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Map of the Antiquities of the Crimea . . .to face the Title. 
Chart of the Bay oiAktiar, or Ctenus of Strata, to face p. 202. 





No. Page 

1. Wretched Appearance of the Post-houses in Kuban 

Tuhtary 1 


2. Castle, represented on a Greek Medal, of very high 

antiquity 51 


3. Top of a Sarcophagus at Yenikale 97 


4. Profile of Professor Pallas, from a Drawing by 

E. D. Clarke 14-3 


5. Insects of the Crimea, from the original, by 

Angelica Clarke 196 




No. CHAP ' VI. 

6. Vessels of Terra Cotta, preserving antique forms, 

in use among the Tahlars 231 


7. Map of the Point and Bay of Phanari, shewing the 

Site of the older of the two Cities of the Cherso- 
nesians, in the Heradeotic Peninsula .... 273 


8. The Tomb of Howard 301 


9. Medal of Olbiopolis 351 


10. Profiles of a Russian and a Greek; from a Drawing 

by E. D. Clarke 382 


11. Chart of the Turkish Harbour of Ineada, in the 

Black Sea . 422 




P. i. 


Relays for Horses River AE Cossacks of the Black Sea 
Cause of their Migration How distinguished from Don 
Cossacks, and from Russians Wild Fowl Singular Species 
of Mole Cherubinovshoy Plants Rate of Travelling 
Tumuli Stragglers from the Army View of the Caucasian 
Mountains Capital of the TCHERNOMORSKI Manners of 
the People their Dress and External Appearance Visit 
from the Ataman Causes of the War in Cu cassia Passage 
of the Kulan Advance of the Cossack Army Arrival of the 
Pasha of Anapa Ceremony of concluding the Peace Cir~ 
cassian Princes Peasants of Circassia Dances of the 
Circassians Language LESGI Remarkable instance of 
Bravery in a Circassian Circassian Women Commerce 
with the Tchernomorski Skill in Horsemanship State of 
Travelling in Caucasus. 


P. 51. 


Quarantine Second Excursion into Circassia Departure from 
Ekaterinedara Produce of the Land Division of the River 


Mosquitoes General Appearance of the Circassian Terri- 
tory Watch-Towers CIMMERIAN BOSPORUS Temrook 
Text of Strabo and Pliny reconciled Fortress and Ruins 
Sienna Remarkable Tomb Antiquity of Arches Milesian 
Gold Bracelet Origin of Temples CEPOE Fortress of 
Taman Taman Ruins of Phanagoria Tmutaracan 
Amphitheatre Other Remains Prekla Volcano Inscrip- 
tions at Taman. 


P. 97- 

Passage across the Straits YENIKALE Modern Greeks 
Marble Soros Singular antient Sepulchre Pharos ofMithra- 
dates Medals of the Bosporus Ruins KERTCHY Tomb 
of Mithradates View of the Cimmerian Straits Antiquities 
of Kertchy Account of a Stranger who died there Fortress 
Church Havoc made by the Russians Cause of the 
obscurity involving the antient Topography of the Crimea 
Departure from Kertchy 'Antient Vallum Locusts 
Venomous Insects Gipsies Cattle Tahtars Vallum of 
ASANDER Arrival at CAFFA. 


P. 143. 

Cafta in its present State Barbarous Conduct of the Russians 
Inscriptions Distribution of the Town Departure from 
Caffa Stara Crim Ruined Baths Villa of the Empress 
Antient Vallum Remarkable Mountain Karasulazar 
Akmetchet Professor Pallas Unwholesome Situation of the 
Town Mus Jaculus, or Jerboa Observations of Bochart 
and others upon that Animal BAKTCHESERAI Novel 
Appearance of the City Fountains Destruction caused by 
the Russian Troops Causes which led to the Deposition and 


Death of the late Khan Consequences of the Capture of the 
Crimea Palace of the Khans Preparations made for the 
Reception of the late Empress Seraglio Description of the 
Char em Visit to the Fortress of Dschoufoutkale Anecdote 
of an English Servant Extraordinary Ring Singular Ex- 
cavation Jewish Cemetery Account of the Sect o/'Karai'. 


P. 196. 


Tarantula Spider Departure from Baktcheserai CTENUS of 
Stralo AKTIAR Caverns of Inkerman Mephitic Air 
Cippus of Theagenes Antient Geography, and Antiquities 
of the Minor Peninsula EUPATORIUM CHERSONESUS 
Parthenium of Formaleoni Monastery of St. George 
Balaclava Genoese Fortress Geology of the Crimea 
Extraordinary Geological Phcenomena Form of an antient 
Greek Town Manners of the People. 


P. 231. 


Valley of Baidar Domestic Habits and Manners of the Tahtars 
Passage of the Merdveen Kutchuckoy Plants and 
Minerals Transitions CRIU-METOPON- Aloupka Other 
Villages on the Coast Country letween Kutchuckoy and 
Sudak Tahtar School Vestiges of the Genoese Language 
Ruins of a Greek Monastery AI'VDAGH Promontory 
Parthenit Alusta-Tchetirdagh, or MONS TRAPEZUS 
Shuma Position of the Crimean Mountains Derykeuy 
Mahmoud Sultan Return to Akmetchet Marriage Cere- 
mony of the Greek Church Jewish Wedding Military 
Force of the Crimea SuvoRor. 


P. 273. 


Professor Pallas accompanies the Author Mankoop Ruins of 
the Fortress Cape of the Winds Shulu Fuller s- earth 
Pits- Manufacture of Kejf-kil Isthmian Wall AiaBurun 
Coins of Vladimir Alexiano*s Chouter Point and Bay of 
Phanari Ruins of the old Chersonesus of Strabo Valley 
of Tchorgona Danger of the Climate Tahtar Nobles 
Russian Recruit Salvia Hablitziana Return to Akmetchet* 


P. 301. 


Journey to Koslof Result of the Expedition Return to 
Akmetchet Marshal B'ilerstein Departure from Akmetchet 
Perecop Salt Harvest Nagay Tahtars Rana variabilis 
'General Survey of the Crimea Country north of the 
Isthmus Facility of travelling in Russia Banditti of the 
Ukraine Anecdote of a desperate Robber Intrepid Con- 
duct of a Courier Caravans BiroslafCherson Burial 
ofPotemkin Recent disposal of his body Particulars of 
the Death of Howard Order of his Funeral Tomb of 
Howard Nicholaef. 


P. 351. 

Remains of Olbiopolis Inscriptions Medals Admiral 
Priestman Mineralized Shells Observations upon the 
Odessa Limestone Consequences which resulted from the 


Opening of the Thracian Bosporus Conduct of the Emperor 
respecting Odessa Number of discarded Officers Usurious 
Practices of the Sovereign Further Account of Odessa 
Account of the Passage ly Land to Constantinople Prepa- 
ration for sailing from Odessa. 


P. 382. 


Contrast between a Russian and a Greek Tourneforfs erro- 
neous Account of the Black Sea Extraordinary Temperature 
of the Climate English Commerce in the Black Sea 
Fortress of Odessa Departure for Turkey Island of 
LEUCE Accounts of it ly Antient Writers Mouths of the 
Danube White Dolphins Observations on board the 
Moderato Dreadful Tempest Harbour of Ineada Plants 
Appearance of the Turks Mountaineers Basaltic Pillars 
Theory of their Origin. 


P. 422. 


Voyage to Constantinople Entrance of the Canal Return to 
the Cyanean Isles Geological Phcenomena Votive Altar 
Singular Breccia Origin of the Thracian Bosporus Anti- 
quities Of the Temple of Jupiter Urius, and the place called 
Hieron Probable Situation of Darius ivhen he surveyed the 
Euxine Approach to Constantinople Disgusting Appear- 
ance of the Streets Arrival at Galata Peru State of 
Turkish Commerce. 



P. 457. 
Suvorofs Military Instructions for the use of the Russian Army. 

No. II. 

P. 469. 
Account of English Commerce in the Black Sea. 

No. III. 

P. 488. 

Extract from the Log-Book of the Moderate, giving an account 
of the Author's Pay age in the Black Sea. 

No. IV. 

P. 504. 

List of all the Plants collected in the Crimea, principally in 
company with Professor Pallas ; alphabetically arranged. 

No. V. 
P. 513. 

Temperature of the Atmosphere, according to Diurnal Olser- 
vations made during the Journey, with a corresponding 
Statement of the Temperature in England during the same 

No. VI. 

P. 522. 

Names of Places visited in the Author s Route ; with their 
Distances from each other, in Russian Versts, and in English 




Relays for Horses River AE Cossacks of the Black Sea 
Cause of their Migration How distinguished from 
Don Cossacks, and from Russians Wild Fowl Sin- 
gular Species of Mole Cherulinovskoy Plants Rate 
of Travelling Tumuli Stragglers from the Army 
View of the Caucasian Mountains Capital of the 
TCHERNOMORSKI Manners of the People their 
Dress and External Appearance Vint from the Ataman 
Causes of the War in Circassia Passage of the 
Kuban Advance of the Cossack Army Arrival of the 
Pasha of Anapa Ceremony of concluding the Peace 
Circassian Princes Peasants of Circassia Dances of the 
Circassians Language LESGI Remarkable instance 


of Bravery in a Circassian Circassian Women Com- 
merce with the Tchernomorski Skill in Horsemanship 
State of Travelling in Caucasus. 

CRAP. THE whole territory from the Sea of Azof to 
v - ; the Kuban, and thence following the course of 
that river towards its embouchure, is a con- 
tinued desert, and more desolate than the 
steppes upon the European side of the MJEOTIS. 
Reiys for A few huts, rudely constructed of reeds and 


. narrow flags, stationed at certain distances, 
serve to supply horses for the post. Such 
wretched hovels offer neither accommodation 
nor food : they are often destitute even of any 
thatched covering as a roof; and exhibit merely 
an inclosure, where the horses remain their 
stated time, standing in mud or in dung. The 
persons who have the care of them, make their 
appearance, when the traveller arrives, from a 
hole in the ground; having burrowed, and 
formed a little subterraneous cave, in which 
they live, like the bobacs, moles, and other 
tenants of the wilderness 1 . 

River AE. We left Margaritovskoy on the fifth of July, 
admiring the fine view that was presented of 

(1) The slight sketch, engraved as a Vignette to this Chapter, may 
serve to afford a correct representation of those relay*. 


the Sea of Azof; and travelled towards the 
AE, one of the several rivers mentioned by 
Ptolemy, in this part of Asiatic Sarmatia, but not 
easily identified with any of the antient names 
enumerated by him. Ae, in the Tahtar lan- 
guage, signifies good ; and the name is said to 
have been applied to the river, because its 
banks afford a favourable pasture for sheep; 
but the water is brackish, and impregnated 
with salt. 

During the first thirty-six versts* of this 
day's journey, we found Grecian or Malo-Russian 
inhabitants. Their number in this district does 
not exceed seven hundred persons; yet a 
proof of their industry and of their superior 
importance, as tenants of the land, is offered 
in the fact of their affording to their landlord 
an average payment of no less a sum annually 
than ten thousand roubles. The boundary of 
their little territory is formed by the river AE 
towards the south, and the Sea of Azof to the 
north. The river AE separates them from a 
different and very extraordinary race of men, 
whose history and country we are now pre- 
pared to consider ; namely, the TCHERNOMORSKI, 

(2) Twenty-four English miles. 
VOL. H. B 


or Cossacks of the Black Sea ; more dreadful tales 
of whom are told to intimidate travellers, than 
even the misrepresentations circulated in Russia 
concerning their brethren, the Cossacks of the 
Don. We had been directed to augment our 
escort, and consequently were always preceded 
by a troop of armed Cossack cavalry. It is 
true, the figures of those who composed the 
body of our own guard did not appear very 
conciliating ; but we never had reason to com- 
plain, either of their conduct, or of their dis- 

The Tchernomorski are a brave, but rude 
and warlike people ; possessing little of the re- 
finements of civilized society, although much 
inward goodness of heart. They are ready 
to shew the greatest hospitality to strangers 
Cause of who solicit their aid. Their original appella- 

their Mi- 
gration, tion was ZAPOROGZTZSI, according to the most 

exact orthography given to us by Mr. Kova- 
lenshy of Taganrog; a term alluding to their 
former situation, " beyond the cataracts " of the 
Dnieper. From the banks of this river they 
were removed, by the late Empress CATHERINE, 
to those of the Kuban, in order to repel the 
incursions of the Circassians and Tahtars from 
the Turkish frontier. Their removal was ori- 
ginally planned by Potemkm, but did not take 


place until about nine years previous to our HAP. 
arrival in the country. Their society upon 
the Dnieper originally consisted of refugees and 
deserters from all nations, who had formed a 
settlement in the marshes of that river 1 . Storch 
affirms, that there was hardly a language in 
Europe but might be found in use among this 
singular people 4 . 

In consequence of the service they rendered 
to Russia, in her last war with Turkey, 
CATHERINE, by an uhase of the second of June 
17Q2, ceded to them the Peninsula of Taman> 
and all the countries between the 

(1) " These men originally were deserters and vagabonds from all 
nations, who had taken refuge in the marshy islands of the Dnieper. 
At the foundation of Cherson, they were chased from their homes, and 
took shelter at the mouth of the Danube, still preserving their charac- 
ter of fishermen and pirates. Potettikin offering them pay and lands, 
they returned to the side of Russia, and did great service in the second 
Turkish war. They received as a reward the country newly conquered 
from the Kuban Tartars. They hold their lands by the same tenure, 
and enjoy nearly the same privileges, as the Don Cossacks. They are, 
however, much poorer,' and more uncivilized, and never quit their 
country, where indeed they have sufficient employment. They receive 
no pay, except an allowance of rye ; and dress themselves at their own 
expense, and in whatever colours they choose, without any regard to 
uniformity. The officers, for the most part, wear red boots, which is 
their only distinction. They deal largely in cattle, and have a barter 

of salt for corn with the Circassians They are generally called 

thieves. We found them, however, very honest, where their point of 
honour was touched, very good-natured, and, according to their scanty 
means, hospitable." fftber's MS. Journal. 

(2) Storch, Tableau de Russ. torn. I. p. 62. 

B 2 


CHAP, the Sea of Azof , as far as the rivers AE and 
LABA; an extent of territory comprehending 
upwards of one thousand square miles'. They 
had also allotted to them a constitution in 
all respects similar to that of the Don Cos- 
saaks, and received the appellation of " Cos- 
sacks of the Black Sea" They were, more- 
over, allowed the privilege of choosing an 
Ataman; but their numbers have considerably 
diminished. They could once bring into the 
field an army of forty thousand effective cavalry. 
At present, their number of troops does not 
exceed fifteen thousand. Upon their coming 
to settle in Kuban Tahtary, it was first neces- 
sary to expel the original inhabitants, who 
were a tribe as ferocious as the Circassians. 
Part of these were driven to the Deserts of 
Nagay, and the steppes north of the Isthmus of 
the Crimea: the rest fled over the Kuban to 
Cir cassia, and became subject to the princes who 
inhabit CAUCASUS. At the time we traversed 
Kuban, the Tchernomorski occupied the whole 
country from the AE to the Kuban, and from the 
Black Sea to the frontier of the Don Cossacks. 

The Russians speak of them as of a band of 
lawless banditti. We soon found that they had 

(l) Storch, Tableau de Russ. torn. I. p. 65. 


been much misrepresented; although, among 
a people consisting of such various nations and 
characters, we certainly could not have tra- 
velled without an escort. The road, if the 
plain unaltered earth may admit of such an 
appellation, was covered with stragglers, either 
going to or coming from the scene of war. 
Their figure, dress, and manner, were un- 
like any thing seen in Europe; and however 
good the opinion may be that we still enter- 
tain of this people, it were trusting too much 
to mere opinion, to advise any traveller to 
venture among them unprepared to encounter 
danger, where the temptation to commit acts of 
hostility, and the power of doing so, exist so 
eminently. They do not resemble the Cossacks Distm- 
of the Don, in habits, in disposition, or in any lom the 
other characteristic. The Cossacks of the 'Don all sa c l$. * 
wear the same uniform : those of the Black Sea 
wear any habit suiting their caprice. The Don 
Cossack is mild, affable, and polite : the Black- 
Sea Cossack is blunt, and even rude, from the 
boldness and martial hardihood of his manner. 
If poor, he appears clad like a primeval shep- 
herd, or the wildest mountaineer; at the same 
time having his head bald, except one long 
braided lock from the crown : this is placed 
behind the right ear. If rich, he is very lavish 
in the costliness of his dress, which consists 


of embroidered velvet, and the richest silks and 
cloths of every variety of colour; wearing at 
the same time short cropped hair, giving to his 
head the appearance of the finest busts of the 
antient Romans. The distinctive mark of a 
Black-Sea Cossack, borne by the lower order 
among them, of a braided lock from the crown 
of the head, passing behind the right ear, is 
retained even by the officers ; but it is concealed 
by the younger part of them, with very artful 
foppery, among their dark hair. They seemed 
ashamed to have it noticed ; although, like a 
relic on the breast of a Catholic, it is pre- 
served even with religious veneration; and 
there was not one of them who would not 
sooner have parted with his life, than with this 
badge of the tribe to which he belonged. The 
custom is of Polish origin : but in this part of 
the world, it serves like a sign among Free- 
masons ; and it distinguishes the Tchernomorski 
Cossack from the Cossack of the Don, as well as 
from every other tribe of Cossacks in the Russian 
empire. The Tchernomorski are more cheerful 
and noisy than the Don Cossacks ; turbulent in 
their mirth ; vehement in conversation ; some- 
what querulous ; and, if not engaged in dispute, 
are generally laughing or singing. The Cossacks 
of the Don hold this people in little estimation, 


considering them as an inferior band of plun- 
derers when in actual service. But it may 
be said, the Tchernomorski entertain the same 
sentiments with regard to them ; making re- 
marks similar to those urged by the unedu- 
cated and lower class of Englishmen concerning 
foreigners ; such as, that " one Cossack of the 
Black Sea is a match for any three of his neigh- 
bours of the Don." The Russian regards both 
with aversion, and affects to consider them as 
beneath his notice, and as unworthy of his 
society, for no other assignable reason than 
ignorance or envy. The Cossack is rich ; the ci"! flci * 

J distm- 

Russian is poor. The Cossack is high-Blinded ; f uishl 


the Russian is abject. The Cossack is, for the sians - 
most part, clean in his person, honourable, 
valiant, often well-informed, and possesses, with 
his loftiness of soul, a very noble stature : the 
Russian is generally filthy, unprincipled, das- 
tardly, always ignorant, and is rarely dignified 
by any elevation of mind or body'. 

(l) When Mr. Heler was in this country, his friend Mr. 7 J ?torn(on, 
the companion of histra\els, lost his gun ; and they IcftEkatcrinedara, 
supposing it to be stolen ; as travellers in Russia are constantly liable 
to thefts of every description. To their great surprise, however, when 
they arrived at Taman, the gun \vas brought to them. An express 
Jjad been sent after them, who had travelled the whole distance from 
Ekaterinedara to Taman, to restore the gun to its owner; and the 





But it is proper to attend more closely to the 
detail of the journey. At thirty-six versts' 
distance from Margaritovskoy we came to the 
river AE ', called Yea by the Turks, and leia by 
the Germans, a boundary of the territory pos- 
sessed by the Tchernomorski. Just before we 
crossed this river, we passed a fortress of 
considerable magnitude, rudely constructed of 
earth, and surmounted by a few pieces of 
artillery. This fortress was originally a depot 
of stores, and a barrier against the Tahtars. 
It is still garrisoned. The Commandant, as we 
changed horses at Aeskoy, gave us news of the 
war to which we were travelling. From him 
we learned, that the allied army of Cossacks, 
Sclavonians, and Russians, had crossed the Kulan, 
and had taken several Circassian villages ; that 
many Circassian Princes had applied in person 
to the Tchernomorski for peace ; that the Pasha 
of Anapa had announced his intention of acting 
as mediator, and of repairing to the Tcher- 

person employed to convey it refused to accept any reward for his 
labour. Such facts as these require no comment. The character of 
the Cossacks, and their superiority to the Russians in every qualification 
that can adorn human nature, is completely established. 

(1) This river is the Rhombitcs Major of Stralo. The trade of 
salting fish is carried on alon^ the coasts of the Sea if Azof , as in the 
most antient times. 


nomorski capital, EKATEKINEDARA. He cau- 
tioned us to be upon our guard concerning 
the Tchernomorski, as the route would now be 
filled with deserters, and persons of every 
description from the army: and, above all 
things, he advised us to increase the number 
of our guard, lest treachery might be expe- 
rienced from the members of our escort ; " from 
whom," he said, " as much might be apprehended 
as from the Circassians" 

We observed several sorts of game in this wad Fowl, 
day's journey, particularly the wild turkey, the 
pheasant, some wild swans, and wild ducks; 
also a sort of fowl as large as a capon. 
In the steppes we caught a very uncommon 
species of mole. To us it was entirely new ; singular 

Species of 

although perhaps it may have been the animal Mole. 
mentioned in the Journal des Savans Foyageurs, 
as known in Russia under the appellation of 
slepez*. It seemed totally blind ; not having 
the smallest mark of any eye or optic nerve. 
Its head was broad, and quite flat, like that of 

(2) Gmelin considered it as an intermediate link between the mouse 
and the mole; for although, like the mole, it burrows, its food is 
confined entirely to substances which it finds upon the soil. See Journ- 
des Sav. Voy. p. 151. 


CHAP, an otter ; its under jaw being armed with two 
< -v ' very formidable tusks : with these, when caught, 
it gnashes against and grates its upper teeth. 
It is to the highest degree fierce, and, for so 
small an animal, remarkably intimidating; for 
although it will not turn out of the way while 
on its march, it bites and tears whatsoever it 
encounters. It is of a pale ash colour ; and, 
with the exception of the head, much like the 
common mole. 

ckerubi- Passing the AE, we entered the territory of 
the Tchernomorski : proceeding about four miles 
farther, we arrived at Cherubinovskoy , a wretched 
village, built of reeds, but containing two or 
three paltry shops. As we journeyed from this 
place, the post-houses were constructed accord- 
ing to the description given in the beginning of 
this Chapter 1 . They were totally destitute of 
any security from the weather, consisting only 
of a few bundles of reeds and flags, loosely 
put together, and liable to be scattered by the 
slightest wind. The wonder is, how cattle can 
possibly be preserved in such places during 
the winter season, which is sometimes extremely 
severe. We observed several sledges for tra- 

Sec the fignelte. 


veiling over the snow: in these, some of the 
persons waiting to supply the relays had con- 
structed their beds. 

On the sixth of July, we observed nothing 
but continual steppes, covered with beautiful and 
luxuriant flowers. Among the tallest and most 
shewy plants appeared the dark blue blossoms Plants. 
of the Pipers Bug loss, or Echium altissimum of 
Jacquin, and Italicum of Linnceus. The Statice 
trygono'ides, not known to Linnteus, grew in 
abundance ; it is common over all Kuban Tah- 
tary : also those beautiful plants, Iris desertorum, 
and Dianthus Carthusianorum. We were of course 
busied in making additions to our herbary ; and 
the Note subjoined will enumerate the principal 
part of our acquisition 2 . Mosquitoes began to 
be numerous, and were very troublesome. The 
heat at the same time was great ; the mercury 
remaining as high as 90 of Fahrenheit, when the 

(2) A new species of Calendula; also of Ranunculus, and Galega 
Crambe Tahtarica Cerinthe minor Antirrhinum genistifollum 
Anthcmis millefoliata Lathyrus tuberosus Symphytum consolidum> 
Salvia nemorosa Galium rubio'ides Phlomis tuberosa Xeranl/iemum 
annuum, in great abundance Nigella Damascena //stragalus tenui- 
folius. Others, well known in Britain, were, Lesser Meadow Rue, 
Thalictrum minus Cockle, Agrostemma Githago Tansy, Tanace- 
tum vulgare Great Spearwort, Ranunculus Lingua Hound's- 
tongue, Cynoglossum (fficinalc Hare's-foot Trefoil, Trifolium arvense, 
Trifolium mclilotus lutea. 


CHAP, thermometer was placed, with the greatest 
caution, in the shade. 

Throughout all this part of Kuban Tahtary, 

a traveller with a light carriage may proceed at 

the rate of one hundred and thirty English miles 

in a day. With our burthened vehicle, notwith- 

standing the numerous delays occasioned by 

search for plants and animals, we performed 

seventy miles in the course of twelve hours. 

We passed several lakes : one of these, from 

its remarkable appellation, deserves notice : it 

was called Beys Eau, " Prince's Water ;" eau 

being pronounced exactly as by the French, 

and signifying the same thing. Bey is a very 

common Oriental word for a Prince. A village 

near this lake was called Bey's eau hoy. We 

noticed also some corn-mills, worked by under- 

shot wheels ; and antient Tumuli, as usual, in 

the perspective. Among the birds, swallows 

appeared the most numerous. One vast plain 

was entirely covered by swarms of these birds, 

evidently assembling in preparation for a mi- 

gratory flight to some other country. Wild 

swans, geese, and ducks, were in great num- 

bers. But the most frequent objects were, as 

. usual, the Tumuli. From their great number, 

it mio-ht be supposed that they were occasionally 

raised as marks of guidance across these im- 


mense plains during winter, when the ground is CHAP. 
covered with snow : but when any of them have 
been opened, the appearance of a sepulchre 
seems to leave the question of their origin 
beyond dispute ; and the traveller is left to 
wonder, and perplex himself in conjecture, 
concerning the population requisite for raising 
such numerous vestiges of interment, and for 
supplying the bodies they served to contain. 
Their number greatly increased as we ap- 
proached the Kuban. In the last stage, before 
we reached this river, we counted ninety-one 
of these Tumuli, all at once in view. 

The whole of the soil in this part of the 
Tchernomorski territory is covered with fine pas- 
ture herbage, and supplies hay for all their 
cavalry and cattle '. In our route, we frequently 
encountered parties returning from the war, who Armv 
had been dismissed to their respective homes, 
.or had thought proper to remove themselves. 
These were all armed similarly to our escort ; 

(l) " The cattle here are larger and finer than any-where in Russia. 
There are no sheep, not even of the Asiatic breed. The Cossack horses 
are what would be called, in England, good galloways. Their masters 
vaunt very much their speed and hardiness. According to them, a 
moderately good horse will go sixty versts, or forty miles, at full speed, 
without stopping. They are seldom handsome." Heber's MS. Journal. 


CHAP, and, according to the opinion of the Commandant 
of the old mud fortress upon the AE, when we 
entered their territory, were as much to be 
dreaded as the Circassians themselves. They 
passed us however very respectfully, probably 
owing to our number, which had been now 
augmented from twelve to twenty persons. 
Those whom we found in the different post- 
houses seemed to be as wild as American 
savages ; having their bodies quite naked, ex- 
cepting a sheep's skin cast across their shoul- 
ders, with the wool on the outside. They 
usually appeared lying among the grass ; while 
the horses for the post were grazing around 

AS we drew near to the Kulan, we had 


Mountains, reached the last post-house before arriving at 
EKATERINEDARA, when the view of the Caucasian 
mountains opened before us, extending, in a 
craggy and mountainous ridge, from east to 
west; but the appearance of the Caucasian 
barrier is inferior to the Alpine in grandeur, 
whatever may be their relative altitude 1 . Mar- 
shal B'iberstein, a celebrated Russian botanist 

(1) The author has been since informed, that the ridge here alluded 
to is not the highest part of the Caucasian chain of mountains. 


and traveller, afterwards informed me, that he 
considered Mount Chat in CAUCASUS to be higher 
than Mont Blanc : it is visible at the immense 
distance of two hundred miles. The snowy 
summits of the ALPS are often seen for a day's 
journey before reaching them, glittering above 
the line of clouds collected near their bases ; 
especially by a traveller who approaches the 
Tirol from the plains of Suabia, where they seem 
to rise up all at once, like a wall. To us, indeed, 
who had travelled so long in the dreary flats of 
Russia, the Caucasian mountains were a new and 
a very pleasing sight. Our eyes had been 
wearied with the monophany of perpetual plains : 
and even the serene skies, to which we had been 
accustomed, were gladly exchanged for the 
refreshing winds of the hills, the frequent 
showers, and the rolling clouds, which cha- 
racterize mountain scenery. Trees also began 
to appear ; the banks of the Kuban being covered 
with woods. The oak, so long a stranger, reared 
once more his venerable head ; and the willow, 
and the bramble, and wild raspberries, and 
blooming shrubs, and thick underwood, covered 
the ground, affording retreat to abundance of 
wild-boars and deer. The last are often taken 
young, and kept as domestic animals in the 
cottages of the country. 


CHAP. EKATERINEDARA, or Catherines Gift, the 
* -v- -' metropolis of the Tchernomorski Cossacks, makes 
theTcher- a very extraordinary appearance. It has no 

resemblance to a town ; but it is rather a grove 
or forest of oaks, in which a number of straggling 
cottages, widely separated, are concealed, not 
only from all general observation, but even from 
the view of each other. The inhabitants have 
cut down many of the trees, and cleared the 
land as much as possible; but the streets (if 
they may be called streets), and the spaces 
between the houses, are covered with dwarf 
oaks, and thick branches yet sprouting from 
roots left in the earth. The antiquity of the 
Tumuli covering all this country may in some 
degree be proved even by the appearance of 
the oaks growing upon them. We saw some 
trees, perhaps as old as any in the world, so 
situate. The inhabitants had excavated some 
of the Tumuli, to form cellars for their ice and 
wine : and, in so doing, they had found several 
terra-cotta vases, deposited with the skeletons 
which those sepulchres contained : unfortu- 
nately, they had destroyed every thing thus 
discovered. The air in this metropolitan forest 
is pestiferous, and the water of the place very 
unwholesome. Fevers, similar to those pre- 
vailing near the Pomptine Marshes, in the Gulph 
of Salernum, and upon the coast of Baia in Italy, 


afflict those who reside here. In the environs, CHAP. 
however, the air is better. Perhaps, when the 
ground is cleared, so as to admit of a free 
circulation, and thoroughly cultivated by the 
increase of gardens, the health of the inhabitants 
will be less injured ; but, owing to its damp 
situation, and to the vicinity of extensive 
marshes on the Circassian side of the Kuban, 
EKATERINEDARA is never likely to become a 
desirable place of residence. The very founda- 
tion of the city took place only eight years 
previous to our arrival ; so that it still possessed 
all the appearance of a colony newly transported 
to the wildernesses of America, maintaining a 
struggle with inhospitable natives, impenetrable 
woods, and an unwholesome climate. The 
houses of the inhabitants were neater than our 
best English cottages. Each owner had before 
his door a large area, to which an avenue of 
the finest oaks conducted; also an adjoining 
garden, containing vines, water-melons, and 
cucumbers. The sunflower flourishes here 
without cultivation. Many plants, found only 
in our greenhouses, are the ordinary weeds 
of the plain. The climate, from a proximity 
to the mountains, is humid and cloudy; and 
it is often agitated by violent winds, accom- 
panied with thunder, and with sudden tem- 
pestuous rain. 

VOL. u. c 


CHAP. j n their new settlement, the Tchernomorski 
v v ' still exhibit the mode of life common to them 
of IhePeo- before their migration from the Dnieper. By 
this means, the Circassians, and even those of the 
Russians who live among them or near them, 
are instructed in many arts of domestic comfort 
and cleanliness. Celebrated as they justly are 
for their skill in horsemanship, they yet acknow- 
ledge themselves inferior in this respect to the 
Circassians; whose light bodies, lightly accoutred, 
upon the fleetest horses in the world, outstrip 
them in the chace. Yet it is not perhaps possible 
to behold a more striking figure than that of a 
Tchernomorski Cossack mounted and equipped for 
war. It is then only he may be said to exist, 
and in his native element ; brandishing his long 
lance in the air, bending, turning, or halting 
suddenly when in full speed, with so much 
graceful attitude, and such natural dignity, 
that the horse and the rider seem to be as 
one animal. 

Dress and The reins of government are entirely in the 


Appear- hands of the Ataman and his officers, who wear 


the most theatrical and splendid habits known 
to any people in the world. Their breasts are 
covered with chains of gold and gold lace. 
Their sabre is Turkish; their boots, of red or 
yellow-coloured leather; their cap, of black 


velvet, ornamented with lace and silver chains, 
or fine black Tahtarian wool, taken from lambs 
in an embryo state. They bind their waist 
with silken sashes, sustaining pistols of the 
most costly workmanship. A small whip, with 
a short leathern thong, is attached to their little 
finger. The lower extremity of their lance is 
supported by the right foot; and from the 
powder flask, pendent in front, are suspended 
silver coins and other trinkets. 

On the evening of our arrival, the Ataman Visit frm 


waited upon us with a party of officers. One 
of the best houses in the place had been pre- 
viously allotted to our use : this they desired 
us to consider as our own, and declared them- 
selves ready to render us any service in their 
power. The Ataman then informed us, that the 
Pasha of Anapa, with several of the Princes of 
Circassia, had crossed the Kuban, and pitched 
their tents upon the northern side of the 
river, suing for peace with the Tchernomorski ; 
that a considerable part of the Cossack army 
would march to give them a meeting in the 
morning, and adjust the preliminaries; and, 
as the ceremony might amuse us, he very 
kindly offered to include us among the per- 
sons of his suite. To this proposal we readily 

c 2 


CHAP. The history of the war in which they had 
< * ' been so recently engaged is as follows. The 
the U \Varin Circassians., in their nocturnal incursions, had 

j agt three y ears committed many depre- 
dations upon the territory of the Tchernomorski ; 
not only stealing their cattle, but sometimes 
bearing off the inhabitants. The Tchernomorski 
applied to the Emperor for permission to punish 
these marauders, and also for a reinforcement. 
General Drascouitz was accordingly sent, with 
a party of troops and some artillery, into Kuban 
Tartary. At five o'clock on the morning of 
Friday, June the 20th, the army, consisting of 
four thousand five hundred men, including two 
regiments of regulars, some pieces of artillery, 
and the chief part of the Cossack army stationed 
in and near Ekaterinedara, began to advance, 
by crossing the river. This undertaking was 
sufficiently arduous to have daunted better- 
disciplined troops. The Kuban is broad and very 
rapid. A few canoes, with one flat-bottomed 
barge, were all the transports provided for this 
purpose. General Drascovitz assured us he had 
never seen any thing to equal the spirit and 
alacrity of the Cossack cavalry, who led the way, 
and the zeal manifested when they received the 
order to march. They plunged on horseback 
into the torrent, and swam to the opposite shore. 
The passage was begun, as we have stated, at 


five in the morning ; and by four o'clock in the 
afternoon the whole army had crossed the river : 
this, considering the want of proper boats and 
of other conveniences, and the great rapidity of 
the current, is wonderful. By nine o'clock in the 
same evening the attack commenced. A small 
party, consisting only of eight of the Circassian 
advanced guard, were surprised in the very 
onset : of these, two were taken, and the others 
fled to give the alarm. The first effective blow 
was however struck by the Circassians, who after- 
wards attacked the advanced guard of the Cossack 
cavalry, taking eleven of the Cossack horses 
and a few prisoners. General Drascovitz then 
detached a body of Cossacks to reconnoitre, who 
found the Circassians in possession of a strong 
hold, and prepared for attack. These gave the 
Cossacks a very warm reception ; but the General, 
perceiving it, caused some pieces of artillery to 
bear upon his opponents. The noise of cannon 
had never before been heard in Circassia : the 
rocks of CAUCASUS repeated the dreadful uproar 
of the guns ; and the natives, at the very sound, 
fled in all directions. The Russian army then 
rapidly advancing, burned and destroyed eight Army, 
villages, took eight thousand head of cattle, 
besides a quantity of arms and other valuables. 
The number of the dead on the side of the Cir- 
cassians amounted in one village to thirty-seven, 


and nearly an equal slaughter, took place 
in all the others. The Russians lost only ten 
Cossacks, who were made prisoners ; but had not 
a man killed, and very few wounded. The 
number of Circassian prisoners was not great; 
so desperate was their valour, that they pre- 
ferred being cut to pieces, rather than surrender. 
The first overtures for peace were made by 
deputies from the Circassians, who demanded 
the cause of the war. The answer given by 
the Cossacks is curious, as it serves to call to 
mind similar laconic expressions made in antient 
times. " You have played your gambols" said 
they, " in our territory, these three years : we there- 
fore come for a little sport in yours" This answer 
being carried to the princes of the country, 
they came in great numbers to sue the Cossacks 
for quarter and peace. In aid of this request, a 
scarcity of bread prevailed at that time among 
the allied forces of Russians and Cossacks ; and 
the water of the country being bad, they 
retreated gradually across the Kutan : here 
Arrival of they were met by the Pasha of Anaba. coming 

thePoiAa . f : 

ot Anapa, with a great retinue and much ceremony, m 
the name of the Turkish Government, to inter- 
cede for the Circassians; and offering himself, 
at the same time, as a hostage for the security 
of their future conduct. To strengthen these 
assurances, he accompanied the Cossacks and 


Russians across the Kuban, and entered EKATE- CHAP. 
RINEDARA, but was not permitted to remain 
there, on account of the quarantine. He was 
suffered, however, to pitch his tent upon the 
Cossack side of the Kuban, close to the river. 
From thence he passed again into Circassia; 
and assembling the princes of the country, 
made them take a solemn oath of peace and 
friendship with the Tchernomorski : but the 
latter, not being satisfied with a report of these 
proceedings, insisted that the same oath should 
be publickly repeated upon their side of the 
river. It was for this purpose that the Pasha 
of Anapa had again returned, bringing with him 
the most powerful of the Circassian princes, 
who now waited upon the northern bank of 
the Kuban, to proceed in the required cere- 

At nine o'clock on the following morning, the 
8th of July, General Drascovitz sent his droshy l , 
escorted by a party of armed Cossacks and an 
officer, to state that the Ataman was waiting for 
us to join his suite in the procession to the 
Pasha of Anapa $ tent by the Kuban ; and that 
many of the princes of Circassia were there, 

(1) A carriage peculiar to Russia. See the Vignette to the Eighth 
Chapter of Vol. I. 


ready to take the oath of peace. We drove to 
head-quarters, and arrived as the grand caval- 
cade, consisting of the Ataman with a numerous 
escort of Cossack officers, and delegates from 
all the troops of the Cossack army, were pro- 
ceeding to the river side, distant only half a mile 
from the town. We had never seen a more 
striking spectacle. The dresses worn by the 
officers were more beautiful than the most mag- 
nificent theatres ever exhibited, displaying every 
variety of colour and of ornament ; while their 
high-bred horses, glittering in embroidered 
housings, and prancing with flowing manes 
and tails, seemed conscious of the warlike dig- 
nity of their riders. Several Cossacks darted 
by us, upon the fleetest coursers, to join the 
van of the cavalcade. In front rode the Ataman, 
bareheaded, in a habit of blue velvet, with 
sleeves and trowsers of scarlet cloth, very richly 
embroidered. From his shoulders fell loosely 
a rich tunic, lined with blue silk, and fastened 
back by gold buttons. His boots, like those of 
all the other officers, were of red leather ; and 
by his side was suspended a broad and costly 
sabre, in a sheath of red velvet, richly em- 
bossed with gold, and studded with turquoises. 
On each side of him rode a party of his prin- 
cipal officers ; and behind him followed all the 
flower of the Cossack army, in most sumptuous 


dresses, curbing- their foaming and neighing 
steeds. We were now, by the Atamans orders, 
placed in the van of the procession ; and soon 
arriving upon the high grounds forming the 
northern bank of the Kuban, beheld the encamp- 
ment of the Turks and Circassians, upon a small 
plain, close to the water's edge. The Pasha, 
surrounded by his attendants, was seated in his 
tent, smoking, with the awning drawn up on all 
sides. He was attended by a Turkish courier 
from the Porte, by his own dragoman or inter- 
preter, and by several of the most powerful 
Circassian princes, dressed in the savage and 
extraordinary habits worn by the different tribes 
of CAUCASUS : some of which will be hereafter 
more particularly noticed. Upon the opposite 
shore appeared a very considerable multitude 
of Circassians, collected either by curiosity, or 
in the hope of commerce with the Cossacks, 
when the terms of peace should be concluded. 
The greater part of them remained at a distance 
from the rest, exhibiting evident caution and 
mistrust, as if uncertain what termination the 
business of the day might have. As soon as 
the Cossack cavalry made its appearance, the Cir- 
cassian deputies rose, and came to the entrance 
of the Pasha's tent, who was seen in front of 
the party, bearing in his hand a small tuft 
of camel's hair fastened to an ivory handle : 


CHAP. with this he was occupied in keeping off the 
*' . mosquitoes. The Cossack army halted upon the 
brow of the hill ; and all the cavalry, being dis- 
mounted, were drawn up in two lines parallel 
to the river : in front appeared the Cossack sol- 
diers, standing by their lances. The Ataman 
and his principal officers rode down into the 
plain before the tent: here, having alighted, 
their horses were trfken back, and they all 
advanced, bareheaded, towards the Pasha. We 
accompanied them ; and being stationed by 
the Ataman, near to his person, understood, by 
means of our interpreter, all that passed upon 
the occasion. 

ceremony The preliminaries were begun by an apology 

efconclud- J &<7 

ing the from the Ataman for having kept the Pasha so 


long waiting. " Your coming," replied the 
Pasha, " is for a good purpose, and therefore 
may have demanded consideration : bad things 
alone are rashly hurried over." 

Ataman. " Have you explained to the Cir- 
cassian princes that we are not satisfied with 
oaths of peace made by them in their territory ? 
We must bear testimony to their attestations 
here, in our own land." 

Pasha. " I have made this known throughout 
all the Caucasian line. Several of the most 
powerful princes of the country are now present, 


to answer for the rest of their countrymen, CHAP. 
and for themselves." 

Ataman. " Have all those who are not pre- 
sent, as well as these their deputies, taken the 
oath of peace on the other side of the river ?" 

Pasha. " All of them. Unless I had been 
present upon the occasion myself, and had 
actually witnessed it, I would not venture to 
be responsible for their peaceable behaviour: 
this I now promise to be." 

Ataman. " Your Excellency speaks of a re- 
sponsibility, perhaps much greater than you 
imagine. Hitherto, their princes have paid no 
respect to the obligation of an oath ; which has 
been violated as often as it was made. How 
many have engaged to be bound by the oath 
now to be repeated ?" 

Pasha. " Fifty : and of these, the most pow- 
erful are the princes who have attended me 
upon this occasion." 

Ataman. " All our Cossack brethren, whom 
the Circassians have made prisoners, must be 
restored : in failure of this, the war will cer- 
tainly be renewed ; and in compliance with this 
demand, all our prisoners will be given up." 

Some other conversation past, which we 
were unable to collect, from the rapidity of its 
delivery. As soon as the preliminaries were 


CHAP, concluded, involving very little discussion, for 
y ,. y - . > the Circassians seemed willing to accede to any 
proposition made on the part of the Cossacks, 
the Pasha took from his bosom a manuscript 
written upon linen : the Circassian princes 
severally laid their hands upon it, promising 
to the Cossacks the undisturbed possession of 
all the country upon the northern side of the 
Kuban. What the precise nature of the manu- 
script was we could not learn : it was said to 
contain certain passages of the Koran and other 
sacred writings. The whole ceremony ended 
by the Pasha"s inscribing with a reed the names 
of the parties concerned in this transaction, 

Circassian The extraordinary appearance of the Circassian 
princes drew our attention entirely to them. 
Their clothes were ragged : their necks and 
legs quite bare. Only a few wore upon their 
feet slippers of red leather. Their heads were 
all shaven, and covered upon the crown with 
small scull-caps, laced with silver 1 . In their 

(l) The most antient covering of the head worn in Greece was 
exactly of the same shape, resembling the scalps torn by Americans from 
the prisoners they make in war. It is worn, beneath the turban, all 
over the East. The Circassians of rank wear it without any turban. 
It is still worn, in the same manner, by many inhabitants of modern 
Greece ; and its use in that country, long prior to its conquest by the 
Turks, agrees with the opinion maintained by the author's Grand- 
father, concerning the origin of the Getic, Colhic, and Grecian peo- 
ple. See Connection of the Roman, Saxon, and English Coins, 6Lc. 


belts they had large pistols. By their sides CHAP. 
were suspended a sabre and a knife. Ball- 
cartridges, sewed singly, were ranged in rows 
upon their breasts. The sleeves of their 
jackets being worn out at the elbows, there 
appeared, through the holes, plates of silver or 
of steel armour, inlaid. This armour was worn 
next the skin, covering the arms, but concealed 
by their clothes. A coat of mail protected also 
the breast and the rest of the body. Some of 
them wore a sort of iron shirt, made of twisted 
mail, or rings so closely interwoven, and so 
well adapted to the form, that every part of the 
body, except the face, was covered. Pallas, in 
his " Travels through the South of Russia" has 
represented one of their princes on horseback, 
covered by this kind of armour 3 . A bow and 
quiver are fastened by straps around the hips. 
We brought away one of their arrows: this 
they said had actually traversed the body of 
a Cossack horse, and killed the animal upon the 
spot. The Circassians use the bow with great 
skill, never making random shots, but being 
certain of their aim before they let the arrow 
fly. The Russian army very much dreaded 
those destructive weapons; as they are used 

(2) See Pallas's Travels through the Southern Prminces,&ic< Vol.1, 
p. 401. PI. 20. 


t HAP. by skilful marksmen, who, like riflemen, station 
themselves in trees, or among rocks, in the 
passes of the mountains, to shoot the officers. 

A circumstance not worth relating, if it did 
not illustrate the manners and character of the 
different people then assembled, afforded con- 
siderable amusement to us", who were merely 
spectators upon this occasion. When the 
Pasha received the Ataman with his attendants, 
he was evidently in a state of trepidation. 
Seeing the high banks of the river covered with 
armed men, and the lances of the Cossacks 
ranged like a forest along the northern side of 
the Kuban, he could not conceal his anxiety 
and uneasiness. His own manners were re- 
markably affable and polite ; but he viewed the 
troops and officers of the Cossack army, by 
whom he was surrounded, as a set of lawless 
plunderers, for whose conduct there could be 
no long security. Doubtless he had heard as 
many tales of the barbarism of the Tchernomorski 
as we had done before, and wished himself safe 
again upon his own divan in Anapa. If we had 
been filled with such idle fancies by the Russians 
themselves, it is but reasonable to believe that 
the Turks, who consider even the Russians as 
barbarians, must necessarily esteem the Cossacks 
as a set of ferocious banditti. The Reader may 


then imagine what the astonishment of the CHAP. 

Pasha was, when, being induced by curiosity 

to ask the Ataman from what country we came, 
he was informed we were English gentlemen, 
travelling for amusement among the very people 
whose appearance gave him so much uneasiness, 
and whom nothing but the most urgent necessity 
could have caused him to visit. He seemed to 
regain all his composure by this intelligence, 
speaking very highly of our countrymen, and 
saying, that the obligations England had con- 
ferred upon Turkey would never be forgotten. 
We took this opportunity to inquire respecting 
the state of the countries bordering the south 
coast of the Black Sea. He described them as 
full of difficulty and danger for travellers ; 
that many districts were infested by merciless 
robbers ; and that a journey to Constantinople by 
land, from Anapa, would at least require three 
months ; whereas by water, from the same 
place, it might be accomplished in four or five 
days. Indeed, the inhabitants of Taganrog 
have performed the voyage within that period, 
including the additional passage of the Sea of 
Azof and the Straits of Taman. 

As soon as the ceremony ended, the Pasha 
embarked with his suite, in a canoe so narrow, 
that two persons could not sit abreast. With 


CHAP, more adventure than might have been expected 
y . v - -' in a Turk, hampered as he was by his cumbrous 
dress, he squatted upon some rushes in the 
bottom of this vessel, and was soon paddled 
into the middle of the rapid torrent. The 
canoes upon the Kuban are all made of one 
piece of wood, being merely the trunk of a 
large tree scooped for the purpose. From the 
numbers huddled with the Pasha, we expected 
every instant to see his canoe sink or upset, for 
its edge was level with the water. It was out 
of sight, however, in an instant, descending the 
current with amazing velocity, and disappearing 
by the turn of the river. 

Peasants of We then went to examine more minutely the 
crowd of Circassians of a lower order, numbers 
of whom were passing the Kuban in their canoes, 
and assembling on the Russian side. They came 
to exchange wood, honey, and weapons, for 
salt, according to their usual practice in times 
of peace. Here we saw some of the wildest 
mountaineers of CAUCASUS, all of whom were 
completely armed, and all robbers by profes- 
sion. The descriptions given of the natives in 
the South Seas do not represent human nature 
in a more savage state than its condition ex- 
hibits among the Circassians. Instructed from 
their infancy to consider war and plunder not 


only as a necessary, but as an honourable occu- 
pation, they bear in their countenances the most 
striking expressions of ferocious valour, and of 
duplicity. If, while a Circassian is standing 
behind you, a sudden turn of your head betrays 
to you his features, his brow appears menacing, 
and he seems to meditate some desperate act; 
but the instant he perceives that he is observed, 
his countenance relaxes into a deceitful smile, 
and he assumes the most obsequious and sub- 
missive attitude imaginable. Their bodies, 
especially their legs, feet, and arms, are almost 
naked. They wear no shirt, and only a pair of 
coarse ragged drawers, reaching a little below 
the knee ; but upon their shoulders, even during 
the greatest heat of summer, they carry a thick 
and heavy cloak of felt, or the hide of a goat 
with the hair on the outside, reaching below 
the waist. Beneath this coarse mantle appears 
a sabre, a bow and quiver, a musket, and other 
weapons. Both the peasants and the princes 
shave their heads, and cover them with the 
sort of scull-cap which was before mentioned, 
and which the Turks call Fez. Difference of 
rank, indeed, seems to cause little distinction 
of dress among them, except that the peasant 
further covers his head and shoulders with a 
large cowl. Beauty of features and of form, 
for which the Circassians have so long been 



CHAP, celebrated, is certainly prevalent among them. 
Their noses are aquiline, their eye-brows arched 
and regular, their mouths small, their teeth 
remarkably white, and their ears not so large 
nor so prominent as those of Tahtars ; although, 
from wearing the head shaven, they appear to 
disadvantage, according to our European notions 
of beauty. They are well shaped, and very 
active; being generally of the middle size, 
seldom exceeding five feet eight or nine inches. 
Their women are the most beautiful perhaps in 
the world ; of enchanting perfection of features, 
and very delicate complexions. The females 
that we saw were all of them the accidental 
captives of war, who had been carried off 
together with their families ; they were, how- 
ever, remarkably handsome. Many of them, 
although suffering from ill health, from privation 
of every kind, and from sorrow, and being 
exhibited under every possible circumstance 
of disadvantage, had yet a very interesting 
appearance. Their hair was, generally, dark or 
light brown, in some instances approaching to 
black. Their eyes had a singular degree of 
animation, which is very characteristical of the 
Circassian people ; this, in some of the men, gives 
to them an expression of ferocity. The finest 
paintings of the best masters, representing a 
Hector or a Helen, do not display greater beauty 


than we beheld even in the prison at Ekaterine- CHAP. 
dam; where wounded Circassians, male and 
female, loaded with fetters, and huddled to- 
gether, were pining in grief and sickness. 

The Circassians being collected in much 
greater numbers on the Caucasian side of the 
Kuban, we applied to the Commander-in-chief, 
for permission to pass over into their territory. 
This was obtained with great difficulty ; and the 
Ataman, accompanied by several armed Cossacks, 
was ordered to attend us. We crossed the river 
in canoes ; and, arriving on the Circassian side, 
beheld the natives, who had been assembled 
from all parts of the country, gathered into 
groupes along the shore. Several of them, 
having a most savage aspect, were collected 
together about two hundred yards from the 
spot where we landed. Perceiving that the 
Ataman avoided going towards them, we begged 
that he would allow us that privilege. " if it 
be your desire," said he, taking his sabre from 
its scabbard, " you shall not feel disappoint- 
ment upon my account; but you little know 
what sort of people Circassians are. They pay 
no respect to treaties, nor even to their own 
princes, when they see an opportunity of 
plunder ; and they are likely to do some of us 
injury before we return." Our curiosity, however, 



CH I AP " gt the better of all fear, and we followed 
the Atamans reluctant steps to the place where 
they were assembled. Seeing us advance, they 
hastily snatched up their arms (which they had 
placed against the trees and upon the ground), 
and received us with an air of evident defiance. 
We endeavoured to convince them that our 
views were pacific ; but matters soon grew more 
and more menacing, as they began talking loud 
and with great rapidity. No one of our party 
understood what they said ; and the Atamans 
uneasiness considerably increasing, we made 
signs for the canoes to draw near the shore, 
and effected our retreat. Thinking to shew 
them some mark of our respect, and of our 
friendly intentions, we took off our hats, and 
bowed to them as we retired. The effect was 
highly amusing : they all roared with loud and 
savage laughter, and, mocking our manner of 
making obeisance, seemed to invite us to a 
repetition of the ceremony ; and as often as we 
renewed it, they set up fresh peals of laughter. 
The Cossack officers, who accompanied us upon 
this occasion, told us that the Circassians who 
lurk in the immediate vicinity of the Kuban are 
a tribe as wild and lawless as any in the whole 
district of CAUCASUS ; that their principal object 
is, to seize upon men, and to carry them off, 
for the purpose of selling them as slaves in 


Persia. The cannon upon the heights of Ekate- CHAP. 
rinedara at this time commanded the whole . ., ,...,.,-,. , / 
marshy territory on the Circassian side ; yet it 
was impossible to venture, even a few hundred 
yards, in search of plants, owing to the danger 
that might be apprehended from numbers 
skulking in ambush among the woods near 
the river. The hasty survey we had made 
disclosed to us a plain covered with wild 
raspberry-trees, blackberry bushes, and a few 
large willows by the water's edge. Farther, 
towards the south, appeared woods of consi- 
derable extent, full of the finest oaks. Beyond 
these woods appeared the chain of Caucasian 
mountains, and territories which had been the 
theatre of war. The mountains rose like the 
Alpine barrier. Some of them seemed to be 
very lofty ; and their sides retained patches of 
snow toward the middle of July; but, upon the 
whole, they seemed less lofty than the ALPS. 
The passes through CAUCASUS must be difficult 
and intricate, as the mountains stand close to 
each other, and their summits are rugged and ir- 
regular. Those nearest to Ehaterinedara were not 
less than twenty-six English miles distant, and 
yet they appeared very visible to the naked eye. 

When we returned to the Russian side, the 
Circassians who had crossed the river were 


dancing and rejoicing on account of the peace. 
One of their vagrant musicians, exercising a 
profession much esteemed by all nations in the 
infancy of society, and particularly among the 
tribes who inhabit CAUCASUS, performed upon a 
silver flute called Camil. It was about two 
feet in length, and had only three finger-holes 
toward the lower extremity of the tube. The 
mode of blowing this instrument is as remark- 
able as the sound it produced. A small stick 
is placed in the upper end of a flute open 
at either extremity ; which, being drawn out to 
the length of an inch, is pressed by the per~ 
former against the roof of his mouth. It is very 
difficult to conceive how any tones can be pro- 
duced in this manner, as the performer's moutlj 
is kept open the whole time, and he accom- 
panies the notes with his own voice. By the 
violent straining of every muscle in his counte' 
nance, the performance seemed to be a work 
of great difficulty and labour; the sounds all 
the while resembling the droning noise of a 
bagpipe. We wished to purchase the instru- 
ment with a quantity of salt, the only money 
they receive in payment; but its owner, deriving 
his livelihood, and consequence among his 
countrymen, entirely from his flute, would not 
consent to sell it. The Circassians know nothing 
of the value of coins, using them only to adorn 


their persons ; and even for this purpose they CHAP. 
did not seem desirous to possess the few silver . ... * 
pieces we offered to them. It is evident that their 
favourite musical instrument, the Camil, was not 
always of metal ; for upon the silver tube which 
I have described, the natural joints seen upon 
canes and reeds in the rivers and marshes of 
the country had been imitated by the maker. 

Their dances do not resemble those of any Dances of 

, . .... of the Cir- 

other nation, something perhaps nearly similar cassia. 
may have been described as practised by the 
inhabitants of the South-Sea Islands. Ten, fifteen, 
or twenty persons, all standing in a line, and 
holding by each other's arms, begin lolling from 
right to left, lifting up their feet as high as 
possible, to the measure of the tune, and only 
interrupting the uniformity of their motion by 
sudden squeaks and exclamations. Nothing 
could seem more uneasy than the situation of the 
performers in the middle of the row ; but even 
these, squeezed as they were from one side to 
the other, testified their joy in the same manner. 
After some time, there was a pause; when a 
single dancer, starting from the rest, pranced, 
about in the most ludicrous manner, exhibiting 
only two steps that could be assimilated to the 
movements of a dance. Each of these may be 
noticed, not only in our English hornpipe, but in 


all the dances of northern nations. The first 
consisted in hopping upon one foot, and in 
touching the ground with the heel and toe of 
the other alternately. The second, in hopping 
on one foot, and thrusting the other before it, 
so as to imitate the bounding of a stag : from 
this animal the motion was originally borrowed, 
as it actually bears its name among the wild 
Irish at this day. A due attention to national 
dances frequently enables us to ascertain the 
progress made by any people towards refine- 
ment. The exercise itself is as antient as the 
human race ; and, however variously modified, 
the popular dances peculiar to ages the most 
remote, and to countries the most widely sepa- 
rated, may all be deduced from one common 
origin, having reference to the intercourse of the 
sexes ; and therefore more or less equivocal, in 
proportion as the state of society has been more 
or less affected by the progress of civilization 1 . 

Circassian i n different parts of the great chain of 


mountains bearing the general appellation of 
CAUCASUS, the languages are as various as the 

(l) An inquiry into the antiquity and origin of National Dances, 
as connected with the history of mankind, would form a very curious 
subject of discussion. The author once collected materials for that 
purpose, but it would require more leisure than is now granted to 
him to prepare them for the Public. 


principalities. Few of the present inhabitants CHAP. 
of Kuban Tahtary are able to converse with any 
of the Circassian tribes. Those whom we saw 
near the river spoke a dialect so harsh and 
guttural, that it was by no means pleasing to 
the ear. Pallas says it is probable that the 
Circassian bears no affinity to any other lan- 
guage; and that, according to report, their 
Princes and Vsdens speak a peculiar dialect, 
unknown to the common people, and chiefly 
used in predatory excursions 2 . Their mode of 
life is that of professional robbers. It might 
have been foretold of the Circassian, as of 


HAND AGAINST HIM." Those who inhabit the 
passes of the mountains, and are not occupied 
in any agricultural employment, depend solely 
upon plunder for their subsistence. The petty 
princes are continually at war with each other : 
every one plunders his neighbour. The inha- 
bitants of the plains go completely armed to the 
labours of the field. The crops are also guarded 
by armed men. No Circassian poet can there- 
fore celebrate the peaceful occupation of the 

(2) Pallas's Travels through the Southern Provinces, &c. vol. I, 
p. 408. 

(3) Gen. xvi. 19. 


CHAP, plough, since with them it is a warlike employ- 
ment. The sower scattering seed, or the reaper 
who gathers the sheaves, is constantly liable to 
an assault ; and the implements of husbandry 
are not more essential to the harvest, than the 
carabine, the pistol, and the sabre 1 . 

Of all the Circassian tribes, the LESGI, inha- 
biting the mountains of Daghestan, ranging 
nearly parallel to the Western coast of the 
Caspian, bear the worst reputation. Their very 
name excites terror among the neighbouring 
principalities, and it is used as a term of reproach 
by many of the natives of Caucasus. Different 
reports are naturally propagated concerning 
a people so little known as the Circassians in ge- 
neral; and perhaps half the stories concerning the 
Lesgi are without foundation in truth. All the 
inhabitants of Caucasus are described by their 
enemies as notorious for duplicity, and for their 
frequent breach of faith ; and it is through the 
medium of such representation alone that we 
derive any notion of their character. But, placing 
ourselves among them, and viewing, as they 
must do, the more polished nations around them, 
who seek only to enslave and to betray them, 

(0 The same remark is applicable almost all over the Turkish 


we cannot wonder at their conduct towards a 
people whom they consider as tyrants and 
infidels. Examples of heroism may be observed 
among them, which would have dignified the 
character of the Romans in the most virtuous 
periods of their history. Among the prisoners 
in the Cossack army, we saw some of the Circas- 
sians who had performed feats of valour, perhaps 
unparalleled. The commander-in-chief, General 
Drascovitz, maintained, that in all the campaigns 
he had served, whether against Turks or the 
more disciplined armies of Europe, he had never 
witnessed instances of greater bravery vhan he 
had seen among the Circassians. The troops 
of other nations, when surrounded by superior 
numbers, readily yield themselves prisoners of 
war ; but the Circassian, while a spark of life 
remains, will continue to combat, even with a 
multitude of enemies. We saw a Circassian 

chief in the prison at Ekaterinedara, about thirty- stance of 
five years of age, who had received fifteen aSrcZ- 
desperate wounds before he fell and was made Slan ' 
prisoner, having fainted from loss of blood. This 
account was given to us by his bitterest enemies, 
and may therefore surely be trusted. He was 
first attacked by three of the Cossack cavalry, 
It was their object to take him alive, if possible, 
on account of his high rank, and the consideration 
in which he was held by his own countrymen. 


Every endeavour was therefore used to attack 
him in such a manner as not to endanger his life. 
This intention was soon perceived by the Circas- 
sian, who determined not to surrender. With 
his single sabre, he shivered their three lances 
at the first onset, and afterwards wounded two 
of the three assailants. At length, surrounded by 
others who came to their assistance, he fell, 
covered with wounds, in the midst of his enemies, 
fighting to the last moment. We visited him in 
his prison, where he lay stretched upon a plank, 
bearing the anguish of his terrible wounds with- 
out a groan. They had recently extracted the 
iron point of a lance from his side. A young 
Circassian girl was employed in driving flies from 
his face with a green bough. All our expressions 
of concern and regard were lost upon him : we 
offered him money, but he refused to accept of 
it, handing it to his fellow-prisoners as if totally 
ignorant of its use. 

In the same place of confinement stood a Cir- 


cassian female, about twenty years of age, with 
fine light brown hair, extremely beautiful, but 
pale, and hardly able to support herself, through 
grief and weakness. The Cossack officers stated, 
that when they captured this woman she was in 
excellent health ; but that ever since, owing to 
her separation from her husband, she had refused 


all offer of food ; and, as she pined daily, they CHAP. 
feared she would die. It may be supposed we 
spared no entreaty with the Commander-in-chief 
for the release of these prisoners. Before the 
treaty of peace they had been offered to the 
highest bidder, the women selling generally from 
twenty-five to thirty roubles apiece; somewhat 
less than the price of a horse. But we were 
told it was now too late, as they were included 
in the list for exchange, and must therefore 
remain until the Cossacks, who were prisoners in 
Cir cassia, were delivered up. The poor woman 
in all probability did not live to see her husband 
or her country again. 

Another Circassian female, fourteen years of 
age, who was also in confinement, hearing of the 
intended exchange of prisoners, expressed her 
wishes to remain where she was. Conscious of 
her great beauty, she feared her parents would 
sell her, according to the custom of the country, 
and that she might fall to the lot of masters less 
humane than the Cossacks. The Circassians fre- 
quently sell their children to strangers, parti- 
cularly to Persians and Turks. Their princes 
supply the Turkish seraglios with the most 
beautiful of the prisoners of both sexes captured 
in war. 


In their commerce with the Tchernomorski 
Cossacks, the Circassians bring considerable quan- 
with the tities of wood ; also the delicious honey of the 
morM.~ mountains, sewed up in goat-skins with the hair 
on the outside. These articles they exchange 
for salt, a commodity found in the neighbouring 
lakes, and of a very excellent quality. Salt is 
more precious than any other kind of wealth to 
the Circassians: it constitutes the most acceptable 
present it is possible to offer them. They weave 
mats of very great beauty : these find a ready 
market in Turkey and in Russia. They are also 
ingenious in the art of working silver and other 
metals, and in the fabrication of guns, pistols, 
and sabres. We suspected that some weapons 
offered for sale had been procured from Turkey, 
in exchange for slaves. Their bows and arrows 
are made with inimitable skill : the arrows, being 
tipped with iron, and otherwise exquisitely 
wrought, are considered by Cossacks and by 
Russians as inflicting deadly wounds. 

skni fa One of the most important accomplishments 


the inhabitants of these countries can acquire, is 
that of horsemanship ; and in this the Circassians 
are superior to the Cossacks, who are nevertheless 
justly esteemed the best riders known to Euro- 
pean nations. A Cossack may be said to live but 


upon his horse ; and the loss of a favourite steed CHAR 
is the greatest family misfortune he can sustain, 
The poorer sort of Cossacks dwell beneath the 
same roof with their horses, lie down with them 
at night, and make them their constant com- 
panions. The horses of Circassia are of a nobler 
race than those of the Cossacks : they are of the 
Arab kind, exceedingly high bred, light and 
small. The Cossack generally acknowledges his 
inability to overtake a Circassian in pursuit. 

The brother of Mr. Kovalensky of Taganrog, by state of 
cultivating the friendship of one of the Circassian i 
Princes, passed over the mountainous ridge of 
CAUCASUS in perfect safety and protection. 
According to his account, a stranger, who has 
voluntarily confided in the honour of a Circassian, 
is considered a sacred trust, even by the very 
robbers who would cross the Kuban to carry him 
off and sell him as a slave, if they chanced to find 
him, in their predatory excursions, out of their 
own dominions. Since this account was written, 
one of our countrymen, Mr. Mackenzie, passed 
the defile of CAUCASUS, previous to a campaign 
in which he served with the Russian army in 
Persia. His escort consisted of an hundred 
infantry and fifty Cossacks, with a piece of artil- 
lery. During thirteen days spent in the passage, 


CHAP, the troops were under the necessity of main- 
taining a most vigilant watch, and their rear was 
frequently harassed by hovering hordes of Circas- 
sians. The result of his observations tends only to 
dispute the accuracy of those of Mr. Kovalensky. 
According to Mr. Mackenzie s opinion, no reliance 
whatsoever can be placed upon the supposed 
honour or the promises of a people so treacherous 
and barbarous as are the tribes inhabiting this 
chain of mountains. 



Quarantine Second Excursion into Circassia Departure 
from Ekaterinedara Produce of the Land Division, 
of the River Mosquitoes General Appearance of the 
Circassian Territory Watch-Towers CIMMERIAN 
BOSPORUS Temrook Text of Stralo and Pliny 
reconciled Fortress and Ruins Sienna Remarkable 
Tomb Antiquity of Arches Milesian Gold Bracelet* 
Origin of Temples CEOPE Fortress of Taman i 
Taman -Ruins of Phanagoria Tmutaracan Amphi-< 
theatre Other Remains-~-Prekla Vblcano~-Inscriptions 
at Taman t 

IN the commerce carried on between the 
Circassians and the Tchernomorski, a sort of qua- 
rantine is observed, trivial in its nature, and 
negligently guarded. The exchange of corn, 
honey, mats, wood, and arms, for the salt of 



CHAP, the Cossacks, is transacted without contract; 
v .' the wares of the Circassians being placed on the 
ground where they find the salt ready stationed 
for barter. But, owing to the very great prox- 
imity of the parties during all this intercourse, 
and to the danger of communicating infection 
by handling the different articles for sale while 
they are bartering, the plague, if it existed in 
Circassia, might very readily be communicated 
to the TchernomorsJci. It is true, that, except 
at Ekaterinedara, they seldom cross the river to 
each other's territory, during the profoundest 
peace; for so great is their mutual jealousy 
and their hatred of each other, that quarrels 
and skirmishes would be the inevitable conse- 
quence of more general communication. Whe- 
ther it be owing to their frequent hostilities, 
to the great rapidity of the Kuban, or to the 
domestic habits of the Cossacks, is uncertain ; 
but fishing seemed to be entirely neglected, 
notwithstanding their favourable situation. The 
only boats used upon the river are those 
canoes before mentioned; each consisting of 
one entire piece of wood, being scooped out of 
a single tree. 

second On the evening of the last day of our resi- 


into dr- dence in E hater inedara, we again obtained per- 

cassia. . . . t 

mission from the Commander-in-chief to make 


an excursion into Circassia. The number of the CHAP. 
natives upon the opposite shore was then much 
diminished ; we could discern only a few strag- 
glers; and w*e hoped to collect some plants 
for our herbary. General Drascovitz himself 
attended us to the water's side, and, having sent 
over a party of Cossacks, retired with several of 
his troops to the high grounds on the northern 
bank of the river, in order to keep a look-out, 
for our safety. The cannon stationed on these 
heights had a very extensive range over the 
opposite, country. We were ordered, if we 
heard a gun fired, to effect our retreat as 
speedily as possible. We landed, and found, 
near the river, the Glycyrrhiza glabra, the 
Rubus ccesius, and Common Agrimony, Agrimonia 
Eupatoria. The appearance in the swampy 
plain before us did not promise a better or 
a more copious selection, and we therefore 
entreated the Cossacks to venture with us to the 
woods, apparently within a short walk to the 
south. This our guard positively refused ; and, 
continuing our search more immediately under 
the cannon of Ekaterinedara, we presently found 
they had good reason for so doing, as upwards 
of sixty Circassians made their appearance from 
among some willows. At our approach, they 
all collected together, making a great noise, 
and asking us several questions in a loud tone, 



CHAP, perhaps not otherwise menacing than that we 
did not understand their language. Irritated as 
they had been by the events of the late war, 
rio confidence could have been placed in their 
courtesy, even if any had been manifested ; for 
although hospitality among savage nations be a 
sacred duty, revenge is" not less an object of 
their veneration 1 . We therefore reluctantly 
retired, and, once more regaining our canoes, 
for ever bade adieu to a country which seemed 
to baffle every project that could be devised by 
mere travellers for its investigation. Nothing 
less than an army, at this time, coutd have 
enabled us to penetrate farther : and even with 
such an escort, like Derion in Egypt, our obser- 
vations might have been restricted to the limits 
of the camp in which we must have lived. 

(1) " Among the Circassians, the spirit of resentment is so great, 
that all the relatives of the murderer are considered as guilty. This 
customary infatuation to avenge the blood of relatives generates most 
of the feuds, and occasions great bloodshed, among all the tribes of 
CAUCACASUS ; for unles pardon be purchased, or obtained by inter- 
marriage between the two families, the principle of revenge is propa- 
gated to all siK-eeding-generations. The hatred which the mountainous 
nations evince against the Russians in a ereat measure arises from the 
same source. If the thirst of vengeance is quenched by a price paid to 
the family of the deceased, this tribute is called Tlilil- Uasa, or The price 
of blond : but neither Princes nor Usdens accept of such a compensation, 
as it i-. an established law among them to demand blood for blood," 
Pallas't Travels, vol. I. p. 405. 


Leaving Ekaterinedara, to pass along the CII-AP. 
Russian line, we crossed the steppes to Vydnia, 
a military station. Notwithstanding the mi- 
merous videttes and garrisoned places guarding terineilara - 
the frontier, we were desired to increase the 
number of our escort. A post route is esta- 
blished throughout this boundary of the empire, 
and, in general, it is well conducted. The 
Russian line from the Black Sea towards the 
east, continues along the north side of the 
Kuban, and from that river to the Kuma, which 
is swallowed in mounds of drift-sand before it 
can reach the Caspian ; thence by the north 
of the Caspian, through the country of the 
Kirgissians*, and by the river Ural, on to the lake 
Baikal, the river Amour, and, by the frontier of 
China, to the Oriental Ocean. Afterwards it is 
continued to the north, as far as Kamtchatka. 
Throughout this vast boundary, a regular post, 
and military stations, may be found : but the 
traveller, in the more northern part of it, instead 
of horses for his conveyance, would be supplied 
with large dogs. 

(2) The country of Kirgiss is divided into three parts; Little 
Kirgissj Middle Kirgiss, and the Grand Kirgiss. The two first only, 
with a few villages south of the Baikal, are subject to Russia. But 
the greater part of the country of the Kirgissians is entirely inde- 
pendent; and its inhabitants are vagrants, living wholly in waggons. 
The people of Bochdrd, or Jiucharia, lead a better mode of life. They 
have several considerable towns. Their capital is SARMACAND, , 


CHAP. Q ur journey conducted us, as usual, over 
y,, y , ; immense plains : these seemed to be inter- 
minable, and they are destitute of the smallest 
elevation. The soil between Ekaterinedara and 
Produce of pyd n i a was very rich. We saw some good 

the Land. y 

wheat, barley, oats, millet, rye, maize, and a 
great quantity of large thistles among the grass, 
a well-known proof that land is not poor. All 
sorts of melons and grapes were thriving in the 
open air. From Vydnia to Mechastovskoy, and 
to Kara Kuban 1 , we observed, principally, grass 
land, with occasional patches of underwood, 
containing young oaks : among these we found 
red peas and vines, growing wild. The post- 
master at Mechastovskoy refused to change a 
note of five roubles^ because it was old, and had 
been much in use. Hereabouts, we observed a 
noble race of dogs, like those of the Morea, and of 
the province of Abru-Lio in Italy , guarding the 
numerous flocks. The villages were also filled 
with these dogs, owing to their utility in giving 
alarm during the nocturnal incursions of the 
Circassians. We also saw several of a gigantic 
breed, resembling the Irish Wolf-dog. From 
Kara Kuban our route lay chiefly through fens 
filled with reeds and other aquatic plants. 

(0 Each of these latter places is nothing more than a single hut, 
scooped in an antient tomb. 


The air was excessively sultry and unwhole- CHAP. 
some. At length we reached a division of the v ^ > 
river which insulates the territory of Taman: the River. 
here, crossing by a ferry, we came to Kopil, 
another military station. The branch of the 
river where this ferry is stationed bears the 
name of PROTOCKA, and it falls into the Sea of 
Azof. The other branch retains the original 
appellation of KUBAN, and falls into the Black 
Sea. The Isle of Taman, separating the two, is 
the territory opposed to the Promontory of 
Kertchy in the Crimea, constituting those Straits 
called, from the earliest ages, the Cimmerian 
Bosporus*. At Kofiilwe found a General-officer, 
who had married the daughter of one of the 
Tchernomorski. He shewed to us some of the 
subalterns' tents, full of dirt and wretchedness. 
In the Colonel's tent, who was absent, we saw 
a table beautifully inlaid with mother-of-pearl 
and ivory. Asking where it was made, we 
were told it had been purchased of the Cir- 
cassians, who are very ingenious in such arts. 
The General said, significantly, he preferred 
Kopil to Petersburg; any place, we inferred, 
rather than the residence of the Emperor PAUL. 

(2) " Bosporus Cimmerius, ut Strabo putat, nomen hoc a Cimbris 
sortitus est. Sed ego falli eum arbitror: Cimmeriae eniin nomen 
niultb antiquius et ab Homeri temporibus cognitura fuit." Deacript. 
Tartar, p. 234. L. Bat. 1630. 


Few situations could surpass Kopil in wretch- 
edness. Bad air, bad water, swarms of mos- 
quitoes, with various kinds of locusts, beetles, 
innumerable flies, lizards, and spotted toads, 
seemed to infest it with the plagues of Egypt. 
Horses could not be hired; but the General 
accommodated us with his own. As we left 
Kopil, we quitted also the river, and proceeded 
through marshes to Kalaus. In our way, we 
caught some small ducks, and saw also wild 
geese. At Kalaus were two young elks, very 
tame ; and we were told that many wild ones 
might be found in the steppes during the 

In the course of this journey, as we ad- 
vanced from Ekaterinedara, frequent stands of 
lances announced, at a distance, the comfort- 
able assurance of the Tchernomorski guard ; with- 
out this, the herds of cattle in the steppes, 
amounting to many thousands, would be con- 
tinually plundered by the Circassians. Those 
Cossacks pass the night upon the bare earth, 
protected from the mosquitoes by creeping into 
a kind of sack, sufficient only for the covering 
of a single person : beneath this they lie upon 
the thistles and other wild plants of the steppes. 
At Kalaus there was rather a strong body of 
the military. From this place to Kourky the 


distance is thirty-five versts\ Night came on ; -CHAP. 
but we determined to proceed. No contrivance 
on our part could prevent millions of mosqui- 
toes from filling the inside of our carnage: 
in spite of gloves, clothes, and handkerchiefs, 
they rendered our bodies one entire wound. 
The excessive irritation and painful swelling 
caused by the stings of these furious insects, 
together with a hot pestilential air, excited a 
considerable degree of fever 2 . The Cossacks 
light numerous fires to drive them from the 
cattle duirng the night; but so insatiate is their 
thirst of blood, that swarms will attack a person 
attempting to shelter himself even in the midst 
of smoke. The noise they make in flying 
cannot be conceived by persons who have 
only been accustomed to the humming of such 
insects in our country. It was indeed to all of 
us a fearful sound, accompanied by the clamour 
of reptile myriads, toads and bull-frogs, whose 

(1) Rather less than twenty-four English miles. 

(2) The mortality thus occasioned in the Russian army, both of men 
and horses, was very great. Many of those stationed along the Kubrt* 
died in consequence of mortification produced by the bites of these 
insects. Others, who escaped the venom of the mosquitoes, fell victims 
to the badness of the air. Sometimes the soldiers scoop a hollow in 
the antient tombs, to serve as a dwelling: at ether times a mere shed, 
constructed of reeds, affords the ouly covering ; and in either of these 
places, during the greatest heat of summer, they light large fires, in 
order to fill the area with smoke; flying to their suffocating ovens, in 
the most sultry weather, to escape the mosquitoes. t 


constant croaking, joined with the barking of 
dogs and the lowing of herds, maintained in 
the midst of darkness an unceasing uproar. It 
was our intention to travel during all hours, 
without halting for any repose; but various 
accidents compelled us to stop at Kourhy about 
midnight, a military station like the rest; and no 
subsequent sensation of ease or comfort has 
ever obliterated the impression made by the 
sufferings of that night. It was near the middle 
of July. The carriage had been dragged, for 
many miles, through stagnant pools : in fording 
one of these, it had been rilled with water : the 
dormeuse, seat, floor, and well, became, in con- 
sequence, covered with stinking slime. We 
stopped therefore to open and to inspect the 
trunks. Our books and linen were wet. The 
Cossack and Russian troops were sleeping upon 
the bare earth, covered with sacks: beneath 
such a tester, a soldier permitted Mr. Cripps to 
lie down. The ground seemed entirely alive, 
with innumerable toads, crawling everywhere. 
Almost exhausted by fatigue, by pain, and by 
heat, the author sought shelter within the 
carriage, sitting in water and mud. The air 
was so sultry, that not a breath of wind could 
be felt; nor could he venture to open the 
windows, although almost suffocated, through 
fear of the mosquitoes. Swarms, nevertheless, 


found their way to his hiding-place : when he CHAP. 
opened his mouth, it was filled with them. < /- ' 
His head was bound in handkerchiefs ; yet 
they forced their way into his ears and nostrils. 
In the midst of this torment, he succeeded in 
kindling a large lamp which was over the 
sword-case ; this was instantly extinguished by 
such a prodigious number of mosquitoes, that 
their dead bodies actually remained heaped in 
a cone over the burner for several days after- 
wards; and perhaps there is no method of 
describing the nature of such an afflicting 
visitation better than by the simple statement 
of this fact. To the truth of it, those who 
travelled with him will bear indisputable 

The northern bank of the Kuban, being every- General 
where elevated, presents a very extensive view, of^iTov 8 . 
across those marshy plains of Circassia lying Territory, 
towards the river, of the mountainous ridges of 
CAUCASUS. As morning dawned, we had a 
delightful prospect of a rich country upon the 
Circassian side, something like South IFales, or 
the finest parts of Kent ; pleasing hills, covered 
with wood ; and fertile valleys, cultivated like 
gardens. A rich Circassian Prince, the pro- 
prietor of this beautiful territory, frequently 
ventured across the Kuban, as we were 


CHAP, informed, to converse with the guard. On the 
v. - r -. ,' Russian side, the scenery is of a very different 
description; particularly in the journey from 
Kalaus to Kopil, where it is a continual swamp. 
Jn travelling through it, tall reeds, the never- 
failing indication of unwholesome air, rose above 
the roof of our carriage, to the height of sixteen 
or twenty feet. Sometimes, for many miles, 
we could see no other objects ; nor were other 
sounds heard excepting the noise of mosqui- 
toes, and the croaking of toads and frogs. 
Watch- Upon the elevated land nearer to the river, and 

Towew. -I i f i 

in the midst of the military stations protecting 
the line, observatories of a very singular 
construction are raised, for the purpose of 
containing each a single person. They resemble 
so many eagles' nests. Each of these is placed 
upon three upright tall poles, or trunks of trees. 
Here a Cossack sentinel, standing with his fusil, 
continually watches the motions of the Cir- 
cassians, upon the opposite side of the Kuban. 

As we left Kourky, the mosquitoes began to 
diminish in number; and, to our inexpressible 
joy, in the approach towards the shores of the 

Cimmerian ClMMERIAN BOSPORUS, Or Straits of Taman, 


they suddenly disappeared altogether 1 . 

(1) The inhabitants of Taman had never been tormented by these 
insects ; but during the night after our arrival, the whole family with 



We were now approaching countries con- CHAP. 
nected with the earliest history of Greece, and 
the most splendid periods of the Roman Empire. 
Occasions to illustrate their interesting annals, 
by reference to antient monuments, might 
indeed be few; but we resolved to note every 
occurring observation, and did not anticipate 
with indifference the gratification we should 
experience in traversing regions once the 
emporium of Athens; whence she derived the 
principle of her existence, as a maritime power, 
Until the commerce of the Euxine passed, with 
the liberties of Greece, into the hands of the 
Romans. Her trade in the Euxine not only 
supported, but enriched her inhabitants. It 
became the nursery for her seamen, and was 
of the utmost importance in the demand it 
occasioned for her own manufactures. A very 

whom we lodged were stung by a few, which came with us in the 
carriage. England is, for the most part, free from this terrible scourge, 
as well a from the locwst ; but it is very uncertain how long it may 
continue so, as the progress of both one and the other, towards lati- 
tudes where they were formerly unknown, has been sensibly felt in 
many countries within the present century. Perhaps in no part of the 
globe do they abound more than in Lapland. When Acerbi published his 
Travels in those regions, it was objected that he had too often mentioned 
the mosquitoes ; yet there is no circumstance "which gives to his writings 
more internal evidence of truth, than the cause of this objection. The 
fact is, the real nature of their afflicting visitation, rendering even life 
burdensome, cannot be conceived but by persons who hare had the 
misfortune to experience its effects. 


CHAP, principal part of this intercourse was confined 
to the Cimmerian Bosporus, whose kings and 
princes received the highest marks of Athenian 
regard. Many of them were made citizens of 
Athens : an honour esteemed, in that age, one 
of the most distinguished that could be con- 
ferred 1 . From periods the most remote from 
those distant ages when Milesian settlements 
were first established upon the coasts of the 
Euxine a trade with the inhabitants of the 
country, extending even to the Palus Mceotis 
and to the mouths of the Tanais, had been 
carried on; and it is perhaps to those early 
colonies of Greece that we may attribute most 
of the surprising sepulchral monuments found 
upon either side of the Cimmerian Bosporus. 
The Milesians erected a number of cities upon 
all the shores of the Euxine, and peopled them 
with their own colonies*. Other states of 
Greece, and especially the Athenian, followed 
their example 3 . The difficulty of ascertaining 
the locality of those ancient cities arises from 

(1) " Leuco, king of Thrace, was so much pleased thereby, that he 
ordered the decree, making him an Athenian Citizen, to be engraven on 
three marble columns. One of them was placed in the Piraeus, another 
on the side of the Thracian Bosporus, and the third in the temple of 
Jupiter Urius." Clarke's Connexion of Coins, p. 56. 

(2) Ibid. (3) Ibid. 


two causes; first, from want of harmony among CHAP. 
those authors whose writings we adopt as 
guides; secondly, from our ignorance of the 
geography of the country. Not a single map 
has yet been published with any accurate 
representation. Our only guide to conduct us 
in our approach to the Bosporus*, was the large 
Basil edition of Pliny, a folio volume, presented 
to us by Mr. Kovalensky of Taganrog; a most 
unexpected acquisition in the plains of Tahtary, 
According to the text of that author, we had 
every reason to believe we were not far from 
the situation of the antient town of Cimmerium; 
and in this conjecture we were probably right. 

At the foot of a small mountain, near the 
northern embouchure of the Kuban, we came to 
a station called Temrook. This place may be 

(4) According to every Greek text, particularly that of Strabo, it 
should be written BO2I1OPO2, implying " a passage for Oxen ;" but all 
the Latin geographers write BOSPHORUS. It seems probable that the 
original appellation was derived from <l>n2*OPOS, the most antient 
name of Venus, whose fane was upon these shores. The name of the 
Hosporus of Thrace, according to Eustathius, in his Commentary on 
Dionysius, (See Ox. Ed. p. 138,) was a corruption of <t>n2<J>OPION ; but 
perhaps the term was first taken, rather from the Light- Towers, or the 
Volcanic Fires, common to both the Straits, than from the origin he has 
assigned. The change of <t> into B was common ; as BIAinnoS for 
IAinnoS, BPTTES for <&PTTE2, BEPONIKH for <6EPONIKHi and 
balaena for <t>AAAINA. 


CHAR observed in the Russian maps. It is now nothing 
more, however, than a single hut, for the purpose 
of supplying post-horses. Near it, the very 
year before our arrival, a volcano rose from the 
sea, forming an island, which afterwards sunk 
again 1 . Temrook is mentioned in the notes to 
the Oxford edition of Strabo, in more than one 
instance, with allusion to the Travels of Motraye, 
and written Temrok*. In Motraijes time it was 
a place of more consideration than we found it. 
He was there in the beginning of the last 
century 3 , and describes it as " considerable for 
its commerce, in hides, caviare, honey, Circassian 

(1) The following account of the rising of this island has been ex- 
tracted from Pallas's Travels. " It was about sun-rise, on the fifth of 
September (1799), when a subterraneous noise, and soon after a dread- 
ful thundering, were perceived in the Sea of Azof, opposite to old 
Temruk, about one hundred and fifty fathoms from the shore. This 
intestine convulsion was speedily followed by a report not unlike that 
of a -cannon ; while the astonished spectators, who had attentively 
watched the terrific scene, observed an island, of the form of a large 
barrow, rising from a cavity of the sea about five or six fathoms deep, 
and proceeding above the surface of the water, so that it occupied a 
space of about one hundred fathoms in circumference. At first it 
appeared to swell, and separate by fissures, throwing up mire with 

stones, till an eruption of fire and smoke occupied the spot 

On the same day, about seven o'clock P.M. two violent shocks of an 
earthquake, after a short interval, were perceived at Eliaterinodar, which 
is two hundred versts (near 134 miles) distantfrom Temruk." Pallas's 
Travels in the South of Russia, vol. II. p. 3 16. The same author relates, 
that the island sunk again before he could visit it. 

(2) Strab. Geogr. lib. ii. p. 722. edit. O*wi. 1807. 

(3) Motraye was at Temrook in December 17 1 1 . See Trtv. voh 11. 
p. 40. 


slaves, and horses." He supposed its castle CHAP. 
stood where the Antients placed their Patrceus ; 
and " two eminences/' says he, " which are 
named The point of the island, may have been 
their Acliilleum Promo ntorium*" This seems 
sufficient to prove that here was the situation of 
Cimmerium, stationed, as Pliny mentions, "ultimo 
in ostio" It had formerly, observes the same 
geographer, the name of CERBERION. Pallas re- 
marks 5 , that Temrook may probably have been 
the Cimbricus of Strain. From this place Motraye 
began his journey, when he discovered, in so 
remarkable a manner, the ruins of a Greek city 
in Circassia, seeming, from an inscription he found 
there, to have been APATURUS. All that we 
can collect from the obscurity involving this part 
of his narrative, is, that, leaving Temrook, he 
turned to the right, and, crossing a river, called 
by the Tahtars The Great Water (probably the 
Kuban), arrived, after a journey of one hundred 
and ten hours 6 , at those ruins: also, that they 
were situate in a mountainous country; for he 
observes, that the Tahtars of the mountains 
were not so civil as those of the plains. It 
follows, therefore, that Pliny is not speaking of 

(4) Ibid. 

(5) Travels through the Southern Provinces, &c. vol. II. p. 315. 

(6) The editor of the Oxford Strabo makes it five days and six hours. 
This is evidently a mistake, as will appear by consulting the text. 



CHAP, the APATURUS in Sindica mentioned by Stralo 1 . 

ii. J 

' yi.i.' when he couples it with PHAXAGORIA*, but of 

a temple of Apaturian Venus, belonging to that 
Text of c i tv ^d noticed also by Strabo 3 . Having thus 

Strabo and J J 

Pliny re- removed one difficulty, in reconciling the places 

conciled. . * ' 

on the Bosporus with the text of these authors, 
we may perhaps proceed with more facility and 

Fortress After leaving Temrook, we journeyed, prin- 

and Ruins. J 

cipally in water, through an extensive morass. 
In the very midst of this are stationed the ruins 
of a considerable fortress, looking like an old 
Roman castle, and said to have belonged to the 
Turks. At the taking of this place, the Russians, 
from their ignorance of the country, lost five 
hundred men. In order to attack an out-post, 
they had a small river to cross ; this they ex- 
pected to pass on ice ; but the Turks had cut the 
ice away, and the water was deep. During the 
deliberation caused by this unexpected embar- 
rassment, the Turks, who were concealed behind 
a small rampart, suddenly opened a brisk fire, 
causing them to leap into the water, where they 
were all shot or drowned. The fortress itself 

(1) Strab. lib.ii. p. 722. ed. Oxon. 

(2) " Mox Stratoclia et Phanagoria, et paeni desertum Apaturos." 
Plin. lib. vi. c. 6. 

(3) Slrab. lib. ii. p. 723. ed. Oxon. 


is a square building, having a tower at each 
angle, and is still almost entire. It is difficult 
to conceive for what purpose it was erected; as 
it stands in the midst of a fen, without seeming 
to protect any important point. Is it possible 
that such a building can present the remains of 
CIMMERIUM, or even the Tmutaracan of the 
Russians, or any work of high antiquity ? On 
account of its form, we should be inclined to 
believe its origin of no remote date: and yet, 
that little has been ascertained of the style of 
architecture used in the earliest periods of 
fortification, may be proved by reference to a 
silver medal, now- in the author's collection, 
which he afterwards found in Macedonia. This 
medal is of the highest antiquity, being rude in 
form, and without any legend or monogram. 
The subject of it exhibits in front, within an 
indented square, the figure of a man, with a 
crowned head, and a poignard in his hand, 
combating a lion; and the reverse, with very 
little difference, may represent the fortress in 
question 4 . 

At the distance of two versts from this fortress 
we saw other ruins, with a few antient and some 
Turkish tombs, and subterraneous excavations. 

(4) See the Vignette to this Chapter. 


C HAP. Among these may be recognised the identical 
^ v~ ' antiquities described by Motraye, in his Travels 1 . 
No trace of any antient work appeared after- 
wards, excepting tumuli, until we came to the 
Bay of Taman. Then, upon the shore, imme- 
diately above some high cliffs, we observed the 
remains of a large fortress and town, entirely 
surrounded with tombs and broken mounds of 
earth, indicating evident traces of human labour. 
The geography of these coasts is so exceedingly 
obscure, that a little prolixity in noticing every 
appearance of this kind may perhaps be tolerated. 
We soon reached the post-house of Sienna, 
actually scooped in the cavity of an antient tomb. 
In the neighbourhood of this place we found 
remains of much greater importance. Its en- 
virons were entirely covered with tumuli) of a 
size and shape that cannot fail to excite a 
traveller's wonder, and stimulate his research. 

