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Zo] <i ,n 



M^vi CA'^-rsJ^'HX^ 








B A R B A R Y 













Sold by A: JohnsToke, J. Ogle, A. Black, and J« Sc J. Robsrtson^ 

Edinburgh; M. Ogle, Glasgow; E. Lessiie, Dundee; «odby 

J. Hatcbard, Williams 8c Smith, J. Bvroitt, 

and W. Kent, London. 


/W'^ '"'-•- T^\ 






Geographical Observations in Syrifl^ Phcmicej 
and the Holy Land^ - - Pag. 9 


A Dissertation' whether the Nik. or the sup* 
posed rivulet at Rhinocolura^ be the river of 
Egypt, . . - - 45 

Geographical Observations in Egypt, - 63 


The ancient situation of the city Memphis ad- 
justed, - " - - 72 


Of the Land of G^shen^ Arabia Petraa, and 
the encampments of the Israelites, - 86 






The J^aiural History of Syria^ Phosnkey and 
the Holy Land^ - - Pag. 127 




/ ...... 


^ECT. I. Of the symbolical Learning of the 

Egypt ianSy - - 163 

11. Of the Antiquities of Egypt y viz. of 
the ObeliskSy FT/rami/is^ Sphim', 
Catacombs, and Mummies. 189 

III. Of the Nile, and the soil of Egypt ^ 2 14 

IV. Home additional proofs and conJeC- 

tureSy concerning the augmentation 
xvhick Egypt receives annually fiom 
, the Nile, • - 237 

y. Of the J^gyptian Plants and Ani- 

malsy - - - 263 

y I- Some additional Observations xvith re- 
^ , gard to the Animals of Egypty 
. particularly as they r£late to the 
Holy Script urCy - - 275 

VIL Of the Mosaic Pavement at Pra- 
nestCy relating to some of the Ani- 
mals and Plants of Egypt and 
 EtJ^iopiCy - - 294 


CONTENTS, ' '•^ *^ 


The Natural History of Arabia ; particularly 
^Arabia Petraa, Mount Sinai, S^c. and of 
the Ostrich^ - - 319 


I, Specimen Phytographia Africarue^ 

^c. - . Pag. 353 

II. Appendix' de Coralliis et eorum affini- 

bm. Obs. vol. ii. p. 331. - S6^ 

III. Catalogus Fossilium. Obs. vol. i. p. 281. 373 

IV. Catahgus Piscium. Obs. vol. i. p, 348. 377 
V. Catalogus Conchyliorum. Obs. voL i. 

p. 350. - - 379 

VI. A Vocabulary of the Shawiah Tongue. 

Obs. vol. i. p. 401. - 382 

VII. The several Stations of the Mahometan 
Pilgrims, in their Journey to Mecca. 
Obs. vol. ii. p. 117. - 384 

VIII. Mesure de la grande Pyr amide de Mem^ 

phis, par k Pere Siccard *. - 385 

IX. Remarques sur le Natron, park ndme'\. 387 

X. The method of making Sal ArmoniacX. 389 


^ These measures, taken by Pere Siccard, were given me by 
Dr Mead, and are intended to illustrate note f , vol. li. p. 208. 

•f- Vid. Memoires des Messions, voL vii. p. 64. 

J The Rev, Dr Lisle, Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, 
favoured me with this account. 

XL An Account of th^ Weather at Alex- 
andria*. - - 389 
XII. Nummi nonnulH air auctore in Africa 

colkcti. - - - 399 

Texts of Scripture Illustrated, • 401 

I^articular Indexy - - 409 


* Tkis sbort jfumti I copitd oixt cf Mr Graves^ packet- 
book« that is deposited in the S^vil study, and serves to prove 
what regards the Weather, Obs. vol. ii. p. 214. 










*^»«. .*•»«• »*"•  •-M*'l!P»M»«WM»< -»«.••»•< . - ■» 

■» . " t* %•» ' 

C H A P T E R I. 

Geographical Observations relating to some Parts 
of Syria, Phoenicey and the Holy Land. 

1am now entering upon those countries, where* 
Mr Maundrell has travelled before me ; and, as it 
may be presumed that every curious person is ac- 
quainted with that author, I shall only takd no- 
tice of such things as seem to have been either 
mistaken or omitted by him. 

Latikea, then, the first maritime city which he 
describes, was also the most northern part of Sy- 
ria that I had an opportunity of seeing. It is si- 
tuated upon a rising ground, with a full prospect 
of the sea, and was called by the ancients Laodi- 
eea ad mare *, and Aiw* a*tu, from the white cliffs 
that lie on each side of it. From the citadel, we 
have a pleasatit, though distant view of the 
mountains of Caramania and Cassius to the 
^orth ; and of Jebilee, Merkab, Bannias, as far as 
Tortosa, to the south. The founder could not 

VOL. II. B have 

* £ir« A««}«Kii«, fTi r% ^»)ntrln xttXXtrtt wrts'^tni »tct tuXtfuttf 
^^>ttSf jc^^^^ 'n sp^dtfo** ^dXvMv** sr^df m «XA«i fvK«^<«. Strab. Geog« 
L xvi. p. 1091. £xclusu$ ab Antiochia Dolabella — Laodiceam, 
<|U9e est in Sjria ad mare, se contulit. Cic. £pist. 1. xii. ep. 14. 

Dionjs. Perieg. ver. 915. - 

10 LatikeOy or Laodkeaj 

have pitched upon a more agreeable situation, af- 
fording, at the same time, both delight and secu- 

Here are still remaining several rows of por- 
phyry, and granate pillars ; with a large fragment 
of an aqueduqt, the same perhaps that Josephus* 
infbnD& us, was built by Herod. It is a massy 
structure without arches, and stretches towards 
the S. E. But the chief surviving monument of 
the ajacient gtandeur and magnificence of this 
pl^Cj^ is a large triumphal arch of the Corinthian 
oiidery i»&w converted into a mosque* The archi- 
trave 13 adorned with trophies, shields, battle- 
A^t^y aikd other military weapons ; whilst the rest 
of the entablature is exceedingly bold and sump- 
tuous. We see^ dispersed all over these ruins, 
several fragments both of Greek and Latin in- 
j^eriptions, bnt all of them are entirely defaced. 

A fujlcuQig to the westward are the ruins of a 
beautiful cothon, ixi figure like an amphitheatre, 
and capacious enough to receive the whole Bri-f 
tish navy. The mouth of it, which opens to the 
westward, is about forty feet wide, and defended 
by a small fort. The whole appears to have been 
a work and structure of great labour and design, 
though at present it is so much filled up with 
9andi and pebbles, that half a dozen small vessels 
can only be admitted. The like accidents, ari- 
sing chiefly f^om the large billows that attend 
the westerly storms, and bring along with them 


^eat quantities idf istatid tmei from the bbttOM 
xjf the adjuoent sfafore, have ^ntirel}^ &ll4^ up <lie 
tTOth0n<>f Jubilee; tihdt a little to the iioilSiM^<a^ 
lof Tortasa, those ©f Rou-iwadde, Tripoly, Tyiie, 
Acre, and Jaffa. At lall tivese 'places, we cannot 
4»uiBciei»tly admire the great rndustiy atid cotytri^ 
v^mce of the ancients, dn inaking such 8a;fe VB>d 
c^on venient stations for vessels ; at the same time^ 
we mufit hejrt d;fae utmost contempt ibr tfheit later 
fnastdrs, who out of .avarise, or want of public 
fiipirlt, have suffi&red them to rbekrolne «i4d]er alto^ 
tgetlier useless, or else of very little service to th^ 
trade and navigation of this 'rich and plentlfilii 

About two furlongs to the northward ^of »thc 
fcity, near the )sea shore, there afe several wtrd^ 
phagi^ u^ihidi are generally of an oblcfjlf^ sqtiate 
shape, thoiigh larger than those thlit .<are ^oKn*- 
•monly found in Italy. They are, most &f <(h^ 
adorned mth several i)eaiit^tfl ddcor^d^^is ift 
shells and foliage, or else with basts^of men and 
women, ox-vheads andjsatyrs; fbeetdes ofthens that 
are panelled, having iaO»»>v£r their covers ^up 
j)ort6d by pilasters of the Ionic and Carinidiiaa 
orders. They are ieach yo£ oi^ stone ; J^ome (df 
which have itheir covers, dr opercula, stitt fremaib^ 
ing, and Bright ht what were called /foiabeclyim^' 
^ubiles or manokdni *4 ': : 

The rocky rgrannd wheire we £nd::'lhe3e raafco^ 
phagi, is hollowed below ittto a numberrof itrj^l^ 
tse, or s^piUchml clmmbergysomi^* tmi, others twdhty 


* Vid. Itmerar. Hierosolym. cum notis Wcsscling, p. 595. 

13 Latikea^ or Laodicea^ 

0r thirty feet square ; but the height is low, and 
•never proportionable. The ingenious architect 
has left upon the front and the side walls of the 
.sjtpir-^cases, which lead us down to them, several 
curipus designs in sculpture and basso relievo, 
like those upon the sarcophagi. A range of nar- 
row cells, wide enough to receive one coffin, sar- 
icopfmgmj or »A«fit, and long enough sometimes for 
two. or three, runs along the sides of ^most of 
thdse^ sepulchral chambers, and appear to be the* 
only provision that was made, provided indeed 
they were only made for the reception of the 
dead. . : . 

The Greeks have one of these cryptae in gr^t 
esteem and veneratira. They call it St Teckla, 
in commemoration of some acts of penance and 
mortification that are said to have beien here per* 
formed by that first virgin martyr. In the mid- 
dle of it there is a fountain^ suppoised to be in- 
3trui»ental in producing miraculous visions and 
extraordinary cures. For hither they bring such 
persons or children as have the rickets, jaundice, 
or other distempers ; and, after they have wash- 
ed them with hoh/ water, and perfumed them, 
they return with a strong faith in a speedy cure. 
Here likewise the aged and the infirm pretend to 
receive the warnings of their approaching disso- 
lutions ; whilst the young foresee a long train of 
circumstances and events that are to fall out in 
the future course of their lives. 

The sepulchral chambers near Jebilee, Tortosa, 
and the . Serpent Fountain, together with those 


In Syria. 1 3 

that are commonly called, the Royal Sepulchres 
at Jerusalem, (all of them commuuicating with 
one another by small narrow entrances), are of 
the like workmanship and contrivance with the 
cryptge of Latikea; as were likewise, in all pro- 
bability, the cave of Machpelah, and the other 
sepulchres, wjiich appear to have been many, of 
the sons of Heth, Gen. xxiii. 6. An ancient sar- 
cophagus still remains in one of the sepulchral 
chambers of Jerus^em, which is of a Parian-like 
marble, in the fashion of a common round lidded 
trunk, all over very elegantly caived with flowers, 
fruit, and foliage. Instead likewise of those long 
narrow cells that are common in most of the 
other cryptee, some of these are single chambers, 
others have, benches of stone ranged ,one* over 
another, upon which tlie coffins wer^|a be placed. 
.To these we may join the sepulchre, where our 
Saviour was laid, which was also hewn out of the 
natural rock, Matt, xxvii. 60. and lay originally 
under ground, like the others ; but by St Helena's 
cutting away the rock round about it, that the 
floor or bottom of it might be upon the same le- 
vel with the rest of the pavement of the church, 
it is now a grotto above ground, fut^ft»^T><mcfitm^ or 
curiously overlaid with marble. It consists of 
one chamber only, without cells, benches or or- 
nanients, being about seven feet square, and si^ 
high; and over the place where the body was laid 
(whether this was a pit, or whether the body lay 
bound up only in spices and linen upon the floor) 
here, for many years, an oblong table of stone or 


14 The Sepulchre 6j cur Saviour, 

tkormy Jw&Twf, of three fijet in breadth, and sea[rly 
of the same height, has been erected, which serves 
the Latins for an altar. The low narrow door W 
entrance where the stone was fixed and seated, tiH 
rolled away by the angel, still continues to con*- 
tluct us within it ; and as this was not situated 
in the middle, but on the left hand ; as the grave 
likewise, or place where Christ was laid, may well 
be Jjresuraed to have been placed within it, on 
the right hand, or where the altar is at present, 
w€ ♦mlay, fircwn these circtnnstances, u^ll account 
for Mairy and John (John xio 5. J L) being obli- 
ged Tv? ^ot'jE' dawn J before theof cotdd look into it. 

fiM IJie rleamed Salmasius ^ has attempted to 
prove, <!hat this sepulchre was not hewn out of 
the rock, but was built with square polished 
stones, in d|e fashion of a rounded arch, vault or 
•cupola, [(spiscttkj sc. cmneratus et fornvcatus erat^^ 
with a hole upon the top (cum forOmim desuper) 
through which the body was to be let down ^ 
which hole was afterwards to be covered with a 
great stone '(vice dperculi) instead of a lid. But 
^uch a hole, especially in such a situation, could 
with no propriety be called a door, or i^v<«, as the 
entrance into this sepulchre is often named ; nei-^ 
ther could Peter and the women, without ladders, 
•or such like assistances, have so easily gcme in 
and out of it, as they seem to have done, Mark 
!xvi. 5. &c. Neither will this leamec^ author be 
the better supported in the other part of his posi- 
tion, viz. that this sepvichre was not hewn cut (tf 


* PHn. Exercit* p« 1207. 

The Sepuhihre of our SffQWur. 15 

tMe rock (as we render ^p«i^w • a^n^ww 'i-Mnf «« wif ^^ 
Matt, xxvii. 60% ^fx4 m- m^^ti^c^^m m wtr^, Markov. 
4&. and ^ a^hut^j^ Lukcxxiii.;$3.)but th^t these 
words absolutely denote a sepulqhr^ built with 
hewn square polished stones^ or, in hi;^ words, 
Mormw/f^ntum lapide c^e^, polUo et giuf/ir(jf\to ^ruc* 
turn. Whereas the verb a#wi^« can, by no means, 
be confined ta such a coQ,struct^n ; not signify-* 
Ing properly to build ox tgt raise an edifice with 
stones, but only prepara,tpry theretq (as ^«^r« 

hAm ivfU9. m 4(9U^MC«MM Mmnfhm Qfir, 1 Chron. XXlL 2.) tQ 

ci^t ston^ or to hew in stone; whether such 
stones were C3^a3K or ^n^ single and moveable,, 
or whether they were fixed and itnnaoveahle, such 
*s lis or «T€«, always rendered a rvck^ niay bQ 
supposed to b^- And ther/efp^Reji if wcfr^ to ex- 
plain one Scripture plirase by anoth^, ^y^^ffn^ ^ ^^ 
nre^i or w *n wt# w ftff^tfn^ c^not h(^ gendered 
buiUing a sepulchre with^ ^quartf niwjeabk stm^^^ a$ 
is here pretended, but cutting or hewing it out of 
the •jj'jnf, «tr€«, or iminoveable; rock ; as the house 
(Matt. vii. 24.) is ^aid to be built w n» ^rtr^t^K For 
had this structure been ii^ade with hewn sqnare 
polished stones, the term of act would have been 
difierent. It would not have b©?n ?^^*w, but 

might he: illustrated from variaus^ autliorlties. 

The ^pulchre likewise of I^azarus, according 
to the same author, (ibid.} was of the like fashion 
^nd workmanship. But the evange]list John, xi. 38, 
in describing it to be a cave, seems to contradict 
lus opinion ; for a ccpve, ^lenxm^^ or spcluncQ^ is ge- 

1 6 The Sepulchre of Lazarus. 

iierally, and perhaps always, taken for some hol- 
low place under ground, either naturally such, or 
made so artificially ; not by building it with ad- 
ventitious stones, but by scouping away the na- 
tural rock, as in the sepulchre of our Saviour, 
and in the several caves, cryptce, or grottos al- 
ready taken notice of. The sepulchres like- 
wise of the prophets, as they are now callied, 
with m^ny other caves that we meet with upon 
the Mount of Olives, in the very neighbourhood 
of that we are now speaking of, might all of 
them have eitheir served, or have been originally 
designed for burying places, having their proper 
stones, or opercula, to lay upon them, or to shut 
them up. Here the dead bodies, especially of 
those of better fashion, after they were bound up 
in linen clotheSy with spices, as the manner of the 
Jews is to bury, were to be laid, and the sepulchre 
to be shut up; as we find it was actually done to 
Lazarus, John xi. 38. 44. and would have been 
done to our Saviour, xvas he to have been left in 
his sepulchre, and to have seen corruption. 

But, to proceed in our geographical inquiries, 
the greatest part of the coutitry betwixt Latikea 
and Jebilee, is stony and mountainous ; after 
which, we enter upon a most delightful plain, 
formerly the northern limit of the district of the 
Aradians *. At the mouth of the river MpUeck, 
six miles from Jebilee, along this plain, the sea 
forms itself into a small bay, where we have the 


* E^r (sc. a Gabala) n^ iS nn A^uif ^tcXttut (wet^Xm, Boch. 
Phal. l.iv. c. 36.) &c. Strab. 1. xvi. p. 1093. 

of Carney Antafadus, and Aredus. 1 7 

Wins gS the ancient city, Paltus ; and a little to 
the RK-E. there is a large subterraneous con- 
duit, with a number of lesser ones detached from 
it ,' which, spreading themselves for several fur- 
longs through a low marshy ground, might have 
been so^e ancient drain, to render this place 
more fit i for tillagd. 

Not>far^from the Melleck, are the ruins of Ba- 
lanea, or. Baileas^ or iuwM(, where the author of 
the JcTusaUm Itinerary] and Hierocles in his Sy^ 
necdemtcsy place the boundary ^betwixt Coele-Syria 
juid Pboenice. ; Seven leagues further, a little to 
tibe northward 'of Tortosa, ^re' the traces of a 
GothoHj: widi a small pottery by it. Here we are* 
to look for the ancient Game, "as the cothon it-* 
self ibight be the smHUPy or ^Ae ifocA that * Strabo 
tells us belonged to the Aradians. Betwixt the 
pottery and Tortosa, are the cryptae that were 
mentioned ahove. ; . i:  

Tortosa iias bjsen generally mistake-n for Or- 
thosia, which lay a great way further to the 
southward, upon the confines of Syria and Phoe- 
nice» And though indeed Orthosia inay seem to 
have an easy transition into Tortosa, yet tx)nsi- 
dering there w^s formerly a large ' convent, and 
t\yo very magiiifijceut Ghxisti^n churches at this 
place, Tortosa is rather to be received as a cor- 
ruption of Deirdouse, i* e. the place, of a churchy 
or conventj as the irihabitants interpret it* An4 
in no ^mall conformity to this circumstance, we 

VOL. II. c . ; . are 

* Kot^uMf • «r« wiUHf mK A^ttiwi hifiwof t^*^* Strab. lib. jhyU. 
pv 1093* 

^ a€<ju#r>tj?d, d?3t 1;he ^st QhwcK erected tj» 
the hooPW of ^k^$ Wessi^d; V j rginc w*R a.t Tprtiasa *> 
JliQMv^ev^er* ^ ife li«^ at ikQ ipo^.thaa half aJeague's 
dj^.t^ftcf o^jcr- ^g^wt th^.4Pcic«vtAmdas, there: is 
HQ (Joul^ti ^fe ii^ B^u^t. l?gr the Aj>t3faradtt& of the 
oW geQgrnpfey* Tbi? is con^iOTfid by Piocaa, ixi 
his Description rof SyriCy (apud L. Allatii. a«f«f«ff<«) 
A»Tif^-i)i!PfT?f jfT^f^i*^; ai>d: Ukcwjiae by WiHeim^ of 
Tfy re f. 4^orci4my i^y^. hfiv qu(e^ vulgar iiappsHor. 
time, T<>^'i(m *(matm. hx the fomth. ceatLiryy 
(pi^^ aJ)Qtt$ A.J>> cccxxx.) it csontim^qd to. be 
Ispq^^^ by ii^ old: name, as appears from the Iti^ 
i^rii^iimMiei^QSpfymtQsimnu; which, with, its othei? 
^jfig Cofitfitntiii :{;, given to. it by its restore© 
CQiis.taftfevis^ weje disused some centuries after-^ 
wapd^ in, lOr pcrhAps bpfiare^ the time ofi the 
Ci:oi^de». For thii& we have it related by a* poeft 
^ these. ti!»e»^ 

Non procul urbs aberat, ripae vicina marinse, 
^<^rtg^^^$uacprQZQitteDsmulta.rapm8ey '^ 
l^oifHni^^ qvL^ G^l^m ipsQ; Toi(|osa vi^caiur. 

Guih Pari^. Exjiu Hfeiv^ 

Ihe islaird Aradus, the Arpad.of the Scriptures^ 
the seat of the Arvadit« or Aradite^ is called* at 
present Roiirwadde ; which, with - El Hanunah^ 
tshe ancient Hiamath, the seat of the Maniatbit^, 


* In Tottosa fuit prima ecclesia quse in hoporem B. Virginis 
^bS&cBiz ftiit. Vid. Willebr. ab Oldenburg, idnerarium apud 
I^ AllaUi Sv^f«'<ft. p. 130;. 

. f ; Itiner. 1. vii. c. 17, 

t: Constantkis A^araduni iastavrafcum suo. nomine*, dooavit. 
Theoph. Chronogr. p. 31. 

In Sh^fia. 1^9 

^m^ wet agmmt ii^ Ezek. xtvii. 29- <eft lekguei 
to the eastward, are ilie ttiost northern settle- 
ments of the sons of Oahaan. Mr Bedford, in 
his Ckranoldgy, has An itigeftious coiyectute, es- 
poused by tlie Lord Bishop of Clogher (Ckronol. 
p. 9a) that Ham, in the dispersion of mankind 
after the jftwrf, entered the land of Canaati (as it 
was aft;erwards called) at the latter of these 
places; and from thence we find it so frequently 
called in Scripture ike entering in ^f Hamiith^ 
ilDn K*a*?. Tiiifi learned |)^etete supposfes ftir- 
t\\tr^ tiiat Abraham likewise catiiie ii^to the sai^iiS 
eimntry^ north about, as Canaiii or Ham himself 
did before, by the entering ih qf^ Htnnath. From 
the situation indeed either of Shinat or Haran; 
with r^pect to the land of Catiaati, Ham, Canaan 
dnd Abraham might hav^ taken this road as well 
as any othet, or the more open one Which Jacob 
took by Crilead and the Jojidan, Genkxxi. 21. 
and xxxii. 10. ; yet there seems not to be the 
least authority for it from the oi-i^nal word t^^i 
(or Mt^aS * with the praefix) which signifies no 
more than barely the going to, or untU thou arrive 
or oopte ut i ot the entering in or into such or •such 
a platse, without the least regard to ^hat itaight 
have been transacted there by one or other of 
thoiie patriarchs. As Hamath likewise lies about 


* Thus .H*il / i* as fSrcquently joihed in Seriptiirc witii 

nSmij> T^* DnKO» nnSoK, m-nf, &d as ^th 

flfin 9 and may be presumed to have the same signification ^ 
▼iz. the entering in, &c. of Egiffit, Ephrata^ Adad^ as among many 
otben, J^cn xli. 17. CkimhAm^ which is by Bethkhem^ oi thou (Of ^ 
/p enter into Egypt^ 

$Q Of RourWaddCy 

fifty leagues to the S. S. W. of Haran, from whence 
Abraham departed with his father Terah, (Gen, 
xi. 31.) after he left Ur of the Chaldees, we may 
very well account for his journeying, a^ it is re-r 
corded, Gen. xii, 9. going on stilly as we may pre-^ 
pume, from his first setting out, towards the souths 
but by no means for his going north about ; 
contrary to the respective situations of those 

But, to return to Rou-wadde, the prospect of 
it from the continent, is wonderfully magnificent, 
promising at a distance a continued train of fine 
buildings, and impregnable fortifications. But 
this is entirely owipg to the height and rocki- 
ness* of its situation; for at present all the 
strength and beauty it can boast of, lies in a 
weak unfortified castle, with a few small, cajition 
to defend it. Yet we are not to judge of the 
ancient strength of this place from its present 
condition. For it was formerly surrounded with 
a large strong \vall, consisting of stones of an 
immense bigness, which, asi in mapy other speci- 
mens of the ancient buildings,, so exactly .tallied 
and corresponded with each other, that the archi-- 
tect might very justly estimate the weight and 
symmetry alone of the materials, without cramps 
and mortar, to have been sufficient to withstand 
the violence of the sea, and the engines of an 
enemy. During the time of its prosperity, both 
art and nature seem to have conspired. in making 


* RoU'Wadde or Arpad being probably derived from n^ J^^ 
f»VJ fuity &C.': 

In Syria. 21 

it a place of such strength and consequence as 
sufficiently to justify the boast, JVhere is the king 
of Arpad? which Sennacherib (2 Kings xix. 13.) 
made in the conquest of it. 

The ancient Marathus may be fixed at some 
ruins, near the Serpent Fountain, which make^ 
with Rou-wadde and Tortosa, almost an equilate- 
ral triangle. For Strabo* tells us, that Aradus 
was situated betwixt its Navale and Marathus, 
and that the opposite shore had not the least 
shelter for vessels. The latter of these observa- 
tions is very just ; and, provided the Navale is 
the Cothon, which has been already taken notice 
of to the northward of Tortosa, no place can 
better fall in with the situation of Marathus ; in 
as much as Rou-wadde, upon this supposition, 
will lie not only between, but very nearly equi- 
distant from the Navale or Marathus. 

Five miles to the S. S. E. of the Serpent Foun- 
tain, are: the. Maguzzel, or spindles^ as they call 
those pointed and cylindrical little buildings that 
are erected, over the cryptae, described by Mr 
Maundrell. The situation of the country round 
about them,, has something in it so extravagant 
and peculiar to itself, that it can never fail to 
contribute an agreeable mixture of melancholy 
and delight to all who pass through it. The un- 
common contrast and disposition of woods and 
sepulchres, rocka and grottos ; the medley of 
sounds and echoes from birds and beasts, cas-^ 
C^des and water-falls ; the distant roaring of the 


 Strab. Geogr, L xvi. 

2S Of the JetmCy Samrah^ ^c. 

^ea, and tibc co^Eiposeid sotemnity of the whole 
place, very naturally remind us of those beautiftil 
description^ which tlie ancient poets hatrc left as 
of the groves and retreats of their rural deities. . 

A great plain, the Jeuae> as the Arabs call it, 
commences a little to the southward of the Ma- 
guz£:el, and ends at Sumrah ; extending itself all 
the way from the Sea to the Eastward, sometimes 
five, sometimes six or sevien leagues, till it is ter- 
minated by a loQg chain of mountains. Tftese 
seem to be the Mons Bargylus of Pliny * ; as the 
Jeune may be the Interjacentes Campi, which he 
places to the northward of Mount Libiniis. 
There are dispersed all over the J©une, a gteat 
number of castles and watch-towers, erected per*- 
haps as well for the safety tod security of those 
who cultivated it, as to observe the motions of 
what enemy soever should at any time pitch 
upon it for a seat of action. These are pretty 
common in otlier places of Syria and Phoenice, 
and may be the same with the watch-tawerSy in 
contra-distikiction to tke fenced citiesj as they are 
mentioned in Scripture. 

Besides these towers, we see several large hil* 
locks upon the Jeune, of the same figure, and rai* 
sed undoubtedly upon the like occasion, with 
those eminences that we call barrmvs in Eiigland. 


* In ora subjecta Libano Berytus*-^Triens, Calamus, Tri{iolil^ 
quae Tyrii et Sidonii et Aradii obtinent. Orthosia, £leuthero$ 
flumen. Oppida Sittiyra, Marathos, contraque Aradum Antara- 
&m, — Regio, in qua supra dicti desinunt montes (Libahus sc«) et 
inteijacentibus campis, Bargylus mons incipit. Hinc rursus Syr^a, 
desitlente Phoenice, oppida Came, Balanea, Paltos, Gabale ^ pro- 
montorium, in quo Laodicea libera^ Plin. 1. 1. c. ZO, 

No place qertajbjjr g^ be bettcir sapfrfied'^ with 
w£»ter ^p4 h^rbiag^ ;, wi|i ooasaqwudy more pro-, 
p^r^ either fw a. ^M of bftt^tlq, w where ao. army 
GQu^d morQ cpuveijiiputly be encaflfiped. 
. The n).oa| coni^iden^ble riyer of the JeuiO^j is 
^h« Akker, ^ caiUed! ffpm xunntng by a city of 
th^ name, situated upon Mawttt; Baigylu*^ about 
nine leagues to the S.E. of Tortosa. This must 
hftve been, f^rfipef-fy ?^% D^tod for it^. sitrength, ex- 
temii and b^*uty, ajs it is« at pi^esent foe the good- 
ness aacj p^rffiptioax of the apricotis, peaches^ nec- 
taFiaes^ apd otli^r fri^it which it pirodiices« May 
aofe AKker be the Kef, W e. the c%, which i8» 
ip^rat^ioaed, Aipos \^7>'^ Um)£ mt I hrought up 
Jifraol: out ^' tM,lmd qf Mg^t, and the Philk-. 
timscjrcm Qapht^r^ and Amm from K^r ? where 
the si^pl^ re;9dHig <^ Araoi^ withoutrthe distinct 
tiofi of ^d?i% Qr Nahamim, may induce us. to> 
l)Qliev£|^ that Kw wa& of Syria or Aram^ properly 
2^ oaUed, and not of Media or IVIesopotamia, the 
P^d«da Aram aod thp Aram Naharaim of the, 

About five miles from the river Akkcr, and 
tvv»nty-fo«r to the S. S. E, of Tortosa, there are 
Qtber couftideraWe ruiw> known hy the name of 
$iimrah, with several riob plantations of mulberry 
aad other fruit trees growing within, and round 
about them. These, from the very name and si- 
tuation, can be no other than the remains of the 
ancient Simyra or Taximyra, as Strabo* calls it, 


* A corruption from the joining of'T« Sv^^^or Xi^t/^«, a9 
Casaubou has observed upon the place. 

24 Of SurArah, and Arcdy 

the seat formerly of the Zemarites. Pliny* ihakeai 
Simyra a city of Coele-Syria, and acquaints usj 
that Mount Libanvls ended there to the north* 
ward; but as Sumrah lies in the Jeune, twor 
leagues distant from that mountain, this circum-% 
stance will better fall, in with Area, where Mount 
Libanus is remarkably broken off and disconti- 
nued» . .; - 

- Five miles from Sumrah to the E. are the ruins 
of Area, the city of. the Arkites^' the offspring' 
likewise of Canaan. It is built over against the 
northern extremity of MounPLibanus, in a most 
delightful, situation^ having a prospect to the 
northward of an extensive plain, diversified with 
an infinite variety of towers and villages, ponds 
and ' rivers ; to the westward, it sees the sun set 
in .the sea, and, to the eastward, sees the sun rise 
over a long and distant chain of mountains. Here 
likewise are not wanting Thebaic columns, and 
rich entablatures, to attest for the splendour and 
politeness that it was once possessed of. The ci- 
tadel was erected upon the summit of an adjacent 
mount; which, by the figure and situation of it, 
must have been impregnable in former times. 
For it is shaped like a cone or sugar loaf, in an 
ascent of fifty or sixty degrees, and appears to 
have been originally intended for a mom cxplora* 
tortus ; not being a work of nature, but of art 
and labour. In the deep valley below, we have 
r a 

* A tecgo ejus (Sidonis) Mons Libanus orsus, mille quingcn- 
tis stadiis Simyram usque porrigitur^ qua Coele-Syria cognoAi-* 
xlatur. Plin. 1. v. c. i2d. 

1 . ^ 

In Syria. 25 

k brisk stream, more than sufficient for the neces- 
sities of the place ; yet it has been judged more 
convenient to supply it with water from Mount 
Libanus. For which purpose, they have united 
the mountain to the city by an aqueduct, whose 
principal arch, though now broken down, could 
not have been less than a hundred feet in diame- 
ter. This city was not known to the learned 
editor of the Itinerarium Hierosolymitanum ; * qui 
* Areas explicet et illustret (says he, p. 582.) aliui 

Two leagues to the W. S. W. of Area, \(re pass 
over the Nahar el Berd, the cold rker^ or, accord- 
ing to Mr Maundrell's interpretation, the cold wa- 
ters. This stream arises from among the north- 
em eminences of Mount Libanus; and swelling, 
at certain times of the summer, by the extraordi- 
nary liquefaction of the snow, might from thence 
have received its name. Here, I presume, we 
may fix the river Eleutherus, so much wanted in 
the old geography, which Sandys (p. 166.) and 
others after him, have made to be the ^aihe with 
the Cassimaif, betwixt Sidon and Tyte. Where^ 
as Ptolemy^ places it, according to the present 
position of the Nahar el B6rd,'six miles to the 
northward of Tripoly, or in the latitude nearly 
VOL. II. El ^ whereiii 

V • 

TiKXtH • S« y A> xi T^nr^Xig* IC ^ ->(9 } ' 

^OliklKtit 0£SI2. Mt^c9 ^ y ''?Ji y 

£Afiidi(vir«r. Ptol. Geogr. 1. V. c. I5« 

e^ . Of the Sdver ^euthetus, 

wherjeiA I find it. In like manixer, 3tF^ pl^A 
OrtJbo^ia immje^i^ely after Eleutheru^, jMid tf} 
itjae northward of it; agreeable yrhereuatip w^ 
still ianyd> upon the N. banks of this river, the 
ruins of a considerable city, whose adjacent dis- 
trict pays yearly to the Bashaws of Tripoly a ta^c 
of fifty edollars, by the name of Or*to§a, In 
Peutix^er s t;able also, Grthosia is placed thirty 
iiiiles to the south of Antaradu^ ai^d twelve 
jnilgs to the north .of Tripoly. The situatign of 
it likewise is further illustrated, by a medal of 
AntopApus Piu8^ struck at Orthosia; upon the 
rey^rse of which, we have the goddess Astarte 
treadini^ upon a river. For this city was bailt 
upon A ri^g ground, on the northern banks of 
the river* within half a fnrlong of the sea ; an4 
a9 the rugged eminences of Mount Libanus lie at 
jx small distance, in a parallel with the sliore, Or*- 
thos^a must h^ve been a place of the greatest im- 
portance, as it would have hereby the entire com- 
xpand of the road (the only one there is) betwixt 
Phqpnice ^nd the maritime parts of Syri?. 

IThe^e is a remarkable circumstance in th^ na*' 
tural history of the river Eleutherus, which may 
he a further proof of what I am contending for, 
mz. that the Nahar el Berd and the Eleutherua 
.are the same river, for Pliny tells usf, that at 
a certain season of the year, the Ekutherus is so 
fail if tortpiseSj that they zf^ere easily taken. It is 
tbeig^fore. probabjii^, that, at the season hew point- 
ed ^t, there must be some particitlar quality in 


* Strab. GI«ogr, L xvi. p..l093w f c. 10. 

In Phcenice. ^7 

die water of the Eleutherus, which engages them 
to frequent it more than ^ny other of thfe h6igh- 
bouring rivers. If the spring then ^houtd h6 the 
season here recorded, (and in th© middle of April 
I found these animals had left tlie sea, and were 
retired within the banks of the Kishoti), it is at 
this time that the snow begins to melt upon 
Mbutrt Libanus. And as both the sources, and 
the whole course of the cold stream ^i*e from 
that mountain, the water of it must be ntuch 
colder, and more impregnated with nitrous salts 
at this season than at another. If theSe (Qualities 
then should be agreeable to the tortoise, (fof whe- 
ther it ^ere to c<»p\ilate, or otherwise to refresh 
theriisijlves, any other of the adjacent rJve*s tv^oiild 
have equally served the purpose), the cold river 
would certainly have the preference ; in as itiucb 
ai^ none of the others have the same relation to 
Mount Libatiiis ; from whence alone these qualir 
ties could be derived. 

The mountains of Libanus, which, froiA Area 
to the mouth of this riVer, He iti a W, S. W. di- 
rection, begin now to run parallel with the sea 
coast, at about a mile's distance ; 6r else they 
stretch themselves out, in, small promontories, 
into the sea. As there is herebv made a^remark- 
able alteration in th^ face aftd disposition of the 
whole country, we have great reason to imagine,^ 
especially if proper regard is paid to the ibregio- 
ing geographical circumstances, that the bound- 
ary was here fixed' betwixt Syria and Phoeiiice. 
Mela (I i. c. 4.) indeed places Simyra and Mate*^ 


S9 Of Tri^ljt, 

thus among tlic cities of Phoenicc ; whilst Stf ^ 
phanus by making Balai^ea^ now Bannias, to be 
likewise a city of the same, extends this proyince 
into the very neighbourhood of Jebilee, which is 
contradictory to all geography. Even Pliny, 
notwithstanding he calls Simyra a city of Coele- 
Syria; yet, by placing Marathus and Aradus, 
which are situated several leagues beyond it^ to 
the N. in Phoenice, he Js by no means consistent 
with himself. However, Ptolemy's authority is 
entirely in our favour ; which is the more to be 
credited, as an old extract from Strabo*, and even 
Strabo himself seems to confirm it* For when 
the latter calls Marathus, ^i^f »w^ o«w«#», an an- 
cient city of the PhmnicianSy nothing more per- 
haps is meant, than that it originally h^lopge^ to 
the Phoenicians, before they were excluded by 
^he Seieucidse, and so became a part pf Syria. 
And if tHis interpretation is admitted, then we 
may likewise account for the difficulties just now 
rplatcd, fron? Mela, Stephanus and Pliqy; viz. 
that i^hoe;iice might originally reach . to the 
northward of the river Elqutherus : which was 
afterwards the fixed boundary betwixt it and 

About two leagues from the Nahar el Berd, 
are the ruins of Tripolis ; which, being founded 
by the united interest of Aradus, Sidon and 
Tyre f , might have been intend€;4 for a common 


* Chm. ex Strab. Gecgr. 1. xyi. p. 208. 
f Diod. Sc. 1. xvL cap. 41. • Scyl. Perip. edit. Huds. j^. 41. 
Strab. 1. xVi. p. 519. Plin. 1. v. c. 2a . . .. 

In Phcdfiice. S9 

njart tx) those three maritime powers. It \% situ- 
ated upon a low cape, called a peninsula by Scy« 
lax"*, and has formerly enjoyed a large and ss^e 
harbour, though at present a few islands lying to 
the N. W. are the only shelter for vessels. There 
are no traces here, as far as I could observe, of 
any other walls than such as may be supposed to 
belong to one and the same city ; which I take 
notice of, because some ancient geographers f 
have observed, that Tripoly was not one, but 
three cities, built at a furlong's distance from 
each other. 

That which is now known by the name of 
Tripoly, is at half a league's distance from the 
old, upon the declivity of a hill, that faces the 
sea. It enjoys a considerable trade, arising as 
well from its own manufactories in silk and cot-, 
ton, as from those that are brought from Aleppo 
apd Damascus. I could observe nothing in the 
city walls or castle, that could give either of them 
a title to a Greek or Roman foundation ; the ap- 
pearance of both being altogether modem and 
Gothic, not much earlier perhaps than the times 
qf the Croisades. The greatest curiosity'' is an 
aqueduct, with its reservojrs, some of which are 
twenty or thirty feet high ; and, by being placed 
^t proper distances in the town, very convenient- 
ly supply the houses, to their second and third 
stories, with water. Over the Prince's Bridge, 
\^hich is the chief arch of the aqueduct, there is 


* Scyl. Pcrip. ut supra. 

\ Vid. Diod. ut supra. Pomp. Mela, 1. x. c. 12.. 

^0 Of the Port of Tyre, 

zii ^Sctitctieoii charged with what appears to be a 
cross-crosslet ; which, being the bearing of the 
fartiily of Lofi^airt, ttiay vouch for the tradition 
that it was butlt by Godfrey (jf Bulteigti. At 
Bellmont, upon an eminence two leagtles S. from 
Tripoly, there is at famous convent of Greek ka- 
Ibrifes founded by the Croisade^. We see, upon 
tlie southermost declivity of it, k lai'g^ hrap of 
ruins, which might belong to the ancient Tri6ris; 
arid betwixt these and Tripoly, is the small vil- 
l6ge Kaleiiiony, the Calamos of Pliny. 

I am not acquainted with that part of l^hoenice, 
\frhifeh lies between Cape Greego (the ^« *e*^«w*' 
of Ptokmy) and Tyre. At Tyre, I visited seve- 
ral of its creeks^ in order to discover what conve- 
riiences there might have been formerly for the 
security of their navy. Yet, notwithstanding it 
Was the (yhief maritime power of this country, I 
did riot observe here the least token, either of a 
(?othon, or of a harbour, of any extraordinary ca- 
pacity. The coasting ships indeed still find to- 
lerable good shelter from the northern winds un- 
der the- southern shore; but are obliged imme- 
diately to retire, when the wind changes to the 
W. or S. so that there must have been some' 
better station than this for their security and re- 
ception. In the N. N. E. portion indeed of the 
city, we see the traces of a safe and commodi- 
ous bason, that lies within the veiy walls ; but 
this is scarce forty yards in diameter; neither 
dould it ever have enjoyed a larger area, unless 
the buildings which -now circumscribe it, were 


In Ph(mce. 3 1 

?acroaclune»t3 upon its pi%inal dimensions. Yet 
evGj). this port, small as it is at present, i^ chock- 
ed up to that degree with sand and rubbish, that^ 
the boats of those poor iSshemien who now and 
then visit this once renowned emporiuni, and drif 
tlieir nets upon its rocks and rmns^ (Ezpk. xycvi. 
.4,5.) can, with great difficulty, onjy ]?ie • ^dipitr 

AH the nations of the ^Levant call Tyrp by it^ 
ancient najne '^IS, ov Sur^ from wbe#cp p^Q ^ 
tins borrowed their Sarra *. Sur lavs claim to a 
double etymplogy, eac^ of thegi very natural ; 
though the rocky situation, the Tllf of the Phoe- 
nicians, will prevail, I am persuaded, with every 
person who sees this peninsula beyond the Sarf, 
QY purple ^shy for. which it might have been after- 
wards in so much esteem. The purple fish, (the 
jnethod at least of extracting jthe tincture J), has 
been wanting for many ag^ Ifowever, amongs^ 
a variety pf otlier shells, thp purpura of fionde- 
Jetiu^ is very common upon the sea-fhore. Se- 
veral of the exuvuK which I saw, bad their inside^ 


^ Sarra nmnta dedad notam est ex Hebraso Tyji tioroine 

^yii Tsor ; in quo. literam Tsadfy ^use medii est ^ni inter T et 
S Grseci, in T mutarunt : et Rpmani in S. Ita factum ut ex 
codem ^ly 2>oret Tv^ nasceretor et Sarra. ^och, 1. ii. Chan. 

f Qu« mu)c fi/n^s didu^r, olim Sarra vpcf batifr, a piscc f up- 
dam qui rllic abundat, quem lingua sua Sflr appellant. Vet. 
Scholiast, in ijr. Geoifg. ^^irg. 


X Vitruviu^, dt Architect A. vii. -c. 13. giTCs us l^c method of 
e](trfu:^fig the purple. Vid. Libav. vol. ii. Alchcm. par. u 
p. 160. Witsonii Theatr. variarum Rcrum. p. 1. lib. 1. Card. 

32 Of the Sources of the Kishon. 

beautified with purplisih streaks ; a circumstance 
which may instruct us, that the inhabitants were 
J)regnant with juices productive of such tinc- 

There is nothing remarkable betwixt this place 
and Mount Carmel, but what has been taken no- 
tice of by Mr Maundrell. In travelling under 
the S. E. brow of that mountain, I had an oppor- 
tunity of seeing the sources of the river Kishon ; 
three or four of which lie within less than a fur- 
long of each other, and are called lias el Kishon, 
or the head of Kishon. These alone, without the 
lesser contributions nearer the sea, discharge wa- 
ter enough to form a river half as big as the Isis. 
During likewise the rainy season, all the water 
which falls on the eastern side of the mountain, 
or upon the rising ground to the southward, emp- 
ties itself into it in a number of torrents, at which 
conjunctures it overflows its banks, acquires a 
wonderful rapidity, and carries all before it. And 
it might be at such a conjuncture as this, when 
the stars (Judg. v. 2 1 .) are said to fight against 
Siseray viz. by bringing an abundance of rain, 
whereby the Kishon was so unusually high atnd 
rapid, as to sweep away the host of Sisera, in at- 
tempting to ford it. But these ilxundatipns are 
extemporaneous only, without any duration ; for 
the course of the Kishon, which is only about 
seven miles in length, runs very briskly till withr 
in half a league of the sea. When the Kishon 


* Nunc oninis ejus iiobilitas conchyliof adque purpural constal.. 
K V. c« 19* 

Of the River Kardanah. 33 

therefore is not augmented by these accidental 
torrents^ it never falls into the sea in a full stream, 
but insensibly percolates through a bank of sand, 
which the north winds throw up against the. 
mouth of it In this manner I fpund it, in the. 
middle of April 1722, when I passed it. Mr 
Sandys and others have beeo mistaken, in ma- 
king the Kishon flow from the. mpuntains of Ta- 
bor and Harmon, with which it has no commu- 
nication. . . 

Beyond the sources of the Kishon to the S. E. 
and along the banks of it to the N. E. there are. 
several hillocs, which separate the valley through 
which it runs, from the plains pf Acre and Esdra- 
elon. The river Belus, npw called the Kar-danah, 
has its sources about iv M: to the eastward of 
the Ras el Kishon, on the other side of these 
hillocs, where there are» several ponds; the largest 
whereof may be the Cendevia* of Pliny, who 
derives the river Belus froqi it. And as this river 
waters the plains of Acre and Esdraelon, such 
brook^ as arise from Mount Tabor, as t^ell > as 
others (if there be any in this neighbourhood) 
may possibly communicate with it ; whereas the 
Kishon cannot, for the reasons already given. 
Neither indeed does the Kishon run in the direc- 
tion tha$ has been hitherto assigned to it by geo- 
graphers ; its true course lying from S. to N. af- 
ter v^hich it fulls into the gulf of Kaifah. 

VOL. II. £ The 

* Rivus Pagida slve Belus, vitri ferliles arenas paxvo litori 
mitcens. Ipse e palude Cendevia a radicibus Carmeli profluit. 
Plin. Lv. c. 19. 

S4 The Pkim of Esdraelm. 

The remarkable ponds above mention^, from 
their near situation to the Kishon and Jezrcel, 
may be well taken for the waters of Megiddo ; as 
Megiddo itself, together with Taanaeh, in the 
iieighbQiirho<^ of it, might have been built near, 
or upon their bankg». And in this situation was 
SiserA discomfited by t)eborah and Barak, Judg. 
r. 19. J<!)9h. xviL 11. I Kings iv. 12. 

Leaving Mount Carmel to the N. W. we pass 
over the S. W. corner of the plain of Esdraelon, 
the lot formerly of the tribe of Issachar. This 
is the most fertile portion of the land of Canaan, 
where that tribe might well be supposed to have 
rejoiced in their tents, Dcut. xxxiii. I&. To the 
eastward, our prospect i§ bounded at about fifteen 
miles distance, by the mountains of Nazareth, 
and Hermon ; with the pointed Mount Tabor, 
standing apart befo^re them. Advancing farther 
into the half tribe of Manasseh, we have still a 
fine arable country, though not so level as the 
former ; where the landscape is every hour chan- 
ged and diversified by groves of trees, or by the 
ruins (which are very numerous) of ancient vil-^ 
lages. In deviating here from the beaten path, 
(which we generally did to avoid tlie Arabs) we 
were sometimes obstructed, or at least had diflS- 
culty enough to force our way through this rich 
champairi ; which, through neglect and want of 
culture, was so thickly planted with the more 
luxuriantly growing plants, such as teasels, mul- 
lein, cfearlock, (Mark iv. 31.) thistles, and the 
like, that we had much ado to defend our faces 




TliA Trihts ufBei^armn, Judak^ S^c. $5 

(torn being every moment offended by them. The 
ccmntry begina to be rugged and uneven at Sa^ 
maria, the N. boundary of the tribe of Ephraim; 
from, whence, through Sichem, all the way to Je« 
rusatem, we have nothing else but mountains, 
narrow defiles, and. vallies of different extents. 
Of the mountains, those of Ephraim, the conti* 
nuation of Gerizim and Ebal, are the largest; the 
most of them being shaded with forrest trees^ 
whilst the vallies below, particularly tfte plains of 
Morch, Gen. xii. 6. Deut. xi. SO. where Gideon 
put to flight the princes of Midian, Judges vii. 1. 
are long and spacious, not inferior in fertility 
to the best part of the tribe of Issachar. The 
mountains of- the tribe of Benjamin, which lie 
still further to the southward, are generally moi^ 
naked than those of Ephraim, having their ranges 
much shorter, and consequently their vallies more 
frequent ; in one of which, vx. M. to the east- 
ward of Jerusalem, is the village Jerdmiah, foiv 
merly Anathoth, with the ruins of a convent and 
a small brook running by it The tribe of Judah 
wtre possessed of a country much like that of 
fienjamin or Ephraim ; though the mountain of 
Adummim* and Quarantania, those of Engaddi, 
and otiiers that border upon the plains pf Jericho 
«nd the Dead Sea, are as high, and pf a^ great ex- 


_ • ' • » 

* This joins to the moufitaiti of Quairantania i and through it 
the road is cut that leads from Jenxsalem to Jericho ; a dlmcult 
t^ass, i/ie mountam %f bhod^ or the blo9dy road^ as the obbm ms^ 
import \ where probably it was, from the very nature of the situ- 
aUoHy that the rttgn fill among tMewsi 8cc; Luke it. 30. 

