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Wpditlt College 







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Travels and Adventures 

of the 

Rev. Joseph Wolff, D.D., LL.D. 

Travels and Adventures 


Rev. Jofeph Wolff, D.D., LL.D., 



" Who would not travel over sea and land, to be instrumental in the 
salvation of one soul /" FRANCIS XAVIER. 

/, Joseph Wo lff y also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham of the tribe 
of LEVI, and I have preached the Gospel, not only from Jerusalem, round 
about unto Illyricum, but also from the Thames to the Oxus and the 
Ganges and the New World! 

London : 



\The right of translation is reserved.] 


4-5 207 








T\7"OLFF lays now before the public, not an abridgment 
of his Travels and Adventures, but an edition, though 
in smaller type, enriched with many new remarks and 
notices. Every piece of information, the style and senti 
ments, the philosophical and theological views, the remarks 
on the heroes of his story, are his own throughout. They 
have been written down as he dictated them to kind friends 
who received them from his lips. 

As to the great object of this work, Wolff has to make the 
following remarks. The first reason of his giving it to the 
world, was that a wish for its publication had been expressed, 
not only by members of the Church of England, but by 
persons belonging to other branches of the Catholic Church. 
In the second place, Wolff wished to prove to the world and 
to the Church, that the Lord is the Lord of Wolff as much as 
he was of Paul ; and that with GOD S grace he is able to 
demonstrate to the Church at large that GOD has not cast 
away His people. Wolff is able to say, " Has GOD cast away 
His people ? GOD forbid ; for I also am, an Israelite, of the 
seed of Abraham, of the tribe of LEVI." GOD has not cast 
away his people ! And amidst good report and evil report, 
Joseph Wolff has proclaimed the Gospel to kings ; for in 
stance, Rundjut Singh, the King of Delhi, and the King of 


Lucknow, and to the Princes of Persia, to the Gentiles also, 
and to the children of Israel. 

Another object that he had in view was to prove to the 
Jewish nation that he is not ashamed of confessing to the 
world that he is of the seed of Abraham, of that Semitic race 
which has given light, the light of knowledge of GOD as it is 
in Christ Jesus, and the light of civilization, to the world; 
and that, though born a Jew, he loves the Gentile world, 
and wishes to make all men as happy as he is himself, through 
the knowledge of Christ, and that he looks with pity upon 
those Jews who, though professing Christianity, are ashamed 
of being known to the world as sprung from the Jewish 
stock. Farewell ! 




Birth; Childhood; Talmudical Legends; Early Education and 
First Wanderings ; Falk and Gothe ; Baptism . . 1 


State of Religion at Vienna ; Five Religious Parties ; C. M. Hoff- 
bauer ; His Life and Habits; Count Stolberg and his Family . 14 


Prince Hohenlohe and his doings; Madame de Krudener, her great 
influence; Route from Germany to Rome . . 31 


Rome and its Society; Pope and Ecclesiastics; Collegio Romano 
and Propaganda ; their Discipline ; is Expelled from Rome . 44 


Returns to Vienna; Monastic Life in Switzerland ; Henry Drum- 
mond ; Becomes a Member of the Church of England ; Lewis 
Way, the Philanthropist ; Studies at Cambridge ; Charles Simeon ; 
Is turned out of the Synagogue . . .69 


Gibraltar; Argues with Jews; Malta, further arguments; Cleardo 
Naudi ; Alexandria ; Argues with Marpurgo ; Mr. Salt ; Sir Gardi 
ner Wilkinson ; Magic; Cairo ; Messrs. Carne and Clarke ; Mount 
Sinai ; Taken prisoner by Arabs ; Return to Cairo . .91 




Desert ; Gaza ; Jaffa ; the Samaritans ; Mount Carmel ; Acre ; Sidon ; 
Argument with a Roman Catholic ; Mount Lebanon ; robbed by 
Bedouins; arrives at Jerusalem . . .131 


Jerusalem, its Inhabitants and Neighbourhood ; Controversies with 
Rabbis Mendel and Markowiz . . .150 


Lady Hester Stanhope and her Prophet ; Earthquake at Aleppo ; 
Massacre of Christians at Nicosia ; Mediterranean ; Stay at Alex 
andria ; Holy Land . . .165 


Mesopotamia ; Ur of the Chaldees ; Haran ; Padan- Aram ; Kurdish 
Robbers ; Jacobite Christians ; Devil- Worshippers ; Sennacherib 186 


Arrives at Bagdad; the Cuthites ; Bossora; Sabeans ; Bushire; 
Sheeraz ; Sheah and Soonnee ; Argues with Sooffees ; Jews 
quarter in Sheeraz . . . .199 


Ispahan; Teheran; Tabreez; introduced to Abbas Mirza ; Tiflis; 
Erivan ; Armenia ; attacked by Typhus fever ; Circassia ; Crimea ; 
crosses from Odessa to Constantinople; reaches Dublin .217 


Loaves Dublin for London; Edward Irving; Lady Georgiana 
Walpole; Discussions at Albury Park ; Marries and is Natural 
ized as an Englishman; Visits Holland; Sails for Gibraltar; 
Malta ; Smyrna ; Egina ; Navarin . . . 232 


Sir Charles Napier; Ionian Islands ; Beyrout; Cyprus; Detained 
by Illness at Cairo; Address from Bishops of Cyprus; The De 
sert ; Exorcises an Evil Spirit ; Holy Land ; Jerusalem again ; 
Is Poisoned ; Dr. Stormont ; Jaffa . . . 249 




The Levant ; Is attacked by Pirates ; Mount Athos ; Intense Thirst ; 
Salonica and Admiral Slade ; Malta, and Hookham Frere ; Starts 
for Bokhara, on his own account, via Constantinople and Persia . 266 


Advance towards Bokhara; Colonel Campbell, Sir John McNeil, 
Borowsky the Jew; Plague; from Astaara to Teheran ; State oi 
Persia; Boostan ; Journey through the Desert of Cayen . 280 


Burchund ; Taken Prisoner ; Dervishes ; Caravan ; Toorshesh ; 
Made Slave; Torbad-Hydareea ; The " Head-tearer ;" Released 
from Slavery . . . . .294 


Meshed the Holy ; Borowsky again : Abbas Mirza ; Timoor ; Tur- 
comauns; Sarakhs; Desert of Merw; Guzl-Baash Slaves ; Gate 
of Bokhara ..... 308 


Bokhara ; Suspected of being a Russian Spy ; Inhabitants of Bok 
hara; Identity of Jewish Customs; Description of Bokhara; 
Morecroft ; Czoma de Koros . 328 


Dangers of the way ; The Kafir Seeahpoosh ; Is spoiled and 
stripped naked ; Sir Alexander Burnes ; Cabul ; Is reclothed and 
recompensed ; Peshawur ; Abdul Samut Khan ; Route through 
Affghanistan ; Crosses the Sutledge and is safe . .351 


The Punjaub and Sikhs; Avitabile; General Allard; Lahore; 
Umritsur ; Rundjud Singh, and his Court; Loodhiana; Visions 370 


Sir Jeremiah and Lady Bryant ; the Governor- General, Lord Wil* 
Ham Bentinck and Lady William Bentiuck; Subathoo and 
Simlah ; and the society he met there , , 382 




Cashmere; Nadown; Yoghees; Sheer Singh . . 391 


Delhi ; The Grand Mogul ; Majo Fraser ; Agra ; Captain Have- 
lock; Cawnpore; A. Conolly; Lucknow; Dispute with Mool- 
lahs ; Benares : Buxar .... 405 


Route from Buxur to Calcutta; Bishop Daniel Wilson; Sir Edward 
Barnes, and other friends; Preaches for six days in succession . 421 

Hyderabad; the Thugs; their History, Manners, and Customs . 432 


Captain Moore, R.N.; Severe Attack of Cholera at Ramahpatanij 
and Subsequent Illness; Mrs. Gillespie and Dr. Cooper; Mis 
sionaries; Infidel Objections answered; Broad- church ; Rhenius, 
the Lutheran Missionary ; Jews in Cochin . . 446 


Monks at Goa ; Jews at Poonah ; Conversation in a Palanquin ; 
Fat Jew at Bombay ; Mocha ; Travels in Abyssinia ; Arrives 
again at Malta . . . . .463 


Summary of Eastern Missions ; What Wolff has done, and tried to 
do; Retrospect of India; Religious Societies and their Secre 
taries ; Return to Syria ; Abyssinian Mission ; Mistaken for the 
Abaona ..... 479 


Detained in Abyssinia by the illness of Gobat ; Returns to Jiddah ; 
Ibrahim Pasha ; Rcchabites ; Jews of Yemen . 496 



Bombay ; St. Helena ; New York ; Robert Hall ; Apostolical Suc 
cession; Ordained Deacon in America, and Priest in Ireland; 
Marquis of Anglesea; Archbishop Whately ; Prepares for second 
Mission to Bokhara . . . .512 


Obligation to British Officers; Arrangements for Second Journey 
to Bokhara; Sails for Gibraltar, Company on board, Lord Lyons; 
Malta ; Athens, King and Queen ; Constantinople ; Sir Stratford 
Canning; Arrives at Trebizond . . .522 


Route from Erzroom to Teheran: Sir Fcnwick Williams; the 
Koolagh ; the Head-Tearer in prison ; is convinced Stoddart and 
Conolly are dead, but proceeds : Colonel Sheil ; Wolff detests 
cant ... . 53-A 


Route through Khorassau to Bokhara in Clerical Dress ; Interviews 
with the King of Bokhara, who has become a great brute . 55 1 


Abd-ul-Samut-Khan; His Villainy; Wolff in great danger of As 
sassination; the Persian Ambassador arrives; Fate of Stoddart 
and Conolly confirmed by the Jews ; History of Timoor * 568 


Escape from Bokhara ; Detects the hired Assassins ; Return home 
Baptismal Regeneration ; He Brewers ; Friends and acquaintance ; 
Oxford and Cambridge ; Conclusion . . .583 





Birth ; Childhood ; Talmudical Legends ; Early Education and 
First Wanderings ; Folk and G tithe ; Baptism. 

ABOUT the beginning of the eighteenth century, a fierce 
persecution was raised against the Jews in Prague, by 
the students of that place. This spread generally against the 
members of that nation who were scattered throughout Bo 
hemia ; and compelled many of them to emigrate to Germany 
and other countries of Europe. A rabbi, named Wolff, whose 
family had been dispersed by these troubles, and who himself 
was born in the year 1 720, resided at a little village called 
Weilersbach, near Forcheim, in the district of Bamberg, and 
was appointed the rabbi of a small Jewish congregation there. 
Another rabbi, a cousin of Wolff, named Isaac Lipchowitz, 
settled himself at Bretzfeld, near Ebermannstadt, which was 
only three miles distant from Weilersbach. These two rela 
tives lived in great amity, and often visited each other ; and 
both married ladies of the country of Franconia. Wolff had 
two sons and two daughters ; the name of the one son was 
David, the name of the other son was Asshur. David, the 
elder son, who was born in the year 1750, left his father s 
house when he was seven years old, and studied Hebrew and 
the Chaldean languages, and the science of the Talmud, in the 
Jewish college at Prague, and learned the pure German lan 
guage in one of the elementary schools established there for 
the Jews ; Maria Theresa, the empress, and her son, Joseph II,, 
having not only arrested the persecution, but issued an order 
that all the Jews should be well instructed in the German 

After David had finished his studies at Prague, he became 

2 Travels and Adventures 

the private tutor of several rich families in Moravia and Hun- 
garia ; and when he was thirty years of age, he returned to his 
native place, Weilersbach, where he found that both his father 
and mother had died. He then married Sarah, daughter of 
Isaac Lipchowitz, of Bretzfeld, his second cousin, and became 
a rabbi first at Weilersbach, in the year 1794. His eldest son 
was born in 1795, and was called " Wolff," after his paternal 
grandfather. This child is the subject of this history. The 
Wolff family belonged to the tribe of Levi.* 

When the French invaded Germany, in 1795, the event 
struck terror among the Jews in Bavaria, for they had heard 
that the French committed all kinds of excesses. Rabbi David 
therefore, with his wife and first born son, then only fifteen 
days old, left Weilersbach, and was appointed rabbi at Kis- 
singen, where the family took up their residence. Young 
Wolff s mother and father often afterwards related in his pre 
sence, that their first-born son was so beautiful a child, that 
the Duchess of Weimar, and the whole Court of Weimar, and 
other visitors at the Spa of Kissingen, would frequently take 
him from the arms of his nurse, carry him about, and show 
him to each other as a prodigy. 

In the year ] 796, another boy was born to David, who re 
ceived the name of Jacob Leeb. In the following year, Rabbi 
David went with his whole family to Halle, in Saxony, on the 
River Saale, which belongs to Prussia, and where there is a 
famous German university. Here also he was appointed rabbi 
of the Jewish community. In the year 1800, little Wolff 
and his younger brother were sent by their father to a Christian 
school, in order to learn to read the German language. In 
1802, Rabbi David was appointed to a larger community of 
Jews, who were residing at Ullfeld, in Bavaria. Here young 
Wolff daily listened, with the highest interest, to the conver 
sation of his father, when the Jews assembled in his house in 
the evening time, and he spoke to them about the future glory 
of their nation at the coming of the Messiah, and of their res 
toration to their own land ; and also about the zeal of many 
rabbis who had travelled to Jerusalem and Babylon as 
preachers to the Jewish nation. He spoke with particular 
admiration of the great Moses Bar-Mymon, who had been a 
celebrated physician both among the Jews and Muhammadans, 

* Wolff was not strictly the surname, or super-name, of this family, 
as the Jews observe the Oriental custom of bearing a single name, which 
is conferred at circumcision. " Wolff," however, had often before been a 
name in the family ; and the subject of this memoir " wakened " or re 
vived it from his father s father. 

of Dr. Wolff. 3 

and was also remarkable for his Talmudical learning and holi 
ness of life. Among other stories, he gave the following 
account of Mvmon. He related how that for many years 
My mon was ignorant of the Jewish law, and of every science, 
and was, to all appearance, devoid of any talent. And that, 
grieved at feeling himself much below his fellows, he left his 
father s house, and went into a synagogue, where he stretched 
himself near the ark where the law of Moses is deposited, and 
remained there whole nights in tears, praying to God that he 
would give him ability to become skilful in the divine law, and 
in other sciences. And the Lord so eifectually heard his 
prayer, that he subsequently became the famous Mymonides, 
and* was the friend of the Arabian philosopher Averoes, who 
wrote the More-Neboochim, which tries to explain the law of 
Moses in a philosophical manner, and many other works. 
Wolff s father also told his Jewish congregation the following- 
tradition, which made the most astonishing impression on the 
boy. It referred to the life of Judah-Haseed, the holy man, 
who became the great light of the Jews at Worms, in Alsatia. 
When his mother was with child with him, she met a Christian, 
who in driving his cart, purposely tried to run over and crush 
her. But a wall by the wayside, in a miraculous manner, 
bowed itself over the mother, and protected her from the de 
sign of the malignant Christian. 

Rabbi David also frequently spoke about the Pope and his 
Cardinals, and the grandeur of his empire, and the magnifi 
cence of the city of Rome. And of our blessed Lord he told 
the young Wolff a curious tradition, or rather read it to him 
out of the Jewish Talmud, which contains a treatise on the 
destruction of Jerusalem by Titus. Therein Titus is described 
as the most wicked man in existence, and it is related of him 
that he died from the tortures produced by a little fly of copper 
which entered his brain during the seige, and increased in size 
until it became as large as a dove, and tormented him to death. 
But when he was dead, a man named Onkelos (then a heathen 
prince skilled in the practice of sorcery, though afterwards a 
Jewish convert, celebrated for his commentaries on the Bible), 
came forward and raised Titus to life by magic, and then asked 
him how he would treat the Jews 2 To which Titus replied 
that he should ill-treat them, and inflict upon them every pos 
sible torture. Upon this, Onkelos raised Jesus of Nazareth 
also from the dead, and asked Him how the Jews ought to be 
treated ? And Jesus of Nazereth answered, u Treat them 

This history made a very deep impression upon young 

B 2 

4 Travels and Adventures 

Wolff, so that he asked his father who this Jesus was ? And 
his father said that He had been a Jew of the greatest talent, 
but, as he pretended to be the Messiah, the Jewish tribunal 
sentenced him to death. Young Wolff then asked his father, 
" Why is Jerusalem destroyed, and why are we in captivity ?" 
His father replied, " Alas, alas, because the Jews murdered 
the prophets/ Young Wolff reflected in his mind for some 
time, and the thought struck him, " perhaps Jesus was also a 
prophet, and the Jews killed him when He was innocent !" 
an idea that took such possession of him, that whenever he 
passed a Christian church, he would stand outside and listen to 
the preaching, until his mind became filled with the thought of 
being a great preacher, like Mymonides and Jiulah-Haseed ; 
and he would frequently go to the synagogue and stretch him 
self in front of the sanctuary where the law of Moses was de 

He would also place leaves torn from a Hebrew Bible or 
prayer book, in which the name of Jehovah occurred, under 
his cap, in order that he might be enlightened by the Spirit of 
God, and also be protected from the devices of devils ; and he 
often put nettle leaves under his shirt, in imitation of holy 
rabbis. He believed everything that he read, and was exceed 
ingly charmed with a book called Eegherette Baalee Hayam, 
which contained a lawsuit carried on against the human race 
by the animal kingdom, before the judgment seat of Ashmeday ; 
in which the human race were accused of usurpation of power 
and tyranny, whilst all the lower animals tried to show their 
superiority over man. Ashmeday, however, gave his verdict 
at last in man s favour, by citing the words in Genesis, chap. i. 
v. 28, " And God blessed them ; and God said unto them, be 
fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth and subdue it ; 
and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl 
of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the 

The following history also, which was told to Wolff by 
Jews, in which they tried to expose the folly and simplicity of 
the wife of a celebrated rabbi, made so deep an impression upon 
him, that he not only never forgot it, but it afforded a powerful 
proof to him that there are Jews who cannot rest in their 
minds about the conduct which their nation pursued against 
Jesus Christ. The history was this : The wife of a noted 
rabbi spent the greater part of the day in prayer before the 
holy ark, weeping and fasting, with ashes on her head ; her 
lips moving, but her words were not heard. And this was for 
the edification of all the Jews, and the admiration of her hus- 

of Dr. Wolff. 5 

band ; but in the depth of the night she got up from her bed, 
and shut herself in a room. On one occasion her husband 
watched her without her observing it, and he saw her kneeling 
down, embracing a crucifix, and heard her say these words : 
" Oh ! Jesus, if our nation was wrong, enlighten me, that 
I may weep over thy sufferings, and become attached to 
thee !" This so much excited the indignation of the rabbi, 
and the whole community, that the woman was divorced from 
her husband. So the story ends, and even to this day it has 
always been in the mind of Joseph Wolff. 

Sometimes Wolff wished to go to Jerusalem, and appear 
there as a great preacher ; and sometimes he wanted to go to 
Home, and become a pope. He almost every day visited a 
barber, who was also a surgeon, and whose name was Spiess.* 
Here he would talk about the future glory of the Jews at the 
coming of the Messiah. And then in his simplicity he related 
that when the Messiah should come, He would kill the great 
fish leviathan, who ate ten millions of every kind of fish every 
day ; and who is as large as the whole world ; and would also 
kill a large ox, which is as large as the whole world, and feeds 
every day on the grass that grows upon 3,000 mountains ; and 
the Jews would eat of that fish and of that wild ox when the 
Messiah should come. 

When Wolff was thus talking, Spiess and his family would 
be all the time in fits of laughter; but one day old Spiess, with 
his stern ^ok, said to little Wolff, " Dear boy, I will tell you 
who the real Messiah was ; He was Jesus of Nazareth, the 
Son of God, whom your ancestors have crucified, as they did 
the prophets of old. Go home and read the 53rd chapter of 
Isaiah, and you will be convinced that Jesus Christ is the Sou 
of God." These words entered, like a flash of lightning, into 
Wolff s heart ; and he can sincerely say that he believed, 
and was struck dumb. No word came out of his mouth, but 
lie went home to his father s house, and read the 53rd chapter 
of Isaiah in Hebrew, with the Jewish-German translation, and 

* The worthy Spiess and his kindness, made such an impression upon 
Wolff, that he never forgot him ; and even so lately as in the year 1846, 
he wrote from He Brewers to the clergyman of Ullfeld, to ask what had 
become of his old friend and his family ? He was told, in reply, that 
Spiess and his wife had died only a few years before, but that his son and 
daughter were still alive, and recollected him very well; and they said 
that little Wolff was a very droll boy, and that they always liked him 
when he came to their house. They added, that one day he had said, 
"If ever I get a wife, and she does not obey me, I will put her in prison, 
and thrash her, and give her nothing to eat." 

6 Travels and Adventures 

then said to his father, " Dear father, tell me of whom does 
the prophet speak here I " His father stared at him, and gave 
no reply ; and Wolff dared not to ask him a second time, but 
went into another room, and wept. And there he heard his 
father say to his mother, who was also weeping, " God have 
mercy upon us, our son will not remain a Jew ! He is con 
tinually walking about, and thinking, which is not natural." 

Wolff, the next morning, ran to the clergyman, who was a 
Lutheran, and said to him, " I will become a Christian, and 
be a preacher. Will you teach me Latin and French ? " He 
said to Wolff, "How old are you?" He replied, "Seven 
years." He said, "Wonderful, wonderful child; I cannot 
receive you, because you are under the tutelage of your father 
and mother. Come back to me when you are more advanced 
in age. n Wolff kept a perfect silence about this occurrence, 
and thus the time passed on. 

When Wolff was eleven years of age, his father came as 
rabbi to Wiirtemberg, and sent him with his brother, Jacob 
Leeb, to the Protestant Lyceum in Stuttgardt. Wolff s 
brother had no mind for study, though he had a great deal 
more talent than Wolff. To sell old clothes was the height 
of Jacob Leeb s ambition \ and he actually did sell some school 
books, and bought with them pins and needles to sell again. 
Wolff grew tired of all this, so he left his father s house, when 
only eleven years of age, and went to Bamberg, a Roman 
Catholic town. 

But, before doing this, he paid a visit to his father, who 
asked him, " What will you now learn? " He said, " Greek." 
Then he asked him, " What will you become?" He replied, 
" A physician and a preacher, like Mymonides." The old 
Jews who were present stroked their hands over their heads, 
and said, " Woe, woe, woe ! Your son will not remain a 
Jew ; he will be mixed with the Gentiles, and go the way of 
all the Gentiles." His father gave no reply. He then 
sought an interview with his uncle Asshur, of Weilersbach, 
who said, " Wolff, Wolff, give up studying, it will lead on to 
Christianity, and I shall disinherit you. You will not have 
one farthing from me. I will leave everything to my other 
nephews " his sister s children. Wolff replied, " They are 
more deserving of it than myself, for they are a staff to you in 
your old age." Wolff* then asked the blessing of his uncle. 
His uncle put his hands upon him, and said, with weeping 
eyes, " The Lord Jehovah bless thee, and rejoice over thee, as 
over Ephraim and Manasseh." Then he said, " Now go in 
peace ; say the blessing over everything you eat ; don t eat 

of Dr. Wolff. 1 

with uncovered head ; go every day to the synagogue ; never 
lie down without having said, Hear, Israel, the Lord our God 
is one God, etc; and never neglect to wear fringes upon the 
four quarters of your vesture." This the Jews call Arba- 
Kanfos, and it answers to the scapularies of the Roman 
Catholics. Moreover, all the Eastern Churches, and even the 
Muhammadaris ; and all the Hindoos wear such scapularies ; 
and there is scriptural authority for it, as may be seen in 
Deuteronomy, chap, xxii., v. 12. And, therefore, scapularies 
are no marks of superstition. 

Thus it was that Wolff arrived at Bamberg, where he was 
most kindly received by his cousin, Moses Lazarus Cohen, as 
well as by his wife. Moses Lazarus Cohen was a Jew of the 
modern style, rather leaning towards infidelity. He read the 
writings of Emmanuel Kant, Schiller, and Gothe ; and he 
rather liked the idea of Wolffs love of study, and introduced 
him to the Lyceum of the Roman Catholics. The famous 
Graser, a Roman Catholic priest who was married, entered 
Wolff as a pupil of the Lyceum ; and he was placed in the 
class taught by the Rev. Father Nepff. One Wednesday, 
Nepff said to Wolff, " Wolff, to-day you need not have come 
to the school, because I teach religion." Wolff said, " I 
rather wish to be present and to hear it." The first Wed 
nesday he expounded the Sermon on the Mount. The second 
Wednesday he expounded the 9th chapter of the Acts, con 
taining the conversion of Paul. When he enlarged upon this 
chapter, he said, " the church of Christ contained people who 
trod in the footsteps of Paul : such as Francis Xavier, 
Ignatius Loyola, and the many missionaries who went forth 
to preach the gospel of Christ to the nations." Wolff was so 
much struck with amazement, first with the exactness of the 
description given of the character of the apostle before his 
conversion, and then by the description of the Jewish tribunal, 
which is so wonderfully depicted in the words " And Saul, 
yet breathing out threatenings and slaughter against the 
disciples of the Lord, went unto the high priest, and desired 
of him letters to Damascus to the synagogues, that if he 
found any of this way, whether they were men or women, he 
might bring them bound unto Jerusalem," (Acts ix. 1, 2, 3) 
that he became determined to join the Christian Church. So 
he went back to the house of his cousin Moses Lazarus 
Cohen, and said to him, in the presence of his wife, " My 
mind is made up, I will become a Christian, and be a Jesuit ; 
and I will preach the Gospel in foreign lands, like Francis 
Xavier." The cousin laughed, and merely said, " You are an 

8 Travels and Advent ares 

enthusiast ! " but his wife became very angry, and threw a 
poker at him, and cursed him, and turned him out of the 

Whilst Wolff was yet in his father s house, his father, in 
order to teach him how to write letters, would give him some 
models bv dictation the contents of one of which were as 
follows : " Dear father and mother, I have found very good 
employment in the house of one of the rich Jews of the family 
of Kaula, and have been enabled to lay by five florins, which 
I now send to you, in order to show that I wish to fulfill the 
commandment, Honour thy father and thy mother; 7 and 
also to give a proof of my filial love towards you both." 

When Wolff, in the course of time, came to Frankfort on 
the Maine, he gave lessons to some young Jews, and was able 
to lay by eleven florins, so he immediately sat down, and 
wrote a letter to his father, saying, " My dear father, I am 
now doing what I copied from your model ; but, instead of 
sending five florins, I am able to send you eleven." 

Another of these model letters was as follows : " My dear 
father, I have now to inform you of something new, which you 
will like. I was tutor in the house of Rabbi Schlome Blowiz, 
a great banker in Bohemia ; and as he admired my skill in 
the Talmud, he has given me his only daughter as a wife, and 
with her 10,000 florins, as a dowry, so I send you a handsome 
present of thirty florins ; and I shall bring my wife to receive 
the blessing from you, that she may become like Sarah, 
Rebecca, Rachel, and Leah, who have built the house of 
Israel. Oh, that Jerusalem may be built soon, even in our 
days. Amen."" When Wolff did subsequently marry, he 
announced the event to his mother, and at the same time 
sent her 20, which he had received from a Mrs. Crofton, in 
Ireland, as an acknowledgment of her respect for him. 

Wolff left Bamberg without saying one word, and without 
a single farthing in his pocket ; and travelled towards Wiirtz- 
burg. On his way, in a field, he found a shepherd, who was 
a Roman Catholic, and he asked him if he might stay in 
his house for the night ? The shepherd replied, " Yes, my 
friend," and brought him to his cottage. He then asked 
Wolff if he was a Roman Catholic? Wolff replied by giving 
him an account of his history ; and after they had partaken 
of a frugal meal, the amiable shepherd knelt down with his 
family, to pray the rosary ; but previous to their commencing 
the prayer, the shepherd said, "Let us pray five Ave Marias 
and one Paternoster for the good of the soul of this poor Jew, 
that the Lord may guide him to his fold." 

of Dr. Wolff. 9 

They prayed five Ave Marias and one Paternoster; and in 
the morning, before Wolff left, the shepherd said to him, 
" Friend, you are in distress ; allow me to share with you 
what I have got. I will give you two florins, which will 
carry you well to Frankfort." This loan Wolff accepted, and 
was afterwards able to return it to that excellent man. 

He arrived at Frankfort on the Maine, where he found the 
Jews complete infidels, but benevolent men, and the Protestants 
neolooists. So he remained there only a few months, teaching- 
Hebrew, to get money that he might travel further ; and then 
he came to Halle, where he fell in with some professors, who were 
rationalists ; but he also met with one, Professor Knapp by 
name, a professor of theology, who said to him, " Young man, 
if you would become a Christian, merely because you believe 
that Jesus Christ was a great philosopher, remain what you 
are. But if you believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, 
and God above all, blessed for ever then pray to God that 
this belief may penetrate into your heart and soul." 

Wolff had to contend at Halle with much external oppo 
sition both from Jews and from the infidelity of Christians ; 
and he suffered also from his own mind, which was too much 
in the world, and there w r as much levity about him, which he 
himself confesses. He left Halle in the year 1810, and came 
to Prague, in Bohemia, having now in his purse money enough 
to carry him to Vienna. On his arrival at Prague, the Eoman 
Catholics entirely mistrusted him, saying, " Jews here become 
Christians by hundreds, without the slightest conviction of the 
truth of Christianity ; so that, if a boy twelve years of age 
does not get from his father what he wants, he says to him, 
Father, if you do not grant my request, I will hitch " (/. <?., 
apostatize ! ). Wolff therefore left Prague for Vienna, and 
from Vienna he went to Presburg, and then back again to 
Vienna, when every farthing of his money was gone. Here 
he walked about in deep sorrow near some barracks outside the 
town, called the Alster Caserne. But while plunged in hope 
less melancholy, an officer of the Austrian army came behind 
him, whose name was Major Zsigrey, of the Colloredo regi 
ment, and struck him on the shoulder, saying, " Young man, 
why so absorbed 2" Wolff made him acquainted with his 
history, and present want of means ; and showed him at the 
same time the testimonials he possessed from Professors 
Knapp and Niemayer. Major Zsio-rey said, stroking his 
moustaches, " Young man, if you will stay with me in my 
quarters for some months, and make yourself useful to me, I 
will give you enough to eat and drink, until you find some 

10 Travels and Adventures 

friend to take care of you." Wolff went with him, and one 
clay he was reading Virgil to himself, when the major said, 
u l)o you understand this book? read a little, and translate it 
to me ; " and Wolff doing this to his satisfaction, he said, 
" My dear young friend, you must remain with me as my 
guest, and eat at my table as long as you will." Wolff 
stayed with him about six weeks, and then left Vienna for 

On his way thither, he came to Molk, a celebrated Monas 
tery of Benedictine Friars. He had read in novels, and heard 
even from Jews, that monasteries are the seats of learning, 
where one can improve one s self in science and religion. He 
therefore went to the Prior, whose name was Father Chris 
topher, and spoke to him in Latin. Father Christopher said, 
" You must be introduced by me to Father Florian Manuli, I 
can do nothing without him, because he is the catechist, and a 
man of great influence in the monastery." Manuli at once 
agreed to Wolffs desire to remain and receive religious instruc 
tion in the monastery, arid said that he was to teach Hebrew 
to the students, and continue his own Latin studies, for which 
he was to receive ten florins a week and his food. This monas 
tery was a very splendid one, and the monks lived " in dolce 
giubilo," amusing themselves in all kinds of ways. But they 
did not like Wolff, and they frequently set on their cook, who 
was a very handsome woman, to tease him ; and as Wolff was 
once sitting at dinner with the students, all of whom had 
hitherto respected him, the cook came in, and asked Wolff 
whether he would eat pork ? He said, " Yes," and then she 
began to sing in German 

" Mauschel ist tod ! Mauschel ist tod ! 
1st er tod ? Sei er tod. 
Friszt er kein Speck und Brod, 
Mauschel ist tod," &c.* 

On hearing this song, Wolff became so angry, that he gave 
the woman a slap in the face, and fled the monastery, and came 
to Munich. 

At Munich, the Jews were most kind to him, and he went 
into the Gymnasium to study Latin, Greek, history, and also 
dancing : all which were prescribed by Government. Wolff, 

* " Moses is dead ! Moses is dead ! 
Is he dead ? Let him be dead. 
Then he will eat neither ham nor bread, 
Moses is dead," &c. 
" Mauschel" is a German nickname for Moses. 

of Dr. Wolf. 11 

however, did not wish to attend the dancing school, and he 
was asked why he would not ? So he wrote a short statement 
that he had no talent for dancing. The director, professors, 
and all the committee burst out laughing when they read his 
letter; and he was forthwith desired to learn to draw. This 
he also declined for the same reason. The director of the 
Gymnasium, whose name was Kajetan Weiler, a serious, stern- 
looking man, and a cold philosopher, but of firm principles, 
insisted upon his learning both. He never would draw a line, 
however, but got a friend to do his work for him, and all 
admired his skill, until he betrayed himself by telling them 
laughingly of the imposition. For this offence he was flogged 
with a birch, and imprisoned for twenty-four hours on bread 
and water, when the director, a monk of the Order of the 
Theatines, said, " Wolff, you had better wait some years before 
you are baptized ; the levity of your mind is at present too 
great." Besides this, Wolffs relations at Munich protested 
against his being baptized. 

So he left Munich after a residence of six months, and came 
to Anspach, where he fell in with Protestant professors, all of 
whom were rationalists. For instance, Professor Stephani, 
who wrote on the Lord s Supper, a work in which he compared 
our blessed Lord with Cataline. Wolff also read the writings 
of Professor Paulus, on the New Testament, in which he not 
only denied the Divinity of Christ, but gave a most revolting 
description of his birth, for which the reader is referred to 
" Paulus s Commentary on the New Testament." Wolff also 
read the " Wolffenbiittelsche Fragmente," which completely 
disgusted him with Protestanism, and determined him to be 
baptized into no other Christian Church but the Eoman 
Catholic ; in which resolution he was confirmed by the perusal 
of the beautiful writings of Johann Michael Sailer. 

At last, Wolff came, in the year 1811, to Saxe Weimar, 
where he studied under Director Lenz, of the Lyceum, son-in- 
law to the famous Saltzmann, who had the celebrated institu 
tion called Schnepfenthal, near Gotha, (a kind of preparatory 
college for the University) for young men from England and 
from other countries. Here, Johannes Falk, the satirical poet, 
and afterwards a great benefactor to the poor, the son of a wig- 
maker of Dantzic, but then Councillor of Legation at Weimar, 
and the intimate friend of Gothe and Schiller, took much 
interest in Wolff, and read with him the Latin Classics, and 
Natural Philosophy ; and gave him to read his own " Corio- 
lanus" and " Prometheus ;" but Falk was at that time a com 
plete Pantheist. When Wolff told him his design of becoming 

12 Travels and Adventures 

a Christian, and of treading in the footsteps of Ignatius Loyola 
and Francis Xavier, he said to him, " Wolff, let me give you 
a piece of advice. Remain what you are ; for, if you remain a 
Jew, you will become a celebrated Jew, but as a Christian you 
will never be celebrated, for there are plenty of other clever 
Christians in the world." One day, he was walking out with 
Falk, when a gentleman, with a commanding and wonderful 
countenance, came towards them. Wolff said to Falk, U I am 
sure this is Gothe." Falk said, "How do you know that ?" 
Wolff replied, " I have read his * Egmont, an d I j uc ^A >e from 
that. For only a man with such a countenance could have 
written Egmont. r Gothe came towards Falk, and embraced 
him in a cordial German manner. Then Falk told Gothe, 
" Now, imagine, this boy knew you from having read your 
1 Egmont. r Gothe was flattered with this, and patted Wolff s 
head. Falk then told him, " He wants to become a Christian, 
and a man like Francis Xavier ; but I advise him to remain a 
Jew. in which case he will become a celebrated Jew/ Gothe 
said to Wolff, " Young man, follow the bent of your own 
mind, and don t listen to what Falk says." 

Wolff was not pleased with the religion of Weimar, for 
although the men he met there were far from being infidels, 
still the religion of Herder, Gothe, Schiller, and Wieland, was 
a mixture of poetical, philosophical, half Christian, half Hindoo 
materials, and not at all to his taste. They swore by Prome 
theus, and sympathized with Ariadne upon Naxos ; Kant and 
Fichte had been their saints, and subjects of daily meditation. 
Nevertheless, out of this school of revivers of Greek mythology 
came Dr. Valenti, who was at first a liberal and a revolutionist, 
but afterwards became a full believer in Christ. 

Wolff loved Weimar, but he soon proceeded to Heidelberg, 
where he used to visit Johann Heinrich Voss, the translator of 
Homer, and of almost all the Latin and Greek poets ; and also 
Creutzer, the writer of the "History of the Mythology of An 
cient Nations," a man of deep and firm principles. From 
Heidelberg Wolff went to the famous monastery called Santa 
Maria Einsiedlen, in the canton of Schwytz in Switzerland; 
and there he read Hebrew and Chaldean with the learned 
father Genhard, and Jacob Briefer, for which they paid him a 
sum of money. With this he travelled to Soleure, where he 
was most kindly received by Father Giinter, and at once asked 
his permission to attend the lectures on philosophy at the college 
of Soleure. But when he added that, after he should have been 
well instructed in the Catholic religion, he wished to be baptized, 
and become a missionary, Father Giinter replied : " My dear 

of Dr. Wolff. 13 

young man, there has never before been a Jew at this college, 
and if it should be heard that one had entered the place, it 
would alarm the whole town. Yet I wish you to remain here 
for the lectures ; and you may also corne to me for religious 
instruction every day. But you must not tell anybody that 
you are a Jew ; on the contrary, go to church like the rest, 
and you can live in the house of a citizen of Soleure, named 
Alleman, where another student also boards, whose name is 
Beidennan. " 

Wolff accordingly lived with and became a great friend of 
Biederman, and they slept in one room, their two beds stand 
ing opposite to each other. A conversation once took place 
between them, whilst they were lying in their respective beds, 
and the night candle was burning. Wolff" said to Biederman, 
" We have now been friends for some months. I therefore 
wish to make you acquainted with a circumstance about myself, 
but I hope that our acquaintance will not be disturbed by it." 
Biederman replied, " You may tell me anything, we always 
shall remain friends." Wolff asked Biederman, " Who do you 
think, Biederman, I am?" Biederman replied, "To tell you 
the truth, I have always suspected you to be a Berner" (one 
of the Protestant cantons in Switzerland called Berne), by 
which term the Swiss designate all Protestants. Wolff asked 
him the reason why he suspected him of being a " Berner." 
Biederman replied, "Because you behave so strangely at 
church. You sit when others stand ; you kneel when others 
sit." Wolff replied, "Now I will tell you who I am." 
Biederman said, " Who are you? " Wolff replied, " I am a 
Jew." Biederman was so frightened that he screamed, and 
leaped out of the bed ; the noise of which roused the landlord 
and landlady, who came naked into the room, and said, 
" What s the matter, is the devil here among you?" Bieder 
man exclaimed, " Worse than that, Wolff is a Jew ! " They 
were greatly shocked, but Wolff calmed them in a most won 
derful manner by what he said ; and by explaining to them 
that he had come to Soleure in order to be instructed in 
Christianity, and become a missionary. They were quieted, 
therefore ; but the next day the whole town was full of the 
news. However, it did not produce any bad consequences to 
Wolff, except that henceforth he was watched. 

One day, before the dinner at this lodging, the family turned 
their faces towards the image of the Virgin Mary, with her 
Holy Child Jesus on her knees, but Wolff turned his towards 
the window ; on which the landlady said to him, " Sir, our 
Lord God is not near the window. Our Lord is here," 

14 Travels and Adventures 

pointing to the image. Wolff indignantly replied, " Our Lord 
is everywhere ; this is only a piece of wood." The landlord 
went immediately to Father Giinter ; and then told Wolff 
that Father Giiuter desired him to beg pardon. This Wolff 
declined to do ; and so he left the place, and arrived at Prague, 
in Bohemia. 

As Wolff was passing a church in Pragne, he heard a 
Franciscan friar preaching very beautifully, and staid to listen. 
And after the sermon was over, he went into the vestry and 
told who he was ; whereupon the Franciscan friar spoke very 
kindly, and introduced him to Bishop Haiii, to the prelate 
Caspar Royko, and to professor Ulman, professor of the Hebrew 
language. When Wolff had related the story of his residence 
at Soleure, the bishop and the rest of the gentlemen said, 
" Thou art not a common Jew ; we shall write to Soleure to 
Father Giinter, and if all is as thou sayest, we shall instantly 
baptize you." This they did, and Father Giinter wrote a very 
faithful letter in answer, stating the facts as Wolff had stated 
them ; and so Wolff obtained his wish and was baptized at 
Prague, by the Most Reverend Leopold Zalda, Abbot of the 
Benedictine Monastery called Ernaus, on the 13th September, 
1812, being then seventeen years of age. His godfathers 
were Joseph Veith and Charles Morawetz, and he received the 
name of " Joseph." He then went to Leutmeritz, where he 
was confirmed by the Bishop of Leutmeritz ; and he received 
at his confirmation the names of " Stanislaus Wenceslaus," 
which, however, he has never nsed. 


State of Religion at Vienna ; Five Religious Parties ; C. M. 
Hoffbauer; His Life and Habits; Count Btolberg and his 

\ S the Benedictines of Emaus were sent, by order of 
-^- Government, to Klattau in Bohemia, for the purpose of 
forming there a Lyceum (or preparatory school for the Uni 
versity), Wolff was requested to go with them, that he might 
assist them in teaching German and Latin, which he accord 
ingly did. But his popularity in that place drew down on him 
the jealousy of the monks. He therefore, after having gained 

of Dr. Wolff. 15 

some money by teaching, returned to Prague, on his way to 
Vienna, where he purposed studying the Arabic, Persian, 
Chaldean and Syriac languages, as well as philosophy and 
theology. The famous philologist, Father Dombrowsky, ex- 
jesuit and tutor to the children of Prince Nostitz, furnished 
Wolff with letters of recommendation to Professor Johannes 
Jahn, the great oriental scholar; and to Dr. Kopitar, the 
great Sclavonian scholar; and to the celebrated Joseph von 
Hammer, the greatest oriental linguist in Vienna, the trans 
lator of Hafiz, the editor of " The Mines of the East/ and 
the author of " The History of the Osman Empire." Joseph 
Wolff arrived with these letters at Vienna, where he was exa 
mined by the Professors, and declared competent to give 
private lectures on the Chaldean, Latin, Hebrew, and German 
languages ; and at the same time, he was matriculated student 
of the ^University, and attended lectures on Arabic, Eccle 
siastical History, and Divinity. It was here that he became 
acquainted with Friedrich von Schlegel, the great poet, philo 
sopher, historian, and critic of the poetry of all nations ; as 
also with his wife, Madame Dorothea von Schlegel, who was a 
daughter of the famous Moses Medelssohn. Besides these, he 
formed acquaintance with Theodore Korner, the talented 
author of the " Lyre and Sword," and other poems ; and with 
Baron von Penkler, Aulic-counsellor of Austria. The above- 
mentioned Schlegel and his wife, as well as Penkler, took the 
greatest interest in Joseph Wolff; and they introduced him 
to their Father Confessor, Clement Maria HofFbauer, Superior- 
general of the order of Redemptorists. 

Before proceeding with WolfFs history, it is necessary to 
state the condition of Roman Catholicism in Vienna. There 
was the archbishop, with his canons and priesthood, who 
belonged to that body of Roman Catholic clergy who may 
be styled the " Roman Catholics of the Court/ That is, 
they were pompous, and adorned with orders and crosses, 
the rewards of courtiers, and may be compared with the 
"high and dry" party of the Church of England. Cer 
tainly, though, there were amongst them people of a different 
and more spiritual character, such as Jacob Frint, who was 
confessor to the Emperor, and almoner to the Empress ; and 
who wrote eight volumes on the tenets of the Roman Catholic 
Church, in which he tried to defend them by the assistance of 
the writings of Emmanuel Kant, Fichte, Schelling, Bardili, 
Wieland, Schiller, Herder, and Gothe ; and he was a bene 
volent man. All his party believed in the Pope s supremacy, 
but they tried to keep the Court of Rome within proper bounds ; 

16 Travels and Adventures 

and were opposed to what they considered as encroachments of 
the papal power upon the rights of the national church. 

Another party in Vienna was that of the followers of 
Johannes Jahn, who were strictly attached to scripture, hut 
leant somewhat to German neology ; not with regard to the 
divinity of Christ, and the doctrine of the atonement, but 
upon the grand question of inspiration, and the interpretation 
of prophecy. 

The third party was that of Johannes Michael Sailer, the 
Fenelon of Germany, and the great Friedrich Leopold, Count 
of Stolberg. These united strict orthodoxy and attachment to 
the papal power, admiration for antiquity and the fathers, firm 
adherence to the dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church, and 
belief in the miracles of that Church, with rejection of what is 
called "pious opinion." As, for instance, they rejected not 
only the immaculate conception of the Virgin Mary, but 
denied the necessity of asking the intercession of the Virgin or 
of saints ; and their minds revolted at the notion of worship 
being addressed to any but the Most High. They believed 
in the infallibility of the Church, but denied that of the 

There was a fourth, but small party, the Mystical Party, or 
the so-called Peschelites. Peschel was an interpreter of the 
Revelation of St. John ; and he taught that people ought to 
be so inflamed by the love of Christ, that they might desire 
with St. PauJ to " know the fellowship of his sufferings, being 
made conformable unto his death. 1 PescheFs followers took 
up this idea further, and insisted that Christians should con 
tinue the atonement among themselves ; with which view they 
assembled on a Good Friday in a certain house, and cast lots 
for one to be crucified ; and he on whom the lot fell was to be 
sacrificed. The lot fell on the first occasion upon a poor 
butcher s maid-servant, who actually submitted to her fate, and 
suffered with great fortitude and patience. But the next time 
it fell on a fat Roman Catholic priest, who did not relish the 
thought at all ; and so he gave notice to the police, who took 
the mystics into custody, and Wolff himself saw Peschel in 
prison. Peschel was a most amiable-minded man. He never 
retracted any of his opinions ; and when the archbishop wished 
him to recant, he replied, " You are a blasphemer." He never 
theless confessed to Wolff that he had not intended his fol 
lowers to proceed to such lengths as they had done. 

The fifth party was that of Clement Maria Hoffbauer, who 
was supported by the elite of Germany s learned men, Frie 
drich von Schlegel, and his wife, nee Dorothea Mendelssohn, 

of Dr. Wolf 17 

Friedrich Ludwig Zacharias Werner, the author of the cele 
brated poem, " Weihe der Kraft," or " Martin Luther/" and 
Adam Mtiller, philosopher and historian : and around Hoff- 
bauer all the great nobility of Poland, and the archbishops and 
bishops of Hungary rallied, showing that they were willing to 
engage to serve under his banner. The working clergy of 
Austria in the country, and the mystical philosophers of 
Austria, the Pope s Nuncio, and the great Cardinal Consalvi, 
were all friends to Hoff bauer ; and Pope Pius VII. also coun 
tenanced him, and admired his zeal. To bring back the spirit 
of the Middle Ages was his great design ; and he had a firm 
belief in the papal power. A burning love towards the Virgin 
Mary, and all the saints, and belief in the perpetuity of the 
power of miracles in the church of Rome, were doctrines which 
he powerfully impressed from the pulpit, united with a love of 
Jesus Christ. 

We must now describe the outward appearance of Hoffbauer. 
He was about five feet seven inches high, with a penetrating 
shrewd eye. He wore a three-cornered cocked hat upon his 
head, a black gown of rough cloth over his body, and a girdle 
round his loins. Shoes without buckles, and rough stockings 
of coarse wool were on his feet. He always knitted his own 
stockings, sitting upon a sofa of black leather. He had in his 
room a little altar, upon which a crucifix was placed, with the 
picture of the Virgin Mary. His room was divided into 
several parts, where his young priests had each a table, at which 
they wrote. He rose at four o clock in the morning, when he 
was heard reciting the Lord s Prayer and Ave Maria ; and 
going down stairs, he whispered a short prayer on his way to 
church, where he celebrated the mass, and heard confessions. 
He preached five times a clay, always coming home to dinner 
at twelve o clock precisely. Then he gave a knock upon the 
table, to summon all the clergy and the young men to assemble 
together in his room, where they knelt down, whilst he directed 
a meditation on some spiritual subject as, for instance, on the 
importance of spending our lives usefully in the service of God, 
and for the good of mankind. 

His sermons were most extraordinary. Sometimes he 
preached the Gospel of Christ with such power, that it could 
never be forgotten by any one who heard him. He one day 
preached about prayer, when he said, " Many a great sinner 
says, I will pray when I shall be nigh to death. But do you 
recollect Antiochus, who also prayed when the very worms 
were gnawing him, and when he was nigh to death? Yet, 
what does the Spirit say of his prayer, Uncl der Bdsewicht 


18 Travels and Adventures 

hub an, und betete zu dem Herrn, der sich nun niclit mehr 
liber ihn erbarmen wolte. Thus this bad man prayed, but his 
prayer was not heard, and so will it be with some of you here." 
Sometimes lie would preach about apparitions of spirits, who 
came from purgatory, or even from hell ; and he would describe 
the appearance of the Virgin Mary, with a golden crown upon 
her head. Sometimes ho lamented the decay of the customs 
and manners of the monks. It is worth while to give extracts 
from some of his sermons. 

" A Jew, converted to the Roman Catholic religion, once 
entered a monastery of Jesuits, where he was highly revered 
for his holy life. But one day, when he was reading mass at 
the altar, and consecrating the host, he was overheard cursing 
Christ by one of the monks. That monk denounced him to 
the Superior, when he defended himself in such a way, that 
he was unanimously declared to be innocent. That same night, 
however, he entered the cell of the monk who had accused him, 
and compelled him, by threatenings, to deny his faith, after 
which he smothered him. The next day. the monk was found 
dead in his bed ; and all the fathers declared it to be the judg 
ment of God upon him for his calumny of the Jew. But, on 
a certain day, when they were all seated at dinner, the dead 
man appeared, and told the whole history ; and then he took 
liold of the Jew by the hair, and dragged him down to the 
lower world." 

It may be well, also, to mix up with his sermons, some of 
his private conversation. He once related the following story 
of Martin Luther : " A preacher, in Switzerland, exclaimed in 
a sermon, My dear brethren, shall I bring forth Luther from 
hell V They exclaimed, Yes f Well, he cried, Luther ! 
And a voice from outside was heard asking, What do you 
want T Come in, 1 was the reply, and show yourself that 
you are in hell ! Then Luther came in, in his old gown, roar 
ing dreadfully ; and with a kettle of sulphur upon his head, 
with which he made such a stench, that all the congregation 
ran out of the church." 

One day, Hoffbauer and his clergy and pupils (amongst 
whom was Wolff) were sitting at a table reciting the breviary 
together. Hoffbauer sat on his black leather sofa alone, with the 
table before him, on the opposite side of which were the clergy 
and pupils. He had a snuff-box before him, which suddenly, 
by itself, began to hop up and down to hop up and down 
and to make a noise like this : " piff pciff- piff paff" Hoff 
bauer at once said, " Father Hiebel has died this moment at 
Warsaw, and we must read mass pro animis in purgatorio " 

of Dr. Wolff. 19 

for the souls in purgatory. They celebrated the mass on the 
following- day ; and a fortnight afterwards a letter arrived from 
Warsaw, saying that Father Hiebel, one of the order of 
Redemptorists, had died in odour of great sanctity. Father 
Hiebel was a most intimate friend of Hoffbauer. 

Wolff once praised Pope Ganganelli, when Hoffbauer ex 
claimed, " You are full of Lutheranism ; your very face is that 
of Luther." Another time, Wolff observed, " I can under 
stand the reasonableness of indulgence being a remission of 
temporal punishments ; but I can never understand what pur 
gatory has to do with it." Hoffbauer said, u Luther ! Luther ! 
you stink of Lutheranism. 1 Baron von Penkler, who was the 
only person that presumed to remonstrate with Hoffbauer, said, 
" The openness of Wolff ought to be encouraged in the highest 
degree, for I never saw a young man of the Jewish nation be 
fore who said just what he thought/ Hoffbauer then said, 
" Ganganelli was made pope through the influence of the Jan- 

Now then for another of his sermons, from which it is worth 
while to give an extract, as it refers to the decay of monas 
teries. He said to the monks in a public sermon. " Oh, you 
friars, who spend your days in eating and drinking, and in 
playing billiards and in dancing, let me tell you a story. There 
was a monastery with which I am well acquainted : the monks 
there spent their days in eating and drinking, and being merry. 
And one day, the lay brother was preparing to spread the 
table, when there entered the refectory a company of strange 
monks, with the abbot in their midst. The strange abbot said, 
Call down stairs the abbot and the rest of your monks. They 
came, when that strange abbot commenced as follows : Two 
hundred and fifty years ago, we were inmates of this monas 
tery, and we lived the same sort of life that you do now ; and now 
we are all lost in hell. Then the strange monks commenced with 
a loud chanting voice, * Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui 
sancto ;"" and the chorus replied, Sicut crat in principle, mine 
et semper in scecula scvculorum> Amen? Here Hoffbauer 
added, " This is their condemnation, that the lost souls must 
give glory to God against their will ;" and then he continued, 
" After this, the strange monk exclaimed, Domimis nobiscum ; 
and a voice was heard from out of the ground, c Dominus non 
vobiscum ,- upon which a fire came out and destroyed them 
all !" 

The King of Bavaria and the Austrian princes venerated 
Hoffbauer so much, that they would sometimes come to kiss his 
hand; his alms were unbounded, but he frequently gave with a 

c 2 

20 Travels and Adventures 

bad grace. Once a poor man came to him for assistance ; he gave 
him ten florins, but he said at the same time, " Nun gehe liin, 
und sage uherall die Pfaffen stud grosze Schurken. " 

His zeal in the pulpit, and at the confessional, was very 
great. One day, when he had been bled, the bandage came 
undone in the pulpit, and he sank down fainting ; but on reco 
vering, he simply said to one of the priests, " Tie the bandage 
more firmly, 1 and then he continued his discourse. 

Nevertheless, there were two traits of his character which it 
is difficult to reconcile witli his fame. These were, first, a 
most violent temper, which he occasionally displayed, even for 
the slightest trifles; and secondly, the excess to which he car 
ried mental reservation. For instance, once, one of his secre 
taries had not come at the moment he called him, so he seized 
a glass that stood near, and smashed it to atoms ; and he would 
sometimes strike his clergy at the altar, and then excuse him 
self by observing, u I am determined not to be like Eli ; who, 
for having overlooked the faults of his children, broke his 
neck, and w r as rejected of God." 

The mental reservation system was carried on by him in a 
most remarkable way. To prove this, it is only necessary to 
cite the history of Rosalia, the daughter of a rich merchant at 
Vienna, in the year 1812. She was about 23 years old, and 
Hoffbauer was her confessor ; she daily visited him in his own 
house, and he consigned her to the spiritual direction of Joseph 
von Libowsky, who, in Wolff s judgment, was the most envious, 
jealous, uncharitable, uncouth, odious, mischief-making, heart 
less, irreligious fellow in existence. But he took infinite trouble 
with Rosalia, conversed with her in favour of his Order, and 
showed her the pictures of holy women to excite her zeal. Wolff 
saw one of those pictures ; it was that of a fine and beautiful 
lady lying on the ground, with a rosary in her hand. Her 
eyes were directed to Heaven ; but upon her body, mice and 
rats were gnawing, and she was covered with thorns. In this 
state this woman was represented to have lain thirty years on 
the ground. By such stimulants Rosalia s mind was inflamed 
with the desire of becoming a saint. 

Joseph Wolff left Vienna in the year 1814, for Count Stol- 
bergX and afterwards went to Rome, but on his return to 
Vienna in the year 1818, he went to Hoffbauer, and finding 
that Rosalia was no longer there, he asked, with his usual sim 
plicity, u What has become of Rosalia?" HofFbauer got into 
a rage, which was awful, and said, " What have you to do with 
it ? Has your curiosity no bounds ?" Wolff dared not to say 
another word, but one of Hoffbauer s young clergy, Martin 

of Dr. Wolf. 21 

Stark by name, took AVolff aside, and said, " Let me advise 
you, WolfF, never to mention the name of Rosalia again, she 
has disappeared. Nobody knows where she has gone ; Hoft- 
bauer has been examined, and all of us, before the consistory, 
and the archbishop himself, and by the police, but nothing is 
known about her, and the police have already spent 50,000 
dollars (which is ^8,000) to find her, but in vain." Wolff 
believed it all. 

One day, however, he called upon a neighbour of Hoff bauer, 
a lady who was also his own personal friend. This lady, whose 
name was Bieringer, was herself bent upon entering a convent. 
She said to Wolff, in a most significant manner, " Do you 
think Hoffbauer does not know where Rosalia is ? " Wolff 
replied, " So I have been informed." Miss Bieringer again 
smiled in a most penetrating manner, as if she would have said, 
" I know better." Soon after this, Wolff came to Val-Sainte, 
where he met Joseph Srna. He asked Wolff, " Have you 
heard anything about what has become of Rosalia ? " Wolff 
pleaded ignorance. Srna smiled in a very cunning way. At 
last Father Joseph Sabelli arrived in the Monastery of Val- 
Sainte. The first word he said to Srna was, " At last Rosalia 
has been discovered; but, God be praised, she has confessed 
nothing, except that Count Dahalsky had given her money for 
travelling." Sabelli continued, " I went that same night to 
Dahalsky, and told him how far Rosalia had confessed."" 
(Count Dahalsky was a great friend of the Redemptorists.) 
He replied, " I don t care for it, I may give my money to 
whom I please."" 

In short, the whole history of Rosalia was this. The Re 
demptorists wishing to establish a nunnery, composed of the 
daughters of high people, and to have the first nunnery at 
Bucharest, Rosalia was to be sent there. But as emigration 
was not allowed in Austria, and as they were well convinced 
that her parents would not give their consent, the affair was 
arranged so as to delude the public as to Rosalia s real inten 
tion ; and to enable the Redemptorists to have the appearance 
of sincerity if they should be questioned about her by the 
ecclesiastical and civil authorities. She was to go about among 
her friends, and say in a joking manner, that she was about to 
go to Rome ; so that if they should be examined after her dis 
appearance, whether she had never given any intimation of her 
intention, or told them where she was going, they might answer, 
with an appearance of candour. " Yes, she told us that she was 
going to Rome." And again, she was to change her name, and 
to be called " Phillipina," instead of Rosalia, so that they 

22 Travels and Adventures 

might say with safety, that they knew not where "Rosalia" 

But the most ignoble part of all this affair was, that while 
Hoffbauer himself was acquainted with the whole proceeding ; 
whenever he was examined before the consistory, or before the 
police, instead of answering the questions, he began to preach 
justice to them, and left the whole defence upon the shoulders 
of his younger ecclesiastics. Yet when he came home from 
the tribunal, he would reproach these very ecclesiastics for 
their criminal conduct in having meddled at all with Rosalia. 

One fact more about Hoffbauer, and then we shall have done 
with him. In the year 1818 he was living with some of his 
clergy in his private house, whilst a few others of them resided 
elsewhere, among friends of the Order. But these came every 
day to their brethren at Hoffbauer s, where they all prayed 
together from the breviary, and lived, to a certain extent, in 
the communion of their Order, though not in strict observance 
of its rules, which can only be properly carried out in a monas 
tery. Father Johannes Sabelli, Hoffbauer s secretary, how 
ever, was not satisfied with this make-shift arrangement, com 
plaining that it was not in accordance with his vows. And at 
last he asked to go to a monastery, which a branch of the 
Order had established in Switzerland, called Yal-Sainte, 
near Fribourg, but Hoffbauer would not allow this. And as 
blind obedience to the Superior is their rule, Sabelli could not 
have his own way. But, meanwhile, to the monastery he was 
determined to go. And one day he said to Wolff, " Now 
mark, Joseph Wolff, in six weeks from to-day you will witness 
a spectacle, which you have never seen before in this house. 
And you will see that Hoffbauer will be obliged to let me go 
to Val-Sainte; 11 

After six weeks were over, on the very day that Father 
Sabelli had predicted something strange, the chief secretary of 
the Pope^s Nuncio entered the room of Hoffbauer, where the 
society were all assembled, and delivered to Johannes Sabelli s 
own hand a letter from the Pope. This was most unusual, for 
the Superior opened all letters ; for whomsoever they might be 
directed. The letter was to this effect : " You must tell Hoff 
bauer, respectfully, that you wish to go to Yal-Sainte, and ask 
his permission. If he lets you go, well. If he objects, go 
without his permission." Sabelli, on receiving the letter, went 
up-stairs to read it, whilst the Nuncio s secretary coolly sat 
down on the black sofa with Hoffbauer, and gave to him also a 
letter from the Pope. When Hoffbauer read it, he flew into 
a violent rage, and exclaimed, " I know what I will do ; the 

of Dr. Wolff\ 23 

Court of Eome sliall fall down to the ground. It is I who 
make Itomaii Catholics at Vienna, not the Pope ! " And 
having said this, he left the poor secretary on the sofa, whilst 
he walked off, to hear confession in Vienna. Nor did he waste 
one single word of remonstrance upon Sabelli. The Popovs 
Nuncio, meantime, evidently afraid to incur the displeasure of 
so powerful a man as Hoffbauer, conciliated him in a most 
crafty manner. On the following day, the secretary (ii-ditore) 
called again, and sat down with him upon his black leathern 
sofa, and said to him, " Now, Father Hoffbauer, let us not 
quarrel ; the thing may be remedied to your satisfaction. 
Emigration is not allowed by the Austrian Government. I 
will, therefore, write to Home, that Sabelli cannot get permis 
sion from the Austrian Government to go to Switzerland, and 
the whole affair will be over." 

The Pope s Nuncio proposed this because he well knew that 
Hoffbauer would not for one moment show submission to the 
power of the Austrian Government; and so it proved, and 
Hoffbauer consented at once to Sabelli s departure. 

We have had almost enough of that extraordinary man who, 
with the assistance of Messieurs Schlegel, Pilat, and the poet 
Werner, ruled the whole ultra-Montane party at Vienna, and 
upset the influence of the courtier clergy, who went about orna 
mented with the stars of the Emperor. He could not bear, 
however, the mystical pomposity of the German philosophers 
and their philosophical terminology, although he had a high 
regard for Schlegel and the Abbot of Saint Gallen. " These 
arc two very learned men, 11 he said ; " I can understand them, 
but all the rest doirt understand themselves." Of Werner he 
said, " He is a man without dignity, and full of vanity and 
self-conceit." One anecdote more about him will illustrate his 
opinion of the German philosophers. The famous Adam 
Miiller once talked to him for a whole hour. He allowed him 
to go on, but after he had done, coolly said to him, " Pray, 
Adam Miiller, can you explain to me the meaning of what you 
have said ? I have not understood one single word." 

Father Abraham Santa Clara was Superior of the Monastery 
of Saint Augustine in Vienna, under the Emperor Leopold L 
He was a man of most holy life, but possessed great wit and 
humour. The conversions which he made amongst the people 
were astonishing ; but his mode of preaching would scarcely be 
tolerated now, even at Vienna, where the people are, as they 
say in Yorkshire, an " outspoken" people. For instance, he 
preached against gluttony, when he said, " Imagine these Jews., 
what gluttons they were ! They had manna given them in the 

24 Travels and Adventures 

desert which had the taste of every food in the world. When 
they wanted chocolate of Spain,* it tasted like that. When 
they wanted sausages of Pomerania, it tasted like them. 
When they wanted fricasses of France, it tasted like them. 
When they wanted roast beef of Austria, it tasted like that. 
When they wanted golatsclien of Bohemia, it resembled that. 
When they wanted sweet, it was sweet : if they wished it acid, 
it was so : if they liked it cold, it was cold : and whatever they 
desired they had ; but, after all, those nasty fellows wanted to 
go back to their garlick in Egypt." Then again he instanced 
Esau, who " went and sold his birthright for a mess of pottage ! 
Now, if he had sold it for a piece of almond cake, there would 
have been some taste in that." 

Again, he one day preached about dancing, and said, " 
you unpolished people, everything you do is sin : the way you 
dance is sin. The Virgin Mary also danced, but how did she 
do it ?" He then showed them in the pulpit how she danced, 
uttering at the same time a slow and soft cadence. " But how 
do people dance now !" And then Father Abraham danced 
about in great fury, saying, " Trallalum, trallalum, trallalum : 
so that the feet go over the head. 11 

One day, he laid a wager that he would make one half of his 
congregation weep, whilst the other half should be in fits of 
laughter. So he preached a most powerful sermon, and the 
church was crowded. It was upon the Resurrection, and he 
spoke with such power that those who stood in front were 
bathed in tears, whilst those who stood behind were continually 
laughing. This was because he had tied the tail of a fox to 
the back of his head, which, when he became animated, wagged 
about in the most absurd manner. If any one wishes to know 
more about Abraham Santa Clara, he had better read his book 
of sermons, called "Judas the Arch Scoundrel." 

Whilst WolfF was at Vienna, he went into a church one day, 
and stood near the altar of Saint Peregrine, where lie saw an 
old lady weeping, who said, " O Saint Peregrine, pray with 
me to Jesus Christ and the Virgin Mary, in order that I may 
not starve with my husband and my grandchildren. " WolfF 
overheard this, as she was kneeling near to where he was ; 
and as he had just three ducats in his pocket, he gave them to 
the woman, who, overpowered by his generosity, exclaimed, 
"O Saint Peregrine, thy prayer, indeed, has assisted me!" 
This she said with such emotion, that the people crowded 
round her ; and as she was a person both known and respected 
in the neighbourhood, they all considered it a miraculous inter 
position of God in her behalf. And Madlener, the famous 

of Dr. Wolf. 25 

Redemptorist, who loved Wolff, addressed the people, and said, 
" You see that the prayer of the righteous Peregrine has pre 
vailed much ; and also you see how God has converted men 
amongst the Jews, for Joseph Wolff is of Jewish nation." 
The whole of this was rumoured all about Vienna, as a mira 
culous intervention of God, and that Joseph Wolff had been 
the instrument of it. And Wolff himself considers that it was 
a miracle ; and he openly avows that there are miracles per 
formed at this day, not only in the Eoman Catholic Church, 
but also in the Greek Church, also by Presbyterians, and not 
only by priests, but also by laymen and women. 

Wolff lived two happy years in Vienna, and studied there 
history, ecclesiastical and profane, and Eastern languages. 
There, also, he cultivated the acquaintance of many remarkable 
persons, and made a journey, during the vacations, to Pres- 
burg, where he was introduced to the famous Canon Jordansky, 
and underwent an examination in practical philosophy. Thence 
he went to Pesth and Bude, and saw the great Archbishop of 
Erlau, Baron von Fischer by name. By making the acquaint 
ance of Schedius, Schwardner, and Szabo, the translator of 
Homer and Virgil into the Hungarian language, and Maron, 
the author of the " Hungarian Grammar, 1 also the gentle 
manly Baron Szebesy, in Erlau, Wolff conceived a high idea 
of the great talents and learning of the Hungarians, and was 
convinced that there are great geniuses among many of those 
nations who are often considered to be barbarians. During his 
journey from Presburgh to Pesth he travelled in the carriage 
of a Hungarian nobleman, Trevenjack de Taktakenyes by 
name, who recited aloud the whole of WielamFs " Oberon," 
without making a single mistake. 

When Wolff returned to Vienna, he began a translation of 
the Bible into German, which was admired by the first scholars 
in Germany, to whom he showed specimens ; and after Fre 
derick Leopold Count of Stolberg, had heard of him, he sent 
him an invitation to his palace, called Tatenhaiiscn, near 
Bielefeld, in the county of llavensberg in Westphalia. On 
his way thither he remained awhile with the Fcnelon of the 
Catholic Church in Germany, Father Johannes Michael Sailer, 
to whom he was introduced by letters from Ignatius Heinrich 
von Wessenberg, the coadjutor of the Archbishop Prince 
Primas, Baron von Dalberg, Archbishop of Ratisbon and 
Bishop of Constance. Sailer introduced Wolff to the Pro 
fessors of Landshut, Drs. Salat, Zimmer, and Ast, and they 
asked him to give a lecture on Hebrew before the University 

26 Travels and Adventures 

of Landshut, which was received with enthusiasm. This was 
in the year 1814. 

Thence Wolff proceeded to Ratisbon, and was welcomed at 
the house of the philosopher Klein, who treated him with the 
greatest affection, and gave him introductory letters to Drs. 
Mohler, Kanne, and Schubert, in Niirnberg, where Wolff 
rested for several days. And here he was much struck by 
two remarkable characters whom he met. One was Kanne, 
who was a mighty genius, acquainted with the whole Eastern 
literature and philosophy ; but who for many years denied the 
greater part of the history of the Bible, and declared it to be 
a mere mythos, until, suddenly, he was struck by the light 
ning of the grace of God, and became a humble believer in the 
Lord Jesus : and it was when under the influence of this con 
viction that Wolff found him. The other man was Schubert, 
who is still alive, a philosopher and physician. He was on 
the point of becoming a Roman Catholic, but retraced his 
steps, and remained a pious believer in Jesus, within the pale 
of the Lutheran communion. Wolff s stay was in the house 
of Dr. Mohler, a Norwegian, who had been converted to 
Roman Catholicism by Count Stolberg, and whose son is now 
Professor of History at Lou vain e, in Belgium, and a mighty 
champion for the prerogative of the Papal power, and the 
mediaeval times. 

From Niirnberg Wolff proceeded to Aschaffenburg, where 
he remained for several days in the house of the philosopher 
Windischman, the writer of the "History of Magic;" after 
Avhich he stopped at Frankfort on the Maine, where he made 
the acquaintance of Brentano, Bucholz, Schlosser, and Fre 
derick Schlosser, who had left the Lutheran for the Roman 
Catholic Church. In Frankfort Wolff gave an imitation of 
Werner s sermon, imitating his voice in so faithful a manner 
that people outside, who knew him, believed that Werner 
must have arrived from Vienna. 

At that time in those literary circles there was a great dis 
cussion about a wonderful nun, Catherine Emmerich, in West 
phalia, who bore on her body the wounds of our Lord Jesus 
Christ. Upon her head was the crown of thorns, and in her 
two sides were the wounds of Christ. The crown of thorns 
and these wounds were said to bleed every Friday ; and it 
was asserted that no painter could paint them with more 
exactness. All the philosophers and the physicians who 
examined her, and the director of the police, M. Gamier, had 
declared them to be supernatural. For, as the physicians 
justly observed, if these wounds had been made by art, they 

of Dr. Wolff. 27 

would become sore, which was not the case with them. She 
expressed herself with dignity and beauty about religion, 
which, as Count Stolberg justly observed, she could not have 
learned within the precincts of the monastery in which she 
lived, which was an institution chiefly for the lower orders. 
She said to Sophie, Countess of Stolberg, " How happy are 
we to know the Lord Jesus Christ; how difficult it was to our 
ancestors to arrive at the knowledge of God ! " She never 
admitted any one to see her wounds, except those who were 
introduced to her by her spiritual director and confessor, 
Overberg, of Minister; and Wolff boldly confesses his belief 
in the genuineness of that miracle, for did not Paul carry 
about with him the marks of the Lord Jesus? That holy 
woman had visions, and why should such a thing be impos 

At last Wolff arrived at the house of Count Stolberg, and 
was quite overpowered at the first sight of that holy man with 
his gray and bushy locks, his heavenly eye, his voice so soft 
in common conversation, but like thunder when he spoke on 
any important subject. Wolff recited to him on his arrival a 
sermon of Werner s, in which he addressed the Virgin Mary, 
saying, " Pray to the Lord Jesus, and to her" (the Virgin) 
when, suddenly, Stolberg thundered out, " Blasphemy ! this 
is not the teaching of the Church." By and by came in the 
little second wife of Stolberg, the mother of sixteen children, 
five feet high, and rather more severe in manner than her 
husband ; and soon after her came the Chaplain of the House, 
Kcllerman, who was afterwards Bishop of Minister ; and then 
came Vornholdt, the second tutor ; and then the third tutor, 
who had been a gardener, but was educated above his rank, 
entered the room with a rosary in his hand. Last of all 
arrived the eleven sons, and seven daughters of Stolberg, the 
young counts and countesses, eighteen in all sons like 
thunder, and daughters like lightning. There was also there 
the Countess von Brabeck, who was born at Hildesheim, and 
had blue eyes and red hair, but was full of intelligence, and 
spoke fluently German, Italian, and English. This yoiiii" 1 
lady was beautiful as the sun, fair as the moon, and modest as 
an angel ; and she was betrothed to Christian, Count of Stol 
berg, the second son. 

It was delightful to look at this family when they rode out 
after dinner on horseback; and Wolff felt himself transported 
into the old times of knighthood, when he saw the old count 
coining forth from the burgh, with his thundering boys, and 
chaste daughters, and the Countess Brabeck accompanying 

28 Travels and Adventures 

them. AVheii Blucher visited Stolberg, the daughters strewed 
roses before the hero s feet, and Count Stolberg himself wrote 
a poem on the occasion, which begins, " Wallet mit hochge- 
sang dem Helden entgegen," which means, " Go to meet with 
high song the hero." 

Wolff lived some months in the house of that beautiful poet 
and grand nobleman, Count Stolberg happy months, never to 
be forgotten in after life ; and whilst there was employed in 
translating the Bible, of which he read specimens to the 
Count. The Count was so much pleased with it once or 
twice, that he kissed and tickled Wolff in a droll, good- 
natured way, as he was used to do when suddenly charmed. 
Then the Countess said to the Count in an under voice, so 
that Wolff might not hear it, " Papa, you will make the 
young man vain ! " 

Wolff observed that Stolberg s system was entirely different 
from that of Schlegel, because Stolberg disliked the Middle 
Ages ; and, although adhering strictly to the dogmas of the 
Roman Catholic Church, troubled himself very little with its 
so-called opiniones piw (pious opinions). He was against the 
belief of the immaculate conception of the Virgin Mary; and 
when Wolff remarked that she had been the mother of Jesus, 
Stolberg said, " and Eve was his grandmother." He dis 
approved, too, of calling the Virgin Mary the Queen of 
Heaven ; saying that God glorified himself here on earth by 
his Son ; and that He glorifies himself in every star and 
planet in a way we know not of; and, revelation being silent, 
there was no reason for believing the Virgin Mary to be 
placed over all. He did not believe, either, the bodily As 
cension of the Blessed Virgin to Heaven, but simply the 
Assumption of her soul ; and said that she died at Ephcsus. 
By this he evidently opposed, and, at the same time, incurred 
the displeasure of the whole ultra-Montane party. 

One morning when the family were sitting at breakfast, the 
news arrived from Minister and Brussels that Napoleon had 
escaped from the Island of Elba. Stolberg rose and said, 
" This will be his last attempt." 

Wolff walked out with him that day, when suddenly Stol 
berg became absorbed in thought, and, like a flash of lightning, 
ho burst forth as if inspired with prophetic vision, " Er fallt ! 
llm stiirzt Gott der almachtige. So hat es beschlossen der 
Alte der Tage." " God Almighty casts him down ; thus it 
has been decreed by the Ancient of days." 

Christian, Count of Stolberg, a youth nineteen years of age, 
returned from Berlin, where he had been in the house of the 

of Dr. Wolff. 29 

great historian, Niebuhr, and coming home to his parents 
house, he embraced his betrothed bride, and went to Waterloo, 
where he fell in the battle, with one of his brothers. Thus 
was the prophecy of the old Count Stolberg fulfilled, which he 
uttered in the year 1792, saying, "My sons, the Stolbergs, shall 
fall, and shall die the beautiful death, the death for their King 
the death for freedom the death for their fatherland." It 
was most heartrending to witness the separation of Christian, 
Count Stolberg, from his betrothed lady, the Countess of 
Brabeck. He was but nineteen years old, and she seventeen, 
and he had loved her ever since he was seven ; when he used 
frequently to ride out in the morning to converse with the 
little girl, then five years old, who leant to him out of the 
window. The old Countess said to him when he was de 
parting for the battle in which he died, u Children, you know 
it breaks my heart to see you part ; but, Christian, thou must 
go. Duty and the fatherland call thee ! " and so saying, she 
left the room, bathed in tears. 

Too much can scarcely be told of this most interesting 
family ; and therefore Wolff quotes a passage from his own 
brief memoir, which was published about thirty-five years ago. 
" Count Stolberg read with me the New Testament ; and he 
himself and his wife often spoke with me of the power of 
Christ and his resurrection, of his humility, and of his love 
to his elected people ; and he said to me very often, I feel 
great concern and love for you, and for your brethren, the 
children of Abraham/ He spoke with horror both of the 
Inquisition and the Crusades, and considered both as abomi 
nable. He considered John Huss a martyr, and spoke of 
Luther with great regard. It was his intention that I should 
remain in his house some years ; and I also desired and 
intended it, because I found myself very happy in the com 
pany of this great man. But it was not the will of God that 
I should do so, and I was there only three months. When 
Napoleon returned from Elba to France, Count Stolberg and 
his family were in great distress, because, as he had always 
been an adversary of that tyrant, and had written continually 
against him, he was now, from being so near France, in 
danger ; and therefore determined to go to Holstein to his 
brother, in order to place himself and children in security. I 
left his house with tears, because I had found in him a real 
friend. And believing his system to be that of the Roman 
church, and seeing that it accorded with the spirit of Catho 
licism in all ages, I continued a faithful follower of the Church 
of Rome ; and when, after my departure from Count Stolberg, 

30 Travels and Adventures 

I visited some learned men of the Protestant denomination, I 
defended with great fire the Roman Church and when they 
said The Catholics helieve the infallibility of the Pope, and 
command the worship of images, I denied it, and declared 
that Count Stolberg had taught me the true spirit of Catho 
licism, which was nothing else than the true doctrine of the 
Gospel. They replied, c Stolberg is a good Christian, but he 
has formed for himself his own Catholicism, which is different 
from that of Rome ; go to Rome and you will be convinced. 1 
Count Stolberg gave me when I left him twenty-eight guineas 
for my journey, of which I sent the greater part to my 

The subjoined poem is a translation from Stolberg, made 
many years ago by Dr. Wolff s friend, Mrs. Alfred Gatty, 
and refers to the death of Count Stolberg s first wife : 


" Let none complain, on whom a woman s love 
Beneath the shadow of his homestead smiles, 
Though earthly troubles like a flood should pour 
Wave after wave around. 

" They cannot sink him ! As the tears of morn 
Dry quickly up before the rising sun, 
Ev n so the floods of sorrow pass away 
Before the smiles of love. 

" Ye happy ! Feel your God-sent happiness ! 
Salute with tears of joy the early day, 
When its young purple light in glory streams 
Upon the loved one s sleep. 

" Ye happy ! Feel your God-sent happiness ! 
With tears of joy salute the quiet eve, 
Ere softly in the flickering lamp-light s ray, 
Ye slumber by her side. 

" Look on me ! Look ! None ever was more blest ! 
The blessings beggars dream of, kings misuse, 
Were but as worthless fleeting chaff, before 
The fulness of my joy. 

" For thou wert mine, thou sweet one ! Dear one, mine ! 
Mine, mine, thou darling with the dove-like eyes ! 
Mine, mine, the fondest heart that ever beat 
In loving woman s breast. 

" Thoughtful and tender, with the hand of love 
She spun the glittering threads of all my joy. 
And the days glided in the stream of life, 
Wave after wave away. 

of Dr. Wolf. 31 

" Wave after wave bore up the little bark, 
Wherein we two together floated on ; 
And on each side, behold ! the waters gave 
Her gentle features back. 

" Oh, none was ever happier ! But the fool 
Nourished yet many wishes : spread the sails 
To many breezes of deceitful hope, 
Looked right and left, around. 

" Then, in a sudden storm behold ! behold ! 
God took his Agnes from him ! Now, alone 
Upon the wreck he stands, and gazes round, 
And speaks the warning words : 

" Ye happy ! Feel your God-sent happiness ! 
Praise God awaking, praising close your eyes ; 
Shut up the fool s door of the idle heart 
Against each wandering wish. 

" Father of Love ! whom tears propitiate, 
Let me weep on, while life and light are left : 
When my eye fails in death, let Agnes come 
To lead me unto Thee ! " 


Prince Hohenlohe and Ms doings ; Madame de Krudcner, her 
great influence ; Eoute from Germany to Rome. 

WOLFF left the house of Count Stolberg on the 3rd of 
April, 1815, and went to Elwangen, and there met again 
an old pupil from Vienna, Prince Alexander Hohenlohe Schil- 
lingsfiirst, afterwards so celebrated for his miracles : to which 
so many men of the highest rank and intelligence have borne 
witness that Wolff dares not give a decided opinion about them. 
But Niebuhr relates that the Pope said to him himself, speak 
ing about Hohenlohe in a sneering manner, u Questo far dei 
miracoli ! " This fellow performing miracles ! It may be best 
to offer some slight sketch of Hohenlohe s life, and of the 
opinion of Madame Schlegel and Bishop Sailer about him. 

Hohenlohe was born in the year 1793, and was put first to 
be educated by the famous Jean Paul Bichter. His person 
was beautiful. After that he was placed under the direction 
of Vock, the Roman Catholic parish priest at Berne. One 

32 Travels and Adventures 

Sunday he was invited to dinner with Yock, his tutor, at the 
Spanisli ambassador s. The next day there was a great noise 
in the Spanish Embassy, because the mass robe, with the silver 
chalice, and all its appurtenances, had been stolen. It was 
advertised in the paper but nothing could be discovered, until 
Vock took Prince Hohenlohe alone, and said to him, " Prince, 
confess to me; have you not stolen the mass robe? 1 Heat 
once confessed it, and said that he made use of it every morn 
ing in practising the celebration of mass in his room, which 
was true. He was afterwards sent to Tyrnau, to the Eccle 
siastical Seminary in Hungary, whence he was expelled, on 
account of levity. But, being a Prince, the Chapter of Olmiitz 
in Moravia, elected him titulary canon of the Cathedral ; 
nevertheless, the Emperor Francis was too honest to confirm 
it. Wolff taught him Hebrew in Vienna. He had but little 
talent for languages ; but his conversation on religion was 
sometimes very charming, and at other times he broke out 
into most indecent discourses. Sometimes he conversed of his 
high attachment to the papal power. But sometimes again, he 
broke forth in invectives against the whole court of Rome. 
He was ordained priest, and Sailer preached a sermon on the 
day of his ordination, which sermon was published under the 
title of "The Priest without Reproach." On the same day 
money was collected for the building of a Roman Catholic 
church at Zurich, and the money collected was given to 
Prince Hohenlohe, to be remitted to the parish priest of 
Zurich (Moritz Mayer). But the money never reached its 
destination. Wolff saw him once at the bed of the sick 
and the dying, and his discourse, exhortations, and treat 
ment of those sick people were wonderfully beautiful. When 
he mounted the pulpit to preach, one imagined one saw a saint 
of the Middle Ages. His devotion was penetrating, and com 
manded silence in a church where there were 4,000 people 
collected. Wolff one day called on him, when Hohenlohe said 
to him, " I never read any other book than the Bible : and the 
crucifix is before me, as you see, when I compose my sermons. 
I never look in a sermon-book by any one else, not even at the 
sermons of Sailer." But Wolff, after this, heard him preach, 
and the whole sermon was copied from one of Sailer s, which 
Wolff* had read only the day before. With all his faults, 
Hohenlohe cannot be charged with avarice, for he gave away 
every farthing he got, perhaps even that which he obtained 

They afterwards met at Rome, where Hohenlohe lodged in 
the monastery of the Jesuits, and there it was said he com- 

. of Dr. Wolff. 33 

posed a Latin poem. Wolff, knowing his incapacity to do such 
a thing, asked him boldly, "Who is the author of this poem!" 
Hohenlohe confessed at once that it was written by a Jesuit 
priest. At that time, Madame Schlegel wrote thus to Wolff : 
" Wolff, Prince Hohenlohe is a man who struggles with Heaven 
and Hell, and Heaven will gain the victory with him." Hohen 
lohe was on the point of being made bishop at Rome, but, on 
the strength of his previous knowledge of him, Wolff protested 
against his consecration. Several princes, amongst them 
Kaunitz, the ambassador, took Hohenlohe s part on this occa 
sion ; but the matter was investigated, and Hohelohe walked 
off from Rome without being made bishop. It was in Alex 
andria, in Egypt, five years afterwards, viz., in 1821, that 
Joseph Wolff heard for the first time of the miracles of Prince 
Alexander Hohenlohe. In his protest against this man, Wolff 
stated that Hohenlohe s pretensions to being Canon of Olmiitz 
were false ; that he had been expelled from the Seminary of 
Tyrnau ; that he sometimes spoke like a saint, and at other 
times like a profligate ; and, in short, he gave an exact account 
of his life, as before described. Now to return to Wolff s own 

In the year 1815 he went to Tubingen, and entered the 
Protestant University there. But, as he was professing openly 
his faith in the Roman Catholic religion, every eye was directed 
to him, and every movement he made was observed. His 
instructors were Schnurrer, professor of Arabic, Steudel, pro 
fessor of Hebrew and Biblical literature, Flatt, a holy and good 
man, professor of the interpretation of the New Testament ; 
and Eschemnayer, professor of Philosophy. Wolff having had 
to contend with poverty, asked the professors whether he could 
have the free table, which is given to a number of students in 
the Protestant cloister at Tubingen. They unanimously 
declared that this foundation was for Lutherans, and not for 
Roman Catholics. Upon this, Wolff wrote a letter to his 
Majesty the King Frederick of Wurtemburg, and told him 
that he, Wolff, had been the personal friend of Count Stolberg, 
who had had the honour of dining with his Majesty every day 
at St. Petersburg, at the time when his Majesty was a general 
officer in the Russian service, under Emperor Paul. Wolff 
wrote at the same time to Count Dillon, a favourite of the king. 
After six days from his writing these letters, an order arrived 
from the king that Joseph Wolff must enjoy the privilege of 
being admitted a free guest of the cloister at Tubingen ; and 
at the same time a letter arrived to him from his Royal 
Highness Prince Dalberg, Bishop of Ratisbon, the late Grand 


34 Travels and Adventures 

Duke of Frankfort, granting him a yearly pension of 25 . 
This enabled Wolff to study comfortably at Tubingen, and 
take a very good lodging in the house of the Biirgermeister of 
Tubingen, Bossert by name. It is related of King Frederick, 
who married one of the daughters of George III. of England, 
that he once slapped the faces both of his queen and also of 
his sister the Empress of Russia. He was so fat, that a half- 
circle was cut out of the dining table to accomodate his person ; 
and his queen was equally obese. 

At Tubingen Wolff studied with all diligence, the Oriental 
languages, and theology ; and he disputed with all the pro 
fessors in favour of the Roman Catholic religion. But when 
he stated his views on the dogmas of the Church of Rome, 
the unanimous opinion of the professors and students was, 
that his views were not those of the Church of Rome, but 
those of Frederick Leopold Count of Stolberg, and of Bishop 
Sailer ; and that, though they tolerated at Rome that those 
views should be held by Stolberg, they would not allow 
Joseph Wolff to hold them when he came to Rome, and 
entered himself as a pupil at the Propaganda, which was his 

Wolff must confess that when he arrived at Tubingen, he 
was greatly disappointed in regard to giving lessons, which he 
hoped to do for his support. He soon found out that the 
students themselves beat him in their critical knowledge of the 
Hebrew and Chaldsean languages ; for there was no University 
in all Germany, at that time, so well versed in Biblical litera 
ture as the professors and students of Tlibingen. The students 
not only read the Hebrew Bible with the greatest facility, but 
also wrote most beautifully the pure Hebrew language, for 
which they had a book by Weckherlin, who had composed 
exercises for translating German theses into Hebrew. Besides 
this, they were disciples of the famous Storr, the greatest 
Biblical Scholar in Europe, and the most profound divine in 
the Lutheran Church, according to the good old style. So 
Wolff felt and acknowledged his inability to teach them. 

And quite recently, Wolff experienced a similar incapacity, 
when he met the Rev. William Barnard, Vicar of Alverston, 
near Stratford-on-Avon, whom he undertook to instruct in 
Chaldaean and Syriac, and found to be more practised in them, 
than Wolff was himself; and he predicts that this young man 
may some day be a distinguished professor of Eastern languages 
in one of our English Universities. 

But to return to Tubingen. When a month had nearly 
elapsed, and Wolff had earned no money to pay for his lodging 

of Dr. Wolff. 35 

and board, ho knelt down and prayed ; and scarcely had he 
finished his prayer, when the postman entered his room, and 
and presented the letter from Prince Dalberg, Archbishop of 
Ratisbon, which, as already described, awarded him a pension 
of 25 a year. 

Though Wolff observed in Tubingen, with great delight, the 
piety of the Lutheran professors, Flatt, Steudel, and Bahn- 
mayer, who were far from being Neologists, and were real 
Christians ; yet he was disgusted with the harshness most of 
them expressed against the Church of Rome, especially with 
the intolerance of Schnurrer and Gab. Wolff left Tubingen 
in 1816, to proceed towards Rome, and arrived at Aarau, 
where he lodged partly with the Roman Catholic priest, Vock, 
who at that time was a latitudinarian, and afterwards an ultra 
montane ; and partly with Zschocke, the Walter Scott of Swit 
zerland, and the writer of the history of Switzerland. And there, 
in Aarau, he made also the acquaintance of that extraordinary 
lady, Madame la Baronne de Krudener, the authoress of the 
novel called " Valerie." She had been a lady of fashion at all 
the Courts of Europe, and was suddenly converted by a vision ; 
and appeared, as the Ambassadress of Christ, first at Paris, in 
the years 1813-14, after the battle of Leipzig, when the allied 
Powers met in Paris, and exiled Napoleon to the island of 
Elba. She lived in a hotel, and sometimes she made her 
appearance in one of the grand salons, dressed like a nun of "the 
Dominican Order, and though already past fifty summers, her 
former beauty had not yet passed away. 

The Emperor Alexander was struck with conviction of sin, 
and converted through the preaching of Madame de Krudener. 
Talleyrand also, and all the princes of the empire attended the 
discourses which she delivered in French and German, in the 
presence of all the grandees and Powers of Europe. She 
pointed to Christ, whom she continually styled " the lion of 
the tribe of Judah," who shall come to fight the battle, and 
subdue his enemies. Jung Stilling, too, the ex-tailor and 
the ex-charcoal burner, but afterwards the celebrated pro 
fessor of Marburg and Carlsruhe, was induced to become her 
disciple ; and it is said that she was the authoress of the Holy 
Alliance made between the Powers of Europe for maintaining 

When Labedoyere was sentenced to die, Madame Labe- 
doyere went to Madame de Krudener, fell at her feet, and asked 
her to intercede for him with the Emperor Alexander. She 
did so, but the Emperor Alexander told her that it was not in 
his power to save his life. Madame de Krudener was grieved, 


36 Travels and Adventures 

but went to the prison, spoke to him about religion, and did 
her utmost to comfort and strengthen him. Labedoyere was 
executed; and after his death, he appeared to Madame de 
Krudener by daylight, and said to her, " Madame, je suis 
sauw" " Madame, I am saved." 

Wolff called on this lady at Aarau ; he went, by her ap 
pointment, at eight o clock in the morning, and remained with 
her till ten o clock at night. She wore on her bosom, enam 
elled with gold, a piece of the real cross of Christ. Her com 
panions were, Monsieur Empayatz, who was a Genevan priest ; 
Madame d Armand, a follower of Madame de la Motte Guyon, 
and the mother of M. Empaytaz, and Demoiselle la Fontaine. 
She was now no longer surrounded by the princes of Europe, 
but by the learned; by priests ; by the people of Switzerland, 
especially the Pietists ; by the poor, the blind, the lame, 
the maimed. Pestalozzi also called on her, and shed tears of 
repentance. She had been exiled from Basle before she came 
to Aarau. The moment she left the town, a dreadful thunder 
storm was heard at Basle, which was declared to be a punish 
ment upon the city for having exiled that holy woman. She 
wrote in Wolffs album five sheets, which were penned with 
an eloquence which astonished Pope Pius VII., when Wolff 
translated them to him. She had such influence, that people 
knelt down, confessed their sins, and received absolution from 
her. But now we must leave her. There is only further to be 
said, that she begged Wolff to see the infant seminary, which 
was to be established at Basle, for the sending forth of mis 
sionaries into all the world ; of which, Dr. Blumhardt was 
the first inspector, and Spittler, the secretary. She also fur 
nished him with letters to a very extraordinary man, Professor 
Lachenal by name ; and to her son-in-law and daughter, 
Baron and Baroness Bergheim, who resided in a little village 
called Hornle, near Basle; and to Baron d Olry, Bavarian 
ambassador at Berne, a Roman Catholic by profession, but 
who had been converted to a living faith in Christ by her 
preaching; and finally, to Madame la Baronne de Stae l 
Holstein, the famous author of " Corinne." 

The members of that infant seminary at Basle were of the 
Reformed Church, and of true Gospel piety; they loved 
Christ with all their heart ; but Wolff disliked in them their 
inveterate enmity to the Church of Rome, to which he himself 
was unflinchingly attached ; and he defended it with a fire 
which, as they confessed, carried them away. They said, for 
instance, " What do you say to the Church of Rome having 
burnt Huss and Jerome of Prague ? n Wolff simply said, 

of Dr. Wolff. 37 

" What do you say to John Calvin having burnt Servetus ? 
and to the whole Lutheran consistory having persecuted 
and suffered Kepler, the great mathematician, to starve ? - and 
to the preacher Ulrich Zwingli having died in battle, like Ali, 
the Muhammadan 2" They replied, " We don t ascribe in 
fallibility to them." And Wolff replied, " And the Church 
of Rome does not ascribe infallibility to the murderers of Huss 
and Jerome." They replied, " The Church has done it." 
Wolff replied, " The Church simply declared their doctrine to 
be heretical, and the State punished them ; and this is the 
argument the Protestants use with respect to Calvin." They 
replied, " The world has become wiser, and more enlightened 
since then." On which Wolff replied, "And the Roman 
Catholic world has also become wiser and more enlightened 
since then. " 1 Blumhardt said, " Rome has never changed." 
Wolff answered, " Rome is not the Catholic Church." They 
replied, " You have to believe the infallibility of the Pope." 
Wolff replied, " This I do not believe." They said, " You 
are a Stolbergian, and not a Roman Catholic." And Blum 
hardt added, "With your sentiments you will be banished 
from Rome." Wolff* answered, " This is still to be ascer 

Now, as to the character of Lachenal. He was a mystic by 
nature, but the most benevolent man in the world, so that the 
poor of Basle quite lived on his bounty. He was exceedingly 
attached to Wolff, and said to him one day, a You are, in one 
respect, entirely like myself: I take religion to be a matter of 
heart and imagination ; reasoning has nothing to do with it. 
My belief is, that Christ will appear upon earth with a sword 
in his hand, and dressed like a field-marshal, and on his 
breast he will wear a star covered with diamonds ! " LachenaFs 
great friend was Jung Stilling, who held equally mystical 
ideas with himself. Wolff and Lachenal went to Hornle one 
evening together, where they found Baron and Baroness* 
Bergheim at their devotions, with the poor of the village ; 
such being their custom. They were just then singing, 
" Christ upon Golgotha," composed by Lavater. After this 
was over, they embraced Wolff, and then they were sur 
rounded by shoemakers, tailors, and carpenters, who embraced 
Baron Bergheim as their "brother in Christ." Wolff noticed 
at once, with his innate acuteness, the pride and vanity pro 
duced in those mechanics, by being allowed to embrace a 
baron ! And he took the liberty, afterwards, to speak to 

* A daughter of Madame de Krudener, 

38 Travels and Adventures 

Baron Bergheim about it, and to tell him that he would do no 
good by allowing such liberties ; adding that he ought to 
follow the example of Count Stolberg, who was as pious a 
man as ever lived, but who addressed the tailor, shoemaker, 
and peasant, as " Thou ;" and demanded from them that they 
should address him as "high excellency," and "Count of 
Stolberg." Baron Bergheim was much struck, and changed 
his habits from that moment, and said, "Wolff, you are a man 
who will bring a new spirit into the Church." 

Wolff, after a few days, took his knapsack, and went on foot 
towards Fribourg, in Switzerland. On his road to Fribourg, 
he met Protestant peasants, who seriously asked the Roman 
Catholic friars to make the sign of the cross upon their sick 
cattle, in order that they might be cured ; whilst, with the 
same breath, they laughed at the superstition of the Roman 
Catholics, though they were not behind them in the same 
thing. Wolff arrived in Fribourg, where he met with Pere 
Passerat, the head of the Redemptorists there, who, observing 
his Hebrew bible, asked to look in it ; and then said, " This 
bible was printed in Amsterdam." And Passerat took the 
bible away and would not return it, because it was printed in 
a heretical town. 

Wolff, in great distress at his loss, left Fribourg and came 
to Vevay, where he met with the Protestant preacher, Scherer. 
He called on him, without knowing him, and said to him, 
"Would you sell me a Hebrew bible? The Redemptorists 
have taken mine away in Fribourg." He continued, " I am a 
Roman Catholic, and am going to Rome to enter the College 
of the Propaganda." Scherer answered, " I am sorry I have 
no Hebrew bible, but will you stay here and dine with me?" 
Wolff did so, and during dinner, Scherer became so attached 
to him, that he said, " There ! I see you are an interesting- 
young man ; and my wife and myself will be happy if you will 
stay here a fortnight : and we will show you the country 
around Vevay." Wolff remained there a fortnight, and made 
the acquaintance of Monsieur Gaudard, colonel of a Swiss 
regiment, who was a man of deep reading, and acquainted 
with all the chief mystical writers of England, France, and 
Germany. He wrote to the Emperor Alexander of Russia, 
to assist him in establishing a military knighthood, for the 
purpose of promoting Christianity in the depths of Siberia. 

Sometimes during this visit, Wolff" went with a company of 
ladies and gentlemen to an open field near the lake to enjoy a 
picnic, on which occasions they danced ; and Madame Scherer 
insisted once upon Wolff dancing with her. But he, never 

of Dr. Wolff. 39 

accustomed to dance, could only hop about with her, and at 
last gave a kick to her ancles, so that she gave up all attempt 
at dancing with him ever after. 

At other times, he went rowing about in a boat with the 
rest on the lake of Geneva, when M. Roselet, the assistant of 
Scherer, played the harp, and the ladies on the shore accom 
panied it with the heavenly melody of their voices. Previous 
to his departure, M. Roselet made Wolff a present of a 
Hebrew bible 5 and then he departed for Valais, where the 
Redemptorists again saw his bible, and took it away, because 
it was printed in Leipsic. Wolff, however, who remained 
over-night in the house of the Redemptorists, recovered his 
book by stealth, and ran off. This bible we must finish the 
adventures of, before we go on with our history. 

Wolff travelled with it throughout Italy, and arrived with 
it at Rome. And on being introduced to Pope Pius VII., he 
showed it to him, and told him its adventures ; on which Pius 
VII. laughed, and said, "There are hot-headed people to be 
found everywhere." And both in the Collegio Romano, and 
the Propaganda, AVolff studied up for his examination out 
of that bible, and wrote notes in it, and was allowed to retain 
it ; but two years afterwards, when he was banished from 
Rome, the bible was, in the confusion, left behind. Wolff 
made several attempts at getting it back, but in vain ; and after 
this, he came to England, and, having studied in Cambridge, 
undertook his great missionary tour through Central Asia, and 
finally reached the United States of North America. 

On his arrival in Philadelphia, in company with the Right 
Reverend George Washington Doane, Protestant bishop of 
New Jersey, as they were passing the house of the Roman 
Catholic bishop of Philadelphia, Bishop Doane, pointing to it, 
said, " Wolff, one of your old friends lives there the Roman 
Catholic bishop of Philadelphia." Wolff said, " Come, and 
let us pay him a visit. 1 On which, Bishop Doane sent him 
there with one of his clergymen, and a Protestant Episcopal 
lawyer. Wolff announced his name to the bishop, who came 
down stairs to receive him, and said, " Ricordatevi di me 2" 
Wolff at once recognized him, and said, ; Yes ! you are Ken- 
rick, my fellow-pupil in the College of the Propaganda." And 
then they went together to the Bishop s room, who took a 
bible from his table, and showing it to Wolff, said, " Take back 
your own !" 

And that bible is now in Dr. Wolff s possession at He 
Brewers, which was twenty years away from him. In 
November, 1859, Wolff paid a visit to Mrs, Read, who resides 

40 Travels and Adventures 

at Sheffield, and is daughter to the same Scheror of Vevay, in 
whose house he received the bible, which afterwards he twice 
lost and twice recovered. 

But to return to the history of Joseph Wolff, and the con 
tinuation of his journey. 

He went from Valais to Milan, where the professors and the 
librarians of the Ambrosian Library paid him the greatest 
attention, except Van der Hagen, a German ; a nasty jealous 
fellow, and disliked by his colleagues. However, he was re 
markable for one thing. He discovered the famous imposture 
and forgery of the Codex diplomatic us, which excited such a 
sensation throughout Europe in the year 1770, and was trans 
lated by the impostor, Giuseppe Vella, and deposited in the 
monastery of San Martino in Palermo. It is worth while to 
take some notice of that imposture. 

A great deal was said at that time about a correspondence 
which had taken place centuries back, between the Kings of 
Naples and Morocco, and the Sultan ; when suddenly Giuseppe 
Vella, a Maltese and a priest, published what professed to be 
that very correspondence : one column containing the supposed 
original, in Arabic, and the other column Vella s translation. 
This interesting volume was deposited in the monastery of San 
Martino, in Palermo ; and Giuseppe Vella received a pension 
from Austria and from Naples, and was knighted by the 
nionarchs of both those countries. Van der Hagen, Professor 
of the Eastern Languages at Milan, who himself knew very 
little of Arabic, had yet his doubts about this document, so he 
wrote to both courts, and was charged by both monarchs to go 
to Palermo, and examine it. On his arrival there, he found, 
on looking at the original, that it was nothing but the Roman 
Breviary in the Arabic language. Giuseppe lost his orders 
and pensions, and was imprisoned for his imposture. 

The Italian Professors at Milan, especially Don Giorgio, 
procured for Joseph Wolff letters of introduction to Cardinal 
Vedoni, at Rome ; and, after having stopped for some weeks 
at Milan, he proceeded on his way, on foot, with a knapsack 
on his back, like a German student, to Novara. A torrent of 
rain surprised him, and wetted through everything he had. 
On reaching Novara, late in the evening, and having had a 
letter for a nun there, whose name was Huber Mieville, he 
hastened to present it. These nuns were Salesians of the 
Order of Fran$ois de Sales and were allowed to walk out. 
Wolff rang the bell. A sister came to the door, and exclaimed, 
" Deo gratias." The door was opened, and Wolff said he had 
a letter for Mother Huber Mieville, 

of Dr. Wolff. 41 

He was shown to the splendid refectory, where he met the 
Padre Confessore, a Dominican friar 5 a fat gentleman, but of 
an amiable-looking countenance, with a rosary in his hand. He 
began to enter into conversation with Wolff, while the letter 
was sent upstairs to the nun ; when suddenly Huber Mieville, 
with the whole band of nuns came down, shouting, " Un Ebreo, 
un Ebreo convertito !" 

They immediately asked Wolff to supper. Standing near 
the table, the Padre Confessore offered up a prayer, and Wolff 
made the sign of the cross. They all exclaimed, " How this 
blessed, blessed young man makes the cross ! Amiable boy " 
(Amabile giovane), said they, in the midst of their prayers, 
" God bless him !" 

Then the Padre Confessore very gravely inquired of him, 
"Can you say Pater N aster?" 

Wolff recited Pater Noster. 

" Say Ace Maria. 1 

Wolff recited Awe Maria. 

" Say again /Salve Eegina." 

Wolff recited the whole of Salve Regina. 

All the nuns exclaimed again, 

" Veramente un Santerello !" " Truly, a little saint !" 

And the Dominican friar said, 

" He will be an apostle, like Paul !" 

He gave to Wolff his large shirt to put on, for lie was soaked 
with wet. They procured him also a night quarter in the 
house of the first magistrate of the place, but Wolff" was to 
breakfast and dine with the nuns. After breakfast, they in 
troduced him to the Abbess, who was a French countess, 
seventy years of age. She was seated upon a beautiful chair, 
and in a most handsomely furnished room. She was just 
finishing the words of the psalmist, which she uttered with 
great devotion, " If thou regardest iniquity, O Lord, who can 
stand ?" Si observaveris iniquitates, Domine, Domine, quls 

After this, she gave Wolff her two cheeks to kiss, which he 
did with great grace. 

She then talked about the decay of piety in the Church, 
with wonderful dignity ; and presented Wolff with a beautiful 
rosary of silver, and nice little cakes, called " Nuns hearts," 
and ordered her nuns to provide him with everything, and to 
give him letters for Turin. He got letters also for Cardinal 
Cacciapiati, and then departed for Turin. 

On his arrival at Turin, he was received, with the greatest 
kindness, by the Prussian ambassador, Count Waldbour- 

42 Travels and Adventures 

Truchsess, who was one of the commissioners from the Court 
of Prussia, and accompanied Napoleon to the island of Elba. 
His wife was the daughter of Prince Hohenzollern Hechingen, 
a Roman Catholic. Wolff met in their house Madame de 
Stael Holstein, August Wiihelm von Schlegel, and Count de 
la Torre, a man of great information and piety, and well versed 
in the German language. And he also met Kosslossky, Rus 
sian ambassador, and Monsieur Potemkin, nephew of the great 
Potemkin, favourite of the Empress Catherine. Wolff read 
first to Madame de Stael, and the whole party, what Madame 
de Krudener had written in his album ; on which Madame de 
Stael observed, that she had the highest admiration for Madame 
de Krudener, because in her one could see enthusiasm in its 
highest perfection. After this Wolff read portions of his 
poetical translations of Isaiah and Jeremiah ; and Schlegel 
gave him a hint about his mode of reading finding fault with 
him because he continually read with too much emphasis, an 
observation of which he availed himself in future. 

At Turin, he also met in the library two interesting persons, 
Professor Pieron, professor of the Oriental languages and 
librarian, and an English gentleman, who has ever since been 
Wolff s friend, and whom he will again have occasion to men 
tion when he gives an account of his arrival at Rome. This 
was a man of the highest accomplishments, well versed in 
Latin and Greek, and in Italian, German, and French litera 
ture ; and who is still alive, " a fine Old English Gentleman 
of the olden time." His name is David Baillie, Esq. And 
by-and-by, after all the ambassadors, and Professor Pieron, 
and David Baillie, and Abbate Tosi, had furnished Wolff with 
letters of recommendation to the foreign ambassadors and 
cardinals, and to that celebrated member of the Inquisition, 
Benedetto Olivieri, a Dominican friar in Rome, Wolff was re 
quested by David Baillie to accompany him to Genoa. 

In Genoa, he took leave of Baillie, and embarked for Civita 
Vecchia in a little felucca, being accompanied by a pious, good, 
excellent Spanish friar of the Dommician Order, whose name 
was Padre Quarienti, with whom he conversed about Don 
Quixote of La Maucha. But, as the wind was contrary, he 
remained at Porto Fino, ten Italian miles from Genoa, for 
three weeks. The wind then changed, and after three days 
more, he arrived at Leghorn. But when the wind again 
changed for the worse, and Wolff s money had decreased to 
half a louis d or, he was afraid that this would soon be spent, 
so he set out on foot from Leghorn for Pisa. This was in 
May, 1816, and the heat at that season was so overpowering 

of Dr. Wolff. 43 

that Wolff found it difficult to walk, and he was still 300 
English miles from Rome ; and having had no letters of credit 
for any of the towns on the road, he did not know what to do. 
So he knelt down and prayed. Scarcely had he prayed for a 
few minutes, when a vettura came up behind him, destined to 
go to Rome. Wolff arranged with the vetturino to take him 
as far as Pisa, for which he agreed to give him a quarter of a 
louis d or. But there were sitting in the carriage several passen 
gers, and one of them was struck with Joseph Wolff, and asked 
him where he intended to go ? Wolff said, " I intend to goto 
Rome, to enter the College of the Propaganda, and to become 
a missionary." The stranger said, "Why do you not agree 
with the vetturino to take you to Rome ? He w^ould do so for 
six louis d or. 1 Wolff said, u I have only a quarter of a louis 
d or left myself; but will you trust me, and pledge yourself to 
the vetturino that I will pay him ? If so, I will pay you in a 
day after my arrival in Rome. I give you my knapsack as 
security, until you have the money." The stranger replied, 
" I don t want your knapsack. I will advance you the money, 
for you have honesty written in your face." 

So Wolff continued his journey to Rome ; passing through 
Sienna, where he stopped to look at the room of Santa Cata- 
rina of Siena, who in her writings reproved the pomp of the 
Popes with much power and energy. And there he saw the 
paintings of Correggio. During his journey, he was joined by 
two Franciscan friars from Spain ; an old one, and a young 
one. The old one was an ignorant jackass ; but the young one 
was a man of the highest talent, who gave Wolff an insight 
into the cruelty of the Inquisition in Spain. 

At last, Wolff arrived at the frontier of the Papal States, 
Avhere he saw the cross planted, with the papal arms in the 
centre, superscribed with the word Pax, by which Wolff was 
most agreeably surprised. But on his proceeding further, he 
saw a gallows, and criminals hanging upon it, whereupon he 
could not help making the remark to one of his friends, " There 
does not seem to be perfect peace in the Papal States!" 
Perugia, thou art another proof that the millenial time has not 
yet arrived ! 

At Faenza, Wolff made the acquaintance of a most interest 
ing young man. This was Orioli, Professor of Chemistry in 
Bologna. He was versed in all the writings of the philoso 
phers of France, England, and Germany, and he said to Wolff, 
" Look out at Rome, Wolff; Con Dio e perdono, un prete non 
perdona mai With God there is pardon, a priest never par 
dons/ At Viterbo he saw the sepulchre of Santa Rosa, 

44 Travels and Adventures 

which performs many miracles. The nuns gave him a piece of 
her girdle, which he put into his pocket ; but he lost it half an 
hour after. 


Rome and its Society ; Pope and Ecclesiastics ; Collegio Romano 
and Propaganda ; their Discipline ; is Expelled from Rome. 

A T last Wolff arrived in Rome, when he found that he had 
* travelled in the vettura in company with Prince Salignac, 
and his interesting daughter, ten years of age. And the per 
son who had advanced him the money was an officer of the 
Piedmontese army, who had left it in order to go into the 
desert of Egypt, and live there as a hermit, and atone for his 
sins. There seemed great conviction of sin in this man. 

Wolff, on his arrival in Rome, met with his friends Johannes 
and Philip Veit, sons of Madame Schlegel, and step-sons to 
the great Friedrich Schlegel. Here Wolff must enlarge a little 
on the family of these two remarkable men, who were both 
painters, of high celebrity in their own country. Madame 
Schlegel (who was a daughter of Mendelssohn the philosopher) 
was married first to their father the Jewish banker Veit ; but 
Friedrich Schlegel became acquainted with her, and wrote in 
her praise a novel called " Lucinde ;" to which Madame Veit 
replied by another novel entitled " Florentine." After this, 
she was divorced by Veit ; but the two sons followed their 
mother, and were soon after baptized with her and Schlegel 
himself into the Roman Catholic Church, by Cardinal Severoli, 
the Pope s Nuncio at Vienna. Nevertheless, the noble old 
banker, Veit, never forsook his children, but made them the 
heirs of his fortune. Johannes Veit advanced the money to 
Joseph Wolff on his bills on Germany at once ; and he thus 
was able to repay the Piedmontese officer, who continued his 
journey into the desert of Egypt, to die there as a hermit. 
Wolff looked out for him afterwards, on his arrrival in that 
country, but could never find him. 

Painter Overbeck, and the two Veits, and the son of the 
philosopher Plattner, went the same day with Wolff to that 
extraordinary man, the Abbate Pietro Ostini, of whom we 
shall have a great deal to say ; and who took Wolff at once to 
Cardinal s Litta s, and announced to his Eminence that a 

of Dr. Wolf. 45 

young man of the Jewish nation had arrived, who wished to 
enter the Propaganda. Litta said, " This can be nobody else 
but Joseph Wolff. I must immediately recommend him to 
Pius VII." Wolff was then called into the room, where Litta 
received him with the greatest cordiality, and said to him, 
" This evening your arrival will be announced to his Holiness 
Pius VII." 

Here we must make a few remarks about Ostini. Pietro 
Ostini was Professor at the Collegio Romano, and taught 
ecclesiastical history there, even before the exile of Pius VII. 
to Fontainbleau, and he also continued to hold this office after 
the return of that amiable pontiff, and his cardinal. But 
during their banishment Ostini became a partisan of Napoleon, 
and favoured his government in Rome ; which fact (in a sub 
sequent conversation he held with Wolff) he did not attempt to 
deny, but simply said in reply to Wolffs reproaches, " I held 
myself neutral at that time." However, it had struck Ostini 
that events might change, and the Pope might return ; so to 
secure his approbation, he undertook the conversion of cele 
brated Protestants to the Romish Church, in which attempt he 
wonderfully succeeded. He converted the celebrated painters, 
Overbeck, Vogel, and Schadow, and the poets Tieck and 
Werner, Princess Gagarin, and many others. He was not a 
man of great learning, but of much taste and judgment. He 
knew very well that the ultramontane system would not do 
with Germans, and therefore he adopted the system of Bossuet ; 
and after he had converted a crowd of celebrated Germans, he 
introduced them in a body to the confessor of the Pope, Bishop 
Menocchio, who still remained in Rome, and was a performer 
of miracles, healing the sick with the sign of the cross ; and 
Ostini desired this great man to confirm his converts. When, 
however, the Pope returned from Fontainbleau to Rome, he 
showed himself (it is to be regretted) more severe than his 
friends had expected. Many of those who had espoused the 
cause of Napoleon were exiled to Corsica ; Cardinal Maury was 
seen by Wolff lying stretched in a black gown, at the foot of 
the altar, as a penance ; and his Holiness exclaimed, " Ostini 
must go to Corsica." But here Menocchio interfered and said, 
u Nay, your Holiness, this must not be for Ostini has been a 
mighty intrument in the hands of God, for bringing in many 
great heretics to the church." Pius VII. pardoned Ostini 
accordingly, and all Rome shouted, "Ostini ha cambiato!" 
(Ostini has changed !) and so he had ; for as Wolff observes, 
he never saw such a cringing fellow as he had become. When 
ever he saw a great man, whom he knew to be intimate with 

46 Travels and Adventures 

the Pope, lie instantly bowed to the ground, so that his nose 
almost touched the earth. 