The commandant of engineers at Taman, General 

able Tomb. 

F'anderweyde, had already employed the soldiers 
of the garrison in opening the largest. It was 
quite a mountain. They began the work, very 
ignorantly, at the summit, and for a long time 
laboured to no purpose. At last, by changing 
the direction of their excavation, and opening 
the eastern side, they discovered the entrance 

(l) Motraye, torn. II. p. 40. 


to a large arched vault, of the most admirable CHAP. 
masonry. The author had the pleasure to < , 
descend into this remarkable sepulchre. Its 
mouth was half filled with earth ; yet, after 
passing the entrance, there was sufficient space 
for a person to stand upright. Farther, towards 
the interior, the area was clear, and the work 
perfectly entire. The material of which the 
masonry consisted was a white crumbling 
tophus, of limestone, such as the country now 
affords, filled with fragments of minute shells. 
Whether it be the work of Milesians, or of any 
other colony of Greece, the skill used in its 
construction is evident. The stones of the sides 
are all square, perfect in their form, and put 
together without cement. The roof exhibits Antiquity 

of Arches. 

the finest turned arch imaginable, having the 
whiteness of the purest marble. An interior 
vaulted chamber is separated from the outer 
by means of two pilasters, swelling out wide 
towards their bases, and placed, one on each 
side, at the entrance; the inner chamber being 
the larger of the two. 

Concerning every thing found in this tomb, it 
is perhaps not possible to obtain information. 
One article alone, that was shewn to us by 
General Fanderweyde at Taman, may give an 
idea of the rank of the person originally there 


CHAP, interred. This was an antient cincture for the 
* - T --_' ankle, or a bracelet for the wrist, made of the 
Gold" 6 " purest massive gold. The soldiers employed 
let% in the undertaking stole whatsoever they deemed 
of value, and were able to conceal ; destroying 
other things not seeming to them to merit pre- 
servation. Among these was a number of vases ' 
of black terra-cotta, adorned with white orna- 
ments. The bracelet was reserved by General 
Vanderwcyde, to be sent to Petersburg, for the 
Emperor's cabinet; but enough having been 
said of Russia to induce at least a suspicion that 
so valuable a relic may never reach its des- 
tination, a more particular description of it is 
necessary. Its weight equalled three quarters 
of a pound. It represented the body of a serpent, 
curved into an elliptical form, with two heads : 
these, meeting at opposite points, formed an 
opening for the wrist or ankle. The serpent 
heads were studded with rubies, so as to imitate 
eyes, and to ornament the back part of each 
head by two distinct rows of gems. The rest 
of the bracelet was also further adorned by rude 

(1) A few of these vases were however sent to Moscow (according to 
the account given to us in the country) ; and they were there swallowed 
by the whirlpool which engulphed in that city all that is dear to 
literature. Their local history is probably now lost ; for the Russians, 
iu their astonishing ignorance, call all works of this kind Etruscan, 
believing thereby to add to their value. 


graved work. It possessed no elasticity, but, CHAP. 
on account of the ductility of pure gold, might, 
with sufficient force, be expanded so as to admit 
the wrist or the ankle of the person who might 
wear it ; and probably, when once adapted to 
the form, it remained during the life-time of the 
owner. We regarded this relic as one of the 
most antient specimens of art perhaps existing 
in the world; shewing the progress made in 
metallurgy, and in the art of setting precious 
stones, at a very early period; and exhibiting 
a remarkable type of the mythology of the age 
in which it was fabricated; the practice of 
binding a serpent round the leg or arm, as an 
amulet, being one of the earliest superstitions 
common to almost every nation, and which yet 
exists in many countries. Immediately above 
the stone-work constructed for the vault of the 
sepulchre, we observed, first a covering of earth, 
and then a layer of sea-weed 2 , compressed by 
another superincumbent stratum of earth, to the 
thickness of about two inches. This layer, of 
sea-weed was as white as snow, and, when taken 
in the hand, separated into thin flakes, and fell 
to pieces. What the use of this vegetable 
covering could be, is now uncertain : it is found 
in all the tombs of this country. Pallas observed 

(2) Zostcra marina, according to Pallas. 


CHAP, it in regular layers, with coarse terra-cotta vases, 
of rude workmanship, unglazed, and filled with 
a mixture of earth and charcoal 1 . It is said that 
a large marble soros or sarcophagus, the operculum 
of which now serves for a cistern near the 
fortress of Yenikale in the Crimea, was taken from 
this tomb. The appearance of the entrance, 
however, in its present state, contradicts the 
story ; as the opening has never yet been made 
sufficiently wide for the removal of such a 
relic, even had it been so discovered. In the 
Vignette to the next Chapter is a representation 
of that part of the sarcophagus at Yenikale to 
which allusion is here made. That it was taken 
from one of the antient tombs of the BOSPORUS, 
is highly probable 2 ; and its perfect coincidence, 
in point of form, with an invariable model com- 
mon among the sepulchres of Greece, sufficiently 
denotes the people from whom it was derived. 

Similar tombs appear upon all the shores of 
the BOSPORUS. Close to this now described, 
are many others, and some nearly of equal size. 
Pallas, in his journey over this country, mentions 
the frequency of such appearances around the 

(1) Travels through the Southern Provinces, &c. vol.11, p. 306. 

(2) Motraye mentions having seen the lower half of one, betwaen 
Taman and Tcmrook. Vol. II. p. 40- 


Bay ofTaman*. Indeed, it would be vain to ask CHAP. 
where they are not observed : but the size, the ^. - ' 
grandeur, and the riches, of those upon the 
European and Asiatic sides of the Cimmerian 
Straits excite astonishing ideas of the wealth and 
power of the people by whom they were con* 
structed. In the view of labour so prodigious, 
as well as of expenditure so enormous, for the 
purpose of inhuming a single body, customs and 
superstitions are manifested which serve to illus- 
trate the origin of the pyramids of Egypt, of the 
caverns of Elephanta, and of the first temples of 
the antient world. In memory of " the mighty Origin of 
dead," long before there were any such edifices 
as temples, the simple sepulchral heap was 
raised, and this became the altar upon which 
sacrifices were offered. Hence the most antient 
Heathen structures for offerings to the Gods 
were always erected upon tombs, or in their 
immediate vicinity. The discussion which has 
been founded upon a question " Whether the 
Egyptian pyramids were tombs or temples," seems 
altogether nugatory: being one, they were ne- 
sarily the other. The Soros in the interior 
chamber of the greater pyramid of Djiza, proving 
its sepulchral origin, as decidedly establishes 

(3) Travels through the Southern Provinces, &c. vol. II. p. 305, &c. 


CHAP, the certainty that it was also a place of religious 
worship : 

" Et tot templa Defim Romae, quot in urbe Sepulchra 
Heroiim nutnerare licet." l 

The sanctity of the Acropolis of Athens owed 
its origin to the sepulchre of Cecrops : and without 
this leading cause of veneration, the numerous 
temples by which it was afterwards adorned 
would never have been erected. The same may 
be said of the Temple of Venus at Paphos, built 
over the tomb of Cinyras, the father of Adonis ; 
of Apollo Didym&us, at Miletus, over the grave of 
Cleomachus ; with many others, alluded to both 
by Eusebius* and by Clemens Alexandrinus 3 . On 
this account, antient authors make use of such 
words for the temples of the Gods as, in their 
original and proper signification, imply nothing 
more than a tomb or a sepulchre. In this sense, 
Lycophron*, who affects obsolete terms, uses 
TYMBOI; and Firgil 5 , TVMVLVS. It has been 
deemed right to state these few observations, 
because there is no part of antient history liable 
to greater misrepresentation, than that which re- 
lates to the origin of temples : neither is it possible 

(l) Prudentius, lib.i. (2) Pra?p. Evang. lib. ii. c. 6. 

(3) Cohortatio ad Gent. 3. (4) Lycophr. Cassand. v. 613. 

(5) " Tumuhnn antique Cereris, sedcnique sacratam, 

Ycniiuus." jILit. lib. ii. v. 742. 



to point out a passage in all Mr. Bryant's learned 
dissertations, so reprehensible, and so contrary 
to the evident matter of fact, as that in which 
this subject is introduced. Having afforded an 
engraved representation 6 of sepulchres, exactly 
similar to those excavated in the rocks of Asia 
Minor, exhibiting inscriptions which decidedly 
prove the purport of their construction, he 
nevertheless exerted his extraordinary erudition 
to establish an erroneous opinion of their real 

Sienna 1 seems to correspond with the CEPVS 
of Strabo 8 , and Cepce Milesiorum of Pliny 9 . The 
Milesian sepulchres found there in such abun- 
dance may probably still further confirm this 
position: but in order to elucidate the text of 
either of these authors, reference should be 
made to better maps than have hitherto been 
published. No less than three antient bridges of 


(6) JSn/ant's Mythology, vol. I. p. 224. 4to.edit. I^ondon, 1774. 

(7) Sienna is the name of this place, a? pronounced by the Tcherno- 
morski Cossacks; but they are constantly changing the appellation of 
the different places in the country, and we know iiot what name it had 
among the Tahtars. 

(8) Lib. ii. p. 722. ed. Ojcon. It is written Cepi in the Latin trans- 
lation ; and in the Greek text, KjJ^e; ; but, according to the Notes, 
some MSS. read / Kim/. We have written it as it is authorised by the 
o-iition of Pliny we chanced to have with us, as well as by Pomponius 
Mela, and by Dlodorux Simlits. 

(9) Hist. Nat. lib. vi. c. G. 


stone lead to this place from Taman ; and that 
they were works as much of luxury as of neces- 
sity, is evident, from the circumstance of their 
being erected over places containing little or no 
water at any time. A shallow stream, it is true, 
fjpws under one of them ; but this the people of 
the country pass at pleasure, disregarding the 
bridges, as being high, and dangerous on account 
of their antiquity. They consist each of a single 
arch, formed with great skill, according to that 
massive solidity which characterizes works of 
remoter ages. The usual bridges of the country 
are nothing more than loose pieces of timber 
covered with bulrushes. 

Near to this spot, upon a neck of land 
between the great marsh or lake of Temrook and 
a long bay formed by the Euxine, at the di- 
stance of eighteen versts from the Ruins of 
Phanagoria, stood a monument, composed of two 
statues and a pedestal, with a most interesting 
inscription, which has been preserved by the 
ingenious Koehler. The monument was raised 
by Comosarya, a queen of the BOSPORUS, in con- 
sequence of a vow she had made to the deities 
AXERGES and ASTARA'. The inscription has 

(0 " And to Astarte the Phenician God, alludes Aestar, or Easter, 
that Saxon Goddess to whom they sacrificed in the moneth of April ; 
which Bede, in his book De Teniporibus, styles Easter moneth." 
Bochart Can. l.i. c. 42. fol. 751. See Gale's Court of (he Gentiles, 
p. 124. 


been communicated to me, with the learned 
Koehlers commentary, since the publication of 
the first edition of this volume 2 . 


History does not mention Comosarya ; but we 
know, from the inscription, that she was daughter 
of Gorgippus, and wife of Pcerisades, probably 
P&risades I. who was son of Leucon, and suc- 
ceeded his brother Spartocus III. in the fourth 
year of Olympiad cvn. According to Diodorus 9 , 
this P&risades reigned thirty-eight years. It 
appears, from a learned dissertation of M. Boze, 
that Ptfrisades, Satyrus, and Gorgippus, are the 
tyrants of the BOSPORUS alluded to by the 
orator Dinarchus*, when he reproaches Demos- 
thenes with having caused bronze statues to be 
erected in honour of those sovereigns, in the 
public square at Athens. This, and the pre- 
ceding marble, tend to confirm what we read in 
Strabo*, Diodorus 6 , and Lucian\ that from the 

(2) By Charles Kelsall, Esq. of Trinity College, Cambridge, who, 
during his travels in this country, pursued the author's route, with 
unabated zeal, and with enterprise which was only subdued by the 
sacrifice of his health. 

(3) Lib. xvi. cap. 52. 

(4) Demosthen. Oral. p. 34. ed. Reiske.' 

(5) Lib. xi. p. 758. 

(6) Lib. xx. cap. 22. 

(?) In Macrob. cap. xvii. p. 123. 


CHAP, time of Spartocus I. to Asander, who was invested 
with the regal authority by Augustus, the go- 
vernment of the BOSPORUS was partly republican; 
for Parisades is styled Archon of the BOSPORUS, 
and the chief magistrate is termed Hegtmon by 
Strabo, and Ethnarchus by Lucian. 

The deities AXERGES and ASTARA are Syro- 
Chalda'ic. AXERGES is probably the same as 
the deity NERGEL, or NERGAL, mentioned in 
Scripture', the Moloch of the Ammonites, the 
Remphah of the Egypticms, and Hyperion of the 
Greeks. ASTARA is the Chaldaic and Phoenician 
ASTAROTH, the Alilat of the Arabs, the Isis of 
the Egyptians, the Syrian deity mentioned by 
Lucian, and the Atergatis, Astar&, and Selcn of 
the Greeks. 

It was, then, to the two great luminaries of 
heaven that Comosarya dedicated her monument, 
probably to implore them to grant her fruitful- 
ness in marriage 2 . 

Fortress of \V"e passed the new fortress of Tainan, in our 


. (l) 2 Kings, xvii. 30. 

(2; It is observable that 2XTPH.I is in the singular number, which 
Is an error in the engraver of the marble : and for 0ATEilN, Koehler 
proposes QATEPX1N. 


way to the town, distant about two versls 3 . 
Workmen were then employed upon the build- 
ing. It is an absurd and useless undertaking, 
calculated to become the sepulchre of the few 
remaining inscribed marbles and Grecian bas- 
reliefs, daily buried in its foundation. As a 
military work, the most able engineers view it 
with ridicule. An army may approach close to 
its walls, protected from its artillery by a 
natural fosse, and even unperceived by the 
garrison. The Russians begin to be convinced 
of the bad policy which induced them to extend 
their frontier into this part of ASIA. The defence 
of the line from Ekaterinedara to Taman, not 
half its extent between the Caspian and the 
Black Sea, required, at the time we passed, an 
army of fifty thousand men 4 , whose troops, 
from unwholesome climate and bad water, con- 
sidered the station little better than a grave. 
The country itself yields no profit; for it consists, 
principally, of swampy or barren land, and 
serves only to drain Russia of soldiers, who 

(3) There is a fortress with a Russian garrison, of whom the Cossacks 
complain heavily, as infamous thieves. Our carriage was guarded 
every night by a Cossack sentinel with his lance." Heler't MS. 

(4) That is to say, during a period of war. In ordinary times, the 
number is by no means so considerable. Mr. Hebcr makes the whole 
guard of the cordon only equal to 5000 men. , 



CHAP, might be better employed. The natural boun- 
daries offered by the Black Sea, the Sea of Azof , 
and the Don, with a cordon from that river to 
Astraclian, would much better answer the pur- 
poses of strength and dominion. 

Arriving at Taman, we were lodged in the 
house of an officer who had been lately dismissed 
the service ; through whose attention, and that 
of General Vanderweyde, the commander of 
engineers, we were enabled to rescue from 
destruction some of the antiquities condemned to 
serve as materials in constructing the fortress 1 . 
The General conducted us to the ruins, whence 
they derive masses of marble for this purpose ; 
and called them, as they really appeared to be, 
" The Ruins of the City of PHAXAGORIA." 
They extend over all the suburbs of Taman; 
the ground being covered with foundations of 
antient buildings ; frequently containing blocks 
of marble, fragments of sculpture, and antient 
medals. Of the medals procured by us upon 
either side the BOSPORUS, few are common in 
cabinets. One especially, found in or near 

Ruins of 



(l) As these have been already described in the account published 
of the Greek Marbles, deposited, since our return, iu the Vestibule of 
the Public Library of the University of Cambridge, it is only necessary 
now to refer to that work ; and to say, that the articles described in 
Nos. I. IV. V. VI. XXIV. in pages I, 4, 46, came from this place. 


Toman, deserves particular notice ; as it seems CHAP. 
to confirm what has been said respecting the 
situation of Phanagoria, It is a small silver 
medal of that city, of great antiquity, and per- 
haps unique ; there being nothing like it in the 
Collection at Paris, nor in any other celebrated 
cabinet of Europe. In front, it exhibits the 
head of a young man, with the kind of cap 
described in a preceding page of this volume 2 : 
upon the reverse appears a bull, butting, with 
a grain of corn in the space below the line upon 
which the animal stands, and above it are the 
letters <PANA. When we consider the destruc- 
tion of antient works, so long carried on in 
Toman and in its neighbourhood, we may rea- 
sonably wonder that any thing should now 
remain to illustrate its former history. So 
long ago as the beginning of the last century, 
it was observed by Motraye that the remains of 
antiquity were daily diminishing 3 . Between 

(2) See Note 1. p. 30. 

(3) " We took up our lodging that night at Taman, and set out 
the 25th, early in the morning; and I observed nothing remarkable 
between this town and Temrook, but some yet considerable ruins, 
which were likely to become less so every day, by their continued diminu- 
tion, occasioned by the inhabitants of these two places carrying off, 
from time to time, part of them, to build magazines, or lay the 
foundations for some houses. By their situation, they seemed ot 
me to have been those of the Phanagoria of the Antients, if it was 
not at Taman ; but I could not find either inscriptions or basso- 
relievos to give me any further insight into it. Hard by the highway, 

VOL. IJ. (; near 


Taman and Temrook, he saw the lower part of a 
Soros ; and perhaps the cistern at Yenikale was 
the upper part of this, that is to say, its 
operculum\ When a traveller has reason to 
suspect that he is upon or near to the site of 
antient cities, an inquiry after the cisterns 
used by the inhabitants may guide him to very 
curious information : to this use the Soroi have 
been universally applied ; and upon those 
cisterns antient inscriptions may frequently be 
discovered. Another cause of the loss of antient 
monuments at Taman, originated in the esta- 
blishment of a colony of Russians at a very 
early period, when the city bore the name of 
Tamatarcan, or Tmutaracan z . Near the gate of 
the church-yard of Taman lies a marble slab, 
with the curious inscription which ascertains 
the situation of that antient principality of Russia, 
once the residence of her princes. We had the 
satisfaction to see this stone, and to copy the 
inscription: it has already been illustrated by 
the writings of Pallas, and by a celebrated 
Russian antiquary, who published, in his own 

near a well, there is a sort of a long and large chest of hard stone, as 
valuable as marble, aud without a cover, almost like the tombs at 
Lampsaco." Motr aye's Travels, vol. II. p. 40. 

(1) Pallas says it was brought from the Isle of Taman. See vol. II. 
p. 285. 

(2) " The name in Theodosius's Itinerary is Tamatarca. Tmutaracau 
means literally The Swarm of Beetles." Heber's MS. Jouriutl. 


language, a valuable dissertation upon the 
subject 3 . It would be therefore superfluous to 
say more at present of this valuable relic, 
than that it commemorates a mensuration made 
upon the ice, by Prince Gleb, son of Vladimir, 
in the year 1065, of the distance across the 
Bosporus from Tmutaracan to Kertchy ; that is 
to say, from Phanagoria to Panticap&um : this 
is found to correspond with the actual distance 
from Taman to Kertchy. The words of the 
inscription are to the following effect : " In the 
year 6576 (10(35), Indict. 6. Prince Gleb measured 
the sea on the ice; and the distance from Tmutaracan 
to Kertchy was 30,054 fathoms." Pallas relates, 
that the freezing of the Bosporus, so that it 
may be measured upon the ice, is no uncommon 
occurrence 4 ; a circumstance which confirms the 
observations made by antient historians, and 
also proves that degrees of temperature do not 
vary according to those of latitude ; both Taman 
and Kertchy 5 being nearer to the equator than 

(3) Aleksye Musine Puchk'ine, one of the members of the Privy 
Council in Russia, published an elucidation of the inscription, and of 
the principality of Tmutaracan, accompanied by a map explanatory of 
the geography of antient Russia. Petrop. 1794, quarto. See also 
Pallas' s Travels in the South of Russia, Hfc. vol. II. p. 300. 

(4) Ibid. vol. II. p. 289, 300. 

(5) These towns are situate in latitude 45. Venice is about half a 
decree nearer to the North Pole. Naples and Constantinople are, with 
respect to each other, nearly on the same line of latitude ; yet snow 
falls frequently, during winter, in the latter city, but is seldom seen 
in the former. 

G 2 


CHAP. Venice, where the freezing of the sea would 

v v ' be considered as a prodigy. The cavalry of 

Mithradates fought upon the ice, in the same 
part of the Bosporus where a naval engagement 
had taken place the preceding summer 1 . 

Amphi- Among the other antiquities of Taman, one 


of the most remarkable is a Naumachia*, or 
amphitheatre for exhibitions of naval combats. 
This is not less than a thousand paces in 
diameter, and the whole of its area is paved. 
Its circular form is everywhere surrounded by 
ruins and by the foundations of buildings, 
sloping towards the vast reservoir in the centre. 
A wide opening upon one side seems to have 
afforded the principal entrance. The pavement 
of the area, consisting of broad flat stones, is 
covered by earth and weeds. The subterra- 
neous conduits, for conveying water, still 
remain; but they are now appropriated to 
other uses. One of these, beneath the church, 
is kept in order, for the use of the priests. 
When the Cossacks of the Black Sea first arrived 
in their new settlement, they caused water to 
flow into this immense reservoir, for their 

(1) Strab. lib.vii. p. 444. ed. Oxon. 

(2) Naumachia was a name frequently used by tbe Antients to 
signify tbis kind of theatre. " Semel triremi usque ad proximo* 
Navmachve bortos subvcctus est." Suetonius in VitA Tib. 


cattle ; but afterwards becoming stagnant, and CHAP. 
proving extremely unwholesome, it was again * . .->,.. ,./ 
drained. Crossing this area towards the ma in s </" 
south, the remains of a temple appear, of con- j^J". a ~ 
siderable size, built after the Grecian model. 
Here the workmen employed in the fortress 
discovered a considerable quantity of antient 
materials ; such as marble columns, entabla- 
tures (many with inscriptions), marble bas- 
reliefs, and other pieces of sculpture; these 
they have buried in the foundation of that 
edifice, or destroyed in making lime 3 . Near 
the ruins of this temple are also those of some 
other public edifice, which must have been of 
prodigious size, for its remains cover a great 
extent of ground. The marble, and other stone, 
in the antient buildings of Phanagoria are 
substances foreign to the country: the Isle of 
Taman produces nothing similar. The materials 
found here were brought either from the Crimea, 
from Greece, or, in later ages, by the Genoese 
from Italy. Among fragments of those extra- 
neous substances, we observed upon the shore 
even the productions of the mountain Vesuvius; 
and could readily account for their appearance, 
having often seen the Genoese provide ballast 

(3) An entablature, broken for this purpose, is described in p. 46 of 
the Account of the Greek Marbles at Cambridge, No. XXIV. 


CHAP. f or their vessels in the Bay of Naples, where the 
* v ' beach is covered by volcanic remains. These 
Volcano, substances, found upon the Bosporus, may here- 
after be confounded with the productions of a 
volcano distant only twenty-seven miles from 
Toman, called, by the Tahtars, Coocoo Obo : the 
Tchernomorski give it the name of Prekla 1 . The 
eruptions of Prekla, although accompanied by 
smoke and fire, have not yet been followed by 
any appearance of lava. The result has been a 
prodigious discharge of viscous mud. An ex- 
plosion took place on the 27th of February 
1794, at half past eight in the morning; and 
was followed by the appearance of a column of 
fire, rising perpendicularly, to the height of 
fifty fathoms from the hill now mentioned. This 
hill is situate in the middle of a broad angular 
isthmus, upon the north-east side of the Bay of 
Taman, distant eight miles from that place, in 
a direct line across the water, and only ten 
from Yenihale on the Crimean side of the Bos- 
porus. The particulars of this extraordinary 
phenomenon are given so much in detail by 
Pallas*, that it would be useless to repeat them 
here. Observations upon volcanic eruptions of 

(1) A term used also by the Malo- Russians, to signify Hell. It is. 
remarkable, that the Icelanders call their volcano Hekla, which 
perhaps, in their language, has the same signification. 

(2) Vol. II. p. 3 18. 


mud have been published by Mulkr, and by 
Kcempfer, in Germany, and different travellers 
have given an account of similar phenomena at 
Makuba in Sicily. At present there is nothing 
remarkable to be seen at Prekla, excepting 
boiling springs within the cavities whence the 
eruptions of fire and mud proceeded; remaining, 
although perfectly cool, in a constant state of 
ebullition 3 . 

Two marble columns were lying before the 
church at Taman, each consisting of one entire 
block, about eighteen inches in diameter. Their 
capitals were of white marble, (although the 
shafts were of Cipolino,^ beautifully sculptured : 

(3) " We took a ride with our Cossack host, to see the mire foun- 
tains mentioned by Pallas. The first thing we were shewn, was a 
circular area, resembling the crater of a small volcano. In the centre 
was a heap of stones, which, with the surrounding mud, appeared im- 
pregnated with sulphur. In one place was a pool of water, without 
any particular taste. About 500 yards distant was another circle, but 
much smaller, all of soft mud ; and in the centre was a little hole, 
whence slowly bubbled out a nauseous black fluid, like bilge-water. 
By treading on any part of the mud, more matter oozed from the 
wound ; for the whole had the appearance of one vast sore. We thrust 
our sticks into the mud, but found no bottom ; and on withdrawing 
them, a similar kind of fluid rose through the apertures they had made. 
There was another, precisely similar, at a small distance ; and very 
near this last, a well of water, resembling that of Harrowgate, in 
taste, smell, and sparkling." Heber's HIS. Journal. 

(4) Cipolino is a name given by Italians to an impure marble, con- 
taining veins oischistus: this decomposes, and then the mass exfoliates, 
falling off into flakes, like the coats of an onion. 


they represented a ram's head at each corner, 
with curving horns, causing a resemblance to 
Ionic capitals. Almost all the marble in Taman 
is of the kind called Cipolino. Near to the 
columns were two large marble lions, each 
formed of one entire mass. Statues of lions, 
sometimes of colossal size, are common upon 
these shores, left by the Genoese. Two others 
were stationed before the door of the General's 
house. Upon the opposite side of the Bosporus 
there are remains of the same kind, particularly 
at Kertchy and at Yenikale. Near this latter 
place is a colossal statue of this kind, lying in 
the sea : it may be seen in calm weather, 
although under water. In the wall of the 

i mils at 

Taman. church at Taman we observed a marble slab 
with an inscription : this we copied with diffi- 
culty, as it was covered with plaster. 









It is unnecessary to offer a mere conjectural 
elucidation of an inscription which is evidently 
so imperfect : yet, even in its present state, a 


valuable document is afforded by the remaining 
characters, which may lead to the illustration 
of other inscriptions found in this country, as 
well as of the Bosporian history. This inscrip- 
tion doubtless refers to the reign of Rhescuporis 
the First; because, in addition to his own name, 
occurring in the fourth line, he bore also the 
name of Tiberius Julius, which appears in the 
line immediately preceding: this he had assumed 
in honour of the Emperor to whom he was 
indebted for the kingdom. His son, Sauromates 
the First, did the same 1 . According to a prac- 
tice among the Greeks, of taking the name of a 
Roman Emperor, Rhcemetalces the First, of Thrace, 
assumed the pr&nomina of Caius Julius*. The 
name of Diophantus, in the last line, had been 
celebrated in the annals ofPontus and of Bosporus, 
as the name of a General in the army of 
Mithradates, who built the city of Eupatorium in 
the Minor Chersonesus 5 . It may further gratify 
curiosity, to observe the singular mode of 
spelling the word BOOSPORUS, in the third line, 

(1) Professor Koehler's copy of this inscription being more perfect 
than that which appeared in the first edition of this volume, the author 
has been enabled to correct an error in the reading. Sauromates the 
First was son of Rhescuporis; as appears by the legend in its present 

(2) Hist, des Rois da Bosphore, par Gary, p. 43. Paris, 1752, 

(3) Strab. lib. vii. p. 451. cd. Ojcon. 

and the mention made of the city of Panticap<ewi 
in the eighth. 

Seven other inscriptions, found near to this 
church, and among the ruins of Phanagoria, 
have since been communicated to the author, 
by the liberality of a Traveller, whose name was 
inserted in a former page 1 . Owing to their 
importance in illustrating the obscure annals of 
the Bosporian history, they are placed here, 
together with the observations made upon them 
by the learned Professor Koehler, whose remarks 
upon the inscription discovered upon the bor- 
ders of the Lake of Tcmrook have been already 
introduced. The first of these inscriptions 
occurred upon the pedestal of a statue of Venus, 
in the garden of the church at Taman. 




The first line is defective; and cannot be 
restored, unless, by further discovery, we can 
ascertain the genealogy of the wife of Spar focus, 
who here probably commemorates a statue she 
caused to be erected to Venus. It should be 

(1) See Note (2) in p. 79 of this volume. 


observed, that Spartocus is the name of this CHAP. 
king, and not 2OAPTAKO2, as written by < v 

The second was also upon the pedestal of a 
statue of Venus at Taman. We copied the same 
inscription; but it was not inserted in the 
first edition of this work : 


This, and the two subsequent inscriptions, tend 
to shew that Venus was held in great veneration 
in the Bosporian territory. 

* . 

A third was found upon the pedestal of 
another statue of Venus at Taman : 


A fourth was observed in the garden of the 
church at Taman : 


. ENTO . B 


The above, which is very defective, relates to 
the temple of VEXUS APATURIAS. Sauromates had 
caused this temple to be repaired. Strabo 
alludes to it, when he says ' , that, on entering 
the Bay of Corocondama, there appears, to the 
left, a temple dedicated to Venus Apaturias. He 
adds, that in the city of Pkanagoria there was 
another temple to the same Deity. 

Upon the pedestal of a statue at Taman was 
also the following : 

. . . 0AAAZZHZA . . ONTA 



This inscription records the gratitude of a queen, 
perhaps Dyrgatao, which may be the same as 
Tirgatao, mentioned by Polycenus. It appears 
that she dedicated a statue to the Emperor 
Helvius Pertinax, for having afforded assistance in 
repelling the incursions of her enemies. Koehler 
believes that she was wife of Sauromates III. 
or the widow of a prince of some neighbouring 

(1) Vid. Strabon. Geog. lib. xi. 


A sixth was upon a pedestal, destined to 
receive a statue of Sauromates I. 




Sauromates, commemorated in the above in- 
scription, was the first of the name, and suc- 
cessor to Polemo I. In honour of Tiberius, he 
adopted the pr&nomina of Tiberius Julius; as 
many medals, and two marbles discovered by 
Koehler, testify. Rhescuporis I. mentioned in 
a former inscription^ was also coeval with 
that Emperor, and assumed the same pr&- 
nomina. Koehler thinks that this Sauromates 
was founder of a fourth dynasty in the Bos- 
porian empire. Anestratus, in this marble, gives 
to his king the title of Ccesar : hence we may 
form some idea of the pomp of the Bosporian 
Court ; for besides the title of King of Kings, 
and the prcenomina of a Roman Emperor, the 
sovereign assumed the title of C<esar. 

(2) See p. 90, of this volume- 


A seventh came also from the same place : 






The above commemorates the dedication of a 
statue to Apollo, by Mestor the son of Hippos- 
thenes, raised by him upon the tomb of his father, 
in the reign of Pcerhades. From this we may 
collect the title of the Bosporian kings. 

Many remains of a similar nature are buried 
in the foundation of the fortress. Having con- 
cluded our researches and our journey in this 
part of ASIA, we hired a boat, on the 12th of 
July, to conduct us to Yenikale in the Crimea, 
upon the opposite side of the Straits ; resolving 
to examine all that part of the Bosporus, and 
afterwards to explore the whole of TAURICA 



Passage across the Straits YEN IK ALE' Modern Greeks 
Marble Soros Singular antient Sepulchre Pharos 
of Mlthradates Medals of the Bosporus Rums 
KERTCHY Tomb of Mlthradates Vietv of the Cim- 
merian Straits- Antiquities of Kertchy Account vf a 
Stranger who died there Fortress Church Havoc 
made by the Russians Cause of the obscurity involving 
the antient Topography of the Crimea Departure from 
Kertchy Antient Vallum Locusts Venomous Insects 
Gipsies Cattle Tahtars Vallum of ASANDER 
Arrival at CAFFA. 

sailed from Taman on the 12th of July. CHAP 

The distance to Yenikale, on the opposite shore, 


is only eighteen Russian versts, or twelve English 
miles. Prosperous gales, and placid weather^ 
soon brought us midway between the European 
and Asiatic coasts. As the sea was tranquil, 
we profited by the opportunity to delineate the 
view, both towards the M&otis and the Euxine. 
Dolphins, in great numbers, played about our 
vessel. These animals go in pairs; and it is 
remarkable how accurately their appearance 
corresponds with the description given of them 
Yenikait. by Pliny* . Arriving opposite Yenikale, or, as it 
is frequently written, Jenihale 2 , we found a 
fleet of Turkish ships waiting favourable winds, 
both for Taganrog and for Constantinople. Soon 
after we landed, we obtained lodgings in a 
neat and comfortable Greek mansion, whose 
owner, by birth a Spartan, and native of Misitra, 
was a man of integrity, and considerable infor- 

(1) Pirn. Hist. Nat. lib. ix. c. 8. From the Promontory of Takil- 
muys, at the entrance of the Bosporus, Professor Pallas obtained some 
very interesting specimens of the blue phosphat of iron, or native irm 
azure: these he afterwards presented to the author. This substance 
lies deposited with animal remains, and generally occupies the cavities 
of fossil shells ; the phosphoric acid being communicated to the iron by 
the decomposition of the animal matter. One of those specimen* 
exhibits a crystallization of the phosphat, in diverging tetrahedral 
prisms with rhomboidal bases. 

(2) Yenikale is compounded of two Turkish or Tahtar words, signi- 
fying New Castle. 


mation. His wife was a native of Paros. We CHAP. 
found their dwelling so agreeable an asylum, IL 
after our long Scythian penance, that we re- 
mained there nearly a week. A wooden balcony, 
or covered gallery, into which their principal 
apartment opened, gave us a constant view of 
the Bosporus, with all the opposite Asiatic coast, 
and the numerous vessels at this season of the 
year constantly passing to and fro. As the table 
of our host was free to every comer, we dined 
with people from almost all parts of Greece 
and Asia Minor : their conversation, as they all 
spoke the Italian language, was intelligible and 
interesting. The natives of Cephalonia, a sturdy 
and athletic race, those of the Morea, of the 
islands of the Archipelago, ofCandia, the southern 
coast of the Black Sea, Trebisond, Amasara, and 
Constantinople, amused us by the singularity of 
their dress, as well as by their conversation. 
The house of Keridhi, for such was the name 
of our host, was a sort of rendezvous, where 
they all met once in a year, in their voyage to 
and from Taganrog 3 . His windows were full 
of books, printed at Venice, in the modern Greek 
language. His boys, during evening, read to 
him the popular poem of Erotocritus ; the Life 

(3) Mr. Heber's manner of writing this word has been uniformly 
adopted throughout the present edition. 


CHAP, of Alexander, with the extraordinary anecdotes 
of his horse Bucephalus; and the History of 
the Antient Kings of Byzantium. Their mode 
of pronouncing Greek is much softer than ours, 
rendering it more like the Italian', but they 
understand Englishmen, who endeavour to read 
the Greek after their manner. Among all the 
Greeks, the letter ft is sounded like our V ; 
and it is doubtful whether this were not the 
case in antient times '. The natives of the 
Crimea still call the town of Kertchy Vospoi\ 
and the straits Vospor, although they write the 
word Bospor. It may be well to inquire into 
the origin of the very popular poem of Eroto- 
critus; since, although in rhyme, and certainly 
of no antient date, the traditions and the stories 
upon which it is founded are common among 
all the inhabitants of Greece. They pretend 
that the palace of Erotocritus is still to be seen, 
at a place called Cava Colonna, near Athens ; 
alluding, evidently, to the promontory and temple 
of Sunium. Upon the walls of Keriahi's apart- 
ments were rude drawings, representing sub- 
jects taken from Grecian history : among others, 

(1) The late Professor Parson believed that the Antient Creeks 
pronounced the /3 as we do ; and, in proof of his opinion, used to 
cit* this verse of Cratinus : 

TO CAFFA. 101 

there was one of Hercules, in a helmet and 

coat of mail, destroying the Hydra; but they v - y -. 
knew nothing of the name of the hero, merely 
saying that it was the picture of a warrior 
once famous in Greece, and they related many 
extravagant tales of his valour ; perhaps such 
as once formed the foundation of those poetic 
fables which antient writers have handed down, 
with higher authority, to modern times. The 
heads of the young Greeks, both male and 
female, are full of such stories. As they much 
delight in long recitals, these relations consti- 
tute the subject of their songs and discourses. 
In the islands there are vagrant bards and 
improvvisatori, who, like Homer of old, enter 
villages and towns to collect alms by sing. 
ing or by reciting the traditions of the 
jcountry . 

If we may judge of the Greeks in general, Modem 

' Greeks. 

from a view of them in this part of the Crimea, 
they are remarkable for cleanliness, and for the 
attention paid to decency and to order in their 
dwellings. The women are perhaps the most 
industrious housewives upon earth, and entirely 
the slaves of the family. Their cookery is 
simple and wholesome. We never saw the 
Greek women idle. They have no desire to go 

II 2 


abroad : if the employments of the house admit 
of their sitting down for a short time, they 
begin to spin, or to wind cotton. Yenikale is 
almost wholly inhabited by Greeks. The men 
are for the most part absorbed in mercenary 
speculations ; but the women are gentle, 
humane, obliging, and deserving of the highest 

The fortress of YenikaU, whence the place 
has derived its present name 1 , stands upon 
some high cliffs above the town. In one of its 
towers there is a fountain. The source of it 
supplies a conduit on the outside, near the 
base. The stream flows in aqueducts, from a 
spring said by the inhabitants to be four miles 
distant ; and it falls, at the bottom of the 
tower, into the operculum of an antient marble 
Marble Soros, alluded to in the preceding chapter*. 
This Soros is of one entire mass of white marble, 
weighing two or three tons : it is now used as 
the public washing- trough of the town. They 
relate a story, before mentioned, concerning 
its discovery in one of the tombs of the Isle of 
Taman : it is probably a part of the Soros 
alluded to by Motraye, in the account of his 

(l) See a former Note, p. 98. (2) P. 74. 

TO CAFFA. 103 

journey from Taman to Temrook*. From its 
inverted position, we were prevented noticing 
an inscription since discovered upon the top of 
it, which we have not yet been able to obtain. 
Persons, residing there, assured us, that when 
they began the excavations at Taman, for 
materials to build the fortress, the number 
of terra-cotta vases, and other antiquities, 
discovered by the workmen, was truly asto- 
nishing ; that soldiers were seen with antique 
vessels suspended by a string, twenty or 
thirty at a time : all these have since been 
broken or dispersed. Our host presented to 
us one small earthen vase : this a slave had 
brought home, who was employed with others 
in digging near the church at Yenikale. They singular 

... Antient 

lound a pit containing a stone sepulchre, of one sepulchre. 
entire mass, but of a cylindrical form, shaped 
like the mouth of a well, and covered by a 
slab of marble. In this cylinder they disco- 
vered an oval ball, the outside of which was 
a luting of white cement resembling mortar. 
When they had removed this exterior crust, 
there appeared, within the ball, the small 
earthen vase now mentioned ; it was filled with 
ashes, and closed by a representation of the 
Medusas head, wrought in a substance similar 

(3) See the Extract from Motraye's Travels, in p. 83 of this volume. 


to the cement that covered the vase". In their 
care to cleanse the vessel, they had destroyed 
almost every trace of some black figures upon 
its surface. From the rude structure of this 
relic, and the manner of its interment, so 
different from the practice used by the Greeks 
at any known period of their history, or that 
of any other nation, it is impossible to deter- 
mine the degree of antiquity it may possess. 

pharn of About four miles from Yenikale, towards 


datet. the M&otis, upon a rock which projects into 
the sea, is the point where the antient Pharos 
formerly stood : this spot is still called by the 
Greeks PHANARI, and by the Russians $AXAR ; 
in either language implying a Lantern or Light- 
house. The ruins of the old foundation are still 
visible. Tradition ascribes it to the time of 
Mithradates, and the modern Greeks generally 
bestow upon it the name of PHANARI MITRJ- 
DATI. It was a work of peculiar necessity, 
although long abandoned ; since vessels coming 
through the Straits are obliged to keep close to 
the Crimean coast, for want of water towards 
the middle and Asiatic side of the passage. 

(4) This circumstance is noticed in the account of the Cambridge 
Marbles, Appendix, p. 77 ; where the Reader may find the subject 
of this remarkable symbol, and its purport iu the Heatheu Mythology, 
briefly discussed. 

TO CAFFA. 105 

Accidents frequently happen. A large Turkish 
merchant- vessel was stranded upon the shallows, 
in the southern extremity of the Bosporus, while 
we were here ; and one of the Russian frigates, 
passing up the Straits, was three times 
aground in view of Yenikale. 

The medals of the Bosporus are among 1 the Medals of 

3 the Bos2>o- 

most rare in the cabinets of Europe. We rus. 
collected a few in Yenikatt. Among these were 
certain of the Bosporian kings ; viz. one of 
Ptfrisades, in very small bronze ; one of Sauro- 
mates the First, in bronze, of the middle size ; 
two of Rhescuporis the First, in small bronze; 
one of Mithradates the Second, rather larger; 
and others whose real history it would have 
been difficult to determine, were it not for the 
light thrown upon them by Sestini 1 . Of the 
latter description is a small bronze medal, 
having in front a bull, butting; and for the 
reverse, a lamp, or light-tower, with the letters 
nAPI. This is proved, by the Kinsley Collec- 
tion, to be a medal of Parium, although easily 
mistaken for one of the island of Paros. We 
obtained also other bronze medals : these had 
evidently been derived from the same colony of 
Mysia ; viz. an imperial medal of Galba, two of 

(l) Lettere e Diss. Numis, sopra alcune Medaglie rare dell. Coll. 
Ainsl. Tav. 1. torn. III. e Lett. 4. p. 18. 


Justinian, and one of Licinius; also a Latin 
Autonome, of great rarity, with the head of a 
Roman Empress in front ; having for the reverse, 
an amphora, with the letters D. D. Decreto 
Decurionum. This last would have been wholly 
inexplicable to us, but for the observations of 
the learned Sestini upon one of a similar nature 1 . 
Concerning the representation given from a fine 
silver tetradrachm of Mithradates the Great, and 
a small silver medal of Polemo the First, it should 
be said, that the coins of these kings were not 
struck in Bosporus, neither were they found 
there. We procured them, after we left the 
Crimea, in the bazars of Constantinople; but, on 
account of their beauty and extreme rarity, as 
well as their intimate relationship to the series 
of Bosporian kings, a notice of them may be con- 
sidered an interesting addition to this work. 
Our observations upon all of them will be brief; 
and even these must be reserved for a Note ; 
because Numismatic dissertations involve dis- 
cussion, alone sufficient to require a volume. 
The Reader wishing to see the subject treated 
more at large, will find satisfactory information 
in Cory's History of the Kings of the Cimme- 
rian Bosporus**, in the posthumous work of 

(1) Lettcre e Diss. Numis. sopra alcune Medaglie rare dell. Coll. 
Ainsl. Tav. I. torn. III. e Lett. 4. p. 22. 

(2) Histoirc des Rois du Bosphore Cimmerien. Paris, 1752. 4to. 

TO CAFFA. 107 

Fcdllant* ', the dissertation of Souciet* ; and, 
above all, in the second volume of Eckhel b ; 
writings, if not compensating, yet in some 
degree diminishing the loss which Literature 
has sustained in the total annihilation of those 
records of Trogus Pompeius, which were calcu- 
lated to dispel the obscurity of the Bosporian 
dynasties 6 . 

(3) Achaemenidarum Imperium, sive Regum Ponti, Bospori, &c. 
Histor. ad fid. Numis. accom. Vaillant. 

(4) Hist. Chronol. des Rois du Bosphore Cimmerien, par Souciet. 
Paris, 1736. 4to. 

(5) Doctrina Numorum Veterum, a Jos. Eckhel, Parsl. vol. II. p.360. 
Vindobon. 1794, quarto edit. 

(6) All the medals of the family of Mithradates, whether kings of 
Pontus prior to the subjugation of the Bosporus, or successors of Mi- 
thradates the Great, have their name written MI0PAAATH2, and not 
MI0PIAATHS. It is therefore extraordinary, that the learned writers, to 
whose works we have so recently referred, with this fact before their eyes, 
continue the corrupted orthography, and write MITHRIDATES, which is 
certainly not only erroneous, but wholly inconsistent with the true 
Oriental etymology of the word, derived, according to Vossius and 
Xcaliger, from the Persian. (See Gale's Court of the Gentiles, p. 232. 
I lion. 1669.) Neither are medals the only documents which afford 
authority for writing it Mithradates : the inscriptions on Greek marbles 
bear the same legend. It is an abuse, however, which began with the 
Romans themselves, and has continued ever since. The same people 
who wrote Massilia for MA22AAIA, and Massanissa for MA22ANAS2A, 
and deduced Agngentum from AKPAFAS, would of course write Mithri- 
dates for MI0PAAATHS. With the exception of the portrait of Alexander 
the Great, perhaps there is no countenance expressed upon medals which 
we regard with such lively interest as that of MITHRADATES, " Vir" as 
it is sublimely expressed by Velleius, and cited by Eckhel, " neque silendus, 
neqne dicendus y sine curd, bello acerrimus, virtute eximius, aliquando 
fortund, semper animo maximus, consiliis dux, miles manu, odio in 
Romanes Hannibal." With him the line of Bosporian kings begins in 
regular order ; that is to say, it is freed from the uncertainty which 



CHAP. i n the short distance from Yenikale to Kertchu, 


< v / little more than eleven versts, or seven English 

Rums. ^ we ]3 Ser ved, upon the cliffs above the 

belongs to the series of the first and second dynasty, in which the succes- 
sion whether of the, beginning with the year of Rome 
267, and ending 309, or with the more immediate predecessors of Mithra- 
dates, from Spartocus (so written in inscriptions) to Pa-risades is not 
to be determined. Mithradates began his reign in Bosporus by the cession 
of Pcerisades, in the year of Rome 639 ; viz. one hundred and fifteen 
years before Christ. The Bosporian aera begins with the year of Rome 
457 (viz. two hundred and ninety-seven years before Christ), and ends 
in the time of Constantine the Great ; so that the monarchy continued at 
least eight hundred years. It is proper to pay particular attention to this 
circumstance, as many of the Bosporian medals have their dates upon the 
obverse side. Thracian medals have the same peculiarity : but there is an 
easy method of distinguishing a Thracian from a Bosporian medal. Upon 
the Thracian medals the Omega is written n,, and the Sigma "S. Upon 
the Bosporian, the Omega is written (u, and the Sigma c. By due atten- 
tion to this very evident criterion, much confusion may be avoided. 

Polemo the First succeeded to the throne of Bosporus thirteen or twelve 
years before Christ. The medals of this king are extremely rare. The 
head of Marc Antony, or of Augustus, generally appears upon the 
obverse side, to whom he was indebted for the kingdom. He was priest 
of a temple in Rome consecrated to Augustus, as appears by a curious 
inscription preserved by Gary. (Hist, des Rois du Bosphore, p. 41.) 
Immediately after Polemo, succeeded Sauromates the First ; upon whose 
medals we see the interesting representation of the regalia sent from Rome 
for his coronation. The letters MH, in a wreath or crown of laurel, 
have not hitherto been explained. The medals of this king, whether in 
silver or bronze, are so rare as to be considered almost unique. (See 
Eckhel, Doct, Num. Vet. vol. II. p. 370.) Sauromates, as well as his 
successor, Rhescuporis the First, took the names of Tiberius Julius, to 
which an inscription at Taman refers. Pellerin has preserved the 
legend on this medal, entire. T. IOTAIOT BAC IAEWC CATPOMATOT. 
Sauromates and Rhescuporis were kings of Bosporus only. Rhescuporis 
reigned in the time of Tiberius, and had this legend on a medal de- 
scribed by Gary, and by Eckhel (Doct. Num. Vet. vol. II. p. 375) : 
succeeded Rhescuporis, in the 38th year of our zcra; after whom, A. D. .42, 
came Mithradates the Second. 

TO CAFFA. 109 

Bosporus, many remains of antient buildings ; 
and the prodigious number of tumuli, every- 
where in view, might be said to resemble the 
appearance exhibited by the nodes upon the 
outside of a pine-apple. About half-way, upon 
the right-hand side of the road, appeared a 
stratum of limestone, hewn in a semicircular 
manner, so as to present an area whose sides 
were thirty feet perpendicular. In the middle of 
this area we found a deep well, hewn in the 
solid rock. The Tahtar peasants assured us, 
that its sides were those of a vast cylinder of 
marble, buried in the soil ; but it was evidently 
a channel bored through the rock. The work 
must have required great labour, the depth to 
the water being at least fifty feet, without 
including the farther depth of the well : this 
we were unable to ascertain. The Tahtars 
draw water from it, by means of a leathern 
bucket, for their sheep and goats. 

The town of Kertchy, placed upon the site of 
ancient Panlicapceum\ is reduced to extreme 

(l) " CERCUM arx et oppidum Tartaricum Cbauorum ditionis 
obseurum et humile admodum. In ostio (ut Strabo vocat) Maeotidis, 
ft ad earn angustiam, qtiam Bosporum Ciminerium ille cognouiinat ac 
/ntnttlum Panticapeium et civitatera sitmil ab eo dictarn, situin est. 
Ex adverse oppidi vel arcis illius in ripa alterft nngubtise illius, quae 
ajnjilius unum milliare in latitudiuem coiitiuetur. TAMANUM arx 



CHAP, wretchedness and insignificance. Not long ago, 
it was a place of considerable consequence. 
The Russians, according to the statement made 
by several of its inhabitants, destroyed five 
thousand houses. Even in its ruins, the regal 
seat of the Bosporian Kings, once the residence 
of Mithradates, will ever be considered an inter- 
esting, if not an important, place for the re- 
searches of the historian. Our first inquiry 
among the few Greeks settled here was for 
medals: several were brought, but for the most 
part much injured, and scarcely worth notice. 
We obtained one, however, in bronze, of a 
different description: after bestowing a little 
care in removing the hard crust upon it, the 
word PANTIKAPAIT2 N, with every letter per- 
fect, might be plainly discerned '. It was said 
to have been found in Yenihale. In front appears 

munitissima ; quam fortasse Phanagoriam appellatam esse, propinquis- 
siniam Asiae civitatem ; a Milesiis quondam conditam fuisse, et 
emporium in ea nobile extitisse Straboni placet. Illae arces a Genu- 
ensibus quondam excitata et uiunitae fuisse videntur, et non ignobile 
presidium ibi illi semper habueTe. Cercum arx diruta est ; nam 
Turcarum Imperator in universa Taurica nullam arcem aliam prater 
Perecopiam ipsam praesidio firmare Tartaro seu Chano permittit. 
Tamanum arcem, qua? in extremitate Taurica sita est, et Petigorensiuin 
amplissimce provinciae, quam Colchidem Ptolemasus et Strabo vocitant, 
jam contigua existit, seniacus seu praefectus ei imposito praesidio firmo 
perpetuo earn munivit." Descript. Tartar. L. Bat. 1630. p. 276. 

(1) Eckhel (vol. II. p. 3) notices the same remarkable legend, as found 
on the medals of Panticap&um. 


the head of one of the Eosporian kings ; and for CHAP. 
the reverse, a horse grazing, with the legend 
here given. 

The traditions of Kertchy are in direct contra- Tomb of 
diction of History : they relate, not only that 
Mithradatcs died here, but that he was buried 
at a short distance from the town, where they 
still pretend to shew his tomb 2 . It is perhaps 
a Milesian work ; but its height and size are so 
remarkable, that it is scarcely possible to be- 
lieve it to be the result of human labour. 
Among the Greek inhabitants of Kertchy , it bears 
the name of The tomb of Mithradates. The 
Russians are not contented with shewing his 
tomb ; they also point out his palace, and con- 
duct strangers for that purpose to the top of a 
natural hill or mountain above the town. They 
deceived General Suvorofto such a degree, when 
he visited the place, that being told it was the 
sepulchre of so great a hero, the veteran 
soldier knelt upon the ground and wept. We 
visited the mound pointed out as the tomb by 
the Greeks : it is distant four versts from Kertchy, 
near to the road leading to Cajfa. The Tahtars 
call it Altyn Obo: they have a tradition that it 

(2) Mithradales, according to Appian, was buried by Pompey at 
Sinope, iu the coemetcry of his ancestors. 


contams a treasure, guarded by a virgin, who 
here spends her nights in lamentations 1 . It 
stands upon the most elevated spot in this part 
of the Crimea, and is visible for many miles 
round. One thing concerning this tumulus is 
very remarkable, and may confirm the notion 
entertained of its artificial origin. It is placed 
exactly upon the vallum or inner barrier of the 
Bosporian empire. This work still exists in an 
entire state, having a fosse in front, and passing 
across this part of the peninsula, in a northerly 
.direction, from the^ltyn Obo to the Sea of Azof . 
Several other similar heaps of astonishing size 
are situate near this tumulus, although it towers 
above them all: the plains below are covered 
with others of smaller dimensions. Another 
circumstance is also worthy of notice : beyond 
the vallum, to the west, there are no tumuli; 
although they be so numerous upon its eastern 
side, that is to say, within the Bosporian territory : 
neither are they seen again, but very rarely, in 
all the journey towards Cajffa ; and before arriving 
at that place, they altogether disappear. After- 
wards, proceeding to the site of Stara Crim, 

(1) See Pallas'* Travels, vol. II.p.281. It is worthy of observation, 
that Pallas, being unable to reconcile this surprising tumulus with any 
reference to the real history of the interment of Mithradates, or to his 
own notions of probability as an artificial heap, endeavours to account 
for it by a natural process. 

TO CAFFA. 113 

others may be noticed. The shape of the Altyn C ^A p - 
Obo is not so conical as usual in antient tumuli; 
it is rather hemispherical. Its sides exhibit that 
stupendous masonry seen in the walls of Tiryns, 
near Argos, in the Morea ; where immense un- 
shapen masses of stone are placed together 
without cement, according to their accidental 
forms 2 . The western part is entire, although 
the others have fallen. Looking through the 
interstices and chasms of the tumulus, and exa- 
mining the excavations made upon its summit, 
we found it, like the Cairns of Scotland, to consist 
wholly of stones confusedly heaped together : its 
exterior betrayed a more artificial construction, 
and exhibited materials of greater magnitude. 
It seems to have been the custom of the age in 
which these heaps were raised, to bring stones, 
or parcels of earth, from all parts of the country, 
to the tomb of a deceased sovereign, or of a 
near relation*. To cast a stone upon a grave 
was an act of loyalty or of piety ; and an ex- 
pression of friendship or of affection still remains 
in the North of Scotland to this effect, f< -I will cast a 
stone upon thy cairn" The heap so raised consisted 
of heterogeneous substances ; granite and lime- 

(2) Seethe excellent representation, in Cell's Argolis, of this Cyclo~ 
pi-an work : it is impossible to obtain greater fidelity of delineation. 

(3) Aafi/s; tjctXtVi srvr avSga AI0ON 'ENA wcioi^totra. ritiiiicti if TO 

TOVTO %ugtot ivTat/# xohuiovf n'.yu\tvt vuv AjV&y xecTK%.iiruv 
ffrfUTitit. Iferudot. Metyom. 


CHAP, stone, fragments of volcanic rocks, pebbles from 
the sea-shore or from the beds of rivers, pro- 
miscuously mixed, and frequently covered by 
superincumbent earth. Stones were generally 
used in preference to earth, perhaps because 
they were more readily conveyed, and were 
likely to render the heap more durable. In the 
Isle of Toman, where stones were not easily 
procured, it is curious to observe the ingenuity 
used to preserve the tombs from decay; first by a 
massive and gigantic style of architecture in the 


vault; then by a careful covering of earth; further 
by a layer of sea- weed or the bark of trees, to ex- 
clude moisture ; and finally, by a stupendous heap 
of such materials as the country afforded. The 
stones whereof the Altyn Obo consists are all of 
the same nature; and perhaps they are all natural 
to the soil. Near to its eastern side is a pit, 
probably formed by some person wishing to 
penetrate to the interior of this immense pile. 
The Tahtars have in vain attempted to effect a 
passage : the stones fall in as they proceed. 
Yet they entertain a notion, that an entrance- 
was once accomplished : and they describe the 
interior as a magnificently vaulted stone chamber, 
formed by enormous slabs, seeming as if they 
would crush the spectator. It is remarkable 
that they should use an expression signifying 
vaulted; because it agrees with the style used in 
the interior of other tumuli upon the Asiatic side 

TO CAFFA. 115 

of the Bosporus, and thereby gives to their nar- CHAP. 
rative some internal evidence of truth ; yet they v. -y > 
may have borrowed this description from similar 
appearances observed in other tombs, which have 
been opened and submitted to their inspection. 

The view from the top of the Altyn Olo is one view of the 
of the finest in the Crimea. A range of similar straits?'" 
heaps continues along the lofty ridge whereon 
this tumulus stands, the whole way to Kertchy; the 
last object being the high mountain upon which 
the Acropolis of Panticapceum was placed, that 
is to say, upon the precipice above the sea, 
whence Mithradates threw the body of his son 
Xiphanes into the waves; as there is no other 
spot so connected with the site of the city, as to 
illustrate the text of Appian, who says the deed 
was done in the view of th,e mother upon the 
Asiatic side of the Strait. The palace of Mithra- 
dates was in all probability a fortress ; and the 
traces of its foundation are yet visible, near to a 
small semicircular excavation in the rock ; and 
this also is a work of great antiquity. One of the 
tombs in the range I have mentioned, although 
not so large as that ascribed to Mitkradates, is 
equally remarkable. It is the nearest to the 
spectator in the series ; the pretended tomb of 
Mithradates, or Altyn Obo, being the last towards 
the west, and immediately upon the barrier or 



CHAP, vallum, beyond which, as before stated, those 
monuments cease to appear. It is surrounded, 
near to its summit, with a circular wall of stones, 
placed regularly together, without any cement. 
Beyond this ridge, and these tombs, the view 
comprehends the whole of the Cimmerian Bosporus, 
the harbour of Panticap&um, the opposite coast 
of Phanagoria, Prekla volcano, and a great variety 
of objects, among which, at the time we were 
there, the passing fleets of European and Asiatic 
merchants, from all the ports of the Black Sea, 
the Archipelago, and the Mediterranean, were not 
the least interesting. Over all the distant pro- 
montories towards the east; in all the plains 
below; and wheresoever the eye could roam, 
excepting beyond the Bosporian vallum, ap- 
peared the antient tumuli so often described. 
These tumuli, as well as the hills, were covered 
with wild thyme, which swarms of locusts were 
devouring. The earth seemed also to be alive 
with the Rana varidkilis, a species of toad, de- 
scribed by Pallas, crawling up to the very 
summits of the highest hills '. This reptile has 
a smoother skin than the common toad ; it is 
smaller, and more active ; and it is covered with 
beautiful round spots, which lessen the horror 

(0 The Rana risaloria is also frequently found in this part of the 

TO CAFFA. 117 

of beholding, in such abundance, an animal CHAP. 
against whom all mankind seem to entertain a 
natural antipathy 8 . 

There is, perhaps, no part of the Crimea Antiquities 

... ' .. ... otfertchy. 

where a traveller will find so many antiquities 
as in Kertcky 3 . The peasants gladly exchange, 

(2) Milton makes it the abode of the infernal spirit 

" Him there they found 

Squat like a toad." Par. Lost, B. iv. 

(3) " On the 22d of April we found we had exhausted all the 
curiosities of Taman, and determined to proceed directly to Kertch, 
and wait for our carriage at Kaffa. We were induced to take this 
step by understanding that Yenikale" offered nothing remarkable either 
in antiquities or situation, and by our desire to give as much time as 
possible to Kaffa. The regular ferry-boat was then at Yenikale", and 
the wind directly contrary. For this boat our carriage was obliged 
to wait: we ourselves obtained a fishing-boat from the point nearest 
Kertch. From Phanagoria to this point is reckoned twelve versts : 
it is a long narrow spit of sand, evidently of recent formation, and 
marked in Guthrie's map as an island. Even where this terminates, 
is a range of sand reaching like a bar across almost half the Bosporus, 
and hardly covered with water, which bids fair in time completely to 
block up the navigation. An immense quantity of sea-fowl are seen 
on every part of the Straits. The prospect is perfectly naked and 
desert ; on one side the bare downs and long sand Kossas of Taman, 
and on the other a bleak and rocky coast, without verdure or inhabi- 
tants ; and the miserable fishermen, who rowed us over, were a very 
fit group for such a scene. From the Kossa, where we embarked, to 
Kertch, is reckoned twelve versts. Immediately opposite is a round 
shallow bay, where was a hut in which the fishermen occasionally 
slept. Behind the northern point of this bay opens a much larger ; 
where a few miserable houses, a small church", and a jetty of piles, 
point out Kertch. The most conspicuous object is a conical green 
hill, either entirely or in part artificial, on the top of which is a seat 
and a flag-staff. The Russian officer, who took us there, fancied it 

12 wa8 


CHAP. f or a f ew copeeks, the antient coins which they 
have discovered in the soil. The walls of the 
town are full of broken and of some entire 
marbles, with bas-reliefs and inscriptions neg- 
lected or ruined. Some of the latter are used 
as steps before the doors of the houses ; or they 
serve, as at Yenikale, among other materials for 
building. Many of the inhabitants have placed 
antient Greek marbles over their doors, by way 

was erected m honour of Mitbradates, or some of his family. The 
shore is very shelving and shallow ; and we had the greatest difficulty 
to get our boat within a reasonable distance of the land. The Com- 
mandant of Kertch, a Georgian by birth, told us that many plans had 
been given for a harbour and quarantine at this place ; but the present 
scheme of making Kaffa the emporium would probably prevent them. 
Immediately on landing, we were accosted by a Russian priest with 
the salutation X^<r<roV at'trm. We had before observed, that the 
Cossacks used at this season to salute foreigners in Greek. The town 
of Kertch is very small and miserable ; it is chiefly inhabited by 
Jews. There is one tolerable watchmaker, and two shops in the 
Bazar, where we saw some English cotton stuffs. The country 
around is all bare of trees, and their fire-wood is brought from the 
neighbourhood of Eski-Krim, a distance of perhaps 120 versts. There 
is a spacious fortress, and a garrison of a Lieutenant-colonel, a Major, 
and four companies of light-infantry. The men were distinguished 
by not wearing swords, which most Russian soldiers do : the non- 
commissioned officers carried rifles. I had made some drawings and 
memoranda of the antiquities, which I have lost, but which differed 
in no material point from the account published by Pallas. The 
most interesting are in the wall of the church. It is perhaps worth 
mentioning, a* illustrative of national character, that the Russian 
Major, who agreed to furnish us with horses, and an open kibitka to 
Kaffa, insisted on such usurious terms that the other officers cried 
out shame, and that the same man afterwards squeezed some further 
present out of Thornton's servant. A Cossack would have disdained 
such conduct." Hcber's MS. Journal. 

TO CAFFA. 119 

of ornament, but without any knowledge of 
their real nature, or even common attention to 
the position of the figures; so that they are 
seen in all directions, sometimes lying sideways 
in a wall, or wholly inverted. A number of 
interesting relics of this kind were in imminent 
danger of disappearing for ever, when we 
arrived : they were collected as substances for 
the repairs of the church. We purchased three 
very remarkable slabs of antique marble, with 
the view of sending them to Cambridge; but a 
dispute arising among the proprietors con- 
cerning the division of the money, the bargain 
was set aside, and the marbles were detained. 
They have since been described in a work 
published by Pallas, relating to his Travels in 
the South of Russia, where the reader will also 
find them accurately delineated '. Mr. Tweddell, 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, had recently vi- 
sited this country, and had left with Professor 
Pallas his own beautiful transcripts of every 

(l) See vol. II. PI. XVII, XVIII. One of these is of very remote 
date, referring to the history of the Bosporus prior to the time of 
Mithradates the Great. It has the following inscription : 
&c. Another inscription on a bas-relief, written IIOnAITIKOC- 
CAXAI, may perhaps be read nOHAITieKOCCAXAIPe ; but even 
thereby, the reading, although evidently that of a Cippus or common 
tomb-stone, is not much illustrated. 


CHAP, inscription found here: from these documents 
they were published by the Professor, but 
without any illustration ; the world having lost, 
in Mr. Tweddelfs untimely death, and the sub- 
sequent disappearance of his journals at Con- 
stantinople, in 1799, as yet unexplained 1 , all the 
information his great acquirements enabled him 
to afford. Upon the bas-reliefs of the Bosporus, 
the remarkable representation of an equestrian 
figure, attended by a youth, is so often re- 
peated, that it ought not to pass without 
observation: it has hitherto received no illus- 
tration 8 . Perhaps a passage in Herodotus may 
throw some light upon the subject. He relates, 
that the Scythians killed their slaves and finest 
horses, and, after taking out their entrails, 
stuffed them with straw, and set them up, as 
equestrian figures, in honour of their kings 3 . 

Cl) Since this was written, Mr. Tweddelfs brother, in a work 
entitled " Remains of the late John Tweddell," has succeeded in 
completely developing the whole of this mysterious transaction. To 
the surprise and indignation of all literary men (excepting those who 
were engaged in the transaction), it now appears, that a copy of 
Mr. J. Tweddell's Grecian Journal was purloined from the original, 
by persons to whose care and honour it had been confided ; but that 
neither the copy nor the original are likely to appear before the public, 
with Mr. Tweddelfs own uanie to his productions. 

(2) A similar 6gure is preserved among the Cambridge Marbles. 
S the Jecmmt pubtitfod at the University Press, 1808. octavo, pp. 4, 5. 

(3) Herodot. Melp. 72. 

TO CAFFA. 121 

It is from Panticapaum that the imaginary CHAP. 
Anacliarsis of Barthelemy is said to have em- 
barked, for his travels in Greece. Here, in 
antient times, stood a temple of Msculapms ; in 
which was preserved the bronze vessel men- 
tioned by Strabo as having burst in consequence 
of a severe frost upon the Bosporus 4 . If any 
future traveller should look for the site of that 
temple where the present church of Kertchy 
stands, he will not, perhaps, be far from the 
spot. Upon the introduction of Christianity, 
and especially in countries where it wholly 
superseded the antient superstitions, temples 
were almost always made subservient to the 
purposes of the new religion. 

A Greek merchant of Kertchy applied to us, Account of 
to purchase the books and manuscripts of a 
person, who had died there of a consumption there ' 
some years before, and who had been educated 
in England. He described the deceased as one 
who had employed all the latter part of his life 
in writing an account of the antiquities of the 
Crimea; who seldom conversed, but spent all 
his time in close application to his studies, and 
ultimately died of want, although he would 

(4) Strab. Geogr. lib. ii. p. 109. Ed. Oxon. 


CHAP, not acknowledge his distress. We visited the 

in. . 

_ T - > cottage where his effects were preserved. Near 

to a window lay an odd volume of Ariosto : this 
we found to be the only book reserved for his 
last hours, all the rest being locked up by himself, 
a short time before his death. In a comer of 
his miserable bed-room stood an English trunk, 
with its lock towards the wall. The old woman 
of the house said she was afraid to move it. 
When we had turned it, we found it sealed, and 
a paper fastened across the lock, with a long 
inscription in modern Greek, purporting that the 
trunk should be sent unopened to his brother, 
in Constantinople : this we immediately ordered 
to be done. The inscription ended by menacing 
with the vengeance of every saint and devil the 
wretch who should presume to break the seal, 
and to inspect the contents of this trunk. 

Fortress. Entering the fortress, which is now a ruin, 
we observed before the gate a beautiful marble 
fountain, said to be the work of Turks, but 
composed of antient materials; exhibiting not 
only Turkish characters, but also Greek inscrip- 
tions of more remote date. Over the entrance 
is one of the large marble lions mentioned in a 
former page, the devices of Genoa. Marble 
columns, together with fragments of marble 
entablatures, lie scattered about, either upon 

TO CAFFA. 123 

the ground, or among the stones used in building CHAP. 
the walls. Within this fortress stands the v ..,' , / 
church, a small building of considerable anti- church, 
quity. The pictures there suspended are 
among the earliest productions of Grecian art 
which came with the Christian religion into the 
Russian empire, and they are probably coeval 
with its introduction. Four marble pillars, of 
the Corinthian order, support the roof of this 
building. According to an inscription upon one 
of them, the church was erected in the year 
after Adam 6265, answering to 757 of our aera. 
It is a building, therefore, of high antiquity in 
the history of Christianity, and it proves the 
extent of its propagation in that early period. 
There are two smaller pillars of the same kind 
placed above the others. The priests shewed 
to us a copy of the Gospels, written in capital 
letters, upon coarse parchment, quite black with 
age and with use. It had been long excluded 
from the service of the church, and a printed 
version had supplied its place. The priest 
would gladly have sold it; and we should 
with equal pleasure have purchased it; but, 
as soon as the Russian police heard of 
our intention, its removal was prohibited, 
although its destruction was inevitable where 
it lay; and perhaps, at this time, it is no 
longer in existence. 



The havoc made in all the towns of the 
Crimea, during the various revolutions and 
made by the frequent change of inhabitants which the 
country has sustained, has almost annihilated 
every document likely to illustrate its antient 
history. But among all the devastators who 
have hitherto scourged this devoted land, none 
have proved so injurious to the interests of lite- 
rature as the Russians. We dare not to mention 
the high authority upon which these facts were 
communicated : it is sufficient to say, that an 
individual, of all others the best qualified to 
afford the information, repeatedly assured us, 
that there is no characteristic of a Russian more 
striking, than that of wantonly destroying 
monuments which are the most prized by 
enlightened nations. In Kertchy, after levelling 
to the earth five hundred houses, they left 
about thirty poor shops in the midst of ruins, 
whose present owners it is their daily practice 
to defraud. False in all their public engage- 
ments, as well as in their private treaties, they 
issued an ukase, inviting Greek merchants to 
settle in the town; but no sooner had these 
deluded people fixed there with their families, 
than the soldiers pulled down the houses about 
their ears, using, at the same time, other inti- 
midating measures to compel them to higher 
duties, than any even of the Russians themselves 

TO CAFFA. 125 

have paid, to whom no exemptions had been 
granted. Thus insulted and plundered, the 
Greek settlers demanded permission to leave 
the Peninsula : this was positively refused. It 
may be asked, why so little has been hitherto 
made public concerning the real character of 
this very profligate people ? The answer is, 
that there is no country where such pains 
have been used to prevent it. There was no 
instance of circumspection and of caution 
in which the late Empress CATHERINE em- 
ployed so much artifice, as in concealing 
from external observation the true history 
of her own people, and the wretched state 
of her vaunted empire. This is evident in all 
her correspondence with Voltaire; in all her 
instructions to her ministers ; in the glaring 
falsehoods published by her hired writers ; but 
particularly in the work which she with her 
agents composed, in answer to the writings of 
the Abbe Chappe. A party of her Savans were 
engaged to accompany her in a voyage down 
the Volga : as they sailed along, she caused the 
Abbe's account of his Travels in Russia to be 
read, every one present being enjoined to 
contribute something, either of smart criticism, 
or of contradictory remark: the notes, so 
collected, were afterwards arranged by the 


CHAP, celebrated Akksye Mus'ine Puchkine l ; and it is 
this pic-nic production which now bears the 
title of "The Antidote" We received this 
information from one of the party who was 
actually present with her upon that occasion ; 
and one who also added his own share to the 
undertaking. Nothing could be more deceitful 
than the false glitter of the Court of Petersburg 
in the time of CATHERINE. Pompous plans of 
improvement seemed to be the subject of daily 
conversation, and were industriously propagated 
in foreign countries ; but they existed only upon 
paper; like the number of the troops which 
Russia has so often affected to muster in the 
service of her allies ; or like the numerous 
governments and garrisons, whose mere names 
serve to occupy the void spaces upon the maps 
of her desolated territories 2 . 

(1) The name is here given according to the Russian mode of writing 
it; substituting only English letters ; as it appears in his own account 
of the Taman Stone. Perhaps it may be pronounced Alexis Mussin 

(2) Similar facts are also stated by Castera, by Segur, by the 
Prince de Ligne, &c. &c. The Reader is requested to attend to this 
circumstance ; and to add to these authorities, the numerous testimo- 
nies adduced by the author, in the Notes to this work, as vouchers for 
the veracity of his own personal observations. If it be urged, that, 
having viewed the Russians at an unfavourable period of their history, 
and under the galling impression of a temporary tyranny, he has deli- 
neated only the dark shades in their character ; in what manner will 
the corresponding statement be refuted, which has proceeded from so 
many able writers, in different periods, and of so many different nations? 

TO CAFFA. 127 

Could there be found a native of Russia, with CHAP. 

a passion for literature^ who to a knowledge of 

the Tahtar lanuae added also that of the 

modern Greek, (and many of the Russians speak 
both these languages with fluency,) the antient 
topography of the Crimea would not long 
remain in obscurity. Unfortunately, all those Crimea. 
persons whom CATHERINE employed to travel 
through her dominions for purposes of science, 
were either solely occupied in the pursuits of 
natural history, or they were employed, more 
politically, in preparing splendid statistical 
accounts of the most wretched provinces 3 . 

(3) Professor Pallas was among the number of those who became 
victims to the consequences of their own too favourable representa- 
tions. Having published his " Tableau de la Tauride," printed at 
Petersburg in 1796, in which he describes the Crimeaas a terrestrial 
paradise, (or, to use his own words in the dedication to Zoubof, as 

Cette belle Tauride cette province si heureusement disposte pour toutes 
les cultures qui manquent encore ct F empire de Russie,") the Empress 
sent him to reside there, upon an estate she gave to him; where 
we found him, as he himself confessed, in a pestilential air, the dupe 
of a sacrifice he had made to gratify his sovereign. 

" In the first stage towards Sudak, a building presents itself on 
the left hand, in a beautiful situation among woods, on the side of a 
steep hill, which our Tahtar guide said had been an Armenian convent. 
We conversed with the Tahtars by an interpreter whom we hired at 
Kaffa: he was a Polish Jew, -but had resided several years at Constan- 
tinople. Nothing could be more interesting, and to us novel, than the 
prospect, and the appearance of every one we met. A Mirza, or 
noble, one of the few who still remain in the country, overtook us ; 
and I was delighted at being addressed for the first time by the 
Oriental salam, by which we were afterwards saluted by all the pas- 
sengers. In this part of the country I only saw one camel, a she one, 
and kept for her milk : the roads are too steep and rocky for them. 



CHAP. Almost all of them were destitute of any clas- 

ii. * 

sical information. Pallas s first and favourite 

The common cart had two wheels, and was drawn by two oxen 
abreast, like a curricle : it was light, but spacious. This is only seen 
as far as Sudak : afterwards, the hills are too steep for any wheel car- 
riage. We passed a day with Dr. Pallas at Sudak, who asked much 
about Messrs. Clarke and Cripps. The beauty of this celebrated 
valley rather disappointed us, except as far as the vineyards are con-" 
cerned, which are more extensive and finer than any we saw beside*. 
Dr. Pallas said, that the wine made by the Tahtars was spoiled by the 
over irrigation of their vineyards, which increased the size of the 
grapes, but injured their flavour. The wine we tasted was all poor 
and hungry. Sudak, or, as it was explained to me, The Hill of tit 
Fountain, is a small village, peopled by a few families of Greeks, 
with a very small and insecure harbour. The castle, which is ruinous, 
stands on a high insulated rock on the east of the town ; and at the 
foot is a beautiful spring, preserved in a large cistern, with a metal 
cup chained to it. I suppose this is the harbour mentioned by Arrian 
as possessed by Scythian pirates, between Tbeodosia and Lampat. 
There is a small but handsome mosque still entire in the castle. I 
saw nothing which could be referred to a higher antiquity than the 
Genoese, nor any thing which I could rely on as even so old as their 
erections. It is only after Sudak that the real mountaineer features 
and habits appear to begin. In the Vale of Ohiz, or Sudak, very few 
of the cottages are flat-roofed, and all the better sort of farm-houses 
are tiled. 

' At Kaya, the next stage, and from thence to Baydar, the build- 
ings have flat roofs, except the mosques, which are tiled ; general!* 
with gable-ends, and surrounded by a wooden portico. This distinc- 
tion between the roofs of private and public buildings is mentioned by 
Aristophanes as existing in Athens: 

Tj ya. vttZi t'lKim ietytptv IIPO5 AETOtf. Optf. 1109-10. 
The bouses are generally piled up one aboveanother, half under ground, 
along the sides of hills ; they are composed of clay, and the villages 
resemble rabbit-warrens. Irrigation is practised universally, and 
with apparent skill, where the vineyards are planted. Very little 
corn is grown ; but the valleys are literally woods of fruit-trees. 
Water is abundant ; and, near many of the best wells, seats of earth 
are made, and bowU left for way-faring men to drink. There are 



study was zoology ; afterwards he cultivated CHAP. 
mineralogy, botany, and entomology. When v < Y > ,- 
resident in the Crimea, he was too far advanced 
in years, and too weak in health, to dedicate 
his hours to other studies ; otherwise he might 
have contributed largely to our stock of infor- 
mation. Hitherto, all that has been published 
concerning the geography and the antiquities of 
the Crimea was written by persons who never 
saw the country. Those who have visited it 
were, unfortunately, neither geographers nor 


We left Kertchy, and proceeded towards Departure 
Cqffa 1 . After the second station we passed 

wolves and foxes, and, of course, the other game is not very plenti- 
ful ; but there are hares, and a few partridges. Between Lambat and 
Aliuschta is the way to ascend Chatyr Dag, which we missed seeing, 
by the blunder of our Jewish interpreter." Heler's MS, Journal. 

(1) " We left Kertch on the twenty-third. From thence the road 
winds among swampy uncultivated savannahs, having generally a 
range of low hills to the south, and the Sea of Asoph at some distance 
to the north. These plains are covered with immense multitudes of 
bustards, cranes, and storks. I saw no pelicans after landing in 
Europe. I never saw an English bustard ; but those of the Crimea 
appeared to be a stouter bird than what is generally represented in 
prints. There are many ruins ia this part of the country, and other 
vestiges of population. We passed two or three small, but solid and 
well-built, bridges over rivulets, which appeared to be of Mohammedan 
workmanship ; and there were many tombs distinguished by the 
turban. The number of barrows near Kertch is surprising. We 
passed two villages still standing, and recognised at once the grotesque 
dresses of the Nagay herdsmen represented by Pallas. At night we 
reached another village some time after dark, and, after a furious 



C m R anotner antient boundary or vallum; and here 
we discerned the traces of turrets that were 

battle with the dogs, obtained a lodging. I have forgotten its name. 
The next day we found several patches of cultivation, and the country 
improving, though still full of ruins. On our right hand lay the Sea 
of Asoph ; and on our left the Black Sea was now visible. A ruinous 
mosque was before us. We found, on inquiry, that our driver had 
mistaken his way ; that we had passed the turn to Kaffa, and were in 
the road to Karasubazar. Kaffa now lay on our left hand ; and pre- 
sents a most dismal prospect as it is approached on the side. There 
is a striking ruin on the north-east point of the bay, which was for- 
merly a mint ; and the walls and towers, though dismantled, are very 
fine. The tower rises like a theatre from the water's edge, and is of 
considerable extent, but almost entirely ruinous. On the land side it 
is defended by a high wall, with loop-holes and battlements : the loop- 
holes communicate with a sort of gallery, and are contrived in the 
thickness of the wall, with large internal arches, which give it the ap- 
pearance of an aqueduct. These arches support the upper walk and 
parapet. The towers are semicircular. On one of them, iu which is a 
gateway, are many shields with armorial bearings, not much defaced, 
which ascertain the Genoese to have been its founders. There are 
some noble Mohammedan baths entire, but now converted into 
warehouses ; many ruined mosques ; and one which is still in geod 
order, though" little used. There are also the remains of several 
buildings, which, by their form, and position east and west, appear to 
have been churches. Turkish and Armenian inscriptions abound ; but 
I could find, in several days' search, no vestige which I could rely on at 
having belonged to the antient Theodosia. (See p. 150, and Note.) 
The north-west quarter of the town is peopled by Karaite Jews, and 
the narrow bazar nearest the water swarms with those of Europe. These 
are the two most, populous parts of the town. There are some Arme- 
nians, but not exceeding thirty families, and hardly any Tahtars. The 
remainder of the population consists of the garrison, five or six Italian 
and German merchants, (no French when we were there,) and some 
miserable French and Suabian emigrants. General Fanshaw has con- 
structed a very good quay ; and by pulling down some ruinous buildings, 
and a part of the wall, has made a good cut from the north, which 
he has planted with trees. They were building a very large and con- 
venient place of quarantine. I could find no aqueduct ; nor did there 
appear any need of one, as there are many beautiful springs bursting 



placed along the second barrier of the Bospo- 
rlans. In all this route, we found no other 

out of different parts of the higher town, which, excepting the north- 
east quarter, where the Karaites live, is entirely waste and ruinous. 
The springs have all been carefully preserved in cisterns, some of them 
ornamented and arched over, with Turkish inscriptions ; and one of 
them in particular, which is near the south-west angle of the walls, is 
a delightful bath, though small, being surrounded by picturesque 
ruins, and overhung with ivy and brushwood. .The ruins of Kaffa 
are mostly of free-stone : the greater part of the houses were, I 
understood, of mud and ill-baked bricks ; but of these hardly any 
traces are left. None of those still standing have flat roofs, but are 
all tiled, with very projecting eaves, and in the same style of archi- 
tecture as the palace at liatchiserai. The best of these adjoin to the 
quay, and are inhabited by the merchants. There are a few buildings 
lately erected ; one a tavern, by a French emigrant; and another a 
house intended for the governor, Fanshaw. All these are of slight 
timber frames, covered with plaister. 

" Kaffa was called by the Tahtars, in its better days, Kutchuk Stam- 
boul (Little Constantinople). I often asked different persons what its 
former population was ; particularly an old Italian, who had been inter- 
preter to the Khans ; but the answers I obtained were not such as I could 
credit. Yet he and the Tahtar peasants were in the same story, that it 
had formerly consisted of sixteen thousand houses. All the Tahtars 
attributed its desolation to the calamities brought on it by the Russian 
garrison, who tore off the roofs of the houses, where they were quartered, 
for fire- wood. I was told by a Suabian settler, that wood was chiefly 
brought from Old Krim, and was very dear : the winters he complained 
of, as Tery cold. Corn is very dear, and comes chiefly frem the Don. 
Animal food is not so plentiful as I should have supposed. A ycung 
man, who was employed to buy stores for Mr. Eaton the contractor, 
stated the price of beef, in the market of Kaffa, to be ten or fifteen copeeks 
th pound, or sometimes more, and the supply irregular. About three 
miles from Kaffa is a small village of German colonists, who were very 
poor and desponding: the number might be twelve families, who were 
then on their farms, the rest having gone into service, or to sea. General 
Fanshaw, to whom we had a letter, was at Petersburg ; so that I am 
unable to give so good an account of Kaffa as if I had the means of 
deriving information from him. His object was, to establish a Bank at 
VOL. II. K Kaffa. 


dwellings than Tahtar huts, with earthen floors, 
and an entrance so low that we could scarcely 
gain admittance, unless by creeping upon our 
hands and knees. The post here is worse 
regulated than in any other part of the empire ; 
but when we hired the horses of the peasants, 
we found them to be strong, fleet, and beautiful 
as Arabian coursers. Martens build their nests 
in the little chambers of the Tahtar s, and 

Kaffa, and finally to arrange the intercourse with the Don, by way of 
Arabat. The merchants of Kaffa were, as usual, excessively sanguine, 
and confident of the success of their scheme ; and we heard a direct con- 
trary story to the one we were taught at Taganrog. We could not learn 
whether Arabat had a safe harbour : the road from Kaffa thither is level, 
and, if necessary, a rail-road might be put up at no great expense, as it 
would come by water from Lugan. The bay of Kaffa is rather exposed to 
thesouth-east, but we were assured they had very seldom high winds from 
that quarter, and that accidents had been never known to happen. A small 
vessel, of the kind which Russia fitted out in numbers during the Turkish 
war, with one mast and a vast lateen sail, was lying in the harbour, to 
take a Scotchman, named Macmaster, to Immeretta, where, and at Trebi- 
zond, he was to act as a sort of Consul to an association which had just 
opened a trade there. At Kaffa we obtained an order from the Govern- 
ment for horses from the Tahtar villages, at the rate of two copeeks a verst, 
per horse. The order was in Turkish : the date was explained to us, 
' From our healthy city of Kaffa; 1 which I conclude was its antient 
distinction. The elder, or constable, of each village is named ' Ombaska;' 
but I write the Tahtar words from ear only. The road is not interesting 
till after you have past Old Krim j though there is a gradual improve- 
ment in the cultivation. Old Krim, we were told, is so called, because the 
Tahtars believe it to have been the antient capital of the Peninsula. It is 
now a village of fifty houses at most, inhabited entirely by Armenians; but 
the Mohammedan ruins are extensive : there are three mosques, and what 
appears to have been a bath. The neighbouring peasants are all Tahtars." 
Hcber's MS. Journal 


are encouraged to do so all over the Crimea, 
even in the houses of the best families, because 
these birds destroy flies. The roads, although 
excellent in dry weather, now became, in con- 
sequence of rain, almost impassable for our 
carriage ; the turf upon the steppes peeling off 
in large flakes, and adhering to the wheels 
with such weight, that they were often entirely 
clogged, and we could not proceed without 
frequently cleansing them. We passed several 
ruined mosques. A few Turkish and Tahtar 
tombs appeared also occasionally near the 
road : these were distinguished by small stone 
pillars, with a turban sculptured upon the top, 
and sometimes also by inscriptions in the 
Turkish, or in the Tahtarian, language. 

We now began to perceive the truth of those Locusts. 
surprising relations we had often heard and 
read concerning locusts. The steppes were 
entirely covered with the bodies of those 
insects ; their numbers, in falling, resembled 
flakes of snow driven obliquely by the wind, 
and spreading a thick mist over the sun. My- 
riads fell upon the carriage, upon the horses, 
and upon the drivers. The stories told us of 
these animals, by the Tahtar s, were more 
marvellous than any we had before heard. 
They relate, that instances have occurred of 



CHAP, persons being suffocated by a fall of locusts in 
the steppes. It was now the season when 
their numbers begin to diminish. On their 
first appearance, a thick dark cloud is seen 
very high in the air ; by its passage, ob- 
scuring the sun. We had always supposed 
that the stories told of the locust exaggerated 
its real appearance ; but we found the swarms 
to be so astonishing in all the steppes, during 
this part of our journey, that the whole face of 
nature seemed to be concealed, as by a living 
veil. They consisted of two species ; the 
Gryllus Tahtaricus, and the Gryllus Migratorius\ 
or common migratory Locust. The first, al- 
most twice the size of the second, because it 
precedes the other, bears the name of Herald 
or Messenger. The migratory locust has red 
legs, and its inferior wings exhibit a lively red 
colour, giving a bright fiery appearance to the 
animal, when fluttering in the sun's rays. The 
strength of their limbs is amazing; when pressed 
down by the hand upon a table, they have 
almost power to raise the fingers : but this 
force resides wholly in the legs ; for if one of 
these be broken off, which happens by the 
slightest accident, the power of action ceases. 
There is yet a third kind of locust, the Gryllus 

(l) See the Vignette to Chap. V. 

TO CAFFA. 135 

viridissimus of Linngeus, which is found near 
to the Don and to the Kuban, which is entirely 
of a green colour. This insect we have since 
seen upon the banks of the Cam, in our own 
country ; and we were apprehensive that such 
a Messenger might be a forerunner of the 
dreadful scourge which is inflicted by the locust 
on all countries where it abounds 2 . When those 
animals arrive in swarms, the whole vegetable 
produce disappears. Nothing escapes them, 
from the leaves of the forest to the herbs of 
the plain. Fields, vineyards, gardens, pasture, 
every thing is laid waste. Sometimes the only 
appearance left upon the naked soil is a revolt- 
ing heap, caused by their putrifying bodies, 
the stench of which is sufficient to breed a 

(2) In the year 593, many countries were afflicted by famine in conse- 
quence of ravages committed by locusts. In 677, Syria and Mesopotamia 
were overrun by them. In 852, they migrated from the Eastern countries, 
and, after devastating whole regions in the West, were driven by winds 
into the Belgic Ocean, In 1271, all the corn near Milan was destroyed 
by them; and in the year 1339, all the fields of Lombardy were laid 
waste. In 1541, they penetrated to Poland and Wallachia ; in 1673, 
some swarms settled in Wales; and in 1748, some fell in several parts 
of England, particularly in the neighbourhood of London, (Shaw's 
Zoology, vol. VI. part I. pp. 136, 137.) The best method of destroying 
them would be to recommend them as an article of food. In the Crimea 
they are often eaten by the inhabitants. Some French emigrants, who 
had been thus instructed, assured us that they were palatable, and very 
wholesome. The Arabs, according to "Hasselquist, eat them fried, and are 
t-Iad to get them. 


CHAP, pestilence '. We collected almost all the insects of 
T ' the Crimea; among these are some of the locust 
kind which are destitute of wings ; and there 
are others which differ only in trifling distinc- 
tions, that are more interesting to the entomo- 
logist than to the general reader. But other 
Venomous insects, infesting the Peninsula, require more 


particular notice, from the danger to which they 
expose an unsuspecting traveller. These are of 
three kinds : the two first, from their external 
appearance, seem to be spiders ; but, according 
to naturalists, one alone belongs to the genus 
jiranea, namely, the large black tarantula, 
known in many parts of the South of Italy, and 
long famous in giving its name to a dance which 
is said to afford a remedy for its bite, otherwise 
fatal. This animal attains a fearful size in the 
Crimea. We caught one with a pair of tongs : 
when it was extended in a natural posture, 
upon a table, it embraced by its claws a cir- 
cumference whose diameter equalled nearly 
three inches 2 . The other, although smaller, 
is much more formidable. Professor Pallas 
named it Pkalangium Araneo'ides. It is of a 

yellowish colour; looking like a large spider, 

r _ ~ 

(1) Those who have not seen the locust, will find it faithfully 
represented in the Vignette to the Fifth Chapter. 
(2) Sec also the Vignette to Chap. V. 

TO CAFFA. 137 

whose legs are covered with hair. In front it CHAP. 
has a pair of claspers, bearing some resem- v . > 
blance to lobster's claws. Pallas assured us, 
that its bite had proved fatal, in cases where he 
had himself attended the patient. Fortunately 
this insect is very rare. We preserved one for 
some time, in alcohol ; but the prepared speci- 
men was destroyed in its passage to England. 
The third kind of insect which is terrible on 
account of its bite is the Centipede, or Scolo- 
pendra morsitans*. This pernicious animal is 
very common in dry timber, and beneath stones, 
and in fissures of the earth, in warm situations. 
Scorpions also are found in the mountains. 

Strabo describes all the country between 
Theodosia (Caffa) and Panticap^eum (Kertchy) 
as rich in corn, and full of inhabitants 4 . In the 
villages we found parties of the Tzigankies, or Gipsies. 
Gipsies, encamped as we see them in England, 
but having their tents stationed between their 
waggons. Poultry, cats, dogs, and horses, 
were feeding around them ; seeming like mem- 
bers of the same family. Gipsies are much 
encouraged by the Tahtars, who allow them to 
encamp in the midst of their villages, where 
they exercise the several functions of smiths, 

(3) See the Vignette to Chap. V. 

