in his Natural 
Hijiory of Carolinay Vol. 2, p. 76, 'jjf 
has defcribed it, and tab. 76, j^j^ drawn 
it after life. He likewife calls it Schirus 
volans, Edwards in his Natural Hijiory 
of Birds reprcfents it, t. 191. They are 
met with in the woods, but not very 
frequently. They are fcarce ever feen in 
the day time, unlefs they are forced out by 
men who have difcovered their nefts : for 
they fleep in the day time, but as foon as 
it grows dark, they come out and run about 
almoft all night. They live in hollow trees, 
and by cutting one down, feven or more 
flying fquirrels are frequently found in it. 
By the additional fkin with which Provi- 
dence has provided them on both fides, 
they can fly from one tree to another. They 
expand their flcins like wings, and contra(5t 
them again as foon as they can get hold of 
the oppofite tree. Some people fay that 
they fly in a horizontal line ; but others af- 
ferted that they firfl: went a little down- 
wards, and then rofe up again, when 
they approached the tree to which they 
would fly : they cannot fly further than 
four or five fathoms. Among all the fquir- 
rels in this country, thefe are the moft ea- 
fily tamed. The boys carry them to fchool, 
X or 



322 ISIovember 1748. 

or wherever they go, without their ever at- 
tempting to efcape : if even they put their 
fquirrel afide, it leaps upon them again im- 
jnediately, creeps either into their bofom, 
or their fleeve, or any fold of the clothes, 
and lies down to fleep : its food is the fame 
with that of the grey fquirrel. 

There is a fmall fpecies of fquirrels 
abounding in the woods, which the Rnglijh 
call ground Squirrels. Catejby has defcribed 
and drawn them from life, in the 2d. Vol. 
of his Natural Hiflory of Carolinay p. y^^_ 
tab. 'j^j and Edwards in his Natural Htf- 
tory of Birds y t. 181.* He and Dr. Lin- 
nceus call it Sciurus Jiriatus, or the freaked 
Squirrel. Thefe do not properly live in 
trees, as others of this genus, but dig holes 
in the ground (much in the fame manner 
as rabbets) in which they live, and whither 
they take refuge when they perceive any 
danger. Their holes go deep, and com- 
monly further inwards divide into many 
branches. They are alfo cunning enough 

to 

- f As Catejby and Ednuardt have both reprefented the Jiying 
Squirrel in a fitting attitude, I have given here, plate I a fi- 
gure of one with the expanded membrane, and joined to it on 
Si^, farne plate, a more accurate figure of the ground Squirrel. 
It is nor yet made out with certainty, whether the Ameri- 
tan flyincr fquirrel, and that fotfnd in Finland and in the 
north of Eurofe and Ajta^ be the fame animal. The Ameri- 
t^n kind has a flat pennated tail,' but the Eutepean kind a 
roind one, which affords a very diftinguifhing charafter. F. 



PaSS^^.Pl:/. 



Flyixo S auiRRE L. . 




Penjyhania, near Gennantown, 323 

to make fometimes an opening or hole to 
the furface of the ground from one of thefe 
branches. The advantage they have from 
hence, is that v/htn they ftroll about for 
food, and the hole is ftopt up through 
which they went out, they may not expofe 
themlelves to be caught, but prefently find 
the other hole, into which they may re- 
treat : but in autumn, when the leaves fall 
from the trees, or fometime after, it is di- 
verfion to fee the conflernation they are 
Sometimes in when purfued ; for their holes 
being ealily covered with the great fall of 
leaves, or by the wind, they have a great 
deal to do, to find them on a fudden : they 
then run backwards and forwards, as if 
they had loft their way : they feem to know 
the places where they have made their fub- 
terraneous walks, but cannot conceive where 
the entrances are. If they be then purfued, 
and one claps his hands, they know no 
other refuge than that of climbing upon a 
tree -, for it is to be obferved that thefe 
fquirrels always live under ground, and ne- 
ver climb upon trees unlefs purfued, and' 
i;nable in the hurry to find their holesi 
This kind of fquirrels is much more nume- 
rous in Penfyhaniay than in any other pro- 
vince of North America through which I 
have travelled^ ; Its length is commonly fix 
- . ; ; v;! V. Xa: inches^* 

..ol 



324 November 1748. 

inches, without the curved tail -, and it i^ 
very narrow. The fkin is ferruginous, or 
of a reddifh brown, and marked with five 
black ilreaks, one of which runs along the 
back, and two on each fide. Their food 
confifts of all forts of corn, as rye, barley, 
wheat, maize, and of acorns, nuts, &c. 
They gather their winter provifions in au- 
tumn, like the common grey fquirrels, and 
keep them in their holes under ground. If 
they get into a granary, they do as much 
mifchief as mice and rats. It has often 
been obferved that if, after eating rye, 
they come to fome wheat, they throw up 
the former, which they do not like fo well 
as the wheat, in order to fill their belly 
with the latter. When the maize is 
reaped in the fields, they are very bufy in 
biting off the ears, and filling the pouches 
in their mouth with corn, fo that their 
cheeks are quite blown up. With this 
booty they haften into the holes which they 
have made in the ground. 

As a Swede was making a mill-dyke, pret- 
ty late in autumn, he employed for that 
purpofe the foil of a neighbouring hill, 
and met with a hole on a fubterraneous 
walk belonging to thefe fquirrels : he 
followed it for fome time, and difcover- 
ed a walk on one fide like a branch, parting 
from the chief flem : it was near two feet 

long. 



Penfyhaniat near Germantown, 325 

long, and at its end was a quantity of 
choice acorns of the white oak, which the 
little careful axiimal had ftored up for win- 
ter. Soon after he found another walk on 
the fide like the former, but containing a 
fine ftore of maize : the next had hiccory 
nuts, and the laft and moft hidden one con- 
tained fome excellent chefnuts, which 
might have filled two hats. 

In winter thefe fquirrels are feldom feen, 
for during that feafon they live in their 
fubterraneous holes upon the provifions, 
which they have ftored up there. How- 
ever on a very fine and clear day^hey fome- 
times come out. They frequently dig through 
the ground, into cellars in which the coun- 
try people lay up their apples, which they 
partly eat, and partly fpoil, fo that the 
mafter has little or nothing left. They 
handle the maize ftores full as roughly as 
the apples. But the cats are their great 
enemies, who devour them and bring them 
home to their young ones : their flefti is 
not eaten by men, and their fkin is not 
made ufe of. 

Of all the fquirrels in the country, thefe 
are the moft difficult to be tamed ; for, 
though they be caught very young, yet it 
is dangerous to touch them with naked 
hands, as they bite very fharp when one is 
X 3 not 



326 November 1748. 

not aware of them. Many boys, who had 
Joft a deal of time in trying to tame thefe 
fquirrels, owned that they knew of no art 
to make them quite tame ; at leaft they are 
never fo far tamed as the other fpecies. In 
order to do any thing towards taming them 
they muft be caught when they are very 
fmall. Some people kept them in that ftate 
in a cage, becaufe they looked very pretty. 

I SHALL take an other opportunity of 
fpeaking of the black and ferruginous fquir- 
rels, which likewife inhabit this country. 

November the 15th. In the morning I 
returned to Philadelphia. Mr. Cock told 
me to day, and on fome other occafions af- 
terwards, an accident which happed to him, 
gnd which feemed greatly to confirm a pe- 
culiar fign of an imminent hurricane. He 
failed to the Weji hidies in a fmall yacht, 
and had an old man on board, who had for 
a conliderable time failed in this fea. The 
old man founding the depth, called to the 
mate to tell Mr. Cock to launch the boats 
immediately, and to put a fufficient num- 
ber of men into them, in order to tow the 
yacht during the calm, that they might 
reach the ifland before them, as foon as 
poflible, as within twenty-four hours there 
would be a flrong hurricane. Mr. Cock 
aiked him what reafons he had to think fo, 

the 



Penfylvania, Philadelphia. 327 

the old man replied, that on founding, he 
faw the lead in the water at a diftance of 
many fathoms more than he had feen it be- 
fore ', that therefore the water was become 
clear all of a fudden, which he looked up- 
on as a certain fign of an impending hur- 
ricane in the fea. Mr. Cock likewife faw 
the excefTive clearnefs of the water. He 
therefore gave immediate orders for launch- 
ing the boat, and towing the yacht, fo that 
they arrived before night in a fafe harbour. 
But before they had quite reached it the 
waves began to rife more and more, and 
the water was as it were boiling, though 
no wind was perceptible. In the enfuing 
night the hurricane came on, and raged 
with fuch violence, that not only many 
fhips were loft, and the roofs were torn off 
from the houfes, but even Mr. Cock's yacht 
and other fhips, though they were in fafe 
harbours, were by the wind, and the vio- 
lence of the fea, waftied fo far on iliore, 
that feveral weeks elapfed, before they could 
be got off. 

An old Dutch fkipper faid, that he had 
once caught a dogfifh in the bay of New 
Torky which being cut open, had a quan- 
tity of eels in his ftomach. 

November the 1 8th. Mr. Bartram fhewed 

me an earthen pot, which had been found 

X 4 ia 



328 November 1748. 

in a place, where the Indians formerly liv- 
ed. He, who firft dug it out, kept greafe 
and fat in it to fmear his fhoes, boots and 
all forts of leather with : Mr. Bartram 
bought the pot of that man -, it was yet 
entire and not damaged : I could perceive 
no glaze or colour upon it, but on the out- 
fide it was very much ornamented and up- 
on the whole well made. Mr. Bartram 
{hewed me feveral pieces of broken earthea 
velTels which the Indians formerly made ufe 
of. It plainly appeared in all thefe that 
they were not made of mere clay ; but that 
different materials had been mixed with it, 
according to the nature of the places where 
they were made. Thofe Indians ^ for exam- 
ple, who lived near the fea fliore, pounded 
the fhells of fnails and mufcles, and mixed 
them with the clay. Others who lived 
further up in the country, where mountain 
cryftals could be found, pounded them and 
mixed them with their clay ; but how they 
proceeded in making the vefTels, is entirely 
unknown : it was plain, that they did not 
burn them much, for they were fo foft 
that they might be cut in pieces with a 
knife : the workmanftiip however feems to 
have been very good ; for at prefent they 
find whole vefTels or pieces in the ground, 
which are not damaged at all, though they 

have 



Penfyhania, Philadelphia, 329 

have lain in the ground above a century. 
Before the Europeans fettled in North Ame- 
ricay the Indians had no other veflels to 
boil their meat in, than thefe earthen pots 
of their own making : but lince their arri- 
val, they have always bought pots, kettles, 
and other neceflary veffels of the Europeans^ 
and take no longer the pains of making 
fome, by which means this art is entirely 
loft among them. Such veflels of their own 
conftrudtion are therefore a great rarity even 
among xht Indians. I have feen fuch old 
pots and pieces of them, confifting of a kind 
of Serpentine Jione, or Linnceus^ Talcum, 
Syft. nat. 3. p. 52. 

Mr. Bartram like wife fhewed me little 
pieces of a black Jlate, which is plentifully 
found in fome parts of the river Skullkill, 
There are pieces to be found, which are 
four feet and above fquare : the colour and 
configuration is the fame as in the Table 
Jlate fSchiJius tabularis, Linn. J Syft. nat. 3. 
p. 37. except that this is a little thicker. 
The inhabitants of the country thereabouts 
(in the neighbourhood of the Skullkill) cover 
their roofs with it j Mr. Bartram aflTurcd 
me, that he had feen a whole roof com- 
pofed of four fuch flates. The rays of the 
fun, heat, cold, and rain do not adt upon 
the ftone. 

Mr. 



330 November 1748. 

Mr. Bartram further related, that in fe- 
veral parts of the country, caves or holes 
were to be met with, going deep into the 
mountains : he had been in feveral of them 
and had often found a number of Stala£iitesy 
Linnaus'% StalaSiites Jiillatitiusy Syft. nat. 3. 
p. 183. of different dimcnfions at the top; 
they differed in colour, but the greateft 
curiofity was, that in fome of the caves 
Mr. Bartram had found StalaBites, whofe 
outward fide was as it were wreathed from 
top to bottom i he had fent fome pieces of 
it to London, and had none at prefent. 