However, to return to Wolff. He was introduced by the 
Prince of Saxe Gotha to Cardinals Consalvi, and Pacca, and 
by Monsignor Testa to His Holiness Pope Pius VII., who 
received him with the greatest condescension ; Wolff had seen 
him previously in the Church, of St. Maria Maggiore, and had 
been deeply impressed by the sanctity of his appearance, and 
now wished to kiss his feet, but he held out his hand, which 
Wolff kissed with great simplicity. Pius VII. talked with 
him about Stolberg, Schlegel, and Hoffbauer, and then desired 
him to read some part of the Hebrew Bible. This he did, and 
the Pope said to him, " You are my son," (Siete mio figlio !) 
implying his affectionate interest in him. " The Propaganda 
is not yet restored from its confusion during my exile,* but 
you shall go to my own seminary, and hear the lectures at the 
Collegio Romano, until order is re-established. I shall give 
directions for your reception." The Pope^s voice was as soft 
as a child s, his countenance remarkably mild, and his eyes 
had an habitually upward glance, though without pretension 
or affectation. Wolff gently and caressingly patted his Holi 
ness on the shoulder, saying, " I love your Holiness ! " (To 
amo la vostra santita.) " Give me your blessing ! " Then 
kneeling down he received the benediction of that holy man, of 
which he will always treasure the most pleasing recollection, 
in spite of those bigoted Protestants, who declare the Pope to 
be Antichrist ! 

And thus on the 5th of September, 1816, Wolff entered the 
seminary of the Collegio Romano ; a part of the establishment 
which is appropriated to the use of young Italians who are 
being educated as Priests of the Diocese of Rome. Wolff was 
told that his admission there was an unprecedented act of 
favour; and that the Pope had sent for the Rector, and 
specially recommended him. On his entrance he received the 
usual dress of the pupils, namely, a violet blue garment, and a 
triangular hat. It was the custom of the place, whenever a 
novice arrived, to put him under an elder pupil, who became 
his u Angelo custode," and made him acquainted with all the 
usages of the place. To the honour of the pupils and pro- 

* During the exile of Pope Pius VII. at Fontainbleau, the Collegio 
Urbano della Propaganda Fede was partially used as barracks by the 
French soldiers, and altogether thrown into confusion. On the return 
of the Pope in 1814, a restoration was commenced, but it was not fully 
completed until the year 1817. 

of Dr. Wolf. 47 

fessors of that college, be it said, that they treated Joseph 
Wolff with the greatest kindness and cordiality. They were 
young men of the highest intelligence and talent ; lively, fiery, 
witty, cordial Italians ; some of them of high birth : among 
others there was Count Ferretti, the present Pope Pius IX., 
a mild, pious, liberal-minded young man, who was well ac 
quainted with the writings of Savonarola, and warmly recom 
mended them to Wolff. And when Ferretti became Pope in 
1846, Wolff (then in England) remembered the advice of his 
old acquaintance, and purchased all Savonarola s works, which 
had been so favourite a study with the now celebrated man. 

Another of Wolff s co-disciples at the Collegio, was Conte 
Mamiani from Pesaro, nephew to the Cardinal Galeffi. Ma- 
miani, then only seventeen years of age, was a youth of extra 
ordinary talents, whose name is mentioned in " Cancellieri s 
Biographies of Talented Italians." He was a wonderful 
improvisatore, and of remarkably gentlemanly conduct and 

Nevertheless, there were strange instances of ignorance to be 
found among the pupils, of which Wolff once took advantage 
in his own favour. A fellow-student was badgering him, as 
was rather their custom at first, about the superiority of Italy 
over Germany, and urging the fact even upon religious 
grounds ; " Only consider the number of saints Italy has 
produced, 1 was his argument ; " whereas in Germany you 
have none ! " Wolff exclaimed, " Be quiet, or I will prove 
to you that you are a very ignorant fellow ! " " Well," 
answered the student, "if there are any German saints, name 
them, and tell us how many." "Will you count themT 
asked Wolff. " By all means,"" said the other. " Very 
good," said Wolff, "now begin." And then beginning to 
number them off on his own fingers, he said 


" Good ! " said the student. " Well, there is one, certainly." 

" Who was Schiller? " continued Wolff. 

" That is two, then," remarked the student. 

"Who was Jean Paul Richter?" 

The student nodded consent to the third. 

" And who was Kotzebue 2 " 

" Come ! I must grant you four. 1 

" Who was Baron Trenk 2 " 

" There, there ! five ! " 

But Wolff s list was not exhausted. He went on with 
Wieland, Herder, &c., in quick succession, till he came to his 
thirtieth and last saint, Schinderhannes, the celebrated robber, 
and there he stopped. 

48 Travels and Adventures 

" But, after all," remarked the student, " what are thirty 
saints for such a country? The number is pitiful! " "There 
now ! " exclaimed Wolff, " I told you that if you would not 
be quiet I would prove that you were a very ignorant fellow, 
and that is just what I have done ! " And then he explained 
to him the joke. 

When the lectures at the Collegio Romano commenced, 
Piatti, professor of dogmatics, opened the course, and gave the 
first on the subject of predestination. 

Wolff sat near him, at his right hand, when Piatti dictated 
the following words : 

" My dear hearers : This is a most perplexing subject, I 
therefore must give you a precautionary warning. The ques 
tion of predestination is a very difficult one, therefore you 
must neither take the Scripture, nor the Fathers as your 
guide, but the infallible decision of the Roman Pontiffs. For 
Pius V. has declared, in one of his Bulls, that if any one 
should say that the opinion of St. Augustine on predestination 
has the same authority as the decision of the Popes, he shall 
be Anathema" Wolff at once took fire, and said, before them 
all, "Do you believe the infallibility of the Pope?" The 
professor said, " Yes." Wolff said, " I do not." 

He was at once surrounded by the whole college ; Bonelli 
was especially indignant, and exclaimed, " Bad and impious 
people seldom do believe the- infallibility of the Pope ; but 
if you want to stay at Rome, drive away these iniquitous 
thoughts ! c Scacciate questi pensieri cattim ! 

Wolff became furious, but has since confessed that he did 
not show the real spirit of Christianity in the opposition which 
he offered. Nay, he owns that it argued a great deal of vanity 
in him as a young man, to attempt to be a Reformer. For, 
what would they have said in Cambridge, if Wolff, during a 
lecture delivered by the Regius Professor, had got up and 
protested against the sentiments of the Professor ? Would he 
not have been stopped by the Professor and the whole audience 
at once ? He ran to Cardinal Litta, and told him the dispute 
he had had, and that he did not believe the infallibility of the 

Litta s conduct was most delightful. He showed the meek 
ness of an angel, merely saying, 

" My son, do not dispute, I beseech you, with those hot 
headed young men. For, if you dispute, I cannot protect 
you. And you will be persuaded of the Pope s infallibility 
when you hear the reasons." 

Soon after, Wolff took umbrage on another point. His 

of Dr. Wolff. 49 

curiosity was excited in the highest degree, to hear how the 
College of Rome would, in the* Course of Lectures upon 
Church History, treat the " History of the Reformation," by 
Luther, and his excitement rose to such a pitch, that he was 
almost frantic with impatience. Ostini was, as has been said, 
the Professor of Ecclesiastical History ; and in spite of not 
being deeply learned, he was a man of astonishing mind and 
acuteness, and had a powerful gift of reasoning. His lectures, 
therefore, were very interesting, his account of the Crusades 
most beautiful, and his defence of celibacy ingenious. Wolff 
remarked too, that in lecturing on the history of Henry 
IV. and Gregory VII., he showed both prudence and candour; 
for as long as he was able to defend the latter against the 
Emperor, he did it ; but when he came to facts mentioned of 
the Pope which he could not defend, he merely read the 
history, and left the pupils to form their own judgment. At 
last, however, he arrived in his lectures, at the thirteenth and 
fourteenth centuries. 

" Now," thought Wolff, rejoicingly, " now we shall come 
soon to the history of Luther ! " But he was disappointed ; 
the moment Ostini came to the period when Luther had to 
make his appearance, he closed the whole course of Eccle 
siastical history, and began again with the first century. 

Wolff asked him, openly in the college, " Why do you not 
go on ! " He coolly replied, " It is not the custom at Rome." 

But Wolff was not only dissatified with Ostini s lectures, but 
with the conversations he heard between him and the other pro 
fessors. There was nothing of religion, or of the improvement 
of the soul in what they said ; but they talked about the flat 
tering letters His Holiness received from such and such 
a potentate. One could easily look into the inmost soul of 
Ostini, when one heard him say, " I shall have a hand in that 
business Cardinal Consalvi patted my shoulders. I have 
been even noticed by Count Blacas," &c. 

The French interest was at this time in the ascendant at 
Rome, whilst Austria was hated and detested : so much so, 
that one day the whole college exclaimed to Wolff, " Wolffio, 
rimperadore & Austria e crepato " Wolff, the Emperor of 
Austria, has died like a beast! Wolff replied, " I am not 
come here to learn about Austria and France. I am come 
here to understand the best mode of proclaiming the Gospel of 

There was a great fuss made by the Tractarians, when Dr. 
Hampden was appointed Bishop of Hereford. They said such 
a thing had never been heard of, as that a man, who inclined 


50 Travels and Adventures 

to German neology (which Wolff never could find out Dr. 
Hampden did), should be made a bishop. Some even went so 
far as to say, "It is enough to make one go over to 
Romanism. " " The whole Church should protest against the 
appointment." And actually thousands of clergymen put 
down their signatures to the protest ; but when Wolff was 
asked for his, he declined giving it. Again, when they pro 
tested against Gorham s appointment, they said, " This is 
enough to make a man become a Romanist." And Wolff was 
again asked for his signature, but again declined giving it. 
Upon which one of the clergymen went so far as to call him a 
"turncoat;" but for this he did not care a farthing. Now, 
however, it is well they should know why he acted thus. It 
was because both Hampden and Gorham were people of un 
spotted morality, and Wolff has always been the advocate of 
liberty of opinion. 

But there was Baron von Haffelin, Titular Archbishop of 
Elvira, and Bavarian Ambassador at Rome, against whom both 
Ostini and the Pope himself warned Wolff, telling him that he 
should have nothing to do with him ; because he was convicted as 
one of the illuminati ; a disciple of Weisshaupt, the atheist ; 
a jacobin in his politics, and with a number of natural children 
around him. And yet that very man was made cardinal, six 
weeks after Wolff was warned against him, and without his 
having given the slightest symptom of change of sentiment ; 
and there was only one cardinal who protested against his ap^ 
pointment, and he did so in vain. How foolish, then, of the 
Tractarians to say, that the appointments of Hampden arid 
Gorham were enough to make them Romanists ! Let the 
cases be compared ! When Wolff asked Ostini why Haffelin 
was appointed a Cardinal \ the answer he gave was, " Because 
he made a beautiful Concordat between the King of Bavaria 
and the Pope ! " 

Wolff foresees in spirit that Newman and Dodsworth will 
by this time have felt the force of Wolff s observation, and 
that they will yet seek more than ever before, a real unity, 
that real unity that will be when Christ shall come a second 
time in majesty and glory. And they will see that in the 
Church of Rome, as well as in the Church of England, the 
prophecy of Ezekiel is fulfilled : " Overturn, overturn, over 
turn, until he come whose right it is, and I will give it him." 
(xxi. 27.) 

Another circumstance is to be mentioned, by which Wolff 
was offended, and gave offence. 

Cardinal Delia Somaglia came to the Collegio Romano, in 

of Dr. Wolff. 51 

the room of the rector. He was an extraordinary man ; 
powerful in scholastic learning, gentlemanly in his appearance, 
a man who had been exiled with Pius VII. to Fontainbleau, 
and had withstood every encroachment of Napoleon. This 
man, when eighty-five years of age, was made Secretary of 
State for Foreign AfFairs, and he was dean of the College of 

When Wolft* came to him in the rector s room, His Emi 
nence treated him with great condescension, and asked him 
his views respecting the Church of Rome, of which Wolff still 
spoke with the highest enthusiasm. He asked him, among 
other things, what branch of study he most liked? Wolff 
answered, " The study of the Bible in the original tongue." 
Cardinal Delia Somaglia replied, " You must not rely upon 
that ; and you must never forget that the Church is the inter 
preter of scripture. I will give you an instance. There is a 
word, 7 His Eminence continued, "in one of the Prophets (he 
knew not which), which is translated, A virgin shall conceive 
and bear a son. 1 There was a long dispute about it, whether 
it means Virgin/ or not ; and people could not agree, until 
the Pope was asked ; and the Pope decided that it meant 
Virgin, 1 and then the dispute was at an end. So, you see, 
the Hebrew language is an ornament for a priest, but no 
necessity ; for the Pope at last must decide everything." 

Wolff replied with a most unpardonable sneer, " How can 
the Pope decide, if he does not know Hebrew ! " 

Upon which Delia Somaglia rose, and said, " Wolff, I am 
afraid for you, that you will become a heresiarch ! " And 
Ostini repeated the very words to Wolff afterwards, " His 
Eminence, Cardinal Delia Somaglia, is afraid that you will 
become a heresiarch ! " 

Although Wolff at this moment believes that his reasoning 
was correct, yet he was so much struck by the meekness of Car 
dinal Delia Somaglia, that on returning to his own room he 
said to himself, " Cardinal Delia Somaglia has, after all, 
shown a more Christian spirit than I have done," and he burst 
into tears. 

Wolff does not justify his frequent rudeness to his su 
periors ; but one good result certainly followed from his habit 
of questioning the infallible authority of his teachers. His 
desire for studying the Holy Scriptures grew stronger and 
stronger, and he would sometimes remain alone in his room to 
read them when the other pupils went to take exercise in 
walking, or to assist in the churches ; and he sometimes even 
took his bible into the lecture-room, to the neglect of the 


52 Travels and Adventures 

lectures on scholastic divinity. He had at first no Oriental 
books, nor means to provide himself with a master at the 
Seminary ; but when Mr. Baillie, with whom he had travelled 
from Turin to Genoa, called upon him and found how he was 
circumstanced, he bought him books, and gave him two 
guineas monthly, which enabled him to take an Oriental 
teacher, and to pursue his studies. This provoked a good 
deal of animadversion from the other pupils. They said, " Of 
what use will the Holy Scriptures and the eastern languages 
be to you, if you do not know scholastic divinity, which alone 
can enable you to refute the sophisms of heretics ?" 

Wolif wept when so urged, but did not give up the point. 
At last, Cardinal Litta commanded him to study the scho 
lastic divinity, which his other pursuits so much interfered 
with, and he did so for a short time. But he used to get 
weary very soon while so engaged, and would often get up and 
walk about his room, reciting passages from the Scriptures, in 
the deepest melancholy : especially the following verse, in 
Hebrew, " Drop down, ye heavens, from above, and let the 
skies pour down righteousness ; let the earth open, and let 
them bring forth salvation, and let righteousness spring up 
together ; T, the Lord have created it." 

Nevertheless, Wolff was not altogether the only one in the 
College who ventured upon freedom of thought. Mamiani once 
said to him, "Wolff, I never can be reconciled to the union of the 
sword with the cross : there must be a change, i. e. a severance 
of the spiritual and temporal powers." Mamiani became 
Prime Minister to Pope Pius IX., in the year 1848, when he 
contributed to produce, in some degree, the change he then 
spoke about. He is now Minister of Public Instruction to 
the King of Sardinia. His improvisatorial powers have been 
already mentioned ; and they were often a source of wonder 
and delight to his fellow-students, when, during their va 
cations, they made excursions to Tivoli the ancient Tibur 
near Maecenas 1 Villa, where the Collegio had a very fine country 
house. There Wolff read Horace in the Poet s own villa, and 
enjoyed himself very much; for the collegians continued very 
kind to him, let him say what he would, and plenty of amuse 
ments were provided. The Cardinal sent ventriloquists and 
others for their diversion, and they visited several monasteries 
in the neigabourhood, as well as all the ancient ruins, as of 
the Sybil s temple, &c. And on these occasions they had 
pic-nics, where they drank aurora, a delicious beverage, com 
posed of coffee, chocolate, milk, and sugar, mixed together; 
eating with it exquisite pasticci, And then it was that 

of Dr. Wolff. 53 

Mamiani would enchant them with his improvisatorial genius. 
Some one gave him a theme, and he at once broke forth into 
a most spirited tragedy, with different persons and voices. 
Only Italians are capable of thus improvising. 

One day, during their stay at Tivoli, Wolff went with his 
fellow collegians to a Franciscan monastery, where they were 
celebrating the festival of St. Franciscus Assissi. All Bomish 
monks are accustomed to preach sermons on the day of their 
patron Saints, which they call " Panegyrica ; " and Wolff on 
this occasion heard the Panegyricum of St. Francis of Assissi, 
preached by a friar of the Order. He enlarged on his suffer 
ings and miracles, and told them that the church of St. Peter 
was one day on the point of tumbling down, when St. Francis 
upheld it with his shoulder. He also said that he had on his 
body the five wounds of Christ ; and then he went on to say, 
" Francis of Assissi has taken upon himself the sins of the 
whole world." Wolff, on coming out of the church, said to 
his fellow collegians, " That Franciscan friar is a jackass." 
To which they all agreed. They then returned to their 
country house, where the day finished with a treat of beautiful 
music ; and, after a residence altogether of two months at 
Tivoli, they returned to Home to the college. 

Wolff is anxious here to have his opinion of the Roman 
Colleges thoroughly understood. Differing, as he constantly 
did, from both teachers and pupils in their scholastical opinions, 
not in the dogmas of the Church, (as the foregoing anecdotes 
have shown,) he must yet uphold to admiration the moral and 
religious training he witnessed in those establishments. Neither 
in the Collegio Romano, nor the Propaganda, did he ever hear 
an indecent observation, either from priests, prefects or pupils ; 
nor see one single act of immorality. A strict surveillance was 
the system of the Collegio Romano. 

The Prefect, who is a priest ordained merely upon having a 
slight acquaintance with theology, the performances of the 
mass, and how to read the breviary and pray the rosary, 
receives ten scudi (X J 2) a month, in addition to his victuals, 
for taking care of the pupils. Besides calling them every 
morning to the rosary prayer and the litany, and closing the 
doors of their rooms every evening, he has to keep watch 
during the day that they are duly employed over their studies 
in their several apartments. In one of the panels of the 
doors of these rooms there was always a small hole filled with 
glass, and covered outside with a moveable shutter. Through 
this hole the prefect could, at will, peep from time to time, and 
ascertain how the students were employing themselves, No 

54 Travels and Adventures 

student was allowed during the hours of study to visit the room 
of another ; and by these precautions the most watchful super 
intendence was maintained. The young men, however, aware 
how small an amount of learning was necessary for the fulfil 
ment of a prefect s duties, always called him " UAsino" 
the donkey amongst themselves ; and Wolff suggests that it 
was perhaps in the Collegio Romano, therefore, that he first 
acquired the habit of calling people " jackasses." 

On one occasion, in the afternoon, the heat of his room 
having become insufferable, Wolff undressed completely, and 
was seated in his chair reading and singing, when L Asino, 
lifting up the shutter, espied the unusual sight. He laughed, 
and shouted out, " Che fate ? " " What are you doing ? " Wolff 
answered, " It is too hot." The prefect went away laughing to 
the Eector, and told him that Wolff was sitting in his room 
naked and singing. The Eector replied, " What is to be done ? 
He is a German ! " 

The Prefect called the pupils every day for the rosary prayer, 
and closed the doors of their rooms in the evening. On his 
opening the door and awakening them in the morning, one of 
them had to recite the Litany of the Virgin Mary, and the 
rest to cry ora pro nobis. After this they went into the private 
chapel, and read a meditation taken from the book of the 
Jesuit Segneri, which contains many good and beautiful things. 
But the description of Hell and Paradise there given, is the 
same Wolff once read in a Rabbinical book, and in a Surah 
of the Koran. During recreation, after the first studies of the 
day were over, the pupils (invariably accompanied by the 
Prefect), walked out, and visited several churches, performing 
a silent prayer, for a few minutes, in each of them. After 
which, they went to the Porta Pia, or the Quirinal, where 
there is always a gathering, both of the inhabitants of Rome 
and visitors. There they might meet, any day, cardinals, 
prelates, princes, noblemen, their own friends, and strangers 
from foreign lands Germans, Spaniards, English, French 
even travellers from Chaldsea, Abyssinia, Jerusalem, &c. And 
thence they returned to the college, where, after a prayer, each 
pupil retired to his own room for further study. In the evening 
again, they assembled in the corridor of the building, where 
their friends in the town visited them, and they conversed 
freely on any matter they pleased. Then followed supper, 
and then, before they retired to rest, they went again to the 
chapel, where a portion of the Gospel, and meditations from 
Segneri or Rodriguez, were read aloud. Such was the daily 
routine at the Collegio Romano, varied, as has beeu seen, 

of Dr. Wolff. 55 

during vacations by expeditions into the country, and even 
temporary absences. 

And in the Propaganda, to which Wolff went afterwards, 
the regulations were very similar, only with this addition, that 
in the time of recreation, letters from all parts of the world were 
read, giving accounts, both of the progress of missionaries, and 
of their complaints that there should be so few labourers in the 
vineyard. In one of these from one Du Burgh, then in the 
United States of North America, the following outpouring 
occurred : 

" Alas, alas ! whole districts here have embraced the Pro 
testant religion, because there were no labourers of the Church 
of Rome. Prince Gallizin (son of Princess Gallizin of Minister), 
has to do all the work alone, as missionary ; going about with 
the rosary and cross in one hand, and the breviary in the 
other, to convert the whole of America to the true faith." 

An American gentleman, Barber by name, originally be 
longing to the Protestant Episcopal Church there, but who 
had become a Roman Catholic, and was visiting the Propa 
ganda, heard Du Burgh s letter read, and made the observation 
that almost all the Protestants in the United States were 
very well-intentioned, although as he now thought mistaken. 
To which Professor (afterwards Cardinal) Ostini remarked, 
" Wolff is right in maintaining that we ought not to say all 
Protestants are lost ; for Multse ovis foris, multi lupi intus 
There are many sheep without and man?/ ^colves within, the 

Every true Christian must see the value of this remark, and 
acknowledge the liberality which dictated it ; and if the Mission 
ary Societies of England would look at the Roman Colleges, with 
the same candid spirit, they would see many things there, which 
they might take as a model with great advantage to them 
selves, instead of finding sweeping and indiscriminate fault 
because differences of religious opinion exist. The cardinal 
prefect, and the rest of the cardinals, who are members of the 
Propaganda, are not mere patrons, giving their names and 
subscriptions, but never going near the place, nor troubling 
their heads about it, as is the case with patrons of English 
Societies ; who leave everything in the hands of a few indi 
viduals, of whom even the nominal committee knows little or 
nothing ; and who are often retired tradesmen, or unemployed 
naval officers, without either knowledge or interest in the 

In the Propaganda the patrons are workmen, and do their 
own work, or see for themselves that it is done. They visit 

56 Travels and Adventures 

the college, will attend sick pupils, cover them up in their beds, 
send them suitable presents, as of cakes, with twenty or thirty 
candles burning on them ; or, in cases where amusement is 
necessary, will order actors, ventriloquists, and jugglers to be 
fetched for their entertainment : and the Pope himself does not 
disdain to visit among them. Surely this is a contrast to 
English customs, and not very much in their favour ! 

If Pius IX. would begin to unite with the wonderful disci 
pline of the Church of Rome, the highly spiritual principles of 
the Jansenists, and combine them with the scientific powers of 
the Jesuits, that Church would become the model of all 
Churches, and a perfect union might then take place. Spirits 
of Pascal and Quesnel, unite your prayers with mine that this 
may take place ! 

Again, on the return of Propaganda missionaries from places 
where they have been stationed, they are consulted by the 
assembly of cardinals, as to what has been done, and what 
remains to be done, in that particular locality ; instead of being, 
as in England, sent to a poky lodging-house, in High Holborn, 
and submitted, from time to time, to the humiliation of being 
lectured by some long-nosed, snuff-taking lady, of the so-called 
Evangelical party, whose only care is to bid them beware of 
Puseyism, over-formalism, &c., &c., &c., whatever happens to 
be the religious bugbear of the day. In short, at Rome, the 
value of a man s work is both ascertained and acknowledged ; 
and a missionary coining from a distant country is frequently 
consulted privately by a cardinal, as well as publicly by the 
general assembly of cardinals and monsignori the subject of 
these discussions being the necessities and results of the 
mission. And, when he is sent forth again, he is not hampered 
by instructions from a petty committee, or even a cardinal, but 
he goes out as Missionarius, cum omnibus facitltatibus apos- 

All the German artists and learned men amongst others 
Bunsen, and the philologist Becker, the editor of Plato 
called on Wolff, during their stay in Rome ; and Niebuhr also, 
who arrived there during somewhere about that time. And 
Wolff delivered in the college a lecture to the Germans gene 
rally, on Isaiah and Jeremiah, and the historical books of the 
Old Testament ; ^ and visited, in company with his fellow- 
pupils, the seven churches of Rome, and said an Ave Maria in 
each church. 

Wolff has always thought it delightful to see Rome still the 
rendezvous of the most learned men in the world. So it has 
always been, and so it is now. Moreover, he is convinced of 

of Dr. Wolf. 57 

the liberality shown there to strangers, travellers, and savan 
of every sort. He cannot believe that Winkelmann had any 
reason for committing the hypocrisy of becoming a Roman 
Catholic in order to make researches in the Vatican Library. 
Wolff himself has heard, in the Cafe Greco, unbelievers dis 
cussing the merits of revelation with believers, perfectly un 
molested. From the Protestant German painter Vogel too, 
he one day heard a story which showed what freedom of speech 
was generally allowed ; and the account of which will prove 
what liberty of association the students of the Collegio Romano 

The Saxon Minister, Abbate Adorni, had much wished to 
convert Vogel to the Roman Catholic faith ; and he, in self- 
defence, one day asked, " Pray tell me, Abbate Adorni, if the 
Roman Catholic religion is so much better than the Protestant, 
how is it that the Protestants are more moral than the Roman 

To which inquiry the Abbate made answer, 

" I admit what you say ; but I will tell you the reason in a 
moment. The devil has the Protestants in his hands, as it 
were, leading them about like dogs in a string ; and thus being 
sure of them at last, he does not trouble himself with tempting 
them now, knowing that let them be as moral as they please, 
it will do them no good. Whereas, if he does not attack the 
Roman Catholics with all his might, they are certain to slip 
through his fingers and go to heaven ! " 

To hear this story from Vogel was natural enough, but great 
was Wolff s astonishment next day, when Ostini himself 
alluded to it, saying, " Imagine, Wolff, the mischief done by 
such arguments as those of Abbate Adorni with Vogel?" 

It is a curious circumstance, that years afterwards, Vogel 
himself joined the Romish Communion. 

Wolff once proposed the foundation of a new religious 
Order at Rome, to be composed of painters, sculptors, and 
artists of all kinds ; and got the letter suggesting this de 
livered to the Pope by the Prince of Saxe Gotha. The Pope 
replied to him through Mons. Testa, that he prayed God to 
bless his zeal, and hoped great things would one day be done 
by him ; and he sent messages to the Superiors of both the 
Collegio Romano and the Propaganda, recommending "his 
dear son " Joseph Wolff to their attention. 

And the kindly feeling was warmly reciprocated. Wolff 
saw many fine sights while he was in Rome, for instance, the 
Canonization of Alfonso Maria Liguori, the founder of the 
Redemptorist Order, and other imposing spectacles ; but no- 

58 Travels and Adventures 

thing that ever impressed him so much as when that holy, 
good, trembling old man, Pius VII., with a crown upon his 
head, entered the church of St. Peter, and kneeling down at 
the sepulchre of the Apostle Peter, offered up a silent prayer, 
amidst the dead silence of the whole crowd in the church. 
Then Wolff burst into tears. 

Soon after Wolff had returned from Tivoli to the college, he 
received a visit from His Royal Highness, the Crown Prince, 
afterwards King of Bavaria, accompanied by his celebrated 
physician Ringseis, a religious Roman Catholic, who had added 
to his Catholicism the mysticism of Jacob Bohme, the shoe 
maker, the great theosophist of Germany, soon after the Refor 

But in spite of the respect which was shown him, he was 
often very unhappy, for his continual disputes destroyed all 
devotional feeling and Christian meekness ; and yet he could 
not resist engaging in them, although his best friends counselled 
him otherwise. The painter Overbeck said one day, with 
much justice, " We should bear the prejudices of other men 
with gentleness and humility, because we are all more or less 

But Wolff could not see this properly then. On the con 
trary, he argued with Overbeck ; " The Protestants of Ger 
many believe me to bo a hypocrite in entering the Roman 
Catholic Church ; and I should be such if I were to consent 
to their abuses." Overbeck s answer to which was, " You are 
not yet able to check such things as these : you must wait as 
Christ did, till you are thirty years of age. Nay you will 
surely fall into the same error, and embrace the doctrines you 
now abhor, if you will not hear the voice of your friends." 
Nevertheless, Overbeck spoke for the time in vain, as will bo 

One day, indeed, matters became quite boisterous at table in 
the Collegio Romano. One of the pupils said, " Wolff, how 
could you pat the Pope s shoulders 2 Are you not aware that 
the Pope is God f Wolff became as red as a turkey cock, 
and said, " How can you dare to say such a thing I the Pope 
is dust of the earth, polvere della terra. If he was God, I 
could not have touched him." All the collegians, and the pro 
fessors, and rectors, and vice-rectors, rose from their seats, and 
exclaimed, " Wolff, what are you saying ?" Wolff said, " This 
fellow called the Pope God ; and I say he is dust of the earth ; 
who is right 2" One answered, " Is it not said, ye are gods f 
Wolff said, " Yes, which may be broken to pieces." Another 
said, " He is God on earth, for he has all power in heaven and 

of Dr. Wolff. 59 

on earth, and in purgatory." And, again, another said, " One 
may call him God, in a large sense." "Wolff replied, " I shall 
not call the Pope God either in a large or a small sense : he is 
dust of the earth." Another said, " He may be called God in 
a most pious sense." And to Wolff s utter surprise, every 
one of the most learned men belonging to the Court of Rome 
defended and supported the expression. 

But here one frank confession must be made. It may well 
be asked, Why did Wolff always attack the abuses and irrele 
vant points of the Church of Borne, when he was only a pupil 
in the place for a particular object I Protestants, as well as 
Boman Catholics, advised him not to do so. Niebuhr, Stol- 
berg, and Cardinal Litta, as well as many others, all agreed on 
the point. They said, " You, Wolff, are only a pupil ; you 
are neither bishop nor priest ; be quiet till you have heard 
more, and have a position." 

Wolff answers frankly, that although he hopes that love for 
Divine truth has been one of his ruling motives from his youth 
upwards, yet his great enemies all through life have been 
vanity and ambition ; cherished and encouraged alike by inju 
dicious friends and covert foes. He owns that during his life 
at Koine, his vanity made him believe that he knew everything 
better than those by whom he was surrounded ; and as people 
told him that he was like Luther in outward appearance, he 
resolved, if possible, to be a Luther also in his stormy and wild 
career ; while, at the same time, his insatiable ambition made 
him wish and aim at becoming Pope, as he once openly avowed 
in the College. And, being then an admirer of Gregory VII., 
he said he wished to be like him in daring and firmness, but 
to do exactly the contrary to what he did, and to signalize 
himself by abolishing celibacy, and the worship of the Saints. 
He even told his fellow-pupils of the name he intended to 
assume when Pope, namely, Hildebrandus I. ! 

At last, in December, 1817, the Propaganda was rebuilt, and 
Wolff was about to be transferred into that College. He was 
therefore very much engaged in packing up and preparing to 
move, and in changing his academical dress. So he entered 
the lecture room rather late, and made an apology, saying, 
" Pardon me, I am very late, because I am going to make a 
metamorphosis." Abbate Menocchio, Wolff s greatest friend, 
good naturedly replied, loud enough for all to hear, " Take 
care, if you go on disputing as you do now, you will be making 
a third metamorphosis ;" at which every one burst into a fit of 
laughter. But there is a beautiful custom at Koine, that before 
one enters upon a new situation, or place, one goes to a retreat. 

60 Travels and Adventures 

Wolff went, therefore, with all the collegians of the Propa 
ganda, to a monastery built upon Monte Cittorio, of the order 
of St. Vincent de Paula, inhabited by holy men, but suspected 
to be Jansenists ; and he found among those monks deep and 
silent devotion, not the spirit of controversy. They always 
rose early in the morning, and went to the chapel, which was 
only half lighted ; and every day, on some different subject, a 
silent meditation was carried on. Not Segneri, but Thomas a 
Kempis was read ; and, during dinner, the life of Filippo 
Neri. To Wolff s utter astonishment, in the life of Filippo 
Neri, the cause of Savonarola was declared to have been just, 
and that he was put to death most unjustly by Alexander VI. 
Wolff, now about twenty-one years old, lived fourteen happy 
days in that retreat, leaving it with great regret ; and a few 
days before Epiphany, was at last introduced into the Propa 
ganda, built upon the Piazza d Espagna. On the day of 
Epiphany, the pupils gave an "academia" in forty-two lan 
guages. This was an exhibition at which the pupils publicly 
recited speeches. It was in the evening. All the ambassadors 
were present, and all the cardinals, and the German artists, 
and French priests. Wolff spoke in five languages, and 
chanted so that the hall rang ; and all the auditors were in 
raptures, and applauded him ; and the Italian collegians of 
the different colleges present kept saying, " Look at him, look 
at him, what tremendous eyes he makes !" " Guardateli, 
guardateli, gli occhi die fa /" After the whole was over, the 
servants of the cardinals, together with their masters, slapped 
his back and said, " Per Bacco, per Bacco ! die wee ! die wee ! 
die occhi ! die occhi /" 

An Armenian Bishop said, " His voice goes up above the 

At last, the lectures commenced, and were attended by young 
Irishmen, by Armenians, Bulgarians, Maronites, Chaldeans, 
Abyssinians, Negroes, and people from Algiers and Tunis. 
The Chinese pupils had their college at Naples, because they 
were not able to bear the climate of Eome. The pupils in the 
Propaganda were dressed in a long black gown, with a red 
girdle around it ; there were five red buttons at the collar, in 
dicating the five wounds of Christ the red colour being the 
symbol of the danger of losing his life, to which a Missionary 
is exposed ; and they wore three-cornered cocked hats : and 
thus Wolff was dressed. The rector of the Propaganda was 
at the same time teacher of dogmatica, and Finucci was the 
professor of Biblical literature and casuistry. The rector was 
ftaimondo Serdomenici, a dreadful dogmatist, of which fact 

of Dr. Wolff. 61 

one cannot give a better idea than by allowing him to speak for 
himself. He once asked Wolff, "Is it dogma that Jesus 
Christ died for all?" Wolff said, " Yes ; for Scripture says, 
he gave himself a ransom for all. 1 Serdominici said, " No 
such thing ; that is not a dogma of the Church ; it is only a 
dogma that he did not die for the elect only, against Calvin. " 
Wolff said, " Why should it not be dogma, for Scripture de 
clares it?" Serdomenici said, " The Church has not so decided " 
then he continued, " it is not yet dogma, that the Virgin 
Mary was born without sin ; but the time may come when the 
Church will so decide, with the annexation of anathema to any 
person who does not believe it." A prophecy fulfilled in 1858. 

At another time, the question was proposed, whether 
Jansenius was a heretic ? The rector said, " One cannot ex 
actly say that, for he says at the end of his work, that he 
submits everything he wrote to the decree of the Church. But 
if the Church had burnt him, she would have done well." 
Whereupon Wolff exclaimed, " The Church has no right to 
burn." The rector said, " How do you prove that ?" Wolff 
said, " It is clear it is not allowed to murder. Thou shalt 
not kill ! The rector said, "May a shepherd kill a wolf, 
when he enters the flock?" Wolff replied, "A man is not a 
beast." The rector replied, " Seventeen Popes have done it." 
Joseph Wolff replied, "Seventeen Popes have done wrong." 

During that whole conversation, two gentlemen were stand 
ing at the door of the room, and heard the conversation ; one 
of whom was Henry Drummond, the late Member for Surrey, 
Wolff s steady friend to the last moment of his (Drummond s) 
life ; as he publicly declared, at Freemason s Tavern, in 1827, 
he was resolved to be. His words were : "I will remain 
Wolff s friend to my dying hour, though all England should 
trample upon him !" and he nobly carried them out. His 
expression of countenance was such, that to look at was to love 
him, even when he made the most sarcastic remarks. The 
other was Hallyburton, afterwards Lord Douglas, of Edin 
burgh. Both delivered letters to Wolff from Pestalozzi, Fel- 
lenberg, and Zschockke, from Switzerland. The first words of 
Drummond were, " Wolff, go with me to England !" Wolff 
replied, " No ; I shall not stir until I am turned out." The 
next day, David Baillie came to Rome, and brought letters on 
Wolff s behalf from the Duchess Litta, Cardinal Litta s sister, 
from Milan. 

Wolff, at that time, had one visitor after another. Amongst 
them, his friends Niebuhr, Bunsen, and Brandis, called upon 
him ; and Niebuhr told him, " Wolff, you are in danger. In 

62 Travels and Adventures 

case you see the blow coming, fly to the Prussian palace." 
Just at this time also, a certain Baron Von Akerblad called on 
him, and entered into conversation with him on prophecy. 
Akerblad was an unbeliever ; he took up the Bible and said, 
" Now, Wolff, what do you make of this prophecy : c He shall 
establish his kingdom upon the throne of his father David T " 
Wolff answered, " This must be understood spiritually." 
Akerblad replied, " I have not been made an infidel by Vol 
taire, but I have been made an infidel by you divines. You 
go to the Jew, and try to throw down his throat those few 
prophecies which you deem to have been fulfilled literally ; and 
as soon as the Jew turns round, and shows to you prophecies 
which stare you in the face, you turn round and demand of 
him that he should understand them spiritually" Akerblad 
was right ; for, for one convert, the divines of the present 
day make to Christianity, they make ten infidels, with their 
phantomizing systems of prophecy : as Wolff has since learnt 
to believe. 

Wolff s stay at the Propaganda had now become very 
critical ; yet, amidst all these controversies, the pupils and 
professors behaved very amiably towards him, as their con 
stant joking with him showed. Observing that he was very 
fond of tarts, they all one day sent their tarts on a plate to 
him, which he carried up stairs to his room. He then invited 
for the next day, all his friends, the German artists, Protest 
ants, and Roman Catholics, to his room, and gave them a 
dinner; whilst the pupils and professors standing outside, 
shouted, in a laughing and not angry way, " Here, look ! 
Wolff has assembled all the heretics of the place in his room, 
and is giving them a dinner," the dinner consisting chiefly 
of the tarts which had been given up in his favour by them 

Thus Wolff spent his days, notwithstanding all controver 
sial quarrels, most agreeably in the Propaganda ; and had 
frequently occasion to admire, amidst the intolerance and 
bigotry of some priests of the lower order, the highly liberal- 
minded principles of Pope Pius VII. And even the bigotry 
he witnessed forced his respect at times, as being the develop 
ment of undoubted piety. Wolff recalls now a young man, 
who often provoked him by entreating him not to eat more 
than eight ounces of food upon a fast day, because the theo 
logians had ruled that that was the proper quantity; but 
whose countenance as he spoke was nothing short of hea 
venly in expression. With this youth, Pedrucci by name, 
from Perugia, Wolff had a dispute one day about the nature of 

of Dr. Wolff. 63 

hell fire ; Wolff naintaining that it could not be a material fire, 
which so offended Pedrucci s stern faith, that he called -him 
" beast." Wolff then became incensed, and appealed to autho 
rities, and Menocchio looked up the matter in the theological 
dictionary, and found that most of them, and among them St. 
Johannes Damascenus, contended for a metaphorical interpre 
tation. Whereupon, poor Pedrucci wept for his undue zeal, 
and begged WolfFs pardon like a child. 

A circumstance happened which hastened Joseph Wolff s 
removal. All the pupils became discontented with the new 
rules given to them, and rose in open rebellion against the 
rector. Wolff sided with the pupils, and declared the rules 
monkish. One evening a letter arrived from Henry Drum- 
mond, saying, " Wolff, ^come out of Babylon." But although 
the letter reached Wolff, it was first read by the College, and 
thus Drummond s words became known to the authorities. 
Now, a custom prevails in the College, that every night after 
prayer, the door of every pupil s room is shut. But Wolff" 
observed, through a little window which was in the door 
of the room, that after his was locked, the rooms of the 
rest were left open ; and that one after the other the students 
were called to the Rector s room ; and the next morning 
Wolff heard from his fellow pupil, Rese, who is now Bishop of 
Michigan in America, that all the pupils had been examined 
about Wolff s sentiments. That same day Wolff was asked 
by the Rector whether it was dogma that Christ had died for 
all ! He answered " Yes," but the Rector said " No." On 
which Wolff asked " Why?" when the Rector replied, "Be 
cause the Church has not decided, and has only declared 
heretical the doctrine of the Calvinists, that Christ died for 
some, and has reprobated the rest." Wolff exclaimed, " It 
needs no decision of the Church, for Scripture has clearly 
decided, which says, He gave himself a ransom for all. " 
The pupils took Wolff s part, and one of them, Dragano by 
name, from Bulgaria, said, with all the warmth of a Bulgarian, 
" If Christ died not for all, we need not all worship Him." 
Wolff wrote instantly to Cardinal Litta, and said, " The Pro 
testants of Germany were right, the Propaganda teaches 
errors ;" and, unfortunately, Wolff added in his own name, 
the argument used by Dragano (in order not to compromise 
Dragano), that, if Christ died not for all, all need not to 
worship Him. Next day Litta himself entered the College of 
the Propaganda, and went at once to Wolff s room, and sat 
down. Wolff attempted to kneel before him, but His Emi 
nence told him to sit down. Cardinal Litta said, " I have 

64 Travels and Adventures 

read your letter, in which there is a great deal of nonsense 
(de* spropositi). First, ask any theologian you please, and he 
will tell you that Christ died for all is not dogma, because the 
Church has not so decided ; and the words of Scripture, there 
fore, may mean, that He died for many (as it is said also 
once) ; and as to your argument that if He died not for all, we 
need not all worship Him, it is most absurd ; for we do not 
worship Him because He died for all, but we worship Him 
because He is God." Wolff gave up the argument entirely. 
The whole demeanour of Cardinal Litta was that of a highly- 
dignified prince, devoted priest, affectionate father, and 
believing Christian. 

At that same time Wolff received letters from Monsignore 
Testa, private secretary of the Pope, a learned, amiable, and 
pious prelate, warning him, in the most affectionate manner ; 
telling him that a tempest was over his head, that his senti 
ments were disapproved by the Propaganda, that he was in 
danger of being turned out. Testa wrote to Cardinal Litta at 
the same time, and spoke to him as well, recommending 
Wolff to his protection. Litta replied, "I can no longer save 
him." A few days after this, a tailor came to Wolff s room, 
(the tailor of the Propaganda,) and took the measure of his 
clothes. In the same way, the shoemaker came and took the 
measure of his feet ; the hatter came and took the measure of 
his head. Wolff was in great apprehension, and did not know 
what to do. And presently his friends, the painters and 
artists at Koine, heard that something was going on amiss 
with him ; so they came to him, and said, " We have come 
here to tell you that we will all go in a body to the Pope, if 
anything is done to you !" 

At last, on the 15th of April, 1818, Cardinal Litta sent for 
Wolff. The messenger merely said u Cardinal Litta wants 
you." Wolff went. He was instantly admitted to the Car 
dinal s presence. His Eminence said, " Your sentiments, my 
dear Wolff, are clearly known ; your correspondence is known;* 
and we know by that correspondence your opinions and manner 
of thinking. 1 therefore have to announce to you the sentence 
of Pope Pius VII., who is acquainted with all the circum 
stances ; and though I feel as if my right arm was being cut 
off, it is better that I should lose my right arm, than the whole 
body ; so you must leave us, for if you remain longer, you will 
spoil all the rest (mi guastate tutti gli altri). You are not for 

* Wolff had, in spite of several warnings, corresponded in a very 
unguarded manner, with Bunsen and other German friends ; and these 
letters had been intercepted and read. 

of Dr. Wolff. 65 

the Propaganda; your views differ from our s ; you must 
return to Vienna. Here are two letters, the one for Cardinal 
Lante in Bologna, who is Cardinal Legate in that town ; and 
the other for Count Leardi, the Pope s Nuncio in Vienna; 
and now you must go with a gentleman who will accompany 
you to a house, where you must remain till you set out." In 
the adjoining room Wolff found the clothes for which all the 
measurements had been taken. He put them on ; an excellent 
glass of wine was given to him, it was Tokay ; he drank it, 
and was refreshed. Then he left the house with the " gentle 
man" Cardinal Litta had mentioned, and who was, in fact, a 
member of the Holy Office, i. e. the Inquisition, and on the 
road he met with Chevalier Bunsen. He said to him, " Dr." 
(for he was not yet Chevalier) " Bunsen, I am taken to the 
Inquisition." Bunsen ran to Niebuhr, and told him of it. 
Wolff was brought to Signer Degeler, the lawyer of the Holy 
Office ; in whose house he was put under arrest for fifteen 
hours, watched by a little dwarf, and not permitted to see his 
friends. He wished to walk out, but that of course was not 
allowed. Writing, however, was not forbidden ; so he sent a 
letter of farewell to his friend Vogel, the painter, which was 
safely delivered to him. Wolff was asked questions, which he 
is not at liberty to disclose, as he took at the time an oath not 
to do so, and he never will disclose them. 

But to do the Propaganda justice, we may be allowed to 
observe, that the statements of his sentiments were correctly 
reported, and that no injustice was done to him ; for, with the 
opinions he entertained, many of which were totally in opposi 
tion to those taught at Rome, he certainly never was a Roman 
Catholic, in the sense which could have justified the Propa 
ganda in sending him out as a missionary. 

At three o clock in the morning, the courier of the cabinet 
of the Pope (what is called here a " king s messenger") ap 
peared with a carriage, escorted by five-and-twenty gens 
d armes, and bringing the member of the Inquisition before 
spoken of; and Wolff having got in, was thus rolled out of the 
Holy City. Wolff said, in relating this story, " My mind was 
overclouded with gloom." A gloom which the presence of 
his guard-like companion was not at all calculated to dispel : 
moreover, he was apprehensive of the contents of the letters 
that he had with him, which were sealed. At last, after ponder 
ing the matter over in his mind for some time, he said to himself, 
" If these letters contain an order to put me in prison, I shall 
try to effect my escape. Otherwise, I shall go on arid tell the 
people candidly that I opened their letters to see what was in 


66 Travels and Adventures 

them about myself; and that I considered I was entitled as a 
prisoner to do so." Wolff accordingly opened the letters, in 
which, however, he found himself highly recommended. 

But he was not satisfied, even then. He knew that his 
companion had other letters, and tortured himself by conjec 
turing that they possibly contained the true orders about him ; 
whereas the letters put into his own hands might have been 
actually intended as a blind, the probability of his opening 
them having been anticipated ! This was a terrible idea ; and 
Wolff, on the strength of it, watched an opportunity when his 
friend s eyes had been closed for a short time, to attempt to 
abstract the letters from his pocket. But at the first touch, 
the man (who was disguised as a soldier) observed, quite 
coolly, opening his eyes and keeping Wolff off, " It is of no 
use. I am not asleep. / do not intend to sleep T 

After this, of course, Wolff had no resource but to submit 
to his fate, and so they proceeded to Bologna, where, on his 
arrival, he delivered the letter to Cardinal Lante, and said 
that he had opened it, because he considered that, as a prisoner, 
he had a right so to do ; and that had it contained an order for 
imprisonment, he should have made his escape. 

Cardinal Lante reported this to Cardinal Litta, who wrote a 
very affectionate letter to Wolff on the subject, only regretting 
that Wolff should have so little confidence in him, as to believe 
him capable of treachery. And he ordered the Pope s Nuncio 
at Vienna to show to Wolff, on his arrival there, the private 
letters which had been written by the Propaganda about him, 
by the perusal of which Wolff perceived that they had acted 
throughout towards him with the kindest intentions, without 
treachery or dissimulation. This was confirmed so recently as 
on the 4th February, 1861, when Wolff dined with David 
Baillie at 14 Belgrave Square, and they talked over Wolff s 
banishment from Home, and Mr. Baillie said, " Soon after your 
departure, I came back to Rome from the East, and 
immediately called on Cardinal Litta, and asked him the cause 
of your dismissal. The Cardinal spoke of you in the highest 
terms but said, we could keep him no longer, for his sentiments 
were totally at variance with ours ; so we sent him away with 
all the consideration due to his character/ All this shows 
that Achilli and Gavazzi gulled the English public, when they 
described the Cardinals as altogether destitute of principle and 
good feeling. Cardinal Litta s letter (which reached Wolff at 
Vienna) throws such light upon his character and feelings, 
that a translation of it, in full, is subjoined. 

of Dr. Wolff. 67 


i( The letter, which you have written to me from 
Bologna, although it has made more poignant that sorrow 
which I have ever felt from the moment that I was obliged to 
take the resolution of sending you away from Rome, gives me, 
nevertheless, some ground for consolation, since you assure me 
that you will ever love the holy Catholic Church. I fear, on 
the other hand, that in your understanding, and perhaps in 
your heart, you make a distinction between the Catholic 
Church, and its head, who is the Pope. But I flatter myself 
that in future your sentiments may be more sincere than they 
have been in times past. I myself warned you personally, and 
through the medium of Ostini, many times, to break off your 
dangerous correspondences ; you did not obey me ; and having 
had more confidence in some pretended friends, than in persons 
who sincerely wished and acted well towards you, you mani 
fested, even without restraint, your opinions and intentions. 
From this it was seen clearly, that instead of being grateful 
and attached to that See of Rome which nourished you, and 
which is the true centre and mistress of the universal Church, 
you cherished, on the contrary, sentiments of aversion nay, 
even of horror for this good mother : that secretly you were 
beginning to be in a disposition to render of no avail the cares 
of the Propaganda, by proposing to yourself, if sent to the 
East, objects and purposes totally different from those which 
the Holy College has in view. With such sentiments you 
would have corrupted your companions, brought up in true obe 
dience and attachment to the Holy See. In consequence of 
these things, which I stated before announcing to you your 
departure, and which you could not, nor can now deny, it be 
came necessary to remove you from the College of Pope" Urban. 
Nevertheless, even in this case, it was proposed to retain you 
some time longer at Rome, in consideration of that countenance 
and support which you, conscious, perhaps, of the danger to 
which your practices exposed you, contrived to procure for 
yourself. You, who judge me capable of punishing without a 
just motive, and without forewarning, or listening to reason, 
will not believe me if I tell you that this resolution, to which 
I was unavoidably led, has given me the greatest pain ; but 
God knows how much I have suffered, and how much I 
still suffer ! I never supposed you to be a member of the Bible 
Society, in which there is no wonder that many good persons 
have unawares enrolled themselves, because the venerable name 
of the Holy Scriptures, which are the writing and word of God, 
naturally must attract minds zealous for the Divine glory, and 


68 Travels and Adventures 

the salvation of their neighbours. But it is precisely of the 
most excellent things that the greatest abuse is made. I hope, 
however, in the mercy of the Lord, and in His omnipotence and 
infinite wisdom, that He will bring good out of evil, as He has 
brought forth light from darkness, and the creature from 
nothing. But without a special aid, which we ought to hope 
for from God towards his Church, certain it is, that the enter- 
prize of translating the Holy Scriptures into all languages, 
even the lowest and the most barbarous, and of multiplying 
and pouring forth copies of it, in order to give them into the 
hands of all persons, even the most stupid and rash, without 
the aid of anything to explain the obscure meanings of it, and 
to solve those great difficulties which were obstacles even to the 
acute and sublime understandings of the Augustines and 
Jeromes, cannot be denied to be a most dangerous thing ; as 
opening the way to a thousand errors, which has been shown 
before now in the examples of the heretics, and as is seen more 
clearly, in the present day, by the more monstrous absurdities 
of the Methodists, and the other innumerable sects, who think 
that they see in the word of God their own ravings. What 
must one say, moreover, if, in the regulations of this Society, 
it is laid down as a fundamental point, that the most authentic 
version must be the English, which has been convicted by our 
Irish Bishops and English Vicars, of many errors, made by 
the pretended Reformers 2 What if, even among the German 
versions, there are adopted faulty and corrupt ones, as that of 
Luther, so much the more seducing than the others, from the 
purity and elegance of its language? The Holy Roman 
Catholic Apostolic Church does not shut up the heavenly trea 
sure of the Divine Scriptures, as some calumniously say it does, 
under the title of the Court of Rome ; of which title I am not 
ashamed, but even boast, and ever have boasted ; even amongst 
the disgraces of our exile, professing myself to be a member of 
the Court of Rome, and on that very account more united to 
the centre of unity, and to the sovereign See, the depository of 
the doctrine and power of Jesus Christ. This See of Rome, 
to which error cannot have access, as the experience of so many 
ages demonstrates, inasmuch as her faith is made sure by the 
never-failing promises of Jesus Christ, this See, which teaches 
to all the truth of the faith, has prescribed the rules and the 
cautions with which any one, who remains attached to the 
doctrines of the Fathers, and to the interpretation of the 
Church, ought to treat this precious gift of God, and not surely 
to profane it rashly, and to abandon it, as it were a vile and 
trivial thing, into the hands of idiots and impure persons. Our 

of Dr. Wolff. 69 

holy father, Pius the Seventh, himself, has, in his briefs, 
spoken against such an abuse. But enough of this argument. 
I send you a letter for HofFbauer. Profit by this disgrace, 
which you owe to yourself, for not having obeyed that which I 
ordered you, through the medium of Ostini. I am not angry 
with you, although my duty has obliged me to take a resolu 
tion which has given me great pain. I wish to help you in 
any other way, and you can write to me with freedom. I pray 
God that He will preserve you from evil companions, and per 
fect in you that great gift which He has bestowed upon you, 
in calling you to the faith . 

" Your most affectionate 


" P.S. By the first opportunity, your own books and some 
others will be sent to you from the Propaganda." 


Returns to Vienna ; Monastic Life in Switzerland ; Henry 
Drummond ; Becomes a Member of the Church of England ; 
Lewis Way, the Philanthropist ; Studies at Cambridge ; 
Charles Simeon ; Is turned out of the Synagogue. 

WHILST Wolff was at Bologna, he was introduced by 
Cardinal Lante to Mezzofanti, a gentleman acquainted 
with 76 languages and 112 dialects, whose reputation has 
since been very great. He also renewed there his acquaintance 
with Orioli, who received him with the greatest kindness. At 
length Wolff left Bologna for Vienna, Cardinal Lante having 
provided him with a companion, who, like the last, was a 
member of the " Holy Office." And thus he arrived with a 
company of travellers in a vettura, at Venice. One of the 
travellers it is worth while to describe a little. He was a 
painter of the Italian school, and he came up to Wolff and 
said, " I see what it is disquiets your mind, I will comfort 
you ; " adding, " Wolff, my dear friend, you cannot do better 
than submit yourself to the Church ; reflect well upon this 
text, Thou art Peter, and upon this rock will I build my 
church." These are terrible words, full of meaning. The best 
thing one can do, is to submit to the Pope, who has the keys 

70 Travels and Adventures 

of Heaven. Since I have become an obedient child to him, I 
have kept from vice, and I sing the hymn to the Virgin Mary, 
* Salve^ gran madre e Vergine, abbi di noi pieta, nel celeste, 
tramite, passa di sfera^ in sfera^ e la natura intiera^ muta 
osservando sta. 

Wolff s appointed companion on the road to Vienna was 
Dottore Mazio, a native and resident of Bologna, and he suc 
ceeded that other member of the Inquisition who had brought 
him from Koine to Bologna. Mazio was enthusiastically 
attached to the order of Jesuits. He always said, " I like 
the Jesuits, for they know human nature, and make due 
allowance for human frailties." 

On their arrival at Venice, Wolff at once called on the 
Governor- General, Count de Goes, and told him that he was 
the prisoner of a member of the Inquisition. His Excellency 
bade him go quietly to Vienna, where he would be protected 
by the police. On reaching Leibach, Wolff called on the 
Benedictine Monks (for Mazio permitted him to go about 
alone on parole). These friars were acquainted with his 
doings at Rome, and were much interested in him, and they 
reported his case to their friends at Vienna. 

At last Wolff arrived at Vienna, but in a most melancholy 
frame of mind. The recollection of having been sent away 
from his friends at Rome, without being able to embrace them 
before his departure that he had been banished by Pius VII., 
whose private piety he so deeply respected, and whom he liked 
very much, that he had been separated from a visible Church, 
and condemned by its Bishop, the idea that he should now 
become an object of persecution, all these things stood clearly 
before his mind ; as well as the probability that his career was 
now stopped, and that he should never be able to preach the 
Gospel to his brethren. And, in his distress, he wrote a letter 
to Hoffbauer, of whose piety he always had a high opinion. 
But even before he received this letter, Hoffbauer, having 
heard of Wolff s banishment, and the reason of it, came to see 
him in his lodgings, and conveyed him to his own house. At 
first, too, he seemed inclined to take Wolff s part, and to be 
irritated against the Church of Rome ; but in three clays he 
changed his tone, and said, " Rome is, notwithstanding, mis 
tress of the Catholic Church, and the Pope the true successor 
of St. Peter. Rome was the only Church which believed in 
the true divinity of Christ in the time of the Arians, and you 
have not done well in disclosing the shame of the Universal 
Mother." Nevertheless, he was received with kindness by all 
his old friends. Friedrich von Schlegel and his wife, Werner 

of Dr. Wolff. 71 

the poet, Madleiier the mathematician, and others, all rallied 
round him. Hoffbauer had numbered many great men among 
his recent converts ; among others the philosopher Giinter, 
and the mighty genius Dr. Emmanuel Veit, besides Men 
delssohn the philosopher. These all argued with Wolff, and 
overpowered him by the force of their reasoning. They asked 
him if he knew the sad condition of those German Roman 
Catholics who denied the authority of the Pope ; namely, that 
they had become Socinians, or embraced an allegorical, so- 
called philosophical system of Christianity ; which was true in 
many cases, there was no doubt ; but still Wolff s mind was 
not altogether satisfied. He remained for a while with Hoff 
bauer, however, and resumed his usual cheerfulness, and then 
he determined to enter the monastery and embrace the Order 
of which Hoffbauer was the Vicar-General. 

While in this establishment, Wolff s turn for mimicry and 
practical jokes was often exercised for the amusement of his 
fellow-students. On one occasion, when Madlener, the mathe 
matician, who had a habit of abstractedly repeating his re 
marks over and over again, was in the act of delivering a 
lecture, and pointing out some proposition, he suddenly said, 
" This proposition has never been made out this proposition 
has never been made out ; " and was continuing to repeat 
these words, when Wolff broke in, " A peasant s son found it 
out long ago." Madlener was absorbed, and did not answer. 
" A peasant s son found it out," said Wolff. Madlener did 
not reply, and Wolff repeated his remark. At last the mathe 
matician was roused, and said, crossly, "Why do you disturb 
me? What did he find out? 1 "That two and two make 
four, 1 was the pert reply ; which set the assembly in a roar of 
laughter, in which, after making a face of woeful perplexity, 
Madlener joined heartily himself. 

Wolff observed with astonishment the immense influence 
which Hoffbauer (a man who seemed to have returned from 
the Middle Ages) had obtained among the clergy and nobility 
in Vienna ; for the most learned men of the University had 
become ultramontane, and noble ladies came and kissed his 
hand. At last Wolff desired him to send him to his monas 
tery at Val-sainte ; but to this Hoffbauer would not make up 
his mind ; and indeed he began daily more and more to 
tyrannize over Wolff, continually reproaching him for his 
behaviour at Rome ; which treatment, although he bore it 
with the greatest submission, making excuses for Hoffbauer s 
irritable temperament, was very distressing to him. At length 
he decided to leave Vienna on a certain day. So he went to 

72 Travels and Adventures 

the vestry of Hoffbauer s church, where he met Father 
Johannes Sabelli, who had just ended the celebration of the 
mass ; and who said to Wolff, after hearing his determination, 
" I predict to you two things ; the first thing is, that you will 
not leave Vienna to-day ; the second thing is, you will not 
remain in Val-sainte. I see this, as in a vision, after having 
performed holy mass. 1 So Wolff tried to leave Vienna that 
very day, in order to prove to Johannes Sabelli that he was a 
false prophet ; but although he did his best to accomplish his 
object, he was not able to get away, as there was a delay 
occasioned over procuring his passport. Johannes Sabelli 
therefore had cause to crow over him. At last Wolff* left 
Vienna, in the month of October, 1818, for Val-sainte, having 
obtained Hoffbauer s consent. He travelled through Austria, 
and was affectionately received, with great hospitality, by the 
Benedictine friars of Krems-Miinster, who were well versed in 
German literature, but were complete neological Protestants 
in their sentiments. And as they had in their hands the 
education of youth, one needed to have only a moderate talent 
for prophecy to foresee, that a great revolution would one day 
take place in Austria, which might upset the whole fabric of 
the great Hoffbauer. 

In the Benedictine Monastery of Lambach, on the frontiers 
of Austria, Wolff found the monks enthusiasts for the fine 
arts. At Salzburg he met with the great oriental scholar 
Sandbichler, occupied with the study of unfulfilled prophecy, 
and reading the Apocalypse. He said, " Revelation is not 
given for the purpose of keeping us in the dark respecting 
future events, but to enable us to find out what God has 
unveiled for the edification of the Church." This divine be 
lieved in the future personal reign of Christ, the restoration of 
the Jews, the renovation of the earth, and the coming of 
Antichrist. Wolff also met with an interesting man, the poet 
Weissenbach, who was very witty, as the following anecdote 
of him will show. Weissenbach came one day to visit Fried- 
rich Schlegel ; when Schlegel, and his wife, and the rest of his 
company, went into an adjoining closet to confess their sins to 
Hoffbauer, and to receive absolution : after which they desired 
Weissenbach to go to Hoffbauer and confess also ; whereupon 
he began to search the pockets of his coat, waistcoat, and 
trousers, and then he said, in a most serious way, " I am 
sorry to find that I quitted Salzburgh in such a hurry, that I 
left all my sins behind me ; so I have not one to confess 

of Dr. Wolff. 73 

Weisseubach wrote in Wolff s album the following verses: 

" Dick hat Golf hcreingervfen 
Welt von fern in sein Hans 
Und von seines altars stufen 
Sendet er dick wieder aus." 

God has called thee from far 
Into his house : 
And He sends thee out again 
From his altar steps. 

From Salzburgh, Wolff entered Bavaria, where he found 
the whole of the clergy in arms against the concordat, lately 
concluded between the Pope and the King of Bavaria. Pro 
ceeding into Switzerland, he first of all went to the canton of 
Schwytz, where he heard a great deal of an " estatica," a nun 
who was continually translated into the air, and had the five 
wounds of Christ in her body, and spoke like a prophetess. 
She had just died, but many were said to be cured by 
her miracles after her death. Wolff has read what she said in 
a trance, and all the expressions were most beautiful. From 
thence he went to the celebrated Monastery of Maria-Ein- 
siedlen, to which pilgrims resorted, travelling thither for hun 
dreds of miles. Wolff remained there certain days, and read 
Hebrew with several of the monks ; and then lie passed on to 
the monastery of his destination at Val-sainte. 

This religious house formerly belonged to the Order of La 
Trappe, but now to the Bedemptorists the name of the Su 
perior being Pere Passerat a tall, meagre-looking gentleman, 
who spoke very eloquently. On entering the monastery, 
Wolff saw these words inscribed on the gate, Jejunabis^ ct 
plorabis, eras enim morieris. Wolff", like an obedient novice, 
knelt down before Passerat, and received his blessing, and 
begged his permission to read the Vulgate translation of the 
Scriptures in Latin. He also made himself useful by teaching 
German and Latin to the pupils. Every Friday evening they 
assembled in a dark room, put out the candles, and then every 
one flagellated himself. Wolff attempted to join in this self- 
discipline ; but he gave himself only one stroke, and then ad 
ministered all the other blows to his leather trousers, which 
were pushed down to his knees, and it made a loud sound. 
The others, observing this device, laughed very heartily ; and 
several of them afterwards followed Wolffs example especi 
ally one, who stood near the wall, and gave it also the benefit 
of the lash. His name was Joseph 

74 Travels and Adventures 

It must be confessed that Hoffbauer, with all his violence, 
had far more judgment and good taste than Father Passerat ; 
and Wolff has not the least doubt but that, on account of 
Passerat s want of judgment, many of the most distinguished 
members of the Order left the monastery in disgust, and be 
came secular priests. For instance, the poet Werner, Em 
manuel Veit, and others besides, would not submit to the 
degradation of Passerat s manners ; and were driven away by 
them. Wolff got his share of Passerat s monastic excess ; 
for when he once talked with him, in the presence of the 
others, and was sitting before him upon the stove, he received 
from him three blows upon the head, which inflicted severe 
pain. Passerat ordered another of the members to hold out 
his hand, which he struck with a whip. This, however, was 
not done in a fit of violence, but for the purpose of inspiring 
humility and meekness, which is a part of. the monastic 
system. For the same end he desired Wolff to kiss the feet 
of the monks, an order which he obeyed, but at the same time 
bit their toes. He would also put one student to shame before 
the rest, which it was evident none of them liked. Besides 
this, his views were most contracted ; as, for example, once, 
when at dinner, a student said " the Church had no right to 
burn," and wished to discuss the subject after they had 
finished eating. But Passerat replied, in the coolest way, and 
to cut the matter short, " Why cannot the Church burn ? 
They burn in Spain to this day," And then he repeated the 
grace, Laudate Dominum in excelsis, &c., and all discussion 
was at an end. 

At the request of Wolff, whilst the others were dining, one 
of the students read aloud Count Stolberg s Ecclesiastical 
History ; but when the reader came to the passage in which 
the author expresses himself against mental reservation, thus 
" that if the system of mental reservation were to become 
the universal system of the Catholic Church, the whole 
Church would become a gang of rascals," the reading was 
forthwith stopped. 

Another thing which oifended Wolff was, that there was so 
much double dealing in the monastery. It had only been es 
tablished a few years, and the Government of the Swiss Can 
ton only permitted them to embody sixteen members in their 
Order ; yet they knew how to manage so as to have above 
thirty members. Wolff, therefore, lost all respect for the 
whole Order : so much so that he began to transgress every 
rule of it, and turn the whole into jest. Every Saturday eve 
ning, before prayer, all the members were accustomed to kneel 

of Dr. Wolff. 75 

down before the Hector, Passerat, and to accuse themselves 
openly, before the rest, of little faults. This did not amount 
to confession, but was merely an act of self-humiliation. 
Wolff, when the turn came to him to accuse himself before the 
rest, always accused somebody else. So, for instance, one day 
he said, " Father Berset looks like a peasant, and has a head 
like a stone." The pupils were so amused, that they cried, 
" Go on ! " On which he continued, " Father Sabelli is as 
cunning as a fox." Again, "When Father Joseph snores, he 
alarms the whole monastery." Of another he said, " He looks 
like a freemason." However, there was one who was very angry 
about it, and said, " If I was the Father Rector, I would have 
turned that fellow out long ago ! " On the Saturday fol 
lowing, Wolff accused this man of impertinence and so it 
went on for a while. 

But, at last, Wolff observed that spies were set over him, 
and that these spies were his own pupils. They were asked 
by the Rector whether he had never given any one of them 
letters for Protestants ; and actually one of them, Hilper by 
name, urged him on to give him letters. Wolff knew at once 
for what reason he wanted them, viz., to deliver them at once 
over to the Superior, Pere Passerat. So Wolff wrote a letter 
to Pere Passerat, in which he said, " My dear Superior. 
Hiiper is continually wanting me to write letters to heretics. 
I therefore denounce him to you as a consummate scoundrel," 
This letter Wolff sealed, and after writing on the envelope the 

" To the Right Reverend 

The Protestant Bisop of 


he gave it to Hiiper, saying, " There! take this to the post, and 
don t say a word to the Rector about it." This was just what 
he did not do, but carried it at once to the Rector, as Wolff 
had expected. When they met at dinner there was a general 
laugh, in which the Rector and his secretary, Sabelli, heartily 
joined. Wolff knew the cause of it, and told the Rector that 
it was not right to act in this way, and set spies over him. 
The Rector protested that he had orders to do so, but did not 
tell him whence the orders came ; but no doubt they were 
from Rome. 

Amidst all this, Wolff saw that he got daily further from 
his object of becoming a missionary ; and besides this, the 
Rector and all saw that he was totally unfit for monastic life, 
and decided that he was only fit for being among crowds of 
people. During this time of anxiety, he was dreadfully 

76 Travels and Adventures 

afflicted with headaches ; he had, however, to ask more than 
twenty times for his dismissal, before it was granted. 

At last they gave him a testimonial of good conduct, and 
allowed him to depart. He then came to an old friend at 
Vevay Monsieur Gaudard by name a mystic, but an excel 
lent Christian a disciple of Jacob Bdhme. Thence Wolff 
went to Lausanne, where a rather curious incident occurred. 

He was walking in the street, when a lady, who appeared to 
him to be an Englishwoman, happened to be passing him. 
Wolff stopt her, and asked her whether she was an English 
lady? She said, "Yes!" Then said Wolff, "Do you 
know Henry Drammond!" 

She replied, " Yes," and like a flash of lightning, she asked 
Wolff, -Are you Abbe Wolff?" Wolff said, "Yes," and 
she said, " Come with me then," and forthwith brought him 
to the house of Professor Levade. She said, " I have been 
looking out for you for some time. I was at Rome, and heard 
all that happened to you there, and here is a letter which I 
have for you. You must go to England ; Henry Drummond 
is waiting for you, and we shall send you at our expense to 

Wolff, who had intended to remain at Lausanne, giving 
lessons in Hebrew, Chaldean, &c., until he had collected 
money enough to take him to Jerusalem, found all his plans 
changed by this proposal. The name of that lady was Miss 
Greaves, whose sister is still alive at Torquay ; and Wolff saw 
her cousin Joseph Greaves again in January, 1860, at Tor 
quay. Miss Greaves character must not be altogether passed 
over. She was a lady of the highest benevolence, and was 
very active in circulating the Scriptures. But, soon after 
Wolff left her, she was converted to Quietism by Chevalier 
D Yvon ; as were also her brothers and sisters. Her brother, 
Alexander Greaves, was ordained in the Church of England ; 
but he returned, and became a kind of Quaker. Her brother 
Joseph was a great admirer of Pestalozzi, and a disciple of 
Jacob Bohme ; and he supported himself for some time by 
eating only one egg, and drinking Hunt s coffee, every day ; 
but his constitution gave way under this regimen. Mrs. 
Gardiner, a sister of Miss Greaves, is still alive and a holy 
woman. Another Greaves, her brother, went to Miss Fan- 
court, who had been bed-ridden for nine years, and was given 
up by all her physicians, and he said, " In the name of Jesus 
Christ, arise and walk!" which she did, and was perfectly 
cured; and she married, and died twenty-five years after 
wards, leaving children strong in body, and tender-hearted 

of Dr. Wolff. 77 

like their mother. Dr. Wolff asserts with Maitland, the 
librarian to the late Archbishop of Canterbury, and with 
Claudius of Germany, and with Jung Stilling of Germany, 
that the Lord glorifies Himself, even in this age, by miracles ; 
and, therefore, that the miracle wrought by Mr. Greaves upon 
Miss Fan court, is not to be derided, and Wolff firmly believes it. 

Wolff thanked God in prayer for his providential meeting 
with that lady. There was just then at Lausanne, an Eng 
lish clergyman, the reader at the Whitehall Chapel, whose name 
was the Rev. Thomas Jones, and who said that he should be 
happy to take Wolff back with him to London ; an offer which 
was accepted. They arrived at Geneva in the month of July, 
1819; where he met with his old friends, Empaytaz and 
Madame d^Armand, whom he had known in the year 1816, 
with Madame de Krudener. They all exclaimed at once, 
" Cher Wolff ! Cher Wolff ! Enfant de la Nature Enfant 
de la Providence Enfant de Jesus Christ !" 

Madame (TAnnand was in bed, not quite well. She made 
the sign of the cross, and said, " I am a follower of Madame 
de la Motte Guyon." Madame de la Motte Guy on was the 
foundress of the Quietists, who converted Fenelon, and made 
him write his book on Divine Love. Her autobiography was 
declared by her subsequent enemy Bossuet, to be the finest 
book he ever read, after the Bible. She was the writer of that 
beautiful hymn, 

" Could I be cast where thou art not, 
This were indeed a dreadful lot !" 

Through these friends Wolff became acquainted with Mon 
sieur Mulline, who introduced him to Professor Pictet, who 
belonged to the " Eglise Nationale," and recommended him by 
letters to the Huguenot clergy at Lyons, amongst whom was 
Monsieur Monod. 

A very curious thing happened to Wolff at Lyons. He, 
who never was able to divest himself of a hankering after 
Romish priests, called on a Romish clergyman. Wolff stared 
this man so fully in the face, that he became frightened, and 
told the servant to remain in the room until that stranger had 
gone. Wolff said, " Well, if you are afraid of me, I need not 
remain here." He said, " No, no, stay here, I will talk to you, 
but I do not know you. 11 Wolff gave him some outlines of 
his life. The priest asked him to sit down. They conversed 
for a while. The priest said, " I see the end of your career 
I am sorry for you. Vous deviendrez heresiarque/ " This 
was the second prediction of the kind. The first was in the 

78 Travels and Adventures 

same words by Cardinal della Somaglia, the second by this 

Wolff then continued his journey from Lyons to Paris, in 
company with Mr. Jones, who entered into conversation with 
him about religion, and then said, " You will never be able to 
get on with any Missionary Society in England, for you take 
the authority of the Church and tradition as your guide." 

Wolff arrived with him at Paris, where he met with a most 
interesting man, Mr. Kobert Haldane, a Scotch gentleman of 
large fortune, who had originated a dissenting party in the 
Scotch Church, which went by his name, the " Haldanites." 
He had written a Commentary on St. Paul s Epistle to the 
Romans ; and his brother is the celebrated James Haldane, 
whose wife was related to Sir Walter Scott. 

Robert Haldane was very much pleased with Joseph Wolff, 
and so was his wife, and they begged him to go with them to 
London, as they were great friends of Henry Drummond. 
Wolff therefore asked Jones if he might go with them, and as 
Jones had something to do in Paris, he willingly consented to 
it ; and Wolff confesses that he was rather glad, for he observed 
in Robert Haldane more spirit and talent than in Jones. 

Jones could only tell him that the Church of England was 
better than other churches, but Robert Haldane entered with 
him into the depths of scripture, and laid before him most 
beautifully the doctrine of justification by faith, which perfectly 
agreed with the views of Father Dens and Cardinal Bellar- 
mine. And thus they went on conversing as they travelled in 
Haldane s carriage, until they arrived together at Calais. 
Landing at Dover from Calais, Wolff believed every English 
man he saw to be a robber, so he told Haldane that he was 
afraid that all his countrymen were thieves. 

" What !" said Haldane, " the women too. 

" Certainly," replied Wolff, " every one of them. Will you 
protect me?" 

Haldane laughed immensely, and said, u Never mind, I am 
with you, I will keep them aloof." 

And thus it was that Wolff came at last to London, and 
went to Charing Cross to Drummond s bank, where lie found 
his friend Henry Drummond himself. 

Mr. Drummond took him at first to a private boarding-house, 
No. 60, Paternoster Row, the house of Mrs. Stennet and her 
two daughters, and a week afterwards to his own residence, 
Norland House, Kensington Gravel Pits. 

And here began to be verified the words which Count Stol- 
berg said to Wolff when they parted : " Do not become vain, 

of Dr. Wolff. 79 

Wolff, about what I shall tell you now, namely, that you are 
a young man who will become the friend of men of principle 
and influence wherever you go : such men will be sure to take 
an interest in you." Wolff has experienced the truth of this 
at all periods of his life. He became at this time, as a youth, 
the friend of Drummond, Lewis Way, and Simeon ; and has 
now for more than fourteen years rejoiced in the friendship of 
a man as holy and sincere as they were- the uncompromising 
and highly-principled George Anthony Denison, and his most 
excellent wife. 

Wolff learned to understand the English language very 
quickly, and on his first Sunday in London attended the service 
of the Baptists, accompanying Mr. Drummond to it. After 
it was over, Drummond asked him how he liked it 2 Wolff 
replied, " Not at all." There was not, he said, the slightest 
reverence in that service, and he therefore wished Drummond 
to take him to the Vicar Apostolic of the Pope, Dr. Poynter. 
Drummond replied, " I will take you to another place of wor 
ship. 1 And accordingly he took Wolff to Mr. Evans, another 
Baptist minister, but Wolff was no better pleased. 

Then he took him to a Quakers meeting, where they sat for 
two hours without talking, and playing with their walking- 
sticks ; but Wolff would have nothing to do with them. He 
said, "This is nothing/ 

Then another friend took him to a Methodist minister, the 
famous Richard Watson, a holy and excellent man, who ex 
plained the views of their community, which Wolff found to 
resemble, in many points, the Church of Rome in its good 
phases. But still this did not suit Wolff. At last Drummond 
said, " I see what it is you want, Wolff!" and took him to the 
Episcopal Jewish Chapel in Palestine Place, Bethnal Green, 
Hackney, where the service was performed according to the 
rites of the Church of England, by the Rev. Charles Sleech 
Hawtrey. Wolff was now enchanted with the devotion and 
beauty of the ritual, as performed by Mr. Hawtrey, and at once 
expressed himself satisfied. Drummond said, " I see you will 
belong to the Church of England ; nevertheless, you will find 
a great deal of pride and annoyance in that Church, as well as 
in the Church of Rome." 

Henceforth accordingly Wolff considered himself to be a 
member of the Church of England, but his liberality towards 
other denominations was without bounds. So much so, that he 
took the sacrament from Dr. Steinkopf of the Lutheran Church 
one Sunday ; and, on the next, from a clergyman of the Church 
England. His view then being (as it is to a great degree now), 

80 Travels and Adventures 

that members of the living Church of Christ, L e. those who 
in the last days shall compose the Church which is to be the 
Bride of the Lamb, are to be found among the baptized mem 
bers of all denominations ; whilst on the other hand he main 
tains that the only divinely-constituted Church is that which 
has preserved the Apostolic Succession. 

Drummoud and Hawtrey introduced Wolff to that holy and 

food man, the Rev. Lewis Way, whose history is remarkable. 
le was a barrister of small fortune, when one day a Mr. John 
Way, a gentleman totally unconnected with him, passed Mr. 
Lewis Way s chambers, and saw his name written on the door. 
He made his acquaintance, and soon afterwards that old man 
died, and left to the barrister ^300,000, with the condition 
that he should employ it for the glory of God. Lewis Way 
immediately took Holy Orders in the Church of England ; and 
his design was to devote his life to the conversion of the Jewish 
nation, and the promotion of their welfare, temporal and spiri 
tual. Which desire and object he expressed in the beautiful 
paraphrase, made by him, of the 62nd chapter of Isaiah : 

" For Zion s sake I will not rest, 

I will not hold my peace : 
Until Jerusalem be blessed, 

And Judah dwell at ease. 

" Until her righteousness return, 

As daybreak after night 
The lamp of her salvation burn, 

With everlasting light. 

" And Gentiles shall her glory see, 

And kings proclaim her fame, 
Appointed unto her shall be 

A new and holy name." 

Lewis Way then heard that there was a Society existing, 
composed of churchmen and dissenters, for the purpose of con 
verting the Jews ; and that society was very much in debt. 
Upon which he nobly came forward, and offered to liquidate 
the whole debt, which amounted to <20,000 ; on condition 
that the dissenters should retire, and leave the whole manage 
ment to churchmen. They accepted his terms, and he took 
sixteen Jews into his house, and baptized several of them ; 
but, soon after their baptism, they stole his silver spoons, and 
one of them, Josephson by name, was transported to Aus 
tralia, having forged Mr. Way s signature. However, nothing 
disturbed him in his purpose ; so he went to the Congress of 

of Dr. Wolff. 81 

Aix-la-Chapelle, and interested all the Powers of Europe in 
favour of the Jews. Noble Lewis Way had one Jew still 
under his care, a young man of extraordinary talents, named 
Nehemiah Solomon, whose beard he had shaved off"; and after 
he had got him instructed in Latin and Greek, he had him 
ordained Deacon, by Dr. Burgess, the Bishop of St. David s. 
After this, Lewis Way set out on a Missionary tour to Russia, 
and read with the Emperor Alexander the 44th chapter of 
Isaiah, and when he came to the passage in the 28th verse, 
that says of Cyrus 

" He is my shepherd, and shall perform all my pleasure, 
even saying to Jerusalem, thou shalt be built, and to the 
Temple, thy foundation shall be laid." 

Lewis Way looked significantly at Alexander, and Alex 
ander looked at him, both thinking that perhaps the Em 
peror might be the instrument, even as Cyrus was, for bringing 
back the Jews to their own land. 

Lewis Way was accompanied on this expedition by Solomon, 
his Jew protege, and by Sultan Kategerry-Krimgherry, a 
Tatar nobleman, who was sent by the Emperor Alexander to 
Edinburgh to study. Sultan Kategerry-Krimgherry, a Mu- 
hammadan by birth, was baptized in Edinburgh, and was 
made a member of the Kirk of Scotland ; and married in 
Edinburgh a Miss Nielson. 

On reaching the Crimea with these two converts, Lewis 
Way desired Solomon to preach to the Coraite Jews in the 
place called Jufut-Kaleh, near Bakhtshe-Seray ; but whether 
Solomon preached, or did not preach, admits of a doubt. 

It was after this expedition, and when Lewis Way had 

nmi.,1 .i lvi<jl: rid. s ix.. i i r ii \ ;<"< ISIf) t\>\\\ .!< 
\ V "IH in- -i rlu.i- ^-.,\-n^<\ iniiii. -till H.-iriiinx: vitii I H for r!i- 

/.:.] ..I jinnii. liiijj- ill- .nS|-l ! lii-isf ;,iii.ui j lilt- .l-ui-ii 
UU-tlon. I i MI- V .-.r |S*J<i. S-.i..i,|..ii r !tini" i i in- j^ nui 
iiwii. iii^ Criiiiea, |r--i it ih.v 

Trinity. Lewis Way sent him to Scott, the commentator, in 
order that his mind might be settled upon that important 
point ; and so it seemed to be after a stay of three months. 
But Wolff saw him afterwards, and said to Henry Drummond, 
" This man is not sincere ; lie will break out terribly some 

However, Solomon was ordained a priest ; and seemed to be 
going on well, when, to make his story short, he suddenly ran 
away, after having drawn 300 from the Society, and was 
never heard of afterwards. 

Nothing, however, disturbed Lewis Wav : and soon after he 

82 Travels and Adventures 

went to Palestine ; but there he was shamefully deceived by a 
Mount Lebanon Christian, and was so distressed by the cir 
cumstance that it made him burst into tears ; yet he continued 
his operations among the Jews, with the same earnestness as 
ever, and at last the dear man died at Leamington, broken 

Wolff was introduced in London to that man of God, the 
Rev. Charles Simeon, Fellow of King s College, Cambridge, 
himself of Jewish extraction, who waited more than 50 years 
for the salvation of the Lord to the Jewish nation; and, 
besides him, to Dr. Marsh of Colchester, and to Hawtrey ; all 
of whom decided that Wolff should go to Cambridge, at the 
expense of the Society for Promoting Christianity amongst the 
Jews, for they wished to train him as a missionary ; and that 
he should study theology under Simeon s private tuition, and 
the oriental languages under the great Samuel Lee, who had 
been brought up a carpenter. This remarkable man went one 
day, when a youth, to the Roman Catholic Church, and heard 
the mass performed in the Latin language. Displeased with 
himself, because he could not understand one word of it, he 
bought a Latin grammar, and learnt it by heart. After this, 
he sold the grammar, bought a second-hand Latin dictionary, 
and thus by degrees made himself acquainted with Latin, 
Hebrew, Chaldean, Syriac, Arabic, Persian, Hindoostanee, 
and Sanscrit ; and he became the celebrated Regius Professor 
of Cambridge University. 

Under Dr. Lee, Wolff read Arabic, Persian, Chaldean, and 
Syriac ; and on the first day after his arrival in Cambridge, he 
received a visit from the great Sanscrit professor of Germany, 
Dr. Bopp, who presented him with his translation of the cele 
brated Sanscrit poem, " Nalus." Wolff was pleased, and 
wishing to have a second copy for one of his friends, and 
having in his pocket just then, exactly the <*!, which was the 
price of the book, in a bank-note (such as were at that time in 
use), he paid it at once for the book. Bopp put, as he 
thought, the bank-note into his pocket, arid gave Wolff 
another copy of his poem. Wolff, coming to his old friend 
Mrs. Dornford, also a great friend of Simeon s, said to her, fi I 
have bought this book for a, \ bank-note, which was just the 
sum I had in my pocket." Whilst Wolff was saying this, he 
put his hand into his pocket, and drew out the identical bank 
note for 1. Mrs. Dornford stared, and he exclaimed, " This 
is certainly extraordinary ; I had one 1 bank-note in my 
pocket, which I gave to Dr. Bopp, and he put it. into his 
pocket in my presence ; and I could take my oath that I had 

of Dr. Wolff. 83 

only one l bank-note in my pocket ; and I could also take 
my oath that Bopp put the very bank-note into his pocket, 
and did not give it back to me* Yet now I find the very 
same bank-note in my pocket. There is withcraft in this, of 
which I have heard a great deal among the Jews." 

Scarcely had Wolff finished speaking, when the servant of 
Dr. Bopp arrived with a letter containing the following 
account : " My dear Wolff, you made a mistake last night ; 
for you gave to me, instead of the bank-note, the enclosed 
advertisement of a grocer s shop." So the mystery was 

Wolff proceeded zealously in his studies. He read fourteen 
hours every day. He rose at 2 o clock in the morning, and 
gave himself little time for eating. He had a companion with 
him in his room for a while, whose name was La Roche, who 
excited his emulation by his diligence and zeal. La Roche 
was sent, by the Church Missionary Society, to Benares, six 
weeks after Wolffs arrival in Cambridge. He had also studied 
in Tubingen. He was a fine, noble soul, of great piety, and of 
an enlarged mind ; and Wolff regretted his departure much. 
However, that excellent man remained not long in India. 
Worn out by continual labours, and from the total igno 
rance of the directors of the Society, how to regulate his 
great genius, he returned to this country, and died on board 
ship, just as it was entering the Thames. 

Wolff went every Saturday to Simeon, and read a theme on 
a theological subject. He translated Limborch s controversy 
with the Jew Orobio, from the Latin into English. To Lim- 
borcli s book, the life of Uriel Da Costa was affixed. What an 
awful life, and what an awful end, was that of Da Costa ! 
Uriel Da Costa was a descendant of those Jews in Spain, who 
were forced to become Roman Catholics by the Inquisitor Tor- 
quemada, and Cardinal Ximenes. But centuries passed on, 
and the descendants of those forced converts had become 
Roman Catholics by birth, parentage, and education. Such 
was the case with Uriel Da Costa, his mother, brother, and 
sister, nephew, and cousin ; and, having been brought up for 
the Romish priesthood, he became Canon in the Cathedral of 
Oporto. But, in spite of centuries having elapsed since his 
ancestors were Jews, Da Costa never forgot the fact, and one 
day he said to his mother and relations, " Is it not extraordi 
nary that our ancestors have been Jews, and that they were 
forced to embrace the Roman Catholic religion ? Come, and 
let us read the Old Testament, and see what the Jews be 
lieve f They did so, and then, with one consent, said, " Let 


84 Travels and Adventures 

us fly to Amsterdam, and embrace the Jewish religion the 
religion of our ancestors which is better than that of the 
Roman Catholics." 

Amsterdam is a place to which those Christians resort who 
wish to embrace the Jewish religion ; and it continues to be 
their custom to find refuge there at this day. Soon after this, 
Uriel Da Costa, with all his relations, went to Amsterdam, 
and they were solemnly and openly received into the Jewish 
synagogue, about 160 years ago. But the inquiring mind of 
Uriel Da Costa soon observed that the Jews had corrupted 
many laws of Moses ; and he spoke his mind freely about it, 
and called them the per vert ers of the Law of Moses. Where 
upon the Jews, in order to convince him that they were right, 
and lie wrong, inflicted on him, several times, forty stripes 
save one. Uriel Da Costa put an end to his existence by 
suicide, after he had written his own life, which ends with 
these words, " Reader, be not angry with me, I sought the 
truth, but did not find it." 

Tn the year 1820, 150 years after the time of Uriel Da 
Costa, his great grand-nephew, Isaac Da Costa, who was born 
and educated to the Jewish religion, had become a most dis 
tinguished and celebrated lawyer of Holland, and a great poet 
in the Dutch language. He was also a gentleman of great 
wealth and learning, and lived with his mother, brother, 
sister, cousin, and nephew, in Amsterdam. He read the life 
of Uriel Da Costa, and said to his mother and family, " Is it 
not extraordinary that our ancestors were brought up in the 
Christian religion ? Come, and let us examine the merits of 

vv-ni to I l-:-i-!- M. 1iU-r iii.-i< tli- j ..... I. ,-iii i. read tV- gospel 
with l-ini. .! I - t h- n (- "HI ni<-ii. ,<n! -..<! it ^ ith iii.- family, and 

;,!.- lii" \ fit i ( _:> S. | I -M-II:- fi rtii i rii"in;i.- . \ | il i .u; >, Ihl ;>\< 

the works of the Dutch, reformers ; and ilp-n Isaac I -.. Ooata, 
with Ins whole tamily and iviaiions, were oaptized, in the 
name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost ; and he imme 
diately began to preach, and, through the grace of God, became 
the instrument of the conversion of Dr. Kapadose, a celebrated 
physician in Amsterdam. Wolff heard Da Costa in after 
times, on his return from his journey to the East. 

Wolff also heard Kapadose preach, and describes his ser 
mons as being like a clap of thunder ; and maintains that only 
those Jews, who are converted in such an extraordinary way, 
are worth anything. 

Thus, for instance, Neander in Berlin ; Emanuel Yeit, in 
Vienna ; the two Yeits step-sons to Friedrich Schlegel ; 

of Dr. Wolff. 85 

Monsieur Ratisbon of Strasbourg; all ot wlioiu are true lights 
in the Church of Christ. But Jews who are converted by 
Societies, are like Eastern fruits cultivated in green-houses in 
Europe, and have not the flavour of those which are naturally 

And there is a great deal in what the Apostle Paul says, in 
the first epistle of Timothy, first chapter, 16th verse. " How- 
beit for this cause I obtained mercy, that in me first Jesus 
Christ might show forth all long-suffering, for a pattern to 
those which should hereafter believe on him to life ever 

Paul s conversion has been a type of .the way in which 
many Jews shall be converted after him, namely, suddenly, 
by miracle, by inspiration. For the grace of God comes often 
suddenly, as genius came upon Corregio, as a boy, so that, 
when in afterlife he stood before the masterpieces of Raphael, 
he was able proudly to exclaim, " Ancli io sono pittore! " (and 
I also am a painter ! ) So the landscape painter, Koch, origi 
nally a shepherd s boy, by looking at the beauties of nature in 
the Tyrol, whilst his goats fed around them, was inspired to 
paint. His master flogged him for it, and lie ran away, but 
eventually became the most distinguished landscape artist in 

WolfF remained in Cambridge for two years. He read 
almost all the works of St. Augustine, and Bishop Butler ; 
also the astronomical discourses of Chalmers, Bishop Kidder s 
writings, and the German divines ; as well as the works of 
Bishops Bull and Andrews, and Robert HalFs sermons. 

Everything he undertook he succeeded in learning, except 
one thing, which Simeon tried, but in vain, to teach him, 
namely, how to shave himself. Mr. Simeon actually appointed 
an hour (12 o clock) to instruct him, in the first place, how to 
sharpen a razor ; but the moment Wolff tried, although 
Simeon had told him to keep the blade flat, lie did just the 
contrary, and cut the razor-strop in two. Simeon gave him a 
slap, laughed, and gave up the shaving lesson. 

One day, Wolff came to him quite wet through from the 
rain, and read a dissertation, which he had written. Simeon 
rubbed his hands, and said, " I am rejoiced to observe that 
your mind is expanding, I am quite delighted with this ; you 
have fully entered into the subject, come to me on Monday. 11 
Next Monday Woltt* went, when Simeon said, " Now I want 
to make you glad ; here is a beautiful umbrella for you, but 1 
know that you will lose it, so I have put my own name upon 
it, and then, if you do lose it, they will bring it back to me, 

86 Travels and Adventures 

and I will return it to you." But, most unfortunately, the 
umbrella was stolen, and nobody brought it back ; so Wolff in 
despair went to Mrs. Dornford and said, " I don t dare to go 
any more to Mr, Simeon, because the umbrella he gave 
me has been stolen." Mrs. Dornford replied, "I will now 
give you a piece of advice ; write a very good essay, and if 
you see that Mr. Simeon is pleased with it, tell him your mis 
fortune." Wolff remained up all night, and wrote an essay 
with all his learning in it. Simeon rubbed his hands again, 
and said, " I am rejoiced ; you have become quite a man in 
your thoughts ; " and then the following dialogue took place 
between them. 

Wolff. " Mr. Simeon, are you really pleased 2" 
Simeon. " Very much pleased indeed ; quite rejoiced." 
Wol/." Could I tell you anything I wished ? " 
Simeon. "Anything, I shall never be displeased with you." 
Wolff. " Your umbrella is gone ! " 
Simeon. " This is nothing more than I expected." 
Wolff was more convinced than ever, when he arrived at 
Cambridge, that he had been wrong at Rome in getting up 
in the Lecture-room, and contradicting the Professor and 
whole body of students ; for, when he once contradicted Pro 
fessor Lee in the same manner, who was lecturing on Isaiah, 
Dr. Lee at once said, "Wolff, this is not allowed at Cam 
bridge." Wolff was exceedingly struck by this, and said to 
himself, "What extraordinary patience they must have had at 
Borne, to have tolerated what is not allowed in a Protestant 
University, and in a land of liberty ! " 

When Wolff was once at tea at Mrs. DornftmTs, Mr. Whish, 
a clergyman from Bristol said to him in the presence of Joseph 
Dornford, "Wolff, you have a better Pope in Mr. Simeon 
than you had at Borne." To which Wolff replied, " In order 
that I might have no Pope, I left Borne ; and I will not have 
another Pope at Cambridge." Mrs. Dornford said, " I hope 
you will not contradict Mr. Simeon, when he tells you any 
thing." Wolff answered, " I would, if I thought he was not 
right." Joseph Dornford said, " You are perfectly right in 
not acknowledging Mr. Simeon as Pope." Simeon then 
entered the room, and when the case was stated to him, he 
said, " You are perfectly right, my love, and I embrace you 
for your sincerity." 

On another occasion, Wolff drank tea at Mrs. Dornford s, 
her son, Joseph Dornford, and Mr. Gladwin, afterwards an 
incumbent at Liverpool, being present. They talked together 
about the British and Foreign Bible Society, when Wolff 

of Dr. Wolff. 87 

asked, " Why do not all the Bishops patronize this society ? " 
Joseph Dornford said, it was a most difficult case, and Gladwin 
explained the reason. "Only consider," he said, "that the 
British and Foreign Bible Society is composed of members of 
every sect which does not acknowledge episcopal authority ; 
and you will see in what an awkward position the Bishops are 
placed, when they attend the meetings of the society, and a 
Socinian may be in the chair. And what guarantee can they 
have, that the society will not publish Socinian translations 2 " 

Wolff describes his stay at Cambridge as a happy time. He 
was called by the members of the University Mr. Simeon s 
and Professor Lee s " pet." The society of Baptist Noel, and 
Lucius O Brien, and Crawford in King s College, and of Lamb 
and Scolefield, who was afterwards master of Bennet College, 
electrified him daily more and more with ardour for proceeding 
as a missionary to the Jews and Muhammadans in Jerusalem, 
and other parts of the East. 

Wolff now relates what took place one day at a public 
meeting of the Church Missionary Society, where Mr. Simeon, 
Daniel Wilson, afterwards Bishop of Calcutta, and Gerald 
Noel were speaking. Simeon said, " I have accompanied on 
board the ship, when they set forth as missionaries, men like 
Thomason, Claudius Buchanan, and Henry Martyn, and I 
hope to accompany many more such next May," and saying 
this, he jumped about like a dancing dervish. Upon which, 
Daniel Wilson rose on the platform, and said, " If all were to 
leap about with the vigour of youth, as our elderly friend Mr. 
Simeon has done, all prejudices would soon disappear ; " and 
then Daniel Wilson also jumped and danced about, like his 

With nothing was Wolff more pleased than with the perusal 
of Henry Martyn s Life ; and even now he frequently recites 
the translation by Henry Martyn of the song of a Persian 
muleteer, which is as follows : 

" Think not my heart can ever dwell 

Contented far from thee ; 
How can the fresh-caught nightingale 
Enjoy tranquillity ? " 

" Oh, then, forsake thy friend for nought 

That envious tongues may say 

The heart that fixes where it ought, 

No power can rend away," &e. 

Wolff deeply sympathised with Henry Martyn s sufferings 
in Sheeraz, and the contradictious he suffered from Sabat, the 

88 Travels ami Adventures 

pretended convert from Muhaminadaiiism to Christianity, who 
lifter wards died as a pirate. 

After Joseph Wolff had been nearly two years at Cambridge, 
he received a letter from Henry Drummond to the following 

XT j J 

enect : 


" I am grieved to the very heart that you should allow 
yourself to he kept so long by the London Society for Pro 
moting Christianity among the Jews. What can you learn 
from them which you do not already know ? Tell them that 
you must go out immediately, and if they don t send you, I 
will send you out at once. There is as much pride in the 
Church of England as there is in the Church of Home." 

Wolff replied to him 


" They want me to stay here a little longer, that I may get 
more knowledge of the world. The Jews 1 Society for Pro 
moting Christianity has been disappointed by every Jew they 
took up. One became a Muhammadan, another a thief, a third 
a pickpocket : and I am determined to remain here to show 
there is a sincere Jew in the world. They want me to spend, 
also, a few months with Lewis Way, in order to get more 
knowledge of the world." 

Drummond wrote to Wolff in answer 

" You are almost as great an ass as my friends Lewis Way 
and Charles Simeon are. What knowledge of the world can 
you learn in Stansted Park ? Knowledge of the world can 
only be gained in the world." 

Nevertheless Wolff went on a visit to Stansted Park, whence 
he was determined to go to Portsmouth, to preach to the 
Jews ; therefore he wrote a note and sent it to Lewis Way s 
room, which note contained the following : 

" I knew that you would make a fuss, if I told you that I 
wanted to go and preach to the Jews in Portsmouth ; I have, 
therefore, gone there, without your leave." 

Wolff set out on foot from Stansted Park, when Mr. Alex 
ander now Dr. McCaul came after him at full gallop, 
and brought him back, as he was afraid that the Jews would 
tear him to pieces. Simeon also came to Stansted, and 
said, " My dear Wolff, you ought to stay a little longer, for 
two reasons : first, in order to acquire more experience of the 
inner life of a Christian ; secondly, in order to learn how to shave 
yourself. How can you be a missionary, without knowing how 
to shave yourself, or even how to make tea, for you lately put the 

of Dr. Wo///: 89 

kettle 011 Mrs. Dornford s table \ " Wolff said to himself, i; It 
is time to set out, for if I am to stay until I learii how to 
shave myself, I shall never start at all." So lie wrote to 
Henry Drummond, who wrote to Lewis Way, and to the 
Committee, in a most angry manner 

" You are, indeed, a real Jew s Society ! Eye for eye, and 
tooth for tooth, is your rule. I will not allow you to keep 
Wolff any longer I will send him out myself! " 

Wolff was then called before the Committee, and asked, 
" Whether he looked with respect and regard on the Society I " 
He replied, " Not only with respect and regard, but also with 
gratitude for their kindness ; " and added, " that he should 
always cherish a feeling of affection towards them all. 1 

Sir Thomas Baring, the President of the Society, now at 
once gave Wolff letters to his friends at Gibraltar and Malta ; 
but before we leave Cambridge altogether, we must survey it 
a little, as we have already surveyed Rome. One cannot but 
be struck with this fact in coming from Rome to Cambridge. 

Rome appears at once in all its institutions, in all its 
manners, as the Capital of the Papal power, of a power 
which, with all its learning and all its disasters, and in spite 
of the mighty schism of Martin Luther, has, nevertheless, not 
yielded an inch to the Protestant communion. And every 
one entering Rome will at once say, " Here is the Pope ; the 
infallible head of a Church which cannot change!" Cam 
bridge, on the other hand, is in all its institutions, in all its 
regulations, the representative and mistress not of an ultra- 
Protestant Church, but of a Church which has striven to 
retain all the good that is in the Church of Rome, and to 
remove Romish abuses from her, as well as the ultra-Pro 
testantism of the Continental communities. And the struggle 
is going on. She has certainly not yet succeeded in extermi 
nating Antinomianism from her Church ; for Wolff was horri 
fied with the spirit of some naval officers, who had entered 
Catharine Hall as students, when he was there, and who, 
scarcely knowing even the elements of Divinity, set them 
selves up as teachers. There was one, especially, who wa^ 
always falling into a passion, and would then excuse himself 
by saying, " I am, after all, a child of God ! " The good 
Charles Simeon, on the one hand, withstood the formalism of 
that portion of the Church, called by Conybeare the " High 
and Dry ; " and, on the other hand, the filthy Calvinism of 
some of those preaching lieutenants of the Navy who have 
been alluded to. Simeon was a good and stuuch churchman. His 
sermon on baptism is beautiful ; and, besides this, he admitted 

90 Travels and Adventures 

the holiness of a man like St. Bernard. Whereas, one of 
those preaching lieutenants, who had never read a word of St. 
Bernard s writings, actually called that great and holy man a 
(i villain " in Wolff s presence. Wolff speaks to this day, 
with affection, of the beautiful, eloquent, and learned sermons 
of Benson, afterwards Master of the Temple ; also of the 
learned Dr. Marsh, Bishop of Peterborough"^ sermons ; and 
though he does not consider Professor Lee to have been a good 
preacher, yet he admired the simplicity of his character ; and 
he learned also to love others at Cambridge, who entirely 
differed from his views, such as Baptist Noel, Layland Noel, 
Gerard Noel, and Mr. Mudge. 

Wolft was once asked to which Universities he gave the 
preference the German or those of Oxford and Cambridge. 
He replied, without the slightest hesitation, " I prefer Oxford 
and Cambridge to the most celebrated Universities of Ger 
many. For, though in Germany more branches of science 
may be taught, yet, with regard to solidity and discipline, 
which alone form good, great, and religious men, Oxford and 
Cambridge are very far superior to any other establishments 
of the sort. The German professors are the slaves of the 
boys, their pupils ; and should one of them dare to displease a 
student, the rest of the students would all to a man combine, 
and march out of the town, and could only be induced to 
return by the professors following them, and humbly apolo 
gizing. And this is especially the case in the Protestant 
Universities of Germany. I once, 1 added Wolff, " asked 
Professor Lee, of Cambridge, What would your Cambridge 
professors do if the students threatened to leave the Univer 
sity 2 He at once replied, We would expel every one of 
them ! " And so it should be. It is quite ridiculous in Ger 
many to hear a beardless boy feay, Da fiihlt man sich 
(literally, One feels oneself is conscious of the powers 
within one). I was struck with horror," 1 said Wolff in con 
clusion, " on meeting in Mocha, in Arabia, a German youth, 
a student of one of their Universities, who had taken arms 
under the Egyptian tyrant, Ibrahim Pasha, and who boasted 
of being a revolutionist and an atheist. He said to me, c It 
was in the University that I learnt to feel myself, and to dis 
obey the professor. I replied, using his own words, And 
now you have learnt to feel yourself, it has made you the slave 
of a Muhammadan tyrant. 

Before Wolff left England, the first time, he visited the 
Jewish Synagogue in Duke-street, London. It was on a 
Friday evening, and the congregation were performing Divine 

of Dr. Wolff, 91 

worship. Wolff, however, disregarding the fact that they 
were engaged in their religious service, began to circulate 
tracts published by the London Society for promoting Christi 
anity among the Jews. The Jews justly indignant at this 
unwise proceeding, not only turned Wolff out of the Syna 
gogue, but actually beat and kicked him, and took away his 
hat, which they afterwards threw after him into the street. 
But it must not be omitted that the more respectable Jews 
subsequently apologized for this rude behaviour. 


Gibraltar; Argues with Jews; Malta, further arguments; 
Clear do Naudi ; Alexandria ; argues ivitli Mar pur go ; Mr. 
Salty Sir Gardiner Wilkinson ; Magic ; Cairo ; Messrs. 
Came and Clarke ; Mount Sinai ; taken prisoner by Arabs ; 
return to Cairo. 

WOLFF embarked for- Gibraltar on the 17th of April, 1821, 
accompanied on board by Augustus Bayford, now Dr. 
Bayford, then a boy about fifteen years of age ; and amidst a 
storm, which perhaps others did not think anything of, but 
which frightened Wolff, who was a great coward at sea, they 
arrived at Gibraltar. Here he was kindly received by John 
Bailey, Esq., Lieutenant R.N., at whose house he soon took 
up his residence ; also by Dr. Parker ; and the Wesleyan mis 
sionaries, Rees and Croscombe. Wolff was requesed to pray 
in the Wesleyan Chapel, which he did, but with some hesita 
tion of speech. The whole congregation, however, groaned, as 
if much touched. When he had done, Rees prayed in turn, 
and it was a beautiful outpouring of devotion, addressed to the 
majesty of heaven. But the whole congregation was silent ; 
which is, among these people, a sign of disapprobation. After 
Wolff left the meeting-house, Rees said to him, " Now you see 
a little of the spirit of my flock ; I am not popular among them, 
and so they groaned when you prayed : and, though I cer 
tainly prayed with as much fervour as you did, they were 
silent." Wolff was so much disgusted with the spit efuln ess of 
the congregation, and no less so with the remark of their minis- 
tor, who should not have minded their groans, that he said to 
him, " You will never catch me praying in your meeting-house 

^J2 rrarek and Ad ceitt tires 

again." Nevertheless, lie kept up hid friendship with Mr. 
Reeg, and was taken by him and Mr. Croscombe to the house 
of a very intelligent and respectable Jew, named Gabay, with 
whom he had both then and afterwards some very interesting 

llabbi Gabay was considered by the Jews themselves to be 
the most learned man among them, and they called him " The 
wise man."" He had travelled in Germany, France, and Eng 
land ; spoke Hebrew, Italian, Spanish, and English, and had 
learned Arabic from a Moorish gentleman. 

When Wolff first visited him, he found him, surrounded by 
his wife and children, interpreting a Rabbinical book to two 
Jews. Gabay received him with the utmost kindness, and 
then proceeded to try him, first in Italian, then in Arabic, 
then in Hebrew, to ascertain what he knew ; after which, he 
showed him the travels of Niebuhr, translated into French, 
which language he understood pretty well. On WolfFs ask 
ing for an Arabic Bible, he brought him the Arabic translation 
of the Old Testament, published by the Bible Society; and 
then they read together a great part of the first chapter of 

After this was over, Wolff being anxious to hear something 
of the state of the Jews at Gibraltar, asked Gabay "s permission 
to question him on the subject ; and this being granted, the 
following dialogue ensued : 

Wolff." How many Jews are there at Gibraltar 2" 

Gabay. " Three or four thousand." 

Wolff." Have they a chief Rabbi P 

Gabay. " Yes; his name is Rabbi Joseph, from Morocco.*" 

Wolff." Is he a learned man?" 

Gabay. " In the Talmud only." 

Wolff. "Are the Jews at Gibraltar all Talmudists* or 
Coraeem?" f 

Gabay. " There are no Coraeem : all are Talinudists ; but 
we hear there are some Coraeem at Morocco." 

Wolff then told Gabay of the conversations Lewis Way had 
had with the Coraeem Jews in the Crimea, and of his journey 

* The sect who hold to Rabbinical interpretations of Scripture, and 

f The sect who reject tradition, and admit Scripture only as their rule. 
How Dr. McCaul, in his pamphlet on Marriage with a deceased Wife s 
Sister, could dare to assert that the Coraecni, or Camites only began to 
exist in the 12th century, is inconceivable , because Muhammad s mother 
was a Jewess of the daughters of Koraita, as the Coraeem arc called in 
the Arabic language. See Mawodee. 

of Dr. Wolff. 93 

to Aix-la-Chapelle, with which account Gabay was very much 
pleased, and -said, "Love produces a much greater effect than 
anything else" 

To this all present assented, and Wolft remarked that true 
Christians in every age have loved the Jews. 

He then inquired further, whether the Jews at Gibraltar 
had a king? To which Gabay replied, "No; for the Jews 
are now without king, and without prophet, and without 

Yet, although this was true as regards a regularly-appointed 
and anointed king, the Jews at Gibraltar have the custom of 
giving the title of " king 1 1 to one of their number. At the 
time of Wolft" s visit, this Jewish king s name was Carthosa, a 
man, it was said, of liberal mind ; but as he was unluckily just 
then on a visit to Lord Chatham in England, Wolft did not. 
see him. 

The conversation between Gabay and Wolff continued by 
the latter inquiring whether Gabay had heard of the new syna 
gogue, which the Jews in Germany had established. 

Gabay asked, " What are their principles?" 

Wolft answered, " They are, alas ! Deists, viz., neither Jews 
nor Christians." To which Gabay replied, " They are the 
beast spoken of in the Revelation of St. John ! " After which 
lie showed Wolff a Hebrew Bible, with the commentary of 
Jonathan (Targum Jonathan).* 

Wolft looked at it, and said, " Has Targum Jonathan the 
same authority among the Jews here as Targum Onkelos?" f 

Gabay exclaimed, " Yes ! for Targum Jonathan is written 
by inspiration of the Holy r lhopt." Wolff asked, "How vnpv 

r(ii> \>< proved ? V < ;. ;, \ ;.ns\\ >T- <I : OTIC?. " V I -.-iliti i . 

li\ r w !i;ii tradition;"" inquire \V..!H l\ r!i;..i \ Hi* 
ll:.i>i iv" u:..< tli^ .l"\\ > i-.-|ij\-. IJiii." persisted V\ ,,IM . U li6~\v 
do v oii [>rov< the truth ; ih: i tradition o the Rabbis ." Tin.-- 
was a close question, ami uai^ty retunu-d uu jiu\ver, bat hroke 
oft", and turned the conversation to another subject ; a mode of 
getting out of the difficulty which he practised again when 
Wolft showed him the sermon on the Mount, and asked what 
he thought of the doctrine. Gabay answered at first, that he 
considered the whole as a history; but when Wolff" pressed him 
further by inquiring whether he approved of it, he just said, 
c I like fine and grand words;" and once more broke oft the 

* Targum is the name given to Chaldee Paraphrases of the Old Tes 

t See page 5. 

94 Travels and Adventures 

Before Wolff left, however, Gabay asked him whether they 
should read the Bible together in Hebrew, to which he gave a 
ready assent, and then received from G-abay a warm invitation 
to take up his abode in his house. This he did not do, but 
called on him several times afterwards, that they might speak 
together about religion. 

Just before parting, on the first occasion, Wolff asked con 
cerning the Jews generally at Gibraltar, whether they were in 
the habit of reading the Old Testament. 

But the answer to this may be easily anticipated. Gabay 
exclaimed, "Alas! no! for Gibraltar is too much a town of 
business." Shortly after this interview, a rich Jew, named 
Hassan, who had become a convert (though of rather a" luke 
warm sort) to Protestantism, requested Wolff to call on him ; 
and at his house Wolff met his brother, Joseph Hassan, a great 
Hebrew scholar, and still a strict, but reasonable Jew. 

Wolff spoke to this man at once about Christianity, and gave 
him the fourth and fifth chapters of St. Matthew to read. He did 
so, and was much struck when he came to the passage, " Think 
not that I am come to destroy the law or the prophets : I am 
not to come to destroy, but to fulfil."" He read it twice over, 
and continued to read, till Wolff asked, " Do you approve of 
this doctrine?" Joseph Hassan answered, * c I cannot yet give 
you my decided opinion, for I have never read the New Testa 
ment ; "I know only the Old Testament, but I will tell you my 
view about the Messiah, and about Jesus. The design of the 
Messiah was, according to the prophets, to restore Israel into 
their own land, and to make them kings and priests ; to redeem 
them from captivity, and to make them a righteous people. 
And He, the Messiah, must be their king, and mighty to save. 
But Jesus was sacrificed, it may have been for a very good 
purpose, but this very circumstance shows that He was not the 

Wolff replied, earnestly, " I am entirely of the same opinion 
that the Messiah will come one day, and restore Israel to their 
own land, and every true Christian believes it ; but they must 
first look on Him whom they have pierced, and mourn." 