(4) Strab. lib. vii. p. 448. edit. Oxon. 1807. 





musicians, and astrologers. Many of them are 
wealthy, possessing fine horses, and plenty of 
other cattle ; but their way of life, whether 
they be rich or poor, is always the same. One 
of the waggons belonging to a party of Gipsies 
which we visited was filled with an enormous 
drum : this instrument they accompany with a 
pipe, when performing before village dancers. 
The sound of the drum was the loudest we had 
ever heard ; and, although intimidating, it was 
nevertheless musical. Strata mentions the drum 
as an instrument common to the antient Cir.: 
and he notices its intimidating sound 1 . In 
their tents the men sat stark-naked among the 
women. They rose, however, as we entered, 
and cast a sheep's skin over their bodies. The 
filth and stench of this people were abominable : 
almost all of them had the itch to such a decree, 
that their limbs were covered with blotches 
and scabs. 

The principal property of the Tahtar gentle- 
men consists in cattle. Thousands are seen in 
the steppes, and they are often the property of 
a single man : among them we noticed many 
hundred camels. The Tauridan camel is repre- 
sented in Pallas' s Travels, from a drawing by 

(l) Strab. lib. vii. pp. 425, 46. edit. Oxom. 1807. 

TO CAFFA. 139 

Giesler of Leipsic. It has a double hump upon CHAP. 
its back. Pallas affirms, that the camel grows 
larger in the Crimea than among the Calmuck 
Tahtars, a circumstance of no moment, but 
directly contradicted by our own observations i 
the camels in the territory of the Don Cossacks, 
and near to the camps of the Calmucks, appeared 
to us to be much larger than those of the 
Crimea. They are used by the Tahtars in 
drawing covered waggons with four wheels, 
called Madshari, in which they convey their 
families. The price of a full-grown camel, in 
the Crimea, seldom exceeds a sum equivalent 
to twelve pounds of our money. Tahtar gentle- 
men appear armed when on horseback, and 
they ride remarkably well. Their religion, 
being Mohammedan, consists nearly of the same 
ceremonies which are observed among the 
Turks. At mid-day, the priest of every village, 
after washing his head, feet, and hands, 
proceeds with his beads 2 slowly to the mosque, 
where, having performed his devotions, he 
ascends to the top of the minaret, singing out 

(2) A rosary of beads, called Tespy, borne in the hand for religious 
purposes, exhibits one of the most antient and universal customs of 
the human race. The author found such rosaries buried among the 
Lares of the antient Egyptians, in the catacombs of Egypt, They are 
still used by all the Eastern nations, and may be observed among the 
natives of the islands in the Pacific Ocean. Balls of chalcedony, 
similarly arranged upon strings, are brought from India and China. 


CHAP, as loud as he can bawl, in a drawling tone, the 
well-known invocation, " God is God, and 
Mohammed is his Prophet!" The dress of the 
Tahtars, particularly among the higher ranks of 
the men, is plain and simple : it preserves the 
Oriental form, but without that contrast and 
variety of colour which gives such splendor to 
the habits of the Turks, the Poles, and the 
Tchernomorski Cossacks. A Tahtar Prince usually 
appears in a habit of light drab cloth, with a cap 
of grey wool, and in yellow or drab-coloured 
boots. Perhaps the costume was more magni- 
ficent under the government of the Khans. 

of Iii the last stage from Kertchy to Cqffa, we 
passed the third, that is to say, the outer vallum 
or boundary of the Bosporians : this separated 
their peninsula from the country of the TaurL 
Its remains, as well as those of the towers 
placed upon it, were very visible. This wall 
extends from the Sea of Azof, beginning east- 
ward of a place now called Arabat, to the 
mountains behind Cqffa: it is mentioned by 
Strabo, who states, from Hypsicrates, that it 
was constructed by Asander, three hundred 
and sixty stadia in length, having at every 
stadium a turret 1 . The description agrees with 

(l) Strab. lib. vii. p. 450. edit. Oxon. J807, 

TO CAFFA. 141 

its present appearance : the distance from the CHAP. 
Sea of Azof is not so great, but the oblique 
direction of the wall makes its length equal to 
that which is given by Strabo*. Constantine 
Porphyrogenetes has afforded a more explicit 
account of the boundaries of the Bosporians*. 
According to this author, the Sarmatians, being 
in possession of the Bosporian territory, gave 
war to the Chersonites, respecting the limits of 
their empire. The Chersonites were victorious 
in a battle fought near Caffa; and by the treaty 
of peace made upon the spot, it was determined 
that the limits of the Bosporian empire should 
not extend beyond Caffa. Afterwards, the 
Sarmatians, under another leader, protested 
against this boundary; and, giving battle to 
the Chersonites, were again defeated. Phar- 
nacus, king of the Chersonites, then contracted 
the Bosporian limits still more, and placed their 
boundary at Cybernicus, leaving them only forty 
miles of territory 4 ; " and these boundaries," 
he observes, " remain to this day." From that 
period the Bosporus was lost to the Sarmatians. 
Pharnacus retained some of them to cultivate 
the land, and sent others to their own country. 

(2) Allowing eight stadia to the English mile, its length would 
equal forty-five miles. 
L (3) Constant, de Admin. Imp. p. 213. ed.Meurs. L. Bat. 1611. 

(4) The latter is the same which the Reader will find noticed in the 
first part of our journey from Kertchy. 

142 CAFFA. 

CHAP. Th e latter, for this kindness, inscribed a pillar 
v .- ,' to him, and this perhaps still remains among 
the antiquities of Kertchy. 

Arrival at We now arrived upon the beautiful Bay of 
Caffa, supposed, but without foundation, to 
have been that of THEODOSIA. The town 
appeared covering the southern side, rising, 
like a vast theatre, with its numerous mosques 
and minarets, over all the hills inclosing that 
part of the bay. Many vessels were at anchor 
near the place; and, notwithstanding the de- 
struction of buildings by the Russians, it still 
wore an aspect of some importance. In former 
times it had the appellation of " The Lesser 
Constantinople;' containing thirty-six thousand 
houses within its walls; and, including the 
suburbs, not less than forty-four thousand. 



Caffa in its present State Barlarous Conduct of the 
Russians Inscriptions Distribution of the Town 
Departure from Caffa Stara Crim Ruined Baths 
Villa of the Empress Ant'ient Vallum Remarkalle 
Mountain Karasulazar Akmetchet Professor Pallas 
Unwholesome Situation of the Town Mus Jaculus, 
or Jerloa Observations of Bochart and others upon that 
Animal BAKTCHESERAI Novel Appearance of the 
City Fountains Destruction caused ly the Russian 
Troops Causes which led to the Deposition and Death 
of the late Khan Consequences of the Capture of the 
Crimea Palace of the Khans Preparations made for 
the Reception of the late Empress Seraglio Description, 
of the Charem Visit to the Fortress of Dschou foul kale 


Anecdote of an English Servant Extraordinary 
Ring Singular Excavation Jewish Cemetery 
Account of the Sect of Kara?. 

f IFTY families are at present the whole po- 
pulation of the once magnificent town of Cciffa : 
in some instances, a single house contains more 
than one family. The melancholy devastation 
committed by the Russians, drawing tears down 
the cheeks of the Tahtars, and extorting many a 
sigh from Anatolian Turks who resort to Caffa for 
commercial purposes, cannot fail to excite the 
indignation of every enlightened people. During 
Barbarous the time we remained, soldiers were allowed to 

Conduct of 

the RUS. overthrow the beautiful mosques, or to convert 


them into magazines, to pull down the minarets, 
tear up the public fountains, and to destroy all 
the public aqueducts, for the sake of a small 
quantity of lead they were thereby enabled to 
obtain. Such is the true nature of Russian 
protection; such the sort of alliance which 
Russians endeavour to form with every nation 
weak enough to submit to their power, or to 
become their dupe. While these works of 
destruction were going on, the officers amused 
themselves in beholding the mischief. Tall and 
stately minarets, whose lofty spires added 
grace and dignity to the town, were daily 
levelled with the ground : these, besides their 

CAFF A. 145 

connection with the religious establishments for 
whose maintenance the honour of the Russian 
empire had been pledged, were of no other 
value to their destroyers than to supply a few 
soldiers with bullets 1 , or their officers with a 
dram. We were in a Turkish coffee-house at 
Caffa, when the principal minaret, one of the 
antient and characteristic monuments of the 
country, was thrown down with such violence, 
that its fall shook every house in the place. 
The Turks, seated on divdns, were smoking ; and 
when this is the case, an earthquake will scarcely 
rouse them; nevertheless, at this flagrant act of 
impiety and dishonour, they all rose, breathing 
out deep and bitter curses against the enemies 
of their Prophet. Even the Greeks, who were 
present, testified their anger by similar impre- 
cations. One of them, turning to me, and 
shrugging his shoulders, said, with a coun- 
tenance of contempt and indignation, 'Sxvfat ! 
SCYTHIANS ! This we afterwards found to be 
a common term of reproach ; for although the 
Greeks profess a religion which is common to 
the Russians, yet the former detest the latter as 
cordially as do the Turks, or Tahtars*. The 

(1) The Russian troops are compelled to provide themselves , 
with lead. 

(2) The mild and amiable Pallas, notwithstanding the awe in which 
he was kept by the Russian Government, could not pass in silence the 


146 CAFFA. 

most lamentable part of the injury which the 
town has sustained is owing to the destruction 
of the aqueducts and the public fountains ; for 
these conveyed, together with the purest water 
from distant mountains, sources of health and 
of comfort to the people. The Russian soldiers 
first carried off the leaden pipes, in order to 
make bullets; then they took down all the 
marble slabs and large stones for building- 
materials ; these they employed in the construc- 
tion of barracks: lastly, they destroyed the chan- 
nels for conveying water, because they said the 
water-porters cannot earn a livelihood where 
there are public fountains. Some of those 
fountains were of great antiquity ; and they 
were beautifully decorated with marble reser- 
voirs, exhibiting bas-reliefs and inscriptions. 
In all Mohammedan countries, it is considered an 
act of piety to preserve and to adorn the public 

destruction of these beautiful buildings. It is interesting to remark 
the caution with which he suppresses his indignation, while he thus 
communicates the fact. " When I caused," says he, " the prospect 
of this town (Giff'a) to be drawn from the side next the Bay, there 
were two minarets, sixteen fathoms high, and furnished with serpen- 
tine staircases leading to the top, though both structures have since 
been demolished." Trav. vol. II. p. 267. Had the Professor ventured 
two syllables further, if he had merely added the word ,4las ! his grey 
hairs would not have saved him from what the archbishop of Moscow 
(p. 198 of Vol. 1.) so emphatically styled " the free air of Siberia." 
Indeed few would have ventured even to mention the circumstance. 
Such considerations make a Briton feel sensibly the blessings of the 
Constitution under which he lives. sua si bona norint ' 


aqueducts. Works of this nature once ap- 
peared in almost every street of Caffa : some 
of them were public lavatories ; others poured 
out streams of limpid water for the conve- 
nience and comfort of the inhabitants; for 
domestic use ; or for ablutions prior to going to 
the mosques. They were nearly all demolished 
when we arrived. 

The remains of antient sculpture left by the 
Grecians in Caffa, had not shared a better fate. 
All that even Mahommedans had spared of bas- 
reliefs, of inscriptions, or of architectural pillars, 
were fractured by the Russians, and sold as 
materials to construct their miserable barracks. 
We found the identical marbles, described by 
Oderico 1 , broken and exposed for sale in the 
ruins of the old Genoese fortress. These ex- 
cited a peculiar interest, because they related 
to the history of the town. It was in vain that 
we solicited to become purchasers; the request 
was immediately denied by the General-officer : 
" Strangers," said he, " are not permitted to 
move any thing from the country." In a short 
time, nothing will remain in Caffa but the traces 
of desolation left by its Russian conquerors. 
The town has experienced such a variety of 

(1) Lettere Ligustiche dell' Oderico. 8vo. Bassano, 1792. 


148 CAFFA. 

CHAP, revolutions, and so many different masters, that 
even in better times, when it was under the 
Mohammedan dynasty, few monuments existed of 
an earlier date than the establishment of the 
Genoese colony in the fifteenth century. Upon 
one of the columns of the principal mosque 
we found a Greek inscription, to the memory of 
Helen, a nun, and a person of the name of 
Tagman, who died, as it is expressed, in the year 
after Adam 6327, of the Byzantine reckoning, 
answering to the year of Christ 81Q, in the 
month of May. 











At the entrance of the city, near to an edifice 
once a mint, are some ruins likely to be con- 
sidered as relics of antient Theodosia. They 
appeared to be of remote date. For the rest, 
it may be observed, that there does not exist in - 

CAFF A. 14< 

Caffa any evidence that such a city ever existed l . CHAP. 
An inscription in the walls of the fortress proves 
that edifice to have been completed so late as 
1474, the very year of the capture of the city 
by the Turks, under Mohammed the Second; and the 
earliest date of any other inscription does not 
refer to a period anterior to the termination of 
the fourteenth century. We obtained one in 
the Armenian language; the letters of which 
were beautifully sculptured in relief, upon a 
slab of white marble. It is now preserved in 
the Vestibule of the University Library of Cam- 
bridge; and a translation of this inscription is 
given in the account there published of the 
Greek Marbles' 1 . It commemorates work done 
to one of the churches of Caffa, in the year 
1400. Another inscription in the wall of the 
fortress is in the Latin language : this is re- 
markable for an error in the word tempore, 
noticed also by Odorico. It is placed beneath 
three coats of arms, sculptured upon the same 
stone, as follows : 


(1) A passage in the " Excerpta v Michalonis Lituani Fragment^," 
printed at the Elzevir Press in 1630, proves that Staru C'rim wa* 
believed to occupy the site of Theodosia, as will hereafter appear, 

(2) Clarke's Greek Marbles, p. 8. No. VHf. 

L 1 

50 CAFFA. 

CHAR The distribution of the buildings in Caffa may 
be accurately ascertained. Upon the southern 
stood the Genoese citadel : the walls still 
remain, and the traces of its streets within the 
inclosure are visible. There are also numerous 
subterraneous chambers and spacious magazines, 
of the most massive and gigantic style of archi- 
tecture. Several inscriptions remain in the 
walls : these, from their elevated situation, have 
hitherto escaped injury. The rest of the in- 
closure exhibits a promiscuous heap of ruins. 
The opposite side of the city was the residence 
of the Tahtars : this part is now inhabited. 
Centrally situated between the two, and some- 
what elevated upon the hills above them, stood 
a portion of the city, once inhabited by Arme- 
nians : it is a scene of ruins, like the quarter 
possessed by the Genoese. If Theodosia ever 
stood upon the site of the present town of 
Caffa, it must have covered the ground since 
tenanted by Armenian and Tahtar establish- 
ments, and have occupied all the shore towards 
the north-east ; but from all that our subsequent 
observations have enabled us to determine, we 
have been convinced that Theodosia and Caffa 
did not stand upon the same spot 1 . 

(l) Since the publication of the First Edition of this Volume, the 
author has been induced to believe, by a passage in the " Excerpta 
e Michalonts lAtuani Fragmtntis de Morilus Tartarorum," given in a 



Upon the elevated territory above the Taktar 
city, close to the walls of the old Armenian 
fortress, is a circular building, very like certain 
ruined edifices upon the coast of Baia, near to 
Naples. It is now a ruin ; but, in taking down 
a part of the stucco loosely adhering to the 
wall, there appeared a beautiful inferior co- 
vering of coloured plaster; resembling the 
stucco discovered in Pompeii, and in Herculaneum. 
The Armenians, who had probably converted 

subsequent Note, that the ruins of Stara Crim are those of THEODOSIA. 
Arrian calls Theodosia the deserted city. The same expression is re- 
peated in the anonymous Periplus, taken from the writings of Scymnus 
CJiitts, Marciamis, and others. Fossius (Annot. in Peripl. Anon, 
p. 143,) says, " Theodosia Caffa vocari creditur, sed male; distinguunt 
enim rn Kaifav Greed posteriores a Theodosid." Also another author, 
" Censet tamen (Le Quien, Orbis Christian, torn. III. p. 1103,)Z)o- 
minus Sanson Theodosiam fuisse olim, qua nunc TCSBA appellatur ; 
Caffam vero fuisse Chavum, ubi Tauro~Scytharum portus, et crevisee ex 
Theodosia minis, a qua triginta milliaribus distat." Strabo (lib. vii.) 
mentions Xawav, as one of the three fortresses built by Scilurus and 
his sons against the generals of Mithradntes. Oderica, (Lett. Ligust. 
p. 149,) who has adduced several authorities tending to prove a distinc- 
tion between the two places, leaves the question undetermined. He 
thinks the name 030<r;, or Qiovbbina,, was given by the Miksians, 
signifying " The Gift of God." Leucon, king of the liosporians, 
sent from Theodosia to Athens two millions one hundred thousand 
medimni of corn ; and, according to Demosthenes, the imports from 
that place were greater than from all the other countries put together. 
After the taking of Caffa by the Turks, in the reign of Mohammed the 
Second, 1474, the Genoese colonies in the Black Sea successively fell, 
and were annihilated. In 1672, the commerce was entirely lost, and 
the Thracian Bosporus shut to foreign vessels. This trade did not 
revive, until the victories gained byC'ATHERiNE THE SECOND (Fortnaleoni, 
c. 23,) a century afterwards, opened it once more. 

152 FROM CAFFA, , 

CHAP, this building into a place of worship, found it 
necessary to conceal its Pagan ornaments. In 
the centre of the old pavement of this building, 
a very curious bas-relief was discovered, a few 
days before our arrival. It was sculptured 
upon a kind of Cippus, in a very rude manner ; 
the subject being divided into two parts, the 
one above and the other below. In the upper 
part appeared two crowned heads/; and in the 
lower, a staircase was represented, conducting to 
the mouth of a stone sepulchre. We endeavoured 
to prevail with the guides to follow the clue 
thus suggested, and to search for the staircase, 
BO represented, below the spot where the stone 
itself was found; but this they refused to do. 

The remaining buildings of Cajfa are within 
the Tahtar city. They consist of very magni- 
ficent public baths and mosques, in a ruined 
state; a few minarets, which perhaps are now 
prostrate ; some shops ; the Turkish coffee- 
house ; an unfinished palace of the late Khan of 
the Crimea; and a large stone edifice, before 
noticed, which was once a mint. In closing 
the account of this place, it is proper to notice 
a prevailing error, into which Pallas has himself 
fallen, in his account of the Crimea*; namely, 

(I) See Trav. vol. II. p. 97. 


that a species of fuller's-earth, dug in several CAP. 
parts of the Peninsula, as well as in Anatolia, * y > 
and called Kejf-kil, has been so denominated 
from Caffa; and that it signifies Caffa earth*. 
Its real etymology may be illustrated by re- 
ference to Meninskis Oriental Dictionary : it is / 
derived from two Turkish words, implying 
foam, or froth, of the earth. 

Our journey from Caffa. as before we reached P e P artu 

from Caffa. 

it, was continually over steppes. We beheld, 
towards the south, a ridge of mountains upon 
the coast; but unless a traveller follow the 
sinuosities of the southern shore of the Crimea, 
all the rest of the Peninsula is a level plain. 
The whole district from Yenihale to AMar, ex- 
cepting the situation of the town of Baktcheserai, 
exhibited a campaign country, covered with 
grass and locusts; capable, it is true, of the 
highest cultivation, but entirely neglected. The 
Tahtars and the Greeks refuse to till the land, 
because they fear to be plundered by the 
Russians; and the Russians are too indolent to 
speculate upon the advantages of industry. 

(2) According to Mr. Hawkins, this substance is also found near 
Ttebes in Saotia. An allusion to the name of this celebrated traveller 
cannot pass without a hope being expressed that his valuable obser- 
vations, during a long residence in Greece, will be communicated to 
the Public. 


CHAP. After we had travelled for some time over 
,. i y .. ' this kind of territory, the road gradually drew 
nearer to the mountains. The appearance of 
antient tumuli, increasing as we advanced, de- 
noted the vicinity of some antient city. This 
stara was STARA GRIM : the approach to it is by a 

XT r* v 

bold valley, or defile, formed by a mountain 
detached from the southern ridge. A variety 
of beautiful shrubs and trees appeared among 
the ruins : the mountains were covered with 
brushwood. Passing a bridge, whose massive 
masonry resembled the style of labour used by 
antient Etrurians in the walls of Crotona, we 
were surrounded by the remains of mosques, 
Ruined baths, and other mouldering edifices : some of 


these still retained marks of great magnificence 1 . 
We entered a building which yet remained 
entire. It consisted of one large area, sur- 
mounted by a beautiful dome, and surrounded 
by eight smaller chambers : its walls were 

(1) According to an observation in the 17th book of Strabo's Geo- 
graphy, concerning the mountainous territory extending from the harbour 
of the Symboli, or Balaclava, to Theodosia, hereabouts ought to be the 
situation of the latter; for here the mountainous district terminates. 
And that there is good reason to believe Stara Crim was antiently 
Theodosia, will appear from the following citation : *' Atque nunc etiam 
urbes ibi nonnullaj quamvis pessundatac, amplitudine tamen ambituum 
suorum et ruinarum, superbae olim fuisse apparent, et praesertim quae a 
nobis Solholth, a Moscis KRTM, a Graecis THEODOSIA appellabatur quon- 
dam." Excerpla e Michalonis Lituani Fragmentis. L.Bat, 1630. 


covered with antient stucco, coloured in dis- CHAP. 
temper. Such a style of architecture is seen 
in those buildings which are vulgarly called 
temples of Venus and Diana, at Baia in Italy ; 
and which were originally public baths belonging 
to that fashionable watering-place of the antient 
Romans' 2 . The ceremonies, the uses, and abuses 
of the bath, were so generally adopted, and 
prevailed with so little alteration among the 
antient Heathens, that there is reason to believe 
they were invariably practised by the inhabitants 
of Greece, Italy, and more Oriental countries 3 . 

(2) The pipes and steam-channels existed in the year 1793. In the 
bath called the Temple of Venus, every appearance corresponded with 
the public baths of the Eastern empire. At the conquest of Constan- 
tinople by the Turks, its conquerors preserved the sumptuous baths 
found in the city, and these to this day offer a model of the edifices at 

(3) These observations, made upon the spot, were the result of a con- 
viction upon the author's mind that the ruins at Stara Grim are those of 
an antient Grecian city. He found it impossible to reconcile the anti- 
quities of that place with the ordinary style of Tahtarian or of Turkish. 
architecture; and has been induced, by the extract cited in Note (1), to 
consider those remains as denoting the situation of Theodosia a city 
ruined anterior to the age of Arrian. The Legate Sroniovius does not 
seem to have entertained this opinion ; but has identified the situation of 
Stara Crim (a name implying the Old Crim) with that of Taphrte ; placed 
by some Writers upon the isthmus of the Peninsula, where there are no 
appearances answering to his description. It is evident, however, that his 
observations apply to these ruins. The word? of Broniorius are as follow : 
" CKEMUM, seu ut a Tartaris Crintum dicinir, civitas et arx muro anti- 
quissimo, maximo ac prfealto, magnitudine ac celebritate reliquis civita- 
tibxis Tauricae, Chersonesi mediterranese, (nam Ptolemaeus ita nominal) 



CHAP. The sculpture and the painting, visible in those 
edifices, were frequently employed in licentious 
and detestable representations, such as were 
consistent with the orgies whereby public 
bagnios were degraded : and those who are at 
a loss to reconcile the pictured abominations of 
Baia with the solemnities of a temple, may 

admodum dissimihs est. Ptolemseo fortasse Taphros, Plinio vero Taphrae 
earn antiquis nominatam fuisse placet. Ilia postremis jam temporibus 
ante Genuensium in Tauricam adventum a maximo populo Mahometico, 
qui ex Asia eo turn migraverant, culta et inhabitata fuisse videtur. Nam 
tumpla seu delubra antiqua Mahometica non solum in civitate ipsa, verum 
et ultra civitatem, plurima admodum cum characteribus Chalda'icis in 
grandioribus saxis excisis conspiciuntur. Turcae seu Tartari non panci 
admodum incolae, Graeci tamen rariores, hoc referunt, quod majores sui 
constanter meminerint, earn civitatem a Persarum olim gente inhabitatam, 
prsestantem ac primariara fere officinam mechanicarum artium quondam 
earn extitisse. Liquet sane ex ipsis minis, et loci amplitudine, urbcm 
earn quondam clarissimam, et maximam gentium coloniam extitisse. 
Tartari ab eo loco Crimeiises vulgo nunc appellantur. Officinam monetu- 
riam quam Chanus cudit, in ea civitate perpetuam hahent. In arce, quae 
maxima ad civitatem est, uxores Chanorum perpetud asservantur ct con- 
senescunt." Martini Jironiovii Tartaria. L, Bat. 1630. The author of 
the anonymous Periplus of the Eujcine states the distance from the city of 
Panticapceum to Cimmerhtm as equal to 25O stadia, or thirty-otie miles 
two furlongs: and this coincides with the distance of JCertchy from Stara 
Crim. " "Aaro St Hctirmettfeuau tratetv; 'iu; Kiftfttfltu frdbia tp.'. Sic enim 
leg- Votsiut in Peripl. Anonym. Pont. Euxin. p. 142. L. Bat. 1697." 
Vossiusadds, " Ptolemeeus hanc quoque mcditerraneam facit: ne&cio qua 
ratione. Cave autem confundat id oppidum cum ejusdem nominis, 
quod it TJ) xifitia,, atque itidem in ore Sospori." The fact is, that Stars 
Crim is the place alluded to by Ptolemy; answering, by its situation, to 
the distance assigned, both from Sudak, and from Panticapeeum, by the 
author of the anonymous Periplus. 


perhaps more easily account for their appear- CHAP. 
ance as the ornaments of a Pagan bath. 

In the midst of these very picturesque ruins, vnia of 
sheltered by mountains, and shaded by beau- press." 
tiful trees, stands one of those villas erected 
for the Empress CATHERINE, when she visited 
the Crimea. At every place where she halted 
for repose, or was expected to pass a night, 
she found a palace prepared for her reception. 
Many of these are still maintained : others, like 
this at Stara Crim, are suffered to decay. They 
usually consisted of a bed-chamber for the 
Empress, with a bath adjoining, a ball-room, a 
small chapel, and a few other apartments for 
her guards and attendants. Nothing at present 
interrupts the melancholy solitude of her villa 
at Stara Crim. Some of the chambers were 
filled by heaps of the common liquorice-root, 
collected, for the use of the military hospitals, 
from the neighbouring woods, where it grows 
wild, and attains great perfection. Upon the 
mountains to the south of this place, in one 
of those wild and secluded situations where 
zealous devotees delight to fix their habitation, 
is an Armenian monastery : we could obtain no 
other information concerning it, than that it 
was worth seeing, on account of the suiv 
rounding scenery. 


As we left Stara dim to proceed towards 
Karasubazar, we passed another vallum, still 
very entire : and judging of it from its length, 
it must have been once a boundary of great 
importance. Hence, crossing continual steppes, 
and always over a flat country, with a view of 
the mountains towards the south, we came to 
Karasubazar 1 . Before we reached this place, a 
Remark, very remarkable mountain appeared upon our 
tain." right hand, being quite flat at the summit, and 
surrounded by precipices so perpendicular, 
with such even surfaces, that it seemed like a 
work of art, as if it were intended for a prodi- 
gious fortress. Upon the top of this mountain 
the Tahtars assembled in council during the 
last rebellion against their Khan; this extra- 
ordinary spot being considered by them as an 
appointed place of rendezvous in every crisis 2 . 
The situation is well suited for such a meeting; 
and a most sublime subject might have been 
afforded for the pencil of a Salvator, or a 
MORTIMER, when the rebel chiefs of Tahtary, 

(1) The distinctions of black and white water seem to constitute many 
of the appellations of rivers and lakes in all Mohammedan countries. Kara 
Su. Bazar signifies nothing more than the Slack-Water Market; the 
name of a river, called Kara Sit, or Black Water, being joined to baxar, 
the common word for market. 

(2) According to Pallas, it is called Akltaya, or the While Mount, by 
the Tahtars; and Sfiirinskaya Gora by the Russians, alluding to the use 
made of it by the nobles of Sliirins'cy. Travels, vol.11, p. 252, 


mounted upon their fleet coursers, and attended 
by their chosen bands in the savage dresses of 
the country, held their conference in this aerial 

Karambazar has not suffered so much as 
other towns of the Crimea since its conquest 
by the Russians ; yet it exhibits many ruins, as 
the sad memorials of their dominion : these, 
with a long street of shops, are perhaps all 
that a traveller would notice. The Tahtar 
coemeteries have been divested of tomb-stones, 
to constitute materials for building; although 
the country affords most excellent limestone, 
which might be removed from the quarries with 
almost as little trouble as the destruction of the 
grave-stones occasions to the Russians. Many 
of the houses are built with unbaked bricks, 
which, after being formed in a mould, have been 
hardened merely by exposure to the sun and 
air. In this manner the antient Grecians some- 
times fabricated earthen vessels, when they 
wished to present offerings of the purest clay 
in the temples of their Gods 3 . The commo- 
dities of the Crimea are said to be purchased at 
a cheaper rate in Karasubazar than in any other 

(3) Appendix to Greek Marbles, p. 71. 


market of the Peninsula 1 . The principal shops 
are employed in the sale of leather, particularly 
of the Morocco kind ; this they prepare them- 
selves; also in pottery, hard-ware, soap, 
candles, fruit, and vegetables. The number of 
inhabitants amounts to about 370O, male and 
female: this number includes a very mixed 
population of Tahtar s, Russians, Greeks, Jeivs, 
Italians, and Armenians. 

From Karasubazar we journeyed to AKMET- 
^T 2 , the residence of the Governor-general of 
the Crimea. The Russians, since the Peninsula 
came into their hands, have endeavoured to 
give to this place the name of Sympheropol; but 
we never heard it called by any other appel- 
lation, in the country, than that which it received 
from the Tahtars. The town was once beautiful, 
owing to the numerous trees that filled the 
valley where the Salgir flows ; but the Russians 
have laid all waste. Scarcely a bush now 
remains. ^ikmetchet will however long be 
celebrated as the residence of Professor Pallas, 
so well known to the literary world for his 
Travels, and already so often mentioned in this 
work. His fame would have been sufficiently 

(I) Pallas' s Travels, vol. II. p. 251. 

('J> A Tahtar word, bignifuug " The White Church." 


established if he had published no other work 
than the Flora Rossica, which was begun by him 
under such favourable auspices ; yet the 
barbarity of the people with whom he is com- 
pelled to live, is such, that they will not allow 
him to complete the undertaking. The drawings 
were all finished, and almost the whole of the 
text. To his hospitable and humane attentions 
we were indebted for comforts, equal, if not 
superior, to those of our own country ; and for 
every literary communication which it was in 
his power to afford. When we delivered to 
him our letters of recommendation, he received 
us rather as a parent, than as a stranger to 
whose protection we had been consigned. We 
refused to intrude by occupying apartments in 
his house ; which had more the appearance of 
a palace, than of the residence of a private 
gentlemen : but one day, when we were absent 
upon an excursion, he caused all our things to 
be moved, and upon our return we found a suit 
of rooms prepared in his mansion for our recep- 
tion, with every convenience for study and 
repose. The author considers himself as being 
indebted to him even for his life. The fatigue 
of travelling, added to the effect of bad air and 
unwholesome food, had rendered a quartan 
fever so habitual to him, that had it not been 
for the care and the medical skill of his benc- 



CHAP. vo ient Host, he could not have lived to make 
this grateful acknowledgment. Having pre- 
scribed for him, the worthy Professor admini- 
stered every medicine with his own hands ; 
carefully guarded his diet ; and, after nursing 
him as his own son, at last restored him to 
health. When he recovered, the same exemplary 
friend, from his own collection, provided him 
with drawings, charts, maps, books, antiquities, 
minerals, and whatsoever else might serve to 
gratify his curiosity, or to promote the object 
of his travels ; accompanying him upon the 
most wearisome excursions, in search, not 
only of the insects and plants of the country, 
but also of every document likely to illustrate 
either its antient or its modern history 1 . The 
declining years of this celebrated man have 
been embittered by a variety of unmerited 
affliction : this he has borne even with Stoical 
philosophy. Splendid as his residence appeared, 

(1) If either he or his family should ever cast their eyes upon these 
pages, they will here find the only testimony of gratitude we have been 
able to render for such unexampled benevolence. His kindness has 
indeed been ill requited ; the political differences between England and 
Russia, together with other untoward circumstances, have put it out of 
our power to fulfil even the few commissions with which he honoured us, 
when we parted. The profile of him, engraved as a Vignette to this 
Chapter, was taken from the life by the author : as it offers a most 
striking resemblance of his features, it is hoped its introduction will not 
be deemed a superfluous addition to the number of engravings. 


the air of the place was so bad, that the most CHAP. 
rigid abstinence from every kind of animal food 
was insufficient to preserve his family from 
fevers. We left him resolved to pass the 
remaining portion of his life in cultivating vine- 
yards, among the rocks of Sudak, upon the 
south coast of the Peninsula. There was reason 
to hope, that, upon the death of PAUL, he would 
have been called to honours and emoluments ; 
but subsequent travellers in Russia do not 
furnish intelligence so creditable to the admini- 
stration of the new sovereign. When the late 
Empress CATHERINE sent him to reside in the 
Crimea, with a grant of lands in the Peninsula, 
it was intended for the re-establishment of his 
health, and as a reward for his long services : 
neither of these purposes had however been 
accomplished. A magnificent establishment, in 
the midst of an unwholesome air, was all the 
recompence he had obtained. Owing to these 
circumstances, we find him, in the sixtieth 
year of a life devoted to science, opening his 
last publication with an illusion to " the 
disquietude and hardships ivhich oppress him in his 
present residence, and embitter his declining days*? 
We used every endeavour to prevail upon him 
to quit the country, and to accompany us to 

(2) Sec Preface to Vol. II. of his Travels in the South of Russia. 
"VOL. II. M 


CHAP. England ; which he often expressed a wish to 


do : but the advanced period of his life, added 
to the certainty of having all his property in 
Russia confiscated, prevented his acquiescence- 
The ceremony of his daughter's marriage with 
a German officer took place during our resi- 
dence with him in the Crimea, and was cele- 
brated according to the rights of the Greek 
Church; so that, being absolved from almost 
every tie that might require his presence in 
the country, there was reason to hope he would 
have listened to our proposals. By acceding 
to them, his life might have been prolonged, 
and his publications completed. Our entreaties, 
however, were to no effect ; and, perhaps, before 
this meets the public eye, our friend and bene- 
factor will be no more 1 . 

Owing to the influence of Professor Pallas, 
much of the injury had been prevented which 
Akmetchet, in common with other towns of the 
Crimea, would have sustained. Many of the 

(l) The liberality of Pallas, and an almost unpardonable indif- 
ference to the piracy of bis writings, may be assigned as the reason why 
certain of his compositions have appeared in this country without any 
due acknowledgment being made of their author. The " Memoir of a 
Mttp of the Countries comprehended between the lilack Sea and the 
Caspian," Land. 1788 ; was written entirely by Pallna, as he 
informed us. 


Tahtar buildings had been suffered to remain, 
and the public fountains were still unimpaired. 
The place owed all its importance to the cir- 
cumstance of its being the residence of the 
Governor -general of the Crimea, a veteran 
officer of the name of Michelson, formerly re- 
nowned for the service he rendered to Russia, 
in the defeat of the rebel Pugatchef. In other 
respects, it is one of the least eligible situ- 
ations in the Crimea. Its inhabitants are subject 

to frequent fevers during the summer, and Unwhole- 
some Sltu- 

the water is less salutary than in other parts ationof^t- 
of the Peninsula. Fruit and vegetables, which 
are common in the southern villages, can only 
be procured at Akmeicliet by purchase from 
the Tahtars. As a town, it has a mean and 
an insignificant appearance : the streets are 
narrow, unpaved, and filthy, containing only a 
few shops, which are maintained entirely by 
Greeks. The Salgir, hardly deserving the name 
of a river, flows in a valley near the town. 
The neighbourhood abounds with game ; so 
that the officers of the garrison are enabled to 
amuse themselves with almost every kind of 
European chace. They hunt the stag, the fox, 
and the hare. Hawking is also a favourite 
pastime ; the Tahtars being very skilful in 
training birds for that purpose. A few days 
after we took up our residence with Professor 

M 2 


CHAP. Pallas, some Tahtars brought him a beautiful 
little animal, called The jumping Hare. It has 
- borne a variety of names ', but it is in fact the 
boa - same as the African Jerboa. We saw it after- 
wards in Egypt, although it be not common 
either there or in the Crimea. It may be called 
the Kangaroo in miniature, as it has the same 
form; but it is smaller than a rabbit; and it 
assists itself, like the Kangaroo, with its tail 
in leaping. That which Professor Pallas received 
was a pregnant female, containing two young 
ones. Its colour was a light grey, excepting 
the belly: this was almost white. Its fore-feet 
are attached to its breast without any legs ; so 
that, in all its motions, it makes use only of its 
hinder quarters, bounding and making sur- 
prising leaps on being disturbed. We after- 
wards caught one in the steppes ; this we stuffed, 
and brought to England. Professor Pallas him- 
self did not seem to be aware that the Mas 
Jaculus, which was the name he gave it 2 , is 
the animal mentioned by Shaw, in his account 
of Barbary 3 ; nor was it until we became enabled 

(1) Allusion has been already made to the confusion introduced 
iu zoology, by the different names, and discordant accounts, which 
travellers have given of this animal. See p. 325 of former Volume. 

(2) See Travels, vol. II. p.457- 

(3) Shaw's Travels, p. 177, 4to. ed. London, 1757. 


to make the comparison ourselves, in Africa, CHAP. 
that we discovered the Jerboa to be the same i ,-_/ 
kind of quadruped we had before known in 
the Crimea. Bochart supposes this little animal Observa- 
to be the Saphan of the Scriptures 4 : " The high chart upon 
hills are a refuge for the wild goats, and so 
are the stony rocks for the Saphannim :" this 
our Translation renders " Conies" Shaw is 
however undecided upon the subject; but 
he supposes the Jerboa, from the remarka- 
ble disproportion of its fore and hinder legs, 
may be taken for one of the two-footed rats 
mentioned by Herodotus and by other authors *. 
The whole merit of either of these observations, 
if there be any, is due, first to the learned 
Bochart, and afterwards to the labours of 
Haym, in the illustration of a medal of Cyrene, 
where this animal is represented; but Shaw, 
after the introduction of those observations in 
his work, not only does not acknowledge whence 
he derived the information, but even asserts 
that the animal described by Haym was not 
the Jerboa. It seems clear that it was ; although, 

(4) See Bochart, Hierozmcon. Pars II. cap. 33. Lond. 1663. "Pro- 
batur Sapfuin non esse cuiiiculum, sed majoris muris genus, in Palaes- 
tina," &c. &c. 

(5) Shaw's Travels, p. 177. See also the Authors cited by him t 
Herodot. Melp. TUeoph. apud jElian. Hist. Anim. lib. xv. c. 26. Photius, 
Hid. Arist. de Murib. JEgypt. 


in the engraving published by Haym, the fore-- 
feet be represented rather too long. A century 
ago they did not pay attention to minute accu- 
racy in such representations ; and nearly this 
time has elapsed since the work of Haym 
appeared l . His mode of expressing himself 
is certainly somewhat equivocal, because he 
says, " when it ran, it went hopping like a 
bird;" but the words " e sempre camina sopra 
due piedi solamente," as well as " salta molt" alto 
quand' spavurito" when added to the engraved 
representation, plainly prove what the animal 
was. It is generally esteemed as an article of 
food, in all countries where it is found. It 
burrows in the ground like a rabbit ; but seems 
more to resemble the squirrel than either that 
animal or the rat. Its fine dark eyes have all 
the lustre of the antelope's. Haym says, the 
smell of it is never offensive when kept domes- 
tic ; and indeed it may be considered one of 
the most pleasing harmless little quadrupeds 
hitherto described. Gmelin observed it in 
the neighbourhood of Woronetz in 1768: Mes- 
serschmied, in Siberia ; and Hasselquist, in Egypt *. 

(1) Hayrn's Tesoro Britannico was published in 1720. He had the 
animal alive ; and a very curious account of it is given in the second 
volume of his work, p. 124. 

(2) Journal des Savans Voyageurs, p. 76. 


When our army was encamped near Alexandria, 
during the late campaign in Egijpt, the soldiers 
preserved some of these animals in boxes, and 
fed them like rabbits. 

From Akmetchet the distance is only thirty 
versts 3 to BAKTCHESERAI, once the residence 
of the Khan, and the Tahtar capital of the 
Crimea. As it was our intention to make the 
tour of all the south part of the Peninsula, we 
lost no time in setting out for this place. We 
met several caravans, principally laden with 
cucumbers, of such immense length and size, 
that the statement of their dimensions will per- 
haps not be believed. We measured some that 
were in length above two feet: There is no 
article of food so grateful to a Russian as the 
salted cucumber ; and all the inhabitants of the 
Crimea cultivate the plant for the sake of the 
pickle it affords. They have varieties of this 
vegetable, which are unknown in England ; 
among others, one that is snow-white ; and it is 
this singular variety which attains the astonishing 
size before mentioned, without either running 
to seed or losing any of its crisp and refreshing 
flavour. The country, as we advanced, be- 
came more diversified with wood. Near to the 

(3) Twenty English miles. 


villages we saw some good crops of corn and 
of hay. It was before observed, that a tra- 
veller, unless he visit the southern coast, may 
pass over all the rest of the Crimea, and conclude, 
from its appearance, that the whole country is 
a flat and dreary steppe. BAKTCHESERAI is the 
first object, in the journey from Yenikale to 
Sevastopole, which interrupts the dull uniformity 
of at least two thirds of the Peninsula, to the 
north of Tchetirdagh and of the other mountains 
facing the Black Sea upon the southern side. It 
Novel ap- j g one o f ^Q most remarkable towns in Enrobe : 

pearance of r 

Eaktcke- first, in the novelty of its manners and customs ; 

term. m J 

these are strictly Oriental, and betray nothing 
of an European character : secondly, in the site 
of the town itself; occupying the craggy sides 
of a prodigious natural fosse between two high 
mountains, somewhat like the appearance exhi- 
bited by Matlock in Derbyshire. The view 
breaks all at once upon the traveller, exhibiting 
a variety of objects in a most irregular and 
scattered manner ; while bubbling fountains, 
running waters, gardens, terraces, hanging vine- 
yards, and groves of the black poplar, seem to 
soften the horror of rocks and precipices, and 
even to make them appear inviting. The reli- 
gious veneration entertained by the Tahtars 
Fountains, for their fountains induces them to spare no 
expense in order to supply them with the 


purest water. These fountains are almost as 
necessary to the ceremonies of the mosque 
as they are ornamental to the town; since 
every true Moslem washes his head, his beard, 
his hands, and his feet, before he proceeds to 
prayer. The number of fountains is so great 
in Baktcheserai, that they are seen in all parts 
of the city ; water flowing from them day and 
night, cold as ice and clear as crystal. One 
of these fountains had not less than ten spouts, 
whence the purest streams continually fell upon 
slabs of marble. Four times in every twenty- 
four hours the Tahlars, invoked by their Mullas 
from the lofty minarets, are seen assembled, 
performing their ablutions, and proceeding to 
their mosques. If Paleys position be admitted, 
that " a man who is in earnest about religion 
cannot be a bad man '," the Mohammedans, being 
more in earnest than any sect of worshippers 
upon earth, are entitled to respect ; and it must 
be confessed, we never beheld a Moslem at his 
prayers without feeling a kindling awe, inspired 
by the sincerity of his devotion. No utterance 
escapes his lips, excepting the name of God, 
which is heard at intervals, accompanied by 
low impressive sighs. His whole soul seems to 
be absorbed in intellectual communion with the 

(1) Paley's Sermons, Disr. I. Loud. 1808, 


CI T ^ r ' object of his worship ; nor can any thing divert 
his attention '. 

Destine- Jo describe what Bahtcheserai was, it would 

tion caused 

by the itus- be necessary to convey ideas at least adequate 

sian troops. . . 

to the present appearance ot its rums : and this 
is very difficult. The savage and the wanton 
barbarity of the Russians found in the magnifi- 
cence of this capital wherewith to exercise, in 
its full scope, their favourite passion for destruc- 
tion. The city was divided into several depart- 
ments ; the Greek colony alone occupying one 
entire and extensive valley. This they entirely 
demolished ; not leaving one stone upon another. 
The palace of the Khan, in the centre of the 
town, was the edifice where he usually resided ; 
but he had a favourite and more pleasing retire- 
ment, in a magnificent mansion most delight- 
fully situate, beneath a mountain upon the 
sloping side of a beautiful vale. This they so 

(l) The efficacy of inward devotion, as contrasted with external offer- 
ings, is recommended with powerful simplicity in a specimen of early 
Engluh poetry, as old as the time of Queen Elizabeth, preserved in 
the Travels of " Oertaine Englishmen intofarre Countries," printed in 
160.9. H is the end of a Latin inscription in the Church atfbloicne (on 
the offerings of the Three Kings], thus translated into English metre. 
" For Gold present a perfect heart; 

For Myrrh admit him tears ; 
For Frankincense, powre from thy brest 
A fume of humble praiers !" 


completely erased, that, without a guide to CHAP. 
the spot, no one can discover even where it < y - . 
stood. Of the rest of the city not above one 
third now remains. If we were to detail half 
the cruelties, the extortions, the rapine, and 
the barbarity practised by the Russians upon 
the devoted inhabitants of the Crimea, and 
their deluded Khan, the narrative would exceed 
belief. We have the authority of one of their 
commanders, whom we shall not name, for 
the following statement. When the Mullas, or 
Tahtar priests, ascended the minarets at mid- 
day, to proclaim the hour of noon, according 
to their usual custom, the Russian soldiers 
amused themselves by firing at them with 
muskets ; and in one of these instances a priest 
was killed. The repugnancy of every English 
reader to credit such enormities may lead him 
to doubt the veracity of the representation, 
although it be given, as it was received, from 
an eye-witness of the fact. 

The capture of the Crimea excited the atten- Causes 
tionof all Europe; but the circumstances which to "he de- 
caused the deposition and death of the Khan are 
not so generally known. They have been art- 
fully concealed by the Russians ; and the bril- 
liancy of the conquest of the Crimea, dazzling 
the imagination, has prevented a due inquiry 

of the 


into those dark and sinister manoeuvres whereby 
the plot was perfected for the subjection of 
the Peninsula. Potemkin, arch-priest of intrigue 
and wickedness, planned and executed the 
whole of it ; to fulfil whose designs, it was 
immaterial what laws were violated, what prin- 
ciples trampled, what murders committed, or 
what faith broken. His principal favourites were 
swindlers, adventurers, pimps, parasites : un- 
principled men of every description, but espe- 
cially unprincipled men of talent, found in him 
a ready patron. 

It is well known, that, by the last treaty of 
peace with the Turks, prior to the conquest of 
the Peninsula, Shahin Gkirei, of the family of 
the Khans, who had been a prisoner and a 
hostage at Petersburg, was placed upon the 
throne of the Crimea. This was the first step 
towards the overthrow of that kingdom. From 
the moment of his accession, the Russian minister 
in the Crimea, an artful and designing foreigner, 
well chosen, from Potemkin s list, to execute the 
measures he had in view, began to excite among 
the Tahtars a hatred of their Sovereign ; raising 
commotions among them, buying over the dis- 
affected, and stimulating the people to frequent 
insurrection. In the mean time he insinuated 
himself into the good graces of the Khan, 


teaching him to do whatsoever might be most 
unpopular in the eyes of his subjects. Among 
other dangerous absurdities, he prevailed upon 
him to place every thing in his establishment 
upon a Russian footing ; to discipline his troops 
after the Russian manner ; to build frigates upon 
his coast; filling his head with preposterous 
ideas of the navigation of the Black Sea. Thus 
he incurred enormous expenses : these com-' 
pelled him to drain his subjects of their money, 
and increased their murmurs. The Russian 
minister, equally active on both sides, lost no- 
opportunity either to encourage the follies of 
the Khan, or to augment the disaffection of the 
nobles. The work succeeded to his utmost 
wishes ; a revolt took place, which soon be- 
coming general, the terrified Sovereign was 
persuaded to fly, first to Caffa, and afterwards 
to Toman. 

Then it was that the last master-stroke of 
political intrigue was effected. The Khan was 
prevailed on to call in the assistance of Russian 
troops, who were eagerly waiting the proposal, 
and as eagerly acceded to it. Thus a Russian 
army was suffered to enter, unmolested, into the 
heart of the Crimea. Under pretext of punish- 
ing those who had rebelled against the Khan for 
a revolt they had themselves excited, they 


CHAP. p U t to death whomsoever they thought proper ; 
took possession of the strong-holds, and prac- 
tised their usual excesses. The Tahtars, some 
by compulsion, others by entreaty, and a still 
greater number by terror, were driven from 
their country, and compelled to seek elsewhere 
a residence. The Khan returned to Karasubazar, 
where the Russian army was encamped : and 
there, in presence of the Russian troops, was 
persuaded to order his nobles to be stoned to 
death; his pretended allies feasting their eyes 
with the slaughter of men whom they had first 
induced to rebel against their sovereign, and 
afterwards caused to be butchered for having 
complied with their desires. Thus the deluded 
Prince, and his still more deluded subjects, alike 
duped by designing miscreants whom they had 
allowed to take possession of their country, 
began at last to open their eyes, and en- 
deavoured to rid themselves of an alliance so 
fatal in its consequences. It was too late ; the 
K/ian was himself prisoner in the very centre 
of the Russian army. The rest of their conduct 
towards him exceeds in depravity all that had 

A proposal was made to him to resign the 
crown of the Crimea ; to quit the Peninsula ; 
and to attest, by his sign-manual, that the indi- 


viduals of his family, in which the throne was 
hereditary, were for ever rightfully deposed. 
He received the insolent proposal with the 
astonishment and the indignation it merited j 
but he was reminded, that, being indebted to the 
Russians for his kingdom, he ought to resign it 
whenever it might accord with their wishes. 
The reasoning was arbitrary ; but very effectual, 
when enforced at the mouth of a cannon ; and an 
unfortunate Prince, to whom it is addressed, 
remains captive in the camp of his enemies. In 
addition to this proposal, conditions were an- 
nexed, that, instead of being deprived of his 
dignities by compliance, he should have his 
residence in Petersburg ; that he should hold 
a court there, of much greater splendor and 
magnificence than he had known in the Crimea ; 
that he should be allowed an annual pension of 
one hundred thousand roubles, be enriched by all 
manner of presents, enjoy the luxuries of that 
great capital, and partake in those amusements 
which the magnificence of CATHERINE constantly 
afforded ; that no restraint should be put upon 
his person, but that he should be at full liberty 
to act as he might think proper. The Khan saw 
the snare into which he had fallen ; but there 
was no method of liberating himself. He re- 
tained, however, sufficient firmness to persist in 
a refusal : in consequence of this, force com- 


CHAP, pleted what entreaty was unable to accomplish. 
He was dragged, as a prisoner, to Kaluga*, a 
wretched hamlet upon the river Oka, yet rank- 
ing as the capital of a government of the same 
name, and a thousand versts distant from Peters- 
burg. From this place he was not permitted to 
move. In his miserable condition, finding that 
neither his pension was paid, nor any single 
engagement of the Russians fulfilled, he insisted 
upon going to Petersburg, but was told it could 
not be permitted. At last, giving himself over 
entirely to despondency, he exclaimed, " Let 
me be consigned as a victim to the Turks : they 
will not deny me, at least, the privilege of choos- 
ing the manner of my death ; since my enemies 
have resolved on my destruction I" The un- 
paralleled cruelty of the Russians suggested the 
propriety of acceding to this request ; they 
rejoiced indeed to hear it made, because it 
offered an easy method of getting rid of one 
whom they had pillaged, and whose presence 
was no longer either necessary or desirable. 
They consequently exposed the unfortunate 
Prince upon the Turkish frontier, where he was 

(1) Mr. Eton (Survey of the Turkish Empire, p. 323,) says, he 
" retired to Kaluga" Was the liberty of retiring ever k nown i n Russia f 
A similar expression, however, occurs in p. 308. " He quitted Russia,, 
and retired to Constantinople." It is hoped that Mr. Eton's entertaining 
work did not experience a revisal in the hands of the Russian police. 


taken, and, being afterwards sent to Rhodes, CHAP. 
was beheaded 2 . 

If it be now asked how the Russians have Conse - 

quences of 

conducted themselves with regard to the Crimea, the cap. 

,, . ture of the 

atter the depravity, the cruelty, and the murders, Crimea. 
whereby it was obtained, the answer may be 
given in a few words. They have laid waste 
the country ; cut down the trees ; pulled down 
the houses; overthrown the sacred edifices of 
the natives, with all their public buildings; 
destroyed the public aqueducts; robbed the 
inhabitants ; insulted the Tahtars in their acts of 
public worship; torn up from the tombs the 
bodies of their ancestors, casting their relics 
upon dunghills, and feeding swine out of their 
coffins; annihilated all the monuments of an- 
tiquity; breaking up alike the sepulchres of 
Saints and Pagans, and scattering their ashes in 

(2) The Reader, having perused this narrative, will determine whe- 
ther there he any thing on the part of the French, respecting Spain, 
equal to the atrocity of the Russians in getting possession of the Crimea. 
Mr. Eton, in his Survey of the Turkish Empire, p. 304, says, their 
right to the Peninsula was sacred, and that " the mouth is unlwly 
which dares to arraign it." The representation Mr. E. has given, in 
many parts contradicts itself : for example, in p. 327, he witnessed the 
expulsion of 75,000 Christians from the Crimea, by the Russians, 
almost all of whom perished, in consequence of their cruelty, in the 
deserts of Nagay; yet, in p. 333, he says, "those whechoteto remain," 
after the seizure of the Crimea, " were left in the quiet possession of 
their property and their religion. 

-VOL. II. X 



There was something very emphatical in the 
speech of a poor Tahtar, who, one day lament- 
ing in his garden the havoc made among his 
fruit-trees by a severe frost, said, " We never 
used to experience such hard weather; but 
since the Russians came, they seem to have 
brought their winter alongwith them." 

Palace of The principal palace of the Khans is still entire, 
and perhaps it may escape the general destruc- 
tion ; because the late Empress ordered it to be 
kept in repair, and always according to its 
present Oriental form. When she came to Bak- 
tclieserai, a set of apartments had been prepared 
for her, in the French taste : this gave her great 
offence, and caused the order for its preserva- 
tion, according to the original style observed in 
the building. It is situate in the midst of 
gardens ; from which circumstance the city de- 
rives its name 1 . These gardens are filled with 
fountains and fine fruit-trees. Its interior pre- 
sents the sort of scenery described in Eastern 

(1) Baktcteserai signifies " A palace in a garden." See Pallas'* 
Travels, vol. II. p. 26. 


romances, and which our theatres endeavour to 
represent ; consisting of chambers, galleries, 
and passages, so intricate and irregular, that it 
is impossible to give any plan of them, or to 
imagine the purposes for which they were con- 
structed. Upon the whole, it is rather an 
insignificant building for the residence of a 
sovereign. A large hall, opening by means of 
arches to the gardens of the seraglio, and to 
different courts, receives several staircases, 
winding from different parts of the palace. 
From this hall a door conducted the Khan to a 
small mosque, for his private devotion, when he 
did not choose to appear in public. Ascending 
to the apartments, we found no resemblance to 
any thing European. The rooms are small, and 
surrounded by divans ; the windows concealed 
by wooden lattices, or, as they are called by the 
French, jalousies. Some of the windows look 
only from one room into another; but being 
intended perhaps rather for ornament than for 
utility, they consist of small casements placed 
in little oblong rows ; and are at the same time 
so filled with frame and lattice-work, that no one 
can see through them. In the windows of the 
best apartments we observed some painted glass. 
Several of the staircases, conducting from one 
set of rooms to another, are open to the air; 
but the persons ascending or descending were 

N 2 


CHAP, concealed from outward view by trellises. The 
chief concern, both of Tahtars and Turks, in their 
dwellings, seems to be, to avoid observation. 
Their apartments are very cold, and, to the 
generality of Europeans, would be insufferable 
in winter ; but the Tahtar, having nothing to do 
during that season of the year, but to sit smok- 
ing, wrapped up in a huge pelisse, would find 
the rooms equally insupportable if they were 

Prepare- A very handsome bath, prepared in one part 
for the re. of the palace for the late Empress, is worthy of 
Sat" notice; because, remaining exactly as it was 

Empress. fitted for 

expenditure of Potemkin during her celebrated 
journey to the Crimea, The same luxuries were 
provided wheresoever she halted ; together with 
all the elegancies and conveniences of palaces, 
in buildings that were furnished as if for her 
continual residence. She had adopted the daily 
practice of bathing her body with cold water, 
and for that purpose the most sumptuous baths 
were everywhere constructed ; and although 
many of them were used only once, they were 
all lined throughout with white cotton quilts, 
and were surrounded by carpets and by sofas 
seraglio, of the same materials. A part of the seraglio 
particularly appropriated to the use of the 


women, bears, as it is well known, the name of 
Charern 1 . One feels a natural inclination to see 
the inside of places secluded from observation 
by the Moslems with such rigid caution. There 
is nothing, however, to gratify the curiosity 
which is excited by so much mystery. The 
Charem of the Khan has been preserved in its 
original state, without the slightest alteration. 
Potemkin passed his nights there, during the 
visit of the Empress, and was much amused with 

the idea of sleeping in a Charem. It consists Descrip- 
tion of the 

of a set of very indifferent apartments, of a square 
form, opening one into another, having neither 
magnificence nor convenience. These apart- 
ments are detached from the palace, and they 
are surrounded by a garden with high walls. 
Owing to the lattices which cover the windows, 
and to the trees planted before them, the 
wretched prisoners once doomed to reside 
within them could hardly have obtained a view 
even of the sky, the only object granted to their 
contemplation. Destitute of literary resource, 
the women there immured passed their time, as 
ladies informed me who were in the habit of 
visiting them, in embroidery, and in drinking 
very bad coffee, sometimes with sorbet, and a 
poor sort of lemonade. In the Turkish charems 

(l) Pronounced Harem, with a guttural aspirate, as in the Greek X, 


CHAP, the women are allowed the greater luxury of 
smoking: this, to human beings so situated, 
must become an important comfort of life. The 
most remarkable part of the seraglio is the 
entrance, by a winding passage, so narrow, that 
one person alone could pass at the same time, 
who was under the absolute necessity of 
stepping close to the guard, so as to rouse him, 
even if he were asleep. Into this passage the 
Khan descended by a private staircase, which 
was appropriated solely to his use. 

The Armenian merchants ofNakhtshivan 1 , who, 
with almost all the Christians of the Peninsula, 
emigrated from the Crimea, were originally in- 
habitants of Baktcheserai*: their loss has been 
severely felt ever since the conquest of this 
country by the Russians. The present popula- 
tion, including male and female, amounts to near 
six thousand souls 3 . In this number are in- 
cluded above eleven hundred Jews : four hundred 
and twenty of these are registered as merchants. 

(1) See p. 397 of the former Volume, 

(2) The number of emigrants amounted to 75,000 ; all of whom, 
excepting 7000, perished from cold, hunger, and other causes, in the 
steppes, upon the western side of the Sea of Azof. 

(3) Fire thousand seven hundred and seventy-six, according to 
Pallas, (Travels, vol. II. p. 9,) including Greeks, Armenians, Jews, and 


The number of Tahtars does not exceed three 
thousand : of this number, twenty belong to the 
class of nobles, two hundred and thirty-seven 
are merchants, one hundred and seventy-three 
priests, and seventy-eight students of divinity. 

The morning after our arrival, Colonel visit to the 

Fortress of 

Richard Dunant, a native of Smyrna, and an z>sckou- 

~ . . ., . foutkale. 

officer m the Russian service residing in 
Eahtcheserai, accompanied us on horseback to 
climb the steep defile leading from the city to 
the Jewish colony of DscHoufoutkaU* t situate 
upon a mountain, and distant about five versts. 
These Jews are of the sect called Karat : they 
inhabit an antient fortress originally constructed 
by the Genoese upon a very lofty precipice. 
Passing up the defile leading to this fortress, 
we observed some Tahtar women among the 
tombs and ruined mosques, in long snow-white 
veils, seeming like so many ghosts : their veils 
covered all the face, except the eyes; and some 
of them had the whole of the head and upper 
part of the body concealed from observation. 
Their beautiful flowing drapery, and the inter- 
esting groupes they exhibited among the ruins, 
would have furnished a pleasing subject for a 

(4) Dschoufout is a name, originally, of reproach, bestowed upon the 
Jtws; antl Katt signifies a fortress. 


CHAP, painter's pencil. As if their veils were insuf- 
ficient to protect them from observation, they 
no sooner behold a man, than they hang their 
heads, and endeavour to escape notice by flight. 
JJ^f _ An English servant, brought by Admiral Mord- 
Set " vinof into the Crimea, observing this practice 

f fc/ . d JL 

among the Tahtar females, deemed it to be an act 
of rudeness on his part to give them the trouble 
of hiding their faces and of running away upon 
his account; therefore, whenever he encoun- 
tered them, he covered his face and took to his 
heels, in order to hide himself in the first place 
he could find. This passed unnoticed for some 
time : at length, the Tahtar women, struck by 
the singularity of seeing a man always avoiding 
them and endeavouring to conceal himself from, 
their observation, let fall a portion of their veils 
when they next met him; this only caused him to 
run faster than before. Such conduct excited 
their curiosity more than ever, and at last they 
fairly hunted him : after following him in parties 
to his hiding-place with their veils off, they 
resolved to see a man who for the first time 
concealed his face at the approach of a woman ; 
and, having caught him, they actually demanded 
an explanation of his unaccountable behaviour. 

Advancing along the defile, and always 
ascending, we passed above the remains of 


that quarter of the city, before mentioned, 
which belonged to the Greeks. It is now a heap 
of ruins, with scarcely a stone in its original 
situation. As we proceeded, they shewed to 
us, in the very highest part of the rocks, an 


.nary Ring 

iron ring, pretending that the cables of ships 
were formerly fastened to it, although many 
hundred feet above the present level of the 
Black Sea. The tradition, however, is, or ought 
to be, set aside, by a much more rational 
account given of the same ring ; namely, that a 
rope was here fastened upon festival days; and 
this being carried across the defile to a similar 
ring upon the opposite side, the Khans amused 
themselves by seeing a man pass over the valley 
upon the rope, from one precipice to the other : 
as formerly at Fenice, during the Carnival, a hired 
rope-dancer was drawn to the top of the tower 
of St. Mark, whence he descended by another 
rope, with a bouquet of flowers in his hand, to 
present to the Doge. This account is admitted 
by the best-informed concerning the marvellous 
ring near Baktcheserai ; but Baron de Tott very 
credulously received the original tradition, with 
all its absurdity. The only objection belonging 
to the more rational story is suggested by the 
difficulty of conceiving how any rope, so ex- 
tended, could support a man's weight without 


Farther up the defile, a very remarkable 
result of human labour is exhibited, in a Greek 
monastery, or chapel, which has been hewn in 
the very side of the precipice ; and in such a 
manner, that nothing of it is visible but the 
small perforated cavities whereby light was 
communicated to the interior. The Greeks of 
the Crimea were forbidden by the Tahtars the 
use of any public church ; nor were they allowed 
to exercise publickly the functions of their reli- 
gion: in consequence of this, like the persecuted 
Brians, they fled to rocks and precipices, secretly 
excavating almost inaccessible caverns, and 
ascending to their subterraneous shrines by 
small winding staircases concealed from obser- 
vation. This example of their labour and their 
piety remains among the few things the Russians 
have not found it easy to destroy : it is one of 
the most singular curiosities in the Crimea; and 
it seems to be suspended, like a marten's nest, 
upon the face of a lofty precipice, beneath stu- 
pendous rocks. 

Jewish We now came to the lower verge of some 

te ' steep cliffs, and beheld upon the summit the 
walls of DSCHOUFOUTKALE. In a recess upon 
our right hand appeared the ccemetery, or 
"Jield of dead" belonging to the Karaite Jetvs. 
Nothing can be imagined more calculated to 


inspire holy meditation. It is a beautiful grove, 
filling a chasm of the mountains, which is ren- 
dered gloomy by the shade of lofty trees and 
overhanging rocks. A winding path conducts 
through this solemn scene. Several tombs of 
white marble present a fine contrast to the deep 
green of the foliage; and female figures, in 
white veils, are constantly seen offering their 
pious lamentations over the graves. An evening 
or a morning visit to the sepulchres of their 
departed friends constitutes, perhaps, all the 
exercise of the Jewish women, as they seldom 
leave their houses : in this respect, their cus- 
toms are similar to those of Tahtars and Turks l . 
If the belief which these nations entertain, that 
the souls of the dead hover about their earthly 
tabernacles, and hold communion with the 
living, were admitted by the followers of Christ, 
it would be difficult to direct the human mind 
to any duty more consolatory, or more sub- 
limely affecting. It is not possible to behold 
either Moslems or Jews so circumstanced, without 
feeling something very like a wish to share 
with them, at least, this article of their faith. 

(1) " This little valley of Jehosaphat is so highly valued by the Jews, 
that, whenever the anient Khans wished to extort from them a present, 
or to raise a voluntary contribution, it was sufficient to threaten them 
with the extirpation of those sacred trees, under the plausible pretence 
of wanting fuel or timber." Pallas'* Travels, vol. II. p, 35. 


The ascent from the coemetery to the fortress, 
although short, is so steep, that we were forced 
to alight from our horses, and actually to climb 
to the gateway. Several slaves, however, 
busied in conveying water upon the backs of 
asses, passed us in their way up. The spring 
which supplies them is below, in the defile ; and 
a very copious reservoir, cut in the rocks above, 
is prepared for the use of the colony. As we 
passed the gateway, and entered the town, we 
were met by several of the inhabitants. Colonel 
Dunant inquired for a Jew of his acquaintance, 
one of the principal people in the place. We 
were conducted to his house ; and found him, 
at noon, sleeping on his divan. He rose to 
receive us, and presently regaled us with 
various sorts of confectionary: among these 
were conserved leaves of roses, and preserved 
walnuts : we had also eggs, cheese, cold pies, 
and brandy. A messenger was despatched for 
the Rabbi, whom he invited to meet us, and who 
soon after made his appearance. This venerable 
man was held in very high consideration by 
them all, and with good reason ; for he was 
exceedingly well-informed, and had passed a 
public examination, with distinguished honour, 
in Petersburg, after being sent for expressly by 
the Empress CATHERINE. We were highly in- 
terested in their conversation, as well as in the 


singular circumstance of having found one 
Jewish settlement, perhaps the only one upon 
earth, where that people exist secluded from 
the rest of mankind, in the free exercise of 
their antient customs and peculiarities 1 . The 
town contains about twelve hundred persons of 
both sexes, and not more than two hundred 
houses. The Tahtars left here a stately mauso- 
leum, erected for the daughter of one of their 
Khans, now a ruin. The principal part of each 
dwelling belongs to the women; but every 
master of a family has his own private apart- 
ment, where he sleeps, smokes, and receives 
his friends. The room wherein we were enter- 
tained was of this description: it was filled 
with manuscripts, many in the hand-writing of 
our host ; others by those of his children ; and 
all in very beautiful Hebrew characters. The 
Karaites deem it to be an act of piety to copy 
the Bible, or copious commentaries upon its 
text, once in their lives. All their manuscript 
copies of the Old Testament begin with the 
Book of Joshua ; even the most antient did not 
contain the Pentateuch. This is kept apart, 

(I) "It seems singular that such fortresses should have been pos- 
sessed by such a people j yet, in Abyssinia, the Falasha appear similarly 
situated; and Jackson mentions a Jews' rock in Morocco." 

Hebcr's MS, Journal. 


CHAP, not in manuscript, but in a printed version, for 
the use of the schools 1 . In their synagogues, 
with the exception of the Books of Moses, every 
thing was in manuscript. The Rabbi asked 
if we had any of their sect, KARAI, in England; 
a question we could not answer. He said there 
were few in Holland. The etymology of their 
name is uncertain. The difference between their 
creed and that of Jeivs in general, according to 
the information we received from the Rabbi, 
consists in a rejection of the Talmud; a disregard 
to every kind of tradition ; to all Rabbinical 
writings or opinions; to all marginal interpo- 
lations of the text of Scripture; and, in a 
measure of their rule of faith by the pure letter 
of the Law. They pretend to have the text of 
the Old Testament in its most genuine state. 

Being desirous to possess one of their Bibles, 
the Rabbi, who seemed gratified by the circum- 
stance, permitted us to purchase a beautiful 
manuscript copy, written upon vellum, about 
four hundred years old; but having left this 
volume in the Crimea, to be forwarded by way 
of Petersburg, it was never afterwards recovered. 

(1) The reason given by the Ralli for the omission of the Books of 
Moses in their manuscript copies, was, that the Pentateuch, being in 
constant use for the instruction of their children, was reserved apart, 
that the whole volume might not be liable to the injuries it would 
thereby sustain. 


It began, like all the others, with the Book of c * p - 

Joshua, '-' v- 1 ' 

The character of the Karaite Jews is directly Account of 

J the Sect of 

opposite to that generally attributed to their 
brethren in other countries, being altogether 
without reproach. Their honesty is proverbial 
in the Crimea; and the word of a Karaite is 
considered equal to a bond. Almost all of them 
are engaged in trade or manufacture. They 
observe their fasts with the most scrupulous 
rigour, abstaining even from snuff and from 
smoking for twenty-four hours together. In 
the very earliest periods of Jeivish history, this 
sect separated from the main stem : such, at 
least, is their own account ; and nothing 
concerning them ought to be received from 
Rdbbmisis, who hold them in detestation. For 
this reason, the relations of Leo of Modena, a 
Rabbi of Fenice, are not to be admitted. Their 
schism is said to be as old as the return from 
the Babylonish Captivity. They observe ex- 
traordinary care in the education of their 
children, who are publickly instructed in the 
synagogues; and in this respect the Tahtars 
are not deficient. We rarely entered any Tahtar 
village in the day-time without seeing children 
assembled in some public place, receiving their 
instruction from persons appointed to super- 


CHAP, intend the care of their education ; reciting with 


audible voices passages from the Koran, or 
busied in copying manuscript lessons placed 
before them. The dress of the Karaites differs 
little from that worn by the Tahtars. All of 
them, of whatsoever age, suffer their beards to 
grow; but among Tahtars the beard is a dis- 
tinction of age, the young men wearing only 
whiskers. The Karaites wear also a lofty thick 
felt cap, faced with wool : this is heavy, and 
keeps the head very hot. The Turks and 
Armenians often do the same; and in warm 
climates this precaution seems a preservative 
against the dangerous consequences resulting 
from obstructed perspiration. 

We were surprised to see vine-leaves sold in 
the streets, particularly as they are abundant 
in the country ; but this article is in very great 
demand, for cookery. Their minced meat is 
rolled up in vine-leaves, and sent to table in 
the form of sausages. 

From this interesting colony we returned, by 
a different road, along the tops of the mountains, 
to Balitcheserai*. Concerning this place, it is 

(l) " Batchiserai is entirely inhabited by Tahtars, Jews, and 
Armenians, and is the most populous place we saw in the Crimea. 
It has several mosques, besides a very fine one in the seraglio, with 



hoped nothing has been omitted which might CHAP. 
be deemed worthy of the reader's attention. 

two minarets, the mark of royalty. There are some decent sutlers' 
shops, and some manufactories of felt carpets, and one of red and 
yellow leather. The houses are almost universally of wood and ill- 
baked hricks, with wooden piazzas, and shelving roofs of red tile. 
There is a new church, dedicated to St. George ; but the most striking 
feature is the palace, which though neither large nor regular, yet, by 
the picturesque style of its architecture, its carving and gilding, its 
Arabic and Turkish inscriptions, and the fountains of beautiful water 
in every court, interested me more than I can express. The apart- 
ments, except the Hall of Justice, are low and irregular. In one are 
a number of bad paintings, representing different views of Constan- 
tinople ; and, to my surprise, birds were pictured, flying, in violation 
of the Mohammedan prohibition to paint any animal. It is kept in 
tolerable repair ; and the divans in the best rooms are still furnished 
with cushions. One apartment, which was occupied by the Empress 
CATHERINE, is fitted up in a paltry ball-room manner, with chande- 
liers, &c. and forms an exception to the general style. The Haram is 
a mean building, separated from the other apartments by a small 
walled garden, and containing a kitchen, with six or eight small and 
mean bed-rooms, each of which (as we were told by our guide, who 
was a Jew, and remembered it in the time of the Khans) was usually 
occupied by two ladies. In the garden is a large and delightful kiosk, 
surrounded by lattice -work, with a divan round the inside, the centre 
paved with marble, and furnished with a fountain. The word Serai, 
or Seraglio, which is given to this range of buildings, seems, in the 
Tahtar and Turkish language, to answer to all the significations of 
our English word Court; being applied indifferently to the yard of an 
inn or the inclosure of a palace." fleber's MS. Journal. 


1. Gi-yllus 7AnriM 

2. (iryllus miffratoTV 

3. Scorpio Europrru*. 

5. Scofopenefra morxifa 



Tarantula Spider Departure from Baktcheserai 

CTENUS of Stralo AKTIAR Caverns of Inkerman 
Mephitic Air Cippus ofTheagenes Antient Geo- 
graphy, and Antiquities of the Minor Peninsula 


Formaleoni Monastery of St. George Balaclava 
Genoese Fortress Geology of the Crimea 


Extraordinary Geological Phenomena Form of an 
Antient Greek Town Manners of the People. 

U PON our arrival at the house where we had 
lodged, we found the servant endeavouring to 
secure a very large tarantula, which he had caught 
in one of the out-houses. Some advantage 
may be derived from our entomological re- 
searches, imperfect as they are, if they only 
cause future travellers to avoid the dangerous 
consequences of an attack from such animals. 
A slight attention to the representation 
in the opposite page will enable any one 
to recognise three of the four venomous in- 
sects of the Crimea with tolerable precision, 
as the drawing was made .from the ori- 
ginal specimens. The fourth, the Phalangium 
Araneoides, was destroyed in its passage to 
this country : this may be regretted, because 
its bite is the most pernicious, and no very accu- 
rate representation of the insect has hitherto 
appeared. Observations more at large were 
given in a preceding Chapter ' : nor would the 
subject have been again introduced, but with 
a view to contradict notions propagated con- 
cerning the harmless nature of these animals. 
Both from our own experience, and the very 

(1) See pp. 133137, of this Volume. 
O 1 


CHAP, extensive knowledge of Professor Pallas, we 


< J are authorised in affirming, that, in warm 

countries, the wounds they occasion some- 
times prove fatal. The amputation of the part 
affected was the only method of saving our 
soldiers in Egypt, who had been bitten by the 
scorpion ; and Pallas informed us, that he had wit- 
nessed the most dangerous consequences from 
the attacks of the Scokpendra, the Phalangium> 
and the Tarantula. 

Departure The evening after we descended from the 
fortress belonging to the Jewish colony, we left 
Bahtcheserai, and reached the great bay of 
AKTIAR: upon this place the Russians, in the 
time of CATHERINE THE SECOND, bestowed the 
fanciful name of Sebastopole. We had to make 
a passage of about two versts, across the water, 
to the town. Prince Fiazemskoy, the Governor, 
had stationed a sentinel with a boat, who told 
us he had waited four days in expectation of 
our coming. According to the orders he had 
received, a gun was fired, to give notice to 
the garrison of our arrival. The great bay 
of Ahtiar also bears the name of The Roads ; and 
here the Russian fleet is frequently at anchor. 
It is the CTENUS of Strabo*. The harbour, 


(1) Slrab. Geogr. lib. vii. 


where the town of Aktiar was built about 
twenty years ago, has been appropriated to 
the reception of Russian ships of war 2 . The 
Crimea does not afford timber for building 
ships, although there is always a sufficient 
supply for repairs. The fleets of the world 
might ride secure, and have convenient ancho- 
rage, in the great bay ; and in any of the ports, 
vessels find from twenty-one to seventy feet 
depth of water, and good anchorage. To the 
Russian navy it is one of their most important 
possessions ; yet such was the surprising igno- 
rance or the negligence of their Government, 
that, for some time after the capture of the 
Crimea, the advantages of this place were not 
discovered. The plan of the harbour somewhat 
resembles that of Malta. 

AKTIAR contains two churches : one of them 
is a handsome building. The principal street 
is broad, and the stairs of the quay are spacious 
and magnificent. For the rest, with the ex- 
ception of its magazines and barracks, it can 
only boast of a few shops 3 . Other objects 

(2) There are other ports, such as the '* Careening Bay,' the 
M Bay of Quarantine " &c. 

(3) " Aktiar, so called from its white rocks. The old town stood, as 
we were told, on the north of the harbour, where there are no remains 



demand the attention of the traveller, and call 
for all his activity. Landing at Aktiar, he 
arrives in the very centre of some of the most 
interesting antiquities of the Crimea. The 
country included within the isthmus formed by 
the principal harbour of Aktiar, or Inkerman, 
that is to say, by the Ctenus of Strabo, and the 
port of Balaclava or Portus Symbolorum, is the 
scribed by that author as a portion of the 

of any consequence. No vessels are built here ; as the timber must all 
be floated down the Bog or Dnieper. A regulation had been made, 
prohibiting merchant-vessels the entrance into the harbour, unless 
in positive distress ; a strange way of proceeding, when compared 
with the general policy of European Governments. Thereason assigned 
was, the embezzlement of the pullic stores, which were sold to the mer- 
chants ly the Government officers, almost without shame. The effect 
has been, to check entirely the prosperity of the town, and to raise 
every foreign commodity to a most extravagant price. Even provisions 
cannot be brought by sea without a special licence. This information 
I derived from the Port-Admiral, Bandakof, and from an English 
officer in the Russian service. The natural advantages of the harbour 
are truly surprising ; and the largest vessels lie within a cable's length 
of the shore- The harbour is divided into three coves, affording 
shelter in every wind, and favourable situations for repairs, building, 
&c. On a tongue of high land, between the two southern creeks, 
stands the Admiralty and store-houses, and on the opposite fide is the 
town. The principal arm of the harbour runs east, and is terminated 
by the valley and little river of Inkerman. There are some formidable 
batteries, and the mouth of the harbour is very easy of defence. The 
old and unserviceable cannon are broken into small pieces, by being 
raised to a great height, and suffered to fall on a bed of masonry ; and 
then sent, as we are told, to Lugan, to be new cast. To build a ship 
in the Black Sea costs half as much again as to construct it at Cronstadt, 
the wood coming from so great a distance." Heber's MS. Journal. 


Peninsula Major, or T AURIC A CHERSONESUS. C.HA*. 
Within this small district stood the cities of the 
old and new Chersonesus ; Eupatorium: the Temples 
of Diana, and the Promontory Parthenium, cele- 
brated in the story of Iphigema; the famous 
Chersonesan Mole; with numerous ramparts, 
tombs, canals, and other works, the memory of 
which historians have preserved, but the last 
traces of whose magnificence the Russians daily 
labour to annihilate. 

Prince Fiazemskoy had prepared apartments 
for us in a palace belonging to the Crown, 
similar to the edifice already noticed at Stara 
Crim; but there was at this time resident in 
Aktiar a countryman of ours, in the Russian 
service, an illiterate man, whose vanity we 
found would be piqued if we did not take up 
our abode with him. He was originally em- 
ployed as a servant to the astronomer who 
accompanied Cooke in his second voyage; and, 
owing to the powerful interest made in his 
behalf, by Professor Pallas, and by other persons 
of high respectability, he had obtained the 
command of an expedition to the north-west 
coast of America, of which Sailer has since 
published a narrative. He had the rank of 
Commodore; and his claim as a countryman, 
added to his other pretensions, induced us to 


CHAP, accept his offers of accommodation. We had 
r- T ^ reason afterwards to regret our imprudence ; 
for, in addition to the privations we endured 
beneath his roof, we found ourselves thwarted 
in every undertaking, by his interference, and 
very often by his actual misrepresentations to 
the Governor and police-officers. He would not 
allow the Prince to grant us permission for the 
removal of any article of antiquity we had 
purchased, although they were all condemned 
to serve as building materials ; and we had 
soon reason to apprehend, that we were accom- 
panied, wheresoever we went, by as dangerous 
a spy as the jealous police of that country 
could possibly place over us. The room he 
allotted to our use was a kind of antechamber, 
destitute even of the meanest article of furniture ; 
and here we slept upon the bare floor: nor 
should we have noticed the rigour of our fare, 
if it had not borne the respectable name of 
English hospitality. 

Caverns of The Prince prepared his shallop for us on the 

Inkerman. , -, . , , 

next day, with twelve oars, to visit the rums and 
caverns of Inkerman 1 , at the extremity of the 
principal harbour. The Commodore and the 
metropolitan Bishop accompanied us. Before 

(l) In-Kerman, according to Pallas, ineaus ' The Town of Caverns.' 


we reached Inkerman, some very remarkable 
excavations appeared in the rocks by the side 
of the bay, visible at a considerable distance. 
Upon examination, they proved to be chambers., 
with arched windows, cut in the solid stone 
with marvellous art and labour. The Bishop 
described them as the retreats of Christians in 
the earliest ages of the Church. But to give an 
idea of what we saw at Inkerman would baffle 
every power of description. The rocks all 
around the extremity of the harbour are hewn 
into chapels,- monasteries, cells, sepulchres, 
and a variety of works which, by their multi- 
plicity and intricacy, astonish and confound the 
beholder. A river flows here into the bay, after 
leaving perhaps the most beautiful valley in 
Europe. At the mouth of this river the most 
remarkable antiquities are situate, the excava- 
tions appearing on both sides. The first caverns 
visible to persons approaching from Aktiar are 
upon the south side: these have been con- 
verted into magazines for gunpowder. It was 
with great difficulty we could prevail upon the 
sentinels to suffer us- to enter the caves where 
the ammunition is kept. They seem to have 
constituted an entire subterraneous monastery: 
the rock has been so wonderfully perforated, 
that it now exhibits a church, with several 
chambers, and long passages leading off in 


CHAP, various directions. From these caverns, a fine 

prospect of the Valley of Inkerman appears 

through the wide open arches, together with 
heaps of ruins upon the opposite side of the 
river. The principal cave seems to have been 
the church. We found several stone coffins 
cut in the rock: these had all been opened. 
We noticed some Greek inscriptions above them, 
but the characters were too faint and too im- 
perfectly engraven to be legible. The difficulty 
of copying or deciphering them was increased 
by the obscurity of the caverns. It was now 
evening; and night coming on, the full moon 
rose in great splendour over the long Valley of 
Inkerman, illuminating a landscape, which, as 
it was seen through the arches of these gloomy 
chambers, is not to be described. Upon the 
opposite side of the river, excavations were 
still more frequent, and somewhat farther from 
the bay. Crossing an antient bridge, whose 
fair-proportioned arch, and massive super- 
structure, indicated the masonry of some remote 
age, we found the caverns to be so numerous, 
that they occupied one entire side of a con- 
siderable mountain : upon its summit were the 
towers and battlements of a very large fortress, 
supposed to have belonged to the Genoese, but 
perhaps originally part of the fortifications 
erected by Diophantus, one of the generals of 


Mithradates. From the appearance of staircases CRAP. 
leading also to the very caverns before men- 
tioned, it is evident that a fortress must have 
stood there ever since the excavations were 
first made, whatsoever be the date of their 
origin. Several chapels, together with the 
remains of stone sepulchres, apparently con- 
structed for the bodies of distinguished persons, 
are among these chambers, which are now 
tenanted by the Tahtars and their goats. The 
stone coffins serve as drinking-troughs for the 
cattle : the altars, once smoking with incense, 
are now filthy receptacles for dung and mud. 
Pallas, who had paid considerable attention to 
the subject, believed that all these remains, 
whether of buildings or excavated chambers, 
originated in a settlement of Brians; who, when 
Christianity met with general persecution, fled 
to these rocks, and fortified themselves against 
the barbarous inhabitants of the Peninsula. 
Similar works are found in other parts of the 
Crimea, particularly at Schulu and Mankoup ; also 
in Italy, and in other parts of Europe : and they 
have generally been attributed to the labours 
of those early Christians who fled from persecu- 
tion. The air of Inkerman is unwholesome 


during the months of summer and autumn; and 
this may be said, in some degree, of the whole 
Peninsula. Even the natives are afflicted with 


CHAR frequent fevers; but strangers rarely escape. 
The tertian fever is the most common. In 
autumn it is very difficult to avoid this disorder, 
particularly at Akmetchet, Alctiar, Koslof, Sudak, 
and Karasubazar. Baktcheserai is the most 


healthy situation, because a constant current 
of air passes through the defile in which it is 
situate; and the water is excellent 1 . 

After returning from our excursion to Inker - 
man, we endeavoured to investigate the antient 
topography of the Heracleotic Peninsula. This 
was a work of some difficulty; yet the materials 
were ample. The ruins, as they still exist, with 
the assistance of Strabo, and an accurate survey 
of the country, might be deemed sufficient for 
the purpose ; but the insurmountable difficulties 

(1) In consequence either of the visit to Inkerman, or the air of 
jAhtiar, the author caught a violent tertian fever, which afflicted him 
during the whole of his journey along the south coast : and he afterwards 
observed at Akmetcheti that it was not possible to walk in the town without 
meeting some persons labouring under a similar disorder. The pale 
Peruvian bark has very little effect in removing the complaint; but the 
red bark soon cures it : the last paroxysm is generally followed by a 
scalding eruption upon the lips. This symptom, as an index of returning 
health, is always hailed by the inhabitants, who, when they perceive it, 
congratulate the invalid upon the speedy prospect of his recovery. But 
as the poor, and even many of the rich, are unable to procure the bark, 
these fevers often generate dropsical habits, and become fatal. There is 
not a single apothecary in the Crimea. Medicine is therefore almost 
unknown, excepting the few remedies to which the Tahtars have recourse : 
and these, with the use of a few herbs, consist chiefly, as in all barbarous 
countries, in charms and superstitious practices. 


created by the barbarism of the Russians 

were very intimidating. When they settled in 

the country, the remains of the city of Cherso- 
nesus were so considerable, that all its gates were 
standing. These they soon demolished; and, 
proceeding in their favourite employment of lay- 
ing waste, they pulled down, broke, buried, and 
destroyed every monument calculated to illus- 
trate its former history ; blowing up its antient 
foundations; tearing open tombs ; overthrowing 
temples ; and then, after removing the masses 
of stone and marble to 4ktiar, exposing them 
for sale by cubic measure, to serve as materials 
in building. If the Archipelago should ever fall 
under the dominion of Russia, the fine remains of 
Antient Greece will be destroyed; Athens will be 
rased, and not a stone be left to mark where the 
city stood. Turks are men of taste and pro- 
found science in comparison with the Russians. 
Among other interesting antiquities, removed 
by the latter from the city of Chersonesus, there 
was a beautiful bas-relief, upon a Cippus of white 
marble, exhibiting sculpture equal in perfection 
to some of the most-admired productions of 
antient artists. This Cippus had closed the 
entrance to the tomb of a philosopher named 
THEAGENES. Any of the inhabitants of Akdar 
might have purchased it, together with a ton 
weight besides of other stones, for a single 


CHAP, rouble. To us the sale was prohibited, because 
we were strangers ; and, worse than all, we were 
Englishmen. Commodore Billings particularly 
insisted, that the consequences would be serious 
to the inhabitants, if it were told to the Emperor 
that Englishmen had been allowed to remove 
any thing of this description: so the Cippus of 
Theagenes was left to its fate. As a bas-relief, 
it represented the philosopher and his wife. 
The drapery of these figures manifested the 
degree of perfection which the art of sculpture 
had attained in the Chersonesus, and thereby 
illustrated and confirmed the observations of 
Pliny 1 . The philosopher held in his left hand 
a scroll, in form and size resembling the manu- 
scripts found in Pompeii. His feet were bound 
in sandals. His wife, in a Grecian habit, wore a 
long robe, which seemed to fall negligently in 
folds to the ground. They both appeared to be 
in the prime of life : and beneath their feet was 
the following inscription : 


fl) Pracipui nitoris," (says the historian, speaking of Heraclea 

Chersonesus, which had formerly borne the name of MESARICZ,) 

t toto fo tructn, cnstoditit Gratia morifnu." Plin. Hist. Nat. lib. iv. 


From the style of the inscription, the late Pro- CHAP. 
fessor Porson believed the date of it to have 
been at least two hundred years prior to Chris- 
tianity. We were afterwards conducted to the 
sepulchre, from whose mouth they had removed 
this Cippus. It was a family vault, hewn in 
the rock on the outside of the walls of the 
antient city ofChersonesus*. Within were recesses 
for the bodies of the dead. When opened, the 
soldiers found several bones in a state of pre- 
servation *; and these they presently scattered 
among the ruins. There were many other 
sepulchres, of the same kind, upon the side of 
the rock where the Tomb ofThcagenes was found, 
all hewn in the same manner, and each closed 
by a large stone. Thus, evidently, the custom 
of the Chersonesus was to bury, and not to 
burn, the dead. With the single exception of 
the vase found at Yenikale, we observed no- 
where in the Crimea either ashes, urns, or any 

(2) A line from the Hecuba of Euripides, (Edilio Porsoni,} with the 
following Note of the Editor, is my authority for writing Chersonesvs 
instead of Cherronesus, although in opposition to the received text of 
almost every Greek and Latin author : 

" *O{ <rn> apifffnv 'X.tpffoivff'mn wXa*." v. 8. 

" Aldus et Codices Xifpemfia,*, sed alteram formam praeuntibus Beckio 
et Brunckio reposui. Iterum, v. 33. r cijSs Xtpffannirltp-" 

(3) This has been the case in some Grecian sepulchres, of much more 
antient date. 


other proof that the bodies of the dead had 
antiently been consumed by fire. 

Anticnt If the reader would follow us in the tour of 

Geography . . 

and Anti- the Heracleotic Peninsula, it is necessary that he 

theAKnor should have the maps, engraven for this Work, 

aa ' constantly in his hand. Leaving Aktiar, and 

following the coast westward, we passed the 

bay where the Russian artillery is stationed. 

