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" T 

TRAVELS 



IN 



VARIOUS COUNTRIES 



or 



EUROPE, ASIA, AND AFBICA. 



BY ia>WARD BANIEI^ CLAHKB, L. L. U 



PART THE FIRST. 



BUSSM, TdRTABT, AXD TURKEY. 



SECTION 1. 



9XC0irD AMSBICAJr SDITIOK. 



NEW-YORK : 
ntnrrsD aitd voblisbbb bt vat, & go. 157, chatbax ffr, 

1818. 






\ 



7.\ 



PREFACE. 



UNDER eircninttaneeg. of peculiar anxiety, the aathor presenti the 
first part of his travels to the publick* A sense of unearned praise, al- 
ready bestowed by too ea^^er anticipation, weig^hs heavy on his mind ; and 
some degree of apprehension attaches to the consciousness of having obeyed, 
a strong iiilpulse of duty in the unfaTourable representation made of the 
state of society in Russia. The moral picture afforded of its inhabitants 
may seem distorted by spleen, and traced under other impressions than 
those of geiMsral charity and Christian benevolence : on 'which account the 
reader is doubly entreated to pardon defects, which experience, chastened 
by eriticiBm, maj bUuSequentiy amend'; and to suspend the judgment* 
which more genei*al acquaintance with the author may ultimate^ mitinite. 
The present publication is not the only oae on which he will have to form 
an opinion. It is merely an introduction to his future notice. The plan 
under oontem^alion is to complete, in thbss separate pabts, a series of 
ti-avels in Burope, Asia, and Africa; so that each portion, consisting of ono 
or more volumes, may constitute a survey of some particular region. 
Thus, for example, the work now published, relates to travels in MusstOp 
Tartartff and Turkey ; a second may include the observations collected in 
Greece, Syria, and Eaypt; and, finally, a tlurd ; those which presented 
themselves in Jienmark, J^orway^ Sv/eden, Lapland^ and I%n{flkd. But» 
in order to accomplish so extensive an undertaking, some indulgence is 
required to the manner of its execution ; some credit for better disposition 
towards his fellow-creatures, than the author's severe pennance in Russia 
may seem to have excited. It is not so generally known as it may be, that 
the passage 6f a small rivulet, which separates the two countries of 
Sweden and Russia, the mere crossing of a bridge conducts the traveller 



from all that adorns and dignifies the hum^n mmd, to whatsoever, most 
iib)ect, has been found to degrade it. If tne late empress and autocrat of 
all the Russias, Catherine the Second, could find a Volney, who would 



prostitute his venal pen to varnish the deformities of her reign and of her 
empire ; if Potemkin did not want an apolo^st, and an advocate, even 
among the wpters of this country ; Great Britam will forgive the frankness 
of one among her sons, who has ventured, although harshly, to speak 
the truth. It is a language not wholly obscured in ths more cautious 
descriptions of former writers. Tubervile, of England, Augustine, of 
Germany, Olearius, of Denmark, and, moi*e recently, the Abbe de la 
Chi^pe, of France, together with the authors of many anonymous pro- 
ductions, represent the real character of the people, in colours, which 
neither the antidote of Alexis Mussin Pushkin, the drivelings of Voltaire 
nor all the hired deceptions -of French philosophers and tavaru, have 
been able tq wipe away. 



A few word8> by vrvy of acknowledgment to thcMe wlioliflCYe eonlnbuM 
to the accomplishment of the present undertakings it is hoped will not be 
deemed superfiaous. At the same time it is not necessary to repeat ex- 
pressions which occur in the following pag2S. With the exception, tiiere- 
fore, of lord Whitwortb, whose respectable name the author here bees 
leave to introduce, no repetition will be offered. To his kindness, while 
ambassadoar at Petersburgh, the very existence of the present ▼olume 
maybe ascribed; and his character ought to stand recorded, in having 
Afforded, as an English minister, the very rare example of liberal pati*onage 
to his travelling countrymen, during the whole of his embassy. 

In the course of the subseouent narrative, the author has generally used 
a plural expression^ even with reference to his own personal observations. 
This mode of writing was adopted, not solely with a view to devest his style 
«f egotism, but in ulusion to his frieisd) the cause and companion of his 
travels, John Marten Cripps, M. A, of Jesus College, Cambridge. To 
bis unceasing ardour, in prosecuting every enterprise, was added a mild- 
ness and suavity of manners, which endeared him to the inhabitants of 
whatever country he visited. The constancy Mid firmness he preserved 
through all the trials and privations of a long and arduous journey, as well as 
the support he rendered to the author in hours of painfull and dangerous 
sickness, demand tYte warmest expressions of gratitude. The plants 
collected during the route, were the result of their mutuallabour ; but the 
'whole of the meteorological statement in the appendix,* together with the 
account given of relays and distances,f are dde tb his patient observation 
and industry. 

To the Rev. Reginald Heber, of Brazen-JTose CoUe^, Oxford, the 
withor is indebted for the valuable manuscript joumaL which afforded the 
extracts given in the notes. In addition to Mr. Heber s habitual accuracy 
may be mentioned the statistical information, which stamps a peculiar 
Taluc on his observationsv This has «nrich6dthe volume by communica- 
tions tlie author himself was incompetent to supply. 

To Aylmer Bonrke Lambert, esq. Fellow of the Boyal Antiquarian, 
«nd Linncan Societies, author of several botanical writings, and, amon^ 
others, of a splendid work on the Genus Pirms, as well as possessor of the 
finest Herbarium in Europe, for his kindness in arranging the plants col- 
lected in tlie Crimea, and in preparing a fist of them for the appen- 
dix.t 

Notwitlistanding the care bestowed on the accurracy of the text. It is 
highly probable that some errours have escaped the author's notice. 
Should this prove to be the case, it is hoped the pultlick wiU overlook 
defects in the st}ie of a mere writer of travels, from which the more re- 
sponsible pages of an Addison, a Steele, and a Gibbon, hRre not been 
found exempt. In the progress of transcribing ajoumal written in a foreign 
land, remote from scenes of literature, more attention was often given 
to the fidelity of the extract, tlian to the elegance, or even purity of the 
composition. And if the following sentiments of the celebrated Shafts- 
bun'§ be coiTect, tlie reader will not wish to be detained from a perusal 
of the volume by any such considerations. 

• See JSTo. VII. of the Appendix, 

t Ibid. JVo. VL 

% See appendix, JVo, V. Mr. Lambert is the present poneswr of 
tlie celebrated Herbarium of Pallas, purchased by Mr. Crtpps, dttrinff 
ids residence vdth the professor, and brought to England in the Jiraakelf 
>hxf captain George Clarke^ of the royal navy, A. 2>. 1805. 

§ Advice to aiiAutJior, 



^^0 ehch»ited we are with the traTeHiiig memoirs of «ny «mihi1 •dven« 
turer, that, be his character or genius wluit it will, we have no sooner 
turned over a page or two, than we begin to interest oarselves highly in 
his affairs. No sooner hasi he taken shipping at the mouth of the Thames 
or sent his baggage before lum to Gravesend or Baoy, in the Kore, than 
straight oar attention is earnestly taken up- If, in order to his more distant 
travels, he takes some part of Europe in his way, we can with patience 
hear of inns and ordinaries, passage-boats and femes, foul and fair weath- 
er, with all the particulars of the author's diet, habit of body, hit person- 
al dangers and mischances, on land and sea. And thus, full' of desire and 
liope, we accompany him, till he enters on his great scene of action, wui. 
begins by the description of some enormous JUh or beaeU** 



*«* The unsettled atate of English orthography, as far as it affects the 
introduction c£ Rnssian names, produces considerable embarrassment te 
the writer who whishes to follow a fixed rule. Upon this subject it not 
only happena that no two authors agrecybut the same author is inconastent. 
Jonas Hanway, whose writings are more accurate thau those of any other 
English traveller who has visited Russia, may be considered as affording, 
perhaps, the best model in this respect, but he is not consistent.* 

In the Russian alphabet there is no letter answering to our W ; yet 
we write J^o9C0f:to and fVoronetz. Where custom has long sanctioned an 
«buse of this kind, the established mode seems preferable to any deviation 
whicK may wear the anpearanee of pedantir. The author has, in this 
respect, been guided by the authority and example ef Gibbon ; who 
nfiKrmSjf that '* some wor^, notoriously corrupt, are fixed, and, as it 
were, naturalized in the vulgar tongue. The pro(^et Jfokammedewi no 
longer be stripped of the famous, though improper, appellation of 
■Jlfahomet; the well known cities of Aleppo, Danuuctu, and Cairo, would 
almost be' lost in ^e. Strang descriptions of iTa^e^, Dantashk, and M 
Cahira,** But, it may be fiurly adced, where is the Hne to be drawn? 
What are the Russian names, which we are to consider as Jixed and 
naiuraUzedin the vulgar ton^e ? Are we to write Woronetx^ or Vorvnije ; 
WoLga or Volga \ Koi-w^ m Kiofj Azow or Azof? Lord Whitworth 
wrote CMoJ^snd Asoph^ although both these names have the same origin- 
al tecminati<m.t It is the B [ Vidy] redoubled in compound words, which 
occasions the prindpal difficulty, and which has been confounded with our 
W. Thus, as it is mentioned by Storch,§ from Levesque, the Russian 
word Vvidhdet signifying iniroaucHon, consists of the preposition vo or* 
V [into'] and vedenH (]to conduct.'] The proper initial letter in Englisb, 
therefore^ for the word, would be F, whose power it- alone possesses; 
and not W, which conveys a false idea of pronunciation.^ When this com- 

* T7ie name of the same place is -written Kieva in voL L p. 9. Khieva 
in p. 15, a«<f Khiva «» a note. Nagai Tartars, in p. 8* vol, I. aretoritten 
Nagay Tartars in p. 11. Throughout his -work the tei'minating vowel is 
fiometimes i, and as often y/ as Valdai, Poderosnoi and Yakutsky, 
Xasorowsky. 

t P. S. toPref ch. 39. Hist, of Bed. and Fall^ &c, 

i Account of Russia^ by Charles Lord WMtworth. Strawb, JSiU^ 175«. 

J Tableau de V Umpire de Russie, torn. I. p. 19. 

^ The reader tviUfind tJds example mentioned in a note to p. 140 ,• 
•Am it might be improper to omit the insertion of it in a pait of the vol- 
nune ejrpreesl;^ appropriated to verbal criticism. 



"pmxaA OMOIVM Hie termination of a word, it is best expressed by oar /; as 
Orhfi for Orlow ; -which exaetlj answers the mode of pronunciation in 
BiHsauu Some writers use the letter doubled, by adding Jf : this is how- 
crreTy superfluous. The plan pursued by the author, but to which, per- 
haps, he has not regularly adhered, was to substitute a Ffor the Russian 
VV, whenever it occurs at the beginning or in the middle of a word ; and 
an/*, whenever it is found as a termination. 

There is yet another letter of the Russian alphabet which from its tre- 
quent recftirence as an initial, requires a perfect reconciliation to some 
settled law of English orthography; viz. the Tchirve: this has the power 
of our ck, in cheese, and cnil^y and occurs in the name of the Cossacks 
of the Black Sea, Tchemomoraki, The author had written this word 
Tahemomorski, in the beginning of the first chapter of this volunoe, 
when he became acquainted witb Earjavie's Remarks on the Russian 
Alphabet,* which enabled him to adopt a more accurate mode o^ writing. 

With regard to words terminating m cd and o»» as Valdai^ JPatdovakoi, 
perhaps it would he weUtosubstituta«^Bd oy, as Valdau, Paulovakay^ or y 
only, as Valdy^Pmilovako ; which last ofiers a dose imitation of the vulgar 
mode of pronunciation in general : but the vaiiety caused by different dialects 
in different parts of the empire, will^ alter every attention is paid to a settied 
rule of writings oecaaion frequent perplexity and embarrassment. In the 
orthography of the names of places hnmediately south of Moscow, 
frequent attention was paid to the map of Reymann, published by Schmit, 
at Berlin, in 1802. Bnt even in that map, the territor}- of the Don Cos- 
sacks, Kuban Tartary, and the Crimea, appear only as a forlorn blank. 
Many years may expire before Russia, tike Sweden, will possess a 
HE]iM£i.i2r, to illustrate the geography ol the remote provinces of lier 
empire; especially as it is a ma3um in her policy to maintain the ignorance 
which prevails in Europe concerning those parts of her dominions. On 
this account, the indecision, which must appear in the perusal of this 
volume, to characterize the deteription of the eonntry between Biroelaf 
And Odessa, admits of explanation. The geography of all that district is 
IttUe known. The courses of the Dniester, the Bog, and the Dniper, as 
well as the latitude and soundings of the coast, near uxe embouchures have 
never been adequately surveyed. The only tolesable charts are preserved 
^ the Russain government; but seduloiuly secreted from the eyes of 
Europe, It has, however, fallen to the author's lot to interfere in some 
de^ee, with this part of its political system, by depositing within a 
British admiralty certain documents, which were a subsequent acquisition 
made during his residence in Odessa. These he conveyed from that conn- 
txy at the hazard of his life. They are too voluminous for insertion in the 
work, but may serve to facilitate the navigation of the Russian coasts of 
the Black sea, if ever the welfare of Great Britain eiionld demand the 
presence of her fleets in that part of the worid. In making tliis addition 
to our stock of knowledge, foi* the use of our navy, no ties of confidence, 
or honour, were broken with a people, who have violated every engage- 
ment with this country. Those documents were intrusted to the author 
b^ persons fully authorized to concede tiie information, and their injunc- 
tions have been sacredly obeyed. 

• Hemarqites sur la Lan^ie Ruasienne, par Pheodore \Karjavine Pe- 
tefsb, 1791. 



TABLES 



RUSSIAN MEASURE, WEIGHT, AND MONEY. 



MEASURE. 

N. B' The 4rehing, ar Kvumm yard, equals 28 SugUih iaeliM. 
The Sajen^ or Riisaian fathoiayveqiialB 7 Bngfiri^ feet 
Three Vent^ e^al % £Q(^li»h miles. ^ 

.The RaaoUo fo9t Is exactly that of EBclaiid. 
The Yenhock eqmds 1 Edglish iBeh:«idd«i. 
404 VenU equal '1 B^gcee. 
. 500 Si^ciisy cqiMl 1 Yerst 
3 Archinesy equal 1 Sajen. 
16 Yenboeks, equal 1 Acehine. 

WEIGHT. 

The tmftlleit wdigfat of Rnssia is the Soloinick, irhieh eqoalf tix^fftdm 
S Solotniclu, equal 1 Lot. 
32 Lots, equal 1 Pound. 
'40 Pounds, equal 1 Poud. 

MONEY. 

K. B. The first ^ver money of Russia iviw eoined at Noirogorod, ia 
1480, io small pieees, which were called Copeeks. The present ralue 
of the eopeek may he estimated as equal to an Engfish halfpenny. Almost 
an caleolatioiis of the eoontry are made aecoiding to the nnmher of 
Copeeks. 

ta 1654, voaUes were introduced at Moteow in the form of bars, with 
deep notches in them [r9ublQ which enabled the possessor to detach as 
much of the bar as his payment mig^t require.* Hence the origin of th« 
word rouble. Almost aU the cc^per money of Russia is coined in Siberia, 
and principany at Ca^erineboorg, near the Ural mines. Sixteen roubles 
of pure copper wei|^ a pond. 

Atpreseni the tpetae of theconniry hat neaily disappeared, and pai»er 
ii its only r qyr e sc ntatiTe. The eopeek no longer exists at coirent coin. 

* Gtfof^. JDntrip9A St. fckn. pu lt7. JBdiTl. FroM. PeUn. 1793. 



Till 



VrZl^UT ANB MONET. 



The following tUtement of the names and Talue of RoBsian mraer is 
ehieflj extracted from Georgia .* 

SILVER MONEY. 

1 Rouble equals 100 Copeeka» 

1 Polten, or 1-2 rouble . . . s= 50 Do. 

1 Polupolten, or 1-4 rouble == 25 Do. 

1 Dvagriven = 20 Do. 

1 Paetalten ==r 15 Do. 

1 Griven s= 10 Do. 

1 Paetach = 5 Do. 

COPPER MONEY, 

1 Paetach •...*.... equals 5 Copeeks. 

1 Altiue = 3 Do. 

1 Grosh = 2 Do. 

1 Copper Copeek •..*.. == 1 Do. 

K. B. This last coin represents in front, tha figure of St. Georee •» 
horseback, piercing a dragon -with his spear. << From this spear/" says 
Georgiyf called Copcea in Rusaian, the word Copeek has been derived. 

1 Denga, or Denushka s= 1-2 a Copeek, 

1 Polushka, the smallest coin of Russia ss 1^ Do. 

N. B. The Pohuhka takes its name from a hare sUn, Ushka Twhich 
before the use of money was one- of the lowest articles of excnange) 
Pol signifying half; and Polnshka half a Harems akin. 

The gold coinage of Russia is searedy aver seen. It consists principally 
of dncats, the first of which were struck by Peter the Great, worth two 
roubles and twenty five copeeks each. 

When the author was in Petersburgh, a coinage was going on at the 
mint, day and night, for the private use of the emperour Paul, of seventy 
three poud of gold ; the whde of which was made into dneats. The mint 
was worthed by steam engines. 

* Jdid. p. 187. wc/. ^ chap, ^, 

iGeor^. JDewript, dt Si. Peter$, p. Wl. Seat. S/Chap, a. 



CHAPTER I. 



^ETERSBURGBL 

PreHminary Observations — State ^ PMiek Jffair^^ 
Strange Conduct of the E^nperour'^ InsoUnee of the Po** 
Uce — Extraordinary Phenonunon* 

IT has probablj happened to others, as to myself, to east 
mi eye of wishfoi earioaity towards the eastern boon- 
daries of Europe. Above two thousand years ago they were 
the same they now are. The Tanais, watering the plains 
of 8amialia, separated the Roxolani and the Jazyges from 
tKe Hamaxobii and the Alani. In modern seograpbT, \he 
same river, altered in its appellation, divides the tnbe et 
Don Cossaeks from tbat ^t the Tshernomorski, whose ter- 
ritory extends fma the Sea of Azof to the Kuban. The 
Greeks, by their eommerce in the jBttiine, derived a slight 
knowledge of tlie people who lived on the Palus Meeotis. 
The wars of Russia and Turkey directed our attention 
sometimes to the inhabitants of the same eoontry $ but the 
knowledge of them, both among the aneients and modems, 
has seareely exceeded the names of their tribes and thoir 
character in war. ' With their domestick habits, the pro- 
dnetions of their dountry, the nature of its seenery, the 
remains of antiquity they possess, we are very little aequaiu* 
ted. By referrius to ancient history, we find that the same 
want of information prevailed formerly as at present This 
may be aecounted for from the wandering disposition of the 
people, who were seldom settled for any leng^ of time 
vpon the same spot : and with regard to their successors, 
•kiee the nigratioi] of the Poles to the marshes of the ]>on, 
and the expnlsion of the Kuban Tartars by the Cossacks 
of tlie Black 8ea, their eonatry has been submitted to very 
little examination. It was among these people that the 
politieal diierenees of England and Russia drove me a 
willing exile from the cities of Fetecsbai^k and Moscow, in 
the last year of the eighteenth century. Necessity and 

B 



2 CLARKE'S TRAVELS IN RUSSIA. 

ioelioation were coupled together $ and I had the double 
satisfactioQ of escaping from the persecution of the enemies 
of my country, and of exploring regions which, in the 
wannest sallies of hope, I had never thought it would be 
my destiny to visit 

In the course of this journey, through extensive plains 
which have been improperly called deserts, and among a 
secluded people who, witaas little ret^on, have been deemed 
savages, 1 had certainly neither the luxuries and dissipation 
of polished cities, nor the opportunities of indolence, to in- 
terrupt my attention to my journal. If, therefore, it fails 
to interest the publiek, I have no excuse to offer. I present 
it to them as similar as possible to the state in which notes 
taken on the spot were made ; containing whatever my fee- 
ble abilities were qualified to procure for their information 
and amusement ; and adhering, as far as I am conscious, in 
every representation, strictly to the truth. 

After suffering a number of indignities, in eommon with 
others of my countrymen, during our residence in Peters- 
burgh, about the middle of March, 1800, matters grew to 
tuch extremities, that our excellent ambassadour, sir 
Charles [now Lord] Whitworth, found it nesessary to advise 
vs to go to Moscow. A passport had been denied to his 
courier to proceed with despatches to England. In answer 
to the demand made by our minister for an explanation, it 
was stated to be the emperour^s pleasure* In consequence 
of which, sir Charles enclosed tJie note containing his de- 
mand, and the emperour's answer, in a letter to the English 
government, which he committed to the postoffice with very 
great doubts of its safety. 

In the mean time, every day brought with it some new 
example of the sovereign's absurdities and tyranny, which 
seemed «o originate in absolute insanity. The sledge of 
count Razumoffski was, by the emperour's order, broken 
into small pieces, while he stood by and directed the work. 
The horses had been found with it in the streets, without 
their driver. It happened to be of a blue colour $ and the 
eount's servants m ore red liveries ; upon which a ukase was 
immediately published, prohibiting, throughout, the empire 
of all the Uussias, the use of blue colour in ornamenting 
sledges, aiid red liveries. In eonsequence of this wise 
decree, our ambassadour, and many others, were compelled 
to alter their equipage. 



PETKRSdt7R6H» t 

One evening, being at his theatre in the Retnita^, a 
French piece was performed, in which the story of the En- 
glish powder plot was introdaced. The emperour was 
observed to listen to it with more than nsnal attention ; and 
as soon as it was conehided, he ordered all the vaults be* 
Death the palace to be searched. 

Coming down the street called the Perspective, he per- 
ceived a nobleman who was taking his wals, and had stop- 
ped to look at some workmen who were planting trees by 
the emperour's order. ^' What are yon doing ?" said he. 
^ Merely seeing the men work," replied the nobleman. 
<< Oh, is that your employment P Take off his pelisse, and 
give him a spade I There, now, work yourself !" 

When enraged, he lost all command of himself, which 
sometimes gave rise to very ludicrous scenes. The courtiers 
knew very well when the storm was coming on, by a trick, 
which he had in those moments, of blowing from his under 
lip against the end of his nose. In one of his furious pas- 
sions, flourishing his cane about, he struck by accident the 
branch of a large glass lustre, and broke it. As soon as he 
perceived what had happened, he attacked the lustre in 
^od earnest, and did not give up his work until he had en- 
tirely demolished it. 

In the rare intervals of better temper, his good humour 
was betrayed by an uncouth way of swinging his legs and 
feet abont in walking. Upon those occasions he was sure 
to talk with indecency and foil v. 

But the instances were few m which the gloom, spread 
over a great metropolis, by the madness and malevolence of 
a suspicions tyrant, was enlivened even by his ribaldry. 
Tha.accounts of the Spanish inquisition do not afford more 

Eainful sensations than were excited in viewing the state of 
tnssia at this time. Hardly a day passed without unjust 
punishment. It seemed as if half the nobles in the empire 
were to be sent exiles to Siberia. Those who were able to 
leave Petersburgh went to Moscow. It was in vain they 
applied for permission to leave the country 5 the very 
request might incur banishment to the mines. If any family 
received visiters in an evening ; if four people were seen 
walking together ; if any one spoke too loud, or whistled, 
or sang, or looked too inquisitive, and examined any pub- 
lick building with too much attention, they were in immi- 
nent dan^r. If they stood still in the streets, or frequented 
&ny particular walk more than another, or wsdked too fast 



4 Clarke's travels ih Russia. 

or too slow, tbej^ were liable to be reprimoiided and insulted 
hj the police offieers. Mun^ Park was hardly exposed to 
l^ater severity of exaction and of villanj among the Moors 
in Africa, than Englishmen experienced at that time in 
Russia, and particularly in Petersburgh. They were com- 
pelled to wear a dress regulated by the police; and as 
every officer had a different notion of the mode of observing 
these regulations, they were constantly liable to be inter- 
rupted in the streets and publiek places, and treated with 
impertinence. The dress consisted of a cocked hat, or, for 
want of one, a round hat pinned up with three comers $ a 
long cue; a single breasted coat and waistcoat; knee 
buckles instead of strings; and buckles in the shoes. 
Orders, were given to arrest any person seen in pantaloons. 
A servant was taken out of his sledge, and caned in the 
streets, for having too thick a neckcloth ; and if it had been 
too thin, he would have met a similar punishment. After 
every precantion, the dress, when pot on, never satisfied ; 
either the hat was not straight on the head, the hair too 
short, or the coat was not cut square enough. A lady at 
court wore her hair rather lower in the neck than was coa^ 
sistent with the decree, and she was ordered into close 
confinement, to be fed on bread and water. A gentleman's 
hair fell a little over his forehead, while dancing at a ball $ 
a police officer attacked him with rudeness and with abuse ^ 
and told him, if he did not instantly cut his hair he would 
find a soldier who could shave his head.* 

When the ukase first appeared eoncemins^ the form of 
the hat, the son of an English merchant, with a view te 
baffle the police, appeared in the streets of Petersbui^, 
having on his head an English hunting cap, at sight of 
which the nolice officers were puzzled. '^ It was not a 
eocked hat,^ they said, <^ neither was it a round hat." In 
this embarresment they reported the affair to the emneroar^ 
/t ukase was accordingly promulgated, and levellea at the 
hunting cap ; but not knowing how to describe the anomaly^ 
the emperour ordained, that '^ no pgraon should tippear m 
publiek with thi thing on his head worn by the merehanfs 
$onJ^ 

An order against wearing boots with coloured tops was 
most rigorously enforced. The police officers stopped a 
gentleman driving through the streets in a pair of English 

* A mode in whwih erimiBSiIs fve poniched in Rottis. 



imls. Th« ^nllemiui expottu1aUHl» mying tbat he had no 
oihen with him^ and eertainly would not eut off the topi of 
his bcots ; upon whieh the officers^ eaeh seizui^ a le^, aa 
he sat in his droski, fell to work, and drew off his boots, 
leaving him to go barefooted home. 

If Enslishmen ventured to notice any of these enormitiea 
in their Tetters, whieh were all opened and read by the po- 
liee, or expressed themselves witn energy in praise of their 
own eountry, or used a single sentiment or expression offen* 
sive or ineomprehensible to the police officers or their spies, 
they were liaUe to be torn in an instant, without any pre- 
vious notice, from their families and friends, thrown into a 
sledge, and hurried off to the frontier, or to Siberia. Many 
persons were said to have been privately murdered, and 
more were banished. Never was there a system of admin- 
istration more offensive in the eyes of Gud or man. A 
veteran officer, who had served fifty years in the Russian 
army, and attained the rank of colonel, was broken without 
the smallest reason. Above a hundred officers met wit^ 
their discharge, all of whom were ruined; and many others 
.were condemned to suffer imprisonment or severer punish- 
ment. The cause of all this was said to be the emperour's 
ill humour ; and when the cause of that ill humour became 
known, it appeared that bis mistress, who detested him, had 
solicited permission to marry an officer, to whom she waa 
betrothed. To such excessive cruelty did his rage carry 
him, against the author of an epigram, in which his reign 
had been contrasted with his mother's, that be ordered hi» 
tongue to be eut out; and sent him to one of those remote 
islands, in the Aleoutan tract on the northwest eoast of 
America, which are inhabited by savages.* 

Viewing the career of such men, who, like a whirlwind^ 
work their prepress through the ages in which they live, by 
a track of desolation, can we wonder at the stories we reaa 
of regicides ? " There is something," says Mr. Park, " in 
the frown of a tyrant, which rouses the most inward emo<> 

* Thelbllowfcig iitbe sense oC that memoruMe epi^rMn, lieoordin^ t» 
^Ufferent traoslations In French and in English. It onginated in the empe* 
rmtr Paal'a attempting to finjrfi with brick work the beautiful church off 
St Isaac, whieh his predeeesscfr Catherine had begun in marble. 

De deux regnes voiei I'image allegorique : 

La base est d'un beau marbre, et le somet de briquef 

This great monument is emblematick of two reigns i 
The bottoni is of narhle^ and the top of brick i 



i- CLAUKE's TRAVKI3 01 XX»SIA^ 

tioiM ef tht ffdol." In the jiiiMpeet of dimttaf, ef etlMOity^ 
and! of sorrow ; manknid might experieate in the reif;n of 
Paul, I Mt an inward, and, as the event has proved, a triia 
pre-sentiment oi his approaehing death ; ano I will fjreely 
confess, mneh as I ahhor the tnaimer of It, that it was 



-^^ a consammafion 



"DeToaOj U> be visb^" 

The season began to ehange before we left Petersbnrgli. 
The cold became daily less intense ; and the inhabitants 
were busied in moving from the Neva large bloeks of ice 
into their cellars. A most interesting and remarkable phe- 
nomenon took place the day before onr departirre. The 
thermometer of Celsius stood at that time oiuj five degrees 
helow the freezing point, and there was no wind. Snow, in 
the most regular and beautiful crystals, fell gently on our 
clothes, and on the sledge, as we were driving in the streets. 
All of them possessed exactly the same figure, and the same 
dimension. Every particle eonsisted of a wheel or star, 
with six equal rays, bounded by circu inferences of equal dia- 
meters ; they had ^U of them the same number of rays 
branching from a common centre. The size of each of these 
little stars was equal to the circle presented by dividing a 
pea into two equal parts. This appearance continued du- 
ring three hours, in which time no other snow fell ; and 
there was suflSeient leisure to examine them with the strictest 
attention. 

As water, in its crystallization, seems to consist of radii 
diverging fVoQi a common centre, by the usual appearance!! 
on the surface of ice, it might be possible to obtain the theo^ 
ry, and to ascertain the laws, from which this stellar struc- 
ture results. Monge, president of the National institute of 
Paris, noticed, in falling snow, stars with six equal rays, 
which fell, during winter, when the atmosphere was calm. 
Uauy records this, in his observations on the muriat of am- 
monia.* 

The first droskij^ had made ita appearance in the streets 
of Petersbgd^ before we left ii^ am we began to entertain 

* <* U en r^sulte dcs ^toQei k rix rwotkBy lonque le temps evt valine, et 
qae la temperature n'est pas asvez el&T^ pOHr .4efoi>oier lea cnwu^" 
Uaut, Traiie de Min. torn. il. p. 386. 

t The ]»KosKi is a kind of bec^h upon four wheoli, used in Rusua as onr 
luwknejr coaehes ; it contains four or six persons, sitting baek to back, thus 
driven sideways by the coachman, who sits at the end of the beuolfc TWa 
vehkkMKcecilillMsledsc, after the mekiDs; of 6ie snow. 



ntiOH rSTUMtf 1100 TO 1C0900W. 7 

•emni ^ii^feliftaiuait tfcftt the mow would fiiil, tsd our 
«fe<^e»wiiy to Moieow be 4e»(royed. We ka^ olleii been 
tM Qf the f^fUitf wtih wbi^h the wanp seat om mfJies ite 
•ppeftranee in this tlim^i there being hardly^ any iaterval 
^spring, hiH e.nidQMi»tiii«t4iitiiseea» tnuMitian from win- 
ter to »uwoier. The frozen provisions of the eity, if not 
eonsumed by the appointed ti«ie, wbieh may be generally 
eoAjectured to a day almost instantly pntrify when the fro^t 
jUsappears. 



CHAPTER n. 

JOURNEY FROM PETERSBURGH TO MOSCOW. 

Departure from Petershurgh — Manner of Travelling'^ 
Talace ofTmrskoselo'^Gardens-^neeaote ofBiUingA 
Emjedition to the Northwest Coast of Amjerica^-^Ledyar4 
''■^barbarous Decoration of the JSpartments — Arrival at 
J)rovogorod — Caihedral — Ancient Greek Paintings*^ 
Manner of imitating them in Russia-^^Superstitions of 
the Greek Church — Virgin with three Eand8^''*Story of 
her Origin'^Mussian Bogh. 

*VWTE set out on the morning of the third of April, iSOO, 
jjf and arrived) with great expedition, at Tsarskoselo. 
Oar carriage had been placed upon a traineau^ or sledge ; 
and another sledge, which followed us, conveyed the wheels. 
It is worth while to be partieqlar in describing our mode of 
travelling, that others may derive advantage from it* If 
the journey is confined to countries only where a sledge road 
may be had, the common method, used by the inhabitants,^ 
always the best ; but if a passage is to hie effected with ease 
and expedition, from one climate to anoth^, some plao 
Viximi be determined whi<^h may ^eenne the traveller from the 
rigours of the seasons, without impeding his progress 1^ 
snperflnoos incumbraoae. For this purpose, the kind of 
carriage called a German katarde is unquestionably the 
most eonvenient. A delineaition is giren in the.worfc of 



ReieliAPd,* who also mentions the expense ofbnlMing tbcNtt 
at Vienna, where they are made for one fourth of the monejr 
required by the London eoach makers; and they answer 
every purpose of travellini^, full as well as those made in 
England. This carriage is nothing more thiui an Englisk 
chariot with aiormeuse, which advances in front^and which 
should be made sufficiently high to furnish a eofflmodious 
teat for two persons on the outside^ upon the springs. We 
made the driver always sit upon the trunk, in front ; but it 
would be better to provide for him a little chair, raised for 
that purpose. The door of the dormeusey within the ear- 
riaee, lets down upon the seat; and it contains leather 
cushions, and a pinow covered with thin leather. The 
carriage has besides, an imperial, a well, a swordease, which 
may be converted into a small library ; and, instead of a 
window behind, a large lamp, so constructed as to throw a 
strong light without dazzling the eyes of those within* 
Thus provided, a person may travel night and day, fearless 
of want of accommodation or houses of repose. His ci^riag^ 
is his home, which accompanies him every where ; and if 
he chooses to halt, or accidents oblige him to stop in the 
midst of a forest, or a desert, he may sleep, eat, drink, read, 
write, or amuse himself with any portable, musical instru- 
ment, careless of the frosts of the north, or the dews, the 
mosquitoes, and vermin of the south. Over snowy regions^ 
he places his house upon a sledge, and, when the snow 
melts, upon its wheels ; heine always careful, where wheels 
are used for long journeys tlirough hot countries, to soak 
them in water, whenever he stops for the night. 

Setting out from Petersburgh for the south of Russia, the 
traveller bids adieu to all thoughts of inns, or even houses 
with the common necessaries or bread and water. He wiH 
not even find clean straw, if he should speculate upon the 
chance of a bed. Every thing he may want, must, therefore, 
be taken with him. A pewter teapot will become of more 
importance than a chest of plate, and more so than oiie of 
silver, because it will not be stolen, and may be kept equally 
elean and entire. To this he will add, a kettle, a saueepanr, 
the top of which may be used for a dish ; tea, sugar, and a 
large cheese, with several lof>ves of bread, made into rusks, 
and as much fresh bread as he thinks will keep till he has a 
chance of procuring more. Then, while the frost contimies^ 

* Gfude dt Yoyageorf en Europe^ torn. u. planche JL 



FR,QM FST&BSBUR&a TO MOSCO^. t 

he say earry frozen it>ed, such as g^arae, or fish, whieh, be- 
lli^ eonp^aled, and as hard as fliots, maj jolt aboai among 
hh kettles, in tke well of the earrias^e, withoot any ehanee 
of iDJarj. Wine may be used in a eoTd eountry, bat never in 
a hot, nor even in a temperate elimate, while upon the road. 
In hot eoantries, if a eask of sood vinesar can be proeored, 
the traveller will often bless the means by which it was ob- 
tained. When, with a parched tongne, a dry and feverish 
skin, they bring him bad or g^d water to assttaee his burn- 
ing thirst, the addition of a little vinegar will make the 
draught delieious. Care must be taken not to use it to 
excess, for it is sometimes so tempting a remedy against 
somnolency, that it is hardly possible to resist using the 
vinegar withont any adulteration of water. 

The palace of Tsardcoseio is twenty-two versis ft'om Pe« 
tershnrsb, and the only object worth notice between that 
eity and Novorogood. It is built of brick, plastered over* 
Before the edifiee is a large eonrt, surrounded bv low bnild- 
ings for the kitchens, and other ooilioiises. The front of 
the ^laee occupies an extent of near eight hundred feet | 
and it is entirefv covered, in a most barbarous taste, with 
folumns, and pilasters, and eartatides, stuck between the 
windows; all of which, in the true st^le of Dutch ginger- 
breads are gilded. The whole of the building is a compound 
of what an architect ought to avoid rather than to imi- 
tate. Tet, so much money has been spent upon it, and 
partieularty on the interiour, that it eannot be passed with- 
out notiee. It was built 1^ the empress Elizabeth ; asd 
was mueh the residenee of Catharine, in the latter part itf 
her life, when her favourites, no longer the objects of a 
licentious passion, were ehasen more as adopted children 
than as lovers. 

In the gardens of this palace, persons, who wished to 
gain an audience of the empress, used to place themselves 
when she descended for her daily walk. A complaint, from 
ivhieh she suffered in her li^s, made her introduce the very 
expensive alteration of converting the staircase of the Her- 
mitage, at Petersburgh, intu am inclined plane, which offered 
a more eommodjous and more easy descent. A similar al- 
teration was introduced at Tsarskoselo, which conducted 
her from the apartments of the palace into the garden. It 
was in one of those walks, as professor Pallas afterwards 
informed me, that eommodore Billings obtained, by a 
stratagem? her final order ibr his expe^itioii to the norths 



io olarke's travels in utrssiA. 

west coast of America. Bezborodko, the minister, althongk 
he had receiyed the empress's order, put him off from time 
to time, not choosing to advance the money requisite for 
the (different preparations ; and Billings began to fear the 

Slan would never be put in execution. In the midst of his 
espondenej, professor Pallas undertook to make the mat- 
ter known to the empress, and advised commodore Billings 
to accompany him to Tsarskoselo. As soon as they arrived, 
Pallas conducted him to a part of the garden which he 
knew the empress would frequent at her usual hour ; and 

Iilacing themselves in one of the walks, they had not waited 
ong before she made her appearance. With her nsu&t 
affability, she entered into conversation with professor 
Pallas ; and, after inquiries respecting his health, asked 
the name of the young officer, his companion. The pro- 
fessor informed her, and added, he is the person whoDt 
your majesty was pleased to appoint, in consequence of my 
reeommendation, to the command of the expedition destined 
for the northwest coast of America. " And what," said 
the empress, << has delayed his departure P" ^* He wJEiits, 
at this moment, your majesty's orders," replied the pro- 
fessor. At this the empress, without any reply, and evi- 
dently somewhat ruffled, quickened her pace towards the 
palace. The next morning the necessary supplies came 
from the minister^ with orders that he should set out imme- 
diately. 

That the expedition might have been confided to better 
hands, the publick have been since informed, by the secre- 
tary Sauer.* This professor Pallas lamented to have dis- 
covered, when it was too late. But the loss sustained by 
any incapacity in the persons employed to conduct that 
expedition, is not equal to that which the publick suffered 
by the sudden recall of the unfortunate Ledyard^ which, it 
is said, would never have happened but through the jea- 
lousy of his own countrymen, whom he chanced to encounter 
as he was upon the point of quitting the eastern continent 
for America, and who caused the information to be sent to 
Petersburgh which occasioned the order for his arrest. 

The gar^lens of Tsarskoselo are laid out in the English 
taste, and, therefore, the only novelty belonging to them is 
their situation ; so far removed from the nation whose ideas 
they pretend to represent. 

• • See Account of an Expedition to the Northern Parts of Russia, U%» 
hj MftTtifl Sftuer, 8e«re|iii7 to tlie BTp«ditioa. 4to. Loadon. 18Q2. 



nOM PETfi&SBURGH TO MOSCOW. li 

The interioor of the building presents a number of spa- 
eioQ§ and e;audy rooms, fitted up in a style eombininf^ a 
mixture of barbaritjand magnifieence which will hardly be 
credited. The walls of one of the rooms are entirely eovered 
with fine pictures, by the best of the Flemish^ and by other 
masters. They are fitted toi^ther, without frames, so as to 
coyer, on each side, the whole of the wall, without the 
smallest attention to disposition or general effect. But, to 
consummate the Vandalism of those who directed the work, 
when they found a place they could not couTeniently fill, the 
pictures were cut, in order to adapt them to the accidental 
spaces left vacant. The soldiers of Mummius, at the saek- 
ing of Corinth, would have been puzzled to contrive more 
ingenious destruction of the fine arts. Some of Ostades' 
best works were among the number of those thus ruined. I 
was also assured, hy authority I shall not venture to name» 
that a profusion of pictures of the Flemish school were then 
lying in a cellar of the palace. But the most extraordinary 
apartment, and that which usually attracts the notiee of 
strangers, more than any other, is a room, about thirty feet 
square, entirely covered on all sides, from top to bottom, 
with amber; a lamentable waste of innumerable specimens 
of a substance, which could nowhere have been so ill em- 
ployed. The effect produces neither beauty nor magnifi- 
eence. It would have been better employed even in orna- 
menting the Jieads of Turkish pipes ; a custom which 
eonsumes the greatest quantity of this beautiful mineral. 
The appearance made by it on the walls is dull and heavy. 
It was a present from the king of Prussia. In an apart- 
ment prepared for prince Potemkin, the fioor was covered 
with different sorts of e&otiek wood, interlaid; the expense 
of which amounted to a hundred roubles for every squared 
archine. A profusion of gilding appears in many of the 
other rooms. The ballroom is a hundred and forty feet 
long, by fifty two feet wide, and two stories high. The 
waUs and pilasters of another apartment were ornamented 
with lapis lazuli, as well as the tables it contained. The 
Cabinet of Mirrors is a small room, lined with large pier 
glasses, looking upon a terrace, near which is a covered 
gallery, above two hundred and sixty feet long. There are 
various statues about the house and gardens, in marble 
and in bronze, all without merit. The chapel is entirely of 
gilded wood, and very richly ornamented. 



iH Clarke's travels iir Russia. 

A small flower garden leads to the bath, ivhteh is orna- 
mented with jasper, agates, and statues and colamns of 
marble. The grotto is also adonied in the same way with 
a nomber of beautiful products of the mineral kingdom, 
wrought into eolumns, busts, has reliefs, vases, &e. among 
others, a vase composed of the preeious stones of Siberia. 
From this grotto is seen a lake, on which appears the rostral 
column to Orlof, which the empress erected in honour of 
the naval victory he obtained over the Turks at Tchesm^. 

After we left Tsarskoselo, the snow diminished veryfast, 
and our fears of reaching Moscow on sledges increased.* 
But, during the night, and part of the morning of the 4th 
of April, it fell in such abundance, that all trace of the roads 
disappeared, and we lost our way once or twice before we 
arrived at 

NOVOGOROD. 

The place was half buried in snow; hut we managed to 
get to the cathedral, curious to see the collection of pic- 
tures, idols of the Greek church, which that aucient 
building contains ; and which, with many others dispersed 
in the cities and towns of Russia, were introduced long 
before the art of painting was practised in Italy. The 
knowledge of this circumstance, led me to hope that I 
should make some verv eurious acquisitions in the country; 
and, upon my first arrival from the Swedish frontier, I had 
given a few pounds to a Russian officer for his god ; which 
consisted of an oval plate of copper, on which the figure of 
a warriour was beautifully painted, on a ^old ground. This 
warriour proved afterwards to be St. Alexander Nevski. 
And as I advanced through the country to Petersburg!!, 
there was hardly a hut, or a post houJe, that did not contain 
one or more paintings, upon small pannels of wood; th^ 
figures of which were represented, after the manner of the 
earliest specimens of the art, upon a gold ground, and 
sometimes protected in ttont by a silver coat of mail, which 
left only the faces and hands of the images visible. A small 
attention to the history and character of the Russians wiH 
explain the cause. 

• The earria^e road from Petersburgh to Moeeow, a dbtanee of 
near 500 miles, m the summer season, consists of the trunks of trees 
laid across. ^ In consequence of the jolting these occanon, it n tSiea one of 
the most painful and tedious journies in Europe. 



When tiie religion^ of the Greek ehureh was first intro- 
^oeed into Russia, its propa^tors,prohibi ted bytheseeond 
eommandment iVom the worship of carved images, brou^t 
with them the pictures of the saints, of the vir^n, and the 
Messiah. The earliest ehnrehes in the holy land had paint- 
ings of this kind, which the first Christians worshipped ; as 
maj be proved by the remains of them at this time in that 
country.* To protect these holy symbols of the new faith 
from tne rude, but zealous fingers and lips of its votaries, 
in a country where the arts of multiplying them by imitation 
were then unknown, they were covered by plates of the most 
precious metals, which left the features alone visible. As 
soon as the messengers of the gospel died, they became 
themselves saints, and were worshipped by their followers. 
The pietnres they had brought were then suspended in the 
churebes,«nd regarded as the most preeions reltcks. Many 
of them, preserved now in Russia, are considered as having 
i he power of working miracles. It would, 1 hen, necessarily 
follow, that with new preachers, new pictures mnst be 
required. The Russians, characterised at this day by a 
talent of imitation, though without a spark of inventive 
penius, followed, hot only the style of the original painting, 
bat the manner of laying it on, and the materials on which 
it was placed. Thus we find, at the end of the eighteenth 
century, a Russian peasant placing before his bogh, a pic- 
ture, purchased in the markets of Moscow and Petersburgh, 
exactly similar to those brought l\rom Greece during the 
tenth ; the same stiff representation of figures which tho 
Greeks themselves seem to have origins ly copied from 
works in mosaiek ; the same mode of mixing and laying on 
the colours on a plain gold surface ; the same custom of 
painting upon wood ; and the same expensive covering of a 
silver eoat of mail ; when, from the multitude and cheap- 
ness of such pictures, the precaution, at first used to pre- 
serve them, is no longer necessary. ' In other instances of 
their religion, the copy of sacred relicks seems, to the Rus- 
sians, as much an object of worship as the origiiTal. This 
will appear by the description of Moscow ; in the neigh- 
boarhood &f which city is a building erected, at prodigious 

* Amofig tbe raim 9f 901116 of the most ancient eburcbes in PalesUne, I 
foond seTeral curious example* of encaustick paining, of a very eariy datt. 
One of these, {k*om S^pboris, near Nacftreth, it now in the poAsession of 
ths proidpaltibrsiJwa ot'^lie Umreenity of Osmbri^, to mkom I proseut- 
cdit. 



14 Clarke's, TRAv&Lft in Russia. * 

expense* In imitation oftUe chiireh of tlie holy sepulehre at 
Jerusalem ; having exaetiy the sam^ form, and eontainlng a 
faithful reprei^cntution of the same absurdities. 

The cathedral of NoFogorod, dedicated to St« Sophia, in 
imitation of the name given to the magnificent edifiee erected 
hy Justinian at Constantinople, was built in the eleventh 
eentury. Aiaiiy of the pictures seem to have been therefrom 
the time in whidb the chureh was finished, ajid doubtless 
were some of them painted long before its consecration^ if 
they were not brought into the country with the introduc- 
tion fif Christianity. At any rate, we may eonsider them as 
having originated from the source whence Italy derived a 
knowledge of the art, though prior to its appearance in that 
eountry. Little ean be said of the nijerit of any of them. 
They are more remarkable for singularity than beauty. In 
the dome of a sort of antiehapel, as you enter, are seen the 
representations of monsters with many heads, and such a 
strange assemblage of imaginary beings, that it might be 
supposed a pagan, rather tiiaa a Christian temple. The 
dine rent representations of the virgin, throughout Russia^ 
will show to what a pitch of absurdity superstition has been 
carried. I believe roost of them are found in all their prin- 
cipal churches; and as their worship forms so conspicuous 
a feature in the manners of the Russians, it will be proper 
to annex fac similes of those pictures which have the great- 
est number of votaries; for though tliey are all objects of 
adoration, they have each of them particular places, in 
which, as tiUeiary deities, they obtain more peculiar rev- 
erence; and sometimes small chapels and churches, dedi^ 
cated particularly to some one of them individually. These 
are, principally, The Virgin of Vladimir; The Virgin 
with the Bleeding Cheek; and — spectatum adndssi^ risum 
ieneatis ? — The Virgin with three Hands ! The authors of 
the Universal History appropriate this last picture to tb'6 
church of the convent of the New Jerusalem. I believe it to 
have been originally painted, as a barbarous representSr 
tion, or symbol, of the trinity; ami, therefore, it more 
properly applies to another convent in the neighbourhood 
of Moscow. The following story has, however, been eirr 
ciliated, concerning its history. 

An artist, being einployod on a picture of the Virgin and 
Child, found, one day, that, instead of two hands, which he 
had git en the Virgin, a third had been added, during his 
absence from his work. Supposing some person had beejL 



NOVOOOROD. ±B 

playing a triek with him, he rubbed out the third hand, andt 
baring finished the pietare, earefuHy loeked the door of his 

rrtment. To his e;reat surprise, he found, the next day» 
extraordinary addi^on of a third hand in his picture, a» 
before. He now began to be alarmed ; but, still ooneluding- 
it possible that some person had gained aeeess to his room^ 
he onee more rubbed out the superfluous hand, and not only 
loeked the door, but also barrieadoed the windows. The 
next day, approaching his elaboratory, he found the door 
and windows fast, aske had left them; but, to his utter 
dismay and astonishment, as he went in, there appeared the 
same remarkable alteration in his pieture, the virgiu ap- 
pearing with three hands, regularly disposed about the 
child. In extreme trepidation, he began to eross himself, 
and proceeded onee more to alter the picture; when the 
yimn herself appeared in person, and bade him forbear^ 
as it was her pleasure to be so represented. 

Many of those absurd representations are said to be the 
work of angels. In the Greek church they followeil the 
idols of paganism, and have continued to maintain their 
place. They are one of the first and most curious sights 
which attract a traveller's notice; for it is not only in &w 
charehes that such paintings are preserved; every room 
throughout the empire has a picture of this nature, large 
or gmall, called the bogh, or god, stuck up in one corner ; 
to which every person who. eaters offers adoration, before 
any salutation is made to the master or mistress of the 
house ; and this adoration consists in a quick motion of the 
light hand in crossing, the head bowing all the time, in a 
nranner so rapid and ludicrous, that it reminds one of those 
Chinese mandarin images, seen upon the chimney pieces of 
old houses, which, when set a going, continue nodding, for 
(he amusement of old women and children. In the myriads 
of idol paintings dispersed throughout the empire, the suh^ 
jjects represented aro very various^ 



©HAPTEE HI. 



NOVOGOROt). 

Ancient History ofJ^^ogorod-^First Churches in Aussia 
^^Procopius — Evas^rius — Baptism of Olga^ ^tefward$ 
Helena — Arms of Mvogoroa — Ceremony of Crossing — 
General Picture cf this Route — Heights ^ Viddai-^ 
Costume — Tumuli— Jedrova — Domestick Jmmnersofihe 
Peasants — Servile State of the Empire — Vyshnei Volos- 

holc — Torshok Tver^—JiUlanese Vagrants-^ Volga — 

Tumuli-^^Klin — Petrovski — Arrival at Moscow — Juliet 
—■Accommodations. 

THE melancholy ideas excited by the preient appear- 
ance of Novogorod have been felt by all traTeilers. 
Who has not heard tire ancient sayings which went forth in 
the days of its greatness?* Nomade Slavonians were it|i 
founders, about' the time the Saxons, invited by Vortigera^ 
first came into Britain. Four centuries ^fler, A. D. 450, 
a motley tribe, collected from the oris;inal inhabitants of all 
the watery and sandy plains around the Finland Gulph, 
made it their metropolis. Near a thousand years have 
passed away, since Rurick, the Norman, gathering them 
together at the mouth of the Volchova, laiiTthe foundation 
o/an empire, destined to extend over the vast territories of 
all the Russias; then ascending the river,, to the spot wherQ 
if s rapid eurreqt rushes from the Ilmen to the Ladoga Lake, 
he fixed his residence in Novogorod. 

In the midst of those intestine divisions, which resulted 
from the partition of the empire, i^t the death of Yladimip, 
who divided his estate between his twelve sons, there arose 
three independent princes, and a number of Jietty eonfede^ 
lacies. The seat of government was successively removed 

• ** QxoB eontra Deos; ct Magnwn Novocoi'di^^tp?'^ ** W^ooan retist tbe 
God9, Mrf Great KoTOfoifd ?** 



frmh IVcrrogonid^^to Soxedal, Vladimir, aod Moscow. Koto- 
gfirod adopted a mixed spverninent, partly moDarohieiU and 
partly republican. Id the middle of the thirteeoth eea- 
turj it was distinf^iitshed bj the victories of its i^rand doke* 
Alexander Nevski, orer the Swedes, on the banks of the 
Neva ; and by its remote situatfou, escaped the ravaf^es of 
the Tartars in the fourteenth. In the fifteenth, it sub- 
mitted to the yoke of Ivan the first, whose sueeessor, Ivaa 
the second, in the sixteenth, ravaged and desolated the 
plaee carryins; away the palladium of the city, the famous 
bell, which tlie inhabitants had dignified with theappella- 
tion of EtemnL But its ruin was not fully accomplished- 
until the bmldin^of Fetersburgk when all the eonimerce of 
the Baliiek was transferred to that capital. 

Bodies, miraculously preserved, or rather mummied, of 
saints who were mortal, a^s as^o, are shown in lite cathe- 
dral of St. Sophia. This edifice has been described as one 
of the most ancient in the country. The .first Russian 
•hurehes were certainly of wood ; and their date is not 
easily ascertained. Christianity was preached to the iu- 
habitants of the Don so early as the time of Justinian* 
That emperour was zealous in building churehes amon^ 
remote and barbarous people. According to Proeo^iuif^ 
he caused a church to be erected among ,the Abasgi, in, 
honour of the Theotocos, and constituted p>riests ainons^ 
tbeui. The same atttht)r also rdates, that tl%e inhabitant* 
of Tanais earnestly entreated him to send a bishop among 
them, whieh was accordingly done. Evagrius Sc^iolasti- 
ens* has related this circumstance^ as recorded by Procopi- 
us. Bat hy Tanats is said to be intended that stream^ 
which runs out of the Mseotis into the Euxine 5 that is t» 
say, the Cimmerian Bc«phorus, or Straits of Taman. 
The arrival of a bishop so invitetf, and under sueh patron- 
age, might be followed by the establishment of a church; 
and it is probable, from existing documents as well as the 
traditions of the people, that this really happened cither 
on the Asiatiek, or tha European side of those Straits,. 
aboat that time. The jurisdiction of the province after-^ 
wards annexed to the crown of Russia by Svetoslav the 
first, father of Vladimir the great, included the isle or 
Taman,.aod the peninsula of Kertchi. Indthose districts^ 
therefore^ we might be allowed to place the first tahernaeleni 
♦Lib.iv. C.23. 

• €3 .•;. 



18v Clarke's 'xkavsIiS iip rubsia. 

of ClilifttMUi worfkip^ahk^tt^^tft Ihe ddrtsnt p«rl«d«f 
timr iiitfodiwiioiiy ute Ibattdmtiofn of tbe RuBmaii empire 
hiiid 9e»f 60 been laid* It is pleaeing to bring sealtered poi^ 
tlnis of bfftmry to bear itpos siiy one fomt ^ mrtiett)«i5', 
vfken by so doing, the obsCTrity o^ some sf them may be 
elneidaled. The jonmej of Olgft, %rife of Ige^, son of R«» 
riek, to CovstantTBOtofe^ after arraging the deoth of htf 
Inietoidiipon ^be yolt^, oeciirred ^^ery early in the awnsle^ 
of' thftt eonntry. ^ 8iie went,'' say the eompilero of ikm* 
IMMem Universal Uistory,* << for what reason we know 
uoty to Cnstantinople." Yet wlien it is rehired, tbat the wair^ 
boiriised thereat that, in coasequenee of her exaafil^, 
jnany of her sobje^s beeame eon^rts to Obristiamty $ that' 
the Rasftians, 16 this day, rank her aiaoag their saints; and? 
annually eeneidiemorate her festlral) Itie eao«e of her 
journey wril hardly admit a donbt. The resoh of it proves^* 
ip#ORie»lably, the introdnetion of Ohristtianity, and the 
ee^bltdiment of ehurehes in Russia, at an earlier period' 
than i» ^neraliy admitted ; namely, the bapttom of Viadi^ 

The reader is reqoested to pardon ai^ proliiitf m Uvs 
iavestfg^ion of this st^jeet. It is matoitaily connected 
with the history of the fine arts f for, with€hristiamty, the' 
art of painting was introdaeed into I^ssia. Borne of the 
most eiiosen idc^s et their ehureiies are, those eariono^ 
Greetan piotores, whieh the ilrst gospel nrisBtonanes bron^t 
with them from Constiuittttopie. Their moeriptions ORea 
exhibit the Greek eharaeters of these times; and they dfer 
most interesting examples of the mtf many oeoiorieo before 
it beeame known to the enlightened nations of Mnropei. 

» Vol. XXXV. p. 1S2. 

. f The eraperour, John Zimisces, aoconHng to some histopians, was her 
jQdfather upon tbis occasion. It has been refeited, that he became enam' 
oared of the Soytliian princess, and proposed marriage ; vhi«li «im refused. 
The old lady, notwith0tnMilti& vima at tbii^ time in hn dxtf sketh year^ 
for she died at the age oT eighty, which baf>pened fiofurteen years after her^ 
baptism. Collateral annals, by discordant chronology, seem to prove^ that 
the whole story, about the eastern eraperoar's amoroHS propenaties, Im 
fomded in erronr and afarandHy^ ZiBusoet waa not craamied uaitil GfaiMt* 
maa day, A. D. 969. Ten yfiws before this period, Halena ( vhifih was the 
name horn by Olga, alter her bax>tism} hm sent ambassadours to Oth<v 
eraperoar of the west, desiring missionaries to instnict her people. A 
ntission wat conseqaenlly undertsllficni liy St Addter^ hUtmf of Magie*' 
hwrg, A. D. 962^ 

^ Some authors place this eTCOt fooir jmn aftrller. UteTefbOoired the 
ehroootogy of Du Fresnoy. 



Nvr ims t&e art of pftindng abae int iwiweJ vrkk Ckrii4B« 
aakr into Roma. AJl tbey luiew of tettart, or of any 
oaeHil aad Uberal art, for moaj cenluritt ofterwardt^ wao 
derirefl firoiv tlw «io« sovrce. Tbo iiiliaVitaiito of th^- 
Sooth Sea Iclands eaii hardly be more savage tiia» were the 
Rsniaooy whoa the go^iel wao first prc^icfaed to them. 
The fttii aeeomplishment of this great erent oertainly did 
not take place till Vladirtik heoane eonverted. It was m 
osadkioB of his aiarriago with the tister of the £k<eek em- 
peroor ; and^ it is said^ that no less than tweaty thoasaad 
of his solipeets were ehriileaed on the save day. Thia 
ehanse eSeeted by this awasure was nothine less thaa a* 
emapiele revolotioa in maaners and ta morats. Vladimir 
lod the way by his example. The pagan idols^ and eight 
hitadred ooneubities, were dknnssed togetiter^ aad the 
twelve sons^ whieh his six wives liad born him, were baptt* 
aed ; eharehes and monasteries drew around them towns 
aad villages; and civilization seemed to dawn.apon the^ 

£[01110 aM the forest!) of Seythia. A memorial of the 
essed effects of Christianity , among a people who were 
searoe reaiovod from the bmte ereation, seems preserved, 
eves in the arms of the government of Novogorod, thft 
distriot in whieh it was irst established ; and the ludisroaa 
manner in whieh it is typified^ is eonsistettt with the bai«« 
hmty of the people. Two bean, supporters, are rfwesea* 
ted at an altar, upon the ioe, with crneifixes eroMeo before 
tjie hogh, on whtebis placed a eandelahrom with a tripla 
kMtroy emblem iff the trkdty. 

l%e fortress of Novogorod is large, but of wretched ap^ 
pearanee. It was esnstraeted afier the plan of the Kremlia 
at Moscow, towards the end of the fifteenth centttry, and 
contains the cathedral. Upon the bridge, leading to this 
fortress, ft-om the town, is a small chapel, where every 
peasant who passes, either deposits his candle or his penny* 
Before this pkoe, which is filled with old pictures of tbo 
kind I have described, and which a stranger might really 
mistake for a ptetare stalls devotees, during the whole day^ 
may be s^n^ bowing and crossing themselves. A Russiaai 
hardly commits any action without this previous ceremonv. 
if he is to serve as*a eoaehman, and drive your carriage, bia 
erosoittg ooeupies two minoteo bdbre he is momited. vVheii 
he descends, the same motion is repeated. If a cfanreh is iir 
▼lew, yon see him at work with his head and hattd,^u( if 
seized with St. Yitns's dance. If he makes any earnest 



2& 

protevUtioiiy or enters a room, or goes oat, you are enter- 
tained with the same manual and capital exercise. Whea 
beggars return thanks for alms, the operation lasts a lon^^er 
time ; and then between, the crossing, by way of interlade^ 
they rienerally touch their forehead to the earth. 

The snow increased very fast in our way from Norogorod* 
to Tver ; but afterwards we had barely sudAeient to pass on^ 
and in some places the earth was bare. The traveller will 
be more interested in this information than readers at home ; 
and he will of course compare the observation with the date 
of the journey [April 6, 7, and 8^ as the weather in Russia 
is not subject to those irregular vicissitudes experienced in; 
£m^land. It may generally be ascertained by the calendar. 

1 do not know what first gave rise to a notion ^'ery 
prevalent, that the road from Petersburgh to Moscow is a ' 
straight line through forests, except that it was the inten-^ 
tion of Peter the Great to have it so made.* Th^ country is- 
generally open, a wide and fearful prospect of hopeless ste- 
rility, where the fir and the dwarf birch, which dover even- 
Arctick regions, scarcely find existence. The soil is for 
the most part sandy, and apparently of a nature to set agri- 
culture at defiance. Towards the latter part of the journe^r 
eorn-fields appeared, of considerable extent. What the 
summer roaa may be, 1 a^m unable to say ;^but bur progress 
was as devious as possible. In all the province or dtstriel 
of Yaladi, the soil is hilly, not to say mountainous ; so that 
what with the undulations of the road itself, from the heaps^ 
of drifted snow, and the rising and sinking of the eoantry^, 
our motion resembled that of a vessel rolling in aii Atlan- 
tick calm. My good friend, professor Pallas, experieiioe4 
as rough a journey along this route a few years before^ 
He mentions the delay, and even the danger, i» wliieh he^ 
was exposed on the Heights of Y Aldai.t ^ preenely siiiii-< 
lar were the circumstances of the seasons, that in botii^ 
eases the snow failed in the moment of arrival at Mob- 
cow. 

The female peasants of the Valdai have a costume whick 
resembles one in Switzerland. It consists of a skift with 

• AVhen Jonas Hanway [Travels, Vol. 1. p. 92.] passed in 1743, only 
«ne hundred railes had been completed according to the original plan,, 
nrhich was,, to makeabridgiB of timber £6r the whole distance of tour hun- 
dred and eighty seven miles. For that space of four hundred miles, accor- 
dhig to the calculation made by him, no less than.t^vo miilion one hundred' 
thousand trees were required. 

t Ti-ayeU-throagh the Soathern Provinces, &c. VoU I. P. 4. 



full sleeres, and a sbert pettiedat with e«loiir«A ifoekiagt* 

Oirer this, in winter, ihey wear a pelisse of Iamb's wool, a« 

w&iCe as the snow around them, lined with eloth, and adorn- 

ed With gold buttons and lace. The hair ef unmarried 

women, as in most parts of Russia, is braided, and han^ to 

a g^reat. leoj^th down their baoks. On their heads thejr 

wear a handkerchief of coloured silk. When married, the 

hair is trussed up, and tliis constitutes the outward mark of 

a virgin, »r a matron. Generally speaking, the traveller 

maj pass over a vast extent of territory without noticing 

any change in the costume. How very diftrent is the case 

in Italy ;; where the mere passage of a bridge, in the same 

eify^ as at Naples, leads to a different node of dress. The 

male peasants of Russia are universally habited, in wiatcTf 

m a jaeket Hiade of sheep's bide, with the wool inwards ; a 

s^are crowned red cap^ with a circular edge of Mack wool 

round the rim, which is very becoming, and appears shad« 

owing the eyes. These, with & long, hlaek beaid, saodalo 

made of tlie bark of the bireh^tree, and legs b a n da g e d m 

wooUtji, complete the dresa. 

Conical mounds of earth, or tnnMli, oecnr very ftef oentljr 
ta this road. The moat remarkable nay be observed in 
the stage between Ycasolbisky and Yatdai, on both sides off 
the road, hut diieiy on the left ; and they eontinue to ap« 
near froni the latter pkee to Jedrofa. Profbssor Palki* 
W given m representation of four of those tumali, itt a 
Y^linette, at the begining of the first volume of his lat» 
work.* Tbey are common aU over the Russian empire $ 
aad, indeed, it may be asked^ where the country is, in whick 
sneh sepokhral hyincks do not appear. 

We had been pestered the wh^ way fran Peterdbnigk 
by a bell, whieh the drivers carried, suspended to their bett; 
birt were tml aware that it passed as a mark of privilege, 
until we eame to Jedrova. Here we saw a poor fellow 
cttdfuelled by a police officer, beeanse he had presomed to 
carry a bell witaout a Poi2erosaioi;t which is the title to 
tttch a dioliiictiain. 

The whole journey from Petersbnrgh is Moscow ofiers 
sothing that will strike a traveller more Uiaa the tonta or 

* Travels ttutrngh tli« SonCherti "Prtmaaet. kjd 

t The im^^eriftl order for horse*. Those who travel with post-horses 
•arrr a bell. It serves, as the horn in Germany, to give notice to persons 
sa the road to,tui3^ out of th$ way ; such horses h^Ing in the serviee of the 
si^wn. ' ' ' ^ 



da CLAREte'S TRAVBL* W &tT«SJIA. 

Tillage of Jedrova. It eoaiists of one street, as broad' a» 
Piccadilly, formed by the ^ble ends of wooden huts, whose 
roofs project fUr over their bases, and terminated by its 
church. A view of one of these towns affords a eorreet 
idea of all the rest, as there is seldom any difterence in the 
mode of eonstriteting the poorer towns of Russia. A windo\Sr 
in such places is a mark of distinction, and seldom noticed. 
The houses in general have only small holes, through 
which, as you drive by, you see a head stack, as in oi 
pillory. 

Upon some of the women I observed such stockings a» 
the Tyrolese wear, eovering only the lower part of the 
leg, about the ancle, with a sort dt eylinder, formed by 
spiral hoops of wool. 

The forests, for the most part, consist of poor, stunted 
trees $ and the road, in summer, is described as the most 
ali^omiaable that can be passed. It is then formed by whole 
trunks of trees,^laid aeross, parallel to each other, which 
occasion such violent jolting, as the wheels move from one 
to the other, that it cannot oe born without beds placed for 
the traveller to sit or lie upon. 

We had a very interesting peep into the manners of the 
peasantry ; for which we were indebted to the breaking of 
our sled^ at Poschol. The woman of the house was prepa- 
ring a dinner for her fanuly, who were gone to church. It 
consisted of soup only. Presently her husband, a faoor^ 
eanie in, attended by his daughters, with some small loaves 
of white bread, not larger than a pidgeon's egg, which I 
suppose the priest had consecrated, for they placed them 
with great care before tiie b4)6h. Then t£te bowing and 
crossing began,and they went to dinner, all eating out of the 
same bowl. Dinner ended, they went regularly to bed, as if 
to pass the night there, orossins and bowing as before. Ha- 
ying slept about an hour, one of the young women,- accord*^ 
ing to an etiquette, constantly observed, ^led her father, 
and preseated him with a pot of vinegar, otqwiss^ the Has- 
sian beverage.* The man then rose, and a complete fit of 
crossing and bowing seemed to seize him^ with interludes 
so inexpressibly eharaetenstiek and • ludicrous, that it was> 

• It is made by mixing flower and water to|;ether, and leaving it till it 
has fermented and turned sour. The flavour is like that of vinegar and 
water. It loolc^ thick, and i»very unpleasing to' strangers; but, by use, 
we became fond of it; and in the houses of the nobJcs, where attentioa i* 
|«k] to its brewing^ it U esteemed a dclicac]^, particularly in s,ammer. 



irerj diffieiilt ii» preserve f^avity. The pausen of serateh- 
iDg aod grunting, with ail the att^idant cireumstanees of 
yentriloquism and eruetatiMi; the apostrophes to his wife, 
to himself, aod to his god, were suefi as drunken Barnahy 
might have put into Latin, but need not be expressed in 
English. 

The pietoii& of Russian masnerg varies little with refer* 
ence to: the prince or the peasant. The first nobleman in 
the empire, when dismissed by his sovereign from attend*- 
anee upon his person, or withdrawing; to his estate, in 
eonsequenee of dissipation and debt, betakes himself to a 
mode of life little superioor to that of brntes. Yon will 
then find him, thpoaghoat the day, with his ne^k bare, his 
beard lengtliened, his body wrapped in a sheep's hide, 
eating raw turnips, and drinking quass^ sleeping one half of 
the day, and growling at his wife aiid family the other. 
The same feelings, tlie same wants, wishes, and gratifiea- 
lions, then charaeterize the nobleman and the peasant ; 
aiid the same system of tyranny, whi^ extends from the 
throne downwards, through all the bearings and ramifiea* 
lions of society, even to the cattage of tKe lowest boor^ 
lias entirely extingnished every spark of liberality in the 
breasts of a people who are all slaves. They are all, high 
and low, rich and poor, alike tftrvite tosoperiours ; haughty 
and eruel to their dep^idants; ignsorant, superstttious, cun- 
ning brutal, barbarous^ dirtj, mean. The emperour 
eanes the first of his grandees; princes and nobles cane 
their slaves^ and the slaves their wives and daughters. 
Ere the sun .dawns in Russia, fiagellation begins: and^ 
throughout its vast empire, eudgeb are going, in every de- 
partmeiit of its population, from morning uiitil night. 

How forcibly opposed to these eharaeteristicks are the 
manners of the Swedes! hi the pleasing recollection of the 
honesty, the benevokaiee, the bravery, and all the manly 
virtues that adorn the breasts of the inhabitants of Sweden, 
the contrast is, indeed, painfully striking. When I refieet 
on the k^ traek over which I have passed, and the raanjr 
examples of human exeellenee which it has been my lot to 
witness, I almost repent that I have begun with the joamey 
among the Russians; lest, from the statement I am eom-' 
pelled to make, it aJiould be supposed that I have been ac* 
toated by other motives tlian a love of truth. 

Vyshnei Veloshok i^ a place of considerable importance^ 
remarkaUe for the extensive canals on which the great ia-^ 



iaml naTi^fttiim of Rttssia h <aitiei ^b. A jtjniilion ha» 
heen formed between the Tvertza and the M^ta, uniting, by 
a navigable ebamiel of at leant five thousand versts, the 
Caspian with the Baltick tea. I suspeet thal^there is not 
in the world an example of inland navigation so extensire, 
obtained by artifivial means, and with so little labour; for 
the yo%a is navigable almost to its sonree; and Uiree 
versts, at the utmost, is all that has been eut through, in 
forming the eanal. The merchandise of Astroean, anil 
other parts of the south of Russia, are brought to this 
plaee. Above ibur thouiMutd vessels pass tlie eanal annnalty. 
The town, or villag'e^ as It is called, is full of hutldingo and 
shops. It h spacious, and wears a stalely, thriving ap« 
pearanee ; fbrmin^ a striking eontrast with the miserable 
places on this road. 

At the difierent stations whieh oeenr in the fottte from 
f^etersburgh to Moscow, are buildings ap«ropri»itod io tbe 
i&mperour^ use, when he passes. This rarely happens dbove 
once in a reign. As there is hardly an instanee of aeeont'- 
modation for travellers, no hax-m would hap|M?n to the build- 
ings if they were used for that purpose; neither would the 
national eharaeter suffer by its iMpitality. Of course I 
apeak of what may be done in better times $ for, when w« 
traversed the country, hindneos toastn^ger^and especially 
to an Englishman, was a erimfe of the irst ttagmituae, ana 
might prove the means of a journey to Siberia. It io but 
fustice to make this apology for the oondaot of those nu4er 
the immediate eye of government ; at the same time^i t must 
he confessed, they made the beot use of an opportuaitj 
whieh encouraged them to exaetio», plunder, ai^ oppresamis 

From Vyshnei Yoloshok we eame to Torshok, seventy 
one versts distunt^ remarkable for a ^inB» which is super- 
stitiously venerated, ajid brinffs pilgrims from all parl». It 
has no less than twenty ehorakea, so«e of wjiieh are built 
of stone, and is a thriving town. 

At Tver, sixty three verots further, there is adeeent iai. 
A shop is, also, a«aexed to it, as it olbft liappens in all the 
northern countries of Europe. Thk oho^to Icqpt bv Italiftiu^ 
ikatives of the Milanese territory, a vagrant tribe, whoao 
industry and enterprise carry them fr^n the lake of COI110 
to the remotest regions of thee earth. I have oeen them in 
all countries, and even in Lapleri. Qenorally^ they carry 
^ large haskety covered by an oilskin, containing ehaap^ 
'eoloimdl prittti^ mrtom^' tlfcBCT>iBirtfrra»..aii4 baro«eti»i» 



FROM TVER TO HOSCOW* 9^ 

t^liej are always men of ingenuity, of nneemmon perse- 
Tcraoee, industry, and, I may add, of honesty. Living with 
tfae most serupulons economy, they collect^ after many 
years of wandering, their hard earnings, with which they 
letum to settle in the land of their fathers, and to send ont 
ao ofispring as noraade as themselves^ 

At Tver we beheld the Volga, and not without consider- 
able interest; for, though bound in ^< thick-ribbed ice," and 
eorered with snow, the consciousness of its mighty waters, 
navigable almost to their source, rolling through a course 
of four thousand versts in extent, bearing wealth and plenty, 
is one of the most pleasing reflections. It seems to connect 
08 with the Qaspian, and the remote tribes of those nations, 
80 little known, who dwell upon its shores. « 

The situation of Tver, upon the lofty banks of the Volga, 
h very grand. It has a number of stone buildings ; and its 
sbops, as well as churches, merit particular reeard. The 
jonction of the Volga and the Tvertza is near the Street of 
Millions. Pallas speaks of the delicious sterlet, taken from 
the Volga, with which travellers are regaled in this town, 
at all seasons of the year. 

The journey from Tver to Moscow, in the winter, with 
a kibitki, is performed in fifteen hours. The road is bread 
and more straight than in the former route from Peters- 
bnrgh. But in certain seasons, such as those of melting 
snow, it is as bad as possible. In the second stase from 
Tver, between the sixth and seventh verst from the post* 
house on the left hand, appeared an entire groupe of those 
aneient tumuli before mentioned. They are so perfect in 
their forms, and so remarkably situated, that they can- 
not escape notice. I endeavoured to learn of the peasants 
if they had any tradition concerning them. Ail the 
information they gave me was, that.they were constructed 
beyond all memory, and believed to contain bodies of men • 
slain in battle. A notion, less reasonable, although com- 
mon to countries widely distant from each other, is, that 
saeh mounds are the tombs of giant». Thus, on the hills 
near Cambridge, two are shown as the tombs of Gog and 
Magog. Ana the tomb of Tityus, the most ancient of all 
those mentioned in the history of Greece, is described br 
Homer* as a mound of earth raised over the spot on which 
that giant fell, warring against the gods. 

* Pausanitts saw it in Phocit, at the base of ParnasniSy twenlgr stadia 
irom ChsBrooea ; where I foand it in the year 1801. It is one of those monu^ 



a^ CLARKE*S TRAVELS IN RUSSIA. 

Ei^lity three versf« iVom Tver we came to a small settle* 
inent between two hills, which is marked in the Russian 
map as a town, and called Klin. It hardly merits saefk 
distinction. On the right, as we left it, appeared one of 
those houses constructed for the accommodation of the 
empress Oatherineon her jonrney to the Crimea. 

The rising towers and «pires of Moscow greeted our 
eyes six versts before we reached the city. 1 he country 
around it is flat and open ; and the town, spreading over 
an immense district, eauals, by its majestick appearance, 
that of Home when beneld at an equal distance. As we 
approached the barrier of Moscow, we beheld, on the left, 
the large palace of Petrovsky, built of brick-work. It 
wears an appearance of great magnificence, though the style 
-xif architecture Is cumbrous and heaVy. It was erected for 
the accommodation of the Russian sdvereigns, during their 
Tisits to Moscow; the inhabitants of wliich city pretend 
that none of thetn durst take up a lodging within its walls, 
being kept much more in awe of their subjects than they 
are at Pelersburgh. It is said the empress Catherine used 
to call Moscow her little, haughty republick. This palace 
IS about four versts from the city. 

Arriving at the barrier, we were sometime detained dur- 
ing the examination of oiir passports. This entrance to the 
city, lirke most of the others, is a gate with two columns, 
one on each side, sut^mounted by eagles. On the left is the 
guard-house. Within this cate a number of slaves were 
employed, removing the mud from the streets, Mhi<^h haid 
been caused by the melting of the snow. Peasants, with 
their kibitkiSf* in great numbers, were leading the town. 
Into thej?e kibilkis, the slaves amused themselves by heap- 
ing as much of the n^ud as they could throw in, onperceiv- 
erf by the drivers, who sat in front. The officer appointed 
to superintend their lahmir chanced to arrive and deteiit 
them in their lilthy work,andwe hoped he would instantly 
have Jirohibited such an insult from being offered to the 
poor men. His eenduet however, only served to afford u 
trait of the' national character. Instead of preventing aiiy 

ments which defy time ; a lofty conienl mouncL The story of Homer, c«b- 
ceroing its origin, ig still related by the natives of the country. 

• The kibitki is the old Scythian vagon. In some parts of Tartary llie 
top takes off, and at night becomes a tent. Hence the name' given by the 
•Bassiaas tothe tents of Uie G^lmuc^s and Nogais ; beth of which thtt^catt 
Itibitki. 



MOSCOW.. it 

further attack upon the kibitkia, lie seemed liii;lily enter- 
tuned bj the Ingti^iiuitY of ihe eontrivanee ; and to eueour- 
age the sporty ordered every peasant to halt, and to hold 
his horse, MliiJe they fiilled his kibitki witk the mud and 
onliire of the streets ; covering with it the provisions of 
the poor peasants, and whatever else their kioitkis mia^ht 
eontain. with, whioh thev were going* peaceably to their 
wires and families. At last, to eompTete their scandalous 
oppression, they compelled each peasent, as he passed, to 
sit down in his kilbilki, and then they covered him also 
with the black and.stinkine mud. At this unexampled in- 
stuDce of cruelty and insult, some of the peasants^ more 
soirited than the rest, ventured to murmur. Instantly, 
blows, witk a heavy cudgel, on the head and shonlderi, si- 
lenced Hhe poor wretches' complaints. Before this be^n» 
the two sentinels at the sAte had stopped every kibitk\ as 
it passed, with a very duierent motive. First a loud and 
menacing tone of voice seemed to indicii,te some order 
•f govemmeat; but it waB q^uiekly silenced^ and became a 
whisper, in eonseqaence of a smallj piece of money beiiiff 
slipped into their hands by the peasants, when they passed 
oa without further notice. If the practice eon^tinues, the 
post of sentinel at a Russian barrier must be more profitable 
than tha,t of a stafiT-offieer in the service. I was witness to 
upwards of fifty extorted eontributions of this nature, ia 
the course of half an hour, when the plunder ended, as haa 
keendesoribed* 

A miserable) whiskered figure on horseback I believe in- 
l^ded for a, dri^on, waa now appointed to eondact us to 
thecomgiandant's; ^d beire the jjoderomoiy which he had 
bought oftlie en^perour in Petersbureh, together with our 
otkei: passports, andovweat a second examination. The 
SQow was, by ^his time, entirely melted ; and the sledge, 
apoa which oar carriage moved, was drag^&d over the stones 
by six horses, with so mueh diffieulty, that at last the dri vera 

gav^ it up, aad declared the carriage would breaks or the 
orses drop, if we compelled them to advance. The dragoon 
said we must take every thing, exactly as we arrived at 
the commandant's, and proceed* sitting in the carriage. At 
the same time, he threatened the peasenfs with a flagella- 
tion and, giving one of them a blow over his loins, ba<le him 
^' halt at his peril.^' Another effort was, of course, made, 
and the sledge flew to pieces. It was highly amusing to 
observe the dilemma into which the dragoon was oo^V 



28 CLA&KE's travels in RUSSIA. 

thrown ; as it was not probable either his menaees or his 
blows would again put the carriage in motion, A droski 
was procured, on which we were ordered to sit, and thus 
proceeded to the commandant. From the commandant, we 
were next ordered to the indendant of the police ; and all 
jlhis did not save us from the visits, and the insolence, of 
two or three idle officers, lounging about as spies, who en- 
tered our apartments, examined every thing we had 5 and 
askedanamber of impertinent questions, with a view to ex- 
tort money. Some of them found their way even into our bed- 
rooms, when we were absent, and gave our servant sufficient 
employment to prevent them from indulginga strong national 
tendency to pilfer^ a species of larceny, which actually 
took place afterM ards, committed by persons much their su» 
periours in rank. 

The accommodation for travellers is, beyond descHptioa 
bad both in Petersburgh and Moscow. In the latter, nothing 
but necessity would render them sufferable. They demand 
three roubles a day for a single room, or kennel, in which 
an Englishman would blush to keep his dogs. The dirt on 
the floor may be removed only with an iron hoe, or a shovel. 
Thetfe places are entirely destitute of beds. They consist 
of bare walls, with two or three old stuffed chairs, rags^ed, 
rickety, and full of vermin. The walls themselves are still 
more disgusting ; as the Russians load them with the most 
abominable filth. 

In thus giving the result of impressions, made on entering 
this remarkable city, I might appeal to some of the first 
families in the empire, for the veracity of my statement ; 
but such a test of their liberality would materially afifeet 
their safisty. I shall, therefore, unreservedly^ proceed to 
relate what I have seen, in that confidence, which a due 
regard to truth will always inspire. Moscow contains much 
worth notice; much that may compensate for the fatigue 
and privation required in going thither ; for the filthiness 
of its hotels ; the depravity of its nobles ; and the villany 
of its police. 



CHAPTER IV. 

MOSCOW. 

Ptadiarities of climatB^^Imprtsnrms made on afirsi Arn-- 
val — Russian Hotel — Persian^ Kirgisianj and fiuckarian 
dmhassadours — Fasts and Festivals-^'Ceremonies obsen^ 
at Easter — Palm Slnnday — Holy Thursday — Mamijice^it 
Ceremony of the Resurrection — Excesses of the ropulae^ 
— Presentation of the Paschal Eggs — Ball of the Peasants 
--Ball of the JS^dbles— CJiaracteristick Incident of Caprice 
in Dress, 

THERE is nothinj^ more extraordinary in this country 
than the transition of the seasons. The people oF 
Moseow hare no spring: winter vanisheSj and summer is/ 
This is not the work of a week, or a da j, hot of one instant,. 
and the manner of it exceeds belief. We came fram Peters* 
burgh to Moscow on sled^. The next day, snoiv was gone*. 
Ou the eifi^hth of Aprif, at midday, »now beat in at onr car- 
t\%^. willows. Oq (he same day, at sunset, arriyyig inr 
Moscow, we had difficulty in being dragged throiigii ther 
n2U(i to the eommaodant's. The next morning the streets: 
were dry, the double windows had been removed from the* 
kouses, the casements thrpwn open, all the carriages were- 
upon wheels, and the balconies fijlied with spectators.. 
Another day brought with it twenty-three degrees of heai 
»f CeUius, when the thermometer was placed in the shades 
»t noon. 

We arrived at the season of the year in which this city 
H most interesting to strangers. Moscow is in every thing: 
extraordinary, a» well in (Usapppinting expectation, as in? 
surpassing it ; in causing wonder and derision, pleasure anA 
regret Let we condu^st the reader back with me again tov 
tile gate by which we entered, and thence through the^ 
jtreets. Numerous spires, glittering with gold, amidst 
bursished dories and painted palaces, appear in the midst ' 
tf an open plain, for several versts before you reach this 
^te. Having {passed, you look ahout, and wonder what i«? 
•^«o«ie of thie cit^^ or where you are ; and are ready to asky^ ' 
D2 



do Clarke's trav£L» in Russia. 

once more; How far is it to Moscow ; They will tell yoo ; 
^^This is Moscow !" and you behold nothing; but a wide and 
scattered saburb ; huts^ {gardens, pig^sties, brick walls, chur- 
ehes, dunghills, palaces, timberyariis, warehouses and a re- 
fuse, as it were, of materials, sufficient to stock an empire 
with miserable towns and miserable villages. One might 
imagine all the states of Europe and Asia had sent a buiU 
ding, by way of representative, to Moscow ; and, under thk 
impression, the eye is presented with deputies from all conn- 
tries, holding congress : timber huts from regions beyond 
the Arctick ; plastered pallaces from Sweden and Denmark^ 
not whitewashed since their arrival; painted waits from 
the Tyrol : mosques from Constantinople ; Tartar templeg 
from Biicharia; Pagodas, pavilions, and virandas, from 
China ; cabarets from Spain ; dungeons, prisons, and pub- 
lick offices, from France ; architectural ruins from Rome, 
terraces and trellisses from Naples and warehoqses from 
Wapping. 

Having heard accounts of its immense population, you 
wander through deserted streets. Passing suddenly to- 
wards the quarter where the shops are situated, you might 
walk upon the heads of thousand!^. The daily throng is 
there so immense, that, unable to force a passage through 
it or assign any motive that might convene such a multi- 
tude,'yon ask the cause; and are told that it is always the 
same. Nor is the costume less various than the aspect of 
the buildiugs. Greeks, Turks, Tartars, Cossacks, Chinese, 
Muscovites, English, French, Italians, Poles, Germans^ 
all parade in the habits of their respective countries. 

We were in a Russian inn ; a complete epitome of the city 
itself. The next room to ours was filled by ambassadour» 
from Persia. In a chamber beyond the Persians, lodged a 
party of Kirgisians ; a people yet unknown, and any one 
of whom might be exhibited in a cage, as some newly dis- 
covered species. They had bald heads, covered by conical, 
embroidered caps, and wore sheep's hides. Beyond the 
Kirgisians lodged a nidus of Bucharians, wild as the asses 
of Numidia. All these were ambassadours from their 
different districts, extremely jealous of each other, who 
had been to Petersburgh, to treat of commerce, peace, and 
war. The doors of all our chambers opened into one gloo- 
my passage, so that, sometimes, we all encountered, and^ 
formed a curious masquerade. The Kirgisians and Bu- 
charians were best at arms' length f but tbe worthy oU 



Persian, itrhose naihe was (huTsai^ often exclianeed ▼isita 
wkb OS. He brought us presents^ aeeordinsi: to the eusten 
of his countiy ; and was mueh Reused with an En^iah 
pocket knife we had i^iven him, with whieti he said he 
shonld shave his head. At his devotions, he stood silent 
fbr an hoor tog^ether, on two small earpets, barefooted, with 
his faee towards Meeea ; holding, as he said, intelleetnal 
eon verse with Mohammed. 

Orazai eame from Tarkv, near Derbent, on the western 
shoi?e of the Caspian. He had with him his nephew^ 
and a Cossaek interpreter from Mount Caoeasus. Hia 
beard and whiskers were long* and s^rej, thous^h his eje-^ 
brows and eyes were blaek. On his head he wore a large 
eap of fine blaek wool. His dress was a jaeket of silk, over 
which was thrown a large, loose robe of the same materials, 
edged with gold. His ifeet were eovered with yellow, mo- 
roeeo slippers, which were without soles, and fitted like 
gloves. All his suite joined in prayer, morning and even* 
ing, hut the old man continued his devotions long after he 
had dismissed his attendants. Their poignards were of 
sflch excellent iron, that our English swords were abso- 
lutely cut by them. Imitations of these poignards are sold 
rn Moscow, but of worse materials than the swords from 
England. When they sit. which they generally do during 
the whole day, they have their feet bare. Orazai was very 
desirous that we should visit Persia; and taking out a reed, 
and holding it in his left hand, he began to write from n^ht 
to left, patting down our names, and noting tie informaticH^ 
we gave him of England. Afterwards he wrote his own 
hame in fair Persian characters, and gave it to me, as a 
memorial by which he might recognise me if ever we met 
in Persia. 

Upon the journey, they both purchased and sold staves* 
He cnFered an Indian negro, who acted as his cook, for 
twelve hundred roubles. An amusing embarrassment took 
place whenever a little dog of mine Ibund his way into the 
anTbassadour's room, in search of me. The Persians im* 
mediately drew up their feet, and hastily caught up all their 
dothes, retiring as far back as possible upon their conches. 
They told us, that if a dog touches-even the skirt of their 
slothing, they are thereby defiled, and cannot say their 
piujers without changing every thing, and undergoing^ 
tomplete puri^ation. fitis slaves sometimes played the 
hmaikay or gaitar with two strings*. The airs- were ver; 



M eXARKK's TRAVBLS iS RUSSIA. 

Iirefy, and not nnltke etir Engluk hompipe. Tbe ambfur^ 
mdour's nephew obliged us by eshibititt«c aPora^an danae, 
whieh seemed to coBsist of keeping the feet elose togelber, 
hardly ever Itfting them from the ^onnd, and mo¥4n^ 
sdovrly, to qniek measure, round the room. TheydrMt 
healths as we do; and eat with their hands, like the 
Arabs, all out of one dish, whioh is general ly of boiUit 
rice. If they eat meat, it is rarely any'other than nHfttan, 
sitewed into a soup. The young man used to drink the Rhs- 
sian beverage of hydromel, a kind of mead ^ and some^ 
times, but rarely, smoked. The ambassadonr never need a^ 
pine ; whieh surprised me, as the eusfom is almost univer* 
sal in the east. Their kindness to their slaves is that of 
parents to ehiidren; the old man appearing, liko aiH>tber 
Abraham, the common father of all nis attendants^ Thi» 
dress of their interpreter, who was of the Cossacks of 
the Volga, though stationed on Mount Caucasus, in the^ 
territories of the Circassians, was very rich. It consisted 
of a jacket of purple cloth lined' with siHc, and a silk 
Waistcoat, both without buttons | a rich shawl round his 
waist; very large trewsers of scarlet cloth; and a magnifi- 
eent sabre. 

Ambassadours of other more oriental hordes drove lote 
the court-yard of the inn, from Petersburgh. The empe*^ 
rour had presented each of them with a barouehe. Never 
was any thing more ludicrous than their appearance. Oul 
of respect to the sovereign, they had maintained a painful 
struggle to preserve their seat, sitting cross-legged, like 
Turks. The soow bavins melted, they had been jolted in 
this manner over the trunks of trees, which form a timber 
eause way between Petersburgh and Moscow ; so that, wlie« 
taken from their fine, new carriages, they could hardly 
erawl, and-made the most pitiable grimaces imaginable. A 
few days after coming to Moscow, they orde^ all the 
earriages to be sold for whatever sura any per/»oa would, 
•ffer. 

But it is time to leave our oriental friends and fellow-lodg- 
ers, that we may give an aeeount of the eeremonies of 
Easter ; during the preparations for whieh, we had the 
rood fortune to arrive. The people of Moscow celebrate 
the Paqm with a degree of pomp and festivity unknown to 
the rest of Europe. The most splendid pageants of Home 
do net equal the costliness and splendour of the Russian, 
^kiireli. Neither eould Vemce, in Ihe midot of hif imtm^ 



MOSCOW. 88 

^y ever riyal, in debasi^rj and supentition, ki lieen* 
tioasness and parade, what passes during this season in 
Moseow. 

It shoald first be observed, there are no people who ob- 
senre Lent withmore serupulous and excessive rigour than 
the Russians. Travelling the road from Petersburgh to 
Moseow, if at any time, in poor cottages, where the peas** 
ants appeared starving, I offered them a part of our dinner, 
they would shudder at the sight of it, and cast it to the 
dogs ; dashing out of their children's hands, as an abomin- 
ation, any food given to them ; and removing every parti- 
ele that might be left, entirely from their sight. In arink- 
ing tea with a Cossaek, he not only refused to have milk 
in his oup, but would not use a spoon that had been in the 
tea offered him with milk, although wiped earefully in a 
napkin, until it had passed through scalding water. The 
same privation prevails among the higher ranks ; but, in 
proportion as this rigour has been observed, so much the 
jnore exeessive is the degree of gluttony and relaxation, 
when the important intelHsenee that << Christ is risen^^ ha« 
issued from the mouth of the arch-bishop. During Easter, 
they run into every kind of excess, rolling about drunk 
the whole week $ as if rioting, debauchery, extravagance, 
gambling, drinking, and fornication, were as much a 
ireligious observance, as starving had been before; and 
that the same superstition which kept them fasting during 
Lent, had afterwards instigated them to the most beastl j 
exeesseo. 

Even their religious customs are perfectly adapted to 
their elimate and manners. Nothins can be contrived with 
more ingenious policy to suit the habits of the Russians* 
When I^nt fasting begins, their stock of frozen provisions 
is either exhaust^, or unfit for use ; and the interval 
which takes place allows, sufficient time for procuring, kill- 
ing, and storing, the fresh provisions of the spring. The 
night before the famous ceremony of the resurrection, all 
the markets and shops of Moscow, are seen filled with flesh, 
butter, eggs, poultry, pigs, and every kind of viand. The 
crowd ofporchasers is immense. You hardly meet a foot- 
passenger who has not his hands, nay his arios, filled with 
Srovisions ; or a single droski that is not ready to break 
own beneath their weight. 

The first ceremony which took place, previous to all this 
feasting, was that of the Faqiie jleurieSj or Palm Sunday* 



M» CLARRe's TRAVELft IN RUSSIA. 

Oirthe eve of this da}(, all th# inhaibitiints of M&^e^fm 
]«Bort, in carrtases, on horseback, or on foot, to the Kremr 
lin, for the purchase of palm-branches, to place before their, 
bo^bs, and to d^eorate the saered pietdres in the streets, or 
elsewhere. It is one of tiie gayest promenades of the year. 
The governour, attended by the maitre de poUce^ the eom-^ 
mamtant, and a train of nobility, go in procession, moanied 
on fine horses. The streets are lined by spectators ; and 
eavalry are stationed on eaehside, to preserve order, Ar« 
riving in the Kremlin, a vast assembly, bearing artifieial 
hoitquets and boughs, are seen moving here and there^ 
forming the novel and striking spectacle of a gay and 
Rio^ifig forest. The bouffhs consist of artifieial^ flow- 
ers, with fnrit. Beautiful representations of oraogee 
a«id lemons in wax are sold for a few copeeks'* each, and 
offer a proof of the surprising ingenuity of thia people in 
the arts of imitation. Upon thisoeeasion^ every person wha 
tpisit» the Kremftin) and would be thouglit a true Christiao^ 
pttrehases one or more of thebonghs, called Palnb-ln-asckes ; 
mkd in returains, the streets are crowded wiUi droskis, and 
alt ktndfr of vehieles, filled with ^votees, holding in their 
hands one or more palm-branches, according to the degree 
of their piety, or the nvmher of boghs in their houses. 

The description often given of the spkndour of the equt« 
pages in^ Moseow but ill i^rees with their appearanee 
daring Lent. A stranger, who arrives, with hia head fall 
•f notions of Asiatiek pomp, and eastern masnifteenee^ 
would be surprised to find narrow streets, execrably paved^ 
••vered by mud or dust ; wretched looking bouses on 
each side ; carriages, drawn, it is true, by six horses, hat 
8tt«h cattle ! blind, lame, old, out of condition, of all sises 
and all eolonrs, eonnected by votten ropes and old cords^ 
ftttt of knots and splices: on the leaders and on the box^ 
figores that seem to have escaped from the ealleys ; behind, 
a lousy, ragged laekey, or, perhaps, two, witheountenaneea 
exciting more pity than derision ; and the carriufi»e itself 
like the worst of the night-coaohes in. London. But this 
external wretchedness, as far as it coaeems the equipages of 
the nobles, admits of seme explanation. The tiifit is, that 
a dirty, tattered livery, a rotten harness, bad horses, and a 
shabby vehiele, constitute one part of the privation of the 
season. On Easter Monday the most gaudy bat Iknta&tiek 

* The CQfi^^k etpiaU ia value an. Sn^^lUb halfpenny. 



uoseow. " 89 

• 

bdTooDery of sptendour fills every street in the eity. Tke 
^mperoiir, it is tru^y in his hic^h eonsideration for the wel- 
fare and happiness of his subjeets, deemed it eipedtent to 
adapt the appearance to the reality of their wretehediieM : 
and, in restraining the excessive extravaganee of the people 
of Moseow, evinced more wisdom, than the world have 
^▼en him credit for possessing. 

The second grand ceremony of this seaflon takes plaiee on 
Tiiursdav before Easter, at noon, when the arehhishm 
washes the feet of the apostles. This we also witneotied. 
The priests appeared in their most goi^eousapparel.Twelve 
monks, desired to represent the fwelve apostles, were. pla- 
ced in a semicircle hero re the archbishop. The ceremony 
is performed in the cathedral, which is crowded with spec- 
tators. The archbishop, performing all and mueh more 
than is related of our Savioor in the thirteenth chapter of 
8t. John, takes olT his robes, girds up his loins with atowel^ 
and proceeds to wash the feet of them all, until he eomes to 
the representative of Peter, who rises ; and the sane inter- 
loeution take» place between him and the archbishop, which 
h said to havte taken pkee between our Baviour and that 
apostle. 

The third, and mo^t maeniiieent ceremony of all, is cele- 
brated two hovrs after mimiight, in the morning of Easter 
^nday. It is called the ceremony of the resurreetion,<and 
eertaialy exceeded every thing of the kind celebrated at 
Rome, or any where else. I have not seen so splendid a 
'th^ht in any Roman catholick country ; not even that of 
the benediction by the' pope during the holy week. 

At midnight, the great bell of the cathedral tolled. Its 
vibnitions seemed the rolling of distant thunder; and thoy 
were instantly accompanied by the noise of all the bells in 
Moscow. Every inhabittuit wasstiiTing, and the ratiling 
of carriages in the streets was greater than at noonday. 
The whole eity was in a blaze ; tor lights were-seen in all 
the windows, and innumerable torches in the streets. The 
tower of the cathedral was iUuminated from its fomdation 
to its cross. The same 'ceremony takes place in *all the 
churches ; 'and, what is truly surprising, eonsidering Ihetr 
number,' it is said they %re all emiali^r crowded. 

We hastened to the eatkedraJ, which ^vas filled with 'a 
pivdigtoiia^asBembiy «f 4ill ranks and sexes, beariw l^tdd 
wax tapers, to be afterwards heaped *a9 vows on the Affer- 
ent shrines. The i^ls, eeilings, land -every ^part i4f 



B6 Clarke's travels in Russia. 

• 
this bnilding, is covered by the picttires of saints and mar- 
tyrs. . In the moment of our arrival the doors were shut ; 
«nd on the outside appeared Plato, the arehbisfaop, preceded 
by banners and torches, and followed by all his train of 
priests, with crucifixes and censers, who were making three 
times, in procession, the tour of the cathedral ; chaunting* 
with loud voices, and glittering in sumptuous vestments, 
covered by gold, silver, and precious stones. The snow 
had not melted so rapidly in the Kremlin as in the streets 
of the city ; and this magnificent procession was therefore 
constrained to move upon planks over the deep mud which 
surrounded the cathedral. After completing the third cir^- 
euit, they all halted opposite the great doors, which were 
shut ; and tlic arclibishop, with a censer, scattered incense 
against the doors, and over the priests. Suddenly those 
doors were opened, and the eftect was beyond description 
great. The immense throng of spectators within, bearing^ 
innumerable tapers, formed two lines, through which the 
archbishop entered, advancing with his train to a throne 
near the centre. The profusion of lights in all parts of 
the eathedral, and, among others, of the enormous chande- 
lier which hung from the centre, the richness of the dresses, 
•iind the vastness of the assembly, filled us with astonishment. 
Having joined the suite of the archbishop, we accompanied, 
the procession and passed even to the throne, on which the 
police officers permitted us to stand, among the priests, 
near an embroidered stool of satin, placed for the arch- 
bishop. The loud chorus, which burst forth at the en- 
trance to the church, continued as the procession moved 
towards the throne, and after the archbishop had taken his 
seat ; when my attention was, for a moment, called off, by 
fleeing one of the Russians earnestly crossing himself witb 
his right hand, while his left was employed in picking mj 



companion's pocket of his handkerchiel« 

Soon after, the archbishop descended^ and went all round 
the cathedral ; first offering incense to the priest, and 
then to the people as he passed along. When he had re- 
turned to his seat, the priests, two by two, performed the 
4iame ceremony ; beginning with the archbishop, who rose 
and made obeisance with a lighted taper in his hand. From 
the moment the church doors were opened, the spectators 
had continued bowing their heads and crossing themselves ; 
insomuch that some of the people seemed really exhausted, 
hj the constant motion of the head and hands.. 



I hid narvr {tninre tci examine tie ArtMie* nai iiganm «f 
(he priests, wbtch WBre eertainlf ike nefi ttiikiw I eret 
saw. Their Iob^, dark hair, witbeot f^m^tr^ fell iown in 
riag^lets, or strai^t and thieky fur ever their rieb robes and 
sbofllders. Thetr dark, tfitek lieardfl^ aite^ ettlirely eerered 
their breasts. On tke head«of the arebbMirop and bish9|is 
were hi^h caps, covered with ffems^ and adef«ed bj minia- 
ture painting, set in jewels, m thd emetfixiea, Ifaio vireia 
and the saiiits. Their robes ef -vanena «oio«ped tattn, 
were of the most eostlj embroiderj, and e««B ea tbete verc 
mliuatore pictures set with preeioiis rtoiioi^ 

Sveh, according;' to tlio eomeeratod kgesd ef aeeieot 
dajSywas the appearaoeeor the bigfa*|^riestt of oM, Aarea 
ana his sons, holy men standii^^ by the temple of the eoa- 
^regation in fine numents, the worknaasbipof ^ BeawkeJ^. 
tlie son of Uri, the son of Hor, of the tribe of Jadab." It »» 
said there is a convent in Moeeow where the wemea are 
entirely employed in working dresses for the priests. 

After two hoars had been spent in varieaa earcmoiiieftr > 
the arehbishop advanced, heldini; forth a eroes^ whieb all. 
the neople erowded to embraoe, equeedingp eaeh other 
aearly to snffocation. As soen^ boweve^ m^ theb* eag^r* 
ae^sbad been somewhat satisfied, he retijred te the taeristy; 
nbere^ putting on a plain, purple robe, heafj^a advanecd^ 
exclaiming three times, in a very loud veiee ; Chri^ U • 
ri«ea/ 

The most remarkable part of the s«2e«uiUy now Allowed*- 
The archbishop, descending into the bedv of Ibe ehareh, 
ecmduded the whole eeremoay by erawiing rowtd tbe 
pavement on his hands and knees, kissing the eeaseeirated 
pietares, whether on the pillars, the walls, ike i^tars, er 
tbe tombs ; the priests aiul all the people imitating his ex* 
amfle. ^pnlcnres were opened, and the mnmmiM badks 
of meorrnptible saints ei^hibited, all ef wkktb anderw^nt 
tbe same general kissing. 

Thus was Easter proclaimed ; and riot and dtbaiaehery. 
instantly broke loose. The inn in whieh wnt Mged beeaoM 
a pandemonium. Drinking, daneing, and ttoging, eontimied 
dnrattgh the night and day. Bitt, in the midst of all these 
excesses, quarrels hardly ever t6ok plaee« Theivtld, rnde 
net of a Rnssian populace is fall of hmHanity. Pew dm^ 
Mtes are hei^rd i n» bbws are gi^en $ «9 Hves evdnigered, 
feat by df iidting. No meetings taleo piaee of any kiad^ 
viihooltep^^^tbe expfesineag of peaeeawl j&ff ilkrmt^ 

m 



togcnmi GmA m.nmnl to wlOdi Oie wMwer 9\mfM tt, 
ilM tame^ Fo isUneff VQ$cre8$! He w risen indeed I 

Om EMterMnadttY be^^ the presentation of the pasehal 
eggoi kversto their Bustr«8iiet» relatives to eadi other^ 
servants to thek masters^ all hrii^; ornamented e^s* Ererj 
oKeriog, at this season^ is called a pasehal e^. The mean- 
est pauper in the atreet^ pvesculinc an e^ and repeatii^ 
tho words Ckristas V0seres&, may demand a salute, even of 
the empress. All hwriness is laid aside ; the upper ranks 
are en^fiaged in visiting^ balls, dinners, sappers, and mas- 

Snerades $ while hows fill the air with their songs, or roll . 
rank ahont tho streets* Servants appear in new and tawdrj 
Ui^nrios $ and carriages in the most snmptoous parade. 

In the midst of th» nproar, I made mjself as mneh like 
itSttSMB as possible, and went in a caftan to one of (W 
pnhliek hallo of tl^ eitizens, given in our inn* It was held 
m a subs of several apartments ; and a mimeroos band of 
mnsiek, composed of violins, wind instminents, and kettlo'* 
dnfms, had been provided. The master of the inn had^ 
also, taken oare to invite a company of gipsies, to entertain 
the company by their dancing/ A sinsle ronbie was^oiaaiH 
ded, as the price of admission. All fears of appeanM 
like a foreigner Tamsbed, upon entering the principal ha^ 
room ; for I lennd an assembly as various in their a{^at<^ 
anee, as eharaeters- in a masquerade. On the benches were 
squatted Tnrks, with their nsual gravity and indifierenee^ 
kwkkig on with.a solemn, vaeant stare, unmoved, by sboats^ 
of joy or tnmnltuons songs, by the noise of the dauicing^ or, 
the thundering <^ a pair of kettle drums close to their earn. 
In another part were a party of Bocbarians, with flal 
noses, high cheek bones, and little eyes ^ their heads shaved^ 
and a small,eonical, embroidered cap on the crown of their 
scuUs; in rod morocco boots, long trowsers, of blue cloth^ 
with a girdle and a poignard* Besides these were Chinese 
merchants, Cossacks, and even Calmucks, all of whom ap- 
peared as spectators. In the middle of the room the Bns-r 
dan boors and tradesmen were dancing with prostituiest 
while their own wives and daughters were walking abottt^ 
A party of gipsies were performing the national danee^ 
oalied Barintt» It resenribied our English hornpipe; bm 
never was displaved more ferocious licentiousness hy\oiee 
and gesture. The male dancer expressed his savage joy in 
sqneaks, contortions, and sudden, convulsive spasms, that 
seemed to agttate his whole frame; standing sometimea 



«ilR; III6II koMitt^, ^yWnfttj^ toideity, «f (rasUing hi «I1 
lis limbs, to tbe uiisiek, whl«k wm rerjr aiiimatiii|^. Tkli 
imte^ thoQgh ret J commtMi hi Rmia, tiiejr e^ulbM t<i kave 
derived from the j^psies'; lad it may, ChereftHre, «€en prill* 
a^le, tbati^nrliorapipe wai introdveed %j tike saitiepeopW. 
Other gipsies' were telting fbrtimes, aeeoMia^'ta their mri- 
Tersal praetlee, m* heg^ng for presents of oranges and iM. 
This extraordinarj people, found In all parts of Kafopciy 
were ori^^inally ane of the easts of India, driven out of tbeik' 
svm territory, and dlsttn^ished, among Indmn trihes, by a 
pame, whteh signifies thieves.* Thtf have a similar appeff- 
iathtii among the f%is, und vith the same sigiMeation. 
They preserve, evvtywhefe, the saMie Ifeatores, mafttfero, 
atid eilstom«r, and, >vhat is more retnarkable, almost always 
the same nmide of dress; 'Hie extn^^iaary resemhfaaee 
^ (he Ibinaie t^psies, to the tromen uf India, was remai«e^ 
hf our offioers and men ili Bgyp<^ when general Batriarri^ 



ved with his army Ub j«ritt li>rd iliMhinsbn. The seaipo^ 
hadiMmy ttf th^Vr women with them,nv<he were eiDstetly Mm 
ear gipsies, la their ^h^s, they favnh alt their finery upett 
tbeh* head. Their eostame, in Rassia, h Very Mfhrent 
fltrttt'fhat of die ta(ivei(. They wear enormoas eaps eover* 
ei iHth riMNrads, uiiddeeoratefi infiraaft with a prodigieaa 
qmm^ Hftf %iiver eoins, whiek fnffm a matted mall work 
everthdrfbreheads. Tl»y aho wear saeh eoins as neek* 
hiees, aad l^te ^e ^mnUeftt to be met with in the empire^ 
firr peadanfes to their ea¥s; The Russians hold them ia 
great eonteiBpt, never speaking of them withont abase ^ 
Utid feel them^elyefii eohtaminated br ^ir toneh, nnless it 
be to hate tlieir Ibrtane ts^ld. They beliete a gipsy net only 
hMirtie wish, tint the'p^wer, to dieAt every one they see 5 
wid, tiierefore, gieneraliy avoid them. Formerly they were 
More scattered over Rassia, and paid Imi tribute ; but now 
Ihny are e^illected, aiid all belong to one nobleman, to whoifi 
^eypay u eertain tribate, and rank among the number ef 
his daves. ITiey aeeompany their dancfes by singing, an€ 
toad elapplng of the hands ; breaking forth, at intervali, 
with shriekSi, anSd short expressive cries, adapted te t^ 
ladden movements, gestures, ainl t^rns of th^ dance. Tb6 
tiiale dancers iiold fa ohe hand a trandkeHBhief, which thejr 

* S«e tlio CtVMaoofsry^jf-Fvofesflor Fortbs% of A^ in FiD]«ad» utK>ii 
tne Chronicle of that Uaiver^ity. His works are not sufficiently known. 
He has^glTeQ the history a«d origin of the Fiahmd tribes ; nd a very endSs^, 



49 CLARKB's TRAYKJLt IN RV&SU« ^ 

vftLYf abontrimd nanage witf) mee^as weU.as.aii. ^ Tki 

(dance, fuH of the grossest Kbidinous expression, And mosl 
indeeent p^store, is, in otker respects, graceful • Naihuig 
can be more so, than the manner in which they sometimes 
wave and extend their aims. It resem^leA the attitudea of 
Baeelianalians represented on Greek vases. But the women 
do not often exhibit those attitudes. The^ generally main- 
lain a stiff, upright position, keeping their feet elf^se, aiid 
heating a tattoo with their high heels. 

When the Russians dance the barina^ it is aeeompanied 
with the balalaika* Formerly they were great admirers of 
that simple and pleasing instrument. But now, imitating the 
manners of France and England, it has been laid asid^^ 
Many of them are still able to play it | iHit, as they deem 
aueh an accomplishment a sort of degradation in the ayes of 
foreigners, they are seldom prevailed upon to use it. Lika 
the ladies of Wales, who, scarce able to speak Englial^ 
fkffect ignorance of their native tQOgne. 
. Collected in other parts of rooms, opened for this Assem- 
bly, were vocal performer?, in parties of ten or twelve eadi^ 
singing voluntaries. They preserved the most perfect bar* 
anony, each taking a separate part, though without any 
seeming eonaelousness of the skill thus exerted. The fe* 
male daueersand assistants,, in this ball, were many of them 
prostitutes ; but the wives and dauehters of the peasanU, 
a.ud lower tradesmen, mingled with them, dressed out in 
their full national costume, and appareojtly.not at all dis* 
pleased with such society. 

^ The hall oC the nobles admits a very different description^ 
It topk place every Tuesdays and, it may be truly sai^^ 
Europe has not beheld its equal. I was never more struck 
by the appearance of an assembly, convened for tlie. purpose 
of dancing. The laws of the society exclude every persoi^ 
who is by birth a plebeian ; and this exclusion has been 
extended to foreigners ; therefore, we felt grateful in being 
Allowed admission. Prince Yiazemskoi, who married an 
JSnglish lady, kindly procured tickets for us ; although U 
was considered Jungeroiis, at that time, to have the charac* 
ter of hospitality towards Englishmen.* If his highness 
i»e now living, he is requestecT to pardon this testimony of 

•' * I wish to toy part2euliir strew upon tHSs eircamstMiee, as abuMt §Sk 
«i4vetter9 havo eelebrated Rustian hospiUiltty, and partieiilariy that of tb« 
«ihabitapU of Moscow. « L'hosfutalit^ des RfMses," saj the autlw^ of 
the Yoja|;e de Deux Fk«n$ais» <* pai-oit id dftas tautMM joor/' «' 



fcifl*l^«el^&8 erades^emion. I feel teMible, th^Jt a eeiige* 
viaMif vf seotifDewt will renter any apolosy saperfluom^ 
Air the saerifiee I hare elsewhere made m the eaiue of 
troth. 

Tiie coupfPrnUf apbn entering the grand saloen, is uieon*> 
eelvable. Daring ten years that I have been aeenstomed t^ 
gpeetadies of a stmilar natore, in different parts «f the eon- 
tttfent, I have never seen any thing with whieh it might 
eompare. Yhe eompany eonslsted of near two thousand 
persons ; trebles only being admitted. The dresses were 
the most snttiptnous that ean be imnslned ; and, what is 
more remafkable, they were ooneeived in the purest taste» 
and were In a ht^ degr^ beooming. The favonrite orna- 
ments of the ladies were eameos, whieh they wore npott 
fhei'r arms, in g^rftle^ foond their waists, or ikpon their bo- 
soms; a mode of adorning the fair, whieh has sineeibiind 
Its wa^ to l»br oWn eountry, and whieh was orieinaUy de- 
rived from Paris. But the women of Franee and finglanA 
may g^o to Mosreow, in order to see their own flk^ions sot 
irff*t6 advantage. Their drapery was dtspdsed ehietly af- 
ter the Oreeian eostni«|c, and they wo^re tbel r hatr bounii 
np round the head. The modes of dress, in London and 
Piairls, ar« generally Mend^ toother, by the hidies df Mos- 
cow, who ^teet fi-om either what may beeome them best $ 
andj in jnstiee to tbeir eharms, it mast be eoiklfegsed, n0 
eoutitry in the world can boast saperionf beauty. When» 
in ft^iition to their personfal attractions, it ift eonsidered^ 
that the most exeessive extraraganee ift nsed, to proenrd 
%Thate ver may cdifitrlbate to their adornment ;* that a whole 
fbrtune is, sdmetimeii, lavished on a single dress; that they 
are assembled in one of the finest rooms in the. worjil^ 
lighted and decorated with matchless elegance and splen- 
dour; it may be sapposed the effeet has never been sar- 
passed. 

In such an assembly, we have every reason to suppose, % 
eeuple of English travellers might pai^s without notice* 
We had, moreover, a particular reason ibr hoping this would 
he the ease ; as, in obedience to a decree of the emperour 
Paul, we had collected our short hair into a cue, which ap- 

• It i« related, very generally, in the higher eirelei trf the eky, I9iat a 
prineess of Moscow, who had purehased a yng, to imitate tiie ooloor of ke^ 
own Uair, confined her hairdresser in a eloset, fed him alwaya herself, aoA 
allowed him only to come out daring her tottette|ia or^ter that bar f ' ' 
tnases might not h« detected. 



^ CtAEKE^S TRAVKLS IN RVSUA. 

peared moftt ridiealansly eni^ailed, stieking ont^ like any 
Ibing bat that whieh it was intended to represent; Mid most 
remarkablj enatnisted with the long tails of the Russians. 
Unfortunately, the case was othenn ise $ and a curiosity to see 
the two £o^lishinen beeoming ii^nerai, to onr great dismay 
we found our«eI?es surrounded by a crowd of persons, some 
of whom thought proper to ask, ^^ Who cut our hair?^'* 
Such questions, it may be eonceiyed, did not add to the 
tfrening'ft nmusement. But our ftstontshment was eomplet* 
ad the next day, in reneeiviog the thanks and blessing of » 
poor JraMed barber, who hA powdered us at the inn, and 
vh«se rortaae, Ke assured us, we had made; all the yomi^ 
Bobies haYiog sent for him, to eut and dress their hair ii^ 
|)i^ same ridif alous manner. 

> I shoald not have mentioned saeh a trifling ineidenit, if it 
htd not ultimately taken a very serious turn ; for the police 
officers interfering, the young men, who had thus docked* 
llMflwelTea, were apprehended in the publiek walks, severel y 
veprimandtd, and compelled to wear false hair ; and we 
were obliged to use the utmost circumspection, lest we 
»hould also be apprehended, and, perhaps, treated with 
more rwoar. 

. The daiieea were oalled Quadiillea, Polonese, and Enjt* 
lish» The Walts, onee their favourite^ had been prohibit^ 
ad. Bat whatever name they gave them, they were all 
dull ; coDisistim^f merely in a sort of prdmenade. Neither 
the m^ nor the women evinced the sliglitest dei;ree of ani- 
auitioa while daneinff, but seemed to consider it an apolo- 
gy for not sitting stiU. Every person wore full dress ) the 
men appearing either in uniform, or coats of very rich em^ 
broidery. 



CHAPTER V. 

MOSCOW. 

Surprisdng Talents of Imitation 4tmong the Suitian^'^Se^ 
markable fraud practised 5y a JSTaUve Jirtist*^BookseUer$^ 

. State of Idt^nUure — Jdhrarie^ of the ^chks-^Epimag^ 
-^Costume of the Pourgeoisie^-^musements of the rwfte 

.. — Chapel of the Tverschaia^-»Miracle$ wrought thert'-^ 
JSTature of the Imposture — Artifice of a J^&rehant»^$8a&'- 
Ifinalion (^ an Mrchbishop^-^-Jdotive for the Worship of 
Pictures-^ReMtiMance between J^eapolitans and Ru$8um$ 
-^Wives of the JSTobles — Conduct of their Httsbands^ 
Children of Qrlojf'^Frin^ess MenchicqjP^Setribuiite 
spirit exercised by tke Emperour at the^umrtd of Ai# 
Mother* 

IN wbatever eoontiy we seek original genitts, we most 
H^ ta Russia fof a talent of indtatioiK , It is the aeme 
nf Russian intellect $ the prineiple of all their oporatioos* 
They htL\f nothing' of their own f but it is not their fault if 
they h»ve not everjr thin^ whieh others invent Their snr* 
prising powers of imitatlpn exeeed all that has been hi- 
therto known* The meanest Russia^ stave has been found 
adequate to the aeoomplishment of the most intrieate and 
most deKeate works of mechanism ; to copy, with his single 
hand, what has demanded the joint labours of the best 
workmen in France or England. Though untutored, they 
are the best actors in the world. A Russian gentleman, 
who had never seen a theatre, assisted during the repre* 
sentationof a play, in one of the remote, eastern provinces | 
and was accidentally seen by persons capable of estimating 
the merit of his performance, which they pronounced supe- 
riour to that of any of our European actors. I am dispo^* 
ed to credit this account, because, in examples of their imi- 
tative i^nitis, I have wknessed somethins similar. If thej 
w«re instructed in the art of naintine, tney wouldbecome 
the finest portrait painters in the world. In proof of this I 
saw one example : it was a miniature portrait of the e|B- 
perour, exeented by a poor slave^ who had only once seen 



44 Clarke's travels is avssia. 

hiaXf daring the vbit he made to Moseow. In all that ton^ 
eerned reaemblanee and minuteness of mrcsentation, it 
was the most astonishing work whieh, perhaps, ever ap- 
peared. The effect procmced was. Kke that of beholding 
the original throngh a diminishing lens. The Birmingham 
trinket manufactory, in which imitations of jewelrj and 
preeions metals are wrought with so much cheapness, is 
surpassed in Moneow; because the workmanship is equally 
good, and the things themselves are cheaper. But the great 
source of wonder is in the manner of their execution. At 
Birmingham they are the workmanship of many persons ; 
in MoiBCow of one only ; vet the dififerenee between dividea 
and undivided labour in this branch of trade occasions none 
in the price of the articles. I saw, in Moscow, imitation* 
of the Maltese and Venetian gold chains, tvhich would de- 
ceive any person, unless he were himself a goldsmiths This 
is not the case with their cutlery, in which a multiplication 
^ labour is so requisite. They fail, therefore, in hard 
^are$ not because th^y are ineapable of imitating the works 
they import, but because they cannot afford to sell them for 
the same price. Where a patent, as in the instance of Bra- 
mah's locks, has kept up the price of an article in Bngland 
beyond the level it would otherwise find, the Russiansiiave 
imitated such works with the greatest perfection, and sold 
the copy at a lower rate than the original, though, equally 
valuable. This extraordinary talent for imitation has been 
shown 4!so in the fine arts. A picture by Dietrici, in th^ 
Style of Polemberg, was borrowed bv one of the Russian 
nobility from his friend. The nobleman who owned the 

Iiicture had impressed his seat upon the back of it, and had 
nscribed verses and mottos of his own composition. With 
so many marks he thought his picture safe any where. But 
It copy so perfect was finished, both as to the painting and aft 
the circumstances of colour in the canvass, the seal, and 
the inscriptians, that when put into the frame of the origi- 
nal, and returned to its owner, the fraud was not discovered* 
This circumstance was afterwards made known by the con- 
fession of the. artist employed 5 and there are now residing 
in Petersburgh and Moscow, foreign artists* of the highest 
respectability and talents, who attest its truth. One of 
them, Signior Caniporesi, assured me, that walking in the 

• Guarenghi of PetersburgU, lufid Cwaporesi of Moscow^ Italian wrchitect* 
Employed by the erowft. .-. 



nAnrbfi of Moscow, ke e^ftere4 * suMimble lait bekng-uif ta 
a eob6ler; where, iM; the further etid^ in a {ilace eontrived 
to JioM p«tis aud kettles,^ and to dregs victuals, he observed 
ata^d peasant at work. It w^ a painter in enamel, 
eopyins verjr beautiful pictures whieft were placed before 
JUm. The saiHe purson^ he added, might have been found, 
next day. drunk in a eelW, or howling beneath the eudgel 
of his task-master. , Uiidi^r the present form of govern-- 
ment in Bussia, it is not very probable the fine arts will 
ever flourish. A Russian itt eitlier a slave, or has received 
ius freedom. In the former instancy, he works only when 
instigated by the rod of his master, and is cudeeiled as 
often as his-mai^ter thinks proper; While empToved in 
works of sculpture „or paintings ue is frequently called off, 
t^ mend a phair or a table, to drive nails into a wainscoty 
or ismb the %^'alls of the house. When evening comes, as 
eerlainly eomes a cudgel across his shoulders. And this is 
not the way to make artists. In the latter instance, if lis 
has received his f^edom, the action of the cudgel having 
eeased, all stimulus to labour ends. He has then no other 
isstigation to work, except the desire of being able to buj 
brandy, and tq get drunk $ which he does whenever he can 
procure the means ; and there is soon a period put to any 
exertions of Lis talents. Neither is tlus a way to mak# 
artists. 

The booksellers' sliops in Moscow are better furnished 
than in Petersborgh ; but they are very rarely placed upon 
a ground flopt' The convenience of walking into a shop 
from the street, without climbing a flight of slairs, is almost 
peoiiliar to England $ though there are some exceptions, 
as is^ the palais royal at Paris, and in a few houses, at Vi-^ 
enna. A catalogne of Russian authors in some of the shops, 
EUs an octavo volnma of two hundred nagf»s« French, 
Italian, German) and English books, would be as numerous 
here as in any other city, were it not for the ravages of the 
publick eepHnrs, who prohibit the sale of books from their 
own ignorant misconception of their contents. Bometitne$ 
a sii^e volume, nay a single page, of an author, is prohib- 
ited, and tbe.re^t^of the work, thus mangled, permitted to 
be sold. Th?re is hardly a single modern work which has 
^ot been sub|ect to their correction. The number of pro^ 
hibited books is such, that the trade is ruined. Contraband 
pnblieations are often smn^led | but the danger is so greats 
that all the respectable booksellers teave the trade to pes« 



#1 •LARICE's Ttik^tiiM IN Ei;9$XA. 

•OM, eMMflr ni^ri AHlw^sr ^Kto, ft«iii ^cxevtiaing^a^ 
♦eeupfttioM, are leM ItftMetd siMpitfioa. 

Yet there are eireinttslavee* muii^ fr«iii tfie stttfe ^ 
'pttbliek afairfikin the two «kie»^ whieh gtveft a BOferiofity 
ta the beokdellerft af Matfeow. la and near the ally reslda 
a vaHftttmberof RastiantiahiHty. A IVn^igaer Hft^ i«v:a 
many yearg there^ witlioateTeD hearing the aames ec «»fiia 
-^f them ; wherea» at Petersbui^h a few eiily are ftrand, wha 
*all be)an|» ta the eonrt, and are therefere all known. The 
fiahtofl of Mo«eev have many of tiiem formerly figured 4a 
the preseaee of their sovereign, and have beenoraered ta 
reside in that eity ; or they have passed their vouth i« for- 
eign travel, and withdrawn to their seats in it» cfnvirons* 
Many of these have mc^nifieent (ibraries'; and, as tha< 
cpmnsement of oolieeting, rather than the ^lieasare af read* 
tag books, has been the reason of their fonning those samp* 
tuottsr eoUectioas, the booksellers raeeivfe ^orders to a vittj 
large amount.* When a Russia«n noMetnan reads, whim 
h very rare, it iseoainionly a novel ; either some Ifeeatlotia 
trash in French, or ^me Ihiglish romanee translated inta 
Ihat iangaage. Of the latter, the Italian taMrs. ftteidkM*^ 
lias been better done than ativ other ; heoaase, rej^eseaHng 
eustoms whieh ai% not absiolnlefy locals it admfls of «a^r 
trausitian into ^sj othar Enrapeaa- tongae. Bat wtiaa th(s^ 
attempt to translate Tom Jones, The V iear of Wakefteili^ 
ar any of those inimitable, original pietnres af Bn^ish nMii* 
aem, the effect is ridicuioos h^ond deserifition. SqaM 
Western beeomes a Freneh philesofdier, and Ooldsnalh^ 
Primrose a Fkur de Ids* 

Books ai real, literary repntation are not ta be otltaiiled« 
either ia P^tersborglYOr Moseow. Pradaetions of <>th^r days^ 
whieh, from theft" importanee in seienee, bnsfe beeoiae ivre^ 
are never ta he found. Costly axid frivoioas vaktiiies> 
sumptaottsly baand, and mast gorge«nUyd«aarat«dy«aao(i« 
tnte the preeioas part of a library, in Rassian esttaiatiaa; 
Gaudy Freneh editions of Faatenaile, nf Manaoatal, af 
Italian sonneteers^ with Englbh «MfoS of hatteriiaa, sh^Hs, 
and €ow^e^ $«dilhms by BaskervHk, Bensley, and Balaier, 
with hot-prtsoe4 and wlre^wove paper | in shorty the toys 
rather than the iastrnmeats of saianea, atlimcft the naliee ^ 
all the Rasskii amateim^ A magniitMmt iihmry i» Rfllbaia> 

♦ These orders are somctiifnes given in the sl^'le related of oije of the 
late empress's fktourites, who tent for a hooksetter, and said : •' Pit m% 
Up A. kcm^ms IMfmry .- IHtte iMi'i i^tMe, nwlffrmt oiDeM- Mm.'*' ' 



ift whiili M—r ■wn miii» hme iwea tkiMiidM^ ivll It fmnrf 
to eentaiB very Kttle of vatfal literttUiM. im r^n^ MMMg^ 
tkeir ttstdiy e«lle«titM, aaettiiii^ like a teantry of leatlier 
vkkk Wan tlwiMiaMet may w seek foralatiiek aatlwrt^ 
kktorians)' lainq^en, aad poets. A eepy of the BaeyeUfpoe* 
4i«, i^Med OMNW for est^ntatiea tliaii for vse, maT perhaps^ 
HI a wditary iaslaiiee or two^ ^reet, tka eye, ae tae ealy ee«' 
timabU work^ tkraiighoiit (keir gilded skelves. 

After Loadeaand Goastantinople, Mottow is, denhtless, 
tk iMsl reiaarkable eity in Earepe* A straager, passiag* 
mpidJy threafph, auglit pronaunee it the dallest, dirtiest, 
tsdaiott aainterestiBg eity ia the warld ; while another, 
hftviag fended there, woald affirm, that it had rather the 
disrieter of a n^reat eomiaereial and wealthy metropolis 
<tf a vast aad powerfal empire. If the j^adeor aad riehes 
of the iahahttanU, are te be estimated by the number of 
•qsipages, and the namber of horses attaehwd to eaeh, Mos- 
cow wwild exeel, in spleodoar, all the eities of the j^lohe. 
Tbete is hardly aa iodiTldaal, above the raak of plebeian, 
who would be seen wEitkoat foar horMs to his earria^ ; and- 
ths geaenditY have six. Bat, the maaaer is wh^h thir 
pomp is dispiayad, is a perfect harlesqne apoa stateliaess. 
A eoople of ragged baya are ]^aeed as postilioas, b^vre a- 
Qosdiiaaiiy im saoh shaep^s hides as are wora hy the pea* 
Slats in the woods ; aad^ behind the earriage^are statioaed^ 
sesiqdeof laskeys, mora tawdrv, bat not IcM ladieraus 
tbsa their •dmevs. To give all this greater effeet, the' 
traees of the harness are so long, that it rehires eonsMei*'* 
sble maoagemeat to preserve the hotses ftwm beiiq; enf an- 
cM, whenever they Hmi 4ke esener of a street, or make a 
mit Koiwithstawfiar ^is, ao stran^, however he may 
deride its absordiiy, w3i ventare to visit the nobles, if ha 
Irishes Sn* their notiee,.mthout fbur hovses to bis eharfst, a 
iigBsdsoaehaMUiand postilioa^Hidaparadeofeqeii^age, 
that mast eiaile.hia laughter, ia proportioa as it ensures 
their, soaateaaaee and approbation* 

The wives of the tiadcamea, darine the season of their 
bstivsls, sjro seen driviag abaat in droskis, with riefaet 
^Vse their pmrsoas suftsiea t to paMhase a peerage. Capa 
«ade of Dialled work of pearb, with Tarkish and Fersiaw 
»hawb>aad diamoAd earriags) preserviag,ait thesMie ttrae, 
dways the national eostume, however eostly their spparel. 
This eostume is resuukabl]^ graeefal, when the shawl is 
^•ro^ and aa m«eli otherwise when it is mot. The shami 



4t CLAHRe's TRA^BfA'XK RtJS&lA. 

eoYer^ Ifie itiid, *h%I fnH* tti tbm#ol4»«v«r tli« th^ttUtrt, 
v<ettiekki^«ifiMi8t to feke feet The eelebrate<) PaMlts presented 
me Mrith fttlrawitt{^,represeiitiii^ tlie wife-of a Rusvian trades- 
tfrnn, wltk tlie did doemia^ or nuffse^ whieh is fbotid in 
almost eveiy family. It was executed by Ins ariist, GeisJen 
With that ^mn\ hvinmur whieh always isharaeterisEes hioi^ 
finding the women vnwilHng to ha^e their fi^ires deiio-. 
eated, he cansed Mrs. Pallas to assume the-^ress&f the 
yoan» wife, and ptit on hts own person the habit of a daen* 
Ha; thus affordinei: a seentek representation, tti whteh the 
persons of the drama, though -stroligly earteatnred^ are, the 
professor and his wife. 

The amusements of the people, are those of ehildren$ 
that is to say, of EngrliJih children ; for, in Paris and -Na- 
ples, I have* witnessed similar amusements, in wbieh ,^are 
senators and statesmen mounted wooden horses, r^und* 
abottts, and ups-and^mvns^ with the inhabitants of these 
cities. It will be said, the En^Ksh are a j^rave people. Be 
it so. But, I befteve, I eevld asst^ a better reason for tha 
\vant of sueh infantine sports at their wakes and fairs. 
Certainly there id no part of ottr island, in whieh men ef 
forty and fifty years of age, would be seen rUm^ a« a 
wooden horse, or swingeing aboat m a vaulting ehair* Three 
Rnssians at a time will squees^ themselves interne, andyO^s 
they are whirled round, seream,fbr jdy, liiie*iiifants, toceed 
in the nurse's arms. I remember seeing Ihe king ot the 
Two Sieilies, joining, with his principal eonrtiers, in a 
shnilar amusement. 