But although Wolff believed this at that time in a general 
way, he had not yet those definite ideas of the second advent 
of our Lord, which afterwards enabled him to combat success 
fully this favourite argument of the Jews. His visit to the 
Hassans was followed by another to Gabay, when they dis 
coursed for two hours upon the interpretation of different pas 
sages of Scripture referring to the Messiah, but with no par- 

of Dr. Wolff. 95 

ticular result, although with unabated good feeling on both 

Another Jew, with whom Wolff became acquainted at 
Gibraltar, was Mr. Ben Oliel, who was said to be not only the 
richest Jew, but the richest man in the place. He was Consul- 
General of the Emperor of Morocco, and gave Wolff and his 
friends, Lieutenant Bailey and Dr. Parker, who accompanied 
him, a most cordial reception, inviting them to his country 
house, and offering to give all the information he could about 
the East. Nor did his kindness abate, or he betray any dis 
pleasure, even when Wolff told him that he was a Jew by 
birth, who had, through conviction, entered the Christian 
Church. On the contrary, he promised to give him letters for 
the Prior of the Spanish Convent at Jerusalem, asking for an 
introduction for Wolff to the Jews at Jerusalem. He was 
pleased to find that Wolff could talk with him in Hebrew, and 
also in Arabic, and was glad to hear accounts of the Jews re 
siding at Paris and in Germany. 

By Mr. Ben Oliel, Wolff was soon after introduced to the 
presidents of the three chief synagogues at Gibraltar, and 
from them he learnt that there were not above 1,600 Jews in 
the place ; and that the Jews of Portugal were much more 
faithful to their religion than those of Spain. Mr. Ben Oliel 
accompanied Wolff and his friend, Lieutenant Bailey, to their 
synagogue also, but Wolff was not, of course, allowed to 

On a third visit to Gabay, he went, by appointment, in the 
forenoon, at half-past eleven, to read Spanish, and was met at 
the gate by Gabay^s son, who, when he saw Wolff, ran in to 
tell his father ; and on entering the room, he found there Gabay 
and three Jews with white beards, dressed after the Turkish 
manner, besides four other respectable Jews, of the Portuguese 
persuasion, and several Jewish ladies. They all arose as Wolff 
came in, and Gabay shook hands with him, and he made his 
bow to the others, who responded kindly, showing by their 
countenances a mixture of respect for him with confidence in 
themselves. Wolff began by desiring Gabay to read the Bible 
with him in the Spanish tongue ; on which Gabay inquired 
what chapter he would like to read ? 

Wolff declined choosing, for although he longed to name a 
chapter in which the Messiah is spoken of, he did not know 
whether Gabay would like to argue with him in the presence 
of other Jews. He therefore told Gabay, as his master, to 
choose the chapter. Gabay did so, and took Isaiah xi. " And 
there shall come forth a stem of Jesse," &c. ; and when Wolff, 

On Travels and Adventure* 

continuing to read, came to verse 6, " The wolf also shall 
dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the 
kid," Gabay interrupted him, and asked, "What is the sense 
of this verse f 

Wolff answered, " That there shall be universal peace." 
After the chapter was concluded, a silence of several minutes 
followed ; the Turkish Jews sitting, in these moments of me 
ditation, as is their custom, with their hands on their beards. 
At last a young Jew, whose countenance expressed solidity 
and seriousness, opened the Hebrew Bible, and all the others 
followed his example, and the young Jew asked : " Mr. Wolff, 
do you understand the contents of this chapter?" 

Wolff answered, " The prophet speaks here of the Messiah." 
On which the young Jew asked again, " Does the wolf dwell 
with the lamb, and does the leopard lie down with the kid ?*" 

Wolff s reply to this was a warm assertion of his faith in 
the crucified Saviour as the true Messiah : and he spoke it 
with a force and an agitation that must have fully persuaded 
liis hearers that he believed what he professed to believe. And 
" no anger, no gnashing of teeth, no laughter, no blasphemy 
followed" (as Wolff himself recorded at the time in his journal), 
adding, " God be praised for it !" 

Nevertheless, the young Jew, whose countenance and eyes, 
whilst looking at the aged ones who were searching the Scrip 
tures, expressed his desire to cut Wolff in pieces ; not with 
violence, but with the force of his arguments, and with the 
sword of the Scripture, pressed him again by saying, " You 
have poured out your feelings, but I desire arguments." To 
which all the Jews responded together, "Arguments! Argu- 
ni Mits ! And Hi"!, once more \W|fV I.SS^T:*? !. Th-- \t 
-ii li. i.- MII- . \ nl i !. nioj-H rh*-- vi ini j . - v. r L it >!;. t M,| 

Km fh- l.Miiii does li"1 iw-ll \vitii Hi- \v,|f ; rli-n- is i|,.t \ 
Mi:. I i>iil \ -!<:. I [": 

iVolft answered, ii.,.. will take , ..._. 

To which the young Jew objected, " How do you prove two 
coinings of the Messiah ?" 

Wolff said, " When we find the greatest part of the pro 
phecy respecting the Messiah fulfilled^ in one who declared him 
self to be that Messiah, then we must believe that he was the 
Messiah, and are bound to believe what he revealeth unto us. 
Messiah has come, and he tells us he shall come again. Many 
of the prophecies are not yet fulfilled, and he must come a 
second time to fulfil them/ Which argument was right as far 
as it went, but Wolff had not yet learnt to combat the strong 
hold of the Jews from the words of the Messiah himself 

of Dr. Wolff. 97 

"0 fools, and slow of heart, to believe ALL that the prophets 
have spoken," &c., as will be more fully shown hereafter. 

Wolff was detained longer at Gibraltar than he originally- 
purposed, and so had other interviews with his friend Rabbi 
Gabay, and made further acquaintances. Among them, that 
of Mr. Ben Aruz, respected by all the officers of the garrison 
as an honest man and a gentleman. He was also a man of 
property, and it is to be remarked that Wolff found the richer 
and more educated Jews much more willing to listen to his 
arguments, and think well of his efforts, than the poorer 

One conversation with Mr. Ben Aruz was interesting enough 
to be worth citation. Mr. Cohen, another Jew, in whom 
Wolff had taken great interest, but who subsequently turned 
out very unsatisfactory, took him to the house of Ben Aruz, 
and the dialogue between them was as follows : 

Ben Aruz. " I am very much obliged for the New Testa 
ment ; I say always to my friend Cohen that Mr. Wolff is a 
very sensibfe man, of great talent, who gains much money, and 
eats well, and drinks well, and believes in his heart what he 
likes ; all the Jews in Gibraltar are a parcel of fools, who argue 
with you about the prophets and the law. I was in the world, 
andjniow the world very well ; I have done myself just what 
you Mr. Wolff are doing I went about with bishops arm in 
arm ; I lived many times in convents, and was the galant 
homme of all the ladies, but in the midst of all these things in 
my heart I was a Jew and so you are, Mr. Wolff and you 
are right !" 

Wolff. " It is sad indeed that you know so little of the 
spirit of the law of Moses and the Prophets as to think that a 
man may be a hypocrite^ and nevertheless be a good Jew. If 
you, Mr. Ben Aruz, have acted thus in your youth, for a little 
meat and drink, you have acted wrong, and I tell you that you 
have not been happy that whole time. And do you think that 
I should be such a fool as to deny my God, my Saviour, for 
money, for meat and drink ? There will be a day of resur 
rection, a day of universal judgment, and if I should then be 
in such a state as you suppose, my wretched soul would be in 
an awful condition. But no, no ; I believe with all my heart, 
all my soul, in Jesus Christ, my Saviour, my Redeemer !" 

Mr. Cohen here got up and went away, and Wolff was left 
a little while alone with Ben Aruz. 

Ben Aruz. " Mr. Wolff, I am a man of honour, a man of 
secrecy, and I assure you with an oath, that I will not betray 
you, but tell me sincerely, do you believe in Jesus Christ?" 


98 Travels and Adventures 

Wolff. " In Jesus Christ, my Lord, my Clod in Jesus 
Christ, my Lord, my God in Jesus Christ, my Lord, my 
God the heaven above is my witness, and the earth beneath." 

Ben Aruz. " Of what use is the Son ? we have the Father, 
and in Him we believe !" 

Wolff. "Do you believe in the Father?" 

Ben Aruz. " I believe." 

Wolff. " And all that He commands ?" 

Ben Aruz. " And all that He commands I am obliged to 

Wolff." The Father commands, Kiss the Son r r 

Ben Aruz. " I tell you Mr. Wolff, yon will cry out at 
your death, I have sinned, I have committed iniquity, I have 
done wickedly/ 

Wolff. " Yes, you are right, I shall cry out indeed, c I have 
sinned, I have committed iniquity, I have done wickedly, 5 but 
at the same time I hope to add, I trust in thee, Jesus, my 
Lord, and my Redeemer, and my God r 

On a subsequent occasion, Rabbi Gabay attacked Wolff 
again with the word nB/# (Isa. vii.) and said, " It is true that 
DJ?y signifies to hide, but I will show you that nD 1 ?^ niay sig 
nify something else ; but first of all show me your proofs that 

Wolff. " I will give you three ; 1. From the origin of the 
word itself. 2. From the oldest translations. 3. By citations 
from the New Testament. 1. Origin tfryliide, nD^ a woman 
hidden, after the manner and custom of the East, until she is 
ripe for marriage. 2. The Greek Translators one hundred and 
eighty years before Christ translated it Virgin. 3. The Evan 
gelist Matthew would have not been so bold as to translate it 
Virgin, if the Jews had not generally understood Virgin 
under HD^- And there are other passages to the same effect." 

Gabay. " I will prove to you by Kimchi s Dictionary, 
that Q^iy must have another original signification beside /tide." 

Here he opened Kimchi, and showed Wolff D\*J^^ which 
Kimchi translated ^tOIH wiiiwr, but Gabay did not read all 
through Kimchi s interpretation ; but suddenly stopt short, 
whereupon Wolff exclaimed with great vehemence, "Mr. 
Gabay, go on ! go on ! go on !" 

And according Gabay was obliged to continue, and then it 
appeared that Kimchi mentioned the reason why QVJ 1 ?^ has 
the signification of sinner, viz. , because lie acts in secret 
places. The above-mentioned Ben Aruz, who was a friend of 
M. Gabav entered the room here, and beginning to talk, used 

of Dr. Wolff. 99 

the same arguments that he had done the day before, but Wolli 
maintained his ground. 

Ben Aruz. " You are obliged to confess the name of 

Wolff. " Yes, you are right, I am obliged to confess the 
name of Christ, constrained by the grace of the Lord !" 

Ben Aruz. " Because all your present welfare depends upon 
this profession, you mean." 

Wolff. " All my present and future happiness and welfare 
depend upon it !" 

Ben Arus." Courage, Mr. Wolff !" 

Wolff. "Which Jesus Christ my Lord will give me !" 

Ben Arux.-" Hold Him fast." 

Wolff." I it-ill l>y Ms grace hold Him fast" 

Ben Aruz. " Or you lose yourself?" 

Wolff. i( Or lose myself for ever." 

Ben Aruz. " You have a great talent." 

Wolff. " I am a poor weak creature, a sinner who hopes to 
be saved by Christ Jesus, by his blood !" 

Gabay. "He neither slumbers nor sleeps, the Watchman 
in Israel !" (He said this in Hebrew.) 

Wolff. " He neither slumbers nor sleeps, the Watchman 
in Israel !" (Wolff] in Hebrew.) 

Gabay. " Hear, Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord !" 
(in Hebrew again.) 

Wolff. " Hear, Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord and 
Jesus is the Messiah !" (Wolff, in Hebrew.) 

Tears stood in the eyes of Gabay, at Wolffs earnestness, 
and Ben Aruz himself became more serious. And Wolff had 
at any rate the comfort of feeling, that no one present could 
suspect him of a trifling spirit. 

Another day, five or six Catholic priests asked Wolff to go 
with them to their house; where they brought him into a dark 
room where nobody looked him in the face and there-they 
began to talk about the Pope. They used the Latin tongue. 
Wolff told them he loved Pius the Seventh very much on 
account of his liberality. One of the priests told him, un 
asked, that he was at Eome in 1817 (just when Wolff was in 
the Propaganda), and knew well Cardinal Litta. Wolff said 
to him, I received, after my departure from Eome, a very 
affectionate and interesting letter from that very Cardinal 

Litta." Then they began to argue about the Pope s Infalli- 
, .,. / o o r 


< Wolff. " Ecclesia Gallicana non credit Papam esse infalli- 
bilem. " 


100 Travels and Adventures 

Capucin. "Ecclesia Gallicana credit minus quam debet" 

Wolff. " Quomodo probas ?" 

Capttdin* " Papa est caput ecclesiw, ergo infallibilis esse 

Wolff. " Verbum digito Domini scriptum, non dicit hoc" 

Capucln. " Nee tibi^ nee mihi, sacra scriptura data fuit, 
sed ecclesice" 

Though there was a good deal of sound reasoning in that 
Friar s remarks, yet they were spoken in such an unamiahle 
and hostile manner, that Wolff was not at all easy in the com 
pany of these priests, and was glad to come out from them. 
He suspected by their countenances that they hated him, and 
would have consigned him to the Inquisition if it had been in 
their power. On the other hand, some of the ^Protestant 
Christians at Gibraltar feared that WolfTs life was not safe 
among the Jews ; but this was quite an unreasonable appre 
hension, as little circumstances constantly proved. For 
instance, one day he strolled out of the town alone ; and in 
returning to Lieutenant Bailey s mistook the road and came 
into a solitary place ; where he met several Jews, who smiled, 
and brought him in the right way. He went alone too into 
their houses, and to their synagogues, and they shook hands 
with him on those occasions quite kindly. He always showed 
himself very serious to them, in order to keep up that respect 
which he felt to be necessary among them. 

Of the many Jews with whom Wolff associated at Gibraltar, 
there was only one, Jonas by name, who treated Wolff with 
real enmity, and he was very violent, even trying to raise a 
mob against him ; in which attempt, however, he did not 
succeed. But Wolff was much grieved by some of the English 
Christians, who were high Calvinists ; especially by a long- 
face pulling lady with a whining voice, a daughter of that holy 

man, S of P Q , in whom indwelling holiness 

had triumphed over his Calvinistic views, as true Christianity 
of the heart will always counteract the practical tendency of 
every false system. But his daughter did not inherit this 
largeness of mind. She was continually bothering Wolff not 
to argue with the Jews about the truths of the Gospel, but 
only to preach to them the sovereignty of grace, and the doc 
trines of election and reprobation. 

On the 16th June, 1821, after having remained two months 
at Gibraltar, Wolff embarked on board the Shamrock, a mer 
chant vessel, commanded by Captain Senner, of Liverpool, 
bound for Malta. Among the passengers there was one very 

of Dr. Wolff. 101 

interesting one, Lieutenant Toole by name, a young gentleman 
of the highest talent and acquirements. 

Wolff gave him the " Researches of Claudius Buchanan" to 
read, in which Toole took the greatest interest, especially 
where that excellent writer points out those passages of Scrip 
ture, relating to the dispersion of the Jews, on which ho 
observes, " The Hindoo persecutes the Jew without knowing 
the reason of his doing so." 

Toole kept continually saying, as he read, "An extraordi 
nary fact, an extraordinary fact !" and from that time he 
became more serious, and read his. Bible every day during the 
passage to Malta. 

That excellent young man afterwards died in Africa, where 
he went with Clapperton to Bornou. 

On his arrival in Malta, Wolff was obliged to perform 
quarantine, as there had been fever at Gibraltar. And here 
the Maltese doctor, Cleardo Naudi, agent for the British and 
Foreign Bible Society, and for the London Society for Pro 
moting Christianity among the Jews, who also translated the 
New Testament and various tracts into Maltese for the Church 
Missionary Society, called on Joseph Wolff, and invited him, 
when released from quarantine, to take up his abode at his 
house. A short sketch of the life of this remarkable man will 
interest the reader. 

He began his career in 1816, when he attracted the notice 
of Henry Drummond, then at Malta. He had, at that time, 
written a tract in Italian, entitled " The Fear of Man." 
Drummond asked him to lend him this tract, and, soon after, 
Naudi saw his own tract printed at his friend s expense, with 
the name of Cleardo Naudi affixed to it. This brought him 
into notice in England, and the Bible and Missionary Socie 
ties gladly employed him as their agent at Malta: after which, 
he also became member of the committees of all the societies 
then existing in Malta, as auxiliaries to those in London. At 
last, through the acuteness of the Kev. William Jowett, 
missionary from the Church Missionary Society, (or, as he 
was ridiculously called, the "literary representative of the 
Church Missionary Society ;" a title he wisely gave up after 
wards, moved thereto by the sarcastic but just" remarks of the 
late Henry Drummond,) suspicions began to be entertained 
with regard to Naudi, which led to the Church Missionary 
and Bible Societies dismissing him from their service. Yet, 
for some years, he was still employed by the London Mis 
sionary Society, but, after a while, he lost that post also. He 
then persuaded Keeling, the Wesley an missionary, that he 

102 Travels and Adventures 

had converted a number of Maltese to the tenets of the Wes- 
leyan connection ; but that, as yet, they were unwilling to 
give their names ; and having on the death of his first wife, 
who was a Maltese, married an Englishwoman, he introduced 
her to the Wesley an missionaries as a Roman Catholic lady 
from England, who was desirous of embracing the Protestant 
faith ; and to the Roman Catholics as a Wesleyan, anxious to 
return to the bosom of the true Church. So, at certain hours 
of the day, she received instruction in the Protestant religion 
from the Weslcyan missionary, Keeling ; and, at other times, 
she was catechised by a Roman Catholic priest in the tenets 
of the Church of Rome. And one Sunday morning, at nine 
o clock, she accompanied her husband to the Wesleyan chapel, 
and abjured the errors of Popery ; and three hours after, at 
twelve o^clock, she went to the private chapel of the Roman 
Catholic bishop, and solemnly renounced the damnable heresies 
of the Methodist persuasion ! 

Nor did this end the deception. On the contrary, she 
received the holy communion every week in the Roman 
Catholic chapel in the morning ; and in the evening related 
her "experiences," in company with Naudi, in the class- 
meeting of Mr. Keeling, describing her conversion, and how 
there "fell from her eyes, as it had been scales;" and that 
since then, as she worded it, she had not sinned, but back 
slidden ! 

At last, in 1834, Naudi was completely unmasked, and 
dismissed by the London Society for Promoting Christianity 
among the Jews. His career, however, was not yet ended. 
In 1835, he set out for England ; and when Wolff heard that, 
he said to his darling wife, and to other friends in Malta, 
" Now, mark my words, this fellow will go to the Irvingite 
chapel, and break forth in an unknown tongue, and he will 
return to us an Evangelist of the sect." In 1843, Wolff and 
his wife, Lady Greorgiana, paid a long visit to Henry Drum- 
mond, and then heard that Naudi had come to England in Ihr 
year 1835 ; had really gone to the Irvingite chapel, and heard 
the unknown tongues ; and then, suddenly inspired, broke 
forth himself. And in the list of the officers of the Irvingite 
religion, which Wolff saw that year, the name of Cleardo 
Naudi appeared, as Evangelist for the Island of Malta. This 
extraordinary man returned to Malta during the time of the 
cholera, where he really distinguished himself by his attend 
ance on the sick and dying, from morning to night, with a zeal 
which gained him the respect of all the inhabitants of the 
place, and of the British Government there. And, finally ^ 

of Dr. Wolff. 103 

poor Cleardo Naudi died the victim of those righteous labours, 
having caught the disease himself; in consequence of which a 
pension was granted to his widow : and thus, odd to say, the 
name of this curious man is now remembered with gratitude 
and respect. And Wolff thinks that the pompous coldness 
with which he was treated at the outset, by some of the mis 
sionaries, may have contributed to make him what he was, 
though exactly what that was, it is difficult to judge. Schiller 
is right in saying, " That we are still in need of a Linnaeus, to 
classify the motives of the human heart." 

But to return to Wolff s visit to Malta in 1821. He took 
up at that time his abode with Naudi, who gave him every 
assistance in his power, in his missionary pursuits. Mr. Joseph 
Greaves introduced him to a rich Jew, Ben Simra by name, 
who was just then in his warehouse, in the midst of many 
Jews and English Christians. 

Mr. Greaves said " Mr. Ben Simra, 1 introduce to you 
Mr. Wolff, who has been strongly recommended to me from 
England." Mr. Ben Simra stood, with his hands behind him, 
looking at Wolff in a contemptuous manner; and, turning away 
from him, said to Joseph Greaves, "This man must not come 
into my house. He ought to follow a better trade." They bowed 
and left him. It was a bad beginning. However, that same 
day Wolff had the visits of two Jews, the one, Luzena by 
name, a Jew from Ragusa, whose whole object was to find out 
whether Wolff could introduce him to rich merchants. 
Roguery was in his eyes. The other Jew, Cohen by name, 
was a fool, and made a fool of Wolff. He complained that the 
Jews persecuted him, and pressed him to pay his debts, 
because he wanted to become a Christian. Wolff at last found 
out that this man was not sincere, for the observation fre 
quently made by Hoffbauer was verified in that fellow 
" Most fools are knaves." He one day came to Wolff, and 
told him that he had had a dream that he should find a trea 
sure in a certain place, and he actually made a fool of a Mal 
tese who came to assist him in digging after that treasure, but 
they found nothing. 

Wolff attempted to preach in the synagogue, and entered it 
with several English officers and civilians for that purpose. 
The officers and civilians were asked politely to sit down, but 
Gomez, the churchwarden the chief of the Jews, came up to 
Wolff, and said, " Thy memory and thy name be blotted out 
from the book of life ! Instantly you leave !" 

Wolff said, " You have no right to turn me out from a place 
of public worship." 

104 Travels and Adventures 

Gomez said, " This is private place of worship, and, if you 
ever dare to come in again, you will be insulted." 

Wolff left with his friends, and returned to Naudi, where he 
had an encounter with a Maltese Catholic, an architect, who 
was a complete atheist, and whose name was Gronniet. Wolff 
lost too much time in conversing with that profane infidel and 
revolutionist; but his English Christian friends, together with 
Naudi, always took his part on such occasions. To show the 
weak and ignorant way in which such people argue, part of a 
dialogue between Wolff and Gronniet is subjoined : 

Signor Gronniet. " The whole of Christianity is an impos 
ture of the priests." 

Wolff. " You were born a Roman Catholic, and, having 
seen the superstition of your Church, you think that the true 
system of Christianity consists in that." 

Gronniet. " I do not believe in any divine revelation." 

Wolff. " What reasons have you for not doing so 2" 

Gronniet. "If God had desired that man should act and 
think after his pleasure, He could have clone it, and all men 
would be constrained to think as He likes." 

Wolff. " How should you, a worm, dare to prescribe a rule 
for God, how He should act? Head the Bible, and I hope you 
will have other views." 

Gronniet. " Every nation pretends to have a revelation 
from God. What nation, now, is in the right way ?" 

Wolff. " The very circumstance you mention, that every 
nation pretends to have had a revelation from God, should 
satisfy you that there must be some truth in it. Examine, 
therefore, the documents of the several nations, and read I 
tell you again the Bible." 

Gronniet. " The Bible is an imposture." 

Wolff. You have not read the Bible and cannot prove it." 

Gronniet. " Volney proves it." 

Wolff. " I do not argue with Volney ; 1 argue with you." 

Gronniet. " The world was from eternity." 

Wol/." Prove it." 

Gronniet. " What would God have done before He created 
the world?" 

Wolff. " Will you prove a thing by your ignorance T 

Gronniet. " You admit that God is the soul of all things ?" 

Wolff. -" T do not understand this spinozistical nonsense, 
that God is the soul of all things ; He is the Creator of all 

Gronniet.*" The word Baracli in Hebrew docs not signify 
Create, but make" 

of Dr. Wolff. 105 

Wolff. " Barach signifies nothing-, for there is not such a 
word to be found in Hebrew. You have heard something, 
but not well. It is Barak) and signifies create ; but, if I should 
admit that it signifies make, you told me just now that the 
whole Bible is an imposture, and you nevertheless would 
prove your infidelity by the authority of the Bible. I must, 
therefore, draw this conclusion, that you are an impostor ; 
but I tell you again that N"O signifies create. Here is the 

Gronniet. u I do not understand Hebrew." 

Wolff. " Then you must not assert a thing which you 
do not understand." 

Gronniet. " Volney proves it." 

Wolff. " Volney is a liar ! Prove the contrary, if you are 

Gronniet. " The Koran is better than the Bible." 

Wolff. " You have never read the Koran ; I know it. 
You have never looked into the Koran." 

Gronniet. " In the Bible is one contradiction after another." 

Wolff. "Here" (he produced a Bible) "show me one, if 
you are able. I challenge you to show ine one." 

Gronniet. " I will bring you a book which will prove to 
you that there arc contradictions in it, for I myself have too 
much to do." 

Wolff. " But you must confess that you have proved 
nothing, and that you will never be able to defend your absur 
dities by one reasonable proof. My dear friend, you are in an 
awful state. Head the Bible, where you will find the way of 
salvation, Jesus Christ ; without Him you will undoubtedly 

Gronniet. "Why does He not punish me, if there is a God, 
at this moment. I speak against Him." 

Wolff. " You are punished at this moment, for your con 
science (I know it) reproves you, while you are blaspheming 
the Lord." 

Gronniet. " There is no such thing as blasphemy." 

Wolff. " You are a blasphemer." 

Gronniet. " There are many great men who did not be 

Wolff. " Yes ; all those who wish to continue an immoral 
life. But truly great men, such as Sir Isaac Newton, Hugo 
Grotius, and Leibnitz, have been believers." 

Gronniet. " I will come again, and bring the books of 
Volney and Voltaire with me." 

Wolff." I shall be very Mad*" 

106 Travels and Adventures 

Mr. Sheridan Wilson, Minister of the Independent denomi 
nation, and missionary of the London Missionary Society, 
invited Wolff to preach openly in his chapel, which offer Wolff 

It was his first attempt at public preaching ; and not only 
he himself, but all his friends, felt great anxiety ; one espe 
cially, who was a gentleman in every respect, by education, 
learning, and conduct the medical officer of the English regi 
ment then there Dr. Gaisford by name. 

It will be as well to describe his appearance. He was always 
dressed in regimentals, as all in the military service are. lie 
was exceedingly good-natured, six feet high, and immensely fat. 

He said, " Mr. Joseph Wolff, I never felt so attached to a 
missionary in my life, as I do to you. I very ardently desire 
that you should acquit yourself, in your first attempt at public 
preaching, with eclat. You must, therefore, Avrite your sermon 
to-day" (this was on a Monday), "and I shall come twice 
every day to hear you recite it." 

All the other friends of Wolff were extremely amused with 
the interest Dr. Gaisford took in the young missionary, whom 
he declared to be amiable in the extreme ; and they said they 
also must be present to see how old Gaisford drilled Joseph 

They all accordingly came, ladies as w r ell as gentlemen, and 
were seated in Dr. Naudis s large room ; when at last, old, tall, 
flit Dr. Gaisford entered, and said to Wolff, " Now, first of all, 
imagine here is the pulpit : you must mount it in a grave way, 
put the handkerchief on the pulpit cushion, and, when you find 
yourself a little exhausted, you can take it up and wipe your 
forehead with it. Every word must be pronounced distinctly ; 
and with emphasis, where emphasis is required ; clearly and 
slowly. Now begin let us hear !" 

So saying, he seated himself at a little distance, and bent his 
head in an attitude of close attention : and when he thought 
that Wolff" had failed in giving proper emphasis, he got up and 
corrected him, walking towards him in a military manner. 

However, on the Thursday he said, " I see I shall be able 
safely to advise all my friends to come to your preaching, also 
the Roman Catholics who understand English. I3ut on Satur 
day I shall inspect you again." Which he accordingly did, 
and then said, " Now I am satisfied. I see that we may all 

On the Sunday following, Wolff had an immense congrega 
tion, and acquitted himself a mer^eiUe, as Gaisford himself ex 
pressed it to all the people as they came out. "However/ 

of Dr. Wolff. 107 

said he, " it is no wonder ! I have taken considerable trouble 
with him, and he will turn out a good missionary." Then 
turning to Wolff, he remarked, " Now I shall have something 
to say to the Jews for having treated you so rudely." So he 
went to the synagogue, and called them a set of ragamuffins, 
not fit to breathe "the air, for having treated so ill an amiable 
and talented man, who they ought to have known was his 
friend ! 

The poor Jews were frightened to death, and were apprehen 
sive that great tribulation would fall upon the holy congrega 
tion of Israel for their misbehaviour. But Wolff conversed 
with a few of them, and they were a little conciliated. That 
excellent man, Gaisford, died in 1823, of dropsy. 

Wolff remained for some time longer in Malta, and made 
many acquaintances in the house of Charles Henry Smith, 
Superintendent of the Dockyard. He was introduced also to 
several interesting characters, two of whom are well worthy of 
being noticed. The one was Professor Rossetti, who wrote 
the remarkable commentary upon Dante Alighieri, in which he 
tries to prove that Dante was a Carbonari. His commentary 
is fanciful, but Wolff was charmed with Eossctti himself; nor 
can he ever forget his terrible recitation of the death of Ugolino 
and his children in the Tower, and how he gnawed at the head 
of his enemy in hell. Rossetti extemporized a most wonderful 
poem, describing the cruelty of Archbishop Ruggieri. He 
was evidently acquainted with all the scholastic writers of his 
church . 

By the side of this scholar used often to sit a hero,, General 
Carascosa, who had fled from Naples ; and both these men took 
the deepest interest in Wolff, and said, " Wolff, your amiable 
conduct will carry you through the world.*" 

Nevertheless, Rossetti advised him not to go to Alexandria 
as he had purposed, because the war with the Greeks had just 
broken out. But he went notwithstanding, proceeding in a 
Maltese ship ; and, on his arrival, found the town exactly as it 
is described by Volney. The change from European life was 
complete ; everything was now Eastern. A Janissary came 
on board the ship, asking for letters. He was the Janissary of 
the English Consul, Mr. Lee. And there was there also the 
British Consul- General of Egypt, who commonly resided at 
Cairo Henry Salt, Esq., the fellow-traveller of Lord Valentia, 
in Abyssinia ; a man of deep learning, very skilful in reading 
inscriptions, and most eminent in drawing cold in manner, 
but kind in heart. Mr. Salt complained that the London 
Society for promoting Christianity among the Jews had just 

108 Travels and Adventures 

sent a most unfit missionary to Jerusalem, Melchior Tschudy 
by name, with his little wife : a man who was evidently a mere 
speculator. He had already offered the Pasha to drill the 
Arabs in military tactics in the Desert, provided he was made 
Governor of Arabia, and Commander-in-Chief of the troops I 
He played the quack also, and sold medicine to the ladies, in 
order that they might be blessed with children ; moreover, he 
pretended to know witchcraft. Wolff wrote all this home, and 
got the fellow dismissed. 

At Alexandria Wolff met with more success among the Jews 
than in Malta. He was first introduced to Dr. Marpurgo, the 
Jewish physician of the Pasha, who had desired his acquaint 
ance. Marpurgo had been for many years in Egypt, and 
spoke Arabic, Turkish, French, Italian, English, and German, 
with the greatest facility. He was, however, one of those 
Jews who believe nothing. Pie had married a Jewess of 
Egypt, who certainly was not the lady for him, as none of the 
Eastern ladies can be, for a well-educated European. All their 
talk is about dress, and their gait is that of an elephant ; and 
Marpurgo s own view about them was, that they were all 
daughters of the devil. Nevertheless, his father-in-law was a 
worthy old Egyptian Jew, with a fine venerable beard ; and 
Marpurgo used to say to Wolff, " How I should laugh if you 
were to succeed in baptizing my father-in-law f" Wolff visited 
him first one evening, when he had with him a traveller from 
Prussia, Dr. Hemprich, a naturalist, who was investigating 
subjects of natural history, between Egypt and Abyssinia : and 
the two came down upon Wolff, and argued for three hours on 
religion. Hemprich said at last, he could not conceive that 
anybody would go to the East, and expose himself to such an 
unhealthy climate, and to so many dangers, for the missionary 
cause, unless he were a fanatic : but to this Wolff replied that 
Hemprich himself had been sent out by his Government to 
acquire more knowledge in natural history, and found the mo 
tive sufficient. Was it incredible that some should take pity 
on the degraded state of Jews and Muhammadans, and desire 
to give them the knowledge of better things ? Marpurgo then 
remarked, that, if Wolff would but consider the conduct of the 
several denominations of Christians in the East, who were 
ready to murder each other before the altar, whilst Jews and 
Muhammadans lived together in perfect peace, he would no 
longer wish to join the Jews to such communions. To which 
Wolff protested that his object was to make them acquainted 
with the word of God, and with their Saviour ; and then they 
might become a light to enlighten those Gentiles, who called 

of Dr. Wolff. 1.09 

themselves Christians, but were so unworthy of the sacred 
name. The conversation was in German, and was conducted 
in the most friendly manner ; the disputants sitting together 
on a sofa to talk. In conclusion, they evidently left the vic 
tory to the missionary, whom they afterwards introduced to 
the rest of the Jews. Among others to a rich one, Sananas by 
name, who had two wives, for polygamy is allowed to, and 
practised by, the Jews in the East. He had a young wife and 
an old one ; and at this Jew s house Wolff was surrounded by 
the greater part of the Jewish community, to whom he preached 
the Gospel in the Hebrew tongue. He was also invited to 
dinner by Sananas, and conversed with many of the guests 
upon the subject of Jesus being the Messiah. Meantime, his 
acquaintance with Drs. Marpurgo and Hemprich was continued 
from the first. They called on him together at the British 
Consulate, and Dr. Marpurgo gave him an account of a manu 
script of the Pentateuch, preserved in one of the synagogues at 
Cairo, which was supposed to have been written by Ezra, and 
which was considered so sacred, that an anathema was pro 
nounced by the Rabbis at Cairo, against every one who should 
open the door of the chest wherein it was preserved. Mar 
purgo added that he had intended to take it out, but sickness 
had prevented him. He also told Wolff of another manuscript 
of the law of Moses (n"Vin ")3D) Sepher Torah, preserved by 
twelve Jewish families, at a place called Malta (not the island), 
near Cairo, which was supposed to have been written a thou 
sand years before, and which was said to have performed many 
miracles. Many Jews from Cairo, and other places, performed 
pilgrimages to that Sepher Torah ; and one day, afterwards, 
Wolff asked permission to see it, and was allowed by the Jews 
to do so, when the worship in the synagogue was over, and 
most of the congregation had dispersed. The sanctuary was 
then opened, and the Torah taken out, and Wolff read in it ; 
after which, he said, " This Word ought to be read day and 
night, for it is the Word of God, which He gave by Moses 
upon the Mount Sinai, amidst thunder and lightnings ; and 
we ought to be thankful to the Jews that they have preserved 
this law, and even counted the letters, in order that we may be 
sure it is the same Word which was given to Moses upon the 
holy Mount." He spoke this half in Italian, half in Hebrew, 
and sometimes in Arabic, and all the Jews present applauded 
his sentiments. 

But to return to Marpurgo s visit with Dr. Hemprich. 
After speaking of these manuscripts, it was clear they wished 
to talk more ; and a question or two from Wolff soon brought 

110 Travels and Adventures 

on another discussion. He addressed himself to Dr. Hem- 
prich, and asked, 

" What is the chief object of your travelling- ? With what 
branch of knowledge do you intend to enrich our native coun 
try, our dear Germany?" 

Hemprich. " The chief object of my research is natural 

Wolff. " A very important research. It is worth while to 
undertake labours and hardships in every research which tends 
to promote the truth. 1 

Hemprich. " Quite true, especially as one of our German 
philosophers says, c Those sciences will always pay for their 
labour which are below and nigh unto us, the physical 
sciences ; but the inquiry into metaphysics always loses itself 
in the clouds, and we know as little as before. " 

Wolff quite understood what Dr. Hemprich meant, and was 
now very anxious to continue the discourse, that he might, by 
God s blessing, show these men that belief in Holy Revelation 
was not an inquiry in the clouds. He had not now to do with 
ignorant pretenders, but with men who had studied, and were 
skilful in argument. So he addressed Dr. Hemprich again as 
follows : 

Wolff . " Where did you study philosophy ?" 

Hemprich. " At Breslau." 

Wolff. " What is the name of the Professor at Breslau, 
who gives public lectures in philosophy?" 

Hemprich. " Dr. Stephens." 

Wolff. "Does not Dr. Stephens follow the system of 

Hemprich. u Yes; but I went to hear him only for amuse 
ment. It is true ho is a man of great talent, but his lectures 
often consist of nothing but mere bombastical expressions." 

Wolff. " This is, alas ! too often the case with teachers of 
philosophy in Germany ; but I should, notwithstanding all 
this, never wish to hear a lecture upon philosophy, or a lecture 
about truth, with the mere view of amusing myself ; for if we 
go for our mere amusement only, we must be already preju 
diced and conceited and thus we are in great danger of 
remaining in darkness, while believing ourselves to be wise." 

Hemprich. " I do not say that, at the first, I went with 
the intention of amusing myself, but I did so afterwards, when 
I heard his pompous expressions." 

Wolff. u I know very little of the philosophy of Schelling, 
but I have read a dissertation of his some years ago, entitled, 
The Deity of Samothrace, in which there is much truth, 

of Dr. Wolff 111 

although some parts arc very obscure. Count Stolberg himself, 
who did not like the system of Schelling, acknowledges the 
excellency of that treatise." 

Hemprich. " Count Stolberg was fond of mysticism." 

Wolff. " I myself reject mysticism, in a certain sense ; but 
that term being often used in different senses, I should be glad 
if you would be so kind as to tell me what you understand by 

Hemprich. " I am ready to lay before you the profession 
of my faith, that you may understand what I mean by the 
word mysticism. I believe in the existence of a Grod who has 
created the whole of Nature, and has given a certain law by 
which this universe must be governed ; but He does not 
depart from that law which He has laid down, and I do not, 
therefore, believe in the miracles related in the Bible." 

Wolff. " That the Lord governs the world by a certain 
law which he has laid down, concede majorem ; that He does 
not depart from that law without a great design or purpose, 
concede mlnorem ; but that He does not depart from that cer 
tain law, even for the execution of a great design, nego 
minor em ; ergo, conclusio tua est absurda." 

Hemprich. " If He should be obliged to alter that law, Ho 
would not be omniscient. Why did He not create all things 
in such a manner that He never should have need to suspend 
the law of Nature?" 

Wolff. " You yourself must be first omniscient, to be able 
to decide what the Omniscient ought to do. Now it is in his 
law to alter the usual way of Nature, for the execution of 
great purposes ; but it is very presumptuous for a creature 
who knows so little of the usual course of Nature (for you 
would not make so many great voyages if you already knew 
all the laws of Nature) it is very presumptuous for such a 
creature to ask, Why did the Creator act thus, and not thus?" 

Hemprich. " The existence of the supreme Being of the 
Creator is proved by the order which we observe in tins 
universe. If such an extraordinary event as a miracle should 
take place, the order of Nature would be destroyed ; but God 
cannot be the author of disorder ! " 

Wolff." We cannot call it disorder, if the Maker of the 
world gives an extraordinary, turn to Nature which is beyond 
what we can conceive ; we have seen many phenomena in 
Nature which we have not yet been able to explain, and 
certainly nobody will say, on that account, that such phe 
nomena are disorder"* 

* Monsieur Ratisbonne, the famous converted Jew, who wrote the 

112 Travels and Adventures 

Here Marpurgo turned the conversation in another di 
rection, by asking, Why, if God is omniscient, He created 
men, of whom He knew that He must root them out again by 
means of a deluge ? 

Wolff. "He is omniscient ; He knows therefore, why He 
did create them. I myself, who am not omniscient, do not 
pretend to know the reason." 

Hemprich. " According to your system, we are obliged 
to believe all the miracles which the Hindoos and Pagans 

Wolff. " No ; we must take into consideration the ten 
dency of these miracles. The tendency of the miracles re 
lated in the Old Testament was to show that God would re 
deem his people Israel out of the bondage of Egypt, and that 
God Jehovah alone must be adored. The tendency of the 
miracles related in the New Testament, was to persuade men 
that Jesus was the Saviour of the world, who should recon 
cile us again with our heavenly Father, an undertaking, the 
truth of which, according to the promise of it, was well worthy 
of being proved by extraordinary circumstances, to make it 
manifest that He it is who takes away the sins of the world." 
.Hemprich. "According to your belief, sin cannot exist, 
for you admit the Divine influence in everything ; and God 
cannot be the author of sin. Who is the author of sin ! " 

Life of St. Bernard, gives the most sublime view of miracles, the most 
exalted idea of the condition of man before the Fall, and the most 
glorious glimpse of what he shall be hereafter, in the following passage : 
"Miracles are the most striking proofs of the restoration of man to 
his primitive rights ; they recall the power which, in the beginning, he 
received to rule over nature, and to command it, in the name of its 
Creator. That power, that high prerogative, may be regained by every 
man ; for all, in virtue of the Creative Word, bear within themselves 
the force which subdues the elements, rules over creatures, and com 
mands the earth. But this force is latent, degenerate, in chains; and 
the noble chief of creation, the uncrowned king of this world, has, by 
the original catastrophe, fallen to the level of the creatures whom he 
was called to govern : and even to depending on those whom it was his 
mission to free. Hence, as says St. Paul, the groanings of all terrestrial 
things, who sigh after their deliverance, and wait for the manifestation 
of the children of God : hence, the laborious work of liberation and of 
purification which man has to accomplish on this earth ; and in pro 
portion as he raises himself, and is restored to harmony with his eternal 
principle, in the same proportion he recovers, with the gifts of God, his 
glorious prerogatives ; and participates once again, in the mighty power 
of God." (James iii, 7.) 

of Dr. Wolf, 113 

Wolff 1 . " Thus you see the necessity of sacred history. 
All men are under the government of God. Men should, 
therefore, be supposed to be good ; but I feel in my heart 
a will rebelling against the Divine will. Whence does it 
come, Lord, that all my imaginations are so evil every day, 
that I rebel against the law of God I Those who worship two 
principles fall into the most monstrous absurdities. Where 
can I find the origin of my depraved nature satisfactorily ex 
plained ? I answer, I open the Book of books, and therein I 
meet with the following words : God created man in his own 
image \ in the image of God created He him. And the Lord 
God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden 
thou mayest freely eat, but of the tree of knowledge of good 
and evil thou shalt not eat of it, for in the day that thou 
eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die/ Eve, by the serpent s 
device, took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave unto 
her husband, and he did eat ; and then they knew that they 
were naked; and hence came sin into the world, of which 
God is not the author, but only man s weakness. But, 
thanks be unto the Lord, He left us not in despair ; He has 
promised that * the seed of the woman shall bruise the ser 
pent s heel/ even Christ Jesus, who reconciles us again with 
God, through his death. " 

On hearing this, Marpurgo made the remarkable obser 
vation : 

" But the Hindoos have almost the same tradition." 

To which Wolff replied, 

" Which proves that this important occurrence actually took 
place, or the tradition could not be so universal." 

Marpurgo now complimented Wolff upon his knowledge of 
Hebrew, and Wolff expressed a wish to read the fifty-third 
chapter of Isaiah with him, which they subsequently did ; and 
Marpurgo showed Wolff his library, and pointing to a copy of 
Seneca, observed, "Seneca is my daily prayer-book/ Wolff 
afterwards heard that Dr. Marpurgo had spoken of him with 
the greatest regard. 

Marpurgo died in two or three years ; and as his mother- 
in-law told Wolff, slapping her hands together at each state 
ment, u We cried, we howled, we wept," (sarakhna, aayadna, 
bakeena^) " as is customary among us, but when we looked for 
the money, there was none !" 

With Mr. Salt Wolff conversed about the mighty enter 
prises of the Romish Propaganda in Abyssinia ; and of the 
wisdom of Father Payse, who instructed the youth of that 
country ; and then allowed them to argue with the old Abyssi- 


114 Travels and Adventures 

nian priests, in order to prove to them the superiority of Euro 
pean learning over the learning of the Abyssinians in general.* 

While at Alexandria, Wolff performed Divine service, in 
the English language, in the British Consulate, in the presence 
of all the English subjects ; and he visited there also the 
Eastern Christians, giving away Bibles to all, without money 
and without price. He preached, moreover, to the Italians ; 
but when Salt rode out with him to show him the monuments 
of the Jewish Cemetery, he found but little interest in them, 
never scarcely caring for anything, except to see men of dif 
ferent races and characters. Indeed, he was six times in Cairo 
before he saw Pompey s Pillar, or took any notice of it. One 
day, an old Polish Jew, seventy years of age at least, of a tall 
stature, and with a white beard, called at the Consulate, bring 
ing with him his Bible, and the Commentary of Rabbi Solomon 
Isaac ; and with him Wolff was really delighted. Nor can he 
forget to this day the impression which this man made upon 
him ; for he was in appearance like Abraham of old times, and 
had left his country in order to spend the remainder of his days 
in Jerusalem, and there await the arrival of the Messiah. 

Wolff began by asking him to write down his name upon a 
piece of paper which he gave him ; and the old man, after say 
ing that he felt honoured that such a great man should show 
him so much attention, wrote as follows, in Jewish-German 
characters : " Yehiel, the son of Feibish, from the land of 
Russia, from the Government of Mohilev, from the city of 
Sklov. He resides now at Jerusalem, waiting for the coming 
of the Messiah." 

Yehiel then told Wolff he had heard that a Jew who had 
been converted, was going to Jerusalem to prove that the 
Messiah was come. Wolff answered, " I am going to Jeru 
salem !" Yehiel replied, " Sir, none will be converted; for we 
have been scattered now for more than 1,700 years among all 
nations ; persecuted and despised ; our holy city destroyed, 
and the 1,700 years have been passed in constant and con 
tinual endeavour by the Gentiles, to persuade us that Jesus 
was the Messiah; but, at the end of the 1,700 years, we dis 
believe it still !" He added, " Centuries and centuries have 
passed, since Christians have tried to convert us, by pouring out 
our blood, and by persecuting us. And centuries and cen- 

* Archdeacon Mackenzie, who is now going to Africa, ought to make 
search in those places, whither Father Lobo went, and where he left 
marks of his labours. Also, he ought to look after the Roman Catholic 
Christians in Ganga, and to study Hitter s Geography. 

of Dr. Wolff. 115 

turies have passed, and yet we stand a people separated from 
the nations, and exclaim every day, Hear, Israel, the Lord 
our God is one Lord. r 

Good, mistaken, old man, upon Wolff s speaking to him of 
the signs and miracles of our blessed Lord, he said, " Yes,, 
Jesus performed wonders and signs, but remember the words 
of Moses the peace of God be upon him ! in Deuteronomy 
xiii. 1st to part of 5th verse, If there arise among you a 
prophet, or a dreamer of dreams, and giveth thee a sign or a 
wonder, and the sign or the wonder come to pass, whereof he 
spake unto thee, saying, Let us go after other gods, which thou 
hast not known, and let us serve them ; thou shalt not hearken 
unto the words of that prophet, or that dreamer of dreams : 
for the Lord your God proveth you, to know whether ye love 
the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul. 
Ye shall walk after the Lord your God, and fear him, and keep 
his commandments, and obey his voice, and ye shall serve him, 
and cleave unto him. And that prophet, or that dreamer of 
dreams, shall be put to death ; because he hath spoken to turn 
you away from the Lord your God." " &c. Here he wept 
awhile, but then continued, " Jesus of Nazareth came and 
performed wonders and signs, and said unto our ancestors^ 
4 Let us go after three Gods whom our fathers knew not ; and 
therefore He was put to death by our forefathers justly, with 
all his wonders and signs." He said this with the greatest 
animation, and Wolff then, in order to prove to him that Christ 
never advised any such thing as the worship of three Gods, 
told him that Jesus had taught his disciples to address them 
selves in prayer to Jehovah as " Our Father, which art in 
heaven ; Hallowed be (not the name of other gods, but) Thy 
name ; Thy kingdom come." And he also showed him the 
passage in Matthew, where it is said, " Think not that I am 
come to destroy the law, or the prophets ; I am not come to 
destroy, but to fulfil." After further conversation Yehiel left 
him, promising to call again. 

Wolff was introduced by Salt to an American gentleman, a 
captain in the navy of the United States of North America, 
who had become Muhammadan from conviction, Mr. George 
Bethel English by name, but who now called himself " Mu 
hammad Effendi," and with him he determined to travel to 
Cairo. They set out in a boat accordingly, and travelled 
together from Alexandria to Cairo ; and the first day had an 
argument which lasted fourteen hours uninterruptedly ! Mr. 
English, cold in his manner, smoked negligently at the same 
time ;but Wolff neither ate, drank, nor smoked, but was in a 


116 Travels and Adventures 

continual fire throughout. At the end of their conversation, 
English burst into tears, and said, " Wolft , you have done two 
things ; you have totally undeceived me in one respect, for, 
before I saw you, I never thought that it was possible that a 
Jew could be such a firm believer in the divinity of Jesus 
Christ. Secondly, I now see more than ever I did that the 
Christian religion is a religion of the heart ; and, though you 
have not solved all my difficulties, yet you have done one thing, 
you have spoken to my heart. I have ceased to be a Muham 
madan, and you may tell Mr, Salt and Mr. Lee that you have 
spoken to my heart." An Albanian Muhammadan was also 
in the boat, and Wolff attempted to speak to him; but the 
fanatic only replied, " Allah, Ilia, Allah, Oo-Muhaminad 
Arrasool Ollah ;" " God, but God and Muhammad, the pro 
phet of God ;" and he threatened to throw his Christian inter 
rogator into the Nile. Mr. English told Wolff that he had 
been made a Muhammadan by reading Eichorn s Commentaries 
on the Bible ; Bishop Marsh s translation of Michaelis ; and 
Warburton on the discrepancies of Scripture. 

Thus Wolff arrived, peaceably and quietly, with his Ameri 
can companion at Cairo, or properly Caheirah- Almeser, "Egypt 
the Exalted ;" and, by Mr. Salt s orders, his Chancellor, San- 
tini, an Italian, assigned a room to Wolff in the British Con 
sulate. But Santini was not a nice man ; he cheated Wolff by 
making him believe that the best present one can give to a 
Bedouin chief is a small bottle of castor-oil ; so Wolff bought 
from him some hundred bottles for ^10, which made all the 
English people laugh from Cairo to England \ and Wolff heard 
of it from Henry Drummond, on his arrival at home, years 
after ; who said to him, " How could you be such an ass as to 
be taken in with castor-oil? You ought to have told him that 
you would give him 10 if he would drink it himself." 

But Wolff was fully indemnified for the trick which had 
been played upon him, by forming the acquaintance here of 
both Captain Caviglia, and with Mr,, now Sir Gardiner, 

Caviglia was an Italian, a Genoese, captain of a merchant 
vessel. His ship was wrecked on one of the shores of Greece, 
but he was saved in a providential, almost miraculous, manner. 
Then he said to himself, " Now I will devote my life to the 
investigation of nature, the works of God, and to the study of 
antiquity." Whereupon, he went to Egypt, and spent the 
greater part of his days in the Pyramids ; and found most 
mighty monuments of ancient time, which he sent, under the 
protection of Mr. Salt, to the British Museum. His great 

of Dr. Wolff. 117 

study, however, was the Bible, especially the Old Testament. 
He compared the contents of it with the existing monuments 
in the Pyramids of Egypt, and with the ancient history of 
that country ; and came to the conclusion that the Pyramids 
of Egypt had not been the sepulchres of ancient kings, but 
colleges in which freemasonry was taught and practised ; in 
fact, that they had been lodges for freemasons and ancient 
mysteries. His grand books, after the Bible, were the 
u Mysterium Magnum " of Jacob Bohme, and St. Martin. 
He believed that angels have bodies; and, with Tertullian, 
that the soul is a body. He one day sat down and wrote 
against the Roman Catholic Church, but retracted everything 
that he wrote a short time after. With regard to science and 
theology he said, the system of reserve must be used. The 
deacon is not allowed to speak as much on religion as the 
priest ; and the priest not so much as the bishop ; nor the 
bishop as much as the archbishop ; and the archbishop not as 
much as the pope. 

When Wolff asked him the reason of all this, his reply was 
simply (after looking first around him, as if he was watched 
by an unseen spirit), " In the temple of Solyman were two 
pillars, the name of the one was Jachin, and Boaz was the 
name of the other." When Wolff asked him to explain, he 
merely replied, " Piu non vi posso dire" (more I cannot tell 
you). Wolff at that time thought that all this was absurdity, 
and told Caviglia so, which made him remain a long time 
away, to Wolff s great regret and sorrow, that he had been 
so severe in his ridicule. 

But now Wolff understands the whole reason for this mys 
tical answer, and Caviglia was quite right not to tell it. And, 
though Wolff knows now what prevented Caviglia from speak 
ing more plainly, he can himself only repeat to the reader the 
same words Piu non m posso dire. Once Wolff asked his 
friend how old he was ? Caviglia replied, " Four times fifteen." 
When Wolff asked why he replied in this way, he answered, 
" Piu non vi posso dire." And so Wolff must again say to 
the reader, although he knows the reason for that reply Piu 
non m posso dire ! Caviglia also one day asked Wolff where 
he came from, and whither he was going ? Wolff said he 
came from England, and was going to Jerusalem. Caviglia 
said it was not the answer he expected. Wolff asked, what 
answer then must he give? Caviglia replied, this he must 
find out ; and he has since found out the expected answer, but 
cannot tell it to others ! 

As to Mr., now Sir Gardiner, Wilkinson, no description of 

118 Travels and Adventures 

him is required. His writings on the " Manners and Customs 
of the Ancient Egyptians," and his gigantic lahours in Upper 
Egypt, are too well known to the world. Wolff may only 
observe that he is in every respect a most excellent, amiable, 
and highly-principled gentleman. 

Now for something about magic ; for, although the event 
about to be recorded happened after Wolff s second journey 
into Egypt, he will give it in this place. Wolff was asked 
whether he believed in magic ; to which he replied that he 
believed everything that is found in the Bible ; and even, 
though all the philosophers should ridicule him, he boldly 
repeats that he believes everything in the Bible; and the 
existence of witches and wizards is to be found there, of whom, 
doubtless, the Devil is the originator ; and Wolff believes that 
there are spirits in the air, for the Apostle tells us so ; and 
Wolff believes also that the Devil has access, even now, into 
Heaven, to calumniate man, for so we read in the Book of 
Job, and in the 12th chapter of the Apocalypse. However, 
with regard to witchcraft, he has seen it with his own eyes, 
and here he tells the story. 

He was sitting one day at the table of Mr. Salt, dining with 
him. The guests who were invited were as follows : Bokhti, 
the Swedish Consul- General, a nasty atheist and infidel ; 
Major Ross, of Eosstrevor, in Ireland, a gentleman in every 
respect, and highly principled ; Spurrier, a nice English gen 
tleman ; Wolff himself; and Caviglia, who was the only 
believer in magic there. Salt began to say (his face leaning 
on his hand), " I wish to know who has stolen a dozen of my 
silver spoons, a dozen forks, and a dozen knives." Caviglia 
said, " If you want to know, you must send for the magician." 
Salt laughed, and so did they all, when Salt suddenly said, 
" Well, we must gratify Caviglia." He then called out for 
Osman, a renegade Scotchman, who was employed in the 
British Consulate as janissary and cicerone for travellers. 
Osman came into the room, and Salt ordered him to go and 
fetch the magician. The magician came, with fiery sparkling- 
eyes and long hair, and Salt stated to him the case, on which 
he said, " I shall come again to-morrow at noon, before which 
time you must either have procured a woman with child, or a 
boy seven years of age ; either of whom will tell who has been 
the thief." Bokhti, the scoffing infidel, whom Salt never 
introduced to Wolff, for fear he should make a quarrel betwixt 
them, said, " I am determined to unmask imposture, and, 
therefore, I shall bring to-morrow a boy who is not quite seven 
years of age, and who came a week ago from Leghorn. He 

of Dr. Wolff. 119 

has not stirred out of my house, nor does he know anybody, 
nor is he known to anybody, and he does not speak Arabic ; 
him I will bring with me for the magician." 

The boy came at the time appointed, and all the party were 
again present, when the magician entered with a large pan in 
his hand, into which he poured some black colour, and mum 
bled some unintelligible words ; and then he said to the boy, 
" Stretch out your hands." He said this in Arabic, which 
the boy did not understand. But Wolff interpreted wha tthe 
magician had said, and then the boy stretched out his hand 
flat, when the magician put some of the black colour upon his 
palm, and said to him, " Do you see something?" which was 
interpreted to the lad. The boy coolly, in his Italian manner, 
shrugged his shoulders, and replied, " Vedo niente" (I see 
nothing). Again the magician poured the coloured liquid into 
his hand, and mumbled some words, and asked the boy again, 
"Do you see something?" and the boy said the second time, 
" I see nothing." Then the magician poured the colour into 
his hand the third time, and inquired, " Do you see something?" 
on which the boy suddenly exclaimed, and it made every 
one of us turn pale and tremble in both knees, as if we were 
paralyzed, " lo vedo un uomo /" (I see a man). The fourth 
time the stuff was poured into his hand, when the boy loudly 
screamed out, " lo vedo un uomo con un capello" (I see a man 
with a hat,) and, in short, after a dozen times of inquiry, he 
described the man so minutely, that all present exclaimed, 
"Santini is the thief!" And when Santini s room was 
searched, the silver spoons, &c., were found. 

Wolff must remark that no one, except the boy, could see 
anything ; all the other witnesses only saw the colour which 
the magician poured. 

However, here is another story in which imposture was 
practised, but not by that magician, but by Osman, Mr. Salt s 
janissary. Osman also pretended to know magic, and was 
called to a house where a theft had been committed. He sus 
pected a certain person, who was present, of being the thief. 
He took a pan, and, after he had mumbled some words in the 
pan, he said, with a loud voice, " If the thief does not send 
back to a certain spot the thing which he has stolen, this 
night, at a certain hour, the devil will take his soul out of his 
body, and tear it into a thousand pieces." Whereupon the 
thief, who stood by, was so frightened at the prospect of such 
an end, that he brought back the stolen property at the hour 

It would be wrong to pass over in silence another traveller, 

120 Travels and Adventures 

Burckhardt by name, from Switzerland, who assumed the 
name of Sheikh Ibrahim, and travelled as a Muhammadan, in 
order to be able to go to Mecca. He once called on Muham 
mad Ali, the Pasha of Egypt. Muhammad AH asked him 
where he was going ? He replied, " I am going to Mecca, to 
perform my devotion to the Kaaba of the Prophet, the comfort 
of God, and peace upon him ! " Muhammad Ali said, " I ask 
you one favour, and will give you every assistance in my 
power to reach Mecca safely. Whenever you write your book, 
don t say that you made me believe that you were a Muham 
madan, for I know that you are not/ 

Wolff would here make a remark upon the point of Euro 
peans travelling as though they were Muhainmadans ; and 
trying to make people believe that they have not been known 
as Europeans. They are always known, and the fact is, that 
there is no necessity for any one to go incognito ; for, the 
moment one says, " God is God, and Muhammad is the pro 
phet of God," one is a Muhammaden, ex ipso facto. There is 
no need to deny that one has been a Jew or a Christian before; 
and the only thing travellers do, by trying to make people 
believe that they were not discovered to be Europeans, is, that 
they lie in addition to the sin of apostacy and hypocrisy. We 
have now to treat of the character of Muhammad Ali, and of 
the Europeans in general, whom Wolff met in Egypt. 

Muhammad Ali was a janissary of the English Consul, Mr. 
Chasseaud, at Cabala, the native place of Muhammad Ali, 
where he was born in 1768, the same year which gave birth to 
Napoleon and the Duke of Wellington. He went as a soldier 
of fortune to Egypt, in order that if Kismat i.e. " Fate" 
granted it. he might become Pasha, He soon distinguished 
himself as a soldier ; and, with the assistance of the Mam- 
looks, he became at last Pasha of Egypt. 

But the Mamlooks, that dangerous body, who elected and 
deposed Pashas just as they pleased, were a thorn in his eye. 
So he invited them to dinner in the great castle in Cairo, 
called Yussuf-Kalah, Castle of Joseph (not from Joseph the 
Patriarch, but from Joseph, one of the Khalifs of Arabia), and 
received them at the top of the castle. But while they were 
seated at table, he gave a hint to the artillery, who fired upon 
them, and out of 700 Mamlooks, 699 were killed ; and the one 
who escaped, mounted his horse, and leaped down from the 
height of the castle. The horse was killed, but the rider was 

Ibrahim Pasha, his tiger son, finished the work, by exter 
minating all the Mamlooks in the country, Muhammud AH, 

of Dr. Wolff. 121 

soon after, subdued the Wahabites, and took Mecca from their 
hands. He then entirely enslaved Egypt, and became the 
only merchant in the country. All the commerce was in his 
hands ; even the manure was sold by him, and he traded in 
everything. He was the first who introduced the flogging of 
women, in order to get from them all the jewels they wore 
around their necks. He even carried on civilization in the 
Turkish method; and flogged those children who would not go 
to school. He was " the cruel lord who ruled over Egypt," 
mentioned in Isaiah. But he sent young men to friends in 
England to be educated, especially from the Copts and Arabs. 
His prime minister was an Armenian, Yussuf Boghos by name, 
i. e. Joseph, son of Paul ; a man who spoke French, Italian, 
Persian, Arabic, and Turkish, with the utmost fluency. The 
judgment of Muhammad Ali about Wolff is published in the 
" Jewish Expositor." He praised his talent and enthusiasm, 
and encouraged his idea of establishing schools, but suggested 
several difficulties. 

Among- the young men he sent to England, Osman Nured- 
din Effendi was the most distinguished. He was a young- 
Turk from Albania, who learned the European languages with 
great facility, and was made superintendent over the College 
at Boulak ; and at last became Pasha under his early patron ; 
but, to the astonishment of all, he left Muhammad Ali the 
moment he rebelled against the Sultan. 

At last, two English travellers arrived in Cairo, Messrs. 
Clarke and Came, both of them nephews of the famous Metho 
dist, Dr. Adam Clarke : and Wolff determined to go with 
them to Mount Sinai and Mount Horeb. He took with him 
Bibles and Testaments in Arabic and Greek, and even some in 
Hebrew, though there were no Jews in Mount Sinai ; and 
then he was asked, "Why do you take Hebrew Bibles and 
Testaments with you to a place where there are no Jews ?" to 
which he replied, " Perhaps some day a Jew may come there, 
then he will find the word of God in his own language." 

His friends called this wild enthusiasm ; but, fifteen years 
after, when Wolff returned to Mount Sinai the second time, 
he found that a Jew from Bulgaria had been there, and had read 
the Bible and Testament in the Monastery of St. Catherine, as 
the Monastery upon Mount Sinai is called; and had been 
baptized by the Superior of the Greek monks. And, to his 
great surprise, this man wrote a book on the second coming of 
Christ, which was found there, in manuscript, by Wolff , and it 
had been read by the monks : and, at this second visit, Wolff 
found that they were all believers in the personal reign of 

122 Travels and Adventures 

Christ ; in the restoration of the Jews, and the renovation of 
the earth. 

Previous to Wolff s setting out for Mount Sinai, in October, 
1821, Rabbi Soloman from Wilna, residing at Jerusalem, 
called on him, and introduced to him Rabbis Abraham and 
Hirsch, both from Bucharest, and now residing at Jerusalem. 
They asked Wolff where he was intending to go? Wolff 
replied, " To Mount Sinai." Rabbi Soloman, from Wilna, 
replied that he would prove to Joseph Wolff that this is not 
Mount Sinai which at present is so called. 

Wolff asked for proofs. Soloman replied that ho would 
prove it by a parable. 

" There was a Queen, and that Queen was married to a 
King, who died. Now could you suppose that that Queen 
would ever marry, after the death of the King, the King s 
minister, or a menial servant ? Certainly not. Mount Sinai 
is that Queen. It was married to the Holy One blessed be 
his name ! the Holy one did come down upon Sinai, and gave 
his holy law upon it. Would He, therefore, admit or allow 
that a convent of monks should be built upon that mountain ? 
No. It is, therefore, impossible that that mountain, upon 
which a convent stands, should be the Mount Sinai where the 
law was given, amidst thunders and lightnings. Mount Sinai 
is in England. Even Mount Tabor is in Europe. But," he 
continued, " you will make the objection, why is Jerusalem 
deserted and become a widow ? I answer, this was predicted ; 
but, with respect to Sinai, we do not meet with any predic 

Wolff now hired several camels, took a German servant, 
Franz Six by name ; and Carne and Clarke had a Sclavonian 
servant, Michael by name ; and on the 29th October it was 
a Monday they set out for Sinai. The Germans, to whom 
Wolff had preached on Sunday, the 28th, came to accompany 
him out of the gate of the city, where Wolff mounted his 
camels, and then, accompanied by Carne and Clarke, set forth. 
On the 30th of October they arrived at Suez, where they were 
received hospitably by the Greek Consul, Michael Manuli, an 
Arab Greek Christian, to whom Wolff gave a Bible and 
preached ; and to the rest of the Greeks there he also gave 
Bibles, and preached. 

The son of Michael Manuli was a highly interesting young 
man. He was acquainted, from simply conversing with tra 
vellers, with the names of Fichte, Schelling, Kant, Bardili, 
Hegel, and Eschenmayer ; Go the, Schiller, Wieland, and 
Herder ; Sir Walter Scott and Lord Byron. 

of Dr. Wolff, 123 

On the 3rd of November following, the travellers arrived at 
the Wells of Moses, in Arabia ; among the Bedouin Arabs, 
where Wolff preached at once to them. On the 4th they 
reached the valley of Paran. " The Law came from Sinai, 
and the Holy One from Mount Paran :" and on the 6th they 
were approaching their destination. It was a clear night, the 
sky was ornamented with stars, and at a distance the voices of 
the Arabs were heard, and the fires of the Arabs around their 
tents were blazing through the Desert. Wolff said to Carne 
and Clarke, his imagination being excited in the extreme, 
" Now I shall meet with Moses and his host." They pro 
ceeded, and at last they saw before them the monastery of 
Saint Catherine, standing high on Mount Horeb, which is 
called by the Arabs, Jibbel-Moosa, i. e. Mount of Moses. As 
the monks never open the gates below, Wolff and his party 
had to be drawn up by a rope to a window ; and Wolff relates 
that, when the Sclavonian servant, a clever man but a great 
rogue, was being drawn up, he and his friends threw stones at 
him for fun Wolff calling out at the same time that if he fell 
down there would be no one to weep for him, but Michael only 
turned his head and looked down at them, saying, " I defy 
you all !" 

At last they were all brought safely into the convent, 
though Wolff s ascent was possibly a little critical, for no 
basket was let down, as from the window of RahaVs house, 
but only a rope with a loop at the end, into which the 
admitted guest thrust his foot and Wolff was always more 
remarkable for bodily endurance than bodily activity but no 
matter. His room was said to be on the very spot where 
Moses saw the bush burning, and it was not consumed. 
" This," said he to himself, " is the country where Moses lived 
40 years with his father-in-law, Jethro, keeping his sheep. 
Here it was the Lord kept his own people, like the apple of his 
eye. Here it was that He gave the law, amid thunder and 
lightnings. Here it was that He carried them on eagles 
wings," and Wolff wrote from thence to his friends, Henry 
Drummond and Bay ford, all the ebullitions of a heart, filled with 
these grand remembrances ; and on the next day he called the 
monks together, and gave them Bibles in Arabic and Greek, 
the Hebrew Bible also, and the New Testament in Hebrew ; 
and he made the principal monks write to Henry Drummond 
and Bay ford, expressing the interest they took in the distribu 
tion of the Bible in every language throughout the world. 
They were delighted to hear that Bishop Hilarion, a member 
of their monastery, was the chief translator of the Bible into 

124 Travels and Adventures 

modern Greek, and was employed by the British and Foreign 
Bible Society. At larst Game, Clarke, and Wolff determined 
to take a survey of Mount Sinai, and of the remarkable anti 
quities surrounding it. They desired to see the spot where 
Moses went up, while the elders tarried for him and Joshua. 
All the monks regretted that they did not dare to accompany 
them in their exploration, on account of a tribe of Arabs who 
were living around the Mount, and with whom they were at 
enmity, because those Arabs demanded provisions of them, 
and they were not able to supply them. The Arabs had also 
complained that the monks were in possession of the original 
book of Moses, from which if they would but pray, rain would 
fall in abundance ; but that the monks were lazy fellows, and 
would not pray as they ought ! As the monks, therefore, 
were not able to accompany the travellers, they charged the 
Arabs, who were in their service, to accompany them, and lead 
them to the summit of Mount Sinai, and to the rock of Meri- 
bah, and to the height of St. Catherine, and to the summit of 
the mount where Moses was forty days and forty nights. 
Wolff there read, to the company in English, and to himself in 
Hebrew, and to the Arabs in Arabic, the xxxii. chapter of 
Deuteronomy, " Give ear, O ye heavens, and I will speak ; 
and hear, earth, the words of my mouth." And in the 
xxxiii. chapter of Deuteronomy, " The Lord came from Sinai, 
and rose up from Seir unto them : he shined forth from Mount 
Paran." And Wolff wrote from that spot to Drummond, 
quoting this text ; and added, in parenthesis, " Where your 
friend Joseph Wolff now stands." 

He then read to the company, Exodus xx., containing the 
ten commandments, and then he read chapter xxiv., 1st verse, 
" And he said unto Moses, Come up unto the Lord, thou, and 
Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel ; 
and worship ye afar off. And Moses alone shall come near 
the Lord ; but they shall not come nigh ; neither shall the 
people go up with him." And he also read some parts of 
the Psalms and of the New Testament ; and he wrote to 
Drummond and Bay ford, " Tell my people, the Jews in 
England, that I prayed for their salvation at the very place 
where our ancestors were buried, six hundred thousand 
of them, beside women and children.* I did not address 
myself to Moses, for his intercession, for he died in the land of 

* The children of Israel, who came out of the land of Egypt, were 
buried, it is said, in the territory around Mount Sinai, the whole of 
which goes under the name of " Mount Sinai." 

of Dr. Wolff. 125 

Moab, and no man knows where he is buried to this day ; but 
I addressed myself to Him, who is not hidden, who died and 
rose again. I prayed to Him that his blood might come 
indeed upon Israel and their children, and cleanse them from 
their sins ; that blood which speaketh better things than the 
blood of Abel." Wolff also prayed for the whole of England 
and Germany, for Malta and Gibraltar ; yea, and he remem 
bered also the family of Count Stolberg, who had been his dear 
and kind friends. On the 10th of November, 1821, in the 
morning, they went to take a view of the rock of Meribah ; 
and, to use again the words of Wolff to his friend Drummond, 
" Where my people thirsted, and where they rebelled." Wolff 
maintains (and he is not single in the belief) that this is the 
real rock ; for here is the mark of Moses staff, and the twelve 
holes from which the water gushed out, according to the 
twelve tribes of Israel. Pocock also, who had visited the spot, 
believed this. 

Years after this time, Lord B , the present Earl of 

, was on Mount Sinai ; and when Wolff met him in the 

year 1828, on board of the Cambrian, commanded by Captain 
Rohan Hamilton, he asked him what had become of the Bibles 
which had been left there by himself and his party in 1821 ? 

to which Lord B replied, that the monks had destroyed 

them all. But Wolff felt convinced, even at the time, from 
his lordship s manner, that he knew nothing about it ; and, on 
revisiting the monastery himself, fifteen years afterwards, he 
found the Bibles still there. 

After Lord B s answer to his inquiry, Wolff said to 

Andrew Buchanan, (now British Ambassador in Spain,) 
" How far you can rely upon this traveller s account, you will 
soon find out by another question which I will ask him." He 
then said, " Has your lordship seen the rock of Meribah V 9 

Lord B replied, " Yes, I drank water out of it." Wolff 

asked, " What kind of water was it?" He answered, " Very 
good indeed ; clear as crystal." " Then," said Wolff, "your 
lordship must have struck the rock again, for no water flows 
out of it now." The captain laughed, and said, " Your lord 
ship is not very successful this time." 

Just as the party were about to leave the rock of Meribah, 
there came up a Bedouin Arab, who shouted to them, "You 
are my prisoners !" Wolff replied, " We shall go back to the 
monastery." The Arab said, " There is no monastery for 
you ; you are my prisoners !" Wolff explained the remarks 
of the Arab to his friends ; when Clarke drew out a pistol to 
shoot the man, but Wolff threw the pistol away. The Arab, 

126 Travels and Adventures 

having observed that Clarke was going to present a pistol at 
him, put his fingers to his mouth, and whistled very strongly ; 
and, in an instant, the three travellers were surrounded by a 
crowd of Arabs, who cursed both them and the monks. One 
of them wanted forthwith to shoot Clarke, but Wolff walked 
forward, and said, " Mind what you do ; we are Englishmen !" 
This stopped their violence. They then consulted with each 
other, and said, " Now, you are come at a very happy mo 
ment, for these Greek monks are sons of the devil sons of the 
wicked one, and dogs. They are in possession of the book of 
Moses ; and whenever there is no rain, if they would begin to 
pray out of this book, rain would always come in abundance. 
But now we have had no rain for a considerable time, which is 
a great injury to our palm trees ; and we daily come to them, 
and ask them to pray, but they are such scoundrels that they 
never want to pray. You must, therefore, mount your camels, 
and we will go with you to the monastery, and call up to 
them, and ask them whether they will pray or not ? If they 
pray, and rain conies, then you may go in peace, and be with 
them again ; but, if not, you must stay with us till the day of 

A most amusing scene followed. When they came near 
the monastery, one of their chiefs, Sheikh Hassan by name, 
called out, " Dogs ! will you pray or not 2" They called down 
in reply, " Children, we pray ; but it is in the hands of God 
alone to bring rain or not f 

The Arabs got into a tremendous rage at this, and repeated, 
" You dogs ! You dogs !" 

After which they made their prisoners ride their camels 
towards the Valley of Paran, and a beautiful valley it was. 
Wolff s companion, Came, who has written his amusing 
" Letters from the East," was highly interested with the 
adventure, and said continually, " When I go home to Pen- 
zance, I shall amuse the ladies at the tea-table by relating my 

Arriving in the camp of the Bedouins, they pitched a tent 
for their prisoners, constructed out of old black rags, and near 
the tents of their women. One of the women put her hand 
through one of the holes, and literally took a neckerchief from 
Wolff s throat. Wolff ran out of the tent, (as Carne says in 
his book,) as if from a wild beast ; nevertheless, Carne was 
always urging Wolff to tell what the lady had said to him. 

It is a remarkable fact, that when Wolff returned to Mount 
Sinai, fifteen years afterwards, the very children who were not 
born at his first visit, knew not only Joseph Wolff s name, 

of Dr. Wolff. 127 

but the names of his companions ; and also that one of the 
ladies had taken his neckerchief. They knew too, that 
Wolff had a servant, whose name was Franz Six : and that his 
companion, Came, had a servant whose name was Michael ; 
also that, whilst Wolff was always afraid that his servant was 
starving himself to death, the rascal in fact was drunk from 
morning to night. 

From this we see how these sons of the desert hand down the 
slightest events from father to son ; and Dr. Wolff therefore 
says, that he has more confidence in the traditions of the Arabs, 
than in all the criticisms of Robinson and Stanley. So, in 
spite of Robinson and Stanley, he believes the authenticity of 
those places, as the A rabs point them out ; and Wolff believes 
the same respecting the holy places in Jerusalem, that those, 
as pointed out by the Arabs, Christians, and Jews, are authen 
tic ; the tomb of our blessed Lord, pointed out as such, is the 
very tomb where He was laid, and the stone which is pointed 
out as the stone rolled away by the angel is the identical stone. 
What Stanley says is altogether absurd, that the apostles did 
not care for the places, because they were neither German Pro 
fessors, nor Fellows of any College, either of Oxford or Cam 
bridge : they felt and thought as children who love every relic 
of their parents, and honoured them as such. Is not this even 
confirmed by the Bible itself? For does not David say about 
Jerusalem, "Thy servants favour the dust thereof?" and did 
not our ancestors, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, wish to be 
buried where their fathers were ? did not Jonah look toward 
the holy temple ? All which facts are proofs that those places 
where the demonstrations of G-od^s kindness were visible were 
treasured and respected. And does not Stanley honour the 
place where his father is buried, with all his European philoso 
phy ? However, his book is of the highest use, and full of 
profound research. Stanley unites deep learning with humility 
and liberality ! 

Whilst the travellers were detained by the Arabs, they 
allowed them to send their servants to the monastery for their 
utensils. And, as Wolff was in desperate need of being- 
shaved, in order not to have his beard filled with certain ani 
mals peculiar to the Arabs, he asked a Bedouin to shave him. 
The man took the razor, which he used for shaving the crown 
of his own head, and shaved WW without either soap or 
water, quite clean, and without giving him the slightest pain. 
Wolff remembered this barber s name well- it was Juma. He 
was always a smiling good-natured fellow, and fifteen years 
aftery he reminded Wolff that he had shaved him on that 
occasion, and that he received nothing but a piece of bread and 

128 Travels and Adventures 

cheese for the job no present in money. So Wolff then gave 
him one dollar, for old acquaintance sake. 

However, to be short ; the chiefs of the Arabs assembled 
near Wolff s tent, and asked him to write a letter to the Pasha 
of Egypt, telling him of the dreadful wickedness of the Greeks ; 
how they had refused to pray for rain from day to day, in spite 
of all that could be said to them and asking him to send them 
an order that they should pray. Wolff replied that he had no 
power to write to the Pasha, but that he would write to the 
Consul. So, as he wrote in English, he sent an account of the 
whole affair to Mr. Salt, and an express messenger was de 
spatched with the letter a six days 1 journey through the desert. 
But, previous to his return, the neighbouring Sheikhs and the 
rest assembled again ; and Wolff in the midst addressed them 
in Arabic, and told them the contents of the letter he had sent, 
and that they would be in danger of having their tents taken 
away, their camels, flocks, and wives also, by the Turks, if 
they did not release them. The Arab Sheikhs were thus per 
suaded, and began immediately to be in a great hurry to let 
them go ; and they, moreover, begged them to write to the 
Pasha, and tell him that they had flogged those Arabs who 
had taken them prisoners. The travellers replied that they 
could not tell a lie, but that they would intercede for them, and 
nothing should be done to them. 

Then they brought Wolff and his friends in haste to Cairo, 
where Wolff arrived dressed half like an Arab, half like an 
European ; and thus, he rode upon a camel through the vast 
town of Cairo, affording amusement to both Europeans and 

When they asked the Arabs what they had to pay them for 
this work, the fellows wanted pay not only for the journey 
direct to Cairo, but also for having made them prisoners, and 
for taking them to the valley of Paran ; all which was of course 
refused. Wolff having thus returned to Cairo, was received 
a^ain most kindly by Mr. Salt, the Consul-General, and by 
his beautiful wife, an Italian from Leghorn. 

At table, during supper that night, Wolff was so full of his 
journey through the Desert, and his imprisonment, and his stay 
in Mount Sinai, and his distribution of Bibles, that, when the 
dish with plum-pudding was handed round, he took the whole 
of it on his plate. Mr. Salt, and all the party, were bursting 
with laughter ; but Wolff did not observe it. At last, after he 
had eaten up the greater part, he said calmly, that Mr. Salt 
had given him rather too much. Salt, pretending he wanted 
some, said, " Where is the pudding, Wolff?" 

of Dr. Wolff. 129 

So, the next evening 1 , when they sat down to dinner, Salt 
began again to interest Wolff with the journey to Mount Sinai, 
and then handed to him a dish upon which was a whole goose 
roasted. But Wolff observed the trick this time, and said he 
had not yet digested his plum -pudding ! 

The last discussion that took place between Wolff and Mr. 
Salt is too interesting to be omitted. They were talking at 
night about Cicero, and Mr. Salt remarked that all the ancient 
philosophers were in doubt or darkness about the resurrection 
of the dead. Wolff" was delighted with the observation, and 
they agreed that the doctrine was at that very time clearly 
revealed by God to the Jews, through the mouths of the pro 
phets. Thus, the Lord alluded to it by Moses (Deut. xxii.), 
" I kill, and make alive/ And Hannah rejoiced in the Lord, 
and said, " He bringeth down to the grave, and bringeth up" 
(1 Sam. ii. 6). And again (Hosea vi. 2), "After two days 
will he revive us : in the third day he will raise us up, and we 
shall live in his sight." And hear what Job saith, " For I 
know that my Redeemer liveth, and that he shall stand at the 
latter day upon the earth : and though after my skin worms 
destroy this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God : whom I 
shall see for myself, arid mine eyes shall behold, and not 
another; though my reins be consumed within me"" (Job xix. 
25). Hear, too, what Ezekiel saith (xxxvii. 5), " Thus saith 
the Lord God unto these bones ; Behold, I will cause breath 
to enter into you, and ye shall live. And I will lay sinews 
upon you, and will bring up flesh upon you, and cover you with 
skin, and put breath in you, and ye shall live ; and ye shall 
know that I am the Lord." And also Daniel (xii. 2), " And 
many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, 
some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting 
contempt. And they that be wise shall shine as the bright 
ness of the firmament ; and they that turn many to righteous 
ness as the stars for ever and ever." And thus, likewise, the 
Psalmist, " Oh thou that hearest prayer, unto thee shall all 
flesh come. 1 And so, again, the Prophet Isaiah (xxvi. 19), 
" Thy dead men shall live, together with my dead body shall 
they arise. Awake and sing, ye that dwell in dust : for thy 
dew is as the dew of herbs, and the earth shall cast out the 

There are people who try to undervalue Revelation, by say 
ing, that the Jews were indebted to the Chaldseans for their 
belief in the resurrection of the dead, and that Daniel received 
this knowledge in Chaldoea. Now Wolff asks whether God, in 
his wisdom, cannot impart a revelation to a chosen servant, in 


130 Travels and Adventures 

the mountains of Chaldsea as well as upon Mount Sinai and 
Zion? and he insists that men have to adore the wisdom as 
well as goodness of God in the distribution of his will. Wolff 
himself is perfectly convinced that, among all the inspired 
writers of the Old Testament, Daniel the prophet has set forth 
the doctrine of the Resurrection with the greatest clearness, 
Moses even not excepted. And, oh, what wisdom is in that 
very fact ! for it was Daniel also who was the first, as we read 
(Dan. ix. 8 20), to set his face to the Lord Clod by prayer 
and supplication, that He might make known to him the final 
destiny of Jerusalem ; and that very angel, Gabriel by name, 
who announced, in the fulness of time, to the Virgin Mary the 
wonderful birth of her Son and her Lord, he, the same angel, 
made known to Daniel (Dan. ix. 26) that Messiah should be 
cut off, but not for Himself; and he, then (Dan. xii. 2, 3), 
caught by the Spirit of the Lord, predicted that that Messiah, 
who was to be cut off, was to bring life and immortality to 
light through the Gospel ; so that he bursts sublimely forth in 
these words, " Many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth 
shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and 
everlasting contempt. And they that be wise shall shine as 
the brightness of the firmament ; and they that turn many to 
righteousness as the stars for ever and ever!" 

Wolff now began to think of departing through the Desert 
for Jerusalem ; but before we see him proceeding to that Holy 
City, we must give some of his remarks with regard to travel 
lers who come to Egypt. 

It cannot be denied that many of them are Europeans of 
learning and research ; antiquarians, painters, natural histo 
rians, investigators of the monuments of Thebes, Luxor, 
Gorno, Carnak, and the ruins of Dendyra ; and travellers who 
go as far into the interior as the second Cataract ; decipherers 
of the hieroglyphics in the Pyramids, and diggers after the 
beautiful rooms which are found there, decorated with monu 
ments of the freshest colour. But there are also others who 
get considerably imposed upon. As some, for instance, who 
have boasted of having found mummies of the most interesting 
nature ; which, when examined, have proved to be nothing- 
better than a lady who had recently died. Again, there was 
an American gentleman, whom Wolff afterwards met at Jaffa, 
near Jerusalem, his name was George Rapelye, and he had the 
most funny ideas. As for example, respecting the hierogly 
phics and Pompey s pillar in Alexandria, he said, with the 
American snuffle, " These are nothing but figures marked upon 
stones, like figures upon gingerbread." He believed that 

of Dr. Wolff. 131 

there must be a town underneath the Pyramids ; and that, if 
they had the Pyramids in America, they would make Ameri 
can hotels of them ! 

There were also medical gentlemen, from Paris, who arrived 
with a prepossession that the plague was always raging there 
abouts ; and every sick man who died, they tried to prove had 
died of the plague. So that actually one of these doctors 
induced the sanitary board to proclaim all Egypt to be in 

But the most disreputable set of travellers are those revolu 
tionists, who leave their native countries, Itaty, France, and 
Germany, because they will not submit to authority at home. 
Some of these whom Wolff knew, entered the service of the 
tyrant, Muhammad Ali, where they became venal servants of 
that worst of tyrants, to execute all his oppressive commands. 

Muhammad Ali seems to Dr. Wolff to be that "cruel lord" 
predicted by the prophet Isaiah (Isa. xix. 4), "And the 
Egyptians will I give over into the hand of a cruel lord ; and 
a fierce king shall rule over them, saith the Lord, the Lord of 


Desert; Gaza; Jaffa; the Samaritans; Mount Carmel ; 
Acre ; Sidon ; Argument with a Roman Catholic ; Mount 
Lebanon] robbed by Bedouins; arrives at Jerusalem. 

let us leave Cairo for Jerusalem. The day before 
Wolffs departure, a Jew, of high talent, came "to him, 
Cerf-Beer by name ; who confessed to him that he had no 
peace, although he had three times professed himself a Muham- 
madan, in order to make his fortune ; and had divorced a 
dozen wives, &c. Wolff preached to him the Gospel of Christ, 
and admonished him to repentance. 

At last Wolff set out, with twenty camels loaded with 
Bibles, and accompanied by his drunken German servant, 
Franz Six, for that Jerusalem, whither the tribes went up, 
even the tribes of the Lord : where David s lyre had told the 
triumphs of our King, and wafted glory to our God, and 
made the gladdened valleys ring the cedars bow the 
mountains nod : to that Jerusalem, which is joined and com- 

K 2 

132 Travels and Advent ares 

pactcd together with the Jerusalem above. Alas ! Jerusalem 
the city is now solitary, and a widow ; but she shall be 
comforted, when the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and 
all flesh shall see it together ! 

He travelled with his camels through the Desert ; and, as 
he proceeded, he read those portions of Genesis, which contain 
the journeyings of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Sometimes 
the Arab Sheiks came around him, and wished to know the 
names of the grand vizier of England ; of the head of the 
British army ; of the grand mufftee of England, and of the 
king and his wives. Wolff named Lord Liverpool as the 
grand vizier ; the Duke of Wellington as the scraskir, which 
means " head of the soldiers ; " and Sutton, archbishop of 
Canterbury, as grand mufftee. They wrote down these names 
in Arabic characters, which sounded" most funny to their ears. 
Wolff pitched his tents in the little Desert, opposite the for 
tresses, if they may be called so, in the camps of Khankah 
and Balbees. Afterwards, in the year 1828, when on his 
third journey through the Desert of Egypt, with his deal- 
wife, Wolff heard at this spot the unexpected sounds of musical 
bands, belonging to Egyptian troops, who were playing, as 
skilfully as Europeans, the melodies of Europe. 

A J*ew was in the caravan, and when Friday evening 
approached, (the commencement of his Sabbath,) the whole 
caravan, composed chiefly of Muhammadans and Eastern 
Christians, remained in the Desert, in order that the Jew 
might be able to celebrate his sabbath, according to his law. 
Wolff purposely asked the Arabs, why they showed so much 
respect to that Jew, since the Jews are universally despised, 
and even tortured I They replied, " This is ancient custom ; 
for Abraham the peace of God upon him ! observed the 
Jewish sabbath ; and nobody ventures to disturb the Jew in 
the observance of the sabbath ; and the Jew himself would be 
killed if he did not observe it." Ancient custom seems to be 
observed and respected by all nations ; but how especially 
remarkable is its power among these ruder people ! Wolff 
remarked the same on his arrival at Jerusalem, when he saw 
the Jew allowed to go where the ancient temple formerly 
stood ; whilst the Christian was not permitted to come near 
the spot; and this was in conformity with ancient custom ; or, 
as the Arab expresses it, Aada men Kadeem, which means, 
" Custom from ancient times." And every missionary ought 
to respect the customs cf ancient times, whenever he goes to 
any of those countries. 

Wolff had also in the Desert the society of an Armenian 

of Dr. Wolff. 133 

gentleman, of high respectability, Makarditsh byname, a most 
amiable man. He was travelling to Jerusalem, with two 
female relatives, to perform his devotion. He came every 
evening to Wolff s tent, and related stories to him of the 
children of Hayk namely, the Armenian nation ; and of the 
holiness of Melchizedek, who blessed Abraham. He talked 
too of Abgar,* one of the ancient kings of Edessa, who lived 
in the time of our Lord Jesus Christ, and was said to have 
been cured by our Lord himself; after which Abgar became a 
faithful believer, and invited our Lord to become his guest in 
the city of Edessa, where he offered to give him every pro 
tection against the persecution of the Jews. But our blessed 
Lord declined the invitation, because He was now to proclaim 
good tidings among the lost sheep of the house of Israel. The 
correspondence between Christ and Abgar is to be found in 
Eusebius Ecclesiastical History. f 

* Sometimes, but not correctly, written Agbar. 

f The correspondence is as follows, as related by Eusebius : 

Copy of the Letter written by King Abgarus to Jesus, and sent to 
Him at Jerusalem, by Ananias the courier. 

" Abgarus, prince of Edessa, sends greeting to Jesus the excellent 
Saviour, who has appeared in the borders of Jerusalem. I have heard 
the reports respecting thee and thy cures, as performed by thee without 
medicines, and without the use of herbs. For as it is said, thou causest 
the blind to see again, the lame to walk, and thou cleansest the lepers, 
and thou castest out impure spirits and demons, and thou healest those 
that are tormented by long disease, and thou raisest the dead. And 
hearing all these things of thee, I concluded in my mind one of two 
things ; either that thou art GOD, and having descended from heaven, 
doest these things, or else doing them, thou art the son of GOD. There 
fore now I have written and besought thee to visit me, and to heal the 
disease with which I am afflicted. I have also heard that the Jews 
murmur against thee, and are plotting to injure thee ; I have, however, 
a very small but noble state, which is sufficient for us both." 

The Answer of Jesus to Kiny Abgarus, by the courier Ananias : 

"Blessed art thou, Abgarus, who, without seeing, hast believed in 
me. For it is written concerning me, that they who have seen me will 
not believe, that they who have not seen, may believe and live. But in 
regard to what thou hast written, that I should come to thee, it is neces 
sary that I should fulfil all things here, for which I have been sent. 
And after this fulfilment, thus to be received again by Him that sent 
me. And after I have been received up, I will send to thee a certain 
one of my disciples, that he may heal thy affliction, and give life to thee 
and to those who are with thee." 

134 Travels and Adventures 

Thus they arrived at Al-Arish, where Napoleon fought a 
battle against the renowned Mamlook chief, in which the 
Mamlooks were defeated. Thence they proceeded to Gaza, 
where Samsoin killed the Philistines, and took the doors of 
the gate of the city, and the two posts ; and went away with 
them, bar and all. Here Wolff observed that this custom is 
preserved all over the East, that whenever a conqueror takes 
a town, he carries away the gates of it. Thus Lord Ellen- 
borough carried away the gate of Sumnauth from the city of 

Wolff left Gaza on the 28th of December, 1821, and on 
reaching Jaffa took up his abode in the house of Antonio 
Damiani, whose father was consul there for 80 years ; and ho 
himself was a venerable old man, with a three-cornered hat, 
and a gold-lace brim upon it. He wore a large coat of taffeta, 
and carried a staff in his hand, with a silver button at the top 
of it. At Wolff s request, on his hearing that some Sa 
maritans were there, he brought to him the most learned of 
them. His name was Israel ; he came from Nablous, and 
was in correspondence with Abbe Gregoire, at Paris, bishop 
of Blois. Lord Guildford, who was known there as Lord 
North, was also one of this Samaritan 1 s correspondents. He 
showed to Wolff three Samaritan manuscripts ; the first was 
part of the books of Moses ; the second was a book called 
Mimra, containing old sermons of their priests ; and the third 
contained a catechism for the Samaritan youth. All these 
were written in the Samaritan language. Wolff asked Israel 
whether he would sell them? He replied in the negative. 
On Wolff s asking if they had the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, 
Ezekiel, and the Psalms of David, he replied, " We acknow 
ledge none of them : our only prophet is Moses, and Moses 
told us, Ye shall not add to the word which I command you, 
neither shall ye diminish ought from it, that ye may keep the 
commandments of the Lord your God, which I command 
you. r He said that many things are contained in the book 
of Moses, but in a hidden manner ; and that they who study 
them will find them out ; but they must do it with fasting and 
prayer. Wolff asked them whether they believed in the Mes 
siah, and he replied, "Yes, for He is prophesied of in the book 
of Moses. We call him Tahib, which moans, He that is given. 
He shall be of the tribe of Joseph, of whom it is written, 
in Genesis xlix. 22 24, Joseph is a fruitful bough, even a 
fruitful bough by a well ; whose branches run over the wall : 
The archers have sorely grieved him, and shot at him, and 
hated him : But his bow abode in strength, and the arms of 

of tor. Wolff. 135 

his hands were made strong by the hands of the mighty God 
of Jacob ; (from thence is the shepherd, the stone of Israel. ") 
The Samaritan added, " But there shall be two Messiahs ; 
the one was Joshua, the son of Nun, the disciple of Moses ; 
but the chief shall be of the tribe of Joseph, and He shall 
surely come, and his coming will be glorious ! A fiery 
column shall descend from heaven, and we shall see signs and 
wonders before his coming." 

Wolff then asked, "Who is meant by the Shiloh Moses 
mentioned in the 10th verse of the 49th chapter of Genesis, 
where it is said, The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, 
nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come ; and 
unto him shall the gathering of the people beT 

He replied, "This was Solomon, for he was a great 

Wolff asked him for proofs of this assertion from the books 
of Moses. 

He said, " The proof is clear in the llth and 12th verses of 
the 49th chapter of Genesis, Binding his foal unto the vine, 
and his ass s colt unto the choice vine ; he washed his gar 
ments in wine, and his clothes in the blood of grapes : His 
eyes shall be red with wine, and his teeth white with milk. r 

Wolff then asked him, "Whether the Samaritans have any 
communication with the Jews ?" 

Israel replied, " No : an enmity from the time of Joseph the 
son of Jacob, whose descendants we are, has existed between 
us ;" and then he continued, " Joseph was a good child, and 
fair, and beautiful, and beloved of his father ; but his brethren, 
Simeon and Levi, hated him. Cursed be they, and cursed be 
their descendants ! When his father sent his beloved son to 
Dodaim, they endeavoured to kill him ; but Judah, who had 
great authority among them, persuaded them to sell him to a 
caravan of merchants who were going to Egypt, where he be 
came the first man after Pharaoh ; and there he begat Ma^- 
nasseh and Ephraim, and we are his descendants. Joseph, 
our father, forgave them ; but we, his children, can never for 
get that Joseph, our father, was so harshly treated by them. 
And from that time the division between them and us has 
lasted till now. We worship upon Mount Gerizim, and they 
worship upon Mount Siou. The prophet Elijah increased the 
division and enmity. He was an old man, and respected not 
Ahab, our king, who was a young man without a beard. He 
continually came and said, < In Judah is God known, 1 until 
Ahab turned him out of the country. 1 " 

Wolff desired Israel to give him letters for Nablous, the an* 

136 Travels and Adventures 

cient Samaria ; and lie replied, " With joy and pleasure : for 
we know that when nations from afar shall come to inquire 
into our state, the time of redemption by Tahib shall come, 
when our nation shall be redeemed." Wolff asked him, 
whether he had read the Gospel 2 To his utter surprise Israel 
knew by heart the fourth chapter of John. And yet, a 
canting lady from England, who was at Nablous, asserted 
that Israel, the Samaritan, had never read the Gospel, 
although it had been given to him. 

After this conference many years passed by ; and when the 
Samaritan, Jelebee by name, who was a nephew of Israel, 
came to England in 1857, he told Wolff that Israel had after 
wards said, " Wolff I shall never forget ; " and Jelebee added 
that Israel sat dumb and silent in the synagogue for thirty 
years, except when defending Christianity ; so much so, that, 
when Jelebee went to England, the Samaritan high-priest bad 
said to him, " My son, our number is already too small : do 
not go near Wolff: remember the silent conduct of Israel, and 
how his last words in his dying hour were, i Wolff is right T 
Dr. Wolff asked Jelebee by what had Israel asserted that he 
had been most struck in their discussions together ? He re 
plied, " Your observing that he ought to forgive his enemies, 
even as Joseph had forgiven." 

But what is remarkable very much so indeed is, that 
Jelebee, on arriving in England, was most anxious to visit 
Dr. Wolff. And when this poor Samaritan arrived at He 
Brewers, neither Dr. Wolff nor his wife were at home ; and as 
the servants had strict orders not to admit any strangers during 
their absence, the poor fellow remained in the yard waiting ; 
as he would not depart without seeing Dr. Wolff. The 
servants, in their difficulty, sent for a neighbouring lady, who 
speaks French ; but all Jelebee could say was, " See Wolff; 
see Wolff in Samaria ! " Most fortunately, Lady Georgiana 
Wolff returned home, and soon afterwards Dr. AVolff in com 
pany with Mr. Rogers, the Consul of Caifa, near Jerusalem ; 
and then they gave him a good reception ; and Jelebee cooked 
a dinner at the Vicarage, in the Samaritan fashion, which was 
liked by all. One day, Dr. and Lady Georgiana Wolff 
walked out with Mr. Rogers and Jelebee, when some pigs 
passed by, which are a horror in the eyes of the Samaritans ; 
and Jelebee said in Arabic, Allah yalan al-khan-zeer kulla- 
Jioom, which means, " God curse the pigs, every one of them." 
This was explained to the parishioners, and they got angry 
with Jelebee, because he had "overlooked" their pigs with 
tin evil eye $ and, unfortunately, next day one of these pigs 

of Dr. Wolff. 137 

was drowned : on which, all said, " If only this fellow, with 
his singular dress, was out of the place, we should be very 
glad." Wolff could scarcely get 105. for him, because he had 
cursed the pigs ; but the gentry and clergy were generous, 
and subscribed about 20 for the Samaritan before his de 

Wolff was now quite near Jerusalem, Jaffa being only 
thirty-five miles distant from the holy city ; but he did not 
yet like to enter, because he was not acquainted with the 
Syriac dialect of the Arabic language. He conversed, mean 
while, with learned Muhammadans, and gave them the Gospel. 
One of them, Assad Akliia, was well acquainted with the his 
tory of Sabat, the Arabian convert, who had professed Christ 
ianity at Calcutta, and been fellow-traveller of Henry Marty 11, 
but had afterwards apostatized. Assad Akhia, to Wolff s 
surprise, defended the whole conduct of Sabat, for he said, 
4 that he had only embraced Christianity in order to enter 
better into all the ways of the Christians, 11 and he justified 
this dissimulation. 

Wolff having now, for the reason just given, decided to go 
northwards for a time, proceeded to Mount Carmel, where the 
holy challenge took place between Elijah and the priests of 
Baal ; and there he read to the Christians the passage from the 
Book of Kings. At last, he arrived at St. Jean d Acre, 
where he met two most interesting people at the house of Mr. 
Abbott, the British Consul. One was Mr. Berggren, chaplain 
to the Swedish Ambassador at Constantinople. He travelled 
as a naturalist, at the King of Sweden s expense, and was in 
tent on discovering coal mines and collecting MSS. He had 
the thorough countenance of a Swede a fine red face not 
the red of wine, but the red of a cold country. Wolff had 
before known him in Alexandria. He was very sententious in 
his conversation, and said to Joseph Wolff that he was about 
to visit an island to which very few Scandinavians had ever 
come, except Niebuhr, the great traveller, about sixty years be 
fore ; the name of that island was Bombay ! He then gave 
Wolff an account of his having discovered coals in Mount 
Lebanon, and of his having stopped about three months in the 
monastery of the Italian and Spanish Friars in the holy city 
of Jerusalem, and he said, "In order to keep them good- 
natured, I managed them in the following manner : Reverend 
Fathers/ I said, I shall remain with you three months, making 
my researches in and around Jerusalem ; and every evening 
on my return to your hospitable monastery, I shall listen with 
great interest to the arguments by which you prove the high 

138 Travels and Adventures 

importance of belonging to the church of Home/ Thus I 
agreed with everything they said for three months ; after 
which, on the morning of my departure, they expected me to 
abjure my faith, when I said unto them, Oh, my Reverend 
Fathers, it is not come to this point yet, for I am firmly 
attached to the faith of the Christian religion, as it was taught, 
and still is, in Sweden, by Gustavus Vasa. And they became 

very angry, but I gave them a very handsome present for their 
"by, and reconciled the worthy Fathers. On my 
arrival," he continued, "in Nazareth, I went to the monastery 

of the Italian Friars which is there, and where Spanish Friars 
also are, as in the one at Jerusalem. And there a room was 
assigned me, but I met with rather a rough reception from one 
of the Spanish Friars, who came up to me, held his fist in my 
eyes, and said, You heretic, you will perish if you do not be 
come a Roman Catholic. 1 I said unto him, c If you do not 
know better manners, I shall write to iny Ambassador in Con 
stantinople, who will report it to my exalted King, the cele 
brated Bernadotte, who will write to the Pope, and you will be 
recalled. While this struggle was taking place between me 
and the Friar, the Superior entered, and turned him out of the 
room. And after this I remained only a short time in the 
monastery ; and now here I am in Acre, which is the ancient 
Ptolemais, and from hence I shall set out, by sea, for Constan 

Wolff lodged at Acre, in the house of the newly-arrived 
consul, Mr. Abbot, who procured him passports, called " buy- 
urdee," for Mount Lebanon. However, before Wolff departed 
from Acre, he met with another traveller, of whom a short 
sketch must be given. His name was Mayr, from Switzerland, 
and he was completely cracked. He had been converted by 
the preaching of Madame de Krudener, and he believed him 
self to be inspired of God, like the Apostles of old, and that 
the whole world ought to obey him. He related that the Friars 
of Jerusalem had ill-treated him, because he wished to see the 
Holy Sepulchre at an hour not convenient to them, though it 
was so to him, and for this reasoirthe Friars had sent him out 
of Jerusalem in chains. Wolff and the Consul made him a 
present of some pounds, when he proceeded to Beyrout. 

When Wolff was going to Beyrout, he fell in, at the moment 
of his leaving Acre, with two Jews, believers in the Lord Jesus 
Christ, who had been converted to Christianity by the preach 
ing of that unworthy subject, Melchior Tschudy by name : or 
rather by his simply giving them the New Testament in 
Hebrew. They spoke of Christ and the Gospel, with the 

of Dr. Wolff. 139 

highest enthusiasm ; but whether they have remained faithful 
mifco the end is doubtful. Still, even the Jews themselves be 
lieved them to have been sincere ; and what else but sincerity 
could have made them make a confession of their faith in Christ 
Jesus ? 

One other circumstance Wolff has to mention, before he 
leaves Acre, from which a just estimate may be formed of the 
gratitude of Turks. There was a Jew, Haym Farkhi by 
name, a man of immense wealth, and who had been chief 
banker to Jesr Pasha, a ruler who had successfully resisted 
Napoleon s attack ; and the name Jesr means " Butcher," for 
this man had cut off the noses and ears of his principal sub 
jects ; and Wolff saw many of those who had suffered this in 
dignity, and who had replaced their lost ears and noses by 
papier ones, and were called " Jesr s children." By being the 
banker of this tyrant, Haym Farkhi the Jew had increased in 
power from day to day, until the time of Jesr s death, when 
there was a vacancy in the Pashaship ; and through the great 
influence of Haym, a man named Abd-allah was proclaimed 
Pasha. Haym Farkhi s influence became so great that the 
Jews began to believe him to be the Messiah, and even the 
Turks stood in much awe of him ; and, moreover, he had mil 
lions in his possession. But suddenly, and without provoca 
tion, Abd-allah Pasha, Haym s client, gave orders that his 
head should be cut oft" ; and then the children of Israel were 
in mourning, as they expressed themselves to Wolff, from Dan 
to Beer-sheba, weeping and wailing, " Our father and our 
prince is gone, and the beauty of Israel is slain upon the high 
places ! How is the mighty fallen ! how is the mighty fallen!" 

Wolff had also, one day, an argument with a Jewish Rabbi 
for three hours ; but, although he silenced him, the man re 
mained unshaken in his faith. Wolff at last left Acre, and as 
he was going out of the town, he met with Game and Clarke, 
his fellow-travellers to Mount Sinai. They had now in their 
company a Levantine Christian, who was about to go to Eng 
land, in order to make his fortune by selling one single grain 
of corn, upon which there was written the Fatha, I. c. the 
opening chapter of the Koran, consisting of the following 
words : 

" In the name of the most merciful and compassionate God, 
the king on the day of judgment : we serve thee, we look up 
to thee ; guide us the right way the way of those to whom 
thou art merciful, not the way of the reprobate, nor the way 
of those who are in error. Amen." 

All this could be distinctly read with a microscope. How- 

140 Travels and Adventures 

ever, Woltf doubts whether he ever came to England, for he 
saw him ten years afterwards at Constantinople, and he had 
not yet sold his grain of corn ! This Levantine tried to make 
Came marry a beautiful woman of Damascus ; for Game s 
chief object in his journey to the East was to marry a lady as 
beautiful as those described in the Arabian Nights. Wolff, 
however, dissuaded him from doing so, by telling Game, " You 
may, perhaps, easily succeed in finding a lady with amiable 
lips, and with her eyebrows painted with yellow colours ; yet 
she may be stupid as a cow, and with hind quarters like an 
elephant, and so she will come home to you !" Thus Wolff 
succeeded in disgusting Carne to such a degree with the Eastern 
ladies, that he abandoned the idea of marrying any of them ; 
and he said, " Now I shall go home, and as I have not suc 
ceeded in marrying an Eastern lady for beauty s sake, I shall 
marry an English one for the sake of her money." 

We must at once finish Carne\s history. He returned to 
Penzance in Cornwall, found a lady in a stage-coach, who wan 
rather beautiful in appearance, and he married her. Yet with 
all his eccentricities, he was a good-hearted gentleman, of a 
romantic turn of mind. He got himself ordained a clergyman 
of the Church of England by Bishop Luscoinbe, the late chap 
lain of the British Embassy in Paris ; but he subsequently 
re-took the title of John Carne, Esq. 

Wolff came to Sidon, by way of Tyre, where he assembled 
a good many Jews, to whom he proclaimed the Lord Jesus 
Christ. He went also to Mount Lebanon, and obtained per 
mission from the Prince of the Mountain, who has the title of 
Sheikh Busheer, to remain in the monastery of Ayin Warka, 
inhabited by monks of the Maronite nation, who acknowledge 
the authority of Home, but have their own patriarchs. These 
reside at a place called Canoobeen, and arc usually men of great 
vigour and power. The monastery of Ayin Warka received 
Wolff with open arms. He made it his home for three months, 
employing his time in reading, writing, and speaking Arabic 
with the monks from morning to night. They tried to convert 
Wolff to the Church of Rome, but he answered all their ob 
jections and arguments, and they acknowledged the force of 
many of his proofs. He then made acquaintance, as far as it 
is possible to do so, with the religion of the Druses, of whom 
Wolff believes that they are a remnant of the Druids of old : 
for it is believed of the Druses that they worship an oak. They 
practise astrology, like their fellow-mountaineers, the Anzai- 
rees, of whom it is said that they worship Alilath, the Syrian 

of Dr. Wolff. 141 

One visit Wolff made during his stay here, was to the 
Apostolic Vicar in Lebanon, Monsignor Luigi Gandolfi. He 
had often wished to have an opportunity of arguing with a 
Roman Catholic missionary, and it was now afforded him in a 
contest with a French priest, who resided with Gandolfi, and 
who had been for thirty years Missionarius Apostolicus cum 
omnibus facultatibus Episcopi. 

This Frenchman, Pere Renard, opened the discourse as fol 
lows : 

Pere Renard. " The endeavour to convert the Jews is a 
vain thing." 

Wolff. " All the prophets and St. Paul contradict your 

Pere Renard. " They shall be converted to the Catholic 
Church, but not to the Protestant." 

Wolff. " Neither to the Catholic, nor to the Protestant 
Church, but to Christ ; to Him they shall look and mourn." 

P ere Renard (in a very rough manner). " We must have 
Peter and his successors for the judge of our faith, if we believe 
in Christ." 

Wolff. " The Scripture knows nothing of it." 
Pere Renard. " Tu es Petms, et super hanc petram ccdifi- 
cabo ecclesiam meam^ (Matt. xvi. 18.) 

Wolff. a And this he did when he opened his discourse, 
and three thousand of his hearers received the word of God 
gladly, and were baptized." 

Pere Renard. " Mr. Wolff, I should be ashamed to come 
forward with that spiritus pruatus of the Protestants ; we 
must have a spiritus communis ; we must not wish to be wiser 
than so many councils and so many fathers. Do you know 
that St. Augustine has said Evangelic non crederim, si ecclesia 
mihi non dixerit" 1 ?" 

Wolff. " I come not forward with my spiritu private ; I 
tell you only what the Scripture says. The Scripture never 
tells us that we must have councils and fathers for our guides ; 
but says, first, Search the Scriptures (John v. 39). And 
that the Scripture is sufficient for our salvation, becomes clear 
by the words of St. Paul (2 Tim. iii. 15, 16), The Holy 
Scriptures are able to make thee Avise unto salvation, through 
faith, which is in Christ Jesus. 1 All Scripture is given by 
inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof", 
for correction, for instruction in righteousness. 1 This appears, 
again, by St. Paul (Rom. xv. 4), and by Psalms cxix. 105, 
Thy word is a lamp unto my feet, and a light unto my path. 11 " 
P. Renard. " There are many dubious points in Scripture. 

142 Travels and Adventures 

What can you do when you meet with a passage you cannot 

Wolff- . " Pray to God for His Holy Spirit ; and I am en 
couraged to do so, for He saith (Luke xi. 13), How much 
more shall your heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit unto 
them that ask Him ! And Scripture is not difficult to be un 
derstood ; the Holy Spirit itself tells me so : The word is 
very nigh unto thee, 1 and * things revealed belong unto us 
(Deut. xxx. 14; xxxix. 2,9). 

P. Renard. " Look in my face, if you are able." 

Wolff looked steadfastly in his face. 

P. Renard. " Then you think that Luther, qui fuit impu- 
dicus, who married a nun, and Henry the Eighth, and yon, Mr. 
Wolff, are alone able to explain Scripture, and that so many 
fathers and bullw doqmaticw Summorum Pontificum have 1 

Wolff. " Neither Luther, nor Henry the Eighth, nor the 
lullce dogmaticcc Summorum Pontificum, are guides of my 
faith. The Scripture alone is my guide." 

P. Renard. " Is it not an intolerable pride, to think that 
God will o-ive you alone the Holy Spirit on account of your 

p to J 9>t r 

fervent prayer? 

Wolf. " Not on account of the fervency of my prayer, but 
for the sake of the name, and the blood of Christ ; nor unto 
me alone, but also to many others, and all who ask it." 

P. Renard. " That cursed spiritus p rivatus /" 

Wolff. " I have not told you my private opinion, but what 
the Scripture tells us ; and you are an unbeliever if you do not 
receive it." 

P. Renard. " I shall now tell you something which you 
will not be able to answer, for my argument will be invincible, 
and it is as follows : You Protestants say that we Catholics 
may be saved ; should you, therefore, not rather cast yourself 
into the arms of a Church where you yourself confess that you 
may be saved, than remain in a Church where the way to sal 
vation is dubious ?" 

Wolff. u I know this argument, for it is of the time of 
Henry the Fourth, King of France ; but I confess that I was 
never able to satisfy myself of the force of it ; for, first, the 
Protestants say, a Catholic may be saved, distinguo; a Catholic 
is saved if he believes in Jesus Christ, concede ; but that the 
Protestants should say that a Catholic is saved without faith 
in Christ Jesus, nego. Secondly, the assertion of the Catholic, 
that a Protestant is condemned if he remain a Protestant, dis- 

of Dr. Wolff. 143 

tinguo; without faith in Christ he is condemned, concede; with 
faith in Christ he is condemned, nego ; and on this account I 
cannot perceive in the least the force of the argument. But I 
will ask you a question : When two persons do not agree upon 
a subject, and wish to discuss it, what is to be done ?" 

P. Renard. " They must take that point for a basis upon 
which both agree." 

Wolff. " You believe in Scripture, and I believe in Scrip 
ture ; let us place the Scriptures before us, and decide the 

P. Renard. " But there is one judge between us, which is 
the Church. Tell me why will you not become a Roman 
Catholic r 

Wolff." I cannot believe in the infallibility of the Pope." 

P. Renard (interrupting Wolff). " This is not a dogma of 
the Church ; I myself do not believe it." 

Wolff. " Go to Rome, and you will be there considered as 
temerarius et impius y * for the divines at Rome say thus, < Non 
temere, sedpi e creditur infallibilitas Papce in cathedra loquentis." 

P. Renard. " The Propaganda has done this : not the 

Wolff. " With the approbation and sanction of the Pope." 