November the 20th. This morning I 
fet out in company of a friend, on a jour- 
ney to Racoon in New Jerfey, where many 
Swedes live, who have their own church. 
We had three miles to go before we came 
to the ferry which was to bring us over the 
Delaware. The country here was very low 
in fome places : the plains on the banks of 
the river, were overflowed at every high 
water or flowing of the tide, and at the eb- 
bing they were left dry again. However 
the inhabitants of the country hereabouts, 
made ufe of this plain : for that purpofe 
they had in feveral places thrown up walls 
or dykes of earth towards the river, to pre- 
vent its overflowing the plains, which they 

made 



Penfyhaniay Philadelphia, 331 

made ufe of as meadows. On them the 
Water-beeches (Plat anus occidentalism Linn.) 
were planted in great numbers on both (ides 
the road, quite clofe together : thele in 
fummer afford a pleafant fhade, en ac- 
count of the abundance and lize of their 
leaves, and make the road extremely de- 
lightful, as it refembles a fine {hady walk. 
The Delaware has nearly the fame breadth 
here, which it has near Philadelphia. Near 
the place where the ferry is to be met with, 
feveral pretty houfes were built on both 
fides, where travellers might get all kinds 
of refrefhment. On our journey from Pen- 
fyhania to New Jerfey, we were brought 
over the Delaware in a ferry belonging to, 
and kept in repair by the Penfylvania-men ; 
but on our return we were obliged to take 
the ferry belonging to the New Jerfey fide. 
As foon as we had croffed the river, we 
were in a different province, for the Dela^ 
ware makes the divifion between Penfyha- 
nia and New Jerfeyy fo that every thing to 
the weft of it belongs to the former, and 
all to the eaft, to the latter province. Both 
thefe provinces h^ve in moft things differ- 
ent laws, and their peculiar coin. 

We now purfued our journey further, 
and foon obferved that the country on this 
fide appeared very different from that on 

the 



332 November 1748. 

the other; for in Penfyhania the ground; 
confifts of more clay and black mould, andi 
is very fertile -, but in New Jerfey it is more 
fandy and very poor, fo that the horfes 
went very deep in fand in feveral parts of 
the road. Near the place where we were 
brought over, and a little way along the 
fhore was a thick firwood : the trees were 
not very high, but in their greateft vigour; 
between them appeared now and then a 
low bufh of oak. But after travelling about 
three Englifli miles, the firwood ended, and 
we faw no more trees of this kind till we came 
to the church in Raccoon. In all the parts of 
Penfyhania where I have been, I have found 
few firwoods ; on the other hand, they are 
abundant in New Jerfey, and efpecially in 
the lower part of that province. We af- 
terwards found all the day long no other 
trees, than fuch as have deciduous leaves ; 
moft of thefe were oaks of different forts, 
and of confiderable height, but they flood 
every where far enough afunder, to admit 
a chaife to pafs through the wood without 
any inconvenience, there being feldom any 
fhrubs or underwood between the trees, to 
obftrudt the way. The leaves were all 
fallen, and covered the ground more than a 
hand's breadth : this had an appearance of 
cncreafing the upper black foil greatly. In 

feveral 



New Jerfey, near Gloucejler, 333 

feveral places flowed a fmall rivulet. The 
country was commonly plain, but fome- 
times formed a few hills with an eafy de- 
clivity, though no high mountains appear- 
ed, and in a few places we found fome 
fmall ftones not bigger than a fift. Single 
farm houfes were fcattered in the country, 
and in one place only was a fmall village : 
the country was yet more covered with fo- 
refts than cultivated, and we were for the 
greateft part always in a wood. 

This day and the next we pafled feveral 
Kills^ or fmall rivulets which flowed out of 
the country into the Delaware with no great 
defcent nor rapidity. When the tide came 
up in the Delaware, it likewife rofe in fome 
of thefe rivulets a good way ; formerly they 
muft have fpread to a confiderable breadth 
by the flowing of the tide, but at prefent 
there were meadows on their banks, form- 
ed, by throwing up ilrong dykes as clofe 
as poflible to the water, to keep it from 
overflowing. Such dykes were made along 
all rivers here to confine their water ; there-* 
fore when the tide was higheft, the water 
in the rivers was much higher than the 
meadows : in the dykes were gates through 
which the water can be drawn from, or 
led into the meadows; they were fometimes 
placed on the outward lidc of the wall, fo 

that 



334 November 1748. 

that the water in the meadows forced it 
open, but the river water fhut it. 

In the evening we came into the houfe 
of a Swede called Peter Rambo, and we ftaid 
the night at his houfe. 

The pines which we had feen to day, and 
which I have mentioned before, were of 
that kind which has double leaves and ob- 
long cones covered with aculeated fcales. 
The Englijh to diftinguifh it call it the 
yerfey Pine: commonly there were only 
two fpines or leaves in one fafcicle, as in- 
cur common Swedijh pines, but fometimes 
three J the cones had long fpines, fo that 
they were difficult to be touched. Thefe 
pines look at a diftance wholly like the 
Swedi/h ones, fo that if the cones were not 
regarded, they might eafily be taken for 
the fame fpecies. Of thefe pines they make 
a great quantity of tar, of which I fhall 
fpeak in the fequel ; but as moft of them 
are but fmall, they are good for nothing 
elfe J for if they be employed as pofts, or 
poles in the ground, they are in afhorttime 
rendered ufelefs by rotting : as foon as they 
are cut down the worms are very greedy of 
them ', they foon eat through the wood, an^ 
only a few weeks after it is cut down^how- 
^ver it is made ufe of as fuel where no other 
CI . . :v/ -M io-^uii w-j^v^iiio o:;: v: ;WOod 



New Jerfey, Racoon, 335 

wood is to be got, in feveral places they 
make charcoal of it, as I intend to mention 
in the fequel. There is another thing 
which deferves notice, in regard to thefe 
trees, and which feveral people, befides 
myfelf, have experienced. In the great 
heat of the fummer, the cattle like to ftand 
in the fliade of thefe trees, preferably to 
that of the oak, hiccory, walnut, water- 
beech and other trees of this kind, whofe 
foliage is very thick ; and when the cattle 
find the latter with the former, they always 
choofe to ftand under the firs and pines, 
though the other trees with annually deci- 
duous leaves could afford a better Hiade : 
and if there be but a fingle pine in a wood, 
as many cattle from the herd as can ftand 
under it, throng to it. Some people 
would infer from hence, that the refinous 
exhalations of thefe trees, were beneficial 
to the cattle, and which made them more 
inclined to be near firs and pines, than any 
other trees. 

The Spoon tree, which never grows to 
a great height, we faw this day in feveral 
places. The Swedes here have called it 
thus, becaufe the Indians who formerly 
lived in thefe provinces, ufed to make their 
fpoons and trowels of the wood of this tree. 
In ttly cabinet of natural curiofities, I have 

a fpoon 



33^ November 1748. 

a fpoon made of this wood by an Indian, 
who has killed many flags and other ani- 
mals on the very fpot where Philadelphia af- 
terwards was built ', for in his time that 
fpot was yet covered with trees and fhrubs. 
The Engliih call this tree a Laurely becaufe 
its leaves refemble thofe of the Laurocera- 
fus. Dr. Linnceus, conformable to the pe- 
culiar friendfhip and goodnefs which he has 
always honoured me with, has been pleafed 
to call this tree, Kalmia foliis ovatis , corym- 
bis terminalibus, or Kalmia latifolia. It Suc- 
ceeds beft on the fide of hills, efpecially on 
the north fide, where a brook palles by 3 
therefore on meeting with fome fteep places 
(on hills) towards a brook, or with a fleep 
fide of a hill towards a marfh, you are fure 
to find the Kalmia, But it frequently flands 
mixed among beech trees. The higher the 
Kalmias ftand on the north fide of a moun- 
tain, the lefs they grow : I have feen them 
not only in Penfyhania and New Jerfey, 
but even in New Torky but there they arc 
more fcarce : I never found them beyond 
the forty-fecond deg. of north lat. though I 
took ever fo great care to look for them : 
they have the quality of preferving their 
fine green leaves throughout winter, fo 
that when all other trees have lofl their 
Grnam^ents, and fland quite naked, thefe 

chear 



[ 



New yerfeyt Raccoon, 337 

chear the woods with their green follagei 
About the month of May they begin to 
ilower in thefe parts, and then their beauty 
rivals that of moft of the known trees in na-^ 
ture : the flowers are innumerable, and fit 
in great bunches. Before they open, they 
have a fine red colour, but as they are ex- 
panded, the fun bleaches them, fo that 
fome are quite white ; many preferve the 
colour of rofes. Their lliape is fingular, 
for they refemble a crater of the ancients : 
their fcent however is none of the mofl 
agreeable. In fome places it was cuftomary 
to adorn the churches on chriftmas day or 
new-years day with the fine branches of this 
tree, which are then thick covered with 
leaves. 

But thefe trees are known for another 
remarkable quality -, their leaves are poifon 
to fome animals, and food for others : ex- 
perience has taught the people that when 
fheep eat of thefe leaves, they either die 
immediately, or fall very fick, and recover 
with great difficulty. The young and more 
tender fheep are killed by a fmall portion, 
but the elder ones can bear a ftronger dofe. 
Yet this food will likewife prove mortal to 
them, if they take too much of it : the 
Ikme noxious eiFe^t it fhews in regard to 
calves which £at too much of the leaves : 
Y they 



338 November 1748. 

they either die, or do not recover eafily. I 
can remember, that in the autumn of the 
year 1748, fome calves eat of the leaves, 
but fell very lick, fwelled, foamed at the 
mouth, and could hardly ftand, however 
they were cured by giving them gunpowder 
and other medicines: the fheep are moft 
expofed to be tempted by thefe leaves in 
winter -, for after having been kept in ftables, 
for fome months they are greedy of all 
greens efpecially if the fnow ftill lies upon 
the fields, and therefore the green but 
poifonous leaves of the Kalmia, are to them 
very tempting. Horfes, oxen and cows 
which have eaten them, have likewife been 
very ill after the meal, and though none of 
them ever died of eating thefe leaves, yet 
moft people believed, that if they took too 
great a portion of them, death would cer- 
tainly be the refult. For it has been ob- 
ferved that when thefe animals only cat 
fmall quantities, yet they fuffer great pains. 
On the other hand the leaves of the Kalmia 
are the food of ftags, when the fnow covers 
the ground, and hides all other provifions 
from them. Therefore, if they be fhot in 
winter, their bowels are found filled with 
thefe leaves ; and it is very extraordinary, 
that if thofe bowels are given to dogs, they 
become quite ftupid and as it were drunk, 

and 



New Jefey, Raccoon. 339 

and often fall fo lick, that they feem to be 
at the point of death, but the people, who 
have eaten the venifon, have not felt the 
leaft indifpofition. The leaves of the Kal- 
mia are likewife the winter food of thofe 
birds, which the Swedes in North America 
call Hazel-hensy and which ftay here all 
winter, for when they are killed, their 
crop is found quite filled with them. 

The wood of the Kalmia is very hard, 
and fome people on that account, make the 
axis of their pullies of it. Weavers fhuttles 
are chiefly made of it, and the weavers are 
of opinion, that no wood in this country is 
better for this purpofe, for it is compadt, 
may be made very fmooth, and does not 
eafily crack, or burft. The joiners and 
turners here, employ it in making all kinds 
of work, which requires the beft wood ; 
they chiefly ufe the root becaufe it is quite 
yellow J the wood has a very fuitable hard- 
nefs and finenefs, and from the center, fpread 
as it were fmall rays, which are at fome 
diftance from each other. When the leaves 
of the Kalmia are thrown into the fire, they 
make a crackling like fait. The chimney 
fweepers make brooms in winter of the 
branches with the leaves on them, fince 
they cannot get others in that feafon. In 
the fummer of the year 1750, a certain 
Y 2 kind 



340 'November 1748. 

Isind df HMorms, devoured the Ifea'Ves of al- 
moft -all the trees in Penjyhania -, yet they 
did not venture to attack the leaves of the 
Kalmia. Some people afferted, that when. 
a fire happened in the woods, it never went 
further, as foon as it came to the Kalmias, 
or Spoon trees. 

November the 2rft. The Swedes ^viA all 
the other inhabitants of the country plant 
great quantities of maize, both for them- 
felves and for their cattle. It was afferted 
that it is the beft food for hogs, becaufe it 
makes them very fat, and gives their flefh 
an agreeable flavour, preferable to all Other 
meat. I have given in two diflertations up- 
on this kind of corn to the Swedijh Royal 
Academy of Sciences y which ftand in their 
Memoirs, one in the Volume for the year 

175 1, in the laft quainter, and the other iti 
the firft quarter of the Volume for the yfcir 

1752, and thither I refer my readers. 
The wheels of the carts which are here 

made ufe of, are compofed of two different 
kinds of v^ood. The fdloes were made of 
what is called the- Spdnijh oak, and the 
fpOkes of the white oak. 