Entering by the gate of the Resnrrecti^n, which forma 
the eastern extremity of the Tveri^ehaia, one nf the prinei* 
pal streets in Moscow, there is a small ehapely orehainbery 
open to the street ; before whieh, at all honrs of the day,« 
mob is seen as3emblcd,'crossiflg mid proetraHing^hemselvai* 
I had the curiosity to penetrate this host «f devotees, and to 
enter the tanctnarv. There I fonnd an old man^ ^rilh a leog 
beard, busy in selling candles to the nnmeroiit visitanti^ 
who, immraiatety after btiying'them, placed them belare a 
picture of the virgin. The little chapel wm Mled wilh a 
variety of pictures of gain ts and martyrs; bat thwe were 
two of the virgin with the infant, larger than the rest, and 

S laced facing the streets ; oar of whieh is said t» have 
een brought hither by an angel, which eanses Ihe extra- 
ordinary devotion paid < la that pictare in partteatar; at*- 
jdioB$h eie^re «re wMjr mieh pietatns io^'jotlier farts ^ 



Mbsediv', wHh the %iM^ rej^iitatioft of a tnlrftculoat tran6<> 
portation. The piirtieQlarpiettire, to wirieh referenee is now 
made, wtis framed in silver, set roond with eems, true or 
fklse, of variou» timgiiitiides. It has great edebrttr, from 
the niimberkss miracles it has wroaght, in healtntc titesiek, 
restoring sight to the Mind, and showtiring down favours of 
all kinds Opon its worshippers. Now, supposing only four 
persons present themselves before this image, as it is called, 
in the eompass of a single minute (and sometimes liftj in 
the same instant may be observed opposite Ihe shrine) no 
less a number than two thousand eight hundred and eighty 
persons will be found to visit it in the short space of 
twelve houns« It would I^ indeed, a miracle, if, out of 
this number, one or two did not oeeasionally experience 
relief, either from sickness of body,^ or sorrow, or some 
pleasing, aeeidental ehange in eireumstances. And, wheii* 
ever this happens, if -bnly once in thirty days, which 
would be one oat of eighty six thousand four hundred 
persons, not reekonlns nightly visitants, the noise of it is 
eiretitated far and wide, the story itself exaggerated, and 
the throng of votaries increased. Upon such ground, 
an ide<^ might be the oeeaston of as vast a superstrncture of 
ignorance and eredulity as any whieh even Russia has wit- 
nessed. The picture of a saint found accidentally in tliQ 
street, liuman ho^s 4ng up in a forest, a dream, any eas- 
nal and rude representation nf a cross,, in straws which 
have Detllen together at the meeting of roads, or a lu$tis na» 
fur«^, the colours of a pied horse, veins in apiece of flint or 
marble, inr short, whatever represents, or is supposed to 
represent^ any object in their prodigious catalogue of super- 
stition, might oeeasion a resort of devotees, give rise to a 
rimreh, or a markefplaee fbr waxehandlers, painters, and 
silversmiths, as famous as theahrine of Diana of Ephesus. 

What is ao prnbable, has frequently happened. A mer- 
ehaat of Moseow, mote renowned ^or speirulation than 
piety, some years ago caused a eofiin to be dug up, with 
the supposed body of a saint, in the interior of the empire, 
eastward of the city. The throng to it from all parts be- 
came tmrmease; the blind ware h^ed^ the lame left their 
crutches suspended as trophies of minM»ttlnus inures ; and, 
ma short tune, all the nther ehurehes were deserted, in 
conseqvenoe of the reputation oi the newly discovered saint* 
It was, moreover, said, tfait his aaintshtp was very jpasMon- 
tte^ thitt te was wpy^at M«6 4i|iy|irbed j^ and insisted 

F 



^^ dew 



aLARKB^S TAAVSJUft 11^ RUSSIA. 



hAvios a ehorfih built orer him, to eojuu^e his fatiue 
e. A church was, therefore, erected ; when the news of 
^. whole affair reaching the ears of the late empress Cath- 
erine j she ordered the building to be shut. The emperour 
Paul, from a determination to undo every thing she did, and 
tti <lo as much as possible what she would not have done, 
caused it to be as;ain opened ^ although it was. well known 
in Russia, that the merchaot, after the church was shut by 
the empress's order, frequently avowed, and laughed at 
the fraud he had committed. Much after the same man- 
ner, during the plague which raged in Moscow about thirty 
years ago, a picture was placed in one of the streets of the 
city, to which the people eagerly thronged upon the earliest 
inteliigence of it. The archbishop Ambrose, fiuding that 
the danger of spreading the infection increased as the peo- 
ple crowded to this picture, ordered it to he removed, and 
shut up in a church, the doors of which were forced open 
by the populace | and the venerable prelate, being dragged 
from the convent of Donskoi, was inhumauly put to death. 
The late empress, in her ^correspondence with Voltaire, 
gave an account of this event ; recommending it as a sup- 
plement to the article fanaticism^ in the French Encycio- 
psedia.* 

All that has been said or written of Roman catholic big- 
otry, affords but a feeble idea of the superstition of the 
Greek church. It is certainly the greatest libel upon hu- 
man reason ; the severest scandal upon universal piety, 
that has vet disgraced the annals of mankind. The wild, 
untutored savage of South America, who prostrates him- 
self before the sun, and pays his adoration to that which he 
believes to be the source of life and light, exercises more 
rational devotion than the Russian, who is all day crossing 
)iimself before his bogh, and sticking farthing candles be- 
fore a picture of St. Alexander Nevski. But in the adora- 
tion paid by this people to their saints and virgins, we may 
discern strong traces of their national character. The 
^ homage they offer to a court parasite or to a picture, are 
hotli founded on the same principle ; and in all their specu- 
lations, political or religious, they are prompted by the 
same motive. A deity, or a despot, by the nature of the 
one, and the policy of the other, is too far removed from 
their view to admit of any immediate application. All 
their petitions, instead of being addressed at once to a spir- 

• » Lettre* de Pfenpdr/dc mmke/* tec. Lett. U. 



jtnal or a temporal throne, are directed to one or the other 
by channels which fall beneath the eosrnlzanee of sense. 
Trhus we ^n^ favouritism the keystone of Rossian gorem- 
Dient, and adoration of saints the pillar of their faith. The 
sovereign is disregarded in the obeisance offered to his fa- 
vourites ; and the Creator forgotten in the worship of his 
creatures. 

As ^ve lived in some degreebf intimacy with many of the 
Rifssian nobiKty, their manners and opinions could not 
escape our notice. Of all Europeans they bear the great- 
est resembfance to the nobles of the " Two Sicilies.''^ The 
Neapolitans, and the grandees of Palermo, are exactly like 
those of Moscow; and even the peasants of the two coun- 
tries have a certain degree of resemblance. The similitude 
may arise from a similarity of government ; vitions and des- 
potiek ; ig|n<ltant and siiperstitious. The same character 
prevails in theif* national dances, and in their mode of dress. 
T*he harirut diff'ers little from the faranto^^* and the female 
peasants df the Campana Felice dress very much like the 
women near Moscow ; with the same shoes ; the same kind 
of headdress ; the same embroidered suits ; the same load 
of finery. Cannot this be explained.^ The costume of 
magna Greecia came from the archipelago ; and the art of^ 
;dress was introduced to Russia from C^onstantinople. I 
have before mentioned, that in their sports the Russians 
and Neopolitans are the same. In the class of the nobles, 
the "Women are far superionr to the men : they are mild, af- 
fectionate, often' well informed, foeautifal, land highly ac- 
complished ; while the meif are destitute of every aua- 
iifi cation which might render them, in the eyes of tlieir 
female companions, objects of admiration. It is not, there- 
fore, to be wondered at, that ladies of rank in Moscow 
have the character of not being strict in their fidelity to 
their husbands ; especially when the profligate example so 
lately offered them ih their empress Catherine, be taken in- 
to consideration. It is difficult to conceive how the wives 
of the generality of nobles in Moscow can entertain any ire- 
speet for their husbands. Married, without passion, by the 
policy and self-love of their parents, frequently to men they 
never saw until the time of wedlock ; subjected to tyrants, 
who neither affdrd examples to their children, nor any 
source of social enjoyment to themselves ; who are supera- 
nnated before the age of thirty, diseased, dirty, and over- 
whelmed by debt J the w«meD m Moscow regard the matri-^ 



^a Clarke's TaAv#M in Russia. 

monfaMife as snperionr, indeed, to tlmt^f iii4|iri««u|ieut m 
a eonrent ^ bat as a state of slaveFyy from which they |oq|: 
to a jojfat deliverance in the death of Iheir husbands. 
Every one acquainted with the real history of the en]|>ret|jS 
Catherine, and the manner in which she .hurst the connu- 
bial bonds, will ind in it a model of the state of female i^i- 
ciety thronghout the empire. The wives of the nobles» it 
is true, do not assassinate their husbands; biit the ties of 
't^edloek are altogether disregarded. In giving this repre- 
sentation, I would be understood with reference . to the ge- 
neral state of the community. I shall not oflend my reaoery 
nor wound the feelings of individuals, by retiuliqg private 
anecdotes for publick purpofies ; neither i^ it neessary to 
relate the few exceptions or which the statement may admit. 
Whatever credit may be given to it in this country} I ant 
Tery sure it will not be contradicted in Russia. 

A Russian nobleman will sell any thing he possesses, 
from his wife to hi« lap dog^ from the decaratian» of 
his palace, to the ornaments of his person ; any thing to 
obtain money ; any thing to squander it away. Yisitine a 
trading mineralogist, I wafr«ttrprised to see glass cases fill- 
ed with court dresses : and still more in being told they 
M ere dresses of the nobility, sent to be exposed for sale, aa 
often as they wanted money. Their plan is to order what- 
ever they can procure cre£t for ; to pay for nothing; and 
to sell whatever they have ordered as soon as they receive 
it. We should call such conduct in England, swindling* 
In Moseow it bear« another iiame : it is called £us$i0n 
ma^ificence. 

The children of those who murdeped Peter the third re- 
sided in Moscow when we were there. Bne of them niar- 
ried the daughter of the governour. The princess Meazt^ 
kof, grand-daughter of the favourite of Peter the gre^^ 
was also there: we were often in her company; and too 
much amused by her cheerful disposition, to. repent the style 
of conversation she indulges every where. However, that 
which is a proverb in Russia may bear an allusion in Eng- 
land, When the late empress died, her son and successour 
caused the body of his father to be taken up, and laid jn 
state by the coifin of his mother in the palace lit Peters- 
hurgh. It is said there was only one person, an archbishop, 
who knew where they had laid him ; as he was interr9.d 
M ithout moaument and inscription, in the church of the 
monastery of St. Alejtauder Kevski. Orlof, his murderer, 



w«9 then ttt M we»w. ' An onkr from the empcrrar troasht 
Ititn to Petersbar^; and when the bodies were removed to 
theehcireh'of 8t. Peter and BU Paul in the citadel,* he was 
tompelted to walk in the proeension iron the palace Co the 
eltadel, fbllowins^ the body of the person he had murdered 
so fon^ beibre. it was thni the people of Petersburgh be- 
held an interesting spectacle of retribution. One of them, 
an e)re-witness of tlie whole scene, related it to me. The 
bodies were driiwn upon low chariots by horses. Imme- 
diate! j iftfter the eoifin of Peter the third, and dose to it, 
walked, with'slow lind filtering steps, his assassin, Orlof^ 
havini^ lits eyes fixed on the ground, his hands folded, and 
his ftiee' pate as death. Next to Orlof walked tlie empe- 
roiir, certainly manifesting, by this sublime, though myste- 
rious saerifiee to the manes of his father, an action worthy 
of a greater eharaeter. Thecerenftony ended, Orlof was 
ordered to quit the empire; and lately was travelling hk 
CferAany, aitfd in the south c^Europe* 



CHAPTER VI. 

MOSCOW. 

State of Eitiiesvn Siberia^^T^ibalski^Gemrous Condu^ 
of a Citizen — Prince turned Pawnbroker — Picture Deal^ 

' ers-'-^tate of Medictne-^Mamners of the People — Opi-- 
nians entertained of ilte EngHsh^-^Relatiue Cmdition of 
Slaves and their Lord^-^-^oble Behaviour of Count Go-- 
valkir^s Peas&nt9-^^Servants of the J^Tobility — Theft com- 
mitted hyaPiBprty ofJVobles-^onvent oftheMiw Jerusa-- 

' lenv^JV'hv Prohibitions-^PubUck Censors — Convent ^ 
the'Trifiity-^Church of St. Basil-^lvan BasUaisich — 

* TubervUle^d Letters. 

IN Bttgland we hear of persons sent to Siberia as a very 
severe pnm^ment, and entertain very enroneous na- 
tions concerning the state di exiles in that country. To a. 
Russian nobleman, the sentence of exile can hardly implj 

• The place where state prisoners arc kept* 
¥2 ' ■ 



54 CLARKK'> TiykVSI«S.4N RUSSIA. 

punishment., l^lie oens^qnenee of thftir ymmfff h ^f^ 
often an amelioration of their qnderg^andingf* ami Umir. 
hearts. They have no parti eular Attachment Cp their ieottH'^ 
try ; none of that malaaie du pat^y which siekeiif thei«oii|^ 
q/ an Englishman in banishment* They are boi^nd hyiBOi. 
strong* ties of affection to their families^; neiUu»rJbaiF«.tke|r: 
any friendihjp worth preserving* Tpbobkty from the oiins*.^ 
her and rank of the exiled, is become a larg^ and popnloii^i 
city, full of shops and society , with theatres avdekf^aniaar 
semblies of amusement. Its inhabitants, above.t.11^ Ihour^ 
sand versts from Moscow, liavebooksell^S, masqu^rad^^ 
French hotels, and French wines, with the porter and hear 
of England. Those who have resided ther^, either as ofr^ 
fieers on dut;^, as travellers, or as ei^iie4,.give the hi^^t 
accounts of its gayety and populatiop. • An -oii&eer ofis#ii*» 
siderable rank in the Unssian service told m^ he w^f^ald iUr 
ther have the half of his pay and Jtve at Tobolski, than 4ji« 
whole of it in residence at* Petersburgb. Many'>\^«.bav«i. 
been ordered home have wished and sought ta return thi-.- 
ther. This is no subject of wonder* Tobolskiis admirai 
hly adapted to the Russian tas^e. According taG.meitn, U' 
is a very temple of Bacchus and indolence. PravisioiMi. 
were so cheap when he was there, in the middle of tl^e laat; 
century, that a person might maintain himsejf for ten ros* 
bics a year ; not two pounds of our money. His aeiMiiMit of. 
the Carnival and Easter festival* proves thera was nat. 
much difi*erenee between the state of society in Tobolski. 
and in Moscow at that time| and ihere is muah leas at*. 
present. 

' A circumstance occurred during m^ abod^ in Mosjepw^at- . 
tended by a trait of so much generosity in a Russiant that I 
conceive it deserves to be ^elajted* On Wednesday, the 
seventh of May, the sub-governor i-eeeived an order for bis . 
exile to Siberia. No reason whatever was assigned for the 
displeasure of the emperour ; no offence waa alleged. The 
whole city flocked to take }ei^ve of. him, for he was much • 

* ** Les gens les plus considerables se rendoient Tisite et se donncuent 
de« div^rtisseraens. Quant au peuple il 6io\t ootnme fou: ce n'etoit 
jour et nuit que promenades^ eris^ toinallug, batteries. II ^toit diffiulc 
d'allcr dans les rues, tant il y aToit d'hommes, de femmcs, de bdtes^ et 
de tj aiueaux." Voyage en Sib^ricy traduit par Keralio, tona. I. p. ^^* ^ . 

*• On j^'usse gaiment Us ffetes de Paques k recevoir ct taire des vi- 
AifiM. Jut peuple 8*amttsa k-sa mmii^re; ce dont il s'oocupa le plusfut 
le oommeroe dey 4^e« imbUimes ((aj ne sont pas rares k Tobolsk. J« 
u oivoU Tik imlle part tunt dcs geos san n«z quQ /en ^t ic!*'* IMp {»« 67. \ 



1>diH>«il:; atkS^^ge^iis as such a testimoiiT of their aflfec* 
tion ^ight^proTe, yet they erowded to his hause^ and eon-^ 
s i dB rcd him as a man saer?fieet( to the eaprice of a tyrant* 
Among otherd caiAe a hinnble citizen, and demanded ad* 
mission. It was granted. ^ Tou are going' to leave us^^^ said 
ht^^amt'tnaffnof have tifns to settle your affairs. Do you 
w/twan^ money? I come as your hanker. ^^ ** I have nee j 
of«ofiie^'^ said the govemouf, "^^but it is much more than 
ywii can furnish.*^ ^ JTow much ?" " « Twenty fire thou- 
sand rotthl^J^ The honest fallow withdrew, and speedilr 
returning with tiotes to the amount of the sum specified^ 
placed them on ^e table, carefully counting Ihem over, then 
made his bow, and retired. 

!i%cqnaintanee wfth Camporesi, the architect, procured 
meadifrissieU at the house of* prince Trubetzkoi, a dealer 
in mineFais, pictures, hosiery, ii^ts, cutlery, antiquities, in 
shoit,' all the furniture of shops and museums* Having^. 
sqaandercd away hts ftirtune, be picked up a livelihood by 
selling, for hhnself "and others, whatever came in his way. 
Hi«'hease^ like a pawnbroker's shop, exhibited one general 
BiagaztDe, occupying several rooms. A prince presiding 
over it, and practising all the artifices of the meanest trades^ 
mam, w^ a spectacle perfectly novel. Any thing mi^ht b^ 
boRghtof hi^ hi^ness, from k pair of bellows to a picture 
by C!)a^& Lorraine. Iti the same room might be seen liandr 
kerdbrefe, stockings, artificial flowers, fans, Cologne water^ 
soap, pomatum,, prints, backs, guns, pistols, minerats? j^w*^ 
el#y, Inv^ness, saddles, bridles, second-hand clothes, swords^ 
staffed birds^ bronzes, buckles, buttons, snuff-boxes, wigs, 
walahes, iroots, and shoes. ** M)r house," said the prince, 
as^ we filtered, -^^mild all it cottlains, is at your service, or 
any one^'elfe who will buy it! I will sell you the house for 
a aiiigle' rouble, provided you will pay me also a rouble for 
eaah artiek; of its furniture." While we bargained with 
hb highil%ss, prhH^ L. sent a note, which he read aloud. 
It WM^ to hoi*ro^w noney. ^ Here's a man," said prince 
Trubetzkoi, '^ with a million of roubles in his drawyngr 
room, sends to me for forty five, to pay hi? expenses iatf 
the ^oiiAti^. Yim «««<fcav we go on in Rustia 1" 

The.«umhep of pictures in Moscow is really astonishing. 
There are four or five eminent dealers, who have large col- 
leefio^a. The {>ala^8 of the nobles are^ many of them, 
filkd, And there is not oae of their ewnens unwilling to sell 
aiftj pieHtre thfy posaess* |i jie^ms m if wki i^urape to4 



m Clarke's travels in rvssia* 

been ransacked to supply such collections: ' Atflrst tieir, 
a room adorned by them has an imposing and very brilliant 
appearance ; but, upon a nearer approach, the clbarm vait«- 
ishes. They are almost all of them copies, ^nd the major 
J>art of them brought from Vienna. But the Bor^slans them* 
selves are, as I have said before, so itii^enioiis in the art of 
imitation, that a nobleman, of skill and judgmetit in paint- 
ing, has been^known to purchase of a dealer, copies made ii 
few days before by otie of his own slaves, who went from 
his easel to his more usual and daily^ oc'cflpation of black- 
ing shoes, and afterwards got drunk with the wages of his 
ingenuity. As the nobles have rarely any money at com- 
inand, their traflick in the line arts, as in othei* things, is 
carried on by exchange. This sort oif barter is of all things 
that in which they' take the greatest delight. They pur- 
chase a picture for a carriage, or an embroidered suit of 
clothes, just as they pay their physician with a siinff-b(rx» 
in every thing the same infantine disposition ts displayed, 
and, like children, they are tired of their toys almost in the 
moment they have acquired them. In thtsir choice of pic- 
tures, they are pleased only with gay and splendid colour- 
ing, highly finished, in gaudy frames, ^'quelque'chesed^/xki^ 
tantP^ to use an expression constantly in their mouthis* 
The works of Van der Werf, Watteau, Jordaeos^ Berchen, 
and Jerhard Donw, bear the highest prices x but if prodae*- 
tions by any of the Bolognese masters are- shown to them, 
they are rejected. Nothing of the sombre east, however 
sublime, has any vpjue in tlielr estimation. -The works of 
the Caracci, Zampieri, or even Michael Angelo, would noi 
meet admirers. A beautiful head by Oori^giO) not ntaoiy 
'years a^o possessed by an artist in London, in tlieedursei^ 
those adventures to which fine pictures are liable^ fell i&t# 
the hands of a Russian priest. Hrkept it during tir<sti»#l 
time, because he had been tdid itHvas a eelebrated woi%i 
At last he exchanged it for some wretched-cdpies, with «« 
Italian minatur^-painter. -^^^Itliad tso mttoh- siade^'' fke 
said, ^^ and the lights were too pale'; it had the air alto^ 
ther of u head ft*lOim the guillotine;** The m^thoii trf paying;- 
their physician by trinkets, wliich I before mentioned*, mi^lBl 
seem an inconveaienee to the faculty ; but it is not so. Or. 
Rogerson'ftt Petersbnreb, as* I am informed, regularly re? 
eeived his snuff-box, and as regularly carried it to a jewel- 
ler ibr sale. Th^^wstler sold il^awin to the fipst noblo^ 
— n who wanted a,iee for bisphysieiaD; so that the doetoi?- 



oUaiM 1u» box again : md at last the matter beeame s^ 
well nnderatood between the jeweller and a physician, that' 
it was considered hy both parties as a »ort of bauk-note» 
an* no word^ were oeees^ary in transacting the sale of it. 

Haring mentioned the nan»e of this respeetable physician, 
it may be well to say something of the state of medicine ia 
the country. The nnsiness of an accoucheur is, I believey 
always |»ractis^ by women. The emperour ordered ^1 the 
uiidwi^'es to undergo examination before a board of physi- 
cians, 1^ few days before we left Petersborgh. In the regu- 
lation, coneemingapotheciuriesy however well intended, Uie 
s^uua wisdom was not shown. It is a reproach to the couu« 
Xry, If a stranger arrives, and is in immediate want of aa 
emetick'*' or any trifling drug, he cannot obtain it without 
the written order of some physician. If this takes place 
in the n%ht, he might die before morning ; for the physician^ 
thoush sent for, eertainlv would not attend. In Petersburgh, 
the fee of an. eminent physician is twepty five roubles : in 
Moscow, only one or two. Persons calling themselves 
JBnglish physicians are found in .almost every town upon 
the eontinent. Sometimes they have worked in ajootheca* 
xies' shops in London or Edinburgh ; but eenerallv. thev 
are Seoteh apothecaries, who are men of professional skill, 
and of acknowledged suneriority. In some places abroad, 
the praetitioners are really natives of England : but when* 
e?er this is the ease, the traveller is eantioned to shun themt 
however celebrated they may be, as he values his existence. 
WitlMMit exception, I never met a single Instance of a man 
^ talent among expatriated English phvsicians; neither 
wottld such men leave their conntry, to settle among foreign- 
ers, unless compelled by eireumstances of misconduct at 
home. Those Englishmen upon the continent who go by 
the nam» of physicians, will generally be found, upon in- 
quiry, to have exercised no such profession in their own 
eeuntry, but have lived as servants in the shops of apothe- 
eariesyt ehymists, and druggists, or to have practised as ve« 
terinary eur^eoas, fkrriers, or itinerant q[uaeks. 

The Russian nobility are passionately fond of travelling, 
aad under the eireumstances of tlie emperour Paul's admi- 

• A remedy almost infaHible against thoa« dang^erous fevfer* -which arc 
^i« ootiseqaeiicc of passAn^ ovep uiiwholesoixtQ roanUes m hot eou&trieS) if 
tftken within tMrentj four hours. 

t The English ^Yso were at Naples, ki the year lT9^t. ^'^ call to mxtui 

thc|iie0e99i|yoCtl»c eauUoah<>re |;iven^ .... 



IB Clarke's TtiATELS in Russia. 

«ii^3ii£ioii^ this 'passioB inereased with the difficulty of Its 
gratification. They entertain extravagant nvtions of tht^ 
wealth and happiness of Englishmen ; and they hare p*ood 
reason to do so ; since whatever they possess useful or*esti- 
Qiable comes to them from England. Books^ maps, prints, 
furniture, clothing, hardware, of all kinds, horses, carriages j 
hats, leather, medicine, almostevery article of convenience, 
oomfort, or luxury, must be derived from England, or it is 
of no estimation. Some of the nobles are much richer than 
the richest of oar English peers ; and a vast number, as 
may be supposed, are very poor. To this poverty, and to 
these riches, are equally joined the most abject meanness, 
and the most detestable profligacy. In sensuality, they are 
without limits of law, conscience, or honour. In their 
amusement, always children $ in their resentment, women. 
The toys of infants, the baubles of French fops, constitut6 
the highest object of their wishes. Noveltv delights the 
liuman race ; but no part of it seek for novelty so eagerly 
as the Russian nobles. Novelty in their debaucheries; 
novelty in gluttony ; novelty in cruelty $ novelty in what- 
ever they pursue. This is not the ease with the lower class, 
who preserve their habits unaltered from one generation to 
another. But there are charaeteristieks in which the Rus- 
«ian prince and the Russian peasant are the same. They 
are oil eaually barbarous. Visit a Russian, of whatever 
rank, at nis country seat, and you will find him lounging 
about, uncombed, unwashed, unshaven, half naked, eating 
taw turnips, and drinking qtiass. The raw turnip, is 
handed about in slices, in the first houses, upon a silver 
salver, with brandy, as a whet before dinner. Their hair 
is universally in a statejiot to be described ; and their bodies 
are only divested of vermin when they frequent the bath. 
Upon those oeeasions, their shirts and pelisses are held 
oyer a hot stove, and the heat occasions the vermin to fall 
off. It is a fact too notorious to admit dispute, that from 
the emperour to the meanest slave, throughout the vast 
empire of all the Russias, including all its princes, nobles, 
priests, and peasants, there exists not a single individual in 
a thousand, whose body is destitute of vermin. An Engli A 
gentleman of Moscow, residing as a banker in the city, 
assured me, that, passing on horseback through the streets, 
he has often seen women of the highest quality, sitting in 
the windows fd their palaces, divesting each other of ver- 



, . MOSCOW^ »# 

mm^ aQotber trftit^ in add^ion to what I have said befbrtf 
of their resemblanee to the NeapoUUuis. 

The trun mannerg of the people are not seen in Peters- 
borsh, nor even in Mossow, by entering the houses of the 
nobility only. Some of them, and ^ner&lly these to whonfr 
letters of reeommendation are obtained, have travelled, and 
introdace refinements, whieh their friends and eompanionf 
readily, imitate. The real Russian rises at an earl^y hoar, 
and breakfasts on a dram with black hrekd.^ His dinner at 
i^oon consists of the coarsest and most greasy .viands, the 
seorbutiek effects of which are counteracted by tolted en* 
combers, sour cabbage, the juice of his vacmnivm'^ and hin 
nectar ^^o^^ Sleep, whieh renders him unmindful of his- 
abjeet servitude and-barbarou^ life, he pal'ticukiriy f ndals^s ^ 
sleepiji^ idways after eating, and going early to his oed. 
The principal articles of diet are the same every where $ 
oprease and brandy. A stranger, dining with their most re-> 
Ined and most accomplished princes, may in vaifei etpeet to^ 
see his knife and fork changed. If he sends theifa -away, 
they are returned without even being wiped. If he looks' 
behind him, he will see a servant spit in the plate he' is W 
receive, and wipe it with a dirty napkin, to rejnove the dust* 
If he ventures (which he should avoid, if he is hungry) to 
inspect the soup in his plate with too inquisitive an eye, h^^ 
will doubtless discover living victims in distress, whieh ft 
Russian, if he saw, would swallow with indifferente* - It is^ 
not known to all, that Potemkin ussd to take vermin- front' 
his head, and kill them on the bottom of his plate at tab^ ; • 
and beauteous princesses of Moscow do not scruple to foi^^ 
low his ei^ample. But vermin unknown to an EngUshmim, 
and which it is not permitted even to name^ attalfk^ tha- 
stranger who incautiously approaches too near the Berson»> 
of their nobility, and visit him from their sc^lute and ehaiins.^ 
If at table he re^rds hijs n^ig^bour, he sees hkn pleking* 
his teeth with bis fork, and tl^n pltt9giiig,it inta aplate of- 
meat which is brought round 4>o alL Tlie hNHvaart 4»f a: 
Russian kitchen are ineoneeivj^ble i and these ianot a bed) 
in the whole empii^e? which an English tr a ai ill s i ', ^mmt ef^ 
its eondjition, would vei^ture toappdroadi. « «- 

In the house of young count Orlof alone, aret^ao leas thai^^ 
five hundred servants.; Jinany of theni auaiptaaoa^ elolhed^ 
iMid many others in rags. It is no nm»iial st|^ to see be- 
hi|id a chair a sort JT. g«^ fi9^mm^^ik& a ik^^oHtan^ 
volantef in gold and pl^masy, 9^ anotlier heiiind hi» ioak* 



90 GLARRe's travels in RUSSIA. 

ing li^e a bec^gar. The generation has not yet parsed anay, 
wmeh, at the pleasure of the tsar, were sent to be whipped 
as dogs. The short liberty they enjoyed in the .reign of 
Catherine did not suffice to elevate theif minds from (he 
^pravity always incident to a state of slavery. Under Paul, 
the period came again in which they suffered the indigni- 
ties oflfered to their forefathers. Potemkin, one of the mean- 
est and most profligate of men, frequently taught them to 
remember what they had before been, by chasti:;ing with his 
own hand a prince or a nobleman with whom he chanced to 
be offended; and the emperour Paul exercised his cane 
upon the nobles who were his officers. Under such covern- 
raent, if we find them servile, oppressive, cowardly, and 
tyrannical, it is no more than may be expected, from their 
mode of education, and the discipline they undergo. They 
will naturally crouch with their heads in the dust before au 
emperour or his favourite, and trample their inferiours 
beneath their feet. 

They consider the English as a mercenary nation, and, 
generally hate them, because they fear them, or court them 
if they want their support. One of their princes thought 
proper to declare in publick, at his own table, where we 
had been invited to dine, and were of course under protec- 
tion enjoined by the laws of hospitality, that in England 
there is not an individual, patriot, or placeman, who is 
not saleable to the highest bidder. He instanced Wilkes, 
Gibbon, and Burke, with many others; adding: ^' English 
glavenr is less justifiable than Russian. One is selfishness ; 
t4ie other, submission to the laws.'' 

It is very true, that the systeni of slavery in Russia, like 
many other evils, may sometimes be productive of good* If 
tlie nobleman is benevolent, his slaves are happy ; for they 
are fed, elothed, and lodced. In sickness they are attended,* 
and in old age thejr fina an asylum. In case of accidentt 
l^om fire, tf a whole village is burned, the^ nobleman must 
l»nd wood to rebuild it. But when, as generally happens, 
the proprietor is a man without feeling or principle, their 
iitoation is indeed wretched. In such instances, the pea« 
gants often take the law into their own hands, and assassin- 
ate their lords. To prevent this, the latter live in cities, 
remote from their own people, and altogether unmindful of 
M that eoneems them, exeept the hard tribute they are to 
rceeive. Many ^> the Rassian n»Ue« dare, not venture 
r tiieirawB villages^ ^ fear ef the vengeance they have 



Moscow. 4i 

merited by tk^ir erimes. In thi« sad suryejf it ii aooth* 
iugf to point out any worthy object, on which the atten^. 
t!oo, weaned by depravity, may for a few short moment^ 
repose. Some noble trails hare presented themselves among 
the slaves. 

When the father of count Golovkin was reduced to the 
necessity of selling a portion of his peasants, in^onseq^uenee 
of debts contracted m the service of (he crown, deputies 
from the number of his slaves oame to Moscow, beseeching 
an audience of their lord. One venerable man, the oldest 
of the number advertised for sale, be§»^d to know why they 
were to be so dismissed. ^^ Because,'^ said the count, <^I 
am in want of money, an^ must absolutel;^ pav the debts I 
have contracted." ^^ How much P" exclaimed al once all 
the deputies. << About thirty thousand roubles," rejoined 
the count. ^' God help us ! Bo not sell us f we will bring, 
the money." . 

Peter the third was a greater friend to the Russian nobi-. 
lity, during three months, than all the sovereigns of Rus- 
sia put together; and in their gratitude, they murdered, 
him. While, under the oppressive and de^^rading disci', 
pline of Paul, they kneeled, and kissed the rod. Peter libe* ' 
rated them from^slavery and from corporeal punishnient*, 
He permitted them to sell their efiects, and settle in other, 
countries ; to serve, if thev pleased, under other sovereigns.. 
In short, he gave them ail they most desired; and they as- 
sassinated their benefactor. 

I have already mentioned the swarm of servants in their 
MlaeeJs. A foreigner wonders how they are siippoited* 
The. fact is, if a nobleman has fiftv or five*hundred, they do 
)iot cost him a shilling. Their clothes, food, ^yqtj article. 
oT their subsistence, is derived from the poor, oppressed 
peasants. Their wages,]f wages they can be calied, scarce^ 
exceed an English halfpenny a day.^ |n the whole year^ 
the total of ^ily pittance equals about live, roubles, forty . 
seven eopeeks and a half; which, according to the state of 
exchange at the time we were there, may be estimated at . 
twelve shillings and ninepence. Small as this sum is, it 
might have been omitted ; for it is never paid. There ar^ 
few of the nobles who think it an^ disgrace to owe their 
servants so trivial a debt. There is, in facl, no degree of 
meanness to which a Russian nobJemanM'Ul not condescend* 

* About « eo^eli md « 1^ BdftisQ. 

0^ -' ^■ -^ 



9$ •LARKE^S TRATBlft XK RUSSIA. 

To entitnerale the tbinst^s of wlikli we were eye-witoesM^ 
would only weary and disgust ike reader. I will end with 
one. 

A hat had been stolen from our apartments. The ser* 
rants positiyely asserted, that some yonng noblemen, who 
had been more lartsh of their friendship and company than 
we desired, had gained aeeess to the chambers in our ab^ 
j^ence, and had carried off the hat, with some other movea- 
bles even of less value. The fact was inconceivable, and 
we gave no credit to it. A few days after, being* upon an 
excursion to the convent of the New Jenisaleni, forty five 
verstB north of Moscow, a party of the nobles, to whom our 
intention was made known the preceding evening at the 
Club de J>roblesse^ overtook ns on Horseback. One of them^ 
mounted on an English racer, and habited like a Newmar- 
ket jockey, rode up to the side of the carriage ; but hift 
horse being somewhat unrnly, he lost his seat, and a gust 
of wind carried off his cap. My companion immediately 
descended, and ran to recover it for its owner; butwlmt 
was his astonishment, to perceive his own name, and> the 
name of his hatter, on the lining. It was no other than 
the identical hat which one of the party had stolen from 
onr lodgings, now become a cap, and which, under its al- 
tered shape, might not have been recognised, but for the 
accident here mentioned. 

The love of mimickry, already mentioned as character- 
istick of the nation, has been carried to a great excess in 
. the convent of the New Jerusalem ; whicli is not only $in 
imitation of the church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, 
but, as I mentioned in the beginning of the volume, eon- 
tains representations of all the relicks consecrated in that 
edifice. It has been bailt exactly afier the same model; 
and within it are exhibited, the tomb of Christ $ the stone 
which was rolled from the sepulchre ; the holes in which 
stood the crosses of our Saviour and the two thieves eruei- 
lled with him ; the prison in which they relate he was con- 
fined ; together with all the other absurdities fabricated by. 
the empress Helena and her ignorant priests at Jernsalefu* 
Finding, however, some diflerence between the repre-> 
tentatioR made of the original building in the Holy Land,, 
and its model here, I asked the monks the reason of the al- 
teration. They replied: << Our building is executed with 
more taste, beoanso it is ns^re omamotttal ; ««d there are 
many good judges viho^prdTer ours to the original |" thus 



ifltoit igfionuitly imo^i^ that the eliarA at Jenisakai) «• 
long; an object of adoratioo, &ad been so, rather oo aeeount 
Df its beauty, than any thiog contained in it. But nothing 
can prove with more eflbet, to what an abject state of men- 
tal darkness the human mind maj fall, than that th^ trum* 
pery here, not having even the empty title to reverence, 
which relieks may claim, but confessedly imitations, should 
receive the veneration and (he worship paid to their oriei- 
iials. A fat and fiUhy priest, pointioe to a hole in the 
niidst of Russia, exclaims : <* Here stood the holy cross !" 
while boorish devotees shed over it tears of piety, as genu- 
ine as those which fall from the eyes of pilgrims in the ta- 
bernacles at Jerusalem. Within a cell, to which they 
have given the name of the prison of Jesus Christ, sits a 
wooden figure, so ridiculously dressed, that it is impossible 
to view it without lauehter. It is as la^ as life, and in- 
tended to represent the Messiah in his eonfinement, wirh 
a veil of black crape east about the head, face, and 
shoulders. 

The << Vii^in with three hands," also makes her appear- 
ance here ; , and an ancient picture is exhibited, which they 
fay came from Jerusalem. It is exactly like those modem 
paintings now manufiietured in Russia for the chnrehes and 
household gods, and was probaUy one of. tlie original mo- 
dels of the art. 

The dome of the building may be esteemed among the 
iinest works of architecture in the country. It is lighted in 
a very pleasing manner. The expense of its completion 
has been stated at thirty eight tnoisand roubles $ or I 
should have suspected it to have been much more. In the 
library of the convent there is nothing remarkable, except 
thirty pieces of lead, shown as the money paid to Judas Is- 
eariot for betraying Christ ; and of course copies of a si- 
milar pretended relick at Jerusalem. The dresses of the 
priests are also exhibited, eovered with jewels* One mitre 
alone, or cap, is Talued at twenty four thousand roubles. 
Some modern manuscript bibles, in the Russian lavguage, 
presented by the late empress, are seen most sumptuouoly 
bound in covers of gold, and studded with enamelled paint- 
ings, which are set round with brilliants of the finest Sibe- 
rian emeralds, and other precious stones. 

The approach to this convent is by a gentle ascent, on a^ 
€ne, verdant plain. It is situated in a pleasing countrv $ 
%nd the excursion to it conducts a stranger through the 



M Clarke's travels in riTssia. 

most agreeable of the envirops of Moscow. It was onee 
fortifiei ; and a few pieces of old, neglected artillerj lie 
near the gate, beneath some trees. 

We were presented to the superiour, the most greasy 
monk, without exception, I ever beheld. He spoke to ns in 
Latin, and gave us the history of their great patriarch Ni- 
eon, whose portrait we had seen in the church ; and, who 
rose from the lowest station to the high office he held. Af- 
ter his marriage a separation took place, by the mutual eon- 
sent of husband and wife; one becoming prior of a monas* 
tery, and the other prioress of a convent. 

When we returned to Moscow, we found the inhabitants 
murmuring in consequence of new prohibitions. A ukase 
had appeared, which forbade the importation of any kind 
of foreign literature; and under this head were included 
maps, mnsiek, and whatever might be construed a medium 
of science. It will require another generation to recover 
the cheek which rising eenius then sustained. Some notion 
may be formed of the administration of the pubJick censors, 
hy a domieiHary visit of the booksellers, received during 
our residence* in Moscow. The shops were to undergo ex^- 
amination for prints or plans of Riga. £yery article of 
their property was of eourse overhauled. Wherever any 
thing appeared bearing the remotest reference to Riga, for 
whatever nurpose calculated, it was instantlj condemned. 
If the word ^^Riga'' chanced to make its appearance in any 
hook, however valuable, tlmugh but on a single pa^, the 
leaf was torn out. In tliis manner, they destroyed m one 
day, works of geography, history, the arts, atlasses, die- 
tionaries, voyages; ravaging^ tearing, and blemishing, 
wherever they came. 

That the Russians have talents, no one will deny; but^ 
they dare not show them. Sinee the death of Catherine, it 
has seemed the wretched policy of their government to 
throw every obstacle in the way of intellectuaiimprovement. 
Genius became a curse to its possessor. Wit, a passport to 
Liberia. Apathy, stupidity, and ignorance, were blessings. 
Troth and science, qualifications for the knout. The au-. 
tbor of ''M&n Voyage a Moscou^^ atoned for the brilJianee 
of his understanding in the wilderness of Tobolski. A bon 
Tiidty an epigram, the sparks and ebullitions of inventive ge- 
nius, like sudden flashes of lightning in the darkness of a 
nocturnal tempest, rendered, as they vanished, more sensi- 
ble impressions of surrounding horrour. The splendour of 



IIOSOOW. ti 

tii^ Ibti^ iky whtoh enligfiten^d t!i« reign of Catberhie^eoTi- 
trasted with the gloomy period of Paal's admin istratioo, 
may be justly compared with the moral and natural pheno- 
mena of the empire^ now brightened by a eontinual san^ 
and now darkened by aninterrupted night. The number of 
prohibitions beeame so numerous, and many of them wer^ 
so trivial, that it was necessary to carry about manuals of 
tibedienee, and assist the memory by pocket catalosues Of 
forbidden things. Some of these prohibitions excited more 
langfater than fear. Pug dogs, from the emperour't 
'resemblance to them, were prohibited any other name than 
** Mops.^^ Ivory-headed canes were on no account to be 
permitted : being reserved solely for the use of the mili- 
tary. These, and many other absurd regulations, expo- 
sed foreigners daily to the insolence of the police. My 
companion was actually arrested for not wearing'flaps to 
his waistcoat : and I narrowly escaped punishment for hav- 
ing strings in my shoes. 

The convent of the trinity, distant forty miles from Mos^ 
•cow, is deemed particularly worth seeing, on account of its 
immense riches. Rather more than two miles further, is 
another convent, less known, but more remarkable. It 
contains within its walls a Gothic church, erected over a 
mount, supposed to typify the mountain of the ascension 
of Jesus Christ. At the n»ot of the mount, and within it, is 
a small chapel, containing figures executed in wax, to rep- 
resent the resurrection of Lazarus. This extraordinary 
ivork has been planned by Plato, archbishop of Moscow, 
who resides there, and under whose inspection the whole 
was executed. The place is called Vifanij. 

But the most remarkable edifice, as it aftbrds a striking* 
monument of national manners, is the church of St. Basil, 
near the Kremlin. It is a complete specimen of the Tartar 
taste in building; and was erected by Ivan Basilovich the 
second, in 1538. To add to the singularity of itshistor}^, 
it was the workmanship of Italian architects. Its numerous 
and heavv cupolas, surmounted by gilded crucifixes, exhi- 
bit a striking contrast of colour and ornament. Pious in- 
dividuals bequeath legacies towards the perpetual gilding 
or painting of this or that dome, according to their varions 
fancies; so that it is likely to remain a splendid piece of 
^ patch-wofk for man^r generations. In ortler to account for 
the oriein of this building, and the oriental style exhibited 
in its formation, we must look back to the period of the 

3 



06 «LARKE's travels in RUSSIA. 

Rqisiaii history in which it was oonsimeied. The fttories^ 
we have hiiberte received of the moiiarchf in whose pi«tj 
or ostentation it is said to hare originated, are so eontra- 
dietorj, that the subjeet itself merits a iittie investigation. 
The niore we in<|uire into the real history of Russia, and of 
Russian 8overeigns9 the more we shall have reason to beliere 
that the country and its people, have undersoae little vari- 
ation sinee the foundation of the empire. Tet^r the Great 
might eut ofiT the beards of the nobles, and substitute Euro* 

Sean habits for Asiatiek robes $ but the inward man is still 
^e same.* A Russian of the nineteenth century possesses 

• Those wRo knew Potemkin, or who will merely attend to what it rela- 
ted of him in page 60, will find that a picture of the manners of -Rassian 
nobles, mode in tlie seventeenUi oentury, equally repi^sentad tkose of theiv- 
princes in the eighteenth. 

" Pendant le re^as les rots qui leur sortent de la houche avec I'odeur, de 
I'eau de vie, de Tad, de l*oignon, et des raves, joints aux vents do has ventre, 
dont its ne sont point scrupidenx, exhalent une corruption capable de fiure 
crever oeux qui sont aupr^s d'eux. Its ne portent point leura rnoaehoira 
dans leurs poches, mais dans leurs bonnets ; et conune its out loujours la 
tftte nne loi^nu'ils sont k table, s'ils ont besoiu de se moucher, ils se servant 
de leurs dolgtits, qu*ils essuyent ensuite, et leur ner, k la nappe " Vm^agt 
en Jlfo9C07ne, par AugtuHn, Baron de JUmferbur^, licid. 1688. p, 63r 

OleariuSy aeeretary to the ambassadour from the <x)urt of Denmark^ gave 
a similar account of their morals in the middle of the seventeenth century. 
The following short extracts are from the best edition of his works, trans- 



but la vertu, etla gloire, qui en est inseparable — -Leur industrie etla sal»- 
tillte de leur esprit paroist principidement en leur trafic, oik il n*y a point de 
finesse, n'y de tromperie dont ils ne se servent, pour foui*ber les autres» 
^ustost que pour se Uefendre de I'estre." Voyage (T Oleav Tom. I. p. 145. 

** Et d'autant qne la tromperie ne s'exerce point sans fiaussete, sans 
mentcries et sans defiances, qui fen sont inseparables, ils sgavent meryei)- 
kwwemeiit ^en s'aydcr de ces belles qualitiies, aussi bien que de la caloomie.'' 
/5iV/.p.l46. H » 1 

** De cette fagon d'agir des Moscbvites, et du peu de fidelity qulls ont 
entr'eux. Von petit jiie-er de cegue les Estran^ero en pewfent eaperer^ 
etjusgu'd quel poiftt ton s*tf peut^. lis n' offirent jamaio leur amtUf 
et rCen contraciertt jamais, qtte poiur leur interest parttculier,€t d dessein 
d^enprqfTter. Lji mauvaise nouiriture qu'on leurdoftne en leur jeunesse, 
en laqueile, ils n'apprennent au plus qu'a Kre et e8ciire,et ouelques petites 
priires vdl^aires, fit qu'ils suivent aveuglement ce que I'on appelle aux • 
testes I'instinct; de sortequela nature estant en elle mesme depray^e eC 
corrompue, leur vie ne peut estre qu'ne debordement et d^regleraent con- 
tinue!. C'est pour quoy I'on n*y voit rien que de brutal, et des effets de 
leurs passions etapp^tits dosordonn^s, k qui ils lasohent la bride, sans aucuoe 
retenue.*' Ibid. p. 148. 

•• Le nature! perv^rs des Moscovites, et la bassesse en laqtiette 51s sont 
nourris, joirit k la servitude, pour laqueUe ils Semblent estre n^s, font que 
I'on est eotitramt de les tratter en bestes, plust6st qu'en personnes raison- 
nablcs. £t ils y sont si bien aecoustuAes, qu'il est aomme impossible de 
ics porter au travail, si I'on n'y employe le fouetetlebastpn." Ibid. p. %9S, 



MOSCOW. »7 

utl'ihe servik ^rep^Mlties, the bftriiarity of masnert, the 
enieitj, hy]ftoerisy, and proAigaey, whieh characterized hU 
anee$t<H*9 in the ninth. 

John Badih>vieh the first has been considered as one of the 
fomiders of the Rucsian empire; bot his accession did not 
take place till the middle of the fifteenth eentttry. lie 
arose, tike Bif6kiaparte, in a period of national dismay, 
eonfnsion, and calamity ; and, thoueh described as a man 
of impettions rices and Tiolent passions, intrepid, artful, 
treacher6n9, and having all thf ferocity of a sayage, he haa 
been lukifeld' as the deliverer of his country, and dignified by 
the appellation of the^eo^. It is a title which an oppressed 
intimidated people have frequently bestowed upon tyrants* 
Until his dme, however, Tartars were lord^ of Moscow $ 
the tsars themselves beine: obliged to stand in the presenee 
of their ambassadours, uliile the latter sat at meat, and to 
endure the most humiliating ceremonies. Basilovich shook 
off the Tartar yoke ; bot it was a long time before the 
Rassians, always children of imitation, ceased to mimiek a 
people by whom they had been conquered. They had neither 
arts nor opinions of their own ; every thing in Moscow 
was Tartarian ; dre9s, manners, buildings, equipa^s $ in 
short, all, except religion and language. . Basilovich, at 
the eonqnest of Casan, waa solemnly crowned with the dia- 
dem of that kingdom ; whieh is said to be the same now 
used for the coronation of the Russian sovereigns* In 
the reign of his suecessour, Moscow was again taken by 
that people, and its tsar subjected to an ignominious tri- 
bnte. Twelve years afterwards, the eldest son of that snc« 
eessonr, John Basilovich the second, then an infant^ bill 
afterwards a ferocious and implacable tyrant, came to the 
throne,* 

It is the more necessary to introduce these remarlts, beetase authors of 
eelebrity^ SQcb, for example, as I^uffendroff, offer very erroneous notions 
,iothe stodeut in mofJem history. " On se tromperoitDeaucoup," saysbej, 
" a poar ooanoltre Les Russes d'aujourd Uui, on s'ari'etmt aux portraits qui' 
Oftt etS fails de cette nation avantle eommencemeut de cc siede." Intro<t 
ti UaUtwne Modem, &c. Tom. XV. p, 284- edit Paris, t756r 

* Some writers endeaTOUredto apolc^e for the oondnet ^nd eharletei^ 
of John BaaQovich the second. The editors of the Modem Universal 
History even iiMsak of him with eulopum. [Vol. XXXV. p. 259] Mr. Coxe 
thinks hw diaraoter has been misrepresented [Trav. via. 1 p. 302] and 
yet allows it would be ^* contra^ to historical evidence to deny many of 
the cj»eltiea committed by him.^ If the horrible crueltfes related of this 
'ibj 1>r. CruU ts^aQ«oo(iit of Muscov}^, vol. I. p. 331.*Xoad. 169&^*1 



M CLARItE^S TRAVELS I^ RtJSStA« 

' It is a cdrioug fkct, that in tbe very opening of fiis reign 
we read of the arrest of no less than three hundred artists, 
intended for Russia, in the town of Lttbeck. What the 
great work then cariying on in Moscow was, is now uncer- 
tain ; hut it evidently proves a disposition, on the part ef 
the soverei^, to superinduce thiB arts of western nations 
over the long established, orieMal eustoras of his peeplew 
In this feign was built the church to which I have aJluned. 
The artists arrested in Lubeek were Germans. The arehi- 
teets employed for the church of 8t. Basil were Italians ; 
probably obtaioed by the connexion which subsisted between 
tbe tsars of Muscovy and the emperoors of Constanti- 
jDople.* From whatever country, they came, the taste dis- 
played in the edified is evidently Tartarian. How much 
the manners of the people were so at this period, may be 
Ahown by reference to the curious and interesting doco-> 
ments preserved in Hakluyt's Coilectton of Voyages. It 
was during the bloody administration of the tyrant who 
then ruled in Russia, that the first ambassadouN w«ntfroiii 
England to that country. By the accounts they sent home, 
it appears the situation of Englishmen in Russia was pre* 
dsely what we experienced two hundred and thirty j&ktn 
afterwards under the tyranny of the emperour Panh the 
Same disgusting race around them $ the same dread of b.^ing 
communicative in their letters; the same desire to quit a 
scene of barbarity and profligacy. The secretary to Ran- 
dolph, who went as ambassadour from queen Elizabeth, 
ivas a person of the name of George Tubervile, and wrote 
** Certain Letters in Verse,** to Dantie, Speneer^ and 
Parker, ' describing the maners of the eoumtrey and people.' 

be untrue, -what shaU be said to the narrative of those who were eye-wit- 
nesses of many of his enormities ? Crull says, his affected sanctity led Jovim 
into the mistake of calling tdm a gQod Christian, '^ But if any delight to 
rcade the terrible and bloudie acts of Ivan Basilo-wich, he may dut, if not 
drowne himselfe in bloud, in that historie which jPatt/ Offerdernehalh writ- 
ien of his fife, and both there and in others take view of other his unjust 
acts. I will not depose for their truth, though I cannot disprove it :' adver* 
taries perhaps make the worst. Jpor myselfe, I list not to rakie sinke* 
against him, and would speak in liia defence, if I found not a^ UQiversall 
•d&spiraey of all historie and reports against him." Purcha9 hit Pilgrimn^ 
lib.iv.c.9.$l. 

* Some years afterwards, A. D. tS57, tke tsar ftgaiii made an uhsim* 
eessful application to the court of Vienna for artisU; slating, tbat **he 
could easily procure them from France and Italy ; but that he gave the 
ftreferenee to Germans, knovring them to be an upright, virtuous, and, 
honest people." See the auihort dted in tb« Jibd. Unh^ UUt. tul, 
XXXV. p. ai7. 



He appear! to have been a joong man of fksliioii at that 
time. I bare selected some of the most striking passi^f 
in these letters for a note.* They are rerj little known, 

• •* I left ray native soile full like, a retchlesse mnn. 
And unacquainted of the coast, amons the Runes ran : 
A people passing rude, to vices vfle mclindey 
Foike fit to be of Bacchua train, so quaffing ii their luade. 



** Such lieour as tbey luive, and as the countrey gives. 

But chiefly tvo, one iJalled kuasf whereby the mouaike lives. 

Small ware and watertike, but somewhat tart hi Uste, 

The rest is meade of hoaie made, wherewith their lips they bute. 



" Tlieir idolet have their hearts, on God they never call. 
Unless it be fJitehola Bough J that han^ agsinst the wall. 
The house that hath no god, or pamted saint within. 
Is not to be resorted tOj that roofe is fall of sinne." 

Hdhluyfi Voyaget, pp. SS4— 5. 

He then pronbeds to mention the dissolute lives of the women, and their 
manner of painting their cheeks ; at the dose of his letter to Spencer, says ; 



-"The pec^le beastly bee. 



I write not an I know, I tooeh but here and there, 

forif Idiould, mypenne would pinch, and eke offend I feare. 



'* They say the lions paw gives judgment of the beast ; 

And so may you deeme of the great, by reading of the least'* 

Ibid, p. 387. 

In his letter to Parker, the Tartar dress and manner is thus strikingly i&« 
introduced : 

" Their garments be not gay, nor handsome to the eye ; 
A cap alSl their heads they have, that standeth verv me, 
"Which colpackihej do terme. They weare no ruffes at all ; 
The best have cullers set with pearle, whieb th^ rubatcnk ealL 
Their shirts in Rusae long, they woike them downe before. 
And on the deeves with coloured silki^ two inches good and more. 



** These are the JUvsnea robes. The richest use to ride^ 
From place to p|aoe, his servant runnes, and followes by hia sidt^ 
The CassBcke beares his felt, to force away the raine : 
Their bridles are not very brave, their saddles are but plaine« 



«* For when the Rustle is pursued by cruel fbe. 

He rides away, and suddenly betakes him hit hoe. 

And bends me but about in sftddle as he sits. 

And therewiihall amids his race his following foe he hits. 



ra GLARKB'f TlkA.V«fU IN RUSSIA. 

M^ w«Etli the rMider'« attention ; not merely beeante dMf 
prove that Russia now io preoisely what it was when they 
^were written, bnt as eorions entmples of earlv Eoglish po.' 
etry* The work in whieh they are contained is extremely 
nu^9 and bears an enormous priee. 



eHAPTEB VII. 

MOSCOW. 

/Bkmday Mmrhet-'^promenades during Baster^Sh'emHn — 
Holy Qwt^^Ghnat Bell — "Grtat Gun^-^ncient PeUac^ of 
th$ Tsars^^lm'ptrial IVeasury — Manuscripts — 8u)oerh 
Moiel-^Generid Appearance of the ICremlinr^First 

. Christian Chureh-^Festival of me Asemsion. 

THE market on a Sundi^ in Moseow is a novel and i\u 
teresdng speetiiffile. From five in the morning till 
eig*ht9 the P&ee de Oallitxin, a spaeioiis ar^a near the 
Kremlin, is filled by a concourse of peasants, and people of 
every description, coming to buy or sell white peacocks, 
fan-tailed and other curious pigeons, dogs of all sorts, for 
the sopha or the chace, singing-birds, poultry, guns, pistols, 
in short, whatever chance or custom may have rendered 
saleable. The sellers excepting in the market of singing- 
birds, which is prominent and very lai^e, have no shops ; 
but remain with their wares either exposed upon stalls, or 
hawking them about in their hands. Dogs ana birds consti- 
tute the principal artides for sale. The pigeon-feeders are 

Their bowesare very short, Jake Turkic boughs outright. 

Of sinowes made with birehen barfce, in eunniog manner digbt. 



*''The fDniincn «re 80 Turkie Rke, the tnen to foH of gofle, 
The women wanton, temples stuft with idoles that defile 
The seats that sacred ought to be, the customs are so quaint. 
As if I would describe the whole, 1 feare my pen would faint. 
In summe, I say, I never saw a prince that so did raigne. 
Nor people so beset with saints^et all but Tile and vaine* 
Wilde Irish arc as civiU as the RussieB in their kinde, 
Hai-d ohoice which Is the best of bolh, eeh bLoodv, rude and bUnde.** 



MOSCOW. Vi 

ixaAn^ishei in ttie inidst of the mob by lon^ wlilte waiid% 
which they carry to direct the pi^oBs in their fiig-ht. The 
nobles of Moseow tftke gtetii delight in these birds, and a 
iiToarite pair will sell from fiv^e to ten roubles in the mar^ 
ket. I was astonished to see the feeders, by way of exhibit 
ting their birds, let them fly, and recover them again at 
pleasure. The principal recommendation of the pigeons 
eonsists in their rising to a great faeight, by a spiral eurvc) 
ail flying one way, and following each other. When a bird 
is launched, if it does nbt preserve the line of curvature 
which the others take, the feeder whistles, waving his wand, 
and its course is immediately changed. During such exhi- 
Vitions, the nobles stake their money in wagers, betting upon 
the height to which a pigeon will ascend, and the numoer 
of curves it will make in so doing. Among dogs for i\v^ 
chase, we observed a noble breed, eommon in Russia, m ith 
long, fine hair like those of Newfoundland, but of amazing 
size and height, which are nsed in Russia to hunt wolves. 
Germanpug-dogS) so dear in London, here bear a low price. 
I was oflered a very fine one for a sum equivalent to a shil* 
ling English. We observed, also, English harriers and fox- 
hounds : but the favourite doe in Moscow is the English 
terrier, which is very rare in Russia, and sells for eighteen 
roubles, or more, according to the caprice of the buyer and 
seller. Persian cats were also offered for sale^ of a bluish 
grey or slate colour, and much admired. Seeing several stalls 
apparently covered with wheat, I approached to examine 
its quality, but was surprised to find that what had the 
appearance of wheat consisted of large ants' es*gs, heaped 
for sale. Near the same stalls were tubs full ot pismires, 
crawling among the eggs, and over the persons of those 
who sold them. Both the eggs and the ants are brought 
to Moscow as food for nightingales, which are favourite^ 
though common birds in Uossian houses. They sing in 
every respect as beautifblly in eages as in their native 
woods. We often heard them in the bird-shops, ^varblin^ 
with all the fulness and variety of tone which characteri* 
zes the nightingale in its natural state.* The piice of 
one of them, in full song, is about fifteen roubles. The 
Russians, by rattling beads on their tables of tangible 
ftrithmetiek^ can make the birds sing at pleasure during 

* I haye been nnee iofflrmed, that tbk method of heei^g $ad fosdiiis 
^IgbtingHlcs U beconung prevalent U our own cottntrjr. 



V9 tLARKE's TRAVELS IN RUSSIA. 

tlie day $ but nlglitingftles are heard throiq^out the lugbt) 
making the streets of the city resound the meloilies^ ofthe 
forest. 

The promenades at this season of .the year are among 
the many sights in Moscow interesting to a stranger. The 
principal is on the first of May, Russian stjle, in a forest 
near the city. It affords a yery interesting spectacle to 
strangers, because it is frequented by the oourgeoisie as 
well as by the nobles, and the national costume may then be 
observed in its greatest splendour. . The procession of car- 
riages and persons on horseback is immense. Beneslth the 
trees, and upon the greensward, Russian peasants are seen 
seated in their gayest dresses, expressing their joy by shout* 
ing and tumultuous sonss. The musicK of the balalaika^ 
the shrill notes of rustick pipes, clappinj^ of hands, and 
the wild dances of the gipsies, all mingle in one revelry. 
The wives of merchants, in droskis and on foot? display 
head-dresses of matted pearls, and their most expensive at- 
tire. In costliness of apparel, there is no dinerenee be- 
tween a Moscow princess and the wife of a Moscow shop- 
keeper ; except, that one copies the fashions of London and 
Paris, while the other preserves the habit of her ancestors. 
During Easter, promenades take place every evening, 
Taryin^ occasionally the site of cavalcade. They are made 
in carriages and on horseback; the number of the former 
being greater than any occasion assembles in other cities of 
Europe. The intention of such meetings is the same every- 
where $ to i^ee and to be seen. Equipages continue to pass 
in the same constant order, forming two lines, whieh mrve 
parallel to each other. The spectaele sometimes beggars 
all description. Beautiful women, attired in costly ana be- 
coming dresses, fill the balconies and windows of houses be* 
tweeu which the cavalcade proceeds te its destinatioii. 
Hussars and police-officers are stationed in different parts^ 
to preserve order. When arrived at the place particularly 
set apart for the display of the procession, the strangec 
wUh amazement beholds objects which can only be matched 
in the most wretched purlieus of St. Giles's ; miserable 
hovels, and wooden huts, hardly discernible amidst clouds 
of dust. On Friday in Easter-week, the place of prome* 
pade is better selected : it is then on a plain called La Vallit^ 
Slid the sight is the most surprising that can be conceived. 
liSfng bc^re reaebing this plain, the throng of carriages is 



M ^at ilmt thej can seareely move.** At last the great 
Meiie opens, ana the ritw whieh breaks, all at once, upon 
the tpeetator !« indeed striking. A proeession, far as the 
qw ean reach, is seen passing and repassing a spacious and 
beaattful lawn, the fiirther extremity of which appears ler- 
minated by a eonvent. No less than two thousand car- 
riages, generalij with six horses (o each, but never less 
than foar, are present opon this occasion. So much for the 
^neral effeet. The appearance in detail, of the equipages, 
laekeys, and drivers, is an exeellent burlesque upon gran- 
deur. The postillions are generally old men of a wretched 
aspect, dressed in liveries of worsted laee and cocked hats, 
who hold their whip and reins as if they were never before 
mounted. The harness eonsists of ropes and cords, fre- 
qisently n^ged and dirty; very unlike the white traces 
ttsed in PcSand, which have a pleasing if not magnificent 
appearance. The carriages themselves, if not altogether 
as wretched as die uight«coaches of London, are ill built^ 
oM fashioned, heavy, and ugly. It is only the amazing num- 
ber ef eqalpages that affords ideas of wealth or greatness. 
Examined separately, every thing is little and mean. The 
proeessioB is seen on the plain as far as the convent before 
mentiened, and retomingback in the order it advanced. In 
the lisie between the carriages, a space is reserved for the 
eavaliers, who make their appearance on the most beauti- 
fill English and Turicish horses, ridins, as they all main- 
tain, a PAngloiSj but without the smallest resemblance to 
ihe manner of Englishmen. Their horses are taught the 
wume'ge, and continue to pace and champ the bit, without 
advmieii^astep; occasionally plunging like those exhi- 
bited in amphitheatres, while their riders, in laced coats 
and raffles, with eocked hats, and saddles sumptuously em« 

• It may be wcU Ao insert here an extract frdm Mr. Hsbsb's JwcnuO^ 
aoncerDiag the population of thi« remarkable city, aft that gentieina» haa 
ttade Tety particular inquiry upoa the autgect, and his zealous attentioa to 
secoracy appears in every statement. ^ 

•* The circuit of Moscow w« have heard variously stated ; it m^, per- 
haps, he aboot thirty six versts [twenty six miles] but this includes many void 
nnces. The population isy as usuaU exagBerated. It la deeidedly greater 
Hian that of Petersbnrgh ; I should thini three or fttur tknes as Much* 
jadeiaff from tha cooeoorse in the streets. The extent in eompanaon wita 
that of Peterahorgh, is nearly^ as may be seen hy the plan, tvehe to one « 
yet, from the master of the police, Of all m«B the most likely to know, the 
pepuibtioa was estifnaied «t only SSi^MM) fixed Inhaliita&ta. The sarvinto 
sad nuiaerous retainers of the nobles may be perhapa estBajted at neartf 
30,(»0^ wittcb we oftly here in winter.** Meber$ MS. Jeternali 

H 



Y4 (Marke's travels m Russia, 

broidered, imagine they ditplay sorppistng feaU bf itofM^- 
manship. Several families preserve the aid Russian eos- 
tUHie in their servants' habits ; others eloflie their att^ni- 
ants like running footmen in Italy | so that the vari«ity 
forined by the motley appearance is v«ry amusing. 

The numberless bells of Moseow eontinue to ring' dnriiig 
the whole of Easter week, tinkling and tolling, without any 
kind of harmony or order. The large bell near the cathe- 
jral is only used on important oceasiQns, and yields tJte 
iinest and most solemn tone I ever heard. When it somids, 
n deep and hollow miirmnr vibrates all over Moseow, like 
the fullest and lowest tones of a vast organ, orthe roUiH^ 
of distant thunder. This bell is 8iispen4red in a tower cali- 
ed the Belfry of St. Ivan, beneath others, which, thongl^sf 
less size, are enormous. It is forty feet nine inshes in esr- 
eumference ; sixteen inches and a half thick $ and it weighs 
more than fifty seven tons.* 

Tlie Kremlin is, above all other places, most worthy a 
traveller's notice. It was our evening walk, whenever we 
«ould escape the engagements of society. The view it af- 
ijbrds of the«ity surpasses every other, both in s insularity 
and splendour^ especially from St. Ivan's tower. This l»r- 
tress is surrounded on ail sides by walls, towers and raiii-« 
parts, and stuffed full of domes and steeples. The appear-- 
ance differs in every point of view, on account of the strowe 
irregularity in the edifices it contains. Entering it by £e 
arched portal, painted red, called The Holy Gate, persons 
of every description are compelled to wsJk bave^he&ded 
near a hundred paces. This gate is on the south side, 
facing the quarter of the shojjs. The approach to it is by 
a bridge across the fosse which surrounds the walls. It is 
a vaulted portal ; and over the entrance is a picture,! with 
a lamp continually burning. Sentinels are here placed, as 
at all the entranees l« the Kremlin. JNo one venlnres to 
pass this gate without taking ofl^ his hat. I wished to see 
if the rule tias rigorously enforced, and, feigning ignorance, 

• 3551 Russian pouds. Voyage de Dettx Fransais, Tom. lit. p. 295. 

^ *« You enter the Holy Gate by a long, narrow bridge over the fosse. 
On the left hand is a noble view down to the rfver. The whole coup {f»i€ 
ntueh resembled Seriosapfttain, aft nepresented in Kerr PoKer*s ranora- 
ma. In paavng nmle* tl»e Holy Gate, all hat« are tdben off, in reTerence 
for a saint auspended over it, who delivered the citadel, as tradition affirms, 
. bv striking a sadden panick into an army of Pdles which had possession oT 
the town, and had almost succeeded in foi-cinff this gate of the Kremlin.'* 



MOSCOW* n 

m^fmi beiie%ib llie i^reh witli my hattin. A sentineteliaL- 
leaged me ; but withoat taking notice of liim, I walked for- 
ward. Next, a bare-beaded peasant met me, and, seeing 
mj head eorered, summoned the sentinels and people with 
rerj loud ex^essions of ai^r; who, seizing me by the 
Mrmif very soon taaght me in what manner to pass the JSTo^y 
Gate for the future. 

The great belt of Moscow, known to be the largest ever 
Ibandea, is in a deep pit in the midst of the Kremlin. The 
iiistory of its fait is a fable; and, as writers are aecosfomed 
4o eopy oaeh other, the story continues to be propagated. 
The faet is, the bell remains in the plaee where it was ori- 
ginallTeast. It never was svspended. The Russians mie^t 
as well attempt to suspend a iirst rate line of battle ship 
with all its guns and stores. A fire took plaee in- the Krem- 
lin, the flames of whieh eaught the building erected over 
the pit in which the bell yet remained ^ in consequence of 
\rlueh the metal became hot ; and water thrown to extio- 

Saish the fire fell «pon the bell, eaustng the fracture which 
9» taken place. The emtranee is by a trap door placed 
even with the surface of the earth. We Ibnnd the steps 
very dangerous. Borne of them were wanting, and otliers 
broken^ whieh oeeasioned me a severe fall down the wliole' 
.extent of the first flight, and a narrow escape for my life 
in not being ^dashed upon thebeil. In eonsequence of this 
aeeident, a sentinel was stationed afterwards at the trap 
door, to prevent people becoming vietims to their euriostty . 
iie might have been as well employed in mendine the steps, 
«8 in waiting all day to say thev were broken. The bell is 
Imiy a mountain of metal. They relate, that it contains 
a very large proportion of gold and silver; for that, while 
it was in fusion, the nobles and the people east rn, as votive 
offerings, their plate and money. It is permitted to doubt 
the truth of traditionary-tales, particularly in Russia, where 
people^re much disposed to rotate what they have heard, 
without onee reflecting on its probability. 1 endeavoured, 
in vain, to assay a small part. The natives regard it with 
superstitious veneration, and they would not allow even a 
grain to bfe filed oft*. At the same time it may be said, the 
compound has a white, shining appearance, unlike bell-metal 
in general $ and perhaps its silvery aspect has strenethened, 
if not given rise to a conjectore respecting the richness of 
its materials^ 



7% «X.AKKB's THAVfiliS IN RUS»1A«^ 

, On fettivAl days, tbe peoftaats vi»ii |1ie bdiM tbey ^mi4^ 
a eharefa, eoDsidering it an aet of devotion ; and ther erotf 
themselves as they descend and aseend tbe steps. The bot- 
tom of the pit is covered by water, mad, and large piece* of 
timber, whieb, added to the darkness, render it always an 
unpleasant and unwholesome place, in addition to the dan* 
cer arising from the steps which lead to the bottom. I went 
frequently there, in order to ascertain the dimensions of the 
bell with exactness. To my f^reat surprise, during; one of 
those visits, half a dozen Russian officers, whom I lound in 
the pit, agreed to assist me in the admeasurement. It no 
nearly agreed with the aceouot published by Jonas Hail'- 
way, that the difference is not worth notice. This is S9me«> 
what remarkable, considering the difficulty of exaetiy mea- 
suring wh^t is partly buried in the earth, and the circumf<^ 
yence of which is not entire* No one, I believe, has yet as** 
oertained the size of the lower rim of tbe bell, whi^h wouU 
affbrd still greater dimensions than those we obtained s but 
it is entirely buried in the earth. About ten persons wort 
present when I measured the part which remains exposed ip 
observation. We applied a strong cord close to tbe metid in 
411 parts of Hn. periphery, and round tbe lower part wIm^m 
it touched the groand, taking eare at the same time nol 
to stretch the card., f'rom the pieoo of the beAi broken o^ 
it wa« ascertained that we had thus measured within two 
feel of its lower extremity. The circumference obtained 
was sixty sev^n feet and four inches ; which allow* a diar 
meter of twenty two feet, five inches, and one third of a* 
inob. We then took the perpendicular height from the tof 
of tho bell, and found it correspond exactly with the state* 
tn^n t made by Han w^y, namely : twenty one feet, four Hiehet» 
and an half. In tbe stoutest part, that in which it should 
have received the blow of the hammer, ita thickness 
equalled twenty three inches. We wore able to osan^» 
tain this» by placing our hands under W9»ter» whore th(S 
fraeture had taken place, which is above sevouftsot high 
ft:om the lip of the belU Tho woiglit of thi^ enopmoua maiNi 
of .metal bi^ been com{Mited to be 449,?'7:9lbs ; which, if 
valued at three shillings a pound, auMoaits to B^^&%5L i^$^ 
lying noen^loyed, and of no use to any one«* 

*'The great heW of Moseow has lonj* been a theme of wonder, afi<l U 
mefiitiotiett by almost every trav«Hep. The aubjeet is of no importanoe j 
but it may be well to add, that the accounts given of it do QQt apPily to the 
t<MBe tUin|f. Qiearius describes that vhiyi he Sftw ia 1639« It is the ssb49 



BIOSOOW. n 

The great gun, wbich is also among the wonders of the 
Kremlin, Tmeasared with less faciiitj, being always inter- 
rupted bj the sentinels, one of whom pointed his bayonet at 
me, and threatened to stab me if I persisted in my inten- 
tion. Yet, by walking its length, I found it equal to 
eighteen feet and a half"; and its diameter nay be guessed, 
when' it is known that it will admit a man sitting upright 
within its caliber. It is, moreover, ten inches thicK. This 
gun is kept merely for ostentation, and never used.* Not- 
withstanding the neglect it has experienced, it remains in 
goodorder, without injury. It was cast in 1694. Near it 
arc placed some artillery of less caliber, but of very extra- 
ordinary length.f 

'There was nothing prohibited under more severe penalty 
than making any drawing or sketch within this fortress ; oft 
which account I am prevented giving the superb view it 
affords of Moscow. But as the objects within its walls are- 
always interesting to strangers, artists of merit were not 
wanting for their representation. It was, however, with 
the greatest difficulty I succeeded in obtaining a view of 
tlie interiourof the Kremlin, containing the ancient palace- 
of the tsars. A window appears in the front of this^liuild"^ 

HKittiimed iti 1». 75y of tliw vblmne, focmdeA bf Boris God^not [fiee Olear^ 
T4MB. i« p* 107.3 AogiiMiney amUwiwdour £roin GenuMj m 16M, de^ 
aeribes that vhieU is here spoken of. Jonas Hanwayi and those who $vi^- 
needed him hear reference to the same. It was founded^ according to Au-* 
gvsttne, in 1655;* dnring the reign of Alexis {See Voyage Sk J^oscott, \t^ 
U7.] Tha-ftttSiiMit awi |WOfle of Moseow maintain that it was east: 
dudug.tbe roigo of th«ir emprem Ajane,. probably from th« l«0kale figure 
represented, which may have been intended for Uie Vii'g;ih. Augustine's, 
areotint of the weiglit, and his roeasoreroent of the bell, are too near the- 
tptA't»Mppmo tMf oHwr wn cteseribed by him. Thej employed, «ay» 
hQi ia oastiag iU a, weight, of metal eqnel to^i440,(X)OU)e. He moeeoTer- 
states its thicKness equal to two feet, which is witlUn an inch of what has. 
been here said. He also proves that it is larger than tlie famous beU of 
£rfe(d» aodeven^an tint of Peida. • 

*** Aoconfiiig to th<y V<^age d6 D^ux Franjais, torn. II. p. 29^, its weight 
i»6i0ftpMM&,* end its dimennom, sixteen French feet in length, and foar> 
Het Uirae.tfMi^ ll^ diaqwelari^^lfdneHing; sixteen loehea for the. thieknea>tOg 
the piece. ^ . » « . • 

j- A eiudoas notice of the brais emen^bt the Kreralia Qeaun.iii JSdim*^ 
Mi8t6ry ofTravayles, as augmented by tVilles, and ]^rinted by Jugge, ii» 
the blade letter,, at London, in \57f. ft is gathered oUt'of I^alus Jovius^ 
asid proves tliat they had the nee oC artillery ta Mamom a» eafiy at tho^ 
rem. of- BasS IvaiN»viclk " J^silUus dyd furUieiriaore laslytuie a haiid^ 
of barpbiisiers on horsebacke, and. caused many great brasen peeces u» 
he made liy thi workemanshyp of certayoe fialians ; and the same witla 
ttoyt sie eke o aadVlkeetes to be ^facea ia tlte eartle of Moaea." 

EdenU But, p. 301. 
H2 



7a' OLA&KS'S TRAtSiS IK RUSSIA. 

ingfvhteii b aa iri«giikr, CbtMik t4ifiee) dktk^iiUA 
by two Gothiek pillars* It is tfae same, they relatfe^fffM* 
whieh Demetrius, in his attempt to escape, during' tlus eon- 
spiraey of Zuskr, fell, and broke his thigh, previous to 
his massaere. He loivered bifnseif to a eonsioerable dis^ 
tanee h? a rope; bvt tiie faeij^ was stiH too great f«- ainr 
hope of safety. Despair innst have been g^oat iadeea, 
urten it indiieed any one to make the attempt That witf* 
dow was also the plaee where the 8«v»roiMifl of Russia nsod 
to sit, ami deceive petitbns from their sumets. The petH. 
tion was piaeei upon a stone in the eonrt heIo«r ; and if the 
tsar thought propler, he sent for it. The imperial treasure. 
is now in eases ronnd the walls of the upper apaKmente q£ 
the palaee: the approoeh to whieh is by a stone staireose,. 
memoralde for massaeres eonunitted there by theStrelitasee^ 
during the routing exeited by tins sister of Peter the greats 
It is not a pleasiiig refleetion, whieh' some writers wooM 
arge, that the greatest atrocities, in times of anarehy or. 
despotism, have been perpetrated by women. History, they, 
affirm, has not recorded, even the severe pen of Tacitus^ 
has not described, such monsters as CatheriHC de Medieisy, 
the bloody Mary, and the females of France daring tbeiato 
revolntien. In the revolt of the Streiitzes, the primoeso 
SofMa has been aeevsed of' ieadiagtheM to the oiosiitioA 
o^ the most shocking enoranties. Later writers have iri« 
dertaken her deftnee ; and among otliers, Mr. Coxe has coI» 
lected many ingenioos argum^ts to disprove theaspersioao. 
of ¥<^tatrer Compelled, as wo often 9r9^ to view the ohn-^ 
raeters of ilhistrlous ])er9ons in the representation of the^ 
adversaries, made amidst the raneom- and cabal of parties^ 
wo may sospect the justice of a repvoach thas cast upon tiio* 
female sex. The unreasonable obloquy to which the eha» 
raeter of Rtehard the third has been exposed, by writers 
during the reign of Henry the seventh, is aowprcttv psuo»i 
zafly admiltedi yet prejudice, when hmgeftabfished, isfiot 
easily removeii RcfBrriug to the histonr of the Cmsadss, 
the ^araeens have been atwajyo branded with tho name of 
barbarians, although their invaders borrowed fhrnn that 
people the Unt dawntngs of refinement and civilization. A^ 
seene more striking, as a sofejest for historical paintii^ can 
hardly he coasetvod, than that which task place npstt Ihia 
staircase, when the venerable patriarch, bearing in ono. 
haixd an image of the Virgin Mary, which Yr%» supposed to 
work miradesy and with Um other Umiiwf yomig doh»M«K 



k1 t^^ e^iwlltste tkt tUef •riMUBCits off. 



riittwf fclfomd^j bit mefMM ftkler n^ 
de«nded, tailing «b tkelofimate mwbW •p«w kis life. 
The^ liad heco two4i^8ite«kiii$ liu% And md tJbrealeiMd 
to wt tJbe MkLefi^on firty if Iw was boI dettvered U be pvl tm 
deftlh. Ne«86Mier had tbef wmaeti iheir fictfrn^ ibaJi e«C« 
ting his bod^ iv^pieMs^ ihtw fixad ibk beai, feet, aad baadt 
on tbe hem ftaifces af Ibe baMaslrade. 

We aaoenaed hj this meaMraUe statrtaae ta the imperial 
treiaaiy. IteeataiaB imrf lUtle wartfc netiee. The aid 
geneml wha baa 4be eareaf it » obliged 4o attaad ta per* 
son,- whea penaksioa far seeinf^ it bM beea abtaiaad* Ha 
wasireiyill dariaip oav visits aady beio|f plaeed iaaa arai* 
ehair -m oae of ll& reaatt^ sat graaMiB^ the whale ti«M 
vitbpain aad iatpatiMee. The variaas arllelas have beea 
enaaierated to Uie aaaagnsiaaa Iraaala ef < two Fffeaebaiea»* 
who eampiaiQ of beilig. bandedy as we ware. Habsla 
^ eeteaioirf ware hj the saTareigas of Rama at their 
eoraaatioa, aad' other. . 
studded with gaois i 
aets^ aad appeared 

the treasary< AnMag a amaber af saeh dteawe was a. 
vest, ^welv« yards ia fengtb, - warn bv Catherine the seeaad* 
It waa sapponted kf tw«^ ehaiaberkias aft bpr eoroaatioa « 
The ea^aas .of Mnassin^ aad eihibkiag sfdeadid aMim 
ebaraetetiaed the Rassim iatimeaaf ttiekreailiestpatea- 
tatesb la the ai^Maats whieb aaribaeeedeaiafirem oar awa 
eoanlry atfwdedj» ao Imtg ago as d^ reifm of Philip ead 
Mai^, we liod^it; was die easloai at' Mees9W ta oMba 
tradesmen, and other iahabitaatii, elders af the eity, ia 
nebgarm^atSf aad laplaee.tli»a» ia theaatiehaayi^r af (he 
saveieiyi tiadays; of aed s tac a y bat wJmr the aesettieay) 
eaded, these easily vestmeats ware agaia. replaced in tw. 
treasai^. Ia altltar wvittsn^by liei»y Iiaeeiafiaaderseayt 
deeorib^ag^his lolradneliaA with CheaaeHer to the tsar^Si 

E»ee, ia the ycpriMA, Ibia ewaaaittanae is par^^lar^ 
latioiied. ^They eatred saadry rdeais, feraishad ia 
With aaaieat giairepernaeages» alUalaais gannsata 
of aaacb^y eelaaia i gpddey tissaa, b|UrtAia» aad mlali ^aa 
our vestments and eopes have bene in Eaglaad, satabla 
with caps, jewels, aaa chalaea.. These were found ta be 
no..eajDiriliari, -hat aaeiaat MeaMmtes^ i a >etile»^ s» aad 

* Torage (le Deux Fraii^ais, a work qf very considerable merk»prohiU<^ 
ted at the time we were in RaaiA. It ba» baea tte«MkNMiUr vsfiafiNit tua ia» 



§9 CLARKb'S TKIlVELS in RUBStA. 

ath^ their merchants of ereUte^ as the manner is, fumfsfiedr 
tbtts from the wardrobe and treasririe, waiting and wearing' 
this apparell for the titne, and so to restore it?' Two years 
lifter, captain Jenkin^on "was sent from Btigland to eondnct 
the Rossianamhassatfonrto Moscow. * As he and his eom- 
panions were i»reparlng to leave that efty, they received an 
invitation fo see the emperonr's treasury and wardrobe.' 
Having seen all his ** goodly gownes,*' two of whilsh are 
dtesertbed f^ as heavte ad a man eodld endly earrie, all set with- 
pearles over and over, and the borders garnished with sa- 
jMres and other good stones abnndantly," they^ were par- 
ti^nlarly enjoined tor procure snch, or better, in England,*' 
aAidtotd ^ that the emperoitr would gladly bestow his moneys 
upon snch thin^.^' 

• The crowns of eonqaered kingdoms are exhibited in the* 
trtosnry. W« saw those of Casan j of Siberia, of Astraean, 
and of the Crimea. The last, from its simpKcitv, and th&* 
efroumftanees connected wifh its history, exicited the most* 
iiitei«st» it waf totally destitate of ornament, aflfording a 
remarkable contrast to' the lavish store of riches seen on' 
all the obJe«(8 around it, and emblematical of the simplicity 
and vfrtne of the people f#om whom it had been plnnaered.f 
Ita form waft very uncient, atfd resenkhled that n^a^ly g^f^en^ 
by painters, to oar English Alfred: The part of the treasu- 
ry coiitalntog the most valaable objects is* that In wlileh the^' 
cfwwns of the Russiati soverel^s are*depdsited. It is said, 
that the rubies which adorned those of the empress Anne,' 
and of Petc¥ the 8ec<M«d,1iav« been changed, and-stones of" 
less vafae «itbstttttted'in theh* place4 ' 

Some thittgft were shown to us,' whieh Were bnee consi- 
deiNHl^of gnsikt valoe, bat aveitow curious ' only* from their" 
avfiauitr; saefh^foriastanee, as'a long ivory comb, with- 
wiiicli the trar^ciwlbed their flowing' beards^ CupinMrds, 
beto^ tlie gjiass^ases \vhi^h cover the ^alls, were filled 
withiaproAttion ofgMe^*, va»eff, platcft, caps of alFsorts, 
ba»inS)Mldatid«tlv«er'ciatt4lestick«, and ot&er artides of 
TUlite, the gift of ft^veigtr pHoeeafMid tribtotary* states. A* 
Mkiiid h«K of j^Med HiiHer ^mktt&nn^ upea H stcroM, the eode' 

• Hackluyjfe, vdi. i. p. 8ig. 

t Th9 wriiertof thie Voyage do Deux Fran^aito nentioD ft tery iKiieient 
erpjiTD of gpld, which may be that here noticed. ** Uoe autre couranse- 
d*or, plaa thnple que ttnttB les autrea, qui-panfiit fort aacieittc, fasi» doat 
an n'a pa« pu novw dire l*origioe." 

i Voyage de Deux Fran^us^ tonu HI, jfi, SQh. 



Aie^is, faj.lier cif Peter th^ mtw^ one.^f w Imi and wiimI 
prineeg that ev^r sat upoa Uu& B«68i«ur tbrone. Tbere. ai:^ 
also, some pie^s of moehamsm thai would now he little es- 
teemed asiy wherc^ I a toilettei tha fomitore <tf whieb is.ea* 
(irelj Qif amber I serpeotiae yesseis,, whieb are aupposed ta 
possess the property of disarmiiig pomn of its baneful 
efieets ; masquerade dresses worn by their sovereigns } & feir 
jsatural curiosities ; and, among these^ the boraof aJkiod ot 
wliale eaUed JSTarvhi^lf above etsht feet in Jlengtb. This 
whale is found Aear the mouths of thii rivers ivhieh fall iota 
the ley Sea, #r oa the shores of lakes in the sfmae Iatit«d«« 
The boras and tu^kstof aoimajs, in a fossil state, form ja 
eansiderable artiele of the interiour coiameroe of Russia* 
Perhapks the. ivory manufactured at Archangel may hava 
been dag up in the north of Russia. Professor Pallas in^ 
formed me^ su«h prodigious quantities of ekphants' teeth 
were diseovei^ed on an islaiid whieh lies to the north of tba 
SAmoiade Land^ thai .earavajis some annuaUy laden with 
them tp Petarsbm^h. The most remarkable eiranmstanoa 
is, that instead of being, uMnmmjyuBed, like elaphants' tasks 
fonnd in tb^ sooth of Surope, they may be wrought with aU 
the facility of the most pi^rfeet ivory ; but this omy happ^i9 
wkea thoy are found in a la^pde where the soil is per* 
petqally frozen, Thev have then been preserve^) like tba 
iahes. and other artiieles of food brought annually to tba 
wintec markets of Petersburgh. Those dug in the southern 
parts of Siberia aca found eiUier soft and decayed, armiaar* 
alized by silicioas infiltratians, and metaline eompaunda* 
What a souree of womlrous cefleetiaii do. these diseavof* 
iealaj open i If froiit atone baa. press^vad them, they wera 
fraa^n in the nmment <^ their deposit ; and thas it appaarsg 
that an aninsai peculiar to the warmest regions of the es^thi 
mart, ai SAffie.distaut periodt bava.baaa habituated to a 
temperature which it could not now endure for an i«stant« 
In tae epistolary mammery which the late empress Cathe* 
rine bartered with Voltaire, these animal remains are 
broQgbt forward to gratify his infidelity |* and it is dilfieuU 

* '* Mait une ebose qui d^montre, je pensc, aue le raonde eft wi pea 
pJQs Tieox que nos noorrie^s ne nous le oisent* frest qu'on trouve iIaqs le 
99rd de Ift m^vfau k piusieon toises teat terre, 4es oMemenf ^4iHjk»n^ 
<piiii«|ait |brt loM^-cemps n^liaViteBt p1n> ces eoiKr^et.** LeH* di Irlmp^ 
fottHced M, dp nktdre^ dam U$ 0evrvt^9 de VoU, torn. IsXTSL f. SOI. 



M iLA&Kfi's TRAVSl* IN RVSSIjH* 

to say ivktek appears most tAjekt in the eyes -of pes4«iky t 
Catherifie eoodeseendtni^ ta«patify the seeptieism of-ainaii 
she inwardly- despised ; or Uie areh^infidel hkoseHV in hb 
eraad climaeteriek, sometimes by iosinuatton^ aodofren by 
direet entreaty,* meanly eoartin^ an invilation to Petors- 
burs, whieh neither his drivelling^ gallaBtry^ nor fukonie 
adulatton^ eonld obtain. 

In a very ancient part of the palace, formerly inhabited 
by the patriarchs, and adjointu^ to their eliafnel, are kepi 
tlie dresses worn by them ; which are also exhibited in glass 
eases. They requested us particularly to aotiee the habits 
of Nieon and St. Nieholas ; the tiaras' sent to (he patriarehs 
from the emperoors of Constaastino^e ; the erneifixes 
born in their solemn processions; the patriarehal staves^ 
and relieks. Several of the last were inserted in canities 
rot within a wooden erueifix. Among other things whieh 
added to its prodigious sanctity and miratoloas powers, was 

} pointed out to us a part of one of the bones of Mary Mag^- 
ene. The dresses were very ancient, but fall as mas^ifi«oiit 
as those we had seen at the eeremony-of the resurreetiov ; 
gold and silver being the meanest ornaments lavished u^tm 
them. Many were entirely eovered with pearls, and other*- 
wise adorned with emeralds, rubies, diamonds, 'sapphires, 
and precious gems of Siberia, In smaller «a)Mnets we«aw 
onyx-stones wrought in eameo work, exhibiting imaj^eo of 
Jesus and of the yirgin,whieh were not less than three incites 
and a half in length, and two in breadth. They showed as^ 
moreover, vessels of massive silver, made to contain conse* 
erated oil, which is sent all over Russia from Moseow, for 
the service of the Greek ehu rehes. Sixteen of these vessels, 
of very considerable magnitude, each capable of containing 
from tbeee lo fonr gallons^ were presented by the empen»ur 
Paul. 
In the chapel adjoining the chambers in whieh ihem 

* *' J'aurai k la verity soixante et dix-sept aqsj et je n'ai pas la vigaeiir 
d'aii Turc ; maisje ne vbispas ce qui ponrrait ra'emp(ichcr dc veiiir dans 
le« beaux jours sawurT^toi'e du Nord et maudire le croissant. K6tre Ma- 
dame Geoffrin a hien fait le voyage de Varaovie 9 nooi^uoi D'eatrenreijdMfe^ 
je pas celui de Petersbourg au mois d'Avril." Xe«. de Volt, d rImpeiMt. 
Ibid. p. 49. 

To whieh the empress replied, that she admired hU courage f but 
koowiag the.delionte state of bis health, she eotddna* consent to eaepoge 
}dm to the dangers of so long a jouriiey" •* Moreover,** she added, " it 
n»ay happeo» it' things continue as thej aire, that the prosperity of mg af- 
fairs may demand my presence %7i the southern provinces of nm empire^ 
Ibid. p. 50, . ^ ^ r^ 



trewBilreS'are'klfpty is'a^iDneoti^ii'Af nmfiiisftripts in 6^*eek 
an^ SciavoBi^k^ andfiiere <»f the bones of Mary Magdalene. 
By maeh the greater mamibep of the nmanseriptd are in the 
^lavoei^k -laiifl^i^ev The priest who hail the eare of fheni 
eonversed with ale in Latin, and affirmed, that amon^ the 
SelftToniek^ or, as he termed them, the Untheniek manii-* 
seriptS) there was a copy of the works of Yir^l, and one of 
LtFy« Ho was not^ however, able t« find either of them, 
ftsd I imputed the whole story la his i^eranee and vanity. 
I afterwards eon versed with areli^iflhop Ptato npon the 
same ^abjeeC; who assared me aothtng of any importanee 
existed among the manuseripts. The priest translated, or 
pretended (d transiaitei, some of their titles, from the 8ela- 
voniek language, into Latin. If the aeeonnt he gave nie 
tan be relied «n^ the coileetion eontains the Travels (if PiN 
grime to Jerosaiein in very remote' periods. 

In Rttiteiait ehavaeters, iUuminated, on aneient vellntfi 
papery is a eopy of the goapehi, in folio, most beaatifully 
wnUen^by Anne, the daughter of Miehaei Feodorovieh. 
We were alno^shown, as at PetendHtrgh, some eafving in 
wopd by Peler the great. It was a small box, and contained 
a letter, dated l#l)7, sent by him, front Sardam in Holland, 
loathe patriarohs at Maseow. The priest permitted me to 
make nfac HmUe ofhii hand wHting | for whieh purpose 
I oopied, wi^ IT^nt ^are^ the signature to his ktter. It 
wa»silBply his Christian name; and written in this manner: 



Jtci 



cts^ 



Hairing obtained the keys fro«i the seeretary's office, w^ 
were admittied to gee the famous model of the Kremlin^ 
aecordiagf to the plan for its ereetion under the auspieies of 
the late empress. It is one of the most eurious thiric^s in 
Moscow. If the work had been eompleted, it would have 
been the woo^.yr of the world. The arehheet who eon- 
strueted the plan was a Russian ; and had studied in Paris. "^ 
The model cost fifty thonsand roubles. The expense neces- 
sary for the aeeomplisbment of the undertaking, as the 
arehiteet Camporesi^ who made the estimate, assured me, 

. * According to the Voyage de Deux Fran9!iis, the model vfts oooatructed 
% a German joiner of the name^of Andrew Wetraan, after a dedgnbj the 
ireluteet Baj«iiof, ^n^l of Vfttl'y; Bee twn, iS. p. 997. 



84 ALARKe's TAAVBL8 IN RUSSIA. 

wovM tiftVe been fifty mtltioiis of roubles. TIm eaknkrti^tt 
laid before the empress stated tbe anMHMit only at tiveiity 
millions. The work was bemn ^ but, it is saidy the fatiiag 
in of a part of the foundation determined tbe^emjpress amiitst 
its proseeotion. From the state of the roof of tiie bn&ia^, 
in which this model is kept, it may be eneeted that every 
trace of so ma^ificent an HndertaJLin^ will soon be aniiihi'^ 
lated. Symptoms of decay already appear ; and the archie 
teet told OS it might soon be expeeted to f^L When he 
deHrered his report of the dangerous condition of the edifice, 
the Russians shrngjs;ed their shonMi^fs, aad said : ^ W\M 
in I And what if it does ?^ 

The plan was^ to unite the whole Kremlin, havings a elr^ 
enmferenee of two miles, into one magnificent palace. It« 
triangular form, and the number of eh^rehes it contains^ 
offered some diffieulttes ; but the model was rendered com- 
plete. Its fronts are ornamented with ranges of beautiful 
pillars, according to^differentonlerB of arohiteeture. Brery 
part of it was finished in the most beantifat maimer, eveii 
to the fVeseo painting on the ceilings of the ivoms, luid the 
colouring of the rarioM maHile coTumiM intended to iUmnh 
rate the interioor. It encloses a theatre, and magnificent 
apartments. Hail the work been contpieted, no edifice eonU 
erer have been compared with it. It wouM have Mrpasseit 
the temple of Solomon, the propykenm of Amaois, theTHIa 
of Adrian, or the fbrum of Trajan. Cam^oresi is^Nike of it 
in terms of equal praise ; but at the same time he confessed 
to me, that Guarenghi, his countryman, at Petersburgh, an 
architect well known for his works in that city, entertained 
different sentiments. Guarenghi allcrwed it to be grand^ as 
it must necessarily be, from its stopenduons nature ; but 
thought it too much ornamented) and too heavy in many of 
its parts. 

The architecture exhibited in dilferent parti of ^^le 
Kremlin, in its palaces and churches, is like nothing seen 
In Europe. It is difficult to say from what ceaatry Ulias 
been principally derired. The architects were geveratly 
Italians ; but the style is Tartarian, Indian, Chinese, and 
Gothic. Here a pagoda, there an arcade ! In some parts 
richness, and even elegance ; in others, barbarity and deeajr. 
Taken altogetlief, it is a Jumble of magnifieeiice amd mrn. 
Old buildings repaired, and modem structures not eomple- 
ted. Half open vaults^ and mouldering wmlls, and empty 
eares^ amidst whitawashed brick buildings, and towers aM 



'■ f-M^he9^ wTfli j^Ktterin^, ^ilded^ av painted domei^. In 

'fbe midst 'of it,. some deydtee& are seen enterine^a little^ 

iftieaw strn alii re, more like a. staMe than a church. This, 

'4liey tell yftja, is ilie first of Christian worship erected in 

Moi^eo w. it wa« ori^iftalic. constructed of the trunks of 

"trees, fellfed*npott the sp^,' at the foundation ©fthecUy; 

but YH>witi9 of bricks huiit in imitation of the origiua], 

'i^ooden^chnrch. . Its elaiai to antiquity cannot i)e great, as, 

''ttceo^dih<^ tb accounts publi^hedin our own country,* the 

' whule -iStf of. Moscow: was. burned by the Tartars of the 

uOimea^ «» tfo^-^th of May, td?!^ at which time tl^ old, 

wooden church was probably destroyed. .\\fe entered during 

•tiserirfeerileiibrniedja this building, .A priest, with true 

'BtenlDnanrUiD^f WAS reading 4 j^elec^i^n fr«oi the gospels 

•4o<to»pei>ple; There is nothing within^tliei structure worth 

^'.1*Tlietrlfew-of Moscow^ ffom.lt^e t/ecrace in, ^he. Kremlin, 
^nealt tlcelspKtn4lel»':t^)^ artillery is pre$erAe(i» would affptd 
H^jfinff ^ml^eit iEoD a^aDr)vania« The number vof magnificent 
siliikliiigs^'t^e ilOnft^, the; towers,. aud spires, ivliich fill ^1 
« thf0»pr6^^etyi»akeit^i per hapSj,. the most aqvd an4 inter- 
i nrtnisp^^g iaifjuro^ AH the .wretched h9yel39.aud mi£»- 
^-erahir wooden buildings,, which appear in passing through 
i Ifacr^noete^jiil e^iasi in the , vapt assembla^ of magnificent 
«0dHi«^ fciwnattg whkh the foundling hospital is particularly 
''(iSanspteaous^ Jielow t)ie waUs of (h^ Kremlin, the Moscva^ 
<*already bNeeome a rivec of. importance, . is seen flowing 
••towards the Vplgai^. The new promenade forming on its 
I baak^yimmediu/tify beneath the fortress, is a superb work, 
-aod'pramises tQ rival. tbe famous quay at Petersburgh. It 
^ ifij>aved with large flagSf. and is coiUmued from the stone 
; bridge, .to a^otht^r, *4>^uliarly called the Moscva bridge 
fenced with a light but strong iron palisade, and stone pii- 
• lai^, ejueouted in r^ry.good taste* .A.fligbt of stairs leads 
.'from this walk io the.river, where the ceremony of the 
. benedietioQ of the water takes place at an earlier season of 
•'the year. .Anpther flight of wooden steps leads through 
the walls of the Kremiin to an area within the fortress. 

One day,: ascending by this staircase, we found all tfie 
'ehnrel^s in the Kremlin open, and a prodigious concourse 
^of-peopl&vfts^mbled at the celebration of the great festival 
•of the ns^ension. It is difficult to dq^cribe the scenes thes 

'* .Letter of Richard Uscombe lb Henry tahe. Hackluyt; t^. i. p. 403 



S6 CLARRE^S TRAVELS IN RUSSIA. 

exhibited williin these buildings. I Mas carried in hy the 
crowd, which rushed forward like a torrent; and^ being IiH;- 
ed by it from the ground, beheld, as I entered, a throng of 
devotees, in which there was danger of being pressed to 
death ; all of whom were in motion, crossing themselves, 
bowing their heads, and stru^ling who should first kiss 
the consecrated pictures. The bodies of their saints were 
exposed : and we were shown, by the attending priests, some 
of the wood of" the true cross^ Women, with tears stream- 
ing from their eyes, were seen lifting their infants, and 
teaching them to embrace the feet and hands of the images. 
Observing a crowd, particularly eager to kiss the scull of an 
incorruptible saint, I asked a priest, in Latin, whose body 
the septalchre contained. " Whence are you," said he^ 
^^ that you know not the tomb of St. Demetrius P" 



CHAPTER VllL 

MOSCOW. 

Order of the Maltese Cross — Jnnerals of Count Golovkin--^ 
Antiquities— Pictures — Sliells — Gallery of Galitxin—TA' 

. hrary of Botterline — Botanick Garden — Philosophical 
Apparatus — Other Collections — Stupendous Objects of 

. tPhitural History — Enjs^lish Horse Dealers — Publick 
Baths ; their Mode of Use^ and JSTational Importance — 

^ Foundling Hospital. 

SINCE the emperour Paul was ^ade grand master of 
Malta, the order of the cross became one of the most 
fashionable in Russia. It was not possible to mix in company, 
without seeing many persons adorned with the badge of 
the knights. The prince of it, when purchased of the crown, 
was three hundred peasants.* In the changes to which or- 

* As we were informed Mr. Heber states it at twelve hundred rpubles, 

" Atpreseot, indeed, there is a new method of acquiring rank. Persona 

who have not served either in a civil or military capacity, may, for.twelve 

hundred toubles, purchase a cix)ss of Malta ; hut this is considered as u* 

very proud (distinction." ffeber*s MS. Jounidl •" 






MOSCOW. 87 

jers, as well as governments, have been exposed, that which 
has happened to this class of society is worthy of admira- 
tion. Formerly, the oath taken, upon admission to the fra^ 
ternity, enioined and professed poverty, chastity, and obedi- 
ence. What the nature of the oath now is, I did not learn, 
but the opposite qaaiifications in candidates for the holy 
cross were manifest ; riches, profligacy, and sedition. The 
last of these lurked inwardly in the heart; the two first were 
ostentatiously displayed. The extra vacaace of the Russian 
nobility has no example. They talk of twenty and thirty 
thousand roubles, as other nations do of their meanest coin; 
but those sums are rarely paid in cash. The disbursement 
is made in furniture, horses, carriages, watches, snuffboxes, 
rings, and wearing apparel. 

Visiting the mineralogical cifLbinet of count Golovkin with 
a dealer in minerals, he informed me that the arts and sci- 
ences obtained true patronage only in Moscow. << In Eng- 
land," said he, <' it does not answer to offer fine specimens 
of natural history for sale f we get more money, even for 
the minerals of Siberia, in Moscow than in iJondon." I 
fonnd a very practical illustration of his remark in the con- 
tents of one small drawer, which was opened for me, con- 
sisting of only forty three specimens, and which had cost the 
count two thousand pounds sterling. The substances were 
certainly rare, but by no means adequate to such an enor- 
mous price. Some of them had been purchased in London, 
at the sale of Monsieur Colonne^s cabinet. A fine mineral, 
as well as a fine picture, will often make the tour of Eu- 
rope ; and may be seen in London, Paris, and Petersburgh, 
in the course of the same year. 

Among the rarest of count Golovkin^s minerals, were, a 
specimen of the black silver ore, crystallized in cubes, for 
which alone he paid fifteen hundred roubles ; auriferous na- 
tive silver ; the largest specimen which I believe to exist 
of the red Siberian tourmaline;* galena, almost malleable, 
a substance described by Le Sage ; beautiful specimen of 
native gold from Peru; muriat of silver; crystals of tin 
oxide, as lar^e as walnuts ; a singular crystallization of 
carbonated lime, having assumed the shape of a heart, and 
therefore called heart spars enormous octahedral crystals, 

• Perhaps it is the same now exhibited in the gardens of natural history 
at Paris. Since this was written, I have seen a specimen much larger, in 
Mr. Gre vine's splenid collection. It was a present from the king of Avano 
10 eaptain Symes, and is as big as a man's head. 



6^ CLARKX^S TILAVSl.$. IN RUSSIA. 

exhibiting Itbe primitive form of flour ; the Siberian erne* 
raid, traversing prisms of rock crystal ; Peruvian emerald 
in its matrix 5 Chrysoprase 5 Pallas's native iron 5 beauti-' 
ful crystals of chromat and of phosphat of lead ; native anr 
timony ; a specimen of rock crystal, so filled by water, that, 
>vhen turned in the hand, drops were seen moving in all di- 
rections; the stone called Venus^s hairs^ or titanium in 
rock crystal; and that beautiful mineral the ruby silver, iii 
fine distinct prisms, lying upon calcareous spar. 

The colieetion of this nobleman contained other objects 
of curiosity besides cabinets of natural history. It was rich 
in valuable pictures; in many of the most interesting re-, 
licks of antiquity, particularly of Grecian vases; and it 
contained a library of books of the highest value. Count 
Qolovkin is one of the very few amon^Uu&sian connoisseursi 
who peally possesses taste. There is proof of this in ever}? 
selection he makes, whether it be of books, antiquities, pie- , 
tures, minerals, or works of modern art; for whatever he 
Lad selected, was, in its kind, weU chosen. The capriee 
may be lamented, which induces him to efaange^ so fre- 
auently what he has once collected, or even su&r it to b^ 
oestroyed, instead of allowiuff the acquisition to remain, a. 
monument of his genius, for the u«e and instruction of pos- 
terity. Otherwise, his museum might convince the world, 
that, ill a secluded city, remote from the usual inalks of ci-^ 
vilized society, there was at least one amon^ the nobility of 
Russia, who, to a love of literature, joined the talents 
necessary for its gratification, and the patronage which so 
much conduces to its advancement. 

Amone the pictures I noticed a very celebrated work of 
Van der Werf, which I had formerly purchased from Mon- 
sieur de Calonue's collection in London, for an English no- 
bleman. It was that highly -finished piece which repre- 
sents the daughters of Lot giving wine to their father^ 
Other travellers may, perhaps, at this time find the same; 
picture in Madrid. That unrivalled painting of Gerhard 
J3ouw, in whieh he has represented himself as an artist 
<lrawingby candle«light,was also in this collection: it cost 
the count two thousand four hundred roubles. The rest 
were the productions of Leonardo da Vinci, Saisn Ferrato^ 
Lanfranc, Teniers, Vandyke, and other eminent masters. 

In the cabinet of antiquities was an ancient lyre of 
bronze, complete in all its parts, and perhaps the only one 
ever found. It was modelled by Camporesi in wood. A 



▼ase ot lapis lazuli was sIio\^ti as having been fonnd in 
Hercalaneum, which is very doubtfal. It is common, in 
collections of this nature, to attribute the antiquities of 
other cities of Magna Greecia, and even moderii alabaster 
vases, to Herculanenm ; although every thing found in the 
excavations there carried on, is rigidly reserved for the mu- 
seom of his Sicilian majesty, Greek vases, from sepal- 
ehres in Ifalv, are very often called Herenlaneum; yet I 
believe no such work of antiquity has ever been fonnd there. 
With those vases, have sometimes, but very rarely, been 
discovered the glass vessels of the ancients. It is still more 
rare to find Grecian glass vases of any considerable size. 
In count Golovkin's collection Mere some of a spherical 
'fojrm, at least twelve inches in diameter; and one of them, 
standing near a window, filled with earth, in which had 
been planted a Dutch tulip, and liable to be broken every 
iast'ant.Xike dther possessors of antiquities, which are equaft 
ly interesting to the historian and the artist, he had aoan* 
dbned one acquisition in pursuit of another. Vases, on- 
which were represented subjects illustrating the earliest ' 
ages of Grecian history, were seen lying on the floor, like 
nerfected toys of children. No person exceeded the libe-i- 
ri^ty of eount Golovkin, in making any addition to his col- 
leetion: no one became sooner wearied by possession. 
Thev were thus rather objects of caprice than of science,, 
and liave probably, by this time, found their way to other 
ctties of Europe.* Enormous sums have been lavished to 
procure the black porcelain of Japan; but when we arriv- 
ed, tbuse vases were also filleif ^ith^earth and flowers^ Se- 
veral. fine busts from the celebrated cabinet of Caylus,. 
adortied the apartments : also a marble vase i^hich belong- 
etf'to the famous Mengs, and had been brought from Rome 
to Moscow, by the grand chamberlain Suvalof. I do not 
pretend to the smallest knowledge of concology : it might 
therefore, astonish me, more than some of my readers, ta 
see a single shell, calletl the Great Hammeri of no external 
beauty, but shaped like the instrument of that name, foB 
which the late Mr. Porster of London, received of the count 
one thousand roubles. 

«* He furnishes his closet first, and fills 
The crowded shelves with rarities of shells : 
Adds orient pearls which from theconchs he drewj 
And all the sparkling stones of various hue." 

. - , ^DjlTDEir. ' 

I 2 



9{> gLAKKX's TRAVELS IN RUSSIA. 

After a particular description of count Golovkin's col- 
lection, it will be unnecessary to mention a thousand others 
which exist in Moscow. I shall, therefore, pass hastily 
over the principal. The gallery of pictures of the grand 
chamberlain Galitzin is the most extensive. The palace 
itself is magnificent; and a* set of stately apartments, ter- 
minated by a vast gallery, is entirely filled with paintings. 
In so great a collection, there are doubtlessmany indifferent 
productions ; but there are some of unequalled merit, and^ 
among these, one of the finest works of Salvator Rosa. The 
subject is St, Sebastian; and it has been executed with all 
his sublimity and energy. The gallery consists chiefly of 
pictures by tne Flemish masters. 

The library, botanick garden, and museum of count Botr 
terline, is one of the finest sights in Europe. That noble- 
man not only collected the rarest copies of the classicks ; 
but of some authors, particularly Yirgil he had so many 
editions, that they formed of themselves a library. His 
'books are not kept in one particular apartment, but occupy a 
iftumber of different rooms. They are all bound beneath iiid 
-own roof and afford sufficient employment for several work- 
men, retained constantly in the house for that purpose. He 
'has almost all the editiones principes^ and his eolleetion of 
Hvurks printed during the fifteenth century amounts to near 
six thousand volumes. According to Orlandi* (whose List 
«f Authors, printed between the years 1457 and 1500, 1 once 
revised) their number amounts to one thousand three hun- 
, dred and three. It is, therefore, probable, that nearly all '. 
jof tlrein are contained in count Botterliue's collection. Tlie 
catalogue of that part of his library fills two folio volumes^ 
■He procured from Paris the celebrated work of Theodore 
de firy, a collection of vl)yages, with beautiful wood cuts} 
and has been at infinite pains to obtain from all countries a 
complete series of ecclesiastical annals, which already 
amounted to forty volumes in folio. This immense library 
is divided into six distinct classes* His pictures are not so 
Bumerous ; but they are well chosen. 

The botanick garden (botany being his favourite pursuit) 
contains a greenhouse, which certainly had. not its equal id 

• Origine e ProgresH della Scamfa, da Peregrin. Anttm. Orlandk 
BoDonas, 1722. I found his liand-writingt and the signatui^ of Lis name, 
in a curious edition of Suetonius, in the Mostf n Library, North Wales. 
See the account of it in Penn<mt*8 History of mUtefird and Jffolinoell, 



th« world. At one end of it was a ^kll library of botani- - 
ed works, ia whiefa h€ had the advantage of studying with 
the living specimens before him. But the most extraordi- 
nary circumstance was, that we found the plants of the 
frigid, zone, and of the warmest climates, nourishing in 
grater beauty than I had seen them possess in a state of 
nature. They were mfere perfect, because they were pre- 
served frontttll elf erimi injury, and were, at the same time, 
healthy. I acsked hiHi how such a variety of plants, requiring « 
such difficult eulture^ Situation, and temperature, could be 
thus nourished beneath the same roof. He informed me, 
that) in his opinion; the principal defect in gardeners, arises 
from their manageitient in watering; that, for his part, he 
performed almost all the work with his own hands; and 
acknowledged, that although botanists were much struck by 
the appearance of his plants, he was entirely indebted, for 
all the knowledge he had acquired, to our countryman, 
Miller, whose works were always near him. In his garden, 
the plants of Siberia flourished in the open air. Among 
others, I noticed the spiraea crenata, and the rosa austriaca^ 
or poestum rose^ in full bloom on the twenty iifth of May. 
Almost all the fruit trees in Moscow had perished during 
the former winter. The count smiled, when we spoke of 
theixicility with which he might obtain the Siberian plants. 
" I receive them all," said he, " from England, Nobody 
here will be at the trouble to collect either seed or plants; 
and I am compelled to send to your country for things that 
grow wild in my own.'^ 

In addition to the extraordinary collection already noti- 
ced, belonging to this nobleman, we were shown another set 
of apartments by him, which were filled with all sorts of 
philosophical apparatus. These alone appeared sufficient 
to have employed the time and fortune of a single individual. 
They consisted of electrical machiuery^ telescopes, the 
\% hole furniture of a chymical laboratory, models, pieces, 
of mechanism, the most curious and expensive balances^ 
and almost every instrument of the useful arts. 

** To tell their costly furniture i*ere loDg? - 
The summer's day would end before the song i 
To purchase but the tenth of all their store. 



Woald make the mighty Persian monarch poor. 
YetVhatlcan, IwUl." I 



Dbtden. 



The collection of minerab, shells, birds, animals, aud 
medals of ^ Paul Gregorovitz Demidof^ has been considered 



\.ji^^ 'v." Clarke's TRAVELS *i!r^tr«siA. 

v^ by travellers more worth seeing than jiny other iuMbscbw.* 
We did not obtain admission. Uis library contained five' 
thousand volumes,, chiefly on subjects of natural history. 
The minerals of prince iJnisof, and of prince Paul Galit- * 
zin, were of the highest beauty and magnificence. The " 
former of these princes gave five thousand roubles for a 
single specimen. But of all the surprising articles in nalu- 
ral history 1 saw in.Moscow, the most worthy of admiration 
were two specimens, the one of maiaj^hite, and the Other of 
Siberian emerald, in the audience chamber of prince Alex- 
'■^ ander Galitzin. They were placed alone, independent of 
!aiy cabinet, on two pedestals, opposite a canopy, beneath 
which the prince and princess sat on days of ceremony. 
His highness condescended to show them to me. They were 
far beyond all estimation; because the value of such thingah 
must depend entirely on the power and wealth wTiieh might 
enable a prince or a sovereign to obtain them. The first, 
or the mass of green, carbonated copper, commonly called 
malachite^ was not only the largest appearance of that sub- 
stance ever discovered, but also the most beautiful. It was ' 
found in the Siberian mines ; and was matchless, in every 
circumstance of form and colour, which might interest ar "^ 
naturalist, or fulfil the wishes of the lapidary. Its delicate 
surface, of the most beautiful, silky lustre, exhibited fha0 " 
mammillary undulation, and those conical nodes, which de-e^* 
cide the stalactite origin of the mineral. Its interiour, 
though exquisitely zoned, was entire and compact ; and for 
the mere purpose of cutting into plates, in the hands of* 
jewellers, would have been inestimable. The weight of thi? 
enormous mass must have been at least a ton. For this 
specimen, while 1 remained in the city, a dealer offered his 
highness, six thousand roubles, which were refused. The 
companion of this extraordinary product of the mineral 
kingdom, and of equal size, was not less wonderful. It 
was a mass of numberless Siberian emeralds, lying in their ' 
matrix, which they traversed in all directions, exhibiting 
the most beautiful crystallization that can be conceivedj 
and every possible diversity of size, shape, and colour. 

Prince Viazemskoi's collection of all the current coin of " 
the world, when he can be prevailed upon to show it, which 
was not often the case, is too remarkable to be passed over 
without notice. Prince Alexander Scherbatof lias also, a 
magnificeut cabinet of natural history. 

* Voyage de Deux Frapjtus, torn. Ui. p. 327. 



MOSCOW. 93 

The number - of English horse dealerg, and English 
grooms, in Moscow, is very great. Thev are in high favour 
among the nobles. The governonr of Ae city was consid- 
ered particularly skilful in choosing horses. It was usual 
to hear the nobles recounting the predigree of their favour- 
ites, as if on an English race-course. " This, " say they, 
" was the son of Eclipse 5 dam by such a one ; grandam by 
another^ " and so on, through a list of names which their 
grooms have taught them, but which have no more real te- 
lerence to their cattle than to the moon. English saddles 
and bridles also sell at very advanced prices. 

Passing the streets of the citj, a number of naked men 
and women ar^ often seen lounging about before the publick 
baths, and talking together, without the smallest sense of 
shame, er of the indecency of the exhibition. In most parts 
of Russia, as in Lapland, except it be in capital towns, the 
males and females bathe together. It is well known, that a ' 
clergyman's daughter, with unsuspecting simplicity, did the "^ 
honours of the bath for Acerbi, at Kiemi, in the north of the ' 
giilph of Bothnia.* As soon as the inhabitants of these nor*- 
thern nations have endured the high temperature of their ' 
yupour baths.. which is 22 great, that E;;glishmen wonld not 
conceive it possible to exist an instant in them, tTiey stand 
naked, covered by profuse perspiration, coolins themselves 
in the open air. In summer they plunge into cold water, and 
in winter they roll about in snow, without sustaining injury, 
or ever catching cold. When the Russians leave a bath ^ 
of thb kind, tliey, moreover, drink copious draughts of* 
mead, as cold as it can be procured. These practices, 
vhieh would kill men of other nations, seemed to delight 
them, and to add strength to their constitution. 

Being troubled with rheumatick pain, brought on by a 
sudden change of weather which took place m Moscow, 
the thermometer falling, in one day, from 84*^ of Fahrenheit, 
nearly to the freezing point, I was persuaded to try a Rus- 
sian hath. Nothing can be more hlthy or disgusting than 
one of these places. They are ifsually hlled with vermin. I 
had been recommended to use what they termed the Geor- 
gian bath, situated in the Sloboda, or suburbs, a.hd which *^ 
they describe as the best in Moscow. It required morej 
courage to enter this place than many of my countrymen ' 
^ oulci have exerted on so trivial an occasion. It was a small, 
Woden hut^ at one end of which there was a place, black 

' . * See Acerbi's Trayeli. 



$1* «LARKE^S TRAVELS IN RUSSIA. 

and fearful as the entrance to Tartarus. T^o figures, I'i'ith 
iong beards, and quite naked, eondueted me inj and show- 
ing me a plank covered by a single sltaet^ with a pillow, 
they told me to deposit my clothes there and to repose, if I 
'^ thought proper. On the sheet, however, a number of cock- 
roaches and crickets had usurped the only spot on which I 
might venture to sit down. As soon as I had taken off my 
clothes, they led me through a gloomy passage, into the 
place called the bath ; the ceremonies of which I shall be 
very particular in describing. 

On the left band were cisterns of water; and upon the 
edges of those cisterns appeared a row of polished brass 
vessels. On the right was a stove ; and, in the middle of 
the room, a step to a platform elevated above the floor. The 
hot, vapour being collected near the roof, the more a person 
ascends, the greater is the degree of heat to which he is 
exposed. A choice of temperature is, therefore, offered. 
On each side of the platform was a stove, in shape exactly 
resembling the tombTStones in our church yards. Their 
upper suiface was covered by reeds; and over (he bed of 
reeds was placed a sheet. I was directed to mount upon one 
of these stQT^Sf and 4o place myself at full length on the 
sheet ; having done which I found myself nearly elevated to 
the roof of the bath, and the heat of ascending vapour threv 
me immediately into a most profuse perspiration. The sen- 
sation was precisely the same which I experienced in the 
subterraneous cavern, called the Baths of Nero, on the coast 
of Baia, near Naples. I neglected to take my thermometer 
•with me on this occasion; but theordinary temperature of the 
Kussian bath is well known. Aecordine to Storch,* it varies 
from 104^ to ±22° of Fahrenheit; and sometimes, upon the 
upper stages near the roof, it is twenty degrees above fever 
heat-t Thus situated^ a man began to rub me all over with a 
woollen cloth, made into a bag, covering one of his hands, till 
the exteriour surface of the skin peeled off. As soon as he 
had finished the operation with the wooilen cloth, he bade me 
descend, and poured seversA vessels of warm water on my 
head, whence it fell all over my body. He then placed, me 
on the floor, and washed my hair with his hands, scratching 

* Tableau de VEmpire de JRussie, torn. I. p. 380. The degrees of 
temperature are estimated hj Storch acconting to the scale of E<^aumur. 

, f Equal to 132^ of Fahrenheit. 



my Bead in all parts witfi' Rs naili^; a grearrtixiir)^ to the 
iiiia»aM9 and for reasons^'it is ifot necessary id explain. -- 
After thi8,-^he again made me aseend the stiofe, whi^re once' 
more 'Strj&tehingp meatrlength, he prepared a copions lather 
of S0a)h witli.wlikh, and a \vooillen eloth, he ag^am rubbed 
my body ^Aivlicn I descended a se^<Md time, and was again 
goDged with vessels of water. I was next desired fo extend 
m^fsself on. 4he stove for the third time, and informed that 
tbecfreatest degree of heat would be given. To prepare 
for tbis, they eautioned me to lie on my face and keep my head 
down* : BIrcJi boughs were tfa«n brons^ht with their leaves 
00^ asd dipped in soap and hot water, wit h which they began 
to sei^ub Bie afresh ; atthe same time, some hot water beine; 
cast upon red-hot eannon balls, and upon'lhe principal 
stove^«veh a vapour passed all over me, that U came like ' ^ 
sif earrent of fire apon my skin. If I ventured to raise my ■'^'' 
head ^n instant, it seemed as though I was breathing 
flaaies. It was impossible to endure this process for any 
length of tim&i therefore^ finding myself unable to cry out, 
I forced my way down from tho stove, and was conducted 
to the lower ^part of the^TOomv where I seated myself on the 
B0or,.and,jllie doors beins^^pened, soon recovered sufficient-V 
ly to walk-out of the bath. 

. Eminent physieians have'endeavoared to draw the aften- 
tioBtof the English government tothe importance of pub- 
lic baths, and of countenancing their use' by every aid of 
example and eneonragement^ While we wonder at thefr^. . • 
prevaieneeamosgidl^the eastern and northern nations, ma/ • 
we not lament tlmt they are so little used in our own' cotiu-* 
try? . We migiit^ perhaps, find reason to allow, that erysi-^ 
pelas, sttrfeit9i*heumatism, eolds, and a hundred other evils, 
particularly all sorts of eutaneoira and nervous disorders, 
might be aUeiriated^ if not prevented j' by a proper attention 
to bathing. The inhabitants of^eonntriesin which the bath, 
is constantly used, a^nxiously seek it, in full confidence of 
getting rid of all such complaints ; and they are rarely dis- 
appointed* I may add my testimony to the! r's, having, not 
on^ upon i the oeeieision which ^ave rise to these remarks y"" •• 
bat in eases of obistruet^d perspiration much more alarming,^ 
during my travels, experienced their good effect. I hardly 
know any act of benevolence moreessential to the comfort? 
of the community, than that of establishing, by publick be- 
nefaction, the use of baths for the poor, in allour cities and 
i)anufaetttring^wns. Thc)^ lives of idany might be saved 



by fheiiiy In England tliQy are considered only as* articles 
-^of luxury;' yet thronghout the vast empire of Russia, 
T through all rinland, Lapland, Sweden, and Norway/there 
'is no cottigepo poor, no hut so destitute, hut it prtssensei 
its. vapour bath ; in which all its inhabitants, every Satur- 
'ilay at iea^t, and every day in eases of sickness^ expericfnce 
comfort and salubrity. Lady Mary Wortley Montague; in 
spite of ali the prejudices which prevailed in England 
* a^inst inoculation, introduced it from Turkey. If another 
/person of equal influence would endeavour to establish 
throughout Great Britain the use of warm and vapour baths, 
the iuijoTivenienees of our climate would be done away. 
Perhaps at some future period they may beeorfie general ; 
> and statues may perpetuate the memory of the patriot, the 
/statesman, or the sovereign, to whom society will be ihdebt- 
^- ed for their institution. When we are told*, that the illus- 
trious Bacon lamented in vain the disuse of baths among 
*• the Europeans, we have little reason to indulge in expectao 
tion. At the same time, an additional testimony to their 
.salutary effects affording longevity and vigorous health to 
a people otherwise liable to mortal diseases from a rigorous 
\ climate and an unwholesome diet, may contribute to their 
v«stabiishment. Among/ the ancients, baths were pobliek 
edifices, under the immediate inspection of the government. 
They were considered as institutions which owed their ori- 
gin to absolute necessity, as well as to decency and cleanli- 
4iess.Under her emperours, Rome had near a thousand such 
buildings^ which, besides their utility,* were regarded as 
'master-pieces of architectural skill and sumptuous decora- 
'(jon. In Russia, they have only vapour batns ; and these 
are, for the most part, in wretched wooden hoVels. If wood 
is wanting, they are formed of mud, or scooped in the banks 
of rivers and lakes : but in the palaces of the nobles, how- 
,ever they may vary ih convenience or splendour of mate- 
* ridls, the plan of construction is always the same. 

This universal custom pf the bath may be mentioned as 
an example of the resemblance between Moscovites and 
\ more oriental people. But there are many others ; siiehy for 
instance, as the ceremony of howling and tearing the hair 
at the death of relatives ; the practice among the nobles of 
employing slaves to rub the soles of their feet, in order to 
induce sleep ; and the custom of maintaining buffoons, 
whose occupation it is to relate strange and extravagant 
tales for a similar purpose. ' « ;. I 



MOSCOW. 97 

As a eonelofiion to this ehapter, a few words may be add- 
ed eoneernine the state of the Foandling Flospital ; as the 
iflstitatioa ei that name in Petersburgh exeites the interest 
and attention of all forei^perB; although it is but a branch 
of the more magnificent establishment of the same nature in 
the east angle of the EfiUai Qorod^ at Moscow. Both one 
aud the other have been sufficiently described by preceding 
autheiv.'*' Of the latter I skail, therefore, only add, that, in 
ihe spaee of twenty years, prior to the year 178 8, they had 
re«eived no less than thirty seren thousand six hilndred 
and seven inlknts* Of this number, one thousand and 
t^Dty had left the.asylum^ and there remained six thou- 
sand and eighty at that time*!- In ITQ^, the number of 
ehildren in the house amounted to two thousand ; and about 
three thousand belonging to the establishment wereatnurse 
ia the country. Every peajsant intrusted with the care of 
an infant, had a monthly allowance of a rouble and a half. 
^Y^tj monthi9 #ueh of the ehildren as have been vaccinated 
are sent into the country where they remain until the age 
of five y^ars. Before the introduction of vaccination, the 
mortality was mueh greater among them than it is at pre- 
sent, althoogh they inoculated for the small pox 4 

* Bioce the foundation of these two establishments, simitar institutiom 
have taken, plaee in other towns of BuMia ; tueh as TiUa, Kdluga, Jaroslaf, 
Casan, &c. 

■fStorch's Tableau de Mu98ie,.tom, I. p. 331. Upon the great mortality 
vltieh this statement aUows, the author makes th^ following judicious re- 
marks : '* Si cette DOte,adopti§e d'apr^s an ^crivaia tr^sveridique sur d'autres 
points^est exacte, la perte qae eet ^tablissement a essuy^e par hi moitalit^ 
desen^os, eat sans^loute tr^seonskl^rabte : maiselle le paraltraitheaucotfp 
melhs, si ('on examinait le nombre de oeux qui soot morts au moment d'y 
itre regtis, aussi bien que de ceux quiy ont port6 le gerrae de leur destruc- 
tion. Pour determiner I'^tat exact de la mortality de cette raaison, il 
frandriut aaroir le nombre d'enfans pwrfaitement sains qui y aont entres , 
ear ceox que- Ton porte ^ Thdpital, aussit^t apr^s qu'ils ont ^t^ baptises : 
lie peuvent H^'e regard^s que comme des victimes dtvouees k la piort : 
i| y aurait done la plus grande injustice k attiHbuer leur peile k un etab- 
iissement rem^i d'humanitd, qui enrichit annueliement I'etat d'un ^osi* 
bi% toiyoiirs plus oonsid^rabibe de citoyens ssuns, actifs el ndustdeux." 

^ If eber'a MS* JoaraaL 



CHAPTER IX. 

MOSCOW. 

Visit to the •Archbishop of Moseew-^is Conversation*^ 
Convent of ^icollna Perrert^ — Funeral of Frinte QalU- 
xin — Stalls for Fruit and Food — Sparrow Hill — Pnk- 
lick Morals — Banquets of the JSTbbks — Dealers in Virtu— 
Adventures and Swindlers-^Immense Wealth of ths M)- 
hies — Condition of the Feasants. 

A ^U^I^U^ contrast to tlie gpleiid«ur in which we had 
xIL hitherto beheld Plato, archbishop of Moscow, was 
offered, during a visit we made to him at the convent of Ni- 
coU na Perrefa, a seminary for young prie»ts near the, city. 
I had long wished for an opportunity of conversing with 
this remarkable man. He was preceptor to the emperaor 
Paul ; and is known to the world by his correspondence with 
monsieur Dutens. Upon our arrival at the convent, we 
were told he was then walking in a small garden, the care 
of which constituted his principal pleasure ; and the em* 
plojment characterized the simplicity and innocence of bis 
life. As we entered the garden, we found him seated oa a 
turf bank, beneath the windows of the refectory, attended 
by a bishop, an old man his vicar, the abb^ of the monaste]^fry 
a:Bd some others of the monks. I could searcelv believe my 
eyes, when they told me it was Plato ; for though I had 
pftcn seen him in his archiepiscop&l vestments, his rural 
dress had made sueh an alteration, that I did not know him. 
He was habited in a striped silk bedgown, with a night-eap 
likclhe silk nets which hang down the back, as cmnmonly 
sceif on the heads of Italian postilions ; and a pair of wool- 
len stockings, with feet of coarse linen, fastened on with 
twine in an uncouth manner. He was withoot 8hoea,buta 
pair of yeliow slippers lay at some distance. By his side» 
on the bank, was placed his broad-brimmed hat, sueh as is 
worn by the shepherdesses of the Alps ; and in tha hatband, 
to complete the resemblance, was stuck a bunch of withered 
flowers. His white beard, and that mildness and animation 
of countenance which distinguished him, gave to his featurea 
a most pleasing expression. He desin^ to knsw who we 



were; and being answered, Ei^lishmen; « What!" said 
he, '' ail Eiislish ? I wonder what yonr eoantrjmen eaa 
find snflGicientfy interesting in Russia, to bring jon so far 
from home $ and in sneh times as these P" But having made 
this observation in Freneh, he looked eantionslj around 
him, and began to ask the monks, severall j, whelher they 
understood Freneh. Finding them perfectly ignorant of 
' tliat language, he bade me sit by him ; while the rest forming 
a eirele, he entertained us with a eonversation, in whieh 
there was science, wit, and freedom, sufficient to astonish 
any traveller, in snch a country, and at such a period. 
Memory has scarcely retained even that part of it which 
concerned the manors of his countrymen, 

« Well," said he, <^ you thought me, perhaps, a curiosity: 
&nd yoa« find me as naturally disposed for observation as 
yon could wish" (pointing to his woollen stockings and his 
strange dress) " an old man bending with years and in- 
firmities." I replied, that I had the honour to see him in his 
greatest splendour, on the night of the ceremony of the 
resurrection , in the cathedral of the Kremlin. << And what 
did yon tliiuk of that ieeremonyP" said he. I answered, 
that ^ I considered it as one of the most solemn I. had 
ever witnessed, not excepting even that of the bened*^*ion 
at Rome ;" — ^* and interesting ?" added his grace. <* Very 
mueh so," said I : at which he burst into a fit of laughter, 
holding his sides, and saying, ^ I had lost a night's rest to 
attend the ceremony of a religion I did not profess, and cal- 
led it interesting^^ 

We accompanied him round his garden, admiring the 
beauty of the situation, and the serenity of the climate. 
« But do youj" said he, " prefer our climate to yours ?" I 
told him, that I had found the Russian climate severe, but 
/ the cold weather in winter not attended by so mueh humid- 
ity as in^England; that the atmosphere was clear and dry. 
** Oh yes said he, '^ very dry indeed 1 and it has, in eonse- 
qnence, dried up all our fruit trees." 