P. Renard. " What other doctrine induces you not to 
believe in the Roman Catholic Church T 

Wolff. " The doctrine of the worship of the Virgin Mary, 
of saints, and images." 

P. Renard. " We do not tcorship the Virgin Mary ; but 
for more convenience we go to his mother, as the English na 
tion go not immediately to their king, but to his ministers." 

Wolff. " I must observe, this" comparison between an 

* According to scholastic distinctions, a doctrine may be either a fide 
orproximum ad fidem. A fide is every doctrine, the disbelief of which 
would make a man a heretic, and which is already distinctly so decided 
upon by popes and councils ; and proximum ad fidem is every doctrine 
not yet distinctly decided on by popes and councils, but remaining as the 
opinion of the theologians, and the disbelief of which would make a man 
a temerarius, though not a heretic. Among the first is the Infallibility 
of the General Councils, and Transubstantiation ; among the second, the 
Infallibility of the Pope, and, a few years ago, the Immaculate Conception 
of the blessed Virgin (since ruled as a dogma) ; and whether Christ died 
for all. Doctrines a fide are dogmas. Doctrines proximum ad fidem are 
pi(B opimones. This was before alluded to in speaking of Count Stolberg, 
who adhered to the dogma only, and did not hold himself bound by the 
pia> opimones. Nevertheless, this liberty was not allowed at Rome, as 
Wolff had experienced. 

144 Travels and Adventures 

earthly king and the King of kings, is most abominable and 

P. Renard. " Omnis comparatio claudicat ; but prove it, 
that we worship the Virgin. 11 

Wolff. " Salve regina, mater misericordice, mta, dulcedo, 
et spes nostra, salve ; ad te clamamus exules filii Hevse, ad te 
suspiramus, gementes, flentes in hac lacrymarum valle : Eja 
ergo, adwcata nostra? etc. and as adwcata is synonymous 
with mediatrix, it is in open contradiction of Scripture, which 
says, there is but one Mediator between God and man." 

There were present at this discussion, Bishop Giovanni 
Marone, Vicar-General to the Patriarch ; the Apostolic Vicar, 
Gandolfi ; Giovanni Stambuli, Wolff s Arabic master, and 
others ; and Bishop Marone said openly, that ."Rome com 
manded too many things to bo believed ; and Stambuli (also 
openly) told Wolff that truth was on his side ; and they 
further remarked that Pere Renard never answered one of the 
texts from Scripture. 

In quoting this discussion with Pore Renard, Wolff wishes 
to remark that, although he subscribes still to the general prin 
ciples he then brought forward, he admits that he did not 
speak on the occasion in a quite Church spirit. He allowed 
too little to the authority of the Church. 

Wolff was rejoiced, long after this occurrence, when he found 
that his views of the Jesuits were shared by one of the orna 
ments of the Church of England, who was very far from be 
longing to the Tractarian party, but, on the contrary, was 
rather opposed to them, so long as opposition did not degene 
rate into hatred, intolerance, and persecution : and this man 
was eminent among the Broad Church party, and agreed with 
Wolff that the Jesuits, as a body, are not only thoroughly 
learned, but endowed with great piety and zeal : amongst them 
Cardinal Bellarmine need only be mentioned, whose piety 
breathes in all his writings. Never can Wolff forget the em 
phasis with which the late Sir Robert Inglis said to him, " I 
am not so blinded by my anti-Roman tendencies as to deny 
that Bellarmine was one of the most holy and excellent men in 
the Church of Christ ; and so were Massillon and Bourdaloue." 
Wolff has enjoyed the acquaintance of many Jesuits distin 
guished by their learning, their philosophical genius, their 
piety, and their benevolence ; and he will mention some of 
their names. There was Johannes Michael Sailer, Bishop of 
Ratisbon, whose pastoral theology is used in the Protestant 
university of Tubingen : also Father Wiedmnn, who himself cir 
culated thousands of Bibles in German v. One day Wolff 

of Dr. Wolff. 145 

heard in London a lecture on the fate of Poland, which was 
universally applauded by the audience, but Wolff despised it as 
a specimen of the most ignorant description ; for the lecturer 
said that the Jesuits had been the cause of Poland not becom 
ing independent of Russia : whereas Wolff with his own ears 
had heard Jesuits and Redemptorists at Vienna continually 
expressing a desire that Poland should have its own king again 
of the Roman Catholic Church. Father Koehler, a Jesuit, 
stood godfather to the child of the celebrated historian, Pro 
fessor Raumer, who belonged to the Lutheran Church. And 
Wolff is certain of this fact, for Raumer told him so, when he 
paid him a visit at Rome in the Collegio Romano, and was 
accompanied by Professor Van der Haagen, the translator of 
the Niebelungenlled. The Jesuits have been the greatest mis 
sionaries upon earth in Abyssinia, and also in China and 

Wolff was once asked, what religion is most addicted to 
idolatry and the invocation of saints I and he replied " There 
is no religion upon earth which is entirely free from image- 
worship, and the invocation of saints." Among the Jews, 
they have the Cherubim in the Temple ; and to this day they 
have the images of Cherubim in some of .the synagogues of 
Germany. In the years 1806-8, Wolff saw them at Jeben- 
hausen, near Goeppingen in Wurtemberg. In the Desert, 
upon Mount Sinai, and in the Temple was the brazen serpent 
too : and these were images sanctioned by Holy Writ. The 
Jews have also the worship of angels. On Friday evening, 
when the Jews come out of the synagogue, and go to their own 
houses, the father of the family, on entering the sitting-room, 
begins, " Peace upon you, serving angels angels of the 
Highest, of the King of kings, the Holy One, blessed be He ! 
Peace upon you, angels, in your coming in, and in your going 
out, &c." The Jews also go to the tombs of their holy men, 
and kiss the ground. They also kiss the tomb of Zachariah 
at Jerusalem. This devotion is in the human heart, and 
nothing will eradicate it. 

The Muhammadans worship the black stone at Mecca ; and 
call on Omar, Abu-Bekr, Osman and Ali, Husseyn and Hassan, 
for aid and assistance, and bring their camels to be cured by 
them. Their worship of the rags of their saints is most dis 

Among the ultramontanes of the Church of Rome, it cannot 
be denied that image-worship and worship of saints are carried 
to excess. But among the Lutherans, Luther and Melancthon 
are frequently spoken of as demi-gods. The inhabitants of 


146 Travels and Adventures 

Weimar worship Schiller, Wieland, Gothe, and Herder. In 
short, Carlyle is right : there is hero-worship in the world. 

The spirit of persecution has also prevailed among all reli 
gions. The Jews were charged by our Lord, " which of the 
prophets have you not killed 2" and a regular tribunal of perse 
cution was established in the so-called Sanhedrin. The 
Jewish religion is the mother of the Inquisition. Judas 
Tscariot seems like a spy sent by the Inquisition. The Mu- 
hammadans boldly maintain that for the infidel there are three 
things from which he must choose the sword, tribute, or con 
fession of faith. In the Roman Catholic Church there is in 
deed the Inquisition ; but, it must be admitted, that S. Bernard 
and Simeon Stylites preached against the persecution of the 

There was not a greater persecutor in any age than that 
sour-looking, vinegar- faced fellow and traitor, John Calvin. 
He first invited Servetus to come to him at Genoa, 
and then went and delivered his poor guest to the temporal 
power, which burnt him. Even the meek, Philip Melancthon, 
defended the propriety of burning heretics ; and it was only 
that mighty genius, Martin Luther to his praise be it spoken 
who was against the persecution of heretics. There have 
been no greater persecutors than the Lutherans in Germany, 
and the Calvinistic party in Holland. Was not Kepler, the 
great mathematician, starved by the Lutherans ? and was not 
Hugo Grotius imprisoned by his countrymen, the Dutch, be 
cause he did not believe that God had created some men for 
eternal damnation ! And let us come to the Church of Eng 
land. Not only Henry VIII., but Queen Elizabeth, perse 
cuted holy men ; and what did the Puritans, John Knox, &e., 
but persecute 2 Persecution, however, is not confined to reli 
gionists, for philosophers persecute each other. Schelling 
persecuted Jacobi, and Jacobi persecuted Schelling. 

Another place Wolff visited in the same neighbourhood, was 
the Armenian Convent Kraim. Here he found the Grand 
Prior, Wartanes, very warmly disposed towards him, arid 
manifesting a great desire to have Armenian colleges estab 
lished in England and India, after the manner of that at 
Venice. Wolff encouraged their feelings on this subject, but 
availed himself of the opportunity to implore them to be recon 
ciled in Christian love towards certain of their brethren in Italy, 
with whom he had heard they had quarrelled, on account of 
some slight differences of opinion. He spoke as follows : 

" My brethren, I know that there are divisions among the 
Armenians, not only between those converted to the Church of 

of Dr. Wolff. 147 

Rome, and those of the old orthodox Armenian faith, but like 
wise between different portions of those converted to the Church 
of Rome as you are. The Armenian members of the Propa 
ganda at Rome persecute the zealous, pious, learned, and gen 
tlemen-like Armenians, called Mehitarists, at Venice; and 
this on account of a word : they persecute those as heretics, 
as enemies of Christ, who promote the word of God, the word 
of Christ, with such a holy zeal. The Mehitarists have estab 
lished a printing-press at Venice, and have already printed, not 
only many thousand books of several kinds about spiritual con 
cerns, but likewise the word of God itself. Oh, my dear 
brethren, I could weep when I perceive such things amongst 
Christians ! My dear brethren, let Christians not become a 
reproach to the Mussulman, Jew, and heathen. I know that 
you are members of the Romish Propaganda ; I beg you, there 
fore, to reconcile yourselves with the Mehitarists of S. Lazarus 
at Venice." 

Another Priest, " Daniele," who was present, answered at 
once, " By God^s grace we shall be reconciled with them, and 
we will go hand in hand to promote the light of Christianity 
throughout the world." 

Wartanes added, " I have a great desire to awaken my na 
tion : I hope you will help us." Wolff then promised to write 
letters for them to England, and after more conversation took 
his departure. But he visited them again, and gave them the 
promised letters, to Henry Drummond, Mr. Bayford, and Mr. 
Ward. And then they gave him to read the prayer of S. 
Nierses Ghelajensis, patriarch of the Armenians in the second 
century, a specimen of devotion well worthy record. It is as 
follows : 

" In faith, I confess and adore Thee, Father, Son, and 
Holy Spirit ! Creator of angels and of men, have mercy on 
thy creatures. 

" In faith, I confess and adore Thee, indivisible Light, most 
holy Trinity, and one God ! Creator of light, and Destroyer 
of darkness, expel from my soul the darkness of sin and igno 
rance, and enlighten my soul at this moment, that I may be 
able to pray unto Thee after thy good pleasure, and obtain from 
Thee my requests. Have mercy upon a great sinner like me. 

" Heavenly Father, true God, Thou who hast sent thy be 
loved Son to seek the lost sheep, I have sinned against heaven 
and before Thee accept me as Thou didst accept the prodigal 
son, and clothe me in the primitive dress of which I have been 
deprived, and have mercy upon thy creatures, and upon me, a 
miserable sinner. 


148 Travels and Adventures 

" Son of God, true God, who didst descend from the bosom 
of the Father, and tookest a body upon Thyself in the holy 
Virgin for our salvation, who hast been crucified, and buried, 
and raised up from the dead, and hast ascended up into hea 
ven, I have sinned against heaven and before Thee remember 
me as Thou didst the thief on the cross, when thou shalt come 
into thy kingdom. Have mercy upon thy creatures, and upon 
me, a great sinner. 

" Spirit of God, who didst descend in the river Jordan, and 
hast enlightened me with the baptism of thy holy fountain, I 
have sinned against heaven and before Thee ; purify me again 
with thy fire divine, as Thou didst purify the Apostles with 
the tongues of fire. And have mercy upon thy creatures, and 
upon me, a miserable sinner. 

" Christ, Thou living fire, kindle in my heart the fire of thy 
love, which Thou hast scattered upon earth, that it may con 
sume the uncleanness of my heart, and purify my conscience ; 
and kindle in my intellect the light of thy knowledge. And 
have mercy upon thy creatures, and upon me, a miserable 

Wolff also met in Mount Lebanon two Italian adventurers, 
who had left their country on account of their political opinions. 
It was rather amusing to hear them laugh at their own follies, 
and those of their compatriots, in leaving their native land for 
the sake of liberty, only to find a scanty and needy livelihood 
by becoming the slaves of Muhammadan tyrants. However, it 
was refreshing to be on Mount Lebanon, and to hear, all over 
the mountain, the sound of the bell, and the Kyrie Eleison, 
Christe Eleison, resounding from all the Christian churches. 
Years afterwards, Wolff, to his great astonishment, discovered 
that his residence in Mount Lebanon had created a great 
excitement in all that neighbourhood. 

He now returned to Acre, and preached again to crowds of 
Jews ; and, when he was again not far from Jaffa (the ancient 
Joppa), he was robbed by the Bedouins, and stripped of his 
clothes, after which they let him go. Arriving in Jaffa, he 
met with Major Mackworth, in the house of Damiani, the 
Consul ; and he furnished him with clothes. The next day he 
started on a mule for Ramlah (the ancient Arimathea), and 
slept in the Armenian monastery ; and thence proceeded for 
wards through the camp of Aboo-goosh, who, with his band of 
robbers, stopped him for a short time ; but, after a present of a 
small sum of money, allowed him to go on. Aboo-goosh pos 
sessed and showed him the portrait of Sir Sydney Smith. 

After this Wolff had to travel over vast heaps of stones, 

of Dr. Wolff. 149 

which were strewed along the highways to Jerusalem. So 
that, when the Psaha of Damascus, who at that time ruled 
over Jerusalem, came that way, the Arabs, in order to honour 
him, exclaimed, " Make straight the highway!" This reminds 
one of the passage in Isaiah, where that prophet, proclaiming 
the future glories of Jerusalem, says, " Cast up, cast up the 
highway, gather out the stones, lift up a standard for the 
people." Arriving near Jerusalem one hears a cry proclaimed 
from the walls, " God is God ! and Muhammad is the prophet 
of God." Which reminds one of the words, in Isaiah Ixii. : 
" I have set watchmen upon thy walls, O Jerusalem, which 
shall never hold their peace day nor night : ye that make 
mention of the Lord, keep not silence." At last, at five 
o clock in the evening of March 8, 1822, Wolff came up to 
the gates of Jerusalem. The gates were shut from fear of 
Aboo-goosh the robber, who frequently entered the town to 
plunder it. They were, therefore, obliged to send to the 

fovernor for the keys, before Wolff could be admitted. The 
eys were brought, and the gates were loosed, for the keys in 
use are pieces of wood, which do not lock, but in a manner tie 
the gates together. This explains that passage, Matthew xvi. 
18, 19, "I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of 
heaven : and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be 
bound in heaven : and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth 
shall be loosed in heaven." The expressions bind and loose 
here used are explained by the nature of the keys above 

While the messenger went for the keys, Wolff was singing 
the beautiful paraphrase of the noble-minded Lewis Way : 

" For Zion s sake I will not rest, 

I will not hold my peace ; 
Until Jerusalem be blest, 

And Judah dwell at ease. 

" Until her righteousness return, 

As daybreak after night, 
The lamp of her salvation burn 

With everlasting light. 

" And Gentiles shall her glory see, 

And kings proclaim her fame : 
Appointed unto her shall be 

A new and holy name." 

150 Travels and Adventures 

Wolff also chanted, to a melody composed by himself, 

" Far from Zion, far from home, 
Earth beholds the captive band, 

Wretched strangers here we roam 
Thinking of our native land." 

At last he slipped into Jerusalem. 


Jerusalem^ its Inhabitants and Neighbourhood; Controversies 
with Rabbis Mendel and Markowiz. 

" O Jerusalem ! my lady so fair and so beautiful, 

How many years have I not seen thee. 

Sorrow, grief, and the waywardness of thy children 

Are the cause that thy beauty has withered away. 

And there are wrinkles in thy face, 

But there are traces of former beauty. 

Yet thy elders sit no longer in the gates, 

Thy young men cease from their music." WOLFF. 

NO sooner had Wolff entered the city gate than both John 
Carne, and Mr. Gethin, a gentleman from Longford, in 
Ireland, met with him, and embraced him, and brought him to 
their room in the monastery called Terra Santa, belonging to 
the Italian Friars of the Franciscan Order, who are there with 
their Superior, who is called Riverendissimo, and who received 
him with the greatest kindness. Wolff ever regrets having 
left that monastery the next day, and exchanged it for the 
Armenian. For, though the Armenians received Dr. Wolff 
with the greatest kindness, and gave him a beautiful room in 
the monastery, yet he insulted and hurt the feelings of the 
good Italian Friars by leaving them. But he must confess 
that one consideration induced him to do so, and this was, that 
he was apprehensive that he might be expelled at last, when 
they should observe his missionary operations among the Jews. 
And certainly such would have been the . case ; for the same 
thing happened to an extraordinary young man, who was sent 
to Palestine and Aleppo (in which latter place that holy man 
died), by Wolff s gallant, bold, and firm friend, Henry Drum- 

of Dr. Wolff. 151 

mond. The name of that young man was Burckhardt, he was 
cousin to the great traveller, but of an entirely different cha 
racter. He was a man of prayer, in the strictest sense of the 
word, fearless of consequences, and he circulated the word of 
God in the streets of Jerusalem ; but he was at last turned out 
by the Friars of Terra Santa ; and from Jerusalem to Aleppo 
he circulated the word of God in every quarter ; and at Aleppo 
he died, it is suspected by poison. 

However to come back to Jerusalem ; Wolff was thus 
comfortably placed in the Armenian monastery, where the 
Patriarch Gabriel received him with the greatest delight, and 
sent a live sheep to his room, as a mark of respect, and good 
Jerusalem wine, made by the Armenians. Gethin and Carne 
came to him, and partook of his dinner, and two of the Friars 
joined the party, and a German, Leutzen by name. And very 
soon Wolff s room was crowded by Jews, Armenians, Roman 
Catholics, and Turks, to whom he proclaimed the Gospel of 
Christ in Italian, Hebrew, Arabic, German, and English. He 
went with Gethin and Carne to the Greek monastery to 
pay a visit to the Bishop Daniel Nazareth, Vicar -General to 
the Patriarch, because the Patriarch himself resided in Con 
stantinople, on account of the persecution which the Greeks had 
to suffer from the Turks. And surprised, indeed, was Dr. 
Wolff to find in this Greek monastery, that Procopius, one of 
the monks, was furnished with Arabic, Greek, and Hebrew 
Bibles and Testaments, which had been left to him by a mis 
sionary of the Church Missionary Society, Connor by name, 
and by Levi Parsons, the American missionary. Procopius 
circulated these among the inhabitants of Jerusalem. There 
also came to Joseph Wolff, at the Armenian monastery, Papas 
Isa Petrus, a man of great talents, who spoke Arabic, Greek, 
Persian, Turkish, Italian, and French with the greatest faci 
lity. Gethin observed that such an interesting sight had never 
been seen at Jerusalem before, and the Armenians themselves 
said the same thing, for there had never been so many persons 
of different nations assembled in their monastery since the 
monastery of Mar-Yakoob (which means "the Holy James;" 
namely, the Apostle, who was the first Bishop of Jerusalem) 
existed, as Joseph Wolff had now brought together there.* It 

* Carne wrote of Wolff to his brother at this time : " His manners 
are agreeable, but, like all others engaged in this cause, perhaps, rather 
enthusiastic. He is, I believe, from all that can be judged on so short 
an acquaintance, a sincerely pious man. Considering the delicate ground 
he here treads upon, he has certainly met with more success than could 

152 Travels and Adventures 

must be observed that the body of Mar-Yakoob is buried in 
the monastery, but his head is buried in San Jago ; and many 
miracles are performed both by the body buried in Jerusalem, 
and by the head in Spain. 

Makarditsh, Wolff s fellow-traveller through the Desert 
from Cairo to Gaza, lived also in the monastery, and paid a 
visit to Joseph Wolff; and also Stephen, an Armenian, who 
resided in Bagdad, but had come to Jerusalem for the Eastern 
Feast. Stephen was a mighty man, and a great traveller. He 
had with him a beautiful narghili (water-pipe), which he fre 
quently offered to Wolff to smoke, and this was the first pipe 
which Wolff ever smoked in his life. Stephen had been in 
Calcutta, and was well acquainted with the English customs 
and manners there, as also with the operations of the mis 
sionaries in India. When Wolff waited on the Patriarch 
Gabriel, he urged him to write to the Archbishop of Canterbury 
and to Henry Drummond, a letter, expressing his desire of 
having friendly intercourse with the Church of England; and 
the Patriarch had promised to do so, when Stephen interposed, 
to Wolff s great astonishment, and said to the Patriarch, 
" My lord Patriarch, be on your guard : the missionaries are 
only a small body of believers, but the English in general are 
atheists, followers of Voltaire, and of a man still worse than 
Voltaire, Martinus Lutherus, who worshipped a cock." 
Another Armenian interposed and said, " It was not a cock 
but a swan ; and, before Luther s time, there was a man bad 
as himself, who worshipped a goose." 

This description of Martin Luther, and the worshipper of 
the goose, is most extraordinary, because it rests upon a tra 
ditional source, which is this : " One hundred years before 
Luther, John Huss, of Prague, arose as a Reformer, and the 
name of " Huss" means, in the Bohemian language, Goose ; 
and the name of " Luther," which is also a Bohemian word, 
means Swan ; and at the time when he was about to be burnt, 
he said to the people who witnessed his execution, " One hun 
dred years after me a swan shall appear, whom they shall 
neither roast nor boil !" This belief, therefore, of Luther 
worshipping- a swan, and of the man before him worshipping a 
goose, had its origin in that traditional story. Wolff, however, 

have been anticipated. A number of the Jews, among whom are a few 
of the chief, have accepted Testaments of him, and there is a general 
impulse excited among them. He once had fifty at a time in his 
chamber. The Rabbi, rather alarmed at this, has interfered a little, and 
is to have a dispute with Mr. Wolff." 

of Dr. Wolff. 153 

succeeded, in a quiet way, in convincing Stephen that there 
were a great many good Christians in England ; and that the 
English abhor Voltaire, and do not take Luther as their 
guide ; and, moreover, that Luther was not quite so bad as he 

Wolff struck up a great friendship with two of the monks, 
Boghos Tiutiungi, which means " Paul the pipe-maker," and 
Boghos Episcopus, or " Paul the bishop." Boghos Tiutiungi 
had studied in Rome, and spoke Italian very fluently. Wolff, 
in company with these two monks, visited the Mount of Olives, 
and read with them in the Bible ; and with his friends Gethin 
and Carne, and with the Jews he read the words of David ; 
and, ascending the Mount of Olives, " he wept as he went up;" 
and also he read the words of Zechariah, 14th chapter, 3rd and 
4th verses, " Then shall the Lord go forth, and fight against 
those nations, as when he fought in the day of battle. And 
his feet shall stand in that day upon the Mount of Olives, 
which is before Jerusalem on the east." And then he went 
with them to Bethlehem, to the shepherds field, and to the 
manger, where our blessed Lord was laid, wrapped up in 
swaddling clothes ; and there he saw the field of the shepherds, 
and there he read the words of St. Luke, which contain the 
song of the glorified angels in heaven, who sang, " Glory to 
God in the highest, Peace on earth, and good-will towards 
men." There he also saw the little room, where St. Jerome 
translated the Holy Bible from Hebrew into Latin ; and from 
thence Wolff went to the river Jordan, and to the place where 
Sodom and Gomorrah stood, and to the Monastery of Mar- 
Saba. Then he returned to Jerusalem, and went, accompanied 
by his friends, to the tomb where our blessed Lord was buried, 
and where Mary Magdalene first took him for the gardener, 
and the mistake was not great, for our blessed Lord was a 
gardener, because He planted the garden of God, the Church, 
where the fruits ripen, and are made fit for the kingdom of 
heaven. And on Mary Magdalene s recognizing the Lord, 
she said, " Babboni, my Master and my Lord ;" and He said, 
" Mary ; " and this expressed how the union was established 
between Christ and the believer. 

But now it is time to describe his visit to the Jews. There 
are four parties of Jews in Jerusalem ; the one party, who are 
the most powerful and richest, are the Sephardim ; these Jews 
are descended from the Spanish Jews, who were expelled from 
Spain by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. They are the 
richest, but they are not the most learned. Another party 
are the Ashkeuazim, who are chiefly descendants of the Ger- 

154 Travels and Adventures 

man and Polish J ews ; the word Ashkenazim means people of 
the land of Germany ; for Germany is called by the Jews 
Ashkenaz, from a man called Ashkenaz, who was a descendant 
of Togarmah, who again was a descendant of Japhet. (Genesis 
x. 3.) The Ashkenazim are again divided into two parties 
the Pharisees, i. e. the strict literal observers of the law, and 
the traditions of the Elders ; and the Haseedim, who also 
observe the law and the traditions of the Elders, but still they 
say this is not the chief thing : the chief thing of all, being 
the intention of the heart. These are the Puritans of the 
Jewish synagogue. Besides these two divisions of the Ash 
kenazim, there is another, viz., that of the Coraeem, or B nee 
Mikra, i. e. those who only believe in those things which they 
can actually read in Moses and the Prophets. The name 
Coraeem means reading, and B nee Mikra means the children 
of the book. The latter are not natives of Jerusalem, but come 
from the place called Hit, near Bagdad, a beautiful oasis in the 
Desert. They also come from the Crimea, especially from the 
place called Jufut-Kaleh (Jew- Castle), situated upon a high 
mountain, near the Tartar town, called Bakhtshe-Seray, 
which means the Gardener of the Palace. Dr. McCaul says, 
in his pamphlet upon Marriage with a deceased Wife s Sister, 
that the Coraeem had their origin in the twelfth century after 
Christ, in which statement Wolff considers him to be entirely 
wrong ; for, by their own account, they had their origin in the 
Babylonish captivity; but separated themselves from the 
Jews, when that people mixed up Chaldean notions with the 
law of Moses, and under their Rabbi Annan, formed a sepa 
rate community. Wolff went with the Sephardim and Ash 
kenazim Jews to the wall of the west side of the temple, and 
sang with them the following hymn : 

"The mighty shall build the City of Zion, 
And give her to Thee. 
Then shall he raise from the dust the needy, 
And from the dunghill the poor. 
The Blessed One shall build the City of Zion, 
And give her to Thee," &c., &c. 

They also sang the following hymn : 

" Thou art mighty to build thy temple speedily, 
Lord, build, build thy temple speedily 
In haste, in haste, in haste, in haste, 
Even in our days 
Build thy temple speedily." 

On his return home, he called on Saadiah and Solomon, two 

of Dr. Wolf. 155 

Jews of the Coraeem nation. Their wives were very beautiful, 
and cleanliness reigns in their houses, which is not, as a rule, 
the case among other Jews. He copied from their liturgy a 
hymn, of which he has given a translation in his former jour 
nals, in the years 1821-22; and which translation has been 
adopted by Baron von Haxthausen in his " Travels in the 
Crimea," without any acknowledgment that it is Wolff s, 
though he has given the extracts in the very same order as 
Wolff did. 

Here Wolff again recites the hymn. 

Rabbi. On account of the palace which is laid waste, 

People. We sit lonely and weep. 

Rabbi. On account of the temple which is destroyed, 

People. We sit lonely and weep. 

Rabbi. On account of the walls which are pulled down, 

People. We sit lonely and weep. 

Rabbi. On account of our majesty which is gone, 

People. We sit lonely and weep. 

Rabbi. On account of our great men who have been cast down, 

People. We sit lonely and weep. 

Rabbi. On account of the precious stones which are burned, 

People. We sit lonely and weep. 

Rabbi. On account of the priests who have stumbled, 

People. We sit lonely and weep. 

Rabbi. On account of our Kings who have despised Him, 

People. We sit lonely and weep. 

Another hymn may also be given. 

Rabbi. We beseech Thee have mercy upon Zion, 

People. And gather the children of Jerusalem. 

Rabbi. Make haste, O Redeemer of Zion ! 

People. Speak to the heart of Jerusalem. 

Rabbi. May beauty and majesty surround Zion. 

People. Turn with thy mercy to Jerusalem. 

Rabbi. Remember the shame of Zion. 

People. Make new again the ruins of Jerusalem. 

Rabbi. May the royal government shine again over Zion. 

People. Comfort those who mourn at Jerusalem. 

Rabbi. May joy and gladness be found upon Zion. 

People. A branch shall spring forth at Jerusalem. 

Wolff asked Saadiah whether the Coraeem in the Crimea 
offered up sacrifices. Saadiah took hold of Wolff s arm, and 
went with him to the window, opposite Omar s Mosque, and 
then said, " Do you see that Mosque of the Mussulmans ? 
There our temple stood, on that very spot. It is destroyed, 

156 Travels and Adventures 

alas ! alas ! alas ! and ever since has Israel been many days 
without sacrifice, without ephod, and without Teraphim." 
Wolff afterwards preached before Saadiah and others, on 
Isaiah liii., and from other portions of Scripture. 

Wolff was presently sent for by "the Light of Israel," 
respected and revered by Sephardim, and Ashkenazim, by 
Pharisees and Hasidim, and by Coraeem Jews, the children of 
the Bible. His name was Rabbi Mendel. He was a little 
man, of a kind countenance, but with penetrating eyes ; and 
when Wolff came to him, the phylacteries were on his head, 
the Talmud was before him. the pen was in his hand. He 
was able to preach, as the Jews told Wolff, about every word 
of the Law of Moses, for longer than three hours, and could 
all the time rivet the attention of his hearers. He apologized 
for having sent for Wolff, saying that he never went out him 
self, and should therefore be glad to see him every day at his 
house. He had been the instrument of the conversion of 
Polish counts and noblemen to the Jewish religion ; and he 
evidently was bent upon converting Joseph Wolff. 

When Wolff was in his childhood, his father had told him 
a great deal of the learning, holiness, and miraculous powers of 
Rabbi Eliahu, of Wilna, in Poland, whose power of working 
miracles was so great, that being when a young man of 
only nineteen years of age in love with a girl who lived 
800 miles distant from him, whom he wished to marry, he 
made her come to him in less than three minutes, and forth 
with married her. Another miracle is also told of Rabbi 
Eliahu, as well as of other holy rabbis, and this is that he 
had what the Jews call a Golem, i.e., a lump of clay formed 
into the figure of a man, which walked about for him in the 
capacity of a servant, and cooked his dinner on the Sabbath 
day. Rabbi Eliahu was highly versed in the science of Cabala, 
and was acquainted with the whole workmanship of the chariot 
of God, and knew the exact hour when the angels around the 
throne of God perform their morning and evening prayers ; and 
and when they sing, " Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of Sabaoth, 
all the earth is full of thy majesty." 

Now Rabbi Mendel was the most distinguished disciple of 
that Eliahu of Wilna ; and, on Wolff s coming to him, all the 
Jews crowded around to listen. Wolff said to him, on hearing 
that Jews of thirteen and fourteen years of age marry, " Why 
do the Jews marry so early f Rabbi Mendel replied, " Have 
you not read the Psalms of David? It is said in the 127th 
Psalm, As arrows in the hand of a mighty man, so are 
children of the youth. He then offered to read Hebrew 

of Dr. Wolff. 157 

with Wolff every day ; and when Wolff came again to him, he 
gave him to understand that he wished him to be converted 
back to Judaism. Of course Wolff could not agree to that, and 
entered into conversation with him on the authenticity of the 
New Testament. Several arguments were used, which, as they 
are old and well known, it is not worth while to repeat. 

But the opening of their first discourse together was curious, 
and may be found interesting by many people. 

Wolff. "Before I enter into conversation with you about 
the truth of Judaism, I must make before you the profession 
of my faith : I do not worship images, nor the wooden cross ; 
but I believe, Hear O Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord, 
and I firmly believe that Jesus of Nazareth was the Messiah, 
the Son of God, and that He came to suffer for our iniquities, 
and that He shall come again, and be the Redeemer of Israel. 
I beg of you Rabbi, to tell me the meaning of Gen. iii. 15." 

Rabbi Mendel. " Let us consider, first, the spot where men 
and beasts were before Adam s fall ; they were in the paradise 
of God ; and it were absurd to think that an unclean body 
should be in the garden of God ; and we must, therefore, con 
clude, that men and beasts were originally endowed with a 
glorified body. But the serpent, the inducer to evil, the Satan, 
the leader astray from the path of God, persuaded Hava (Eve) 
to eat of the tree of knowledge, that is, to trangress one of the 
seven commandments which He gave, and then the glorified 
body of Adam, and the animals, became sinful and miserable. 
But the Holy One said to Satan, I will put enmity between 
thee, Satan, and the woman, for thou shalt try to lead her 
astray from me, but she shall hate thee, ; And I will put 
enmity between thy seed, the passions, or bad men, and her 
seed, the Messiah, and the people beloved. He shall finally 
overcome thee, and take thy power : It shall bruise thy head, 
and thou shalt bruise his heel, the heel of Messiah, the Son 
of Ephraim, that is, He, the Son of Ephraim, shall, by the 
devices of the devil, be killed ; and that Messiah, the Son of 
Ephraim, was Jeroboam. He, in the beginning, was a pious 
and good man, for Jeroboam was a mighty man of valour; 
but as soon as Satan had bruised his heel, Jeroboam made 
Israel sin ; but the Lord has given him his kingdom ; he shall, 
therefore, be the first Messiah who shall be put to death ; and 
they shall look upon that Messiah whom they have pierced, 
and mourn ; for Satan has bruised his heel, and Satan bruises 
likewise the heel of poor Israel, for we poor Jews are, alas ! in 
captivity. For Satan has induced us to sin ; he is the cause 
that we poor Jews sit alone, and nobody considers us ; but 

158 Travels and Adventures 

redemption will soon come to poor Israel, and those children of 
Jacob, who said to their brother Joseph, Shalt thou indeed 
reign over us ; or shalt thou indeed have dominion over us f 
(Gen. xxx vii. 8) have said to Joseph, in a prophetical tone, 
And we will also be my Lord s servants ; Ephraim shall not 
envy Judah, and Judah shall not vex Ephraim. 1 For Messiah 
Ben Ephraim, and Messiah Ben David, shall live together in 
peace, and then the mystery of the three initial characters of 
the three words, thousand, two hundred, and ninety (Dan. 
xii. 11), DW DVIND * shall be fulfilled; for the initial 
letter of fi&N is N, of DYWD is D, of DW/1 is n. Those three 
characters joined together form the word /"1DN, "truth;" for 
the whole world will be converted to the truth, J1DN !" 

Rabbi Mendel was at this time occupied in compiling several 
books ; one on the beauty of creation the sun, the moon, and 
the stars ; for he said We have to consider the heavens, the 
moon, and the stars, in order to see the beauty of God. It is 
true that many philosophers have written upon this subject, 
but they have only mentioned the stars and the sun. They 
have forgotten the Creator of all those things ; and it has been 
verified in them what the Prophet says : Also he hath set 
the world in their heart, so that no man can find out the work 
that God maketh from the beginning to the end. 1 

It was very grievous to see how this great man distorted the 
clearest passages in order to find out reasons for observing the 
laws of the Talmud. He translated the plain words in Levi 
ticus xviii. 30, " Ye shall keep my ordinance," by " Ye shall 
make an ordinance to my ordinance ;" for, he said, " As poor 
Israel was to wander into captivity, it was possible that doubts 
would arise as to the meaning of the laws of Moses, which 
would make it impossible for them to be kept, and therefore the 
Rabbis have made, in addition, 317 other laws, in order to 
explain the first, and to teach by what method they could be 
most easily kept ; as also to furnish rules whereby they could 
be prevented from transgressing them." 

Wolff, then, in order to get out Mendel s whole opinion, so 
as better to show to him the truth of Christianity, allowed him 
to speak entirely alone. For Wolff observed that he frequently 
agreed with the Gospel in what he said ; therefore he had not 
to combat him, but merely point out in what respects the 
agreement existed. 

Thus, for instance, Mendel spoke about spirits moving in the 
air ; on which Wolff immediately referred him to the words of 
Paul, " the Prince of the power of the air." 

He talked also about the two Jerusalems Jerusalem be- 

of Dr. Wolff. 159 

neath and Jerusalem above. Then Wolff referred him to 
Revelation xxi., where it is spoken about Jerusalem coming 
down from Heaven, &c. 

But the acuteness of the man was surprising, for he imme 
diately found out why Wolff allowed him to go on, and said, 
"I am afraid to speak, and tell you my views, for you at once 
apply it all to your own purpose !" 

Here a Jew came into the room, and said, " Why do you 
talk with Joseph Wolff? He only became a Christian in order 
to become rich." 

Rabbi Mendel, with great emphasis, answered, " No, I will 
not allow that, nor admit it. There is undoubtedly great wis 
dom in Christianity. There is a spirit of inquiry among Jews, 
and among the nations at large in our present time ; and 
although the Jews have kept themselves for nearly 2000 years 
aloof from idolatry, that spirit (idolatry) is reviving again in 
some. " 1 

So, after all, Mendel could not abstain from conversing with 
Wolff; and, one day, Wolf recited the Lord s Prayer to him ; 
when, for every sentence, Mendel recited a verse exactly in 
harmony with it, out of the Old Testament. Wolff then said, 
" I thank you, Rabbi, that you have given me so many texts 
by which I may prove to the Jews that Christ came not to 
abolish the law, but to fulfil it !" 

A Polish Rabbi, Joseph Markowiz by name, who was sup 
posed to be a Baal-Shem, i.e., " possessor of the ineffable name 
of Jehovah,"" with which he pretended to have cured many sick 
persons, and performed other miracles, and had so gained many 
thousand piasters, called on Wolff, and said, " I will now speak 
with you as a friend, and tell you things by which you will 
perceive that you have not to do with a fool. The Lord said 
unto Samuel, 4 Fill thine horn with oil and go, and I will send 
thee to Jesse the Bethelemite, for I have provided me a king 
among his sons. And Samuel said, How can I go ? If Saul 
hear it he will kill me. And the Lord said, Take an heifer 
with thee, and say I am come to sacrifice to the Lord. " 

Rabbi Joseph Markowiz inferred from this, that we are not 
obliged to die as martyrs for the truth, and that although a man 
believes in Christ, he need not confess his name before men, if 
he should be in danger from doing so of being persecuted, and 
deprived of his property, and perhaps of his life. 

Wolff replied that the passage referred to merely shows that 
a person is not always obliged to tell the whole truth to those 
who have no business to ask for it ; but as soon as the welfare 
of immortal souls comes to be concerned, we are obliged to 

160 Travels and Adventures 

declare the truth whatever it may cost us ; and that many 
prephets had died for the truth. Wolff took this man as 
instructor to read the Talmud with ; for which assistance he 
paid him. Markowiz said to Wolff, " I will show you some pas 
sages in the Talmud, by which you may confute and astonish 
Rabbi Mendel. To-morrow go and show him the following 
passage from the treatise called Nidda (sect. 9, page 61) : 
Rabbi Joseph says, Thus say the Rabbis, the command 
ments shall be abolished, when he that is to come shall come. 
Then argue with him, and say, You complain that Jesus 
abolished the ceremonial law, whilst it was his duty to do this, 
if He was the true Messiah. 1 r "He that is to come shall 
come,"" is a common expression in the Talmud when referring 
to the Messiah. So, next day, Wolff went to Rabbi Mendel, 
and produced that argument ; whereupon Rabbi Mendel at 
once said, " This you have not got from yourself, but from 
that hypocrite Rabbi Joseph Markowiz. He shall not be sent 
forth as apostle for collecting money for the congregation of 

Just then, Rabbi Joseph Markowiz, who lived close by, 
slipped into the room, and Rabbi Mendel remonstrated with 
him for what he had done, and told him, " You shall not be 
sent forth as apostle." But Markowiz denied the whole. 
Wolff, however, was obliged to admit the fact, but the impu 
dence of the fellow was astonishing ; for, although he had 
denied his own interference so positively, yet, the very next 
time that Wolff came to him for his lesson, he showed to him 
a passage still more forcible in the very same treatise. The 
word Khazir, which means pig or pork, is analyzed, and it is 
said that the first meaning is overturned , thereupon, the 
question is asked, "Why has it that meaning?" and the 
answer given is this, " That the moment the Messiah shall 
arrive, the law, with regard to eating pork, shall be overturned 
or upset." 

Once more Wolff went to Rabbi Mendel, but when he 
showed him that passage, Rabbi Mendel said again, " This is 
not from your own learning : this is again Rabbi Joseph 
Markowiz ! " 

Young Rabbi Isaac, son of Solomon, the engraver, who was 
about fifteen years old, of a most beautiful countenance, and 
already married, was so angry with Rabbi Joseph Markowiz, 
that he said, " I shall go and tear out the beard of that old 
hypocrite ; but, first of all, I will go to Joseph Wolff, and will 
show to him the beauty of the Talmud, and how much he 
will be a loser, when the Messiah shall come, by having em- 

of Dr. Wolff. 161 

braced the Christian religion." So this youth came to Joseph 
Wolff, and showed to him in the Talmud, the following 
passage : 

" Rabbi Ellazar was wandering in the desert, when he saw 
two geese who were so fat, that their grease dropped from 
them, and ran through the desert, and formed a river. Now, 
Ellazar knew that these geese were to be kept for the feast, 
which the Messiah will give to the Jews when he comes, 
so said he to one of them, Oh, thou goose ! what part shall I 
eat of thee ? and the goose showed him one leg : then he 
asked the same question of the other goose, and the other 
goose showed him one wing. Ellazar then began to sigh, and 
exclaimed, Oh, that Israel may soon cease from sinning, in 
order that I may enjoy the wing from the one goose and the 
leg from the other ! 

Wolff, who never laughed at anything which was told him 
seriously, maintained a perfectly grave face, and said, " I 
thank you very much, Rabbi, for this passage a most inter 
esting passage it is ! " 

Rabbi Isaac, son of Solomon, was delighted at this ; and, 
running at once to Rabbi Joseph Markowiz, said to him, 
" Now, I have shown to Rabbi Wolff a passage as an antidote 
to those you have pointed out to him ; " and he told him the 
passage, whereupon, the old fellow burst into a fit of laughter, 
and said, " Oh, that thou may st have a black year ! * Wolff 
will now laugh the whole day, when he is by himself." To 
which Rabbi Isaac replied, " Thou old epicurean ! ( Wolff 
had at least the decency not to laugh in my presence, but thou 
laughest already in my very face." 

Another time, Rabbi Joseph Markowiz read with Wolff the 
cabalistic exposition of Genesis xlix. 10, in the remarkable 
book called Zohar, when his wife entered the room, and ex 
claimed, f Oh Rabbi, may you live, oh my love, a hundred 
years ! I am afraid that by your spending the whole night 
with Rabbi Joseph Wolff, the whole congregation of Israel in 
Jerusalem (may it soon be established and built again !) will 
talk about it." Rabbi Joseph Markowiz replied to his wife, 
<f Go home, and sleep sweetly, and live a hundred years, and 
let the whole congregation of Israel talk about it ; for I am 
Rabbi Joseph Markowiz, and surely one word of mine will 
silence the whole congregation of Israel." They then pro 
ceeded with their book, which was composed by Rabbi Simon 
Ben Yohay, where, in the explanation of the word " Shiloh," 

* A Jewish curse. 

f So they commonly called the apostate Jews. 


162 Travels and Adventures 

it says, " This is Messiah, and it is spelt, not like Shiloh the 
city, with the letters Joel and Vau, but with the letters JOB 
and HE, which compose the name of God ; and this is so, 
because the fulness of the Godhead is bodily in the Messiah." 
On perusing this with Rabbi Joseph Markowiz, the old fox 
remarked, " This will make Kabbi Mendel dance ! " 

Next day, Wolff came to Rabbi Mendel, and read the pas 
sage to him, together with those words of St. Paul, " The 
fulness of the Godhead dwelt in him bodily." Rabbi Mendel 
said at once, "Here, again, I smell Rabbi Joseph Markowiz!" 
And, in the midst of the anger which he and the others felt, 
in came Rabbi Joseph Markowiz himself again ; and the whole 
party of Jews fell upon him, and called him " An old rascal." 
Markowiz, as was his custom, sat all the while in a chair, 
leaning on his stick, and swinging to and fro, and he said, 
" Why am I a rascal ? Ought we not to prepare Wolff for 
defending himself? Will it make us Christians if we do so? 
The passage has stood for ages in our books, and yet we are 
still Jews." 

They shouted out, " You shall be excommunicated." 
"What use will this be to you?" cried he. "Your name 
and remembrance shall be blotted out from the book of life ! " 
they rejoined ; whereupon Rabbi Joseph Markowiz walked 
off, his shoulders shaking with laughter 5 and, said he to 
Wolff, " See how I support you ! " 

It should be remarked that this conduct of Rabbi Joseph 
Markowiz taught Wolff a very valuable lesson, for it caused 
him to study the Rabbinical writings with all possible earnest 
ness and attention. 

This Rabbi Joseph Markowiz was a most extraordinary 
fellow. Once he travelled to Sidon, and found a blind Jew 
there. This blind Jew asked him to give him a charm, in 
order that he might receive his sight ; for which he paid him 
in advance, several dollars. After Markowiz had got the 
dollars, he walked off, saying to Rabbi Abraham, who accom 
panied him, " There is one thing quite certain, the man will 
never see those dollars again ! " 

One story more of an absurd method resorted to for con 
verting Joseph Wolff, and then shall follow some affecting 
histories of these Jews at Jerusalem. Rabbi Mendel said one 
day to his disciples, " I shall make a last attempt at converting 
Joseph Wolff, which I hope will succeed. I shall invite him 
to dine with me some day, on a Saturday, when 1 will give 
him a good deal of hug el to eat, over which I shall ask the 
blessing ; and I hope that the saying will be verified in him. 

of Dr. Wolff. 163 

he that eateth much kugel on the sabbath will become a good 
Jew. Kugel is a sort of dumpling. Wolff was invited, 
and Rabbi Mendel very much enjoyed seeing his appetite, and 
after he had eaten a great deal of kugel, Rabbi Mendel asked 
him, " What do you think now of the Talmud 2 " Wolff 
replied, " The Talmud is a lie from the beginning to the end." 
Poor R^bbi Mendel ! Soon after Wolff s departure from 
Jerusalem, the Turkish governor sent for that worthy man. 
and got him bastinadoed on the soles of his feet, in order to 
extort money from him. Most fortunately, however, the 
Spanish Consul, and Mr. Lewis, a missionary, were there, and 
claimed him ; and so he was released from the Governor s 
house. Now for some affecting stories after these ridiculous 

Rabbi Isaac Ben Solomon, the interesting young Jew 
already described, had a sister who was married to another 
Jew, Zacharias, the son of Jeremiah, by name, who was also a 
most interesting young man, with a beautiful countenance and 
bushy locks. Zacharias 1 wife died, namely, the sister of Isaac 
Ben Solomon, and six weeks afterwards he married again. 
Isaac Ben Solomon henceforth became a deadly enemy of 
Zacharias, because he could so soon forget his sister. Wolff 
exhorted him to forget and forgive, but in vain. But Zacha 
rias, the son of Jeremiah, began to be very ill, and his beauty 
began to wither away. One day he entered the synagogue, 
when Solomon was also there ; and Zacharius, son of Jeremiah, 
exclaimed, with his eyes lifted up to heaven, and with a 
broken voice and pale countenance, " How goodly are thy 
tents, O Jacob, and thy tabernacle, Israel ! " Rabbi Isaac 
burst into tears on seeing the broken countenance of his former 
brother-in-law, and he said to him, "Zacharias, my brother! 
Zacharias, O my brother ! pardon me ! " And Zacharias 
said unto Isaac, " Isaac, pardon me ; for both of us are sons of 
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Pardon me, pardon me ! " And 
they fell around each other s necks. 

Rabbi Mendel read one day to Joseph Wolff the most 
affecting story of an incident said to have happened soon after 
the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus. Two heathen mer 
chants met together in an inn in the Desert. " I have a male 
slave," said one to the other, " the like to whose beauty is not 
to be seen in the whole world." And the other said, " I 
have a female slave, the like of whose beauty is not to be seen 
in the whole world." Then they agreed to marry these two 
together, and to divide the children between them ; and in tho 
evening both the slaves were brought into a room. One stood 

M 2 

164 Travels and Adventures 

in one corner, and the other in the other corner, and the male 
slave said, " I, a priest, and the son of a high-priest, should I 
marry a slave I " and the female said in the other corner of 
the room, " I, a priestess, the daughter of a high-priest, 
should I marry a slave 2 " and when the morning approached, 
they discovered that they were brother and sister. They fell 
upon each other s necks, and wept, and wept, and wopt, until 
the souls of both departed. And it is on account of this that 
Jeremiah said, " Over these I weep, I weep ; mine eye, mine 
eye, runs down with water. 1 " 1 

Another story of the same sort. A boy, seven years of age, 
soon after the destruction of Jerusalem, was put into prison on 
account of the debts which had been incurred by his father. 
Rabbi Hannan, a rich learned Jew, and one who was a light in 
Israel, heard that there was a young boy in the prison, of 
beautiful countenance and high intellect. Eabbi Hannan, 
therefore, called through the gate of the prison, "What is it 
that gave Jacob to the spoil, and Israel to the robbers ?" and the 
boy from the prison replied, in a melodious voice, " Is it not 
because we would not walk in his ways, nor obey his com 
mandment?" Eabbi Hannan said, " I shall not stir from this 
place, until I have ransomed this boy." And what became of 
that boy in after-times ? He was none else but Ishmael, the 
high-priest, the son of Elijah, the high-priest. 

After all this, Wolff paid a visit to Bethlehem, and on the 
road he delayed at the tomb of Rachel, the mother who 
refused to be consoled over her sons, because they were not. 
In Bethlehem he read in the very field of the shepherds that 
song of the glorified spirits, which sounded down upon earth 
from their native sky, " Glory to God in the highest ;" and, 
in anticipation of that universal peace which shall be estab 
lished at the second coming of the Holy Child Jesus, the 
spirits added, " Peace on earth, good-will towards men." He 
also visited the monastery of Mar-Saba, on his road to the river 
Jordan, and Sodom and Gomorrah ; and he cannot help 
thinking that it was somewhere around Saba that the ancient 
Zoar ("Is it not a little one?") stood; and that there Lot^s 
wife looked back, as we frequently look back to the scenery of 
our frail life. When he reached Sodom and Gomorrah, the 
place seemed awful ; the water of the Dead Sea was like alum ; 
and who can deny, when looking at that spot, that some dire 
disaster must have happened there ? 

Wolff afterwards returned to Bethlehem, where St. Jerome 
translated the Bible ; accompanying his labours with deep 
meditation and prayer. How often are his words before Dr. 

of Dr. Wolff. 165 

Wolff s mind, as lie spoke them in his humility, " Tamar has 
been more righteous than I !" (Genesis xxxviii., 26.) Dr. 
Wolff, like Niebuhr, is a great admirer of St. Jerome s trans 
lation, commonly called the Vulgate. He even prefers reading 
it to the original Hebrew ; and modern German Protestants, 
with all their vast learning, have never published a translation 
of the Bible which he thinks equal either to the Vulgate in 
Latin, or to the authorized English version, or to the transla 
tion of the great Martin Luther into German, or the French 
translation by De Sacy. 


Lady Hester Stanhope and her Prophet; Earthquake at Aleppo ; 
Massacre of Christians at Nicosia ; Mediterranean ; Stay at 
Alexandria; Holy Land. 

WOLFF went from Bethlehem back to Jerusalem, and set 
out on his journey by Jaffa and Samaria to Mount 
Lebanon, circulating everywhere the word of God. He then 
came to Trablous, the ancient Tripolis. Wolff relates that he 
saw there the Dowager Mrs. Katziflis, and her twin sons, and 
her three daughters, of whom he asserts that they were 
undoubtedly the most beautiful people throughout the East ; 
and, if the zeal in the object of his mission had not preponde 
rated, he should have been tempted to pay his court to Mrs. 
Katziflis. She combined with her beauty such real ladylike 
behaviour as he never before or afterwards saw among the 
ladies of the East. Her twin sons were the beau ideal of well- 
educated, well-informed Eastern gentlemen, one of them 
being the English Consul, and the other the Austrian Consul. 
Wolff was really in love with their mother ; so that Jonas 
King, the American missionary observing it, said to him, 
"Wolff, say what you please, you are in love with Mrs. 
Katziflis." Wolff replied, " You need not say to me, ; Say 
what you please, 1 for I never told you I was not in love with 
her." Jonas King said, " Good-bye, then, to the mission to 
the Jews." Wolff replied, " I will just ask her one question, 
and if she answers that satisfactorily, she shall be Mrs. Wolff 
to-morrow." And Wolff asked this lady what she thought of 
the conversion of the Jews \ when she replied, that if the Jews 
ever became Christians, she would herself become a Turk, and 
curse the Jews for having forced her to forsake her beautiful 
and holy religion ! 

166 7 ravels and Adventures 

Wolff." But I have been a Jew !" 

Mrs. Katziflis, " We all here say, that you are so different 
from all the Jews in features, look, and actions ; that we are 
persuaded you must have been the illegitimate son of some 
Christian nobleman." 

Wolff left her at that very moment when she spoke ; just 
as the Knight Delorges left the Lady Kunigund when she 
sent him down into the arena to fetch her glove, as described 
by Schiller in his Handschuh. 

Wolff proceeded to Latakia, and lived in the house of Moses 
Elias, a most respectable native, who acted as English Consul. 
He circulated the word of God among the Mussulmans, but 
this aroused their fanaticism in a most alarming manner, so 
that they exclaimed, " The time seems approaching when 
Christians shall again take the country !" However, the 
ferment passed over without serious consequences. 

Wolff witnessed, at Latakia, the result of an engagement 
between the widow lady, Madame Lanusse, and a French 
attache. Although the lady was of French extraction, she 
had received an Eastern education, and her mode of thinking 
was entirely Eastern. She said to her lover, who had pro 
posed to marry her, " I will wait for you twelve months, and 
if you do not come then and marry me, I shall marry Mon 
sieur Vidal." Her lover did not come after one year, neither 
did Vidal ; so she was disappointed in both suitors ; and 
Wolff heard that she coolly said, " Now, I must try a third, 
and, if this does not succeed, a fourth." 

Wolff went with Monsieur Vidal to the French Consul of 
Bagdad, and then they proceeded to Antioch together. On 
their way, Wolff, in all earnestness, committed the egregious 
folly of asking, in the midst of the Desert, that a Bedouin 
would make him a good cup of chocolate. This caused Vidal 
to burst with laughter ; and with this very pleasant compa 
nion, Wolff at last arrived in Antioch, and was received in the 
most cordial manner by John Barker, ;Esq., Her Majesty s 
British Consul-General for Aleppo. This gentleman was mar 
ried to a Miss Abbot, whose mother, Mrs. Abbot, was still 
living at Aleppo, a lady of extraordinary character, and whom 
we must at once describe. Mrs. Abbot s parents were both 
Greek, and her husband was also born of a Greek mother, and 
a Levantine Englishman. This good lady was most fana 
tically attached to her Church ; so much so, that one day, 
when the Greek bishop left Aleppo, he felt safe in leaving all 
the secular affairs of the Church under her care. When a 
Boinan Catholic missionary once called upon her, with the 

of Dr. Wolff. 167 

intention of converting her, she combated with him from the 
Fathers and the Bible 5 and when he still continued to urge 
upon her the necessity of submitting to the Pope, she said, 
" Fiddle-de-dee the Pope." She then put aside the water-pipe 
which she was smoking, and, sitting near the fire-place, she 
exclaimed, taking hold of the poker, " If you don t walk out, I 
will give you such an argument with this poker as you will 
find a little hard, and you will find it an impressive one, I 
warn you !" She was a fat, active, determined, well-read lady, 
and the Roman Catholic ran away as fast as he could, wishing 
to spare himself martyrdom for some better occasion. 

But to return to the reception Dr. Wolff met with from Mr. 
Barker, the British Consul-General. This gentleman was 
living a little way out of Antioch at that time, where he culti 
vated the ground of his garden, at his country-house in a little 
village called Suedia. 

Wolff talked over with him many high characters of 
England, and at last the conversation fell upon Lady Hester 
Stanhope, who was settled at Mar-Elias, in Mount Lebanon. 
She had then living with her as guest, and protege, Monsieur 
Lustaneau, whom she called par excellence, and ordered all her 
servants to caller excellence, "Le Prophete." 

This Monsieur Lustaneau, a Frenchman of high birth, had 
served for many years among the Mahrattas in India, as 
General to Tippoo Saib, against the English. He had re 
ceived from that prince, on account of his bravery and skill, 
the title of " Lion in war, and Tiger in battle," a fact which 
he himself told Dr. Wolff in the year 1823, and which was 
confirmed to him in India by Colonel J. Skinner, of the Light 
Horse, in 1832. General Lustaneau had lost an arm in 
battle, and was once possessor of the largest diamond in the 
world ; but he was cheated out of it, but in what manner was 
unknown to Dr. Wolff. Tired of an active life, he formed the 
resolution of becoming a hermit upon Mount Carmel, in 1812 ; 
and in the year 1815, when Lady Hester Stanhope met him 
upon Mount Carmel, he said to her, "Madame, le moment que 
je parle avec vous, V Empereur Napoleon a echappe de V lie 
d Elbe!" Lady Hester took down the date of this conver 
sation ; and several months afterwards, she received a letter 
from England, giving her the tidings of the escape of Na 
poleon, and at that very day and hour when it was predicted 
to her by Monsieur Lustaneau. Her ladyship received him 
into her house, which she called Mar-Elias, near Saida ; and 
she ordered her household strictly to address him as "the 
Prophet." On his afterwards attempting to convert her lady- 

168 Travels and Adventures 

ship to Christianity, for she had become a Druse, she turned 
him out of the house ; and then he took shelter in the house 
of Monsieur lleignauld, the French Consul of Saida, where he 
carried on with Lady Hester a violent correspondence. She 
wrote to him one day, as he himself told Wolff, " I have 
never been a Christian, nor shall I ever be one." He wrote 
to her, in answer, u If you become a Christian, God will not 
gain anything by it, if you don t become a Christian, He will 
not lose anything by it." Whether, however, this man 
really predicted the escape of Napoleon, Dr. Wolff cannot 
vouch for, but the following fact he is sure of, and could affirm 
with an oath. 

Wolff arrived in the hospitable dwelling of John Barker, 
Esq., British Consul-General of Aleppo and Antioch, in the 
year 1822, and the conversation turning upon Lady Hester 
Stanhope, Barker said to Wolff, "She is undoubtedly crazy, 
and as a proof of it, I will show yon this letter." Her letter 
was written in April, 1821. Wolff was in Antioch with Mr. 
Barker in May, 1822 : the letter was as follows : " My dear 
Mr. Barker, I beseech you not to go to Aleppo or Antioch, for 
both cities will be utterly destroyed in about a year. I tell 
you this in the name of the prophet Lustaneau." Barker and 
Wolff both smiled, and soon afterwards Wolff proceeded to 
Aleppo, remaining there as the guest of Monsieur Masseyk, 
the Dutch Consul-General. Aleppo was a beautiful town ; 
the climate most delicious ; the houses were like palaces ; the 
people lived together in harmony, and visited one another 
Europeans, Arabs, Christians, and Turks. In the evening, if 
one walked about upon the terraces of the town, ladies and 
gentlemen would be seen smoking narghili, studded with dia 
monds and pearls ; and a dervish, from Bagdad, would be 

" If this beautiful lady of Sheeraz 

Would give me her heart, 

I would give for one mole of her cheek 

All the treasures of Samarcand and Bokhara." 
Another would sing- 

" To attempt to possess God and the world 

Is altogether vain imagination and folly. 

Wolff circulated the word of God amongst all the inhabi-* 
tants of Aleppo in Hebrew, and Arabic, and Persian. 

One day, during his residence here, Jews came to him, of 
high respectability, and asked of him the grand question, 
44 Who Jesus was!" Wolff replied, "the Son of God I God 
above all, blessed for ever." He felt great joy in making this 

of Dr. Wolff. 169 

confession ; but the Jews rose in indignation, and exclaimed, 
" We have neither heard nor seen it," and walked off. Spirits 
of those deceased Rabbis, you have both heard and seen it 
now ! One remarkable fact occurred. One of the Jews thus 
argued with publicly proclaimed, "Wolff is right:" and on 
the next day he was found dead in his bed. 

At the beginning of the month of August, 1822, Wolff was 
invited to dine with Monsieur Lesseps, the French Consul- 
General of Aleppo, a gentleman of the highest consequence, a 
personal friend of Napoleon le Grand ; Chevalier de la Legion 
d Honneur, and who had been ambassador to Morocco. He 
was father to the present Monsieur Lesseps, who is now in 
Egypt. Whilst Wolft was sitting at dinner, Monsieur 
Derche, interpreter to the French Consul, a gentleman of 
great accomplishments, with much French action, and who 
had just arrived from Lady Hester Stanhope, was asked by 
Monsieur Lesseps, "What does Lady Hester say?" Derche 
replied, " She warned me with great earnestness, not to go to 
Aleppo ; for, she said, in less than a fortnight, in the name of 
the Prophete Lustaneau, Aleppo and Antioch will be de 
stroyed." Monsieur Lesseps asked, "in what way ?" When 
Derche, waving both his hands, answered, "par une tremble- 
ment de terre " (by an earthquake). 

A few days after this occurrence, Wolff, accompanied by his 
servant, left Aleppo with a small caravan of not more than six 
people. They quitted Aleppo in the afternoon, and went as 
far as Juseea (on their way to Latakia), about ten miles from 
Aleppo, and they spread out their carpets, in the midst of the 
Desert, and encamped for the night, at about a hundred yards 
from the village itself. Juseea was inhabited by the ancient 
Anzairees, worshippers of the Syrian Alilath, and they came 
out and asked Wolff why he would not come to their houses 
in the village and sleep ? begging him to do so. But he de 
clined, saying he preferred to sleep in the open air ; for, truly, 
those Eastern villages are often much infested by vermin. 

The Anzairees, therefore, remained for a while with Wolff, 
and they all smoked together; there being also, at about 
twenty yards from them, a party of Bedouin Arabs, who had 
their tents pitched there at the time, and were sitting round 
their fires. Wolff presently took out his Bible, and began to 
read from it to the Anzairees, when suddenly he felt some 
thing move under him, as if a pocket handkerchief had been 
drawn from below him. Immediately after, all at once, the 
very earth moved in a horizontal direction, accompanied by a 
howling and thundering like that of cannon. Wolft believed 

170 Travels and Adventures 

the howling to be that of the tormented spirits in hell 
itself. All the party at once rose, and springing up, tried 
to hold themselves fast, as it were by the air. And now, 
before their very eyes, the houses of their village Juseea 
fell clown, and one universal cry arose. The Anzairees ex 
claimed, " Ya Lateef ! Ya Lateef! Ya Lateef!" Beneficent 
God! Beneficent God! The Arabs shouted, "Allah Ak- 
bar ! " God is the greatest ! Then the Anzairees hastened 
to the spot where their houses had stood but a few seconds 
before, and came back crying, " Merciful God! our houses arc 
gone, our wives, our children, our cattle, are all gone ! " The 
first grand shock lasted two minutes. After this, shocks 
occurred about every half hour, sometimes ten, twenty, thirty, 
or even eighty shocks at a time. 

Oh, what a change had come over the Desert ! A few 
moments before, it was silent as night ; and now it was 
covered with the wild Arabs and Bedouins, who were flying 
over the plain on their horses in their barnooses, with the 
hoods drawn over their heads, like eagles cleaving the air. 
The horses frequently, whenever a shock was felt, mounted 
upon their hind legs, threatening to pull down the horseman, 
but the Bedouin, stretching himself upon the whole horse, put 
him down again upon his fore legs, while he continually ex 
claimed " This is of the Lord, this is of the Lord ! " This is 
beautiful in the East, that the people always come to the 
prime cause in everything to God Himself. They do not, as 
Europeans do, invariably dwell upon second causes ; but they 
refer every event at once to the Overruler of the world. And 
Wolff thinks that, as light came in former times from the 
East, so it will shine from the East again ; and he thinks that 
our Lord meant the same by his words, "As the lightning 
cometh from the east, and shineth to the west, so shall be the 
coming of the Son of Man." He thinks, too, that this future 
light is not to come only from the Jews, but also from the 
Greek, Armenian, and Jacobite Christians. And that Light 
shall chiefly come after the FULNESS OF THE GENTILES, i. e. 
the Ten Tribes shall come in ! 

Wolff immediately sent an express messenger, through the 
Desert, to Mr. Barker, who, he had heard, had escaped, in a 
miraculous manner, by creeping forth from the ruins of his 
house, untouched, with their child of six years old ! The 
whole of Aleppo, Antioch, Latakia, Hums, and Hama, had 
been destroyed, and all the villages within twenty miles 
round ; and 60,000 people had been thus plunged into an aw 
ful eternity. He proceeded to Latakia, where he found the 

of fir. Wolff. 171 

inhabitants outside the town, with pale faces ; and dead bodies 
were lying in the streets. Wolff said to these people, and to 
the Greek and Italian Christians, " Come, and let us kneel 
down and pray : " and he offered up an Italian prayer. But, 
in the midst of his prayer, like the wreck of a ship, came 
another shock, and they all rose, exclaiming, " Merciful God, 
the day of judgment has come !" To increase the confusion, 
a magician arrived at the spot, and said, " This evening a 
deluge will come, and the whole world will be destroyed. All 
mankind shall be again destroyed !" Wolff exclaimed, "Thou 
art a liar, for thou hast contradicted the Scriptures, which say 
that the earth shall never again be destroyed by water." A 
cavalcade now arrived from Aleppo, composed of Jews, Arabs, 
Turks, soldiers, women, and children; and amongst them was 
a dervish, whose voice was heard from a distance, singing 

" And thus, thus, O Aleppo, and thus, thus, Aleppo, 
All thy beauty is gone !" 

The Turks looked pitifully at Wolff, and said, " How do 
you do ?" He replied, " Well."" They answered, " God be 
praised ;" and, beating their breasts, they exclaimed, one, 
"My father is dead;" another "My brother is dead;" a 
third " My wife is dead." And, two years afterwards, when 
Wolff returned to Aleppo, the survivors had not yet rebuilt 
their houses, and were still exclaiming, " Oh, God ! oh, God ! 
Thou hast broken our bones, and joy and gladness have gone 
away." Thus was the passage in the Psalms, li., 8th verse, 
explained, "Make me to hear joy and gladness, that the bones 
which thou hast broken may rejoice." 

One or two very curious incidents must not be forgotten. 
The house where Mrs. Abbot lived, the lady already alluded 
to, was entirely destroyed, except her own room and the 
kitchen. When all the inhabitants of the town ran out, and 
built themselves little huts or tents, she remained quiet and 
unmoved, and said, " Why should I be such a fool as to 
trouble myselt to move ; I am comfortable here, and smoke 
quietly my galyoon. I am not such a fool as to expose my 
life to the falling houses ; and I shall drink my coffee as usual, 
and my servants will remain with me." And, one month after 
the event had occurred this very Mrs. Abbot waddled out of 
the town to see how her relations were going on, and found 
them in Ketab, the little village of huts which had just been built. 
Several were dead ; but those she found she lectured upon their 
folly ; and, after a few hours stay, returned to her house in Aleppo. 

Another still more remarkable circumstance was this. A 

172 Travels and Adventures 

great tyrant lived at Aleppo, feared equally by Jews, Euro 
peans, and Muhammadans. He had been raised by the Em 
peror of Austria to the rank of Nobleman, and Consul-General 
of the whole of Syria. He was of an illustrious family of the 
Spanish Jews, whose descendants had been compelled to em 
brace the Christian religion under Ferdinand and Isabella. 
His name was Ezra de Picciotto. He had, one hundred days 
before the earthquake, sent an Austrian subject out of the town 
in irons. One of the Turks who heard of this, said, quite 
coolly, and without moving his muscles, the beads being in his 
hands, " Count to-day one, to-morrow two, till you have counted 
one hundred days. After one hundred days, Ezra de Picciotto 
will die. Masseyk, the Dutch Consul-General, a man who 
never lied, told Wolff that he had counted ninety-nine beads, 
as the Turk had said, and when he was about to count the one- 
hundreth the earthquake happened, and Ezra was killed by the 
first shock. 

Wolff went from Latakia to the island of Cyprus, and 
landed in Larnaca, which is one of the chief towns. There, 
on the sea coast, he heard from the British Consul, Vondiziano, 
that the Greek Christians in Nicosia were in the highest 
danger, for a massacre of them was being perpetrated by the 
Turks, who falsely accused them of joining with the rebels 
against the Turkish empire. Wolff therefore hastened on to 
Nicosia, and when he arrived there the Archbishop, Kurillos 
by name, and 127 Christians besides, had already been put to 
death. Wolff heard from the Greek and European inhabi 
tants all the particulars of this slaughter : and was told that 
the Archbishop had been offered his life on consideration that 
lie would become a Muhammadan. But the Archbishop pointed 
to his white beard, and said, " I have served my Lord as 
Bishop of this flock for fifty years ; and I can say, with Poly- 
carpus of old, that my Lord has not only done me no harm, 
but has saved my soul ; and should I be so ungrateful as to 
deny his name ?" Then he made the sign of the cross, and 
exclaimed, " Children, I set you an example ;" and, continuing 
to make the holy sign, he kept on saying, " Kyrie eleison, 
Christe eleison," until he was decapitated. 

Wolff saved the lives of six of the Christians by his earnest 
intercession ; and t\vo of them saved their own miserable ex 
istence by becoming Muhammadans. Wolff also took under 
his protection many of the children of the primates who had 
lost their lives ; and he sent some of them to England, where 
they remained for twenty years, under the patronage of Henry 
Drummond, Lady Carnegie, Bishop Terrot, of Edinburgh, 

of Dr. Wolff. 173 

and Mr. Storie, of Roseneath. Amongst those thus rescued, 
was Demetrius Pierides, who is at present Inspector of Schools 
in Cyprus. 

Paul Pierides, his brother, was for twenty years assistant- 
surgeon to the Lunatic Asylum at Perth, in Scotland, and is 
now a useful physician in the Isle of Cyprus ; and Georgius 
Constantinides is an influential member of the Greek Govern 
ment at Athens. 

Wolff went from the Isle of Cyprus on an excursion to 
Damiat, where he preached to the Jews, and lodged in the 
house of the British vice-consul, Mr. Surur, a little, clever, 
consequential man ; for all men of little size are consequential, 
and stand up for their rights in an extraordinary manner. He 
one day said to Wolff, " To-day you will see me in my glory, 
when I shall appear before the governor of Damiat, as repre 
sentative of his most excellent Majesty, the King of England." 
He then dressed himself in a red coat, with two immensely 
large epaulets, such as no general of the British army ever 
wore. His silver buttons were gilt over ; he wore a large 
three-cornered hat, with feathers two feet high, and boots in 
which three dragoons might have stood. He was scarcely able 
to march in this costume, and spoke so loud that one could 
hear him from an immense distance. When Dr. Wolff asked 
him why he spoke with such aloud voice? he replied, u Great 
men speak with a loud voice, little men with a small voice." 

Wolff was introduced by Mr. Salt to his highness Muhammad 
All, with whom he conversed on the importance of education, 
and who said to Wolff that he was often forced to use the stick 
in order to make the villagers go to school. Muhammad Ali 
was certainly one of the greatest tyrants that ever lived. 
Every step he took was not for the purpose of making people 
happy, but for the establishment of his own power. 

Wolff returned to Malta, where he remained a few weeks, 
and then joined two American missionaries, with whom he 
traversed Alexandria, Cairo, and Upper Egypt. And when 
they arrived at Alexandria, neither Mr. Lee, the British 
consul, nor any other of Wolff s friends happened to be there, 
for they had all gone to Cairo, so that Wolff* and his fellow- 
missionaries could not get a room in the house of the consulate. 
Therefore, Signer Vedova, the cancelliere to the English con 
sulate, advised them to go and stay in the house of a Jewess, 
Miss Stella by name. Soon after their arrival at her house, 
Wolff and his companions, Fisk and King, sat down on a 
divan, and they began to smoke the Turkish pipe, according to 
Eastern custom, when several Jews and Jewesses came in, and 

174 Travels and Adventures 

sat down at the missionaries feet. Wolff then began to speak 
to them of Jesus the Son of David ; and he read to them 
several chapters out of the Hebrew Bible, which proved that 
Jesus of Nazareth was He of whom Moses and the Prophets 
did write. Among them was a very intelligent Jew, 
and Stella .was an intelligent Jewess ; both understood the 
Hebrew, and they asked Wolff, "What do you believe ?" 
Wolff replied, " I believe in Moses and the Prophets, who say 
that Jesus Christ is the Messiah, the Son of God, the Holy 
One blessed be He, and blessed be His name ! " Wolff con 
tinued, " And now I will ask you, what is your belief ?" All 
the Jews at once exclaimed, " We believe that the Holy One 
blessed be He, He who is blessed in Himself is truth ; and 
Moses is truth ; and the Prophets are truth !" 

Wolff replied, " You do neither believe in the Holy One 
blessed be He nor in Moses, nor in the Prophets." The Jews 
answered, in a stormy manner, " God forbid that we should 
not believe in Moses and the Prophets." Wolff replied, open 
ing his bible, " I will prove by this very book that you do not 
believe." Miss Stella, the Jewess, with a dignified, bold, and 
determined face, acted as moderator ; and exclaimed, with a 
thundering voice, to the Jews, " Oh, ye cursed, be quiet that 
Wolff may prove it." 

Wolff then opened his bible, and read, " I will raise them 
up a prophet from among their brethren like unto thee, and 
will put my words in his mouth, and he shall speak unto them 
that I shall command him ; and it shall come to pass that 
whosoever will not hearken unto my words which he shall 
speak in my name, I will require of him." Then Wolff spoke 
for two hours, proving that Jesus of Nazareth had been that 
prophet like unto Moses. The Jew replied, " I must refer to 
the Talmud." 

Wolff answered, " The Talmud is a lie ;" and then he con 
tinued, " The Talmud is a lie ! a lie ! ! a lie ! ! !" He then showed 
them the passage in Zechariah, chap. xii. verse 10, " And I 
will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants 
of Jerusalem the spirit of grace and of supplication, and they 
shall look upon him whom they have pierced, and mourn ;" 
and then Wolff proved to them that Jesus was He whom they 
had pierced. The Jewess, in a rage, said to the rest, " Oh, 
you cursed fellows, you have not been able to answer him ; 
why do you not answer him." Thus Wolff and his two mis 
sionary companions spent a most delightful night, conversing 
with the Jews. 

The next morning, other rabbis, who had come from Poland, 

of Dr. Wolff. 175 

arrived at the house, and attempted to argue, but they said at 
last, " My Lord Joseph Wolff, we are come from a distant 
land, and we have been sea-sick with great sea-sickness, and 
our mind is therefore confused with great confusion. So we 
cannot speak to-day great words of wisdom, and understanding, 
and skill ; for you must know, my lord, that we are wise with 
wisdom, and we are beautiful men, and we are honoured with 
great honour, and we sit in the first seat at the tables of the 
rich. We will return unto you, and open our mouth with 
wisdom, and speak about the Holy One blessed be He, and 
blessed be His name !" They then left Wolff, but before they 
departed, he wrote down their names in Hebrew characters. 
When they saw how quickly he wrote, they said, " My lord, 
you are very strong in the pen." Here the conversation ended. 
The behaviour of the hostess, and all the party, was very 
proper ; and they showed the highest respect to Wolff and his 
missionary friends. 

The next morning, Wolff called on his great friend Mr. 
Dumreicher, the Danish Consul-General of Alexandria. He 
received him with the greatest kindness, and then asked Wolff, 
in the presence of about twenty Europeans, " Where do you 
lodge?" Wolff replied "At Miss Stella s the Jewess ;" when 
the whole party burst into a fit of laughter, and Dumreicher 
said, " Ah ! this is a fine thing. Do you know who Miss 
Stella is ?" Wolff asked, " Who is she?" In short, she was 
a Kahab. Wolff said, " It is not my fault. It is the fault of 
the English canceUiere, Signor Vedova : for it was he who sent 
us there. 1 

Wolff immediately went home, and informed his friends 
Fisk and King. But Fisk was a most determined fellow, and 
said, " We are missionaries ; and to whom are missionaries 
sent but to sinners ? God has sent us here, and here we will 
remain until we leave Alexandria ; and if the devil will make 
a fuss about it, let him do so. And so they remained. The 
first people in the place called on them. Wolff performed 
Divine Service in the house, and preached in Arabic, German, 
Hebrew, and Italian ; Fisk in English and modern Greek ; 
and King in French. The French and Italian consuls were 
among the congregation ; and Stella and all the Jews behaved 
with the greatest propriety ; and Wolff will surprise the public 
in England when he states, that throughout his journey in 
Arabia Felix, he found such houses to be almost the only inns 
in existence. 

The missionaries divided their labours among themselves. 
Pliny Fisk and Jonas King were the names of Wolff s com- 

176 Travels and A dventures 

panions. Fisk preached in the Greek language, and King in 
French, and Wolff in Arabic, Hebrew, Italian, Persian, and 
German. He made on that occasion the acquaintance of 
Ishmael Gibraltar, and also of a young Turk, who was after 
wards created Pasha by the Sultan ; and this was the first 
conversation Joseph Wolff ever had with Turks of high con 
dition. Whilst in Upper Egypt, with his friends, who occu 
pied themselves chiefly in measuring and examining the ruins 
of Luxor, Gorno, Carnac, and Dendyra, and in collecting anti 
quities and mummies, Wolff was employed in preaching the 
Gospel among the Coptic people in Thebes, Assuan, Akmeem, 
where Nestorius lived, and Kenne ; and then he returned with 
Fisk and King towards Cairo. W T olff does not remark in any 
invidious spirit on the anxiety of these American missionaries 
to make themselves acquainted with the ruins and antiquities 
of Egypt, for it must have been of the highest interest to 
citizens of the New World, to investigate the remains of some 
of the most ancient cities of the world, and the cradle of civi 

On their arrival at Cairo, they made preparations for prose 
cuting their journey through the Desert to Jesusalem. Wolff 
went on in perfect harmony with these good men, and as lie 
had made that journey before, he will pass swiftly through it 
now, for nothing happened except an adventure with a dervish, 
who had sold to Wolff a drawing of the city of Mecca, to 
which a description of the city was appended. 

On his arrival in Jerusalem, this dervish called on Joseph 
Wolff, in the Greek monastery, and desired him to lend him 
the drawing, in order that he might copy something out of it. 
Wolff immediately suspected that he would not bring back the 
drawing with the description it contained, and therefore told 
him that he must make his copy in the house. To this the 
dervish would not agree ; so the next day, the dervish returned, 
and brought a second dervish, and he told Wolff and his com 
panions that the second dervish would remain with them until 
the first dervish had brought back the picture. Wolff said, 
lie could not keep a dervish as hostage, for being a dervish 
himself, he could not think of putting such an insult upon 
a brother. They then both departed. 

On the following day a summons was sent by the Cadi of 
Jerusalem to Wolff and the American missionaries, ordering 
them to appear instantly before the tribunal of the Cadi, with 
the drawing of Mecca, which the dervish had lent to Joseph 
Wolff. Joseph Wolff sent word to the Cadi that it was against 
the capitulation with England and the Sultan, for him to 

of Dr. Wolff. Ill 

appear before the Cadi ; and that an Englishman could only 
be sent for by the Governor of the city of Jerusalem. And 
so all three missionaries went to the Governor, accompanied by 
the English Consul of Jerusalem, who had come with them to 

The Governor, a most polite and gentlemanly man, received 
them with the greatest respect ; for those governors who came 
from Stamboul, as he did, and who had been educated at the 
sublime Porte, are perfect gentlemen surpassing even French 
men in their elegant deportment. The Governor at once said 
that the dervish had also been to him, but he saw in his face 
that he was telling a lie, so he sent him away. This was 
Turkish justice to judge by the outward appearance of the 
accuser, rather than examine into the case. But, he added, 
that as he had given trouble to Wolff and his friends, he would 
order him to be bastinadoed. Wolff begged his Excellency 
not to do anything so severe, but simply to send for him and 
reprimand him for his conduct. The Governor sent accord 
ingly ; but, instead of the dervish, the Santone came, who is 
the superior of all the dervishes in Jerusalem in fact, the 
chief dervish and begged his Excellency to pardon the der 
vish for his indiscreet conduct, inasmuch as he was a madman. 
Wolff and his friends were glad to take tins view, and 
assured the Santone that they had already begged him off; 
and thereupon they bowed and departed. The next morning 
the Santone sent Wolff the money which he had given to the 
dervish for the picture of Mecca, and begged him to send it 
back, as the dervish was so mad that he would rather die than 
leave the picture in his hands. Wolff sent the money, together 
with the picture, to the Governor, and begged his Excellency 
to return both to the dervish, through the Santone. This 
arrangement made a most favourable impression on all the 
inhabitants of Jerusalem. 

Wolff and his companions remained three months in that 
city, circulating the word of God among the inhabitants. Fisk 
and King then se^ out for Mount Lebanon, but Wolff, desirous 
to be longer in Jerusalem, among the Jews, remained behind. 
One month after his friends had departed, Wolff was seized 
with Jerusalem fever ; and on the very day he was taken ill, 
an English officer arrived in the Holy City from Cairo, accom 
panied by two servants. As was always the case, without one 
single exception, whenever Wolff was in trouble, a British 
officer was sent to him by God so Wolff always considered 
and many times he experienced the same aid. The name of 


178 Travels and Adventures 

this officer was Colonel the Hon. Hobart Cradock, now Lord 

He nursed Wolff like a brother, and, after Wolff was con 
valescent, they travelled together to Tyre, and from thence to 

When thus arrived at Sidon, Wolff said to Colonel Cradock, 
" I have a letter with me for Miss Williams, who resides with 
Lady Hester Stanhope. This I will send to her, and write 
her a civil line ; but I shall not mention Lady Hester Stan 
hope s name." So the letter was sent to Mar-Elias, Lady 
Hester Stanhope s residence, and an Arab servant conveyed 
it. But instead of a letter from Miss Williams, one came for 
Wolff from Lady Hester herself, which ran as follows : 

" I am astonished that an apostate should dare to thrust 
himself into observation in my family. Had you been a 
learned Jew, you never would have abandoned a religion rich 
in itself, though defective ; nor would you have embraced the 
shadow of a one I mean the Christian religion. Light 
travels faster than sound, therefore the Supreme Being could 
not have allowed his creatures to live in utter darkness for nearly 
two thousand years, until paid speculating wanderers deem it 
proper to raise their venal voice to enlighten them. 

To this Wolff replied : 



" MADAM I have just received a letter which bears your 
ladyship s signature, but I doubt its being genuine, as I never 
had the honour of writing to your ladyship, or of mentioning 
your name in my letter to Miss Williams. With regard to 
my views and pursuits, they give me perfect rest and happi 
ness, and they must be quite immaterial to your ladyship. 

" I have the honour to be 
" Your most humble and obedient servant, 


Wolf sent this answer by the same servant as before. On 
Lady Hester receiving it, she perused it, and desired the man 
to wait, that she might give him a present. She then came 
out with a whip, kicked the poor fellow behind, and sent him 
away. He came back lame to Wolff, and told him that the 
daughter of the King of England had beaten him. Wolff, in 
order to satisfy him, gave him a dollar, for which he dares say 
the man would have gladly undergone another beating at the 
same price, from the daughter of the King of England. 

On leaving Saida for Damascus, Wolff met in the monastery 

of Dr. Wolff. 179 

of Aintoura, the "Rev. Lewis Way. He would only remark 
about this excellent man, that with a noble soul, he was dis 
appointed and cheated by impostors, and left Syria soon after 
wards, without having seen Jerusalem, having been frightened 
out of Syria by that jealous and misanthropic woman, Lady 
Hester Stanhope. 

Noble soul, Lewis Way ! With all thy disappointments, 
and acts which, though perhaps over sanguine, always be 
trayed a noble heart, thou wilt now be among the spirits of 
just men made perfect ! He wrote of Joseph Wolff to 
England in the following manner : " Wolff is so extraordinary 
a creature, there is no calculating a priori concerning his 
motions. He appears to me to be a comet without any peri 
helion, and capable of setting a whole system on fire. When 
I should have addressed him in Syria, I heard of him at 
Malta ; and when I supposed he was gone to England, he was 
riding like a ruling angel in the whirlwinds of Antioch, or 
standing unappalled among the crumbling towers of Aleppo. 
A man who at Rome calls the Pope the dust of the earth/ 
and tells the Jews at Jerusalem that the Gemara is a lie ; 
who passes his days in disputation, and his nights in digging 
the Talmud, to whom a floor of brick is a feather-bed, and a 
box a bolster ; who makes or finds a friend alike in the perse 
cutor of his former or present faith; who can conciliate a 
Pacha, or confute a patriarch ; who travels without a guide ; 
speaks without an interpreter ; can live without food, and pay 
without money ; forgiving all the insult he meets with, and 
forgetting all the flattery he receives ; who knows little of 
worldly conduct, and yet accommodates himself to all men, 
without giving offence to any ! Such a man (and such and 
more is Wolf) must excite no ordinary degree of attention in 
a country and among a people, whose monotony of manners 
and habits has remained undisturbed for centuries. 

" As a pioneer, I deem him matchless, aut. inveniet warn, 
aut faciet / but, if order is to be established, or arrangements 
made, trouble not Wolff. He knows of no church but his 
own heart ; no calling, but that of zeal ; no dispensation, but 
that of preaching. He is devoid of enmity towards man, and 
full of the love of God. By such an instrument, whom no 
school hath taught whom no college could hold, is the way 
of the Judean wilderness preparing. Thus is Providence, 
showing the nothingness of the wisdom of the wise, and bring 
ing to nought the understanding of the prudent. Thus are 
his brethren provoked to emulation, and stirred up to inquiry. 
They all perceive, as every one must, that ichatever he is, he 


180 Travels and Adventures 

is in earnest : they acknowledge him to be a sincere believer in 
Jesus of Nazareth ; and that is a great point gained with 
them ; for, as you know, the mass of the ignorant and uncon 
verted deny the possibility of real conversion from Judaism. 
In this they are right, in another sense, since Abraham is the 
father of us all : and if we be Christ s, then are we Abra 
ham"^ seed, and kept by the power of God, through faith, unto 
salvation, and none shall pluck us out of his hand." * * * 

Wolff now proceeded to Damascus, and took with him a 
servant, a Jew, who pretended to be converted 5 but the man 
was found out by his master to be an impostor. On his arrival 
at Damascus, Wolff asked the Turk, who had acted as agent 
to the English Consul of Beyrout, to send a person with him 
to bring him to the monastery of the Capuchin Friars. That 
agent sent a donkey driver with him, and the fellow coolly sat 
on the donkey himself, and let Wolff run after him all the 
way. Damascus was, at that time namely, the year 1823 
as it is now, the most fanatical town in the Turkish Empire, 
for it was called the " Gate of Mecca." 

Wolff came to the Capuchin Monastery, composed of Ita 
lians : they received him with the greatest cordiality; and 
when he was attacked with the Damascus fever, soon after his 
arrival, those Capuchin friars treated him with the utmost ten 
derness and kindness. 

The friars of the Spanish monastery called on Joseph Wolff, 
and invited him to pay them a visit. An elderly, tall, stout- 
looking friar entered into an argument with Wolff, who thought 
at once to take the bull by the horns, and asked the friar, 
" Reverend father, can you prove to me the propriety of an 
Inquisition ?" He replied, " My argument is very short. You 
think that it is not proper to have an Inquisition ?" 

Wolff replied, " Certainly, I think so." 

The friar answered, " Then don t go to Spain." (Dunque 
non andate in Spagna !) 

Wolff. " But this does not appear to me to be an argu 

Friar. " You don t think this to be an argument 2" 

Wolff. " Certainly, no argument." 

Friar. " Dunque non andate in Spagna" 

Wolff. "But I wish to be convinced !" 

Friar. " Will not this convince you 2" 

Wolff." No !" 

Friar. "Dunque non andate in Spagna." 

Wolff. " Show me Scriptural proof for the propriety of the 

of Dr. Wolff. 181 

Friar. " You want Scriptural proof for the propriety of 
the Inquisition?" 

Wolff." Yes, certainly !" 

Friar. " Dunque nan andate in Spagna" 

Wolff. " Then you leave me to die in my hatred of the 
Inquisition. " 

Friar." Shall I T 

Wolff." Yes !" 

Friar. " Dunque non andate in Bpagna? 

The Jews at Damascus were, at that time, in great trouble 
respecting the greatest man among them, Raphael Farkhi. He 
was esteemed and respected both by Jews and Muhammadans, 
and was called the " Ameer Al Hadg," which means the 
" Prince of the Pilgrims to Mecca;" because he had to provide 
them with all the necessaries of life, and was their banker on 
their route. He was, too, the asylum of all the Jews, who 
came from all parts of the East ; and, wherever Jews were in 
trouble, in all parts of Palestine, they appealed to Raphael 
Farkhi, and were instantly relieved and protected ; for Raphael 
Farkhi had the power to depose governors. 

This same Farkhi was, one Friday evening, in the syna 
gogue, when some Turkish soldiers entered it, and one of them 
with a firman in his hand, with which he had just arrived from 
Stamboul. When Farkhi asked, haughtily, "What do you 
want in our synagogue f he replied, "We want you /" At 
the same time he gave a signal, and the great Farkhi was 
dragged out of the synagogue in irons. All the Jews were 
terror-struck, left the synagogue, and dispersed. Wolff called 
on them at several houses, and found them all in mourning. 
They said, " The shepherd is slain, and the sheep are scat 
tered." Wolff spoke comfortably to them, and said, " Oh, 
that the salvation of Israel were come out of Zion, to turn the 
captivity of his people, that Jacob might be glad, and Israel 
rejoice !" The Jews replied, " Amen." Poor Raphael Farkhi 
remained one year in prison, but then was restored to his high 
office : and the Greek agent, who, during Raphael Farkhi s 
disgrace, had occupied the office (but was a renegado to Mu- 
hammadanism, and was found out to have made in secret the 
sign of the cross) was decapitated. 

Wolff visited the school of the Spanish friars, where, to his 
utter astonishment, he found that the pupils (several hundred 
of them) had Arabic Testaments and Arabic Psalters, printed 
by the British and Foreign Bible Society ; and a Spanish friar, 
who superintended the school, said to Joseph Wolff, " Thus 

182 Travels and Adventures 

we promote, and have ever promoted, the faith of the Holy 
Catholic Apostolic Church." 

And if Protestant missionaries would content themselves 
with giving the word of God, without entering into controver 
sies with the missionaries of the Church of Rome, a beautiful 
union might possibly be established between the missions of 
both Churches, without their irritating one another. And one 
would not hear so much of the burning of Bibles, printed at 
the expense of the British and Foreign Bible Society. For 
they are the same as those translated and printed by the 
Eoman Catholics in the College of the Propaganda of Rome. 
The best translations of foreign Bibles issued by our Bible So 
ciety are reprints from those made by the Propaganda at Rome. 
For example, the Italian version, is a translation by Arch 
bishop Martini. 

It is a pity that the spirit of the great secretaries of the 
Bible Society the Reverend John Owen, rector of Fulham, 
and Brandram, and of their excellent agent, the Reverend 
Henry Leeves, of Athens has not been followed up in that 
Society, and that the Trinitarian Bible Society has marred the 
operations of the great Bible Society. However, enough of 

Strange to say, in that fanatical town of Damascus, Wolff 
was invited by a great Moollah of the Muhammadans, to come 
in the night-time to argue over the merits of Christianity. 
And the Friar of the Spanish monastery, and the Superior of 
the Spanish monastery, went with Wolff, and argued over the 
subject. And the next night a Maronite Christian, who had 
become a Muhammadan to the great sorrow of his brother, a 
respectable Maronite Christian of the village called Salahia, 
made his escape, and became a Christian again. His brother 
wished Wolff to remain with him all the days of his life, but 
Wolff hastened on a second time to Aleppo, on his way to 

He arrived first at Hammah, (the Hamath of Scripture, 
Isaiah xi. 11,) and then at Aleppo, accompanied by Reuben 
Coster, a Jew converted to Christianity by Dr. Gordon, in 
Edinburgh. His parents, Jews of respectability, lived in 
Utrecht. Reuben Coster was brought from Europe to Pales 
tine by Lewis Way, who took him into his service, but he was 
not able to agree with Mr. Lewis, one of Mr. Way s compa 
nions ; so Wolff took him with him to Aleppo, and he is there 
to this day, married to a Christian lady. 

It was now the year 1824, and although two years had 
passed since the earthquake, the inhabitants had not yet re- 

of Dr. Wolff. 183 

turned to their town, but were living outside in the little huts 
before described. One thing struck Wolff forcibly and awfully. 
The Muhammadans, all of them, had allowed their beards to 
grow no razor had come upon their heads expressing thereby 
their continued deep sorrow and repentance for their sins, 
which sins they considered as the cause of the earthquake. 
And also the Roman Catholics and Jews of the East, by fast 
ing and prayer, showed their grief, and tried to avert the wrath 
of God by continued humiliation. But Europeans Roman 
Catholics, as well as Jews, from Leghorn, from Piedmont, and 
other parts laughed when Wolff spoke to them about repent 
ance ; and it is for this reason that Joseph Wolff continually 
says, " I shall never have confidence in the reform which is 
brought about by miserable revolutionists of Italy and France ; 
and I shall always declare the outcry, Liberte, Egalite, Fra- 
ternite, to be nothing else but Tyranny, Beggary, Butchery. 
And all these revolutionary movements, verify the words of 
Ezekiel, xxi., 27, Perverted, perverted, perverted, or Over 
turn, overturn, overturn, until He come whose right it is, and 
I will give it Him. One revolution shall take place over 
another, and men shall strive to establish happiness and peace, 
but by their own efforts, and without the Author of happiness 
and peace. And they shall be disappointed until the rightful 
possessor of the earth shall come to his own." 

There was deep meaning in the exclamation of an enthu 
siastic Jew at Jerusalem some years back, when a rich Jew 
from Europe came, and wished to build up Jerusalem. The 
enthusiast exclaimed, " Here all is in ruin, and pulled down ; 
here nothing must be builded up ! To the Messias, the Lord 
alone, is it permitted to build up, and to remove the ruins." 
In saying this, that Jew, perhaps unwittingly, confirmed the 
prophecy contained in Amos ix., 11, 12, and referred to as yet 
unfulfilled in the 15th chapter of the Acts, v. 16 and J7, 
" After this I will return, and will build again the tabernacle 
of David which has fallen down, and I will build again the 
ruins thereof, and will set it up." Only this great event and 
consummation will bring about a real change and reformation 
in the world; for the Apostle proceeds, in the 17th verse, 
" That the residue of men might seek after the Lord, and all 
the Gentiles, upon whom my name is called, saith the Lord, 
who doeth all these things." 

Wolff lived again at Aleppo with his old friend Masseyk, 
where he heard a great deal of Burckhart, the famous Sheik 
Ibrahim, who enlivened the Europeans of Aleppo with his fun. 
Wolff confesses he is no great admirer of Burckhart, for he was 

184 Travels and Adventures 

continually preparing for his work of going to Africa, and never 
executed it. In Aleppo he amused himself with breaking the 
roasting-pan of Madame Magi, an amiable old lady. She, 
being angry, called him a rascal and a pimp. He then ap 
peared the next day before her dressed in sackcloth, and a 
fool s cap upon his head, written outside, " Mercy to the rascal 
and pimp." 

Wolff heard also a great deal there of the Count Rzewusky, 
a celebrated Polish Count, at whose expense " The Mines of 
the East/ 1 les Mines d Orient, were published by Joseph Von 
Hammer. He was a favourite of all the ladies, but left Aleppo 
in debt, which he never paid. Strange to say, on the very 
first evening Wolff arrived again in Aleppo, a tremendous 
shock of an earthquake was felt, which awoke all from their 
sleep, but no harm was done. Wolff prepared, after two 
months, to leave Aleppo a second time; having occupied that 
time in disputing with the Jews, and preaching to the European 
Christians, chiefly Roman Catholics (which sermons were also 
attended by the seven Jewish Consuls), in the house of Mr. 
Barker, the British Consul-General of Aleppo. 

It is a remarkable fact, that at that time, seven Jews, all 
brothers, were Consuls there. They were of the family of 
Picciotto, descendants of those Picciottos, so many of whom 
had been forced to become Christians in the time of Ferdinand 
and Isabella of Spain. The father of these seven consuls (all 
of whom Wolff knew) was Raphael Picciotto, and he had 
been Consul-General in Aleppo for fifty years, and afterwards 
retired to Tiberias in Palestine, to spend his days in the land 
of Israel. He was a most inquiring gentleman, very fond of 
conversing with Roman Catholic priests, on the merits of 
the Christian religion ; and Dr. Wolff here observes, that he 
cannot help thinking that many of the descendants of those 
Picciottos, who had received holy baptism, have retained a pre 
dilection for Christianity, transplanted into themselves by 
virtue of that sacred rite, which their forefathers had received ; 
and he believes that the power of baptism is so great, that it 
may even produce fruits in the souls of those unbaptized persons, 
whose ancestors received the holy rite. Wolff has certainly 
known many Jews, whose ancestors were baptized, and who, 
centuries afterwards, were struck with conviction (though 
educated in Judaism), and became zealous Christians. Such 
was the case with Isaac da Costa and his whole family, whose 
ancestors centuries before were Christians in Spain ; and 
although they were educated in Judaism in Amsterdam, they 
are now faithful believers in Christ, and bold ambasadors of 

of Dr. Wolf. 185 

Him in that city at this very day. Yes, baptism produces 
regeneration in a most wonderful manner. 

But to return to the seven Jewish Consuls. One of them, 
poor Hilel Picciotto, was half-witted, but a rich man, and 
seeing that all his brothers were Consuls, he went to Mr. 
Masseyk, Wolff s old friend, the Dutch Consul- General, whose 
advice is sought by people of the highest station in Aleppo, 
and Hilel said, u Mr. Masseyk, can you advise me how I can 
become a Consul, as all my brothers are ; so that I might wear 
like them, a uniform, and call other Consuls my colleagues? 
Masseyk told him, u Write to the Prussian Ambassador in 
Constantinople, and send him a handsome present, and then he 
will make you Prussian Consul of Aleppo." Hilel did so, and 
succeeded. He immediately had a splendid uniform made for 
himself, and had a janissary walking before him, as all the rest 
had ; and then he walked about in the town, and said to his 
friends, " I also am a Consul." And when Monsieur Lesseps, 
the French Consul-General arrived in Aleppo, he took hold of 
Lesseps 1 hands, and said, " lo sono vostro collega." (I am 
your colleague.) " Do you know the Prussian Consul in 
Cyprus?" Monsieur Lesseps answered, " Yes, I know him."" 
Hilel then said, " Audi egli e mio collega." (He also is my 
colleague.) He then smoked a pipe with great gravity, drank 
sherbet, and took a doze, snoring at the same time, and then 
he walked off, saying, " I am going now to visit my other 

The younger Raphael Picciotto was Consul-General of the 
King of Naples. He was made bankrupt, and was obliged to 
fly. He cheated Wolff of 150 dollars, when he met him in 
the Island of Cyprus. 

Those seven Jewish Consuls gave the tone to all the rest of 
the respectable inhabitants in Aleppo. Each of them held a 
levee on Sunday, and whenever one of the visitors retired, the 
Consul to whom the visit was made, rose, and accompanied him 
to the door, whilst all the family remained standing till the 
high and mighty Consul returned to the room, and sat down, 
when they all followed his example. 

Once a most ridiculous thing happened. A captain of the 
Austrian navy arrived ; he was a blunt Venetian, and he be 
came the guest of Elia Picciotto, Austrian Consul-General. 
The captain, either not knowing the Picciottos were Jews, or 
forgetting himself, said to them in the presence of all the 
visitors who had called upon him (as it is the custom whenever 
a stranger arrives in Aleppo), " Tanti Ebrei sono in Aleppo, si 
trovaiio da per tutto questi maladetti Ebrei." (So many Jews 

186 Travels and Adventures 

are in Aleppo ; one finds everywhere these cursed Jews). Al 
though Wolff has the art of keeping his countenance, he 
could scarcely keep from laughing on this occasion. 


Mesopotamia ; Ur of the Chaldees ; Haran ; Padan-Aram ; 
Kurdish Robbers ; Jacobite Christians ; Devil- Worshippers ; 

T last, he set out in the company of some native Christians 
and Arabs about sixty in number and with a servant 


from Mesopotamia, who had originally been a Jacobite, but 
was now a Roman Catholic. This was a man of the worst 
character a thief, a traitor, and a cheat. Wolff was also 
accompanied by a Frenchman (Digeon by name), born in Scio, 
who was the greatest scoundrel he ever encountered. He had 
been exiled to Bagdad, where he became second dragoman to 
the French Consul-Greneral, but he soon lost the situation, and 
was declared infame, upon which he became a Muhammadan 
in Cairo. 

Wolff crossed the Euphrates, (or Murad, as it is sometimes 
called by the natives) at Biri ; and as Biri is a very rocky 
place, he cannot understand why some travellers say there are 
no rocks near the Euphrates, and therefore find a difficulty in 
understanding that passage in Jeremiah xiii. 4, which says, 
" Take the girdle that thou hast got, which is upon thy loins, 
and arise, go to Euphrates, and hide it there in a hole of the 
rock." The rocks at Biri are not high, but are full of holes or 
caves ; in one of which Wolff himself slept. And the natives, 
even to this day, sometimes hide treasures in the holes of 
those rocks. Wolff met at Biri some Jews, who resided at 
Orpha, which is two days journey from Biri. He then went 
on with the small caravan, and that scoundrel Digeon to 
Orpha. On his arrival there, he took up his abode in one of 
the Khans, or as they are also called, Caravanserai. 

Wolff cannot express the feelings which he had on entering 
the town of his Father Abraham. He must now try exactly 
to describe them, and says, " I felt just as if I had, after a 
long journey, been brought back to the house of my Father ; 
and that I saw him deeply engaged in prayer, and thought he 

of Dr. Wolff. 187 

said to me, At last thou art come, where the Holy One 
(blessed be He) called me ; and I crossed the Euphrates., just 
where thou thyself didst cross/ I thought I looked at him 
with astonishment, and wept, and said, Thy children in my 
country have not that faith which thou hadst, and which made 
thee leave thy own country for one which thou didst not 
know. In short, Dr. Wolff describes himself as feeling 
thoughts and sensations at that time which he never had 
before or afterwards experienced. 

He then went to see the place where Abraham is said to 
have been born. It was a cave. The legend is, that Nimrod, 
the " mighty hunter," (which does not mean a hunter of wild 
beasts, but " a persecutor of the servants of God,") threw 
Abraham into a fiery furnace ; when he prayed to God, and 
the furnace was changed into a beautiful lake, so that he came 
out untouched by the fire. And Wolff saw that lake, which 
is inside the town of Orpha, and is called " Abraham s Lake." 
The fishes which live in it are so tame, that they approach the 
shore of it whenever a stranger comes, and throws bread in for 
them, and eat it with eagerness. It was at Orpha that Abra 
ham preached against idolatry, and pointed to Jehovah as the 
only living God ; and he went from thence to Haran, every 
where preaching the name of Jehovah ; and from Haran he 
went to the land of Canaan, singing in melodious strains 
praises to the Lord as he travelled. 

Abraham is considered to have been the great Apostle of 
Jehovah among all the people of the East ; and the words in 
Genesis xii. 5, " And the souls that they had gotten," mean 
the infidels they had converted by melodious songs. Thus 
both Jews and Jacobite Christians in the East, understand 
the passage. 

Let us delay a little longer at Orpha, which is now inha 
bited by Turks, Kurds, Jacobite Christians, Armenians, and 
Arabs ; while around it dwell Sabeans and Shamseea id est 
worshippers of the sun. Orpha is called by the Jews " CJr- 
kasdim;" by the Shamseea and by the Syrian Christians, 
" Orpha ;" " Ruha " by the Arabs ; " Edessa " by the Arme 
nians ; and the Arabs also call the place by the same name as 
they call Hebron in Palestine, namely, " Khaleel Rahman," 
which means, " The friend of the merciful God," a name 
which Abraham has several times in Scripture. In Orpha, 
Abraham is called " Orpha-ee" id est, " the Orphaite;" and 
if you translate this into Greek, it is " Orpheos." Wolff com 
municated this to Hookham Frere, who said to Coleridge, 
" Wolff believes Abraham to be Orpheus ;" and Coleridge 

188 Travels and Adventures 

replied, " Wolff is perfectly right." Orpha is remarkable on 
account of other historical events which happened there ; as, 
for instance, it is mentioned by Tasso, in his "Jerusalem 
Liberata," that some of the Crusaders settled there. 

A dreadful event happened at Orpha during Wolff s resi 
dence there. A Tatar arrived from Constantinople, bringing 
an order from the Sultan, commanding the inhabitants to pay 
tribute, which they had not done for five-and-twenty years. 
The Governor read this order in a public divan, and the whole 
assembly cursed the Sultan, his grandfather, grandmother, 
and grandchildren; and they hanged the Tatar in the market 
place, with the Sultan s order in his hand. 

We come now to another circumstance. Several Jews paid 
a visit to Joseph Wolff, who addressed him in the following- 
manner : " Blessed art thou, Joseph Wolff, who comest in 
the name of the Lord. Hearing, we have heard that thou art 
a wise man, and we have a proverb at Ur of the Chaldees, 
When two wise men meet together, they push with their 
horns like oxen ; let us therefore push." They meant to say, 
by this address, that they wished him to argue with them. 
Wolff, accommodating himself immediately to their mode of 
speech, said to them, " Prepare your horns, and push/ 1 They 
then, for more than an hour, went on "pushing their horns " 
indeed ! For instance, they told Wolff that Vashti refused to 
appear before the Court of Ahasuerus, because the moment 
she wanted to appear, a large tail grew out from behind her, 
which disfigured her. And so it was that Esther became 
Queen, &c. They then asked Wolff "How they had pushed?" 
He replied, " Exactly like an ox." They were much pleased 
with this compliment, and then asked him to push in reply. 
64 1 am sorry," said Wolff, " that I cannot push, for I have 
got no horns." But he read to them from the 1st Epistle of 
Paul to the Corinthians, 1st chapter, from the 20th verse to 
the end ; and he preached to them the glad tidings of salvation 
through Jesus Christ. 

But let us not depart from Orpha until we have also paid a 
visit to the spiritual and baptized children of Abraham ; for, 
through Abraham, not only were the literal sons of Abraham 
to be blessed, but also all the nations of the earth. Let us, 
then, pay a visit to the Jacobites and their bishop. These 
Jacobites are the lineal descendants of the children of Israel, 
who were converted to the knowledge of Jesus Christ through 
the preaching of the Apostle James at Jerusalem. They in 
troduced Wolff to their churches, and he found that their 
whole mode of worship, their mode of bowings, c., all proved, 

of Dr. Wolff. 189 

as well as their physiognomy, that they are literally children 
of Abraham. 

Wolff also saw the Armenians those descendants of Hayk, 
whom he has described at different times. They were very 
formidable in a fortified castle, near Orpha, called "Room- 
kalah," which was once in the possession of the Crusaders. 
Wolff could not help thinking, whilst travelling through 
Mesopotamia, that all these nations have remained unchanged 
for centuries and centuries, and he felt as if he must himself 
have lived throughout those times. 

Wolff then left Ur of the Chaldees, and went to the village 
of Haran. There is the grave of Terah, the father of Abra 
ham, to which the Jews perform their pilgrimage from all the 
neighbourhood round ; for they say that he was converted to 
the knowledge of God by Abraham his son. Terah, was thy 
dwelling as simple as the houses are now? One conclusion 
must be come to : that the open acknowledgment by Abraham 
of one God, must have formed a great and important epoch in 
the world s history, because the whole East is full of the 
traditions of Abraham ; from Mesopotamia to the Oxus, and 
from the Oxus to Lazza in Thibet. In the latter place they 
have a statue dedicated to him. In the temple of Mecca a 
long time before Muhammad rose and declared himself a 
prophet Abraham was represented there by a statue holding 
arrows and spears, and he was worshipped as God. And 
when Muhammad appeared there, he pulled down the statue 
in indignation, and said, "Thus do you disfigure my Father 
Abraham." Wolff could never divest himself of the conviction, 
that the Brarnah of the Hindoos is one and the same person 
with Abraham. 

We now continue WolfFs journey. He next visited Tel- 
feidan, the ancient Pandan-aram. There it was that thou, 
Jacob, didst meet with Rachel. So the Arabs say, and the 
Kurds too, and the Jews also ; and Wolff does not wish to be 
disturbed in his belief of the same. He then went, with a 
caravan, and Digeon the scoundrel, towards Mardeen. The 
stormy weather and rain had effaced all tracer of the road. 
None of the travellers could find it, and were^in much per 
plexity, when one of the Kurds came riding towards them on 
horseback, with a pipe in his mouth. Wolff addressed him, 
saying, " Brother, show us the road." The Kurd replied, 
" Give me first one real" 

Wolff complied, and when the Kurd had got his real, he 
rode off at once, without taking any further trouble. 
Wolff called out, " Give back my real!" 

1 90 Travels and Adventures 

The sarcastic Kurd answered, for a sarcastic people they 
are, u If thou livest till thou seest that real again, thou shalt 
never die !" 

A Kurdish woman soon afterwards approached, on horse 
back, with a pipe in her mouth ; and Wolff called to her also, 
" Mother, show us the road to Mardeen." 

She replied, " Give me one real first." Wolff gave her one 
real, and then she also rode off. 

Wolff called after her, "Give me back mjreal!" "On 
thy wedding day ! " cried the woman, and disappeared in the 

At last, Wolff and his caravan walked on (the road being 
too bad for riding on the mules), Ala Bab Allab, as the Arabs 
say, " at the gate of God," that is, " trusting in Providence," 
when suddenly they were surrounded by a troop of Kurds, 
who took them prisoners, and brought them to a beautiful 
oasis where there was a village called Guzelli. When they 
arrived there they sat down, and Wolff conversed on religion 
with one of the Yezeedi, worshippers of the Devil, during 
which time Digeon the scoundrel whispered something in the 
ear of the chief of the Kurds, called Sayed Khanbek, on which 
that man came to Wolff in a fury, and said to him, " Do you 
come here to upset our religion 2" 

Wolff answered, " I come here to show you the way of 

The Kurds forthwith tied Wolff down, and gave him 200 
lashes on the soles of his feet ; and after robbing him of every 
thing, and the scoundrel Digeon of everything too, they brought 
them both Wolff tied by his own people on the back of his 
mule, as he was unable to walk towards the neighbourhood 
of Mardeen. But the moment the caravan came under the 
protection of the cannon of Mardeen, the Kurds, afraid to go 
further, retired. And thus Wolff was brought to the gate of 
Mardeen, where he lay down exhausted, for as it was night 
time. The gate was not opened, from fear of the Kurds, but 
people came out armed from Mardeen, and protected Wolff 
from any further injury from the Kurds. 

In the morning, very early, the party entered that city of 
Mesopotamia, of which the following history is told : 

When Tamerlane had besieged it for seven years, and was 
still unable to take it, and when at last famine had almost 
forced the inhabitants to think of surrendering, an old woman 
came forward and said, " Do not yet think of surrendering : I 
will save the town." And then she began to run about the 
streets, exclaiming, " Who buys milk ? Who buys milk ? 

of Dr. Wolff. 191 

Plenty of milk ! Plenty of milk ! I sell it very cheap ! " 
Tamerlane heard that voice from outside, and said, " If the 
town has still so much food as to feed their cattle and cows, 
and to sell milk cheap, there must be provision in abundance. 
Let us depart ! " And thus the town was saved by an old 
woman ! 

Wolff now entirely quitted the company of the scoundrel 
Digeon, and took up his abode with the Bishop of the Jaco 
bite Christians, Abd Alahd by name. When he first came to 
him, he found this bishop surrounded by his flock, the Jaco 
bites, all of them being seated on the ground cross-legged. 
They were in the midst of a discussion about the proper time 
for beginning the Lent fast. Wolff delivered the letter of 
introduction which he had from the patriarch of their nation, 
who resided at Damascus, with another bishop, Mar Atha- 
nasius by name. Abd Alahd read this letter, and said, "We 
are in great perplexity, for there is a doubt when Lent ought 
to commence, and we should fast forty days." The discussion 
was so sharp, that one of the flock who sat on the ground, 
smiting his fist violently on the floor, said, " The first who 
dares to fast before such a time as is appointed by us here, 
shall be struck dead by me." 

The case was now laid before Joseph Wolff, and his opinion 
asked of fasting. They inquired, " What he thought about 
it?" Wolff said, " I do not disapprove of fasting, but let me 
read to you a passage in Scripture, Isaiah Iviii., v. 3, &c., 
Wherefore have we fasted, say they, and thou seest not \ 
wherefore have we afflicted our soul, and thou takest no know 
ledge ? Behold, in the day of your fast, ye find pleasure, and 
exact all your labours. Behold, ye fast for strife and debate, 
and to smite with the fist of wickedness : ye shall not fast as 
ye do this day. " This brought the dispute to an end. They 
ceased to argue about it. 