Then, arriving upon the bay for quarantine, 

upon its western side we saw the ruins and 

sepulchres of a town perfectly distinct from 

that of Chersonesus, answering the situation 

Eupato- assigned by Strabo to Eupatorium, a town built 

rium, T . 

by Diophantus. His observations state, that 
the promontory, upon which this town stood, 
inclined towards the city, at the distance of 
fifteen stadia, and formed a considerable bay ; 
beyond this was the Ctenus : and he also adds, 
that the inhabitants built a mole across, uniting 
the two towns '. The remains of the mole are 
yet visible; and the distance, allowing for every 
stadium an English furlong 2 , is precisely that 

(1) Strab. lib. vii. p. 450. ed. Oxon* 

(2) As this rule is generally admitted, and vill be adopted through- 
out this work, it may be proper to insert the following passage, 
concerning the Stadium, from Casauton's Commentary upon Strabo, 
as given in the Notes to the Oxford edition, p. 467. " Stadium, inquit 
Plinius, lib. ii. c. 23, centum viginti guinque nostros efficit passus. Quod 


which he has mentioned. A place for quaran- 
tine is now built upon this bay, and it divides 
Eupatorium from Chersonesus ; for immediately n l e e s ~ 
after passing the Quarantine appears the pro- 
montory whereon the city of Chersonesus was 
situate : it is now covered by its ruins '. 
Upon the eastern side, below the walls of the 
town, are the antient sepulchres of the Cherso- 
nesians, in great number, ranged in very regular 
order. The plain between Ckersonesus and 
Eupatorium is also covered by ruined build- 
ings ; and to the south of the former city, at 
the distance of a verst behind the Promontory, 
upon an eminence, is a tumulus of a size so 

si est, uecesse est miliare unum stadia efficere octo. Plutarchus in Grac- 
chis, p. 838. torn. I. edit. F. Furt. TO $1 fiiXiav araSiiuv oA/yav u.-x<&ii: 
atque hac dimensione ubi sunt Plinius, Livius, ut alibi docuimus, et 
Dionysius Halicarnassensis, atque alii. Polybius quoque, librotertio, 
TdUTK > inquit, fiipwfiuriffTai xui ffiffVft.ttu'rai KKTO, e<TK^'mv; OKTU a/a: ta[*.a.iai 

(l) The following valuable document may account for the desolate 
appearance of the city, and direct future travellers to some of its 
remains, very differently situated. I shall recur, hereafter, to the 
fact alluded to, of the baptism of Vladimir: " Metropolis vetunta Kors- 
sunii, qua genii Rutkenorum princeps dedit laptisma et nomen Chris- 
tianuin, postea verb preedam gentibus nostris, excisa ab eis. Unde 
Kiovia nostra in templorum suorum lithostratis, asarotis, et incrusta- 
mentis retinet hucusque certa prad<e illius insignia, ft quibus ct GNES- 
NENSI Basilicce valvam largita est." Excerpta e Michalonis Lituani 
Fragmentis de Moribus Tartarorum. 


remarkable, that it cannot fail to attract notice. 
Immediately after passing the Promontory of 
Eupatorium, towards the east, begins the Ctenus, 
or Harbour of Inker man : the entrance to this 
constitutes The Roads ofAtkiar, exactly corre- 
sponding with the account given by Strabo. 
The old walls, both of the town of Chersonesus 
and of its buildings, are extremely thick, being, 
in fact, all double ; that is to say, having a 
shell on each side constructed with immense 
masses of stone, and the interval between the 
two filled with cement, containing fragments 
of pottery and other coarse materials. Earthen- 
ware seemed to have been in great abundance ; 
not only as it was employed among the ma- 
terials for building, but because the ground 
was covered with fragments of broken ves_ 
sels. Two strong towers, one being conti- 
guous to the bay, were entire in 17Q4. Pallas 
had seen them 1 . Attached to one of these 
was a slab of white marble, with the fol- 
lowing inscription: this we copied from the 
original, now in the possession of the Profes- 
sor's friend, Hablitz. 

(1) Travels, vol. II. p. 74. 





This inscription records a return of thanks for 

a gift of money, and repairs done to the walls 

for the safety of the city, during the reign of 

the Emperor Zeno, a name common to some of 

the Roman Emperors, at Constantinople, in the 

fifth and sixth centuries. In the latter part is 

mentioned the restoration of a tower, probably 

the same in which the inscription was found. 

The learned Reader will observe the difficulty 

caused by the abbreviations ; and also notice 

the mode of writing H for I, and I for the 

diphthong El, as well as E for Al. The date^ 

seems distinctly preserved, in the epocha of 


CHAP. Chersonesus DXII. and the fourteenth year of the 
v. . J 

sixth Indiction; answering to our sera, A. D. 402. 

In the year ] 794 was also found, about three 
feet below the surface of the soil, a large slab 
of white marble, containing an inscription so 
imperfectly preserved, that it was not possible 
to copy it in a legible manner. It is in the 
Doric dialect, and seems to commemorate the 
gratitude of a people to a citizen or magistrate, 
for the introduction of vineyards. The original 
stone is still in the possession of Admiral 
JVilson, at Aktiar. 

From the little harbour lying between the 
cities of Chersonesus and Eupatorium, an artificial 
canal, winding round towards the walls of the 
former, and hewn in the rock, yet remains very 
entire. It was calculated to admit small vessels 
within the suburbs of the city. Towards the 
extremity it is now dry, although the fishing- 
boats of the inhabitants still enter its mouth. 
" In the city," says Strabo 1 , "is the temple of 
a virgin, a certain dcemon, from whom also the 
Promontory is named, one hundred stadia farther 
on, and called Parthenium; having the fane of 
the daemon, and her image. Between the city 

: s, . ; __ 

(!) Sfirrtl. G:< gr. lib. vii. p.44G. ed. O.nm. 


and the Promontory are three ports." Being CHAP. 

guided therefore by this clue, and following the < ' 

coast, the three harbours mentioned by Strabo 
will be found to occur very regularly ; but it is 
not so easy to determine the particular promon- 
tory where the shrine and statue of the dtemon 
virgin was said to stand. As the coast inclines 
towards the south, a very remarkable black 
rock advances from the cliff into the sea, 
towards the west, perforated by a lofty natural 
arch : through this, boats may pass. The 
singular appearance of such a scene might 
furnish a basis for superstition ; and above this 
rock were the remains of a building of an oblong 
form, constructed with considerable masses of 
stone, placed together without cement. Near 
the place were also other ruins. Farther on p ar the- 
is a promontory yet more striking : to this p u r '"jf 
Formuleoni' gives the name of The Promontory qf leoni - 
Parthenium: it terminates by a perpendicular 
precipice of very great height. Then follows 
the bay where the Monastery of St. George is Monastery 
situate, in a picturesque and singular situation, 
so placed among sloping rocks as to seem 
inaccessible. The few Monks who reside here 
have formed their little gardens upon terraces, 

(2) Hist. Philos. et Polit. clu Comm. &c. dans le Mer Noire. Ven. 
8vo. 1 7?.!). 


CHAP, one above another. If there be any thing to 
support Formaleoni 's opinion, it is the circum- 
stance of the foundation of a monastery and 
chapel so near to the spot. The early Christians, 
in the destruction of Pagan edifices, almost 
always erected new buildings, sacred to their 
own religion, upon the spot, and often with the 
materials, of the old. The Monks of the 
monastery, in the ground behind their chapel, 
had recently found a small stone column, whose 
shaft was seven feet eight inches and a half in 
length, and thirteen inches in diameter. This 
column, together with a few broken slabs of 
marble, and other antiquities discovered there, 
seem to prove, supposing Formaleoni 's position 
of Parthenium to be correct, that in this situation 
stood the old Chersonesus, described by Strabo, 
after speaking of the new, as in ruins, and 
occurring after the Promontory '. That there is 
some reason, however, to dissent from the 
opinion maintained by Formaleoni, will appear 
in the sequel ; as there is a promontory between 
the Monastery of St. George and the harbour of 
Balaclava; and this, independent of the tradition 
concerning it, is perhaps more suited to the 
account Strato has given of the fane of the dcemon 

0) M!T|I> Se rr,; treAioi; xtti vv( axgag, Xi/tiyi; rg-Tf' iif A 
*.ppcifi>{ xxrHrxaufiit*. Sirub. lib. vii. 446. ed. Oxen. 


virgin, as well as to the terrible nature of her CHAP. 
rites a . It will be noticed in a subsequent account C 
of a journey we made along this coast, with 
Professor Pallas, from Balaclava to the extreme 
south-western point of the Minor Peninsula of 

The whole of this little peninsula is marked 
by vestiges of antient buildings. The remains 
of walls traverse it in so many directions, that 
it is impossible to conceive the purposes for 
which they were erected. If we were to 
enumerate the curious relics at Inkerman, the 
ruins of the cities of Eupatorium and Chersonesus, 

(2) " On that inhospitable shore," says Gibbon, speaking of the 
Taurica Chersonesus, " Euripides, embellishing with exquisite art the 
tales of antiquity, has placed the scene of one of his affecting trage- 
dies. (Iphigen. in Taur.} The bloody sacrifices of Diana, the arrival 
of Orestes and Pylades, and the triumph of virtue and religion over 
savage fierceness, serve to represent an historical truth, that the 
Tauri, the original inhabitants of the Peninsula, were in some degree 
reclaimed from their brutal manners, by a gradual intercourse with the 
Grecian colonies, which settled along the maritime coast. This seems 
to concede more to allegory than is consistent with the antient history 
of the Greek Drama ; in which so much attention was paid to the 
strict tenor either of record or tradition. It is uncertain to which of 
the Heathen Goddesses the damon virgin of STRABO may be referred. 
The editor of the Qjrford Strabo (p. 446. in Not.} suspects that she 
was of Scythian origin. Her image was believed to have fallen from 
heaven. Orestes carried it into Greece ; but the base of the statue, 
according to Ovid, remained. In the language of the Tauri, her 
earliest votaries, she was called Orsilochc. Ovid calls her ORESTKA 
DBA : Epist. I. ex Pont. lib. i. 


o f the fortresses, and other buildings along the 
coast, at Balaclava, and other parts of this small 
district, we shall not find more to interest a 
literary traveller, in any equal extent of territory. 
From the Monastery of St. Georgt we returned 
to Aktiar, having promised to spend the re- 
mainder of the day with Prince Fiazemskoy. 
As there were no post-horses, he had kindly 
supplied us with his own; and his attentions, 
during the time we remained, demand our 
grateful acknowledgment, 

Afterwards, we set out again, by the common 
road, to Balaclava, with a view to examine that 
place, and then to traverse the whole coast, as 
far as . This journey not only compre- 

hends the finest scenery of the Crimea, but also 
completes our survey of its southern shore. So 
. much has been said by travellers of the famous 
Falley of Baidar, that the Vale of Balaclava, 
although hardly surpassed by any scene in 
the Crimea, has hitherto escaped notice. The 
wild gigantic landscape, towards its southern 
extremity surrounding the town ; its mountains, 
ruins, and harbour; its houses covered by 
vines and flowers, or overshadowed by thick 
foliage of mulberry and walnut trees ; make it 
altogether enchanting. The ruins at Balaclava 
are those of the UAAAKION of Strabo ; whence 


some believe the town to have derived its pre- 
sent name. Others, perhaps with more reason, 
suppose the name to have had a Genoese origin; 
and they derive it from Bella Clava, the Beau- 
tiful Port. Its harbour was the lYMBOAHN 
AIMHN, Portus Symbolorum ; whose entrance 
Strabo so characteristically describes 1 . Nothing 
can exceed the fidelity with which he has 
designated the coasts of the Crimea ; a circum- 
stance perhaps owing to the vicinity of his 
native country; the situation of Amada enabling 
him to acquire a familiar knowledge of the shores 
of the Euxine. In his account of the Archipelago 
and of the Mediterranean, although always an 
accurate writer, he does not evince an equal 
degree of precision. According to him, the 
port of Balaclava, together with the Ctenus, or 
harbour of Inherman, constituted by their ap- 
proach an isthmus of forty stadia, or five miles : 
this, with a wall, fenced-in the MINOR PEN- 
INSULA, having within it the city of Chersonesus*. 
The wall we afterwards found, in an excursion 
with Professor Pallas; and its extent corre- 
sponded with Strabos account. 

(1) " Ka< /JUT auTJJv, ^tftrir crrivofrtftts. Et post hanc, portUS angusto 
introitu." Strab. lib.'vii. p. 446. ed. Of on. 

(2) Ibid. 


The port of Balaclava is certainly one of the 
most remarkable in the Crimea. From the town 
it appears like one of the smallest of our northern 
lakes, land-locked by high precipitous moun- 
tains. Although its entrance is so narrow, that 
ships can barely obtain a passage, yet it affords 
excellent anchorage, and security in all weather 
from the dreadful storms of the Black Sea. 
Ships of war find sufficient depth of water, and 
a safe asylum here. The heights around it are 
the first objects descried by vessels sailing 
from Constantinople. But if any ill-fated ma- 
riner, driven by tempests, sought shelter in the 
port of Balaclava during the reign of PAUL, his 
vessel was speedily repulsed, or sunk, by an 
enemy as inhospitable as the wind or the waves. 
The inhabitants had small pieces of artillery 
stationed upon the heights, with the most po- 
sitive orders, from that insensate tyrant, to fire 
at any vessel presuming to take refuge there. 
The town is colonized by Greeks from the Morea; 
a set of daring pirates, to whom the place was 
assigned by the late Empress, for the services 
they rendered to Russia in her last war with the 
Turks. We found the inhabitants of Misitra, 
of Corinth, of the isles Cephalonia, Zante, &c. 
living, without any intermixture of Tahtars or 
of Russians, according to the manners and the 
customs of their own country. We were treated 


by them, as we had reason to expect would be 
the case, with every degree of politeness and 
of hospitality. The evident symptoms of the 
violent fever which the author had caught in 
the bad air of Inkerman might have induced 
many a worthy landlord to deny him admission 
to his house, through fear of the plague ; but 
the brave Spartan, Feodosia 1 , with whom he 
lodged at Balaclava, not only received his whole 
party, but attended the invalid with all the 
solicitude of a kind friend. We arrived by 
moonlight: Feodosia s house was beautifully 
situate upon a rock, near the harbour. The 
variety of different nations found in the Crimea, 
each living as in its own country, practising its 
peculiar customs, and preserving its religious 
rites, is one of the remarkable circumstances 
which render the Peninsula curious to a stranger : 
at BAKTCHESERAI, Tahtars and Turks; upon 
the rocks above them, a colony of Karaite Jeius ; 
at BALACLAVA, a horde of Greeks ; an army of 
Russians at AKMETCHET; in other towns, Ana- 
tolians and Armenians ; in the STEPPES, Nagays, 
Gipsies, and Calmucks: so that, within a small 
compass, as in a menagerie, contrasted speci- 

(l) A corrupt mode of pronouncing Theodosiu; as Tlieodore is often 
pronounced Feodore ; and Theodaric, Feodoria Federic, and Fredtric : 
thus we have the singular derivation of Frederic from Thiodort. 


CHAP, niens of living rarities are singularly associated. 
y . y . ,/ Nor is it only with a view to its modern statis- 
tical history that the traveller finds so much 
to interest him; his attention is continually 
diverted from mere statistical considerations by 
the antiquities of the country. At Balaclava 
they offered for sale several Greek coins, of 
uncommon beauty and rarity: the most re- 
markable were of silver. Of these we shall 
briefly notice five, which are not generally 
known 1 . 

Upon the heights above the mouth of the 

port, are the ruins of a magnificent fortress, 

Genoese built by the Genoese when they possessed this 

lortress. J J r 

harbour. The arms of Genoa are upon the 

(1) They were as follow : A silver medal of Heraclea, PRSCIPUI 
NITORIS, to use the words of Pliny concerning the city to which it be- 
longed. Heraclea, according to that author, was the name of the 
Cliersonesian city ; and this medal exhibits upon one side a bearded 
head of Hercules, covered by the lion's spoils ; and upon the other, 
within an indented square, the word HPAKAE1A, with the letters AAM. 
A silver medal of PHOCIS, of similar size and workmanship, having ou 
one side a bull's face ; and for reverse, the hcad_ of Apollo, with the 
letters OOKI. A third in silver, and of the same size, perhaps of 
us : it has on one side an eagle's head, and for reverse a thunderbolt. 
A fourth, of yet smaller size, and of the same metal, is unknown: it 
has upon one side a scorpion; and upon the other, within an indented 
square, a dolphin. A fifth, and last, was a bronze medal of Rhceme- 
talces king of Bosporus, having in front the regalia sent from Rome for 
his coronation, with the legend BA2IAEnS POIMHTAAKOT, and for 
reverse, the letters MH in a wreath of laurel. 


walls. The mountain upon the north-east side 
is covered with its mouldering towers ; and the 
rock itself has been so excavated, as to contain 
stately magazines and chambers, whose sides 
are lined with coloured stucco. It is surprising 
that the inhabitants of Balaclava do not make 
use of these caves ; for they are very habitable, 
and the stucco is still in the highest preservation. 
We entered one of them : it was a spacious 
oblong chamber, lined throughout with stucco, 
resembling that of the famous Piscina mirabile*, 
near the supposed villa of Lucullus, at Baia in 
Italy. We could form no conjecture for what 
purpose this place was designed, unless it were 
intended for a granary or store-room : it bore 
no marks of any aqueous deposit, therefore it 
could not have been used as a reservoir for 
water. The mountains, surrounding the port, Geology of 

the Crimea. 

are of red and white marble, full of cracks and 
fissures ; but calculated for ample quarries, if 
worked beyond the surface. The shore is in 
some parts covered by fine glittering sand, 
whose particles entirely consist of gold-coloured 
mica, in a state of extreme division; fitted for 

(2) A cement containing arenaceous pumice, or putzolana, so indu* 
rated by age and the effect of water, that it is susceptible of a liis;U 
polish. Specimens of this substance, bearing the name of "polish ed 
wortar," are sold as curiosities by the lapidaries of Naples. 


the most beautiful writing- sand that can be 
used : and as this may be here obtained in any 
quantity, it might perhaps answer as an article 
of commerce ; since nothing that has been sold 
by stationers, for a similar purpose, can be 
compared with this micaceous sand of Balaclava. 
When scattered over fresh writing, it produces 
an effect as if the ink had been covered with 
minute scales of polished gold; which it will 
retain for any number of years. This is the 
kind of gold dust alluded to by Trebellius Pollio ', 
with which the Emperor Gallienus powdered his 
hair. It is still used fay the women of Armenia, 
and some other parts of the East, for the same 
ornamental purpose. 

The appearance of so much mica might 

nary Geolo- . ... . 

gicai ph<e- induce an opinion that a substratum, anterior in 
its formation to the rocks which surround the 
port, cannot lie very deep ; but there is no part 
of the world where geological phenomena are so 
extraordinary. Pallas often confessed, that in 
all his travels he had never met with any 
similar appearances 2 . It is impossible to con- 

(1) Trebell. Pollio, Vit. Gallien. ap. Hist. August. Script, torn. If. 
p. 232. L.JBat. 1672. 

(2) The small treatise he extracted from the Journal of his Travels 
in the Crimea in 1794, and published at Petersburg in 1796, has been 
before noticed. It is so extremely rare, that the Reader may perhaps be 



jecture the depth where the primitive foundation CHAP. 
of granite lies : there are no traces of any such 
substance, not even among the pebbles on the 
coast. The strata of the Crimea have been 
formed by .a process so inexplicable, that no 
attention to their position will afford matter for 
any regular systematic arrangement. The tra- 
veller advancing from the Isthmus of Perecop, 
towards the chain of mountains extending 
along the southern coast, finds the great northern 
plain of the Peninsula consisting of a soft 
calcareous deposit, by an alternate series of 
depressed surfaces continually sinking towards 
the south. Almost all the principal elevations 

gratified by the insertion of a short extract concerning the singular 
phenomena displayed in the geology of the Peninsula. " Dans un pays 
qui a des montagnes si e'leve'es, que quelque part la neige et la glace s'y 
conservent pendant tout I'e'te', qui d'ailleurs est isole" par la mer, on 
devroit, selon les loix ge'ne'rales de la nature, s'attendre a trouver fe* 
trois ordres de montagnes : les primitives granitiques pour centre d'e"l- 
vation : les schisteuses secondaires ; et les tertiares a couches horizon- 
tales, mle"es de petrifactions; ou bien, comme en Sicile, un noyau ou 
centre volcanique, et les couches secondaires et tertiares sur les contours. 
Mais en Tauride il ii'existe ni 1'un ni 1'autre de ces arrangements Ob- 
serve's dans tous les autres pays de montagne. L'on ne voit, dans 
I'escarpement maritime de toute la haute chaine des Alpes de la Tauride 
rien que des couches secondaires du dernier ordre, inclindes sur 1' ho- 
rizon a un angle plus ou moins approchant celui de 45 de'gre's, etpresque 
toutes plus ou moins paralleles poshes dans une direction qui varie 
entre le sud-ouest et le nord-ouest. Toutes ces couches sont done 
couple par la direction de la cote, et on le voit toutes a de"couvert sur 
1'eficarpement maritime des montagnes, comme les feuillets d'un livre 
ou les tomet d'une tibliothequf." Tab. de la Taur. pp. 8, 4, 5. 


CHAP. O f t ne globe rise from the east, and fall towards 
the west. The declivities of the Crimea, and the 
precipitous sides of its mountains, are all 
opposed to the south. Perhaps a more familiar 
exposition of these geological phenomena may 
be afforded, by saying, that the perceptible 
elevations of the Peninsula, visible even in its 
plains, resemble, by their alternate order, the 
teeth of a saw. 

Towards the south, its highest mountains are 
all broken abruptly, as if by the sinking of the 
main bed in the depths of the Black Sea. To- 
wards the north, a tertiary deposit of calcareous 
matter, filled with the remains of shells, extends 
beyond the Isthmus of Perecop, even to the 
Dnieper. Hence the exterior, or upper strata, 
of the Peninsula are proved to consist of calca- 
reous matter, of very recent formation ; and in 
this there is nothing otherwise remarkable, than 
the evidence afforded, by the remains of marine 
bodies, of the draining of a vast body of water 
from the great Plain of Tahtary ; a subject we 
shall not now further discuss. But the wonder 
is, that where mountains have attained an eleva- 
tion of above twelve hundred feet, no trace, 
either of primitive granite, or, as a leader to it, 
Gneiss, or any regular schistose deposit, should 
appear. Beneath these enormous calcareous 


masses, pillars, if they may be so called, of CHAP. 
marble, of trap, of clay, of common limestone, and 
of schistus, make their appearance, in parallel 
and almost vertical veins, propping up the 
superincumbent strata. Pallas forcibly illus- 
trates their position, by observing, that they 
stand like books upon the shelf of a library V 
These veins alternate with each other; and 
although they be somewhat inclined, leaning 
from north-west towards the south-east, yet 
their position, in certain instances, is nearly 
vertical. These extraordinary phenomena may 
be discerned all along the south-western coast : 
and that the depth to which they extend must 
be very great, is evident from the appearance 
of the marble mountains of Balaclava, whose 
precipitous elevation from the sea denotes a 
corresponding depth below the water. When 
the veins of clay are washed away by the sea, 
either vast chasms are left, or the neighbouring 
veins fall in; as it happened upon the south 
coast at Kutchukoy, not long ago, where a whole 
village was buried. Sometimes veined slate 
appears within the clay, and often blocks of wood, 
so impregnated with bitumen, that they burn like 
coal. The coast of Balaclava consists entirely 
of marble : more towards the north-west, as at 

(l) See the Note to p. 225. 
VOL.11. Q 


the Monastery of St. George, it is formed of black 
slate; farther on, the other substances occur, 
according to the order and position already 
described. North of the coast, these veins are 
covered by calcareous matter, full of the remains 
of organized bodies. The extraneous fossils of 
the Crimea are exceedingly curious ; many of 
them relate to animals now unknown. Among 
these may be mentioned the Lapis nummularius, 
very common here, but elsewhere extremely 
rare. It is found near to Grand Cairo, and 
at the base of the greater Pyramid in Egypt, 
and in some parts of France 1 . 

sheets f Balaclava perhaps resemble 
Greek t} ie appearance they exhibited in antient times. 
The principal street is very like that of Pompeii, 

(1) Strabo noticed this fossil at the Pyramids of Egypt; and we 
afterwards found it there, exactly as by him described. He supposed it 
to have been formed of the lentils petrified, which were given as food to 
the workmen employed in building the Pyramids. Pallas has attempted 
to account for its origin, by an opinion entirely his own. " I cannot on 
this occasion omit to express my opinion respecting a fossil, the origin of 
which has not hitherto been explored. As its external shells have no 
orifice whatever, and may easily be separated from each other ; while its 
internal cellular texture, consisting of annular divisions and thin lateral 
scales, has not the least resemblance to the abode of a testaceous animal, 
but rather to the inner structure of a cuttle-fish bone; I am induced to 
conjecture that the lenticular stones have originated in the shell or bone of 
a peculiar gregarious species of Doris, or Sepia, which formerly inhabited 
the deep, has in process of time been mixed with the calcareous mire de- 
posited by the sea, and thus at length become completely extinct ; so that 
we possess no account of its living state." Travels, vol. II. p. 21. 


near Naples, which lias been laid open; being CHAP. 
quite as narrow, and being also paved after the 
same manner ; only the materials of the Balaclava 
pavement consist of variegated red and ivhite 
marble, instead of lava. The appearance of the 
stones proves that the marble of Balaclava is 
susceptible of a very high polish. The shops 
are also like those of Pompeii; and the inhabitants, 
as in that city, are all of them Greeks. Their 
uniform adherence to the antient costume of 
their country, although a little theatrical, autho- 
rizes the allusion. They wear helmets; but 
these being made of green and of red morocco, 
and not a little greasy with use, cause the Greeks 
of Balaclava to exhibit rather a caricature, than 
a correct portrait of their progenitors. The 
fruit-market here is a very good one, particularly 
for melons. We entered one of their melon 
shops, containing about two thousand water- 
meltons, heaped into a regular square mass : these 
were selling for ten copeeks the dozen ; less than 
a halfpenny each. The water-melon of the Crimea 
does not grow to half the size it attains at Naples; 
but its flavour is nearly the same. At Cher son, 
farther towards the north, it grows as large as in 
Italy. Vines cover the porticoes of all the doors 
in Balaclava : so rapid is the growth of that plant, 
that, within two years, if they told us the truth, 
a vine yielded two bushels of grapes. They 

Q 2 


have no foreign commerce. The rest of their 
shops were appropriated to the sale of the few 
Manners of necessar i es required by the inhabitants; who 

the People. . J 

seemed to lead an idle life, smoking, taking 
coffee, chewing tobacco or opium, lounging about 
the streets, or playing at chess or at draughts, 
in the coffee-houses, or before the doors of their 
dwellings. We observed a game here which 
was quite new to us : the Greeks call it Man- 
gala. We saw it afterwards in Constantinople. 
It is played with a board having two rows of 
parallel partitions : into each of these was placed 
a certain number of small shells, such as the 
natives of Guinea use for money '. 

We found it necessary to leave OUT carriage 
at Balaclava, in order to visit the celebrated 
Galley of Baidar. The passage is performed on 
horseback, over high mountains, covered with 
wood to their summits, and having more of the 
Apennine than of the Alpine character: the 
mountains which border the coast of the Crimea 
partake of neither ; they cannot be said to re- 
semble those of any other country. 

(I) The Cvprcca tnonela of Linncnu. 

Vessels of Trra Cotta, preserving antique forms, in use among the Tahtart. 



Palley of Baidar Domestic Habits and Manners of the 
Tahtars Passage of the Merdveen Kulchuckoy 
Plants and Minerals Transitions CRIU-METOFON 
Aloupka Other Villages on the Coast Country 
letiveeen Kutchdckoy and Sudak Tahtar School 
Vestiges of the Genoese Language Ruins of a Greek 
Monastery AI'VDAGH Promontory Parthenit 
Alusta-Tchetirdagh, or MONS TRAPF.ZUS Shuma 


Position of tfie Crimean 'Mountains Den/kcuy 
Mahmoud Sultan Return to Akmetchet Marriage 
Ceremony of tlie Greek Church Jewish Wedding 
Military Force of the Crimea SUVOROF. 

JL HERE is no part of the Crimea which has 
been more extolled by preceding travellers 
th an the Valley of Baidar. It has been de- 
scribed under the pompous titles of the Tauric 
Arcadia, and the Crimean Tempe ', with much 
warmth of fancy, and, as it might be expected, 
with some fallacy of representation. If any 
attempt be now made to dispel the illusion thus 
excited, it is in the hope that others coming 
after may not meet with disappointment. " Even 
the vales of Caucasus," says Pallas *, " far surpass 
this celebrated spot." It will not admit of a 
comparison with many of the beautiful scenes 
in Switzerland, nor even with those in Norway 
and Siveden. A very extensive cultivated plain, 
surrounded by high mountains, may be con- 
sidered as one of those pleasing prospects which 
call to mind the description given by Johnson 
of his Abyssinian Vale ; but, being destitute of 
water as an ornament, it is deficient in a prin- 
cipal object of picturesque scenery. The valley 

fl) See the Travels of Lady Craven, Mrs. Mann Gulhrie, &e. 
(2) Travels in the South of Russia, vol. II. p. 135. 


itself, abstracting all consideration of the moun- 
tains around, may be compared to many parts 
of Britain ; particularly to the vales of Kent 
and of Surrey. It is rather more than ten miles 
in length, and six in breadth; beautifully cul- 
tivated, so that the eye roams over meadows, 
woods, and rich corn-fields, inclosed and inter- 
sected by green hedges and garden plantations 3 . 
The villages are neat, and the inhabitants are 
healthy. Their fields, protected from violent 

(3) " This famous valley belongs to Admiral Mordvlnof; but his 
possession was contested when we were there, and the rents were 
paid to Government, in deposit. Many of the Russian proprietors of 
the Crimea were in the same condition, owing to the following circum- 
stances, as they were represented to me by a young man, named the 
Count de Rochfort, who was nephew to the Duke of Richelieu. 
Under the terrors of conquest, the Tahtar proprietors made little 
opposition to the grants which were made of their lands; bat now 
that they are again in some measure restored to their rights, such as 
did not come properly under the description of emigrants have com.- 
menced processes to obtain a reversion of their forfeitures, which was 
a very unexpected blow to their mastess. The Russians, since the 
conquest, have established their abominable code of slavery ; but not 
on so rigid a footing as in their own country. Two days a week, we 
understood from Pallas, is all the work a Tabtar is obliged to do gratis 
for his lord ; and the Russians complain heavily of their idleness. 
The mountaineers are almost all either entirely freeholders, or on the 
footing of peasants of the crown. The number of Russian residents 
in the Crimea is reduced greatly. Some have taken alarm at the 
tenure of their lands ; others have sustained great losses by their 
slaves running away, some of whom are received and concealed by 
the Kuban Cossacks ; which however is now prevented by the Duke 
of Richelieu's government, which includes the whole country up to 
Caucasus and the Caspian." Halcr's MS. Journal. 


CHAP. w i n ds, and irrigated by clear streams falling 
from the hills, seem to afford them a happy 
retreat ; and our ride through the valley was 
very pleasing. The mode of inclosure, and the 
manner of cultivation, resemble those of our 
own country. The mountains, and the plain, 
are thick set with oak, wild pear, crab, and 
carnelian cherry-trees, whose foliage shaded 
the road, and protected us from the scorch- 
ing rays of the sun ; otherwise darting with 
uncommon force into this valley. Our lodg- 
ing at night, and our meals by day, were 
entirely among Tahtars : this circumstance 
enabled us to witness the domestic habits of the 
people. When a stranger arrives, they con- 
duct him into an apartment appropriated solely 
for men, and present to him a bason, water, 
and a clean napkin, to wash his hands. Then 
they place before him whatsoever their dwell- 
ing affords, of curd, cream, honey in the 
comb, poached eggs, roasted fowls, or fruit. 
After the meal is over, the bason and water are 
brought in as before ; because the Tahtars, like 
the Turks and other Oriental nations, eat with 
their fingers ; not using forks. Then, if the 
visit be made in the house of a rich Tahtar, a 
long pipe is presented, having a tube of cherry- 
tree wood, tipped with amber or ivory. After 
this, carpets and cushions are laid for the 


guests, that they may repose. The houses of 
the Tahtars, even the cottages of the poor, 
are extremely clean, being often white-washed. 
The floor generally consists of earth ; but this is 
smooth, firm, dry, and it is covered with mats 
and carpets. The meanest Tahtar possesses a 
double dwelling; one for himself and his guests, 
and another for his women. They do not allow 
their most intimate friends to enter the place 
allotted for the female part of the family. We 
were quite surprised to find, that, with so much 
cleanliness, the itch was a prevalent disorder. 
It was also difficult to escape attacks from 
venomous insects and vermin. The tarantula, 
the scorpion, the cock-roach, different kinds of 
lice, bugs, fleas, flies, and ants, more or less 
incommoded us in the place where we rested ; 
and we found it necessary to reconcile our- 
selves, occasionally, to the appearance of a 
few large toads crawling near to our beds. 
With all these inconveniences, we nevertheless 
deemed the change, from a Russian palace to 
a Tahtar cottage, very desirable. In the houses 
of RUSSIAN grandees, unwholesome filth is 
ill concealed by external splendour : but the 
floor and the walls of a Tahtar 's residence, be 
it but a cottage, are white and clean. Even the 
place where his fire burns is unsoiled by smoke ; 
and if the traveller be properly cautioned 


CHAP, to avoid the contact of woollen clothes and 
carpets, he may consider himself secure. 

Domestic A favourite beverage of sour milk mixed 
Manners" with water, the yowrt of the Turks, is found to 
Tajjar*. be in request among the Tahtars, as among the 
Laplanders. They all shave their heads, both 
young and old : and in their houses they wear 
a sort of scull-cap; over this, in winter, is 
placed a larger and loftier helmet of wool ; or 
during summer, a turban. Their legs, in winter, 
are swathed in cloth bandages, like those worn 
throughout Russia, and their feet are covered by 
the kind of sandal before represented '. In sum- 
mer, their legs and their feet are naked. Their 
shirts, like those in Turkey, are wide and loose 
at the sleeves, hanging down below the ends of 
their fingers. If they have occasion to use their 
hands, either to eat or to work, they cast back 
the sleeve of the shirt upon the shoulder; 
leaving the arm bare. The jacket or waistcoat 
is generally of silk and cotton : the trowsers are 
made very large, full, and loose ; and, although 
bound tight below the knee, they fall in thick folds 
upon the calf of the leg. A small pocket, in the 
waistcoat, below the breast, serves to keep the 

< l) See the Vignette to the Tenth Chapter of the First Volume. 


steel and flint for kindling their pipes. Some- 
times, in summer, they cover their feet with 
morocco slippers, but these are always taken 
off when they enter their apartments. Upon 
similar occasions we took off our boots : this 
was a troublesome ceremony; but they were 
evidently uneasy if we sat down without 
attending to this piece of etiquette. They have 
no chairs in their houses ; a single stool, about 
three inches high, answers the purpose of a 
table, for supporting a tray during their meals. 
This stool is often ornamented, either with 
carved work, or it is inlaid with mother-of-pearl. 
The use of a carpet and of matting for the floor 
is universal: sometimes, as a substitute, they 
employ thick cloths of their own manufacture 
from goat's hair : these are exported to Con- 
stantinople. Of whatever material the covering 
of the floor may be, they are careful to keep it 
clean; but, after all, it is apt to swarm with 
vermin. During the summer months, the men 
make very little use of that part of the dwelling 
which is peculiarly set apart for them. Their 
chief delight consists in living exposed to the 
open air ; sleeping at night beneath the portico 
before their door, or under the shade of fine 
spreading trees cultivated near their houses. 
In the principal chamber of a Tahtar dwelling 
is a place bearing the name of sofa : this answers 
to the Turkish divan; it is a platform raised 


CHAP, twelve inches from the floor, occupying one 


entire side of the apartment; not for the purpose, 
however, of a seat, but as a receptacle for their 
household chests, for the Dii do?nestici, and for 
heaps of carpets, mats, cushions, and clothes. 
The same custom may be observed in the tents 
of the Calmucks. Simplicity generally charac- 
terizes the manners and dress of the Tahtars ; 
yet some of their customs betray a taste for 
finery. Their pillows are covered with coloured 
linen ; and the napkins for their frequent ablu- 
tions are embroidered and fringed. If one of 
their guests chance to fall asleep, although but 
for a few minutes during the day, they bring 
him water to wash himself as soon as they 
perceive he is awake. In their diet they make 
great use of honey. Their mode of keeping and 
taking bees accords with the usual simplicity 
of their lives. They form cylinders, about six 
inches in diameter, from the trunks of young 
trees, scooping out almost all the wood, ex- 
cepting the bark ; then, closing the extremities 
of these cylinders with mortar or with mud, 
they place them horizontally, piled upon one 
another, in their gardens, for hives. They often 
opened such cylinders, to give us fresh honey : 
the bees were detached, merely by being held 
over a piece of burning paper, without any aid 
of sulphur. The honey of the Crimea is of a 
very superior quality ; the bees, as in Greece, 


feeding upon blossoms of the wild thyme of 
the mountains, and the indigenous flowers of 
the country. Every Tahtar cottage has its 
garden, in the cultivation of which the owner 
finds his principal amusement. Vegetation is 
so rapid, that within two years, as already 
stated in the account of Balaclava, young vines 
not only form a shade before the doors, but 
appear actually laden with fruit. The Tahtars 
delight to have their houses buried, as it were, 
in foliage. These dwellings consist each only 
of one story, with a low flat roof, beneath trees 
spreading immense branches quite over the 
whole building ; so that a village, at a distance, 
is only known by the tufted grove wherein it 
lies concealed. When the traveller arrives, 
not a house is to be seen; it is only after 
passing among the trees, and beneath their 
branches, that he begins to perceive cottages, 
overshadowed by the exuberant vegetation of 
the walnut, the mulberry, the vine, the fig, the 
olive, the pomegranate, the peach, the apricot, 
the plum, the cherry, and the tall black poplar 
tree : all of which, intermingling their clustering 
produce, form the most beautiful and fragrant 
canopies that can be imagined. 

In every Tahtar house they preserve one or 
more copies of the Koran ; these are always in 


manuscript, and they are generally written in 
very beautiful characters. The children are 
early taught, not only to read, but to copy 
them. The size of the cap, or bonnet, is all 
that distinguishes the priests of the different 
villages from the rest of the community ; being 
made much larger for them, and rising to a 
greater height from the head. The horses of 
the country, although not equal to those of 
Circassia t are remarkable for their high breed, 
as well as for their beauty and swiftness : they 
are small and very sure footed, but rather 
stouter than Circassian horses, considered the 
fleetest and most beautiful race of coursers in 
the world. If travellers be provided with an 
order from the Governor of the district, the 
Tahlars are compelled to provide horses, lodging, 
and even provisions, gratis. We had this order; 
but we took no advantage of the privilege 
annexed to its possession ; a mode of conduct 
consistent with English customs and English 
opinions ; but diametrically opposite to those 
of Russia, where it is considered degrading to 
bestow a thought upon making any remunera- 
tion, unless it be a matter of compulsion. 

To avoid the intense heat of the middle of the 
day, we began our journey towards the coast 
on Tuesday the Jiflh of August, at five o'clock in 


the morning. Leaving the Valley of Baidar, we 
ascended the mountains inclosing it towards the 
south. By dint of actually climbing among 
rocks and trees, through a very Alpine pass, 
we at length attained the heights above the 
sea. Here a descent began towards the shore, 
and a vast and terrific prospect was opened. 
Naked rocks rose perpendicularly, to such 
amazing elevation, that even, the wide and 
misty sea, dashing its waves against their 
bases, was unheard at the immense distance, 
and appeared insignificant, when compared with 
the vastness of the objects to which it was 
opposed. Between their craggy summits, we 
were conducted to the Merdveen, a name signi- Passage of 
fying * stairs' in the Tahtar language : these steps 
were hewn in the natural rock in some remote 
age. Here we alighted, and left our horses to 
themselves ; beginning a laborious and a difficult 
descent. A passage of this nature, less preci- 
pitous, exists in the Island of Caprea, near 
Naples. It leads from the modern town of 
Capri to Anacapri; but horses are never seen 
there. The only beasts of burden are asses, 
generally laden with fagots. There are similar 
scenes in the Alps, but not of greater boldness ; 
neither have they the addition of the sea in the 
perspective. After we had completed the 
passage of the Merdveen, being still at a great 


elevation above the sea, we continued to skirt 
the bases of rocks towards the east, until we 
KutchUckoy. reached a village called Kiitchuckoy, hanging 
upon a lofty declivity below the great southern 
range of perpendicular precipices. The doubtful 
path to this village is so narrow and dangerous, 
that few would venture with any other than a 
Tahtar horse ; and even so provided, it is often 
necessary to alight and walk. 

Plants and The plants and minerals of the south of the 


Crimea merit particular attention. A catalogue 
of all the vegetable productions collected by 
us, whether in this interesting tract, or in other 
parts of our journey within the Peninsula, will 
be found in the Appendix, being much too nu- 
merous even for a marginal annotation. Appro- 
priated solely to the botanical history of the 
Crimea, it may there serve as a compendious 
Flora Taurica, for the use of other travellers ; 
and will not interrupt the perusal which persons 
who are not interested in botanical subjects 
may bestow upon the narrative of these Travels. 
At the same time, when any opportunity offers 
of noticing a plant . not hitherto described, it 
may be mentioned in the text without too much 
intrusion. "With a very superficial knowledge 
of Botany, we possessed the advantage, not 
only of guidance in our researches, but of every 


aid and contribution which the labour and libe- 
rality of our friend Pallas could possibly afford. 
The principal spontaneous vegetable production 
of the rocks and mountains upon the south 
coast, is the wild sage ; this, as in the islands 
of the Archipelago, attains very considerable 
size ; becoming, in certain instances, tall enough 
to rank as a shrub. Both the yellow and the 
red cenlaury were also very common. The Hack 
date-tree, the pomegranate, the olive, and the,^- 
tree, flourished along the coast, as in the South 
of Italy. With regard to geological phenomena, Geol sy- 
it may be added, that the rocks and strata near 
the village of Kutchuckoy are composed of trap 
and schistus, highly impregnated with iron. 
In proportion as this metal is combined with 
aluminous rocks, a tendency to decomposition, 
owing to the action of the atmosphere, may be 
more or less observed. The prismatic configu- 
ration and fracture of trap, of basalt, and of 
some other rocks, although evidently the result 
of a tendency towards crystallization \ may be 

(I) Of this a mure convincing proof can hardly be adduced, than 
that the Siberian emerald, whose colouring 1 principle is iron, and whose 
matrix abounds in iron oxide, not only preserves the hexagonal form 
common to the pillars of the Giant's Causeway, but, when fresh dug, 
exhibits also the same remarkable alternate convex and concave hori- 
zontal fissures. SeePatrin. Hist.Nat.desMn, torn. 1I./J.28. Par.An.$. 


CHAP, perhaps ascribed to the iron in their composition. 
Where the oxide of iron is found to be a predo- 
minant feature in mineral strata, veins, fissures, 
and separations of the substance, may generally 
be noticed : and, vice versa, if the external 
figure of the mass in aluminous rocks be evidently 
prismatic, there is reason to apprehend the pre- 
sence of this metal, in a more than usual 
proportion. These observations merit the con- 
sideration of more scientific geologists. In 
addition to the facts necessary for their con- 
firmation, it may be mentioned, that the 
phenomena of the Giant's Causeway, upon the 
north coast of Ireland; of the pillars of trap at 
Hallelerg and Hunneberg in Sweden, and at the 
Lake Bohenna in Italy, and many other places ; 
are only regular in their prismatic forms where 
they have been long exposed to the action of 
the atmosphere. When the exterior surface has 
been thrown down, the interior of the mass 
exhibits only an appearance of incipient de- 


Trans- The supposed transitions, or the passages, (as 
they are termed by some French and by many 
German mineralogists) from one mineral species 
to another, might meet with at least a semblance 
of reality upon this coast : so insensible is the 


apparent boundary between aluminous and sili- CHAR 
ceous bodies, in some examples ; such, for in- 
stance, as the transition from yellow indurated 
clay to jasper ; and from trap to hornstone. In 
the Museum at Tronijem,m the north of Norway, 
the Danes exhibit what they call a passage from 
carbonated lime to silex ; and in Copenhagen, entire 
collections have been formed of similar ap- 
pearances. The Norwegian specimen is however 
nothing more than a flint, part whereof has 
undergone a very high degree of decomposition, 
similar to the substance found in the neighbour- 
hood of Paris, called Pierre legitre, and Quartz 
nectique. The French have exhibited such ap- 
pearances in the same erroneous point of view. 
The jdbbe Hauy 1 , and the celebrated Chenevix, 
have derided the vulgar notion of transi- 
tions in the mineral kingdom ; involving the 
science in a labyrinth of et passages, which lead to 

Soon after the capture of the Crimea, precisely 
at the time of terrible earthquakes in Hungary 
and Transylvania, a large portion of the immense 
cliff above the village of Kutchuckoy fell down, 
and buried it. The late Empress caused the 
place to be restored at her own expense, 

(l) TraitS de Min^ralogie, torn. III. p. 242. Par. 1801. 
R 2 


CHAP, indemnifying the inhabitants at the same time 
for the losses they had sustained. 

From this village to Aloupka, still proceeding 
by a narrow undulating and devious track among 
rocks, at a considerable elevation above the sea, 
we enjoyed a prospect of the boldest scenery 
in the Crimea. Immediately before us we 
beheld the stupendous CRIU-METOPOX, men- 
tioned by Strabo, and by other antient geogra- 
phers : this, projecting into the bosom of the 
deep, together with the opposite promontory of 
Carambe, upon the coast of Paphlagonia, divides 
the Black Sea into two parts ; so that mariners 
sailing between the two capes may descry land 
on either side. The antient anonymous geogra- 
pher, whose writings were chiefly extracted 
from Arrian and from Scymnus Chius, relates that 
Iphigenia, carried from Aulis, came to this 
country 1 . Procopius*, speaking of Taurica Cher- 
sonesus, also mentions the Temple of Diana, 
where Iphigenia, daughter of Agamemnon, was 
priestess : according to him, the Tauri were 
her votaries. It is worthy of note, as will here- 
after appear, that a promontory and village, 
bearing at this day the name of Parthenit, evi- 
dently corrupted from Parthenium, is found to 

(1) Geogr. Aiitiq. ed. Gronov. L.Bat. 1697. p. 144. 

(2) Procop. de Bell. Goth. lib. iv.'C. 5. 


the eastward of the Crm-metopvn> in the vicinity CHAP. 
ofjlloupka. Thus, while Strabo and Ovid place 
the Promontory of Parthenium in the Heracleotic 
Chersonesus, other circumstances seem to fix its 
situation near the most southern point of the 
Crimea : and should this be admitted, it would 
only assign, as in the history of other popular 
superstitions, a difference of locality to the same 
rites. Leucate, in the Ionian Sea, is not the only 
promontory celebrated for the story of the 
Lovers Leap. 

As we advanced, the wide prospect of the 
Black Sea extended below upon our right. To- 
wards our left, towering to the clouds, and 
sometimes capped by them, appeared lofty 
naked precipices, here projecting in vast pro- 
montories, there receding, and forming bays, sur- 
rounded by craggy rocks, whose sloping sides 
resemble those immense theatres of Antient 
Greece, prepared more by Nature than by 
the art of man 3 . The upper strata of these 
mountains, notwithstanding their prodigious 
elevation, are all of limestone. Not a single 
fragment of granite is any where to be seen. 

(3) The antieiit theatres of Greece sometimes consisted of an entire 
mountain, to whose natural form seats were adjusted. Of this 
description is the theatre at the Hieron, in Epidaurin; at Telme$sus t 
in the Gulph of Glaucus-; and at CInEronea, in Jteotia. 


CHAP. Beneath the precipices, and extending to the 


water's edge, appears a bold and broken de- 
clivity, covered with villages, gardens, woods, 
and cultivated spots. Laurels flourished in 
several places ; and these were formerly more 
abundant, but the Tahtars have destroyed 
many of them, believing that strangers came 
only to see these trees, and dreading a visit 
from the Russians. 

In the evening we arrived at Aloupka. The 
inhabitants flocked to visit us, and overwhelmed 
us with their hospitality. Each person entering 
our little chamber deposited his offering ; either 
of fresh filberts, walnuts, mulberries, figs, pears, 
or other fruit. " Brandy," they said, " they could 
not offer us : abstaining from its use, they had 
it not." Less addicted to opium than the Turks, 
they are less slothful : yet they deem it their 
greatest happiness to sit still, to smoke, or to 
sleep; having nothing to employ their thoughts, 
and as little as possible to do. They sow only 
as much corn as may be necessary for their 
own consumption. Their pipes and their horses 
are, perhaps, objects of as great affection as 
their wives. We found them usually stretched 
upon the flat roofs of their cottages, lying upon 
thick mats, beneath the shade of their favourite 
trees, either asleep, or inhaling fumes of tobacco. 


The business of the harvest had, however, 
aroused some of them into a state of activity. 
As we continued our journey, we found them 
occupied in collecting it. They beat out their 
corn as soon as it is gathered. Their mode 
may rather be called trampling than thrashing. 
After selecting an even spot of ground, they fix 
a pole or a stake into the earth, placing the corn 
in a circle around it, so as to form a circum- 
ference of about eight or nine yards in diameter : 
they then attach a horse by a long cord to the 
pole, and continue driving him round and round 
upon the corn, until the cord is wound upon the 
pole ; after this, turning his head in an opposite 
direction, he is again set going, until the cord 
be untwisted. By this process they do not 
fail to obtain the whole of the corn clean from 
the sheaf; but the straw is destroyed. The 
chaff is afterwards collected, and carefully 
housed for fodder. They carry their corn upon 
horses ; but their manner of reaping and mowing, 
and of forming enclosures, resembles our own. 

The approach to^loupka, a village beautifully 
situate near the shore, is entirely concealed 
from view, by groves of fruit-trees. The 
scenery, everywhere along the coast, will 
admit of no comparison with any other maritime 
district. Such fertility and rural beauty are, 


CHAP, perhaps, no-where else situate equally near 
to the waters of any sea r nor so surrounded by 
grand objects. The descent towards the shore 
is so steep and rapid, that it seems as if the 
villages, with their groves and gardens, might 
be swept, by heavy rains, into the deep: at 
the same time, cliffs, hanging over them, me- 
nace fearful ruin, by the fall of rocks, which 
every now and then break loose : their enor- 
mous fragments have occasionally halted in situ- 
ations where they appear at every instant ready 
to rush forward. High above all are the lofty 
and rugged summits of the mountains, giving 
such a remarkable character to the southern 
coast of the Crimea, that no geographer has 
neglected to notice them. Stralo forcibly de- 
scribes their situation and their nature ' : " But 
from this port of the Symboli," says he, " unto 
the city of Theodosia, extends the maritime Tau- 
rican district, about one thousand stadia in length, 
craggy and mountainous, and teeming with 
storms." If, in consequence of some tremen- 
dous earthquake, or of a sudden thaw, a por- 
tion of these cliffs has been separated from its 
native bed, and, rushing into the Black Sea, has 

(l) Mi TO 3s T 5y^/3aXa>v \tfjLiia. vturet (ti%pi Qio^offias foKlus n T&vputn 

ycv grciuv rn y.riKo;, rpetgia KO.I sf.trn, xeci 
fiiii TlpjTitt. Strab. lib. vii. p. 416. cd.Oxon. 


formed a promontory, or towering bulwark in CHAP. 
the midst of the waves, its summit has been T: _ 
almost invariably covered by some antient 
fortress ; the ruins of which still remain, in 
places almost inaccessible. These works are 
principally attributed to the Genoese ; "although 
some of them be of Grecian origin. The har- 
dihood and the enterprise visible in their con- 
struction cannot fail to astonish the traveller, 
as there seems to be no precipice too lofty or 
too dangerous for the people by whom they 
were erected. 

On Wednesday, August the sixth, we left other vn- 

*. . f. . i lages on 

jiloupka. After journeying in groves, where SeCo**. 
mulberry-trees, shading our road, presented 
the largest and most delicious fruit, we arrived 
at the village of Musghor. Here we found a 
few Greeks, established as part of a cordon 
guarding the southern part of the Peninsula : 
they were busied distilling brandy from mul- 
berries, a weak but palatable spirit, clear 
as water. The scenery, rather improved in 
beauty, became yet bolder than before, as 
we drew near to a place called Derykeuy, 
inhabited by a small Greek colony, close to 
the shore. We found the people employed in 
shipping timber of bad quality for Sudak, and 
for other ports lying eastward. Upon the 


beach were some hulks of Turkish vessels, quite 
rotten ; yet in such frail barks do they venture 
across the Black Sea to Constantinople ; although, 
as our interpreter observed, " it would be 
indiscreet to risk even a letter by such con- 
veyance." Their appearance convinced us that 
the frequent shipwrecks in the Black Sea are 
owing, in great measure, to the wretched con- 
dition of the Turkish vessels. 

Country If there exist upon earth a terrestrial para- 

between .... ,, . 

Kutchuc- dise, it is to be found in the district intervening 
Sudaic. between Kutchuckoy and Sudak, along the south 
coast of the Crimea l . Protected by encircling 
Alps from every cold and blighting wind, and 
only open to those breezes which are wafted from 
the south, the inhabitants enjoy every advantage 
of climate and of situation. Continual streams of 

(l) " Kutchuk-ko'i is a village on the most southern point of the 
Crimea; and is so called to distinguish it from another JToz, Deryk-koi, 
which stands on the hill above Iliulta. Near Deryk-ko'i is the fountain 
represented in my drawing ; it lies in the highway between Nikita 
Burun and Deryk-ko'i. Hialta, a miserable village of Greeks, with a 
small Greek church, lies to the left ; and beyond Deryk-koi, in the 
way which branches off to Baktcheserai, is a village of Russians, 
belonging, I believe, to Admiral Mordvinof. Above Kutchuk-ko'i, 
the rocks become much more perpendicular and naked ; and if this 
be the Criu-metopon, the name may have been derived from their high 
and bold forehead. It is evident from Strabo, that this famous pro- 
montory was eastward of the 2tye/3aA.v x/^v, which I suppose is Bala- 
clava ; and therefore we have only Kutchuk-ko'i and Ayoudagh to 
choose between." llnber's MS. Journal. 


crystal water pour down from the mountains CHAP. 
upon their gardens, where every species of 
fruit known in the rest of Europe, and many 
that are not, attain the highest perfection. 
Neither unwholesome exhalations, nor chilling 
winds, nor venomous insects, nor poisonous 
reptiles, nor hostile neighbours, infest their 
blissful territory. The life of its inhabitants 
resembles that of the Golden Age. The soil, 
like a hot-bed, rapidly puts forth such variety 
of spontaneous produce, that labour becomes 
merely an amusing exercise. Peace and plenty 
crown their board ; while the repose they so 
much admire is only interrupted by harmless 
thunder reverberating in rocks above them, or 
by the murmur of the waves upon the beach 

At Derykeiiy, the Tahtar children were assem- T,,ktar 
bled in the school of the village, learning to 
read. The eldest boy led the way, pronouncing 
the lesson distinctly in a loud tone, from a 
manuscript copy of the Koran. The rest, to 
the number of twenty, were squatted, according 
to the Tahtar custom, upon little low benches, 
accompanying the leader with their voices, 
and keeping time by nodding their heads. It 
was amusing to observe the readiness of their 
little president to detect any of them in error, 


CHAP. i n the midst of all the noise they made, although 
' reading himself with the utmost effort of his 
lungs. In the south of the Crimea, the remains of 
the Genoese language are not quite extinct. Now 
and then an expression escapes even the lips of 
a Tahtar, evidently derived from that people. 
During their long residence in the Crimea, the 
Genoese not only introduced many of their own 
terms to the native language of the Peninsula^ 
but they also incorporated many Tahtar and 
Greek expressions with the Italian; and these 
are still used by the inhabitants of Genoa. We 
collected several examples of this nature, and 
Professor Pallas added to the list. As he has 
already alluded to the subject in his late work ', 
it will be unnecessary to mention more than 
two or three instances. In the Takiar language, 
kardasch signifies a ' brother' or a ' dear friend ;' 
and the word cardasda is now used with 
the same interpretation at Genoa; macrame, a 
' towel,' in Tahtar, is macrami in Genoese ; 
barba, ' uncle,' in Tahtar, is exactly so pro- 
nounced, and with the same signification, in 
Genoa. Again; mangia, ' to eat/ among the 
Genoese, is also mangia with the Tahtar s; savun, 
' soap,' is sabun in the Crimea ; fortunna, a * sea- 
storm,' fortuna; with many other examples 

(I) Travels, vol. II. p. 357. 


where the affinity is less striking. The most 
remarkable instance is, that bari, signifying a 
' cask,' or ' barrel/ in Genoa, is pronounced by 
the Tahtars, baril ; bringing it very near to our 
English name for the same thing. The Tahtars, 
moreover, call a barber, lerber ; and this they 
may have derived from the Genoese word 

The unusual swarm of locusts which have 
infested the Crimea, of late years, has been 
already noticed. They have destroyed all the 
vineyards of the new settlers; but the Tahtars 
who cultivate the vine only for the pleasure of 
eating its fruit, disregard their coming, although 
it proves so mournful a scourge to the natives 
of other countries having establishments upon 
the coast. Soon after leaving Derykeliy, we 
arrived at the ruins of an old monastery, 

(2) The fact is, that both the English language and the lan- 
guage introduced by Genoese Colonies into the Crimea were derived 
from the same source, the old German. It came into England 
A. D. 440. It was carried into Italy by the Heruli, West Gotlis* 
Vnndals, and Lombards, whence it found its way even to the 
Crimea, by means of Genoese colonists. (See Cam-Men's Remains. 
Lnnd. 1657.) Busbequius examined a Tahtar who arrived in Constant 
tinople from the Crimea, and he discovered that the inhabitants of 
that country had many words in their language which were common 
to the Flemings ; as broe, bread ; hits, a house ; bruder, brother ; 
tilvir, silver ; salt, salt ; sune, the sun ; apcl, an apple ; kommen, to 
come; singhen, to sing, &c. They also numbered in the following 1 
inauncr : Ita, tua, tria, fyd&tfjwft seis t sevenc t $c. 


CHAP, delightfully situate upon the side of mountains 
sloping towards the sea, with a rapid rivulet of 
the purest crystal water flowing close to its 
walls. All that now remains of the original 
building is a small chapel, containing images of 
the Saints, painted upon stucco, although nearly 
effaced. Here the author's unfortunate friend 
and his predecessor in this journey, the late 
Mr. John Tweddell, of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge 1 , had left the tributary offering of his 
Athenian Muse to the Genius of the place, in 
some Greek verses which he had written with a 
pencil upon the wall, and subscribed with his 
name. Mr. Reginald Heber, in a subsequent 
visit, struck by the grandeur of the situation, 
delineated a view of the place 2 . Among the trees, 
at the time we arrived, were the pomegranate 
in full bloom, the spreading mulberry, thewildvine, 
creeping over oaks, maples, and cornelian cherry- 
trees, and principally the tall black poplar, every- 
where towering among rocks, above all the 
shrubs, and adding considerably to the dignity 
and the graceful elegance of this fine scene 3 . 

(1) Now buried in the Temple of Ttescus at Athens. 

(2) See also the Note to p. 252. 

<3) " The forests in this tract are not of a very lofty growth: firs, 
however, aud some oaks, are found, and magnificent walnut-trees. 
The Tahtars in the spring, when the sap is rising, pierce the walnut- 
tree*, and put in a spig-ot for some time. When this is withdrawn, 

a clear 


The tertian fever, caught among the caverns CHAP. 
of Inkerman, had rendered the author so weak 
after leaving this beautiful spot, that it was 
with the greatest difficulty he could sit upon 
his horse. One of its violent paroxysms coming 
on afterwards at Yourztif, he remained for 
some time extended upon the bare earth, in the 
principal street of the village. Its peaceful and 
hospitable inhabitants regarded him as a victim 
of the plague, and, of course, were prevented 
from offering the succour they would otherwise 
gladly have bestowed. His companions were 
far advanced upon the journey; for they be- 
lieved him to be employed collecting plants. 
When, towards evening, they returned in search 
of him, the interpreter persuaded an old wo,man 
to allow him a hovel for the night's acco'mmoda- 
tion ; and having also begged a small piece of 
opium in the village, he was soon rendered in- 
sensible of the wretchedness of his situation. 

Being unable to continue his journey on 
horseback, a bargain was concluded the next 

a clear sweet liquor flows out, which, when coagulated, they use as 
sugar. In different places we saw a few cypress-trees, growing in the 
burial-grounds : they were pointed out to us as rarities, and brought 
from Stamboul. On the plains above the sea-coast are soraefine olive- 
trees. Lombardy-poplars abound everywhere, and are very beau- 
tiful." Meier's MS. Journal. 


CHAP, day with the master of a Turkish boat, laden 
l . with timber, and bound to Sudak 1 , for his passage 
to Alusta. Mr. Cripps, with the rest of the party, 
continued the tour of the coast as before. 

Yourzuf, called Yourzova by the Russians, 
is the Gorzubitai of Procopius. The fortress, 
built by Justinian, still remains, although in 
ruins, upon the high rocks above the beautiful 
little bay of the town. As soon as the vessel 
had cleared the Bay of Yourziif, an immense 
to!/!" promontory appeared towards the east: this it 
was necessary to double; and, having so done* 
we discerned the whole coast eastward as far 
as Sudak * : our mariners pointed to the place, 
as then within view, although barely visible. 
The lofty promontory we had passed is called, 
by the Tahtars, AI'VDAGH, or Holy Mountain 9 . 
Mr. Crippss route along the shore led him 
directly over it : he observed upon the summit 
the remains of an antient monastery : this may 

(1) See the Extract from Mr.Heber'n MS. Journal, in p. 127 of this 

(2) The original name of this place seems preserved in the Periplns 
of Scylax Caryandensis, in the word KTAAIA. Vid. p. 71. ed. Gronpv. 
L. Sat. 1697. Vossius reads KTTAIA. 

(3) Mr. Heber, in Note (5), affords a different interpretation to this 
name. The author is induced to consider the epithet AI, AIA, or 
AIOM, as used to denote sanctity. Hence the appellation AI- or AGIA- 
BVRVN ; as, among the Modern Greeks, AriON-OPOS is a name 
given to Mount Alhos. 


have stood upon the site of one of those tern- 
pies formerly dedicated to the Taurican Diana ; 
as the village, to which he descended imme- 
diately afterwards, still retains, in the name 
Partenak, or Parthenit, an evident etymology of Parthenit. 
PARTHENIUM. A few years ago, four columns, 
two of green and two others of white marble, 
were found lying upon the site of that monastery, 
and among its ruins 4 . Prince Poiemkin re- 
moved two of them, to decorate a church then 
building in or near Cher son. When Mr. Cripps 
arrived, he found only one column remaining, of 
white marble, near twelve feet in length, and 
eighteen inches in diameter. Stretching out 
somewhat farther from the shore, we obtained 
a fine view, east and west, of the whole coast 
of the Crimea, from the Criu-metopon to Sudak. 
Mr. Cripps, being then upon the heights, en- 
joyed a prospect still more extensive, and beheld 
our little bark, like a speck upon the waves. 
He halted during the heat of the day, according 
to the custom usually observed among the 
Tahtars in travelling, at a place called Lambat, 
the Lampas 5 of the Antients; and in the evening, 

(4) The monastery was dedicated to St. Constantine and St. Helen. 
See Pallas' 's Travels, vol. II. p. 179. 

(5) " Lambat is situate amidst some of the grandest scenery in 
the Crimea ; having Chatyr Dag on the right, and in front a beautiful 
promontory called Ayoudagh, or Bear Hill: this is connected with the 

VOL. II. S "S e 


a little before sun-set, he arrived at Almta, as 
our boatmen were anchoring near the shore. 

Tchetir- From this place we had a fine view of the 
Mm* Tra- mountain called Tchetirdagh, the TRAPEZUS of 
Stralo, whose lofty summit appeared above a 
range of clouds, veiling all the lower part. Its 
perpendicular height does not exceed thirteen 
hundred feet * ; but it rises so rapidly from the 
coast about Alusta, that its seeming elevation is 
much greater. Almost the whole of the Crimea 
may be seen from its summit in clear weather. 
The Tahtars affirm, that a great portion of the 
steppes beyond the Isthmus of Perecop may be 

range of Chatyr Dag, by a rocky isthmus, covered with wood, and is 

itself peninsular ; resembling, though on a grander scale, Orme's 

Head in Caernarvonshire. At the foot of the isthmus, in a beautiful 

wood of walnut-trees, stands Partenak, a village with a good harbour 

for small vessels, formed by a high rocky island. Here we found an old 

Tahtar, who was in great practice as a boat-builder ; and had, with his 

own hands, and the assistance of his two sons, just finished a beautiful 

schooner of thirty tons, for a merchant at Caffa. The usual vessels of 

the country are like the Turkish, with lateen sails, and high prows and 

poops, very much curved. I was so much struck with Ayoudagh, that 

I could not help fancying that it was the Criil-metopon of Strabo. A 

steep and narrow path leads over the neck of the mountain from 

Partenak. From the summit we saw, as we fancied, and as the 

Tahtars assured us, the whole way from Kutchuk-kof to the Bosphorus. 

The people of Lambat complained that they were not allowed to cut 

down nor sell their timber. I never could learn the reason of this 

restriction. In the neighbourhood of Aktiar not even a shrub had 

been left for miles." Heber's MS. Journal. 

(1) Pallas states it as about 1200. See Travels, vol. 11. p. 193. 


discerned from this mountain. There is cer- 
tainly nothing to. intercept the view, as far as 
human sight can possibly extend ; because the 
whole district to the north is as flat as the rest 
of the great eastern plain. The village of 
Alusta, once a place of considerable importance, 
still exhibits some vestiges of its antient dig- 
nity. The ruins of the citadel erected, toge- 
ther with the fortress of Yourzuf y by Justinian, 
according to Procopius are still seen, upon pre- 
cipices contiguous to the sea 2 . Three of its 
towers remain, and a stone wall, twelve feet in 
height, and near seven feet in thickness. At pre- 
sent, the place consists only of a few Tahtar huts : 
in one of these we passed the night; having 
observed nothing remarkable, excepting a very 
small breed of buffaloes ; the females being 
little larger than our market calves. 

At AlustavtQ terminated our journey along the 
coast ; and on Friday morning, August the eighth, 
we set out, by a route across the Tchetirdagh, for 
Altmetchet. We rode for some time in the Dale 
ofAlusta, a delightful valley, full of apple, pear, 
plum, and pomegranate trees, with vineyards 

(2) " Somewhere between Sudak and Lambat (Lampas) is a rock, 
believed, from its fancied resemblance to a ship, to have been a vessel 
which, with its crew, was turned into stone." Heber's MS. Journal. 

s 2 


and olive grounds ; and, beginning to ascend the 
mountain, arrived at the village of Shuma. Here 
the Tahtars brought for our breakfast the enor- 
mous kind of cucumber which was before men- 
tioned : the seed of it, since brought to England, 
has not thrived in our country. The fruit is as 
white as snow, and, notwithstanding the pro- 
digious size and length it attains, has all the 
crispness and fresh flavour peculiar to a young 
cucumber. It would become a valuable plant 
for the poor, if it were possible to naturalize it 
in other parts of Europe. This, and other va- 
rieties of the same vegetable, together with 
many different kinds of melons, and the Cucurbita 
pepo, or pumpkin, cover the borders of a Taht'ar 
garden. The custom of boiling, for their meals, 
the tendrils and young fruit of the pumpkin, 
is common not only in the Crimea, but over all 
the Turkish empire. We were often treated with 
this vegetable, and found it very palatable. 

The weak state of the author's health would 
not allow him to ascend the summit of the 
Tcketirdagh ; but Mr. Cripps left him at Shuma, 
for that purpose. The common road conducted 
him along the western side of the mountain, and, 
after all, at no great distance from its summit; 
as his companion, having gained the highest 
point, called to him, and was distinctly heard. 


Mr. Cripps collected some rare plants ' ; and con- CHAP. 
firmed, by his actual observation, what has been 
before related concerning the mountains of the 
Crimea; that they skirt only the southern coast 
of the Peninsula, beginning at Cciffa, and ex- 
tending as far as Balaclava. The town of 4kmet- 
chet appeared to Mr. Cripps, from the summit of 
the mountain, as if it were immediately beneath 
his view: towards the north, the whole territory 
exhibited an uninterrupted plain. On the west, 
the chain of mountains seemed to terminate at 
Bahtcheserai ; so that a geographical line may be 
traced for a map of the Crimea, from Caffa to 
Stara Crim; thence, south of Karasubazar, on 
to dhmctchet, and to Baktcheserai. To the north 
of this line, the whole territory, not only of the 
Crimea, but beyond the Isthmus, over all the 
Ukraine, is one vast campaign, consisting of a 
calcareous deposit, containing the remains of 
marine animals. All the higher parts of the 
Tchetirdagh exhibit a mass of limestone, very 
compact, and of a grey colour. Pallas says, 
that, upon friction, it is slightly fetid ; a character 
that we neglected to notice. The mountain 
probably received its antient name of Trapezus 
from the table-form of its summit. Its lower 
district is covered by groves, which are impene- 

(l) See the Appendix, No. IV. 


trable to the rays of the sun. The only blossom 
seen decking the soil was the Colchicum Autum- 
nale, or Common Meadow-saffron. Through these 
groves the author continued to skirt the whole 
of its western side, until he came out upon a spa- 
cious table of naked limestone towards the north; 
beneath a frightful precipice of the same nature, 
upon whose summit he could plainly discern his 
companion with the guides. He was however 
sufficiently elevated to look down, from this spot, 
upon the summits of almost all the neighbouring 
mountains, which appeared below him, covered 
with wood. In the fertile valleys between these 
mountains were corn and pasture lands. So 
fertile are those valleys, that single ears of wild 
barley, and wild rye, are seen growing in many 
situations. After two hours of continual descent 
from this spot, he arrived at the village of Dery- 
keily. Hither Professor Pallas had sent his 
carriage, in order to conduct the party once 
more to his comfortable and most hospitable 
mansion in Akmetchet. 

About two miles from Deryketiy, a Turkish 
no ^leman, at a village called Mahmoud Sultan, 
sent to request that we would visit his house 
upon the banks of the Salgir. He came out to 
meet us, attended by his dragoman and other 
menials, as Turks always are, and invited us to 


return with him, and drink coffee. Every thing 
around his dwelling, placed in the midst of 
gardens, had an air of peace and repose. A 
marten had built its nest within his chamber ; 
and he had made holes in the window, for this 
bird to pass, in search of food for its young. 
This practice is not uncommon in the cottages 
of the Tahtars, who regard a visit from the 
marten as a favourable omen. The same super- 
stition may also be observed in different parts 
of Turkey ; and its prevalence among the lower 
order of people in England is well known 1 . 
Upon the tombs both of Turks and Armenians 
are often seen two little cavities, scooped in the 
stone by the relations of the deceased, and, by 
them, continually supplied with water; consi- 
dering it a good omen for the souls of deceased 
persons, that birds should come and drink upon 
their graves. Such Armenian tomb-stones, 
beautifully wrought in white marble, and covered 
with inscriptions, may now be considered almost 
as antiquities of the Crimea. They bear very 

(1) " This guest of summer, 

The temple-haunting martlet, does approve, 

By his lov'd mansionry, that the heaven's breath 

Smells wooingly here : no jutty, frieze, buttress, 

Nor coigne of vantage, but this bird hath made s 

His pendent bed, and procreant cradle. Where they 

Most breed and haunt, I have, observ'd, the air 

Is delicate." Shakspeare, Macb. A.\. S. 6. 


CHAP, early dates; and, like others seen in Turkey, 
y >' ' express, by sculptured symbols, the former 
occupation of those whose memorials they 
record. Thus, for a money-changer, they exhibit, 
in sculpture, the sort of shovel used by bankers ; 
for a tailor, a pair of shears; or for a gardener, 
a spade. 

Return to \y e arrived at dkmetchet as Professor Pallas 


was preparing to celebrate the marriage of his 
daughter, according to the rites of the Greek 
Church, with Baron Wimfeld, an Hungarian 
General in the Russian service. The wedding 
took place on the following day, Saturday, 
n August the ninth, after a superb dinner. We 
*** acc ompanied the parties to church. At the 
door they were met by the priest. The General 
was asked, whether he were already related to 
the lady by any tie of blood : upon his an- 
swering in the negative, a similar question was 
put to the intended bride, and by her also 
answered in the same way. They were then 
asked, whether the engagement were voluntary 
on their part ; and having replied in the affir- 
mative, they entered a few paces within the 
church. A Bible and a crucifix were then placed 
before them, and large lighted wax-tapers, 
decorated with ribbons, in their hands. After 
certain prayers had been read, and the ring 


had been placed upon the bride's finger, the 
floor was covered by a piece of scarlet satin, 
and a table was placed before them, with the 
communion vessels. The priest having bound 
their hands together with ribbons of the same 
coloured satin, and placed chaplets of flowers 
upon their heads, administered the Sacrament : 
afterwards he led them, thus united, three 
times around the communion-table, followed by 
the bride's father and the bride-maid. During 
this ceremony the choristers chaunted a hymn. 
After the hymn was concluded, the parties 
returned to the house of the bride's father: 
here tea, and other refreshments, were served 
to all who came to congratulate the married 

We remained a month at Akmetchet after 
our return from the south of the Crimea; and, 
during this time, had an opportunity of wit- 
nessing another ceremony much more remark- 
able. It was at the marriage of a Jew, which 
took place in the following singular manner. 

For two or three days prior to the wedding 1 , -*' M 


all the neighbours and friends of the betrothed 
couple assembled together, to testify their joy 
by the most tumultuous rioting, dancing, and 
feasting. On the day of marriage, the intended 


CHAP, bride, accompanied by the priest and by her 
own relations, was led, blindfolded, to the river 

Salgir, flowing at the bottom of a small valley 
in the front of Professor Pallas s house : here 
she was undressed by women who were stark- 
naked; and being destitute of any other covering 
than the handkerchief by which her eyes were 
concealed, she was plunged three times in the 
river. After this, being again clothed, she was 
conducted, blindfolded as before, to the house 
of her parents, -accompanied by all her friends, 
who were singing, dancing, and performing 
music, before her. In the evening, the bridegroom 
was brought to her ; but, as long as the feast 
continued, she remained with her eyes bound. 

The garrison of Ahmetchet paraded every 

morning, from seven o'clock until ten; but 

troops in a worse state of discipline, or more 

unfit for service, were perhaps never seen. 

Military The w hole military force of the Crimea then 

Force of 

amounted to fifteen thousand men: of this 
number, fifteen hundred were in garrison at 
Ahmetchet. There were seven complete regi- 
ments in the Peninsula, besides two companies 
of invalids, and a Greek battalion at Balaclava. 
At Perecop there was a garrison of invalids ; 
and garrisons were also established at Yenikale, 
Kertchy, Cqffh, Karasubazar, Ahmetchet, Bahtche- 


serai, Koslof, and Aktiar ; where there were two 
regiments. Notwithstanding the reputed rigour 
of the Sovereign, his attention to the minutiae of 
discipline, and his passion for military pursuits, 
a degree of negligence and of stupidity charac- 
terized all public affairs ; so that the boasted 
strength of the Russian empire, during the 
reign of PAUL, could only excite ridicule. Such 
was the disposition of the guard along the coast, 
and such the nature of the country, that an army 
might have been landed, and marched up to 
the sentinels at Akmetchet, before they were 
observed. Detested as the Russians were by 
every inhabitant of the Crimea, their expulsion 
from the Peninsula, if it had pleased Great 
Britain to restore it to the Turks, would have 
been a work of ease and amusement. The 
harbour of Nymph&um was entirely open ; and 
it was unguarded, both by sea and land. To 
the west, at Sudak, Alusta, or Yourzuf, invaders 
would have found the Tahtars greeting their 
arrival with tears of joy. A small band of 
Morean Greeks, upon the coast, were ready 
either to join the invaders, or to fly at their 
approach 1 . In the garrisoned towns, a few 

(l) Though some years have elapsed since this Journal was written, 
the changes which have taken place in Russia rather tend to facilitate, 
than to obstruct, the capture of the Crimea. 


snoring soldiers, hardly out of drill, or a party 
of bloated officers, labouring under indigestion 
and ague, would not have offered even the 
semblance of an opposition. Any experienced 
General, belonging to the armies of England, 
of France, or of Germany, might then have 
pledged his reputation for the capture of the 
Crimea with a thousand men 1 . Such an event, 
throughout the Peninsula, wotild have been cele- 
brated as a signal delivery from the worst of 
tyrants ; and every honest individual would 
have participated in the transports of an injured 
people thus honourably emancipated. 

This account may not seem to accord with 
the descriptions published concerning the con- 
duct of the Russian troops in 'Italy, under Field- 
marshal Suvorof. But where will Russia find 
another Suvorof? He was created to be a 
Russian General; possessing all the qualifica- 
tions, and the only qualifications entitling a 
Russian chieftain to the hope of victory. Among 
his troops, he was generally their commander ; 
individually, their comrade and their friend. To 
the highest military rank in Russia, he joined 

(I) We had the satisfaction to bring to England a Survey of the 
ports of JIttiar, with all the soundings : it is engraved for this Work. 


the manners and the taste of a private soldier ; CHAP. 
one moment closeted with his Sovereign ; the 
next, drinking quass with his troops, eating raw 
turnips, divesting himself of vermin, or sleeping 
upon straw. He partook every interest of the 
privates ; entered into all their little histories ; 
mediated in their disputes ; shared in their 
amusements ; was at once their counsellor and 
their example; the hero who taught and led 
the way to victory. The Catechism (as he 
strangely termed that extraordinary document 
which was composed by him for the instruction 
of every soldier in his army) will shew more of 
his real character than the most studied descrip- 
tion : it possesses a portion of all his characte- 
ristics ; of his buffoonery ; his inconsistency ; 
his barbarity ; his military skill ; his knowledge 
of the disposition of his countrymen; his 
anxiety and precaution for the welfare of his 
troops ; as well as of his remarkable talent for 
directing even their vices to advantage : in a 
word, it offers a key to those counsels which 
guided all his military operations. This singular 
document fell into our hands : it was sent by 
order of the Crown, while we remained in the 
country, to every regiment in the Russian service ; 
to the end that each soldier might learn to repeat 
it from memory ; and it is presented to the 


CHAP. English Reader in the Appendix 1 , as literally 
translated, from the original Russian, as the 
different idioms of the two languages will 

(1) See the Appendix, No. I. 



Bay ofPhanari,the last .. 

the three pord mentioned 
by .St ratio, a between the 
AVu' C'tiersonfsui and the 
Promontory Partheniu 


1. Food lending to Alexiano's Chouter. 
3. The fortress on the Peninsula. See 

Pallas's Travel*, vol. II. p. 24. 
3. T/ic Wnifj or. f/ie summit, 700 fcor 

paj i length. 
t. Road leading through the Ruins, to a 

neck of land, at ifi, (which divided 

the City in two parts) 1094 yards in 

5 A similar Road: both these run 

between parallel Hail,, the hewn 

itone of which is in some places 

f. Here the distance is 54 yard* from 

wall to wall. 

7. Thirty yards from vail to wall. 

8. *3 ditto. A large Area, including 

Ruins of Public Works. One stone 

here, terming to cover a well, is 
two yards and a half square. 
9. 84 yard., from wall to wall. 
o. 300 ditto. 
1. 319 ditto. 
a. 150 dio. 
3. 135di/to. 
4. A Wall running obliquely from the 
City towards the Fortress. 
15. The outer Wall of the City, towards 
the neck of land at 16, having a 
road or street inclosed by two 
16. A neck of land, or second Isthmus of 
the Peninsula of Plmnari, sepa- 
rating the Old Chernonejus n<o 
(wo dutinct parti. 
17. The Sail Lakes. 

18. Indistinct Ruins on the second 
Isthmut, as of garden walls. 
19. The Walls of the Outer City, o* the 
ultimate Peninsula. 
20. The Point of Phanari. Here are 
the ruin t of a very autient building, 
the arched door and walls of 
which are still entire. 
11. Smaller Salt Lakes, almost dry. 
22. Two Moles: the southern ane is of 
sand, the northern of large stonett 
covered with rock samphire. 
23. In this Area are Tumuli of large 
stones, and apparently thf foun- 
dation of a Temple. 
24. RuiiiJ from the wall at 1<1, to V 
Point ; an extent of 3000 yards 
from x to y. 



Professor Pallas accompanies the Author Mankoop 
Ruins of the Fortress Cape of the Winds Shulu 
Fuller' s-earth Pits Manufacture of Keff-kil 
Isthmian Wall Ala Burun Coins of Vladimir 


Akxianos Chanter Point and Bay of Phanari 
Ruins of the old Chersonesus of Strabo Valley of 
Tchorgona Danger of the Climate Tahtar Nobles 
Russian Recruit Salvia Hablitziana Return to 

c vnf ' As we had not been able to ascertain the situ- 
' ' ation of the most antient of the two cities of 
the Chersonesians, described by Strabo as in ruins 
within the Heracleotic Peninsula, and as Pro- 
fessor Pallas maintained that it must have stood 
upon, or near to, the point of land forming 
the most western territory of the Crimea, now 
called Point Phanari, we determined to make a 
second excursion, and to traverse the Minor 
Professor Peninsula in every direction. The Professor 

Pallas ac- 

companies himself resolved to accompany us : accordingly, 

the Author. J 

we left Akmetchet 1 , in a light, open carriage 
belonging to him, on Saturday, September the 
seventh. Passing through a deep ravine, we 
collected several specimens of the Salvia Ha- 
blitziana, and the Centauria myriocephala : the 
latter, a favourite food of the Crimean sheep, 
is supposed to give that beautiful grey colour 

(1) " Akmetchet, or FWiite Mosque, now Simphervpol, although the 
seat of Government, is a wretched and ruinous place, formerly exten- 
sive; as appears from its three mosques, which stand at a considerable 
distance from each other. There is here a good view of the moun- 
tain Chatyr Dag." Heber's MS. Journal. 


to the wool of the lambs, which is so highly CHAP. 

J vii. 
prized both in Turkey and in Tahtary, as an 

ornament of the calpack, or cap, worn by 
Tahtar gentlemen, instead of the turban. 
The Professor instructed us to search for the 
rarest plants, in deep sands, in salt marshes, 
and upon chalky hills. We purposely avoided 
entering again the town of Baktcheserai, that 
we might not encounter the interruption of 
ceremonial visits ; and changed our horses at 
Katcka. Soon after leaving this last place, we 
turned towards the southern chain of moun- 
tains, and passed Kara Ilaes, the most pleasing 
village in the Crimea, beautifully situate in 
the entrance of a romantic defile, leading to 
Shulu. Upon the right hand, soon after 
entering this defile, and up6n the summits of the 
high mountains forming its southern side, are 
seen the remains of the antient fortress of 
Tcherhesskerman, once possessed by the Genoese, 
and in remoter periods by the Tcherkess, 
or, as we write, Circassians- When the former 
made themselves masters of all the strong- 
holds in the Crimea, they erected fortresses 
upon the most precipitous and inaccessi- 
ble places, in the wildest retreats of the 
Peninsula. Tcherhesskerman was one of the 
citadels thus constructed; and the scattered 
ruins of its battlements yet cover the heights 



CHAP, here mentioned. Its remains are less remark- 
able than those of Mankoop, upon the other 
side of the defile ; on this account we preferred 
making a visit to the latter : turning off, there- 
fore, to a village upon the left hand, we were 
provided with beautiful Tdhtar horses and 
guides for the undertaking. 

The citadel of Mankoop is of very extraor- 
dinary magnitude; and it may be truly described 
as being in the clouds. It covers the summit 
of a semicircular insulated mountain, which, 
owing to its frightful aspect, its altitude, and 
its craggy perpendicular sides, independently of 
every other consideration than as a surprising 
work of nature, fills the mind with wonder, upon 
entering the defile. In this singular situation, 
where there were no visible means of ascent 
towards any of the heights, much less of con- 
veying materials for the astonishing work they 
completed, did the Greeks construct a citadel ', 
without a parallel in Europe, the result of their 
wealth, address, and enterprise. History does 

(l) Some curious memorials of this remarkable citadel (Mankoop) 
are found in Broniovius, who describes it as> " ATX et civitas quondam 
antiquissima." He also says, " Mancopia civitas ad monies et sylvas 
magis porrecta, et mari non jam propinqua est ; arces duas in altis- 
simo saxo et peramplo conditas, templa Grseca sumptuosa et tedes, &c. 

habuit Ac in eo monte saxoso, in quo sita est, in saxo rairo 



not mention for what purpose these works 
were carried on in the interior of the country, 
at such a distance from the coast; but it is 
natural to conjecture their use, in curbing the 
hostile spirit of the natives towards the mari- 
time colonial possessions. The next possessors 
of Mankoop were the Genoese ; afterwards, it 
belonged to a colony of Jews. Ruined tombs of 
marble and stone were lying in the ccemetery of 
the Jewish colony, beneath the trees which 
we passed in our ascent. The whole of our 
passage up the mountain was steep and diffi- 
cult; nor was it rendered more practicable by 
the amazing labours of its original possessors, 
whose dilapidated works now rather impeded 
than facilitated our progress. The ascent had 
once been paved the whole way, and stairs 
were formed, like those of the Merdveen, de- 
scribed in the last Chapter ; these still remain 
entire in many places. 

When we reached the summit, we found it Rumor 
entirely covered with ruins of the citadel. tr<L. 01 

admodum opere donius excisas habet, qua etsi ille locus nunc sylvosus 
est, integrae tamen plurimsBTeperiuntur. Phanum marmoreis et 
serpeutinis columnis ornatum humijam prostratum et corruptum, 
insignem et clarum quondam eum locum extitisse testatur." Descrip. 
Tartar, pp. 262. 264. 



CHAP. Caverns and gloomy passages hewn in the 

V j Z 

solid rock, whose original uses are now un- 
known, presented on every side their dark 
mouths. Upon the most elevated part of this ex- 
traordinary eminence there is a beautiful plain, 
covered with a fine turf: here we found the 
Rosa Pygm&a of Pallas, blooming in great 
beauty. This plain, partly fenced by the mould- 
ering wall of the fortress, but otherwise open 
to the surrounding precipices, appeared to 
be as lofty as the summit of the cliffs upon 
the Sussex coast, near Beachy Head. All 
the other mountains, valleys, hills, woods, and 
villages, may be discerned from this spot. 
While with dismay and caution we crept upon 
our hands and knees to look over the brink 
of these fearful heights, a half-clad Tahtar, 
wild as the winds of the north, mounted upon 
a colt equally unsubdued, without any saddle 
or bridle, except the twisted stem of a wild 
vine, galloped to the very edge of the pre- 
cipice, and there, as his horse stood prancing 
upon the borders of eternity, amused himself 
in pointing out to us the different places, in 
the vast district which the eye commanded, 
We entered into one of the excavated cham- 
bers; a small square apartment, leading to 
another upon our right hand. Upon our left, 
a narrow passage conducted us to an open 


balcony, formed in the rock, upon the very 
face of one of the principal precipices, whence 
the depth below might be contemplated with 
less danger. Vultures far beneath were sailing 
over the valleys, not seeming to be larger than 
swallows. Below these, appeared the tops 
of undulating hills, covered by tufted woods, 
with villages amidst rocks and denies, but at 
a depth so intimidating, that our blood became 
chilled in beholding them. We afterwards found 
the remains of churches, and of other public 
buildings, among the ruins; and these were 
more perfectly preserved than might have been 
expected in the Russian empire : but the cause 
is explained, in the difficulty of their access. At 
length, being conducted to the north-eastern 
point of a crescent (which is the natural form 
of the summit whereon the citadel of Mankoop 
was constructed), and descending a few stone 
steps neatly hewn in the rock, we entered, by 
a square door, into a cavern, called, by the 
Tahtars, THE CAPE OF THE WINDS. It has 

been hewn, like the rest, out of the solid stone ; 
but it is open on four sides. Judging from the 
amazing prospect which is here presented of all 
the surrounding country, this cavern probably 
served as a place of military observation. The 
apertures, or windows, are large arched chasms 
in the rock : through these a most extensive 


vn P view, over distant mountains and rolling clouds, 
forms a sublime spectacle. There is nothing, 
in any part of Europe, which can surpass the 
tremendous grandeur of the scenery. Below 
this cavern there is another chamber^ leading to 
some other cells on its several sides : these have 
all been hewn in the same entire rock. 

We pursued a different road in our descent 
from this place ; passing beneath an old arched 
gateway of the citadel, once its principal en- 
trance 1 . This road flanks the northern side of 
the mountain; and the fall into the valley is so 
bold and profound, that it seems as if a single 
false step would precipitate both horse and 
rider. By alighting, the danger is avoided ; and 
the terror of the descent compensated, in the 
noblest prospect the eye ever beheld. It was 
dark before we reached the bottom. "We had 
some difficulty to regain the principal road lead- 
ing through the defile ; owing principally to 
trees projecting over all the lanes in the vicinity 
of Tahtar villages, and so effectually obstructing 
the passage of persons on horseback, that 

(1) Future travellers, who may visit Afankoop, are advised to choose 
this road for their ascent ; as it will afford them the sublimest views 
perhaps ever beheld. The Tahtar $, for what reason cannot be explained, 
call it The Carriage-way, although we were unable to sit even upon our 
horses, in going down. 


we were in continual danger of being thrown. 
One of our party nearly lost an eye by a blow 
he received from a bough stretching entirely 
over the path we pursued. The defile itself is 
not without danger, in certain seasons of the year. 
Immense masses of limestone detach themselves 
from the rocks above, carrying all before them 
in their passage : some, from the northern pre- 
cipices, had crossed the river at the bottom, 
and, by the prodigious velocity acquired in 
their descent, had rolled nearly half way up the 
opposite side. We noticed some of these frag- 
ments in our way to ShM, where we passed 
the night. This village belongs to Professor 
Pallas, and consists of a forest of walnut-trees, 
beneath which every dwelling is concealed. 
One of those trees yields to him, as he informed 
us upon the spot, sixty thousand walnuts in a 
single season. The ordinary price of the fruit, 
throughout the Crimea, is from eighty to a hun- 
dred copeeks for a thousand. The Professor 
had built for himself a very magnificent seat at 
Shulu ; but owing to disputes with the Tahtars, 
concerning the extent of his little territory, the 
completion of the work had been delayed, when 
we arrived. The building is placed upon the 
northern side of the defile, commanding a fine 
prospect of the valley ; but, from the chalky 
nature of the soil in the surroundiog hills, 


CHAP, thing had a white glare, painful to the eye, and 
wholly destructive of all picturesque appear- 
ance. Near to this hill, upon one of the emi- 
nences opposite to the Professor's house, is a 
series of excavations, similar to those of Inker- 
man; exhibiting the antient retreats of Christians 
in cells and grottoes. One of these cavernous 
chambers is not less than eighty paces in length, 
with a proportionate breadth, and its roof is 
supported by pillars hewn in the rock: the 
stone, from the softness of its nature, did not 
demand the labour which has been requisite in 
similar works situate in other parts of the 

From Shulu we proceeded once more to Bala- 
clava. In our road, we passed several pits, in 
which the Tahtars dig that kind of fuller's clay 
called Keff-kil 1 , or ' mineral froth ; and, by the 
Germans, meerschaum. This substance, before 
the capture of the Crimea, was a considerable 
article of commerce with Constantinople, where 
It is used in the public baths, to cleanse the 
hair of the women. It is often sold to German 
merchants for the manufacture of those beautiful 

(I) Literally, foam-earth; but often erroneously supposed to derive 
its name from the town of Caffa, whence this Mineral was exjjprted to 
TURKEY. See the Observations in Chap. IV. of this Volume, p. 153, 


tobacco-pipes that are called ecume de mer by the CHAP. 
French, and which sell for enormous prices, ^ ^ 
even in our own country, after they have been 
long used, and thereby stained by the oil of 
tobacco. The process necessary to the perfec- 
tion of one of these pipes, with all its attendant 
circumstances, is really a curious subject. 
Since the interruption of commerce between 
the Crimea and Turkey, the clay requisite in 
their manufacture has been dug near Eski Shekhr, 
in Anatolia e . The first rude form is given to Manuf f- 

ture of 

the pipes upon the spot where the mineral is Ke ff* il * 
found : here they are pressed within a mould, 
and laid in the sun to harden : afterwards, they 
are baked in an oven, boiled in milk, and rubbed 
with soft leather. In this state they are sent to 
Constantinople, where there is a peculiar bazar, 
or rather a khan 3 , in which they are exposed for 
sale : they are then bought up by merchants, 
and conveyed, by caravans, to Pest in Hungary. 
Still the form of the pipe is large and rude. 
At Pest, a manufacture begins, which is to 
prepare them for the German markets. They 
are there soaked for twenty-four hours in water, 
and then turned by a lathe. In this process, 

(2) The sale of it supports a monastery of Dervishet. It consists of 
filex, water, magnesia, and carbonic acid. 