TkE Sajj'afras tree grows every where 
iii this place. I have already abferv- 
ed feveral particulars in regard to it, 
and intend to add a few more here. On 

throwing 



New Jerfty, Raccoon, 341 

throwing fome of the wood into the fire, 
it caufes a crackling as fait does. The wood 
is made ufe of for pofts belonging to the 
enclofures, for it is faid to lafl a long time 
in the ground : but it is likewife faid, that 
there is hardly any kind of wood, which is 
more attacked by worms than this, when it 
is expofed to the air without cover, and 
that in a fhort time it is quite worm-eaten 
through and through. The Swedes related, 
that the Indians who formerly inhabited 
thefe parts, made bowls of it. On cutting 
fome part of the faffafras tree, or its (hoots, 
and holding it to the nofe, it has a flrong 
but pleafant fmell. Some people peel the 
root, and boil the peel with the beer which 
they are brewing, becaufe they believe it 
wholefome for the fame reafon. The peel 
is put into brandy, either whilft it is diftil- 
ling, or after it is made. 

An old Swede remembered that his mo- 
ther cured many people of the dropfy, by 
a decodtion of the root of faffafras in water 
drank every morning : but fhe ufed, at the 
fame time to cup the patient on the feet. 
The old man affured me, he had often 
feen people cured by this means, who had 
been brought to his mother wrapped up in 
flieets. 

Y 3 When 



342 November 1748. 

When a part of a wood is deftined for 
cultivation, the faffafras trees are commonly 
left upon it, becaufe they have a very 
thick foliage, and afford a cool (hade to 
the cattle, during the great heats. Several 
of the Swedes, W2i{h and fcour the veffels 
in which they intend to keep cyder, beer 
or brandy, with water m which the fafl'a- 
fras root or its peel has been boiled ; which 
they think renders all thofe liquors more 
wholefome. Some people get their bed- 
pofts made of faffafras wood, in order to 
expel the bugs ; for its flrong fcent it is 
faid prevents thofe vermin from fettling in 
them. For two or three years together 
this has the defired effed j or about as long 
as the wood keeps its flrong aromatic fmell; 
but after that time it has been obferved to 
lofe it effeft. A joiner fbewed me a bed, 
which he had made for himfelf, the pofls of 
which were of faffafras wood, but as it was 
ten or twelve years old, there were fo many 
bugs in it, that it feemed likely, they 
would not let him fleep peaceably. Some 
EngUJhmen related, that fome years ago it 
had been cuflomary in London, to drink a 
kind of tea of the flowers of faffafras, be- 
caufe it was looked upon as very falutary ; 
but upon recolledting that the fame potion 
'Vvas much ufed agaiiifl the venereal difeafe, 

it 



New Jerfeyt Raccoon, 343 

it was foon left off, left thofe that ufed it, 
fhould be looked upon as infedted with that 
difeafe. In Penfyhania fome people put 
chips of faflafras into their chefts, where 
they keep all forts of woollen ftufFs, in or- 
der to expel the moths (or Larv^y or ca- 
terpillars of moths or tinies) which com- 
monly fettle in them in fummer. The root 
keeps its fmell for a long while : I have 
feen one which had lain five or fix years in 
the drawer of a table, and ftill preferved the 
ftrength of its fcent. 

A SWEDE named Ramboy related that the 
Indians formerly dyed all forts of leather 
red with the bark of the chefnut oak. 

Some old people remembered that in the 
year 1697, there had been fo rigorous a 
winter, that the ice in the river Delaware 
was two feet thick. 

November the 22d. Aoke Helm was 
one of the moft confidcrable Swedes in this 
place, and his father came over into this 
country along with the Swedijh governor 
Prince ; he was upwards of feventy years of 
age. This old man told us, that in his 
youth there was grafs in the woods, which 
grew very clofe, and was every where two 
feet high ; but, that it was fo much lefTened 
at prefent, that the cattle hardly find food 
enough, and that therefore four cows now 
give no more milk than one at that time ; 
Y4 but 



344 November 1748. 

but the caufes of this alteration ar€ eafy to 
find. In the younger years of old Helm, 
the country was little inhabited, and hardly 
the tenth part of the cattle kept which is 
at prefent -, a cow had therefore as much 
food at that time, as ten now have. Fur- 
ther, moft kinds of grafs here are annual, 
and do not for feveral years together fhoot 
up from the fame root, as our Swedijh 
graffes : they muft fow themfelves every 
year, bccaufe the laft year's plant dies away 
every autumn. The great numbers of cat- 
tle hinder this fowing, as the grafs is eaten 
before it can produce flowers and fruit. We 
need not therefore wonder that the grafs is 
fo thin on fields, hills, and paftures in 
thefe provinces. This is likewife the reafon 
yihy travellers in New Jerjey, Penfyhania, 
and Marylandy find many difficulties, efpe- 
cially in winter, to get forwards with their 
own horfes, for the grafs in thefe provinces 
is not very abundant, becaufe the cattle eat 
it before it can bring feeds : but more to 
^he north, as in Canada, are a fufficient 
quantity of perennial grafles -, fo wifely haS 
the Creator regulated every thing. The 
pold parts of the earth, naturally bring forth 
a more durable grafs, becaufe the inhabi- 
tants want more hay to feed their cattle 
with, pn account of the length of the win- 
ter. 



New Jerfeyt Raccoon. 345 

ter. The fouthern provinces again have 
lefs perennial grafs, as the cattle may be 
in the fields all the winter. However care- 
ful oeconomifts have got feeds of perennial 
graffes from England, and other European 
ftates, and fowed it in their meadows, 
where they feem to thrive exceedingly well. 
The Perfimon fDiofpyros Virginiana) was 
pretty common here ; I have already men- 
tioned it before, but I intend now to add 
fome more particulars. Some of its fruits 
began to ripen and to become fit for eating 
about this time, for they always ripen very 
late in autumn, and then the people eat 
them like other fruit : they are very fweet 
and glutinous, yet have a little aftringency; 
I frequently ufed to eat -a great quantity of 
them, without feeling the leaft inconve- 
nience. From the perfimon feveral En- 
glijhmen and Swedes brew a very palatable 
liquor in the following manner. As foon 
as the fruit is ripe, a fufficient quantity is 
gathered, which is very eafy, as each tree 
is well flocked with them. Thefe perfimon 
apples are put into a dough of wheat or 
other flour, formed into cakes, and put into 
an oven, in which they continue till they are 
quite baked, and fufficiently dry, when they 
are taken out again : then, in order to brew 
the liquor, a pot full of water is put on the 

fire 



34^ November 1748. 

fire and fome of the cakes are put in : thefe 
become foft by degrees as the water grows 
warm, and crumble in pieces at laft j the 
pot is then taken from the fire, and the 
water in it well ftirred about, that the cakes 
may mix with it : this is then poured into 
another vefTel, and they continue to fteep 
and break as many cakes as are neceffary for a 
brewing ; the malt is then infufed, and they 
proceed as ufual with the brewing. Beer 
thus prepared is reckoned much preferable 
to other beer. They likewife make brandy 
of this fruit in the following inannner : 
having colledled a fufficient quantity of per- 
fimons in autumn, they are altogether put 
into a velTcl, where they lie for a week till 
they are quite foft. Then they pour water 
on them, and in that ftate they are left to 
ferment of themfelves, without promoting 
the fermentation by any addition. The 
brandy is then made in the common way, 
and is faid to be very good, efpecially if 
grapes (in particular of the fweet fort) 
which are wild in the woods, be mixed 
with the perfimon fruit. Some perfimons 
are ripe at the end of September ^ but moft 
of them later, and fome not before Novem^ 
her and December, when the cold firft over- 
comes their acrimony. The wood of this 
tree is very good for joiner's inftruments, 

fuch 



New yerfey. Raccoon, 347 

fuch as planes, handles to chifels, &c. but 
if after being cut down, and lain expofed to 
funfhine and rain, it is the firft wood which 
rots, and in a year's time there is nothing 
left but what is ufelefs. When the perfi- 
mon trees get once into a field, they are 
not eafily got out of it again, as they fpread 
fo much. I was told, that if you cut off 
a branch and put it into the ground, it 
ftrikes root, but in very flrong winters, 
thefe trees often die by froft, and they, to- 
gether with the peach trees, bear cold the 
leaft of any. 

November the 23d. Several kinds of 
gourds and melons are cultivated here : 
they have partly been originally cultivated 
by the Indians, and partly brought over by 
Europeans, Of the gourds there was a kind 
which were crooked at the end, and oblong 
in general, and therefore they were called 
crooked necks (Crocknacksj) they keep al- 
moft all winter. There is yet another fpe- 
cies of gourds which have the fame quality : 
others again are cut in pieces or (lips, drawn 
upon thread and dried ; they keep all the 
year long, and are then boiled or ftewed. 
All forts of gourds are prepared for eating 
in different manners, as is likewife cufto- 
mary in Sweden. Many farmers have a 
whole field of gourds. 

Squashes 



3^4^ * Novemher 174S. 

Sc>ti ASHES are a kind of gourds, which the 
Europeans got from the Indians, and I have 
already mentioned them before. They are 
eaten boiled, either with flefh or by them- 
felves. In the firft cafe, they are put on 
the edge of the difh round the meat ; they 
require little care, for into whatever ground 
they are fown, they grow in it and fucceed 
well. If the feed is put into the fields in 
autumn, it brings fquafhes next fpring, 
though during winter it has fufFered from 
froft, fnow and wet. 

The C^/tf/^^/?>^j are likewife gourds, which 
are planted in quantities hy the Swedes and 
other inhabitants, but they are not fit for 
eating, and are made ufe of for making all 
forts of vefTels ; they are more tender than 
the fquafhes, for they do not always ripen 
here, and only when the weather is very 
warm. In order to make vefTels of them, 
they are firfl dried well : the feeds, toge- 
ther with the pulpy and fpungy matter in 
which they lie, are afterwards taken out 
and thrown away. The fhells are fcraped 
very clean within, and then great fpoons or 
ladles, funnels, bowls, difhes and the like 
may be made of them ; they are particular- 
ly fit for keeping feeds of plants in, which 
are to be fent over fea, for they keep their 
power of vegetating much longer, if they 

be 



New Jerfey, Raccoon. 34-9 

be put in caiabaflies, than by any other 
■means. Some people fcrape the outfide of 
the calabafhes before they are opened, dry 
ithem afterwards and then clean them with- 
in ; this makes them as hard as bones 4 
they are fometimes wafhed, fo that they al- 
ways keep their white colour. 

Most of the farmers in this country, 
fow Buck-wheaty in the middle of July^ 
it muft not be fown later, for in that cafe 
■the froft rains it, but if it be fown before 
July, it flowers all the fummer long, but 
the flowers drop, and no feed lis generated. 
'Some peopl-e, plough the ground twice 
where they intend to fow buck*- wheat'; 
^others plough it only once, about two 
weeks before they fow it. As foon as it 
is fown the field is harrowed. It has been 
found by experience, that in a wet year 
buck- wheat is moft likdy to fucceed : it 
ftands on the fields till the frofl: comes on. 
When the crop is fdvourable, they get 
twenty, thirty and even forty bu£hels from 
one. The SwediJ}:)<:h\xvch'W2ird^n Ragnil^ 
fin, in whofehoofe we were at this ^tim^, 
had -got fuch a crop : they make bu<:k»- 
-wheat cak^ and pudding. The cakes are 
xomiBonly made in the morning, and are 
»baked in a frying pan, or on a Sone:: ai3e 
battered 'and ithmi eaten (with tea :x3r colF«e» 

inftead 



35^ November 1748. 

inftead of toafted bread with butter, ortoaf^, 
which the Englifh commonly eat at break- 
faft. The buck-wheat cakes are very good, 
and are likewife ufual at Philadelphia and 
in other Englijlo colonies, efpecially in win- 
ter. Buck- wheat is an excellent food for 
fowls J they eat it greedily, and lay more 
eggs, than they do with other food : hogs 
are likewife fattened with it. Buck-wheat 
ftraw is of no ufe ; it is therefore left upon 
the field, in the places where it has been 
thrafhed, or it is fcattered in the orchards, 
in order to ferve as a manure by putrify- 
ing. Neither cattle nor any other animal 
will eat of it, except in the greateft ne- 
cefTity, when the fnow covers the ground 
and nothing elfe is to be met with. But 
though buck-wheat is fo common in the 
Englijlo colonies, yet the French had no 
right notion of it in Canada, and it was 
never cultivated among them. 