Alterwafds, he inquired where we were going ? and being 
told to Kuban Tartary and to Constantinople; — ^^God 
preserve me ! " he exclaimed, ^^ what a journey ! but nothing 
IS difficttlt to Englishmen ; they traverse all the regions of 
the earth. My brother, " continued he," was a traveller, 
and educated in your country^ at Oxford ; but I have never 
been any where except at Petersburgh and at Moscow. I 
tkonld havo been delighted in travelung, if I had enjoyed 



Ihe^pportimtyi fetrboekvof travels aj« my f«Torite r«adiw. 
I have lately read," and the sii^lficaitsnile by vfidek tb 
vards were aoeempaaied eouU noi be misanderstead, << Uia 
Y<^age4>f laid ]m(eartoey*''-^HelaBghed9 however, at tba 
fm^i of bki braUier'» ediieatioo. ^ The Eaglisb^" said 
lie« *^ iaai^it bim to deelaira in tbek way : be used to preaeh 
Ills %ie flauriahiog aermom to as Rassiaa* ; Tery fine ser^ 
BMiasl but tbey were ail triUMlated from tbe EnglUli* 
Some of yoar divines write be&atilully ; but with incaaeeiv- 
able freedon. It was anee diaeussed in an English sermon^ 
Whether a peojile had power ta dethrane their king." 
M Your grace aiay say moiey" said If << we had anea ft 
prelate, who preaohing beiope kia sovereign, felt hioiself at 
liberty i% diseass his ooadoet to his faaa." ^« I wish, " said 
he, <' we had sueh a fellaw here !"— but^aware of the inters 
pretation which mi^lit be put upon his worda, and perhapa 
net dariag to end with thein, he added, after a pause, <^ wa 
weald send him, taeajoy the full liberty of preaelung ia 
the free air of Siberia." He was much aasuaed at a r^ly 
he once reeeived from an Eneliah elergymftn, of the faetory 
al Petersborgh^ when asked if he iatenSed to marry* <^ If i 
am fortunate enous^h to beeome a bishop, I shall marrj ^ 
some rich citizen's Jauehter^ and Hve at my ease.'"*^ 

He eomplained much of Dutens, far having published hia 
eorrespondeHoe, without his permission. He aaknowle«^;ad 
having therein endeavoured to prove that the pape was as- 
tichrikt; of which he was fatly eenvineed: but that ha 
mueh feared the resentment of the court of Roaie. We told 
him, we thought his fears might now subside, as that court 
was no longer formidable to any one. ^< O/' said he, ^ j%m 
do not know its inti iguea aud artifiees : it tS' like the an* 
eient Romans; patient in concealing malice; pnampt to 
execute it, when opportunity offers ; and always obtaioiiig 
its point in Uie end." He then spoke of Voltaire, and his 
eorrespondence with the late empress Catherine. *^ There 
was nothing," said he ^' of which she was so vain, as of 
that correspondence. I never saw her so gay, and in such 
lugh spirits, as when she had to tell me of having received 
a fetter from Voltaire." 

Hcjshowed os the apartments of the aaeieat patriarch 
who founded the convent and built the church, which he ea- 
deavoured to preserve in their pristine state. They eonsiat- 

• *- Tlie pi-icstt in tbe Greek chureb are allowed to marry j but Dot tAe 



fd of several small, raidted^ Gatliiek draadien, vvkieh now 
eontain the Hbrary. I took this oBportuni^ to Mk if any 
translation of the elassieks extstea in the Helavonian Ian- 
mage, amoni; the mmiaseripts dispersed in the diflferent 
libraries of the Russian monasteries. He answered me in 
the negatire ; and said thev had nothing worth notiee until 
the time i^ the patriareh Nieon. As he was well versed in 
Selavoniek, I questioned him eoneerning its affinity to the 
Russian. He asaared me the two langua^s were almost 
the same ; that the differenee was only a distinetlon of dia- 
leet ; and that neither of them had the smallest resera* 
hlanee to the language of Finlwid. 

In this eonvent, one hundred and ifty students are in* 
^trueted in Greek, Latin, and rhetoriek. Alter a eertaia 
time, they are sent to eompiete their eduoation in other 
seminaries at Moseow. The ehureh is lofty and spaeious | 
the table for the saerameat, as in all other Russian and 
Greek ehurehes, is kept in the sanctuary, behind the altar, 
where women are not permitted to enter. The archbishop, 
who had visited our English church at Petersburgh, ob- 
^rved that our lable was uncovered, except when the sa- 
crament was administered ; a degree of economy which he 
expressed himself unable to comprehend, or to reeoaeilfr 
with the piety and liberality of the Enalish nation. What 
would he have said, if he ha4 beheld the condition of the 
oommanion tables in some 9^ our country churches P In 
Russia, they are alwavs Covered with the richest cloth 
which can be procured, and generally with embroidered 
velvet. 

On the twenty-eighth of Ma^ we again saw him in great 
oplendour, at the burial of prince Galitzin, in Moscow. 
This ceremony was performed in a small church near the 
Mareschal bridge. The body was laid in a superb, crimson 
coffin, riehly embossed with silver, and placed beneath the 
dome of the church. On a throne, raised at the head of 
the coffin, stood the archbishop, who read the service. On 
each side were ranged the inferioor cler^, clothed, as usual, 
in the most costly robes, bearing in their hands wax tapers^ 
and burning incense. The ceremony began at ten in the 
morning. Having obtained admission to the church, we 
placed ourselves among the spectators, immediately behind 
his grace. The ehaunting had a solemn and sublime ef- 
fect. It seemed as if choristers were placed in the upper 
part of the dome^ which, perhaps^ was reajly the ease. 



iOS Clarke's rwLXvnss in avssia. 

The W«rds ottered wen wAy a eoostast rtfi«titioli ef 
♦* iorrf ham mercy upon usP^ or, in Ro9st«i^* ^ Clkespodi 
pamiiMiP^ When the arehhisfaop tttraed to give kit heoe^ 
dieii^fi to ftH the people, be observed m, ttioA asdded. In 
Laitifi) ^ Pi{« vohUcumP^ to the »to«tftbfiiest of the Uas- 
RiaB« $ who, not eompreheBdiiif^ the new word« tntrodueed 
into the serrice, muitered ftmong themelves. Ineeiue Wfts 
then ofifered to the pie to res aod to the people ; nad, that 
eeremoRj ended, the arehhtghop read aloud a dedacation, 
purportinj^ that the deeeased died in the tine Ikith ; that 
he bed repented of hit erronrt, umI that his tint were ab^ 
solved. Then turning to «s, as the paper was planed in ihe 
eoffin^ he said again in Latin ; ^' This i» what all yoa 
foreisners eall the passport $ and you relate, in books of 
traYels, that we believe no seal ean go to heaven withont 
it. Now I with you to nnderttand what it reaUy it ; and 
to explain to your eountryraen,^ upon my authority, ^at it 
is nothing more than a deelaration, or certifieate, emeera" 
ineth# death of the deceased.'' Then laughing, he added, 
<- 1 suppose yea eommit all this to paper ; and ooe day I 
shall see anenjgraving of this ceremony, with an old areh- 
bishop giving a passport to Bt. Peter.''t 

* Those Russian words are written, in books of good aathority; " GhoS" 
ppdi pomilui /*' See L<A.'d Whitworth b Accontit of Russia, p. 43. Also, 
(jw. His. vd. d$> p. Id4. But tbey seem generalhr proBowieed Jl4tep9di^ 
,p9mila ! 

f TIier« is a panage in Mr. HetieiP^ Jminia], ^eiej ehamcteiiitidc of 
this axtraordinaiy man. Mr. Heber, vtth bis friend Mr. Tboraton^ paid 
him a visit in the convent of Befania; and, in his description of the rao^ 
nastery, I find the following account of the ai'chhishop. " The space be- 
neath the lH)eks is oeocipied by a shhiU chapel, foroisbed uritb a stove for 
witiler devotion ; and oh the right bftRd i« a little, narrow cell, contatatng^ 
two coffins; one of which is empty, and destined for the present arch- 
bishop; the other contains the bones of the founder of the monasterjr, who 
is regisirded as a saint. The oak coffin was almost Uttopieoea by cMTerenC 
persons afflicted with the toQth»aehe ; ixss which a rub oq tius boiird is a 
speeiiick. Plato laughed as he told us this ; but said, << As they do Mde 
hon saur, I would not undeceive them/ This prelate has been lonj; very 
famou« In Russia, as a main of ability. His piety has been quevtionec: 
but from bis cowvereatioci w« drew a very favourable idea of him. SoHe 
of his lixpresslons would have rather singed the whiskers of a very ortho- 
dox man ; but the frankness and Openness of his mannerS) and the liberafi- 
ty of his sentiments, pleased us highly. His frankness oa subjeets of peii- 
ticks was remarkable. The clei^y throug^oat Ruona are, I beiiere^ 
jr^iimioal to their govenunent ; they are more connected with the peasants 
than most othei* classes of men, aiMl are strongly interested in thefr sv£- 
f-^rings and opprjessions ; to many, of which they themselves are likewise 
exposed. They manj very mucbi among the doagfatevs «ad sisters of 
thiQir owa order^ and form ahnest a east I tbiok Btuttaparte rather 90f%^ 



Tliefid of tbeeofluibeHi^ BOW removed, Ae WdyoftiM 
^ince was expo««4 to view ; and all tho relatives, aorvanisy 
siaves, and other atleadaatt, began tkeir loud lamentationit 
as ffs tiie eiistofii awoag tlie Raflsiaoa ; and eaeh per^oa, 
walkiiiff rmiad ike oorpoe, nade pi&dtration before it, and 
ki^ed the lips of the deceased. The venerable isar e of am 
old slave preeented a most affectioe speetaele. lie threw 
^iDBelfflsioB the pavement, with a degree of violenee 
whaeh might have eoot him hio life, and qaite stanned bj 
the blow,. remained a lew seeonds iaseasible; afterwards, 
his loud sobs were heard; and we saw him tearing off and 
seattertng his wlute hairs. He had, aeoordinr to the ens- 
torn of the eoaatry, received his liberty open the death of 
the priaoe $ bnt ehoosing rather toeonsiga himself for the 
reflsaiiider of his days to a eonvent, he retired for ever front 
the world, saying: ^' &tm» his dcttr, old master was dead, 
there was no one living who eared for him." 

A plate was handed i^out, containing boiled riee and rai- 
«i»s^ 41 eeremony I am naahle to explaki. The face of the 
deceased was ftsvered by linen, and the arefabishop poured 
eonseerated oil, and threw a white powder, prohahly lime, 
neverai times upon it, pronouneing some words in the Rns- 
sian lansnage ; which, snpposing us not to understand, he 
repeated aloud in Latin: '^Bust thou art f and unto duut 
thou art returned P^ The lid of the eoffin waa then repla- 
ced ; and, after a requiem, " sweet as from blest voices,'' 
a proeessMtt began from the church to a eonvent in the vi- 
cinity of the city, where the body was to be interred* There 
was nothing solemn in this part of the ceremony. It be- 
gan by the slaves of the deceased on foot, all of whom were 
in mourning. Next went the priests, bearing-tapers ; then 
eame the body on a common droski; the whtpof the driver 
h^i^ bound with eraf«; and afterwards a line of carriages, 
of i& nuserable deseription before observed* Bat, ins^ad 

lar amoag them. Plato seemed to eontemplate bis success as an ineTita- 
ble and not very alarming prospect. He refused to draw up a form of 
prayer for the success oToie Russian arms. • K,* said he, ^ -Aey «rc reftU 
ly penitent, Uttliem sliut tip their pisices of pvblie BmuieineDtfor a monlii, 
JHidl will thea celebrate publiek prayers.' His expressions of dislike ta 
the nohles and weatlh;^ classes were strong and singular; as also the man- 
ner in which he described the power of an eroperoar of Russia, the dan- 
gero which surround him, and Oie imfirebftbiiky of any rapid improve- 
snent * K i^oukl be much better,' said he, < had we a eonsiitution like 
that of England.' Yet I suspect he does not wish nerticularly veil Xi>Vsj 
"Sn our wv iritb Prsnoe.^ Uebev^a MSr JournaC 



i^ Clarke's travus im Russia. 

of that slow ffiovemetit usoally elmraetemUok of fli&er«l^ 
proeessions, the priests and the people ran as ^t as they 
eevld ; and the body was jolted along* in an uneoath man* 
Her. Far behind the last rambling vehiele were seen per* 
sons following^ out of \>reath, nnabie to<keep op with their 
eempaBions. 

Tne stalls of frnit and food in the streets of Moseow 
prove very benefieial to the health of the people ; espeeially 
to the-ehildren, who are ill fed at home. At these plaees, 
fbr a few copeeks, whieh they contrive to colleet, they set 
a wholesome dinner. I saw them served at the stalls witk 
plates of boiled rice, over whieh was ponred a little honey ; 
and for eaeh of these they paid about a penny £nglirii. in 
the spring they sell apples (whieh they have a remarka* 
hie method of preserving through the winter, though I could 
not gain information how this was eontrived) baked pears, 
satlad, salted cucumbers ^which are aatiseorbutick, and 
esteemed delicious by Russians of every rank) wild berries, 
boiled rice, quass, honey, and mead. As almost every eat- 
able reeeives a formal benediction from the priests before 
it is considered lit for use, no Russian will touch any artt* 
ele of food until the ceremony has taken place. A parti* 
enlar church near the Maresehal bridge is set apart for the 
benediction of apples; and this is not given until the first 
apple drops from the tree, which is brought in great form 
to the priests. 

It is evident that a praetiee more jodieions can hardly be 
adopted ; as the people are thus saved from many maladies. 
I have seen a whole French army debilitated through wairt 
of caution in this respect. A Mohammedan would sooner eat 
pork, than a- Russian unconseerated fruit. At Petersburgh, 
the benediction of water takes place upon the ice of the 
Neva. In Moscow they have a floating stage upon the river 
below the Kremlin, on whieh this eeremony is performed. 

Having observed a very rare, Siberian plant, or Hyoscya^ 
mus Physalaides ; or, rurpk-flowered Henhancy growing 
wild in. the garden of our friend and banker, Mr. Doughty, 
we thought the season sufficiently advanced to go, on the 
twenty -ninth of May, upon a botanical excursion to Sparrow 
Hill, an eminence near the city, much celebrated for the 
view it affords of Moscow and its environs. The sight is 
not so pleasing as the scene beheld from the Kremun $ it 
is too mueh of a bird's-eje prospect; and, though it com- 
prehends the whole extent of the city, with the. river and 



ia ihf 4jMftiiee te whi)eh thej appear reiiMved. Upon tUft 
biU«iie^tbe for Qier serer^if^ be^^ to buikl a pala««^ 
tlie fiNiniliittaiM (4^ wkUk, with vauU&iind eeU&rs •! brick**, 
wuric, a^oow IB ruins. From tbe emweBce. we DereeiFod 
the land ronadMoseaw to be low and swampy, Mioiwdin^ 
villi po o fa of ota^naat water^ and of eourae onheaUhy* 
The ^mojte i« also dangeroiu^ from sudden trafi»UioiM* 
Tbe ra^idiity of vegetation was here very striking. The 
Bamtncukts fiearia^ or English FUewertj was already hk* 
sing its bloom. Many other later flofirers, by their forward 
ttale^ nve us Jiotise that it was iiae to hid adiea to ^ita 
and ^ the bw^ h^wts of^iiieB^'' if we wished to behold na-r 
(sre^fiiMore southern latitudes, beforo ahe became devested 
of her smiiii^ eomnteaanoe,* 

Tim maBBerin whieh the Russiaa peasants ^the theit 
k^aad feet, throughout the whole em^re? from its sim* 
^leityaiidtlie materials used, indteates great antiquity. It 
p^vails jdl o?er Lapland, and the other northern terriioriee 
of Sweden and Norwa^y. Their shoes are made of the mat^ 
ted hark of ^rees ; thear legs beingeovered by bandages of 
#ofdl«i eloth, bonnd on with thongs of the same materiaiii 
as the sandals. These thongs, passing through the loose 
teiture ofthe^andai, and afterwards entwined about the 
leff, keep the whole i^paratu3 together. 

I haFe had oeeasion to mention the £Uhv establishment 
ealled an inii^ mad dignified bv the title of V Hotel de Con- 
skmHnopUy iu whieh we resided. The master of it had not 
leas than five hundred persons, ag jiervants, and in other 
eapaeities^ employed to assist him. It may serve to convey 
an idea of thfe morals of this eity, when the fact is stated, 
that in thu list were inehided a number of hired prostiw 
tales, eoBstantly kept by him, in open stews belonging to 
« the house, for the use of the numerous goests by whom it 
was inhabited. The reader msLj be spared what else might 
be related concerning the publicity of such apartments. 

A swarm of alaves, attendants, hirelings, and dependent 
syeophants, is peculiarly characteristic qI domestic econo-^ 
my in Moscow. The nobles consider tbe honour of their 
families so materially implicated in maintaining a numer* 

• The fonowing are tUe names of tbe other plants we observed tipon 
wid near this eminence. Orobu8 Tuheronts, Viola Camna, Oxalis »Mce- 
totelia (common Wood Sorrel)* Prwmw JPadus (Bird's Cherry), Lomee* 
raXylofteum (eommenFly liciieyiuGUe.), Gi^cAoma ifo«?S?rac«0(GrQmf(| 
i7). 



i06 tLARKE's TftAYEt^ III RXif^SIA. 

otts table, that should any of the satellites whieh QSliaUj 
surround them forsake his post at dinner, and sweU ttfe 
train of any other person, the offence is rarely forgiven : 
they will afterwards persecute the deserter by every means^ 
of revenge within their power ; and, not being burdened by 
scruples of eoneienee, they generally find means of indul- 
ging their vengeance. I have seen persons who were vic- 
tims of their own good-nature, in having accepted invita- 
tions which decoyed them from the table of their lord. 
Similar motives gave rise to the prodigious hospitality 
which has been described by travellers. Before the reign 
of Paul, a stran^r no sooner arrived in Moscow, than the 
most earnest solicitations were made for his regular atten- 
dance at the table of this or that nobleman. If his visits 
were indiscriminate, jealousy and quarrels were the inevi* 
table consequence. During the reign of Paul, Enplisli- 
men were guests which might involve the host in diflocnlty 
and danger ; yet, notwithstanding the risk incurred, it is 
but justice to acknowledge, the nobles felt themselves so 
gratified by the presence of a stranser, that, having re* 
quested his attenaanee, thev would close their portals npon* 
his equipage, lest it should be discerned by the .officers of 
police. 

The curious spectacle presented at their dinners has no 
parellel in the rest of Europe. The dishes and the wines 
correspond in gradation with the rank and condition of 
the guests. Those who sit near the master of the house a^e 
suffered to have no connexion with the fare or the tenant* 
of the lower end of the table ; and nothing would so maeh 
distress a Russian prince, as sending for a portion of the 
soup or the viands which are there placed. That which 
he intends for the gratification of the favoured few around 
him, is generally carried to them; nor is it usual to ask 
for any thing. The number of persons in waiting is pro- 
digious. In the house of the young count Orlof were no 
less than four hundred servants ; many of them sumptuous- 
ly clothed, and others, mingled with them, in rags. It was 
no uncommon sight to observe, behind a chair, a fellow in 
plumes and gold, like a Neopolitan runnins footman ; and 
another by his side, looking like a beggar from the streets. 

It is upon such occasions that strangers have an opporta«» 
nity of learning what becomes of the immense wealth of 
the Russian nobility. He will see it lavished among for« 
signers in their service, upon thsir tablss and equipage^} 



tkelr drtssesy toTS, trinkets, jewels, watches, snuffboxes, 
balls, masquerades, private theatres, dancers, sineers, trad- 
ing antiauaries, and travelling picture dealers. This last 
Mee is rreqnentlj filled bj hairdressers and Italian lack- 
ejs. There is no place in the world where adventurers 
reap sueh harvest as in Moscow. Frizzeurs from Italy or 
Germany, having bought up any rubbish they are able to 
procure, get some friend to eive them a letter and a name, 
with which they arrive in the city. The news is soon buz- 
zed abroad ; the new comer sought for ; and he must be 
indeed a fool if he does not make his journey answer. I 
saw a man of this description, a barber of Vienna, as a 
picture-dealer in Moscow, caressed by the nobles, and in- 
vited to all their tables, until his stock of pictures was 
gone, and then he was no more noticed. He complained 
with bitterness to me of the dishonourable chicanery of the 
nobility. Some of them had given him pinchbeck, instead 
of gold watches and snuff boxes ; and paste, instead of 
diamond rings ; in exchange for his pictures. In fact, they 
had mutually cheated each other ; the pictures being of less 
value than the worst commodities eiven for them. Of the 
two parties, however, the seller and the buyers, the barber 
had ultimately the losing part of the business. Flushed by 
his newly acquired wealth, he set np for an amateur him- 
self; bought minerals, and gave dinners; and ended by 
returning to Vienna without a sotis in his pocket, to practise 
his old trade of frizzing and shaving. 

Moscow is, of all places in Europe, the most advanta- 
geous rendezvous of adventurers and swindlers ; and, con- 
sequently, many are found there. The credulity, the 
extravagance, and the ignorance of Russian nobles, offer a 
tempting harvest to such men. The notorious 8emple, rose 
to such a pitch of celebrity in Russia, that he influenced, if 
iie did not govern, Potemkin. He introduced a uniform for 
the hussars, which is still worn ; and made alterations, truly 
judicious, in their military discipline. Thus the Russian 
officers derived from the hulks at Woolwich greater advan- 
tages than if they had served there in- person ; an honour, 
which, though well merited, it is not necessary to assi^ 
them, as they experience very wholesome chastisement at 
home. In the aptitude of sueh reflections, the reader, it is 
li6ped, will sympathize with the author. They are made 
from no disposition to sarcasm, but from a strict attentien 



106 Clarke's TitirVKi.& iv Russia. 

to that fidelity of d&HneaitHm, whteh, wbiki it jpwslnBya 4c« 
fonaity^ represents tke trntk. 

The wealtk of the mbles is really enormous. We b&v« 
not, in England, Mvridoals possessin^^ equal property, 
iHiatever their rank or sttiMition may he* Bome of tbem 
have seventy and even a hundred thousand peasamts. Their 
fortunes are estimated by the number of their peasaauts, an 
West India merehants reekmt their ineome by the numher 
of their hogsheads. These peasants pay them, upon tha 
average, ten roubles annually, in speeie.* If the peasaat 
has been required by his lord to give him three days of la- 
hour during eaoh week, the ajmual tax is said t« be propor«- 

* Mr. Heber's Journal oontains so much interesting information coneer- 
BiBg the state of the peatants in Russia, that I shaU here subjoin a copiooa 
extract. While it accompaiiics raj own test, it may make atoaemeat, hf 
greater aoeuracy and more i«yourable stalenient, for any errour in my 
representation, whether statistical or moral. I am bound, consistently 
with the promise I made in tlie beginiiiiig of this work, to g^re mr narra- 
tive as near as possible to- the state in wuoh it was written upon the sp<it. 

We observed a striking diflfereoce between the peasants of the crowa 
and those of individuals. The former are almost all in comparatively easv 
circumstances. Their abroek, or rent, is fixed at five roubles a year, all 
charges included ; and as they are sure that it w3l never be raised, they 
are more iadastrioas. The peasants bekmgiog to the nobles have their 
aJfrock regulated by their means of getting money; at an average throng* 
out tlie empire, of eight or ten roubles. It then becomes not a rent for 
land, but a downrigtit tax on their industrv. Eaoh male peasant is obMg<wlf 
bylaw^tokbour threedayaia «Bd& week for his proprietor. The law 
takes effect on his arriving at the age of fifteen. If the proprietor chooses 
to employ him the other days, he may ; as, for example, in a manufacto- 
ry ; but be then finds him in food and elotbin|;. Mutual advantage, how* 
ever, generaBy relaxes this law ; and, excepting such as are selected for 
domestick servants, or, as above, M?e empl^ed in manufactures, the slave 
pays a certain adrockt or rent, to be allowed to work all the week on his 
own account. The master is bound to furnish him with a house and ter- 
tfdn portion) of land . The allotment of land is generally settled by the 
siaros^ [%\dev of the village] and a meeting of the xteasants tliemselves. 
In the .same manner, when a master wants an increase of I'ent, he sends 
to the starosta, who convenes the peasania ; and by that asseanbly it is de- 
cided what projportion eadi individual must pay. If a slave exemses any 
trade wfaioh brim- him in more money than agrioulturai labour, he pays a 
higher abroek. If by journeys to Petersbuj:|;fa, or other cities, he can stiU 
earn more, his master permits his absence, but his abroek is raised. The 
Smairest earnings are subject to this oppressien. The peasants emplo^Ned 
us drivers, at t\m pest^^Kmaas, pa]r an abroek out of the driiikmanev tfaqF 
receive, ^r being pe^rmitted to dnve ; as, otherwise the master might em* 
ploy them in less profitable labour on his own account. The aged and in- 
firm are provided with food and ndraent, and lodging, at tlieir owner's ex* 
pense. Such as prefer easoail eharky to the misemble pittance they re« 
eeiKe from their master, ave frequenUy furnished with passports, and all 
^msfl ; ss when one is foondy he is immediately scat back to his owner, la 



MOSCOW. 109 

tionably ^iminislied. But, in despite of all the pretended 
regulations made in favour of the peasant, the tax he is 
called upon to pay, or the labour he is compelled to bestow, 
depends wholly on the caprice or the wants of his tyrant* 
Labour is not exacted from males only. Women, ana ehil* 
dren from the agpe of ten and upwards, are obliged to per- 

^oved to seek their fortune ; but they sometimes par an abrock eren for 
,thi8 permission to beg. Th« number of beggars in retersboi-gh is very 
smau ; as when one is found, he is immediately sent back to his owner* In 
Moscow, and other towns, they are numerous ; though I think less so 
than in London. They beg wiU) great modesty, in a low and humble tone 
of voice, frequently orosslsg Ihemselves, and arc much less clamorous and 
importunate than a London beggar. 

*' The master has the power of correcting his slaves, by blows or con^ 
finement; but if he is gmlty of any great cruelty, he is amenable to the 
laws; which are, we are told, executed in this point with impartiality. lu 
t>ne of the towers of the Khitaigorod> at Moscow, there was a countess Sol- 
tikof, ccmfined for many years with a roost unrelenting severity, which she 
merited, for ci-uelty to her slaves. Instances of barbanty are, however, by 
no means rare. At Kostroma, the sister of Mr. Kotchctof, the goverirour, 
^ve me an instance of a nobleman who liad nailed (if I understood her 
nght) hi^ servant to a cross. The master was sent to a raonasteiy, and the 
business hushed up. Domestick servants, and those employed in roanu- 
factories, as they are more exposed to cruelty, so they sometimes revenge 
themselves in a terrible manner. A Mr. Hetrof, brother to Mrs. Sche- 
pOtef^ who had a great distillery, disappeared suddenly, and was pretty ea- 
«ily guessed to have been thrown into a boiling copper by his slaves. We 
heard another inMaoce, though not from equ^ly good authority, of a lady, 
uow in Moscow, who had been poisoned three several tim«s by her servants. 

<' No slave can quit his village, or nis master's family, without a passport. 
Any person arriving in a town or vitlage, must produce his passport to the 
starosta ; and no one can harbour a Stranger witiiout one. If a person it 
found dead without a passport, his body is sent to the hospital for dissec- 
tion ; of which we saw an instance. The punishment of living runaways 
is imprisonment, and haixl labour in the government works ; and a master 
may send to the publick workhouse any peasant he chooses. The piisons 
oT Moscow and Kostroma were chiefly filled with such runaway slaves, who 
were tor the most{)art in irons. On the frontier they often escape ; but in 
the interiour it is almost impossible; yet, during the summer, desertions 
are very common ; and they sometunes lurk about for many months, Uvlng 
miserably in the woods. This particularly happens when thereisantw 
levy of soldiers. The soldiers are levied, one from evpry certain nurabet' 
of peasants, at the same time all over the empire. But if a master is dis- 
Incased with his slave, he may send him for a soldier at any time he pleas- 
es, and take a receipt from govcsument ; so that he sends one man leas 
the next levy. He also selects the recruits he sends to government ; with 
thisrestricfion, that they are young men, free fr«m disease, have sound 
teeth, and are five feet two inches high. 

** The starosta, of whom mention has been so frequently made* is an 
officer resembling the ancient bailiff of an English village. He is chosen, » 
>^e are told, (at least generally) by the peasants ; sometimes annually, 
and sometimes for life. He is answ ei*able for the abtochs to the lord ; de- 
isides small disputes among the iwasants, gives Hllcts for quaitcrs to sol- 
diers, or to government officers on a journey, &c. SometijucB th§ propri- 
etor elauns the right of appointing the starosta. 

I4 



IdO ^ (BlARKE'S TRAVErS IN RTSMA. 

form their equal share. Tithes are, moreorer, demand^ 
of whatever may remain in their hands $ of linen, poultry, 
ieggs, batter, pigs, sheep, lambs, and every product of the 
land, or of domestiek, manual labour. Should a peasant, 
by any misfortune, be deprived of the tribute expected by 

"A dave can, on no pretenee, he add oot of Russia, nor in Roaaia, to 
any but a person bom noble, or, if not noble, haTing the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel. This rank is not confined to the military ; it may be obtainetl by 
them in civil situations. Professor Pallas had the rank of brigadier. This 
la**^ is, however, eluded, as xoturiers [plebeians] fi'cquently purchase 
slaves for hire» and make use of the name of some privileged person ; and 
all nobles have the privilege of letting out their servants. 

** Such is the political situation of the peasant. With regard to his 
comforts, or means of supporting existence, I do not think they are defi- 
cient. Their houses are in tolerable repair; moderately roomy, and weB 
adapted to the habits of the people. The;f-havQ the air of being sufficiently 
i edf and theii* clothing is wai'm and substantial. Fuel, food, and the materials 
for building, are very cheap ; but clothing is dear. In summer thj^ gcne- 
i-ally wear nantkin cq/>ans, one of which costs thirteen roubles. The labm 
kaa [linden-bark sandals] cost nothing. They weai- a blue, nantkin shirty 
trimmed with red, which costs two or three roubles; linen drawers; and 
"linen or hempen n^ wrapped round their feet and legs, over which the 
richer sort draw their boots. The sheep'Skin tckaub costs eight roubles, 
but it lasts a long time ; as does a lamb-skin cap, which costs three roubles. 
The common red cap costs about the same. For a common cloth caftan, 
aoch as the peasants sometimes wear, we were asked thirty roubles. To 
dothe a Russian peasant or a soldier is, I apprehend, three times as 
chargeable as in England. Their clothing, however, is strong;, and being 
made loose and wide, lasts longer. It is rare to see a Russian quite m 
rags. With regard to the icUeness of the lower classes here, of which we 
had heard g^at complaints, it appears, that where they have an interest 
in exertion tliey by no means want industry, and have just, the same wisU 
for luxuries as other people. Great proprietors, who neycr raise their 
cihrccksj such as count Sheremetof, have very rich and prosperous pea- 
£!ints. The diiference we noticed between peasants belonging to the 
4T0wn and those of the nobility has been ali'eady mentioned. The crown 
peasants, indeed, it is reasonable to suppose, are more happy ; living at 
-^hcir ease, paying a moderate quit rent, and choosing tlieir own stai-osta. 
Tliey ai'c, houe\'er, more exposed to vexation and oppression from the 
petty officers of the crown. 

•• This account of the condition of the peasants in Russia is an abrigi 
of the diflfcrent statements we pi-ocured in Moscow, and chiefly fromi 
prince Theo<lorc Xikolaiovitz Galitzin. The Icries for the array are con- 
sidered, by the peasants, as times of great terrour. Baron Bode told me, 
they generally keep the levy as secret as possible, till they have fixed oq 
and secured a proper number of men. They are generally chained till 
they are sworn in : the fore port of the head is then shaved, and they are 
thus easily distinguished from other peasants. -After this, desertion is ve- 
ry rare, and very difficult. The distress of one of their popular dramas, 
which we saw acted at Yareslof, in the private theatre of the governour, 
prince Galitzin, consisted in a yoimg man being pressed for a soldier. In 
the short reign of Peter II, who, it is well known, transferred the seat of 
government again to IVIoscow, no man was pressed for a soldier; the army 
was recruited by rolutiteers ; and slaves were permitted to enter. Uebei^9 
MS, Jmnwl. 



Mis lord, he mast beg, borrow, or steal, to make up the defi- 
cienej. Some of the nobles choose to eonverse with fo- 
reigners upon the condition of their slaves; and, when that 
is the ease, not the smallest relianee can be placed on the 
statement they afford. .It will be seen in a former chapter 
f]p. 60] that I mentioned the observations of one of their 
princes at his own table, concerning the superiority of 
Kussian to English liberty. The same person deemed it 
decorous, upon another occasion, before an immense assem- 
bly, to contrast the situation of English peasants with what 
he termed the happiness of the Russian slaves. <^ There 
is," said he, addressing himself to me, with an air of tri- 
amph, << more of the reality of slavery in England than in 
Russia." When I be^ed his highness to explain what he 
implied by the " reality ofslavery^^^ he expatiated upon the 
miseries resulting from press-gangs, and pictured the flou- 
rishing condition of his own peasants, wbom he described 
as having relief in sickness, refuge in calamity, and, in 
their ola i^e, a comfortable asylum. << Prince," said I, 
<< is there one, among the happiest of yoar slaves, who^ 
vould not rejoice to exchange his Russian liberty for what 
you are pleased to term English s^at?ery.^"*— I had seen 
the peasants of this man, according to his own pathetick 
discourse, ^ in sickness, in calamity, and in old age," and 
it was well known to every person present, that their " re- 
lief and refuge" was in death, and their <« asylum" the 
grave. 

Another nobleman assured me that the greatest punish- 
ment he inflicted upon his slaves (for he professed to have 
banished all corporeal chastisement) was to give them their 
liberty, and then turn them from his door. Upon further 
inquiry, I discovered that the slaves of this very man fled 
from their fetters, even if there was a certainty of death 
before their eyes, rather than remain beneath his tyranny. 
Great indeed must be the degree of oppression which a 
Russian will not endure, who, from his cradle, crouches to 
his oppressor, and receives the rod without a murmur.— 
Other nations speak of their indolence ; which is remarka- 
blie, as no people are naturally more lively, or more dis- 
posed to employment. We may assign a cause for their 
inactivity : it is necessity. Can there exist excitement to 
labour, when it is certain that a tyrant will bereave indus- 
try of all its fruits ? The only property a Russian noble- 
inaa allows his peasant to pos«ess, is the food he cannot^ or 



li^ Clarke's travels in rui^ia. 

will not, eat himself; the bark of trees, chafT, wi othe» 
refuse; quass, water, and fish oil. If the slave has suffi- 
pient ingenuity to g^ain money without his knowledge, it 
becomes a dangerous possession ; and when onee discover-^ 
edy falls instantly into the hands of his lord. 

A peasant in the village of Celo Molody^ near Moscow, 
who had been fortunate enough to scrape together a little 
>veaUh, wished to marry hit daughter to a tradesman of th« 
£ity ; and for that purpose, that she should be free, he offer- 
ed fifteen thousand roubles for her liberty; a most unusual 
J)rice of freedom, and a much greater sum thf n persons of 
lis class, situated as be was, will be found to possess. The 
tyrs^t took the ransom ; and th^n told the father, that both 
the girl and the money belonged to him ; and t]^r«lbre she 
must sttill continue among the number of his slaves. What 
a picture do these facts afford of the state pf Russia ! Jtis^ 
thus we beliold the sut^eets of a vast empire, stripped of all 
they possess, and existing in the most abject servitude; vie* 
tims of tyrannv, ^nd torture; of sorrow, and poverty; ot 
sickness, and famine. 

Traversing the provinces south of Moscow, the land i| 
as the garden of Eden ; a fine soil, covered with corn, anal 
apparently smiling in plenty. £nter the cottiige of the ]>oor, 
labourer, surroui|ued by all these riches, and you find him. 
^ying of hunger, or {tining from bad food, ptod in want of 
the common necessaries oflife. Extensive pa$t«r^, coverr* 
ed with cattle afford no milk to him. In autumn, the har- 
ve«t yields no bread for his children. The lord eiaims all 
tlie produce. At the end of summer, every road in the 
southern provinces is filled with caravans, bearing corn and: 
all sorts of provisions, every produce of labour and the iaml^ 
to supply tne lords of Moscow and Petersbui^h, and tlie 
markets of these two capitals, which, like whirlpools, swaI-> 
low all (hat comes withm their vortex, with never^ndiag^ 
voracity. 

Can there be a more affecting sight, than a Russian fami-- 
]y, having got in an abundant harvest, in want of the com- 
mon stores to supply and support them, through the rigours . 
of their long and inclement winter ? lict us hasten from it« 
contemplation ! 



CHAPTER X, 

JOUBNET FROM MOSCOW TO WORONETZ. 

tenee and Extortion — River OkO'^Celo Zavody^-JIni' 
cient Ofimed — Vast Oriental plain — State of Travelling 
-^Tuia—its Mmufaetures — Imperial Fkbrick of Arms 
^^Present State of TaU^'^Beonomy of Fud — Iron Mines 
'^Raad from Tula to Woronetx — DedUof — Change 
ef Climate — Bo^ioroditx — Celo JWcitxkoy — Bdshoy 
PUOy—Bgi'enu^^^JfikoMjevka—Celo Petrofshia JM- 
nia — Eletx-^Exvoly^^Zadonetx^-^^Celo Chlebnoy-^^Bes^ 
tuxetkO'—Ceio Staroy IvoHmkoy^^Wonmetx* 

IT is nowneeessary to take leave of Mofeow, where we 
passed seme pleasant hears, and many others of pain^^^ 
fol anxiety, insolt and oppression, IVom the ereatures, spiet, 
and aeents of the eontem^tible tyrant then npoa the Has- 
sian throne. Onr eondition, as well as every Englishman't 
In the empire, was that of prisoners on thdr parole. We 
had been allowed to move about; bat always under the vi- 
gilant eye of a trottblesome and eaprieious poliee. We 
were detained a long time before we eonhi learn when we 
mi^t go, or by whait rente we should be allowed to pass. 
An escape by the Livonian frontier was utterly impraeti« 
cable. At last, without any passport for leaving the 
eoantry, but eneooraged by the advice and exertions of 
onr good ambassadour, who secretly eonveyed to us 
letters Arom the govemour of Petersbu^h to the go- 
vemonr ef Moscow, and to general Miehelson, eom- 
mander in chief in the Crimea, we determined to set 
«at for that peniasula by a eircnitooe route, throu^ the 
ceoDtry of the Don Cossacks ; and, if pessible, to visit the 
more distant regions ef Kuban Tartary and Cireassia. 
Uavins, by means of these letters, purchased the long-* 
wisheo-for poderosnoi^ and placed our carriage again upon 
its wheels, we left the city on the evening of tne Airty-nrst 
of May, visiting our banker at his eoantry seat near M^s- 

1$^ 



114 CLARRfi's TRAVELS IN RUSSIA. 

eow, and proeeedins; that ntght only tweiity«seveii versttf 
to a place ealled MoUdtzj, the first station. The sext 
day, Jane ist, we arrived at Celo Molody.* Its iahabi- 
tants were onee in good eireumstanees ; bat thej are now 
completely rained by their present master. The tyrant 
has a fine hoase near the ehurefa, on the left hand side qnit- 
tiRi^ the village. He is the person I before mentioned, who 
refused a poor girl liberty, after aoeepting h«r ransom, 
when she wished to marry in Moscow. Between Molodt- 
2^ and Celo Mplody we passed through Podols^ prettHiy 
situated betw^n two hills, on the river Moekra. The late 
empress inferred on this place the name and distinction af 
a tifwn ; but Paul, in his determination to do every thing 
she would not have done, and to tfndo all she did, made it 
again a village. 

From Celo Molody our jonmey was performed with very 
great expedition, ami over good roads, to Grisehiuka, and 
to Sarpuehof, which last j^ace perfectly resembles New^ 
Market, in situation, appearance and surrounding scenery ; 
and that nothing might be wanting to awaken the recollec- 
tion of our beloved country, the Jlyosotis 8cornwide9 
[Mouse-ear Bcorpion Grass] with other British herns, ap^ 
peared among the plants then in flower. Exactly in the spot 
which, with reference to the town, corresponds with the 
course at Newmarket, before descending into Bcrpuchof, is 
a church yard ; where, among the graves and tombs, w« 

* The want of any settled rule of orthography for Russian words in our 
language, embarrasses the reader in viewinffmapsofthe coantiy, as well as 
io perusing its history or books of tra%'els. Velo, is said to aigmi^y a cfanreb^ ^ 
and, being added to the name of a plaee, implies that it is a vUlage with a ' 
ehurch. 1 will not vouch for the truth of this observation. It is pronounceti 
Selo, and on that account I had written it Tsarshoseh in the second chap- 
ter. The empress Catherine, in her Letters to VoltMre {^iEuvrea con- 
pietea de^Voltaire, torn. Ixvv. p. 303, &e.3 wrote thia last word Czar^hoz^^ 

""" ian words, on the authority of 
I czar, and says that it ought to 
eur Boaverain le titre de f tar, et 
ils I'ecrivent parle oaracti^re qu'ils appelfent tai, «t flui repcnd a noire U. 
Les etraugers out tort d'ecrire czar*- Taffleau de r Eppire t^ Rus^, 
par Henri S torch, torn I. p. 19. 

One peculiarity in the Russian language !» very worthy of remartc. They 
have no Win their alphabet. The doab&e F, Qlt^ obserted in their oom- 
pound words, is not the same thing. Thus^ for example, the word intn^ 
tluction is written VVi(Um^ ; consisting of the preposition Ftfor V, which 
signifies in^o, and V^d^ni^y to conduct. Whenever the V so doubled ofr- 
L-urs in the middle of a wood, a single V may be tubstitnted in its plaee ; hii# 
if, at the end of a word| an i\ frpm t^e promiBsUtiOB then ^f eo^ is p«¥' 
hstps n^re proper* 



7o ; but Storchf in his orthography of I^ussian words, on the authority of 
"Levesque, disapproves the use of the term czar, and says that it ought to 
he written tsar. " l^s Russes donnent a leur soaverain le titre de Uar, et 



long twried, bowing $|ieir b«Ada to im crBWd, tonohn^ 

ftbort prajers. lo thi» riHud the droM of (he peasaats 
chains mam fHq^mil^ tW in Q^h^r partf^of Bufitia t and 
it ift reiaarkaUay thatt altboasb tbe dreMes o( (he w^m^ 
acia «» varioiu in Che4i&r9at proYiacfiiy ibosQ of tlie mQH 
are tbe saiat throiighoat tlie empire* 

8erpuehof i§ a haodsome little to wn, on the river Nara« 
It.oeBt«ias a?ttadtlei|o}4isod hj a slnuigraniiparti aii4ha9 
a. Wtywod«,witii his ehaaecry. Ip the marJket \re ob»erv«d 
ftbep9«oleiT appropriated to tlte «ale of the LetbhoA^ Uuwu9^ 
»aiidal9y whieh I hefoi^e deseriMf coastrueted of biroh or 
linden bark.* Soaie authors have ajiserted that eaeb pea- 
sant made km own^ Formtrly thia ni^ht have b^en tl|e 
casa$ and perhaps in the intertoiir U is so now^ Saeh 
shops, tM>wever, prove, that the r«4«9t and most aneie^t 
fom of sandal in the world? fiommon to man in a 9tate af 
nature, while roamiag his pnmeval for^^ts^ is new an arti- 
cle of eotnmerce. 

▲te¥ei7 station on tbe ro^ts ther^ is SiB oSeer ealled 
ToteketUionej to superintend the nost) and to see that tra- 
vellers are regularly supplied witk horses. Some of these 
men are great rf^seats^ and will not farnifh horses witkoni 
a bribe, even when the imperiaJi ^der is prodneed* We eit- 
perieaeed delaj at this place from a person of this dessrip- 
tion« Our orcler directed, that if horses were not found at 
the po8t*house, the officer on duty was to proeure others 
from tbe peasants. 6eiq^ told that there were no hersef, 
I wept into the office to enforce the order. As I entered^ 
the Fotchetilione eommaoded me to take off mj hat : and 
Veiog ad^ed for what reason I was to remain bareheaded in 
that place : '^ What, are you blind," he exelaimed in a tone 
of great insolence, << that you do not see tbe emperour's 
ftortraitt en tbe wall B it is a faoe to make Sngiiahmen 

* See p. 105. Accordiag to Mr Heber, the linden^ or Kme-tree afR>rds 
tlfte l>ark i|«edfor the«e WBdals. ** This practioe of making shoes o( linden 
bark is very destructive to the treeSt as a man will wear out twenty (H* thif- 
ty pair of sandals in a year. The Jime-tree, of which these shoes arc made^ 
is a repy vaioable plaint, owing to the construction of mats from its bark» 
vhiith form a Tery eonsdderabte article of exportation. The lime-tree Is 
scarce in the western provinces. In the eastern it is very plentiful, and 
noaiisheaashighas^ohjingel.'^ Meifer^ a JifS. Journal. 

+ Copies of the emperonr's portrait were sent, by order of Paul, to 90 
pttblick offices of h^ empice. poxueoC thewi, m may be eoneeired^ irere 



€i9 ^LAKKX'S TKAVEX4 IK XWSrA. 

tMttUe.'* I endeavoiired to amwer him in kit ilini ^m^, 
ftjiaTiBgy/* the etnperoiir truly! If he knew how shame* 
fdlly yen belied his comiteiiaiiee by that vilerepreietttatioiiy 
year nead would come oflf sooner than my hat. Finding hii 

Siseonade had not snceeeded, he eaused it to be intimated, 
at he wanted a rouble^ I <^iild hardly eredit what I 
heard $ and shonid have been ashamed to ofter it, if he had 
not afterwards told me so himself. Horses now eame 
quiek enough, and half a dozen fine speeches into the bar- 
gain. 

About a yerst from this town we crossed tbe Oka, hr a 
ferry. This river falls into the Volga at ELolomna. It is a 
noble pieee of water, almost as broad as the Thames, and 
well stocked with fish. We had been detained so long at 
8erpuehof, that evening was eominson when we arrived 
npon its banks. Peasants were seated in groups round dif- 
ferent fires, singing, and boiling their fish upon the shore. 
Innumerable frogs, which are heard to a great distance do- 
ling the night, and supply the placeof nightinealestn Rus- 
sia as in Denmark, joined the loud chorus ; while the moon, 
fall and splendid, rose over this fine scene. 

On the south side th6 river stood a small, wooden hut, at 
which onr driver desired to stop for a little qtia^, Havine 
acquired a relish for this Scythian bevera^, we followed 
him into the hut, but were astonished to find instead of quass, 
ftve or six bogheads which were full of brandy, and which 
they were retailing and drawing off exactly as our tapsters 
draw beer. I could not learn where they found customers 
for so great a consumption, but supposed them supplied by 
extraordinary traffick upon the river. Yet they assured me, 
such brandy huts were found in every village, and all of 
them equally well stocked. 

We arrived late the same night at Gelo Zavoda and wait- 
ed there till sunrise. In all the villages and towns, from 
Moscow to Worpnetz, as in other parts of Russia, are seen 
boys, girls, and sometimes even old men, playing with the 
small joint-bones of a sheep. This game is e&l\ti\ dibbs by 
the English. It is of very remote antiquity ^ for 1 have 
seen it beautifully representetl on Grecian vases, particularly 
on a vase in the collection of the late sir William Hamilton, 
where a female figure appeared most gracefully delineated, 

cxeeuted in a most wretched manaer. All persons were ordered to staa4 
bareheaded before these pictures, as if in his presence. The peMSBtS fell 
ji^strate^ aud offered adoratiO0> as totibeir bc^ 



f AOV TI7I.A TQ WOlLOnTSr. iiT 

kmeiii^ «pQ» ime ksee, with her rif^ht arm extended, tfae 
pal« downward«> and tlte bones ranged alooo^ the back of 
her hand and arm. She teemed in the act of throwiqe up 
the bones in order to eateh then. In this manlier the Ras* 
sians play the game. But thej have another method, which 
eiaetly corresponds with oar game of marbles, and which 
prohaUy afforded the eriffiu both of marbles and of nine* 
ptBS : it consists of several large bones placed in a row upon 
the graand, while, with another bone, a eontest ensnes wh^ 
shall beat them all down, from a giren distance, in the 
smallest number of throws. 

It is a pleajsing si|ht to see the young viUa^rs retnni in 
Oie evening from their labour. They walk with flowers in 
their hats, movipg slowly up the village, and singing a kind 
of hymn. In these eantations, each person bears his respec- 
tive part of the harmony, and, by the exoetness with wbicil 
the Russians observe time and tune, the effect is very intern 
esting. Yegetation had been very ranid, even in the interval 
of our short journey from Moscow;^ but in the garlands with 
whiek the peasants were adorned, and among the plants obr 
served near the road, we found only the earliest flowers f 
and among these, none worthy of particular notice. Th^. 
whole territory, whether to the south of Moscow, or in anv 
other direction, is flat. Theffreat, orieQtal pioiu eiteadk 
from that city, even to Tobolsk! in Siberia, and thonghout> 
all the southern provinces, appearing generally destitute of 
wood, and always^ without enclosures. 8one part of the 
country of Cambridge affords a striking resemblance of the 
country. 

There is no reason to fear, in the writing of those whe 
travel throng Russia, any narrative of their adventures at 
inns.Except m large towns, such houses are never seen : and 
eveii then they ore abominable. Better accommodation may 
be obtained in the farm houses of the Lapland peasanta 
than in Russian inns. In the latter, the rooms consist of 
bare walls, filthy beyond description $ destitute alike of 
beds and chairs« Sometimes they are kept by foreigners, ii^ 
which case the evil is not mended ; heeause then, although 
a little old furniture is introduced, it is always offensive, and 
affords a receptacle to all kinds of vermin. A person who 
wishes to traverse Russia^ must consider it as aneient 8«y« 
thia. Hp most pmvide every thing for wfai^h he may baTf» 
oeeasioo. If he can endure fatigue with little sleep, dust, e 
seorching sun^ or )ie?e^e frost, with^eooeb ef Biiew bmeatk 



ils ola&kb's travels in RVSnAr 

the eanopy of beaven, he may travel in a kibitki, whieh 19 
the best or all methods of conveyance. If not, according 
to the method recommended in the first chapter, he mast 
have a couch in his carriage, with the additional precaution 
of ^reat strength in the vehicle, which should be made low, 
and with very wide axle-trees. This circumstance will 
render his journey not quite so expeditious as in a lighter 
machine ; but he will always be able to proceed at the rate 
of a hundred versts in a day. If he can smoke, tobacco, 
used moderately, may preserve him from dangerous infee*- 
tion, and the many unpleasant odours to which he will be 
exposed. It will, moreover, counteract the consequences of 
eontinual travelling and want of rest, repel vermin, and 
offer a resource in long fasting, upon dusty plains, on lakes, 
rivers, unwholesome marshes, and beneath chilling dews. 
It also promotes the digestion of bad food, which he mn$f 
necessarily often encounter. 

The next day, June the third, we passed through Yasza^ 
ny and Celo Volotia to Tula, the capital of the goverment 
of the same liame, and the Birmingham of Russia. Neaf 
the town we collected specimens of a plant which the peas- 
ants boil in milk, as a remedy for disorders of the bowels, 
and a disease which they term <^ sickness of heart." It ia 
Lathrma sqtmmaria^ a plant difficult to preserve, on aecoant 
of its succulent nature. 

Some time before we reached Tula, it presented a con^id-^ 
erable appearance. A very handsome church with white 
^lumns, more like a nobleman's palace than a place of 
worship, appeared above the town, which occupies a very 
^Ktensive vale, and is filled with spires and domes. The 
entrance to it, both on its northern and southern side, is 
through triumphal arches made of wood, and painted to im- 
itate marble. In former times, Tula was a dangerous plaee 
t» visit; the inhabitants frequently pillaging travellers in 
the publiek streets. Now, it is the great eoiporium of 
hardware for the whole empire ; containing a manufactorr 
of arms, all sorts of cutlery, and works in polished steel. 
As soon as you arrive at the inn, a number of persons crowd 
the room, each bearing a sack filled with trinkets, knives^ 
inkstands, ineense pots, silk-reels, scissors, and corkscrews. 
Their work is showy, hot very bad, and will not bear the 
tnallest eomparison with our English wares : it is a suffi- 
•lent proof of the superiority of English workmanship, that 
ibey stamp all their goods with the names of Bngliah imfh^ 



TULA. ii% 

EiidBnludli artifieerft : imitatiogp evea tlie marks of tLe 
Sheffield manufaetarers, and adopting all their models. 
The wares hawked about are made during holydajs and 
hours of leisure, and these the workmen are permitted to 
Refl to strangers, as their own perquisites. Thej are able 
to fabricate any thing, but they finish nothing. Some of 
them were purposely sent to £ngland by the late empress, 
who neglected no measure which might eonduee to the ad- 
vancement of jthe manufactory. I asked those who had 
worked in England, why their wares were so badly finished* 
They replied, they could finish them better, bnt could not 
l)estow the necessary time ; for as every article is the pro- 
duce of the labour of a single person, the high price sueh 
additional labour would require would never be obtained. 
The best work we saw was in a manufactory of barometers, 
thermometers, and mathematical instruments ; but the arti- 
ficer was a German, who had been instructed under English 
masters in Petersburgh. The late empress bought up al- 
most all the work which her English workmen eompleted. 
To eneonrage them, she ordered spectacles by the gross, 
and afterwards distributed them in presents. In her pal- 
aces she had thermometers in every window ; and as the 
servants continually broke them, her workmen had suffi- 
•eient demands to keep them in constant labour by previd-^ 
ing a supply. 

naving a letter to one of the principal persons in the 
imperial manufactory, we were permitted to see the whole 
of it They showed us a splendid collection of workmanship 
in guns, swords, pistols^ &c. designed as presents from the 
inhabitants of Tula to each member of the royal family, 
upon PauPs accession to the throne. These offerings were 
irefused by the emperour, upon a pretext of dissatisfaction 
experienced by him from the people of the place. The true 
eause, however, was known to be his steady determination 
of oppressing and insulting every individual, or set of indi- 
Tidoals, patronized by his mother. Whatever might cast 
odium upon her memory; whatever might sully the lustre 
of her fame ; by interrupting the progress of her . plant 
for publiek improvement; by dismissing her statesmen and 
offieers ; by poisoning the sources whence she dispensed 
happiness among her people ; by overthrowing her estab- 
lishments; blasting the tender, but thriving shoots <tf 
9cienee, and of the arts which she had planted ; converting 
good to evil, and joy to S^^^^ ^^ the nope and the ocea- 



IM Clarke's TRAttLS in KvstiA« 

paticm of Iter aDB&tui*aI smi. To the few years of Iii« tyva* 
ny (for erery one saw tliat his government would soon end) 
lie proved a greater scoar^ to Rnssia than ean be coun- 
terbalaneed by another long and glerioas career like that 
lof Catherine's, marked by wisdom, wealth, power, eon* 
quest, glory, and beneficence.* Already every trace of her 
brilliant reign had disappeared. The Kussians, on the ac- 
cession of Paul, fell hack into the barbarity which charac- 
terized the empire before the . age of their first Peter. 
The polished nations of Earope will be surprised to learn, 
that immortal as the name of Catherine appears in their 
annals, it was almost forgoten, in Russia, witnin foUr4years 
^fter her death; it remained among the number of priva- 
tions enjoined by the long list of publick proscriptions, 
and was heanl only in the howling of the wind that drif- 
ted the snows of Siberia; no one dared to mention it. At 
the same time, her favourites were displaced ; her minis- 
ters rejected ; her officers dismissed ; her monuments over- 
thrown : even the verst posts, which bore some marks of 
her taste, were demolished ; and near their ruins stood a 
series of wooden Harlequinades^ m the uniform of their 
lB«d sovereign. 

Tula, in its present situation, is not likely to prove any 
advantage to the empire; beeause the inhahitants are una- 
ble to raise the water which is wanted to put the whole 
fbbriek in motion. The machinery i^ iU constructed, and 
worse preserved. Every thing seemed out of order. 
Workmen, with long beards, stood staring fit each other, 
pondering what was to be done ne^st; while their inten- 
dants and directors were drunk or asleep. Notwithstanding 
all this, they pretended to issue from the manufaotory, in 
the common course of business, without any particular 
4Mtler from government, thirteen hundred muskets in a 
wvek. But the name of musket is almost all that connects 
the appearance with the reality* It is wouderfol any troops 

* Such was, at leaat, the cUaraeter of hep publktk adiaiilisitrationj Her 
prirate vices were those of the people over whom srflie reigned. Tlie 
reader will find them tolerably portrayed in the ** Secret Jfemoirf ofthA 
Court of J'eterabur^hy'* a woHt attributed lx> Se^ur. T«t, who shA re- 
late the butcheries of the Orlofe, tiie Paasbks, and Saratinalci'a^ of Raw- 
■a ? All that Shakspeare hsA fabled of the crueUiej of llichar^ the third, 
jeem to hare been realized under the reign of Catherine, whether will* 
ller oonnivance has not be«n aseei1:ained. The " quick co^rveyana^ of 
W huabaiid, of the HoUtein gusuxie, of f^rinee Ivan, might be the«^^ 
fl^ber favourites j but can we behiivc Alexin* O^lof aloue inipli|iftt«d itt 
fhetate rf the innoeobt danshtet of the empress EKrabcth I 



TULA. 131 

ean nse t^em : besides bein^ clumsy and heavy, they miss 
fire five times ont of six, and are liable to burst whenever 
disehar^d. 

The streets of Tula are paved, and its shops and ptibliek 
places present a greater appearance of activity and industry 
than is usual in Knssia. The number of its merchants, in- 
clnding;, I suppose, shopkeepers, is estimated at four thou- 
sand ; of which some are very rich. Its commerce, inde^* 
pendent of the hardware manufactory, consists in European 
merchandise, Greek wines, and other productions, of Tur- 
key. The imperial fabrick of arms employed six thousand 
workmen ; and the number of its inhabitants was stated at 
thirty thousand. It stands in a smooth valley, on the bor- 
ders of the river Upa. There are few woods in its neigh- 
bourhood, and yet they produce sufficient fuel for the con- 
sumption of the town. This may be attributed to the very 
great economy introduced by the use of stoves; for th* 
neatin:; of which, afew billets, 6arly in the mornins, suffice | 
and they continue afterwards to diffuse an equal warmth 
during the whole of the day and following night. If they are 
properly t^oastructed and attended to, there is no method of 
heating apartments with so little expense and so many 
conveniences. In England, stoves are generally made of 
east iron, which are not merely unwholesome, but, in small 
rooms, very dangerous. Why the Russian and Swedish 
stove has not become common in our country, where every 
article of fuel is so amazingly expensive, must be explained 
by those who prefer more costly, and perhaps more cheerful 
hearths, llie generality of houses in Tula are of wood ; 
but the number of those built with stone is considerable, and 
increa&es daily, Matly new buildings aiford proof of increas- 
ing population. We observed women employed in repairing 
th& pavement of the streets, which is kept in good order. 
The dress'of the young females, when clean, displayii their 
persons to advantage. A white shift covers the arms and 
the body in front; and is fastened behind with tape. It is 
drawn tight over the breast, and there held together by s^ 
imall button. 

The iron mines in the neighbourhood of this place are 
very considerable ; tltey occupy an extent of more than ten 
miles, in a country somewhat hilly, covered by thick woods. 
The whole of the soil around them is impregnated with 
iron ; but the richest ore is found towards the west. It lies 
soareely conceaied by a superiBcambent surface, not more 

M 



i23 OLARKe's tRAVELS IN RUSSIA. 

than fourteeti inches thick, consisting of sancl miied with 
mould, and sometimes of sand alone. From these mines 
the celebrated forges of Demidof, distant thirty-eight miles 
from Tula, derive' their ore. 

As soon as we left Tula, we quitted the main road from 
Moscow to Gherson, and turned off doe south, towards Wo-> 
ronetz. After ascending the heights above Tula, we were 
carried into a wide and desolate plain, covered only by a 
thin sod, on which herds of cattle were grazing. This de- 
viation was not made on our part without apprehension. 
We bad reason to fear that unknown roads might not suit a 
cariiage ill constructed for adventurous jouniey; lofty, 
%vilh narrow axle-trees, and more calculated for cities than 
deserts. To our great satisfaction, however, and for the 
comfort and guidance of others who choose to follow our 
route, the whole distance to Woronetz may be passed over 
like a bowling-green, and the lightest vehicle would be ex- 
posed to no hazard of injury. This vast plain afforded us 
the finest road in the world, not excepting even those of 
Sweden, being all the way a firm, hard turf, exactly like 
that which covers the South Downs in Sussex, and with the 
additional advantage of being, for the most part, level, ex- 
tending like an ocean,in which the eye roams without diseem- 
ing a single object to interrupt the uniformity. Over the first 
part of the Journey from Tula, small copses in patches might 
be distinguished, and in these we noticed dwarf oaks, the first 
seen since we entered Russia from the Swedish frontier, 
except one in a garden at Moscow, shown there as a scarce 
plant, and cut into a barbarous form, like the Yew-Trees 
in old-fashioned English shrubberies. Among these copses 
were found the Potentilla mserina, which we had seen at 
Tula 5 the Jisperula odoraia^ or Sweet JVoodroof; and a 
species of Geum^ which I was not able to ascertain. 

The. view of Tula from the elevated plain above it, over 
^ hich the road passes towards Woronetz, is very fine. 
There is not a more pleasing prospect in Russia. The 
town itself, with its numerous white buildings, dome% 
towers, and rising spires, is a fine object Trees are seen 
skirting the suburban downs, and spreading here and there 
in the valley, while cattle graze all around it. At the 
same time, the ear is greeted by' the cheerful noise of indus- 
try and manufactures ; the ringing of bells ; the lowing dT 
the herds i and the loud chorus of peasants singing their 
national airs^ accompanying the voice, either by the eiap- 



TirtA. lis 

pTng of kiuids, or by the notes of their rude pipes, which 
they still eoostruet of the same materials as the sandals on 
their feet At this time, also, nameroas caravans were 
passing from the Ukraine and from the Don; and the 
whole eonstiiuted so striking a contrast to scenes we had 
long been accastomed to Yiew in the cold regions of the 
north, that we seemed suddenly transported to a different 
zone. 

The rapture was not of long duration. It is impossible 
to imaepiue a place more miserable than the town or village 
of Dedilof, the first station, and distant only twenty miles*^ 
from Tula. It consists of several timber huts, coarsely 
thatched with straw. The interstices of the'trunks of trees, 
which, lying horizontally, form the walls of the hats, are 
i&lied with mud. It stands in a wide and open district, half 
on the top and half on the bottom of a hill. At first sight 
it appears like a number of dunghills, or heaps of straw ; 
And it is onlv bv a ver;f near approach that the traveller can 
he convinced of its being the residence of human beings ; 
much less that it shduld figure in a Russian map as a townu 
It is from seeing such places that we may conceive what sort 
of cities and towns anord the names which we find in the 
Russian atlas, so profusely scattered over the eastern prov- 
inces of the empire. The wretched state of Dedilof must, 
however, be attributed to causes which may desolate the 
fairest cities of the world. It has experienced calamities, 
both of fire and water; and been so oiten reduced to ashes, 
that its inhabitants dread even the sight of a tobacco-pipe. 
Seeing me light mine, the starosta of the place was sent to 
request I would not use it, especiallv in tne open air, as a 
casual spark might again involve them in flames. Near 
the upper part oi this place is an immense pool filled with 
water, which once was level, dry ground, like the rest, and 
covered by houses. Suddenl v subterranean waters, penetra- 
ting the soil} rendered it so loose, that the ground, with all 
the houses gave way in one night, and the place was trans- 
formed into a small lake. As the whole district is swampy, 
Tendering the soil naturally loose, and spungy, and water is 
found immediately below the surface, there is reason to 
apprehend, sooner or later, that all the land about it will 
experience tke same alteration. This is rendered moriB 
probable by an event which occurred a few years ago. At 

* Thirty verrts. 



a $m^ll cli«tane« from the p«ol or lake I bave mentifiied, w 
another! wbieh owes Us origin toiisimiiar eatastrophe* The 
inhabitaaUof D^dilof are peasaats»i» the greatest poverty^ 
and tliejr sole peeupation is tilla^. la our josmey thither, 
we invited some of their fellow-sufierers in bondage to dritifc 
oar king's health, it being his birth daj [Jane 4» 1800,] 
We had reserved a bottle for the purpose of it» celebration; 
so with hearts yearning for old Kngfand, we drank : <' Goi 
save great George T' as we fled from despotism through a 
land of slaves* 

We were now traversing the sontbern latitude of our bor 
loved eountry, in a direct line towards the south ; and, a^ 
we appiToaehed Woronetz, observed manv of olirindigenoof 
plantei the large thistle, the kilk*weea, dandelion, white 
el»f er, wood strawberry, plantain, and the dockweed. Sod- 
den and loud thunder storms, with hall and rain, majestiekr 
roiling elonds, temporary gusts of ivind, and transitory sua* 
beams, often reminded us of an English spring* Sueh natu- 
ral resemblance is by no means the necessary aeeompani* 
ment of similarity in latitude. Naples and Constantinople 
are, with respect to each other, nearly an the same Uoe of 
latitude $ but the climate of the latter is niany degrees 
colder. The mild aspect of the plain of Woronetz may be 
attribnt^ to the want of forests, the removal of which, im 
all countries, increases the temperature of their climate. 
It is a well known passage in Horace^ which describes tha 
inonntain Soraote white with saow ; but the climate of Italy 
is now souitered, that such a sight is hardly ever obser% edL 
< The ncKt day, June the tfth, we passed through the towa 
of Boghoroditz, on an eminence above which place Bobria- 
«ky, said to have been a son of the late empress, by Orlof^ 
has a magnificent seat,' with an estate of the finest corn 
iaud in Rusisia, covering an exteut of si&teen square mUes^ 
and containing^ as it is reported, seventy thousand p«asant«. 
Here you travel for miles and miles, and see. nothing but 
corn. It is the richest country in the empire. The roads 
are so excellent, that the wagons of the peasants, although 
laden with stones, pass and repass with wooden wheeli, 
mthout any iron» 

The period is uncertain when the Uttle town of Bogho- 
roditz was built. Its inhabitants began to hold their 
archives under the Tsar Feodore Alexovitz. The shopkeep- 
crs,tbe Slreltzi, and the Puschk^ri, with about one hundred 
invalid soldiers, have composed, since that time, its inhab* 



sm^u TULA TO woaoKsxac. ±st9 

ituite. The ealture of land U described at beins, at pret- 
lent, their sole resoaree, and tUe fertility of the soil has ren* 
dered it remarkabl j produetive. They related^ that the 
peasants had even a small saperfinit^jr to sell, whieh they 
carried to Kaluga and to Tula. This plaee also affords 
plenty of honey to these towns. 

From Bo^oroditz we traversed boundless plains, without 
a single enelosure, until we came to Celo Nikitzkoy, the 
country round whieh has, of late years,been maeh cultivated. 
Formerly it was like the rest of those deserts which the 
Russians call steppes,* and which are so frequent south of 
Woronetz. The soil here, notwithstanding its recent des- 
4»late condition, consists of near two feet of eood, black, 
vegetable earth, lying upon a bed of marl. The plants we 
observed infioweron this day [June 6th3 are all known in 
England ; ^' the bird's foot trefoil, the purple mountain milk 
vetch, the germander, the globe flower, and the wood 
anemone." Nikitzkoy was once in a low and swampy spot, 
exceedingly unwholsome, in consequence of whieh, the in- 
habitants moved it to the more elevated situation it now 
holds $ but being too lazy to nse the materials of the houses 
they had abandoned for their new settlement, it was deemed 
expedient to set them on fire $ when the flames communica- 
ting to the peat, of which there is abundance near the place, 
continued burning for six months with great vehemence, in 
spite of all the efforts made to extinguish them. The in- 
habitants now suffer much from a scarcity of fuel ; yet they 
inake no endeavour to eoUeet the peat which still remains, 
and dry it for their hearths as a substitute. We saw here 
a curious funeral ceremony. The lid of the coffin, being 
formed of one piece of wood, scooped like a canoe, was not 

fnt on till the deceased was laid iu his grave. They buried 
im in all his clothes, even to the saadus before described. 
Mead was brought to the grave, to be drank there, iu a 
• howl, with a number of small wax bougies stuck round the 
rim. The women kept up a kind of musical howl, singing 
their lamentations in stnuns truly dolorous.f The rest of 

• The word steppe, does not imply what we i^erally understand by 
the word desert. A steppe \a a plain without any visible boundary, perfect- 
ly flat, but frequently covered by spontaneous and luxuriant vegetation. 
it is moreover uninhabited, except by nomade tribes^ who pitch their tents 
there oocasioDally, and for a shoi't time. 

f Of the antiquity of this custom, a single passage from the coiKlanon of 
Homer's Iliads as traniUted by Cowpers will suffice : 

MS 



iM CLAAKfi's TRAVELS IK ntf^t^. 

ttie ftltMi^iitS) i»gt«ftd of johiinif in tin difgt, «r the ^fftrt^ 
nuonial Ht^s, irere QeeRpiedf tn ^rosiin^ tkemselves, «nd ifv ' 
proBtratkHis towards tlu; east, bowtng their heads until they 
touehed with their foreheads the other gr»res near tbe place 
of interment. The lid of the coffin Was ho^rn first, corened 
by a linen cloth, after which followed the tower part with 
th^ bod J ; so that it seemed as if twio eolffins were earried to 
one grave. 

We journeyed hence to Bolshoj Piaty. Soon after pas- 
sinj^ this last villa^y we observed, on our left, the novel and 
pleasing appearance of a fine w«od, In wh4eh I found that 
beautiful plant, the cmvailaria ttvottiflora^ in full bloom, neaer 
si& feet in heis^ht, and flourishing in great luxurianee. M> 
terwards we came to Effremof, written inn properly Jerernow, 
in the Berlin edition of the great map of Russia. It is a. 
small, insignificant town> upon a high hill, at the foot of 
viriiieh flows a river which falls into the D on, written Jtleto>^ 
i7ut,attd Metxa^ but pronouneed Mecha, or Meka [to mark the 
aspirate more strongly] by the people. In a eountry «• 
monotonous as that we were new passing, inte resting infor- 
siatfon is neither expected nor obtained. The nature of the 
soil, its ptof^ee^ the uniformity of scenery, and the Presses 
of the people, afford few remarks, and those nowise im^ 
portant. Sterne ludicrously, but tvisely, observed that 
nothing puto a writer of travels to so mueh diificiilty, as 
sending him over an extensive plain. To journey many 
leagues, and say nothing, might seem like inattention ; bat 
to write observations of no moment is less pardonable than 
any omission. . 

We passed a place w^lich would give me some diffiealty 
if I should attempt to express it by any law of orthography 
that may convey an idea of the Russian mode of pronunm- 
tion.* Afterwards^ leaving the government of Tola, we ca- 
tered titat of Orlof^ as we w«re informed ; but in the fiedtn 
map it is laid down as the government of Orel. The female 
eostume here is very singn W. The caps of the women are 
triangular, having the veHex In f^nt^ so that the base ex* 

*' And gingers placed be«ide him, tvho shouid chaant 
Tlie strain funereal : they with many a grOan 
Tlie dirge began, and stin at evefy close 
The female train with mnny a groan repUed." 

* It may be wiitten Mc^laifevku »• thtio, if the ij be prtmoitneed as oU? 
y, and the v as an^; it bcoooMft ^MafUiyefka^ w1m».I bQ)ii«rQ,ia joear ^te 
mark. 



Pn^iti TVLA TO WOROWBTZ. ^iS7 

Ut4$ hMtA ]lke*tw8f \mtm»f wbteh ^ven ihmi n very odd 
apfHBttraflce; «t ^ Miiiietime thej \^ar a froek^ faard^ 
refteftiiig to tlieir knees. Ib titetr ears tkey have larttB h#OB 
vin^n^t »iilikeilie»e latfely wofniiy ladies in LoadoB aad 
Paris*. Tbey kada,ls(» pendaBtB of pieces of meiai attaehed 
to a. haadkerebtef, or ei^, wliieh eoyered the baek part of 
Ihetr head. 

FroeeefUng towards Celo PetrofskiaPalDia, we wore Buieh 
surprised by a speetacle similar to that whieh Bruee roloites 
hft%4B8^ seea IB Afriea. We observed at a donsidem^le dis- 
Hwee voi^aieoiBti^TNtof sand^ reaehitigt as it appeared^ 
fioBi ike earth to theelouds, and passiag with amazini* 
Ripidky aflroasrthe honzoB. Otir serrant, a Greek, aativB 
of CoRstantaioiik, related an instanee of a child in the 
Ukraine^ who was takeii up by ooe of such tornados, and, 
after being whirled round ami round 9 had every limb bro- 
iuan in itft fail. He declared he wks eye-witaess of the ea^ 
tntrophe* Passing the village I have named^ we after- 
wards arrived at filetx, or leletz, a l^it;e, paved% town of 
«oB8idembfo,exteBt, situated between the river, wheaee its 
siame has beeB derived, and the Sossna. This plaee was 
entirely destroyed by fire.in l74^ and since rebuilt* It 
stands OB a lofty and steep hill, and maintains a considera^ 
ble eommerce in cattle aud corn. ' Agriculture here is in a 
very flourishing state> and- tlio enviroBS abound in wood. 
Its inhabitasts consist of merchants, artisans, Pusehari, 
luid SH*eltzi. lt» merchandise is derited from Moscow 
aad the Ukraine 5 and it <earrtes on a great, internal trade 
in the sale of honey and leather to the people of the town 
and neighbourhood. The naaiher of th^ belofigins* to 
the erowD, paying triimte, amounts to two thousand three 
handrediindtwenty-tiiree. We observed a number of forges 
at work, and found that the number of smiths, and other a^ 
tiicers in ironialone, atnoOn^ed to t^vo bundled. ' Eletx is 
-renowned for the eelebriity of its forges. Part of the iron is 
ftorived from a mine near the village of Yisnistdenez, the 
ivbolo dsstrieiareBiid wlueh place, to some v^rsts ki extent, 
exJbibits a IbrugiBeus soil« PeasfUits raise the surface with 
spades UBtH they reach the ore $ but as the snperfi^es which 
isrms the roof of the mine consists of clay aod sandy the 
tides of the apertaures they make are very apt to fall in : 
Wk this account they make the opening so narrow, that they 
are Mforked with difiieuity; the operation being cairied on 
«»tire}y in akafta widioiit any levels or. even iBciiaed oi^a- 



1^8 CLARSb's travels IK EVSSJ^A. 

▼ation. There are also in the vieiiiitj of Ud^uio, u^b 
the eastern banks of the Don, in hills of the same name^ 
mines of iron in a state of exploration ; but as thej have 
hitherto nei^lected the analysis of their ores, and, instead of 
making any selection, mix the whole together without the 
smallest attention to quality, the metal turns out brittle, de- 
fective, and altogether bad. In the foi^es of Tula, where 
more eantion is used in this respeet, the iron is of s very 
snperiour nature. 

In the streets of Eletz, I observed large heaps of stone fof" 
the purpose of building, the substance of which was porous 
and peiTorated, traversed in all direetions by a deposit of 
marine animals. It resembled the kind of limestoae found on 
the banks of the Mosqua, but was more characterised by the 
impressions of the extraneous bodies. Visiting the high banks 
of the river near the to wn, I found large masses of a similar 
deposit, lying in regular strata.* Hereafter I shall take 
ocGasionto show, that such appearances may be observed 
in all the great, oriental plain, declining from the Aral, the 
Caspian, and the sea of Azof, towards the Blaek Sea ; au* 
thentick monuments of a vast ocean, once covering tha 
whole of Tartary, whose diminished waters are still effect* 
ing a further retreat by the channels of Constantinople and 
the Dardanelles. 

A musical instrument, more common in remoter periods, 
amused us in the streets of Eletz. It eonsisted of two reeds 
put together in the mouth. The performer was a blaek- 
smith's boy, who played several tunes. The reeds were 
each about six inches in length, and not thicker than a 
quill. Such were the Tibife used in processions, of which 
representations appear upon antique bas-reliefs, and the 
firesco paintings of Uerciuaneum and. Pompeia, and upon 
vases i«)und in Greeian tombs. 

From Eletz, we continued our journey through the village 
of Ezvoly to Zadonetz. In all this route we were con- 
tinually met by caravans from the Don, the Crimea, and 
other parts of the south of Russia. These caravans form- 
ed a line ef wagons, thirty or forty in number, hearing 
hrand V, wool, eorn, &e. Sometimes they consisted of cat- 
tle onfy; cows of an ash colour, horses, goats, sheep, and 
hogs, all moving in the same promiscuous herd, aoeompa* 

• We found here the VerMica Serpt/lH/olia, a Cineraria, urhich I be- 
lieve to be the Siborica ; and a new s^iecies of Gvpsophila, growing with 
Cfi^two Bivak {[water Ayens] mu} Kammeukm Aunomm f%ok]»lodM.3 



ttied \if I^h) BuMiatiS} OosM«kv aad^Uier inbi^iHtaiiU^ 
tiitile R«6Ma and the Ukraine. 

At a short di»lan<;e from ZadosetE, we eroMed the Doi| 
by a ferry. Jt preheated a broad, «lear, and rapid eurreat* 
The town stands apon a hill above the river, and oiiee 
formed one of a line of forts erected from thi» place te Za- 
ritzin, to prevent the incursions of the Tartars and Cosr 
^acks. It has now.asiiperintendant, or Garodnitch^ and 
appears, libe the ether towns throagh whieh we passed, to 
be hi a thriving state. In all of them new houses were 
bailding^ and the appearance ^activity promised improve* 
nient. At Zadonetz I foui^d a plant whieh is entirely un« 
known. Professor Pallas told me he had never seen it ; 
and, as I have not yet been able to obtain a nsune for it 
from any English botanist, I shall reserve the description 
of it for the appendix to this volume. 

From Zadonetz, our journey led us through the sweetest 
eosntrj imaginable, eovered ¥^th Woods full of flowers, fruit 
trees, and a number of plants, which plainly indicated an 
approach to Warmer climates. Apple und other fi-nit trees 
sprouted wild among yonng oaks, and vegetables not found 
nearer the north pole. The name of tbfe river will, perhaps, 
not meet the reader's attention so readily in the compound 
word Zadonetz, as if written Zadonsk ; in which manner 
it appears in the best maps. I have imitated the mode of 
protianeiation as ntsarly as possible. Donetz ar^ Donsk, 
are both nanses of the Don. Farther to the south, and 
nearer the mouths of the river, the pronunciation isk 
sometimes Daneetz, of Danee^s, and Tdatn^ts, henee the 
transition to Tanais is not very equivocal ; nor eai^ much 
donbt be entertained concerning the origin of the appella- 
tion bestowed by the ancients upon the river. In what a 
variety of languages has this Word Don, with its roots and 
ramifications, been used to signify a river, a lake, or cities 
on the mouths of rivers! Don, Donets, Dun, Den, Dan, 
Danau, Tan, Tane, Ain, An, En, &e. &.e. Thus we have 
Jordan ; Tanis a name of Bai's, on the Nile ; Tan y bwlcfi, 
in Wales 5 Danube ; Thames 5 Ain, and Colerain, in the 
noHh of Ireland 5 Eden, in the same country 5 Tyne,and 
many others. 

As i^e advanced through Celo Chlebnoy, we beheld, at 
a distance en our right hand, the D»n rolling in a very ma- 
jesiick and devious course, while the full moon cast her lieht 
vpoii its walers. We halted for the night at a plaee eaUod 



480 clarkb's travels iir russia. 

Beftnzevka, almost a solitary hat in the midst of wide* 
plains ; and were somewhat struck by the singular manner 
m which a peasant cautioned us not to sleep there, but pro- 
ceed another stage. Triflins circumstances of this kind, 
often excite the suspicions or travellers $ and in this lonely 
situation we were puzzled by conjectures whether an at- 
tempt was made to lead us into, or out of a snare ; howe- 
ver it ended, like many such adventures, in nothing. 

The next morning, June 7th, was passed very expedi- 
tiously, through Celo Staroy Ivotinskoy to the town of Wo- 
ronetz ; situated upon a river of the same name^ near ih^ 
^mt where it falls into the Don. 



CHAPTER XI. 

FROM WORONETZ TO THE TERRITORY OP THE DDK 
COSSACKS. 

Present state of Woronetx — Climate and Productions — Oar- 
den of Peter the Great — Inundation and Product of the 
Bivers — Increase of Buildings — Jirsmal — Cammerce^ 
internal and external — fVine of the Don — Change of 
Manners^ and of Features-^^-jyeglect of Drowned Persons 
y^^Tumuli — Malo Russians — Putins south of Woronet;^ 
'^Celo Usmani — Podulok Muscovskoy — Mmocksy Ekort- 
xy^ and lestakovo — "Ivocova Sloboda — raulovskoy — 
Plants — Jinimals^-^Trade — Rash Conduct of a young 
Peasant — Kazinskoy Chutor — Mzney Momon — Dohrin^ 
ka — Metscha — Kdmnkaiay first Stanitxa of the Don 
Cossacks. 

IN the time of Peter the Great, when that monarch came 
to Woronetz to build his first ship of war, there were 
scarce a hundred wooden huts in the place. It is now a 
very handsome town $ and Its commerce entitles it to eon- 
siderable distinction. By means of the Don, it possesses an 
easy intercourse with the Black Sea. Every year, vessels 
go laden to Tseherkaskoy* with corn ; and they accom- 

• The name of this town, the capital of the Bon Cossacks, is geaerany 
f roaounced Tscheixhasky } the teroiinating syllable koi, wUch signifies « 



i 



WOROMETZ. lai 

plish their voyia^e in about two months. In winter they 
receive mereliairaifie by sledges, from the Crimea and Tur- 
key. Its merchants travel into Siberia for furs, and then 
carry them even to the fairs of Franefort. How stranse are 
those journeys to an Englishman! The Russian Mvost^ 
chick is seen at Franefort fair ; and the same person may 
be found in the remotest parts of Siberia. Sometimes thev 
pursue their course even to the coasts opposite England, 
and buy English hardware, cottons, Japan ware, &e. with 
which they travel to all parts of Russia. 

Woronetz, from its remarkable situation, is particularly 
qualified to become a gr^at capital. It is placed so as to en- 
joy the advantages both of warm and cold climates, and 
liolds an intercourse with all parts of the empire. Nature 
is so bountiful to it in the summer, that plants found in very 
southern latitudes grow here almost without care. The wa* 
termeton, so rarely in perfection any where, is as common 
at Woronetz as the cucumber in England, and flourishes in 
the open air, with spicy and aromatiek herbs. Yet the in* 
habitants experience very great extremes of temperature ; 
having sometimes, by the thermometer of Reaumur, thir- 
ty degrees of cold in the winter, and twenty-eight decrees of 
heat*^ in the summer. They use the precaution ordouble 
easements to their windows, as at Moscow and Petersburgh, 
and have very large stoves in all their apartments. In the 
^Journal des savans VoyageurSy^^ published at Berne in 
1792, a commentator attempts to explain the cause of the 
extraordinary difference observed in the productions of the 
climate and soil of Woronetz, when compared with those of 
other countries in the same latitude ; by saying that the 
nature of the soil necessarily supplies that which the cli- 
mate would not othen« ise affbra.f The earth is strongly 
impregnated with nitrat of potass in all the enirirons of 
Woronetz; and it is to the presence of this mineral, 
that extraordinary fertility of the Ukraine has been at- 
tributed. The whole country south of Tula abounds with 
it, insomuefa that it sometimes effloresees on the soil ; and 
several fabrieks for extracting it have been established^ 
The immediate soil below the town of Woronetz is sand ;^^ 

town, being often tbuB abbreTiated ; as in the instance of Tobohkoi, vhieb 
is called ToboUky, I bare substituted the y for the f» as being more con* 
aiBtent with the usual practice in the English language. 

* Bqual to ninety-five of Fi^r^heit 

t See Note top. 116, Vo^fageB ehet let Peupte$ Kalmouks et let Tar- 



iBfi . Clarke's tratexs or kvssia. 

<m a steep mo«nd, er bank of which h has heen hntiU It 
lies in the fifty-foutth de^ee of north latitude. The vine- 
jrards M Europe termiQate nan j degrees nearer to . the 
equator, and yet the Tine flourishes at W»rofietz. The inha- 
bitants Deg>leet to enltivate it for the purpose of makina^ 
%tine; importing* it at ffreat expense from the Bon Cos- 
iKieks, the Greeks, Tarks, and people of the Crimea. It 
irequently happens in France, m the prtnrinf^ of Cham- 
pagne that the grapes do not attain their maturity ; on 
which account susar is sabstituted ia the prepmration of 
the Champagne wine.* At Woronetz, where every fa«ility 
of establishing extensive riaeyards has been oflbred by Na- 
tare, they have been entirely neglected. Gmeiin endea- 
Toiired to nrake them sensible oftl^ importance and adran- 
tages which the town mi^ht derive from tbe ffroifvth of 
r'lwts; but hitlierto no attention has been paid t« them. 
The «leUcious wine of the Don Cossacks is iotind here in 
^reat abundance, bot it sells at very high prices. They serve 
it with a plate of ice, a pieee of which is put into the glass 
when the wine is drank. It is light and pleasant, efferves- 
cing like Champagne, but haviag more the flavour of B«t- 
gnndy. 

Peter the Groat endea^roared to establtsh a botaniek e^- 
den in the neighbourhood of Woronetz^ upon a rorj ^rand 
scale. This we visited, and found a complete wilderness 
of oaks and other forest trees, the underwood growing so 
thick under tlie large trees as to r^idar o«r passage thraiigli 
it impossible. Tfai garden was expresaly appropriated to 
experiments in the cuUiTation of useful pknts, friiit-trees, 
tegeUUdes, and what ever else might be found likely to an* 
swer the purposes of horticultnre in such a climate* Not- 
Withstanding all the pains bestowed by that wise monarch 
upon this institution, it fell in(» negte^, lik-e manj others 
taleulated for the benefit of his peo^de, as soon as bio pow' 
er ceased to enfbree the care of it. Omelin relaleayt that 
in his time, the governour of Wor onetz used ail |ioa»hle 
•ndeavours to restore this gavden to its pristine order. The 

• The Champagne wine has been imitated in England with great suc- 
cess, by nsing gooseberries before thev ripen, and- sapptying ikte want of 
the sacckarine aieid with loaf sugar. If the process be properlj attended 
to^ tliere is o&en very tittle dinerence. Both are artificial compounds. 
The common Chainnagne wine drank in tliis country is made with green 
grapes and sugar. The imitation of it, with gretn gooseberries and sugar, 
4a full as salutary, and frequently as iialatebie. 

t JwTTUd dersm9(m$ Viyagsvr*,^. 114. 



WOUONETZ. 438 

eonseqnenee was, that all sorts of A'uit-trees, partienlarTy 
the Title, the ehestnnt, and the filbert, prodaced the finest 
erops. SaJOTron flourished in abundance, and many pfants 
peculiar to warmer climates. The cherry, the apple, and 
the near tree grew wild in the forests around the town ; but 
the fruit of them, and their better cultivation, was, and is 
still, entirely neglected by the people. I found two plants 
very rare in England, flourishins among the weeds of 
the place, the Campanula pafu/a [Spreading Bell-fiowerl 
which grows in South Wales, and near Marloorou^h ; ana 
the Jljuga pyramidalia or Mountain Biigle. The other 
plants collected by us in the neighbourhood of Woronetz, 
are given in a note, to avoid the pedantry of crowding the 
text with words not familiar to every reader.* Stagnant 
waters, left by the annual inundation of the river, render 
the place very unwholesome during certain seasons of the 
year. ^Flie inhabitants, both in spring and autumn, are 
subject to tertiaii and quartan fevers, which become epi- 
demiek, and attack hundreds at a time. The want of 
proper remedies for such disorders, and the diet of the 

geopfe, which is then for the most part of very indigesti- 
le rood, such as salted fish and salted cucumbers, frequent- 
W causes the ague to degenerate into a continaal fever, a 
dropsy, or a consumption. Both the Woronetz and the 
Doa supply the inhabitants of all this country with an 
astonishing quantity of fishes; in the list of which the 
earp is the most abundant, but they have also tench, ster- 
bet, bream, bleak, trout, lamprey, perch, and pike. The 
last absoLutelr swarm in their rivers, and grow to a prodi- 
gious sl'ze. The flesh is not on that account coarse, yet it 
Is only the poorer class of people who eat it. When nature 
is profuse in her oflerings, the love of novelty induces ni 
to reieet, and even to despise, her bounty. 

The change of season, as at Moscow, does not take place 
lU; Woronetz with that uncertainty which characterizes our 
elimate. Winter regularly begins in December, and ends 
ID the middle of March. According to Gmeljn, the autumu 
resembles a moderate summer. Vegetation is so rapid du- 
ring spring, that on the 9th of June, 1 saw a pear tree which 
had put forth a strong scion abov^ a yard in length* We 
found the climate so different from the temperature to which 

Mw speotea of Ei^horbta^Salma rmtaiu^Verbutcum Phmniciun^^ 
CheUdonium minu9 — Rammculwlllynmi — Viola tricolor (Heiut's^ate.) 



i84k ULARKe's TRAVEtft IN RUSSIA. 

we had been lately aeeustomed^ that we were campeUed 
to alter our elothine altogether. The beams of the sua 
were intolerable ; while a southeast wind, like, a siroeeo, 
blew frequently and even tempestuonsly, eausine insuffera- 
ble heat, during the time we remained here. Tne only me- 
thod we had ofcooling our apartments was by shutting the 
windows and drawing curtains over them. Perhaps tbe 
sudden transition we had made from colder countries, might 
render usi peculiarly sensible of the oppressive heat of the 
atmosphere. 

New buildings were rising in all parts of the town ; and 
the suburbs appeared so extensive, that it was very difficult 
to form any correct idea of the probable fhture extent of the 
place. The town was evidentlv joining with its suburbs ; and 
we were informed that it would include a village or two be- 
sides. It is placed on the very lofty, steep, and sloping 
elevation I have mentioned, to which nature has given tbie 
appeai'ance of a rampart $ so that, when viewed from the 
river below, it looks like a prodigious, artificial fortifica- 
tion. Doubtless it might be rendered a place of very great 
strength, as there are no eminences that could command the 
wqrks on its weakest side. Small lanterns, dispersed about 
upon posts, serve to light the town. The streets are very 
wide, without being paved ; nor is it probable that so neces- 
sary an improvement will speedily take place. 

The arsenal, erected by Peter the Great, still remains, 
although in a ruinous condition. We visited the little, 
sandy island below the town on which he built his first ship 
of war, when he projected the conquest of the Black Sea. 
It is now covered by storehouses, caldrons, and tubs, for the 
preparation of grease, which is a great article of trade here, 
and which they send to England and to America in vast 
quantities. The principal merchant happening to be upon 
th^ spot, he asked me what the English could possibly do 
with all the grease he sent to their country. The stench 
from the bones and horns of animals, slaughtered for the 
purpose of obtaining grease, made the spot absolutely in- 
tolerable. It formerly presented a more interesting spec- 
tacle, when Peter, at once king and carpenter, superintended 
his works in this place, ite here built himself a little 
wooden hut, and a small church opposite the arsenal, on the 
side of the river immediately below the town. Then it was 
that the greatest monarch in the work! surrounded by a ffew 
hovels, in a land of savage people, accustomed only to their 



WORONETZ. iM 

nfU sadeaiioefly was ieei»^Uy sooAbUiDgwRh his work- 
jsen on a littk mound of sand, and bailding a ship of war. 
Iron is one of the principal articles of trade in the town* 
and occupies the chief business of the shops. They also, 
ntanalaeture lai^ guantities of cloth for the army ; and 
have a building lor the preparation of yitrioL Large balls 
»f chalk or lime are pUed up before their doors, as in 
Moseowy Tola, and otner places. The eloth factory was ' 
estiddished by Peter the Great, and is the most considerable 
in Russia, reter resided here in the year 1705 ; and at the 
same time he was also engaeed in building f^tersbnreh. 
In the magazines for grease they employ the cattle of the 
country, and, boiling them down, make two sorts of fat* 
The first sort is exported to Euf^and; the second consumed 
kk Russia, in making soap. Ten poud of the best sort, sells 
sometimes, in Petersborgh as high as sixty three roubles. 
The ^nurriage from Wonmotz to Petersburgh costs about 
eighty copecks per poud. If they contract with English 
mer^AUts in Petersborgh to the amount of one htmJred 
thousand r^publes, they receiYC fifty thousand in advance, 
to enable them to buy cattle. This practice of purchasing 
cattle to boil into erease has of late years enormously a£ 
▼aneed the price of meat. Fourteen years ago, a poud of 
beef sold in Woronetz for twentr-six copeeks; mutton for 
thirty ; and now the poud of b^f costs two roubles, and the 
pMd of mutton sixty cimeeks. In return for the com car- 
ried annually to Tscherkaskoy and Azof, they bring back 
raisins, figs, Greek wines, and the wines of the Don Cos- 
sacks. The salt consumed in Woronetz is supplied from 
a reniarkable salt lake in the neiglibourhood of Saratof, so 
impr^ated with it, that fine crystals form on any substance 
idacea in the water. Sugar is very dear, and all of it 
brought from Petersburgh. The necessaries of life are, 
generally speaking, cheap. The carriers of Woronetz go 
every three years to Tobolsky in Siberia, which is a ren- 
^zvous for ail caravans bound to Kiatka, on the frontier 
of China. From Tobolsky they form one immense caravan 
to Kiatka. Afterwards, returning to Tobobky, the^ dis- 
perse, according to their several routes. From Siberia 
they bring furs ; from Kiatka, Chinese merchandize of all 
sorts, as tea, raw mannfactured silk, porcelain, and precious 
stones. The Chinese, upon their arrival at Kiatka, also 
famish them with the productions of Kamschatka, brought 
Arom fit. Fetor, aad St. FauL^ Thus laden, many of them 



ig^ CLARKX'S TRAVBI.S IV RUSSIA. 

aet.Mtffr Fraoefarft, apd bring b^^ek fnusliuy euabrjiek* 
silks* tbQ poreelain d* Saxooj^ imd the manufactures of 
BsHBlaud. 

Four mfiiiy ^ith their captain, offered to take us by water 
to Tseherkaskoy for two hundred and fifty roubles ; inelu- 
d^i^ aneeessary purchase of boats^ anchors, sails, oars, &c« 
The river is apt to be shallow during summer, and we 
should have b€«n two months in getting there ; the distance 
is fifteen hundred yersts. The best wine of the Don is 
nade upon the river, about three hundred versts before ^.x* 
rWiim at Tseherkaskoy from Woronetz, Fourteen bottles 
sell tSere for one rouble and fifty copeeks* They #re apt. 
to^make U before the grape ripens i and I find this to W' 
ike ea«e with all wine which exiiibits effervescence. Their 
white wine is the best when the fruit is suffered to ripen, 
wkich very rarely bappeiis. 

Approaching the southern j^art of the einpini) the strong 
eharacteristicks of the Russian people are less frequently, 
observed. Happily for th^ traveller, in proportion as bia 
distance is increased from that which has been erroneously 
esinsidered the civilized part of the country, he has b^ss to- 
complain of theft, of fraud, and of dissimulation. In the 
mere northern province^ he is cautioned to beware of the 
inhabitaoits of the Ukraine, and the Cossaoks> bv an lu^rui- 
cipled race of men, with whop the Cossack and the Tartar 
are degraded in comparison. The chambers of onr. iu 
were immediately over the town jail ; and it is q«ite on:-, 
necessary to add of what nation its tenants were composed. 
The Russian finds it dai^roos to travel in the Ukraine, 
and along the Don, because be is conscious the inhabitMita 
of these eonntries know too weH with whom they hove to 
deak The Cossack, when engaged in war, and remote from 
his native land, u a robber, because plunder is a part of the 
military discipline in which he has been educaUd ; but wbeia 
a stranger enters the district in which he reeides with kin 
family and eonneiions, and confides his property to their 
care, no people are found more hospitable, or mo re. honour* 
able. Concerning the inhabitants of the soon try called Mala^ 
JRtissio, a French centletnan, who had long resided amoagp 
them, assured me he osed neither locks lo his doors, nor to 
his eofifers $ and amoog the Cossacks, as in Sweden, a Uunk 
may be sent open, for a distance, of five hundred miles, witk^ 
oat risking the loss of any of its contents. Mr. Rowais, 
banker of oloscow, was compelled, by the breaking of kU 



WOROWETZ. l<y 

mtriiage, to abandon it in the midgt of tfae Def rkory of tho 
Don Cossaeks : and it was afterwards brought sale to hifn 
at Ta^nrock, with all its appnrtenanees and contents, by 
the unsolieited and disinterested labour of that people.* 
Who would venture to leave a earriase, or even a trunk, 
although eneased, doubly locked, and directed among the 
Russians ? 

From the iivtke we left Tola, a remarkable ehange was 
risible in the features of the people, which I was unable to 
explain. The peasants had freqnentlv the strairht yellow 
hair of the inhabitants of Finland, and the same nght eom- 
pfezion; neither resembling Russians, Poles nor Cossaeks. 
At Woronetz, the gypsey tribe was very prevalent 5 and a 
mixed race, resulting from their intermarriage with Rus- 
sians. 

The horrid practice of bnrying persons alive often takes 
place in Rti9sia,from the ignorance of the inhabitants. Sns- 
jpiended animation, oeeasioned bv the vapour of their stoves, 
or aeeidents of- drowning, are always considered lost cases | 
and the unhappy sufferer is immediately committed to the 
gt^ve, without any attempt towards recovery. They send 
only fbr a police <nficer, to note down the cirouoisitanees of 
Che disaster; and, without] the smaUest effort towards 
restoring respiration, proceed' with the ceremony of inter- 
ment. 

A poor woman, in bathing, during our stay at Woronetz, 
got out of her depth. She struggled some time with the 
fttribam, and, being carried by it about three hundred yards^ 
was taken out by some peasants before she bad either sunk 
or lost her poBier of motion* When laid on the earth, she 
groaned and moved ; but the water which had been swal* 
Kywed, rendered her face black, and she became apparently 
lifeless. 8he was, therefore, immediately prononneed to be 
really dead. No endeavour on our part, aeeompanied by 
persuasion and by offers of money, could indoee the specta- 
tors to touch the bo^, or suffer any remedy to be attempted 
for her recovery. They seemed afraid to approach what 
they considered as a corpse* In vain we explained to them 
the process by which persons, so circumstanced, are restored 
to life in 'England. They stood at a distance, crossing them- 
selves, and shaking their heads $ and in thni maniier tiie 

* Of this fact I was assured by Mr. Rowan himself, to whom I am in- 
debted for many instances of politeness and attention during the time I 
readdd in Moscow. 

N3 



183 CLARKE^S TRAVBX.A JN RUSSIA* 

l>^or w<HBam W4IS left tt]Hm tbe fik^re, imtil it- woi»M hw» 
been too late to bave made use of any means f&r her reeev* 
erj. If she was not afterwards buried alire, her death was 
certainly owing to a shameful and obstinate negleet of remi^ 
edieS) whieby in her case, promised eyery prospeel of sneees^; 
The poliee officer gave in his memoriaii ana her body wm 
committed to the grave. 

We left Woronetz on the iSthi^Jun«,ero«siBg the river 
at the bottom of the town* and enterieg plains as befor^« 
The swamps which are below Woronets at onee explam 
the eause of the annual fevers to which its inhabitants ar« 
liable; and mast exhale, during warm seasons, as nnwhole- 
some vapours as those which rne from the fens of Italy. 

There are few finer prospects tlmn that of Woronets^ 

viewed a few versts from the town, on the road to Paulovsky* 

Throughout the whole of this country are seen dispersed, 

over immense plains, mounds of earth covered with & fiite 

tnrf ; the sepuiehres of the ancient world, common to almoot 

cvtdry habitable country. If there exists any thing of fdrmer 

times, which may afford monuments of antediluviaB ma»« 

ners, it is this mode of burial. They seem to mark th^ 

^rqgress of population in the first a«es after the dispeniiiB ^ 

rising wherever the posterity of Sl^oah came. Whether 

under the form of a mound in Scandinavia and Russia ; m 

barrow in England $ a cairn in Wales, Scotland, and Ir^ 

land ; or of those heaps which the modern Greeks and 

TurHs call tepe $ or lastly, in the more artificial shi^ of * 

pyramid in Egypt ; they bad, universally, the same orig^. 

rhey present the simplest and sublimest nsonument w&ls 

any generatiim could raise over the bodies of their proseni^ 

tors ; calculated for almost endless duration, and spewiM 

a langua^ more impressive than the most studied epita^ 

upon Parian marble. When beheld in a distant evening 

liorison, skirted by the rays of the setting sun^ and, as it 

were, touchine the clouds which hover over them, imagisa^ 

tioB pictures Ae spirits rf heroes of remoter periods descen« 

ding to irradiate a warrto«r's ^rave. Some of them roe* 

la such regular forlns, with so simpie and yet so artifieial • 

shano, in a plain otherwise pev^Uy Aat ami level, that no 

dbubt whatever eould be entertained cDnceming them. 

Others, stiU more ancient, have at last sank into the^earthy 

and left a hollow place, encircled by a kind of fosse, which 

«till maiius their pristtae situation. Asain, others, by tho 

{lassage of the plough anniially upon their aurfiicei ms% 



WOROVEXZ* id9 

been eontiderably dlminifthed. I know no appearanee of 
antiqiiitj more iole7e»ting than these tumulL 

We met frequent earavans of the Malo-Riresians, who 
differ alloc^ether from the inbabitantg of the rest of Russia, 
Their features are those of the Polonese, or Cossaeks. 
They are a rouch more noble raee, and stouter and better 
looking people than the Russians, and superionr to them in 
every thing that ean exah one set of men above another. 
They are oieaiierymore industrious, more honest, more gea-r 
erouii, more polite, more eourageous, more hospitable, more 
truly pious, and^ of eourse, less superstitioas. Their lan- 
guid only differs from the Russian, as the dialeet of the 
meridional proviaees of Franee does from the dialeet spo- 
ken iwar Paris. They have, in many instances, converted 
the desolate steppe* into fields of eorn. Their caravana 
are drawn by oxen, whieh proeeed about thirty versts in a 
4ay. Toward evening, they halt in the middle of a plain, near 
sQam» pool of water $ when their little waeons are all drawn 
up in oirele, and their eattle are suflereif to graze around ; 
while the drivers, stretched out upon the smooth turf, take 
their repose, or enjoy their pipe, after the toil and heat of 
the day. If they meet a carriage, they all take off their 
caps and bow. The meanest Russians bow to each other, 
but never to a stranger. 

South of Woronetz we found the country perfectly level, 
and the roads (if a fine turf lawn may be so denominated) 
the finest, at this season, in the whole world. The turf 
upon which we travelled was smooth and firm, without ^ 
stsne or pebble, or even the mark of wheels, and we expor 
rieneed little or no dust. Nothing could be more delightful 
than this part <^ our journey. The whole of these immense 
plaais were enamelled with the greatest variety of flowers 
lOMginable. The list of plants we collected is much too nu- 
miarMis for the text.t The earth seemed covered with the 

* Steppe is the name given in the south of Rusata to those pkuiitvlii«h 
IboQ^ ca{»able of cnlliTation, hsve never been tiUed, They are covered 
wilb wild pUoitB ; and •ometinves, perhaps, improperly^, called deserts. 

t JMr99a0e Sehientri^na^* — Centatirea myriecepJuila — SHpapsnm^ 
tot^Ceragtam* — Idthrum virgatum — Asclepiaa Vincetoxicum — Delpki^ 
miMi wi^citfLarkspur 3'^FmaPam)«n»ca. Also th>ft following, weU 
known m E^and : Salvia pratewds V^e.9i!Sxm Claryl— GnoMoliiiiRdifii* 
icumr^^Cteramwm mfltrnticum [ Wood" Crane's hillj-g-Geum Urbemum*-r 
Jk^fO9Qti0 iSbof^VWea r Mouse-ear Scorfiion Orassl — Cucubalus Otites 
ferowa on Newmarket neath3—'S?i^fn6rium omMtsium (along the banks 
«r the CtiiA JGrt/ffmum bctrbaria (Ydlow Uo«kel— Bitter Wifttet 



140 Clarke's travels in rvssia. 

richest and most beautiful blossoms, fragrant, aroinatiek, 
and, in many instances entirely new to the eye of a British 
trareiier. Even during the heat of the day, refreshing 
breezes wafted a thousand odours, and all the air was per- 
fumed. The skylark was in full song ; and various insects, 
with painted wings, either filled the air, or were seen 
couched in the blossoms. Advancing nearer to the Dob, 
turtle doves, as tame as domestick pigeons, flew about our 
carriage. The pools were filled with wild-fowl ; and dogs, 
like those of Abruzzo mountains, guarded the numerous 
herds and flocks which were passing or grazing. Melons 
of different sorts flourished in the cultivated, though open 
grounds, near the villages, covering several acres of land. 

At Celo Usmani we were employed collecting plants. 
Some were entirely new to our eyes. Others, I believe, are 
found in England; particularly the EcAitem rufrrum, falsely 
called Italicum by Gmelin ; which began to flourish about 
this place, and was afterwards very common. It grows 
chiefly among corn. The women of the Don, he says, use 
it as a colour for their cheeks ; as the root, when fresh, 
jields a beautiful, vermillion tint. The peasants also ex- 
tract a gum from it. It is engraved in the Journal Hes sa- 
vans Voyageurs. Gmelin recommended its 'transplanta- 
tion, and the application of its colouring properties, to ob- 
jects of more importance. We observed also the Spircea 
fUpendulaj which is found on the hills near Cambridge, 
and some varieties of the Centaurea; also the Onosma 
tchimdes^ Veronica Austriaca^ Pedieularis tuberosa^ and 
Salvia pratensis. It is from the root of the Onosma^ as we 
were informed, that the Tartar women obtain their rouge^ 

Usmani is entirely inhabited by Russians; and whenever 
that is the ease, towards the south of the empire, a village 
resembles nothinc more than a number of stacks of straw 
or dried weeds. The female peasants were seated on the 
turf before their huts, spinning. Their machines are not 
quite so simple as those used in many parts of Italy. Thej 
consisted of wooden combs, placed on a stick driven into 
the eronnd to contain the flax,^ and not rising higher than 
the knee; while the left hand managed the spintfie.^ The 
person at work was therefore compelled to sit during the 
employment. This manner of Hviiig afforded a striking con- 
trast to the government that oppresses them ; for we ob- 
served an air of liberty in these wild and u^e plauiB, 
which ill agreed with the reflections we had MMr 



FKOM WOBONBTZ TO PAUL0T8K0T. ^M 

ga tlie general eoDdition of the pessviU* The leverttj of 
the winter liere Is hardly reeencileable with the appettr- 
anee of a eountry abounding in plants whieh are foand iii 
warm climates. Yet the snow annually afibrds a aledge 
road the whole-waj from the Gulph of Finland to the loa 
of Azof. 

From Celo Usmani we travelled over similar fine plains 
to Podulo^ Mossovskoy, where we passed the night in iv 
wretehed village^ whose miserable inhabitants were not 
even able to strike a light. Nothins eould be more revolt* 
iog than the sight of the hovels in which they lived, opeft 
to all the inclemencies of the weather, and destitute of eve* 
ry comfort and common eonvenienee of life. They wero nii 
to be settlers from Tver. 

The next morning, June 13th, we passed the village of 
Mojocks, and came to Ekortxy, where we baited to tak» 
some refreshments under a penthouse, upon the baok of • 
kilntki ^ the heat of the sun being almost insupportable* 
The people were kind ; and a coarse meal, on that aeoounty, 
became agreeable. We began to perceive, that the farther 
we advanced from the common hordes of the Russians, the 
more politeness and hospitality we should experience; 
exactly the reverse of that which we had been taught to 
expect by the inhabitants of Moscow. The deserts^ as they 
bad described them, instead of proving a bare and sandy 
waste, presented verdant lawns, covered with herbage, 
though sometimes dry, and scorched by the rays of a very 
powerful sun. 

M^fr Ekortzy we added the V^frbaseum I^UBnicium to onr 
her&ry ; and between £kortzy and lestakovo, on a high, 
bleak, chalky soil, we found the rarest plants which oecor« 
red during our whole route} Drttba Mpina^ and FolifgiUa 
Sibiriea, Professor Pallas could hardly credit the evi« 
dense of his senses when ho afterwards saw them among 
our collection in the Crimea* Near the same spot we alsf» 
observed that beautiful plant, the Ciem&Hs Jmegrifolid^ 
exhibiting colours of bine and gold ; with othcars, whieh be- 
ine less remarkable, are given in the subjoined note.^ 

The first regular estabfishment of Malo-Russians whieh 
we saw, ocenrred after leaving lestakovo* It was called 
Locova Sloboda. The booses were all whitewashed, like 
many (^ the cottages in Wales ; and this operatioa is per« 

* Other varieties of Verbascum. — Alysivm incanum, ftnd montanufn^"^ 
SiUaiti^ 9M»<a^. YsmtieB of Qtf7mu», and Ftcio Catiu^ccfr 



i^ CLAKKB's TmAVl&LS IN RUSSIA. 

farmed luinaaily, witk great e&re. Btieh dktingtiUhiiig^ 
eleanliness appeared within them, that a traveller misht 
Ikney himself transported, in the course of 'a few miles, 
from Russia to Holland. Their apartnients,eyen the ceilings 
and the beams in the roof, are regularly washed. Their ta- 
bles and benches shine with washing and rnbbing,and remin- 
ded us of the interiour of cottages in Norway. Their court 
yard, stables, and out-houses, with every thing belons^ing 
to them, bespoke industry and neatness. In their little 
kitiehens, instead of the darkness and smoky hue of the 
Russians, even the mouths of their stoves were white. 
Their utensils and domestick vessels were all bright and 
well polished. They kept poultry, and had plenty of cattle. 
Their little gardens were filled with fruit trees, which gave 
an English character to their houses. The third nation 
with whose dwellings I have compared the cottages of 
Malo-Russia ; that is to say, having a Welch exterimir, 
a Norwegian interiour, and the gardens and out- houses of 
the Enslish peasantiy. They had neat floors ^ and although 
the roof was thatched, its interiour was wainseotted. There 
was no where any appearance of dirt or vermin. 

The inhabitants, in their features, resemble Cossacks, 
and both these people bear a similitude to the Poles ; being, 
doubtless, all derived from one common stock. The dress 
of unmarried women it much the same among the Malo* 
Russians and the Don Cossacks. They both wear a kebt^ 
or petticoat, of one piece of cloth fastened round the waist. 
Sometimes, particularly among more aged females, this 
petticoat consists of two pieces, like two aprons, failed 
en before and behind. The necks of the girls are laden 
with large red beads, falling in several rows over the breast. 
The fingers, both of men and women, bear rings with glass 
gems, He. On the forehead of the females, if they wear 
any thing, is a simple bandeauj or gilded cap $ and from 
behind hane rows of antique coins, or false pieces sold to 
them for that purpose, which imitate the ancient coin of 
their own and of other countries. The hair of unmarried 
women hangs in a long braid down the back, terminated by 
a ribband with a knot. Tfieir language is pleasing, and 
full of diminutives. But the resemblance which these peo- 
ple bear, in certain circumstances of drees and manners, to 
the Scotch Highlanders, is very remarkable. The cloth 
Hetticoat before mentioned, is checkered like the Scotch 
plaid, and answers to the keU worn in eertain parts of Scot* 



PAULO VSKOr* 143 

land, evea at thli day. They have also, among tlieir musi- 
eal instraments, the bagpipe and the Jew's-harp ; the former 
of which, like those ased in North Britain and in Finland, 
is eommon to the Cossacks as well as the Malo-Russians. 
Another point of reseoiblanee may be found in the love of 
spirituous liquors. The Malo-Russians are truly a mernf 
race, and mueh given to drinking ; hut this habit prevails 
among all barbarous nations. 

From hence we proceeded to Paulovskoy, situated upon 
a high sandy bank, on the eastern side of the Don. It is a 
small town, and at a distance makef; a pleasing appearance ; 
but consists of little more than a church, and a few wooden 
houses remote from eaeh other ; yet, being built in straight 
rows, their situation gives the appearance of streets to the 
wide roads which run between them. The river here, broad 
and rapid|| makes a noble appearance ; and barges, laden 
with corn, were seen moving with its current towards the 
sea of Azof. Close to its waters we found a variety of beau- 
f iful plants. The stiva permatay eelebrated in Russian songs, 
waved its feathery locks, as in almost all the steppes, xn 
the branches of the artemisia campestHs^ insects had caused 
exerescences, which the Tartar nations use to light their 
pipes. The climbing birth wort [.^risfo^c^ia Clematitis'] a 
rare British plant, though found at Whittlesford in Cam- 
brideeshire, and at Stanton in Suffolk, appeared among 
sontnemwood, the woody nightshade, the water crowfoot, 
and the fleabane. The rest were all strangers.* On the 
eastern banks are extensive low woods, hardly rising above 
thdhead, whieh are so filled with nightingales, that their 
songs are heard, even in the town, during the whole night. 
There is, moreover, a sort of toid, or froc, which the era- 
press Elizabeth caused to be brought to tJie marshes near 
Moscow. Its croaking is lend and deep-toned, and may 
almost be termed musical ; filling the air with full, hollow 
sounds, Tery like the cry of the old English harrier. They 
are not known in the north of Europe. Their noise is in 
general so great, as to be heard for miles, joining with, and 
sometimes overpowering, the sweeter melody of nightiur 




• Campanula Sibiricar^Bractcephaitm RugHbiam^Onmim aimpH- 
cisnma — Anthems tinctoria. 



i44 Clarke's travels in ri^ssia. 

andbasy elamour, totally in contradietion to the opening ojP 
Gray's Elegy, and the First Night of Young. 

Petei* the nrst founded Paulovskoy, and named it in hon- 
our of St. Paul. It was designed as a frontier town against 
the Tartars and Turks. At that time the territory of the 
former extended to Bachmut, on the southern sidfe of the 
'Bonetz ; and that of the Turks to the place where now 
stands the fortress of Dimitri, upon the Don. Its founder 
had here a botanick garden, as ai Woronetz ; but not a 
trace remains. The underwood about the plaee^ which in 
Omelin's time was a forest, and which is daily diminishing^ 
contains, as well as the steppes around, bears, wolves, foxes, 
martens, hares, iveasels, ermins, ^nd squirrels. Amon^ the 
birds,not common elsewhere, may be mentioned the pelican, 
vast flights of which airrive annually from the iBlack Sea 
and the Sea of Azof, accompanied by swans, cranes, stor'ks, 
and geese. They alight at the mouths of the Don,* and 
proceed ap the river ; and in autumn they return by the 
same route. The pelicans construct their nests of rushes, 
and line the interiour with moss, or any soft herb. These 
nests are found only upon the small iselets of the river, and 
jplaces where moss may be procured. They lay two white 
eggs, about the size of those of the stvan, and employ the 
same time in hatching. If disturbed while sitting, they 
hide their eggs in the water 5 and take them out afterwards 
with their bill, when they believe the danger removed. 
They live altogether upon fish, and consume a prodigious 
quantity. The Russian naturalists give a curious accent 
of this bird's mode of fishing, with the assistance of the 
cormorant. The pelican extends its wings, and troubles 
the water; while the cormorant, diving to the bottom, 
drives the fish to the surface ; and the pelican, continuing 
the motion of its wings, advances towards the shore, where 
the fish are taken among the shallows. Afterwards^ the cor- 
morant, without further ceremony, helps himself oat pf the 
pelican's beak.* 

The principal trade here carried on is in grease .and 
fruit; which latter article, particularly the watermelon, is 
carried to Moscow and Petersburgh. They plant it in the 
open fields, where it covers whole acres of land. In the 
steppes near the town, I observed about thirty women hoeing 
a ^eee of aaencksed ground, for the culttire of this deli- 

* Journal des tavana Toyageutt, p. 144. 



FAVLOVSKOY. ifi 

eloos regelabie. TbiU a plant, which is hardij in perj(««- 
tion any where, fihould thrive upon the rivers ia this part 
of Russia, and in such a latitude, is very remarkable. 
Perhaps its flavour dees not depend upon latitude. At 
Naples, although so h'^hly, extolled, thcj seldom ripen. 
In £^pt thej are even averse. Indeed, the only plaee 
where I have seen the watermelon attain its full colouri, 
pize, a»d mafurity, is at Jaila, on the eoast of Syria. 

We found ourselves anions; Russians at Faulovskoy, and 
narrowly escaped with our lives. Fortunately, the aiarm 
their eoliduet might have excited, for the safety of our 
fttture journey, was unheeded. Sleeping in the earrias^e, I 
wasa%vakened by some person gently opening the doer$ 
and eould perceive, though it was somewhat dark, a man 
extending his arm in a menaeing manner. I believed hin 
to be a Uussian, sustaining his national charaeteristiek by 
a valedietory theft ; as our time of remaining among thenif''^ 
was now drawing Co a close. But I was afterwards infor- 
med, and indeed the man's conduct seemed to prove it that 
his design was to assassinate. Hoping to seize him by tlie 
hair, I made a sudden effort; but, eluding my grasp, he 
escaped ; and although the alarm was immediately given, 
he eould not then be discovered. Soon after, putting my 
li^ad out of the carriage to call tlie servant, a large stone 
thrown with great violence, struck the frame of the window, 
close to ray head$ sounding so like the report of a pistol, 
that at first I believed a pistol had been discharged close to 
me. Upon this a second search was made, and a man in 
consequence detected, pretending to sleep in one of the 
kititkis in the court-yard of the inn. The fellow, whether 
guilty or not, we compelled to mount the barouche box, 
and to sit there as sentinel, while I made a third attempt to 
obtain a little repose. Suddenly my companion, who wtvts 
in the house, came running into the yard, fellowed by tiie 
servants and all the family, to tell me that the front of the 
inn was assailed by some persons without, who had poured 
a shower of stones through the windows, and broken every 
pane of gluss. Determined to sell our lives as dearly w 
possible, we drew our sabres and marched together towards 
therealdeoee of thegovemour,avery worthy man, who iu- 
stanly rose from his bed, and inslituted an inquiry, which 
eontinued the whole of the night* At the same time, soldieits 
were stationed witli the carriage, and the patrol doubled. 
Towards iiHMPning they hroueht in a yottog jnan, wkma 



14^ clause's travels ttt RVSStA. 

fliey stated to have detected in the act of making his esea|id 
from the out-housed of our inn ; and it was during his et^ 
amination that the eause of all this disorder was made 
known. He proved to be a Inver of one of the girls of the 
house ; and, as she liad refused to come out when he sent 
fbr her, his jealousy had persuaded him that hewassHghted 
on our account. In a fit of despef ate fury, he had, therefore, 
resolved to wreak his vengeance upon some of the partT,if 
)iot upon all; in whieh undertaking he had beenatdea bj 
gome of his comrades. The poor fellow was more ah object 
of pity than resentment, and wehcgan to intercede for his 
pardon ; but the governour insisted upon makings an exa^m- 
pie of him ; and they led him away, snlky, and as it seemed, 
nothing loth, to be flogged. As he went, he still vowed re- 
venue ; declaring, that he was not alone in the hnsiness ; 
for that fifteen of his confederates had made an oath to be 
**^evenged, not only upon the girl, but npon all her family, 
for her inconstancy to him. 

The governour provided us with a powerfhl elcort 5 ami, 
t?arly in the morning, we continnea our jnurney. The 
roads have been all changed since Gmelin and other trav- 
fillers visited this part of Russia. We proceeded froin 
Faulovskoy to Kazinskoy Chutor, a village ihhahited hj 
Malo-liussiaus and Russians mingled "together. The 
distinction between the two people might be made witfaottt 
the smallest inquiry, from the Ariking contrast between 
filth and cleanliness. In the stable o^the pbsthouse we 
found about twenty horses, kept with a degree of order ai»4 
neatness which would have done credit to any tiobleman's 
stud in Britain. The house of the poor superiatendant 
villager was equally admirable. Every thing appeared 
criean and deeent. There was no Htter, nor was any thing 
cut of its place. It was quite a new thing to lis, to hesitKte 
whether we should clean our boots before walking itito an 
apartment, on the floor of whieh I would rather have dined 
than on the table of any Russian prince. 

This village is situated in the most wild and open sieppeBj 
among the short herbage of which we noticed the hind 
tortoise. Its flesh is esteemed a great deHeaey ; as it Is ta 
the Archipela^ and in all Turkish dties. Boat loads of 
ibemare carried from the Greek isles to the markets <if 
<J»nstanti«ople.* After leaviHg Kazinskoy, we passed 
through several very large villa^s, scattered over valley«, 
each of which appeared to eoasist rather of several hamlets 



OOVNTRY Of THE I\Qfg ^Oft&AOM. 147, 

tli«D of out, oM arri veil at Nizney Mpmeit. N^thine worth 
observation ^eeurred, except the plants we eolieeted^* 
The heat was intense :. the eountrj like that before descri* 
l^« We foond our vinegar, wbieh Ntd been reeommen- 
4ed to us at Moscow, to be a pjeasiqg and salutary ingred- 
kiutia bad water^aud a most delietous solace, when expo- 
sed to the sehorchiiw rays of the sun, with parched lips^ 
and mouths full of oust. Jt was impossible to resist the 
t^uipl^tion of drinkine it without any fidmixture of water ; 
and to the practice ordoingsoyniay be attributed, perihaps, 
the weafc state . of health into which I aifterwards fell. We 
eonsidered it*, at this time, the most valuable part of our 
bagsa^ ; ami afterwards, in Kuban Tartary, derived from 
it t^e oi^ly- niea^ of sustaining the fatigue and languor 
caused by the heat of the climate and bad air. 

The^oCJ^I place we came, to M^as Dobrinka: and here^ 
for the first t^me, we found an establishment of Cossacks $ 
althooffh but few appeared, and even these mixed with 
Maio'KussiapSb The church was new, a larse and hand- 
some, white building, erected bv the emperour Faul. Oth- 
ers of the same nature appeare4 inmost of the neighbouring 
villages. That of Dobrinka makes a conspicuous appeal*- 
apce several miles before the t^avtUcr reaches it. If hap- 
piness could be found under the Russian government, it 
lajghi^basaid to dwell in Qobrlnka; a peaceable and plea- 
sant, spot, full of neat, little, white cottages, tenanted by a 
healthy, and apparently contented, society.. They live in 
the greatest traAquUity, removed from all the spies, 
tan^galherers, police joffieers, and other despots of the coun- 
try, Wa were re^ceived into one of the court-yards, which 
they, all have before their houses, with a hearty welcome, 
am smiliog countenances, very different from the lowering 
brows, and contracted, suspicious eyes, to which we had 
been so often accustomed* At sun-set, all the cows belongs 
iu§; to, the< inhabitants capiQ, in one large troop, lowing into 
the village. , No driver was neaessary ; for, as the herd 
entered,, they, sepacatjed inta parties, and retired of their 
own accord to their respestive owners, in order to be miiket]. 
The Malo-Rus^^ns, with their numerous families, were 
seated on the groupd, in circles before their neat, little hab- 

• Of th*w, dome are known ini our cetwitry, viz. the TragopogM pr&-^ 
tM^ or Gimf»>'bekr4f ami PotenHUa apgemeAu Tho»6 more Fare^ are, 
\kys GlatHoluM imffricaiia^ -wluch is not found even in oor botanick gardens ; 
Jstragalvfi Onobryefd^, ffeaferia mturonalk; end Campamia'Sibirica^i 
'We ofeerredalsQ ik iicw «pe«ie«of jC^A??»>. 



i4S <DLAlElK«^8 TRAVSIS IK lIUSfStA. 

xULttons^ efttiBi; tliei« supfwr; and, being all ha|my miT 
merry together, ofiered a pietiire of caateBtment aaa peaea 
aot ofttnfxiuud within Russiaii territmrieft«* 

Ab«ut two in the afternoon of the next day» having been 
detuiued for want of herse« at Meiselia, we arrived at Ka* 
tankaia, one of the larfi;est stonitois of the Don Cos^aeica 
and the first within their territory. Ab I am qow en^eringf 
vpon the description of a very interesting part of ottr|o<ir- 
aey, I shall be partienktrly eareftil to note whaierer ebier- 
rations may occar. Tii^ relate to a coHAtry^ very Ktite 
Tisited, and, on that aceoiint^ very little known i where 
(H^ery thing is jnteretting, becasee every thing presents 
what has not been seen before* The iadependent mode of 
life of the people ; their indolenee at home $ their aetivity' 
in war ; their remote sit uat«<Hi with regard ta the rest of Ba- 
rope ; the rank they bold in the great eeale of aodety j all 
require eensideration. 



CHAPTER XIL 

TEIOttTORY OF THE OON C09BACK9. 

^jfp^rance of the (hsiacks at Kasai^aui^^BhwMi of ttg 
Maman^'Meal Dangers of the Camtrj — Fey«re% W^tAer 
— Amusements and Da^nces ^ the Peofte^^Sepwrtmre^^ 
Steppes — River Lazovai — Vi^ t0 a Vamp of €alm»ek» 
— Of their Brandy distilled fr^m Mare^a Mii^-^FepsmiM 
Appearance of Calmucks — '^rts^ Ariftour^ and WmponWf 
— kecreatiojns and Condition of Zifa--l^eaoedbw-«i« 

. Of the Huroke^ or Marmot^ of ate Steppes-*^ JJ^e ^r^h^ 
and Suslick — JSTature of Villages nawted in Russian Mt^ 
-^Stragglers from the Anny^-lHstineHon between Cos* 
sacks (^the Steppes and ofUie Don — Rkmm^aiti^-^tom 
Foundries of Lugan — Etymology of the word Tanais*^ 
Mimerous Camps of Camucks — Approach to Oxai, 

THERE is something extremely martial, and even iirti-* 
midating, in the fir^t appearance of a Co^saek. Hie 
dignified and mi^jestiQk look ; his elevated brows, and dark 
mustaehes ; his tall helmet of blaek wool, termiaated by a 

• We ob8erv€4 here « plant "w^h grow« onihe kUIt neitr C*i&l^H<h^^.^ 
w|he Hethfwrum OmbrjfskU. 



TBRftrroiir of trb bo» gomsaoks. i4^ 

eiimson saek, witk iU plame^ laeed festooo, and white eock- 
m^l bis upright postdre; the ease and elegance of his 
«ait ; g^re him an air 6f great importanee. We found them 
IB eonffiderable ntimber at Kasankaia, lounging before their 
liouseey and eonversing in sueh large parties, that it seemed 
as if we were entering their eapital. Their dresses were 
Biieh rteher than any thing we had seen in Russia, although 
all were unifbrm. Eaeh person's habit consisted of a blue 
jaeket, edged with gold and lined with »ilk, fastened bv 
liooks across the chest. Beneath tlie jacket appeared a silk 
waifiteoat, the lower part of which was concealed bj the 
sash. Large and long trowsers, either of the same mate- 
rial as the "jacket, or of white dimity, kept remarkably 
elean^ were mstened high above (he waist, and covered their 
hoots. The sabre ts not worn, except on horseback, on a 
jonmej, or In war. In its place is substituted a switch or 
eane, with an ivory head, which every Cossack bears in hi» 
hand, as an appendage of his dress ; being at all times pre- 
pared to mount his horse at a moment's notice. Their cap' 
er hamlet is tlie most beautiful part of the eostttoie ; because 
it is becoming to every set of features. It adds considerably 
to their heidit ; and gives, with the addition of whiskers^ 
a military air to the most insis:nificant iigure» They wear 
their hair short round the head, but not thin upon the crown* 
It is generally dark, thiek, and auite straight. The cap is 
covered by a very soft and shining black wool. Borne of 
them have eiTil and military distinctions of habit ; wearing 
in time «S peace, instead of the jacket, a long frock without 
btttttms. The sasli is sometimes yellow, green, or red, 
thoogh^ generally black ; aod they wear lai^> military 
gloves. There is no nation in the world more neat with 
vegard to dressy and^ whether young or old, it seems to be- 
come them all. A quiet life seems quite unsuited to their 
disposition. They loiter about, having no employment to 
interest them ; and passionately fond of war, seem distres- 
sed by the indolence of peaee."^ 

• " The territory of the Bon Coasackft, -Pfhikh is almost entlireljr pas- 
tore land, is divided into stamtzas, or caotons (for many stanitzas now 
«ODtaijt more than a single village.) To each of these, a certain porlipiv 
oC land an4 fisbing^ i» aUio^ed by government^ and an annual alloivance olT 
eor&frozn Yoronetz and the northern provinces, aecordingto the retumeil 
jiumb^ of Cossacks. They are free from all taxes, even those on salt and 
distiileriea. The- distribution of land to individuals in each stanitza ts set* 
^ted by the inli«l»itAnt» and their ataman. From the ataman an appeai 
may be made to the chancery at Cireask. The allotment of land, and tfas 
&iAery whi&b eaob CoaMd^ poasea^es, may? be let outr by him to &rm> oi^ 



1^0 dtAftXB's TAAVfitS IK HVSSiA. 

The atftnift»,or ebmf of the stanUxg^ Hj^raaeteil Hi witk 
T€ry great re^peet And4^omp1aisaBel^, as a^oa as we arrived^ 
Notiee at the same time was given to alt the inhabitafita^ 
not to qoit the town without his knowledge, oalil every 
thinf]; the travellers might reqi^re was aseertaiaed aad pp^- 
vided. He begged to eonduet as to quMrters^ as he expre«* 
sed it : and brought us for that purpose to bis own hoase^ 
which he gare up entirety to our use. It was pleasantly 
situated above the Don, with an open, covered arcade, or 
wooden gallery, in which we breakfasted and dined while 
we staid. His care of previsions was in the court yard ; 
-and he made his wife and daughters open it for our use. 
I had the curiosity to descend into tliis place. It was floor- 
ed with ice ; upon which I observed sterlet, and other fishee 
of the Don, with game, and ether luiuriesi The house was 
perfectly clean and eomfoilable ; so much so, that wc could 
not resist the pressing invitation made to us «f remaining 
a short t^e, to study the manners of the Cossacks, in a 
^wn nearly as large as their capital. 

It was amusing to observe the temporary respect they 
paid the ataman. If he convened any of the inhabitants on 
business, however trivial, they made their obeisance before 
him, standing bareheaded, as in the presence of a sovereign $ 
but the moment the assembly wasr dissolved, he passed un- 
heetled among them, receiving no other mark of respect 
than any of the other Cossacks. It is an ofiiee to which 
die election is annual ; but if an ataman is particularly 
popular, he may retain his station, by re-election, during 
many years. I believe this does not often happen. Our 
host was in his first year, and his predecessors had heen 
generally changed when the time arrived. We soon per* 
ceived that the Cossacks were a people characterized by 

oftcD is 80 : and it is a frequent abuse to insei-t the names of eliildren in the 
return of Cossacks, to entitle them to seniority in becominj^ offieerft. 
Formerly, the ataman himself marched at the head of his stamtxa ; now 
he merely sends tlie required contingent, which is put under officers named 
by the crown. The Cossack, in consequence of his allowance, may he 
Mmmoned to seiTe for any term, not exceeding tSkree years^ in any part 
oi;' the world ; mounted, armed, and clothed, at ms own expe9se,«nd avp- 
pl}ing any deficiency wiaoh may occur. Food, pay, and camp equifiagei 
mre furnished by goveruraent Those who have served three years, are 
not liable, ^r at least are not usually caUed upon, to serve abroad, exeept 
during particular emergencies. They are employed, however, i& thecvr^ 
don toong the Caucasus, and iu the duties of the post and polloe. After 
twenty yuaiV service, they become free from aU emx>kiYm§iit, except the 
home duties of the police, and assisting the passage of the com barges over 
<lie shallows of U*e Uon, AfHp twea^^five yews tb«r are etfSrelyfipQe.** 



TEAAi-rdRir &if tnti doit obsaxcKs. lii 

great lifelffte^ andanhnafiott ; liUle flisjiofted to industnoiifl 
oceDpatioii, but fond of amazement, and violent If tlieif 

SasnoiHi are roused. In their danees, drinking, songs, and 
i^insion?, Ihey betray great vefiemence. • They havt 
abandonee of cnccencnt food, and as mneli brandy as they 
may think proper to drink. It is therefore surprising, that 
ordkr is iso treil tnalntatned in their stanitzas. 