36 : The Tribes of Dan and Reuben. '^ 

tenf, as those of the two other tribes^ though 
much more barren, and with fewer trees growing 
upon them. Some of the vallies likewise that 
belong to Judah, such as Rephaim, Eshcol, and 
others, merit an equal regard with the plains of 
Morch, or that parcel of ground widch Jacob gave 
to his son Jqseph, Gen. xlviii. 22, !&it the west- 
ern district of the tribe of Ephraim^ at Ramah 
and Lydda, is nearly of the same arable and fer* 
tile nature, with that of the half tribe of Ma- 
nasseh; as it is likewise equally. pkin and ieveU 
The latter of these circumstances ^rees also with 
the tribe of Dan, though their country is not so 
fruitful, having in most parts of it a less depth of 
soil, and borders upon the sea coast at Joppa, and 
a great way on. each side of it, in a range of 
mountains and precipices. And it is, for the 
most part, in these high situations that we n^et 
with the dens, the holes, or caves, so frequently 
mentioned in Scripture; formerly the lonesome 
retreats of the distressed Israelites, Judges vi. 2. 
1 Sam. xiii. 6. and persecuted propbetSi 1 Kings 
xviii. 4. • Heb. xi. 38. Strabo tells us, (lib; xvi. 
p. 760.) that the port of Joppa and Jerc^alem, 
wf w r^w, were in sight of one another ; but the 
many high intervening mountains will admit of 
no such prospect. From the mountain, of Qua» 
rantania, the very same perhaps where the two 
spies concealed themselves, (Josh. ii. 16.) we have 
a distinct view of the land of the Amorites, of 
Gileady and of Basan„ the inheritance (Deut. iii.) 
of the tribes of Reuben and Gad, and of the 


The Tribe of Reuben. 37 

half tribe of Manasseh. This tract, in the neigh- 
bourhood particularly of the xx^tv Jordan, is in 
many places low, and, for want of culture, shaded 
and overgrown with tamarisks and willows ; but 
at the distance of two or three leagues from the 
stream, it appears to be made up of a succession 
of hills and rallies, somewhat larger, and seem- 
ingly more fertile than those in the tribe of Ben- 
jamin. Beyond these plains, over against Jericho, 
where we are to look for the mountains of Aba- 
rim*, the northern boundary of the Land of 
Moab, our prospect is interrupted by an exceed- 
ing high ridge of desolate mountains, no other- 
wise diversified, than by a succession of naked 
rocks and precipices ; rendered in several places 
more frightful) by a multiplicity of torrents which 
fall on each side of them. This ridge is conti- 
nued all along the eastern-coast of the Dead Sea, 
as far as our eye can conduct us ; affording us all 
the way a most lonesome melancholy prospect, 
not a little assisted by the intermediate view of a 
large stagnating, inactive expanse of water, rare- 
fy if ever enlivened by any flocks of water fowl 
^hat settle upon it, or by so much as one vessel 
of passage or commerce that is known to fre- 
quent it. Such is the general plan of that part 
of the Holy Land, which fell under my observa*- 


* Nebo and Pisgah were some particular parts or sammits of 
this moutitaio, froni whence Moses beheld the land of Canaan^ he-* 
fore he was gathered to Ids people. Num. xxvii. IT, 13. and xxxiL 
4l. Deut. ill. 27. and xxxii. 49. and xxxiv. 1^ 


S8 The Situation of Jerusalem, 

The hills, which stand round about Jeru^aknh ^tu- 
ate it as it were in an amphitheatre, whose ar^eaA 
inclines to the eastward. We have no where any 
distant view of it. That from the Mount of 
Olives, the best and perhaps the farthest, is not* 
withstanding at so small a distance, that, when 
our Saviour was there, he might be said, almost 
in a literal sense, to have wept otoer it. There are 
very few remains of the city, either as it was in 
our Saviour's time, or as it was afterwards rebuilt 
by Hadrian, scarce one stone being left upon ano- 
ther y which hath not been thrown down. Even the 
very situation is altered. For Mount Sion, the 
most eminent part of the old Jerusalem is now 
excluded, and its ditches filled up ; whilst the 
places adjoining to Mount Calvary, where Christ 
is said to have suffered without the gate, are now 
ahnost in the centre of the city. 

Yet notwithstandmg these changes and revo- 
lutions, it is highly probable that a faithful tradi- 
tion has always been preserved of the several 
places that were consecrated, as we may say, by 
some remarkable transaction relating to our Savi- 
our, or to his apostles. For it cannot be doubt- 
ed but that, among others. Mount Calvary and 
the cave where our Saviour was buried, were well 
known to his disciples and followers; and not 
Only so, but that some marks likewise of reve- 
rence and devotion were always paid to them. 
These, no less than the grotto at Bethlehem, the 
supposed place of our Saviour's nativity, were so 





liii* FN 


R^nmkabk Places in Jerusalem. 39 

well known in the time of Hadrian *, that out of 
hatred and contempt to the Christian name, a 
statue was erected to Jupiter over the place of 
the holy sepulchre, another to Venus upon Mount 
Calvary, and a third to Adonis at Bethlehem. 
All these continued, till Constantine, and his mo- 
ther, St Helena^ out of their great esteem and 
veneration for places so irreligiously profaned^ 
erected over them those magnificent temples 
which subsist to this day. An uninterrupted 
succession, it may be presumed, of Christians, 
who constantly resided at Jerusalem, or who, as 
St Jerome informs us, occasionally resorted thi- 
ther f out of devotion, would preserve, not only 
the names of the particular places which I have 
mentioned, but of the pooU of fiethesda and Si- 
loam, of the garden of Gethsemane, of tlie field 
of blood, and of a great many others tiiat are 
taken notice of in the. history of our Saviour. 


* Ab Hadrian! teiiiporibus usque ad impenujn Constantini, 
per annos ctititer centum octoginta, in loco resunrectionts siisul- 
acmm Jovis, in ci:ucis> rape statua ex marmore Veneris •% gentibu$ 
posita colebatur, . existimantibus persecutionis auctoribus^ quod 
toUerent nobis (idem resurrectionis et crucis, si loca sancta per 
idola polluisisait. BetUebem nunc nosuum et augttstisfiimum 
orbis locum, de quo Psalmista cajiit, Veritas de. terra orta est^^ 
lucus inumbrabat Thamuz, i.e, Adonidls j et in specu, ubi quon- 
dam Chris6}s paivulus vagiit, ^Vdneris Amasiut pkingehatur. 
Hieron. £p. xiii, ad Paulin* !^useb. de Vita Constalvt. Ub. iii. 
cap. 25. 

f Lon^iim est nunc ab abscensii Domini usque ad praesentem 
(tiem pc;r: singula fetat^ currtre, qui Epiacoporum, qui Marty- 
rum, qui ejoquentium in doctnna Ecclesiastica virorum venerint 
Hlerosolymam, putantes se minus ireligionis, minus habere scien- 
ti«e« nifii in iUis Christum adorassent locis, de quibus primum Evan- 
gelium de patibulo .coruscaverat. Hieron. £p« xvil, ad Mar^elL 

4iO The extent of the Tribe of Judah. 

But as all these have been well described by San- 
dys and Maundrell, they need not be here re- 

. The many and so much celebrated pilgrimages 
to the Holy Land, or sancta terra^ from \yhencc 
perhaps ouir word santering^ or idling about, might 
proceed, seem to have commenced upon the 
building of the temples above mentioned ; espe- 
cially after the finding of the cross \ ah it was 
given out, and the many miracles consbquent 
thereupon. > . 

The lot of the tribe of Judah was nearly equal 
in extent to that of all the other tribes ; and, be- 
ing too Jimch for them, the tribe 6f Simeon liad 
their inheritance tajcen out of it, Josh. xix. 9. 
Its southern boundary, (Numb, xxxiv. 3, 4, 5. 
Josh. XV. 1, 2, 3, 4.) was to be from the bottom of 
the Salt Sea, southward all along by the border or 
coast of Edom, (Numb, xxxiv. 3. Josh. xv. 1.) to 
the river of Egypt, and from thence to the Me- 
diterranean Sea. 

Now, as it will appear, from the following dis- 
sertation, that the river of Egypt could be no 
othpr than the Nile, particularly that branch of 
it which lay contiguous with Arabia, as likewise 
the extent and situation of the Salt Sea, other- 
wise called the Lake of Sodom, the Asphaltic 
Lake, the Sea of the Plain, and the ' Dead Sea, 
may be proved from several geographical circum- 
stances, to run pkrallel with the Mediterranean 
Sea, and to stretch itself towards the Gulf of 


* Vide Wessclingn Dissert, de Peregr. HicrosoL 

•" «*•• "•a* •*"» •*<^l*''M»'*.i 

The extent of the Holy Land. 41 

Eloth, at about lxxv M. distance, and nearly in 
a S. S. \V. direction ; we have, so far, two consi- 
derable points given us towards the fixing of this 
border of Edom^ which was to be the boundary, 
of the Land of Promise, to the ^outh. It was 
first of all to be (or to commence)yr(w» the bay of 
the Salt Setty that looketh southward^ Josh. xv. 2. 
and it went out from thence to the south side of 
Maaleh Accrabbim ; i. c. as in the margin, to the 
ascent of Accrabbim ; which might be the very 
road where these mountains a,re usually passed 
over. Accrabbim then, may probably be the 
same with the mountains of Accaba, according, 
to the present name, which hang over Eloth;- 
where there iS a high steep road, well known to. 
the Mahometan pilgrims for its ruggcdness. And * 
that this part of the boundary might reach so far 
to the southward, may be inferred, not only from 
St Jerome, who, (in locis Hebr.) makes Eloth to 
be a part of the Holy Land, but from Exodus 
xxiii. 31. where the Red Sea, including, as we 
may suppose, both the Elanitic and Heroopolitic 
Gulfs of it, is said to be the southern bounds of 
it. This seems also to be further confirmed by . 
what follows in the context; wl;iere, from Maaley 
Accrabbim, this boundary xvas to pass along to 
Zin, or the desert of that name, which must 
therefore reach as far as Maaley Accrabbim and 
Eloth, From hence it was to ascend up^ on the 
south side, unto Kadesh Barnea ; which, from 
the circumstance of ascending up to it, nmst lie 
nearer the Land of Promise than Maaley Accrab- 
VOL. ir. F him, 

4^ Thd extent of the Holy Land. 

bini> Eteth, or the Red Sea ; as from the ascending 
up to it on the south side^ should imply, that it 
dven lay without, or on the north side of the 

From Kadesh Barnea, this boundary xoas to 
pass along to He.^r6n^ and to go up to AdaVy and 
fetch a ctimpasSj (the direct way perhaps along 
thist district being interrupted by mountains), to 
Karkaa; from thence, ver.4. it passed towards Azi- 
thon, and went out into the river of Egypt. But 
df these intermediate places, unless Azimon should 
be the sattie place that was afterwards called He- 
roopolis, we can give no account. However, it 
Ttiay be observed upon the whole, that as this 
bouiidary, in ita way to the river df Egypt, was 
tor touch at the Hcroopolitic Gulf of the Red 
3ea, (Mount Seir, Josh, xii. 7. being left all the 
vfay on the left hand), an iniaginary line, drawn 
from the northermost shore of the Red Sea to 
Eloth, and from thence to Kadesh Barnea, and so 
forward, in the sapie parallel, by Adjeroute or 
Heroopolis, to the river of Egypt, near Kairo, or 
the I^and of Goshen, will be the boundary re- 
quired. But further notice will be taken of this 
siibject, in the course of our geographical inqui- 

As their east border xcas to he the Salt Sea, Josh. 
XV. 5^ even unto the end of Jordan, or its influx 
into it, so the west border, ver. xii. was to be the 
Great Sea, of the Mediterranean, and the coasts 
thereof, from Ekron to the river of Egypt ; the 
inost part. of which is low, of a barren sandy 


The extent of the H^ i^md. AS 

quality ^ apd very dap^erpvs for v^^^l^ to ap*- 
proach. Several of the aiiciept cit^s, pariticulax- 
ly thosje of the Philistines, hav^ pr^eryed their 
old namqs ; fof Ekron is c^Ale^ Akroo^ Ascaloga is 
contracted ifito Scalon, Ga^h into Jet, wd Gaza, 
which lies about seven leagues to the S. W, of Ak- 
ron, an4 eleven in the same dir^ctipti frojn Jaffa, 
is pxonounc,?d Gazy. Rhinocprura \y^ situated 
near the bottpm of the gujf, sixteen kagu^p to 
the S. W. by W. of Gazy, *od eighteen tQ the 
eastward yf the Nile. Th^ I^ake .^irbpsiiS^ tilp 
boundary, as it is made by some of the old geo- 
graphers*, betwixt Egypt an/i Phgepici^, \%y tw- 
twixt Rhinocorura ai>d the Nile, ^t six le^gUj^s 
distance from the latter, y^hich was foriperjy ^f 
great extent, a^d h*d ^ comniunicatio^ with thiC 
;iea : thoyg^ indeed, what | )iave said pf |^^d^^ 
^arnea, Rjl^ocpruff,, ^d this lake, i.s bftr^lyjcp*- 
jectural, by comparing wh^t I my^eljF hftVfi seen 
of J^dea, the Nile, A^^^}!^ ?a4 }^^ WQ Rulf¥> 
with the ;i9couftts tha^ ^rp giveji v^ of ti)^m liy 
different a\itbpfs. 

If tlien yifc take in ^he whole ^?c.tent of the 
Land of Promise, from Hamath to the river of 
Egypt, and from the coast of the Great or Medi- 
terranean Sea, to the eastermost possessions of 
the Reubenites, which reached to the deserts of 
Arabia^ or, as it is recorded, 1 Chron. v. 9- to the 
very' entrance into the wilderness from (i. e. on this 


* Ab urbe Orthosia Pelusium usque regio xnaritima Phoenicul 
dicitur, angudta existens. Chrys. ex Strab. Geogn lib* xvi; 
pi 208. 

44 The ex'tent of the Holy Land, 

•side) the rvoer Euphrates^ which countries," at on* 
time or another, were in the possession of the Is- 
raelites, it will contain cccclx M, in length; 
and by bounding it no further to the eastward, 
• as we will . suppose, than with the meridians of 
-Hamath arid Damascus, it will contain near one 
hundred miles in breadth. The extent of it in- 
deed, yr(>/w Dan to Beershebay Which is often men- 
tioned in Scripture, as the more settled and per- 
'manent possession of the Israelites, does not ex- 
ceed cxx M. ; yet, even reduced to this length 
only, considering the great fruitfulness of the 
whole, the number of its inhabitants, together 
with the many cities and villages that belonged 
to it, the Holy Land was so far from being an 
inconsiderable spot of ground, as some authors 
have misrepresented it, that, exclusive of what it 
was in the reigns of David and Solomon, Ezra iv. 
20. and many ages after, it must have been always 
regarded as one of the most opulent and consi- 
derable kingdoms of the east ; and that the Is- 
raelites, according to the acknowledgment of the 
king of Tyre, 1 Kings v. 7. were a gixat people. 




An Inquiry whether the Nile, or a supposed torrent 
at Rhinocoruray was the Nahal Mitzraim, or 
River of Egypt. 

It has been a point long controverted among the 
learned, whether the Nile, or a supposed rivulet 
at Rhinocorura, was the western boundary of the 
Holy Land. In order therefore to settle this 
dispute, which is of no small consequence in the 
•sacred geography, it may be observed in the first 
place *, that it does not appear, from the ancient 
geography, either sacred or profane, that Rhino- 
-colura, or any city of note in that situation, was 
-known, till many ages after the time of Joshua. 
Neither do we learn from Strabo, Mela, Ptolemy, 
Pliny, or any of the other old geographers or hi- 
storians, who have described these parts, that any 
river or torrent, even after Rhinocorura was built, 
did there empty itself into the sea. Eratosthenes 
indeed, as he is quoted by Strabo, supposes the 
lakes of Arabia, made by the overflowing of the 


* Rkinocofura or Rhmocolura^ as it is differently written, was 
so called from (p<y or p<M$ and x«Aviiv or xHMtf) the inhabitants 
having had their noses cut off ) as the story ts told by Diodorus 
SiculuSy BibL Li. 


46 The H^ile is the I^ahal Mitzraim. 

Euphrates, to empty themselves by some subter- 
raneous passages into the rivers of Rhinocorura 
and Mount Cassius. 8ut Strabo* himself calls 
in question the probability of this whole account. 
For when he comes to speak expressly of these 
parts f , by ejiumj^raiing the several remarkable 
places, both upon the Egyptian and the Syrian 
1^x4^ of fihinocoxura, he does not take the ' least 
uotice of ;a river ; 4 circumstai^ce too material to 
have been omitted by so accurate a geographer as 

SeVjCji'^ fttlgrin?? likewise, and traveiJcr^, in their 
way ffony Egypt to J^ie Holy Lapd, h^ye travel- 
lei4 ?Jlopg this co^st ; 59016 of whps^ jpucrn^ls anjd 
pieinoirs hj^y;e l^een r^a^e pu^jc, parjicularly 
those of ]Vj[r San4ys- Yjct botji these ^^d others, 
as far c^s I can inform myself, are all silent in this 
^rticular j .^hich is so far to be regarded m our 
farVPwr, that, providied there had been a riyer in 
thijs dry and barren situat^op, it npay "^tXl be jw'e- 
supped th^t th^e thirsty travellef would have re- 
corded it with as much exactp^ess as jbe had tiisted 
jof it with pleasure. 

Nay^ ao far was the whole neigbbQUrhood of 
RhinQcpjrura, at the ti^\e of its f<?jLiijdatipp (a^d 
we c^n scarce admit .of any alteration since) from 
j^prding the leajst appearaijice of a running stream^ 
or even of axi occasional torrent, tjiat Diodorus 
Sicuju^^ who has left us the best and most cir- 
cumstantial account of it, tells us, that * it ^as 

* situated 

% OviP btitt y m vAdMf «^xsf* lib. xvL p. 5lOt edit* Casaub^ 
f Lfemf p. 522. 


The Nik is the Ndhql Mitzrdim. 47 

' situated in a barren country, deprived of all the 

* necessaries of life ; that, without the walls, 

* there were several salt-pits; and that within, 

* the wells yielded only a bitter corrupted water*/ 
Herodotus f confirms this account, by telling us, 
that ' in those deserts there was a dreadful want 

* of water, {xi^iw «fv^y w-i J«M»f), to the distance of 

* three days journey from Mount Cassius or the 

* Sirbonic Lake.' Strabo;}; likewise acquaints us, 
that * the whole country betwixt Gaza and iht 

* Sirbonic Lake, was (A»ir^« Km mfuf^thi) barren and' 

* sandy.' It is likewise very probable, in so great 
a distress as this for water, that had there been, 
during the rainy season, any torrent or occasional 
stream running by it, the inhabitants would ra- 
ther have imitated their neighbours the Egyp- 
tians, in building themselves cisterns for the re- 
ception of this annual supply of gddd water, 
than have beseh reduced to the necessity of dig- 
ging themselves wells for the obtaining of bad 
There appears then to be little reason fo!' fixing 
so remarkable a boundary as that of the Holy 
Land, in a wild open desert, which had nei- 
ther city, river, torrent, or, as far as we know, 
any remarkable land-mark to distinguish it. 

But it may be urged, perhaps, that the Septua^ 
gint version is contradictory to this account, 
which, instead of DHXD Sni, Nahal Mitzraim, 
the river of Egypt , Isa. xxvii. 12. (as it is in, and 
as we render it verbatim from, the Hebrew text), 


.  Diod. Bibl. p. 55. f Herod. Thtlia, p. 184. cd. Stcph; 
I Strab, p. 522. * 

48 The Nile is the Nahal Mitzraimy 

has vnw^^ii^Hy or Rhinocorura. Now, as Rbinoco- 
rura at the time of this version, was a place of 
great note and traffic, under the jurisdiction of 
the Egyptian kings, the translators perhaps might 
fancy it to have been always ^nder the like flou- 
rishing condition and dependence ; and, as it was 
then, so they might conclude it to have been, in 
the time of Joshua, a frontier city of Egypt, and 
as such, to have constituted the boundary we are 
disputing. Yet whether this, or some intended 
compliment to the Ptolemies, or what reason so- 
ever might induce the lxx to translate Nahal 
Mitzraim by Rhinocorura in this text, the same, 
surely, had it been just and well grounded, should . 
have engaged them to have preserved the like 
appellation ih others. Whereas, instead of keep- 
ing up to one uniform translation of Nah^l Mitz- 
raim, (one strong argument why this version 
might have been made by different persons, and; 
at different times), they sometimes render it, 

(pa^myi AtyyTcrHy the gulf of Egypt^ Josh. XV. 4. 

sometimes n^r^^Bt^ A/yvTw, the river of Egypt^ 

1 Kjngs viii. 65. Gen. xv. 18. sometimes x«»»«^^ 
Aiypjrnr, the torrent of Egypt^ 2 Chron. vii. 8. 

2 lyings xxiv. 7. Numb, xxxiv, 5. Josh. xv. 47. . 
and in the text before us, Vi^mt^^H ; hereby per- 
plexing the very nature and quality, as well as 
the topography of this river, by attributing to it 
four different appellations. 

The like disagreement we may also observe in 
their translation of nntt^, l^ntt^ or Tin^B^, Sihor 
or Shihor, another name, as it will appear to Itc, 


Or River of Egypt. ' 45 

of the river of Egypt. For, 1 Chron. xiii. 5. 
where the original has it, from Shihor of Egypt, 
the Lxx render it, ««•• ^^^9 Aiyvsmr, from tlie bor- 
ders of Egypt. In Jer. ii. 1 8. for the waters of 
Sihor, they have the water of Vnm ; a river which 
encompassed the whole land of ChuSy a province of 
Arabia, Gen. ii. 13, In Josh. xiii. 3. instead of 
Sihory which is before Egypt, they have, ««'4 rm ««- 
xtnu ms tuiT«c x^»rtMr»9 Atyvvruy from the uninhabited land 
that lies before Egypt, And in Isa. xxiii. 3. for 
the seed of Sihor^ they have, ^n^fM^ ftwi&o<mfy the 
seed of the merchants ; mistaking a jj Samech 
for a tff Shin, or nnD for inc^. In geographical 
criticism, therefore, little stress can be laid upon 
the authority of the lxx version, where the 
phrase so frequently varies from the original, and 
where so many different interpretations are put 
upon one and the same word. 

Neither will this opinion be much better sup- 
ported by any authorities drawn from the writings 
of St Jerome ; because what is there laid down, 
in favour of the lxx version in one place, is de- 
stroyed, or invalidated at least, in another. * Pro 

* torrente- itgypti,' as it is observed in his com- 
ment upon Isa. xxvii. 13. * lxx Rhinocoruram 

* transtulerunt, quod est oppidum in iEgypti Pa- 

* laestinseque confinio : non tam verba S. Scrip- 
' turas, quam sensum verborum exprimentes. 
And again, Tom. iii, ep. 129- ' Torrens jEgypti, 
' qui juxta Rhinocoruram mari magno influit.' 
And again, in his comment upon Amos vi. 14; 

* Ab Hamath usque ad torrentem deserti sive oc- 

VOL. II. G * cidentis, 

56 The Nile is the Nahal Mitzraim, 

' cidentis, (rm iwfufi) ut LLx transtulerunt, i. e. al| 
' Hamath ad Rhinocoruram, inter quam et Pela- 
' sium rivus Nili, sive torrens, de eremo veniens 
*^ mare ingreditur/ But here Cellarius (Geogr. 
Antiq. 1. iii. c. 1 3.) rightly observes, that * rivus 
' Nili, sive torrens de eremo, Epanorthosis est, et 

* posteriore adserto, rejicitur prius/ For, if this 
torrent be a branch of the Nile, then it is the 
very thing that we are disputing ; but if it be a 
different river, yet still, if it falls not in exactly 
at Rhiiiocorura, but somewhere or otheF only 
(and there are fifty or sixty miles) betwixt that 
city and Pelusium, nothing certain and determi- 
nate can be gathered from this quotation. 

And indeed, how indefinite soever St Jerome's 
meaning may be in this place, yet, in others, by 
taking Sihor and the Nile for synonymous terms, 
he (entirely invalidates the authority of all that 
he had said before, in support of the river at Rhi- 
nocorura being the river of Egypt. ' Per Si- 
' hor,* says he, in' his comment upon Jere- 
miah, ii. 18. ' nos aquam turbidam interpretati 

* sumus, quod verbum Hebraicum significat, 
^ nullique dubium quin Nilus aquas turbidas 
^ habeat; et quod fluvius Assyriorum Euphra- 
^ tem significet ; dicente Scriptura (Gen. xv. 
' 18.) quod repromissionis terra sit a torrente 
f JEgy^ti (i. e. Nilo*) usque ad fluvium magnum 

' Euphratem.' 

* Percussit adversarios vestros ab alveo fliuninis usque aid tor- 
rcntcm JE^ptij id est, ab Euphratc usque ad Nilum. D.Hicron. 
Comment, in Is. c. xxvii. lib. 7, < i 

Or River of Egypt. 5 1 

^ Euphtatetn/ And again, upon Isa. xxiii. S. 

* Ubi nos legimus Semen negotiatorum, in He- 
' braeo scriptum est Semen Sihor, quocl subaudi'* 
' tur Nili, eo quod aquas turbidas habeat, quibus 

* iEgypti segetes irrigantur/ Where we may ob- 
serve, that besides the proofs he has here given 
us that Sihor and the Nile are the same, he con- 
tradicts the distinction that is m^de by him after-- 
wards, betwixt the torrent of Egypt and the ri- 
ver Euphrates ; an observaticni that should by no 
means be disregarded. ^ £t hoc notandum/ says 
he, ' quod in Judass terminis (ad orientem sc.) 

* fluvius appellatur ; iEgypti finibus, ad occiden- 
^ tern, torrens ; qui turbidas aquas habet, at non 

* perpetuas/ For this definition of a torrent will 
by no meant agree with the Nile, whikh hath its 
water turbid indeed, yet perpetually running. 
And basides, how different soever xettmfft and ir*- 
TMftH may be in their proper meanings and signifi- 
cations, yet they both of them herjB denote the 
same thing ; beings as has been alreiady observed, 
indiscriminately, though improperly used by the 
Lxx^ instead jof Nahal. Whereas Nahal should 
always be interpretdd- f A^ rmer; and when it is 
joined with Mitzraim, it should be rendered the 
river ^ Mgypty aid not the t^jfrent of Egypt ; 
which carries along with it a low and dilftiinutiv^ 
signification, highly dferogatory to the dignity of 
the Nile, how exp^r^ssive soever it may be, of tht 
imaginary rivulet at Rhinocorura. 

But upon the very supposition that there was 
actually a torrent or rivulet at Rhinocorura, yet 


52 The Nile is the Nahal Mitzraim, 

.with what propriety. could this be called the rrver 
of Egypt? a country with which it has no com- 
munication, no part of which it waters ; and this 
in direct opposition to, or exclusive rather of the 
Nile, the proper and the only river of Egypt. For 
Nahal Mitzraim, i. e, the river of Egypt, is as 
local and determinate an expression as DH VD ^^K, 
.Aretz Mitzraim, i. e. the land of Egypt, the one 
as well as the other having the sanie relation to 
Mitzraiin ; whether Mitzraim be rendered Egypt 
x)r the Egyptians, There would therefore be the 
same reason and propriety (as certainly there can 
be none) to look for the tand, as for the river of 
Egypt, at Rhinocorura. JVIoreovcr, when a river 
takes its name from a country, it surely must be 
^supposed to, and to make a part of that 
country. When Abana and Pharfar arc said to 
be rivers of Damascus, we immediately conclude 
that Damascus must be watered by the Abana 
an4 the Pharfar. To conclude otherwise, would 
be to confound the ideas and properties of names, 
as well as things; It would be the same in the 
prescint case, as if. we Were to ihake ' the land of 
the Philistines, of which Rhinoqorura was origi- 
nally a portion, a part of the land of Egypt, and 
the land of Egypt to be a part of the land of the 


For we do not find^ that the settled boundaries 
of Egypt, either before, or at the time of Joshua, 
reached beyond the Nile, Agreeable to which, is 
the description that is given us of it by Herodo- 

Or River of Egypt. 55 

tus : * That is Egypt,' says he *, * which is inha- 

* bited by the Egyptians ;' and again, * Those 

* are Egyptians who drink of the Nile.' ^ And as 
the Egyptians lived then, as they may be suppo- 
sed always to have done, within the reach and 
influence of that river^ in as much as what lay 
beyond it on each side belonged either to Libya 
or Arabia f, the borders of Egypt, i. e. the land 
of Zoan, or the Delta in particular, 1 Kings iv. 
'21. 3 Chroji. ix. 26. and the banks of the Nile, 
will be one and the same thing. Sihor conse- 
•quently, which is the same with the Nile, may 
be said,, with propriety enough. Josh. xiii. 3. to 
be [UOSy, alpeni\ before Egypt, to lie upon the face 
of ity or before thou enterest into it, as »JSSy may 
be differently understood and rendered. 

, That Egypt, properly so called, was thus con- 
fined within the reach and influence of the Nile, 
will further appear from the natur)^ and quality of 
.those districts, which bordered upon it on each 
side. For, to omit the Libyan, and to speak only 
of the Asiatic territories, these were, for the most 
part, wild and uncultivated, fit only for such peo- 
ple to inhabit, who were hardy and laborious, and 
.whose occupation lay chiefly in cattle ; and, as 
such, they would have been an improper posses- 


* 0US ^Mi Afyu9T«y ufttt ruvrv mi • NuXf tTW9 d^iu, Herod, 
p. 108. Km Aiyvfrrtfti wm fvf^di £As^«yrini; 7«Ai0$ MxMrrif, 
. «c^« TV ir«T«^ TtfTV ^tnttri. p. id, 

f Atabiae conterminum claritatis magnae, soils oppidum. Plin. 
1. V. c. 9. . Ultra Pelusiacum ostium Arabia est. IJ, Ibut. c. v. 
Alexandria, a magno Alexandro condita, in Africts parte, ab os- 
tio Canopico xil. M. P. Ibid, c. x. 

54 The Nik is the Nahal Mitzraim^ 

saon for the tozy and luxurious £gyptisli>s. Where- 
as the Philistines, their neighbour^, throve and 
grew numerous in this country ; for besides thfc 
several kings upon the sea coast^ we learn, Gen, 
xxvi. 26. and xxi. 22* that Abimelech had a set- 
tled polity and government in the inland coun-^ 
try, with Phicol captain of his host^ and Ahuzzah 
one of his friends ; or, as he would be called ac- 
cording to the fashion of these timeS) one of his 
privy counsellors or favourites. The flourishing 
and populous condition of this country, during 
the time of the patriarchs, was likewise the same 
when the Israelites went out of Egypt. For it 
is said, Expd. xiii. I7. that Ood did not lead them 
by the way of the land of the Philistines^ although 
that was near, lest they should see war in the way : 
from the number^ no doubt, of its warlike tribes 
and comniunitiesi who would be ready to dispute 
their passage with the sword. 

Yet even all this land, the land of the Philis- 
tines, to the very banks of the Nile^ was inclu- 
ded in the land of Canaan, and given- hj promise 
to the children of Israel. For the Philistines 
themselves were strangers in this land, and ariei 
therefore called by the Lxxi (Judges iii. 31. and 
xiv, L fcci.) -exxof a« ; as being originally of and- 
ther ?vA«, race or country. It appears froiti Gen. 
X. 13, 14. that they were Egyptians) and, being 
driven out of their dwn country, they Seized upo^n 
that which lay the nearest to them ; even that of 
the Avims, (Deut. ii, 23.) or HiviteS, (Josh. xiii. 2.) 
of the sons of Canaan. 


Or River of Egypt. 55 

Moreover, that the land of the Philistines was 
to be a portion of the land of promise, will ap- 
pear froni several texts of Scripture. Thus we 
learn from Gen. xxvi. 1. that when Isaac went 
unto Abimelech, the king of the Philistines, at 
Gerar, God told him to sojourn in that land; for 
^nto kinij and to his seed, he would give all those 
countries. Which is further specified, Josh. xiii. 
2, 3. &c. there remaineth yet, says the Lord to 
Joshua, very much land to be possessed; viz. all the 
borders of the Philistines, and all Geshurij from 
Sihor, which is before Egypt, even unto the borders 
of Ekron northward. This again is more parti- 
cularly illustrated from Josh. xv. 47* and Judges 
i. 18. where the cities of the Philistines, that 
were given to the tribe of Judah, are Ekron, 
and Ashdod, and Gaza, with their towns and their 
villages, unto the river of Egypt, and the Great 
SeUy and the borders thereof. 
. And that the land of promise was not only to 
extend and stretch itself along the lower part of 
the Nile, (known to us by the name of the Pelu- 
ifiac branch), but even a great way higher up to 
the S. W. even to the parallel of the ancient Mem- 
phis and of the Red Sea, will appear from the 
gift that was made to the Israelites of the land 
of Goshen. For Goshen, as will be proved in 
its proper place, lay contiguous with this part of 
the Nile, and was watered by it. In proof of 
which, Joshua is said (Josh. x. 41.) to smite the 
countries and people from Kadesh Barnea, even unto 
Gaza^ and all the country of Goshen ; i. e. all the 


56 The Nile w* the Nahal Mitzrainiy 

countries and people that lay to the northward, 
as far as the Great Sea ; and to the westward, as 
far as the Nile. And again, Josh. xi. \6. So Jo- 
skua took all the land, the hills, and all the south 
coast, (as it may be presumed, where Arad, the 
Canaanite dwelt, Numb. xxi. 1.) and all the land 
of Goshen. The very situation therefore and ex- 
tent of the lot of the tribe of Judah, very natu- 
rally points out to us the river of Egypt, i. e. the 
Nile, to have been their western boundarv. 

And further, with regard to their south border, 
it was to be the wilderness of Zin, Josh. xv. 1. 
p. 41. which comprehended Kadesh Barnea, and 
Gerar, and Geslwiri, or the country of the Gesh- 
urites. Now, as Gerar was situated betwixt Ka- 
desh and Shur, (Gen. xx. 1.) and the Geshurites,. 
together with the Gezrites and the Amalekites, 
(1 Sam. xxvii. 8. Josh. xiii. 2, 3.) were of old the 
inhabitants of the hnd, as thou goest to Shur, even 
unto the land of Egypt ; these tribes must lie con- 
tiguous with Gerar and Kadesh, even as far as 
Egypt. As the tribe of Judah likewise was to 
possess not only Goshen, but all the country of 
the Philistines, (for their bounds were to be from 
the Red Sea, Exod. xxiii. 31. which St Jerome, 
as above, extends even as far as Eloth eastward) 
their south and south-west border, containing 
within it the whole, or the greatest part of what 
was called the way of the spies, Num. xxi. 1. and 
afterwards Idumoea, would extend itself, as I have 
already hinted, p. 42. from the Elanitic Gulf of 
the Red Sea along by, that of Heroopolis, quite 


Or River of Egypt. 57 

to the Nile westward. The Nile consequently in 
this view and situation, either with regard to the 
barrenness of the country of the Philistines, or to 
the position of it with respect to the land of pro* 
mise^ or to the river Euphrates, .may, with pro* 
priety enough, be called, as it is in Amos vi. 14. 
n:nyn *?ni [Nahal Harabah] the river of the wit- 
demess, as we translate it, or the western torrent^ 
Xffmffn ruf iwfutf, as it is rendered by the lxx. 

And here it may be likewise proper to observe, 
that the lxx, in their interpretation of ns^jT, 
(Arbdfi) no less than of Sihop and Nahal Mitz- 
num, do not always keep the same word. In the 
text just now cited, and elsewhere*, Arbah is 
rendered vn hffm^ w^h )«o-^$, &c. In Chron. 
xxxiii. 14. ««« >JiHy iuirm wrm, ; and in S Chron. 
xxxii. 20. vi^ aAi. Where, and in 1 Chron. xxvi. 
SO. our translators have understood Arbah, as de- 
noting a situation to the westward. But in 
others, tl^y translate it the plain ; and in Deut 
jxi. 30, the champain ; taking it, as we may pre- 
sumiS, for some of the more level portioqs of 
what seems to be allied in general n^lD, (Mid- 
bar) the witdermss. Thus the Arbah fj^ or plain, 

VOL. II. H which 

* Numb. xxi. 1. and xxxiii. 48, 49, 50. and xxxvi. 13. Deut. 
i. 1. and xL 30. Josh. v. It), II. 16. 2 Sam. ii. 29. and iv. 7, 

f nZl*iy Talem locum seu terrae partem significat, qua^.neque 
montosa est, neque declivis, sed plana. Arbitror a- mixtura dici, 
h. e. mixto sapore pabuli, quod in eo crescit et jumentis conve* 
niens est et gratum, quae acidis delectantur. Sunt enim' ejusmodi 
campestria non melliflua, sicut simt valles vel colles ^ nee plane 
steriUa, qualia sunt loca aspera et deserta ^ sed ubi fnyftm crescit, 
id quod £saias V^DH r/^9 m^ma acetosum rocat cap. xxz. 22. 
Vid C. Kirch, in voce n3iy. 

58 The Nik is th^ Nakal Mitzraim, 

which is mentioned, Deut. i. 1. to be over again»t 
the lied Sea, *otz. at Shur, it may be supposed, 
and Marah ; and those again, Josh. iv. *'>3. and 
y. 10. that are described to be in the neighbour-^ 
hood of Jericho, at Qilgal, and along the coast of 
the Salt Sea, (places which I have seen)) agree 
very well with this interpretation an4 description 

of the word Arbah. 

»  , . .  

Yf t these are not all the interpretations that 
^re given us of Arbah by the lxx. For in Job 
xxxix. 6, Isa. xxxiii.d* xxxv- 1. xlv, 19. Jer.>dvii, 
6. and Zech. xiv, LO. it is rendered M^^nfm ; in Isa. 
XXXV. 6. y« )a^#^«; and in Jer. ii.6. y«'««N^; aU 
of them appellations indeed, how literally soever 
different, v^ry suitable to the nature and quality 
of these countries, which are no where confined 
by mounds, hedges, or inclosures, being for t^e 
most part so very dry and sandy, as to be capa- 
ble of very little, and frequently of no culture at 
all. As this district therefore, which lies beyond 
the eastern or Asiatic banks of the Nile, from 
the parallel of Memphis, even to Pelusium, the 
land of Goshen only excepted, is all of it Arbah, 
yn )r4^drMr, «ir«f^, dry, barren, apd inhospitable ; the 
prophet Amos might, with propriety enough, call 
the river of Egypt the river of the wilderness ; 
or, if the situation be more regarded, the western 

From the sit? then and position of this river, 
let us now inquire into the reason and etymology 
of the names which are given to it, both in sa- 
cred and profane history. These will likewise 


Or tUver of E^pt^ 69 

fiirdier illustrate the matter in dispute. Now it 
is called in Scripture, the river of Egypt, in con^ 
tradistinctlon to the Euphrates, which being con- 
stantly, ad it may be presumed, a larger stream, 
though both of them are considerably augmented 
at their respective rainy seasons, is called, by 
way of emhience, Nahal only, or the river. Yet, . 
notwithstanding the sacred historian might dis* 
tinguish the former, by the country to which it 
belonged, (as the Arabian writers still do the same, 
by calling it Neel Messir), the Egyptians them* 
selves had no occasion to use the appellative ; but 
as it was their only river, so they might call it 
simply Nahal, which, with little variation, wilt 
be easily formed into TXmx^ or Nilus, as Grecian 
and Roman strangers might pronouncb it. Sihor, 
as has been already occasionally proved from St 
Jerome, was another name given to this river in 
Scripture; being taken from the black tawny 
complexion of its water, occasioned by the great 
quantity of mud that is brought down with it 
from Ethiopia. Fommy^ Sihor, is^the isame as 
blaek. Neither is this name peculiar to the Scrip- 
tures. For Pliiiy *, Solinusf , and Dionysius:};, call 
it Siris ; Plutarch's Osiris ||, no less than Melas 
'.••••'• • , ' ' •• or 

* Sic quoque Nilus etiamnum Sirif, ut mittf mrniHfttus per 
aliquot millia. Lib. v. ^. 9« 

f A Cataracte ultimo tutus est. Nilns. ReUcio tamdn lioc 
pone se nondne, quod Siris vocatur, moz inoffimsus meat. C. xlv« 

m « 

t ZiC<« v% Ai^fW0v »i»A«r«i. Tii^my* ver. 223. 
etOsiride, §33. 

60 The Nik is the Nabal Mitzraim^ 

or Melo^ as likewise .Sgyptus \ other names by* 
which it was known f, have the like intefpreta* 

And therefore, besides this particalaf quality or 
complexion of the waters of Sihor, which is 
highly applicable to the Nile ; it will still appear 
more evident from Scripture, that the river ci 
Egypt, the Nile, and Sihor, were one and the 
same. For Sihor, as it is mentioned, Jer. ii. 18. 
could be no other. JVhdt hest thoUy says the 
prophet, to do in the way of Egypt, to drink the 
'waters of Sihor ? which is further explained by 
way of antithesis, in the latter part of the verse; 
or what hast theu to do ^ in tke way of Assyria, to 
drink the watjersqfthe rvoer ? i. e. of: the Euphra- 
tes. Fpr 9ihor, or the Nile^ was as properly the 
river of Egypt, as the Euphrates Mras of Assyria. 
In like manner, the prophet Isaiah (xxiii. 3.) uses 
the some word Srhor, which ean only be« under- 
stood of the Nile. The seed of. Sihor, says he, the 
harvest of the river is her reaenue ; i. e. flax, 
wheat, rice, and other commodities, produced by 
the overflowiBg and fertilizing quality of the 
Nile, are transported from Egypt, to the great 


* En NfiA# mrmfUi rns AtywitU, w^^rn^i dt ivm nmXitfttm MOmt* 

&c— AiyiMmiMW est ftOmptu, Vid. Plut. de Fluviis cum Not. 

f Viridem iEgyptum mg^ ftecusdsit avena. 

Virg. Georg. not. Scnr. 
Ostia nigrantis I^. Claud. P]^oqi« ver. 100* 

Roiin. Diohys; Liii. vbr.lOO. Herod. Eutei^,^ 
p. >05. ed. Steph. 

Or River of Egypt. 61 

benefit .and advantage of the merchants of Tjrrc. 
Sihor therefore, as it stands in the former tes;t, in 
contradistinction to the Euphrates, and as it is 
described in the latter as the cause of great plen- 
ty and abundance, agrees in every circumstance 
with the Nile ; and consequently cannot, with 
the least propriety, be ascribed to, even provided 
there actually was an obscure insignificant tor- 
rent at, Rhinocorura. 

As Sihor then, in these texts, appears to be no 
other river than the Nile, there is sufficient rea- 
son to take it for the same, wherever and as often 
soever as it may occur in Scripture. And of this 
I presume the following texts^will be a sufficient 
proof and demonstration. For 1 Chron. xiii. 5. 
where David is said to gather all Israel together^ 
from Sihor ^' Fjgypt, even unto the entering in of 
Hamath; Solomon, in the parallel texts, I Kings* 
viii. 65. and 2 Chron. vii. 8. is^ said to have kept 
a great feast y and ali Israel with him^ from the 
entering in of Hamath^ unto, the river of Bgypt. 
Sihor of £gypt, and the river of Egypt, there- 
fore, must be indisputably one and the same ri- 

We meet with the same phraseology, descriptive 
likewise, as it ;^ppears to be> of the extent of the 
Land of Promise, in the prophet Amos, vi. 14. where 
it is said, Mey shaU afflict you from the entering in 
of Hamathj unto the river ofthewildemess. Which 
may further confirm what has been hinted at al- 
ready, that the river of the wilderness, or as it 
may be otherwise rendered, the western river, was 


68 The Nile is the NahdlMUzraim. 

atiDtter name/only for the Nile, of the river of 

Egypt- ' ^ 

■: The promise then which God made to Abra- 
ham, that he would give to his seed the landyjrom 
the: river of Egypt y (i. e. from Egypt itself, a3 
Josephus understood it, Antiq. 1. viii. c. £.) unto 
the rrver EaphrateSy was cither fulfilled by his 
servant Joshua, or afterwards by David and So- 
lomon, 1 Kings ix. 20. 2 Chron* viii. 7. &c: And 
though some part or othec of this promised land, 
either as it bordered upon the Euphrates, the 
Nile, or the entering in of Hamath, might not 
always continue in the possession of the Israel- 
ites, 2 Kings xiv. 28. yet it is sufficient in this 
disquisition to prove that they had the promise of 
it, and at one time or other were in actual pos- 
session. Foi5 what portions of it soever they 
might afterwards lose, or be driven out of, it was 
entirely OAving to their sins- and transgressions ; 
when, as the sacred history acquaints us, such ci* 
ties or people as they would not conqviei*, or keep 
in subjection, after they had conquered them, 
should provte snares and traps unto them^ and 
scourges in their sides^ and thorns in their eyes^ 
tmtil they perished frofn off that good land which 
the Lord their God had given thtm. Exod. xxiii. 
S3. Num.. xxxiii. 55* Deut, vii. 16. JosK. xxiii. 


.■•jr n%^t^ ^ « 




Geographical Observations relating to Egyptt. 

x\ o part of the coast of Egypt, which fell under 
my observation, could be seen afar off. The ma- 
riners, ini apjifoaching it, estimate the distance by 
the depth of water ; such a number of fathoms 
usually answering to the same number of leagues. 
Tbat portion of it particularly, which lies be- 
twixt Tineh*, the ancient Pelusium, and the 
br^juicb of Dami-ata, is exceedingly low, and full 
of lakes and morasses; agreeing so far, even to 
this day, with the. etymology of the Jiame. The 
lakes abound with a variety of excellent fish ; 
which they either dispose of, whilst they are 
fresh, among the neighbouring villages, or else 
they salt and sell them afterwards to the Grecian 

Dami-ata is one of the most considerable cities 


for trade in Egypt. It lies upon the eastern 
banks of the Nile, at five miles distance- from 
the sea, and about sixty to the N. N. W. of Ti- 


• * From ^D (Tin) clay or mudj rendered by the Greeks ^av- 
r^y, from 9niA«(, a word of the like signification in th(^ Ian* 

64 The seven Mouths of the Nile. 

iieh. The branch that runs by it has been gene- 
rally received for the Pelusiac, by mistaking this 
city for the ancient Pelusium ; whereas Dami-ata 
seems rather to be a corruption of its ancient 
name Thamiathis, or t«v6'«^«», as Epiphanius writes 
it. This branch therefoi;e, as well from the sitiir 
ation as the largeness of it, should be the Path- 
metic, or Phatnic, as Strabo calls it; betwixt 
which and the Pelusiac, were the Mendesian and 
the Tauitic ; but of these I could receive no in- 

Sixteen leagues to the N. N. W. of the Path- 
metic mouth, is Cape Br\illos, where the Seben* 
jiitic branch is supposed to have discharged it- 
self; after which follows the Bolbutic, at seven* 
-teen leagues distance to the S. W. by W. This 
JS' called ,at present, the branch of Rozetto, or 
llaissid, as the inhabitants pronounce^ it, from a 
large and populous city, situated about a league 
above .the mouth of it. Rassid however may im- 
port a cape or head-land, such as it might orginal- 
ly have stood upon, before the additions, which 
will be hereafter mentioned, were made to it by 
the Nile. 