(3) The place is called Ouxoun Tcharcty, in the Fildjian^i Khan. 


CHAP, many of them, proving porous, are rejected. 
Sometimes, only two or three, out of ten, are 
deemed worthy of further labour. From Pest 
they are conveyed to Fienna, and frequently 
mounted in silver. After this, they are carried 
to the fairs of Leipsic, Francfort, Manheim, and 
to other towns upon the Rhine; where the 
best sell from three to five, and even seven, 
pounds sterling each. When the oil of tobacco, 
after long smoking, has given to these pipes a 
fine porcelain yellow, or, which is more prized, 
a dark tortoiseshell hue, they have been known 
to sell for forty or fifty pounds, of our money. 
Their manner of digging kejf-kil in the Crimea 
is this: they open a shaft in the ground, and 
continue to work in it until the sides begin to 
fall in ; this soon happens, from the nature of 
the soil ; when they open a new pit. A stratum 
of marl generally covers the kejf-kil: through this 
they have to dig, sometimes to the depth of 
from eight to twelve fathoms. The layer of 
keff-hil seldom exceeds twenty-eight inches in 
thickness, and the marl occurs beneath it as 
before. At present, the annual exportation of 
this mineral, from the whole Peninsula, does not 
exceed two tons : the consumption of it in the 
Crimea is inconsiderable, although it be sold, in 
all the markets, at the low price of twenty 
copeeks the pond. 


At the distance of about two miles from Bala- 
clava, as we proceeded to that place, we disco- i sthniail 
vered the traces of an antient wall, extending Wal1 - 
from the mountains eastward of the harbour 
towards the west, and thus closing the approach 
to Balaclava on the land side. As this wall 
offered a clue to the discovery of the other, 
mentioned by Strabo, which extended across 
the Isthmus, from the Ctenus to the Portus Symbo- 
lorum, we determined to pursue it ; and we con- 
tinued on horseback, guided by its remains; 
Professor Pallas choosing to follow more care- 
fully en foot, with a mariner's compass in his 
hand. Presently we encountered the identical 
work we so much wished to find : it will serve 
to throw considerable light upon the topography 
of the Minor Peninsula. It meets the wall of 
the Portus Symbolorum at right angles, and 
thence extends towards Inkerman, where it 
joined the Ctenus. We traced it the whole way. 
The distance between the two ports is very 
erroneously stated, and it is exaggerated in all 
our maps. It agrees precisely with Strabo's 
admeasurement of forty stadia, or five miles, from 
sea to sea. All that now remains of this wall, 
is a bank or mound : upon this the marks and 
vestiges of turrets are still visible. The stones 
of which it consisted, have, for the most part, 
been removed by the inhabitants ; either to form 


inclosures for the shepherds, or to construct the 
Tahtar dwellings. The parts which remain are 
sufficient to prove the artificial nature of the 
work ; as the stones are not natural to the soil, 
but foreign substances, evidently brought for the 
purpose of fortifying the rampart. Having 
determined the reality and the position of this 
wall, we resolved not to lose time in further 
examination of the territory here; but ascended 
the steep mountains upon the coast towards 
the west, to visit the stupendous cape, called, by 
the Taktors, AIA BvRVN, or tlieHoly Promontory, 
lying between Balaclava and the Monastery of 
St. George. The PARTHENIUM of Strabo was 
within the Heracleotic Chersonesus, as the plain 
text of that author undoubtedly demonstrates : 
and, if there be a spot well calculated for the 
terrible rites said to have been celebrated in 
honour of the Taurican Diana, as well as for the 
agreement of its position with the distance of 
the Parthenium from the city of Chersonesus, it is 
the AIA BVRVN : indeed there is something in its 
present appellation which coincides with the 
antient sanctity of the PARTHENIAN PROMON- 
TORY. Pallas appears subsequently to have 
admitted their identity ' ; but at the time of our 
visit to this place, he was not decided in his 

(l) See Pallat's Travels, vol. II. p. 63. 


opinion upon the subject. In fixing the position CHAP. 
of objects, to which we have been guided solely 
by the text of the Greek or the Roman historian, 
in barbarous countries, there is always some 
uncertainty; but when barbarians themselves, by 
their simple and uncouth traditions, confirm the 
observations of the classic writer, and fix the 
wavering fact, there seems little reason for 
doubt. Upon this account, the AIA BVRVN 
has perhaps as good a title to be considered the 
Parthenium of Strabo*, as the harbour of Bala- 
clava his Portus Symbolorum. At the same time 
it must be confessed, that a similar epithet 
occurs in the appellation AI'VDAGH, given to a 
promontory mentioned in the preceding Chapter, 
and probably, too, from some circumstances con- 
nected with the antient worship to which Slrabo 
alludes; because the word Parthenit is still 
retained in the name of a contiguous village. 
Hence it is evident that different promontories 
of the Tauride, which antiently bore the name 
of Parthenium, necessarily perplex an inquiry 

(2) The decision of this point will be left for future travellers, who 
may take the pains of measuring its exact distance from the ruins of 
the city of the CJiersonesians. It has been here stated, merely from 
conjecture, to agree with Strabo's account, who makes it equal to an 
hundred stadia, or twelve miles and a half. If the distance to the 
AIA BVRVN should prove more than this, they will do well to direct 
their attention, in the next instance, to that part of the coast men- 
tioned in p. 215 of this volume, as having a natural arch. 


CHAP, tending to ascertain the exact position of any 
' one in particular. In the language of the Tauri, 
who were the earliest votaries of the Diana of 
the country, this goddess was called Orsiloche ; 
and perhaps in the Caucasian mountains, 
whence the Tauri were derived, the significa- 
tion of her most antient appellation might be 
obtained. In the district of CAUCASUS, Pallas 
discovered the interpretation of the word 
Ardauda; which, in the dialect of the Tauri, 
was a name of Theodosia; and he found it to 
signify the Seven-fold Divinity; answering to the 
EHTA0E02 of the anonymous Periplus of the 
Euxine 1 . 

The AIA BVRVN has been by some authors 
erroneously denominated the Criu-metopon. It 
is a wild and fearful scene, such as Shakspeare 
has described in Lear; a perpendicular and 
tremendous precipice, one of the loftiest in the 
Crimea; consisting of a. mountain of marble, 
terminating abruptly in the sea. Towards the 
west it borders upon a valley, where the village 
of Karany is situate, now inhabited by Greeks. 
After we had passed the Cape, and were within 

(1) Nw Sk Xtytrat n Qitvboff'nt <r ' A.\a,iixri y<ru <rn 

TaufiKn 3<aXix<r 'AfSctu^tt, ravrtffni EI1TA0EO2. 

Anonymi Peripluj, ed. Grmov. p. 143. Lug. Bat. 1697- 


two versts of the Monastery of St. George, we CHAP. 
fancied we had found the actual fane of the T ' 
d&inon virgin, described by Strabo as situate 
upon the Parthenian Promontory. We came to 
a ruined structure, with decisive marks of 
remote antiquity: its materials, of the most 
massive stone, were laid together without any 
cement. Part of the pavement and walls were 
still visible. From this spot our view of the 
AIA BVRVN was taken ; but the scale of the 
representation did not allow the introduction of 
the Ruin into the fore-ground 2 . The elevation 
of the visible horizon towards the sea, which 
has so singular an appearance in the Plate, is 
not exaggerated 3 . 

Soon afterwards, we arrived, for the second 
time, at the Monastery of St. George : of this 
place our friend Pallas afterwards published an 

(2) See the Quarto Edition. 

(3) Once, descending from the summit of Mount Vesuvius, (where a 
similar scope of vision is presented,) as the atmosphere became more 
than usually clear, the author was to the highest degree astonished, 
not being conscious of his own elevation, to behold the Islands of 
Ventotitna and Ponza actually appearing above the clouds, and, as it 
were,"in the sky, far above what seemec 1 . .he line of the visible horizon. 
Persons are now living who witnessed at the same time that remarkable 
spectacle. He has since beheld similar phsenomena both in the Hebrides 
and in the Archipelago ; but if such appearances were to be engraven, 
they might be deemed unfaithful representations, by persons who have 
never seen any thing of the same nature. 


CHAP, engraving, in the second volume of his "Travels* 
* T through the Southern Provinces of the Russian 
Empire." The anniversary, mentioned by Bro- 
niovius, is still celebrated here 1 . Some peasants 
Coins of brought us a few copper coins of Vladimir the 
Great. These are very interesting, because 
they evidently refer to the aera of his baptism; 
an event which took place near the spot. They 
have in front a Russian V, and for reverse a 
crucifix; symbolical of his conversion to the 
Christian religion. It has been already men- 
tioned, that he was baptized in the Crimea; 
and the ceremony took place, according to 
Herberstein*, at the city of Chersonesus, called 
Cher son, or Corson 3 ; a name easily now con- 
founded with Cherson on the Dnieper; an 
appellation bestowed by the Russians, with 
their usual ignorance of antient geography, 
upon a modern town, near to the mouth of that 

(1) " Est in eo loco unde rivulus ille delabitur Pagus quidam nou 
iijnobilis, et non procul in ripa maris, in monte saxoso, Grtrcum monas- 
terium, Sancti Georgii solemne; anniversaria devotio Graecis Christian!-, 
qui nunc in Taurica sunt reliqui, in magna frequentia ibi fieri solet." 
Martini Broniovii Tarlaria, Lug. Bat. ] 630. 

(2) Apud Pagi, torn. IV. p. 56. 

(3) See the Additional Notes at the end of this Volume, for a very 
interesting document concerning this once magnificent city, by Bro- 
niovius; an account very little known, but preserving, perhaps, the only 
existing description of it. Broniovius states, that Vladimir was bap- 
tized by the Greek Patriarch, in the principal monastery of the city of 


river. About five versts from the monastery. CHAP. 

y vn. 

following the coast, we came to some extensive * T - ._- 

ruins in a small wood, upon the right-hand side 
of our road. In their present state, it is impos- 
sible even to trace a plan of them : the Tahtar 
shepherds, moving the stones to serve as the 
materials of inclosure for their flocks, have 
confused all that remains. Hence we continued 
our journey towards the extreme south-western 
point of the Crimea, and arrived at a place 
called Alexianos Ckouter, as it grew dark. The Aiexianrfs 
barking of dogs announced the comfortable 
assurance of human dwellings, and excited a 
hope of some asylum for the night, after severe 
fatigue. We found, however, that what we 
supposed to be a village, consisted of four or 
five wretched fishing-huts. A few Greeks quar- 
tered there offered to lodge us all within a hole 
recently dug in the earth, scarcely capable of con- 
taining three persons, the smell of which place 
we found to be abominable ; it was, moreover, 
filled with sheep-skins, swarming with vermin. 
Having procured a little oil in a tin pan, we 
made this serve us for a lamp; and, searching 
about, at last found a small thatched hovel, with 
an earthen floor, and a place for kindling a fire. 
Here, notwithstanding the extreme heat, -we 
burned some dried weeds, in order to counteract 
the effects of miasmata from the marshes and 



s ^gnant waters of the neighbourhood. By the 
light of our fire, a bed was prepared for 
Professor Pallas., upon a sort of shelf: this, as it 
supported only half his mattress, caused him 
to glide off as often as he fell asleep, and at 
last reconciled him to a quiet though more 
revolting couch, upon the damp and dirty 
floor. For ourselves, having procured two 
long wooden benches, about eight inches 
wide, we contrived to balance our bodies, in 
a horizontal posture, between sleeping and 
waking, until the morning. When day-light 
appeared, the Professor left us, to examine 
Point &nd fa p i n t of Phanari, or the Light Tower ; and, 
Phanari. returning before we were yet aroused from our 
dozing, assured us that the whole of that neck 
of land was covered with antient ruins. We 
rose with great eagerness, to follow him ; and, 
as we approached the water's edge, were im- 
mediately struck by the appearance of a very 
small peninsula, stretching into the Bay of 
Phanari, entirely covered by the remains of an 
antient fortress. The ground-plan of this struc- 
ture has been published by the Professor, in his 
own Work. It seemed to have been once an 
island, connected with the main land by an 
artificial mole, now constituting a small isthmus. 
From this peninsula the shore rises, and all the 
land towards its western extremity is elevated. 


Ascending this sloping eminence, as soon as we CHAP. 
reached the summit, we found the walls, the ^ .- v --' 
streets, the dilapidated buildings, and the other ' 

ruins of the old Chersonesus 1 . The appearance of 
oblong pavements, mouldering walls, scattered Strabo ' 
fragments of terra cotta, broken amphorae, tiles and 
bricks, belonging to aqueducts, with other indi- 
cations of an antient city, prevailed over the 
whole territory, extending to the sea. The 
Plan which is inserted as a Flgnette to this 
Chapter is very imperfect, but it may better 
convey a notion of the situation of those ruins 
than any written description. We laboured 
the whole day in tracing it, exposed to the rays 
of a burning sun : the venerable Pallas, mean- 
while, more active than either of us, toiled 
incessantly; pacing all the distances, and 
measuring, with his own hands, every wall and 
foundation that remained. After ascertaining 
the extent of those ruins the whole way to the 
Point of Phanari, we discovered, upon the 
western side of the lay of that name, and close 
to the water's edge, the remains of a building, 
perhaps formerly a light-house. It may have 
given the name of Phanari to the western point, 
as well as to the bay. An arched entrance, 
with two of the walls, and a square opening for 

(1) EJif ft ir*Xw* Xippiyntoi Strab. lib.vii. 446. ed. Ox on. 



CHAP, a window, of very massive and solid construe- 
v v -' tion, are yet visible. 

Wearied by a laborious investigation of ruins, 

without having discovered a single inscription, 

medal, or bas-relief, we hastened to enjoy the 

Valley of beauties of Nature in the delightful Valley of 


Tchorgona; whither the Professor conducted us, 
to pass the night in the mansion of his friend 
Hablitz, whose name he has commemorated by 
the Salvia Hablitziana, and whose good offices 
he so often and so pathetically mentions in his 
writings '. Perhaps there is not a spot in the 
Crimea more distinguished by its natural per- 
fections. Although comprised within a smaller 
scale, it far surpasses the boasted Galley of 
Baidar. The seat of Mr. Hablitz was originally 
the residence of a Turkish Pasha, and it pre- 
serves the irregular structure and the grotesque 
magnificence of Turkish architecture. It is 
shaded by vines, tall fruit-trees, and poplars ; 
standing among rocks and mountains covered 
with woods, and gardens watered by numerous 
fountains. Near to the house there is a large 
antient tower, covered by a dome : this was a 
place of refuge for the inhabitants, when the 

(l) See particularly " Travels through the Southern Provinces," Sfc. 
vol. 11. p. 99. 


Black Sea swarmed with corsairs, who invaded CHAP. 


the coast, and ransacked the peaceful valleys 
of the Crimea. We found in its upper chambers 
a few swivels, and some other small pieces of 
artillery; yet the building itself appeared to 
have been erected in an age anterior to the use 
of gunpowder in Europe. The Tahtars in the 
Valley of Tckorgona are reckoned among the 
richest of the country. From their vicinity to 
Aktlar they find a ready market for the produce 
of their lands; carrying thither, honey, wax, 
fruit, and corn. Their sequestered valley seemed 
to be the retreat of health and joy; not a Russian 
was to be seen ; the pipe and tabor sounded 
merrily among mountains, thick set with groves, 
which closed them in on every side. The 
morning after our arrival, we were roused by a 
wild concert from the hills, of such instruments 
as perhaps enlivened the dances of uncivilized 
nations in the earliest periods of society. The 
performers were a party of Tzigankies, or gipsies, 
who, as mendicant artificers, musicians, and 
astrologers, are very common over all the 
South of Russia. They had a wind-instrument, 
something like a hautboy, made of the wood 
of cherry-tree ; and carried the large Tahtar 
drum, noticed before as being characteristic of 
the Cimbri in the time of Strabo 2 . 

(2) See p. 138 of this Volume. 





Early in the morning of this day, Professor 
Pallas rode with Mr. Galena, who came by his 
appointment, to Inkerman 1 , to shew to him some 
marine plants proper in the preparation of 
kelp. The bad air of that place, added to the 
fatigue he had encountered the preceding day, 
threw him into a violent fever: from this, 
however, we had the happiness to see him 
recover, before we left the Crimea. Fevers are 
so general, during summer, throughout the 
Peninsula, that it is hardly possible to avoid 
them. If you drink water after eating fruit, 
a fever follows; if you eat milk, eggs, or 
butter a fever; if, during the scorching heat 
of the day, you indulge in the most trivial 
neglect of clothing a fever ; if you venture out, 

(1) In the dearth of intelligence concerning Inkerman, the brief 
account preserved by Broniovius is interesting and valuable. As an 
author, he was not only cited, but transcribed by Thuanus; otherwise, 
his writings appear to have escaped observation. " Ingermenum mil- 
liaribus xn vel amplius a- Coslovid distal. Arcem lapideam, templum, et 
specus sub arce, et ex adverso arcis miro opere ex petrd cxcisos, ha bet; 
nam in monte maxima ct altissimo sita est, ac inde ti speculus a Turds 
cognomen retinet. Oppidum quondam non ignobile, opibus refertum, cele- 
berrimum, et natura loci maxims admirandum, copiosissimumqueextitit. 

Ingermeni arcem satis et magnificam it, Prindpibus Gradt 

extruclam fuisse apparet: namportce et ccdiftcia adhuc nonnulla integra 
Greeds characteribus exornata, et cum insignibus eorum insculpta con- 
spiduntur. Acpei- universum ilium istkmum quondam ibi usque ad urbit 
mamia (edifida suntptuosa extitisse, puteos excavatos ittfinitos, qui adhuc 
fere plurimi sunt integri; ad extremum vero duas vias Regias granges 
lapidibus stratas esse, certo apparet." Martini Broniovii Tartaria. 
Lug. Bat. 1630. 


to enjoy the delightful breezes of the evening CHAP, 
a fever ; in short, such is the dangerous nature 
of the climate to strangers, that Russia must 
consider the country as a ccemetery for the 
troops which are sent to maintain its possession. 
This is not the case with regard to its native 
inhabitants, the Tahtars: the precautions they 
use, added to long experience, insure their 
safety. Upon the slightest change of weather, 
they are seen wrapped up in sheep-skins, and 
covered by thick felts ; while their heads are 
swathed in numerous bandages of linen, or 
guarded by warm stuffed caps, fenced with 

The Tahtar Nobles of the Crimea, or Moorza, 
as they are called, by a name answering to the 
Persian word Mirza, so common in our Oriental 
tales, amount in number to about two hundred 
and fifty. Their dress is altogether Circassian, 
excepting that the cap is larger than the sort of 
covering worn on the head by the princes of 
Mount Caucasus. Their figure on horseback is 
in the highest degree stately. Among all 
the Crimean Tahtars, of whatsoever rank, an 
elegance of manners may be remarked: this, 
although perhaps common to Oriental nations, 
affords a striking opposition to the boorish 
figure of a Russian. It is diverting to see them 


CHAP, converse together : the Tahtar has, in common 
with the Russian, an impetuosity and eagerness 
in uttering his expressions ; but it is zeal very 
differently characterized. The Tahtar may be 
said to exhibit the playful flexibility and varying 
posture of the leopard; while the Russian, rather 
resembling the bear, is making an aukward 
parade of his paws. The dress of a Tahtar 
nobleman displays as much taste as can be 
shewn by a habit which is necessarily decorated 
with gold and silver lace : it is neither heavily 
laden with ornament, nor are the colours tawdry. 
The nobles sometimes delight in strong contrast, 
by opposing silver lace to black velvet, for their 
caps ; scarlet or rose-coloured silk to dark 
cloth, for their vest or pelisse ; but, in general, 
the dress of a Tahtar of distinction is remarkable 
for its simple elegance, as well as for its clean- 
liness. Their favourite colour in cloth is drab ; 
and the grey or white wool, for their winter 
caps, is, of all other ornaments, the most in 
esteem. The Russian peasant, being of a dimi- 
nutive race, and connected with the Laplander, 
as the next link in the chain between him and 
the pigmy, is naturally of a lively disposition ; 
he is never completely aukward, except when 
metam orphosed as a soldier. The moment he 
enters the ranks, all the brisk and cheerful 
expression of his countenance is gone; he 


then appears a chopfallen, stupid, brow-beaten, CHAP. 
sullen clown. The Russian commanders may ' 
class under the same description; with this 
difference, that they are more profligate. A 
Russian Prince and a Russian peasant exhibit 
the same striking traits of national character 1 . 

Upon the rocks behind the house of Mr. 


Hablitz, we found the identical plant Pallas tana. 
distinguished by the name of his friend, Salvia 
Hablitziana, growing in great abundance. Mr. 

(1) Hutler, with singular felicity of delineation, has afforded, in his 
Hudibras, so faithful a portrait of a Russian General, that no person 
acquainted with the country will read it, without acknowledging the 
representation to be as accurate as if Potemkin himself had sat for the 
picture : 

" He was by birth, some authors write, 
A Russian, some a Muscovite, 
AW 'mong the Cossacks had been bred, 
Of whom we in diurnals read, 
That serve to fill up pages here, 
As with their bodies ditches there 1 , 
Scrimansky was his cousin-gerraan, 
With whom he served, and fed on'vermin : 
And when these failed he'd suck his claws, 
And quarter himself upon his paws. 
And though his countrymen, the Huns, . 
Did stew their meat between their bums 
And th' horses' backs, o'er which they straddle, 
And every man eat up his saddle; 
He was not half so nice as they, 
But eat it raw when 't came in his way." 

Hudib. Part I. Cant. 2. 

(2) Potemkin died in a ditch near Yassy ; and after his interment in 
the church at Cherson, his body was taken up, by order of the Emperor 
PAUL, and cast into the fosse of the fortress. 


CHAP, ffablitz first observed it upon the spot whence 
- T -' ' we derived our specimens, and he sent the 
seed to Pallas in Petersburg. The plant is 
however still uncommonly rare. As a perennial, 
it may be sown in common garden soil in the 
open air; and it increases annually in size, 
until it becomes a fine tall shrub of very great 
beauty. We afterwards brought it to the 
Botanic Garden in Cambridge; where it also 
succeeded, but it has never equalled the size it 
attains in Russia. In the Crimea the blossom is 
larger, and the flowers are more abundant, than 
upon the English specimens. 

From Tchorgona we returned again to Shulu, 
and from thence to Kara Ilaes, where we passed 
the night in the palace of a Taktar nobleman, 
upon the sort of sofa called divan, which always 
surrounds the principal apartment of a Tahtarian 
or Turkish palace. Here we were covered 
by bugs and by fleas of the most enormous 
size; they came upon us like ants from an 
ant-hill. The next day we drove pleasantly 
Return to to Ahmetcket, and once more shared the com- 
forts of the Professor's hospitable mansion; 
regretting only the fever with which he was 
afflicted in consequence of an excursion, other- 
wise considered by us the most agreeable we 
had ever made. 



Journey to Koslof- Result of the Expedition Return to 
Akmetchet Marshal B'ilerstein Departure from 
Akmetchet Perecop Salt Harvest Nagay Tahtars 
Rana variabilis General Survey of the Crimea 
Country north of the Isthmus Facility of travelling in 
Russia Banditti of the Ukraine Anecdote of a despe- 
rate Robber Intrepid Conduct of a Courier Caravans 
Biroslaf Cherson Burial of Potemkin Recent 


disposal of his lody Particulars of the death of Howard 
Order of his Funei-al Tomb of Howard Nicholaef. 
CHAP ^["MT" 

viii. W E left Akmetchet for Koslof, on the twenty- 
journey to eighth of September, in the hope of obtaining a 
passage to Constantinople, on board a Turkish 
brigantine, Captain Osman Rees. From what- 
ever port of the Russian empire our escape 
might be effected, we knew it would be attended 
with considerable hazard. We had been denied 
a passport from Government to that effect, 
and we had every reason to be convinced none 
would be speedily granted. After waiting many 
months, in vain expectation of a release from the 
oppressive tyranny then exercised over English- 
men by every Russian they encountered, female in- 
terest in Petersburg accomplished our delivery *. 
A forged order from the Sovereign was exe- 
cuted, and sent to us: by means of which, in 
spite of the vigilance of the police, we contrived 
to leave the country. It is proper to state this 
circumstance, lest any of those, by whom we 
were so hospitably entertained, should hereafter 
be considered as having been accessary to our 
flight. Koslof was fixed upon, as a place the 

(l) Nothing but the dangerous consequences of a more explicit 
acknowledgment prevents the author from naming the Friend to whom 
he was thus indebted. 

KOSLOF. 303 

least liable to those researches, on the part of CHAP. 


spies and custom-house officers, which were ,... > 
likely to impede our departure. Having crossed 
the steppes leading to this place, we arrived 
there in the middle of the night. Such a tre- 
mendous storm of thunder, lightning, wind, hail, 
and rain, came on before we reached the town, that 
our horses refused to proceed; and we were 
compelled to halt, opposing our backs to its 
fury, until the violence of the tempest subsided 8 . 

As soon as morning dawned, we caused our 
baggage to be sealed at the custom-house ; and 
agreed for our passage, at the enormous rate of 
two hundred and fifty roubles : this was deemed 
by us a moderate sum, as the original demand 
had been six hundred. The common rate of a 
passenger from Koslof to Constantinople is not 
more than ten; but it was evident that the 
Turks, suspecting the nature of our situation, 

(2) Owing to sleeping in this situation, exposed to the miasmata of 
salt-marshes, causing a somnolency it is impossible to resist, a quartan 
fever which the author had so long combated was again renewed. 
Mr. Cripps was also attacked, but with different effect; a sore throat, 
attended by a cutaneous eruption covering his whole body, and from 
which he was soon relieved, was all the consequence to him of the 
vapours to which he had been exposed. These observations cannot be 
reconciled to the account Pallas afterwards published of the exha- 
lations from the stagnant lakes near Koslof. He says, (vol. II. p. 489) 
they contribute greatly to the salubrity of the town, and that inter- 
mittent fevers are less frequent here than at other places. 

304 KOSLOF. 

CHAP, wished to make of us a booty. When all was 


settled, the inspector of the customs, to our 
great dismay, accompanied by several officers, 
came to assure us, that the town would not be 
responsible for our safety, if we ventured to 
embark in the brigantine : this they described 
as being so deeply laden, that she was already 
nine inches below her proper poise in the water. 
The Captain had, moreover, two shallops of 
merchandize to take on board, and sixty-four 
passengers. Some Armenians had already 
removed their property from the vessel; and it 
was said she was so old and rotten, that her 
seams would open if exposed to any tempestuous 
weather. The Captain, a bearded Turk, like 
all the mariners of his country, was a stanch 
predestinarian : this circumstance, added to his 
avarice, rendered him perfectly indifferent to the 
event. As commander of the only ship in the 
harbour bound for Constantinople, he had been 
induced to stow the cargoes of two ships within 
his single vessel. This often happens with 
Turkish merchantmen in the Black Sea, and it is 
one of the causes of their numerous disasters. 
To prove the extent of the risk they will en- 
counter, it may be added, that, after our return to 
Akmetchet, the captain filled his cabin with four 
hundred cantars of honey ; and Professor Pallas 
was offered a thousand roubles to obtain the 

KOSLOF. 305 

Governor's acquiescence in an additional contra- 
band cargo of two thousand bulls' hides; the 
exportation of this article being, at that time, 
strictly prohibited. 

Koslof 1 derives its name from a Tahtar com- 
pound, Gits I'ove ; the origin of which cannot be 
distinctly ascertained. Gus signifies * an eye/ 
and Ove 'a hut.' The Russians, with their 
usual ignorance of antient geography, bestowed 
upon it the name of Eupatorium. It has been 
shewn already, that Eupatorium stood in the 
Minor Peninsula of the Heracleotte, near the city 
of Chersonesus. As to the present state of the 
place itself, it is one of those wretched remnants 
of the once flourishing commercial towns of the 
Crimea, which exemplify the effects of Russian 

(l) "At Koslof, or Eupatoria, I remember nothing interesting: 
but in the desert near it, we saw some parties of the Nagay Tahtars, 
and had an opportunity of examining their kibitkas, which are shaped 
something like a bee-hive, consisting of a frame of wood covered with 
felt, and placed upon wheels. They are smaller and more clumsy 
than the tents of the Kalmucks, and do not, like them, take to pieces. 
In the Crimea, they are more used for the occasional habitation of the 
shepherd, than for regular dwellings. We saw a great many buffaloes 
and camels : several of the latter we met drawing in the two-wheeled 
carts described before, a service for which I should have thought them 
not so well adapted as for bearing burthens ; and although ' a chariot 
of camels' is mentioned by Isaiah, I do not remember having heard of 
such a practice elsewhere. The plain of Koslof is hardly elevated above 
the sea, and fresh water is very scarce and bad." Heber's MS. Journal. 

306 KOS-LOF. 

CHAP, do-minion. Its trade is annihilated; its houses 
are in ruins; its streets are desolate; the 
splendid mosques, with which it was adorned, 
are unroofed; the minarets have been thrown 
down; its original inhabitants were either 
banished or murdered ; all that we found re- 
maining, were a few sneaking Russian officers 
of the police and customs, with here and there 
a solitary Turk or Tahtar, smoking among the 
ruins, and sighing over the devastation he 
beheld. Its commerce was once of very con- 
siderable importance. Its port contained fifty 
vessels at the same time ; a great number, con- 
sidering that the other ports of the Crimea had 
each their portion. We found them reduced to 
one accidental rotten brigantine, the precarious 
speculation of a few poor Turkish mariners; 
who, although common sailors on board, shared 
equally with the Captain the profit of the voyage. 
In better times, Koslof, from her crowded shores, 
exported wool, butter, hides, fur,, and corn. 
The corn has now risen to such a price, that it 
is no longer an article of exportation : the wool, 
fur, and hides, are prohibited. In short, as a 
commercial town, it no longer exists. The only 
ship, which had left the port previous to our 
arrival, sailed with a determination to return no 
more ; not only on account of the length of time 
required in procuring a cargo, but owing to the 


bribery and corruption it was necessary to 
satisfy, in order to get away 4 . 

In returning to Akmetchet, we halted to water Return to 

. i ii- Akmetchet. 

our horses in the steppes, where the dwellings 
were entirely subterraneous. Not a house was 
to be seen; but there were some holes, as 
entrances, in the ground : through one of these 
we descended into a cave, rendered almost 
suffocating by the heat of a stove for dressing 
the victuals of its poor owners. The walls, the 
floor, and the roof, were all of the natural soil. 
If such retreats were the original abodes of 
mankind, the art of constructing habitations 
was borrowed from badgers, foxes, and rabbits. 
At present, such dwellings are principally, if 
not solely, tenanted by shepherds of the Crimea; 
who dig these places for their residence during 

Having failed in the object of our journey to 
Koslof, we prepared to leave the Peninsula by 

(2) Pallas's account of Koslnf is only applicable to its former state. 
" In the year 1793, for instance, one hundred and seventy-six vessels 
were freighted with corn, salt, and leather; and the short route by 
which goods are conveyed hither, by the Nagays, and by the Tahtars 
inhabiting the banks of the Dnieper, affords the greatest facility to the 
corn trade." Travels, vol.11, p 49\. This town is thus men- 

tioned by Broniovius: " Coslovia oppidum ad dextram Perecojnce ad mare 
sitnm milliaribut septem distal. Emporio non ignoUK, prafectum arris 
et oppidi Chanus proprium et perpetvum ilrt habet." Descriptio Turta- 
ritr, p. 256. Lug. Bat. 1630. 



CHAP, another route, and to attempt a journey by land 
1 * ' to Constantinople. For this purpose we dis- 
patched letters to our Ambassador at the Porte, 
requesting an escort of Janissaries to meet us 
at Yassy. The evening before we took our final 
leave ofAkmetchet was enlivened by the company 

Marshal and conversation of Marshal Blberstein, a literary 
friend of the Professor's, who had been recently 
travelling along the Volga, the shores of the Cas- 
pian, and in Caucasus. He was two years an exile 
in the Isle of Taman, where he had amused him- 
self with the study of Botany, and the antiquities 
of the country. He brought several new plants 
to the Professor, and confirmed the observations 
we had before made upon the Cimmerian Bos- 
porus. We had, moreover, the satisfaction to 
find, that the map we had prepared to illustrate 
the antient geography of the Crimea agreed 
with his own observations upon that subject. 
In answer to our inquiries concerning the 
relative height of the Alps and the Caucasian 
chain of mountains, he said, that the Alps are 
no where so elevated; and mentioned Mount 
Chat 1 as being higher than Mont Blanc. Being 

(1) Now called Elborus by the Circassians, according to its antient 
name. It has two points at its summit; and is visible from the fortress 
of Stavropole, on the Caucasian line, a distance of three hundred versts. 
Its base descends into a swampy impassable plain, and this plain equals 
in elevation the tops of the neighbouring mountains. 


questioned about the tribe of the Turcoman, C VIIL' 

now called Turkmen, and Truckmejizi, by the v * ' 

Tahtars, he described them as a race of very 
rich nomades, still numerous in the steppes near 
Astrackan ; remarkable for great personal beauty, 
as well as for their patient endurance of the 
unjust taxes and heavy exactions required of 
them by the neighbouring Governors. 

The Equinox brought with it a series of Departure 
tempestuous weather, which continued until Akmetcket. 
.the tenth of October. Upon this day the violence 
of the wind abated; and a second summer 
ensuing, we took a final leave of our friends, 
quitting, for ever, their hospitable society. 
Professor Pallas set out for his vineyards at 
Sudakt, and we took our route across the 
steppes, towards Perecop. The late storms had 
destroyed even the small produce of the vines, 
upon the coast, which the locusts had spared. 

(2) Autiently "Sieuyw, Sogihtia, Sudagra, and Sugdaia. This city 
rose to such celebrity by its commerce,' that all the Greek possessions 
in the Crimea were called Sugdama. (Storch. torn. I. p. 172.) It had 
a triple fortress ; and it is noticed by Braniovius and by Thuanus. (See 
tlie Additional Notes at the end of this Volume.) A curious etymology of 
this word, as it is now pronounced (Sudak), occurs in Gale's Court of 
the Gentiles, I. ii. c. 1. p. 200. Ojcon. 16&'9. Jt is founded upon an 
extract from Eitsclius, Prcepar. lib.'i. "E*5 <roZ 2t/5ux Aioffxeupu >J Ka/3j^i 
' From Si/dyk sprang the Dioscuri or Cabiri.' " We find the like," 
continues the learned Gale, " mentioned by IJamascius in Rhotius-. 
"Sctouxa yu.f lyivoTa tfittei;, cu; &iairxr,vpw; 'iffnnooufft xiti Kafiilpev;- Sajyh 
legat children, which they inier^rt-t Dioscuri and Cabin.' " First, 

X 2 Sydyk, 


CHAP. Some fruit-trees put forth a premature blossom : 

and we found the plains covered with the gaudy 
and beautiful flowers of the autumnal crocus. 
Their bulbs were very deep in the soil : this 
consists of a rich black vegetable earth. The 
Taurican chain of mountains, with the summit 
of Tchetirdagh towering above the rest, appeared 
very conspicuous about the south. Towards 
the north, the whole country exhibited a bound- 
less flat plain, upon which caravans were passing, 
laden with water-melons, cucumbers, cabbages, 
and other vegetables : these, with the exception 
of antient tumuli, were almost the only objects 
we observed. Some of the vehicles were 
drawn by camels, and were principally destined 
for Koslof. We travelled all night: in the 
morning, at sun-rise, we were roused by our 
interpreter, a Greek, who begged we would 
notice an animal, half flying and half running, 
among the herbs. It was & jerboa, the quadruped 
already noticed in a former chapter 1 . We 

Sydyh, or Sadyk, was a Phoenician God, answering to the Grecian Jupiter ; 
and no other than a Satanic Ape, of the sacred name j?TO (SaddiK), 
attributed to the true God of Israel, as Psalm 119, 137, and else- 
where. Thus, in two instances of Grecian cities in the Crimea, we 
have appellations derived from the most antient names of the Deity 
among- Eastern nations : ARDAUDA, or EHTAQEOX, a name of Theo- 
dosia; and SYDYK, or SADYK, preserved in the present appellation, 
SVDAK. Hence we may also explain the meaning of the Persian name 
(1) See p. 166 of this Volume. 


caught it with some difficulty; and should not CHAP. 


have succeeded, but for the cracking of a large 
whip ; this terrified it so much, that it lost all 
recollection of its burrow. Its leaps were 
extraordinary for so small an animal ; some- 
times to the distance of six or eight yards, but 
in no determinate direction: it bounded back- 
wards and forwards, without ever quitting the 
vicinity of the place where it was found. The 
most singular circumstance in its nature is the 
power it possesses of altering its course when 
in the air. It first leaps perpendicularly from 
the ground, to the height of four feet or more ; 
and then, by a motion of its tail, with a clicking 
noise, it bears off in whatsoever direction it 

From the appearance which Perecop 2 makes 

(2) " At Perekop are only one or two houses, Inhabited by the 
postmaster and custom-house officers; and a little barrack. The 
famous wall is of earth, very lofty, with an immense ditch. Jt stretches 
in a straight line from sea to sea, without any remains of bastions or 
Hanking 1 towers, that I could discover. The Golden Gate is narrow, 
and too low for an English waggon. Goldf.n, among the Tahtars, seems 
synonymous with Royal ; and thus we hear of the Golden horde, the 
Golden tent, &c. Colonel Symes mentions the same manner of 
expression in Ava ; so that I suppose it is common all over the East. 
There is only one well at Perekop, the water of which is brackish and 
muddy. A string of near two hundred kibitkas were passing, laden 
with salt, and drawn by oxen : they were driven by Malo-Russians, who 
had brought corn into the Crimea, and were returning with their pre- 
sent cargo. White or clarified salt is unknown iu the South of Russia; 



CHAP. j n a ]} the maps of this country, it might be 
expected that a tolerable fortress would be 

it appears, even on the best tables, with the greater part of its impu- 
rities adhering, and consequently quite brown. Kibitkas, laden with 
this commodity, form a kiud of caravan. They seldom go out of their 
way for a town or village, but perform long journeys ; the drivers only 
sheltered at night on the lee-side of their carriages, and stretched on 
the grass. During the independence of the Crimea, (an old officer told 
tne), these people were always armed, and travelled without fear of the 
Tah tars, drawing up their waggons every night in a circle, and keeping 
regular sentries. We here, with great regret, quitted the Crimea and 
its pleasing inhabitants: h was really like being turned out of Paradise, 
when we abandoned those beautiful mountains, and again found our- 
selves in the vast green desert, which had before tired us so thoroughly; 
where we changed olives and cypresses, clear water and fresh milk, for 
reeds, long grass, and the draining? of marshes, only made not poisonous 
by being mixed with brandy; ami when, instead of a clean carpet at 
night, anda supper of eggs, butter, honey, and sweetmeats, wereturned 
to the seat of our carriage, and the remainder of our old cheese. 

" Pallas has properly distinguished the two distinct races of Tahtars, 
the Nogays and the mountaineers. These last, however, appeared to 
me to resemble in their persons the Turks and the Tahtars of Kostroma 
and Yaroslaf. They are a fair and hand-some people, like the Tahtars 
in the north of Russ ; a, given to agriculture and commerce, and here, as 
well as there, decidedly different from the Nogays, or other Mongul 
tribes. The Nogays, however, in the Crimea, appear to have greatly 
improved their breed by intermarriages with the original inhabitants, 
being much handsomer and taller than those to the north of the Golden 
Gate. The mountaineers have large bushy beards when old ; the 
Tahtars of the Plain seldom possess more than a few thin hairs. The 
mountaineers are clumsy horsemen, in which they resemble the north- 
ern Tahtars. Their neighbours ride very boldly, and well. I had an 
opportunity of seeing two Nogay shepherd-boys, who were galloping 
their horses near Koslof, and who shewed an agility and dexterity 
which were really surprising. While the horse was in full speed, they 
sprung from their seats, stood upright on the saddle, leapt on the 
ground, and again into the saddle ; and threw their whips to some 
distance, and caught them up from the ground. What was more 
remarkable, we ascertained that they were merely shepherds, and that 



found here, to guard the passage of the Isthmus: CHAP. 
yet nothing can be imagined more wretched 

these accomplishments were not extraordinary. Both mountaineers 
and shepherds are amiable, gentle, and hospitable, except where they 
iMve been soured by their Russian masters. We never approached a 
village at night-fall, where we were not requested to lodge j or in the 
day-time, without being invited to eat and drink : and, while they 
were thus attentive, they uniformly seemed careless about payment, 
even for the horses they furnished; never counting the money, and 
often offering to go away without it. They are steady in refusing 
Russian money ; and it is necessary to procure a sufficient stock of 
usluks, paras, and sequins. This is not their only way of shewing 
their dislike to their new masters : at one village we were surprised at 
our scanty fare, and the reluctance with which every thing was fur- 
nished, till we learnt they had mistaken us for Russian officers. On 
finding that we were foreigners, the eggs, melted butter, nardek, and 
bekmess, came in profusion* General Bardakof told us they were 
fond of talking politics : when we addressed them on this subject, they 
were reserved, and affected an ignorance greater than I thought likely 
or natural. Pallas complained of them as disaffected, and spoke much 
of their idleness. Yet their vineyards are very neatly kept, and 
carefully watered ; and, what is hardly a sign of indolence, their 
houses, clothes, and persons, are uniformly clean. But his account 
seemed to me by no means sufficiently favourable. They are, I appre- 
hend, a healthy race ; but we met one instance where a slight wound 
had, by neglect, become very painful and dangerous. On asking what 
remedies they had for diseases, they returned a remarkable answer : 
' We lay down the sick man on a led; and, if it please God, he recovers. 
Allah Kerim >' Their women are concealed, even more (the Duke of 
Richelieu said) than the wives of Turkish peasants ; and are greatly 
agitated and distressed if seen, for a moment, without a veil. Like 
the men, they have very fair and clear complexions, with dark eyes and 
hair, and aquiline noses. Among the men were some figures which 
might have served for models of a Hercules ; and the mountaineers 
have a very strong and nimble step in walking. An Imaum, who 
wears a green turban, and who is also generally the schoolmaster, is 
in every village. Not many, however, of the peasants could read or 
write ; and they seemed to pay but little attention to the regular hours 
of prayer." Heber's MS. Journal. 


CHAP, than the hamlet which supplies, with quarters, 

a few worn-out invalids. A very inconsiderable 

rampart extends from sea to sea : the distance 
across the Isthmus, in the narrowest part, 
scarcely exceeds five miles; the water being 
visible from the middle of the passage on either 
side. Upon the north side of this rampart is a 
fosse, twerve fathoms wide, and twenty-five feet 
deep ; but this is now dry; and the difficulty of 
filling it with water is insuperable, in its present 
state. The rest of the fortification, originally 
a Turkish work, is in a state of neglect and ruin. 
The air of the place is very bad ; consequently, 
the inhabitants of the neighbouring hamlets, who 
are chiefly disbanded soldiers, suffer much from 
intermittent fevers 1 . Strabo, with a degree of 
accuracy which characterizes every page of his 
writings relative to the Crimea, states the 
breadth of the Isthmus as being equal to forty 
stadia", or five miles. The waters of the Black 
Sea and of the Sea of Azof annually sustain a 

(1) The author cannot account for the remarks made by Pallas 
{.vol. II. p. 469.) concerning' the air of this place, and of Koslof. He says, 
the saline effluvia from the Swash correct the otherwise unwholesome 
nature of the atmosphere; yet the bad health of the inhabitants is 
directly in contradiction of that statement. And again, in p. 9, of the 
same volume, " During the prevalence of east winds, a disagreeable 
smell from the Sifash, or Putrid Sea, is strongly perceived at Peiecop. 
It is nevertheless believed, that these vapours preserve the inhabitants 
from those intermittent fevers, formerly very frequent in the Crimea." 

(2) Strab. Geogr. lib. vii. p. 445. ed. Oson. 


certain diminution, which may be proved by CHAP. 
observations upon all the north-western shores: ' 
it is therefore natural to conclude that the 
shallows upon either side of the Isthmus have 
increased in their extent since the time when 
Strabo wrote. The following passage of Pliny 
seems also to prove that the Peninsula was once 
an island 2 : "From Carcinites begins Taurica, 
once surrounded by the sea, which, covered all the 
campaign part of it." The constant draining of 
the great Eastern flood at length left bare the 
vast calcareous deposit which had been accu- 
mulated beneath the waters: and this deposit 
is now visible over all those extensive plains, 
in the South of Russia, which by the Isthmus of 
Perecop are connected with the steppes of the 
Crimea. If the waters of the Black Sea were to 
be once more restored only to the level of those 
strata of marine shells which may be observed 
in all the district from the Mouths of the Dnieper 
to the Don, the Crimea would become again an 
island ; visible only, amidst an expanse of ocean, 
by the loftier masses of calcareous rocks upon 
its southern coast. 

Throughout the summer, Perecop * is a scene salt iiar- 

(2) Plin. Hist. Nat. lib. iv. c. 12. 

(:i) Perecop is a Kussiari word, signifying An Entrenchment of the 
Isthmus. The Ta.htar name of this -place is Or-Kapy, denoting The 



CHAP, of bustle and commerce. The shores, the Isthmus, 
and all the neighbouring steppes, are covered 
with caravans coming for salt ; consisting of wag- 
gons, drawn sometimes by camels, but generally 
by white oxen, from two to six in each vehicle. 
Their freight is so easily obtained, that they 
have only to drive the waggons axle-deep into 
the shallow water upon the eastern side of the 
Isthmus, and then they may load them as fast as 
they please ; the salt lying like sand. The sight 
of so many hundred waggons, by fifties at a 
time in the water, is very striking ; they appear 
like fleets of small boats floating upon the 
surface of the waves. The driver of each 
waggon pays a tax of ten roubles to the Crown. 
There are various reservoirs of salt in the 
Crimea ; but those of Perecop, used from imme- 
morial time, are the most abundant, and they 
are considered as inexhaustible. Taurica Cher- 
sonesus was an emporium of this commodity 
in the earliest periods of history : it was then 
sent, as it is now, by the Black Sea, to Constan- 
tinople, and to the Archipelago ; by land, to 
Poland, and over all Russia, to Moscow, to 

Gate of the Fortification." Pallas'x Travels, rol.ll.p.5. Upon this 
subject /inrniovhis is also very explicit. " Nomen Pracopenses & 
fossd halent : nam PREZECOP ipsorum linguA fossam significut." 
Descript. Tartar, p. 224. ed. Lug. Bat. 1630. See also his further 
observations, in the Additional Notes at the end of this volume. 


Petersburg, and even to Riga. The oxen, after CHAP. 
their long journey, are occasionally sold with 
the cargoes they have brought ; and sometimes 
they return again, the whole of that immense 
distance, with other merchandize. The cara- 
vans halt every evening at sun-set ; when their 
drivers turn their oxen loose to graze, and lie 
down themselves, in the open air, to pass the 
night upon the steppe. We noticed one, among 
many groupes of this kind, remarkably inter- 
esting ; because it possessed the novelty of a 
female ', whose features were not concealed 
by a veil. She was preparing to pass the 
night, with her child, upon the grass of the 
steppe; preferring the canopy of heaven to that 
of the madjar*. Her companions were of a 
wild but equivocal race, among whom the 
Tahtar features appeared to predominate : they 
were clothed in goat-skins. Nothing is more 
striking than the spectacle afforded by these 
immense caravans, slowly advancing, each in 
one direct line, by hundreds at a time : they 
exhibit a convincing proof of a very con- 
siderable internal commerce carried on by 

(!) " Tartari, suas mulierex in alditis semper tenent loci?." Michal. 
Lituan. Fragment, de Morib. Tartarorum. Lug. Rat. 1630. 

(2) The Tahtar waggon, called Madjar or Maggiar, is always of 
the same form and materials ; a long, narrow vehicle, supported by 
four wooden wheels, without any iron attire. 


CHAP. Russia with the remotest provinces of her vast 

Another singular appearance at Perecop is 
afforded by the concourse of Nagay Tatitars 
frequenting the market for water-melons, a 
species of fruit seen here of extraordinary 
size and perfection. These Tahtars are a very 
different people from the Tahtars of the Crimea ; 
they are distinguished by a more dimi- 
nutive form, and by the dark copper colour of 
their complexion, which is sometimes almost 
black. They bear a remarkable resemblance 
to the Laplanders, although their dress and 
manner have a more savage character. It is' 
probable that the Nagay Tahtar and the 
Laplander were originally of the same family, 
difficult as it now is to deduce the circumstances 
of their origin 1 . The following fact may serve 

(l) The subject of their relationship might however have received 
considerable illustration, had the writings of the learned Porthan, 
Professor of History at the University of Abo in Finland, found their 
way to the rest of Europe. Excluded by his situation from all inter- 
course with more enlightened seminaries, his labours and his name 
have hardly reached the ears of any literary society ; yet should his 
lucubrations survive the present desolating scourge by which the 
Russians afflict those remote provinces of Sweden, a brighter light may 
irradiate the pages of History ; and the annals of mankind may derive 
additional records from a native of Fmhmd, skilled in the language, 
the traditions, and the mythology of his countrymen. 


to point out an original connection between the C HAP. 
Laplanders and Tahtars ; as it is now generally 
admitted that America was peopled by colonies 
from Asia, passing the Aleoutan Isles. When 
the Moravians made their settlement upon the 
coast of Labrador, they employed a Greenland 
Interpreter, in order to converse with the 
natives, who are distinguished by the copper- 
coloured complexion and the features of the 
Nagay Tahtars and Laplanders. The Crimean 
Tahtar is a person of much more stately 
demeanour than the Nagay; he is farther 
advanced in civilization ; he possesses a better 
figure ; and he is often distinguished by very 
engaging manners. Many of the Crimean 
Tahtars annually leave the Crimea, upon a pilgri- 
mage to Mecca and Medina ; so that a continual 
intercourse with other nations has contributed 
to their superior station in the general scale 
of society. A Crimean Tahtar must either make 
this pilgrimage himself, once in his life ; or 
he must send a representative, and defray the 
expenses of the journey. Those pilgrims 
proceed first to Constantinople: here the main 
tody divides ; a part chusing the shortest 
route by Alexandria, where they join the 
Egyptian caravan, and the rest advancing by 
the way of Syria, to Damascus, &c. The first 
route is liable to the greater inconvenience, 


CHAP. as they sometimes suffer two or three days 

- T - - upon their march, from want of water: the 

Syrian route is therefore generally preferred. 
In their march, they visit Jerusalem, the river 
Jordan, the Dead Sea, and other parts of the 
Holy Land : the Mohammedans entertaining great 
veneration for the memory of Christ, whom 
they regard as a Prophet, although not as the 
Son of God. Persons who have completed 
this pilgrimage are dignified, after their return, 
with the title of Hadji. 

Ran* Upon the Isthmus we again observed the 


revolting appearance of the sort of toad (Rana 
variabilis} before noticed. This reptile swarms 
in all the territory bordering the Sivask, or 
Putrid Sea, to the east of the Peninsula. It 
crawls even to the tops of the hills, near the 
Straits of Taman, and may generally be con- 
sidered as an indication of unwholesome air ; 
for, where the air is better than usual in the 
Crimea, this animal is proportionally rare. It 
burrows in the earth, like the jerboa, or the 

To a person leaving Perecop, as in approaching 
it, the sea is visible upon both sides of the 
Isthmus. A canal might therefore be formed, so 
as to insulate the Crimea, and to render it very 


difficult of approach upon the Russian side. We CHAP. 
proceeded towards the Dnieper ; and journeyed, ^ , , v .'- 
as before, over plains upon which there is not 
a trace of any thing that can properly be called 
a road. Different excursions in Taurica had General 
made the whole Peninsula familiar to our recol- ihecw. 
lection; and we were amused by considering 
the probable surprise a traveller would expe- 
rience, who, after reading the inflated and 
fallacious descriptions that have been published 
of the Crimean scenery, should pass the Isthmus 
of Perecop, and journey, during a day and a 
half, without beholding any other proofs of a 
habitable country, or any other object through- 
out a flat and boundless desert, than a few 
miserable peasants, stationed at the different 
relays to supply horses for the post. So 
narrow is the tract of cultivated land upon the 
southern coast, that it may be compared to an 
edging of lace upon the lower hem of a large 
apron. Beyond the Isthmus, towards the north, 
the plains were covered by caravans of salt, 
and every route was filled with them. For the 
rest, the appearance of the country was pre- 
cisely the same as in the north of the Crimea. 
Our journey, therefore, resembled that of De country 
Rubruquis, in the thirteenth century ; and it might 
be fully described in seven of his own words : 



CHAP. LAPIS." The later flowers of autumn occa- 

*. .,- > sionally drew our attention from an endeavour 

to proceed as fast as possible, and we collected 

several 1 : among others, an Arabis, and an 

Euphorbia: the latter, Marshal Bilerstdn had 

exhibited at Akmetchet, from his own collection, 

as a new species, found by him in Caucasus, and 

in the neighbourhood of Sarepta. The roads 

Facility of were, as usual, excellent. Throughout all the 

travelling _, . _ . . . 

in Russia. South of Russia, excepting alter heavy ram, me 
traveller may proceed with a degree of speed 
and facility unknown in any other country. A 
journey from Moscow to Zaritzin, to Astrachan, 
and thence, along the whole Caucasian line, to 
the Straits of Toman, might be considered as a 
mere summer excursion, for the most part 
easier and pleasanter than an expedition through 
any part of Germany. The horses, of a superior 
quality, are always ready : the turf, over which 
the roads extend, is excellent, excepting during 
the rainy season. Much greater expedition 
may be used in the same country, during 
winter, by travelling upon sledges, as it is well 

(l)The Woolly Milfoil, AcWlea pttlescens; Siberian Bell-flower, 
Campanula Sibirica ; Downy Goldilocks, Chrysocoma villosa ; Red 
Eyebright, Eupf.rasia Odontltes; &c. 


The roads leading from the Crimea towards CHAP. 
the north of Russia are supposed to be infested s > 
with bands of desperate robbers, who inhabit thTof 
the extensive deserts lying to the north of Lkr 
Peninsula. Stories of this kind rarely amount 
to more than idle reports. If credit be given 
to all that is related concerning the danger of 
this route, it would be madness to risk 
the journey; but few well-attested instances 
have occurred, of any interruption or hazard 
whatsoever. Perhaps, before the Crimea be- 
came subject to Russia, there was more real 
foundation for alarm; because the country, 
where the banditti are said to dwell, then 
constituted the frontier of Little Tahtary ; and, 
in all parts of the globe, frontiers are most liable 
to evils of this description, from the facility of 
escape thereby offered to the plunderer or to 
the assassin. From the author's own experience 
in almost every part of Europe, after all the 
tales he has heard of the danger of traversing 
this or that country, he can mention no place 
so full of peril as the environs of London; where 
there are many persons passing at all hours of 
the day and night with perfect indifference, who 
would shrink from the thoughts of an expedition 
across the deserts of Nagay, or the territory 
of the Don Cossacks. The Nagay Tahtars, from 
their nomade life, are a wilder and more savage 



CHAP, people than those of the Crimea, because they 
are altogether unsettled, and therefore are as 
barbarous as the Calmucks : but their occupations 
are pastoral; and a pastoral condition of society 
is rarely characterized by cruelty, or by acts of 
open violence. Yet, while their whole attention 
seems to be given to the care of their flocks and 
herds, it must be acknowledged that some facts 
are related, respecting the road from Moscow to 
Perecop, which are too well authenticated to 
admit of any dispute. About four years before 
we visited the Crimea, the lady of Admiral 
Mordvinof, travelling this way, attended by an 
especial escort to secure her from danger, and 
a very numerous suite of servants, was stopped 
by a very formidable party of banditti, who 
plundered her equipage of every thing worth 
bearing away. General Michehon, Governor- 
general of the Crimea, shewed us, at Akmetcliet, 
a dreadful weapon, taken from the hands of a 
robber who was discovered lurking in that 
neighbourhood. It consisted of a cannon-ball, 
a two-pounder, slung at the extremity of a 
leathern thong, having a handle like that of 
a whip, whereby it might be hurled with 
prodigious force. But, after all, it may be 
proved, that none of these deeds are the work 
of Tahtars. The particular district said to be 
the most dangerous, in all the road from Moscow 


to Perecop, occurs between Kremenchuk and 
Ekaterinoslaf, upon the frontier of Poland. The 
robbers hitherto taken have been invariably 
from that neighbourhood ; they were inhabitants 
of the Tcherno Laes, or Black Forest, and ge- 
nerally from the village of Zimkoia; whose 
inhabitants are the remnant of the Zaporogztsi 1 , 
originally deserters and vagabonds from all 
nations. It was from this tribe that Potemkin 
selected those brave Cossacks who are now 
known under the appellation of Tchernomorski> 
and who inhabit Kuban Tahtary. Many of the 
robbers, when taken, proved to be Polish Jews; 
and among the party which had robbed Admiral 
JMbrdvinofs lady, some, who were afterwards 
apprehended, were Jews of this description. 
The house of Admiral Mordvinof, situate among 
the mountains of the Crimea, near Sudak, was 
also attacked during the time we resided at 
Akmetchet; but, as the Admiral himself assured 
us, the attack was made with no other view 
than to carry off some of his poultry. The 
Admiral had been engaged in frequent acts of 
litigation with the Tahtars concerning the limits 
of his estate ; and, as this conduct rendered 
him unpopular among them, it perhaps exposed 
him to depredations that he would not otherwise 

(1) See p. 4, of this Volume. 
Y 2 


CHAP, have encountered. Having thus related a few 
< /. ' facts which came to our knowledge, affecting 
the character of the Tahtars, and the danger 
of their country, it may be amusing to add 
some examples of the stories current in 
the country: these, although perhaps less 
authentic, are implicitly believed by Russians, 
and by other strangers; and they constitute 
a common topic of conversation. The first 
was related to us by a general-officer in the 
Russian service; the second we heard upon 
the road. 

Anecdote The Chief of a very desperate gang of banditti, 

of a despe- . 

rate Rob- who had amassed considerable wealth, was 


taken by a soldier, and conducted to the Go- 
vernor of the province at Ehaterinoslaf. Great 
rewards had been offered for the person of this 
man ; and it was supposed he would, of course, 
be immediately Imouted. To the astonishment 
of the soldier who had been the means of his 
apprehension, a few days only had elapsed, 
when he received a visit from the robber, who 
had been able to bribe the Governor sufficiently 
to procure his release, and, in consequence of 
the bribe, had been liberated from confinement. 
" You have caught me," said he, addressing the 
soldier, " this time ; but before you set out 
upon another expedition in search of me, I will 


accommodate you with a pair of red loots ' for the 
journey." With this terrible threat, he made 
his escape ; and no further inquiry was made 
after him, on the part of the Russian police. 
The undaunted soldier, finding the little confi- 
dence that could be placed in his commander, 
determined to take the administration of justice 
into his own hands, and once more adventured 
in pursuit of the robber, whose flight had spread 
terror through the country. After an under- 
taking full of danger, he found him in one of the 
little subterraneous huts, in the midst of the 
steppes: entering this place, with loaded pistols 
in his hand, " You promised me," said he, " a 
pair of red boots; I am here to be measured for 
them!" With these words he discharged one 
of his pistols, and, killing the robber on the 
spot, returned to his quarters. The picture 
this offers of the corruption prevailing among 
Governors, and magistrates, in Russia, is correct. 
As for the story itself, it may also be true : it 
is given, as it was received, from those who 
considered its veracity to be indisputable. 

(1) Boots made of red leather are commonly worn in the Ukraine : 
but to give a man a pair of red boots, according to the saying of the 
Tahtars, is, to cut the skin round the upper part of his legs, and then 
cause it to be torn off by the feet. This species of torture the banditti 
are said to practise, as an act of revenge : in the same manner, Ameii- 
eccns scalp the heads of their enemies. 


CHAP. The next anecdote relates to a circumstance 

VIII. . . _ , ,_ 

which happened in the road between Kre- 
menchuh and Ekaterinoslaf: it affords an instance 
a Courier. Q f renMir ] ia l ) l e intrepidity in one of the Feldlegers, 
or couriers of the Crown. A person of this 
description was journeying from Cherson to 
Kremenckuk, by a route much infested with 
banditti. He was cautioned against taking a 
particular road, on account of the numerous 
robberies and murders which had lately taken 
place; and the more so, in consequence 
of a report, that some robbers were actually 
there encamped, plundering all who attempted 
to pass. Orders had been given, that, where- 
soever these banditti were found, they should 
be shot without trial. The courier proceeded on 
his journey in a pavosky 1 , and presently he 
observed four men hastily entering a tent near 
to the road. Almost at the same instant, the 
driver of the pavosky declared that there was 
a fifth concealed in a ditch by which they 
passed ; but, as it was dusky, and the object 
not clearly discerned, they both left the pavosky 
to examine it. To their surprise and horror, 
they found the body of a man, who had been 
murdered, still warm. A light appeared within 

(l) A small four-wheeled waggon ; used, during summer, as a sub- 
stitute for the khaUtka. 


the tent ; and the courier, desiring the postillion CHAP. 
to remain quiet with the vehicle, walked boldly 
towards it. As soon as he entered, he asked 
some men whom he saw there if he might be 
allowed a glass of brandy. Being answered in 
the affirmative, he added, " Stay a little : I will 
just step to the pavosky, and bring something 
for us to eat : you shall find the drink." It was 
now quite dark ; and the courier, who had well 
observed the number and disposition of the 
men within the tent, returned to the pavosky ; 
when, having armed the postillion' and himself, 
by means of a blunderbuss, two pistols, and a 
sabre, he took the bleeding carcase upon his 
shoulders, and advanced once more towards 
the tent. The unsuspecting robbers had now 
seated themselves around a fire, smoking 
tobacco ; their weapons being suspended above 
their heads. The courier, in the very instant 
that he entered, cast the dead body into the 
midst of them ; exclaiming, "There's the sort 
of food for your palates !" and, before a moment 
was allowed them to recover from the surprise 
into which this had thrown them, a discharge 
from the blunderbuss killed two of the four; 
a third received a pistol shot, with a cut from a 
sabre, but survived his wounds, and was taken, 
bound, to Kremenchuk, where he suffered the 
knout. The fourth made his escape. Of such 


C vm P ' a nature are ^ e ta ^ es w hich a traveller, in this 
..y .1 country, may expect to hear continually related 
by new settlers in the Crimea and in the Ukraine. 
"We did not give much credit to any of them ; 
and must confess we should not be surprised to 
hear the same stories repeated in other coun- 
tries, as having happened where banditti are 
supposed to infest the public roads. 

Being unacquainted with the topography of 
Biroslaf, and having no map in which it is traced, 
it is not possible to give an accurate description 
of the different streams and lakes of water we 
passed, in order to reach that place. The 
inhabitants were even more ignorant than our- 
selves of the country. Before we arrived, we 
traversed an extensive tract of sand, apparently 
insulated : this, we were told, was often inun- 
dated ; and boats were then stationed to 
conduct travellers. Having crossed this sandy 
district, we passed the Dnieper by a ferry, and 
ascended its steep banks on the western side 
Caravans, to the town. The conveyance of caravans, 
upon the sands, was effected with great diffi- 
culty ; each waggon requiring no less a number 
of oxen than eight or twelve ; and even these 
seemed hardly adequate to the immense labour 
of the draft. All the way from Perecop to 
Biroslaf, the line of caravans continued almost 


without intermission. The immense concourse CHAP. 


of waggons ; the bellowing of the oxen ; the 
bawling and grotesque appearance of the drivers; 
the crowd of persons in the habits of many dif- 
ferent nations, waiting a passage across the 
water ; offered altogether one of those singular 
scenes, to which, in other countries, there is 
nothing similar. 

Biroslaf, upon the western side of the Dnieper, 
is a miserable looking place, owing its support 
entirely in the passage of salt caravans from 
the Crimea 1 . Its situation, upon so considerable 
a river, affording it an intercourse with Kief* and 

(1) " Berislav is a small town, founded, on a regular plan, by the 
Empress Catherine, on a fine sloping bank near the Dnieper, with a 
floating bridge, which is removed every winter. The river, like the Don, 
is navigated in double canoes, (Sec the Vignette to Cliap. XIII. of the 
former volume,) composed of two very narrow ones, often hollowedout 
of trees, and united by a stage. The town has wide streets, at right 
angles to each other ; but the houses are, mostly, miserable wooden 
huts. The country around is all good land, but destitute of water : there 
are, however, many villages, and many acres of cultivated land along the 
banks of the river ; and wherever there is a well, is generally a small 
eluster of houses, attracted by such a treasure. On this side of 'the 
Dnieper begins the regular series of Jews' houses, which are the only 
taverns or inns from hence all the way into Austria. Jews, in every 
part of Little and New Russia, abound. In Muscovy they are very 
uncommon." Heber's MS. Journal. 

(2) The author will take this opportunity of introducing the notice 
of a very curious discovery made between Kiof and Kremenchuk, as it 
was communicated to him by Mons. Tamara, the Russian Ambassador 
at Constantinople ; adding only, that the arrow-heads mentioned by 
Mons. Tamara, many of which are now in the author's possession, have 
been analyzed by W. H. Wollaston, Esq. M.D. Secretary of the Royal 



CHAP. Cherson, might entitle it to higher consideration. 


We observed the Polish costume very prevalent 
here; the men, in every respect, resembling 
Cossacks of the Don. To describe the journey 
between Biroslaf 1 and Cherson, would put the 
Reader's patience to a very unnecessary trial, 
by the repetition of observations already, per- 
haps, too often made ; and it would give to these 
pages the monophanous character of the steppes, 
over which the journey was made, Before we 
reached the last post, we passed a considerable 

Society, and found by that celebrated chemist to contain the usual 
constituents of antient bronze ; namely, in the analysis of one hundred 
parts of this bronze, 88 parts of COPPER, and 12 parts of TIN. These 
are Mons. Tamara's words : " Entre les villes de Kiow etKremenchtfk, 
aupres de la petite ville nommle Jovnin, situe"e sur les bords de Dnieper, 
dans une plaine tres-e"tendue et sabloneuse, on trouve en assez grande 
quantite des pointes de fleches, dont la mature est de cuivre extrme- 
ment rafine", et les formes varie"es. II n'y en a pas 'dans le nombre de 
celles qui ressemble aux pointes de filches anciennes ou modernes. La 
quantit^ de ces pointes est si grande sur cette plaine, que les habitans 
qui ont la fabrication des eaux-de-vie libre, les ramassent pour raccom- 
moder leur alembiques, et qui, pour quelque petite monoies, des petit* 
garcons en ramassent toujours pour des voyageurs. Les pointes devraient 
tre de la plus grande antiquite 1 , et le me"tal est si ra6ne" qu'il n'y a pas 
de 1'oxide. Chaque fois que le vent a balaye" cette plaine, ces pointes 
se montrent, et c'est le terns de les ramasser." 

(1) At Biroslaf we collected the following plants : Common Cha- 
momile, Achillea nobilis ; Hoary Wormwood, Artemisia pontica ; Long, 
flowered Squinancy-wort (Waldstein), Asperula longiflora ; White- 
flowered Scabious, Scabiosa leucantha ; Scull-cap, Sculellaria galericulata ; 
Italian Hedge-mustard, Sisymbrium Columnce ; Hair-like Feather-grass, 
Stipa capillata ; Silvery Goose-grass, Potentilla argentea ; Common 
Bugloss, Anchusa qfficinalis; Branching Knapweed, Centaurea paniculate. 


surface of stagnant water ; but whether derived CHAP. 
from the Dnieper or not, we could not then L VII -'_. 
learn ; neither could any of our maps inform us. 
The very sight of such a pool was sufficient to 
convince us of the dangerous nature of our 
situation ; and our servant was attacked by a 
violent fever, in consequence of the unwhole- 
some air. We were, perhaps, protected by 
smoking : but even this practice will not always 
act as a preventive. 

Cherson, founded in 1778, was formerly a 
town of much more importance than it is now 8 . 

(2) " Cherson is gradually sinking into decay, from the unhealthiness 
of its situation, and still more from the preference given to Odessa. Yet 
timber, corn, hemp, and other articles of exportation, are so much cheaper 
and more plentiful here, that many foreign vessels still prefer this port, 
though they are obliged by Government first to perform quarantine, and 
unload their cargoes at Odessa. Corn is cheap and plentiful, but timber 
much dearer than in the north, as the cataracts of the Dnieper generally 
impede its being floated down. There is a noble forest which we saw in 
Podolia, not far from the Bog, a beautiful river, unincumbered by cataracts; 
but as some land-carriage would be necessary, it is as yet almost " intacta 
securi" The Arsenal at Cherson is extensive and interesting : it contains 
a monument to Potemkin, its founder. Two frigates and a seventy-four 
were building : on account of the Bar, they are floated down to the Liman 
pn camels, as at Petersburg. Nothing can be more dreary than the pro- 
spect of the river, which forms many streams, flowing through marshy 
islands, where the masts of vessels are seen rising from amid brush-wood 
and tall reeds. In these islands are many wild-boars, which are often 
seen swimming from one to the other. No foreign merchants of any con- 
sequence remain here : those who transact business at this Court, do it by 
clerks and supercargoes. My information respecting Cherson was chiefly 


334 CHER SON. 


3AP Potemkin bestowed upon it many instances of 

patronage, and was partial to the place. Its 
fortress and arsenal were erected by him. We 
found its commerce to be so completely anni- 
hilated, that its merchants were either bankrupt, 
or they were preparing to leave the town, and 
to establish themselves elsewhere. They com- 
plained of being abandoned by the Emperor, 
who refused to grant them any support or pri- 
vilege. But it cannot be admitted that Cherson, 
by any grant of the Crown, would ever become 
a great commercial establishment; and it is 
strange that such a notion was ever adopted '. 

from a Scotchman named Geddes. The Tomb of Howard is in the 
desert, about a mile from the town . it was built by Admiral Mordvinof, 
and is a small brick pyramid, white-washed, but without any inscription. 
(See the Vignette to this Chapter.') He himself fixed on die spot of his 
interment. He had built a small hut on this part of the steppe, where he 
passed much of his time, as the most healthy spot in the neighbourhood- 
The English burial-service was read over him by Admiral Priestman, 
from whom I had these particulars. Two small villas have been built at 
no great distance ; I suppose also from the healthiness of the situation^ 
as it had nothing else to recommend it. Howard was spoken of with 
exceeding respect and affection, by all who remembered or knew him ; 
and they were many." Heber's AfS. Journal. 

(1) Scherer's promising view of its importance might have led to other 
hopes ; but this author's prognostication of the advantages Russia might 
derive from the possession of the Crimea, has proved fallible. Speaking, 
however, of the commerce of Clierson in 1 786, he says, " Dans le cours de 
I'annee 1786, sa navigation occupoit cent trente-un bdtimens ; savoir, 
fuatre-vingt-douze Ottomans, trente-deux Russes, et sept Autrichiens. 
L' importation consisloit en fruits, vins, cabeliau., meubles, $c. EtV expor- 
tation, enfroment, savon, chanvre, farine, fer, laities, lin, cordages, tabac, 
bois," &.c. Histoire Raisonnee du Comm. de la Russ. par Scherer, 
torn. II. p. 33. Parts, 1768. 


The mouth of the Dnieper is extremely difficult CHAP. 
to navigate: sometimes, the north-east wind < .. < 
leaves it full of shallows; and, where there 
happens at any time to be a channel for vessels, 
it has not a greater depth of water than five 
feet; the entrance being at the same time 
excessively narrow. The sands are continually 
shifting : this renders the place so dangerous, 
that ships are rarely seen in the harbour. But 
the last blow to the commerce of Cherson was 
given by the war of Russia with France. Before 
this event took place, the exportation of corn, of 
hemp, and of canvas, had placed the town upon 
a scale of some consideration. All the ports of 
Russia in the Black Sea were more or less 
affected by the same cause ; and particularly 
Taganrog, which place received a serious check 
in consequence of the state of affairs with 



The style of architecture visible in the build- 
ings of the fortress displayed a good taste : 

(2) Upon and near the banks of the Dnieper were the following plants: 
Mountain Alysson, Alyssum mantanum , Common Bugloss, Anclnisa 
nflicinalis ; Beard-grass, Andropogon Tschfcmum ; Broom-leaved Snap- 
dragon, Antirrhinum Genislifdium ; Dotted Starwort, Aster punclalus 
(see Willdenow) ; Branching Campion, Cucubalus Catholicus; Branching 
Larkspur, Delphinium consolida ; Field Spurge, Euphorbia segetalis; 
Hoary Rampion, Phyteuma canescens, with large purple flowers; it was 
growing among the rocks near the river (see IValdstein); Berry-bearing 
Catch-fly, Pulycnemwm arvense Silenc baccifcra. 

336 CHER SON. 

CHAP, the stone used for their construction resembled 
that porous, though durable limestone, which 
the first Grecian colonies in Italy employed in 
erecting the temples of Pcestum : but the Russians 
had white-washed every thing, and by that 
means had given to their works the meanness of 
plaster. One of the first things we asked to 
see, was the tomb of Potemhin. All Europe 
has heard that he was buried in Cherson ; and a 
magnificent sepulchre might naturally be ex- 
pected for a person so renowned. The reader 
will imagine our surprise, when, in answer to 
our inquiries concerning his remains, we were 
told that no one knew what was become of them. 
Potemhin, the illustrious, the powerful, of all the 
princes that ever lived the most princely ; of all 
Imperial favourites, the most favoured ; had not 
a spot which might be called his grave. He, 
who not only governed all Russia, but even made 
the haughty CATHERINE his suppliant, had not 
the distinction possessed by the humblest of the 
human race. The particulars respecting the 
ultimate disposal of his body, as they were com- 
municated to us upon the spot, on the most cre- 
dible testimony, merit a cursory detail. 

Burial of The corpse, soon after his death *, was brought 


(1) Potemkin died October 15, 1791, aged 52, during a journey 
from Yassy to Nicholaef, and actually expired in a ditch, near to 


CHER SON. 337 

to Cherson, and placed beneath the dome of a CHAP. 


small church belonging to the fortress, opposite *. - y - ,* 
to the altar. After the usual ceremony of inter- 
ment, the vault was covered, merely by restoring 
to their former situation the planks of wood 
belonging to the floor of the building. Many 
inhabitants of Cherson, as well as English officers 
in the Russian service, who resided in the neigh- 
bourhood, had seen the coffin: this was extremely 
ordinary, but the practice of shewing it to 
strangers prevailed for some years after Poteni- 
kins decease. The Empress CATHERINE either 
had, or pretended to have, an intention of erecting 
a superb monument to his memory : whether 
at Cherson or elsewhere, is unknown. Her 
sudden death is believed to havB prevented the 
completion of this design. The most extra- 
ordinary part of the story remains now to be 
related : the coffin itself has disappeared. 
Instead of any answer to the various inquiries 
we made concerning it, we were cautioned to 
be silent. " No one" said an English Gentleman 
residing in the place, " dares to mention the name 
ofPotemhin" At length we received intelligence 
that the Verger could satisfy our curiosity, if we 
would venture to ask him. We soon found the 

the former place, in which the attendants had placed him, that 
be might redinc against its sloping side ; being taken from the 
carriage for air. 


CHAP, means of encouraging a little communication on 
' his part; and were then told, that the body, 
by the Emperor PAUL'S command, had been 
taken up, and thrown into the ditch of the 
fortress. The orders received were, *' to take 

posal of bis 

body. up the body of Potemkin, and to cast it into the 
first hole that might be found." These orders 
were implicity obeyed. A hole was dug in the 
fosse, into which his remains were thrown, with 
as little ceremony as if they had been those of 
a dead dog ; but this procedure taking place 
during the night, very few were informed of the 
disposal of the body. An eye-witness of the 
fact assured me that the coffin no longer existed 
in the vault where it was originally placed ; and 
the Verger was actually proceeding to point out 
the place where the body was abandoned, when 
the Bishop himself happening to arrive, took 
away my guide, and, with menaces but too 
likely to be fulfilled, prevented our being more 
fully informed concerning the obloquy now 
involving the relics of Potemkin. 

Let us therefore direct the Reader's attention 
to a more interesting subject to a narrative of 
the last days, the death, and burial, of the 
benevolent HOWARD ; who, with a character 
forcibly opposed to that of Potemkin, also termi- 
nated a glorious career at Cherson. Mysterious 

C H E R S O N. 339 

Providence, by events always remote from CHAP. 
human foresight, had wonderfully destined that i -***'. 
these two men, celebrated in their lives by the 
most opposite qualifications, should be interred 
nearly upon the same spot. It is not within the 
reach of possibility to bring together, side by 
side, two individuals more remarkably distin- 
guished in their deeds ; as if the hand of Destiny 
had directed two persons, in whom were exem- 
plified the extremes of Vice and Virtue, to one 
common spot, in order that the contrast might 
remain as a lesson for mankind : Potemkin, 
bloated and pampered by every vice, after a 
path through life stained with blood and crimes, 
at last the victim of his own selfish excesses : 
Howard, a voluntary exile, enduring the severest 
privations for the benefit of his fellow-creatures, 
and labouring, even to his latest breath, in the 
exercise of every social virtue. 

The particulars of Mr. Howard's death were ^ a t r jf e cnlar! 
communicated to us by his two friends, Admiral Death of 


Mordvinof, then Chief- Admiral of the Black- Sea 
fleet, and Admiral Priest-man, an English officer 
in the Russian service ; both of whom had borne 
testimony to his last moments. He had been 
entreated to visit a lady about twenty-four miles 
from Cherson ! , who was dangerously ill. Mr. 

(1) Thirty-five otrsts. 


CHAP. Howard objected, alleging that he acted only as 
physician to the poor; but, hearing of her immi- 
nent danger, he afterwards yielded to the 
persuasion of Admiral Mordvinof, and went to 
see her. After having prescribed for this lady, 
he returned ; leaving directions with her family, to 
send for him again if she got better; but adding, 
that if, as he much feared, she should prove worse, 
it would be to no purpose. Sometime after his 
return toCherson, a letter arrived, stating that the 
lady was better, and begging that he would come 
without loss of time. When he examined the 
date, he perceived that the letter, by some 
unaccountable delay, had been eight days in 
getting to his hands. Upon this, he resolved to 
go with all possible expedition. The weather 
was extremely tempestuous, and very cold, it 
being late in the year ; and the rain fell in torrents. 
In his impatience to set out, a conveyance not 
being immediately ready, he mounted an old 
dray-horse, used in Admiral Mordvinof 's family 
to convey water, and thus proceeded to visit his 
patient. Upon his arrival, he found the lady 
dying: this, added to the fatigue of the journey, 
affected him so much, that it brought on a fever: 
his clothes, at the same time, had been wet 
through. But he attributed his fever entirely to 
another cause. Having administered something 
to his patient to excite perspiration, as soon 


as the symptoms of it appeared, he put his 
hand beneath the bed-clothes, to feel her 
pulse, that she might not be chilled by his re- 
moving them ; and he believed that her fever was 
thus communicated to him. After this painful 
journey, Mr. Howard returned to Cherson, and 
the lady died. 

It had been almost his daily custom, at a 
certain hour, to visit Admiral Prieslman ; when, 
with his usual attention to regularity, he would 
place his watch upon the table, and pass 
exactly an hour with him in conversation. The 
Admiral, observing that he failed in his usual 
visits, went to see him, and found him weak 
and ill, sitting before a stove in his bed-room. 

7 O 

Having inquired after his health, Mr. Howard 
replied, that his end was approaching very fast ; 
that he had several things to say to his friend; 
and thanked him for having called. The 
Admiral, finding him in such a melancholy mood, 
endeavoured to turn the conversation, imagining 
the whole might be the effect of his low spirits ; 
but Mr. Howard soon assured him it was other- 
wise; and added, " Prieslman, you style this a 
very dull conversation, and endeavour to divert 
my mind from dwelling upon death : but I en- 
tertain very different sentiments. Death has 
no terrors for me : it is an event I always look 

z 2 


CHAP, to with cheerfulness, if not with pleasure; and 
be assured, the subject of it is to me more 
grateful than any other. I am well aware that 
I have but a short time to live; my mode of 
life has rendered it impossible that I should 
recover from this fever. If I had lived as you 
do, eating heartily of animal food, and drinking 
wine, I might, perhaps, by altering my diet, be 
able to subdue it. But how can such an invalid 
as I am lower his diet ? I have been accustomed, 
for years, to exist upon vegetables and water; 
a little bread, and a little tea. I have no method 
of lowering my nourishment, and consequently 
I must die. It is such jolly fellows as you, 
Priestman, who get over these fevers P Then, 
turning the subject, he spoke of his funeral; 
and cheerfully gave directions concerning the 
manner of his burial. " There is a spot," said 
he, '" near the village of Dauphigny : this would 
suit me nicely : you know it well, for I have 
often said that I should like to be buried there ; 
and let me beg of you, as you value your old 
friend, not to suffer any pomp to be used at my 
funeral ; nor any monument, nor monumental 
inscription whatsoever, to mark where I am 
laid : but lay me quietly in the earth, place a 
sun-dial over my grave, and let me be forgotten." 
Having given these directions, he was very 
earnest in soliciting that Admiral Priestman 


would lose no time in securing the object of CHAP. 


his wishes; but go immediately, and settle v - v - > 
with the owner of the land for the place of his 
interment, and prepare every thing for his burial. 

The Admiral left him upon his melancholy 
errand ; fearing at the same time, as he himself 
informed us, that the people would believe him 
to be crazy, in soliciting a burying-ground for a 
man then living, and whom no person yet knew 
to be indisposed. However, he accomplished 
Mr. Howard's wishes, and returned to him with 
the intelligence : at this, his countenance bright- 
ened, a gleam of evident satisfaction came over 
his face, and he prepared to go to bed. Soon after- 
wards he made his will ; leaving as his executor 
a trusty follower, who had lived with him more 
in the capacity of a friend than of a servant, and 
whom he charged with the commission of bearing 
his will to England. It was not until after he 
had finished this will, that any symptoms of 
delirium appeared. Admiral Priestman, who had 
left him for a short time, returned and found 
him sitting up in his bed, adding what he 
believed to be a codicil to his will; but it 
consisted of several unconnected words, the 
chief part being illegible, and the whole 
without any meaning. This strange composi- 
tion he desired Admiral Priestman to witness 


to s *& n anc *' * n orc ^ er to pl ease him, the 
Admiral consented; but wrote his name, as he 
bluntly said, in Russian characters, lest any of 
his friends in England, reading his signature 
to such a codicil, should think he was also 
delirious. After Mr. Howard had made what 
he conceived to be an addition to his will, he 
became more composed. A letter was brought 
to him from England, containing intelligence of 
the improved state of his son's health ; stating 
the nature of his occupations in the country, 
and giving reason to hope that he would recover 
from the disorder with which he was afflicted l . 
His servant read this letter aloud : and, when 
he had concluded, Mr. Howard turned his head 
towards him, saying, " Is not this comfort for a 
dying father ?" He expressed great repugnance 
against being buried according to the rights of 
the Greek Church; and begging Admiral Priestman 
to prevent any interference on the part of 
the Russian priests, made him also promise, 
that he would read the Service of the Church 
of England over his grave, and bury him in all 
respects according to the forms of his country. 
Soon after this last request, he ceased to speak. 
Admiral Mordvinof came in, and found him dying 

(i) Mr. Howard's son laboured under au attack of insanity. 


very fast. They had in vain besought him to 
allow a physician to be sent for ; but Admiral 
Mordvinof renewing this solicitation with great 
earnestness, Mr. Howard assented, by nodding 
his head. The physician came, but was too late 
to be of any service. A rattling in the throat 
had commenced : the physician administered 
what is called the musk draught, a medicine 
used only in Russia, in the last extremity. It 
was given to the patient by Admiral Mordvinof 
who prevailed with him to swallow a little ; 
but he endeavoured to avoid the rest, and gave 
evident signs of disapprobation. He was then 
entirely given over ; and shortly after breathed 
his last. 

Mr. Howard had always refused to allow any 
portrait of himself to be made ; but after 
his death, Admiral Mordvinof caused a plaster 
mould to be formed upon his face : this was 
sent to Mr. Whitbread. A cast from the same 
mould was in the Admiral's possession when we 
were in Cherson, presenting a very striking 
resemblance of his features. 

He was buried near the village of Dauphigny, 
about five versts from Cherson, by the road to 
Nicholaef, in the spot he had himself chosen ; 
and his friend, Admiral Pricstman, read the 


CHAP. English, Burial-service, according to his desire. 
The rest of his wishes were not exactly fulfilled : 
the concourse of spectators was immense, and 
the order of his funeral was more magnificent 
than would have met with his approbation. It 

was as follows : 


The Body, 

his Funeral. 

on a Bier, drawn by Six Horses with trappings. 



in a sumptuous Carriage, drawn by Six Horses, covered with 
scarlet cloth. 

Admirals MORDVINOF and PRIESTMAN, in a carriage drawn by Six Horses. 


The GENERALS and STAFF-OFFICERS of the Garrison, 
in their respective Carriages. 


The MAGISTRATES and MERCHANTS of CHERSON, in their respective 

A large Party of Cavalry. 


Other Persons on Horseback. 

An immense Concourse of Spectators on Foot, amounting 
to Two or Three Thousand. 

Howard. A. monument was afterwards erected over him : 
this, instead of the sun-dial he had requested, 


consisted of a brick pyramid or obelisk, sur- vni.' 
rounded by stone posts with chains. The v ~ "* ' 
posts and chains began to disappear before 
our arrival; and when Mr. Heber made the 
sketch from which the Fignette to this Chapter 
was engraven, not a vestige of them was to be 
seen ; the obelisk alone remained, in the midst 
of a bleak and desolate plain, where dogs 
were gnawing the bones of a dead horse, 
whose putrifying carcase added to the revolting 
horror of the scene. A circumstance came 
to our knowledge before we left Russia, con- 
cerning Howard's remains, which it is painful 
to relate; namely, that Count Ptncent Potocki 1 , 
a Polish nobleman of the highest taste and 
talents, whose magnificent library and museum 
would do honour to any country, through a 
mistaken design of testifying his respect for the 
memory of Howard, had signified his intention of 
taking up the body, that it might be conveyed 
to his country-seat, where a sumptuous monu- 
ment has been prepared for its reception, upon 
a small island in the midst of a lake. His 
Countess, being a romantic lady/wishes to have 
an annual ftte, consecrated to Benevolence; at 
this the nymphs of the country are to attend, 

()) Pronounced Potoshy, 


CHAP, and to strew the place with flowers. This 


design is so contrary to the earnest request of 
Mr. Howard, and at the same time such a 
violation of the dignity due to his remains, that 
every friend to his memory will join in wishing 
it may never be fulfilled. Count Potocki was 
absent during the time we remained in that 
part of the world, or we should have ventured 
to remonstrate : we could only therefore entrust 
our petitions to a third person, who promised 
to convey them to him after our departure. 

The distance from Cher son to Nicholaef is only 
sixty-two versts, or rather more than forty-one 
miles. At the distance of five versts from the 
former place, the road passes close to the 
Tomb of Howard. It may be supposed we did 
not halt with indifference to view the hallowed 
spot. " To abstract the mind from all local 
emotion, would be impossible if it were endea^ 
voured, and it would be foolish if it were 
possible. Whatever withdraws us from the 
power of our senses ; whatever makes the past, 
the distant, or the future, predominate over the 
present ; advances us in the dignity of thinking 
beings. Far be from me, and from my friends, 
that frigid philosophy which might conduct us 
indifferent or unmoved over any ground that 
has been dignified by wisdom, bravery, or 


virtue." So spake the Sage, in words never to CHAP. 
be forgotten : unenvied be the man who has not s , v ' > 
felt their force; lamented he who does not 
know their author ! 

The town of Nicholaef, covering a great 
extent of territory, with numerous buildings, 
intersected by wide streets, makes a splendid 
and very considerable appearance '. The whole 
of it is of recent date. The river Bog flows 
quite round the place, in a broad and ample 
channel. Ships of the line cannot approach the 
buildings, owing to a sand-bank ; but brigs and 
other small vessels are carried over by means 
of the floating machines called camels, in use at 
Petersburg and many other parts of Russia. The 
arsenals, store-houses, and other works, are so 
extensive, that it is evident great eftbrts have 
been made to render this a place of high 
importance to the Russian navy. The Admiral- 
in-chief of the Black Sea, as well as the Vice- 

(1) "Nicolaeff, on the Bog, is a rising town, very advantageously 
situated : being without the Bar of the Dnieper, it is the station for 
vessels when built ; and here they are laid up to be repaired. Nothing, 
I should think, but the expense of new dock-yards induces Government 
to persevere in their system of building vessels at Cherson, when this 
neighbouring town has so many superior advantages. It has a fine 
river, without either bar or cataract; deep, still water, and an 
healthy situation. Vessels, however, are said to decay sooner than at 
Sebastopole." Heler's MS. Journal. 


Admirals, reside here; and an office is esta- 
blished for regulating all marine affairs belonging 
to the three ports, Cherson, Odessa, and Nicholaef. 
The public buildings and palaces of the Admirals 
are very stately; and, considering the short 
time that has elapsed since Nicholaef was a 
miserable village, the progress made in the 
place is surprising. There is no town to 
compare with it in all the South of Russia; 
nor any in the empire, excepting Moscow and 
Petersburg. Its elevated situation ; the magni- 
ficence of its river ; the regularity that has been 
observed in laying out the streets, and their 
extraordinary breadth; the number of the 
public works, and the flourishing state of its 
population; place it very high in the small 
catalogue of Russian towns. English officers, 
and English engineers, with other foreigners in 
the Russian service, residing here, have intro- 
duced habits of urbanity and cleanliness ; and 
have served to correct, by the force of example, 
the barbarism of the native inhabitants. 



Remains of Olbiopolis Inscriptions Medals Admiral 
Prlestman Mineralized Shells Observations upon the 
Odessa Limestone Consequences which resulted from 
tlie Opening of the Thracian Bosporus Conduct of t tie 
Emperor respecting Odessa Number of discarded 
Officers Usurious Practices of the Sovereign Further 
Account of Odessa Account of the Passage ly Land 
to Constantinople Preparation for sailing from Odessa. 

SOME interesting antiquities have been found 
in the neighbourhood of Nicko'aef. To the south 
of the town, near to the fall of the Bog into the 


CHAP. Dnieper, there stood, not long ago, a fortress, 
which the traditions of the country ascribed to 
Alexander the Great. The Emperor PAUL gave 
orders for its destruction; and the joyful 
Russians, prompt for works of this kind, speedily 
removed every trace of its existence. Not far 
from the same place, exactly at the junction of 
the two rivers, about twelve miles from Nicholaef, 
are the remains of Olkiopolis, the only Greek city 
belonging to European Sarmatia of which there 
are antient medals extant 1 . The Russians have 
there discovered not only medals, but also bas- 
reliefs, inscriptions, amphorae, tombs, and other 
indications of the site of that city. A view of 
those Ruins might have afforded us the highest 
gratification ; but the circumstances of our situa- 
tion would not admit the necessary delay ; our 
liberty, if not our lives, depended upon making 
the best use of the time allowed for effecting 
our escape. We were well aware, that if 
any intelligence of our intention should reach 
Petersburg, all hope of quitting Russia would be 
annihilated. In the church of Nicholaef, a stone 
is preserved, brought from Olbiopolis, with the 
following inscription 2 ; recording the dedication 

(1) See the Vignette to this Chapter. 