Ho^terer indisposed a traveller may be to listen to those 
fklse alarms which the inhabitants of every country raise in 
th€ minds of strangers who wish to explore any remote part 
of thfeir territory-, it is not possible, at all times, to disregard 
such relations, especially when they eome from persoiis of 
the highest authority, and who pretend to accurate know- 
ledge of the faets they pretend to substantiate. In Russia, 
there was not an individual of aiwrespectahllity with whom 
we eonversed upon the subject of our journey, who did not 
l^ndeavonr to oissmade as from the danger of traversing 
What they termed « the deserts cfthe Don Cossacks /" It end- 
ed, as such accounts generally do, in misrepresentation and 
absurdity. Among the Russians, indeed, we were constant- 
ly exposed to danger ; eiiher from imposition which it was 
hazardous to detect, or from Intuit it was fearful to resent 5 
and fn both casies the consequences affected oar security. 
The very earliest view of the Cossacks showed ns a brave, 
generous, and hospitable people. If we questioned them 
concerning the dangers of the eonntry, we were referred to 
districts tenanted by wandering Caimtlcks; yet we afler- 
vrards found no cause of reasonable alarm, even in the very 
eamps of that sihgtflar race of men. At Paulovskoy, they 
tftld us the emperour's courier had been stopped with the 
mail. W€ doubted the fact in the first instance ; and then 
eonehided, that if the mall had been reallv stolen, the theft 
u*as eommitted by the Russians, who raised the elamour, 
and not by the Cossacks, to whotn the robbery had been 
impnted. In war, the Russians found them a desperate 
and dangerous enemy; and many a bitter remembrance of 
ehasttsement and defeat indnees them to vilify a people 
fyh^m fhey ftar. The Cossacks are justified in acting to- 
wards the Russians as they have uniformly done; that is 
to say, in withdrawing, as much as possible, from all com- 
manlon ivith a raiee of men, whose alisociation might 
corrupt, but could never advance the interests of their so- 
ciety. After these remarks it must, nevertheless, be eoa- 
fessed, thm vrt were compdM it take an eseort nfith^ 



19^ OLAIIKB'6 TBAVBLS in RUSSIA. 

throughout the Cossacjc territory, and to place a ^iiard 
over our earriage at night; precautions, doubtles?^ oltea 
calenlated to excite the ridicule of the people among whom 
we travelled; yet even the Cossa^cs themselves ur^ed 
their necessity, <^ on account," they said, ^ of the Oal- 
mueks." 

One evil consequence, which arises firom attention paid to 
tales of dan^r, is the habit it occasions of putting false 
representations even on the most harmless and trivial inei^ 
dents. . The first night of our residence among the Cossacks 
we were full of idle fancies. The ataman was intoxicated, 
and, accompanied by his wife, s^t off into the country, leav<» 
ing us in possession of his house. As we had heard a violent 
altercation without doors, and saw the ataman in the corner 
of the court, frequently whispering to other Cossacks, and 
pointing to our carriage, the eftect of the silly stories 'w^e had 
neard be^n to operate, and we imagined some preparatioa 
Iras making to rob us ; for which purpose it was neeessarjr 
to get rid oT the ataman and his wife, as they might other* 
wise be made responsible for our safety. The apprehen* 
sion of our servants did not diminish the suspicion thus ex* 
cited, and we concluded the plot more probaUe as we knew 
they had never before seen an equipage so attended. 
Since this happened, I have every reason to believe that 
the good old ataman was only giving directions for our ad- 
vantage, and, like all intoxicated persons, was mafcinf^aii 
important eencern of the most trifling business, such as 
co;*ding and repairing our wheels, and a few other commit* 
sions we wished to have exeonted. How easy is it for tra- 
vellers, so circumstanced, to raise an alarm about nothinjg;' 
make a |*reat stir to defend thenuelves against ideal dao- 

fer ; oftend those who intended good instead of evil| aad 
nish, by congratulating themselves upon an escape, whea 
there was not the slightest reason for an apprehension.! 

We received a visit, on the evening of our arrival, from 
the ataman of one of the neighbouring stanitzas, who chanc- 
ed to be in the place. He represented the voyage down the 
Don to Tscherehaskoy as very pleasant, but tedious | and 
that it would require at least a month for its performaiice. 
The musqnitos also are very troublesome upon the water ; 
and the voyage is liable to impediments, firom the frequewt 
shallows of the river. 

Below the town, which stands on the western bank of the 
Don, we beheld the river^ augmented i^ it most magni&eent 



TBAKITOBT or TUB DOJt OOfiftAOKS. iSa 

i9g Its ^oi|^es» tbr«yi^ a aterile «dviiliy by dwnpt •# 
ll^^es aiui fiosi'vrs^ fmi an alkiMaitt r^etatif»i^ whieli at* 
way9 hM^ft aboot its alapit^ sMe^s iNit all befMd i« bare 
and desolate. I bathed freqoeiitlyy and found tlie tummt 
Tety T4ipid. Tile, fine itt^tote «»igiit iiero irere aften 
bronglM; t9 n^e us during nur stay. I preferred oaa of 
tli^n tolerably »ell$ but, tbey iwve been oilen eneraTod^ 
andy wer e thts aoi tbe ease^ a yoaiu^ stureean wtlTehrea 
very good idea of their apyearanee. Asne, large Brii t» 
also Iwenia this rmr» lilee the breaai in ehape^ hut m^ 
teualtotbeftt^Ieiia ia?oar^ We had one served np 
wlileh weighed half a,p0ud [eighteen poands*] 

The women of ihiai piaee are very beaittifal. The ihoM 
are sap^bied .%vith.«everai aiiieks of iumry whteh we om 
nut esneei to Jind f mab aa loaftngar, ribwMity eottty iilk% 
and aiaer wares of large 4awB&. Bat by imieh the nMit vb^ 
laeraas artielei weresd^ves. The C^aiaeka eidl this wea-^ 
pan sabla ; the Poles and Mala-ButsiaiMy mM, We IbuMl 
tiie bag^pe friqaeatiy ia ase* Tke pappeta a owma a hi Ca- 
kkhna, and earned by the isbabi teats af UmkI part of ftsdy 
oirer all Barivpe^ wei^ ittueh in vogne hare. These eamrisi 
of liro4»iatl figures saspeodad by ftstring^ one end of whtehr 
a piper faetenalja his fcnee^ or to «ae of hn Bngeia ; viiiie 
the otihereaid islieUhy agtsibkt screwed into « tehle or 
ftaar $ iiad, by die Rioiioa ofihakaee, the figares are wide' 
to-MO'te im time. TfaeCalahrtans oMMage tneai withgreat 
dmtertty, tind oftea-eoUeet % erowd in the streets of Lendkft 
and Plains.' Wesawalse tbeCossaekdmiQe, whieh ntaelk 
]>ei«addea the daaee of Ifae^gypues in Hassia, and oar 
jSagliah hornpipe. Like every oUmt natiimal danee, it hr 
tieeatioas. As the feaiala reeedes or appreaehes, the auile 
dander expresses his desire or his dtsappointiDent ; yet so 
adaptedisthefigvreof the daaee to the small rooms in 
whMi stMih esenike is ebie% carried on^ that the peHbmi* 
era hardly stir froni «oiie spot. The whole expression is by 
]iltfveme»ts of tti« badyv espeeially of the arots and head^ 
aeoMOpWEiied by short and siiddea shrieks, and by whistling. 
The method tiiey eahibked of amving the head from oire 
sheolderto. the adier, whik tlie hands are held op near the 
ears, iseoinmon to the danees of all the Tartars^ Ghtnese^ 
aM even the inhad^aats of the isles in the Paeifiek Oeesfio. 

In the eirenmeof June ie, we left this hospitable staait- 
Zi^f crossing the Don on a raftt Jhe people of the house, in 



whirii iv^^hiidbeeii to eMMforteUf lod§eil, pMitifrdy refttatift 
to ai»Qiitpaf«eiitlS»r«ll tiie trouUe ws aad g*ivai theiB» 
N» entreaty eovild prevftilr ofMHi ftiiy one of them toidlow a» 
fturtker fMiikfiactloD, bj aaj renmneraikMi. ^ dowaeks^'^ 
■aid thoyy <^ do not eell their limpitality.''* 

Tiie^iewof Kagankaiayfram tke soathern /side of tho 
liver, is ifteryfioe. Its kirMeluireii^withiianioroiis domes^. 
stands in the «e«teF» To the risht aad left, extend neat and' 
niuneroas wooden hoaaes. Tne Don ftowa below ;- whiek; 
forms a fine front, with the busy raft, eonsiantly employed' 
ia^enreying the eararans aeross the ferry. In ati parts of. 
the river above Kasankaia, it seons to flow over a bed of* 
ehalk $ and Us bapk«, gently swellii^ npwards from the 
water, rise like the South Downs of Snssex ; often diselo*^ 
stnii; the ehalk, of whieh they consist. I^arther down, andt 
near, the water's edge, low copses of wood almost alwayat 
aeaompany its oonrse; but they diminisJi as it draws near-*: 
er to Tseherefiaski^) the inhabitants of whieh towni deriver 
all their wood from the Yolea. 

> As soon as wse left Kasaokaia, we entered the steppes im* 
iMod earnest; with a view to traverse their whole extent ta» 
Tseherehaskoy. These are not etiltivated; yet, hiedc: and* 
desolate as. their appearanee during -winter mast be, they 
have in sammer Ihe-aspeet of a wild, eontinoed meadow*^ 
The herbage rises as high as the knee, full of flowers, and 
exhibiting a most iatere^ing eolleetion of pkmts. No one 
eolleeU or euts tliis herbage. The soil,: though negleeted^* 
is vry fiiie* We paesed some oaks, in the first part of oar t 
journey, whieh had the largest, leaves I ever saw4 Otftt; 
Cossaek- eseort galloped before 41S with their long laiMseav 
and were.of i^reat use in elearingthe road of caravans and- 
in tracing the best traek over which a earriage mi^itexpa*^ 
ditiottsJy pass. We were pleased id survey ine our iitUe ar« 
my, all goiu^ full apeed ; hut thought it would avail unlit* 
tie, if the stories we Imd^ heacd of fefwdttti in the stofsfea. 
had realijT been true. For ourselves, we were totally an- 
arnic4, witb^ the .exception af our sabres % and these were 
under lock and key, in the sword eaa^. We; reiiedf therje>^* 
fore, solely on our Cessaeks, who seemed ^tiite ^eli^ed 
with any thing thai promised even the hope^of aakirauob» 

* *^ I/hoipiUiH6 «8t en uingepar t6at6 Is Petite RoMie ; H %n 6tnM^ 
ff^qMiy W}'i«efi'«jaiBia8l>^«ckfrire«le la d^penve, f»our mo kiifv 
"^^'PJL^'^P nowriture,** l^cherer. ^nnalet ^ ia J*etite ^wne, tfAs u 
p. J03. Paris, 178S. 



7«&MTomr or tke dor ooiiAOKs. lit 

aiid^ pnmd of tlieir mmphymmtij Mmired the plafii9, armed 
\9ith pt«loi«t ^aMe»^ aiii lajMef f twelve feH ia losgtfa. 

. T%ilftr^e«rted und liccoiitmly M'e proeeeded thirty verets 
be^ife o«reaiit^9 aod^ panedh th« irigbt in a spot fVifl of 
swamps, stinking fbni, and flwddy pdols, near whoso sto^ 
rntit watots-a noidlwr of«arttr«is had also halted/ The mos- 
flnritos were iii^f^veat number^ - aad 'T«ry troablesome. Our 
iossaeks felefil the whole aldit on the damp ^oand, and in 
tlie:«pe«airy almost aak^/ around our earria^. The 
steogphero of soek a eotrntry mutt, in sommeis he pestilen- 
^l* It reseiohled the Pontine marshes in Italy $ beine f oM 
of 'feeds, hi^rusfaes, and lall-fla^s^ in whieh was heard the 
cmffitant elamourof frogs and toads, whose oroaking orer- 
powered^every other soood* during the nieht« dot in (he 
morning, Uie ohortis of a great variety of birdo,' with the 
JinmnMig of ianomeral^ inseets, and the pleasing appear- 
anee of a flowery^ viUdemess^ gave a liveliness to the ftal 
and 04^ pros^el?, whiNih ma4e the desett vorv interesting $ 
and we renewed our journey. The name erf this plaee wa« 
esdled l^Aoier/ and thereaboiits the river Lazovia has its 
sMif ee. Worfoilowed' its tardy and atmost stagnant watem 
tlnPOu^thes^^DTws, toa-^aee named from it, Vertynim 
iautfnma. On its banks i erileetod the »napi9 nigrm^ nnd 
tsamMmdns armtisisj oreommon bindweody well known iit 
Kngland* 

We ai^erwarde ^bservvd a eam^ of CaimOeks^ not Ikr 
lj?om tfae^riuik we pursued, lying off in the plain to the 
right; 'As' we mneh wished to visit that people, it was 
tlMifght fmtdent to send a part of oar Cossaekieseort befbine^ 
i&omr to apprise them of oar ineltnatlon, and to ask their 
p^mtssion. The si^ht of our earriage, and of the patty that 
was ap^roaehing with it, seemed to throw them into great 
eoufastoa. Wo observed them mnning backwards and^for^ 
wards from one tentto another, and moving several of their 
^goodsb> Afi' wedrew near on foot, about half a do£en gigan- 
tiok figures eame towards us, stark naked, exeept a eloth 
bfliund roand the waist, with greasy, shining, and almost 
Maefc skins^ and biaek hair braided in a long eue behind; 
Tlier beean talking very fiist, in so Ibud a tone, and so un- 
e!Oiid a language, that we were a Iktle' intimidated. I 
akook hands wiSi the foremost, whieh seemed to paeif^ 
them, and we were invited to a large tent. Near its entranee 
hang a quantity of horse flesh, with the limbs of dogs, eats, 
namrmot^ rats, &e. drymg in '|he son, and quite Uaek. 



Within t]b« leKtwe feit»fl MHmwmmf ih«mp^ it wfu^4i&^ 
eult to diftttftg^iftb tkeftextst -a* horrid aad iahiioMUi ivM 
their appe«raMe, T wq ^f thevi^ covered wi th prv^aee, were 
loueivg ^aeb ethers and it surprised »«»> thai ^ifif did 99i 
flieeaiitiiiHe their war)^ or «yea look up as ve Mitei«di 
Through a t^rated lattiee, in the sidfrdT the teat, we mm 
soaie yoaofer woiaen peeMMf^ ^ «M«e himdaome Snimnth 
but truly Calmuek, withlonf, blaek hair haof^gp 19 4hiek 
braids o» eaeh side of the fo^e, and issleiied at the end irith 
hits of lead or tin* In Uieir ears they wore shells^ aad large 
pearls c^ a very irreeular sJiape, .or saeso subslanef math 
n^Kmblin^ pearl. The old vFomea were eaiiar rtur hatsa* 
ibsh, tearing It off from large bones whteh ^ey heldtia 
their hand«. Others, squatted «a the gmuiid, in Ihair teotSf 
were sinokiag^ with pipes not iwo inehes in length, «M»h 
after the manner of Laplanders* In .other respeats, thetw4 
people, ailhott^ both of enstern origin, and both nooMda 
tribes, bearlUUe resenbUnee. The auwitteroflNiriiie among 
the Calmueks is much snperioar to thai of the La^andeM* 
The teats of the former are better eonsjtnieted, straa^^ 
■tare spacious, and eontaia mamr of the huuries ofklos 
siteh as very warm and very ffood beds, .handsoai^ earpots 
i^nd mats, donestiek utensils, and materials of %ri^ and 
soieaee, painting and waiting,* The CaliiMiek isfi giaat» the 
Laplander a dwarf ; both are filthy in their persons i but the 
Caltswek more so Ihan perhaps any other naUaa. I am ao4 
otherwise authorised in comparing together tribes so rer 
mote from all eoimexion wiUi each othe^, than by asssirt* 
ing, from my pwn observation, that both are orieataU aba* 
raeteriKed by some habits andappeaMMoesin eommon; de? 
ferriage at ihe same time, all further illastration of Urn sob- 
ject unXil a more appropriate opportunity. I sliall hftve 
oeeaaion to speak at large, of the i^planders, in another 
part of mv travels. 

Every body has heard of the fcoitmtss, aod.the brfuidy 
whieh CalsMftcks are said to distil from .the mil^ of mares* 
The manner of preparing these liquors has been dififorentiy 
relatdi, and, per liaps, is not always the same. They asiurta 
us that the brandy was merely distilled from batter^milk 
^^he milk whii|h they eolleet over night, is churned, in tbs 
morning into butter; and the butter-milk is distilled lorer n 

• These tents are of a circitlar form, with a hole at the top ; th«y »re 
esnttructed «f caa«ia, and eov&ved with a tbiek felt made of «aA€i*S faur. 



TBRJtiTORY OF TfiB 1>0N 09SSA0KS. iWT 

fire mmkt ^vk^ the ikiD^ of tli«ir eattle, partimilarly the 
dromedlary^ wbkh makes a steady sad clear fire, like peat. 
^Htetstlier aeeodnts have been given both of the k(mmisif 
BStti Uie btandy. II has been usual to confound them, and 
to eoBsider the k&umi$$ as tlieir appellation for the brandy 
m obtained. ^ By every information I eoifld i^ain, not only 
here], but in many other eampd wWeh we afterwards visited, 
they are different modifieations of the same thin^ aithoush 
flifbrent liquots ; the koivmss being a kind of sour milk, 
like Ihat so mneh used by the Laplanders, called pirm^ and 
whieh has undergone in a certain degree, the vinous fer- 
mentation ; and the brandy, and ardent spirit obtained from 
koumii^ by disHllation. in making the koumiss^ they some'* 
times ^npioy the milk of cows, but never, if mare's milk 
ean be ha:d ; as the koufhiss iVom the latter yields three 
ttflies as mneh brandy as that inade from cow's milk. The 
manner of preparing the koumis9 is, combining one-sixth 
part 'Of warm water with any given quantity of tinrm 
mat*e^ milk* To this they further add, as a leaven, a little 
oM kmimiss^ and agitate the mass till fermentation ensues* 
To produce the vinous fermentation, artificial heat and 
lilore agitation is sometimes necessary. This affords what 
in eallcS kttumiss. A subsequent process of distillation at* 
te^wards obtains ati ardent spirit from the koumiBS, They 
^ve us this last beverage in a wooden bowl, eallinc it vina, 
hi their own language it bears the very remarkable appei-* 
lation of rack and racky^ doubtless neartv allied to the 
names of our East-India spirit, rack and arraek. We 
brought away a quart bottle of it, and considered it very 
weak, bad brandy, not unlike the common spirit distilled by 
the Swjftdes and other northeni nations. Some of their women 
were busy making it in an adjoining tent. The simplicity 
of the operation, and of their maehinery, was very cliarae^ 
teristiek of the antiquity of this ehyniical process. Their 
still was eonstructed of mud, or very coarse clav ; and for 
the neek of the retort they emploved a caue. The receiver 
of the still was entirelv covered oy a coating of wet clay. 
The brandy had ailready passed over. The woman who had 
the mana^ment of the distillery, wishing to give us a taste 
of the spirit, thrust*a stick, with a small tuft of camel's 
hair at its end, through the external covering of clay t and 
thus collecting a small quantity of the brandy, she drew 
out the stick, dropped a portion upon the retort, and waving 
the instrument above her head, scattered the remaining 

P 



tM CLABKB's TRAVBIS IN KUSSU* 



UqBQt'ia the air. I mImA the niraniag of M» eeMBo»y^ 
and was answcrec}^ ikat it is a reiigiwi eiwtaai^ ta mve 
always the fint drop of the bfaad|r which th^ dmm uom 
tfco re«eiver totheir eod. The stick was thea^tiaieediato 
tlic reeeiTer a seeoira time ; when more braim|r alherhq; 
to the camel's hair, she sqaeezei it into the ^mm of har 
dirty aud^easy hand, and$ having tasted. the Jifiiar, pre* 
sented it to our lips. 

The eoyeruig'of their tents consists of neat and well inadQ 
mats, sn^h as we see hrofl^glit from Indian and also fell^-or 
coarse woollen cloths. Whenever a CaliBuek marries ha 
mast hail4 one of these tents, and one for every child be has 
hy that niarr]fl|i*e. If a husband dies, his widow becomes tho 
property of hishrother, if the latter chooses to accept of her. 
The distinction httween mamed and umnarried woni^i. is 
in their 4air. A married woman wears her hair hvatdo^^ 
and falling over her sbonMers, on «aeh aide of herv.faso-| 
but a yirgm has onW a single braid hanging downihamid* 
die of her back. Their teats were all oif a circular Ibrin4 
near which we observed a. party sf thoir chiMsen^ from tha 
age of five, to fourteeB,^playsngat tlMs Russian game beforo 
mentioned, with kBnekle4)ones. We deligfated. themi hj 
makiog a scramble with a few ^opeeks. Tney were auit# 
naked, and with skins perfectiy black. Further off, a aerd 
of their dromedaries were ffraasiflis. 

Of all the inhabitants of the Russian empire, the Cal- 
mucks are the most distinguished by peculiarity of feature, 
and manners. In their personal appearance, they are 
atblettck, and very forbidding. Their hair is coarse and 
black ; their lanuguage harsh and guttural. They inhabit 
Thibet, Bncharia, and the countries lying to the north of 
Persia, India, and China ; but, from their vagrant habits, 
they may be found in all the southern parts of Rnssia,<evem 
to the banks of the Dnieper. The Cossacks alone esteem 
(hem, and intermarry with them** This union sometimes 

* In opposition to this femark, I find it stated in Mr. Heber'a Journal, 
that " Calmndi serrants ai-c greatly esteemed all brer Rusi&a, for thcfa^ 
intelUgenee And fidelity i" and I reeoQeot seeing some of tfiem m tkift 
capacity among English foiiniUes in Petersburgh. The most remf^rkablc 
instance ever known of an expatriated Calmuck, was that of an artist em- 
p^o^-ed by the earl of Elgin, whom I saw (a secjbnd Ankchanis, from the 
iSaius ot Scythia) esecntSag mart beiiutilful designs lugiQfng the piiM of 
AtbcAS. Some Russian family had previously sent him to finish liis studies 
in Rome, where he acquired the liighest perfection in design. He had 
the peculiar features, and many of the manners^ of the noraade Cabnucks. 



TXB&fTOXT OF TUB DDK OdSSACXS. <M 

mvjtoeet w«nen of verjr gfevli beaAt;^ i ftMim^ mIUm 
Umom bid«iiasthwt%€aliniiek. Hieh^ prmrnaent, anl 
kraid eliedc4MAei $ very liUk eyes, widdy tepamted from 
etteb etii«r f a ftxx and bread Hose ; eoaney greasy, jet Ua«& 
iHfctr; teareely aay 0ye4ir«W8; aad eBormoaar, [^raadneiit 
earn ; eonfose ao very in^ifehi^ fiortraU. 

Their womfe^ are uiieoaiiBonljr hardy ; and oa horidbaei: 
oatgtrip their naie eompanioiis in the raee. The stories 
MlatedM^ their pkeing pieees of horse-fletfa aader the 
saddle^ in oilier to^ prepare than Ibr Ibod, are perfectly 
Mie* They aeknowledged that it wa» a eoannoB praetiee 
amoBg theiii ea ar joaroeyy aind that a irtei^ so dresse/be^me 
tender and palaldble. In tteir large eamps, they have always 
cntlers, and other artifieers in copper, brass, and Iron ; 
oometlmeo goldsmiths, irho ualEe trtnketsfor thetr wouienr, 
idal»<if goM and silver, and vossekfor their altars; also 
persons expert at inlaid woric, oaameliing, and many arto 
whteh we vainly imagine peenliar to nations in a state 
of tefinement* One very, remarkable fact, and which I 
ahonid hesitate in asserting^ifl had not fonnd it eonfrmed 
h^ the dkervotions of other traveMei^,"* is, that, ih>ra tiin* 
kamemorieJ, the oriental tribes of Calmueks have poises*^ 
nedthe art of making gonpowden They hoil the efflore^ 
neenee of iiitrat «f potaaa in a«trong lie of poplar and birdb 
ashes, and leave it ta erystalixe; after which they pound 
the crystals mth two purts of sniphnr, and as much ehar^- 
eoal ; then, wetting the mixture, they place it in a caldron 
over a charcoal fire^ until the powder begins to granulate*. 
The generality c^Calniiicks, when capped ^r war^ pro- 
tect the head by a helmet of steel, with a gilded erest, to 
^hich'i» ixed a net-work of iron rings, falttag over the 
neck and shoulders, and hangifng as low as the eye-brows tu 
fVont. They wear opon their body, after the eastern man- 
net*, a tnsoe of similar work, formed of iron or steel rinss 
matted tt^ethe]* which adapts itself to iho shape, and yields 
readily to- all positions of the body; andou^ht, therefore, 
Father to be called a shirt, than a coat, of mail. The most 
heantifol of these are manufaotured in Persia, and are val- 
ued as e^ivalent to fiftv horses. The cheaper sort are 
made of scales of tin, and sell only for six or eight horses 
each ; but these are more common among the Chinese, and 
in the Mogul territory. Their other arm» are lances, bowa 

* Journal d^tsavfint Voifaffeur$,^A3i^ 



160 0I,^R|C£'S TRAVEX.S IN, EII^I^. 

|LBd4r£ow«,poi|^rd«,i|iid salirea* Tbe ris^fcest4»ly bear fii^ 
arms whieh fu-e, .therefore^ always r<^arded as a mark f^ 
distinction, and kept with the utmost eare, ia eiuses made of 
iadejer's skins. Their most valuable bows are nia4e of the 
wild goat's horn, or whalebone $ the ordinary sort, of 
maple, or thin slips of elm or fir^ fastened toother, and 
bound wi|h a covering of linden QX birch bark* 

Their amusements are, huntio&t wrestling, archerj,4LBd 
horseracing. They are .not aiUicted to drunkenness^ 
though they hold drinking parties, whieb eontinue for half 
A day at a time, without interruption. IJpon su^h o$ea* 
j»ions. every one brin^ his share of brandy and JcotmU$j 
find tlie whole stoek is placed upon the ground, in the opiifi 
air, the guests forming a eirek, seated around it^ One nf 
them, squatted by the vessels whieh. contain the liqu^ry 
performs the office of cup-bearer. The ycmne women plae« 
themselves by the men, and begin songs, of bve or war, of 
fabulous adventure, or heroick aohievement. Thus the/e^e is 
kept up, the guests passing the. cup round, and singii^ tfce 
whole time, until the stock qf lienor is expended. Dnring^ 
all this ceremony, no one is seen to rise from the party, nor 
.does an^ one interrupt the harmony of the assemldiy, by rioC 
or intoxication. In the long nights of winter, tne. young 
people of both sexes amuse themselves with musick^ dan- 
ein*]^, and singing. Their mos^ eommonmusieal in$trumei|t 
is the balalau:ai or two*stringed. lute; which. is often rep* 
resented in their paintins^s. These paintings preserve very 
interesting memorials of the ancient superstition of eastorn 
nations.; inasmuch as they present |is with objects of pagan 
worshij) common to the earliest mythology of Egypt and of 
Greece. The arts of paintine and musiek may be supposed 
to have continued little liable to alteration among tbeo^, 
from the remotest period^ of their history. As jor their 
dances, they consist more in movements of the hands and 
the arms, than of the feet. In winter they also play at 
cards, draughts, back^mmop, and chess. Their love of 
gambling is so great, Uiat they will spend entire nights at 
play ; and lose, in a single sitting, the whole of what they 
possess, eveu to the clothes on their body. In fact, it may 
be said of Calmucks, that the greatest part of their life is 
spent in amusement. Wretehed ^d revolting as their ap« 
pearanee is to more eivilised peofde^ they would be indeed 
miserable, in their own estimation ; if compelled to change 
their mode of living for ours. Both Gmelin and Pallas 



TERRIT'ORT 0¥ THE ]>0N COSSACKS. Hi 

relate, that they deem a resi^eiiee io honses so* insopperta' 
ble,that to be sliut up in the eonfined air of a close apart- 
iQeiit, when under tlie necessity of goin» into towns, and 
making visits of embassy or commerce, was considered by 
them with a degree of horrour. Amone the diseases to 
which they are exposed by their diet aiid want of cleanli* 
uess, may be mentioned the iteh, to which they are very 
s)abjeet, and malignant fevers, which are very fatal to (hem 
dtiting the heat of summer. The venereal disease causes 
great ravages ; but it is said (o prevail chie% in those 
campd where their princess reside, and not to be ofteu found 
amon^ the lowei^ orders. They give to this disorder a 
name very expressive of the estimation in which they hold 
their mode of life, signifying ^* the house diseased* 
'Havin«<^ occasion hereiafter to notice this people again, I shall 
finly add the observations of one of the celebrated travel- 
lers before mentioned, who, after considering the privations 
to which they are exposed, places their situation in a point 
of view more favouraole, perhaps, than I have done. " For 
the rest," says he, " to whatever degree of wretchedness the 
poorest of the Calmacks may be reduced, it is very rare to be- 
itotd them dejected by sorrow, aud they are never subdued by 
despair. The generality, notwithstanding a mode of life 
ivhich appears so adverse to health, attain to a robust and 
very advanced old age. Their disorders are neither very 
freqiient, nor very dangerous. Few become gray headed 
at wty or fifty. Persons from eighty to a hundred years 
of age are by no means uncommon among them ; aud at 
that advanced period of fife they still sustain with 8;reat 
ease the fatigue of horsemanship. A simple arid uiiironn 
diet 5 1 the free air which thcv uninterruptedly respire r 
inured, vigorous, and healthy bodies; continual exercise,- 
^il'ithout care, without laborious employment; such are the- 
natural causes of these felkrtous effects.'^ 

Leaving this encampment, we continued traversing the* 
steppes in a southwesterly direction, and passed a very neat 
TilJag;e belonging to a rich Greek, who, to^ our great sur- 

Jirise, had estabirshed a residence in the midst of these deso- 
ate plains. As we advanced, we perceived that wherever 

• Or rather, " derivedfrom thQse.who Hv€ inhowet," 

• t I am ftt aloM to reeoneile this statement -with tiie reid diet of the C4'' 
mueks. Can that porperly be deemed simplty vhich connsta-of the grom*" 
eat ammal food of ali kinds, without adraixture of vegetable diet, without 
breads or any ol'the fi-uits of the earth f 

V2 



±M eLARKB^S TRAVELS IN RUSSIA. 

. rive»iiiterseet the ^^ppes, there are vikli^es, and plenty 
. of inhabitants. A manuscript map at Tseherehaskey^ eo&- 
iirmed the truth of this observation. No maps have been 
hitherto published in Europewhich give an aeeurate notian 
of the country. A strauger crossing the Cossack territory, 
might suppose himself in a desert, and yet be in the midst 
of villages. The road, it is true, does not often diselose 
them $ but frequently, when we were crossing a river, and 
believed ourselves in the midst of the most uninhabited 
country, which might be compared to a boundless meadew, 
we beheld villages to the right and left of us, concealed, by 
the depth of the banks of the river, below the level of the 

Slain $ not a single house or church of which would have 
sen otherwise discerned.* We were approachiag, in an 
oblique direction, the Lazovai, now augmented to a eoasi- 
doable river* As we drew near, its opposite banks rose 
eonsiderably higher than the usual appearance of the eouii^ 
try with fine clusters and patches of trees. Before we 
arrived at Acenovskaia, it was even mountainoas. On its 
western side, we saw a neat village, called Jemvehaia, 
pleasingly situated beneath the hills, with a new and hand- 
some church. Indeed the churches are every where good, 
and much superiour to what we find in our country villager in 
Ktigland, both as to architecture and iuteriour decoration. 
At the top of the mountainous elevation on the western side 
of the river, stood oue of the largest of those tumuli of 
.which 1 have before spoken, and which abound all over this 
country. They become more numerous, and increase in 
size, nearer to the Don and the sea n£ Azof. Finding the 
water clear and the current rapid, I took the opportunity 
of bathing; and recommend the practice to all travallejra, 
as essential to the preservation of health. 

From Acenovskaia, we continued our route over steppes 
apparently destitute of any habitation. Dromedaries were 
feeding, as if sole tenants of these wide pastures. Mr. Cripps 
j^ot upon tlie back of one of them, as the animal was kneel- 
iHg; which immediately rose, and, with a very majestiek 
pace, bore liim towaids the carriage. Our horses were so 

* ** Erected, or rather concealed," say* Gibbon, aecnratcly describing tlie 
CwcUings of their forefathers, " in the depth of forests, on the banks of ri- 
vers, or tlie edge of morasses, -we may, not perhaps without flattery, c»m- 
pare .tliein to the architecture of the beaver; which they resembled in a 
ilouble issue, to tlie land and water, for the escape of the savage inha- 
bitant, an auimal less cleanly, less diligent, and less social, than that mac- 
leUous quadruped/* JOteCortf ofthelUman Empire^ chap. xffi. 



terrtied htiht sigfal,efiat thj^broke tbe ropes, mA we iMd 
creai diffiealiy in tFaoquiliziiis; them. The dromedary hav* 
ing^ passed, made oft'into the plaio, with his head erect, pre- 
pared, no doubt, to ondertake an expedition to very distant 
regions; when my friend, having satisfied his curiosity, let 
hims^elf down from his iofty baek, as from the roof of a house, 
and fell with some violence on the ground ; leavine the dro- 
medary to prosecute his voluntary journey, which he coa- 
tinued as farfas our eyes could follow him. 

innumerable inhamtantsof a smaller race people these 
immense plains. Among the number of them, is an animal 
which the natives call surokes the marmot of the Alps. I 
have seen Savoyards at Paris leading them about for show. 
They grow here to the size of a large badger ; and so mueh 
resemble tlie bear in their manner and appearance, that, 
until we became a^uainted with the true history of the 
suroke, we considered it as a non-descript animal, and cal- 
led it ursa minima subterranean Such mistakes are not 
uncommon in zooloa^. Naturalists frequently add to the 
nomenclature of animals by superfluous ap|>ellations. A 
beautiful little quadruped, called j^t^cmk in £gypt, has beea 
described in other eauntries as a distinct animal, under the 
various names ofmuajaeulus^ stibterraneous kare^ vatUtii^ 
rat, leaper, &e. &c. but it is the same creature every where, 
and bears to the kangaroo the degree of relationship which 
a lizard has to the crocodile. I shall describe it more mi- 
natelv hereafter. Our present business is with the 8urdc€f 
.which is seen in all parts of the stsppesr^ sitting erect, near 
its burrow, on the slightest alarm, whistling very loud, 
and observing all around. It makes such extensive, sub- 
terraneous chambers, that the ground is perforated in alt 
directions, and the land destroyed wherever the animal is 
found. Its colour is a grayish brown. It has five fingers 
upon each of its paws, which very much resemble human 
liands, and are used after the sam^ manner. The mouth, 
teeth, and head, are like those of the squirrel ; but the ears 
are shorter. Its fine eyes are round, full, dark, and bright ; 
the tail is short; the belly geoerally protuberant and very 
laree. It devours whatever it finds with the greatest vo- 
racity ; and remains in a state of torpor half the time of 
its existence. Many of the peasants keep these creatures 
tame in their houses. We purenased no less than four, which 
lived and travelled with us in our carriage, and gaveus an 
opportunity to study their natural history. They were 



i%4i OLAtlk&'s T1IAV1SLS tVt 1LV8S1A. 

ftlwayi playing, or sfefepin^, beneath our feet, to the great an- 
nojanee of our little pug dog,* who felt mueh insulted by the 
Ii4>ertie« they took with him. The peasants nnitrersally gave 
them the name otwaskL They assured me they always lost 
them in the month of September, and that they did not* make 
♦heir re-appearanee until the beginning of April. They 
either deseended into a birrrow, or concealed themselves in 
some plaee where they niight remain least liable to ob^r- 
vation, and there slept during the whole winter. To 
awaken them, during that season, materially injures iheir 
health, and sometimes kills them. They are most destnre- 
tire animals ; for they will gnaw every thing which falls in 
their way ; as shoes, hooks, wooden planks, and all kinds 
of roots, fruit, or vegetables. They made sad havoek 
with the lining of our carriage, which was of leather. Aifr 
soon as they have done eating, they become so somnolent, 
as evett to fall asleep in jour hands, in any posture or 
sitimtieii, or under any circumstances of jolting, noise, or 
motion. While awake they are very active, and surpass 
every other animal in the qutckness with which they will 
bury themselves in the earth. They resemble Guineapigs in 
making a grunting noise; and whenever surprised, or 
much pleasra, or in any degree frightened, they utter loud 
and short squeaks, which have the tone of a person tvhist* 



ither animals common in the steppes^ are wolves and 
hears ; also a qtiadruf ed called Hroke^ of a gray colour, some^ 
thing like a wolf, very ferocious, and daring enough toat* 

* Hftvloif mentioDed titis- little iuiim«l, it mi^ be ireH to say aorae^iiBg 
of the importance of its presence with as, for the advantage of other trar 
velleif. The precaution was first recommended to us by a Polish trayel- 
fer in Denmark. Any tmaH dog (the more diminathre tbe better, beteause 
theiBQre portable^, and Kenerally the more petulent) vrili psove a vialoable 
guardiaDt in countries where the traTeller is liable to attacks from midnight 
robbers, and especially from pirates by water, as in the Archipelago. They; 
generally sleep during the day, and sound their ahritl afeirum, tipon w 
■uwt di^nt ^»peoaoh of danger, daring the nighu I reoollect ao inntmcs 
of one, who enabled a party of mariners to steer clear of some ahaUowib 
by barking at a buoy, which, in the darkness of the night, they had not 
perceived. The instances in which our little dog was useful, it is neediest 
to relate. But it nay gratify curiosity to be informed, that> natwally afndd 
of water, and alway» averse from entering it, he crossed aUthe si vers and 
lakes of Laplaud, Sweden, and Norway, after his roasters; accompanied 



tour of the ArchipeiRgo, to Constantii.aple ; and thence, in the same mau- 
aer, through Bulgaria, and Wallaefaia, to Bucharest. 



tack a man. The CosBacfc peasanU) vmd wilJi^lieir Uiraes, 
saUj forth, on horsebaek^tu the ehaee of this animaU It 
has a long, fu)l tail, which it drags on the ground. From 
the a£e9uats given of it by the {leasauts^Isusiieeted it to be 
the sana^ animal deseribed by professor Pallas, as fopnd in 
the environs of Astrachan, noder the appellation of chak€Uy 
and whjeh is said to be between a ^volf and a dog ; bat 
whether it answers to the jackal of Egypt or not, I did not 
learn. 

. The most nnmerous^of all the qiiadrupeds of the steppes^ 
the .whole way from Woronetz to Tscherehaskoy, are the 
suslicks; by wbieh name they are called throughout the 
eountry. As you draw near the Don, they absolutely 
swarm, and may be taken in any number* This iaterest- 
ipg little animal is supposed to be the nws citillm of Buf- 
fon; but the deserijition of it will prove whether this be 
j^ally the e€^e or not. We procured several, one of which 
we stuffed; but it has not been, properly preserved $ and 
therefore I prefer making reference to the aotes taken oa 
the spots r&ther than to any thing eonnected with its pre- 
sent appearance. It makes a whistling noise, like the «tt- 
roke; but is mueh smaller^ not being larger than a small 
wea^zeL It constructs its habitation under ground with 
incredible quickness ; excavating, first of all, a small, eylr 
iodrical hole or well, perpendicularly, to the depth of three 
feet : thence, like a correct mifier, it shoots out a level, al- 
though rather in an ascending direction^ to prevent being 
ineommoded^by water., At the extremity of this little gallery, 
it forms a very spacious chamber, to which, as to a gran- 
ary, it brings, every morning and evening, all it can eolleet 
of favourite herbage, of corn, if it can be found, of roots, and 
other food. Nothing is more amusing than to observe its 
habits. If any one approaches, it is seen sitting at the en- 
trance to its little dwelling, erect, upon its hind feet, like 
the mroke, carefully noticing whatever is going on around 
it. In the beginning of winter, previous to retiring for the 
season, it carefully closes up the entrance to its subterra* 
ueous abode with sand, in order to keep out the snow; as 
nothing annoys it so mueh as water, whteh is all tha Cal* 
mueks and Cossacks make use of in taking them ; for the 
instant that water is poured into their burrows, they run 
out, and are easily caught. The Calmueks are very fond 
of thera 5 but I believe they are rarejy eaten by th^ Cos* 



iH eikltMUsh TEATELt IN EVftSlA. 

saeks. Their g^relcteftt enemy is the fdeoo, ivho makes a 
eoBstont breakfast and sapper of sudicks. They have 
ftom two to ten yoang ones at a time; and it is supposed) 
from the horde prepared, that the susliek does not sleep, 
Mke the suroke^ during ivinter. All the upper part of its booj 
Is of a de^p yellow, spotted with white. Its neck is beauti- 
fully white ; the breast yellowish, and the bell v a miied 
eolour of yellow and gray. It has, moreover, a black fore- 
head, reddish white temple99 and a white ohin. The rest 
dT its head is of an ash-coloured yellow ; and the ears are 
remarkabljT small. Ao^ong the feathered tribe in the step- 
pes^ we noticed, particularly in this part of our journey, 
birds called staritcki^ or the elders; which are seen in 
flocks, and held by the people in superstitious veneration* 
They are about the size of a snipe, with a very elegant 
form, a brown eolour, and white breast. 

Such are the observations we made daring the second daj^ 
of our journey across the steppes. We halted at a place cai* 
led Suchovskaioy and proeeeaed afterwards to Rossochin'- 
skaia^ a single hut in the middle of the waste. Yet such 
are often the villages, not to say towns and cities, which 
figure in Russian maps. This place consisted of a single 
dwelling, built of a few pieces of wood, and thatched oy 
weeds and sedge, carelessly heaped upon it. The surround- 
ing hovels are out-houses for the post-horses. During sum- 
mer, its Cossack inhabitants sleep upon the roof, among 
the thateh. 

As it grew dark, a tremendous thunder-storm came on, 
and a very interesting spectacle was disclosed by the vivid 
flashes of lightning which accompanied it The Cossack 
guard, as well as the people of, the place, had collected 
themselves upon different parts of the thatched covering of 
the huts and novels about it, to pass the night. Everf flash 
of lightning served to exhibit their martial figures, standing 
Epright in groups upon the roof of the buiMings, bowing 
their heads, and crossing themselves, beneath Ihe awful ea- 
nopy which the sky then presented. All around was deso- 
late and silent. Perhaps no association could serve to ren- 
der a scene of devotion more striking. It is customary 
amone* Cossacks, before they consign themselves to sleep, 
to make the sign of the cross, facing, respectively, the four 
Auart^rsofthe^lobe. A similar supersfition, respecting 
lour cardinal points of worship^ exists among igttorantpeo- 



TERHITOUT OF THE SON COfttAOKS. iM 

pie, even in oar own eountry^ I remember, wlien a ehild, 
being taagiit by an old woman to offer the following* sii^u- 
lar prayer : 

" Four comers to ray bed. 
Four angels over head : 
Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John» 
Bless the bed whkh I lay od." 

A party of Cossaoks arrived as pilgrims, retaming home- 
wards from the war in Italy. We aflerwards met nnmbersi 
who had traversed on foot the whole of the immense ter* 
ritory from the Alps to the Don, and who arrived with 
scarcely a rag to their backs. They were loud in complaints 
against their nnprincipled commanders. Some of them 
had learned a little Italian. They said that the Russian 
officers stripped them of every thing they had, turned them 
adrift apon the frontier of Italy, and told them to find their 
way home on ibo^. One of them assured me he had begged 
daring the whole jf^mey; and that before he had set out 
from the army, they had taken away his watch, and even 
his elothes. We gave them a little brandy ; and the poor 
people of the hut, brought them a little broth, made with 
fish and wild herbs. They sat round in a circle, eating all 
out of one bowl, and, havine ended their sapper, began to 
si ng .-— 80 relative is human oappiness ! 

We left Rossochinskaia on the eighteenth of Jane. AH 
the Cossack inhabitants of the steppes, from Rasankia to 
Tscherchaskoy, have light brown nair, and are a different 
race from the genuine Cossacks of the capital, aqd those 
dwelling in stanitzas along the Don. Lieutenant-colonel 
Papofy a Cossack officer oithe highest merit and talent, of 
whom I s|iall hereafter speak, told me that the people of 
tlie steppes were emigrants, of recent date, from roland. 

It would be tedious to notice upon every occasion, the 
extraordinary number of tumuli^ which appear during the 
whole route. I wish the reader only to keep in mina the 
curious fact of their being every where in view. Close to 
the post-house at Pichovskaia the first place at which we 
batted this day, were two of a very remarkable size ; one on 
eaeh side of the road. The horses here were without shoes, 
and the road as excellent as it is possible to imagine. It 
seemed as though we were driving over a continued lawn. 
Yet stories of danger were renewed ; the lances of our Cos- 
sack escort were twelve feet in length ; and an unusnal de- 



168 Clarke's travels in Russia. 

gree of caution prevailed among them, as to their means of 
defenee. They provided themselves with fire-arms, which 
they said it was now necessary to have, in due order ; and 
a very sharp look out was made, the Calmu^ks increasing 
in number as we advanced more into the interipur. 

We arrived at Kamenskaia^ a stanitza upon the Danaetz, 
generally written Donetz ; which river we passed on a 
lioating bridge as tlie post-house was on the opposite side. 
This town made a great figure, as we descended the valley 
in which it was situated ; owing to its fine church, and the 
numerous gardens with which it abounded. The river 
itself, also, with a broad stream winding among the trees, 
had a noble appearance. We saw in the streets the same 
sort of gingerbread for sale which is common to our English 
fairs, and made in the same forms. The ataman was at his 
country-seat ; and we were told, that all the principal Cos- 
sacks had their houses of summer residence in the country. 
Just before entering the town, a youn^ Calmuck. woman 
passed us astride, on horseback, laden with raw borse-fiesh, 
which hung like carrion before her on each side. She was 
grinning for joy at the treasure she had obtained, wliich we 
afterwards found to be really carrion. A dead horse lyins 
in the ditch which surrounds the town, on the land side, liau 
attracted about thirteen dogs, whom we found greedily 
devouring what remained ; the Calmuck having contested 
the prize with them just before, and helped herself to aa 
much of the mangled carcase as she could earry away« 
The post-master kept a tame suroke^ as large as a common 
terrier, perfectly domesticated. This animal, he told us, 
only remained with him one half of the year ; that it eon* 
stantly retired for the other, to a hole in the ground, near 
the house, and there buried itself. Upon the approach of 
spring, it regularly returned to its patron, resumed its for- 
mer habits, sitting upright and begging for bread and herbs 
as before. It would always come to him, during the som- 
mer, when called by the name of waski; but all the bawl- 
ing he- could use at the mouth of its burrow, never drew it 
forth in the winter season. 

Higher up the Danaetz, where it receives the Lugan, arc 
the Lugan iron works and cannon foundry, belonging to the 
crown I which, at the time we travelled in the Cossack ter- 
ritory, were under the direction of a Mr. Gascoign, a British 
outlaw, formerly superintendant of the Carron works ia 
Scotland, whose improvements he betrayed to the Russian 



TfiBRITORT Of THE ]»OH C6SSACKS« 1G9 

MvemtBeflt, and was, aceordinsly, rewarded. From theaee 
toe emperour's artillery passes by water to the Biack Sea. 
Hr. Gaseoi^ found rery enceelieat coal at Ln^n ; in eonse« 
quenee of whieh discovery, as well as its eonvenient sitoa* 
Uon for water carriage, the foandry was there established* 

The remarkable appellation of the river at Kamenskaia 
has, perhaps, already excited the reader's notiee. In our 
naps it is written Donnez; and in those of Gtermaiiy Bo- 
netz. I paid the greatest attention to the pronunciation of 
the people living on different parts of the river, and particu- 
larly of those Cossack officers thronghoitt the country, who, 
by their education, were at all capable of determining, with 
accuracy, the mode of orthography which would best express 
tile manner in which the word is spoken, and always round 
it to foe Danaetzy although frequently pronounced as if a T 
was before the D, Tdanaetz^ or Tanaets. But this is the 
name, or nearly so, given bv the ancient Greeks to the Don, 
Tanais ; the reason of which I shall now proceed to explain, 
and^how, that, in the first instance, when the word Tanais 
was introduced into their language, it had reference to 
another river, and not to the Don. The subject is veryjeuri* 
otts I but it will require a better knowledge of the geogra* 
phy of the country, and better docaments concerning the 
course of the rivers, than any map yet published can albrd* 
I shall, therefore, accompany my observations by a map 
faithfully copied for that purpose, from the latest surveys 
deposited in the chancery at Tsehereha»koy. Mad it not 
been for the jealously of the Russian police, I should have 
laid before the publick another and more extensive view of 
the whole territory of the Don Cossacks, calculated to show 
the ignorance which prevails^ concerning the courses of the 
rivers, and the general geography of all the country border* 
Ing on the sea of Asof. It was finished for me, in eonse* 
quei|ce of an order of the governour of the distriet, by a 
party of ol&cers belonging to the Cossack army f but some 
ag^ts of the police, being i^prised of the eircuiiuttancef 
endeavi>nred to excite suspicion that we were spies, and I 
was not permitted to profit by the intended liberality. 

In the first place, then, I must sequest the reader, before 
be examines that map^ to suppose himself entering the 
mouth of the Don, and preceding iip the river, to tli^ 
distance of about ninety nine miles * from its embouchtuxe^ 
and rather more than forty sixf above the town of Tseher- 

* One bttodred ukI ivsstj verst«, f Steveoty verst8> - 



17^ Clarke's traveis in Russia. 

eliaskoy. Here he woald find the Danaetx^ fklKneiftl^ 

the Don bt (wo mouths, separated from eaeh other i>y a 
distance or ten or twelve miles. Bnt the people haye,' for 
time immemorial/ entertained a notion that it leaves th6 
Don a^ain, before it reaches the sea, and, taking a north* 
uresteriT direction, falls into the Pains Meeotis, to the'north 
6f all the other mouths of fht Don, of which ft is, fn faet, 
one. This northernmost mouth of the Don, [which he wif! 
find represented in the annexed map*] on account of the 
Hre'r, whose ^^aters its channel is supposed peculiarly. t« 
contain, is called Danaetz^ and to express either its slud^ 
gish current or its exit into the sea, lyead Danaetx. Tne 
greeks, steering from the Crimea towards the mouths of 
,the Don, and, as their custom was, Iceepins close to the 
shorc,t entered first this northernmost mouth of the river. 
It bore then, as it does now, the name of DanaetZj TdanaetZf 
Tanaets^\ it matters not which; for it requires kieither 
ingenuity to prove, nor credulity to admit, that from either 
of these appellations the word l^nats would be derived.^ 
Even at the present day, the analogy between the words ia 
so striking, that, in hearing Tartars and Cossacks name 
this branen of the Don, particularly if uttered with QQick" 
ness and volubility, it seemed as ouen pronounced TanaXs 
as Tanaetz. To distinguish this branen of the Don from 
the Danaetz, properly so called, they add to each an epi- 
thet; the latter being called the JWf/icrn; Und the for- 
' mer the Dead Danaetz. 

We traversed continued steppes^ from Kamenskaia. 
Camps of Calmueks were often stationed near the road. 
We paid visits to several of them ; but obtained little infor-* 
mation worth adding to what I have before stated of thi« 
people. In one of them, containing not more than four 
tents, we found only women, who were busy in distilling 
brandy from milk. The men were all absent, and, perhaps, 

* See Fig. 3d. in tite map of ^Ihe Montte sf Ihe Don. 

t It 18 stiU a mode of navigation in the Black Sea and the sea of Azof* 

i Observations of a simitar nature may have been suggested to the com* 
'pliers of the account of Moscmy, fraUised in HoHand, at the Elzevir preta* 
m 1630, as appears by the foHowiDg passage : << Eft et alter Tami¥BMiiMr« 
qui in tiberiensi Ducaiu oriena {unde Dunecz Severski voeatur) m^M 
AtopJi in Tanaira Magnum deacendit,^* Descrit. Muscovis. p* 8. lu Bst 
ex. Off. Elrev. 16S0. 

§ The chan|;c from 7) into T, and viee t'er»rf, is one of the most cow- 
mon modifications to which langaag^ is exposed. 



TBR&ITORT OV THE DON OOSSAOKg. 171 

upon some predatonr exenrsion. The women confirmed 
what we had been before told concerning the material used 
ibr distillii^; and said^ that, having made butter, they 
were distilling the buttermilk fo^ branidy. We eould not 
eredit that brandy might be »o obtained ; but to prove it, 
they tap)p^ the still, as upon a former occasion, offering at 
m tuft of^camers Hair) soaked in brandy^ that we might 
taste and be convinced. Dnrins the latter part of this day's 
journey, we ohperved great numbers of dromedaries grazing. 
We halted fbr bonicfs at Dubwskuia* Immense caravans 
were passinetowards the Ukraine. The very si^t of their 
burden is sumeient to prove of what prodigteus importance 
H would be to inerease the cultivation of tSe sUppeSj where 
nature only arics to be invited, in order to ponr forth her 
choicest treasares. We observed trains of from sixty to a 
liutidredw&S<^ns, laden entlfely with dried jfiah, to feed the 
ioliabitants of the south of l^ussia, who might be supplied 
.with better food from the land than from the rivers of the 
Cossacks. 

We went on to Grivinskaiaf and there passed the night ; 
having travelled sixtv eight miles* this day, notwithstand- 
ing the delays which curiosity had occasioned. On the 
inoming of Jone the nineteenth^ we eame to T^cbestiAdo^- 
nui, meeting frequent jparties of Calmucks ; and throu^ 
Tuslavskaiat to the town of 6br«, upon the Don; a settfe* 
ment ^Eielongii^ (o the Cossacks of Tocher chashaif. As we 
drew nearer to the river, the sk^j^pes were entirely alive witii 
swarms of the beautiful little quadruped before described 
ander the nameof^us^ic^, some of whiek were entirely 
white. Approaehing Oxai, Attmeroos oamps of Calmncb 
appeared in every direction, over all the country round the 
town. Some of their tents were pitclied close to the place. 
Others, more distant, covered the lofty eminences above the 
Bon. 

'OaelM&^fedsadiwovsrttt.. 



CHAFTER Xm. * 

CMUPTTAL oi TH& IX)N COSSACKS. 

Jirrivai wi Ocool^PMiek Etf^ff^Reeeption by \ the 
Btm €999eu:k$^^Fofulaium ^ Uieir Urritorv — Vtetb ef 
the Doth^Cdebr&Hon of a Cmitt FestvsJU^Modk af 
Frngting^-Jhrnhg^ between the pon and the JVl^e-^a^ ^ 
urai Curiosities $md JhtHquiHee^FiskeS'^Eaitraiodijuiru 
Mpeeiranee of Tsekerchmkour-'InhaMtants and Pumiek 
Bmlding^^Origin oftkeVossaeke^CoMsesoftheinln- 
crease-^iwigratuinsm^Foundation of their C^W'^ 
Circ ass ia n s Contmeree of T^eherohaskoy — Pgli$hed 
Manners cf the Peoph'^'-Memarkable Wager-^^wn^ep of 
the TVnm— JTbtfSfs moved entire — Diseases of the PeppU 
— Qredc Impostor — Depariurefrom Tscherchaskoy. [ 

THE nostmaBter of Tuslovskaia met «■ aa ire drew iear 
to Oxai. He bad, without our knowledge, paMci ag 
opon the road^and ^veo very absurd notiee t9 the inhibit- 
ants, that a great general from England was tipon the road 
to the town* A party of Cossack eavalry^ armed wMh ferj 
lonff lanees, eame oat to ntpet us^ and^ j«inii|g oar ^s^rti 
took their station ia the van. The posttnaster, withj his 
drawn sabre, rode bare-headed by the carriage side^^anti ia 
this eoDspieoous manner we made our«ntry. As the annual 
ianadation of the Don had laid, the streets of Tselier- 
ehaskoy nnder water, its chancery had been remove! 
this place, and almost all the principal &milie^ wen 
Oxai. We found the inhabitants waiting our arrival,t 
the Cossack officers drawn out to witness it The atal 
of Oxai^eame to us immediatefy 5 and -we to0k care t(^ un- 
deceive hiiti with regard to our sup posed ^eneralsUp*! It 
seemed to make no aJteration, either in the vespect pai 1 to 
us, or the welcome '4hey were dispssedto give« £ eiy 
possible attention and politeness were manifested* Wc ex- 
pressed an inclination to proceedas Ihr as Tsche9*efaai kor 
that evening. The atamafr observed the day^ was faifad- 
vanced; tbiit the current of (he Don, swofa by the innida* 
tion, was extnemely rapid^aod tiirbuleat $ and that ha ctold 



\ 



. 0A?tTi ;» TAE >6H iiroMAexs. i^g 

not undertake to b responsible Ibr our safetj, if we per- 
sisted in our determination. He had already provided exeel- 
lent quarters, in a spaetous and clean apartment, with num- 
erous windows, a baleony eommanding a view of the Don, 
and every protection that a host of saints, vir^ns, and 
bishops, whose pictures covered the walls, could afford us. 
Their genenil was at his country seat, ten miles from the 
town.* An express was, therefore, sent to him, for his in* 
structions concerning our future reception. In the mean 
time, sentinels were stationed at our carriage, and an officer, 
with Cossack soldiers, paraded constantly before our door. 
During the whole time we remained in their country, the 
same honours were paid to us ; and though we freauently 
remonstrated against the confinement thus oceastoneo to the 
youn^ officers, we never went out without findine the senti- 
nels m waiting, and the officer at his post. The ataman 
came frequently to offer his services, and the constant 
endeavour of the people seemed to be, who could show us 
the greatest degree of kindness. Hearing me complain of 
the inaccuracy of the Russian maps, they brought from 
their chancery, without any of those degrading suspicions 
which had so often insulted us, their own accurate surveys 
of the country, and allowed me free access at all times to 
their most authentiek documents. The secretaries of the 
chancery were ultimately ordered by their general to copy 
for me a survey of the whole territory bordering on the Do^ 
and the sea of Azof. That I m^as instigated to accept it by 
finy other motive than a desire of adding to the publics 
stock of geographical science, there is no necessity to prove. 
The procurator! employed by the Russian government^ 

* « Most of the richer Cossacks hare houses in Cireask [^TseherehaakoyJ ' 
-which they make their metropolis, hut pass the greater part of their .time 
ID their farms, on the northern hank of the river. Platof, the atainan> 
anid he kept there two hundred hrood mares. He had, hoveter, no land 
in tHIage, though he possessed a Tineyard a little to the east of Axy [Oxai.] 
Of the wipe produced from these yineyarfls, thej vaunted greatlj. The 
>est always struck me as mixed with Greek wine, or raisins. The ordlnarr 
wines are very poor, and tasteless. Sptnta are very ^eap, and mucli , 
4nak. Platof hiinself took a glass of hrandy, wHh a spoonful of salt in it, 
as if the hraiidy was hardly strong enough." ffeber^e MS. JoutnaU 

f *< The procurtur [procurator] ia a kind of eontroUer„ or visiter, ap* 
pointed to watch over the execution of the laws ; to examine the deeisicm 
<ir courts of justice ; visit the prisons; attend executions, &c. He is gen- 
•raily a native of a different province from that wherein he is stationed. 
M Circ^ksk, he U c^tva^t a BumMn^ at Uwt not a Qossaal^/' B^ei^% 
Ms, J^mai, 



\7^ jPiJMUUl's TSAtB&ft Hi iL<;mA« 

IioweT^9 A<uif[Bi^t otbervite i it heing ft miixiin in the poliej 
of that eottiitrjr» that <« to enliehten, is to betray." Thia 
liberal iatentioii of the hospitable Cossacks wasy therefore^ 
thwarted ; although bo menace of the Russian police now 
f rcTeots meft'om nakans an aeknowledgment, which would 
equally have been offered if I had been enabled to comma-' 
aieate such interesting and vainable information to the 
geographers of Europe. It is some consolation that I was 
allowed to delineate even the different channels of the Don^ 
at its embouchure $ wfaieh I believe^ will be found a faithful 
representation. For the rest it may be said, the course of 
the Don itself is not accurately given in our best maps; and 
of the other rivers which fklfinto it, not even the names 
are mentioned. Those stefpts described so desolate, which 
appear like a vast, georraphieal blank in every atlas, are! 
filled with inhabitants. Btauitzas are stationed everywhere 
along the numerous rivers which traverse them ; although 
the common routci by not following the course of any oi( 
these rivers, affords no knowledse of the number of th^ 
people. They contain one hundred stanitzas, or settlemen(S| 
and two hiioored thousand Cossack inhabitants.* Of ibis 
number, thirty five thousand are in arms. There are also^ 
ill the territory of the Don Cossacks, thirty thousand Cal«: 
mncks ; and of tliese, %lv^ thousand bear arms, as persona 
who are ready at all times lor actual service. These \^% 
are not permitted to leave the country, althoueh it is extra- 
ordinary how persons of their vagrant inclination and 
habits can be restrained. I have said before, that the Cos- 
sacks are attached to the Calmncks, and even intermarry 
with them \ but a Galmoek can never be taught to endure 
domestick life. If compelled to live within walls, he would . 
die of the spleen, and betnys evident alarm if there is any 
prospect of his being shot up in a house. 

I Bad nevor beh^ aji acre of Asaiatick territory. Tl>a 
flat and dreary marshes on the opposite side of the Don, af-^ 
forded for once, therefore, a very interesting prosneet. 
From oar balcony we had a noble Tiew of the Don, wnich 
appeared broad and rapid, extending (o these marshes^ 
ana at a distance, towards tiie east, We beheld Tscherchas- 
koy, with its numerons spires, rising, as it were, oat of the 
water. On the £urope%n side we obser? ed .a aeigbboaring 

* For a farther aeooont of their popnUtion, see the &0(e, e^raetetf 
from Mr. Heber's MS. Jotimali ia a tutnie^ent page^ vhleh GOitaupa 
mueh valuable informatJAn. 



ttpon a lofty eminenee abo^e the mer. Tiie name Oxai is 
a corraptlon of the Tartar word Aseai, whieh sigvHIes white 
irafer.* The Don, ia tbit part •! its eoitrte, exhibits two 
eblonrs. On the side «f Oud it is white, beeanse of the 
shallows. A similar and Ter^ earions appearanee may be 
observed from the eastie at Cdbkntv in Oemany, where 
Ae Moselle falls into the Rhine; and, for some distanee 
after the junetion of the two rivers, they are seen flowing par- 
allel to each other, with a distinet and different eoiour peen- 
Unf to the water of eaeh. In the tfaailows of the I>on, a sort 
of flag, the ^i^AaiMt^tf^eris, flourishes nuMt luxuriantly. We 
Ibund the inhabitants of Oxai, and afterwards of Tseher- 
ehaskoy, devouring this plant raw, with a degree of avidity 
as though it had been a religious observanee. It was to 
he seen m all the streets, and in every house, bound into fag- 
gots, about three feet in length, as we tie up asparagus, 
Whieh were hawked about, or sold in the shops. The sea* 
son for eating it had Just eommeneed. Thejr peel off the 
ointer rind, and find nfuir the root a fender white part of the 
alent, whieh, for about the length of eighteen incnes, affords 
a erisp, eoolii^ and very pleasant artiele of fiiod. I have . 
not aotieed this sort of vegetable diet in any other eountry. 
' Vfe eat of it heartily, and were as find oi it as the Cos- 
aiieks, with whom, voung or old, rieh or poor, his a most 
ftkvourite repast. The taste is somewhat insipid | but in 
hot elimates, so eool and pleasant a vegetuble would be 
every where esteemed. The Cossaek offieers, however, who 
had been in other eountries, assured us that they Ibnnd this 
^nt fit for food only in the AMtrshes of the Don. 

The morning after our arrival, the general, who is eom- 
nander in ehief over all the district, ineiuding the town of 
Tseherehaskoy, the metron^rfis, eane tn Oxai. The day 
was eelebrated as a festival, in honour of the reeovery of 
one of the emperour's ehildren flrom the snudl-pox inoeula- 
tion. Hesent us an invitation to dinner^ and in thefbre- 
nnon we aeeompanied him, with all the cheers of his staff, 
to a publick ceremony in the ehnrdi* On entering this 
bailding^ We were much surprised by^ its internal magnifi- 
eettce. The screen of the altar was of green and gold^ 

* Tlie ioHSal of tiiif word is properly a dipthons; comnum in Sweden, 
nonsistii>s of A, with O pUeed^ above it. Mr. Hnber, (iiet^efbre, writes.it 
with the A nraplj. .[See former Note] U» •tynu^ogy' maj be fooad 
ia tke Et9p9U9» or Axop6ti8t of ^uAemj, 



and before it wM^atpcflded a rmjlug^ OumMkr^ fitbi 
with tapers of §p:«en was. Tke seteea, like t|ie rest of thi) 
ehareh, was covered with pi^tareo^ some of whieh werf 
tolerably well exeeated, and all of them very eurioas, froai 
their sing^alarity, and the extraordiiiary fi^aro s they, served 
to represent Here were no seats, as la otiier Rnssian 
eharenes. The general plaeed himself against a wall oa 
the riffhi hand facing the sasristy, standing on a step 
covered with a carpet, and raised aibont fonr inches from 
the level of the floor. We were directed to place ourselves 
on his right hand. The rest of the Cossaeks, whether in 
their military uniform or national domestick habits, stood 
promiscuously in the bodv of the chnrch. The priest, ia 
very rich robes, with his back to the people, was elevated 
on a kind of throne, plaeed beneath the chandelier, and 
raised three steps from the platform, facing the ereat dooia 
of the saeristy, which were shut. Over these <&ors was a 
picture of the virgin ; and before it hung, suspended by a 
string, two wooden angels, joined back to back, like the 
figures of Janus, with candles in their hands. Whenever 
the doors of the saeristy were thrown open, the wooden aa* 
gels were lowered down into the middle of the entrance^ 
where they swung round and round, in a most ludrisroas 
manner. 

As the ceremony began, the priest, standing on the throne^ 
loosened a girdle, bound across his brea^ and sbattlder% 
on which was an embr<Hdered representati<m of the croas* 
This he held between his fore-fin^r and thumb, repeatii^ 
the service aloud, and tonchinr his forehead with it, while 
the people sang responses, ana were busy crossing themr 
selves. The vocal part of the ceremony was very solemn | 
and the clear, shrill notes of children placed among tha 
choristers, which, rising to the dome of the church, seemed 
to swell and ultimately die away in the air, had a meat 
pleasant and sublime effect It is the same ia akaest all the 
Russian ehnrches; and I know net any thing to which I 
ean more justly compare it, than the sounds produced by aa 
iBolian harp. The words they use are Russian, and evenr 
where the same: ^^ Lord have merc^ upon usP^ We dii 
act find them altefcd even among the Cossacks; it wee still 
M QkospodipomUm:'' but trilled 

** la notes with maoy a wif«dlng bout 
Of finked iweetaeM long dmwD oat" 



I 
•APITAL OF TaB.DO{7 O^kS^^lfrK^. ^77 

At last tlMre w«^ av interval af ftUe«e« s after wliiob^ other 
▼oiceSf uttering solemn airs, were beard witLin the sacristy. 
The doors were then thcown open, and a priest, bearing on 
bis head a silrer ehalaee, eontainloi^-the eonseerated bread, 
eovered with a white jiapkin, made his appearance. He was 
preceded by others, who advanced with eensors, scattering* 
hicense over- the doors of the s^cristj, the pictures, the 
priestd, the genera], the officers, and the people. After 
4bme other eeremoofes, the bread was distributed among 
(he eongregation ; and those who' eame out of the sacristy 
having retired, its doors were again closed, and prayers 
trere recul for all the royaL family ; their names bein^ enu- 
merated in a tone of votee and manner exactly like that of 
a corporal or serjeant at a roll-call. Passages were also 
read iVom the Psalms ; but the method of reading, in all 
the Russian churches, is ridiculous beyond description. 
The young priests who officiate, pique themselves upon tk 
talent of mouthing it over with all possible celerity, so aa 
to be altogether uiiiBtelligible, even to the Russians; 
striving to give a whole lewonthe appearance of a single 
word of numberless syllables. Some notion may be Ibrmed' 
of their delivery, by hearing the eriers in our courts of jus-, 
tfee adihinisler the oath to a jury. 

The dinner given by the general, after this eeremony, 
served to show, that among Cossacks, as elsewhere, reli- 
gious abstinence by no means implies any privation as to 
eating and drinking. We were told to expect meagre diet, 
and ^ound the tabfo covered with all sorts of fish, with 
tareens of sterlet soup, with the rieh wines of the Don, and 
ebpious goblets of deiieions hydromel or mead, flavoured 
by juices of different fruit I took this opportunity ta 
Request the genenil's permission to open one of the tumiUi 
in the neigh oourhood. It was gninted, and an order was 
ffiv^n fair thirty of the Cossaek soldiers to assist me iu the 
liiibdat V but afterwards, wheh I had assembled my work* 
inen, an aliirm was spread, and speedily increased by the 
libsetvations^ of an' Ignorant physician, that by this raeaos 
file plag^ie inight lie eonrnonlcii^ed to tlie people; in eoB« 
lequedce of wSieh- 1 was foveed to aibandoo the undertaking. 
Beyeral of tfa&'Cos8aeks,uevertheless, assured me thatthej^ 
had formerly opened several ; .and they aflirmed that they 
had fonnd in them the bones of men and horses. Some- 
times, they said, (wliich, if troe^ wouldbe indeed remarka- 
%le) gun-barre)s are found in. these iMnbs, exhibiting verj^ 

R 



179 CLA&K^'S TRA-VBLS IN RUSSIA. 

aneieni workm^ship. A Coaaaek officer show4^4 m%-i 
very extraordinary weapon of this . nature, wliieh he 
declared huA been discovered in one of the mounds in the 
$teppe&. Notwithstanding all that may be nr^d concern- 
ing the knowledge which the Chinese and oriental hordes 
had of gunpowder prior to its use in Europe, I rather sus- 
pect such weapons were derived from the inhabitants of 
Poland, who used them with matchlocks 5 yet the officer I 
allude to, had no motive for deviating from the truth^l 
Other things, such as vessels of earthemware, and instru* 
ments of war, coi^mon to ancient nations, said to have been 
dus: out of these heaps, are more consistent with probar 
bility. - 

In the evenmg of this day we embarked upon the Dqq 
for Tseherehaskoy, accompanied by lieutenant-eolondl 
Alexi Gregjoriwitch Papof, to whom we were indebted for 
instances of hospitality and polite attention, which stran- 
gers might vainly expect in more enlightened cities of 
£urope. His education had been liberal, though reeeive4 
in the marshes of theDon ; and his accomplishments might 
have graced the most refined society, although derived from 
the natives of Tscherchaskoy.* 

In almost all its charaeterislicks, the Bon bears resem- 
blance to the Nile. It has the same regular, annual inun- 
dation, covering a great extent of territory, over which we 
now passed by water to Tscherchaskoy ; although the land 
is dry by the'month of July or August. The same aquar 
tick plants are found in both rivers $ and, in particular, 
the same tall flags, reeds, and bulrushes, sometimes rising 
to the height of twenty feet. The manner in which they 
disembogue themselves into the sea, by a plurality of ent- 
bouchures^ is again the same, forming several small islands^ 
as in the Delta, filled with swamps and morasses. Both 

* Mr. Hebcr> in liis obflerratiUnft on Oxoi, hus a^rded « mostjteuuine 
tribute to the enlightenec) minds of tbe CosBftcks of the Don, " Taere it 
here a vei^^ decent kadah, ^vith a billiard-table, and a room adorned mith 
many trcrman ebEn^Tings; and one English print, that of the death ofche- 
vatier Bayard. The OoiSaeks, balrHig ttever heard of the ekevaU^ sat» 
reprochCf t»i\^dJt the death of Darius.. On mj-aaking if Boarhon wm 
Jitexanaro Micedoiiskt/, they answered, to my surprise, that he was not 
present at the death of JDarhis, and i^wed thevnelves v«1l dailicd in'hb 
litstory, whteh 009 wuuld hardly expeet." ffeber^9 MS. Jinmtd. 

**■ EdncatioD among the Cossacks is not selow as is generally thoQ^ht, «a4 
it improves daily. All tlte ehildren of offioers are sent to the aeademy oC 
Circask, and learn French, German, &c. It was holyday time wlMrft W'e 
i*aB there ; het their progress wM wel! spcaceA ^.^ /*i 



CAPITAL OT THE HOtf eOMACKS. iT0 

me ftai tfie »tKer wrvt as faottudaries to two prmeipitf 
qaarterd of the globe. Whco the waters retire, the asto^ 
nishin^ variety of inseets there engendned might indaee a 
zealous eittotnolosisllto visit the Don, for that express pur- 
pose. Fiven at the period of inuodation, when the waters 
were at the higliest, we observed above thirty different 
(ciods of flies, at the same instant, upon the tables of oar 
apartment. Many of these, whieh we eolle'cted, were too 
mneh injured on our return home, to be well represented. 
The whole course of the Don, is about six hundred and 
«ixty-six miles.* It rises near Tula, in a lake ealled the 
Ivan Oxeroy or 8t. Ji^nh Sea. Below Woronetz, it is 
from three hondred to six hundred ftitboms broad; and of 
liaflleient depth, from tlie middle of Apt il to the end of 
June,ibr ships ni burthen ; bat dartne tlie rest of the year, 
the water id so low, that on several of the shallows tt is not 
above a fbot and a half deep.f In the spring floods it rises 
IVom sixteen to etghteen feet perpendionlar, and the eur*- 
rent is vtty rapid* The priHcinal rivers generally stated 
lo fall into it, are the Danaetz, tke Woronetz, the Choper, 
the MedveditK, and the llavla ^ hut there are others, unno^ 
tieed hitherto by geographers, not, perhaps, of e^uai ini^ 
portanee, although entitled to a place tn maps of the coun* 
t¥y, on aeeonnt of the popolation found upon their shores. 

About twenty miles below Woronetz, close to the river, 
near a town ealled Kbstin^oy ^Omelin observed one of those 
ileposits of elephants' bones, of wliich there exist sueh won- 
derful remains in Siberia, at the mouths of rivers which fall 
into the Icy Sea. These bones are described as lying in the 
greatest disorder; teeth, jaw bones, ribs, vertefiree, not 
mineralized, nor, as it is eommonly expressed, petrified, but 
in their natural state, except having suffered a partial de- 
eompositiott.$ Neither is the Don without antiquities, wor* 
thy of a more partieular dcsoriptioo than can now be 
aSorded. A tradition exists in the eeontry, whieh pretend* 
that Alexander the great passed the Don,' and built a city, 
or citadel, upon the river, at a place ealled Zimlaskaia^i\^iB 
bundred miles above the town of Tseherebaskoy, where 

* Qoe thousand vents. 

t Lord Whitworth's aecooirt of Russia, p. 120. Straiob. ffill edit. 1758. 

t TabkKiu ab(p^g.S de J,* Empire de la Bmne, pay JPletchtjekJi p. 23* 
Moscouy 1796< 

S Jaurnal des savam T^^/a^eurs, p. 84. ' 



iSQ CI«A&K£'8 TRJlV£LS. IN RUSSIA.' 

the best Don wine is now made. Some insigniiieant traew 
of 9ueh a work are still said to exist. At general Orlof 9 
house were twoplain pillars of marble, actually brought 
from thence. The Cossacks are too little interested in 
such matters to invent tales of this kind ; and thej woul^ 
do $0 the less where no inquiry was made to instigate them. 
The information, such as it is, was ^iren spontaneously : 
and, . indeed* the circumstances of their tradition are some*-' 
what corroborated by reference to ancient history. The 
:sTHAAi or Pillars* of Alexander, were, according to Pto- 
lemy, in Asiatick Sarmatia, and in the vicinity of the 
Taaais.t The altars or bpJvIOj of Alexander Mere on the 
European side of the river4 of which wesball have occa- 
sion to speak hereafter. We heard, moreover, of coins of 
Alexander 5 but none were to be seen. Perhaps, among* th0 
numerous Greeksg who reside in Tscherchaskoy, both 
spurious and genuine coins of Alexander may have been 
found, and thus have given foundation to the report. Of 
the marble pillars, however, the history is unequivocal $ 
because geueral Orlof himself, who possessed them, and 
who gave orders for their removal from ZanUinskaia^ gave 
me the intelligence. The boats upon the Don present the 
most ancient form of vessel used for navigation ; that of a 
canoe, 'scooped out from a single tree, and consisting of one 
piece of timber, in which they move about with a single 
paddle. Sometimes, as in the South Seas, they join two 
of these canoes by transverse planks laid across, and so 
form a kind of deck, capable of conveying considerable bur- 
thens* If 1 could form any exact admeasurement by ray 
eye, I should siate the breadth of the river at Oxai, at this 
season of the year, to be at least half a mile. The current 
is rapid, and even turbulent. The fishes caught iu it are 
much too liumerous to be mentioned 5 as pcrlTaps there is 
no river in the world which presents a greater variety, or 
in greatei* perfection. Among the principal are, the belugUf^ 
the common sturgeon, the sterlet, sudak, trout, Prussian 
carp, tench, pike, perch, water tortoises, and crawfish of an 

* Tbe readter^ill pardon my referring him to an account of ^e CarOr 

bridge marbles, for a more psuticular descriptioQ of the monuipental pil- 
lar called Stele, v hicli, having been almost always improperly trauslntedy 
)iBB gfiren rise to much errour in our notions of anciertt histoiy. 

t'E^vcwo-j tf< aai eu ju& 'Ahj^ti^puj STHAAI. Ptolemeei Georgr. fib, v- 
p: 364. Edit. Par. 1546. . * . 

t Ibid. p. 141;. 



CATtTAV OF TSTK DON COStACKS* 181 

<;mmndtt8 size, sonne of which are as iarge ag lobsters. The> 
last are «an^ht in great abaadanee, by slnkinji^ small nets. 
About six inches in diameter, baited with pieces of salted 
fish. They sold at tlie rate of two-pence [English] per hun- 
dred ; aBo.in some seasons of the year the same number may 
be bad for hnJtt that sQm. The behiga is the largest eatable 
fish known. In the kidneys of very old ones are aometimc^ 
fiMiad calctdi^ as large as a man's* fist. Prof(»sor Palias 
save »e one, which doctor Tennant analyzed ; and it was 
ioafld to consist almost wholly of phosphat of li^e. The 
lower sort of people keep these talcnii as talismaUis, for th& 
cure of certain disorders. Strahlenfaerg relates, that har 
saw a heiuga fifty-six feet long, and near eighteen feet 
fliiek. In the Don they seldom exceed twelve fi^etin length. 
In ^ape, this fish yerv much resemliles the stur-^ 
geoti. One of the oldest fishermen upon the Don possessed 
a secret, by which be was ena1)led to ensnare the largest 
belugas ; bnthe would commotiicate to no one his valuable 
discovery. We saw him fishing at a eonsiderable distance 
fhim our boat, and could distinetty perceive that he 
plunged eontintially a hoRow cylinder into tlie river, which 
made a noise under water, like the bursting of an air buh'^ 
hie, and could be heard from the shore, on each side. 

The appearance of Tseherehaskoy, as the traveller 
approaches it on the river, afftirds a most novel spectacle. * 
Although not so grand as Venice, it somewhat resembler 
that city. The entrance ishy broad canals, which inter* 
sect it in all parts. On either side, wooden hinuses built on;* 
piles, appearto fioaton the water, to which the inhahitants.' 
pass in boats, or by narrow bridges o»ly two planks wide 
With posts and rails, forming a causeway to every quarter 
of the place. As we sailed >n to the town, we beheld the 
younger part of its inhabitants upon the house tops, sitting ^ 
eh the ridges of the sloping roofs, w4th their dogs, which 
were aetualty running idbout and barking in that extraordin* 
ary situation. On our approach, children leaped from the^ 
windows and doors, like so many frogs, into the water und 
m an iastftat, were scimi swimnMng alMut our boat. Every 
^ng seemetf tounnonnoe an ampliibions raee : not an incii 
of dry land was to be seen; .and, in the midst of a very pop- 
ulous metropolis, at least one half of its citizens were in the 
water, and tne other in the air. Colonel Papof conducted^ 
OS to the house of a general^ the principal officer and ata-J 



ftt CLARKB^S T&ATXIA fM &«tfIA. 

man of TselK^reliaskoy** Me wnst nerehant a&i ¥erj 
neh. His lioase, ]ike all those we -eaw afberwardg^ was 
tiheraeterized by extrenitt eieanliness, and very elei^antlj 
jparnishecl. On hs walls were French and English prints | 
ttcnong others, one i^ery f ne engravint; of a. subjeot which I 
kave always recorded with more than eommen interests 
It represented RotisseaH in his lost moments^ desiring M» 
Ibonsekeeper to open the window, that he mij^ht onee n^ercy 
behold the face of nature. The t^neral havtn«» requetUd 
that we would aeeept of his serviees while we staid, apoint* 
ed an oflieer to attend jjs, to provide us with sentinek, and 
whatever else we might want. 

I'he town of Tseherchaskoy is divided into eleven staBit* 
!Kas, and contains fifteen thousand inhabitants. The number 0f 
jbnuses amounts to three thoBsand : allowing, upon theave^ 
iUge, ive persons to each. This, from all we conid Jeajra^ 
Is the true state of the pepnlation. Here are seven ehuri- 
clies ; four of stone, and three of wood. One of the latter 
description is for Tartar worship, the Tartars having; « 
otanitza in Tseherehaskoy peculiar to their own people* 
Their religion is MohammimaQ, and their church is per*> 
feetiy plain, exhibiting the utmost simplicity, and entirely 
destitute of pictures or images, having a little receas, & 
|>«lpit for tm priest, and a gallery for boys and young men; 
The elders only enter the lower part, which is covered wiik 
earpets ; and, as in Turkey, no one is permitted to enter 
with boots or shoes. Nevertheless, upon this sacred floofy 
they transact their business ; for we found a Tartar casting; 
lip his accounts, and writing, squatted with all his eommer>- 
eial papers about htm. 

The first ohnreh ereeti^din Tsehereliaskoy was founded 
by Peter the great, as an insert ptien placed in the waU tnl- 
'plies ; but it has suffered frequently from fire, as Indeed hay« 
all the other ehnrches. It is now of stone, and contains a 
handsome screen, painted^f a bright green colour, and riehly 

fiided, as at Oxai. They bum, moreover, green wax-candlet. 
[1 this church are kept what they call ilieir reffoUa ; applp- 
ing the term to repiibliean, rather thim to regain ensigns of 
jdistinetion. These were exhibited for oar inspection^ and 

**« The internal government of Circatk is exercised, under tbe ataman^ 
•ituister of police, attd a chancery of four perftona. The police niafi^r^ torn, 
WB Mleitkn oec^ona, the utasuaii is dis^nguished '^ft^.Uf^. ttaff, witb; a 
tilTer filigree k«ftd, reaemhliog that of a di-um luajpr." Heber '4 JlifS^ 



ooasisted ebicfly of presenti from dfleMeiit tovereig^iis^ 
standards, and emfar«i<iered flags bearint^ tli« imperial arms f 
poiitiek doirations, servitts^ as meiDc»rials, lest tne Cossaeks 
m%kt$lorg^t to wbat empire tkey bdoD8:ed. We liere saw 
kmeesv fashioned after the Asiataek manner, with tofts of 
fiaeeamel's hair han.i^n^ from the point. Perhaps th« 
origin of oneh an appotnki^ may be referred to the barbar* 
•as, periods when oriental nations drank the blood of 
their enemies. It may be rec^Ueeted that I have already 
described an instrument of the same form, in use for drink* 
ittf^ what is darned preeious among the Cal mucks atthii 
day, who thrust a small lance with a tuft of camel's hair 
into the stills which contain the spirit they procure from, 
mare's milk, ami: squeeze the tnft into the palm of their 
hand, in order to drink what it contains.* With theid 
lances were preserved also, silver^headed staves for their 
atamans ^ rich and beautiful roaiMseripts, chiefly eertificateo 
of the.bra^e conduct of their people in war, sent as testis 
monialoh'y the sovereigno whom they had served; and a 
map of tlieir territory, by the hand of the late empreso 
Cadierine. The standards she presented to them aoe 
exceedingly costly. Great part of their regalia was bume4 
in one of the terrible ccmflaffrattons to which their town bus 
been ei posed $ and amorv^ the thin^ then loot, were somt 
wesents from Peter the threat. There still remained one 9f 
ilk gifts, very charaeteristick of that eitraonlioary man. 
jftmonf^ the rich staves of ebony, silver-headed and maf^ni* 
lieently adorned, which different soverei^s have sent t# 
tbeoi^ to be boni by their atanmn, appeared one without aqy 
other ornament than what nati^re had bestowed npon it. Of 
this ihey^ wore more proud than of all tlie rest* It was like 
the club we see nsuauy represented with the tisnre of Uer- 
oules, of plain, unadorned woo^, thoneh covered with sturdy 
knots, and calculated for the hands (tf a giant. In the samp 
church was also suspended Ike singular picture of ^ The 
Virgin with the BleecHng Cke^ ^ but with a remarkable 
addHiontothe usual rep/esentaitioo. Below the. figure qf 
the vicgin, a hand appeared painited of the natural uxe^i^ 
if cutdS* and fastened to the picture: a knife , also waa 
jilaeed by the hand : and they related, that a priest struck 
at a nicture of the virgin, and wounded her in the cbeel^ 
TrJbictt ever ^uiinued to Ueed ; but immediately as the Uc^v^ 

• See p. 158 of tbu work* - - 



i9# •LA&XK's travels Uf RUSSIA. 

was iMid«» the batid of tlie priest eame off, and, Witk tbe 
knife, remained afterwards Miheriii^ to the ptoture. 

There is another stone ehurek in Tseherekaskoy, whiek 
saffisred more recently from fire. About fonr years ago, the 
inhabitants undertook its reparation, and ereeted a screen 
of ^reot ma&^ifieenee, whien, if not eqnaf to any thing* of 
the kind in fltussia, is certainly an astonishing piece of woik:* 
■lansbip for this part of the world. It is butft in the Ore* 
•Ian taste, and consists of fonrteen Corinthian columns, co- 
vered entirely with burnished goM. There are besides, 
similar pilasters, with paintings in a more modern style^ 
and more pleasing than the stm appearance usuidly exhtbi-^ 
ted by the pictures in Russian churches. 

Almost all Ihe other publick edifices in Ts^erehaskoy 
are of wood. They are as follow : 
* i. The Chancery, in whieh the administration of justice^ 
and all other pnblicic business is corried on. This buildit^ 
eotofains their papers, records, and other documents. One 
mom in it is appropriated to their assembly for publick 
dabates, which much resembles onr house of commons. It 
contained the empereur's portrait, which was more like him 
than any we bad seen. When a general assembly is con- 
▼ened,it consists of a president, with all the generals,eolonel6, 
and staff officers ; who hold councils, not merely of war, but 
of all aifikirs relating to the publick welfare. 

2. Another court of justice, called Bclavesnesut, which 
signifies << Justice by wordJ^ — The assemblies here answer 
to our quarter sess^ions. Parties who have any disagreement 
mieet, with their witnesses, and state their grievances. Each 
receives a hearing, and afterwards justice is decided. 

8. Their publick Academy, in which their youth receive 
instruction in geometry, meehanieks, physicks, gevigraphy, 
history, arithmetick, &c. &c. 

4. The Apotfbe«aries' Hall. 

5. The Town Hall of the eleven stabitxas into which thcf^ 
town is divided. 

6. 8ix Prisons, four of whicli are for males and two for 
l^ales. — ^The prisoners are suffered to go about in their 
chains, for the purpose of begging.' 

The shops here are very numerous, and kep^ clii^fiy hy 
Greeks. Tlieseeontain the produceof Turkey and Greece; 
as *pearls, cloth, shawls, tobacco, fruit, fce. There are also 
two publick baths; and each stanitza has its respective 
tavern for liquors^ brandy, wine, &c. and its traitwr^ or 



CfAPtTAI. OF THS DON G999A0t$* iM 

eiH)k^s shop for TTBlaals. Every Saturday eveoina^ a t^t* 
monj takes plaee in all the churches^ whieh is ealled <^ The 
^nedictianpfhread.^^ Upou saeh oeeasious^ five white 
loaves are placed io the middle of the eJiurch, as sjmbols 
of those with whieh Christ fed the muHitude; and the peo- 
ple pr&J^ that, as with five loaves he fed five thousaad, he 
would oondeseend to g^aat asufiieieneT of corn ia the coau- 
try for the bread of its inhahitaiits, and bless it for their use. 
I do not know wheoee the notion was derived, that the 
Cossacks are of Polish oris^in^ but it lias become prevaient^ 
and a seasonable opportunity now ofiers to show that it is 
foumied in errour. The Cossacks have been known as a 
disdnet people, near ^io^ hundred years. According* to 
Constantine Porphyrogenetes, their name has continued 
unaltered sinee the time in which he wrote. It is found in 
the appellation of a tribe near Mount Caucasus. '' And 
beyond the Papagian country," says he,* " is the country 
eaJIed Casachia; but beyond the Casachs^ a^e the summits 
of Caucasus." It is impossible to obtain more striking 
information^ Our countryman, Jonas Han way, calls the 
Don Cossacks " a species of Tartars.^t Storch, who has 
written fully and learnedly on the subject, although he admits 
the resemblance which they bear to Tartars, in their mode 
of life, constitution, and features, insists that they are of 
Russian ori^in.| Scherer, who has appropriated a work 
entirely to the investigation of their history, and continually 
inculcates the. notion of thoir Polish ori&;in, neverthe* 
less, opens his work with an extract of a different nature $ 
but it has all the air of a fable.§ It is t^ken from Nestor's 
Russian Annals. A Russian prince, and a Cossack chief, 
at the head of their respective armies, agree to determine 
their differences by a wrestling match, whieh ends in the 
assassination of the Cossack by the Russian. This event 

• Ka] eivaOty tw'c Jletrof))^ X^t^^ ^'^^^^ ^^"' *Jt:*§* * htyofAhm KA2AX1A, uf- 
«d«7/c^c KAlEAXlAJ. c^n vaL Xa.u»ii<rkt f <riv. ConstMitiiiUB de Admrnistrad. 
Tin per. in fin. Cap- 42. 133. Lu^d. Bat. 1611. 

f Han way's TraTelSjToI. I. p. 97. , 

t TaWeau Historiqne et Statistique de I'Empirc de Ruaaie ; par Storch . Edij;. 
l<Yansai8e» torn. I. p. 55. See particularly p. 24 oJ'the Notes of that vohime. 

J Tlwy are often • described as a 1)ranch of Poles, who migrated in 
modem times to the marshes of the Don. Tlie observations of ScUerer 
•onceming their lang^nage alio, strength* ns the notion of their Polish ori- 
gin. *< La langu^ den Comgues Mt vn dialectedela PoUntite^ comme 
celle-ci I'ett de VKsdavon.^^ Annates d« la Petite ^u^ie^ piir S'therer, 
tom.I.p. 17. Paris, 178«. 



is fallowed by Uie siil^ittgiaion of the Cosaaek torntory.* - To 
have seen tUem, and to faave lived with tliein» is suffieient 
to. establish a eonvietion that they have sothiug in eominott 
with the Russians, exeept tlie language they now speak» 
and which, probably, was intivdneed when (Jiey heeamo 
converted to the Russian ehureh. Let us pay some atten- 
tion, at least, to what they say of themselves* Those of 
the Don relate, that a party of Cossacks heing engsi^d in 
their usual occupatioii of bunting, near the range oif Mount 
Caucasus^ met a number of people, with whom they weno 
strangers, going towainls the east ; and Jiaving enquired wha 
jlliey were, the strangers anaw«red, that they were emigranin 
from Poland, who mA fled the oppressions of their n o bl oo » 
imd were proceeding to Persia, to join iho troops of that 
oeimtry against the Turks. The Coseaeks told them they 
might spare themselves the tfouble of so long a march ki 
order to oommit hostilities upon the Turks, and p«rsttada4 
them to return with them to the Iowa of Tselierehaskoy» 
wkere they woiUd find an asykimt and whenee, in «onoert 
with them, they might attack the fortress of Azof. Assisted 
by this reenforcemeot, and with only fonr pteees of eananii^ 
which was all the at tillery they possessed at that time,tbay 
made the attaek upon Azof, which fell into the hands of 
the combined forces. From th^ eircumstAAces of this mmsbp' 
ctation, which first enabled the Cossacks to make a fignn 
among the nations at war with Turkey, might have oeeA 
derived the erroneous notion of their having migrated fraai 
Poland. The Cossacks of the Don, according to tlieaeconal 
which the best instructed among tliem give of their own 
people (and tliey are much better qualified to write a hi%*^ 
tory than any of the Russian aeadonHcmas) are a mistun 
of vl^ious nations, principally of Cireassiaus, Maio-Rns* 
sians, ^d Russians, but also of Tartars, Poles, Gceeks, 
Turks, CaJmucks, and Armenians. In the town of Tseher* 
chaskoy alone, and in the same street, may be seen all these 
different people at once, and oaoh in the habit peculiar to 
his nation. A considerable proportion c^- the infaahitants 
have ever bpen jreiugees, escaped from Turkey, Qreeee, or 
other countries, to this plae^ Coneerning the first esta- 
blishment of their town, they relate, that il; was founded by 
rcfu^s from Greece, to whom the people of Azof deniea 
admission, and ^lio,'itt Coiiseqtiettce, proceeding farther rfp 

• Selisrer. TaUeau de la Petite Rossie, torn. I. p* 9. 



tke rir«tvi»t*ie t^Miit Mifciid; on' wMeli thtj made theh* set' 
^t&He^tf givine^to it a nsme demed fmnt the people npoif 
urbMe fhiatier It wa^ dttHated, and with whom thej after- 
wlwdfr inftcrn^Yed. The name t)f the town, although pro- 
MfWMed Tseherthirsky, is wriUen ' Tseherehaskoy, whieh 
im^^l^^TbemiM village 1^1^ I%e/berc^V pronoimeed 
tfenerall^r l%eterdli?«S) or, as we write It, Otrcamans: 
iSdi^ or JKb^, in Ihe TaHar language, signifies a ^ma^ vl^- 
btge p and is^ thevefbre, oftcsi tne terminatiitg syllable in 
liio names ol^ ptaees in thut eofintry ; as Kkxin»koyj Mm^ 
M/eskofj and Ml^kkop Thns^ from ti' small settlement 
nf rovcffs, angmented prineipaily by intercourse with the 
netghbenrii^ Oireassia^^ has sinee aeeomulated, like « 
vatft aiMitaig«,MheimflMnse horde ofthe Cossaeks. Befbre 
tlie'fniddte of' the tenth eentnry, they had already reached 
thte f router of Foktnd, and began an tnt^reoorse with tht^ 
people ^tha« eooatry, whieh was often attended with nn 
a^i^ttswtaftiit^tt of their Itorde by the settlement of Polish 
offi^fnmta lamong them. Their mt notable armament is said 
CslHMre'hc^iiiii tlie7tar94d,* wheft the Greek einperout 
empleyed them as snereeiaries in his war against the Turks. 
Frontfaeir addrem tit arehery, their netghboors had given 
tbent the name ^ Choxmrs and Chaxurs^ nnder whieh 
l^terimeUation ^ey are frequently mentioned by €on<^ 
steitino Povphyrogfeintes, and their eonntry eailed CHaxa^ 
i«t««t Tho week empereur, f^ the services they rendered; 
srattheaii^ vith:asstiitanees of pr«>teetion, and reeommenda^ 
lory letters, to the Polinh sovereign, reqnestins that, iit 
i^ure^ their* appellatii^n might be Cossatks^ and not Ofro* 
9mvt4 ' As t#the origin of that name, «iime will have it t«b 
be dtrsred fram « Tartar word, signify ine m armed man ;9 
otbsis^'fvam the sort of sabre they use ; ethers, from a w%rd 
wfaMis%Kfie»a Moe^t; others again pretend, that thef 
F^as exiled them ComrcAts, from a word in their iangtiage 
wfcinh linf^ies a goat, beeaiise they formerly wore the skins' 
of that animid. Scherer olyeeting to this last deviation, 
aahstiUites another still more frivotoas, and maintains it to 
have been taken frrai JCossttj a small promontory.^ in this 

• Sehet^r. t*al>lean de la Petite Ruasie» torn I. p. 67. . 

t See <SbiMt..Piotphen>g6netes, Cap. 10, 13/13, dS, let. . 
^'Scfaerer. Tableau 4e la Petite Ausne, tool. L{». 71. 
§ Stor«^. TsiMea« de la Roiflie, toia. I. p. $S. 
V Seberer. ibid. ]f,^. 



IM •LARKS'S TaAVBtS llf AVMIA. 

"mid pursuit efetTiRol6«|»]^vI mt^tlitso s^nitvtlMit Os^ereK^ 
ijft Spaiiisb, sigroifies preeisety the sort of eoat they wear, 
answering to the Eng^lish word Cassock,* did not Peyssmi* 
ael mueh more rationally, and, as -it appears to ne, ineoo^ 
testabl J, ascertain the oric*in of the appellation.f ^ The ^laad 
of the OAaawifes," says he, "formed part of that cou^ry 
whieh is now denominated Circassia, properly soealkd. Itt 
this district of Chaxakia, according to my opinioB, we 
ought to seek the origin of the Cossacks of the present 
day." The observation is aetnally confirmed by the fitets 
I hare already related, and by the note from CoBstftiftine 
given in p. 185 : although so general became the migratioiii 
of this people, that their tribes are now found from Iha 
banks of the Dneiper to the remotest con^nes of Siberia. 
Aecordingto their different emigrations and settlements, 
th^y are at prescfnt distinguished by the various^ names of 
Malo-Russian Cossacks, Don Cossaeks, Cossacks of the 
Black Sea, of the Volga, of Orebenskoy, of Orenbooi^, of 
the Ural Alps, and of Siberia; where they have reoetvcd 
yet other appellations, and extend even to the mountains of 
China, and the eastern Ocettii. It is necessary to confine 
Ottr attention to the principal hive, whenee, with little -^x* 
eeption, ail these swarms proceeded. 

Nothing has contributed more to augment the eolouy of 
Don Cossacks, than the freedom they enjoy. Surrounded by 
systems of slavery, they offer the singular speetaele of an 
increasing repttblick ; like a nucleus, putting forth its roots 
and ramifications to'ali parts of an immense, despotiek 
empire, whieh considers it a wise policy to promote their 
increase, and to guaranty their privileges. As they detest 
the Russians, a day may arrive, when, conscious of their 
dwn importance, they will make their masters srorc fully 
sensible of their power.f A sage regulation in their military 
eonstitution, from a very ^arly period, inditeed them 
to grant all the privilleges they enjoy tosneh of their pris- 

• Letters conceraing the Spanish Nation, hy the Rer. E. Clarke, my 
father, p. 338. 

f Observations Histonques^ &c. sur Ics Peuples Barbares, par Peyssoiui^ 
p.l2S. Paris, 1765. 

t After slightly nptieUig their moat impoirtant revoats under Basin waA 
Boalavin, towaixls the end of the seventeenth, and in the beginning of t^c 
eighteenth century, Storch observes,.** Z'6«fM>(?d!^ cet rebtlaofu eit 
atsex inUresaante pour occuper. un.de n/OM M^toriena modernti*^* Ste 
pagp «6 of the Notes to Stowh's Tableau de la Ru99if» torn. L 



C^PITAJi OV THE J»<M!f CO&SACKS. i80 

naemof imU'as.ebosetoseitle amoagthem. Tbns^fjrfuit tU^ 
jHiecesswhiob has attended their ineurgions, their numbers 
^ve rapidly iDereased. In the y^ar 1^79, they made their 
appearance, for the firM: time in the Russian armies.* . la 
4734^ their first ooionies were established upon the Vols^iu 
fAk^^i the same time, aoother colony marched towards the 
Terek, and settled there. Towards the middle of the ]ast 
^fntury, a deta>ehmeut fiii^ed their residence along tJve bunk:^ 
of the Samara, the Ui, and the Ural, as far as the Kirgisiaa 
fronyti^r. But by much the most powerful colony, whieh has 
niigirated from tlie original hive, is that established upon liie . 
«hores of the Caspian, at the mouth of the Ural river, whieb 
lelii; the Don in the beginning of the fifteenth century, and 
has since heeu augmented by subseqaent emigrations from 
the parjfnt stock. This .branch of the Don Cossacks. Joined 
in the rebellion under Fusatchef. In order to annihilate 
ihe mem^y of their revolt, the Ruaisian government chaiir 
ged their name (which had hitherto been Cossa.eks of the 
Jaik) a« well as the name of their capital, and pf the river 
upon .wliich thay resided.! 

The most remarkable branch of the Don Cossacks is 
that which has bcicn established in Siberia. They beg^nt* 
march towards the east in the sixteenth century. A troop 
of between six and seven thousand of them, under the eon- 
4luet of their ataman, Jermak, peenetrated into Permia, and 
^ade the discoverj of the country to which we commonly 
apply the appellation of Siberia. 'J'heir adventures, and 
^liQi^e of their chief, might lay the foundation of a very inter- 
esting Romance ; hut we may despair of seeing it constitute 
a portion of history. They had gained the heights of tha 
Ural Alps^ when the appearace of vast deserts, tenaated 
hy an unknown and savage people, somewliat intimidated 
the epterprisins clan. Jermak, full of zeal, harangues his 
little ftrmy. They descend the mountains; defeat and 
ilfiyp hefore them a host of Tartars ; pursue their conquests 
even to the Tobol, the Irtysch, and the Ob $ and terminate 
their surprising march by the subjugation of all the tribes 
dwelling between the Ural and Altaiek chain. Unable, from 
the losses they had sustained, and the obstaelesthey liad yet 
to surmount, to maintain possession of such extensive terri- 
tory, tiiey were eompelled to humble themselves before the 
Russians. In 1581 Jermak made the cession of bis coa- 
qtiests, by formal capitulation, to the tsar Joan, who, in eon- 

* Storch, torn. I. p. 68. 8 f I^W- P«7 ^ 



MtrsoMtnary 4UeBt« mid emm^** Thiit i^is iSUiem 
iidd^ to 4lie «»teimv«i |io«iM9Ml«iif . oC Rmgi*, •fa.j •f€«9ftMk 
of the Don, whose «fibieveiiiei|tt >wer^ 4Mi^ letf . i^c^unK 
Am IIm bMoted ,^etprit« of Ato»liderybg<iiWMie^ ti^f d^ve 
WMted biitomQl (o relate t heni^ «-.!<- 

. l fa»re e^irriod tbe history of the Bm CooiMiM*.lNiek (tf 
Iho ymi$A itt "irmeh diey first fof mod an e(it»W i ( ib i iont .ojio» 
Uio bftii. . Tbo tfoaodoUon t^ TaoherQhfMd»7f,ft'«ili itaif 
'4Hf« MQo«iit$ is- altribtttod U 4be aetiliog' o£*Oonio^fOltro«% 
^ibaUf exiles from Creeee* The sharoo. 9i^ tlM^otOr Of 
jAsoT) «iMl<of iho Blaek^ea, worO) in v«fj easi^ i igs i» iA i> r 
j|ffieKteil9a»4iiiore reeeotl^ New HoUtiid, te&MNMi*lo«ir. 
ahfe fi^Mbi sovit thither inavy of Aear issUosi, w4 4|» 
IMotom HM tootiBited mm^Bf^ the Hononsi^ •• iiyfrwHif 
4ile fiftsMioiefit of Ovid. The opiniiMm thtiofOM^ of tfi^ 
G«iOooho9^>leoiriHii9 iho fonndoiion of^TocfctidbofllBoj^lh 
)oot orttboot ooyporty oveB-in oaeieiit hiilorjr* «*Witli mgifli 
iothei»owii^feiii»jos« DotioQ, tJwiiois.O¥0ry^re«flAii 1^ 
.^enasidof it, for Aio mMt {Hurt, Cirtaoiia»$ and m omsiiy the 
Aonlogy vhli Poles o« RmMOHs, ins^aod^f hmdiBs im I* 
>i«d«ee their atipii Iron tbeoi, should r%iimi^pMt w to the 
ilemiKm sitook^ whenoo the $^voliiMH*the PdBshy <ito 
^rusiioiMi, theM<ioeo<ntish, Bobeoiion^ ond TiMMylroniiii 
twoplo nmi' loogiiage veM*seTer»Uy •dbrifod. All iiie 
4«ioif Bi hislotfMUMi Md f j sogt fc yhefs oonfmLtho trisdi «f 
lihoir Biaroh from MedHk^ 4hrottch Ihe ftttiitSs of Msmit 
ClHieooiiaftowordstlioTttiioiBi^Mroradthe^iasiBe. ThoU* 
Arst eobiiios wor9 ooiM Sarmatiam^ and the %orlitdt 
^areoonl of |hot peo^ is gtven in Herodotus, orho pkriAi 
Hheai between MwML V^xitmu aad tho Tiuino^ The 
defie of Coueosiis boo beesi ootebmlioditt oil «^;eo» ofl^rbig 
J3t^ mIv pussofie Ihrotia^ tlml othoTwite ioipeiiettttble bath 
*mf* It berolbeapfiKlotioi^of the Py lab ^SkUMmrtwaif 
from the Sarhatab, who first piuised throng it : Bab. 
'heiiig only the eastern mark of deseent; os BARMAotAf 
8armatae $ that is Co.soy» ^* Progeny «(f tibe .M$4es4*' 

* Storcht toBi. 1. p. 76. f Herodot Ub.' it. e. 1 17/ 

t ZAFMATAl, XATPOMATAI, MAIOTAI, were the tame people. Mm 
BMlmty' uUl the dbtennideiii of my Mrental sneestor» tn w vdilMe 
iMateitiitioii od tlie ** CmuieoJi&n »/ the tiomartt Saxm, imaHngfrn cM*^ 
p.4T. U^^nryfgnMa%omAaiMm^ciimtt»ni0 eei m^l rdee d tesiaO- 
^gpimj mMtmti «» irlKMswaik I most lofer (herM«ra Bot oirif 



^kwrtAik OF TRB »oir ooUAam$ iti 

« BMiMiitfileohM,'* •Itertei the t^rtraiA Mtttrtfittdui 
llie Mftfjgitty ^ wbt kaew D«dii«^«f Ihe ettaMl#gT^ tMerte 
theAket: tpeftking of tlie^ei^MriiiektM <if the 8«vthiaiM, ht 
iftjw^ tlnl one «Mie out of Medkh Bettled »poo tlie banksnC 
the Tfttait, and 'tv^i'e ealled iSiaRcroiiuite.*'' 

The droMilailft of f Nt» present day* •f ¥rhoi»I «hatl eaaa 
ipeak, are a horde of baaJitti^ who inbiriiil preeiselY there- 
in wheaeethe Goesaefc^ ongtnally deteeiided. Caiftiiia- 
Mf imelM fhMn their aaelent boiffidarj, The 'faaal* aiii 
late Mie«tii, aad tttttaiatelj driren he^md the Kahaa' aiii 
me Tetak, tfiey han^, ag it were, upon the narlhfnti eideaaf 
Caytaat) ar ea«vy en their predatory ineareiaat fhMn th^ 
aumaif y.jitaitte ae Ita ftet, abere two hundred milee'fhMa 
"fiiiheMfeatfhay. Theyv^ well at the Tartar* of Kohaa, 
aft>4far<ala«r with the.Oaesaeics. They af aad ed la 
liahiYiNMt «iith tiiem at the and of the^ lest TaiWiii #«r | 
eeeaeioa offer^, they seize the nefeaae^af tKii 
^ ana a a i — g ' 



Ce tee a i ii» ara^r etraai^ere who may be Ihaad aaM«g thaai^ 
awt aeli then far ela^ee ta «ha J^ersinM. Their aMMiier af 
# a h t iy gy ae ^hseerihed: ta aie byHhe fkni Ceeiaeki, i^ t% 
hMathfluMefarat ia therlane reide^ar ;;nM/(^*«ar«hBa's 
iaiaK v>nm i» the waeerv aiimthey*reeottiiditraUha e ii h gU k 
li their adnsmMiy. If > Are ar sii araiedCoeefleks a{»faei^ 
ihey teaMun ia atfbaeh f it only tm^ &t three,, they allaak 



HffiB by tarpriie'f hat even then they wilt ran away if the 
eassaeks have tf ahe te ire. If Hi^torared la tbdr eaneeal- 
meht^ and ^tenagated' wha tlHrf are^eheyiAetolM^ theltf telae* 
ikmids* 8ama'af thantf wai« wkh the eaaemlfrieanere at 
<hU9 whew we werathere. Tha €ogtaekt> artd M the laha- 
hitaate ofiha Asiatiek eeaete af the Blank Sea, eall the 
.€lifa§8iiaae 2Mlere^teess, and 1fhdkm^Ae9ti,ii'ftinberpfoef 
nf whht i have before eaid af thef elymelogy ofthe wolti 
Tfldftreheahoy, wiiioh utifi^ht, peH&aps, be more ao^irel^ly 
writttti 7MH!99tim^lKPif<, hak 1 Itere adopted the ^flh9^1»hy 
.famanaeaded by ittbe»t'inairaiedinhahitaaU;t If it ^^^^ 

tQr,89inAjof ,tTie auOiocitles here notie^^ bat. »1«q foe th* moat, inip^rtaiit 
ioiorliitibpn eolfeeted by any aathor,' respeo^ng the oviginAl inliubitatits of 
tWeemibieibord^iilQ^t^nvtfie BT^d^Beai «riaof tMr iR#eroD(tfl6e ^fth. 
the pe9ple of Ancient Greece. ,»,,•-* . , • . * 

* Diod. Sic iib. 155. Ed. WeUtein. ... 

' •-.*...'.-.,*'••;»• ' • . ' '' . 

nUg (Ujpt^MB W hf 9fli* tA)?Fa^^ IsaiDi^ttattf^ tWiMPotiunfiatioa. In vprjlt 
^rminatkfVk o4 the^fme pfk bas^otbofm alHe^a^eqed W ».aa ii tj^e 
4^(AmpJe ot >daB^'Fb««^ tbe dip^oi^ is pr«ipQii^ed ai ia tbe'%#«k «» 
M^ uterefore^ cannoi b<i cxpreMed by ^» or bj agi' 



*il:l eLARKR's nAV&L& IN ,«.VJ5SIA. 

fteees«ftrj to make any addition to^wbat I har.e alraadir writ*' 
ten, eoTieerning the relation they bear to the Cossacks anj 
tber inhabitants of the TJkraino, many Qurious dircumstaDr 
tes mi^^ht be alleged ; such, for example, as the mode of 
aeooiuiting money, which is the same among the Halo-Rus* 
si'ans^and Circassians. There are.no%v Malo-Russians 
Jiving in the Caucasian moantains. The Circassians^ more- 
over, left their name, in the appellation of a town built upon 
the Dnieper. : • • ii * ^* ^ * 

The commerce of the Cossacks, and other fnhahttlrnts of 
Tscherehaskoy, is yery various. The principal artlcJe«> of 
their exports are fish, Iron, caviare, atfid a Httfe wtnc 5- aft 
though, generaljyj they consume all their wine. 'It rcsem* 
Hes Burgundy, and is between Burgundy and Champagne^ 
effervescing Vidlently ^ antf when it has aisquiped a certain 
age, it sells in Tscherehaskoy at a price eqtiiviclenf to tffrefe 
9»&il lings and sixpence the bottle*. They have both red and 
white. If they won Id suffer their grapes to ripen^ and knaw 
the best art of preparing, it would certainly surpass all tb% 
wines ef the world ; so rich and generous are the grap^ii 
from which It is expressed.* The (Cossacks use little or tt# 
tobacco, and live to a very* advanced age. Tlie merchants %f 
the place, when it is their turn, go to war like the rest,'arid 
have their rank iu the army.f In ifoct, there are few generals 

* *-* The Don vrme is sometimeff very pleasant, but it is, I suspect, a 
labricatkHd. I tasted some that was warranted genuine, whieh I could easily* 
Ibcfieve to be so ; it iras, indeedi 

' * As iriokeddew as Syoorax «<mld brufth t 

With raven's feather Ci-om unwholesome fien^' *^ 

ffeber'a MS, Jwmal, 

.' t " The jfovernment of the armies of the Don differs, in many resiiecli, 
iJMHn the auoient Malo-Rusaians, and has lately sufferetl repeHti^f encroacl^- 
fxients. Their territor)^ which is almost entirely pasture land, is divided 
into stanitzas, or cantons; for many stanitzas now contain mor<^ than a 
Angle yili^ge. To each of th^se, a ceitain portion of land and fishery is 
allotted by government, and an annual allowance of corn from Voroijelz, and 
northwards, accoi-ding to the returned number of Cofesacks. T*lie y are frAs 
•/rom all taxes ; even from those of salt and distilleries. The dislrihuttdn 
^>f the land to the individuals in each stnnitza is settled by the inhabitants 
^1^ their ataman. This ataman was clioseu hy the people, and Avas both 
vvil and militaiy commander of the place. Paril had laid some restrictions 
♦f>n this r^ht, which I could not •understand.' He had alsq ennobled the 
!4»hildren of all who had the military rank of colonel, which was'com plained 
^f a8intr(^ucin|;an unconstitutional aristocracy. ' Fi*om these aUimans, l(n 
'l^peallies to the chancery at Circa'sk. They used to elect their atnmaii 
.tiierc, and to appeal to him only;' assembling, oc'casionally, as a check* jn 
his conduct ; but he is notff appointed bifthe cro-wn,"sit\A greatly dimiiiiihed 
in power. The allotment of land andfisheryj Whicli each Co^ssck pok- 
•esses, may b6 \€i out Ifjf hi* tO'jGftrm", andbftwntBTso; prit^iti^ frequent- 



CAnTAt OV THX SOM OOS8ACKS. M 

•r €oI<Hiel89 ill the army of the Don Cossaeks, who are aot 
nerehaoftf. In Tseherchaskoj they li^e an amicable antf 
pleasant life. Sometimes they hare pubiiek amuBoments,^ 
toeh as balls, and parties of pleasure. Once they had a 
theatre, but it was prohibited. In some of their apart* 
ments we observed mah»|;any book-eases, with glass doors, 
eontatning a small library. They are, in every respeet, 

tfwif tv insevt tbe names oTchildren in the return orCosiacln» to entitia 
^em tft Ibeir aenioncy in beeomiof^ offiecrs I met vith a child thus 
frvoured. This has taken place tince the Cossacks, vhen called out, hare 
Veen formed into regular regiments, which has depressed entirdy the 
Mwer of the ^hqpe ataman hy the introductiou of colonels, captains, Sec» 
Jrormeritr, the ataman himself marched at the head of his stanitza, Nov 
lie jnerelf sends the re4|Qired eootisgeBt, which is put under oflieersBamed 
hy the erown. 

•* The Cossack, itt ooose<|oenee of his alloiranee, wmy he auHad on tx» 
MV«efor any term not exceeding three years^ in any part of the voiid, 
laounted, armed, and clothed, at l^s own expense, and raidLing good any ' 
^efieien^es which may occur. Food, pay, and camp equipage, are far* 
tiished by' government. Those who Kaye served Uiree years are not liafalo 
•rat'leastiiot usoaUy caUed upon, to serve ahread> except on particular 
emergencies. They serve, however, in the cordon along the Caucasus, and 
in Uie duties of the post and police. After twenty years, they become free 
fVora all service, except the home duties of police, and assisting in the pa»> 
sage of the corn barks over the riiallowa in the Dbn. After twenty-five 
irears* seriiee, they are free entirely. 

<* The procurator declared the whole number of Cossacks, liahle to he 
Mlled on for one or other of these services, amounted to 200^000. He 
acknowledged, that as they would idlow of no examination into their nam- 
tiers, he spoke only from conjecture, and fram the diflfereat allommees oT 
fovn, kc. occasionally made. The whole number of male population he 
reckoned at half a million. The situation of a Cossack is considered s* 
•omfortsbte ; and their obligations to service are deemed well repaid by 
their privileges and their freedom. * Free a# a C—meU^ is a proverb we 
oftea heard in Russia. The number of Cossack guards, who are all Dor^ 
tA> araounta to three regimenU of 1000 each. The number employed 
tn Persia and Caucasus I could not learn. In the year 1805, a corps oT 
aeventy-two regiments, of 560 men each,, marched under Pkto^ the aitiK 
man Qt Circask ; but he received counter ordei*s, as it did not arrive ia 
Time forthe battle of Austerlitr. At AuaterlitZj onfy wix hundred Co9^ 
9ack8 vere fresetiL The peasants near Ansterlitx spoke of them as ob* 
jcets Qf considerable apprehension to the French cavaifjr r particularly the 
ouirantei-s, whose horses were more unwieldy. These Cossacks, Platat 
sai^, had suffered dreadfully^ as they were for some time the only cavahy 
isith the Riiasian army, and; before ^e emperour joined Kutusof, had lost, 
almost aa their (uirsea witk fatigue* During the quarrel of PMl wiHi 
JRtt^Iaiid, he aiserohled 45,000 Cossacks, as it was belieyed; at Circask, H^ 
march t9 Ituia. I saw the phm waa not at aO unpopuhu* wath Flataf aatf 
>is oflbera. Platof ^s jnedeoessor was the Ust aUman who was hi posses 
jion of all his ancient privileges. He ImmI often, by hia own Mthortt)^ 
hound men hand and fooL and thrown them into the ten. He wasunoiC 
^ectediy seized and earned oflTby the orders of the empress (OMiMriiie> 
md succeeded, asgenend of the armies of the Don, by Maffcl fvanovitcS 
WatoC a fine, eiva ohl loldisr, inth the graitcflfte of tBt Amse.*— 



f04? 'Clarke's travels in Russia. 

entitled to praise for their cleanliness, whether of theif 
persons or their houses. There is no nation (I will not 
even except my own) more cleanly in their apparel thaw 
fhe Co!Hsaeks. The dress of their women is sins^ular. it 
differs from all the costume of Russia; and its magnificence 
is vested in the ornaments of a cap, somewhat resembling 
the mitre of a Greek bishop. The hair of married \romcn' 
IS tucked under this cap, which is covered with pearls and 
gold, or adorned with flowers. The dress of a Co^saelt 
girl is elegant; a silk tunick, with trowsers fastened by a 
girdle of solid silver, yellow boots, and an Indian handker- 
chief ronnd the head. A proof of their riches was afforded 
la the instance of the mistress' of the house where \vt 
lodged. This woman walked about the apartments with- 
out shoes or stockings ; and being asked for serae needles 
to secure the insects we had collectefl, opened a box, in 
which she showed us pearls to the value of ten thousand 
roubles. Her cupboard, at the same time, was filled with 
plate and costly porcelain. The common dress of the men 
m Tscherehasitoy was a blue jacket, with a waistcoat and 
trowsers of white dimity ; the latter so white and spotless, 
that they seemed always new. The tattered state of a tra- 
veller's wardrobe but ill fitted us to do credit to onr country 
in this respect. I never saw a Cossack in a dirty suit of 
clothes. Their hands, moreover, are always clean ; their 
hair free from vermin ; their teeth white 5 and their skia 
lias a healthy and cleanly appearance. Polished in their 
»nanners, instructed in their minds, hospitable, generous, 
disinterested in their hearts, humane and tender to the 
.poor, good husbands, good fathers, good wives, good 
jnotbers, virtuous daughters, valiant and dutiful sons ; such 
are the natives of Tseherehascoy. In conversation, the 
Cossack is a gentleman; for be is well informed, free from 
prejudice, open, sincere, and upright. Place him by the 
'side of a Russian, — what aconstrastl* The one is lite* 

* " The, manners of tl^e people struck us, from their superiority to 
l^e Russians, in honesty an<t dignity. A lieutenant at Petersburgh, who 
CMfice begged alnas from us, bowed hiiuself to the ground, and knocked bis 
itead on the floor. A lieutenant, here [|T«chercha»koy"| who M'as in^iri- 
AoneU, and also begged, made the request in a manly and dignified manner, 
and thanked us as if we had been his comrades. 

" Both men and women ai'e handsome, and taller than the Moscovitet. 
This name they hold in groat contempt, as we had several opportunities 
Of observing. The procurator, the physician, the apothecary, the master 
<*f the academy, being distinguishettr by their dress and nation from the 
Cossacks, and seemed to have formed a cotet^ of their owa, and to diriilbe> 



CAPITAL OF THE ]>ON GOSSACKg. 195 

rally d^two-leg8:ecl pi&^^ havine: all the brutality, but more 
knavery^ tliaii that animal :* the other, a rational, accooi- 
pltwhed, and valuable member of society. I would not be 
understood to have made this observation as without 
eseeption on either side. The Russian women are entirely 
excepted; and it is very remarkable, that little of the 
lamentable eharaeteristielcs of the Russian people ean be 
applied to them. It is only in proportion as they recede 
from their natural effeminacy^ that any traits have ap« 
peared to assimilate- them to the males of their eonntry $ 
and an instance or two of this kind may have been men* 
tioned : but, speaking generally of them« they have this 
only fault, if it b^j not rather a misfortune, that of servility 
to the worst of slaves. 

Perhaps an anecdote which I shall now relate may render 
the pceceding contrast between the Cossacks and Russians 

and to be disiiked by, the whole fown. The postmaster said they were 
much improved since h^ came there ; that then they would ^ have pelted 
any stranger. We saw nothing of this kind, except that, when we firtt 
landed, mistaking us for Etissians^ some boys cried out * J^foskoffsky 
Canaille /' — Canaille has become a naturalized'word in Russia." ^oerjs. 

■ •At the time of making this extract from my Journal, our Englialii 
p9P<i'r8 are fiUed with the atrocities committed, not merely by their com- 
«Qon soldiers, but by their general officers in Finland. An account of 
them is published by the lord-liedtenant of the county of Wasa, to which 
Ills respectable nanre is afKxed . Posterity may there be informed what 
Russians were in the beginning of the present oeptiuyi when a major-gene- 
.ral Demidof gave up the town of AVasa^ during five days, to plunder, merely 
because he could not retain its possession ; and, assisted by another monster 
iti a human fortii, the governour Emine, galloped through the streets, ta 
gi\ie vigour ami activity to. a scene of murder, horrible cruelty, and devas- 
5ation; crying out tp his troops, Dnhra ! JDobraf (Bravo! Bravo!) a» 
they were bayonetting the weeping and kneeling inhabitants, mothers witli 
their infants aged and venerable men, ladies of distinction, children, teoA 
persons of whatever sex, age, or situation. * It instructs the world,* 
.observes tbe lord-lieutenant, * to describe their conduct; inasmuch as it deter- 
mines the national character ; and determines, with historick truth, that 
with harbarian slaves the character remains unchanged, notitrithstanding 
« the varnish put on by a sorted' external humaoising> produced by intei^ 
coui-se with civiUzed nations.' In the parish of Nerpis, major-general 
OHof Deneaof, caused tliree of the peasants to be bound together; and this 
being-done, to prolong the pain and agony of the poor sufferers, the Rus- 
sians pi«reed their thighs, arms, belly, and other parts, with bayonets, 
before they killed tliem. : 

Injured iohahitants of Swedish Fiidand ! One who has experienced the 
bounties of your hospitality ; one who armed among you weary^ sick, and 
destitute, aad tOr whorn^ eoesistentiy with tovu national chabactbb, 
you administesed the most disinterested aid ; the stranger, to whose honour 
you c<m&dcd^ unaoli<}itedj tbe means of aceomplishhig his pilgriciage, be 
sympathizes with you in yoat suffityinfji* He, too^ has been exposed- lb 
bftibarum rapacity ; he, too, has been plundertid by the Russians. 



viore ftrikiiiff. The tnifli of it, on aeeoiittt of iUnotorietf* 
will not lie &pttted bj either party« Whenever a qnarrei 
among the Cossaekt eautes them fo eombat eaeh odieff 
they fight, as in England, with their fiste, and never with 
knivei,. damerft, or any thatp initrnment This paetiee 
is so estabushed a eharaeteristtek of their people, that it 
gave rise to a very remarkable wager, Teplof and Gelagin 
two of the late empress Catherine's privy-eoonsellors, hap- 
pened to be in her presence, when it was told her that a 
Cossack priest, then a monk in the convent of 8t Alex- 
ander Nevski, had been arrested for cutting the throat of 
a Tottog woman, whom he had made pregnant, and with 
whom ne had qoarrelled; upon whieb Teplof offered to 
wager with Oelagin that the monk was not a Cossack* 
The bet was nade,. and won by Teplof; the monk proving 
to be Rassian. Being questioned how he could possibly 
divine the probable success of his wager: << because,'' said 
he, <^ no Cossack would strike a woman: if he did, he 
would use his hand, and not his knife.'' 

It was on a Sunday evening, that lieutenant-colonel Papof 
conducted roe o^er the whole of Tscherchaskoy. We 
walked a distance equal to four miles without once being off 
a bridge. The people were all in their best attire, an^ the 
tight, on that account, more interesting. From the higki 
and narrow bridges, single planks frequently lead oflf^ aa 
theonlv mode of approaching the houses of the inhabitants^ 
which have covered galleries around them. In these galle- 
ries, where the deal, of which they were constmcted, waa 
as white as water and the sun could make it, sat the eld andt 
respectable Cossacks^ almost all of whom, as we pnsse^ 
pressed ns to walk ipto their houses and regale jmrseives^ 
The water flows beneath manv of the buildings ; and all of 
ttiem are upon piles, in the midst of the flood.* The prodi- 

* " G ir o d t 8tsad« on anae SMMliy kHmAw m tbe wkwvn The hm»t» 
eve all nk^ oo voodea pillan, and cOnoested hj foot brid^ Thefoo** 
liKths run kike gtdleriei before the hooaes When we saw it, every part 
vas flooded, except tbe principal itreet, tbe great chsrob, and the market 
ateee. Tbe aatigne wooden criibia» miaed witb tbe domeaof ehurehev 
|0p» of treef»aiid Calmuek tenia, bad aa jstarettbigeffeet, juat naing froaa 
^e water. The nidak itiU aoatinae to poiaon the air ; oat tbe bowea^ 
aotwitbitandfakg tbe people are al^ fisbera, ave neat. Tbe Coasaebs arc 
MBOb okaaer than tbe Boaaiana. Tbara ia a apaaioiia and ancient natbe- 
diraly nearly oa tlie aame pbia, aa tbe Caaan abnreb in Moaee. Detaebed 
fauna the rest of the baildiugt a a laife tmvnv, whieb. at a diatanae, given 
II faint reeolleetieM of St. M a^jr'a vfin at Oalbrd. TImm are many other 
ahMBhpa» fntt ef way aoatly orw— arts> 1 aavcr asw aa niaii^ paurla tt 



eAPlT^L.OF. THE ]}0N aoyAGKf. i^7 

IpioitaqiMii^tify of timber consamed in the town, for Iiousesy 
e^cusewajSy and brid^s^ is brought from the Volga, the Don 
being hiadeqiu^te to sueh'a supply. Formerly they had walls 
to their aquaticK settlement ; but the iouudations of the 
river have swept them eutireJy away. The principal part 
of the inhabitants are exceedingly desirous to remove tlieir 
capital to Oxai, which would iuerease its commerce, and. 
add to its importance : the rest, who, from attachment to the 
plac^ of their nativity, are still anxious to pre&erve it in its 
original. situation, propose to surround h attain with walls^' 
aiifl to fwrm channels, after a plan which would make it» 
resemblance to Venice greater than it is at present ; but 
(he level of the >vater not remalninij; constant, as in th& 
Adriatiok, and sometimes varying full fifteen feet| prevents 
the adoption of that plan, they neglect, however, n^ 
opportiinily to improve the town, forming it as much at 
Possible info streets, when fires have taken place and des- 
troyed the old buildings^ and insulating the noases wher^ 
itey U-ere tod closely situated. If any attempt should be^ 
made to remove the town, little difficulty would occur in 
trinspfanting tlie houses almost entire. They are chiefly of 
Wb'od^'and, being placed on rafts, might float down to the 
place of their destinatien. 

Itiey speak of moving a house in this part of the worl4 
Ks a very trifling undertaking. When the late Mr. Gas- 
Itoigne went from Petersburgli, to preside over the foundry at 
liUgan, he paid a visit to a gentleuiau about twenty seven 
miles distant from the establishment. Finding him excel- 
lently lodged, in a well furnished, handsome, and very con- 
venient house ; " I wish,^ said lie, «^ I could have such a 
liuildlrifs: erected'for'me at Lugan.'^ His host replied : *' it 
jfou adimre my house, it i« at your service, exactly as yott 
see it ;'a&id 1 engage to place it for you at Lugan in the 
course of the week»^ A bargain was concluded between 
4heiif, the house was movvd ; and Mr. Sai^ecrt^ife, who in- 
4brmed nre'of th-e fact, resided in it whfn we were in that 
.eountry. ' , • . 

« The inhaJbitaDls of Tseheroliaskoy complain mueh df 
want of room.^ Nota sins^f ^ houte' fias a court -yat^d 5 * the Jj 
are all huddled' together, as if they had dropped froin tha 
eloiid^ during a shower,. into the river, aud'Only waited tiM 

'gnte, as on the h&adof ft Mlidonna in the ^atTiedral. These treasures ato 
tlift n'»il» of Turkey and l^>ltnti.** Beber^s MS. Jotcrnak 



r0tifl«{f tftlie imter» to make Aeir mi^Uke. tlftj mrt i 
CroiibiM with vosqiiitoefty whidi abound in oil the neig^'- 
Wurhood of the Doo. When bit by theoe inseots, they observee 
geeat tsaulioa u^not seratehing xht wound ; but ta^e earefot 
to bathe it, as soon as possible with spirits of wine. I hara 
always found Goulards lotion to be the be^t remedy; and^ 
wanting that, salt mixed with an eqi&al j>ort2on of vi^ej;ar» 
itbere 'is not, I believe, a single spot in the whole towa 
whieh is not annoally inundated. We foaiid one dry place 
near the pnneipai ebureh; bat it was traverded hv Wooden 
causeways, whieh proved that the nsuhl pr^cantlop had 
been repaired there also, although thie spot was not actually 
•»f«r«d by water at the time. The streetin which nost of 
theohops are attuated is floored with planks } and ft mast 
seeessaAly be very unwholesome, as aU the dSrt^lflllfiilJ^ 
Ibroagh these floors, remains when the waters retire, 'they 
mre«fton troubled with ^ vers ; althoiif^b, when we f n^oired 
uto the liai of their diseaaosy they said they seldom' ifad 
any. The greatest rava^ is made by the small-pox; Im* 
aulatinn for the disorder had not yet bei^ inirodoeed 
amoaf^thaair The eomplaini they seem t^ dread, tiiore thati 
muy other, is called the disorder of^ kuirs. Otaiettn meB<s 
tions- Uns eoniplaint.* Hair is said to- b^ generated* im 
woondaof the bodies of those whom it afliets. Wo ^xpmis^ed 
our iaeredttlity to the wife of iieutenant-eolon^! Panaf ; but 
•ho persisted in asseiting, that »he had taken them Irom her 
«wa finder, in the presence of many witnesses. To ca're.|V 
(hey bind the leaves of a |dant somewhat like plantain^, 
whichf they say, draws out the hairs. We saw these leaveo 
dried, suspended os^tessly as a remedy for this complaint ; 
but, in their desiccated static eould not ezaetly proaounee 
what they were. Biliary obstruction is a common disorder 
araong them. As a cure for the ianndice) they drink itt 
infusion of the yallow flowers of a Gna|iA«^fli| which ia 
found in all the steppes. Stationed as they are, either in 
mud, yielding insalulary exhalations, or ia water, full of 
fro^, filth, and substanees whieh putrify as the flood 
letires, nothii^^ eoald preserve them from pestileaee, wer^ 
it not lor the great attention shown to cleanliness in their 
persona and their houses. The water of the Don iiiii 

• He 
«ez/ and 
•eeuUnr d 



iUeJtf imrliakpoaif » uid mrtieidMily J iii yr e> irfA at rm- 
gersV. H eaa«e« « flatoieot disocder of tk ttmnaeh and 
bowels, . with violent pain and djscntary. ManT of thm 
Rufsiim risers have the sane ^aUty, paHieaurij tha 
Iferaat P^ter«jbur|;h, 

A Ure^k bcpught mo tome eoino of tbt OBMroar Coa*> 
stantiney whieh he had procured in Turker* He keat tlieiiiy 
he saidlifor the eure of diseaaes of ail fciadg; and, u proof 
of tkeixiiuraeiilo^s power, qworoy by all Jiie saints, fkat iff 
any .Sfx^p of them wat.plaeed in a Mve not a dciip of water 
W^^ pftte lhnittf>b it. As we laughed at kia i'oJly^ he waa 
Tpry^4e9iroii& 14 mftke the experiment; but wo ihooclit it 

So ridieulQW to mentso niaeh attention* He oeemoa to ha 
^ very prinee of inpo«tor«9 and probably sold his Iraak at 
bigh f^rieea. He showed ns apieee of the ^nie cross, whiek 
ke aatd he^had brought from Jerosaleni, and which, worn 
ilpon his breast^ iiad .saved his life in -battle; asaballel 
j^rikiiNS^Q pretended reiick had fallen harmless an iba 
^rpi|n£, . . • 

«. Hj|f?in{| now satisfied, oar ovriosity in tha survey of thia 
exiraojxlinary pia^, we took leave af its inhabitants, and 
amn embarked, aeeompanied bv the offieer who had w» 
fSlitely attended us, ana whose hospilality we had often 
ajuperieaced dorinfl* th^ visit n^ paid . to his capital. Wa 
(dn; Tseherckaskoy op. Mondi^ the twent;^ -third d^ off 
lone^ in the afternoon, and saUed doira the Don to Oxai« 
Ahont.iCwf miles* from TschefehaskiMr is an island called 
ITonnery Isle, or The Island of the Convent; whence, aa 
tke^ relate^ the iTu^ksiised freouently, in former times, ta 
aenve lyomen for.the seraglio or the grand sigaiar. 