At Me-dea, the ancient Heraclium, four leagues 
further, there is another branch of the Nile, 
though much smaller than thie former ; and two 
leagues beyond it, in the same westerly direction, 
we have a!n inlet, with some ruins known by the 
name of Rikeer. As this place lies five leagues 
from Alexandria, and the branch of Me-dea 
seven, we may be induced/ from the authority of 


The seven Mouths of the Nile. 65 

Strabo*, to take the one for the ancient city Ca- 
nppus, the other for the branch of the same name. 
But, unless at the time of the inundation, this, 
no less than the Sebennitic and Pelusiac branches, 
4re of little account; in as much as the Nile dis- 
charges itself chiefly through those only of Ro- 
zetto and Dami-ata. What was observed long 
ago,* though upon a different occasion, concern- 
ing the drying up of these channels, is now lite- 
rally come to pass. 

Nilus in cxtremum fugit i)erterritus orbcm, 
Qccubuitque caput, quod adbuc latet ^ ostia septem 
Pulverulenta vacant, septem sine flumine valks. 

Ovid. Metam. de Phaeton. 

Scandarea, as Alexandria is called at present, 
has two ports ; the new one, whicli the vessels of 
Europe resort to, and the old one, where those 
only from Turkey are admitted. The former is 
what Strabo calls the Great Portf , lying to the 
eastward of the Pharos ; ,the other is his port of 
Eunostus, where was also the Cibotus, which had 

VOL. II. I . . formerly 

flr^«« T#ij l««T«f. Strab. lib. xvii. p. 1140. [Canopus inde, ab 
Alexandria sc. duodecimo disjungitur lapide. Ammian. lib. xxii. 
c« 41.3 KMVtA»9 3* Iff ^«Ak ^f tiXAffi Ktti lx«r«y foitats ttir§ 'AAijiev- 
i^Hci/i fn^n iV9'<y. p. 1152. — Mir« ^i rtf K«evd»S«y fcc r« ^H^OKhntit rt 
H^«KX<y; tj^w if^«y. Etrec to KmvcAikov f^^oe, xm ij te^p^if tv AfXrtf. 
p. 1153* MfTM % rcfm r* KmfJotxAif tp rd BaXiirtMf, Etrm t^ Sf- 
CffwriK#f *itt r* ^cvntKou r^vrtv v^tt^;^«y rv fAfyt^$t 9r«eMc r« ir^mrt& 
3tfA, tit m^i^cu r» AfArtf.*— Tat }f ^avrnKM vvfUxxH ro Mfii^r<«y. £ir» 

Tw|tf, «( ttf 4^t;}«fMatT» tfr^iMrfg^. Strab. ibid, 
f Strab. L xvii. p. 1144-5. 

66 Of Ak^midria. 

formerly a communication with the Lake Mai^q- 
tis, that lies behind it to the south. The pre- 
sent city is situated betwixt them, upon what 
yras probably the Septem Stadium of Strabo * ; 
whereas the old city lay further towards the N. 
and N. E. 

Considering the great devastations which have 
attended the Saracen conquests in otlier places, it 
is somewhat extraordinary, that the greatest part 
of the ancient walls, together with their respec- 
tive tulrrets, should have continued entire, quite 
down to this time. In the same condition like- 
wise are the cisterns, which^ at the ov^erflowing 
of the Nile, were annually supplied with water. 
These were of a great depth, having their walls 
raised, by several stages of arches, upon which 
likewise tthti greatest part 6f the city itself was 
erected. The grandeur and sumptuousncss of 
the ahciient Alexandria, may be further estimated 
from two rows of beautiful granate pillars, (seve- 
ral whereof were standing in 1721), which niay 
be supjK>6ed to have constituted the street that is 
described by Strabo, and reaching from the Ne- 
cropolitic'f' part of the city, to the gate of Cano- 
pus. The cryptse, or catacombs, which gave de- 
nomination to it, are most of them remaining ; 
being little different from those that have been 
described at Latikea, and were probably intended 
for the same use, and not for the reception of 
mummies or embalmed bodies, like those at Sa- 
kara iiear Memphis. 


 Strab. 1. xvii. p. 1141. f Id. p. 1145. 

Pompeys Fitter. 67 

Pompey's pillar lies at a distance to the sduth- 
ward of the old city. It is of the Corinthiw 
order, though the foliage of the capital is b«dly 
executed. In expectation, it may be presumed^ 
of iinding 4 large trieasure bijiri^d ynderneatb it, 
a great part of the foundation, gonsisting of se- 
veral fragments of differ^^t sorts of stQn^ and 
marble, has been removed ; so that the whole fa- 
bric rests at present uppn a block of white mar^ 
ble scarce two yard$ square, which, upon touch- 
ing it with a key, in the same manner with the 
beautiful statue pf at JLlome, sounds like a 

bell. Some of th^ broken pieces of marble wlikh 
I have mentiptted, ar^ inscribe vith hierogly- 
phics ; a circumstance which may induce uS to 
isuspect, that this pillar was not erected by the 
Egyptians, (vrhp could not well be imagined thus 
to bury )th?ir sapred inscriptions), but by the 
Greeks pr {ipmap^ ; nay, later perhaps than 
Strabo, who would scarce have omitted the de- 
scription of so remarkable a curiosity, which 
could not but fall under his obsetVAtiom 

The Pf It^ was computed to wmmencC froiti 
the Canopjc br49ch of the NHe^ which fell in at 
Me-dea ; from hen^e to RozettOi the caravans are 
guidedj for th^ 3(^u:e of four leagues, by a rangfe 
of pillars, a« in the Lstk^ of Marks, p. 235. Thd 
channel which supplied Alexandria with \lrater, 
lies all the way upo.* the right hand ; a»d, iot 
want of being employed as formerly, discharges 
itself chiefly into this of Me-dea. The^re are few 
or no tokens of the Nile*9 inundation to be met 


68 Of the Delta. 

with, from Alexandria to Rozetto ; the whole 
tract appearing to have been originally either a 
continuation of the sandy coast of Libya, or else 
to have been an island. In sailing likewise to 
the eastward, besides several smaller hillocs of 
sandy ground, we see a pretty large one to the 
E. of the Bolbutic* mouth of the Nile, another 
of Cape Brullos, and a third to the W. of Dami- 
ata. All these might have been originally so 
many islands, and have served from their very si- 
tuation to give the first check to the stream ; and 
afterwards, by gradually collecting and retaining 
the mud, have laid the first foundation of the 
Delta. But further notice will be taken of this 
curious subject. 

Except at the time of the inundation, \frhett 
the whole country is dne continued lake, no di- 
version can be attended with greater pleasure 
than travelling upon the N ile. At every wind- 
ing of th» stream, such a variety of villages, 
gafdens and plantations, present themselves td 
our view, that from Rozetto to Kairo, and from 
thence all the way down^ by the other branch, to 
Datni-ata, we see nothing but crowds of people, 
m continued scenes of plenty and abundance. 
The many turnings of the river, make the dis- 
tance, from Kairo to each of those cities, hear 
cc M. though^ in a dirtct rdad, it will scarce 
amount to half that number. 


* This seenis to be the same tliat is taketi notice of by Strabo, 
under the name of AFNOY KfiFAS. M*r« h f* B«XSitiMf ftfm 
cs-itAmv UKHvm rHTrani ztu mftttniiiin mm^' umharrmi )f hynt zi^t^c, 
Lxvu* p. 1153^ 

Of Kairo^ the Amnis Trajanus. 69 

Kairo, or Al Kahirah* or iq the casteril appel- 
lation, Al Messer^ lies nearly two miles to the 
^ E. of the Nile, and fifteen to the southward of 
the Delta, as Memphis f, which lay over against 
it, on the western shore, is said to have done. It 
is built in the form of a crescent, under the 
northern shade of that mountain, where the an- 
cient castle of the Babylonians j: was situated. 
The Khalis, the Amnis Trajanus || of the ancients, 
which annually supplies the city with water, runs 
from one point of it to another, and is little more 
than five miles long. Kairo therefore, or Grand 
Kairo, according to the usual appellation, is much 


• AJ Kaiiraij i. c. Victrix^ a vicit, subjugavit. Gol. The 
same interpretation hath been put upon Kair-wariy notwithstand- 
ing what hath been already observed, p. 116. ^ Occuba,' sajs 
D^ Avity, ^bastit au mesoie lieu.ou il avoit de&it le Comte Gre-> 

* goire, une ville qu^ il nomma Cayre, c' est-a-dire Victoire ^ puis 

* on r appelle Cayravan, c^ est-a-dire deux Victoires, a cause 
' d^ une autre que les Arabes y obtinrent depuis.'— Vid. La De- 
scription genende de T Afrique par P. D^Avity, p. 49. But the 
inhskbitknts of £gypt, and of all the Levant, usually call Kairo 
Messer, a name taken from Mimim the son of Cham, the first 
planter of this country. * Urbs Fostat est ipsamet Metsr, ac dicta 

* a Misram filio Cam, fiUi Noe,cui pax : ipse enim earn sedificaverat 

* primitus* Dicitur autein appeUata fuisse Fostat, quod volente 

* Amro filio Aas, post captam Metsr, proficisci Alexandriam, prse* 

* ceperit u( praecederet eum Alfostat (t. e. tentoriam) et figeretur 
. * aut transportaretur ante se : quare accidit ut columba descende- 

' ret, ovum in ejus vertice piueret. Quod ad Amrum delato, jus- 

* sit ut relinqueretur tentorium eodem m situ, donee columba ovum 
< suum perficeiet.' Geogr. Nub. p. 97. 

■f Muft^ii If in «74 TV Af At«( T^w^tf9 mg uvmt. Strab. ut supra. 
Plin. 1. T. c. 9. 

X Stfab. 1. xvii. p. 1160* 
Ptol. Geogr. L iv* c. 5. 

70 Of KaiWy 

inferior in extent * to several cities of Christen- 
dom. , However, it must be allowed to be ex- 
ceedingly populous ^ for several families live in 
one house, and a number of persons live in each 
chamber of it During likewise the busy time of 
the day, the principal strejets are so crowded with 
people, that there is no ^mall difficulty to pass 
by them. 

The way that leads up to the castle, is cut 
through the rock ; from whence this ridge of 
eminences seems to have been called Jibbel Moc- 
catte, or Mocat-em, i, e. the mountain that is p^mon 
or cut through. Besides other places of less ac- 
count within the castle, we are first of all shewn 
a spacious magnificent hall, supported by a dou- 
ble row^ of large Thebaic columns ; then we are 
shewn the Beer el Hallazoune, pr the snail-like 
well'\^ which, with the stair case that goes wind- 
ing rouncj it, are hewTi out of the natural rock. 
Both the hall and the well are looked upon by 
the inhabitants to be works of such grandeur and 
expence^ that the pataiarch Joseph, .whose f risbn 


* Prpviukd the villager «f old Kaiso snd Bdidac, {wbefeof 
tills lies two mUes to the N..£* ilie other At tbe same distance to 
tbe W.) should hove (o^mtrly bekiQged to tbis <»tyy ^d indeed 
the maxyf ^ntiBi|acent niins seem to poiat out sonetmng of this 
kind), then K^o ivould not bare been mSarwt in extent to the 
Inetrojpolis of Greal Bdtauv Buntiagius makes it to have the 
same dimensions with the ancient Niaeveii^jor to be six^nales in 
circuit ^ equal to three dajs journey, according to th^ propheC 
Jonas, iii. 3. 

f This well consists of two stages, being in aU about forty- 
four fathom deep. The upper stage is sixteen feet broad one 
way, and twenty-£9ur the other. Tbe svatcr, which is brackish, 
is drawn up in the Persian wheel by ores. 

In Egypt. 71 

they pretend likewise to shew us, is supposed to 
have been the founder. But the well was proba* 
bly contrived by the Babylonians, when they first 
built the castle, 4s both of them are ascribed (the 
rebuilding of this rather) to Salah Oddin Joseph 
Ebn Job, by Abdol Caliph, in. his History of 

Egypt> P- 85. 

Over against Kairo, on the Libyan banks of 
the Nile, is the village Geeza, where we shall en- 
deavour to prove, that 'Memphis was formerly si- 
tuated ; though at present it is entirely buried in 
soil. Twelve miles'further, iii the same direction, 
are the pyramids, erected upon that ridge of the 
Libyan mountains which bounds the inundation 
of the Nile to the westward. The eastle of Kairo 
has the like mountainous situation on the Asiatic 
side of the river ; and, in this manner, the Nile 
is confined, for the space of two hundred leagues, 
cjttits up to* the cataracts, a long chaiii of emi- 
nences^ sometimes at four, sometime* at five or 
six leagues distance, constantly bbutuling the in- 
undation on each side. Such in general is the 
plan, such likewise is the extent of the Land of 
Egypt. As for this' Land of Goshen which lay 
contiguous to it, or, in the Scripture phrase, was 
near it ^ it will -be described when, we treat of 


\\  ' ' ' 




t W I tl '!■ I I. 


Tfie ancient Situation of Aleinphis further inquired 

into and Considered. 

JpL LATE curious traveller has endeavoured to 
prove, that the ancient city Memphis was not si- 
tuated a4; Geeza,:where it has commonly been 
placed, but at Metraheny or Mohanan, several 
miles further to the southward. ^ What fixes/ 
says he, Descript, of the ^ast, vpl. i, p, 41. * the 
* situation of Memphis to this part, is Pliny's ac- 
^ count, ^ho says, 1. ^x>:vi, c. 12. that the pyra- 
' mids were between Meinphis and the Delta.* 
But in answer to this, it may be remarked, that 
the same Pliny acquaints us in another place, 
(1. V. c. 9.) that the pyramids lay betwixt Mem- 
phis and the Arsinoite Nomos, and consequently 
must be to the westward of Memphis ; as they 
actually are, provided Geeza is the site of that 
ancient city. 

That this description of Pliny's is rather to be 
received than the former, appears from several 
geographical circumstances, taken as well from 
that author as from others. Diodorus Siculus 
(p. 45. § 50.) acquaints us, that * Memphis was 

' most 

Ancient Situation of Memphis. 73 

* most commodiously situated, in the very key 

* or inlet of the country, where the river, begin- 

* ning to divide itself into several branches, forms 
^ the Delta.' This account is further confirmed 
and more particularly circumstantiated by Pliny 
himself, who tells us, (1. v. c. 9.) that Memphis 
was only fifteen miles from the Delta ; and Stra- 
bo, (L xvii. p. 555.) that it was t^#^x<*'*« only, or 
ninety furlongs, which do not make twelve miles. 
Ptolemy * makes a difference of ten minutes in 
their longitudes, and the like in their latitudes ; 
whereby their distances, by computation, will fall 
in very nearly with Strabo's account, and make 
little more than xii miles. Whereas, if we are 
to look for Memphis at Metraheny or Mohanan, 
where this author has placed it, the distance of it 
from the Delta, (especially as it is laid down in 
his map), will be xl miles; i. e. more than thrice 
as much as it is recorded by Pliny, Strabo, and 

The near agreement therefore among these geo- 
graphers, in the distance they have left us betwixt 
Memphis, and the Delta; and the same continu- 
ing still to be the distance, as near as can be re- 
quired, betwixt the Delta and Geeza, appears to 
be a much stronger proof for situating Memphis 
at Geeza, than any heap of ruins, or than any ad- 
jacent mounds or channels (as they are urged by 
that author) can possibly be in favour of Metra- 

VOL. II. K heny. 

 The pcrint of the Delta 62^. Long. 30*^ Lat. 
Memphis - - 61«>. 5(K. 29^. 50^. 

P/o/. 1. iv. c. 5. 


74 The ancient Situation 

heny. For ruins alone, unless supported by other 
circumstances and arguments, will in no country 
determine the situation of any particular city ; 
much less in Egypt, which boasted formerly of 
having twenty thousand*. Moreover, mounds 
and channels were so common all over Egypt, 
that, considering the fluctuating state of that 
country, and the yearly alterations that were 
made in it by the Nile, any one particular set or 
system of them, will be as uncertain and precari- 
ous a proof as ruins. Whereas the Delta is a fix- 
ed and standing boundary, lying at a determinate 
distance from Memphis, from which we find it 
no further removed in the ancient geography, 
than Geeza is in the modern. 

But even upon a supposition that those traces 
of large mounds and channels, which are report- 
ed to be at Metraheny, were the remains of the 
ancient Memphitic rampart, yet they will by no 
means determine the site of this ancient city to 
have been there. They will rather prove the 
contrary ; in as much as the rampart, mentioned 
by Herodotus, p. 141. is said to lie a hundred 
furlongs beyond it to the southward, (let us sup- 
pose Metraheny to be the very spot;) Memphis 
consequently should not be sought for there, but 
a hundred furlongs below it to the northward ; 
i. €. a little more or less where we have the pre- 
sent Geeza. 

Another argument why we may fix the ancient 


Herod, p. 179. . . . 

Of the City Memphis. 75 

Memphis at Geeza, rather than at Metraheny, is 
the situation of the pyramids ; a land-mark stitl 
more certain and determined than the Delta, 
which may still be subject to some small altera- 
tions. Now Strabo acquaints us in one place *, 
that the pyramids were near Memphis ; and in 
another f, that they were placed on an eminence^ 
at forty furlongs, or five miles distance from it. 
Pliny :f makes the distance one mile further, or 
six miles ; the difference possibly arising from 
hence, that Pliny computed to the pyramids 
themselves ; whereas Strabo might only compute 
to the, foot of the •^in •^c^f, or rising ground^ upon 
which they were situated. Now, thfe village of 
Geeza, which lies upon the banks of the Nile, is 
commonly computed to be twelve miles from the 
pyramids. If the city of Memphis therefore was 
five or six miles broad, (and Diodorus Siculusj| tells 
us, it was one^ hundred and fifty furlongs, i. e. near 
nineteen miles in circuit), then the^ distance as- 
signed by Pliny and Strabo isj as near as can be 
required, the present distan<fe. Whereas, by pla- 


* Af 4^«ryr«< Tf •f$tt3i (from Babjloh) TnA^vyiff «i UvitifuiH u rn 
wt^acm if Mi^m tuu h9i xXnvMt, Strab. 1. kvii. p. 555. 


X P^ramidles sitce suiit in parte Afncse, monte saxeo sterilique 
inter Memphini oppiduni, et quod appellari diximp Delta, a Nilo 
minus quatuor millia passuum, a Mempbl sex. Nat. Hist; l;xzxvi, 
C. 12. 

II T«9 fitf vy 9rig<C«AM rm T^Xftf^s iJt-MHV ftiw9 <|UtT«> tcta wiprmt^^' 
T«. Bibl. L i. p. 46. 

76 The ancient Situation 

cing Memphis at Metraheny or Mohanan, the 
pyramids will be at three or four times that dis- 
tance from it ; too far surely from being (wTatrft) 
neaVi according to the expression of Strabo ; or 
at six miles distance at the most, acotding to. 

This vicinity betwixt Memphis and the pyra- 
mids, is further illustrated from the relation which 
each of them had to one and the same sandy 
mountain of Libya ; Memphis being described to 
be situated under it, and the pyramids uppn it 
And of this Herodotus* gives us sufficient testi- 
mony J for he tells us, that Memphis, by being 
built upon the ancient bed of the river, lay under 
the sandy mountain of Libya ; which is likewise 
described to be the only sandy mountain of Egypt, 
whether in that, or in any other direction. The 
like appellations are given to the mountain, upon 
which the pyramids were built ; for the stones 
employed in building them^ are said to have been 
carried from fhe Arabian td the Libyan moun- 
tain f* And again, over against the Arabian, is 
another stony mountain of Egypt, towards Li- 
bya, covered with sand, where are the pyramids. 
There is sdilie little variety indeed in these ex- 
pressions, but the meaning and intention of them 
all is the same ; in. as much as t« if/mft^fr «$«; and 

Herod, p. 141* ed. Steph. Tla^tt r* «^«$ r* tfxt^ Mtfi^tds f;^«y. L/* 
p« 16 S. i^dfifuv fi4tf69 A tyinmt o^«« rvr^ t« vtfs^ Mifipttf i^6y. Id. p. 1 05« 

\ n^«$ T« A<CvJt«y K«Ali;f£iy«y d^o$. Id, p. 155. T« 3s tc^i^ Ativtig 
ms Atyvirnt &^t «AA« ww^twf THniy i> ^ «i Uv^ctfbiia f v^r<, '^m(*fU» 
«uvrwA«/K|ify«r« Id. p. 103. 

Of the City Memphis. 77 


•^ '^mf€fiui tuvTHMififui^f^ no less than a£w49 •^t^, •(•$ t^^ 

Atyv^rrH ^^99 AAvnfy and Aiyvxrv «^ r« ^tn^ Mi^i*^, arC ftp* 

pellations of the very same force and significa- 
tion. Herodotus, in another place, determines 
the particular quality and height of this part of 
the Libyan mountain, where the pyramids were 
placed, by calling it (a*^*?) a ridge or eminence^ 
scarce a hundred feet high *, viz. above, as we 
may add, the plains below« Now the •c^m •^c*'?, as 
Strabo names this same part of the Libyan moun- 
tain, being an expression equivalent to the a#^o9 
(or the «^w» fff-AMtfn^^ as it is interpreted) of Hero- 
dotus, we may presume they are both descriptive 
of the same place ; and consequently, the same 
distance of six miles that is ascribed to Memphis 
from the one, will be the like distance from the 

Nay, provided Metraheny ahould be the ancient 
Memphis, the account which Strabo has given us 
of it cannot be true ; who tells us, that it was 
situated over against Babylon, and that the pyra- 
mids could be seen distinctly from Babylon. That 
Kairo takes up the site of the ancient Babylon^ 
contrary to the sentiments of this author, wants 
no other proof than what we have recorded of it 
in Ptolemy f, where he tells us, that the Amnis 
Trajanus ran through Babylon in its course to 
Heroopolis and the Red Sea. Now it is agreed 


T«)«$ i4^Ay. Herod, p. 157. 

f At* if (^H^tfM9 ir«A/«$) tcmt B»Zv><»tug 9rt>\M;^ T^matfps 7rortift$i ^i4 
Ptolcm* l.iv. p. 263* 

78 / The ancient Situation 

among all geographers, that this Amnis Trajanus 
is^ the same Khali s, or channel (for th^re is no 
other) which makes one of the streets of Kairo 
in the spring ; but, upon cutting down a bank at 
the head of it in tfie summer, receives the water 
of the Nile, and lodges it afterwards in the Birque 
el Hadge, a* will be further taken notice of. And 
besides, from almost every part of| Kairo, and es- 
pecially from the castle, (which was formerly the 
whole, or the greatest part of the ancient Baby- 
lon*), we have a distinct view of the pyramids 
of G^za, but of no others. These my^vyvi «^«^«fI««, 
are distinctly seen, as Strabo expresses himself; 
and, in going the nearest way to them, we ferry 
over to Geeza, which is likewise, « ta ?n^#«c, on the 
opposite shore, as Memphis is described to have 
been. But none of these remarkable circumstances 
agree with Metraheny ; which, by lying several 
miles higher up the stream, can have no such op- 
posite situation. 

Another argument why Memphis may be pla- 
ced at Geeza, rather than higher up the river, 
is the description that is given of it by Herodo- 
tus. * It was/ says he, * situated, » tw «■«?<» mt ai- , 
' yiMTw, in the straits (or narrowest part) of Egypt/ 
as Gee^a certainly is. For, over against it, on 
the Asiatic or Arabian shore, is the rising ground 
and the mountains upon which Babylon and its 
suburbs were founded ; and, on the other side, 
are the Libyan mountains and the pyramids. The 
Nile took up a great part of this intermediate 

space ; 

* Vii supra, p. 7li 

Of the City Memphis. , 79 

space ; and that small district of land, which we 
now see lying betwixt the supposed site of the. 
ancient Memphis and the Libyan mountains, was 
formerly the Acherusian Lake. So that very lit- 
tle, if any portion at all, of Ihis narrow part of 
Egypt, was capable of cultivation. 

Herodotus * has furnished us with another ex- 
pression^ which may perhaps further illustrate this 
matter. * At the time of the inundation,' says^, 
he, * they do not sail from Naucraths to Mem- 
' phis by the common channel of tlie river, mz. 
^ by Cercasora and the point of the Delta, but 
^ over the plain,' along the side (^-c' **'«^ ^v^mfuims) 
of the pyramids. For as the main stream must 
be then exceedingly rapid and violent, it would 
render the navigation that way to Memphis very 
long and tedious; whereas, by taking the advan- 
tage of the inundation, and sailing upon smoother 
water, under the Libyan mountains, they would 
arrive with greater ease on the back side of the 
city, «-«(* «vr«« 9rv(«^i}«K, over ag^nst^ or along the 
side of' the pyramids. An expression which may 
likewise account for the situation, that Pliny gives 
them betwixt Memphis and th& Delta; in as 
much ^ at this time, and under these circum- 
stances, they were in fact situated between those 

And that these pyramids, the pyramids of 
Geeza, as they are commonly called, are the Mem^ 
phitic pyramids, so famous in antiquity, the same 
that are meant all along by the ancient authors I 


* Herod. £ut. p. 140. edit. Stftph. 

80 The ancient Situation 

have quoted, will appear manifest from their re- 
spective descriptions of them. For> in the first 
place, they are alwa3rs taken notice of, together 
with Memphis ; the ancient descriptions of them 
likewise, both with regard to their number, their 
dimensions, &c. agree with the modem ; which 
is a further proof. Thus Herodotus tells us, 
(Eut. p. 155.) that ^ they were three in number ; 
' that the largest had several subterraneous cham- 
^ hers in it ; that the next in bigness had none y 

* and that|the smallest was covered with Ethio^ 

* pic marble.' This marble Diodorus Siculus 
(1. i. p. 64.) further observes, to be like the The- 
baic, as the Ethiopic actually is. Strabo (p. 555.) 
gives us the same number of pyramids, and the 
like circumstances with regard to their magni- 
tudes : * Here,' says he, * are several pyramids, 

* whereof three are very remarkable.' He men- 
tions the entrance likewise into the greatest, and 
that the smallest was part of it, covered with 
black marble. The great pyramid is further spe- 
cified by the many knobs of petrified lentils, as 
he calls them, which lay scattered along the side 
of it, and are no where else to be seen*. Pliny f 
observes the same number of pyramids, and that 
they were very conspicuous (as they, and no 
others remarkably are) to those who sail upon 
the Nile; that the smallest is covered with Ethi- 
opic marble ; atid, what will identify them be- 
yond dispute, that the Sphinx (and there was no 
other) lay before them. 


 Vid. Part. ii. § 2. Of the Pyramids, f Plin. 1. xxxvi. c. 12. 

Of the City Memphis. 8 1 

There are several other pyramids indeed to the 
southward of these in the Libyan deserts ; some 
qF which are of equal dimensions, and not infe- 
rior, in their structure and materials, to those of 
Geeza. But none of them have been so particu- 
Ifirly taken notice of, or even taken notice of at 
all, so as to interfere in this dispute. As these 
therefore which I have mentioned, can be no 
other than the pyramids of Memphis, it is very 
reasonable to conclude, that the city itself, from 
whence they were denominated, could not lie at 
any distance from them, but should rather be in 
their very neighbourhood, or where we now find 
the village of Geeza. 

Herodotus*, in his description of Memphis, 
tells us that Menes caused a lake to be made on 
the N. and W. sides of Memphis, and founded 
the magnificent temple of Vulcan ; and again f, 
that Myris, one of his successors, built, the por- 
tico of Vulcan's temple, and caused a lake to be 
made with pyramids, which was afterwards call- 
ed the lake of Myris. This, some learned gentle- 
men of my acquaintance suppose to be the same 
that was begun by Menes, and consequently, that 
Memphis must be situated near the lake Myris. 
They argue further, that this lake is called at pre- 
sent the lake of Charon, who ferried the dead 
bodies over it from Memphis to the plain of the 
mummies, or the Elysian fields, as this story was 
improved by Orpheus and the Grecian my tholo- 

VOL. II. L As 

* Herod. Eut. p. 140-1. edit. Stcph. f U. Ibid. p. 142. 

83 The ancient Situation 

As for the story of Charon and the Elysian 
fields, it is too full of fable and allegory to build 
thereupon any geographical data. Neithpr does 
it appear that the lakes made by Menes and My- 
ris are the same ; on the contrarj^, they were cer- 
tainly very different. For thiB latter was far 
enough removed from Memphis, being, according 
to Pliny* at lxxii M. distance. And moreover, 
it was of such a prodigious circuit arid extent, 
that all the correspondent part of Egypt, which 
lies bounded by the Arabian and Libyan moun- 
tains, was an insignificant spot in comparison of 
it. And further, the lake of Myrist lay altoge- 
ther to the westward, ir«^« « «(«« r« hm^ Me^^^, 

Herod. Eut p. \6%. \.t. on the other side of the 
mountain^ under which Memphis was situated; and 
therefore could have no communication at all 
with it. Whereas, one of the lakes made by 
Menes was to the northward of that city ; as the 
other, the Acherusia, as I take it to be, of Dio- 
dorus J, lay to the westward, under the eastern 
brow of the same mountain. And, as this lake 
might be continued all along the side of these 
mountVins, from the pyramids, even to the very 


* Inter Ardnoiten autem ac Memphiten lacus fuit circuitu 
CCL M. P. aut, tit Mutianus tradit cccc M . P. et altitudinis quin- 
quaginta passuum, manu factus a rege qui fecerat, Mceridis appd* 
latiir. Inde LXXII. M. P. abest Memphis, quondam arx ^gypti 
regUm. Plin. 1. v. c. 9. Vid. Diod. Sic. Bibl. 1. i. in fine. 

f Vid. the Cluysanthine map lii. 

T«v T«^« nvt Xtfivvi Ttxt¥ mv *M}s,HfM»n9 f*** AXEPOTSIAN, irAnrMP 3f 
Kdi ntiKatfA^, p. 61. ' 

Of the City Mm^is. 83 

pf ighbmirhopid of Saccara, severfil other places, 
^o dodbt, of sepulture, besides thje pyramids, in- 
terveningi it will thereby much better accord 
with this biistory of Qharon, and bis ferrying dead 
))odk3 frp^ Memphis oyer the Acherusia, to the 
j>yramids, or to th^ pl^nii qf the mummies, or 
EJysian $elds, than the remote and extensive lake 
of Myris. 

We may observe further, and it will point out 
to us perhaps th^ reason why we find no remains ^ 
of the ancient Memphis^ that the situation of it 
was very low, even in tlje very b?d of the old 
river- For Herodotus* a^cquaints us, that the ri- 
ver ran fprmerly aloi;g the si^^ of^dy hills 
of Libya ; but that this old ch^n^el wasi dried 
^P) hy l^e^dipg 9ff the river with a raippart, 
«ypc«fjw fr^;^«»r«, a huiidred furlongs higher up the 
atresun, or to the ^outhwardi according to ]the par 
^allel accou|it in Diodorus S^culusf, and thereby 
making it flow in ;a new channel, vipr^ at equal^ 
distances, wher^ it w^ turned o;i^ jbetwixt the 
Libyan ^nd Arabian np^pun tains, ' Thi^ bending 
' of the Nile, wl^n? the river is forced to fipw< 

* is Jcept up,' .§ays he, * and repaired ey^ry year 
' with strpng rawparts^ by the PersiwdS ; for if it 
' was suffered to be bfokeix down^^^all Memphis 

* would be in danger, n^mckw^vm^ of being swaU 

* lowed up by the i^tream.' In this manner, Me- 
nes is said, m^iyt^v^4>rtu t»» Mv*^i#, or to have made 
land, j^r^*, of wh?it was before water-; or, to have 


* Vidi sttpra, p. 79* note. f Diod. Sic. Bibl. 1. 1. p. 46* 


84 The ancient Situation 

dried up, so as to pass over dry-shod that spot of 
ground upon which Memphis was built. Or per- 
haps mifeytfv^ttffM may have a contrary meaning to 
yt^p^0Ttu, (as, among other compound words, ttTtBt" 
us)u6m is contrary to ^ifuxioti) and may here signify 
the same as ^Mn^tu fui yt^v^wdn i mi^^^, i. e. to con* 
trive it so that Memphis should not be raised 
upon arches. Because junxisse pontibtes Mem^ 
phinj as mifytfv^it^tu is rendered in the Latin ver- 
sion of Valla, conveys no proper idea of this un- 
dertaking; and aggesmse Memphiny as it is in 
the margin, though it be agreeable indeed to the 
alterations that have been made in some other 
cities, as will be hereafter mentioned, could not 
here be a. matter of fact. 

For Memphis, at this time, down to the age of 
Herodotus, had no higher situation than the an- 
cient bed df the river; and we may presume, 
that it continued the same, at least the greatest 
part of it *, in after ages ; its safety and preser- 
vation depending all ^ong*upon the keeping up 
these mounds and rampartsr, which fortified it 
agains^t the encroachments of thfe Nile. But af- 
ter 'Alexandria waS' built, and -became th6 chief 
mart for trade and navigation, arid also thei abode 
of the Egyptian kings, Memphis, by losing in 
this manner the residence of the court, together 
with its fonner comnierce^ would in proportion 


* Strabo indeed, by acquainting us that the royal edifices 
weres built upon a rising ground, seems to inanuate that the city 
itself was low. 'li^vrm ^§twtXei»y k yvp f^tt xmrtenett^iu kcu if <y f^n« 
ftM^ tp* i4^i xti^MftM f^tjc^i TVS Kttr^ Tus v^Mt^s f}«f V(< p« 555* 
edit. Casaub. 

Of the City Memphis. 85 

lose tlie many families and the numerous retinue 
that, in one relation or other, depended upon them 

As the inhabitants therefore, iii a few agfes, for 
Want of trade and employment, might be so gra- 
dually reduced and impoverished, as to be inca- 
pacitated,* either to undergo the fatigue or ex- 
pcnce of keeping up these mounds and ramparts, 
it is very probable that at length they ihight be 
necessitated entirfely to abandon both them and 
their city. Memphis being thus left, without an 
inhabitant, naked and open to the ravages and 
devastations of the Nile; and the danger to 
which it was exposed fcJr want of these ramparts 
of being swallowed up, K«T«rtt^tf^5«wM, beginning 
now to take place, the period of time could not 
be long, before the whole face and appearance of 
it would b6 so greatly changed and altered, as 
not to afford the least trace or footstep of its an- 
cient grandeur and magnificence, or even that 
sutjh a city had ever been. 

Neither am I singular in this opinion. It is 
confirmed by the learned author of the Descrijh 
tian of the East. * It is very extraordinary j' 
says he, p. 39* * that the situation of Memphis 

* should not be well known, which was so great 

* and famous a city, and for so long a time the 

* capital of Egypt ; but as many of the best ma- 

* terials of it might be carried to Alexandria, and 

* afterwards, when such large cities were built 

* near it, as Cajro' and those about it, it is ho 

* wonder that all the materials should be carried 

' away 

t6 Of tfie Land qf G^sl^m. 

' away to places so near, and so.wdl fpequented; 
^ and the city being in this manner levelled, aud 
' the Nile overflowing the old ruins, it may easi- 

* ly be accounted for how every thing has been 
' buried or covered over, as if no such place ha4 
^ ever been/ Mr Maillet likewise, in his jde^cripr 
tion of Egypt, (p. 275.) is of the same opinion, 
though more concise : ^ De cette Memphis, au- 
/ trefois si fameuse^ et si copsiderable, a peine res^ 

* tet"il assez de traces, pour pouvoir nous assu^ 

* rer de sa veritable situation.' 




Of the Land of Goshen^ of Arabia Petrcea] and 
of the Encampments of the Israelites therein. > 

xxFTER having thus adjusted the ancient si tiia^ 
tion of Memphis, let us return to the opposite 
sjiore, to the Arabian banks of the Nile, at Kairo 
and Mattarea, which, in the sacred geography^ 
were a part of . the land of Goshen or of Rame- 
jses. For Joseph, when he invited his father and 
brethren into Egypt, tells them, (Gen. xlv. 1>0.) 
that they should dxveli in the land of Ooshen^ and 
be near him. Goshaot then must, at that time, 
have been adjacent to the scat of the Egyptian 


Of the Land of Goshen. 17 

kin^. Now, (to ofntt other arguments that' 
Plight be drawn from the history and succession 
of £he Egyptian (dynasties), as a west wind^ 
£x.od. X. 19* took moay the locusts and cast them 
into the RedSea^ this metropolis may be much 
better fixed at Memphis, whose situation exactly 
answers to this circumstance, than at Zoan or 
Mansouil^, as it is now called, a city of the Ta- 
nitic Nomos, twenty leagues to the northward ; 
and consequently, where the same wind could 
not have blown them into the Red Sea, but into 
the Mediterranean, or else into the land of the 
Philistines, which lies directly to tlie eastward of 
it For the land of Zoan, (PsaJ. Ixxviii. 12. 43.) 
where the fearful things are said to have been done^ 
was probably another appellation only for the 
land of Egypt, or the land of Ham, by taking, 
as usual iu poetical compositions, a part for the 
whole, or, in the instance before us, one of the- 
most remarkable places of Egypt, such as Zoari 
might be in the time of David, or the composer 
of that Psalm, for the whole country. 

And indeed, provided Zoan had been then, as 
it might have been afterwards, the metropolis or 
the seat of the Pharaohs, towards which, Jacob 
and his children were to direct their marches, 
how comes it, that at their first setting out, they 
took their journey from the vale of Hebron (Gen. 
xxxvii. 14. xlvi. 1.) to Beersheba? which would 
lie too much upon the left hand ; and not towards 
paza, and the sea coast of the Philistines, which 
would have certainly been the nearest, and the 


9* Of the Lftnd of Goshen. 

TPQst direct road to Zoan? Whence comes it likcr 
wise, that when Jacob was carried out of Goshen, 
to be buried at Hebron, the proce^sipn came to 
the threshing-floor of Atad*^ which was beyond^ 
i e. to the westward | of the Jordan? Gen. 1. 10. 
For though indeed we cannot well account for 
this last 'geographical circumstance, yet it shews 
that the road, perhaps the same for Ae most 
part that Jacob took in going to Egypt, lay at a 
great distance from the sea coast of the Philis- 
tines, and consequently that they ppuld not have 
set out froni Zoan. 

Nay, further, provided Jacob had directed 
his journey from Beersheba, which was his se- 
cond station towards that part or city of Egypt, 
which was called Zoaq, it will be difiTcult to ac- 
count for the tradition that is recorded by the 


* If tbis Atad is tbe same that is laid down by St Jetom and 
EusebiuSy at iii M. from Jeracbo, and ii horn the Jordan, it must 
be situated xxx M. at least to the N. £. of Hebron 5 and conse- 
quently would be so much out of the way, in travelling thither 
from Egypt, Gen. xiv. 2. and xiz. 22. 

f Pww/nnyn Jordan^ is taken at large for the country that 
lies both to the west and to the east of Jordan, Deut. iii. 8. & 20. 
mthout being distingmshed by beyond Jordan eastward^ as in 
Josh. xiii. 8. or beyond Jordan westward^ or towards the sea^ as in 
Josh. xii. 7. And in this passage, it may perhaps be more cir- 
cumstantiated, and signify the threshing-Jloor that lay near^ or at 
the ford of the Jordan ; we will suppose a little below, or to the 
southward of the plain, where Gilgal was afterwards. But with- 
out contracting the Dead Sea, and making the channel of the 
Jordan extend itself much further towards Beersheba than it 
does at present, or very probably ever did after the destruction 
of Sodom, nothing of this kind can be well supposed ^ as this 
ford would stiU lie a great way beyond Hebron, out of the direct 
course of their journey^ from which they cannot well be presu« 
med to have deviated. 

Of the Land of Goshen. 89 

txxii * and Josephusf, that his son Joseph met 
him at Heroopolis^ or Adjeroute^ according to the 
present name. For this being a city of the He- 
liopolitan Nomos %> bordering upon the Red Sea, 
it would lie directly in the road from Beersheba 
to Memphis, but quite out of the road from Beer- 
sheeba to Zoan. The lxxii likewise instruct us, in 
the text above quoted, that Heroopolis was a city 
of the land of llameses. The land of Rameses 
therefore, or Goshen, could be no other than the 
Heliopolitan Nomos, taking in that part of Ara- 
bia which lay bounded, near Heliopolis, by the 
Nile ; and near Heroopolis, by the correspondent 
part of the Red Sea. For the Scriptures call 
Goshen, Gen. xlvii. 6. the best of the land: and 
again, ver. 1 1. Joseph gave his father and his ire- 
thren a possession in the land of Egypt, in the best 
of the land, in the land of Rameses : i. e. Goshen 
was the bf st and the most fertile portion of that 
jurisdiction. This then could be no other than 
. what lay within two or three leagues at the most 
from the Nile; because the rest of the Egyptian 
Aralbia, Which reachies beyond the influence of 
this river to the eastward^ is a barren> inhospita- 

bte wilderness. 

VOL. II. ' . ; if ' ' JosephUs 

iMi xi«^' H{iMvf 9n)u» mtftn ^vAttXtt. Josepb. Antiq. 1. ii. c. 7. 
H^ttHf %'«A<( {y. A. At it Km 'Bt&vXMf^s sMXitf;, T^ie- 

Ptol. Geogr. L iv. c. 5. 

90 Of the I^nd of Goshen. 

. Jofiephu&^ gives us a further proof that the 
iimd of Goshen was thus situated, by placing the 
iirat settlement of the Hebrews at Hetiopolis, of 
On -{v BA the Skriptures cali it ; which may be a 
teitimony likewise that Heliopolis could not have 
been then the seat of Pharaoh, beeause the He^ 
iMrews were not to be mthy but only to be 
near htm. The ruins of this city, where there is 
a fountain of excellent water, are known at pre^ 
Mnt by the name Df Matta-reahit;, lykig abou^t 
three miles to the eastward of the Nile, and five 
to the N. £. of Xaipo: But, m propor^on as the 
Hebrews increased^ it may be presumed that they 
spread thiemselves further along the Arabian 
banks of the Nile, towards Bishbesh, ^ ancient 
Bubastis, and towards Kairo, the ancient Latopo- 
lis, or Babylon {|. The Israelites likewise are said, 
Exod. i. 11. to kaoe btdit Fiihom, the Patumus 
probably which Herodotus^ places near Bubastis; 


IJOAEl. /oiepb. A;ili^. Lii. c. 4. 
f On (tie priest of\ G<jn. xlj. ^6. and 5,0- }» ircndprc^ by, die 

t TlMr J^uUftii feogmpher «eems to csH tliecky, fiom tfie 
fountain^ Ain (Semes) Slmns, The Fountain oftht <$»*, pV^iHg jt 
t9 tb^ n<>rthward of Fostat, or pld Kairo : ' Ad plagaixx ]E!ostat 
' septentnoni^em urbs Ain Semes dicta/ p. 98. ' Quod iejtam 
' Constantttitts L^mperair ad li'udetenlem/ p'. 244. ' confinnat, 
' qtda peregrmator ilk Idtum, quern Israefitaer habttandum acct- 
*<fmnt,«Met(JD(t^^ \^fau$emM^.' €«&«:. Gw^. Anttq. 
lib. iv. pag. 35« Whfit the propbet Jtfaiiiiik (arK$;iS«) <^slls 

(tS^DtE^.n^3) BrtJbihme^, i* e. $ieJlimt tfjM trnK Hm i4cxii 

interpret HXmwXtt*. 
J Vilnato^Liii. I£st«Oiiaa. c. 7. jMi^ntiq. 

A^qy iMXa» Httod* £uU j 158. 

Of the Land of Goshen. 9 1 

ami, in consequence tlierpof^ they may be suppo- 
sed either to have inhabited, or to liave. lived at 
least in the neighbourhood of it And as their 
departure, according to tte tradition preserved by 
Josephus, was from Latdpolis^ or Babylon it may 
be further presumed, that this Was a portion like* 
wise of the land, which Pharaoh gave them to in*- 
liabit. Goshen then was that part of the Heliopoi- 
litan Nornos^ or of the land of Ram^ses, which 
lay in the neighbourhood of Kairoi, Matta-reah^ 
and Bishbesh ; as Kaii'o itself might be Ramesesi 
the capital of the district of that name, where 
the Israelites had their rendezvous;, before they 
departed out of Egypt 

Now, test peradmntHre^ (Exod, xiii. 17) when 
the Hebrews smo w&r^ they should repent and re- 
turn to Egypt ^ God did not lead them through the 
way if the land <f the Philistines^ (viz. either by 
Heroopolis, in the midland road, or by Bishbesh, 
Tineh, and so along the sea coasts towards Gaza 
and Ascalon), although that was the nearest : but 
he kd them about, through the way ^ the wilder- 
ness of the Red Sea. There are accordingly two 
roads through which tlie Israelites might have 
been conducted from Kairo to Pihahhiroth, on the 
banks of the Red Sea. One of them lies through 
the vaUies, as they are now calted, of Jendily, 
Rumeleah, and Baideah^ bounded on each side by 
the mountains of the lower Thcbais. - The othea* 
lies higher, having the nartl:^yni range of these 
mountains (the mountains of Mocattee) running 
parallel with it on theright hand,, and thp desert 


92 Of the Lmd of Goshen, 

of the Egyptian Arabia^ which lies all the way 
open to the land of the Philistines, on the left. 
About the middle of this rapge, we may turn 
short upon our right hand into the valley of Ba- 
deah, through a remarkable breach or disconti- 
nuation, in which we afterwards contimued, to 
the very bank of the Red Sea. Suez, a small 
city upon the northern point of it, at the dis- 
tance of thirty hours, or xc Roman miles from 
Kairo, lies a little to the northward of the pro- 
montory that is formed by this same range of 
mountains called at present Attackah; as that 
which bounds the valley of Baideah to the south- 
ward is called Gewoubee. 

^is rbad then, through the valley of Baideah, 
which is some hours longer than the other open 
road, which leads iis directly from Kairo to, Suez, 
was, in all probability, the very road which the 
Israelites took to Pihahhiroth, on the banks of 
the Red Sea. Josephus then*, and other authors 
who copy after him, seem to be too hasty in ma- 
king the Israelites perform this journey of xc or 
t Roman miles in three days ; by reckoning each 
of the stations that are recorded for one day,^. 
Whereas the Scriptures are altogether silent with 
regard to the time or distance, recording the sta- 
tions only. ' The fitigue likewise would have 
been abundantly lo6 great for a nation on foot, 
encumbered with their dough, their kneading 
troughs, their little children and cattle, to walk 

 ■•' ' ' at 

TTx^ttymvrttt rm 'B^v^^eci ^«^«-«iK. Jos. Antiq. 1. ii. c. 5. in one. '" 

Of the Land fif Goshen. 93 

at tlie rate oS xxlx Rojiian miles a day. AnotBer 
instance of the same kind occuirs, £x9d, xv. S3. 
27- where £lim is mentioned as the next s^tation 
after Marah, though Elim and Marah are further 
distant from each other, than Kairo is from the 
Red Sea« Several intermediate stations, there** 
fore, as well here as in other places, were omit- 
ted ; the holy penipan contenting himself with 
laying down such only as were the most remark- 
^al^le, or. attended with some notable transac- 

Succoth then, the iSrst station * from Rameses, 
signifying only a place of tents, may have no fix- 
ed situation, being probably nothing more than 
some considerable Dou-war of the Ishmaelites or 
Arabs, such as we still meet with at xv or xx 
miles distance from Kairo, in the road to the Red 
Sea. The rendezvous of the caravan which con- 
ducted us to Suez, was at one of these Dou-wars ; 
at the same time we saw another at about vi M. 
distance, under the mountains of Moc-catte; 
or in the very same direction which the Israel- 
ites may be supposed to have taken, in their 
marches from Goshen towards the Red Sea. 

Neither is the geography of Etham, the se- 
cond station, much better circumstantiated. If 
it appertained to the wilderness f of the same 
. . name 

* '< And the duldren of Israel removed from Rameses, mid 
*^ pitched in Succoth.'* Numb* xxxiii. 5p 

f ** And they departed from Succoth, and pitched in Etham,** 
which is in the edge of the wilderness. Num. xxxiii. 6. £xod. 
xiu. 20. 