(2) The length of the stone is two feet ; its breadth at the top, 
where the inscription begins, nine inches, and twelve inches at the 


of a golden image of Victory to Apollo the Pro- CHAP. 
tector, offered by the officers whose names are - . *- -' 
specified, in behalf of the city and of their own 
safety 3 : 

ATA0HITYXHI inscription. 



n Epm AHI AN 


ZTPATH rompo 












. OPOY . 

(3) The meaning of the word -r^rarti;, and t^affreurict, in the following 
inscriptions, will be obvious from these passages of Philo, (De Proem, et 
Poen.J Moses is called, 'O rau livavf i&ifts}.*irris KOI tr/>i>irTar*is* Of Joseph 
it is said, Tw Atyuvrvev T^V \rti[i.i\i'iav neii Jt^tattta'ta.-/ f.xftia>. De Joscpho. Thi' 
word is also applied to the Deity, as Ruler and Director of the Universe, 
}D this passage: 2TjiW til/wavr* TO ttxtiit igynv, 'frif&i\tia.ti r xui TJOBT- 
flxv KIU fit t niircf ftigav, HfKtri^ ft!*i ivrdfytt ipg 


Other inscriptions have been found at Olbiopolis : 
some of these remarkably correspond with the 
preceding. The kindness of the Rev. Robert 
Walpole, M. A. of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
who lately returned from his travels in Greece 1 , 
has enabled the author to make an interesting 
addition to those which he copied at Nicholaef. 
During Mr. Walpoles residence at Athens, he 
obtained four Olbiopolitan inscriptions, that were 
preserved by M. Fauvel, a celebrated French 
artist and antiquary : these he has liberally 
contributed, together with the illustration which 
the Reader will here find accompanying them. 
In the first, a similar dedication of a statue of 
Victory is recorded; with this difference, that 
the image was of silver. 










(l) Mr. Walpnle is already known to the Public, as the learned 
Editor of Comicorum Grcecorum Fragmenta, and as the author of the 
E^ays hearing his name in the Herculanensia , which were published 
jointly with those of Sir If. Drummmd, &c, />o7. 4to. 1810. 




In the next, the image was of gold, as in the 
inscription found in the church of Nicholaef. 











VOL, II. 2 A 


The three foregoing inscriptions record the 
consecration of golden or silver images of Victory, 
in the Temple of Apollo, at Olbiopolis, dedicated 
to that God. A fourth, still more interesting 1 , 
serves to render conspicuous the prodigious 
importance annexed to the commerce of the 
Euxine by the citizens of Byzantium; the 
senate, people, and magistrates decree, that 
a golden statue of Orontes, the son of Ababus, 
should be placed in the Curia, and that a copy 
of the decree should be sent by letter to the 
magistrates of Olbiopolis, to shew them in what 
estimation he is held by the Byzantines. He is 
also made a citizen of Byzantium; and this 
privilege is granted to his descendants. Orontes, 
as well as his father, who was Governor of 
some part of the coast of the Euxine, had 
received hospitably, and encouraged, and 
bestowed many benefits upon, the Byzantines, 
who frequented that sea for commercial pur- 

(0 During tlie printing of these pages, the author discovered thai 
this inscription had heen already published by Dr. Chandler, in the 
Appendix to his Inscrlptiones Antiques, p. 9. JJut as the copy afforded 
by the learned Editor differs in some material points from that pro- 
cured by Mr. JValpole, a republication has heen deemed expedient, 
wherein the various readings are noticed. 




















Line 2. 2T/>Tya) signifies someUmes Archons; very often Praetor. 

Spunheim de P. et Us. Num. Antiq. 
.]. i). Ttpoa-TKiriu. In the Inscrip. Berenic. we have Eu^nfro tr^frx- 

ffl<x> sratwfttmf, benevolam curam impendent. In Grutcr, p. H6', 

'Ayxupa; tfpaffTcirni is Ancyrce presses* 

I. 10. In this line Dr. Chandler'i Copy gives OTTflS for ATTO2. 
I. 14. TonON is inserted for IIONTON in Chandler's Copy. 
1. 15. Tlttptfytvo/Atvo;. The word occurs very frequently in inscriptions. 

In the Inscrip. Berenic. we read Tluttyiv<!i1s tif TJJ i*g%ti'*v, 

prnvinciam ingressus. In the Lacedemonian decree concerning 

Timotheus, it is naj^/^svof. 

2 A 2 ' J '' u ' 2 '' 






















Line 24. A.tba%0cu. The common formula ; as Aibe%fai "5,a.v,iuv rots x.'ea-; xa.) <ra vtti\{! ivruiyiirui THUS nt(>tiyiv<rKs< ChishulJ. Ant. As. 
116. The imperative is sometimes used, when it begins a sentence ; 
as in Lucian, In Deorum Cone. At%o%ta c? /Jot/X>i KKI TM J/t 
and in Demosthenes, De Cor. c. 27, when the infinitive is used, 
it depends on ilfty, as in this inscription. 

1. 27. nPONOIA, in Chandler's Copy, for HPONOIAN. 

1. 29. nOTIFPAOHNAI, in Chandler, for nOTirPA*HMEN. 

1. 39. TE0HNAI, in Chandler, for TE0HMEN. 


A fifth inscription mentions the erection of a CHAP. 


portico by Ababus, at his own expense ; it is of T ' . 
the time of Tiberius : the preceding one, there- 
fore, may be of the same age. 







The sixth, as well as the first, is still remaining 
in the Church of Nicholaef, upon a bas-relief, 
believed to have been also found at Olbiopolis : 
the words of that inscription are of very little 


The bas-relief is divided into two separate 
parts, placed one over the other, each afford- 
ing a different subject 1 . The lower division 
represents either the ceremony of Lectisternium, 
or the family of some person confined to his 
couch by sickness. A female figure is sitting 
by him in a chair ; and a child upon her left 

(1) The stone is six feet nine iuchcs in length ; its breadth, two feet 
six inches. 


CI ix P knee presents to him a small vessel, like a 
wine-glass. A similar vessel is represented 
upon a table by the couch: there are two 
other children, one on either side, in the fore- 
ground of the scene. In the upper division 
is a figure on horseback, holding an arrow, or 
lance, as if in the act of casting it ; and before 
the horse is a boy with a dog, leaping at the 
horse: from all this it is probable that the 
upper part represents one of those stuffed 
equestrian figures, mentioned in p. 120,- as 
being found near to the Borysthenes. Above 
the equestrian figure is the inscription already 

Since the publication of the first edition 
of this volume, Charles Kelsall, Esq. M. A. of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, has enriched the 
Collection of Olbiopolitan Inscriptions by the 
addition of three others, found in the ruins of 
the place, and by him brought from that coun- 
try '. The original marbles are now preserved 

(l) Mr. Kelsall is the author of "A Letter from //thens." He has 
al r o published a very spirited translation of Cicero's " Two last Plead- 
ings against ferres," illustrated with many valuable notes, containing 
an account of the Minor Sicilian Cities, Inscriptions, &c. To this last 
work, a Postscript is subjoined by the same author, with his inter- 
esting remarks on the state of Modern Sicily. 


in the Museum at Tulazyn : they have also been CHAP. 
recorded by Count John Potocki. 





The above commemorates the gratitude of 
the inhabitants of Olbiopolis to the Emperor 

Trajan \ 









This inscription probably records the gratitude 

(2) Inscriptions become doubly valuable when they serve to illus- 
trate History. Brotier, in his Supplement to the Histories of Tacitus f, 
has these words : " Redditi Sarmatis Jazy gibus agri quos Deeebalus 
occupaverat." This Deeebalus was a king of Dacia, who ; in his war 

t Brot. Tacit. Vol. V. p. 171. 


CHAP, of a malefactor, who had obtained remissior 
of punishment. 









The rest of this valuable inscription is not legible. 
It records the dedication, probably, of a statue to 
Achilles, whose name appears with a new epithet. 
It tends to confirm what antient authors have 
asserted, of the importance attached to the 
worship of that hero by various tribes on the 
borders of the Euxine. From the foregoing 
inscriptions, we may form some idea of the 
peculiarities of the Scythian dialect, proving 
what Dio has said relative to the ignorance of 

with the Romans, got possession of some lands which belonged to the 
Sarmatian Jazygcs : when he had concluded peace with Home, he 
resigned these lands to Trajan, who restored them to their former 
possessors. This Inscription, therefore, is probably upon the fragment 
of a pedestal which supported a statue of Trajan in the Forum of 


the Sarmatian Greeks. May we not infer, that CHAU. 


these games in honour of Achilles were cele- .- T '_. 
brated on the AXIAAEH2 APOMO2, a tongue of 
land not very far from Olbia ? 

The different medals of Olbiopolis, repre- Medals. 
senting the head of Ceres; that of a bull; an 
eagle standing on a dolphin; a bow and quiver; 
or an ear of corn ; have for their legend the 
word OABlonOAITEHN. They are all of them 
exceedingly rare. We obtained one of bronze, in 
high preservation, at Nicholaef, differing from 
any we have yet seen described '. In front it 
has a bearded head of Pan, with horns , and 
for reverse, a bow and quiver, with an axe, the 
letters OABIO, and the monogram HT. Eckhel 
describes a medal of the same city less per- 
fectly preserved, the horns of the figure being 
unnoticed: and the same legend is not found 
in his valuable work 2 . Scymnus Chius ascer- 
tains with great precision the situation of the 
city s . " At the confluence," says he, " of the 
two rivers, Hypanis and Borysthenes, is a city, 
formerly called Olbia, and since Borysthenes, by 
the Greeks. The Milesians built it, during the 

(1) See the Vignette to this Chapter. 

(2) DoctrinaNum. Vet. Par. I. vol. II. Vindob. 1794. 

(3) Scymnus Chius, vol. II. p. 46. Oxon. 1703. 


CHAP, empire of the Medes" Strabo mentions it under 

1 A.. 

the same name, and describes it as a great 
emporium, founded by the Milesians 1 . Pliny 
says that it had formerly borne the name of 
Miletopolis, as well as Olbiopolis*. Casaubon 
derives the former appellation from the cir- 
cumstance of its origin 3 : the latter is however 
the name extant upon medals of the city. 
According to Pliny's account, it stood at the 
distance of fifteen miles from the sea 4 ; but 
Casaubon suggesting a different reading, as 
reconcileable to Strabo, and confirmed by the 
authority of Dio Chrysostom, makes the distance 
equal to twenty-five miles, which is nearer to 
truth*. Some have supposed the site of it 
to have been that of Oczakof; but the appear- 
ance of its ruins proves the contrary. As for 
Oczakof, lately so well known, not a stone now 
remains, to tell where it stood. Without a 
guide, it would be impossible to ascertain its 
former position; every trace of it having dis- 

Admiral Fbndazen invited us to dinner : 

(1) Slrab. lib. vii. p. 442. ed. Oxon. 

(2) Pitn. lib. iv. c. 12. 

(3) Comment, in Strab. Geog. ed. Ojcon. p. 44.. 

(4) Plin. Vid. supra. 

f 5) Casaubon. Comment, in Strab. Geog. ed. O.ton. p. 442. 


hearing of our intention to undertake a journey CHAP. 
by land to Constantinople, he offered us permission y ^ ' _ 
to sail in a packet belonging to the Crown, 
from Odessa. This we readily accepted ; but 
the plan did not suit the views of the Vice- 
Admiral, Count Vomovic, a Sclavonian, who had 
other intentions with regard to that vessel, 
and by whose subsequent intrigues we were 
prevented from using it. Admiral Priestman, Admiral 
who was then at Nicholaef, acted towards us Prustman - 
with unbounded hospitality and friendship. It 
was principally to this worthy officer that we 
were indebted for the particulars of Mr. Howard's 
death, as they have been already related. 
In the short acquaintance we formed with 
him, the blunt sincerity of his character, his 
openness and benevolence of heart, so greatly 
endeared him to us, that we deeply lamented 
the loss of his society. That so distinguished 
a naval officer should be in the service of our 
enemies, merely from want of employment at 
home, cannot be too much regretted. Great 
Britain has not, perhaps, a better or a braver 
seaman. When we left Nicholaef, he conveyed 
us over the Bog, in his barge with twelve oars : 
this river is here nearly three miles wide. 
We were also accompanied by Mr. Young, an 
engineer, another Englishman of talent in 
the service of Russia, from whom we also 


CHAP, experienced all possible attention and civility. 
The Baron deBar, and Count Heiden, -administered 
to us every kindness it was in their power to 
bestow ; and we quitted Nicholaef full of gra- 
titude for acts of benignity, to which, if we 
except the hospitality of Professor Pallas, we 
had long been strangers. 

Our journey from Nicholaef to Odessa will be 
best seen by reference to any good map of 
the South of Russia; geographical features being 
the only objects that occurred. The whole is 
a flat steppe, intersected by streams and by 
inlets of sea water 1 , where we were con- 
veyed sometimes in boats, and sometimes over 
shallows, sitting in the carriage a . We noticed 
several remarkable salt lakes, and, by the last 
post-house before arriving at Odessa, an aggre- 

(1) See the interesting communication upon the subject of this 
watery district,in No. II. of the Appendix to the former Volume. 

(2) It was in this steppe that the author discovered a new species of 
Anchusa, which has been named The Rough Bristly Bugloss, ANCHUSA 
EXASPERATA. " Anchusa exasperata, caule ramosissimo, hispido ; foliis 
linearibus integerrimis, verrucoso-setigeiis ; racemis terminalibus, caly- 
cibus ciliatis,pedicelli$ brevissimis." Some other plants were also added 
to his collection from these plains ; viz. Siberian Barberry, Berbcris 
Sibirica, this also grows near Cherson ; Horned Poppy, Chelidonium 
corniculatum ; Moldavian Balm, Dracocephalum Moldavicum ; Sea 
Holly, Eryngium maritimum ; Flea- wort, or Clammy Plantain, 
Plantago psyllium ; and Prostrate Meadow-grass, Poa Eragrostis. 
The Leontice Odessena is common to the neighbourhood of Odessa. 


gation of mineralized sea-shells, used for a CHAP. 
material in building the cottages, of such 
extraordinary beauty and perfection, as to 
merit more particular description. The author 
has since annually exhibited a specimen of this 
singular deposit, in the Mineralogical Lectures 
given to the University of Cambridge; and, 
since it seems to offer some evidence of a 
remarkable change sustained by animal matter 
in its decomposition, as well as a striking 
proof of the draining of the Great Oriental 
Plain by means of the Canal of Constantinople, 
he begs leave to state here, as briefly as pos- 
sible, his own observation upon this subject. 

It is an opinion of the celebrated Bournon, O 
that, whenever the abode of a testaceous animal the Odessa 
ceases to conduce to purposes of life, and is 
abandoned by its inhabitant, it becomes pro- 
perly a mineral 3 ; that, for example, as a 
specimen of carbonated lime, it possesses, in an 
eminent degree, the characters and fracture of 
that substance, when indurated or crystallized. 
In proof of this, he once exhibited to the author, 
in the casual fracture of a common oyster-shell, 
the same relative position of surfaces which is 

(3) Trait^ complet de la Chaux carbonate, &c. par Bournon, 
pp.310, 314. 


CHAP, found in the Iceland spar, and as accurately 
corresponding with the obtuse angle of that 
mineral as if they had been regulated by the 
goniometer. Before Saussure discovered strata 
of limestone lying beneath rocks of the most 
antient formation, the French endeavoured to 
establish a theory, that all the carbonated lime 
upon the surface of the globe resulted from 
the decomposition of animal matter, deposited 
during a series of ages. Whosoever has at- 
tended to the appearances left by testaceous 
animals, particularly in the cavities of the Cornu 
Ammonis, must have been struck with the 
remarkable circumstance, that where an escape 
of the fleshy part of the animal has been pre- 
cluded by the surrounding shell, pure and 
perfect crystals of carbonated lime have been 
formed ; and must also frequently have remarked, 
that shells alone, independent of the admission 
of any extraneous substance, have, by their 
deposit, constituted immense strata of limestone. 
For the truth of this, it is unnecessary to ad- 
duce a more striking example than the instance 
afforded of the limestone in the neighbourhood of 
Odessa. It is in a semi-indurated state ; but, 
like the Ketton-stone\ and almost every other 

(l) This stone, by a very recent analysis of the Rev. J. Holme, of 
St. Peter's College, Cambridge, is found to be oiie of the purest 
combinations of lime and carbonic acid. 


variety of limestone used for architectural pur- CHAP. 
poses, it hardens by exposure to the atmosphere. * . y . > 
Owing to this, and also to its remarkable light- 
ness, it has become a favourite material for 
building. When examined closely, it displays, 
throughout the entire mass, no other appear- 
ance than an aggregate of small cockle-shells, all 
exactly of the same size, and perfect in their 
forms, but crumbling in the hand, and being 
coloured by the yellow or the red oxide of iron. 
The chemical analysis of this mineral is nearly 
that of the Ketton-stone ; yielding no other ingre- 
dients than lime and carbonic acid, excepting a 
very small proportion of the oxide of iron. The 
stratum whence it is dug is of considerable 
thickness, and lies several yards above the pre- 
sent level of the Black Sea. It may be noticed 
in every part of the coast, and especially within 
the port of Odessa. Similar appearances may 
be also traced the whole way from the Black Sea, 
towards the north, as far as the forty-eighth 
line of latitude, and perhaps over all Asiatic 
Tahtary, whence it follows, that the level of 
the waters appearing at intervals between the 
parallels of French longitude 4O and 80, was not 
always what it is now : and, that the period of 
its incipient fall may be traced to an aera subse- 
quent to that of the Scriptural Deluge, seems 
evident, not only from history, but also by 


CHAP, reference to existing natural phenomena. At 
- T - * the bursting of the Thracian Bosporus, whether 
quences m consequence of a volcano, whose vestiges are 
IS ted from yet- visible, or of immense pressure caused by 
the Open- an accumulated ocean against the mound there 

ing of the 

Thracian presented, the whole of Greece experienced an 


inundation : the memory of this was preserved 
by the inhabitants of Samothrace, so late as the 
time of Diodorus Siculus 1 ', and its effects are 
still discernible in the form of all the islands 
in the south of the Archipelago, which slope 
towards the north, and are precipitous upon 
their southern shores. Not therefore to rely 
upon those equivocal legends of antient days, 
which pretend that Orpheus with the Argonauts 
passed into the Baltic over the vast expanse of 
water then uniting it with the Euxine, we may 
reasonably conclude, as it has been asserted 
by Tournefort, by Pallas, and by other celebrated 
men, that the Aral, the Caspian, and the Black 
Sea, were once combined ; and that the whole 
of the Great Eastern Plain of Tahtary was one 
prodigious bed of water. The draining, per- 
petually taking place, by the two channels of 
Taman and Constantinople, is by some deemed 
to be greater at this time than the produce of 
all the rivers flowing into the Sea o 

(1) Diodor. Sic. lib. 5. Biblioth. Hist. 


into the Black Sea. The former has become so CHAP. 


shallow, that during certain winds, as before y. v - > 
related, a passage may be effected by land from 
Taganrog to Azof, through the bed of the sea. 
Ships, formerly sailing to Taganrog and to the 
Mouths of the Don, are now unable to approach 
either to the one or to the other : from all this, 
it may not be unreasonable to conclude, that 
both the Black Sea and the Sea of Azof, by the 
diminution their waters hourly sustain, will at 
some future period become a series of marsh 
lands, intersected only by the course and 
junction of the rivers flowing into them. An 
opposite opinion was however maintained by 
the learned Tournefort, as to the quantity of 
water flowing through the Canal of Constan- 
tinople: he believed that less water is discharged 
by that Canal than by any one of the great rivers 
which fall into those seas 2 . The same author 
expresses therefore his surprise that the Black 
Sea does not increase, and observes that it 
receives more rivers than the Mediterranean ; as 
if unmindful that the Mediterranean contains the 
body of all the rivers that flow into the Mceotis 
and the Black Sea. Other writers also, believing 
that more water flows into, than out of, the 

(2) Tournefwt, Voy. du Levant, torn. II. Utt.XV. p.404. I,ym,\ir.. 
VOL. II. 2 T5 

3/2 ODESSA. 

CHAP. Black Sea, endeavour to account for its present 
level, either by imagining a subterraneous chan- 
nel 1 , or an effect of evaporation 2 . The Russians 
entertain notions of a subterraneous channel, in 
order to account for the loss of water in the 
Caspian; the Volga being as considerable a river 
as any other falling into the Black Sea. The truth 
perhaps is, that the rivers which fall into the Black 
Sea and into the Sea of Azof do not contribute 
a greater body of water than that which escapes 
by the Canal of Constantinople; and therefore, 
admitting an effect of evaporation, the level of 
the Black Sea insensibly falls. The Don, the 
Kuban, the Phase, the Dnieper, the Dniester, the 
Danube, and many other rivers making a great 
figure in geography, have a less important 
appearance when surveyed at their embouchures. 
The greatest of them all, the Danube, is very 
shallow at its mouth ; its waters, extended over 
an immense surface, lie stagnating in shallow 
marshes, among an infinity of reeds and other 
aquatic plants, subject to very considerable 
evaporation, besides the loss sustained during 
its passage to the sea. 

The buildin g of tne present town of Odessa, 

perorre- an( J tllC COllStrUCtlOll of the pid* fol' its pOl't, 


(l) Voyage RAnitcltarsc, Km. I. c. 1. 
(51) Ibid. 

ODESSA. 373 

were works carried on entirely under the direc- CH AP. 

J ix. 

tion of Admiral Ribas, who captured the place < -y -> 
from the Turks. The late Empress entrusted 
every thing concerning it into his hands, as a 
mark of her approbation of his conduct : the 
Emperor PAUL, with a view of thwarting his mo- 
ther's benevolent design, dismissed the Admiral 
altogether, leaving his large family destitute of 
any means of support. This was exactly the 
sort of system pursued by that monarch, when 
we were in Russia, towards every veteran in his 
service. Never was the remark of FREDERICK of 
PRUSSIA more completely verified, " Officers are 
like lemons : we squeeze out the juice, and cast aiuay 
the rincir We had an opportunity to examine a Number of 


catalogue of officers who had resigned, or who officers. 
had been dismissed the service, since PAUL'S 
accession. Including the civil list, the persons 
excluded amounted to the astonishing number 
of thirty thousand ; eighteen thousand dismissed 
by order; and twelve thousand who had 
voluntarily resigned. In the list of these, ap- 
peared the names of some individuals who had 
only been in office three days ; others a week : 
thus the whole body of officers in the Emperor's 
service had been changed with such surprising 
rapidity, that there was hardly a family in all 
Russia unaffected by his caprice. The bad 
policy of this was even then evident; for as 
2 B 2 

3/4 ODESSA. 

everv one knew that the number of disaffected 
persons by far exceeded the list of those whom, 
fear or mercenary consideration kept in sub- 
ordination, it was apprehended that the whole 
empire, in consequence of the slightest emotion, 
would be thrown into disorder. The first con- 
sequence of any such disturbance would have 
been the massacre of all the nobles : a regard 
for their own safety was the only bond, on the 
part of the nobility, which held them from 
betraying their disaffection. Still it was evident 
that the life of the Sovereign would soon atone 
for his disgraceful tyranny; and the result has 
proved that his death was even nearer than we 
then apprehended. 

During the time that Admiral Ril-as held the 
direction of affairs at Odessa, a plan was pro- 
jected for the construction of a pier, calculated 
to render the port alike an object of utility and 
of grandeur. This project was submitted to the 
Emperor's consideration, who ordered it to be 
put in execution. It was therefore naturally 
expected, that the Sovereign, who was to reap 
every advantage from the proposed undertaking, 
would so far patronize it, as to advance the 
money for its completion. PAUL however hesi- 
tated, and the work ceased. In the mean time, 
the commerce of Odessa languished ; the rising 

ODESSA. 3/5 

prosperity of the town was checked; the build- CHAP. 


ings were not completed ; the merchants began < ,~ ' 
to leave the place; and the necessity of the 
undertaking became daily more and more 
alarmingly visible. At last, petition after 
petition having been offered in vain, the matter 
came to a singular issue. The Emperor resolved Usurious 

practices of 

to turn usurer. He proposed to lend them a the Sove- 
sum of money, at enormous interest, and upon 
the strongest security; yet left the inhabitants 
no option, but compelled them to accept the 
loan upon his own terms, and ordered the work 
to be carried on. The inhabitants, finding they 
could offer no security equal to the whole charge, 
which was estimated at five hundred thousand 
roubles, began to bargain with their Sovereign 
as with a Jew; begging his permission to 
borrow of him only half the sum proposed, 
and to construct a pier upon a smaller scale. 
To this PAUL consented ; and the work, 
so planned, was nearly finished when we 
arrived; but, to those who have seen the 
original design, the meanness and insuffi- 
ciency of the undertaking is lamentably con- 

The town of Odessa is situate close to the Further 

i . - ji Account of 

coast, which is here very lofty, and much Odessa. 


exposed to winds'. The air is reckoned pure, 
and remarkably wholesome. Corn is the prin- 
cipal article of exportation. The imports are, 
dried and conserved fruits from Constantinople, 
Greek wines, tobacco, and other Turkish 

(l) " Odessa is a very interesting place; and being the seat of go- 
vernment, and the only quarantine allowed, except Caffa and Taganrog, 
is, though of very late erection, already wealthy and flourishing. 
Too much praise cannot be given to the Duke of Richelieu, to whose 
administration, not to any natural advantages, this town owes its 
prosperity. The Bay is good and secure, but all round is desert ; and 
it labours under the want of a navigable river, and a great scarcity of 
fresh water. There are two wells in the town, both brackish ; and a 
third, a very fine one, on the opposite side of the bay: a fourth had 
been just discovered when I was there, in the garden of an Italian 
merchant, and was talked of like a silver mine. All commodities are 
either brought in barks from Cherson, or drawn over the steppe by oxen, 
who were seen lying in the streets and on the new quay, greatly ex- 
hausted with thirst, and almost furious in their struggles to get at the 
water, when it was poured into the troughs. The situation of the 
town, however, is healthy and pleasant in other respects. The qua- 
rantine is large, aud well constructed. 

" As far as I could learn, (and I made many inquiries,) it was very 
bad policy to fix their quarantine at Odessa, instead of Otchakof, 
where was a city and fortress ready built, in a situation perfectly 
secure from the Turks, and which, lying at the junctions of the Bog 
and Dnieper, is the natural emporium of these seas. The harbour, 
I understand, is perfectly secure ; and, even if the Liman were unsafe, 
the Bog affords a constant shelter. The observation generally made 
was, the necessity of a secure quarantine ; to which it was answered, 
that the Point of Kinburn afforded a situation even more secure than 
Odessa. If these facts are true, a wise Government would probably, 
without discouraging Odessa, restore the quarantine to Otchakof, and 
allow them both to take their chance in a fair competition. This 
however seems little understood in Russia : Potemkin had no idea of 
encouraging Cherson, but by ruining Taganrog: and at present Cherson 
is to be sacrificed to the new favourite, Odessa." Heber's MS. Journal. 

ODESSA. 377 

merchandize. The villages in the neighbourhood 
produce butter and cheese; these are rarities 
at table in the South of Russia. Potatoes, seldom 
seen in other towns, are sold in the market, and 
they are even carried as presents to Constan- 
tinople. The melons of the neighbourhood are 
remarkably fine. They have received from 
Turkey one species superior in flavour to any 
perhaps known in the world. The inside of 
this melon is of a green colour ; and the seed, 
after it is opened, is found in a cavity in the 
centre, quite detached from the sides of the 
fruit, in a dry mealy case, or bag, in shape 
resembling the seed vessel of Indian corn. 
This remarkable character will serve to dis- 
tinguish it at any time. The inhabitants, to 
preserve the seed, pierce those bags with 
skewers, and hang them up in their houses 2 . 
The water-melons of Odessa are sometimes 
superior to the finest that are sold in the markets 
of Naples, and they are nearly equal to those 
found upon the coast of Syria. The whole 
country is destitute of wood : for fuel they 
burn weeds gathered in the steppes, as well as 
bundles of reeds and cow-dung : this last they 
collect, and stick upon the sides of their houses; 

(2) We brought some seeds to England; but no plants were 
produced from them. 

378 ODESSA. 

CHAP, a custom practised in the Isle of Portland, and 

J. J\. 

^ V-" ' throughout the whole county of Cornwall. 

Odessa is remarkable for the superior flavour 
of its mutton; which, however, does not equal 
that of the Crimea. The sheep are slaughtered 
at a very early age, and brought to table the 
day they are killed : the mutton cannot there- 
fore be eaten, unless it be boiled until it falls 
to pieces. The same custom prevails with 
regard to poultry ; the fowls are neither killed 
nor picked until the water for cooking boils. 
Of all the dishes known in Russia, there is 
nothing in such general esteem, from the prince 
to the peasant, as a kind of pates, called piroghi. 
In the streets of Moscow and Petersburg, these 
are sold upon stalls. They are well-tasted ; but 
extremely greasy, and often full of oil ; con- 
sisting of minced meat, or brains, rolled up in 
pancakes, which are afterwards fried in butter 
or in oil, and served hot. The rolls described 
by Bruce, with which women in a certain 
part of ^Ethiopia feed their husbands, are nearly 
similar ; only the meat is raw, and the roll is 
of dough : yet the mouth of a Russian prince 
might perhaps water at the sight of the 
Ethiopian piroghi 1 . Pigeons are rarely seen at 

(1) See Butler's description of a Muscovite, n Note to p. 299 of this 



ODESSA. 379 

the tables of the Russians : they entertain a super- 
stitious veneration for these birds, because the 
Holy Ghost assumed the form of a dove. They 
are therefore kept more for amusement than 
for food, and are often maintained with great 
care, at an enormous expense. The nobles 
employ servants to look after them, and to teach 
them a number of tricks*. 

It has been already stated, that we left the Acc unt of 

the Passage 

Crimea with an intention to undertake a journey by Land to 

/- mi . Canstanti- 

by land to Constantinople. The route is usually nopie. 
practicable from Odessa, by the way of Dubosar, 
upon the frontier, to Yassy, Silistria, and Adria- 
nople. On account of the rumoured dangers 
that might be apprehended from the rebel 
adherents of Pasvan cTOglou, we had solicited, 
from our ambassador at the Porte, an escort of 
Janissaries to meet us at Yassy. The road is 
calculated for the conveyance of any kind of 
wheeled vehicle. Prince Nassau, during his 
legation to the Porte, had been accompanied 
by nearly an hundred carriages; and the 
Turkish guard, stationed at short intervals 
the whole way, renders the journey secure. 
This route is also interesting, on account of 

(2) See p. 141, of the former Volume. 

380 ODESSA. 

CHAP, the mountainous district through which it leads, 


in parts where snow is said to remain during 
the whole year; and also from the circum- 
stance of crossing the Danube so near to its 
embouchure. Almost immediately after leaving 
Silistria, that ridge of mountains intervenes, 
which was antiently called H.EMUS ; hence the 
descent is seldom interrupted the whole way to 
jddrianople^rom which place there is an excellent 
road to Constantinople. A shorter route, but 
less frequented, and less convenient, conducts 
the traveller, along the coast of the Black Sea, 
to the Thracian Bosporus. These considerations 
strongly instigated us to pursue our intended 
expedition by land. Circumstances however 
occurred to induce a different determination ; 
and, although we narrowly escaped the pas- 
sage of the Black Sea with our lives, we had 
ultimately reason to rejoice ; for we were after- 
wards informed, that an order from the Russian 
Government was actually expedited to Dubosar, 
with instructions for our apprehension, and a 
more particular examination of our papers and 
baggage than the nature of them would have 
rendered desirable '. By one of those fortunate 
accidents which sometimes befal adventurers, 

(1) Among these were the surveys of the Russian Ports and Arsenals, 
which are now safely deposited in the Admiralty. 

ODESSA. 381 

we found in the port of Odessa, a Venetian bri- 
gantine, laden with corn, bound for the Adriatic ; 
whose master, // Capitano Francesco Bergamini, 
not only eagerly embraced the opportunity of 
conveying us to Constantinople, but promised 
also to assist in facilitating our escape, by 
enforcing the validity of the passport we had 
brought with us. He waited only the arrival 
of his own order for sailing, from the office of 
Nicholaef: in the mean time we made every 
thing ready for our embarkation. 



Contrast between a Russian and a Greek Tournef art's 
erroneous Account of the Black Sea Extraordinary 
Temperature of the Climate English Commerce in 
the Black Sea Fortress of Odessa Departure for 
Turkey Island of LEUCE Accounts of it ly Antient 
Writers Mouths of the Danube White Dolphins 
Observations on board the Moderato Dreadful Tem- 
pest Harlour of Ineada Plants Appearance of the 
Turks Mountaineers Basaltic Pillars Theory of 
their Origin. 

" x . 1 HE contrast between a Russian and a Cossack, 
or between a Russian and a Tahtar, has perhaps 

ODESSA. 383 

already been sufficiently delineated; but there 
is a third point of opposition, in which a Russian 
may be viewed, more amusing than either of 
these; namely, when he is contrasted with a 
Greek. The situation of Odessa is not very Greek - 
remote from the spot where, eighteen centuries 
ago, similar comparisons served to amuse Ovid, 
during his melancholy exile. He found upon 
either side of the Danube a different race of men. 
Towards the south were the Get<e, whose origin 
was the same as that of the Greeks, and whose 
mode of speech he describes as still retaining 
corrupted traces of the Greek language. Upon 
the north were the Sarmatians, the progenitors 
of the Russians. According to his account, 
however, both to the Gette and Sarmak? belonged 
the same 

"Vox fera, trux vultus, verissima Martis imago : 
Non coma, non ulla barba resecta maim l ." 

Perhaps we are not authorized in considering 
the modern Greeks as legitimate descendants of 
the Getce. Be that as it may, the former are 
found at this day, negotiating with as ferocious 
a people upon the Euxine coast as Ovid himself 
selected for the originals of his picture of the 
Barbarians upon the Ister; and the two people 

(1) Ovid. Trist. lib. v. Eleg. VII. 

384 ODESSA. 

are instantly distinguished from each other by 
their striking peculiarity of feature. In order 
to render the contrast as forcible as possible, 
let us select a Greek from any of the islands or 
shores of the Archipelago, and place him by the 
side of a Russian. The latter, particularly if he 
be in uniform, and of a rank above the peasant, 
resembles one of those figures which children 
cut out in wood; requiring considerable address 
in poising, to be sustained upon its legs. The 
Greek, on the other hand, active and lithy as a 
serpent, twists himself into every variety 01 
posture, and stands in almost every attitude. 
Firm upon his feet, and generally exhibiting a 
graceful waving line of figure, he seems as if, 
like a cat, he would fall upon his legs, although 
tossed in any direction. The features of the 
Greek may be said to combine those of the 
Portuguese and of the French ; having the dark 
hair and eyes of the former, with the fixed 
grimace of the latter. Generally speaking, the 
men among the Greeks are not handsome ; their 
stature is small, although well proportioned. 
The Russian, too, has a diminutive person ; but 
his face is in every thing the reverse of that of 
the Greek ; offering, in profile, a very remarkable 
concavity. This concavity is increased in the line 
of a Russian peasant's countenance, by the 
projection of the beard from the chin, and 

ODESSA. 385 

a quantity of bushy hair upon the forehead 
" Oraque sunt longis horrida tectct comis." 
A line traced to express the profile of a Greek, is, 
on the contrary, convex *. A remarkable distance 
may be observed between the nose and the 
mouth; this is never a pleasing character in 
physiognomy, as it gives to the countenance a 
knavish hypocritical expression. The Russian 
countenance is not thus characterized* The 
Greek has, moreover, frequently a wide mouth, 
thick lips, and very large teeth. His forehead 
is low, and his chin small. His nose partakes 
of the general convexity of his face, rather than 
of that partial aquiline which is considered as a 
characteristic of the Roman countenance ; and, 
when this convexity is too prominent, the 
features resemble those of the Fawns and 
Satyrs exhibited by antient sculpture. Of 
course, a description of this kind, calculated 
merely for amusement, must be liable to many 
remarkable exceptions. The inhabitants of 
Greece often differ from each other; those of 
Lacedamon, and of all the western coast of the 
Morea, together with the natives of Zante 
and Cephalonia, are a much finer race of men, 
havin"- nobler features and more athletic 

(1) See the Vignette to this Chapter, in which an endeavour has 
been made to exhibit the profiles of the Russian and the Creek. 

386 ODESSA. 

CHLAP. fig ures than any of the inhabitants of the 

Our anxiety for the return of Captain Ber- 
gaminis messenger from Nicholaef may be easily 
imagined. We had nearly terminated our 
career in Russia ; yet prisoners, under confine- 
ment in a dungeon, never prayed more earnestly 
for a jail delivery, than we did to escape from 
that country. So surrounded with danger was 
every Englishman at this time, from the Baltic 
to the Black Sea, and so little certain of being 
able to put any plan in execution, that we 
considered it more than an even chance in 
favour of our being again detained, and perhaps 
sent back the whole way to Petersburg. During 
this interval of suspense and apprehension, a 
number of little Turkish boats were daily sailing 
in or out of the port of Odessa. Although they 
were so small that few would venture in such 
craft, even upon the Thames in rough weather, 
yet we sometimes fancied they might facilitate 
our escape, if our scheme of sailing in the 
Venetian vessel should fail of success. They 
were laden with merchandize to the water's 
edge, and carried such enormous sails, that 
they seemed likely to upset in every gust of 
wind ; yet we were told, their owners ventured 
in these vessels, not only to Constantinople, but 

ODESSA. 387 

almost to every port of the Black Sea. It must CHAP. 
be confessed, we did not anticipate with much v * ' 
pleasure the necessity of a voyage in one of 

<f Tourne- 

those bean-cods ; for, although Tournefort, in f rtis er - 


refutation of all history and tradition, gave a Account of 

favourable account of the navigation of the sea. 

Black Sea, nothing can be more erroneous than 

his representation '. The darkness which covers 

it, especially during winter, owing to thick 

fogs and falling snow, is so great, that mariners 

are unable to discern objects a cable's length 

from their vessels. The entrance to the Canal 

of Constantinople, always difficult, becomes in 

such cases impracticable. There is, in fact, no 

part of the globe where navigation is more 

(l) The account is very characteristic of a Frenchman, sailing on a 
fine day from the Canal of Constantinople. " Quoiqu'en aient dit les 
Anciens, LA MER NOIRE N'A RIEN DE NOIR, pour ainsi dire, que le MOOT; 
Igs vents n'y soujfflent pas avec plus defurie, et les orages n'y sont gueres 
plus frequens que sur les autres mers. Ilfautpardonner ces exagerations 
aux Poetes andens, et sur tout au chagrin d'Ovide : en effet le sable de 
la Mer Noire est de meme couleur que celui de la Mer Blanche, et scs eaux 
en sent aussi claires; en un mot, si les c6les de cctte rner, qui passent pour 
si dangereuses, paroisscnt somlres de loin, ce sont les boisqui les couvrent, 
ou le grand eloignement qui les font parottre cornme noirdtres. />c del y 
fut si beau, et si serein pendant tout noire voyage, que nous ne pumes nous 
emptclier de donner une esp^ce de dementi a Valerius Flaccus fameux 
poete Latin, qui a dccrit la route des Argontmles, lesquels passoient pour 
les plus celebres voyageurs de I'antiquite, mais qui ne sont cependunt 
QUE DE FORT PETiTS GARcoNS en comparaison des Vincent le Blanc, Ta~ 
vernier, H(c. Ce Poete assure que le del de la Mer Noire est toujours 
embro&ilM." Vova^e du Levnnt, Lett. XVI. torn. III. p. 1. ed. Lynn, 

VOL. II. 2 C 

388 O D E S S A. 

CHAP, dangerous'. Shallows, hitherto unnoticed in 
any chart, occur frequently when vessels are 
out of sight of land; dreadful storms take place 
so suddenly, and with such fury, that every 
mast is carried overboard almost as soon as the 
first symptom of a change of weather is noticed. 
Perhaps more skilful sailors might guard against 
danger from the winds : it has more than once 
happened, when the Russian fleet put to sea, 
that the ships commanded by Admirals Priestman 
and Wilson were the only vessels that escaped 
being dismasted : yet even those experienced 
officers described the Black Sea as being some- 
times agitated by tempests more fearful than 
any thing they had encountered in the Ocean. 
Many vessels were lost during the year when 

(l) This truth, founded en the experience of ages, and admitted by 
the ablest writers of antiquity, might seem sufficiently well established. 
But modern authors, instigated by the example of Toumefort, are 
determined to set aside testimony so respectable. That a very conside- 
rable part of the danger encountered in navigating the Black Sea is 
owing to the want of proper charts and able mariners, cannot be 
disputed ; yet, from its very nature, and the heights around, it is 
necessarily liable to dark fogs and violent squalls ; consequently, the 
proximity of a lee shore and shallows cannot be destitute of peril. Yet 
we are told, " It is a notion received from the Turks, that the Black 
Sea is dangerous. To them, indeed, it is truly black ; and it would 
even be so to British sailors, in such vessels as the Turks use, and 
which, are peculiar to that sea : they cannot lie to, and are conse- 
quently obliged to run before the wind, and, if they miss a port, go 
on shore. It is not more stormy than other seas." Survey of the 
Turkish Empire, Fourth edit. Introd. Chap. Lorul. 1809. 

ODESSA. 389 

we visited Odessa, by the storms preceding and CHAP. 
following the Equinox. The hulk of a vessel ^ v ' 
driven on shore at Varna was all the intelli- 
gence received of the fate of a merchant ship 
that sailed out of Odessa when we were there : 
not a soul on board escaped. Another was 
wrecked attempting to enter the Canal of 
Constantinople : eight sailors, with two officers, 
^were drowned ; the rest of the crew were saved 
by remaining a whole day upon the ship's yards, 
until the storm abated, when they swam to the 
shore. These storms were so great, that an 
alarm prevailed on shore for the safety of the 
houses : during one day and night, the stoutest 
stone walls seemed unequal to resist the violence 
of the gale. The vineyards at Sudak, as Professor 
Pallas by a letter informed us, and along the south 
coast of the Crimea, were destroyed; houses were 
unroofed ; and all those with casements had 
their windows forced in by the tempest. 

Odessa will ever be a port of great import- 
ance to Russia, while she is prevented from 
laying her hands upon the Turkish empire 
because, from its proximity to the Porte, a 
constant eye is kept upon the operations of the 
Turks, It has also the advantage of being so 
rarely obstructed by ice, that a vessel may 
generally escape; whereas, in other ports of 
2 c 2 

390 ODESSA. 

the Black Sea, an enemy upon the ice may 
attack the ships as well as the works: this 
happened when the Russians took Oczakof. The 
i- extraordinary degrees of temperature, in these 

latitudes, are altogether unaccountable. Captain 
mate. Bergamini informed us, that his ship was once 
detained five months in the mouth of the Danube, 
by the freezing of the sea. Ovid, during his 
residence near the same place, had witnessed a 
smi ^ ar e v ent '- Upon the subject of English 

in the commerce and navigation in the Black Sea, we 

Slack Sea. 

have avoided going into much detail, from the 
consciousness that our personal observations 
were of limited extent, and because the theme 
is amply discussed in some interesting remarks 
addressed to a respectable periodical w r ork s : 
these remarks, notwithstanding their unas- 
suming form, bear such internal evidence of 
authenticity, that we shall adopt them as au- 
thority, in the Appendix. In fact, the official 

(1) The description possesses admirable force and beauty : 

" Vidimus ingentem glacie consistere pontum, 
Lubricaque immotas testa premebat aquas. 
Nee vidisse sat est. Durum calcavimus aequor ; 
Undaque non udo sub pede summa fuit." 

Ovid. lib. in. Trist. El.-g. X. 

Those who have experienced a Russian winter will also know how to 
estimate the truth and elegance of the following lines : 
" Sappe sonant moti glacie pendente capilli, 

Et nitct inducto Candida barba gelu." Rid. 

(2) \aial Oironicle, vol. XXI. p. 2 1C. 

ODESSA. 391 

documents therein comprised we know to be CHAP. 
derived from records kept in the Chancery v .. -> 
Office of the British Legation at Constantinople; 
and to these the writer, as a member of the 
Levant Company, could of course command 
access. We may venture indeed to pledge 
ourselves for the authenticity of the papers in 
question ; and we are glad to be instrumental 
in bringing under the public eye such valuable 
materials for history, in a way more calculated 
to perpetuate the recollection of them, than the 
fugitive manner in which they were originally 

The fortress of Odessa is small, but kept 

* Odessa. 

in good order: it has, like that of Cherson, a 
double fosse. We paid one visit to the Com- 
mandant, a genuine Russian, living in a little 
hole, among bundles of official writings, sur- 
rounded by an atmosphere powerfully affecting 
our olfactory nerves. In answer to a very rude 
interrogation concerning our business, we said, 
with palpitating hearts, that we begged to have 
our passports signed. After keeping us in a state 
of most painful suspense for about half-an-hour, 
the expected rouble being paid, and the hums 

and haivs, and difficulties of office, thereby 

_ -j_ _ 


(3) See the Appendix to this Volunyji, No. U. 


done away, we heard the cheerful word, 
" Carashol" which never sounded so agreeably 
in our ears. With the important paper close 
folded and concealed, we cautiously withdrew 
from the inquisitive observation of several spies 
of the police, who, with outstretched necks 
and eager eyes, seemed aware that it contained 
wherewithal to gratify their curiosity. 

On the morning of the last day of October, at 
day -break, Captain Bergamini, of the Moderate, 
came with the joyful intelligence that all was 
ready for his departure; and desired us to 
hasten on board, as the wind was favourable, 
and he wished to get under weigh with all 
possible expedition. The delays of the custom- 
house kept the vessel in port until ten o'clock. 
We embarked a little before nine. At ten pre- 
cisely, we began to heave the anchor ; but, from 
the foulness of the harbour, it was with difficulty 
raised. The crew of the custom-house boat, 
who had left us, returned for another dram of 
brandy, offering at the same time their assist- 
ance - At half-after-ten the vessel was in 
motion; but we lay- to for the Captain's nephew, 
who commanded another merchant-ship, called 
// Piccolo AronettOy which had not yet cleared. 
Soon after eleven she came along-side; and 
with hearts elate, although still beating with 


anxiety, through dread of being again detained, CHAP. 
we bade a last adieu to Russia; steering along - T - 
the coast towards Akerman, in the mouth of the 
Dniester 1 : this we passed in the evening. For 
the rest of our voyage, the extracts from the 
author's Journal will be accompanied by a literal 

(0 Akcrman and Kilia, in Lower Moldavia, or Bessarabia, were two 
celebrated towns. The first is the 'O|/ of Herodotus, called by the 
Romans JULIA ALBA, and by the Moldavians of the present day, Czetate 
Alba, or the WHITE CITY. Kilia, in the Mouths of the Danube, was 
perhaps the antient Atntervenai. In the Histoire de la Moldavia et 
falachie, (printed at Neuchatel in 1781,) whence this Note is derived, 
circumstances are mentioned concerning the celebrity of Akerman, as 
the place of Ovid's exile, which have all the air of a fable. It is 
impossible to examine Ovid's writings without being convinced, from 
his own language, that the place of his residence was Tomis, whicb 
was much nearer to the situation of Kilia; yet, says the author of the 
work now alluded to, speaking oi Alter man, " It is famous in having 
been the exile of Ovid. There is a lake still called by the peasants 
Lacul Oi'idului, Ovid's Lake. Ovid left Czetate Alba, and retired to a 
village three leagues distant, of which the ruins are still visible. 
Near the cottage in which he lived, there is a small spring which bears 
his name, as well as the lake on the banks of which he used to walk. 
The peasants pretend that he composed poems in the Moldavian 
language ; but none have ever been found. They have still various 
traditions concerning him." Similar absurdities exist about his tomb, 
which they pretend to shew to travellers somewhere near Odessa, It 
seems that those who would thus move him from the marshes of the 
Inter to the Tyros, or Dniester, have never read these lines of 

the poet : 

" Quam legis, ex ilia tibi venit epistola terra, 
Latus ubi acquoreis additur Ister aquis." 

Lib. v. Trist. Eleg. VII. 

Nor can they surely ha%e considered the force of these words: 
' Medio defendimur/jrfro." 

Lib. iii. Eleg. X. 


CI * p . translation, in the Appendix ' , of the log-book 
of the Moderato ; in order to afford as faithful 
an account as possible of our navigation in the 

At four o'clock in the morning of the next 
day, we were called upon deck by the Captain, 

to see the Is!e f S er pent s > antiently LEUCE, 
lying off the mouths of the Danube, celebrated 
in history for the tomb and temple of Achilles. 
It is so small, that, as we passed, we could view 
its whole extent : this continued in sight until 
nine. Judging by the eye, it appeared to be 
near a mile in length, and less than half-a-mile 
in breadth. It is quite bare, being covered only 
with a little grass, and very low herbage. When 
carefully examined with a telescope, there did 
not appear to be the smallest remains of 
antiquity. The author made a sketch of it from 
the south-east. On the south side are cliffs, 
seeming to be about fifty feet high. Many absurd 
stories of Turkish and Russian mariners are 
founded upon a notion that the island is itself 
covered with serpents. An opportunity rarely 
occurs in which ships can remain, in order to 
visit it ; and if this were to happen, not a man 
of any of their crews would venture on shore ; 
_ " - , 

(0 See Appendix to this Volume, No. HI. 


although there be twenty fathoms of water CHAP. 
within a cable's length of the island, and any < / ' 
vessel may sail close to it. The Russians relate, 
that four persons, belonging to the crew of a 
ship wrecked there, no sooner landed than 
they encountered a worse enemy than the sea, 
and were all devoured by serpents. Ammianus Accounts 
Marcellinus* records a similar superstition as Antient 
prevailing in his time, concerning the dangers 
of the place. After a description so remarkable 
and so recent as that of Arrian, who wrote 
about the second century, there is great reason 
to believe some interesting remains of antiquity 
might be here discovered. This secluded spot 
escaped the ravages to which almost every other 
portion of classical territory has been exposed ; 
neither is it known that any traveller ever 
ventured to the island. Antiently it had 
various appellations; among these, the most 
received was that of LEUCE, or ' The IVhite 
Island." It was so called in consequence of the 
white appearance caused by the swarm of sea- 
fowl, covering it in certain seasons of the year, 
and thereby rendering it more visible. The 
author has seen similar sights among the 

(2) Ammiari. Marcel, lih.xxii. c. $." 4iunt enim nan sine discrimint 
..tit ilttc qutnqutim pfrnocturt." 


CHAP. Hebrides ; where the number of Solan geese, and 


of other birds, cause the rocks and islands to 
appear as if they were capped with snow. All 
the superstitions respecting LEUCE seem to 
have had their origin in its importance as a 
land-mark ; the coast near the Mouths of the 
Danube being so low, that the mariners are 
unable to discern it, even when close in with 
the shore; and the island itself being often 
obscured by the hazy atmosphere of the Black 
Sea, renders navigation dangerous, excepting 
when it is made conspicuous by its white birds. 
Owing to this circumstance, Pindar called it 
Njj<rov <>u,&vvGe,v, ' The Conspicuous Island:' his 
commentators add, that it was " called The 
White Shore in the Euxine ; where many white 
birds appearing, shew the island to those who 
sail that way." And again, "It is called 
LEUCE on account of the number of white 
birds" which make their nests there." Euripides 3 
describes it as the White Shore of Achilles, and 
calls it I1OAYOPNI0ON, from the number of its 
birds. Scymnus Chius 4 also affirms that it was 
sacred to Achilles, and remarkable for its white 

(1) Pindar, Nem. A. 

(2) 'Eptftiiol, Pelicans. 

(3) Iphigen. in Taur. 

(l) Scymnus Chius. Frag. 1. 45. 


birds. Arrian* says it had the name of LEUCE, 
or ' The Wldte Island! A part of its history, 
considered by Scymnus Chius as being the most 
marvellous, was, that the main land could not 
thence be discerned, although distant only forty 
stadia, or five miles. This is literally true ; 
the land is invisible to a person much 
nearer the coast, as will appear by the sub- 
sequent description, made from notes written 
while we were lying off the mouth of the 
Danube. Arrian thus introduces his very 
interesting description : " Sailing out of that 
mouth of the Ister which is called YIAON, 
with the wind AIIAPKTIAS , the Island of Achilles 
appears, by some called the Course of Achilles, 
and by others, from its colour, the White 
Island. It is related that Thetis gave this isle 
to Achilles, and that he still inhabits it: his 
temple and statue, both of very antient work- 
manship, are there seen. No human being 
dwells there ; only a few goats, which mariners 
convey as votive offerings. Other offerings, 
or sacred gifts, are suspended in honour of 

(5) Arrian. Peripl. Pont. Eux p. 21. Ed Huds. Ox. 1698. 

(6) Aparctias was a name given by the Greeks to the North Wind, 
as appears by this passage from Pliny : " From the North blows the 
wind SEPTENTHIO; and between that, and the rising of the solstitial 
sun, AQUILO: these are respectively named (by the Creeks) Aparctias 
and Boreas." Plin. Hist. Nat. lib. ii. 


CHAP. Achilles; such as vases, rings, and costly stones. 
Inscriptions are also read there, in the Greek 
and Latin language, in different metres, in 
honour of Achilles and Patrodus ; for Patroclus 
is there worshipped as well as Achilles. A 
number also of aquatic birds are seen ; such as 
the lams, the diver, and the sea-quail. These 
birds alone have the care of the temple. Every 
morning they repair to the sea, wet their 
wings, and sprinkle the temple ; afterwards 
sweeping with their plumage its sacred pave- 
ment." A further account of the superstitions 
respecting the island is then added by the 
author, who relates, that Achilles and Patroclus 
appear in dreams to those who approach it, 
and tell them where to land ; " all of which," 
says Arrian, " appears to me to be very worthy 
of credit." Many other authors, although of 
less note, contribute by their descriptions 
to the celebrity of this remarkable island. 
Philostratus l affords its dimensions, stating that 
it is thirty stadia, or three miles and three 
quarters, in length ; and four stadia, or half 
a mile, wide : this account corresponds with 
its appearance, from the distance at which it 
was visible to us. It is further mentioned 
by Pausanias*, and by Ammianus Marcellinus*. 

(1) Philostratus in Herokis. (2) Pausan. in Laeonicis. 

(3) Ammkin- MurccU. bil. xxii. c. 8. 


According to antient Poets, the souls of departed CHAP. 
Heroes enjoyed there perpetual repose and * ^ -> 
felicity 4 . Festus Avienus\ although erroneous 
in his account of its situation, alludes to this 
part of its history in the following lines : 

" Ora Borystheuii qui fluminis in mare vergunt, 
E re^ione procul spectabit cuhnina Leuces ; 
Leuce cana jugum, Leuce sedes animarum." 

In the number of antient writers by whom this 
island is mentioned, several, as might be 
expected, had confused and even false notions 
of its position in the Euxine. Some of them 
describe it as being opposite either to the 
mouth of the Borysthenes or to that of the 
Tyros i others, as lying between those rivers. 
A few have confounded it with the neck of 
land lying between the mouth of the Borys- 
thenes and the Sinus Carcinites, formerly called 
the Dromus Achillis, and now Kilburnu. Arrian 
is the only author whose text may be recon- 
ciled with the true situation of the island : 
and next to his description, in point of accu- 
racy, is that given by his predecessor, Strabo 6 . 
Its modern names are, Ran Adase, and 

(4) The Turks also believe tlie souls of men, after death, reside in (.he 
bodies of birds. 

(5} Fetttus Auienus, Orbis Description*. 
(6) Strab. lib.viii. 


CHAP. Phidonisi*. It is placed wrong in all the charts: in 
some it is altogether omitted ; indeed its exist- 
ence has been doubted by modern geographers. 
The best, and almost the only charts of the 
Black Sea, are those printed in Paris; yet 
even in these the Isle of Serpents lies 15 minutes, 
or geographical miles, too far towards the 
north. A greater error prevails respecting 
the port of Odessa, calculated to lead ships into 
danger : this is placed at least 27 out of 
its position towards the north. The great 
obscurity which often prevails over the Black 
Sea, during winter, renders it a fortunate event 
to make the Lie of Serpents; not only, as was 
said before, from the impossibility of descrying 
the coast near the Danube, but because ships 
are liable to run upon it during the night. The 
principal cause of danger, however, must be 

(l) It is laid down in the manuscript chart of Freducius of Ancona, 
preserved in the Library of fPblfenbutel, near Vienna, under the name 
of Ftdonixi, and delineated as having a port. This chart bears date 
A. D. 1497- Count John Potocki, in its illustration, states that Fido- 
Nixi signifies Isle de la Fay. The Count sailed from the Dnieper for 
Constantinople in 1784, and gives this account of the island, which he 
passed during the voyage: "J'aifait moi-meme ce trajet en Vanntc 
1734, et n'ai pas manque de demander s'il ne se trouvoit pas dans Ftsle 
des restes de temple ou de quelque autre edifice. L'on me repondmt alora, 
qu'il etoit difficile d'y aborder ; tant parceque la cote ^toit dangereuse qua 
parceque In terre y etoit couverte de serpents renimeiur." M^moire sur 
un Nouveau Peryple du Pont Eit.n'n, par le Cointc Jean Potocki. 
Vien. 1796. 


attributed to the ignorance of pilots, and-to 
a deficiency of proper charts. We had on 
board two excellent sextants, and observations 
were daily made at noon : by these we found 
our latitude to be 44. 44'; the ship lying at the 
time five leagues and a half to the south of 
the island. A third sextant, on board the vessel 
commanded by the Captain's nephew, was also 
employed by him : this enabled us, by compa- 
rison, to detect with greater certainty the errors 
in the French charts. 

Having passed the Me of Serpents, we fell in 
with the current from the Danube. So great is 
the extent over which its waters diffuse them- 
selves, owing to the shallowness of this part 
of the Euxine, that, although the discharge be 
scarcely adequate to our notions of so con- 
siderable a river, the effect is visible for several 
leagues, in a white colour thereby communicated 
to the sea. Dipping buckets in the waves, we 
observed that the water was almost sweet, at 
the distance of three leagues from the mouth 
of the river, and within one league it was fit 
for use on board. The shore is flat all the wav 

" oftht 

from Odessa to the Danube; and it is so low near z>* 
to the river's mouth, that no other object appears, 
to those who approach the shore, than tall reeds 
rising out of the water, or the masts of vessels 




tions on 
board the 


lying in the river. A singular appearance may 
be observed in the Mouths of the Danube, which 
we are unable to explain. The Dolphins 1 
everywhere else exhibiting a dark colour, are 
here perfectly white. This may wear so much the 
air of a fable, that, in proof of the fact, we may 
state a practice among Greek mariners, during 
mists and dark wea her, of ascertaining their 
position by such phenomena. As soon as they 
descry the white dolphins, they become assured 
that they are within the current of the Danube, 
although in thirty fathoms water, and many 
leagues distant from its mouth. It has been 
already stated, that the water is itself of a ivhite 
colour; and probably from this circumstance 
arises the supposed colour of the dolphin 9 . 

After passing the Mouths of the Danube, but 
still being conveyed by its current, we observed 
four mountains, with such regular conical forms, 
and so singular as to their situation, in a horizon 
otherwise perfectly flat, that we at first supposed 
them to be immense tumuli. The Captain 

(1) Dolphin is the name given to this fish, in these seas ; and it is the 
Delphimif of Pliny ; perhaps nothing more than our porpoise. It is 
seen sporting in great abundance, and generally proceeding 1 in pairs, 
through the Straits ofTaman and of Constantinople. 

(2) Th notion of white dolpkins in this part of the Black Sea seems 
connected with the notions entertained by the Antients of the whitc- 
netf of the Island ef Achilles, aud of the birds there seeu. 


however assured us, that these mountains were at CHAP. 

_ .A. 

least twenty- three leagues distant, in Wallachia; * > 
our situation being then about three leagues 
from the shore. Soon after, another mountain 
appeared in view ; making the old groupe to 
consist of five. Other elevations of less magni- 
tude were afterwards visible ; but the coast is 
generally low and flat. 

November 2. Our observation, by sextant 
this day, proved our latitude to be 44. 25'; the 
ship's distance from the Mouths of the Danube 
being, at the time of the observation, five leagues 
and a half. The water even here tasted very 
little brackish. After heaving the lead, we found 
a depth of one hundred and fifty English feet. 
We had calm weather during this and the 
preceding day. 

November 3. The atmosphere was somewhat 
overcast. We discovered the coast indis- 
tinctly from the mast head; being then in thirty 
fathoms water. Our latitude at noon was 
43. 30'. 

November 4. The atmosphere was this day 
turbid. We had but little wind from the east, 
but a great sea rose. From mid-day, until 
five o'clock p. M. our course was s. s. w. ; at this 

VOL. n. 2 D 


CHAP, hour we descried Cape Kelegry, at the distance 
of somewhat less than seven leagues. We were 
unable to make any observation of the ship's 
latitude. Cloudy weather, and a heavy sea. 

Novembers. The weather was still hazy: a 
light wind prevailed from the east, and a tur- 
bulent sea. Our crew observed, durins: the 

' O 

day, that the vessel leaked, and made about an 
inch of water in four hours, owing to the heavy 
sea. At six in the evening there fell a calm, 
when we discovered the coast ; and at day- 
break the next morning (Nov. 6tK) observed 
distinctly the land at the mouth of the Canal of 
Constantinople, distant about six leagues and a 
half. All this morning we were animated by 
the Captain with such hopes of entering the 
Canal, that we expected to breakfast in Constan- 
tinople. During our short voyage from Odessa, 
the Captain, by slackening sail continually for 
his nephew's ship, which proved but an indif- 
ferent sailor, had regularly lost one league in 
three ; and it happened, most unfortunately, that 
we had to wait again, at the very mouth of the 
Canal: by this delay we not only lost the 
opportunity of getting in at that time, but 
nearly sacrificed the crews and cargoes of both 
ships. The copy from our log-book, which is 
given in the Appendix* will best tell what our 


situation was, in the dreadful storm that suc- 
ceeded. Landsmen are very apt to magnify the 
dangers they encounter by sea; but it will 
appear that in this instance there was little room 
for amplification. At mid-day we stood opposite 
to the Light-house of the Canal ; this bore only 
ten miles distant, towards the west: a calm, 
accompanied by a heavy sea, prevented our 
approach. During the evening, the crew were 
employed working the pumps. 

November 7- At sun-rise, the wind had Dreadful 
gained considerable force, and the sails were 
reefed. We still discerned the mouth of the 
Canal, and even the light-house on the Asiatic 
side. About ten, we took in all the reefs in 
the main-topsail ; and at noon, the wind still 
increasing, struck the topsail-yards. A tre- 
mendous sea rolled over the deck, from one side 
to the other ; and the water in the hold increasing 
fast, all hands were called to the pumps, which 
were kept working continually. At four in the 
afternoon we had our last view of the Canal, 
distant about eight leagues. \Vithin half an 
hour ^afterwards, the Black Sea afforded a spec- 
tacle which can never be forgotten by those who 
saw it. We were steering with a hard gale and 
heavy sea from s. s. w. when there appeared, in 
the opposite horizon, clouds, in the form of 
2 D 2 


CHAP, pillars, dark and terrible; these were whirled 
upon their bases, and advanced with astonishing 
rapidity along the horizon, on either side, against 
the wind. Our Captain, who had retired for a 
short repose, being called by the boatswain to 
notice this appearance, instantly ordered all 
the yards to be struck ; and we remained under 
bare poles, while an awful silence prevailed on 
board. It was not of long duration. Suddenly 
such a hurricane came upon the vessel from the 
north-west, that we thought she would have 
foundered, in the mere attempt to take it, as 
the mode of expression is, in poop 1 . During 
one entire hour, the ship was suffered to drive 
before the storm, encountering all the fury of 
the wind and sea, without being able to bear 
away from the land. At every plunge our 
vessel made, her bowsprit and forecastle were 
carried under water : a few sailors at the helm 
were lashed to the steerage* but almost every 
thing upon the deck was washed away. If the 
tempest had continued half an hour longer, no 
one of the crew would have survived, to tell the 
story. About five o'clock its force had some- 
what abated ; and the Captain laid the vessel, 

(l) Taking a gale inpdpa, is done by opposing the ship's stern to 
the windy and letting her drive before it, under bare poles. 


as he termed it, a la capa*, hoisting the jib and CHAP - 
a portion of the mainsail, to get clear of the *- T - ' 
shore. Still the vehement agitation of the waves 
continued, the deck being continually under 
water. At six o'clock a tempest began again 
from the s. w. ; so that, owing to a swell from 
two opposite points of the compass at the same 
time, such a sea was raised as none of our 
crew had ever beheld before. All this time 
the leak was gaining fast upon us, and we 
passed a fearful night. Two Turkish, vessels 
were seen towards sun-set, under the lee of 
the Aronetto; but both had foundered before 
morning, and every soul on board had perished. 
To increase the horror of our situation, scarcely 
any one of the crew could be made to do his 
duty: the sailors crept to their hammocks, 
leaving the ship at the mercy of the sea. 

The next day,, (Saturday, November Sfk,') at 
noon, we made the high land to the south of 
the Canal ; bearing s. w., and being distant 
about ten leagues. The tempest continued as 
before, during the whole of the day and of the 
following night ; but we were able to work the 
pumps, and thereby gained considerably upon 

(2) "A la capa " is placing the ship in a diagonal position, with her 
rudder to leeward, so that her head is kept to the sea, but the vessel 
lies stationary upon the water. 


the leak. Three hours after midnight, on the 
morning of November Qth, we made the coast of 
Anatolia, near to the mouth of the Canal. At 
noon, this day, a calm succeeded, which was, 
if possible, more terrible than the hurricane we 
had experienced ; the ship continuing to labour 
incessantly, with her deck continually under 
water, the sails and rigging flying to pieces, and 
all things being at the mercy of the waves. 
The whole of Sunday, November Qth, was passed 
in the same manner, until about six o'clock p. M., 
when a light wind springing up from the south, 
we were enabled to put the ship's prow to the 
westward ; and about eight on the following 
morning, November 10th, we again made the 
land at the mouth of the Canal. The whole of 
this day we continued steering, \vith a heavy 
sea, towards the s. s.w.; but from midnight 
until seven A. M. November 1 \th, a stormy wind 
prevailing from the s. w., we kept the ship's 
head w. and by N., when we discovered the 
coast on the European side, and a mountain, 
which the sailors called Gab Ham, to the x. w. 
of the harbour of Ineada in TURKEY. This 
place is the THTXIAS of the Antients, a port 
frequented by the Argonauts 1 . Towards noon, 

(1) See StffpJiunus, and Luc. Holstenlus upon Stephanus. It should, 
perhaps, be written Tineada. See D'dnville, p. 244. 


the weather, fortunately for us, became more CHAP. 
calm; as we discovered that the ship's cargo, ^ ' 
which was of corn, had shifted ; the pumps be- 
coming choked with her lading, and the vessel at 
the same time preponderating towards her star- 
board side. We therefore opened all her larboard 
port-holes, and moved as much of her cargo as 
possible ; but finding it impossible to right her, 
and being to windward of the harbour of Ineada, 
we put the ship's head to the west, and, to our 
great joy, at four o'clock p. M. came to an anchor 
within the port, in six fathoms water. 

The harbour of Ineada lies in 41. 52' of north Harbour of 


latitude 2 . A few scattered houses upon its 
shore carry on a small trade, in the occasional 
supply of coffee, tobacco, dried beef, cheese, 
curd, fruit, and fresh water, to Turkish mari- 
ners, and other navigators of the Black Sea. 
Charcoal is also there made for exportation: 
several fabrics, busy in its preparation, were 
seen smoking near the beach, and upon the 
hills above, when we arrived. The principal 
part of it is sent to Constantinople, where it is 
almost the only article of fuel. Turkish boats 
were continually lading with it, while we 
remained. There is no village, nor any in- 
habited spot, within three hours' distance of 

(2) See the Vignette to the next Chapter. 


CHAP, this port'. The interior of the country was 
described as being in a very dangerous state, 
especially the road leading to Adrianople ; 
owing, not altogether to the adherents of the 
rebel chief, Pasvan Oglou, but to the number 
of Turkish, troops passing under various pre- 
tences, and to the banditti which more or less 
always infest this part of the country. Vessels 
frequenting this harbour, generally prefef the 
northern side of it; where they find good 
anchorage, among gravel mixed with black 
sand 2 . It is only exposed to winds from the 
east, and south-east; and is sufficiently spacious 
to contain a fleet. Like the port of Odessa, 
however, it rather merits the appellation of a 
road for shipping, than of a harbour; as a 
heavy sea enters, when those winds blow to 
which it lies open. At the time of our arrival, 
there was hardly a single boat in the port : but, 
before we left it, we noticed five large merchant 
ships, besides upwards of thirty smaller Turkish 
vessels, all riding at anchor. The latter were 
stationed close to the shore on the north side : 

(1) Distances in Turkey, and almost all over the-Ecrrt, are measured 
by time; that is to say, by the number of hours usually employed by 
a caravan upon its march; and these are estimated according to the 
pace of a camel, which generally proceeds at the rate of three miles 
an hour. 

<2) See the Vignette to the next Chapter. 


here there were two coffee-houses ; which, in a CHAP. 

Turkish harbour, answer to the brandy-shops, v .. y - 

or ale-houses, frequented by English sailors in 
their own ports ; coffee being the substitute for 
spirits or beer. In these coffee-houses may be 
seen groupes of Turkish mariners, each party 
being squatted in a circle around a pan of 
burning charcoal, smoking, sipping coffee, 
chewing opium, or eating a sort of sweetmeat, 
in shape like a sausage, made of walnuts or 
almonds, strung upon a piece of twine, and 
dipped in the inspissated syrup of new wine, 
which has been boiled until it has acquired the 
consistence of a stiff jelly, and bends in the 
hand like a piece of the Indian-rubber. The 
windows of these coffee-houses are like those 
of a common English jail, being grated, and 
without any glass casement ; and, as the inha- 
bitants use no other stove to heat their chambers 
than the little brasiers before mentioned, it is 
probable that the climate is never rigorous. 

When we landed, we found the earth, at this Plan*, 
advanced season of the year, still covered with 
flowers, many of which were unknown to us. 
We collected five new species among the shrubs 
upon the northern side of the harbour, towards 
the point of the promontory; a new species of 
Senecio, of Figwort, of Convolvulus, of Ruscus, and 


of Rulus. A particular description of all of 
them is subjoined in a Note ; together with the 
list of others, whether common or rare, that 
were here added to our herbary '. It is 

( 1) I. A fine species of SENECIO, hitherto nndescribed, with the general 
habit of an Aster, excepting the foliage ; the flowers solitary, 
about an inch broad, in long scaly peduncles ; the leaves un- 
equally pinnatified, with the terminal lobe lanceolate. We have 
called it SENECIO FLEXUOSA. Senecio corollas radiis plurimis, 
patentibus, majusculis ; squamis catycinis adpressis ; foliis lyrato- 
pinnatiftdis laciniis integerrimis glabriusculis, planis ; caulilus 
striatis pilosis ; pedunculis elongates, multilracteatis, jlexuosis, 

II. A new species of FIGWORT, having much of the general habit of 
Scrophularia appendiculata ', but differing, by the exhibition of 
leaves sharply toothed at the base, finely ciliated, and perforated 
with innumerable transparent spots ; being also without appen- 
dages ; the peduncles and bracts, viscous and downy ; and the 
flowers also shorter and broader than in the species mentioned. 
We have called it SCROPHULARIA GLANDULIFERA. Scrophularia 
racemo terminali composite ; foliis subcordato-ovatis, lato-dentatis, 
minute punctatis, basi inec quahbus ; petiolis pilis glanduiiferis pu- 

III. A new shrubby species of CONVOLVULUS, about two feet in height; 
the branches hairy and spreading, and, for the greater part of 
their length, without leaves ; the leaves about an inch long ; the 
calyx hairy, about a third part the length of the corolla. This 
species most resembles the Convolvulus siijfruiicosus of Professor, but differs in having the flowers not placed upon 
long peduncles with linear opposite bracts, but at the ends of the 
branches, and the corolla hairy. AVe have called it CONVOLVULUS 
PATENS. Convolvulus erevtus, suffruticosus ; foliis inferioribus, 
subspatulatis, superioribus lanceolatis, utrinque hirsutis t elongatis, 
inermibus, unifloris ; corolld extus hirsuld. 

IV. An elegant new species of Ruse us, about a foot in height, the 
branches densely crowded into a little oval bush ; the leaves, in- 
cluding the thorn at their point, from about half an inch to three 
quarters in length ; each having from eleven to thirteen strong 



interesting to notice circumstances of locality, CHAP. 
even with reference to the most vulgar plants. L *" 
As it is necessary to give names to the new- 
discovered species, the author will, in a single 

nerves on both sides, giving them a singular ribbed appearance. 
We have called it Ruscus DUMOSCS. Ruscus pumilus, ramis con- 
fertis, foliia ovutis, mucronato-pungentilus, utrinque valide nervoru, 
suprafloriferis nudis, 

V. The RUBUS CRIPPSII mentioned in the Text. This curious plant 
has leaves ternate, inversely ovate, and almost circular. Their 
superior surface is hairy and of a dark green colour ; but their in- 
ferior, white and cottony. The flowers appear in very large 
bunches upon cottony foot-stalks, and the upper part of the stem 
is also a little cjttony. Rubus fruticosus, foliis crassis, ternatis, 
lato-obovntis aculis, duplicato dentatts ; supra hirsutis ; subtus 
albido-tomentosis ; aculeis recurvis ; paniculis terminalibus, patulit. 

The other plants collected in this very interesting botanical harbour 
were as follow : 

Scarlet Oak Quercus cocctfera. Linn, 

Showy Autumnal Crocus . . Crocus speciosus. Mberstein.* 

Common Fluellin Antirrhinum Elatine. Linn. 

Humble Vervain . . . . . Verbena nudfflnra. Linn. 

Common Pimpernel .... Anagallis arvensis. Linn. 

Woolly-spiked Beard-grass . . Andropogon Ischcemum. Linn. 

Upright Cynanchum .... Cynanchum erectum. Linn . 

Locust-grass Andropogon Gryllus. Linn. 

Common Spleenwort .... Asplenium Ceterach. Linn. 

Aleppo Corn Holcus Halepensii. Linn. 

Common Nightshade .... Solanum nigrum. Linn. 

Wild Sii^e Salvia Sylvestris. Linn. 

Dyers' Chamomile .... Anthemis tinctoria. Linn. 

Solid-rooted Fumitory . . . Fumaria solida. Smith. 

Thorny Catch- Fly Silene spinescens. Sibthorp. 

Calamint Thyme Thymut Calamintha. Smith. 

Transylvania Scabious . . . Scabioia Transylvania. Linn. 

This species is very distinct from the nudijlorus of Dr. Sniitk. 


instance, deviate from his usual method of 
affixing characteristic appellations, and here 
endeavour to commemorate the botanical re- 
searches of his friend and companion, by deno- 
minating the last-mentioned of the five, RVBVS 
CRIPPSII. When the first edition of this Part 
of his Travels was prepared for the press, a 
principal part of his herbary had been mislaid, 
and the nature of the new-discovered species 
from Ineada had not been accurately ascer- 
tained. If he had visited this part of Turkey 
at an earlier season of the year, it is probable 
that other non-descript species would have been 
observed. Wild figs appeared among the rocks. 
We collected the seeds of several other plants. 
The trees had not yet cast their leaves ; and we 
were surprised to find the heat of the sun, 
towards the middle of November, too great to 
render walking a pleasing exercise. We landed 
on the evening of our arrival : and, as first im- 
pressions are usually the most vivid in visiting 
new scenes, it may be expedient to notice even 
the trivial events that took place upon this 

Appear- It was nearly night. A number of Turkish 
Turks. sailors, black and fearful, were employed lading 

a boat with charcoal, singing during their labour. 

Their necks, arms, and legs, were naked. They 


had large whiskers, and wore turbans ; the rest CHAP. 
of their clothes consisted only of a short jacket ^ -A-' 
and a pair of drawers. As we proceeded from 
the shore, a party of better-dressed natives 
approached ; every one of whom was differently 
habited. One wore a long pelisse, with a high 
Tahtar cap ; another, a large green turban ; a 
third, who was a Greek slave, at every one's call, 
had upon his head a small scull-cap of red-cloth. 
The heavy-looking Turks, rolling their yellow 
sleepy eyes, and exhaling volumes of smoke 
from their lips, spoke to no one ; seeming to 
think it labour to utter a syllable, or even to 
put one foot before the other. Some few 
murmured out the word Salaam : upon this our 
Captain congratulated us ; adding, " The welcome 
of a Turk, and the farewell of a Russian, are 
pleasing sounds." Encouraged by this fa- 
vourable character of the people, we applied to 
one of them for a little brandy, which our crew 
wanted; but were instantly checked by the 
Captain, who asked how we could think of 
asking for brandy from a Turk ; and directed us 
to make our wishes known to the Greek slave in 
a whisper, who would find means to procure it 
from them without offending their prejudices. 
None, however, could be obtained ; tobacco, wood, 
charcoal, and coffee, were all they had at this 


CHAP, time to sell ; so, after taking a little of the latter, 
we returned on board. 

During the night and the following day, 
Turkish boats continued to sail into the harbour ; 
the atmosphere being cloudy and very dark, 
with a strong wind from the south, and a very 
threatening aspect in the sky. Their pilots 
said they came " to see what the moon would do" 
it being within three days of the change. The 
next day we visited the north-west side of the 
port, near to the coffee-houses. Close to the 
shore appeared the ruin of an antient mole l , a 
part of which is under water ; and upon its 
western side, as we passed in the boat, might 
be discerned the shafts of antient co lum ns*, lying 
at the bottom of the sea. Having landed, we 
found the Turkish sailors, with all the passengers 
who had arrived in their vessels, seated, as 
before described, around pans of charcoal, 
smoking tobacco. The master of the principal 
coffee-house brought us coffee in little cups, 
without milk or sugar, and made as thick as 
we drink chocolate in England; at least one 
half of each cup being filled with sediment. 
This, our interpreter told us, the Turks regard 

(1) See the Vignette to the next Chapter. 

(2) IbJd. 


as a proof of perfection in coffee prepared for CHAP. 
use. The Reader perhaps will not feel himself . .. i 
much concerned to be further informed respect- 
ing such particulars. So fickle a thing is taste, 
that Englishmen resident in Turkey soon learn 
to prefer coffee made after the Turkish manner ; 
and Turks, after living in England, drink their 
coffee clear. 

The folio wing day a greater number of vessels 
came into the harbour ; and many of the natives 
flocked to the coast, to sell flesh and fruit, or to 
gratify their curiosity in viewing the numerous 
fleet then assembled. By much the greater 
part assembled upon the shore were inhabitants 
of the mountains that separate Adrianople from 
the coast of the Black Sea. These mountains, 
although they be not strictly Alpine, seem to 
possess great elevation, and between them are 
many profound valleys covered with forests. 
Oaks, and other trees, flourish close to the sea. 
The cattle consist of sheep, cows, and buffaloes. 
The mountaineers, who came to Ineada, ap- Mountain- 
peared as wild and savage a race as the natives 
of Caucasus : they were in stature stout and 
short : all of them carried arms, both as weapons 
of defence, and as badges of distinction. Their 
girdles were so laden with carabines, pistols, 
knives, and poignards, that, besides their 



cumbrous size, the mere v ;ight of their weapons 
must prove a serious burden. The handles of 
their pistols and poignards were made as tawdry 
as possible ; being richly mounted in silver, and 
studded with ivory, mother-of-pearl, and pre- 
cious stones. Upon their heads they wore caps 
of black wool ; and over these, coarse turbans, 
bound about the forehead and temples. Upon 
their shoulders they carried the same kind of 
short cloak made of felt, or fleece, which is 
worn by the Circassian mountaineers; from 
whom they only seem to differ in being more 
heavily armed, and in wearing the turban. 

As their numbers increased, our visits to the 
shore became less frequent ; not in consequence 
of any immediate danger to which our lives were 
exposed, but owing to the insults likely to be 
offered by a lawless tribe of men, not very 
amicably disposed towards each other, and 
under no government. The noise of their dis- 
putes reached even to our vessel, as she lay at 
anchor. The Turkish sailors belonging to the 
little fleet of boats behaved better ; and from 
these we often purchased tobacco, bread, brandy, 
honey, and other necessaries. 

Upon the north side of this port is a series of 
basaltic columns, forming part of the cliff towards 


the sea: they are disti wished by circumstances CHAP. 
of mineral association, which merit particular L - T - J 
notice. Upon the same side of the coast, to 
the westward of the basaltic range, the strata 
consist of a secondary deposit, inclining to the 
horizon at an angle of about thirty -five degrees. 
Then occur the pillars in prismatic forms ; pre- 
serving, by the line of their bases, exactly the 
same dipping inclination towards the level of 
the sea, and continuing the whole way to the 
extreme point of the promontory, upon the 
northern side of the port oflneada. There is not 
a single appearance anywhere, in or near the 
harbour, to indicate the agency of subterraneous 
fire. The strata are of lumachella, of ochreous 
indurated clay, of common limestone, or of sand- 
stone: these are all terminated by the range of 
prismatic rocks, ending abruptly at the point of 
the promontory ; their further extension being 
lost in the sea. Therefore, as this series of 
basaltic rocks preserves the same dipping in- 
clination which is possessed by all the other 
strata, it seems manifest, upon the most super- 
ficial examination, that it was deposited after 
the same manner; and, by attending to the 
internal structure and composition of the pillars, 
this truth appears to be further established. 
Their form is generally hexagonal; but it is 
rarely perfect. The substance of which they 
VOL. IT. 2 E 


CHAP, consist is a decomposed and crumbling porphyry 
so imperfectly adhering, that upon the slightest 
shock it falls to pieces. Climbing the sides of 
the cliff, we found it to be dangerous even to 
place our feet upon any of those pillars ; whole 
masses giving way with a touch, and, falling 
down, were instantly reduced to the state of 
gravel. Nuclei of an aluminous substance might 
be discerned in the very centre of their shafts ; 
and white veins, of an exceedingly soft crum- 
bling semi-transparent matter, not half an inch 
in thickness, traversed the whole range, in a 
direction parallel to the base of the columns. 
The vertical fissures between all the pillars were 
filled with a white kind of marble, forming a line 
of separation between them, which prevented 
their lateral planes from coming into contact 1 . 
Those vertical veins, thus coating the sides of 
the columns, were in some instances three 
inches in thickness. From all these facts, it 

seems evident that the basaltic pillars of Ineada 
have been the result of an aqueous deposition ; 
and that their prismatic configuration, like that 
of starch, or the natural columns of trap, seen at 

(l) A similar incrustation of zeolite may be observed upon the 
lateral planes of the pillars at Staffa, and upon the north coast of 
Ireland; also of sparry carbonate of lime in pit-coal, when it exhibits a 
near approach towards crystallization. 


Halleberg and Hunneberg in Siueden, and in many 
other parts of Europe, is entirely owing to 
CRYSTALLIZATION, which is equally displayed 
in the minutest and in the most majestic forms ; 
which, while it prescribes the shape of an 
emerald, or planes the surface of a mountain 2 ? 
does always tend to a regularity of structure, 
more or less perfect, in proportion as the laws 
of cohesion have been modified or interrupted by 
disturbing causes 3 . 

(2) Witness the remarkable result of crystallization exhibited by 
" the Polished Mountain" near St. Bernard in the Alps, described by 
Saussure. The author visited this mountain in 1 794, and observed, 
upon its polished surface, that striated appearance which is visible upon 
the planes of any crystal, when examined with a lens. 

(3) The most eminent mineralogist of the present age considers the 
prismatic configuration of basaltes to be owing to a retreat : and with 
all deference to his great authority, it may be urged, that all crys* 
tallization is the result of a retreating fluid ; whether of the fluid 
matter of heat, or of any other, wherein solution has been effected. 

2 E 2 


of the 


in Latitude 41. 51'. with the Soundings, 
from actual obtenations by E. D. C. 



Pbyage to Constantinople Entrance of the Canal 
Return to the Cyanean Isles Geological Phenomena 
Votive Altar Singular Breccia Origin of MeThracian 
Bosporus Antiquities Of the Temple of Jupiter 


Urius, and the place called Hieron Prolalle Situation 
of Darius when he surveyed the Euxine Approach to 
Constantinople Disgusting Appearance of the Streets 
Arrival at Galata Per a State of Turkish 

Friday, November the twenty-first, at ten CHAP. 
o'clock in the evening, a bustle in the little fleet 
of Turkish boats announced that they were all 
getting to sea as fast as possible. The wind had tinople - 
veered, after a foggy day, to the w. s. w. ; and 
the atmosphere became perfectly clear. Our 
Captain, following their example, as perhaps 
deeming them more experienced mariners of the 
Black Sea, ordered his crew to weigh the anchor. 
When it came on board, we found it had lost 
one of its flukes : this the sailors considered as 
a bad omen ; and some of them said, if we left 
the port with such an anchor, we should never 
have occasion to use another. We were how- 
ever under weigh ; and, spreading all the great 
sails to the wind, soon quitted the harbour of 
Ineada, steering to the south-east. At three in 
the morning of the 22d, we were becalmed, and 
a hazy atmosphere surrounded us on all sides. 
At four, it began to blow a gale from the north; 
and we made our course E. and s. until eight, 
when we discovered the coast near the mouth of 
the Canal of Constantinople, and then steered s. E. 


CHAP. Scarcely had we made the land, when a heavy 
rain fell: this continued till mid-day; and we 
were involved in such darkness, that those 
in the poop could hardly see the forecastle. 
About noon, the wind having abated, and a pro- 
digious sea rolling, the weather again cleared : 
we then discovered the light-tower on the 
European side of the Canal, at no great distance. 
The boatswain first gave us the agreeable 
intelligence from the mast-head : soon after, we 
all saw it from the deck, stationed at the base of 
an immense range of mountains. At the same 
time, the whole coast, both upon the European 
and the Asiatic side, appeared with a degree of 
grandeur not to be described ; like a vast wall 
opposed to the great bed of waters, in which 
the mouth of the Canal could only be compared 
to a small crack, or fissure, caused by an earth- 
quake. Soon afterwards, a fog covered us again, 
and we once more lost sight of land. We were 
then enveloped in such thick darkness, that we 
began to despair, and to dread another scene of 
trial in that terrible sea, so properly termed by 
the Antients, AEENOS, inhospitable*. The supersti- 
tion of the crew served however to amuse us, 
even in this state of suspense. Our old pilot, a 

(1) " Frigida me cohibent Euxini littora Ponti ; 

Dictus ab antiquis AXENUS ille fuit." 

Ovid. lib. iv. Trist. Eleg. IV. 


Greek, hobbled about the ship, collecting small CHAP. 
pieces of money from the crew : these he tied * T ' _ 
up in a rag, and bound upon the pole of the 
rudder: it was " to buy oil," he said, " for the 
lamp burning before an image at the light-house ;" 
a curious vestige of more antient superstition, 
when mariners, entering the Bosporus from the 
Euxine, paid their vows upon the precise spot 
where the Phandri, or light-tower, now stands 2 . 
About half after one p. M. our hopes revived: 
a general cry on board announced that we were 
close in with the land. Two little Turkish boats, 
like nautili, had been flying before us the whole 
day, serving as guides, to encourage our perse- 
verance in the course we held. Without these, 
the Captain said he could not have ventured to 
carry such a press of sail upon a lee-shore, 
covered as it was by darkness. The rapidity 
with which they sailed was amazing. Nothing 
could persuade the Captain but that they were 
" due angeli;" and, in proof of this, he declared 
that they vanished as soon as they entered the 
Straits. "We now clearly discerned the mouth 
of the Canal, with the Cyanean Isles 3 , and the 

(2) Xenophon. Hist. Grac. lib.vii. pp.380, 412. 

(3) " Antequam in Bosphorum venias, scopuli duo, quos Cyaneas t 
Symplegades olim Graeci dixerunt, ad dexteram in ipso Ponti ostio 
oceurrunt ; in quorum uno columna vetus e marmore candidissimo, quam 
vulgus Pompeii nominat, posita est." Doma Her Constant, p. 20. 
L. Sat. 1600. 

to the 


land both on the European and on the Asiatic 
side; the houses upon the shore facing the 
Black Sea ; and an enlivening prospect of groves 
and gardens. Every preparation was made for 
terminating our perilous voyage ; the hold being 
opened to let out the anchor cables, and the 
crew expressing their transports by mirth and 

As we entered the Straits, a miserable lantern, 
placed upon a tower on either side, exhibited 
all that was intended to serve as guidance for 
seamen during the night. Never were light- 
houses of more importance, or to which less 
attention has been paid. An officer of the customs 
put off from the shore in his boat; but con- 
tented himself with merely asking the name of 
the Captain, and did not come on board. After 
passing the light-houses, we saw some fortresses, 
the works of French engineers ; and their ap- 
pearance upon rugged rocks has a very striking 
effect '. Presently, such a succession of splendid 
objects was displayed, that, in all the remem- 
brance of his former travels, the author can 
recall nothing to which it may be compared. 
A rapid current, flowing at the rate of a league 

(1) That on the European side was the work of Baron de Tott. 


an hour, conveyed us from the Black Sea. Then, 
as we were musing upon the sudden discharge 
of such accumulated waters by so narrow an 
aqueduct, and meditating the causes which first 
produced the wonderful channel by which they 
are conveyed, we found ourselves to be trans- 
ported, as it were, into a new world. Scarcely 
had we time to admire the extraordinary beauty 
of the villages scattered up and down at the 
mouth of this Canal, when the palaces and 
gardens of the European and of Asiatic Turks, the 
villas of foreign ambassadors, mosques, minarets, 
mouldering towers, and the ivy-mantled walls 
of antient edifices, made their appearance. 
Among these we beheld an endless variety of 
objects, seeming to realize tales of enchantment: 
fountains, ccemeteries, hills, mountains, terraces, 
groves, quays, painted gondolas, and harbours, 
presented themselves to the eye in such a rapid 
succession, that, as one picture disappeared, it 
was succeeded by a second, more beautiful 
than the first 2 . To the pleasure thus afforded, 

(2) " Bosphori dextrum latus longissima oppidorum serie praetexi- 
tur Sinistrumnontam ffidificiis oblectationi dicatis, quam collibu* 
fructiferis, hortisque Regiis collucet: quos singulos quid al.ud esse 
dicam, quam Thessalica ilia Tempe amcenissirna, sed longfc amoemon, 
nisi ea Lapith* Centauri baud secus quam Hesperidum pomaria 
ille, custodirent, proculque spectators arcerent." Dous* Iter 
ttantinop. p.1\. l Bat. 1600. 