• • ••'SftteaveriH. 



CHAPTER XIV- 

VOYAGE DOWN THE DON ^O AZOF AND TAGANROCK. 

Visit to the General in Chitf of the Cossack Army — Embar- 
kation for the Sea of^Axof — General View of the South 
of Russia — De Ruhruquis — Tartars — •^hrmenian CoUmy of 
JS^akheshivan^^Fortress of St, Demetri Rastof — Division 
of the Don — Tumuli — Fortress and Village of dxQf-^ 
City of Tanais^^Its "frrobabk Sittiation — Condition of the 
Garrison of Azof — Opinion entertained of the Cossadcs-^ 
Departure from Szof—^moetis '^Remarkable Phenome- 
non — Arrival at Tagunrock. 

THE morning alter our retam to Oxai^ we received a 
messai^e from s^eneral Vasili Petrovich Orliff, com* 
inauder in chief of the Cossack army, stating^, thai he ex- 
pected us to dine with him at his country seat upon tbe Don. 
We set our, accompanied by our friend coiouel Papof, and a 
Greek officer in tlie Cossack service^ whose name was Ma- 

.monof. The general had sent his earriage, with six fine 
Cossack horses, and several Cossacks mouuted with lances 9 
to eitcort us. We passed along t he steppes^ aud oecasionaUj 
through vineyards, planted w-ith cucumbers, cabbages, liw 
dian wheat, apple, pear* peach, aud plum trees, and melons, 
for about ten miles, till we arrived at his house, which stood 
upon the European side of the river, opposite the town of 
Tsc here has koy, and distant from itabout five miles* Here 
we found elegant and accomplished women assembled round 
a piano forte ; and afterwards sat down to as magnificent a 

'dinner as any (English gentleman might afford. The whole 
of which was served upon plate. The company consisted 
of about twenty persons. The general presented as with 
inead thirty years old, which tasted like fine Madeira. He 
wished very much for. English beer, having often drank it 
in Poland. A number of very expensive wines were brought 
round, many of them foreign ; but the best wine of the Don 
seemed superiour to any of them. As we sat banquettingin 
this sumptuous manner, I called to mind the erroneous no- 
tiosA we had onee entertained of the inhabitants of thii 



VOYAGE DOWN THE DON. ;20l 

country, and whieh the Russians still continue to propa- 
gate coneerninj^ the Cossack territory. Perhaps few in 
England, casting their eyes upon a map of this remote cor- 
ner of Europe, have pictured in their imagination a wealthy 
and polished people, enjoying not only the refinements, but 
eren the luxuries of the most eivilized nations. The con- 
versation had that enlightened and agreeable cast which 
cbarai^terizes well edneated military men. Some peculiari • 
lies, which distinguished the manners of our ancestors, and 
are still retained in the ceremonial feasts of ancient corpo- 
rate bodies, might be observed. The practice of drinking 
toasts, and rising to pledge the security of the cupbearer, 
was a remarkable instance. Another very ancient custom, 
still more prevalent, is that of bowing and congratulating 
any one who happens to sneeze. The Cossacks of the Don 
always did this. When we took leave of the general, he 
said, if we preferred returning by water, for the sake of va- 
riety, we might use his barge, which was prepared, and 
waiting to convey us. Being conducted to it, we found it 
manned by ten rowers, and decorated in a most costly man- 
ner. It was covered with fine scarlet cloth, and Persian 
carpets were spread beneath a canopy of silk. The current 
being in our favour, we embarked, and were speedily reeon- 
ducted to our quarters in Oxai. 

The next morning we took our leave of the Don Cossackk, 
«ml, havrng plaeed our carriage on board a barge, sailed 
delightfully down the river (often lookin? back at the fine 
view ef the town of Oxai and Tschreehaskoy) to Nakht- 
sill ran, an Armenian colony established about twenty years 
1>efo)*e our arHval, and which had attained a very flourish- 
ing state, even in that short period.* Its inhabitants were 

: * '< A verst (hyi land) from the fort of Rostof^ is a lar^ Armenian 
towQy called JSi\tkUchivant after the ancient town of that name. W(^ 
spent the evenma in looking over it. They affirmed that it contauis 1503 
Ramifies. It hastonr churches, and two very large hazurs, which are very 
jnuoh:crowdc4, aediiave |;pcfkt ^ptieu-anee of indnsti'v. We had a letter 
to one of the principal iuhabitauts, whohfid tlie rank of colonel^ and whose 
jBon was one of Mr. Andre's pupils (of RostoQ and our interpreter. His 
name was Abraamof. 1 found that Armenians usually expressed their 
ntmethft tfaia«uiiiD^, lr»m the Christiaa names •f their parents, yet with 
the teirminatioa \m rf^ which U« mark of j^ntiUty . This man had two sons 
in the Russian navy, and possessed the reputation of great wealth. He 
knew Lazaitsf, who told OrtofthQ great d^mond ; and described, in strong 
term*, the mkery and anxiety the Armenian had felt while it remained tu 
]^s possession. His house was welUuriiisl^d> and had a biiUard-Cable, and 
many other Surppean lu&uries : sJl, howeTer, sat cro6S*ieggedy <^x<^pt the 

T 



202 ULARKS/S TRAVELS !!♦ UlTfiSlA. 

derived from the Crimea. They liad about' fbitff h'andt%A 
tiiops, wbieh were all placed in one great covered biifiding, 
after the manner of those in Moscow. The towns near tlfe 
monlh» of the Don present the traveller with a most novel 
and interesting picture of society. He encounters haYfa 
dozen different nations and languages in the same "number 
of minutes ; ami each nation in its peculiar dresrsr As we 
walked np to the Armenian settlement, we beheld Tertars, 
Torksy Greeks, Cossacks, Russians, Italians, Cdlmueks, 
and Armenians, which, together with our Ens^Hbh party, 
formed a representation of tne costume of nine iilferent na- 
tions within the compass of a quarter of an EngtSih mHe. 
The Tartars were fishing in the riv^^ or driving eattte to- 
wards the town; the Turks were smoking in their cbffbe- 
h^nses^the Greeks, a bustling race, were walking abodt, 
telling lies, and bartering merchandise; the Cosi^acks were 
Hampering in ail directions on horseback ; the Rtissians, as 
poli«e officers, were scratching their heads ; the Italians 

master, whose dress alse, was sometUiif afler the E«z«|MMi,an«d«» Ke 
had 8ct«ral eurioiis aabtesaiid poignavdarleblf ^mameoted, lirhioh he ex- 
lubited with laadb [tride. He said, himself abd the greater part of hU feU , 
low towBunen, had emigrated frolti the Crimea daring the dtsturbailees 
there; tliat thej had this situation give* them, and a ohavtev^ \^ adipch 
thej had the same privilepei aatheir eoontiTneii at Astrachlo. The rain- 
eipal trade of tlie town m in leather. The women are almost all Te3ed» 
but those we caught a glimpse of were rerj heantifot. Their veils were 
very carelessi j disposed, and they betrayed no timidity* Tlie men are al8» 
handsome ; but they have a Jewish czyMssion in their aonntonaMe. The 
Russians deelare the^' hate alia naftund, unpleasant odour, Uhe that we at- 
tribute to the Jews. They dislilte then |freatly,'and have a proverb : * Two 
Jews equal one Armenian ; two Atwenians one Greek ; two^Ckvcka one 
Bevii.' The Armel^ans^ it ia well known, are a verv t^jtmuoA sect hy the 
Hussian government ; and aymy of the noblest (amihes bi^e a mixture c^' 
their blood. Of these are Dolgorucky and Ba^thion. Joan the first 

Sive the. title of JKVkr* to great numbei'S of Armenians, and p e ntii H ed to 
1 a free trade and settfemant, with full liheirty of wacsbim ^^ ^^n of 
^making their processions openh-. They have « magpiifieent chureb in Pe- 
tersburgh, andmany in AstrachanandCasan, Their enteiprize and lietf^ 
▼ity are well known. Mr. Anderson of Petersburgh txM me, he knew one 
who had been twice toBassora, and onee foaarinaDSaid maA Tibst; Inaked 
Abramof if snch journeys were commons and if tliey eosdd take a Suro- 
pean with them as their servant, or in any odier diteuiae. He answered 
both these questions in the affirmative. He himself kMl keen Hi Georgia^ 
and many parts of Turkey, but nevet farther. W« obiei^ted aeveittl Mn- 
hannnedans, at least persMs lii green ««l4Mn% wMek no AnnaiMha wcmUl 
wear.*' Jleder's MS, J^dumaL 

As the green turban is a mafic of high ^sCmttioa in Toslwiy, and th« 
Armenians of Nakhtstiivan are onder no fear of ottiinding BMuMnmSdana, 
I suspect (for I noticed the some cottonie in the |toe) tint fkief mm wor* 
tneteiy oa vQconat of the freedom they enjoy, £^ if, C. 



, yoyjiOZ PQWK THE JDQjr. SOS 

iicr<( Ye^eliftaajaid. Neapolitan tailors; the Calaxiicks jab- 
t^ing witjh each other; the Armeniani, both men and wo- 
iKe% airing in drodciB i and the Bnf^sh staring at them all* 
A« ihe traveller apixroaches ^e Don, especially towards its 
eiplNMieluire, Tartar^ make their appearance iu ^eat iHim- 
bors; and tl^at race of men are geen from thence, westward, 
the whole waj to the Dnieper, In all the towns by the sea 
of Aa^f,, in the Crimea, ana throng^hout the drearj plains 
whie]i lie to the north of the peninsnlat 
. All the spifib of Russia? from the Dnieper to the VolMy 
and even to the territories of the Kirgissian and Thibet 
. Tartars, with all the north of the Crimea, is one flat, oneul- 
tivated, desoJate waste, forming, as it were,a series of these 
deserts wjijch go by the name of steppes. The very ear- 
liest iiiixf^inv^x^ from the eivilized parts of Snrope to these 
reui^/i^ barbarous regions, foona the country exactly as 
it JMiw^agpoars. A verj faithful description of it9 features 
occurs ia the narrative, of W, de Rubruqui employed as a 
missionary about the middle of the thirteenth century.* 
•* We jooraeyedy'.' «ajs,hi^' *< towards the east^ with no 
other objects in view tiian Qartb aad sky« and. occasion* 
^Ijr the sea upen our rigbt (which is called the sea of Ta- 
•ais) and jnopeQver the si^pnichi:es of the Comani, whidU 
peemed ahoiit two leagjues distant, eofistructed according to 
tte mode «f huriol which ebameterised their ancestors* 
' Wibatite land of, the Cowaiii was, is clearly aseerUined 
by the voyage of tlia amhassadow from pone Innocent the 
fourth to Tartarj, in tb« year C946, as taken out of the 
thirty seeand book of the Speculum Historiale of Vincentius 
JBel99cm»i84 ^^ We Journeyed through the country of the 
Comani, which is all Sat and Iim four great rivers. The 
first is called Kep^r [BorysthenesJ the second is called 
pan [Taaais} the third is named Y oIga'[Rha] the fourth 
is denominated Jaec [Rhy mus]." Thus it appears that tie 
Cofaaai, the ancestors of tlie Cossacks, hiid established 
themtelTeft as far to the westward as the Dnieper, before 

* ^'SianMi* ergo iret^us orjentera^ nihil ridentes nisi coelam et ter- 
mm, et afi^aaiMlo maiv ad dextram, quod dicitur Mai*e Tanais, et etiam 
■ p yu i tmrns Cfmuinonini, quie apparebfuit nobis a duabus leucis, se«am1um 
•nod leMftnt p«reotelae eorum sepcUn simul. ItineraHum fV. de Ru' 
intquis, anno 1353. See Hakluyt, vol. I. p. 80. 

^ ** IhMi«8 anitem per (eiram Com^orum, quae tota est plana, et flumi- 
!» ^fBtlMOr htki^ magiui. Primaai appellatur Neper rBomthenes] 
teaandttxo wpeUatar Don [Taaai»3 tertlum dicitup Volga Quhaj quartum 
npminauu* Jaec {^RhymQuT}.'' lb. p. 47. 



3»k CLARK&'S TRAVECS Xt7 HtSillA. 

the mhMIe of (be thirteenth eentarj ; and^nihsiilarttbre tf^t 
is thrown upob a very obsenre part of aneietilf seography by 
the doeu meats thus afforded. W. de RtihruqdTs ^tiHseH; ia 
another passage of bis Itiaerary^^xes theipitnvitsas reaehing 
^vestward even to the Danube; and says, that the ^llle 
eo0Dtryj from that river to the Tanais, was' inhabited by 
them. The western part was eaHed Casaria^ the Country of 
the Czars, Cassars, or Cossaeks, as they are twAv called. 
Nothing; can be more aeeurate than the account he has left 
•f these Tast solitudes, in which he says there is neither 
woody nor mountain, nor stone.* 

The Tartars on the Sea of Azof are a small' race of men * 
not so ugly as we have heard them dfesortbed;; bnt they 
disfigure themsehres by preying Iheirears forward with the 
lower rim of their cap«, from their tenderest inhmcj ; im 
consequence of which practice, their ears ptotrode from the 
sidesoftheirheads^andfront the spectator. Someof those 
who passed ns at Nafchtshivah looked most fHghtfully wild, 
appearing in the rude, and, perhaps, primeval dress 6t the 
firBtshepherds of the earth. Their bodies were almost na- 
kod; over their eh oulders were loosely suspended the an- 
dressed hides of their sheep, each being fastened with a 
single loop in front. Upon their heads, and around their 
waists, they wore a covering of the same materials ; an^ 
upon their feet, those sandals of linden bark, of which a 
description has been already given in the tenth chapter of 
this volume. I have seen exactly such figures represented • 
upon Greek vases, and in the sculpture of ancient t^^reece.t 

Np.khtghivan offers an example of that enterprising* spirit 
so characteristick of the Armenian merchants,- whdri stimu- 
late by the hepe of gain. They are not naturallya lively 
race of men. They have almost the gravity of Tofks; w4lh 
the boorishness of the Dutch> insomuch, thatit is a TCry 

* ** Tendebamus rect^ in orieotem ex quo exinmus {tmodioUim .pro* 
vlnciam Caaariap, hsbehtes mare ad meridiem, et vastam aoUtudintm fid 
aqinlonem : auae dnrat per rigSnti dietas aficubi in latitudine : in qua nvld' 
esl^vOi^naUutumi*, W9ikt8iafii9. Herba est optima. lahacsolebAnt 
pasc«^re Cmnaniy qui diouotar Copchat. A Teutonicifi ver64ievu»tur Valani, 
et i)rovincia Valania. Ab Isidoro vero dicitur a fiumine Tanai usque ad 
pahides Meo^idis et Danuhitim Alania, Et durat Ista terra in loiuntudiae 
a Danubio uaqut Tasum-^aae tota iohabitabatur a ConuaUs.** SaHuyt, 
voLXp.80,. 

-j- AmoDgitbe eartben Tessetadaseribed-and-.pObUshed at Naples/ ^etv' ^ 
is a costume of tbis kind upon the ixersQn of a male figtire, vl|» i« 
dflineated cbeclun| two furious horses. 



VOYAGE »OWN THB DON. 3Di 

eMimoQ Mfiiig with Eoropean merehftats in Constantino- 
pUi that ^^ an Armenian expresses mirth as a bear danees.'' 
Yot, when instigated by eommeraial speeulations, they pe* 
netrate all eountries^ and orereorae all obstacles ; frequently 
making journeys over land to India, and the most distant 
regions of tlio ^lobe. Who but the^, relying^ upon the pro'^ 
mises of Russi^f eonldhave entertained the hope, and real- 
ized the expectation, that in a poor villa^ on the Don^ 
surrounded by immense deserts, they should establish a 
source of commerce and of wealth ?. 'their commodites and 
Biauufaetures, as far as we were enabled to jad|;e of them, 
appeared to be Turkish, and of a nature to find a ready 
sale in Oxai and Tseherehaskoy. Thej supply all the 
fairs of the neighbouring^ provinces, wbieh are the most 
extraordinary spectacles in Burope, because attended by 
persons from almost every nation u|>on earth. There is 
scarce a people, refined or barbarous, wliO have not their 
representatives at tlie fairs held along the seaof Aicof, and 
upon the Don ; but particularly at the great fair of Nakbt- 
snivan. . The HamttjeobU of llerodotus then make their 
app^aranee, exactly as they lived in the days of the histo- 
rian^ iravelling in veliieles, the ooveriog of which are 
tentsby night, and tilts for their cars by day. Such move- 
able dwellings may be noticed in all the territoreis of the 
Tartars. 

We entered the quarter in which the shops are stationed* 
It is a very lofty, covered street, or cloister, surrounding a 
square, after the manner of the palais royal at Paris. Bvery 
trade had its peculiar place assigned, as in the Turkish 
ha:^r^ of Constantinople ; and^aoeording to the rule observ- 
ed in oriental baxars^ the floor of each iihop was made level 
with the eoanter ; the dealers sitting at work as in Turkey^ 
with their legs crossed under their bodies. The shops were 
all well stored, and a rapid sale was going on. Their own- 
ers, in many instances, were reallv Mohammedans, who ma- 
nufactured slippers, sandals, ana boots, in coloured leather. 
Of other trades, we observed tobacconisto, pipemakers, clo- 
thiers, linendrapers, grocers, butchers, bakers, blacksmiths, 
siikmereers, dealers in Indian shawls, &ec They make 
bread of a very superiour quality ; and, aeeording to the 
Asiaiiek custom, it is publikiy kneaded and publiekly baked ; 
80 Ihftt the whole process of preparing the most inlportant 
article of their food is open (o evcrv one. The crowd 
passing before their shop^ resembled a masquerade, in 

T2 



5»0 Clarke's travels In ru^ia. 

wUch i%e cos^ttj embroidered vestments of rich ArmeTiian 
merchants* were contrasted with the hides which covered 
the wild Tartars, the long pelisses of the Turks the miK- 
tary, but simple g*arb of the Cossacks, the uncouth. unitbrm; 
of the Russian police, and the greasy trappings of the 
Calmucks. 

We visited a Turkish coffee house, the scene of the most 
favourite recreation of the oriental nations. On the riglit 
hand as we entered^ upon a raised floor, like the counters 
used by taylors, were squatted a number of the merchants 
of the establishment, leaning upon cushings, with long pipes 
smoking, and drinking coffee. As we joined the party, we 
were presented, according to the usual custom, with lishtfed 
pipes (having tubes made of the wood,of cherry-tree, tipped 
with amber) a small cup of coffee, and a bit of wooa of 
iiloes ; which they put into the bowl of each pipe, and which 
exhales a most refreshing and pleasant fragrance. In a 
eorfier of the apartment stood a vase, containing blossoms 
of an Iris^ called in England Flower de luce. It i^rved as 
a kind tif sign to the box on which it was placed, in the lid 
of which was a small hole, to receive the enntribntions of 
those who were expected to leave a trifle for the pipe and 
coffee they had used. Some Turks who were present, seen* 
od absolutely breathing the fumes of tobacco. They in- 
haled large quantities of. smoke upon their lungs; and, 
after retaining it there till their features became £stended 
Ifith suppressed respirati(Hi, yielded back larga curling 
volumes, as from a chimney, by their nostrils, their mbutli^ 
and their ears.f 

According to Pallas,|* th^ origin of the Armenian esta- 
blishment at Nakhtshivan was the emigration of the inhabi- 
tants of the Crimea, when Suwarof withdrew with the Rus- 

* The costume of the Arracnian women of Astraoban is the richest ia 
Russia. It is surprising that thej sustain the weight of their dress. The 
irst, or inner robe, is of silk and gold ; the second, of black velvet, bea\ily 
laden with gold and pearls. The third, or outer vest, is almost of massive 
gold, in ponderous embroidery, with large gold knobs* gold buttons, gold 
tassets, gold fringe^ &c. kc. Tlie turban is white, hangs over the left 
shoulder, and conceals the face, except the nose and eyes. The only 
hair disclosed is often false ; two thick locks, one on each side, being 
hroaght in front qf t}ie~ eai*s. 

t The Chinese, and other oriental nations, perforate the dram of their 
ears fQr this pwpose. It is &ot| boilr«vcr, eommoa f«r Turks to undergo 
ihat operation. 

^ Timvels through the Southern ProT^ccs, &c. Vol. I. p. 4r6» 



V67AGK X>6WK 1PH» 1>0». 507' 

sian troops, and peaee was eoiicli^fl wif h tbe Tartan. At 
that time, the mostopnteiit'Armetiiati mechanieks and m«r- 
ehantis, tog^her with the major part of the Christian inha- 
bitantsy upon whom the whorSe of the nroduetire indastry 
andeoninieree.off the peninottla depended, left the Crimea^ 
late in the autumnal season. The empress ordered proper 
bdildtngs and aeeommodations to be prepared for their re- 
ception npon the Don; but the Russian eommissaries took 
special «are^to' convey into their own poekets the money 
allowed to complete the work according to the intentions of 
their soTcreign. ' When the Armenian colony arriYed, they 
£Hind nothing but a parcel of miserable huts, coi^strueted 
in the most expeditions and wretched manner. These t hey 
have since converted into neat and comfortable houses, 
many of which are of limestone^ and covered with tiles ; in 
the mana&etane of which, as well as of pottery in general, 
itiB inhabitants, are very skilful. Other Armenian settFe- 
ments bdonging to the same district of Rastof, are in the 
neighb<Hii4ood, and ail of them in a flourishing state. The 
AfmeniaiM werelnm^ respected in the country; and their 
industry^ sobriety, and ^ood aiol*al conduct, render them a 
most important acquisition to the empire. Their whole po- 
pulatioD, however, including persons of both sexes, tad all 
the Armeoiivn settlements in the district, did not amount to 
eig^t thoasand.* 

Again- embarking upon the Don, we proceeded from 
Nakhtshivan to the fortress of St. Demetri Rastof, hardly 
a mile lower down the river .t . It was a place of great ini- 

* Pallas estimates it at 7000. vol. I. p. 480. 

f Mr. Heber performed ajonmGy from Taganrock to Rastof by land. 
Hia observations concerning; the latter place are therefore peculiarly appro- 
priate, and serve to supphr the deficiency of my own. •• Here it is that the 
faiirks from Voronets are broken up, and the goods embarked fh>m Tacan* 
rock.' We saw about sixty lighters lying in the river, many large enough to 
perform the vojrage to Arabat Some of these which we pointed out, they 
told us had haade voyages all the way to Caffa. There is a large brewery, 
producifig veiy detestable beer and porter. Tiie distilleries are numerousy 
and, if we understood right, pay no duties, unless sent inland. The banks 
of the JMh are eotered above by vineyards, and below by stinking sudak, a 
Uirge, white fish, drying^ in the snn. Fish are caught in gi*eat abundance 
and variety. The principal kinds are beluga, sturgeon, steriet^ and siidak. 
There are also myriads of Prussian carp, which, with all the refuse fish^ 
are heaped up in great. danghilU among the black, circular tents of the 
Calmucks. The Cossaeks.pay no doty od salt, if it be for their own eoo- 
sumption. The fortress is just above the town ; it is extentive, but ill situat- 
ed. In it is a small garrison, and a school kept by an old Frenchman of the 
same of Andr^« He had about twenty pupils, who were taught Fjreneh, 



d08 CLA&KK't rmKVmtB 1K »Vft$lA. 

pirtaiiee when the Tarkish froaiier was nearer. The Don 
M here mueh broader and dee{ier ; in eonseqiienee of vhiehy 
the vestcls from Woronetz, unfit to encounter the sea, are 
hroken up, and their eargoos, the nroduet of Rnisi^iy shipped 
on hoard lia^hters and amall veMeli, and tent to Tag;aAroek, 
to load the vestelo Ijine in the roads, off that plaoe. The 
goremonr both of Ajsof and Tacanroek, retidea at Rastof ; 
although those places have eaen their superionr resident 
offieer, who is ealled oonmnandani. Raatof is garrisoned bjr 
Russian troops. We found it in a deplorable state of ne* 
gleet. The Cossacks of the Don elaim the territory of die 
small traot upon which the fort is built, as well as of that on 
whieli have been founded the Armenian settlements in its 
vicinity. I could learn no other reason for this, than that 
they had the care of eondnctinf[j the mail. Indeed, the ge- 
nerality of them seemed to eonsider their land as limitodby 
a boundary between Oxai and Nakhtsbivan. In an entire 
so. little settled as that of Russia, whose southern frontier is 
eontinually advaocing, by the eneroachments daily made 
upon the territories of other nations, the limits of any par- 
ticular province are not likely to continue lone the same. 
Other travellers may possibly arrive, and find the whole 
race of Don Cossacks moved, and planted open the sides of 
Mount Caucasus : and those of the Blaek Sea, the Teher- 
nomorski, so latelv carried from the Dnieper to the banks 
of the Kuban, ancl of whom we shall soon speak more dif- 
fusely, may then be found repelling the incursions of the 
Persians and Afghans upon the southern shores of the 
Caspian. 

Continuing our delightful voyage with very favourable 
weather, we advanced towards Azof; and the conseioutmess 
of sailing with all Rarope on our right hand, and all Asia 
on our left, did not foil to eieite reflections very interesting 
at the moment. The refinement, the science, thecommercet 
the power, and the influence of the one t the sloth, the super* 
stition, the effeminacy, the barbarism, find the ignorance of 
the other. One fact, at least, has been taught me in travert* 
ing Europe, almost the whole of which I have explored, 
that there exists no where a savag^ people, as fixed inhabit'* 
ants. Every part of Europe is civilized. If the Nagstefc 

German, writing, and geography. Tliey -wtre al! Tery little "boji- ^J 
fcad a letter to the master, and foand an old man in a Bhcepstin, whkn 
would have turned the stomaeh of a Mt9M9k. sitting down tQ diw^f ^»**^ 



VOJAO^ DOWN THE »9K. jQlQft 

li^artar, ihe wandering Calmuek, and the imnad? Laplan- 
«ier, be deemed jsavave; aU of ivhom are a htimaoe people, it 
should be observed, that they are pecnliar to no particular 
territcrry, bat lead, Hketh'e more sava^^e gipsy, a^vagrant 
life. It is a rery common absurdity to hear nations remote 
frotti ohservaftion branded with the imputation of barbarism^ 
yet the peasant, of Ireland, the sma^g^er of £ngland, or the 
paissarae of Fmnee^ is altogether ais onenligntened, more 
inhuman, atid possesses more of savs^e fer6eity, than either 
the Lanlander, the Tartar, or the Calmuck. As for the 
agriealturar Laplander, thd mountaineer of Norway, and 
the inhabitants^ of the north df Sweden, there does not exist 
a better disposed,, or a more benevolent people. 

One of our boatmen,' a €ossack, fmealcins of a stanitza 
that was situated in a creek, or tnrntitg of tne river, made 
use of an expression which may, perhaps, afford the etymo- 
logy of thfe name of a town in the rery north of Britainl 
He said it was In veMess^ <* In the*turning.^ It is certainly 
worthy of remark, that Ibvemess, pronounced exactly ia 
thb same manner, is aho stmiiariy situated, with regard ta 
the coast. - 

Several villages are** scattered along' the banks of thi^ 
river; but they consist chiefly of wretched hovels, con-s 
structed of the reeds and fl4gs which grow in the shallows 
ef the i>on ; and with these objects only in view, the travel* 
ler is presented with scenery very accurately corresponding 
with thedeseriftion given of the wigwams and waters of 
America. Soon after we passed the fortress of Rastof^ we 
were graftffied by a retrospective view, which at oncd 
embraeed the whole of the settlements on the northern side 
of the river, including Rastof, Nakhtshivan, and Oxai.. 
Here the Don is divided by 'the channel which beard the 
name'of Jfte Doad Bmaetx $ and the high lands,, on whicli 
thtese tewiM are stationed, coi^tinue to form the northern 
bsuftk of that branek We sailed along the current whieh 
preservesihe proper ni^me of the river, and' whieh, afler 
this separation, flows throneh very flat and marsh^r terri- 
torv. The oB)y objeets whieh interrupted the uniformity 
of the landscape were those aneient sepulehres alluded to 
in- the passage from/Rnbruquis, cited in the ^dd page^ 
and to whieh I hav6 so often had reference. I eadea-* 
voured to delinec^e a very remarkable group of thern^ con? 
sisting bir five tombs, much larger than the usual ajppear- 
anee of others near the river, vmd which, from time imme" , 



Mi/9 GI.4JM^'ft ITRAVELS Uf liy^SIA. 

laoriiiy.lutTe imne the appellMioQ •f Tkt Fivt Jtrotittrst 
Tbey are upon tlie fiuropean «ide. If Ftoleiay^fi positioo of 
thehexhn of the TanaueoulA be reeoneiled witli tb^ «Ue 
ef tnat remarkable deviation of tbe riyer from its eour^o 
whieb forms the Dead Oanaetx» I should net hesitate in 
deMsribin^; those tombs as the actual monomests to wbieh 
he aXludea under the name (rf the AUara of Alexander, Tke 
BciMOi^ or Altars of the Greeks, were t^M tdtttria by the 
Romans, ab aUUudiMf from their being raided hi^ above 
the groumL In lew fiat eoentriesi where Ihere were no 
mountains or hills, they raised artificial aseents for their 
altars. But sacrifices were offered upon the sepulchres of 
the dead, as upon altars | and, ooosistentij with this prac- 
tice, Alexander nauf /lis i^m&s, and performed rites, upon 
the tombs of AeniUes and Ajax;* wiiea he invaded Aaia^ 
and landed upon the plain of Troy ; anointing; with per* 
fumes the xthaai placed upon them, according to tha cus* 
torn of the aee in which He lived. The same goo^apher 
places the Attars of Cesar still nesfff r to the position of 
tiiese tombs. To om or other of them, they will, probably^ 
hereafter be referred. In the mean time^ until we hare 
b^ter knowledge of the country and its antiquiti^, we 
musl leave their real history undecided^ . • 

Amoi^the various race of men which dwelt near tbe 
mouths S the Don, and in the ncishbourhood of Rastof, the 
Tartars are the most numerous. Many absurd reports were 
■I circulation eoncemkig the danger of venturing among 
dmnu At Rastof, in particulai> we heani some fearful 
talcs of robbers, and the banditti of the $Um», but had 
every reason to believe that they wevei for the most part, 
if not wholly, without fouqdatioa^ 

The long expected sight of Azof at last presented itself 
before our eyes, making a very conspicuous and consider* 
ahk appearance, and somewhat carrecponding with the false 
ideas we had entertained of its importance. Its imaginary 
eonsoqoenee, however, as a fortress, vanished the mouient 
we arrived \ for nothing can be more wretched and insigni*' 
Scant than the real character of the place itself. The figcrc 
it has made in the wars between Russia and Turicev has 
given it a place in our maps and gazetteers : althoogh the 
meanest hamlet of Kaccschatka might dispute its title to 
natiee. A handful of troapsy aided only by their bayonets, 

• Bic^or. Sip. lib. vfYu Sec alio, Chanmer*? Wam, p. 70, 



to AZOV AND TX^kTHnOCK* tit 

miglit take pofes^ssion of it at any time. The garrison eoir« 
sists of a few worn oat Rassian invalids. The wot&s, If 
such tliey may tie called^ are abandoned to deeay, and situa- 
ted below the Tillage ; $o that, in the ercnt or an attack, 
there are several heists which wMldeominand them. The 
^ilk^ itself stands upon a hi^h ridp^, upon whose low^r 
extremity the foi^tress is sitnated. From these heights we 
had a view of the entrance of the Don Info the sea of Azof, 
and of Taganroek, which we could plainly discern across 
the water. The mines of tho fortress were described as very 
extendve, and Considerable excavations might be observed 
under the w^hote^ of the ramparts ; but they make no use of 
them, and, indeed, were icpnorant for what purpose many of 
them were originally designed. All that remains of the 
Turkish fbrtihcation fs a part of a wall, now a mere roin. 
They showed us an old rampnrt raised by Peter the Grei^, 
on the opposite side of the rtver, and uHed by him when he 
hesieg^d the place. 

As it has ueen always Supposed ih%t the ancient city of 
Tanais existed either on the site of Azof, or in its imme- 
diate vicinity, I wa| verv particular in my inuuiries cdn- 
cemiKg it, both amDng the olficers and other innabitanti tif 
the place. I also made such observations as the time allowed 
ttfa would permit; but not a trace of any such city could 
he discovered, neither had there ever been observed, as a 
vesti^ of It, any of those remains which infallibly indicate 
the cities of the Greeks. Of these, broken poitervisthe 
most usual, on account of Its inc^irraptible nature, and which 
atmo^t always serves to point ont the locality of Oreciaii 
cities, even when medals and other marks 6f their topogra- 
|thy have not been found. It \i natural to conclude, that if 
the Greeks ever built a city on this branch of the Don, it 
stood upon its banks, and n«t at any distance fVom the water. 
Bat the site 6f A2(of is the only spot near the river en which 
ft was pog«iU$ to build. The rest is all a swamp, even the 
reeds of whieh are annuafly inundated. To the east, south,, 
aftd sonth-cast, the interiout' of the country offers a parched 
ind barren desert : the rait is all one vast, morass, oonsisting 
6f deep bogs and water. If then, on die elevated soil which 
has afforded a fuvndatfon to the fbrtress and present village 
of Azof, it he presumed that such a city as TanaSs once 
stood, is tt possible that, iii the immense excavations whieh 
the modems have carried on from time to time, in thefetvt- 
adotty the v^poTAtiott, and the destriictian of Aeo& tomi 



S4^ CL'ARKB's TttAVELS IN R^^SSIA. 

Ttttek of aiifi(toitj', eHlier ti me^ak^ ^eapofis, tates, br 
^epaiehres, would not have been diseorered ? Yet, iti no 
infttanee of sueli worfcs^ or at any other peHod, has there 
ever been observed a single trace of the existence of any 
former selttemeiit, except that which was made there by 
the Turks. 8ome of the senior officers, who were well 
tnfonned of every thing that had occurred there since the 
time of Peter the Great, and amoni^ others, the command'^ 
ant, declared, that nothing had ever been found of sneh a 
description; and that, in ail the country abont the place, 
there was no sign of the existence of any former city. 
About fifteen years ago, some coins were found Upon the 
shore of the sea of Azof, further to the westward; but the 
characters upon these coins were described to us as Indian, 
or Chinese: probably they were -Tartarian, or'Tofkisfi. 
If there ever did exist sueh a city asTanai's, I should 
expect to find the traces of it at the extremity of that north- 
ern embouchure of the Don which I have before mentioned 
as bearing the veVy name the Greeks gatve to the city, with 
the slightest variation of orthography, in the appellation 
Tdanaets or Danaetx. It is a channel of the river wh ich I 
had not an opportunity of exploring. Perhaps some fu- 
ture traveller will meet with more .success ill jthis paHieu- 
Jar inquiry ; and to forward it, I have affonled hiin a cine 
in the map of which has been engraved of the mouths of the 
river. The plaee to which I would particularly direct his 
attention, is now called Sinovkd ; but he will in vain look 
for it, or even for the branch of the river I have mentiouedly 
in any of the maps which have heretofore been published. 
The inhabitants of Azof amount to a small nnmber, 
including the garrison. There are not more than fifty 
houses in tlie whoie settlement. The olUcers quartered, there 
cdmplained, as well they might, of their solitary and Seclu- 
ded state of life. Exiled from all commerce with mankind, 
because detested, even by the nations around them, and 
without a single comfort to fender human existence ^up-. 
portable, the. joy our arrival diffused niay be easily ima- 
gined. ^' ^one^^^ said the old commandant, as he approached 
the shore to welcome our arrival, '' none hu^ Englishmen 
wmild come to ^xof^ if they could avoid ft." il had reasoii 
to entertain the same Sentiments afterwards} but from very 
diflferent motives. Nothing CQuld be mor^ ia8up^6rtahl« 
than their curiosity, and the inode of showing what they 
iatwded as hospitality. No other employtteat was thooglit 



TO AZOF ANP TAGJLHKQOK. ^|3 

of tbaii tbat of dnntiogy «boutiii^ ^d diuieinf. ^ Some 

symptoms, at the same time, wer6 manifesled, which eon- 
siderably alarmed us, of usint; eon^ulsory measures* in 
order to prevent our departure. Uaif'a century might 
pass^ during, all whkh time its inhaUitauts would see no 
faces except tliose of their owu garrison^ consequently, the 
slightest variation of such monotony was hailed with trans- 
port, and the coming of a.^tranger considered as an event 
of more than usual importance. We found them lost in in- 
dolence and wretchedness, badly supplied with provisions, 
and destitute even of wholesome water. The suspicions 
inquiries, and insidious artifices, eommonly practised by 
Russians in their reception of foreigners, were, for onee 
laid aside ; and> in their place, were substituted boisterous 
greetings, and the most troublesome importunities. Our 
appearance at this time was eertainly rather calculated to 
excite curiosity. We had not less than four large marmots 
Jiving constantly in the carriage, whose ravages were visi- 
bly msplayed in all parts of its lining. |' for there is hardly 
any thing which these animals will not endeavour to devour. 
Our interpreter, a Greek, the sallowest of his race, wore a 
strange dress, in which the various habits of Russians, Cos- 
sacks, Tartars, and tribes of his owu nation, were singu- 
larly bfended ; while our wardrobe, scarcely less remarka- 
ble, betrayed evident marks of the casualties and disasters 
of a long journey. In addition to these, were books filled 
Hvith plants for our herbary, minerals, stuffed birds, and 
quadrupeds, boxes of insects, thermbmetdrs, pots, kettles, 
naif a cheese, and a vinegar cask. The soldiers of the gar- 
rison seemed more astonished and amused by the appear- 
ance of the marmots than by any thing else; and the mar- 
mo tf, participating equal surprise on seeing them, setup 
their loud and shriO whistle whenever they approached. A 
4;oncert and supper were prepared for us in the evenings 
and a veteran omcer, general Pekin, seventy-three years of 
age, was brought in a ehair to see the two Englishmen. 
He had been celebrated both in the Prussian and Russiau 
service, and lived upon a pension at Azof. This venera- 
ble soldier expressed himself so much rejoiced at seeing us, 
that, in spite of his years and infirmities, making one of the 
officers stand up with him, he insisted upon exmbiting the 
Russian national dance, v 



^14 CLARKE'S TRAVELS IN RrsSIA. 

The contrast wliich ^as been before made* between 'a 
Cossack and a Russian appeared very striking in this voyage 
3o\vn the river from Oxai to Azof. In the course of a 
single day, we breakfasted with one people, and were com- 
pelled to sup with another. I say compelled, because the 
conse«[uences of refjjsin^ such invitations are very serioim 
in thiscciintry,especialiy if they come from petty officers of 
the Russian army, who have it always in their power, and 
•generally in their inclination, to embarrass and impede a 
traveller. The distance between the two places does not 
exceed forty five versts. We left the Cossacks with sorrow, 
and full of gratitude for the politeness and liberal hospital- 
1y wc l:nd experienced; and the very sight of a Russian, uti- 
der tt:c!i impressions, was doubly revolting. It may be 
conceived, t'len, what onrfeelinnjs were, when, as we landed 
at Azof, an iirvpcrtincnt yojing officer, belonging to the gar- 
rison, inquired wh it could have been our inducement for 
venturing amonj^ so ferocious a people as the Cossacks. I 
endeavoured to get rid of tlie question, hj asking another. 
" Do you," said 1, " never visit them ? " Never!" said he: 
<^ we consider them as so many wild beasts. It is true^ thej 
are rich ; but God alone knows what they do with their 
money, or how they obtain it : we never see any of it." My 
companion could not refrain from replying ; and said, with 
some indignation to the young officer who uad addressed us 
in French : " Yon shall hear how they obtain it ; and what 
t hey do with it ; and why you never see any of it. They are 
industrious merchants, and derive wealth by commerce: 
they are good husbands and fathers, providing for their fam- 
ilies, and educating their children : and you never see ail 
this, because, as you confess, you never visit them." 

\Ve succeeded, with great difficulty, in obtaining leave 
to quit the place on the Allowing day. General Pekin lent 
ns his assistance; and it was owing* chiefly to his interest 
that twenty soldiers were ordered to attend by day-break, 
and assist in towing the boat against the current $ as it was 
necessary to reasccnd a part of the river, and proceed to- 
wards the sea by one of the '^louths thi'ough which the Dob 
disembogues itself, nearer to Taganrock thjan that branch 
of it on which Azof is situated. We took leave of our 
boisterous entertainers soon after midnight, most of whom 
were by this time more than ^* half seas over ;" and, in order 

• See p. 155, 



TO AZOf AKD TAGAKROCS.. 213 

la seeare our retreat, we determined to pass the night in 
the boat. It was slill dark, and dreadfully tempestuous. 
A Uiund^rstorm came op, and the wind blew with the fury 
of a hurricane. As we passed the sentinels to go towards 
the river, vivid fla'fhes of lightning disclosed to us at inler- 
yais, our carriage tossed about iu the lioat, as if in a gale at 
sea. We got on board, however ; and presently such a de- 
luge of raih ensueid, that we were glad to seek shelter with 
the wanoots, >i'hose natural somnolency wag not proof 
against such violent concussions, and who were thrusting 
tiiqir noses lietween the blinds of the windows. 1 never expe- 
rienced such a tempest. During all the rest of the night, the 
water seemed to descend as from a cataract, beating tnrough 
the very roof of the carriage, and entering by every crevice. 
\fi the day dawned, the rain ceased to fall; but the wind 
eontinueq as before. Our servant arrived from the fortress, 
liaviiig succeeded in mustering the soldiers. We encourag- 
ed them by liberal offers ; and bad the satisfaction to find, 
that although our boat's motion was hardly progr;;s3ive 
^gain^t the united force of the wind and tide, we were ac- 
tually leaving Azof. 

Alter a long and very obstinate struggle, iu Avhich our 
boatmen were nearly exhausted, we at last succeeded in 
Teaeiiing that branch of the river through w hich we were to 
steer with the tide towards the sea. Itis called the Kalan- 
€ha. Here we rewarded and dismissed our assistants from 
tlie garrison, hoisted our canvass, and, falling very rapidly 
down the current, sailed into the Mseotis. The mootlfs 
of the Don are thirteen iu number. In other respects, this 
TLver,by its shallows and islets, its periodical inundations,' 
its rapidity and rolling eddies, perturbed by slime and mud, 
its vegetable and a,uimal product ious, bears, as has been 
before remarked, iv most striking resemblance to the Nile. 
The inhabitants of all this part of the sea of Azof maintain 
that its waters annually diminish. A remarkable phenome- 
non occurs during particular seasons, which oifers a very for- 
cible proof of the veracity of the Sacred Scriptures. During 
violent east winds, the sea retires iu so remarkable a man- 
ner, that the people of Taganrock are able to effect a pas- 
sage on dry land to the opposite coast ; a distance of twenty 
versts* : but when the wind changes, which it sometimes 
idoes very suddenly, the waters return with such rapidity to 

* Bather less than fourteen milc^k 



si 6 CLARKE'S TRAVELS IK Rt^SSIA. 

their wonted bed, Ihat many lives are lost. Id this manner, 
also, small vessels are stranded.* We saw the wrecks of 
two, which had east anchor in good soundings near the 
eoast, but were nnexpecitedly swamped upon the sands. 
The east wind often sets in with great vehemence, and 
continues for several weeks. They have also frequent gales 
from the west ; but very rarely a wind due north, and hardly 
ever an instance in which it blows from the south. This 
last circamstanee has been attributed to the mountainous 
ridge of Caucasus, which intercepts the winds from thaf 
i|uarter. The sea is so shallow, neir Taganroek, that shipfe 
performing quarantine lie off at a distance of fifteen ver8ts;t 
and vessels, drawing from eight to ten feet of water, cannot 
approach nearer to the town to take in their lading. 

The elevated situation on which Taganroek is built ren* 
dered it visible to us from the moment we entered the sea of 
Azof. The wind, however, began to fail ; and it was night 
before we reached the shore.^ Several of the inhabitants 
fame down upon our arrival ; and being afterwards provid- 
ed with a tolerable set of apartments, we established our- 
selves for a few days, to prepare for our journey through 
Kuban Tartary. 

* *' The merchandise brought from Voronetz comes down to Rastoffiix 
tarks whiph will not bear the sea, but are broken up there. Their car- 
goes arc again embarked in lighters, vhieh convey them to Taeanrog, and 
(o the ships in the road. As the wind changes to the east, and the watef 
grows shallower, they get farther and farUier oat tQ sea, and are often 
obliged to sail without having completed their cargo. This singular kind 
of monsoon takes place almost every year after midsummer. The gjov- 
ernour said it seldom failed. Storms are not uncommon; and the naviga- 
tion is considered as very unsafe, by reason of the numerous shoals, and 
the want of shelter," Heber^s MS. Journal. 

I have followed Mr. Heber's orthography in the names of places, when? 
cter an extract is g^ven from his journal ; not deeming it lawful to subject 
so accurate a writer to any roles which I may have l»d d©wa Cor mysellV 
and to which, perhaps, J have not always affkerod 

f Ten.l»il^s. 



f ! 



M 



I 



i 



k 



i'lV 



CHAPTER XV. / 

EUROPEAN AND ASIATICK SHORES OF THE SEA^OP AZOF. 

Taganrock — Commerce^ exUrnal and iidernal^^Canal of 
Communication between tlie Caspian atid BLatk Sea — 
Marring Ceremony of the Calmucks — Consecrated En-^ 
signs of the Calmuck Imw — Difference between their Sa-* 
ered and Vulgar fVritingS'^Sarmacand — Various Inha^ 
hitants of Taganrock — Antiquities — Voyage across the 
8ea of Azof—Chumburskaia — Margaritovskaia. 

TAGANROCK is situated on the cliff of a very lofty pro* 
montory, commanding an extensive prospect of the sea 
of Azof, and all the Biiropean coast to the months of the 
Don. Azof itself is visible in fai r weather, from the heis^hts 
' of the citadel. At present, the number of inhabitants does 
not exceed Sive thousand. The water, as in the Don, is yery 
unwholesome^ when the wiuds carry ott* the salt water; but 
when a current sets in from the sea it is more salutary. It 
certainly was not one of the wisest plans of Peter the Great, 
when he proposed to found the capital of his empire in a 
place so disadvantageously situated. The water near it is 
so shallow, that no haven could possibly have been construct- 
ed, except by formini^ canals at an expense beyond all calcu* 
lation. The ships now at quarantine lie off at a distance of 
ten miles; and all vessels draw in 2; from eight to ten feet 
water, can only approach within fifteen versts of the town. 
Taganrock formerly contained seventy thousand inhabit- 
ants ; but in consequence of a capitulation made with the 
Turks, it was entirely rased. Its revival may bear date 
from the estaldishment of the Armenian colony at Nakhts- 
liivan. At present, all the best houses are in its suburbs. 
The fortress contains a miserable village, full of ruins; 
-exhibiting at the same time, traces of very considi^rabk 
works, wnich have been entirely abandoned. The inhabit- 
ants entertain hopes that the emperour will visit and inspect 
the place, and that it will then become a town of the hrst 
importance in the empire. There is not any situation in 
4he south of Russia more favourable for comniei*ce« was it 

U ^ 



218 CLARKE^S TRAY&JLS IN TARTARt. 

not for Hie w»a< ©f water, ^htfs IVom the Alaek B«a Und* 
here^ in readiness for em^aHkatwrn, all the produce 6f Sibe- 
ria,* with the caTtare, atid other doimnodities of A^trairha'n ; 
whet^at at Cherson and Odessa the^ have'to ivait fbi^iadifig 
after their arrival. But i% h &n\j during ttiree monlhs iii 
the year tliat eomnie»ree eaii be carried on at Tagawroek.' 
In wiater the sea is frozen, so that sled^^s pas» upon' the- 
me to Azof. Oliring the short season of their eomHieree^ 
ihe rest of « single warchoase npon the shore 10 estimated 
at foar haiidred rouhiev. A» soon as the irstihif^ nMike^ 
ihetr appeatavce Hwm the Black Sea, the wf^oiis fiaom t4e' 
taterioar begin to arrive.* These ehips imdei^ aqaaran*^ 
tine of fortj dajsy during aU ^rliiehtime the baravaim eon^ 
liiiae to tnerease^ and b^ote tli6 end of the quarantitie^ no 
less than three thansand f^agoas oecapy alt the plaras he^ 
low the town* Of this nuinber, six tboasand arrive anna* 
ftlly JlroBi the Ukviiinei 

Ta^ancack has three fitirs !■ the year ; the firdt Hpo«i the 
lest of May $ the aeeond, atid prkncipai ika^y upon tiie te^itii 

* " From November to March, the sea is frozen, and navlgjitlpn seWoip 
safe earlier than April. As soon as the ice is supposed to have passed, a 
small vessel is sent frem Taganrog to Kerteh (in die Crimea) and vlct 
wertd. Alier this signal tli« ufivigiiUoQ commences. Pcom. Aptil.to raid* 
-summer a southwest wind prevails very steadily^ which greatly inctre^Ui^ 
the depth of water, and favours the an*ival of vessels, Ahout midsummer 
tlie water is getterally deepest, and the sea crowded with smalt vessels. 
The harboar adaiHs hut few. Vessels may them lie tolcmUy «ear the 
shore ; at other times^ sliips of two hundred tons jare ^ropetled to lie |n 
the open sea, fifteen yersts [ten miles] from the shoi'c. In autumn, the 
sea of Azof is often no ttioi-e than fourteen feet at its greaffesf depth. Fix)m 
Taogarog $oAm<o£ is » shoaV or oonttifluitidn of shoafe, with hardly sev^n 
. tcet water, and in some places only five. The number of vessels is gener- 
ally from six to seven thousand. Of these, ahout cmehuhdted amtfifty, or 
t wo ImndiHid, are small craft frcmi Trebtzond and Sitiope^ whi^h fering*n«r- 
dek, a marrinaliide of^rapes, tmSbecntief, asyrup-diAde m>m varioasffv^s , 
hy boUing thfetu wifb honey. Batsinsof the 4un are alio brought iti- great 
(quantities. All these are used hi the distilleries. Since thedestm«6oAH)f 
the ^ineyarfls hy the late hard winters, the becmiss has become IQj^r^ ne» 
t^essarj'. The syirit thus produced is sold all over the empire as Frfench 
brandy. The Gji'eeks of the Archipelagjo bring chiefly wine of a very poor 
hort, whicli is alio used in the distilleries. Of these Cirecks, abwit one 
thint carry the liubsian ffag-j hut, as onr friend I >" 1 said- (a merchant 
-who resided hei-o) *' Mnuveis JStute, McunvaU J*atdllon" - They. are of 
very had uhara^ei*, and very poor. Any Greek who. iroudd purdsswe a 
liouse and laod^ became at once a HUssian subject, and engoyed dieir pro- 
tection. The real Hussian traden are very few. The Barapean trader? 
^t/vre Italian, Itaguaan, AustriaapandDalmatian, ao^hi laOSatew Freneh, 
%at luider EfigUsh colours, and -wilii JdEdtese ciwws. Tboie bring French 
"wine, and tr^erraanr and English «loth« They carr^^ back ibh ftiid h'oA." 



9H0BES OF THE fiBA0V Jk^V. 3A^ 

-ef Augafit ; ani^ tke third, ufwii "ttie inghtecfotk of NoTember. 

The quantity of fish takes In tkesea of Azof is tntly asto- 

ni»hiDg ; and these are sent, in a dried state^ over all the. 

SQUth of Russia.* They reeeive frait from Tarkey, siieh as 

figs, raisins, and oran^s ; also Greek wine^irnm the Arehl- 

pdii^, wiUi tncensa^ eoffee, silks, sheik, tobaeeo md pee* 

cious stonos* Copper eomes to them from TreMsond, bat 

of a ?ery inferioar quality, and is all sent to Moseoir. Amonf^ 

liheijr.praneipal. exports are eavaire, butter, leather, talioWf 

efll*A»fuir8,. eanirass, rising, linea, wwntyheliip, and iron; aC 

wJuQh lUst^artiele abosre a million pattdsf were eiported 

during the year i» which we visited the phuse. Their eanvaia 

it «vecy badi Tkeeapper of Siblsna is nek brought to Tagao^ 

rocky as Maseow receives the whole produee of those mines. 

Yet the greatest advanta^^ whiefa the t*wn enjoys, is lA 

bein^ the deposit of Sibenanproduettons. From Orenhuml^ 

they receive tallow, furs, and iron, whiefa, with the cavatni 

9f Astraehan, has only the short passage by laad which in- 

l^rvenes b^tv^een Zaritziii on the Volga, and 4h» Donya 

distance of forty English miles,^ where Peter the Or^at 

projected a canal, and which it was Paul's intention to have 

completed. A draught of the intended eommuaieation be*- 

tween the Euxine and the Oa^ian Bea, by means of this 

Canal, ^vas first published by Ferry, the English engineer, 

who was employed by Peter for the.undertaking* That is 

not Uie least interestins pari of Perry's Narrative, whieh 

relates the condaet of tne Russian government towards 

him; because it sho>ys the false glare which played about 

I the greatest sovereign they ever had. Hossia was^ a«d is, 

* « In winter ih« grefttestfiBheiy 'vs /sarried oq<. Holes are roadein the ioe> 

atftnaall (lisUttees, and tli&aetpas&eiiundeiir from eaehof ^esetotlienextin 

suecessioD^by means of a pole,, until a large traet ^s enolosed. Christmas 

is eonseanentlr a9 bmy a time aa. midsummer} and a a^A -winter Is 

. ruinous. - Be&er^fi MS. Journal, 

f A poud equals thirty six pounds of English weight ; hut some writers^ 
^ among others, the translator of Pallaa's. Travels through the south Of 
Russia^ &c. state it as equal to forty . 

• t Tlie canal of em&mmiiefttkm between the V olea and the Don, aecord- 
^ iof to P^rry [^. S.J would faaare been liO.vcrsts; beeause it -weald have 

* CeUowed the eourse of two other «fimatt rivers ; the La via wMek fatta into 
the Dob, and the Caraisbinka, which falls into the Volga ;; but the seelkm 

<- fiir the eanal would not much exceed twoaules. " Upon these small riYeK0>^ 
. any 8 Peny^ ** sA&ieeawere tobe iplaeed, to maifie diem nav^ble : and a 
eanal of near fovtr RussianiD3ea{^equaito two and one tturd nalea fii^lidij 
to be cut thft>ugli the dry land, where the said rivers cora« nearest to- < 
fedicr." A work like this would not long be ia sfliKtnA Jaar-S»8lan#. 



a3fe clarkb's teavels im tartart. 

and ever will be, that point in the ^reat circle of society^ 
^vhere the extremes of meanness and magnifieence unite* 
Peter the Great, shuffling with his engineer, to evade the 
payment of a few roubles, is the faithful archetype of all the 
tsurs, tsarinas, princes, and nobles of the empire, who would 
not seruple to rob their own valet de cJiamhre, actuated by 
the same spirit which induced their heroine D as hkof, after 
losing thirty roubles at cards, to send thirty of the royal 
aeadeiny's almanacks by wi^y pf payment.* They are a 
people who cannot be truly appreciated, excepting by those 
who have not only actually resided among tnem, but who 
l^ve seen them when removed from intercourse with civi- 
lized na ions, and devested of that external varnish so for- 
cibly alluded to by the lord lieutenant of the county of 
Wasa, in the extract annexed to a farmer page of this 
volume.t Perry hardly expected to meet with credit, when 
he gave his humble representation of the hardships he sns* 
tained, inasmuch as it effected the integrity of so lofty au 
individual; but further acquaintance with the country has 
long reconciled his simple narrative with all our notions of 
the people.^: An Englishman will probably pause before 
he contracts for employment with any future potentate of 
Bussia. The canal has never been accomplished, neither 
is it likely to be so, without the aid of talents, which, being 
exotick, the Russian government may find it diilieult to 
procure. 

The Calmueks form very large settlements in the neigh* 
hourhood of Taganrock. Their camps were numerous at 
the time of our visit ; and both Calmuck men and women 
were seen galloping their horses through the streets of the 
town, or lounging iu the publick places. Calmuck women 
ride better than the men. A male Calniuck on horseback • 
looks as if he was intoxicated, and likely to fall off every 

• See j^emoira of the Court of Petersburgli, by Segur, vol. II. p. 130. 

t Page 194. 

4 '* In the mean time, bis lonlsbip \_Jlpra3nn, the lord chamberlain^ 
liptOQ his return to MoBoonr, informed me that he had orders from the 
«zur to pay me my arrears, and he gave directions to his deputy to bring 
in the account of what was due to me ; so that I thought myself now sure 
of my money: but the next time I waited upon his lordship, in discourse 
be tuld me, that his majesty was so taken up witli the aftiurs of tbo army / 
in Poland, that it would, perhaps, be a long time before -he would come , 
again to Moscow, and have leisure to go and view the place) and give Iiis ' 
orders, kc. and pleasantly asked me, wiiatl would do with myself in the ' 
-meaa ^VM.**^rmryU JSttite ofMunia, p. 19. 



SHAKES OP THE 9£A OF AZOF. 2^ 

ijknf^ifktj tlioagh he never loses his seat ; but the women sit 
with more ease, and ride with extraordinary skill. The 
c^eremonj of marriage among the Calmucks is performed on 
horseback. A girl is first mounted, who rides off in full 
speed. Her lover pursues ; and if lie overtakes her, she 
heeomes his wife, and the marriage is eousummated upon 
the spot; after whieh she returns with him to his tenh 
But it sometimes happens that the woman does not wish, 
to marry the person by whom she is pursued, in which 
ease she %vill not suffer him to overtake her^ and we were 
assured, that no instance occurs of a Calmuck girl being 
thus caught unless she has a partiality for her pursuer. 
If she dislikes him, she rides, to use the language of 
English sportsmen,^^ neck or nothingf^^ until she nas com- 
pletely escaped, or until the pursuer's horse is tired out, 
leaving her at liberty to return, to be afterwards chaced 
by some more favoured admirer. 

We visited one of their largest camps near the town, and 
found ihe earth all around their tents, covered by the muti- 
lated carcases of dead rats, cats, dogs, suslicks, and marmots. 
The limbs of horses were placed upon upright stakes, and 
drying in the sun. Their dogs are fierce and very numerous. 
A dreadful storm had happened during the preceding night;, 
and we found the Calmucks in considerable distress, owin^ 
to the havock which the tempest had made ^among their 
tents, some of which it had unroofed, and overthroMn many. 
Their high priest, in a yellow, dirty robe, was walking 
about to maintain order. To each tent was affixed asmaU 
fla^-staff,tha ensign of* which was of scarlet linen, contain- 
ing, in sacred characters, the written law of the Calmucks. 
By means of an interpreter, who accompanied us upon this 
occasion, we were tola tliat such banners were always erected 
in times of any general calamity, as preventions of theft and 
intrusion upon each other's property. Most of the flags we 
examined were torn, and others so much effaced by use, that 
we could only dircern some of the written characters, yet all 
were sufficiently perfect to convince us of the extraordinary 
fact, that they were manuscripts, beautifully written upon 
coloured linen. It was, therefore, highly desirable I'u pro- 
•ureone of these interesting documents ; and we ultimately 
succeeded, although the acquisition Was made with consi- 
derable difficulty. At first they would not suffer us even to 
touch them 5 but being told that we were strangers in the 
land, that we came from very distant, western countries | 



and that we were not subjects of Russia, they entered int«t 
eonsultation with each other; the result of which was, that 
if we would pay the priest for the trouble of transcribing^ 
afac-simile of one of the banners used in the camp shoul^ 
he brous^ht to ojnr quarters in Tas^anrock. This manu- 
script^ fairly written on scarlet linen, was accordingly 
brought, in a very solemn embassy, and with many carious 
forms of presentation, by a party of the elder Calmuck^ 
beaded by their priest, the whole party being in their best 
dresses. I bad been absent, and, upon mv return, fuund 
these strange looking people sitting upon the bare earth, ia 
the court -yard of the house where we lodged. As I drew 
near, the priest, in a kind of yellow frock, made a long 
speech, the substance of which was to inform me, that their 
law, esteemed sacred, had never been before suffered to pass 
from their hands; but as they were assured we were great 
princes, who travelled about to see the world, and gather 
instruction for our own people, they had ventured to consign 
the consecrated code to our use. They moreover desired ufl 
to observe, that the character in which it was written was 
also sacred ; on which account they had also brought % 
specimen of the vulgar character in daily •se among them* 
Their sacred characters, like tliose of Europeans, read from 
left to right, and are of the highest antiquity ; these are used 
in all writings which concern the Calmuck law. The vulgar 
characters, ^uch as they use in their correspondence, and 
•^the common concerns of life, are read from the top to the 
bottom, and are placed in columns. I have used every 
endeavour, but in vain, since my return to England, to get 
this curious manuscript translated ; nor has if been as yet 
decided in what language it is written.^ A gentleman of 
Taganrock, Mr. Kavalensky, from whom we experienced 
many other acts of kindness, was our interpreter upon this 
occasion. He spoke the Calmuck language with great 
fluency, and said it was by no means diiBeult to acquire. 
It is frequently used in Astrachan, and thronghout all tha 
territory of Boeharll, the inhabitants of which are princi- 
pally Calmueks. I had an opportunity of seeing some whd 
had traversed those remote and almost impenetrable regions. 
When I questioned them with regard to Sarmacand, ita 
once celebrated capital, they described it as possessing 
Biany remains of former magnificence. Doubtless it also 

* The Qrlgiaal is ijow deposited ip the Bodkiau Libraij M Oxfortf, 



' silORES OF rrf^B SEA OF AZOF. i&23 

eontains ihany curious manuscripts; as the Calmaekftar^ 
so well versed in the art of writing;, and hold certain of 
their manuscripts even in veneration. They preserve, like all 
other oriental nations, many traditions respecting Alexan** 
der. Such, in addition to my former observations, is all 
the information I am able to afford, concerning this remark* 
able people, the Hippophagi of Pliny and the more ancient 
liistorians. Their number in the Russian empire has 
diminished since the establishment of provincial govern- 
ments and the division of lands, owing to. their being more 
confined to limited situations.* Frequent attempts have 
been made, and arc daily making, to induce them to form a 
regular settlement. Likc all nomade tribes, particularly 
Laplanders and gipsies, they are so much accustomed to an 
iiDControUed and vagrant life, that nothing but extreme 
indigence can compel them to cultivate land, and reside in 
anynxed habitatioii. 

The country near Taganrock is a continuation of those 
steppes which I have so often described, affording pasture to 
several thousand cattle. It abounds also with swarms of the 
iittle quadruped before mentioned, under the name of suslick* 
']Vear to the town are small plantations of trees, and par- 
ticularly some fine oaks, which the late commandant planted^ 
and which flourish with other large trees near the shore. 
We also observed crab-trees, and the plant from which the 
Spanish liquoricef is obtained, in full bloom, the root of 
%vhich was full of juice, and had a very high flavour. The 
inhabitants of Taganrock, avoid planting trees dose to their 
dwellings, on account of the swarms of musquitoes which 
.would be thereby harboured. 

The diversity of nations observable in the various inhabi*- 
tants of Taganrock, is altogether without example. Every 
street resembles a masquerade. I counted at one time the 
individuals of fifteen different countries assembled together ; 
all of whom were not more remarkably distinguished by their 
respective dresses uid habits, than by the harmony and 
friendship which existed among them. No one seemed to 
regard the other as a stranger. In their societies and inters 
marriages, each individual preserves his mode of dress, and 
exercises his rule of worship, without making the smallest 
sacrifice to etiquette, by any alteration in His uatioaal babiti, 

* See Fall&s's Travels ia Riii«ia, toI. L p. 115. 



224} CLAnKE's' TRAVELS* IN* TARTARY. 

or giving the slightest offence to the parties with whom he 
is connected. Even the common disputes and petty quarrels^ 
so frequent in the markets of large commercial towns, ap- 
peared unknown to the motley tribe who peopled this place j 
yet Babel itself could hardly have witnessed greater variety 
of language. The fifteen nations, whose representatives l 
observed at one time gathered together, were as follow : 

1 Russians, 9 French, 

2 Greeks^ 10 English, 

3 Armenians, U Tui-ks, 

4 Nagay Tartars* [^I/amaxotriQ 12 Italians, 

5- Calmucks {^Hippopha^f] 13 Malo-Ilussians, 

Cossacks, 14 Prussians, ■ 

7 Germans, la HungariaBS. 

8 Poles, ' . " 

If the commerce of Taganrock should experience any con- 
siderable increase, we may reasonably conclude, from the 
present view of its inhabitants, that almost every nation 
upon earth will have its agent there. 

The shores of the sea of Azof, from the commerce car- 
ried on by the Greeks in the Euxine and Palus Maeotis, 
bring the traveller so near to what may be deemed classick 
land, that an inquiry after antiquities was not neglected. 
We conld not hear, howe ver^that any thing worthy of notice 
had ever been discovered. Tumuli^ so often before mention- 
ed, abound in all the steppes; and in working the cliffs far 
the establishment of a magazine or storehouse, where one of 
Ihese tumuli had been raised, they found in the sandy soil^ 
of which it consisted, an arched vault, shaped like an oven5 
•onstructed of verjr large, square bricks, and paved, in ^ 
style of most exquisite workmanship, with the same mate- 
rials. If any thing was diseovered by the workmen whb 
made the excaration, it was ooncealed ; for they pretend 
that its contents were unobserved or disregarded. In all; 
probability something of value was removed from the sepul- 
chre, as wilt appear by the description hereafter given of a' 

f "The Nagay Tartars begia to the west of Marino|kol ; tlicy cultivMoii. 
good deal of corn, yet tliey dislike bread as an article of food. They extendi 
from Maiinopol to Perecop, along the coast of the sea of Zabasehe. Their 
tent» differ from those of the Calmuckg, as, being more clumsy, and fieTer" 
taken to pieces, they are carried aboiit on ears. XhU «uage they seeiik to^ 
liaveborro-Rcd from the primitive Scythian population. The Nagay tribe*^ 
train tlieii* camels *o the yoke> for which they are ill qualified, and Vhlch* 
maetioe Htt&knof^n tiPiQ&g «U tlie Mongol tnbes in Aaia." Heha^B MS.- 

^arvufmh , , , . . . • . . . - > .., . ,. .' 



SHORES 09 THE SB A OF AZOF. ^23 

Vtmilar tonvb, opened on the Asiatiek side of the Cimme- 
rian Bosphorus. Such vaulted sepulchres seem to render 
trivial the notions which have lately been entertained and 
published respecting the antiquity of arches. The tumuli 
in which such appearances have been discovered cannot be 
considered as posterior to the time of Alexander, if they 
were not equal in antiquity to the foundation of the Mace-, 
lionian empire. 

News arrived while we remained in Taganrocfc, that tlie 
Cossacks of the Black Sea, or, as they are called, Tcherno- 
morski, inhabiting Kuban Tartary, had crossed the Kuban 
with a considerable reenforcement under general Drasko- 
vitz, a Sclavonian ofl&cer in the Russian service, and made 
war upon the Circassians, in order to be revenged for inju- 
ries sustained in eonsequence of the constant plunder carried 
on by that people in tneir territory. We had long enter- 
tained a desire of crossing the deserts of Kuban, with a 
view to reach the districts which lie at the foot of Mount 
Caucasus, and, if possible, gratify our curiosity by a sight 
of the Circassians in their own country, whose personal 
"endowments are almost proverbial. A favourable opportu- 
nity seemed now to present itself; but even the Don Cos- 
sacks had cautioned us against their brethren of Kubaii^ 
whom they described as a lawless set of banditti ; and our 
friends in Taganrock considered the undertaking hazardous 
in the extreme. Yet the experience which had so often taught 
us that rumoured perils disappear when approached, and 
above all, the desire of traversing an unknown tract of land, 
fortified us for the undertaking. On the evening of the third 
of July, having placed onr carriage in a wretched, flat- 
bottomed vessel, more like a saucer in shape, than a boat, 
we ventured op the waves and shallows of the sea of Azol". 
The first part of our voyage was as pleasant and tranquil 
a9 we could wish f but having sailed through all the Turkish 
fleet of merchant ships at quarantine, it blew, as night came 
on, a gale upon our quarter. Our little boat, heavily laden^ 
with its enormous sail very ill managed, seemed all at onco 
at the mercy of the sea. The direction given to us was to 
steer soatheast and by east. The only person on board who 
had the slightest notion of navigation, was a French refugee 
at the helm, who preteqdgd he had been a sailor, and now 
held the guidance of oul^^ssel. By mere accident I hap* 
peoed to notice- the polar~^ar; and Hs bearing proved that 
we were out of the course we had been directed to steer. 

W 



226 CLARKE'S TRAVELS IS TARTARY, 

Upon this our Frenchman vas asked if he had not aeoiupaas* 
" Oh yes, a very good one,"'he replied ; but instead of asing 
it, he had kept it safe locked in the chest upon whiehhe sat. 
The compass being produced, it appeared that we were 
fifoing due south ; and to give an idea of the ignorance of 
the mariners in these waters, who are all of them coasters, 
it need only be mentioned, that our pilot, alarmed by his 
mistake, continued to turn the box containing the compass, 
in the hope of making the needle correspond with his wishes. 
Finding that all was wrong, an instantaneous and fearful 
confusion ensued. We let go the mainsail, and made aa 
endeavour to lower it; but the rigging became hampered, 
and the gale fast increasing, bore the gunnel down ; and the 
carriage rolling very near over the lee side, we shipped as 
much Water as we could barely float with. Our first efforts 
were to secure the carriage from another roll, and, with all 
our force exerted, to hold the wheels ; while our terrified 
boatmen, half out of their senses, were running over and 
against each other. I have heard veteran officers in the 
British navy declare, that they have encountered more real 
danger in what is called boatings than in doubling the cape 
of Cfood Hope during the heaviest gales of wind 5 and I 
. will venture to say, not one of them, had they been then pres- 
ent witli us, would have deemed it possible to save our Jivess. 
We at last succeeded, however, in getting out a couple of 
anchors , and having lowered and laslied the carriage, so as 
to seen re it from any violent motion, passed a night, beneath 
the canopy of heaven, in a state of terrour, almost without 
hope. As morning broke, we discerned the Asiatick coast, 
towards the soutli ; but the gale continuing, we eould not 
v»eigh our anchors before noon 5 when getting under weigk 
once more, we sailed with more moderate weather, to the 
promontory of Chumburskaia, in Asia, where we landed our 
carriage. 

The village of Chumburskaia consists of a few miserable 
%vigwams,i\\e inhabitants of which were busied hauling their 
nets when we arrived. So prodigious was the dranglit of 
fishes made at every haul, that the few wagons stationed 
with oxen to carry oft' the produce of the fishery were in- 
sufficient for its removal. A single haul was sometimes 
sufiicient to fill two or three of these wagons ; and the fishes 
thus taken, were conveyed to a place for preparing them, 
belonging to the owners of the land 5 where, being first salted^ 
ihey were exposed for drying in the sun. The variety 



SHORES OF THE SEA OF AZOF. 22^ 

eaugbt was very great. We saw Ihem draw out Prussian 
carp, pike, stiirgeon, sterlet, a sort of large bream, fish 
which resembled perch, but of very considerable size, and 
those immense crawfish of w!iich 1 have before spoken. 
The shore at this place w,as covered with a very fine gravel, 
45omposeil of shells and sand. Swarms of toads and small 
serpents were crawling or running towards the sea; the 
water, though unwholesome, being so little impregnated 
with^ialt, that the inhabitants use it for drinking, and for all 
. euiinary purposes. 

Proceeding towards the interiour, the view is bounded by 
steppes^ as on the European side, covered with tall, luxuriO'nt 
plants. Although the distance is small which conveys the 
traveller from Europe to Asia, yet the variety of new ob- 
jects which almost immediately present themselves, cannot 
be unobserved. Beetles of a gig|\ntick sixe, locusts, various 
coloured insects, large, green lizards, some of which are 
twelve inches in length, all manifest a change. Having 
-brought a letter to a Greek gentleman, whose commercial 
speculations, particularly in the fishery, had induced him to 
adopt a residence in these parts, we found him at Marga- 
ritovskaia, another small village four miles from Chum- 
burskaia, and caused our carnage to be conveyed to his 
house. He was settled in a small colony of his own coun- 
trymen, the neatness of whose cottages plainly distinguish- 
ed them from all the other inhabitants of that country. *' I 
have retired to this place, " said he, " to be somewhat re- 
moved from the shore ; as thq natives along the coast are 
'4|ot to be trusted." He gave us a supper of rice, milk, and 
pancakes, according to the custom of his country; and we 
should have felt comfortable in his little dwelling, had it 
not been for the disgusting appearance of toads, which con- 
tinually entered, crawling about the floor. Reptiles, vermin, 
bad air, bad water, and bad people, are among the plapjues 
which distinguish oriental territories ; but the small district 
we traversed in this part of Asia, from the mouths of the 
Don to those of the Kuban, may vie in horrours with any 
other 1 have since seen. The roads at this season of the 
year [July] were certainly excellent and the post very well 
. supplied, but they were said to be full of danger, and cer- 
tainly characterized by every unwholesome and" filthy ac* 
c»inpaniment. 



CHAPTER XVI 

JOURNEY THROUGH KUBAN TARTARY, TO THE FRON- 
TIER OF CIRCASSIA. 

Relays for Horses — River Jle — Cossacks of the Black Sea 
^-^Cause of their Migration — How distinguished from, 
Bon Cossacks — and from Russians--^ Wild Fowl — Sin- 
gular Species of Mole — Ckerubifiovskoy — Plants-^Rate of 
Travelling — Turn Hi — Stragglers from the Army-^ View 
of the Caucasian Mountains — Capital of the Tchbuno^ 
jkioRsKi — Manners of the People-^heir Vress andExter^ 
ternal Appearance — Visit from the Ataman — Causes of 
the War in Cir cassia — Fassa^e of the Kuban — Advance 
of the Costatk Army — Arrival of the Facha of Anapa— ^ 
(Ceremony of Concluding the Feace — Circassian Frinces 
— Feasants of Cir cassia — Dances of the Circassians — 
iMnguage — Lesgi — Remarkable instance of bravery in a 
Circassian — Circassian Women — Commerce with ^ the 
Tcherormski — Skill in Horsemanship — State of TraveU 
ling in Caucasus^ 

rj^HE whole territory from \he sea of Azof to the Kubau, 
B and thence following the course ofthatriver towards; 
its embouchure, is a continiuil desert, more desolate than 
the stepper oi the European side of the Mseotis, in which 
a few huts, rudely constructed of reeds and narrow flags^ 
and stalioiied at certain distances;, serve to supply horses 
for the post. Such wretched hovels offer neither accommo- 
dation nor food. They are often destitute even of any 
thatched covering as a roof, and supply merely an enclos- 
I! re, in which the houses remain their stated time, standing 
in mud or dung. The persons who have the care of them 
make their appearance when the traveller arrives, from a 
hole in llie ground : having burrowed, and formed a little 
subterraneous cave^ in which they live, like the marmots^ 
moles, and other tenants of the wilderness. 

We left Margaritovskoy on the liflh of July, admirine 
the £ne view that was presented of ihe sea of Azof^ and 
travelled towards the Ae, one of the several rivers men- 
tioned by Ptolemy, in this part %t Asiatiok Barnatia, aid ^ 



TO THB FRONTIER OF GIR«A88IA. ^d 

wbieh it is dtffiealt to identify with any of the ancient nameg 
enumerated by him. de^ in the Tartar language signifies 
good; and the name is said to have been applied to the 
river, because its bank» afford a favourable pasture for 
sheep ; but the water is brackish, and impregnated with 
salt. 

During the first thirty six versts* of this day's journey, 
we found Grecain, or Alalo-Russian inhabitants. Their 
number in this district does net exceed seven hundred per- 
sons 5 yet a full proof of their industry and superiour impor- 
tance, as tenants of the land, is offered in the fact of their 
affording to their landlord an average payment of no less a 
sum annually than ten thousand roubles. The boundary of 
their little territory is formed by the river Ae towards the 
south, and the sea of Azof to the north. The river Ae 
separates thfvm from a verydifferentand very extraordinary 
race of men, wlipse history and country we are now prepa- 
red to consider; namely, the Tchernomorski, or Cossacks 
ef the Black Sea ; more dreadful tales of whom are told, 
to intimfdate travellers, than even the misrepresentations 
circulated in Russia concerning their brethren, the Cossacks 
of the Don. We had been directed to augment our escort, 
and, in consequence, were always preceded by a troop of 
armed Cossack cavalry. It is true, the figures of those who 
oomposcd the body of our own guard did not appear very 
aonciliating; but we had never reason to complain either 
•f their conduct, or of their honesty. 

The Tchernomorski are a brave, but rude and \varlike 
people, possessing little of the refinement of civilized so- 
ciety, although much inward goodness of heart; and they 
are ready to show the greatest hospitality to strangers who 
solicit their aid. Their original appellation was Zapq- 
ROGZTzsi, according to the most exact orthography given 
to me by Mr. Kovalensky of Taganrock; a term alluding 
to their former situation " beyond the cataracts^^ of the 
Dnieper, from the banks of which river they were removed, 
hy the late^rapress Catherine, to those of the Kuban, in 
order to repel the incnrsions of the Circassians and Tartars 
from the Turkish frontier. Their removal was originally 
planned by Potemkin, hut did not take place nntii about 
nine years previous to our arrival in the country. Their 
society upon the Dnieper originally consisted of refugee? 

f L . r . . * Twenty four English Bftilesi 



S80 Clarke's travels in tartary. 

and deserters from all nations, who had formed a settlement 
in the marshes of that river.* S torch affirm s, that there 
was hardly a lansiiage in Europe but might be found in use 
among this singular people.f 

In consequence of the service they rendered to Russia in 
her last war with Turkey, Catherine, by an ukase of the 
second of June, 1792, ceded to them the peninsula of Taman, 
and all the countries between the Knban and the sea of 
Azof, as far as the rivers Ae and Laba 5 an extent of terri- 
tory comprehending upwards of one thousand square miles.| 
They had also allotted to them a constitution in all respects 
similar to that of the Don Cossacks, and received the appel- 
lation of " Cossacks of the Black Sea.^^ They were, more- 
over, allowed the privilege of choosing an ataman ; but their 
numbers have consideraoly diminished. They could onee 
bring into the field an army of forty thousand eflfective caval- 
ry. At present, the number of troops which they are able 
to supply does not exceed fifteen thousand. Upon their 
toming to settle in Kuban Tartary, it was first necessary to 
expel the original inhiibitants, who were a tribe as ferocious 
and savage as the Circassians. Part of these were driven 
to the deserts of Nagay, and the steppes north of the Isthmus 
of the Crimea; the rest fled over the Kuban to Circassia, 
and became subject to the princes who inhabit Caucasus. 
At the time we traversed Kuban, the Tchernomorski occu- 
pied the whole country from the Ae to the Kuban, and 
from the Black Sea to the frontier of the Don Cossacks. 

* << These men originally were deserters und vagabonds from all 
nations, who had taken refuge in the marshy islands of the Dnieper. At 
the foundation of Cherson, they were chased from their homes, nnd took 
shelter at the mouth of the t)auube, still preserving their character of 
fishermen and pirates. Poterakin offering them pay and lands, they re- 
turned to the side of Russia, and did great service in the second Turkish • 
"war. They received, as a rewanl, the countiy newly conquered from the 
Kuban Tartars. They hold their lands by the same tenure, and enjoy 
nearly the same privileges as the Don Cossacks. They are, howe^?er, 
much poorer, and more uncivilized, and never quit their eountry, where, 
indeed, they have sufficient employment. They receive no pay.'excep^tan 
allowance of rye; and dress themselves at their own expense, and in wtiat- 
ever colours they choose, without any regard tounifor...it^. The officers, 
for the most part, wear red boots, which is their only distinction. I'hey 

. deal largely in cattle ; and have a barter of salt for corn with the Circas- 
sians. Th ey are generally called thieves. We found them, however, ve ry 
honest, where their point of honour was touched, very good natured, and^ 

• according to their scanty means, hospitable." Htiber's M^. Journal, 

t Storch. Tableaw de Russ. torn. I. p. 62, i Ibid. p. 65. ,- 



TO TUB FRONTIXR •¥ •IRfiASSIA. 291 

The Rassiana speak of them as a band of lawless ban- 
iVitti. We soon found they had been much misrepresented ; 
although among a people consisting* of such various nations 
and characters, we certainly eould not have travelled with- 
out the escort by which we were accompanied. The road, 
if the plain, unaltered earth may admit of such an appella- 
tion, was covered with stragelers, either eoing to the scene 
of war, or eoming from it. Their figure, dress, and manner, 
were unlike any thin^ seen in Europe ; and ho\^ever good 
the opinion may be which we still entertain of this people^ 
it would be trusting too much to that opinion, to advise any 
traveller not to be prepared against the chance at least of 
danger, w;|^ere the t^ptation to commit acts of hostility, 
and the pofwer of doingso, exist in so great a degree. They 
do not resemble the Cossacks of the Don in habits^ in dispo- 
sition, ajT in anv circumstance of external deportment. The 
Cossacks of tne Don all wear the same uniform ! those of 
the Black Bea any habit which may suit their caprice. The 
DonCossack is mild, aflfable, and polite : the Black Sea 
Cossack is blunt, and even rude, from the boldness and har- 
dihoofl of his manner. . If poor, he is habited like a primeval 
shepherd, or the wildest mountaineer; at the same time 
having his head bald, except one long, braided lock from the 
crown, which is tucked behind the right ear. If rich, he is 
very lavish in the costliness of his dress, being covered with 
gold, s<lvei:,.velvet, and the richest silks, and cloths of every 
variety of colour; but wearing, at the same tim^, bhort 
cropped hair, which gives to his head the appearance of the 
finest busts of the ancient Romans. The distinctive mark 
fl^faBlack Sea Cossack, born by the lower order among 
them, of a braided lockTrom the crown of the head, passing 
hehind the right ear, is retained even by the oilicers, but 
concealed by the younger part of them, with very artful 
foppery, among their dark hair. They seemed ashamed to 
have it noticed; although, like a reliok on the breast of a 
Catholick, it was preserved even with religious vene.ration; 
and there was not one of them who would not sooner have 
parted with his life, than with this badge of the tribe to 
which he helonged. The custom is of foolish origin : but 
in this part of the world it serves like the sign among free- 
masons, and distinguishes the Tchernomorski Cossack 
from the Cossack of the Don, as well as from every other 
tribe of Cossacks in the Russian empire. The Tcherno- 
morski ar« much more eheerful and noisy than the Dob 



^nit . «larke'« tratbls in tartary. 

Gossaeks ; turbulent in their miHh; vehement in conversa- 
tion; somewhat querulous; and, if not engaged in dispute, 
are generally laughing or singing. The Cossacks of the 
Don hold this people in little estimation, considering them 
as an inferiour band of plunderers when in actual service. 
But it must be said, the rehernomorski entertain the same 
sentiments with regard to them, making those remarks 
which the uneducated and lower class of English do with 
regard to foreigners ; such as, that " one Cossack of the 
Black Sea is a match for any three of his neighbours on the 
Don." The Russian regards both with aversion, and affects 
to consider them beneath his notice and unworthy his socie- 
ty, for no other assignable reason than ignoratice or envy. 
The Cossack is rich ; the Uussian poor. The Cossack is 
high minded ; the Russian abject. The Cossack is, for the 
most part, clean in his person, honourable, valiant, often 
well informed, and possesses, with his loftiness of soul, a 
very noble stature. The Russian is generally filthy, un- 
principled, dastardly, always ignorant, and rarely dignified 
by any elevation of mind or body.* 

But it is proper to attend more closely to the detail of the 
journey. At thirty six versts distance from Margaritovskoy 
we came to th« river Ae^ called Yea by the Turks, aud leia 
by the Germans, a boundarv of the territory possessed by 
the Tchernomorski. Just before we crossed this river, \ve 
passed a fortress of considerable size, rudely constructed 
4>f earth and surmounted by a few pieces of artillery. This 
fortress was originally a dspot of stores, and a barrier 
against the Tartars. It is still garrisoned. The comman- 
dant, as we changed horses at Mskoy^ gave us news of the 
war to which we were travelling. From him we learned, 
that the allied army of Cossacks, Sclavonians, and Russians, 
had crossed the Kuban, and had taken several Circassian 
villages; that many Circassian princes had applied in per- 
son to the Tchernomorski for peace; that the pacha of 

* When Mr. liebcr iras in this conntry, his (nend, Mr. Thomton,^the 
eompanion of his travels, lost his gun; and they left £katerinediira« sup- 
l»osing it to be stolen ; as travellers in Russia are constantly liable to thefts 
of every descriprtion. To their great 8uri)rise, however, when Chey arriv- 
ed at Taman the gun was brought to them. An express had been sent 
after them, who had travelled the whole distance from Ekaterinedar* to 
Taman, to restore the gun to its owner ; and the pei-son employed to con- 
vey it refused to accept any rewai-d for his labour. Such facts as these re- 
(raire no comment. The character of the people, and their superiority to 
Uie Russians in every qualification that can adorn human iia4^re» is eon- 
pletely established. 



. TQ THB FI10NT1£R Of ClftCASSIA. ^9 

Auapa %9^ annoiiiHMNl hig intention of aettng^ ai iiiedtAt»fy 
and of repairiflij; to the Teheraoinorsici eapital, EkateHne- 
dara. He cautioned iis to be on onr gaara eoneentiffs^ tho 
TciierBomonskiy an the route would now be filled with de- 
serters, and persons of every desoHption from the army ; 
and, ^bove all tbins^s, be advised im to infrease the number 
Vf our gnard, lest treacherj might be experienced from th^ 
menibers of oar escort, fh>m whom as mneh might be appre- 

■ fended as from the Circassians. 

We observed several sorts of s^ame in this day's journey, 
particularly the wild turkey^ the pheasant, some wild swans, 
and wild ducks ; also a lani^e sort of fowl as big as a eapon. 
f n the sieppes we caught a ve^y nneommon species of mole, 

, To us it was entirely new ; although perhaps it may have 
been tl^ animal mentioned in the Journal dhs Savan$ Voya' 
^eurs^ us known in Russia under the appellation of slepex.* 
it seemed totally blind; not having the smallest speek or 
mark of any eye or opli^k nerve. Its head was broad, and 
quite Hat, like that of an otter; its under jaw arni^ by two 
very formidaUe Ikngs, with which, when cau^t, it gnashes 
and grates its upper teeth; It is to tlie highest decree 
fierce, and, for so«mall an animal, remarkably intimidating^ 
for though it wilt not turn out of the way^.whlle on its 
march, it lutes and tears whatever it encounters* It Is of a 

f^aie ash colour ; and, with theexceptioB of the heftd> much 
ike the common mole. 

Parsing the Ae, we entered the territory of the TsohenM- 

inorski ; and proceeding about four mileo further, we arrived 

a.t Cherubinovskoy, a wretched village, buil^ of roods, and 

e^ntaining two or three paltry shops* As we jotfmeyed on 

* fr6m this place, the post bouses were constructed exactly 

< after the oeseription given in the beginning of thi»ehapter. 

"They were totally destitute of any security from th© 

. weather, consisting only of a few bundles of reeds And Dnao, 

'loosely put losether, and liable to be scattered by the slight^ 

.f#t wmdi Tne wonder is, how they can possibly preserve 

llveir imttte in (^uch pidccs dnring the winter season, whieji 

is sometimes extremely severe* We observed several sMget 

.for travdiljng over the snowf and in these the littendants of 

« tl»e relays lutd cdtistnteted their beds. 

* Omelin cdnsidcrcd it as an intermediate link between the twrnaeMiA 
•tlie mole ; for though, like the mole, it buries itself^ yet its food t» eoofinwl 



• ' Oii thr sisitli ef J u fy w« aaw iHitltiilg fo«t eofilifioed steppes, 
6#v«red by lieaifitftil and iiixitri«,i>t flowers. Among die tal- 
lest aii4 m^st 8h«wy, appeared the dark Mae Mossoms of 
tht Vipet^s BugiMs, or EeMmn&tHssimufn of Jaeqaih, and 
Unlieum tdt Ltnneeas; Thtif StttHct frygonotdes, not known 
to hmmtnn^ grew iu abitfiftaaee ; and h eommon orer atl 
Kuban Tartary ^ also thos^ beautiful plants, IHb d^serto- 
inim9and ^Uinthus CaHhmiano¥nm. We were of course 
tosied in making additions to ovr he'l^bft'ry ; and the note 
tabjoined will enumerate the prineipal part of onr aeqnisi- 
tiiHi.* lite aros^intoes began to inerease, and were very 
troublesome. The lieat at the same time wa^^ tery ^reat, 
beingms^lilgh as 96^ of 'Fahrenheit, when est imateaMitli 
the grealesteaolion in the shade. 

' Thrbugbottt all this pitrt of Kuban, a traveller With a light 
earviage aaay proeeed at the rate of one hundred and thirty 
Bng^ish miles in a day. With our laden vehicle, notwith- 
standing (tic numerotts delays oceasioned by search for 
plants aad animals, we peiHTonned seventy miles in the 
course of twelve hoars. We passed several lakes, one oif 
which, from its re^aiil:able appellation, deserves notice : it 
was ealkd Bey's Eau^ *^ Princess Wnter ;^^ eau being pro- 
uoottced exactly as by the Fvench, and signifjring the same 
thiOff« Be^ is a very eommon oriental word for a prince, 
A vUlage near thi^ lake was called Bey^s em* koy. We 
not ioetl also some corn nrilis, worked by undershot wheels; 
dMd ancient tumuli, as usoal, in th^ perspective. Among the 
birds, swallowtk appeared by ^r the most nnm^rous. One 
vast plain was entirely covered by swarms of them, evidently 
^sembiifig in.preparatioR lor a migratory flight to some 
father eouiKry. Wild swans, geese, and* ducks, wCre itt 
greai naaibers^ But by mueh the most frequent oMeets 
Were the tumuli ; and from their great number 1 should havci 
lieen inclined to suppose they were oecasioniilly riiised afe 
marks oi guidance aoros^ these immense plains daring Mn- 

* A new species of Calendula; also of Jianwiculuf^ and GmI^^Ot^ 
Crambe Tartnrica — Cerinthe hdnor — Antirrlunvm gemstifoUum — Anj 
tktmU milltffniiaUi'^Ltttkyrut tubertmU'^Symph^iwH consaiidnm — Sai-i 
via nemorosa — Galium rubio'idea^-Phlonda tttbero^O'^Xeranthenmm 
amiuttm, in great vAmwlsmee^-'-^is'ella I}amasceHa''^^ati^gulua lenutfo:^ 
Hue. — ^Otbci'8, wgU knoi«'a in BriUio, were, Thalictrum mintM (Leased 
Meadow Uue)^^AgT09iemma G&^/mi^o. (Cookie )—7\z»ac0£»m •vttljg-afv 
{VBxiByy^Iia7umciUu9 JUngtia (GretA ^]^v*vr^iety*^€ynogiasmm ^d- 
tuUe (Hound's tongue) — IrifoUum arvense (Hair's-foot TiHifcjU) — Trifi^ 
Hum ineUUtus lutea. 



ti^rj^wb^ii ihe||rAiii4it^«iif«re4 bffttow rbmt «jienerer any 
ope h9i% li^iv Uid jftpeiv.l:he O/pfiiNknuiee #f ft Aepnlaiire |hi4« 
djteqM^9^if«ttt*tth^cori9t«A^^<Nidisjiiile9iui(l ih« traveller 
is Ie]i((i<^ vvQAder and pe^^{il^>ki»i$eU' in eai^et«re»«9tf^eni* 
ilig*Ui# {i{i|>a]ati»ii ul^iieb ««{ipUod the iaimiir-fcr ra«ti«|» 
the$e.Qaiiierou$ yefttift;ej»:of iiitermQii4,.iis w«U as ikeifto4ie« 
ih^y sery^^ ta <^r|t«ita; . Thfi BiKifber (Really i«tt«iised>i|«. 
we dr^w.pcm* to iho Ku)9an ;^ and m tbe last «tiigm he^f» 
we ;ce8,pbef) ijtiat river, I o«mntod ninety ^jie^ ail at oHee-tn 

Tiew,, ...,:.:..»'.'. •• . • P 

TJie ysh^Ae. nf ibe aeU in this (>art «(f the T«htraoim>rKki 
territory is eov/ered by fine ^idstur e. fwrbac^t, ami sufplioi 
Jhay /w ali t biei k cavalry aad eattle^ * In our riHiler w« fre* 
f|ueutly eneouaterefl parties Peliiroifiy; {Whq the war, %viiii 
%mI. bec^vk difufttwad la Iht^ir vcfipiaetiTa hoiat^ar had liiooK^lit 
proper to ran^iv^ ^bams^itras. Tbe«e wave all aimtd aimi^ 
Jarly Io.ouc(ea«ai^^aja4 aaaanKpg to tjke opiman ef t^aani* 
inAnfbi.n^ af tbe viilaiadifartreaa lapaa tiie Any whe» we tni* 
tar^ii M^eir tcjrrUaigFy K^i!Ci4u» maah to b&4raa4«ilM the Ctr** 
<lf^tiiaiis tb^nisalvea. . TMyr (UKMsed na^ havvirer, ▼ery-ra* 
apeQtf^Uy9 probably aa artatHiat «£ oJir JHunbar, wktch iMd 
Deaaaagaiaiited frcnn t9iaive.4o t^i^iity; As^Cbrthoatof tka 
T$cheraomjor9)ci whom weibund in Ibe-diSereiit poat ha aa aSy , 
tbe^ really appea^retl a^ M^ildaa Anerieanaamigea; Ka(VtD|^ 
thair bodies ^vita naJcad) eiMsapta ahaep'a litde cast aeraal 
tbair aboiUi)lHrs^»'ith tKa a«ool oit ijm aadaida* Thssf asuallgr 
aippeared tyinfi;,&oiaa$ tha' orasa, wlale.the kamea fae tM 
potst were gcasil^.axauad: tiiiiiii^ vaady ta b&aKa^fat when 
WMtad. , ' 

We »ow direw near to tha Kabaa, and hafl raaahed iha 
last post havse bqfare arri«in|fp,at BKkfrie^iNBDA&A^ wliaa 
tbe.yiew of tlio Caii0a«»an.i]Hiiifitalns;!a|penedH)Mmt]Sv<s* 
tendii^^iira^arag^t^ul •inaiiivMa4Mlsi ntdge-froni ^aast ta 
M'estt.. j«ndeai^oai\9d.t4> reeall' a, foraian impression made 
upon uiy mM in tiie^pn«tt.eb la tlia,At|)s llram An^barf^v 
anci the reeolleetion served to eonvince. ine, that the rt^ge 
of Mofint Caueasns has- neither the apparent attitude uor 
grandeur of the Aipiae, whatever thetr relative heights maf- 

• <• Tlie catUe bere are lai^«i* and finer than any where in Russia. 
There are no sheep, not even of the Asiatiak breied. Th^ Cdssack hoi*s(?s 
are vbat woqld becbUed in Bngland g6od ^fioiHiytf. Their m»fters Yatatt 
Tory nii»«li tbetr vpe»A tmA harcUriets. lAMording to them, 9 motlei^tely 
ttpoa faoraoi will go st&fy tersts, or forty miles at fidivpeed, without stopj^ing. 
They are seldom handsome." ffeber^s MS, JoumaL 



be« MftMliitl BIberflteiav »e«iebrartd JUmUwIioiawt mA 
traveller, afterwftrdt informed me, timt lie* eenffklenHt 
Mnmi Chat in CamasiM higbcr Unm Aftmi Btone •• it h i^er- 
tainly viti^le at the immense dittanee of twe huadradmHes. 
Tke enewy f amnnta of ike Atpa are aaen for aday^n jeavaoy • 
Mere reaekiii(» them, ^litteriag ahove the iine'of dowk 
oeileeted near their bases i eapeeialijr by «a lm»eller' whe* 

^appreaehed the Tivof, where Ihej aeent te tiwt up.aU'aV 
ooee like a wall ftrem tke plmnaof Suabia. Te ais,iii^d^ 
who had travelled so Itmf; ih the flats of Russia^ tiie Sauea**- 
sian monntaivie' were a new and very ittteresiiii^ ai^fc^ <jQiir 
eyes were fktii^e<l by the unilbraiity of pdrjieluai plains^ 
and even serene skies, te wi»eh we liad beiiase long awa4«- 
IfMiied, were* n;kMilyexckanf(ed for die refhhikiai^ wiiadsaC 
f Jie hills, the fre^ent Omwert^ and tke rolliii^aleads, wbiafc 
always aeeo»p«By tbenu Treea also began taappeafi i^ii4 
tkekai^af fkcRabaaiwaneeovepedwiOi WMda« Theoy^, 
no lon!^ a attaiieAr,4«aM4 kia itenerable kekd $ and th« wtl*^ 
low, tM brsnble,* wild rasnberriea, blooniin^«krubs« mii 
tliiek anderwooA^ ewrtred tke s^ioad, iJE^ing'reli^al iw 
abvndanee of* wild boaes' and deer. Tke last are eftesi tafcea ' 
ybon^, ssid kept as tanm animals n the eoKi^^ of the 
eonnujr* • 

EaATXRisiBDAaA, or CaUmtimH Oifti tketoapital of tho - 
Tehemomorski CossaokS) makes a very eatraordiaarp a^. 
piearanee. It has no resembkmee to a towv, bat tr tmdiar • 
a fi^ve or fbrest of oaks, in wineb a naAber of a<r^;§iia|r 
cottas^,' widely separated, are^«ontsalod, no4 oi^ ftom all » 
ffenenti ohservatloii, bnt even fk^Oas the view -of eaehotkec^ • 
Th^inhabitalits have ent down and«learad«sflaan(f -astkey 
eoHM ; bat the sheets, if Uiey may- be^ao oallod,aiid.tWa 

' spaees between ike houses, are eoverediwttk dwarf oakovaaA- 
Ihiek branehes of seiono yet rising from the roots whiok-ara • 
left in the earth. The antiquity of the tnmali whiekoover 
all this eoontry, may, in some degroOf be proved, even- by 
the appearance of (he oaks growin^oo them. We sawsome 
trees, perhaps, as old as any in tiie world, which were so 
situated. The inhabitants had dut^ into tke tnmali, to form 
cellars for their ice and wine ; and, in so doing, found seve* 
rat earthen vases, deposited with the skeletons which these, 
sepulchres eontatneil ; but unfortunately they destroyed 
every thing they discovered. The atr in this metropoUUn 
fbrest is pestifVrons, and the water of the place very un* 
wkolrtoma. Fevers, similar to those which prevail near 



Italjr^ offlicl tli*8e» mtIki rmd^ tene^ li»llie>CAvJroo0, li^ir* 
ever^ llm air i8r(Mtdfj««i,t^^b*i^ w^* ^ grtnnd i», 

t^l^tmts^hy iht iMvemid'oS g^dens, tlie h«aUh #f. the iah«« 
bilaBito'mil4iaile»i>iiifaiiHi$ bift^frlwi ito daoip.fitiiaUiiii^ 
aad tht ^ioMti^iif ctt«iifttTeimiir9li€0 on tbe-Cip^asmn sicfci 
of tl^rKji|ba%ijS]BAtcf»iMdava 19 ver^r KiMly 4a 4)e a deska- 
h\B plai^'fff^rfcsidvMei * The- very • ftmidiitiDa #f the ei(jr 
baMi tkiie oifi jir flif be jeas pfeti<i«» ta onr arrival ; <o that it 
atili had tiw apfMranee M' a eoiony newly tmnapartad i4k 
tb«'wilde9nM9 of Anertea^ ataintaiQiag* a atrag^e a^att 
aU 4iie»<}ii«M>l«8 op]M«ied ta it,^ra*i iaboapifiibia aatiTasy itH 

Ce^ftMe z^vmndftf aii4 a» iHmbaiiaAaiar aliataia* Thu 
MTsoi tb««mMlitii»ite-w«re vealer Aha* aor. beat. EaglisAr 
e#lla,Q^^;' < Bmeli -awnfer fBmmtt&A a lan^aaraabalara bia 
doi^rC to* whiebF aa* av^aoa of the fimat om8<c«i^aeted $ alsa 
ao ^djaiaiiMB^ ^idaa, ia«wfaeteh ira a atiwd iba vi8a» llie wa<i^ 
tarnveian^ aad l^e coodmber. Theaiinflower blaaaia tpaoCaf 
iia*ilai^«rrery «vlieiie9.witb»tit eallif^tiaa^ nad many plaiata 
ftnaA fvaiy iormiP ^reenhonsea ara tha vacdt of the plaiii* 
'E^ eiltinate^ffanK.a pMxtaitty ta Iba movnUuBS, ia httmid 
and eloady^ agitated by frequent and violait windtf with 
thdndary^uiii aaddeii taaipaitiMHtf raittt. 

Ia tbaff new •ettiemeat^ the Teheraomarftki »tiU displajr 
tkaemaaviamiaivand mode 9i life which thqr praatiied 
befbae tkif^y migmiad fraat tha Dnieper. Py thia aieaoA the 
€ii«a88iaa9y amiavaa thoiaaf the Busaiaiis wha live aaion^ 
tlasia, ar aearthaia, are inilraated ia maay daAeatiek arta 
ef eafalbnaiid«leatiltae«t ta whaahthey were belbce 8traii>* 
g(A*8« Getebratad^as they jufttly are for iheir skill ioharse^ 
w w ohip^ «hay aakaowfcsdge theoMalves ialeriour in tli^ 1 
respeet ta^ the Cir^aaaiang^ wlmte lif|ht bedie% lightly a^r 
eaataadf aa theHe«teat*^haTset ia the watrld, ouUtnp theai 
itttbeehaae. Yei I knew net a^oMra interesting abject thaa 
a €a«sa^ af the Teharitomaraki mauiited aad e(}aipped for 
war. It i« ifaea aaly tbeT may be said to exist, aiMi in their 
iMitiye eleoieiiti brandishing their laag lanaea in tite air^ 
beadiag, tai»fiiiig<^ or haittng saddenly when in full speedy 
with «o nHiahn^aoeAil attitade, aad saefa natural dignity^ 
that the: ha r^ and big ^y^f geem ^ one aniaial* 

The reins of ^fernmeal are eattrety i» the haiida of ihe^ 
ataaiati aad hifi aili«>ers« The»e wear th^ most tbeatrieai aad' 
tfhtmry ilresias whfeh are lHlawa;tx>^atty paofda in M^ whab 

X2 



2^ •LARKB^ft TnA.V&L& 'l!t ^TA&TAIMr. 

^orfd. Tltelr breasts mre tmt9^ wkb- eteiM tofi^tld and 
hiee. Their s&lyr^ i« TviirUli, their boots ef nii Ar^yellMv 
eolonred katlier, their eap of blaok^ v«rlt«t, or iam» t#d wkh 
lace ami silver chains, or fine WaekTarlftrlan trMrl^.tftlfeen. 
from lambs in aii embryo stftte^ and the. waist; bMiiidl.^ii»tk 
ailken saihes^ Whteh sapport pistols of thenios^iiostly .utark^-. 
mamiltip. A smalt whip^ with- a short loalbeifD tkowyis. 
attaehed to their little finger. The lower extremitii. of Sietr 
lanee in snpported by the right foot ; md fromthe^Hiirdar 
fiask, whteii bangs iv Arotit^ are suspended eilreriooiw md 
other trinkets. ■ ' * . r .: 

Oa the eteof ng of our armal, tfae'a;taiiiaB waked ufMftits 
with a parly of offinrers; One of the hest%ooses im the pliiae 
hadlieen previoasly «tlK>tt«d to ear usoy which they demnsd 
us to eottsider as our own, and deolhred'theosselv«»^rea(ly.to 
render ns any serviee in their pmver. Tke alamandien in- 
formed us, that the paeha of Anapat, with several loftlhe 
prin<^s of CrreasMa, bad erossed the Kuban, and pitolied 
their teatson the northern side of the rirer, siting for peace 
with the TehernoMorski ; that a eonsidetable part of the 
Cossack amy would mareh to give then a mcoting in. the 
moroing) and adjust the prelimrnaries ; «.ii4 as the ootvmoiiy 
Idight amose ns, he very kindlyoffered to'inohide4is among 
the persons of his suite ^ to whieh propomiwe. readily 
tssenled. * : ■ 

The history of the war in wliieh they had been a^Tseivlly 
engaged is as follows : The Cireassians, in their aootnnal 
ineuraions, had for the last three yearn eomimtttedtnawy de- 
predations upon the territory of the Teliernomarsfci; not 
only stealing the eattle, but* sometimes bearing otfihe inlia- 
hifants. The Teheniomorski applied lor the enpevour <€or 
permission to punish tliese marauders^ and isr a reealoeee- 
Bient. General Draseorrts was aeeordingly seat^ wslh a 
party of troops and some artillery, into the Kubttn« -At 
Aire o'eloek on the morning of iPriday? Jtfne the jenthythe 
army, eonsisting of four thousand fife hnndred men^'iaelud- 
ing two regiments of regulars, sonerpieees of artillery, and 
the efaief part of tlie Cossaek army stationed in «ad near 
£katerinedara, began to advance, by erossing.the rirer. 
This undertaking was suC&oiently ardoons to have daaated 
better disciplined troops. The &.abail is broad and very 
rapid ; and a few eanoes, with one ftat bottoawdhai^^Aras 
all the aid Mrhieheould be pruonred for this purpose* Gen.- 
eraL Draseovitx hmeetf ats«cie4aie tm had >Ae9«r.aeon.jMiy 



. UiinG^ ^faal totbe spkut aiKla)»erity -^iUi 'wJij/ehtbe Ca%: 
9a0li eavdlry^ whfQ Iml ike iinj^^ receiivod the^rUer to march^ 
Theypkiigediiah^tftQftMuk. into.Uie torreHUaoj sw«jn to^ 
tlie oppoiite sborev TJie passage was Ue^ii, as 1 have 
•taie4^ «t-<iivMr ra Ihemoini^^; aqcI ky lour o'ejoek iu the 
i^eimoilii'lhe^wfaole army had eroMed, whiehy ooDsidering 
1^ want of 4>rof»ev .boats ana other eooveoiepees, and the 
)^at rapidity of thftjoarreiit is wo^ef ful. By niue o'clock 
jm the Mdde evciiii«s» the attack woa coimiieDQed. A small 
fpar^ooiwittiBg^^omyof «iK9)Uof th^ Cireassiaq eiuurd, were 
Aurprised in. the very onset of the march, of whicli two were 
tii«fv «n4:theiMhti8> fled, to g^ve tbealarjo. The first 
ttbptitfe Mow fi«««i struck by therCirca^sians^ who attacked 
^fradvaueed fl^|iir4«fihe ^osflack tUkvalry,. taking eleven of 
the Gosoack ^Mr^estandafew prisoners. General Orasco- 
vttB than delaalied a body of .Cossack^ to reeonnoitre, who 
found Uie Cirenaotacus in |)Osoession of a stropg liold and 
prepi^rod'foraliack. . These (f^ave the Cossacks a very warm 
i«fleptio.99 batlheigeiieral perceiving it, eausf9<lsoiiie pieces 
of artiilei-y^lo bear- upon his opponents* The noise of can- 
noQihM Dwer bielbve been heard in Circassia: the rocks of 
Ganeasus repeMed ti>e dreadful uproar of the guns ; and ^c 
.na^oo, at thfi'V^ry •oiindyfled in.^ll dii-eetions^ The Rus- 
BtaB^ajriny^rapiiUy advanciiig, burned and destroyed eight 
of the villages, took eight thousand head of cattle, besides 
a «|fuiniity of arms and other valuables* The number of 
.the dead on the side of the Clircassians. aroouuted to thif tv 
isevoa ii^ <Mie village,; and nearly ^ equal slaughter took 
.place- in all the others. T^e Russians lost only ten 
OossAcka, who were made nrisoners, but had nut a n^an 
tkilled, fknd very few vt^oundeu*. The number of the Circ^- 
aian .frriooaers jn-^ not^gr^at^for so desperate wa^ their 
.valour, Uiat theiy>prelerr^ b^.Qg ^ut to pieces rather to an 
surfendef. The first overtures ior peace were made by the 
arrival of saaie depuiien from th^ Circas^iaue, demanc^ng 
the raason of the war. Tlie answer given by the Cossacks 
is-cwrieus^ as it serves. tP ei||l to mind similar laconick'ex- 
.pitessioask . ^^ J^ou have pLa^d your g.^mbQlsy^^ said tjiey, 
** in.imr territory Ui^se.mw^ years : we therefore comejora 
Mttk »pwt in yofirs*" Thi^ answer beiug carried to the 
priaoes of tliOi eooiUry, they came, in great numbers tO;Sue 
thi^ Ciiosoeko for quarter wmI peace. To aid this request, 
a seoretty . of, bread soon preyaiUd among the eomoined 
.•&co«».af Rowans Mi Cosfn^f a^d Ihe wat«r of the- 



S40 •lAiiKfi'* ^ick^Li *r^ tAikTMir.' 

eotentry being bail, they MfeEted i^radltidlv lo^flirAitte 
Kubooy where fhey were met by the p&cbA of Anapa^who, 
with a sreat retinue and moeii ceremony, eawic, itf the name 
of the Tarki^h i»ovemnieht,to!kiteteedefbr the Clreasiriaiisjr 
offering himself, at the same time, a pledge fbt* the seritrfty 
of their future coAddet To strengthen these assvranees^ 
he accompanied the Cossaeks and ftussians aei'ots th^ 
Kuban, and entered Ekaterinedara, iiffft was Oot ]iei*nHttod 
to remain there, on account of theqnarstntine. ' Hewas'^ttf- 
fered, however, to pitch his tent on the -Coisaisk side of the 
Kubati^ close to the river, ^rbm thence he passed again 
into Cireassia; and assembling the prihees of-ihe eoantty, 
made them take a solemn oath of peace ami friefidship wUk 
the Tebernomorski ; but the latter^ not being satisfied witb 
the report of these proceedings, insisted that the s^ame oa^h 
should be publicly repeated on their side of the fiver.' It 
was for this purpose that the pacha of Anap^ had asafn 
returned, bringing with liim the most po\<^erfbl of tfte Cir- 
cassian princes, who now waited upon the northern bank of 
the Kuban, to go through the required ceremony; 

At nine o'clock on the following morning, the 8th' bf7ttlr, , 
general Drascovitz sent his droSci^ escorted by a party of 
armed Cossacks and an officer, to say the ataman was wait- 
ing for us to Join his suite in the proca$sron to the pacha of* 
Aaapa's tent by the Kuban ; and that many of the princes 
of Cireassia were there, ready to take the oath of peace. 
We drove to head quarters, and arrived as the grand eaval- 
eade, consisting of the ataman with a numerous esooft of 
Cofisack officers, and delegates from all the troops of iht^ 
Cossaok army, were proceeding to the river side, distant 
only half a mile from the town. I never beheld so fine a 
sight. The dresses worn by the officers were more beantt- 
fuT than the most magnificent theatres display, exhf biting 
every variety of colour and ornament ; while fheirhigh bred 
horses, glittering in embroidered housings, and prancing 
with flowing manes and tails, seemed conscious of the war- 
like dignity of their riders. Several Cossacks darted by as, 
on the fleetest coursers %ve had ever seeu, to join the caval- 
cade, in front rode the ataman, bareheaded, in a dres^ of 
blue velvet, with sleeves andtrowsers of scarlet cloth,' very 
richly cjnbroidere*!. From his shoulders loosely fell a ricm 
tuaick, lined >vith blue silk, a:t J fastened back by gold bnt* 
tons. His boots, like those nf all (he other officers, we^e«f 
red leather; and by fan side was ' smpemied a broad-aiid 



^%.9p^e9 in ft $JbatIi of red yelyet,riehly emliossed whjk 
^ol(l< an J stlldli^ »itU turquioses, Of\ each side of him! 
rode a|i^rtyqfbi$priucipa( officers and behind followed all 
ilu^ Jtcw^vof p^e. CoiS£i(ck ai*n);^» In mo$i sumptuous dresses^^ 
oiirliing there foaming; And neighing steeds. AVewere, by, 
the atf^in^^'s pxders, placed in the van of the pro^e^sion; 
and soon arpiving^.pn.ihe high grounds which form the nbr^ 
thiernbauk of ^li^ Kuban, beheld the jcncampment of (he 
T;irks and Oirea^ians. on a small flat^ close to the water's 
edge. : ^i'Jif: paehat, gnrraunded fy bis attendants, was seat- 
ed iQ i|is |;^a4 smoking,, wiili^the awning drawn up on all 
side^. He was attended by a Tiirjcish courier from the 
pQtlttp lii«!t|W.Q.df«^oman or interpreter^ and several of the 
»06t powf&rfttl Cirtta$siafli princes, dressed iu the savage and 
exlfat^r^il^vijii^^iu worn by Uie different tribes of Monnt 
CMMa^a^usoiiif «f ^kieh will be hereafter more partienlarlr 
aiilioe4« . M|ion tlie opposite shore appeared a ver^ eonsid* 
lerabltt p|il)titiido..of (he Cireassians, eolleeted either by 
osricfi^i or the hope of bartering with the Cossacks, when 
the terms of jieaee should be eoneluded. The greater part 
of thefM retaMuaedat 9k, distance from the rest, with eviaeiit 
oantioii aoid nustriist, as if aneertaiii what termination' the 
hiisi«es8.of the day might have^ As soon as the Cossaek" 
eavalry inado ita appearance, the Circassian deputies' rose^ 
kbA oi^ioe io the entrance of the pacha's tent, who was seea' 
an front of tiie party, bearing iA his hand a small tuft of 
oamnielV hair fastened to an ivory handle, with which he was 
occupied in keeping off the mosquitoes. The Cossack arm^ 
hatted iji|ion the birowoTthe hill ; and all the cavalry being 
dismoiiiit^i were drawn up in two lines parallel to the' 
river; in front q# which appeared the Cossack soldierft,^ 
8la«diQ|0 bjr their lances. Tue ataman ' and his prineipilt 
^IbMrs rode down into the plain before the t^nt^ where« 
having alighted^ their horses wi^re taken back, and they all 
advanced (lareheaded towards the paeiia. We aecoinpanied 
them 5 and being stationed by the ataman, near his person, 
understood, by means of our interpreter, all that passed upon 
the occasion. 

The preliminaries began by an apology from the atamilii,' 
for having kept the pacha so long waiting. «< Your coming,'^* 
replied tlteoaeha, ^' is for a good purpose, and therefore 
may Imve demanded consideration: it is only bad things 
which are rashly hurried over." 



'Md OLARK£'$ TAATKUf IK ^TARTA^X* 

•doornail. ^^ Have yoa explaioed to the CineaisiAP ^Iqcm^s, 
that wQ are not satisfied with oath a of peace made by theai, 
ia their territory ? We must bear testimony to their attes-, 
t^tioas here, in our own laml.^' ' 

Facka. ^^ I h$ive made this known tlirou^hout all the. 
Caucasian line; and sevenil of the most powerful princes of 
the country are now present, to answer for the rest oftlieir. 
Coiintryinen, and for ibemselves." 

Ataman. ^^ Have all those who are not present, as well at 
these their deputies, taken ^the oath of peace on the othi;r. 
dde of the river?" 

Paeha, " AJl of them. iJ^nlessl hai been present pf^pn 
the occasion myself, and had actually witnessed it, I woi^ld. 
liot venture to be i^sponsibie for their peaceable behavlotir|. 
which I now promise to be." 

Akvnum. ^^ Your ezcelleney speaks of a responsibility^/ 
whieh is, perhaps, much s^reater than you iniaq^ine. Hitljierto 
their princes have paid no respect to the obHji^atioii of an 
oftth, whieh hus Ineen violated as often as it w^ made». 
How many h«v« encased to he bound by the oath, whiuh is 
«ow to be repeated r' 

Pmokm. << rifty ; Hnd of these, the most powerful ara tbe. 
fviiiees who have attended me upon this occasion." 

Ataiman. ^^ All our Cossack brethren, whom the Cireaa-. 
mas have made prisoners, mast be restored, in failiyre of, 
whioh the war will* eei'tainly be renewed ; and ia eom«. 
plianee with this demand all our prisoners will be givf^^ 

SoHie oihereottversatioo paued uiiieh I \)vas not able to 
eoUeet, from the rapidity with whieh it was delivered. As 
seoaoft the pveltmiRariee were eoneluded,, whieh involved 
▼ttpy little dieeaesioB, foi* the Circassians seemed willinf; to > 
aeeedetoaoy propocttioa made on the part of the Cossa^^,. 
the paeha took mm his bofiem a manuscript written vpoo . 
liaea^ o» whieh €he Cireassian princes severally laid their 
liands, repeating th? necessary owtli^ whieh promised to the 
Cessaeks the andislurbed pessessioo of all the country oa 
the northern side of the Kuban. What the nature of the 
naaascript was we eoold not learn, except that it eoataiaed 
eertain passages of the KoraA, and other sacred writiitgis* 
The whole ceremony ended by the pacJia's writing with a. 
reed, th? names of the parties eonceraed in this traaaae* 
tion. 



TO ftfE ^SOKTIBR 09 eilt«ASXA. MB ' 

*Tbe'extto^ol*<linary appearance of the Cireassias prineei 
drew mf attention entirely to them. Their eloihes were aa^ 
rflkss^das any English begnr's, and their ueeks and le^ 
ottitebare. A few only had slippers of red leather oft their 
feet. Their heads were all shaven, and covered oH the erown 
with small seuU caps, laeed with silver.* In their belts they 
had' lai^ pistols ; and by each of their sides were suspended 
a sajire and a knife. Ball -cartridges, sewed singly^ were 
ringed in rows upon their breasts. The sleeves of their 
jaekets being worn ont at the elbows, plates of silver or of 
steel armour, inlaid, appeared- through the holes, which 
they Vo]*e next the skin, covering their arms, and otherwise 
eoncealed by clothes. A coat of mail covered also the breast 
and the rest of the body. Some of them wore a sort of iron 
shirt, made of twisted mail, or rings so closely interwoven, 
and so well adapted to the form, that every part of the body 
was covered and protected, except the face, Pallas, in his . 
Travels through the South of Russia, has represented one 
of their princes on horseback, covered by this kind of ar» 
ntoor.f A bow and quiver are fastened by straps rouiMl 
the hips* I broaffhtaway one of Iheir arrows, whieh had 
aetnally passed throueh the bo^ of a Cossack horse, an^"^ 
killed the animal on the spot. The Ctreassians use the bow 
with verr great skill, never making any random shots, hvi 
ftfire of the aim before they let the arrow fly. The Rumian 
army dreaded very much those destinietive weapans,'a8 thej 
arer used'byrery skilful marksmen, who, like riflemen, sta- 
tion themselves ia trees, or amo9g rpeks, ip the passes of 
mouiitains, to pick out the officers. 

'Jk circumstance not worthy relating, if it did not illustrate 
thie manners and character of the different people then 
assembled,, afforded coasideriible amu«emeB| to us, who 
were merely spectators upon this otoasion. When the 
paehi received the ataman with his attendants, he %vas evi« 

* TJieaMMtAiMie3itjC0VeriD|^af the Ti^ftd worn in Greec'e wta ^xactly 
6f the siame sliape, resemb^ng the scalpt «woni by the AiAerfeatis fromtbe 
p(t4fion6i*8 they make it^ war. j It is worn beneatli th$ tqrlMiii ftU over the 
eMt* l%e Cireassiaiis of nrnk wear it without anv.tMrban, It 49 MiU worn . 
in the Qamo manoer^^ nokAf Mhabittfnts of modem Greece ; and its use « 
m that country long jjxmx to its Conquest i>y the Turks, agrees very weH 
with my ' grandfather'* opinious aonperoiog the griffin of ^e Getiek^ 
CMtAtk, an4 Greeian pqople. See Connexion o/tke Aomaa^ ^^lupon, tutid 

t See Pdlas's Travds thmgh th« Sontherti Pktivifieet, &c. Vol. I. p. 



the river eov^ened with ac^ied men, aad the lances f>f the 
Co»8aek» raoged Wke a forest ij4»g the miitheni «id£ of the 
Kuhan^ he. eo«ild not conceal his anxiety and aneasiueas* 
His own Rianoers were remarkably affable aadpeJite; but 
he viewed the troops aad offieers of the Cossack, army hy 
whom he was surrounded, as a set ^f lawless plundererst 
fqr whose eondnet there «ouId be no lon^ aeonrity. . Doubt- 
lesS) he had heard as many tales of the barbarity of the 
Tehernomorski as we had befQre.,and wished himself Agnn 
safe npon his divan in Anapa*. If we . had be^n filled wiih 
sueh idle fancies by the Russians themselves, it is but rea- 
sonable to eooelude, that the Turks, who consider even the 
Russians as barbarians, must necessarily esteem the Cos* 
sacks as a set of ferocious banditti. The reader may tbtn 
Imagine what the astonishment of the pacha was^ when, 
upon beings induced by euriosity to ask the ataman from 
what country we were, he was informed we were English 
gentlemen^ travelling for amusement among the very people 
whose appearance gave him so much uneasiness, and wlmm 
nothing out the most urgent necessity could . Iiave caused 
him to visit. He seemed to reeain all his camposare by 
this intelligence, speaking ve^y higlily of our couutrymen, 
and saying, that the obligations England had emifcrred 
>upon Turkey would never be forgotten. We took this 
opportunity to inquire respecting the state of the. countries 
bordering the south coast of the Black Sea* He described 
them as full.of diBleulty and danger for traveUers $ that 
many districts were infested by merciless robbers f and that 
a journey to Constantinople by land from Anapa, would 
at least require three months; whereas, by water^from the 
same place, it might be accomplished in four or five days. 
> ludeedf the inhabits^ ts of Taganroqk have performed uie 
voyage within, that period, including , the additilonal p|is« 
sage of the sea of Azof, and the straits of Taman. 

A« soon as tlie oeremony ended, the pacha embarked wi^ 
his suite, in a canoe so narrow, that two persons could not 
sit abreast ; ai^l^. with more adventure than might hav« 
been expected in a Turk, hampered as he was by his eni- 
brous dress, he squatted on some weeds in the bottom of tM 
vessel, and was soon paddled into .the middle of the rapi^ 
torrent.. Their canoes are all made of one piece of wood, 
being merely the .traut of a large tree scooped for the jific- 
pose. From the numbers hnddled with the ^eha^ we 



ttpeiMtvtTjhi^Mfitto 8e« tbe 6aftoe sink i>r irptet, ^ 
it« Hge t«l6i le-rerivlth the irirt^. Tfwj were out ef si^kt, 
fiowei^ef,in an irtstant^ile^cciidTn^the eiirrent willi amaz- 
ttt^ veh^ity, nibd dbapjiearfng by the liirn ef the rfrer. 

*We then wertt to examine mote mtftutely the eroAvd vf 
Ch*eas8iati9 ofalotwrorilef, nnmhers i»f whom were piws- 
ingtheKahiindi their ea^oes, and eoHeetinf^ on tJte Ras- 
•nxm side. They feanre to e%ehang;e Htood, honey, and arms, 
for «alt,*aecordiO|5 t rr their if snal praetiee in times of peaee. 
Her€? we sawisom€of tfie wtfdest«io!irtta4neer9 of Oaneasti.i, 
alt Iff whoOt were eontpletely armed, and ail robbers by pro- 
-f^isio^. The representations made of the natives in the 
noathseas, do notpifeHifehttmitii nature in a more sara^ 
#tate than it appears am^mt^ the Giroassiaiis. Instructed 
'from their infaney to eonsider war and plunder not only as 
*a necessary, bot as an hononraMe oeeupation^ they bear in 
itheir eotmtenance a most striking expression of ferocious 
•ratonr, of cunning, «iispieion, and distmst. If, while a Cir- 
easthiQ is standing behind you, a sudden retrospect betrap 
you hl^'fefttnrGsr, his brow lowers, and he seems to meditate 
some desperate act; but the instant he perceives that he is 
observed, his eotintenance relaxes into a deceitful stmie, and 
lie puts on the most obsequions and submissive attitude ima- 
'^nable. Their bodies, especiallv their legs, feet, and arms 
tire, for the most part, naked. They weaa* no shirt, and only 
ft pair nf coarse, ragged drawers, reaching a Kttle below 
the knee. Over their shoulders they carry^ even during the 
greatest heat of smrimer, a thick and heavy coat of felt, or 
the hrde Of a gvrnt, Mith the' hair on the outside, which 
ireaefie^ behfw tliewaist. Under this covering appears the 
sabre, bow and quiver, mnskef , and other weapons. The 
feasants M well as their princes shave the head, and cover 
it wtlfh the senll-eap, as before mentioned. Difference of 
ttnk, indeed, seems to cause little distinction of dress among 
Chem, except that the peasant further covers the head 
Tihd shouhfers with a large cowl. The beauty af fea- 
'tAres' and fbirm, for which the Circassians have so long 
heen celebrated, is certainly very prevalent among rhem« 
Their nosei^re aquelifie, their eye-nrows arched and regu- 
lar, Iheir mouths small, their teeth remarkably white, and 
their ears not to large nor so prominent as among the Tar- 
tanr; ih6tig1i,frotn wearing nie head shaven, they appear 
^ dhadvmntaige> according io Bnro^ean notions, l^hey 



are well shaped, and yerj U^% limhei^htif^ jfinimUf 
of the middle size, seldom exceeding five feet ei^t or nine 
inches. Their women are the most beautiful perhaps ia 
the world, of enchautins* perfection of eountenaoe^ ao4 
rery delicate features. Those which we saw, anaw^uck 
were the accidental captives of war, carried off wj^ thpi^ 
families}, were, remarkably handsome. Many of t,heiiu 
though suiTering fropi ill health, fatigue aqd grijcf, »M 
under every poss^ible circumstance of disadvantage^, . hr«i4 
yet a very interesting appearance. Their hair is generally 
dark or light brown, sometimes approachi;igi . to ^l|ifl^« 
Their eyes have a singular animation, peculiar Iq tlte Qifr 
cassian people, which, in some of the men, gives an e:ipf^« 
sion of ferocity. The most chosen works of tne bestpainjl^rf^ 
representing a Hector or a Heleu, do not display jgn^^ttef 
tetiuty timn we beheld even in the prison at Bkaterined^inu 
where the wounded Circassians, male and female, cbar^isa 
with fetters, and huddled together, were pining in «iek«€pf» 
apd sorrow. ■ v 

Seeing that the Circassians %vere colleeted in much gr/satar 
numbers on the Caucasian side of the Kubxui, we applied t^ 
the commander in chief for permission to pass over iiUo, their 
territory. This was obtained with great difficulty | and t ha 
ataman, accompanied by several armed Cos8ack89>wa« orv- 
dered t9 attend us. We crossed the river ineanoes;, aa^^ 
arriving o^ the Circassian side, we beheld the na|ivie«, w«h^ 
had been collected from all parts of the country, ga^heri^4 
in parties along ihe shore. Several of them, having ,a most 
sayai^e aspect, were formed into a group about t,yro Jha^dr^d 
yards from the. place where we lanued.< Per^iviog (he 
ataman aToided going towards them, we. be^^ed that be 
would allow us that privilege. " If it is your desire," md 
Jte taking his sabre from its scabbard, <^ you sh^U nat b<i 
disappointed on my account; but you little knew what^^rl. 
of people they are. They pay no respect to. treat ieS) not 
even to tbejr own princes, when they 84:e an o^portunit)| of 
plunder ; and are likely to do some of us injucy befo|*e w« 
return." Our curiosity got the better of all fear^ ^itd we^ fol- 
lowed the ataman's reluctant steps to the place wher« tliey 
were assembled. Seeing us advance, they hsMstily 9i|i^lohf4 
up their arms, which they bad placed against the tre^s A^d 
.on the ground, and received us with an air of cvidb^ut defi- 
ance. We endeavoured to . convince them that our uie^ff 
were pacifiek;. but mattc/^s soon grew more aod m^re nif t 



L 



Mvibg^iKS ibey began talking lodd and Vhh ^eat rapiditf. 
Ko one dF oar party understood what they said ; and the 
ataman's uneasiness considerabTy increasing, we made 
^ignribr the canoes to draw near the shore, and effected 
#ur retreat. Thinkins to show them some mark of res* 
peet. andof ouffrfendlly inte^tioHs, we took oflfourhats, 
and bowed to them as we retired. The effect was very 
attmscng : they all roared with loud, and savage laughter, and 
iDoekingoor manner ol' making obeisance, seemecl to invite 
ifdto a repetition of the ceremony $ and as often as we re- 
■ewed it, ike)f set up fresh peals of laughter. The Cossack 
Affiders, who accompanied us upon this occasion, told us 
thiLtthe Circassians who lurk about in the immediate vicinity 
«f the Kuban are a tribe as wild and lawless as any in the 
« 'lb«{e disirft^t of Caucasus $ and that their principal object 
ht to'^eize upon men, and carry them off*, tor the purpose of 
s^fingthiem as slaves in Persia. The cannon on the heights 
erf^ik&teHnedai'a at that time commanded the whole marshy 
territory on the Circassian side ; yet it wag impossible to 
tenfture bven a few hundred yards, in search of plants, w 
amount of the dan^r that might be apprehended from tl&e 
ttttiBEbers who remained in ambasli among the woods near the 
lirer. The hast^ observation we had made disclosed to us 
a plain covered witt wild raspberry trees, blackberry bushesi 
attd a f^w iarge willows by the water's edge. Further, 
towards the sooth appeared woods of consiuerabie extent, 
fbll of the finest oaks. Beyond these woods were seen the 
eliltifi of theCaueasian mountains, and the territories which 
tad been the theatre of war. The mountains rose like the 
Al^ttie barrier. Sdme of them appeared to be very high, and 
their-sidei retained patches of ^imw toward the middle of 
in¥f ; bat, upon the whole, they seemed iuieriour in altitude 
lb* the Swissr Alps. The passes through Caucasus must be 
difficult and ihttieate, as the mountains stand close to each 
efller, and tifefr summits are rugged and irregular. Those 
li^i^h wbre nearest to Ekaterinedara were not less than 
twenty-six BngUsh miles distant, and yet very visible to 
ti^ naked eye. ^ 

;: 'When we reiturned to the Kussian side, the Circassians' 
Wbe lied crossed the riVer, were dancing and rejoicing ou 
lUfeeifnt of the peaee. One of their vagrant musicians, ex- 
ereiiling the profusion so nfiuch estc*enied by aill nations iu 
ti» infaneyof society, and particularly among the tribes 
vbo ifiimbji MoiiitrCattdisUd, played on a silver flute Called 



emmH. ' Kmm ttlMiit two feet in hmg^ md IebS onlf tiiNii 
ftii9Cfr4Mle» towards the lower esfcranBity of the ^nlie. . The 
mode of blowing thw mtntflnent ie as remorfeolile a* ther 
•ooikI produced* A small stick kpladed in theupperroad of 
a ftote^ oaeo at eitkev oitremity ; wbkshy beini^ dtawn oat tar 
the iei^ii of aa iieh, is presttd by the nerfomifiri ogaiast' 
1 ko roof of his moaih. It ts very difficait to eoaeeitw htum - 
Wf toaeseaa be prodaoed.iR this maaaer, as the p^fhroaeii^ 
laontb is kept opea • the whole tiaie,' arid he aeoom^aaiea 
the notes with hifi o wa velee. By the violeai <striUttuip^ of 
every mosele in his ooBntenaRee, the perforiaaiieo seeauMla' 
work of gfreat diffieitlty ami lahoBr^ thesoundt all the white- 
resembling the droniag aoise of a bagpipe« I wished to pa^*-. 
eliase the tas^roment \^th a qaaatity of toit^ ihtt^j oMiti^y 
they raeeive tn paymoi^) but itsowoer^.deriviag^ bisiiTeltii 
hood and eoBsoqaoaOa among his eoitntryaiea eolii^ly fmnif 
the use of it^ woahl Bot«t)aifeat t» seU ih Tho Ciseassiaaa 
kaow aoihtfig ofttliemlae of coiDs, uasng them only to 
adorn their persons*; amd eTsa iMt.thm piM>po«stbey did ttot> 
soeos dosiroa» to possess the few silTor pieees we oifienHl t«r 
them^ It is evident that their favoarilemasiBaltaatntiaeii^ 
ike-etmUf was not always of met al ^ lor ii^Kka the oil vor taha- 
whioh I have deacribed^ the«Ktutal joiats seen «rpon eaaea 
aadireeds io the rivers aad-man&es m. the oooatry: hsdheott 
imkSied by thr aMloer^ 

Their dances do ant resendila -those of aay other nation* 
Somethings petfaaps^aearly siawlar may haveheea dteerihed 
as the praeliee of the inhabitants of the South Btm islaads* 
Ten, fifteen* or twenty persons^ aU standing, ia a. line, and 
holding by-eaeh otfaer'a arms^ be§^ laUing*from right; to^ 
Mt, lifting op their feet. as high. as possiUe^to the measar^ 
c^ the tone, sad ttttermptiog tke nntfonmtgr of their Biotioii> 
only by sadden squeaks and exelamattotts* .Nothing eoulil' 
seem more uneasy than the situation of the perlbrmers in (ho: 
middle of the row ; hot even these, squeezed ds Uiey warei 
from one side to tiie other^ testified their joy in the sama. 
manner, i. fter soake time there was a paimo^ whoa a single 
dancer^ starting frooi the rest, praneed about in the most 
ludicrous manner, exhibiting only two steps that oould be 
assimilated to the moveiiients of a danee^ both of wkiek 
may be noticed, not only in 6ur£nglJ8h'hornpipe, bat in lUI 
the dances of the northern nations. The first consisted in 
hopping on one foot, and touching the ground with the bi*l 
and toe^ alternately, of theothen Thesecond^in hopping aa 



ixiielb^ty snd^th^MiuigJIie other MWpeiil^ j» i«i tn toiitel^ 
tile kouBiiib^ of a stag ; finin. wluoh MinRitlie motioa w^i' 
m^isally bo^roirod^* and wkoao* name ib NM»4«MM^4b«!- 
Irisb at t<htf day. A dite'atteatnm lo aatjoaal ilaiie9e:frt"»^ 
^iitly ea^i^iks ue to aseertain thepre^'eeft wliiehJiias k%9nt 
laaie iy any people towards refiaemeiit. The exereise Mself 
is as aneiewt as th« hiimaa raeo, ind, however variensly 
modified^ the piopiilar. daaees ef ages the-n^ost remoie* aadi 
of eootttries the most widelj separated, leay ali h« dediMed 
from one sommoa origin, which has referenee to^the iotert* 
eeurse of the oexss, aod is» therefore, more or iHst equiyo*^ 
cal^ m proportioa as - the state uf sociicijr is -more lor Itao 
t^Hed hjr the progress of cmluEatioQ** 

In diflfereat partsof the gocai ahttia of mooaiaiiMi whteht 
hears the general i^ellation of CaitaaBaatthekMigua|^ are 
as vario^oas thejM^inoipaitties. Few otUhof Mooat inhahi-^ 
taiits of Kttha» Tartary are able to oobv^pso witii aa^ rf 
the Cireaosiaa triboB. Thoso wlisni lie taw near thm rivMr^- 
spoke a diaki^ so iuirsh and gattural^ that ^it: was- by Sim 
means pleasing to the ear. Bellas Mya il is iiroheUe, that 
tile Oit«assian bears no affiniiy la any othel' liMignage,.aadi' 
that, aeeordtag to Boport, their priaees mid Uidms speak m 
peonlkr dial^ whieh is kept aeetet from tho eomaMUi^ 
pc)«ple,- ai^l used ehie% ia their fredalory exemrsiaM.|k 
Their mode of life is that of professional rnhbers* It migbt 
bftf^e been said ef the G»eassia% as of Ithasael 4 .^ tte .mil 
ha a wildmaa rhis hand will faeagaitistjsyery mmiraiAevmrf 
msa'e hand against hem.?' Those whoiidiahit tW passes ^ 
the moifiita^'ns, And are not o ao np i icd in .any af^euiturai* 
employment^ ^peii4 solely oaplBnderforthw.siib8isteaee«'. 
Tkepetiy prinees^areeonlinnally at war with eaeh other ;: 
Afid ^e^ery one plnoders' his ieighhouiv The.iohaManteef 
tke plains' &o eon»pleteiy armw^ite earry en the lahoars oC 
the field. Fhe erops «re sJso goarded .by armed men. Na 
€ircfas(iaii f>b^ ean,4here^ore,.eelebrale:tba|ieaeeful oseu.* 
patifoti of the ploagb,OiT)oewilh theatit is a wwike^pursuit* 
The smi^er^ seattering> seed, or :the.^rea^ff; wha gathers tha 

* An IhqnirJ: in'to tli^ airtSqtoitf rin<J origin of w*tiowil dfttites, aa ocmm 
netted iirHh the histoid df mkukind, wncdd ftwpm H^jvry 6UiWu« object off 
tiisci^sion; The author qbiic cc)ttect^tl.mat«;rial» ibr that porpo8«« but i|: 
^uald remiire .more leisui*c than ia now granted )fim to prepai^e them for 
the pubfick. « > . . . ' 

-f fjUhi/aTrHyeUtbroitghtlie Southero iProviacea, &c. Vol. I. p.' 408.' 
. ^ Geo, 3^yi.ti^ . . 