54 ' OfMtfMn. 

iiame^ whi<^h Iprddd itself round tht H^fpbf^oli^ 
tic Gulf *, and made afterwards the I^raceti6 of 
the old ge6gta|)hy, theft the edge of it may be 
well taken for the liiost advanced pfert <A it to- 
wards figjptj atid eottsequently to lie contiguous 
with sotoe portion br othef of the mountains of 
the lower Thebaic, or of Mocattc, or MoGattem> 
as they ate called^ ne^r Kairo* The particular 
spot of it likewise may probably be deterttuned 
by what is recorded afterwards of the Israelites^ 
(Exod. xiv. 2.) that, upon their removing from 
the edge of this wilderness, they are iniriiediately 
ordeted to turn^ (to the S.E.) .from the course, 
as we may imagifie> of tbeit foftaer marches, 
which was hitherto in an easterly direction, and 
to entamp before Pihuhhiroth. As t^hahhiroth 
therefore must lie to the right hand of the wil- 
derness of Etham, within, or on the 04:her side of 
these mountain^ \ so the second station, or the 
particular portion of thfe wilderness of Etham, 
may be fixed about t miles ffom Kairo, at, or 
near the breach which I have mentioned* 
. That the Israelites, before they turned towards 
Pihahhiroth, had travelled in an open country, 
the same way perhaps which their forefathers had 
taken in coming into Egypt, appears to be fur- 
ther illustrated from the folk>wing circumstance: 


• " They went tHree cbys jowrney in th« ^dnr&elB of Etham, 
'^ and pitched in Marah.^' Num. xxxiii. 8. 

f Mm^Ky t-«9 ktLw i|«y«v«f, v«««mt»0'«$ ftttiu^f TtK A<vv«*r<«f9 
Alex. Strom, p. 417. edit. Pott. 

OfEtbam. 95 

pj^. tlutt> upon their being ordered to remove 
from tb« ^dgf of the wild^rness^ and to encamp 
b^Qn Pihe^hhiroth, it iipmeidiately follows that 
Pb^raph should then aay, tk&y are entangkd in the 
fmdf the wilderne99 (betwixt the mountains^ we 
juay 9Mppo$e» of Gewoubee and Attackah) have 
9kut them in, Exod. xiv. 3. or, as it 13 in the ori'- 
gimlp "1 JD> (S^g€r) viam illis ctausitj as that word 
is explained by Pagoinus. For, in these circum- 
•3taijK^s, the Egyptians might well imagine, that 
the Israelites could have no possible way to es- 
cape ; in as much as the mountains of Gewoubee 
would stop dieir fliglit or progress to tlie south- 
ward, as those ^ Attackah would do the same 
towards the lan4 of the Philistines. The Red 
Sea likewise lay beibre them to the east ; whilst 
Pharaoh closed up the valley behind them with 
his chariots and horsemen. This valley ends at 
the sea, in a small bay, made by the eastern ex'- 
trcmities of the mountains which i have been de- 
scribing; and is called Tiah fieni Israel, i.e. the 
road of the IsraeliteSy from a tradition that is still 
kept up by the Arabs of their haying passed 
throygb it ; as it is also called Baideah ^, from 
the new and unheard of miracle that was wrought 
near it, by dividing the Red Sea, and destroying 
therein Pharaoh, his chariots, and his horsemen. 
The third not^ible eufi^mpjneat theij of tl^ Is- 
raelites w»as at tiris bay. it was to be before Pi- 
hahhirqth, betwixt Migdol ^nd tlif sea, avei' 


* Budeea^ nwelty^ rarity ^ («t« rv Budan^ he founded^ imoeouif^ 
noTsr et niirabilis rei conditor.) Casus novus ct inaudifus. Gol. 

96 Of PihafihirotL 

against BaaUtzephon, Exod. xiv. 2. And in Num. 
xxxiii* 7. it was to be before Migdol ; where th6 
word ♦IS^ liphne {before^ as we render it) being 
applied to Pihahhiroth and Migdol, may signify 
no more than that they pitched within sight of, 
or at a small distance from the one and the other 
of those places. Whether Baal-tzephon then 
may have relation to the northern * situation of 
the place itself, or" to some watch tower or idol 
temple that was erected upon it ; we may proba- 
bly take it for the eastern eitremity of the moun- 
tains of Suez or Attackah, the most conspicuous 
of these deserts ; in as much as it overlooks a 
great part of the lower Thebais^ as well as the 
wilderness that reaches towards, or which rather 
makes part of the land of the Philistines. Mig- 
dol then might lie to the soutli, as Baal-tzephoii 
did to the north of Pihahhiroth. For the marches 
of the Israelites, from the edge of the wilderness, 
being to the seaward, i. e. towards the S. E. their 
encampments betwixt Migdol and the sea, or be- 


f }Mi)i IS rendered tie riortKy £xod. xxvi. 20. \ Josn. vii, 11. 
tmd in other places of Scripture. Accordingly Baai-t^ephan 
mxf be interpreted, ike God or idol of the norths in contradistinc- 
tion perhaps to others of the lower TAebdis^ whose places of 
'Worship were to the S. or £• If Tz^pAort be related to HDlf^ 
to sf^ out or observe, then Baalrt9iiphon vnUl probably signify the 
God &f the watch-tower^ or the guardian God^ such as was the 
Hermes or Terminus of the Rcitnans, the E^d^of 0i«^ of the 
Greeks, &c. The worshifping updn tmuniavu is meotipne^y 
1 Kings xiv. 23. Jer. ii. 20. &c. The Persians worshipped, %%i 
T« v^A«r«r« r*>y «^i«y wnAm'twnii* Herod. CliOy $ 131. H6- 
braice est, Dominus Speculse, quod ostendit loca ilia edita fuisse 
et prasrupta. . Menoeh. in lociim^ Vid. Seld. de Diis Syris, 
cap. lii. synt. 1. 

Of Pihahhiroth, ' 97 

fore lyiigdol, as it is otherwise noted, could i^ot; 
well havp another situation. 

Pihahhiroth, or Hhiroth rather, without re* 
garding the prgefixt part of it, may have a more 
general signification, ^nd denote the valley, or 
that whole space of ground which extended itself 
from the edffe of the wilderness of Etham to the. 
lied Sea. For that particular part only, , where 
the Israelites werjB ordered to encamp, appears to 
have been called Pi-hahhiroth, i. e, the mouth of 
J(Ihiroth, For when Pharaoh overtook them, it 
was with respect to his coming down;upon theih, 
Fxpd. xiv. 9. m^nn 'D Sjt, i.e. besides, or at the 
mouthy or the most advanced part of Hhiroth to 
the eastward. Likewise in Num. xxxiii. 7. where 
the Israelites are related to have encamped before 
Migdol, it follows, ver.' 8, that thejf departed^ 
m*nn UBO, Jrom before Hhirothy a,nd not from 
before Fihahhiroth, as it is rendered in our trans- 
lation. And in this sense it is taken by the lxxii, 
by Eusebius, and St Jerome ; tlie former inter- 
preting Pihahhiroth by r^ ft^ ei^, or the mouth 
of Eiroth, or Irothy as St Jerome writes it. * For 
»fl, as Ben Ezra criticises upon the word, relates 
to what lies before us, being called in the Tar- 
gum, DID Phoumy or 'DIS Phoumi; as Hhiroth is 
called NJT^^n Hhirata. Each of them therefore, 
is to be considered as a distinct term and appel- 

If we take Hhiroth then for an appellative, it 
may hs^ve two significations: It has been alrea- 
dy observed, that this valley is closely confined 

VOL. II. N betwixt 

§t Of Pihahhiroth. 

bitwixt tw6 tugged chains of moutitains. By 
deducing Hhiroth therefore from irt Hhor, of 
•llh Hhdur, i. t. a hole or gullet y as the Samaritan 
and Syriac copies understand it, it may, by a la- 
titude vefy Mmmon in these eases, be rendered a 
mrr&w defik^ toad or passage^ such as the valley 
^f Baideah his bc^n described. Pihahhiroth 
therefore, upon this supposition, \viU be the same 
fts the tnoiitli tfr the mbst advanced part of this 
Iraltey, to tbe eastward, towards tht; Red Sea. 
But as the Israelites were properly delivered at 
this place froto their captivity and fear of the 
Egyptiatis, Exod. xiv. IS. we may rather suppose 
that }}hir6th deAbtes the place where they were 
Mt^tored to their liberty ; as •^•^n Hhorar, and 
JlWri Hhimkj are wbi-ds of the like import in 
the Chaldee. In Eashi's C6mmentafy, we have a 
further confitmatlon of this interpretation. * Pi- 
' hahhirftth,* says he, ' is so called, because the 
' children 6f Israel were made Onn 03, Beni 
* Hkorifn^ freemen^ at that place.' In the Targum 
likewise, J^Tin-l^, Ben Hhorin^ is used to explain 
^Sn Hhaphsee, Exod. xxi. 2. & 5. a word which 
denotes liberty and freedom in these and other 
parts ^f Seriptilre. And it may be fiirther urged, 
in fkvour its well of this explication as of the 
tradition still preserved, of the Israelites having 
pa^ed through this valley, that the eastern ex- 
tremity of the mountain; which I suppose to be 
Baal-tzephto, is called, even to this day, by the 
inhabitants of these deserts, Jibbel Attakah, tor 
the mountain of delhoernnx:e ; which appellation, 


Th€ Panagf of th* l$ra^iitics. ^ 

togetbi^r Mritb those of Baidenh and Tiab hcsn 1m 
rs^l, could Mvpr hav^ been given or imposed 
upoa these ioi^^itant^ at first, o^ preserved by 
tfaero afterwards, without ipn^ fi^tbful traditipn 
that such places h»d ornff bef n the $u;tuftl i^cene 
of these remarkable traiisactiooji* The sea likfr 
wise ot* l^haifiy I e. dfsirfictipny as the c^rrf* 
spoodent part pf the llfd $ea fs $aUed ifx the 
Arabian geogr^^y, js a further p^n^rmatioi) of 
this t^aditioiii. Moreover^ thf 2f:tbyPl^agi, who 
lived in this very nepghbpwbpo^ 4r* r«poftisri by 
Diodorus Siculusi (I iii. p. JSSr) t9 ti4ye ft«ser> 
ved . the like traditipnafy 9i»2i00pt frpip tbeir 
foreffljthpn^ of. tb)s n^ft«ilp»$ 4ivj««Mi rf tbf 
Eed Sea. 

There a^l;^ iil^ewise 9tb«r ^ircuffist^Of^es Ui ^mvs 
that the Israelite* tpok timn 4«|>irture &om tbip 

valley, ki th^ir passage .4;hr9i»gh the Bed S^ 

For it cpuld pQt havp jt*w tP the i»rth«jrard «f 
the mou3at»i»s of , Af faokjij, w » tie bigbfir f6a4 
wbieh I ha^ye <;aH«9 i^etfee pfj beo^i^^ as tbi^ 
lies for the xnost pafi; upoffli a lev^U.tiie In^filitfa 

could »at have biaen J^prg, m w4 iSad tbffj^ W?re, 
shut iiiL a^d entangH^d* Neithftr «ouM ii haytf . 
been on the ptb^ ,fM«^ ty^. to tb< i$A <tf tbe 
mouptains of CrefROfd^y, ftir tben j(bftpi<fc* ibe jo*^ 
supeisable 4^%u^i|t8 wiu^^ tbe W«li^ w^ld 
have inet w^ m ^\^ng «rer thtnu tbs ^s^ne 
iikewis^ that the Egyp^anf would bftvic hftd ia 
pursuing them) th^ ]bpposite shore could tiot 
hiv^ been the desert j)f Shui", w^cw the I$rael' 
ites iandAl, £xod. 9iv. as: bi^tt it w^ould bat< been 

iOO The Pashge x>f the Isri^lites^ 

the desert of Marah, that lay a great \vay be- 
yond, it. What is now called* Corortdel, might 
probably be the southern portion of the descfrt of 
Marah, the shore of the Red Sea from Suez hi- 
therto having continued to be low and sandy, 
fittt from Gorondcl to the port of Tor, the shore 
is for the most part rocky and mountaindus, in 
the same manner with the Egyptian coast that 
lies opposite to it; neither the. one nor the other 
of them affording any convenient plate, eitlier 
for ' the departure of a multitude -from the one 
shore, or tiie reception of i t upon the oti^r. And 
besides, from Corotfdel* to Tor^ the channel of 
the RedSea^ which from Suez to* Sdiir is not 
above ix oc x M. broad, begins here to be so 
many leiagues ; tod great a space certakfly for the 
Israelites, in the manner they were encumbered, 
to pass over in one night. At Tor, the Arabian 
shore begins to wind itself round about Ptolemy's 
promontory of Paran, towards the Gulf of Eloth, 
whilst the Egyptkn shore irfctires so far to thfc 
S.W. that 'it*" can scat(je be perceived; - * 

. Ai^ the Israelites theM^ for these - rieasons, ieotild 
ixot^ a^cwding to the - opinion i^ som^ authors; 
baVe land^ either -at; CorHondel dr Tor ; Jso nei- 
i;het Goiild' they have landbd at Aiii el Mbusah^ 
according to %hb doiijecttf rts of othefr*: Fot^ if 
the passaged the Israelites had -been so near the 
extremity 01? ttie Rtid Sfea, it may be presumed 
' • ''•■-■ ' that 

 Ebtt' SaM (dodl'MS. Scld.) makes tic sea at Corondcl td 
be serea^ niiks arar, i^ereas It is li|tk more than 96 totoiy fbr*- 
longs. Via. Vol. iir, Gcogr. Vet; Min. 

Through the Red !Sea. 101 

that the very encampments of six hundred thou- 
sand men, besides children,^ and a mixed multi^- 
tude, which would amount to as' many more, 
would have spread themselves even to the fur- 
ther, or the Arabian side of this narrow isthmus, 
whereby the iiiterposition of Providence would 
not have bee^ at all necessary. Because in this 
case, and in - this situation, there iX>uld not have 
heen room enough for the waters, after they were 
divided, to have stood on a heap, or to have been 
a wall un*o them, particularly on the left hand* 
This mbreover would not have* been a division, 
but a r^ess only df' the water to the southward. 
Pharaoh ' likewise, by overtaking them as they 
were encamped in tihis open situation by the sea; 
would have easily surrounded them on all sides. 
Whereas the 'Contrary seems -to he implied by the 
pUiar of thi cloudy Exod. xiv. 19, 30. which dtvi^ 
ded, or cafM betwien^ the C4tmpof'4M Eg^pfianSj 
and the aimp^ of^ hmd ;' Aftd thereby teft the Is- 
raeli tds (provided this doud^hcAild* have been re- 
moved) in a^sitiiation only of being molested in 
the » rear. For > the narrow ^valtey which I have 
described/ and which, \te may presume, was aU 
ready occupied and ifflied up behind by the host 
of Egypt, and bdforfc by the encampments of the 
Israeli tesy wmild not perm it,' or^kave room for 
the Egyptian;^ . to a]|^oachtl*m/ either on the 
right hand, or on the left. Besides*, if this pas-^ 
sage was at Ain Moiisa, how can we account for 
that remarkable circumstance, Ex. xv. 22. where 
it is sai^, that W^ Moses brought Israel from 


102 The Passage of the Israelites, 

the Red Sea, thfy went ottt intu, or landed id, the 
wilderness ^* Shur, For Shur, a' particular dis* 
trict of the wildern^s of Ethaiu, lies directly 
fronting the valley, from which I suppose they 
departed, but a great many miles to the south* 
ward of Ain Mousa* If they landed likewide at 
Aiu Mousa, where there are sevei^al fountains^ 
there would luve beien no occasion for the sacred 
historian to, have .observed, at the same time, that 
the Israelites, after they went out from tlie sea 
into the wilderness of Siur, went three days in the 
wilderness, always directing their marches towards 
Mount Sinai, and Jimnd no water. For which 
reason, Marah is recorded, ver. S3, to be the first: 
place whjere they found water ; as their wander- 
ing so far before they foui^d it, seems to make 
Marah also th^ir first station, after their passage 
through the Red Sea. Mbreover the channel 
over against Ain Mou$a, is not above three miles 
over ; wlieareas that betwixt Sbir or Sedur and 
Jibbel Gewoubee sUxdf At^tackaHi^ h nine or ten^ 
and th^^fere <^af»oii8 enough, as the other 
would have b/een j^ jsmaU» fox dfowning t>r eo^ 
Bering therein (Exod. kv. S8.) the eharwts and 
horsemen, andaU the host ^'Pharaoh.. And therer 
fore, by impartially weighisig all these arguments 
together, this important point w th£ sacned ;geo- 
graphy may^ >vith more authority, be fixed at 
Sedur, over against the valley of Baideab, than 
at Tor, Corondel, Aiit Mousa, oi any otlus* 
Over against Jibbel At>>tackab, and the valley 

- of 

Through ike Red Sea. ' . 1 OS 

of fiaidesLb^ is the desert, as it is Willed, of Sdur, 
the same with Shur, Exod. xv. 22. where the Is- 
raelites landed, after they had passed through the 
interjacent gulf of the Red Sea. The situation 
>of this gulf, which is the Jum Suph^ Did D% the 
weedy sea^ or the tongue of the Egyptian Sea, in 
the Scripture language, the gulf of Heroopolis in 
the Greek and Latin geography, and the western 
arm, as the Arabian geographers call it, of the sea 
of Kolzam *, stretches itself nearly N. and S. 
and therefore lies very properly situated f to be 
traversed by that strong east wind which was sent 
to dhide it, Exod. xiv. 21. The division that was 
thus made in the channel, the making the waters 
(^ it to stand on a heap, (Psal. Ixxviii. 1 3.) their 
being a wall to the Israelites on tlie right hand and 
on the kft, (Exod. xiv. 22.) besides the twenty 
miles distance at least of this passage from the 
extremity of the gulf, are circumstances which 
sufficiently vouch for the miraculousness of it, 
and no less contradict all such idle suppositions 

^ as 

^ Sues vulgo non habet Abulfeda, sed ejus loco Alkolsum r 
tidentur tamen duo loca distincta : tiam nosier Kalkashandi moz 
post Suas pcttut Aikol^ttm ad meTidiem ejuadeHi Sues in litoce 
^gyptiaco : at vero Mekxisi cxpresse ait Alkolzum esse dira- 
turn et loco ejus hodie Sues esse. V. c. Job. Gagn. Not. In Abulf. 
Geogr. Ad osam extifiiam bcachii oricntalis maris Alkoleum 
sita est AHah, et ad oram extimam bnu:bii occidentalis fuit urbs 
Alkolzum \ utriusque latitudines ferme eaedem sunt. Vid. Abulf. 
Descrip. Maris Alkolzum.— Hand procul ab Alkolzum est locus 
in man ubi demersus fuit Faraone. Id. — Alkolzum, or Kolzpm 
without the article, seems to haVe some affinity with Clysma, 
another name that this gulf was formerly known by. The same 
}s laid down by Philostorgius, L iii. c. 6. 

•f- Vid. QoUi BOt* in Alfarganum^*. 

1 04 Of pp^ondef\qni^ Mofak. 

03 pretend tx) account for it ffoqn; the nature aud 
quality of tides, or froia any §uch extraordinary 
recess of the sea, as it seems to have been too 
rashly compared to by Josephus *. 

In. travelling from Sdur to>yards Mount Sinai,, 
we come into the desert, as it is still palled, of 
Marah, where the Israelites met with those bitter 
waterSyOx waters of Marah, Exod. xv. 23. And 
as this circumstance did not happen till after they ' 
had wandered three days in the wilderness, we may 
probably fi:jc these waters at Corondel, where? 
there is still a small rill, which, unless it be dilu- 
ted by th^ dews and rain, still contmues to be 
brackish* Near this place, the sea forms itself 
into a large bay, called Berk el Corondel f, i- €. 
the lake of' Corondel, which is remarkable for a 
strong current that sets into it frop the north- 
ward, particularly at the recess of the tide. The 
Arabs, agreeably to the interpretation of Kolzum, 
their name for this sea, preserve a tradition that 
a numerous host was formerly drowned at this 
place ; occasioned, no doubt, by what is related 
Ex. xiv. 30. that the Israelites saw the Egyptians 
dead upon the sea shore ; i. e. all along, as we may 
presume, from Sdur to Corondel ; and at Coron- 
del especially, from the assistance and termina- 
tion of the current, as it has been already men- 

There is nothing further remarkable, till we 
see the Israelites encamped at Elim, (Exod. xv. 
27. Numb, xxxiii. 9.) upon the northern skirts 


* Jos. Andq. 1. ii. c. 7. f Note, p. 100. 

Of Elim, and the Desert qf Sin. 1 05 

of the desert of Sin, tvv^o leagues from Tor, and 
near thirty from Corondel. I saw no more than 
nine of the twelve wells that are mentioned by 
Moses ; the other three being filled up by those 
drifts of sand which are common in Arabia. Yet 
this loss is amply made up by the great increase 
in the palm trees, the seventy having propagated 
themselves into more than two thousand. Un- 
der the shade of theise trees, is the Hammam 
Mousa, or bath of MoseSy particularly so called, 
which the inhabitants of Tor have in great es- 
teem and veneration; acquainting us, that it was 
here where the household of Moses was encamp- 

We have a distinct view of Mount Sinai from 
Elim ; the wilderness, as it is still called, of Sin 


(?^D) lying betwixt them. We traversed these 
plains in nine hours, being all the way diverted 
with the sight of a variety of lizards and vipers, 
that are here in great numbers.' We were after- 
wards near twelve hours in passing the many 
windings and difficult ways, which lie betwixt 
these deserts and those of Sinai. The latter con- 
sist of a beautiful plain, more than a league in 
breadth, and nearly three in length, lying open 
towards the N. E. where we enter it, but is clo- 
sed up to the southward by some of the lower 
eminences of Mount Sinai. In this direction, 
likewise, the higher parts of this mountain make 
such encroachments upon the plain, that they di- 
vide it into two, each of them capacious enough 
to receive the whole, encampment of the Israel- 
voL. II. ites. 

106 The D^ert of Sin an^ Mount Sinai. 

ites. That which lies to the eastward, may b^ 
the desert of Sinai, properly so calledi where 
Moses saw the angel of the Lord in the burning 
hushy when he was guarding the flocks of Jethro, 
£xod. iii. £. The convpnt of St Catharine is 
built over the place of this divine appearance. 
It is near ccc f|^t square, and more than xl i^ 
height, ^ing built partly with stone, partly with 
mud and mortar mixed together. The more im^ 
mediate place of the Shekinah is honoured with 
a little chapel, wl^ich this old fraternity of St 
Basil has in sudh esteem and vener^^tipn, that, in 
imitation of Moses, they put oiF their shoes from 
off their feet whenever they enter it. This, with 
several other chapels dedicated to particular saints, 
are included ivithin the church, as they call it, of 
tlie transfiguration, which is a large beautiful 
structure, covered with lead, and supported by 
two rows of marble columns. The floor is very 
elegantly laid out in a variety of devices in Mo- 
saic work. Of the same tesselated workmanship 
likewise, are both the floor an^ the walls of the 
presbyterium ; uppn the latter whereof is repre- 
sented the efiigies of the emperor Justinian, t^- 
gether with the -history, of the transfigiiratiQU. 
Upon the partition which separates tl^e presbyte- 
rium from the body of the church, there is p4ace4 
a small marble shrine, wherein are prei^erved the 
skull, and one of the hands of St Catherine; 
the rest of the sacred body having been bestow- 
ed, at different times, upon such Christian princes 




The Church of the TVansfiguratim. 107 

&s have eontributed to the suppdrfof this con- 

The pilgrinfis are not adihttted into this con- 
vert by the door, (which is operi Oilty when the 
ftrch-Wshdp, who usually rcfsides att Kairo, comes 
to be iftsfalled), but ^e are dfawri uj> by a wind- 
JasS, neit thirty feet high, and theh taketi in at a ^ 
window by Some oi the lay brothers who attend 
for that purpose. These, and the papasses or 
presbyters, who are cJoifamoiily caltdd kalories * 
itiafce in all about a hundred arid fifty, who live a 
tery strict and austete life, abstaining n6t ofily 
from flesh, but also :ft'ofti butter, mrlk, atfd eggs ; 
which even the pilgfirtiii a^e UM. petmitfed ib 
bring into the converit. The leasft iftottificiaition 
they ttildergo, tfrhieh hidecd is not often, isWheri 
they receive from their sister convent at Tor, or 
from Menah d Dsahab; a qhantity of s:lielt fish/ 
crabs or lobsters, other fish being proTiibifed by 
their ins^tifution. Fof brfead or bi^ciiit is the 
main aftkle of their sustenance ; to ivhicH \i add- 
ed, according to the course of their sitatfed days, 
half a piii£ of datcf biiandjr, together With a small 
pdttidii Qlf oHVes, oil and vinegar, salHid 6r pot- 
h^rbfr; or else of dates, ligs, almonds, parched 
pulse, and s^uch Ukefood as was the ^f^dtiii-y- Sry 
dki of the pfifflifite Christians. Their bread, 
biscuit, oil, olives, pulse and figS;- are -brought to 
them monthly fVom Kaito; but their dat6^, bran- 

 Km)i9yt0H^y i.€.dgoodotifHiirii Vid. Toumef, Voy. voLu 

•f Vid. TcttuU. Jc Jejunio* 

108 . Of Mount Sinai. 

dy, salladj and pot-herbs, are chiefly from their 
own gardens and plantations. 

Mount Sinai, which hangs over this convent, is 
called by the Arabs, Jibbel Mousa, i, e. tlie moun-^ 
tain qf Moses ; and sometimes only, by way of 
eminence, El Tor, i. t.jhc mountain. St Helenaf 
out of the great reverence she had for this 3iA»- 
iiw «(«<, according to the appellation, of these 
monks, built a stair-case of stone from the bottom 
to the top of it I but at present, as most of the§e 
steps, which history* informs u«, were originally 
six thpusand six hundred in number, are, either 
tumbled down, or defaced, the ascent is become 
vqry fatiguing, and frequently imposed upou their 
votaries and pilgrims as a severe penasice* How- 
ever, at certain, distances^ the fathers have erects 
ed, as so many breathing places, several : little 
chapels and oratories, dedicated to one pr other of 
their saints ; who, as they are always to jbe iavo- 
ked upon these occasions, so^ after some small 
oblation^ they , are always engaged to be propiti- 
ous to lend their. assistance. .. 

The.s.uinmit of Mount Sinai is not very spaci- 
ous ; where the Mahometans, the JLatins, and the 
,, . ' • . . '  ^ • .Greeks, 

* Vid* Oeo^rs^lium smotiyduid Gmcuii aptid L. Allatil 
£vfipjer«« The steps that remain, are each of themy a little 
tnore or less, a foot mgh ^ so that the perpendicular height of 
this ittounrt tnay be computed, according to die number of thes^ 
steps, to be 6600 feet, or 2200 yards, i. e, one nule ati({ a quar- 
ter. ' Bitt as the ascent in some few places is plainer and easier, 
ivithottt the traces of any steps^ as indeed they were not wanting, 
a furlong or thereabbuts may be added, so as to make the whole 
perpendicular height from die convent to the top to be, more Or 
less, 2400 yards« 

Of Mount Sinai. 1 09 

Greeks, have each of them a small chapeL Here 
we are shewn the place where Moses fasted forty 
daySj £xod. xxxi. 1 8. where his hand xpas support- 
ed by Aaron and Hur^ at the battle with Amalek, 
Exod. xvii. 9. 12, where he hid himself from the 
face ofGodf the cave, as they pretend to shew it, 
having received the impression of his shoulders ; 
besides many other places and stations recorded 
in Scripture* 

After we had descended, with no small diffi- 
culty, down the other or western side of this 
mount, we come into the plain or wilderness of 
Rephidim, Exod. xvii. ]. where we see that ex- 
traordinary antiquity, the rock of Meribah, Exod. 
xvii. 6. which has continued down to this day, 
without the least injury frpm time or accidents. 
This' is rightly called, froni its hardness, Deut. 
viii. 15. a rock ,qffint^ Bf^DSnn TIX ; though from 
the purple or reddish colour of it, it may be ra* 
ther rendered the rock of oSn, or nobnK, ame- 
tkysty or the amethystine, or granate rock: It is 
about six yards square, lying tottering as it were 
and loose, near the middle of the valley, and 
seems to have been formerly a part or cliff of 
Mount Sinai, which hangs in a variety of preci- 
pices all over this plain. The waters which gush- 
ed out^ and the stream which flawed withal^ PsaL 
vii. 8. 21. have hollowed across one corner of this 
rock, a channel about two inches deep, and twen- 
ty \yide, all over incrustated like the inside of a 
tea-kettle that has been long used. Besides seve- 
ral ipossy productions that are still preserved by 


110 Of Mount Sinai: 

the dew, we see all over this channel a great 
number of holes, some of them four or five inches 
deep, and one or two in diameter, the lively and 
demonstrative tokens of their having beeti for- 
merly so many fountains. Neither could art or 
chance be concerned iti the contrivstnce, in as 
much as every circumstance points out to us a 
miracle, and in the same manner ^nth the rent in 
the rock of Mount Calvary, at Jerusalem, never 
fails to produce the greatest seriousness and de- 
votion in all who see it. The Arabs who were 
our guards, were ready to stone me in attempting 
to break off a comer of it. 

The monks likewise shew us several other re- 
markable places ; as where Aarorts ra^ was mol- 
ten, Exod. xxxii. 4. (but the head only is repre- 
sented, and that very rudely) ; where the Israel- 
ites danced at the ctmsecration of it, Ejtod. xxxii. 


19. ; where Corah and his compani/ were swallowed 
up, Num. xvi. 32. ; where Elias kid himself whtn 
he flied from Jezebel, 2 Kings viii. 9. But the hi- 
story of these, and of the other places which I 
have mentioned upon the mount, is attended 
with so xhAtiy monkish tales and inconsistencies, 
that it would be too tedious to relate them. 

From Mount Sinai, the Israelites directed their 
marches northward, towards the land of Canaan. 
The ttrtct remarkable encampments, therefore, 
were in the desert of Paran, which seems to have 
commenced immediately upon their departing 
from Hazaroth, three stations or days journey, 
i* e. XXX M . as we will only compute them, from 


The Desert vf Paran. 1 1 1 

Sinai, Numb. x. 33. and xii. 16. And as tpdr-* 
tion has continued down to us the names of Shur, 
Marah and Sin, so has it also that of Paran ; the 
ruins of the late convent of Paran, built upon 
those of an ancient city of that name, (which 
might give denomination to the whole desert), 
being found^ about the half way betwixt Sinai 
and Corondel, which lie at forty leagues distjincc. 
This situation of Paran, so far to the S. of JCa- 
desh, will illustrate Gen, xiv. 5, 6. where Cheder- 
laomer, and the kings that were with him^ are said 
to have smote the Horites in their Mount SeiK, untQ 
fll Paran (i. e. unto the city, as I take it, pf that 
nam^) which is in^ or by the wil4emess. 

The whole country round about Paran is very 
mountainous, making part of the iuxi»»# fk of Pto- 
lemy *, which he tells us extended from the pro- 
montory of Paran as far as Jud^a, and would 
therefore take in the Accaba, which will be here- 
after mentioned. 

From the more advanced part of the wilder- 
ness of Paran, (the same that lay in the road be- 
twixt Midian and Egypt, 1 Kings xi. 18.) Moses 
sent a man o^t of eoery tribe to spy out the land of 
Canqany Ni^ra. xxiii. 3. who returned to him after 
forty days, unto , the same wilderness, to K^idesh 
Barnea, Num. xxxii. 8. Deut. i. 10. and ix, 23. 


'Emj^H 3f x«< If ^sy ^ft^m KMf>cn fit^us fy x« y« 

Ait^rMvcii 3f %f m x^i'^y (Arabise Petrseae) t« ««eXy^ei>« MgA«y« m 
•sv m ««Yw i^st^dtf (AuxM* ^ *'< ^W hti^Mv, utu «(r« fU9 ivn»i rtn 
^Ufv ri(r«»y )r«^« rw Aiyvirrof, i ri S^PAKHNH wet^nKH. Ptolem. 
peogr. 1. V. p. 17. 

112 The Situation of Kadesh. 

Josh. xiv. 7. This place or city, which in Gen. 
xiv. 7. is called Enmishpat, i. e, the fountain of 
Mishpat, is, in Num. xx. 1. xxvii. 14. xxxiii. S6. 
called Tzin Kadesh, or simply Kadesh, as in Gen. 
xvi. 14. and xx. 1. and being equally ascribed to 
the desert of \'^ Tzin and to the desert of Paran, 
we may presume that the desert of Tzin and Pa- 
ran were one and the same. X^ or DO!f, may be 
so called from the plants of divers palm grounds 
upon it 

A' late ingenious author* has situated Kadesh 
Bamea, a place of no small consequence in Scrip- 
ture history, which we are now enquiring after, 
at eight hours, or twenty miles distance only, 
from Mount Sinai, which I presume cannot be 
admitted for various reasons. Because several 
texts of Scripture insinuate, that Kadesh lay at 
a much greater distance. Thus, in Deut. i. 9. it 
is said, they departed from Horeb, through that 
great and terrible wilderness^ (which supposes by 
far a much greater extent both of time and space), 
and came to Kadesh Bamea ; and in chap. ix. 23. 
when the Lord sent you from Kadesh Bamea to 
possess the land ; which. Num. xx. 16. is described 
to be a city in the uttermost part of the border of 
Edom : the border of the land of Edom, and that 
of the land of promise being contiguous, and in 
fact the very same. And further, Deut. i. 2. it 
is expressly said, that there are eleven days Jour- 
ney from Horeb J by the way of* mount Seir to Ka- 
desh Bamea ; which, from the context, cknnot be 


* Descript. of the East, vol. i. p. 157. 

Distance betwixt Kadesh and Rehob. 113 

otherwise understood, than of marching along 
the direct road. For Moses hereby intimates, 
how soon the Israelites might have entered upon 
the. borders of the land of promise, if they had 
not been a stubborn and rebellious people. 
Whereas the number of their stationi^, betwixt 
Sinai and Kadesh, as they are particularly eiiu-^ 
merated, Numb, xxxiii. (each of which must 
have been at least one day's journey), appear to 
be iiiear twice as mai:^, or xxi ; in which they 
are said, with great truth and propriety, PsaL> 
cvii. 4. to have wandered in the wilderness, out of 
the way; and in Deut ii. 1. to heme . compassed 
Mount S^ir, rather than to have travelled directly 
through it. If then we aUow x miles for each > 
of these eleven days journey, (and fewer, I jire- 
same, cannot well be insisted. upon), the dfiatahce 
of Kadesh from Mount Sinai, will be ahout ex- 

Thatx. M, d day (I mean id a' direct line, as 
laid dow)i in the map, without considering the 
deviations, which are eyieiy where, morfe or less) 
were equivsdent to onerday's journey, maybe fur- 
ther proved from the history of the jjpie*, who 
searched the land (Numb.xiii. 9^1.) from Kadesh to 
Rehob, as men ct^me to Mamath^ and returned in 

« * * 

forty days. Rehob tha'ti, . the furthest point of 
this expeditiqn to the north^rafd, may well bcf 
conceived to have beeur twenty days jdurney from 
Kadesh ; and ther^fot-e to know the true position 
of Rehobi* will be a material point in this dis(|ui- 
sition. Now, it appears' from Josh. xix. 99, 30- 
vojt.. i;i. V and 

} 14 PUtmCe. ktHfivt Kadtsh and Rehob. 

ami Judges I 31, tJaat llehol> was one of the niar 
ritime cities of the -tribe of Asher, and lay (in 
travellings as we may siappose, by the common 
or nearest way) along the sea coast; non naS, 
Nuinb% xiti. 21; (not, as we render it, as men come 
to Harmthy but) as men go towards Hamath, in 
g^ng to Huvmtk^ or in the way or road to Ha*, 
rmtk. For to have searched the land as far as 
Uamada^ and to have returned to Kadesh in forty 
days^ would hav« been altogetlier iinpossible*. 
]\l(M(^over, as the tribe of Adier did noi reach 
bieyond Sido% fbr that was. its northern bound- 
ary, Josh. xix. 28« Rebob must have been situ- 
ated to the southward of Sidon, upon, or (being 
a deiivative perhaps^ from srn, latum esse) below 
m the plain^ under . a locig chain of mountains 
that runjs £. and W. tKrough the midst of that 
tr&a And as these mountains, called by some 
the mountains of Saron, are all along, except in 
tihe parrow whkb I have mentioned) near the sea, 
very rugged and diilicull to p*ass over, the spies, 
who could not weU take another way, might 
imagme tfasy would ran too great a risque of 
being discoveoed in attempting to pass thmugh 
it. For in these eastern countries, a watchful 
eye waa: always, as it is still, kept iq^on stran- 
gers, as we may collect from the history of the 
two angels at Sodom, Gen. xix. 5. and of the 
spies . at Jericho, Josk ii. Of. add frdm other in* 
stairces* If then we fix Rehob upon the skirts 
of the plaina of Acre, a little to the S. of this 
narrow road, (tiie ScaJsi Ty riorum, as it was af- 

Distance betwixt Kadesh mid Rehob. 115 

terwards aained), somewhere near Egdippa, the 
distance betwixt Kadesh and Rehob will be about 
ccx M. ; whereas, by placing Kadesh twenty 
miles oaly from Sinai or Horeb, the distance will 
be cccxxx ; and instead of' x miles a day, accord* 
ing to the former computadon, the spies must 
hay c travelled nearxvii, which, for forty day« 
successively, seems to have been too difficult an 
expedition in this hot, and consequently fa* 
tiguing climate; espedxlly as they were on foot, 
or footpads, as D^Sj^D, their appellation in the 
original, may probably import. These geogra- 
phical circumstances therefore, thus correspond* 
ing with what is actually known of those coun- 
tries at this time, should induce us to situate Ka^ 
desh, as I have already done, ex miles to the 
northward of Mount Sinai, and xlii M^ to the 
westward of Elotli, «ear Catlah 'Nahar, i. e. the 
castle of the river or fountain, (probably the Ain 
Mishpat), a noted station of the Mahometans, in 
their pilgrimage to Mecca. 

From Kadesh, the Isradites wwe ordered to 
turn into the wilderness^ by the way &f the Red 
Seay Numb. xiv. 25. Deut. i. 40. i. e. they weye 
at diis lime, in punishment of their mumiurings, 
infidelitv and disobedience, to ad^noe ^no fur- 
ther northward towards the land of Canaan. 
Now these marches are called, the compassing of 
Mount Seir, Deut. ii. 1. and the pasmtg ^ from 
the children of Esau^ which dwelt in Seitj through 
the way of the plain of Eloth, and Ezion-gaber, 
ver, 8. The wandering therefore of the children 


U 8 Situatim ^ Eziongaier. 

lidated a just observation of Strabo's* who 
makes Heroopolis and Pelusium to be much 
nearer e^h other than Eloth and Gzza. And be- 
sides, as Gaza is well known tb lie in lat. SI'* 4(K. 
(as we have placed Eloth in lat. 29* 4(K), the dif* 
ference of lat. betwixt them will be 2<», or cxx 
geographical miles; which converted into Ro- 
man miles, (txxvi of tvhich ' make one degree), 
we have the very distance, especially as they lie 
nearly under the same meridian, that is ascribed 
to them above by Strabo and Pliny. 

Yet, notwiti^standing this point may be gain- 
ed, it would still be too daring an attempt, even 
to pretend to trace out above tw6 or three of the 
encampments, mentioned Niimb. xxxiii. though 
the greatest part of them was, in all probability, 
confined to this tract of Arabia Petraea, which I 
have bounded to the E. by the meridian of 
Eloth, and to the W. by that of Heroopolis; 
Kadesh lying near, or upon the skirts of it to the 

However, one of their more southern stations, 
after they left Mount Sinai and Paran, seems to 
have been at E^ongaber ; which, being the plac6 
from whence Solomon's navy went for gold to 
Ophir, I Kings ix. 26. 2 Chron. viii. 17. vi^e may 
be induced to take it for the present Meenah el 
Ds^hab, i. e. ike port of' gold. According to the 


* AiTTf y ffiv* (sc. Sinus Arabicus) i ^if «< ^^r t« n^tp m 
A^«Ci« MMt m Tte!jt f^^9 «F E}itcnrnf v^trmy^um text m$ «» ttmrn 

i vjn^^tf wtftfum^ttf &c. Strab. 1, xvi. p. 1102* 

Situation of Eziongaber. 1 19 

account I had of tbis place, from the monks of 
St Catharine, it lies in the gulf of Eloth, betwixt 
two and three days journey from them, enjoying 
a spacious harbour, from whence they are some- 
times supplied) as I have already mentioned, with 
plenty of lobsters and shell fish. Meenah el 
X>3ahab therefore, from this circumstance, may 
be nearly at the same distance from Sinai with 
Tor, from whence they are likewise furnishedi 
with the same provisions ; which, unless they are 
brought with the utmost expedition, frequently 
corrupt and putrify. I have already given the 
distance betwixt the N. W. part of the desert of 
Sin and Mount Sinai to be xxi hours ; and if we 
further add in hours, (the distance betwixt the 
desert of Sin, and the port of Tor, from whence 
these fishes are obtained), we shall have in all 
XXIV hours, i e. in round numbers, about lx M, 
Eziongaber consequently may lie a little more or 
less at that distance from Sinai ; because the- 
days journies which the Monks speak of, are not 
perhaps to be considered as ordinary and common 
ones ; but such as are made in haste, that the 
fish may arrive in good condition. 

In the Dsccript. of the East^ p. 157. Ezionga- 
ber is placed to the S. E. of Eloth, and at two or 
tliree miles only from it j which, I presume, can- 
not be admitted. For as Eioth itself is situated 
upon the very point of the gulf, Eziongaber, by 
lying to the S, E. of it, would belong to the land 
of Midian ; whereas Eziongaber was undoubted- 
ly a sea port in the land of Edom, as we learn 


120 Of Mount Hor. 

from the authorities above related, viz. where 
king Solomon is said to have made a navy qf ships 
in Ezimgaber, which is, nS^y n% baide Eloth, on 
the shore of the Red Sea, in the land of Edam. 
Here it may be observed, that the word nK, which 
we render beside, viz. Eloth, should be rendered, 
together with Eloth ; not denoting any vicinity 
betwixt them, but that they were both of them 
ports of the Red Sea, in the land of Edotn; 

From Eziongaber, tlie Israelites turned back 
again to Kadesh, with an intent to direct their 
marches that way into the land of Canaan. But 
upon Edom's refusing to give Israel passage 
through his border. Numb, xx- 18. they turned 
away from him, to the right hand, as 1 suppose, 
towards Mount Hor, Numb. xx. 21. which might 
lie to the eastwai:d of Kadesh, in the road from 
thence to the Red Sea ; and as the soul of the 
children of Israel is said to have been. here much 
discouraged because of the way, it is very probable 
that Mount Hor was the same chain of moun* 
tains that are now called Accaha by the Arabs ; 
and were the eastermost range, as we may take 
them to be, of Ptolemy's fttrmuL 0^ above described. 
Here, from, the badness of the roadj and the many 
rugged passes that are to be surmounted^ the 
Mahometan pilgrims lose a number of camels, 
and are no less fatigued than the Israelites were 
formerly, in getting over them. 

I have already hinted, that this chain of moun** 
tains, the f»»3^m «^ of Ptolemy, reached from Pa- 
ran to Judasa. Petra therefore, according to its 


Of Pet r a. 121 

later name, the metropolis of this part of Arabia, 
may well be supposed to lie among them, and to 
have been left by the Israelites, on their left 
hand, in journeying towards Moab. Yet it will 
ht difficult to determine the situation of this 
city, for want of a sufficient number of geogra- 
phical data to proceed upon. In the old geogra- 
phy, Petra is placed cxxxv M . to the eastward of 
Gaza*, and four days journey from Jericho f to 
the southward. 

But neither of these distances can be any 
ways accounted for ; the first being too great, 
the other too deficient. For as we may well 
suppose Petra to lie near, or upon the border of 
Moab, seven days journey would be the least; 
the same that the three kings took thither, 
2 Kings iii. 9. by fetching a compass, as we 
imagine, from Jerusalem, which was nearer to 
that border than Jericho. However, at a me- 
dium, Petra lay, in all probability, about the half 
way betwixt the S. extremity of the Asphaltic 
Lake and the gulf of Eloth, and may be there- 
fore fixed near the confines of the country of the 
Midianites and Moabites, at lxx miles distance 
from Kadesh towards the N. E. and lxxxv from 
Gaza to the S. According to Josephus, it was 
formerly called Acre J, which Bochart supposes 

VOL. II. Q to 

* Nabathseonim oppidum Petra abest a Gaza, opfido litoris 
nostri, DC M. a anu Bersico cxxxv M.- Hm. 1. vi. c. 28. In- 
verte nomina : a Gaza cxxxv. &c. Sic numeri melius consta- 
bunt, et ceteris tarn geographis, quam historicis, conciliaii pote- 
runt. Cellar. Geogr. Antiq. L iii. p. 418. 

f Strab. 1, vn. p. 1105-6. X J^^* Antiq. 1. ir. c. 4* 

128 Of Metra. 

to be a corruption of Bekem *, the true aad an* 
cient name. The Amalel^ites f, so frequently 
mentioned in Scripture, were once $eatisid in^ th<^ 
neighbourhood of this pls^^ ; who were ^Ucceedt 
ed by the Nabathapans, a people no Je3S famoun 
in profane history. 

From Mount Hor, the 4ireciion ef thet? marches 
through iga^lniQQa, Pun,on^ &c. seems to have beei^ 
feetwixt the N- ^nd N. E. For it does not ap* 
pear that they wandered any more in the wUder^^ 
ness, out ^ the direct xo^, that was to conduct 
them through the country of Moah, Num. xxxiii, 
48, 49. into the land of prQmise. 

In tl^e Rabbinical geography %$ several of the 
places which hav$ jt^een taken notice of in this, 
and in tlie foi^egqing chapter, are laid down in 
the follqiiying ipanner ; 

* Rekaxn vel Rakjm e^t Petri orbs, aliis Rocom, Bec^, Kc- 
ceme, et, preefizo artictilo, Areceme, et per apocopen Arce, Pe-r 
U9^ scilicit mfltropolis *^ jn Hagar, 1. e. Petn^ a situ dicta, quia 
in ea domus expise sunt in Petia. £t Rekem a cooditore regt 
Madian, de quo Numb, xxxi. 8* Hihc Josephus, 1. iv. c. 7. ita 
habftt de Recem^ rege Madian : ?c»^Mif , i ir«Xi« wtnvfui r« 9r«v 
9f,%tmfA9t rm A^nSitt %xf^tt ynt* £t rursus Ac**¥^ lu^^jt^rm n«r^ 
9r«g* £XAii0-< Atya^yu. £t Euseblus de locb : Pocm^ tthm ir< nn^, 
m-aAk rm A^f&mtt it AttrtMwn F«e«^. Vid. Boch. Can, lib. i. 
cap. 44* • 

AqjriTtfi. Jos. Antiq, Jud. 1. iii. c. 2. Nabatei oppidum incolunt 
Fetram nomine, &c, Plxn, I. vi, c. 28,' Vid. not. *, p. 121. 

X Vid, Rabbi Elise Mizrachi Comment, in Pentateuchum, 
Ven. 1545. p. B1. 

Rabbinical M<ip of the Holy Land. 



non ND*? 

P>e kntntrue of^ 









T^f Land nylsratU 
Kumb. xjodv. 



Jr\BnVDbni^'^-«/^K^^* Azmon 










The tan^^ 

Kadesh Bamfta. 



2%^ Land of ^ 



. \ 






I' .. . . 

1 , f: •- J. 

* < • 

Physical 8^ Miscellaneous 









Physical Observations, ^c. or m Ussay taaiard^ 
the Natural History (jfSyriay^ Phcsnice^ and th^ 
Holy Land. 