CHAR add also the joy of having escaped the dangers 
of an inhospitable sea ; and it may be readily 
conceived, that a combination of circumstances 
more calculated to affect the heart can seldom 
occur. All our apprehensions and prejudices, 
respecting the pestilence, the barbarism, the 
vices, and the numberless perils of Turkey, 
vanished. Unmindful of the inward deformities 
of the country, we considered only her splendid 
vesture. Suddenly, our vessel, instead of ad- 
vancing, although every sail were distended by 
the wind, remained immoveable in the midst of 
the Canal. An extraordinary and contrary 
current held us stationary. The waters of the 
Black Sea, after flowing for ages towards the 
Sea of Marmora, had suddenly taken an opposite 
course, and were returning to their native bed. 
At a loss to account for this new appearance, 
the Captain ordered his men to let go the 
smaller anchor; and a number of Turks, in 
their gondolas, crowding around the Moderato, 
informed us of the cause. A south-west wind 
had prevailed during many days, and, by its 
violence, diverted the ordinary course of the 
current. It became necessary, therefore, to 
wait until a change took place ; and an oppor- 
tunity was offered, not only of examining more 
attentively the scenery around us, but also of 
making inquiry into the natural history of a 


country, as remarkable for its physical phaeno- CHAP. 
mena as for the interest afforded by its antient v - T -* 

We had passed the town of Buyuckdery, a 
sort of watering-place, whither foreign ministers 
at the Porte retire during the summer months : 
this place is filled with villas and palaces be- 
longing to the inhabitants of Pera. Our vessel 
was anchored opposite to Yenikeuy, a similar 
retreat of less celebrity. Here the Canal is so 
narrow, that we were able to converse with 
persons upon either side, in Europe or Asia. 
The late hurricane had unroofed, and otherwise 
damaged, several houses in both these towns. 
During the night after our arrival, a storm 
raged with such fury from the north, that the 
Moderato and the Aronetto, although held by 
stout cables fastened round the trees upon the 
shore, as well as by their anchors, drove from 
their stations during the violence of the gale. 
Soon after midnight we were called by the 
watch to notice a dreadful conflagration in Con- 
stantinople, which seemed to fill the horizon 
with fire, and exhibited an alarming spectacle 
from our cabin windows. The sight is however 
so common, that we were told we should find 
no notice taken of the accident when we reached 
the city, which proved to be the case. The 


burning of fifty or an hundred houses is consi- 
dered of no moment by persons who are not 
themselves the sufferers ; the buildings are soon 
supplied by others, constructed precisely after 
the plan and model of those which have been 

On the following morning, a contrary wind 
and current still prevailing, notwithstanding 
the gale which had blown from the north during 
the night, we dispatched our interpreter to 
Constantinople, to inform the British Ambassador 
of our safe arrival ; to provide lodgings ; and 
also to bring our letters. In the mean time, 
having procured a large boat with a set of stout 
gondoliers, we were resolved to venture as far 
as ^e i s l an ds antiently called Cyanea?, or Sym- 
pfegades, lying off the mouth of the Canal. The 
accurate Busbequius* confessed, that, in the few 
hours he spent upon the Black Sea, he could 
discern no traces of their existence : we had, 
however, in the preceding evening, seen enough 
of them to entertain great curiosity concerning 
their nature and situation, even in the transitory 
view afforded by means of our telescopes. Stralo 
correctly describes their number and situa- 
tion. " The Cyanete" says he, " in the mouth 

(I) Buslequius's Travels in Turkey, Epist. I. 


of Pvntus, are two little isles, one upon the CHAP. 
European, and the other upon the Asiatic side * .-.< 
of the Strait ; separated from each other by 
twenty stadia*" The more antient accounts, 
representing them as sometimes separated, and 
at other times joined together, were satisfac- 
torily explained by Tournefort 3 ; who observed, 
that each of them consists of one craggy island ; 
but that, when the sea is disturbed, the water 
covers the lower parts, so as to make the 
different points of either resemble insular rocks. 
They are, in fact, each joined to the main land 
by a kind of isthmus, and appear as islands 
when this is inundated ; which always happens 
in stormy weather. But it is not certain that 
the isthmus, connecting either of them with the 
continent, was formerly visible. The disclosure 
has been probably owing to that gradual sinking 
of the level of the Black Sea, before noticed. 
The same cause continuing to operate, may 
hereafter lead posterity to marvel what is 
become of the Cyanea?; and this may also 
account for their multiplied appearance in ages 
anterior to the time of Strabo. The main object 
of our visit was not, however, the illustration of 
any antient author, in this particular part of 

(2) Strab. Geogr. lib. vii. p. 463. ed. Oxon. 

(3) Voy. du Lev. Lett. XV. 


their history ; but to ascertain, if possible, by 
the geological phenomena of the coast, the 
nature of a revolution, which opened the re- 
markable channel, at whose mouth those islands 
are situate. 

Geological -for some time before we reached the entrance 


to the Canal, steering close along its European 
side, we observed in the cliffs and hills, even 
to their summits, a remarkable aggregate of 
heterogeneous stony substances, rounded by 
attrition in water, imbedded in a hard natural 
cement, yet differing from the usual appearance 
of breccia rocks ; for, upon a nearer examination, 
the whole mass appears to have undergone, 
first, a violent action of fire, and secondly, 
that degree of friction in water, to which their 
form must be ascribed. Breccia rocks do not 
commonly consist of substances so modified. 
The stratum formed by this singular aggregate, 
and the parts composing it, exhibited, by the 
circumstances of their position, a striking proof 
of the power of an inundation ; having dragged 
along with it the constituent parts of the mix- 
ture, over all the heights above the present 
level of the Black Sea, and deposited them 
in such a manner as to leave no doubt but 
that a torrent had there passed towards 
the Sea of Marmora, All the strata of the 


mountains, and each individual mass composing CHAP. 
them, lean from the north towards the south, v - v - -i 
At the point of the European light-house, we 
found the sea still tempestuous, beating against 
immense rocks of a hard and compact lava: 
these rocks have separated prismatically, and 
they exhibit surfaces tinged by the oxide of 

From this point we passed to the Cyanean Votive 
Lie, upon the European side of the Strait; 
and there landed. It is remarkable for an 
altar of white marble, long known under the 
name of Pompeys Pillar. Whence it received 
this appellation, it is perhaps impossible to 
ascertain. If the representation given in 
Sandys Travels be corrects there once stood 
a column upon this altar. He describes it as 
" a piller of white marble, called vulgarly, The 
Filler of Pompey : the basis whereof did beare 
these now worne-out characters 2 : 


(1) Sandys' Travels, p. 40. ed. 3. Land. 1632. 

(2) Wlieler gives a different reading of this inscription; and has 
endeavoured to reconcile his legend with names recorded by GrMer. 
See Wkeler's Journey, Sfc. Lond. 1632. /?.207. Leundavius, and 



CHAP, if by the basis be meant the altar, the cha- 
racters are no longer visible; at least they 
escaped our observation. Sandys was too ac- 
curate a writer to insert such an inscription 
without authority. Tournefort 3 confirms what 
he has said, by giving a description of the 
pillar, although the sea would not permit him 
to examine it closely; and he adds, that the 
base and shaft were not made for each other. 
According to him, it was a Corinthian pillar, 
about twelve feet high, placed, perhaps, as a 
guide to vessels. The history of the altar is 
preserved by Dionysius of Byzantium' 1 , who 
relates, that an altar to Apollo was placed upon 
this rock; whereof, says Tournefort, the base 
of this pillar may be a remnant ; for the festoons 
are of laurel-leaves, which were from a tree 
sacred to that God. The altar remains entire ; 
the loss of the column has only restored it to 
its original state. The festoons are supported 

George Dousa who visited the spot in 1759, give the reading as it has 
been here published. Perhaps Sandys copied the Inscription from 
Dousa, whose work is now exceedingly rare. " In basi hujus Columnar 
Inscriptionem Latinis literis incisatn animadvert], caeterum ita vetus- 
tate temporis exesam, ut si earn I Leunclavius V. N. et in hoc stu- 
diorum genere haud tralaticiti versatus, non eruisset, a nemine legi 
posset." Douses Her Constantinop. p. 20. L. Bat, 1GOO. 

(3) Voyage du Lev. Lett. XV. 

(4) Dionysius Byzantius, apud Gyllium, de Boq>h. Throe, lib. 
iii. c. 5. 


by rams' heads, a mode of decoration common to CHAP 

"V T 

many of the altars tfAntient Greece 5 . The shores 
of this extremity of the Thracian Bosporus were 
once covered by every description of votive 
offering ; by tablets, altars, shrines, and temples ; 
monuments of the fears or the gratitude of 
mariners, who were about to brave, or who 
had escaped, the dangers of the Euxine. Owing 
to their peculiar sanctity, the different places 
in the mouth of the Strait were all included 
under one general appellation of 'JEPA. The 
remains of those antiquities were so numerous, 
even in the time of Tournefort, that he describes 
the coasts " as covered by their ruins;' and 
almost every thing concerning them in antient 
history has been detailed with equal brevity 
and learning, in his description of the Canal of 
the Black Sea 6 . 

(5) During a subsequent visit which we made to this isle, with the 
Commander of an American frigate, one of his boat's crew attempted 
to break off a part of the sculpture with a large sledge-hammer; 
instigated by an inferior officer, who wished to carry home a piece of 
the marble. We were fortunate in preventing a second blow, although 
some injury were done by the first. The loss the Fine Arts have 
Sustained, in this Way, by our own countrymen, in Greece and Egypt, 
cannot be too much regretted. A better taste seems, however, about 
to prevail. The example of Sir J. Stuart, who prevented the destruc- 
tion of the granite Sarcophagus in the great Pyramid of Djtza, by his 
positive orders to those of our troops in Egypt, who were under his 
command, deserves the commendation of all Europe. 

(6) See Voyage dit Lev, Lett. XV. addressed to the French Secretary 
of State. 

VOL. II. 2 F 


To return, therefore, to the immediate purport 
of our visit upon this occasion. The structure 
singular o f the rock, whereof the island consists, corre- 


sponds with the nature of the strata already 
described; but the substances composing it 
were perhaps never before associated in any 
mineral aggregate. They all appear to have 
been more or less modified by fire, and to have 
been cemented during the boiling of a volcano. . 
In the same mass may be observed fragments 
of various-coloured lava, of trap, of basalt, and 
of marble. In the fissures appear agate, chal- 
cedony, and quartz, but in friable and thin veins, 
not half an inch in thickness, deposited post- 
erior to the settling of the stratum. The agate 
appeared in a vein of considerable extent, 
occupying a deep fissure not more than an 
inch wide, and coated by a green earth, 
resembling some of the lavas of JEtna, which 
have been decomposed by acidiferous vapours. 
Near the same vein we found a substance 
resembling native mercury, but in such ex- 
ceedingly minute particles, and in a crumbling 
matrix, that it was impossible to preserve a 
specimen. The summit of this insular rock is 
the most favourable situation for surveying the 
mouth of the Canal : thus viewed, it has the 
appearance of a crater, whose broken sides 
were opened towards the Black Sea, and, by a 


smaller aperture, towards the Bosporus. The CHAP. 
Asiatic side of the Strait is distinguished by - T '_ 
appearances similar to those already described ; 
with this difference, that, opposite to the island, 
a little to the east of the Anatolian light-house, a 
range of basaltic pillars may be discerned, stand- 
ing upon a base inclined towards the sea ; s 
and when examined with a telescope, exhi- 
biting very regular prismatic forms. From all t 
the preceding observations, and after due " 


consideration of events recorded in history, 
as compared with the phenomena of Nature, 
it is, perhaps, more than probable, that the 
bursting of the Thracian Bosporus, the deluge 
mentioned by Diodorus Siculus, and the draining 
of the waters once uniting the Black Sea to the 
Caspian, were all the consequence of an earth- 
quake caused by subterraneous fires, which 
were not extinct at the time of the passage 
of the Argonauts, and whose effects are still 
visible '. 

(I) Plato, in the third book of the Laws, mentions three floods, as 
having happened in Greece. These appear to be, I. That of Lycaon, 
recorded by the Aru.nd.el Marbles, less than a century prior to the 
Trojan Waty 2. That of Deucalion, who lived about three centuries 
and a half before this war, according to the Arundel Marbles. 3. That 
ofOgyges: this, according to Julius Solinus and -others, happened 
600 years before that of Deucalion, and consequently about 1000 

before the war of Troy. 

2 F2 


Of the 


The antiquities of the Thradan Bosporus have 
been noticed .in a cursory manner by many 
travellers. The Abbe Barthelemy, in his Travels 
of Anacharsis, has upon this subject been 
particularly deficient, considering the extent of 
his resources, and the importance of the dis- 
cussion to the work he had undertaken 1 . By 
ascertaining the nature of the worship, and the 
antiquity of the temples, founded by the earliest 
inhabitants of the Bosporus upon its shores, 
some notion might be formed of the eera when 
the channel itself was laid open. Formaleoni, 
whose writings have been before cited, has en- 
tered somewhat diffusely into the inquiry ; and 
a reference to his Work 2 will be useful to those 
who seek for information in this respect. 

Temple of Tournefort considers the situation of the castles 
Urius, and upon the European and Asiatic sides of the 
called 80 Strait as marking tke sites of the antient fanes 
O f j a pi ter Serapis and of Jupiter Urius, called by 
Strabo, respectively, the Temples tf the Byzan- 
tines, and of the Chalcedonians*. The latter 
seems to have been the sanctuary which was 
held in supreme veneration : the district in 
which it stood being called, by way of eminence, 

TO 'IEPON. This appellation is noticed by 

___^ * i 

(1) Voyage d'dnacharse, torn. I. 

(2) Hist. Philos. et Polit. du Comm. &c. dans la Mer Noire. 
(3)_Slrabon. Geogr. lib.vii. p. 463. ed. Oxon. 


Herodotus, Demosthenes, Polybius, Arrian, Proco- CHAP. 
plus, Mardanus, and by Dionysius of Byzantium; ^ - T '_ 
some of whom expressly declare that it was 
used to signify the Temple of Jupiter Urius* : on 
which account writers maintain, that it was 
from this temple Darius surveyed the Euxine, 
as mentioned by Herodotus; but Herodotus does Probable 

. ,, Situation of 

not specify the name of the fane, whence the -* 
prospect was afforded. The fact is, that the surveyed 
Hieron was not a single temple, but a town and *' 
a port, . .containing a fane of great sanctity 
within its district, situate upon the Asiatic side 
of the Bosporus 5 . " The Thracian Bosporus" ob^ 
serves Poly bins 6 , 1 " is ended at a place called 
Hieron; in which Jason, at his return from 
Colchis, is said first to have offered sacrifice to 

(4) The author has endeavoured to collect and compare the refe- 
rences ; but the Reader may find yet other authorities. Herodot. Mel- 
pom. 85 ; Demosth. in Oral. adv. Polyclem, et in al. loc. (fid. Taylor 
in Prerfat. Comment, ad L. Decemv. p. 7> tf*3i Arrian. Peripl. Pont. 
Eux. ad finem ; Procop. de JEdif. Justinian, lib, ix. ; Martian. Hera- 
cleot. edit. Oxon.; Qeogr. Vet. Script. Minor, p. 69 ; Polyb. Hist. Kb. iv.j 
Dionysf. Byzant. apud Gyll. lib. iii. c. 5. Of this number Ariian and 
Mardanus state, that the Hieron was so called from the temple of 
Jupiter Urius. Dioni/sim of Byzantium says, it was a fane, built by 
Phryxus, in his voyage to Colchis. It is not easy to reconcile the 
account given by Herodotus with the common notions of the situation of 
the temple, or with the position of the modern town ofJoro, or Joron, 
at the mouth of the Strait ; since, according to Herodotus, the Hieron, 
at which Darius satf might have been one of the Cyanean Isles. 

(5) Its name is still preserved in the appellation of a modern town, 
Joro, or Joron. 

(6) Polybius, lib. iv. c.5. The passage is given from Hampton. 


CHAP, the twelve Gods. This place, although situate 
in Asia, is not far removed from Europe ; being 
distant about twelve stadia only from the Temple 
of Serapis, which stands opposite to it, upon the 
coast of Thrace" Marcianus also calls Hieron a 
country or district 1 . A due attention to the 
features of the country may now perhaps 
ascertain the position of the Eastern monarch. 
If he were then placed near to any temple, or 
upon any point of land, called Hieron, low down 
towards the shore of the Strait, he could not 
have been gratified with the prospect he sought 
to obtain : nor does the text of Herodotus admit 
of such an interpretation 3 . In our return from 
the Cijanean Isles, we landed opposite to 
Biiyuchdery, upon the Argyronian Cape 3 , in order 
to examine the particular eminence still bearing 
the name, mentioned by Dionysius Byzantinus*, 
of the " Bed of the Giant" or " Bed of Hercules" 
We there found the capital of a very antient 
column, of the Ionic order, not less than two 
feet and an half in diameter. It had been 

(1) Marciani Heracleotae Peripl. p. 69. ed. Ozon. 1698. 

(2) 'E^Sftitai & \vl THI 'IEPHI Maura rov llavTot i'ovru af/o^uraV ",4nd 
sitting at the Hieron, he beheld the admirable Pontus." Herodot. 
Mclpom. 8i>. 

(3) SeeBanduri Imperium Orientate: Anaplus Bosp. Thrac. ex indag. 
P. Gyll. Sfc. 

(4) " Herculis KAINH, hoc est, Leetus." Dianys. 2Ji/zanl. apud 
Gy Ilium, lib. iii. c. 6. 


hollowed ; and it now serves as a vase, near to 
the residence of the Dervish, who relates the 
idle superstitions of the country concerning the 
mountain, and the giant supposed to be there 
buried*. It is therefore evident, that a temple 
of considerable magnitude once stood in this 
situation; because the present inhabitants would 
never have been at the pains to convey such a 
mass of marble to this place 6 , although they may 
have thence removed all the other materials of 
the temple, by rolling them down the mountain. 
Upon this spot the author made a sketch of the 
opening into the Black Sea ; shewing the European 

(5) The fables which have been related of the Giant and his sepul- 
chre had their origin in the annals of more remote history. They 
refer to the story of Amycus, king of Bithynia, (called by Valerius 
Flaecus, Argonaut, lib. iv. r.200. 'thed'an*,') who was killed by Pollux, 
the son of Jupiter. His tomb is mentioned by antient authors ; and if 
tradition have preserved the memory of the place where it was situate, 
the origin of the temple will be thereby illustrated. 

(6) During a subsequent visit to the same place, the author was 
accompanied by Mons. Preaux, artist in the service of Mr. Spencer 
Smith, late Minister at the Porte. Mons. Preaux made a drawing of 
this Ionic capital ; which is now in Mr. Smith's possession. Although 
the discovery of such a relic, so situate, may serve to prove the 
former existence of a temple there, it by no means necessarily follows 
that this was the temple of Jupiter Urius: the temples of Jupiter were 
generally, if not universally, constructed of the Doric order. At the 
same time, the text of Marcianus decidedly shews that Hieron was a 
name given to a whole district on the Asiatic side of the Bosporus, and 
not merely to a single temple. The temple of Jupiter Urius stood in 
the country called Hieron; as appears by the following passage of that 
author. Ki7rat %aitt 'li^'av x.a.\ovpinv, iv u na; ttrri A/of Ov^itv V( 

put;. Marc. Herac. p. C9. 


CHAP, light-house upon the point of the Lycians, at the 

.\ i . B 

extremity of the Canal ; the ruins of an antient 
castle on the Asiatic side, the ARX MUNITA, men- 
tioned by Dionysius Byzantius, as being situate 
above the temple built by Phryxus ; and a small 
port in front, below the castle, perhaps antiently 
that of Hieron, mentioned by the same writer, 
as the common haunt of all persons navigating 
the Bosporus 1 . If the appearance of the Euxine, 
and of the mouth of the Bosporus, were not 
delineated from the precise spot whence they 
were viewed by Darius, it is certain that the 
prospect he surveyed was nearly the same. 
The temples, indeed, belonging to the Hiera* 
have disappeared, but the features of Nature are 
unaltered ; the same tremendous chasm which 
once conducted the waters of an immense 
ocean to overwhelm the territories of Antient 
Greece, now affords a passage to the fleets of 
the world, bearing the tributary wealth of 
nations; while its, aspect, then so fearful, pre- 
sents every assemblage that can captivate the 
eye. The Bosporus of Thrace, in whatsoever 

(1) See the Quarto Edition. 

(2) " Post Chelas esse nuncupatiim Hieron, hocestFanum aPhryxo 
Nephelse et Athamantis filio aedificatum, cum navigaret ad Colchos, k 
Byzantiis quidem possessum sed commune receptaculum omnium navi- 
gantium. Supra templum est murus in orbem procedens. In hoc est 
Arx munita, quain Galatae populati sunt, ut alia pleraque Asiae." 
Dimiysius Byzantius, ap. Gyll. lib. iii. c. 5. 


point of view it is considered, is unequalled in CHAP. 
the interest it excites ; whether with reference i - T -_' 
to the surprising nature of its origin; to its 
antient history ; to the matchless beauty of its 
scenery ; to its extraordinary animal produc- 
tions ; to the number of rare plants, blooming 
amidst its towering precipices ; to its fleets and 
gondolas, towns and villages, groves and gar- 
dens, the coemeteries of the dead, and the walks 
of the living ; to its painted villas, virandas, 
flowery terraces, domes, towers, quays, and 
mouldering edifices : all these, in their turn, 
excite and gratify curiosity; while the dress 
and manners of the inhabitants, contrasting the 
splendid costume and indolence of the East 
with the plainer garb and the activity of the 
West, offer to the stranger an endless source of 
reflection and amusement. 

It was near midnight when we returned from Approach 

,1 /~v J.T. r n to C'mttan- 

this excursion. On the following morning we tinop i e , 
determined to leave the Moderate, and proceed 
to Constantinople, in one of the gondolas that ply 
in the Canal for hire. These boats are more 
beautiful than the gondolas of Venice ; and they 
are often very richly ornamented, although they 
have not any awning. They are swifter than 
any of our boats upon the Thames: this fact was 
ascertained by an actual cpntest, between a 


CHAP, party of Turkish gondoliers in their own boat, 
and a set of Thames watermen in one of their 
wherries. We passed the gorge of the Canal, 
remarkable as being the site of the bridge 
constructed by Darius for the passage of his 
numerous army; the grandeur of the scenery 
increasing as we approached the capital. The 
sides of the Canal appeared covered with 
stately pavilions, whose porticoes, reaching to 
the water's edge, were supported by pillars of 
marble; when, all at once, the prospect of 
Constantinople, with the towns of Scutary and 
Pera, opened upon us, and filled our minds 
with such astonishment and admiration, that 
the impression can never be effaced. Since 
nothing can equal the splendour of such a scene, 
it is impossible, by comparison, to give any 
description of what we saw. The Reader, by 
the aid of his imagination, combining all his 
ideas of Oriental pomp with the utmost magni- 
ficence of Nature, may endeavour to supply the 
deficiency 1 . The Turkish squadron, recently 
returned from a summer cruise, were, when we 
arrived, at anchor off the point of the seraglio. 
One of the ships, a three-decker, constructed 

()) The Bay of Naples has often been compared with that of 
Constantinople, but improperly; because the natural beauties of the 
former are of a different description ; and the external appearance of 
the city of Naples, viewed from the sea, is very inferior in grandeur. 


by a French engineer of the name of Le Brun, CHAP. 


surprised us by its extraordinary beauty. Its . -^'- _ 
guns were all of polished brass; and its immense 
ensign, reaching to the surface of the water, 
consisted entirely of silk. 

After what has been said of the external Disgusting 
grandeur of this wonderful city, the Reader is 

perhaps ill prepared for a description of the 6 
interior; the horror, the wretchedness, and 
filth of which are not to be conceived. Its 
streets are narrow, dark, ill paved, and full of 
holes and ordure. In the most abominable 
alleys of London, or of Paris, there is nothing so 
revolting. They more resemble the interior of 
common sewers than public streets. The 
putrefying carcases of dead dogs, with immense 
heaps of filth and mud, obstruct a passage 
through them. Owing to the inequalities and 
holes in the narrow causeway, it is almost 
impossible to proceed without danger of putting 
an ancle out of joint. We landed at Galata, in Arrival at 
the midst of dunghills, where a number of large, 
lean, mangy dogs, some with whelps wallowing 
in mire, and all of them covered with dirt, 
were sprawling or feeding. The appearance 
of a Frank 2 instantly raises an alarm among 

('2) The name applied to every Christian in the Levant, of whatsoever 



these animals, who never bark at the Turks; 
and, as they were roused by our coming on 
shore, the noise became so great, that we could 
not hear each other speak. To this clamour 
were added the bawlings of a dozen porters, 
vociferously proffering their services, and be- 
ginning to squabble with each other as fast as 
any of them obtained a burden. At length we 
were able to move on ; but hi such confined, 
stinking, and yet crowded lanes, that we almost 
despaired of being able to proceed. The swarm 
of dogs, howling and barking, continually 
accompanied us, and some of the largest endea- 
voured to bite us. When we reached the little 
inn of Pera, where a few small rooms, like the 
divisions in a rabbit-hutch, had been prepared 
for our reception, we saw at least fifty of these 
mongrels collected around the door in the yard, 
like wolves disappointed of their prey. The late 
storms had unroofed several of the houses in 
Pera: that in which we were to lodge was 
among the number: one corner of it had been 
carried off by the wind ; so that, without climbing 
to the top for a view of the city, we commanded, 
through its dilapidated walls, a fine prospect of 
the Port of the GOLDEN* HORN*, and part of 
CONSTANTINOPLE. Pera had recently suffered, 
in consequence of a conflagration which had 
nearly consumed every house in the place. 


There was reason to believe some improvement CHAP. 
would take place during its restoration; but we - T - - 
found it rising from its ashes, like a new phoenix, 
without the slightest deviation from the form 
and appearance of its parent. The exception 
only of one or two houses, formerly of wood, 
and rebuilt with stone, might be noticed; but all 
the rest were as ugly, as inconvenient, and as 
liable to danger, as before ; and were it not for 
a few workmen employed in fronting the houses 
of the merchants, no stranger would have dis- 
covered that any calamity had befallen the place. 

Considering the surprising extent of the city 
and suburbs of Constantinople, the notions en- Commerce. 
tertained of its commerce, and the figure it has 
long made in history, it might be expected that 
all the conveniences, if not the luxuries, of life 
would be there found. Previous to an arrival, 
if inquiry be made of merchants, and other 
persons who have visited Constantinople, as to 
the commodities of its markets, the answer is 
almost always characterized by exaggeration. 
They will affirm, that every thing a stranger may 
require can be purchased in Constantinople, as 
easily as in London, in Paris, or in Vienna: 
whereas, if truth be told, hardly any one article, 
good in its kind, can be procured. Let a 


CHAP, foreigner visit the bazar 1 , properly so called, 
he will see nothing but slippers, clumsy boots of 
bad leather, coarse muslins, pipes, tobacco, 
coffee, cooks' shops, drugs, flowers, roots, 
second-hand pistols, poignards, and the worst 
manufactured wares in the world. In PERA, 
Greeks and Italians are supposed to supply all 
the necessities of the Franks : and here, it is true, 
a few pitiful stalls are to be seen; but all the 
wares are dear and bad. Suppose a stranger 
to arrive from a long journey, in want of clothes 
for his body, furniture for his lodgings, books or 
maps for his instruction and amusement; paper, 
pens, ink, cutlery, shoes, hats ; in short, those 
articles which may be found in almost every 
city of the world : he will obtain few or none 
of them in Constantinople, unless they be of a 
quality so inferior as to render them incapable 
of answering the purposes for which they were 
made. The few commodities exposed for sale, 
are either exports from England, unfit for any 
other market, or, which is worse, German and 
Dutch imitations of English, manufacture. The 
woollen cloths are -hardly good enough to cover 
the floors of their own counting-houses ; every 
article of cutlery and hardware is detestable ; 

(l) Bazar is the Turkish word for Market. 


the leather used for shoes and boots is so bad, CHAP, 


that it can scarcely be wrought ; hats, hosiery, < > 
linen, buttons, buckles, are all of the same cha- % 
racter ; of the worst quality, and yet of the 
highest price. But there are other articles of 
merchandize, to which we have been accustomed 
to annex the very name of Turkey, as if they 
were the peculiar produce of that country; and 
these, at least, a foreigner expects to find ; but 
not one of them can be had. Ask for a Turkish 
carpet, you are told you must send for it to 
Smyrna; for Greek wines, to the Archipelago; 
for a Turkish sabre, to Damascus; for the sort of 
stone expressly denominated turquoise, they 
know not what you mean ; for red leather, they 
import it themselves from Russia or from Africa : 
still you are said to be in the centre of the com- 
merce of the globe ; and this may be true with 
reference to the freight of vessels passing the 
Straits, which is never landed. View the ex- 
terior of Constantinople, and it seems the most 
opulent and flourishing city in Europe : examine 
its interior, and its miseries and deficiencies 
are so striking, that it must be considered the 
meanest and poorest metropolis of the world* 
The ships crowding its ports have no connec- 
tion with its welfare : they are, for the most 
part, French, Venetian, Ragusan, Sclavonian, and 
Grecian vessels, bound to, or from, the Meditcr- 


ranean; exchanging the produce of their own 
countries, for the rich harvests of Poland; for 
the salt, honey, and butter of the Ukraine ; for 
the hides, tallow, hemp, furs, and metals of 
Russia and Siberia: but the whole of this ex- 
change is transacted in other ports, without any 
interference on the part of Turkey. Never was 
there a people in possession of such advantages, 
who either knew or cared so little for their 
enjoyment. Under a wise government, the 
inhabitants of Constantinople might obtain the 
riches of all the empires of the earth. Situate 
as they are, it cannot be long before other 
nations, depriving them of such important 
sources of wealth, will convert to better 
purposes the advantages they have so long 


PAGE 100, line 10. " The natives of the Crimea still 
call the toivn of Kertchy Vospor, and the straits Vospor, 
although they write the word Bospor."3 The preserva- 
tion of this name, as applied to the town of Kertchy by 
the present inhabitants, settles the antient geography of 
the Cimmerian Straits, in a very satisfactory manner; 
as it serves, with a remarkable passage of Pliny, to prove 
that Kertchy was actually PANTICAP^UM, which was 
also called BOSPHORUS : and having once established the 
position of Panticapceum, it necessarily follows, that Taman, 
upon the opposite Asiatic shore, was the antient PHANA,- 
GORIA. These are Pliny's words, in the passage to which 
allusion is made : " Ad Panticapceum, quod aliqui Bos- 
phorum vacant" (Vid. Hist. Nat. lib. iv. c. 12. torn. I. 
p. 227. Lugd. Bat. 1635.) In Count Potocki's Map of the 
CRIMEA, the modern name is not Kertchy, but Vospor. 

P. 290. Note (3). " See the Additional Notes" 
" Chersonesum seu Cherronesum, Corsunum, vel Chersonam, 
Sari Germenum, quasi flavam arcem, Turcae urbern earn 
vocarunt : nam solum quasi flavum ille tractus habet. Quae 
quod superba, dives, delicata et clara quondam Graecac gentis 
colonia fuerit, universaeque peninsulas urbs antiquissima, 
frequens, magnifica, portuque nobilissima extiterit, admirandae 
ruinae illius manifeste testantur. In extremitate isthmi illius, 
quern parvam Cherronesum Strabo vocat, et in ostio ipso 
portus oris angusti, ac per universum isthmum sicut latitude 
ripae utriusque maris est, urbs murum altissimum et magnum 
turresque plurimas et maximas ex secto et grandi lapide 
erectas nunc etiam habet, ac tota mari exposita existit. 
Aquarum ductus, qui milliaribus quatuor cuniculis ex petris 
VOL. I. 2 G 


excisis in urbe ducebantur, in quibus nunc etiam aqua 
purissima est, ad urbis ipsius mcenia conspiciuntur. Est in 
eo loco unde rivulus ilk delabitur pagus quidam non ignobilis, 
et nonproculin ripamaris, in monte saxoso, Graecum monas- 
terium, Sancti Georgii solemne ; anniversaria devotio Graecis 
Christianis qui nunc in Taurica sunt reliqui, in magna fre- 
quentia ibi fieri solet. Urbs ilia a multis non solum annis, 
verum sasculis, et hominibus et habitatoribus prorsus vacua, 
funditus diruta ac in vastitatem redacta est. Muri et turres 
integrae adhuc et miro opere sumptuose factae conspiciuntur. 
Principum Regia vel domus in ea isthmi parte, et urbis 
mcenibus, turribus, et portis magnificis existit. Verum a 
Turcis insignes columnae marmoreae et serpentinae, quarum 
intus adhuc loca apparent, et grandiores lapides, spoliatae et 
per mare ad sedes eorum in aedificia publica et privata depor- 
tatae sunt. Idcirco ad majorem ruinam ea urbs pervenit : 
non aedium et templorum ne vestigia quidem in ea visuntur. 
Urbis aedificia humi prostrata et solo acquata sunt. Monas- 
terium Graecum maximumque in urbe est reliquum; parietes 
templi apparent quidem, sed testitudinem non habent, et 
ornamenta sedificii ejus, quae ibi erant insignia, diruta et 
-spoliata sunt. Ex illo monasterio duas portas aeris Corinthii, 
quas Graecorum presbyteri Regias portas vocant, et imagines 
insigniores, Graecos aliquos ad Volodimirum magnum Russo- 
rum seu Kioviensium Principem ea tempestate praedae loco 
Kioviam deportavisse, postmodum vero a Boleslao secundo 
rege Poloniae Kiovia Gnesnam praedae itidem loco, quae in 
templi maximi porta nunc etiam ibi visuntur, delatas esse, 
Russorum et Polonorum annales memoriae prodidere ; Volo- 
dimirum Principum loanni Zemiscae Constantinopolitano 
Imperatori earn urbem quondam eripuisse ; verum Basilii et 
Constantini Imperatorum Anna sorore in matrimonio ducta, 
et sacro fonte ritus Graeci in eodem monasterio a Patriarcha 
quodam-initiato, restituisse. Quod et in hodiernum usque 
diem in locis iisdem a Christianis Graecis, quorum obscura et 


parvae admodum reliquae supersunt, praedicatur. Ante urbem 
promontorium existere, et Parthenium, id est, virgineum 
appellatum esse, Deaeque illius aedem ac statuam habere. Ac 
earn urbem liberam fuisse, propriisque legibus vixisse; 
verum a Barbaris direptam, eoque necessitatis deductam esse, 
Eupatore Mithridate praesule sibi delecto adversus Barbar'os 
bellum gessisse, et tanta spe erectum exercitum in Chersone- 
sum misisse, ut et Scythis pariter Strabone teste intulerit, et 
Sciluri liberos quinquaginta (ut Possidonus scribit) captives 
habuerit, et a Perisade prsefecto loci ditione accepta Bospho 
potitus sit : Ac inde ex eo tempore in hunc usque diem Cher- 
sonesitarum civitatem Bosporanis Regulis subjectam fuisse olim 
idem Strabo asserit." Descrip. Tartar, pp. 258 261. 

P. 309. Note (2). " See the Additional Notes," &c^ 
Sidagios & Graecis, a Genuensibus vero Sudacum, afx et 
civitas ilia dicta fuit. Tartaris prorsus incognita est. In 
monte altissimo, saxoso et peramplo, ad mare sito, in summi- 
tate montis, arcem superiorem, alteram mediam, tertiam vero 
inferiorem arcem, muro et turribus cinctas et munitas Graeci 
seu Genuenses Itali condidere. Templa Grasca ex gran- 
dioribus saxis infinita esse, et quasi sacella pauca admodum, 
nonnulla integra visuntur, plurima vero in ruinam versa et 
humi jam prostrata jacent. Superbi, discordes et desides 
Grseci 4 Genuensibus Italis fracti et debilitati civitatem earn 
amiserant. Non contemnenda Genuensium vestigia Graecis 
multo clariora ibi conspiciuntun At insignem locumque 
quondam, ut ex ruinis videre licet, extitisse, 4 Christianis 
Graecis, quorumque parvae admodum reliquiae ibi sunt, me- 
moratur: Graecorum gentem eo discordiarum et inimicitiarum 
devenisse, quod familiae, quae dissidiis laborabant, ne devo- 
tionem quidem publicam fieri eique interesse volebaint. 
Propterea templa ilia infinita quam plurimi sedificavere, quaB 
aliquot centena ibi extitisse Christian! perhibent. Templa 
tria maxima Catholica, domus, muri, portae, ac turres insignen, 
2 G 2 


um textilibus et insigniis Genuensium in arce inferior? 
visuntur. A Metropolita quodam viro Graeco et honesta, 
qui ex insulis Grascis ad visitandos presbyteros illos turn eo 
advenerat, et hospitio me exceperat, accepi, quod cum im- 
manissima gens Turcarum earn civitatem ingenti maritimo 
exercitu oppugnasset, a Genuensibus fortiter et animose ilia 
defenderetur. Verura cum obsidionera diuturnam ac famem 
Genucnses diutius ferre, nee impetum tarn numerosi exercitus 
Turcarum sustinere amplius possent, in maximum templum 
illud, quod adhuc ibi integrum est, centeni aliquot, vel, ut 
ille asserebat, mille fere viri egregii sese receperaat, per dies 
aliquot in arce inferior!, in quam Turcae irruperant, fertiter et 
animose sese defendentes, insigni et memorabili Turcarum 
strage edita. Tandem in templo illo universi concidere. 
Templi illius portae et fenestrae jl Turcis muro impletae. 
Caesorum cadavera in eum usque diem insepulta jacent. In 
id templum ne accederem, & Caphensi Serriaco quondam 
Turca, quern in ea arce perpetuum ille habet, ego prohibitus 
sum. Portorium non ignobile civitatis ejus fuit. Vineae et 
pomaria, quae ad duo et amplius milliaria extenduntur, ferti- 
lissima & Caphensibus, Turcis, Judaeis, et Christianis nunc 
etiam ibi coluntur. Nam universae Tauricae vinum optimum 
ibi nascitur. Rivis amcenissimis, qui ex altissimis et mediis 
montibus et sylvis, quae admodum frequentes ibi sunt, de- 
currunt, universus ille tractus abundat." 

Descrip. Tartar, pp.269 271. 

P. 315. Note (3). " See also his further Observations," 
" Putant autem aliqui fossam hanc in Tauricae isthmo 
factam, eo nimirum perfosso, ut insulam earn faceret. Sed 
quum nemo sit, qui id pro certo doceat, non possum et ego 
dicere, quae aut qualis ea fossa fuerit, a qua nomen hoc 
desumpserint, an nimirum ad fortificationem aut munitionem, 
an vero ad irrigandum solum ducta sit : neque quisquam mihi 
hactenus (quamvis diligenter inquirenti) occurrit, qui certi 


quid hac de re attulerit. Neque ego etiarn adduci possum ut 
credam earn hanc esse fossam, cujus Herodotus libro quarto 
meminit : quod nimirum Scythis a longa et diuturna ilia Asiae 
et Mediae expeditione redeuntibus, ac uxoribus tantae absentee 
taedio servis sibi conjugio junctis, ex quibus numerosara 
juventutem susceperant, inventis, bello earn adorti sint, in 
quo haec ad sui defensionem a Tauricis montibus usque ad 
paludem Maeotidem latam fossam duxerit: Nam si nomen ipsis 
hinc dandum, necesse erit ut ipsorum ea Tartarorum opus 
fuerit; alias enim nescio quomodo ab eo antique opere 
cognominari ita possint. Verum si sit qui me informet, nullam 
aliam in ea provincia esse fossam notabilem, quam hanc a 
Scytharum nothis ductam, assentirer forte. In medio autem 
relinquo, hoc saltern addens, quod fossa haec a servorum (qui 
cceci plerique erant) filiis ac Scytharum nothis ducta, Oriza 
nominata fuerit, fortassis a fine: Ideo enim a montibus Tauricis 
qui in Scythia erant ( e qua illi egressi sunt qui Chersoneso de 
qua nunc agimus, nomen dederunt) usque ad paludem Mae- 
otidem earn deduxerunt, ut ea regione, quae Chersonesus 
non erat, domum redeuntes dominos excluderent." 
pp. 224-, 225. 


No. I. 



" Discourse under the Trigger ;* " 


Being a Series o/INSTRUCTIONS, drawn up by himself, for the Use of 
the Army under his Command, after the Turkish War; and since 
transmitted, by order of the Russian Government, to every Regiment 
in the Service. It is commonly called SUVOROF'S CATECHISM. 


[The General it supposed to be impeding the Line, and addressing the Troopt.] 

HEELS close! Knees strait! A soldier must 
stand like a dart! I see the fourth the fifth 
I don't see! 

(1) This is the proper method of writing his name. The Russians 
frequently pronounce the O as an A ; hence the cause of Surnrqf's 
name being often written Suvarof in English. Some, more errone- 
ously, write it Suwarrow. 

(2) A Discourse under the Trigger, is the harangue made by a 
General to his troops, when the line is drawn out, and the soldiers 
rest on their pieces. 


A soldier's step is an archine ! in wheeling, an 
archine and a half. Keep your distances well ! 

Soldiers, join elbows in front! First rank 
three steps from the second in marching, two I 

Give the drum room ! 

Keep your ball three days, it may happen, 
for a whole campaign, when lead 2 cannot be had! 

Fire seldom but fire sure! 

Push hard with the bayonet ! The ball will 
lose its way the bayonet never ! The ball is a 
fool the bayonet a hero ! 

Stab once ! and off with the Turk from the 
bayonet ! Even when he's dead, you may get a 
scratch from his sabre. 

If the sabre be near your neck, dodge back 
one step, and push on again. 

Stab the second! stab the third! A hero 
will stab half-a-dozen. 

Be sure your ball's in your gun! 

If three attack you, stab the first, fire on the 
second, and bayonet the third ! this seldom 

In the attack, there's no time to load again. 

When you fire, take aim at their guts ; and 
fire about twenty balls. Buy lead from your 
economy* it costs little! 

(1) The Russian archine is twenty-eight inches. 

(2) The Russian soldiers buy their own lead. 
l3) The treasury of the Mess. 

APPENDIX, N' I. 459 

We fire sure we lose not one ball in thirty : 
in the Light Artillery and Heavy Artillery, not 
one in ten. 

If you see the match upon a gun, run up to 
it instantly the ball will fly over your head 
The guns are your's the people are your's! 
Down with 'em, upon the spot! pursue 'em! 
stab 'em! To the remainder give quarter it's 
a sin to kill without reason ; they are men, like 

Die for the honour of the Virgin Mary for 
your Mother for all the Royal Family ! The 
Church prays for those that die ; and those who 
survive have honour and reward. 

Offend not the peaceable inhabitant ! he gives 
us meat and drink the soldier is not a robber. 
Booty is a holy thing ! If you take a camp, it 
is all your's ! if you take a fortress, it is all 
your's ! At hmael, besides other things, the 
soldiers shared gold and silver byhandfuls; and 
so in other places : but, without order, never 
go to booty ! 

A battle in the field has three modes of attack : 

1. On the Wing, 

which is weakest. If a wing be covered by 
wood, it is nothing ; a soldier will get through. 

(4) The name given by the Russians to the Emprcts. 

460 APPENDIX, N" I. 

Through a morass, it is more difficult. 
Through a river you cannot run. All kind of 
entrenchment you may jump over. 

2. The Attach in the Centre 
is not profitable except for Cavalry, to cut 
them in pieces or else they'll crush you. 

3. The Attack behind 

is very good. Only for a small corps to get 
round. Heavy battle in the field, against 
regular troops. In squares, against Turks, and 
not in columns. It may happen, against Turks, 
that a square of 5OO men will be compelled to 
force its way through a troop of 6 or 7,000, with 
the help of small squares on the flank. In such 
a case, it will extend in a column. But till now 
we had no need of it. There are the God- 
forgetting, windy, light-headed Frenchmen if it 
should ever happen to us to march against 
them, we must beat them in columns. 

The Battle, upon Entrenchments, in the Field. 
The ditch is not deep the rampart is not 
high Down in the ditch ! Jump over the wall ' 
Work with your bayonet! Stab! Drive! Take 
them prisoners ! Be sure to cut off the Cavalry, 
if any are at hand ! At Prague, the Infantry 
cut off the Cavalry : and there were three-fold, 
and more, entrenchments, and a whole fortress ; 
therefore we attacked in columns. 


The Storm 1 . 

Break down the fence ! Throw wattles over 
the holes ! Run as fast as you can ! Jump over 
the palisades! Cast your fagots! (into the 
ditch.) Leap into the ditch! Lay on your 
ladders ! Scour the columns ! Fire at their 
heads! Fly over the walls! Stab them on the 
ramparts ! Draw out your line! Put a guard to 
the powder-cellars ! Open one of the gates ! the 
Cavalry will enter on the enemy. Turn his guns 
against him! Fire down the streets! Fire 
briskly! There's no time to run after them! 
When the order is given, enter the town ! Kill 
every enemy in the streets! Let the Cavalry 
hack them ! Enter no houses ! Storm them in the 
open places, where they are gathering. Take 
possession of the open places! Put a capital 
guard ! Instantly put piquets to the gates, to 
the powder-cellars, and to the magazines! 
When the enemy has surrendered, give him 
quarter ! When the inner wall is occupied, go 
to plunder ! 

There are three military talents : 

1 . The Coup d'oeil. 
How to place a camp. How to march. 

(1) It is impossible in this translation, consistently with fidelity, 
to preserve the brevity and energy of. the original Russian. 


Where to attack to chase- and to beat the 

2. Swiftness. 

The Field Artillery must march half or a 
whole verst in front, on the rising ground, that 
it may not impede the march of the columns. 
When the column arrives, it will find its place 
again. Down hill, and on even ground, let it 
go in a trot. Soldiers march in files, or four 
abreast, on account of narrow roads, streets, 
narrow bridges, and narrow passes through 
marshy and swampy places ; and only when 
ready for attack, draw up in platoons, to shorten 
the rear. When you march four abreast, leave 
a space between the companies. Never 
slacken your pace ! Walk on ! Play ! Sing your 
songs ! Beat the drum ! When you have broken 
off 1 ten versts, the first company cast off their 
load, and lie down. After them, the second 
company; and so forth, one after the other. 
But the first never wait for the rest ! a line in 
columns will, on the march, always draw out. 
At four abreast, it will draw out one and a half 
more than its length. At two abreast, it will 
draw out double. A line one verst in length 
will draw out two Two versts will draw out 

(l) This is a Russian mode of expression. To proceed ten versts, 
they say, To break off ten. 


four; so the first companies would have to 
wait for the others half-an-hour to no purpose. 
After the first ten versts, an hour's rest. The 
first division that arrived (upon the coming of 
the second) takes up its baggage, and moves 
forward ten or fifteen paces ; and if it passes 
through defiles, on the march, fifteen or twenty 
paces : And in this manner, division after 
division, that the hindmost may get rest. The 
second ten versts, another hour's rest, or more. 
If the third distance be less than ten versts, halve 
it, and rest three-quarters, half, or a quarter 
of an hour ; that the children * may soon get to 
their kettles. So much for Infantry. 

The Cavalry marches before. They alight 
from their horses, and rest a short time ; and 
march more than ten versts in one stage, that 
the horses may rest in the camp. The kettle- 
waggons and the tent-waggons go on before. 
When the brothers 9 arrive, the kettle is ready. 
The master of the mess instantly serves out the 
kettle. For breakfast, four hours' rest and six 
or eight hours at night, according as the road 
proves. When you draw near the enemy, the 
kettle-waggons remain with the tent-waggons, 
and wood must be prepared before-hand. 

(2) Children, and J3rotfm. Appellations given by Suvorof to his 

464 APPENDIX, X 1. 

By this manner of marching, soldiers suffer 
no fatigue. The enemy does not expect us. 
He' reckons us at least an hundred versts 
distant ; and when we come from far, two hun- 
dred, or three hundred, or more. We fall all at 
once upon him, like snow on the head. His head 
turns. Attack instantly, ivith ivhatever arrives 1 ', 
with what God sends. The Cavalry instantly 
fall to work hack and slash! stab and drive! 
Cut them off! Don't give them a moment's rest. 

3. Energy. 

One leg strengthens the other! One hand 
fortifies the other! By firing, many men are 
killed ! The enemy has also hands ; but he 
knows not the Russian bayonet ! (alluding to the 
Turks.} Draw out the line immediately ; and 
instantly attack with cold arms! (the bayonet.) 
If there be not time to draw out the line, attack, 
from the defile, the Infantry, with the bayonet ; 
and the Cavalry will be at hand. If there be a 
defile for a verstf and cartridges over your 
head, the guns will be your's! Commonly, 
the Cavalry make the first attack, and the 
Infantry follow. In general, Cavalry must 
attack like Infantry, except in swampy ground; 

(1) Jf^iatf.ver arrives. Suvorof began the attack as soon as the 
Colours arrived, even if he had but half a regiment advanced. 


and there they must lead their horses by the 
bridle. Cossacks will go through any. thing. 
When the battle is gained, the Cavalry pursue 
and hack the enemy, and the Infantry are not 
to remain behind. In two files there is strength 
in three files, strength and a half*. The first 
tears the second throws down and the third 
perfects the work. 

Rules for Diet. 

Have a dread of the hospital! German physic 
stinks from afar, is good for nothing, and rather 
hurtful. A Russian soldier is not used to it. 
Messmates know where to find roots, herbs, 
and pismires. A soldier is inestimable. Take 
care of your health ! Scour the stomach when 
it is foul ! Hunger is the best medicine ! He 
who neglects his men if an officer, arrest if a 
sub-officer, lashes 3 ', and to the private, lashes, 
if he neglect himself. If loose bowels want 
food, at sun-set a little gruel and bread. For 
costive bowels, some purging plant in warm 
water, or the liquorice-root. Remember, Gen- 
tlemen, the field-physic of Doctor Belly potsky 4 ! 

(2) Strength and a half. A common mode of expression in Russia. 
Suvorqf aimed at the style and language of the common soldiers : this 
renders his composition often obscure. 

(3) Lashes.' The literal translation of the original is Stinks. 

(4) Professor Pallas supposed this to have heen a manual of medicine 
published for the use of the army. 

486 APPENDIX, N' I. 

In hot fevers, eat nothing, even for twelve days* 
and drink your soldiers' quoss* that's a sol- 
dier's physic. In intermittent fevers, neither 
eat nor drink. It's only a punishment for 
neglect, if health ensues. In hospitals, the 
first day the bed seems soft the second, comes 
French soup and the third, the brother is laid 
in his coffin, and they draw him away ! One 
dies, and ten companions round him inhale his 
expiring breath. In camp, the sick and feeble 
are kept in huts, and not in villages ; there the 
air is purer. Even without an hospital, you 
must not stint your money for medicine, if it 
can be bought ; nor even for other necessaries. 
But all this is frivolous we know how to pre- 
serve ourselves ! Where one dies in an hundred 
with others, we lose not one in five hundred, in 
the course of a month. For the healthy, drink, 
air, and food for the sick, air, drink, and food. 
Brothers, the enemy trembles for you! But 
there is another enemy, greater than the hos- 
pital the d-mn'd " I dont know 3 /" From the 

(1) Here he endeavours to counteract a Russian prejudice, favourable 
to immoderate eating during fevers. 

(2) A sour beverage, made of fermented flour and water. 

(3) Suvorqf had so great an aversion to any person's saying I don't 
"know, in answer to his questions, that he became -almost mad with 
passion. His officers and soldiers were so well aware of this singularity, 
that they would hazard any answer instantly, accurate or not, rather 
than venture to incur his displeasure by professing ignorance. 


half-confessing, the guessing, lying, deceitful, 
the palavering equivocation 4 , squeamishness, 
and nonsense of " dont hnow," many disasters ori- 
ginate. Stammering, hackering 4 and so forth; 
it's shameful to relate! A soldier should be 
sound, brave, firm, decisive, true, honourable ! 
Pray to God ! from him comes victory and 
miracles! God conducts us! God is our Ge- 
neral! For the " I dont know" an officer is put 
in the guard A staff-officer is served with an 
arrest at home. Instruction is light ! Not in- 
struction is darkness ! The ivork fears its master I* 
If a peasant knows not how to plough, the 
corn will not grow ! One wise man is worth 
three fools ! and even three are little, give six ! 
and even six are little 6 , give ten! One clever 
fellow will beat them all overthrow them 
and take them prisoners ! 

In the last campaign, the enemy lost 75,000 
well-counted men perhaps not much less than 

(4) The words here are, some of them, not to be translated, and 
seem to be the coinage of his own fancy. The Russians themselve* 
cannot affix an explication to them. 

(5) A Russian proverb. 

(6) Here Suvarof'n a little in his favourite character of the buffoon. 
He generally closed his harangues by endeavouring to excite laughter 
among his troops ; and this mode of forming a climax is a peculiar 
characteristic of the conversation of the Russian Boons. In this man- 
ner : "And not only of the Boors, but the Gentry! and not onty of the 
Gentry, but the Nobles Iand not only of the Nobles, but the Emperor .'" 

VOL. II. 2 II 


100,OOO. He fought desperately and artfully, 
and we lost not a full thousand 1 . There, 
brethren, you behold the effect of military 
instruction! Gentlemen officers, what a triumph! 

N. B. This Translation has been rendered perfectly literal ; 
so that effect is often sacrificed to a strict attention to 
the real signification of the words, instead of inlroduc'ng 
parallel phrases. 

(1) A slight exaggeration of Snvorof's. 


No. II. 




Certain Official Documents extracted from the " Registrant 
of the British Chancery Office at Constantinople" 

" AT length an end has been put to the reluctant 
hostilities, produced partly by hostile influence, 
and partly by mismanagement, between England 
and Turkey. Having now to begin over again 
in that Empire, after the interruption of an 
amicable intercourse of two centuries, it is to 
be hoped we shall retrieve past errors. Political 
misfortune is but another name for misconduct. 
With the terms of the Treaty of Peace, con- 
cluded on the 5th of January 180Q, we are not 
likely to be made acquainted, until after the 
ratification. But there is one point, which, we 
may take for granted, cannot have been neg- 
lected, in framing the instructions for the 
negotiation; and to this the attention of our 
a H 2 


merchants, ship-owners, and mariners, cannot 
be too early directed ; namely, the freedom of 
the Black Sea, as established in favour of this 
country in 1799- Those waters have been 
strangely overlooked by statesmen in our days, 
as a sort of blank upon the map. In fact, the 
Genoese and the Venetian Republics seem to 
have been the only Powers of Modern Europe 
thoroughly aware of the importance of access 
to the very heart of the Continent, afforded by 
that inlet ; although the policy of the Romam, 
on that head, is discoverable, in the war against 
Mithradates. The principal treaty extant be- 
tween the Crown of England and the Ottoman 
Sultans does indeed shew some vestiges of our 
having had footing there in the days of Queen 
Elizabeth, or James I. ; but when we ceased to 
frequent the Black Sea, is not ascertained. AH 
the information upon record seems to be made 
use of in the first of the three documents 
annexed ; which is the Memorial whereby 
Mr. 'Smith, his Majesty's Minister-plenipoten- 
tiary at the Porte, solicited a fresh recognition, 
tantamount to a new creation, of the right of 
access, in favour of the British flag, already 
alluded to. This was speedily obtained, as 
appears by the second document, which declares 
the assent of the late Sultan ^Selim thereto. 
By one of those eccentric movements which 


characterize English diplomacy, that Minister 
was superseded, a few weeks afterwards, by the 
Earl of Elgin, who was invested with the rank 
of Ambassador Extraordinary. But it was not 
until after the noble Earl had been replaced by 
Mr. Stratton, in the character of Charge d'affaires, 
that the third and last document of the series 
was published in the London Gazette of the 
14th of September, 1802. 

" To what extent the enjoyment of our privi- 
lege, thus renovated, was carried during the 
subsequent embassy of Mr. Drummond, is not 
precisely known : at last, however, a total inter- 
ruption of this beneficial pursuit, in its still 
infant state, was one of the lamentable conse- 
quences, amongst others, of Mr. Arbuthnots 
unaccountable Hegira from Constantinople in 
1807, (on board the Endymion frigate). 

" Although it is not a part of the present 
subject to trace political effects to their causes, 
yet this slight retrospect has already introduced 
such a catalogue of names, as it is impossible 
to take leave of, without a word of regret, that 
the pernicious influence of what is, by common 
consent, called interest (although a more appro- 
priate epithet might be employed), should be 
found to extend its discouraging effects to the 


filling important foreign missions with novices ; 
while Ministers, regularly brought up in the 
diplomatic school, are laid upon the shelf, like 
Yellow Admirals. With the two exceptions of 
the gentlemen first named, Mr. Smith, and 
Mr. Stratton, both of whom completed their 
servitude in the subaltern ranks of the foreign 
line, (the former as Secretary under Mr. Liston, 
when Ambassador at Constantinople in 17Q3, 
and the latter under Sir R. M. Keith, at Vienna, 
in 1788,) the other representatives of His 
Majesty at the Porte, during the interval under 
review, cannot be considered as qualified, either 
by professional education, by official experience, 
or by local residence, to manage our concerns 
in the Levant. Even down to the very last 
appointment to a special mission thither, 
destined to treat with a country convulsed by 
internal commotions, can it be said that per- 
sonal knowledge of the Orientals was in the 
slightest degree attended to ? It is not the aim 
of this discussion to detract from the possible 
merit of any candidate, nor to withhold appro- 
bation from the useful employment of abilities : 
although something might be said upon the pal- 
pable combination of the Turkish negotiation 
with the change of system, in one, at least, of 
the Imperial Courts : otherwise the preservation 
of amity, with a Power so critically situated, 


in its interior as well as in its exterior relation^, 
as the Ottoman Porte, would be precarious 
indeed. But the general respectability of the 
choice, any more than the success attending 
the experiment, cannot militate against the fact, 
that, with the Third Report of the Finance 
Committee lying on the table of the House of 
Commons, in the Appendix to which (No. ()3, 
dated 15th March 1808) are registered the 
names of five ex-diplomatists who had served 
in that quarter, and are pensioned off to the 
amount of jf. 8,950 annually. With the con- 
tingent Pension List thus charged, Mr. Adair 
was sent to set foot in Turkey, for the first 
time in his life. 

" To conclude. After re-organising our old 
establishments on this side of the Bosphorus, 
we shall, in all probability, have to form new 
ones in the Euxine regions. We have the sucr 
cessful example of our natural rivals before our 
eyes, as to the advantages derivable from pre- 
liminary information, whether statistical, geo- 
graphical, or hydrographical, in the intercourse 
with foreign countries. Every intelligent tra- 
veller knows how indefatigable the French, are 
in the acquisition, and how methodical in the 
application, of all those branches of local know- 
ledge, to the purposes of war or peace. This 


department of study is too much left to chance 
amongst us. In proportion to our population, 
we possess a greater number of well-informed 
individuals than any other country, perhaps, 
except parts of Germany. But our progressive 
knowledge of the globe is not digested into con- 
venient and authentic form. Our marine charts, 
some local surveys attached to expensive publi- 
cations excepted, are, in general, so defective, 
as to disgrace a naval nation. One map-maker 
copies the antiquated blunders of another : and 
thus is error perpetuated by each succeeding 
publication; in which the map-seller is more 
attentive to the workmanlike appearance of 
the article, than to the scientific merit of the 
performance. The revival of Levantine naviga- 
tion offers a desirable opportunity for rectifying 
the hydrography of the Black Sea" 

Memorial presented to the Sublime Ottoman Porte, ly His 
Majesty's Minister Plenipotentiary, Mr. I. S. Smith. 

<( HIS Britannic Majesty's Minister Plenipotentiary has 
already taken occasion to apprise the Sublime Ottoman 
Porte of a petition having been presented to His Majesty's 
Government, on the part of an antient Corporation (not 
unknown to the illustrious Ottoman Ministry) entitled, by 
Royal charter, ' The Company of Merchants of England 
trading into the Levant Seas.' The prayer of which petition 
is, to obtain from the Sublime Porte the same advantages 
as are enjoyed, within the Ottoman Empire, by other more 


favoured nations ; meaning thereby, in express terms, the 
privilege successively recognised in favour of the Ritssians 
and Germans, relative to the navigation of the Slack Sea. 
In addition to the earliest communication of the fact, the 
English Minister thought it expedient to avail himself of 
the friendly intercourse arising out of the mutual duties of 
alliance, in order to prepare the Ottoman Ministers of State 
for the more formal agitation of the question, by previous 
confidential explanation of the opinion entertained by his 
superiors upon its merits. He is glad of this public oppor- 
tunity to acknowledge the favourable reception of those 
preliminary overtures, which it is now become his duty to 
authenticate; as well as to substantiate his verbal arguments, 
by the present detailed exposition. 

" Prior to the treaty of defensive alliance concluded on 
the 5th of January 1799, the political relations of the two 
Empires rested on the basis of ( THE SACRED CAPITULA- 
TIONS AND ARTICLES OF THE PEACE,' as they have been 
digested in the times of several Ambassadors 1 : and as they 
have been revised and amplified in 1661-2 by the Earl of 
Winchelsea., Ambassador Extraordinary fromKmgCharles II. 
And also as they have been since augmented and renewed at 
Adrianople in 1086, A. H. (1675, A. D.) by Sir John Finch, 
Knt. Ambassador in Ordinary from His said Majesty to the 
Emperor Sultan Mahommed Khaan. 

" This treaty contains several Articles which apply with 
peculiar force to the present case ; viz. 1. 4. 7. 18. 22. 27- 
36. and 38. 3 to which the undersigned begs leave respectively 
to refer. 

" The text of Articles 1. 4. and 7- sets forth in general, 

(1) Amongst whom are named, Sir Thomas Roe, Knt.; Sir Sackvill 
Crow, Bart.; and Sir Thomas liendish. 

(2) Styled in the text, Sir Heneage Finch, Knt. Earl of Winchehea, 
Viscount Maidston, Baron Fitzherbert of Eailwell, Lord of the Royal 
Manor of Wye, Lieutenant of the County of Jfent and City of Canterbury. 

(.3) See Appendix, p. 482, &c. 


but in most comprehensive terms, that ' the English sub- 
jects and dependants may, with their merchandise and 
faculties, freely pass and repass into all parts of the Ottoman 
dominions ; and that their ships may come and harbour in 
any of the ports or scales 1 of the same.' Article 22. recapi- 
tulating the preceding permission to 'navigate and abide, 
buy and sell all legal merchandise,' enumerates prohibited 
commodities. Article 18. sufficiently secures to the English 
' all privileges granted to other nations : ' but to make the 
point more clear, it is corroborated by the prospective lan- 
guage of Article 2?. which declares that the privileges 
granted by divers Imperial decrees, whether before or after 
the date of these capitulations, shall always be understood 
and interpreted in favour of the English nation.' Article 
36. distinctly defines the general permission of ingress and 
egress, to enable ' the English merchants, and all under 
their banner, to go by the way of the Tanais* into Mos- 
covia ; and also to and from Persia; and to traffic, by land 
or by sea, through all those confines/ Finally, as if it were 
decreed that not a shadow of doubt should remain respecting 
the extent of our navigation, Article 38. contains the follow- 
ing remarkable maritime provision; viz. If English ships, 
bound to Constantinople., shall be forced by stress of weather 
into Coffa 3 , or to such like port, they are not to be 
compelled to break bulk arbitrarily,' &c. &c. The local 
description given by this and the preceding Article can need 
no comment. 

" This is our case, as far as it rests on historical testimony ; 
which incontrovertibly proves, that, in point of fact, the 

(1) Scale Term employed in the Levant factories, from Scala In the 
Lingua-Franaa dialect, or from the Turkish word Iskeli, signifying lite- 
rally a Ladder or Stairs, and, figuratively, a Commercial Quay. 

(2) Tana'is or Dun, a river of Russia falling into the Sea of A-~af or 
Falus Maotis; accessible only from the Black Sea by the Strait of Iranian 
or Ymi-Knlek, formerly the Cimmerian Bosporus. 

(3) C(,fl':t Kafi'a. KefflA, alias Tlteodosia, a port in the Black Sea, on the 
S. E. coas>t of the A'rim-:a, formerly the Taurica CkcrsoKcsui, 


English have once enjoyed a right, recognised by an 
authentic instrument, afterwards reduced by the vicissitudes 
of human affairs to a dormant state; but never extinguished : 
mere disuse, occasioned by the varying circumstances of 
succeeding times, is surely very different from renunciation 
or forfeiture. 

" But supposing that the implied right to equality of 
favour was not so explicitly admitted as it is by Article 18. ; 
supposing further, that the fact of the waters of the Krimea 
had not been so specifically established as it is by Article 38. ; 
nay, that England could produce no title at all in support 
of this claim ; there are other arguments to influence the 
decision of the question in our favour, derived from the 
liberal system of the Sublime Porte itself in its foreign rela- 
tions, from the fitness of things, and connected with the 
interests of this Empire. 

" In the daily transactions between the Chancery of State 
and the different European legations, how often do preten- 
sions come under discussion which are unsupported by 
conventions ad hoc. The invariable practice is, to refer all 
such doubtful cases to the test of antient usage, which i* 
almost always considered as equivalent; and lapse of time, 
so far from rendering precedent obsolete, generally stamps 
it with additional value in the eyes of the Porte. In proof 
of which may be cited the conduct of the Reis Effendi 
towards the English Embassy in 1795, when certain reforms 
were projected in the Custom-house tariff; by which the 
duties on foreign merchandise were collected ad valorem, 
in order to bring the chargeable valuation nearer to the 
current prices of the day. The two Imperial Courts not 
acceding to the proposed change, on the ground of their 
commercial tariffs forming au integral part of the text of 
their respective treaties of peace, the Sublime Porte desisted 
from the measure with respect to them: and, although we 
could not make the same pica (inasmuch as our tar(#' stood 


upon the ground of a simple contract between the customer 
of Constantinople and the English factory, with the excep- 
tion of very few articles enumerated in the capitulations), 
yet, for the sole reason above mentioned, Rashid Effendi, 
then in office, voluntarily and formally exempted Mr. Listen 
from any farther discussion of the subject : a memorable 
instance of that exemplary good faith manifested by the 
Ottoman Government in the observance of treaties, and 
particularly shewing its equitable construction of their 
meaning relative to the English. 

" Since the time when the Black Sea formed, as it were, 
a lake encircled by the Turkish territory, circumstances, 
unnecessary to trace here, have transferred a part of the 
Euxine coasts to Russia : and collateral causes have ren- 
dered the House of Austria participator in the same privi- 
lege of access to the Black Sea, although not possessing, 
like the former power, any territorial property in its shores. 
However natural it might be for any Power, which was sole 
possessor of the key of those inland waters, to conceive its 
duty, as guardian of the commerce and navigation of its 
subjects, best fulfilled by a rigid exclusion of strangers ; yet, 
the ice once broken, by the admission of a single foreign 
flag, the arguments for the original system of monopoly 
not only cease to be tenable, but actually change their 
bearing in favour of another order of things ; whereby the 
excessive benefit of the first grantee shall be shared and 
subdivided with one or more competitors, leaving the parti- 
cular shades of their rivality out of the question. So far 
from the Turkish coasting-trade being interfered with by 
the direct voyages of foreign vessels, it is rather to be 
expected that the seamanship of the Ottoman manners 
would be improved by the example of a naval nation like 
the English, and the ship-builders be advanced in their 
art by the inspection of more perfect models. The Govern- 
ment can always keep the concourse of foreign shipping 


within due bounds, by navigation laws ; while the treasury 
cannot but feel the beneficial effects of the transit by Con- 
stantinople. The commodities furnished by the trade with 
England are of admitted utility to all classes of this nation, 
and of prime necessity to some. By enabling the English 
navigator to penetrate the deep gulphs of the Black Sea, 
and thus rendering the remotest districts accessible to the 
English merchant, instead of the present languid routine 
of a single factory, superintending two or three annual 
cargoes, assorted according to the limited consumption 
of the metropolis, with the refuse of which the provincial 
traders are scantily furnished at second and third hand, 
we shall see whole fleets laden with the richest pro- 
ductions of the Old and New World. British capital and 
credit would attract flourishing establishments in the solitary 
harbours of Anatolia; from whence the adjacent cities 
would receive less indirect supplies ; and where the land- 
owners would find a more ready exchange for their produce. 
Sinope and Trelizond would again emulate the prosperity 
and population of Aleppo and Smyrna. The Abazes, 
Lazes, and other turbulent hordes who inhabit the moun- 
tainous fastnesses, by mixing more frequently with their 
fellow-subjects at those marts, could not fail to learn their 
real interest to be inseparable from the performance of 
their duty. 

" After this solution of the problem, in one sense, there 
are still some other substantial reasons to expect the 
Ottoman Ministry will consent to an arrangement, tending to 
consolidate, more and more, the connection it has pleased 
the Supreme Providence to ordain between the two Empires: 
but the most elevated ground of hope is found in the 
magnanimous sentiments of his Imperial Majesty. That 
monarch will surely not suffer the antient and unalterable 
friend, the zealous and devoted ally of his Empire, to sustain 
a disadvantageous comparison with any other Power, in 


point of the enjoyment of immunities within his dominions : 
on the contrary, the English Minister indulges himself in 
the flattering persuasion, that even were this question one 
of an entirely new concession in favour of his countrymen, 
provided their desires were not unreasonable in themselves, 
nor incompatible with the essential interests of the Ottoman 
Empire, it would encounter no difficulty on the part of the 
Emperor ; whereas, what is solicited is, the revival of the 
dead letter of a venerable compact ; the favourable inter- 
pretation of an antient grant, become equivocal by change 
of circumstances ; the restoration of a privilege, become 
questionable solely for want of exercise. It is suggested, 
to seize the present auspicious moment for assimilating that 
banner which is the victorious antagonist of the enemies of 
the Ottoman name, the violators of its territory, to the 
flags of its neighbours and friends, not less the friends of 
England. Can Russia, for instance, take umbrage at any 
arrangement that would open its southern ports to those 
who are the harbingers of abundance and wealth to the 
northern provinces of that Empire ? 

" Nor are certain moral effects, inseparable from such a 
cause as the arrangement in question, to be overlooked by 
Governments, in the cultivation of political relations ; for, 
although diplomatic contracts may organize the body, yet 
national feeling must animate the soul of alliance. It is 
impossible but that such an unequivocal proof of the interest 
taken by the Emperor in the welfare of the King's subjects, 
must make the most lively and lasting impression on His 
Majesty's mind; and must augment, if possible, the just 
confidence he already entertains in the person and govern- 
ment of his august ally. The people of England, distin- 
guished as they are by active industry and speculative 
habits, will fully appretiate a concession at once so valuable 
and so seasonable. Public opinion will derive therefrom 
that additional intensity, and permanent direction, in favour 

APPENDIX, N g If. 481 

of the connection between the two countries, no less desirable 
to ensure its durability, than requisite mutually to realize 
all its immediate benefits. To appropriate the enterprising 
energies of a warlike people is no unfair equivalent for 
mercantile encouragement : the cordial voice of an inde- 
pendent nation is no unworthy return for an act of grace. 
British gratitude will pay this tribute to Sultan Selim. 

" Here closes the case which the English Minister, in 
obedience to his instructions, has the honour to submit to 
the consideration of the Illustrious Ministry. In the first 
place, he has endeavoured to bring the existence of the pri- 
vilege within the scope of historical evidence, as a claim of 
unextinguished right. Secondly, he has discussed the ques- 
tion upon the ground of political expediency. And lastly, 
solicits the Imperial assent as a national boon. The 
reliance that he places in the justice and wisdom of the 
Sublime Porte, and, above all, in the generosity of the 
Emperor, hardly permits him to harbour a doubt adverse 
to the issue of a negotiation, which, if committed to feeble 
hands, is founded on such a solid basis. 

" It now becomes the duty of the undersigned to state, 
in the name of his Court, the distinct object of this Memo- 
rial : namely, the promulgation of an Imperial Fermaan 
(edict), enacting the re-establishment of the English navi- 
gation in the Block Sea, on the footing it appears, by the 
sacred capitulations, to have been in the reign of Sultan 
Mohammed Khaan, the most puissant Emperor of the 
Ottomans, and of Queen Elizabeth of glorious memory, or 
of her immediate royal successors. It is more particularly 
wished to move the Sublime Porte to decree the same, ac- 
cording to the tenor of its treaty with Russia, dated at 
Constantinople, 10th of June, 1783, oi the Christian :era; 
confirmed by the treaty of peace concluded at Yassy* en 

(1) Tasty, or Jassi, the capital of Moldavia, a frontier provinrs of 
TrAry; the governor or Vatvoda of which is alwnyx 'elected from th* 
Gi-rjlc nobility. 


the 9th of January, 1/92, from Article 17, to Article 35, 
inclusive; subject, nevertheless, to such provisions as 
existing circumstances may render expedient. To which end, 
the proper officers on both sides shall be instructed to take 
arrangements in concert, consulting the regulations for the 
passage of the Sound into the Baltic Sea, or such other 
acts de trans? tu as obtain authority in the public or 
maritime law of Europe. 

" Individually, there remains one other duty for the 
undersigned to fulfil ; and that is, to offer his most respectful 
thanks to the illustrious Ottoman Ministry, for the courteous 
attention always paid to his representations, in transacting 
the business of the station he has the honour to hold, and 
especially on the present affair ; as well as for the ready 
access allowed him on all occasions. Also to renew the 
assurances of that conscientious discharge of duty towards 
the Court where he is sent to reside; of which, he trusts, the 
labours of his ministry, in critical times, have furnished too 
frequent and ample testimony for those assurances not to be 
accepted as sincere by the Sublime Porte. 

(Signed) I. S. SMITH." 

" Seligrad, near Constantinople, 
lit September, 1799." 


Extract from the Treaty, entitled ' The Capitulations 
and Articles of the Peace.' 


" First, that the said nation and the English merchants, 
and any other nation or merchants which are or shall come 
under the English banner and protection, with their ships, 
small and great, merchandise, faculties^ and all other their 


goods, may always pass safe in our seas, and freely and in 
all security may come and go into any part of the Imperial 
limits of our dominions, in such sort, that neither any of 
the nation, their goods and faculties, shall receive any hin- 
drance or molestation from any person whatsoever. 


( All English ships or vessels, small or great, shall and 
may at any time safely and securely come and harbour in 
any of the scales and ports of our dominions, and likewise 
may from thence depart at their pleasure, without deten- 
tion or hindrance of any man. 


c The English merchants, interpreters, brokers, and 
all other subjects of that nation, whether by sea or land, 
may freely and safely come and go in all the ports of our 
dominions; or, returning into their own country, all our 
Beglerbegs, Ministers, Governors, and other Officers, Cap- 
tains by sea of ships, and others whomsoever our slaves 
and subjects, we command that none of them do or shall 
lay hands upon their persons or faculties, or upon any 
pretence shall do them any hindrance or injury. 


" All those particular privileges and capitulations, which 
in former times have been granted to the French, Venetians, 
or any other Christian nation, whose king is in peace and 
friendship with the Porte, in like manner the same were 
granted and given to the said English nation ; to the end 
that, in time to come, the tenor of this our Imperial capitu- 
lation may be always observed by all men j and that none 
may, in any manner, upon any pretence, presume to con- 
tradict or violate it. 


" The English nation, and all those that come under 
their banner, their vessels, small or great, shall and may 
VOL. II. 21 


navigate, traffic, buy, sell, and abide in all parts of our 
dominions, and, excepting arms, gunpowder, and other 
such prohibited commodities, they may load, and carry 
away, in their ships, whatsoever of our merchandise, at 
their own pleasure, without the impeachment or trouble 
of any man ; and their ships and vessels may come 
safely and securely to anchor at all times, and traffic at all 
times, in any part of our dominions, and with their money 
buy victuals, and all other things, without any contradic- 
tion or hindrance of any man. 


" All these privileges, and other liberties granted to the 
English nation, and those who come under their protec- 
tion, by divers Imperial commands, whether before or 
after the date of these Imperial capitulations, shall be al- 
ways obeyed and observed, and shall always be understood 
and interpreted in favour of the English nation, according 
to the tenor and true contents thereof. 


' " The English merchants, and all under their banner, 
shall and may safely, throughout our dominion, trade, buy, 
sell, (except only commodities prohibited) all sorts of mer- 
chandise; likewise, either by land or sea, they may go 
and traffic, or by the way of the river Tandis, in Moscovia, 
or by Russia, and from thence may bring their merchandise 
into our empire ; also to and from Persia they may go and 
trade, and through all that part newly by us conquered, 
and through those confines, without the impediment or 
molestation of any of our Ministers : and they shall pay 
the custom or other duties of that country, and nothing 


ff The English ships which shaft come to this our city 
of Constantinople, if, by fortune of seas, or ill-weather, they 



shall be forced to Cojfa, or to such like port, as long as the 
English will not unlade or sell their own merchandise and 
goods, no man shall enforce or give them any trouble or 
annoyance : but in all places of danger, the Caddees, or 
other of our Ministers, shall always protect and defend the 
said English ships, men, and goods, that no damage may 
come unto them : and with their money may buy victuals 
arid other necessaries : and desiring also with their money 
to hire carts or vessels, which before were not hired by any 
other, to transport their goods from place to place, no man 
shall do them any hindrance or trouble whatsoever." 


Of the Original Grant of the Freedom of the Black Sea, as 
delivered to I. S. SMITH, Esq. and recorded in the Public 
Register of the Chancery of the British Factory at Constan- 

" The friendship and good intelligence which subsist, 
since the most remote times, between the Sublime Porte, 
of solid glory, and the Court of England) being now crowned 
by an alliance founded on principles of the most inviolable 
sincerity and cordiality ; and these new bands thus 
strengthened between the two Courts having hitherto pro- 
duced a series of reciprocal advantages; it is not pre- 
sumptuous to suppose, that their salutary fruits will be 
reaped still more abundantly in time to come. Now, after 
mature reflection, on the representations that the English 
Minister Plenipotentiary residing at the Sullime Pwte, our 
very esteemed friend, has made relative to the privilege of 
navigation in the Black Sea, for the merchant vessels of his 
nation; representations that he has reiterated, both in 
writing and verbally, in conformity to his instructions, and 
with a just confidence in the lively attachment of the Porfe 
2 I 1 


towards his Court : therefore, to give a new proof of these 
sentiments, as well as of the hopes entertained by the Sul- 
lime Porte, of seeing henceforward a multiplicity of new 
fruits spring from the connection that has been renewed 
between the two Courts, the assent granted to the before- 
named Minister's solicitations is hereby sanctioned, as a 
sovereign concession and gratuitous act on the part of his 
Imperial Majesty ; and to take full and entire effect as soon 
as farther amicable conferences shall have taken place with 
the Minister our friend, for the purpose of determining the 
burthen of the English vessels, the mode of transit by the 
Canal of Constantinople, and such other regulations and 
conventions as appertain to the object ; and which shall be 
as exactly maintained and observed with regard to the 
English navigation, as towards any other the most fa- 
voured nation. And in order that the Minister, our friend, 
do inform his Court of this valuable grant, the present 
rescript has been drawn up, and is delivered to him. 

" Constantinople, 1 Jemazi-id-Evvel, A. H. 1214. 
30 October, A. D. 1799." 


Official Note delivered ly the REIS EFFENDI to ALEXANDER 
STRATTON, Esq. at a Conference in his Excellency's House 
on the Canal, the 29th of July, 1802. 

(< It behoves the character of true friendship and sincere 
regard, to promote, with cheerfulness, all such affairs and 
objects as may be reciprocally useful, and may have a rank 
among the salutary fruits of those steady bonds of alliance 
and perfect good harmony which happily subsists between 
the Sullime Porte and the Court of Great Britain : and 
as permission has heretofore been granted for the English 
merchant-ships to navigate in the Black Sea, for the pur- 
poses of trade, the same having been a voluntary trait of 


his Imperial Majesty's own gracious heart, as more amply 
appears by an official note presented to our friend, the 
English Minister residing at the Sublime Porte, dated 
I Jemazi-ul-Akhir, \ 2 1 4 ', this present Takrir 8 is issued ; 
the Imperial Court hereby engaging, that the same treat- 
ment shall be observed towards the English merchant-ships 
coming to that sea, as is offered to ships of Powers most 
favoured by the Sublime Porte, on the score of that navi- 

Rebi-ul- Em-el, 1217. 
23 July, 1802." 

(1) 30th October, 1799. (2) Official Note. 


No. III. 



Literally translated from the Original Italian ; 

Giving an Account of her Voyage in the Slack Sea, from the time 
she quitted the Port of Odessa, until she arrived in the Canal 
of Constantinople. 

N. B. The Days in this Journal, after the Observation of Latitude, 
begin at Mid-day. Before the said Observation, they are dated at Sun-set 
the preceding Evening, and the same while in Port at Anchor. 

Friday, OCTOBER 31, 180O. 

V^LEAR day wind N. N. w. During the night, 
it had blown from the North. At day-break, the 
Captain went on shore, to give notice to the 
custom-house officer to come on board, and 
make the usual visit, previous to the ship's 
departure. Wind fresh from the North sky 
clear. At eight A. M. the said officer came on 
board. After his search was ended, weighed 
anchor, and put to sea, accompanied by the 
Picolo Aronetto, Captain G. Bergamini, the 
Captain's nephew. Kept along the coast. At 
ten A. M. passed the Cape of Odessa. 


Continued steering s. s. w. along the coast, 
till two o'clock p. M. in nine fathoms water. 
At that hour, sounded in ten fathoms water. 
Continued s. s. w. till five p. M. Made the 
Point of Ah-herman, which bore N. w. at the 
distance of ten miles. Continued the same 
course, in ten, twelve, and fifteen fathoms water, 
with a gravelly bottom. Thermometer, 48. 

Saturday, Nov. J. 

Little wind from sun-set till six A. M. Steer- 
ing s. s. w. ; at which hour laid to, off the Isle 
of Serpents '. Then steered s. w. and by s. with 
wind N. N. w. At eight A. M. the said isle 
bore N. and by E., distant about six miles. 
From that time, till mid-day, steered s. and 
by w. and made 14 miles' course. 

Latitude observed at mid-day by three sex- 
tants, 44. 44'. Thermometer 50. 

Sunday, Nov. 2. 
Clear weather. Little wind from noon till 

(l) Me of Serpents called Fidonisi by the modern Greeks, and 
Illan-adda-si by the Turks. We discovered it at three o'clock in the 
morning. An account of its antiquities may be found in the writings 
of antient authors alluded to in the Work. It appeared a bleak 
mound, rising out of the sea, covered only with low grass. Perhaps 
a nearer inspection might have discovered Ruins. It is a remarkable 
fact, that the dolphins round this isle, and neap the Mouths of the 
Danube, are white. 


six P. M. steering N. N. w. Afterwards a calm. 
Remainder of the night, partly calm, and partly 
light variable breezes. Our course w. s.w. 
and s. w. At sun-rise saw the coast of St. 
George, (?) and land beyond. Till mid-day, 
mostly calm, with southerly current. Course 
during the day, about 23 westward, and 19' 
eastward. At noon, ditto weather, and smooth 

Latitude, 44. 25'. Thermometer, 56. 

Monday, Nov. 3. 

Calm weather and clear, with little sea. The 
sky sometimes overcast. At noon, the land 
just in sight from the mast-head. Sounded in 
30 fathoms water; gravel, with broken shells. 
Course, by reckoning, Q' w. and 53' s. 

Latitude 43 30'. Thermometer, 53. 

Tuesday, Nov. 4. 

Thick weather, and a good deal of swell. 
From noon till five p. M. course s. s.w. with an 
East wind. At that hour made Cape Kel-leg-ghra, 
bearing s.w. and by w. about 20 miles distant. 
From this time and place, till noon, we made 
about 50 miles' course, with an East wind, 
a heavy sea, and cloudy weather. Thermo- 
meter, 51. 


Wednesday, Nov. 5. 

Thick weather light wind, and a heavy 
swell. Discovered that the ship made a 
little water about an inch every four hours ; 
owing to the straining motion. From mid-day, 
till eleven p. M. steered with little wind from 
the East. Afterwards a calm, till two A. M. 
when there sprung up a wind from the N.W. 
Continued our course to the South till six A. M. 
At six, a calm. Discovered the coast and at 
day-break observed the land off the mouth of 
the Canal of Constantinople, distant 2O miles. 
Calm till noon, with a heavy swell from the 
East, which worked the ship very much. From 
sun-set of the preceding evening, till noon 
this day, had made 42' south. At noon, stood 
opposite the light-house of the Canal, which 
bore only ten miles distant to the West of us. 
Calm, with a heavy swell. Thermometer, 53. 

Thursday, Nov. 6. 

Hazy weather. The wind calm, and a heavy 
swell from the East. Continued to work the 
pumps, the ship making an inch of water 
every four hours. From noon, till five, light 
variable breezes. Keeping the prow to the 
sea, viz. to the South, at that hour the wind 
veered from the South to the s. S.E, which 
caused us to keep the prow to the East ; little 


wind. Continued thus till six o'clock A. M., 
when the wind veered to the s. s. w., and we 
turned the prow to the West. At sun-rise the 
wind strengthened very much. Reefed the 
sails the sea having calmed from the East, 
and swelled from the s. w. At this time, 
observed the mouth of the Canal of Constan- 
tinople, and distinguished the light-tower on 
the Asiatic side. At ten o'clock, the wind 
still increasing, and a heavy sea, we were 
forced to take in all the reefs in the main- 
topsail. At twelve mid-day, the wind and sea 
rose to such a pitch, that we were forced to lower 
the topsail, remaining only with the foresail, the 
mainsail, the main-staysail, and the fore-stay- 
sail. The sea rolled over the ship, from one side 
of the deck to the other ; and we perceived, at 
the same time, that the water in the hold had 
risen even to the sentina 1 . Immediately we 
pumped the ship. At noon, made the mouth 
of the Canal, bearing s. and by w. distant 
about 20 miles. Heavy sea, and tempestuous 
weather. Thermometer, 65. 

Friday, Nov. 7. 
Weather exceedingly thick and dark. Wind 

(l) So the w.ord stands in the original. But sentina means the 
pump-well, iuto which the water must flow in order to be discharged. 


tempestuous, and heavy sea. Obliged to work 
the pumps every hour; the ship making two 
inches of water. From noon, till four p. M., 
steering with a tempestuous wind for the s. s.w. 
At this hour, the mouth of the Canal bore 
s. s. w., distant about 25 miles. On a sudden, 
experienced a gale of wind from the N. w. so 
unexpected and tremendous, that we had 
scarcely time to lower the sails, and were 
compelled to scud before it a ; encountering for 
an hour a hurricane of wind and sea from the 
N. w., which at the same time met the heavy 
sea from the s. w. in such a manner, that 
at every pitch the ship made, her bowsprit was 
carried under water ; our vessel at the same 
time labouring so much, that the sea washed 
entirely over her, and we were obliged to nail 
up all the port-holes and other apertures. 
At five P. M. the great fury of the hurricane 
abated. Put the ship a la capa*, with the prow 
to the s. w. carrying only the jib and mainsail, 

(2) The common and only resource of Turkish vessels in a storm; 
but never used by European ships, unless in cases of imminent and 
absolute danger. Had the storm continued another half hour, with 
the same violence, we must have been inevitably lost, even supposing 
her to sustain the violence of the sea, as we had a lee-shore under 
the ship's prow. 

(3) 'A la capa is, literally, lying to, with the helm hard a-lce. 


with three reefs, with a view to get clear of the 
land; at the same time, the storm still con- 
tinued with such fury, that the sea rolled over 
the deck from one side to the other. At six 
P.M. the wind veered to the s.w. again 1 ; so 
that, what with the sea from the N. w. and from 
the s. w. meeting it, the ship laboured beyond 
all measure, and we were compelled to keep 
the pumps going every hour. At eight p. M. 
took in the jib, with the view, if possible, to 
keep the prow more to the sea ; the great fury of 
the wind and sea continuing without abatement, 
and the sea continually passing over us from 
one side to the other, so that the deck was con- 
tinually full of water. Matters continued in this 
manner till mid-day, when the fury of the wind 
somewhat abated. Unreefed, and set the main- 
sail; the same tremendous sea still continuing, 
and the deck being always full of water. From 
four A. M. till noon, we had made about 20 miles 
course towards the East, allowing for lee-way. 
At noon, made the high land to the Southward 
of the mouth of the Canal, bearing to the s.w. 

(l) Perhaps a greater commotion cannot be raised in the sea than 
what was here witnessed. The wind having raged with violence for a 
length of time from the s. w. had raised a prodigious sea. It was met 
4g~* hurricane from an opposite quarter, the two seas encountering 
each other : and in the course of two hours it veered to the same 
point again, when the sea became horrible beyond description. 

APPENDIX, N lit. 495 

and distant about 3O miles. The extreme of 
the land visible on the Asiatic shore, bearing E. 
by s. Thermometer, 51. 

Saturday, Nov. 8. 

Very thick weather. Wind tempestuous, and 
a very heavy sea. Kept the pumps going, the 
ship still making two inches of water in an 
hour. From noon till three A.M. continued 
steering with the prow to the North, and our 
course corrected N. E. by E. having continually 
a stormy wind from the w. N. w. and a pro- 
digious heavy sea. At three, the wind veered 
to the North. Wore ship's head to the West. 
Continued thus till ten A. M. when we saw the 
coast of Anatolia, near the mouth of the Canal. 
Then steered to the w. s.w. towards the said 
land ; having at that time let out all the reefs, 
and set the greater sails. Continued thus till 
noon, when there fell a calm; a prodigious 
heavy sea remaining from the N. w. which 
made the ship labour in such a manner, that 
the deck was continually covered with water, 
causing also great damage to the upper works 
and sails. Lowered and furled all the sails, 
leaving every thing under bare poles. Ther- 
mometer, 53. 

Sunday, Nov. 9. 

Thick weather wind calm, and a heavy sea. 


Kept the pumps continually going. From noon 
to six P. M., calm, with a prodigious heavy sea 
from the N. w. which caused the ship to labour 
exceedingly, and did great damage to the works 
and rigging ; the deck being at the same time 
always full of water, which, with the ship's rolling, 
washed from one side to the other. At six, a 
light breeze from the Southward. Came to the 
wind on the larboard tack: head s. s.w., ship 
labouring less. At ten p. M. the wind veered 
to the s. s. w., which obliged us to put the 
prow to the West, having at the same time 
much calmed the sea. At eight o'clock A.M. 
the mouth of the Canal bore to the s. s.w. of 
us, distant about 30 miles. From the time 
of this observation, till noon, made 12 miles' 
course to the w. N. w., the wind s.w. by s. 
The sea calmed from the N. w. and somewhat 
swelled from s. w. Thermometer, 56. 

Monday, Nov. 10. 

Very thick weather. Light wind, and a heavy 
sea from the s. w. Continued to work the 
pumps as before. From noon till midnight, con- 
tinued to steer with a stormy wind from the 
s. s. w. Course corrected, w. and by N. 36'. 
From mid-night to seven A. M. wind from s. w. 
Course corrected, w. and by N. 28 '. At this 


hour saw the coast on the European side ; viz. 
the land towards Inneadda, and the coast to the 
N. w. Also the mountain Gabbiam, bearing to 
the N. w. of Inneadda* Towards noon, steered 
with little wind from s.w. Course, E. to N. w. 
by w. 10'. The sea much becalmed. Dis- 
covered that the ship heeled on her starboard 
side. Opened the port-holes and hatches on 
the larboard side, and moved part of her 
cargo ; endeavouring as much as possible to set 
her right ; but she still heeled somewhat towards 
her starboard side. Thermometer, 60. 

Tuesday, Nov. 1 1 . 

Atmosphere somewhat overcast. Light wind, 
and little sea. Continued to pump as before. 
From noon till nine P. M. steered with the prow 
to the N. w. with wind from w. s. w. The wind 
afterwards veered to the w. by N. and turned 
her side with the prow to the s. s. w. Light 
favourable wind. Continued steering thus till 
ten A. M. when the wind veered to the s. s. w.; 
and being to the windward of the port of Inne- 
adda, turned the ship's bow with the prow to 
the West, towards the said port; being deter- 
mined to anchor there, and endeavour to set 
the ship right on her keel. At four p. M., cast 
anchor in the middle of the port of Inneadda, 
in six fathoms water, with a small gravelly 


bottom, mixed with black sand. The same 
wind continued till towards sun-set, when there 
fell a calm. Thermometer, 53. 