Mi #la&kb'8 tayels in tartary. 

tiiMY#«9^ constantly liable to an assaalt ; ^nd the imple-* 
Monti of fnidbandvT are not more essential to tke har?est' 
tiMin th^ earbihe, the pistol, and the sabre.* 

Of «lt the Circassian tribes, the Lesgi^ inhabiting thie 
HMRfitains of Ba^hestan, which run nearly parallel to the 
western coast of the Caspian, bears the worst repatatton. 
Their very name excites terrour among the neignbooriv^ 
prlnoifaHties ; and it is used as a term of reproach bv manj 
of the niEtive Caucasus. Different reports are naturally pro* 
pUgaled eonceming a people so little known as the Circas- 
aians in funeral ; and perhaps half the stories e^ncemiog 
tfce Let^ are without any foundation in truth. All the iuha- 
hka&ts of Caucasus are described by their en^miefl as.noto*'' 
mm Ibr liuplieity. and for their frequent breach of faitii f . 
smd it is tbronj^ the medium of such representation aWtte 
that we derive any notion of their aharactet*. Bat, plafiia^ 
annelves amons^ them, and viewing, as they muat do, the 
■wf« polished nations around them, who seek only ia 
enslave and to betray them, we cannot wonder at their 
oeodnet tovmrds a people whom they consider both as ty- 
rants and iflMets. Examples of heroism may be observed 
aaHHif; then, which would have dignified the character 9i 
tke iMnani in the most virtuous periods of their history. 
Ammm^ the prisoners io the Cossack army, we saw some of 
tke Circassians who had performed feats of vi^lour, perhaps 
luiparalleled. The commander in chief, general DrascovitA, 
maiBtaiJiedy.that in all the campaigns he had served^ whe- 
. ther asttiast Turks or the more disciplined armies of £a-« 
rope, he had never witnessed instances of greater bravery 
thm he had seen among the Circassians. The troops of 
other nations, when snrroundedby superior numbers, T^^iLy > 
yield Ihenselves prisoners of war ; but the Circassian^ while 
a i^pRfh of life remains, will continue to combat even with a 
nijHtitode of enemies. We saw one in the prison at fikate* 
riaedara, about thirty five years of aze, who had received 
fifteen desperate wounds before he fell and was made pii- 
sotter, having Ihinted from loss of blood. This account was 
given to me bv his bitterest enemies, and may, therefore, 
surely he reliea on. He was first attacked by three of the 
Cossack cavalry. It was thitir object to take him alive, if 
possible, on aecoont of his high rank, and the consideration} 
la whidi he was held by his own countrymen. Evecy endc^/* 
roar was therefore used to attack him in such a manner i^ 
* Tbc suBfi remvt is sppluaUe almtit sUoTer the iWUeh ciaplrQ. 



TO THE F&ONTIIR OF «;i»«Af 9IA« Mi 

not U es^anger his life. Thk inteiitioii was soon peiccired 
Uy .the Ciitsasmn, who determined not to surrender. WU1» 
bis single sabre, he shivered their three ianees at the first 
onsety and afterwards wounded two of the three assailant*. 
At ieiifl^ih, surrounded by others who c^ame to their assia- 
tance, he feH, corered with wounds in the midst id his em- 
miesyfishtini^ to the last moment. We visited bim in bis 
prtsoo^ where he lay stretched upon a plank» bearusg the 
lui^sh of bis terrible woundts without a groan. They haA 
reeeatly extl%eted the iron spike of a lajoeefrom bis side., A 
Touo^ Circassian p}rl was employed . in driving away the 
flies from his face with a green bough. Ail our expreMiom 
(^concern aud regard were lost upon him : we oflrered bim 
money, but he refused to aecept any^ handing it to his l^lkifr 
prisoners as if totally ignorant of its use. 

In the *same place of conGnement stood a Circassian 
fe»ale, about twenty years of age, with fine li|^t browift 
hair, entremely beautiful^ hut pale, and hardly able to sop- 
part, herself, through grief and weakness. The Cosaaeic' 
oflMrs stated, that when they captured her she was in eseel-' 
]e«t health, but eve r since, on account of the seoaration from 
her tfosband, she had refused all offer of fooa ; and, as sbo* 
pined daily, they feared she would die. It may be supposed - 
we spared no entreaty which might induce the eomma&dor'' 
in ehtef to Kbetate these prisoners. Before the treaty of - 
pea«e th^y had been offered to the highest bidder, the women 
selling generally from twenty five to thirty roubles apieee; 
sonsewbat fess than the price of a horse. . But we were told 
it was now too late, as they were included in the list for ex- * 
change, and must therefore remain unul the Cosaaeks, who 
i^re prisoners in Circassia, were delivered up. The poor • 
v^man, in all probability, did not live to see her boaband or 
her eoaatry again. 

Another Circassian female, fourteen years of age, who 
uraa Also in confinement, hearing of the intended exehaoge of 
prisoners, expressed her wishes to remain where she was. *< 
CcmsciOns of her great beauty, she feaved her parents wouM 
geit her, according to the custoni uf the eountry, and that 
she mi^htfall to the lot of masters less humane that the 
ODtosai»:s were. The Circassians frequently soil their chil- 
dj^en to strangers, particularly to the Persians «nd Turks ; 
and their princes supply the Turkish seraglio* with the 
int»nt beautiful of the prisoners of l^olh aeies wliialitbey 
falceia war. . . . , 



laito vx-Aititi'i raxYBLf tit rxurkkr. 

^ In flieir commerce wife the Tchernomorski C'ossaeks? 
the Circassians bring considerable quantities of wood, atid 
the delicious honey of the mountains, sewed up in goats' 
hides, with the hair on the outside. These artielejs thej ex- 
change for salt, a commodity found, in the neighbouring 
lakes, of a very excellent quality. Salt is more precious 
than any other kind of wealth to the Circassian ; and it con- 
stitutes the most acceptable present which can be offered te 
them. They weave mats of very great beau^, which find 
a ready market both in Turkey and Russia. They are also 
ingenious in the art of working silver and other metals, and 
hi the fabrication of guns, pistols, and sabres. Some, which 
they offered for 8ale,"we suspected had been proeureid fron 
Tnrkey, in exchange for slaves. Their bows and arrows 
are made with ininritiCble sk^l ; and the arrows, being tip- 
ped with iron, and otherwise exquisitely wrought, are consi- 
dered by the Cossacks and the Rossiatis asinAieting incura- 
ble wounds. 

One of the most Important accomplishments which the 
inhabitants of these conntries can acquire, is that of horse- 
manship ; and in this the Circassians are superiour t» the 
Co^saeks, who are, nevertheless, jpstly esteemed the best 
riders known to 'European nations. ' A Cossack may be said 
to Kve but on his horse, and the loss of a favourite steed is 
the greatest /amzfy misfortune he can sustain. The poorer 
sort of Cossacks dwell under the same roof with their horses, 
lie dotvn with them at night, and make them their constant 
companions. The horses of Circassia are of a nobler race 
than those of the Cossacks. They are af the Arab kind, ex- 
ceedingly high bred, li^htand small. The Cossack i^^iej^- 
ally acKnnwf edges his inability to overtake a Circassian ^ 
pnrsdit. 

The brother of Mr. Kovalensky cf Tagaitrock, hy culti- 
vatingthe*fH«idship of one of the Uireassian princes, passed 
dverthe fcftouvtainous ridge of Caucasus in perfect safety and 
protection. Aeeordingfo his aceoniit,a strai^r, who has 
iroltfntBriiy confided in the honour of a Circassian, is consi- 
dered a sacred trwSt, even by the very robbers who wottld 
cross the Ktihan tn earrj him «off and sell him as a slave, if 
thev chanced to find in their predatory excursions ont rf 
their own dominions. Since this aeeotfqt was written,^no 
of our own conntrymen, Mr. Mackenzie, passed the Cauca- 
sus, previoos to'a eampargn which he served with fhc Ros- 
•ian mraijr ^q Persiat His es^port eoibisted sf « haoflred in- 



fkntry and 9lty Cotsacks, with a piece of artillery. Dannie 
tfiirteen days spent in the passage, the troops were under 
the necessity of maintaining a most vigilant watch, and their 
rear was frequently harassed by horering hordes of C i rcask- 
sians. The result of ^ his obseryations tends wholly to dis- 
pute the aecuraey of those of Mr. Kovalensky. According 
to Mr. Mackenzie's opiaion, no reliance whatever cap be 
placed upon the supposed honour or promises of a people 
m treacherous and luirbarousaa those who inhabit this chain 
of mountaiiw. 



CHAPTER XVII 

JOUBNEY ALONG THE FBONTIER OF CIRCASSlA, TO THE 
CIMMERIAN BOSPORUS, 

l^mrantine-^ecQfnd Excursion into Circassia — Departwue 
from JEkaterinedard — Produce of the Land^-^-Division </ 
the River — MosqwUoes — General Jippearance of the CItt 
cassian Territor^-^Watck^Towers — Cimmeriah JBo^- 
poRUs-^Temrooh-^Text of Strabo and Fling reconciled 
— Foi^ress askd Ruins — Siena^-^Remarkable Tomh—^nti* 
qmty of J3irehd$-r^IiLesian Gold Bracelet — Origin , of 
Templ^-^CEPOB^^Fortress of Tamatt'^Tanuin-^Ruim 
ofPhanasoria — Tmutaraean^^mphitheetre^^Other Re-r 
WMins^^Pnlcla VoicaaM'-^tMcrij^tume at Tmnan, 



I 



N the conimeree carried on between the Circassians imd 

. the Tehernofflorski, a sort of qnarantiuQ is observed| 

trivial kiiis uatur^- i|nd aegiisenlly. guardod. The ex- 
f hange of eorn» honey^ mats^ woodland arms^.foi'.the. salt: 
^* the Cpssaeks,i$ tri^nsi^cted ^without contniat; the wm*ai 
of tfae^ Circassians beine placed on the ground where thef 
find the* salt ready stationed for barsaio. • But^ from th# 
very great proximity of the parties dur ing all this intef> 
epurse, as. well as the daajger of e^mmuniisating infeetion by 
k^ndlin^ the di&erent lUliaks .whieh tbey are bartering, the 
plague,, if it existed in Circassian might very readily be eoia-' 
mauieated ia. the .'tchero^moiskii It 14 .true«. that, ei^eepit 
tut JBkaterine4cM'a, th^y ^el^oin/sross the ^iver to each other'a 
t^^r^oi^y.dftnBig U^(^«^|outt<je$t p?|Npe;, fpr jtf |^fat is ^ 



mutual jeatou&y snnf ercn det^etlatliMi tin'«i4iiehit]iey liteiilipi^ 
quarrels anil skirmishes Wf^nlil be t4le:ill«vit»Uee«ls^lK^nfie 
of more general eoikimanieatinn. Wheyieri iti^imwm^^tB 
their frequent hostilittes^tiT the p>mk mpidiiy 4rfthe£f«l)«& 
or the dome^tick habits of' im* Cos^adcsy ts^vneertaiB; ' 
but fishing aeemed entirely twi§le^»dj ;iiotwitii9tendiiig 
their faTonrable sitoatt^n. The 'o«ly'lu«t»^Hled upon 
the river are those eam»$s bafam! nttntiosedr leaoK ron- 
sisting of one entire pieee 6f ^tood^beiitg seooped 4Mit of a 
single tree. 

On the evening of (he la«tdiay df durresideQee io Ekat- 
erincdara, we a^tn obtained permission from ih^, com- 
mander in chief to make ambther exeur&ion into Qirpa#»a. 
The natives on. the opposite shore uveit muoh dimuni^hed in 
number ; we eould see onl^ afewstra^lers ;«A€l we hoped 
to collect some plants for our berbar^r. . General DriMeaTHz 
himself attended us to (he water's side,^ and, thafrfiifi;^»e(iit 
over a party of Cossacks^ retired wiUi'seiveralof iiisiro^ps 
(o the high grounds en the northern bank of -the ctver^ in 
firder to keep a look-out for our sa&ty.- Tktt eannna »la- 
tipned on these heights had a very exteusivd roH^ i»«er,Uie 
opposite country ; and we were ordered^ if w« l^rd a e^nn 
fired^ to efii&ct a retreat as speedily as possible., W^ iaadfed, 
and found, near the nver, the Gl^yjn'kixa gi^kra^ihe Mu- 
hits ccpshis, an(f Jigrimmda Enpatoria of Comraoii Agrino- 
ny. The appearance in the swampy plata 'befbre ns did 
not promise a more eopifius selection^ and we therefiif e en- 
treated ttie Cossacks to ten tnrewhhns to the ^ woodsy, vliieh 
appeared witltin a short walk to the south. . Tins <sur guard 
positively t*efused ; and eonHnutng.our search more iflHne- 
dia^eiy under (he eanna? of Ekaterinedara, we prcsentlj 
found they 4iad ^ood reason for their denial, as upwards of 
sixty of the Cireausians made their' anpeafanee amiuiy; the 
wiirows. On otir approach, ttiey all eoUceted twg^ker^ 
making a great tmise^ a»d asking as, several questions fn & 
loud tone, which, perhaps, were no otherwise m«nittlBg t|ian 
that we did not understand them, llritated' a». their kad 
been by theeventa^f the late war^ no eonfidenee eould have 
been placed in their eofi^t^sy, evenif any had been maniles- 
ted ; for althouf^ kospitality aoioog savage uationa is a 
sacred principle, revenge ts not l«ssstti»hjeet of v^eneratioo, 
particularly among CitcassiauB.* We thei'efare velneteot- 

• " Among tTic CircAsshmis^ !li*e spiiit'of i'^fienCineiit is sa great,, thtt 
(lYY th« retail ves flf tlie nardvret* itre coti9kU^pe4«»iKU44t|%:1|bif QMlvaiarx 



.TOtJTOI^-raOK'FlEllOV Cl&OUISlA. S00 

lyrcHrMfdad-ofkoe^oMt rf>yifiiag war eftnocs^ibr ever 

b(lde'Mie«t9>ft€OttBlry wliuili^aeenea to faai&e evei^ projeet 

-thatt'eMidbe dcriiiad kf mere trareliers for its iQvestigation. 

i^tlrfagtiein tken'Sii mty? at that .time*, eoqid have enabled 

n^ld'iwmtfateCikrtiier; aodevett with an eseort, like Denoa 

^ktt EgfptoardbselrvaliOttft might have been restricted to the 

1iQflt9 of thcaaaip l» \vbi0h we mwt have lived. 

* "LettvitiglBkatMnedara, «o paat alongr ^'i<^ Russian tine 

^ \v€ erml^ thift steppes- to Vydma^ a ^nilttary statioi^. Not- 

^vtthstandins the very numerous videites and garrisoned 

plftdes ^rfiiisli ii^aanl the* ftroniier^ ^fWt jiverc desired toin- 

<;rease th« number of oir e^eort. 'A post route is established 

tfif^n^hbot'thi» boundary of fjh€ ompirei andyin general, is 

' Very i^^ooadaotedi The Rassiaa line^sfrom the Black Sea 

' Mwai^ft «Im east^ eovtimie^ t!^^ the north side of ihh 

'Klifbajll9'ani'fWlra'tha^ river to the Kuma, which is sivaf- 

* Towed in baak* of ^ift^and before it reaehes tlie Caspian ; 

''*l1ietie0hy'thoiiorlliofthe€a«ptaii9 throBgh the country of 

■* tl«e Kir^isgiaM,* und by^ the river Ural, on to (he lake 

' ' Baikal (whfeh is in ^aat a sea) 'the river Amour, and by the 

fi%ntiei^of'€htna,'ti^ the oriental ooean. Afterwards it is 

' <lOitftkiirt>d tothe ilordi as lar as Kanistehatka. Throughout 

' ' f hffe WsY hottndory^ a re^nlar ^st and aiUitary stations may 

' ht ibbudi j fi^y that the traveller, in the more northern part 

^U/iMtead of horses for hito eonveyanee, would be sup- 

'pl^itd 'frith large do^. , 

• > ' Oilr jobroev^eoncltteted its, as uanal, over immense plain*, 

M^h4eh^eme<i>hopdc^ of e^ny elevation or boundary. The 

' land} 'how^i'ery'lietweeli £katerinedara and Yydnia, was 

tei'y'Hdb.' * Wo saw oomo good wheat, barley, oats, millet, 

> . infata^^t^on to avenge the t>lood of relatives, -generates lamt of the feuds, 
and x»eb^\oft's great'bT^d«hdd amobg^fiU.the tribes df .Caueasus ; for unless 

' pM^' be fKiSBhBsetL, op obtaiu^il by intermarriage between the two 

- tASBilidfy fb^prineiBleiOf reveigc is propagated to alt succeeding genera- 
dons^^ .The Iiatreu whkh the mountainous- nations evinoe against the 
Russians, in a great meatore, iirisefi from the same source. ^ If the thirst 
of v^fig^nce is f}«ie«<fteiV by a* priiee paid to the ftanily of th c 9 eccasect, ihia 
' tritmtoiK^W^/iihUL'lfasa, or Mhe price of blood: but neither princes nor 
(USclena a<;ccpt of sqch. a compeiisatioi^ as it is an establivHed law among 
.them to demand htoodfor bUtfd':^* PalliM^s Ti-avels, vol. 1. p. iOf>. 
. I ( '•-»/'• 

• T,ii<? country of Kirgiss is cHvidcd into three parts ; little Kik*giss, 
twiddle Kirgiss, and theGniikl Kirgiss.. The twa first only, wjth-a few 
"vittages's^tlth dfth^ Baikal, j|i»c subject to Russia. But tJie greater part of 

.\ thttieb«iitr)^Of>tihe.Kin|l|niant is entirely independent; and fU inhabitants 
are vagrants, living entirely inw'apfons. The people ol'BochnrA o^ Bficha- 
ria, lefid a better m«d« ^f |ife...,Thje5i have aey^ral C9;isiderable towns.— 
Thefr caj^tal itt Samn^cand. . ... 



Ml 0&ABu\b T3l4VBLft 11? TA&TAftT. 

rje, iwlUii e«n]^ «nd a e^rdat ^mmiCilf of kir^e tMstles 
amo«g die grasty ^hiifh are a^ wmI Irnown ' |iroof ' that the 
laad M ft«t'po6t. All boiIb of melfins ami grapes xvere 
thraviBff in the ofittn air. From Vy^ttia ta'«V<$cftas^^tfrojr, 
andto ijbfa JIficlififi (eaoh of whteh latter plaees is itotltln^ 
more than a sin^ iiiit irioeoped in* an ai»eieiit' tomb) we* 
Dotioed eliiffly g^^ass land^ with here aad there patehes of 
iMiderwood and yovn^ oak« $ among' 'M'hieh, we foand some 
rtd peas^ and vines growing wild. The postmaster at Me- 
^bastovskoy refiiseo to change a note of five roobtes, be- 
oaase it waft okd^ and had been a good deal in nse. H^re- 
ab«uts we niiiser%'ed a noble race of dogs, like those of \h& 
Morea^ and-of the province of AbrucKo, in Italy, gttardin^ 
(be aumerotis floeKs. The villages also were fined witb 
them, oaaceount of t(ieir ntility in giving alarm during the ' 
naetamal ineursions of the (^ireassfans. We bIm saw 
several of tliat gigantic breed whteh goes by the name of 
the Irish Wolf Dog. From Kara Kuban our route lay ehteflk 
through swampd, filled with reeds and other aqnatiek 
plants^ The air was eiieessively hot and tin wholesome. At • 
lei^th we reaehed that division af the river which insu- 
lates the territory of Taman,and, crossing by a ferry, came 
to Ki>jdlt i^nother military station. Tj^ branch of the 
river m which this ferry is stationed bears the name of 
Potrocka, and falls into the sea of AzoH The other 
branch retains the ortginal appellation of Kuban^ and falla 
into the Black Bea. The Isle of Taman, whieh separates 
the two, is the territory, whieh, opposed to the promon- 
tory of Kertehy, in the Crimea, constitutes those straits 
amsiently called the Cimmerian Bosporus. At Kopil, we 
found a general officer, who had married the daughter of 
one Bf the TehertiomosKi. He shotted ns »ome of the snh- 
aUerns^ teuts, which were full of dirt and wretchedness. In 
the eolonePs tent, who was absent, we s&w a table bean* 
tifully inlaid with mother-of-pearl and ivory. Upon asking 
where it was made, we were told it had been purchased of 
the Circassians, who are very ingenions in all such arts. 
The general told us, significantly, he preferred Kopil to 
Peter^bnrgh — any place, we inferred, rather than the resi- 
dence of the emperour Paul. Few situations eonid surpass 
Kopil in wretchedness. Bad air, bad water, swarms of 
mosquitoes, with various kinds of locusts, beetles, innume" 
rable fiies, lizards, and speekled toads, seemed to infest 'n 
w ith the plagues of Egypt. Hor$cs could not be procured ; ' 



l|iit^^»g9M9»iit«lM5«qi9«io4lUiHl iM witk. ki9.(HirB. Am i«e l«ft 
K^U^.JwerquiUed^s^ llie-,rAver, andproedeiled'liiraof^ 
ixuu'&h^fttQ £j[U»us0 .IriOUI: wity we eaugkt «imm simU 
dtfcksyibud saw njao; wiM giM^e. AtKalftiMi weff«t»i'9 voong 
dkff very.t(Mae^;i iu»d i^ vr^^ ^oM that \awi^ Vfim oAe» 

. lutb^ eaura&of ttkU ji»mtipy IrQfa Jtiik^ftrinedara, .at ii« 
ad|i:aiioed^ t^<ii fr^quooUtafMls of koue^s aiiMuiieed^ at a dia* 
taof^^ tbe iKomlbr^able assuranee of the TeJiernoiMoraki 
guardi MrUlM>utrir^^ the b^rd# of oattle in tlio ^teppea^ 
aiiiotfotiDj$.t4» /i^iij;tbo#aaad9, woul^ be. eouUiHHdJy pliui*r 
dejsed by.^be:Cir/iii88iai)ii* > Tl^ecttardfpaMed tho aigbt 
on the. bare .ei|^4A,(,proteoi«d irem ,tSo iiH^^qiiitoea by eroMi^ 
iqg iaU) f |^iod4ifi»ai6)^y^.64A6)ei^»^#^ly tor (bo eoveriagof a 
6ui^ep;s^$0thi m wbmb4b«[y Mejimon tAetbinlloe andotlior ' 
v4.ldpl«ait0 o£:|he fttepp^. ^t Jvalaos (bore wae tiathera - 
8trong.bodyt«)f ihei»Uit4M:y#, tlTrqiii thia.plaoo ,lo Koorky 
tl^di$|^y«^e is. tUirty-QyQ.yATftM** ^igjf^t .oajine oa^bot •wo> 
d^i^ym'm^ ^o procie^ci. « JS> oonifivE^et on our part^eouid . 
ptfi^ettt miUkiHk» ol* B4oa(|Mitoie& iroo^ ^|ui^Um6 inside oI^ 
oi^rpof rjager ^t^biob, ill ^ilo of^|ave^9*elo4be«, aiid bai|d-. 
kefcbkiV, rend^K^ our ,b9diie»..aoe aatiro Mrouad* Tb& 
oi^esHve jirritajtioa and pjiuiiliiUsw^lUiig canoed by the bilea ' 
of, thei^i'urioujhi^e^. together wUb a |pe«tiioutial air^. 
eitei(o4 iuine a Ye<y efosiderabie degree of fe^er.f T^ie . 
C^9$^k»ligbt maxifr(H&» ^F,f& to drive tbeiufroui the eatik : 
du4*4a^^he.iii^h.ts, Mv»o jni^tiate is Iheiv Uiir»t of bloody, 
that bAi.udredi^ WfU,.iUt|iQk a per»on atieuiptiag to shelter 
luui^eU' ev0tt.in Ut^ midst of jSittoke* At the same lime^ tho^ 
iKU^ tbej^, make ia ilyjog.c^naot beeoneeived by per»ona^ 
\vbp ba^eo^iAy )i>e|(»n;,acefii|tAp)ed ^o tbe buBiimog of sueb 
ini^H^I^ iu o^r ipj^otutrjf .. . Itwav iudeed» to aii of us. a fear* 
i'ut found,. a«^|upiUtMod by t-be elacoour of reptile myriad%. 
(oa^^i^i^i lM41&*og«9 u^Jbo^ eoftslaai croakiogy joiued wiik^ 

•^ Hiitljer less tlian twenty -four English miles. 

t .Vim i|)Qirt«li^ ^i4t«;09aMia»e4 in t^Q^iiaaraiD anB^y.both.«C xaen mvil 
hovsfis jff^, \^} gvpt. , ^Xany of tbo^e ;3taUoaed alopg tiic. Kqban died in 
consequence of laortificatioii produced by the bites of these bsects.r^ 
Oth©i% \v\\6 esKiaped the venom x)f the mdsqiii toes, feUrictirastothe l)a(l- 
lncm^ttiti'mA, JBkHuttiayM timf. 8eoo|f a Itoilow iu-tlie abeient tombs^ to 
9ev%*^t^9,ii)^i^vi^;i, fitothfe(i:;timeu^ a vaens sh«d« eooH^tioieU o£ ree^^ 
aiTorus the ODiVcoveriug; and in either of these places, dui'iiig the great' 
est heftt of Sttratiief . they light farge fires, in order to fill tlje urea wifli. 
smoke;- fly iiig'ti» tkl^ taffboiftiiig ov^ii^ «U the HLOSfr mritry weftther, «» 

Z 3L ; 



the biifkiAg^bf flot^ aYidtke r«Mi)$ (>f li«ii4s>4iiltlBtaia«^4» 
thcmtdit bf 'darktie^» aif trntottfliDdl^ ufi^oai** It 'wu viar 
iT)t^ti«il'tD travel In id^ hottm, ivitbont heMkn^ iot aity 
irepo^e ; ' l^ftt various a^cideirtg eompelfo^ iffi t» alft^ at 
Konrky About midnight, a ^ttHitai^ Ktatlotiiijfke'tlie r«B^f 
and no sabse^uent- dens«kti«H 4)f ea^e «ir tmati^H. hM^ lever 
CrMlterafed the impres^on w»de*'bT tile' sAflRniMg 4riEl:lhis 
Dighh' ItW8snearthe.«ik!dle«f Jftly; ' The earrta^e luud 
been dragg«fd^^ fbf niiltrf -mltef together^ tbriHt^h stagMmt 
pfldils*; in fording one of \rltieh itii^agsfiAtodil^illf watery 
and the d&tineuie^ sevit, finur, atid'Vrbl1> became* iiy leowt- 

^Ye, to opeivand inspect'the triMki'. ^ Ottl- 4<Mkjr^ aiMl iiiMin 
weii&^^t; 'The€)<ite8a^ and Ra^!i«ani«rodfra^iiv«r^leapiH|g 
tin the bat^ eaHh, eoVered by 6aHt»$ ^d'b4|i«ealli4ttO'of 

• these a soldier pehnitt^ my ^mfiaA4o«'to^l4««'d##». a?hfc 
^rotfttd'ieiSfniedetHifeW i^lve wi^inttffliierBfeMnad95le«awi* 
in^ every where. Almost exhausted by fatij^e^* ftoitt^ aad 
hf^at,T snuglrt fkbeltei^ in the eaMage, sl»tmgi» naterand 
niud. it^wastheniost sultry night 1 evM* ekpmented $ (ool 
a brieath.ofiiir was ^tirring^j tnir eonW 1 venture to open the 
windows, fhoughr almost saffoealedytbiroadrh iiHat t^ the 
mosquitoes. Swarms^ nevertheless; fiiMind'the)r'*«ifay^to my 

' biding place ; artd ^hen 1 opened my nwuth^ H \yaa ^ited 
with them. My head was bound in'handlcerehHfs, }'etthiey 
force'd their way into my eat^and no«»trtls»'* In 'm midst 

' of thfs ferment, Tsneeeeded in lighting a larg^ lamp aver 

* the sword ease, whieh was instantly eM4ngtti^ed*by aich 
a prodigious number «f tliesernsect^, tb«t<theii*dea^ bodies 
aetnaHy remained heaped in a large etiiie over thi» bif#aer 
Ibr several days afterwards^^ and I 'itnewnot>aiiy roodrof 

• descriptibn whieh may bettier convey b» idea of ^^eiraf- 
iieting visitation, than by simply relating this fact;, to the 

' Irotli %f which, (Imis& who traveiied witb me, and who are 
sow living, bear indisputable testimony. 

The northern' bank ofthe Kuban, being every where ele- 
valed^ presents ^a very extensive view, aeross those marshy 
"plainsof Cireassia, which lie towards the river, of- the 
mountainous ridges of Caucasus. As morning dawned, we 
had a delightful prospect of a riah country on tSe Circassian 
aide, somethinglrke bouth Wales^ or the tinestpart of Kent ; 
' jileasing hills, covered with wood, and itHile valleys, cul- 
t»vatedTike.agai:dejat. A rich Circassian princei the. pro- 

<.;:jprietac «i* this beaatiful territoryy^yfiwfHMlfy. IMuyHce^ 



vtMffMStiiiftJS.ubltf»yjas.we<.ifere iiifariiiedf lOfeonveyrten^tii 
the pmrii Oh. 4h« Russm vide, theseenerj is of a very 
diffefeit/dewidpliQo;. partioularly jq the . ioarn^y froqi 
KaAftt* iA Kopil,' wbi»re itid a., contiaued swamp ^ iji 

eatioftnf nuivMeaioina ftir^ ro«9 aJiMive tbe coof oi^Qur ear- 
]-iiifi^,i»tiie;heifbtof sixteoA ^ tjireiit)(lee^ 8aiiietiine«, 

.£uir many mikft^ we aaw no. other objeeti; nor were olbor 
aottiidaliAardithaiitboBeiseof.niasquitoeiy and tbeeroak- 
iii9>of toads jonArfro^. Upw the ek?ated land nearer t» 
(b«iiniv0r»ao<jlftn tbQmi<)8t.of the military stations which 
imteett the Wut, observatCM-iiNi <tf a Toiir •iAgnJiar coastrttc- 
Uoaune ruimd^ for. thap^rposf^of eoatainiiig a single per- 

. SOD. They. ]^eiAUlo.8a mmy eaakaT aeiU, t ach of whicb 
is pkulnd opail, three apright, tallpolesf or trunks of trees, 
liiere a Co084Mk seatM>oi^ sUndipg; wit^ bis fusil, eontinally 
hwatidiei^ihe aijotiofts.of (fate Gicewiiiu^si antbeopi^osite iiida 

<of tbeliubaa^. . n ; , . 

. Ao we \vh Koarky, tM,iiiofli^iU)OS'b^aB to| diniinishia 

.miipher I atndjto oAr.iqej^prQtsible joy, in the approach to- 
.wu^tbesbofOtoflbieCiKHMKaiAi^BosFOHps, or StraiiM 
^ Taimul, they ^ii^ddenly disappeared. aUogetber,*. 
. . Wie were aoifv.ap0roa4(bia9 cp(ip(ri/Q4 connected with the 
0ariiest.ht«tQr^ of Gr/eeee, aiid the.i>io«l splendid periods of 

; Rome. Oeoasions ^ ,it|n$trajLe their .interesting records^ by 
telierenfe to ancient moiiHaien^s, mii^Ut,, i^de^d, be few;, 
hat we resolved to nofte every occurring observation, ajsd 
4id not aotioipoite with indiffereuBi; the gratification <ve 
•hofltd oKperic&nce ii| traveriiiogir^oas pnce the emporium 
of Athens I whioh conii|iued to su|iply her with the prin- 
eiplo.of her existence, as a maritime ppwer,r natil the com- 
^ the. Soxine. passed, with,t,nelib^ties,Qf.Grefcer 



* The inhabitantft of Taxnun Wd never Been tormented 1b^' Uieftc} i'n- 
' feeets ; bat 4iuritig^ die nMit after oar Mrrkiil, tiM tirhoie {tinily wkh ^ttouk 
we lodged, were stang by % ttm^ tvtiifh ?^i^tt, witj^os uBperDaT«<| in 
tbe carri^t^ Enel^nd is, for the most part, . free from this terrible 
scourge, as wetl as from thfe locust; bnt it \^ very nncertaid hotr- long it 
may eorttimte so, as'the^f^rogress of IkiCk ontf and the olher^* toiMmls lati* 
tudea mbere tliey were formcirly onkilowty haa been '•eti«M>iy felt in. nany 
aountines within the present eenttrry, Perhaps in no part of the globe do 
thev aiwund more thin in Lapland. 'When Accrbi pubBshtfd hat trivel» 
tti raose regions^ it was ob$e<Med that be had too ilften mentioned Ibe Am** 
tqnHoec; yet there it nO'circumfttaBte* whieh gives tohift wntinn^more 
kkteri^a) evidenee of truth than the cf^use of this objection. The fact i^ 
]^e real nature of their afliyctiog visilation,' which renders eveii tffe buroen* 
senie, cannot b^oodceivirdjbtti by persons who hAte^l^tik " "^ ' ^ 



f60 CLAaSB's T&AVELS IN TAAtAKT. 

iBto the hands of ihe Romans. Her trade in' the Enxine 
Botonly enriched, hot supported her inha£itant$. t)be- 
eame the nursery for h^r seameni and was of the. utmost 
importanee hi the demaad itoceasioned for h^rown mami- 
faetures. A very principal part of this intercourse was 
confined to the Cimmerian Bosporus, whose kings, and 
prinees received the hishest marks of Athenian re^*icnl. 
Many of them were made citizens of Athens,. which, in that 
age, was esteemed one of the most distinguished honours 
that conld he conferred.* From periods the most remote, 
from those distant ages when the Milesian settlements 
were fir^ established upon the coasts of the Buxirie^ a trade 
with the inhabitants qI* the country, which extended even to 
the Palus Meeolis and the mouths of the Tanais, had been . 
carried on; and it is, perhaps, to those early colonies of 
Greece that we may attribute most of the surprising^ sepal- .' 
chral monuments fonud on either side of the Cimmerian 
Bosporus. The Milesians erected a number of eities upon 
all the shores of the Euxine, and peopled tliem with their 
own colonies. t Other states of Greece, and especially the 
Athenians, followed their example.^ The difliculty of ascer- 
taining the locality of these ancient cities arises fi^ni Iwq 
causes; first from the want of harmony which prevails, 
among those authors whosa writings we adopt as guides f 
and, secondly, from our ignorance of the geography of the 
oonntry. Not a single map has yet been pablished which, 
gives any accurate representation. The only elue we pos- 
sessed, to conduct us in our approaeh to the Bosporns,§ was^ 
the large, Basil edition of Pluiy, a folio volume, which haft 

• ** Leuoo, king of Thrace, was so mucli pleased with it, ^at he or. ' 
dered the decree, which made him an Athenian citizen, to h? feiigravedoti ' 
three marble columns: one of them was (placed in the Pirtcus, another dn 
the side, of the Thracian Bosporus, and the third in tlic temple of Jupi- 
lierUrias." Ctarhe*sC(mnexionofOoi7is,'p,S^. ' ' 

t »M. t IMd. 

. § Aeeovdtog to the Greek text, pavticalarlr that of Stnibo^ it ahoald bs 
wntleQ iiOi;tiOK>2> impljiag ^^apOMmge/ar 9xens** hot all the LAtin 
mgnpkers write BoseHOBUs. It seemt proliable that the ai*igiual appel-. 
istioa 'wa* derived froift «ii»^4>0}>0^, the most fuwient «arae of Veuus, 
i^koM laae waft qpoii these alrarea. The uim» of the i^oft/»orM« of Thrace, 
aeconUog to fiuatathiiMi io huCommeirfaryoa Lhooyttiw {j&sfs Ox. ed. p.. 
IMj was a eorruptien of «..0^«Ox-0-k ; but I should tUiiUc ^e term wm 
iint taken, ratlier fi-om the Light Taw'era, or the Volcunick fifes, com- 
moa to b<^ the •b«its» than from the odigitt li« baaastigaed.^. Tike change 
oC * mto B wan common } as ^^AiiiilO^ for vidiuilO^, iS. ir^« • 
for ♦PXlfiu;, ££PONlJiil for 4?EPON]liri, t^od bal(i€naiw *A^UklNA. 



TO TBX 0lKMBRtAN BOSPORUS. Stl 

been preBented'toQsby Mr. K6va1eDs(^y Itf Yag^aoroek: a 
most unexpeeted acquisition in the plains of Tartary. Ae- 
corditig to the text of that author, we had every reason to 
believe ive were not far from th^ sit nation of the ancient 
town of Cimmerium ; and in this eonjectare we wei;e pro- 
bably right 

At the foot of a sn^all mountain, near the northern em- 
bonchre of the Kuban, we eame te a station ealled Tem- 
robk. 'This place may be observed in the Russian maps. It 
is now nothing more, however, than a single hut, for the 
purpose of supplying post-horses. Near it, the very year 
before our arrival, a volcano rose from the sea, forming an 
island, which afterwards sunk asain.* Temrook is mention* 
ed in the notes to the Oxford echtion of Strabo in more than 
•n^ instance, with allusijon to the Travels of Motraye, and 
written 'ttmrok,^ In.Motraye's time it was a plaee df 
more consideration than we found it. He was there in the 
beginning of the last eentury,:( and describes it as ^* consi- 
derable for its commerce, in hides, caviar, honey, Circassian 
slaves, and horses.'' He supposed its castle stood where the 
ancients planted their Patrmus $ and " two eminences,^' 
says he, ^^ which are named the 'point of the island^ may 
have been their* •;3c/ii/te7mi PromontoriMm."§ Hardly any 
thing else seems required in order to prove that this must 
kave been the situation of Cimmerium^ which was, as Pli- 
ny mentions, '^ultimo in ostio^ It had formerly, observes 

* The fQli6w|nga«io«at of ike. nmn$ aT thii island ha» 1»^n extracted 
from PaUas'fl Travels. *• It was ^bout siiorise, on Uie 5 th of. September . 
[179^3 when a saliterraneous noise, and soon after a dreadful thundering^ 
-were perceived in the sea of Azof, opposite to old Temruk, about one 
hundred and fifty fathoms from the shore. This intestine eonvul^on wai 
^eedily. followed h}' a report, not unlil^e that of a cannon; while the asto* 
nished spectators, who had attentivel;^^ watched the terrifick sc(ene, ob» 
served an island, of the form of a hirge harrow, rising from a cavity of the 
sea aboat five or six fathoms dee|>, and proceeding above the surface of 
the water, so that it occupied a space of about oae hundred fathoms m 
eiroumferencc. At ^rst it appeared' to swell and separate by fissures, 
throwing up mire vim stones, till an eruption' of fire and smoke occupied 



the spot On the same d«T» lAout 'seven o'elock^P^M. two Solent 

ahock» of an eartbqiiake, after m short iatervnl, were perseined at Eknte* 
rinodar, jwhich i8_two hundred versts [near 1^34 miles J distant from Tern- 



ahock» of an eartbqiiake, after a short iatervnl, were perseined at £k«te* 
'nodar, which is two hundred versts [near 134 ra" " " *" 

tk." JPaltfu'w Trmxflt in tf» South ^f fiUMi 
me autkov i^l^fl^ that the iskuid sank again bai 

t Strab. treogr. fib. ii. p. 7^ edit. Oxon. 1S07* 

* Motn 

.p. 40. 

J Ibid, 



ruk." JPantu'w TrmxfU in tf» South ^f fiUMia, vol. ILp. 316. The 
same autkov isel^a^ tkat the isknd simk jigain hefione he eoiiJM visit it. , 



^ Motn^e ^9M «t Tfi9«K>k ia Desenker I7M. See Trax* ^«^ 

ll,p.40i . 



fi6J ciauke's travkls^ IV tartahy. 

Ili« $amsg$(^aj^erj Imrn the name of C^rt^cHon. IPallai 
remarks,* that Temrook may probably hare been the Cim* 
bricus of Straboi *rhat whieh at present entitles it to the 
partieaiar notiee of the traveller is, that from this place 
Motraye began his jonrney, when he discovered, iti so re* 
jnarkable a manner, the rains of a Greek city in Oircassia, 
w-hich seems deeidediy from an inscription he found there, 
to have been ^paturus. All that we can collect from the 
obscurity which involves this part of his narrative, is, 
that, leaving Temrook, lie turned on the right, and, 
erossing a river, called by the Tartars the Great fFater 
(probably the Kuban) arrived, after a journey of one hun- 
dred and ten hours,t at those ruins : also, that they were 
aituated in a mountainous eountry ; for he observes, that 
the Tartars of the mountains were not so civil as those of 
the plains. It foUows^ thersfor*, that Pliny is not speak- 
Iffg ef the Apaturo9 in Sindiea, mentioned by Strabo,f when 
he eoaplea it with Phanagoria,§ but of a temple of Apata- 
rian Venus, belonsing to that city, and which Strabo also no- 
tiees.f Hariag Uius removed one difficulty, in reconciling 
the places on the Bosporus with the text of these authors, 
we may, perhaps, proceed with more facility and pre- 
cision. 

After leaving Temrook, we journeyed, for the most part 
in water, through an extensive morass, in the very midst 
•f which are stationed the remarkable ruins of a consider- 
able fortress, looking like a^ old Roman castle, and said to 
have belonged to the Turks. At the taking of this place, 
-the Russians, from their ignorance of the country, lost five 
hundred men. la. order to attack an outpost, tb^y ha4 a 
awall river to erosa, whieh they expeeted to pass on iee ; 
but the Turks had cut it awav, and the water was deep. 
jDuring the deliberation eaused by. this unexpected embar- 
sasaaftenl, the. Turka, who were concealed behind a small 
rampart, suddenly opened a brisk fire, which caused them 
to leap into the water, where they were all shot or drowned. 
The fortress itself i& a square building,, having a tower at 

* Trayelftthreiii^ tbe Sentlierif Pn)TiRMB» tec. v<4 IL p, SiS. 

•(■ The editor of the Oitford Hffwibcr rnnke* It • fife dhyf ahd %fei -liMrs, 
•which itevkUtttfy a miiitske, &$. wilt'»W««r by cQwiidlHia'tlie UixU. 

* Stitrti: lib. fi. p. 7«2«. ed. Ox. 

lib^ •* ^T ®*^****** akPhiiiagwia, et p««ie/E|«ierlmn Apatmos.'* PK» 
f Strab. m,. il,p. 723. ed.Oxon. 



• tPOTRM eiMHERlAV BOSPORVS. ^tf 

ifmlk fagle, and is ttill almost ^tire. It is pozxliw to eoiat» 
eeiTe far what purpose Dt was er^eted, as it stail^i in tiie 
midst of a swamp, withoat seeming to protect any import* 
ant point. Is it possibilB that such a building ean present 
the remains of Cimmerfum^ or even tbe Tmntetractm of the 
Hussians, or any work of high antiqnity ? On aceonnt of 
its Ibrofi, we siioatd be inclined to believe its origin t)f no 
remote date : and yet that little has been ascertained of the 
style of architecture used in the earliest periods of fortifica* 
tion, raav be proved by reference to a silver medal in my 
own eolfection, which I afterwards found In Macedonia. 
This medal is of the highest antiqnity, being rude in form, 
and without any legend or monogram. The'sahjeet of it 
ofl^rs in front, within an indented square, the ngnreof a 
man, M-ith a crowned head, and a poignard in lits hand, 
Qombating a lion ; and the reverse, with very little excep- 
tion, piaiy represent the fortress in question. 

At the distance of two versts from this fortress, we saw 
other rnins, with a few ancient and some Turkish tombs, 
and subterraneous excavations. Among these may be recog* 
nised the identical antiquities described by Motraye, in his 
Travels.* No trace of any ancient work afterwards ap- 
peared, excepting fumu/t, until we came to the bay of Ta- 
inan. Then, on the shore, immediately above some very 
high cliffs, we observed the remains of a very large fortress 
and town, entirely surrounded with tombs and broken 
mounds of earth, indicating evident vestiges of humnn la- 
bour. The geography of these coasts is so exceedingly 
obscure, that a little proxility in noticing every appearance 
of this kind, may, perhaps, be tolerated. We soon reached 
the posthonse of Sienna, actually scooped in tke cavity of an 
ancient tomb. In the Neighbourhood of this place we found 
remains of much greater importance. Its environs were 
entirely covered with tumuli^ of a size and shape thftt could 
not fail at once to excite a traveller's ^vonder and sttmtfhtte 
his research. The comntandant of engineers at Taman, 
general Vanderweyde, had already employed the soldiers 
of the ^rdson in opening the latgest. It was quite « 
monntam. Tkey began thewMi^^ very ignorantly, at tke 
s»mmit9aiidfor.a.]ongtimQ.'iMw»ured to.no purpose* At 
lastyby ehangm^'tbe ^treetiea ef tlieir esoavation, aa4 
opening tke eastern side, they diseevered tke entrett^^^ 



JiM caAKU's TmAVSLS.I« XMLXAltT. 

aliu«, arehed Tault^.of the nwt ftdmimiile naiww^.. J 
liad tne pleasure to descend into this remarkable aeptulcbre. 
Its mouth was half filled with earth* Yet, after passinffp 
the entrance, there was sufficient space for a per«ioa t» 
stand upright. Farther towards the interionr, tbc area 
was dear, and the work perfectly entire, The niateriaiqC 
which the masonry consisted, was a while, crumbling* liaMe-r 
atone, such as the country now affords, filled with fra^^n^eala 
of minute shells. Whether it was the work of MUesiaost 
or other colonies of Greecje, the skill used in iU oon«tmi«i7 
tion is very evident. The stones of the .sides aj-e allsquaee^ 
perfect in their form, and put tc^ether without any cemant. 
The. roof exhibits the. finest turned areh imaginable, h^^iniiK 
the whiteness of the purest marble. An interigur, ^i^aulteS^ 
chamber is separated fr4>m the outer, by m«aus of tivo|)il%«r 
ters, swelling 4>ut wide towards their bases^ and placed,. pii<^^ 
on each side, at th&entpaaee. The inner chamber is , ihp 
la^er of the two. 

CoQcerniBg ^vtry ihina found im this tom^, it i»fi pi^trbapffy 
nut possiblo to obtain in;ron»ation. . One artiale a)on^ titat 
was shown to me by. General Vanderweyde at Taman, may 
give anidea of the lunk -of the person origimilly^ interred 
there. It was a zpne for the leg, or bracelet for the arm-jof 
the purest massive gold^ The.stJIdiers employed in tlu» 
undertaking stole{whatever they deemed of vaiae and were 
aUe to conceal, and destroyed other things which did aat. 
appear to^them to merit preserratioB. Among these, was. a 
na«iber of vttses* of black earthen ware, adorned w4lh wAite 
oi^ia»ettta. The branelet was reserved by> general Vaader*^ 
«weyde, to he smrt to i^tersbargh^ for the emperoar's eahii* 
net; facias enough has been said of Russia, to induee mik- 
lea8t.a sQspieton,. that so valuable a reliok may never reaek. 
itadeetiaatton, a more partiejalar deseriptioa ef itmay he^ 
neeeesaxy. - Its..weaigbte%aalled three quarters of a pound. 
It represi^ated the SmAj of a serpent, curved in the form ef 
att>ellipse^ having two heads, which, meetiag-ait opposite 
poivlsy made tte opeaJBtt fov the wrist or ankle* Tlieaefer<> 
pent heads were studded with rubies, sq as to imitate eves, * 
and te*eniamet»tr.thahaek pait of caeit teadhylwe diitmet 

* A fev of these vftses were, hoirever, sent tor^Mosinmtf, a«cOi*ditt|r fo 
die »ocoant ^rea t9 me In Uie ooutttfy, ^and. wega ihm^ :»wsU9»od M^'^vk 
wfairipool which engulphs all ttiat is dear to literature in that dtj. Their 
loca|^&8t6t7i»pr<6ba% Mwitostrt fcB- the Roasiaits, in their astimishing 
ignorMieeycaU all works of this load £eru«ib«»vMle«nrthdiatan«»«dd 
ttf their Tslae. ,*:-, 



td THE SIMMERiAN BOSPORUS. ft^U 

iovrs of ^i4is. The rest of the bracelet was also fortbef 
. SHiorned by rode" gfared work. It possessed no elasticitj^ 
b«t, on accomit of fhe ductility of pure gold, might, with 
Mfl^ient farce, be expanded so as to admit the wrist or 
the ankle of the person who was to wear it; and probably, 
irh«n once adapted to the form, remained doring the life- 
tkhe of the owner. J could not bot View it as the most ancient 
speeimen of art which, perhaps, exists [in llie world 9 and 
whilsh, while it shows the progress then made in metallurgy, 
and inthe art of settins precious stones, at the same time 
•iters a type of the mythology of the age in which it was 
made^ the binding of a serpent round t^e leg or arm, as a 
tislisman, being one of the superstitions common to almost 
every nation in an early period of civilisation, and is a 
practice which may be often observed even at this day. Im- 
mediately above the stone worik constructed for the vault of 
tfie sepulchre, appeared, first, a covering of earth, and then 
a layer of sea-weed,* compressed by another superincum- 
bent stratum of earth, to th« thickness of about two inches. 
This layer of seaweed was as white as snow, and, whea 
taken in the hand/ separated into thin flakes and fell to 
pieces. What the use of this ve^table covering could be 
is very uncertain^ but it is foiind m all the tombs of this 
country. Pallas observed it placed in regular layers, witk 
coarse earthenware vases, of rude workmanship, and an- 
giazed, which were filled with a mixture of earth and 
chareoal.t It is said thai a large marble soros or sare*- 
pka^e^ the top of which now serves for a cistern, near tlie 
lortreM ofYenikalein the Crimea^ was taken frotn this 
tMab. The appearance of theeotmftoe, Iwwever, in its 
pflMettt state, contradicts the story, as the opening ha« 
never yet keen made snfiieiently wide for its removal, even 
hnd it keen se dieeevered. TfaAt it was taken from one ef 
the aneient tombs of the Bospems, is hij^iy probable ;f 
4inA «ls perfect eoiittidonee, in point ef &rm, with that 
i^tarialile iMMlel wkieh prevailed in all the sepuleKres of 
Greeee, si^cletttly indieaies the people from it was de« 
rived. 
Stfflilar lembs are Uumd en aH the shores ofthe Bespormi. 

* ZMtera marinth aeeording to PftUas. 

t Ti*tt«ete t&roagh Hht Southctti Provinees, Sec. Vol. n. p. 306. 

i Hotrftve menlioDshaTing seen the lawerkalf ofone, listwSeaTsMMl 



9^ Cl^Rig»'^ TRA.V»iA IJa .T4nTABX. 

t^lose \^ Ihc^t which I have desbri bed, are many 9tb|^, anjl 
some nearly of equal size. Pallas, in his journey over thi^ 
country, mentions the frequent recurrence of such appearr 
ancf s all round the bay of Faman.* Indeed, it woiifd be 
vain to ask whctre they are not observed. The size, gran- 
deur, and riehes of those on the European and Asiatick 
sides of the Cimmerian Straits excite astonishing ideas of 
tte wealth atid power of the people by. whom they were 
constructed; and, in the view of labour so prodigious,, as 
well as of expenditure so enormous, for the purpose of inhu- 
ming a single body, customs and superstitions are manifest^ 
which illustrate the origin of the pyramids. of £gypt> the 
caverns of Elephanta, and the first temples of the aiicienl 
world. In memory of " the* mighty dead," long^ before 
there were any such edifices as temples, tlie simple, sepul- 
chral heap was raised, and it became the altar i|pon which 
sacrifices were offered. Hence the most ancient heathej|i 
structures for offering to the gods were always built upon 
tombs, or in their immediate vicinity. The discussion 
\Vhich has' been founded on the iquestion whether the E^y{(- 
tian pyramids were tombs or temples, seems altogother n le- 
gatory: being one, they were necessarily the other. *T*he 
Soros in the interiour ehamher of the great pyramid of 
Cheops, which indisputably determines the sepulchral ori- 
gin, tiA decidedly establishes the certainty that it was also 
a place of religious worship; 

Et tot t^mpla Hadm Kom», qnot in wbe Sepulchra , . ^ 

Heroiim uumerare licet, t— » 

The sanctity of the Acnpolis of Athens owed its ar^gis 
t0| the,scpnlfshre ef Ceerops; and without this leadio^^fyo^^^ 
qf yeneration, the numerous temples wUlf wh^ek }k WM 
afterwards adorned would never have been erected. The 
Mune may be «aid of the Temple of Yeiiiis atPa]^««,biliit 
over the tomb of Cinyras, the father of Adonis ; of Apolle 
DidymieiiB, at Miletus, aver the grare ef CieeoiMhMy 
with many others alluded to both by Etttebuist A^d fby 
Glemetw AlexaBdri»iis«§ On this «eeoaiit) «iieieffit««ttChen 
make use of such words for the temples of the gods as, H 
their original and proper signifieiition, imply nothine more 
than a tomb or a sepulchre. In this sense^ LycopEroli|y 

^ ^ Ti*aTel8 tbrottgh the Soutfaem ProrineeSy Sec. v6l. 11. p. S05» kte. * 
t Pradendus, lib. i. 4 Cobortatlo ad Gent 5. • -a 

$ P»i^. Evwy. tib. U. c. 6^ f tf«0|h«f QM«W«Lv»*'ilt. 



wbb afiects obsolefe termt, iwes'TrMBOSi aid Virw!;* 
TVMVLVS. It tia« been deemed iieeessarY to state tnese 
few observatimis, beeause there is no part of ancient history 
"whieh is liable to greater misrepresentation, than llrat 
which eoncerns the origin of temples : neither is it possible 
lo point out a passage in all Mr. Brri^nt^s learned disserta- 
tions, which is so reprehensible, and so eontrary to the evi- 
ijetit matter of faet, as that in which this sabject is introda- 
eed. "^ Haying afforded an engraved representationt of 
sepulchres, exactly similar to those exeaTated in the rocka 
•f A^ia Minor, and which bear inscriptions purporting th4» 
fise for which they were constructed, he nevertheless exerted 
his extraorclinary learning to establish nn opinion directly 
contrary to their real history • 

Sienna\ seems to correspond very accurately with tha 
CErsrs of Strabo,§ and CepcB Milesiarttm of Pliny .^ The 
Milesian sepulchres found there in such abondance may 
probably still further confirm this position; but in onler to 
elucidate the text of either of these authors, it is absolotefy 
necessary that reference should be made to better maps thaii 
£av6 hitherto been published. No less than three anciepk 
hridg<es of st,oue lead to this plaoe from Taman } and th|^ 
tiiey were works as much of luinry aa of necessityy is 
proved from the circumstance, of their bein^ built acrosa 
places containing little or no water at apy time. A shallow 
stream flows under one of them, which the people^ of the 
country pass at pleasure, disregarding the bridges, as being 
high, and somewhat dangerous on account of their anti^ty4 
^They consist each of a sincle arch, built with ^eat skill) 
««d accortfiiig to that massive solidity which bespeaks the 
^^ks of remoter periods. The usual bridge! of the country 

; ; » M fpuimihtm anti^Hse Cei^ijs, Sodemque saerfttsm, 
Vcnimus,"*—— vfflii.. lib. U. v. 74li. 

, »t Br^raal^'s MytWogy, toI. h p. 325. 4to edit. Londotf, 1774. . , ' 

\ iiieitnah th« iimim of thw place, as pronounced by the ' Tchernomcrr- 
iihfr'ChMVieks; \m they itf9; c^eMinfth' chan^n^'the. spp^aSbAinC the 

fScrent plaees m the countiy, aod I know not what lUiine it Jiadsanioaa 
e'Tartara. ' . / ' ' .. 

y 'i Iji^fc. ii. p. 722. ed. Ox, It is w^'itten Cepi in, l^e Latin translation. ; and 
to th^ 'Greek text. Km*.; but, according tb the notes, some MSS 
■ea4 okfi-i^ct, I have wntten it a^ it is anthonaed by the edition oS PKn/i 
'which vd'<$haneea to have "with us, as well as "by rompouiius Meta, and 
Biodoms Sieolas. 

' flJillJialililN^ftKfe^ '^ \ /I V ..«- « 



are natiUn^mQVt thAn loose pieees .of timber, e^wtpA niUi 
hiilm»he»» 

We poMed the sew fortre«f o| Taman^ in our w^jr to tl»(^ 
l^iniy wkieh i» diatAni from it two versts.* Workmen irece 
dbeii employed upoK tlM baildin^ It is anabaDcd ^ u«eU99 
lUidtrtdkifij^, but eaJoalated to beeome live ^epolehre of tbe 
few reniMnmg meribed marbles and Grecian bas-^relie&i 
vkkhare daily buried ia its foundation. ' Asamiiitafj 
worky the inost able en§^aeers view it with ridicule;, for ao 
army, may upproaeh close to its walls, protected from ita 
Mtilkry by a natural fosse,. and even unpereeived by the 
yurrftsoB. The Russians begin to be convinced of th^ had 
politj^y wbseh induced them to extend their frontier into this 
part of Asia. The defence of the line from Efcaterined«ur^. 
to Tamau^ whisk is not half the extent it occupies between 
tlie (Jaspian and the Blaek 3ea,required,at the time we piuio 
sfdfftn army of fifty thousaud men,t whose troops, from thet 
UHwholesoQ^e climate imd bad water, considered the station 
M little better than i^ grave* The eountrj itself yields m» 
profit, b^ingy for the most part, swampj or barren Jand^jEnid 
itAf smrves m itm& "Siu^ls, z! ^Idi^rs; yih9 nnght be batur 
eiKipl^md. The nataral bosmdaries. offered' by the Blael& 
Ana, the Sea oi^'Aeof^ and the Don, with a-eerdo&from iiuM 
r^rer to AftraohMi, ivould muoii better ai»wer tk« purpi^etf 
•f slreufl^h amlaggnindiaenBent ; but fiossia, mopally eon-* 
sidered, w IHko an enormout load', extewHag on every si4o 
bar Moated, nawieidy4orm^ and graduailj beeoai^g weaker^ 
as^skn swells wttk mmunnhfAtaBJOb- aAd unmatural t^Mm^ 
sion* . '- 

Arriving at Taman, we were lodged in the house of ani[ 
ollieer who had been lately dismissed the service, throii^h( 
the attention of whom, and of general Vanderweyde, tpe 
commander of engineers, we were enabled to rescue from 
destructiojs some of the antiquities condemned to serve a^ 
materials in constructing the fortress.^ The general con- 

* M There 1i n foiiren wUb a Rttsvi&n gMrriton, of ivbom the CeeSBcln 
•omplain heavily »» jniainoaa thieves. Oiir om-riage was ciiarded every; 
^ightby a Cossack sentinel with hisJance-" ffeber't MS Jeunial, 

j-That is to say, during a period of irai% In ordin^i^ tiiAes, «h6 «Uiiiber 
;» by no means so considerable. Mr. Helper luakM the whale ^ard fl# 
tlieW-don only equal to 5,000 men. . « i 

# As these have been tfb^e^y deaeribed in tlie aoeount published of tjli^ 
Greek marbles deposited, since our return, in the vestibule of the public^ 
libriiry of the umrenlty- of OsmlMgff, i|!s ODf^Ko^eesiwri^ aOsista^iMilShmr' ' 



to TUB CXKM&RtAir BOt^OltUAi 

AKtoffns over Hieroin^, wbeirt« tlte'y tieHv^ Mttffct off 
narble for this pnrpfMie ; and ealled then, m th^ really' 
apiiear to be, the Rums of tfae CHty of PnAirAoMitA. They 
#re fhfffld'orer all the mtbufba of TaimMi^ the ground, IbH 
serine versts m extent, heine covered with the forniditkmo^t 
lAieient buildii^s, anion^ which are freifueiidj diteovertA 
U6ek9 of marwe,fragnieiit» of scttlpture, aiidaneieiitooini> 
Of 'the eoin^ whieh I procured on ettliermd^ of the Booporag^ 
ftw are eomnion in cabinets. One in partieulan Iband m 
liriiear Taman, dbserres particular noti^e^ a# it seemt to^ 
epnfinn whut' I have said respeetinf» the sitvation off Pha^ 
ifa«^ria. It is a small silver medal of that eity, of greai 
aaili^liiity, and I believe the only one whieh remains; HBt 
there is nothin^if like it in the eolleetioa at Paris nor ia Any 
iHh^r isabinet in Europe known to me. In the front) it pre-^ 
feUts the head of a youn^ man, with that kind of cap whioii 
B have deset^bed in a preeedine page of this volame$* an# 
ilpoii the reverse appears a bofl^ butting, with a crain of 
i»»rn In aspaee below the line on which the animal stands^ 
nod almve are the letters «ana. When wv considered the? 
^de«(?nictioti of ancient works, whioh Jias heeii so k»ii|p ear** 
md on in Taman and its neiriihoiHrlMiodt we aiay reasanAbly- 
ironder that any thfnt( sboold domt remaitt to, indieate lie' 
ftvmer ftistery. Be fotr^ ago as the b^^iMitiig of the iasir 
eeiiCliry, Motraiyesays the rtsMina of airtiqi^y were daily, 
dfiimiiishin^.t Between Taman and TenHeek^ ke obserVie({' 
tfte^ew^rpart ef the A»n69iisedas.a oisjfceni, of whicli.^oroe. 
the eistefn at-Vemkal^wms ^vibabiy dieeover4 Wkeaevr 
er a traveller has a reason to suspect that he is upoa er-^ 

tha t y ork» and to say that the articles described ia No». L IV- V. Tt 
XXTV, in >age8 1, 4, 46, came from that ^aee. 

~* See note, p. 243^. * * ' r: 

.t *• We took up our Fod^^'ng; that nfght at Taman, and set out on tTift 
lS5th, eariy in the naming; and I observed nothing remaALohle hetwee^ 
this town and. Temrook, but some yet conaiderable nuns* tohich warm 
Hheljf to become lets 90 every day, by their continued' diminu/ion^ ocoa- ' 
sioned by the inhabitants of these two places canying olT, fi-om 6me to . 
time, part of ihcm, to build magazines, or lay thfr foundatiooa for somet 
houses. By their situation, #iey seemed to me Id have been thoae of tbei, 
.fim^9ti0 of the ancients, if it ^as not at Taman ; but I could not find 
eitHer mseriptions kit basio-relSbiros to gire me any further insighi into it* 
Hard by the highwav, near a well, there is a sort of a long; and Targe chest 
of hard stone,, as valuable as marble, and without a cover, almost lube the" 
tombs at Lampcmo.^ Motraye*» Travels^ to*. 11. ^. 40l 

=^ PaUaaiH^&itwaslvoiigbtfBQs&tha^e of Taiiuui^^ 



netrtimiMer ef iknoient «iti«awiiiii](ixry>«ft«r thtfelitvnHK 

med hy the • inht^itELiiU nay gaiite him .toveiylBwrieiift in^ 

ftrmatioo ; as it is the ine to which the sorotare «a&T«fi«2<<' 

ly appropriated, and opon them ancient UuiefipliiMM'mty 

fref ueatlj be di»BOvered. Another casiBe of the tots «f> w« 

c^iit monumente to Tamaa was the estabUi^sieift tliem«C' 

a colony of Russians at a very early .perivd^ wiwn the-ei^ 

bore the natae of Tamatarean* or Tmutaracmi** Near tiie 

gate of the ehureb-yard of Taman, lies the marble islab^ 

\^ith the curious inserlsitiony whieh threw, so maeh li^tt 

upon the situation of that aoeient prtneiEpality of Rustfia^ 

Qtnee th&resideoee of her prinoes. We had the saUsiMiiMi 

t9 see it and to eopy the inseriptien $ which htts bite 

iilustrated both by tiie writin|i*8 lof Pallas and by the ^vtkti 

brated Rassian antiquary, the latler of whom has paUitbnd^ 

in his own langua^, «o Tainabbs a dissertation eoaeeniins 

ft.f It is, therefore, snperfiaous to say more of ibis Taluaip 

Ue relick, than that it commemorates a iiieiisaratb>H nnHis 

upon the ice, by prince Gleb, son of ¥ladimir, mthe ycMr 

i065>ofthe distance across the Bosporus, from TmittaraMtfs 

to EJertehy ; that is tj» say, from Phaaasoria to Paalftea^ 

peum, which is found to eorrespand with the actual difttaate 

from Taman to Kertehy« The words of the ioMFibHaft/afe 

tothefoUowing eftect : '' In tite yemr 6»ra [10«&1 tndici^.lk. 

Prince Qleb measured th»s$Bantbe ice^ and lite ditttmdt^ 

from TnrntaraaoAto EMchywasBB^O^^ffitthmm* PaUat 

relates, that the freezinf; of the Bospoms, so thai st^oMfibar 

measured on the iet^ is initself nonnaomaMMi oecmvemft^ 

i^vhieh, while it sorves to ascertain the troth of amacaitbit^ 

tary, proTes also that the degrees of heat and coM do not 

.vary as those of latitude^ both Taman and Kertchy^ brtti^ 

. iiearar to the equator than Venice^ where the freeiaag af ibe 

The wame in Theodoiius't Itinerary ift Tamatarca.** Tmutaracaa 
- Ut&my *« the^&warm of BeeUes.*' Beber^t MS. Joumai. 



'' f Alexis Mussin-Pushkin^ one oT the memhers of the privy cotinci) In 
!^u9sia pQhlisbed an elueidation Of the hiacription, and of tnepnneipdityt)f 
Tmutarakan, accompanied by a map, explanatort of the ge^ifiplty of 

"ancient Rusaia. Petrnp. 1794. quarto. See alao, PaUaa's Travehiutfie 
South of Jiu99ia, &e. vol. II. p. 300. , 

# Pallas'a Travels in the South of Russia, vol. O. p. 289, 300. 

% These towns are situated in latitude 45. V^ntee is aBoctt haTf ii degree 
. li'earer to the nortli pole. Naples and Constai^tinople are with i*eape^ (o 
^^ch other, pparly on the same line of latitude* yet snow Calls frequsBa^» 
'A^svv$; MAnier, in the hitter city, buiisMsidoiB sera ialheiomcb. . . , : 



s«rin>«M'6e fteii«A]iiled ai*pr<»dt^. The esv^alrjr of Si^brt* 
dftt^ttretiMttKha^e^ou^ht on Clie iee^in fb&sane pak-tef 
tfM ilolfpi«>iif wliere a^ naval engagetneiit httd tdcea plaea' 
th^ preeei^ng tHttiiiier.* 

* ^ntohi^ tiK otheiriuittqiiitks of TAman, one of tile iiu»t 
^omHca'ble'ft an amphlieatre, wtitebfieems to havelieeii in-' 
t«fiiei for ^irlMMttovs of naviil doflibafs, if not ased as a 
Tkik i^eservoir^r containing ^ater for 6ther pArpose«. It 
itmirlofi» tlmna tboiiaaad paces in diameter, and alt th» 
ioor paved. Itsform is 6irealar,lind ^^^^ where sarroirad- 
od^hjF rnii« ahd Ihe' foandafinns of bililmn^, whieh shpH 
1»wta4B the vast area in the middle. On one side onl^r ig a 
iHde oj^nfti^, that seems to have afforded the principal «n« 
tl%iice^ The pavemeiit of the area, eonsisting of hroadt 
flat stontets^is now erovered by earth atid #eeds. The snb- 
fienranoiriitsondnitsv through which thewkter was conveyed, 
stUlremarni hm ihey-are now appropiated to other uses., 
OiMi^f HhiMj-^heneitth the ehnreh, is kept in order, for the 
»se (Df> the priests. When the Cossacks of the Black Se* 
#i%e«n»ived In* their n^w settleifient,- they eauied the water 
4i^iiMv Into this imniense reservoir, fbr the use of their dat^ 
Skrfhal Ia4t siaffnated^ and proved extremely nn wholesome^ 
4twas«llk«nrwards drained off. Crossing this area towadti 
-di€^ south, are seen the remahis of a temple, bnilt after tM 
^€kaei«i mDde^ and of oonmderable size.. Here the woiie^ 
Hate emf^yedon the f&rtress dtseovered a eonsiderable • 
cqiiaaitty «f >ahetetkt matel'ii^, which they removed j snch 
.^y/tnarUe eolnms^ entaJllaltfres(nany of which had hiscri^ 
tianr) avadbie bass-re4ieft, andlpieees of Mulntnre, whieh > 
tlieyiiiave birrted in the 'foundation -of that edifice, or de- 
'4»tr«yed in waking' Mmct ' Near thersiasof this temple 
rsife alto those of some otherpnhlieedi free, which most hay*e 
^been of prodigious size covering a great extent of ground. 

The marble, as well as other stones, which the ancients em- 
ployed io; the buildings: of Pbanagoria, are all subs taneen 

. foreign to the country. The Isle of Taman prod iiee» no- 
thing similar. The materials found there were brought ' 

'either from the Crimea, from Greece, or, in later ftges, 
by the Genoese from Italy. Among the fragments oif tiueh 

• t An eotol^sttttfc, ivliieh^bey hftd brofceti fornWs purjiose, and VHfth 
.^Inreinoved, is described in p. 46 of the ticictwut of the Greek KarWes at 

eambrid8e,,\MD, XXtVi «- - ^--^ *' * * - ^ - : • '' 



^ii eZ.AKti:E'S '^ItAVELS Itf' tAttTAirr; 

extraneous siibstances, T ofcseTrei upon tlie shore '^vwtfce 
productions of Tesuvius and could readily aceoimtfcrtlt^hr 
appearance, baring* often se^n the Genoese ballast Uteir 
vessels in the bay of Naples, where the beach is covered hf 
Tolcaniek prod acts. It will be necessary to attend to "Ais 
fact, lest such substances found upon the Bosporus, shoold 
hereafter be confounded with tbe prodnets of a roleairo, 
which is only twenty-seven miles distarft from Taman, call- 
ed by the Tartars Coocoo Obo^ and ivhieh the Tehfertio- 
niorski, now possessors of the country, distingnish by the 
name of Prekla,* The eruptions of Prekla, althoagha^** 
«ompan}ed by smoke and fire, have not yet been IbHowed fay 
any appearance of lava. Th^ produ<ct hd^s been a prodi-* 
gious discharge of viscous mud. The first^xplOstontiiok 
place onthe^Tth of February, 1794, at half past ei^t iir 
the morning: and was followed by the appearand of a 
column of fire, risins^ perpendicularly to the height of Wty" 
fathoms from the hill I have mentioned. This hill Is sita*^ 
ated in the middle of a broad, an&^ular isthmusV 6n th« 
northeast side of the bay of Taman, distai;it only eight miHet 
from t^t i^aee, in a direel linev aerosa the walar^ and ofiiy 
tenlVom Yenikal^, on the Orlflyean aide of the Bmi|NHvr« 
The particulars of this extraordinary phenomenon tircr^eii 
so mneh in detail by f^allas,t that it would beuselesa to re- ■ 
peat them here» Observations on sueh muddy voleanos 
na^ heen .published by MiiiUer^ aad hy K^empWy ia Gbe^r-*-, 
many ; and different travellers have ^ven an aceasnt <«f* 
similar eruptions of mud at Makuba in Sicily. At ]Miesenl 
there is nothing remarkable to be seen at Prekla, exeept 
boiling springs in the cavities whence the eraptioBs of fire 
and mod proceeded; and which) though perfectly cool, 
remain in a constant state of ebuilitioa.| 

• A term used also by the Mato-Russians, to signify Bell It is »e- 
markable, that the Icelanders should likewise have called their volcwio 
JBlskla, which has, perhaps, in dieir language^ the aame sigtufieatioii. 

t Vol. n. p. 318. 

i « We took a ride with our Cossack host, to see the mire fooDtains 
mentioned by Pallas. The first thing we were shown was a oireular area, 
resembling the crater of a small votoamh In the centre was • heap ef 
stones, which, with the sarroandmg mud, i^peared impregnated witii- 
aalphur. In one plsoe was a pool of water, witnout any pa!*tiQular' taste. 
^ About 500 ^ards diatant was another circle, hut much smaller, all of soft 
' tnud ; and in the centre was a little hole, whence slowly bubbled out a 
Maiueous, black fluid tike bilge water. By treading on mj piu<t of the 
■Md, more matter oosed from the wound i fiw the whide 1^ Ofi& appear- 



M9ML T9X S^BfO^V$ TQ CAI^A«^ S^, 

Two .n^ttiible edaoms were Ijing before tho ehureh ^t 
Taman^each eonsistins of ooe entire bloek^ about eighteen 
inche» in diameter^ Their eapitals were of white marblei 
(although the shafts were of CipMno*) beautifully seulp- 
tiired, having a representation of a ram's head at each cor- 
ner^ the eurvin^ horns of whieh made them resemble the 
lontel^ order.. Almost ail the marble in Taman is of the ' 
kind called Gipolino. Near the eolumns were two marble 
lio^», a« lar^ as life, and each executed in one entire bleek. 
Representations of the lion, sometimes of colossal size, are 
coouoon upon these shores, left, probably, by the Genoese 
or Venetians. Tivo others were stationed before the door 
ef M^e ^neral's house. On the opposite side of the Bospo- 
rus are^jither remains of the same kind, particularly at 
Kerteby and at Yenikale. Near this latter place is a very 
laf 1^ o^ lying in the seai whioli may be seen in calm 
weathf r, althoogh under water. In the wall of the ehurch 
at TaiQaa we ob^rved two marble slabs .with inscriptions^ 
wJiieh t copied with difficulty, a9 they were covered with 
whi^wa^h. 

Kt^iti ime^ast tore;.. We titfuit onriftM^ lato the vnOi Int found «o 
ibclU«pi»f tat&bn witMnwing 1lM«i»»«iiwl«^l(iad of flnkl x«i»|hroucb,(ho * 
;ape<:tiirei they \M loade. There w»ft aoothei*, precisely lisnilftr, at * 
§mall dist^m^e ; and vqry hear this last, a well of water resembling that of 
Hft^rowgste, in tastfe, Wacfl, and sparkihig.'* Bebet^t MS. Journal, • 

*' C?t>?>finoiay name ghrenhjr Italians io an impure marWe, <«rbioh. 



... j- ♦ . 



•in !»/. 4. „.ju U*» .♦. Cv.*. • f 



. ... . ,<. ,. . ? ♦•-. .. » ^' 
©HAPTEK XVllt. 



FROM THE CIMMERIAN BOSPORUS* l"© CAP^ A. ' 

9as9age across the Straifs-^Yenikal^ — 3todem Cfreelts-^ 
Marble S&ros^^Sin^lar Ancient Sepulchre — Pharos of 
MUkradates — Medals of the Bosporus — Euins—Kertchy^ 
'^Tomb of Mithradatts — View of the: Cimnteriatf Straits 
^'Antiquities of Kertchy — Jiceount of a Stranger who 
died there — Fmrtress — Church^^Havoek made by the Jlus- 
sian^-^Cause of the obscuritv which prevails concerning 
the •Ancient Topograf^y of the CrimeO'^Departurefrom 
Xjertchy^-Ancient Vallum^^Locusts — Venomous Insects 
'^QipsieS'^Cattle — Tartars — Vallum of Asander-^r- 
rival at Ct^tu 

WE setsaiLfiHMii Taman on the l^h of Julf . Theclis^ 
.tanee to Yenikai^, on tbe oppogite shore, is onlj 
eighteen Russian yersts, or twelve Endish miles. Pros<| 
perous gales, and placid weather, soon brought us miilivaj 
letween the European and Asaitiek eoasts ; and as t)iQ sea 
was tranquil^ I profited by the opportunity to delineate the 
view, both towards the Meeotis and the Euxine. Dolphius, 
4B ^reat nambers, played about our ressel. These animals 
1^ in pairs ; and it is remarkable how very aeeurafety their 
appearance corresponds with the deserijption given of them 
1^ Pliny.* Arriving opposite Tenikale, or, a? it is fre- 
•iiently written, lenikal^^f we found a fleet of Turkisfi 
Mips waiting fkvourable winds, both for Taganroek aM.for 
Constantinople. Soon after we landed, we obtained !o(]§- 
wp^ in a neat and comfortable Greek mansion, the ownef 
•f whtob, by birth a Spartan, and a native of Misitra, wi^ 
» man of integrity and considerable informatien. Ilis wil^ 
wmA a native of Pares. We found tbeif dwelling kii asj- 
lum so ae^reeable, after our long Scythian penaneoy.yiit we 
remained there nearly a week. A wooden baliSonjf ^r 'e6' 

. • min. liist. I^at. m>.ix « fl. * / . /. ! 

\f Tennialeiscorapoimded •( tweTarkiah or Tartar word^, aifpttfkt^ 
nc^fimCatO^, .. ^^ , 1.1 



9ftOii TSB BOSPOMirS TO CAFVA'. fXTS 

rtrtd siHery, to whiefc their priitcipal apartment opened, 
i^ve us a eonstantTiew of the Bosporus, with all the oppo- 
ttte Asiatiek eoaftt^ and of the numerous vessels which at 
this season of tho joar ai^ eoa'stavtfy passin*; to and fro. 
As the table of our host was free to every corner, we dined 
with people f^om almost all parts of Greece and Asia Mi- 
nor ; find their eonversatton^ as they-ali spoke Itttlian, was 
itttellieible and interesting. The natives of Cephalonia, 
a starSy. and athletiek raee, those of the Morea, of the isl- 
ands of ,i(ie Arehipels^o, of Gandiai the South Coast of the 
Black ^ea, Trebisimd, Amasra, and Constantinople, 
amused us by the singularity of their dress and manners, 
all well as fay their eonversatlon. The hoose of Kerilkki, 
fprthat was the name of our host, was a sort of render voas, 
at which thej all met, once in a year, in their Voyage to 
and from I^Tuganrock.* ^Uis windows were fhll of' books, 
priAtod at Venice, in the modem Greek* language, alttiovgh 
tl^ characters exaetly correspopd with those in nse among 
us; and his boys, during evening, read to htm the popular 
poem of Krotoeritus, the Life of Alexander, with the extra- 
ordinary anecdotes of hdb horscf Bucephalus, and the hfl- 
tbfy of the ancient kings of Byzantium. Their mode .'of 
pronouncing Greek is maeh softer than ours, and more like 
Italian; but they understood me when I endeavoured to 
read Greek after their manner. Amon^ all the Greeks^ 
the letter /3 is sounded like our V ; and it is very doiAitfol 
whether iliis was not the case in ancient times. t The im» 
lives of the Crimea ^till call the town of Kertchy Vo8por$ 
and the straits VospoVf althon^ tkey write the word oos* 
por:. It is worth while to Inquire into the origin of tbo very 
popular poem of firotoeritns ; since, although in rhyme^ 
and certainly of no ancient date, the traditions o»d the nto^ 
Hes on which it is founded are common all over Greeeeii 
knd constitute the favourite topiok of their evening taks^ 
They pretend that the palace of Erotoerttos is stiU to he 
seen, at a place called tktvA CaUmnm^ near Athens i allin* 
ding evidently to the promontory . and temple of finntuittt 
Upon the walls of Keriikt's aparUnente were rode dra«^ 

• ThenameoftlkifeplRee ifould be more property TagQtirog^ as Mr, 
Heberuiufennl}^ writes U. 

\ The late professor Ponon believed that the aoeient CroaefcB pronotaa- 
eed the^ as we do^ and, in proof of his opinioD, used to cite tUa r^«e if 



lags) ^^iiM^nliiigsfi(j«et9kAEt«i4hi«i>ftreeS«« ki^rf f^miij 
aoiont^ 4)therg, wag one c>f Htrtillet, in a hekiM9l aod eoat 
«f mail, destroying the Hj&rm^ but thej k«ieWifo(liiiig of 
the name of the ht^o, saying merely that it^Hs tite (Hetnte 
tf a Mrarriottf once famovs in Glreeee^ and ' veUkin^ ^anj 
extrarag^ant tales of kls yalonir^ perlfapsflnok* ao «iiee 
formed the fouadatioa of those poetiek fame^. whiek aneient 
writers hare handed down, vi^itti higfter authority, 'to mo- 
dem times. The heads of the 'yoong Greeks, both male 
fl^nd female, are ftill of such stories } and as tliey mnefa 
delight in long recitals, these relations eon^tituleth^ sub- 
jeet of their songs and diseoursel. In the Islands H^ -va- 
grant hards and Improvmsatori-i, %vh(i, like Hoiner of old^ 
enter villages and towns to eoUec talms^ by singing or reeit- 
Mig the traditions of tlie eountry* 

It wefmay judge of the Greeks in general, from the view 
we had of them in this part of the Crimea, they are renanrk- 
able for cleanliness^ and for the altentimi paid to deeency, 
ftnd order in their dn^llings. Thewofnett are, perhaps^ the 
most indtistrious housewives upon earth, and entirely, the 
slaves of the family. Tl^ir eooker^ is simple and wholes 
Home. We never saw them i<lle. They have no desire to 
go abroad ; and, if the employments of the house admit of 
flieir sitting down for a short time, lhey*begiii to spin, or to 
wind eotton. Yefitkal^' is almost wholly inhabited by 
Greeks. The men are, for the most part, absorbed in mer- 
cenary speculations $ but the women are gentle, humane, 
oblhring, and deserving of the highest praise. 

^oie fortress of Yenikale, from wiiieh the place hat 
derived its present name,* stands u|H>n some high tfHSk 
above the town. In one of its towers is a fountain) and the 
foarce froui whence k is derived supplies a eondnit on tha 
outside, near the base. The stream news in by aquednets, 
trom a spring, said by the inhabitants to he fouf^ miles dis« 
tatit; aad it falls, At the bottom of the tower; into the €$£irU 
ty of an ancient marble sorosi, allnded to in' the preceediag 
mipter.t This $&ro9 is of one entire block of* white 
marble, of the wtight of two orthrfee tons, and now 
uded as the ptthiiek washing trough of the town. . They 
tell thestory oefore related^eoncernm^ its. discovery injMie 
of the tombs of the Isle of Taman jand it is probably th^ CP- 
yerof tiiat to wliiehMotraye refers in his jouruey iSrom IV^ 

• See a former Note, p. 274. V T-.^SS . 



?IMM l9?«vltMle«^ KrwiiAts inrtrted pvvtiaii, I wms prerenr- 
4 ^4.i)oiicipgi|ii iiidcriptiofi 8i&«e dts^vered open the (op.ef 
» it, 4»hI yfhmk Ihave not be? aable to obtain. We were ns* 
«:«iil^ b^ pei!90ii9 residing 4herey that wben thej be$;aa the 
^Q|[f^vaitiQO» at Tama&9 for materiaU to build tbe fortress, 
.;jLb^ number of f^rthenvf are rases, and other antiqaities, 
/^i^overed by^ the worktneii, was truly ailtonisbf ng ; that 
.ilQldiers ^ere se^ii \iith ian(i<]ue veiiseU sospeoded bj x 
^Uri^ng, tweaty or thirty at a time, whieh have sinee been 
]Uroke9 and dUpec^ed^ Perhaps the reader is inclined witL 
iii^(Si to 0<3i»8ider. thi« part of tbe representation as greatly 
^l^afM^ralietd. r Our host, however,, pr^esented one smalt 
ear^H vase wiueh a slave brought home, who ha<l been 
employed with^othj&rs in. digging near the ehureh at Yeai- 
kale. They foand a pit, eo&tiUEii&g a 4iione sepulehre, of 
^^e^ealirj^ aa^t, bat i^ a eyliadHcal form, sitaped Ilka the 
nsovith of a weif^ and eovered by a slab of marble. lo thia 
c^liBdet they .diseavored.AD aval ball^ the outside of wbieli 
was a iutiag of wjiite eeiaent resembling mortar. Wheii 
y^ey i^d taken oft' this exteciojur crust, tliere appearedit 
mrithio th«^ haili tbe amall «ariheii yase I haye mentioned, 
jfUled with asheS) and alosed by a representation of Medu« 
s^'a^haad, wrought in a suhstanoe aimilar to tbe cement 
^hich eovered the vase.f In their eare to cleanse the vect 
fe], they had destroyed almost every traee of some bli^k 
^HrQ$ upon its exteriour.jMirface^ From the rode strus^ 
tiHT^^f thUr^iick, a^nd tlte maaner of its interment, so dif- 
ferent from the.praetieo used by the Greeks at any known 
pi^iod of th^ir lusiory, or that of any other nation, it is 
impos&ible to determine what degree of antiquity it. may 
§|NMMiii#, After the refleotion, that full Iborieea hnndroil 
j^ii^.bt^pre oar era, a .eomraeree was earried an in tbis 
^0fiQf^;^y5 iuiaginatina may indulge in aonje^ores. caleala*- 
t«4f pih^dfr^ 4ftiit4vatt ttonversatien, hat ill anited to tha 
^^r of writings whose aim is to illustratei' rather tbap 
^aerplej^ tbo pf^ of hUtory. 

'^^»3^bou); four oiil«« from Yenikaie, towards the Meeotis, ol^ 
a^,rfiek. iidvati^oed m the sea, is the pi^nt on whieh the an^ 
^jpt Ph^rTos forasefiyatood ; and this spot Is still ealkd by 

•*»*'^Sife the Blctraet frota Motraye'i TraveU, iii f. ^T5 of tWs rolume. 

:; This <drtunistimoe is notieed in the acoonni of Ihe CaiuhridKe Utar- 
Aipipebd^ipJ 77 1 ^bere tbeireader imiliMl the Mbjetit «r ti^ re« 
iftlile symbol, and its yarport ki the He|itheii ^yt|»o)pjg;Y, briefly ^' 

m 



flfrS * CLJUMtB^S THAVKLf III T^MtAKY- 

tn pUlici*languas;e, implies a lantern pffighthousei. Thf 
ruins qf the old t'ouqilation ate still visible.. X^^ditiai) a3»- 
^^rtbes it to the time of JVlithridates^ and the modern 6re(sl(9 
generally hestow upon U the name of PIi^nariMitradiUt 
It was a Worii btf peculiar necessity, althx>i^§h Jqii^.^haii- 
Jbned; sliic?? vessel^ earning thfouglk the Straits .are ^lili^ 
ged to keep ijlose to the Crimeah coast, .for want pf-wfttir, 
towards the middle of the passage, as well as on the otlifjr 
side. Accidentf frequently happen. ', A large Turkub 
'^erehant vessel ran, aground upon the sballows 19 .^e 
-southern extreii^it;jr of the Bosporjus wliile wp wer^ tbe^; 
' ' and oue of the Uiissian frigates pfissinj up the Straitft} wit^ 
' three times slrknded fn view; of Fenikale* J ., . . ^ 

The B^edals «rf the Bosporus are. among the most rare ia 
the c;ahi9et». ot B^rQpe. . We 6Qlk^A.^a.f«w in.Yeaikft]^. 
Among; these were e^rtaii> of the BQ«pm*Un kiQ^^tlz.|»iie 
of iPserisades, in very small hronzei one of ^tteamates 
the First, in bronze, of the middle .si^e f, twai>f> Blifaeu^ 
'porifttlie First,' in small bronze; one of Mithraadaleilbe 
Second, r^tb^.Jiar^r^ and. others ^bqse raal liUt^ry it 
woiild havebeeii difficult to determine^ if it hadii«t b^en 
for4be ligitt tbrvi^n uboa tbis» by ^eMtni** Uf lbe4Mter 
^^ffrtpti^^n i« a smaU Wttxe ttiedal, havtn|^ in ft'^ntti; bitilt 
.. h!ttling9 and for the reverse, H Hmp hr H^ht tower,- With 
• the letters n API, , 'Jbis b proved by the Ainsley CoHeetion 
to he lit medal »f Pariam^ althoagh eainl^ mis(jak«nlur4itte 
©f tbe isknd of Pafos. We ebtained .|tho Mt»^ brcJnze 
medals, #hicb had evidently been derived, frpm the saine 
. colony, of Myisia, viz« an. imperial medal af Galbay I wo «f 
, jMi^tiDian^.ttud one of Lieinius-; also, a LatfTi/^9tffo«i«m0'9^of 
great rarity, fiith tbe' head of a ftornan ettipi-essln frot^t ; 
paving f^r the; reverjjf » an anipbora, vv^itb the Jetttri 0« J). 
. JDecr^tQjkQuriomum* Tbis: last wMiid 1iav*e beeto ^^oHy 
Inexpltimble to'mef hut forthe observations of theiearned 
Sestinl . upoti one of a similar tiature.t Qoncerning tbe 
l^epref entiktioa gii^t n« JxAm. -a fine »silv«r tetrftdJ^€bm^• of 
Mithradateo^theOriHiti, a«d a ^mall dt^^ 
tbeFh^tJt slr^^ld be, saidy ihstt 4be. eoina of 4hese kiifgfi 
. w^ere not strupk lii Bosporus, oeilber were they fofiiid there. 



" ' Vkok BOsVoaus ' TO o af fa/' • i7i 

fj^rtiinWIAciii, after' we leh the Crimed, in tht'haxars pf 
^CoHstanHrtG^ls. My observations upon ail of tlMm uitl he 
brief; tend even these must he reserved for a note ; because 
NairtfsiiMttiek dissertations involve diseussioH, tn itself 
tinffierefit'to i)ci*upy a volume.' The reader who maj winh 
to sree'the siibiecrtreated more at lar^e, wifl firul satis^ctory 
*fttforiViatiort in Cary^s History of the Ring's of ihe €imra*e- 
r^iati Bospbrus ;* in the posthumous ^ork of Yaiilanl ft tho 
'Wsserl^tion of ^oueiet;| anily^bove alK in the second vo- 
^iim^^bf Eici^hU ^ writing which, iflhey do not compensate^ 
^erVetif t'l^ndei' less Sensible the loss Hterafure sustained by 
^-thretdtardtmlhilafion of those records of Trogiis Pom pe'iusi 
^Hi'hielfmighti^avedi^pell^d'the darkness in h hiah the Bos* 
iporian dynasties 'are involved,^ 

.* 'tl!lfttQh<eidef lUit (k Bl6«|^bove tXtnmerittu TJt\9^ 1 7t& q[aaitO. 
^'■'i-'Aeinnir^nidiiiiim Imp^iritim^'ftivQ Regam PonU, Bospoii; kf. tfic- 

^ yniafe. dlHfabl! d^' Kdtt dtt Bosij^Hone ClmmerionVpar fkMoiciet! Pant» 

-«i9^.^kito.'' i' N' ••• ''"•;•• "^ , 

*■ f >l06f ^a^ KViradran^ V^^ert^n^. k Jos^ tc\M, Tmt I. vol U. p. dSO* 
:iVid<Uibon4.t7l»4:qiidrto.. . >' » : ^ 

J-- «f kH>tte*!Tfedais^rt!lie'6nfily*6r1ilklr!af8fecV, vMhcrTcbigsoft^ontb*, 
. 'Imrtp. tbe^ sulijvnitioiv'of^ t&e BcS^ttwt, cA* Mioeeisoori Y>rMithriAAe« 

'<be grefit. llftv-e th^iv pwae i#rkten .MJa?AAATH:f, md aot MiQPlA- 

A TOJ. It Ts, therefore^ ejstraoixlmarjj. that the learui^ yritersto whose 

* ' %oi^^ I'WvA so "recently refert'ed, wiili VnU foet b^i9i*e th'^ir eyes, continne 

' «lKr«crni|ifeed i>rtiioc;iiii^, And wt-iee JkfitiBftnMiiM, - %4)ictt fi certaiulr 

«. .AOi.oAl^ertwe«i)4^ ^m ivhplly inooniistent/wHH tlir tme ^Httntal et^^mof- 

oof of th<^ ^o'^i . Neither are raepair tkc only idoow&fiStf wMijh A^BBrd 

'^iiwlority €<ft wini^^ li' MitKr'nddtei'; 'as tW inscrip^oua ox^ fereek roar- 
> ^levSeaf tkt ttam«^le|^tid/ If isartifl^is^^ heW«t'ei*i i^bich begata ^hb the 
iJ^OQianf Ihefpselveei and has conUaoed fi^errsmee. .The «^me people 
. vho, wrote MaseiUa. (o^ M^:^X^A^A, wd JI«faoftni«?«»'%, .MAi5AN- 
' 'ASXAj* *nd deduced A^A^enium Ti-om "A'^"l*ArAj,*wouVJ, of cpufse, 

* WrSfe <W»Ai4ifetft* f(Jj« ^MKdl^AA'ATHS'.:-' With' fhe" exception «f the nor- 

V ]\nStmf (^leiStnft^r, I iJiink Itiere1»b6loantefaioee ertpress^ oA Al4(IaI» 

- jr,>^„ 



'-' lietongsiofli^ series rif the ftrrt 'And second dynasty, in \yhich the si^cees* 
*j'Mtoh' (WltttiHef oil thevarehffifttiacifi)«r^ Vej^niti^ whIHheyearof K6ti^ 207, 
and ending 309, or with the more immediate pi^edecessors of Mit)iijidate8^ 
^•'Ibbmr Spartii^'to PteriM^s) tewBttotwdet^rai^ned. ' MlthriiidHies^gaa 
his reign in Bosporus by the e<^<Mi «r. PvoMdec* iQthe^year>'or Rome 
639 viz. One hundred ami fifteen years before Chritt« .Xhe %)«poriBii 
era begins with the year of Rome 457 (viz. two hundred and ninety seven 
years before Christ) au4 eDda ia the tine of CoMUntiac tbo W^^ '^ 



^ ' I» i%e rfiort dMtanee fraM Yeiii|Eal^*t« MtkrU^, yiAMk it 
Httle more than eleren versls, or seven Eof^^lMh mtits, wo 
«Hserved upon (he elifts above tlie Boiporns! many remaiiw 
)Of atitieiit buflffio^s; and the prodigious nimiher of taoniK, 
firhich every u^here appeared^ eould only be eomnaredtotho 
Jioduleson Che onttide of a pine-apple. About halfway on 
4he ri{!»tit hand side of the road apfieared a staUmD of Itoie- 
^one, hewn in a semi-circttlar manner, so as to present «a 
urea, the sides of which were thirty feet perpendieuiar. la 
the middle of this area yve found a deep well, hewn in the 
tfolid rock. The Tartar peasantsneav tt assured us, that 
Us sides were (hose of a vast cylinder of marble, buried in 
4he soil; but it was evidently a channel bored thnragh the 
roek. The work must have required great iahoucthf depth 
to the water being at least fifty feet, without including the 
further depth of the well, which we were not able to ascer- 
iiii ti« T he Tartars draw water from i t for thei r sheep and 
goats, by means of a leathern bucket. 

The town of Kertehy, standing on the side itf tiie Undent 
P&nticapseum, is now reduced to extreme wretchedness and 
iasigni&cauce. It was, not long since, of considerable co&iie«* 

^at lUe monarchj eontinueU at least eight handred years. Jt is proper 
to pay particular attenilon to tliis circumstauoe, as many of tlie Bosporiati 
IDirdals have their dates upon the obverse side. Thracian medida haro 
the same peeu&it^ity : but there is an easy method of distitignishiDg a 
^hraciaii fi-om a Bosporian medal. Upon the Thracian, the Omega Is 
-»rlUe.ii 1*, and the Sigma ^, Upon the Bosporian, the Ofnegfi it writ- 
tea a> and the Sigma C. B^ due attention to this Very evident enteriOi^ 
jouch confusion may be avoided. 

Polemo the first succeeded to the throne of Bosporus twelre or*thirteen 
Years before Christ, The medals of this king are extremely rarei Th^ 
head of Marc Antony, or of Au^stus, generally appears upon the obverse 
Hide, to whom he was indebted for tlie kingdom. . He was |>rie8tof a tern* 
pie in Rome coosecrated to Augustus, as aupears by a curious inscriptiou 
^irescrred by Gary. [^Hish dea Hois du Botphore, p. 41. ] Immediately 
sifur PoleiTiO, succeeded Snuromntcs the first ; upon whose medals we see 
tlie interesting representation oi* tlie regalia sent fiHUU Rome lor Ins coro^ 
ii&tion. The Icttei's MH, in a wreath or crown of laiire]« have not 
liilherto been explained. The medals of this king, whether in ttlver or 
bi%>u£e» oresoritro as to be considered almost unique. fSee Heklttl, 
Duct. J\ urn. Vet. \o\. II. p. 370.] Sauromates, as well as his successour 
Hlicsouporis the fust, took the name of Tibei'iut JuUu*, to which an iii- 
scvtiittou nt Tainan i^efers. Pelleiin bus preserved the legem! on t^is 
jiicdal entire'.' T . lOTAiOr BACiaEaC CATPOMATOT. Saaroiuatcr 
jitid' R}te&eu])driB were kings of Bosporus only. Rheseuporis reigned id 



• in tli-c thirty cigh^year of our era ; after whom,' A . D. came Mitlinuialei 
the second. 



'^N&reralvf^ftttabltMttfivHlefttro'yedf-iio lets than five tlM«- 
tend lioiise«i &teb4ttitsif»Mi0^ tJbe4«gai«eat.Bf (be 8osp»* 
rli^tt lElii^v«^ee4iM» HntitMe «f Milhmdales, will ever he 
^bnn^ered an kiKereft^iii^^'if n0t4ui4mperU8t piaee, for t be 
#ei^arebes bf lb0 liist^imii. OQr«fit8titiqHiryamoag the^w 
Qreefes settled Hifere wa^^lvr medals f and seiperai wete 
%roit$kV bat, foMbe-mest pari, so maeb injured astebe 
afeareety worlbtietiee<' 1 obiakied ane^ however, ia bronze, eT 
^diifereifftdesertptta«^, wbieh ^Wf0 me f he^%hest ^atlfieai^ 
t»b f fM-«fter bestewiaar » Uttlereare iri.reiaevtng^'the hard 




II 

Dpeai!* 

^Ihebead-^f^one'of^tbe Bdsporian kim^ ; aodfortrie re* 
Tiftrse, a'hee«e'graffTOsf5 wHb ibe'legead befe given. • 
^' 'Tbet^adifietrs'^f Kertchy are in.direet eeatradietion ^ 
history .* for they relate Hot mily that Milliradate« died here^ 
bat that ht ifasbbried a8hort'di»^anee€retti Ibe tawo, where 
^Mitvfstiif pf^tend (0 abow hie temb.f It ia, perhaps, a Mile«^ 
Stan natk; brit its liei§»fet aadeiae are se remarkable, Ibai 
it is scarcely possible to beliere it the result of human 
labour. Among the Greek inhabitants of Kertehy it bearS 
i^e nttme of the ^mb of Mithradates* The Russians are 
liot contented With' show'Sng bis tomb; they aise point out 
his palaee, and conduct strangers for that purpose to tha 
lop ef a iriatural hill or mountain above the tows. They 
deceived general Suvarof to such a dea^ree when he visited 
the place, t}iat being told it ivas the seputehre ef so great a 
&ero, the veteraa soldier knelt upon the ground and wept; 
We visited that which is pointed out by tiie Oreeks^t is four 
▼ersts distant from Kertehy? o^ar ^^^ road leading to Caffii. 
The Tartars call it Miyn O&o, and have a tradition that it 
aontains a treasure, guarded by a virgin, who here spenda 
ier nights in lamentations.^ It stands on the most elevated 

* Eekhel {[voi. II. p. SJ notiee« the siune remarkable ]^ge&d» as^ad 
5in the medalB of PanticapsBum. 

<, f MUhr^uiate8,aecordia^ to Appian^ yas buried by Pompey at Sm^e» 
M&OPg the sepukhres of his aneestorft. 

t See Pillas's Trayeb, ▼ol. II. p. 281. It is worthy of oUerratkm, tliat 
Fallas, being |kahTe to reeprteiFe tals sarprisingtumuhuiritbany referenet^' 
to the real his!^ crfHhefrite^tft^toI'Mithradates, or bi» own oocioiif of 
prohalnUty m an artifidi^ beapj endeavotun to acoOtiot for it by a tiat^til 
Ippoecfls. 

Bb« • ' ' ^^-"-■'' 



mien niimd. Oae tMtig eooicttnHBg tfafe u«iiiiili»if iviirjr fee^ 
mm9hM9r aiWI imiy «)«firai> tli« 'fieHofi'itii^erlitiiiedliof'iU 
ffftifieMdiOrtgiik It irvlaaedeiMetlyapttiijkhcTAihimvl^olii 
tiintiill tlie inner bairierof tlm Boifvr'Mni ^enfike; ; ^kii 
worl?ttiU»siit»iitati€ntlire* ftlatey >bdvid|f<«i'oMfei»l'r«at^ 
«|iil4>assiMg^ aefOM iMs pAit-ofilM peiiibsoki ihjAnirtitiBdlf 
ilrtetkfr'INi^ iht AliM Obo/to tlte>Scb. df jLasofj '< dewenil 
•tb€r^«iiifilar'lM!apft'oras4JMlt9kbi|; fine sr^/idilsated nnc 

Slatni tielow are' oftV^red with atlifehi4i€smaiM iaoUaiMoiHi 
rhefe'is y«t4i«»lhe^<iifc4mgtaiMt'W|^ctfaji)ofiiM>t|ae«s( B'ea 
^otid ilie^vaUiffi^ to (He ^Hieit ib<^e a««:Bai4iifinIi$iAlUioi|^ 
tilt? are «o tttfmi^/iiift'^Q ils eatfftenr gide^ fthatlaita«a^y'.«A 

ttrvTatifc)^ iif'aU MM jduvMy taward«>iCaf»; am^ b«rar« 
Itrpfvlttt*^ a« that plat»e,'l]le3r'alti^tiiei;indlpjifftP^ » Afiterti 
^ards, lir^««4ta^ to f li« >Bife 4f ^fifiiitr* <Cf««H5(^|ie^ »«| 

^k4)a$ usi/ftl ia aii^SetitttHftuli^ ititl mtyBhsf wamsfilul 
i«»f4. * I(g I gid«l pile(«eii< tliat^atiffMadods ttMRUMry ^ifJkiiUi'ii 
'Witn ik ihe walM of^Titynfc, 'hear Ai^M^^iir 4Ae> Mat0«it 
"Mfa^e'inthveiK^^'uMiuiipeir maHireBof stone «mieilplfcMeK44<if 
f^t%er'\tithoQteemeiil^ ae40rdia|^^tifeir aasii^eplal bnaa 
4rk4 we8(«<i^n«iM^ is'eiitire, altketigh thetollwfe.ikaw^fA^ 
* leu. Lookin^tfamir^tlie tiiterdtifeea;aiid ya,wii«9»ttliaaiRl 
lif tflls ttfiil«iitl^ -AitdexttitilHinGt lhe:ekciit«tfott»/iiiifedei^[HiB 
its ettmmitywe foandtt^ like the Cairat ttf Sca^hMid^tar«(Mir 
Wet whi^iy ef stbnee 4»eftped toj^ejihetf katifaii eneliMir 
'kef^a>'ed jamot^ ar^iietal'canetraetio.n^ and eihl^ilifliOiLtf^ 
'i4al9«f f^reater ttia^itttdei it keuu bi Jii^veikQea (baMl- 
^mo'^tW^^Vin #hiek tkeeelieapewfonetiiTiuiedfU^ ,lu»Bg 
%tefi«fi, ofe* parcele i^i- earth, frem-alipahs.eCtilif^sQoiiaMy 
•leTka't'emb'of a'tieoeasedsoirereigi^'fir oearrehMtileo. ./ip 
•jBa<ta^t(ifte^pena-graVe^wa^«Miaei- of lo^lly ^ jpiMiKS 
-Md a t»tym<^ of IVieadeliip ot« affeOtiaR in the aiirthaf S^iM- 
Uttd^HVtieistft, \^hieh impKes, << IwiU amP.a aoM^^tfim 
:thy cafm'i'' but Cheliean «o rainkl eonsrsted.af Jbetfegl* 
'^eoog «iibdtkTree^; granite and Hmeetosev f raeaH^t^taf vOi- 
' eantekroekr, pebbiei^freni the seeabore, mid fr^ni ihelHMli 
of rivers, promUeuotisly anxed^ and f i^e^pieatljL eo^eHMl .lur 
,et}pe^ineinab^Bt^artki Staneewere geaMiUjlttae4iii pAI- 

- ^^ ^'•»^<»^i> »r» Pallaa, tlt^' tmciciit fiimmerium i (1'vavelS/i(( the l^cwjh 

oFTUwia/Torn; jj. acoylin tt^rc se<!i)ftimiri'eiari0 li«rike* ^m^jm^^. 



Hib J%R,Moman9tt.«i% idJiiftbeiilHMl^lilAamil Md IJb^* 

ti|upeii«Uat0*lmi<nteri«iir •fithU linqieii^^ i^le.. . H^ke T«r* 
iMTs^ lHiiiratBied;ki tviUn Itrnffael: <% p»9i»s?;<JM th^ 4Um« 
AtHioiaoDii^lKin^U tfaqr prd«f*ftd», aqd/ mni^^ tt^rlajbopir 
tiMiij^i |[«^ tfacyi.liaflleijA/iradMlm^r Unit .%b jeotr^ne^ wm 
«ii«d4eeo«iB4ipiieA;('ftiKirpr6t'e^ Uie ieterifivt 

it^li$^r«tttt*]«iUift;the|ri8lio<iMi'iW0iQ|l ^^lf^#i)Ml ^tMifiuig 
rliniriif otAfeiT^jM|lilp«Albe.A^^iebAi(U ,o^ tl|Q B(i«p% 

•iUiLilfl(ii4ippMM#iii«»iio)f^i^^ft jp Mb^c^^wbd: wiioli bUtH) 
4u»S4bmed«AdiNibj«ikdio.iJ^irii|imiPti(^ .,„ a . « 
tt^-^^nr'fatfwlkbtttkftitvpiiif tb4^%ii Oft^M Si44«f ^fi^ml 
^'tb^Onmkmi»- h rMs0i»f,!ti«iiIar :l|«9#«)o^tJi|||^»iailf 
timloDrf ndff&Mi wliiift Ihif liif»HU|» fttiMi4»9tbe,wJi<d9 nvajr 

^tto mkUfAt^i^tdd mf iksi^ BQ«|ior4l^ii9 wan ipl^^,« . t b^t ifi t^ 
^|ll9s/iupbnUke#prao^lW!«t|au)rl)4^ i^.wtmo^ JMLil^qidMf^ 

aSino>o«lifeffi«pot4«»nii»(^iwitKabQ^Jii^:p{ l^^<^^Pf»a#» 

^t>t%ftis«ide of lihe^lfak. X^ieipftl^fNii^l^ J^itWadalesi^My 
*telLllf^fllballHitpr,;«lbM»i«ft; .^^DdrUie.tr&f^ of Jt^^(»4i^di^ 

^^kKb({|*«ikiji kko.& <ivtiri»;9l|iri)^^ ^Qjie^jf .tl^ 

^tdMPkPtfael im«§|ii^4iiMr« <4MlJMP^» i^()^PHiCkl|o.t s 9 Hme 

JL\,iji tb^ nearest to the Hpeietator in the series $ the pretended 



the wesif, arid TchiriediarMy im tlte%atiri#r M' vuliviif, lnjkf&4 
Which, as stated before, ihnh^ mon^n^eifts eeMe it appear. 
It was surrounded, near the^vfertei: <if its ebti^, iHth n eir«ir-' 
lar wall of stones, plaeed re^tilariy together, btttMitlnrot 
aHy cement. Part 6? it is stHl eiffirc?? fttfdv pefkapsj tke 
whole was formerijr eov^.r^ by a dome, ot whiek the w«flf 
was ori^inHlIy the base t for extfotly «ifdi «ttolhtr wfcllsbr^ 
mounted the top of the tamalot, ok^n ^aWtd 1^ - Bdi*r&wp 
of iSlchiites, in the plain of Troy. ' Beyondtbift rid^,aiHl 
tnese tombs, the View eomprehiirids the whole of tli^Ciin*' 
merian Bosporas, the hiirbdf^r of PaAtieapeeom, the oppo- 
site eoast of Phanagorfa, JPr^to voltoivo, iind a ^«at Tari>> 
cty of obiects, aiti on g which, attfat time we* were there, the 
passing fleets of Bdropeinriind Asintick tnerehsiBfts fb*om n\\ 
the ports of the Black 8ea, the Anihipelago, and th^ Med- 
iterranean, were not the least* tntere^tnig. ' Dn nl 1* the rfSt^ 
tant promontories towards the easC,orer all the plahi» bc4otr, 
and wherever else the eye ^daid roottK^ eseept be}H>Bd*th6 
Bosporian vallum, appeared the ancient tumuU mi ofUm 
described. These tumuli, as w^lt as thehntis, were ecrwred 
with wild thyme, which swarms of loeast»wei%de<reln*iii$i - 
Th6 earth seemed also alive with a speeiesdf tdad, dftseii*' 
bed 1[)y Pdllas, ealled the Rafia varmbilis <5rawfin|^ti)i tf 
the very summits of the hifi;fhest hilbt It haiS*: a'-smoothcfr^ 
skin than the eommon tna^, is smaller, -more -aistive^ tfnd 
eovered with round spots, whose beavtylessens-the'di^Mt 
of beholding the most deformed and hMNrible* repttietn tudi ' 
abundanee.* ' . • . • » 

There is, perhaps; no plaee tn theCrraiea^' wlm#'tfie 
traveller Will find so many antiqnitiea aatft-KerCiidiy. The 
peasantsr gladly exehanee, ibr« feweepeeks, lAemBbiest . 
coins which thev haVe diseoVered in the'soitl; ihA wiM«'«f 
the tbwn are fhil of 'broken and elitire inarhfe»,'with baa^ • 
reliefs and inseriptions negieeled or Hiined. Bom^- of the' 
latter are used-as steps berate thef di^rsof their h«HMf9,*«r 
serve, as at Yenikale amcm^ ofher materiafts^r biHldiagw 
Many of the inhabitants have pdaeedaiieimil Greek mal*hli^ 
^ver their doors bv way of ornament ; but without any know^ 
kdge of their real aature, or even common attention to the 
]ftbsitioB of thefieures; so that they are seen in all diree<- 
tions, sometineslying sideways in a wally or^wholly in^ 
verted. A number of interesting relieks. of this kind were 

* T^ Mqtia ri$tisma iji vigo i^vnd^fGieBtfy ia tbi? part of ^ Cfi- 



.Mwmi^min ai#jM*itiift 'vo^pAwgi^ s^, 

arrive^; tbr ibey «ad eo]le«^«d them a» snbtfaiices for the 
Yepttti'sof llie church. I purfthas^4 three Terj remarkable 
sfab$.of antique marUeywUh the yAew af ftendin); them to 
Oalnbndge.; bul a dispute arifiui^ amoDf; the proprietors 
eoneerntns the drnftioa-Df the fenaof y^ the hatpin vta% set 
aside^ aad the marbles -were^ detaioed. They^ have since 
been described iathe woiik puUislied by JPailas, after his 
Travels in the Baath of Russia^ where the reader will also 
find the«i aeenmlely di^inl^ted. Mn T^iedddl, ofTriuity 
Cali^e^.Cambii4s^ h^ raeently^ visited this copntry^ and 
he left with Praf^ssov Pallas kis^own i^autifnl transcripts 
of every tosertptioafoaQd herei.fj^n^ which docvments they 
w<M^piihli8hadVjp..ihefPr«»&ssor>hut without any iliustr^- 
tion; tkeisifiarldba^ag lost, in Mr« Tweddeli's untimely 
deatk,'jaidrlhe subse^piaa4difapp«sai*an«e of his journals at 
CaasHaittinoplev In I7a9>, as. yet. anetipMunedy all the iofor- ^ 
matimi 'his g^at . ftniaireoieats enabled ,him to afford.* 
Upan.th^^ hasrelieft 4if tke^BespATiis, the remarkable repre- . 
aeotatieoi af an eqnaslriaaigare^ attended b^ a. youth, is sq 
aftent^esated^ that- it oii^t aat to pass withoiLt observa^ ^. 
tian; hiit.tt liashitherlareeei<ired4iQexplanation.t Perhaps^ 
apasfa^ia Ii<a*oiiiituft maytkKow so^e light upon the 
saMeet. . He rdsitei, that (he SeytJkiaiMi MUed their slaves . 
and finest horses^^and after taking oat their ^ntrails^.stufied. !. 
iham yidih straw, and set tkem.ujp^ as enuesirian igures in 
hoaa&rofttlieirkta^|.« f . 

It is from P^atieapceum'that the imi^inary Anaehax:sis of ^ 
Bart^i€«6|y £» ^aaid t» Have emh^riced far his travels in 
Gnseee. zlera aho^ m aaeieBt' ttmeg^ ste^ a temple of * 
JEaeaiapiua; ht wjueb was preserved the veiwel , of brass/ 
meptiomad la the Anthaioeia, ashavilis harit ineonsequence , 
of a sevarefroalopoa the Bosporas»$ l^aay futare traveller . 
ahaiild look far .the. site of that: temple wh^a the present.^' 
elwreh of Kevtefay staadky be will ftot, perhaps^ be far froiji j 
the^ truth. Upoa the intmdaelioa.i^ Christianity, espje.-r ,. 
eially ineottmriei^ wkare il wholly, sapartedj^d the aaeiei^t ^ 

* See the observations which occur iti the Naval Chronicle, vol. XXIU.' "J 
p. 51, eVitlciiitly written by an eye-witness of the faotB wbkh herelates.- ; » 

•f One ofthera is preserved among th'e Caiiibrige ftiatbtes.' Seetfce * 
accottut pohKshisd it tli<? tJniverwty Fpcm, 1 8«S o«ta*t)j pp^ 4, ff.- • : 

*' "' * + Hfcrodot: Melp/rs. ' * "^ • ^- ''^ 5 •'• 

' v ' '.~:j A!r«holbgW'^ittn«lR*^ti>li*iO[.p,^i.. .> ..,.,\ .^ » •■ 






hmA diedilieceal>a.«aiiWttptflMYoiite^yearsl»ieftiire,ul9d 
|pt^ e4Qpi^ieidi» EmtiAiidf «He*d€8^rAted<llte^iiigceiu^-Es 
me whQ. iMbd emplanrM tall tlie kittei* pa^- oMils life itt wr^- 
' tin^ anaoffomit nf .lh»Attliiquitie»ofllie'OYiiiieft'; ^hio $e!« 
4om teoAvtnedi^ Ihi4 apnifr aU'4iw*tiaie in cltfs« lep^i^tioi 
to kis gtofi0»9 49d ttkimatel3f^^e4 of wftirf; «lili^Q«gh ht 
woald not aekiMi^ilf^Q iMdiaH^n/ We^sited Hk oottagfe 
where his effi^ota w^m pr«Berwd.« > Near a witkdb^ h^ aa 
odd Toiuve^ Ai!iialto.|. and .tint >%¥«» i^Mitid 'hi Im' th^'oiilj 
hoal^ r«sar?e4 lar U^ Iftltt Iminiy aH the reM ii«^^fo^k3ed 
apby.hbisdf. aftJborltimeii^eM^lmMHH. itf m cbnier 
•I hk misanaUe |»td*«oaai^^ibodl'aii- Bn^isk tr(tfik,-wHb ih 
loek turned towMda4.l|»«««ii Tli«tild«waMaht>f thtfliftase 
•aid «he wad afriud la.oMive^h. .Wliea^)*^^ fnfne^ It,' we 
found U sealad^and&fiaptfr Ikaikimi^eHii^ tiie^l^Mt', Vilh 
a loncyvrUtef iabe«||tiaa la^taodimi' Oiiedcrjifarpbrthrg 
that the tniak fthoaM te Hient *aiioi^«iled to IR9*brol>e^ ^t^ 
Cop»taatiaoylfe ;. whaahw>t^iq uwcilta t#ly erd^Nnl tb Wddne* 
Theinseiijitiaii ended witlft moBaelii^^theT^ns^aYfce'of ti\ 
the aaiatfrtiid devib'io the wreteh -wf o «fi«ttd dare td hreitk 
the «eal9 iuui«iMfpiel lk»6oRteiitref the trunk; 

> Ej^terins thelbnresi^ miw^H Aiiti»« ure ^awhefare ^e gftto 
. a beautifurniachie f^nlain, said to'be- th« wtirk of Tu?ks $ 
liut eoiap#fed af jACftaC'ViaierhiN, tanid bf^Mlileh exhi- 
hited Tarklili dbaraetten^aiid^tftfieraOreekifiiK^riptfong of 
,aM>re remold ^4ta. - Over thto'^nfrattaee ia ofie of trie large 
marble Uoas /nfeeii^Mwdiii a^brmtr^ws^^lhe'detiees of 
Yeaiee or Geiioa^ aad ;iiiafWe «olif«ivn%, VitK'fi''ag!iieMs of 
marble eetabkttiifee^ KeHaeattevcd abeei^ e^i^fier upt^ti the 
•rauad, 'Oraeiani^. the atmws Aiied'Ifi'^reMln.^ tliV waits. 
irVithlo this forirtse ttands the ehureh/il smf^irbttlldihs of 
conii^erabk aoliqaity. The fiietiites ' s^sficfiided * bn m 
walU . ai^ aniwu^ the «arlte«t'. prediietiens jof* Oreeiati art 
i)ro:ught.iiite the Ransiaa emiiire, atiiFin^baMV t^o^^T ^if h 
Uie iiiliroduetioni^ Clirifitaaiiitir. Funr marme pillar^; of 

the Uorinlthi^effder^nifi^art t4ie reef of fhhrbnilmns; tL°V» 
aeoor^iBf^ 4a'ao ineei^|nf«Mi Upon one of tTtem, thechureh 
, wa^ e|^et«4itt Ihe jrear alter Adaai ^M6: i^hith Axi^xeri^ to 
.747 or aac cfw I a hulkiippjvthe refer e, 6r hiv^ antkjaitvJa 
^/^^iataiv^af Chri^yanilyy.attd^proting^tlie extetft^ofita 



-s 






pillars of the same kiiidL;f4MoA viMwe tiiMm ■ Tli^ ipHegts 

an^ 11^ Jttib|i4^»PW^iMig*^^A«B»^'fe die««fVi«e 4t tfie 
e]bu^9(i^ ^d ^1 pf;i0i|Q4.Ytrikii hlid«iqt|rti0d ik »IIM«. Tfffe 

f^iliftV^)!; it# <^f|i«tlio|| im& iiievtitiMe^'^^ere tt lay, amff, 
jperliap%fiyhUei^« ill wiiUeS) it etk^ 
. .Jjmfmiiffif. i|»a4» Ja> **^ »fe« tiwwil «f tlie Oimea dtrring 
tHc; v^rfom i«viilatilii«^««Air«q«ieiitP«iNMIge«f1fihat^lta'nts 
^i^l^ipill^ Ji«j,#iiiMlil^kafte^ ttaiiiltlfated allTiost 

i.;.-:i^_::: ■■■:'■■:.:"::: 

i^e^ o| li4^ri^rii , Mflke RwriMM^ I "dam Bilt men1iKk)i 
.Ib^liigh laHthflorUy .M wkMl tlM'tniil» ^f tli<Hr Kati^nal 
.id^ar^t^,w^r^4eliViantd io ne^ at. Uie tiMe i am ^ndaetii% 
'tJbt^ p4ri<of.;i||j,,tj0iii^ifil« Jtis^iiffii^iittosay, one, wiro 
tiefl^t.KDiew t^eii%^ri»edidi«l.tlierer'««»iio eliaraeteHsfiek 
ef i^R.u$«jsMini^sf$iitrtlcttg»tk«ti H»at«f wantoaiy deistrD}- 
ing;]Hr)mteyeriapii2«dky»i^i9bteBec^iii!l4eiM. liilC«rte1iy, 
after IeveUiDg,V)k^liefaMrUi£ve .himdiiied htMiieir, iMj left 
abftujt 4hir|,y pour sbopiiyMi lha»iiiid»t of Ihe rttioi, w&ose 

Q^jiejfs it ij.^ivda%,pilii6tiae.t«4cfratid. • Fahe i!r^a|i 
Jbe^r |;wUi^k^ga9»iiv»ai4fM wellattaFtlietr pHr«tetreath!f 
^tl^fejr |8sais4 (^ijd^air^f impiUit»6i«di «ier«kaiit9 1« fieitte m 

(he iQWpi,biU,ii9;aiMN9(»e kwi tkeg^/delatiiM pedpte ^ted 
^tbei;^ wimtheir fanilifiay tkan tke jM i idtoi i^ pdwd^dewp tBe 
.I^^MSf^s ab9ti|ft)^kW»l'WNtar«ttke vamettnleiither ifi- 
i^iimidatuig.aij^ores^io eonpm^hciti to hili^er dmiet, tfiati 

j^^J^e vea of t|^ AMs#iftl»4li caM t iwB t kave patd/to #tioiii no 
/^j:jpim)$ioi|g/t|^dbeemafie#tdi^. TI1119 niMrlfed and plah- 
*derea9 jtlie pppir^8^l^r«&|» dem&nded pcnaiMieB to leaTe 
.' ibe\pe|^b|yi!r; ^biek:Wii» pofitivjely refiMed^ It may 1|a 

^skod-why tou'little b»a, b^ kkkeitoflMidfr plikliek ooneer- 
' mn^ Aft xfi^X ebaraeti^r of 4lita very.pnyfligate people fio 
'.VL'Dicb ik^ an^wef is, tbattkorats no aowitvy wkere tudi 
;. pjPkioi b%ve'b<^ QQifdiifed tii fNT^resttt. ^IlMireiii notkiiig 
\ Jn whieb tbe iate€«tli«ria«r employed ao aaweM artlie^, £1 

In kie^ing seereHhe tjnie biat^rjr of iitr own p^oplej a«4 
"%h^ wm}^^iii^jd ^mj^n.. l%tf Jn Vrfiiit h mil 



hm wmtapwiiBeg^wHh VtdliatlM^ iitalLto>4iiilrMlitM4o 
ker nimfttersy in the gl&nii^ fakieb«Kids pijil»lt8iied by her 
lured wri((Mrst Imt parliMlaiiy. i« Uw .w<irk; »iie^~ will^ ber 
•l^tft, {Kit K^ber, iB;«ii»wer to tke writiiig»j^f th« «bbe 
4e i& Cha]»pe. A |iarly of her samns were eiu^ftf^d ^ «e- 
«omfNbny ber in a Toyttf^idAWii Ihe Velf^; as ihty <«ai|ed 
idoiig, »ke caiMued that irork to 4>e read, «rery aae preeent 
bein^ called apaa to eoptrtbiite sav^tbingi^ eilhet of smart 
criticism^ or eoatradietoi^ remark; aad Iks Rote^eoeoji^t- 
ed, beingp afterwaffd« |^ toother bjr the eelebratod Miishia 
J^uakin^ eoa^tkuted the work wbteh bear« the title ^^^ The 
Jlntid0i;eJ* 1 reeeiTedthis taforiBalioa fnooKmeof tb^i>er- 
laas who was praieat-with her u^oathat oofoeiaaraiidf who 
ako added ht«r share ta the andertakia^* Nofhia^ can; be 
mare deeeltltil than the grtara whieh plajed about tfaa eoart 
e^ Petersbarf^ ia the time of lratheetaa«\ tHo«pou»frf|feBe 
af improFeoKat saoaied to be Ahe sahjeoi of 4«ily i9>»vac«a- 
lioa^aad were indi^slrioasly Dtropagfated ia fereigaaauatrles, 
aat aae of wbiek was earried iata^Seet^ Theyeaasied c^y 
a|ion paper, Ilka thetfoopt whieh Raftsia ofte^ affeeta to 
^M^ier apon her .f raattere ; or like, the aaoi^rooe f^oFem- 

. BieBtft aod i^rtsoae, wha^e aanes; serve to- oeeapy the vaid 
epaees apoa the maps of ;h»- deiolate lerriitories. ^ 

Gould there, he fooad a aat^ve of Raesiaucwtth a.paaejan 
for literature, who, to a knowledge of the Tartar lan^af^e, 
added also that of the oiodern Greek (and many of the Bas- 

. eiaas §peak both these lan&uagea with fiueney) the Griiaea 
would not remain long in toe obsearity whiehaipceaoniin- 
volvea it» aneieat top^raphy* Utifortaaately all iteiee 
whom Catherine employedrto travel throiiffb her^domjaions 
for purposes of .seieaee, were either ioTeiy eeeatiied ia 
natural history, or employed, more poUtieaUy« ia pfepjsrltig 
splendid statistleal aeaoaats of the most wretoh^ provin- 
ces.* Alinost all of them were destitnte. of any .eia^fti^l 
infor mat ioa. . Pallas's &r^ and favourite study Mas jfioaJiag}r ; 

• Professor Pallas was among the number of those who became a ^c- 
Htt' t» the oonsequetices of their own too fiivouraWe reffrfesaitatkHis. -Hiv- 
ing p«Ui«hed hM « Takieuu ife la Xburt«fe»" la-iobefi -at Petersbm^li w 
,1796, in which h^ deaeribes the Crimea as a teriYsptrial pM^iae (oc to i|se 
his own words in the dedication to Zoubof, as " cette belle Tauride-^cft- 
te province 9i hettreiiienleitt dtap^^^epeuP toutei kt cUlPurer oid nitmqiietU 
tneore t^ ^ emfii^ <k MiuHi**')4ike einpifiM mnt 4im4»»e8U<; ^hmttnuptm 
.ma. estate which she.gare hiip,.and whei'e. wie Cound hm^ ms h^. hinMcdM*^ 
fesseil, in a pestilenUa! air, die dupe of ttic sacnfioe hq ^4 mKde to fir?^-. 
»0^ ha sovereign. -^ . , * "^ 

i ', •• * ,; ■' . i »«, ';' ,. 'J •'■ tiyfi'S* i .« • ■ 'J,U> Jf.,u i? •* 



vn^m^mm ■ •■ ■iiiiuij «• sa-vya. 