X HE air and weather, in these ccHimtries, djITer 
y^ry little from the description^ that have be^^ 
given of them in the natural history of Barbary^, 
For among many other particulars of the l}ke 
nature and qvality^ which need not be repeated, 
we find the westerly winds to be here attended 
with rain. JVhen me sec a elottdy Mys our Savioufi 
Luke xii. 54. rise out of the west, sraightway ye 
fay, There cometh a shower, and ^o it i?'^. But thf 
easterly winds are usually dry, notwithstanding 
they are sometimes exceeding hazy and tempiestu- 
ous ; at which times they are called, by the sea* 
faring people, Levanters, being not confiped to 
any one single point, but blow in ^1 djrei^tions, 
from the N. E. round by the N. to the S. E. The 
great wind, or mighty tempest, or vehement ffyit 
wind, described by the prophet Jonas, (i. 4. and 
iv. 8.) appears to have been one of these Levan- 


• Vid. p.245, &c. 

f This branch of the natural history is further taken notice 
of, 1 Kings xviii. 41, &c^ 


128 Of the Euroclydon. 

The Euroclydon * also, which wc read of m 
the history of St Paul, (Actsxxvii. 14.) was, in 
all probability, the same. For it was, as St Luke 
describeth it, •i'vmj rv^stfutH f, a violent or tempestu- 
(mswindj bearing ' iway all before it; and, from 
the circumstances which attended it, appears to 
have varied very little, throughout the whole pe- 
riod of it, from the true east point. For after 
the ship could not, ^rr^^^»}^uv^, bear^ or in the ma- 
riner's term, loof up against it, ver. 15. but they 
were obliged to let her drive^ we cannot conceive, 
as there are no remarkable currents in this part 


* Ev^^Xvitn^ according to the annotations of Erasmus, Vata- 
bkis, and others, is said to be, vox hific ducta^ quod ingentes jluc^ 
ttui as if those commentatqrs understood it to have bfe^, ?s Fh«^^ 
vorinus writeis it (in voce Tv^tfi) £v(OKXv)«Vy and, as such, com- 
pounded of fif^vfi (Jatusy ampltts^ &c.) and xXrl^My fluctus. But 
rather, if an etyn^ology is required, as we find %XiAm used by the 
LXxri, (Jon.i. 4, 12.) instead of *iyO, which always denotes a 
iempestj as I conjecture, properly so called, £t;^«cXv)«y will be the 
same with Ev^y kXv}*?,. i. e. an^eastfrn te/ffest^ and so far exjpress 
the very meaning that is.afHxed to a Levanter at this time* 

f Though Tv^tfy or Tv^at; may sometimes denote a whirlwind^ 
yet it seems in general to be taken for any violent wind or tem« 
pest. According to an observation oi Grotius upon the place, 
Judceis Hellenistts Tvp0s est quavis violentior froeella, Tuf yti^ 
xmrmytiiiieti mufsut Tv^ni tutXwh says Suidas. Aristot. De Mun- 
do^ c. 4. seems to distinguish it from the llnn% (which he calls 
a violent strong wind)^ by not being attended with any fiery me- 
teors. £«v ii (ff'rfv^) 4<t«9rt;(«v if, ^ti^w it «AA«$ tutt «eS^^Mv, n^« 
fn^ £«MiX«Tic<*] Mf )i minff*9 « «-«tyr«A*$, Tvipm, Tvpmty as Olym- 
piodoruS| in his comment upon the foregoing passage, instruct us, 
IS so called, itx jo ruirre$9 im m m^iti tv wnvfittXH i or im r« rvir^ 
tM ^•}(*r$, as we read it in C. a Lapide. Actsxxvii. 14. Tv^y 
y«^ fviv i TV tcftftiu tr^§i^ti xftn* h iuu tv^mt?<vittf ttmXHtttt^ Pfaavor. 
in lex. One of these Levanters is beautifully described by Virgil 
(Geor. ii. ver. 101.) in the foUowing lines : 

• - • :.Ubi navigiis violentior incidit Eurus, 

Nosse, quot lonii veniant ad litora fluctus. 

of the Euroclydm. 429 

of the sea, and as the rudder could be of little 
use, that it could take any other course, than as 
the winds alone directed it. Accordingly, in the 
description of the storm, we find the vessel was 
first of blunder the island Clauda^ ver. 16. which 
is a little to the southward of the parallel of that 
part of the coast of Crete, from whence it may 
be supposed to have been driven ; then if was 
tossed along the bottom of the Gulf of Adria, 
ver. 27. ; and afterwards broken to pieces, ver. 41. 
at Melita, which js a little to the northward of 
the parallel above mentioned ; so that the direc- 
tion and course of this particulai* Euroclydou 
seems to have been first at E. by N. and aifter- 
wards pretty yearly E. by S. - 

But Grotius*, Cluverf, and others, authorised 
herein oy the Alexandrian MS. and the Vulgate 
Latin, are of opinion^ that the true reading shbuld 
be Ev^MMVAivii, Euroaquih; a word Idd^ed a^ little 
known as Eurocly don, • though perhaps l^Ss enti- 
tled to be received. For this Euroaquilo, agree* 
able to the wordS of which it is compounded, 
must have been a v^ind betwixt the Eiirus and 
the Aquilo,. and consequently would be the same 

VOL. II. R with 

 Vid. GrtTot. Annot. in Act. xxvii 1.4. . 

f Ego amplectendam h^c omhinb censeo xrocem, 'qiiam divus 
Hieronymus et ante hunc auctor Vulgatse sacrdram bibHorum 
versionis, in suis exemplaiibus-legeifui^t £i^^«;»Aivr» Eutooquiio^ 
quod vocabuliim ex duabus vocibus^ . altera Grseca £v^«$, altera 
Latina Aquilo, compositum, eum denbtat ventuth, qui inter 
Aquilonem et Euruin mednis splrat, qui recta ab meridional! 
pretae latere nsvitn infra Gaudum versus Syttin abiipere poter^t* 
PuY. SiciL Antiq. 1. ii. p. 412. . 

130 Of the Euroclydon, 

with tbe Cmcias^ or Ki^MM*?; a name so frequeqtlv 
taken notice of by the Rc^nan authors, that it 
appears to have been adopted into their lan- 
guage. Thus we find Vitruvius (I i. c. 6.) de- 
gcribing the pojsition of the Caecias, without dis- 
tinguishing It by Greek characters, or making 
py apology for the introduction of a foreigt^ 
name. Pliny f likewise calls the same wind Hel- 
lespontiasj, as blowing from the Hellespont, 
The Cajcja^ therefore must have been known very 
early in the Roman navigation ; and consequent- 
ly, even provided the mariners had been Romans, 
there was no necessity, at this time, and upon 
such am occasion, for the introduction of £uroa-* 
guilo, which must h^ve been altogether {| a new 

prm, \ 

fiesic^es^ a§ we learn, Act^ :(xvii. 6f. th^t thq 
fhip was of Alexandria, sailing to Italy, the ma* 
riners may well be supposed to have been Gre-. 
cians, and m^st therefore be too well acquainted 
with the rfceivfd and vernacular terms of their 
occupation, to admit of this Graco-Latin,.Qr bar- 
barous appellation. For it may be very justly 
objectedi tluit, provided. tt^e Euroaquilo had been. 


* Ab oriente aolstttiati ezcits^tum, Gr$eci K«i»i«y appellant : 
apud nos sme nomiile est. Seiiec. Nat. Qiiaest. 1. v. c. 16. £uri 
Vero' mediat partes tehent \ in extremis, Cascias et Vulturous. 
Vitr. Arch. Li. c. 6. 

f Vid. Plb. Nat. I^st. L u. c. 47. 

t Caedas aliqui vocant Hellespontian. Plin. tbid, IUmkmk, it 
%XXn^9*nmf inm x^Awrf^ Arist. Meteor. 1. ii. c. 6. 

I) CtBcias media in^r Aqui^onem et exortum fequinoctialemi 
ab orttt solstitial!. Plin. ut supra. . 


Of tJie Eurocfydm. 131 

a name so early received as this voyage of St 
Paul, it is much that Pliny, A. Oellius, Apuleius^ 
Ui4k>Fe, and ^«bw authors; whoiirrote expressIy^ 
upon the names and diversities of winds % should 
hot have taken the least notice of this. Where- 
as^ if Euroclydon be a term or appellation pecu- 
liar to the mariners, denoting one of these sttong 
Levanters, we are to be the less surprised why 
St Luke, who . was actually present in the stortn^ 
and may be supposed to have heard the very 
word, is the only author who records it. More- 
over, when we are told that this tempestuous 
wind was called Euroclydon, die expression seem^ 
to suppose it not to have been one of the com- 
mon winds, such as were entirely denominated 
from their site and position, but such an one as 
received its name from some particular quality 
and circumstance which over and above attended 

I never observed any phenomena that were 
more peculiar to the Csecias^ (the N. E. by E. 
wind, as we will suppose it), than to any other 
Levanter. Aristotle indeed, who is partly fol- 
lowed herein by Pliny f , describes it X ^ have a 
property contrary to all other winds^ ^mmm^mnmi. tn 


« ricL PUn. Nat. JJiiU 1. ii. c. 47. AuL GelL Noct. Attio. 
1. ii. c. 22. Apul. de Muado. Idi Qfg. L jjii it. tk. 

f Nwr^nt et io Ponto Caccian ia a^ tnhere nubes. PUn« Nat« 
Ifist. Lii. 0.48. 

1, ii. c. 6. 

1 3% Of the, EuroclydotL 

«tfT#Fj of drffSbing^ p.s. A. G^llius* intccprets it, the ^ 
clouds to itself. But this is an expression, as well 
as quality, which it will be difficult to cKHnpre* 
hend, unless we may. presume to explain it, by 
what indeed it lias only in common with other 
Levanters, either the harness of tte atmosphere 
that accompanies it, or else by the great accumu- 
lation of clouds, which, . to use. the nKiriher s 
phrase, frequently hging^.vixthoxkt dissipating, for 
several days together, m\ the east xvind's eye. For 
at other times, these, no less, than; the opposite 
winds, are, evpn ,by Aristotle's confession t, at-^ 
tended with long sucdessioiis of xrlouds, driving 
esch other for\vi^rd with great force and impetu-^ 
osityw ... 

We are to observe further, with. regard to these 
Levanters, that wh^n they are of a long continu-^ 
ance, the water is. blown away to such a degree 
from the coast of Syria and Phoenice, that seve- 
ral ranges of rocks, which, in westerly winds, 
lie concealed under wat$r, do now become dry^ 
and thereby leave (exposed to the water fowl, ur- 
chins^ limpets,, and , other sheU*fish, which fix 


* Vii. I. ii. c. 22; Aristoteles'ita fTare dicit CsBclan*, ut nube^ 
non f rocul propellat, sed ut ad sese vocet, ex quo versum istunr 
provcrbialem factum att : 

f Ni^Mv 3f TTvumrt t0f ar^Mwr, Kcmu/k fat 0^«3(«, A(^ V tt^mtn* 
(iff* K.mnms fUa itm rs t« «f«acic^MrrAy w^h «yrdv, x$u )m t« xfiMf huu 

xm «f^3«, iiv v|M«5ii« Aristot. ut sopra:^ 

Of the EHroclydan. 133 

themselves upon them. I observed, in the port 
of Latikea^ that, during the continuance of these 
winds, there was too feet less depth of water than 
some days afterwards, when the weather was mo- 
derate, and the winds blew softly from the west. 
And it is very probable, that the remarkable re- 
cess of water in the Sea of Pamphylia, that has 
been taken notice of by Josephus and others * 
piay be accounted for from the -same cause, ope- 
rating only in an extraordinary manner. 

It may be farther observed, with regard to 
these Levanters, that vessels or other objects 
which are seen at a distance, appear to be vastly 
magnified, or to looni^ in the mariner's expression. 
Neither is a superstitious custom to be omitted, 
which I have seen practised more than once by 
the Mahometans, during the raging of the>e and 
Other tempestuous winds. For upon these occa- 
sions, after having tied to the mast, or ensign- 
stajfF, some apposite paragrtiph of their Koran f , 
they collect money, sacrifice a sheep, and throw 
them both into the sea; being persuaded that 
they will thereby assuage the violence of the 
waves, and the fury of the tempest. We learn 
from Aristophanes and Virgil :{;, that the Greeks, 


• Vld. not**, p. 9* 

f I had the curiosity once to take down one of these scrolls, 
and found it to be of the same import \vith the latter part of our 
cviith Psahn, vtTi. * Those that go down to the sea in ships, and 
* occupy thttr bu^ess in great waters,^ &c. 

Aristoph. in lUih. Act iii. Sc. ii. 


134 Of the JVeather. 

some thousand ywrs ago,, made use of the same 
cerempny. The like transaction too, though after 
the storrfl, is recorded by the prophet Jonas, 
1,16. ; 

But, tp pur$ue the natural history of this coun- 
try, the mountains 6f Libanus are covered all 
%\ie winter with snow ; which, when the winda 
are easterly, affects the whole coast, from Tripoly 
to Sidon, with a more subtile and piercing cold 
than what is known in our northern cUmates. 
Whereas the other maritirhe and inland places, 
either to the N. or S. of these mountains, enjoy a 
n\\^c\\ milder temperature, and a more regular 
chaiige in the seasons. 

In. cloudy weather, especially when the winds 
are tempestuous, ajnd blow^ as they often do in 
these cases, in several directions, water-spouts are 
more frequent near the Capes of Latikea, Greego, 
and Carniel, than in any other part of the Medi* 
terranean. Those which I had the opportunity 
of seeing, seemed to be so many cylinders of wa- 
ter, falliijg dQwn frani the clouds ; though, by 
t\\^ reflection it may be of these descending co* 
lumflSj.or from the actual dropping of tlie water 
contained in them, they would sometimes appeal^ 
especially at a distance, to be sucked up from 
the sea. Nothing more perhaps is required to 


.^ — '-Meritos axis mactavit honore;^ : 

Taurum Neptuno ^ taurura tibi, pulcher ApoUo. 

Virg. ^n.iU. lis. 

Nigram Hyemi pecudem, Zephyris felicibus alb^m. 

Tpc8 £xvci vituloiSy ct Tcapcstatibus agnam 

Caedere deindc jubet, U. Ibid, v. 7lz. 

Of the Ignis Fatuus. 1 3S 

explain this phenomenon, than that the tlouds 
should be first of all crowded tcgether^ and then 
that contrary winds, pressing violently upon 
them, should occasiion them to condetise^ and fall 
in this cylindrical manner. Surely they cannot 
be accounted for, according to Lemery's $4ippo$i- 
tlon* from submarine earthquakes and eructa* 
tions; neither will the Siphonic winds f, if there 
l^e any such, much better solve the difficulty. 

In travelling by night, in the beginning of 
April, through the vallies of Mount Ephraim, we 
were attended^ for above the stpace of an hour, 
with an ignis fatuuSy that displayed itself in a va* 
riety of extraordinary appearances. For it was 
sometimes globular, or else pointed like the fkme 
of a candle ; afterwards it would sptead itself, 
and involve our wholq company in its pale, inof- 
fensive light; once contract, axid suddenly 
disappear. But in lesst thaq a minutcv ^^ would 
begin again to exert itself, as at othet timfes, run- 
ning along from, one plac€! to another with great 
swiftnpss, like a train of gun-pai^def set on fire; 
or else it would spread !and expand itself over 
more than two or three acre* of the adjacent 
mountains, discovering every shrub and tree {tht 
thick busheSj Psal. xxix. 9-) that grew upon them. 
The atmosphere, from the beginning of the even- 

/ ing, 

* ^ When humcanes come from those plkces of idbe earth which 

* are iinder the sea, they raise the waters into prodigious pillars ^ 

* the same are called spouts at sea/*- pLeoieiy^s Course ^fChems- 
try^ edit. 4. p. lljS. 

plymp. in Arist. Meteor. 

136 Of the Ignis Fatum. 

niug, had been remarkably thick and hazy, and 
the dew, as we felt it upon our bridles, was un- 
usually clammy and unctuous. I have observed 
at sea, in the like disposition of weather, those 
luminous bodies that skip about the masts and 
yards of ships, which are called Corpusanse * by 
the mariners, and were the Castor and Pollux of 
the ancients. Some authors have accounted, par- 
ticularly for the ignis fatuus, by supposing it to 
be occasioned by successive swarms of flying 
glow-worms, or other luminous insects. But not 
to perceive or ftet any of these insects, even 
whilst the light, which they are supposed to oc- 
casioti, spreads itself round about us, should in- 
duce us to ac^couht both for this pheiiomenon, 
and the other, from the received opinion of their 
being, actually meteors, or a species of natural 

* The first rains in these countries, usually fall 
about the beginning of November ; the lattw 
sometimes in the middle, sometimes towards the 
end of April; It is an observation at, or near 
Jerusalem, that provided a moderate quantity of 
snow falls in the beginning of February f^ where- 
by the fountains are made to overflow a little af- 
terwards, there is the prospect of a fruitful and 
plentiful year; the inhabitants making, upon 


^ A corruption of Cuerpo santo, as this melebr is called by 
ijie Spaniards. Plin. 1. ii. c. 31, 

f As the month of February is the usual time at Jerusalem for 
the faUing of snow, it might have been at that particular season 
when Benaiah issaid^'i Sam. xxiii. 20. to kavelgtne down and 
smote a lion in the time of snow,  

. The Soil and Crop. 1 37 

these. occa5ions, the like jejoicings * with the 
Egyptians, upon the cutting of the Nile, But 
Muring the summer season, these countries are 
rarely refreshed with rainf ; enjoying the like 
serenity of air that has been mentioned ia Bar- 

Barley, all over the Holy Land, was in full ear 
in the beginning of April ; and about thfc middle 
of that month it began to turn yellow, particu- 
larly in the southern districts ; being as forward 
near Jericho in the latter end of March, as it was 
in the plains of Acre, a fortnight afterwards* 
But wheat was very little of it in car at one or 
other ,of those places ; and in the fields near 
Bethlehem and Jerusalem, the stalk was little 
more than a fodt high. The Bocc6res likewise, 
or first ripe figs, were hard, and no bigger than 
commo^ plumbs ; though they have then a me- 
thod of making them soft and palataWe, by steep- 
ing them in oil. According therefore to the qua- 
lity of the season, in the year 1722, the first 
fruits could not have been offered , at the time 
appointed ; and Would therefore have required 
the intercalating J of the ni»l Ve-ader, and post- 

voL. ir. s poning 

* The rejoicings that were use ^ upon these occanons, seem to 
have been very great, even to a proverb ^ as we may infer from 
Psal. iv. 7. Lord^ tkwt hast put gladness in wy hearty more than at 
the time wheh the h>rh 4tnd wine increased, 

f This known quality of the jsummer Reason is appealed tp, 
1 Sam. xii. 17. /r // not wheat harvest to-day ^ t wul call untd 
the Lord^ and he shall send thunder and rain : which must have 
been looked upon as an extraordinary phenomenon at that time 
of the year. 

* niti^n nw fn3yoi?»:D'Q nttfhtff hVi &«. i.e. 


i 3 8 Tht Soil and Produce. 

poning thereby the passover for at least the 
space of a month* 

The soil both of the maritime and inland parts 
tfS Syria and Phoenice, is of a light loamy nature, 
little different from that of Barbary, and rarely 
requires more than one pair of beeves to plough 
it. Besides all sorts of excellent grain, and such 
vegetable diet as has been described in the fruit 
and kitchen gardens of Barbary, the chief pro- 
duce of these countries is silk and cotton. The 
inhabitants send the eggs of the silk ^worm, as 
soon as they are laid, to Cannobine, or some other 
place of Mount Libanus, where they are kept 
cool, without danger of hatching, till the mul- 
berry buds are ready for them in the spring. The 
same caution is used at Limesole, and other places 
which I have seen, in the island of Cyprus, by 
preserving them upon Mount Olympus^ which 
-they call Jibbel Krim, i. e. the great mountain. 
The whole economy and management of the silk 
worm is at present so well known, that nothing 
need be added upon that subject. 


Proptet ires, casus interealabaht in anno $ proptet epochal anni 
Solaris ; propter fruges maturat; et propter fructus atbonim. Si 
Judices animadvertissent nondum maturas esse fruges, sedadhuc 
serotinas esse, neque fructus arborum, quibus mos est tefupore 
paschali florere *, illis duobus amimentis nitebantur et intercala* 
bant in anno* Ac quanquam ]^pocha anni antevertebat sextain 
decimam mensis Nisan, tatnen intercalabaiit, ut firumentum ma- 
'tunnli esset, ex quo offerretur inaniptllusin XITI Nisan, et ut duc- 
tus florerent more ommuxn.*-* Judices coftaputo inito sciebant si 
Tckttpfaft Nisan esset in sextadecima Nisan aut post^ et interca- 
labont in eo anno, mutato Nisan in Adar geminum, nimirum u 
Pesach incideret in tempus frugum maturarum, &c. Maimonid. 
«pud J« Scalig^ de Em^nd^t. Tetnpi L ii. p. IM, 

The Soil and Produce. 1 S9 

Though the corn, which is produced near La-^^ 
tikea, is the best and the most early of that part* 
of Syria^ yet of late the inhabitants have neglect-- 
ed this branch of husbandry, together with that 
of the vine^ (for bpth of which it was formerly 
famous *), and employ themselves, chiefly in the 
more profitable culture of tobacco. This is a 
very considerable, and indeed the only article of 
trade, which has in a few years so greatly enrich- 
ed this city, and the country round aboilt it. For 
there is. shipped off every year, from hence to 
Dami-^ata and Alexandria, more than twenty 
thousand balesi to the no small diminution of 
that branch of trade at Salonica^ « 

The Holy Land, were it as well inhabited an<4 
cultivated as formerly, would still be mote fruit- 
ful than the very best, part of the coast of Syria 
or Phoenice. For the soil itself is generally 
much richer, and all thingd considered, jrields a 
more preferable crop. Thus the cotton that is 
gathered in the plains of Ramah, Esdraelon, and 
Zabulon, 13 in greater esteem tha^ what isi culti- 
vated near Sidon and Tripcrfy ; neither is it pos- 
sible for pulse, wheat, or grain of any kind, ta be 
richer or better ta^t^, than what is (^mmotriy 
sold at Jerusalem. T*he barrenness, or scarcity 
rather, which some authors f may either igno- 


* Vid. not. *, voL ii. p. 9. - . < ^ 

f Michael (Vili^novanus) ServetitSyin hir edMOKnf Ploleni^r, 
Lugd. 1535, hath, in the description which he.iwlejte to the ta- 
ble of the Holy Land, -the following words ; * Scia& taaop^^ i«ec- 
^tor optima, injuria aut jactantia pura tantam huic te.rv8lt ^j^l!!!!^ 
* tern fuisse adscriptam, eo quod ipsa expeuentia m^c^oroiB^. .^ 

* pertgre 

14Q The Fertility of the Hohf Land. 

rantly or maliciously complain of, docs not pro- 
ceed from the incapacity, or natural unfruitful- 
ness of the country, but from the want of inha- 
bitants, and from the great aversion likewise 
there is to labour and industry, in those few who 
PQ3S6SS it. There are besides such perpetual dis- 
cords and depredations among the petty princes, 
who share this fine country, that, allowing it was 
better peopled, yet there would be small encou- 
ragemi^nt to sow, when it was uncertain who 
should gather in the harvest. Otherwise the 
iandM a good landy and still capable of affording 
to its neighbours the like supplies of com and 
oil, which it is known to have done in the time 
of Solomon* 

> The parts particularly about Jerusalem, as they 
have been described to be, and indeed, as they 
actually are, rocky and mountainous, have been 
therefore supposed to be barren and unfruitful. 
Yet granting this conclusion, which however is 


^ peregr^ proficiscentium, banc Incultam, sterilem, omni dulcedine 
^ carent^ )dep$rottut« Quare Promissam terram polHcitatn et non 
^ vemacula lingua laudantem pronuncics,^ &c. Vid. New Me- 
moirs of Literature, vol. i. p. 26. &c. But among many other 
travellers, who have strongly assjerted the contrary, I shall sub- 
join the following observations of P. de la Valle upon this coun- 
try, which agree exactly with mine. ^ II p^ese, per donde cami- 
^ nayamo em belfissima. Tutte coUini, valli e monticelli frutti- 

* feri. Le convalle de Mambre e a pun to comme tutti gli altii 
' paesi diutomo, che quantunque montuosi e sassosi sono pero fer- 

* tilisami.* Let xiii, * Le Montagti^ e VaUi bien che siano alpes- 
^ tri sono nondkneno tutte fruti&re per la diligenza degli agri- 
' coltori.' U* Let. iii. 

* * Sohnum gave Hiram twenty thousand measures of wheat for 
food to his household^ and twenty measures of pure oil: thus gav^ 

Sohmon to Hiram year by year, 1 Kings v. 11* 

The Fertility of the Holy Land. 141 

far from being just, a kingdom is not to be deno- 
minated barren or unfruitful from one single por* 
tion of it, but from the whole. And besides, the 
blessing that was given to Judah, was not of the 
same kind with the blessing of Asjier or of Issa- 
char, that his bread should be fat ^ or his land should 
be pleasant ; but that his eyes should be red with 
wine, and his teeth should be white with milky Gen. 
xlix. 12. Moses also makes milk and honey, (the 
chief dainties and subsistence of the earlier ages, 
as they still continue to be of the Bedoween 
Arabs), to be the glory of all lands ; all which 
productions are either actually enjoyed, or at least 
might beobt^ihed by proper care and application. 
The plenty, of wine alone is wanting, at. present. 
Yet we find, from the goodness of that little 
which is still made at Jerusalem and Hebron, that 
these, bacrfcn locks, as they are called, would 
yield a much greater quantity, provided the ab- 
stemious Turk and Arab should permit the vine 
to be further propagated and improved. . 

Wild honey, which was part of St John. Bap- 
tist's food in the wilderness, may insinuate to us 
the great plenty of it in those deserts ; and that 
consequently, by taking the hint from nature, 
and enticing the bees into hives and larger colo- 
nies, a much greater increase might be made of 
it. Accordingly Josephus* calls Jericho ^fA<Tr#Tg«- 
^o ;c*'{«». We find moreover, that wild honey was 
often mentioned in Scripture. And all they of 
the land came to a woody and there was honey upon 


* Bell. Jud. 1. V. c. 4. 

143 The Feriilitp of the Holy ]Land. 

the ground ; and when the people were come to the 
wood, behold the honey dropped^ 1 Sam. xiv, 25, 26. 
He made him to suck honey out (^ the rocky Dcut. 
XKxii. 14. IVith honey out of the stony rock have 
I satisjied thee^ Psal. Ixxxi. 16. Diodorus Sicu- 
lus (1. xix.) speaks of the ^mxi ity^tt^ that dropped 
from ti-ees, which some have taken perhaps too 
hastily for a honey dew only, or some liquid kind 
of manna. Whereas bees are known to swarm, 
^& well in the hollow trunks, and upon the 
branches of tr^es, as in the cUfts of rocks ; honey 
therefore may be equally expected from both 

As the mountains likewise of this country 
abound in some places with thyme, rosemary, 
sage, and aromatic plants^ of the like nature, 
which the bee chiefly looks after, so they are no 
less stocked in others with shrubs and a delicate 
short grass fj which the cattle are more fond of 
than of such as is common to tallow ground and 
meadows. Neither is die grazing and feeding 
of cattle peculiar to Judea ; it is ^till practised 
all over Mount Libanus, the Castravan Moun* 
. tains, and JBarbary, where the higher grounds are 


* Hflfec circum [alvvaiia} caske virides, et olentia late 
Serpylla, et grafter spirantts eopia tbymbrae 
Floreat : irriguumque bibant violaria fontem. 

Virg. Gcorg. iv. ver. 30. 

f At cut lactis amor, cytisum, lotosquc frequentes 
Ipse manu, sakasque ferat prsesepibus berbas. 

Virg. Gcorg. iii. ver. 394. 

Si tibi lanicium curse : 

fuge pabula Iseta. 

IJ. ibul. ver. 384^ 

Th€ Fertility of the Holy Land, US 

appropriated to this use, as the plains and vallies 
9^re reserved for tillage. For, besides the good 
management and economy, there is this further 
advantage in it, that the milk of cattle fed in 
this manner, is far more rich and delicious, at 
the same time their flesh is more sweet and nou- 

But even laying aside the profits that might 
arise from grazing, by the sale of butter, milk, 
wool, and the great number of cattle that were 
to be daily disposed of, particularly at Jerusalem, 
for common food and sacrifices, these mountain*- 
ous districts would be highly valuable even upoa 
other considerations ; especially if they were 
planted with olive trees, one acre of which is of 
more value than twice the extent of arable ground. 
It may be presumed likewise, that the vine was 
not neglected in a soil and exposition * so proper 
for it to thrive in ; but indeed, as it is not of so 
durable a nature as the olive tree, and requires 
moreover a continual culture and attendance f ; 
the scruple likewise which the Mahometans en- 
tertain, of propagating a fruit that may be ap- 

 -Juvat Isaara Baccho 

Cbnserere, atque olea inagdum vestire TabUmiinl. 

Virg. Georg. ii, ver. 37. 

f Jam vitictae vites, jam falcem arbusta reponun^, 
Jam canit extremes effcetus vinilor antes ; 
Sollicitanda tamen tellus, pulvis^ue movendus : 
£t jam maturis metuendus Jupitet uvis. 
Contra, non ulla est olds cukura : neque illae 
Procurram expectant falcem, rastrosque tenaces, 
Cum semel bsMerunt alrvk. 

Virg. Georg. ii. ver. 516. 

144 The FertiVUy of the Holy Land. 

plied to uses forbidden by their religion, are the 
reasons perhaps why there are not many tokens 
to beinet with, except at Jerusalem and He- 
bron *,. of the ancient vineyards. Whereas the 
general benefit arising from the olive tree, the 
longevity and% hardiness of it have continued 
down to this time several thousands of them to-- 
•gether, to mark out to us the possibility, as they 
are undoubtedly the 'traces, of greater plan tatiorts. 
Now, if to these productions we join several 
large plats of arable ground, that lie scattered all 
over the vallies and windings of the mountains 


* Besides the great quantity of grapes and raisins that are, 
one or other of them, brought daily to the markets of Jerusalem, 
and the neighbouring villages, Hebron alone sends every year to 
Egypt, three hundred camel-loads, (/. e, near two thousand quin- 
tals) of the Robb^ which they call (B^3*!)"/)i^J'^; the same 
word that is rendered amply honey |n the Scijptures ; particular- 
ly Gen. xliii, 11. Carry down the man a present of tlie besf tilings 
if the landy a little balm^ and a little dipse. For honey, properly 
so called, could not be a rarity so great there as dipse must be, 
from the want of vineyards in Egypt* In Lev.ii. ll.^/r^ 
seems to be of several sorts 5 Te shall burn no leaven, nor any 
kind oilioney in any offering. For besides the honey of grapes^ of 
heesy and of the palm^ or dates, the honey tf the reed or svgar 
might be- of great antiquity. Thus "ly, Cant. v. !• which we 
render the honey^omby is by some interpreters taken for a reedy or 
the fAiXi TutXetfitfcfy or mel arundinis. Strabo mentions sugqr as a 
succedaneum to the honey of bees : E/^nxfi 3s lutt 'Trt^t jc«A«^y, iri 
vromvi fa>Hy fMXiwtif /ki} itettv. lib. xi. Dioscorid. lib. ii. cap. 104. 

Quique bibunt tenera dulces ab arundine succos. Lucan* 

Hebron has the title of Hhaleel, i. e« the choten or belovedy among 
the Arabs 5 where the Mag-gar el Mamra, cave of Mamre or 
Machpelahj Gen. xxiii. 17. is still shewn, and is always lighted up 
with lamps, and held in extraordinary veneration by the Maho- 

The Fertility bf the Holy Land. U$ 

of Judah and Benjaniin, we shall £nd that the 
lot, (even of these tribes, which are supposed to 
have had the most barren part of the country)^ 
Jell to them in u fair ground^ and that theirs was 
a goodly heritage. ^ . 

The mountainous parts therefore of the Holy 
Land, were so far from being inhospitable, un« 
fruitful, or the refuse of the Land of Canaat), 
that, in the division of this country, the moun- 
tain of Hebrpn was granted to Caleb as a parti-^ 
cular favour, Joshi xiv. Ifl. We read likewise, 
that in the time of Asa, this hill-country of Ju* 
dah (2 Chron. xiv. 8.) mustered five hundred and 
eighty thousand men of valour;, an argument be- 
yond dispute that the land was able to maintaiti 
them. Even at present^ notwithstanding the 
want there has been . for many ages of a proper 
culture and improvement, yet the plains and val- 
liesj though as fruitful as iever, lie almost entirely 
neglected, whilst every little hill is crowded with 
inhabitants* If this part therefore of the Holy 
Land wa9 made up only, as some object, of naked 
rocks and precipices, hpw comes it to pass, that 
it sbo(uld be more frequented than the plains of 
Esdraelon^ Ramah, Zabulon^ or Acre, which are 
all of them very delightful, and fertik beyond 
imagination ? It cannot be urged that the inha- 
bitants live with more salety here than in the 
plain country, in as much as there are neither walls 
nor fortificaticms to secure their villages ot en- 
campments ; there are likewise few or no places 
of ctifficult acce^ ; so that both of them lie 
yoh, II. ' T equally 

1 46 The FeftiStif of the Holy Land. 

equally exposed to the insults and outrages of 
an enemy. But the reason is plain and obvious, 
in as much as they find here sufficient conve* 
niences for themselves, and much greater for their 
cattle. For they themselves have here bread to 
the Juilf whilst their cattle brouze upon richer 
herbage; and both of them are refreshed by 
springs of excellent water, too much Wanted, cs* 
pecially in the summer season, not only in the 
plains of this, but of other countri(es in the same 
plitoatd. This fertilitjr of tlie Holy Land which 
I have been describings is confirmed ^on) authors 
of gfeat repute, whose partiality cannot in the 
least be suspected in this account. Thus Tacitus, 
(I. v« c. 6.) calls it uier solum ; dnd Justin, (Hist. 
1. xxxvi. c. 3.) sed non minor kfd 6ju$ Mprieitatis 
quam ubertatis admratio est. 

1 travelled in Syria aUd Phcentce in pe^embei* 
anil January, and therefore had not a pt'oper sea- 
son for botanical observations* Hi^wever, th0 
whok cdiuntry Iboked verdant and cheerful ; and 
the woods particularly, which are chi(^fly planted 
with the gall-bearing-oak) (g»tla SyriaoB ^re ta^ 
ken notice of by Vegctins, De re Rustica, ii. 62.) 
were strewed all over with a variety of anemones, 
ranunctilusscs, colchicas, and mandrakes. Several 
pieces of ground near Tripoly were full of liquo- 
rice ; and at tl^ mouth of a famous grotto near 
Bcllmont, there is an elegant species of the blue 
lily, the same with Morison's tilium Persicum flo- 
rem. In the beginning of March, the plains, 
particularly betwixt Jaffa and Ramah, were Gxtry 


The Fertility <^ the ffjpfy Zand. 147 

where planted with a beautiful variety of fritilla- 
ries^ tulips, and other plants of that and of diffe- 
rent classes. But there are usually so many dan^- 
gers and difficulties which attend a traveller 
through the Holy Land, that he is too much has- 
tened to ipake n^any curious observations, or to 
collect the variety of plants, or the many other 
natural curiosities of that country* 

The niQyntaips of Quarwt^nia afford a great 
qiilintity of yellow polii^ri), and iM>fne varieties of 
thyme, sagf, and rosemary, The brook likewise 
of £liisha» which flows from it, and waters the 
gardens pf Jericho, together with its plantations 
of plum * and date trees, ha^ its banks adorned 
with several species of brQoklimQ> ly$imachia» 
water*cress, betony, and other aquatic plants ; all 
of them very pearly resembling those of our own 
island. And indeed the whole scene of vegeta- 
bles, with tlie spil that ^upport^ them, has not 
those particular differences and varieties that 
might be expected in two such distant climates. 
Neither do I remember to have ^en or heard of 
any plants b^t ^ucb as were natives of other 
places. For the balsam tree no longer subsists; 
and the mi^sa fj which some authors J have sup-, 


* Of the firuit of this tree is made the oil of 'Zsiccone. .Vid. 
Matuulrtll's Joum. p. 8& edit. 2* The 4ree i^ ifym d^scfibecl^ 
Casp. JBauh. Plin. p. 444. * Prunus Hierichontica folio angusto 
« spinoso. Zaccoii (Ucitur, quia in planitie Hierichontis non longe 
« 9b fedibi(s Zgccb^ cstsck* Ca$t. 

f MomSt. cammonlf e?3M the fimaniHi, or. ^lantun tree. 

t Vid. Ludolphi Hist. iEthiop. lib. i. cap. 9. & Comment.' 
p. 139, &C.. 

148 Of thfi Plants— ;the Dudaim. 

posed to be the dudaim^ or mandrakes^ as we in- 
terpret it, is equally wantii\g ; neither could it, I 
presume, from the very nature and quality of it, 
ever grow wWd^ and uncultivated, as the dudaim 
must certainly have done. Others f again, as the 
dudaim (from in>) .are supposed to denote some- 
thing amiable or delightful, have taken tbcm for 
cherries, and that the doudai (♦Kin) consequent-^ 
ly, which we interpret baskets^ Jer. xxiv. 1. were 
itiade of the cherry tree. But the same, with 
equal reason, might have been asserted pf the 
plum, or of the apricot, or of the peach, or of the 
orange or lemon, which might have been as rare, 
and no less delightful than the cherry ; though 
it is more probable, that none of these fruits 
were known in Jude^ in those early times, not 
hlaving been propagated so fer to the westward, 
till many ages afterwards. However, what the 
Christians of Jerusalem take at present for du* 
daim, are the pqds of the jelathon, a leguminous 
plant peculiar to the com fields, which, by the 
many descriptions I had of it, (for it was too 
early, when I was there, to see it), it should be a 
Species of the winged pea ; probably the hiera- 
zune, or the lotus tetragonolobus. In no small 
conformity likewise with this account, the meli- 
lotus odq^^ >yiolacea of Mo^ision, the lotus hor- 
(ensi$ oda^ta df C. B. and the lotus sativa, odo* 


* And Reujken went in the days of V)heat harvest ^ and found 
mandrakes in thefieUi and brought thein to his nfotker Leah^ Gen. 
2ix. 14. 

f Vid. Mat. HiUeri GBerophyticon, in cap. De dudaim. 

The First ripe Figs, or Boccore. 14P 

rata, flore co&ruleo of J. B. have been taken for 
the dudaim. It is certain that the bloom of all, 
or most of the leguminous plants, yields a grate- ^ 
ful smeUj Cant. vii. 13. a quality which they 
h^ve so far at least in common with the du- 

The boccdre, which has before been mentioned, 
vol. h p. 264. was far from being in a st^tc of ma-* 
turity ^n the latter end of March ; for, in the 
Scripture expression, the time of Jigs was ?iot yet, 
(Markxi. 13.) or not till the middle or latter end 
of June. The MM^ff or time here mentioned, is 
supposed, by some authors, quoted by F. Clusius 
in his Hiero^botanicon, to be the third year ; in 
which the fruit of a particular kind of fig-tree 
comes to perfection. But this species, if there is 
any isncb^ needs to be further known and descri- 
bed. Dionysius Syrus, as he is translated by Dr 
Loftus, is more to the purpose : It was not the 
time of figs^ because, says he, it was the month 
Nisan, when trees yielded blossoms, and not 
fruit. However, it frequently falls out in ^arba- 
ry, and we need not doubt of thq like in this hot- 
ter climate, that according to the quality of the 
preceding season, some of the more forward and 
vigorous trees will now and then yield a few ripe 
figs, six weeks or more before the full season. 
Something like this may be alluded to by the 
prophet Hosea, ix. 10. when he says, he saw their 
fathers as (bocc6res) thejirst ripe in thefg-tree at 
her first time. 

When the bocc6re draws nearer to perfection, 


150 Of the Summer ^nd Winter Figs. 

then the k^rmouse, the summer-fig, or caricae, 
(the s^me that are preserved), begin to be form- 
ed, though they rarely ripen before August ; at 
whieh time, there appears a third crop, or the 
winter fig ^s we may call it. This is usually of a 
much longer shape, and darker complexion than 
the karmou^e, hanging and ripening upon the 
tree, even ^fter the leaves arc shed ; and, provi- 
ded the wipter proves mild and temperate, is ga- 
thered as a delicious morsel in the spring. We 
gather froifl Pliny, (I xvi. c. 26.) that the fig- 
tree wae biftra, Of fefore two crops of figs, wz, the 
toccdre, Sis we may imagine, and the karmouse ; 
though what he relates afterwards, (c. 27.) should 
insinuate that there was also a winter crop. * Seri 

* fructus per hiemera in arbore manent, et aestate 

* inter novas froades et folia maturescunt' ' Fi- 
' cus alterum edit fructum (says Columella, de 

* Arb. c. ai.) et in hiemem seram differet matu*- 
' ritatem.* It is well known, that the fruit of 
these prolific trec^ always precedes the leaves ; 
and consequently, when, our Saviour smv one of 
them* in full vigour having km?esy (Markxi. 13.) 
he might, according to the common course of 
nature, very justly look for fruit ; and haply find 
some bQcc6res, if not some winter figs likewise 

upon it. 

Several parts of the Holy Land, no less than 


* Talis arbor crat Judaicus populus : solis foliis luxuriabat cc- 
remoniarum, et hypocnticae sanctimonise : fructus nuUi, &.c. 
Vid. J. Henr. Ursini arboretmiS. 

JudM not fruitful in the Date Tree. 151 

of Idumasa *^ that lay contiguous to it^ are de- 
scribed by the ancients to abound with date-trees. 
Judea particularly is typified in several coins of 
Vespasian t, by a disconsolate woman sitting un- 
der a palm-tree. Upon the Greek coili likewise 
of his son Titus ;{;, struck upon a like occasion, 
we see a shield, suspended upon a palm-tree, with 
a Victory writing upon it. The same tree, upon 
a medal of Domitian, is diade an emblem of Ne- 
apolisj), formerly Sichem or Napl6sa, as it is now 
called ; as it is likewise of Sepphoris§ (Phocas^ 
writes it Sv^4»e0 or Saffour, according to the pre- 
sent nanie, the metropolis of Galilee, upon one of 
Trajan's. It may be presutned therefore, that thd 
palm-tree was formerly very much cultivated in 
the Holy Land. There are indeed several of them 
at Jericho**, where there is the convenience 


* Primas Idum«as referam tibi, Mantua, palmas. 

Vys^, Gcorg. lii. vcn 12. 

— . — Arbustis palmarum dives Idume. 

LucaiL. lib. iiL 

Frangat Idumaeas tristis Victoria palmas. 

Mart.£p. Lziii. £p. 50. 

f Vid. Occonis Imperat. Roman. Numism. Mediobarb, &c. 
110, 111, 112, 113. Amst. 1117. 

X lOTAIAS EAAQKYIA2. Victoria scribcns in clypeo palnwb 
appenso. Vid. VaiU. Numis. Imp. Rom. Grse^. p. 21. 

II ♦AAOTI NEAOOAI. CAMAF. L. A I. Palma arbor. IJ^ 
p. 24. 

$ C£n4»aFHNnN. Palma arbor. IJ. p. 30. 

^f Phocae Descrip. Sjrise apud L. Allatii Sv^iime. 

** Hierichtis palmetis consita, fontibus irrigua. Plin. 1. v. c. 14« 
tJt eopia, ita nobilitas in Judlba, nee in tota, Hierichuntetnaxime. 


lo2 Jericho abounds with the Date Tree. 

they require of being often watered ; where like* ' 
wise the climate is warm, and the soil sandy, or 
such as they thrive and delight in. But at Jeru- 
salem, Sichem, and other places to the north- 
ward, I rarely saw above two or three of them 
together; and even these, as their fruit rarely Or 
ever comes to maturity, are of no further service, 
than (like the palm tree of Deborah) to shade 
the retreats or sanctuaries of their Shekks, as they 
might formerly have been sufficient to supply the 
solemn processions (such as is recorded John xii; 
13.) with branches. From the present condition 
and quality therefore of the palm-trees, it is very 
probable (provided the climate and the sea air 
should, contrary to experience, be favourable to 
their increase) that they could never be either 
numerous or fruitfuL The opinion * then, that 


M. xiii. c. 4* Exuberant fmges, (says Tacitus, speaking 6{ this 
country) nostrum in morem ^ prseterque eas balsamum et palmse, 
Hist. 1. V. c. 6. Strabo describeth Jericho to be (j7r?imm^w r0 
^tmKt, 1. xvi. p. 1106.) abounding wit^ date-trees. For the city 
of palm-trees^ Deut. xxxiv. 3. Judges L 16. and iii. 13. is, in the 
Targum,"/^^ city of Jericho. 

* Quod ad nomen attinet Phoenices, id a Palmis ese ductum 
mihi videtur veri simile ^ alii a Phcenice ^uodain id ducunt. Re- 
land. Falsest, p. 50. Palma arbor uxbis ( Araili) ^t symbolmfr, 
quo pleraeque Phoenicia^' urbes utebantur, quod <S»OIN13 arbor 
provincise Phoeniciae nomen dederit. Vaill. de UrbiL p* 257. Of 
the same opinion was CaHsthenes, according to the author of the 
History of the Worlds p. 205* But the most probable conjecture 
for the name is as follows : * £dom, Erythra, and Phoenicia, are 
*• names of the same signification, the words denoting a red co- 

* lour ^ which makes it probable tbat the Erythreans, who fled 
^ from David, settled in great numbers in Phoenicia ; i. d in all 

* the sea coasts of Syria, from Egypt to Zidon, and by calling 
•themselves Phoenicians, in th^ language, of Syria, instead of 

• EirytUreans^ 



PtiteHMiD it the 9aa^e^#$t^ i eoiintry 6f date-tre^s, 
doe^ tort Hbj^at* p Wbabte ; fbr pi^dvided iUch an 
vimM mA^mh^tial p\fSim had eV^i- beetti ctiltivd*^ 
feed te»#'Waiavfefttage, k vhMild hav6 itill cbtttl-' 
iia*d to b« te*J>t up Ahd ptDi^agated, as in Egypt 
ahd fiarbary. 

Thte vegdtkbte kingdota bting thtiS^ deslcrib^, 
tet U6 no^ {>as$ on to give tn a(ic6tiil£ of subh 
roc4^s^ IbsMls, fouht^ini, rivers, afid anhnals, as 
ane the itaost remarkable. Kour the f6eks, iti sfe- 
reral places upon tfhe cdast of SyHa and Phcfe- 
nice, have been faolbw^d ittto a ^feat iitMiber 6f 
troughs, two 6t thtte j^irds king, afrd trf a ^rti- 
portionable breadth * ifiteMte^ i!^igiihklly fof h6 
many teit ^t^rfes, Whe¥*, by toilftindally tftrbwin^ 
in the mi xVa^M^ td CTltf^61'ate, a large <^u^ntit^ m 
salt would be graduMiy <»mic*r«ed. Wb see fee- 
veml of <hei^ cbftti'ivaftcts it Lataked, Afatat^dus, 
tripely^ and ^thtt l^lAt^s • which at jji-e^nt; itot- 
jyithilaliding tSlife terdiiess 6f tM kfiSk^ kt*e ntoSt 
df -thWh worn do#fl tb f heir ¥efy botHdms, by the 
€omiiiualdAsMA^4tldftfctit»itof the^dvel * 

Abcivfe this b*d «f liAix! rftbtie^ id^^t^fe n«^li- 
bftkjrhofed J)totlttfarijr or titil^ea; the foclt* atd 
«f a fifoft ehalky ^ilbiitanetei ^c$xh ^heneethfe id* 
jaeent c5«y tti^t bdiro^ the Aitfife of Arft^i «t^i 
w $he Wmtt JFrdmUfy. Th* Nakouta, fdrinftt-^ 

vot;rt. • -•'*• ^' ' 'tf: • '- -' ^^^ ' ' if 


* Emhreans, gave the n^^. <^ ^bccmioi^.to %11 j^Hgijearicciiisi, 

* and to that oi3y.;' jSirts.Newtbn's Chron. t). i6$,]^6^. fiqch- 
Ift Vilry lil^btiify stfpfW^^Ali thfe fhtibrti(iA to bfe tcftfftipfioa 

kit  ' '-  - • ' 


1-54 Of the FmiiJ^ Rocks, Fountains, S^. 

ly called the Seala Tyrioruni, is of the same na* 
ture and complexion ; both of them inciudiiig a 
great variety of cojrals^ shells, and oth?r remains 
of the deluge * Upon the Castravan mountains^ 
above Barroute, there is another curious bed like- 
wise of whitish stone, .but of tlie. slate kind,' 
which unfolds in every fleak of it, a great num- 
ber and variety of fishes. These, for the most 
partj lie exceedingly flat and compressed, like the 
fossil fern plants, yet, at the same time, they are 
so well preserved, that the smallest strokes ana 
lineameixts of their fins, scales, and other specifi- 
ed distincdons, are easily distinguished; Among 
these^ I have a beautiful specimep pf the squilla, 
which^; though the tenderest of the erustaceous 
kind) yet has not suffered the least injury from 
length of time, or other accidents. 