The Jacobites are a wild people, but good-natured, and with 
all their wild nature, they have produced great men such as 
St. Ephrem, Jacob Nisibenus, and Jacob Almalfan, or Jacob 
the Doctor. They have learned men among them to this day. 
At the time Wolff was there, they had still alive their great 
patriarch, residing in the monastery Deiralsafran ; but who 
had resigned his office as patriarch on account of his great and 
unexampled age, for he was 130 years old. When Wolff was 
introduced to him, he found him sitting cross-legged on a 
carpet in a fine room. He was a small thin man, rather 
crumpled up in figure, with a penetrating eye, a sweet and 
handsome face, his beard silvery white, and hair the same, 

192 Travels and Adventures 

hanging down in curls. He was somewhat childish in mind, 
but spoke beautifully about the final redemption of his people. 
He convinced Wolff that they were descended from the chil 
dren of Israel. He deplored, however, that on the rising of 
Muhammad, and after his time, some of the bishops had for 
saken Christ and become Muhammadans. Wolff told him 
that he was travelling about for the purpose of making the 
Jewish nation believe that Jesus was the Messiah. He replied 
that he had lived to be ISO years of age, and yet had never 
heard of such an undertaking until that day. Wolff asked the 
blessing of that old man, who wept, and scarcely would allow 
Wolff to leave him, holding him fast by the hand. 

Mar Athanasius, one of the bishops of the Jacobite nation 
(spoken of before), paid a visit to Dr. Wolff, sixteen years 
afterwards, at High Hoyland, in Yorkshire, when above 3,000 
persons assembled in that village to see him. He preached in 
Wolff s church in the Arabic language, and Wolff interpreted 
every word he said as he went on. 

The bishops from the neighbouring mountain of Tor, came 
to Mardeen to pay their respects to Joseph Wolff. They were 
good people, but wild, and frequently led their followers in 
battle against the Kurds. After Wolff s feet were somewhat 
healed, he visited those bishops in the mountains, and left 
Bibles there, and made them acquainted with the tenets and 
history of the Church of England, and with the history of 
other churches. The Jacobites pray seven times a day, be 
cause David says in Psalm cxix. 164, " Seven times a day do 
I praise thee." 

Wolff had also a call from a Jacobite, who had become a 
Roman Catholic, Elias Shaadi by name. He was banker to 
the Government of Mardeen, but afterwards had his head taken 
off, by order of the Sultan, because he was rich. 

He invited Wolff to dinner, with the rest of the Jacobites, 
and wished Wolff to lodge with him. Wolff met there two 
Armenian bishops, who belonged to the Roman Catholic 
church, and were members of the Propaganda, and who spoke 
Italian very fluently. The name of the one was Bishop 
Abraham, of the other, Tasbas. 

They were well-informed, kind-hearted men, without bigotry; 
but Wolff got into a terrible scrape with them, owing to a fit 
of mental absence. In the heat of discussion and argument, 
he got hold, accidentally, of a small paper picture of our Lord, 
which, in accordance with a bad habit he had when excited, 
he put into his mouth, and bit at and chewed, till he had, 
by degrees, swallowed it altogether. Of course, he was quite 

of Dr. Wolff. 193 

unconscious of what he was doing ; but he could not persuade the 
Bishops and company that it was an accident, and they were 
greatly scandalized, and expressed much indignation against him. 

Subsequently, at Bagdad, the Roman Catholic bishop there 
expostulated with him on his conduct, but Wolff succeeded in 
convincing him that the offence was purely unintentional. Ten 
years afterwards, however, when Frank Newman and Lord 
Congleton were at Mardeen, they were told the story by the 
Catholics there, who, in speaking of Wolff, called him, Wolff, 
Jakhsh ; u jakhsh" being an Arabic word, only used in Meso 
potamia, signify ing jackass; its root-meaning being, " One who 
extends his ears" 

A little sect also presented themselves to Wolff, who are 
named the Shamseea, which means, u The worshippers of the 
sun." They outwardly conform to the worship of the Jaco 
bite Christians, but have their secret worship, in which they 
pray to the sun. Their history is this : Sultan Murad 
Bayazeed s father, who ruled over the Turkish empire, issued 
an order that all those religious sects who have not a "Book" 
(by which he meant either the law of Moses, or the Gospel, or 
the Koran,) should either at once become Mussulmans, or lose 
their lives. Upon this, the Shamseea hastened to the moun 
tain of Tor, in Mesopotamia, and submitted to "baptism ; and 
thus obtained the protection of the Jacobites, who live in a 
state of independence, as all mountaineers do, to this day. 

But there is not the slightest enthusiasm or love for Chris 
tianity in those Shamseea. Wolff was struck by one fact, in 
the very first question he put to them, and that was, that when 
you ask any Christian Church in the East, Whether they are 
Christians ? they immediately affirm it by making the sign of 
the cross. But not so the Shamseea. When Wolff asked 
them, " Are you Christians ?" they only nodded their heads, 
with the greatest indifference. 

" Do you believe in Christ ?" Again a nod. 

" In whose name are you baptized ?" " Like all the rest of 
the Jacobites." 

" What did your fathers believe in ancient time?" 

They answered this last question with all marks of enthusiasm. 

" We worshipped the sun, the moon, and the stars. The 
sun was our Malech, our king. 1 

Dr. AVolff here asks the query, " Are the Shamseea not the 
worshippers of Moloch, mentioned in Amos v. 26, and Acts 
vii. 43 r " And to whom Solomon built an high place ?" 1 
Kings xi. 7 namely, to Moloch ! 

Wolf left Mardeen in a caravan of about 5000 people, the 


194 Travels and Adventures 

greater part of whom were soldiers ; for the Governor of the 
city, having been recalled to Bagdad at that particular moment, 
by order of Daood Pasha, took with him, as escort, a large 
body of soldiers, and to these, a number of Armenian and 
Syrian Christians, Muhammadan Moollahs and dervishes, were 
glad to join themselves. 

The caravan made short stages. They stopped at Nisibene, 
where a council of the Church was held during the first cen 
turies ; and at last they arrived opposite that mountain which 
is called the Terror of all the Caravans i. e. the mountain of 
Sanjaar, the Shinar of Scripture, where several English officers 
and French travellers had been killed by the murderers who 
inhabited it; viz., the Yezeedi the worshippers of the devil. 
Fearful, indeed, is that spot ! Dark and dim lights wander 
about it they are the ghosts of the slain. At certain times 
one hears bowlings : they are the bowlings of the damned, 
shrieks and grinsings (snarlings !) of wicked spirits. 

Once every year, in the night-time, they perform a dance all 
around the ruins of Babylon, in honour of the Sagheer, i. e. 
the little God the devil. For they never call him devil. 
Layard says that they do not know the name Mani ; but 
Wolff has heard them say, " Mani," and " Feme," and 
" Horo," which names are also known by the Buddhists of Thibet, 
and they are the names of their prophets. Wolff suspects the 
Yezeedi to be a remnant of the old Manichseans. A remark 
able prophecy came into WolfFs mind, the very moment the 
fact of their dancing around the ruins of Babylon was men 
tioned to him, Isaiah xiii., from verses 19 and 20, "And 
Babylon, the glory of kingdoms, the beauty of the Chaldees 
excellency, shall be as when God overthrew Sodorn and Go 
morrah. It shall never be inhabited, neither shall it be dwelt 
in from generation to generation : Neither shall the Arabian 
pitch tent there ; neither shall the shepherds make their fold 
there. But wild beasts of the desert shall lie there ; and their 
houses shall be full of doleful creatures ; and owls shall dwell 
there, and satyrs shall dance there." 

Now the word which is translated Satyr, is in Hebrew 
Sagheer ; and is translated more correctly in the Arabic trans 
lation of Isaiah, made by Warka the Jew, Shaytan ; i. e. devil. 
And by Luther, Wald Teufel. And by Jerome, Demones. 
Here we see, throughout, a literal fulfilment of prophecy. 

However, we must stop a little longer near that awful moun 
tain. Opposite to it, Wolff saw an old man, with a white 
beard, and riding upon a mule, who waved his hand, and said, 
verbatim, the following words : u Will the Lord have ever 

of Dr. Wolff. 195 

mercy upon you again ! Will He ever bring you back to his 
fold, O ye mountaineers of Sanjaar ? Lord, bring them back, 
bring them back !" 

Wolff felt a great interest in the observation of this old man, 
and asked him, " Could you give me the history of this moun 
tain ?" He said, " The inhabitants of it, 150 years ago, were 
all believers in the Lord Jesus Christ;" here he crossed him 
self and continued : " All believed the glorious doctrine of the 
Trinity Father, Son, and Holy Ghost three Persons, but 
one God. But alas, alas ! when times of persecution came 
when they were persecuted by the mountaineers of Mahal- 
lamia, who were apostates from Christianity to Muhamma- 
danism, and by the mountaineers of Miana, who were devil- 
worshippers, the mountaineers of Sanjaar assembled around 
their bishops, priests, and deacons, and said, Our fathers, we 
can no longer endure V and they replied, Our children, we can 
no longer endure ! And although one aged bishop exclaimed, 
Look up, your Saviour lives ! He is mighty to save, even to 
the uttermost, 1 they refused to listen, and exclaimed, Let us, 
too, become Yezeedi T And then they pulled down their 
churches, and were thenceforth worshippers of the devil . " 

So far the history of the old man. How important is, 
therefore, the lesson given by Paul to the Romans, " Behold, 
therefore, the severity and goodness of the Lord : severity on 
them which fell, and goodness towards thee, if thou continue 
in his goodness. If not, thou also shalt be cut off/" 

When the caravan left the neighbourhood of the mountain 
of Sanjaar, although it was 5,000 strong, the party rode for 
fifteen hours in one day, in order to pass through the country 
as quickly as possible, on their mules and horses. The thirst 
Wolff underwent is indescribable ; and the drought was so 
great that twenty mules died from want of water. Arriving in 
the oasis, called Jalakha, they encamped, and there Wolff 
preached in Hebrew and Arabic having the Bible open before 
him to the Jews, Arabs, and Kurds dwelling in tents. 
Wolff asked the Jews, " Has neverany oneofyou turned Yezeedi, 
or Mussulman?" They replied, with a holy indignation, 
" Hear, Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord ! Blessed be 
his glorious name : his kingdom endureth for ever." And 
then they added, " Oppression cannot bow us, nor tyranny 
shake us !" 

Whilst Wolff was thus employed, surrounded by 5,000 men, 
a Bedouin cavalier approached, Dismounting his horse, he 
pressed through the crowd until he came to Wolff, when he 
looked in his Bible, and to Wolffs greatest surprise, he began to 

o 2 

196 Travels and Adventures 

read Hebrew. Wolff asked him, " who he was 2" He replied, 
" I am one of the descendants of Hobab, Moses brother-in- 
law ; and of that branch called the B nee-Arhab, children of 
Rechab, who live in the deserts of Yemen. We drink no 
wine, plant no vineyards, sow no seed, and live in tents. And 
thus you see how the prophecy is fulfilled Jonadab, the son 
of Rechab, shall not want a man to stand before me for ever. 1 "" 
Saying this, he rode off, leaving behind him the strongest evi 
dence of the truth of sacred writ. Wolff saw the whole body 
of Rechabites, twelve years after, near Sanaa (see Gen. x. 27), 
where it is called Uzal as it is called to this day by the Jews 
-of Yemen. 

At last they arrived at Mossul, the ancient Nineveh, where 
Wolff alighted, in the palace of Archbishop Elias, who is the 
shepherd of the Jacobite church there. Wolff presented him 
with a Bible, printed by the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge, which is in high esteem there ; and was examined 
by him about his faith ; and he translated, as an answer, the 
apostolic creed, and the creed of the Council of Nice, and that 
of St. Athanasius, into the Arabic language ; on which Mar 
Elias embraced Wolff as a brother in Christ. He said, how 
ever, " The human nature of Christ is absorbed into the Divine, 
as sand into glass. But about this we will not dispute. Thou 
art our brother in Christ, and guile is not in thee." Wolff 
then went to the church, and heard the Bishop preach on the 
sufferings of Christ the bitter gall in his mouth, and the nail 
in his hand till the assembly melted into tears. 

The Jacobites abstain strictly from eating pork. Wolff ob 
jected to this, the vision of Peter. The archbishop replied, 
with great acuteness, " The vessel returned, and none had 
touched what it contained, and it was only shown to Peter by 
this vision, that all kinds of nations, whatever they eat, will be 
accepted by Christ through faith." He added, " Pork is, be 
sides this, distinctly forbidden by the Apostle, in the Acts, xv., 
4 That they should abstain from blood, and things strangled, 
and pork 1 " (iropveias). And Wolff believes they are right.* 

He stopped at Mossul, and conversed with the Jews for a 
fortnight ; and was struck with amazement to find that a Jew, 
who was a great Rabbi at Mossul, one hundred years ago, had 

* Some read iropvr] instead of Tropveia. The interpretation above given 
is the one held by many in the Eastern churches, and therefore they 
abstain from pork to the present day. In the year 1 838, Wolff dined at 
Lord Normanby s, in Phoenix Park, Dublin, when Archbishop Whately 
was present, who was much struck with his view of this subject, told him 
it had always been his own idea, and requested Wolff to write what he 
thought to Bishop Coplestone, late Bishop of Llandaff, which he did. 

of Dr. Wolff. 197 

translated the New Testament into Hebrew from the Arabic, 
by his own impulse, and for his own edification. Wolff gave 
the New Testament to the Jews, which offended the Christians 
of Mossul exceedingly; and they said to Wolff, "Why dost 
thou throw pearls before swine ?" Wolff, thereupon, had a 
regular argument on that point with the Christians. 

He then went to Karkush, where he was surrounded by 
Christians of the Jacobite nation, who wished him to give 
them the history of the conversion of England to Christianity. 
They then said, " We see thus, that you have got the apostolic 
succession from Peter, whilst we have got it from St. James." 

Wolff observed that these Jacobites entertain a great hatred 
against the Roman pontiff, from an extraordinary circumstance, 
viz., because the Pope wears the cross upon his shoe, which, 
they say, originated in the following manner : That a Jew 
had become Pope, and, as he was in his heart still a Jew, and 
therefore hated Christ, he wore the cross upon his foot, in 
order to stamp upon it with the other ; but he said to his 
people that he had it upon his foot to compel every one to 
kneel down before it. 

Wolff then asked them to give him an account of the con 
version of Assyria to the Christian religion, when one of the 
priests began thus a dead silence prevailing " The whole of 
Assyria was converted to Christianity through the preaching 
of the Apostle Thaddeus, except the King Sennacherib, his 
daughter Sarah, and his son Behenam. They, and his whole 
court and soldiers, still continued to worship false and fabled 
deities, when a bishop, who passed by the name of the Old 
Man of Marmatay, prayed to Christ, saying, Christ, thou 
living fire, kindle in the heart of Sennacherib, and of his son 
Behenam, and of his daughter Sarah, the fire of thy love, in 
order that the banner of thy cross may be planted upon the 
throne of Assyria ! 

" Thus that old man prayed for a long time, until, at last, 
Behenam and Sarah were converted, and came out to converse 
with him, after which they were b aptized in the name of the 
Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, and, together with 
them, forty attendants. When Sennacherib heard of this, he 
gave orders that his son and daughter, and the forty attendants, 
should be put to death. The order was executed, and from 
that moment Sennacherib fell into madness and despair. He 
frequently left his palace dumb and silent, and walked near 
the river Tigris, and imagined that that river contained 
nothing but the blood of Behenam his son, Sarah his daughter, 
and the forty men whom he had slain. One day, he walked 

198 Travels and Adventures 

in the evening upon the mountain, and his servant stood at a 
respectful distance from him, when he suddenly broke forth in 
these words, What have I done? I have slain Behenam my 
son, Sarah my daughter, and the forty men ! 1 He then ran 
on, and came near a cottage, whence a light was glimmering, 
hut he dared not open the cottage door, his conscience forbade 
him. Then he heard a voice coming out, Oh, thou Behenam 
my son, thou Sarah my daughter, and ye forty martyrs, ye 
have been slain by your father and by your king ! "* 

Sennacherib opened the cottage door and saw, standing 
before him, the Old Man of Marmatay, who at once recognized 
the King, and addressed him thus : Murderer of thy son, and 
thy daughter, and the forty martyrs, Salvation is even for 
thee ; forgiveness and pardon of sin are even for thee. And 
he preached to him Jesus Christ and Him crucified ; and 
Sennacherib believed, and was baptized. 

"Returned to his palace, Sennacherib spent his days in 
carrying on his government in equity and righteousness, and 
his nights in singing penitential psalrns, accompanying them 
with the sound of the lyre, like David in ancient times. Deep 
sorrow, and contrition for sin, and repentance, were painted on 
his countenance ; and they heard him exclaiming frequently, 

" 4 Behenam my son, 

" Sarah my daughter, 

" And the forty martyrs ! "* 

" One day he was lying upon the couch, and dreaming he 
sail And when the blood of Thy martyr Stephen was shed, 1 
and he added 

"Behenam my son, 

" Sarah my daughter, 

" ; And the forty martyrs ! 

" Little children came and asked his blessing. The good old 
man blinded, at last, by tears and much weeping blessed 
them, and said, l Blessed children ! When I was a child, I 
knew not Jesus ; and now, that Lord Jesus bless you, and 
keep you, and let the light of his countenance shine upon you. 1 

"And the hour of his death came, and he looked up to 
heaven and said, The Blood of Jesus has pardoned me. I go 
to Jesus, 1 and so Sennacherib died, and went to Jesus, where 
he saw Behenam his son, Sarah his daughter, and the forty 
martyrs. And the ladies of Kurdistan still remember good old 
Sennacherib, Behenam his son, Sarah his daughter, and the 
forty martyrs. 1 

Leaving Karkush, Wolff and his party arrived at a village 
called Eafti, near the water called Sarp. It was inhabited by 
Mussulmans and Yezeedi of the tribe of Manmsia, who differ 

of Dr. Wolff. 199 

in some respects from those of Sanjaar. A Syrian from Mar- 
deen brought one of these Yezeedi to WolfTs room, that he 
might converse with him, and they spoke together as follows : 

Wolff." Who was the founder of your sect 2 " 

Yezeedi. " Yazid Ihn Mowea." 

Wolff. " Do you never pray 2 " 

Yezeedi. " Upon Sanjaar they never pray ; but the Ye 
zeedi Almamusia, of whom I am, pray one night in the year j 
that night is called by us Lailat Almahhya, i. e. night of life." 

Wolff. " How many sects are there among you 2 " 

Yezeedi. " Many ; as Danadeea, Mamusia, Khaldea, 

Wolff. " Where do you pray on the Lailat Almahhya 2 " 

Yezeedi. " In the open air." 

Wolff. "Is Manes known among you 2" (Wolff asked 
this, believing them to be Manichseans.) 

Yezeedi." No ; " others told him, "yes." 

Wolff. " What do you pray 2 " 

Yezeedi. " I cannot tell you this." 

Wolff. " What do you think of the devil 2 " 

Yezeedi. (looking fearfully about as if somebody stood 
behind him). " I cannot speak of that thing. 1 

Wolff." What do you think of Christ 2 " 

Yezeedi (first looking about to see that no Turk was pre 
sent). "He was God: we call Him Jod Nurani (Jesus the 
enlightened) ; He was Kilma, i. e. the Word. Kyafa and 
Pilapus, his faithful and good disciples, drew the nails from 
his feet, so that He never died." 

Wolff." Do you never fast 2 " 

Yezeedi. " Thrice in the year." 

Wolff. " Do you drink wine and brandy 2 " 

Yezeedi. " Yes, we drink both in large plates the whole day." 

The inference which Wolff drew from this interview is, that 
these Yezeedi are undoubtedly Manichaeans, and their views 
have spread among the Bhuddists. Kyafa and Pilapus are 
none else than Caiaphas and Pilate. 


Arrives at Bagdad ; the Cuthites ; Bossora ; Sabeans ; Buskire ; 
Sheer az ; Sheah and Soonnee ; Argues icith Sooffees ; Jews 
quarter in Sheeraz. 

OM Kafti Wolff proceeded to Arbeel (the Arbelaof old), 
where Alexander fought his first battle against Darius. 

200 Travels and Adventures 

And from Arbeel to Kushta, and Kantara (called in Turkish, 
Altoon Kcpri) , whence he intended to have gone by water to 
Bagdad, being extremely fatigued ; but an observation made 
by a Syrian Turk (a soldier), induced him to change his mind. 
He said, " As you have gone so far with us, continue the 
journey with us by land ; for at Karkook there is a consider 
able number of Jews., with whom you may make a mejaadelah " 
(i. e. enter into an argument). Such a suggestion from a 
Turk was remarkable enough, and Wolff acted upon it, tired 
as he was, and so went on with the caravan to Karkook, where 
Daniel was buried. This place is still inhabited by Christians, 
Jews, and most amiable Kurds, who are hospitable and kind ; 
for the image of God is not entirely defaced in any nation. 
Wolff has never seen but one individual in whom it seemed to 
be entirely defaced, and this was Abd-ul-Samut Khan, the 
instigator of the murder of Stoddart and Conolly in Bokhara. 

Before he arrived at Karkook, Wolff, being quite exhausted, 
said to a Christian of the Chaldean nation, "Could I get in 
one of the houses of the Christians a comfortable room, in 
order that I might rest, and recover from my fatigue?" and 
saying this, he wept. The Christian replied, " Brother, we 
would willingly give you a room, but it would not be a com 
fortable one, for we are poor and oppressed. Then a Sayd, 
(i. e. one of the family of Muhammad) who was riding near, 
said, " This is my care ; so I will take it upon me." He then 
rode on before the rest ; and the son of the Muhammadan 
Governor came out, and straightway went up to Joseph 
Wolff, and said, " My father wishes you to come to the 
palace, where a good room will be given to you, and you will 
be provided with all the comforts of life." 

Wolff was then brought to what he will call the drawing- 
room of the Governor his best apartment which was covered 
with carpets and cushions to lean upon. When Wolff was 
stretched upon these, he wept again ; and he was in such an 
hysterical state that when the Governor entered, and most 
kindly laid his hands upon his breast, and said, " Thou art 
welcome ; " he only looked at him, and replied, " Pray, do 
not disturb me." And the poor man went humbly out of his 
own room ; but Wolff, collecting himself, ran after him, and fell 
down upon his knees, and kissed the old man s hand, and 
asked his pardon. But the good Governor said to him, " You 
need not ask my pardon. I know that you continually speak 
about religion that you are a Dervish from Frankistan ; 
and I know that you have suffered from the villany of the 
Frenchman in your company," (alluding to the scoundrel 

of Dr. Wolf. 201 

Digeon,) " sorrow upon him ! " He then actually sent his 
wife to wash Wolff s feet, and himself poured rosewater over 
his head, and gave him lemonade to drink which they make 
better than in any part of Europe and he brought him pilau, 
and excellent meat, and sweet things to eat ; and thus Wolff 
remained there four days, well treated by all. 

During this time, Wolff" was so very unwell, that he was quite 
unable to visit the Jews, or even to see any one. At the end of 
the four days, however, being somewhat better, the party went 
forward; sleeping several nights in succession in Arab tents. 
At last Wolff left the caravan, and, accompanied by only one 
Arab, proceeded on his journey, and arrived in a place where, 
centuries ago, there was only one garden, which is called in Per 
sian, Bagh, and that garden belonged to a rich man whose 
name was Dad ; and the place is therefore now called Bagdad. 
This is the capital of the Khalifs of Arabia ; and even to this 
day the Pasha of Bagdad has the title of Khalif. Haroun Al 
Raschid lived there, immortalized in the " Arabian Nights." 

And thus, exhausted and depressed by his many fatigues ; 
poor, despoiled of all he had, with wounds still in his feet, did 
AVolff arrive in Bagdad, after his wanderings ; and he was re 
ceived in the splendid house of Agha Sarkees, an Armenian 
gentleman, who acted as British agent, with the greatest hos 
pitality. And (as was ever the case when Wolff was in diffi 
culty) he met with British officers to assist him. These 
officers, and a Scotch surgeon, had delayed their departure for 
some weeks, on account of having heard that Wolff was on the 
road to Bagdad. The names of these gentlemen were as fol 
lows : Colonel the Hon. George Keppel, now Earl of Albe- 
marle ; Captain Hart, son of General Hart, of Ireland ; 
Captain Hamilton ; and Dr. Lamb, surgeon to the East India 
Company. All of them had come from India by the way of 
Bushire and Bossora, and they gave Wolff every assistance in 
their power. They gave him clothing and linen, and took his 
bills on England, and had precious conversations with him on 
his adventures in Mesopotamia ; and Lamb cured his feet, and 
then they departed. 

There was also an interesting gentleman at Bagdad, whose 
name was Monsieur Raymond, who, though of French extrac 
tion, was formerly in the military service of the East India 
Company. He came to Bagdad with Sir Hartford Jones, 
British Resident at that time ; and, without permission, he 
entered the military service of the Pasha of Bagdad. When 
Sir Hartford Jones went to the camp where the Pasha s 
soldiers were drilled, and was about to arrest him, Raymond 

202 Travels and Adventures 

drew a pistol, and threatened to shoot the first Englishman 
who came near him ; and then he claimed protection under the 
French Consul-General of Bagdad, as a Frenchman ; for the 
law in France is, a person, once a Frenchman, is always a 
Frenchman. Raymond was declared in Bombay to be a de 
serter, and he accepted service under the French Consulate. 
But his heart was with England ; and he asked Wolff to speak 
on his behalf to Colonel Taylor, in Bossora, which he did, and 
with success, too, for Raymond was afterwards pardoned, and 
returned to Bombay, where Wolff lost sight of him. 

As to Digeon, the scoundrel, he made the bishop, Monsig- 
nore Couperey, acquainted with Wolff s having eaten the sacred 
picture at Mardeen, for which the Bishop remonstrated with 
Wolff; and the bishop told him that Digeon said he had done 
it on purpose. Wolff replied that Digeon was a liar, and this 
he repeated in his presence. Digeon then began to abuse the 
King of England, when, with Raymond s assistance, Wolff 
made him so frightened, that he wrote an apology. In short, 
his conduct was so bad at Bagdad, that he was declared an in 
famous fellow by his own Government, and dismissed. 

The Jews are mighty and rich in Bagdad, and many are 
learned among them, and their great man has still the title, 
" The Prince of the Captivity." Mr. Claudius Rich, the dis 
tinguished son-in-law of Sir James Mackintosh, who was the 
Resident for the Honourable East India Company, made the 
name of Englishman respected, not only at Bagdad, but 
throughout the country around, by his high talents, mtregrity, 
munificence, and firmness. And one day, when he thought 
himself insulted by the Pasha, he planted in his palace a can 
non, upon the terrace in his garden, and threatened to bombard 
the palace of the Pasha ; and the Pasha of a town of 200,000 
inhabitants was forced to yield to Mr. Rich, who had with him 
thirty sepoys, Captain Alexander Taylor of the Indian army, 
Bellino, his secretary, a German ; and only one cannon ! 

Wolff remained at Bagdad a whole month, preaching to the 
Jews and circulating hundreds of Bibles ; and then he em 
barked upon the river Tigris, called Dajla in Arabic, towards 
Bossora, on the Arabian Gulf, in company with Monsieur 
Vigoroux, who had vacated his situation as French Consul- 
General at Bagdad, in favour of Monsignore Couperey, Arch 
bishop of Babylon. They passed the Shat Al Arab, where the 
Tigris and the Euphrates meet, and where the Paradise stood 
in former times ; and there Wolff lost a coat, which an Arab, 
swimming from the other side, and putting his hands in the 
boat without being seen, contrived to steal. Wolff felt some- 

of Dr. Wolf. 203 

thing moving under him, and calling out, " What is that ?" 
got up ; but, before he could turn round to see what was 
going on, the coat was gone ! M. Vigoroux was a curious 
man : he travelled with a picture of his wife, before which he 
knelt down and worshipped every morning and evening 

And thus they came to the village of Cuthamara, whence 
the Cuthites, who intermixed with the children of Israel in 
Samaria, came. The Cuthites " feared the Lord, and served 
other gods." Here they remained one night, and thence came 
to Gorno and Sook-Alsheeokh, two places chiefly inhabited by 
that remarkable people, who are called by three names, Sabeans, 
Mandai-Haya, and Mandai- Yahya ; and thus they arrived at 
Bossora, where Wolff was received with the greatest kindness 
by Colonel Robert and Mrs. Taylor, and by Captain Alexander. 

Colonel Robert Taylor, who died only six years ago at 
Boulogne, and who was, at that time, resident in Bossora, was 
a most extraordinary man. He knew sixteen languages, which 
he spoke with great fluency ; and he was a great Arabic and 
Persian scholar, and could read the most difficult Arabic manu 
scripts with the greatest ease. He read with Wolff the his 
torical book of Masoodi, which contains a splendid description 
of Muhammad, and the Temple at Mecca; and, also, of 
the attempt of the Jews to convert the Arabs to their own reli 
gion, before Muhammad arose, in which they so far succeeded 
as to convert the tribe of Tob, whose descendants are existing 
at this day. 

Colonel Taylor also read with Wolff, " Tabestan," in Persian, 
which contains an account of the different religions ; and it 
convinced Wolff more than any book he ever read, that his 
view of the prophets having been dervishes is correct ; and 
that Isaiah was a dervish, and walked about naked (vide 
Isaiah xx. 2, 3) ; and that the prophets and the dervishes of 
the present day symbolize, by this nakedness, events which 
are to take place upon earth. 

Wolff also visited, on the first days after his arrival, the 
Jews in Bossora ; an excellent people, with whom he had 
whole days conversation about Christ. Here, too, the Syrian 
chief priests, who belong to the Roman Catholic Church, 
allowed Joseph Wolff to preach to the Roman Catholic congre 
gation, both in the Arabic and Persian languages ; on which 
occasions, Wolff put on the mitre belonging to a Roman 
Catholic bishop, and wound around him the Stola and the Cin- 
gulum, and made the sign of the cross, as the priests do. He 
was listened to with the greatest attention. 

At last, Wolff was burning with anxiety to see the Mandaye 

204 Travels and Adventures 

Haya, also called Mandaye Yahya, also Sabeans. All three 
names are most important ; and it is worth while that people 
should visit them, especially missionaries, in order to make them 
selves and the Church fully acquainted with that most interest 
ing people. Dear people, yes, timbrel and dance have ceased from 
your eyes and your ears, as you used to say to me! You, 
brothers of Abraham, why do you so dislike your brother 
Abraham ? 

Colonel Taylor sent for two of this tribe ; the first was 
Sohoron, who was a layman ; the name of the second was 
Rabba Adam, who was the high-priest, and whose title was 
Ganz-Aura, which means, " One who has read through the 
book." He was the representative of Jesus Christ. Both the 
layman, as well as the high-priest, gave to Joseph Wolff a per 
fect description and idea of the history of their people. The 
first thing Wolff asked them was, to give him the real meaning 
of the names by which they are known. 

Sabean is a nick-name, given to them by Muhammadnns, 
and it means, " Those who have changed their religion, and 
turned in their prayers towards the north." But they call 
themselves by two names : first, Mandaye Haya, i. e. " Fol 
lowers of the living God;" and they worship that living God 
under three names : the first, Haya Kadamaya, /. e. " The 
living in the first degree;" secondly, Haya Tinyana, i. e. 
" The living in the second degree ; thirdly, " Haya Tlitaya, 
i. e. " The living in the third degree." They say" that " The 
living in the second degree," is Jesus ; but that these three 
are one. They are also called Mandaye Yahya, i. e. " Fol 
lowers of John the Baptist." 

That extraordinary young man, Sidney Pusey, who has 
more knowledge of the religions of the East than Wolff has 
ever found in England, Italy, or Germany, and whose au 
thority may be depended upon, recently showed Wolff a pas 
sage in the Sadra Rabba, translated into Latin by Norbert, 
with the Sabean text at the side, which convinced Wolff that 
the love which these people profess for Christ is not universal, 
and that there is a jealousy between the disciples of John the 
Baptist and the Christians, which must have existed in the 
most ancient times. Pusey knew almost the whole book by 
heart, and he is certainly a most remarkable scholar. 

There are, in the world, some miserable plagiarists. 
Wolff s description of the disciples of John the Baptist, has 
been literally copied from the "Jewish Expositor," by the 
traveller Bode ; and the hymns of the Caraites as translated 
by Wolff, have been copied by Haxthausen, in his travels : 

of Dr. Wolff. 205 

and the missionary from Basle, Mr. Hohenacker, has again 
literally copied Wolff s description of the Chaldean Churches, 
without saying where he took it from. Indeed, there are not 
greater plagiarists than some of the missionaries. The in 
teresting writer of the " Court of Dahomey," Commander 
Forbes, justly complains of that plagiarizing system, which is 
practised by some missionaries. 

Now a little more respecting the history of these poor Man- 
daye. Their language is Chaldean, with characters entirely 
their own. They come from Haran, where Terah, the father 
of Abraham, lived and died. They are the descendants of 
Abraham s brothers ; and, when Abraham proclaimed the 
unity of one God, they became his followers ; but, when he 
established the right of circumcision, they separated from, and 
abhorred, him. They never take a knife in their hands, so 
they never eat meat, because it has to be cut. 

They have two books ; the one is called Sadra Rabba, which 
means the "Grand Order;" the other, Sadra Nishmata, which 
means the " Order of the Soul." The first book contains 
laws, precepts, and histories; the second book is their Liturgy. 
They have two kinds of priests. The one is called Ganz- 
Aura, and means " He that is acquainted with the whole 
book " he is the representative of Jesus Christ ; the other is 
called Tarmeeda, i.e. " The awakened out of sleep"" he has 
to sleep a certain number of days, until he is declared to be 
the representative of John the Baptist. They baptize their 
followers every Sunday ; and the Gauz-Aura, the representa 
tive of Jesus Christ, is himself baptized every Sunday by the 
Tarmeeda, the representative of John the Baptist. 

In commemoration of our Lord s being baptized by John 
the Baptist, they baptize in the name of Haya Kadamaya, 
the living in the first degree ; Haya Tinyana, the living in 
the second degree ; Haya Tlitaya, the living in the third 
degree. The authors of the Sadra Rabba are said to be Seth, 
Adam s son ; Abraham, and John the Baptist. 

They relate that, after they had separated from Abraham, 
they lived with his descendants in peace and amity, and went 
with the children of Israel into the captivity of Egypt, and 
remained with them in captivity, and shared their affliction, 
and went with them out of Egypt, guided by Artabanes ; and 
were with the children of Israel upon Mount Sinai, until cir 
cumcision was again established, which rite, they say, was in 
troduced by Abraham, and again by his followers upon Sinai, 
on account of dissolute conduct. Then they settled by the 
river Jordan, and received from John the Baptist, when he 
arrived, Baptism. 

206 Travels and Adventures 

There are two coincidences worth observing. First, they 
relate that they went out of Egypt with the children of Israel, 
which confirms the words of Exodus xii. 38, that a mixed mul 
titude went up with the children of Israel. Secondly, they 
call themselves the disciples of John the Baptist ; and it is 
again and again mentioned in the New Testament, that John 
the Baptist had disciples, separate from those of our Lord ; 
nor did they ever unite together. The Sabeans also believe 
that Herod tried to kill John the Baptist, but did not suc 
ceed ; and that John the Baptist came to Persia, and died at 
last in Shustar, the ancient Shushan of the book of Esther, 
where they now reside. For they always choose for a resi 
dence a place near a river, and so are therefore found residing 
at Sookalshiukh, Gorno, Despul, and Bossora. 

Father Agadhangelus, a missionary of the Church of Rome, 
tried to convert these Sabeans 130 years ago, and actually 
baptized the whole body. But on the Sunday following, he 
relates that he sent spies to that river, and all of them were 
being baptized again in their own way. He asked, " Why 
they had been baptized again." They replied, " We like 
water." He asked, " Are you not Roman Catholics?" They 
replied, " We will be, on the following conditions : First, the 
Pope must write to the Sultan for us to be relieved from 
tribute. Secondly, the Pope must give us a pension. Thirdly, 
at the hour of death, no Roman Catholic priest must come 
near us. Fourthly, we must be allowed to retain our own 
religion unmolested ! " 

Rabbi Adarn, the Ganz-Aura priest, was an extraordinary 
man. He practised magic ; and a Muhammadan lady, who 
wished to have a child, came to him ; so he wrote some 
illegible words upon her stomach. The Muhammadan Gover 
nor heard of this, and got Rabbi AdanVs tongue cut out, and 
his right arm cut off; but Habbi Adam cut out the remainder 
of his tongue which had been left, and then he spoke again. 

Although this sounds quite incredible so much so that 
Colonel Taylor advised Wolff never to relate it (although he 
was a witness to it himself) it is nevertheless a strict fact. 
And the same thing happened to a relation of the Prince 
Bushir, in Mount Lebanon, whose tongue was cut out ; for by 
a further excision he recovered the power of speech. Of 
course these people spoke with difficulty, but they were quite 
articulate ; and Rabbi Adam used to come to Wolff daily, and 
taught him the Sabean called the Mandaye language, 
though without his tongue ; and he wrote all he had to write 
with his left arm. Wolff gave this account to several persons 

of Dr. Wolff. 207 

in Malta, who repeated it to Sir Frederick Cavendish Pon- 
sonby, the Governor of Malta, and he said, " I will believe any 
thing that Wolff says, for he has already told me several 
things which sounded most incredible, but which turned out to 
be completely true." 

Dr. Wolff has received a letter, dated 14th March, 1861, 
from Edward Twisleton, Esq., of 3, Rutland Gate, London, 
in which that gentleman refers to the following passage in Sir 
John Malcolm s "Sketches of Persia," vol. ii. p. 115: 
" This mandate " (the excision of Zal Khan s tongue) "was 
imperfectly executed ; and the loss of half this member de 
prived him of speech. But being afterwards persuaded that 
its being cut close to the root would enable him to speak so as 
to be understood, he submitted to the operation, and the effect 
has been that his voice, though indistinct and thick, is yet in 
telligible to persons accustomed to converse with him. This 
I experienced from daily intercourse. He often spoke to me 
of his sufferings, and of the humanity of the present king, who 
had restored him to his situation, as head of his tribe, and 
governor of Khisht. I am not an anatomist, and therefore 
cannot give a reason why a man who could not articulate with 
half a tongue, should speak when he had none at all ; but the 
facts are as stated, and I had them from from the very best 
authority, old Zal Khan himself." Mr. Twisleton further 
wrote, "On reading this passage, I wrote to Sir John Macniel 
formerly British Ambassador in Persia, from whom I received 
a letter, in which he informed me that several persons whom 
he had known in Persia, and had been subjected to a muti 
lation of the tongue, spoke so intelligibly as to be able to 
transact important business. He added, More than one of 
them, finding that my curiosity and interest were excited, 
showed me the stump, and one of them stated that he owed 
the power of speech to the friendship of the executioner, who, 
instead of cuting off the tip as he was ordered, had cut off all 
that was loose in the mouth ; that is, all that could be ampu 
tated by a single cut from below. The conviction in Persia is 
universal, that the power of speech is destroyed, by merely 
cutting off the tip of the tongue, and is to a useful extent re 
stored by cutting off another portion as far back as a perpen 
dicular section can be made of the portion that is free from 
attachment at the lower surface. I never happened to meet 
with any person who had suffered this punishment, who could 
not so speak as to be intelligible to his familiar associates. I 
have met with several of them. 

Wolff now paid a visit to Zubeir, a large Arab village near 

208 Travels and Adventures 

Bossora, where the inhabitants are sons of Abraham by his 
wife Keturah ; and to these Wolff gave the Bible, and re 
turned to Bossora, where, with the kind assistance of Colonel 
Taylor, he established a school, to which all the Armenian 
Christians subscribed ; and the most clever of all the children 
was the son of Rabbi Adam, the Mandaye. 

After several months residence in Bossora, Wolff proceeded 
to Bushire, where he was most kindly received in the house of 
Colonel Stannes, who died as Governor of the College of 
Addiscombe, Sir Ephraim Stannes. He preached in the 
Residency, where he made the acquaintance of Captain Jervis, 
the excellent Dr. Riach, who is now at Plymouth, and united 
to that party called the Plymouth Brethren ; Lieutenant 
Strong, Captain Mellard, Captain Wilson of the India Navy, 
and others. With their assistance, and the assistance of 
Armenian gentlemen and ladies, he established a school at 
Bushire also. At the opening of the school, the Armenian 
ladies came out of their hareem, and took the arms of the 
British officers there, and went to church for the first time in 
their lives. Many of the young ladies said, "I am ashamed." 
However, they went, and Wolff made a speech in the church 
in Persian after the service, in which he enlarged on the 
importance of Christian education. 

Among the ladies was also Mrs. Lazar, the wife of an 
Armenian merchant, who was sister to the wife of Colonel 
Taylor, of Bossora, and who is now Lady Congleton, and re 
sides in London. Mrs. Colonel Taylor had given Wolff a 
letter to her, and told her that she should admit him to the 
hareem, where he saw all the Armenian beauties. 

The lives of those two ladies were very extraordinary. 
Both of them were the daughters of an Armenian family of 
Sheeraz. The Prince of Sheeraz, when they were quite 
young, had ordered them to be brought to his hareem. But the 
parents put them both in a basket, and by bribing some of the 
Persians got them brought to Bushire, where Mr. Bruce, the 
British Resident there at that time, got them respectably- 
educated ; and the one became the wife of Colonel Taylor, and 
the other married the Armenian merchant, Lazar. Colonel 
Taylor had to go to Bombay, and told his wife to follow him. 
She took as her companion, an old Mussulman servant, and 
both were made slaves by the Arab pirates of the desert 
around Muscat, who were at that time at war with England. 
But Mrs. Taylor and her faithful servant, in the darkness of 
the night, made their escape in a boat of the Arabs, and 
drifted out to sea, where they were found very soon by an 
English ship, and were taken in safety to Bombay. 

of Dr. Wolff. 209 

Mr. and Mrs. Lazar, in the time of the plague, left Bushire, 
and took up their abode in Bagdad, at the time when Colonel 
Taylor was Resident there. There Lazar died, and Mrs. 
Lazar was left a widow. At that time four missionaries 
arrived in Bagdad, Mr. Groves, the dentist ; Dr. Groning, a 
homoeopathic doctor ; Mr. Parnell, son of Sir Henry Parnell ; 
and Frank Newman. Mr. Parnell succeeded in converting- 
Mrs. Lazar to the tenets of the Plymouth Brethren, and then 
he married her ; and Colonel and Mrs. Taylor, and Mr. and 
Mrs. Parnell came to England. Colonel Taylor died at 
Boulogne, but Mrs Parnell is now Lady Congleton, her hus 
band having succeeded to the title ; and both sisters are living 
in London ladies who are highly revered by Dr. Wolff. 

Let us depart from Bushire. Wolff, after having preached in 
the Armenian church, proceeded on his way to Sheeraz, the 
most scientific and poetic town in Persia. Dr. Riach and 
Lieutenant Strong accompanied him as far as Borasgoon ; the 
Armenian Arootyoon, who had given ^200 to the school, 
being with them also. Lieutenant Strong told an amusing 
story and it must be observed that Lieutenant Strong was 
one of the handsomest men Wolff ever saw. The story was 
this : The Duke of York called on his brother George IV. 
one day, and asked his Majesty to assist him with ^200, as he 
was in debt. The moment the Duke of York got his cheque 
for ^200, he walked out singing, " God save Great George our 

Having. heard this story, and eaten a good dinner at Bo 
rasgoon, which had been prepared by Arootyoon, Wolff got on 
his horse, and rode off with his servant for Kasseroon. He 
was much struck, both at Borasgoon and Kasseroon, with the 
houses of the Persian noblemen, who have the pictures of 
great men painted upon the walls of their rooms ; which the 
Sheah permit, but the Soonnee consider an abomination. At 
Kasseroon, Wolff visited the Jews, when he was distressed to 
see them in the greatest misery and poverty. He made 
himself known to them as one of their nation, who came to 
preach Jesus Christ. 

It is distressing to record an awful truth, that civilization, 
without true religion, will never make a nation or an individual 
more humane. For the Persians, though by far more intel 
lectual than the Turks, are also much more cruel, greater liars, 
and more atrociously immoral in every respect. So that, in 
fact, increased civilization, without religion, only developes a 
greater amount of wickedness, and it is generally accompanied 
by hypocrisy. 


210 Travels and Adventures 

Wolff had taken up his abode at Kasseroon, in the upper 
story of a house. At night, torrents of rain fell, and he was 
conversing with the Persians in the house upon religion, during 
this storm, when suddenly an earthquake shook the house. 
Wolff, like a flash of lightning, though without shoes and 
stockings, and without a coat, leapt down the stairs, with a 
swiftness and quickness, which produced a burst of laughter 
from all present. And although the earthquake had caused 
no injury for it was only the remnant of the great earthquake 
of Sheeraz, which had happened five months before, and had 
destroyed part of Sheeraz, and the neighbouring cities Wolff 
slept that night in the open air, with the rain pouring down 
upon him. 

The next day, Wolff proceeded to Sheeraz, over a horrid 
mountainous road; and he arrived after a few days in the city, 
which is the most learned town in all Persia ; and where the 
tombs of Hafiz, the Anacreon of the Persians, and of Sadi, 
the great poet, and author of Gulistan and Bustan, are outside 
the walls. They are both buried in a garden, which is kept 
by a dervish. Wolff first took up his abode in the house of a 
Persian, who acted as British agent, and who promised to 
invite the chiefs of the Sheah religion to argue with him, for 
all the inhabitants of Persia are Sheahs. 

The whole Muhammadan nations are divided into two 
classes the Sheah and the Soonnee. Whenever a great reli 
gious contest takes place in the world, two classes always 
appear, like these two ; the one party says that a written book 
is not enough, there is also need of tradition, which will serve 
to explain the written word ; the other party says, the 
written word is quite enough in itself. 

Wolff holds with the first party, for, though tradition may 
be, and has been, abused and exaggerated, yet the principle is 
true, that the written word cannot be exactly understood with 
out tradition. And it has been the invariable experience of 
Wolff, that all those who belong to the anti-traditional party 
have their own pet traditions. Thus it is the case with the 
Jews, who divide themselves into Rabbanim, i. e. " Believers 
in the tradition of the Rabbis;" and Coraeem, "Believers in 
the Bible." But yet those Coraeem, who are the anti-tradi 
tional Jews, have their own traditions. Thus it is the case, 
also, with the Muhammadans. There are two great parties 
amongst them, the Soonnee. traditionalists, to which party 
belong the Turks, Arabs, and Turkomauns ; and the Sheah, 
anti-traditionalists, who are the Persians the Protestants 
against the Soonnee. Yet these have their traditions too, 

of Dr. Wolff. 211 

which they call " Hadees." And is it not so in the Christian 
church? Dr. Wolff asks.. The Roman Catholic and Eastern 
churches take, as their guide, the ancient Fathers ; and the 
innumerable branches of the Protestant communion have their 
own traditions, without number, which are often no more than 
the mere opinions of the leaders of each sect. 

Now, however, back to Sheeraz. The Sheah of Sheeraz 
divide themselves into two parties, like all the other religious 
bodies : into Moollahs, " those who follow the opinions of the 
Doctors, and are for outward forms ;" and the other party are 
called Sooffee, which means " pure," for they say the mind in 
itself must be pure, and outward form is good for nothing. 
Wolff cannot refrain from making the following etymological 
observation. The Greek word " Sophos" (wise) is derived 
from the Arabic word " Soof" (pure); and the Greek word 
" Philosophos" might be translated " Friend of purity." 

Wolff visited the colleges of the Sooffees. Their principles 
are rather liberal, which principles they have taken from a 
book called Masnavi, whose author s name is Moollah Roomee. 

Let us give some sentences from that book : 

" Say of every one, whose morals are good, that he is good." 

" If any one says that the Koran, which came from the hand 
of Muhammad, is not of God, he is an infidel." 

This is a most ambiguous statement : for their principle is, 
that everything comes from God ; and, therefore, nothing can 
be that does not come from God. And they themselves 
explain their statement so, from a sentence of the Koran, 
" From God we come, and to God we return." 

That book also says, " If we attempt to enjoy together both 
God and the world, we are altogether devil-possessed." 

Since the time of Henry Martyn they have also embodied 
in their faith the words of John iii. 5 : "If ye are not born 
again of water and the Spirit, ye shall not enter again the 
kingdom of heaven." And they explain this almost exactly 
as the Evangelicals in England do, viz., by spiritualizing the 

They sit in their college, with their heads bowed down, 
wrapped up in a prophet s mantle and belch, because, they say, 
that they are filled with the mystical wine of truth ; which, 
Wolff observed, consisted of the wine of the grape, which is 
produced in Sheeraz. They also intoxicate themselves by 
smoking Jars, which is a kind of opiatic plant. Wolff dares 
say that there are some good men among them ; but, in 
general, he trusted them less than the orthodox Moollahs 

i> 2 

212 Travels and Adventures 

Their spirituality consists in sensuality of the most out 
rageous and unmentionable kind, and they are liars and cheats. 
Dear Henry Martyn seems to have been imposed upon by 
them ; yet, by his writings, he has, after all, excited the atten 
tion and drawn the minds of people, not only in Sheeraz and 
Persia, but in other parts of the Muhainmadan empire, into 
inquiring after Christianity ; so that, after all, he did not 
labour in vain, which is all that can be expected from a mis 
sion amongst Muhammadans. 

The Sooffees are divided into different classes : some, who 
try to excite themselves into devotion with musical instru 
ments and the drum so much so, that they fall down in 
ecstacies, until they fall into a trance, and are unconscious of 
what they say or do ; and then they sometimes speak in a 
sublime manner. 

When Wolff travelled in the Crimea, he found a clairvoyant, 
who, after Mr. Kylius, in whose house she lived, had laid 
hands upon her, began to sleep, and spoke in a most sublime 
manner. Wolff, at that time, had with him Mirza Ibrahim, 
whom he afterwards sent to England ; and he asked him, 
" What do you think of this lady ? Have you ever seen such 
a thing in your life before 2" He replied, " Over and over 
again in Persia, both in Sheeraz and Ispahan, among the 

There is also a class of Sooffees, who are called the Saaket, 
which means, "the silent ones," for they never speak. Here 
we have the counterpart of the order of La Trappe. 

Wolff also visited the colleges of the orthodox party ; a 
proud people, full of arrogance, with whom wisdom has died 
out. Some young men, with whom he argued, asked him, the 
day following, whether he had been able to sleep after having 
heard such powerful arguments as they had produced ? Wolff 
replied, that arguments never disturbed his sleep. However, 
some of their arguments must be produced. 

Wolff said, " Christ converted the world by persuasion ; by 
the sublimity of his doctrine, by prophecies, and by miracles. 
Muhammad converted the nations by the sword." They re 
plied, "There are two physicians: the one cures the sick by 
sweet medicine ; he is a good physician. Other physicians 
give the sick bitter medicine, and they are cured. Thus, he 
is a good physician too. Again, there are too generals ; the 
one takes the city by storm, he is a good general. Another 
takes the city by persuasion, he is a good general too." 

Wolff said, u The sword cannot be a good medicine ; for if 
it kills the enemy, he is prevented from being persuaded into 

of Dr. Wolff. 213 

the right faith. And if it frightens him into submitting 
against his belief, it makes a hypocrite of him." Then they 
said, as to miracles. " The Koran itself is a miracle ; for no 
body was ever able to write such beautiful Arabic as the Koran 
is written in." Wolff said, " This cannot be proved, for it is 
a matter of taste." 

Then they came to prophecies, and said, " The name of 
Muhammad is predicted in the Bible. He is called in Hebrew, 
Bimod Mead." Wolff could not imagine, for a long time, 
what on earth they meant, and only discovered it at last by 
their calling for a renegade Jew, who showed Wolff, in Gen. 
xvii. 20, u And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee : Behold, I 
have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply 
him exceedingly." Now the letters which compose this word 
exceedingly, i. e. Bimod Mead, viz. Beth, Mim, Aleph, Daleth, 
Mim, Aleph, Daleth, when considered as letters expressing 
numbers, which is their common use also, amount to ninety- 
two. And so, in like manner, the four letters of the name 
Muhammad, viz. Mim, Kheth., Mim, Daleth, when summed 
together as numbers, amount also to ninety-two ; and there 
fore, said the Muhammadans, exceedingly must mean Muham 
mad ! an argument not very likely to have disturbed Wolff s 
rest. This ingenious argument, which the Muhammadans had 
learned from an apostate Jew, was further confirmed by the 
fact that Muhammad was a descendant of Ishrnael, and multi 
plied exceedingly. 

But there w r as another thing which they brought forward in 
the same verse ; " Twelve princes shall he beget." These, 
said they, were the twelve Imaums the twelve successors of 
Muhammad (which only the Sheah acknowledge). Wolff said, 
" But the word exceedingly cannot beget. On the contrary, it 
is said that Ishmael shall beget twelve princes, and the names 
of these twelve princes are mentioned afterwards in Gen. xxv. 
13-15, viz., Nebajoth, Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam, Mishma, 
Duniah, Massa, Hadar, Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah." 
On hearing this, they said, " We must be candid ; he has 
answered us completely." 

They then asked Wolff " how he liked best to argue : whether 
from tradition or from reason ?" He said, " he liked to argue 
chiefly from tradition, and then from reason.*" " For," he said, 
" reason can only reach to a certain point, but tradition tells 
us things which God has revealed. But. besides tradition and 
reason, there is an internal evidence ; the heart is also given 
by God, and if the heart comes into collision with reason, 
something must be wrong. And the heart tells us that, as 

214 Travels and Adventures 

faith is the gift of God, we must pray for it." They all ex 
claimed, " Good ! very good !" They then asked Wolff, 
" What he believed Jesus to be." He replied, " The Son of 
God/ They said, " God has no wife." Wolff replied, " There 
are different kinds of fathers. One the father by marriage, 
another is father by being the educator, bringer up, and be- 
stower of benefits. And God is a father by creating and by 
preserving, by bestowing of benefits, and by his very act of 
chastising his children." 

Then they said, " Then we are all children of God." 

Wolff replied, " Yes ; all of us, in a different sense. But 
Jesus was God, for in Him the fulness of the Godhead dwelt 

They said, " Then Jesus is less than God. 1 

To which Wolff replied, " Look at the sun. The sun gives 
light and heat to all the earth, yet the light and heat is one 
with the sun." 

They again exclaimed, " Good ! very good !" and then said, 
"What objection have you to Muhammad s doctrine f 

Wolff answered, " Muhammad did not act in conformity 
with God s actions, which are quite different from his." 

They asked, " How do you know God s actions ?" 

Wolff. " By his loving all mankind." 

They. " How do you see that ?" 

Wolff. i( In his creation. Look at the sun, which comes 
from God, which shineth upon the good and the bad, the Jew, 
the Christian, the Muhammadan, and the worshippers of fire 
the Parsee. But Muhammad commands his followers not 
to love the Christian, who is yet the creature of God." 

Once more they exclaimed, " Good ! very good f 

To his great surprise, Wolff was soon after invited with the 
Muhammadans to a rich Jew, who, in order to save his riches, 
had become a Muhammadan himself. This man kept con 
tinually exclaiming to Wolff, in Hebrew, " The voice is the 
voice of Jacob, but the hands are the hands of Esau." Wolff 
understood at once the meaning of those words : namely, that 
he himself was still at heart a Jew, although in outward ap 
pearance a Muhammadan. Wolff sighed, and thought it not 
well to press the poor man with arguments in the presence of 
Muhammadans ; and he continued to speak to the Muham 
madans on the fulfilment of many of the prophecies contained 
in the Old Testament respecting Jesus. 

Now let us accompany Wolff to his brethren, the Jews, in 
a town which boasts of the highest civilization. In passing 
through the streets of Sheeraz, he went through the large 

of Dr. Wolff. 215 

bazaar, built by Kareem Khan, formerly ruler of Sheeraz. 
The upper part is entirely covered in by a vaulted ceiling, and 
below there are magnificent shops. As he was going through 
and through the rest of the town, there were shouts from all 
sides, "Here is Joseph Wolff, who proclaims that Jesus is the 
Son of God !" 

One day, Shanasar, and David Makardeetch David, two 
Armenians who were at enmity with each other, called acci 
dentally on Wolff, at the same time, so that they met ; and 
they began to talk to him, and said, " We will go now with 
you to the Jews. Do you know what happened last night ? 
One of the chief Moollahs of Sheeraz went to the prince, and 
advised him to call on you to dispute publicly on the merits of 
Islam ; and that if you were beaten in argument, you must 
either embrace Islam or die ! but scarcely had the Muham- 
madan proposed that, when he was struck with apoplexy, and 
died." They added, that such excitement had never been be 
fore in Sheeraz." 

But, before making them any answer, Wolff, who knew 
their feelings towards each other, said to them, "First of all, both 
of you being Christians, I command you, in the name of Jesus 
Christ, to make peace together, before you go with me to the 
Jews, to whom I go to proclaim the Gospel of peace.*" Where 
upon Shanasar and David Makardeetch David embraced and 
kissed each other ; and Wolff drank with them a glass of 
Sheeraz wine to celebrate the restoration of their friendship ; 
and then they accompanied him to the Jews 1 Quarter, where 
they aided him greatly in conversing in the Persian language. 

Wolff had been warned what he must expect in visiting the 
J ews at Sheeraz, and the description of their misery had. not 
been exaggerated. A Persian Mussulman, of whom he had 
inquired their condition some time before, had said, First. 
Every house at Sheeraz with a low, narrow entrance, is a Jew s 
house. Secondly. Every man with a dirty woollen or dirty 
cameFs-hair turban is a Jew. Thirdly. Every coat much 
torn and mended about the back, with worn sleeves, is a Jew"s 
coat. Fourthly. Every one picking up old broken glass is a 
Jew. Fifthly. Every one searching dirty robes, and asking 
for old shoes and sandals is a Jew. " Sixthly. That house into 
which no quadruped but a goat will enter is a Jew s." All 
which things, of course, came into Wolffs mind, as, in com 
pany with the two Armenians, he approached the street where 
the Jews resided. 

And what a sight it presented ! It was in the month of 
January, 1825, and, therefore, in the depth of winter and all 

216 Travels and Adventures 

was cold and frozen. The street was only a few yards in 
width ; all the houses were like pig-styes, and even these were 
in ruins from the effects of the recent earthquake. Men, 
women, and children were lying about the street many of 
them ill, naked, or in rags women with their children at the 
breast, exclaiming, " Only one pool, only one poolT (pool 
being the Persian word for farthing.) " I am a poor Israeli. 
I am a poor Israeli." Wolff crept into some of their houses, 
and spoke to them about Jesus being the Messiah. They 
asked, " What shall we do ? What shall we do ?" in a sing 
song tone. Wolff told them to believe in the Lord Jesus 
Christ, and be baptized in his name. They wept. But how 
to baptize them but how in a town with all its civilization 
of the most fanatical Muhammadans ? " Poor Israeli of 
Sheeraz P exclaims Dr. Wolff, "I shall see many of you in 
heaven ! Around the throne of Jesus ! You were baptized 
with the baptism of misery, and suffering, and poverty ! God 
forbid that one harsh thought should enter my mind against 
you ! His blood has come upon you : but that blood speaks 
better things than the blood of Abel." 

The A rmenians reported the whole proceedings of Wolff to 
their brethren in Calcutta ; telling them how he had made 
peace between Shanasar and David Makardeetch David, who 
were at enmity with each other. And after all this was over, 
he called on the Prince of Sheeraz at his palace. 

Fire from heaven must come down upon a court like that ! 
Let no person dare to ask Wolff to give a description of such a 
cursed court. Such a court never can be converted, with all 
their politeness and elegance ! " Let God arise and let his ene 
mies be scattered : let them also that hate Him flee before Him !" 
Wolff left the place the following day, and the day after 
preached amidst the ruins of Persepolis, called TaJcht-jam- 
sheed by the Persians, to thousands of Persians. On his 
returning to the caravanserai, where he had taken up his 
lodging, two Rah-dar came (namely, u those who repair the 
roads") and -asked Wolff to pay money. Wolff replied that 
he was an Englishman, and need not pay. They threatened 
to put him to death. He gave them a good scolding ; but 
had, after all, to pay six rupees (about twelve shillings). But 
the next day Persians came that road, who had arrived from 
Mecca ; and they also were called upon by the Rahdars to pay 
money for the road. They replied, they were Hadshees, and, 
therefore, had not to pay. A regular battle ensued ; and, 
after they had almost broken each other s heads, the whole 
company of Hadshees paid half a pool! 

of Dr. Wolff. 217 


Ispahan: Teheran: Tabreez: introduced to Abbas Mirza: 
Tiflis: Erivan: Armenia, attacked by typhus fever: Cir- 
cassia: Crimea: crosses from Odessa to Constantinople: reaches 

A FTER twenty days journey forward, Wolff arrived near 
-^*- the great city of Ispahan, of which the saying is, Ispahan 
Neem-Jehaun " Ispahan, half the world." It was built by a 
man, the wonder of the earth King Solomon who had tra 
velled through the world in the air carried by genii as far 
as Cashmeer ! Asa proof of the truth of this story, there is 
to this day even, in Cashmeer, a mountain called Takhti- 
Suliman, the throne of Solomon. However, if Jewish tradi 
tion is to be credited, Solomon s history, as told by the Per 
sians, may be liable to some objections. 

The history given by the Jews of Solomon is this, and it is 
more to the credit of Solomon than the other. 

Solomon had in his power one of the apostate angels, Ash- 
meday by name, whom he carried about in a chain, like a dog. 
One day Solomon said to him, " How entirely I have got you 
in my power !" Ashmeday replied to him, " Only let me 
loose for a little moment, and then you will see what I 
can do !*" 

Solomon granted his request, and Ashmeday gave him such 
a kick, that he was flung many thousand miles from his 
country, and wandered about as a beggar in all the countries 
of the earth. During his absence, Ashmeday reigned in Jeru 
salem, and sat upon Solomon s throne, in the very figure and 
shape of Solomon. And it was not Solomon who had one thou 
sand wives, but Ashmeday, in the figure of Solomon. And it 
was not Solomon who committed idolatry, but Ashmeday, in 
the figure of Solomon. And it was not Solomon who oppressed 
the people, but Ashmeday, in the figure of Solomon. 

At last, after many years, Solomon returned from his wan 
derings, when he found" Ashmeday sitting upon his throne, in 
his very figure. Then he said, "I am Solomon, and thou art 
a deceiver !" And Ashmeday said, " I am Solomon, and thou 
art a deceiver !" 

They appealed to the great Sanhedrin. The Sanhedrin 
decided that some one should examine the feet of both ; and it 
was found out that Solomon the exile had the feet of a man, 
but Ashmeday the feet of a cock. So they expelled Ashme- 

218 Travels and Adventures 

day from the throne by the ineffable name, and he was again 
put in chains by the authentic Solomon. 

But Wolff remarked, that one of his ancestors, Rabbi Jona 
than Eubeschiitz, had Ashmeday perfectly in his power. One 
day, Ashmeday took a little child, and carried it away in the 
air, amidst its own screams and those of its parents. They 
indeed lamented and wept, but could not get back their child, 
for it very soon was invisible in the air, and more distant than 
the stars. Rabbi Jonathan Eubeschiitz was informed of this 
by the parents and family of the child, who desired his help, 
but he said, grumbling, " Why do you disturb me ?" They 
replied. " Our child ! "our child !" " Well," said he, " send 
for the trumpeter " (who sounds the trumpet on the new year s 
day of the Jews). 

The trumpeter came with the trumpet. The Rabbi said, 
" Set on, and blow." 

The trumpet gave one sound, but no symptom of the return 
of the child was perceived. 

"Sound again, a second blast of the trumpet!" cried the 

But still there was no symptom as yet of the child. 

" Blow again !" repeated the Rabbi. 

No symptom as yet of the child. 

Then Rabbi Jonathan Eubeschiitz ordered the trumpeter to 
blow the trumpet much louder than before ; when, suddenly, 
the screaming of an infant was heard, and Ashmeday appeared 
with it in his arms, crying out, " Here is the child take it, 
and let me alone; make not such a noise! Anything for a 
quiet life !" Eubeschiitz, however, was accused by the Jews 
at last of believing that Shabatay-Zebee had been the real 
Messiah ; but he denied it most decidedly. The history of 
Eubeschiitz s son is remarkable. He resided at Dresden, 
and, on account of his riches, was made a Baron of the holy 
Roman Empire, and took the title of Baron von Adlerfeld ; 
but he was a complete atheist, and scoffed at all religions. His 
father was dead, but one night he appeared to him just as he 
was going to bed, and said, " My son, if thou diest in thy 
present condition, thou wilt go to eternal perdition. Repent, 
and remember that thou art a son of Abraham, Isaac, and 
Jacob, and exclaim Hear, Israel, the Lord our God is one 
Lord! 11 These words made such an impression on Baron 
von Adlerfeld, that henceforth he became a penitent Jew. 

Wolff will now give some idea of the Jewish accounts 
respecting the dominion of pious Jews over the infernal powers. 
One Saturday evening, the Jews of Ullfeld assembled in the 

of Dr. Wolff. 219 

house of Rabbi David Wolff, (Joseph Wolff s father,) to hear 
his Exposition of one of the Prophets. It was about two 
hours after the sun went down, when the Jews close their 
Sabbath ; and then Rabbi David Wolff told them of a pious 
Jew who was regularly proclaimed king by all the devils, who 
formed a guard around his house, or rather palace, and were 
dressed in a golden livery. And when this Jew entered his 
room of state, devils were placed there, who introduced the 
people to his Majesty ; and when he died, they were all 
dressed in mourning, and accompanied his funeral, singing 
funeral songs. Wolff gives this as a specimen of Jewish 
belief, as it existed about 50 years ago. 

There is another story which he also heard from the 
Jews ; and which is believed not only by the Jews, but by 
the Eastern nations at large it is, that all the creatures 
which are upon earth are also found in the sea. It is said, 
there are mermaids in the sea, for the confirmation of which, 
Wolff heard the following story : One day, a gentleman came 
to a city and entered a large shop, where there were jewels 
and many beautiful things to be sold. He bought up the 
whole stock, which he paid for with golden doubloons, and he 
carried away all that he had bought. He had hardly reached the 
seashore, when the merchant ran after him, for all the golden 
doubloons had changed into fishes scales. The merchant 
tried to stop him, but he plunged with all his merchandize 
into the sea, spread his fins, and disappeared. 

The Jews lay a great stress on the virtue of a loud voice, 
and there was once in Poland a Rabbi who had a most powerful 
voice. When his house was attacked by robbers, there lived 
a nobleman six miles distant from him who was surrounded by 
soldiers and servants. So the Rabbi lifted up his voice, and 
exclaimed, "Hear Israel, Jehovah our God, Jehovah One !" 
The nobleman came immediately to the rescue with his 
soldiers, and took the robbers prisoners, and they were 

To return to Ispahan. On Wolff s arrival there, the 
Governor handed him letters from that excellent man, Sir 
Henry Willock, his British Majesty s Envoy at the Court of 
Persia, informing him that he had recommended him to the 
Governor-General of Ispahan ; and Wolff took up his abode in 
New Jiilfa, a town in the outskirts of Ispahan. This town is 
entirely in the hands of the Armenians, descendants of those, 
who, centuries back, were brought by the great Shah Abbas 
from Old Julfa, in the Turkish Empire, to Ispahan, in order 

220 Travels and A dventures 

to cultivate the ground, and introduce industry into his 
empire. Julfa contained, in former times, above 60,000 Ar 
menians ; who had built there a beautiful monastery, in which 
AVolff lodged, and houses like palaces. But just at this time 
the place was greatly deserted, on account of the tyranny of 
the Persian Government. 

Wolff conversed with Armenians and Jews there for a 
whole month, and then proceeded to Teheran, the capital of 
Fat-Oolah Shah, who had 300 wives. Several of his wives 
were Jewesses, and it is the custom in Persia for all the wives 
at court to get distinguished names ; as, for instance, Esther, 
which is taken from the Persian word, Astara, " A star," but 
which was not the Jewish, but the court name of that queen 
her Jewish name being Hadasah. Another court name is 
Lulli, which means a " Pearl," and so on. 

Wolff was received at Teheran, in the house of Sir Henry 
Willock, where he also met with Doctor McNeil, a highly- 
talented gentleman, who was sent to Persia by the East India 
Government, as Surgeon to the Embassy ; and his talents 
subsequently raised him to the dignity of British Envoy in 
Persia, and he is now the Right Honourable Sir John McNeil, 
who was also sent to the Crimea, as one of the commissioners 
of investigation. Sir Henry Willock and Dr. McNeil intro 
duced Wolff to all the ministers of his Majesty ; highly-bred 
and well-informed gentlemen they were. 

It is worth while to describe three of them. Daood Khan 
was a gentleman who was acquainted with the history of the 
Church of Christ, and with the authors of it, such as Eusebius, 
Baronius, and the French Fleuri. He knew the writings of 
these men, which was really astonishing, and was acquainted 
with the heresies which were in the Church of Christ ; and he 
made this most surprising remark, though a Muhamrnadan 
himself, that " Muhammad seemed to have been a disciple of 
Cerinthus and Arius." 

The second of those gentlemen was Mirza Abd-Alwehab, 
who took an interest in all the exertions of the British and 
Foreign Bible Society ; and, especially, in the controversies of 
Henry Marty n, and whom Abd-Alwehab told Wolff, that forty 
learned men had tried to answer his arguments, and could not. 
Mirza Abd-Alwehab had a most pleasant countenance, and 
was of a more serious turn of mind than the majority of Per 
sians are. 

The third was Khosrof Khan, and a most extraordinary 
man. A Georgian by birth, he was chief eunuch, and one of 

of Dr. Wolff. 221 

the king s prime ministers ; and he may be called the Muharn- 
madan Swedenborg. He maintained, like Swedenborg, that 
he had intercourse with the inhabitants of the other world. 
He was of a highly-intellectual mind, and could converse on 
every subject in the most rational manner ; when, suddenly, 
he would fall down upon his face, and then rise, saying, " I 
have had a most remarkable conversation with the prophets 
Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Samuel ;" and then he would give a 
most interesting description of their figures and appearance. 

Wolff would here remark, that he never speaks ironically on 
such points as this, but he believes its possibility and proba 
bility. There is now a tendency in the Church to deny visions 
and miracles, not only those which happened after the Apostolic 
age, but even those mentioned in the Bible ; and the continual 
outcry is, " We must progress with the time and we must go 
forward." But Wolffs motto is, " Backward ! backward!" 
Wolff says we are to remember the days of old, to ask the fathers 
of old and they can tell us, and the elders of old who announce 
to us what God has done im ancient days. No geology will 
ever make any impression on Joseph Wolff : nor will even 
Copernicus or Sir Isaac Newton induce him to disbelieve one 
single word of Scripture, nor to try to interpret it so as to 
make it consistent with the experience of those philosophers ; 
for, after all, no one has seen the earth walk, and the sun 
stand still. Wolff believes in the science of astrology : and 
Hookham Frere was perfectly right when he said, that in our 
day we have lost the key to the knowledge and sciences in 
which the ancients were versed : and all we can say is, that we 
know nothing about it. 

Wolff took, as it was always his wont to do, whenever he 
remained in a town for a while, a teacher of languages ; so he 
took, while there, one* of the first scholars of Persia, whose 
name was Mirza Ibrahim. And, as Ibrahim expressed a wish 
to go to England, and Wolff had observed his great talents, he 
took him with him as far as Constantinople. Thence Wolff 
sent him, at his own expense, to London ; where Sir Gore 
Ouseley recommended him to the Haileybury College, where 
Ibrahim became professor of Persian and Arabic ; and, having 
learned Latin and Greek, he translated Herodotus into Persian, 
and he remained at Haileybury from the years 1826 to 1847, 
when he retired, with a pension, to Persia. 

After Wolff had conversed with the Muhammadan Moollahs, 
and the ministers of the king, at Teheran, Sir Henry Willock 
asked him, after they left the room, " Do you know what they 
told me ? Thev said, This man rivets the attention to every- 

222 Travels and Adventures 

thing he says, for he speaks with such force, as none of the 
most eloquent of our nation could do ; and, in spite too, of his 
foreign pronunciation, and his foreign manners, he rivets us, 
because sincerity speaks out of him [ 

From Teheran, Wolff proceeded to Caswin, the ancient re 
sidency of the kings of Persia ; where he preached the Gospel 
of Christ to Muhammadans, Jews, and Daoodee, a people who 
believe in the divinity of David ; and to the Ali-Oollahe, who 
believe in the divinity of Ali. They are known by the follow 
ing question : u Where do you drink water?" Then, if they 
are really Ali-Oollahe, they will answer, stretching out their 
tongue, and say, " From the upper lip." 

And one of the Princesses of the King of Persia, who re 
sided there, sent to Wolff for a Persian Testament, and an 
English penknife. Wolff was glad to be able to furnish her 
Highness with both. 

And thence he proceeded to Tabreez, where he took up his 
abode with that most excellent man, Dr. Cormick, who was 
married, by Henry Martyn, to a Chaldean Christian lady, who 
introduced Wolff to his royal Highness the great Abbas Mirza, 
Prince Regent of Persia. The history of that man is this : 

He was the eldest son of Fat-Oollah Shah, King of Persia. 
When his father became old and stricken in years, and, in 
short, too lazy to reign any longer ; and was spending his days 
in counting his jewels, visiting his hareem each time amidst 
the beating of drums and visiting, sometimes, places in his 
empire, and threatening to visit others, in order to squeeze out 
money from the poor subjects ; he assembled all his sons 
together, and commanded them to bow down before Abbas 
Mirza, their elder brother, and acknowledge him as the rightful 
successor to the throne ; and obey him from that time and 
henceforth, as the Nayeb Sultanah, whicfi means, " The Lieu 
tenant of Royalty," or, what we call in this country, " Prince 
Regent." They all bowed before Abbas Mirza, except one of 
the younger brothers, Muhammad Ali Mirza, Prince-Governor 
of Kermanjah, who sternly said to his Majesty, "As long as 
you, my royal father, are alive," here bowing his head, " I 
shall obey ; but, as soon as your eyes are closed," (here point 
ing to his sword,) " this sword must decide who shall be 

Then they retired from his Majesty s countenance, and from 
the presence of his " exalted beard," which is one of the greatest 
wonders of the world, if Sir Alexander Burns may be credited; 
and this he assured Fat-Oollah Shah to his very face. 

Muhammad Ali Mirza "withdrew to his Government, in 

of Dr. Wolff. 223 

Kermanjah, and had his soldiers drilled under Messieurs De- 
vaux, Court, Avitabile, and Ventura. Abbas Mirza also 
retired to the seat of his Government, Tabreez, the capital of 
Aderbijan, and he had his soldiers drilled by English officers, 
who were sent to him by the East India Company, such 
as Majors Hart and Monteith, and giant-like Sir Henry 

Muhammad Ali Mirza then tried to distinguish himself, and 
marched against Bagdad ; but he died on that expedition, as 
it is believed, by poison ; and thus was Abbas Mirza liberated 
from his greatest enemy. 

Wolff conversed with Abbas Mirza on religion, and he 
argued from reason. After that, Abbas Mirza desired Wolff 
to establish a school at Tabreez, and begged him to tell the 
English to send out teachers. 

Wolff, on returning to Dr. Cormick, was embraced by an old 
friend, whom he had known in the College of the Propaganda, 
Bishop Shawris. Bishop Shawris was a Chaldsean bishop, 
under the obedience of the Church of Home. Some of the 
Chaldseans are under their own bishops, and have their own 
Patriarch and Church ; and these are called Nestorians. The 
rest are those who were converted from the Nestorian to the 
Roman Catholic Church ; and of these was Bishop Shawris. 

Nevertheless, he had been consecrated Bishop by Nestorian 
bishops ; but, after a time, because this gave offence to his own 
people, they informed against him at Rome ; and he was sum 
moned by the Propaganda to come to Rome, and justify him 
self for having exercised the office of a bishop, without being 
canonically consecrated. He arrived in Rome in the year 
1802, and presented himself to the Cardinal Prefect of the 
Propaganda in his episcopal robes. He was desired to take 
them off, until his case had been thoroughly sifted ; and there 
he remained until the year 1817, without ever having had his 
case examined or attended to. 

Wolff was one day laughing, and very cheerful, in the Pro 
paganda, in his company, when he said, in the presence of 
others, " Now you are laughing, but, should you ever fall into 
the hands of these cardinals, you will weep blood." 

Wolff, struck with his words, wrote what he had said to 
Niebuhr ; but the letter was intercepted by the College of the 
Propaganda, and it was one of the accusations brought against 
Wolff, afterwards, that he had " uncovered the Mother s 

Nevertheless, what Wolff had done had its fruits, as he heard 
from Bishop Shawris seven years afterwards, at their meeting 

224 Travels and Adventures 

at Teheran ; for, eight months after Wolffs own banishment 
from Rome, Shawris received permission from the Propaganda 
to return to his country, though without being allowed to ex 
ercise episcopal functions. And he now told Wolff, that Car 
dinal Consalvi had said to him, " Now, you must pass through 
Vienna, and show yourself to Joseph Wolff, that he may see 
that justice has, after all, been done to you." 

At the very time that Wolff met Shawris at Tabreez, he re 
ceived a letter from the Rev. Henry Leeves, who told him to 
try and find out Bishop Shawris, to whom Leeves had given 
money, in order to procure a translation of the Bible into the 
Kurdish language. Wolff therefore went, with Shawris, to 
Ooroomia, the native place of Zoroaster, where the Chaldsean 
Catholics chiefly reside, and where Bishop Shawris had hopes 
of finding some one who would undertake the translation. 

On their way to Ooroomia, both the Bishop and Wolff came 
to Salmast, where they met with Alexander Mirza, a relation 
of the late King of Georgia the Georgian kings having their 
genealogy from King David. Wolff preached to the dial- 

wt/ O IT 

dseans, Muhamrnadans, and Jews there, as well as at Bashkala, 
and Hosrowa, and Ooroomia, where thousands of Muhamma- 
dans came to hear him ; and, besides expounding the Gospel 
to them, he gave them Bibles. 

The Georgian king had been expelled from his capital, at 
Tiflis, by the Russians, who took possession of his country ; 
and he retired into Persia to Salmast, where he died. Alex 
ander Mirza begged AVolff to get the interest of the King of 
England to place him upon the Georgian throne, but Wolff 
could give him no hopes. 

Wolff is entirely convinced that Asael Grant, the celebrated 
missionary of the Americans, is correct with regard to the 
Chaldsean Christians being descended from the ten tribes of 
Israel. They call themselves the children of Israel ; and what 
right have we to doubt the account which they give of them 
selves ? 

It is to be regretted that his countrymen, the American 
missionaries, assailed poor Asael Grant for that belief. Yet, 
it is not to be wondered at, for the Americans are, in the 
strictest sense of the words, citizens of the new world. All 
their ideas are new, and they take all their notions of history 
and theology from the writings of the German neologians, 
(which word may be literally translated new-doctriners a 
word coined by Joseph Wolff); those u new-doctriners" do 
for the most part laugh at the very existence of the ten tribes ; 
and even Baron Yon Bunsen. in a conversation he had with 

of Dr. Wolff. 225 

Wolff, exclaimed against the mania, as he expressed himself, 
of the Englanders about the ten tribes. 

Shawris found a person in Ooroomia who undertook to 
translate the Bible into the Kurdish language ; but, after all, 
it came to nothing. The Patriarch of the Nestorians resided, 
at that time, at Cochanes, in the mountain. Those patriarchs 
are the lineal descendants of St. Peter ; and, whenever the 
mother, whose son is to be the successor of the Patriarch, is 
with child, she eats no meat ; and, if a son is born, he is to be 
a patriarch, and if it is a daughter, she is to become a nun. 

Wolff now returned to Tabreez, and departed for Tiflis. On 
his way to Tiflis, he arrived in the last frontier town of Persia, 
called Erivan, which was then (1825) in the possession of 
Persia. The Persians believed that Erivan never could be 
taken by the Russians, because it was protected by a talisman ; 
but the Russians convinced them that they could un charm a 
talisman, for they became masters of the town in the year 
1826, when it was taken by General Paskewitsch, 

Wolff rode from Erivan to Etsh-Miazin, which means, 
" The descent of the Only-Begotten, 11 and which is situated at 
the foot of Mount Ararat, near the spot where Noah alighted 
and sacrificed, and where there is- now a city built, called 
Nakht-shavan, which means, u Noah s descent." Upon the 
height of Mount Ararat, the ark of Noah is said to be still 
standing ; but to no human being is granted the privilege of 
ascending the height, and beholding it. St. Jacob Nisibenus 
attempted it, and arrived halfway, but fell asleep there ; and 
an angel appeared to him, and said, " Jacob, Jacob, desist 
from thy purpose ; but, in order that thou mayest be satisfied, 
and that others may see that thou art favoured, thou shalt 
find a good piece of the ark on thy being awake." And so it 
came to pass, that when Jacob awoke, he found a piece of the 
ark, which he brought to Etsh-Miazin, where it is preserved 
to this day, as Wolff can testify, for he has seen it. 

Gregory Lusaworitsh, or " Gregory the Enlightner," 
preached in Etsh-Miazin; and 124,000 Armenians were con 
verted and baptized in the river Euphrates. Gregory then 
prayed to God, that he would show him the place where he 
should build Him a church, and the Only-Begotten descended 
from heaven and showed him the spot*; and there is now a 
mighty monastery standing, and three churches. Gregory 
sent many of the Armenian youths for study to Athens. Two 
of them, Mesrop and Isaac, gave new characters to the Arme 
nian languages and Mesrop translated the Bible into the 
Armenian tongue. Tlu> Armenian* then wont about. 

226 Travels and Adventures 

preached the Gospel ; and thus the Armenian nation was con 

The Patriarch Ephrem was absent when Wolff arrived in 
Etsh-Miazin, and he wrote to him several letters, thanking 
him for the high interest he took in the Armenian nation, and 
expressed a great desire that Wolff should exert himself in 
England, that they might establish colleges in England in the 
place where he was dwelling, which they proposed doing at 
their own expense. 

From Etsh-Miazin Wolff proceeded to Tiflis ; and, after six 
days journey, he arrived at the Russian cantonment ; and it 
is extraordinary how, the moment he arrived there, he felt that 
he was under European power. Russian officers immediately 
received him into their small houses, vacated their beds, and 
offered him a bed to sleep in. Then he arrived at a village 
where all the people spoke German for one of the seven 
churches built by Wiirtembergians stood there ; and the emi 
grants, who cultivated the ground, were believers in Jacob 
Boehme. This Teutonian Theosophos was originally a shoe 
maker, and his mystical writings occupied and engaged, in 
former times, the minds of Leibnitz and Sir Isaac Newton, 
as well as those of the inhabitants of the German cottages. 

From thence Wolff proceeded to Tiflis, capital of Georgia, 
where he was received in the kindest manner by General Yer- 
maloff, the Governor-general, and also by General Kotzebue, 
son of the great writer, Kotzebue, who was killed by Sand. 
There Wolff delayed for several weeks, and stopped with the 
missionary of the Basle Missionary Society. Wolff preached 
in Tiflis in German and English, and in Jewish German to 
the Polish Jews, who, though sometimes kicked and pelted by 
Georgians and Russians, are, nevertheless, cheerful and happy. 
They were just commemorating a wedding in the open street, 
which they never could do in Persia. While there, he ar 
ranged a plan with Saltet, the missionary, to visit that extra 
ordinary man, Count Zareinba, missionary of the Basle 
Missionary Society, at the station called Shushee, in the 
province of Carabagh, in Armenia Major. 

On his journey thither, he made acquaintance with the 
German colonists of Elisabethenthal, and Kornthal, and 
Helenendorf, &c. They were all believers in the personal 
reign of Christ, and believed themselves to be the woman who 
was to fly into the wilderness, until Christ should come in 
glory and in majesty. 

Wolff preached in all t.hese villages. He met there a Ger 
man missionary, Hohnacker by name, who had come from 

of Dr. Wolff. 227 

Sliushee, where he had left Zaremba. Holmacker was be 
trothed to a German colonist girl, who, he thought, had been 
sent to him by God, when he found her labouring in the field ; 
and, at the very first moment, asking her if she would have 
him as a husband, she replied, " Yes ! " 

Wolff next arrived at Shushee, where he came to a house, 
in the corner of a room of which he saw a man in deep medi 
tation and prayer. Wolff walked up to him, and asked him, 
" Are you Zaremba 2" He replied in the affirmative. Wolff 
said, " I am Wolff." Zaremba fell around Wolff s neck, and 
kissed him, and shouted for joy. Zaremba then gave a holi 
day to his school, which consisted chiefly of Armenian children, 
but with a few Tatars and Muhammadans mixed. Zaremba s 
history is interesting. 

Zaremba was a Russian count, private secretary to Capo 
(Flstria, Chancellor of Russia, in the time of Alexander I. 
He was an immense reader of every book he could meet with, 
and spoke twelve languages with the greatest fluency. He 
read the wanderings of Jung Stilling, and the Bible, which 
made him resign every worldly prospect of promotion, and 
give up everything to become a missionary ; for which end he 
went to Basle, where in due time they sent him to Tatary. 
Zaremba was of that branch of the Counts of Zaremba, who 
became Lutherans at the time of the Reformation. But 
Zaremba had completely the spirit of antiquity in him ; 
and though he was not a thorough mediaeval man, yet he 
admired all that was grand in that age. He was a missionary 
indeed : and if all had been of his spirit the German mission 
aries would never have been banished from Russia. 

Wolff remained with him for about ten days, and then 
returned to Tiflis, where he had left his Persian companion. 
Here he fell exceedingly ill, but still he left Tiflis and came to 
Vlaticaucass, a miserable village at the foot of Mount Caucasus. 
His complaint was typhus fever ; and, by the time he reached 
Vlaticaucass, he was too ill to go on, and laid himself down in 
the street, expecting to die there. There, however, he fell 
asleep, and a British officer passing by in his carriage, saw 
him, took him up, assisted him into the carriage, and conveyed 
him to Mostock, under the post- escort with which he was tra 
velling for security against the Circassians. The posts were 
always escorted by artillery, and travellers were glad to avail 
themselves of it. This gentleman was Colonel Russel, after 
wards Sir James Russel of Ashestiel, only lately dead. 
Colonel Russel left Wolff in the monastery of the Jesuits at 
Mostook ; but n.s PMv Henri, the Jesuit, continually bothered 

228 Travels and Adventures 

him during his delirium, by trying to convert him, Wolff 
actually crept out of the house, and was again found by Colonel 
Russel before he had got far from the place, and was taken by 
him to a German physician. The German physician treated 
Wolff very judiciously, so that, after ten days, he was able to 
proceed to Karrass, a town in the midst of Circassia, but 
belonging to the Russians. There he was exceedingly well 
received by the missionaries, but now was seized with ague. 

One morning tremendous shrieks were heard. Wolff asked 
the reason. The Circassians had broken through the Russian 
line, and while calmly smoking their pipes, took prisoners 
sixteen German boys ; and having placed the boys upon 
their dromedaries, were flying with the swiftness of eagles 
towards the mountain. Wolff wrote an account of this to 
Mr. Venning in St. Petersburg ; who, after Wolff s departure, 
sent to the parents several thousand roubles. 

Wolff next set out in a German wagon, driven by a German 
colonist, to Nicolayef, where he was treated in the kindest 
manner by Admiral Greig, a Scotch gentleman, but Lord 
High Admiral of the Russian Fleet, who gave him letters for 
Count Woronzoff, Governor- General of Odessa. He did not 
leave Nicolayef until he had preached to the Jews, though he 
was still very weak. From thence, passing Cherson, where 
he met Jews of the highest intellect, to whom he preached the 
Gospel, he at last arrived at Taganrog, where his Majesty, 
the Emperor, sent to him Baron Friedrich and General Die- 
bitsch, and desired them to tell Wolff that he would receive 
him next week in person ; but that amiable Emperor, Alexan 
der I. died in the meantime. 

Wolff preached at Taganrog to thousands of Germans, and 
thence he went on to Kertsch and Theodosia, also called 
" Kaffa," in the Crimea ; and thence to Simpheropol, where 
he lodged in the house of a Tatar Sultan, Kategerry Krim- 
gherry, who had been sent some years before to Scotland by 
Alexander, had embraced the Christian religion among the 
Presbyterians, and had married Miss Nielson. 

Wolff" from thence made an excursion to the settlement of 
the Caraite Jews, who had been there from time immemorial. 
The place is called Jufut-Kaleh, the " Castle of the Jews," 
upon the height of the town, called Bakhtshe-Seray. The 
Empress Catharine was about to impose a tax upon the m, 
when they sent in a petition, proving to her satisfaction, that 
they were of that tribe of Jews who had had no hand in the 
crucifixion of our Lord Jesus Christ. The Empress there 
upon graciously freed them from the tribute ; and it is most 

of Dr. Wolff. 229 

remarkable, that though proselytism is prohibited in Kussia, 
those Caraites have converted, not by their preaching, but by 
the integrity, uprightness, and honesty of their conduct, many 
of the Russians to the Jewish religion. Let us cease from 
talking about the tyranny and despotism of Russia. The 
Crimea, from the moment that it fell into the hand of Russia, 
prospered. Mighty cities were erected, the wandering Nogay 
Tatars, who live in the Oural mountains, and even around 
Bokhara, and feed on human flesh, settled down in nice 
cottages in the Crimea, and lived in harmony and peace with 
the Germans, the Russians, and Greeks there. 

On being with the Caraite Jews. Wolff found that they 
well recollected that noble soul, Lewis Way. They went 
with Wolff to the Cemetery, where he was much struck by an 
epitaph, written in Hebrew, on a simple stone, 

" Thou hast been like to me, 
I shall be like to thee." 

Wolff returned now to his friend the Sultan and his Scottish 
wife in Simpheropol, and proceeded in a German wagon to 
Odessa, where he stopped in the house of Superintendent- 
General Bottiger, a good-natured unfortunate man, who wept 
over his sins while he still continued to commit them, and 
ended his days in Siberia. 

Wolff was allowed, by Count Woronzoff, to preach to the 
Jews, not only in their synagogues, but in the open street. 
He met at Odessa, a young German, Schauffler by name, a 
turner by trade, who copied Wolff s journal. Wolff observed 
his great talent for languages, and his piety ; and resolved to 
take him with him to Constantinople. Wolff remained in 
Odessa till February 1826, when he determined to proceed to 
Constantinople in an English merchant vessel, called fct The 
Little" and commanded by a captain also called "Little," 
who had his wife with him on board. On being applied to for 
a passage, the captain told Wolff that his ship was too " little, 1 
and that, besides that, he did not like parsons on board, 
because they bring bad weather. He therefore left for Con 
stantinople without Wolff. Wolff then made an agreement 
with the captain of another English merchant vessel Captain 
Newton of the " Thetis," and taking Schauffler and the Per 
sian with him, he sailed off. After four days a heavy fog 
coming on, Captain Newton said, " Now let us kneel down and 
pray, we are in a most dangerous place ; " all parts of the 
Black Sea being of very difficult navigation. Wolff offered up 
prayers, and the vessel sailed on, and arrived safely in the 

230 Travels and Adventures 

harbour of Constantinople. There Captain Newton took out 
the trumpet, and asked, " Has Captain Little arrived \ " The 
answer was (also through a trumpet), " No, he and his wife, 
and every man on board, perished just at the entrance ! " 

Wolff was received most kindly and hospitably at Constan 
tinople, in the house of the Rev. Henry Leeves, a man who 
has succeeded in conciliating both Greeks and Armenians, and 
has translated the Bible, with the assistance of a Greek 
Bishop, into the modern Greek language ; and has, moreover, 
drawn the interest of thousands to the promotion of the circu 
lation of the Word of God. 

Wolff sent his friend Schauffler to an hotel, and told him 
to eat and drink just as he pleased, and he would pay for 
him ; but as Schauffler never came for money, Wolff asked 
him, " Why do you never come to me for money 2 " 

He replied, " I have sold my watch,"" such was the deli 
cacy of this man. Wolff then went to the hotel and told the 
people, that they must not ask his friend for money, but that 
he would pay. 

Wolff found out here that several Jews to whom he had 
preached at Jerusalem, had become Christians, and were at 
Constantinople. He also made an excursion to Adrianople, 
which almost cost him his life, for when he arrived there he 
preached not only to Jews, but also to Muhammadans. and 
circulated the Word of God among them openly, just at a time 
when the Muhammadans were in the wildest state of frenzy 
and hatred against the Christians, because the revolution of 
the Greeks was at its height. 

So Wolff had scarcely left Adrianople half an hour, when 
the janissaries marched out to cut him to pieces. However, 
he managed to escape, and arrived safely in Constantinople 
again, where he was introduced to Sir Stratford and Lady 
Canning, with whom he dined. Sir Stratford warned Wolff 
not to go amongst Mummadans at this critical moment ; an 
injunction which he obeyed. 

After this, he was introduced to Sir Hudson Lowe, 
who was Governor of St. Helena in the time of Napoleon. 
Wolff was delighted with him, he was so full of information ; 
and will stand up for him, in spite of all that is said against 
him by O Meara and Las-Casas. Wolff then took up his 
abode with the Armenians at Constantinople, and learnt 
Turkish. When he left Constantinople, he proceeded to 
Broosa, where Hannibal died ; and there he lived in the 
house of an English gentleman, and employed himself in 
reading Lord Byron s "English Bards and Scotch Reviewers," 
and "Irving s Orations." 

of Dr. Wolff. 231 

A Greek Prince soon called upon him, accompanied by his 
son ; both these poor people had been exiled by the govern 
ment to Broosa, and they were very anxious to hear political 
news from Wolff. The old Prince began his inquiries in this 
way : 

" You are Signore Wolff?" 

Wolff replied, " Yes/ 

The Prince. a Dunque che dicono le Potenze ? " (What 
do the sovereign powers say ?) 

Wolff answered, " Really I don t know." 

The Prince. " Oh, we know that you are a man of great 
information. Dunque che dicono le Potenze?" 

Wolff. " My mind was occupied with other things. 1 

The Prince. "Have you known Sir Stratford Canning? " 

Wolff." Very well." 

The Prince. " Dunque che dicono le Potenze ? " 

And so on, till at last, after finding he could not succeed in 
hearing anything, he went home. 

Wolff proceeded next to Smyrna, where he preached to the 
Jews, and gave lectures to the English and Italians, who were 
there ; and then he embarked on board the English ship 
" Eblana," commanded by Captain Small ; and after amusing 
himself for the two months he was there, by reading Rowland 
Hill s " Dialogues," preaching to the sailors, and making a 
collection from them, for the Society for Promoting Christianity 
among the Jews, he arrived safely in the harbour of Dublin, 
in Ireland, in the month of May, 1826. 

Wolff gave the following lively account of the conclusion of 
his voyage, in a letter to Sir Thomas Baring : " We arrived 
in Dublin harbour at midnight, after a voyage of two months. 
We were not allowed to land for three days, and, as we were 
quite starved out, I sent on shore for a splendid dinner for 
myself, as well as for the captain and his wife, ordering 
salmon, turkey, turtle soup, pudding, apple-pie, jelly, and a 
handsome dessert, so that the hotel-keeper, when reading over 
the list, said, This reverend gentlemen knows also about the 
good things of this world ! 

232 Travel* and Adventure* 


Leaves Dublin for London ; Edward Irmny ; Lady Gcorgiana 
Walpole\ Discussions at Albury Park; Marries and is 
Naturalized as an Englishman ; Visits Holland ; Sails for 
Gibraltar ; Malta ; Smyrna ; Egina ; Navarin. 

DURING his stay in Dublin, Wolff spoke in the Rotunda, 
and he afterwards spent some days with Lord Roden and 
the Archbishop of Tuam; and in the palace of tho latter he 
was shaved by an old woman, who made him pay 2*. 6d. for 
the job. 

For his public addresses he was attacked by the Roman 
Catholics in Ireland. Lalor Sheil called him " Baron von 
Munchausen," " Katerfelto," " Mendez," " Wolff, the Old 
Clothesman, of Monmouth Street, London," &c., &c. And 
Wolff, in anger certainly not in the true spirit of Christ 
called him a liar in return. He also wrote a wild letter to 
Bishop Doyle, offering to visit him, and stay in his house for 
some days, for the purpose of arguing with him a foolish 
proceeding, which Bishop Doyle received in a dignified but 
cold manner, writing to him to the effect, that he was perfectly 
well acquainted with the reasons for which the Cardinal-prefect 
removed Mr. Wolff from the Propaganda ; and that he would 
receive him, but not as a guest, should he, when weary of his 
present pursuits, wish to return to the sobriety of true 

It is here to be observed, that, even in the midst of WolfFs 
public diatribes against the Church of Rome, he invariably 
spoke of Pope Pius VII., and Cardinal Litta, with the regard 
and affection he really felt for them, and acknowledged the 
good he had received from his residence in the Propaganda ; 
but, in spite of this, the Irish Roman Catholics, naturally 
excitable, and driven to greater lengths, probably, by wild 
Protestant outcries, continued to abuse Wolff in no measured 
terms, and Wolff retorted upon them in their own style. By 
the Protestant party in Ireland, it need scarcely be said that 
he was received with the most cordial kindness, both on this 
occasion, and every other, of his visiting that country. 

At the end of a few weeks, Henry Drummond and Irving 
sent for Wolff to come to London ; and, as he had been lately 
reading Irving s celebrated " Orations, " he was extremely 
anxious to see him, and not the less so from Irving^ having 

of Dr. Wolff. 233 

mentioned Ignatius Loyola and Francis Xavier with great 

Wolff accordingly arrived in London, and was not disap 
pointed in his expectations of Irving. Even at the first inter- 
view, he was struck with him as a very remarkable man ; and 
he often afterwards said, that he quite bore out Chalmers" 
account of him, that he was " like the sun, with a few spots 
upon it." But Wolff even goes beyond this, and thinks that 
many things, which Chalmers considered spots, were not so in 
reality. And, although he never accepted his new doctrine of 
the unknown tongues, he has never liked to speak against it.* 
Of one thing, however, he is perfectly certain, namely, that 
Irving had, what may be called, the organ of being hum 
bugged ; no deceiver himself, he was yet liable to be deceived 
by others. 

On his arrival in London, Wolff went at once, by arrange 
ment, to Irving s house. It was nine o clock at night, and 
Irving was not at home, but had left word that Wolff was to 
follow him to the house of Lady Olivia Sparrow, where he was 
dining. Thither he accordingly proceeded, and saw Irving 
for the first time ; and it was on this occasion, also, that he 
was first introduced to Lady Georgiana Walpole, daughter of 
the Earl of Orford, who, in February, 1827, became his wife. 
Here something more must be mentioned. 

In the year 1807, when Wolff was only twelve years of age, 
he read the History of England by the German historian 
Schiitz, and met with the name of Sir Robert Walpole, when 
Wolff said to himself, " I should like to marry a lady who 
bears the name of Walpole. 1 And when in the year 1826, 
Irving and Lord Mandeville (afterwards Duke of Manchester) 
introduced Wolff to Lady Georgiana Walpole, he turned 
round for a moment, and said to himself " that Lady Georgiana 
Walpole will become my wife." 

When the party broke up, at about eleven o clock, Mr. and 
Mrs. Irving took Wolff home with them to their house, where 
he slept. Before going to bed, Wolff said to Irving, " I 
cannot shave myself; can you get me a barber for to-morrow 
morning ? " 

"At what o clock," inquired Irving, gravely, " shall you 
want the barber ?" 

* Neander, in his " History of the Apostolic Ages," and the great 
Thiersch, perfectly agree with Irving, that those tongues spoken on the 
day of Pentecost, were not foreign dialects, but a kind of ecstatic 
ebullition. See Neander s " Geschichte der Christlichen Kirclie durch 
die AposteL" 

234 Travels and Adventures 

Wolff said, " At seven." And Irving told him one should 
be provided, and bade him good-night. 

Wolff described Irving, as he stood before him that evening, 
as a tall, majestic man, with a quantity of dark hair flowing 
down over his shoulders, after the manner of the pictures of 
our Lord ; a slight cast in his eye ; an expression of deep 
thought over his face ; and his whole bearing as of one who 
would soar aloft into higher regions. 

On the following morning, at seven o clock, some one knocked 
at Wolffs door. And when he had called out " Come in," 
the door opened, and the mighty Irving himself appeared in 
the capacity of barber, with a suitable apron tied roun 1 him, 
and shaving apparatus in his hand. And thus Irving shaved 
Wolff with his own hands ; and, moreover, continued to do 
so, not only as long as Wolff remained in the house with him, 
but even at times afterwards, whenever Wolff went to him for 
the purpose. 

And the fact did not remain unknown. Ten days after the 
first operation, Irving and Wolff were walking together in a 
street, near Oxford Street, when they observed a crowd round 
a bookseller s shop, and, going up to the window, they found 
it was caused by a caricature representing Irving in the act of 
shaving a wolf. Irving did not even smile, but, turning to his 
friend, said, "Never mind, Wolff, I shall shave you a^ain. 
Come along." And they went away amidst the amused 
laughter of the lookers-on. 

After a few days, Henry Drurnmond invited Wolff to 
Albury Park, near Guildford, in Surrey, to be present at the 
great conference that was to take place there, among a chosen 
set of friends, upon unfulfilled prophecies. The consultations 
lasted a week, during which time the consulters lived together 
under DrummoncTs roof. Among them were Dr. Macneil, 
Lord Mandeville (afterwards Duke of Manchester), Lord Riley, 
Dodsworth, Dr. Marsh, Frere, Simons of PauFs Cray, Haldane 
Stuart, Cunningham of Lainshaw, &c., Drummond, Irving, 
and Wolff. There they discussed the personal reign of Christ, 
and future renovation of the earth ; the restoration and con 
version of the Jews ; and judgments on the Christian Church 
for their infidelity and unfaithfulness ; each person speaking 
out his peculiar views, and all referring to Wolff upon the 
texts of the original Hebrew. These dialogues were subse 
quently printed, and the opinions of each given under fictitious 
names: Wolff s sobriquet being " Josephus," IrvingX "Atha- 
nasius," &c., &c. 

The result of these meetings was?, that r all borainr of opinion 

of Dr. Wolf. 235 

that the system of interpreting fulfilled prophecy, in a gram 
matical, historical, or, as it is commonly, but not quite 
correctly, called, literal sense ; and unfulfilled prophecy in a 
phantomizituj, or, what is commonly called, spiritual manner, 
is a miserably rotten system, and one leading to infidelity. 

One particular instance may be given, as it is one of which 
Wolff experienced the power and effect during the whole of 
his after life, in speaking both to Jews and Gentiles. 

In Luke L, ver. 30, 31, 32, 33, read, " And the angel said 
unto her, Fear not, Mary, for thou hast found favour with 
God. And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and 
bring forth a son, and shalt call his name JESUS ! He shall 
be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest ; and the 
Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David. 
And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever ; and of 
his kingdom there shall be no end." 

Now, every one admits that the first two of these verses, 
and half the third, are to be interpreted in a grammatical, 
historical sense ; for they have already had a grammatical, 
historical fulfilment. The Virgin has brought forth a son, his 
name was called Jesus, and he was called " The Son of the 
Highest." But the prophecy does not stop here. It goes on 
to say, " The Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his 
father David, and he shall reign over the house of Jacob for 
ever." How is this to be interpreted ? Spiritually, figura 
tively anyhow but grammatically say the generality of 
readers. But against this arbitrary and most unjustifiable 
change in the system of interpretation of one prophecy, Wolff 
protests, as an almost blasphemous trifling with the Word of 
God. Assuredly, the whole of the 3rd and 4th verses of this 
prophecy must be read in the same historical, grammatical 
sense as the two preceding ones. As the Virgin did verily 
conceive, and bring forth, the Son Jesus, so verily and really 
not spiritually or in a phantomizing manner shall that Son 
Jesus, one day, " Sit upon the throne of his father David, and 
reign over the house of Jacob for ever." That is, He shall 
come personally to earth once more, in the third and last office 
to which he was anointed namely, that of King. As Prophet 
and Priest He has been with us already ; as King He has yet 
to com-e. 

The value of this argument with the Jews, is incalculable. 
On the other plan, the Jews, who have always been looking 
for the advent of the Messiah as King, have a great advantage 
in their discussions with Wolff, and other Christians. For 
against the spiritual interpreters, that is; the phantomizers. of 

236 Travels and Adventures 

the 3rd and 4th verses, they had always to object the utter 
inconsistency of their two methods of explanation. But, on 
the contrary, Wolff found the Jews incapable of defending 
themselves against the grammatical, historical interpretation 
of the whole. 

It has often been represented, as the fundamental error of 
the Jews, that they expected the Messiah to establish a tem 
poral kingdom ; " whereas," say those who hold this view, 
" the Messiah s kingdom was to be only a spiritual one." 

Wolff says to this, " I challenge the whole Christian Church 
to produce one single passage of the New Testament, by which 
it can be proved that the error of the Jews consisted in their 
expecting the Messiah to come as a temporal king ; or which 
countenances the notion that Christ s kingdom was to be only 
a spiritual one. Neither Christ, nor His apostles, ever once 
reproved the Jews for their expectations of Him as a king. 
The real error of the Jews consisted not in that ; in that they 
were right ; but their error was, as Christ told them, that 
they were fools, and slow of heart to believe ALL that the pro 
phets have spoken. Ought not Christ to have suffered these 
things, and to enter into his glory f They were not wrong in 
believing the glory, but in not recognizing the sufferings which 
were to precede the glory." 

And there are many Christians who commit the opposite 
mistake. They are ready to believe in the sufferings, but doubt 
about, and try to explain away, the glory, in spite of the pro 
phecies connecting one with the other. 

" There is, however, one great error," Dr. Wolff says, 
" among those who accept unfulfilled prophecy, as they ought 
to do, in its grammatical, historical sense, and which, "he adds, 
" has never been pointed out before." 

They speak of the final restoration of the Jew r s, and of their 
conversion, in such a way as to make Christians believe that 
there are no promises for the nations at large in Scripture; and 
that the Jews shall be above all, and that all the rest of the 
nations shall be exterminated though this is not expressed by 
them in so many words. Now, although Wolff believes that 
there shall come judgments over the Gentile churches, and over 
other nations, yet he does not believe that there is one single 
prophecy, in the whole of Scripture, which says, that the Jews 
shall be above the nations, and much less above the Christian 
Church ; and the Jerusalem above, which shall come down from 
heaven, will be filled with all nations, kindred, and tongues ; 
and then there shall be neither Jew nor Gentile, but all shall 
be one in Christ Jesu.s. And those who undertake to interpret 

of Dr. Wolff. 237 

prophecy, ought to be on their guard, lest they fall into the 
error of Cerinthus, who made all our happiness consist in infe 
rior pleasures ; in short, we must take care that we do not be 
come Muhammadans sensualizers. 

Dr. Wolff is also happy to observe that the greater number 
of the believers in the personal reign of Christ have renounced 
the belief that the Pope is the Antichrist ; and he is, with them, 
firmly convinced that the Antichrist is still to come. And he 
is very happy to observe that some Roman Catholic priests now 
living in England, are believers in the personal reign of Christ 
a doctrine which has never been condemned by the Church 
of Christ. On the contrary, it was universally believed in the 
first two centuries ; and Wolff believes that the great Newman, 
whose lecture entitled " The Turk" has afforded so much de 
light to Wolff, will become a powerful defender of that doctrine. 

Another result of those conferences in Albury Park, the 
dwelling of that extraordinary, most amiable, and oldest friend 
of Wolff, Henry Drummond, :has been, that people have seen 
the importance of revising other points which seem to have 
been settled by Protestants ; but which assumption is entirely 
against Scripture. For example, Wolff pointed out two errors 
of this kind at the time. 

First, it is an assumed maxim of the Protestants, that mira 
cles were to cease when the apostles died. 

Secondly, Wolff threw out the hint, that Protestants under 
valued tradition too much ; for, without tradition, we cannot 
understand the meaning of Scripture. Joseph Wolff must also 
give his opinion as to the application of science to religion. He 
considers Galileo and Copernicus to be downright heretics, and 
he believes that the sun walks and that the earth stands still. 
And their heresy is not at all so universal as people suppose ; 
for all the Hutchinsonians deny it, Archbishop Nares denies 
it, all the Eastern Churches deny it, and so do all the Muliam- 
madan philosophers. The middle age was right, and Coperni 
cus and Galileo were wrong. 

Wolff, soon after these conferences, travelled about all over 
England, Wales, and Scotland, with the Deputation of the 
London Society for Promoting Christianity among the Jews. 
And then he was united, by the hands of that holy man of 
God, Charles Simeon, to (as Dr. Wolff continually calls her) 
his " darling angel in earthly shape." Previous to his union 
with her, he voluntarily gave to her brother, the Earl of Orford, 
an undertaking in writing, by which he renounced all claims to 
a life interest in her property, in case of her death. And he 
o-ot that undertaking signed by Henry Drummoml, Bnyford, and 

238 Travels and Adventures 

Dodsworth. However, his dear wife made a will by which she 
left him ) 2,000 out of her property, in case of her dying with 
out children. But when Wolff arrived at Malta, he found out 
the contents of that will, and he immediately wrote another 
undertaking, by which he resigned all right to that c2,000 in 
favour of Lady Georgiana 1 s brothers and sisters, in case she 
died without children, and he got this signed by Sir Frederick 
Ponsonby, the excellent Governor of Malta, and by his secre 
taries ; and Sir Frederick wrote to Wolff, and said, he could 
not sufficiently admire his disinterestedness. This undertaking 
Wolff deposited with Mr. Lee, the solicitor of the Earl of Or- 
ford ; but the Earl s family declared that they would not make 
use of it, for they were shocked to think that Wolff should be 
entirely deprived of every portion of his wife s property ; and 
it was probably at their suggestion, that Mr. Lee wished to 
return the undertaking when Wolff called upon him, but Wolff 
insisted on his keeping it. In 1838 Lady Georgiana heard 
that Wolff had left this document in Mr. Lee s charge, and she 
went to him, and begged him to allow her to burn it, which she 
did. But Wolff, hearing of this, wrote the same undertaking 
a second time, which was signed by a dozen people ; and in 
order that it might not be destroyed, he sent copies to both 
Mr. Roebuck and Sir Charles James Napier. Nevertheless, 
Lady Georgiana did not only withdraw her will, but made 
another ; so determined was she that Wolff should have the 
money if he survived her. This, however, did not take effect, 
as Lady Georgiana Wolff did not die childless. 

Dr. Wolff will not allow to have paraded before the world 
the great practical talents and intellectual gifts of his dear wife, 
her active usefulness, her piety, and her affection ; and there 
fore he concludes to spare his own feelings by saying no more 
about that heavenly being. After his marriage, Wolff was 
naturalized as an Englishman, before both Houses of Lords 
and Commons. 

Wolff visited, with his family, that man of God, Simeon, in 
Cambridge; and he again repeats, that Simeon was a good 
sound Churchman ; and if he was now alive, he and Archdea 
con Denison would love each other as brothers in Christ. And 
Dr. Wolff subscribes ex toto animo to Simeon s views on bap 
tismal regeneration ; and Dr. Hook, the Dean of Chichester, 
agrees also with Simeon on this point. 

The Jews in Germany, on hearing that Wolff had married 
a lady of noble birth, had not the least doubt that he must 
have received immense riches with her ; and, as her name was 
Walpole, they concluded that Wolff must have become Prime 

of Dr. Wolff. 239 

Minister of England, like the famous Horace Walpole, Earl of 
Orford. He therefore received lots of congratulatory letters ; 
all the writers of which claimed relationship with him. One of 
these epistles was very funny. It was written by one Bechofer, 
who reminded Wolff that he had often drunk coffee with him 
in a coffee house at Frankfort ; and, on that ground, he begged 
Wolff to make him the steward of his large estate ! Wolff re 
plied that he was quite ready to make him steward of all the 
Deserts of Egypt ! on which the Jew sent him, in return, all 
the curses in the law of Moses ! Not long ago, Wolff received 
letters from Germany, by which he perceived that the Jews of 
CJllfeld still firmly maintain, that he was made a Cardinal when 
he was at Rome ! And these funny things recall the wit of 
Lady Georgiana, which was very great ; and he remembers on 
one occasion, when she was sitting with her pleasant friend, 
Miss Hamilton, in the presence of an American who was chew 
ing tobacco, the latter lady turned to Wolff, and said in an 
undertone, " This fellow is chewing his own cud :" to which 
Lady Georgina replied, " But he does not divide the hoof:" 
Miss Hamilton rejoined, " This remains to be proved :" to 
which Wolff added, " Examine his feet." Miss Hamilton said, 
" You pig !" 

Tn April, 1827, Wolff set out with his wife for Amsterdam, 
where he preached the Gospel to the Jews, who, to this day, 
make proselytes to the Jewish religion. They had, a hundred 
years ago, a great Rabbi, Isaac Ger by name, who was born a 
Roman Catholic, and became a priest, arid then embraced Ju 
daism. Wolff made acquaintance there with the famous Isaac 
da Costa, and Dr. Kappadose ; both of them sincere converts 
from Judaism to Christianity. He was also struck by a young 
Jew, who had become a Christian, but continued to live in the 
house of his Jewish parents, who treated him with great 

Wolff delivered lectures in the Athgeneum at Amsterdam, 
and the Universities of Leyden and Utrecht, and made the ac 
quaintance of the Jansenists, and their Archbishop. Among 
these are holy and good men to this day ; and one of their 
priests gave Wolff the writings of Quesnel. 