.iM^V* 'WlMn Ik tmmbAib rt»ide in tbe -Crinieft^ 'lie *«>«• 
,l«>oiftpai^aBfiediiiT«ar%amllMiweakiii bedltk, todelil- 
fcste'^t^ humm to «thfir {nmtiiff, or Jie Might frame •oeleijbji- 
4e<l iMrgcly «a tmr •Isdc of islbraHbtHMi. UkhenCe^' Ibivt 
*<wlwBhlHi64coB.p«bltfliK(l «oaeefRiii^ ik% a/dmgmfkj,tmd 
. »witiif«Mes^ol* tlie DriiBea, ha* been -wrttian iy pe^aim inh# 
«Hrvei» «rl^lid* Ihtf eamtcy. Th«8c who liara vinitad k were 
•tmfeftanataly adllMr gaagmiihem aar aaitMtimriaa. 
. -^il^lcftKertehy,Md praeeeded tawMNlft Gaffieu Mu» 
therffeond iiatatMi we p a aacd aaather aneieat baaaAiry or 
f^ffMtw^' like (iMt w-hteb haa bees daw ribed before, an whiah 
<«ia^ beiKaaaftted the traaaa af tarrata thaft^tveae pbeedakrog 
'^ii4a«eaimd barriar of the Batpariaw. la all thia mate 
-are»fa«tid so other dwelliiigt than Tartar hute^with eaith 
>#aar9, 4f^' eatnuMa'to whiah- was aoiaw. that we could 
• aaareety gain admittanee^ ^wilhaat araafiiig.a{iaB aAl-foanr. 
'The^aat^areiB wmwa n^rialedihaa inaivf elhar |HM^ta 
*^' the em^TC ) but if wehiredtheht met wi the p ea e a a to» 
»w<f Ibaad Aeai.to> be^trai^ fteetv and beaatifui, aa UraMan 
'^eaarteFs^ ^fiiemiaiiteDa^bttiidthatrnaafe in ihe little ahaai- 
^bera'af^fhe l^artara^Mid assieMnurased to do aa aiiavar 
-theCrin^a^ atMafO'thaibeatfaailliaaf baoaitaeitbey fpravent 

• ifllaafratnhain^-'tifabblasame. Th»'.vdadi9, whiaa'in^drjr 
f^M^ieF wre aioeUentv Biiw heaaiiia, in. ednfta^aence a# nSm, 
tailmailt Umpaaiible for oar laarriai^t; the torf apan 4he 

' ialqfi>pe« pealing ioff in la^iavflakes^ aiid'«dharfng ta the 
^^«i(he0ls with a«ah iveii^t, that they ware aflten entirely 
*<<lAre«d, and -we eaahl not proceed *witha«t eleadns tbem. 

«i «fWe paased several mtaedttioafuet : lind a few TniAaah 

^miid 'Fai^r- towba appeared oaaaaionally near Abe road. 

"^rtfty^^Mdiaiiagola^edb^iSinallyttaae pUiar^ wiih^atur* 

•haii'siMiipiured on the top; a.nd somatimes they eontaiQcd 

• ^pwBk iheinahaiftsiatenptianBia the Tuiiwh or Tartarian 
laii^age. Wa>itaw heoan ta patfeieve tha-trathof these anr- 

^fri^iflQ relations which we had often beard and read oon- 
^eairniagtlh^.laeusttian^auatries inff^stcd with that iii&ecf. 
«<The a^^ipea^^i^ere a»tijrely.eovered by tlieirhocii^a , and their 
'^namfoers faffing reseftihltfd tla^c^ of snow^ carried obtiqnelgr 
'^y (lie wind) And ^preaiiii^g a l.hick mist over the suii. J^ly- 
^raada. fell- oaier thateaaNayf ;the haraes^ and iha driven^ 
^'TWe atttries of jheae ttmaiaTs, :.t^d- as by the' Tartars, were 
M£iore niarvelious than any yve had before heard* They $<|id 
that instaaees had oeeurred ^ persona beiog suffbaats4.)>X 



mm ei.A%Kmh •nAVBii8«m*YAmTAmy. 



Ib^keraMed, in whieli tlniir immlittffs lief|ftii H ^imnlili* 
Whevlhej iral make tlteir^ftpfeafanae, a tkieic, dark^oady 
k mtm ^ry kif^ in tfab «ar$ whiek, aavit? >^aate% ajbaettves 
tke «UB* I kad alwaji <appasod thteatorieaof tkeloeaM 
to exaggerate tkeir real appeamiice ; but fonnid (beir 
•tramieso aatDttiskin^tii all tke .stopjMt over ^biek we 
jpaaitfed in tkii part of our journejr) tkat tke VfM^ iaee .-of 
natiiTie niigl»tka.iroi.bee«deoBrUMfl ns eoneeafed i^ aUfiiig 
re\h Tb^ were of two kinds ; >tbe Gr^ut T^urUuricm^ 
and tke GryUus^ migfmterious^ oreommoii migratory loeiiat, 
Tke firtiis almost twiee. tke ai»e of tke 8eoQ«d)..atm, Biaeo 
itpreeedes tke o^ker, bean tlu9 name of tbsi^foraU.or tifeih 
jongvr. TlM»ffii|(ratorj loeiHit ka9#ed U^oiid ito ictfoffionr 
wi]^ kaTe & liytly red ealour,« wbiek^vea a bFi^ty^Aerjr 
appearanee to tbeAoimal, wb^n finAterai^ in the sno^t imsw* 
Tke stfeagtk 'Of linbs po^e«»ed 1w <it 19 amasing^' wIkhi 
pcesteddowii by.tbe bandHpiQ»4^tabie,ii bas.al]|)0«t power 
tomMO the^fis^ra $ battkis ioree resides.whoUy^n tb# 
le^^ fiv if one of these be broken off, .wbiekbappena.t^ 
tke sligktest aeoident, tke powor of aettoa^eease^.- Tboi^ 
is yet a tktrd iiairiety of locust, QryUmviridiBaimus^ of 
Linneas, ftund near tke Dom and tke KubibB, yfhiA is en* 
ttrelyof agroen eoloor* This last I kave siaae oeen apoa 
tbe banka.uf tlie Cam^ in my own oonotr^, aad Mi fos tke 
momeat intimidatedt lest suek a presage 8lM>Dld be the 
Mermld of the direadtiii. seoarge which the loeast bearo 
wherever it abounds** Qa wpa^ever spot these animals 
fall, the w kole. vegetable, pro^uee disappears. JVof^intf 
<hseapes Ihem from the leaves of the. for^t to tjbe h^rbs of 
the pUin* Fields, vineyards? gardens, pasture, ^yery. t)iing 
is hud waste $ and sometimes the -only appearance left upoioi 

• In the year 593, many coimtries were afHicted bjr fomrnfe* iff cbnrfc^ 
f^iifeiieid of the ravages eormmined hf loeasti< In ^7, Sji-iaf md M«)Dp*> 
tamia were overran bv them. In 85'2, the^^ migrated from the ewtem 
cAiuttrtes, and, fifter devastati^ig wliolc regions in tbe we'st, were diivefi 
by winds into the Belgick ocean. In 1271, all the com near MiHm was dc- 
strored by them ; nnd in the tear 1609 ; sH the* fields of Limfaardy we^ 
laid Vaate. In 1541, the? peo«trat«d to Poland and WaUaehia; ib 16^4 
■ome «warDi8 settled in Wales, and in 174^ fell in several parts of England; 
particularly in the ncighboui-hood of London. [Shaw's Zoology, toI. Vi. 
fart i. trp. 136, t^.] The best method 6f destroying thctt would l»e.ft 
f«eoii»m«Bd them ^ »n -aiti^k: of. Ibod^ In the^ Crimea they fure xiS$ts[Ljt^ 
^ by tbe inhabttanta. Somf:. French emimtiRts, who had been direetedbi 
this manner, assured me, tnat wlicn fried, tliey were te'ry f>alatsd)Ie anil 
▼ery wholesome. The Arabs, according to Hasself^nist, eat them |X)a^|te4 
and are g^ad to get them. ' '• --* • 



% «fte»THB. BeiV9ftHf TO. CAPJFA. itt 

fetiiidhii*i»iil.^t » dfag|tt«t%^ tv^erfiebi tmrnMif theili Mr- 
Ifftfymg'ImdKtes^ tb«'«ti^ieii'0^«^vin«h i« sdffieient t^ breeq A 
]lMtilese«^ Tk^re oaa be mh aeeesfiity far anjr fiirilierti«^ 
eiHi«('«i'a» animal to- often. dMorifaed^ 'We QoUeeied almofyt 
Ail tlieiiiieol»of Hie-Urihiea^ amoiigf them are some.ol*(ke 
Itteoftkhid witlvoiit witti^4 and ftthers ditiTertn^ iHsly iti 
trifOiiitt^ distinetiwii iivare interesting !• the «ntorm>l^viel 
dKiB^e ^eaeral roader. Bat tliem.are insects which iji^si* 
the peaiiisiila, aad>wht«lk merit moflre particular notice eii 
aee^nat ef the daniai^erto whteb tiie^r: may eipose an unsus* 
peetin^^trar'eUen These are oi'lhreektode ; the two first «f 
wJiJoh fi^ofn tbeir external appearaaee^ seam iiotli to be spt- 
deM| Imi aeeordiog to Aaisratistsy only QUa bebaes to Iba 
gtfiae'imineaf aamiy,tfae lartfe, blaek tarvntala, knownna 
UNMiy parts of the aouth of Italy^ and long; fknioas tliei« o» 
aiM^iiiat ^ giving its nimte'to a daoee^ said to prove a re^ 
si»dy ^r its^le^ ^Hbieh might otherwise.pro?e lataK TJiLi 
aatiaii] attaiara fearftil size ia tbe Crimea. I eaaght tne 
af them %ritb apair of toi^s; when extended in a Hataral 
postnre^ npofii a table, it embraced by itt claws a elream* 
i^tiee whoto diameter e^aaUed nearly three inches* ' The 
s^her^ ahhoogh smaller, i» much more formidable. Pro^ 
fei9fio# Pkliat named it phahin^m afarwtndes. It is of a. 
yellowish cof^nr, lookine like a large spider, whose legs 
are covered with hair. In f^ont it haa a pair of elaspera, 
whieh bear some resemblance to a l^bgter's claws. Bollaa 
assured me, that its bite had proved fWtal, in inetances to 
Which he'htid himself born testimony. Fortunately it- i« 
Wry rare. I preserved one for some timfe in spirits ; but the 
i^^iraen was destroyed in its passage home. The third 
kind of insect, teiTible on acemint of its bite, is the cantt- 
]^ede, dr seoitipendra- mor^itans: This pernieioua animal ia 
^reryeommoa in drynttmb^r, beneath stones, a^d in fissures 
«f the earth, in warm situations. Seorpiona also ai*e found 
in the mountains. 
Strabo. describes all the ebuniry bptween Theodosia 

(€affaj and PaVtieapceum [Kertehy] as rich in corn and 
uU of inhabitants.* In the villages we found parties of tha 
Xzigankie^5 or gypsies, encamped as we see tbem in Eng- 
land, but having tiieir te^nts stationed between the wagons 
lA which they hfiove about \he eoitntry. Poultry, eats, dam 
4»d li«iirs^^, >^ere: feeding all arQttnd them, seeming lilttt 

'' '•'Slrab;to:mp;4's, ea{t:OiQn.l«(«r, ' : 



niemberi of Chersuie funiiy. -Tfie fflpfti0B>ftfe> iam i i f:fe>' 
eonraged by the Tartarft, who allow mm Id eneamiR » lie 
midst of their villages, where tliey. esereiM tha nmemh 
fiinetions of smiths^ nmsifiiaiifH and aslr^kgiirs. .Mattj^of' 
tliem are weal thy j possessioj^ fine ]i«rst«attd Jplettly mi- 
•ther cattle $ but their way of life, whethor ihey &e«ri4ji.ot< 
poor, is always the same. One of the ^mj^^m oi^ «.. party 
to whom we paid a Tisit^ was ooeimied by an enm>mcMic 
drum', which they aeeompany witka pip&.whe« pehEamttBg 
liefore the village daneer». The sound of this dt mii Hiiaa< . 
the loudest I ever heard ; and, though tiaimidaiing,-wa«> 
nevertheless, masioaL Strabo montioiui the draoi as mi- 
instnimeut comman to the ancient cimkrif %pd natieet. ili 
itttimidatiQg sofiad.* In their teilts the men sat nfiark 
naked among the womam They rose, hawever, a» 'we< 
entered^and cast a sheep's hide oi«r their bodies. Tha 
filth and steueh of this people were abominayaj aadalmaat 
all of them had the itch to i^ach a degree, that Iheir limfaa 
were covered with blotches and scabs*- 

The property of Tartar geatlemen eaasists abiefiy ineal* 
]tle. ThbusatKU are seen kk the steppes^ oSMm tfte^opeflf. 
of a single man, and among these we noticed ifkany hundred . 
eamels. The Tanridan camel i^ represented in FaNas'as 
Travels, from a drawing by Geister of Leipsick. It baa ». 
double huoip upon its back. The author saya, the eamel 
grows larger in the Crimea than among the CalmnckTar^ 
tars ; a circumstance of no moment, bat direetfy ootflrar 
dieted by the Notes in my Journal ; tlie eameJs in the terri- 
tory of the Don Cossacks, and near thevampsof tJle.Qa^' 
mueks, appeared to me to be much larger than those ^f tile 
Crimea. They are used by the Tartars in drawine oorerad 
wagons with four wheels, called . Afa^/sAari, in'irniah tbey- 
convej their, families. The price of a full ^sraara famel,' 
in the Crimea^ seldom exceeds a sum eqaivalent U i^olva 
pounds of our money, Tartar gentlen^n ^o armed oft 
Lorsebaek, and rije remarkably well. T&ir religi.on, 
being Mohammedan, consists^in nearlv the same eetemonies 
observed among the Turks, At midday the priest, of every 
village,afler washing his head, feet, and hand«, jp.raeteds 
with^his beads slowly to the mosque. whesTO. k*y«i"f . P«r-' 
formed his devotions, he ascends to the ton of the rotnaret, 
singing out, as land as he can bawl, In ti drawlhtg tone^ Ite' 

• fitratnib. V«, pp. 425, 420. edit: Ottn, IW/ .' .> ^ • • " ^ 



welllnf«Ml4iinMtioii^ ^'Qod is €Nf^ atvd Mkbomei » 
hk iVrv^oH^' -'Fte d^m of the 'i^trtarg, pitrttcalarij 
amoi^^l^e tliglier nmlDiof the men, is plain atidsiihple. It 
pre1ier</«»^he oH«^tallbnii, but mtlitiat that eontrast and' 
varkiT^etAmt, whi^h^ires saell splendour to the haUts 
ef Torfo, B^e^ «rt<i TelMTiKiiiiorski Cofirsaekis. A Tartar 
prince i» generally toen in a habit of light, drab elath', wiilk 
a e«9 of gmf trool, anfd ye^W ot* dnlb-cobnted boots. Per- 
haptthe eostiime* was more >nagiitl}eent nnder the goi^ern- 
men^^f tMrkhanr; it might ^ injtiditiioos) -and perhaps 
dan^^mi^ TioW to nralte a parade of faced elothes and ex- 
peniii^'^ni^ixoideif)'^ sinee Ihe smallest evil, to which thejf^ 
TrMlilib#inp«MllB tlieir JMtrwies, i»that of plunder Apom 
tll« RuetferiatMi ■"' • 

Ih> tlM ) Iftsr ^a^ fJNMii'Reftdij In CliSk, we passei the 
t]lir4f'lbftt i#'t»^say, theonter vaJfom orboundiiry of the 
RespeiPlaffM^ wbiiAr s^rtted their pefiininilaf from the ootm- 
try of ^ Tanri. Its reriHiins, a^ well as those of the to wen- 
placed, thereon, were very visible. This wall extends from 
the s^a of AtBof, he^ttning^eastward of a place now called 
Arabat, to the mountains Whihd Caflfa. It is mentioned by 
Strabo, who states fVomHypiiorates9iKit it was eonstrueted 
by A^ander, three hondred and sixty stadia io length, hav- 
ing at every staifintn a turret.* This description agrees with 
its ptfeietil aplpearateee; the distance from the sea ^t A»dl 
is lioteegreat, bat the ebftque dtrectioit of th^ waU makes 
its JeBgf h equal that MMeb Btrtbh has giveo-t Coostaiilltie 
Porohyi^ogenetes has aflhrded a more exalieit ae^sount of 
tlie biottiimies of Ihe Boipefians^ Aceoroing te that am- 
thor, «he Sammeittwr, m posses^ien of the Bosporito terri- 
toi7t ^ve w#r to tte Chfersonites, veqiectiog tibe limits of 
tlienr^m^ii^. ' The Chersojiitee were vietoHoasm a battle 
fMi^ht aear Ciiih y and by the treaty of jpeaee^ mafe oai the 
spot^ ir wa« detet^mined tmit the lifni^ iff the Besporian em- 
pire shbiild ti^ exteiid beyond CiiSa. After%Yards» the Bar- 
matiass; 1lnde^ vnether feader^ protested against this 
boondaryv and ^ivfn^ battle to the Chersonites, wiere a^n 
defeated. Phfiarhactts, ViAg of the Chersoaites^ then oon- 
traete^ th« "Besptorlkn Uinits stilt more, aad placed their 
hoambtry at'Cyhemiens, le%Tis^ them only forty utiles of 

t Alloiving eight Btft4ialo the EogU^.isQe^jisIeBgthvQidde^uia 



territory;* ^vni Umm b^iudariei,'' ohcennM ll«e w4lii»f t 
^ remaiB ia tbis day." Er^m Ihat period tli« Botpor«t 
WM lost to the Sftrnuitians. Phamaons retoinod i»oi«e of 
tbsm'to eultivatethelAiid, and seot criliorft toribeir #iva 
QOttntrj; the lftiler9fortbkkiiidBeM9 ii}flortlft«dia.piUar4o 
blm, which, perbape, still remftiilB ai|io9|f4b^4iiU^iti6s of 
Kertehy. . - -. . • 

M^e now arrived upon the bo4tittf«ilhfty«f OaS«i|>«flip- 
posed to have been Theedoua. Tlie town «{ipe«red.<r(Kror« 
lagthesotttheniAideof U,iind mmg like a H«»^t|i«a^ 
with iU nuiner(Hi& naQsques^attd minai^etfli over all tiie^Jjitlk 
whleh enejose that piot of tlie^ay» . Many <ve«Kiia woot «t 
anehoif near theD}aee9.aad> notmthltoiidilistibo^otM^tioo 
of buildings by the Rusaiana, it atiU wore aiiia^pee^^joois^ 
importMiee. In fbrmor liaios H oht^nod aad mei^od.tbo 
appellation of the Lesser ConstanUoople.^ : eoatainiop* tlMty 
tix thousand houses within its- walla; .and, iikebidiiig -.the 
iubarbs^ not lota than forty font lli^iiaaiid. . i 



CHAPTER XIX. . 

FROM GAFPA TO THE CAPITAL OF THS GiUa«A. . 

Cttgh in its present stof e-^Bttrlbr^us timdati &fihe RusHdm 
-^Inscriptions — DistribtOion of the (Rjwm-J-Hqwirfiwi^ 
fi'om €ktffaA-8tara Crini'^SUtn^ Baths-i^FUm ijf t^ 
Empress — *^cient Vuttum — RematkaMe' Mtmntain^*^ 
Karasnbazt&i-^kmetchH — Professor mUts-^UHtvhhli' 
s&me sUuaHon of the Toum^^Mns Jo^nto, «^ Jwbda^ 
OtsiTvaiitms of Bachart and others upon that MinuU^^ 

* Bakteheserm^-^Jfbvel appenranee tfthe City-^lBbumnins 
> -^Bestrueiion taused oy the Russian TrodpS'-^Cktiees 

wMth led to the Deposition ahd Bedth oflM tukr JCMr— 
Consequences of the captuH of the Criinea^^Paldce ef fhe 
Khdns — Preparations made for ihe reception of the Ud$ 
Empress-^eragHo — Bestription of the Chamem—^Visit 

* to the Fortress of BschmifoutkaU-^-^Mtcdote of an fin.?-- 
Ush Servarit—^lhcfraordinary Ring — Singular Eatawt' 

^tiofi--i^1ewi^ Cemetery-'^ctount dfihe'Secf'of EM^ 

FIFTY families are at^ireseBt the whoU popttlation of 
the once niagnigeent town of Caffa ; and in some in- 

* The latter is the same which the reader will find noticed ia tV« fin( 
FMI of pttr journey from Kertehy. 



T^^TftM '6%9tT4im i^wmSM tmt>C&A« 

ttiltieei it 410^6" humnt bibiliid to eonUifi mdre ik 
HBEmlly. ' Tfte ntehmelioif ^via§tati«n eommitted b; 
Rusiiams^ 'Wblie it dtmm^ tears doM^n tkt eh^eks »> 
>rkrta[rf^ And exturts many asi^h fpom the Anatolian l^i 
trim rfesDrt to Caflfa for eommoreial purpoges, eannot UA\ to 
tttke 4{ie indigtiiatiott of everi^ enKehtened people. At 
Caffa, daring tlie time we remained, the soldiers were al- 
loNTod t<> oterthrow the heaotifiil mosques, or to convert 
tkeiiiiifto magattnes^ to pull -down the minarets, tear up the 
piAtli^ fbuntaius^ and to destroy all thepobtiek aonediietSy 
fbrtlie sa^ke vf a small quantity of lead, whioh tney were 
tke^by enairled td obtain, dueh is the tine nature of Rat* 
»tatl^pfoteetiou | snoli the sort of allianee which Rinsiattt 
tttdeatonrtofot^m'witherery liatioit^eakenoush to sub- 
uAt to thefv piower, or to become tlioir dupe. While these 
wirt'ks of d^sttttetion wtH ^ine^ on, the oflBeers wei^amu* 
mtvg ' thetAiitAtm rn behotdiog'^ the mtsehief. Tall and 
stately minarets, ^hose lelty spires tuldei^ sueh a graeeaud 
diepity to the town, were daily levelled with the ground ^ 
which, besides their eonnextovwitli religious establishments, 
for whose maintainanee the integrity of the Russian em- 
pire had been pledged, w'ere of do other value to their de- 
stroyers than to supply a few soldiers with bullets,* or 
theiroflleer^ with a dram. I wa»in a Turkish eoffee^-house 
in. Caffa» when the priaeipal minaret, one of tlie AueieBt 
and oharacteristiek monuments of the country, to which 
the Russians had been some days employed in fixing blodcs 
and ropes, came down with aueh violence that its fall shook 
evpffhoasielp.tb^ place. The Turks, seated on divans, 
wero^lf s^iokiugr an^, when that is the ease^ an earth4|uake 
wil^ seafody rou^e thi^oif nevertheless^ at this flagrant act 
of impiety and dishonour, thej^ rosievlu-eatbi^gout deep and 
bitter t;urses against the enemies of their prophet. Bveu 
the, Greeks who were present, testified their anger by simi- 
lar imprecations. One of them^ turning to me, and shrug- , 
ging hit shoulders, «aid, with a countenance of contempt 
i^ud indignation, :sx:;&«4/ Scythians! which I found after- 
war^ to be ^ coipmon term of reproach ; for^ though the 
Greeks profess the same religion as the Russians, they de- 
test th^ latter as cordially as do the,Turks, or Tartars.f Tlbe 

: ,* TI^,B}U«iao tr«iQp% are obI%$d to pf9vi4e thecueUe* vitb h»|j« - 

. t f The mild and amiable Pallaa, netvithajtaiKliDg the awe voder whieh k» 
vna kept bjr the Russian g^remfnent, eould notTpass la aHeiiee fbe de«U'«i«'' 



iittigt lameitekle part *f the injurt thiis *u«^aiiie« %M fceeii 
iotke aestruetioii of the conduits Mid publiei^ fonntMiH, 
vfhyti conrcyed together withthe purest water friutt dUiant 
mountahis, a soonse of he«Uhand cotnfbrt to the pci^le. 
They firfet carry off the 4aden pipes til order totnafce fiol- 
lets ; then they take down all the marble slabs .and lai^ 
stones for buildiBg niaterials, which they employ iti the 
construction of barracks ; lastly, they Wow «p the ^hramiels 
which coiwey water, because they say the^mtet^' posters 
cttoaotearn a livelihood vvhere there are public fatitotaws. 
Some of those foatitains were of great antiquity, tod 
beautifully decorated with marble reservftifs, as weW-^^ by 
hfts-reliefs and inscriptions. In aU Mohamn*eV!an eoatifries 
it b considered an act of piety lopreservfe aUd^to aikmf the 
puhlick aqueducts. Works of that nature once^appe^ 
in almost every street of C^tfa ; some Were pubHcfc waslktBg 
'places; others poured out streams of water* as ctesy' as 

, crystal for allaying the thirst 4>f the inhabitants, krid for 
ablutions prior to going to the mosqires. IMict^vere nearfy 
-all demolished when we arrived. - ' ,..',i",/. 

The seulptured marbles of its aAcirent Ortrciari ifihiib?tante 
had not shared a better fate. AH'that evi^aMcAamme^iis 
had spared df has-reliefs, of hiscriptiphs, 'or artshitectjiral 
pillars, were broken by tlie Russians, »nd^ sold a* mateHa^^ 
to construct their miserable bairacks. We foifmd iftie itftti- 

' tieal marbles, described hy Odarleo,* hrtfken and cxjjosed 
for sale in the ruins of the old' Gtentf^se ft^tTesk. rhese 
were of pecnliarinterestjbccaose thcyre/kded tothehaitoiy 
.0f tiie town.' It wtoin' v^tkiAM; we 4MsU»t^daai liewme 
p^Dhascrs; theittquttit waa iawiediaMy*^"*^*^.^^ 

. general officer, *' Strangers,'* he said, « ace not penrntted 

' to take any thing oat«f the coantiy." Iha'^horti ttinc 

: Itpo of ^me l>Q%»t4fttl;hmJ4i«gS». It. i&.ipt(h;eBtiflg.to v4vf^K Jh^^tion 
with wh^ch he suDpresses bi9 indignation wlalQ he communicatea tu^iaci 
-«f Wh6iy 1 caused/' says he, ** the prospect of this t6w^, L^?*«J' ^T* 
^fftwii from UieMhtFe tiext^e bay/thore vwe <wo tninfiRAtt, rtlitien totfc- 

. oBM^higU. awl iWnishwl with, wopeatine tatairwiies jka*««ri^.lAe top; 

. thQUgh botKstruciures have. sifwebeei\ deimkshei^ Trav. voJ.U. p. *o^ 
^Had the ppofess'or vebtured two syllables farmer, if lie had mef eTy aa(le« 




free a^r^j ^oevtch wafteea lew wpuW. have veqturqd c,«.. j~ i'^XJ'^.^ 
"circumstance. • SaclicousiderHtionsmake aBiilonfeel,sen9ibl);^he Wesaags 
cff the ©on%atution under whicb he lives.— O siiWti mnd nortnt r 
• .Le4t«a^UristJtf«id*<Me»t;i%;tf»|»^ 



, Ta THE CAPITRAt OF THE ORIMBA. ^'If 

aothinc will remain in Caffa but the traeea of desolation, 
Avbich Us Russian eonqutirors may leave behind them. It 
has experienced such a variety of revolutions, and so many 
different masters, that even, in better tipies, when it was 
under the Mohammedan dynasty, few monuments remained 
of an earlier date than the establishment of the Genoese 
eolony in the fifteenth century. At the entrance of the city, 
near an edifice which was once a mint, are some ruins which 
may perhaps, have belonged to the ancient Theodosia. They 
aj^ared to be of remote date. For the rest it must be ob- 
ftcrved, there does not exist in the place any thing which 
might lead to a conjecture, that such a city ever existed. 
An iiiscription in the walls of the fortress proves that it was 
eompleted^o late as the year i.4t7^^ the very year of the 
capture of the city by the Turks, under Mohammed the 
second ; and the earliest date of any inscription we coald 
find, was not prior to the end of tiie fourteenth century, 
.We obtained one in the Armenian, language, the letters of 
which were beautifully sculptured in relief upon a slab of 
white marble. That inscription is now in the Vestibule of 
the University Library of Cambridge, and the translation 
nf it appears in the account published there of the Greefc 
Marbles.* It merely commemorates work done to dne 
of the ehnrehes of Caffa, in the year 1400. Another inscrip« 
tion in the wall of the fortress is in the Latin language; 
and is remarkable for an errour.in the word temporejy/hiA 
Oderico has also noticed. It is placed beneath three coats 
of arms, sculptured on the same stone as follows: 

TBNPOBE . M AGNIFICI . SOMIM . BATISTE . 
IVSTINIANI ; CON8VL1S . MCCCCLXXIin. 

Upon one of the columns of the principal mosque we found 
a Greek inscription to the memory of Helen, a nun, and a 
^person of the name of Tagmau, who died, as it is expressed, 
ID the year after Adam 6327, in the month of May. 

The distribution of the buildings in Caffa may be Accu- 
rately ascertained. On the southern side stood the Genoese 
eitadel, the walls of which still remain, and the traces of 
its streets within the enclosure are visible. Besides there 
«.re nnmereus subterranean chambers and spacious maga- 
zines, of the most massive and gi^antick style of architec- 
iure. Several inscriptions remain m the avails, which, from 

• CUiite^ Gveefc MnUet. p. 8. K<i, Vin; 
Dd 



Hi9kMBleMM«kaai^bavelitlb«rlae8eapiedii^itr^ Tte 
vest of this, ewdofufe offers % promMouoUs beap of ruinft, 
1MI7 betiettiBi^ «R0Fe/e«nfoaed. 

Tiwupposi^ 8i4«'of the eity. was tbe residefice of f!t» 
Tartar, and i\m pari kt »ow inliabUed. Centrall j sitiiatfld 
tietmeiii the two, and someivikat elevated «ti the liiUs abot^a 
them, stood tbat tmrtion of the cUj^ which was loiiahltedbY 
-the h.xwimsm%4 it k i^seene of ruins, like the quarter wbieh 
tlie deaocae posse«a«d* - If Theodosiaever stood i^cm the 
sfte of ih« present io\ytk of Caffi*, k 'iinist*hav« eovered tba 
^piMHldsiiiei^ .tenanted 4iy the Armenian and Tartar esfa- 
hlishmcnts, 'and oeeiipied all the ahqre to the northeast* 
As far AS mf 9«<^ti ohseitfalioas <«an*y me, I have never jei 
%een «atia6ed a& to tbeiaetahat Theodo$iaand€afia.&tiiod 
iipoa the same ^pat. 

On rh«elei^ad tarritopy Am^ the Tartar city^ close 1o 
the w^Ms.of the old Armenian fortress, is a circular buiU« 
ing, very liice tfaoserniaed ed4fi«as upon the coast o*f Baia, 
»iear Naples^'vvhieh, thoiii|)|h generallj called temples, are 
more probablv remains of the hatha of the ancients. It is 
nowa drdfa $ but, in takiiig dowa part of Che staeco which 
loosely adhared to the vraiil, there appeared beneath, a beau- 
^ifclaoireriag^feoloiiredvplaster, exactly resembliue tbat 
Vfhitli is fbuwi inPompeia, and in Hareulaneum. T& Ar« 
4pei}laBa, M'ho had^probably «oayerted this building into a 

* Arnan cnlls Theodoftia the 'deserted ciiys and the same exnre6«w is 
reputed in the anonymcms PeriphfB; taken from the'-wiitings or Seymims 
Chitts, ManBAfiHS anil Ethel's. Vocnua f Antim.m Peiipf. Aoen. p. ^4.^] 

-says: *• T/iSodoxia Ciiffa vocari cvedltur^ ^d maXe; aistingtaait emm 
t;w Kd^ay Graci posteHores aThcodt^iti,^ Also another tnthor,'** CeU' 
set tnmen [1« Quieoi. Orbis dw-isttan. toca. HL ^1/1403] J^omkuu JSan- 
son TAeedefiamfidste oUm, qua nunc TrsBii appeUatur : Caffam vev 

fuisse Chavtm^ ubi Tuuro-ZSc^t/Mi^tm pon'i7is, et crevUse ex ■Thead^tut 
■i^inis, a qud triginta milUarihua distat.^* Strabo [Hb. vii.] meuUoos 
Xeti'cr, as one ot* the three fortresses bnilt Ijy SciluniB and his S0n» an^nost 

ithe generals ot* Mithntdates. Oderico, [Lett. L«ij^t. p. 149] vlko'bis 
adduoed 8e«'ei!al authoiities tending to l^rove » disduction bctinreen the t^Mi 

; two ftm- 

4ioos, one Kiuidi^ed tliousand me«/imm of oonv; and, aecording to DeAuM- 
theneSf the imports from that place we^e greater than from sui the Mher 
countries put togetlier. After the taking of CaifFa by the Turks, Iq the 
reVgn of "IVlohamnied tbe Seroud, 1474, the Genoese colonies in the Blidk 
* msft aoeoeasiveW fcU-and «;ei% avuthilated. In 1^72, the commerce wi^i en- 
tirely lost* and the Thraciau Bosoms shut to foreign v^paels. Thlslnde 
did not revive until the victories gained byCHthcrine tlie second, {^/Imni- 
htmi, c, 23"] a century aftei'Tvartls,. opened it ci>ee niore. 



r9 THK CAPITAL 09 'fHB •AUOU* $$9 

place of worsKip, foiirtil tt nec^fttarjr t^ eotwM W paic^ 
ornaments. In the center of the oW mvcraient of t^is 
hui!4inffa very curious bas-rifKef wiw oigeovearedy a fteir 
cTays only prior to ouf arrival. It was tealptured npon a 
kind of Cippus, in it very rude maimer, tbc sabjeot Iwins; 
^ivided into two parts, aliovc and betow. In the tipper part 
appeared two crowned heads, and in tfte lower, a staireate 
was represented conducting to ihe monttii ofastoae sepvN 
chre. I endeavoured to prevail on the gaidey to follow tbe 
clue thus offered, and to search for the stairease so repra- 
.senfed below the spot in ivhich the stone it«elf iras found. 
This they refused to do. 

. liie remainirt s boilding^ of Caffk, are, ftp t}i« most part» 
within tbe Tartar city, rfiey consist of r«ry magnifieent 




an unfinished palace of the late Uanof th« Crtinea^ anda 
W^ stone edinee, before alluded to, whWh was once a mint. 
Xoanhot leiave my accoutit of this place without notieinsf a 
very prevalent erronr, into which Pallas biirtself ha» fatten 
is bis account of tbe Cfrimea.* It is, that a species of Ful- 
ler's earth, duj5 in sereral parts of the Crimea, as wett as 
ID Anatolia, and called £*^4ri/, has been so deaominutcd 

' from Caffa : and that it si^iiSes €affh edrth. The renlety- 
fttolfii^ of the name may be seen at any time, by a reference 
to Meninskt's Oriental Dictionary; it is derived from two 
Turkish Word*, which imply /oam, or/rcrtft, of tbe earth. 
Our journey from Caffa, as before we reached it, wta 
confinnaUy over st^pms. We saw upon our left, that is to 

:§ay, towards the south, that rid^e of nijiMintains which cir- 
vers the coast of the Crimea; bin, unless a traveller fol- 
lows the sinnnsities of the soutliern shore of the peninsula, 
all the 1-est of tbe eonntry is as flat as i^atisbury Plain. The 
whole district from Yenikale to Akit'ar, except the situa- 
tion of tbe (own of Baktcheserai, presents a most insipid 
Iai)dscape, consisting of aflat common, eo\n?red with grass 
:and loeusts ; capable, it is true, of the hisjhest cultivation, 

' butcfntirely nec^iected. The Tartars aiid the Greeks refuse 
to cnfltivate the land, because they fear to be plundered by 
Hussian.s; and the Russians are too indolent and too stnpiii 

' Im think of tbe advantages of industry. 

• SeoTrav. Y«I.II. p.gr. 



SOO Clarke's travels in tartart. 

: After we htA fiamed a tedioBA dKstaDee^iKi^ef this kind of 
t^rritory^ the roadgradaallj drew nearer to the mountaiDs; 
and the appearance of ancient tumuli, increasing as we ad-* 
vapeed, proved (hat we were in the vicinity of some ancient* 
city. It was Star A Crim, the approach to which is by a 
bold valley^ or defile^ formed by a nioinitain deJached froin 
the southern ridge. A variety of beautiful shrubs and trees, 
sprout among the ruins* and the mountains are them^elvies/. 
covered with brushwood. Passing a brids^e, whose, massive • 
masonry resembled the fetyip of labour used by (heaneient 
Etruscans in the walls of Crotona, we were surrounded by , 
the remains of ihosques, baths, and a profusion ol* moulder- . 
ing edifices, some of which still retained marks of great 
• niaghi^cence. We entered a buihling still entire. It con- . 
sisted of one large area, covered by a beautiful dome, sur- 
rounded by eight smaller chambers ; and its w^alls w ere of 
ancient stucco coloured ivf distemper.' Thus it bSfired 
exactly the style ttf architecture seen in the temples of. 
Venus and Diana at Baia, in Italy 5 and l.entertain uo 
doubt but that those buildings were origiria.ny pub|ick« 
b^ths belonging to that fashionable watering place of the 
ancient Romans. The pipes and steam channels werq 
visible when I was in Italy some years ago 5 and particu- 
larly, in the bath' called the Temple of Venus, every ap- 
pelirance corresponded with the publiek baths. of the east- 
ern empire. At the conquest of Copstantinople* by the ! 
Turks, its couqacrers preserved the sumptuous baths which 
tliey found in the city, a,nd which to this day offer a model of. 
tKe very edifiees to w^hich I allude. The cerembnies^ ^e 
uses, and abuses of the bath, were so generally adopted^ and 
prevailed with so little alteration among the ancient hea- 
thens, that there is reasou to believe they were praetieedy . 
with nardly any variety, fcy' the inhabitants of Italy, of 
Greece, and the more 6riental nations. The sculpture and 
painting, visible in those edifices, were frequently employed 
iit licentious and detestable representations, such as were . 
eoQsistent with the orgies by which publiek bagnio^ were 
degraded ; and those who are at a loss to reconcile the pic- 
tured abominations of Baia with the solemnities of a tem- 
ple, may, perhaps, more easily account fer their appearanee 
as ornaments of a Pagan bath. 

In the midst of these very pictnresque ruins, sheltered by 
the mountains, and shaded by beautiful trees, stands one of 
IhMe villsvs wbie^ wer^ ereeted tor the impress Cittii«nBe 



wlieii site raited ike Crimea., At every plaee ia y^hUfa Ae^ 
halted for repose, or wa9 expected to pass a nir&t, ffhe foond . 
ft palace prepared for her reception. Many oltbem are itili 
kept up, and others, like this at StaraCrim, iMiffered to fall 
into decay. They eenerally consisted af a hed^rooni for the 
empress, with a bath adjoiDioj^, a ball-room, aiimallehapelr 
and a few other apartments for ber guards and attendants* 
]^)^othfng^ at present interrupts the meianelioly solitude of her 
villa at Stara Crlm. Some of tl«e chambers were filled by 
heaps of the eoramon liouoriee root,! collected ^f the use of 
the mifitar^ hospitals, rrora the neta;bbottring wood« where 
it grow^ wild, and attains great perfection. On the moun- 
tains to tlte south of this place, in one of these wild andse- 
eluded situaljens, where zeabns devotees delight lo dwell,^ 
is an Armenian monastery, eoneemiag wliieh we oonld ob* 
t4in no othe;r information, than that it was worth seekiSQit- 
•eeauBt of the lurronndinjg; eceoery. 

As wj left Stara Crim to proceed on our jonroey towards 
Kw^abazar, we passed another Tallum still very perfect f 
and, from tlie distance to which it eitcnds, it must ha¥» 
been once a boundary of great importance. It probablt wa» 
pne of those which separated the Taitro-Si^ihiana from the 
eolonies estabhsljed in tlie Crimea. Heace, erossint; eonti- 
»«ed steppes, and always over a flat country, with the view 
of the mouiitains towards the south, we came to Karasitba* 
mr.* Before we reached this pUce, a very remarkable 
mountain appeared on our right hand, fiat at the top, and 
surrounded by precipices so perpendicular, and witfi such 
even surfaces, that it seemed like a work of art intended 

Si V^'J?f "^^^^li' /''*'/""'*• ^° .^^ '*"*«»^ «^*^ mountain 
«l.il^1r ^^ their conneilo during the last rebellion 
^^Tu^T^^''^'\ ^^*'* «traoi^4inary plaee being consi. 
dered hn them a« ike appointed rendezvous in ev^ry cri-. 
ms.f It was, indeed, a sitoatioa well suited for sueb a 
weehag. and a most subljaie pjtture might have been af-^ . 
forded far the pejicil of a Sal vator or a Mortimer, whei> . 
the rebel chiefs, mounted , on their fleet coarsprs, 

t J I^ntfe^"*- ''^^?5? ^"^ '^'^^ »^^ tooo«stH:ute tta«y of' 

ih^ ImT 'J^^ ' ''^"'^u? "Othing more than the JBlack Water Market, 
•^ ^7^^ * "r*"' ^*»'*^ '* 6»B€f(rir«ni Su,ov Black Water bdnt 
jo»e<4tp.^o«ir,vth.»cominba word for Market. ' ^ 

Od^ 



and atteniledlij their ekosen liiMid^ intbeftHtigeJrcM^ #^ 
the coufttrj, held eommunieatl^ii tberev i :,.... 

Karasnoazar has not suffered so macdli a§ olhet 4<Mrir «f 
the Crimea sinee its conquest hy tlie RusBU^iMt y«t ili^ahi^ 
hited many ruins, sad memorials of their dMninioily .wkieli- 
iftth a long street of shops, are, periiap«, all that « tctnnel- 
)er would notice. The Tartar cemeteries have been devest- 
ed of their tombstones, and these h^e been liroke* *or hevht 
so as to constitute materials for buiUing;. aUboag^ tW 
dounlrj affords most excellent limestone, vfUek might be- 
nmoved from the quarries \vith almost a«i Uttle troi£l6 as 
the destruction of tlie gravestones occasions to tlie Russians. • 
Many of the houses in the place have been ei«eted wttk- 
bricks iv.bich have never been burned, but. merely formed m^ 
a mould, and afterwards hardened b^eiposureto tfaesaii 
and air. Intbi/s way the ancient Greeians sometimes fabric* 
cated vessels of earthenware, when they wished to {iKsont^ 
aSeriugs of the purest elay in the tem^plesef their gads**, 
AH the eommoaities of the Crimea are said to be pureW^ 
sied at cheaper rate iji l^arasubaza^ thaB any other market- 
ot the jpeninsula^ The principal shops are employed ii^ tlier 
sale oHeatber, partijcularly of the Moroeeo kind, whiek 
they prepare themselves, pottery, hardware, soap, eUndlea^' 
fruit, and vegetables. The number of inhabitants amoiittta 
to about 3700, .male and female.; a pomilatioii whidk in- 
cludes a yery mixed* raee of Tartars, Rassians, Greeks,. 
Jews^ Italians, aud Arinepians^ -' » 

• From KajrasubaiMir we eame to AKM£TP4iBjr,| the reei<« 
denee of (he goverm^ur general of the Cjriniea. «The Rua^ 
aians, since the peninsula ei|i|ie Into their haa4%. %»»% 
endeavoured to give it tke name of Bymphmpoli bui'l 
mver heard it eal|ed \^y anj^tl^er appelmtioii in the ee«tt*^ 
try, than that which it r?«eived from theTartars* .Thi» 
plape was once beautiful from the numerous trees'th|itfiik4 
iV vall^v ihrougbwhtch^bei^ki^r flows; but the Russiaiia 
have If^d all waste. Scarcely a. bush now remaiAs. Iitwili 
hawever, be.l^pg eelebrated as the residence- of prolbs«ii 
Dallas, so well known to the :literary world for his long 
travels, and .i^^ready so elltea jneiitioaed. ip .tlits valmHe^ 

^ Appendix loGifec^MarbleB, pi 71.. 

.t.KaUi»'8TrftTeb»TCil*n.p.25K . . • 

, , * - |»A Tartar wond, MgiiifyiDg « Tke White en^rtUf*" 



fdl fn» AKfWriLt M f lis •RtK«A. 3f)d 

IUb ftne wmiidiia^ b^nmrflAdentty entaUiili^d if be had 
pablished no other work than that whieh he began nnder' 
soeh'AMrtmvftble avspieev, the Ftoru Mm$icd ; 'and yet the 
bttrbarity'iif the^pei^So with wboiii he is eom^elfed to live'^ 
It: Bii^h, that ihrywili*not allow him to eomi^lete the un- 
dert4Bikliir^' The drawitieg were alifinished, and almost alt 
tli« text. ^To bis hospitable and hnmane attentions we were 
iodebled fsr eomfortsv equal,' if not soperiour, to those of 
ism oWn- country^ and Ibr every literair eommunication 
idHfih it was^tn his power to snpply. When we delivered' 
oor fetters of rMoinmendatiob to him, he received tis mor^ 
like a- parent than a stran^r to whose protection we'had 
been e^ttsi^ed* We refoseato intrnde by oeeupyin^ apart- 
HM^siQ hiflf Ivottse, I whieh had more the air 6f a palace than 
the'rosidckiee «tf'a private g;entleman; bnt when we were 
absent one day a pen an eirenrsion, he caused all. our thing;8 
to brmoved, iMid) upon our r^nm we found a suite of rooms 
fA^^ved'l^ our reception, with every convenience fbrstudy* 
aM repose*' I may eonsidermyseif as indebted to hrm, even 
fttr-^iil^. ThefatigoeoftravelKn?, added totbeeffecf 
of bad dir and unwholesome food, rendered a quiirtaq fevet 
oH'babitual'lo we^ that had it not been for his care and skill; 
l!musl'faB;rc^ sunk under it. He prescribed' for me, adminis- 
t»t^^^ory medieiDe wi^ his own hands, carefully guarded; 
nvf diet, andf After nursing' me as his own son, at last re- 
aloM me^to health. When I recovered; he ransacked all his 
ooUection for drawings, charts, maps^ boolcs, antiqoities, 
■liiierals, and whatever eiiie tnight forward the object of, 
oar thiviels | aeeotapani^d^ us upon the most wearisome ex* 
iimfonsjiii search not 'only of the invects and j>lanrs of the 
d^lmtry, bat also of every document which imsht illustrate 
either itg ancient or its^modem historv.* His decline of life 
\uA been embittered' by a variety or unmerited affliction, 
lA^hieh he ha»bom even* with i^oical philosophy. Splendid' 
av^hisresidenee appeared, tfa^ air of the place was so bad^ 
tibait tlie most HgiddbstSnenee frtim all sorts of atrimal food^' 
il«i ineaffieient topreo^ve tb^ inhabtiants from fevers. 
W^rieft him- determined tK^ pass* the reihnant 6f his days in 
•aMvaling vineyardo aliettg the roeks upon the south coas^ 

'* If eitlierhe or bis family ftbould ever eatttbeir eyes upoivthe8t]^gei^ 
they will here find tiieonly acknowledgement we have been able te render 
foraiMhiiiiexanipledbeneToleoiDie. • His fcudnMshaa^ indeed, been ill re* 
qnited ; the political differenees between England and Ra88ia> together with 
ether untowud eSvMi&stttloes^ hav«i put It OQt«r«tt power tofnUUi m^ 
the few Gomimssions with which he h«aowecd us when ire |«ieA 



oCth6 i^iMitla. Tket« iMMf WMovt to* iHibe^ ibaC by'tke 
deaths PmI he wi^ have be«n eaHed to k^itoim aliA 
6BH^iMfeiii9 H btti MiMie<|iieiil tmvdkrs m Rii»*ift do net Ibr- 
nUh intelli^ttM* ia erMHable to tlie ftdiniiikt^atioir of tlMs 
new s4ytereigiK When the late ^n]^e«ft €itlhe«iae aent him 
tt reside ia the CrkMa^ with a grant of landa iri the penm-- 
sola, it wa» iateaded for the fee«titblt»l»iteiit of hi^ health, 
aadaa a reward^ Ibr his long semeer; aeither of whieh 
parposeci has baea aeeoiapilolMd. A si^tendtd estaMiehmeiit 
IB the midst of aatFlnlesome air, has beeir all the reiedn*-' 
I^ease ha has obtained. Thus H i«s that ive find him hi the 
sixtieth jear of a \H^ demoted to »eienee, opening hh hut . 
paUieatioa >itth an allasioa in *^$he dUqitiehtde and hard* 
ship9 xiBhuh opprts» him in hiiprefien$ rendenee^ and ewbit^ 
ter hi^declimn» day»^^i We used every endeavtrtir to pee- 
vailupoahiia to ^it the eotintry and aeeompaay vs t4» 
Eag^futd $ bat the adFaneed period of his Hfe» added to ihe 
eertaiiity ^ lasiiuf all his property iit Rasaia, preroitted his 
aeqaiesoease. The eerenonv of his dao^hfer^s marriaie 
"trim «<lerniaii oiffieer took pkiee dirriin^oiir residenee wfth 
him in the Crifnea, and was celebrated aecordhifj to (he 
ritei of the Greek Ckureh ; so that, as he was absoir^d 
fron alsiost every tie whieh oo^ht to have eonfined hiiti to ' 
the eouairy, there was some reason to hope he woul^ 
have listened to oar proposals ; by aeeeding to wliieh^ his 
life mi|^ht be prolonged^ and his pablieatioas eonrpieted. 
Our entreaties, however, were to no effect ; and, perhaps, 
helHre this meets the pnbliek eye^ oar friend and benefaotol^ 
Vill be no raore^ 

Owing t4> the interest of professor Palhts, mnth of the 
injury had been prevented whieh Akmetehet, m eomm<Ma 
with other towns of the Crimea would have sastaiitsd. 
Many ol the Tartar baildin«^ had bee» snftered to remain, 
aiid the piibliek f<M>Btai4is were strH uutmpali^d. Tlie 
nlace owed all Us iniportanee to the cireams^taBee of ito 
Being tlie residenee of the governonr §^epai of the Crimoa^ 
a veteran offiesc of the name of Mi^lson^ formerly welt 
known for the service he rendered to Russia, in the defeat ' 
oi the rebel Pugatchef. hx other respeete i^t is one of the 
wori^t situations in the Crimea, Its inhat» taints Are sithjeet 
to frequent fevers during the summer, and thi^ wAterjs aol 
00 goud as in other nafU. of the paniiawla. Esmhkmiiivm^^ 



TO THB CAPITAL OP THE GHXMEA. lHk9 

tables, which are so eommon in the southern villages, can 
<>Rlf 'be procured by^purohase from the Tartan. As atowB^ 
it im a .meaQ and insignifieant appearance ; the streets are 
narvQWy unpaved,. jHQd filthy, with a few shops maintained 
tntire^ by Greeks. Tb^ Balgir, whi^h, exeept ia rainy 
seasons, hurdly deserv.es th^ name of a rirer, flows in t^ 
Talley^.oQ one side j(^ which thte town standii. The nei^- 
bourhoQd abonpds with game, so that the officers of the 
garrison are enabled to amuse tliemselves with almost every 
kind <^f Enfopean ebaee. They hunt the.sta^, the fox, and 
the hare. . Ha/wkise is also a favourite pursait. The Tar- 
tars b^ng very skifful in ti^atnis^g birds for that purpose. 
A few days after we took up our residence, with professor 
Pallas^ some Tartars brought him a beautiful little animal, 
which has been called the jumping Hare, and born a va- . 
riety of names,^ but is, in fact^ the- same as the Afrieait 
Jerbofu We saw it afterwards in Bgypt ; and it is not , 
eommon either there or in the Crimea. It may be trailed - 
th$ K^n^aroo iu miniature $ as it hsa the saB&e furm, • 
although lit is smaller than a rabbit, and it assists itself, like 
the Kangaroo, with its tail iu leaping. That which Profts- 
sor Pallas received was a pregnant female, eontainins two ^ 
youns ones. Its colour was light gray, except the belly,* t 
which was almost white*. The foi'e-feet of this animal are 
attache^ tio its breast without any legs $ so that in all its 
motions it makes use only of it^ hind quarters, bounding 
and making , surprising le^ps whenever it is disturbed! 
Afterwards we caught oAe in the steppes, whiqh westuffed 
and brought to Etiffiaudv. Professor Pallas himself did not 
seem to tie aware that the Miis Jaculus^ which was the name : 
hejfave it,t is the animal mentioaed by Shaw in his account 
of oarbary ;| uor was it until we became enabled to make the 
•omparison ourselves in Africa,^ that we discovered the Jer- , 
boi^ to be the same kind of quadruped we had before known, 
in the Crimea. Bochart supposes this little animal to be 
the Sajfhan of the scriptures.^ . << The high hills are a 

t' Alkreion hfts been alr^iidy madeto the eonfasion introduoed in Zoo1<^, 
by 4ie4liffierent nimiea, and difoordaat aoeoants wbkhtraiwUerfthave given 
•f .thi» animal* See p. 163 of this voUune. 

t $ee Travek. VOL U. p. 4af7. 

i fihaVBTrayds, p; 177. quarto edit Ixihdon, 1757. 

J'See B6chart> Hiercaoicbn. Pars. IT. cap. 33. Lond. 1663. "Probatuv 
5£^|»&«m atta«tca0 cooieohun, wd majca^ liM^ in Pj^festinay** Ut. 



tefOse for tile wilA eoats, and to are the stony radts for f ke 
Sajmannim^^^ whidi our translation renders <^ Conies^.'' 
Shaw is, however, ttiideeided upon this point ; but supposes 
the Jerboa* from the remarkable dtsproportiou of his fore 
wid binder less, may be taken- for one of the two-footed rats 
mentioned by iierodotns and other authors.* The whole 
merit of either of these obserTations, if there be any, is due, 
ftrst to the learned Boeliart, and afterwards to the labours 
of Haym, in the illustration of a medal of Cyrene, upon 
whieh this anitnal appears ; although Shaw, after the intro- 
diicttoo of those obserrations in his work, not only does not 
aeknowledge whence he derived the hilbrmation, but even 
aaserts that the animal deseribed by Haym was not the 
Jerboa. It seems pretty elear tibaf it was; although in the 
ongravi«|g puhlished by Haym, the fere feet are represented 
sather loo fong.^ A eentury a^ they did n»t pay the atten- 
tioB to Minute acenraey in sueh representations which they 
4o new, and nearly that time has elapsed since the work of 
Haym appeared. f His mode of expressing himself is,' to 
he sure, soioowhat eqnivoeal. because he says, ^ when it 
rais it went hopping like a bird ;'' but the words ^< e semprt 
caminA sopra due piedi sglanuntej^^ as well as ^ stUtd mcU^ 
aiio quawP e spatmri^o," when added to the engraved 
vepresentatioii plainly prove what it was. It is generally 
osteemed as as article of food in all eountries where it is 
fbmid* It borrowa im the ground like a rabbit i but seenis 
Moi% to resemble the sqinrrel than either that animal or the 
vat. Its fine dark eyes have all the lustre of the antelope's^ 
Haym s^s, the smeU of it is never t^ensive when kept 
domestiek ; and, indeed, it may be eensidered one of the 
most pleasing, harmleso little quadrupeds of whiek wts 
kaTo ai^ knowledge. G nielin oMerved it in the nei||^b«af - 
hood of Woronets in 1768 ; Messerschmied in Siberia i aim 
Haslequist ia £gypt.f When our army was eneamped tiear 
AleKandria, iatbe Late expedition to Egypt, the soldiers 
freserved some of these animaU m boxes, and fed them like 
rabbits. 

* Sbaw's Tratete, p. 177, Aim, the scitjiorreited by fans r ReMd. Bfclp. 
Theoph. apud JEUan Hist. Anim. lib. xt. o. S6. Photiiu». ibid. Arist de 
Mttrib. Egypt. 

t Haj^n'fli Ttwro Bnt«iuiiM> 'fi9»|^abli«l»e^ iir 1720» M^. b«i-.tbfti«i|Ml 
alire; and a Very carious account of it is given in the second y^lnmcof bit 
wpvk, p. 124. 

\ Joamai des Sjavans Voyageurs, p. 7%. 



^alclelieserfti^ «ii«e the re«id«n6e of the khan, ii,imI the Tar** 
^r capital (>f the-Criqiea. As it w«8«ttr tnteotioti 1^ msJs» 
the tioiir (^ tin the so«th part of Ibe penifitiilaf we lott n* 
time III setting out fer this f>laee. We met several ^earap 
ran^y which were prtneipally laden with^iMiifdb^wof sdieii 
immense length aad size, that the Matemeiit of Iheir dimea- 
»ions will, perUaf>s, noi be believed* We measafed Aaani 
that were iQ'len^h above two feet. There is no article i^ 
food 90 grateful to a RxiAftia^ as the salted 'eaaamber, ami 
aU the inhabitants of the Crimea ealtivate the plaat lor 
the sake of the piekie they allbrd« They hare vai^eliee of 
tftjs vegetable uofctiown in BaglaiKl ; aaioag ot&eps, oma 
%\^ieh b snow white, and- whieh attains the aatiniwhiajf 
»«ize I have mentioned, wit boat running to seed, or losii^ 
any tiling of its erisa and refFesking flavour* Tlieeoanr 
try, as we advanced, beeame more diversified with %vood; 
and near the villages we saw ^od erops of eorn and baf. 
i have before observed, that n traveller, aniees lie visiliB 
theaoathern coast, may pass over all the rest of Ite Cri^- 
mea,. and from 4ts appearanee eonelade that the whol^ 
eonntry is aothipg but a flat and dreary steme* Baktoha- 
serai is the^rst objeet in the whole journey from Yenikal^ 
to Sevastopole, whieh interrapts the dull monotony of «t 
least two think of tihe paniasala, to the north of Tohetifi- 
idag)»9 Aiid the otlier mountains whieh ^p|»oae Ifa^kiselves-ta 
thfi Black Sea on the sojutbern«ide. It isone^f tJie moat 
remarkable tnwas in Enrope,: first, in the novelty of ils 
titanners and eastoun, winch are atntdiy oriental, and be- 
tray nothing whajbsoever ^f a Suropean eharaoter : ae- 
.eondly, in the sciteof the to^n itself, wtiiek oeoupie» tba 
cr,aggy sides of a prod^ious, >natural fASse between tw^ 
lii^h mountains, so aie what like that- of li^^latloek in DoH^f-* 
^hire. The view breaks «U at oiife apan- the traveller 4n ^a^ 
most irregula|; aodsoattered manner; while hinbbUag ib«ia- 
tf^ins^jttnning watery, gardens^ terraces, hanf^ing vine- 
yards, and groveaof the black poplar, seem to soneatha 
iiorrour-of r«oka and precipices, and even, make them ap- 
jiear tavitiag.^ Tb»Tel%iowg vcncratiwn witii' which ito 
Tartars regard their fountains, induces them to ipare no 
expense whieh may enrich them with the purest water. 
These ftuatains are almost'as necessary to the ceremonies of 

• Twenty EosUsh »ilei, 



M6 «&A.aKB's VIAVEI.S IN TAl^TAIlY* 

the motqiie, Its thej M*e'Oir»&raenlaL to the towB; shiee 
every true Mosiem washes his head, beard, hands, and 
feet, before he proceeds to prajer. The number of fouD- 
tainsis so ^reat at Baktcheserai, that they are seen in all 
parts of the city ; water flowing from them day and nighty 
as eold as ice, and as clear as crystal. One of them nad 
not less than ten spouts, from which the purest streams 
•on tinually fell upon slabs of marble. Here, four times in 
every twenty four hours, the Tartars, invoked by their 
Muuas from the loilty minarets, are seen assembled per- 
forming their ablutions, and proceeding to their mosques. 
If Pfiley's position be admitted, that ^^ a man who is in 
earnest about religion cannot be a bad man,"* the Moham- 
*raedans, being more in earnest than any sect of worship- 
pers upon earth, are entitled to respect ; and I will coniessi 
I never beheld a Moslem at his prayers without feeling a 
kindling awe, inspired by the sincerity of his devotion. 
Not a syllable is suffered to escape his lips, except those 
whieh express the name of God, and which, at intervals, 
are heard in low, impressive sighs. His whole soul seems 
to hold eommunion with the object of his worship : nor 
does any thing divert his attention.! 

To describe what Bakteh^serai waa, it would be neces- 
sary to convey ideas at least adequate to the present ap- 
pearance of its ruins : and this is very difficult. The 
•avagie and wanton barbarity of the Rujuians found in the 
magnificence of this capital wherewith to exercise, in its 
foirscope, tbeir favourite passion for destriiction. The 
eity was divided into seyeral departments, of which the 
Greek eolonv alone Dccupied one entire and extensive val- 
ley. This jthey entirely deuiQlished, not leaving one stone 
upon another. The palace of the khan in the center of the 
towu^ was that in which he usually resided ; but he had a 
favourite and more pleating retirement in a magnificent 

• Paley*s Sermons, DSso. I. Land. 1S08. 

f The efficacy of inward devotion, as contrasted with ettenuil t>fleiiii|s, 
is teeoramendiecl with powerful sira|>Ueity in a tfjiedtaaeii of eady Eagwh 
poetry, as old as the tinse of Queen Ettzabetb, preserv.ed in the TKaveis 
of <* CerUv^ Engfiahmen into farrt countries/* printed in 1609. It it 
the end of a Latin inscription in the church at Cologne' (on t&e Offerfugs 
^ the three Kings) translated into English : 

** For Crold present a perfect heart ; ' ' 

For Myrrh admit him tears ; 
^or Fronkincenae, powre from thy br^ 
A fMtae oi humUe pralcrs !V 



ei^fiee^ most deli^lilMly Mlaialedl bMtatk a iBMinUM, 
^poD the slepia^ siie of a beautiful vi^e. Tlus they ao 
completely erased, that witliout a gnide to the «pot no one 
ean diaeover eyea where it rtood* Of the. rest of the city 
not ftbore one third now remaifis. Were I to detail half the 
cruelties, the extortion^, the rapine, and barbarity, prac- 
tised by the Russians upon the devoted iahabitajits of tke 
Crimea, and their deluded khan, the relation would ejk- 
oeed belief. I have the authority of one of their eooimaa- 
ders, whom 1 dare not name, for asserting, that when the 
^Mtdlas^ or Tartor priests, aseended the minarets at mid- 
day to proelaiffl the noon, aeeordin^ to their ufual eustom, 
the RnsslinB soldiers amused themsetves by firing muskets at 
tliem ; and in one of these instanees a priest was killed. 
The repugnancy with whieh every English reader will 
^ruse an account of siteh enormities, may lead him to doubt 
the veracity of the representation ; altlwttgh given a» it was 
received from an eye-witness of the faet. 

The capture of the Crimea was ao ev^t which <exoited 

the attention of all Europe : but the eireumstances which led 

to the deposition and death of the khan are not so aenerally 

known. Thev have been artfully eoncealed by the Rtts»iafis ; 

^ and the brilliancy of the conquest of the Crimea, dazzling 

the ima^nation, has preventai a dae inquiry into those dark 

, and sinister mancetivresby which the plot was carried on for 

] the subjection of the peninsula. Poteinkin, that ardi'^est 

' of intrigue and wickedness, planned and execated the whole 

4f it 7 to fulfil whose des^igns it was iwmwterial irhat laws 

were violated, what pHhclples trampled «n, what murders 

\. committed, or what iaith'hrakefl. His prkietpal favourites 

were swindlers, adventurers, pimps, parasites: nnpriaei- 

^jled men 6f evefry description^ hut ospei^aily unprinoipled 

"![ inen of talent, found in- him a ready patron."^ 

It is wdtlLnown, that by tb« last treaty of peaoe whieh 
Russia made with the Tuirka, p^iqrlo the conquest 9f the 
fmmf^lit^J^ybfAm QhinUof the family of the khans, who 
"tltadibottoajMisaner and a ho^taigeat Petersburgb, was pla- 
t^d otf the thrtvne of the Crimea. This waaihe first 6l,ep 
/.,towiM:d% the overthrow of that kingdom. From the i^oment 
of his accession, the Russian .minister in thd Crimea, an 
artful and desigaij^gforeigper; well chosen from Potemkin's 

* The noted pi^r Seint)!e Vas amodfi tfk6 itVLinbeA He possessed eon- 
«iderable iofluence oVer Foterukin ; una it is raid tlie Resent ttniform of 
ilie R'lssiaQ t«x^ wns reoommeiiUefi'by bini:. ^ ' V 

Ee 



81^ CItAftXfi's TRAVBLS IN TikkfAftTe 

Hsito exeeate tbe plans he h^ in vietv,begaii.t9 txtki&ikB 
Tartars against the khan, raieingf commotions among them^ 
buying over the disafteeted, and stimulating the people to 
frequent insurreetion. In the mean time he insinuated him-' 
self into the epod graees of the khan, teaching him to do 
whatever might he most unpopular in the eyes of his sob^ 
jeets. Among other dangerous absurdities, ho prevailed 
•upon the khan to plaee every thing in his establishmeot 
upon a Russian footing i to diseipline his troops after the 
Russian manner ; to build frisates on his eoast, filling his. 
head with preposterous ^eas of the nay igaticm of the Blaek 
Sea. Thus he incurred enormous expenses, which eompel* 
led him to drain his subjects of their money, and increased 
their murmurs. The Hussian minister, equally aetive on 
both sides, lost no opportunity to encourage the follies of 
the khan, or to augment the disafifeetion of the nobles. The 
work saeeeeded to his utmost wishes ; a revolt took place, 
which soon became general ; and the terrified khan was 
persuaded to fly, first to Caifa, and afterwards to Taman. 

Then it was that the last niaster-stroke of political in- 
trigue was effected. The khan was prevailed upon to call 
in the assistance of the Russian troops, who were eagerlj . 
waiting the proposal, and as eagerly acceded to it. Thus a ■ 
Russian army was suffered to enter, unmolested, into the 
heart of the Crimea. Under pretext of punishing those 
who had rebelled against the khan for a revolt they had 
themseh'es excited, they put to death whomsoever they 
thought proper, took possession of the strong holds^ 
-and practised their usual excesses. The Tartars, some by 
compulsion, others by entreaty, and a still greater number 
by terrour, were driven from their country, and compelled 
to seek elsewhere a residence'. The khan returned to i^ara- 
Kuha^ar, where the Russian army was encamped, and there, 
in presence of the Russian troops, was persuaded to order * 
his nobles to be stoned to death ; his pretended allies feast- 
ing their eyes with the slaughter of men whom they- first 
intluced to rebel against their sovereign, and afterwards 
^caused to be butchered for having complied with their de- 
mres. Thus the deluded khan and his still more deluded 
subjects, alike the dupe of designing wretches whom they 
had allowed to take possession of their country, began at 
Ijist to open their eyes, and endeavoured to rid themselves of 
an alliance so fatal in its consequences. It was too late ; 
the khan was himself a prisoner in the very eentre of the 



TO 'fHB CAPITAL OV THE CaiMBA« 84£ 

Rasfl^B «rmy : and the rest t&f their coidaet towards faim 
eieeerU in depravity all that had preceded. 

A proposal was^ made to him (o resign the crown of the 
OriQiefa ; to quit the peniMnla ; and to attest, by his sign 
maniiai, that the iadividuals of his family, in whieh the 
throne was hereditary, were for ever rightfully deposed, 
t^bekhaii reeeived the insolent proposal with the astonish- 
jment and indignation whieh it merited ; but he was re- 
minded, that being indebted to the Russians for his king- 
dom, he ought to resign it whenever it might accord with 
their wishes. The reasoning was arbitrary ; but very effec- 
tual when it is enforced at the month of a cannon, and an 
unfortunate prince^ to whom it was addressed, remains 
jprisoner in the camp of his enemies. In addition to thtfs 
proposal, conditions were annexed, that instead of foeinjr^ 
deprived of his dignities by compliance, the khan should 
have his residence in Petersburgh; that he should hold a^ 
eonrt there of much greater splendour and magnificeiiee- 
than he had known in the Crimea; that he should be al- 
- lowed an annual pension of one hnadred thousand roubles, 
beenriclied by all manner of presents, enjoy the luxuries 
•f that great capital, and partake in the amusements which 
the magnificence of Catherine constantly afforded ; that no 
restraint whatever should be put upon his per«ion, but that 
he should be at full liberty to act as he might think proper. 
The khan saw the snare into whieh he had fallen, but there 
was no method of liberating liiinself. He retained, however, 
aufficient firmness to persist in a refusal ; in consequence of 
\i^ieh, force completed what entreaty was nnable to accom- 
plish. He was dragged a prisoner to Kaluga,* a wretched 
laralet upon the river Oka, yet ranking as the capital of a 
governtnent of the Same name, and a thousand versts dis- 
tant from Peter sburgh, from which place he was not per- 
mitted to move. In this miserable condition, finding that 
neither his pension was paid to him, nor any single engage- 
ment fiilfilled which the Russians had made, he insisted 
upon going to Petersburgh, but was told it could not be 
permitted. At last, giving himself over entirely to despon- 
dency, he exclaimed :' «* Let me be delivered a victim to the 
Turks I they will not refuse me, at least, the privilege of 

■" 'Mr. Etoa {^Surveif of the Turk, Empi p. 323] says, he "retired t(k 
Kalugtk^ Was the hberty of retiring ever known in Russia ? A similar 
expression, however, occurs irt p. 308. *♦ He Quitted Russia, and retireet 
to CofistatUwfiofie/^ I hope Mr. Eton's ^nt^reiiiiihig-w'ork iMd not texneri- 

' eaoe a revisal from the hands of tlie Russian police. 



ehootiii^ th« Manner of my death, sinee my ea^^ies bfti« 
vegolved on my destmction !" The unparalieled cruelty of 
tke Rnsstnm, tuge^ed the propriety of acceding to this 
re^fuest ; they rejoieed to hear it made, because it offered an 
^Rsy me(-hod of getting rid of one whom they had pillaged, 
andivhose presence was no longer either necessary or desi- 
rable. ' They placed him, therefore, upon the Turkish fron- 
tier, where he was taken, and, being afterwards sent to 
Rhodes, was beheaded.* 

' If it be now asked what the llossians have done with 
regard to the Orimea, after the depravity, the cruelty, and 
the murders by whioh it was obtained, and on that account 
4)eeauie so Ikvonriteiui aeqnisition in their eyes, the answer 
to giten in few words. Thev have laid waste the eonnlry ; 
letdown the trees; pulled down the houses | oTerthrown 
the Micred ediiees of the natives, with all their pabliek build- 
ings ^ destiH^yed the publick aqueducts : robbed the inhabi- 
tants ; ltt«tf lied the Tartars in their acts of publick worship; 
torn np from the tombs the bodies of their aneestorsj cast- 
ing their relieks apon dunghills, and feeding swine out of 
f heir coffins; annikilated «dll the nioaiuaents of antiquity, 
breaking up alike the sepulchres of saints and pagans and 
peattefing their ashes in the air, " .tfi^erre, rapere, irucidare 
fahisnominibm^Imptrium; atquetiH solUudi^mfuciunt 
F^cem appellant P^ 

There was something very emphatick in the speech of a 
poor Tartar, who, one day lamenting in his^earden the.ha- 
Toek made among theihiit trees by a severe frost, said> we 
never used to exnerienee such hard weather ; but aine^ the 
'Bussfans came, ttiey seem to have brought their winter along 
with them." 

' The principal palace of the Khans is still entire, and 
probably may escape the general destruction ; because the 
late empress ordered it to be kept in repair, and always 
according to its present oriental fVirm. When she came to 

• The reader, haviDg perused this nafrative, vUl determine wheAer 
tlierc has been any thing on the part of the French,' respeeting Spain, to 
equal the atrocity of the Russians in getting possession of the Crimea. 
Mr. EftotH inhis SarTe^r of the Turkish Empire, p. 304, says their i-igbl to 
tb« penuisula was sacred, and that ** the mouth is unholy toHch dam to 
arraign it,^^ The representation he has given in roftny parts contt*adiets 
itself; for example, m p. S^, he witnestied the expulawij.ql' 75 000 
CHristiftns from the Crimea by the Russians^ almost all of whom perished, 
in consequence of their cinielty, in the deserts of NayKa j yet in p. S33, 
he says, ** th«se.icho olioae t^ r«u|Hun/f aft^r the seizure of Ihe Crijne«> 
*• were left in the quiet possesuon ©f their proper^ and their rpli|ppp." 



T& th« capital" or tHE cmuBA. tli 

Baktefi^serai, tltej had fitted np a net of apartnents for her 
in the Freneli taste; wkieh gKte her ffreuk oileAee^ ftii4 
caused her to issue the order for its preserration a^eoipdiw 
to the ori^nal style observed in the UoikliDg^ It is stiiiam 
in the midst of a^ardens, froni whieh eiremnstanee the «ity 
derives its name.* Those gardem are ftlied with fonntaioB 
and fine fruit trees. Its interioar presente that kind of tee- 
nerj whieh eastern romances desoribe, and oar theatres tn- 
deavonr to represent ; eonsistinj^ of ehamhers, galleries aad 
passages, so in(rieat« and irregular, that it is imporaibie to 
^ive anj deseription of the plan bj whioh they are p«t 
together, or the parposes for whieh tJiey were ercetad* UpoB 
the whole, it w rather iniignifioantfor thereiideBCoof a 
•orereign. A large liall^ opening by moaaa of ftmhea to tli^ 
^rdens ^f the seraglio, and to Afferent tovrts, reeoives h^ 
veral staircases, wliieh wkid to ^^ferent parts oi' Ao paiaet. 
From this hailadoor eondnetedtiiekhan to asaMdlaioi^, 
for his private devotioae, when he did not appear ia puUidf. 
Ascending to the apartments, w« find no resamblaiiee to 
nnj thing Earopeah. The rooms are simlII, aiidsarr#«iided 
hj divans ; the wiadowa all ooneealed by wooden lattioes, or 
as they are called by the Vrem^^ jmiamsks* Some of the 
windows look otiiy f^om one room iato another $ but faeiag 
intended, perhaps, more for omameiK • than atility^ tliev 
consist of small easements placed in little oUongrows, aM 
are at the same time so lilled with frasnewock and lattiee, 
that no «ne can see through them. In the windows of the 
htst apartments we observed painted glass. Scvaral of tlie 
staircases whidi oondnot from >osie set of fooms to another, 
are open to the air; bnttheiiersons ascending or desoendiqg 
were concealed from all oatward view by lattiees* The 
ehief eoneern both of Tartars and Tnrks ia their d weilings, 
seems to be, to avoid observation. Their apartments ase 
vtry cold, and, to the generality of Enropeans, would be 
insufferable in winter; but the Tartar, having nothing to 
4o daring that season of the year font to sit smoking, wrap- 
ped up in a huge peliftse,^ would find the rooms equally in- 
capportable if they were warmer. 

A very handsome bath, prepared in one part of the palaoe 
for the late empress, is worthy of notice ; because, remain* 
ing exsietly as it was fitted np for her, it proves the im- 
mense sums which were lavished by Potemkin during har 

* Baktche9erai unifies a paloi^ mfw9f4 in o ^wriJm* 8es Fsttiui'* 

Travels, vol. U. p. 2§, 



aU eftA<KE*8 TRAVELS IK TART ART. 

celebrated jMrney to tlie Crimea. The game luxuries were 
|ir»vi<led for her wherever she halted, together with all the 
ale^nee and eonvenienees of palaees, famished, as if for 
her eontimia! residence. She had adopted the daily practice 
of bathing her body with cold water, and for that purpose 
tlie most sumptaoiis baths were every where erected ; and 
thouj^h most of them were used only once, they were all 
lioed throns^hout with white cotton quilts, and surrounded 
by earpets and sofas of the same materials. The part of 
tlie seraglio whieh was particularly appropriated to the 
u<(e of the women, it is well known, bears the name of the 
Charem* One has a natural inclination to see the inside of 
«ne of these piaces, seetuded as they are from observation 
-by the Mohammedans, with such ri^d caution. There is 
nothing, however, to gratify the curiosity excited by so 
laueh mystery. The charem of the khan has been preserved 
in its origrna! state, without the slightest alteration. Po- 
tenkin passed his nights there during the visit of the em" 
press, and was much amused with the idea of sleeping in a 
ebarem. It consists of a set of very indifferent apartments 
of a square form, opening one into another, which have 
neither magnificence nor ipomfort. They are detached from 
the palaee, and surrounded by a garden with high walls. 
Owing to the lattic»*s which cover the windows, and (he 
trees planted before them, the miserable prisoners doomed 
to reside there, eould hardly have obtained a view even of 
the sky ; the only object granted to their contemplation. 
Having no literary resource, the women shut up there pass- 
ed their time, as ladies informed me who were in (he habit 
of visiting them, in embroidery, and in drinking very bad 
eoffee, with sometimes sherbert, and a poor sort of lemonade. 
In the Turkish eharems the women are allowed the greater 
Itttury of smokins, which to human beings so situated must 
become one of the roost important blessings of life. The 
mast remarkable part of the seraglio is the entrance, by a 
winding passage so narrow, that one person only could pass 
at the same time, vpho was under the absolute necessity of 
steppine so close to the guard as to wake him, even i^ he 
were asleep. = Into this passage the khan descended by a 
private staircase appropriated solely to his use. 

The Armenian roerehants of Naktshivan, who, with al- 
most all the Christians of the peninsula, emigrated from 

• ' Pf onoTinoea ffarem, with ft guttural ^apirate, in in the ^rcofc II^^ 



TO Ttf £ ekmAi* or. turn omvoul. a^ 

Uie Criniea, were ori|;t«aIIj inbabitaiiU ofBakte^esemi;^ 
And their loss has been sererelj felt eyev ftinee theooaque«t' 
of this country by the Russians. The present popiUatioQ^^ 
inclndioff male and female, amounts to near six thousand* 
souls. t In this number are inoladed above eleven hundred^ 
Jews, four hundred and twenty of which are registered aa 
merchants. The number of Tartars does ao^ exeeed three 
tliousand ; of which number, twenty belong to the class of 
Aobles, two. hundred and thirty seven are nterejiants, one 
hundred and seventy three priests, and seventy eight stihi- 
dents of divinity. 

The morning after our arrival, colonel Riehaml Duaanty 
a native of Smyrna, and au officer in the Russian service, 
residing in Bakteheserai, accompanied us oa horsa back te- 
elimb the steep defile which leads from the city to the Jew- 
ish colony of Dschoufotdkale,^ situated on a mountain, and 
distant about five versts^- These Jews are of the sect called. 
Kkrraj they inhabit an ancient fortress originally construct-, 
ed by the Genoese, upon a very lofty precipice. Passing up 
the defile which leads to this fortress, we observed Tartar . 
women creeping about among the tombs and ruined mosquea > 
in snow white veils, which made them appear like so many 
ghosts, sometimes covering all the face, except the eyes^ 
at others, concealing the whole of the head. 1 heir beauti-* 
ful flowing drapery, and the interesting groups they formed 
among the ruins, would have furnishra a noble subject for 
an artist's /pencil. As if their veils were no( a sufficient 
screen, no sooner do they behold a man, than they hang* . 
their heads, and often endeavour to get out of sight by run- , 
ning awaj. An English servant, whom Admiral Mordvinof 
brought into the Crimea, observing this aversion in the 
Tartar women from being, seen, deemed it an act of rude- 
ness to give them the trouble of hiding their faces,, and of 
running away on his account ; therefore, whenever he en- . 
countered them, he used to cover his face and take to his 
heels, to conceal himself in the first place that presented. 
This passed unnoticed for som^ time } hut n^t lengjth, the 

* The Bwaber-of emigranU ameuated to- 75,000, all of whotn, except- 
ing 7,000, perished from eold, hvngeiv aad «ther eiaises in the stepfeft, on 
the western side of the sea of Azof. ^ . . 

-^ Five thousand seven ^hondred' and scveotf ttx^ a«MrdiiBf<tot PaMat^ 
[1 ravels, vol. It. p. 29] inelucUng Greeks, Armenians* J^vsj ai^d Tsirtatji^ 

t "Dschov/out i» a name, originally of reproach, bestowed opoi (lie 
^cw^; «n^i^a^^«igi^e«afiort9eas. . ,. « 



3m 

TkMftttr 4fmiM», stnwk witk U» »tttf|akrity«£.g§akii^ii:iB«i 
altHBtys ftVMd tiienif and endenvour to^coneeal himself from 
thdf obsei^atron, let fiUl a partien of their veils whe»tbey 
nett met htm, which ai^ aaased him ta raaliBustdr thaiibe- 
ifefe. This «Keitad thi^rmriofiky ta soeh a degree^.thatat 
l^gth they faiHy bunted him) and after ibUowiii|^4iiiB hi 
parties to ist hiding filoee^ with their v^ils (sSy w«re re- 
!9olTedto8ee tiienan, who, for the first tine eoneaaled his 
face attheappfoaehof a weman^ and aetaaUj daimmded 
'aa eiplanation of his extraordifnary eoDdnet. * 
' Adraneing along the dofik» aad always aiaendia^ wt 
|m»sed 'above the remains of 4hat part of the eity which I 
before mentioned as belonging to the Gneeks. It is nothipg 
bat a heap of rnins, with scarcely one &tmie upon another. 
As we proceeded, they showed ns in the vei^ highest part 
of the rocks an iron ring, to wfaieh, according to their tra- 
ditions, vessels were foitnerly fastened; althon^h they most 
haife rode many hundred feet above the present levei of the 
' Biack 8ea. The tradition, however, is, or ought to be, s«t 
dside, by a much more rational account given of this ring; 
vi2. that a rope was fastened to it upon festival days, which 
being carried across the defile to a similar ring on ^le op- 
posite side, the khai}^ amused themselves by seeing a man 
cross over the valley, fi'om one precipice to the other, after 
the same manncfr as at Venice, where, during the eamival, 
a hired rope dancer was drawn up to the lop of the tofwer of 
' St. Mark, whence he descended by aw>ther rope, M^tb a 
boquet of fiowei« in his hand, to present tO' the dojge. This 
is the account the best informed give of themarvetlaos Hag 
n^ar Baktcheserai 5 but Baron de Tott very eredalously ad- 
mitted the original tradition, with all its 'arfasnrdity. The 
only objection belowing to the more rational aecoant arises 
from the difficulty ofeoBceiving how any rape^ seext^adedy 
could support a man's weight withouf breaking. - 

Farther up the defile is a very remarkahle example of the 
power of hitman labour, in a Greek monastery, or ehapel^ 
hevvn in the very side a^t the preeipioe, and in snch a msn- 
ner that nothing of it is visible but the smaM perforated M- 
vities through which light waseommunieated to thehite- 
•rieur. The weeks of the Crifnea were forbidden by the 
Tartars the Hse of any publick chureli, nor were the^ al- 
lowed to exercise, pnblickly, the functions of their religion ; 
in ooasequence of which, lUte the persecuted Arians, they 
fied to rocks and preoi||ices,'- secretly exeavatthg the 



. m«stittMet8salil« anvetiMy and adeenii^io Acur. ««btetT&< 
neous sbrlaes by small, wincUD^ stair^a^s eoA«eaIefl from 
4he niMt prjkig observ^attoiiw ^fbis result of their laboaf 
and pietj remains among (lie few things whieh the Rus- 
sians haire not foond it easy to destroy; offering one of LbfC 
most singular ouriosities in the Crimea; and to all appear* 
anee, being suspended like a Martinis nest upon the faee of 
a lofty, preeipice beneath stapendous rooks. 

We now eame to the lower verge of some steep elifEs^ and 
beheld on the sammit^ the walls of Dsehonfoatkale. In a 
reeess, upon our right hand, appeared the eemetery, or 
^\ field of dead^^^ belonging to the Karaite Jews^ Nothing 
,eouJd be imagined mfrre ealeulated to inspire holy medita- 
tion* It WM A beajitiful grove, filling a chasm of the monn- 
tains, rendered dark by the shade of lofty trees and over- 
hanging roeks. A winding path conducted through this 
solemn seene* Several tombs of white marble presented a 
fine. contrast to the deep ^reen of the foliage, and some 
fBomle figores in white veils were offering pious lamenta* 
tions over the graves* An evening or a morning visit to tlie 
sepulchres of their departed friends, is, perhaps, the only 
airing in which the Jewish women indulge themselves, as 
they seldom leave their houses ; and in this respect their 
customs are similar to those of Tartars and Turks. "^ If the 
belief these nations entertain, that the souls of the dead 
hover about their earthly tabernacles aad hold communioa 
with the livine, could be admitted by the followers of 
Christ, it woulif not b^ possible to direct the human mind to 
any exercise more consolatory^ or more sublimely affecting. 
I never satv Mohammedans or Jews so circumstanced, with- 
oiit feeling something very like a wish to share at least with 
them this article of Uieir faith. 

'The asoeftt from, the cemetry to the fortress,, although 
short was so steep, that we were forced to alight from our 
hpMeg, and ac tualiy climb to the. gateway. Several slaves 
however, .busied iu conveying water upon the backs of as* 
aety passed us in their way up. The spring whieh supplies 
th^m-i* below in the defile I and a very eopions reservoir, 
cut ia the roeks abo^e is prepared for the use of the colony. 

♦ This little vallfey lof Jfehosbaphat is so highly vahied by the Jews that, 

irhenever theandent khans wish«d to extort feoia them a pisesiQiit, ^ i» 

. r^9e Ji votumofy eootribution, it wa« siifieient to threaten tbein with 

tlwj extirp:^tiOn of those sjicred trees, undci* tlie plaasible pretence ol 

w*»t»n* fue! or thn'bev." PallaiU, T^a^>ef»va. IF. p. 35. 

'•'• '■ Ff ^ ^^ 



As \^ fiai^d tlie Mtewny, and enfer^ th^ toi^, iirier ^|«|>^ 
met by several »ftiie inhabitants. Celanei Dnnant inqnit* 
ed for a Jew of his atqaaintanee, one of the principal pe6- 
ple in the p!aee. We trere eoodneted to his house, and 
A>nnd him at noon sleeping: on his diran. He roseio're- 
•eive U89 and presently regaled as with rarioas sorts 6f eon- 
jfectionary, amone whieh were conserved leases of roses, 
and preserved walnuts ; also eggs, eheese, C6l(l pies and 
brandy. A messenger was dispatelied for ike rabbi, whom 
he invited to meet us, and who soon aAer made his appeaT- 
ance. This man was held in very high eonsideratiDn by 
them ail, and with good reason 1 for he was exeeedin^lV 
well informed, and had passed a pnblic examtnatton with 
distingnished honour in P€iter«biirgh, after t>eing sent far 
eiprcssly by the empress Catherine. We were highly in- 
terested by their eonversation, as well as by the singdfarity 
of having fbnnd one Jewish settlement, perhaps the only 
one upon earth, where that people exist secluded from the 
rest of mankind, in the frte exereise of their aneient ens- 
toms and peeuliarities.* The town contains about twelvS 
hundred persons of both sexes, and not more than two hun« 
dred houses. The Tartars Idl here a stately foausoleum, 
erected for the daughter of one of their khans, now a 
ruin. The principal part of each dwelling belong to the wo- 
men $ hut every master of a family has his own private 
atiartment, where he sleeps, smokes, and receives his friends. 
1 he room in which we were entertained was of thisd0seri^ 
tion : it was filled with manuscripts, many in the hand-wri- 
ting of our host ; others by those of his children ; and all 
in very beautiful Hebrew clMiracters. The Karaites deem 
it an act of piety to copy tht^ Bible, or ceptoas commenta- 
ries upon its texts, once in their Irves. AH their mafia- 
•eript copies of the Old Testament began with the book of 
Joshua I and even the most ancient did not contain the Pen- 
tateuch. That part of ihe Bible was kept apart, bat os- 
ly in a printed version for the use of sehools.f In the tys- 

* It seems ungulartfaRt mtch fortresses should have bseo potseaed W 
gach a people ; yet in Abyssinia the Falcuha appfsav siniHariv situfcteiU • 
and Jacksoa mentioDS a Jew's Rock in Morocco. tlebei^s MS. hvt- 
nal, 

f T^® reason |;ivcn hj the raljbi for the oroissioii of the books of Ms** 
in tlieir manuscript copies was, that the Pentateuch being tn constant nj 
iSwr the instmetion of thetr children, it was reserved apart^ tbattJie «We 
V»lume iQij^kt not he Kahie to the injuries k waold Uiiia aastaia. 



Mff^gmh ^Ml the ^jMi^^NOoB af t%«.baoiBi ai MuMft, vfetf 
t%iw wa»in mptBUfMBfipt. The rabbi asked ii' we had aQjr 
of t j»e Kf^raite s^Pt in Eiip^aiid--^a quesiion we could noi 
HQtwer* He«aid there WQra few in HoHand : a«d, I belierie 
.a8««eet it mi Very rani, Tlie^e Jew»cati themselves Kakai« 
l^he etymafa>(9^ of the name is uaoertain. The differene^ 
heljwaeii thelc er^ed aadthatof JewBiQeeaeral, aceording 
|o Ihe in^formatioii reeeived frfita the rabbi, eansists in a re< 
j<tal|<io ^t the Talmud ; a disregard to every kind of tradi- 
iimn $ to all rabbiai^iU writiogs ar opioi^ns i all inarg^iiial 
iflit^palattoBs of the texts of seripture; ancl, in a measure 
•f thMr rnkuof faith hj the pore letter frf the law. They 
l^r^nd td bavct the text c^ the Old Tefttament in its most 

Barnsae state. Being deurous to possess ono of their Bir 
e% the Rfihhit who seemed (^raUiied by the interest wa 
IbetrJiyedf permitted me to piijrehase a beautiful manuscript 
«dipy writtea upon vi^llam, abotttfeiir huiuired years old; 
^»t having left this valame in the Crimea, to be forwarded 
J^y way of Petersburgh, it was never afterwards reeovered* 
fl began like .(he ot&sra whieh were shown to us, with the 
.hook of Jfifihua* 

The^hara^ter of the Karaite Jews is directly opposita 
lo that which is generally attributed to their brelJiren ^«t 
'Other^eoixutriiss; being altogether witho&t reproach. Their 
Imoesty is proverl»al in the Crimea ; and the word of a Ka»> 
raile is considered equal to a bond. Almost all of them 
are eoga|;ed io trade or manufaeture. We were surprised 
i& «ee vtneieaves sold in the streets^ particularly as they 
aise abundafft in th^^ eountry ; But this article^ is in very 
§reat demand^ ta use in eookery« Their minced meat is 
JToUed up in vine lea^es^ and sent tenable in the form of sait- 
aages« The^ observe their fasts with the most serupuloas 
rigour, abstaining even from snuflFand smoking ibr twenty^ 
four hours tagetlier. In the very earliest perimls of Jewish 
history, this seet separated from the main stem. This, at 
least is their own aeeount ; and nothing eouoerniag t^em 
ought to be received from rabbinists, who hold them in de- 
testatioii. For this reason, the relations of Leo of Mode- 
na, a rabbi of Venice, are not to be admitted. Their schism 
is said to be as old as the return from the Babylonish eapU^ 
vity. They use very extraordinary care in the education 
of their children, who are taught publiekly in the s^na- 

fgues; and in this respeet the Tartars are not defieient. 
rarely entered a Tartar village la the day4ini6 withaot 



»eeiog the efcildren assembled in some pobliek place, reeeifw 
ing their instruetion from persons appointed to superintend 
the care of their edacation ; reciting with audibte voiees 
passages from the koran; or busied in copying manaseript 
lessons placed befoi« ihem. The dress of the Karaites 
differs little from that worn by the Tartars. All of them, 
of whatsoever age, suffer their beards to grow; boiamoog 
Tartars the beard is a distinction of age, the young men 
wearing only whiskers. The Karaites wear also a very 
lofty thiek felt eap, faeed with wool, whieh is heavy, a»t 
keeps the head very hot. The Turks and Armenians of- 
ten do the same ; and in warm climates this preeaoiion seems 
a preservative against the dan^rous eoaseqnenices whteb 
result from obstructed perspiration. 

From this interesting colony we returned, by a different 
road along the tops o? the mountains, toBakteheserai^* 
•oneerning which place I hope not to have omitted any thia^ 
the reader might deem worthy of his attention. 

• '< Batchiserai is entirely inhftb'iteil by T«*Un) Jews, And Armenians^.- 
and is the inost populous plaee we saw in the Ciiiaea. It ha» teyeral mostjue) 
Ibesides a very uoe one in the seraglio, witfi two minai-ets the raarifcof roy- 
alty. There are some decent cutlers' shops, and some manufactories of ; 
felt carpets, and one of red and y^Uow leaOi^r. The houses are almost 
HBiversally of wood and ill -baked bricks, with wooden piazzas and sbeiring 
roofs of red tile* There is a new church dedioated to St. George ; but the moelr 
striking feature is the palace, which, though neither large nor regular^ 
yet, by the picturesque style of its ardiiteeture, its carving and gilding, it* 
Arabick and Turkish inscriptions, and the fountains of beautiful water ill 
«tery court interested me more than I can express. The apai*tment8« «Xt 
^ept the hall of justice, ard low and irregular. In one are a number of . 
bad paintings, representing different views of Constantinople; and, to mj 
surprise, birds were pictured flyin|^, in violation of the Mohsmmedait 
j^rohibition to pfunt any animah It is kept in tolerable repair; and the di- 
vans in the best rooms are still famished with cushions. One apartment* 
wluch was occupied by the empress Catherine, is fitted up in a paltry ball- ' 
room manner, with chandeliers, &c. and forms an exceptrontothe gen- 
eral style. The harem is a mean building, separated, from the other 
apartments by a small arched garden, and containing a kitchen, with six 
or eight small and mean bed-rooms, each of which(as we were told by our 
gui<!c, who was a Je^v, and remembered it in the time of the khans) was 
usually occupied by two ladies. In the garden is a large and delightful ki- 
osk, surrounded by lattice-work, with a divan round the indde, the cen^ 
tre t>aved with marble, and furnished with a fountain. The word serai 
«r seraglio, whieh is given to this range of buUdings, seem8> in the Tar- 
tar and Turkish language^ to answer to all the ngnificaitionsof oar fingysh 
word eourt ; being applied indiflVrently to the yani «C »niBX}> -or 4ie ea« 
closure of a palace." H9$&r*9 MS. JonrfwL 



CHAPTER XX 

ptO^tttt CAPItALOF THE CRIMEA TO THE HEJRACaLEJ- 
OTICK CHEUSONESUS. 

Itarantitla Spider — Departute from Backfcheserai-^Ctenm 
of Strabo — Aktiar — Caverns of Inkerman — Mephitick 
Mr — Cipfius of Theagenes — Ancient Geography ^ and 

'Antiquities of the Minor Peninsula — Eupatoriwm — Cher- 
sonesus — Parthenium of Formaleoni — Monastery of St^ 

^ George-^Balaclava — Genoese Fortress — Geology of th» 

^Ctimea — Eeitiarkable Phenomena — Form of an ancient, 
Greek Town^-Manners of the People^ 

FPpjV our arrival at the house where we had fodgeS, 
we found the servant endeavouring to secure a very 
large Tarantula^ which he had caught in one of the out- 
houses. Some utility way fallow even our iniperfeet en- 
tomological researches, if they cause future travellers to 
avoid {fie dangerous consequences of an attack from sueh 
animals. Observations more at large wiU be found in a 
preceding chapter j* nor would the subject have been agaiu» . 
introduced, but with a view to contradict notions oropaga- 
ted concerning the harmless nature of these animals.. Both 
from my own experience, and the very extensive knowledge 
of professor Pallas, I am aifthorized to assert, thatin wariik 
eoUntries tlie wounds they occasion sometimes prove fatal.. 
The amputation of the part affeeted was the only method 
•f iraving our soldiers in Bgypt who had been bitten by the 
»e(n*pioii$ and Pallas had noticed the most dangerous eon- 
sequences from the attacks of the Seolopendra, the Phalan^ 
gitaii^ aod the Tarantula. 

Th« evening after we descended from the fortress beTong- 
tng to the Jewish colony, We left Baktcheserai, and reaebed 
the great b&y of Aktiar, upon which place the Russians^, m 
thetiaedf Cathefiae the Second^ bestowed the fanta^tiek 
name of Sebastopote. We had a passage of about two verst^ 
to make across the water to the town. Prince, Yjikzeiiaskoyy 
die goveriioary had statioaed a sentinel with a boat^ «M 

* Se« pp. S89«^C of thW ToloaaM 

Via 



iold US lie had waited'fottr days in exj^etiction ^f oOf eem* 
inp: ; and, according to the orders hb had reeeived, a geti 
wiiH fired, to erive notice to the garrison of ourtirririil.- Tile 

freat bav of Akiiar al«o bears the nameof The RomlB f and 
ere the Russian fleet is frequently at anehor. ltistll«Cte« 
nus of Straho*. The harbour, upon whieh thetdM^ol^Ak^ar 
\^as built about twenty years ago, has been appiNi^wtedto 
the reception of Russian ships of war. There «r8 #tiier 
ports, such as the Careenilte: Bay, the Bay tff Qwrnm^A]^, 
ike. The Crimea does not cSPord timber f^r bailJing'^shiiil, 
^although there is always a sufficient supply for repairs.. Tbe 
'fleets of the world might Hde secure^ and h«ve^»ftTeiiient 
anchorage, in the great harbour ; and in any of the porfs, 
vessels faiid from twenty one to seventy feet deptk«f water, 
and good anchorage. Tolhe Russian navy tl is one^of their 
most important possessions ; yet such wa« the surpiriniig 
isnorance or earelessn6ss of thdir government, that;fbritt«ie 
time after the capture of the UHmea the adva&tafe§«f this 
place were not discovered. The plan of the harhour sooie- 
what resembles that of Malta.t ' * 

. Aktiar contains two churches, one of whaeli i« ali«ids*me 
building. The principal street is broad, and the stair#. of 
the quay are spacious and magnificent. For the re^t^ with 
the exception of its magazines and barracks, it can, l^oast 
onfy a few i^hops.f Other objee is demand the attentioi\ of 
: the traveller, and call for all his activity. Landing, at 
Aktiar, he arrives, in the very centre of some of the n»ost 
interesting antiquities of the Criu^ea. The country included 
within the isilimus formed by the principal harbour of Ak- 
tiur, or Inkerman, that is to say, by iht ^Ctenus^t S^lrabo^ 

' $trali« Gebg. lib. vii. ' * 

f Had the English fleet made « visit to Aktiar daring the estpeditiod t» 
X^^t, which I Kiave reason to believe Tras « paist of tiit: iDStnictioos gives 
10 the eommander in chief, they might hare struck a l^low whieh ^oold 
liave prevented all the subseqnetit treachery experienced from Rue9i% 
almost without firinrg a gun: such was> at fclmt time, tlie stajte of thepenin- 
aula. I pre&cnted, both to the British tambHSsadour in Ct>nstaQtioople» and 
to lord Keith, an accurate surrey of tlie coast, witli all theapundingainthe 
portd of Aktiar, and the entrance to the roads; as well as tlte sitqatibn 
and quality of the roitgazities. artillery, and storeliouses. This doc^unent 
was confided to my care l^ one who wished Well to the British .intercft; 
and I brought it fi*om tlie Crimea at the lia&mHl Qi'>mx Me. . S«ch a stroke 
at that time had been amply merited <m the part of Kussia ; but tlie affajri 
^ ^gTpt did'iK>t .terminate soon enough to allow of its b^ng earned Inlb 
affect. 1 have therefore deposited tfa^ p8p«r%in.the admiralfc}' o'Qicf, aad 
«rnly engraved ^e .pnttMpal.«ku^ 09 A MMf^mwIIW %. IN iMi^a fl€ 
"*^-jpag«a. ^ "- .' » 



TO TH£ U£ilACZ.SpTX«K 4IB£«aONB81». StflT 

%itd tbep^rt of BiilaiQlava or Partus l^^nihQlarum^ h th^ 
Hjkraojskoticis Cheksomesus, 80 accurately descriked by 
tbmt aiiihor as a portion of the Peninsida majors or Tauri- 
OA CH«Ri$pNi£BOs. On thts small district stood the citieis 
of the ' M ; aiad; new Chersanesm, and Eupatorium / th^ 
.Templm ^JHana^ and promotitory Far^A«miim, celebrated 
by the story of Iphigenia $ the famous Chersonesian Mole; 
wUli immoj^oicstrampartS} tombs, canals, ai|d other works, 
tlie memify of wWeh historians preserve, but the last tra« 
ees. of wWse majBificence the Russians daily labour to an* 
fl^ilate. 

Prmee Yi^eewkoy had prepared apartments for us in a 

"palace heloAgiog to the crown, similar to that already nor iced 

at BlaraCrtili ;tbiit there nas at that time resident in Aktiar* 

a«(MintrymaQr(^'ottrsin the Russian service, an illiterato 

. maii^ vi^hose vanity we found would be piqued if we did not 

' take Op olir abod^ with him. He was priginally employed 

a^ flePV)iRt to the astronomer in Cooke's second voya^ ; and 

hjrtlie poivelrfol: tnlefes$ mode in his behalf, by professor 

Pallas and other persons of high respectability, obtained 

thti eoiomafvi of an expedition to the northwest coast of 

' ' Aneriea,'of which ^a£k^r has published a narrative. He 

^ liad the rank of commodore ; and his claim as a country-* 

« / • *« Aktiar, so caBed,' from its -white tocks. The old tpwo stood, as. we 

' ' "^ier^ told, on the north of the harhour, where there are do remain^ of 

* t»y ftoiisequence, No ▼eaaeis tre huilt here,, as the timber must all be 

loated down the Bog pr Dneiper. A regulation had been made prohibit- 

I ingmeixhant vessels, the entrance into the hai^our, unless in poaltiTe dis* 

. Cress; a strange way of proceeding, when oompared with the general 

*' polley of EtoNipeAiL goTernfinents. The reason asaigaed was the embez^ 

.- ,.a(^rnen% ^ the pul^Uck stores, which were sold to the merchants by the gtt* 

vernment ojUcera, almost without shame. The effect has been to check 

entirely the prosperity of the town, and to raise every foreign commodity 

to a most extravagant price. Even provisions cannot be brought ty sea 

'^ ""without a sp'edal Uetenee. Thisinforxnation I deiived ^m the ^-t admi* 

• l*ad Bandakof, and from an BogUsh officer in the Russian service. The 

' ' nattiral advantages of the harbour are truly surprising ; and the largest 

■\ Tc^elS'Tfe withhi a cable's length of the shore. The harbour is divided 

. ' hito three coves, aifonling shelter in every wimU and likvourable sttuat30D9 

'* for repairs, building, &e. On a tongue of high land, between tlie two 

southern c^eeles, stand the admiralty and storehouses, and on tho opj^iosite 

«ide isWite town. The pi'ineipal arm of tlie harbour runs eaSt,^nd is tei'* 

^ xalAatedby thcTalleyand tittle river of liiltf*rmaii. These are soiu^ fd^ 

midabte batteries and ^vt mouth of the harbpur is very easy of defence. 

The old; and unservieeaUe cannon are broken intosQiall pieces, by beings 

J,' raised to a g^at height, and suffered to fall' on a bed of masonry ; ani^ thea 

Seht^ ins #e were told, tDLuganitobetitew cast.' To build a ship lii the 

^ Black Sea' costs half as macli again aes to constiuiet itf^;t Crouatadt»^€rw<)p0i 



9&% itLARK^'s TRAVELS ik TARTA&T. 

miiii) adde^ to bis other pretensions, indueed as to aeeept 
bis offers of aecommodation. We had reason afterwards 
to res^ret our folly ; for, in addition to the privations we 
•adttred beneath his roof, we found ourselves thwarted in 
every undertaking by his interference, and very often by 
hb aetoal misrepresentations to the governour and poliee 
offieers. He would not allow the prinee to grant us permis- 
sion for the removal of any article of antiquity we had pur- 
ehased,.alihoagh they were ail condemned to serve as build- 
ing materials $ and m'C had soon reason to apprehend, tha^ . 
we were aeeompanied, wherever he went, by as dangerous 
m spy as the jealous poliee of that country could possibly 
place over us. The room allotted to our use was a kind of . 
antichamher, destitute even of the meanest article of fumi- . 
ture, in which we slept upon the bare floor; nor should we . 
kskve noticed the rio^ur of our fare, if it had not born the , 
respectable name of English hospitality. 

The prinee prepared his skallop for us on t^e next day, . 
with twelve oars, to visit the ruins and caverns of Inker- 
vum^* at the extremity of the principal harbour. This com- . 
■sodore and the metropolitan bishop accompanied us. Be- 
fore we reached Inkerman, some very remarkable excava- 
tions appeared in the rocks by the side of the bay, wJi^'ch 
were visible at a considerable distance. Upon examina- 
tion, they proved to be chambers with arched windows, cut • 
in the solid stone with great care and art. The bishop re- 
presented them to have been the retreats of Christians in , 
the earliest ages, tint to give an idea of what we saw at . 
Inkerman would baffle every effort of pen or peiieiJ. The 
rocks all ronnd the extremity of the harbour are hewn into 
chapels, monasteries, cells, sepulchres, and a variety erf 
works which eoiffound and astonish the beholder. A river 
flows here itilo the bay, after leaving, perhaps, the most 
beautiful valley in Europe. At the mouth of this river, the 
lemarkable antiquities are situated, which it is my present 
endeavour to describe, the excavations appearing on both 
sides of it. Those which first appear to. persons approach- . 
ing from Aktair are on the south side, and have been eon- 
verted into magazines for holding gunpowder. It was with 
creat difiieufty we conid prevail upon the sentinels to suf^ 
fer us to enter the caves in which the ammunition is kept 
These caves seem to have constituted an entire monastery^ 



TO TUB HBRACtBOTtCK eiIEB.SOVX&V%, ^ifk 

as the roek f^as been jso wonderfally perforated, thatit now. 
ekhihits a eh'areli, with several chambers and long passa-- 
ges teading oft' in various direetions. Passing alonfi^ these^ 
the fine prospeet of the valley of Inkerman is seen throngh 
tM \Vide, open arches, together with heaps of ruins on the 
opposite side of the river. The principal cavern appears 
to nave been the church. We found several stone eoliins cut 
in the rock, \i'hich had been laid open ; and we uoticed some 
Greek inscriptions above them, but the characters were too 
faint and imperfectly engraven, to be legible. The dittieulty 
•f copying or deciphering them was increased by the obseu- 
rity which prevailed. It was now evening; ar.d nigbt com- 
ing on, the full moon rose in great splenJour over the long 
valley of Inkerman, and presented a landscape, through; 
the arches of these gloomy caverns, which, perhaps, it is 
not possible for imagination to coneeive. Ou the opposite < 
side of the river the excavations were still more frequent^and 
somewhat more distant from the bay. Crossing an ancienl 
!iridge,wLose fair proportioned arch and massive superstrue- 
ture indicated masonry of some remote age, we iouiid the 
caverns so numerous as to occupy one entire side of a moun- 
tain, on the summit of which were the towers and battle- 
ments of a very large fortress, supposed to have belonged 
to the Genoese, but, perhaps, originally a part of the forti- 
fications erected by Diophantus, one of the generals of 
Mithradates. From the appearance of the staircases 
which conduct to it, and which lead also to the very cav- 
trns before mentioned, it is evident that a fortress wa& 
erected there ever since the excavations were first maile^ 
whatever the date of their origin may be. Several chapeU^ 
together with the remains of stone sepulchres whieh seem^ 
to itave contained the bodies of distinguished persons, are 
among these chambers, now tenanted by Tartars and their 
goats. The stone coffins serve as drinking-troughs for the 
eattle; and the altars, once perfumed with incense, are now 
filthy recejitacles for dung and mud. Pallas, who had paid 
eonsiderable attention to the subjeet, believed all these re- 
mains^ whether of buildings or excavated chambers, to have 
originated in a settlement of Arians, who, when Christian- 
ity met with general persecution, fled to these roeks, and 
fortified (hemselves against the barbarian inhabitants of 
the peninsula. Similar works are found in other parts of 
the Criuioa, particularly at Schulu and Mankoup ^ also in 
Italy, andotW |aurt4..ef £tti^{!»5 awd ttsejctew l^emUy 



Mil ACJUlUl't TlUMfStft t» TARtAfttk 

been attributed to thelahevr* of tlHma eaiiy CMstiAAs'^laii' 
fled from pergecutioB. The air of lakerman is uAAvhole- 
some durins the months of summer and aotamti ; atid this 
maj be said, id some des:ree, of the whole peninsula. ^ £yetf 
the inhabitants are afflicted with frequent fevers; hut 
strangers rarely escape. The tertian fever is the mfo^t 
common. In the autumn it is very difficult to aroid 4his dis- 
order, particularly at Akmetehet, Aktiar^ Kosiof, Biidak, 
and Xarasu bazar. Baktcheaerai is the most healthy situa- 
tion, beeause a constant current of air parses through the 
defile in which it is situated, and the water is exeellent.^ 

After returning from our excursion to Inkerman, we en- 
deavoured to investigate the aneient geography of the He- 
raoleotiak peninsula. It was a work of sdn» difficulty ; yet 
the materials, indeed, were ample. The ruins, as they still 
existed, with the assistance of Straho, and an aeearate sur* 
vey of the country, might be deemed safficiest for the pur- 
pose ; but the insumiottntable difficulties created by the bar-' 
Darity of the Russians were very intimidating; When they 
settled in the country, the remains of the city ^Chersonesus 
were so considerable, that all its gates were standing. These 
they soon demolished; and proceeding in their favotirit« 
employment of laying waste, they pulled down, broke, bn- 
jried, and destroyed whatever they could find which might 
serve to illustrate its former history ; blowing up its ancient 
foundations ; tearing open tombs $ overtlvrowine temples ; 
and then removing the masses of stone and m|L^leti>^k- 
tiar, exposed them to sale, by cubiek measure, to serve as 
materials in building. If the Archipelago sliould faJi un- 
der the dominion of Russia, the fine xemai^s of aBcieRt 
Greece will be no more ; Athens will be rased, and not a 
stone be left to mark where tlie city stood. Turks are OMin 

• la <K>iMeqiieBc« either of the viitft to fekisfman, or the air of Aktiar, f 
eaught a violent ^tertian fever, vbieh afflieted me diifm| ftU- tbe joanicy 
along the south coast : and I afterwards observed at ,AJiLfne.tchet, thatitiWiH 
BQt possible to^alk in the town without meeting persons labouring under 
«»milar disorfler. The pale Peruvian bark has very little effect i^n rerao- 
^ngthe complaint; but the red barksooti c»res5t; and tb^^last paroxysiit 
is generally followed by a apaldtug eruption on the H&s. Thia aym|>U»» 
as an index of returning health, is always hailed by the inhabitaalB, whQ| 
when tliey peredve it, congratulate tlie invafid upon the spefcdy prospect 
of his recovery. But as tlic poor, and even no^ny of the .riah, ate^niiabte 
to procure the bark, these fevers often generate dn^oiieal hafaBts» andiie^ 
«o*»e fatal. There is not a single apothecary in the CciisftjL. Medifliw 
is, therefore, Kttle known, except those remedies to which the Tai-^p 
*aytt yeoiourW4 wWah, a4th the exception of a few herbs, consist chiefly, 
M4& Ml>ai?Wiwi«awki»aati.iQ «Im^ 9iq;HMlllQ^>nci(e«. 



^1lUtf^f4iil^tQie>in e^]^ari»tfii With Ridssians. Aipone. 
otber iflierestin^aQtiqitities, which the latter had reniovea 
lh>m th^^ eitv of Gh^Fsanemis, was a beairtifnl bas-relief, of 
wbit^ fnarbii$9 exiiildliiig scnlptitTe equal in perfection to 
come of the moftt admired protfUctioDft of the art. It had 
tlosed the entnanee to^the tomb of a philosopher by the name 
o^Tbeageu^. Airy of the iDhabitants of Atkiar might 
have piireba«ed it, together with a ton-vreight besides o( 
othei^Monea? for « single rouble. To us the sale wa^ pro- 
hibited, beeaiise we were strangers; and worse than all, we^ 
wene EngUshmen. Ooinmddore Billing^ particularly in- 
Mted) that tiie eansequeitees woald be seilous if it reached 
ttfe ears oi the einper^ar that Engirshmen were allowed to! 
rewor^aBj thing^of this deseription : so the Ctppus of Thea* 

fmes was l^ft to its fate. As a ba^t-relief, it represented 
liea^oes and his wift. The drapery of these figures 
beautifully <llsplay^d the per^etion to which the art of 
seaJpture had attained among the inha1)itants, and therehj 
illustrated and eonfirmed the text of Pliny. "^ The philoso- 
nher held in his left htknd a seroll^ in tbrm and size resem- 
bling the flfiaiitiseripts found in Pompeii. His feet wera. 
boaud ID sandals. His vVife, in a Qreeian habit, wore along, 
robe w^ieh fell negligently in folds to the ground. 'They. 
b^lh appealed in the prime of Kfe, and below them ap-'. 
peared the foUewing iaseriptioti : 

OEArENHZXPHZTinNOX.KAr ' ^ 

" HrYKHAYTOY ^ O YARI A - MA 

KAPrAETaNZEI^NBXAIPE 

FfoBi the style of the iaseription, the late professor Por- 
Sf n, affiroied that the date of it might have been at least two 
fa«ndred years prior ta Christianity. I was afterwards eon* 
dooted to the sepulehre from the mouth of which tfae^ had 
remoyed this marble. It waa a family vaalt, hewn m the. 
T9«ik en. the oststde of the walls of the ancient city of Cher- 
aMesiis;t Withiii were recesses for the bodies oi' the dead*' 
Whenrit was opened, the soldiers bond tke bones still in a' 

* <• PrmtiMd itfMis,** Mys the hiatoriftti, epeakiiie of Herwleft Chei^' > 
■BBesBSy yfMMk htA formerly born the name of Megatifie^ '*»f» !!•<•,«#- 
ttmUtt, cmtodiHt GracUe mtfri^M, Plin, m»t, ^at. Ub. iv." 

t A fine from tbe He^ubft of Eifriyide* \Bditi» /Vmanj] with the JRil- ; 
kmnx^ note ^,tb& «#tsir»Ju isf vmm^Sm'^fMtm C ft srimeiiw lastei* 



9i^8 •i.AKKB^S TRAVBLft » fARTAHT. 

state of preservation,* and thej seattered them a.iiiaw the 
ruins. Tfiere were many other sepulchres of the same Mud 
en the side of the rock in which this appeared, hewn in the 
same manner, and closed by a large stone. Thus, evi- 
dently, the custom of the Chersonesus, was to bury, and 
not to burii. the dead. With the single exception of the 
vase found at Yenikale, we observed no where in the Cri- 
mea either ashes, urns, or other proof of bodies eonsumed 
hy %e. 

If the reader would follow me in the tour of the Hera- 
eleotiek peninsula, it is necessary that he should have the 
maps, which I have caused to be engraved, constantly in his 
hand. Leaving Aktiar^ and following the coast westward, 
we passed the bay in which the Russian artillery is sta- 
tioned. Then, arriving upon the bay for the quarantine, on 
its western side appeared the ruins and sepulchres of a town 
perfectly distinct from that of Chersonesus, and which an- 
s^vers the situation assigned by Strabo to Eupatarinm^hmli 
by Diophantus. His observations state,that the promontory 
on which the town stood, inclining towards the eity, at the 
distance of fifteen stadia, formed a considerable bay, beyond 
which, was the Ctenus^ and that the inhabitants built a mole 
iieross, which united the two towns.f The remains of th« 
mole are yet visible, and the distance, allowing for every 
stadium an English furloBg,^ is preehely that which he 
dciferibes. A pface for the quarantine is now built upon that 
bay, and divioes fiupatoriom fV*om Chersonesus 5 for iuMne- 

of Cherronesus, altboagh in uppontion to the received textof Jdinoat e^ei;^ 
Greek aad Lutth author. ' 

*f Aldus «t Codioe« Xtp'^winv^ sed aUeram formam prsBuntibos hedam 
elBmuekio, rcposui. Iterum v. 33. T!ir^^iX4^a-ow<riaL, 

♦ This has heen the ease in some Greeiaa sepulehrea, perfajipb eyea-of 
4ikoi'e ancient dkte^ that I have seen opened. 

f Strab. lib. vij. p. 450. edit Oxon. 

4: As; this rule is generaHy admitted, and viff be sdopted thrakiglioiil 
this Avork, it may be proper toinsert thp following passage, cone«roiwg the 
Stadium, fromCasaubon^s Comraentaiy upon Strabo, as given in the 
Notes to the Oxftwd edition, p. 467. « Statiinm, inqnlt Pfinius, fib. it c 
93* centum w^nUquingue4M0tf*O9,eficitpafnM. Quod si est, neef^so 
est miliarc unum stadia efficere oeto. Plutarchus in Graoohiay p^ 8^ fsih* 
I. *e(Iit F. Part, t-j ^Ti /ui^jfty okt« a-raS'm o\cv ^t^rcda.: atque ^ae fft*- 
mensione tisi sunt PUnius, Livius, ut alibi docuimus, et Dionysius Halictf- 
nassensis, Hqtxe aBi. Pofybius qaoque^ libro tertio, rdLvrn^ imfiv^, 0^u$c* 
rurrtu hm avwjuisaifr** «»r<i rxxiioa; tKra' iftw 'P^^udUoftr^fiUKOf, 



TO TH£ UKRACLEOTI0K CUERSONKSUS. 3^9 

{^Uately after passing the quarantine, appears the proiooii- 
,tory on. which stood the eitj of Chersonesus, now covered 
^y lis ruins. O.n its eastern side, helow the ancient walls («f 
^ihp tovTn9,are the sepulchres of the Chersonesians, in great 
imniJber^ ranged in very regular order. The plain between 

(ilh^rsQnesus . and Eupatorlum fis also covered by ruined 
t|uil(Jingfi 5 and to the south of the former city, at tJie dis- 
tance ei* a verst behind the promontory, upon an eminence, 
is a^uiQulus of a size so remarkable, that it cannot, fail to 
attract notice. ' Immediately after passing the promantary 
pf Eupi^torium, tovvaids the eait^ begins the Ctenu^fOr 
karbouroflnkerman^ the entrance to which constitutes 
The Rocids ofJiktiar^ and whic}h exactly corresponds with 
tne ^countgivi^n by Strabo. The old wajls, both of the 
j^qwn of Chersonesus and of the buildings which it coa- 
j^iu^dj.aiTe extremely thick, b^ing in fact all of them dou- 
iilcf tj^at is to say, having a shell on eaeh side constructed 
with immense masses of stone, and the interval between the 
two piled with a oement containing fragments of patter j 
^Bd,other coarse mate rials •> Earthenware Sjcemfd to liave 
b^&U in grjeat abmadance ; not only as. it was employed 
d^ong th^ materials for building, but because the ground 
)»'£^,covjered with fragment of broken vessels. Two strong 
t<^vvprs, one of which stood contiguous to thebay, w^ereoar 
tire ia 1794. . . 

^^ the year.. 1794^ was .alsd foandy^al^Qat three feet beJow 
the surface of the soil, a large slab of white marble, con- 
taining an inscription so imperfectly preserved, that it is 
not possible to offer any tolerable copy ; but it is in the Do- 
rick dialect, and seems to commemorate the gratitude of a 
people t9 a eitiisen or magistrate for the introduction ot* 
vineyards. The original stone is still in the possession of 
admiral Wilson, at Aktiar. 

Froni the little harbour lying between the cities of Cher- 
sonesus and Eupatorium, an artificial canal, winding round 
ta^arda the walls 6f the former, and hewn in the rock, yet 
remains very entire.^ It was calculated to admit small ves- 
sels within the suburbs of the city. Towards the extremi- 
tj.it is now dcy,:althaugh the fishing-boats of the inhabit- 
ants still enter its mouth. " In* this ciiy ;** says Strabo,* 
'*'is'the temple of a virgin, a certain deirum^ from wkost 
9S$Q tijte prMnotttory is named, a hundred stadia farther oti^ 

* Strab. Geog. tibi vii. p. 446. ed. Oxob. 
Gg 



ddO tLARKE'S TkAVEL«' IN TARTAftt. 

and called Parthenium ; haviti^ the fane of tlie demon, and 
lier imaee. Between the citj and the promontory are titree 
forts." Taking, thereforethis cine, aitdfoliowmg the eoaftt) 
tlie three harboars mentioned by Strabo will be fbund to 
occur very regularly; but it is not so easy to determine 
the particular promontorv on trhieh the stirrne and statne of 
the demon virgin was said to stand. As the coast hiefines 
towards the south, a very remarkable black ro6k advances 
f^om the eliff into the sea, towards thewest, petforated by 
a ioflty, natural arch, thrtoigh which boats itiay pass.* The 
singular appearance of sneh a scene might furnish a basis 
for superstition, and above this rock were th^ remains of a 
building of an oblong form, constructed ^rth very consid- 
erable nfasses of stone placed together without cement. 
Near, were also other mina, Farfter on fs a promontory 
stiH more striktug, to which FoTmaleoni* gives tlie name of 
The Promontory of Airf^entwrn termitiatmg by aperpeti' 
dicular precipice of very great heigbt. Tften follows the 
bay in which stands the monastery of St. Cieorge, in a pie^ 
furesqne and singular situation, so placed amons sloping 
rocks as to seem inaccesible. The few mmks^o reside 
there have formed their Kttle gardens opon terraces one 
above anot^ier. If there be any thing which ean strengthen 
Formaleoui's ophiioti, it is the circumstance of the founda- 
tion of a monastery and chapel so near the spot. The 
early Christians, in the de»troction of pagan edifices, almost 
always erected new buildings, sacred to their own relfgion, 
upon the spot, and often with the materials, of the oH. 
The monks of the monastery, in ^ ground behiad rtielr 
chapel, hail recently found a small stone column, the shaft 
of wbieh was seven feet eight tnebes and a half io len^h, 
and thirteen inches in diameter. This column, togauier 
with a few broken slabs of maiH[)le; and other antiquities 
discovered there, seem to prove, supjmsihs; Formaieoni's 
position of Parthenium to be correct, ihat m this sitaaticn 
stood the old Chersonesus, which Slrabo, aftet spealciitg 4f 
the netr, deseribes as in ruins, and as occurring after the 
promontopy.t That tbere is some reason, however, to dis- 
sent from the opinion maintained hy Formaleoiiiy -will ap- 

* Hist, Phnos. et Poh't. duCknaiii. Ha. datt»la Mer Keire, Ven. Sra 1719. 

" Intel* urbem «a pronfontoiiuib portas Mat tMftf sequitar .TeCitttft 
Chflrrwiestta, dinita." Strad, lib. ylip, 446. eek Oxen. 



' TO TUS HSRAOL&OTICK OHEASONBSUS. 981 

fMT IB tbe geqad ; as tliece U a pronoilorj heiween the 
monastery af ot» George and the harbour of Balaclava^ 
If hich^ independent of the tradition Qonserning it,^ Uy per- 
haps^ mure suited to the account Strabo has given of the 
fane of the demon virgin^ as well as to the terrible nature 
iS her rites** It will be noticed in a subsequent account of 
a joaraey we made afterwards along this coast, with Pro- 
feuor Pallas, from Balaalava to the extreme^ southwestern 
point of the minor peninsula of Chersonesus. 

The whole of this little peninsula is marked by Testiges 
of ancient buildings. The traces of walU cross it in so many 
directions^ that it is impossible to conceive the purnoies for 
whieh the J wore erectod. And if we take into consideration 
the ourioua remains at Inkerman, the ruins of the cities of 
EuMUtariiun and Ckersonesus, of the fortresses, and other 
haildings along the coaistt at Balaclava, and other parts of 
this aaail distriet, we shall eertidnlj not find, in any other 
PfM*t af Europe, so mucli to interest as well as to eonfouud 
the tramelier, in an eqoal extent of terrjtor^. From the mo- 
nastery of SL Geei^ we returned to. Aktiar, having pro- 
mised to spend ^he remainder of the dav with prince Y ia- 
s^stmskoj, who, as there were no po&t-Iiorsps, uad kindly 
supplied MS with lus own ; and whose attentions, daring tlie 
time we remained, demand our acknowledgment. 

Afterwards we set out again, by the common road, to Ba- 
laclava, with a view to examine that place* and then to tra- 
verse the whole coast as far as Jiliista ; which journey would 
comprehend not only the &iest scenery of the Crimea, but 
also would cpmpleteour survey of its southern coast. So 

• *• On tbat TnhoapitAtle sftor^'* siw^ Gibbon, speaking of the l\ncrica 
€htT99n£9nfy •* f^nrlfNiJes, «iiiMtMiiRg iHUi exfoititft irt tiM talcs •€ 
aatiiirafeft bw p)«efgd thf # oene ^ 0b« of his m04( oS^oUAg trRtt4ies. 



J^jfpbuf^H^inTaur.'X The UooiJy aacriiBces of Diana, the arriviu of Orestes 
and P^'lades, an<1 the trUimph of virtue and relij^on over savage fierce- 
ness, gerre to represent a histarieal truth, that the Tmuri, tfte 6riffinah 

'ifruHU fhannev$^ Oy a ^raducU iuter£9yrse -with the Grecian colonies^ 
VfBiclt, settled elon^ the maritime coast. ^ This seems to concc<le more to 
allegory, than is cgmsistent irith the ancAent history of th« Greek drama ; 
in vhioknot so ttmali attentbn ^cras paiil to the itrict toncnr either of 
voeord m tt^Ck}9> It i^ unoertaio to wWk of th« heathfiu Kodd^ssea tlte 
demo7i virgin of Strabo may be referred. Tlie editor of the Oxford 
Strabo £/». 446. in JVW.} suspects that she was of Soyttuan origin. Her 
image was belicTed to have fallen from lieaven. Orestes carried it into 
Giieeee ; bat the base of the natue^ ao^erdlnf to OHd, remained. In tiie 
language of the Tauri, tier earliest votaries, she was caU^ Qni^KAe^ 
"" >berf>WBaTBAM^. EphUl. MK.:PmUli^U 



332 Clarke's travels in tartaiit. 

mucL has been said by travclters of the famous rallej of 
Baidar, that the vale of Balaelava, which is hardly surpass- 
ed by any prospect in- the Crimea, has hitherto escaped 
liotieew Yet the wild, gigantick landscape, which, ton-ards 
its southern extremity, surrounds the town ; its mouatains; 
it§ ruins, and its harbour ; the houses covered by vines aod 
flowers, and overshadowed by the thick folia&^e of mulberry 
and walnut trees, make italtogetl^ enchanting. The mini 
at Balaclava point out the haaakion of Strabo ; whence 
some believe it derived its present name. Others, and per- 
haps with more reason, suppose the name to have bad a 
Genoese ori<»io ; «uid derive it from Bella Clavuy the beauti^ 
lul Port, its harbour is certainlj the zrMBOAnN aimhn. 
Forties S^mbolorum $ tlie characteristick entrance to wLieb 
Strabo so accurately describes.* Nothing can equal the 
fidelity with which he has laid down the coast of the Crimea^ 
a circumstance which may, perhaps, be attributed to tjbe 
place of his nativity, Ams^sia jf whose situation enabled him 
to acquire familiar knowledge^ of the shores of the Euxine. 
In his account of the Archipelago and Mediterraueaji, al- 
though, always an accurate \yrcter, he by no means evinces 
the same degree of preeisioii.. . Aceordi/s^ to him the port 
of Balaclava^ together with the Ctenus,,or harbour o^ In- 
kerman, constituted, by their approach, an isthmus, of forty 
stadia, or five miles ;^ which, with a wall, fenced in the mi- 
nor peninSjUla, having within it the city of Chersonesus.j 
The wall we Ibym} afterwards witli professor Pallas, and 
it^.extent agireed. very wcjll with Strabo's account. 

. The port of Balaclava is certainly one of the most re- 
markable in the. Crinoca^ From, the tovvn it appears like 
" one of the smallest of our northern lakes' landlocked by high 
preetpitOHs mouutaii^s. Though its entrance is so uarrow 
that ships can hardlyjBnd.a passage, yet it affords excellent 
anchorage and security in all weather from the dreadful 
storms of the Black Sea. Ships of war, of any burden, 
may iind si^fficient depth of water, and a safe asvlum there. 
The heights around it are thefi.rst objects descrihed by ves- 
sels in sailing from. Constantinople. But if any illfateij 
mariner, driven by tempests, sought a shelter in the port 
of Balaclava, during^ the reign of Paul, he was speedily 

• Ka) jMT Mltiiv, xtfm TtmirtzfXtit, Et post hauc portasai>gusto.i»t«>it«^« 
Strab, lib. yn p. 446. ed. Oxotu 
* t Strab. lib, >ii. p. 446. ed. Oxoa. 



to THZ UURlyhZOnCK 0HEASON£SUS. 3d^ 

driven out again, or sunk by an enemy as inhospitable as the 
wind or the waves. The inhabitants had small pieees of 
artillery stationed on the heights, with the most positive 
orders, from that insane tvrant, to fire at any vessel who 
9hoald presume to take refuge there. The town is at pre- 
sent eolotttzed by Greeks from the Morea: a set of daring 
pirates, to whom the plaee was assigned by the lateeranress^ 
for the serviees thev rendered in her last war with the Turks. 
We found the inhabitants* of Misitra, Corinth, of the isles of 
Cephalonia, Zante, &e. living without any mixture of Tar- 
tars or Russians, according to the manners and customs of 
their own country. We were treated by them as I had rea- 
son to think we should be, with every degree of politeness 
and hospitality. The paroxysms of the ^ver I had caught 
in the bad air of Inkerman, perhaps increased by constant 
fatigue of mind and bodv, might have induced many a worthy 
landlord to have denied me admission to his house, through ' 
fear of communicating the plagu6 to his family; but the 
brave Spartan Feodosiaj* with whom we lodged at Balac- 
lava, not only received me, but attended me with all th^ 
solieitude of a Samaritan* We arrived by moonlight : hia 
house was beautifully situated upon a rock near the harbour. 
The variety of different nations which are found in the 
Crimea, each livingas if in a country of its own, practising 
its peculiar customs, and preserving its religious rites, is one 
of the circumstances which renders the peninsula interest- 
ing to a «tranger. At Baktcheserai, Tartars and Turks; 
upon Che rocks above them, a colony of Karaite Jews; at 
Balaclava a hord of Greeks; an army of Russians at 
Akmetchet ; in other towns, Anatolians and Armenians ; iq 
tlie sfepp^s, Nagays, Gipsies, andCalmucks; so that in a 
very small district of territory, as in a mena^rie, very op- 
posite specimens of living curiesitiea are siiM^ularly eon- 
trasted. Nor is it only with a view to its natural history 
that the traveller finds ample source of instruction; hi» 
Mtention is continually diverted from such considerations by 
the antiquities of the country. At Balaclava, they offered 
fur sale several Greek coins of uncommon beauty and 
rarity; the most remarkable were of silver. I shall only 

♦A corrupt mode of ppooounoing 3%?odb«a as Theodore i« often ftoi 
lujUDoed Feodare and Theodorick.Feodoricki Federick and Frederick^ 
thm ve jb^ye tlie nngolar <leiiiJVtion of Fredmck from Theodore, 



SS-if OXARKfi's TRAVELS IW TARtART. 

mention those in the margin which, if not unique, are the 
least known.* 

On the heights above the mouth of the port, are the ru- 
ins of a magnifieent fortress, built by the Genoese when 
they possessed this harbour. The arms of Genoa are up- 
on the walls. 'Vht mountain on the northeast side is cov- 
ercd by its mouldering towers, and the rock itself has been 
excavated so as to exhibit stately magazines andehamberg, 
the sides of which wxre lined with coloured stneeo. It is 
surprising the inhabitants of Balaclava do not use these 
caves ; for they are very habitable, and the stueeo is still 
in the highest preservation. We entered one, which was 
a spacious oblong chamber lined 'throughout with stueeo, 
aud somewhat resembling the famous Piscina miraMte^ near 
the supposed villa of Lucullus, at Baia, in Italy. We 
could form no conjecture for what purpose this place was 
intended, except as a granary or storeroom; it bore n© 
marks of any aqueous deposit upon its sides, and was at 
the same time dry and in perfect preservation 5 therefore 
it could not have served as a reservoir for water. The 
raountaiiis, which surround the port, are of red and while 
marble, full of cracks and Assures; but calculated for 
ample quarries, if worked' beyond the surface. The shore 
is in soitie parts covered by a fine glittering sand^ the par- 
ticles of which consist wholly of gold-coloured miea, in a 
state of extreme division ; making the most beautiful writing 
sand (hat can be used ; a^nd as it may be obtained in any quan- 
tityjwould answer very well as an article of commerce.l here 
has been nothing of the kind yet sold by stationers, which 
can be compared with the sand of Balaclava; for when 
scattered over fresh writing it produces an effect as if the 

• They were as foHow : A silver medal of Heraclea, PR«ciPin NiTo- 
Kis, to use the express words of Pliny concerning the city to which it 
heloMged. Heraclea was, according; to that author, the nameoftheChcr- 
ftonesian city ; and this medal exhibits on one side a bearded head of 
Hercules, coTered by the lion's skin, and ontbe other within an indented 
square, the word HPAKAF.] A, with the letters AAM. A second of PHOcis,of 
similar size and workmanship, having on each side a bull's face, and for 
The reverse the head of Apollo, with the letters *OKI.. A third in silrer, 
and ot the same size, I .believe,, of Elis. It has on one side an 
Eagle's head, and for reverse a thunderbolt. The fourth is of still smaHer 
.size, and of the same metal ; to me unknown. It has on one side a 
scorpion, and on the other, within an indented square, a dolphin. The 
Mihy and tas^ which I shall mention here, was a bronze medal oiRhoeme- 
$alce3 king of Bosporus, having in front the regalia sent from Rome for 
his coronation, with the legend BAXIAEilX POIMi^HTAAKOT, aii&'fO€ 
reverse the letters Mil in a wreath of teureh 



TO Tfi£ HISRAaiiEdTieK CRERSOMXS0S. 981^ 

ink, h&il beeir eoTerefl with minute aeales of polished gold, 
\yliich it will retain for any number of years. 