The greatest part of th? mountains of Carmel^ 
and those in the neijghbouihood of Jerusalem and 
Bethlehem^ are ma^e up of tb^e lik<^ chalky strata^ 
In the former, we gathe? a? gri^t .aiany boHow 
stones^ lined jn^ their iij^idjB^^ with a variety of 
sparry matter,; whicl^ froo;! ^oi;0e . di^t^t resem- 
blance, are s^id to be petrified olives, melons^ 
peachqs, and • other fruit, ^hese are commonly 
bestowed upon, pilgrims, not only as cu^iositieSj 
but as antidotes agai^st several distemp^e^^. ,The 
olives, which are the lapides Judaicif, as they are 


' * Se^ tiie calallo^e in die ColtecmeS. , 

•f One of tlic;m tviU usuidly servie for two doses,, dissolving or 
corroding it^rst in. so mucli lemon juice as ivill just cover it ^ 
and afterwards drinldng it up. Prosper Alpihus gives us another 



In Syria^ Phosnice, and the Holy Land. 155 

commonly called, have been always looked upon,' 
when dissolved in the juice of lemons, as an ap- 
proved medicine against the stone and gravel ; 
but little can be said in favour of these supposed 
melons and peaches, which -are only so many dif- 
ferent sizes of round hollow flint stones, beauti- 
fied in the inside with a variety of sparry and 
stalagmitical knobs, which are made to pass for 
so many seeds and kernels. Some little round 
calculi, commonly called the Virgin's peas; the 
. chalky stone of the grotto near Bethlehem, call- 
ed her milk ; the oil of Zaccone ; the roses of Je-^ 
richo ; beads made of the olive stones of Geth- 
fiemane ; with various curiosities of the like na- 
ture, are the presents which pilgrims Asually re- 
ceive in return for their charity. 

In calm weather, several fountains of excel- 
lent water discover themselves upon the sea 
shore, below Bellmont. They are supposed to 
have their sources at a league's distance to the 
eastward, near Bellmont, where there is a large 
cave, or grotto, as I have already observed, re- 
markable for a plentiful stream of water, that a 
few yards after it discovers itself, is immediately 
lost and disappears. The cave itself is near half 
a mile long, and sometimes fifty, sometimes a 
hundred yards broad, vaulted by nature in siich a 
resrular manner, as if art alone had been concern- 


method, Hist. ^gypt. Nat. 1. iii, c. 6. * j^gyptii Ijrpide Judai- 

* CO, ex cote cum aqua stillatitia ex ononidis radicum corticibus 

* detrito, utuntur ad calculos in renibus et in vesica coraminuen- 
^ dos, atque ad urinam movendam.* 

}S^ Qf tlie Mwr§ #ow« and Jf^fk^i. 

'j'yr?, the §(Wirce;? pf th? |Ci?fep% qu^ the se5i^W4 
^UBt^ of Salpwoi^ Bev 8*dslebam, %ff of the 
^wp^ gushing plwtifHVqu^hty with the fipuntaina 

of thi^ grotta The Nahar el {"^rfth^ or fAe rw«r 

qf the -jWb^ft whw^h Iw ^t5r scwrce* ^bo^t a league 
tq the N. E. of J(5?u«al?m, sho^M likewise he?e 
he t^0» notiw Qf. Tjip p^fi ^ ill' might pro- 
\^^]y ariwf fFom thi^ ^rcypistwcfl, th9,t it bq 
swner hCfjips tQ^^9W|^^P it is lo^t^ndi^r ground, 
4i^d theniri«pg'|ig?i», purweai its cour^<^ in this 
lxi^n|>?r, q.UerMtely rvpoil^g ^^ ^i^PP^ring, till 
it mnve^ i» the plains of Jericho, ^ct emptier it- 
s^^f }nto the Jprd^fl. Y^t, provi4ed these foun- 
tains *(^4 ^iytttet» here flifptiwed, togf th^r with 
the I^ardahah, the |^i$hqn, the htoo\i of $iche)P, 
tl^^'iff !iex^m9h pr Apathoth, he^ides a great 
mv^y othfT?) that ^i« dispers^4 all wer the Hqly 
J^n4^ ?ho^ld V^ united together, thciy wqu14 not 
form a ^t^eai^^ in any degree eqij^l to th? Jordan; 
which, excepting th? Nil^ \$ hy far the most 
copsidsf^hl?: ri^*e^, ^itheff of the coj»5t of §yria or 
of ^^h^ry. I coipputed it to be ^lK)ut thirty 
y^rds brq94 ; hut the depth I could not measure, 
e:i^cept 9i(t the brilik, where I found it to be three. 
Jf then we take this, during the whole yea^r, for 
the m.e^n depth of the stream, (which I am to 
observe further, rutis about twp m,iles an hour), 
the Jordan will every 'day discharge into the 
i)ead Sea, about 6,090,000 tons of water. So 
great a quantity of water being daily received, 
without any visible increase in the usual limits of 


. <« 

Of the Ikad Sim. 157 

the JJead S^a, has madje soTwe aiithcM's * coiyec- 
ture, that it must be absQrb^cl by the hurqing 
sands ; others, that there are $oine subterv%neQu$ 
cavities to receive it; others, that there is a com- 
municatiou betwixt it and the Sirbonic Lake ; not 
considering that the I)i^ad Sea alone vviU lose 
pvery day near one thir4 morf ij^ vapour than 
what all this amounts (a For provided the 
Dead Sea shoMld be, according to the general 
computation, seven ty-twQ miles long aiwl eigh* 
teen broad, then, by avowing j* 6ft 14 tons of va«» 
pour for every square mile, there will be draw^ 
up every day above 8,9$0,0Q0 tons. Nay, fur- 
ther, as the heat of the sun is of much greater 
activity here than in the Mediterranean, exhaling 
thereby a greater proportion of vapour than what 
has beeij estimated abqve^ so the. Jordan may, in 
some measure, make up this excess, by swelling 
more at one time than another, tliqugh, without 
^oubt, there are several other riversi it, particular- 

* Rd. P^leest p. 257-8. Sandys* Tiav. p. 1)1. 

* • 

f Vid. Dr Hallo j^ ob6ervatioii& upon tht qoaayity of vapour 
^r«9vn from tbe Mc^diteirsme^n^Se^, 

% Galen* apud Rdand. Hfuf, p.2P^. J%cob*Cerfaus« tbiif. p* 291. 
octo hos fluvios illab} monet in lacum Asphaltitem. 1. J'ordanem. 
2. Amofiem. 3. Flumen cum Arnone de magnitudine cettans, a 
«i9nt€ regal! pr^cedeBS, aUiageni Ovons^i». 4« Tluvimii prfkp^ 
puteos bituminis et vallem salinarum. 3. Flifviuia de Cade^barne 
venientetn. 6. Tluvium ab Artara egressufn,. ^ui Thecuam irri- 
git. *?• Ccdro^^em. 8. Cbacitlgi, tOKreqtem en «\onte Quarentano 
ortutu, et prope Engaddim in lacuiQ Asphaltitcni $? exoneraxi- 
tern. Sanutus (ti^^i^ p. 280.) hos fluvios recenset in lacum As- 
phaltitem iU^bi. Avnonem aliiun, qia in principio Mare mor« 
tuum inOiiat : aliuip, qui novem leucis xnde Mare moiliiusi ingr^ 
ditur. • - 

158 The Bitumen of the Head Sea. 

ly from the mountains of Moab, that must con-: 
tinually discharge themselves into the Dead Sea. 
For the Dead Sea is not the only large expanse of 
water, where the equilibrium betwixt the expence 
of vapour and the supply from rivers is constant- 
ly kept up. The like is common, without the 
least suspicion of any subterraneous outlets, to 
the Caspian Sea, and to an infinite number oi' ex- 
tensive lakes all over the globe. For all and eve- 
ry one of these, by receiving as much water from 
their respective rivers, as they lose in vapour, 
will preserve, as near as can be expected, their 
usual limits and dimensions ; the almighty Pro- 
vidence having given to themy no less than to the 
elements, a Imv which shall not be broken^ (Psal. 
cxlviii. 6^) which hath said (Job xxxviii. 11.) to 
the seay Hitherto ^hak (kou come, but no further ; 
ard here shall thy proud naves be stayed. 

I was informed that the bitumen, for which 
this lake haa b^en always remarkable, is raised, 
at certain times, from the bottom of the lake, in 
large hemispheres ; which, as soon as they touch 
the surface, and are thereby acted upon by the 
external air, burst at once with great smoke and 
noise, Jike the pulvis fulminans of the chemists, 
and disperse themselves into a thousand pieces. 
But thi§ only happens near the shore; for in 
greater depths, the eruptions are supposed to dis- 
cover themselves in such columns of smoke, as 
are now and then observed to arise from the lake. 
And perhaps to «uch eruptions as these, we may 
attribute that variety of pits and hollows, not un- 


Of the Birds y Animahy ^c (f Syria. 159 

like the traces of so many of our ancient lime* 
kilns, which are found in the neighbourhood of 
this lake. 

The bitumen is, in all probability, accompa- 
nied from the bottom with sulphur, as both of 
them are found promiscuously upon the shore. 
The latter is exactly the same with common na- 
tive sulphur ; the other is friable, and heavier than 
water, yielding upon friction, or by being put 
into the fire, a foetid smell. Neither does it ap* 
pear to be, as Dioscorides describes his asplial- 
tus t) of a purplish colour, but is as black as jet^ 
and exactly of the same shining appearance. 

Game of all kind, such as bustard, partridge, 
francoleens, woodcocks, snipes, teal, &c. hares, 
rabbits, jackalls, antilopes, &c. are in great plenty 
all over these countries.. The method made use 
of in taking them, is either by coursing or hawk- 
ing. For which purpose, whenever the Turks 
and Arabs of better fashion travel, or go out for 
diversion, they are always attended with a num- 
ber of hawks and grey-hounds. These are usual- 
ly shagged, and larger than those of England ; 
whereas the hawks are generally of the same size 
and quality with our goss-hawks, being strong 
enpugh to pin down a bustard to the ground ; 
and artful enough to stop an antilope in full ca- 
reer. This they perform, by seizing the animal 
first by the head ; and making afterwards with 


(f^vhn Diosci>ri(l. 1. i. c. 100. 

160 Of the Daman, IsMd, 

tbeir wiogs a continued fluttering over itd eyesj 
thej perplex, and thei-eby stop and retain it so 
long, till the grey-hounds come up and relieve 

But tlie only curious animals that I had the 
good fortune to see, were the skink6re, and the 
daman Israel ; both of which have been already 
delineated *, though neither of them is well de- 
scribed. Th6 former, which are found iu plenty 
enough in a fountain near Bellmont, are of the 
lizard kind^ all over spotted, and differ from the 
common water-efts in tte extent and fashion of 
their fins. These, in the male, commence froiti 
the tip of the nose, and ruYming the whole 
length of the ntck and back, to the very extre- 
mity of the tail, are continued afterwards along 
the under part of the tail, quite to the navel j 
wherclas the tails only of the female are finned. 
The l)ody and tail of this animal are accounted 
great provacatives, and are therefbre purchased 
by the Turks iat an extra vagant price. 

The daman Israel t is an animal likewise of 
Mount libanu^, tliough common it^ other places 
of this -ceuntry. It is a harmless creatiife, of the 
same size and quality with the iabbit^ and With 


* Vid. Thcsaur. Rcr. Natural- Alberti Sebafe, p. 22. Vol.L 
PI. 14. fig.l. &p.6l. PL 41. fig. 2. The first exhibits the 
figure of the skinkore, calling it Lacertus Africanus dorso.pec* 
titiato, ftmphibios ttarg. FdSihina |]«ettih^ta caret pinna Jn dorso. 
The latter gives us the figure of the Cuniculus Amencanas, 
which is very like our Daman Israel. 

f AtiiiAal quoddftm btinule, culiiculd fion dissimile, ^uod ag'* 
ftum filioram Israel nuncupaht. Prosp. AlpiQ. tiist. Nat« lE^^C 
pars.!. c;20. p. 80. etl.iv. c»9. 

Of the Inhabitants of Syria. 161 

the like incurvating posture and disposition of 
the fore-teeth. But it is of a browner colour, 
with smaller eyes, and a head more pointed, like 
the marmots. The fore-feet likewise are short, 
and the hinder are nearly as long in proportion as 
those of the jerboa*. Though this animal is 
known to burrough sometimes in the ground; 
yet, as its usual residence and refuge is in the 
holes and clifts of the rocks, we have $o far a 
moje presumptive proof, that this creature may 
be the saphan of the Scriptures than the jerboa. 
I could not learn why it was called daman Israel, 
i. e. IsraeTs lamb^ as those words are interpret- 

Besides Greeks, Maronites, and other sects of 
Christians that inhabit this country, there are 
Turks, Turkmans, Arabs, Souries and Druses. 
Of these, the Turks are masters of the cities, 
castles and garrisons ; the Turkmans and Arabs 
possess the plains, the latter living as usual in 
tents, the other in moveable hovels. The Souries 
(the descendents probably of the indigenas or ori- 
ginal Syrians) cultivate the greatest part of the 
country near Latikea and Jebilee; whilst the 
Druses maintain a kind of sovereignty in the 
Castravan mountains, particularly above Ba- 

As far as I could learn, the Druses and the 
Souries differ very little in their religion, which, 
by some of their books, written in the Arabic 

VOL. IT. X language^ 

^ Vid. supra, yol.i. p. 322. 

163 Of the Inhabitants of Syria. 

language, that I brought with me, appears to be 
4 mixture of the Christian and Mahometan ; the 
Gospels and the Koran being equally received as 
books of divine authority and inspiration. For 
to omit, what is commonly reported by the other 
inhabitants of this country, of their being cir- 
cumcised ; of their worshipping the rising and 
setting sun; of their intermarrying with their 
nearest relations, and making their children pass 
through the fire ; we may well conclude, . from 
their indulging themselves in wine and swines 
flesh, that they are not strict Mahometans ; as 
the Christian names of Hanna, Yousepli, Mi- 
riam, &c. (i. e. John, Joseph, Mary, &c.) which 
they are usually called by, will not be sufficient 
proof of their being true Christians. The Druses 
are probably the same with the xaeteioi of Pho- 
cas, whom he places in this situation, and de- 
scribes * to be neither Christians nor Mahome- 
tans, but a mixture of both. 


* Vid. Fhoc8B Descript* Syri^e, apud L. Allatii i;«^»f». 





Of the symbolical Learning of the Egyptians. 

jC bom Syria and Palestine, let us now carry on 
our physical and miscellaneous inquiries into 
Egypt. Here we have a large and inexhaustible 
fund of matter, which has engaged the studies 
and attention of the curious, from the most early 
records of history. For besides the great variety 
of arts and sciences that were known to the 
Egyptians, we read of no other nation that could 
boast of the like number, either of natural or ar- 
tificial curiosities. It was the fame and reputa- 
tion which Egypt had acquired, of being, the 
school and repository of these several branches 
of knowledge and ingenuity that en^gcd Or- 
pheus, Pythagoras, and other persons of the first 
rank in antiquity *, to leave tKeir own countries 


* Such were Musseus, Melampus, Daedalus, Homer, Lycur- 
gus, Solon, Plato, Demociitus, &c. Vid. Diod. Sic. 1. i. p. 53. \ 


1 64 Of the symbolical Leartiing 

to be acquainted with thi^. These philosopher^ 
Jikewisewere so artful in the first introducing of 
themselves *, they complied so readily afterwards 
with the customs of the country f, and were so 
happy in addressing themselves to the persons :j: 
who were to instruct them, that, notwithstand- 
ing the hatred, jealousy, and reservedness ||, which 
the Egyptians entertained towards strangers, 
they generally returned hoxfip witl| success, and 
brought along with Jhem either some new reli-? 
gious rites, or ^ome useful discoveries. 

Thii§ Hefodotu^^ acquaints us, that thp Gf reeks; 
borrowed all the names of their gods from Egypt^ 
and Diodqrus5r> that they not only derived from 
thence their theology, but their arts and sciences 
likewise. For, among other it^stances, he telU 
}is, that the ceremonies of Bacchus and Ceres, 
who were the same with Osiris and Isis, had been 
introduced very early among them by Orpheus ; 
that from the same source, Pythagoras received 
the doctrine of the transmigration of §ouls ; 
^uxqdus knd Thales** received mathematics; 


* It might be for this reason, that Plato, &c. took upon him 
the character of an oil-merph^nt ^ (h1 being always a welcome 
commodity to Egypt. Plut. Solon, p. 19. edit. Par. 

f Clemens Alexandrinus acquaints us, that Pythagoras was 
circumcised, in order to be admitted into their Adyta. Vid^ 
Strom, edit. Pp^t. I, i. p. ^5^« 

t /<// HftW. p. 35a. 

II U, L y. p. 6170. J[u$t. Mart. Qusest. 25. ad Orthod. 

. $ Herod. £ut. p. 50. ^ Diod. Sic. Bib. l.i. p. ^6. 

*f Diog. Laert. Li. in Vita Thai. Clem. Alex« Strom. Li. 
p. 221. 

Of the Egyptians* 165 

and Dsedalus architecture, sculpture, and other 
ingenious arts. According to the same author % 
Greece was further obliged to Egypt, not only 
for physic and medicines -f, but for a great many 
laws, maxims, and constitutions of polity, which 
had been introduced among thprn by Plato, Solon, 
and Lycurgi)3. Even their more abstracted leamr 
i"gj sych as related to the essence of the Deity, 
to the power and combination of numbers, to 
their mon^? J apd tpiax, with other disquisitions 
of the like abstracted nature, seem to have been 
transcribed from thence into the works of Plato 
and Pythagoras. 

Their symbolical learning alone, either as it 
wa§ conveyed in sculpture upon their obelisks, 
&c. or in colours and painting upoii the walls of 
their cryptaB II, mummy-chests, boxes for the sa- 
cred animals, &c. appears not to have been known 
in Greece, though among the antiquities of He- 
truria§, we meet with some faint imitations of it; 
enough perhaps to prove, either that this nation 
was originally related to Egypt, or that Pytha- 

* Diod. Sic. ut supra. f Hpmer. Odyss. A. vcr. 227. 

X ZoToast. apud Kirch. Oedip. ^gypt. Synt. i. p. 100. 

II Several of these cryptse, painted with symbolical figures, 
are seen near the pyramids. Chrysippus's antrum Mithras seems 
to have been of the same kind. T« r«;^e« rv a^ntXeiui 7c«trrat -jfci- 

§ Vid. Tabb. Dcmpst. Hetruriae Regalis, 19. 26. S5. 39. 47. 
63. 66. 77. 7S. 88. — Symbolicum appello, cum quid colitur, non 
quia creditur Deus, sed quia Deum sigpificat. — ^^^uomodo sol cul- 
tus in igne Vestali, Hercules in statua, 8lc. G. J. Voss. dc Ido-. 
lol. 1. i. c. 5. 

166 Of the sytfibolical Learning 

goras, or some of his school, introduced it among 
them. However, though none of the Grecian 
travellers have carried into their own country the 
figures and symbols themselves ; yet Diodorus in 
particular, in conjunction with Porphyry, Cle* 
mens Alexandrinus, and other authors, has obli- 
ged us with the description and interpretation of 
some of the most remarkable of them. Yet, as a 
proper and faithful key is wanting to the whole 
science, the purport and design of any single spe- 
cimen of it must still remain a secret ; it must 
at least be exceedingly dubious, uncertain, and 

Now, from what is presumed to be already 
known of this symbolical learning, it is supposed 
that the Egyptians chiefly committed to it such 
thing$ as regarded the being and attributes of 
their gods* ; the sacrifices and adorations that 
were to be offered to them ; the concatenation of 
the different classes of beings ; rerum trnturie in- 
terpretatioy according to Pliny f; the doctrine of 
the elements, and of the good and bad demons, 
that were imagined to influence and direct them. 
These again were represented by such particular 


* Hieroglypliica iEgyptiorum sapicntia, testantibus omnibus 
veterum scriptorum monumcntis, nihil aliud erat, quam scientia 
dc Deo, divinisque virtutibus, scientia ordinis universi, scientia 
intelligentiarum raundi praesidum, quam Pythagoras et Plato, 
notante Plutarcho, ex Mercurii columnis, i. e. ex obeHscis, didi- 
cerunt. Kirch. Oed. i^gypt. torn. iii. p. 561. ^gyptii per 
noffiina Deorum univcrsam rerum naturam, juxta theologiam na- 
turalem, intelligebant. Macrpb. Sat. 1. i. c. 20. 

+ Plin. Nat. Hist. 1. xxxvi. c. 9. 

Of the Egyptians. l6f 

anitnal^^, planta, instruineats, kc. as they sup- 
posed, or had actually found, by a long course of 
experiments and observations, to be emblematical 
of, or to bear some typical or physical relation to 
them. Every portion therefore of this sacred 
writing may be presumed to carry along With it 
some points of doctrine, relating to the theology 
or physics of the Egyptians ; for historic facts 
do not seem so well capable of being conveyed or 
delivered in these figures and symbols. 

In order therefoie to give a few instances of 
this mystical science, I shall begin with such of 
their sacitd animals as were symbolical of 4:heir 
two principal deities, Osiris and Isis, who were 
the same with Bacchus and Ceres, the sun and 
tlie moon, or the male and fbmale parts of na- 
ture f . The serpent:): therefore, sometimes drawu 
with a turgid neck ||, as it was observed to be an 


* According to an old observation, the great principle upon 
ivfaich tbe symbolic method of philosophizing was grounded, 
was this, «« moSnrtt rm imtivk utfMtfsmTA, Jamblicfaus gives us a 
filler reason of this way of writing. Vid. Jamblichus de Myst. 
Sect. 7. c. 1« Ger. and Joan. Vossius de Idololat. 1. i. Porphyr. 
apud £useb. D^ pFsepar. Evapg. Plutar. de Iside et Osiride, 
p. 380. Ipsi, qui irridentur ^gyptii, nullam belluam, nisi ob 
aliquam utilitatem, quam ex ea capcrent, consecraverunt. Cic* 
de Nat. Deor. 

f PluU De Isid. et Osirid. p. 372, 363, & 366. Euseb. Prsep. 
Evang. p. 52, Lut. 1544. Macrob. Sat. 1. i. c. 20. 

% Euseb* ut supra, p. 26. Plut. De Isid. et Osirid. p. 381. 
Macrob. Sat. 1. i. c. 20. et c. 17. unde Euripides, 

Tlv^iytfUf it i^tiKttf cXw iyetrctt ratf TtT^eific^^M$ 

II Aspida somniferam tumida cervice levavit. Lucan. 1. ix, 
ApuU Met. 1. xi. p. 258. & 262, Solin. Polyhist. I.xl. Deaspide. 

168 Of the symbolical Learning 

animal of great life and sprightliness, moving 
along with many winding, circulatory gyrations, 
and waxing young again every year by the cast- 
ing and renewing of its skin, so it was one of the 
symbolical representations of the sun. The bee- 
tle* was also substituted for the same deity, in 
as much as, among other reasons, all the insects 
of this tribe were supposed to be males ; that, in 
imitation of the sun's continuing six months in 
the winter signs, they continued the same time 
under ground ; and again, in conformity also to 
the sun s motion, after having inclosed their em- 
bryos in balls of dung, they rolled them along, 
with their faces looking the contrary way. The 
hawkf (the thaustus and baieth as the Egyptians 
called it) was another symbol, being a bird of 
gre^t spirit and vivacity ; having a most piercing 
eye, looking stedfastly upon the sun, and soaring, 
as they imagined, into the very region of light. 
In like manner, the wolf J, upon account of its 
penetrating sight and voracity, was another em* 
blem ; as were also the lion|| and the goose §, 
both of them most watchful animals ; the former 
whereof was supposed to sleep with his eyes 


* Plat, de Isid. et Osirid. p^ 355. & 381. Porpbyr. apad 
£useb. pnep. £vang< p. 58. Clem. Stxam. 1. v. p. 657. Horap. 
Hierog. 1. i. c. 10. 

f JE^asn, Hist. Atiim. L x. c. 14. & 24. Horap. Hierogl. I. i. 
c. 7. Clem. Strom. 1. v. p. 671. Plut. de lad. et Osirid. p. 371« 
Porphyr. apad £aseb; Prsep. £vang. p. 70. 

X Macrob. Sat. 1. i. c. 17. 

II Horap. Hierog. L i. c. 17. et 19* 

{ Plm« Lx. c. 22. Kircb. Oedip. ^gypt.- Synt. 3. p. 242. 

Of the Egyptians. I5d 

opOL To these we may add the crDCodile * 
which, like the supreme being, had no need of a 
toDgue, and lived the sam^ nomber of years as 
there were dajs in the year. And again, a^ Osi* 
ris was the Nile, he was typified also in that re-> 
spect by the crocodile, which otherwise wa$ look^ 
ed upon as a symbol of imjmdence f ; of an evil 
demon ^; and of Typhonjl; who wa» always 
supposed to act contrary to the benign inflnencesr 
ef Isis and Ofiri& However the hall§, the apis^ 
or Mnevis, and the fruitful deity ** of the alt-teem- 
ing earth, as Apuleius calls it, wa^ the principal 
symbol of Osiris. It was accounted sacred, for 
the great benefit and service that it was ef to 
taankind; and because, after Osdris was dead, 
they supposed his soul to have transmigprated 
into it- 

The bull was likewise one 06 Isis' symbols, 
who was also represented by the ibis -}"}• and the 
cat '\X ; the former whereoif brings forth rn all 
the same number of eggs^ the latter of young 
ones, as there aire dajs in oiae period of the moon. 

VQif*. «♦ Y The 

* Achill. Tatiiu, 1. iv. Dc Crocod. \^d. supra, p. 166. n. *. 
JKod. Sk. Kb. 1.1. p. 21^2. Pliit. de Isid. et Osiride, p. 58I« 

f Clenou AJax. Stroma 1. v. p. eio. | J>i9d.,aiQ. Uiii. 
||., Hut. de Isid, et Osiride, p. 366^9 & 371. 
\ Dlod. Sic. L i. p. 54. if ^ ^^ F- ^^' 

♦* Apul. Met. Lxi. p. 262. 

ff Clem. Strom. 1. v. p. 6.11. Plut de Isid. «t Odcide, p. 381. 
Hgnor. Mens. Is. Exp. p. 76. 

XX Pi)it. dc bid. et Qsirid. p. 376^ 

170 Of the. symbolical Learning 

The mixture also of black and white feathers in 
the pluinage of the one, and of spots in the skin 
of the other, were supposed to represent the di-^r 
vprsity of light and shade in the full moon ; as 
the contraction and dilatation in the pupil of the 
cat's eye were looked upon to imitate the differ 
rent phases themselves of that luminary. The 
dog* and the cynocephalus t were other symbols 
pf this goddess; the dog, as it was a vigilant 
creature, kept watch in the nighty and had been 
of great assistance to her, in searching out the 
body of Osiris ; the cynocephalus, as the females 
of this species had their monthly purgations, and 
the maj^s were remarkably ajffected with sorrow, 
and ab^t^ined from food, when the moon was in 
conjunction with the sun. 

These were some of the principal animals, 
which the Egyptians accounted sacred, and sub- 
stituted in the place of their deities; not that 
they directly worshipped them, as Plutarch J ob- 
serves, but adored the divinity only that was re- 
presented in them as in a glass, or, as he express- 
eth it in another place, just as we see the resem- 
blance of the sun in drops of water. But Lu- 
ci^njl has recorded something more extraordina- 
ry, with regard to the introduction of these ani- 
mals into their theology ; for he informs us, 
that * in the wars between the gods and the 
^ giants, the former, for safety, fled into Egypt, 

* where 

* Plut. iic lad. ct Osiridc, p. 356. * 

f Horap. HierogL 1. i. c. 14, 15, Id. 

t Plut. ut supra, p. 380-2. || Lucian de Sadiif. p. 5. 

Of the Egyptians, • 171 

* whwe they assumed, the bodies of beasts and 

* birds^ which they ever afterwards retained, and 

* were accordingly worshipped and reverenced in 

* theih.' 

Besides these animals, there are others also 
which the Egyptians received among their sacreH 
symbols.. Such, among the birds, was the owl% 
which generally stood for an evil demon j ap . th6 *^ 
comix t did for concord^ and the quail for impie- 
ty $ J allying these reasons, that Typhon .haid 
been transformed into the first ; that the second 
kept constantly. to its mate; whilst the latter 
was supposed, to offend the. deity with its ^43icei 
The upupall, from being dutiful to its aged pa- 
rents, w^. an emblem of gmtitude, or ehe (upon 
account of Its party-coloured plume) of ^ the 'Vari- 
ety of jtbings in the univierBe. . \ The sam6 quality 
was supposed to be denoted by the mdeagris \*\ 
though Ab^ephius ^ makies jt to repi^se;ftt{ th^ 
starry firmanieiit . Both these birds are stillwell 
known ip Egypt: . By the goat, their Mendes**^ 
or Pan, was understood the same generative faA 

:.. . . V •. ' culty 

. * Hecift. ^|)iUd Mklchiim. AbMepb. kpud'Kjrc%. OJbel. Pamptf. 

f .£lian. Hist. Animal, L iii. c. 9. Horap* Hieit>*gl. 1. i. 

X Hecat; flipud Khrch. Ob. Pamph^l. p. 322. Hofap. 1. u 
u'49* uUprori(vV*^.U^uiitncmnSiUi«^tfy«. i ^ ' -'^i ^.-^ - 

II Horap. L i. cJSi, Kirch. Obcl. Pamph. ^.'^W/' '';^ *^'^ '^ 

\ Kirch; OcAp;' Synt.f. pi^l. ' * - '^ •' '^ •'■'' 


°* a. 

p. 64. 

♦* Herod. Eut. J 46. 

a%ypt.^ i^ci 

ifQ Of the Sjfmb^ical Zearfdng 

culty iwd priocipk that was expressed by thb 
^bftUUft*» By the Hppopotamus t, they either 
typjfiml wpmdencey from the cruelty aod incest 
which this creature was supposed to be guilty of, 
m «ls€i Typhoni i. e. the west, which devx^urs and 
ji^iuk^ up the sun. An embryo, or the imperfect 
prodnctions of nature^ were expressed by the 
frog ^ aa animal which appears in difit^tietit 
Bhapep, before it arrives* to perfect ibhy and was 
is^uppwed to be engendeoed ef thie xosoA of the 
Nile, A:fi*hj|, says Pkitarch, wm typical of 
iHitr(!d,:;because of tte sea, i. c Typhoii^whereitt 
tbet Nile is lost and absorbed. The butterfly ^, 
from tmdergoing a variety of traBafotttiati^ons, 
wasi accdrdbig to Kircher, expi^esstve of the ma- 
liifoid power and influence erf the Deity. The 
same author calls it papilib dnurontomorphui^, aiid 
at . the jEJazDe time veay justfy' observes, tft^t the 
thyrsus papyraceus, or jiaficetts, or bei^rded bull* 
rush, is usually pUcsd before It, typifying thereby 
the ptenfey and ^^memx wbich &h^w^ Aom the di^ 
vme being* 

Neither were these and such like animals^ 
when wh^le and <ej;tii^ made use. ef m. thicir 


/ . . .' ' • '- ^'' '^ - " 

* iCBod. &c. Li. p. 13. & 55* Kirch. Oedip. JEgj^t^'SfiiJ^ 
u p. 152. ; ... 

f I%t.deIrid.etQian4e^3tt3w IfeesLiilL^^^ 
Potpbyr. apiul.£useb* 4^ fmp^ Evsng^ V,^'^^.*^ 

X Honp. L L c. 26. Pign. Mens. Js. £xpl., p. 49* 

II Plttt. de UU. &c. p» 369, '- 

$ lUrcb. Oedi JEgyfU Synt. iL p<183. & in Obel. PaispbyL 
p* 500« 

Of the Egyptians. 173 

symboli^sri, represetntations^ Init eVen the parts 
likewise and oaeitibers of them* Thus tha horns 
of the bull, which are usually gilded * Were ty- 
pical both pf the horns of the moon f , and of tbt 
beams of the sun j;, according as they were |pk»- 
ced upon the head of Isis or Qsiris. The eye H 
denoted foresight and providence; andy being; 
joined to 4 sceptre^ ^i^tiified also the po\/ineT of 
Osiris. The right hand§, with the fingenr open; 
typified plenty ; but by tht kft were underst€X)d 
tlie contrary qualities. Wings ^, were embleimati- 
cal of the swiftneels asid prmiiptiti^ ^hicfa th6 
deitie% genii^ and sadred persofis, to whoiriithey 
are gireUi misty be supposed to make usv otf^ for 
the service of the uHiV^r^C^ ' ^ J 

But be^44s, the parts already mtnt^oouMl, we 
often see tjt^e bead^ ^ divers animalsy either 
alone, or e^se fixeid to a rod^ or to the body of 
some other icre^ture. fiy the first of which sym^' 
bols, they probably typifidd t})e principal' charac^ 
ter of the creature** itself ; by the other, the 
united characjtcra of them both. Thus tire head 
of the hawk, jbis^ UO£i,, &•€. is frequently 


^ Carmina Orphica apud Euselx ^xffn^* ETCing* p» 61. 

f Clem. SuoBl. L v. p. 657. * ' i 

X Macrob. L u c. 22*. Horat. Cttoyi. 1» n, 04* 19; AleaiiiL 
£xplic. Tab. Heliac. p. 23. 

(I Diodi Sic. 1. iii. PluL de Isid. et Osiride,. p.^71. . 

§ Diod. ut supra* Abenepli. apud Kixch^ ObeL Pamphih 
p. 442.  .-^ '.■••- • 

^ Clenik 1. v.- pi66r§. de Chensbim. 

 Diod* 1. i. pi 39. Kirch, ©cd. itgypt* p. 214. ef ©b< 
Pamphyh p. 497* 

1 74 Of the symbolical Learning 

joined to the human body ; the head of a woman 
or of a hawk, to the body of a lion ; the head of 
Orus *, (who is always represented young) to the 
body of a beetle ; and the head of a hawk to the 
body. of a serpent, i'- Now,' according to Por- 
phyry f ,' * we are to understand by thii mixture 
^ and combination (rf different animals, the ex- 
' tent »of God's care and providenccf dver all his 
' creatures ; and as we are all bred up and nou- 

* rished together, under the same divine power 

* and protection, great tenderness and regard 
*. ought to be shewn to oar fellow-creatures/ ' 

Of these compound: s^bolical representations 
ther^fone, the human body % With the hawk's 
head, wa& typical of the fifsty'iticorrtfptible, eter- 
nal Being. Porphyry If speakp of an image of this 
kind/ that was of a whit« colow, whereby- the 
mooo^was reprcsentid as receiving her pale light 
from ihe sun. When thie head of the^ ibis waS 
annexed, then it was their; Mercuribis- or Herma-i 
nubis, presiding, according to Kircher, over thet 
element of water §. The like quality and cha- 
racter might be also implied, when they added 
the head of the lion ^, a creature that was typi- 
cal of the Nile's inundation. No one figure cer- 
tainly is more common than this / being usually 
seen in a sitting inclined posture, as iF cut short 


* Kirch. Prodr. Ciopt. p. 239^ 

f Porphyr. apud Euseb. Praep. Evang. p. 57. 

t Id. ibid. p. 70. II ZoroaiUibid. Li. p. 27. 

{ Kircb. Obel. PaxnphyL p. 348* 

^ Kirch. OecKp. Mgjpt. class. 7; p. 155. 

Of the Egyptians. , » 1 75 

by the legs, and was called momphta, the same 
with eiDieph or hemphta^ as Kircher conjectures. 
The Kc««?r{«rA«r«F *, or human figure with a goat's 
head, expressed, among other things, tlie conjunc- 
tion of the sun and moon in the sign Aries. 
But when the head of the dog was affixed, then 
jt was the Anubis or Hermes f? representing the 
horizon % , and guarding: the hemispheres. 

The head of a woqian, joined to the* body of a 
Jion, was called a sphinx ; being in general an 
emblem of strength ||, united to prudence. When 
5uch figures were placed near the Nile, they de- 
noted ftie inundation to fall out, when the sun 
parsed through the signs of Leo ^ and Virgo ; 
but when they adorned the porticos ^T and gates 
of their temples, then they signified that the the- 
plogy tayght and represented within, was clothed 
in types and mysteries. The (aspis . *ie«««j«M^**) 
serpent with a hawk's head **, was the agatho- 
daemon of the Phoenicians, and the cneph (Kir- 
cher likewise calls it the thermutis). of the Egyp- 
tians, being supposed to carry along with it 
greater marks of divinity ff than any other sym- 
bolical figure whatsoever. We sometimes see an 

f Euseb; Braep. Evang. Liii. p. tO. * f Lucian. de Sacrif. 

t Plut. dc Iside ct Osiride, p. 356. H^rap* Hierogl. !• u 
c. 14, 15, 16. Diod. Sic. 1. i. p. 55. Clem. !• v. p. 413. 

II Id.. ibid. 

} Horap* {Iierog. LI. c. 21. Kirch. Obel. Pamph. p. 286. 

^ Plut. delsid. p. 354. Qem. l.lvii. p. 664. 

♦* Euseb. Praep. Evang. 1. i. p. 26. f f Id. ibid. p. 27. 

1 7S Of the symboBcal Learning 

eggj the S3rmbol of the wofld *, issuing out of its 
mouth t; which the Egyptians matntaiin to be 
prodiictive of the deity Ptha, but the Greeks of 
Vulcan ; who were both the sjtm^ acoordiug to 
Suida9. la like manner, the union of the heads 
and bodies of other different creatures may, ac- 
CQxdmg to their respective qualities, be presumed 
to represent so many genii ; the faeads^ especially 
Qf the sacred animals, being added, as Kircher 
imagines l^, to strike terroor into the evil demons^ 
The skins of the dog and the ifolf, which, Dio- 
dorus tells us % Anubis and Maoedon put over 
their heads in the wars of Osiris (in orde/, as we 
xaty suppose, to excite fear in their enemies) will 
probably canfii;m this opinion of Kircher. Dio 
dorus indeed gives us a different interpretation, 
and affirms^ that it was owing to the wearing of 
these h^mets, that those animals were esteemed 
and honoured by the Egyptians. 

After these different species of animals, we are 
to take notice of some of the most remarkable 
planjts, that were received into their sacred wri* 
ting* Thu$ Diodorus tells us, that the agrostis, 
\n token of gratitude §, was carried in the hands 


^ ^ut. S3rnip. 1. ii.' p. 634. V^a ^.fnA Ptobiiin ia £cIog. vi. 
Scql. Idol. 1« i. c. 5. 

f Porphyr. apud "S^^sth* Praep. £Y»i\g. 1. it. p. 69» Suidas ia 
voce <P5«$. Suspicor vocem Kvd^ esse furm evytumi/m f\^pf ca^' 
napk vel cenephy quas notat alam, subinde etiam t« Wi^«T«y alatiiin. * 
Sic vocitanmt boc numen a symbolo, quod e^ 8erp«nt« et voliicre 
componeretur. G. J. Vqss. de IdpL 

X Kircli. Oed. Synt. xviji. p. 5^6. 

IJ Diod. Sic. 1. i. p. 11. $ DIod. ut sup. p. 28. 


7 Of the Egyptians. 17 1 

of their votaries; but, a& this is the general natiio 
fox the cuiniiferaua plants, it will be uqcertain to 
whieh of them we are to fix it The plants Uke<' 
wise of the Isiao t^bte, eai^iad by BignoriuiT and 
Kircher> the peraea, acacia, m^iilai, i\vormwaod| 
puF#}aiii, Stf:, appear to hie much liker other kitid% 
such probably M were, no way concernied iii the 
^^gy ptim physics w tliealogy, thai\ thole to which 
they are l^cribed. The porslain. pai^ticulavly^ op 
iDotiaioutin *i seems hy theiigure tbeaugab 
cane, which this country ipigbt andently, a;^ it 
4oes at this time prodqce. But among those, t^t 
may be better distinguished ; such aa the head of 
the poppy f, or of the pomegranate,, whieh aro 
divided into a number of apartments full of ae^^ 
hy these they denoted a city well inhabited^ ^ By 
the rced» (the only instrument they anciently 
wrote with, as they continue to do to tlias< day;), 
they signified the invention of arts and sciences;}:, 
together with the culture of the vi^ie, according 
to Kireher H. The reed is still used for the sup- 
port of the vine. This plant is ficquently seen, 
with the top of it bending down §, in t{i^ hands 
of tlieir deities, and was the same symbol, acpprd^ 
ing to Kireher^, with the bullrush and papyrus; 
VOL. !!• z , expre^ssiye 

* #j U>Trf^^Tf^ ^^^ significant, ^tfipd JU^rfn^ A i^ovte, 
its Mgyptii portulacam vocabant. Hicropnantes vcro fufiti A^«f , 
Vid. Kirch. Oedip. p. 78. • . . 

f Euscb. Praep. Eyang. p. 66. 

X Horap. Hierogl. Li. c. 38. 

II Kirch. Ocd, lEgyfi. Synt. iii. p. 532. 

} Id. iUd. p; 234. f Id^ ibid, p.234.] 

)78 Of the symbohcal Learning 

expressive likewise of the various necessaries of 
life. The palm- tree *, from shooting forth one 
branch every month, i. e. twelve in a year, signi^ 
fied that same peripd of time. The boughs of it, 
that were equally emblematical with those of 
other kinds of the first productions of nature f, 
or of the primitive food of mankind, were pro- 
bably the ^tMM^ or branchesXy which the votaries 
carried in their hands, \vhen they offered up their 
devotions. It is certain that other nations made 


use of these boughs, upon 9. civil || as well as 
religious ^ account. The persea % mistaken for 
the beach-tree, was sacred to Isis, as the ivy was 
to Osiris**. Now, the leaves of the persea, ty- 
pifying the tongue, as the fruit itself did the 
heart,^ they intimated thereby the agreement there 
should be betwixt our sentiments and expres- 
sions ; and that the deity is to be honoured with 
both. The figure ff, which we often see, like a 
trident, is sfipposed by Kircher to be a triple 
branch of this tree, typical of the three seasons, 
the spring, the summer,; and winter, into which 
the Egyptians divided their year. But the lo- 
t^tX ^^ ^^ nio§t common and significative 


* Horap. Hierogl. Li. c. 3. f Porphyr. de absdnentta. 

t Qem. 1. ▼. p. 672-3. || HcHod. iSth. Hist 1. x, 

§ Jos. Axidq. Jud. Liii. c.lO« 

^ Plut. de Idd. p. 378. Diod. L i. p. 21. 

•♦ Diod. 1. L p. 10. 

ff Kirch. Oed. ^gypt. SynLiii. p. 228. 

X% Herod. £ut. $ 92. JambL de Myst $ vn. c. 2. 

Of the Egtfptiani. 175 

among rhe vegetable symbols^ being observed to 
attendi the motion of the sun, to lie under water 
in its absence, and to have the flowers, leaves, 
fruit and root, of the same round figure with 
that luminary. Osiris therefore was not only sup- 
posed to be represented in an extraordinary man-* 
ner by the lotus, but to have his throne* likewise 
placed upon it. By a flower f, (it is not niaterial 
perhaps of which species), the power of the Dei- 
ty was typified, as having thereby condacted ac 
plant (and therein emblematically any animal or 
vegetable production) from a seed, or small be- 
ginning, to a perfect flower^ or state of maturi- 
ty. However, we read that the anemone J, in 
particular^ was an emblem of sickness. The 
onion}) too, upon. account of the root of it, 
(which consists of many coats, enveloping each 
other, like the orbs in the planetary system) wai$ 
another of their sacred vegetables. The priests § 
would not eat it, because, anu)ng other reasons, it 
created thirst ; and, . contrary to the nature of 
other vegetables^ grew and increased when the 
moon was in the wain. . 

Among the £p*eat variety of utensils, instruf 
ments, mathematical figures, &c. that we meet 
with upon their obelisks, and> in.otber.piec^ ^f 
sacred writing, we may give the first place to tfi^ 
calathus, or basket. This is iqsi»l{y placed upon 
the head of Serapis^ who wai tfie witte fl^ With 

. ' / Osiris, 

« Ui ibidt f Msulrob. Sat. 1. I. xvii. ^ ' 

t HotHp. Lii. €.d. 11 Jirir«n;filat.'xv. v^r;i^. - 

§ Plut. dc Isid. p. 353. IT W- IMi p.3T6. 

if 9 Oftke mfmboBad Ijsi&ning 

OeiH^y and dciu>tfed * the varioa^ gifts t^at Wdr« 
received froni) and conveyt d beck M tbe Ddty. 
Tbe sikula t^r Ikictet, which Isiii tarries Mtlittkh&d 
ifa her haad, ideaoted the fecundity <df iivs Nite j 
and diiBered very, littte in shape from the ^iSitm^ 

or cup of libattoa t> ^^^ ^^^^ <^ ^^ ^^^ 4tVtli^ 
bute$ ^ tihe f^^rft^ or omtdr, Tbs t^rater, ^ 
bowl ^ was another nnbiein of the Mme kifftd, 
beiUg aluso fhped ufj^on th» heads of thei)* d&itiietsf^y 
ty jMfyiojap theneby the grmt plenty and beine&ie^ee 
that Aimed from them. The as&o(>iU){ wluft of 
tfad fliaw ciass, repreBeatin^ tiie detfH^t ^df divi^ 
Hity or Water §. Under a sphhigiDpede^ f > upoii 
the. Isiac table, we m6 tliree of tktm ^t^dgether, 
denoting tke three caulses ** that w^re then i^s* 
signtd for the inundation laf tbe Nile; 

Artificial infltruments, (avd things mtetiti^ to 
that dasB^ are in gtafat Iiifinber6. Ambtig tlie 
iniiBical imlttunjenCts^ we vee t^ sistltim f\y mA 
the ptectnim^; tl^ fomiet wb^rdof #uk uMkI; 
ill thear ^religibus teremMsos, kx^ fiiglift iwicy tite 
evil dhntons^; being, alt ^e l^UttietiiiM^ ^e:»^eM$V& 
of the periods of the Nile's inwn^ition, ttftd tte% 
all things in the mdvevm ^e kept np by iuMten. 


» STiteM^. «kil« 1 {; C. ^. £tlftfcb. I^rkp. ^V^^^. ^.'6^. 

f Gkfai. Akx. I.'m |i,4564 t Hfcvmes th 

H Eus^. Ecd. Hist. L'ii. apu^llufimim^ . . 

f PdiQpliyr* ^ud Euseb. Pretfpi Evang. p. 57. 

^ Ath«iii^I)tipiof.l»^. « ^* Horap. Li; <c.'2i4 

f f Plttt* dc laid. ^ 31^ Sorv. in Virg^ JEh. tiiL 4e iSstto. 

(J^ 4ke Egyptiaks. 181 

The pfoctraiti w^s either ^mbleihatlcal of tlie 
poks> upon whidb the f lobe cf ihk eartii is tuk*n- 
ed; or else of the air, vrhich commuhicated life 
and motion to the universe. InstttiYnctals of pu- 
nishftieiit, siHteh as the hook atfid the flagellum, 
are sKMnetimes ^seeli in the himds of theit Ghenii 
averiiitici; ekpressiv^, tto doabt, of tSift power 
the^ are isu^posed to i^ake use V>f, ih dtivihg' 
away the levil demohs. But the flageUutti, in the 
hands irf Ositis  iilenotes his charactet, as guid- 
ing the ehaHot of the suta. The !z>:<<»k, and sa- 
cited cubit^ (the latter f wheredf 'ras the badge 
of the ih^Mm, the foHber % of the •ife>yp¥¥«*««^> or 
saded Bcribe)^ tiiay be lilbewise phtced among the 
imtniments ^f justice ; to which Wte tnay add 
the sceptre, that tias before been tideen notice of, 
as the sptiAsKA of gover^ttient, iteadmess and con- 
duct fiut the wheel % which witt the reverse of 
ttoe soepti^e, sigiliSed ^e instability of human af- 
faiitis. A long tod, liSce the ha&tii para df the Ro- 
mans, was pkiD^ably a sytnbol of t^e same im- 
pottance with libe sdef^re ; being generally as- 
ctibed to the suti §, though tomedntes we s^ee it 
held in tfee bands of thenr other deities. Tlie 
top ctf k also is frequently adorned with the head 
Qf ifee upapa, goat, Orus, Isis, or ithe lotus, 
whereby some new 'character naay be presumed to 
be superadded to it. Thus, among other instances, 


* Macfcth. Sat. lu c. 2^3. ,f Vid. indt. ff, p. lao. 

t Clem. p.'*T57. || ttul.^h NUmia. 

} Pign. in Mvi^«A. 3eHoria, p. IIQ. Macrob. Sat. Li. c.l7« 

I fJ2 Of the symbolical Learning 

u rod with the head of Isis or Orus .upon it, 
might express some, branch of power and autho* 
rity, which the person who holds it had received 
from one or other of those deities. . 