Wolff asked the Jansenist Bishop, whether they really be 
lieved the so-called five propositions of Cornelius Jansenius, 
which are condemned by the Church of Rome as heretical I 
The Bishop, whose name was Monseigneur Tett, replied, " We 
condemn and anathematize those five propositions as heretical; 
but we say that those five propositions, said by the Church of 
Rome to be in the book of Cornelius Janseniup called Ausrus- 

240 Travels and Adventures 

tinus/ are not to be found tliere. And we have, over and over 
again, offered prizes to any Roman Catholics who will show us 
those five propositions in Jansenius s book. And therefore we 
are condemned, because, while condemning those propositions, 
which are considered as heretical by the Church of Rome, we 
believe our senses, and deny that they can be found in the book 
Augustinus. 1 So it has come to pass, that whenever an Arch 
bishop is elected at Utrecht, we send to Rome to the Pope for 
his confirmation ; on which the Pope requires us to condemn 
first of all, the five propositions. To this we reply, With all 
our heart. But then we are required to say those five propo 
sitions are in the book Augustinus, and to this we reply, that 
we cannot find them there. 1 Then the Pope says, I say that 
they are there/ To this we say, we appeal to a general coun 
cil. Let a general council determine whether they are in the 
book or no. On which an anathema is pronounced against the 
Jansenists. After this we proceed at once to the consecration 
of the Archbishop, without troubling ourselves further about 
the Pope." 

Monseigneur Jean Bon, Bishop of the Jansenists at Haar 
lem, showed to Wolff the famous book of Jansenius, and that 
portion of it was pointed out to him, in which the Roman 
Catholics maintained that the five propositions were to be 
found ; and he was also made acquainted with the five pro 
positions. The Jansenists call themselves, not Jansenists, but 
" L Ancien Clerge Catholique." 

The five propositions said to be contained in the book called, 
Cornelii Jansenii Episcopi Yprensis Augustinus, are as 
follows : 

1. Some commandments of God are impossible for righteous 
men to observe in their present state, even should they desire 
to observe them, and were to strive so to do, in their own 
strength, if the special grace is wanting. 

2. In the state of unrenewed nature, grace is more easily 
resisted than in a renewed state. 

3. In order to have merit or demerit in a corrupt state of 
nature, it is not requisite that man should have liberty that 
exempts him from the necessity of willing or acting, but a 
liberty that disengages him from restraint is sufficient. 

4. The Semi-Pelagians admit the necessity of internal pre 
ventive grace for all good actions, even for the commencement 
of faith, and they are heretics inasmuch as they say that this 
grace is such, that human will can either resist or obey it. 

5. It is speakiug like a Semi-Pelagian, to say that Jesus 
Clirist d led for all men, without excepting one. 

of Dr. Wolff. 241 

Wolff, always anxious to embrace any opportunity of saying 
a word in season to any lost sheep of the house of Israel, 
sought to engage Mr. Meyer, a clever Jewish lawyer, and 
member of the Senate of Amsterdam, in argument. This gen 
tleman had a high repute amongst his brethren, who esteemed 
him second only to Mymonides himself. Wolff thus addressed 
him by letter : 

" DEAR SIR, You will excuse the liberty I take in address 
ing these lines to you. I detest the covert manner of the 
Jesuits, and therefore tell you, with all openness, that the ob 
ject of this letter is to obtain an interview with you, that 
l may have the opportunity of speaking with you concern 
ing the Gospel of Jesus Christ, in whom alone I believe sal 
vation is to be found. I am a missionary of the Gospel, and 
have travelled through Palestine, Mesopotamia, and Persia, and 
should consider it a particular favour if you will allow me to 
speak with you concerning the hope which is in me. The 
favour of an answer would particularly oblige, 

Your humble Servant, JOSEPH WOLFF." 

The following answer was received : 

" Mr. Meyer presents his respects to Mr. Joseph Wolff, 
and being neither a Christian, nor anywise prepared to con 
verse about the Gospel or belief, must decline any visit on that 
account. 1 

" May 1, 1827." 

This repulse was considered by the Jews a masterpiece of 
diplomatic tact, the production of a great man, and evincing 
deep knowledge of the human heart ; in short, a triumphant 
display of Hebrew genius. 

Wolff then proceeded, with Lady Georgiana, to Zeist ; and 
they were accompanied by Mr. Reichardt, the missionary of 
the London Jews Society. Zeist is entirely a Moravian set 
tlement, where men and women are separated from each other. 
Wolff attended, in company with Reichardt, the Divine ser 
vice of the Moravians. They sing a hymn, and drink a cup 
of tea, which is handed to every one present, together with a 
Dutch bun, called " Zwieback." Wolff ate his portion of 
Zwieback, and drank his tea, which were very good. Reichardt 
had placed his portion of refreshment near Wolff, who was 
sitting close beside him, and Wolff took hold of ReichardtVi 
Zwieback and tea, and consumed them both, to the great 
chagrin of poor Reichardt. 

Wolff was amused by a conversation Reichardt had with 
one of the Moravians, on the importance of converting the Jews. 

Moravian. " Give up the idea of converting the Jews ; 

242 Travels and Adventures 

they will never be converted." Roichardt coolly said, " Who 
told you so ?" Wolff never saw any one so utterly taken aback 
as the Moravian was. 

Wolff then set out, with Reichardt, for Germany, to meet 
his mother and sister, whom he had not seen for eighteen 
years. He met them at Dusselthal, a place where he had ap 
pointed to meet them, for they resided at Munich. The moment 
Wolff saw his mother and sister, they both wept, and his 
mother said, " To-day, I have borne thee again. 1 Wolff had 
the unspeakable joy of preaching the Gospel to the Lutheran 
congregation ; his mother and sister listening to the sermon, 
for the former said, " Nothing should prevent her hearing her 
son preach, though she was a Jewess." She wept the whole 
time he preached. 

Dlisselthal belonged to the Count Von der Recke ; and in 
his presence, as well as in the presence of other Christians, 
Wolff s mother began in this way to address him : " My dear 
child, I have no rest ; for, if you are right, you will be happy 
in the other world, and I unhappy ; if you are wrong, what an 
awful sight this would be for me, in the other world, to see your 
shadow flying from mine, lost in hell !" All who were present 
wept, and she went on, " Do you think that Abraham was 
wrong ? and that Isaac, Jacob, and Moses were wrong ? and 
all the prophets were wrong? and our rabbis are wrong I" 
Wolff needs not to repeat his answers, for every believer in Christ 
will know that he proved to her that in Christ Jesus all the 

frophecies are, in a great degree, fulfilled ; and that Abraham, 
saac, and Jacob had desired to see this day, but saw it not. 
With God s grace, his arguments were instrumental in con 
verting his sister, Jette, who was then instructed by Dr. 
Krummacher, the author of "Elijah the Tishbite." She was 
afterwards baptized by him, and has ever remained a consis 
tent Christian, and is now married to Mr. Pflaum, in Baireuth, 
in New Bavaria. 

Wolff then returned to London, and on July 26, sailed, as 
he expresses himself, with her who is now his glorified angel, 
for Gibraltar. He stopped a few days at Cadiz and Lisbon, 
and arrived safely at his destination. His reason for going to 
Gibraltar was, that he was now a credited missionary of the 
London Society, and was on his way to the East to preach the 
Gospel there. Wolff during his stay there, made the follow 
ing appeal to the Jews ; 

" DEAR BRETHREN, Seven years have passed since I was 
the first time in this place, proclaiming to you the tidings of 
salvation by Jesus of Nazareth. I found but little candour 

of Dr. Wolff. 243 

among you. The most learned of you have been called to 
answer, but were never able to do so with reason, for the truth 
of the Gospel is too clear to be obscured by sophistry, either 
of rabbis or of philosophers. 

" You, Jews of Gibraltar, were the first among whom I 
commenced my missionary career ; and if I was not convinced, 
by the grace of the Lord, that the word of Jesus Christ is a 
hammer which smiteth rocks in pieces, I should at that time 
have been discouraged, for you were impenetrable as the rock 
of Gibraltar itself; but the love of Christ constrained me, and 
your hardness of heart, and your blindness, convinced me 
more of the necessity and the importance of preaching to our 
brethren the Gospel of Christ, in which I have found for my 
own soul, joy, liberty, and abundance of peace. I went to 
Egypt four times, thence twice through the deserts of Arabia ; 
my feet stood upon Mount Sinai, Mount Zion, and Calvary ; 
and thence I went to Mesopotamia and Persia ; and often, in 
hunger and thirst, and amidst the persecution I suffered in my 
travels, I proved to the Jews that Jesus was that seed of 
Abraham in whom all the nations of the earth were to be 
blessed : that Jesus of Nazareth was that Shiloh, who came 
after the sceptre of Judah had departed ; that Jesus was the 
promised Prophet, like unto Moses : for He was rejected like 
Moses ; He was an intercessor like Moses ; He performed signs 
and wonders like Moses ; and being the very image of the in 
visible God, He saw his Father face to face like unto Moses ; 
He proclaimed a covenant and a law like Moses ; He was per 
secuted like Moses. Walking upon Zion, I proved to the 
literal children of Zion that Jesus was that Son of the Virgin 
that Immanuel, who was a sanctuary and a rock of offence 
to both the houses of Israel. To the Jews at Jerusalem, at the 
ruined wall of their ancient Temple, I proved that Jesus was 
that Root of Jesse, upon whom the Spirit of the Lord rested, 
the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel 
and might, the spirit of knowledge, and the fear of the Lord. 
Walking with the Jews upon the Mount of Olives, I proved 
to them that Jesus was that Child which was born to us, and 
that Son which was given us, whose name is Wonderful ! 
Counsellor ! Mighty God ! Everlasting Father ! Prince 
of Peace ! And, going with the Jews of Jerusalem towards 
Bethlehem, I proved to them that Jesus, who was born at 
Bethlehem, must have been that Man of whom it is said, But 
thou, Bethlehem Ephrata, though thou be little among the 
thousands of Judah, yet out of thee shall He come forth unto 
me, that is to be ruler in Israel, whose goings forth have been 

R 2 

244 Travels and Adventures 

from old, from everlasting/ And in the case of Jeremiah, I 
reminded them of the words of the prophet, that the Anointed 
of the Lord was taken in their pits, i. e., received of the Gen 
tiles, of whom the Jews said, Under his shadow we shall live 
among the heathen. (Lam. iv. 20.) And day and night I 
tried to convince thy nation that Jesus of Nazareth was He 
who had borne our grief, and carried our sorrows, and who was 
taken from prison and from judgment. And at the sepulchre 
of Haggai, I proved to them, that Jesus was that desire of the 
nations predicted in that same prophet. And though I was 
thus forced to remind my Jewish brethren of their guilt and 
crime, in approving of the murderous act of our ancestors, I 
left them not comfortless ; for, at the sepulchre of Zechariah, 
I showed to them, that the Lord will pour out the spirit of 
grace and supplication upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and 
they shall look upon Him whom they have pierced, and mourn. 

" Men and Brethren of Gibraltar ! I am now again on the 
point of returning to the city of Jerusalem, and I exhort and 
beseech you, for the last time for your souls 1 sake to pray 
to the Lord Jehovah, that he may open your heart and your 
ears : for whilst you are circumcised in the flesh, you are un- 
circumcised in heart and ears ; and that you may cease from 
being murderers and betrayers of your own souls, by trampling 
under foot the blood of Jesus Christ, and approving of the act 
of our ancestors, in having slain the Lord of glory. 

" Men and Brethren of Gibraltar ! Believe in Jesus Christ, 
and you will have a testimony without you, in which thousands 
of evidences have concurred, and you will have a testimony 
within you, which likewise has been confirmed by the concur 
rent experience of thousands. You will see, you will know, 
you will enjoy the truth ; and you will find that in your afflic 
tions, distresses, and temptations, the grace of the Lord Jesus 
Christ will be made perfect in your weakness, and the power of 
Christ will rest upon you. You shall be blest in your coming 
in, and you shall be blessed in your going out, and you will 
stand fast in the liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free. 
Bolieve in Jesus Christ, and the Lord shall establish you, 
Jews of Gibraltar, a holy people to Himself; and the Lord 
shall make you, Jews of Gibraltar, the head, and not the tail ; 
and you shall be above, and you shall not be beneath. 

" But you, Jews of Gibraltar, rich and poor, if you will not 
hearken unto the voice of the Lord your God, and should 
reject the Gospel of Christ, then beware lest all these curses 
shall come upon you, and overtake you : c Cursed shall you be in 
the city, and cursed shall you be in the field ; and cursed shall 

of Dr. Wolff. 245 

be your basket, and your store ; cursed shall be the fruit of 
your body, and the fruit of your land ; cursed shall you be 
when you come in, and cursed shall you be when you go out. 
And the Lord shall send upon you cursing, vexation, and 
rebuke. 1 

" Would to God that I could conscientiously say, that I hope 
better things of you, Jews of Gibraltar ; but I can scarcely 
hope. I am afraid that you will reject my exhortation ; you 
will despise this appeal of your brother ; you will go on in 
boasting that you are the sons of Abraham, without having 
the faith of Abraham ; you will go on in being proud of your 
Talmudical wisdom ; you will continue to be contented in 
being well off in temporal respects ; but I have done my duty. 
And I again call heaven and earth to witness, that there is but 
one name given in heaven and on earth by which men can be 
saved, and this is the name of Jesus Christ. If you reject 
my exhortation, I am clear of your blood ; and the Lord 
delivers me from blood-guiltiness, for I have warned you. 
Speak ye, therefore, Blessed be He, who cometh in the name 
of the Lord ; Hosannah to the Lord in the highest/ And 
then the Gentiles, true believers in Christ, will rejoice with the 
descendants of his ancient people, residing at Gibraltar. 

" Joseph Wolff, Missionary to the Jews in Palestine." 

Sir George Don, Lieutenant-Governor of Gibraltar, and his 
whole staff, and Lady Don, paid the utmost attention and 
kindness to Wolff, and her who was his darling wife. 

There was residing in the town of Gibraltar at this time, a 
Jew, Jonas by name, who, one day, came to Wolff in a greatly 
excited state, having read his appeal to the Jews, and he said 
to him, " I will show to you a text from Moses, our great 
prophet hear it ! He says in Deuteronomy xiii. 1, 2, 3, " If 
there arise among you a prophet, or a dreamer of dreams, and 
giveth thee a sign or a wonder, and the sign or the wonder 
come to pass whereof he spake unto thee, saying, Let us go 
after other gods which thou has not known, and let us serve 
them, thou shalt not hearken unto the words of that prophet, 
or that dreamer of dreams, for the Lord your God provoth you 
to know whether ye love the Lord your God with all your heart 
and with all your soul/ " And then he read a part of the 5th 
verse, " And that prophet, or that dreamer of dreams, shall be 
put to death." " Now, you are come among us," cried Jonas, 
" and you tell us, Let us go after three gods, and therefore you 
deserve to be put to death !" Wolff replied, " Show me that I 
believe in three gods." Jonas answered, " You believe Father, 
Son, and Holy Ghost." Wolff replied, " Does not Moses say, 

246 Travels and Adventures 

Is He not thy Father? and does not David tell us that the Lord 
says, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee ; and 
does not Isaiah say, They vexed his holy Spirit V " Wolff 
had often to encounter this argument from the Jews. 

Jonas then broke off, and said, " I was rather startled with 
one announcement in your appeal, and thought, at the first 
impulse, that you must be a holy man, because you gave us to 
understand that you walked upon Mount Zion ; but I recovered 
myself on reading the following passage, which I now beg you 
to read aloud, Lamentations v. 18, and I knew at once that 
you answer to that description. Read it aloud!" Then 
Wolff read, with a loud voice, " Zion is desolate, the foxes walk 
upon it!" " There !" he exclaimed, " you have at least ful 
filled this prophecy ! But," added he, " you are a personage 
of another description, also mentioned in Holy Writ, because 
you give us to understand that you have travelled much here 
upon earth. Read in Job i. 6, c Now there was a day, when 
the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord, 
and Satan came also among them. And the Lord said unto 
Satan, Whence comest thou ? Then Satan answered the Lord, 
and said, From going to and fro in the earth, and from walking 
up and down in it. Wolff answered the whole with a hearty 

Oddly enough, when Wolff was telling the Jews in Jerusa 
lem of his travels in Persia, and other countries, one present 
referred him to the same passage in Job. And, moreover, the 
reader will smile to learn that a brother clergyman in England, 
who was attending a meeting for propagating the Gospel in 
foreign parts, and who was an intimate friend of Dr. Wolff, 
coolly said in his speech, " We all must stand back when Dr. 
Wolff speaks, for he comes from going to and fro in the earth, 
and from walking up and down in it." This was the Rev. 
William Marshall, rector of Ilton. 

After about a fortnight, Wolff embarked for Malta, and 
there all his friends rallied around him ; among them were 
Sir Frederic and Lady Emily Ponsonby ; and here was 
Lady Georgiana Wolff confined of her first child, which died 
afterwards in Cyprus, ten months old. 

After remaining some months at Malta, Wolff proceeded 
alone, in the frigate " Isis," commanded by Sir Thomas 
Staines (who had his wife on board, because he had only one 
arm, and her presence was allowed as a favour), for Smyrna. 
On the passage, one day, Wolff was sitting at dinner in the 
Captain s cabin, with Lieutenants Sainthill and Gamier, when 
Lieutenant Sainthill sniffed with his nose, and exclaimed, 

of Dr. Wolff. 247 

" There is fire on board !" Wolff immediately sprang on 
deck, and shouted out, " Sailors, down, all of you, into the 
cabin ; fire is on board !" The sailors stood as quiet as mice, 
and asked, " What does he say?" Wolff shouted again, 
" Down, down into the cabin ; there is fire on board !" And, 
actually, one of them was induced to obey the order, for doing 
which, he narrowly escaped a flogging. Presently, Lieutenant 
Sainthill came on deck, and said, " Do not be frightened, 
Wolff; the fire is out." The whole affair was simply this : 
There was a chaplain on board, by name Salvin, a most excel 
lent man, but very absent ; and, in a fit of absence, the poor 
fellow forgot to put out a candle, which he had had in his 
cabin, while he sat reading a book ; and so a curtain took fire, 
which was immediately extinguished, but it nevertheless left a 
smell of burning. 

The officers made great fun of Wolff after this occurrence ; 
and Sir Thomas Staines told him, that passengers were never 
allowed to make an alarm. He added, " I see you have hurt 
your nose; you fell upon it as you hurried up on deck;" 
which was true enough. A full history of this was written to 
Malta for the general amusement. 

Wolff reached Smyrna in December, 1827, just a few weeks 
after the battle of Navarin. On coming into the harbour, they 
found it full of English ships of war, and also French and 
Russian vessels, which had been in the battle of Navarin ; 
and they had all their admirals and captains on board. Among 
them were also the three ambassadors English, French, and 
Dutch. Sir Stratford Canning came on board the " Isis," and 
was not a little surprised to see Joseph Wolff among the pas 
sengers. Wolff s friend, the Reverend Mr. Leeves, Agent- 
General of the British and Foreign Bible Society, came to 
him, and said, " Now, Wolff, pray do not make a noise in this 
country ; if you do, you will be cut to pieces by the Turks." 
He told him of the rage of the Sultan Mahmood, when he 
heard that his fleet had been destroyed at Navarin ; for, in his 
first fury, he had given orders to kill all " the infidel ambas 
sadors." This, however, his privy-council prevented him from 
doing ; and the great Sir Stratford Canning sent the Sultan 
word, " That if he intended to do any such thing, he had best, 
first of all, build himself a castle in the air to take refuge in!" 

Wolff remained only a few days in Smyrna, and then 
(January, 1828) sailed" for Egina, near Athens, in the "Cam 
brian" frigate, commanded by Captain Rohan Hamilton, which 
frigate was afterwards wrecked at Carabusa. 

Athens was at that time in the hands of the Turks, and 

248 Travels and Adventures 

besieged by the Greeks. Egina was filled with English, 
French, Italians, and Poles. Among the English were there, 
Captain Felix and Lord Prudhoe. Wolff circulated the New 
Testament and Tracts amongst the Greeks, and wrote a letter 
to the Government of Greece, desiring them to extend that 
liberty, which they themselves now enjoyed, to the Jews, and 
not persecute them. This letter attracted the attention of 
every member of the Government, so that Prince Mawrocor- 
dato, and Monsieur Tricoupi, now Ambassador in London, 
called upon Wolff, and conversed with him on the subject of 
his mission. Wolff had cause to admire the high talents of 
both these gentlemen. Tricoupi was a protege of Lord Guild- 
ford, and had had his education in the college at Corfu. 
Either Prince Mawrocordato or Tricoupi ought to be made 
Emperor of the Turkish Empire by the European Powers, 
and thus ascend the throne of Constantinople ; whilst Abdul- 
Medjid, the drunken civilizer of Turkey the sick man 
ought to be made comfortable. 

Those in England, who consider the Greek priesthood as a 
set of ignorant and superstitious people, ought to be in 
formed that many of them have had their education, not 
only under their great countryman Korais, who resided at 
Paris, and who is celebrated as philosopher, historian, and 
grammarian but also have studied in the Universities of 
Gottingen and Heidelberg. 

So hospitably was Wolff received that he had not to spend 
a single farthing either in coffee-houses or hotels in Egina ; 
and he never experienced one single slight from any of the 
Greeks for his having been born of Jewish parents ; and he 
is convinced that the Greeks are capable of the highest moral 
and scientific cultivation, so that he hopes that a Greek will 
one day reascend the throne of Byzantium ; and that the indo 
lent, heavy, cruel, and barbarous Turk, filled with all possible 
immorality, will be expelled from Europe. For neither the 
Khat-Sherif of the drunken Sultan, Abdul-Medjid, nor the 
concourse of Italian Carbonari, and French Jacobins, nor 
English Socialists, will ever be able to bring life into the 
cadaverous body of the Turk. Muhammadanism has been 
established by the sword, and Muhammadanism must perish 
by the sword. Christianity, in its most deformed condition, 
is better than Muhammadanism in its most enlightened state. 
Enough of them ! One thing must, however, be observed. 
Justice must be done even to the Turks. Wolff never received 
one single insult from them any more than from the Greeks. 

of Dr. Wolff. 249 

or from any other nation of the East, for his having once 
been of the Jewish persuasion. 

Wolff left Egina and went to Syra in a boat. It was a 
remarkable place. The Greeks below in the valley belonged 
to the old Othodox Greek Church, and those on the heights of 
Syra to the Obedience of Rome. Syra was filled with Phil- 
hellenists, of all nations. With some of them Wolff was 
rather agreeably disappointed. As, for instance, with the 
Germans Goss and Koring. From Syra Wolff sailed to Milo, 
in an old Greek merchant vessel. At Milo he was kindly 
received by the English agent, who was a Greek. In his house 
he met with Peckham Miller, an American Philhellenist, who 
had under his care a Greek boy, seven years of age, whose 
father had been killed by the Turks. With him he sailed 
towards Cephalonia. Not far from Navarin, the ship was 
pursued by Greek pirates ; but they escaped these pursuers, 
and Wolff and his companions arrived safely in the harbour 
of Navarin, where he saw the wrecks of the ships which had 
been destroyed in the great battle ; and the Turks, being still 
enraged, fired at the ship in which Wolff was. 


Sir Charles Napier ; Ionian Islands ; Beyrout ; Cyprus ; De 
tained by Illness at Cairo , Address from Bishops of Cyprus; 
The Desert ; Exorcises an Evil Spirit ; Holy Land ; Jeru 
salem Again ; Is poisoned ; Dr. Stormont ; Jaffa. 

THEY sailed away from Navarin, and, passing on towards 
Cephalonia, the ship was dashed to pieces on rocks j but 
Wolff, his companions, and the crew, saved themselves in a 
boat ; and thus arrived in a most destitute state in the har 
bour of Cephalonia, where, soon after their arrival, the greatest 
man, whom not only England, but all nations have for cen 
turies had a man whose fame resounds from England to 
Bokhara, and to the walls of China made his appearance on 
the shore, with convulsive eyes and shoulders, with fire- 
flashing glances, and a pleasant countenance. This man was 
at that time Colonel Charles James Napier, afterwards General 
Sir Charles James Napier. Thus, again, a British officer 

250 Travels and Adventures 

appeared at a time when Joseph Wolff was in the greatest 

The first thing that extraordinary man said, was, " I know 
your sister-in-law, Lady Catherine Long, very well. She is 
one of the prettiest women I ever saw/ This was spoken to 
Wolff through the Parlatorio, as it is called, i. e., the iron 
grating of the Lazzaretto, in which all new-comers are placed 
before being allowed to go on shore. He then added, " Now, 
Wolff, I know you, too, very well. I know that you are 
going about preaching that the world is to come to an end in 
the year 1845. It serves them right !" 

Napier made a mistake here. It was not 1845 which Wolff 
had imagined to be the date of a great change, but 1847 ; and 
what he had imagined, was not the destruction of the world, 
but its renovation, and the restoration of the Jews, at the 
coming of the Messiah in glory. 

But here, let it be observed, that Wolff has long ago given 
up attempting to fix a date for the accomplishment of unful 
filled prophecies ; and these are his reasons for doing so : 

First, he has a difficulty in fixing the time from which to 
date. Secondly, he has entirely given up considering the 1260 
days as so many years, but believes them to be literal days. 
Thirdly, the Antichrist is not yet come. And, as long as 
Antichrist, or the Man of Sin, is not yet come, the words of 
our Lord, in the first of the Acts, are still in their full force, 
i.e., " Of the times and seasons knoweth no man." And Wolff 
deeply regrets that he ever fell into the errors here alluded to. 

Sir Charles Napier continued to joke Wolff about his pro 
phecies up to the last, as will be seen from the following letter, 
written in the year 1852 : 

" Oaklands, 6th October, 1852. 

" MY DEAR WOLFF Your friend, the lady who wishes for 
my Autograph, does me great honour, and I am very much 
flattered thereby. I write this on purpose that you may give 
it to her, for which reason, I will not say a word about your 
prophetic inspirations, or your theology ! but only what I 
know to be true, and that is, that you are an honest good 
fellow, and one that I believe has worked harder for religion, 
and gone through more dangers for it, with a brave heart, than 
any man living ; and if you do not now stay at home quietly 
with your wife, I shall really begin to believe that you are 
crazy ! 

" I met your son in London, and a very nice young man he 
seems to be. With respects to Lady Georgiana Wolff, 

" I remain, yours faithfully, C. NAPIER." 

of Dr. Wolff. 251 

Sir Charles Napier went on to say, " Now, Wolff, you are 
not allowed to land ; but I and my friend Kennedy, and 
Doctor Muir, will often come to see you. I shall send you 
victuals from shore, and you can do just what you like. You 
must remain here twenty-six days, for we don^t wish to catch 
the plague ; though it is all a humbug. But we must submit 
to humbug. I shall come to-morrow, with the Jews and 
Greeks, to whom you may preach. You may tell them that 
there is no difference between Jew and Greek, for they are 
both rogues alike !" Sir Charles was, nevertheless, a great 
lover and friend of the Greeks. 

Next day, he actually came with a great crowd of both Jews 
and Greeks, and said, " Now ! here I am come to stand by 

you. If you cannot convert them, they shall get a d d 

licking!" Wolff reproved Napier for swearing, to which he 
answered, " I deserve the reproof, for I swear like a trooper." 

After Wolff had been for some days in that horrible Laz- 
zaretto, he wrote to Sir Charles Napier a long letter, assigning 
six reasons, which ought to induce Sir Charles to let him out 
sooner than the twenty-sixth day. 

Sir Charles answered this letter as follows : 

" You gave me six reasons for letting you out ; I will give 
you seven reasons for keeping you in. One of the reasons is, 
That if I let you out sooner, the Lord High Commissioner 
of the Ionian Islands would cut off my head." 

However, in spite of that, he gave Wolff six days * grace, and 
took him into his house ; and Wolff maintains, that he never 
in his life saw a more affectionate father, and tender husband, 
or a man who set a better example by having daily family 
prayers in his home ; and on Sunday, Wolff held Divine ser 
vice, and preached there. For Sir Charles assembled in his 
house all the Jews ; and to those who knew how to read, he 
gave the Bible. One of the Jews wanted a Bible. Sir Charles 
Napier immediately asked, " Do you know how to read?" The 
Jew said, " Yes." Sir Charles Napier then said, " Read," 
and put a Bible into his hand. But the man did not know 
how to read, on which Sir Charles Napier exclaimed, " I have 
a good mind to give you a d d licking ! the soundest lick 
ing you ever got." 

Sir Charles Napier told Wolff the following story of Lord 
Byron, who resided for some time in Cephalonia, and often 
dined with Dr. Kennedy at his house. Kennedy was a doctor, 
with whom Lord Byron had frequent conversations on reli 

Sir Charles Napier asked Lord Byron, " What is the reason 

252 Travels and Adventures 

why you are always talking with Kennedy about religion? 1 
Byron said, " To tell you the truth ; in order to make a 
Methodist of Don Juan in the second part !" Sir Charles 
Napier told him frankly, " he would not allow him to make a 
fool of any person whom he met at his house, and therefore 
that he should tell Kennedy." And this he actually did do ; 
but Kennedy said, "he did not mind it, he should converse 
with Lord Byron whenever he had the opportunity." And so 
Kennedy did, and it will be seen by the Life of Byron, pub 
lished by Kennedy, that the poor man, after all, believed that 
he had converted Lord Byron. 

Sir Charles Napier thus alluded to this circumstance in 
writing to Wolff. " My dear Prophet (I mean False Prophet, 
who tried to kill the world before its hour), your name is great, 
and rings through the world. McMurdo is a valiant man, 
he slew seven men in single combat ; three at Meeanee, three 
at Hydrabad, where one of them wounded him, and one in the 
Bogtee Hills. The Kennedy who published his conversations 
with Lord Byron, was both a doctor and a, fool ; he afterwards 
died in the West Indies. He was an amiable, weak creature : 
weak in mind and weak in body ; so much so, that it was sup 
posed that his very handsome wife sustained no loss at his 
death. She has since married a Captain Kennedy of the navy, 
and was a very charming woman. Why she ever married the 
poor man no one could tell. I believe she published the Con 
versations/ &c. I have not seen them, but they must be 
foolish, because I was there, and know that Lord Byron was 
getting out of Dr. Kennedy all sorts of cant and nonsense, on 
purpose to convert Don Juan in the next canto into a Metho 
dist. So he collected all the expressions he could, and told me 
one day, I will make Don Juan a Methodist, next canto/ I 
warned poor Kennedy that the poet was laughing at him; but 
the doctor s inordinate vanity would not believe a word of it ; 
and he was quite sure he had converted Lord Byron, though 
the latter made him the laughing-stock of Argostoli ! In short, 
Kennedy s consummate vanity was past endurance. 

" I am glad that your lectures are well attended they are 
very interesting. Lady Napier desires her kind regards. 

" Yours ever, C. NAPIER." 

" What made you think it was my Kennedy that tried to 
convert Lord Byron ? He tries to convert no one, but con 
verts every one to an unbounded admiration of his own great 

Sir Charles Napier gave an excellent hint to Wolff, although 
it was one on which Wolff had already acted, before hearing it 

of Dr. Wolff. 253 

from him. He said, " Wolff, do not attack the superstition of 
the Greeks, or of any one. For to begin, what harm is there 
in a Greek believing that St. Spiridion* performs miracles ? 
The Apostles performed miracles too." 

Here Dr. Wolff makes the following remark : U I challenge 
every one to show one single passage in the New Testament, 
ordering men to preach against superstition. Twice supersti 
tion is mentioned ; and twice not only not censured, but men 
tioned in a favourable manner." Acts xvii. 22 : " Then 
Paul stood in the midst of Mars 1 hill, and said, Ye men of 
Athens, I perceive that in all things ye are too superstitious. 
For as I passed by, and beheld your devotions, I found an 
altar with this inscription, TO THE UNKNOWN GOD. Whom 
therefore ye ignorantly worship, Him declare I unto you." 
Here St. Paul praises them for the very excess of their faith. 
There is another passage in Acts xxv. 19. Festus writes to 
Felix about Paul. " Therefore, when they were come hither, 
without any delay on the morrow I sat on the judgment seat, 
and commanded the man to be brought forth. Against whom 
when the accusers stood up, they brought none accusation of 
such things as I supposed : but had certain questions against 
him of their own superstition, and of one Jesus, which was 
dead, whom Paul affirmed to be alive, 1 &c., &c. 

Besides this, Dr. Wolf says, our Lord never attacks the 
Jews on account of their superstition, but on account of their 
unbelief infidelity being the great sin of the world. And he 
adds, " I can never believe any religion to be true, which can 
be entirely fathomed by, and made consistent with human 
philosophy ; because there are necessarily many things in hea 
ven and earth which our philosophy does not dream of." 

Wolff was about to go to Corfu in a little Greek boat, but 
Peckham Miller said, " We had better wait here till a steamer 
comes." Wolff said, " Who knows when it will come f So 
he induced Miller to go in the little boat, but scarcely had the 
boat taken up the anchor, before the steamer came in sight, 
and then Wolff insisted on going in the steamer. Miller was 
angry, but at last complied. So they arrived in a few hours, 
on board the steamer, in Corfu ; where Wolff took up his abode 
with the Rev. Isaac Lowndes, missionary to the London Mis 
sionary Society. 

To be short, Count Teotoki, President of the Republic of 
the Ionian Islands, called on Wolff, and asked him how he 
could be of use to him in his mission. Wolft said, by giving 

* The Patron Saint of Corfu. 

254 Travels and Adventures 

him the opportunity of delivering a public lecture in the Col 
lege of Lord Guildford ; and also by allowing him to preach in 
the open street to the Greeks, on the personal reign of Jesus 
Christ upon earth. Count Teotoki laid the request before the 
Senate ; the whole was approved by them, and the Lord High 
Commissioner, Sir Frederic Adams, and Sir Alexander Wood- 
ford, Commander-in-Chief, confirmed it ; and thus Wolff lec 
tured, amidst the applause of all the lively interesting Greek 
students, in the College ; and also to thousands in the open 
street. Count Teotoki was present, and asked him afterwards 
to dinner, when he said, " I like men of energetic pursuits. 
Wolff was delighted to hear lately that even now there are 
most respectable Greeks in Corfu who remember Joseph Wolff ; 
and he met Tonians both at Liverpool and Leicester, who ex 
pressed to him their great wish that he would come again to 
Corfu and Zante, and deliver lectures as before. 

After Wolff had remained there for about a fortnight, he 
sailed in an American merchant vessel, commanded by Captain 
Allen, for Malta. But, on hearing that his wife, according to 
arrangement, had preceded him to Alexandria, he followed her 
thither in the ship " Glasgow," commanded by Sir Ashley 
Maud. Lady Georgiana Wolff had taken up her abode in the 
house of a Wesley an missionary ; but after Wolff s arrival, 
they both went to reside in the house of the hospitable Robert 
Todd, a merchant there. 

Wolff remained at Alexandria till the 17th of May, 1828, 
and then embarked, with his wife and little daughter, for Bey- 
rout, where the plague was raging. Here, to their great relief, 
they found an English brig of war, the " Zebra,"" commanded 
by Captain Popham, who kindly sent a boat to take them on 
board. They asked alongside for news, but there was none to 
tell, except the wreck of the " Parthian" brig of war, near 
Alexandria, which, having happened the day before Wolff left 
that place, was a little stale; and there was on board the 
44 Zebra" a Mr. Borrows, from Norfolk. He had come out 
with Captain Hoste to Malta, and had since been cruising 
with Captain Popham, but was too much afraid of the plague 
to land anywhere. So, doubtless, he returned back to Norfolk, 
to tell the natives that he had seen the coast of Syria, and to 
be thought a wonderful traveller, and a most adventurous per 
son. He expressed a great wish to see the women of this 
country, who wear horns, as do also the women of Mount Le 
banon, which illustrates the words of Deborah, " My horn is 
exalted." The horn thus worn is of silver. 

Wolff and Lady Georgiana dined on board the " Zebra," 

of Dr. Wolff. 255 

and were fetched on shore by a boat, being landed about two 
miles from the town, to avoid landing among a number of 
people. On arriving at the gate, it was closed, the day being 
Friday (the Muhammadan Sabbath), and it being then the 
hour of prayer. Wolff, therefore, sat down with his family 
under a tree, at a little distance from the gate, and waited ; 
after which, they walked, one by one, through the gate, and 
along the street, endeavouring thus to avoid touching any per 
son, or any article of apparel ; and in this way they came to a 
house prepared for them. 

Several old acquaintances of Wolff called upon him at Bey- 
rout : and he applied to the Pasha of Acre, the ancient Ptole- 
mais, for permission to proceed to Jerusalem, but he received 
no answer. Meantime, Assad Yakoob Khayatt, a tailor, 
took refuge in Wolff s house, in order to conceal himself from 
the Turks. The same Assad Yakoob Khayatt came after 
wards to England, and is now British Vice Consul. It is to 
be observed that the word Khayatt means " tailor." The Jews 
at this place did all in their power to assist Wolff to get to 
Jerusalem, but it was in vain. And, finally, Wolff left Bey- 
rout, with his family, and went to Cyprus, where the Greeks 
received him in a sort of triumph, as they at once recognized 
in him the benefactor of so many Greeks whom he had saved, 
and the person who had sent several boys to England. 

He spent some time at Cyprus, with his wife, in a monas 
tery, called Santa Barbara, as the air there was better than in 
Larnaca, on the coast. In that monastery, however, Wolff 
had an attack of Cyprus fever, but was cured. Thence they 
proceeded to Limasol, on the coast, and there Wolff s child 
died ; and Lady Georgiana became dangerously ill. Wolff 
sent from thence another Greek boy, Paul Pierides by name, 
to England, for education, to Lady Carnegie, who sent him to 
Scotland, where he studied for the medical profession. After 
this, Lady Georgiana being recovered, Wolff and she left 
Cyprus in a miserable Austrian vessel, and came to Damiat, 
in Egypt, where they resided in the house of the British Con 
sul, Signor Surur by name, an old friend of Wolff. 

Wolff was taken violently ill at this place with dysentery, 
yet they went on to Cairo. There they stayed with the mis 
sionaries of the Church Missionary Society, Messrs. Kruso 
and Lieder. Wolffs illness continuing to be very serious, 
Lord Prudhoe and Colonel Felix daily called upon him. They 
treated Wolff like a brother, and helped to nurse him in his 
illness, which was a great relief to his anxious wife. And he 
recommended her, who was so dear to his heart, in case of his 

256 Travels and Adventures 

death, to their care. After a time, Wolff was restored to 
health ; and, while at Cairo, he baptized a Jew ; and his dear 
companion bought little tarboushes, or red caps, for the pupils 
of Messrs. Kruse and Lieder. 

Jews from Jerusalem, hearing that Wolff was at Cairo, 
called on him, and reminded him of the arguments he had 
used with them in Jerusalem ; and they were surprised when 
Wolff showed to them those same arguments printed in the 
" Jewish Expositor." It gratified them very much. One 
day, a black lady, married to a French physician, Dussap by 
name, called on Wolff and his family, together with her hus 
band. She spoke very affectingly about Christ. Mr. Gobat, 
a missionary, had baptized her. She was beyond all doubt 
the handsomest black woman Wolff ever saw. 

Wolff preached in Italian at Cairo to a great number of 
Italian infidels. One of them, a Jew, said, "I am a mathe 
matician. I want you to prove the truth of Christianity in a 
mathematical manner." Lady Georgiana here asked him, 
"Do you eat?" He said, "Yes." She asked, "Why!" 
He answered, "Because I am hungry." " Then," said she, 
"prove it mathematically." To which the man gave no 

One day, a man came in and asked Mr. Kruse, in an abrupt 
manner, if he understood Hebrew, as he spoke that language 
himself? Mr. Kruse did not understand him, but sent for 
Wolff, to whom the man said " I am a Jew." Wolff said, 
u You are no longer a Jew. You are a renegade from the 
faith of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and have run after vanity 
after a false prophet." The man, Sooliman by name, ac 
knowledged this, and was surprised at Wolff s knowledge of 
physiognomy. Wolff afterwards raised his hands, and prayed 
in Hebrew, that this poor man might turn to the true God, 
and Jesus Christ his Son. The man seemed much touched, 
and thanked him when he had finished the prayer. While 
they were still sitting together, two other Jews came in, who 
were old acquaintances of Wolff, and kissed him in the oriental 
fashion. They bore witness to the truth of the renegade s 
statement, that he had been forced to become a Mussulman. 
These two young men were very much impressed by what they 
knew of the Gospel. 

Wolff received from Cyprus a letter from the Council of the 
Bishops of Cyprus, which they had written before his depar 
ture from thence, and which had been sent after him. 

This letter was as follows : 

of Dr. Wolf. 257 

" For a long time informed by feme of thy knowledge, thy 
fame, and thy virtues, we have admired thee ; and, above all, 
on account of the travels them hast generously undertaken for 
the purpose of propagating religion among the human race ; 
but, by condescending to make us personally know thee, we 
have perceived with certainty how much our admiration has 
been inferior to thy merits, and how much more we ought to 
admire thee, since we have known better, what a great friend 
of science and of the Greeks thou art, and how great are thy 
exertions in the great and good work of the refinement and 
civilization of mankind. Trusting in this thy great love for 
science, and especially in thy sentiments, we appear before 
thee, with the present humble petition, and present to thee, on 
the part of all our countrymen, the due respect they feel 
towards thy venerable person, and pray thee warmly that thou 
establish in our island a Gymnasium of Greek Literature. 

u Thou hast, best Wolff, all the means required, as we 
perceive by the schools established in different cities. Thou 
hast likewise a voluntary assistant in that most honourable 
friend of the Muses thy most noble and respectable wife. 

"Alas ! how does it break one s heart to see the sons of this 
unhappy country remaining deprived (for want of instructors) 
of education and doctrine ! But it is not unknown to thee 
that great enterprises, for general utility, require great expense 
in order to be brought into execution ; and that this surpasses 
our strength it is superfluous to say to a man from whose 
penetrating eye the nature of our situation cannot be hid. 
Blessed be the name of the Most High God, that from the 
height of his glory He turned his eye towards our misery, and 
sent us a man capable of curing our greatest infirmity ! 

" Incomparable will be, esteemed Wolff, the advantages 
which shall result from such an establishment for the general 
use, nor must thou in the least doubt that for this, thy great 
and pious work, the whole island of Cyprus shall honour thee, 
by erecting monuments for eternal commemoration of thy 
name, and the instructed youth shall boast themselves of thee, 
and the whole of Europe shall boast itself of its great man, 
and they shall show their gratitude towards thee by lifting up 
their supplicating hands to heaven for thy health and happi 
ness, and for that of thy most worthy consort, and shall lift 
up their voices to the glory of thy benevolence. Besides this, 
the joy that every good heart shall experience, by seeing thy 
exertions adorned with science and virtue, cannot be described. 
" Wo propose as professor of the Greek language and sciences 


258 Travels and Adventurs 

thy good friend Themistocles, whose knowledge and ardent 
zeal for the civilization of his native country are generally ac 
knowledged. But another professor, for other languages, is 
necessary. We are in possession of a building suitable for a col 
lege, in a most beautiful situation. This we offer gratuitously, 
and dedicate it to the Muses, in order that thy name may be 
blessed by future generations. 

" But, Wolff, the Lord preserve thee to the glory of thy 
nation, and the utility of ours. We remain, as we sign our 
selves, your sincere friends, 

" PANARITOS, Archbishop of Cyprus. 
" KARITOS, Metropolite of Paphos. 
" LEONTIUS, Metropolite of Citi. 
" KARALAMBUS, Metropolite of Cirene. 

" Dated, Nicosia, July 10th, 1828." 

At last, Wolff set out for Jerusalem. They were accom 
panied out of the gate of Cairo by all the Missionaries, and by 
Mr. Bolt, an English gentleman, who was studying Arabic 
there. When they had got outside the gate, which was called 
Baab Nasir, a Jew, named Isaac, from Jerusalem, came to say 
" Good bye " to Wolff. After this, the camels arrived 1 and 
Wolff prayed for a blessing on the journey. All were much 
affected, and at last they took leave, and then crept into the 
vehicle, which was in the form of a basket, and was tied on 
the camel s back. This kind of " basket/ 1 which is called 
" Shibbria," is something like two arm-chairs, without legs, 
tied together in front. These seats hang one on each side of 
the camel s back, and the passenger is obliged to sit sideways. 

This curious machine might properly be called a "Noddy," 
for the motion is so short that, unless one places one s back 
stiff against the end, one goes nodding every moment in the 
most ludicrous, as well as fatiguing, manner that can be 
imagined. After the two persons on each side have crept into 
this vehicle, the camel rises, whilst the conductor warns you 
to hold fast. The beast rises first on his knees, which throws 
you backwards ; then on his hind legs, which throws you for 
wards ; then on his fore feet, when you are even ; and then 
you go on, and commence nodding. 

This " ship of the desert " has an extra joint in his legs, 
below the shoulders and haunches, which enables him, after 
kneeling down, to fold his legs together, so that he lies as close 
to the ground as a hen on her eggs ; and truly, with their 
beak-like noses and long necks, camels are not unlike large 
birds sitting. Their docility is wonderful ; and if they are 

of Dr. Wolff. 259 

displeased, they express it only by a deep grumbling sound, 
which, when strong, resembles the gurgling of water in their 
throats. Their pace is about three miles an hour. 

In this manner they proceeded for about twelve miles, and 
then were surprised by hearing the sound of a band of Euro 
pean music, coming from a fortress called Khankah, in the 
midst of the desert ; the players being Egyptian Arabs, who 
had been trained by European soldiers. 

Of the Desert itself it is impossible to give a true descrip 
tion, it is so very extraordinary ; being nothing but sand of 
different colours. The bottom of the sea must be very like 
it : sometimes the sand is ribbed like the sea-sand ; sometimes 
it is all little stones ; in some places there are a great many 
little stunted stumps of fir trees. Wolff s servant, who 
walked by him when he rode on the donkey (Wolff had 
brought a very fine donkey from Cairo), picked up a large 
piece of stone, which he told him, it was said, had been wood: 
and it had all the appearance of wood. He also picked a very 
curious flower, the petals of which shone almost like silver. 
The name of it was not known, and the travellers had no 
means of preserving it ... In the spot where their tent was 
pitched, there was a great quantity of shells like sea snails. 

On the ninth day of this journey, Lady Georgiana tried 
dromedary riding, which she much preferred to the camel. 
She described it as only requiring the use of stirrups, to make 
it exceedingly comfortable ; and, on the evening of this day, 
after a journey of six hours, the tents were pitched in the 
Desert, not far from Gaza. 

They went to bed early, but were not destined to have 
much rest. Some time after they had retired, they heard a 
most unnatural, almost unearthly, sound of laughter, mixed 
with fits of crying. They called out to know what it was, and 
Ahmad, their servant, told them it proceeded from one of the 
Bedouin Arabs, who was called Haj-Ali, i. e., a Pilgrim Ali, 
for he had been in Mecca, and who was possessed with a devil. 
This dreadful misfortune some people have imagined to be 
only lunacy, but it is far otherwise. After listening a few 
minutes longer, Wolff called out with a loud voice in Arabic, 
" In the name of Jesus be silent ! " And immediately all 
was hushed. About twenty minutes after, the man began to 
talk wildly, and the dreadful gibbering began again. Wolff 
again in the same manner called out, so that all the Arabs 
heard him, and again the fiend was silenced, and soon after, 
they all went to sleep. 

In the morning, the Greek servants told Wolff, that the 

s 2 

260 Travels and Adventures 

possessed man had said many wonderful things. Among 
others, when Wolff spoke, he asked, "Who was there? 1 
They answered, " No one." To which he replied, " There 
was ; I saw him, but he is gone." And when he became 
wild again he exclaimed, " Elias is here ! " and on Cavass 
(the Turkish soldier who travelled with them) saying some 
thing about Muhammad, Haj-Ali said he was a pig, (a com 
mon term of contempt among the Arabs). 

The poor man wanted Wolff to give him a paper against 
the spirit ; meaning probably a charm ; but Wolff prayed in 
Arabic to the Lord to deliver him from his plague, and told 
him to pray to Jesus Christ, and then he need not fear the 
devil, giving him a New Testament at the same time. 

Two days afterwards, Haj-Ali had another attack, which 
Wolff subdued in the same manner, one loud cry issuing from 
the man s mouth before he was still again. And afterwards 
he told Wolff that he knew that the devil came, because he 
smelt the incense in the charcoal pan it being the custom, in 
using charcoal, to throw a species of incense, compounded of 
some gum, upon it, in order to do away with its deleterious 
effects. This is an old belief, and magicians always burn 
some perfume to raise a spirit. 

The Bedouins are very frequently profane to a degree that 
is not to be imagined ; and every word they say is corrobo 
rated by an oath, even their very lies, and these they tell 
without the least hesitation. Their conversation consists 
either in jokes about women, or in talking about money ; fulus, 
the Arabic for money, being sometimes repeated a hundred 
times in a quarter of an hour. 

Proceeding onward, Wolff and his party soon reached a 
beautiful little town, surrounded by fig trees and vineyards, 
and inhabited by Muhammadans and Greeks. These were 
walking about in the streets, with their long pipes in their 
mouths ; and the principal Greek came and brought Wolff, 
his family and servants, to the caravanserai, where the ser 
vants made coffee for them. It was the little town called 
Gaza, from whence Samson carried away the gates, and where 
naughty Delilah deceived him ; for that wicked woman worried 
his life out, until he had told her the secret of his strength ; 
but he paid her off afterwards, and 3000 of her countrymen 
as well. Poor Samson ought to have had a little more of the 
resolution and spirit of General Haynau, and have given her a 
good sound horsewhipping. 

From Gaza they proceeded to Ramlah, where Joseph of 
Arimathea was born. Here they stopped in an Armenian 

of Dr. Wolff. 261 

monastery for one night, and went to the camp of the great 
robber, Aboo-Goosh, who gave them coffee, for which they 
paid him some small gold pieces. Then they proceeded on 
ward, and thus Wolff arrived, for the third time, in Je 

Wolff had no cause this time to be satisfied with the 
general conduct of the Jews towards him. When he was 
there, both the first and second times, Rabbi Mendel was 
alive, and so was Solomon Sapira, the rival of Rabbi Mendel, 
and also the crafty old fox, Rabbi Joseph Markowitz. But 
now all these were gone, and a new generation had risen, 
though only five years had elapsed. Many of these u did 
not know Joseph" (Wolff), who had assisted the Jews 
formerly, when they were in trouble ; and those who did know 
him were well off, and had received money from the Jews in 
England ; and were, at the same time, warned by Rabbi Sol 
omon Hirshel against Wolff; and, in their conduct, they 
verified the \vords of Moses "Jeshurun waxed fat and 

Wolff could not help feeling very deeply grieved when 
those very Jews whom he had once clothed and fed, when 
they were naked and almost starving, and for whom he had 
paid rent, and thus redeemed them from prison, would now 
pass him by unnoticed as they came out of the synagogue, or 
look at him with a fierce eye, and without speaking. He was 
only acknowledged by two persons out of all his old acquaint- 
ances. The one was Rabbi Mendel s widow, who came to call 
on him ; and who, though four years had passed since her 
husband died, was still in deep sorrow, swinging her head 
slowly backwards and forwards, as she sat, after the custom of 
the Jews. The other was a son of Rabbi Mendel, whom he 
met in the street, and thus addressed, "Why do you not 
come to me, for I loved your father?" He calmly replied, 
" My dear Sir, my father was a learned man, well versed in 
the law. He knew how to ask questions, and give answers. 
But I am a young man, and all I can do is, to pray that the 
Lord may have mercy upon Zion, and build up the walls of 
Jerusalem." However, Sir Moses Montefiore himself, although 
a strict Jew and burning with love for the Jews, has met with 
ingratitude from his nation. 

There is no doubt that, during this third visit to Jerusalem, 
Wolff was poisoned by some ill-disposed enemy. He had a 
suspicion by whom it was done, but was unwilling to investigate 
further ; and, therefore, when the governor inquired as to 
whether he knew the offender, he said nothing. And who was 

262 Travels and Adventures 

it saved his life on this occasion? Whilst Wolff passes over 
in silence the name of the man who perpetrated the deed, he 
mentions with pleasure the name of him who was the means 
of curing- him. 

This poisoning took place in a coffee-house, into which Wolff 
had gone and called for coffee. It was brought, and he drank 
it ; and almost immediately after he was seized with con 
vulsions all over his body, accompanied by sickness and 
vomiting, and twitchings of the arms and legs. A Greek 
outside, seeing his distress, offered his assistance, and helped 
him home ; and, on his arrival, Lady Georgiana, at his par 
ticular request, sent for the Roman Catholic physician. He 
came, and his name was Fra Francesco, of the Terra Santa 
monastery, and he was sent by order of the Riverendissimo. 
Fra Francesco first gave him milk, and then other remedies ; 
and, after an illness of three weeks, he recovered, so far as to 
be able to go about ; but he felt the effects of the poison for a 
year afterwards. 

Another very curious incident happened during Wolffs stay 
in Jerusalem. Dr. Stormont, a naval surgeon, came to 
Jerusalem, and lived in the Latin monastery. He used to be 
dressed in a green beueesh, and wore a white turban upon his 
head, and European boots on his feet. He was a tall man, 
about fifty years of age, very miserly in his habits, and was 
averse to spending money upon a guide. Wolff had no time 
to walk out with him, and it was the season of Ramadan, when 
all the Muhammadans fast and sleep during the day. Wolff 
warned Dr. Stormont, on no account, to enter the Temple of 
Omar, for the punishment was death to any intruder. He 
replied, " I have no great faith in your account of the bigotry 
of these Muhammadans," and then they parted. After two 
hours he came to the Greek monastery, where Wolff was, to 
have dinner with him ; and Wolff asked, " Where have you 
been?" He replied, "There, in the place of your bigoted 
Muhammadans, the Temple of Omar." Wolff said, " I now 
advise you to leave Jerusalem as fast as you can." He- 
replied, " Fiddle-de-dee ! " On the next day, when he canto 
again to dinner, Wolff asked him, " Where have you been?" 11 
He again said, " To the Temple of Omar. 11 Then Wolff 
repeated, u Stormont, Stormont, you had better leave Jeru 
salem at once." Stormont s only answer was, " First give up 
your prejudice as to the bigotry of Muhammadans/ 1 Wolff 
again repeated, " Stormont, Stormont, go off without delay *" 
" Fiddle-de-dee ! " was the Doctor s contemptuous rejoinder. 

The next clav this foolish fellow went once more to the- 

of Dr. Wolff. 263 

Temple, and did not return as usual to his friend. He got 
out safely, it is true, although he had ventured to write his 
name upon the wall, and had proceeded to offer even further 
indignities ; but this insult got wind ; the whole town became 
excited ; and the situation of Stormont was immediately most 
critical and perilous. All the people exclaimed, and. the 
whole town resounded, " Oommat Muhammud Nasaara da- 
khaloon al hykal /" (People of Muhammad ! Christians have 
entered the Sanctuary !) They seized upon Stormont, tore off 
his beneesh, struck the turban from his head, stripped him 
naked, and then thrust him into a cow s stable, where they 
gave him nothing to eat; and where he continually cried out, 
"Wolff, Wolff, Wolff! 1 

Christians came and told Wolff in what danger his friend 
Stormont was placed, and that the people insisted upon his 
becoming a Muhammadan. Upon this Wolff ran to the Latin 
monastery, to ask for help ; and they told him that they would 
assist him, but that it must be done with caution, and Wolff 
himself wrote as follows to the Cadi : 

" Recollect that this gentleman is of high respectability, 
and belongs to the ships of war which are now cruising about, 
near Jaffa ; and, if you dare to touch him, troops will be sent 
to Jerusalem."" 

Wolff sent this letter, and then called upon the Cadi to 
remonstrate. Stormont was brought out from the cow-house, 
and the beneesh and turban he had worn were lying before the 
Cadi, who said to him, " Why did you enter the Temple of 
Omar?" Stormont replied, "I want my clothes." The 
Cadi, who did not understand the answer, asked Wolff, 
"What does he say?" Wolff told him Stormont s words, 
when he said, "Tell him to answer my question/ Wolff 
said to Stormont, u The Cadi wants to know why you went 
to the Temple and committed such excesses?" but Stormont 
only repeated, " Tell him I want my clothes." Wolff went 
up and put the clothes upon him, and told the Cadi that the 
prisoner did not understand Arabic, and fright had made him 
forget the English language ; and so the Cadi let him go. 

Poor Stormont, when he got back to his lodging, had some 
food, which he ate most heartily ; and Wolff said to him, 
You don t tell me fiddle-de-dee now ! " He replied, " There 
is, after all, no place like home. England, with all thy faults, 
I love thee still !" Soon afterwards, the servants of the Cadi 
came, and wanted a present for having taken so much trouble 
in letting him see the Cadi, and getting Stormont out. So 
Wolff gave them thirty dollars (about 6), But when he .said 

264 Travels and Adventures 

to Storinont, " You must pay me back the thirty dollars I 
have paid for your release," the Doctor replied, " What a 
great fool you are ! They insult me, and now they want 
money ! I ll be hanged if I give them a farthing ! " 

On another occasion, an Italian woman arrived at Jerusalem, 
from Pesaro. She was very decently dressed, with a bonnet 
and feathers. She had been a servant to Queen Caroline, and 
knew Count Bergami very well. Wolff asked her why she had 
come to Jerusalem? She answered, in order to perform her 
devotions at the tomb of our Lord, and to see the blessed 
body of St. James ; and from Jerusalem she intended to go to 
San Jago, in Spain, where she must be by a certain season, in 
order to see the blessed head of St. James ; for if she went too 
late, she would not be able to see it, as it was only exposed at 
a particular time of the year. 

Wolff suspects that the friars of Terra Santa had told her 
all this, because they wished to get rid of her ; for they take in 
the poor gratis, and they did not wish to be at more expense 
than they could help on her account. When Wolff asked her 
how she paid the expenses of travelling, she coolly replied, 
" Whenever I have got no money, i Consoli debbono pagare " 
(the Consuls have to pay). Wolff s dear wife gave her several 
dollars, for which she kissed her hand. She seemed to be a 
woman of great simplicity. Whilst they were at Jerusalem, 
Wolff asked whether he could get a good Arabic teacher for 
200 piastres a month? Papas Joel replied, "All depends 
upon what you will pay. If you give 200 piastres a month, 
you will get a very fat man Aboo Hannah himself, who is 
enormous, and waddles as he walks about ;" and Papas Joel at 
the same time imitated Aboo Hannah s mode of walking, and 
gave an idea of his paunch by circling his own arms. 

After seven months 1 residence at Jerusalem, where Wolff 
(in spite of the opposition caused against him by the Jews in 
London,) had continual conferences with the Jews, he prepared 
to leave it, his health having suffered considerably from the 
effects of the poison ; but, fearing that the Turkish officers 
would come and ask for " Bakhshish, 1 i.e., gifts, he resolved to 
start early in the morning. 

Papas Joel, the Superior of Mar-Elias, accompanied Wolff 
and his family a good way out of the gate, where they sat 
down a little on the ground, while Wolff himself walked back 
wards and forwards, musing, a thing which Easterns cannot 
bear to see done, especially by Europeans, for they are always 
afraid that they are measuring the earth, and will afterwards 
come and take the count rv. So an Arab woman, with a lar^e 

of Dr. Wolff. 265 

basket on her back, on seeing Wolff thus walk about, called 
out to him, as she passed by, " Tekayas alardli ya khanzeer?" 
(Dost thou measure the earth, O thou pig?) Papas Joel said 
to her, in reply, " Bentkh shuglak ya marrah " (Go about thy 
business, O woman). 

Wolff arrived at Jaffa, in the house of Damiani, the British 
Consul there. And here he cannot help mentioning a great 
injustice which was done to Damiani by Colonel Campbell, 
the British Consul-Gcneral for Egypt, and, at that time, also 
for Syria, which made a bad impression against the English. 

The house of Damiani had been Consuls for England for 
more than a century in fact, the office was hereditary in that 
family. When Colonel Campbell was at Jaffa, he resided in 
the house of the British Consul, and, while there, money was 
stolen from him. He suspected Damianfs son, who it is true, 
was considered to be a bad subject ; so, Colonel Campbell said 
to the father, " If you do not replace the money, I shall depose 
you." As poor Damiani had not got the money, Colonel 
Campbell was as good as his word, and actually did depose 
him ; a man whose integrity was universally known. Poor 
Damiaui went to Constantinople to get redress, and to be rein 
stated in his office, by the Ambassador. But he appealed in 
vain ; and the disappointment broke his heart, and he died. 

In Jaffa, Wolff lived in Diamini s house, which stood upon 
the same spot where formerly was the house of Simon, the 
tanner, and where there was still an ancient well, which was 
there in Simon s time. Damiani s house was the rendezvous 
of pilgrim Jews, who came from Salon ica, Constantinople, 
Rhodes, and other places. 

There is a custom when new pilgrims arrive in Jaffa, for the 
purpose of going to Jerusalem, that a Rabbi from Jerusalem 
comes to receive from each pilgrim the money which he vows 
to leave behind for the benefit of the Jerusalem Jews. One 
Friday evening, the chief Rabbi of Jerusalem, who had come 
to Jaffa to collect this money, got exceedingly drunk, and all 
the rest followed his example. Wolff knew this man person 
ally, and when he and all the rest came drunk to his room, he 
took one of them by the arm and turned him out ; and, as he 
danced good-naturedly out of the room, he said, "Joseph 
Wolff does me great honour." Next morning (Saturday), the 
chief Rabbi called on Wolff, who was just then smoking a pipe. 
The Rabbi said, " Why do you smoke on a Sabbath day 2" 
Wolff replied, " It is not said in the law that one should not 
smoke, but it is said by the prophet Isaiah (Isaiah v. 11), 
Woe unto them that rise up early in the morning that they 

266 Travels and Adventures 

may follow strong drink, that continue until night, till wine 
inflame them." 1 " The chief Rabbi turned as red as scarlet. 

Among the pilgrims there was a Jew of Constantinople, who 
belonged to those converts to Christianity there, whose conver 
sion caused such excitement all over the East, in the year 
1827, and he was rejoiced to see Wolff. 


The Levant ; is attacked by Pirates-, Mount Athos ; Intense 
thirst; Salonica and Admiral Slade; Malta, and Hookham 
Frere; Starts for Bokhara, on his own account, ma Constan 
tinople and Persia. 

f~\N the 7th July, 1829, Wolff embarked for Cyprus, where 
^^ he remained for a short time, being detained by the illness 
of his dear wife, who was taken with the Cyprus fever ; but, 
as soon as she was recovered, he sailed with her for Alexan 
dria. They were twenty-four days on the passage a passage 
usually performed in as many hours ; and, on his arrival at 
Alexandria, he established regular services for the English, 
Italians, and Germans ; and he preached also to the Jews in 
his own house, and on board her Majesty s ships. 

Wolff there issued a public printed call to the Muhammadan 
grandees, to repent and turn to Christ ; and he predicted to 
them the speedy downfall of the Muhammadan power : which 
prediction was hastening, and has ever since hastened towards 
its fulfilment. He sent one of those written calls, made out 
in Arabic, by a donkey- driver, to the Governor of Alexandria. 
The poor follow was flogged for being the bearer of such a 
message, and came back in a violent rage, and almost knocked 
Wolff down ; but had his wrath mitigated by a present of two 
dollars, as a compensation for the flogging. After which, 
whenever the man met Wolff in the street, he would say to 
him, " Never send me again with such rubbish to the Gover 
nor ;" and on Wolff replying, " Ah, but you got two dollars 
for it," he rejoined, " You ought to have given me ten." 

At last, the Pasha, Muhammad AH, sent word to Wolff, 
through the British Consul, that he must leave Alexandria. 
Wolff demanded a written order from the Viceroy, who sent 

of Dr. Wolf. 267 

word that he would not send a written order ; but if Wolff did 
not go he must abide by the consequences. 

Wolff then embarked for Salonica, leaving Lady Georgiana 
behind, as her confinement was approaching, and took with 
him a Greek servant, and a Maronite, Youssuf Michael Aboo- 
Mansoor by name, who was to assist him in preaching. This 
man was from a village called Haddat, near Beyrout, of the 
family of Shidiack. He was short in figure, and never able to 
look any one in the face. He had been converted by Gobat 
and Theodor Miiller (who has now a living in Devonshire) to 
the Protestant religion ; and they believed him to be a 
thoroughly converted man. 

On Wolffs arrival in the island of Rhodes, Youssuf left the 
cases of Bibles open in such a manner, that anybody could see 
them, and take them out. This caused so great a disturbance 
among the Turks, who were angry that an Englishman should 
dare to come there with infidel books, that they compelled 
him to leave Rhodes within an hour after his arrival. Thence 
he proceeded to Tenedos (near the famous Troyes), where he 
resided with the British Agent, who was a native. All this 
time, Youssuf assured his master that he had sent all the 
money he had given him to his family in Mount Lebanon, 
which deceived Wolff for the time; and he proceeded with him 
from Tenedos to the island of Mitylene, where he preached to 
the Greeks in Italian, and circulated the Word of God. 

Wolff observed in all those islands a great change for the 
better, since he was last in the Turkish neighbourhood. The 
Sultan had given strict orders to the Greeks, to send their 
reports to him, and tell him how they were satisfied with the 
Turkish Governors he had placed over them ; and many 
Governors had been dismissed in consequence of this, and it 
had taught them to behave better. Wolff next sailed from 
Mitylene to Lemnos, in a Greek boat. On his arrival there, 
lie stopped two days with the Archbishop, and gave him 
Bibles. He then called on the Turkish Governor, who asked 
him whether the Archbishop was satisfied with his conduct 
towards the Greeks ? Wolff replied in the affirmative, at 
which the Governor was much pleased. 

From Lemnos Wolff sailed in the same boat, accompanied 
by his Greek servant and that scoundrel Youssuf Michael 
Aboo-Mansoor, to Mount Athos, which is also called "Haghios 
Oros," which means Holy Mountain ; and a Holy Mountain 
it is ; for it is inhabited only by monks, whose number some 
times amounted to J 5,000. Many of them occupy themselves 
with knitting stockings, and tilling the ground, and praying. 

268 Travels and Adventures 

No female is allowed to approach the place, for they say the 
Virgin Mary would immediately kill her. Even no she- 
animal is allowed to come near. It must, however, be acknow 
ledged that there were great and learned men on Mount 
Athos ; and, even when Wolff was there, there was a most 
learned man, who occupied himself with the history of the 
mountain, and was well acquainted with the Italian and Ger 
man literature. And Wolff cannot but express his regret that 
a great diplomatist hurt the feelings of these monks by forcing 
them to receive, against their statutes, his most worthy lady 
into their Monastery. It is also to be regretted that Robert 
Curzon, in his wanderings through the Monasteries, should 
have represented every one of them as totally void of know 
ledge ; forgetting the g-reat minds of Kalistos, in Mount Sinai, 
Hilarion and Constantinus, in Constantinople, &c. 

Wolff sailed away from Haghios Oros, towards Mount 
Kartalia ; when, early in the morning, a pirate boat was 
observed coming towards them, and tacking about in its 
approach. The chief boatman of Wolff s boat exclaimed, 
" Kleftes ! " which means robbers. Wolff said, " The best 
plan will be to remain in the boat." This he said, although, 
as they always sailed close to the shore, it was easy to land. 
They replied, " If we all remain here they will put us to 
death, in order not to be discovered ; for they are Skupoliot 
pirates, and will kill every one of us." On this, Wolff leaped 
out of the boat, and told Youssuf to leave the case containing 
the money behind. Youssuf then exclaimed, " My money, 
my money, my money ! " (at once betraying that he had made 
no remittances to Mount Lebanon), and he immediately took 
WolfFs money from the case and put it into his own pocket. 
A nd so these two ran off across the mountain, Wolff without 
shoes or stockings. Some of the boat people also made their 
escape ; and the pirates, not liking to kill the few who wore 
left, lest the affair should be made known by the fugitives, 
were content with collecting what booty they could find. 

For nearly thirty hours Wolff continued to wander about on 
the highest tops of the mountains. The shirt he had on was 
torn to pieces by thorns. The pirates fired both at him and 
his companion several times ; and they actually came up into 
the mountain, but Wolff and Youssuf had hid themselves in 
some clefts of the rocks, and were not discovered, so the 
pirates went back. The natives afterwards said that no native 
even had been in the parts of the mountain where Wolff hud 
wandered ; and the heat was so intense there there not being- 
even a moist leaf to be found to quench his thirst that he 

of Dr. Wolff. 269 

was reduced to the most dreadful extremities. At last he 
came clown from the mountain and found a spring, on which he 
fell like a horse. 

Youssuf remained faithfully with him after all ; his great 
vice being covetousness and hypocrisy in religious pretension. 
And Wolff is sorry to make here the declaration that the 
worst people among the Eastern natives, are those who know 
English and have been converted to Protestantism. There 
are^ however, some honourable exceptions. There was one, 
Shidiack by name, a relation of Youssuf, who died for the 
Protestant faith, having been first a Roman Catholic. 

Soon after he had reached the spring, Wolff found some 
Roumelian shepherds who were tending their flocks. They 
provided him and his companion with sour milk and bread, 
and he never before ate and drank so heartily. It was better 
than wine of Burgundy or Champagne. He proceeded with 
these shepherds to a little town, called Shika, whence he pro 
ceeded with the Governor and his soldiers through a forest, 
which had been set on fire on both sides by robbers, so that 
they had to ride through at full speed, in order to avoid the 
flames. Wolff describes himself as almost stupified on this 

At the end of the forest they came to a little village, where 
they slept. Then they proceeded next day towards that 
famous town, Salomca, the Thessalonica of Scripture, to the 
inhabitants of which the Epistle to the Thessalonians is 
addressed, who were, at the time of the Apostles, in great 
tribulation ; because they expected the immediate coming of 
the Lord. But they were too impatient, and had forgotten that, 
previous to his coming, the " man of sin " must be revealed; 
who will oppose true as well as false religion, everything that 
is worshipped as God, and will say that he himself is God. 
And that then, when he shall have appeared, and shall have 
deceived, if it were possible, the very elect for the space of 
1260 days literal days the Lord Himself shall descend with 
a shout, with the trump of the Archangel, and the dead in 
Christ shall rise first. And then we, which are alive and 
remain, shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, 
to meet the Lord in the air ; and so shall we ever be, not in 
the air, but with the Lord, who shall then gently light down 
with his saints upon the Mount of Olives, which is before 
Jerusalem in the East. And this ought to be our comfort. 
Wherefore comfort one another with these words : " Lord, 
hasten thy coming, that we, with all those that are departed 
in the true faith, may have our perfect consummation and 

270 7 ravels and Adventures 

bliss, both in body and soul, in thy eternal and everlasting 
glory ! " 

It was at that remarkable town, to which the Apostle had 
addressed two epistles, chiefly on the second coming of Christ, 
that Wolff now arrived ; and the first person he met there 
was a British officer, Leiutenant Adolph Slade, of Her Majesty s 
Navy, now Admiral in the Turkish Navy, and Pasha. And 
he, as well as Charneaud, the Consul, and Chasseaud, formerly 
English Consul, comforted Wolff poor fellow ! in his distress, 
and advanced him money and clothing. But he was not able 
to stir out of the house on account of the thorns in his feet, 
some of which a French physician drew out, even after his de 
parture from Salonica ; and Dr. Liddle, of Malta, drew out 
others, at least three months later. 

In Salonica Wolff met with a body of Jews, who are of the 
most interesting description. They have their origin from an 
impostor, one of those numerous men who have fulfilled the 
prophetic words of our blessed Lord, in the Gospel by St. Mat 
thew : " There shall arise false Christs and false prophets, 
and shall show great signs and wonders ; insomuch that, if it 
were possible, they shall deceive the very elect." 

Shabatay Zebee, born at Skop, in Bulgaria, was a Jew of 
great learning, and was said to have performed many miracles, 
when he suddenly rose, and proclaimed himself to be the Mes 
siah. He travelled about in royal pomp; and thousands 
rallied around his standard in Aleppo, Smyrna, Jerusalem, 
Prague in Bohemia, and Vienna. He abolished the law of 
Moses ; for it is a belief of the Jews, that one of the offices 
of the Messiah, when He comes, will be to abolish the law of 
Moses ; for they say the prophet Jeremiah says (Jeremiah, 
xxxi. 31), " Behold the days come, saith the Lord, that I will 
make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the 
house of Judah." 

Now is it not extraordinary, Wolff asks, that whilst these men 
reject the Lord Jesus Christ, because, as they say, He had 
abolished the law of Moses, they yet produce, as an evidence 
of Shabatay Zebee^s Messiaship, the very fact of his abolition 
of the law of Moses? 

Shabatay Zebee ruled, with uncontrolled power, over thou 
sands and thousands of the Jews ; and they paid tribute to 
him. He sanctioned every vice, until at length he drew upon 
himself the attention of the Sultan, who had him brought to 
Constantinople, where, in order to save his life, this deceiver 
became a Muhammadan. But the man was too restless to be 
quiet, so at last the Sultan had his head struck off. But oven 

of Dr. Wolff. 271 

this has not diminished the number of his followers ; and they 
apply to him the fulfilment of Isaiah s prophecy (Isaiah liii. 
8), "He was cut off out of the land of the living." There 
are now about 200,000 of his dupes still existing ; and wherever 
they are, they conform outwardly to the ruling religion of the 
country ; but they intermarry with none, ancl in secret they 
carry on their own religion. 

There are many thousands of these people in Salonica, and 
they are called by the Turks, Domna, the meaning of which is 
" The turned." They are very rich and very clean ; many of 
them are great merchants, and honest in their dealings. Some 
of them believed Wolff to be of their own sect, and called on him ; 
but the moment they were convinced that he was a Christian, 
they all disappeard. Their enemies accuse them of having 
secret assemblies at night, in which they practise every kind of 
immorality imaginable ; but Wolff has heard this same account 
of every little sect, even of the Irvingites in England, and 
therefore he has his doubts of the truth of it. And as he 
could learn nothing positively of them, his conscience will not 
allow him to do as a traveller lately did with regard to the 
Anzairee in Mount Lebanon, who published three volumes 
describing them, without giving one single piece of information 
on the subject. 

Many thousands of Jews were put to death by the Turks, 
on account of that impostor Shabatay Zebee. Poor people, 
how often have the words of those who crucified the Lord of 
Glory been fulfilled in you ! "His blood be upon us and upon 
our children !" They have been fulfilled by the sword of 
Muhammad in different ages. They were fulfilled by the 
sword of the crusaders, until the great S. Bernard stopped them 
by preaching to them on the eleventh chapter to the Romans, 
warning them not to boast against Israel and the branches 
thereof; and they should behold the severity and goodness of 
God. For while the mercy of God is over all His creatures, 
there is a retributive justice which is not only clearly demon 
strated by the Bible and the history of the Jews in every a"e, 
but also by the history of nations at large. This we have lately 
seen in the defeat of Austria, which was justly dealt to her on 
account of her ingratitude to Russia. And the same retribu 
tive justice is also experienced by individuals, of which Wolff 
will give an instance. 

A father had an only son, for whom he did everything ; but 
the son became at last so outrageous against his father, fhat he 
dragged him by the hair out orthe room until they came to the 
top of the stairs, when the father said, " Now, my son, you 

272 Travels and Adventures 

have done enough, for you have done your duty in fulfilling 
God^s justice; for it was from the room to the top of the stairs 
that I dragged my own father by the hair."" When the son 
heard this, he burst into tears and said, " Oh ! I have com 
mitted a great sin. Father, O my father forgive me." The 
father said, " I have forgiven thee," and expired. It is remark 
able that even the great poets among the Muhammadans, Sheikh 
Saadi and Moollah Roomee, have most powerfully felt the truth 
that there is a retributive justice. 

After Wolff had circulated the Bible and New Testament 
amongst the Jews, he left Salonica in company with Lieutenant 
Slacle, the scoundrel Youssuf Michael Aboo-Mansoor, and his 
Greek servant ; and soon after arrived at Smyrna, where Wolff 
convicted Youssuf of downright roguery, and at once dismissed 
him as a hypocrite and impostor. And then Wolff sailed 
for Malta, to which place, very soon afterwards, his wife and 
infant son (born in Alexandria) followed him. Here they 
stopped in the house of the Right Honourable J. H. Frere, 
who had been ambassador at Madrid during the Peninsular 
war ; a gentleman of fine taste and scholarship, and a friend 
of the great George Canning, and Coleridge. 

O c? O O 

Wolff had set his heart upon going on a mission to Tim- 
buctoo ; but Frere said to him, " If you go there, you will 
dwindle away into a simple traveller, and you ought to main 
tain your missionary character. And therefore, I will point 
out to you on the map the road to Bokhara and Afghanistan, 
where you will find, not only Jews, but traces of the ten 
lost tribes of Israel." Here Mr. Frere showed him the map, 
in which were the names, Youssuf Szeye, i. e., " Tribe of 
Joseph" IszhaJc Szeye " Tribe of Isaac" Baruch Szeye 
"Tribe of Baruch? &c. ; and Wolff shouted, "To Bokhara 
I shall go !" 

He then wrote to the London Society for promoting Chris 
tianity among the Jews, that he had resolved to go to Bokhara, 
and they replied that he must first come to England, and re 
ceive fresh instructions from the Committee. Their reasons 
for this precaution must be stated. 

First, Wolff had entered so much on prophetic dates (far 
more than he would do now), and had written on this subject 
not only to the Committee, but to other people, that an outcry 
had been raised against his proceeding in " The Christian 
Observer,"" and " The Record." Besides which, he had at 
tacked every missionary, who either disagreed with him, or 
who he thought was not acting in an apostolic spirit. More 
over, he had published his belief in modern miracles, and 

of Dr. Wolff. 273 

had proclaimed his having cast out a devil in the desert. 
Hence the Committee said, u This man lias run wild !" And 
so they wrote to him, that he must first return to London, 
in order that they might come to an understanding with him. 
Wolff wrote to them in reply, that he would come back to 
London, via Bokhara, Affghanistan, and Calcutta ; and there 
fore that he should make this journey at his own risk. Mr. 
Frere nobly came forward to facilitate the expedition ; and ad 
vanced to Wolff 500, either on loan, or as a gift ; and this 
circumstance must be remembered, as the repayment was 
effected in a very singular manner. Wolff set out on the 31st 
of December, 1830, from Malta for Bokhara, provided with 
letters from Government, and a passport from the Duke of 

On reviewing this proceeding, Wolff cannot but justify the 
whole conduct of the London Society for promoting Christianity 
among the Jews. For a society, as it is constituted, is respon 
sible for the conduct of its missionaries, and has a full right to 
demand from them entire submission and obedience to its 
resolutions. Any missionary, therefore, who is unwilling to 
submit, must make a merit of necessity, resign his appointment, 
and take all the responsibility upon himself. 

Besides this, Wolff is conscious that by his independent treat 
ment of his employers , he fell into the very same error which 
he had found fault with in other missionaries ; and he thinks 
the duty of a missionary is to mind his own business, and to 
let others go on in the way they think right. Moreover, there 
is a great deal of vanity in trying to set everything right ; and 
a person who acts thus does injury to his own spirit. 

Wolff once more arrived in Alexandria, in the month of 
January, 1831, on board a Maltese ship ; and as he had been 

* It will be seen Dr. Wolff s Journals, published in the " Jewish 
Expositor," by the London Society for Promoting Christianity among the 
Jews, that it was Joseph Wolff who first proposed, in the year 1821, the 
establishment of a British College in Malta, which was established some 
years ago. The erection of missions in Alexandria and Cairo, was also 
proposed by him in the year 1821, and missionaries were sent to those 
places in the year 1824, by the Church Missionary Society. Wolff was 
the first missionary who visited Mount Horeb and Mount Sinai, and cir 
culated the word of God there. He was also the first who preached the 
Gospel to the Jews in Jerusalem, in 1822; and upon his recommendation, 
Lewis, Nicholaison, and Dalton were sent in 1823, as missionaries to 
Jerusalem. Thus it is also with the missions in Constantinople and 
Bagdad ; and in Jerusalem he proposed the erection of a College, and to 
se nd there a British Consul. 


274 Travels and Adventures 

exiled from Alexandria on the last occasion of his being there, 
for interfering with the Muhammadans, he first went on board 
Captain Lyons ship (afterwards Lord Lyons), and then wrote 
a letter to the Consul-General, Mr. Barker, asking whether he 
might land. Barker wrote to him that he might safely come 
on shore, as all was forgotten. Wolff, therefore, took up his 
abode with his friend, Mr. Gliddon, who was Consul of the 
United States of North America. Here he preached in the 
Wesleyan Chapel (there was no English Church in Alexandria), 
and the Wesleyans were ever kind to him, although he once 
attacked them about their groaning ; which, perhaps, he ought 
not to have done, as he confesses that the religious movements 
and actions of every one ought to be respected. 

He met at Alexandria this time his old friend, Sir John 
Malcolm, one of those four sons of a Scotch farmer, who had 
raised themselves to high eminence in the State, by their talents 
and merits. One of them, Sir Pulteney, considered Wolff as 
his spiritual father. Sir John Malcolm provided him with 
letters for the British Ambassador in Persia, Colonel Camp 
bell ; and then Wolff set out in a miserable Turkish boat for 
Sataliah, the ancient Attalia in Pisidia, which is mentioned 
in the Acts of the Apostles. He took with him from Alexan 
dria a black servant, a thorough negro, of the Shuluk tribe, who 
was always drunk, and, when drunk, got into a furious rage. 
And as the Shuluk tribe are believed to be cannibals, Wolff 
had a few misgivings about this man ; so he was glad to dis 
miss him on their arrival in Constantinople. 

At Attalia, Wolff resided in the house of Demetrius, the 
bishop of the place, who had the title, Demetrios Pisidia, an 
energetic and active man. He had been married, but, after 
the death of his wife, he became a monk upon Mount Sinai, 
and was then made Bishop of Attalia. The bishops of Anatolia 
have the title Krites, id est, " Judges f speaking of which, 
Demetrius said, " Does not the Apostle Paul say, the saints 
shall judge the earth 2 " 

The whole of Anatolia is exceedingly cheap to travel in, for 
very few Englishmen travel there ; and whenever one comes, 
the Turk receives one, and gives one bread, salt, and soup, 
gratis ; and one has only to pay for caimac (a thick kind of 
cream, like Devonshire cream), and provender for the horses, 
but for nothing else. 

From Attalia Wolff went to Buldur. There are Greek 
Christians, who only speak the Turkish language, and are like 
buffaloes. It is a remarkable fact and it must not be con 
cealed that, except the Armenians in Etsh-Miazin, Persia, 

of Dr. Wolf. 275 

and Russia, and their enlightened brethren in Hindoostan, the 
native Christians of Anatolia, and the Turkish empire in gene 
ral, where Roman Catholic missionaries have not penetrated, 
are ignorant, rude, and uncouth, like buffaloes ! 

Roman Catholic missionaries have carried everywhere the 
light of civilization. This was even observed by Robertson, 
in his " History of Mexico and Peru, 1 who showed that holy 
priests of the Spanish nation, like Las-Casas, have enlightened 
barbarians, and restrained the Spanish tyrants. 

Wolff at last arrived in Kiutaya, in Phrygia, and there he 
found the Greeks more enlightened, and their Bishop too ; for 
they were real Greeks, and, though not themselves Roman 
Catholics, yet they had intercourse with them, and learned a 
great deal from them. It was in Kiutaya that the Apostle 
Paul was, when he was minded to go to Bithynia, but was in 
duced .by the Spirit to go to Salonica, the capital of Macedonia. 

Wolff proceeded to Broosa, the capital of Bithynia. There 
it was that Hannibal died ; and there it is that Abd-el-Kadir 
now resides. Wolff met there with an old Jew, so handsome 
that he thinks he never saw in his life such a beautiful man. 
He lived in a splendid house, and showed to Wolff the gran 
deur which surrounded him. Wolff read with this man por 
tions of the Gospel ; and slept that night in the house of an 
amiable French gentleman ; and here an Armenian advanced 
him money on his bills on Constantinople. Wolff quitted 
Broosa the following day, in order to hasten swiftly onwards 
to Constantinople. His aim was Bokhara, and, therefore, he 
did not spend much time in any place, either in the Mediter 
ranean, or in any part of Asia Minor. 

On his arrival in Constantinople, Sir Robert Gordon re 
ceived him most kindly, and invited him to dinner at his house, 
and said, as Wolff afterwards heard, that he never had a more 
pleasant evening than in his conversation with him. He pro 
cured him firmans and other letters from the Sultan, and from 
Christians and Muhaminadans ; and the Armenian Patriarch 
at Constantinople, and other Armenians, begged him to let 
them know whenever he settled in England, in order that they 
might establish colleges there for their nation, and schools for 
their youth, under the superintendence of Armenians ; so that 
they might benefit by the light of European civilization.* 

* Extracts from Dr. Wolff s Missionary Journal, published in 1828 : 
"Jan. 28, 1822. We stopped for three hours in the Armenian con 
vent, called Bait Hashbuck, near Ayun Warga. The name of the Su 
perior is Gregorius. They expressed a desire of establishing a college in 

T 2 

276 T yards and Adventures 

Wolff was now about to depart for Angoroo, in Galatia, 
being furnished with letters, as above-mentioned, for his whole 
journey to Bokhara and Hiudoostaii. But it will be seen during 
the course of the details, that letters of introduction endan 
gered his life ; whilst the plague saved him from misery, 
slavery, and most probably from death. 

At the expiration of about a fortnight, Wolff left Constan 
tinople with a Tatar.* They were mounted on horseback, but 
Wolff always asked for an old, decrepid horse the only sort 
he dared to mount and thus he came into the province of 
Galatia to Angoroo, called also Ancyra. There, on the moun 
tains, Arabs and Persian shepherds were to be found in the 
midst of this Turkish country and population. The Arabs 
were singing, 

" Seewas, Seewas, shall never be taken ; 
Nor shall they slay Bayaseed s son ;" 

while the Persians sang, 

" To attempt to possess together both God and the world, 
Is altogether folly !" 

Wolff asked the Arabs the meaning of their song. They 
replied, " Timoor koorekan," or, as he is also called, " Timoor 
lank,"-|- which means, Timoor, the lame one, invaded the country 
of Room. At that time Bayaseed ruled over that country. 
Timoor had under his command 900,000 soldiers. He sent 
word to Bayaseed, who had the surname " Yilderim," which 
means, " The lightning, " that he should come and give an 
account of his stewardship. Bayaseed, in order to insult him, 
sent him ten presents instead of nine nine being the honour- 

" The Grand Prior, Peter Wartanes, was more warmly disposed towards 
me, and manifested a great desire to establish an Armenian college in 

"Mr. Bogos, an Armenian, highly respected and revered by his nation, 
has given me a letter of introduction to the Patriarch of the Armenian 
nation, residing at Constantinople, in order that he may listen to me when 
I propose to him to unite the Armenian Church with the Protestant 
Churches of Europe!" 

These extracts and more might be given show that Dr. Wolff has 
for long held a desire to see the Armenian Church brought into closer 
relationship with the Church of England. 

* A Tatar is a Government messenger, who can be hired by any tra 
veller desirous of assistance. 

f Erroneously called Tamerlane. 

of Dr. Wolff. 277 

able number among the Turcomauns ; and to increase the in 
sult, he sent him word that he would come and force him to 
divorce his wives. 

Timoor said, " Has the man become mad I" So he marched 
against Seewas, a great town of Room, with 900,000 soldiers, 
took the city, and killed Togrool, the favourite son of Bayaseed, 
and buried alive 18,000 Armenian Christians. This was re 
ported to Bayaseed, who rallied around him 30,000 Servian 
soldiers, all Christians, and placed them under the command 
of their co-religionist, Lazarowitsh. Besides these, he col 
lected together 100,000 Turcomauns (countrymen of Timoor s 
soldiers), who had come from Turkistan ; but being, as all 
those Turks are, too avaricious, he did not pay them their 
wages. In his march against Timoor, he passed the shepherds 
of Aiigoroo, and said to them, as he went by, " Sing to me a 
sons; I like ; sins; 

O 7 O 

" Seewas shall never be taken, 
Nor shall they slay 
Bayaseed s son !" 

And thus that song has come down to this day : 

" Seewas, Seewas shall never be taken ; 
Nor shall they slay 
Bayaseed s son !" 

Bayaseed came near Seewas, but found that it was taken ; 
and that Togrool, his favourite son, was slain ! 

A battle ensued : Timoor dismounted his horse, and re 
viewed his soldiers ; then harangued them, and gave the signal 
of attack, " Soorunk !" i. e., "Brave!" And the Turco 
mauns of Bayaseed exclaimed, " Bismillah Rah mane arra- 
heem !" " In the name of the most merciful and compas 
sionate God." The Servian Christians exclaimed, " Christos 
aneste !" " Christ is risen !* then crossed themselves, and the 
attack commenced. The Christians fought to the last, so that 
Timoor, in admiration, exclaimed, "How these Christians 
fight for their Muhammadan master!" The unpaid Turco 
mauns, however, at once went over to Timoor, and Bayaseed 
was defeated, and made prisoner, and brought in a cage to 
Akhshehir, where he died. 

Wolff entered the city of Angoroo, where the Armenian 
archbishop and the Greek and Armenian Catholic bishops were 
living in greater harmony than is generally the case among the 
different denominations of the churches of the East. The 
Armenian archbishop made Wolff a present of an Angoroo 

278 Travels and Adventures 

shawl, wrought out of the famous Angoroo goats hair, with the 
request that he would send it to his wife. He also desired 
Wolff to write to the ambassador in Constantinople, to say 
that they were tyrannized over hy the Governor, which Wolff 
was happy to do for two reasons. In the first place, he was 
able to bear witness to the truth of the complaint, for the 
Governor was a thorough brute ; and, secondly, the ambassador 
had particularly desired Wolff to give him an account of those 
Governors who tyrannized over the Christians. 

Wolff then left Angoroo, after staying about a fortnight. 
He took with him a most excellent Tatar of the Sultan, and 
rode on through a range of most romantic mountains, till he 
arrived in Tokat, where he lodged in the house of a very cove 
tous Armenian. Here he visited the grave of that man of 
God, Henry Martyn. " Father, my father, the chariots of 
Israel, and the horsemen thereof," came into Wolff s mind as 
he stood where his brother missionary was buried ; and the 
words of that holy man never depart from Wolff s memory : 
" Confession of sin is not yet repentance : knowledge of sin is 
not yet contrition." Martyn was buried by the Armenians in 
1812, with all the honours of an Armenian archbishop. What 
an amiable spirit breathes through all the ebullitions of his 
noble mind. With what intrepidity did he preach the truth 
to the unconverted ! of which he gave proof on board a ship 
of war, when the officers jestingly told him, " Mr. Martyn, 
don t send us all to perdition to-day," and he at once took as 
the text of his sermon, " The wicked shall be turned into hell, 
and all the nations that forget God." 

And again, what liberality may be perceived in the account 
which he gives of a Roman Catholic woman, who was pouring 
forth her spirit, like Samuel s mother, whilst kneeling before 
the altar of a Roman Catholic chapel ! " Dear woman!" he 
says of her in his diary. Dear Martyn ! Wolff hopes to see 
thee in heaven ! Wolff, however, cannot forbear from observ 
ing, that Henry Martyn, in his conversations on religion with 
Muhanimadans at Sheeraz, showed too much of the senior 
wrangler of Cambridge in his arguments, by trying through 
Euclid to prove the truth of Christianity. Say what you will, 
Christianity cannot be proved by mathematics. We cannot 
prove by mathematics (as Wolff s darling wife once said to a 
mathematician) that one must eat when one is hungry ; and 
no more can one mathematically prove the truth of David s 
paying, " As the hart panteth for the water-brooks, so longeth 
my soul after Thee, God." 

While in Tokat, a Jew from Poland called on Wolff, and he 

of Dr. Wolff. 279 

never saw a more handsome young man. This Jew T uiM. 
deeply impressed with all that Wolff told him, and spoke Ger 
man, and gave to Wolff the title, " Your High Excellency." 
He much regretted that Wolff should have fallen into the 
hands of such a covetous Armenian as the one he lodged with, 
and that lie had not accepted the invitation of the excellent and 
wealthy merchant Bambuktshee. 

Wolff was taken very ill while at Tokat ; but at last left it, 
with his Tatar, and passed many ruins, which had once been 
buildings belonging to the Republic of Genoa. Wolff asked 
the Tatar, "Why these buildings were not restored?"" The 
Tatar gave a most emphatic reply, which he did not expect 
from a Turk : " The people of Islaam never rebuild ; the 
people of Islaam always destroy !" 

He arrived, after a pleasant journey, at Trebizond, and 
lodged in the house of the British Consul, Mr. Brant, where 
he preached ; and he visited the Greeks, both in and around 
Trebizond. In this town are a great number of Greeks, who 
are Pauline Christians. They are mentioned by Gibbon as 
having been persecuted during the reign of the Comneni, both 
by the orthodox party and the Muhammadans ; and they out 
wardly conformed to the Muhammadan faith ; but, in secret, 
they are Christians, and great friends of the Bible. Trebizond 
contains the tomb of one of the Georgian kings, whose epitaph 
is written in French, in which he is described as one of the 
descendants of King Solomon. 

Wolff, after a few days, went across Mount Ararat to the 
capital of Armenia, Erz-Room ; the proper meaning of which 
is, " The land belonging to the Roman Empire." From Erz- 
Room to Tabreez there is only one story to tell, viz. : that 
the whole country was deserted by its Armenian inhabitants, 
because, in 1828, they emigrated, with General Paskewitsh 
(about 90,000 families in number), to the Russian dominions. 
Wolff stopped a few days in the city*of Bayaseed with the 
Pasha, whose office is hereditary from father to son ; and the 
Pasha lives in a splendid palace. 

From Bayaseed, Wolff went to Khoy, where he resided with 
a Persian, who had received his education in England, and 
spoke English well. He said to Wolff, quite in an English 
way, and in that language, " I am very happy to shake you by 
the hand." He invited a whole party of Persians to meet 
Wolff, some of whom were freemasons ; and one of them, Suli- 
man Pasha by name, said that freemasonry is to be found in 
chapter iv. of Revelation. And there is some truth in this ; 
for, after thirty-eight years, when Wolff peruses this chapter, 

280 Travels and Adventures 

he can testify that Suliman Pasha was right ; and he distinctly 
knows to which verse Suliman alluded ; which every good and 
accepted mason will also immediately find out. 

The Persians are really, with all their tremendous faults, an 
interesting nation; and it is to be lamented that they are Mu- 
hammadans. Tea was served, and conversation took place 
about the truth of the Gospel ; and, on the first evening, the 
Persians invited were of a liberal description, and therefore a 
narghili was offered to Wolff that he might smoke with them. 
But, the next evening, Persians of a different stamp came, who 
considered it a sin to smoke a narghili with an infidel, and so 
Wolff was passed over ; but the generous host made a thousand 

apologies to him, for being obliged to submit to the prejudices 
i i r 

of his guests. 

This prejudice well explains the astonishment of the woman 
of Samaria, when our Lord asked of her to give him water to 
drink; and when she said to him (John iv. 9), "How is it 
that Thou, being a Jew, askest drink of me, which am a woman 
of Samaria ? for the Jews have no dealings with the Samari 
tans." And it explains also, Genesis xliii. 32, " Because the 
.Egyptians might not eat bread with the Hebrews ; for that is 
an abomination unto the Egyptians." One can hereby see the 
wisdom of our blessed Lord, whose design was to unite brother 
with brother, and therefore to remove those religious preju 
dices which are so apt to keep them apart. Even at this en 
tertainment, Wolff recognised the divinity of our Saviour s 
reform ; his reform consisting in making all things smooth for 
all nations coming to God. God unites, and the devil divides. 


Advance towards Bokhara ; Colonel Campbell, Sir John McNeil, 
Borowsky the Jew ; Plague ; from Astaara to Teheran ; State 
of Persia; Boostan ; Journey through the Desert of Cay en. 

ON the third day after Wolff s arrival at Khoy, a " takli- 
truwaii" arrived, which means literally " a walking-chair." 
It is like a sedan chair, with red curtains, and it was sent to 
him by the British Ambassador, Colonel Campbell, with a 
letter both from him and from Doctor, now Sir John, McNeil, 
dated Astaara, which is ten miles distant from Tabreez ; and 

of Dr. Wolff. 281 

they stated their great sorrow at being told of Wolff s indispo 
sition at Tokat. They sent this letter by their head servant, 
a Persian ; and it proceeded to inform Wolff that the plague 
was raging all over Persia, and especially in Tabreez ; so that 
all the chief inhabitants of that place had fled from it. More 
over, they informed him that his royal highness, Abbas Mirza, 
had marched with his army, 20,000 strong, accompanied by 
Major Stokes, Captain Shee, and five English sergeants, into 
the interior of Persia, towards Yazd and Kermaan, two places 
which are the chief seats of the Parsees, the fire-worshippers. 
Dear people, will that fire divine ever burn in your hearts 
which will lead you to that light, which guides to the source of 
light, the real Ormuzd, Christ our Lord ? The messenger was 
instructed, moreover, to desire Wolff to come to their tents, 
where a tent was already pitched for him, and where he should 
also meet the Russian ambassador and his staff. Wolff went 
accordingly to Astaara, and was most kindly received by the 
British Embassy, and his friends, Dr. and Mrs. McNeil. The 
Russian ambassador also called upon him, with his two secre 
taries ; one of whom was Chodzko, a Pole, who was very much 
concerned about the destiny of his countrymen, who were, at 
that time, in open rebellion against the Emperor Nicholas ; 
and he desired Wolff to make him acquainted with the last 
news about Poland. Chosdow, the other secretary, displayed 
a candour which it was surprising to observe in a diplomatist ; 
for he informed Wolff that the Poles had hitherto been vic 
torious on every occasion, and had defeated the Russians. 

Wolff preached in the tents of the British Ambassador, and 
his sermon consisted of an exposition of the 1 2th chapter of 
Revelation ; in which he showed that the woman mentioned in 
the first verse was the Jewish nation ; and the child which was 
born was Christ ; and the time of the spiritual conception of 
Christ in the Jews, will produce a war in heaven between 
Michael the Archangel, and the dragon. And he showed that 
in that conflict Michael will be victorious, and will expel the 
dragon, which is the devil, who has hitherto access in heaven, 
as we can see in the case of Job, when he appeared before God 
as accuser. This fall of the dragon will fill him with wrath, 
and then he will persecute the Jewish nation, when those 
mighty wonders shall be performed, which are alluded to in 
Micah vii. 15, wonders similar to those which were performed 
at their coming out of Egypt. " According to the days of thy 
coming-out of the land of Egypt will I show unto him marvel 
lous things. 1 And it is for that reason that the prophets 
Isaiah and Ezekiel make those battles fought in former times 

282 Travels and Adventures 

typical of those battles which shall be fought previous to the 
coming of our Lord, &c. 

McNeil confessed that he never heard a sermon in which 
such a deep insight into Scripture was displayed, and such 
knowledge of the writings of the Fathers. The Russian 
secretaries, to whom also he preached the same sermon, took 
it down in writing, and sent it to Count Nesselrode, the Chan 
cellor of the Russian Emperor. Chodzko also said, that many 
monks of the famous monastery, Troitzo, held the same views 
as Wolff; and Wolff advised Chodzko to get the book called 
" The Coining of Christ in Majesty and Glory," written in 
Spanish by a converted Jew, the famous Jesuit Lacuuza, under 
the assumed name, Juan Josaphat Ben-Ezra, which had been 
translated into English by Edward Irving ; and was also 
translated into German. This book was condemned by the 
Church of Rome, on account of Lacunza^s belief in the re-esta 
blishment of Jewish sacrifices. 

Colonel Campbell now immediately wrote to the King of 
Persia, who had fled into the mountains of Ispahan, on account 
of the plague, and also to Abbas Mirza at Yazd, for letters of 
introduction for Wolff to the chiefs in Khorassan. And in due 
time both letters of introduction and passports arrived, accord 
ing to this request ; on which occasion it so happened that 
Wolff, the Ambassador and his family, with Dr. McNeil and 
his family, were all seated together at dinner, and Dr. McNeil 
said jokingly to Wolff, " Now you have got all the letters ; 
but, in spite of them, we shall hear, two months hence, the 
sad tidings that Joseph Wolff has been made a slave in Kho 
rassan by the Turcomauns, and sold for six sliay? the value 
of one " shay " being the twentieth part of a farthing. 

Despatches arrived at the same time from Bushire, with a 
letter from the British Resident there, who gave notice to 
Colonel Campbell that Colonel Chesney had arrived from 
Bombay, in company with a Polish nobleman, Count Borowsky 
by name. On hearing this announcement, Wolff at once said, 
" Be on your guard, Borowsky is not a Polish nobleman, but 
a Jew !"* This man was a very remarkable one, and to form 
an idea of him, we must go back to the year 1829, when Wolff 
had arrived in Alexandria with his wife from Jerusalem. 

A Jew called one day on him there, with all the appearance 
of a gentleman ; but who struck Wolff as being a great brag- 

fart. He informed him that his mother had been a Jewess, 
nt that his father was Prince Radzivil ; that he had been in 
London, and had wished to be baptized there ; but as the 
London Society for Promoting Christianity among the Jews 

of Dr. Wolff. 283 

would not come to his terms, he had left them. This 
visitor, who called himself Borowsky, was then a young man, 
giving instruction in Alexandria, in history and mathematics ; 
but Wolff, convinced that he was a Jew, on the father s as well 
as mother s side, did not wish to have anything to do with 
him. . 

However, Caviglia (mentioned already), the philosopher, 
Christian, mystic, and antiquarian, took an interest in him ; 
and, as he wished to proceed to Bombay, he offered him letters 
of introduction, if he would first state what he meant to do 
there, Borowsky told him coolly, that he would teach the 
English there how to govern India. Caviglia retired, and 
exclaimed, "Per Bacco !" and did not wish to have anything 
more to do with him. Nevertheless, Borowsky proceeded 
to India, though without the letters. This was in the year 
1829 ; and in 1831, as stated before, the news reached Colonel 
Campbell, that this Borowsky, under the title of Count, had 
arrived at Bushire with Colonel Chesney. And Wolff warned 
Colonel Campbell accordingly of his suspicions about the man. 
That Wolff s suspicions of his being a Jew were well founded, 
will hereafter appear. 

Wolff left Astaara, accompanied by a servant of Colonel 
Campbell, and traversed, for eight days, all the villages 
infected by the plague, for 300 miles, till he reached Teheran, 
the chief capital of the King of Persia, the journey being per 
formed on horseback, and Wolff always sleeping outside the 
villages on the ground, in the open air. The servant cooked 
for him, and he was provided with victuals at Astaara to last 
the whole way. 

On his arrival in Teheran, he took up his abode in the palace 
of the British Ambassador, as Colonel Campbell had most 
kindly provided him with a letter for the housekeeper there, 
who was a Persian. Khosrow Khan, his old friend, the chief 
eunuch, called on him ; and ho has been already described by 
Wolff as a Muhammadan Swedenborgian. He was delighted, 
he said, to hear again about Christ. He said, also, that he 
would assist Wolff in going safely to Bokhara ; but that it was 
a far more dangerous journey than any Wolff had ever under 
taken before, and, therefore, great caution was required. He 
said, too, that, in the year 1825, Captain Brown, an English 
traveller, had been killed in Khorassan, although he had had 
with him an escort from the King of Persia. 

Wolff called the next day on Khosrow Khan, when he met 
there several Affghan merchants who had come from Bokhara. 
Khosrow Khan asked them, how Wolff could go safely ? They 

284 Travels and Adventures 

replied, " Nametwanad B rawad," "He cannot qo" Wolff 
asked, " Why not !" They answered, " They will kill you in 
Khorassan, because they cannot bear Christians ; and if you 
should slip safely through Khorassan, and arrive in Sarakhs, 
where there are 6000 tents of Turcomauns, they will keep you 
a slave ; and if you were to slip through Sarakhs safely, and 
arrive in Merw (also called Mowr), you will still be in the 
same danger ; and if you should slip safely through Merw, 
and arrive in Bokhara, you will either be kept there, and 
never be allowed to leave : or killed, as they killed Morecroft, 
and Guthrie, and Trebeck, six years ago, after Shah Hydar 
had received them with the greatest kindness, and after they 
had given him immense presents." Besides this, they said to 
Wolff, " You have physical impediments, because you are 
short-sighted, and do not see when robbers are coming." 

And Wolff must confess that he is the most unfit of tra 
vellers, because, as they justly observed, he is short-sighted ; 
and also, he is not able to ride upon a good horse, nor even 
upon a donkey ; he cannot swim at all ; he cannot cook his 
own victuals, nor sit as the natives do, with crossed legs, like 
tailors; and his habit of walking about, in a pensive manner, 
was always offensive to Easterns of every description, until 
they had found him out to be a dervish, who was absorbed in 
meditations on higher matters. 

Khosrow Khan said, " My dear friend, I do not like to be 
responsible for your safety, for I am convinced you are in 
great danger. 1 Wolff replied, " Grod is mighty above all 
things ; He will take care of me." 

Now, before Wolff proceeds to give an account of his depar 
ture, he must be allowed to give an insight into the state of 
the country of Persia, and of Turkistan, and Bokhara those 
countries to which he was about to proceed. He has already 
observed that there are two great parties in the Muhammadan 
religion : The Sheeah, Anti-traditionalists, who believe that 
the first rightful successor of Muhammad was Ali, and after 
him the twelve Imaums. They reject entirely the right of 
successorship of Aboubeker, Omar, and Osman, and consider 
them as robbers and usurpers, and curse five times every day, 
in each of their prayers, Aboubeker, Omar, and Osman. 

Now the Persians and the people of Khorassan are Sheeah, 
and are under the government of the King of Persia, who is 
also a Sheeah. And Persia Proper, including Khorassan, is 
comprised by the name of Iran. But, after it, Tooran comes, 
which comprises the whole of Turkistan, Bokhara, Khiva, and 
Kokan, and Tashkand, and Hasrat Sultan, Mimona, Ankhoy, 

of Dr. Wolff. 285 

and Herat. These countries, except Herat, are also called 
Turkistan. Its inhabitants are Osbeck, Tatshick, and Kal 
mucks, all of which are Soounee, i.e. Traditionalists. They 
recognize the Khalifatship, or successorship of Aboubeker, 
Omar, and Osman, and Ali ; and declare the Sheeah to be 
infidels, and worthy of being sold, as they express themselves, 
like donkeys and horses. And this they do ; and every year 
the King and Muhammadan Mollahs of Bokhara issue a 
Fetwa, i.e. Papal bull, ordering the Turcomauns in the desert, 
and the Hazara (called by Gibbon, "Khozaren"), to march 
every year to Khorassan and Persia, to make " tchapow," i.e. 
foray ; which order those tribes obey, and capture whole cara 
vans, burn down cities and villages, and sell the inhabitants as 
slaves in the cities of Turkistan. 

In Hebrew, the Turcomauns are called, The children of 
Togarmah. Is it not remarkable that this description agrees 
with the words of Ezekiel? (Ezekiel xxvii. 14) "They of 
the house of Togarmah traded in thy fairs with horses and 
horsemen " i. e. slaves, because the Persian slaves are used 
as horsemen " and mules." This is their trade to this day. 
The Turcomauns now, therefore, enter Khorassan every year, 
five or six times, burn down whole villages, carry away the 
inhabitants as slaves, and sell them in the cities of Bokhara 
and Khiva. 

But this is not the only thing to be dreaded. The people 
of Khorassan, though Sheeah, and subjects of the King of 
Persia, were only nominally his subjects, and were, in reality, 
subjects of forty-two Khans ; and, let it be observed, all of 
them were Sheeah also. And all those Khans had power in 
their respective territories over the lives and property of their 
subjects, like the feudal lords, in ancient times, in England 
and in Germany ; and they cared but little for the King of 
Persia, to whom, however, each Khan gave every year a horse 
as a mark of tribute. 

Many of these Khans were in open understanding with the 
Turcomauns of the desert ; the enemies of their rightful Kino-, 
and the enemies of their religion ! There was one of them, 
especially, whose name was Muhammad Iszhak Khan, ruler 
of the city and territory of Torbad-Hydareea ; a man six feet 
high, with eyes flashing fire, who marched out, sometimes 
with 3000 horsemen, making slaves of the subjects of his 
fellow-Khans, bringing them to his own town, Torbad, im 
prisoning them, aud putting them in irons until Turcomauns 
from the desert came to purchase them of him ; and thus 
bought Sheeah from the hands of a Sheeah chief, to sell them 

286 Travels and Adventures 

again, chiefly in Bokhara and Khiva ! It is said of him, that 
he had, in this manner, sold 60,000 of his co-religionists, and 
subjects of his own King, to the Soonnee ; and as this system 
has been now carried on for centuries, there are 200,000 
Persian slaves in the kingdom of Bokhara alone. It was 
through such a country as this that Wolff had now to travel. 
Meantime, several cases of Bibles, in various languages had 
arrived for Wolff in the British Embassy at Teheran, from 
Bombay, sent to him by Bishop Carr, at that time Arch 
deacon Carr. Before Wolff started he made acquaintance 
with an Affghan, who had been several times in Bokhara, and 
had managed matters so well that he always came safely 
back ; and as Soonnee, there was no danger of his being made 
a slave. This man promised to bring Wolff safely to Bokhara; 
so he paid him a visit in the British Embassy. On his arrival 
there Wolff embraced him in the Eastern manner, and gave 
him a cup of tea to drink, and sat down near him, and looked 
at him ; when, on looking at his neck, below his ear, he saw 
something white on his skin white as snow ; but not 
knowing then, thoroughly, what leprosy was, he put his hand 
to it, and asked him " What have you got here?" To which 
he coolly replied, " This is what we call in Persian, />/?;" i. e. 
leprosy. Wolff ran away at once, and out into the garden ; 
where meeting with a Parsee who was preparing everything for 
his journey, he bade him go and tell the man he could have 
nothing to do with him j and, of course, he never saw him 


Wolff then went to the market-place in Teheran, where he 
met a Muhammadan, dressed in a large yellow gown, with a 
shawl tied around him like a sash ; a white turban upon his 
head, and a staff in his hand. Wolff was at that time dressed 
in Persian costume ; he had also a Bible under his arm, and a 
Persian cap on his head ; and as it is not the custom as it is in 
England, that one must be first introduced before speaking, he 
walked up to him, and said, " I perceive that you are a 
Hadshee." He at once told Wolff his whole history, and 
said, " Yes, God be praised, I am a Hadshee, a Sheeah, and a 
Muj teheed (i. e. a Sheeah priest). I set out three years 
ago from Herat, and came through Khorassan, escaping the 
attention of that Pedr Sukhte (which is in English, ( one 
whose father ought to be burned ), Muhammad Iszhak Khan, 
of Torbad-Hydareea ; and I arrived safely in Teheran, and 
from Teheran I went to Bushire ; from thence I embarked for 
Juddah, and from Juddah I went to Mecca, and from Mecca 
to Medina j and after three years I returned yesterday, back 

of Dr. Wolf. 287 

to this place, Teheran ; and to-morrow I shall set out for 
Herat, by the way of Meshed." 

Wolff was highly pleased to hear this account, for he, him 
self, had to go more than halfway on the same road. So he 
said to the Hadshee : " You are a Hadshee ; I am also a 
Hadshee ; but I am more, I am a Dervish. I am a believer 
in three books, which are : first, the books of Moses and the 
Prophets : secondly, the Psalms of David ; and thirdly, the 
Gospel of Christ, together with the Epistles of his Apostles." 
Wolff used wittingly these expressions, because the Mu- 
hammadans divide the revealed Book into four books ; firstly, 
the Tawrat, i. e. the first five books of Moses ; secondly, 
Zaboor, that is the Psalms of David ; thirdly, Anjeel, which 
is the Gospel ; and fourthly, the Koran, i. e. the book of Mu 
hammad. By telling the Hadshee this, Wolff gave him to 
understand that he did not believe the same as the Hadshee, 
but yet, that he was not an infidel. Wolff then continued, 
" I go about in the world to proclaim that Jesus Christ came 
the first time to suffer for our sins ; and that He will come 
the second time to reign on earth in majesty and glory ; and 
I am now going to Bokhara in order to find out the ten tribes 
of Israel. "" 

The Hadshee, whose name was Sayd Muhammad, observed, 
" I should like to travel with you." And Wolff repeated, " I 
should like to travel with you." On which the Hadshee said, 
" Then you must be ready to-morrow." 

Wolff hired four camels, upon which he loaded, those Bibles 
which had been sent to him from Bombay for distribution on 
the journey ; and he hired two Persian servants, both of them 
tremendous rogues ; for Wolff never had the ood fortune to 

O " O 

meet with a good servant, except on his second journey to 
Bokhara, in the year 1843, when he took a Russian with him 
from Constantinople to Tabreez, who actually behaved very 
well the whole journey. But when they arrived at Tabreez, 
he became so drunk that he thrashed his master, and would 
have most seriously injured him, if Mr. Bonham had not 
knocked him down. Wolff, however, would still have taken 
him on to Bokhara after he became sober, if he would have 
promised not to get drunk again. But he said he never would 
promise such a thing, as he was determined to get drunk 
whenever the feast of the Holy Virgin Mary was celebrated. 
So Wolff dismissed him. 

But to return to the journey to Khorassan. Wolff set out 
the next day with the Hadshee, who had his hareem and 
servants ; and with his own servants besides ; and about fifty 

288 Travels and Adventures 

Persians who had joined the caravan for Khorassan. Every 
thing went on smoothly for three days ; but on the fourth, 
they arrived in the province of Khorassan ; and, almost im 
mediately, the whole caravan uttered shrieks, and the Hadshee 
said, weeping, " God have mercy upon us ! Now we are lost ; 
we are slaves for life !" Wolff asked, "What is the matter?" 
They all exclaimed, " Are you blind ? look there !" and here 
they pointed in one direction. " There are the Al-Ammaan 
coming on horseback ; and the Al-Ammaan have a proverb, 
Al-Ammaan Atlanda Attasee Danamas^ ^ i.e. "An Al- 
Ammaan on horseback does not know his own father." 