Towards night we found fome Glow 
Worms in the wood, their body was linear, 
confifting of eleven articulations, a little 
.pointed before and behind ; the length from 
head to tail was five and a half geometrical 
lines ', the colour was brown and the arti- 
culations joined in the fame manner as in 
the onifci or woodlice. The antennas or 
feel horns were fhort and filiform, or thread- 

fhaped 5 



New Jerfey, Raccoon. 351 

ihaped ', and the feet were faftened to the 
foremoft articulations of the body : when 
ttie infedl creeps, its hindmofl articulations 
are dragged on the ground, and help its 
motion. The extremity of the tail con- 
tain a matter which (hines in the dark, 
with a green light : the infed: could draw 
it in, fo that it was not vifible. It had 
rained confiderably all day, yet they crept 
in great numbers among the buflies, fo that 
the ground feemed as it were fown with 
itars. I fhall in the fequel have occafion 
to mention another kind of infers or flies 
which fhine in the dark, when flying in 
the air. 

November the 24th. Holly, or Ilex 
Aquifoiiumt grows in wet places, fcattered 
in the forefl:, and belongs to the rare trees ; 
its leaves are green both in fummer and in 
winter. The Swedes dry its leaves, bruife 
them in a mortar, boil them in fmall beer, 
and take them againfl: the pleurify. 

Red is dyed with brafil wood, and like- 
wife with a kind of mofs, which grows on 
the trees here : blue is dyed with Indigo^ but 
to get a black colour, the leaves of the 
common field forrel (Rumex Acetofella) are 
boiled with the ftuflf to be dyed, which is 
then dried, and boiled again with log-wood 
and copperas : the black colour thus produ- 
ced. 



352 November, 1748. 

ced, is faid to be very durable. The pco* 
pie fpin and weave a great part of their every 
day's apparel, and dye them in their houfes. 
Flax is cultivated by many people, and 
fucceeds very well, but the ufe of hemp is 
not very common. 

Rye, wheat, and buck-wheat are cut 
with the fickle, but oats are mown with a 
fcythe. The fickles which are here made 
ufe of are long and narrow, and their fharp 
edges have clofe teeth on the inner fide. 
The field lies fallow during a year, and in 
that time the cattle may graze on it. 

All the inhabitants of this place from 
the higheft to the loweft, have each their 
orchard, which is greater or lefs according 
to their wealth. The trees in it are chiefly 
peach trees, apple trees and cherry trees ; 
compare with this what I have already faid 
upon this fubjed: before. 

A LITTLE before noon, we left this 
place and continued our journey, paft the 
iwedijh church in Raccoon, to Peils groves, 
.The country, on the fides of this road, is 
-very fandy in many places and pretty near 
level. Here and there appear fingle farms, 
yet they are very fcarce, and large exteniive 
pieces of ground are ftill covered with fo- 
refts, which chiefly confifl of feveral fpecies 
-of oak and hiccory. However we could 

go 



New Jerfey, Raccoon. 353 

go with eafe through thefe woods, as there 
are few bufhes (or under-wood) and ftones 
to be met with. It was not only eafy to 
ride in every part of the wood on horfe- 
back, but even in moft places there was 
fufficient room for a fmall coach or a cart. 
Sometimes a few lying trees which had 
been thrown on the ground by a hurricane, 
or had fallen down through great age, cauf- 
ed fome hindrance. 

November the 25 th. During my ft ay at 
Raccoon, ^X. this time and all the enfuing win- 
ter, I endeavoured to get the moft informa- 
tion from the old Swedes relating to the in- 
creafe of land, and the decreafe of water in 
thefe parts ; 1 fhall therefore infert the an- 
fwers here, which I have received to my 
queftions. They are as I got them, and I 
Ihall only throw in a few remarks which 
may ferve to explain things : the reader 
therefore is left at liberty to draw his own 
inferences and conclufions. 

One of the Swedes, called King, who 
was above fifty years of age, was convinced, 
that about this time the little lakes, brooks, 
fprings and rivers had much lefs water, 
than they had when he was a boy. He 
could mention feveral lakes on which the 
people went in large boats in his youth, 
and had fufficient water even in the hotteft 
Z fummersj 



354 November 1748. 

fummers ; but now, they were either en- 
tirely dried up, or for the greateft part; 
and in the latter cafe, all the water was loft 
in fummer. He had himfelf feen the fifh 
dying in them, and he was apt to believe that 
at this time it did not rain fo much in fum- 
mer, as it did when he was young. One 
of his relations, who lived about eight 
miles from the river Delaware, on a hill 
near a rivulet, had got a well, dug in his 
court yard : at the depth of forty feet, they 
found a quantity of fhells of oyfters and 
mufcles, and likewife a great quantity of 
reed, and pieces of broken branches, 
afked, to what caufes they afcribed what 
they had difcovered ? and I was anfwered, 
that fome people believed thefe things had 
lain there ever fince the deluge, and others, 
that the ground increafed. 

Peter Rambo, a man who was near fixty 
years of age, aflured me that in feveral- 
places at Raccoon, where wells had been 
dug, or any other work carried deep into 
the ground, he had feen great quantities of 
mufcle fhells and other marine animals. 
On digging wells, the people have fome- 
times met with logs of wood at the depth 
of twenty feet, fome of which were putri- 
fied, and others as it were burnt. They 
once found a great fpoon in the ground, 

at 



New Jerfey, Ractoon. 3j<f 

at this depth. Query, Is it not probable, 
that the burnt wood which has been thus 
dug up, was only blackened by a fubterra- 
neous mineral vapour ? People however 
have concluded from this, that America 
has had inhabitants before the deluge. This 
man (Peter RamboJ further told me, that 
bricks had been found deep in the ground j 
but may not the brickcoloured clay (of which 
the ground here chiefly confifts, and which 
is a mixture of clay and fand) in a hard ftate 
have had the appearance of bricks ? I have 
feen fuch hardened clay, which at flrft fight 
is eafily miftaken for brick. He like wife 
aflerted, that the water in rivers was flill as 
high as it ufed to be, as far back as memory 
could reach -, but little lakes, ponds, and 
waters in marilies are vifibly decreafed, and 
many of them dried up. 

Maons Keen, a Swede above feventy 
years old, afferted, that on digging a v/ell 
he had feen at the depth of forty feet, a 
great piece of chefnut wood, together with 
roots and ftalks of reed, and a clayey earth 
like that which commonly covers the fhores 
of fait water bays and coves. This clay 
had a fimilarfmell and a faline tafte. Maons 
Keen and feveral other people inferred from 
hence, that the whole country where Rac- 
coon ^ndPenns neck are fituated, was ancient- 
Z2 ly 



356 November 1748. 

ly quite overflowed by the fea. They like- 
wife knew, that at a great depth in the 
ground, fuch a trowel as the Indians make 
ufe of, had been found. 

SvEN Lock, and William Cobby both 
above fifty years of age agreed, that in 
many places hereabouts, where wells had 
been dug, they had feen a great quantity of 
reed, moftly rotten, at the depth of twenty 
or thirty feet and upwards. 

As Cobb made a well for himfelf, the 
workmen after digging twenty feet deep, j 
came upon fo thick a branch, that they 
could not get forwards, till it was cut in 
two places -, the wood was ftill very hard. 1 
It is very common to find near the furface 1 
of the earth, quantities of all forts of leaves 
not quite putrified. On making a dyke 
fome years ago, along the river on which 
the church at Raccoon ftands , and for that 
purpofe cutting through a bank, it was 
found quite full of oyfterfhells, though this 
place is above a hundred and twenty Englifli 
miles from the neareft fea fhore. Thefe 
men, and all the inhabitants of Raccoon, 
concluded from this circumftance (of their 
own accord, and without being led to the 
thought) that this tradt of land was a part 
of the fea many centuries ago. They like- 
wife afferted that many little lakes, which 

in 



New Jerfey, Raccoon. 2S7 

in their youth were full of water, even in 
the hotteft feafon, now hardly formed a 
narrow brook in fummer, except after 
heavy rains ; but it did not appear to them 
that the rivers had loft any water. 

AoKE Helm, found (on digging a well) 
firft fand and little ftones, to the depth of 
eight feet; next a pale coloured clay, and 
then a black one. At the depth of fifteen 
feet he found a piece of hard wood, and 
feveral pieces of mundick or pyrites. He 
told me that he knew feveral places in the 
Delaware, where the people went in boats, 
when he was young j but which at prefent 
were changed into little iflands, fome of 
which were near an Englijh mile in length. 
Thefe iflands derive their origin from a fand 
or bank in the river ^ on this the water 
wafhes fome clay, in which ru£hes come 
up, and thus the reft is generated by de- 
grees. 

On a meeting of the oldeft Swedes \n the 
parifti of Raccoon, I obtained the following 
anfwers to the queftions which I afked them 
on this account. Whenever they dig a well 
in this neighbourhood, they always find at 
the depth of twenty or thirty feet, great 
numbers of oyftcr fliells and clams ; the 
latter are, as was above-mentioned, a kind 
Z3 of 



35^ November, 1748. 

of large fhells, which are found In bays, 
and of which the Indians make their mo-' 
ney. In many places, on digging wells a 
quantity of rufhes and reeds have been found 
almoft wholly undamaged; and once on 
fuch an occafion a whole bundle of flax was 
brought up, found between twenty and 
thirty feet under ground j it feemed as lit- 
tle damaged as if it had been lately put 
under ground ; all looked at it with afto- 
nifliment, as it was beyond conception how 
it could get there i but I believe the good 
people faw fome American plants, fuch as j 
the wild Virginian flax, or Linum Virginia- ' 
num, Sind the Antirrhinum CanaJenJe, which 
look very like common flax, yet it is re- 
markable that the bundle was really tied 
together. The Europeans on their arrival | 
in America, found our common flax neither * 
growing wild nor cultivated by the Indians, 
how then could this bundle get into the ; 
ground ? Can it be fuppofed, that paft \ 
ages have feen a nation here, fo early ac- 
quainted with the ufe of flax ? I would ra- 
ther abide by the opinion, that the above 
American plants, or other flmilar ones, have 
been taken for flax. Charcoal and fire- 
brands have often been found under ground: 
The Swedijh churchwarden, Eric Ragnilfon, 
told me that he had feen a quantity of them, 

which 



New Jerfey, Raccoon. 359 

which had been brought up at the digging 
of a well : on fuch occafions, people have 
often found (at the depth of between twen- 
ty and fifty feet) great branches and blocks. 
There were fome fpots where twenty feet 
under the furface of the earth, the people 
had found fuch trowels as the Indians uie : 
from thefe obfervations they all concluded, 
that this tra6t of land had formerly been 
the bottom of the fea. It is to be obferved, 
that moft of the wells which have hitherto 
been made, have been dug in new fettle- 
ments, where the wood was yet (landing, 
and had probably flood for centuries toge- 
ther. From the obfervations which have 
hitherto been mentioned, and to which I 
fhall add fimilar ones in the fequel, we 
may, with a confiderable degree of certain- 
ty conclude, that a great part of the pro- 
vince of New Jerfeyj in ages unknown to 
poflerity, was part of the bottom of the 
fea, and was afterwards formed by the 
flime and mud, and the many other things 
which the river Delaware carries down 
along with it, from the upper parts of the 
country : however Cape May feems to give 
fome occafion for doubts, of which I fhall 
fpeak in the fequel. 

Z 4 Novem-^ 



^6o 'November 1748. 

November the 27th. The American ever- 
greens are 

1 . Ilex Aquifoliumj holly. 

2. Kalmia latifolia, the fpoon tree. 

3. Kalmia anguftHoliay anotherfpecies of it. 

4. Magnolia glauca, the beaver tree. 
The young trees of this kind only keep 
their leaves, the others drop them. 

5. Vifcum alburn^ or mifletoe j this com- 
monly grows upon the Nyjfa aquatica, or 
tupelo tree, upon the Liqmdamhar fiyraci- 

Jlua, or fweet gum tree, the oak and lime 
tree, fo that their whole fummits were fre- 
quently quite green in winter. 

6. Myj'ica cerifera, or the candleberry 
tree ; of this however only fome of the 
youngeft fhrubs preferve fome leaves, but 
mofl of them had already loft them. 