The appearance of so mneh mica mi^ht induce an opin- 
h>n, that a foandation of rocks of a formation anteriof to 
those which surround the port, eannot be very remote ; but 
there is no part of the world where j^olo^ical phenomena 
are so extraordinary. Pallas often confessed, that in all 
his travels he had never met with similar appearances.* 
It is impossible to eonjeeture the depth at which the prim- 
itive foandation of granite lies; there are no traces of any 
such substance ; not even among tfie pebbles on the coast. 
The strata of the Crimea have been formed by a process so 
inexplicable, that no attention to their position will afford 
matter for any regular svstemattck arrangement. Advanc- 
ing from the isthmus of rerecop, towards the chain of moun- 
tains which line all the southern coast, the great northern 
plain of the peninsula, consisting of a soft, calcareous de- 
posit, by an alternate series of depressed surfaces contin- 
ually sinks towards the south. Almost all the principal 
elevations of the globe rise from the east, and ^all towards 
tho west. The declivities of the Crimea, and the precip- 
itous sides of its mountains, are all opposed to the south. 
Perhaps a familiar exposition of these geological features 
may be afforded, by saying that the perceptible elevations 
of the peninsula, visible even in- its plains, resemble, by 
their alteruate order, the teeth of a saw. 

*' The. small, tract which he published at Petersburgh id 1796, aod 
-uhich he extracted from the journal of his travels in the Crimea in 1794, 
has been befbre noticed. It is so extremely rare, that the reader will per- 
haps be gi*atified by the insertion of a short extract concerning the singu- 
Ur pheoomeua displayed in the geology of the peninsula. <* Hans un pays 
qui a des montagnes si elev^cs, qne quelqe part la neige et la glace s'y con- 
servent pendant tout I'ete, qui d'ailleurs est isole par la mer, on devroit, 
selon les loix geu^rales de la nature, s'attendre k trouver lea trois ordrea 
de montagnes : lesprinUttvea granitiqaes pour centre d*el6vation ; les schis- 
teuses aecondairea ; etles fer^iatr^f k couches horizontales, rael^esde pet- 
rifactio'hs ; ou bien. comme en Sicile, un noyau ou centre volcaTd^tie 
et les couches s^condaires et tertiaires sur les contours. Mais en Taunde 
il n'existe ni Fun ni 1' autre de ces arrangements observes dans tous let 
autres pays de mofitagne. L*on ne voit, dans I'escarpement maritime de 
toute la haute chaioe des Alpes de la Tauride rien que des couches s^con- 
daires dn dernier oi-dre, inclin^es srur Hiorizon i. un angle xilus ou moins 
approchant oelui de 45 degr^s et presque toutes plus ou moins paraU^le» 
pios^es d'ans une , direction qui varie entre le sud-ouest et le nord-ouest. 
Toutes ces couches sont done couple par la direction de la c6te, et on le 
Toit toutes ddecoiivert sur I'escarpement maritjraedes montagnes, comme 
kafimlleta d'lm Uvrc <nt ha hmes d*tme MbHotMoue," Tab. de,la Tfx»t* 



aM OLiAXS's T&AVSU( IS TARTAKT. 

Toward! the south, iU kiyliest moQntaiiis are all broluit 
olT abruptly, as if bj the sinkioe of the maiii bed ia die 
depths of the Black Sea, Towaras the north, a tertiary 
deposit of ealeareous matter^filled with the remains of shells, 
extends beyond the Isthmus, even to the Dnieper. Thus the 
exterionr, or npper strata, of the peninsula, eonsist of eal- 
eareoos matter, of very reeent formation, in which there b 
nothing otherwise remarkable, than the proof they afford by 
the remains of marine bodies 4>f the draining^ of the waters 
from the great plain of Tartary ; a subject we shiUl not now 
further discuss. But the wonder is, that where mountains 
hare attained an elevation of above twelve hundred feet, ao 
traee, either of primitive granite, or as a leader to it, of 
any regular schistose deposit should appear. Beneath these 
enormous, calcareous masses, pillars, if they may be sa 
tailed, of marble, trap, elay, common limestone, and cbis- 
ttts, make their appearance in parallel and almost verfcieal 
veins, propping up the superincumbent strata. Pallas for- 
eibly illustrates their position by observing, that they stand 
like books upon the shelf of a library.* These veins alter* 
Bate with each other $ and although they are somewhat in- 
elined, leaning from northwest towards the southeast, yet 
their position, in certain instanees, is nearly vertieal. 
These extraordinary phenomena mav be discerned all along 
the southwestern coast ; and that the depth to which they 
extend is very great, is evident from the marble monntaios 
of Balaclava, whose precipitous elevation from the sea be- 
speaks a corresponding depth below the water. When the 
veins of clay are washed away by the sea, either vast 
chasms are left, or the neighbourins^ veins fall in ; as it 
happened upon the south coast at I^tehuelcoy^ not long 
ago, when a whole village was buried, which the late em«* 
press rebuilt at her own expense. In the clay is sometimes 
veined slate, and often blocks of wood, so impregnated with 
bitumen, that it burns like coal. The coast of Balaclava io 
entirely of marble ; more towards the northwest, a« at the 
monastery of Bt. George, it consists of black slate ; further 
on, the other substances occur, in the order and position al- 
ready described. To the north of the' coast these veins arc 
covered by eakerous matter, extremely full of the remaina 
tf organized bodies. The extraneons fossils of the Crimea 
are very curious ; many of them relate to animals now na* 
^kmwm. Of these may be mentioned the La^mmnuUariuS^ 
f dee the note to p. 331. 



TO THE HZRACLEOTICK eHERSONESUS. ^B'r 

\ ... 

^iHcb ii* very pommoxi here, and rare every where else. It 
is foQiMl about, the pyramids of Egypt^and in some parts of 
France* The streets of Balaclava, I have reason to believe, 
are exaetJy the sarae now as they were in very ancient times. 
They resemble what Pompeii «vouId be, if it was a^ain in- 
habited according to its ancient form. The prineipsa street 
of Balaclava is as narrow a« that which has been exposed 
at Pompeii, and paved in the same manner; only the mate- 
rials are variegated red and white marble instead of lava, 
and their appearance proves that the marble of Balaclava, 
is susceptible of a very high polish. The shops are also 
like those of Pompeii, and the inhabitants all of them 
Greeks. Their uniform adherence to the ancient costume 
of their country, though a Httle theatrical, supported the 
illusion* They wore helmets; but these being made of 
green, and red morocco, and not a little greasy with nse, . 
mi^ht be said to serve rather for a caricature, than a por- 
trait of their progenitors. Their market of fruit is a very 
good one; particularly for, melons. I. went into one of 
their melon shops, which contained about two thousand 
water melons,, piled in a regular square mass, selling foF 
ten copeeljcs the dozen ; less than a halfpenny each. The wa- 
teir melon of tlie, Oriineadoes not attain half the size in which . 
it Is seen at Naples ; , bjut the fiayour is nearly as fine. At 
Cherson, whieh is more to the north, it grows as large as in 
Italy. . Vines eover the porticoes of all the doors in Bala- 
eluFa; and so rapid is the growth of that nlant, that, in two 
yearsy if they told ns truth, a y4ne yielded two bushels of 
grape?. They have no foreign commerce. The rest of their 
shops were appropriated to the sale of the few necessaries 
which the inhabitants require j who seem to lead a very 

♦ ' Str»bo nctioed thra fottil at the ^^albiflB of Egypt, and -we itftentrtkHs 
fiDWul it tber* i».TttcUj as by hiin.<les6rU>e^. He supposed it to have b^en 
formed of the lentils petrified, which was RJven as food to the uorkroen 
employed in building the ^lyramifls. Palias ftas attempted to account for 
its origin hy an opinion which is entirely h» own. ** I cannot, on this oc- 
casion, omit to express my opinion respecting a fossiT, the origin of which 
has not hitherto heeu explored. As its external shells have ^ no orifice 
■whatever, arid may easily be separated from each other, while its internal ' 
cellular texture, consisting of annular divisions, and thin l«t(*ral scales, has 
not tlie least resembtonce to the abode of a testaeeoua animal, but rather 
tsi the inner structure of a cuttle fishbone ; I am induced to eonjceture 
that the lenticular stones have originated in the shell or bone of a peculiar 

f;regarious, species of Doris, or Sepia, which formerly inhabited the deep, 
las, in pi-ocess of time, been mixed with the calcareous mire depiosited bj^ ; 
the sea, and thus at length become completely extinct ; so that we possess 
»o account gfit^ living state." TrtPbeUyVol Ii: p. 21. 



idle life, smokiog, taking coffee, etutwiogtabaeco or opLaor^ 
Uunging* about the streets, or playine at chess er at 
draughts in the coffee-houses, or before the doors of their 
houses. We observed a game here which was quite uewto as; 
the Greeks called it Mingala ^ and I have since seen it at 
Constantinople. It is played with a boar^ having two rows 
of parallel partitions, into each of which was placed a oer- 
tain number of small shells, such as the aatives of Guinea 
tisefor raonev.* 

We found it necessary to leave our carrlac^ at Balaclava 
b order to visit the eeiebrated valley of Baidart the pas- 
sage to which is performed on horseback, over high moun- 
tains, covered with wood to their snmniits, and, onthatae^ 
eonnt, having more of the Appenine than the Alpine eha- 
raeter. Those which skirt the eoast, and which we sbaU 
]pre8ently describe, ean be eempared ta neither. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

mOM THE HERACLEOTICK CHERSONESTUS, AtOKG THE 
SOUTH COAST OF THE CRIMEA. 

I^ttlle^ ofBaiduT — Bmxaitiek hakits and Mtrmers &t the 
, Tartars — PiassageoftheMerdvem^'IRUGkuekc^'^Aam^ 
and Mnerals — Tne Crin^MetoBon—^ltmfka^ — O^er 
Filiages on the Coast — Catmtry betrveen Kutchncko^and 
Sudaek-r-Vestiges of the Genoese Language — 'Rains &fa 
Greek Monastery — Mountain Mjnaagh'^^Farte^nU-'^ 
JUmta-^TeheHraagh^ or Mong Tr^.j^tzus-^Skunuv^Fo- 
9iHmi af^ Crimean Mmntains — Derykeu^ — Mt^momd 
Saitan — Rettim to Jicmetehet^'^-Marriage Ceremom of 
the Gretk Chwch'-^Jeunsh Wedding^-^^Uttary i^ce 
afthe Crimea — S«varof. 

THERE if no part of the Crimea which has attiraeted 
the notice of precedii^ travellers so much as tlie Yal* 
ley of Baidar. It has been Seieribed uader tim pompovs ti- 
tles of tho Taurick ^readioj and Crimean Tsmpeyf with 

* The Cffprsfafaonetaxd^taxmmoM. 
t 3«e Travels ©f Lwly Cravea, Mrs. Maria Guthrie, &ik 



iiHieh warmtb (»f fancy, and, as might be expected, with 
ftbme fftllacT of representation. If any attempt is iiere made 
to dispel the illnsron thus excited, it^ is because those who 
come after may tot meet with disappointment. " Even the 
▼ales of Caucasus,^ says Pallas,* <* far surpass this eele*' 
brated spot.'' It will not admit (^ a comparison with many 
of the beautiful scenes in Switzerland, nor even with those 
in Norway and Sweden. A very extenstTc, cnltivated plain, 
snrronnded by high mottutains, may be considered as one 
of ^ose pleasing prospects which call to mind the descrip- 
^idn giren by Johnson of his Abyssinian Yale ; ' bot being 
without water as an ornament, must be deemed deficient in ia 
principal object belonging to picturesque scenery. The 
valley itself, abstracting the consideration of the raountainn 
around, jnay be compared io many parts of Britain, parti- 
ealarly the rales of Kent and Surry. • It is rather mor« 
than ten miles in length, and six in lireadth ; so beautifully 
enltiYated, that the eye roams over meadows, woods, and 
rich eornfield^, enclosed and intersected by green hedges 
and ^rden plantations.! The villages are neat, and the 
inhabitants healthy. Protected from violent winds, and 
irrigated by dear 'streams which fall from the hills im- 
perceptibly through the fields, it seemed a happy retreat ; 
and our ride through it was very pleasing. The mode of 
enclosure, and the manner of cultivation, resembled those 
* Trare^ in the South of Soatk, irol. n. p. 155. 

-f This fiinumt Talley belongs to adteursl Mardvinof ; bat bis possession 
vas oonteated vhen ve were there, aod the rests were puid to |[0Terb« 
went in deposit. Many of the Rassian proprietors of the Crimea were 
in the same eondition, owiii|^to the foliowing eireumstances, as they vere 
^presented to me by a yoan^ man, named the Count de Bochfort, who 
was nefdiew lo thedake of Richlieu. Under the terronrs of eonquest, the 
.Tiotar proprietors made little opposition to the grants \rhieh w«re made 
of ihelr lands ; but now that they are again in some measure restored to 
their rights, Sneh as did not ooroe properly undei^ the description of eteir 
granta have comm£fioed processes to obtain a reveraon of their forfeitures^ 
vhich was a very unexpeeted blow to their masten. The Russians, sinee 
the conquest, have established their abonuaahle code of slavery ; but not on 
ao riad a footing asiniheh* own oountry-. Two days aweek, we under^ 
•stood from Fallas, is all the woftk a Tartar is obliged to do jpHztia for his 
lord ; and the Russians complain heavily of then: idleness. The fbohA^ 
taxneers are almost all either entirely freeholders, or on the footing of the 

raeants of the crown. The number 0f Russian residents in the Crimea 
reduced greatly. Some have taken alarm at &e tenure of their hinds ; 
others have sustamed great losses by their slaves running awa;^^ some df 
vdiom are received and concealed by the Kuban Cossacks ; which, howe- 
vev, ia now pre«cnted by the duke oC Bsofaiieft'* gofemmei^ which in- 
cludes the whole couUiT'iip to Caucasus and the Casplao/' Aimr'a Jf6. 
Jtfumal 



349 CLAKKE's travels in TAkTAIiy. 

uged IB ear own eountry. The mountains, as well as the 
plain, were thick set with oak, wild near, crab, and car- 
netian eherry trees, whose foliage shaaed the road, andpre- 
teeted us from the scorching raj's of the sun, which dart 
with uneommon force into this valley. Our lodging at 
night, and our meals by day, were entirely among '1 artars, 
and this circumstance gave us an opportunity of seeing; the 
domeslick habits of that people. When a stranger arrives, 
they conduct him into the apartment destined for the men, 
and present him with a basin, water, and a clean napkin, 
to wash his hands. Then they place before him whatever 
. their dwelling^affords of curd, cream, honey in the Bomb, 
poached eggs, roasted fowls, or fruit. Alter the meal is 
over, the basin and water are brought in as before 5 because 
all the Tartars, like the Turks and other oriental nations, 
eat with their fingers, and use no forks. Then, if in the 
house of a rich Tartar, a long pipe is presented, with a 
tube of cherry-tree wood, tipped with amber or ivory. Af- 
.ter this, carpets aad cushions are laid for the guests, that 
they may repose. All the houses of the Tartars, even the 
cottages of the poor, are extremely clean, being often white- 
washed. The floor is generally of ear/h ; but smooth, firm, 
dry, and covered witli mats and carpets. The meanest Tar- 
tar possesses a double dwellings one for himself and his 
guests, and the other for his women. They do not allow 
their most intimate friends to enter the place allotted for 
the female part of the family. With so much cleanliness 
we were quite surprised to find the itch a very prevalent 
disorder ; especially among the poor. It was also diffieult 
to escape the attacks of venomous insects and vermin. The 
tarantula, scorpion, cockroach, different kinds of lice, hugs, 
fleas, flies, and ants, more or less incommoded us wherever 
we rested ; and we found it was necessary to reconcile our- 
selves to the appearance, every now and then, of a few 
large toads crawling near bur beds. With all these ioeiin- 
veniences, we nevertheless deemed the change from a Rus- 
sian palace to a Tartar cottage very desirable. In the 
houses of Russian grandees, of whatever rank or station, 
unwholesome filth is ill concealed by external splendour: 
but the floor and the walls of a Tartar's residence, be it but 
a cottage, are white and clean. Even the place in which 
his fire burns is unsullied by smoke j and if the traveller is 
properly cautioned to avoid the contact of woollen dotkes 
and «arpei«, he may consider hi niselfseoife. 



ALONG TBB eOAST OF THE «RIUSA. B4i 

Jl farourite bererage of sour milk mixed with water, 
the yottrrt of the Turjts, is found in reouest with the Tar- 
tars as among the Laplanders. They all shaye thtir heads, 
both yoan^ and old ; and wear in their houses a sort of 
skullcap, over whieh, in winter, is placed a large and lof- 
tier helmet of wool ; or, during summer, a turban. Their 
legs in winter are swathed in cloth bandages, like those 
Worn throughout Russia, and their feet covered by the 
kind of sandal heretofore described. In summer, both legs 
and feet are naked. Their shirts, like those in Turkey, 
&r^ wide and loose at the sleeves, hanging down below the 
ends of their fingers. If they have occasion to ose their 
hands, either to eat or to work, they east back the sleeve 
of the shirt upon the shoulder, and leave the arm bare. 
The jacket or waistcoat is generally of silk and cotton ; 
and the trowsers, being made very lai-ge, fall, and loose, 
though bound tight below the knee, fall over in thick 
folds upon the calf of the leg. In the waistcoat is a small 
pocket, just below the breast, in which the steel and flint 
are kept for lighting their pipes. Sometimes in summer 
they coverlh^ feet by morocco slippers, but these are al- 
ways taken off* when they enter their apartments. Upon 
similar oqeasions we took off our boots, which was a 
^oablesome ceremony.; but they were . evidently uneasy if 
we sat^down without attending to this point of etiquette. 
They have no ehairs in their houses ; a single stool may 
be observed, about three inches high, for the purpose of 
supporting a tray during their meals. This stool is often 
ornamented, either by carved work, or inlaid mother-of 
pearl. The use of a carpet aud matting for the floor is 
universal; sometimes, as a substitute, they. employ thick 
elotbs of their own manufacture from goat's hair, and 
these are exported to Constantinople. Of whatever ma- 
terial the covering of the floor may be, they use great 
oaifls to keep it clean, notwihstauding it is apt to swarm 
with vermin. During the summer months, the men make 
▼ery little use of that part of the dwelling whieh is pecu- 
liarly set apart for them. Their chief delight consists in^ 
the open air ; sleeping at night either beneath th^ shed be- 
fore their door, or itnder the shade of the line spreading 
trees which they cultivate near their houses. In the prin- 
eipal chamber of a Tartar dwelling, there is a particular 
part which bears the name of Soplw, This is a platform 
raised twelve inches from the floor, oeonpying one entire 

U h 



34i& eLA&KE's TRAVELS IN TARTART. 

sidle of tlie apartment, not for the purpose of a seat, bot 
as a place for their household chests,' the Dii domestiei^ 
and heaps of carpets, mats, eushions^aad clothes. The same 
customs may be. observed in the tents of the Calmueks. 
Thoufl^h simplicity is a prevailing characteristick both in 
the manners and dress of the Tartars, yet some of their 
customs betray a taste for finery. Their pillows are covered 
with coloured linen ; and the napkins, for their frequent 
ablutions, which hang nnon their walls, are embroidered 
and fringed. If one of tneir guests falls asleep, though but 
for a few minutes, and by accident, during the day, they 
bring him water to wash himself as soon as they percieve 
he is awake. In their diet they make great use of honey 3 
and their mode of keeping and taking Mes accords with the 
usual simplicity of their lives. From the trunks of young 
trees, about six inches in diameter, they form eylinders, by 
scooping out almost all except the bark ; and then, closing 
their extremities with plasterer mud, they place themselves 
horizontally piled one upon another in the gardens for hives. 
They often opened these cylinders to give us fresh honey $ 
and the bees were detached, merely by being held over a 
piece of burning paper, without any aid of sulphur. The 
honey of the Crimea is of a very superiour quality; the 
bees, as in Greece, feeding on blossoms of the wild thyme 
of the mountains, and such flowers as the country sponta- 
neously affords. Every Tartar cottage has its garden, in 
the cultivation of which the owner finds his principal 
amusement. Vegetation is so rapid, that in two years. ^ 
I have stated in the lacoount of Balaclava, vines not only 
shoot up so as to form a shade before the doors, but are ae- 
tualiy laden with fruit. They delight to have their houses, 
as it were, buried in foliage. These, consisting only of one 
story, with low, flat roofs, beneath trees which spread im- 
mense branches quite over them, constitute villages, which, 
at a distance, are onlv known by the tufted grove in which 
they lie concealed. When the traveller arrives, not a buiCi^ 
ing is to be seen ; it is only after passing between the trees, 
tand beneath I heir branches, that he begins to percieve tht^ 
Cottages overshadowed by an exuberant vegetation of the 
walnut, the mulberry, the vine, the fig, the olive, the pome- 
granate, the peach, the apricot, the plum, the cherry, and 
the tall black poplar ; all of which, intermingling their 
clustering produce, form the most beautiful and fragrant 
canopies that can be imagined. 



ALOKO TH£1 COAST OF THE CRIMEA. U4B 

In e^tj Tartar h6ttge they preserve one or more copieji 
'^t the Kdran ; these are always in manugeripty and c^nerally 
wfitlert in very beautiful characters. Their children are 
early tan^ht not only ta read, but to copy them. Tho size 
of the capj or bonnet, is all that distinguishes the priests of 
the different viHages from the rest of the community; being 
made much larger for them, and rising to a greater height 
fhotn the head. The horsfes of the country, though not equal 
to tho'se of Ctrcassia, are remarkable for their high breed, 
as welt as for their beauty and swiftness. They are small 
iand very surefooted ; but rather stouter than the Circassian 
l^orses, which niay be considered the fleetest and most bean- 
tiful race of coursers in the world. If travellers be provided 
with an order from the governour of the district, the Tar- 
tars must provide horses, lodging, and even provisions, gra- 
tis. We had this order, and hope it will ever be supei^oons 
in Englishmen to add, that no use was made of the privilege 
'annexed to its possession ; a n^ode of conduct perfectly con- 
sistent with the ordinary course of English customs and 
opinions, but diametrically opposite to those of Russia; 
where it is considered a Teflection upon the understanding 
to bestow a thoiight^upen remuneration, nnless it is a matter 
of compulsion. 

To avoid the intense heat in the middle of the day, we 
tiegan our journey towards the coast on Tuesday the fifth 
; of August, at five o'clock in the morning. Leaving the val- 
iey of Baiidar, we ascended the mountains which close it in 
towards the south 5 and by dint of absolute climbing among 
rocks and trees, through a very Alpine pass, at last attained 
the heights above the sea. Here the desisent began towards 
the coast ; and a prospect opened of vastness and terrour, 
Hvhieh possessed the boldest sources of the snbiime. Naked 
rbek^ rose perpendicular to such an amas&ing elevation, that 
even the^ wide sea, which seemed in another world below, 
and dashed its waves against their bases,^ was unheard at 
the immense distance, and appeared insignificant compared 
with the grandeur to which it was opposed. Between two of 
their craggy summits, we were conducted to the Merdveefif 
isignifyingsfairs in the Tartar language: the steps of which, 
in ages past all record, were cut in the natural rock. Here, 
alighting from our horses, and committing them to the 
chance of their own caution, we began a laborious and dif- 
ficult descent. There is a pass of this nature, but less pre- 
sipitousy in the island of Caprea, near Naples. It leads 



9M OLARKB's TRAYSLS IK TA&TAAT. 

from tbaiown of Caprea to Anaeaprea; bat horses Are not 
seen here. The only beasts of burden are assosj and thoao 
are generally laden with faggots. In the Alps there are si* 
milar scenes, but not of greater boldness; and they hav4$ 
not the addition of the sea in the perspective. After we had 
oompleted the passage of the nt^rareen, being still at a great 
heis;iit above the sea, we eontinned to skirt the bases of 
rocks towards the east, until we reached the village of 
Kutchuckoy $ which hangs upon a lofty declivity below the 

great southern range of perpendicular precipices. Thf 
oubtful path to this village is so narrow and dangerous 
that with any other than a Tartar horse few would venture ; 
and even so provided, it is often necessary to alight and 
walk. 

The plants and mi^rais of the south of the Crimea m«rit 
particular attention. \y ith regard to the former, a catalogue 
of all the vegetable productions collected by us, whether ia 
this interesting tract, or in other parts of our journey in thf 
peninsula, has been reserved for the appendix;* being mueb 
too numerous even for a marginal annotation. Appropriated 
fiolely to the botanical history of the Crimea, it may there 
serve as a comnendious Flora Tauriea^ fbr the use of ether 
travellers; ana will not interfere with the pernsal whioh 
readers, not interested in such subjects, may bestow upon 
the narative of these travels. At the same time if oppor;- 
tunity offers to notice any plant which has not hitherto been 
described, it may foe mentioned in the text without super- 
fluous intrusion. With a very slight knowledge of botany., 
we possessed, however, the advantage, not only of guidance 
in our researches, but of every aid and contribution which 
the labour and liberality of our friend Pallas could afford. 
The principal spontaneous vegetable production of Uie rocks 
and mountains upon the south coast, is the wild si^e ; aud 
this, as in the islands of the Archipelago, grows to a very 
great size ; becoming, in some instances, almost eonsiderabis 
enough to rank as a shrub. Both the yellow and the red 
centaury were very common. The black date-tree, the pomC'* 
grauate, the olive, and the fig-tree, flourished along the 
coast as in the soutli of Italy. The rocks and strata, near 
the village of Kutchuekoy, are composed of schistus, highly 
impregnated with iron ; and in proportion as this metal is 
more or less combined with aluminous rocks, their tendeney 

• See Appendix, No. V* 



AreNO THS CeAST OF TH» CRtMBA. S46 

to deeomposition^ by the action of the atmosphere in the 
oxidation ef the metai, mil be obserired to exist in a ii^reater 
or less degree. It maj be considered a matter of doubt, 
whether the prismatiek config^oration and fracture of trap, 
haifalt, and certain other homogeneous deposits, althou^h^ 
evidently the riesult of a tendency towards crystallization/ 
be not owing to the iron whieh enters into their composition, 
li^herever the oxide of iron is Aiund as a prominent feature 
in mineral bodies, will also be observed veins, fissures, and 
separations of the substance; and vice versa ^ if the external 
figure of the mass in«.fttminous rocks be evidently prismat- 
iek, there is reason to apprehend the presence of this metal 
in more than^usual proportion. These observations may, 
perhaps, deserve the consideration of more scientiilek geol- 
ogists ^ atid, in addition to the facts neeessary for their con- 
firmatien, it shoKld be mentioned, that the phenomena of 
the Giant's Causeway, on the north coast of Ireland 5 «f the 
pillars of Trap, at Hallebergand Hunneberg^ in Sweden ; 
aa well as at the Lake BoUenna, in Italy, and many other 
places, are only-regular in their prismatiek forms where 
they have been long exposed to the action of the atmosphere. 
Whenever a eonsi&rable part of the exteriour surface has 
been thrown down, the interiour of the mass presents only 
an incipient appearanee of similar decomposition. 

The supposed transitions, or pcLssages, as they are call- 
ed by some Freiieh, and many Danish mineralogists, from 
one mineral species to another, might meet with the sem- 
blaaee-of authority. upon this coast; sosensibie is the ap- 
parest boundary between ttluminous and siliceous bodies in 
certain examples; such, for instance, as the transition 
front yellow, indurated elay to jasper, and fr^n schistus 
to horn-stone. In the museum at Troiiijem, in the north 
of Norway, they exhibit what they call a passage from 
carbonated lime to silex 5 and in Copenhagen, entire col- 
leetions have been formed of sucli appearances. The Nor* 
wegian specimen is nothing more than a flint, part of which 
has undergone a very high degree of decomposition, simi- 
lar to those found in the neighbourhood of Paris, called 

• Of which a m«re convincing proot can hardly he offered, than that the 
Siberian emerald, whose coioaririg principle is ii'on, and whose raatrix 
abounds in iron oxide, not- only pre^rves the hexagonal form eommoa to 
the pillars of the Giant's Causeway, but, when fresh ilug, exhibits also the 
sasne remarkable aiteruate convex and toncave horizontal fissvrefi* See 
jPaiPin. MiiU ^V«^ des, Min. torn. 11. j&. 2a. JPar, Jtn, 9. 
,Hh:i 



34>6 claukk's TRA\'SLS im ta&taet. 

Pierre Ugere, and quartz nectiqtte, Tbe French frequent* 
]j exhibitad similar appearances in the same erroneous point 
oY view. The abbe Hauy* has most happily refuted the 
vuisrar notion of transitions in the mineral kingdom ; in* 
vo)vin<? t^e science in a labyrinth of passages whieh lead 
to i»o(f»ii!e:. 

Soon after the oaptnre of the Crimea, precisely at the 
time of terrible earthquakes in Hunsary and Transylvania, 
a larare portion of the immense cliff ahove the village of 
Kutchiickoy fell down and buried it. The late empress 
caused the place to be restored at her own expense, indem- 
nifyint^ the inhabitants at the same time for the losses they 
had sustained. 

From this village to Aloupka, still proceeding by a nar- 
row, undulating, and devious track among the rocks, at a 
considerable elevation above the sea, we enjoyed a prospect 
of the boldest scenery whieh can be found in the Crimea* 
Immediately before us we beheld the stupendous Crii^-m6« 
topon, mentioned by Strabo, and other ancient geographers; 
this projecting into the bosom of the deep, together with 
the opposite promontory of Carambe, upon the coast of 
Paphlagonia, divides the Black Sea into two parts ; ao that 
vessels sailing between the two capes can discern the land 
on either side. The ancient anonymous geographer, whose 
-writings were chiefly extracted from Arrian and Scjmnus 
Chius, says, that Iphigenia, carried from Aulis, came to 
this country.t Frocopius4 speaking of the Taurica Cher- 
sonesus, also mentions the temple of Diana, where Iphi- 
genia, daughter of Agamemnon, was priestess; and ac- 
cording to him, the Tauri were her votaries. Itis worthy 
of note, as we shall soon show, that apromontory and vil- 
lage bearing at this day the name of ParUienit^ evidently 
corrupted from Farthenium^ is found to tlie eastward of th^ 
Criii-metopon, in the vicinity of Aloupka. Thus, while 
Strabo ana Ovid plaee the promontory of Partheniam in 
tH« Heracleotiek Chersonesus, other circumstances seem 
to fix its situation near the most southern point of the Cri- 
mea ; and should this be admitted, it would only assign, as 
in the history of other popular superstitions, adifferenee 
•f locality to the same rites. Leueate, in the Ionian Sea- 

• traite de Mineralogie, torn. IDt. p. 242, Par. 1801. 
t Gcog. Antiq, ed. Gronov. L. Bat. 1697. p. 14*. 
^ Procop. de Bell. Goth. lib. iv. o. 5, 



Aleif* TM« fOAST Of THK f miUBA« 3^ 

is not' the only promontorj which hag been eelebrated for 
the story of the Lover^s Leap, 

As we advanced, the wide nrospeet of the Blaek Seaex* 
tended below on our right. Upon our left, towering to the 
eloudg, arid sometimes eapped by them, appeared lofty, 
naked preeipiees; now projecting in vast prnmontories, 
now -reeeding, and forming bayi, surrounded by eraggy 
roeks, whose sloping sides resemble those mighty theatres 
of ancient Qreece, prepared more by nature than by the 
art of man.* The upper strata of these mountains, not- 
withstanding their prodigious elevation, are all of lime* 
■tone. Not a single fragment of granite is any where to 
be seen. Beneatli the precipices, and extending to the wa- 
ter's edge, appears a bold and broken decliTity, eorered by 
villages, gardens, woods, and cultivated spots. Laurels 
floarishedm several places ; and these were formerly more 
ahondant : but the Tartars separated in this paradise from 
all commnniaation with the other inhabitants of the Cri- 
^mea, believing that strangers came only to see those trees, 
and dreading a notoriety of their retreat, endeavour to de- 
stroy them wherever they appeared. 

In the eTsning we arrived at Aloupka. The inhabitants 
flocked to visit us, and, as if determined to oontradict the 
story of the laurels, overwhelmed us with hospitality. 
Bach person that entered our little chamber deposited his 
offering; either of fresh filberts, walnuts, mulberries, figs> 
pears, or other fruit. •* Brandy," they said, *' they aould 
not offer us; for abstaining from the use of it, is not 
kept in their houses." They are less addicted to opium 
than the Turks, and therefore less slothful : yet they deem 
it their greatest happiness to sit still, to smoke, or to sleep 
having nothing whereon to think, and as little as possible 
to do. They sow only as much corn as may be necessary 
for their own consumption. Their pipes and their horses 
are, perhaps objects of as great affection as their wives. 
"We generally found them stretched on the flat roofs of their 
cottages, lying upon thick mats, beneath the shade of their 
favourite trees, either asleep, or inhaling the fumes of to- 
basco. The business of harvest had, however, roused some 
of them into a state of activity. As we continued ourjour- 

* The ancient theatrei of Greece sometimes eoniisted of an enth*e 
nonntalQ, to the natural form of which the seats were adjusted. Of this 
description is the theatre at tlie temple of J&sculapius, ia Epidauria ; al 
Teimesdus, in the gulpb oC Cilaaeai; «nd at Chs^erouea, in Bteotia. 



34d OLA&KE^S TRAVELS IK TAUT ART. 

nej, we found them oeeapicd is eolleelia,^ it. Thejhea 
out their corn as soon as it is gathered ; and their mode may 
rather be called trampling than thrashing. Al^ter seleet- 
ing an eren^ spot of graund, they fix a pole or stake into 
the earthy placing the eorn in a circle round it, so aB to 
form a eiroumference of about eight or nine jards in diam- 
eter. They then attach a horse by a long cord to the polo 
and continue driving him round and round upon the com, 
until the cord is wound upon the pole ; after this, tiirniag 
his head in an opposite direction, he is again set going, un- 
til the cord is untwisted. By this process, they do not fiui 
to obtain the whole of the corn clean from the sheaf; but 
the straw is destroyed. The chaff is afterwards collected 
and carefully housed for fodder. They carry in ^\ their 
corn upon horses ; but their manner of reaping and mow- 
ing exactly resembles ours : and their hedges and gates are 
made in the same way. 

The village of Aloupka is beautifully situated near the 
shore ; but entirely concealed from the view in approaching 
it, by groves of fruit-trees. The scenery every where 
along the coast is of a nature which it is difficult to de&cribe 
by any eomparison. Such fertility and rural beauty is, 1 
believe, no where else situatt d equally near the waters of 
any sea, nor environed by objects of such excessive gran- 
deur. The descent towards the shore is so steep and rapid, 
that it seems as if the villages, with their groves and gar- 
dens, might one day, by heavy rains, be swept into the 
deep ; at the same time, impending cliffs above them men- 
ace fearful ruin by the fall of rocks, which every now and 
then give way, and whose enormous fragments have occa- 
sionally halted where they appear every instant ready to 
rush forward. High above ail are the lofty and rug- 
ged summits of those mountains which giv;e such a decia*- 
ed character to the southern coast of the Crimea, thai no 
geographer has neglected to notice them. Strabo forci- 
bly describes their situation and nature. ''^ If by some tre- 
mendous earthquake, or the effect of sudden thaw, a por* 
tion of these cliffs has been separated from its native bed, 
and rushing into the Black Sea, has formed a promontory^ 
or towering bulwark, in the midst of the waves, its sum* 

• Strab. lib, vU. p. 446. ed. Oxori. 

«' But from this p«rt of the Syraholi [Balaclava] unto the city jof The- 
odosia {^Caffa] extends the raaVitime Taurioaii district, about one tiiou- 
•aud stadia in leugth, craggy aad moantaiuouf, sad t^emiog wilh ftormK' ' 



AX«NQ THE eOASV OV THB eRlM£A» t^ 

tis^t is almost invariably covered by some ancient forlrest^ 
the ruins of wkieh still remain in places almost inaeeessi* 
ble. Those works are for the most part attribttted to the 
Genoese ; yet some of them are of Grecian origin. Th« 
bardihood and enterprise with which they were erected, can* 
not fail to astonish the traveller, as there seems to be no 
emiqenee nor precipice too lofty or too dangerous for tha 
people by wham they we>re constructed. 

On Wednesday, August the sixth, we left Aloupka; andf 
after journeying entirely in groves, wh»re mulberry -trees 
shading aar road^ presented at the same time the largest 
and most delicious fruit, arrived at the village of Musgkor* 
Here we found a few Greeks, established as part of a cor^ 
don to ^ttard the soutbem part of the peninsula, who wer« 
busied m distilling brandy from mulberries ; a weak but pa<> 
latabl« spirit,^ as clear as water. The scenery rather im- 

S roved in beauty, and became yet bolder than before, as wf 
rew near to a place called Derykeuuy inhabited by a small 
Greek colony, close to the shore. We found them employ*' 
ed in shipping timber of a very bad quality for Budadc^ 
and other por4s lying to the eastward* Upon the beacV 
were some hulks of Turkish vessels, quite rotten ; yet in 
such harks they venture across the Black Sea to Constanti- 
nople, although, as oiir interpreter observed, << it would ba 
inaisereet to risk, by their conveyance, the safety even of ^ 
letter." Their wretched condition proved that the frequent 
shipwrecks in the Black Sea, are owing in great mea&tti9 
to their vessels not being sea-worthy. 

If there exists on eartn a spot which may be described a# 
a terrestrial paradise^ it is that which intervenes between 
K&reliikckoy and Sudack,on the south coast of the Crimea. $ 
Protected by encircling Alps from every cold and blighting 
wind, and only open to those breezes which are wafted across 

* " MTutchiik-koiis A y'lWvige on tte roost southern point of the Crimea; 
and is so called to distinguish it from another Xjoi, Deryk-koi which stands 
on the hitl above ^/alm Near Deryk^kO'i is the fountain represented in my 
drawing ; it lies in the highway between Niidka BArftnand Deryk.Koi, 
Hialta» a xniserahle village of Greeks, witli a small Greek chnrch, lies to 
the left; and beyond Dcryk-koi, in the way which branches off to Baktch* 
eserai, is a village of Russians, belonging,' I believe, to admiral Moi«dvinof. 
■" I ■ Above Kutchuk-koi, the rocks become much more perpendicular 
and naked ; and if this be the Criti-mj^topon, the nai;ne may have beea 
derived from their high and bold forehead. It is evident fro© Strabo, that 
this famous promontory was eastward of the Iv/m^oxeev xiutff which, I 
suppose, is Baladava, and therefore w^ have onlvKutGhuk-kQiStodAyoa* 
daghto cliCM)se between." He^er^^ MS, JoumctC, 



the sea from the south, the inhabitaDts enjoy every advantagv 
of climate and situation. From the mountains, continual 
streams of crystal water pour down upon their ^rdens, in 
which every species of fruit known in the rest of Europe, 
and many that are not, attain the highest nerfeetion. Nei- 
ther unwholesome exhalations, nor ehillina^ winds^ nor 
venomous insects, nor poisonous reptiles, nor hostiie neigh- 
hours, infest their blissful territory. The life of its inhab- 
itants resembles that of the golden age. The soil, like a 
hot bed, rapidly pufs forth such a variety of spontaneous 
produce, that labour becomes merely an amusing exercise. 
Peace and plenty crown their board ; while the repose they 
so much admire is only interrupted by harmless "thunder 
reverberating in the rocks above them$ or by the murmur of 
waves upon the beaeh below. 

At Deryk^uy the Tartar children were assembled in the 
school of the village, learning to read. The eldest boy 
led the way ; pronouncing the lesson distinctly in a loud 
tone, from a manuscript copy of the Koran. The rest, 
to the number of twenty, were squatted in the Tartar 
mode upon little low benches, accompanying with their 
voices, and keeping time by nodding their heads. It was 
amusing to observe the readiness with which their little 
president detected any of them in an errour, in the midst 
of all the noise they made, although reading himself with 
the utmost effort of his lungs. In the south of the Crimea, 
the remains of the Genoese language are not quite extinct* 
Now and then an expression escapes even from the lips of 
a Tartar, which may evidently be referred to that people. 
During their long residence in the Crimea, they not only 
introduced many of their own terms to the native language 
of the peninsula, but they also incorporated many Tartar 
and Greek expressions with the Italian, which may still 
be observed in ujse among the inhabitants of Genoa. I col- ' 
leeted several examples of this nature, and professor Pal« ■ 
las added to the list. As he has alre&dy alluded to the 
subject in his late work,* it will be unnecessary to men- i 
tion more than two or three instances. In the Tartar lan- 
guage, ICardasch signifies a brother, or bosom friend; ' 
and the word Cardascia is now used with the same inter- | 
pretation at Genoa. Macrame^ a towel, in Tartar, is Mi' i 
crami in the Genoese. Barba^ uncle, in Tartar, is exi | 
actly go pronounced, and with the same significatJon in | 

J Tr*T«b, Tfa.U. p. 95r. I 



ALOKO TH£ II OAST 09 THE tRlllEl. Mi 

Genoa* Again, Man^j to eat, among the Genoese, 19 
also Ma^i^a with the Tartars; Savun^ soap, is Sabun in 
the Crimea; Fortunna, a sea storm, i^or^una ; with many 
others, in which the affinity is less striking. The most 
remarkable instance is, that Bariy which signifies a cask 
or barrel, in Genoa, is pronounced by the Tartars baril / 
so as to bring it very near to our £nglish name for the 
same thing. The Tartars, moreover, "call a barber, 6er- 
her; which they may have derived from the Genoese^ word 
harbe^ I have already mentioned the swarms of locusts, 
which, from causes quite unknown, have visited the Cri* 
mea of late years in very unusual and extraordinary nuih- 
hers. These have proved ' destructive to all the vine- 
yards of the new settlers ; but as the Tartars only cultivate 
the vine for the pleasure of eating its fruit, they disregard 
the visitation, which proves so mournful a scourge to the 
natives of other countries who have establishments upon 
the coast. 

Soon after leaving Deryk^ay, we arrived at the ruin 
•f an old monastery, most delightfully situated on the side 
of the mountains which slope towards the Sea, with a rapid 
rivulet of the purest crystal water running close to its 
walls. All that now remains of the orig|inal b«ildin^ is a 
small ehapel, containing images of the saints, in alfresco 
paintings, upon stucco, although nearly effaced. Here 
my unfortunate friend and predecessor in the journey, the 
late Mr. Tweddell, of Trinity College, Cambridge, now 
buried in the Temple of Theseus, at Athens, had left the 
tributary offering of his Athenian muse to the genius of 
thf^ place, in some verses written with a pencil, aud the 
addition of his name upon the stucco. 

Amoug the trees, at the time we arrived, were the po* 
megranate in full bloom, the spreading mulberry, the ^^ild 
vine, creeping over oaks, maples, aJMl carnelian cherry 
trees, and principally the tall, black poplar, which, e\ ery 
where towering amon^ the rocks above the shrubs, added 
greatly to the dignity and graceful elegance of the 
scene.* 

* ** The forests in this tract are not of a very lofty growth ; firs, 
however, and some oaks are founds aud magnificent valnut. trees. The 
Tartars, in the spring, when the sap is rismg, pieixe the walnut trees, and 
put in a spiggot for some time. When this is withdrawn, a clear siveet 
fiquor flows out, which, when coagulated, they use as sugar. In different 
places we saw a few cypress trees growing in the hurial Grounds; they 
^ ere pointed out to us as rarities, and bivught from Stamboul. On the 



M9I eLAaSE's TRAVELS IN TARTARt. 

The teKaiD fever, which I had caught among &^ eH- 
rerns of lAkerman, had rendered me so weak after leatins 
this beantiful spot, that it was with the greatest diffieulty I 
coold sit upon my horse ; and one of its violent paroxysms 
eoming on afterwards at Ycurzuf^ I remained for some 
time extended upon the bare earth in the principal street of 
the village. Its peaceful and hospitable inhabitants re- 
garded me as a victim of the plague, and, of course, were 
prevented from offering the succour they would otherwise 
gladly have bestowed. My companions were far advanced 
upon the Journey ; fori had fallen insensible in the rear of 
our party; and they believed me employed in colleetiog 
plants. When they returned towards eveniifg, in search 
of me, our interpreter prevailed on an old woman to allow 
Us a miserable hovel for the night's accommodation: and 
having also besjs^ed a small piece of opium in the village, 
I was soon rendei^ed insensible of the misery and wretched- 
ness of my situation. Yourzuf, called Vourzova^ by the 
llussiaiis, 19 {he ixorzubitdi of Procipius, The fortress 
which he describo^ as built by Justinian, still remains, thokigh 
in ruins, uppn the high roeks above the beautiful little bay 
#f the town. 

Being unable to continue my journey on horseback, I en* 
gaged with the master of a Turkish boat laden with timber, 
and bound to 8ufiacl(, for a passage to Alusia. Mr. Cripps, 
with the rest of our party, continued the tour of the coast 
as before. As soon as our vessel had cleared tlie bay of 
Yourzuf, I obiierved an immense promontory towards the 
east, which it was necessary for us to double; and having 
done this, we discerned the whole coast eastward, as far as 
Sudaek,* which place the mariners pointed out for me as 
then within view, although barely visible. The lofty pro- 
fiiontory we had passed is called by the Tartars the Moun- 
tain JUjridaih. Mr. Crip|>s's route on shore led directly 
Over it; and he observed upon the top the remains of an 
ancient monastery, which may have stood on the site of 
one of those temples dedioated to the Taurican Diana, as 
the village to w Inch he descended immediately afterwards 
still retains, in the name Partemk^ or Fartenit; an evident 

pIwDs at>ove the seacoast are some fine olive trees. Ix)mh«rdf po|)lan 
abound every where, aud are .very beautiful." Jfeber^s JklS. Journal. ' 

* Th'- urig^inal name of this place seeras preserved in the Periplos of 
ScjLxOan-anden8i8,in the word KVAAJA, Vid. p. 71. cd. Gronov. h. 
cat IS97. yossios reads KTTAIA. 



J 



ALONG THE COAST OF THE G&IMEA. 303 

etymology of Parthenium, A few years aij;o,four columns 
two of green and two others of white marble, were found 
lying on the site of the monastery and among its ruins.* 
Frince Potemkin sent away two of them to decorate a ci.urch 
then building in or near Cherson. When Mr. Cripps arri- 
ved^ he found only one column remaining, whicn was of 
w]iite marble, near twelve feel in length, and eighteen in- 
ches in diameter. Stretching out somewhat farther from 
tlie shore, we had a fine view, east and west, of the whole 
coast of the Crimea, from the Criu-metopon to Sudacrk. Mr. 
Cripps, being on the heights, enjoyed a prospect still more 
extensive, and observed our little bark like a^peck upon the 
waves. He halted during the heat of the day, according 
to the usual custom observed by the Tartars in travelling, 
at a place called Lambaty the Lampast of the ancients ; and 
in the evening, a little before sunset, arrived at Alusta, as 
our boat wn» coming to an anchor off the shore. 

From this place we had a fine view of the mountain Tche- 
dirdagh^ the Trapezus of Strabo, whose lofty summit ap- 
peared above a range of clouds which veiled all the lower 
part Its perpendicular height does not exceed 1300 feet;^ 
but it rises so rapidly from the coast about Alusta, that its 
seeming altitude is much greater. Almost all the Crimea 
may be seen from its summit in clear weather. The Tartars 
affirm, that a greatextent of country beyond the isthmus of 
Perecop may be discerned from this mountain. There is no- 

* The monasteiy was dedicated to St. Constantine and St. Helen. See 
J*allas*s Travels, vol. II. p, 179. 

f^' LAmbatis situated amidst some of the grandest scenery in the Crimea ; 
having Chatyr Uagon the rig;lit, and in front a beautiful promontory called 
AyouUag, orBear JlilL This is connected witli tlie ra»»ge oi Chatyr Dag 
-'hy a rocky istlimus coTcred with wood, ami is itself a penjusula ; reserabii.ig, 
though on a grander scale, Orme's Hea<l in Caernar%x>nshu*e. Atthefof>t 
of the isthmus, in a heaatifuJ wood of wahiut-trees stands Partenak, a 
. ^village with a good harbour for small vessels formed by a high, rocky island. 
Here we fouml a'.i old Tartar, who was in great practice as a boat-builder, 
find had^, with hisowu hand, and the assistance of his two sons just finished a 
beaatiful schooner, of thirty tons, for a mevchai)t at Kaffa Tlw- usual 
Tes8eisofthc,couutryai'elrke the Turkish, with lateen sails, and high pro .va 
and poops, vr-ry much curved. I was so inuch struck with A>oud:.gli, that 
I eould not h Jp fajcying Uiat it was the CritL-meiopfMi oi^-^ti^ho A steep 
joid nanow path le«<l8 ovt- r the neck of the niomauiu from Part* nak. 
From the summit we sh'a , as we fancied^ and asthe Tariarsassur •< s tiie 
-whole way from Kutchuk-koi to the Bosph^rus. The peopU of i^r.ajbat 
complained tUi«t they were not allowed to cut douu nov sclltht i. timber. 
I never coi'.id learu the reason of this restriction. In the neighbourhood 
«f Aktiar not even a shrub had been left for miles.'* Hthet^s M<^. Journal. 

+ Palliis States it as about 1200 feet. See Travels^ voL 11.^. IU3. 
I i 



d54 eXA-RKE'S TRAVALS IN rAATARtt 

thing to interrupt the view as far as bmnaii TisioneaApoj*^ 
sibly extend ; sinee tlie whole district to the north i^ as flat 
as the rest of the great oriental plain. The village of 
Alttsta was once a place of considerable iaiportanee, and 
still exhibits some marks of its ancient conseqnenee. The 
ruins of the citadel, which, according to Procopius^ was 
erected by Justinian, together with the fortress of Yourzuf) 
are still seen upon the heights contiguous to the sea*^ Three 
of its towers remain, and a stone wall, twelve feet in heieht, 
and near seven feet in thickness. At present, the plaee 
consists only of a few Tartar huts ; and in one of these we 
passed the night |. having observed nothing remarkable, 
except a very small breed of buffaloes, the females ol* w hieh 
were little larger than our market calves. 

At AInstat we terminated our journey along the coasts 

* *< Somewhere between Sudak and Lambat [^Lampas'] is a -roek; 
believed, from its fancied resemblance to a ship,- to have, been a vessel 
which, with its crew, was turned into stone," OBbei^i MS. JourneL 

t In order to avoid separating Mr. Heber's journal into ^ greater 
number of short, unconnected notes than may be neeessarj for its 'uaer- 
tion iti the margin, I ha(ve reserved the result of his observations, duriog 
the whole of his journey from Tainan to Aluita, to be introduced bere at 
one view. From Taman he proceeded across the Straits to Kertdij; or, 
as he perhaps more properly writqs It, Kerch ; and from ihence to Caffii 
and Stara Crim { where he turned ^ to visit professor Farias at Sadaek. 
His route along the sooth coast of the Crimea was made Jn a direetioa 
opposite toours^ and will be the more interestingi as it includes that part ot 
it which we did not examine. . . , 

"On the 22d of April we found we had exhausted all th^ curiosities 
of Taman, and determined to proceed directly to Kertch,- and wait for 
our cariiage at Kafta. We were induced to take this step by undcretandiDg 
that Ycnical6 offered nothing remarkable either in antiquities or situation, 
and by our d^fsire to give as much time as possible to Kaffa. The regular 
feri7-boat was4hen at Yenicale, and the wind directlv contrary. For this 
boat onr carriage was obliged to wait ; we ourselves obtained a fi8hiD|-bMt 
from the point nearest Kertch. From Phaoagoria to this point is reekoaed 
twelve versts : it is a long, narrow spit of sand, evidently of recent forma* 
tion, and marked, in Guthrie's map, as an island. Even where this ter* 
mi nates, is a «inge of sand reaching like a bar acrbss almost half the 
Bosphorus, and hardly covered with water, which bidafeir, in time, com- 
pletely to block up the navigation. An immense quantity of sea fowl are 
seen on every part of the Straits. The prospect is perfectly naked and 
desert ; on One aide tike bare downs and lona; sand Kossas of Tamau, aod 
on the other a bleak and rocky coast, without verdure or inhabitants; 
and the miserable fishermen, who ro'^ed us over, were a very fit group for 
sucli a scene. From the Kossa, where we embarked, to Kertch, is reek- 
oned twelve versts. Immediately opposite is a roand» diaUow bay, where 
was a hut in which the fishermen occasionally slept Behind the northera 
point of this bay opens a much larger; where a few miserable hooaes, a 
amallcUu-ch, and a jetty of piles, point out Kertch. The most coan»c"- 
ou» obje«t is a conical, green hill, either entirely or in part airtificWi «» 



ALONG THE OOAST OF THE CRIMEA. M^ 

and on Friday mornings AligUst the etghtli, set out, by a 
route across the Tehetirdagh, for Aktnetebet. We rode 
some time in the dale of Alusta, a delightful valley, full of 
apple, pear, plmm, and pomegranate trees, with vineyards 

the top of whkh is a seat and a flagstaff. The Russian oflScer, who took 
OS there, fancied it was erected in honour of Mithridates. or some of his 
family. The shore ia very sheWiti^ and shallow ; and we nadthe greatest 
^ffioulty to get ottr boat within a reasonable distance of the land. The 
oommaBdaut of Kertch, a Creoi<gian by birth, told us that many places had 
bee^ given for a harbour and quarantine at this place ; but the present 
scheme of making Kaffa the emporium, would probably prevent them. 
Immediately on laadiog> we were accosted hy a Russian priest with tl>e 
salutation "Hgu^os dnTrn, We had before observed, that the Cossacks used 
at this season to salute foreigners in Greek. The town of Kertch is very 
small and miserable ; it is chiefl}' inhabited by Jews. Thereis One tolera- 
hie watchmaker and two shops in the Bazar, where we saw some EngUsh 
•Q^ton stttFTs. The conntry around is all bare of trees, and their firerwood 
k brought from the neighbourhood of Eski-Krim^ a distance of perhaps 
120 versts. There is a spacious fortress, and a garrisou of a lieutenant- 
«olonel) a major, and four companies of light infantry^ The men were 
^stinguished by wearing no swords, whiehmost Russian soldiers do; the 
non-commissioned officers carried rifles. I had made sOme drawings and 
memoranda of the antiquities, which I have lost, but whieli differed in no 
material point from the aeisount published by Pallas. The most interesting 
are in the wall of the church. It is, perhaps, worth mentioning, as iUus- 
tratire of national character, that the Rossiaii major» who agreed to fur- 
cidi ns with horses and an open kibitka to KaflTa* m»sted on such usuriaus 
terms^that the other officers cried out shame, and that the same man 
sifterwards squeesed some further presents ont of Thornton's servi^it. 
A Cossack would hare disdained such conduict. 

*< We left Kertch on the twenty third* From thence the road winds 
among swampy, uncultivated Savannahs, having generally a range of low 
hilli to the south, and the sea of AsopK at some distance to &e north. 
These pkons are cover'ed with immense multitudes of bustards,, eranes, 
and Jtorks. I saw no pcHcans alter landing in Eui'ope. I never saw an 
English bustard ; btit those of tl»e Crimea appeared u> be a stouter bird 
thain what is generally represented in prints. There ai^e many ruins in this 
]|^t of the counti'y, and other vestiges of population. We passed two 
or three small, but sofid and well hmlt, bridges over rivulets, which ap« 
peared to be of Mohammedan workmanship ;: and tliere were many tombs 
diaiin^uislted by the tmban. The number of barrows near Kertch is 
anrpnsingi We passed two villages, still standing, and recognised at once 
the eroteifqtke dresses of the Nagay herdsmen represented by Pallas. 
At night we reached another village sometime after dark, and, after a 
furious battle with the dogs, obtained a lodging. I have forgotten tU name. 
The next day we found several patches of cultivation, and the countrr 
improving, though still full of ruins* On our rij^ht hand Uy the sea of 
Asbph, and on our left the Black Sea was now visible. A ruinous mosque 
■was before us. We found, on inquiry, that our driver had mistaken his 
way; that we ha<l passed the turn to Kaffa, and ^ere in the road ta 
Karasubazar.^ Kafl& now lay on our left hand, and presents a most dismal 
prospect as -it is approached on the side. There is a striking ruiu on the 
northeast poifit of tlie bay, which vas foi»merly a mintj and the wa*ls and 
towei*s, though dismantled, are very fine. The tower rises like a theatre 
iroxa the watcr^t edge, and is of «on»ilerable e^Lt^ent, bnt almost entirely 



95% glarke's travels in tartar y. 

and olive-grounds ; and, beginning to ascend the nH>untaii], 
arrived at the village of Shuma, Here the Tartars brought 
for our breakfast that enormous kind of cucumber before 
mentioned, the seed of which, since brought to Eng^laud, 

ruinous. Oh tlie land side it is defended by a high wall, witli loop holes 
and battlements ; the loop holes coraraijnicate with a sort of gallery, and 
are contrived in the thickness of the wall with large internal arches, 
which give it the appearance of an aqueduct. These arches support the 
upper walk and |>ai*apet. The towers are semicircular On one of thero, 
in which is a gateway, are many shields with armorial bearings, not much 
defaced, which ascertain the Genoese to 'have been its founders. There 
»re some noble Mohammedan baths entire, but now converted into ware^ 
houses ; many ruined mosques ; and one which . is still in good orcJejTt 
though little used. There are also the remains of several buildings which, 
by their form and position east and west, appear to have been chnrch^i?. 
Turkish. and Armenian inscriptions abound; but 1 could find, in several 
days' search, ho vesU^e which I cotild rely on as having betttnged to tho' 
ancient Theodosia. tSee p. 398, and Note] The northwest quarter of 
the town is peopied .by Kavaite Jews^ and the narrow bazar, nearest Ui6 
vater, swarms with those of Europe. These are the two most populous - 
parts of the totj'u. . There are some Armenians, but not exceeding thiety 
families, and hardly any Tartars. The remainder of the population coa* 
sists of the garrison, five or six Italian and German merchants (no Frendi 
Mhen we were there) and some miserable French and Swabian^emigrants. 
GeneraKFansbaw has constructed a very goodtfuay : and by puUing^tJown 
some ruinous baildii^, and a part of the wall, has made a good cut from 
the north, which he has planted with trees. They were building a- very 
large and convenient place of quarantine. I could find no aqueduct; nor 
did there appear any need of one, as there are many beautiful springs 
bursting out of different paits of, the. hip:her town, which, excepting (he 
northeast <iuai'ter, where the Karaites live, is entirely waste and ruhMRig, 
The springs have all been carefully preserved in cisterns, some of tbem 
ornamented and arched over, with Tuikish inscriptions ; and one of them 
in particular, which is near the southwest angle of the wall^, is a delight^ 
ful bath, though sraail^ being surrounded by picturesque ruins, and over- 
hung with ivy and brushwood. The ruins of Kaif«t,are mostly of freestone ; 
the greater part of the houses were, I understood, of mud .and iJ{4>aked 
bricks ; but of these hardly any traces are left. None of those Still stand- 
ing have flat roofs, but are all tiled/with very projecting caves, and in the 
same style of architecture as the palace at fifjitchiserai. The best of these 
udjoin to the quay, and ai*e inhabited by the merchants. Ther^ are a few 
buildings lately .erected, one a tavern, by a French emigrant; and another 
a house intended for the governour Fansbaw. All these are of shght tim- 
ber flames covered with plaster. 

** Kaffa was called by the Tartars, in its better days, Kutchack Stam- 
boul (^Little Constantinople.^ I often asked different persons what its 
former population was ; particularly an old Italian, \yho ha<l been interpret 
ter to the khans ; but the answers I obtained were riot such as I eould 
credit. Yet he and the Tartar peasants were in the saiae story, tliat it 
had formerly consisted of sixteen thousand houses. All the Tartars attribu« 
ted its desolation to the calamities brought on it by the Russian garrison, 
who tore off the rOofs of the houses, where they were quartered, for fire 
wood. I was told by a Swabian settler, that wood was chiefly brougiit 
from Old Krira, and was very dear. The winters he CDmpl«uncd of as 
very cold. Corn is very dear, and comes ekiefly from the Don. Animal 



AtONG THE COAST OF THE CRIMEA. 357 

has not thrived in onr eoontrj. The fruit is as white ag snow, 
and, notwithstanding the prodigious size and length to which 
it attains, has all the erispness and fresh flavour peculiar to a 
young eucumben It would become a valuable plant for the 
pool", if we could contrive to naturalize it* This, and other 
sorts of the same ve^table, together with a variety of me- 
lons, and the dueurbita pepo^ or pumpkin, cover the borders 
of a> Tartar garden. The custom of boiling, for their meals, 
the tendrils and young fruit of the pumpkin, is common 
not only in the Crimea, but over all the Turkish empire. 
We were often treated with this vegetable, and found it very 
palatable. 

Ibod is- net to plentifut as I should have sapposed. A young man, vfho vfts 
employed to buy stores for Mr. Eaton, the contractor, stated the price of 
beef in the market of Kaffa, to be ten or fifteen copeeks the pound, or 
sometimes more, and Uie supply irregular. About three miles from JLaffii 
is a small village of German colonists^ -who y/ere very poor and despon- 
ding; the noxxiher mip;ht be twelve families, who were tlien on their farms, 
the rest having gone into service or to sea. General Fanshaw, to whom 
we had a letter, was at Peter8burgh,.so that I am unable to give so good 
an ao«ount of Kafik as if I had the means of deriving information from him. 
His object was to estftbltsh a bank at Kaffa, and finally to arrange the in* 
tereourse with the Don, b)r way of Arabat. The merchants of Kafik, were, 
as usual, excessively sanguine, ftnd confident of the success of their scheme ; 
and we heard a direct contrary story to the one we were taught at Tagan- 
roek. We could not learn whether Arabat had a safe harbour> the road 
from ELaffa thUher is level, and, if necessary, a rail road might be put u)> 
at no S^eat expense, as it would come hy water from Lugan. The bay 
of Kana is rather exposed to tlie southeast ; but we were assured they 
hadvery seldom high winds from that quarter, and that accidents had 
been never known to happen; A small vessel, of the kind wliich Bustia 
fitted out in numbers during the Turkish war, with one mast ahd a vast 
lateen, sail, was Ipng in the harbour, to take a Scotchman, named Mac- 
master^ to Immeratta, where, and at Trebizond, he was to act as a sort 
of ($onsQ] to an association which had just opened a trade there. At Kafia 
we obtained an order from the government for horses from the Tartar 
villages at the rate of two copeeks a verst, per horse. The order was in 
Turkish^ the date was explained to us, < from our healthy city of Kafi^a ;' 
whid), X conclude, was its ancient distinction. The colder, or constable, of 
eaeh village is named * Ombaska;' but 1 write the Tartar words from ear 
only. The road is not interesting till after you have past Old Krim ; 
though there is a gradual improvement in the cultivation. Old Krim, we 
were told, is so called, because the Tartars believe it to have been the 
andent oapital of the peninsula. It is now a village of fifty houses at 
most, inhabited entirelv by Armenians ; but the Mohammedan ruins are 
extennve ; there are three mosques, and what appears to- have been a 
bath.^ The neighbouring peasants are all Tartars; 

** In the first stage towards Sudak, a building presents itself on the left 
hand^ in a beautiful situation among woods, on the side of a steep hill 
which our Tartar guide said had been an Armenian convent. We con* 
versed with the Tartars by an interpreter whom we hii<ed at Kaffa ; he 
wa» R Polish Jewy but had resided several yean at CoD«t)intiiiop]e« Xo-> 

w % 



358 glaukb's travels in tartahy. 

The very weak state of my health would not allow rot to 
ascend the summit of the Tcihetirdacjh ; but. Mr. Crippa 
left me at Shuma for that purpose.^ The road I followed 
conducted me along the western side of the mountain, ^imI, 
after all, at no great distance from its top; as my compan- 
ion having gained the highest point, called to me and was 
distinctly heard. He collected some rare plants; and 
eonilfmed, by his own observation, what has been be- 
fore related concerning the mountains of the Crimea. They 
skirt only the southern coast of the peninsula, beginning 
at Caffa, and extending as far as Balaclava. Tl^ town 
of Akmetchet appearecl to him as immediately beneath his 
Tiew ; and towards the north; the whole territory exhibit- 
ed an uninterrupted plain. On the west^ the chain of moun- 

thlng couUI be more interesting, and to us novel, tlian the prospect and 
appearance pf every one we met ; a mirza, or noble, one of the few who 
still remain m the country, overtook us, and I was delighted, at being ad- 
dressed forthefii^t time, by the oriental salam^ by which we were after- 
wards saluted by all the passengers. In this part of the country I only 
saw one camel, a she one, and kept for her milk: the roads are too steep 
and rocky for them. ' T\\e common cart had two wheels, and was drawfi 
by two oxen abreast, like a curricle ; it was light, but spacious. Th« 
is only seen as far as Sudak, afterwards, the hills are too steep. for any 
wheel carriage. "We passed a day with Dr. Pallas at Sudak, who asked 
jntjcli about Messrs. Clarke and Cripps. The beauty of this celebrated Taljey 
yather disappointed us, except as far as the viueyardsare concerned, ^li*" 
are more extensive and finer than any we saw besides. Dr. P. said^ that 
the wine made by the Tartars was spoiled by the over irrigation of tneir 
vineyards, which hicreased the size of the grapes, but in hired their fla- 
vour. The wine we tasted was all poor and hungry. Sudak, or, as it i»jas 
explained to me. The Hill of the Foimtain, is a small village, peopled by 
a lew families of Greeks, with a very small and insecure harbour. Th« 
«astle, which is ruinous, stands on a high, insulated rock on the east of t»e 
town 1 and at the foot is a beautiful spring preserved in a large cistern ; witUa 
metal cup chained to it. I suppose thhisUie harbour mejitioned by Arrumja^ 
possessed by Scythian pirates, between Theodosia and Lampat. There 
IS a small but handsome mosque "still entire in the castle. I saw notlung 
which could be referred to a higtier antiquity than the (Genoese, nor ajy 
thhig which I could i^ly on as even so old as their erections. It is o™; 
after Sudak that the real mountaineer features and habits *PP^*^' ''**jj^j' 
I« the v^e of Oluz, or Sudak, very few of the cottages are flat rowea, 
and all the better soi't of farm-houses are tiled. . 

«' At Kaya, the next stage, and from thence to Baydar, the ^oildi^ 
have flat roofs, except the mosques, which are tiled, generally vith p«^' 
ble ends, and surrounded by a wooden portico. This distinction "*^^^^ 
the roofs of private and pubUc buildings is mentioned by Aristopbaoes* 
existing in Athens. 



- c»yyt4^ *9 ti^c^ outio-m 



T«f;c yAg u/ud'v cttdAs i§i-^ojuw nP02 AETON. Egv/9. 

The houses are generally pUed up one aboT^ ajaother, half under grottui* 



ALONG THE COAST OF THE 0&ISC15A. 301^ 

tain§ seemed to terminate at Bakteheserai ; so that a g^o- 
i^rapbieai line may be traced for the map of the Crimea, 
from Caffa to Stara Crim; thenee, south of Karasubazar 
on ' to Afemetcliet, and to Bakteheserai^ To the north of 
this line the whole territory, not only of the Crioiea, 
bat beyond the isthmas, over all the Ukraine, is one 
vast steppe^ eonsigtins; of a calcareous deposit, con- 
taining; the remains of marine animals. All the high- 
er parts of the Tehetirdagh exhibit a mass of lime- 
stone .yery compact, and of a gray colour. Pallas says, 
that upon friction it is slic^htly feti<I, a character I neglect- 
ed to. not ice. The niountain^ probably received its ancient 
name of Trapezus from th - tabIe*form of its summit. Its 
lower district is covered by groves impenetrable to the raytf 
of the sun; where the only blossom seen decking the soli 
was the Colchicum autumnaky or common meadow-saffron. 
Through these groves 1 continued to skirt the whole of its 
western side until I came out upon a spacious table of na- 
ked limestone towards the north ; immediately under afright- 
ful precipice of the same nature, on the top of which I 
eould plainly discern my companion with his guides. From, 
this spot I was sufliciently elevated to look down upon the 
summits of almost all the neighbouring^ mountains, which 
appieared below me, covered with wood; and in the ferrile 
valleys between them was abundance of corn and pasture 
lands. So fertile are those valleys, that after descending 
into them, single ears of wild barley, and wild rye, are 
seen growing in all situations. About two hours of eon- 
tinual descent brought me from this spot to the village of 
Derykeiiy, to which place professor Pallas had sent his 
carriage in order to conduct us once more to his comforta- 
ble and most hospitable mansion in Akmetchet. 

About two miles from Derykeiiy, a Turkish nobleman, 
at- a villager, called, I believe on account of his resi- 
dence, Mahmoud Sultan^ sent to request that we won id 
visit his house upon the banks of the Salgir. He 

along the sides of hills; they are composed of clay, and the Tillages resem- 
ble raWit warrens. Irrigation is practised universally, and with apparent 
skill, where the vineyards are planted. Very little corn is grown , but 
the valleys are literally woods of fruit trees. Water is abundant ; and' 
near many of the best wells seats of earth are made, and bowls left for the 
wayfaring men to drink. There are wolves and foxes, and of course the 
other game is not very plentiful ; but there are hares, and a few partridgcss. 
Between Lambat and Aliusckta is the way to ascend Chatyr Dag, which 
we missed seehig by the Wonder of our Jewish interpreter." Hcbeft 
MS. Journal* ^ , 



360 tfLARKE's TRAVELS IH TARtARY* 

•ame out to meet us', attended bj his dragoman and otber 
menials, as Turks always are, and invited us te retuni 
with him and drink coffee. Every thin^ about his dwell- 
ing, whieh stood in the midst of ^rdens, had an m of 
peace and repose. A martin had built its nest within bis 
ehamber, ana he had made holes in the window for it to pass 
in seareh of food for its young. This practice is not bo- 
common in the cottages of the Tartars, vi^ho consider saeh 
a visit from the martin a ikvourable amen. I have als^ 
since observed the same superstition in many parts of Tar- 
key ; and it is needless todeseribe its prevalence amonetb^ 
lower order of people in England.* Upon the tombs^otb 
of Tarks and Armenians are often seen two little cavities, 
iirhieh the relations of the deceased have scooped ja the 
stone, and continually supply with water f considering it 
to be of good omen for departed friends, that birds shoaW 
come and drink upon their graves. Such Armenian tomb- 
stones, beautifully wrought, in white marble, and covered 
with inscriptions, may now be almost classed among tbe 
antiquities of the Crimea. They bear very remote dates; 
and, like others seen in Turkey, express, by certain sym- 
bolsy the former occupation of those whose memorials they 
bear. Thus, for a money-changer, they express in earred 
work the sort of shovel used by bankers ; for a tailor, a 
pair of shears ; or for a gardener, a spade. 

We arrived at Akmetchet as professor Pallas was pre- 
paring to celebrate the marriage of his daughter, ft*^®^' 
inff to the rites of the Greek church, with baron WimftWt, 
a Hungarian general in the Russian service. The weddins 
took place on the following day, Saturday, August the 9tft 
after a superb dinner. We accompanied the parties to churcn* 
At the door they were met by the priest; the general was 
asked, if he was already related to the lady by any **^. ® 
blood, on his answering in the negative, the siCmc ^**^V^^ 
was again put to the intended bride, and was answered 

• This caimot be more forcibly iUustrated than with refereDce ^^^^ 
derived by Shakspeare from our most ancient chrooideSj ana pi**^ 
ia hia trag^y of Macbeth : 



This gaest of summer. 



The temple-hauntitig martlet) does approve. 

By his lov'd mansionry, that the hearns bre«th 

Smells wooiogly here : no jutty, frieze, batti'esii 

Kor coigne or vantage, but this bird hath made 

His pendent bed, and pracr^ant cradle. VlThercthey 

Most breed and hftwili I liikw obwrv'd, the »ir . . ff^ 

ladeUoate." Mac^t^^' 



ALONG THE OOAST OF TH£ CRIMEA. 851 

tJie same way. They were then asked, whether the en- 
ga^meBt they were about to form was voluntary on their 
part ; and havina; answered tn the aflirmative, were per- 
mitted to eo<er afew paees within the church. A bible and 
crucifix were then placed before them, and lari^e lighted 
wax tapers, decorated with ribands, in their hands ; after 
certain prayers had been read, and the ring put upon the 
bride's -finger, the floor was covered by a piece of scarlet 
satin, and a table was placed before them with the commu- 
nion vessels. The priest having tied their hands together 
with bands of the same coloured satin, and placed achiq)- 
let of flowers upon their heads, administered the sacrament; 
and afterwards led them, thus bound together, three times 
round the communion-table, followed by the bride's fkther 
and the bride-maid. During this ceremony the choristers 
chanted a hymn ; and after it was concluded, a scene of 
general kissing took pl^ce among all present, and the par- 
ties returned to the house of the bride's father; here tea 
and other refreshments were served to all who came to con- 
gratulate the married couple. s 

We remained a month at Akmetchet before my health 
was again established; during this time I had an opportu- 
nity of seeing so remarkable a ceremony at a Jew's wedding, 
that a short account af it will, perhaps, be thought not out 
of place at the conclusion of this chapter. 

For two or three days prior to the wedding, all the neigh- 
bours arid friends of the betrothed couple assembled toge- 
ther, to testify their joy by the most tumultuous rioting, 
dancing, and feasting. On the day of marriage, the girl 
accompanied by the priest and her relations, was led blind- 
folded to the river Salgir, which flowed at the bottom of a 
small valley in front of professor Pallas's house ; here she 
was undressed by women who were stark naked, and, desti- 
tute of any other covering except the handkerchief by which 
her eyes were concealed, was plunged three times in the 
river. After this,* being again dressed, she was led, blind- 
folded as before, to the house of her parents, accompanied 
by all her friends, who were singing, dancing, and perfor- 
ming musick before her. In the evening her intended hus- 
band was brought to her, but, as long as the feast continued 
she remained with her eyes bound. 

The garrison of Akmetchet paraded every morning from 
seven o^Iock untiften ; but troops in a worse state of disci- 
pliue, or more unfit for service^ were^ perhaps^ never %%&k. 



ZM OLARKE's TR4VBL8 IN TARTART. 

The whole military force of the Crimea amounted, at this 
time, to fifteen thousand men, of whieh number fifteen hun- 
dred were in garri$oii at Akmetehet. There were seven 
complete regiments in the peninsula, besides two companies 
of invalids, and a Greek battalion at Balaelava. At Pere- 
eop there was a garrison of invalids; and garrisons were 
also established at Yenikale. Kertchy, Caffa, Karasubazar, 
Akmetehet, Baktekeserai, Koslof, and Aktiar, where there 
were two regiments. Yet, notwithstanding the reputed 
rigour of the emperour, his attention to the midutiee of 
discipline, and his passion for military pursuits, a system 
of somnolency and stupidity existed in all poblick affairs, 
which rendered the force -of the Russian empire a mere 
puppet show. It was punch with all his family ; or a herd 
of swine in armour, who endured hard blows, kicks, and 
eanes, with perfect patience, but were incapable of activity 
or effect. Such was the disposition of the guard along the 
ooast, and such the nature of the country, that an army 
might have been landed and marched up to the sentinels at 
Akmetehet before they were observed. Detested as the 
Russians are by every description of inhabitant in the Cri- 
mea, their expulsion from the peninsula, if it had pleased 
Great Britain to restore it to the Turks, would have been 
a work of ease and amusement. The harbour of Nym- 
phseura was entirely open, and unguarded both by sea and 
land. To the west, at Sudack, Alnsta, or Yourzuf, invaders 
would have found the Tartars 'greeting their arrival with 
tears of jov. A small band or Mprean Greeks upon the 
aoast, would be ready to join the invaders, or to fly at their 
approach.* Arriving in the garrison towns, a few snoring 
soldiers, hardly out of drill, or4i party of bloated offiee'rs 
labouring under indigestion and ague, could not offer even 
a semblance «f opposition. Any experienced general from 
the armies of England, France, or Germany, might pledge 
bis reputation for the capture of the Crimea with a thousand 
men.f Such an event throughout the peninsula would be 
celebrated as a signal delivery from the worst of tyrants, 
and every honest %eart would participate in the transports 
of an injured people thufs emancipated. 

* Though some years have elapsed sinoe this journal was written, the 
alianges which have taken plac/e in Russia, rather tend to facilitate tiian to 
obstruct the capture of the Crimea. 

t Asunrey of the ports of Aktiar, with ajl t!i€ 8oaodui»j we had the 
satisfaction to bring to England. 



ALOKG THE COAST Ot THE CRIMEA. 8!^ 

This ftoeoant may not seem to accord with thedeseriptipni 
which were published of the conduct of the Russian troops 
in Italj) unaeT field-marshal count Suvarof. But where 
will Russia find appther Buvarof P He was created to be a 
Russian general ; possessing all the qualifications, and the 
only qualifications which can entitle a Russian chief to the 
hope of victory. Amons his troops, he was^enera^/y their 
eommander ; individmlTy, their eomrade and their friend* 
Tqthe highest military rank in Russia, he joined the man- 
ners and the taste of a prirate soldier ; one moment closeted 
with his sovereign, the next dniiklns;qua8S^ with his troops, 
eating raw turnips, devesting himself of rermin, or sleeping 
npon straw. He partook every interest of the privates 5 
entered into all their little histories ; mediated in their dis- 
putes ; shared in their amusements ; was at once their coun- 
sellor and KKampIe; in short, the hero who planned and 
then led the way to victory. The Catechism^ as he strange- 
ly termed that extraordinary composition, which he drew up 
for the instruction of every soldier in his army, will show 
more of his real cbaiucter than the most studied descrip« 
tion. It possesses a portion of all his characteristieks ; 
somewhat of his buffoonery, inconsistency, barbarity, mili- 
tary skill, his knowledge of the disposition of his country- 
men, and of his anxietv and precaution for the welfare of 
his troops, as well as. of his remarkable talent for directing 
even their vices to advantage : in a word, it offers a key to 
those counsels which directed all his militarv operations. 
This singular document fell into my hands | it was sent by 
order f)f the crown, while we were in the country, to every 
reeiment in the Russian service, in order that each soldier 
might learn to repeat it from memory, and is presented to 
the£nglish reader in the Appendix,* literally translated, 
word for word from the original Russian, as faithfully ar 
^ fhe idioms of the two lai^uages will admit. 

* See the Appendix, No. 11. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

SECOND EXCURSION TO THE MINOR PENINSULA OP THE 
HERACUEOTjE. 

Professor Pallas accompanies the author — Mankoop^Ru- 
ins of the Fortress — Cape of tlie Winds-^Shulnr^Fnl 

. ler^s Earth'Pitts — Manufacture of Keff-kill'—hthmian 
Wall — Ay a Buriin — Cgins of Vladimir — -Akxiano's 
Chouter-^Point and Bay of Phanari-^Ruins of the old 
Chersouesus of Strabo — Valley of Tchorgona-^Dan^er 
of the Climate — Tartar J\*obles — Russian Recruit— bal- 
via Hablitziana — Return to Akmetchet. 

AS we had not been able to ascertain the true situation 
of the most ancient of the two cities of the Cherson- 
esians, wliich Strabo describes as in ruins within the Hera- 
eleotick peninsula, and professor Pallas maintained that 
it must have stood on, or near the point of land which form* 
the most wftstern. territory of the Crimea, now called Point 
Phanari, we determined to make a second excursion, mA 
to traverse the minor peninsula in all directions. The pro- 
fessor himself resolved to accompany us ; and accordinglj 
we left Akmetchet* in a light, open carriage belqtiffingto 
him, on Saturday, September ihe seventh. The road pass- 
ing throngh a deep ravine, we collected several specimens 
of t he salvia hablitziana^ and the centaiirea myinocephala; 
which lat^erv^as the favourite food of the Crimean sbe^P? 
i& supposed to give that beautiful gray colour to the wpol 
of the lambs, so highly prized both. in Turkey and TaiU- 
ry, art an ornament of the calpack^ or cap worn by TarUr 
gentlemen, in lieu of the turban. The professor instruct- 
ed us to search for the rarest plants, in deep sands, salt 
marshes, and upon chalkv hills. We purposely avoided 
entering again the town of'Baktcheserai in order to escape 
theinterruptiou of ceremonial visits, passing hyEski Yourstf 

* '* Akmetchet, or Wnte Mosque now Simph^ropol, ttioagh the «eat 
« government, is a wretched and ruinous pUcp, formcHv txtcnsiTC, as 
appears from its three mosques, which fiUnd at a considerable disiwice 
trom each other. There is her» a good View of the mouBtain Cbaiyr 
*^*g- Jfeba^s MS. Journal, 



TO THE J^ENINSULA OF HERACLEOT^. 36d 

the aneient m&usoleum of the Khang^ and changing horses 
at Kjotcha. Soon after leaving this last place, we turned 
towards the southern chain of mountains, and passed Kb- 
rallaes^ tl^e most pleasing village in the Crimea, beauti-. 
fuilT situated in the entrance of a romantiek defile, which 
leads to Shniti. On the right hand, soon afler entering this 
defile, and up«n the siiminits of the high mountains which 
form its southern side, are seen the remains of the ancient 
fortress of Teherkesskerm&n, once possessed by the Cxeno- 
ese, and in remoter periods by the Circassians, as its name 
implies. When the former made themselves masters of the 
strong holds in the Crimea, they erected fortresses upon 
the most preeipitoos and inaccessible places, in the wildest 
retreats of the peninsula. Tcherkesskerman was one of 
the citadels thus constructed^ and the scattered ruins of \i% 
battlements still covcf the heights I have mentioned. Yet 
even these remains are less remarkable than those of Man* 
koop on the other side of the defile ; on this account we 
preferred making a visit to the latter, and turning off to a 
village on the left hand, were provided with beautiful Tar« 
tar horses and guides for that purpose. 

The fortress of Mankoop is of vei^ extraordinary mag- 
nitude, and may be described as literally in the clouds. It 
covers the summit of a semicircular, insulated mountain. 
This, from its frightful aspect, its altitude, and craggy, 
perpendicular sides, independent of every other considera- 
tion than as a surprising work of nature, fills the mind 
with wonder upon entering the defile. In that singular sit- 
uation, where there were no visible roe&ns of ascent to- 
wards any of the heights, much less of conveying materi- 
als for the astonishing work they completed, did the Geno- 
ese cdnstl'uct a citadel, perhaps without a parallel in Eu- 
rope, the result of their wealth, address, and enterprise. 
History ^loes not mention for what especial purpose those 
works were carried on by the Greeks or Genoese in the in- 
teriourof the country, at such a distance froai the coast; 
hnt it is natural to conjecture their use in curbing the hos- 
tile spirit of the natives towards the maritime, colonial pos- 
sessions.* The last possessors of Maokoop were Jews. 

* Some curiods memoriala of this remarkable citadel £ Mankoop] are 
found in Brouiovius, >vho descnbes tt as, **. Anx et Civitas quondam an- 
tiquUsma.'*^ He also says, " Mancopia civitas ad montes et syivas magis 
porrecta, et mad non jam propinqua est ; arces duas in oltissiixio saxo c<- 
perainpio condifta», tcmpia Grseca sumptuosa et aedesy &cc. habnit. . « . • 
Ac in eo monte tazoso, in q;a0 s&ta est, in saxoA>iroadmoUumopcredomu& 

A. k 



dG6 Clarke's travels is tartary.. 

Ruined tombs of marble and stone were lying in the cfeBie- 
tery of their colony beneath the trees we passed in our w- 
cent. The whole of our passage up the mountain was 
steep and difficult; nor was it rendered more practicable 
by the amazing labours of its original possessors, whose 
dilapidated works rather served to imj)ede than tp facili- 
tate our progress. The ascent had onee been paved the 
whole way, and stairs formed, like those of th^ Merdmn, 
described 'in the last chapter. These still remain entire in 
many places. 

When we reached the summit, we found it entirely co- 
vered with ruins of the citadel. Caverns and gloomy gal- 
leries perforated in the rock, whose original uses are now 
unknown, presented on every side their dark mouths. On 
the most elevated part of this extraordinary erainence,Js a 
beautiful plain, covered with fine turf, among which we 
ibund the Rosa Pygmma of Pallas^ blooming in great beauty. 
This plain, partly fenced in by the mouldering wall of the 
fortress, but otherwise open to surroundins precipices, ap- 
peared to me as lofty as the cliffs along the Sussex coast, 
mear Beachy Head. All the other mountains, valleys, billsj 
woods, and villages, n^ay be discerned from this spot. While 
with dismay and caution we crept upon our hands and knees 
to look over the brink of those ffearful heights, a half-clad 
Tartar, wild as the winds of the north, mounted, withoat 
any saddle, or bridle, except the twisted stem of a wild vine, 
on a colt equally unsubdued, galloped to the very edge oi 
tjic precipice 5 and there, as his horse stood prancing upon 
i.lie borders of eternity, amused himself in pointing oat to 
ijs the difi'erent places in the vast district which the eye 
commanded. We entered one of the excavated cbamhersj 
a small, square apartment, leading to another on our right 
hand. On our left, a narrow passage condwcted us to an 
^>pen balcony with a parapet in front formed in the roeK^ 
upon the very face of one of the principal precipiecs, whence 
the depth below might be contemplated with less danger- 
Vultures beneath the view were sailing over the valleys? 
not seeming larger than swallows. Below these, the tops o 
undulating hills, covered by tufted woods, with viUaees 
amidst rocks and defiles, appeared at a depth so intifl»»<l*' 

excisas Ijabet, qu» ctsiillc locus nunc sylvosns est, iritegne tamen P ^ ^j^^ 
reperiuntcr. Phanutu mamidreis et sei»ptntinis CduB&nis ^^'^^^^^ i^^a^ 
jam i>i-ustiatura ct con-uptum, insignem et clai-ura quondaia ewn 
cu;:,se testatm-.'* J^wcn^. 5Vir^ar. p^). 262, 264.. ^ 



. TO THE PENINSULA OF HERACLEOTiE. 367 

ting, that the blood chilled in beholding it. We afterwards 
found the remains of churches and other publick buildins;s 
among the ruins, and in a more perfect state than might be 
expected in the Russian empire 3 but this is easily accounted 
for, by their difficulty of access. At length, being conducted 
iti the northeastern point of the crescent, which is the shape 
of the summit on which the fortress of Mankoop was con- 
structed, and descending a few stone steps, neatly hewn in 
the rock, we entered by a sauare door into a cavern, called 
by the Tartars The Cape of the TVinds, It has been ehis- 
selled, like the rest, out of the solid stone ; but it is open on 
four sides. From the amazing prospect here commanded of ^ 
all the surrounding country, it probably served as a post of 
military observation. The apertures, or windows, are large 
arcKed chasms in the rock; through these, a most exteasive 
range of scenery over distant mountains and rolling clouds 
farms a sublime* spectacle. There is nothing in any part of 
£urope. to surpass the tremendous grandeur of the place. 
Beldvv the cavern is another chamber leading to several 
cells on its different sides 5 these have all been cutout of the 
same rock. 

We pursued a different road in descending: passing be- 
^ Death an old arched gateway of the citadel, once its principal 
entrance.* This ros^d flanks the northern side of the moun- 
tain ; and the fall into the valley is so bold and profound, 
that it seems, as if a single false step would precipitate 
both horse aud rider. By alighting the danger is avoided ; 
and the terrour of the descent compensated in the noblest 
scenery t|ie eye ever beheld. It was dark before we reached 
the bottom ;, we had some difficulty to regain the principal 
i^oad which leads through the delile, owing priueipally to 
the trees which project over all the lanes in the vicinity of 
Tartar villages, and so effectually obstruct the passage of 
persons on horseback, that we were in continual danger of 
being thrown; one of our party neaily lost an eye by a 
blow he received frooii a bough, which stretched quite across 
the path we pursued. The defile itself is not without dan- 
ger in certain seasons of the year 5 immense masses of lime- 
stone detach themselves from the rocks above, carrying all 

* Future travellers who may visit Mankoop are advised to choose this 
road tor their ascent: as it will afford tlie»n the aublimest scenery pcrhaj>3 
ever beheld. Tiie Tartars, tor what reason cannot be explained, call it 
The Carriage^-waift altUough x?e.were unable to sit evca upon oar horsea 
in goin^ dovrn^ 



368 Clarke's travels in tartary* 

before them in their passage. Some, from the northerft 
precipices, had crossed the river at the bottom, and, by tfee 
prodigious velocity acquired in their descent, had actually 
rolled nearly half way up the opposite side. We passed 
some of those fragments in our way to Shulu, where we pas- 
sed the night. This villaae belongs to professor Pallas, and 
consists of a forest of Walnut trees, beneath which every, 
dwelling is concealed.* One of those trees yielded hiui, as 
he informed us on the spot, in a single season, sixty thou- 
sand walnuts. The ordinary price of the fruit throughont 
the Crimea is from eighty to a hundred copeeks for a thou- 
sand.* The professor had huih himself a very magnificent 
seat at Shulu, but owing to his disputes with the Tartars 
eoncerning the extent of his territory, the completion of tlte 
work had been delayed when we arrived. The building is 
placed on the northern side of the defile, commanding a fine 
prospect of the valley ; but, from the chalky nature of 4be 
soil in the surrounding bills, every thing had a white glare, 
painful to the eye, ana wholly destructive of piet^H^sque 
appearance. Near this hill, on one side of the eminences 
opposite to the professor's house, is a series of excavations 
similar to those of Inkerman, exhibiting the ancient retreats 
of Christians in cells and grottoes. One of those cavern 
ous chambers is net less than eighty paces in length, with 
a proportionable hreadth, and its roof is supported by .pillars 
hewn in the rock; the stone, from the softness of its nature^ 
did not oppose the difficulty encountered in similar woVks 
which are iseen in other parts of the Crimea; ** ' . 

From Shulu we proceeded once more to Balaclava. 'In 
our road we passed several pits, in which the Tartars dig' 
that kind of fuller's earth called Keff-Jcl^ otMineral Frothy' 
and, by the Germans, J/eersc/iaMm. This earth, before the 
capture of the Crimea, was a considerable article of com- 
merce with Constantinople, where it was used in publiek 
baths to cleans^ the hair of -women. It is often sold to Ger- 
man merchants for the uiahufaeture of those beautiful to- 
bacco pipes, which bear the name of Ecume de Mer among 
the French, and sell at such enormous prices, even in our 
own country, after they have bieen coloured by long use. 
The long process necessary to the perfection of one of those 

'•The copeck is e<i.«a] to our lialfpenny. . 

f Lii.orjilly foam earthy but often erroiiequrfy supposed to derive ita 
r*amc from 'the teun ©f Cafia; -vvjienoe this mineral ^v«s exported to 
TtU'key. -. ■ , . . * 



TO tttE PENINSULA OF HERACLBOTA 3tf$ 

pipegy with all its eireumstances, is reallj a eorious subject. 
Sitiee the interruption of cdmmeree between the Crimea and 
Turkey, the substance reqnisite in their niannfaclure^ has 
been du^ near th6 site of the ancient Iconium^ in Anatolia* 
The first rude shape is s^iven to the pipes on the spot where 
the mineral is dug;, where they are pressed in a mould, and 
laid in the sun to harden ; then they are b^Jced in an oven^ 
boiled in milk, and rubbed with soft leather. In this state 
they ^ to Constantinople, where there is a peculiar bazar, 
or khan^ for the sale of them; they are then brousrht op hy 
the merchant'^, and sent by the caravans to Pest, in Hungary. 
Still the form of the pipe is large and coarse. At Pest the 
manufacture begins which fits them for the German markets. 
They are there soalced for t%venty four hours in water, and 
then' turned on a l%the. In this process many of them prove 
porous^ and are good for nothing. . Sometimes only two or 
three out of ten succeed. From Pest they are conveyed t(^ 
Vienna, and ultima(eiy to the fairs of Leipsick, Franckibrty 
Mahheim. and other towns upon the Rhrne; where the best 
sell from three lo five, and even seven pound sterling each. 
When the oil of tobacco, after long smoking, has given 
them a fine porcelain yellow ; or, which is more prized,, a 
dark tortoiseshell hue, they have been known to sell for . 
forty or fifty pounds of our money. Their manner of digging , 
keff'kil in the Crimea, is merely by making a hole in the: 
ground, and there working till the sides begin to fall in, 
which soon happens when they open a new pit. A stratum, 
of marl generally covers the keff-kil ; through this they 
have to dig, some times, to the depth of from eight to twelve 
fathoms. The layer of keff'-kil seldom exceeds twenty *eight 
inches in thickness, and, beneath it, the marl occurs as before. 
At present, the annual exportation of this mineral from the 
whole peninsula, does not exceed twa tonsj the eonsump* 
tion of it iti the Crimea is inconsiderable, although it is. 
sold in all the markets at the low price of Iweiity copeek» 
the poiid.* 

At the distance of about two miles from Balaclava, ss we 
proceeded to that place, we discovered the traces of an an* 
eient wall, extending from the mountains eastward off th& 
Ikafbour towards the west, and thus closing the approach t» 
Balaclava on the la^d side. As it oflfered a due to^ the dis- ^ 
eovery of the other wall mentioned by Strabo, which ex- 

* The Rassian poud, aceording taHanway, ei^uals d6lb8^ of our weigM»; 
w fiortj Rumian poods. 

& k ^ 



S7a ■ . OI*AKK]&*S TRAVELS IN TAKTABlY. 

tended aeross the IsthniDS from the Ctentis to the Portus 
Si/mbolorum^ we determined to pursue it, and continued on 
horseback guided by its remains ; professor Pallas eboosiog 
to follow more carefully on foot, with a mariner's eompiisi 
in his hand. Preseatly we eneountered the indentleal work 
Ve so much wished to find ; it will serve to throw eonsiderar 
ble li^ht upon the topography of the minor peninsula. It 
meets the wall of the PortusSymbolornm atrigbi angleS) 
a.nd thence extends towards Inkerman, where it joiniid the 
Ctenus. We traced it the whole way. The distance betweea 
the two porta i^ very erroneously stated, and exaggerated^ 
in all our maps. It ag^rees precisely with Straho's admeasore- 
ment of forty stadia, or five miles, from sea to sea. AH that 
now remains of this wall, is a. bank or mound $ upon this the 
marks and vesti^s of turrets are still visible. Thestooes 
of which it consisted, have, for the most part, been carried 
off by the inhabitants ; tSther to form enclosures for the 
shepuerds, or to construct the Tartar houses. Those which 
remain are sufficient to prove the artificial nature of the 
work;. as they are not natural to the soil, but foreign sub- 
stances evidently brought for the purpose of fortifying the 
rampart. Having determined the reality and positiaatof this 
wall, we resolved to lose no time in further examinal^D of 
the territory here, but ascended the steep mountains upon 
the coast towards the west; to visit the stupendous eape, 
called by the Tartars Jlya Burun, or the Sacred Promontorjr? 
lying between Balaclava and the monastery of St.;Geor^ 
The Parthenium of Strabo was within the Herwjieotick 
Chersonesus, as the plain text of that author undoubtedly 
demonstrates; and, if there be a spot well calculated for U»c 
terrible rites said to have been celebrated in honour of the 
Taurican Diana» a» well as for the consonance of its position 
with the distance Strabo has assigned it from the city o* 
Chersonesus^ it is the ^ya Burun. In the perplexity neces- 
sarily arisiag.from an endeavour to reconcile ancient aw 
modern geography it would be the height of presomption 
to speak positively with regard to any peculiar situatioB, 
concerning; which we have no positive evidence; yet some- 
thing beyond mere conjecture, seems fuhnded on the ^^*^?' 
dence of its preset t name, with the pristine history of tn 
Parthenian Promontory ; and Pallas seems willing t<! *^^" 
their identity.* The contemplation of objects descnbea*" 
many Ages ago, and to whieh^ in barbarous countnci^ ^ 



TO THE FENINSULA OF HZRAGht^^'tJZ, 87i 

are gwidcd solely-bj the text of the Greek or the Ronutu 
•historians, is always attended with uncertainty; but wliett 
barbarians themselves, unconscious of the tenour of their 
traditions, by their simple and uncouth narrative, eonfirnft 
tie observations of the ela^sick writer, and fix the waverii^ 
fiict, there seems little reason to doubt. On this account, the 
^ya £uriin has, perhaps, as good a title to be considered 
the Parthenivm of Strabo,* a* the harbour of Balaclava fats 
F&rius Symbolorum. The same remarkable epithet occurs 
ui the apbeUation\^^uiag'A, given to a promontory men* 
tioned in the preceding chapter, probably from eircumstan- 
ees connected with the ancient worship to which Strabo aU 
ludes, because the word Parfenie it still retained in the name 
of a contiguous village. The different promontories of tha 
Tauride, which bore aciently the name of Tarthmium^ must 
necessarily perplex an inquiry tending to ascertain the exact 
position of any one of them. In the language ef the Tauri, 
who were the earliest votaries of the Diana of the country^ 
that goddess was called Orsiloche ; and perhaps in the Cau- 
casian mountains, whence this nation was derived, the sig-* 
nification of such an appellation might be obtained. It ivas 
in Caueasas that Pallas discovered the use of the word 
Jirdauda ; onee, in the dialectof the Tauri, a nanie of Theo- 
dosia; signifying The seven-fold Dwinity ^ ort^rr^Sof; ac* 
cording to the author of the anonymous Peripluff of the 
Euxine.f 

~ The Aya 'Bdrikn has been by some authors erroneously- 
denominated the Criu-metopon. It is a wild and fearful 
scene ; sueb as Bhakspear has described in Lear a perpen- 
fltjeular and tremendous precipice, one of the loftiest in the 
Crimea ^ consisting of a mountain of marble, terminating 
abruptly in the sea. Towards the west it borders on a 
ralky, in which the village of Karany is situated, now in* 
habited by Greeks. After we had passed it, and were 
within two versts of the monastery of St. George, we fan- 

* The decision of ttii point viU be left for future trayellers, yrho may 
take tl^e pains of measuring its exact distance from the i*uins of the city of 
the Chersonesians, It has beeto here stated, merely from conjecture, to 
agree with Strabo's account, who makes it eoual to k hundred stadia^' oi' 
twelve miies and a half.' If the distance tothe w%a £iii^n shoiald prove 
more th^n tbis, they will. do wpll ta direct their attentipu in the next in» 
stance, to that part of the coast mentioned in p. S29| as having; the natursd 
arch. ■ . 

t iEd. G«)noT. JLug. Bat, 1697. p, 14»* 



87^ OLARKE'g TRAVELg IK TARTAttY. 

eied we had found the actual fane of the demon virgin, 
which Strabo describes as situated at the Parthenian pro* 
moDtory ^ for we came to the remains of an ancient strittt- 
are, bearing every character of remote antiquity ; the stoaei, 
of a most massive nature, being lain together without ce- 
ment. Part of the pavement and walls was still visible. 
Soon afterwards, we arrived for the second time at the 
monastery of St. George; of this place our friend Pallas 
afterwards published an engraving in the second volume of 
his travels tnrough the southern provinces of the Russiaa 
empire. The anniversary, mentioned by Broniovius. is 
still celebrated here.* Some peasants brought us a few 
copper coins of Vladimir the Great. These are very inter- 
esting, inasmuch as they evidently refer to the era of his 
baptism ; an event which took place near the spot. They 
have in front a Russian V, and for reverse a cross ; symbol- 
ical of his conversion to the Christ iau religion, it has 
been already mentioned, that he was baptised iu the Crimea, 
and the ceremony took place, according to HehersteiD, t at 
the city of Chersonesus, called Cherson or Corson ;t a name 
easily now confounded with CJherson on the Duieperj an 
appellaiion bestowed by the Russians, with their usualig- 
norance of ancient geography, upon a modern town near 
the mouth of that river. About five versts from the Dfton- 
astery, following the coast, we came to some extensive ru- 
ins in a small wood, on the right hand side of our road. I^ 
their present state it is impossible even to trace a plan of 
them; for the Tartar shepherds, in moving the stones lo 
carry oiT materials of enclosure for their flocks, have con- 
fused all that remains^ From henc^ we continued oar 
journey towards the extreme southwestern point of the Cri- 
mea, and came to a place called Ahxiano^s C/ww^er, just a» 
it grew dark. The barking of dogs announced the com- 
fortable assurance of human dwellings, and excited a hop& 

• <* Est in eo loco \iiidc rivu^us ille delaUtur Pagns qnidam boh ijiiobi- 
fis, et nou procul in ripa maris, in raonte saxoso, 'Vracum iHifuutentf^ 
Sancti Geor^ii kolemne } anniversaria deyotio Graecis Cbristianis, q»i n*^^"* 
in Tauriea aunt reliqui, in magna frequentia ibi fieri solet." Martini Brof*- 
iwH Tartaria, Lug. Bat. 1630. 

t Ap<id Pagi, torn. IV. p. 56. 

% See the additional n^tes at the end of the Tohime for a rery iaterest- 
ing account of this once magnifieent city by JBrenioviu8% an account tciT 
litUe known, but preserving, perhaps, the only description of it *J*ff 
©Hsts. Broniovius / states, that Viatfimir was baptised by the Grfck n\' 
wawa w the priaeipal moBasteiy of the 4»ty of ChertODCstift. 



TO TUB PINIKSVLA OF HBRA«LEOTJE. 3tS 

of gome asylum for the night, after severe fatigue. We 
foand^ howerer, that what we supposed to he a village, 
consisted of four or five wretched fishing-huts. A few 
Ch-eeks quartered there ofFered to stow us all into a hole 
reeently dug in the earth, scarcely eapahle of containing 
three persons, the stench of which was ahominahte ; it was 
moreover filled with sheep's hides, swarming with vermin. 
Having procured a little oil in a4in pan, we made it serve 
us for a lamp, and, searching about, at last found a small 
thatched hovel^ with an earth fl<ior, and a place to light 
a fire. Here, notwithstanding the extreme heat, we kin- 
dled some dried weeds in order to counteract the effects of 
miasmata from the marshes and stagnant waters of the 
neighbourhood. By the light of our fire, a bed was prepa- 
red for professor Pallas, upon a sort of shelf ; this, as it 
supported only half his mattress, caused him to glide off 
as often as he fell asleep, and at last reconciled him to a 
quiet, though more dis^sting couch upon the damp floor. 
For our own parts, having procured some long wooden ben- 
ches about eight inches wide, we contrived to balance our . 
bodies, between 'sleeping and Waking, in a horizontal pos- 
ture, until the morniiig. When daylight appeared, the 
professor left us, to examine the point 0/ Phanarij or the 
Light Tower ^ and, returning before we were yet roused; 
from our somnolency, assured us the whole of that neck of 
land was covered with ancient ruins. We rose with great 
eagerness to follow him : and, as we approached the wa- 
ters edge, were immediately struck by the appearance of a 
vei^ small peninsula advancing into the bay of Phanari, 
entirely covered by the remains of an ancient fortress. The 

Elan of it is given by the professor in the work to which I 
ave before alluded. It seemed to have been once an island, 
connected with the main land by an artificial mole, now con- 
stituting a small isthmus. From this peninsula the shore 
rises, and all the land towards its utmost we^ern extremity 
is elevated. Ascending the sloping eminence thus present- 
ed upon the top of it occi|r the walls, streets, dilapidated 
baildings, and other ruins of the old Chersonesus.* The 
appearance of oblong pavements^ mouldering walls, scat- 
tered fragments of earthen vessels, broken amphoree, tile« 
and bricks of aqueducts, and other indications of an ancient 
city, prevailed over the whole territory quite to the sea. 

* Ei6' n tfAX-u^ Xt^doywtK x*Twic*/u/xfy». •• Sequitar Tetusta Clierronevtis 
dhniA.^^ Strab, lib. yn.f.^iB,ed. 03con> 



Sy4 ' ClhlBLItnH ^RAVBtS IN TARTAR Y. 

After traeia.i^ the extent of those ruins the whole w&j t« 
the point of Phanari, we diseoFered on the western side of 
the bay of that name, npon the sea shore, close to the water's 
ed^, and upon a v^erjlow point of land almost level with 
it, the remains of a building, which we supposed to hare 
served formerly as a li^hUhouse ; andto have given the 
name of Flianari^ to the western point, as well as to the 
bay. An arched entrance, with two of the walls, and a 
square opening for a v^indow, of very massive and solid 
construction, i$ still visible. 

Fatiffued by a laborious investigation of ruins, which, 
after alt, did not gratify us by the disclosure of a single in* 
eription, medal, or bas-relief, we hastened to enjoy the 
beauties of nature in the delightful valley of Tchorgona; 
whither the professor conducted us to pass the night in the 
mansion of his friend Hablitz, whose name he has eomrae- 
morated by i\ie Salvia HabUiziana^ and whose good offices h^ 
80 often and so pathetically mentions in his writings,* Per- 
haps there is not a spot in the whole Crimea so distinguished 
\ty its natural perfections. Though comprised in a smaller 
scale, it far surpasses in beauty the boasted valley of Bai^ 
dar. The seat of Mr. Hablitz was originally the residence 
of a Turkish, pacha, and preserves the irregular structure 
and strange mi^ificence of Turkish architecture. It is 
shaded by vines, tall fruit treesi &nd poplars; standing 
among rocks and mountains covered with woods and gar- 
dens, watered by numerous fountains. Near the house is a 
large, ancient tower, eovered by a dome. This was a place 
«tf refuge for the inhabitants when the Black Sea swarmed 
with corsairs, who invaded the coast and. ransaid^od the 
peaceful valleys of the Crimea, We found in its upper 
chambers a few swivels and other small pieces of artillery ; 
yet the bnilding itself appeared to have been erected in an 
^e anteriour to the ose of gunpowder in the peninsula. 
The Tartars in the valley of Tehorgona are reckoned among 
- the richest of the country, F^om their vicinity to Aktiar, 
they find a readv market for the produce of their lands; 
carrying thither honey, wax, fruit, and com. Their seques- 
tered valley seemed the retreat of health and joy; not a 
Russian was to be seen; the pipe and tabor sounded merrily 
anions the mountains ; and these, thick set with groves, 
closed them in on every side. The morning after our arri- 

* See particularly. Travels through the Southern Fi'oviaces, (ke. voL 11* 



TO THB PENlNSty^A OP HBftAOLEOTJE, SYi 

Talvwe were roused hj a wild concert, from the hills^ of 
saeh ingtruments as perhaps animated the dances of unciv* 
iHzed nations in the earliest periods of societj*^ 
• The performers were a party of TziganJcieSj or gipsies, 
who, as mendicant artificers, musicians, and astrologersy 
are very common oyer all the south of Russia. They had 
a wind instrument, something like n hautboy, made of ih^ 
wood of cherrytree ; and carried the large, Tartar drum, 
noticed before as characteristick of the Cimbri in the tima 
ef Stra:bo.* 

Early in the morning of this day, professor PaJlas rod« 
with Mr. Galena, who came by appointmetit to lakerman $t 
to show him sonie marine plants proper in the preparation 
of kelp. The bad air of that place, before injurious to me^ 
added to the fatigue he had encountered the preceding day, 
threw him into a violent fever 5 from this, however, we had 
the happiness to see him recover before we left the Crifliea^ 
Fevers are so general, during summer, throughout the per 
ninsula, that it is hardly possible to avoid them. If yoa 
drink water after eating fruit, a fever follows^ if you eat 
milk, eggs, or hotter^ — a fever; if, during the. scorching 
heat of the day ,^ you indulge in the most tririal neglect of 
olothing — a fever ; if you venture out to enjoy the delighir 
ful breezes of the evening — a fever; in short, su^histhe 
dangerous nature of the climate to strangers, that Russia 
iiiiust eonsider the country a cemetery for th6 troops sent.t^ 
maintain its possession. This is not the case with regard 
to its native inhabitants, the Tartars; the preeautiens they 
use, added to long experience, ensure their safety. Upon 

^ Sec page 591 of this volume. ' 

^ In the dearth of intelligence whteh prevails among historians concer- 
ning Ittkerman, th€ brief aceoutit preser;vcd hy SronioviitSf Is interesting 
and Talyable. As an author, he was not onl; cited but transcribed bj Thu- 
anui / yet, otherwise, his writings appear to have escaped ebserratiom 
*• Ing'ermenum milliaribus xii. vel ampUvte ^ Coalovia distat. Arcem lap* 
ideam» templuni, et specus sub a/rce, et ex adverso arcis rmro opere ex 
petra exisos, habet / nam in mmte maocimo et tdtudmo aita e^t, ac inde 
d specubus^ Turcia cognomon retinet, Oppidum quondam turn igmbilCf 
opiht£s refertum, celeberHmum^ et natura leci maxime admirandumf com 

piasiMimumqteeeJCtitit Ingermemarcemaatia etmagiiificam 

d J^rinpipiinta Grmcis extructdm fidaae apparet: nam pw*tu et adificitL 
adAuc normUa integra Gracia charucteribus exomata, et cum inaignibua 
eorttnt tnaculpta con8piciuntw\ Ac per univeraum ilium iathmum quondam 
4i4 usgttfi ddntbia mama ctdifida aumpiuoaa extitiaae, puteoi excavatos 
tr^mtos^qui ctd hue fertflurim aunt integri; adextremum vero dnaa 
tnu9 Megiaa grandea lapidibua . atrataa ease^ certo apparet^\ Miu:titti 
J^roniovii T«i*taria. Lug. Bat. 1630. 



S76 «LA&K£'S TRAVELS IN TARTAHt. 

ilie slif^htest change of ^veather* thej are seen wrapped up 
in sheep's hides, and covered by felts, nearly an inch in 
thickness, while their heads are swathed in nutnerous liand- 
ag^s of linen, or guarded by warm stuSfed caps, fenced with 
wool. 

. The Tartar nobles of the Crimea, or Moorxa. as they 
are called, by a name which answers to4,he Persian word 
Mirxa^ so common in oriental <aks,' amount in number to 
about two hundred and fifty.Their dress is altogether Circas- 
sian^ except that the cap is larger than the sort of covering 
worn on the head by the princes of mount Caucasus.Theirfig- 
ure on hoi sebackis in the highest degree stately ; and atnong 
all the Crimean Tartars, of whatsoever rank, an ele«;attce 
of manners may be remarked. This, although, perhaps, 
common to oriental nations, affords a striking opposition 
to the boorish figure of a Russian. It is diverting to i^ee 
them converse together: the Tartar has, in common with 
the Russian, an impetunsity and eagerness in uttering his 
expressions ; hut it is zeal very dinerently characterized. 
The Tartar'may be ^aid to exhibit all the playful fiexifoil- 
ity and vajyiuj* posture of the leopard 5 while the Ru^iao, 
rather resembling the bear, is making an awkward paiade 
of bU paws. The dress of a Tartar nobleman displays as 
much taste as can be shown by a habit necessarily decora- 
ted with gold and silver lace. It is neither heavily laden 
with ornament, nor are the colours tawdry. They delight 
sometimes in strong contrast, by opposing silver lace to 
black velvet for their caps ; scarlet or rose-coloured silk to 
dark cloth for their vest or pelisse ; but in general, the dress 
of a Tartar of distinction is remarkable for its simple ele- 
gance, as well as cleanliness. Their favourite colour in 
cloth is drab ; and the gray or white wool iot their winter- 
eaps, is of all other ornaments most in esteem. The Rus- 
sian peasant, being of a diminutive race, connected only 
with the Laplander, as the next link in the chain between 
him and the pigmy, is naturally of a lively disposition, and 
never completely awkward except when metamorphosed to a 
soldier. The moment he enters the ranks, all the brisk 
and cheerful expression of his countenance is gone ; and he 
appears a chop-fallen, stupid, hrow-beaten, sullen clown. 
Their commanders answer precisely the same description, 
with this difTe reuse, that they are more profligate. A Rus- 
sian in power, whatever be his rank, or wherever he may 



TO rut PENINSULA OF HERAOLEeiW. 3W 

be plaeedf is still the same moral example of national ehar- 
acter.* 

Upon the roek^ behind the honse of Mr. Hablitz, we 
foand the identical plant which Pallas distinguished by the 
name of his friend, Salvia Hahtitziana^ growing in great 
abundance. Hitherto no aeeoant of it has been published. 
The plant is uueommonlj rare. It is a perennial, which 
may be sown in common garden soil in the open air, and 
increases annuMly in size, nntil it becomes a fine, tall shrub 
pf very great beauty. We afterwards brought it to the Bo- 
taiiick Garden in Cambridge, where it also succeeded, al- 
though it hajs never attained the size to which it grows in 
Russia. 

From Tehorgona we returned again to Shulu, and from 
whence to Kara Uaes, where we passed thenight in the pal- 
ace of a Tartar nobleman; and, being couched upon a 
sort of spfa called the Divan, surrounding the principal 
apartment, were covered by bugs *and fleas of the most enor- 
mous^size, whieh came upon us like ants from an anthill. 
The next day we drove pleasantly to Akmetchet, and onee 
more shared the comforts of the professor's hospitable 
mansion 5 regretting only the fever with which he was af- 
flicted in consequence of an excursion, otherwise considered 
by us the most agreeable journey we had ever made. 

- * Butler,' with singular felicity of delineation, has afforded, in his Ha- 
dftn^as, so faithful a portrait of a'Rtissian general, that too person acqaaint- 
ed witii the country will- read it. without acknowledging the repreaentJi- 
tion to be as accurate, as if Potemkiu himself had sat for the picture. 

" He was by birth, some authors write, 

A Russian, some a Muscovite, 

And 'mong the Cossacks had been bred, 
■ Of whom we in diurnals read. 

That serve to fill up pages here, - 

As tviih their bodies ditcfies there'* 

Scrimansky was his cousin -germati, 
. With whfoui he sei-ved, and fed on vermin ; 

And when these tailed, he'd suck his claws;^, 

And quarter himself upon his paws. 

And though his countrymen, the Hans, 

Did stew their meat bet weeu. tlieir bums 

And the horses' backfl, o'er which they straddle, 
, And every man eat up his saddle : 

He was not half so nice as they. 

But eat it raw when it eamc in the way." ' 

Hudib. Part. I. Cant, a, 

* Potefnkin died in a ditch near Yasa, 

LI 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

FROM THE CRIMEA, BY THE ISTHMtJS OF PERtlCOP, TO 
NICHOLAEF. 

Journey to Koslof — Result of the Eoppedition^^Setiirn to 
Akmetchet — Marshal Bi'berstein* — Departure from, ^^ 
metthet—T^recop — Salt Harvest^-Migay Tartars — Ra- 
na variabilis — General Surviy of the Crimeor-r^Country 
Jforth cf the Isthmus-^FacUity of travelling in Russia 
— Banditti of the Vkraint — •Anecdote of a desperate Rob- 
ber-^Intrepw Conduct of a Courier — Caravans — Biros* 
laf-^Freparation for receiving the Grand Duke-^Cher* 

' son — Burial of Fotemkin — Recent Disposal ^ his Body 
— Particulars of the Death of Howard-'^^0rder of his 
Funeralr-^Tomb of Howard— J^cholaef. . 

'VI7E left Akmetchet for Koslof oh the twenty eighth »f 
y Y September^ in the hope of obtaining a passage to 
Constantinople, on board a Turkish brigantine^ captain 
Osman Ilees. By whatever port of the Russian empire oor 
escape might be effected, we knew it would be attended with 
considerable hazard. We had no passport from govern- 
ment to that effect, and we had every reason to be eonvin- 
ced that none would be granted* However, after waiting 
many months in vain expeetatinn of a release from the op- 
pressive tyranny then exercised over Englishman by <^veTy 
Russian they encountered, female interest in Petersbnrgh 
accomplished our delivery. A forged order from the sov- 
ereign was executed and sent to us, by means df whieh, in 
spite of the vigilance qf the police, we contrived to leave 
the country. It is necessary to state Uiis eireurastanee, lest 
any of <hose,by whom we had been so hospitably entertained, 
should hereafter be considered accessary to our flight. Kos- 
lof was fixed upon, as the place least liable to those re- 
searches from spies and custoin-honse officers, whieh might 
impede our departure; and, having erossed the steppes 
which led to it, we arrived there in the middle of the night 
Such a tremendous storm of thunder, lightnifig, wind, hail, 
and rain, came on before we reached the place, that the 



FROM THE CRIMEA TQ NICHOJl-AEF. $79 

hprses refused to procee<j, and we were compelled to halt, 
opposing our backs to its fury, until the violence of the 
tempest subsided.* 

As soon as morning dawned, we had our baggage sealed 
at the custom-house, and agreed for our passage, at the 
enormous rate of two hundred and fifty roubles; this was 
deemed by us a moderate sum, as the original demand had 
been six haadred^ The common rate of a passenger, from 
Kosiof to Constantinople^ is not more than ten ; but it was 
evident the Turks, suspecting the nature of our situation, 
wished to make a booty of us* When all was settled, the 
inspector of the customs, to our great dismay, accompanied 
fcy several officers, came to assure us that the townvvould 
Hot fo6 responsible for our fafety if w^ ventured to embark 
in the brigantine ; this they described a^ so deeply laden, 
that »he was already nine inches below her proper poise in 
the water. The captain had, moreover, two shallops of mer- 
ehandise to take on board,and8ixty four passengers. Some 
ArmenianB had already removed ttfeir property from the 
vessel ; and we were assured »he was so old aod rotten, that 
tier seams would open if exposed to any tempestuous wea- 
ther. The captain, a bearded Turk, like the mariners of his^ 
eo^atr^, was a sincere p redes tinaris^n ; which circumstance^ 
added to his avarice, rendered him perfectly indifferent as 
to the events. As commander of the only ship in the harbour, 
bound for Coostantipople, he liad been induced to stoW the 
cargoes of two ships into his single vessel. This often hap- 
pens with Turkish merehantmen in the Black Sea, atid is 
one of the causes of the nnmerous disasters which befal 
them. To prove the extent of the risk they will adventure^ 
we heardvupon our return to Akmetchet, thai captain Rees 
had filled. the cabin we were to have occupied, with four 
bn&dred cantars of honey, and ^a friend of ours was offered 
a thousand roubles to obtain the governour's acquiescence 
in an additional ^unterband eai^go of two thousand bulls' 

• The eonseqnenoe of sleeping in this situation^ exposed to the naias- 
mata of salt marshes, which eause a somnoleney it is impossible to 4>esist» 
brought on ftgain, nvith renovated force, th<5; q^uartan fever, I had so long 
eotnhated. Mr. Cripps vas also attacked, but with a different effect ; a 
sore throat, attended by cutaneoas ejraptions cdv^ring his whole body, and* 
from which he was soon relieved, wa^all the coft%eq«enee to him of <he 
tapoursto which he had been ei^posed. These observations cannot be re- 
^ eonoUed to the account Pallas afterwards published of the exhalations fropn 
the stagnant lakes near Kosiof; as he says fvol. II. p. 489-3 ^^^y contrib- 
ute greatly to the' salubrity of the town, ana that intermitting fe^eniare^ 
less freqjuenJt there,, tiian at. olh£Fe]aoe& 



8^0 olarke's travels m tartary.. 

hides, the exportation, of which> at that time, wtLS strietlf 
prohibited. 

Koslof^ takes its name from a Tartar <co^p€iii»d .Gu$iF 
ove^ the origin of which cannot be. distinctly ascertai^i^. 
6^z7s signifies an eye, and ore^a bat. .The Unwana^ nvilh 
(heir usual ignorance of ancient geography, be^tixwed upon 
it the name of £up4^oHu7)i. It has been ajready skojvi'n Uial 
Eupatorium stood in the minor peninsnlaof the Hera^l^,- 
tee, near the city of Chersonesus. As to the presen^^iiit^ 
of the place itself, it is one of those wretched remnan^la of 
the onee flourishing, eommereial towns of the Crimea, wbiish 
exemplify the effects of Russian doniinioii. Its trade is anni- 
hilated, its houses in ruins; its streets desolate; thespiendid 
mosques, by which it was adorned, are unroofed^ and their 
minarets thrown doiwn 5 its original inhabitanta are either 
hanisbed or murdered 5 all that we found remaimit^were a 
few sneaking offieers of the police and oestoms, wttlihere. 
and there a solitary Turk or Tartar, smoking among die- 
ruins, and sighing over the devastation he beheld. Its com-* 
neree was onee of very. considerable importance. lt»port 
contained jBfty vessels at a time ; which number was great, 
f onsiderlng that theother ports of the Crimea had eaeh their 
portion. We found that number redueed to one aoetdental, 
rotten brigantine, the precarious speculation of a few poor 
Turkish mariners, who, although common sailors on board, 
shared equally with the captain the profit of the voyage. In 
better times, .Koslof, from her crowded ahores, exported 
wool, butter, hides, £ur, and com. The corn has now risen 
to such a price that if is no longer an export ; the wool; fur, 
and hides, are prohibited. In short, as a commercial to\^n 
it exists no longer. The only ship, which had left, the port 
previous to our arrival, sailed^ith a determination to retora 
no more ; not only on account of the length of time whieh 

* *< At Koslof, 01* Eupatoria, I remember nothing interestitig ; bqt, 4&' 
the desert nfear it, we saw some paiiies of the Nagay Tartars, and had an 
opportunity of examining their Kibitkas, which are shaped something 
like a brakin, consisting of a frame of wood, covered with felt, and placed 
npon wheels. They are smaller and more clumsy than the tents of the 
Kalmucks, and do nOt$ like tJ^iem^ take to picocfi. In the Crimea^ they are 
more used for the occasional habitation of the shepherd, than for I'egular 
dwellings. We saw a great many buffaloes and camels; sereral of the 
latter we met drawing in the two-wheeled carta^ described before, a ser- 
Tice for which 1 should have thought them not so well ada|)ted as for bear- 
ing burdens; «nd, although * a charriot ofcameW is mentioned by Isaiah^ 
I do not remember having, heard of such a practice elsewhere. The plain 
of Koslof is hardly elevated above, the sea. and fresh, water is very scaroQ 
and bad." Mek^^^MS.J^uvMl 



FROM THE ORIHEA TO NIOHOLAEF. 881 

had been reqnired'in procuring a cargo, but from thcbribe- 
ty and corruption it was necessary to support and counte- 
nanee in order to get away.* * 

In returning to Akmetchet, we stopped to water our hor- 
ses in the steppes^ where the dwellings were entirely subter- 
ranean; Not a house was to be seen ; but there were some 
holes^ as entrances^ in the ground, throue;h one of which we 
descended to a cave, rendered almost suffocating by the heat 
of a stove for dressing the rictuals of its poor owners. The 
n^alhi, floor, and roof, were all of tbe natural soil. If such 
retreats were the original abodes of mankind, they borrowed 
therart of constructing habitations from badgers, foxes, and 
rabbits. At present, such dwellings are prihetpally, if not 
solely, tenanted by sYiepherds of the Crimea ; who dig them 
to serve as places of residence daring winter. 

Having failed in the4>bjeet of our journey to Koslof^ we* 
prepared to leave the peninsula by another route, anch at- 
tenrpt a journey by land to Constantinople. For this pur- 
pose we despatched letters to our ambassadour at the porte^ 
requesting an escort of Janissaries to meet us at Yassa- 
The evening, before we took our final leave of Akmetchet, 
was enlivened by the company and eonvergattonr of marshal 
Biberstein, a literary friend of the professor's, who had beeu^ 
recently travelling along the Volga, the shores of the Caspi- 
an, and in Caucasus. He was two years an exile in the isle 
of Taman, where he had amused himself with the study of 
botany, and the antiquities of the country. He brought 
several new plants to the professor; and confirmed the ob- 
servations we bad before made upon the Cimmerian Bos- 
porus. I had, moreover, the satisfaction to find, that tile 
map I had prepared to illustrate' the ancient geography of 
the Crimea, agreed with his own observations upon that 
subjeet. In answer to our inquiries Qoncerning the relative 
height of the Caucasian chain of mountains, tie said, that 
the Alps are no where so elevated ; and mentioned Mount 

* Palks's account of Koslof is only applicabte to its former state. 
. ^* Xa tlie year 1793, for inst|inoe, one hundred and seventy sis yessels were 
freigbied with eom, salt, and leather; and the short route* by which 
goods are conveyed hither by the Nagay8,.and the Tartars inhabiting the 
banks of the Dneiper, aifords the greatest facility to the com trade/*- 
Travels, vol. II. p. 49 1. This town is. thus mentioned by B^oniovius ? 
" Ceslovia oppidum ad dextram Perecopia ad mare situm milliatihi^ 
9eptem dletat. Eniporio non igmbiU^ in^cefectum arcis et oppidi Chanuff 
proprium et perpetuwn ibi habet." Desoriptio Tartaric, p. 25S Uva:. 
Bat.l630» . 



6Sd «LARKi:'s TRAVELS IN TAHTART. 

Ckat,*^% higher than Mont Ehanc* Beins^questioiied aiioiit 
the tribe of the Turcomanni^ now eatled by the Iraitms 
Tvrkmen^ and TrUckmeiixi ; he described.! hem as & vaeeof 
veryrieh nomades, still ntiinerous in the sfejpj^es near Astva* 
ehan : remarkable fop the beauty «f their persons^ as \Kell «$ 
Ibr their patient endurance of the unjust taxes, and. heavy 
exactions by \fhieh the neighbouring governours oppress 
them.. 

The equinox hrooght M^ith it a series of tempestitcNW 
weather, whieh eontinued until the tenth of Oetober*^ On 
that day, the violence of the wind having subsidedi and a 
second i»jmnier ensuing, we took final leave of our friend ; 
quitting for ever their hospitable society. Professor Pallas 
set oat for his vineyards at Sudak,t and^we took oar route 
aeroBS the steppes towards Perecop; The late storms had de- 
,stroyed even the small produce of the vines upon the coast, 
.which the locusts had spared. Some fruit trees put forth a 
premature blossom; and we found the plains covered with 
the gaudy and beautiful flowers ef the autumnal croeus. 
Their bulbs were very deep in the soil^ which consists of a 
. rich, black, vegetable earth. The Tauriean chain of moun- 
tain^, with the summit of Tehetirdagh towering above the 
yest, appeared very conspicuous towards the south. To- 
wards ihQ north the whole country exhibited a boitndless 
fiat plain, across whieh caravans passing, laden with water- 
melons, cucumbers, cabbages, and other vegetables, were, 
with the exceptions of ancient tumuth almost the only ob- 
jects we encountered. Some of the vehicles were drawn by 
camels, and principally destined for Koslof. We trarelled 
all night, and in the morning, at sunrise, were roused by our 
interpreter, a Greek, who begged we woulil observe an ani- 
mal half flying and half running among the herbs. It was a 
jerboa, the quadruped already noticed iuaformer ehapier.| 
We caug!«. it with some difficulty, and should not hi^ve sae- 

• Now called JEJWoru* by the Circassians, according to its ancient natne. 
• It has two i>oints at its suromit^ and is visible from the fortress of Stavro- 
• pote, on the Caucasian tine, a distance of three hundred versts. Its base 

descends into a swam{>y, impassable plain ; and this plaiu,equftls, in elcTS- 

tion, the tops of the neighbouring mountains. 

f Anciently liS'jiyto^, Sogdai, Sudagra, and Sugdaia. This city row 
to such celebrity by its commerce, that all the Greek possessions in tfc? 
Crimea were called Sugdania ^Starch, torn. l,p. 172.1 It had n triple 
fortress, and is noticed by Broniovius and Thuaaus. See the addiSiond 

riotes at the end of the volume, ' 

\ 9c« p. 305j of this Tolum<^. 



tMH. TUB 0^m%^ rd KIOHOLAEf. .^^99 

eeeded^^bot for tfaereracking of a large whip^the noise 6f 
mhAnih terrified it so aiueh that it lost all reeoUeetiim of Hm 
4iiirrow. ^ Its leaps were extraordiaary for so small an ani-' 
mal f sooietimes to Uie distattee of six or eight yards^ bat 
in ne determitiate; direetioTi; it bounded baekward&> and 
forwards, without ever^ quitting the vicitiity of the placd 
mhtifp it was: found. Tbe inost singular eireumst&ncein it* 
nature is the power it possesses of altering its course when 
l#'theair/ It first leaps perpendicularly from the ground 
to the height of four feet or more; and then, by a, Qiotion 
«f 4ts taii^wfth a clicking noise, strikes off in Vvhatever 
d^irection it chooses. - 

'By. the appearance which Perecop* makes in all the maps 
it might be expected that a tolerable fortress would be found 
there to- guard the passage of the isthmus* Yet nothing more 

* " At Perekop are only one or two houses, inhabited hy the post" 
tnaster atid custom-house officers, arid a little barrack. Thefemoiis Vail 
'i# of earth, very lofty; ^ith an immense ditch. It sketches in a straight 
Jine.from-9e|i to sea, without any remains of bastions or flanking-towers 
that Icoald disirover. The Golden Gate 13 narrow, and too low for an 
English wagon. Golden, among the Tartars, seems s^'nonyroons with 
royal f and thus we hear of the Gfe^cfen horde, the Golden-teat, &«, 
Colonel Symes mentions the same manner of expression in Ava; so that 
l.anppose it is common all over the east. There is on^y one well at Pere- 
kopj the water of which is brakish and ninddy^ A string of near two hun- 
dred klbitkad were passing, laden with salt, anddrawri by oxen^ they were 
^^iven by Malo-Russiansjwho had brougbt corn into the Crimea, and were 
. returning withthpir present eargi). White,or clarified salt is unknown ib 
all the south of Russia ; it appears, even on the best tables, with the great- 
er part of its impurities adhering, and consequently quite brown. Kibitkas 
laden with this commodity form a kind of caravan. They seldom go out 
of* their \way for a town or^ village, but perform lon^ journeys, the drivers 
only sheltered at night on the lee-side of their fcarriages, and stretched on 
. the grass'. During the independence of the Crimea, an old officer told me 
these people' were always armed, awl travelled without fear t>f theTartars, 
^drawing up their wagons every night in a cirele^ and -keeping I'egular sen- 
tries. A^Te here^ with great regret, quitted the Crimea and »ts pleasing in- 
habitants ; it was really like being turned out of Paradise, when we aban- 
doned those beautiful mountains, and again found ourseltes ift the vast 
green desert, which^had before tired us so thoroughly, where we changed 
olivet and cypresses^ clear waterj and fresh milk, for reeds, long grass, and 
the drainings of marshes, only made not poisonous by being mixed with 
brandy ; and, when instead of a clean carpet at night, «id a supper of eggs^ 
butter, hoiiey, and sweetmeats, we returned to the seat of our carriage^ 
and the remainder of our old xjheese. 

** PaUas has properly xlistinguisbed the two distinct races of Tartars, the 
Nogays^nd the inotintaineers. These last, howevc^', appeared to m,c to 
resemb