Now observe, the Turcomauns are also called "Al-Am 
maan ; " and there cannot be the least doubt that they are 
the ancient Scythians, the ancestors of the Germans, or the 
Allemanni, or Allemands. There are among them two tribes; 
the one called Sdkas> the Saxons ; and the other the Garaman, 
that is the Germans. They are also called the Tooraanee, and 
are noted so much for their ferocity, that the Greeks have 
taken from the name rvpawoi, i. e. " tyrants." The first thing 
they do whenever they attack a caravan, is to fire, and kill 
some, in order to strike terror among the rest. Then those 
who have escaped fall on their knees, and exclaim, Ammaan ! 
i.e. "Give us our safety!" Upon this, the Al-Amniaans, 
that is, the people to whom the prisoner entrusts his safety, strip 
their victims of everything they possess, leaving them naked ; 
and tie them to their horses tails with a long rope, so that 
the horse is not able to kick them ; but they are dragged on 
until the troop arrive with them at the spot in Turkistan 
called Sarakhs, which is the chief emporium or market-place 
for slaves. 

Now eight or nine hundred of such Al-Ammaan came down 
upon Wolff and his caravan ; but, to the surprise of all, they 
did not fire, nor make any attack ; although they came up to 
within a couple of yards of the travellers. Every one was 
dumb and motionless, the attackers as well as the attacked. 
At last, the Turcomauns commenced, "Norb don Golyoorsesz?" 
i.e. "Where do you come from ?" Wolff replied, " Ajamees- 
taundan^ which means, "From the land of Ajam," i.e. Persia. 
The Al-Arnmaans shook their heads, and said to each other, 
" KoorJcar, Ajameestaunda Boowakt Wabba Warr awrdah ; " 
" There is danger ; the plague exists in Persia at this time." 
When Wolff observed from these words that they were afraid 
of the plague, he began to walk up to them ; upon which, 
they turned round at once, and rode off as fast as they could. 
And thus, as it was observed, in the account of Wolff s cle- 

of Dr. Wolff. 289 

parture from Constantinople, the plague was once, during this 
journey, the means of saving him from either death or slavery. 

All now exclaimed, " Alhamdoolillah /" " Praise be to God !" 
and after this, they marched on, and came to Semnaun. This 
was the place where, six years before Wolff s journey, Captain 
Brown was killed ; and here, at the time when Wolff was en 
tering it, two Khorassan chiefs were fighting with each other. 
One of them was son to the King of Persia ; the other was a 
native of Khorassan, both of them Sheeah. 

Wolff pitched his tent outside the city of Semnaun, with 
the rest of the caravan ; and the inhabitants came thither out 
of the town ; some of them to honour Wolff, because they had 
heard that he was a great dervish ; others with a wish to kill 
him, because they had heard that he was an infidel. The 
Hadshee made them believe that he was a dervish, who be 
lieved in three books, and that he was an extraordinary man, 
who went about to speak with the nations about Jesus. So 
these men talked to Wolff for some time ; but the evil-disposed 
ones refused to give him water to drink, and the others did not 
dare to do it. Wolff, however, made his way to a well him 
self. At last, they all retired back into the town, and the 
caravan slept in peace. 

From thence they came to Damghan, one of the three cities 
which are considered the most ancient in the world. The other 
two are Balkh, in Bactriana, and Nishapoor, in Khorassan. In 
Damghan, Wolff was received civilly by the Governor in his 
own house, though he told him freely his history, viz. : that 
he had been a Jew, and had become a Christian and a dervish. 
In the night there was fighting going on in the town, so that 
Wolff was disturbed the whole time ; and his host had to fly 
the place ; and Wolff hastened away in the morning to the 
camp outside the town, where he had left the Hadshee. 

And then Wolff proceeded on his way, with the caravan, to 
Sharoot and Deh-Moollah, and arrived at the beautiful town 
called Boostan, which means " Garden." This is one of the 
few towns in Khorassan, whose rule is in the hands of one of 
the King s sons. The name of that prince was Ismael Mirza,* 
and he was the son of a Jewess. On Wolff s arrival in 
Boostau, the whole town was in alarm and in arms ; and shouts 
were heard from all sides, Al-Ammaan beeroon, " The Al- 
Ammaans are outside f And this was so ; they filled the 
whole road called " The King s Highway," which leads from 

* The word Mirza, when placed before a proper name, means a secre 
tary ; when placed after it, it means a prince royal, the son or descend 
ant of a king. 

290 Travels and Adventures 

Boostan to Meshed, and so forward to Bokhara ; the King s 
Highway being a scriptural expression, to be found in the 
prophet Isaiah, signifying the chief road. 

Wolff said to the inhabitants of Boostan, u There is no 
cause of fear for us, for they might have taken us a week ago 
on the frontier." They answered, " Oh, we see that you are a 
foreigner, and do not know the policy of these Al-Ammaans. 
They did not take you on the frontier, because they were not 
quite sure whether the plague was among you or not. But, as 
they have spies everywhere, they are now convinced that you 
are healthy and sound ; and do you only go out for half an hour 
towards Meshed, and see whether they will not take you." 

Wolff now asked the Hadshee, " What do you intend to 
do?" He replied, "Let us hire a house here, and stay till the 
times are more quiet." Wolff replied, " I shall do no such 
thing, I must go on." And as he had had a letter from the 
King of Persia for Ismael Mirza, he waited on him. The 
Prince read the letter in due form, first pressing it against his 
forehead, then kisssing it, then putting it to his heart, and then, 
after reading it, he said to Wolff, " I am your humble servant. 
Ask of me whatever you wish me to do for you and I will do it.*" 
Wolff said that he only desired his Royal Highness to send 
him to Bokhara in safety, either as a freeman or as a slave. 
He told the Prince that his object in getting safely to Bokhara 
was, that he might be able to converse with the Jews about 
Jesus, and inquire into the truth of their idea, that they were 
descendants of the lost ten tribes. He added, that after 
accomplishing his mission in Bokhara, he would., in case he 
went there as a slave, write to the Governor of Orenbourg, in 
Siberia, and enclose a letter to Lord Heytesbury, sending him 
bills to obtain money to pay for his ransom in Bokhara. 

The Prince said, " There is no necessity for sending you on 
as a slave, I can send you on as a freeman. And you may 
take as much gold on your head as you please. Nobody 
will touch you, and you need not go with a caravan ; one 
single man is enough to bring you safely to Bokhara. I only 
require from you one condition I don t want money from you, 
but my father writes to me that you are a very great man in 
England. Therefore give me a writing, in which you promise, 
in the name of the King of England, that after you are arrived 
safely in Bokhara, he will give me a life-pension yearly, of 
6 ; 000 tomauns " (equal to ^3,000 sterling). 

Wolff smiled, and said, " I can give you a paper, that his 
Majesty should give you 40,000 tomauns, but I doubt whether 
he will honour the bill !" 

of Dr. Wolff. 291 

Thereupon he replied, " Then I fear your paper will be good 
for nothing." 

Wolff answered, " So I am afraid myself." 

" Then," exclaimed he, " you may go to the devil P 

So WolfF left the palace of the Prince, and returned to the 
Hadshee in the market-place, where many of the inhabitants 
were assembled. They asked WolfF what the result of his 
application had been 2 And he informed them of all the cir 
cumstances, at which they all laughed, and made the following 
remarkable observation ; 

" Oh, you don t know our princes ; they are not like yours. 
Your princes will do some kindness to a foreigner, but the 
occupation of our princes is to dye their beards black with 
henna, smoke the galyoon, and get drunk against the law of 
the Koran. They spend the greater part of their days in the 
hareem, and squeeze their subjects for money, and foreigners 
too, if they can ; and they are in understanding with the Al- 
Ammaan in the desert, bargaining for part of their spoils. 1 

It is surprising to observe, how, in countries where tyranny 
prevails, liberty of speech is allowed to exist. It is to be ex 
plained in this way : The being a tyrant is no discredit there, 
but a credit. Count Titow observed to WolfF, that this seems 
to have been the case in the time of our blessed Saviour. And 
the Apostle seems to insinuate this by the words, " He beareth 
not the sword in vain." And if we ask at the present day in 
savage, despotic countries, " Why has the king killed such and 
such a man 2 What crime has he committed 2" the answer is, 
" None ; he was a good man, but using the sword is the 
business of a king." 

This seems to have been the case in the times of Louis 
Quinze in France, when both tyranny existed and liberty of 
speech was allowed. For a tyrant will allow liberty of speech 
so long as he does not perceive the danger of it, but the 
moment he perceives the danger he puts a stop to it. And so, 
we may ask, would Louis Napoleon now allow any one to write 
a book like " Telemaque ?" Certainly not ! Napoleon per 
ceives this danger, and gives warning to newspapers, and stops 
all liberty of speech; because the fate of Louis XVI. has 
shown to him what is the consequence of tyrannical acts when 
they are permitted to be canvassed by the people. 

WolfF asked the inhabitants whether there was not another 
road to Bokhara? They replied, " Yes, there is one where the 
Turcomauns don t go, on account of the scarcity of water ; and 
this is through the province of Cay en to Burchund, and from 
thence to Herat, and from Herat to Samarcand and Bokhara. 


292 Travels and Adventures 

In case you take that road, you must provide yourself with 
water for seven days in skins, and also with pomegranates, from 
which you may squeeze out a tumbler full of juice, and that 
juice, mixed with water and sugar, you will find a delicious 
draught to take when you are thirsty ; and you must provide 
yourself with enough roasted chickens to last you seven days, 
and so you will be able to arrive on the seventh day at Bur- 
chund. But on arriving there, try to escape the attention of 
Ameer Assaad-Oollah-Beyk, the Governor of that place, for 
he has been a rebel against Abbas Mirza and the King of 
Persia for the last thirty years, and as you are the friend of 
Abbas Mirza, you may easily be suspected of being one of his 
spies, and be put to death." 

Wolff prepared, according to the advice he had received, to 
proceed to Burchund and Herat, and when the inhabitants saw 
that he was determined to go, one old man eighty years of age, 
said, " I will go with this European as far as Burchund, for I 
have never seen my great-grandchildren who live there." 
Another said, " I want to go and see my nurse, whom I have 
not seen for these twenty years." 

And thus a caravan was again formed, of between forty and 
fifty people, and Wolff set out for the desert of Cayeu with his 
fellow-travellers and servants. 

The first night they slept among the ruins of a huge castle. 
It was utterly inconceivable to discover, how, in those ancient 
times, men could have placed such mighty stones one upon the 
other. No wonder that the natives say, these structures have 
not been built by human hands, but by Deeves, or genii ; and 
that Rostum himself, the Hercules of the Persians, has not 
been able to destroy them entirely. 

The next morning Wolff started again on his journey, and 
went twenty-five miles ; and they were about to lie down to 
sleep in the desert, after they had had some food, when the old 
man, before mentioned, began to make a most tremendous noise, 
exclaiming, " O God ! what has happened to me in my old 
age ?" They asked him what was the matter ? and he replied, 
" I must return to that accursed castle." Wolff asked, why? 
He said, " I have lost a half-rupee in the castle, which I must 
try to find again." Wolff would have willingly offered him 
two or three rupees, in order that he might not take the trou 
ble of going back again ; but on such journeys everything is 
to be considered ; for, if he had shown himself liberal to the 
old man, he might have excited the suspicion that he had a 
great deal of money, and so have put into the minds of the rest, 
and even^of the old man himself, the idea of killing him for 

of Dr. Wolff. 293 

his money. For they say of a man who has got a great deal 
of money, bad nam darad, which means "he has a bad name," 
because he is in danger of being put to death. And so Wolff 
suffered the old man to return the next day to the castle. 

All said that the man would not try again to join the cara 
van, but would go back to Boostan ; and so they proceeded 
without him, and went on that day about thirty miles, and 
were about to go to rest, when, to their great surprise, they 
heard the voice of the old man, exclaiming, " Praise be to 
God, the Creator of the world, praise be to God, the mighty 
and the glorious ! I have found my half-rupee." The whole 
caravan laughed most heartily on hearing the joy of this man, 
who kept them awake half the night, telling them how he had 
swept the room in the castle, until " Hazr" (i.e. Elijah) ap 
peared to him, and showed him the spot where the half-rupee 
lay. This illustrates the passage in Luke xv. 8, 9, u Either 
what woman having ten pieces of silver, if she lose one piece, 
doth not light a candle, and sweep the house, and seek dili 
gently till she find it ? And when she hath found it, she call- 
eth her friends and her neighbours together, saying, Rejoice, 
with me, for I have found the piece which I had lost. 11 

Wolff had often witnessed similar conduct in women who 
had lost some piece of money of the most insignificant value, 
and this shows the dreadful covetousness of the Eastern people. 
However, covetousness is not confined to Easterns, it prevails 
also in Europe, especially among those literary men who carry 
on literary pursuits as a trade, 

The next morning; the caravan proceeded on through the 
desert, and slept in a camp, as usual ; when a quarrel arose 
between two of the travellers, one saying to the other, " Thou 
stupid fellow, thou art ignorant of thy religion." The other 
replied, " Ask me a question, and see if I cannot answer it." 
The other said, " Then tell me what was the name of the pro 
phet s daughter who married Ali f The other did not know. 
And here Wolff, who had overheard the discussion, called out, 
" Fatimah Khatoon was her name." (Khatoon means a lady, 
so that she was called " Fatimah the lady.") 

The man who had challenged the other, now exclaimed, " See, 
this Christian dervish knows it, but thou dost not know !" 

Wolff again interposed, " Now, I will ask you who boast so 
much, some questions. Answer me ! With whom did Mu 
hammad travel, and to what place did he travel, when he was 
thirteen years of age ? And who invited him to a sumptuous 

The man knew not one single word of this. Then Wolff 
said, " He travelled with Aboo-Taleb, his uncle ; and came 

294 Travels and Adventures 

near Bussorah in Syria, on his way to Jerusalem ; and it was 
by Baheerah, the monk, that he was invited with his party to 
a sumptuous dinner."" 

As Wolff concluded, a dervish rose from amidst the caravan, 
and approaching him said, " Verily, Youssuff Wolff, thou art 
a dervish indeed. Untruth is not in thee !" Wolff at once 
presented this dervish with a Bible, and commenced speaking 
about religion. 


Burclmnd : Taken Prisoner : Dervishes : Caravan : Toorshesh : 
Made Slave: Torbad-Hydareea : The " Head-tearer :" Re 
leased from Slavery. 

A T last, the caravan arrived in Burchund, where Wolff went 
** to a caravanserai to sleep ; for Ameer Assaad-Oollah- 
Beyk, Governor of the place, a Sheeah by persuasion, and 
vassal to the King of Persia (but who had already been for 
thirty years a rebel against his liege lord, and the Prince Regent 
Abbas Mirza), was very suspicious of every traveller who came 
to the place ; being afraid that he might be a spy upon him, 
sent from Abbas Mirza. Wolff, knowing this, did not delay 
at Burchund ; but set out the next morning for Herat, accom 
panied only by his own two servants, and a camel-driver con 
ducting the camel which carried the Bibles. 

He walked the whole distance being forty miles ; and just 
as night had set in, two horsemen came up behind him. They 
were of that mighty and brave race, the Pooluj, the bravest 
people of central Asia ; who were afterwards entirely defeated 
and subdued by General Sir Charles Napier. When these two 
Pooluj came behind Wolff, they said, " We are sent by Ameer 
Assaad-Oollah-Beyk to bring you back, because you are a spy 
from Abbas Mirza." 

The history of the matter was this. Before Wolff arrived 
at Burchund, a report had reached the place that Abbas Mirza 
had already marched into Khorassan, for the purpose of putting 
an end to slave-making, and of exterminating the Khans, 
among whom Ameer Assaad-Oollah-Beyk, as one of the chief 
rebels, was included. And Wolff was suspected of being a spy 
from Abbas Mirza, on his road to Herat, to make alliance with 
Shah Kamran, its king. 

Wolff had no resource, but was forced to walk back to Bur- 
ehund, a journey which he accomplished in three days, and 

of Dr. Wolff. 295 

then he was brought to the old castle, which was the residence 
of the Ameer. Those castles are called in the Persian, ark, 
from which our English and German word "ark" is derived, 
and it means " a fortress." 

Here Wolff was dragged into a large dark room by the 
Ameer s soldiers, in a rude, disrespectful way. Each of the 
soldiers had a matchlock gun in his hand ; with a burning, 
smoking torch upon it, which spread a sulphurous odour through 
the room. On one side of the room sat the Ameer, with the 
chiefs of the desert around him. The Ameer himself had a 
most beautiful eye, and pleasant countenance ; and both he 
and all the other chiefs had a galyoon in their mouths, and 
were smoking. On the other side were the Moollahs sitting ; 
and in the midst of them was a dervish of high repute, whose 
name was Hadshee Muhammad Jawad. 

Wolff was at this time in his Persian dress, and carried a 
Bible under his arm, as was his universal custom in travelling. 
The Ameer first opened his mouth, and asked Wolff, 

" Where do you come from?" 

Wolff said, "I come from England, and am going to Bok 

" What do you intend to do in Bokhara?" asked the Ameer. 

W olff replied, " I, having been a Jew, visit that nation all 
over the world, and wish to go to Bokhara, in order to see 
whether the Jews there are of the ten tribes of Israel, and to 
speak to them about Jesus." 

All in the room exclaimed, " This man must be devil-pos 
sessed !" 

But the dervish, on the other side, called out, " Silence ! 
This man is not devil-possessed. I shall examine him." And 
then he proceeded to examine Wolff, in the most extraordinary 
manner, by asking him, " Do you know Sir John Malcolm ?" 

Wolff answered Yes." 

Then, again, asked the dervish, " Do you know Sir Gore 

Wolff said " Yes," once more. 

Dervish. " Do you know Lord Hastings, Governor-General 
of India?" 

Wolff." Yes." 

Dervish (in a louder tone). " Do you know the Padri (i. e. 
missionaries) of Calcutta, Serampore, Madras, and Bombay ?" 

Wolff." Yes." 

Then said the dervish, "Thou art a Padre" (a missionary), 
and added, with exultation at his own shrewdness, " Have I 
found you out?" Wolff answered " Yes." Upon which the 

296 Travels and Adventures 

dervish turned to the Ameer, and said, " Now go on asking 
him questions, and I will help you out/ 

The Ameer then continued the examination as follows : 

Ameer. " How far is England from Bokhara?" 

Wolff. " Seven thousand miles straightforward, going by 
sea to Constantinople, and from Constantinople by land to 
Bokhara; but, as I have come, it is above 15,000." 

Ameer. "Why do you take such trouble? why do you 
mind what they believe in Bokhara ? why not remain at home, 
eat and drink, and live comfortably in the circle of your family ?" 

Wolff. " Sadi says," (and, as he spoke, he balanced him 
self from side to side, as is the custom with dervishes, using 
also their singing tone), " The world, O brother, remaineth 
not to any one. Fix, therefore, your heart on the Creator of 
the world, and it is enough. I have found out, by the reading 
of this book" (here he held out the Bible) "that one can only 
bind one s heart to God by believing in Jesus ; and believing 
this, I am like one who walks in a beautiful garden, and smells 
the odour of the roses, and hears the warbling of the nightin 
gale ; and I do not like to be the only one so happy ; and there 
fore I go about in the world for the purpose of inviting others 
to walk with me, arm-in-arm, in the same beautiful garden." 

They all at once rose, and exclaimed, " A man of God ! 
drunk with the love of God ! A dervish indeed ! Sit down !" 

A pipe was now brought to Wolff, and tea ; and then the 
Ameer desired him to read some portions from his book. 

Wolff turned to the Sermon on the Mount, and read the 
first twelve verses ; then to Isaiah, and read parts of the 34th 
chapter, " Come near, ye nations, to hear ; and hearken, ye 
people : Let the earth hear, and all that is therein ; the world, 
and all things that come forth of it. For the indignation of 
the Lord is upon all nations, and His fury upon all their 
armies : He has utterly destroyed them, He has delivered them 
to the slaughter," &c. Upon this Wolff enlarged, and spoke 
of the final judgments of God upon the nations. A general cry 
now arose, " O God, why do we not repent ? O God, why do 
we not repent ?" 

And then the Ameer asked whether Wolff had such books 
in their language, to which Wolff replied, " Yes," and sending 
for his servant, he caused Persian and Arabic Bibles to be 
brought into the room, and distributed above forty copies. He 
afterwards saw people reading, in the open market-places, these 
very books ; and was called upon, more than once, to explain 
different passages in them. Wolff remained fourteen days in 
Burchund, sleeping in the house of Hadshee Muhammad Jawad. 

of Dr. Wolff. 297 

This dervish is known, not only in the whole of Khorassan, 
but also throughout Turkistan, including Bokhara, Balkh, and 
Cabul, Khotan, Kokan, Tashkand, Hasrat, Sultan, and Yar- 
kand in Chinese Tartary, the whole of Hindoostan, Thibet, 
and China ! 

It is worth while to give to the world a more just view of 
the dervishes than has hitherto been done, because, both by 
missionaries and other travellers, they have been represented 
as useless beggars. Such an account of them as this is at once 
refuted, by simply stating, that all the great men in the East, 
who have been celebrated either as poets, or historians, or law 
yers, have been dervishes. For example, Hafiz, Saadi, Fer- 
doosi, Moollah, Eoomee, Jaami, Malek Nizam and the last 
was the exterminator of the Assassins, who are otherwise 
called "The people of the Man of the Mountain." These peo 
ple, before they attacked an enemy, would intoxicate themselves 
with a powder made of hemp-leaves, out of which they pre 
pared an inebriating electuary, called " Hashish ;" and so they 
were called " Hashshasheen," whence the English word " ass 
assin" is derived. They were under the command of an old 
man, who resided formerly upon Mount Lebanon, and was, 
therefore, called " The Old Man of the Mountain." Many 
heroes, who went from Europe to fight against Islam, in the 
time of the Crusades, fell victims to the invisible hands of 
"The Old Man of the Mountain." 

To return to the dervishes. If they did not exist, no man 
would be safe in the deserts among the savages. They are the 
chief people in the East who keep in the recollection of those 
savages that there are ties between heaven and earth. They 
restrain the tyrant in his oppression of his subjects ; and are, 
in fact, the great benefactors of the human race in the East. 
They are called dervishes from the word Daar, which is, in 
English, "door," and Weesh, which means "hanging," the 
purport of the whole word being to Jiang at the gate of God, to 
be inspired by Him, and to trust in His bounty. They are 
consulted by courts, and by the counsellors of state in times of 
emergency. All the prophets of old were dervishes, beyond all 
doubt, in their actions, in their style of speaking, and in their 
dress. For instance, we find that Elijah sat, " with his face 
wrapped in his mantle ;" and when he was asked, " What art 
thou doing ?" he replied, " I am jealous for the Lord." Ex 
actly so does a dervish sit now, wrapped up in his mantle, in 
deep meditation. And if one asks him, " What art thou doing, 
O dervish ?" he will reply, " I am filled with zeal for God ;" 
or, " I think of the time when Mehdee (i. e. the Restorer of all 

298 Travels and Adventures 

things) will come, and when the wolf and the lamb shall lie 
down together." And when he comes near a river, he strikes 
the river with his mantle. At other times, he strips himself 
of his clothes, as Isaiah did, to indicate the total overthrow of 
an empire. And dervishes sit outside the gate, as Isaiah did, 
and receive the counsellors of the kings, as he did. And, just 
as Isaiah prophesied the defeat of the Assyrian king, in the 
following short sentence, when Hezekiah sent to consult him, 
" The virgin, the daughter of Zion, laughs at thee, the daugh 
ter of Jerusalem shakes her head at thee," thus the dervish, 
Nakshpandee, replied to the King of Khiva, when he was con 
sulted on the approach of Russia to Khiva, " Tell Moscow, 
Organtsh laughs at thee, and Khiva shakes her head at thee." 

The prophets had spiritual disciples, whose business it was 
to pour water over the head of their master ; and, before he 
died, he bequeathed his mantle to his spiritual disciple, and 
the spirit came over the disciple henceforth ; and he trod in 
the footsteps of his master, as Joshua followed Moses, and 
Elisha his master, Elijah. And thus every dervish is a Moor- 
sliced, i. e. a " spiritual guide," who has under him a Mooreed, 
which means " an obsequious disciple." Melchizedec of old, 
also a dervish, had a royal title ; he was " King of Righteous 
ness," in Hebrew, Melchizedec and he was also " King of 
Peace," Melek Salem. And when Abraham came to his tent, 
he came forth with bread and wine, and was called " The 
Priest of the Highest ;" and Abraham gave him a portion of 
his spoil. And just so, Wolff s friend in the desert of MerWj 
in the kingdom of Khiva, whose autograph Wolff considers an 
ornament to his Bible, whose name is Abd-Arrahman, which 
means, slave of the merciful God> because his mother said, on 
the day of his birth, " Thou shalt be a slave of the most mer 
ciful God all the days of thy life," has also a royal title. He 
is called, Shahe-Addaalat, " King of Righteousness," the same 
as Melchizedec in Hebrew. And when he makes peace between 
kings, he bears the title Shahe-Soolkh, i. e. " King of Peace," 
in Hebrew Melek Salem. Melchizedec produced bread and 
wine ; and thou, dear dervish in the desert of Merw, earnest 
forth from thy tent, and refreshedst the weary wanderer, Jo 
seph Wolff, with bread and sherbet. And when he asked thee, 
who was thy father and thy mother ? thou repliedst humbly, 
" I am without father, and without mother, for I have forsaken 
all for God s sake." And does not Paul say of Melchizedec, 
that he was without father and without mother ? 

To go back to Wolff s journey. At last he took Rookhsad, 
i.e. "leave of departure," from Ameer Assaad-Oollah-Beyk. 

of Dr. Wolff. 299 

He said, " My dear friend, thou may st go whenever thou 
pleasest ; but I cannot understand one thing. You intend to 
go to Bokhara. Why not go the straightforward way, from 
here to Toorshesh ? I will give you two men to escort you 
there. And my friend, Muhammad Takee Khan, will give 
you an escort to Nishapoor. There your friend, Abbas Mirza, 
has arrived with an army of 20,000 Persians ; and English 
and Russian officers are among them. He is come to extermi 
nate us all ; but God is great. I shall have to fight him, for 
he will pull down my palace if he can. In the meanwhile, we 
are politic in our behaviour towards him, and pay him every 
honour and respect. And you will be respected on his 
account. The Turcomauns have already begun to send their 
deputies to him, and have promised to make no more slaves." 
Wolff at once acted according to the Ameer s advice, and 
accepted the escort to Toorshesh. 

But before continuing the history of his travels, it must be 
recorded that this Ameer Assaad-Oollah-Beyk was a man of 
excellent and amiable character, and very remarkable as a 
brave warrior. Abbas Mirza succeeded in subduing all the 
rest of Khorassan, during the three years of his expedition 
against that country ; but Burchund was never molested by 
him. Yet a very sad fate awaited the poor Ameer ; for, in 
the year 1844, when Wolff returned from his second journey 
to Bokhara, fourteen years afterwards, he found that the 
Ameer had just been taken by Mahmood Shah, Abbas Mirza 1 s 
son, and that his kingdom had been wrested from him, and 
his eyes put out. 

Wolff departed from Burchund, escorted by two men, as 
well as his servants, who were sent with him by Assaad- 
Oollah-Beyk ; and, after two days journey, they passed by a 
village, near Toorshesh, which was in flames ; and the inha 
bitants were running about in the high road, exclaiming, " O 
God, Thou hast broken our bones!" For the Turcomauns 
had been there the day before, and had set the village on fire, 
and taken many of the inhabitants as slaves, because they 
knew that they would soon have to give up slave-making, on 
account of Abbas Mirza s army, which had entered the country 
for the purpose of putting an end to the inroads of these 

Wolff then, after two hours journey, entered the fortress of 
Toorshesh, with only one of his servants, for the other had left 
him at Burchund, saying these words, " I leave you, because if 
you are not made a slave in a few days, you may cut off my 
beard the first moment you see me." 

300 Travels and Adventures 

A Dervish was sitting at the gate of Toorshesh. The 
moment he saw Wolff, he took hold of his arms, stopped him, 
and said to him, " You are a Frankee : I won t leave you 
until I have given you a present." 

Wolff replied, " I do not want a present." 

The Dervish answered, " You shall not stir till I have given 
you a present." 

Wolff then said, "Well, then, give me a present." 

Thereupon the Dervish spat in his face. Wolff wiped it off, 
and went his way. 

Wolff, on entering Toorshesh, delivered the letters of recom 
mendation, given to him by the above-mentioned Mahmood 
Shah, into the hands of Muhammad Takee Khan, the Gover 
nor of Toorshesh, to whom they were addressed. After he had 
perused the letters, he said to Wolff, " I must be candid and 
upright towards you ; and therefore I must frankly declare to 
you that I cannot give you any escort to go with you to Nish- 
apoor, where Abbas Mirza is now encamped with his army, 
because I have declared myself rebel against him. He has 
sent me an order to deliver up my palace and my town to 
him, and this I have refused to do. And, besides this, there 
is, only fifty miles from here, my deadly enemy, Muhammad 
Iszhak Khan, of the tribe Kerahe, Governor of Torbad-Hy- 
dareea. He has the surname, Kaleekaan, which means the 
4 Head-tearer, because he has such immense bodily strength, 
that he frequently tears in two the skull of his enemy ; and 
though, from fear of Abbas Mirza, he has given orders that 
his people should cease from making slaves, nevertheless, his 
subjects wander about on horseback, and make slaves, and sell 
them to the Turcomauns." Wolff then said, " As there is no 
other remedy, can you give me a horse which is quiet, and I 
will go on alone with my servant ?" But the servant said, 
" I don t go with you, unless you promise me that you will 
ransom me, as well as yourself, in case we are made slaves by 
the Kerahe people." Wolff promised to do this, and Muham 
mad Takee Khan gave him a horse gratis ; and so he set out 
with his servant for Nishapoor. 

Fifteen muleteers, whose mules were laden with dates, 
pomegranates, &c., which were presents for Abbas Mirza, sent 
to him by the chiefs of Toon, Tabas, and Khaf, joined Wolff 
on the road ; and thus they arrived, after about five hours * 
journey, at a village called Rooshne-Abaad. Here the people 
looked out from the tower, and observed that, in the high 
ways, horsemen, belonging to Muhammad the " head-tearer," 
were wandering about, trying to make slaves. Wolff said, 
" Bring me some of my Arabic and Persian Bibles, and I will 

of Dr. Wolff. 301 

write something in each of them."" The Bibles were brought 
to him, and he wrote in Persian the following words : 

To His Royal Highness Abbas Mirza. 

" ROYAL HIGHNESS In case these Bibles reach you with 
out me, you may be convinced that I have been made slave, 
with my servant, and fifteen muleteers, not by Turcomauns, 
but by your Highness s subjects, the Kerahe, people of Mu 
hammad Khan, of Torbad-Hydareea, who wander about to 
make foray, against the order of their chief, who is now 120 
miles distant, in his country house, Sangoon. He is very 
desirous of submitting himself to your Royal Highness ; and 
therefore, in case that I am made slave, an order from you to 
their great chief, will effect not only my liberation, but also 
that of all those who have been made slaves with me. 


Wolff wrote the same in English, for the perusal of the 
British officers who accompanied Abbas Mirza s army ; and 
then he gave these Bibles into the hands of the chief of the 
inhabitants of Rooshne-Abaad, and told them, " Now, I shall 
set out on my journey for Nishapoor, accompanied by those 
who came with me here." 

And thus they set out towards a village called Sangerd, 
about three hours 1 distant from Rooshne-Abaad. When Wolff 
had ridden on before the rest, and was only a quarter of a mile 
distant from Sangerd, he suddenly heard a firing from all 
sides, and saw the flashes of the guns as they were fired off; 
and this was accompanied by dreadful yellings and screams 
from the barbarians. Ammaan! was the cry, which means 
" Safety," and Wolff might have saved himself, but he was 
determined to share common fate with the rest, and so he 
returned to his companions, when he saw an awful sight. His 
servant and all the rest were already tied to the horses 1 tails 
of a banditti who surrounded them. All these prisoners had 
been stripped entirely naked ; and, at last, one of the robbers 
rode up to Wolff, with a countenance of hell, and a gun in his 
hand, with a smoking torch upon it, and he continually ex 
claimed, " Pool, pool !" which means " Money, money !" 
Wolff gave his purse to him, and he said, " Have you more 
money r Wolff answered, "Yes, in my trunk." Then he 
said, " When my companions come, don t tell them that I 
have taken your money, for those horrid fiends, the Kerahe, 
rob among themselves again." At last, the whole troop rode 
up to Wolff, yelling, " Pool ! pool ! pool !" Wolff said, " I 
have given my money into the hands of this fellow." They 

302 Travels and Adventures 

then gave their companion a tremendous beating, and took 
the money from him. Then they said to Wolff, " Now, you 
dismount." He obeyed ; when they stripped him naked, like 
Adam and Eve when they were created, and tied him with a 
long rope to a horse s tail ; and one with a whip came behind 
and flogged him. 

Wolff prayed ! in such hours one learns to pray. 

The chief of the gang, a horrid-looking fellow, of black com 
plexion, with a blue diseased tongue, came up to him, and 
asked him, " Who art thou ?" and Wolff replied, breathing 
hard, and scarcely able to speak, " I am a follower of Jesus ;" 
and the chief, horror-struck, replied, "A follower of Jesus I" 
u Yes," Wolff said, " a follower of Jesus ! and I go about for 
his sake." 

Wolff found out during his travels among savages, that it is 
exactly with them as it is with the devil himself; for they 
believe in Jesus, but it is a belief which makes them tremble ; 
it is a torment to them. 

The chief immediately gave orders that Wolff should be un 
tied and allowed to ride upon one of the horses ; and they put 
a few rags around him to make him more comfortable. The 
road was covered with snow and ice, and they diverged out of 
the road, and at last encamped in a forest, where they made an 
immensely large fire ; they then made free with Wolff s tea, 
sugar, and things, which he had brought ; and they also broke 
open the cases of dates and pomegranates. Then they set a 
value upon the slaves they had taken, and Wolff s servant was 
valued at ten tomauns, equal to o, but when they came up 
to Wolff and looked at him, they said, " We don t like this 
fellow at all ; he stares at us so." Then one of them said, 
"He is worth five tomauns," equal to 2 10s. ; whilst another 
one said, te I would not give half that price for him." And 
whilst thus valuing and examining the prisoners and their 
effects, they found the letters of recommendation which Joseph 
Wolff had; as, for instance, letters from, and for, Abbas 
Mirza ; letters from Sir Robert Gordon ; from the Governor- 
General of India, &c. Then they asked Wolff the purport of 
these letters ; and, on his explaining this to them, they were 
horror-struck, and said, u Now, this is a dangerous man ; we 
see from his looks, and from these letters, that he is not a 
common man. Abbas Mirza is now come into this country to 
exterminate slavery, and our chief is now trying to come to 
an understanding with him ; aud Abbas Mirza will hear of 
our having made a slave of this Englishman, and will imme 
diately send an order to our chief, that we should not only 

of Dr. Wolff. 303 

dismiss the Englishman, but all the rest of the slaves who are 
deposited in Torbad-Hydareea, and who are not yet sold to 
the Turcomauns. The best, therefore, which we can do, will 
be to kill him ; and say, when he is asked for, that the Turco 
mauns have taken him." 

All this was said in Wolff s presence, and, of course, he did 
not like it. He therefore went up to them, stared in their 
faces, and said, " I have understood all you have said, and the 
resolution to which you are come. Your reasoning is very 
good, but it has only one fault, and that is, that you are too 
late ; I also knew how to calculate, and have laid my plans 
accordingly." They asked, "What plans have you made 2" 
Wolff replied, "Ask each of my travelling companions, sepa 
rately, and they will tell you what I have done in Kooshne- 
Abaad." And so they did as Wolff told them ; and then they 
heard how he had written in all the Bibles, and had left them 
to be sent to Abbas Mirza. On discovering this, they became 
as pale as death ; but Wolff, knowing that people may do in 
despair what they intended to do after mature deliberation, 
held out to them new hopes of escaping from their difficulties ; 
and at the same time, hopes of gaining money (which is the 
idol of the Eastern nations), by desisting from their intention 
of killing him. So he said to them, " Mind, I am a Christian 
dervish ; and, as such, I don t mind money, therefore hear 
what I intend to do for you. You have already taken eighty 
tomauns from me ; the books which you have also taken from 
me, are worth 200 tomauns, if you sell them to Jews ; for 
they are Hebrew Bibles, which the Jews hold in high vene 
ration. The learned Moollahs of Meshed will purchase from 
you the other books for 100 tomauns ; and the clothing and 
victuals you have also taken from me are worth ten tomauns ; 
you say, too, that I am worth five tomauns. Now, if you do 
exactly what I tell you, you shall have from me 100 tomauns 
more; therefore, what more do you want?" They asked 
Wolff, "How will you procure these 100 tomauns more?" 
Wolff replied, " You are from Torbad-Hydareea ; in that 
place are eighty Jewish families, the chiefs of them are Moollah 
Daood, and Moollah Israel. These families all arrived in 
Torbad-Hydareea 1 00 years ago, and enjoy now many privi 
leges." When Wolff said this they asked, with astonishment, 
"How do you know all these things, as you are from foreign 
lands, and have never been in our town?" Wolff said, 
" Never mind ; you see by this that I know more than you 
think, and that I speak the truth, and lies are not in me." 
The fact was this (which however he did not tell them), 

304 Travels and Adventures 

that in the years 1824 and 1825, Wolff was in Persia, and 
took a census of all the Jews throughout that country, and 
their history and condition, and so he had obtained his in 
formation. The Kerahe then said among themselves, " We 
are all Mussulmans, and we lie ; but this is a Christian, and 
he speaks the truth ; therefore let us hear what he will do, 
and how he will procure us the 100 tomauns at Torbad- 
Hydareea. " 

Wolff then said, pointing to the Hebrew Bibles, " Give me 
two of these books, and I will write something in the Hebrew 
language to the Jews of Torbad-Hydareea ; and then do you 
send two of you on with those books to that town, and let 
them give them to Moollah Daood and Moollah Israel, and you 
will see what a sensation this will excite there. They will all 
assemble, adjourn to the synagogue, and consult with each 
other ; and then they will pledge themselves to pay the 100 
tomauns, as soon as you will bring me safely to that place." 

They said, " This is a capital proposal. Our chief, Mu 
hammad Iszhak Khan, is now at Sangoon, which is thirty 
farsakh (one farsakh is four miles) distant from Torbad- 
Hydareea, and he is there with his whole hareem ; so that be 
fore he can return, it will be ten days, during which time the 
money will be given to us, and then this fellow may go in all 
haste wherever he pleases." After saying this, they brought 
the two Bibles to Wolff, who wrote in them the following 
words, in the Hebrew language : 

" Peace and prosperity to the children of Israel in Torbad- 
Hydareea ! Oh that the city of Jerusalem may soon be built 
up again ! in haste, even in our days. Amen. 

" Know ye, that I, Joseph Wolff, the son of David, of the 
tribe of Levi, coming from the land of England, am going 
about in the world to proclaim to the Jews, that Jesus of 
Nazareth is He, who, according to the prophecy of Isaiah 
(peace upon him !), was despised and rejected, a man of sor 
rows, and acquainted with grief; and that He has given his 
soul as an offering for sin, and that Jesus is that Messiah who 
was cut off, but not for Himself, according to the prophecy of 
Daniel (the comfort of God, and peace be upon him !), and 
that Jesus is He who shall come again in the clouds of heaven, 
and shall bring back the Jews from all the corners of the earth, 
and bring them to their own land, which their forefathers pos 
sessed, and the prophecy shall be fulfilled ; that they shall 
look upon Him whom they have pierced, and mourn. 1 And 
then there shall be heard again the voice of mirth, the voice of 
joy, the voice of the bridegroom, and the voice of the bride. 

of Dr. Wolff. 305 

" Know ye that I have been made slave by your townsmen, 
the Kerahe. I beg you to tell the bearers, that on my arrival 
in Torbad-Hydareea, you will pay for me a ransom oT 100 
tomauns, and I shall remain with you, as a pawn, until the 
Ambassador of the great King of England will have paid for 
me, into your hands, 200 tomauns. These are the words of 
" Your brother in bonds, JOSEPH WOLFF, 
" son of David, who sends to you his blessing, and 
prays that the Lord may rejoice over you, as He did 
over Ephraim and Manasseh. Amen, and amen." 
Two of the Kerahe immediately set out for Torbad- 
Hydareea, and Wolff followed with the rest slowly after 

In the meanwhile, Wolff had succeeded in making six of 
these robbers his firm friends, by promising to recommend 
them (if they remained faithful to him) to Abbas Mirza, 
whose soldiers they wished to become. However, the chief, 
Hassan Khan Coord, became very uneasy, because they had 
heard tidings that Abbas Mirza had actually sent a messenger 
to the great Khan on Joseph Wolffs account; and again lie 
voted that Wolff should be put to death; but the six friends 
stood firmly by him, and swore they would betray their com 
panions if they hurt him. And as Hassan Khan and his son 
were afraid to have Wolff killed openly, they contrived a 
horrid method of torturing him. They observed that he was 
not a good horseman, and as the road was dreadfully hilly, 
they put him upon a very wild horse, without either saddle or 
bridle, and with only a halter to hold on by ; and that horrid 
scoundrel, Hassan Khan^s son, rode behind Wolff and whipped 
the horse, and did all in his power to make it restive. Neverthe 
less Wolff sat on his horse like the colonel of a regiment, and 
as he had learned a little of the theory of riding on horseback, 
when at the University of Tubingen in 1815, he now brought 
those rules into practice : and most providentially, at the mo 
ment when he was in the greatest danger, one of his friends 
came, and gave to the rascally boy a tremendous flogging. 

And thus they arrived safely at the gates of Torbad- 
Hydareea. When they got there, Jews came out to meet 
them, some of whom Wolff recognized at once as such ; and 
he made use of the exclamation by which Jews are immediately 
known to each other throughout all the world, and this is, 
which is in English, " HEAR, ISRAEL, THE LORD OUR GOD is 
ONE LORD." Then they all came up and embraced Wolff, and 
told him, u By thy life, don t promise any money. They 


306 Travels and Adventures 

must let you go free, without paying one farthing. They said 
this to Wolff in Hebrew, and he answered them in the same 
language, " For (rod s sake, send this very night a special 
messenger, at my expense, to Abbas Mirza, at Nishapoor." 
Moollah Daood then said to Hassan Khan Coord, and the rest 
of the Kerahe (all of whom owed money to the Jews, and, 
therefore, dared not disoblige them), " All you are our souls, 
and our darlings, so allow Joseph Wolff to go with us to our 
house to-night, and everything shall be settled to-morrow." 
They said, " Yes, he may go with you now ; but to-morrow 
he must come back till all things are settled. 1 And thus Wolff 
went with the Jews to their houses. 

It was about the month of November when he arrived at 
Torbad-Hydareea. The snow lay knee-deep in the streets. 
Wolff had only some rags around him not even a shirt to 
put on ; neither shoes nor stockings ; and his teeth chattered 
dreadfully from the cold. He asked the Jews to give him a 
cup of coffee to warm himself; but they had none, because the 
only coffee they can get comes from Meshed, and the road 
there was stopped, because of the inroads of the Turcomauns ; 
but they had " rakee," which they offered him. Rakee is a 
kind of whiskey, and Wolff drank a whole cup of it most 
heartily, and even Father Mathew would not, in the same 
situation, have declined drinking it. The crowd of Jews be 
came so great, that all of them adjourned to the synagogue, 
men, women, and children, and the women were lamenting, 

" On account of the abundance of our sins, how is Israel 
driven about from city to city, from land to land ! Here, 
one of our brothers comes from foreign lands, of which we have 
scarcely heard the names !" 

They all wept, and exclaimed again and again, bending their 
heads as if in the greatest distress, " On account of the abun 
dance of our sins ! On account of the abundance of our sins !" 
At last, Moollah Israel opened his mouth, and said, " You 
have sent us a Hebrew book, of which we became possessed 
only a few centuries back ; for, as we are not the descendants 
of those Jews who returned from Babylon to Jerusalem in the 
time of Ezra, we had not all the books until we got them 
(as I before said) a few centuries back, from Orenbourg, and 
Makariev, in Russia. We were all settled, at first, in Bokhara, 
Samarcarid, and Balkh, and then we came on here. We are 
now (G-od be praised !) in possession of all the books, Malachi 
included. But you have sent us another book, which is affixed 
to those we know ; it is called c The New Testament."* Who 

of Dr. Wolff. 307 

was Jesus who was Mary, of whom this book treats \ Who 
were those Apostles of Jesus 1 for I read it with avidity before 
you arrived here. Tell us all about it." And so Wolff 
preached to them the whole mystery of the Gospel, during the 
whole night. They listened to it with breathless attention, 
until the sun rose, and daybreak came. And, directly it was 
light, the Kerahe came, and Hassan Khan Coord brought 
Wolff to his own house ; and, arriving there, he put him in 
a miserable dungeon, where not only his servant and the rest 
of his companions were tied in chains together, entirely naked, 
but fifty other people besides. Then Wolff was ordered to sit 
down near them, and they chained him together with the rest, 
in the most painful manner ; and then Hassan Khan Coord 
said to him, in a fiend-like, diabolical voice, " Now, you are 
comfortable !" 

Thus Wolff was in a most awful condition ; for Hassan Khan 
Coord evidently intended no good towards him. Indeed, he 
passed him over when he portioned out the bread among the 
chained prisoners ; for, being in expectation that the great man 
Muhammad Tszhak Khan would arrive after a few days, he 
wished, in the meanwhile, to starve Wolff; and dead dogs 
tell no tales. But, after Wolff had been chained for about two 
hours, with those fifty other poor people, who were pouring out 
2500 curses upon the head of Aboubeker ; and, whilst Joseph 
Wolff was praying for them, suddenly the thunder of cannon 
was heard from the tower, and a voice exclaimed, " Muham 
mad Iszhak Khan has arrived !" 

At once the scene was changed ; for a person approached 
who made Wolff s chains more easy, and then a man came to 
the door of the dungeon, who opened it, and exclaimed, " Is 
there not an Englishman here 2" Wolff answered, " Yes ! 
yes ! yes !" 

It was a Persian officer of the great Khan, who had arrived 
and spoken thus ; and then he said, in great anger to the rob 
bers, " Pedr-Sookhte," which means, " Oh that your father 
may be burned ;" adding, " Away with the chains from the 
Englishman and all the rest, for slavery is at an end through 
out Torbad-Hydareea !" The chains were immediately taken 
off, and Joseph Wolff was made free ; and not only he and his 
fifty companions in the dungeon, but also above two hundred 
others, were set at liberty. Attributing their release to Wolff, 
the people all exclaimed, when he appeared in the street, " Oh, 
thou hast been an angel sent from the Lord ! Oh, thou hast 
been an angel sent from the Lord !" 

Wolff was now brought with his fifty companions, to the 

x 2 

308 Travels and Adventures 

palace of the great Khan, where he saw hundreds of miserable 
wretches with their eyes put out, and their ears and noses cut 
off. And he was introduced into the presence of Muhammad 
Iszhak Khan, of whom it is related that he had killed, with 
his own hand, his father, mother, brother, sister, and son-in- 
law ; and so awful was his bodily strength, that he would some 
times take hold of a prisoner, and tear his skull in two. This 
tyrant had sold 60,000 Persians, people of his own religion, 
and subjects of his own king, to the kings of Bokhara and 
Khiva, who were enemies to both his religion and country. 
Muhammad Iszhak Khan was eating his dinner when Wolff 
approached him, and he said, " Abbas Mirza has written to me, 
that thou goest about to show to the nations the way of truth. 
For my part, I have no religion. I have already passed this 
world, and the other world. I have got, however, one good 
quality, and that is, I am a man of justice : I love strict jus 
tice ; and, therefore, tell me the truth, and you shall see my 
justice. How much money have these rascals taken from 
you r 

Wolff said, " They have taken from me eigthty tomauns." 

He repeated, " Eighty tomauns 2" 

Wolff replied, Yes." 

He then said, " Now thou shalt see my justice." So he 
instantly ordered Hassan Khan Coord, and all his followers, to 
be dreadfully flogged. He extorted from them every farthing ; 
and, after he had got back WolfFs money, he counted it, and 
said, " Now thou shalt see my justice ;" and, putting the 
money into his own pocket, without giving Wolff a single 
penny, he added, " Now you may go in peace." 


Meshed the Holy : Borowsky again : Abbas Mirza : Timoor : 
Turcomauns: Sarakhs : Desert of Merw: Guzl-baash Slaves: 
Gate of Bokhara. 

WOLFF remained a few days longer with the Jews, and 
then he set out with a large caravan, including several 
Jews, for Meshed, the capital of Khorassan. Wolff had still 
no clothing upon him, except a few rags ; but he promised to 
pay the muleteer for taking him, when they reached " Meshed 

of Dr. Wolff. 309 

the Holy," 1 as it is called. After three days 5 travelling, and 
when they were only five miles distant from Meshed, near a 
place called Shereef-Abaad, shrieks were heard from all the 
caravan. Their cry was, " The Hazaarah are coming, and 
will make slaves!" The Hazaarah are descendants of the 
Moguls, and a most dreadful-looking set of people ; and are 
even more cruel than the Turcomauns. But Wolff no sooner 
heard that cry, than he slipped into the town of Shereef- 
Abaad as quickly as a mouse, and all the rest followed him, 
except one man, a Sayd, who was left outside. He was 
a lineal descendant of Muhammad, but a Sheeah in religion ; 
and he defended himself with such courage, that he slew six of 
these banditti, who did not dare to persevere in the fight, as 
the inhabitants of Shereef-Abaad fired down upon them. So 
they contented themselves with taking some sheep, and killing 
eighty others ; and then retired. The Sayd saved his life, but 
was dreadfully wounded. 

At last, the caravan set forth again towards Meshed ; and 
when they were one mile distant from that city, one of his 
fellow-travellers took hold of Wolff s foot, and beat it with his 
stick, saying, " Infidel, say God is God, and Muhammad is 
the prophet of God." Wolff replied, " I will not tell a lie !" 
By this answer he merely meant to say that he would not say 
what he did not believe. The man, however, who struck him, 
and his companions, thought that Wolff meant to say, that he 
would not subscribe to a religion which he believed to be a lie : 
and thunderstruck by this supposed declaration, he put his 
arms akimbo, and said, " Imagine the boldness of this Infidel, 
who, in the midst of Muhammadans, and before the city of 
Meshed the Holy, declares our religion to be a lie ! What a 
fool he is !" A respectable Muhammadan, who heard this, 
said, "Well, let the fool alone !" This quieted the man, and 
they proceeded without molesting Wolff any further. 

Only a few minutes after this adventure, the cupola of the 

freat Mosque of Meshed, which is called " The Mosque of 
mam Resa," who was the eighth Khaleef after the prophet, 
and to whom the mosque is dedicated, rose majestically before 
their eyes. The whole caravan stood still, and said, " Imam 
Resa, have pity upon thy dogs ; for we are all coming here to 
prove that we are thy slaves !" 

Wolff thought at that moment, Is not this idolatry ? Are 
the Munammadans free from idolatry, as is said of them in 
Europe ? Do they not now directly address a prayer to that 
man, whom they believe to be a saint ? And reflecting thus, 
that the Muhammadans do not only worship in this way 

310 Travels and Adventures 

Imam Resa, and other saints, but also the black stone at 
Mecca, and even the dirty rags in the high road, Wolfl is 
astonished that, not only Unitarians, but also some orthodox 
Christians should assert that Muhammadanism is free from 

But to proceed. There were Jews in the caravan, and one 
of them, Israel by name, turned to Wolff, and said in Hebrew, 
" O Joseph Wolff! O Joseph Wolff! when will the time come 
when we shall go up to the mountain of the Lord ; even to 
the house of the God of Jacob ? Oh, when will the time come 
when the tribes shall go up, the tribes of the Lord ? for from 
Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of the Lord from 
Jerusalem." Wolff replied, When the Lord shall pour forth 
the Spirit upon the house of David, and upon the house of 
Jerusalem, the Spirit of grace and supplication, and they shall 
look upon Him, whom they have pierced, and mourn." 

And so they came to Meshed ; Wolff having brought with 
him a letter from the Agent of the British Ambassador at 
Teheran, for a Jew called Moollah Mehdee, Prince of the Jews 
in Meshed ; who, on receiving it, took Wolff into his house. 
Then Wolff sent a Muhammadau Moollah to Nishapoor, with 
a letter addressed to Abbas Mirza, who was encamped there ; 
and also one to Captain Shee, who commanded Abbas Mirza^s 
army. During the absence of this messenger, Wolff heard 
wonderful stories of the valour of a Polish General, whose 
name they pronounced "Brooskee;" and how this famous 
commander had taken the great fortress of Cochan. Wolff 
had no idea who this Brooskee could be ; but, one day, some 
body knocked at the door of the house of Moollah Mehdee, 
and there entered an officer, wearing the uniform of an English 
General, who exclaimed, " Mr. Wolff, how do you do 2" 
Wolff asked him, " What is your name T and he replied, 
" My name is Borowsky, son of Prince Radzivil !" Borowsky 
continued, " I know all about your warning Colonel Campbell 
and McNeil against me ; but, you see, they had better infor 
mation than you gave them, and Colonel Campbell recom 
mended me to Abbas Mirza, as one who was fit to command 
his army. You will now hear through the whole country of 
Khorassan, that I am the terror of all the Khans in this 
country ; and that it was I who took the fortress of Cochan, 
and it was I who forced Resa Koolee Khan to surrender to 
Abbas Mirza. And, moreover, I have told Abbas Mirza of 
the high esteem in which you are held in England, and you 
will meet from him with the highest distinction and respect. 
Here, then, are 200 tomauns, which Captain Shee has sent by 

of Dr. Wolff. 311 

me on your bills to England ; and I have clothing besides for 
you." Saying this, Borowsky gave Wolff the 200 tomauns, 
and some clothing, which latter consisted of an officer s 
uniform, as he had none other, and a dozen shirts, which had 
had been collected from the five English sergeants who were 
in Abbas Mirza s army. 

Wolff replied to all this, " Then, of course, I must retract 
all I have said against you ; but I should be obliged if you 
would give me the whole history of how you came into favour 
with Colonel Campbell and Mr. McNeil." 

He then gave to Wolff the following account : 

" You have heard that I arrived in Bushire, accompanied 
by Colonel Chesney, renowned for his Euphrates expedition. 
The Resident in Bushire had some mistrust of me, and I had 
to take up my quarters in a private house there, at which 
Colonel Chesney was very much vexed. During my voyage 
with him from Bombay to Bushire, he, as a military man, was 
best able to judge, and became acquainted with my military 
knowledge, which he approved. However, I had no reason to 
complain of the treatment I met with from the Resident of 
Bushire, because he invited me daily to dinner, and to other 
entertainments. After we had stopped in Bushire for some 
weeks, we arrived in Tabreez, just a few days after you had 
left ; and now, here I am, as you see, a general in the Persian 
army, and under English protection." 

Borowsky, after this, took up his abode in the same house 
where Wolff was living ; and, a few hours afterwards, Abbas 
Mirza arrived, with his whole army, in Meshed. His Royal 
Highness alighted at the palace, but without Captain Shee, 
who had remained at Nishapoor, with a detachment of soldiers. 
That same evening, whilst Wolff was drinking tea with Bo 
rowsky, Monsieur Semino, a general in Abbas Mirza s army, 
but under Russian protection, entered the room ; leaving out 
side the door of this apartment eight of his servants whom he 
had brought with him. Sernino began, in an unceremonious 
way, to quarrel with Borowsky, because he had, on some occa 
sion, struck one of his servants. Wolff at once tried to make 
peace between them, and induce both to embrace each other. 
But when Borowsky looked towards the door, and saw so 
many servants standing outside, he said " These servants 
must depart ;" and then he turned to Semino and added, " Is 
this the way in which you come to a nobleman 2" Semino 
exclaimed, " You are a liar !" Upon which Borowksy rose 
from his chair and spat in Semino s face. Semino then drew 
his sword, and said, " Come forth !" to which Borowsky 

312 Tra vels and A dventures 

replied, " I will give you satisfaction in a moment," and began 
to feel for his pistols. Seeing this, Semino gave orders to his 
servants, who immediately rushed in and dragged Borowsky 
out of the house ; while Wolff ran off to Abbas Mirza, and 
told him the whole affair. He at once gave orders that Bo 
rowsky should be set at liberty ; and, on the next day, ordered 
a court-martial of Persians to be assembled, that the matter 
might be investigated. And as Abbas Mirza was afraid to 
offend either Russia or England, he commanded that Wolff 
should be made president of the court-martial, which office 
Wolff accepted, and pronounced the following sentence: 

" Whereas, Semino entered the room in an unwarrantable 
manner, and dragged out Borowsky ; Semino shall be arrested 
and confined to his house for twenty- four hours, and make an 
apology to Borowsky. And whereas the servants attacked 
Borowsky from behind, they shall each receive six lashes from 
a whip. " 

This sentence was approved, and executed at once. 
Captain Shee soon arrived, and the five English sergeants 
who had contributed the shirts ; and Wolff performed divine 
service in Meshed, in his friend the Jew s house. But, in 
order not to be involved in another quarrel, he took up his 
abode with Mirza Baba, who spoke English perfectly well, and 
had pursued his medical studies in England, and was chief 
physician to Abbas Mirza, and lived with him in the palace. 

Abbas Mirza showed the greatest attention to Wolff, during 
his stay in Meshed ; and, at his request, Wolff wrote a letter 
to Lord Palmerston, in which he stated the desire of Abbas 
Mirza, that there should be sent to Persia, not merely a charge 
d affaires from England, but a full ambassador or envoy. An 
envoy was, soon after this, sent to Persia, but whether it was 
in consequence of his letter, Wolff does not know. 

Before Wolff proceeds to give an account of his interviews 
with Jews and Muhammadans, he must offer some outline of 
the history and condition of Meshed. 

Meshed contains about 100,000 inhabitants, chiefly Sheeah, 
and about 2,000 Jews ; the latter being the cleanest and most 
scientific, and interesting Jews, beyond all doubt, of those who 
are to be found in Persia. They are well acquainted with the 
Bible, and moderately so with the Talmud ; but with Persian 
literature generally, they are perfectly familiar. They trans 
lated the whole Pentateuch from the English into Persian, by 
order of the great King, Nadir Shah, who lived about 100 
years ago, and had extended his conquests to India. 

Nadir Shah was the son of a furrier; but being a man of 

of Dr. Wolff. 313 

energy, he collected the robbers and malcontents of Khorassan 
around his standard, and then fought his way, in the eastern 
fashion, to the throne of Persia. Having succeeded in this 
object, he resolved to institute a new religion for his subjects, 
and therefore he ordered the Jews to translate their books into 
Persian, and the Christians also to translate the Gospel and 
Testament into the same language ; and from these materials 
he intended to form his new religion, but was stopped in his 
career by a violent death. When this occurred, the Jews had 
not only translated their Bible into Persian, but also the 
Koran and the Poems of Hafiz, Saadi, and Moollah Roomee, 
into Hebrew ; so that the greater number of these Jews were 
a kind of Hebrew " sooffees," or Muhammadan purists. 

As to the city of Meshed itself, the following short remarks 
must be made. The original name of Meshed was Toos ; but 
when Imam Besa was killed by Mamoon (" the curse of God 
upon him," as the Sheeah devoutly say), who administered a poi 
soned grape to him, a splendid memorial mosque and tomb were 
built there ; and on this account the city received the name of 
Meshed Almookaddas Meshed meaning " the place of the 
martyr," and Almookaddas "the holy." When Timoor 
(called erroneously by Europeans, Tamerlane instead of 
Timoor Lank, which means "Timoor the lame one") arrived 
in Meshed, with his army, he sternly asked, 

" Who is buried here ?" they replied, " Ferdoosi,* the writer 
of Shah-Namah, the poem." 

Timoor said, " I have nothing to do with poets." Then he 
asked again, " Who is buried here ? " They answered, " Imam 
Resa, by whose prayers women become pregnant, and sick men 
and sick camels are cured." 

Timoor replied, " I have nothing to do with saints." He 

* A Persian boy, named Abool-Kaasim, having been flogged at school 
ran away, and coming to the mountain of Elburz, sat down at the foot of 
it, and began to write. A stranger who was passing by observed him, 
and said, "Boy, what are you writing?" He replied, "I am writing 
Shah-Namah," i. e. * The Story of a King." Another day, another 
stranger came that way and asked, " What art thou writing?" and he 
answered, "lam writing Shah-Namah." And thus the poor boy be 
came a dervish, and whenever one came, who asked him what he was 
doing, he always made answer, " I am writing Shah-Namah," " The 
Story of a King." And so the poem was completed, which was so beau 
tiful, that the writer of it received the name of Ferdoosi, i.e. " The Poet 
who came from Paradise." He lived a long time after, at the court of 
the Kings of Hindostan, acknowledged by all who frequented it, to be 
Ferdoosi indeed ; "The Poet who came from Paradise." 

314 Travels and Adventures 

further asked, " Who is buried here S" They replied, " Malek 
Nizam, the lawyer." 

Timoor replied, " I have nothing to do with lawyers. 1 He 
again asked, " Who is buried here I" 

" Aboo Musleem, who killed in battle 1,000,000 persons." 

He said, " This is my man." He then went to the tomb of 
Aboo Musleem, and offered up the following prayer : 

" Thou Lord of the worlds, thou Creator of heaven and 
earth, thou Ruler of all the stars and the sun ; there ought 
also to be one ruler upon the earth : for the earth is too small 
for many rulers." 

Then a dervish came and knocked Timoor on the shoulder, 
and said, " Timoor, thy name is Timoor, which means 6 Iron; 
and thou shalt rule the earth with a rod of iron. But thy 
name shall henceforth also be Koorikan, Lord of the Worlds, 1 
and Zahel Reran, Lord of the Age ! And Timoor became 
both Koorikan and Zahel Keran ; and thus he fulfilled the 
dervish s prophecy. 

Wolff conversed till the month of February, 1832, with both 
Jews and Muhammadans, preaching to them Christ Jesus 
crucified, and Christ Jesus glorified ; and dwelt much on his 
second coining, when He shall reign personally upon earth. 

Before departing from Meshed, Wolff must say a little more 
about the Muhammadans there. The Muhammadans in 
Meshed divide themselves into two parties, SoofFees and 
Moollahs, as is the case almost everywhere in Persia. But 
on Wolff s return to the place in 1844, he found that there 
had arisen there another party, who may be called the Mu- 
hammadan Tractarians: for they insist upon the introduction 
of an increase of forms and emblems ; and maintain that reli 
gion without outward forms, cannot long subsist. For they 
say that man is composed of body and soul ; and the body 
must have bodily expression, &c., with which the soul will 
sympathize ; and Wolff is perfectly convinced of the truth of 
this opinion ; for, as fluid can be only held together by a bottle, 
so, religion can only be preserved by outward form. And it 
is to this fact that St. Paul refers, when he says that by visible 
things, the invisible are clearly seen, even the eternal power 
of God. (Rom. i. 20.) David also unites, in his 51st Psalm, 
a. broken and contrite heart, with the outward form of sacri 
fices upon God s altar. In short, the whole universe is the 
outward form, the palpable workmanship of God, by which his 
invisible creative power is made known. 

Dr. Wolff exclaimed, whon dictating this, " I wish to see 
the time -when, instead of blaming the Quaker, who rejects 

of Dr. Wolff. 315 

form ; instead of blaming the Wesleyan, who insists chiefly 
upon internal piety ; instead of blaming the Christian socialism 
of Kingsley ; instead of blaming the purgatory of the Roman 
Catholic Church ; we shall be able to purify all these various 
sentiments, and unite them under an outward form taught by 
the Catholic church in all ages. But this time will only 
come," as he believes and perpetually says, " When that invi 
sible One shall be made visible, and will purify his Church." 

To return to Meshed. The most distinguished Moollah, or 
Muhammadan priest at Meshed, is Mirza Hadayat Ullah, 
whose title is Muj teheed, which means, " one who fights for 
the faith." This man related to Wolff a most curious story. 
He said that one day Mirza Kullee Khan, Governor of Cochan, 
having called on him, he reproved him for the ignorance of 
the inhabitants of Cochan in matters of religion ; and said to 
him, " I am sure that the people of Cochan do not know how 
many Articles there are in our religion." Now there are only 
two Articles in our religion ; the first is, There is God and 
nothing but God ; and the second is, Muhammad is the 
Prophet of God. 

Upon this, the Khan of Cochan, full of indignation, replied, 
" You are right, and the moment I return to Cochan I shall 
bring about a reformation." Then Mirza Kullee Khau re 
turned to Cochan, and assembled the people near the gate, and 
addressed them in the following manner : 

" The Muj teheed of Meshed has scolded me most deservedly, 
on account of your ignorance of religion." And here he turned 
to one of the people in particular and said, "I am sure, you 
rascal, that you don t know how many Articles there are in our 
religion. Now tell me how many are there?" The man who 
was pointed out said, " Fifty." Mirza Kullee Khan imme 
diately ordered him to be flogged, when another of the people, 
who pitied the poor fellow, quietly said to him, " Say two." 
The man who was to be flogged, replied, " Oh that thy Father 
may be burned ! Do you not see that the Khan is not satis 
fied with fifty ? How will he be satisfied with two 2" So, in 
spite of the suggestion of this wiser friend, the fellow under 
went a sound flogging. 

Wolff was now about to depart from Meshed for Bokhara ; 
and it so happened that the time was most opportune and 
favourable for his journey. The Turcomauns in the deserts of 
Sarakhs, Merw, and Khiva, were all afraid of Abbas Mirza, 
and consequently sixteen Agha Sakal, which means " Lords 
with the Beard," had arrived as deputies from the rest of the 
Turcomauns at the palace of Abbas Mirza in Meshed, in order 

316 Travels and Adventures 

to make a treaty with his Royal Highness. At their inter 
view, every one of the deputies was in the first place presented 
by the Prince with a red garment, called " Khelat." Arrayed 
in this, they stood outside his window, whilst he sat on a 
throne in his room, near the window, when he thus addressed 
them : u I am glad that you are come here, because I am de 
termined to put a stop to slave- making ; I have therefore 
written down the conditions of the treaty I will make with 
you, and which are as follows : First, You must sign a pledge 
that you will not any more make slaves. Secondly, That you 
will receive from me an agent, who shall reside at Sarakhs, the 
chief emporium of slavery ; and he must watch your move 
ments. He is himself a Turcomaun from Astarabad, and his 
name is Goolij Muhammad Khan. Thirdly, I shall keep two 
of you as hostages, who must remain with me until Joseph Wolff 
shall have been safely conducted to Bokhara ; and after he has 
arrived there, and you have produced from him a certificate 
that he has been well treated by you, and is safely in Bokhara, 
then the two hostages will be allowed to return to their own 
country. You must now come in and put your hands into 
Wolff s hand, as a mark of friendship, and stroke your beards." 
Then the deputies entered the room, and every one of them 
approached Wolff, who was seated near Abbas Mirza, with his 
legs stretched out (for Wolff was never able to learn to sit 
like an Eastern) ; which posture, as will be observed in the 
sequel of this story, was of beneficial consequence to him. All 
the Turcomauns in succession, then put their hands into 
Wolff s, and then slowly drew them out, and stroked their 
beards, in token of agreement to these terms. 

The day following, Wolff set out for Bokhara. Borowsky, 
Captain Shee, the five English sergeants, Mirza Baba, and the 
Grand Vizier, accompanied him beyond the gate of the city ; 
when, with his Persian servant, and in company with Goolij 
Muhammad Khan, the above-mentioned agent for Sarakhs, 
and another Turcomaun, he continued his journeyithrough the 
desert, and arrived after two days in the desert of Turkistan, 
among the wild Al-Ammaans. He passed forward through the 
desert of Turkistan, the ground of which is not sandy, but 
stony, and here he \vas among a people who called themselves 
the descendants of Japhet, Noah s sou. They are styled the 
" children of Togarmah," and they also call themselves 
" Toghramah," also " Garaman," and "Al-Ammaan," as already 
stated. They also give themselves names " by their castles," 
and call their castles " Teera," which is very remarkable : for 
in Genesis xxv. 16, we find the following observation respect- 

of Dr. Wolf. 317 

ing the sons of Ishmael : " And these are their names by 
their towns and by their castles :" and the word for castles in 
Hebrew, is " Teera." 

The question then is, how came the Turcomauns, who are 
the descendants of Japhet, to adopt the customs of the de 
scendants of Ishmael, namely, the Arabs, who are the descend 
ants of Shem ? The only answer is to be found in Gen. ix. 27, 
where we see that it is a fulfilment of the prophecy, that "God 
shall enlarge Japhet, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem." 
Moreover, in the Eastern language, by the word, " dwelling" 
is also expressed the adoption of customs, and manners, and 
faith, as well as habitation. Most wonderfully, therefore, was 
the prophecy fulfilled, before Wolffs own eyes, when he saw the 
manners and customs of the Arabs in Yemen, identical with 
the manners and customs of the Turcomauns, the descendants 
of Japhet ; among whom he was then travelling. 

From this we perceive that the Turcomauns have assumed 
the original customs of the children of Ishmael, and the Tur 
comauns always live in huts surrounding some castle ; into 
which castle they retire when they have to defend themselves 
against an enemy. Wolff next proceeded to Sarakhs, which is 
inhabited by 2500 Turcomauns, who live in tents at the foot 
of a castle, which is called Teera Sarakhs, " The Castle of 
Sarakhs ;" on which account, the tribes of Turcomauns there 
call themselves " Teera Sarakhs." On reaching Sarakhs, he 
was met by the Turcomauns, who came out to welcome him as 
their guest, and the guest also of the Nayeb Szalszala, and 
the King of Bokhara. Amongst them, there were not only 
Turcomauns of the Teera Sarakhs, but also of the Teera Saalar, 
and of the Teera of Organtsh ; and they put their hands into 
Wolff s, and then slowly drew them out, and stroked their 
beards, and asked for the blessing of the " Oolee of England ;" 
Oolee meaning " Holy man." 

These different Teeras had sticks in their hands, and upon 
each stick was written the name of the particular Teera to 
which the owner of it belonged. When these tribes are at 
variance with each other, they march out with their sticks, 
and as soon as they make peace, they join one stick to the 
other, and then exclaim, " We have become one !" This illus 
trates, in a remakable manner, Ezek. xxxvii. 1 6 23, where it 
is stated, " Moreover, thou Son of man, take thee one stick 
and write upon it, for Judah, and for the children of Israel his 
companions : then take another stick an.d write upon it, for 
Joseph, the stick of Ephraim, and for all the house of Israel 
his companions : and join them one to another, into one 
stick ; and they shall become one in thine hand," &c. 

318 Travels and Adventures 

These sons of the desert asked Wolff, " With whom do you 
wish to stay with the Al-Ammaan or with the Moosaaee ?" 
Moosaaee means " the followers of Moses," i.e. the children of 
Israel. Wolff replied, " With the Moosaaee ;" of whom there 
are about 200 in that place, chiefly from Meshed, as they found 
more protection among the wild Turcomauns, than with the 
more viciously civilized, but heartless and cruel Persians. 
There were residing in Sarakhs, Jews from Herat, Mayniona, 
and Ankhoy,and even from the city of Bokhara. The tents, 
or huts, in which these people live, are made of cane. 

Wolff took up his abode in the tent of one of the most 
respectable of these Jews. All of them were dressed like the 
Turcomauns, by whom they were highly respected. In fact, no 
Turcomaun undertakes any affair of importance without first 
consulting a Moosaae, and asking his blessing. They chiefly 
demand from them charms, in order that they may be kept safe 
in battle. They also ask the blessing of a Jew, that they may 
have children ; and whenever the Sabbath approaches, and a 
Turcomaun happens to come near a Jew s tent, the Jew looks 
out, glances seriously at the Turcomaun, and says to him in a 
loud voice, Amrooz Shabot, which means, " To-day is the 
Sabbath." The Turcomaun then devoutly strokes his beard, 
and retires, without giving the slightest sign of having taken 
offence. For the Turcomauns, as well as Muhammadans 
in general, say (as has been already stated), that there are four 
books, namely, the five books of Moses, the Psalms of David, 
the Gospel of Christ, and the Koran ; moreover, that the 
Jews are in possession of, and believe in, the five Books of 
Moses, and the Psalms of David, with the other prophets ; 
whilst the Christians are in possession of, and believe in, the 
Grospel. And whosoever possesses and believes in any one of 
these four books, is called Saaheb-K^taab or Possessor of the 
Book ; and whosoever is Saaheb-ICtaab, must not only be 
himself respected, but also the ordinances which he practices 
must be treated by the Muhammadan with reverence. Hence, 
a Saaheb-ICtaab cannot be made a slave ; so both the Jew and 
the Christian are exempted from slavery ; and the Sabbath of 
the Jew is treated with the highest respect, because it is one 
of the ordinances contained in the five Books of Moses ; and 
the same rule obtains with regard to Chistian ordinances. But 
notwithstanding these privileges, which are alike extended to 
Jews and Christians, a Turcomaun will make a slave of a 
Sheeah, though he is a Muhammadan, because, it is said, the 
Sheeah has corrupted the Koran. And the Turcomauns will 
make a slave of a Russian and a heathen : for they ignorantly 

of Dr. Wolff. 819 

say that the Russian is not possessed of the Gospel : and the 
pagan is enslaved because he has no book at all. It was for 
the reasons now given that the Turcomaun, in the desert of 
Sarakhs, retired with reverence, when the Jew told him, 
" To-day is the Sabbath." 

The first day Wolff came to Sarakhs, the Jew with whom he 
lived, and all his companions, .said to him, 

44 We have heard how kind you have been to the Jews at 
Meshed, and how strongly you have spoken in their favour to 
Abbas Mirza. God bless you for it ! We consider you to bo 
the forerunner of the Messiah. We will sing, therefore, to 
you our hymn to the Messiah." 

They then began to sing 

" The King, the King, the Messiah shall come ; 

The Mighty of the mighty is He : 
The King, the King, the Messiah shall come ; 
The Blessed One of the blessed is He. 

" The King, the King, the Messiah shall come ; 

The great one of the great is He : 
The King, the King, the Messiah shall come ; 
The ornamented with banners is He. 

" The King, the King, the Messiah shall come ; 

The glorious of the glorious is He : 
The King, the King, the Messiah shall come ; 
The Holy One of the holy is He." 

Wolff then chanted that song with them, and added, 

u Our Father, our King, we have sinned before Thee. 
Our Father, our King, there is no king unto us, but Thou. 
Our Father, our King, accomplish it for thy Name s sake. 
Our Father, our King, send to us the Son of David, who shall 
reedeem us." 

And Wolff continued to sing, 

" The mighty shall build the city of Zion, and give it to 
us," &c. 

Whilst Wolff was thus chanting with the Moosaae, crowds 
of Turcomauns were standing outside, with their hands folded, 
as is their custom when they pray ; and, at the end of the 
chant, they stroked their beards, and the following conver 
sation passed between these Muhammadans, which was over 
heard both by the Jews and Wolff. One of them said, 
" Joseph Wolff is a Chaparee Eesa" which means, " the swift 
messenger of Jesus." Another, who had seen Wolff at 
Meshed sitting down in the presence of Abbas Mirza, said, 

320 Travels and Adventures 

" You are all fools ; I know who Joseph Wolff is Joseph 
Wolff is the Prince Royal of England 1 The other replied, 
" How can you prove that ?" He answered, " I will give you 
an indisputable proof. Abbas Mirza was sitting upon his 
divan, and Wolff sat near him, with his legs stretched out ; 
whilst all the grand ministers of the state, and General 
Borowsky, and the other English officers, were standing. 
Who then could sit down before Abbas Mirza, the Naveb 
Szalszala, with legs stretched out ?" Wolff had laid down a 
rule never to contradict whatever people might say, and so he 
said nothing on this occasion. 

Wolff suddenly heard a dreadful roaring through the whole 
of Sarakhs. The different tribes, with their respective sticks 
in their hands, had marched out, and were fighting each other. 
The reason of this commotion was, that one boy of the tribe of 
Sarog had struck another boy of the tribe of Salor : upon 
which the two mothers of the boys had given the alarm, and a 
regular battle ensued, with blood flowing on both sides. For 
whenever boys of different tribes quarrel, the tribes immedi 
ately take a part, and march out to support their own lads. 
Moollah Taatsh, with the rest of the Aghar Sakal, came forth, 
and advised them to lay down their arms, and consult. After 
a consultation of two hours, the boys were reconciled : and the 
different tribes joined their sticks one to the other, and thus 
became one again. 

The Turcomauns were at this time busily employed in 
hiding their reservoir of water, being always in dread of Prince 
Abbas Mirza s invasion into the Desert : and this invasion 
did actually take place three months after Wolff s departure. 

Wolff spent several weeks in Sarakhs, preaching to the 
Jews, and also to the Turcomauns. The chief priest of the 
Turcomauns, Moollah Taatsh by name, had taken a great 
liking to Wolff; so, one morning, Wolff called upon him ; and 
whilst they were talking together, Moollah Taatsh s wife died 
in child-birth. The news was brought to him by the servant, 
and, on hearing it, he said a short prayer, and then, with un 
disturbed countenance, continued his conversation about re 
ligion. An Arabic Bible was lying before him, which he had 
got from Torbad-Hydareea, where Wolff had distributed 
Bibles. And what most surprisingly struck Wolff was, that 
most of the Turcomauns at Sarakhs called Jesus the Son of 
God because He had been without human father, and had been 
born by the power of the Holy Spirit. Query. May it not 
be that these men had received this doctrine from the Nes- 
torian missionaries, who had been there, and all over Turk- 

of Dr. Wolff. 321 

istan, even before any Koman Catholic missionary ever set 
a foot on that ground ? These men were enchanted with the 
doctrine Wolff preached to them, on the renovation of the 
earth ; but let no friend in England suspect that he ever dis 
united that doctrine from the preaching of Christ dying upon 
Calvary, where our Lord s glory was seen in his humiliation. 

That same Moollah Taatsh called on Wolff the very same 
evening of the day his wife died, and addressed him in the 
following manner : " Brother Wolff, you are a Moollah, and 
I am a Moollah; and Moollahs ought to help each other. 
You know that my wife died this morning, and we Turco- 
mauns have only one wife at a time. I am therefore now 
without a wife : could you not do something by which a wo 
man may be induced to fall in love with me?" Now Wolff 
had observed here that the Turcomauns did not keep their 
wives separated from the men, and that they allowed the 
women to choose their own husbands. So he said to him, " I 
will tell you what to do. There is a Turcomaun here who 
confessed to me that he had committed a breach of promise of 
marriage to a lady ; go therefore and offer yourself to her, and 
I dare say she will accept your offer." Moollah Taatsh did 
so, and was married to that lady the next day. At last, Wolff 
was determined to leave Sarakhs. He therefore sent for the 
most respectable of the Turcomauns, an Aglia Sakal, i. e. " A 
Lord of the Beard, 1 whose name was Saher Beyk, of the Teera 
Salor, and he said to him, " Now you must send me on 
to Bokhara. " 1 Saher Beyk answered, " It shall be done ; but 
let me ask you one question have you not given a present to 
Goolij Muhammad Khan for bringing you hither from Me 
shed?" Wolff said, "Yes!" Saher Beyk then asked, 
"How much?" Wolff replied, "Six tomauns. n Saher 
Beyk exclaimed, " Six tomauns to such a scoundrel, whose 
family is only of yesterday ! My heart bleeds that such a 
fellow could have taken in a stranger in this way." Then 
Wolff said, " Now, Saher Beyk, I perceive that you are an 
honest man. How much, therefore, shall I have to give you 
for bringing me to Bokhara, which is double the distance?" 
Saher Beyk replied, " Oh, Wolff, I am not such a scoundrel 
as Gooletsh Muhammad Khan. I have horses and sheep in 
abundance ; and my ancestors were known in the time of 
Tshinghis Khan. If you have given six tomauns to such a 
scoundrel as Goolij, you ought to give me at least 600 to 
mauns ! " Wolff replid, " Saher Beyk, this is all humbug. 
You know that you have to bring me to Bokhara, for Abbas 
Mirza has so ordered ; and to Bokhara I will go to-morrow : 


322 Travels and Adventures 

and the two hostages will not be released until I have arrived 
safely in Bokhara. I will give you for conveying me from 
here to Bokhara, twelve tomauns, and not one farthing morel 1 
A council of all the Turcomauns of Sarakhs was instantly 
held ; and on the day following, Wolff set out, not with Saher 
Beyk, but with another Turcomaun, Awaz by name, of the 
Teera Yatshee. and a fine fellow. He was also accompanied 
by Bokhara merchants, who had bought at Sarakhs two Persian 
boys as slaves, whom they were going to bring to Bokhara to 
sell. The one was eleven years of age, and the other nine. 
It must be again remarked, for the better understanding of 
the story, that the Persians are universally called by the 
Turcomauns Guzl-baask, i. e. " Eed Head." Wolff took two 
servants with him ; his Persian servant from Meshed, and a 
clever Jew of Sarakhs, Abraham by name. 

Wolff must here define the power of the Aghar SaJcal, i. e. 
" the lords with the beards." The Turcomauns do not strictly 
acknowledge any magistrate whatever over them ; and all an 
Agha Sakal can do, whenever they assemble together, is, not 
to give a HooJcJcum, i. e. " an order," but only an Iltimaas, i. e. 
" an advice or entreaty ; " so that even the grand dervish of 
Merw cannot give an order, and he is not allowed to inflict 
punishment upon a murderer. After Wolff returned from his 
second journey to Bokhara, and came to Merw, some of the 
Turcomauns had killed the servant of the Viceroy of Kho- 
rassan an act which was disapproved by all the tribes, and 
by the grand dervish of Merw himself. When Wolff asked them 
what the grand dervish did in the matter ? they replied, " He 
gave the perpetrator of the murder very hard words, and said 
to him, You have made the name of an Al-Ammaan to stink 
from Merw to Bokhara/ so that the murderer became red in 
the face." 

Here one may see Liberty, Fraternity, and Equality in 
perfection. Oh, what a horrid system this Republicanism is ! 
Oh, my German and English friends, you are the descendants 
of the Al-Ammaan, and if that revolutionary spirit now pre 
vailing, should go on, you will fall back into the barbarism of 
the Al-Ammaan of these countries, where the cradle of your 
ancestors has been. Wolff was also forcibly struck by ob 
serving that even as the students, the so-called Burschen of 
the German Universities, wear the same form of boots, i. e. 
Kanonemtiefel) so do all the Turcomauns in the Desert of 
Sarakhs wear boots of one pattern. 

Wandering through the Desert the two poor Guzl-baash 

of Dr. Wolff. 323 

slaves were singing in the morning, and during the day, and 
in the evening, in plaintive strains, the following words : 

" The Al-ammaan have taken us, 
Poor, poor Guzl-baash : 
And carry us, and carry us, 
In iron and chains, in iron and chains, 
To Organtsh and Bokhara." 

Thus they proceeded through the Desert, continually hear 
ing that plaintive strain. The Desert was covered with snow, 
and Wolffs servants made the tea and cooked the victuals 
with melted snow. And, before they laid down to rest, they 
had to sweep the ground clear from the snow ; and, whilst 
they were lying down, the poor Guzl-baash began again to 
sing their plaintive melody : 

" The Al-ammaan have taken us, 
Poor, poor Guzl-baash : 
And carry us, and carry us, 
In iron and chains, in iron and chains, 
To Organtsh and Bokhara." 

One morning, a host of Turcomauns came riding towards 
Wolff and his companions. Awaz said to Wolff, " Stop here 
a little, for we Turcomauns are man-eaters, and I must speak 
to these men." So he went up to them, and spoke to them ; 
and they replied, " We know all about Joseph Wolff: we 
only want to see him, and ask his blessing ! and then we will 
go our way." They then came up to Wolff, who blessed them, 
and they stroked their beards, and continued their journey. 

Thus Wolff arrived, after seven days * journey, at Merw, 
also called Mowr, which is the ancient Antiochia-Marochiana, 
in the kingdom of Khiva ; and near it are the ruins of a town 
called Sultan Sanjaar, where Sultan Sanjaar, the last of the 
Seljukjan dynasty, was made prisoner. He had 500 crowns 
of gold, and 1,000 thrones of silver in his possession : and it 
was in the camp of Merw that Hulaku Khan, and Timoor 
Kurikan, and Tshinghis Khan fought nightly battles. There 
it was that Skandar Sulkarnein, as Alexander the Great is 
called, encamped with his armies. For the confirmation of 
the truth of this last tradition, Wolff can say that he bought 
many coins there with Greek inscriptions, which he gave to 
Lord W r illiam Bentinck on his arrival in India. 

Wolff took up his abode in Merw in the tent of a Jew, who 
was a sceptic about all religions ; and whom he had first to 
make a Jew before he could preach the Gospel to him. There 

Y 2 

324 Travels and Adventures 

Wolff also witnessed a most interesting sight. He saw that 
dervish, Abd-Arrahman, who had the title, " King of Right 
eousness ;" in the same tent was a holy man, a Jewish der 
vish, Yussuf Talkhtoou by name (an Oolee), which means 
" holy," from which our word holy is evidently taken, who 
was sitting on the ground, with his head on the earth. Sur 
rounded by Jewish disciples, the whole party were continually 
singing, Yussuf Talkhtoon first alone, 

" For Zion s sake I will not rest, 
I will not hold my peace." 

To which his disciples responded, 

" For Zion s sake we will not rest, 
We will not hold our peace ;" 

Wolff suddenly interrupted them, by singing, 

" The mighty shall build the City of Zion, 
And give her to thee. 

Then shall he raise from the dust the needy, 
And from the dunghill the poor." 

On hearing which they all rose and said, 

" Blessed art thou, 
Who comest in the name of the Lord !" 

which illustrates the expression of our blessed Lord to the 
Jews, "Henceforth ye shall not see me, until you shall say, 
Blessed be He that cometh in the name of the Lord/ " which 
means, " You shall not see me until you are disposed to wel 
come me heartily." Wolff conversed till late in the night with 
both Jews and Muhammadans, on the Gospel of Christ. 

Here too, he had the unbounded gratification of ransoming 
several Persian slaves, whom he sent back to Persia at his own 
expense. The poor people actually came and fell down at his 
feet, which they kissed from their excessive gratitude. Yet he 
could not but feel astonished at observing that many of these 
Persian slaves became so accustomed to, and satisfied with 
their condition, that they are intrusted by their masters with 
merchandize and money, and are sent back to Persia to trans 
act business for them ; to the very country where, on their 
arrival, they might safely declare themselves free, and remain 
with the whole property. But so far from doing this, they 
faithfully come back to their masters, and deliver to them the 
profits they have made by the sale of their goods. Wolff asked 
several of the slaves about their becoming so well accustomed 

of Dr. Wolff. 325 

to their slavery, and they assigned the following reasons : 
Firstly, That they might be made slaves again. Secondly, 
That they are well treated by their masters. Thirdly, That 
they love the fresh air of the Desert. Fourthly, That they 
might eventually ransom themselves, and then live securely as 
free men. Fifthly, That the Persians are treated by their 
Kings and Satraps worse than slaves. 

These reasons speak well for the Turcomauns, who treat 
their slaves so kindly, and they speak volumes against the 
Government of Persia. And Wolff has actually seen in his 
two journeys to Bokhara, beautiful country houses and palaces 
belonging to Persians who were once slaves : and many of 
those who are still slaves occupy the highest situations in the 
State of Bokhara and Khiva. Moreover, as there are above 
300,000 slaves in the kingdom of Bokhara alone, and as the 
greatest intellect is to be found amongst them, Wolff would 
not be surprised to hear one day that the slaves had risen, and 
made themselves masters of the country. 

Wolff also found in the desert of Merw many Jews who 
have embraced the Muhammadan religion, and become Turco 
mauns, and intermarried with them. An extraordinary event 
occurred whilst Wolff was there : A man, in the garb of a 
dervish appeared in the camp, with all the dignity of a 
prince. Wolff asked who he was ? They told him it was 
Omar, the rightful King of Bokhara, the son of Hydar, who 
was brother to the present King. For, after Hydar Shah s 
death, five sons remained, and Nasar Ullah Behadur, the 
youngest son, succeeded in killing three of his brothers ; but 
his mother saved Omar, the eldest son, and made him escape 
by the way of Kokan, whence he journeyed as far as Stam- 
bool, i. e. Constantinople, disguised as a dervish. At last he 
came back to Merw, where he was concealed by his friends ; 
but Wolff heard, years afterwards, that he had actually 
marched to Bokhara, where he was made prisoner, and put to 
death by his beastly brother. 

Wolff seems, by his own experience, to have found out the 
secret how it was possible for Jonah the Prophet to go alone to 
Nineveh, and preach repentance to the Ninevites ; and how it 
was possible for Elijah the Prophet to appear so often before 
Ahab the King, without being killed by him ; also how John 
the Baptist preached to an infuriated mob in the desert, and 
called them " a generation of vipers," without being touched, 
at least for a long time. For though, as he says, we must 
admit in all those things the invisible hand of God, yet his 
own safety, and that of the Prophets of old, in so many dan- 

326 Travels and Adventures 

gerous situations, is to be explained in some measure by the 
genius of the Eastern nation. The Orientals consider der 
vishes to be madmen, and they think that madmen are en 
dowed with a higher spirit, and therefore have the privilege of 
insulting Kings. And the Prophets (as Wolff has proved be 
fore) were dervishes, and were all considered mad, as we read 
(2 Kings ix. 11) : u Then Jehu came forth to the servants 
of his lord, and one said unto him, Is all well ? Wherefore 
came this madman to thee f r Hosea says, " The spiritual 
man is mad." (Hosea ix. 7.) And Festus said to Paul, " Too 
much learning doth make thee mad. 1 And this was the reason, 
also, why David feigned himself mad. And Wolff even heard 
the Akalee, who are the military Fakirs in the Punjaub, call 
Eundjud Singh, who was the Napoleon of the East// a blind 
rascal " to his face, which plainly shows how the dervishes are 
allowed to say whatever they like. In short, the very word 
which the Arabs have for " fool," proves that mad people are 
considered to be possessed by an occult spirit, for they are 
called Majnoon^ i. e. Genius-ified ; possessed by a genius. 
Moreover, the dervishes are also particularly fond of music, by 
which they say they become inspired by God. Nevertheless, 
there were sometimes both kings and people who forgot them 
selves, and murdered the Prophets. Thus Isaiah was sawn 
asunder, and Zacharias 1 bloocl shed in the Temple ; but then 
the subsequent disasters which befell their nation, were as 
cribed to those awful deeds, even by our Lord himself. And 
so the murder of a dervish is still always considered to be the 
forerunner of calamities, which shall come over a country ; on 
which account Wolff does not wonder that the destruction of 
monasteries, and the robbery of holy things belonging to holy 
men, is considered as a crime which has been visited upon some 
noble families, by the great Spellman. 

He left Merw with his companions, and the holy dervish of 
Merw was added to his company as far as Chahaar-choo, which 
is the first frontier town of the kingdom of Bokhara. Here 
one crosses the Oxus, called by the natives Ammoo ; but as the 
Oxus was frozen when Wolff reached it, they were obliged to 
go over on the ice. Wolff slept in Chahaar-choo, which is a 
town containing about 4,000 inhabitants. There was a Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of the place, a Kalmuk by birth, who sent 
word to Wolff to give him his name, as he must report his 
arrival upon the territory of the King of Bokhara to the 
Governor of Karakool, whose name was Husseyn Khan. Wolff 
met here with respectable Jews, inhabitants of the great city 
Bokhara, one of whom besought him to pray over his son, 

of Dr. Wolff. 327 

in order that the hatred with which he had heeu bewitched 
against his wife, by some wizard, might depart. Wolff did 
pray over him, but whether his prayer was effectual or not, ho 
does not know. 

These Jews accompanied him forward on his road to Bok 
hara. The road was so completely covered with snow, as it 
was the depth of winter, that Wolff was not then able to see 
the beauty of the country, which he discovered on his second 
journey, in 1844. 

Wolff arrived the following day in Karrakool, and waited 
on the Governor, who was a most intelligent, venerable-looking 
man, with a fine white beard. He had been brought as a slave 
from Persia to Bokhara, and became the favourite of Hydar 
Shah, and was at last exalted to the situation of Governor. 
He treated Wolff with tea, made with milk, salt, and grease ; 
with roasted horse-flesh, also, and veal. And when Wolff told 
him the object of his travels, he said to him, 

" Friend, allow me to give you some advice. Bokhara is 
called Koobbat Islaame Deen, which means, the stronghold of 
the Muhammadan religion/ Be cautious, therefore, in Bok 
hara, because one word against our religion will make the 
people forget that you are a guest, and they will put you to 
death ; therefore, be cautious in Bokhara." 

Wolff thanked him for his kind advice, left his house the 
next day, and proceeded on his journey. 

It was a cold, freezing day ; he travelled during the whole 
of it. He had again to cross a frozen branch of the Oxus ; 
and, in one place where the ice was broken, he went in a boat, 
which made him feel very nervous, so that he screamed out. 
Upon this, the Tatshicks a tribe of half Moguls, half Persians 
put their hands over Wolff s eyes, in order that he might not 
see the river ; and then they got out on shore, and rode on 
again till ten at night, when the sky was covered with stars. 
The poor Guzl-baash slaves, above mentioned, began to chant 

" The Al-ammaan have taken us, 

Poor, poor Guzl-baash ; 

And carry us, and carry us, 

In iron and chains, in iron and chains, 

To Organtsli and Bokhara." 

Then the Jews who had accompanied the caravan broke out 
with their voice of evening adoration, as it is heard all over the 
world whither they are scattered, tihmaa Yisracel Adonay Elo- 
henoo Adonay Ekhad: " Hear, Israel, the Lord our God is one 

328 Travels and Adventures 

And then was overheard from a distance a loud, rapping 
noise, as of strokes upon wood, which came from within the 
walls of the now neighbouring city ; and this was the sound 
of the Umeer-Shab, literally " The Prince of the Night; 1 for 
the watchmen in the cities of the kingdom of Bokhara are 
thus called. And then followed Arahic words, which we give 
in English, and which were, " In the name of the most mer 
ciful and pitiful God, the most merciful and pitiful, the King 
on the day of judgment, praise be to the Lord, the Creator of 
two worlds ! We serve Thee, we lift up our eyes to Thee. 
Guide us in the right way the way of those to whom Thou 
art merciful, not the way of those with whom Thou art angry, 
and not the way of those who are in error. Amen." 

And another voice was heard from a distance, 
" Agar een Toorkee Sheeraaze bedast arad delle mara, 
" Bekhaale hendish bakhsham Samarcand oo Bokhaarara." 


" If this beautiful girl of Sheeraz would give me her heart, 
" I would give her for one mole of her cheek all the treasures of Samar 
cand and Bokhara." 

Then, suddenly, Awaz, the Turcomaun from Sarakhs, ex 
claimed, " Yussuf Wolff, raseedem dar bab Bokhara !" 


" Joseph Wolff, we are arrived at the gate of Bokhara !" 

Dr. Wolff says, " Blessed be Thou, Jesus Christ, my God 
and my Lord, who hast redeemed me from all evil 2" 


Bokhara: suspected of being a Russian Spy: Inhabitants of 
Bokhara , Identity of Jewish Customs: Description of Bok 
hara: Morecroft: Czoma de Korb s. 

T^ROM the remarks which Dr. Wolff has read in the reviews 
-*- of his work, he observes that some of his readers have 
forgotten that he was twice in Bokhara ; and that his first 
journey there was not undertaken for the purpose of liberating 
Colonel Stoddart and Captain Conolly, for this latter journey 
was undertaken twelve years afterwards ; but for the purpose 
of proclaiming the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ to the Jews 
in Bokhara, and all over Afrghanistari and Hindoostan ; as 
also to find traces of the ten tribes of Israel, and to make him- 

of Dr. Wolff. 329 

self acquainted with the history of the Jews of Bokhara, 
Samarcand, and Balkh ; with their expectations in regard to 
their future destiny ; with their learning, also, and traditions, 
as well as with the history of Tshingis-Khan and Timoor. 
Likewise, he wished to inquire about the descendants of the 
army of Alexander the Great, who were reported to be 
wandering about upon the heights of the Himalaya, and were 
called by the Muhammadans Kafir-Seah-Poosh, which means, 
the " infidels in black clothing." 

The reader left Wolff at the gate of Bokhara, on entering 
which, Awaz, his Turcomaun guide, said to him, " Now, 
Joseph Wolff, here in the suburb we must sleep in the house 
of a Mehmoon-Doost" (i.e. " friend of guests"), who was an 
Osbeck the Osbecks being the original inhabitants of Bok 

There was, in the interior of this man s house, an amount of 
comfort which Wolff did not expect. The host prepared a 
frugal supper for him, consisting of horse-flesh, and tea with 
milk, salt, and grease in it. But Wolff s guide, Awaz, who 
was already well acquainted with his tastes, said, " Tea, made 
in the Mogul manner, is not accepted by Joseph WolfF; but 
tea, made in the English fashion, with sugar and milk." And 
so Wolff got tea in his own way ; and veal as well as horse 
flesh, of both of which he ate. 

As soon as the morning dawned, Awaz said, " Now, you 
must remain here, and I will ride on to the Goosh-Bekee (i.e. 
the ear of the lord ), for the king holds intercourse with his 
subjects only through him." 

The different offices among the Eastern churches, and to a 
certain degree also in the Roman Catholic Church, and also in 
the Church of England, have names from different members of 
the body, which is alluded to in the 1st Corinthians, chapter 
xii. verses 15, 16, and 17; and from this practice of the 
Christian churches the Muhammadans have taken their idea. 
But in no church has discipline, with regard to these different 
offices, been so beautifully and so consistently carried out, and 
with such dignity, as in the body called the " Irvingites." 
With them there is such a symmetry in the whole, that one 
really seems to see the movements of the different members of 
the body in the performance of their services. 

However, to return to the Gosh-BeJcee the "ear of the 
king," who kneels, and receives, and issues all the royal 
orders. Awaz rode on to his house, and told his Excellency 
that an Englishman had arrived, Joseph Wolff by name, who 
was telling all nations that Jesus was the Mehdee, the " Re- 

330 Travels and Adventures 

storer of all things ;" and that he wished to see the Jews of 
Bokhara, in order to discover whether they belonged to the 
descendants of those ten princes of ten castles, who sprang 
from Israel, Isaac s son. 

The Goosh-Bekee, whose name was Hakim Beyk, having 
made this report to his Majesty, immediately sent a horse, 
and also one of his servants on horseback, to bring Wolff 
through the town. Wolff was at that time dressed like a 
Turconiaun from Organtsh, or Khiva ; and, when he arrived 
in the palace of the king, he was taken to the room of Goosh- 
Bekee, and there that personage (whom we may also call the 
Prime Minister of the Prince of Believers) was sitting. He 
was a man of the Tatshick tribe, people who are decidedly the 
best-looking of the Tatars. He had, indeed, an amiable coun 
tenance, and was evidently concerned for the welfare of the 
State. He asked Wolff to sit clown, during which time he 
read the letters of Abbas Mirza, the Prince Regent of Persia, 
and the letters also of the Grand Moofti of Meshed ; all of 
which recommended Joseph Wolff to the attention of the 

His Excellency then asked Joseph Wolff " of what nation 
he was 2" Wolff replied that he was of the Jewish nation ; 
but had embraced the religion of Jesus Christ, and was now a 
naturalized subject of the King of England ; also that he was 
travelling in order to preach Jesus to the Jewish nation, and 
to find out the ten tribes of Israel, from which tribes it was 
believed that the Jews of Bokhara, and around Bokhara, and 
of Samarcand, and Balkh, were sprung; and also the Affghans. 
Consequently, Wolff intended to go from thence to Cabul and 
the Punjaub, to Rundjud Singh, whose name was a terror at 
that time in Bokhara itself. 

Goosh-Bekee immediately left the room, saying he would 
report this to the king, and, on his doing so, the king- 
requested that all Wolff s firmans from the Sultan should be 
shown to him, which was at once done. After which, Goosh- 
Bekee returned ; and seated himself on a raised ottoman, in 
front of the large open window, all the courtiers being collected 
around him the other ministers sitting, the inferior officers 
and servants kept standing. Of ministers there was the 
Nazir (i.e.t\\Q "king s eye"), who looked over all things, and 
was superintendent ; the Dastar Khan jee, or the " king s 
hand," who had a hand over the kitchen. Also the Paade- 
shah, or " foot of the king,"who was the general of the army 
and this title the English write incorrectly Pacha. These 
were seated on opposite sides ; while, outside the window. 

of Dr. Wolff. 331 

were collected Jews, and Moslems, and Osbecks, and Tatars, 
and people from Yarkand and Chinese Tartary, who were 
listening and looking in. But the Jews got especially near to 
the window, eagerly attending to what was going on in the 
room ; all which, there being no glass in the opening, it was 
easy to hear and observe. 

Wolff himself was placed opposite the Goosh-Bekee, in the 
middle of the room ; and, as he faced the windows, he was 
visible to the Jews outside. 

The Goosh-Bekee now ordered him to repeat again what he 
had stated about his object in searching for the ten tribes in 
Bokhara, and Affghanistan, &c. ; and Wolff repeated it all. 
Then Goosh-Bekee said, " First of all, the Affghans are not of 
the ten tribes of Israel, for they are Copts ;" and he showed to 
Wolff a manuscript, in which that account was given. But, at 
the same time, he stated that there were different opinions on 
the subject ; that some of the Affglian writers said they were 
the descendants of Judah and Benjamin ; but they themselves 
chiefly traced their genealogy from Taint (i. e. King Saul). 
And then he went on to say, " I suspect you to be a relation 
of Mr. Morecroft, who was killed, not in Bokhara, as people 
say, but at Ankhoy ; whereas his two companions, Guthrio 
and Trebeck, were killed at Mozaur, which is the town you 
must pass through on your way to Hindoostan. The resem 
blance between you and Morecroft is very striking ; and I am 
sure I am not mistaken." And it is very remarkable that, 
after WolfFs arrival in Hindoostan, all the friends of Mr. More 
croft confirmed the assertion of the Goosh-Bekee to this resem 
blance. But Wolff, of course, denied all connection with 
Morecroft ; and repeated to the Goosh-Bekee that his story was 

Then the Goosh-Bekee commenced, " Whose descendant 
are you V 

Wolff said, " I am a descendant of a Jew." 

" Are you an Englishman 2" 

" A naturalized one." 

Again he said, " Whose descendant are you ?" 

" A descendant of a Jew/ 

Then suddenly a voice proceeded from the crowd of the Jews 
outside, which shouted, 

" He is a liar ! he is a Russian spy !" 

" Wolff replied, " You lie, like a clog ! and I will prove this 
to the whole assembly. 1 " 

But shouts were heard from all sides, from Jews, Mongols, 
Osbecks, &c., and Affghans, 

332 Travels and Adventures 

" Jasoos ! Jasoos ! Jasoos / " ("a spy, a spy, a spy !") 

Wolff rose and said, " Remember, I am your guest ! and a 
guest ought to be heard." 

They all exclaimed, " Give ear, give ear, give ear ! He 
wants to speak for himself;" and one among them here shouted, 
" This man is no spy, for the colour of his face becomes not 
pale ; and there he stands firm, like a wall." 

A deep silence then prevailed ; and Wolff said, " Now, I 
will examine this Jew. 1 And then he asked the Jew, "What 
is thy name ?" 

He replied, " My name is Eliyalm SopJier ;" which means, 
" Elijah, the writer of the law/ for he was employed in copy 
ing the manuscripts of the Pentateuch. 

Then Wolff asked, "Where have you seen me before?" 

He answered, " I saw you in Bagdad, twelve years ago, 
when you lived in the house of Aga Sarkis, the Armenian, and 
distributed Hebrew books, called The New Testatment, 1 which 
were printed in Russia." (And he proceeded to describe the 
colours of the binding of the books.) " Beside this, we have 
proofs that you are no Jew." 

Wolff then ordered his servant to bring a New Testament. 
The New Testament was brought. Then Wolff asked, " Who 
is Aga Sarkis ?" 

Eliyahu said, " The English agent. 1 

Wolff replied, " If he was the English agent, why had I not 
gone to the Russian agent ?" 

To this the Jew could give no answer. 

Then said Wolff, holding up a Bible, " Where do you say 
this book was printed ?" 

He said, " In Russia." 

Wolff replied, " In what place in Russia ? Russia is large." 

The man answered that " he did not know ;" and then Wolff 
opened the book, and asked one of the bystanders, " What was 
the name of the place printed in it f who answered " London." 

On which the Goosh-Bekee exclaimed, in a fury, as he 
turned to the Jew, " Oh ! thou cursed man ! I know thy 
object. For thou hatest him for his having become a Christian !" 
And then some of the other Jews, who were present, began to 
bastinado him, but Wolff tried to beg him off. Nevertheless, 
as his own veracity had been impeached, and it was a matter 
of life and death that he should establish himself to be what he 
had asserted he was, he accepted the only available alternative ; 
and, for a week afterwards, he was the laughing-stock of the 
whole town of Bokhara. But Wolff has never minded being 

of Dr. Wolff. 333 

laughed at ! Both the Goosh-Bekee and every one exclaimed, 
" Such a man never came to Bokhara before !" 

There are two tales in history of which it is said, that they 
are known even within the walls of China. First, the history 
of the Seven Sleepers ; and second, the history of the Sorrows 
of Werther. But one thing is certain, that the way in which 
Joseph Wolff settled the Jew, Eliyahu Sopher, in Bokhara, is 
known by the inhabitants of Yarkand, in the wilds of Tobolsk, 
and at Pekin in China, at Sochow in China, and at Lassa in 

The Goosh-Bekee afterwards said, " The king s command is, 
that you may go wherever you like among the Jews ; but you 
must not talk about religion with the Mussulmans ; for we 
wish that you should go away in peace and undisturbed, and 
proceed to Hindoostan in safety. We have already got a bad 
name in Bokhara, as if we were murderers of guests. For they 
say everywhere, that we killed Morecroft, Guthrie, and Tre- 
beck. We therefore wish that you should pass through 

Wolff replied, " 4s a believer in Christ, I am, according to 
the words of Paulus (the comfort of God and peace upon him !), 
a disciple of Christ, and he said that we must obey the powers 
that be." 

Goosh-Bekee asked, u In what book do we find this?" 

Whereupon Wolff pointed out to him the 13th of the Eo- 
mans, and translated it to him. And thus Wolff made him 
and the rest acquainted with some of the tenets of the Christian 
religion, at the very moment when he had been forbidden to 
speak about it to the Muhammadans. 

Wolff now retired, and took up his abode with the Jew, 
Reuben, from Meshed, where the Jews called on him. One of 
the Jewish teachers told the ladies and the rest of the Jews who 
were assembled in Reuben s house, the following story : 

When Joseph had withstood the temptation of Solykha, 
Potiphar s wife, and when he had reached the highest office in 
the State, his brethren came to him ; and afterwards, when the 
cup had been found with Benjamin, he wished to keep Benjamin 
a prisoner. Then Judah, his brother, who had such strength in 
every bit of his hair, that he could slay with it the whole coun 
try of Egypt ; and the cry of him was so powerful that it made 
all the pregnant women miscarry, said to Naphthali (who was a 
hind let loose, for he knew how to run 200 miles in a minute), 
" Go and number the inhabitants of Egypt." Upon this, 
Joseph could no longer abstain, and exclaimed, " I am Joseph, 
your brother !" He then sent them with presents to the 

334 Travels and Adventures 

father, who had been all the time in mourning ; but the 
brethren said among themselves, " We do not dare to bring 
him the tidings for fear he may die of joy : so we will send 
Zarah, the daughter of Ashur, who sings and plays wonder 
fully upon the harp : and she will go before us, singing and 
playing upon the harp, and will tell him, Joseph, thy son 
liveth." And thus she did : and sang 


" Joseph, Joseph, Joseph, thy son liveth." 

Here Wolff has to observe, that there is not in any religion 
upon earth, not even in the Roman Catholic churches, nor in 
the Eastern churches, nor in the Church of England, such 
uniformity of ceremonies, and uniformity of thought, and uni 
formity of legends, and uniformity of actions in the forms of 
prayer, so strong and exact as in the Jewish religion. As, for 
instance, this history of the belief about the strength of Judah, 
and the agility of Naphthali, and the sweet singing of Zarah, 
the daughter of Ashur, may be heard among the Jews in 
Houndsditch as well as in the city of Bokhara. The Jewish 
mode of bowing in prayer is the same in Bokhara, as it is in 
Duke Street, London, amongst the Portuguese Jews. The 
very same formularies of prayers the very same feelings and 
expressions obtain in Bokhara as in St. Mary Axe ; and 
amongst the Jews also of Hungary. When Wolff reached 
Bokhara, they were just commemorating the feast of Purim ; 
and, when they read the Book of Esther, every time the name 
of Hainan was mentioned, even the Jewish children and boys 
of Bokhara struck with a hammer upon the benches in the 
synagogue, just as they are struck both in London and Am 
sterdam. The principal Jews of Bokhara get drunk at that 
feast : a practice which is religiously observed at Jerusalem, 
and in the " holy congregation" there, as well as at Dusseldorf, 
in Germany. They fast, on the day of Atonement, for four- 
and- twenty hours in Bokhara ; just as they fast, for four-and- 
twenty hours in London and all over Europe. The Jews blow 
the trumpet at the beginning of the new year in Bokhara, as 
they do at the beginning of the Jewish new year everywhere in 
Europe. They wait and pray there for the redemption of 
Israel, through the Messiah the son of David, just as they do 
all over the world. They weep at the same sentence in their 
prayers, on the day of Atonement ; and in proof of this general 
uniformity of religious observance amongst the Jews, it must 
be told that Wolff had the misfortune to be on the night of 
Purim in the dwelling of a Jew, who was so prominently 
drunk, that it forced him to leave the house during the night ; 

of Dr. Wolff. 335 

and he went and took a room in the caravanserai of the Aff- 
ghans, called the " caravanserai of Moollah Bedr-deen." 

The next morning, all the Jews called on Wolff, and apolo 
gized that their merriness had driven him out of their house ; 
" for," as they said, " you know that on the day of Purim we, 
Yehoodem (i. e. t Jews ) get drunk, which has been a holy cus 
tom among the children of Israel, from the time of the six days 
of the creation of the world." Wolff replied, with great sim 
plicity, " Not quite so ancient, I think." The domestic habits 
of the Jews, wherever they may be in the world, are also nati 
onal. Wolff remembers how the common Jews of Germany in 
his boyhood celebrated their Sabbath, which they called "the 
comfort of the Sabbath," and he has no doubt that the customs 
in St. Mary Axe are very similar at this day. First, the hus 
band and wife would go to the synagogue early in the morning, 
and then return home to dinner on soup and kugel, and eat 
plentifully of garlick and onions. And they said that sleep is 
commanded to the Jews on the Sabbath day in the word Shab- 
bath, as written in Hebrew characters. Thus: VJ (Sheen) 
rttltf (Sheeuah) Sleep ; 1 (Beth) JUttD (Beshabath) on the 
Sabbath Day ; n (Tau) ^WD (Taanog) Comfort Sweetness. 

So after eating, the Jew and his wife, without undressing, 
would lie down on their bed, and snore. Then they would get 
up, wash themselves in a basin ; and the man, sitting down in 
his shirt sleeves, would read aloud to his wife a legendary book, 
called the Zeennos urennos, lounging and puffing after his gar 
lic feast, whilst she was putting his hair nicely in order with 
her fingers. 

The higher classes of Jews may be divided into three. First, 
there are the rich Jews who have generally acquired their 
wealth by their industry. These are generous and benevolent 
in their disposition, and strictly adhere to the Law of Moses 
and the Talmud. 

Secondly, there are rich Jews, who have, besides their riches, 
acquired education in Christian schools. These are rather lax 
in their observance of the Law ; but generosity and benevo 
lence seem to be born with all of them. 

Thirdly, there are Jews who maintain themselves by in 
structing the youth in science, mathematics, history, natural 
history, &c. ; and these are generally highly educated. They 
are moral, amiable, and eclectical philosophers : taking from 
Christianity what pleases them. Of such are Joelsohn, Herz, 
Zirnderfer, Mayer, Obernick, and many others. Most of the 
Jews of these classes are very clean in their habits, and extend 
their benevolence not only to their own people but to Christi 
ans also. 

336 Travels and Adventures 

Among the Jews of both Germany and England there is a 
low class, notorious pickpockets known as Akh-Berothim, i. e. 
pickpockets." Wolff first met one of these at Halle, in the 
house of the Shames, i. e. " the Deacon;" where they had their 
rendezvous. They have terminologies of their own : for in 
stance, Latkhener is " a pickpocket," and Verschiit is "a pick 
pocket caught." 

Wolff witnessed the ceremony of the marriage of a Jew and 
Jewess at Bokhara as he had formerly done in Cairo. The 
gentlemen assembled in a large apartment, or kind of parlour : 
the ladies being in an upper gallery, which was used as a 
chamber. The six Rabbis rose suddenly from their seats, and 
announced the performance of the usual evening prayer, called 
MinJia, by exclaiming, " Blessed are those that dwell in Thy 
house, they shall praise thee ;" on which the people exclaimed, 
" Blessed is the people whose God is the Lord." Then they 
turned their faces towards Jerusalem, and recited the prayer 
in which the name of Jehovah occurs eighteen times ; and at 
each mention of the name they bowed down. It was an im 
posing sight to see the six Rabbis standing in a row, and bow 
ing themselves before the Holy One blessed be He ! 