7. Pinus AbieSi the pine. 

8. Pinus fylvejlr is t the fir. 

9. Ciiprejjus thyoidesy the white cedar, 
i o. yuniperus Virginiana, the red cedar. 
Several oaks and other trees dropt 

their leaves here in winter, which however 
keep them ever green, a little more to the 
fouth, and in Carolina. 

November the 30th. It has been ob- 
ferved, that the Europeans in North Ame^ 
ricay whether they were born in Sweden, 

England, 



New Jerfey, Raccoon, 361 

England, Germany or Holland', or In North 
America, oi European parents, always loft 
their teeth much fooner than common; 
the women efpecially were fuhjedt to this 
difagreeable circumftance, the men did not 
fuffer fo much from it. Girls not above 
twenty years old, frequently had loft half 
of their teeth, without any hopes of getting 
new ones : I have attempted to penetrate 
into the caufes of this early fhedding of 
the teeth, but I know not, whether I have 
hit upon a true one. Many people were 
of opinion that the air of this country hurt 
the teeth : fo much is certain that the 
weather can no where be fubjecfl to more 
frequent and fudden changes -, for the end 
of a hot day, often turns out piercing cold, 
and 'Dice 'uerfa. Yet this change of wea- 
ther, cannot be looked upon as having any 
efFetfl upon the fhedding of the teeth, for 
the India?2s prove the contrary : they live 
in the fame air, and always keep fine, en- 
tire white teeth ; this I have feen myfelf, 
and have been a flu red of by every body: 
others afcribe it to the great quantities of 
fruit and fweet meats which are here eaten. 
But I have known many people, vvho never 
eat any fruit, and neverthelefs had hardly a 
tooth left. 

I THEN began to fufpedl the tea, which 

is 



362 November 1748. 

is drank here in the morning and afternoon, 
efpecially by women, and is fo common at 
prefent, that there is hardly a farmer's wife 
or a poor woman, who does not drink tea 
in the morning : 1 was confirmed in this 
opinion when I took a journey through 
fome parts of the country which were ftill 
inhabited by Indians. For Major General 
John/on told me at that time, that feveral 
of the Indians who lived clofe to the Euro^ 
pean fettlements, had learnt to drink tea. 
And it has been obferved, that fuch of the 
Indian women, as ufed themfelves too much 
to this liquor, had in the fame manner as 
the European women, loft their teeth pre- 
maturely, though they had formerly been 
quite found. Thofe again, who had not 
ufed tea preferved their teeth ftrong and 
found to a great age. 

I AFTERWARDS fouud, that the ufe of 
tea could not entirely caufe this accident. 
Several young women who lived in this 
country, but were born in Europe, com- 
plained that they loft moft of their teeth 
after they came to America : I afked, whe-» 
ther they did not think that it arofe from 
the frequent ufe of tea, as it was known, 
that ftrong tea, as it were enters into and 
corrodes the teeth j but they anfwered, 
that they had loft their teeth before they 

had 



New Jerfey, Raccoon, 363 

had began to drink tea, but continuing my 
enquiries, I found at laft a fufficient caufe, 
to account for the lofs of their teeth : each 
of thefe women owned, that they were ac- 
cuflomed to eat every thing hot, and no- 
thing was good in their opinion, unlefs they 
could eat it as faft as it came from the fire. 
This is Hkewife the cafe with the women in 
the country who lofe their teeth much fooner 
and more abundantly than the men. They 
drink tea in greater quantity and much 
oftener, in the morning, and even at noon, 
when the employment of the men will not 
allow them to fit at the tea-table. Befides 
that, tht Englijhmen care very little for tea, 
and a bowl of punch is much more agree- 
able to them. When the Englijh women 
drink tea, they never pour it out of the cup 
into the faucer, but drink it hot as it is out 
of the former. The Indian women in imi- 
tation of them, fwallow the tea in the fame 
manner. On the contrary thofe Indians 
whofe teeth are found, never eat any thing 
hot, but take their meat either quite cold, 
or only juft milk warm. 

I ASKED the Swedijh churchwarden in 
Philadelphia, Mr. Bengtfon, and a number 
of old Swedes, whether their parents and 
countrymen had likewife loft their teeth 
^s foon as the American colonifts i but they 

told 



364 November 1748. 

told me that they had preferved them to a 
very great age. Bengtfon afTured me, that 
his father at the age of feventy, cracked 
peach ftones and the black walnuts with 
his teeth, notwithftanding their great hard- 
nefs, which at this time no body dares to 
venture at that age. This confirms what I 
have before faid, for at that time the ufe of 
tea was not yet known in North America. 

No difeafe is more common here, than 
that which the Englijh call fever and ague, 
which is fometimes quotidian, tertian^ or 
quartan. But it often happens, that a per- 
fon who has had a tertian ague, after lofing 
it for a week or two, gets a quotidian ague 
in its Aead, which after a while again 
changes into a tertian. The fever com- 
monly attacks the people at the end of Au- 
guji, or beginning of September, and com- 
monly continues during autumn and win- 
ter till towards fpring, when it ceafes en- 
tirely. 

Strangers who arrive here, common- 
ly are attacked by this ficknefs the firft or 
fecond year after their arrival ; and it is 
more violent upon them, than upon the 
natives, fo that they fometimes die of it 5 
but if they efcape the firft time, they have 
the advantage of not being vifited again the 
next year, or perhaps never any more. It is 

commonly 



New y^rfey. Raccoon. 365 

commonly faid here, that ftrangers get the 
fever to accuftom them to the cUmate. The 
natives of European offspring, have annual 
fits of this ague in fome parts of the coun- 
try : fome however are foon delivered from 
it, with others on the contrary it continues 
for fix months together, and others are 
afflided with it till they die. The Indi- 
ans alfo fuffer it, but not fo violently as the 
Europeans. No age is fecured againfl: it : 
in thole places where it rages annuall)% 
you fee old men and women attacked with 
it J and even children in the cradle, fome- 
times not above three weeks old : it is 
likewife quotidian, tertian or quartan w^ith 
them. This autumn the ay;ue was more 
violent here, than it commonly ufed to be. 
People who are afflicHied with it, look as 
pale as death, and are greatly weakened, 
but in general are not prevented from doing 
their work in the intervals. It is remark- 
able, that every year there are great parts 
of the country where this fever rages, and 
others where fcarce a fingle perfon has 
been taken ill. It likewife is worth notice, 
that there are places where the people can- 
not remember that it formerly prevailed in 
their country, though at prefent it begins 
to grow more common : yet there was no 
other vilible difference between the feveral 

places 



366 November 1748. 

places. All the old Swedes, Englijhmetti 
Germans, &c. unanimoufly afferted, that 
the fever had never been fo violent, and of 
fuch continuance when they were boys, as 
it is at prefent. They were likewife ge- 
nerally of opinion, that about the year 
1 680, there virere not fo many people af- 
flided with it, as about this time. How- 
ever others equally old, were of opinion 
that the fever was proportionably as com- 
mon formerly, as it is at prefent ; but that 
it could not at that time be fo fenfibly per- 
ceived, on account of the fcarcity of inha- 
bitants, and the great diftance of their fet- 
tlements from each other ; it is therefore 
probable that the effeds of the fever have 
at all times been equal. 

It would be difficult to determine the 
true caufes of this difeafe j they feem to be 
numerous, and not always alike : fome- 
times, and I believe commonly feveral of 
them unite. I have taken all poffible care 
to found the opinions of the phyficians here 
on that head, and I here offer them to the 
reader. 

Some of them think that the peculi- 
ar qualities of the air of this country caufe 
this fever; but moft of them afTert that 
it is generated by the {landing and putrid 
water, which it feems is confirmed by ex- 
perience. 



New Jerfey, Raccoon, 367 

perience. For it has been obferved in this 
country, that fuch people as live in the 
neighbourhood of Morafles or Swamps, or 
in places where a ftagnant, {linking water 
is to be met with, are commonly infefted 
with the fever and ague every year, and 
get it more readily than others. And this 
chiefly happens at a time of the year when 
thofe ftagnant waters are moft evaporated 
by the exceffive heat of the fun, and the 
air is filled with the moft noxious vapors. 
The fever likewife is very violent in all 
places which have a very low fituation, and 
where fait water comes up with the tide 
twice in twenty four hours, and unites with 
the ftagnant, frefti water in the country. 
Therefore on travelling in fummer over 
fuch low places where frefti and fait water 
unite, the naufeous ftench arifing from 
thence often forces the traveller to ftop his 
nofe. On that account moft of the inhabi- 
tants of Pernios necky and Salem in New Jer- 
fey, where the ground has the above-men- 
tioned quality, are annually infefted with 
the fever to a much greater degree, than 
the inhabitants of the higher country. If 
an inhabitant of the higher part of the 
country, where the people are free from the 
fever, removes into the lower parts, he may 
be well aftured that the fever will attack 

him 



368 November 1748. 

him at the ufual time, and that he will get 
it again every year, as long as he continues 
in that country. People of the liveliefl 
complexion on coming into the low parts 
of the country, and continuing there for 
fome time, have entirely loft their colour 
and become quite pale. However this can- 
not be the fole caufe of the fever, as I have 
been in feveral parts of the country which 
had a low fituation and had ftagnant waters 
near them, where the people declared they 
feldom fufFered from this ficknefs : but thefe 
places were about two or three degrees more 
northerly. 

Others were of opinion that diet did 
very much towards it, and chiefly laid the 
blame upon the inconfiderate and intem- 
perate confumption of fruit. This is par- 
ticularly the cafe with the Europeans, who 
come into AmericUy and are not ufed to its 
climate and its fruit -, for thofe who are 
born here can bear more, yet are not en- 
tirely free from the bad effedis of eating too 
much. I have heard many EngliJJDmen, 
Germans, and others fpeak from their own 
experience on this account -, they owned, 
that they had often tried, and were certain 
that after eating a water melon once or 
twice before they had breakfafted, they 
would have the fever and ague in a fev7 

days 



New Jerfey, Raccoon. 369 

days after. Yet it is remarkable, that the 
French in Canada told me that fevers were 
lefs common in that country, though they 
confumed as many water melons as the 
Englifi colonies, and that it had never been 
obferved that they occalioned a fever ; but 
that on coming in the hot feafon to the 
Illinois, an Indian nation which is nearly in 
the fame latitude with Penjyhania and ISfew 
yerfey, they could not eat a water melon 
without feeling the fhaking fits of an ague, 
and that the Indians therefore warned them 
not to eat of fo dangerous a fruit. Query, 
Does not this lead us to think that the 
greater heat in Penjyhania, and the country 
of the Illinois, which are both five or fix 
degrees more foutherly than Canada, makes 
fruit in fome meafure more dangerous ? In 
the EngliJJj North American colonies, every 
countryman plants a number of water me- 
lons, which are eaten whilft the people 
make hay, or during the harveft when they 
have nothing upon their flomachs, in order 
to cool them during the great heat, as that 
juicy fruit feems very proper to give re- 
frefhment. In the fame manner melons, 
cucumbers, gourds, fquafiies, mulberries, 
apples, peaches, cherries, and fuch like 
fruit are eaten here in fummer, and altoge- 
ther contribute to the attacks of the ague. 
A a But 



2yo November 1748^. 

But that the manner of living contributes 
greatly towards it, may be concluded from 
the unanimous accounts of old people, con- 
cerning the times of their childhood; ac- 
cording to which, the inhabitants of thefe 
parts, were at that time not fubjedt to fo 
many difeafes as they are at prefent, and 
people were feldom fick. All the old 
Swedes likewife agreed, that their country- 
men, who firfl came into North America^ 
attained to a great age, and their children 
nearly to the fame ; but that their grand 
children, and great grand children did not 
reach the age of their anceftors, and their 
health was not near fo vigorous and durable. 
But the Swedes v/ho firft fettled in America^ 
lived very frugally ; they were poor, and 
could not buy rum, brandy, or other ftrong 
liquors, which they feldom diftilled them- 
felves, as few of them had a diftilling vef- 
fel. However they fometimes had a good 
ftrong beer. They did not underftand the 
art of making cyder, which is now fo com- 
mon in the country : tea, coffee, choco^ 
late, which are at prefent even the country 
people's daily breakfaft, were wholly un- 
known to them : moft of them had never 
tafted fugar or punch. The tea which is 
now drank, is either very old, or mixed 
with all forts of herbs, fo that it no longer 

deferves 



New Jerfeyy Raccoon. 371 

deferves the name of tea : therefore it can- 
not have any good effedt upon thofe who 
ufe it plentifully ; beiides, it cannot fail 
of relaxing the bowels, as it is drank both 
in the morning and in the afternoon quite 
boiling hot. The Indians, the offspring of 
the firft inhabitants of this^ country, are a 
proof of what I have faid. It is well known 
that their anceftors, at the time of the firft 
arrival of the Europeans y lived to a very 
great age. According to the common ac- 
counts, it was then not uncommon to find 
people among the Indians, who were above 
a hundred years old : they lived frugally, 
and drank pure water : brandy, rum, wine, 
and all the other flrong liquors, were utter- 
ly unknown to them j but fince the chrif- 
tians have taught them to drink thefe li- 
quors, and the Indians have found them 
too palatable, thofe who cannot refifl: their 
appetites, hardly reach half the age of their 
parents. 