Wednesday, Nov. 12. 

Atmosphere somewhat overcast, and a calm. 
Continued to pump as before. Laid at anchor. 
Light breezes of wind. In this day opened the 
hatches and port-holes, to right the ship as 
much as possible moved part of her cargo 
repaired and altered part of the rigging, and 
sent the crew ashore for water. Thermo- 
meter, 60. 

Thursday, Nov. 13. 

Atmosphere somewhat overcast, and calm 
wind. Continued to pump as before. Laid at 
anchor. The whole night passed with light 
breezes of wind, and calms ; also all the rest 
of the day, till sun-set. This day employed 
in repairing various damages sustained in the 
rigging, &c. Thermometer, 67. 

Friday, Nov. 14. 

Atmosphere overcast. Calm. Continued to 
pump as before. Remained at anchor. From 
sun-set to mid-night, calm, and atmosphere 
somewhat overcast. Afterwards it became 
cloudy on all sides, and there sprung up a 
alight wind from the West, which continued 


till ten A.M., when the wind veered to the 
East, and the atmosphere became very turbid 
on all sides, especially from the North to the 
East ; at the same time a heavy sea rolling 
into the port from the East. A slight wind 
continued till sun-set, a turbid sky, and a 
heavy sea. About twenty Turkish boats entered 
the port this day from various places, bound 
for Cojistantinople, and waiting for favourable 

Saturday, Nov. 15. 

Very thick weather. Little wind, and a 
heavy swell. Remained at anchor : continued to 
work the pumps, although the water diminished, 
and we only pumped two inches in twenty-four 
hours. From sun-set till eight A. M. a slight 
wind from the East. At that time the wind 
veered to the s. w., having swelled the sea, 
which, entering the port from the East, made 
the ship labour very much ; so that we were 
obliged to anchor the poop, with a small cable 
to keep the ship with the prow to the sea, which 
eased her very much. All the rest of the night, 
and the following day till sun-set, the same 
wind continued, with an atmosphere exceed- 
ingly turbid on all sides. 

Sunday, Nov. 16. 

Very thick weather. Moderate wind, and a 
VOL. IT. 2 K 


heavy sea. Remained at anchor : continued to 
pump as before. The whole day a s. w. wind. 
Atmosphere exceedingly turbid, and the wind 
sometimes stormy ; all which continued so till 

In the afternoon, Captain Morini, from Odessa, 
arrived in the port, bound to Constantinople, 
having had six days' passage. Also two 
Turkish boats from the same place. 

Monday, Nov. 17. 

Very thick weather. Stormy wind, and a 
heavy sea. Continued to pump as before. 
Remained at anchor the whole night and day. 
Till sun-set, a stormy wind from the s.w. and 
a cloudy atmosphere ; everywhere exceedingly 
overcast. At sun-set the wind somewhat calmer. 
During the night, arrived in the port, Captain 
Bilajfer, from Odessa, laden with corn, bound to 
Constantinople ; having had six days' voyage. 

Tuesday, Nov. 18. 

Very thick weather. Little wind, and a 
heavy sea from the East. Continued to pump 
as before. Remained at anchor in the port. 

All night and day, till sun-set, breezes from 
the E. s. E. and r., and a little sea from the 


East. Atmosphere continued turbid. This day, 
raised the small anchor. 

Wednesday, Nov. ig. 

Thick weather. Light wind, and a little sea 
from the East. Continued to pump as before. 
Remained at anchor. The whole night, light 
breezes of wind from the East, and a dark fog. 
The remainder of the day with light breezes 
of wind, scattered and cloudy, with rain, which 
continued till sun-set. 

Thursday, Nov. 20. 

Very thick weather. Calm ; with rain, and 
a little sea from the East. Continued to pump 
as before. Remained at anchor. The whole 
night, till day-break, a wind from S.S.E. with 
rain; and the whole day, till sun-set, with 
unsettled variable winds from all points, and 
heavy rain, with intervals of calm wind and 

Friday, Nov. 21. 

Very thick weather. Calm, and little sea from 
the s. E. Continued to work the pumps. 
Remained at anchor. From sun-set, till six 
o'clock, calm. At this hour there sprung up 
a light breeze from the South, and the at- 
mosphere cleared, only remaining thick towards 
the East, which was covered with a dark fog. 

2 K2 


Continued thus till ten P.M., when the wind 
veered to the w. s. w., and the atmosphere 
became quite clear. Immediately weighed 
anchor and set sail, spreading all the great 
sails to the wind. When the anchor came on 
board, found it had lost one of its claws. All 
the vessels and boats in the port also set 
sail, steering to the s. E. with the said wind. 
Continued thus until three o'clock after mid- 
night; at which hour we had made 20 miles' 
course to the s. E. Then succeeded a calm, 
and this continued until half-after-three, when 
the atmosphere became turbid on all sides. 
At four A.M. a stormy wind rose from the 
North, accompanied with rain. Made our 
course to the E. by s. till eight A. M. when 
we discovered the coast near the mouth of 
the Canal, and steered to the s. E. At this 
time there came on heavy rain, which con- 
tinued till noon, with thick fog ; and it was 
very dark, insomuch that we could no longer 
see land. At noon, the rain being somewhat 
diminished, but the stormy wind and a pro- 
digious sea continuing, we discovered the light- 
tower off the mouth of the Canal, on the 
European side, at no great distance. Imme- 
diately let go all the flying-sails ; steering to 
the South, directly towards the mouth of the 
Canal, the wind having somewhat calmed; 


although the rain fell in torrents; and such 
darkness prevailed, that we could with diffi- 
culty discern the land. 

At three o'clock p. M. arrived, opposite to 
Boyouk-derrek, in the Canal ; and at five P. M. 
cast anchor at Jenikeuy, letting go the great 
anchor with the new cable, there not being 
time to lash the middle cable above the small 
anchor, the middle cable having broken in the 
harbour of Inneadda. Fastened also two cables 
to land; our anchorage being very near the 
shore, in six fathoms water. 


No. IV. 








ACHILLEA tomentosa . . Cottony Milfoil. 

Aegilops squarrosa. 

Agrimonia Eupaloria ; . . Common Agrimony. 

Ajuga alpina Mountain Bugle. 

Alcea ficifolia Fig-leaved Marshmallow. 

Allium descendens .... Deep-rooted Garlick. 

Allium subhirsutum .... Dwarf Garlick. 

Alyssum incanum .... Hoary Alysson. 

Amaryllis belladonna . . . Belladonna Lily . . . From Gardens. 
Anabasis aphylla. 

Anagallis arvensis r Pur le . flowered pi mpe rnel . . In the groves of the 

(flore Phoemcio) 1 5ia6rf Mountains South 

of the Crimea. 

Anchusa angustifolia . . . Narrow-leaved Bugloss. 

Anchusa tinctoria .... Dyers' Bugloss. 

Andropogon iscJusmum . . . Beard-grass. 
Androsace septentrionalis. 

Antirrhinum linariii . . . Yellow Toad-flax. 

Apium graveolens .... Wild Celery. 
Apocynum venetum .... Venetian Dog-bane. 

Arabis alpina . t Alpine Rock-cress. 

Arabis glandiflara .... Great-flowered Rock-cress. 

Arenaria marina .... Sea Sandwort. 

Aristolochia clematitis . . Climbing Birthwort. 

Artemisia campestrit 

Asclepias vincetoxicum . . 
Asphodelus luteus . . 
Asp/iodelus Tauricus. 1 

Aster amellus Italian Starwort. 2 

Aster Tripolium Sea Starwort. 


. . Field Worm wood.. Large downy excrescences grow 
upon this plant from the per- 
forations of insects, which 
are made use of by the Tah- 
tars to light their pipes. _ 

. Common Swallow-wort. 
, . Yellow Asphodel. 

Astragalus Austriacus . 
Astragalus dealbatus 3 . 
Astragalus hypoglottis . 
Astragalus onobrycJaoides ' 
Astragalus pilosus . . 
Astragalus utriger? 
Astragalus virgatus 
Borago Orientalis . . 
Bromus squarrosus . 
Bupleurum tenuissimum 
Butomus umlcllatus 
Campanula hybrida 
Campanula lilifolia . . 
Campanula stricta 

Austrian Milk-vetch. 
Whitish Milk-vetch. 
Purple Mountain Milk-vetch. 
Sainfoin-like Milk-vetch. 
Hairy Milk-vetch. 

Twiggy Milk- vetch. 

Oriental Borage. 

Corn Brome-grass . . In the South of the Crimea. 

Slender Hare's-ear. 


Mule Bell-flower. 

Lily-leaved Bell-flower. 

Erect Bell-flower. 

Carduus puleher 6 (nova species) Fair Thistle. 

Carpinus Orientalis 1 . . . Oriental Hornbeam. 

Carthamus lanatus. 

Centaurea buxbaumiana.s ^ 

Centauria frigida 

Centaurea lineata . . . 

Centaurea radiata . . 

Northern Knapweed 
Streaked Knapweed. 
Rayed Knapweed . . 

Centaurea Romano, 

Roman Knapweed 

. . Steppes/ 

On the Steppes near Koslof. 
Called by the Tahtars, 
Kurai. The sheep feed 
on it in winter, and it is 
supposed to give them 
that grey wool so much 
valued by the Tahtars. 

Sea-coast on the mountains 
in the South. 

(1) Pallas. (2) See Virgil's Georgics. IV. 271276. 

(5) Ibid. (6) Palla?. 

(3) Pallas. (4) Bibcrstein. 

(7) Willdenow. (8) Pallas. 


Centaurea Sibhica .... Siberian Knapweed. 

Ce.ntaurea solstitinlis . . . Saint Barnaby's Thistle. 

Centaurea Tahtarica . . . Tahtarian Knapweed. 

Cerastiutn alpinum .... Mountain Mouse-ear. 

Cerastium tomentosum . . . Woolly Mouse-ear. 

Ceratocrtrpus arenarius . . Sand Hornwort Perecop. 

Cerinthe minor Small Moneywort. 

Cheiranthus odoratissimus . . Taurian Gilly-flower. 

Chrysocoma graminifolia . Grass-leaved Goldylocks. 

Chrysocoma villosa .... Downy Goldylocks. 

Cickorium intybus .... Wild Endive, or Succory. 

Cistus famana . . . ; . Prostrate Rock-rose. 

Cistus heliantliemum . . . Dwarf Cistus. 

Cistus angustifolius .... Narrow-leaved Rock-rose. 

Clematis vitalba ..... Travellers'-joy. 

Clinopodium vulgare , . . Wild Basil. 

Colchicum vernum l . . . . Spring Meadow-saffron. 

Convolvulus arvensis . . . Common Bindweed. 

Convolvulus Cantalrica . . . Silky Bindweed. 

Convolvulus Cneorum . . . Silvery Bindweed. 

Convolvulus lineatus . . . Streaked Bindweed. 

Convolvulus terrestris . , . Creeping Bindweed. 

Corispermum squarrosum 2 . Scaly Tick-seed. 

Cornus mascula Male Cornel-cherry. 

Coronilla coronata. 

Crocus sativus Autumnal Meadow-saffron . . Steppes, near Ah- 

melchet. Oct. 10, 1800. 

Cynoglossum officinale . . . Common Hound's-tongue. 
Cyperus Pannonicus. 

Daucus carota ..... Wild Carrot. 
Delphinium Ajacis .... Rocket .... On this flower appear the letters 


Delp?dnium consolida . . . Branching Rocket. 

Dianthus arenarius 4 . . . Oriental Pink. 

(D. Orientalis. Curtis's Botanical Magazine.) 

Dianthus plumarius . . . Feathered Pink. 

(l) Pallas. (2) Ibid. (3) " Die, quibus in terris inscripti nomine Regum 

Nascantur flores ; et Philida solus habeto." Virgil, 
(4) Ibid. 


Dianthus salinus. ' . . . 
Dianthus saxatilis. 2 

Dorycnium s On the mountain Tctetirdagh. 

Dorycnium monspeliense, 

Dracocephalum altaicum . . Altai Dragon's-bead. 

Dracocephalum grandiflorum Great Flowered Dragon's-head. 
Dracocephalum Tauricum.* 

Echinops ritro Small Globe-Thistle. 

Echlum Orientate .... Oriental Viper's-Bugloss. 

Echium rubrum Red-flowered Viper's-Bugloss . . Gum is made from 

the roots. 

Epilobium hirsutum .... Hairy Willow-herb. 

Epilobium roseum .... Smooth Willow-herb. 
Erigeron villarsii, 5 

Erysimum barbarea '. . . . Bitter Winter-cress. 

Euonymus verrucosus . . . Warty Spindle-Tree. 

Euonymus latifolius .... Broad-leaved Spindle-Tree. 

Euphorbia hyberna .... Winter Spurge. 

Euphrasia lutea Yellow Eye-Bright. 

Euplirasia odontites .... Red Eye-Bright. 

Frankenia hirsuta .... Hairy Sea-Heath. 

Fucus aspleno'ides Turner's Fuci, Table 62. . Found at the Point of 

Phanari, in the Heracleotic 
Peninsula, near the Ruins 
' of the Old Chersonesus 
of Strabo. Only found be- 
fore at Prince William's 
Sound, in Captain Vancou- 
ver's voyage, and on the 
shores of Kamtschatku. 

Galanthus nivalis .... Snow-Drop. 

Galega ojffirinalis .... Goafs-Rue. 

Galium glaucum 6 .... Sea-green Ladies' Bed-Straw. 

Galium rubwides .... Madder-like Ladies' Bed-Straw. 

Galium sylvaticum .... Wood Ladies' Bed-Straw . . Near Perecop. 

Gentiana septemfida . . . Sevencleft Gentian. 

Geranium rotundifolium . . Round-leaved Crane's-Bill. 

Geranium sanguineum . . . Bloody Crane's-Bill. . . 

(1) Pallas. C) IMd. O Willdenow. 

(4) Pallas. (S) Willdenow. (6) Plla. 


Geranium sylvaticum , . . Wood Crane's-Bill . . . Steppes. 

Glechoma hederacea . Ground Ivy. 

Glycyrrhiza glabra .... Common Liquorice. 

Gypsophila glomerata. 1 

Hedysarum argenteum. 11 

Hedysarum cretaceum.* 

Hedysarum Tauricum.* 

Helianthus tuberosus . . . Jerusalem Artichoke . . . Fields at Mmetchet. 

Heliotropium Europceum . . Turnsole. 

Herniaria hirsula .... Hairy Rupture-wort. 

Herniaria Icevis Smooth Rupture-wort. 

HesperisTaUarica* . . . - Tabtarian Night-Violet. 

Hordeum murinum .... Wall Barley. 

Hyacinthus botryoides . . . Grape Hyacinth. 

Hyacinthus comosus .... Purple Grape Hyacinth. 

Hyacinthus fuliginosus 6 . . Sooty Hyacinth. 

Illecebrum capitatum . . . Downy Knot-Grass. 

Illeccbrum paronychia . . . Shining Knot-Grass. 

Impatient noli-tangere . . . Touch-me-not. Yellow Balsam. 

Inula dysentcrica. 

Inula ensifolia. 

Iris ochroleuca ..... Pale Sword-Lily. 

Iris tenuifolia Fine-leaved Sword-Lily. 

luncus acutus Sharp Rush. 

Lamium amplexicaule . . Henbit. 

Linumfiavum Yellow-flowered Flax. 

Linum hirsutum .... Hairy-Flax. 

Linum Narbonense .... Narbonne Flax. 

Lithospermum dispermum . . Two-seeded Cromwell. 

Lonicera cctrulea .... Blue-berried Honeysuckle. 

Lonicera xylosteum .... Fly-Honeysuckle. 

Lotus corniculatus .... Bird's-foot Trefoil. 

Lycopsis pulla Dark-flowering Wild-Bugloss. 

Lycopsis vesicaria .... Inflated Wild-Bugloss. 

Lysimachia vulgurit . . . Yellow Loose-Strife. 

Lythntm virgatum .... Twiggy Willow-Herb. 

(1) Pallas. (2) Ibid. g) Ibid. 

(i) Ibid. (5) Ibid. (6; Ibid. 

MarruUum pcregrinum 
Medicago lupulina . . 
Melica lanata . . . 
Mentha sylvestris . . 
Molucella tuberosa. 
Myosotis lappula . . . 
Nepeta nuda .... 
Nigella damascena . . 
Ocymum basilicum , . 
Olca Europiea . . . 
Ononis hircina . . . 
Onosma echio'ides . . 


. Rambling Horehound. 

. Black Medick. Nonesuch. 

. Wooly Melic-Grass. 

. Wood Mint. 


Onosma simplicissima. 
Onosma Taurica. 1 
Origanum Heracleoticum 

Ornithogalum circinatum 2 
(O. reticulatum) 

OrnitJwgalum proliferum 5 
Ornithogalum uniflorum 
Orobanche cernua* - . . 
Paonia triternata 5 . . , 
Panicum dactylon . . . 
Panicum vlride ... 
Pedicularis tuberosa . . 
Peganum harmala . 

Phleum urenarium . 
Phleum schcenciides . 
Phlomis herba-venti. 
Physalis alkekengi . 
Phyteuma canescens 6 
Picris hierarioides . 
Pimpinella dioica 
Poa cristata . . 
Polycnemum arvense. 
Polycnemum volvox." 1 

Prickly-seeded Scorpion-Grass. 

Smooth Calamint. 

Common Fennel-Flower. 

Sweet Basil .... Gardens. 

Common Olive. 

Smooth Rest-Harrow. 

The Tahtars use the root 

to paint a rouge. 

Winter Marjoram. ' 
Netted Star of Bethlehem. 

Proliferous Star of Bethlehem. 
One-flowered Star of Bethlehem. 
Nodding Broom-Rape. 
Davurian Psony. 
Fingered Panic-Grass. 
Green-flowered Panic-Grass. 
Tuberous Lousewort. 

At Kaffa. The Tahtars send the seeds 

to Turkey, as a cure for worms. 

Sand Cat's-tail Grass. 
Rush-like Cat's-tail Grass. 

Winter Cherry. 
Hoary Rampion. 
Hawkweed-like Ox-tongue. 
Dwarf Burnet-Saxifrage. 
Crested Meadow-Grass. 

(]) Pallas. 
(5) Ibid. 

(2) Ibid. 

M Waldstein. 

(3) Tbid. 
(1) Pallas. 

(4) Ibid. 


Potygala major Greater Milk-wort. 

Polygonum maritimum . . Sea Bistort ....".. Near Perecop. 

Potentilla argentea .... Silvery Goose-Grass. 

Potcntilla recta Upright Cinquefoil. 

Prenanthes viminca. 

Psoralea lituminosa. 

,Punica granalum .... Pomegranate. 

Ranunculus auricomus . . Goldy-locks. Wood Crowfoot. 

Ranunculus pedatus 1 . . . Small Crowfoot. 

Reseda lutea Base Rocket. 

Rhododendron daurlcum . . Daurian Rosebay. 

Jihus coriaria Elm-leaved Sumach. 

Rhus cotinus Venice Sumach . . The Tahtars give the yellow co- 
lour to their morocco with this. 

Ribet nigrum Black Currant. . . . Grcassia. 

Rosapygmeea Dwarf Rose On the lofty precipices of 

Rumex crispus Curled Dock. [Mankoop. 

Rumex dentattu Toothed Dock. 

Salicornia herbacea .... Glasswort. 

Salsola brachiata* .... Armed Saltwort. 

SaUola kali .Prickly Saltwort . ". Perecop. 

Saltola soda ...... Saltwort Ruins of the Old Cher- 
sonese, on the little fortress 
near Alcxiano's Chouier. 

Salvia SEthiopis Woolly Sage. 

Sahia glutinosa Clammy Sage. 

Salvia Hablitziana* . . . Scabious-leaved Sage. 

Salvia Horminum .... Red-topped Sage. 

Salvia nemorosa ..... Wood Sage. 

Salvia offlcinalis Common Sage. 

Salvia pratensis Meadow Clary. 

Salvia verbenaca . . . . Vervain. 

Saponaria rrfficinalis . . . Common Soapwort. 

Scabiosa argentea .... Silvery Scabious. 

Scabiosa leucantha .... White-flowered Scabious. 

Scabiosa maritima .... Sea-side Scabious. 

Scabiosa stellata Starry Scabious. 

(1) Waldstein. (2) plls. (3) Ibid. 


Scaliosa Ukranica .... Ukraine Scabious. 

Schoenus aculeatus .... Prickly Rush. 

Scilla autumnalis .... Autumnal Squill. 
Scrophulariachrysanthemifolia^Oii-eye Daisy-leaved Figwort. 

Scutellaria Orientate . . . Oriental Scull-cap. 

Sedum acre Stone-Crop. 

Sedum album White Stone-Crop. 

Sedum saxatile Rock Stone-Crop. 

Sedum sexangulare .... Insipid Stone-Crop. 

Senecio erucifolius . . . . Hedge Ragwort. 

Seseli dichotomum. 3 

Seseli gummiferum? 

Sideritis montana .... Mountain Ironwort. 

Sideritis Syriaca Syrian Ironwort. 

Silene bella* (nova species). 

Silcne quadrifida Tower-cleft Catch- fly . . Steppes near Perecop. 

Sinapis erucoides .... Ragged-leaved Wild Mustard. 

Sisymbrium Loeselii . . . Loesel's Hedge-Mustard . . Steppes near Perecop. 

Sisymbrium Pannonicum . . Pannonian Hedge-Mustard. 

Sisymbrium Pyrenaicum . . Pyrenean Rocket. 

Slum falcaria Sickle-leaved Water-Parsnip. 

Solanum dulcamara . . . Woody Nightshade. 

Sorbus domestica Service. 

Spirceafitipendula .... Dropwort. 

Staticeferulacea Fennel-like Sea-Pink. 

Statice trigona Three-sided Sea-Lavender . . In the Steppes very 


Stipa capillata Hair-like Feather-Grass. 

Symphytum Orientate . . . Oriental Comfrey. 

Tamarix Gallica .... French Tamarisk. 

Tanacetum vulgare .... Common Tansy. 

Teucrium capitatum . . . Headed Germander. 

Teucrium chamapUys . . . Ground Pine Perecap. 

Teucrium mcmtanum . . . Mountain Germander. 

Teucrium polium . . . Poly, or Sweet Germander. 
Thcsium linophyllum. 

(\) BTberstein. (2) Pallas. (3) Ibid. 

(4) Silene caule decumbente ramoso, ramiR]abriu9Ciilis,foliis lanceolatis glabris trinerviia; Aoribus 
fasciculalia ttnninalibus, caljrcibus striatis, pilosiustulis longiimis, peUlis integris. . ^L. 


Tliymus Marschallianus 1 j 

m a C Taurian Thyme. 

Thymus Zygis* . . . J 

Thymus Patavinus .... Patavian Thyme. 

TiKa Europeca Common Lime-Tree. 

Tragopogon Orientalis . . . Oriental Goats-beard. 

Tribulus terrestris. 

Trifollum melilotus-officinalis , Melilot. 

Trifolium subterraneum . . Subterranean Trefoil. 

Trigonella Ruthenica . . . Russian Fenugreek. 

Triticam prostratum . . . Prostrate Wheat-Grass. 

Ulmus pumila Dwarf Elm. 

Verbascum Phoeniceum . . Purple Mullein. 

Verbena officinalis __ .... Vervain. 
Veronica alpina. 

Peronica incana Hoary Speedwell 

Verontea longifolia .... Long-leaved Germander. 

Veronica multifida .... Manycleft Germander. 

Veronica procumbensJ 

(nova species) 5 ' ' Procumbent Germander. 

Veronica verna Spring Germander. 

Vicia Pannonica '. . * . Pan nonian Vetch . . ." .Steppes. 

Vitex Angus- Castus . , . Chaste-Tree. 

Xeranthemum annuum . , Annual Cudweed. 

ZygopJiyllum fabago . . . Bean Caper. 

(J) Willdenow. (2) Pallas. 


No. V. 





During the same Period, 


N. B. The Observations during the Journey were always made at Noon : those of 
the Royal Society at Two P. M.; and both on the Scale of Fahrenheit. 

Observation on the 
Scale of Fahrenheit. 

Where made. 

Observation in London 
When made. on the same Day. 

f Freezing \ 
6 ~ \ Point / 


April a, 1800. 
April 4. 




April 5. 




April 6. 




April 7. 




April 8. 




April 9. 




April 10. 




April 11. 




April 12. 




April 13. 




April 14. 




April 15. 




April 16. 




April 17. 




vation on the 
: of Fahrenheit. 

Where made. 

Observation in London 
When made. on the same Day. 



April 18, 

1800. 61 



April 19. 




April 20. 




April 21. 




April 22. 




April 23. 




April 24. 




April 25. 




April 26. 




April 27. 




April 28. 




April 29. 




April 30. 




May 1. 




May 2 




May 3. 




May 4 




May 5. 




May 6. 




May 7. 




May 8. 




May 9. 




May 10. 




May 11. 




May 12. 




May ]3. 




May 14. 




May 15. 




May 16. 




May Ijr. 




May 18. 




May 19. 




May 20. 




May 21. 


APPENDIX, N" V. 515 

Observation on the 
Scale of Fahrenheit. Where made. 

Observation in London 
When made. on the same Day. 



May 22, 1800. 




May 23. 



Moscow, , 

May 24. 




May 25. 



Moscow, . 

May 26. 




May 27. 




May 28. 




May 29. 




May 30. 




May 31. 




June 1 . 



Celo Volotia, 

June 2. 




June 3. 




June 4. 



Bolshoy Platyi 

June 5. 




June 6. 




June 7- 




June 8. 




June Q. 




June 10. 




June 11. 




June 12. 



f Steppe between 
I and lestakovo, 

' VJune 13. 




June 14. 




June 15. 




June 16. 




June I/. 




June 18. 



In the Steppes, 

June 19. 





June 20. 




June 21. 




June 22. 




June 23. 




2 L 



Observation on the 
Scale of Fahrenheit. 



































Where made. 



River Don near Rastof, 

River Don near Rastof, 







Sea of Azof, 

Steppe near Aeskoy, 

Steppe near Protchalnoy, 

Steppe near Penovra, 



Steppe near Kara Kuban, 


Sea of Azof near Taman, 

Sea of Azof near Yenikale, 















Observation in London 
When made. on the same Day. 

June 24, 1800. 


June 25. 


June 26. 


June 27. 


June 28. 


June 29. 


June 30. 


July 1. 


July 2. 


July 3. 


July 4. 


July 5. 


July 6. 


July 7. 


July 8. 


July p. 


July 10. 


July 1 1 . 


July 12. 


July 13. 


July 14. 


July 15. 


July 16. 


July 17. 


July 18. 


July 19. 


July 20. 


July 21. 


July 22. 


July 23. 


July 24. 


July 25. 


July 26. 


July 27. 




ration on the 
>f Fahrenheit. Where made. 

Observation in London 
When made. on the same Day. 



July 28, 1800. 




July 29. 




July 30. 




July 31. 




Aug. 1. 




Aug. 2. 




Aug. 3. 




Aug. 4. 




Aug. 5. 




Aug. 6. 




Aug. 7. 




Aug. 8. 




Aug. 9. 




Aug. 10. 




Aug. 11. 




Aug. 12. 




Aug. 13. 




Aug. 14. 




Aug. 15. 




Aug. 16. 




Aug. 17- 




Aug. 18. 




Aug. 19. 




Aug. 20. 




Aug. 21. 




Aug. 22. 




Aug. 23. 




Aug. 24. 




Aug. 25. 




Aug. 26. 




Aug. 27. 




Aug. 28. 





Aug. 29. 




Aug. 30. 


L 2 



Observation on the 
Scale of Fahrenheit. Where made. 

Observation in London 
When made. on the tame Day. 



Aug. 31, 1800. 




Sept. 1. 




Sept. 2. 




Sept. 3. 




Sept. 4. 




Sept. 5. 



Near Akmetchet, 

Sept. 6. 



Mountain above Balaclava, 

Sept. 7- 



Ruins near Balaclava, 

Sept. 8. 




Sept. 9. 




Sept. 10. 




Sept. 11. 




Sept. 12. 




Sept. 13. 




Sept. 14. 




Sept. 15. 




Sept. 16. 




Sept. 17. 




Sept. 18. 




Sept. lp. 




Sept. 2O. 




Sept. 21. 




Sept. 22. 




Sept. 23. 




Sept. 24. 




Sept. 25. 




Sept. 26. 




Sept. 27. 




Sept. 23. 




Sept. 29. 




Sept. 30. 




Oct. l. 




Oct. 2. 




Oct. 3. 



Observation on the 

Observation in London 

Scale of Fahrenheit. 

Where made. 

When made. 

on the tame Pay. 



Oct. 4, 1800. 




Oct. 5. 




Oct. 6. 




Oct. 7. 




Oct. 8. 




Oct. 9. 



Steppes near Akmetchet, 

Oct. 10. 




Oct. 11. 




Oct. 12. 




Oct. 13. 




Oct. 14. 




Oct. 15. 



Banks of the Bog, 

Oct. 16. 




Oct. 17- 




Oct. IS. 




Oct. 19. 




Oct. 20. 




Oct. 21. 




Oct. 22. 




Oct. 23. 




Oct. 24. 




Oct. 25. 




Oct. 26. 




Oct. 27. 




Oct. 28. 




Oct. 29. 




Oct. 30. 



Black Sea near Odessa, 

Oct. 31. 



Black Sea, Lat. 44. 44'. 

Nov. 1. 



Black Sea, Lat. 44. 23'. 

Nov. 2. 



Black Sea, Lat. unknown, 

Nov. 3. 



Black Sea, Lat. unknown, 

Nov. 4. 



Black Sea, Lat. unknown, 

Nov. 5. 



Observation on the 
Scale of Fahrenheit. 







:he Observation in London 
leit. Where made. When made. on the same Day. 

( Black Sea, 4 Leagues from -> 
\ .'~ Nov. 6, 1800. 
I Canal of Constantinople, J 


{Black Sea, 4 Leagues from ) . 
. Nov. 7- 
Canal of Constantinople, J 


{Black Sea, 8 Leagues from -> 
Canal of Constantinople, / 


{Black Sea, off Cape Noir. > . 
, > Nov. 9. 
Lat. 41. 30. 


Ibid. Lat. 42. 0'. Nov. 10. 


Harbour of Ineada, Nov. 1 1 . 


Harbour of Ineada, Nov. 12. 


Harbour of Ineada, Nov. 13. 


Harbour of Ineada, Nov. 14. 


Harbour of Ineada, Nov. 15. 


Harbour of Ineada, Nov. 16. 


Harbour of Ineada, Nov. 17- 


Harbour of Ineada, Nov. 18. 


Harbour of Ineada, Ncv. ip. 


Harbour of Ineada, Nov. 20. 


C Off the Canal of ConO NQV 2J 
* stantinople, 


Canal of Constantinople, Nov. 22. 


Constantinople, Nov.. 23. 


Constantinople, Nov. 24. 


Constantinople, Nov. 25. 


Constantinople, Nov. 26. 


Constantinople, Nov. 27. 


Constantinople, Nov. 2S. 


Constantinople, Nov. 20. 


Constantinople, Nov. 30. 


Constantinople, Dec. 1. 


Constantinople, Dec. 2. 


Constantinople, Dec. 3. 




licit. Where made. 


When made. on 

the same Da 



Dec. 4, 1800. 




Dec. 5. 




Dec. 6. 




Dec. 7. 




Dec. 8. 




Dec. 9. 




Dec. 10. 




Dec. 11. 




Dec. 12. 




Dec. 13. 




Dec. 14. 




Dec. 15. 




Dec. 16. 




Dec. 17- 




Dec. 18. 




Dec. 19. 




Dec. 20. 




Dec. 21. 




Dec. 22. 




Dec. 23. 




Dec. 24. 




Dec. 25. 




Dec. 26. 




Dec. 27. 




Dec. 28. 




Dec. 29. 




Dec. 30. 




Dec. 31. 




No. VI. 






Jtuss. Eng. 

Vents. Miles. 

From Petersburg to 

Novogorod . . . .180 120 

JTver 888 258f 

Moscow 162 108 

Molodtzy 27 18 

Celo Molody .... 25 IGf 

Grischinka .... 21 14 

Serpuchof 24 16 

Celo Zavody .... 34 22f 

Vaszany 21 14 

Celo Volotia .... 22 14 J 

Tula 13 8f 

Dedilof 33 22 

Boghoroditz .... 25 1 6f 

Celo Nikitzkoy ... 25 16f 

Bolshoy Platy ... 27 18 

Effremof 18 12 

Nikolaijevka .... 22 14f 

Celo Petrovskia Palnia, 19 12| 

Eletz 29 19| 

Carried forward . 1115 743 J 


M iles. 

Brought forward . 1115 

Ezvoly 22 

Zadonetz 18 

Celo Chlebnoy ... 30 

Beztuzevka . . . . 17 

Celo Staroy Ivotinskoy . 18 

Woronetz 25 

Celo Usmany . . . . 15 

Podulok Moscovskoy . 25 

Mojocks 12 

Ekortzy 25 

lestakovo 35 

Locova Sloboda . . . 15 

Paulovskoy .... 22 

Kazinskoy Chutor . . 21 

Nizney Momon . . . 22 

Dobrinka 30 

Metscha 16 10^ 

* Lapok 15 1O 

Carried forward . 1498 998| 

* Not in the regular route. 




Brought forward . 1498 

Kasankaia Stanitza . . 15 

Tichaia ...... 30 

Verchnia (upper) Lazovaia 22 

Niznia flower J Lazovaia. 28 

Acenovskaia .... 25 

Suchovskaia . . . . 21 

Rossochinskaia .... 25 

Pichovskaia ..... 25 

Kamenskaia .... 26 

Dubovskaia ..... 25 

Grivenskaia ..... 26 

Tchestibaloshnia ... 26 

Tuslovskaia .... 27 

Axay ....... 27 

Tcherchask, by water . 15 

Axay, by ditto .... 15 

Azof, by ditto .... 45 

Taganrog, by ditto . . 100 

Chumburskaia .... 45 

Margaritovskaia ... 3 

Ae'skoy ...... 37 

Cherubinovskoy ... 7 

Aesinkoy ..... 25 






1 6f 


1 6f 

1 7|- 










1 6f 

Albaskoy ..... 35 

Chalbaskoy ..... 30 

Protchalnoy .... 30 

Beyseaukoy .... 25 

Sirpiltzy ...... 35 23 

Kirperenska .... 7 4f 

Katachibba ..... 18 12 

Ponoura ..... 17 11 

Ekaterinedara .... 25 16f 

Vydnia ...... 25 16f 

Mechastovskoy ... 20 13 

Kara Kuban .... 25 16$ 

Carried forward . 2430 1620 



Parporzy 28 

Caffa 22 

Kiernitchy 24 

Bournuduk .... 23 

Karasubazar .... 22 

Uia 21 

Akmetchet 21 

Baktcheserai .... 30 


Runs. Eng. 
Vents, Miles. 

Brought forward . 2430 1620 

Kopil 25 16f 

Kalaus 25 

Kourky ...... 35 

Temrook 35 

Sienna 35 

Taman 25 

Voyage on the Sea of 

Azof, and return 
Passage to Yenikale . 
Kertchy . .... 
Sultanovska . . . 
Arghuine .... 







Aktiar ...... 32 

Monastery of St. George, 7 _ 
and return . . . . J 

Balaclava 12 

Kutchuck Moscomia . . 7 4f 

Savtick 7 4f 

Kutchuckoy .... 15 10 

Aloupka 15 10 

Yourzova 15 10 

Kour Koulet .... 7 4f 

Alusta 25 16f 

Yenikeuy 15 10 

Akmetchet 15 10 

Katcha 34 22f 

Sh{il6 20 13$ 

Carried forward . 3148 2098$ 



Kust. Eng. 

Yentt. Miles. 

Drought forward . 3148 2098 j 

Alexiano's Chouter . . 36 24 

Tchorgona 28 ISf 

Shulu ...... 8 5 

Kodja Sala 5 S 

Mankoop 4 2f 

Kara Ikes 8 5j 

Katcha 10 6 

Akmetchet 34 22f 

Koslof 64 42f 

Akmetchet . . . . . 64 ,42f 

Meranchuk . .... 26 17J 

Ablania 16 lOf 

Ibaira 22 14f 

Burmen 24 16 

Ishuns 19 12f 

Perecop 26 17f- 

Chaplinky 25 16$ 

Techordonalin .... 25 16f 

Kouka 30 2O 

Biroslaf 10 6f 

Chalanka 28 18f 

Carried forward . 3660 244O 




Brought for ward . 3660 2440 

Ingoulitz 19 12f 

Cherson 18 12 

Kopenskai 32 21 

Nicholaef 30 20 

River Bog 4 2f 

Ferry over ditto ... 4 2f 

Authecra 25 16| 

Sasiska 21 14 

Kalegulska 28 ISf 

Angelica 21 14 

Odessa 18 12 

3880 = 2586f 

Voyage across the Black 
Sea to Constantinople, 
in a direct line from 
Odessa, does not exceed 
300 Leagues; but from 
our deviations, return 

from the Canal to Ine- w 

Leagues. Miles. 

ada, &c. it equalled . 500 150O 

Total of Distance in the Author's Route-* 
from Petersburg to Constantinople . $ 

. . Miles . . 40S6f 

Containing Travels in Russia, Tahtary, and Turkey. 




V The Roman Numerals, i.ii. refer to the Volumes: the Arabic Figures 
to the Pages in each Volume. 

ADR1ANQPLE) Mountaineers of, manners of, ii. 417,418. 

Ae, River, notice of, ii. 3. 

Agriculture of the Crim Tahtars, ii. 248, 249. 

Aia Btfrun, or the Holy Promontory, account of, ii. 286 289. 

Ai'vdagh, Promontory of, notice of, ii. 258. 

Akmetchet, unwholesome situation of, ii. 165. 

Aktiar, Russian name of, ii. 198. the Ctenus of Strabo, ibid. Present 

state of, 199 202. Advantages of its port, 200 note. 
Alexander the Great, Pillars erected by, in the territory of the Don 

Cossacks, i. 358. Altars erected by him, 41 1, 412. 
Atexiano's Chouter, a wretched village in the Crimea, description of, 


Aloupha, Village of, described, ii.248 250. 
Altyn Obo, or Tomb of Mithradates, description of, ii. 112 114. View 

thence of the Cimmerian Straits, 115. 
Ambrose, Archbishop of Moscow, assassinated, i.100. 
Amusements of the Russians, i. 96. of the Don Cossacks, 306. of the 

Calmucks, 319. 
Anapa, Pasha of, mediates peace between the Cossacks of the Black Sea 

and the Circassians, ii.24 30. Conversation of, with the author, 33. 
Antiquities, found in the territory of the Don Cossacks, i. 358, 359. 

near Taganrog, 440. Grecian, in the Cimmerian Bosporus, ii. G8, 

70,77. atYenikale", 102,103. at Kertchy, 117 1 '9. at Stara 

Crim, 154156. of the Minor Heracleotic Peninsula, 210 218,285. 

of the Thracian Bosporus, 438442. 
Apples, benediction of, i. 207- 
Arches, antiquity of, ii. 71. 
Armenian Colony of Nakhtshivan, i.397 3H9- Enterprising character 

of the Armenian merchants, 402, 403. Arrangement of their shops, 


404. Origin of this establishment, 407- Superb dress of Armenian 

women at Astrachan, 405 note. 
Arms of Novogorod, i. 38. Manufacture of arms at Tula, 238, 239. 

of the Calmucks, 318. 

Army, Russian, Catechism of, ii.457 468. 
Asander, Vallum of, ii. 140 142. 
Ascension, Festival of, how celebrated, i. 170. 
Atmosphere, temperature of, during the author's travels, ii. 510 519, 


Axay, a Cossack capital, public entry of the author into, i. 344. 

his hospitable reception there, 345, 346. etymology of the word, 

448, 449. 
Azof, fortress of, described, i. 413, 414. The probable site of the 

antient city of Tanais, 415,416. condition of the Garrison, 417, 418. 

The author's departure thence, 42 1 . Remarkable phenomenon in the 

Sea of Azof, 423. notice of rivers falling into it, 484. 

Baldar, Valley, description of, ii. 242 244. 

Baktchesarai, the Tahtar capital of the Crimea, novel appearance of, 
ii. 170. fountains, ibid. 171. Devotion of the Tahtars, 171. De- 
struction caused by the Russian troops, 172. Description of the 
Palace of the Khan, 180 1 82. preparations made there for receiving 
the Empress Catherine, 182. Description of the Charem, 183, 184. 
brief account of, by Mr. Heber, 194, 195 note. 

Balaclava, antient ruins at, ii.218, 2J9- present state of the town 
and port of, 220 222. Genoese fortress there, 222, 223. Fruit 
shops, 229. Manners of the inhabitants, 230. 

Balls, Russian, description of: Ball of the peasants, i.76 80. of 
the nobles, 81 85. 

Baltic and Euxine Seas, account of water communication between, 
5.486 et seq. 

Banquets of the Russian Nobles, i. 209, 210. 

Basaltic Pillars, in the harbour of Ineada, account of, ii. 418, 419- 
theory of their origin, 420. 

Baths, Public, at Moscow, described, i. 184, 185. Process of bathing, 
186 188. National importance of public baths, 188 190. Ruins 
of ancient baths at Stara Crim, ii. 154 156. 

Bell, the Great one of Moscow, described, i. 149, 150, 447. super- 
stitious visits to it, 151. its measurement, 152, 153, and note. 

Beloozero, Lake, notice of, i. 505. rivers falling into it, 505, 506. 

Benediction of apples, i.207- of bread, 367, 368. 

Beresanskoy, Gulph of, i. 478. 

Beresenskoy, Canal, notice of, i. 486. 


Beresina, River, notice of, i. 470. 

Biberstein, Marshal, Botanical researches of, ii. 308, 309. 

Billings, Commodore, anecdote of his expedition, i.20. his'unhaml- 
some treatment of the author, 201, 202, 208. 

Biroke, an animal peculiar to the Steppes, description of, i.329. 

Biroslafy Village, account of, ii.331, 332. Plants collected in its 

. vicinity, 332 note. 

Black Sea, canal of communication between, and the Caspian Sea, 
i. 431. report on the navigation of, 464 etseq. erroneous account 
of, by Tournefort, ii. 387. Dangers of that sea, 388, 389. English 
Commerce in that sea, 390, 469 487. Journal of the author's 
voyage down that sea to the harbour of Ineada, 392 409, 488 502. 

Boats of the Don Cossacks, structure of, i. 359. 

JBobac of the Steppes, account of, i. 325, 326 328. 

Bog, River, account of, i.475. notice of rivers falling into it, ibid. 
476, 477, 531533. 

Bogh, Russian, adoration of, i. 31. 

Boglioroditz, town of, notice of, i. 248, 249. 

Booksellers' Shops, at Moscow, i. 90, 01- 

Borantzky, cataracts of, i. 494. 

Bosporus. See Cimmerian Bosporus, and Thracian Bosporus. 

Botanic Garden of Peter the Great, i. 265. 

Botterline, Count, library of, i. 178. his botanic garden described, 
179, 180. philosophical instruments, 180. 

Brandy, how prepared from the milk of mares, i. 314. 

Buldera, River, notice of, i. 525, 526. 

Caffa, arrival of the author at, ii. 142. present state of, 130 132 
note, 144. barbarous conduct of the Russians there, 131 note, 
144,145 147. Inscriptions, 147 149- Distribution of the town, 
150. Antient edifice converted into a church, 151, 152. Departure 
from Caffa, 153. 

Calmuck Camp, description of, i. 310 312, 340. Koumiss and brandy 
prepared by the Calmucks from mares'-milk, 312314. Descrip- 
tion of their tents, 315. Their personal appearance and character, 
316. Portrait of their women, 317- Curious mode of dressing 
steaks of horse-flesh, ibid. Arts, armour, and weapons, 318. Re- 
creations and conditions of life, 319, 320. Diseases prevalent among 
them, 321. Settlements of the Calmucks near Taganrog, 433. 
their marriage ceremony, ibid. 434. Consecrated ensigns of the 
Calmuck Law, 434, 435. Difference between their vulgar and 
sacred writings, 436. Their numbers, 437. , 


Canal of Constantinople, entrance to, ii. 426. magnificent scenery on 

its shores, 427 429. 
Canals, Russian, account of, i. 453 et seq. Canal of Vyshney 

Voloshok, 453. Vilievsky Canal, ibid. Novogorodsky Canal, 454. 

IVfariensky Canal, 456. Saskoy Canal, 459, 460. Project for 

circuitous canals round the Lakes Ladoga and Onega, 461. Northern 

Katherinskoy Canal, 461. Beresenskoy Canal, 486. Oginsky Canal, 

487. Canal of Ladoga, 496. 

Cape of the Winds, probable origin and uses of, ii. 279, 280. 
Caravans of the Crimea, account of, ii. 317, 330. 
Caspian Sea, Canal of communication between, and the Black Sea, 

projected, i. 431. 
Cataracts of the Dnieper, i. 465, 466, 438. of the Dniester, 489. 

of Borovitzky, 494. of Volchof, 458, 495. 
Catecttism of the Russian army, ii. 457468. 
Catherine, the Empress, anecdotes of, i. 19, 20. Her establishments 

and other measures overthrown by Paul, i. 239- Her artifices to 

conceal the real state of Russia from being known, ii. 125, 126. 

Villa of, at Stara Crim, 157. Preparations for her reception at 

Baktchesarai, 182. 

Caucasian Mountains, view of, ii. 16, 17. 
Caucasus, state of travelling in, ii. 49. 

Caverns of Inkerman, account of, ii. 202206. of Shulu, 282. 
Celo Molody, village of, i. 229. 

Nildtzkoy, village of, i. 250. 

Petrovskia Palnia, singular phenomenon at, i. 253. 

Usmany, account of, i. 281, 282. 

Censors, public, at Moscow, account of, i. 127- 

Cepoe Milesiarum, antient town of, discovered, ii. 77. antiquities 

there, 78. 

Chumburskaia, village of, described, i. 444, 445. 
CJiampagne Wine, successful imitation of, i. 263 note. 
Charem, Tahtar, description of, ii. 183. 
Cherson, antient state of, ii. 451, 452. present state of, 333 note. 

causes of its decay, 334, 335. Tomb of Potemkin, 336. narrative 

of his burial, 337- recent disposal of his body, 338. Tomb of 

Howard, 346348. 
Cliersonesus, ruins of the antient city of, ii. 211 216. Ruins of the 

old Chersonesus of Strabo, 293. 

Cltersonesus, Peninsula of. See Heracleotic Chersonesus. 
diaper, River, notice of, i. 485. rivers falling into it, ibid. 
Christening, Russian, described, 205 note. . 


Churches, first, in Russia, i. 34, 35. Antient Greek church excavated 
in a rock, ii. 188. 

Cimmerian Bosporus, importance of to antient Athens, ii. 3. Deri- 
vation of the word Bosporus, 65. Volcanic island at Temrook, 66. 
Site of the antient Cimmerium, 67. antiquities there, 6874. 
Origin of temples, 75. Site of the antient Cepoe, 77. Antient 
monument erected by Comosarya, a queen of the Bosporus, 78 80. 
New fortress of Taman, 80, 81. Ruins of Phanagoria, 82 89. 
Inscriptions, 90 96. View of the Cimmerian Straits, 115. 

Circassians, the original stock of the Don Cossacks, i. 377, 378. 
Manners of the modern Circassians, 379, 380. causes and termi- 
nation of their war with the Cossacks of the Black Sea, ii. 22 24. 
peparations for making peace, 26, 27- ceremony of concluding it, 
28 30. Appearance and dress of the Circassian Princes, 30 32. 
Peasants of Circassia, 34 38. their music, 40. dances, 41, 42. 
account of their language, 42, 43. Character of the Lesgi, a Cir- 
cassian tribe, 44. remarkable instance of bravery in one, 45. 
Circassian women, 46. Commerce of the Circassians with the 
Tchernomorski Cossacks, 48. their skill in horsemanship, ibid. 
General appearance of the Circassian territory, 61. Watch- 
towers, 62. 

Clarke, Dr. E. D., unpleasant situation of, in Russia, i.4, 451, 452. 
is advised to quit Petersburg for Moscow, 4. his journey thence to 
Moscow, 13 et seq. arrives at Novogorod, 25. and at Moscow, 
52. his impressions on entering that city, 54 56, 59 61. his 
dilemma at a Russian ball, 84. account of his visit to the Arch- 
bishop of Moscow, 193 200. departs from Moscow, 228. arrives 
atWoronetz, 259. adventure of, at Paulovskoy, 290,291. enters 
the country of the Don Cossacks, 295. account of his journey over 
the Steppes, 308, 309. makes a public entry into the capital of 
the Don Cossacks, 343. Voyage of, down the Don to Azof and 
Taganrog, 394 425. perilous voyage across the sea of Azof, 442 
444. emotions on entering Asia, 445. journey through Kuban 
Tahtary to the frontier of Circassia, ii. 1 50. second excursion 
into Circassia, 5254. crosses the Straits of the Cimmerian Bos- 
porus to Caffa, 93142. journey from Caffa to the capital of the 
Crimea, 144195. his hospitable reception by Professor Pallas, 
160164. journey from the capital of the Crimea to the Heracleotic 
Chersonesus, 196230. journey thence along the south coast of 
the Crimea, 231 272. is accompanied by Professor Pallas on his 
second excursion to the Minor Peninsula of the Heracleotae, ii. 274. 
account of that excursion, 275300. journey from the Crimea, by 


the Isthmus of Perekop, to Nicholaef, 302 350. progress thence 
to Odessa, 351 381. voyage to Ineada, 382 421. and thence to 
Constantinople, 422 450. list of plants collected by, in the 
Crimea, 504 512. itinerary of places visited by him, and their 
distances, 522524. 

Climate of the Crimea, danger of, ii. 296. extraordinary temperature 
of climate in the Black Sea, 390. 

Ccemetery, beautiful, of the Jews at Dschoufoutkal^, ii. 188, 189. 

Coins of Vladimir the Great, ii. 2i>0. See Medals. 

Commerce of VVoronetz, account of, i. 269 271. of Tcherkask, 380. 
of the Circassians with the Tchernomorski, ii. 48, 52. State of 
English commerce in the Black Sea, 390, 469 487. State of 
Turkish commerce, 447 450. 

Comosarya, Queen of the Bosporus, ancient monument erected by, 
iu78, 79. 

Constantinople, account of the land-passage to, ii. 379 38 1 . entrance 
to the canal of, 426. magnificent scenery on its banks, 427429. 
approach to, 443, 444. disgusting appearance of the streets, 445. 
state of Turkish commerce there, 447450. 

Convent of the New Jerusalem, described, i. 123 126. of the Trinity, 
at Moscow, 128. of Nicoll na Perrera, 194,200. 

Cossacks, honesty of, i. 273. Cossack stragglers from the army, 333. 
Distinction between Cossacks of the Steppes and of the Don, 334. 
superiority of their character over the Russians, ii. 9, and note. 

Cossacks of the Bjack Sea, or Tchernomorski, origin of, ii. 5 note, 
cause of their migration to Kuban Tahtary, 4. services rendered by 
them to Russia, 5, fi. distinguished from the Don Cossacks, 7, 8. 
appearance of stragglers from the army, 15. Size and beauty of 
the Cossack cattle, ibid. Account of their capital, Ekaterinadera, 
18, 19. their manners, 20. dress and external appearance, ibid. 
Visit from their Ataman to Dr. Clarke, 21. Causes and success of 
their war with the Circassians, 22 24. preparations for making 
peace, 26, 27- ceremony of concluding it, 28 30. their com- 
merce with the Circassians, 48, 52. their revengeful spirit, 54 note. 

Cossacks, Don. See Don Cossacks. 

Costumeof the Russian peasants, i. 4 1,44. of the Russians generally, 95. 

Courier, intrepid conduct of, ii. 328, 329. 

Courland, Rivers of, i. 525, 526. 

Crimea, ravages committed in, by the Russians, ii. 124, 125. antient 
topography of, why involved in obscurity, 127 129. swarms of 
locusts there, 133 135. venomous insects, 136. Gipsies found 
there, 137. Manners, dress, &c. of the Tahtar Gentlemen, 139,140. 


Account of Caffa, 130132, nn. 144 153. Antiquities of Star* 
Crim, 154 156. account of its principal towns Karasubazar, 159, 
Akraetchet, 160 165. Baktchesarai, 169, 180 183. Causes which 
led to the deposition and death of the Khan, 173 178. Conse- 
quences of the capture of the Crimea, 179, 180. Fortress of Dsehou- 
foutkale", 185. Account of Aktiar, \<>9 202. of Balaclava, 218 222. 
Genoese fortress, 222. Geology of the Crimea, 2 C 23 228. Excur- 
sion along the south coast of the Crimea, 231. Valley of Baidar, 232. 
Domestic" manners and habits of the CrimTahtars, 236. Plants and 
minerals, 242. Criu-Metopon, 240'. Aloupka, 248. Other villages 
on the coast, 251- Promontory of Ai'vdagh, C58. Parthenit, 259. 
Tchetirdagh, 260. Military force of the Crimea, 268. General 
survey of the Crimea, 321. Country north of the isthmus, ibid. 

Cripps, Mr. the friend and travelling companion of Dr. Clarke, adven- 
ture of, i.325. his sufferings from the attacks of mosquitoes, 

Crid-Metopon, antient promontory of, described, ii. 246. beautiful 
views thence, 247- 

Ctenus, site of, ascertained, ii. 108, 199. 

Cucumbers of extraordinary size, account of, ii. 169. 

Cyanean Islands, present appearance of, ii. 431. description of a 
votive altar on one, 433435. singular breccia found there, 436. 

Danactz, River, notice of, i.484. 

Dances of the Russian Gipsies, i. 79, 80. of the Don Cossacks, 306. - of 
the Circassians, ii.31. 

Danube, Mouths of, appearance of, ii. 401. 

Darius, probable situation of, when he surveyed the Euxine, ii.439. 

Dashkof (Princess; mean conduct of, i. 43 1,432. 

Decorations (barbarous) of the palace of Tsarsko-selo, k22 24. 

Dedilof, Town of, described, i. 246,247- 

Demetry Rastnf (St,) Fortress of, i. 408, 409. 

Desna, River, account of, i. 472. 

Dinner, barbarous etiquette of, in Russia, i. 211,212. Curious anec- 
dote of tvyo English gentlemen at a Russian dinner, 213. 

Diseases, prevalent among the Don Cossacks; i.39l. 

Dnieper, River, account of the navigation of, i. 464 469. cataracts 
of, 465, 466', 488. account of the streams that fall into it, 469 477. 

Dniester, River, account of the navigation of, i. 480 482. notice of 
rivers falling into it, 482, 483. Cataract of Yampolskin, 489. 

Dolrinka, Village of, described, i.294. 

Don, River, voyage down, i. 304. fishes caught therein, 305, 360. view 
VOL. II. 2 M 


of the river, 343. Analogy between the Don and the Nile, 355, 
356, 423. Length and course of the Don, 356, 357. Voyage down 
the Don to Azof and Taganrog, 394 425. Division of the Don, 411. 
project for uniting it with the Volga, 462, 463. account of its navi- 
gation, 484. rivers falling into it, ibid. 485. 

Don Cossacks, Origin of, i. 368 374. causes of their increase, 374 377. 
population of their territory, 347, 332, 383, aotes. appearance of, 
at Kasankaia, i.298. house of the Ataman described, 299, 300. 
ideal dangers of travelling in their country-, 301 303. amusements 
and dances of the people, 304, 305. difference between the Don 
Cossacks, and the Cossacks of the Steppes, 334. public entry of 
the author into their capital, Axay, 344. their hospitable reception 
of him, ibid. 345 347. celebration of a court festival, 350 352. 
mode of fasting, 353. state of education among them, 355 note. 
Natural curiosities and antiquities in the Cossack territory, 357 359. 
extraordinary appearance of Tcherkask, their capital city, 361. its 
situation, 388 n. public buildings, and regalia, 363 368. founda- 
tion of it, 377,378. commerce, 380. government of their armies, 
381, 382, notes. Dress of the Don Cossacks, 383, 384. their polished 
manners, 385. striking difference between them and the Russians, 
386, 387, 419, 420. diseases prevalent among them, 391, 392. 
distinction between them and the Cossacks of the Black Sea, ii. 7. 

Dress of the Russian peasants, i. 41, 44. of the Russian nobles, caprice 
in, 83, 84. of the Don Cossacks, 383, 384. of the Cossacks of the 
Black Sea, ii. 20, 21 . of the Tahtars of the Crimea, 140. 

Drosky, a Russian carriage, described, i. 13 note. 

Drowned persons, neglect of, in Russia, i.274 276. 

Dsckoufoutkale, fortress of, described, ii. 185. Extraordinary ring in 
its vicinity, 187. singular excavation there, 188. Jewish coemetery 
there, ibid. 189. Account of the colony of Jews there, 1 90 1 94. 

Dvina, River, notice of, i. 514. streams falling into it, ibid. 515. 

Dvina, the Southern, account of, i. 520, 521. rivers falling into it, 

Easter, ceremonies observed at, in Russia, i. 66. Palm Sunday, 67. 

Maunday Thursday, 69. Ceremony of the Resurrection, 7075. 

Excesses of the populace, 75, 76. Presentation of the Paschal Eggs, 

76. Fashionable promenades during Easter, 143146. 
Effremof, Village, notice of, i.251, 252. 
Ekaterinadera, the capital of the Tchernomorski Cossacks, account of, 

ii. 18, 19. 
Eletz, Town of, account of, i.^53, 254, 255. 


<ipi"i>" r entertained of, in Russia, i. 119. Extraordinary 
anecdote of an English servant, ii. 186. Account of English Com- 
merce in the Black Sea, 469 487. 
Equipages of Moscow, described, i. 94. 

notice of rivers on the coast of, i. 518. 

i, antient ruins of, ii. 210. 
Eujrine $e*, project for uniting: with the Black Sea, i. 486, et seq. 
Kffftte* of the Russian populace at Easter, i. 75, 76. 

f, Cossack mode of, L 353. 

Fau Arts, why not likely to flourish in B^CM^ i. 90, 

FMa*d, horrible excesses of the Russians in, 3SS note, 449, 450. 
notice of rivers on the coast of, 517. 

fitk, caught in the River Don, account of, i. 305, 306. 

FuuuBi*f nyitml of Moscow, account of, i. 190 192. 

Fuller*' Earth, pits of, in the Crimea, ii. 282. account of its manu- 
facture, 2g3, 284. 

Funeral of Prince Galitzin, account of, i. 201 205. A stngvbor ipmtl 
ceremony described, 850, 251. 

Galata, appearance of, ii. 445. 

GofitetM, M. fallen- of, described, i. 177. 

CmStom., Prince, beautiful mineral specimens of, described, i. 181, 1*8. 

account of his funeral, 301 90S. 
Games, Antient, preserved in Russia, i. 233, 234. 
Gardens of Tsarsko-selo, described, i. 19, 22. 
Genoese Fortress at Balaclava, account of, ii.222, 223. 
Genoese Language, vestiges of, in the Crimea, ii. 254, 255. 
Geology of the Crimea, observations on, ii. 223. Account of some 
extraordinary geological phenomena, 224 228. Composition of 
the rocks and strata near Kutcbuckoy, 943245. Geological pbcno- 
mena on the Cyanean Islands, 432. 
Gipsiff, manners and costume of, in Russia, i. 77 80, of tbe Crimea, 

137, 138. 

Goltxkrn, Count, noble behaviour of his peasants, i. 120. Account of 
his collection of minerals, 173 174, his museum, 174. pictures, 
175. antiquities, 175 1" 

Greek Church, superstitions of, i. 2831. funeral 
201 05, 250, 251. marriage ceremony of, it. 966. 
Greek Impostor, anecdote of one, i. 392, 393. 
Greek Language, bow pronounced in modern times, ii. 100. 
Greek Ttvn, form of an antient one described, ii.2f8, SJ*. 
2 M2 


Greeks^ Modern, of the Crimea, character of, ii. 101. contrast between 

them and the Russians, 383 385. 
Gun, the Great one of Moscow, described, i. 153, 154. 

Heights of Valday, i. 41. 

Heracleotic Chersonesus, topography of, why difficult to be ascertained, 
ii. 206, 207. Cippus of Theagenes, 207- Antient geography and 
antiquities of the Minor Peninsula, 210,451. Ruins of Eupatorium, 
210. and of the antient city of Chersonesus, 21 1, 212. Inscriptions 
found there, 213, 214. Promontory of Parthenium, 215. Monastery 
of St. George, ibid. 216'. Ruins at Balaclava, 218, 219. description 
of the Port and Town, 220 222. Genoese fortress, 222. Second 
excursion to the Minor Peninsula of the Heracleotae, 273. Citadel 
of Mankoop, 276 273. Cape of the Winds, 279- Village of Shulu, 
281. Fullers' Earth pits, 283. Isthmian Wall, 285. Aia Burun, 
or the Holy Promontory, 286 289. Alexiano's Chouter, 291. Point 
and Bay of Phanari, 292. Ruins of the old Chersonesus of Strabo, 
293. Valley of Tchorgona, 94 300. Koslof,305. Perecop,31 1319. 

Hieron, site of the antient town of, ascertained, ii.439. 

Hornpipe of England, probably of gipsy origin, i.78. 

Horse-dealers, English, at Moscow, i. 183. 

Hotel, Russian, described, i. 61. 

Houses, removed entire, 390. 

Howard, Mr., particulars of the death of, ii. 339 345. order of his 
funeral, 346. his tomb, 347, 348. 

Ilmen, Lake, proposed improvements in the navigation of, i.494, 495. 
Imitation, talent of, among the Russians, i. 86, 87- instanced in a 

remarkable fraud, 89. 
Ineada, Harbour of, its situation and present state, ii.409 41 1. chart 

of that port, 422. plants found in its vicinity, 411 414, and notes. 

appearance of the Turks there, 415. antient ruins there, 416. 

account of mountaineers frequenting that port, 417,418. basaltic 

pillars there, 419 421. Voyage from Ineada to Constantinople, 


^ngermanland, notice of rivers on the coast of, i. 517,518. 
Ingul, River, account of, i. 475, 476. 
Inguletz, River, notice of, i. 4~5. 
Inkerman, Caverns of, ii. 202 204. mephitic air of, 205, 206, 

and note. 
Inland Navigation of Russia, report on, 453 455. See Black Sea, 

Canals, Rivers. 


Inscriptions, Antient, in the Cimmerian Bosporus, ii. 9096. at 
Kertchy, 117119. a t Caff a, 137139. in the Heracleotic Cher- 
son^sus, 213,214. belonging to the antient town of Olbiopolis, 
353, 362. 

Insects, venomous, found in the Crimea, ii. 13. 

Iron Foundries of Lugan, i.336, 337. 

Iron Mines of Tula, i. 243. of Udgino, 255. 

Isthmian TVall, Ruins of, in the Heracleotic Minor Peninsula, ii. 
285, 286. 

Ivan Basilovitch I. character of, i. 132. 

Ivan Basilovitch II. character of, i. 133, 134. 

Jedrova, Town of, described, i. 43. 

Jerloa, account of the, ii. 166,311. Observations of Bochart on this 

animal, 167. Haym's account of it, 163. 
Jews, Marriage ceremony of, ii.267. 
Jews, Karaite, Ccemetery of, at Dichoufoutkale", 'ii. 188, 189. The 

author's hospitable reception by a Jew, 190. Their dwellings 

and manner of living, 191, 192. Account of the sect of Karai, 

193, 194. 

Jupiter Urius, Temple of, ii. 438. 

Kamenskaia, a Cossack town, described, i. 335. 
Karaite sect of Jews, account of, ii. 188 194. 

Karasubazar, a town of the Crimea, origin of its name, ii. 158 note, 
remarkable mountain in its vicinity, ibid, account of the town, 
Kasankaia, appearance of the Cossacks at, i. 297. description of the 

town, 305 307- 

Kathcrinskoy Northern Canal, account of, i.461. 
Keff-ltil, or mineral froth, where obtained, ii. 282. its constituent 

parts, 283 note, account of its manufacture, 283, 284. 
Kertchy, Town of, its wretched appearance, ii. 109, 118 note, antient 
ruins there, 1 10 114. antiquities, 1 17 119. accountof a stranger 
who died there, 121. fortress, 122. antieut church, 123. havoc 
made by the Russians, 124. sepulchral barrows in its vicinity, 129 n- 
The author's departure from Kertch, 129,130. 

Kirgisian Ambassadors at Moscow, i. 61. brief account of that nation, 
450 *. resemblance between them and the Scottish Highlanders, 

Klin, Notice of, i. 51. 
Konyalnittkie, Bay, notice of, i. 479. 


Koslof, Town and Port of, described, ii. 305, 306. Knavery of a 
Turkish Captain, 304. 

Koumiss, how prepared by the Calmucks, i. 312 314. 

Kremlin, Description of the, i. 148. holy gate, ibid, and n. great bell, 
149 152. great gun, 153, 154. Description of the antient palace 
of the Tsars, 155, 156. Description of the imperial treasury, and 
its contents, 157 164. manuscripts,"l64. superb model of the 
Kremlin, 165 167. its general appearance, 167, 168. 

Krilopka, River, notice of, i. 474. 

Kuban Tahtary, wretched relays of horses in, ii. 2. Industry of the 
Malo-Russians, 3. Cause of the migration thither of the Tcheruo- 
morski Cossacks, 4,6. Wild fowl, 11. Singular species of mole 
discovered, ibid. Wretched post-houses, 1 2. Plants found in this 
country, 13. Rate of travelling, 14. Antient tumuli, ibid. View 
of the Caucasian Mountains, 16, 17- Produce of the soil between 
Ekaterinedara and Vydnia, 56. Division of the River Kuban, 57. 
Unwholesome situation of Kopil, 58. Mosquitoes, 59. 

KUtchuckoy, a Tah tar village, described, ii.242. Geological phenomena 
in its vicinity, 243 245. 

Ladoga, Canal of, present state of, i. 496. Account of rivers falling 
into the Lake of Ladoga, 497- 

Lambat, Village, notice of, ii. 259, 260 note. 

Languages, Russian and Sclavonic, distinction between, i. 199, 448. 
of the Circassians, ii. 43. The Modern Greek, how pronounced, 100. 
Vestiges of the Genoese language in the Crimea, 254, 255, and n. 

Lent, rigorous observance of, in Russia, i. 66,69. 

Lesgi, a Circassian tribe, account of, ii.44. 

Leuce, Island of, present state of, ii. 394. account of it by antient 
writers, 395 399. 

Libraries of the Russian Nobles, i. 93, 94. of Count Botterline, 
178, 170. 

Limestone of Odessa, observations on, ii. 367 369. 

Literature, state of, in Russia, i. 91, 92. Libraries of the Nobles, 93. 

Livonia, notice of rivers on the coast of, i. 518. 

J^ocova Sloboda, town of, described, i. 284 286. 

Locusts of the Crimea, observations on, ii. 133 135. ravages com- 
mitted by them in various parts of Europe, 135 note. 

Log Book of the Moderate, extract from, ii. 488502. 

Lugan, iron foundries of, i. 336, 337. 

Mahmoud Sultan, a Turkish village, account of, ii. 264, 265. 


Malo- Russians, character of, i. 278, 279. Distinction between them 
and the Russians, 292. their industry, ii. 3. 

Maltese Cross, order of, i. 171, 172. 

Mankoop, Citadel of, sketch of its history, ii. 276. description of its 
ruins, 277 279. 

Manners of the Russian peasants, i. 44 46. of the nobility, 115 
118. Tubervile's portrait of them, 135, 136, 138, 139. Change of 
manners in approaching the southern part of the Russian Empire, 
274, 275. of the Circassians, 379. of the Don Cossacks, 381 
387- of the Cossacks of the Black Sea, ii. 20. of the Tahtars of 
the Crimea, 139, 236240. of the Nagay Tahtars, 312, 313, notes. 

Manufactures at Tula, i. 237. 

Manuscripts in the Kremlin, account of, i. 164, 165. 

Mares' Milk, Koumiss and brandy how prepared from, i. 312 314. 

Margaritovskaia, account of the Greek Colony of, i. 446. 

Marine Animals, deposits of, i. 255. 

Marriage Ceremony of the Cabnucks, i. 433, 434. of the Greek 
Church, ii. 266. of the Jews, 267- 

Maunday Thursday, how celebrated in Russia, i. 69, 70. 

Medals of the Bosporus, account of, ii. 105107. of the town of 
Panticapteum, 110. of Olbiopolis, 363, 364. 

Medicine, state of, in Russia, i. 114. 

Merchant, Russian, artifice of, i. 99- 

Merdveen, passage of, described, ii. 241. 

Milanese Vagrants, character of, i. 49. 

Milesian gold bracelet, discovered in the Cimmerian Bosporus, ii. 72. 

Military Force of the Crimea, ii. 268270. 

Minerals of Count Golovkin, i. 172, 173. 

Mithradates, Pharos of, ii. 104. medals of, 105, 107, and note, tomb 
of, 111. 

Model of the Kremlin, described, i. 165 167- 

Mole, a singular species of, discovered, ii. 11. 

Monastery, Greek, in the Heracleotic Peninsula, ii. 215, 216. Vestiges 
of one at Derykeuy, 255. 

Morals, public, state of, i. 209. 

Moscow, road from Petersburg to, i.40. the author's arrival there, 
52. wretched accommodation for travellers, 56. peculiarities of 
climate, 58. Impressions made on first arriving in Moscow, 59-61 . 
Russian Hotel, 61. account of the celebration of Easter in that 
city, 6676. Booksellers' shopg, 90. State of literature, 91, 92- 
Libraries of the Nobles, 93. equipages, 94. costume, 95. amuse- 
ments, 96. Chapel of the Tverschaia, 97- Artifice of a merchant, 99- 


Generous conduct of a citizen of, 109. Prince turned pawri- 
broker, 110. Picture-dealers, 111, 112. Traffic in the Fine Arts, 
112,113. State of medicine, 114. Public Censors, 127. Convent 
of the Trinity, 128. Church of St. Basil, 129. Plan of Moscow, 
140. its size and population, 145 note. Sunday market, 140 
143. Promenades during Easter, 143147. The Kremlin, 148. 
Holy Gate, ib. Great bell of Moscow, 149 153. Great gun, 153. 
Antient Palace of the Tsars, 155. horrible massacres there, 156, 
Imperial Treasury, account of the, and its contents, 157 164. 
Manuscripts, 164. Fac-simile of Peter the Great's hand-writing, 
165. Superb model of the Kremlin, 165 167. its general appear- 
ance, 167, 168. Panoramic view of Moscow, l6i). Festival of the 
Ascension, 170. Museums in Moscow Count Golovkin's described, 
173177. Gallery of Galitzin, 177. Count Botterline's, 178 180. 
Other collections, 181, 182. English horse-dealers at Moscow, 183. 
Public Baths, 184190. Foundling Hospital, 190192. Stalls for 
fruit and food, 206, 207. Public morals, 209- Dealers in Virtii, 
215. Adventurers and swindlers, 217. 

Moscsha, River, notice of, i. 492. 

Mosha, River, notice of, i. 513. 

Mosquitoes, ravages of, on the banks of the Kuban, ii. 59 01. 

Msta, River, notice of, and of the streams falling into it, i. 494. 

Mucharitza, River, notice of, i. 531 533. 

Mud, volcano of, ii. 89. 

Musical Instruments of the Russians, i. 80. of the Circassians, 

Nagay, or Nogay Tahtars, difference between, and the Tahtars of the 
Crimea, ii. 318, 319- account of their manners and customs, 312, 
313, notes. 

NaktsMvan, an Armenian Colony, account of, i. 397 399. enter- 
prising character of its merchants, 402, 403. arrangement of their 
ships, 404. description of a Turkish coffee-house there, 405, 406. 
origin of this establishment, 407. 

Naumachia, antient, ruins of, ii. 86. 

Navigation, inland, of the Russian Empire, i. 47. report on, 458 

Neapolitans and Russians, resemblance between, i. 102. 

Neva, River, tributary streams of, i. 515, 516. 

Nevegia, River, notice of, i. 529. 

New Jerusalem, Convent of the, described, i. 123 126, 

Nicholaef, town and port of, described, ii. 349, 350. 


JVicolajevka, notice of, i. 252. 

Nicoll na Perrera, Convent of, described, 194, 200. 

Niemen, River, project for uniting, with the Dvina, i. 487. account 
of its navigation, 526 528. rivers falling into it, 528. 

Nikitzkoy, Town of, described, i. 249, 250. singular funeral ceremony 
there, 251. 

Nile, analogy between the, and the Don, i.355, 356, 423. 

Nobles, Russian, servile state of, i. 46. affect to despise their national 
music, 81. description of the Ball of the Nobles, 81 83. caprice 
in dress, 83, 84. their libraries, 93. equipages, 94. condition of 
their wives, 103. Degraded moral condition of the Nobles, 104. 
opinion entertained by them of the English, 119. Servants of the 
Nobility, how paid and kept, 121. Theft 1 a common practice of 
the Nobles, 122, .23. anecdotes of their beastly manners, 130, 
131 note, their immense wealth, 217- anecdotes of their meanness, 
431, 432. 

Nobles, Tahtar, of the Crimea, polished manners of, ii.298. 

Nogay Tahtars. See TaJitars Nagay. 

Novogorod, arrival of the author at, i. 25. description of the Cathedral, 
28. vignettes of the arms of, 15. 32. explanation of them, 38. 
Antient history of Novogorod, 32 34. Account of the Novogorodsky 
canal, 454. 

Odessa, limestone of, observations on, ii. 367 369. Conduct of the 
Emperor Paul, respecting this place, 372 374. present state of, 
376 378. account of the passage thence, by land, to Constanti- 
nople, 379 381. importance of this port, 389. account of its 
fortress, 391. its latitude corrected, 400. 

Oginsky, Canal, account of, i. 487- 

Oka, River, notice of, i.232, 491. 

Olbiopolis, Remains of, ii. 351, 352. inscriptions there, 353362. 
medals, 363, 364. 

Olga, baptism of, i. 36. 

Onega, Lake, account of rivers falling into, i. 507, 508. project for 
uniting it with the White Sea, 509, 510. 

Onega, River, account of, i. 512. rivers falling into it, 513, 514. 

Orazai, a Persian Ambassador to Moscow, anecdotes of, i. 61, 63. 

Orlqf, the assassin of Peter III. compelled to attend his public funeral, 
i. 106. 

Orlof, General in Chief to the Cossack army, account of the author'* 
visit to, i. 395, 396. 

Orthography, Russian, observations on, i. preface, vi. ix. 


Osiris, imitation of the ceremony of finding, i. 75 note. 

Ou.Ua, River, account of, i. 523, 524. 

Oushstka, Rirer, notice of, i. 525. 

Ovid, the place of exile of, ascertained, ii. 393 note. 

Paintings, Antient Greek, account of, i. 26, 447. manner of imitating 

them, in Russia, 27- 
Palace of Tsarsko-selo, described, i. 19. 22 24. of Petrofsky, 52. 

Antient palace of the Tsars, at Moscow, 15a, 156. of the Khan of 

the Crimea, at Baktchesarai, ii. 180 184. 
Pallas, Professor, portrait of, ii. 143. anecdote of, 145, 146 note, his 

hospitable reception of the author, 160 164. marriage of his 

daughter, 266. accompanies the author in one of his excursions, 274. 
Palm Suitday, how celebrated in Russia, i. 67, 68. 
Panticap&um, antient city of, discovered, ii. 109. medal of, 110. 

Tomb of Mithradates there, 111 114. View of the Cimmerian 

Straits thence, 115. 
Parthenium, Promontory of, ascertained, ii. 215, 286, 287. ruins at, 


Paschal Eggs, presentation of, i. 76. 
Paul I. Silhouette of, i. 1. state of public affairs during his reign, 4. 

anecdotes of his strange conduct, 41 1, 127, 128. of his retributive 

spirit, 105, 106. subverts every thing that had been done by his 

mother, the Empress Catherine, 239, 240; ii. 373. His usurious 

practices, 375. 
Paulovskoy, Town of, its appearance described, i. 286. when founded, 

287- animals found in its vicinity, 288. trade, 289. Rash conduct 

of a young peasant there, 290. 
Peasantry of Russia, dress of, i. 41, 44. servile state of, 46. 47- their 

oppressed state, 53, 54, 224. Description of the Ball of the peasants, 

?6 81. anecdotes of their talent of imitation, 87, 89. clothing of, 

208. general account of their condition, 217 225. 
Peru, a suburb of Constantinople, appearance of, ii. 446, 447- 
Perecop, Fortress of, its present state, ii. 311 314, 454, 455. Ac- 
count of the salt harvest there, 315, 316. caravans of salt, 


Perry, Captain, ill treatment of, by Peter I. i. 431 432. 
Peter the Great, fac-simile of his writing, i. 165. botanic garden, 

formed by him at Woronetz, 265. His shuffling treatment of Captain 

Perry, 431, 432. 
Petersburgh, St. project for a water-communication between, and 

Archangel, i. 458. 


Petrofsky, Palace of, i.52. 

Phfenomena, extraordinary, described, i. 11, 12, 447. on the Cyanean 

Isles, ii.4,32. 
Phanagoria, ruins of, described, ii. 68 76, 82. antient coin of, 83. 

amphitheatre, 86. other ruins, 84, 8789. Inscriptions, 3096. 
Phanari, Point and Bay of, ii. 292, 293. 
Picol, River, notice of, i. 173. 

Pictures, why worshipped in Russia, i. 101. Instances of picture- 
worship, 31, 97, 98,'lOO. Picture-dealers at Moscow, 111. 
Pigeons, market for, at Moscow, i. 141. 
Pioma, River, notice of, i. 504. 

Places visited in the author's route, with their distances, ii. 520 et seq. 
Plants of the South of the Crimea, observations on, ii. 242i 243. 

catalogue of them, 504 512. 
Plato, Archbishop of Moscow, vignette of, i. 58. his dress on Easter 

Sunday, 74. Account of the author's visit to him, 193 200. 
Pliny, geography of, reconciled with that of Strabo, ii.68. 
Poderosnoy, privilege of, i. 43. 
Police, Russian, insolence of, i-7 9. 

Population of the Don-Cossack territory, i. 347, 382, 383 notes. 
Porte, Memorial to the, ii. 474482. reply of, 486, 487. 
Portus Symbolorum, antient site of, ascertained, ii. 218, 219. 
Postmaster, insolence and extortion of one, i. 231. 
Potemkin, Prince, anecdotes of his villainous conduct, ii. 174 178. 

poetical portrait of, 299. death and burial of, 336, 337. recent 

disposal of his body, 338. 
Priestmeen, Admiral, attentions of, to Mr. Howard, ii. 343, 344. his 

excellent character, 365. 

Prince, a Russian, turned pawnbroker, i. 1 10. 
Pripit, River, notice of, i.471. Account of smaller rivers falling into 

it, ibid. 472. 

Quass, a Russian beverage, how prepared, i.45. 

Rana varialilis, account of, ii. 320. 
Resurrection, ceremony of, at Easter, i.70 75. 

Rivers of Russia, Report on, i.464etseq. The Dnieper, 464. account 
of rivers falling into it, 469.472475. Beresina, 470. Sosha, 

471. Pripit, ibid, smaller rivers falling into the Pripit, ibid. 

472. Rivers falling into the Bog, 475 477. The Dniester, 480482. 
rivers falling into it, 482, 483. The Don, and its tributary streams, 
484. The Choper, and its tributary streams, 485. Rivers falling 


into the Volga, 490 494. The Sheksna, 502. rivers falling into it, 
503 505. The Vitegra, and rivers falling into it, 506. Rivers falling 
into the Lake Onega, 507510. into the White Sea, 510512. 
The Dvina river, and streams falling into it, 514, 515. and into the 
Neva, 516. Rivers ou the coast of Finland, ibid, on the coast of 
Ingermanland, 517,518. and on the coast of Estonia and Livonia, 
518521. Rivers falling into the Southern Dvina, 521525. 
Rivers in Courland, 525, 526. Navigation of the River Niemen, 
526528. rivers falling into it, 528. 
Roller, anecdote of a desperate one, ii. 326, 327- 
Rulruquis, the traveller, veracity of, confirmed, i. 400, 401. 
Russia, State of public affairs in, during the Emperor Paul's reign, i.4. 
Insolence of the police, 7 9- Adorations paid by the Russians to 
their Bogh, or God, 31. First churches in Russia, 34,35. Chris- 
tianity, when embraced by the Russians, 37. their superstitious crossing, 
39. Dress of the peasants, 44. their domestic manners, ibid. 45, 46. 
Servile state of the empire, 46,47. Russian mode of celebrating 
Easter, 65 76. Talent of imitation possessed by the Russians, 
86 83. instanced in a remarkable fraud, 89. Fine arts, why not 
likely to flourish, 90. Superstitious practices of the Russians, 
99 101. Resemblance between the Russians and Neapolitans, 102. 
State of medicine in Russia, 114. Manners of the people, 115. of 
the nobility, 116, 118, 133, 139. Opinions entertained by the Russians 
of the English, 119. Relative condition of slaves and their lords, 
ibid. 120. Russian character the same for many centuries, 130. 
Description of a Russian funeral, 201 204. and of a Russian 
christening, 205, 206 note. Atrocities committed by the Russians in 
Finland, 386 note, 449, 450. Striking contrast between them and 
the Don Cossacks, 387,419,430. General view of the South of 
Russia, 399 401. Report on the river-navigation of Russia, 464 et 
seq. Havoc made by the Russians in the Crimea, generally, ii. 
124 179. particularly, at Caffa, 131 note, 144 147. at Karasu- 
bazar, 159. at Baktchesarai, 173. Contrast between the Crim 
Tahtars and the Russians, 298, 299, Anecdote of the corruption 
prevailing among the Russian magistrates and police, 326, 327. 
Contrast between a Russian and a Modern Greek, 383 385. 

Salines, or Salt Works, of Yalovitzky, i. 512. 

Salt- Harvest of Perecop, account of, ii. 315 317- 

Salt-Lakes of the Crimea, i.488, 489, notes. 

Salvia Hallitziana, account of, ii. 299, 300. 

Samara, River, notice of, i. 474. * 


Sandal, Russian, vignette of, 227. of what materials made, 230. 
Sash, River, account of, i. 49.7, 500 502. 
Sdskoy, Canal, account of, i. 459. 
Sea of dzof, remarkable phenomenon in, i. 423, 424. 
Serpuchof, town of, described, i. 230, 231. 

Shahin Ghirei, Khan of Crim Tahtary, causes that led to the deposition 
and death of, ii. 173 178. delivered to the Turks, and put to 

death, 180, 181. 

Sharra, River, notice of, i. 529, 530. 

Sheksna, River, account of, i. 502. rivers falling into it, 503 505. 
Shilhl, village and caverns of, described, ii.281, 282. 
Siberia, state of exiles in, i. 107. Notice of Tobolsky, 108. 
Sinucha, River, notice of, i. 477. 
Slavery, universal, in the Russian Empire, i. 46, 47, 53. Relative 

condition of slaves and their lords, 119, 120. Noble behaviour of 

Count Golovkin's peasants, 120. 
Smith, Mr, J. S., Memorial of, to the Porte, 465 482. Reply thereto, 


Soldiers, Russian, catechism of, ii. 457 468. 
Soros, marble, at Yenikale, ii. 103. 
Sosha, River, notice of, i. 471. 

Souchona, River, notice of, i. 504. and of the Lower Souchona, 515. 
Soula, River, notice of, i.473. 
Souma, River, notice of, i. 511. 
Stara Crim, situation of, ii. 154. The site of the antient city of 

Theodosia, 151 note, 155 note. Account of ruined baths there, 

154 156. Villa of the Empress Catherine there, 157. Antient 

Vallum in its vicinity, 158. 
Steppes, nature of, explained, i. 279. description of them, 308, 309, 

322, 323, 324. account of animals peculiar to them, 325 331. 

Distinction between the Cossacks of the Steppes and those of the 

Don, 334. The Steppes of the Crimea infested with locusts, ii. 

133 135. and with venomous insects, 136. 
Strabo, geography of, reconciled with that of Pliny, ii. 68. 
Sudak, antient names of, ii. 309 note, notice of its fortress, 453, 454. 
Superstitions of the Greek Church, account of, i. 28 31. of the 

Russian peasantry, 39, 45, 99 101. 
Suroke, of the Steppes, account of, i.325 328. 

Suslic, an animal peculiar to the Steppes, description of, i. 329 331. 
Suvorof, Field-marshal, anecdotes of, ii. 270272. his catechism for 

the Russian army, 457468. 
Svir, River, notice of, i. 498. 


Tables of Russian measure, weight, and money, i. preface, xii. 

Taganrog, situation and present state of, i. 426, 427. commerce of, 
external and internal, 428 430. state of the country in its vicinity, 
438. Variety of inhabitants found at Taganrog, 439, 440. Anti- 
quities, 440. 

Tahtars, Calmuck. See Calrnuck Camp. 

TaTUars of the Crimea, cattle of, ii. 138. Manners, &c. of the Tahtar 
Gentlemen, 139. their dress, 140. devotion, 171. barbarous 
treatment of them by the Russians, 173. account of those inhabit- 
ing the valley of Baidar, 232 234. their dwellings, 235. their 
domestic manners and habits, 236 240. Manner of thrashing corn, 
249- Tahtar school described 153. Tahtar nobles, 298. 

Tahtars, Nagay, difference between them and the Tahtars of the 
Crimea, ii. 318, 319. account of their manners and customs, 312, 
313 notes. 

Taman, Fortress of, its injudicious situation, ii. 80 82. antient 
ruins in its vicinity, 82 90. inscriptions, 92 96. 

Tana'is, or Don, River, etymology of, 'i. 337 340, 448. 

probable situation of the antient city of, i. 416. 

Tarantula Spider, observations on, ii. 197. 

Tcherkask, a city of the Don Cossacks, extraordinary appearance of, 
i.36l. its inhabitants amphibious, 361. when founded, 377, 378. 
its situation, 388 note, population, 362. Tahtar mosque, 363. 
Regalia preserved in the principal church, ibid. 364, 365. other 
public buildings, 366, 367. singular custom of blessing bread, 368. 
commerce, 380, 381. polished manners of its inhabitants, 385, 
386. survey of the city, 387 389. houses removed entire, 390. 

Tcherkesskerman, ruins of the fortress of, ii. 275. 

Tchcrnomorski Cossacks. See Cossacks of the Slack Sea. 

Tchftirdagh, the antient Trapezus, account of, ii. 260, 261. account 
of the author's passage over, 261, 262. rare plants found there, 

Tchorgona, Valley, description of, ii. 294, 295. danger of the climate, 
296. Tahtar Nobles there, 297- 

Telegul, Gulph, account of, i. 478, 479- 

Temperature of the atmosphere during the author's travels, ii. 513 et 

Tempest, terrible, described, ii. 405 409. 

Temples, origin of, ii. 75. 

Temrook, antient and present state of, ii. 64, 6f>. 

Theagenes, Cippus of, described, ii. 207 209- 

Theft universally practised in Russia, i. 123. 


Theodosia, antient ruins of, at Stara Grim, ii. 154 156. 

Thracian Bosporus, consequences resulting from the opening 1 of, ii. 
370 372. origin of it, 437. its antiquities, 438442. Probable 
situation of Darius, when he surveyed the Euxinc, 439. 

Thrashing, Tahtar mode of, ii. 249. 

Toad, remarkable, account of, ii. 320. 

Tobolsky, town of, described, i. 108, 109. 

Tombs, antient, in the Cimmerian Bosporus, ii. 7074. at Yenikale, 
103. of Theagenes, at Aktiar, 107 109. 

Torshok, notice of, i.48, 49. 

Travelling, precautions to be used in, i. 215. state of, in Russia, 235, 
S36. in Caucasus, 49- facility of, in Russia, ii.322. 

Travelling Apparatus of Dr. Clarke, described, i. 16 18. 

Treasury, Imperial, at Moscow, description of, and of its contents, 
i. 157164. 

Trinity, Convent of, described, i. 128, 129. 

Trubetskoy, Prince, turned pawnbroker, i. 110, 111. 

Tsars, antient palace of, at Moscow, described, i. 155, 156. 

Tsarsko-selo, palace and gardens of, described, i. 19, 20. 

Tula, town of, described, i. 236, 241. manufactures at, 237, 238. 
road thenfp to Woronetz, 243 245. 

Tumuli, sepulchral, i. 42, 50, 51. Vignette of the Tumuli at Woro- 
netz, 260. account of them, 277. in the vicinity of Taganrog, 
240. in Kuban Tahtary, ii. 14. at Sienna, in the Cimmerian Bos- 
porus, 70 72. near Yenikale", 109. Tumulus of Mithradates, 

Turkish Coffee-House, description of, i. 405. 

Turks, appearance and manners of, at Ineada, ii. 415. 

Tver, brief description of, i. 49, 50. 

Tverschaia, Chapel of, described, i. 97- 

Tweddell MSS." mysterious disappearance of, ii. 120 note. 

Udgino, Iron mines of, i.,255. 

Ukraine, Banditti of, account of, ii. 323325. Anecdote of a desperate 
robber, 326,327. 

Valday, Heights of, i. 41 . costume of the peasants of, ibid. 
Valley of Baidar, described, ii. 232 234. of Tchorgona, 294300. 
Vallum of Asander, description of, ii. 140142. 
Vilia, River, notice of, i.529. 
Villevsky, Canal, account of, i.453. 
Vigh, River, notice of, i. 510, 511. 


Villages named in Russian maps, real nature of, i. 339. 

Virgin with Three Hands, legendary account of, i. 30. with the Bleeding 

Oieck, 97- extraordinary picture of, 365. 
Virtu, Dealers in, at Moscow, i. 215, 216. 
Vitegra, River, notice of, and of its tributary streams, i. 506. 
Vladimir the Great, Coins of, ii. 290. 
Volcanic Island near Temrook, ii. 6G. 

Volchof, River, cataracts of, i. 458, 495. rivers falling into it, 495, 496. 
Volga, River, project for the junction of, with the Don, i.462 464. 

Account of rivers falling into the Volga, 490 494. 
Voloska, River, notice of, i. 513. 
Vyshney Voloshok, notice of, i.47, 48. account of its canal, 453,455. 

Wager, anecdote of a remarkable one, i. 387- 

JVhite Sea, notice of rivers falling into, i.512, 513. 

fVhitworth, Sir Charles, tyrannical treatment of, by the Emperor 

Paul, i. 4. 
, JFz<?,Champagne, how imitated, i.263note. Wine of theDon, 272,381. 

FFomen, condition of, among the Calmucks, i. 315, 317. 

Woro,vcU, present state of, i. 2Gi. Himate and productions, ibid, 252. 
situation, 263. Botanic garden there, formed by Peter the Great, 
265. Inundation and product of the rivers, 267. Increase of new 
buildings, 268. Commerce, external and internal, 269 271. 
Delightful plains South of Woronetz, 279. 

Yampolsk, Cataract of, i. 489- 

Yavghel, River, notice of, i.522. 

Yenikale, arrival of the author at, ii. 98. situation of the fortress 

102. marble soros there, ibid. Singular antient sepulchre, 103. 

ruins in its neighbourhood, 108 109. 

Zadonetz, Town of, notice of, i. 256, 257. 

R. Watts, Printer, Crown-court, 
Temple Bar, London.