Among the mathematical .figvires, we meet 
with the circle and crescent, which. represeut the 
sun and the moon, ttv^H/KtyocMg^ i. e. properly speak- 
ing, or without any cenigpiaticql meaning,- as Ckr 
mens Alexandrinus * expresses it. The circle 
likewise is equally symbolical of the year with 
the serpent biting its taiL A globe, or disk, is 
often placed upon the heads of their deities, as 
all of them bear some relation to the sun. It is 
fixed also upon the headf, and between the 
very horns, of Isis, whose attributes and ceremo- 
nies were frequently the same J with those of Osi- 
ris. Wings are often added to the globe, with a 
serpent hanging from it, being all of them toge* 
ther symbolical of what is presumed « to be the 
anifna mundi\\ ; i. e. a power, spirit, or faculty, 
that diffuses life, vigour and perfection, through^ 
out the universe. A serpent surrounding a globe^ 
carried along with it the san>e meaning §j When 
the circle has within it a serpent, either lying in 
a straight line, or forming the figure of a cross, 
by the expansion of its wings, then it is Mppo- 
sed to be the symbol of an agathod»monf , other- 

* Clem. 1. V. p. 657. * f Aprils Met. 1. xi. p. 258. 

X Id. ibid. p. 27. 

Ij Ahcnepb. db Hdig.^gypt. apud Kirch. Obel. Pamph. 
p. 403. & Oed. MgjpU Class, vii. c. i. p. 96. & c. iv p. 117. 

$ Abenepb. apud Kircb. Ob. Pam. p. 420. 

^ Philo Bib. apud £useb. de Prsep^ Evang. 

Of the Egjfptian^^ 18$ 

wise expressed by the Greek [e] theta. The hier- 
alpha ^^* likewise, which is frequently held in 
the hands of their deities and genii, might carry 
along with it the like signification. Of the same 
kind also was the ^ crux ansataf, which con- 
sisted of .a cross, or sometimes of the letter t 
only, fixed in this, manner [Jlpi] to a circle. Now, 
as the cross J denoted the four elements of the 
world, the circle will be symbolical of the influ- 
ence which the sun maybe supposed to have over 
them ; or, as Kircher || explains it, by the circle 
is to be understood the Creator and Preserver of 
the world; as the wisdom derived from him, 
which directs and governs it, is signified by the 
T^, T, (or "I", as he writes it), the monogram, as 


* Hoc fMy«y^«fe^w^ ex A et A compositutn, in nuUo non obelis- 

cofrequentissimuin^gyptiacarumvocvmiO^d^OOC !i^eJULQIt 
quibus bonum genium Deltse Nili seu ^gypti signant, index \ 
cum praeter dictarum vocum capitales llteras, ejus quoque i^gyp- 
ti portionis figuram quam A passim vocant^ clare dictpm iui6y^m/b^ 
/Mf exprimaU Kirch. Prodr. CopU p. ^31- 

f Kircb. Obd. Pan^pb. p. 440. 

X Cabala Saracenica, ibid. p. 372. Justin Martyr. Apology 
p. 370. / 

II Sicutnomen Dei TWTV juxta Rab. Hakadoscb, Deum gc- 
nerantem significat, ^c et hoc (<>*i~) non apud Coptitas tantum \ 
sed apud i^gyptios antiquos quoque Emepht, seu cum aspiratione 
Hemepht, seu ^)t,tX^^j quod nos ex Copto intcrpretamur (in 
Phtha), qttasi cficeres, Deum omnia peragentcm in Phtha filio, 
quern produxit j vel, ut cum Jamblicho loquar, Emepht niroirum 
producentem ex ovo Phtha, hoc est, intelligentiam ad exemplar 
suum XXj^Ott generantem $apientiam, omnia cum veritate arti> 
ficiose disponentem, nempe Taautum ; quern proinde apposite 
per hos characteres seu fMuy^afLfMtnt @, ^ reprsesentabant ^ per . 
circulum primum mundi genitorem, aeternumque conservatorem^ 
divinitatemque ejus ubique diffusam, per 'f' vero sapientiam mun- 
dum gubemantem intelligentes. Kirch. Prod. Copt. p. 169l 

1 84 Of the symbolical Lemning 

he further conjectures, of Mercury, Thoth, Taaut, 
pr [0^] Phtha. It is certainly very e^straorcli- 
nJ^ry, tnd worthy of our notice, that this crux 
ansata should he so often found in their symholi*' 
cal writings, either alone, ©r held in the hands, 
or suspended over the necks of their deities. 
Beetles, and such pther sacred animals and sym- 
bols, as were bored through, and intended for 
amulets, had this figure frequently impressed 
upon them. The crux ansata therefore was, in 
all probability, the name of the Divine Being, as 
Jamblichus records it* that travelled througli 
the world. We may further suppose it to be the 
venerable effigies of the supreme Deity, which, 
Apuleius f informs us, was not roadq in the like- 
ness of any creature, or to be the phylactery of 
Isis, which, not unlike the thummim in the 
breast-plate of the high priest, signified, accord- 
rng to Plutarch Xy the voice of truth. But the in- 
terpretation of this figure, the cross part of it ^t 
least, is recorded in Sozomen, and other Chri- 
stian authors, as expressive of the life to comef ; 
being the same with the ineffable image of eter- 
nity ^, that is taken notice of by Sqidas. The 
learned Herwart also in a very elaborate disserta- 
tion, has endeavoured to prove it to be the acus 


* Jambl. de Myst. sect. S. c. 5. 

f Apul. met. 1. xi. p. 262. % ^^"t. 4t HL p. 3T7-8. 

II Sozomen. Eccles. Hist. 1. vii. c. 15. RufRn. Eccles. Hist. 
1. ii. c. 29. Suid. in Theodos. Socrat. 1. ix. Hist, tripart. 

, $ Suid. in vocab. H(«frx«$ et Aiicyf#^«y. Hervr. Theolog* 
Ethnic, p. 11. 

Of the Egyptians. 185 

nautica, or the mariner's compass, which he sup- 
poses was known to the ancients * 

But, to return to the mathematical figures. 
The hemispheres of the world were represented by 
half disks, which, according as the circular part 
was jv'aced upwards or downwards, denoted the 
upper or the lower hemispherCi A pyramid, or 
obeUsk, i. e. an equilateral, or an acute angled 
triangle, with two equal sides, denoted the na- 
ture and element of fire f ; but by a right angled 
triangle ;j;, was understood the nature and consti- 
tution of the universe, whereof the .perpendicular 
expressed Osiris, or the male ; the! basis express- 
ed Isis, or the female ; and the hypotheneuse ex- 
pressed Orus, L e, the air, or sensible world, the 
offspring of them both. The Mundus Hylaeus, 
as Kircher calls the material or elementary world||, 
was typified by a square, each side (as in the ta- 
ble § of the Jewish tabernacle) representing one 
quarter of it. 

But there was not only a mystery couched 
under these and such like images themselves, but 
the very posture, dress, and matter of some of 
them had their meaning. For when Isis, Osiris, 
&c. are represented sitting, this is a type of the 

VOL. II. 2 a deity's 

 Herw. Theolog. Ethnic, p. 60. 

f Pofphyr. apud £useb. Praep. Evang. p. 6#. 

t Hut. dc lad. p. 373-4. 4 

II Plut. in Alciaoo, c. 11, & 12. apud Kirch. Oed. Mgfft^ 
class, vii. p. 103. Qem. Alex. Strom. 1. vi. p. 474. 

$ Jamb, sect* vii. c. 2* 

} 8$ Of the SymboUcal Learning 

deity's being retired within itpelf *, or that \m 
power is firm and immoveable ; ^s the throne it* 
self, when phequered with black and white, was 
embl^in^tical of the variety of subUinary things f. 
When the deities and genii stand upright, as if 
l-eady for action^ with their legs placed close to^ 
gether> this '^ is to represent them gliding ^ it 
were through the wr, without either let or impe- 
diRieiit II ; but, when the world i$ typified by a 
hilPfian figure, with its legs in this posture, this 
i^ ft t^k^n of its stability. No lesis symbolical 
Wft? th« dresfi pf their deities, ^or the sun, b^- 
ing ft body of pure light, his g^rpient, according 
to Plut^qh \i wa3 to be of the ^w^9 colour, uni* 
forpily bright and luminous ; though Macrobius^ 
clothes the winged statues of the sun partly 
^itb a light, partly with a blue colour, in ai$ 
much (IS ^he Utter was emblematical of that lu-^ 
minary in the lower hemisphere. Whereas Isis, 
being considered as the earth, strewed over with 
4 variety of productions, be^ng also hght and 
darkness, &c. her dress, agreeable to these quali- 
ties, wa« either to consist of a leqprd's skin, or 
else to be otherwise i^potted and variegated with 
divers colours**. The -fillets tti which make 


* Porpbyr^ apud Euseb. Ptspp. Evang. p. 61. 

f Orph. de Metcurio apod Kirch. Synt. t. p. 95. 

t Heliod. ^diiop. 1. iii. p. 148. 

II Euseb. PfflBp. Evang. p. 69. § Plut. de Isid. p. 3&2. 

5f Macrob. Sat. 1. i. c. 19. ** VvX. not. J, supra. 

f f Heliod. in ^tbiop. Pigh. in MvS«A. de Horis, p. 171. 
Pier. Hierogl. L xzxix. c. 3. 

Of ikg EgypHdns. 187 

part of her AttfH, ^ ate held iti -h^i- hahcH, tepre- 
Mtit the pha^» of the tkboii; its the tresses of 
her h^t *i Whe«i th&y ahr of tt dark tA^e ctAoiit, 
da the hdldnes^ of the fttftlospth^e; the rays; 
flattf^t, h6ra», tails X, &<i- that str* pHti^ed itme^ 
diatdiy uj^A the heads (sf the»e figui*^ ^ thd ser<. 
peot^K^ u^hi«h ^tand upright upon theiil, <it hstte 
out of their hair§; together with the gldbdd, 
fnitre»f,- ibathers** pahn lea vis tf* £ec. that are 
se€ Itbov^ theffi, have each of tii6^ thelt sjrmb6^ 
lie&l ittcHking ahd design ; heihg, iti getietal, id 
many tfpts d idife ptitrer, nafitire, and itttiibu^ 
df that deity <^ g<initis upeitl which they ari pla- 
ced ^. The hiktA ilM iti sonietinMi? giVeh'to 
0!iifi»|||F, ha» iiket^i^ M mysteiy,heitig symboii<- 
cal of Hit i^timtt stotefie^'; at vt^hieh tiiAe the 
tiin havitig as0^d«d^to ih g^eattet Height, is, as 
it were, arrlt«d kt A «t4«» of puberty. * But Sile-^ 
Hdi' bt»hy b^r«r^' #^ the mSie syMbol w'ith 
th« t#esiM»i «f UW Mi', d^^oting ^«f Jiazictes* «if 

the sfinMiiiidts: K^, Ifii ifmy ^<ek mahlt, 6t 

ii ' basalte^Sj 

* fiUA. Pr*^. Ei^*ig.'pS6&.' I^ao at/nii Mdsis, Liu. 
y; oil. et 4tf ttkMt^ iUKttU i^^ dpM Cttilii Aldk. Sl^lii) 
p. d65«. ;• ' ,..-... 

apud Aleandr. Eip. Tab. HtU^se, p. ^2. 

t Kirchi Synt. zvii. p. 490. |( Horaf . 1. 1.' c. I4 

$ Val. Flac. Argaaaut. 1. iv. 

f Eich. Synt-xvii. Li. p. 15f; ^ 

♦* Euscb. Fr#p'. £v«ig; L it p. 61&*. Dfoftf s. Ai«6 j. Cftm* 
Shomy I a. p. 2<&. teort; fr«^: fvfaitg. hi; 6; 1. ' 

ff ApuL Met. Lxi. p; ie9. ii tkcL «bi supra^ u^^. 

nil Ma(:fob. Sat. Li. c.l8. $} Euseb. Prsep. £vang/p.6t« 

188 Of the symboUcaly ^c. 

basalteSj, out of which some of these figures are 
made*, typified, by its colour, the invisibility 
of their essence ; as in others, the head and feet 
being black, and the body of a lighter colour, 
might probably be symbolical of the Deit/s lying 
concealed to us in his designs and actions, though 
he is apparent in his general providence aud care 
of the universe. 

Thus have I given a short sketch, and that 
chiefly upon the authority of the ancients, of the 
symbolical and hieroglyphical learning oi the 
Egyptians ; a small portion, no doubt, of what 
still remains to be discovered. Kircher indeed, 
an author of extraordinary learning, indefatigable 
diligence, and surprising invention, has attenopted 
to interpret! all the sacred characters and figures 
that came to his hands. , But as it cannot be 
known qertainly (the Egyptians being rude sculpr 
tots as well as painters) whether he might i^ot 
take the figures themselves for such obji^cts as the 
sacred ggnbesdid iioMiiten4. t^hem^ mMteking, for 
instance, one animal, plant, instrument, utensil, 
&c* for anot.her, all reas6nin|p and inferences, 
drawn from these figures^ can be little mate than 
mere conjecture; and therefore, the remarkable 
boast of Isis % virill hold true, that no mortal has 
hitherto taken off her veil. 

•• /;i5EC. 

* Euseb. Pnep. Evang. p. 60. ; ; .. 

f See hit Oedipus, Obeliscus, Pamphylius, 8tc. 

t Bra EIMI HAN TO r£rOM02, KAI ON, XAI £SpAiE-> 
AHEKAAk^EN. Plat de Ind. et Osiride, p. 354. edit. Par. 



Of the Antiquities of Egypt ^ viz. (f the Obelisksy 
Pyramds^ Sphina^, Catacombs, and Mummies. , 

Cf the Obelisks. 

Excepting the Isiac tabled and a few other 
Egyptian antiquities^ the obelisks that are still 
preserved in Egypt, or which have been removed 
from thence to Rome and other places, are the 
principal surviving archives a^d repositories f , to 
which the sacred writing, treated of in the fore- 
going chapter, has been cpmmitted. The obe* 
lisks, notwithstanding the . extraordinary; length 
of several of them> have bf^n hewn out of tlie 
quarry, not only without the least interruption, 
either iVom the perpendjcuUr or horizontal sn* 
tures, so common elsewhere in other much lesser 
masses of marble, but even without the least flaw 
or imperfection. All of them likewise that I 
have seen, were of a reddish granite (sru^MMXtf) 


^ Tills is iiktmst called tlie Talbula fiemlxfi*; ittm bang 
once in the possesaioTi of Caxdixud Bemba ' It has hten publish- 
ed by Fignoiitts, Herwtit, and others and ii now m the posses- 
sionof thcPukcaof Sivo^^ Vid. KiUciuvOed. ^gypt. inmertsa 


f Jsmblichus instruct usy [sect. ]•• c«]i« dtf Mysteriis ^gypt.] 
that Plato an^ Pythagoras learned thetr philosophy from thence* 
This philosophy is also Jtaken notibe of by Pliny, !• xxxvi. c. 9. 
fnscripti (Obelisci) refum'natutseinterjitttationeni ^.gyptiorum 
opera, philosophise continent. 

190 Of the Obelisks. 

marble, finely polished, though the hieroglyphical 
characters, engraved sometimes • to the depth of 
two inches upon them, arc all of them rough and 
UBcven ; ho abttempt at IcStet seems to bave been 
ever made to pobsh tbem^ Now, as we see no 
traces of the chissel, either upon the obelisks 
themselves, or in the hieroglyphical sculpture, . it 
is probable that the latter was> performed by 'a 
drill * ; whilst the obelisks themselves might re- 
ceive bfifth theit figure und polish from friction. 
They wefe ^11 of them cut from quarries off the 
upper Thebaic, to which a brarieh of thfe Nilewai 
coiiickicted J aijd being laid ilpofj^ floats (•%*»), tvere 
btougbt M the time of the iiiiwifdatioi^^ and left 
Hpoa the very sipo« tfhcrc they tvere afterVards 
to be 6tdcted# Lisissef stones, w6 are toW, were 
dfawti trpon i^hamulci or stedgei. 

These obeUsks €Ott^iM el «wo -parti, *diz. tht 
shaft and the J^yramridton f . As fof tlteir petf^^ 
tals,^ (I meat! aS tli^Mse t'm^ that eontifiue srtatxd- 
ing, the one a»t Alexandria, the other af ' Matt^- 
reah)y they lie so comidAted Urider soil and rub- 
tish, that i had not an opportunity to see.Cfitecff. 


* This is called by Paudanias [In Attic.j rf^^«v or r^v^rMw, 
and wa» tile ioviclitidft of >CaIlinui<:hQ9. 8t^ l^^iAight Uom In- 
dia, «^«y '\\lim^^ |> AnUkh Be%. Maif. JbtjAjy being the hard^ 
esty ws^ vrhsK{ thejr aiadr a^ «f ifxk thor iatftt^doaMSj^ {fH^m x#» 
Iv^X.otbev ^^ ML being. 0f a auffioMUv t^no^ to cut theicf 
Egyptian marbles. 

f Obelised fdihacfihem in de€t»la profAwtidne eoiisticueftint ad 
latus quadrates baas in&rioril& . lac A obeiisci ctijus^uatti latus stt 
decern palmafiun, altitddo ecit ^ntutn; Pyi<atMdion vero, te^ 
minans obeliscum, altitudine sua aeqitobst lafiitddfnefrf inferioreinif 
sive latus ba»s inficbae obelisci* Kirch. Oil. Pasipb« pi 52. 

However, when the bottom of tlip former wa3 
laid open appie yepirs agp, by Mr.Coasul Le Maire, 
they fomid the pedestpil pf it to be eight French 
f^et ia height, and in the like fashion with those 
of th^ Grpeian and Homan architecture. The 
shaft is in a dpcnple prppprtJQn of iti$ gieateit 
bre^4th; as. (he whole figure is nothing mono 
than tlic frus|:rum of |i pyraniid, whoie sides in* 
clipe towfU'ds each other in an angle of .about 
one degree. This frustum teripinates in a point, 
that is usually made up (by the inclination) of 
equilateral pl*nes, as in the common pyramids, 
from whence it has received the name of the py- 
ramidion, or little pyramid. It has likewise been 
observed *, that the height of this part is equal 
to the greatest breadth of the obelisk ; but this, 
I presume, will hot always hold true, otherwise 
it would be of great importance, as will be shewn 
hereafter, in estimating the particular quantity or 
portion of these pillars that lie buried under 
ground. But the basis, or foot, may perhaps be 
the most remarkable part of these obelisks ; es- 
pecially if that at Alexandria is to instruct us. 
For this, as the late worthy person above men- 
tioned infomted me, was not square, but hemi- 
spherical, and received (in this manner rCh ) into 
a correspondent cavity in the pedestal ; upon 
\yhich likewise were inscribed these odd charac- 
ters, such aa the |JYl^g|p^-^g-Jvj 

wheel-like capreo- 



* Vid* preceding note* 

192 Of the OMUsks. 

lated ones of Apuleius* may be supposed to 
have been. It is certain that these obelisks, by 
being thus rounded at the bottom, would bear a 
nearer resemblance to darts and missive weapons, 
than if they were square; and consequently would 
be more expressive of the rays of the sun, which 
they were supposed to represent, as it was the 
sun itself to which they were dedicated f. It 
may likewise be presumed, as the pyramids :];, 
which are obelisks only in obtuser angles, were 
equally emblematical of fire, or the sun, so they 
may be considered under the same religious view- 
to have been no less consecrated to the same 
The obelisks which I have mentioned at Alex- 

* De opertis adyti profert quosdam libros, Uteris ignorabilibus 
prsenotatos \ partim figuris cujusmodi animalium, concept! senno- 
nis compendiosa verb^ suggerentes \ partim nodosis et in modum. 
rotae toi tuosis, capreolatimque conde^sis aspicibus, a curiosa pro* 
fiinonim loctione munita. Apul. Met. 1. xi. p. 268* 

f Obelisci enormitaa SoK prostituta. Hennut. apud Tertull. 
.despect. c. 3. Trabes ex eo fecere reges quodam certamine, 
Obeliscos vocantes, Solis numini sacratos. Radiorum ejus argu- 
xneotum in effigie est ^ et ita significatur nomine ^gyptio. Phn, 
1. xxzvi. c. 8. (7trT6firTKpK fors^n, t. tf. digitu9 Solis. Kirch. 
Obel. Pamph. p. 44.) Mesphres — duos Obeliscos Soli consccra- 
vit. Isid. 1. xviij. c. 31. Finii demque principalis, quern .Aigyi^ 
tii in Obelifcorum erectione habcbant, erat, ut Osiridem et Isi- 
dem, hoc est, Solem et Lunam in his figuris, veluti mystica qua- 
dam radiorum repmsentatione colextnt, quasi hoc honore tacite 
beneficiorum, per hujusmodi seciindorum D^orqm radios accepto- 
rum, magnitudinem in^nuantes. Kirch, p. 161. ut supra. Other 
deities likewise, viis. Ju{nter, Venus, Apollo, &c* were worship* 
ped under the forms of obiclisks and pyramids. Vid* Pausan. in 
Corinth, p. 102. Max. Tyr. AMAf(. A«. We learn from Cle- 
mens Alex. (Strom. 1. i. p. 418.) that this method of worship- 
ping pillars was of great antiquity. Vid. Suid. in voce. 

X Vid. Porphyr. apud' Euseb. Praep. Evang. p. 60. 


Of the Obelisks. 193 

andria and Heliopolis, have been described by 
various authors. The hieroglyphics, upon the lat- 
ter (which I copied, and found to be the same on 
all sides) are exceedingly fair and legible, and in- 
deed the whole pillar is as entire and beautiful as 
if it were newly finished. But the Alexandrian 
obelisk, lying nearer the sea, and in a moister si- 
tuation, has suffered very much, especially upon 
that side which faces tlie northward; for the 
planes of these obelisks, no less than of the py- 
ramids, seem to have been designed tO' regard the 
four quarters of the world. . It may likewise be 
further observed, with regard to the obelisk oC 
Alexandria, that the height of it,, which is .fifty 
French feet, (three whereof are buried under 
ground), agrees almost to a nicety with the 
' length of one or other of the Me^trean obelisks*, 
that were erected at that place. Several of the 
hollow hieroglyphical characters rupon. the Helio- 
politan obelisk, are filled up with a white Qomp<H 
^ition, as if they were enamelled; and at first 
sight 'engaged us to imagine, that all of them 
were originally intended to be so. But, upon a 
stricter view, this appeared to have been done by 
the horftets, which, in thd summer season, are apt 
to fix their nests in these cavities. 

Diodorusf instructs us, that Sesostris erected 
two obelisks at Heliopolis, each of them a hun- 

voL. II. 2 b dred 

* £t alii duo sunt Obelisci Alexandrise, in portum ad Caesa- 
ris templum, quos excidit Mesphres rex quadragenum binum cu- 
bitorum. Plin. 1. xxxvi. c. 9. 

f Diod. 1. i. p. 38. 

JM €f the Obelisks. 

dved and twenty cubits high, and eight broad i 
and we learn from Pliny *, that Sochis and Ra- 
mises exected ea(h of them four, whereof those of 
Sochis were forty-eight, and those of Ramises 
^rty cubits only in height. The breadth of the 
^wer part of this, which I am speaking of, is 
only six feet ; and th^ whole height, according as 
I measured it by the proportion of shadows, was 
IK) more timn sixty-four ; though other travellers^ 
have described it to be upwards of seventy. Pro- 
vided Acn we CQuld determine whidh of the 
^dK)Vie mentioned pillars this remaining one should 
be, 4md knotf at the same time the exact height 
of it, wc might thereby compute the quantity of 
mud that hasi Ijeen accumulated upon the adjacent 
soil, since the time that it was erected. Now, 
those that were raised by Sesostris are vastly too 
high, as t^ose of Ramises are as much too low, 
to lay tiie least pretensions to it In all prqba- 
bifity therdbre, this which I am describing must 
be die surviving obelisk of those that were erect* 
ed by Sochis ; further notice whereof will b? ta- 
ken in another place. 

Of the Pyvatnids. 

Th£1i£ is no point in history that has been so 
ofteti, and at the same time so variously treated 
of, as the pyramids of Memphis. The ancients 
abound with a diversity of accounts and descrip- 

* PUn. 1. xxxvi« c. 8. 

Of tk€ J^yrmnid^ 195 

tiaas conQ^nnibg them, whilst t&Q tuoderna^ aftet 
a much loflig^ course of ob^ervatiQns, have rather 
multiplied the difficulties than cleiar^d thein. 

The dimensions of the great pyramid have given 
occasion to one dispute^ Herodotvis * makea thtf 
base of it to be eight hundred feet lOng^ Diodo^ 
rus f seven hundred^ and Strabq % only ai:$ hun^ 
dred^ Among the moderns, Sandys || f<niti4 \% to 
be three .hundred paces, BelWniusI thr^e hundred 
and twenty-four^ Greave$^ six hundred an4 Dtine*- 
ty- three English feet, and X^ Brun ** seven hwi* 
dred and four (ad We iaoay 8up{>ose them to be) of 
France, which n)ake about ^even huiiKltefl $nd 
fifty of 0ur measure. There is no way to^ recw* 
eile these diif<^rence9, a^d it would he unjust t0 
charge th^se authot^ with deaagx^d mii^tal^es^ 
Thus much then in genera) may be aaid, in de* 
fenceand vindieatiqi^ of errors and disagree* 
ments of thi^ >ind, that ait presmt floite of the 
sides of this pyramid at0 ^tacdy ^f(m a l^ve). 
For there ^9 a de^cefM; in pacing, ftoixi the en* 
trance into it all along by th0 eai^rn aeraer, t9 
the southern ; there is ag$in an aM^t fj^^m this 
to the westfvn peiint^ whilst^ 1^ siiies whrtoh i^e^ 
gard the W. aad tl^ N. h*¥« beert greMly en* 


* Rdrod. £ut $ l24i 
f Clod. Sic. KM. 1. k p.40. 
X Strab< G^ogr^ Lxm. ftrii&i 
y Sandys^ Trav. p. ^. ecSt. 6. 
$ Bellon. Obser. L ii. p. 269* 
% Vid. Greavii Pynmidograpliia. 
♦* Lc Brun's Yqyuge, *. 36^^ 

196 Of ^^^ Pyramids. 

croached upoti^ by , those large drifts of sand 
which the Etesian winds, during a long course of 
years, have brought along with them. As there- 
fore it will be difficult to find its true horizontal 
base, or foundation, it being likewise uncertain 
(which is the chief thing to be considered) how 
far these drifts of sand may have been acciimu* 
lated above it, all calculations of this kind must 
be very different and exceedingly precarious, ac- 
cording to the position of the adjacent sands, 
and to other circumstances at the time particu- 
larly when these observations were made. 

Neither does it appear that either this, or any 
other of the three greater pyramids was ever fi- 
nished. For the stones, in the entrance into the 
greatest^ being placed archwise, and to a greater 
height than seems necessary for so small an en- 
trance, there being also a large space left on each 
side of it, by discbntiiluing several of the paral- 
lel rows of steps, which, in other places, entirely 
surround the pyramid} these circumstances, I 
say, in the architecture of this building, seem to 
pdint out to us-^oime ftirther design^, ahd that, at 
this entrance, there might have been originally 
intended a l^ge and magnificent portico. Nei- 
ther were these steps (or little altars, ^^^^w*, as He- 
rodotus* calls them) to rem^ifi in ^ the same con- 
dition; in as much as they imre all :,of them to 
be so filled with prismatical stcmes,^* that each 
side of the pyramid, as in Gsestiusr att Rome, was 

' '"'. to 

* Hcrod. Eat. J I9S. 

Of the Pyramids. 197 

to lie soiooth and upon a plane. Yet nothing of 
this kind appears to have been ever attempted 
in the lesser or in the greater of thdse pyramids, 
the latter of which wants likewise a great part of 
the point where this filling up was to commence; 
but in the second, commonly called Chephrenes' 
pyramid, which may hint to us what was intend- 
ed in them all, vve see near a quarter of the whole 
pile very beautifully filled up, and ending at the 
top in a point. The stones wherewith the pyra- 
mids are built, are from five to thirty feet* long, 
and from three to four feet high, agreeable per- 
haps to the depth of the strata from whence they 
were hewn. . Yet, notwithstanding the weight 
and massiness of the greyest part of them, they 
have all been laid in mortar, which at present 
easily crumbles to powder, though originally, no 
doubt, it was of greater tenacity, as the compo- 
sition of it seems to be the same with what is 
still made use of in these countries f . 

The ancients % inform us, that the stones were 
brought fron^ the mountains of Arabia, or from 
the Trojan mountains ||. Yet, notwithstanding 


* I&rodotus makes nope of these stones less than thirty feet. 
Hid. $ 124. 

f Vid not* vol. i. p. 372. 

X Herod. £ut. $ 124. Dlod. Sc. L i. p. 40. Plm. 1. xxxvi. 
1. 12. 


H Sp caUed^ firom being in the neighbourhood of Troy, which 
was built by the followers or slaves of Menelaus, in the upper 
^gyP** Striab. 1. xvii. p. 809. Universum autem littorale latus 
juxU Aralucum sinum tenent Arabes ^gyptii ichthyophages, in 
quibus dOTsa montium sunt, Troici lapidis mentis, et Alabastrini 


198 Of the Pyramids. 

the great extravagance and surprising under ta^ 
kings of the Egyptian kings^ it does not seem 
probable that they woirfd have been at the vast 
labour and expence of bringing materials at so 
great a distance, when they might have been su^p- 
plied from those very places where they were t6 
be employed;. For what makes the bulk and out- 
^ide at least of ail tliese pyramids, is not of mar* 
ble, but of free-stone, which is of the same nature 
and contexture, has tlie like accidents and ap- 
pearances of spars, fossil sliells, coralline sub^ 
stances ^, &c. as are common to the mountains 
of Libya. In like manner, Joseph^s Well, as it 
)$ called at Kairo; the quarries of Mocatte, near 
the same place; the catacombs of Sakara, th€ 
Sphinx, and the cham>bers, that are out out of 
tlie natural rock, on the east and west side of 
these pyramids, do all of them discover the spe- 
cific marks and characteristics of the pyramidal 


ihond*, ct Porpliyritici montis, ct I^igri lapidis moatis, ct Balii- 
mris hpidis motttis. Ptol. Geagr: 1. iv. c. 5. cO Ai#*f, or lapis, 
was indifferently used by the aiicients for Jr^-mnt or fnarble. 
The }nUrfiuu also, or kpicidias, equally regarded them both* 
Marble was so called {uw tu ftm^fim^Hv) from shining upon be- 
ing polished j the same with Ai^#f {•#»« and Xufi^^H and vcXvn- 
Auf . It does not appear that marble was used by the Grecian 
artists, either in sculpture or building, before the fifteenth CHynif- 
piad, bcf. Chr. 720. Daedalus' sUtues of Hehrtiles and Venus^ 
were of wood, of which, or of tough stioii€i, wece likewise their 
idols and temples, till that time. The ancient temple of DA- 
phi was built about Olymp, LXV. bcf. Chr. 520, 6f 513 years af^ 
ter the temple of Solomon. 

* Especially of such as Strabo calls, and believed to be petri- 
fied lentils, telling us, that they were originally the ibod cf the 
workmen. Strab. Gcogr. L x>iii. p. 556* See the catal<^ue b 
the Coilectanea. 

Of the Pyramids: 199 

stones, and, as far as I could perceive, were not 
at all to be distinguished from them. The pyra- 
midal stones therefore were, in all probability, 
taken from this neighbourhood ; nay, perhaps 
they were those very stones that had been dug 
away, to give the Sphinx, and the chambers I 
have mentioned, their proper views and eleva- 

It may be further observe that the pyramids, 
especially the greatest, is not an entire heap of 
hewn stones ; in as much as that portion of it, 
which lies below the horizontal section of the 
entrance, appears to be nothing more than an in- 
crustation of the natural rock, upon which it is 
founded. For, in advancing through the narrow 
passage, this rock is twice discovered ; the lower 
chamber also, together with the well, (whose 
mouth lies upon a level with it), have the like ap- 
pearance, whereby a considerable abatement would 
be made in such foreign materials as might other- 
wise have been required. 

It is very surprising, that the pyramids, which, 
from their first foundation, must have been look^ 
ed upon with wonder and attention, should not 
have preserved a more certain tradition of thi 
time wlien they were founded, or of the names of 
their founders. PHny * reckons up a Qumber of 


^ Qui de lis [pyramidibus] scrip8|enint, sunt Herodotus, £u- 
hemenis, Duris Samius, Anstftgoias, Dionysius, Artanidorus, 
Alexander Polybistor, Butorides, Antisthenes, Deqietnus, Pe- 
xnqUle^i Api^^« ^^^^^ onines eos non constat a quibus fact» 


200 Of the Pyramids. 

authors, who have written of the pyramids ; and 
all of them, he tells us, disagree concerning the 
persons who built them* Now as Egypt had 
been, from time immemorial, the seat of learning, 
\vhere it was likewise pretended that a regular 
and chronological * account had been kept of all 
the remarkable transactions of their kings ; it is 
much that the authors of such great underta-^ 
kings should be so much as even disputed. Yet 
wCt find there were various accounts and tradi- 
tions concerning them. For it is saidf, that Su- 
phis built the first, and Nitocris the third ; that 
the second was raised, as Herodotus :{: acquaints 
us, from the money which the daughter of 
Cheops procured, at the expence of her chastity ; 
and again, that the two greater were the work of 
the shepherd Philition ; and the least had the 
harlot llhodope for its foundress. Others again,, 
which is the most general opinion^ make Cheops 
(or Chemmis), Cephrenes, and Nycerinns to be 
the founders of them. Herodotus indeed, whq 
has preserved these reports, does not give much 
credit to them ; however, it may Ije justly enough 
inferred from thence, that as the chronology of 
the pyramids, those wonders^ of the world, was 
thus dubious and obscure, there is a suflRcient 


aunt, justtsflimo casu obliteratis tantsc vanitatis autoribus. Nat. 
Hist. 1. xxi^vi. c. 12. The like 'account we have in Diodorus, 
1. i. p. 41. 

* Herod. Eut. § 124. 127. 134. & 125. IKod. 1. i. p. 29. 

f Maneth. apud Syncell. Chronol. p. 56. & 58. 

X Herod, ut supra. 

Of the Pyramids, 201 

ground to suspect the correctness and accuracy of 
the Egyptian history in other matters. 

Neither is there an universal consent among 
these authors, for what use or intent they were 
designed. For Pliny * asserts, that they were 
built for ostentation, and to keep an idle people 
- in employment ; others, which is the most recei- 
ved opinion, that they were to be the sepulchres 
of the Egyptian kings^f. Bat if Cheops, Su- 
pbis,. or whoever else was the founder of the great 
pyramid, intended it only for his sepulchre, what 
occasion was there for such a narrow sloping en- 
trance into it ; or for the well if, as it is called, at 
the bottom of the gallery ; or for the lower cham- 
ber, with a large nich or hole in the eastern wall 
of it; or for the long narrow cavities in the walls 
pr sides of the large upper room, which likewise 
is incru stated all over with the finest granite mar- 
ble Ij ; or for the two anti-chambers, and the lof- 
ty gallery §, with benches on each side that in* 
troduce us into it? As the whole of the: Egyptian 
theology was clothed in nlysterious emblems and 
figures, it seems reasonable to* suppose, that all 

vol.. If. 2 c these 

 Plin. 1. xxxvi. c. 12. 

f Lucan. 1. ix. ver, 155. & 1. viii. ver. 698. Strab^ Geogr, 
I. xvii. p. 461. Diod. Sic. Bib. I. i. p 40. / 

X Plin. 1. xxxvi. c. 12, 

II Vitruvius, 1. vii. c. 5. mentions, crustarum marmorearum vari- 
etates, in quo (says he) Romani i^gyptios. imitabantur.y— In con- 
tradistinction to this method of incrustating, we have columnoe 
solidae sometimes mentioned. Plin. 1. xxxvi. c.^6. 

§ See the description of these several places in Greaves' Pjira;^ 

202 Of the f^yramidi. 

these turnings^ apartments, and secrets in archi- 
tecture, were intended for some nobler purpose, 
for the catacombs, or burying places, are plain 
vaulted cha^lber8, hewn out cf the natural rock ; 
and that the Deity rather, which was typified in 
the outward form of this pile*, was to be wor- 
shipped within. The great reverence and regard 
which Suphis f in particular, one of the supposed 
founders, is said to have paid to the gods, will 
fiot a little favour such a supposition ; and even 
provided this should be disputed, no places cer- 
tainly could have been more ingeniously contri* 
yed for those secret chambers, or adyta, which 
had so gneat a share in the Egyptian mysteries 
^nd initiations. 

It has been already observed, that Chephrenes 
was supposed to have built the second pyramid, 
and Mycerinus the third ; but for what intent ? 
not to be their sepulchres, in as much as there 
being no passage l^ft open into, them, as into the 
great pyramid, they must have been pulled down, 
and built again after their decease, before their 
bodies could have been introduced and deposited 
within them. If indeed we h^d any tradition 
that these pyramids had been built by some pious 
successors over the tombs of their ancestors, there 
would then be less occasion to call in question an 
opinion that has been so generally received. But 


* Vid. vol.ii. p.l85*193i 

f Ovrtg h »m i in^§9frns [ffi^iMmid Contemplator, Marsh. 
Chron. Canon, p. 51.] «; Bw^ fyi9ir«» tun ttn* it^f rvify^^^^ fi^^^t 
it Mi jMfy« XV^ '" ^ty^^^^ yf Fa^fy«$ [Manetho j vim^ttfMit, SjnceU. 
p. 56. 

Of the Pyramid. ^ - BOi 

if BO report 6f this kind occurs in history, if l^e 
founders soade no provision in them for their in- 
terment, but contrived chem, as far as we know 
or are informed, to be close Qompact buildings, it 
may be ^ fax presumed, that the two lesser py^ 
ramids at least could never have been intended 
oecely ibr sepulchres. 

But it may be urged^ that the square chest of 
granite marble^ in the upper chamber of the great 
pyramid, has always been taken for the coifin 
<if Cheops ; and consequently that the pymmid 
itself might have been intended for the place of , 
his sepulture. Might not thb chest have beea 
rather designed for some religious use; and t6 
have been concerned either in the q[iysftical wor«- 
ship of Osiris*, or to have served for one of their 
mm k^i[y or sacred chests^ wherctti either tbe 
ims^sof their deities, or their sacked vestments :{; 
or uteosiJs were kqit j or else that it was ft fa* 
vissa, or cistern | for the holy water, used in their 
ceremoiiies and putgations. The length \ of it, 
which IS above six feet, does indeed fsivour the 
received dpinton; but the height and the bfrnidtH) 
which are efich about three feet, very Ikr expfed 

* Flut. it Iside, p. 365-6. f Ap\il. Met* l.xL p^^62. 
Pars obscura cavis celebtabant orgia cistis. Cat, 

. tacita plenas formidine cistas. VaL Flacc. 

X Particularly of such as were carried abdut in their comasise 
(KnMAStAl). Clem. Sferdtft. ty. p. 413. 

y Vid. FesL in voce Favissa. Abenepli. de rclig. ^®gypt. ap.. 
Kirch. Obel. Pamph. p. 4T3. 

§ Vid. p. 208. not.f. •' 

£04 Of the PyrmiidS. 

the usual dim^sions of the Egyptian . coffinsv 
Those which I have seen, and by them we may 
judge of others^ were of a different form, being 
inscribed with hieroglyphics, and made exactly 
in the fashion of the mummy chests, just capaci- 
ous enough to receive one body. Whereas this 
pretended one of Cheops is in form of an oblong 
square ; neither does it 6nd, as the mummy chests 
do, in a pedestal, whereupon (as the fashion itself 
denionstrates) they were Xb be erected and set up- 
right. Neither is it adorned with any sacred cha» 
racters, which, from the great number of coffins 
that are never known to want them, seem to 
have been a general as well as a necessary act of 
regard and piety to the deceased. The manner 
likewise in which it is placed, is quite different, 
as I. have just now hinted, from what was^ per*' 
haps always observed by the Egyptians, in depo- 
siting their dead bodies ; in as much as the mum- 
mies always stand upright * where time or acci- 
dent have not disturbed them.. Whereas this 
chest lies flat and level with the floor ; and there- 
by has not that dignity of posture which we may 
suppose this wise nation knew to be peculiar, and 
therefore would be very scrupulous to deny to the 
human body. If this chest then was not intend- 
ed for a coffin, (and indeed Herodotus f tells us 


* Herod. Eut. ( 86. Diod. Sic. Li. p. 58. 

^gyptia tellus 
Claudit odorato post &nus stantia busto 
Gorpora. Sil. Ital. 1. xiii. ver. 4'75« 

f Herod. Eut. f 127. 

Of the Pyramids. £05 

that Cheops was buried upon an island, in the 
vaults below, where the Nile was admitted, the 
same probably with the bottom or end of the 
passagj^ where Strabo places the 3«»«), we have so 
far a, presumptive argument, that the pyramid it- 
self could not, from this very circumstance, have 
been intended only for a sepulchre. Nay, upon 
the very supposition that Cheops and others had 
been buried within the ^precincts of this or any 
other of the pyramids, yet still tliis was no more 
than what was practised in other temples * ; and 
would not therefore destroy the principal use and 
desiga for which they might have been erected. 
And indeed I am persuaded, that few persons 
yiho will attentively consider the outward figure 
of these piles ; the structure and contrivance of 
the several apartments in the inside of the great* 
est ; together with the ample provision that was 
made near this and the second pyramid, for the 
reception, as it may well be supposed, of the 
priests, who were there to officiate ; but will con- 
clude, that the Egyptians intended the larger of 
them for one of the places, as all of them M^ere 
to be the objects at ^ least, of their worship and 

Strabo fy as far as I know, is the only person 
among the ancients, who seems to have been ac- 
quainted with the narrow entrance into the great 


* Herod. Eut. j 169- Thai. § 10. Clem. Alex. Cohort, ad 
Gentes, p. 39. 

)k 0'v(iyi k*! w%$hm f^txC* '^^ ^n*ns* 1* xvii« p. 1161. 

aet) Of the Pyramids. 

pyramid, which, he tells us, had a atoae placed 
in the mouth of it to be rqximred at pleasure. 
We luve only a small ascent up to this entrance 
at present, which, in his time^ was situated much 
higher, or nearly in the middle of the pyii^mki ; 
whereby we are sufficiently apprised of the ex- 
traordinary encroacliments, which the annual 
drifts of sand have, since that time, ma^ upon 
the original foundation. However, if this pa^ 
sage had been thus early left open, whether it 
ooBtinued directly forward in the same angie of 
descent, viz. 26% quite down td the subterraaeou^^ 
chambers ; oi* whether from these sufoterriiueous 
chambers, the ascent was to be by the well into 
the upper 0nes ; of wh^her we wepe to stop short, 
as at present, about the middle of this passage, 
and tuta on our right hand, through a narrow ir- 
regular breach, which, according as it is previous* 
iy cleared fix>m $and and rubbage, is with mc^^e or 
less dilEculty to be passed through, and may be 
thet^efore suspected to claim no great a&tiquiity ; 
it is very extraordinaiy, I s^y, that this passage, 
with the ^4, or coffin, at the bottom of it, should 
have been k^owu to Strabo; that thp vaults and 
subterraneous chambers should have been known 
to Strabo and Herodotus ; that tlie wdl should 
have becB known to Pliny; and yet, that no 
particular account or description should have 
been left us, either of the square vaulted cham- 
ber, that lies upon the same floor with, the 
well ; or of the lopg and lofty gallery that 
arises from thence ; or of the two closets or 


Of the Pyramiii: £07 

anti-ehambers^ with tlieir niches and other de-^ 
viced, which we enter, upon pur arrival at the top 
Qf this gallery ; or of the most sumptuous and 
spacious chamber, incrustatjsd all over with gra- 
nite marble, that we are conducted into after- 
wards ; or of the square cheat, commonly called 
the tomb of Cheops, which is placed upon the 
floor, on the right hand, in entering this cham- 
ber. And as all these places were very curious 
and remarkable, it is the more unaccountable why 
they should have trecn neglected of overlooked, 
m the descriptions of them have been omitted by 
those aiLthors ; especially as the wall, which 
would have easily introduced them into tki$ large 
scene of antiquity, was well kno\f n to one of 

An Arabian historian ^ acquaints us, that this 
pyramid was opened, perhaps through the breach 
I have mentioned^ about nine hundred years ago^ 
by Almamon, the renowned Calif of Babylon ; 
and that * they found in it, towards the top, a 

* chamber, with a hollow stone, in which there 
^ was a statue like a man, and within it a man, 
^ upon whom was a breast-plate c^ gold, set with 
' jewels. Upon this breast-plate there was a 
^ sword of inestimable price; and at his head a 
^ carbuncle, of the bigness of an egg, shining 

* like the light of the day ; and upon him were 

* characters writ with a pen, which no man un- 

* derstood.- But this, it may be presumed, is of 


• Ibn Abd AThokm, as he is recorded by Mr Greaves in the 

208 Of the Pyramids. 

the same authority, with what the same author 
observes in another place, that * he who built 
' the pyramids, was Saurid ibn Salhouk, the king 
^ of Egypt, who was before the flood 300 years/ 
But passing over these idle traditions and ac- 
counts, it is remarkable and particular enough, 
that this chest, in striking it with a piece of iron, 
should give the same musical note {E-la-m, if I 
mistake not) with the chamber, whereby we may 
suppose it to have proportionable and similar di- 
mensions ; as indeed they are given by Pere Si- 
card *, though different from what they are in 
Mr Greaves' Pyramidographia^. We are to ob» 
serve further, that this chest is fixed so strongljr 
in the floor, that a number of persons who were 
with me, were not able to move it It is situated 
(perhaps not without a mystery) in the same di- 
rection with the mouth of the pyramid, directly 
.to the northward ; a position that was likewise 
given to the doorS of pther |lgyptian edifices %. 



* See the particu1ai:s of this mensuration in the Collectanea. 

\ The exterior superficies of this tomb contains in length se- 
ven feet, three inches and an half. In depth it is three feet, three 
inches, and three quarters \ and is the same in breadth. The 
hollow part within is in length on the W. side, six feet and t^I?* 
In breadth, at the N. end, two feet and -r^^ The depth is 
two feet, and \\%% parts of the English fopt. The length c^ 
the chamber on the south side is thirty-four feet and \\\% » The 
breadth is seventeen feet and -j^S* '^^^ height is nineteen feet 
and \. Vid. Pyramid, ut supra, ^. £« Bellonius, to shew ho# 
subject the most curious observers are to mistakes, makes the 
length of this tomb to be twelve feet. Obs. 1. ii. c. 42. 

X Herod. £ut. § 101. 148. In this situation likewise the ta- 
ble of shew-bread was placed in the tabernacle. £i(od. xl. 82. 


Of the Sphinx, 

Besides what has been already said of the 
Sphinx, we are to observe, that in Jaly 1721, the 
sands were so far raised and accumulated about 
it, that we could only discover the back of it ; 
upon which, over the rump, there was a square 
hole, about four feet long, and two broad,, so 
closely filled with sand, that we could not lay it 
open enough to observe whether it had been ori- 
ginally contrived for the admission of fresh air ; 
or, like the well in the great pyramid, was in- 
tended for a stair-case* Upon the head of it 
there is another hole, of a round figure, which I 
was told, for we could not get up to it, is five or 
six feet deep, and wide enough to receive a well 
grown person. The stone which this part of the 
head consists of, seems, from the colour, to be ad- 
ventitious, and diflferent from the rest of the fi- 
gure, which is all of the same stone, and hewn 
out of the natural rock. ^ It must be left to fu- 
ture travellers to find out whether these holes 
served only to transmit a succession of fresh air 
into the body of the sphinx, or whether they 
might not have had likewise a communication 
with the great pyramid, either by the well, or by 
the cavity or nich in the wall of th? lower cham^ 
ber, that lies upon a level with it. Nay, it may 
some time appear; that there are chambers also in 
the two other pyramids ; and not only so, but 
that the eminence likewise, upon which they are 

VOL. II. 2 D both 

210 Of the Mummies. 


\>oth erected, is cut out into cryptag, narrow pa§: 
sages and labyrinths, which may, all of them, 
communicate with the chambers of the priests, 
the artful contrivers of these adyta ; where their 
initiatory, as well as other mysterious rites and 
ceremonies, were to be carried on with the greater 
awe and solemnity. 

Of the Mummies. 