Lastly, fome people pretended that 
the lofs of many odoriferous plants, with 
which the woods were filled at the arrival 
of the Europeans^ but which the cattle has 
now extirpated, might be looked upon as 
a caufe of the greater progrefs of the fever 
at prefent. The number of thofe ftrong 
plants occafioncd a pleafant fcent to rife in 
A a 2 the 



372 November 1748. 

the woods every morning and evening. It 
is therefore not unreafonable to think that 
the noxioufnefs of the effluvia from putrify- 
ing fubftances was then prevented, fo that 
they were not fo dangerous to the inhabi- 
tants. 

Several remedies are employed againft 
this difeafe: the jefuit's bark was formerly a 
certain one, but at prefent it has not always 
this effedt, though they fell it genuine, and 
for the very beft. Many people accufed it 
of leaving fomething noxious in the body. 
Yet it was commonly obferved, that when 
the bark was good, and it was taken as foon 
as the fever made its appearance, and before 
the body was weakened, it was almoft 
fure to conquer the fever, fo that the cold 
fits never returned, and no pain or ftiffnefs 
remained in the limbs ; but when the di- 
feafe is rooted in, and has confiderably weak- 
ened the patients, or they are naturally very 
weak, the fever leaves them after ufing the 
jefuit's bark, but returns again in a fort- 
night's time, and obliges them to take the 
bark again -, but the confequence frequently 
is a pain and a ftiffnefs in their limbs, and 
fometimes in their bowels, which almoft | 
hinders them from walking : this pain con- 1 
tinues for feveral years together, and even 
accompanies fome to the grave. This bad 

efFedl 



Neiv Jerfey, Raccoon, 373 

efFe(ft is partly attributed to the bark, which 
can feldom be got genuine here, and partly 
to the little care which the patients take in 
ufing the bark. A man of my acquaintance 
was particularly dexterous in expelling the 
ague by the ufe of the jefuit's bark. His 
manner of proceeding was as follows : when 
it was poffible, the patient muft ufe the re- 
medy as foon as the fever begun, and be- 
fore it was fettled in his body : but before 
he took the medicine, he was to take a dia- 
phoretic remedy, as that had been found 
very falutary ; and as the fever is frequent- 
ly of fuch a nature here, as not to make 
the patient fweat, even when the hot fit is 
upon him, a perfpiration was to be brought 
about by fome other means. To that pur- 
pofe the patient took his dofe on the day 
when he had his cold fit, and was not al- 
lowed to eat any thing at night. The next 
morning he continued in a warm bed, drank 
a quantity of tea, and was well covered that 
he might perfpire plentifully. He conti- 
nued fo till the perfpiration ceafed, and 
then left the bed in a hot room, and walli- 
ed his body with milk warm water, in or- 
der to cleanfe it from the impurities that 
fettled on it from the perfpiration, and to 
prevent their flopping up of the pores. The 
patient was then dried again, and at laft he 
A a 3 took 



374 November 1748. 

took the bark feveral times in one day. 
This was repeated twice or thrice on the 
days after he had the ague, and it com- 
monly left him without returning, and moft 
people recover fo well, that they do not 
look pale after their ficknefs. 

The bark of the root of the Ti'ulip tree, 
or Liriodendron Tulipifera, taken in the fame 
manner as the jefuit's bark, fometimes had 
a fimilar effedl. 

Several people peeled the roots of the 
Cornus Jloridd, or Dog woodf and gave this 
peel to the patients -, and even fome people, 
who could not be cured by the jefuit's bark, 
have recovered by the help of this. I have 
likewife feen people cured of the fever, by 
taking brimftone reduced to powder, and 
mixed with fugar every night before they 
went to bed, and every morning before they 
got up : they took it three or four times in 
the intervals-, and at each time drank fome 
warm liquor, to wa(h the powder down. 
However others that tried the fame remedy 
did not find much relief from it. 

Some people collected the yellow bark of 
the peach tree, efpecially that which is on 
the root and boiled it in water, till half of 
it was evaporated by boiling. Of this de- 
codlion the patient took every morning 
about a wine glafs full, before he had eaten 

any 



New Jerfiyy Raccoon. 375 

any thing. This liquor has a difagreeable 
tall€, and contrads the mouth and tongue 
like alum 5 yet feveral perfons at Raccoon 
who had tried many remedies in"vain, were 
cured by this. 

Others boiled the leaves of the Poten- 
tilla reptans, or of the Potentilla canadenjisy 
in water, and made the patients drink it 
before the ague fit came on, and it is well 
known that feveral perfons have recovered 
by this means. 

The people who are fettled upon the 
river Mohawk in New York, both Indians 
and Europeans collecfl the root of the 
Geum rivale, and pound it. This powder 
fome of them boil in water till it is a pret- 
ty ftrong decodion : others only infufe 
cold water on it and leave it fo for a day j 
others mix it with brandy. Of this me- 
dicine the patient is to take a wine glafs 
full on the morning of the day when the 
fever does not come, before he has eat- 
en any thing. I was afTured that this was 
one of the fureft remedies, and more cer- 
tain than the jefuit's bark. 

The people who live near the iron 
mines, declared that they v/ere feidom or 
never vifited by the fever and ague ; but 
when they have the fever, they drink the 
water of fuch fountains, as arife from the 
A a ^ iron 



376 November 1748. 

iron mines, and have a ftrong chalybeat 
tafte ; and they aflured me that this remedy 
was infallible. Other people therefore who 
did not live very far from fuch fprings, 
went to them for a few days, when they 
liad the fever, in order to drink the water, 
which commonly cured them. 

I HAVE already fhown above, that fage 
mixed with lemon juice, has been found 
very falutary againfl the ague. 

It was however univerfally remarkable, 
that that which cures one perfon of it, has 
no effed upon another. 

The pleurify is likewife a difeafe which 
the people of this country are much fubje<5t 
to. The Swedes in this province call it 
jlitches and burnings and they always mean 
the pleurify whenever they mention thofe 
words. Many of the old Swedes told me 
that they had heard very little of it when 
they were young, and that their parents 
had known ftill lefs of it in their childhood ; 
but that it was fo common now, that many 
people died every year of it : yet it has 
been obferved, that in fome years this di- 
feafe has been very moderate, and taken 
few people away with it, whilft in other 
years it makes great havock : it likewife is 
more violent in fome places than in others. 
In the autumn of the year 1728, it fwept 

away 



New Jerfiyy Raccoon. 375? 

away many at Penn*s neck, a place below 
Raccoon, and nearer to the Delaware, where 
a nunftber of Swedes are fettled. Almoft all 
the Swedes there died of it, though the^ 
were very nurtierous. From hence it haji-*' 
pened that their children who were left iii 
a very tender age, and grew up amon^ 
the Englifh childi^en, forgot their mother 
tongue, fo that few of them underftand it 
at prefent. Since that time, though the 
pleurify has every year killed a few people 
at Penns neck, yet it has not carried off any 
confiderable numbers. It refted as it wei»e 
till the autumn of the year 1748, but then 
it began to make dreadful havock, and every 
week fix or ten of the old people died. 
The difeafe was fo violent, that when it at- 
t-acked a perfon, he feldom lived above two 
or three days j and of thofe who were takfefi 
ill with it, very few recovered. When the 
pleurify was got into a houfe, it killed moft 
of the old people in it : it was a true pleu- 
rify, but it had a peculiarity with it, for it 
commonly began with a great fwelling un- 
der the throat and in the neck, and with a 
difficulty of fwallowing. Some people look- 
ed upon it as contagious -, and others feri- 
oufly declared, that when it came into a fa- 
mily, not only thofe who lived in the famfe 
houfe fuffered from it, but even fuch rela- 
tions 



2y^ November 1748. 

tions ^s lived far off. There have been fe- 
veral people at Penn's necky who, withont 
vifiting their fick friends, have got the 
pleurify and died of it : I do not difpute the 
truth of this, though I do not agree to the 
cpnclufion. The pleurify w^as the moft vio- 
lent in November 'y yet fome old people died 
of it even in the next winter; but children 
were pretty free from it. The phyficians 
did not know what to make of it, nor how 
to remedy it. 

It is difficult to determine the caufes of 
fuch violent difeafes. An old Engli/h fur- 
geon who lived here gave the following 
reafon. The inhabitants of this country 
drink great quantities of punch and other 
ftrong liquors in fummer, when it is very 
hot ; by that means the veins in the dia- 
phragm contract, and the blood grows thick. 
Towards the end of OBober and the begin- 
ning of November, the weather is apt to 
alter very fuddenly, fo that heat and cold 
change feveral times a day. When the 
people during this changeable weather are 
in the open air, they commonly get this 
difeafe. It is likewife certain that the air 
is more unwholefome one year, than ano- 
ther, which depends upon the heat, and 
other circumftances : this peculiar quality 
of the air muft of courfe prodi^ce a pleurify. 

It 



'Penfyhania, Philadelphia, 379 

It is remarkable, that both in the year 
1728, and in the prefent, when fo many 
people died at Penns neck, few died at 
Raccoon y though the two places are near 
each other, and feem to have the fame foil 
and climate. But there is this difference 
that Penn's neck lies remarkably low, and 
Raccoon pretty high. The people in the 
former place have fettled between marfhes 
and fwamps, in which the water ftagnates 
and putrifies ; and moft of thefe places are 
covered with trees, by which means the 
wet is fhut up ftill more, and near fuch 
marfhes, are the houfes. Laftly the water 
at Penn% neck is not reckoned fo good as 
that in Raccoon^ but has fome tafte. It 
likewife becomes brackilh in feveral little 
rivers when the Delaware during the tide 
rifes very high, and runs up into them. On 
the banks of thefe rivulets live many of 
the Swedes, and take water for common 
ufe from them. 

December the 3d. This morning I fet 
out for Philadelphia, where I arrived in the 
evening. 

Wild grapes are very abundant in the 
woods, and of various kinds -, a fpecies of 
them which are remarkable for their fize, 
grow in the marfhes, and are greedily eaten 
by the Raccoon : they are therefore called 

marjh 



380 Decembtr 1748. 

marjh grapes, but the Englijh call them/o^ 
grapes : they have not an agreeable flavour, 
and are feldom eaten by the inhabitants of 
this country, who make ufe of a fmall kind 
of wild grapes, which grow on a dry foil ; 
pretty late in autumn when they are qwite 
ripe, they are eaten raw, and have a very 
good flavour, being a mixture of fweet 
and acid. Some people dry thefe grapes 
when gathered and bake them in tarts, &c. 
they like wife make ufe of them as dried 
fweetmeats. The Swedes formerly made a 
pretty good wine from them j but have 
now left it off. However fome of the En- 
glifh ftill prefs an agreeable liquor from 
thefe grapes, which they aflfured me was as 
good as the bed claret, and that it would 
keep for feveral years. 