After the evening prayer was ended, the nuptial torch was 
lighted. This was a large candelabra, with nine branches, and 
in each of them was a wax candle burning. It was carried up 
to the gallery where the ladies were placed, and among them 
was the bride : the bridegroom being all the time with the 
gentlemen below. Shouts and screams of the old women, usual 
on such occasions, were heard ; and then the bride was con 
ducted down stairs, completely veiled, and led by two or three 
women. The bridegroom at once took his place by her side, 
when the Rabbis exclaimed first, and all the people after them, 
" My heart is inditing of a good matter: I speak of the things 
which I have made, touching the king. My tongue is the pen 
of a ready writer. Thou art fairer than the children of men : 
grace is poured into thy lips, therefore God hath blessed thee 
for ever." Psalm xlv. 

The head Rabbi then exclaimed, " Blessed art thou, O Lord 
our God, King of the world..." the people interrupted him, 
and said, " Blessed be He, and blessed is His name." Head 
Rabbi. Who has created the fruit of the vine. People. 
Amen ! 

Head Rabbi. Blessed art thou, Lord our God, King of 
the World. People. Blessed be He, and blessed is His 

Head Rabbi. Who hast sanctified us by Thy command- 

of Dr. Wolff. 337 

ments which Thou hast commanded, respecting modesty ; and 
bound us by firm engagements ; and exalted our dignity by 
wedding and by marriage. 

Then one of the Rabbis took a ring, and put it on the finger of 
the gentleman, and then on the finger of the lady; and then gave 
it to the gentleman, and he put it on the finger of his bride, where 
it remained, and the bridegroom said, " Verily, thou art es 
poused to me by this ring, according to the law of Moses and 
of Israel." A large camel s hair shawl, called Tails was then 
thrown over the heads of the couple, and the Rabbi twice gave 
them wine to drink, and said, " Blessed art Thou, O Lord our 
God, King of the world." People. Blessed be He, and 
blessed is His name. 

Rabbi. Creator of men. People. Amen. 

Rabbi. Who hast created man in Thy likeness, and hast 
prepared for him a house for ever and ever. People. Amen. 

All the Rabbis together. Rejoice, shout, and be merry, thou 
barren : thou wilt soon gather thy children about thee with 
joy . People. A men. 

Rabbis. That thou mayest make joyful the children of 
Zion. People. Amen. 

Head Rabbi. Thou makest joyful with joy a lovely pair. 
People. Amen. 

Rabbi. Blessed art Thou, Lord our God. People. 
Blessed be He, and blessed His name. 

Rabbi. Who rejoicest bridegroom and bride. People. 

Rabbi. Who hast created rejoicing and joy, and also bride 
groom and bride. People. Amen. 

Rabbi. The voice of love, attachment, cordiality, peace, 
and friendship shall speedily be heard in the cities of Judah, 
and in the streets of Jerusalem. People. Amen. 

The Rabbis and people together then clapping their hands, 
exclaimed, " The voice of rejoicing and the voice of joy ; the 
voice of the bridegroom, the voice of the bride, the voice of 
shouting, and of wedding days, and of marriage, and of solemn 
days, and the voice of music, and the voice of young men." 

The head Rabbi. Blessed art thou, Lord. People. 
Blessed be He, and blessed His name ! 

Rabbi. Who makest joyful the bridegroom with the bride, 
and makest them prosper. People. Amen. 

After this song was over, both the bridegroom and the bride 
tasted the cup of wine, and the Rabbi said, " Praise the Lord, 
for His mercy endureth for ever. Joy shall increase in Israel, 
and sorrow shall flee away ; and it shall be for a good sign/ 1 


338 Travels and Adventures 

Then all exclaimed, shaking hands with the bridegroom, "Good 
sign, good sign ;" and then the nuptial torch was extinguished, 
but immediately lighted again by the ladies, who exclaimed, 
with a voice like the crowing of a cock, " The bridegroom 
cometh ;" and the bride was re-conducted to her chamber with 
the sound of cymbals and other instruments of music. And 
so it ended. 

The Jews have the greatest reverence for the name " Jeho 
vah," which they never pronounce, but say, instead of it, 
" Adonai ;" and it is most solemn and awful to see them, on 
every Day of Atonement, assembled in their synagogue, dressed 
in the same white garment in which they will be dressed on 
their death bed, with a white linen cap over their heads, with 
out shoes, but with white stockings on their feet ; and at the 
moment when the Rabbi says, " We will kneel down and bow 
before the King of the king of kings the Holy One blessed 
be He," they all fall down at once upon their knees with such 
power that the ground under them resounds with it. 

One day, an atheistical and scoffing Jew was in the syna 
gogue, resolved on deriding this awful ceremony : and when in 
the act of laughing he fell down, like the rest, on his knees ; 
but he never rose again, for he was struck dead by an apoplec 
tic fit. May one not exclaim with Schiller, " There is a God, 
and a Holy Will is living immoveable, however much human 
will may vacillate 2" And the public will ask, " Wolff, do you 
believe that story ?" To which he not only replies " Yes," 
but must add also that he was often surprized that similar 
judgment and visitation did not fall more frequently upon 
those French and Italian infidels, and preachers of liberty, 
whom he met in Arabia and Egypt. Oh, when will the time 
come, of which the prophet says, " The vile shall no longer be 
called liberal?" 

The Jews in Bokhara gave to Wolff the following account 
of themselves : 

" When the God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul, king 
of Assyria, and the spirit of Tiglath-Pilneser, king of Assyria, 
they were carried away even the Reubenites, and the Gadites, 
and the half tribe of Manasseh, and were brought into Halah 
(which is now called Balkh), and Habor (which is Samarcand), 
and Hara (which is Bokhara), and to the river Gozan (which 
is the Ammoo, also called Jehoon, and by the Europeans called 
Oxus). They lived in this empire for centuries, until they were 
expelled by the Tshagatay, the people of Tshinghis Khan ; and. 
then they settled in Sabz A war, and INishapoor in Khorassan, 
and Shahr-Sabz ; and, centuries afterwards, the greater part re- 

of Dr. Wolff. 339 

turned from Shahr-Sabz to Bokhara, Samarcand, and Balkh. 
And Timoor Koorikan (called falsely by the Europeans, Ta 
merlane) gave them a great many privileges ; and, at Balkh, 
the mother of cities, he gave them a whole beautiful quarter of 
their own, with a gate to enclose it ; and so they lived in peace 
and prosperity. One of the prime ministers, who was called 
4 the second after the king 1 (in Hebrew, Shenee-lameleti), and 
was the chief secretary to royalty, was a Jew from Germany. 1 

Here Joseph Wolff cannot abstain from observing, that one 
cannot but adore the wonderful dealings of God with that once- 
favoured nation ; for his Providence has always directed mat 
ters in such a way that, in the most despotic countries there 
has always been a Jew prime minister, or chief, who has pro 
tected his own people during the greatest dangers. Thus, 
Joseph in Egypt; Daniel in Babylon; Mordecai in Persia ; 
Judah under Timoor ; Suleyman under Tshinghis Khan ; and 
there was Suleyman, a Jew prime minister under Hydar Shah, 
who was father of the present king of Bokhara ; and the Em 
peror of Morocco has frequently had a Jewish prime minister ; 
and Abarbanel, the most unfair controversialist against Chris 
tianity, was chancellor of the exchequer to Ferdinand and 
Isabella of Spain ; and the whole family of Hiinigstein were 
made noblemen by Emperor Leopold and Maria Theresa ; and 
the son of the great Rabbi, Jonathan Eubeschiitz (Joseph 
WolfFs ancestor), was made a baron by one of the Emperors 
of the Holy Roman Empire, and bore the title, Baron von 
Adlerfeld. And Wolff considers that it may be the design of 
God, in inducing the British Government to admit Jews into 
Parliament, that they shall learn, in that assembly, how the 
government should be carried on, with righteousness and 
equity, when they shall return to their own laud, at the time 
when the Redeemer shall come to Zion. It is, therefore, to 
be regretted, that Mr. Newdigate does not see that the finger 
of God is in all this ; but Wolff thinks that, in English, pro 
per names are sometimes either prophetic or historical ; and 
Newdigate is synonymous with "proselyte of the gate/ such 
proselytes being a sect of Gentiles, who were on ly half J ews, 
at the time of the Jewish theocracy, when the Temple stood ; 
and they were always at daggers drawn with the Jews. And 
so it seems that Mr. Newdigate has inherited that combative 
quality of his ancestor who was a "proselyte of the gate." The 
reader must pardon this digression. 

The Jews in Bokhara continued to relate their history to 
Wolff, told him how, in course of time, the Jews of Bokhara, 
Samarcand, and Balkh, forgot (" on account of the abundance 

z 2 

340 Travels and Adventures 

of our sins," as they expressed themselves) the law of Moses. 
They altogether gave up the reading of it, until Joseph Maa- 
rabee, a light of Israel and an African, arrived from Tetuan, 
and taught them again to read the law of Moses ; and also 
made them acquainted with European customs and manners ; 
and his daily prayer was, " Oh ! that soon the Christians may 
conquer the world, and that the Muhammadan power may 
fall." Moreover, he taught them great wisdom, for instance, 
that the drinking of chocolate was good, and useful for in 
creasing the number of the children of Israel. He also spoke 
with them about the mysteries of freemasonry ; and he said 
that freemasonry fraternizes all the nations of the earth toge 
ther : and he himself was a freemason. 

This Joseph Maarabee actually reformed the Jewish nation 
of Bokhara, Samarcand, and Balkh ; for they all came to see 
the great Joseph Mooglirebee, i.e. " Joseph Maarabee, the 
African; " and ever since his time, they have got their bibles 
and talmudical writings from the Jews of Orenburg, in Siberia ; 
and from the great market-place in Russia, called Makariev. 
They also told Wolff that, in the time of Tshinghis Khan, a 
great number of the Jewish nation of Khorassan, Balkh, and 
Cabul, went to China. And it is a striking fact, that the 
Jesuits show in their " Lettres edifiantes," that when speaking 
to the Jews of China, they were informed by them that they 
had originally come from Persia to China. And Bokhara, at 
divers times, belonged to Persia. 

The Jews in Bokhara gave to Wolff an account, by which 
they at least showed their strong belief in the divine interpo 
sition of God in the preservation of their nation. They related 
to him the following history ; that, in the time of Timoor, a 
mighty and wealthy Jew was allured by a Tatar chief to come 
into his house with an immense sum of money, under a pretext 
of business; when the Jew suddenly disappeared, and his whole 
family were plunged into mourning, and distress, and poverty ; 
and with them the greatest part of the Jewish congregation at 
Bokhara were also overwhelmed by misery arid ruin. The 
mighty Tatar chief was a favourite of Timoor ; but, trusting 
in the justice of Timoor, the Jews brought the case before him. 
Timoor replied, " I shall instantly make search in the house 
of the Tatar chief, and if the Jew is found there, not only the 
property of the Jew, but the whole property of the Tatar also, 
shall be given over to the family of the Jew : but should the 
Jew not be found, I will order that his whole family shall be 
buried alive." Thereupon, an old Jew, one hundred years of 
age, who stood in the fame of holiness, and bore a most vene- 

of Dr. Wolff. 341 

rable appearance with a silver-white beard, accompanied by the 
elders of his nation, all dressed in white garments, (in which 
they are clothed when they are buried,) with the phylacteries 
upon their heads, and the veil around their faces the roll of 
the law in their hands entered the house of the Tatar, when 
the centenarian commenced in the following manner address 
ing the Holy One, blessed be He " Lord of the world, Father 
of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, hear us" and the elders re 
plied, "Hear us" and the centenarian continued, " Thy 
congregation has sinned, and therefore we are in captivity ; 
and the tribes of the Lord remaining in Bokhara are in danger 
of being buried alive. O Lord hear, and manifest thy power, 
and make known the evil doer." When suddenly, in the pre 
sence of Timoor himself, the earth below began to crack and 
and open, and the lost Jew appeared with his head cut off, and 
the whole treasure of money deposited near him. The Tatar 
with his whole family were buried alive, by the order of Timoor, 
and the money was returned, and the old Jew with his elders 
repaired to their homes, amidst the sound of the timbrel and 

Through the Jews, in Bokhara, Wolff was made acquainted 
with the fact that, upon the heights of the Oural mountains, 
many of the tribe of Naphthali still inhabit the clefts of the 
rocks. Poor nation, how you have been driven about ! when 
shall you be assembled, and march, under the banners of Mes 
siah, to the mountain of the Lord s house ? when will the time 
come, when the outcasts of Israel shall be gathered together, 
and the dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the earth ? 
You, descendants of the children of Hayk, called the Arme 
nians ; and you, descendants of Javan, i. e. Greeks. Wolff 
has great hopes, that you will be those Gentiles who shall be 
instrumental in the conversion of the Jewish nation ; for ac 
cording to the second chapter of the Prophet Isaiah, not Jews 
shall say to the Gentiles, but Gentiles to the Jews, " Come, 
and, let us go up to the mountain of the Lord s house." And 
Wolff is surprised that the Christian Church has overlooked 
the fact, even those who understand the prophecies literallv, 
that it is not said in the Prophet Isaiah, that Gentiles shall 
come to the children of Israel ; but that the Gentiles shall 
come to Him, who is the Light of Jerusalem; concerning 
whom the Prophet so sublimely bursts forth, " Unto us a 
child is born, and unto us a son is given." And though the 
fulness of the Jewish nation, according to Romans, chapter xi. 
verse 12, shall be the riches of the Gentiles, more than their 
decay has been ; yet we nowhere find that the Jew shall have 

342 Travels and Adventures 

a pre-eminence over the inhabitants of that Jerusalem, which 
comes down from heaven. Wolff makes these remarks, in 
order to crush the cant of the Judaizing Christians, who always 
preach the pre-eminence of the Jewish over the Christian 
Church. And if the Gentiles have been debtors to the Jews, 
Jews are now debtors to the Gentiles in many respects. Wolff 
had several visits from Muhammadans of high respectability, 
who informed him that Tshinghis Khan had a mother, but no 
father, and that he was the son of a flash of lightning. But 
scarcely had those Muhammadans left Wolff s room, when the 
Jews told him, " We can tell you better who Tshinghis Khan 
was : he was a son of one of the tribes of Israel, and both his 
father and mother were children of Israel, arid it was for this 
reason that he compiled a code of laws which were chiefly taken 
from the five books of Moses, and to this code he gave the 
name Tawrat, the very name which the law of Moses bears." 
And AVolfF is convinced that these Jews were right in their 
account, and that Disraeli is perfectly right in saying that 
there is scarcely a great man existing in the world, in whom 
there is not Jewish blood to be traced. 

Wolff has not the slightest doubt that the report which he 
heard in the United States about the great Nestor of Great 
Britain, the wise and enlightened Lord Lyndhurst, is true ; 
namely, that a Jewish family came from Franconia to America 
of the name of Copele, which was afterwards changed into 
Copley. And Wolff has a sister, who is married to a Jew at 
Kissengen of the name of Copele. Nor has he any doubt that 
the Earl of Shaftesbury is also of Jewish descent ;for his family 
name is Ashley, which was formerly Asshur, of which the Jews 
in Germany make Ascherle, but pronounce it Ashle. 

The Jews frequently came to Wolff in the caravanserai of 
Moollah Bedr-deen, and said, " Joseph Wolff, probably you 
will be placed before the majesty (HASRAT), and, if so, you 
must stand before him with fear and great trembling ; you 
must kiss the ground with humility ; knock your head on the 
floor ; tremble in all your members ; exclaim with devotion, 
4 Oh asylum of the world, and peace to his majesty ; kiss 
his slippers ; assure him, over and over again, that you are 
the most unworthy of his slaves, and that the majesty of Eng 
land is nothing in comparison with him." 

Wolff heard all this, laughed, and said in reply, " I shall 
do no such things, I shall neither stand with fear nor trem 
bling. 1 They replied, " Our suspicion seems to be confirmed 
more and more by thy answer ; and the Turcomauns, who 
saw thee in Meshed, seem perfectly right in thinking that 

of Dr. Wolff. 343 

thou art the king s son." Wolff said, "I am neither a king 
nor the king s son : but the son of a Jewish Rabbi. But no 
Jew in England would ever demean himself by thus standing 
before the king of Bokhara." 

Among Wolff s acquaintance was a dervish of high respec 
tability, named Gehaan Deed Shah, of the family of Muham 
mad Balool Shah. He was married to a virtuous lady of great 
mind, whose name was Subeyda, by whom he had one son and 
one daughter. The mother doated upon her son, who after 
wards married a lady, by name Sheramat ; and this son 
became collector of the revenues of the Custom House, by 
which he acquired much wealth. But he lost the fear of God, 
and love for his parents ; and on the day of his child s circum 
cision, he invited the Goosh-Bekee, and the Sheik Islaam, and 
their families to the least of them. But he passed over with 
neglect his affectionate father and mother ; and poor Gehaan 
Deed Shah told Wolff that the whole town resounded with 
curses over the conduct of his son ; and he wept, and wept, 
and wept, the whole time he was with Wolff. 

It is worth while now to give some description of Bokhara. 
Bokhara is surrounded by deserts, and watered by the little 
river Wafkan ; but it forms a most fertile oasis in the midst 
of the desert. It has all the fruits of Asia and Europe in 
perfection. It has eleven gates, and a circumference of fifteen 
English miles ; and it has 360 mosques, and twenty-two cara 
vanserais. The old palace, in which the king resides, is called 
ark, which means " castle" (from which our word " ark 11 is 
taken). The houses have neither roofs nor windows. The 
population amounts to 180,000, composed of Tatshicks; No- 
gays, who are believed by the Jews to be the descendants of 
Cain, and they say it is the same word as is used in Genesis 
respecting Cain, viz., Nagli, which means " fugitive and vaga 
bond ;" and Tatars, which the Jews derive from the Hebrew 
word, Totar, and means "remnant," i.e. a remnant of those 
Israelites who have turned to Paganism ; many of whom wor 
shipped wood and stone, and do still so worship in the Oural 
mountains. And in them the prophecy is fulfilled containing 
in the twenty-eighth chapter of Deuteronomy, " And then ye 
shall worship other gods, even wood and stone!" There are 
also Affghans, Marwee, the worst of people, of whom the pro 
verb runs, " If there is here a Marwee, and on the other hand 
a Mar (i. e. a serpent ) ; kill first the Marwee, and then the 
Mar" And there are Osbecks ; and amidst them all are 
15,000 Jews, who are distinguished from the rest by their 
clothing, their physiognomy, their trade, and all their pursuits, 

344 Travels and Adventures 

They are like an island in the midst of the surrounding ocean. 
They wear a small cap, and a girdle around the waist. They 
are dyers and silk traders ; formerly spies to the Russians, 
and now to the English, and to the emperors of Kokan and 
Khotan ; and they are the councillors of their kings, and 
charm-writers for the Turcomauns, when they go into battle. 
They furnish with medicine the wives of the king and other 
noblemen, in order that they may have children. It is an error 
and a lible to say that Jews are all over the world, sellers of 
old clothes. In the kingdom of Bokhara, and also in Yemen, 
they are masons, bankers, and goldsmiths, as well as being 
employed as already stated. There are above one hundred 
Muhammadan colleges in Bokhara, all of the Sunnee. They 
study rhetoric, poesy, and logic. All their disputations are 
carried on in a scholastic manner. The Koran is, however, 
their chief study. They have taken the learned of Arabia 
Felix as their guide ; and the very mode of opening their lec 
tures is taken from the learned in Yemen: i. e. Arabia Felix. 

The teacher, as well as disciple, first lift up their eyes to 
heaven : the palms of their hands are then turned to their 
faces. They then recite the opening of the Koran, as a prayer. 
They have a convent at Bokhara, dedicated to the famous der 
vish Mowlana Jelaal Uddeen, who, centuries ago, went from 
Bokhara to Iconium. The dervishes are fed at the expense of 
the king. 

The country houses around Bokhara, with their gardens, 
are chiefly inhabited by slaves, who have bought their liberty; 
and by the so-called Serkerdehaa, who are the aristocracy of 
the empire, and the privy councillors of the king. The king 
is accustomed to visit the Jews at the Feast of Tabernacles, 
and he dines with them. 

The learned men of the Jewish nation continued to call on 
Wolff, and he proclaimed to them the gospel of Christ ; and 
above twenty of them confessed their belief in the Lord Jesus 
Christ. These had remained faithful, when, fourteen years 
after his first arrival in Bokhara, Wolff again visited it on 
behalf of Stoddart and Conolly. 

Wolff was once sent for, during his stay, by the excellent 
Goosh-Bekee, and found him surrounded by the chief merchants 
of Affghanistan, and by the Se/cerdehaa, i. e. " the aristocracy 
of the empire ;" when the Goosh-Bekee said, " As you have, 
Joseph Wolff, so well obeyed the commands of the king, which 
were given to you, through me ; and as you have not meddled 
with Mussulmans in the cities of Bokhara- Skereef. (i. e. 
4 Bokhara the noble ), you may now enter into conversation. 

of Dr. Wolff. 345 

in my presence, with these learned people here ; and we shall 
ask you questions, and you will answer them ; and you may 
ask questions, and we shall answer you. Tell us, then, how 
can you believe that Jesus is God, whilst he is man f Wolff 
replied, " God is in everything ; in one He is present with 
His power ; in another, with His wisdom ; in others, with 
His goodness but in Jesus the fulness of the Godhead was 
bodily manifested ; and He had no human father, as the Koran 
itself testifies ; but he was in God, even the Son of God, from 

The Goosh-Bekee said, * How can this be 2" 

Wolff said, " The sun has its rays, and heat, and light ; 
and they are all one with the sun, and cannot be divided." 

Goosh-Bekee said, " We call him, therefore, the Word of 
God in the Koran ! " 

Wolff said, " This very expression is also taken from the 
Anjeel (i. e. the Gospel 1 ). And it explains the divinity of 
Jesus even still more strongly than the term Son. For as the 
word of man is one with man, and cannot be divided, or sepa 
rated from him, so the word of God cannot be separated from 
God, and is one with God." 

Then Goosh-Bekee said, " Now do you ask some questions." 

Wolff asked, "What do you understand by the word 
4 Sooftee?" 

A Moollah said, " A man who is pure." 

Wolff asked, "In what does the purity of a person 
consist 2" 

The answer was awful : " A man who makes holy war 
against infidels, and does not commit " * * * 


Wolff asked, " What shall become of the world at last ?" 

Goosh-Bekee said, " It shall be purified by fire, and then 
the wolf and the lamb shall lie down together." 

Another Muhammadan told Wolff that he had been in India, 
had dined with Englishmen, and knew how to take out a lady 
to dinner, quite like an Englishman. He then rose and made 
a bow to one of his fellows, exactly as if he had been a lady, 
and offered his arm, and they walked up and down together, 
to the amusement of all present. 

Another Muhammadan came forward,, who had been in 
Russia. He took out a musical box, which he had got at St. 
Petersburg, and which played, Freut euch des Lebens, Weil 
nock das Ldmpchen gluht Pflucket die Rose, Eh sie verblu/it, 
&c., &c. 

346 Travels and Adventures 

It is also worthy of notice, that they have in Bokhara intro 
duced the hours of the day, as in Russia, from 1 to 12. 

The Goosh-Bekee then asked Wolff whether he had heard 
in Europe of Tshinghis-Khan and Timoor? Wolff gave him 
proofs that he was well acquainted with those heroes. He then 
asked Wolff what was the name of the favourite son of Ti- 
nioor ? He said, Shah-rook, which means " King in the castle." 
Timoor was a great friend of chess-playing. 

Then Goosh-Bekee told him at once, " We wish you to 
know that we are great friends now with Russia, and they give 
us, in all respects, every assistance in their power. tint we 
wish to make, also, friendship with England, and therefore you 
may tell the Governor-General of India, when you arrive there, 
that we wish, first of all, to receive from him instructors who 
will teach our troops the European discipline ; secondly, we 
wish to obtain from him an ambassador ; thirdly, physicians ; 
and fourthly, watchmakers." 

Wolff then returned to the caravanserai. When there, he 
found a Jew in great distress, who wished Joseph Wolff to 
write a prayer for him, in order that his son might cease from 
hating his wife, against whom he had conceived a bitter enmity ; 
so that he never would go near her. He wanted to put the 
paper, with the prayer on it, under the bolster where his son 
slept. Wolff said he could not do this ; but he would come 
and pray over him which he did, and heard, years after, that 
the man had been reconciled to his wife. 

Whilst staying at the caravanserai, Wolff was invited to 
dine with a party of most respectable Affghans and Tatshicks, 
who behaved with the greatest propriety ; but he had rather to 
make an effort when he found that he had to eat the soup with 
his hands, and to eat horse-flesh out of the same dish with the 
rest of the company. The bread in Bokhara is the best in the 
world, especially fine bread like that of Saxony, and it is baked 
in the form of a bracelet. When requested by thorn to tell 
some stories, he recited the histories of Hamlet and Macbeth ; 
and particularly amused them with the story of the Jew Shy- 
lock, which they afterwards publicly retold in the market-place 
of Bokhara. 

Wolff spent the rest of his time amounting in all to three 
months in conversing with Jews, and Affghans, and other 
Muhammadans. He Tlined chiefly with Affghans, and the 
first people of the laud called on him. They were well ac 
quainted with Russia. Their merchants go chiefly to Maka- 
riev, Astrakhan, and Saratoff, in Russia. 

The Jews of Bokhara made Wolff acquainted with the re- 

of Dr. Wolf. 347 

markable fact, that there is a colony of Polish Jews at a place 
called Shamay, in Chinese Tartary, one of whom he saw on his 
second journey to Bokhara. There are also in Bokhara, people, 
native Osbecks, who are Christians, but all they have retained of 
Christianity is the making of the sign of the cross, which 
they have learned, not from Roman Catholic missionaries, but 
from Nestorians, centuries and centuries back. There are also 
in Bokhara, Banyan merchants, i. e. Hindoos from Chicarpoor, 
and Dejeekakootee, and Kurrachee, and Nadir-Kelaat. 

Previously to Wolff s departure from Bokhara, Elyahu 
Sopher, from Bagdad, who tried to bring Wolff into scrapes, 
as already detailed, called on him, and with tears in his eyes 
begged his pardon, which was willingly granted. 

Wolff must confess that the visits he almost daily re 
ceived in the caravanserai of Moollah Bedr-deen were most 
romantic and sublime. Not only did the children of Israel, both 
rich and poor, come to him, but Kassaks (Cossacks) from the 
Oural mountains, the T shay at ay, i. e. " descendants of Tshingis 
Khan," the inhabitants of Samarcand, and merchants from 
Yarkand, Kashgar and Cashmere. All these came to Wolff s 
room, and mixed together; and one of the Jews observed, 
" We never saw, before you came, such a mixture of people of 
many nations, all rallying round a stranger to hear from him of 
the wisdom and knowledge of the land of Edom." 

Now it is to be remarked that the Jews call Christendom 
Edom, the reason of which Wolff could never discover ; for 
though the descendants of Edom had certainly embraced 
Christianity, yet why should Europe be called Edom by them, 
for they specially allude to the Christians in Europe, and they 
call the Roman empire Edom ? The conversations of these 
people were also about the munificence, and riches, and splen 
dour, of the Court of Timoor how he showered turquoises 
and pearls on the head of his daughter when she was married 
and Wolff surprised them not a little when he told them that 
he had made the whole journey of Alexander the Great, except 
going from Bokhara to Attock, which he was on the point of 
completing ; and that he had been on the battle-fields of Timoor 
Hulaku Khan, and Attila; and when one of them exclaimed, 
" Have you ever met with a man who knows the history of 
Timoor, and of his deeds and battles? 1 Wolff gave them the 
whole account. 

At last, Wolff called again on the Goosh-Bekee, who con 
signed to him a passport, written in Persian, and sealed with 
the king^s seal. It was not larger than two inches square, and 
upon it was written, "Joseph Wolff, the Englishman, may 

348 Travels and Adventures 

leave Bokhara, and go to Cabul." Goosh-Bekee also gave him 
private letters of recommendation to the governor of Balkh, 
but, at the same time, he told him, " I am very much con 
cerned about you, for we have got a bad name in Bokhara, and 
it is said that we are the murderers of guests, because Mr. More- 
croft was killed at Ankhoy, but that place is only nominally 
subject to his Majesty ; and the governor of it cares but little 
for Bokhara, because he is surrounded by the Hazara (called 
in Gibbon Khorazen ), a mighty nation, the great soldiers of 
Tshinghis Khan, who make Tshapow (i. e. forays 1 ), and are 
friends of the governor of Ankhoy. He first received presents 
from Morecroft, and then poisoned him. But his two compa 
nions, Guthrie and Trebeck, two half Indians, were murdered 
in another town through which you must pass ; and there the 
governor, who is a cruel man, is protected by the surrounding 
tribes, the Balkhwee, so that the king cannot get at him ; and 
he has vowed a vow to kill not only every Englishman, but 
every European who passes through the place, which is called 
Muzaur, or the holy place. To it Ali came from Arabia, and 
he is called there Shahet-Mardaan, King of men. 1 Ali came 
to Mazaur, riding upon a camel ; and thence, together with the 
camel, he rose upwards to the clouds, and disappeared. Now 
there is a great place of pilgrimage, on this account in the city 
of Muzaur ; and I advise you therefore to travel as a Muham- 
madan, until you have passed it. But do not betray me, nor 
tell that I have given you this advice." 

Wolff answered, " Goosh-Bekee, Jesus says, He that 
denies me before men, him will I deny before my heavenly 
Father. 1 I shall, therefore, never say that I am a Muham- 
madan ; but I guarantee your Excellency that I shall pass 
safely through Muzaur without being found out who I am, and 
without telling a single lie." Goosh-Bekee said, " Well, God 
be your preserver !" 

Before proceeding with this history, Wolff must take some 
further notice of Morecroft, Guthrie, and Trebeck. More- 
croft was evidently a fine fellow. He was sent by the British 
Government to Ladack, and from thence to Cabul and Bokhara, 
in order to purchase horses. He travelled with all the pomp 
of a British ambassador. He was accompanied by Guthrie 
and Trebeck, Anglo-Indian gentlemen, and by thirty sepoys, 
and a band of musicians; and he had also a cannon. There 
was not the slightest disguise in the man. He spent thousands 
of rupees in presents ; and thus he arrived safely at Bokhara, 
at the time when Hyder Shah, father to the present king, ruled 
there. Hyder Shah received him with great honours ; and. 

of Dr. Wolff. 349 

after some hesitation, allowed him to go to Samarcand ; and 
Morecroft made a present of the cannon to his Majesty. He 
then went to Ankhoy, where, it is said, he was killed ; and, in 
short, not one of them ever returned to Hindoostan ; for 
Guthrie and Trebeck were killed at Muzaur. 

Wolff cannot understand how Monsieur Hue could have 
heard at Lassa, the capital of Talli Lama, that Morecroft had 
died at Ladack. 

A Jew of Bokhara, Rabbi Simkha, by name, one day en 
tered Wolffs room, and said to him, " Do you believe that 
there is an ox which feeds daily on the grass of 1,000 moun 
tains, and that we shall eat of that ox on the arrival of the 
Messiah 2" Wolff asked him, where he found that 2 He said, 
" It is so written in the 50th Psalm, 10th verse ; for the Tal 
mud says that Behemoth shall eat the grass upon 1,000 moun 
tains, and Behemoth means the ox. " Joseph Wolff him 
self believes that Behemoth means the rhinoceros; others think 
it means the crocodile. 

Before describing his departure, Wolff would state another 
fact, which is that Ozoma de Koros, the Hungarian traveller, 
who went from Hungary to Paris, and thence to Constanti 
nople and Persia, in order to find out in Thibet the origin of 
the Hungarian nation, was recognized by, and well-known to, 
the Jews of Bokhara. From Bokhara, Czoma de Koros went 
to Lahore, where Monsieur Allard, the amiable and clever 
French general of E-undjud Singh, formerly aide-de-camp to 
Marshal de Brun, gave him one thousand rupees for his 
journey, of which he returned eight hundred, saying " it was 
too much,"" all that he wanted of the general was that he 
would not laugh at him, as of ridicule he was always afraid. 
Then he went on to Simla, where all discovered at once that 
he was a wonderful polyglot; so Lord Amherst invited him 
to dinner ; but he declined, and all he asked of his lordship 
was, not to laugh at him. He then visited the learned 
societies at Calcutta, and showed his wonderful genius, but 
refused every letter of recommendation ; and all he asked 
the gentlemen to do, was not to laugh at him. When they 
asked him to write them letters from Thibet, whither he was 
going, he told them they should hear of him when he came 
back ; and then he would publish the result of his investiga 
tions ; and all he wanted them to do now was, not to laugh at 
him. They asked him to send them MSS. from Thibet, but 
he told them, " If you will give me money, I will buy them ; 
but you will not get the MSS., for all shall go to my own 
country to my little place called Koros." So he went to La- 

350 Travels and Adventures 

dack, became a monk a lama in one of the monasteries and, 
afterwards, proceeded to a place called Hundes (meaning, in 
the Thibetan language, " the land of Huns, 1 ) and there he 
found that his object was gained ; for there was no one there 
to laugh at him. 

When Wolff arrived in India, at Simla he wrote to Czoma 
de Koros, desiring him to give him the following information : 
First. Whether there were Jews at Ladack ? Secondly. 
Whether he had found any resemblance between the customs 
of the Buddhists and those of the Jews ? Thirdly. Whether 
there was any similarity between the Christian monasteries and 
those of the lamas ? Fourthly. Whether the religion of the 
Jews and that of the Buddhists were at all alike ? 

Koros answered Wolff, " Dear sir, to your first question I 
answer, I did not find Jews. To the second question, I can 
only answer, I shall not tell you. To the third question I 
reply, you must excuse me, for I shall not tell you ; and to 
the fourth also, I must say that I shall not tell you." And 
really Wolff thinks that he was right ; because people are so 
apt to ask questions and use the information improperly. 

Koros resided some years afterwards at Calcutta, and pub 
lished the best dictionary of the Thibetan language now in ex 
istence ; and he was preparing to return to his little village in 
Hungary, when he died at Calcutta, bequeathing all his MSS. 
to his beloved village Koros. Who would dare to laugh at 
such an extraordinary man ! 

Wolff s residence, at this time, in Bokhara was religiously 
marked by the baptism of twenty Jews, who confessed their 
faith in Christ as the Messiah. The people on the spot say, 
that Bokhara was originally built by Afrasiab, in the time of 
Abraham, and then rebuilt by Alexander the Great ; and when 
destroyed by Tshinghis Khan, was built again by Timoor. 
Also, that it has always been the great rival of Samarcand. 
The respectable inhabitants of Bokhara dress themselves in a 
gown of calico, made exactly after the fashion of an English 
dressing-gown. The tur-ban and the Persian cap are very 
common among them. Their knowledge consists in a know 
ledge of Arabic and Persian ; and Wolff was astonished to 
observe the great influence possessed at that time by the Goosh- 
Bekee, who was a man of great powers and mild disposition. 

of Dr. Wolff. 351 


Dangers of the way ; the Kafir Seeahpoosh ; is spoiled and 
stripped naked ; Sir Alexander Burnes\ Cabul; is reclothed 
and recompensed ; Peshawur ; Abdul Samut Khan ; Route 
through Afghanistan ; Crosses the Sutledge and is safe. 

WOLFF left Bokhara in the month of April, in 1832; 
having resided there for nearly three months. He was 
accompanied by two Jewish servants the one from Sarakhs, 
in Turkistaun, and the other from Bokhara. A third servant, 
who was an amiable rogue, and who accompanied Wolff also on 
his second journey to Bokhara, a native of Meshed, the capital 
of Khorossan, and so, of course, a Sheah, was likewise of the 
party. But, during his journey to Bokhara, this man had 
everywhere announced himself as a good staunch Sunnee ; and 
had told the Sunnee that they ought to go on making slaves 
of the Sheah, and should sell them like donkeys and horses. 
Moreover, in performing his prayers, instead of hanging down 
his arms like a good Sheah, and instead of cursing Aboo-Bekr, 
Omar, and Osman, he always prayed with folded hands over 
his breast, and on behalf of the saints ; and acknowledged him 
self the friend of Aboo-Bekr, Omar, Osman, and Ali. Also, 
he expressed his devotion for Ayesha, the wife of the prophet 
Muhammad, " the comfort of God and peace upon him." Be 
sides all which, he related stories how he himself had killed 
many a Sheah ! 

When Wolff remonstrated with him on account of all this 
dissimulation, he replied, " That the prophet of God had given 
his dispensation, and allowed the Sheah to dissemble before the 
Sunnee." And when Wolff told him that, in the time of the 
prophet, there were neither Sunnee nor Sheah, he replied, 
" that Muhammad had done this by the spirit of prophecy." 
And when Wolff further objected that he had not seen it in 
the Koran, the man replied " that he had heard it from tra 
dition. "" 

When Wolff was one day in Ireland, after his first journey 
to Bokhara, and was just beginning to describe his departure 
from the place, a clergyman, one of the leading members of 
the London Society for promoting Christianity among the 
Jews, and of the Church Missionary Society, walked up to him 
in the Rotunda, and said, " There are many Papists here, who 
have come on purpose to hear you. Many, therefore, of the 

352 Travels and Adventures 

friends of the cause are sorry 4hat you have never spoken one 
single word, in your account of Bokhara of Popery ; nor 
whether Popery existed in Greece and in Bokhara ; nor whether 
it was very rampant there ; nor anything about the working 
of the Jesuits there/ 1 

So that Wolff, recollecting the observations of the gentle 
man just recorded, would now be tempted to call him also " a 
jackass," as he has already called some others, but that he has 
been warned from doing so by the remarks of some of his 
reviewers, who have chastised him for using such phrases. 

Wolff simply answered to the person, who made these re 
marks at Dublin, " I have a very good reason for not men 
tioning Popery, nor any other Christians in Bokhara, for 
there are no Christians in the whole of Turkistan." The 
gentleman then showed his ignorance still further by saying, 
" Why, I have heard it said that there are Christians in the 
interior of Africa ! " Wolff answered, " Bokhara is not in 
Africa, but in Central Asia. 1 And yet that man was sitting 
on the Committee, and sometimes, with great gravity, would 
address missionaries, and tell them how they ought to behave 
in foreign countries ! 

Wolff s other companion, at his departure from Bokhara, 
was a Jew from Balkh, Yehooda by name, a man of great 
intellect, who was well acquainted with the Talmudic writings ; 
in which writings he confessed that there was sometimes no 
common sense. Wolff came, after two days, into those desert 

E laces, where Tshinghis Khan fought his battles ; and where 
e was bitten by an ant, which took away his life, in a place 
called Ghoree ; and there Wolff was himself in a dangerous 
situation, for a party of wandering savages, called Kataghan, 
were roaming about, making slaves of whom they could ; being 
united with the Balkhwee and the Kafir Seeapoosh. 

Wolff and his whole party, amongst whom there were also 
thirty Affghans, hid themselves in the caves of the rocks, and 
in houses of a small village for two or three days, and then 
they marched on in safety, and came at last to Balkh, " the 
mother of cities," which was first built by Cain of old, and is 
called in Scripture " Enoch." It was destroyed in the deluge, 
and built up again by a son of Noah, and was called Halakh, 
and then Balakh, and after this Balkh. It must have been a 
mighty and most extensive town (Wolff thinks), like Rome 
itself, for one goes, often for a whole day, through a desert 
filled with ruinous houses, and then one comes again to one of 
the gates of Balkh : by which one sees what the dimensions of 
the city were. 

of Dr. Wolff. 353 

The quarter of the Jews is now the best quarter in the town 
It may be called a city of its own. They are most amiable 
people in Balkh, kind-hearted and hospitable to strangers. 
The Jews took Wolff to call on Aishaan Khoja, Governor of 
the place ; a learned man, but totally destitute of a nose. 
Wolff had several letters for him, one from the Goosh-Bekee 
of Bokhara, the other from the Dervish Hadshee Muhammad 
Jawaad, whom Wolff had met at Burchund. He read the 
letters with attention, and then said to Wolff, " Hadshee 
Yussuf Wolff" (for Wolff having been at Jerusalem was 
universally acknowledged as a Hadnhee by Jews and Muham- 
madans all over Asia), " I am in great perplexity about you. 
You come here as a guest, and you now are to go through 
Mozaur. You are an Englishman, and that Padr-Sookhta 
(which means he whose father ought to be burned ), the 
Governor of Mozaur, has vowed to kill every European who 
shall pass through his territory. For in his hands is the 
whole property of Morecroft, Outline, and Trebeck, and he is 
always afraid that some one will come and claim it. I advise 
you, therefore, to say that you are a Muhammadan from 
Arabia, and a Hadshee from Mecca, and so you will go safe 

Wolff replied, " I shall do no such thing. All I demand 
of you and my companions is, not to betray me, and I shall 
pass through untouched, even if I was to meet this Governor."" 

And it must be said, to the praise of the Eastern people, 
that they are able to keep secrets in a most wonderful manner. 
This the late conspiracy of the sepoys in India has sufficiently 

Wolff therefore proceeded towards Mozaur, which is about 
eight miles distance from Balkh, and as he crossed over a 
bridge he met a fine-looking, tall Osbeck, on horseback, who 
was a Hadshee and a Moollah, and was well acquainted with 
Arabic. Wolff conversed with him in Arabic, and he invited 
Wolff to be his guest for the night, with his whole party, 
which offer they accepted ; and in token of friendship, Wolff 
and the Osbeck placed the palms of both their hands together, 
and stroked their respective beards. " There," said Wolff, 
" are we brothers now ? " The Osbeck replied, " Yes ; praise 
be to God ! " Then Wolff said, " I will not deceive a brother. 
1 tell you, therefore, who I am. I am an Englishman. Will 
you protect me ? " The Osbeck clasped his hands above his 
head in despair, and exclaimed, " As long as you are in my 
house none can touch you ; but the moment you leave it, the 
Governor, who is my cousin, will send after you, and put you 

A A 

354 Travels and Adventures 

to death. Therefore, you must promise to do what I tell you. 
You speak Arabic, so I will introduce you as an inhabitant of 
Mecca, and tell my cousin, when he comes (for he comes every 
evening to drink tea with me), that you were once my host in 
Mecca, and then he will ask your blessing, and depart." 

Wolff answered, " I shall do no such thing. All I order 
you " (and he added, turning round to his followers) " and you 
also, is, not to say one single word about me when he comes. 
But refer him to me, and I shall answer all his questions to 
his entire satisfaction ; not hiding anything from him." 

With this understanding the Osbeck took Wolff to his 
home. In the evening came the Governor, as the Osbeck had 
said ; and seeing Wolff, he came straight up to him, and asked 

" Where do you come from 2 " 

Wolff." From Malta." 

Governor. " What town is Malta?" 

Wolff. " Noah had three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japhet. 
Ham had again a son, whose name was Canaan. Malta was 
peopled by the descendants of Canaan" (because they are 
descendants of the Phrenicians). 

Governor. "Whereabouts is Malta ? " 

Wolff. " The contrivances of man, and their inventions 
for their conveniences, are wonderful ; but every nation has 
its own. ways. Here you have boats made of skins. At Malta 
are boats called steamboats 1 1 (Wolff gave him the English 
name, for, of course, the Governor could not tell whether it 
was English or Chinese), " and these are dragged on by smoke, 
which makes a whirring sound" (here Wolff imitated the 
noise), " and entering such a boat, one reaches Stamboul from 
Malta in four days." 

Governor. " Who rules in Malta ? " 

Wolff. "The name of the Governor is Ponsonby Khan, 
son of Besborough Khan ; and his wife s name is Amalee 
Khatoon" (i. e. Emily the lady), " daughter of Bathurst Khan." 
(It is to be remarked that Wolff pronounced these names in a 
broad Eastern way, and with a powerful voice.) 

Governor. " Where were you born ? " 

Wolff. " Here we must go to the Holy Book, the History 
of the World." 

But here the Governor became almost impatient, and ex 
claimed, " This man is too learned for me ! " and he seemed 
inclined to depart. But he came back, and Wolff began to 
read from the 10th chapter of Genesis, 2nd verse. u The sons 
of Japhet, Gomer, and Magog" (these are the Mangag, a 

of Dr. Wolff. 355 

tribe of Moguls). " And Javan and Tubal" (to which the 
caravans go from Bokhara, called Tobolsk), "and Meshech " 
(Moscow), "and Tiras." Then Wolff passed over to the 
third verse. "And the sons of Gomer; Ashkenaz " (Wolff 
here said,) "I was born in the land called Aslikenaz^ which 
is the Hebrew name for " Germany," which, however, Wolff 
did not explain to the Governor. The Governor was perfectly 
satisfied with the whole of this information, and said, " Verily, 
thou art full of truth, and lies are not in thee." And how 
could the Governor have said otherwise, for Wolff told him 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, though the 
Governor did not understand a single word of it. But he 
walked away quite satisfied, and rejoiced that he had met 
a man who was born in a country, the name of which he had 
never heard before. 

The next day, Wolff arrived at another place, which has 
three names, the first is Khollom, the second Tashgorah, the 
third Tatshgorkhan, a most dangerous spot, belonging to a 
powerful and cruel chief, whose name was Muhammad Moorad 
Beyk ; and who resided only six hours distant from the place 
with the three names that has just been mentioned. This 
residence was at a spot called Kondoz, whence he had formerly 
sent to Khollom a band of soldiers, to make a prisoner of 
Morecroft ; and he kept him in prison for sixteen months, and 
made him pay 10,000 rupees to purchase his freedom ; nor 
would he have been set free after all, if a dervish had not 
interceded for him. 

Wolff kept himself quietly in the caravanserai, when he 
arrived at Khollom, and he remained unobserved until the 
next morning, when, at break of day, he set out on his journey 
towards the Hindoo-Koosh, also called "the Indian Cauca 
sus." The natives relate that it took the name Hindoo-Koosh, 
which means "the Hindoos killed," from 300 Hindoos having 
perished in the snow there in one day. 

He then proceeded forward, and next day arrived in the 
most beautiful valley he had ever seen. It was situated be 
tween two mountains of immense height, which rose, like 
sloping walls, on either side ; and the valley itself was covered 
over with the most exquisite verdure and flowers. Springs 
were there, with water clear as crystal, and it reminded the 
beholder of Paradisaical beauty. Wolff walked on for a con 
siderable distance through this lovely vale, and at last arrived 
amongst hills which were cut with ravines ; and there, it is 
said, that the Balkhwee savages go roaming about, and are 
making and are made slaves. These people are completely 


356 Travels and Adventures 

naked, and of copper colour ; and upon the heights of those 
mountains the Kafir Seeahpoosh are wandering. They call 
themselves " Seema," and are believed by some to be descend 
ants of the army of Alexander the Great ; but Wolff cannot 
help thinking that they are remnants of the tribes of Israel ; 
for the Jews in Bokhara themselves, who do not call them 
selves Jews, but children of Israel, and who assert that they 
belong to the ten tribes, say that these Kafir Seeahpoosh are 
their brethren whose ancestors had entirely forgotten their law, 
and had fallen into idolatry but into the ancient idolatry of the 
Philistines. They call God u Imrah," and they worship the 
figure of a fish, called " Dagon." They have in their mountains 
the ten commandments written upon stone ; and their women 
observe the law of purification. They hate the Muhammadaus 
with a perfect hatred ; but they love the Jews, and as often as 
they kill a Muhammadan, they put a feather in their head 
dress. Hence the proverb, " He has got a feather in his 
cap." Their colour is perfectly white, like that of Europeans. 

Here Wolff at last arrived, in rather a decent house, be 
longing to a chief, whose stores were furnished with wine and 
brandy ; and he desired Wolff s Jewish servant to drink with 
him for several hours, amidst the sound of the timbrel. It is 
awful to see a Muhammadan drunk. He sits cross-legged 
whilst the sound of the timbrel goes on. He holds his head 
down, and it rolls from side to side on his breast ; and the 
abominations mentioned in Ezekiel are practised. The mo 
ment Wolff discovered this, he ordered his servant to come to 
him, and off he set ; and thus they arrived in a stretch of 
country called Dooab, \vhere he came among Muhammadans 
called Kharijee, which means " seceders from all the rest/ 
Their ancestors had killed Ali, Muhammad s son-in-law, be 
cause he was not a strict Muhammadan enough for them. 
They were of the tribe of Mangag, or " Magog"" of Scripture 
a Mogul tribe belonging to the Hazara, who are cruel and 

Wolff was called by his people " Hadshee Joseph Wolff." 
The Hazara of Dooab took offence at this, and said, " Why 
do you dare to take the name of Hadshee, as you are not a 
Muhammadan?" Wolff said, " Even the Muhammadans in 
Bokhara, and in Arabia, recognize, as Hadshee, all Jews and 
Christians, who have been in Jerusalem." 

They replied, " This is not the custom here among us, we 
are here Kharijee" i. e. " seceders from all the rest." " With 
us many things are not allowed which are allowed by other 

of Dr. Wolf. 357 

Wolff replied, " I could not know your usage, for I have 
but just arrived here among you ; so all you can do is not 
to call me Hadshez, and I shall tell my people not to call me 

But, said they, "The mischief is done, and therefore you 
must either say, There is God, and nothing but God, and 
Muhammad the prophet of God ; "* or we will saw you up in a 
dead donkey, burn you alive, and make sausages of you." 

Wolff said, "There is God, and nothing but God, and 
Jesus the Son of God." 

On hearing this, they at once gave a sign, and all their 
Moollahs assembled in a large cave, hewn out of the rock. 
The Affghans who accompanied Wolff, as well as his three 
servants, trembled with anguish, and said to him, " Say the 
creed, and the moment you are on your journey again, you 
may just be what you were before.*" Wolff replied, " Leave 
me, and let me alone. I will manage them. All you have to 
do is to disperse, and leave me alone with my three servants,. 
Some of you go towards Kondoz, but don t go far.*" Wolff 
then ordered his three servants to bring him his writing-desk. 
They did so, and he wrote the following words : 

moment that you read this letter, you must be aware that I 
am no longer in the land of the living ; that I have been put 
to death. Give to my servants some hundred rupees for their 
journey, and write the whole account to my wife, Lady 


Your affectionate, JOSEPH WOLFF." 

Wolff gave this paper into the hands of his servants, and 
said, " Now I will make one more attempt to save my life. 
If I succeed, well ! If not, go on as far as Loodhiana, and 
the first redcoat you see, give it to him, and he will bring 
you to the Governor-General, and you will be rewarded. 
Now bring me my firmans from the Sultan of Constantinople. " 
They did so, and Wolff, with the firmans in his hand, entered 
the cave, where the Moollahs were seated, with the Koran 
open before them, deciding that he must be put to death. 

Wolff said, "What humbug is that ! You cannot dare to 
put me to death ! You will be putting a guest to death !" 

They replied, " The Koran decides so." 

Wolff said, " It is a lie ! The Koran says, on the contrary, 
that a guest should be respected, even if he is an infidel ; and 
here, see the great firman that I have from the khalif of the 

358 Travels and Adventures 

whole Muhammadan religion from Stamboul ! You have no 
power to put me to death. You must send me to Muhammad 
Moorad Beyk, at Kondoz. Have you not seen how little 
afraid I am of you ? I have told the Affghans already that 
they should disperse, and probably some of them have already 
gone to Kondoz." 

When they heard the name Muhammad Moorad Beyk, 
they actually began to tremble, and asked Wolff, " Do you 
know him ?" As Wolff could not say that he knew him, he 
replied, " This you will have to find out. 1 They said, " Then 
you must purchase your blood with all you have. 1 " Wolff 
answered, " This I will gladly do, for I am a dervish, and do 
not mind either money, clothing, or anything. 11 

And thus Wolff had to surrender everything. Oh ! if his 
friends in England could have seen him then, they would 
have stared at him. Naked like Adam and Eve, and without 
even an apron of leaves to dress himself with, he continued 
his journey ; and as soon as he was out of sight of the Hazara, 
he witnessed a sight which he never thought to have seen 
among Muhammadans. All his Affghan companions knelt 
down, and one of them, holding the palm of his hand upwards 
to him, offered up the following extempore prayer : 

"OGod! OGod! 
Thanks be to Thy name, 
That thou hast saved this stranger 
Out of the lion s den. 
Thanks, thanks, thanks, 

Be to Thy holy name. 
Bring him safely back 
Unto his country, 
Unto his family. 
Amen ! " 

Wolff now arrived at Boot-Bamian, where, several years 
afterwards, Lady Sale and the English were brought prisoners 
by Akbar Khan. The whole town was in ruins ; but there 
are mighty pillars, thousands of years old, and there is one, 
on which is hewn out the figure of Shemaya, i.e. " Shem," 
which represents him in adoration before the rainbow. So 
that Schlegel and Stolberg are right in so describing it. 

Here Wolff called on the Governor, and told him his story. 
The Governor gave him a letter to the Governor of Ghuznee ; 
desiring him to forward Joseph Wolff to Cabul, because he 
was an English ambassador ! Wolff protested against this 
title, and begged him to describe him as an English dervish ; 
but the Governor was inexorable. Thus, the naked ambassa 
dor (for the Governor was too poor to be able to provide Wolff 
with clothes), delivered the letter to the Governor of Ghuznee; 
who, on reading it, looked at Wolff, and said, What ! a 
ragamuffin like you, without clothing ! Do you want to make 

of Dr. Wolf. 359 

me believe that you an ambassador ! " and without hearing 
Wolff s explanation, he ordered his people to turn him out, 
saying, " If he had been an ambassador, he would have had 
an escort. 1 

Wolff went forward, and arrived upon a height of some 
mountains, inhabited by Affghans, all of whom claimed to be 
Sayeed, i.e. " of the family of the prophet," and of the tribe 
called Ghilzyes, a cruel people ; for though there was snow on 
the mountain, they turned Wolff out of their houses. But he 
spoke to them at last with such persuasion, reminding them of 
Abraham, who would not have done so, that they permitted 
him to sleep among them, and brought him milk. 

He told them that history informs us that Abraham was 
once reproved by God for having turned out of his tent a fire- 
worshipper ; God saying to him, " I have had patience seventy 
years with that fire-worshipper, and thou wouldst not have 
patience with him one night!" And Wolff added that he 
was not a fire-worshipper, but a believer in God and in Jesus, 
the Word of God ! 

Next morning, he set out early, and hastened down the 
mountain, for the snow was blowing continually against his 
face ; and he had to run along, with his head turned away 
as much as he could from the drift. And, more than once, 
the Affghans had to pull him out from the snow into which 
he had fallen. 

At last he reached the foot of the mountain, where he found 
an eternal spring. The whole country was covered with mul 
berry trees, of which Wolff ate in abundance ; and he drank 
from the beautiful spring of water. He next came to Serre- 
jeshmee, a few miles distant from Cabul, where they slept for 
the night. And next day, he sent, by one of his servants, a 
letter in Persian to Doost Muhammad Khan. Two hours 
afterwards, three horses came out from Cabul. Upon one of 
them Wolff s servant was seated, and upon the other a servant 
of Nwab Jabr Khan, brother to Doost Muhammad Khan, who 
brought a letter addressed, in English, to " Reverend Joseph 
Wolff, Missionary to the Jews, coming from Bokhara." The 
writer of the letter was Lieutenant Alexander Burnes, who 
had arrived, the evening before, at Cabul, on his road from 
India to Bokhara. 

He wrote that he had been charged by Lord and Lady 
William Bentinck, to look out for Wolff, as he was himself on 
the road to Bokhara, whither he had been charged to go on 
behalf of the Government. He added that there could have 
been no necessity for Wolff to have remained outside the 

360 Travels and Adventures 

town, on account of being destitute of clothing, for Nwab Jabr 
Khan would have received him with the greatest hospitality, 
and provided him with everything. In the mean time, he 
sent clothes by the servant. These were beautiful Affghan 
suits, long gowns ornamented with gold fringes ; Affghan shirts, 
which are of a somewhat silky material ; a kind of trowsers of 
red cloth, something like short Turkish trowsers ; and a white 
turban for his head, besides a little cloth cap, which was also 

And thus Wolff entered Cabul comfortably ; and was 
received with cordiality by Lieutenant Alexander Burnes, 
Doctor Gerrard, his companion, and Nwab Jabr Khan, who 
lived in the upper story of the house; Lieutenant Burnes 
occupying the lower rooms. 

Nwab Jabr Khan was just performing his prayer when 
Wolff arrived. After he had concluded, he said to Wolff, 
" That he thanked God the Highest, who had brought him 
safely to his dwelling." He then spoke of his prophet, who 
ordered that people should be kind to strangers. He men 
tioned the name of the prophet with great reverence, his eyes 
being lifted up as he spoke. 

Though Wolff is no advocate for Muliammadans, he must 
admit that they mention the name of their prophet, and the 
names of other of their worthies, with far greater reverence 
than was once done by a Greek, whom Wolff met in Latakia ; 
and this, alas ! was not the only case of a want of religious 
respect .shown by ignorant men amongst the Greeks. It is 
worth while, in order that Wolff should make himself intelli 
gible, to tell the whole anecdote, which he will do, by describ 
ing the dialogue he had with the Greek alluded to. 

Wolff to tlie Greek. " Do you pray in the church for the 
Sultan 2" 

Greek. " No ; we pray for King Constantine, who ruled in 

Wolff. What then do you say of the words of St. Paul, 
that one should pray for the powers that be \ and at that time 
the Emperor Nero was upon the throne !" 

The Greek replied, Maladetto sia San Paolo che poteva dire 
una tale sciocchezza" which means, " Cursed be St. Paul that 
he could say such nonsense !" 

The day after his arrival at Cabul, the Affghans of the 
village, Serre-jeshme, came to Wolff to be paid for the food 
which he had eaten in their house, and he paid them. Whilst 
he was there seated in the room of Lieutenant Alexander 
Burnes, aftewards Sir A. Burnes, a young man. tall, and of 

of Dr. Wolf. 361 

delicate countenance, and gentlemanlike appearance, though in 
rags, entered the room, and announced himself as the SHAH- 
ZADEH, i.e, "the Prince Royal." He was actually the son of 
Shah-Shoojah, the king of Afghanistan, who had been driven 
from the throne by Doost Muhammad Khan, the then and 
now actual ruler of the country of the Baruck-Zeeye, viz. "the 
sons of Baruch," who evidently, by their name, betray their 
Jewish descent. That fine young man begged both Wolff and 
Burnes to give him something to eat, as Doost Muhammad 
Khan allowed him to almost starve ; and they relieved his 
immediate necessities with both food and money. 

Doost Muhammad Khan then invited Wolff and Alexander 
Barnes to come to him ; and they found him a man of stout 
person, intelligent countenance, and with a piercing eye. First 
of all he addressed himself to Burnes, and talked with him on 
the state of India, the manner of the English government 
there, the amount of revenues, their relations with China, the 
population of England, the English constitution, and so on. 
Burnes, being a man of much talent, gave him most satisfac 
tory answers. He then turned to Wolff, and asked his object 
in being there, which was fully explained. Doost Muhammad 
Khan then desired a Moollah to argue with Wolff, and the 
argument lasted for two hours. In this contest Wolff thinks 
that he gained the victory ; but Alexander Burnes, as Wolff 
saw in his letters to India, which were afterwards shown to 
him at Simlah, was of a different opinion, for he reported that 
Wolff was beaten. However, as that clever man is now dead, 
it would be most unfair in a survivor to controvert the point : 
and especially as Alexander Burnes, in spite of all disputes, 
was most kind to Wolff at Cabul. 

Whilst at Cabul, Wolff explained to Burnes his views on 
the millennium ; and of the conversation which then took 
place, Wolff cannot refrain from mentioning one little fact, as 
the statement of it will show his own unguardedness in talking 
on such a subject to a young man who was totally unprepared 
for it ; no less than the levity of Burnes^ remarks in reply. 
Wolff told him that, at the time of the renovation of the earth, 
we shall have Paradise restored, and then we shall eat of all 
manner of fruits, according to Revelation xxii., and according 
to Ezekiel, chapter xlvii., verse 12. This was his statement ; 
but Alexander Burnes reported in India that at the time of the 
millennium people would all live on vegetables, and go about 
naked ; just as Wolff had done in his journey from Dooab to 
Cabul, a distance of 600 miles ! Truly, it would not be worth 
much to have .such a millennium as that ! And Wolff, to his 

362 Travels and Adventures 

greatest surprise, read this account of his conversation with 
Burnes on the millennium, as it was reported by Burnes him 
self in all the newspapers of India, when he arrived there. 

Burnes, however, stated what was quite true, that Wolff 
declined going with him to see the tomb of the Emperor 
Baabur, and preferred visiting the Jews of Cabul, who had 
come there from Meshed in Khorassan, and also from 
Teheran ; likewise, that he preached the Gospel to them, as 
also to the Armenians, who were descendants of those Arme 
nians who came there with the army of Nadir Shah ; and 
these begged him to recommend them to their countrymen, 
the Armenians in Calcutta, as they were in great poverty. 
This, Wolff promised to do, and afterwards did it, and with 

The Jews at Cabul read to Wolff the following treatise of 
Mymonides. t( The King Messiah shall rise and make the 
kingdom of David return to its former condition and power ; 
and he shall build the temple, and gather in the scattered of 
Israel ; and in His days He shall re-establish the code of laws 
as it was in the days of old. They shall offer up sacrifices, 
and they shall celebrate the seven years of release, and the 
years of jubilee, according to all the commandments which are 
mentioned in the law. And whoever does not believe in Him, 
and does not hope in His coming, not only denies the word of 
the prophets, but also the law of Moses ; for has not the Lord 
testified of Him, as it is written ( Deut. chapter xxx., verses 3 
and 4), Then the Lord thy God will turn thy captivity, and 
have compassion upon thee, and will return and gather thee 
from all the nations whither the Lord thy God hath scattered 
thee. If any of thine be driven out unto the outmost parts of 
heaven, from thence will the Lord thy God gather thee, and 
from thence will he fetch thee/ These are the words contained 
in the law, and these comprise all that has been said by the 
prophets. Balaam speaks of Him, and prophesied of two Mes 
siahs. The first Messiah is David, who shall save Israel from 
the hand of the children of Esau. He says, I shall see Him, 
but not nigh : this is the King Messiah. c There shall come 
a star out of Jacob : this is David. And a sceptre shall rise 
out of Israel : this is the King Messiah. And shall smite 
the corners of Moab: this is David; for it is said of him, 
And he smote Moab, and measured them with a line (2 Sam. 
chap. viii. verse 2). And destroy all the children of Seth : 
this is the King Messiah ; for it is written, His dominion 
shall be from sea to sea 1 (Zach. chap. ix. verse 10). And 
Edom shall be a possession : this is David ; for it is written, 

of Dr. Wolff. 363 

4 And Edom became servants to David. Seir also shall be 
come a possession of his enemies : this is King Messiah ; for it 
is written, 4 And saviours shall come upon Mount Zion, to 
judge the Mount of Esau ; and the kingdom shall be the 
"Lord s ! There is no need to cite proofs out of the prophets, 
for they are full of this subject ; and it must not come into thy 
thoughts that the Messiah must necessarily perform miracles, 
and do new things in the world, by raising the dead, and other 
such things. It is true that Rabbi Akiba, the great and wise 
man, one of the rabbis, carried the clothes of Ben Kosiba, the 
king, after him ; and he proclaimed him as King Messiah ; 
but Kossiba was put to death on account of his sins, and as 
soon as he was killed it was manifest that he was not the Mes 
siah. The wise men did not demand of him either a sign or a 
miracle ; for the principal credential of true Messiahship is 
this, that the law and judgments must last for ever and ever ; 
and He must neither add to, nor take from them ; and whoso 
ever adds to or takes from them, or exposes the law to altera 
tion, and does not explain it according to the system generally- 
adopted, is surely a liar, a wicked one, and a heretic ! But, if 
there should arise a King of the House of David, who medi 
tates upon the law and observes it, like David, his father, as 
well the written law as the tradition ; and who should compel 
all Israel to walk in it, and should make them again firm in 
that they were relaxed ; and if he fights the Lord s battles, 
then he is surely known to be the Messiah. And as soon as he 
is successful, and conquers all nations around him, and builds 
the Temple in its place, and gathers together the scattered 
people of Israel, such an one shall surely be the Messiah. 
But if, on the contrary, he is not successful, as has happened 
hitherto, or he should be killed, then it is certain he is not that 
personage predicted in the law. This would prove that God 
had only raised up a pretended Messiah, for the purpose of 
trying many by means of him ; for it is written, And some of 
them of understanding shall fall, to try them, and to purge, 
and to make them white, even to the time of the end, because 
it is the time appointed (Dan. chap. xi. verse 35). But He y 
Jesus of Nazareth, whom they thought was the Messiah, who 
was put to death by the Tribunal of Justice of Him, I say, 
Daniel prophesied long ago ; for it is written (Dan. chap, xu 
verse 14), Also the robbers of thy people shall exalt them 
selves, to establish thy vision ; but they shall fall. And was 
there ever a greater fall than that of Jesus of Nazareth ? All 
the prophets said that the Messiah should be a Redeemer to 
Israel, and serve them, and gather those who are scattered and 

364 Travels and Adventures 

confirm their commands. And he was the cause that Israel 
perished by the sword ; and he was the cause that their remnant 
was scattered ; that their law was cast to the ground and changed" 
So far the words of Mymonides. Wolff then discussed the 
merits of Christianity, with the Jews of Cabul, and at the end 
of what they quoted to him, he said, " Yes, yes, my nation was 
scattered, on account of having crucified the Lord of Glory ; 
for they have shed the blood of the Just One. Mymonides was 
right, that Jesus Christ (God blessed for ever !) was the cause 
that Israel perished by the sword ; and he was the cause that 
their remnant was scattered, for they crucified the Lord of 
Glory !" 

Wolff received also, while there, the whole genealogy of the 
people of Cabul from a learned Affghan, who also was well 
acquainted with Mount- Stuart Elphinstone, who is still re 
membered with high regard all over Cabul, and Affghanistan ; 
and the, people in those provinces pronounce his name " Ilfris- 

By this genealogy it would appear certain that the Affghans 
are of the tribe of Benjamin, but not of the ten tribes ; and it 
is still more proved that they do not belong to the ten tribes, 
by their universal denial of it. And even that they are of the 
tribe of Benjamin is not a general tradition. It seems to 
Wolff that the account which the Arabs give with regard to 
the Affghans, is by far the most probable, viz., that at the time 
that Muhammad attacked the city of Khaiber, in Arabia, 
which was entirely inhabited by Jews ; those who were riot 
killed emigrated to the fastnesses of Affghanistan, and espe 
cially to that spot which is called from them the Khaiber Pass. 
And these have the nearest resemblance to the Jews, and they 
are the most valiant of all the Affghans. And it is most in 
teresting to hear an Affghan tell a story, for he does it with 
all the actions and gravity which a Jew exhibits when he tells 
a story. 

Wolff remained nearly thirty days in Cabul, after which he 
proceeded to Tatang, where he entered a boat composed of 
skins stretched upon a frame of wood, and sailed down the 
river, called Yala, and arrived first at Jellalabad, so celebrated 
afterwards for its defence by General Sale and the artillery 
officer, Abbot. Thence he went on, and after about twelve 
days reached Peshawur, now in the hands of the English, but 
at that time governed by Sultan Muhammad Khan, brother to 
Doost Muhammad Khan, who was exceedingly kind to Wolff, 
and who showed him a paper from Morecroft, stating that he 
had treated Morecroft with the greatest kindness. And he 

of Dr. Wolff. 365 

begged Wolff to tell the Governor-General, that he would be 
always ready to serve the English nation ; and that he wished 
to be protected by them against Rundjud Singh. He there 
fore requested Wolff to permit him to send an ambassador 
with him at once. But Wolff declined to do this, for the 
simple reason that he did not think it honourable to go, as a 
guest, through the dominions of Rundjud Singh, in company 
with a political agent of a prince who was at variance with the 
chief whose guest he was to be. Moreover, it would certainly 
have displeased the Governor-General that he, Wolff, a preacher 
of the Gospel, should have allowed himself to be accompanied 
by a political agent. 

Peshawur is the most learned city of the Muhammadans. 
There, a Muharnmadan made a most remarkable observation ; 
he said, " Christ declared that He came not to abolish the law, 
but to fulfil it. Then why have the Christians changed the 
Sabbath day, and celebrated the first day instead of the 
seventh ?" Wolff said, among other arguments, " that the 
Jews can never prove that their seventh day is the seventh day 
of creation; and, according to their own tradition, the world 
began to be created on a Friday, so that according to that 
Thursday is the real seventh day. However, there are Chris 
tian churches who celebrate both Saturday and Sunday ; Sa 
turday in commemoration of the seventh day, Sunday in com 
memoration of our Lord s resurrection." 

There he also heard the full history of the Affghans, from a 
Moollah called Khodadad, who also gave him the meaning of 
the word Pathan, which is the name the Affghans got when 
they became Muhammadans, by the exertions of Keis, to 
whom Muhammad appeared, and told him, " Thou shalt be a 
stem from whom a great nation shall arise :" and Pathan is a 
" stem." Muhammad at that time spoke in the Affghan lan 
guage, which is called Pushtoo, and he repeated the following 
verse : 

Warkra Aweza Kama 

Ygomuz Baboo Rasa. 
Translation : 

My shirt, my shirt 

Give to Aweza Kama, 

And my comb to 

Aboo Rasa. 

Before Wolff leaves Peshawur, he has to record one remark 
able fact. Burnes had already told Wolff at Cabul, " When 
you come to Peshawur, be on your guard against a horrible 

366 Travels and Adventures 

scoundrel;" and, though Wolff has been censured for using 
the term " scoundrel," every one will think him justified in 
applying it on this occasion to a man, who was a villain, a 
murderer, and a blackguard ABDUL SAMUT KHAN ; and 
Wolff is sure that the British officers in England, and the 
private soldiers, will drink Wolff s health, with nine times 
nine, for using those epithets in this case. For this wretch 
afterwards became the murderer of Stoddart and Conolly. 
And Burnes further told Wolff, " should Abdul Samut Khan 
call upon you, take hold of his shoulders, and kick him out of 
the room." Wolff followed this advice, for when the man 
called upon him, he took him by the shoulders, and ejected 
him from his room. Wolff little imagined at that time that 
he should himself one day fall into the hands of this villain, 
which he did fourteen years afterwards, when he was the 
second time in Bokhara, on behalf of Stoddart and Conolly. 

Wolff went on through the Khaiber Pass, that awful bul 
wark of the Affghans, towards Attock, the ancient Taxila. 
The country around the Khaiber Pass is most romantic. The 
aspect of the country, with the heights of the mountains all 
covered over with shrubs and roses, the richness of the pas 
tures, the branching of the fine rivers in various directions, 
and the exquisite climate, all combine to suggest that here 
must have been the site of paradise. There is in Friedrich 
SchlegeFs collections a poem, written in the old German, in 
which Alexander the Great is described as going on conquer 
ing, until he came to a dreadful fastness, with rivers flowing 
below him, and the mighty rocks so threatening, that he said, 
in his arrogance, " This bulwark is indeed remarkable" when 
suddenly an angel appeared, and said, " Stop ! no mortal is 
allowed to enter here ; and thou, proud man, must here be 
stopped." And he was stopped, and retired. The purport of 
which legend is, that it is believed by Jews and Muharnma- 
dans, that Alexander the Great was stopped when he came to 
the gates of paradise. 

Wolff then proceeded on his journey towards Hindoostan, 
and arrived at last near Attock, where he crossed a suspension 
bridge on the back of an elephant. According to his custom, 
whenever he crosses water, Wolff screamed out, which he did 
on this occasion in crossing the Indus ; and thus he reached 
Attock, the ancient Taxila. Thus far, according to history, 
did Alexander advance, and then retired. On arriving in 
Attock, commissioned officers of high rank in the service of 
the great Rundjud Singh, the mighty conqueror of the Pun- 
jaub and Cashmere, and who was called, " The Napoleon of 

of Dr. Wolff. 367 

the East," the terror of the English nation, came out to 
receive him, and asked his name. And the moment they 
heard it, a hint was given to the commandant of the fortress, 
and twenty-one guns were fired in honour of his arrival ! 
Two hundred and fifty rupees were handed to him, and twenty 
pots of sweetmeats of all kinds, and linen to make twenty 
shirts all which were the daily allowance to Joseph Wolff, the 
great Padre of England ! Six letters were also delivered to 
him, one being from Lord William Bentinck, the Governor- 
General of India ; another, from Lady William Bentinck ; a 
third, from Lady Bryant ; a fourth, from Colonel, afterwards 
General Churchill ; a fifth, from Monsieur Allard, Rundjud 
Singh s general, and formerly aide-de-camp to Marshal le Brun ; 
and a sixth, from his Majesty Rundjud Singh himself who has 
the title Maha Rajah, which means " great king" Singh 
means " a lion." 

The letters of the Governor-General contained congratula 
tions to Wolff on his safe arrival, and praises for his zeal and 
high endeavours. They informed him that he was recom 
mended to his Majesty of the Punjaub, and all the authorities. 
Lady William Bentinck went into more particulars, and gave 
Wolff the following information : 

" There is a law, that all English gentlemen, who pass 
through the country of his Majesty and of native princes, shall 
receive presents from them ; which, according to law, they 
they must hand over to the Government ; but this is only for 
those who are in the service of the East India Company. So, 
as you are not in that service, you may keep whatever you 
receive," which intelligence Joseph Wolff was very glad to 
possess. Her ladyship also bade Wolff come on to the 
Governor-General at Simlah. Colonel Churchill and Lady 
Bryant wrote to remind him that he had relations at hand 
first cousins of Lady Georgiana Wolff at Sobathoo, where Lady 
Bryant lived, and at Simlah where Colonel Churchill lived. And 
his Majesty, Rundjud Singh, wrote to Wolff, that he rejoiced 
that he had overcome all the dangers of his journey, and that 
he was impatient to see him at his court, in his palace at 
Umritsur ; and that he had ordered all the governors of the 
towns he passed through, to receive him with the distinction 
due to such a man. Wolff replied to his Majesty, " that he 
was most grateful for the kind reception he had met with, and 
the assurance of his Majesty s favour ; and that he would 
take the liberty of stating to him candidly, that the only 
object of his journey was to proclaim to the nations that there 
is only one name, given under heaven, by which man can be 

368 Travels and Adventures 

saved, and that is the name of Jesus Christ, who is the Son 
of God, and that He will come again into the world upon earth, 
and reign upon earth in majesty and glory ; when all nations 
shall be subject unto Him, and when He shall have His seat 
at Jerusalem, and upon Mount Zion gloriously ; and when 
the heavenly hosts and all the angels shall come down upon 
earth, and worship Him, and go up again to heaven, and down 
again unto Him, and receive His commands ; and when there 
shall come a city from heaven, called the heavenly Jerusalem, 
which shall be inhabited by all those who have loved God here 
upon earth, of all nations, kindreds, and tongues ; and there 
shall be the sound of heavenly harps ; and other music shall 
be heard; and the wolf and the lamb shall lie down together." 

This letter of Joseph Wolff was immediately forwarded by 
an express courier, from Umritsur to the Governor-General at 
Simlah ; and Rundjud Singh begged that his lordship would 
explain the letter. And when Wolff arrived subsequently at 
Simlah, Lady William Bentinck told him that when Lord 
William Bentinck received that letter from Rundjud Singh, he 
came to her room with a long face, and full of surprise, and 
said to her, " We must write to him to come as fast as he 
can," for Lord William was afraid that Wolff would excite a 
revolution in the Punjaub by his missionary zeal. However, 
Wolff proceeded quietly on his way, arriving first at Rawl- 
Pindee, where they had prepared for him a lodging in a 
Muhammadan mosque ; but he said he desired not to offend 
either Muhammadans or any other religious body ; neverthe 
less, a mosque was no fit place to lodge strangers in. For the 
Muhammadans were much oppressed by the Sikhs. 

They then put him into another house ; but scarcely was 
he in it half an hour, when a dreadful earthquake took place, 
which lasted for several seconds. AYolff ran out of the house, 
and then lay under the shadow of an immense tree such as 
are only seen in Hindoostan and kuttjnee came (i. e. " dancing- 
girls"), and tried to amuse him ; but he gave them some 
rupees, and sent them away. 

At length he arrived at the camp of Karak Singh, son and 
heir presumptive to the throne of the Punjaub, and a complete 
idiot. Some of the great chiefs spoke to Wolff, and told him 
what his royal highness said, or rather what he ought to have 
said; and here Wolff made himself acquainted, through the 
Pundits who came to him, with the religion of the Sikhs. 

He then proceeded onwards to Goojrat, a considerable town, 
which also belonged to Rundjud Singh. He arrived there late 
at night, and was brought to the palace of the Governor, who 

of Dr. Wolff. 369 

had expected him ; when, to his great surprise, he heard some 
one singing " Yankee Doodle," with all the American snuffle. 
It was his" Excellency the Governor himself. He was a fine 
tall gentleman, dressed in European clothing, and with an 
Indian hookah in his mouth. Wolff asked how he came to 
know " Yankee Doodle?" He answered, in nasal tones, " I 
am a free citizen of the United States of North America, from 
the State of Pensylvania, and the city of Philadelphia. I am 
the son of a Quaker. My name is Josiah Harlan ;" and as 
this man s history is rather romantic, Wolff will give it at 
once. He had, in his early life, studied surgery, but he went 
out as supercargo in a ship to Canton in China. And then he 
returned again to America, where he had intended to marry a 
lady, to whom he was engaged ; but she had played him false. 
He then went to India, and came to Calcutta, whence Lord 
Amherst, at that time Governor-General of India, sent him as 
Assistant-Surgeon with the British army to the Burmese 
empire. Afterwards he quitted the British army, and tried to 
make himself king of Affghanistan ; but, although he actually 
took a fortress, he was defeated at last by a force sent against 
him by Bundjud Singh, who made him a prisoner. Rundjud 
Singh, seeing his talents, said to him, " I will make you 
Governor of Goojrat, and give you 3,000 rupees a month 
(equal to d300) . If you behave well, I will increase your 
salary; if not, I will cut off your nose." So Wolff found him, 
and his nose being entire was evidence that he had behaved well. 
Before Wolff, however, enters the depths of Hindoostan, 
he must give his judgment upon two points. First, he cannot 
worship and adore, and be astonished enough at, the mercy 
and long-suffering of God, in not having sent, long ago, a 
flash of lightning, kindled by the fire of hell, upon the Mu- 
hamrnadan nation whose vices no writer can dare to touch, 
or even allude to. Secondly, Wolff is desirous of giving the 
results of his investigation respecting the ten tribes in Bok 
hara and Turkistan. There cannot be the slightest doubt 
that the Jews in Khorassan, Bokhara, Samarcand, and Balkh, 
and also in Shahr-sabz ; as well as the descendants of Tshingis 
Khan, and the Nogay Tatars, and those called of the tribe" of 
Naphthali, are all remnants of the ten tribes. This is not an 
hypothesis, but a relation of their own assertions. As to the 
Kafir Seeahpoosh, Wolff strongly suspects them to be the 
same, but he cannot prove it, as he never heard it asserted by 
the Seeahpoosh themselves. And there cannot be the slightest 
doubt that Azael Grant has proved that the Chaldean Christians 
are also a remnant of the ten tribes of Israel. 


370 Travels and Adventures 


The Punjaub and Sikhs ; Amtdbile ; General Allard-, Lahore ; 
Umritsur ; Rundjud Singh, and his Court 5 Loodhiana ; 

T ET us speak a little of the Punjaub. The Pundits and 
" the Rajahs of the Sikhs gave to Wolff the following in 
formation concerning the foundation of the religion of the 
Sikhs. About 190 years ago, two Fakeers were living in the 
Punjaub; the name of the one was Baba Nanak, the name of 
the other was Goroo Govende Singh ; and both belonged to 
the religious caste. Baba Nanak gave a religious code to the 
people of the Punjaub, in which he abolished idolatry, and 
took from the Koran of the Muhammadans, and from the 
Shasters (or sacred book of the Hindoos), certain tenets, which 
he amalgamated, together, and established a Deism. He re 
tained, however, the Suttee, or burning of widows, as well as 
the veneration for the cow ; so that it was death among his 
followers to kill a cow. 

Goroo Govende Singh added to Baba Nanak s book a mili 
tary code, in which he laid down rules for carrying on war ; 
and he formed a complete military knighthood, entirely similar 
to the Order of the Knights at Malta. For just as the Order 
of the Knights of Malta was established for the purpose of 
pulling down the Muhammadan power, so did Goroo Govende 
Singh establish his Order, for pulling down the Muhammadan 
Mogul Empire in Delhi. The members of that Military 
Order are called Akalees, which means, " immortals." They 
are clad in blue, with bracelets of steel ; they relinquish the 
world, and are bound to spend their lives for the benefit of the 
Sikhs. Mr. Malcolm Ludlow has given a spirited description 
of them in his " British India," vol. i. pp. 304 and 305, &c. 
The word $/M, means " disciple," and this is the name of the 
followers of Baba Nanak, and Goroo Govende Singh. The 
Akalees have the privilege of cursing even the king to his face. 
Hitter, the great geographer, made the just and acute remark, 
that in Asia may be found, in a rude form, the origin of all the 
establishments and usages of the civilized world. Thus we 
find amongst the Tatars and Turcomauns, a passionate desire for 
obtaining military insignia, and military orders, with their 
stars and crosses ; and we find, too, amongst them the forms 

of Dr. Wolff. 371 

of both republican and monarchical government, a priesthood, 
and a love for colleges, schools, secret societies, &o. 

Wolff continued to receive, every day, five-and-twenty- 
pounds sterling, horses with silver-mounted saddles, shawls of 
Cashmere, twenty pots of sweetmeats, and linen enough to 
make him every day twenty shirts ; and he was treated most 
kindly by every one. Even the insolent Akalees treated him 
with the greatest courtesy ; but in order to give a specimen of 
their usual impertinence, the two following anecdotes will 
suffice. The truth of these stories was afterwards guaranteed 
by Lord William Bentinck himself. 

Eundjud Singh once remonstrated with one of the principal 
Akalees about their conduct in the English territory, and told 
him that he was afraid such conduct might bring him into col 
lision with the British Government. The Akalee replied, 
" You blind rascal " (for Eundjud Singh was blind in one eye), 
u if you say one word more, I will go and burn down some 
villages belonging to England, and tell them that you have 
sent me." 

Another time, when Lord William Bentinck was present at 
Roopar, an Akalee came and said the most insulting words to 
Rundjud Singh, which he bore with the greatest patience ; 
until the man went so far as to draw his sword against 
Kundjud Singh, when the Maha Rajah coolly gave orders to his 
people to take away his sword, and cut off his nose, which 
order was instantly executed. 

As Wolff proceeded onward towards Umritsur, he met on 
the road a Yoghee, one of those devoted Hindoos, whose strict 
penances cannot but inspire one with deep reverence ! Wolff 
hopes to see some of them in heaven with the Creator of that 
sun s orb which they were contemplating while on earth. 
Wolff believes the salvability of the heathen world. All 
Wolff s followers, who had been ordered by Eundjud Singh to 
bring him to his summer residence at Umritsur, stopped and 
exclaimed Earn ! Ram ! ("God! God!"). The Yoghee s 
whole body was painted blue ; his eye was turned towards the 
sun s orb, and, as he spoke Persian, Wolff asked him, " How 
old he was ?" He replied, " In God (Perwerdegar) I was from 
eternity ; but in time was visible to man ; and those who 
love God never die ; they put off old clothes, and put on new 
ones." And thus Wolff arrived pleasantly with his com 
panions at Vuzeer- Abaci, where, according to the order of his 
Majesty, he took up his abode with his Excellency the famous 
General Avitabile, a Neapolitan by birth, who spoke Italian, 
French, Persian, and Hindoostanee with equal facility. He was 


372 Travels and Adventures 

Governor of the town which he had most remarkably im 
proved. He had kept the streets of the city clean ; and had 
got. a beautiful carriage made for himself, and a fine palace. He 
was a clever, cheerful man, and full of fun. He told Wolff at 
once, that he would show to him his Angeli custodi, or 
" Guardian Angels ;" and then he took him to his bed-room, 
the walls of which were covered with pictures of Kunchnee 
(i. e. " dancing girls. 1 ) 

He and Wolff one day rode out together on elephants, and 
he said to him, " Now, I shall show you marks of civilization 
which I have introduced into this country. 7 They rode out 
side of the town, and there Wolff saw before him about six 
gibbets, upon which a great number of malefactors were hang 
ing. Though the man was full of fun, yet whenever the con 
versation was directed to important subjects, he became most 
serious. Though he had amassed in India a fortune of ^50,000, 
he was always panting after a return to his native country, 
Naples; and he said to Wolff, "Per amore di Dio, fatemi 
partire da questo paese" And this is not to be wondered at ; 
for though Rundjud Singh was a man of extraordinary genius, 
yet, after all, he was, at the bottom, a barbarian, and incapable 
of regarding any one but with suspicion and distrust ; so that 
whenever he gave an order to be executed at Vuzeer-Abad, by 
Avitabile, he always sent it by some regiments of soldiers and 
artillery. Avitabile feeling this, once wrote to him in a sar 
castic manner, u In order to convince your Majesty of my 
attachment to you, I will embrace the religion of the Sikhs. 1 

But Wolff will here, at once, finish the history of Avitabile. 
When the English (in the years 1838 and 1839) marched into 
Affghanistan, Avitabile furnished them with all the provisions 
required in war for which they gave him bills on England ; 
and thus he got all his money out of the country, and placed 
it in the Bank of England. And, besides this, he induced 
Sheer Singh, the suppositions son of Kundjud Singh, who suc 
ceeded to the throne of his adopted father after the murder of 
Karak Singh, to advance ^oOC^OOO, and place it in his hands, 
of which sum Avitabile promised to give him account. But all 
the money advanced by Sheer Singh was placed in the Bank 
of England, in Avitabile s name. Sheer Singh was murdered 
by Dehan Singh, his prime minister, and Dehan Singh was 
killed by the people. Then Avitabile left the Punjaub, came 
to England, took possession of the whole property, went to 
Naples, married his own niece, with a dispensation from the 
Pope ; built a beautiful country house near Naples, and there 
died after some years. 

of Dr. Wolff. 373 

Wolff at last arrived at Lahore, the capital of the great 
Rundjud Singh ; and he resided in the house of General Allard, 
whose son was a young gentleman, about thirteen years of age. 
General Allard was absent at the time, but his son was at home, 
and showed him every attention. Wolff visited at Lahore the 
Armenians, and issued proclamations, which were posted in 
the streets, calling on the nations to turn to Christ. There 
upon he received a polite letter of disapprobation from Rundjud 
Singh, in which he said that he had read Wolffs proclamation, 
and he replied to it, Een siikhn nebaayad guft nebaayad gmlit, 
which means in English, " Such words must neither be said nor 

Wolff went on through Lahore to Urnritsur. On his way 
thither, an express messenger from the king met him, and told 
him that the astrologers had observed by reading the Gruntd 
Saheb (i. e. " the Book of Baba Nanak,") and by observing 
the stars, that the day was not a good day for Wolff to enter 
Umritsur ; but General Allard obviated that prophecy by say 
ing that Wolff should lodge with him in his palace, which was 
outside Umritsur; adding, that he also had observed this omen 
in the stars. So Rundjud Singh allowed Wolff to become the 
guest of General Allard. 

Wolff, arriving in the garden house of Allard, saw a fine 
gentleman with a most beautiful beard, and all the polite 
manners of a Frenchman. He was dressed in fine linen 
clothes, as all the Europeans in India are. He came out of 
his house to meet Joseph Wolff, and embraced him after the 
French manner. Then he brought him upstairs, where a very 
good dinner was prepared of rice and curry, &c., and the mango 
and other fruits were on the tables, together with French 
wines ; such as Wolff had not enjoyed for a very long time. 
Whilst they were seated at dinner, two of Rundjud Singles 
officers came and welcomed Joseph Wolff in the name of his 
Majesty ; and brought him 2,000 rupees, equal to ^200, and 
told him that his Majesty hoped to see him next day at his 

Wolff wished, before the royal interview, to have his beard 
shaved off, but Allard told him not to do that by any means, 
for Rundjud Singh was very fond of people with fine beards. 
Wolff said, " My beard is not fine, for I have not combed it 
for months;" but Allard replied, "You look all the more 
romantic on that account you look like a lion ! " And so 
Wolff left his beard, which was reddish in hue, and a foot long, 

The next day the officers arrived with an elephant for him, 

374 Travels and Adventures 

which he mounted ; and thus he rode through Umritsur, which, 
as Malcolm Ludlow observes, was formerly a hamlet, but was 
made a place of pilgrimage by Arjoon, the fifth Goroo of the 
Sikhs. Arriving at the palace of Rundjud Singh, the drums 
were beaten, and Wolff was brought into the presence of Rund- 
jud Singh, who was then in the palace garden seated upon a 
high chair. On his right and left sides were the Pundits, or 
learned men, and Moonshee, or scribes; and the Fakeer, 
celebrated at the court, who acted as prime minister these 
were all seated near. Wolff asked his Majesty " Whether all 
these persons were Mussulmans ?" which is as great an insult 
among the Sikhs, as it would be here in England to ask, in 
the House of Lords, "Whether all the peers were gipsies? * 
Rundjud Singh laughed loud " Ha ! ha ! ha !" and, mimick 
ing Wolff exactly, pointed with his finger at the Pundits, and 
said, Een Mussulman ? which means, "Are these Mussulmans I " 
But before Wolff proceeds to give his conversation with 
Rundjud Singh and the rest, he must give a description of the 
Maha Rajah himself. He was a little man, about five feet 
high. At a distance he appeared to Wolff like a little child ; 
so that Wolff being short-sighted, and not having immediately 
observed his beard, was actually on the point of asking his 
Majesty, " Whether he was one of the great king s little boys?" 
but, on drawing his chair nearer to him, he observed that he 
had an immense beard, and that he was blind of one eye. 
Then Rundjud Singh ordered dancing girls to come in, and 
dance before Joseph Wolff. But Wolff said, " As he was an 
English Fakeer, he did not approve of seeing the girls dancing." 
Then Rundjud Singh said, " I have not yet found inconsis 
tency in you, but I shall try again/ He then filled a glass 
with wine made on purpose for his own use by his Hungarian 
physician, Haenigberger. This is horrid stuff, hotter than 
any whisky, and it actually burns like fire. This he especially 
gave to English travellers to drink, in order that he might 
extract news from them. So, he asked Wolff to drink his 
health, but Wolff touched it only with his tongue, and said, 
" He did so in honour of his Majesty, but would drink no 
more." Then Rundjud Singh said, "Now, I shall try you 
with questions. Do you teach that we should not be afraid of 
anything?" Wolff said, "Yes." "Do you preach that we 
should trust in the Giver of all things !" Wolff said, " Yes." 
" Then, why were you so afraid when you crossed the Indus 
over the suspension-bridge on an elephant?" (for every word 
and movement of Wolff had been reported to the king). Wolff 
replied, " Here your Majesty has certainly caught me ; and 

of Dr. Wolff. 375 

all I can answer is, that I am weak, and I have daily need 
to pray that God will show His power in my weakness." 
Eundjud Singh said, " Now I call this candour and upright 
ness ; but answer me another thing. You say, you travel 
about for the sake of religion ; why, then, do you not preach 
to the English in Hindoostan, who have no religion at all 2" 

And it is remarkable that, when Wolff, on arriving at 
Simlah, told his last observation to Lord William Bentinck 
that greatest of all Governor-Generals that ever appeared in 
India he said to Wolff, " This is, alas ! the opinion of all the 
natives all over India !" 

Eundjud Singh continued : " Now, propose some questions 
to me, and the Pundits here, about religion." Wolff asked 
them, " How may one come nigh unto God?" an expression 
used by the Sikhs, and which corresponds with the Christian 
inquiry, " How may one be saved 2" and the existence of 
this expression among the Sikhs shows the grand fact, that 
there is among all nations the belief, that some dire disaster 
has happened in the world, which has separated man from 
God : and that man has to do something, by which he may 
again come nigh unto God. 

Is not this fact also proved by the imposed self-punishments 
of the Yoghee? who frequently creep on the ground from 
Delhi to Juggurnauth, like snails upon their bellies for thirty 
years, and then expire on arriving at the gate of Juggurnauth I 
Is it not also proved by those Yoghee, who lie on their backs 
for years and years, so that the birds build their nests upon 
their foreheads ; and for thirty years have their arms stretched 
out towards the sky, until they become so stiff and hardened 
at the joints, that they cannot be brought down again 2 Is it 
not by these lengthened means that, conscious of sin, these 
men strive to make atonement for it ? 

However, the king gave a polite answer, mixed with sar 
casm, to Wolffs question. He replied, a One can come nigh 
unto God by making an alliance with the British Government, 
as I lately did with the Laard Nicdb Sahib (i. e. Governor- 
GeneraF) at Eoopar. Have you heard of that conference?" 
he continued. Wolff said, " Yes ; I heard of it in Bokhara." 
The king was quite astonished at hearing this, and then re 
sumed, " Now, we come nigh unto God, by making such an 
alliance with England, in order to keep out the Eussians from 
India." Wolff smiled, but said at the same time, " Such 
alliances may be of beneficial result, but they are not the direct 
way of coming nigh to God." Then Eundjud Singh said, 
" We come nigh unto God, by giving money to the poor." 

376 Travels and Adventures 

Wolff replied, " The giving money to the poor is certainly an 
act of benevolence ; and acts of benevolence are commanded 
by Jesus Himself; but, after all, our hearts may be distant 
from God." Here Rundjud Singh gave a most beautiful 
answer: "Oh!" he said, "for the heart, a medicine is re 
quired ! " 

Would to God, says Dr. Wolff, that many, who ask the 
question, "How can we be saved?" would come to the same 
conclusion, that a medicine is required for the heart ! 

Wolff therefore said, "You have well spoken, Maha Rajah ; 
but- would your Majesty further tell me, what that medicine 
is 2" He replied, " This wisdom is hidden from me." 

Are not here, Dr. Wolff asks, the words of our Lord con 
firmed, that wisdom is hidden from the wise, and revealed to 
babes ? and here, also, we understand the words of David, 
" Make me to know the hidden wisdom." 

Wolff then read to the king, the words of St. Paul (1 Cor. 
chap. i. verses 20-24), "Where is the wise? where is the 
scribe ? where is the disputer of this world ? hath not God 
made foolish the wisdom of this world I For after that in the 
wisdom of God the world by wisdom knew not God, it pleased 
God by the foolishness of preaching to save them that believe. 
For the Jews require a sign, and the Greeks seek after wisdom : 
but we preach Christ crucified, unto the Jews a stumbling- 
block, and unto the Greeks foolishness ; but unto them which 
are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God, 
and the wisdom of God." Wolff then expounded the passage, 
and Rundjud Singh desired him to send him a gospel. Wolff 
afterwards wrote to Lady William Bentinck, who had a New 
Testament finely bound, which was sent to the king ; and he 
wrote Joseph Wolff a most beautiful letter, thanking him 
for it. 

Rundjud Singh has proved to the Mussulmans pretty well, 
that the edge of the sword is not always an evidence of the 
truth of religion ; for the name of Rundjud Singh is a terror 
from Lahore to the city of Bokhara his sword having de 
feated the Muhammadans in every battle, and they became 
subjects of the worshippers of SaUceram^ the sacred stone which 
the Sikhs adore. 

There is a custom, too often apparent in Missionary journals, 
of recording the feelings which every storm at sea, or adven 
ture by land, may excite ; but it is not Wolff s practice to 
describe such feelings. These God knows, and He alone ought 
to know them. But it would, on the other hand, be ingrati 
tude not to mention the thoughts with which Wolff was 

of Dr. Wolff. 377 

occupied, after having travelled for many months among wild 
Turcomauns, and having been delivered from slavery, and 
escaped death at Dooab, and having passed through the wild 
mountains of the Khaibaree 5 when he found himself at once 
and so agreeably surrounded by kind people as he entered the 
Punjaub ; all of whom were dressed in white garments, with 
their hands folded before them, as if in prayer, or waiting for 
an order from a superior. And this was the sight which 
greeted Wolff, and the character of his receptions throughout 
the country of Rundjud Singh ; and particularly at his Court, 
where the grandees were all dressed in white garments, with 
golden ornaments upon them ; and who, with their king, pre 
sented to Wolff valuable gifts of shawls, and jewels, and sweet 
meats, and fine linen, and money, and vied with each other in 
showing kindness to the destitute wanderer. 

Oh ! how agreeably will the believer in Christ be sur 
prised, when, having faithfully fought on earth the good fight 
of faith ; and under many trials and afflictions finished the 
work which was given him to do ; his soul shall disentangle 
itself from the burden of this body, and, upon the pinions of 
angels, shall flee to that land, where a crown of glory, which 
fadeth not away, is prepared for him ; and where the family of 
heaven, clothed in whiter garments than those of the Sikhs, 
shall meet him ; and where he shall hear the songs of holy 
martyrs and virgins ; and where he shall also hear the voice, 
not of a heathen king, but of the King of kings, exclaiming, 
u Well done, thou good and faithful servant, enter thou into 
the joy of thy Lord." For as linen is made white by cleansing 
it with water, and starching it with starch, and smoothing it 
with a mangle and with irons, and thus with great trouble is 
brought to a proper condition for its designed use ; so the 
soul, after being baptized in water, must undergo many 
pressures, much weight of trouble, and many sufferings, in 
order to be made fit for the white garment in which it must 
appear "where the wicked cease from troubling, and the weary 
are at rest." And thus must Wolff undergo many afflictions, 
before he will be fit to appear in the presence of his Lord and 

We must, however, proceed. On returning from the Court, 
on horseback, to the house of General Allard, the first thing- 
Wolff did was, to have his beard shaved off; when one of the 
Sikhs stood by, and wept, and said, " Why do you cut off the 
ornament of man?" However, Wolff ate his dinner more 
easily and with better zest, after he had disburdened himself 
of his beard ; for it was of prodigious size, and much confused 

378 Travels and Adventures 

and matted for want of dressing, which, Allard said, made 
him look like a lion. He had then the following conversation 
with Hurry Singh, who asked, " Do you visit the fortresses of 
places?" Wolff said, " I never look at fortresses. My only 
business is to speak to people about God." 

Hurry Singh asked, "What is necessary, in order to arrive 
at a better knowledge of God?" Wolff said, " Jesus Christ 
saith, Will not your Heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit 
to those who ask Him ? Pray, therefore, to God, and He 
will give you the light of truth." "Which is the best of all 
religions ? " asked Hurry Singh. Wolff replied, " The religion 
of Jesus Christ." 

A Moonshee, who was present, translated into the Sikh 
language, from the Persian which Wolff recited, the fifth 
chapter of St. Matthew : and all who were there seemed to be 
delighted. Hurry Singh then asked, " If any one purposes to 
leave the world, and devote himself to God, what must he do 
with his wife and children ? It is very hard to be obliged to 
leave them." Wolff replied, " Christianity is a religion which 
makes people happy without a wife, and with a wife ; and it 
is a religion which one can practice without a wife, and with 
a wife." 

l)r. Wolff must here observe, that among all nations the 
observance of celibacy is considered a state in which a man 
can serve God better than in married life. The one thing 
which must be said is, that there ought to be no forced celi 
bacy ; and that a man should be allowed to carry a wife with 
him, as Paul and Peter did, according both to ecclesiastical 
history and the Gospel. And Wolff must say, by his own 
experience, that a roaming missionary ought never to think of 
marrying. For God only knows how Wolff suffered from 
being in a distant country, and having to feel that he had 
left behind him a wife. He took Francis Xavier as his model, 
but Francis Xavier was not married ; and it is a great struggle 
still with Wolff to decide, whether he was right or not, in 
undertaking perilous journeys of many thousands of miles, 
separated from a wife whom he tenderly loved, and who had re 
mained behind, and (as he heard) often in tears on his account, 
although a woman of a very powerful and religious mind. 
Oh ! Georgiana, Georgiana, pardon me, if I have done wrong ! 
But enough of that. 

When Wolff left Umritsur, on the 22nd of June, 1832, and 
was already outside the town, to his greatest horror, Kundjud 
Singh sent for him to come back immediately, as he wished 
again to see him. Wolff returned, but without a beard ; and 

of Dr. Wolff. 379 

the moment Rundjud Singh saw him, he exclaimed, " Ho ! 
ho ! ho ! where have you left your beard 2 " 

Wolff said, " It is well taken care of, in the house of your 
Majesty s general." 

He replied, " I shall cut off his nose, the first day I see the 

Lena Singh, a Pundit, who was present, said to Wolff, 
" Bays, like those of the sun, went out of the hand of Jesus 

Another said to him, " Ram, Perwerdegar (i.e. God ) is 
like the wide ocean ; out of many drops of which many rivers 
are formed, but they do not exhaust the ocean. Many grains 
of sand and shells are cast out of the ocean upon the dry land, 
and yet they do not exhaust the ocean. Thus, Wishnoo^ 
whom you call Jesus/ is a drop of that wide ocean, which is 
God ; "but nothing which comes from Him exhausts God. 
From the beginning a religion was established for every 
nation, suitable to their several climates ; and every one, who 
is faithful to that religion in which he was born, shall come to 
God, and shall have his reward in Swara^ which is the para 
dise of the Hindoos." 

Wolff asked, " Why do you worship the cow 2 " 

The Moonshee of Hurry Singh replied, " If you do not 
wish to make the Hindoos your deadly enemies, do not speak 
about the cow." So Wolff broke off the conversation. 

A Hindoo, not a Sikh, told Wolff that the Hindoos 
acknowledge only one God ; and that the idols are only 
representations of the invisible Godhead. Now the great 
fault of those infidels, whom we find among baptized Christ 
ians, is this, that they are ever ready to say something in 
favour of any religion whatsoever, except the true one ; and 
therefore some of them assert that the Hindoos are no idola 
ters, in order to make the veracity of excellent missionaries 
suspected. They speak with horror of the Spanish Inquisition, 
whilst they talk with enthusiasm about the custom, prevailing 
among Hindoos and Sikhs, of burning their wives ; and they 
do the same in regard to the horrors of Juggur-Nauth. Wolff 
himself believes that many a Hindoo, and many a heathen of 
New Zealand, will be met with among the number of the 
happy in Heaven ; for he believes that many of them are so 
guided by the Spirit, as to arrive at a knowledge of the truth ; 
and that the spirit of God guides them in a way unknown 
to themselves. He believes, at the same time, that those 
Christian infidels have less chance of entering the kingdom of 
Christ than these. For " What is idolatry \ " Wolff asks. 

380 Travels and Adventures 

It is the worship of an invisible being,through a visible like 
ness, by which the original is shut out and forgotten. Now 
this is exactly the manner of worship among the Hindoos, who 
therefore are idolaters. Idolatry, however, is nothing else 
but a system of Pantheism. 

Wolff, having thus visited Rundjud Singh a second time, 
left Urmitsur, and set out for Loodhiana; he met the Pope 
of the Sikhs, the famous Baba Betee Saheb Singh. He was 
one hundred years of age, a descendant of Baba Nanak, and 
he resided at Oonawala, in the Himalaya Mountains. When 
Wolff asked a person belonging to this sect, in what the privi 
leges of this great man consisted, he replied, that he can curse 
the Maha Rajah, and all the Sirdars, i. e. " Generals," and 
they humbly bow before him. " He says to the Maha Rajah, 
I am he that created thee, and that has exalted thee." 

One day, Rundjud Singh wanted to take possession of the 
Castle Teere, which is in the mountains ; so he went to that 
holy man, the Pope Betee, and worshipped him, and said, 
" I want a horse of you, in order that the rest of my horses 
may be blessed." 

Betee Singh answered, " Thou blind rascal, thou wantest a 
horse of me ; but I shall give thee one hundred bastinadoes ! " 
Rundjud Singh said, " Not one hundred only, but five hun 
dred ; only give me a horse."" Betee Singh, seeing the 
humility of the monarch, forthwith gave him a horse, and 
added, " To-morrow thou shalt be in possession of the castle;" 
and so it came to pass. 

Betee Singh was said to be possessed of a property of 
^30,000. He remained up the whole night, and worshipped 
and performed ablutions. He gave harsh words only to his 
followers ; whilst those who received with humility what he 
said to them became pure ; but those who were offended at 
his words became hated even by their own wives. Yet, after 
all, he was a great wretch, for he had murdered his own 

Wolff at lost crossed the Sutledge, and arrived at Lood 
hiana, in the hospitable dwelling of Captain, now Colonel, Sir 
Claude Wade, the Resident at the Court of Lahore. Before 
entering the room Wolff had not met with any British officer 
for a long time, except Alexander Burnes ; and on putting his 
foot on the first English station of the most northern fron 
tier of British India, Wolff exclaimed, and shouted aloud, 
" Through God s infinite goodness I am safe ! I am safe ! 
after so many trials and adventures. I am safe, and the Lord 
has not permitted one hair to fall from my head ; and the 

of Dr. Wolff. 381 

irophecy of my friends at Teheran has not been fulfilled, that 
should not get beyond Meshed ; for here I am ! here I am !" 
Captains Wade and Murray burst into tears, and intro 
duced him to Major Faithful : and so, after an interval of 
eighteen months, he once again saw a whole English family, 
and preached to them that very day, and took, as his text, 
" The angel who redeemed me from all evil." 

Wolff lectured too, the same day, on his travels, and he was 
introduced, by Captain Wade, to both the ex-kings of Aff- 
ghanistan, Shah Zemaun, and Shujah Almulk. Poor Shah 
Zemaun had been deprived of his eyes by Futteh Khan, one 
of his slaves, who himself afterwards experienced the same 
fate. Wolff preached again, on the 1st of July, 1832, to the 
inhabitants of Loodhiana, and he also gave them two lectures. 
One of the lectures was on Visions, and he related the 
following vision, which he himself saw when at Malta : and, as 
he is determined to have the Church and the public know his 
whole mind, he now repeats it. 

When at Malta, in the year 1880, just before his departure 
on his first expedition to Bokhara, he walked about one night 
in his room thinking of the bliss of heaven when suddenly 
he saw before him the NEW JERUSALEM, with Christ our Lord 
in the midst, and the Apostles walking about with crowns on 
their heads, clothed in white garments, singing in Hebrew, 
" Glory to God in the highest, and to the Lamb that sitteth 
on the right hand of God !" Then Paul turned to Wolff, and 
said, " And now thou shalt also have suck a crown, but not such 
a glorious one as I have!" And the virgins, the daughters of 
Zion, looked out of the windows of the golden houses, and 
devoutly bowed, and said, " Now He has his tabernacle with 
men." And then the vision disappeared ! Sir Harry Jones, 
who slept in a room close to Wolff s, asked him the next 
morning, "With whom, Wolff, have you been conversing?" 
Wolff related the occurrence in the presence of some Captains 
of the Navy when Captain West, of the Royal Navy, made 
the remark, " What a happy man, you, my dear Wolff, must 
be ! and I cannot see why you should not relate what you have 
seen, for John Wesley was gifted with visions from on high !" 
Wolff stated the whole fact, at Lord William Bentinck s 
request, in his drawing-room : he told it also all over India 
and Wolff would consider it ingratitude towards his Saviour 
to conceal it from the public, in a work which professes to be a 
faithful narrative of all that has occurred to him. Jung 
Stilling, Madame Krudener, Colonel Gardiner, and S. Ber 
nard, were not ashamed to tell such tilings j why, then, should 

382 Travels and Adventures 

Joseph Wolff be ? He is determined not to fall in with the 
spirit of the age ! He also related the fact to many holy 
men in England, and they told him not to conceal it from the 
public ! Besides this, it appeared in all the German papers, 
and in all the papers of India : and here it is laid before the 
public again. 

After the lecture was over, a gentleman was introduced to 
Wolff, who had lately come from Juggurnauth. Wolff said to 
him, " A missionary must not only preach and teach, he must 
also be taught ; therefore, be kind enough to tell me the 
meaning of Juggurnauth, 1 and something of its history." 
The gentleman then told him, " Juggurnauth is derived from 
Juggur, which means the World/ or Universe/ and Nauth^ 
i.e. Lord, or c Master ;" and the history of it is this. Upon 
the mountain, Nilachue Pahur, stood the image of Nilmadhoe 
Vishnoo. This hill, with its image, sank down, and was 
overwhelmed by the sea. Juderudjumnah, a Rajah of Malwa, 
in the Sutyjoog, replaced the image, with another, not far 
from where the hill formerly stood. This new image was 
called Juggernauth, and a pilgrimage to it was commenced ; 
and thus it became a great place of resort for pilgrims. 1 


Jeremiah and Lady Bryant: the Governor-General, Lord 
William Bentinck and Lady William Bentinck: Subathoo 
and Simlah : and the societti he met there. 

at last left Loodhiana, and having received a kind 
letter from Lady Bryant, he proceeded to Subathoo and 
Simlah, in the Himalaya mountains ; and on the 3rd of 
July, he arrived at Roopar, where a conference had formerly 
taken place between Lord William Bentinck and Rundjud 
Singh. But whilst at Badde, which is thirty English miles 
from Roopar, and where the Himalaya mountains begin, he 
sent forward a messenger to Sir Jeremiah Bryant, at Subathoo, 
where that gentleman lived. Later on, in the afternoon, there 
came to Wolff a letter from Lady Bryant, with a hill pony, 
also a Jampoon, or " Hill chair," and some provisions, which 
were sent on to meet the "learned Padre Wolff" on his road. 
The carriers were all naked, and Wolff arrived at Subathoo at 

of Dr. Wolff. 383 

ten o clock at night, where a beautiful lady came out of her 
house to greet him, and said, " Here you are, after your many 
troubles and trials, in the house of your cousins, praise be to 

Then there came out Sir Jeremiah Bryant, with one arm ; 
for he had lost the other in battle, and he said, " Welcome, 
Wolff; I shake you by the hand with my left arm." 

A letter was then handed to Wolff from Lady William 
Bentinck, inviting him to be their guest at Simlah ; which of 
course he accepted. 

He remained for several days at Sobathoo, admiring and 
enchanted with the beauty of the country, and the prosperity 
of the English people there. He was refreshed too, both in 
mind and body, by the cordiality he found : and, seeing the 
high respect and reverence with which his host was treated by 
the natives, Wolff said to Sir Jeremiah Bryant, Colonel 
Arnold, and the rest, " I cannot help thinking that you are 
here, in this mighty country, the kings of the East^ who 
are mentioned in the Revelation of St. John 1 (Rev. xvi. 12). 
And Wolff but little thought that, ten years afterwards, he 
should read a book, written by a gentleman of Leeds, making 
it out, really in a most satisfactory manner and with great 
genius, that the East India Company are actually the " Kings 
of the East." Wolff is sorry that he has forgotten the name 
of that clever writer, but he knows him personally. 

Wolff felt that the beauty of this country inclined him to 
believe, like Origen, in the transmigration of souls : for he 
could not help thinking that he had been there before, and 
seemed to be well acquainted with the country. His English 
friends said, " This is a common belief, all over the country, 
among the Hindoos ; and they will be delighted with hearing 
you say that you are inclined to believe in it also." The 
noble countenance and warrior-like appearance of Sir Jeremiah 
Bryant, made Wolff feel that he had known him thousands of 
years ago ; whilst the fairy-like beauty of his wife, and the 
love they bore to each other, made him say, " You make me 
believe in fairies !" Lady Bryant answered, " Fairies are 
more towards Cashmere ; but it seems that you are very 
liberal, and believe all things. Have you ever seen fairies !"" 

Wolff said that he had not seen them ; but he had heard of 
a Muhammadan, at Jerusalem, who had been regularly mar 
ried to a fairy ; and the children she bore him were not visible 
to others but only to her husband, after the manner of Mu 
hammadan families. But their little voices were heard by the 
visitors, who saw pipes brought to the master by invisible 

384 Travels and Adventures 

hands. Lady Bryant asked, " Do you believe this story f 
Wolff replied, "I do not believe it ; but still, I see a fairy !" 
"Where?" Wolff said, "In yourself." Lady Bryant an 
swered, " I have heard that you are a great friend of the ladies, 
and I do not wonder that Georgiana has married you !" But 
after this Wolff saw a letter, written by Lady Bryant to Mrs. 
Churchill at Simlah, in which the former spoke very highly of 
Wolffs energy, and said that he always slept on the ground, 
instead of going to bed, and that he recited poetry, especially 
Schiller s poems, with great fluency ; " but he is ugly, sans 
permission, and a complete perpetuum mobile^ and makes one 
continually laugh with his fun." She said, too, that Wolff 
spoke about Haenigberger, who made the horrid wine for 
Rundjud Singh and acted as his physician ; and that Wolff 
had detected him to be a Jew. Colonel Arnold asked Wolff 
how he found him out, and Wolff replied, " Set a thief to 
catch a thief." Wolff relates these extracts from Lady 
Bryant s letters as well as he can remember them. 

Wolff then lectured at Sobathoo, and preached there to the 
English inhabitants. After this, he set out for Simlah, and 
when he got half way, he met a panlanquin and bearers sent 
by the Governor-General. On alighting at the Governor s 
house, Captain Byrne, Lord William s aide-de-camp, brought 
him into a room that he might dress himself; and after this, 
he made his appearance at the breakfast-table, where he was 
welcomed by Lord and Lady William Bentinck and the whole 
staff. He met there the Rev. H. Fisher, chaplain to his Lord 
ship, who had been a great friend of Wolff when he was at 
Cambridge ; and he at once invited Wolff to preach the next 
Sunday, though he was not yet ordained. Wolff sat near 
Lord William, who listened, with the greatest attention, to 
every word he said. Wolff said to him, " I know why your 
Lordship is so attentive to all I say." Lord William Bentinck 
asked, " Why ?" " Because your Lordship has heard that I 
am cracked !" 

Universal laughter followed this reply. 

Lady William afterwards told Wolff, when she was alone 
with him, that the proclamation he had issued in the Punjaub 
had made Lord William and herself very anxious to see