The manner of preparing this fort of 
wine has been defcribed at large in an al- 
manack of this country, for the year 1743, 
and is as follows : the grapes are colledied 
from the twenty firft o^ September to about 
the eleventh of November, that is as they 
grow ripe : they mufl: be gathered in dry 
weather, arid after the dew is gone off: 
the grapes are cleared of the cobwebs, dry 
leaves, and other things adhering to them. 
Next a great hoglhead is prepared which has 
cither had treacle or brandy in ; it is wafhcd 

very 



Penjyhania, Philadelphia, 381 

very clean, one of the bottoms beat out, 
and the other placed on a (land for the pur- 
pofe, or on pieces of wood in the cellar, or 
elfe in a warm room, about two feet above 
the ground : the grapes are put into this 
hogfhead, and as they fink lower in three 
or four days time more are added. A man 
with naked feet gets into the hogfliead and 
treads the grapes, and in about half an 
hour's time the juice is forced out ; the man 
then turns the loweft grapes uppermoft, 
and treads them for about a quarter of 
an hour : this is fufficient to fqueeze the 
good juice out of them : for an additio- 
nal prelTure would even crufli the unripe 
grapes, and give the whole a difagreea- 
ble flavour. The hogfliead is then co- 
vered with a thick blanket -, but if there 
is no cellar, or it is very cold, two are fpread 
over it. Under this covering the juice is 
left to ferment for the firft time, and in the 
next four or five days it ferments and works 
very ftrongly. As foon as the fermentation 
ceafes, a hole is made about fix inches from 
the bottom, andfomeof the juice is tapped 
off about twice in a day. As foon as this 
is clear and fettled, it is poured into an 
anker of a middling fize j for from twenty 
bufliels of grapes, they get about as many 
gallons of juice : the anker remains un- 
touched 



382 December 1748. 

touched and the muft in it ferments a ie- 
cond time : at this time it is neceffary that 
the anker be quite full , the fcum which 
fettles at the bunghole, muft be taken off, 
and the anker always filled up with more 
muft, which is kept ready for that pur- 
pofe : this is continued till chriftmas, when 
the anker may be flopped up ; at laft the 
wine is ready in February and bottled. It 
is likewife ufual here, to put fome of the 
ripe grapes into a veflel in order to make a 
vinegar, and that which is got by this 
means is very good. Several people made 
brandy from thefe grapes which has a very 
pleafant tafte, but is ftill more pleafant, 
if the fruits of the perfimon are mixed 
with it. The wood of thefe vines is of no 
ufe, it is fo brittle that it cannot be ufed 
for flicks : on cutting into the ftem, a 
white, infipid refin comes out a few hours 
after the wound is made. In many gardens 
vines are planted for the purpofe of making 
arbours fOr which they are indeed excellent; 
as their large and plentiful leaves form a 
very clofe cover againft the fcorching heat of 
the fun. When the vines flower here in 
May and June, the flowers exhale a ftrong, 
but exceeding pleafant and refrefhing fmell, 
which is perceptible even at a great dif- 
tance. Therefore on coming into the woods 

about 



Penjyhania, Philadelphia, 383 

about that time, you may judge from the 
fweet perfume in the air, arifing from the 
flowers of the vines, that you are near them, 
though you do not fee them. Though the 
winters be ever fo fevere, yet they do not 
afFe<fl the vines. Each grape is about the 
lize of a pea, but further fouthward they 
are faid to be of the lize of common raifins, 
and of a finer flavour. Further up in the 
country, during a part of autumn, they are 
the chief fc-d of bears, who climb up the 
trees in order to pluck them. People are 
of opinion that if the wild vines were cul- 
tivated with more care, the grapes would 
grow larger, and more palatable. 

December the 5th. I shall here men- 
tion two prognofticks of the weather, which 
were greatly valued here. Some people 
pretended to foretel that the enfuing winter 
would not be a fevere one : this they con- 
jedured from having feen wild ^tt(t and 
other migratory birds go to the fouth in 
OBobevy but return a few days ago in great 
numbers, and even pafs on further to the 
north. Indeed the enfuing winter was one 
of the mofl: temperate ones. 

Several perfons likewife aflured us that 
we fhould have rain before to morrow night. 
The reafon they gave for this conjecture 
was, that this morning at fun rifing, from 

their 



384 December 1748. 

their windows they had feen every thing 
very plainly on the other fjde of the river, 
fo that it appeared much nearer than ufual, 
and that this commonly foreboded rain. 
This prefagc w^s likewife pretty exactly 
fulfilled. 

The Indians before the arrival of the 
]S.uropeans, had no notion of the ufe of iron, 
though that metal was abundant in their 
country. However they knew in fome 
meafure how to make ufe of copper. Some 
Dutchmen who lived here, flill preferved 
the old account among them, that their 
anceftors on their firft fettling in New Tork 
had met with many of the Indians, who 
had tobacco pipes of copper, and who made 
them underftand by figns, that they got 
them in the neighbourhood: afterwards the 
fine copper mine was difcovered, upon the 
fecond river between Elizabeth-town and 
New Tork, On digging in this mine, the 
people met with holes worked in the moun- 
tain, out of which fome copper had been 
taken, and they found even fome tools, 
which the Indians probably made ufe of, 
when they endeavoured to get the metal for 
their pipes. Such holes in the mountains 
have likewife been found in fome parts of 
Penfyhaniat viz. below Newcajiie towards 
the fea fide, and always fome marks of a 

copper 



Penjyhania, Philadelphia, 385 

copper ore along with them. Some peo- 
ple have conjed:ured, that the Spaniards, 
after difcovering Mexico, failed along the 
coafts of North America, and landed now 
and then, in order to enquire whether any 
gold or filver was to be met with, and that 
they perhaps made thefe holes in the moun- 
tains : but fuppoling them to have made 
fuch a voyage along the coafts, they could 
not immediately have found out the copper 
mines j and they probably did not flop to 
blaft this ore, as they were bent only upon 
gold and filver j it is therefore almoft un- 
doubted that the Indians dug thefe holes : 
or may we be allowed to fufpedt that our 
old Normans, long before the difcoveries of 
Columbus, came into thefe parts and met 
with fuch veins of copper, when they fail- 
ed to what they called the excellent Wine^ 
land,^ of which our ancient traditional re- 
cords called Sagor fpeak, and which un- 
doubtedly was North America. But in re- 
gard to this, I fhall have occafion in the 
fequcl better to explain rny fentiments. It 
was remarkable, that in all thofe places 
where fuch holes have lately been found in 
the mountains, which manifeftly feem to 
B b have 



* See for this opinion the fcarce and curious work intitled, 
Torfai htftorta Vinlandia antiquee feu partis America feptentri- 
onalis, Jiafnia 171s* 4^0* F» 



386 December 1748, 

have been dug by tnen, they were always 
covered with a great quantity of earth, as if 
they were intended to remain hidden frona 
ftrangers. 

December the 6th. On long voyages the 
failors fometimes catch fuch fi(h as are 
known to none of the fhip's company ; but 
as they are very greedy after frefh provifi- 
ons, they feldom abftain from eating th^m* 
however it proves often venturing too much, 
experience having fhown, that their want of 
caution has often coft them their lives, for 
fometimes poifonous fifh are caught. But 
there is a method of finding them out, as I 
have heard from feveral captains of fhips : 
it is ufual when fuch unknown fi(h are boil- 
ed, to put a filver button, or any piece of 
lilver into the kettle, which if the fi{h be 
poifonous, will turn quite black, but if it 
be not, it will not change : fome of th€ 
feamen referred to their own repeated expe- 
rience.* 

Mr. Franklin and feveral other gentle- 
men frequently told me, that a powerful 

Indian, 

• This experimentivith the filver, fuppofes that the broth 
©f the fifh would be fo ftrong as to aft as a folvent upon the 
filver ; but there may be poifons, which would not afFeft the 
filver, and however prove fatal to men ; the fiireft way there- 
fore would be to fupprefs that appethe, which nay become 
fatal not only to a few men of the crew, but alfo endamger 
the whole fhip, by the lofs of necei&iy hands. F. 



Penjylvania, Philadelphia, 387 

Indian, who poffeffed Rhode IJland had fold 
it to the Englijh for a pair of fpedtacles : it 
is large enough for a prince's domain, and 
makes a peculiar government at prefent. 
This Indian knew to fet a true value upon 
a pair of fpeftacles : for undoubtedly if 
thofe glalTes were not fo plentiful, and only 
a few of them could be found, they would 
on account of their great ufe, bear the fame 
price with diamonds. 

The fervants which are made ufe of in 
the Eng/i/h American colonies are either free 
perfons, or Haves, and the former are again 
of two different forts. 

I. Those who are quite free ferve by 
the year, they are not only allowed to leave 
their fervice at the expiration of their year, 
but may leave it at any time when they do 
not agree with their mafters. However in 
that cafe they are in danger of lofing their 
wages, which are very confiderable. A 
man fervant who has fome abilities, gets 
between lixteen and twenty pounds in Pen- 
jylvania currency, but thofe in the country 
do not get fo much. A fervant maid gets 
eight or ten pounds a year : thefe fervants 
have their food befides their wages, but 
muft buy their own clothes, and what they 
get of thefe they muil thank their mailer's 
goodnefs for. 

B b 2 2. The 



388 December 1748. 

2. The fecond kind of free fervants COii- 
fift of fuch perfons as annually come from 
Germany, England and other countries, in 
order to fettle here. Thefe new comers are 
very numerous every year : there are old and 
young ones, and of both fexes ; fome of 
them ' have fled from oppfelTion, under 
which they fuppofed themfelves to have 
laboured. Others have been driven from 
their country by perfecutiofi on account 
of religion ; but moft of them are poor, 
and have not money enough to pay their 
pafTage, which is between fix and eight 
pounds fterling for each perfon ; therefore 
they agree with the captain that they will 
fuffer themfelves to be fold for a few years, 
on their arrival. In that cafe the perfon 
who buys them, pays the freight for them, 
but frequently very old people come over, 
who cannot pay their paiTage, they there- 
fore fell their children, fo that they ferve 
both for themfelves and for their parents : 
there are likewife fome who pay part of 
their paiTage, and they are fold only for a 
Ihort time. From thefe circumftances it 
appears, that the price of the poor foreigners 
who come over to North America is not 
equal, and that fome of them ferve longer 
than others : when their time is expired, 
they get a new fuit of clothes from their 

mailer 



Penfyhania, Philadelphia, 389 

mafter, and fome other things : he is like- 
wife obliged to feed and clothe them 
during the years of their fervitude. Many 
oi t\\Q Germans who come hither, bring 
money enough with them to pay their paf- 
fage, but rather fuffer themfelves to be fold, 
with a view that during their fervitude they 
may get fome knowledge of the language 
and quality of the country, and the like, 
that they may the better be able to confider 
what they fhall do when they have got their 
liberty. Such fervahts are taken preferable 
to all others, becaufe they are not fo dear; 
for to buy a Negroe or black flave, requires 
too much money at once ; and men or 
maids who get yearly wages, are likewife 
too dear; but this kind of fervants may be 
got for half the money, and even for lefs; 
for they commonly pay fourteen pounds, 
Penjylvania currency, for a perfon who is 
to ferve four years, and fo on in proportion. 
Their wages therefore are not above three 
pounds Penjylvania currency per ann. This 
kind of fervants, the Englijh call fervings. 
When a perfon has bought fuch a fervant 
for a certain number of years, and has an 
intention to fell him again, he is at liberty 
to do fo ; but he is obliged, at the expira- 
tion of the term of the fervitude to provide 
the ufual fuit of cloaths for the fervant, un- 
B b 3 lefs 



39 o December 1748. 

lefs he has made that part of the bargain 
with the purchafer. The Englijh and 
Irijh commonly fell themfelves for four 
years, but the Germans frequently agree 
with the captain before they fet out, to 
pay him a certain fum of money, for a cer- 
tain number of perfons 5 as foon as they ar- 
rive in America, they go about and try to 
get a man who will pay the pafTage for 
them. In return they give according to 
the circumftances one, or feveral of their 
children to ferve a certain number of years, 
at laft they make their bargain with the 
higheft bidder. 

3. The Negroes or Blacks make the third 
kind. They are in a manner Haves 5 for 
when a Negro is once bought, he is the 
purchafer's fervant as long as he lives, un- 
iefs he gives him to another, or makes him 
free. However it is not in the power of 
the mafter to kill his Negro for a fault, but 
he mufl: leave it to the magiftrates to pro- 
ceed according to the laws. Formerly the 
Negroes were brought over from Africa, 
and bought by almoft every one who could 
afford it. The quakers alone fcrupled to 
have Haves ; but they are no longer fo nice, 
and they have as many Negroes as other 
people. However many people cannot con- 
quer the idea of its being contrary to the 

laws 



Penjyhania, Philadelphia, 391 

laws of chriftianity to keep flaves. There 
are likewife feveral free Negroes in town, 
who have been lucky enough to get a very 
zealous quaker for their mafter, who gave 
them their liberty, after they had faithfully 
ferved him for fome time. 

At prefent they feldom bring over any 
Negroes to the Englijh colonies, for thofe 
which were formerly brought thither have 
multiplied confiderably. In regard to their 
marriage they proceed as follows : in cafe 
you have not only male but likewife fe- 
male Negroes, they muft intermarry, and 
then the children are all your flaves ; but 
if you poflefs a male Negro only, and he 
has an inclination to marry a female belong- 
ing to a different mafter, you do not hinder 
your Negro in fo delicate a point -, but it is 
no advantage to you, for the children be- 
long to the mafter of the female; it is 
therefore advantageous to have Negro- 
women. A man who kills his Negro muft 
fufFer death for it : there is not however an 
example here of a white man's having been 
executed on this account. A few years 
ago it happened that a mafter killed his 
flave ; his friends and even the magiftrates 
fecretly advifed him to leave the country, 
as otherwife they could not avoid taking 
him prifoner, and then he would be con- 
B b 4 demned 



392 December 1748. 

demned to die according to the laws of the 
country, without any hopes of faving him. 
This lenity was employed towards him, 
that the Negroes might not have the faiif- 
fadiion of feeing a mafter executed for kill- 
ing his flave ; for this would lead them to 
all forts of dangerous defigns againft their 
mafters, and to value themfelves too much. 
The Negroes were formerly brought from 
Africa, as I mentioned before j but now 
this feldom happens, for they are bought 
in the Wejl Indies, or American Ijlands, whi- 
ther they were originally brought from their 
own country : for it has been found that 
on tranfporting the Negroes from Africa, 
immediately into thefe northern countries, 
they have not fuch a good ftate of health, 
as when they gradually change places, and 
are firft carried from Africa to the Weft In^ 
dies, and from thence to North America, 
It has frequently been found, that the Ne- 
groes cannot (land the cold here fo well as 
the Europeans or whites ; for whilft the 
latter are not in the leaft affeded by the 
cold, the toes and fingers of the former are 
frequently frozen. There is likewife a ma- 
terial difference among them in this pointy 
for thofe who come immediately from Afri^ 
ca, cannot bear the cold fo well as thofe 
who are either born in this country, or 

have 



Penfyhania, Philadelphia. 393 

have been here for a conliderable time ; for 
the frofl eafily hurts the hands or feet of 
the Negroes which come from Africa, or 
occalions violent pains iti their whole body, 
or in fome parts of it, though it does not 
at all affedt thofe who have been here for 
fome time. There are frequent examples 
that the Negroes on their paiTage from 
Africa, i£ \i happens in winter, have fome 
of their limbs deftroyed by froft on board the 
fhip, when the cold is but very inconfiderable 
and the failors are fcarce obliged to cover 
their hands. I was even affured, that fome 
Negroes have been feen here, who have had 
an exceffive pain in their legs, which after- 
wards broke in the middle, and dropt en- 
tirely from the body, together with the flefh 
on them. Thus it is the fame cafe with 
men here, as with plants which are brought 
from the fouthern countries, and cannot ac- 
cuftom themfelves to a colder climate. ; • 
The price of Negroes differs according 
to their age, health and abilities. A full 
grown Negro cofts from forty pounds and 
upwards to a hundred oi Penfyhania cur- 
rency. There are even examples that a 
gentleman has paid hundred pounds for a 
black Have at Philadelphia , and refufed to 
fell him again for the fame money.: A Ne- 
gro boy, or girl, of two or three years old, 
can hardly be got for lefs than eight or 

fourteen 



394 December 1748. 

fourteen pounds in Penfylvanian currency. 
Not only the quakers, but likewife feveral 
chriilians of other denominations fometinies 
fpt their Negroes at liberty. This is done 
in the following manner : when a gentle- 
man has a faithful Negro who has done 
him great fervices, he fometimes declares 
him independent at his death. This is 
however very expeniive ; for they are oblig- 
ed to make a provifton for the Negro thus 
fct at liberty, to afford him fubfiftence 
when he is grown old, that he may not 
be driven by neceflity to wicked a<ltions, 
or that he may be at any body's charge, 
for thefe free Negroes become very lazy and 
indolent afterwards. But the children which 
tjle free Negro has begot during his fervi- 
tude are all flaves, though their father be 
free. On the other hand thofe Negro chil- 
dren are free whofe parents are at liberty. 
The Negroes in the North American colo- 
nies are treated more mildly, and fed better 
than thofe in the Wejl Indies, They have 
as good food as the reft of the fervants, and 
they poUefs equal advantages in all things, 
except their being obliged to ferve their 
whole life time, and get no other wages 
than what their mafter's goodnefs allows 
them : they are likewife clad at their 
mafter's expence. On the contrary, in the 
JVeJi Indies, and efpecially in the Spanip 

IJlands 



Penfyhania, Philadelphia, 39^; 

IJlands they are treated very cruelly 5 there* 
fore no threats make more impreflion upon 
a Negro here, than that of fending him 
over to the Weji Indies, in cafe he would 
not reform. It has likewife been frequent- 
ly found by experience, that when you 
fhow too much remiffnefs to thefe Negroes, 
they grow fo obftinated, that they will no 
longer do any thing but of their own ac^ 
cord : therefore a ftridt difcipline is very 
neceffary, if their mailer expe<Sts to be fa- 
tisfied with their fervices. 

In the year 1620, fome Negroes were 
brought to North America in a Dutch fhip, 
and in Virginia they bought twenty of them. 
Thefe are faid to have been the iirft that 
came hither. When the Indians who were 
then more numerous in the country than at 
prefent, faw thefe black people for the firft 
time, they thought they were a true breed 
of Devils, and therefore they called them 
Manitto for a great while : this word in 
their language fignifies not only God, but 
likewife the Devil. Some time before that, 
when they faw the firft European Ihip on 
their coafts, they were perfe(ftly perfuaded 
that God himfelf was in the fhip. This 
account I got from fome Indians, who pre-^ 
ferved it among them as a tradition which 
they had received from their aJiceilors : 
therefore the arrival of the Negroes feemed 

to 



396 '''I)ecetnber 1748. 

to them to' have confufed every things but 
fince that time, they have entertained lefs 
difagreeable notions of the Negroes, for at 
prefent many live among them, and they 
even fometimes intermarry, as I myfelf 
have feen. 

The Negroes have therefore been up- 
wards of a hundred and thirty years in this 
country : but the winters here efpecially in 
New England 2in6. New Tor k, are as fevere 
as our Swedijh winters. I therefore very 
carefully enquired whether the cold had 
not been obferved, to afFe6t the colour of 
the Negroes, and to change it, fo that the 
third or fourth generation from the firft that 
came hither, were not fo black as their an- 
ceftors. But I was generally anfwered, that 
there was not the leaft difference of colour 
to be perceived; and that a Negro born 
here of parents which were likewife born 
in this country, and whofe anceftors both 
men and women had all been blacks born 
in this country, up to the third or fourth 
generation, was not at all different in co- 
lour, from thofe Negroes who are brought 
diredlly over from Africa, From hence 
many people conclude, that a Negro or his 
pofterity do not change colour, though they 
continue ever fo long in a cold climate ; but 
the mixing of a white man with a Negro 
woman, or of a Negro with a white woman 

has 



Penfyjlvamay Philadelphia* 397 

has a difFerent effedt, therefore to prevent 
any difagreeable mixtures of the white peo- 
ple and Negroes, and that the Negroes may 
not form too great an opinion of them- 
felves, to the difadvantage of their mafters, 
I am told there is a law made prohibiting 
the whites of both fexes to marry Negroes, 
under pain of death, and deprivation of the 
clergyman who marries them : but that 
the whites and blacks fometimes mix, ap- 
pears from children of a mixed complexion, 
which are fometimes born. 

It is likewife greatly to be pitied, that 
the mafters of thefe Negroes in moft of the 
Englijh colonies take little care of their 
fpiritual welfare, and let them live on in 
their pagan darknefs. There are even fame, 
who would be very ill pleafed at, and would 
by all means hinder their Negroes from be- 
ing inftrudted in the dodlrines of chriftianity, 
to this they are partly led by the conceit 
of its being fhameful, to have a fpiritual 
brother or lifter among fo defpicable a peo- 
ple, partly by thinking that they Ihould not 
be able to keep their Negroes fo meanly 
afterwards ; and partly through fear of the 
Negroes growing too proud, on feeing 
themfelves upon a level with their mafters 
in religious matters. 

Several writings are well known, which 
mentipn, that the Negroes in South Ame- 
rica 



598 Decemher 1748; 

rica have a kind of poifon with which they 
kill each other, though the effect is not 
fudden, but happens a long time after the 
perfon has taken it : the fame dangerous art 
of poifoning is known by the Negroes in 
North America, as has frequently been expe- 
rienced. However only a few of them know 
the fecret, and they likewife know the re- 
medy againft it, therefore when a Negro 
feels himfelf poifoned and can recoiled the 
enemy, who might poflible have given him 
the poifon, he goes to him, and endeavours by 
money and entreaties to move him to deliver 
him from the poifon -, but if the Negro is 
malicious, he does not only deny that he 
ever poifoned him, but likev/ife that he 
knows a remedy againft it : this poifon 
does not kill immediately, for fometimes 
the fick perfon dies fome years after. But 
from the moment he has the poifon be falls 
into a confumption and enjoys few days of 
good health : fuch a poor wretch often knows 
that he is poifoned, the moment he gets the 
poifon. The Negroes commonly employ 
it on fuch of their brethren as behave well, 
are beloved by their mailers, and feparate 
as it were from their countrymen, or do 
not like to converfe with them. They have 
likewife often other reafons for their enmi- 
ty; but there are few examples of their 

having 



Penfyhaniaf Philadelphia, 3^9 

having poifoned their mafters. Perhaps the 
mild treatment they receive, keeps them 
from doing it, or perhaps they fear that they 
may be difcovered, and that in fuch 'a cafe, 
the fevereft punifhments would be inflidted 
on them. 

They never difeover what the polfort 
Gonfifls of, and keep it fecret beyond eon*, 
ception. It is probable that it is a very 
common thing which may be got all th^ 
world over, for wherever they are they can 
always eafily procure it. Therefore it can^ 
not be a plant, as feveral learned men 
have thought; for that is not to be met 
with every where. I have heard many ac- 
counts here of Negroes who have been 
killed by this poifon. 1 fhall only mention 
one incident which happened during my 
flay in this country. A man here had a 
Negro who was exceedingly faithful to him, 
and behaved fo well, that he would not 
have given him for twenty other Negroes. 
His mafter likewife fliewisd him a peculiar 
kindnefs, and the Have's condud: equalled 
that of the beft chriftian fervant j h« like- 
wife converfed as little as poflible with the 
other Negroes 5 on that account they hated 
him to excefsj but as he was fearce ev^r in 
company with them, they had no opportu- 
nity of conveying the poifon to him, which 

they 



40O December iy^^\ 

they had often tried. However on coming 
to town during the fair (for he lived in the 
country) fome other Negroes invited him 
to drink with them. At firft he would 
not, but they prelTed him till he was obli- 
ged to comply. As foon as he came into 
the room, the others took a pot from the 
wall and pledged him, defiring him to drink 
likewife : he drank, but when he took the 
pot from his mouth, he faid what beer is 
this ? It is full of ******. I purpofely 
omii what he mentioned, for it feems un- 
doubtedly to have been the name of the 
poifon with which malicious Negroes do fo 
much harm, and which is to be met with 
almoft every where. It might be too much 
employed to wicked purpofes, and it is 
therefore better that it remains unknown. 
The other Negroes and Negro- women fell 
a laughing at the complaints of their hated 
countryman, and danced and fung as if they 
had done an excellent ad:ion, and had at 
laft obtained the point fo much wifhed for. 
The innocent Negro went away immedi- 
ately, and when he got home, faid that the 
other Negroes had certainly poifoned him : 
he then fell into a confumption, and no 
remedy could prevent his death. 



End of Vol, I. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 

THE whole Sheet Map of a 
great Part of North America, 
intended for the Illuftration 
of thefe Travels, could not be got rea- 
dy in Time for the firfl: Volume, on 
Account of its Size and the great many- 
Names of Places brought into it, which 
muft give it a Superiority above any 
Map hitherto publifhed of this Part of 
the World : but the Tranflator hopes, 
the Public will the more readily excufe 
this Omiffion, as it will greatly tend to 
make the Map more perfe6l, and as 
the fecond Volume will foon appear, 
where itfhall undoubtedly be inferted. 
At the fame Time he intreats the 
Encouragers of this Work to compleat 
the Subfcriptions for the fecond Vo- 
lume, and to favour him with the 
Lifts of Subfcribers as foon as poffible; 
and if any more Gentlemen will favour 
him with their Subfcriptions, he will 
look upon it as an incentive the more 
vigor ou fly to go on with the reft of 
the Publication. 



XxTBxajrj TBtJOuiaTvr uo4Siiit-ib/-t 








HO^nasxiid JO Axis^3AiN:n