The accounts that have been hitherto given 
^$ of the mummies^ seem to be very imperfect; 
and indeed the catacombs at Sakara, which are 
commonly visited, have |)een so frequently rifled 
and disturbed, that nothing ha^ preserved its pri- 
iBitive situation. There are still remaining in 
$on>e of these vaultif, a great number of urns of 
baked earth, in a conical shape, in each of which 
is contained an ibis, with tl>e bill, the bones, nay 
the very feathers of it, well preserved. For (if 
we except the hieroglyphical writing) the same 
bandage and mixture of spices, that wm applied 
to the human body, were bestowed upon this. 
But the skull, and some other bones of an ox, 
the' apis, as it may be presumed to have been, 
which I saw, looked white, and as it were bleach- 
ed, neither did they discover the least token of 
bavijig been ever embalmed. There were several 
little wooden figures also, of the same quadruped, 
that were painted white, with their legs tied to- 
gether,, as if ready to be sacrificed. I saw, at the 
same time a small vessel like a sloop, with the 



of the Mummies. 2 1 1 

masts and sails entire, and the men handling their 

Little square boxes, usually painted either with 
symbolical figures or hieroglyphics, are found in 
these catacombs. The figure of a hawk is com- 
monly fixed upon each of the lids, though I have 
one that is surmounted with a dog*, and another 
with an ow\ ; each of them of solid wood, and 
painted in their proper colours. I was at a loss 
to know for what other uses these boxes could 
have been designed, than to be the coffins of their 
sacred animals, when Mr. Le Maire, who had 
been at the opening of a new vaults informed me, 
thaf ome of them was placed At the feet of each 
mummy ; and therein were inclosed the instru- 
ments and utensils ia miniature, which belonged 
to the trade and occupation of the embalmed 
person when he was alive: He i§hcwed me one of 
them, which contained a ^riety of figures in las- 
civious postures, and had thetefore appertained, 
as he conjectured, to somt lady of pleasure or 
curtizan. Among other figures, there was a Bac- 
chus in copper, a hollow phallus in alabaster, se- 
veral small earthen vessels for paint, and the joint 
of a reed, which had within it a pencil and some 
|jowder of lead ore, the same that is still used by 
the women of these countries f. These ho9s$8^ 
the mummy chests, and whatever figures arid in- 
struments of wood are found in the eatacombA^ 


^ This is txffexad in f kt6 xx«v. fig; 4. of Mr AUnt. GoipAenV 
collection of Eg^pttan antiquities. ' 

f Vid. vol.i. p. 413. 

212 Of tJu Catacombs. 

are all of them of sycaoiore, which, though 
spongy and porous to appearance, has notwith*^ 
standing continued entire and uncomipted for at 
least three thousand years. A little behind the 
boxes^ a number of small images of baked earth, 
in the form of the mummy chests, some blue, 
others white, others pied or in the habit of a nun, 
are ranged around the pedestal of tl^ mummy 
chests, as if they were intended to be so many 
guardian genii and attendants. I have already 
observed, that these bodies were originally placed 
upright ; and where we find one or other of them 
lying on the ground, there we may suppose them 
to have been lately removed from their plates ;. 
or that the Egyptians had been^ some wsty or 
other, prevented from duly performing their last 
offices to the dead. 

The composition that is found in the heads of 
the mummies, looks exactly like pitch, but is 
somewhat softer ; the smell of it also is the same^ 
though something more fragrant. It is probably 
the tar extracted from the cedar ''^^ In examining 


* Apud ^gyptios cadaver £t ret^ix^f t. e. salsura, sive mum-* 
Riia uti appellant recentiores mediconim filii, ab Arabico (Persic.^' 
pottus) M§om JVaXf u e. cera ^ quia ceromate etiam in ea nego- 
tlo iitebantur. Gatak. Ahnot. iii M. Anton, p. 275. Mummia 
yiil|n> ; PijtsasphaltOfn (« •^«^« icurffi^ fufAtyptmi «M-f«Ar«>). Dios- 
condes, Li. c. 101. Gol. Diet. Pliny (1. xvi. c. 11.) makes 
dlis compositibh to be the tar of the torch pine, which he calls 
cedria \ from Whence we Holj rather take it to be the tar of the 
cedar tree, according to Dioscorides, 1. i. c. 106. Ki}(k %y}(«v 
fri Mfy«9 ^i n Xtyftion KEAFIA ovtuynm, — Avt^fut h tj^ an^m- 
mi' fM9 f^ ¥*4^A#*S ^XMivnxnf ii rm nx^v cu(uvtmr %ivt tuu ntc^ 
(4W|f rtns mfmiv ptrnXtntn la^nor pkisy quse aquae modo Suit ex 


Of the Catacombs. 215 

two of these mummies, after taking off the ban- 
dage, I found the septum medium * of the nose 
to have been taken away in them both ; and that 
the skulls were somewhat thicker than ordina- 
ry f . One of these skulls is preserved among 
my other curiosities. There were few or none of 
the muscular parts preserved, except upon the 
thighs ; which, notwithstanding, crumbled to 
powder upon touching them. The like happen- 
ed to that part of the bandage which more im- 
mediately enveloped the body ; though fifty yards 
and upwards of the exterior part of it was, upon 
unfolding it, as strong in appearance, as if it had 
been just taken from the loom. Yet even this, 
by being exposed to the air, was, in a few days, 
easily rent to pieces. I found neither money in 
the mouths, nor idols in the breasts of these 
mummies, as I might have expected from the 
common reports that have been related of them. 


teeda dam coquitsr, cedrinus vocatur \ cui tanta vis est, ut in 
^gypto corpora hominum de&nctomm eo perfusa servantur. 
Couim. de re Rustica, 1. vi. c. 32. 

* The septum medium of the nose is taken away^ as well for 
tlie easier extraction of the brain, as for the injection of the 
pitch^like substance into it. U^anm, fu» n^Xw ^th^tt im rm /mv(* 

i^Xi^fTU' Herod. Eut. § 86. 

f Herodotus makes the Egyptians to be remarkable for the 
thickness of their skulls. A< h rat AtyvTrrmf (x$^ttXeu) krm }« ti. 
i0-;^v{«<, fuyi^ m¥ At^iv ^tuati^ iut^fJiHi* HerOd. Thai. § 12. 



Of the Nile, and the Sail of Egypt 

Of such things as relate to the natural history 
of Egypt, the Nile, without doubt, is the most 
worthy of our notice, and to which we shall 
therefore give the firsik place. Now it has been 
already observed, that it seldom rains in the in- 
land parts of Egypt ; but that upon .the coast, 
trom Alexandria, all along to Dami-ata and Ti-^ 
reh, they have their former and latter rains *, as 
in Barbary and the Holy Land. The periodical 
augmentation therefore of the Nile must be ow- 
ing to such rivers and torrents as discharge them- 
selves into it^ in the regions to the southward, 
particularly in Ethiopia ; in as much as the Nile 
has there its sources, whiere the sun also, when it 
draws near the northern tropic, brings on their 
winter, and with it the rainy reason. The Por- 
tuguese missionaries 'f claim the honour of this 

discovery ; 

* Sec vol. i. p« 249, &c. and vol. ii. p« 19*7.* and Ac journal 
o£ the weatbcar anaoagst the CMeUtoea, Num. xi. 

+ To the immense labours of the Portuguese, mankind is in- 
debted for the knowledge of the real czait of the inundations of 
the Nile, so great and regular. Their observations inform us, 
that Abyssinia, wbere the Nile rises, and waters vast tracts of 
land, i« fiill of mountaiiis, and in its natural situaticm much higher 
than Egypt > thrat all the winter, 6om June to September, no 
day is without rain ^ that the Nile receives in its course all the 
rivers, brooks and torrents, which fall from those mountains. 
These necessarily swell it above the banks, and fill the plains of 


Of the Nik, 215 

discoviery \ though, among otherSi we find soma 
of the Grecian as well as Arabian philosophers *j 
who have embraced the same opinion. Among 
the latter^ Abdollaliph, in his history of Egypt, ac- 
quaints us, that an. Hej. 596^ when the Nile fose 
no higher than twelve cubits apd eleven digitsi, 
(which occasioned a great famine in £gypt), there 
came an ambassador from Ethiopia, who brought 
letters signifying the death of their metropolitan, 
and requesting a successor ; wherein it was men- 
tioned that they had had but little rain in Ethio- 
pia, and therefore the Egyptians were to expect a 
low Nile. 

It has been commonly imagined, that the Ete- 
sian or northern winds, which blow over the Me- 
diterranean Sea, by carrying along with them 
great quantities of vapour, as far as these sources 
of the Nile, were the cause of its inundation. 
But these winds are not found by experience to 
blow constantly from the beginning to the end 
of the inundation, as Herodotus (Eut. p* lOQ.) 
has well observed, but are frequently interrupted 


Sgypt with the inundations. This comes regularly about the 
month of July, or three weeks after the beginning of the rainy 
season in Ethiopia. Vid. Monthly library for March 1735. 
P. Lobo^s Hist, of Abyssinia. 

* Diod. Sic. 1. i. p. 26, 27. Vid. Plut. de placit. Philos. 1. iv. 
e. 1. Incrementum Nili fit c pluviis, qui in Ula regione (sc. 
Abyssinia) dectdunt. £bn Sina apud Abulf. Geogr. ex traduct. 
V. cl. J. Gagnier. Incrementum Nili oritur ex imbribus copio- 
sts 5 quod quidem dignoscitur ex accessu et recessu, seu ortuet 
occasu siderum, et pluviarum abundantia, nubiumque consistentia. 
Al Khodai apud Kalkasend. de incremento Nili^ ex traduct. ut 

f l6 Physical and Miscellaneous 

with winds from other quarters. And moreover, 
if these winds blow not directly from the north, 
but incline, as they generally do, more or less to 
the E. or W. they will diverge from the mountains 
of Ethiopia, where their influence is required, and 
direct their courses, together with the clouds and 
vapours that accompany them, towards the re- 
gions of Libya or Arabia. 

Neither do these Etesian winds always bring 
along with therti such successions of clouds and 
vapours as have been related by some authors. 
For, in the year 1721, during the whole course of 
the inundation, which was as high and copious 
as usual, I observed very little, or nothing at all 
of this cloudy disposition of the atmosphere, the 
air being for the most part as clear and serene as- 
at other times. And besides, if these Etesian 
winds were the cause of the overflow, then, as 
often as they continued for any considerable 
time, they would be succeeded by inundations. 
Great floods would consequently happen both in 
the spring and in the winter seasons, when the 
winds blow for a month together, in various di- 
rections, from the N. E. to the N. W. But, as 
these winds are not attended with. any extraordi- 
nary swellings of the river at these seasons ; so 
they may well be suspected not to contribute at 
all to the periodical rising in the summer. It is 
more probable, that such clouds and vapours as 
are brought along with them at these no les^than 
at other times from the Mediterranean, may be 
dissipated, dried up, or converted into rain, a 


Observations coHcirmAg the Nik. tVf 

long time before they arrive at the fountains of 
the Nile. 

Yet how wonderful ioever this large colifluiK 
of water may have been accounted in all ages^ 
the great quaiitity of mud that from time td 
time has been brought down along with it, will 
appear to be no less strange and surprising. Sure- 
ly the sdil of Ethiopia, (provided the Nile reaches 
ho further) must be of an extraordinary depth, in 
having not only bestowed upon Egypt so many 
thousand annual Strata, but in having laid th^ 
foundation likewise of future additions to it in 
the sea, to the distance of twenty leagues ; so far 
at leasts by sounding anct examining the bottom 
bf it with a plummet^ the mud is found to ex-^' 

The soil or mud that is thus conveyed, buoyed 
up with the stream, isi <^ an exceedingly light 
nature, and feels to the touch like what we com- 
monly call an impalpable powder. Plutarch* tells 
us, that the colour of it is black; stich a black, 
says he, as is that of t}ie eye ; thdugh, in anothet 
place t, he makes every thing bla<;k where water 
is concerned. The appellations also of meaas 
and SirftS^ % are supposed to have been given to 
it, either upon the i^me account fl, or. ftom the 

VOL. II. Si ^ muddiness 

^ Hut. de Isiiie, p. 364. f I*it. lit iuprkl 

t "^n^Vff a intt^ sc. nigct fiiit. So Jer. ii. JS. Wiat hast ihoti 
to do in the way ofEgypty to drink T yrW ^D ^^ ^^6rs ofSihor^ 
or the bhck or tntiddy waters f Tfin^CS^ SSchoty fluvius ^gypti 
NUus, GraBcis ^sAje^, niger, ob turbidas limb a(^as: Latinis 
Melo, et Uteris M et N perztiiutatis, Nilus. Schind. Lex. 

II Adtemt iBgypto lutum mgruax viscosimi, cui inest multum 


3 1 S Physical and Miscellaneous 

imiddiness oiily of the water. The specimens 
of it, which I have often examined, were of a 
much lighter colour than ont common garden 
mould ; neither does the stream itself, when sa- 
turated with it, appear blacker than other rivers 
under the same circumstances. As for the Nile, 
(or Nil, as it is pronounced by the inhabitants,), 
it is, in all probability, as I have before observed, 
a qontractioa of Nahal, [Snj] i- e. the river, by 
way of emiiicnce. AbdoUaliph (Tract ki, c. 1) 
derives, it from Ndij which signifies to give, to be- 
stm^y ot to be liberal] according to- which etymo* 
logy, hc' makes the Nile ta signify thcmunificent 
giver of good things. But this seems rather to be 
a fine thought, than a just account of the origin 
of the name. 

In order to measure the increase- of the Nile, 
ther€ i? built upon the |)oint of the isknd Rhoda, 
betwixt Kairo and Geeza, a large room, support- 
ed by arches, in*o which the stream has free ad- 
i»ittanee. In the nwddle of it is placed the Mi- 
kcas, ot measuring pillar, which is divided into 
cubits^ as the aaei^iit Nilescopes* appear to have 


pdigoedinis, dietuncL AI-iAhlit. Adi^enit hoc e regiooxbu^ Nlgri* 
tasiun aquis Nili in incremento suo acTiqixtuin, et decidente aqu^ 
subsidet lutum, tumque aratur et seritur. £t quotannis advenit 
vpa, siBceni latum. — Ob banc causaim terra Said veget» est, xnulti 
proventys pajmUque, quia initio propigr est} ideoque ad* eam ftt* 
tinpt magna hujus luti copia, contra ac inferior terree pars (pvope 
Pamiatani sc« ct Rosettam :) ea siqioidem stexilis est et macilectaf 
quia li^tum ejus tenue est et debile ^ stquidem aqua, quasi ad eam 
I^Qvemt, tenuis e^t et limpidaM— Incrcmentum Nili ad finem pro^ 
venit sub aqquinoxio autumnali^ turn autem teduduntur aggeres, 
qui omnes terrse partes inundant. Abdollaliphi Hist. i^Sgypt* 
^ Diod. Sic^ L i. f. 23* Strab. L xvii. p. 562^ 

Observations concerning the Nile. 1219 

been. But the cubit itself, or peek, «wff» as it is 
still called, has not continued the same. For He- 
rodotus acquaints us, that in his tipie the Egyp- 
tian peek, or cubit, was the same with the Sa- 
3nian*, which, being no other than the common 
Grecian or Attic cubit ^, contained very little 
roore X than a foot and a. half of English mea- 
sure. Threie or four cqotliries afterwards, when 
the famous statue of the. Nile, that is still pre- 
served at Rome, was made, the cubit secerns to 
have been, a little more or less, twenty inches ; 
for of that height, according tp the exactest 
measure that could be taken, are the sixteen lit- 
tle childi*en that are placed upon it, which, ac- 
cording to Philostratus || and Pliny, represented 
so many c\ibits, The present cubit is still great- 
er ; though it will be difficult to determine the 
precis^ length of it. And indeed, with regard to 
the measures of the Arabians, as well as of some 
other nations, we have very /ew accounts ox stan- 
dards that we can trust to. 
for Kalkasendas§ makes the Hasemaean, or 


* Herod. Eut. } 168, f U. ibid. $ 149. 

X Oar Prdessor Greaves makes the difference betwixt the 
English and Greek foot (and so in proportion of the cubit) to 
be as 1000 is to 1001-r^. 

II Philost. Icon, de Nilo. Plin. 1. xxxvi. c. 7. 

§ Septem autem genera cubitorum Arabicorum recenset 
Calcosendius Philologus : 1. Cubitus Homarseus, 1-1 cubiti 
communis et ftw^w^ Diraa ul Beta, i. e. commercial cubitw 
Hoc mensus est oHm Homarus Cottabi spatium inter 
Basram et Cufam. 2. Hasemaeus, qui et cubitus major nun^ 
cupatur, digitorum 24. Digitus vero occupat T hordea lata, 
aut 7 X 7 = 49 pilos burdonis. lUo vero cubito «9timatio vcr- 
sat in jure Mohammedico. Idem testatur Maruphidas. 3. £e- 


220 Physical and i&sceUaneous 

great peck, to be only twenty-four digits, o{ 
dghteen inches; whereas the Arabian author!, 
quoted by Golius* will have it to be thirty-two, 
ke. twenty-four inches. The Drah el Sbudah, or 
black peck likewise, which tlje fqrmer observes 
to be no more than twenty-one digits in length, 
is made by the latter to be twenty-seven. And 
moreover, the digit of Kalkasendas is equal to z, 
space taken up by seven barley-cdrns, placed sid^ 
ways ; whereas six f is the measure, according to 
Golius' author. Now, agreeable to Kalkasendas, 
as he is quoted by J)x Bernaril, the Drah el Sou- 
dah, (i. e. the cubit of twenty-ojie digits), is that 
by which the Nile was measured ; whereas, in 
the same author's dissertation upon the Nile- 
^opc :];, the measuring cubit is there defined to 
be expressly of twenty-eight digits. The venot ||, 
ift giving us an account of the daily increase, 
' ' "^ ' reckons 

lalaeus, Hasemaeo minor. 4. Cubitus nlger, Belalaeo cedet digi- 
tb 2-f 9 ab ^thiope quodam Rasi^ ^Hticipis a latere nomen et 
modum suum habet. ' Mensura tedificioriiixi Nilometri, mer- 
ciumque pretiosarum. 5. Josipp»us, ^ digit! minor cubito nigro. 
6. Chorda mt Asaba, brevior cubito nigro 14 digiti. 7. Ma- 
haranius ciibitus 2^ cuUti lugri, fossb m^sursmdb Mamone 
principe impe^s^tus. Vid. £dw, Bernards de Mensui^s, p. 217, 

* Vid. Ed#. Bernard, ut supra, p. 218. 

f Vid. £dw. Ber. ut supra, p. 220. 

X Quilibet cubitus continet vigmti ' octo digttos, donee com- 
pleaturelevatio aquae ad duodecim eubitos.' D(<tnde cubitus fit 
viginti quatuor digitorum. Quando' igitur volunt supppnere banc 
elevationem pertigisse ad sexdecim cubitos, distribuunt duos cu- 
Htos redundantes, qui continent viginti octo digitos, inter duode- 
decim cubitos, quprum unusquisque continat viginti quatuor digi^ 
tos, sicque fit quilibet cubitus viginti octo cubitorum. Kalk. ex 
traduct. v. cl. J. Gagnier. 

 II See bis Travels in English, p. 232. 

Ob^ervatwns concerning the Nile. 2^1 

reckons by a peek of twentyrfbur digits ; thougl^ 
Recording to a like account of the daily increase, 
.which I had from Sjgnore Gabrieli^ a Venetian 
apothecary, who has resided mapy years at Kairo, 
the peek is therq expressly of twcnty-^igbt inches*, 
or nearly q.n inch less than that which Dr Ber* 
nafd t t^Us us he saw the model of in Marufidas. 
By the length and division of the Mikqas, ac- 
cdrding to the account I had of it from a curi- 
ous J gentleman at Kairo, the peek appears to be 
still different from any of those already descri- 
bed. ^ The Mikeas,' says he, ^ is a pillar o^ fifty^ 


• - 

* June 29. N. S. 1714, the Nile ws^s five cubits high, June 30. 

it increased three inches. 


July 1. 2. Inches 

July 13. 4. Inches 

July 25. 7. Inches 

2. 3, 

' 14. 6, 

26. n9 8, 

3. 2. 

15. 8. 

27. S 10. 

4. 4. 

16. 8. 

28. S 15. 

5.1 3. 

6.2 4. 

18. i 251 

a9..a 20. 
30.. ti 30. 

7.8 6. 

19. g 15. 

31. 48. 

8.*:: 4. 

20..S 10. 


9^ 5. 

21..t{ 8, 

increased in 9II, ( Jul^ 

10. 4. 

22. 6: 

31.) 15^1 cubits. 

11. 3. 

i3. 7. 

Aug.l. WafaaAliaL 

If 5. 

24. 8.: 


•{- Potest ex modulo Marui^daB in MS. Arabico Bibliothecse 
nostrse cubitus fiasemseus undas Anglicanas 28,9. De Mens. 
p.219'. ^ < ^ 

X This gentleman was the late Mr Thomas Humes, who had. 
been a great many years a factor at Kairo, and took the measures 
and designs of most of the Egyptian antiquities. I. had the fol- 
lowing measure of the peek from an Italian merchant residing at 
Kairo, wis. 

The Stambole peek =^3 Rom. palms ^ =^ 2 |4^ English 
feet J with this they measure the woollen. 

The Misser peek == 2|§. p.ahns, or IrlrJ English feet for 
> lincn^ 

222 Physical and Miscellaneous 

eight English feet high, divided into three geo- 
metrical peeks, called Soltani beladi e facesi^ 
i. e. t/ie standard (as perhaps we may interpret 
these words) of the tGfwn and merchants j in all 
twenty-four Stambole peeks, i. e. the Stambole 
peek, according to this account, is equal to 
twenty-five of our inches ; though^ in another 
letter from the same person^ sixteen of these 
peeks are made equal to twelve English yards ; 
whereby one of these peeks will be' equal to 
twenty-seven of our inches.' My learned friends, 
Dr Pococke * and Dr Perry, who have written 
largely upon this point, have still left it undeter- 
piined, or very dubious ; the former making the 
Mikeas to be divided into twenty-four peeks of 
three different dimensions, viz. the sixteen lowest 
peeks to be each of twenty-eight digits, or twen- 
ty-one inches, the four next of twenty-six digits, 
and the uppermost of twenty-four ; whereas the 
latter f fixes it to two feet, or twenty-four inches 
nearly. But as I was informed at Kairo, (for I 
could not obtain the like admission with those 
gentlemen into the Mikeas), the Stamboline peek 
is the measure whereby they compute at present ; 
and as the measure whereby they compute is, ac- 
cording to Mr Mallet's J account, equal to two 


* Desoript. of the East, roh i. p. 256. 

f A View of the Levant, p. 282. 294. 286. 

t M. Maillet makes the peck by which the Nile is measured, 
to- be equal to two French feet, i. e. to two feet two inches near- 
ly of our measure. — La mesure dont on se scrt au Ksure, pour 
connoitre relevation de Pcau, contient vingt qustre pouces, ou 


Obseroatiofis concerning the Nile. S23 

French ittt ; this should be the lesser peek of 
that name, which is to the greater as 31 is to 32, 
or as 25-6 inches are to £6-4, the length of the 
great Stamboline peek * Let it suffice then, ia 
the following calculations, and to avoid fractions, 
to take this measure in round numbers, and at a 
medium among those above recited, {viz. of 26. 
27. 25-6. 25. 24. and 21 inches), for one of twen- 
ty-five inches only. This will sufficiently illus- 
trate the various reasonings and conjectures 
which we have to offer concerning the follow- 
ing properties and phenomena of the Nile, and 
of its effects and influence upon the Land of 

In the month of December, the channel of the 
Nile above the Mikeas, where it is broadest, was, 
at a medium, about three of these cubits in depth ; 
othersf make it four or five; and, as far as I could 
judge by the eye, it was little more than half a 
mile in -breadth; though in other places it is 
much narrower. But in falling down the branch 
of Dami-ata, in the same month (and the river 
might probably be shallower idi the three follow- 
ing)i we frequently struck upon the ground, in 
the very middle of the channel, though our ves- 
sel drew less than three feet of water. In the 
middle of June, when the Nile was considerably 


deux picds de*roy.— Pour ctrc capable Sc couvrir toutes les terrcs, 
il faut que Paccroissement du Nil xnonte jusqu^a vingt quatre 
Draasy c^est-a-dire quarante huit pieds.. Desciipt. de V Egypte, 
p. 60. 

* Vid. Bcrnardum de Mensuris, p^ 200. 

f Vid, Pococke^ ut supra, p. 259t Sr Peny, ibid. p» 218. 

£24 Physical and Miscellaneous 

augmented, for neither the beginning nor the efid 
of the inundation falls out always at the same 
time *, there were few parts of the main channel 
but we could pass over, by thrusting our boat 
Forward with a pole of feight cubits in length. 
Each day's increase afterwards, till the middle of 
July, was two, three or four digits { afterwards it 
would be sometimes ten, sometimes twenty or thir-i 
ty, till it rose (Aug. 15. 1721) to sixteen cubits; 
which (with the artful introduction, no doubt, at 
some proper j unc ture, of a larger measure of the same 
denomination f) seems to have been received for 


* According to the following account, which was kept by 
Signore Gabneli for thirty years, the Nik arrived at the height 
of Sixteen cubits, vi%. 

A. D. 1692, 

Aug. 9; 

A.D. 1707, Aug. 10. 



1708, 4. 


Sept. 1. P. 

1709, 9. 


Aug. 13. 

1710; July2tf. 



1711, Aug. 10, 



1712, 6. 


' 7. 

1713, 3. P: 



1714, 1. 


5. P. 

1715, July 26. 



1716, Aug. 17. 



1717, 15. P: 



1718, 22. P. 



1719, 5. 


Sept. 19. P. 

1720, 9. 


Aug. 9. 

172i, 15. 

. (C? The letter P. denotes the plague to liave raged that year, 

f Something of this kind is probably implied in the foUowing" 
remark of Kalkasendas.— Observa quod nostrd tempore facta est 
corruptio fluviorum et imminutio status rerum ^ cujus argumen- 
tum est, quod Nilometra stntiquat regionis Al Said a piimo ad ul- 
timum constanter habuerunt viginti quatuor digitos pro unoquo- 
que cubito sine ulla additione ad hunc numerum. — The same au- 
thor (£utychiuf does likewise the same in his Annals) mentions 
the changing and pulling down several oJF these ^R]ometra } for 
the more eiisy introduction perhaps of another measure. 

Observalions concerning the Nile. 225 

lifiany generations as the standard that portend- 
ed plenty, and consequently, as the condition 
>yhereupon the Egyptians were to pay their an- 
nual taxes and tribute, ^ 

For no addition appears to have been made, 
during the space of five hundred years, to the 
number of cubits that are taken notice of by 
Herodotus. This we learn, not only from the 
sixteen children that attend the statue of the 
Nile *, above mentioned, but from Pliny f also, 
^nd likewise from a medal of Hadrian, in the 
great brass, where we see the figure of the Nile, 
with a boy upon it, pointing to the number ««^, or 
16. Yet, in the fourth century, which it will 
be diflScult to account for, fifteen cubits only are 
recorded by the emperor Julian J, as the height 
of the Nile's inundation j whereas, in. the middle 
of the sixth century, in the time of Justinian, 
Procopius (I. iii. De rebus Gothicis) informs us, 
that the ris? of the Nile exceeded eighteen cu- 
bits. Ip, the seventh century, after Egypt was 
%ubdu^d Ijy tlie Saraqens, the amount || was six- 
teen or seventeen cubits ; and, at present, not- 
withstanding the great accumulation of soil that 
has been unquestionably made since those times, 
yet, when the river rises to six^teen cubits (though 
nineteen or twenty are required to prepare the 
whole land for cultivation) the Egyptians make 

VOL. II. 2 F . great 

 Vid. notcH, p*219. PHn.,1. xxxvi. c.7. 
f Id. 1. V. c. 9. 

X Julian. Epist. Ecdicio, praefecto ^gjpti* 
II Vide Kalkasendas, ut supra. 

32$ Physical and MkctUatumi 

great xejqioingSy and call out, Wafaa Allah, «• e] 
God has given them all tiiey wanted, Atid it ^s at 
thi$ time they pf rfonu the ceremony of cutting 
the Niky which is nothing mora than the break* 
ing down the hank of earth that is raised against 
the river, at the beginning of the increase, and 
thereby admitting a part of the stream into ^ 
.khalisy or caxial, which ruus througl^ the city of 

This khalis, which was^ the amnis Trajanus of 
the ancients, empties itself into the Berque el 
Hadge, or lake ^' fhfi pilgrim, at twelve miles 
distance to the eastward, and was formerly con- 
tinued to Heroopolis, upon the banks of the RecJ 
Sea. The lake of Myris *, the Mareotis, and 
others of the same kind, seerjf^ to; have been the 
like contriyat^ces of the ancieiit Egyptians, ei- 
ther to divert, or to carry off the superfluity of 
water, which, in the earlier ages, when there was 
a less extent and height of soil, must have fre- 
quently broke down' their mounds ; and would 
have always been more than sufficient to prepare 
the land for cultivation. 

Now as the change of seasons, and the natural 
course of things, has been always the same since 
the deluge, the Nile, from the settled state of 
things rfter that period of time tq this, must 
have constantly discharged the same quantity of 
water into the sea. But the country which it 
overflows, being not only nourished and refresh- 

* Diod. Sic. l.i. p. 32, 33. 

Obiervutims concerning tht Nile. SS7 

ed by the river, but even, as Herodotus says*^ its 
very gift, a great variety of changes and altera**' 
tions miist have been all al<mg incident to it 
ty hijst, therefioire the lower part of Egypt, where 
we now find the Pelta f ; may be supposed to 
have been a large gulf of the s^ the upper is to 
be considered ai a valley, bounded otk each side 
with mountains. 

Let the annexed figure 
be a section of this valley^ 
with a Nilescope n placed 
in that part <if it where 
the Nile directed its stteam. For aboiit th«^ 
spa^ce therefore of one or two centuries after the 
deluge, or till stich time asl the mud, brought 
down by the inUiidatioti, was sufiiciently fixed 
and accumulated to coiifiiie the river, we may 
iipagine the bottom of tliis valley^ a b, (i. e^ th^ 
whole land of Egypt) to have baen entirely over- 
flowed ; m else, being in tlte nature of a miorassj 
was not fit to be either cultivate or inhabited. 
Egypt therefore, at this time, t(ra^ iti a proper 
condition tD tec^ve the as(»istance of Osiris :t^, 
who, by raiiiing moUnds, stiid collecting the wa^ 
ter into d prOf^or chaosiel, kept the river from 
stagnating, ^and i^cmm^ itaelf into pools aiKt 
marshes, atid thereby prepaored. the land for that 
culture atiid tillage Which he w suppo^d to hav6 
invented. . fiu4;, in proce^ of tStiie> tli^^ annual 

^ strata 

* Herod. Eiit. f 4, 5. Diod. Sic. 1. iii. p. 101. Arist. Me^ 
ieotol. 1. i. c. 14. 
f Pliri. liist. Nat. K & c. 85. % l»6d. isic* I.i. p. 12. 

228 Physical and Miscellaneous 

strata would raise the country as high "as <s D { 
whereby the Nile would not only be sufficiently 
confined within its own banks^ but the superflu- 
ous moisture also, that was left by the inunda- 
tion, would be easily drained off, either into the 

' bed of the river, into the lake of Myris, or other 
lakes of the same nature and design. Agricul* 
ture therefore and husbandry, would have now 
their proper Encouragements ; and in this condi- 
tion \Ve may conceive the country to have been, 
at the building of Thebes*; the parts where 
Memphis and Zoan were afterwards founded, ha- 
ving not yet obtained a sufficient depth of soil 
to bring down a colony to till it. Some centu- 
ries after, when Memphis and othet cities of the 
Lower Egypt were builtj the banks, together 

^ with the land on each side of them, might have 
been raised, as we will suppose^ as high as £ Fy 
whereby a still greater height of water would be 
required to refresh them 5 which) in the time of 
ijerodotus, . was sixteen cubits* And rn thi^. 
mannery it may be presumed, that the foundation 
of the Land of Egypt was first laidj atid afters 
wards augmented ; the inundation bringinfg an- 
nually along with it an addition of soil, whereby 
not only the land that was made already, would 
be raised and augmented, but the soil would be 
likewise spread and extended to the very skirts 
of the valley, the sea would be gradually exclu-^ 
dedy and consequently a foundation laid for new 


* ^st. Mcteorol. 1. i. c. 14. 

Observations cofwerning the Nile. 229 

acquisitions to the country. Something like this 
we have recorded in Abmasudi, as he is quoted 
by Macri^i. ' It is the opinion/ says he, ^ of 

* pliilosophers and naturalists, (alluding to Arist. 

* Meteorol. 1. i. c. 14.) that the Nile once cover- 

* ed its country, and that it spread itself from 

* the Upper Egypt (i.e. Said or Thebais) to the.. 

* Lower. And that, upon the waters retiring, 
^ some places of it began to be inhabited ; till 

* at lengtli, the water continuing to flow off by 

* little and little, the land was filled with cities 

* and dwellings.' 

That Egypt was raised and augmented in this 
manner, appears from several circumstances. For 
whereas the soil of other plain and level coun- 
tries is usually of the same depth, we find it here 
to vary in proportion to the distance of it from 
the river ; being sometimes, near the banks, more 
than thirty^ feet high, whilst^ at the utmost ex* 
tremity of the inundation, it is not a quarter part 
of so -many inches. The method of raising 
mounds* in order to secure these cities from the 
violence of the inundation, is, another argument. 
For as it may be presumed, that all the cities of 
Egypt were originally built upon artificial emi* 
nences f, raised for that purpose, so, when the 
circumjacent soil came to be so far increased, as 
to lie nearly upon a level with them, the inhabi- 
tants must have been obliged either to mound 
them round, or else to rebuild them. The former 


 H^rod. Euterp. $ 13l. Diod< Sic. l.i. p. 36. 41. 
f JDtod. Sic. p. 23. Strab« Gtogr. l.xvii. $ S. 

S3U Physical and Miscdkneous 

experimetit seems to liave been often repeated at 
Memphis; as the want thereof may have been 
the reason why we are not sure at present even of 
the place where this famous city njras founded. 
The situation likewise of the temple, in the city 
of Bubastisy is another circumstance in favour of 
this hypothesis. For when Bubastis was rebuilt, 
and raised higher, to secure it from the inunda- 
tion, the temple*, for the beauty of itf, was left 
standing in its primitive situation; and being 
therefoix^ much lower than the new buildings, 
the inhabitants are said to have hoked dawn upon 
it from every part of the city; In like manner 
Heliopolis, which Strafao tells ix% vr9i% built upon 
an emitiencie^, is now one of the plains of Egypt, 
and annually overflowed, as I myself have seen, 
with six or eight feet of Water. Neither i« there 
any descent as formerly from Babylon (^iz. those 
parts of it that were built under the castle) to 
the river II, but the haterjacent space is all of it 
upon a level Upon the skirts likewise of the 
inundation, near the pyramids, where the sphinx 
is erected, which may be the model for other 
places, the soil, excltisivc of the sand I have 
mentioned, is there so far accumulated, that very 
little is wanting to cover the whole body. With 
regard also to the exclusion of the sea (the ex- 

* Hcrod. Eut. § 138. f iL ibii 

X Strab. Geogr. L xvii. p. 553. 

I) 'Pk;^ V vrif «x* TV f^atrirAt [Babyloius] mm fitx^t M«>.9 mi* 
^i|Kifr«, it m d7F$ TV %^uf0t r^H mm mox^^uu f H^^ mttty99a* I<i* 
ibid. p.555« 

Ob^ervati6m Condeming the Nik. £3 1^ 

pjelling of Typhon, as it was tiam^d in their an- 
cient mythology), we are told that Dami-ata, 
which lies now ^.t several miles distance from the 
sea, was, in the time of St I^vjis, viz. A. D. 1243, 
a sea port town, or at a mile's distance only from 
the sea * ; that Fooah^ which three hundred years 
ago wa$ at the mouth of the Canopic branch of 
the river, is now more than seven miles above it; 
and '^ again, that the land betwixt Rozetto and 
the sea, has, in no longer sj^ace than forty years, 
gained half a league. Such large accessions be- 
ing continually made to the soil, would occasion 
several of the more ancient cities, such as Man- 
SQura, I>ami-ata and Tineh, (for the present Kairo, 
or Babylon, or Latopolis, a^ it was anciently call- 
ed, is built in a higher situation, out of the reach 
of the Nile'^ inundation), to be in the same con- 
dition with Meihphis, were they not, in a great 
me^/sure, secured by some neighbouring mounds f; 
and was not tl>^ stream itself at the same time 
diminished, by being conducted in so convenient 
a manner, through a number of channels, that 
every part of thfc country may receive the benefit 
of the inundation. 


* Vid. PescriptiQU dc 1' Egyptc, par M. de MaiUet, p. 96, 
^c, TKe situation of Damiata upon the sea coast, A. D. 124^, 
seems to be confirmed by AbdoUaliph, (p. 5.) who lived about 
that time. JDamiatse latltudo, qua& est ultimus .£gypti t;er«iinus, 
est graduum triginta unius et tertise partis gradus. Willerm of 
T^re, A. D. 1109, tells us, that Damiata a mari quasi miUiario 

f . It was by pulling down such mounds as these, by Sultan 
Melladine, that the Christian army, then encamped near Kaito^ 
^(sre drowned, A.D.I 199. 

232 .pktfsical and Miscellamom 

However, it will be difficult to determine, with 
any exactnt^ss, what quantity of mud is thus an- 
nually left by the Nile. A late author* makes 
it equal to a tenth part of the water ; a weight 
certainly too great to be btioyed up by the stream. 
According to the quantity of sediment that is 
precipitated in their water-jars, by rubbing the 
^ides of them with bitter almonds, the proportion; 
seemed to be scarce one thirtieth part, or about 
one quart of wet mud to eight gallons of water- 
But by putting some of the same water to settle, 
in the tube of a barometer, thirty-two inches long, 
I faund the mud, when perfectly dry, to be near^ 
\y TT^ part f . And, as in most places that are 
overflowed, th^ water must either entirely stag- 
nate, or continue at least without any consider- 
able motion, (inasmuch as it is usually adnaitted 
by sluices, and kept in on every side by banks 
V\zA^ for the punposeX it is probable that a pro^ 


^ La Vitesse de cet accroisement est ^see. a comprendre, lors*- 
quVn se tepresente, que les eaux du Nil sont si troublees et 9 
bourbeuses dans le terns de Pkugmentation de ce fleuve, que les 
boues et les sables sont au moins la dixieme partie de son volume, 
bcscription de P Egypte, par M. Maillet, p. 103. 

f Dr Perry disagrees with me in this, as being by far too 
great a proportion, which he make^ to be only -^^ part \ or 
five drams and fifteen grains of soil, to thirty pound weight of 
water, either evaporated or filtrajted. View of the Levant^ p. 28d. 
There will undoubtedly be ereat difference in the muddiness and 
quality of the water, according as it is taken up in the middle of 
the channel, or near the banks, where it is often disturbed, as the 
water usudly is, that is brought all the day long from BulaCi 
upon camels, to Kairo. I know no other way to account for 
this difference \ for that a much greater quantity than. this must 
be left by the Nile, will appear from the next paragraph, and th^ 
following chapter. 

Observations doncernifig the Nik. 233 

|)ortionable quantity of soil (the depth of the 
water being always regarded) may have been left 
upon the surface. But I am sensible, that trials 
and experiments of this kind ought to be care- 
fully examined and repeated, before any hypo- 
tlie^is is built upon them. I therefore dare pro- 
pose it only as a conjecture, that^ according to 
the computation of time by the vulgar sera* 
this accession of soil, since the deliige, must 
have been in a proportion of somewhat more than 
a foot in a hundred years. 

This, : though we cannot absolutely prove it, 
appears highly probable, by comparing only the 
present state and condition of Egypt with what 
it was two or three thou;sand years ago. For He- 
rodotus f acquaints us, that in the reign of My- 
ris, if the Nile rose to the height of eight Gre- 
cian cubits, all the land of Egypt was sufficient- 
ly watered ; but that in his time; which was not 
quite nine hundred yeari after Myris, the coun- 
try required fifteen or sixteen. The addition of 
soil therefore (by supposing them to have been 
fifteen cubits only) will be seven Grecian cubits^ 
or an hundred and twenty-six inches, in the space 
of nine hunjdred years. But at present; the rivei* 
inust rise to the height of twenty Stamboline 
cubits (and it ustially ri^es from twenty- two to 
twenty-foar) before the whole coulntry is over- 
flowed. Kalkasendas, in brs treatise; of the Nile, 
acquaints us, * that the Nile, from an. Hg. 15, 

VOL. II. 2 G * to 

* V0S. by following the Hebtc'w text, 
f Herod. Eut4 Jia. 

SS4 Physic fit and Miscellaneous 

* to an. jHig//700^ had risen graduaUy from four- 
' teen, to diKiecii or seventeen cubits/ He adds 
further : * As for our time, (piz. an. Hej, 806 ; 
' i. e. A. D. 1403) the soil is raised by the falling 
' of the mud that is brought down with the wa* 

* ter ; and the bridges' (such, we may imagine, 
QS were formerly built over the canals, when the 
N \\c did itot rise so high) ^ are broken down, or 

* covered,' (as we may again imagiM, by the aug- 
mented impetuofiity or height of t^e stream) ; ' and 

* the Nile, by the appointment of the most high 
' God, h reduced to t^se three %t^tt% : the in- 
^ Buftctent, which is sixteen cubita rtore or Ies$ ; 
' the middle, which is from seventeen to eighteen 
' cubits or thereabouts ; and the high, which is 
' whea it exceeds eighteen cubits; and some* 

* times it will rise to twenty.' Sinc€ the time 
therefore of Herodotus, by making twenty Cubits 
only the standard, Egypt hai gain^ two hundred 
asijd thirty inches of soil. And again, if we look 
hack from the reign of Myris to the time of the 
dehige, and reckon that interval by the same pro- 
portion, we shall find the whole perpendicular ac- 
cession of soil, from the deluge to A. D. 1731, to 
be five hundred inches. The land of Egypt 
therefore, agreeably to the fera &nd conjecture 
above, and reckoning by a cubit of tWenty-fivc 
inches only, has gained forty-one t^t eight inches 
of soil in 4072 years *. Thus, in process of time, 
the whole country may be raised to such a height, 


* Vh. by ctckoning according to Mr Bedferd^s Tables, froBi 
the Deluge to A« D. 1721, the year when I wu in Egypt. 

Observatiom concerning the Hile. 3SJ 

that the river will not be able to overflow it ; and 
Egypt consequently, fropi beitig the most feitilei 
will, for want of this annual inundatioiii become 
one of the most barren parts of the universe ^. 
The objections that have hf^^u itiad^ to this hy- 
pothesis will be hereafter CQndijdei^d. 

However, among the many doki^tH^ ami diificul^ 
ties that have b&en alrjea4y meajtiopod, pr mtiy 
be hereafter raised upon tki» e^b}wt, tt^ere will 
always be room to make this v^ty ju9t and m-^ 
portant observation, that if HeFodo4U9 hsta duly 
considered the annual increase of the sqil^ and 
carried back his remarks a thousand yeari beyond 
the time of Myris, he could not have given thie 
least credit to that long succession of dynasties t> 
which make up the Egyptian history. For since, 
according to his own reflections; Egypt is ike en- 
tire, though gradual gift of the Nile^ there miiAt 
have been a time (and that not long befoce the 
period last mentioned) when it was either of^ the 
same barren nature with the deserts that surround 
it, or else that it must have been quite covered 
with water ; consequently, there could liave been 
no habitable country for these pretended princes 


* Macrizi, in his accoimt of the Nile, has this observation ^ 
viz. ^ If Egypt,^ says he, ^ should not receive a sufHcient quanti- 

* ty of moisture from the gradual increase and rising of the Nile^ 
' and the water retire from It afterwards, by the beginning of 

* seed'time ; the country would b^ entirely ruined, and the ioha* 
^ bitants would perish with hunger.^ 

f Herod £au $ 43. & 145. The like accaiint we have in 
Diodorus, l.i. p. 13. & 15* & p. 28. At the same time he ac* 
knowledges, that the Egyptians boast of astronomical observa- 
lions (i{ trm ttwtftft^ p. 51*) from axMncredible number of yeats. 

S3^ Physical and Miscellaneom 

to have reigned over. Our historian himself sup- 
poses it to have been originally an arm of the 
sea; and the time, pretty nearly, when it was so, 
he had learnt from the Egyptians, who assured 
him, that Menes* was the first king who reign- 
ed in the world ; that in his time, all Egypt, ex- 
cept the country of Thebes, was one continued 
inorass ; and that b^low the Lake of Myris, no 
part of the present land appeared. Now, as Menes 
or Osirisf wa5 the same With Mizraim; the son of 
Cham:|;, the first planter of Egypt, as all the 
foregoing circ'umstances so well agree with the 
Mosaic account of the flood, and of the disper- 
sion of mankind after it, Herodotus does hereby 
confirm the very truth and certainty of the Scrip- 
ture chronology, and at the same time ovetthrows 
the authority of all those extravagant annals and 
antiquities that were so much boasted of by the 
Egyptians [j. 


* Herod. Eut. § 11. 

f Viit Sliuckford Connect, vol. i. p. 205. % Gen. x. 6. 

II Hdtodotus, always too credulous with regard to these boast* 
ed antiquities of the Egyptians, in^sts likewise that circumcision^ 
was much earlier received by them, than by the Syrians of Pa- 
laestine, /. e, the Hebrews, or Israelites \ iat the Philistines them- 
selves, who were originally Egyptians, and gave name to the 
country, were uncircumcised. Now, by conadering Gen. xlv. 1 2. 
in the original text, agreeably to the Hebrew diction and brevi- 
ty of expression, we may receive one plausible argument, why 
Herodotus may be equally mistaken in this assertion. For the 
rabbinical cemmentators observe upon this verse, (which we 
translate. And behold your eyes see, and the eyes of my brother 
Benjamin^ that it is my mouth that speaheth unto you\ that Joseph 
gave the patriarchs therein three proofs of his being their bro- 
3icr. The first was the token of circumcision^ peculiar at that 
time (as they affirm) to the family of Abraham, which he is 


Oktervatkms conceniiag the Nile. 23 


Some additional Proofs and Conjectures co77cerning 
the Augmentation xvhich Egypt receives an^iuallif 
from the Nile. 

Though it seems tx) be fairly pfpved and col- 
lected, as well from the foregoing section, as 
from the quotations which tinisU the djs3e^tation 


3upposed to have discovered, bj unfolding his garment whilst 
they stood near him^ and bidding them regard it. Behold^ $ay^ 
he, your eyes see^ by this token, tnat I am no stranger, but of the 
lineage of Abraham. And then, tq shew that he was not de- 
scended firom Ishmael, he lays down for his second proof, the near 
reseniblatice oi'hjs own features to tAose of his brother Benjamin, 
whb was bom of the same mother. And behold^ continues he, 
the eyes (or countenance) of my brother Benjamin, how nearly 
they resemble my own. The third proof was his language ; 
Moreover, he adds, it it my mouth that speaketh unto you. For he 
had now begun to talk with them in their own tongue, having 
hitkerto conversed with them in the sprange longwise he had learn% 
by an interpreter. We may add some forthcr light and authori* 
ty to this exposition, by the following observations^ v/a$. first, 
that notwithstanding he had already told them he was Joseph, 
(ver- 3.) yet this must undoubtedly have appeared to Reuben, in 
particuliEir, to have been altogether impossible ^ in as much as he 
had all along understood, that Joseph had been devoured by wild 
beasts. It must seem no less improbable to the rest. For as 
they were too conscious of their having sold him to the Ishmael- 
iles, who were generally employed in the exchange of merchan- 
dise from one distant place to another, they could not entertain 
the least imagination of his being the second person in Egypt ; 
or even that he should be a settled inhabitant of that kingdom. 
Besides all this, the Egyptian dress, and fifteen years difference 
in his age since his brethren saw him, when he was then a youth 
only, would occasion such an alteration in his person, as might 
well demand, in the present surprize they were in, some ftrrtner 
proof than this bare declaration, that he was Joseph. Secondly^ 
His appealing, after he had addressed himself to them all, to the 
single testimony of Benjamin, how superior a token soever it 


238 Egypt is gradually augmented 

concerning the ancient situation of Mempliis, 
that Egypt in general, no less than that city in 
particular, must have suffered great alterations, 
and received considerable augmentations from 
the Nile ; yet the arguments and matters of fact 
there urged and alleged, do not appear to have 
been sufficiently clear and evident to the learned 
author of The Descriptmi of the East. And as a 
proper regard ought to be paid to the sentiments 
and observations of a curious gentleman, who 
has been upon the spot, and who has said every 
thing, I presume, that can be urged against my 
hypothesis, a candid and impartial examination 
of his reasonings and objections thereupon, may 
possibly clear up the present difliculties, and con- 

^ay be interpreted, di Joseph's pteuliar regard tnd ^Section fi>r 
Benjatmn, yet it could iiot in this light, and upOft this oecaaion, 
be of the least moment or consequence \ nay, it seems raAet M 
bave been altogether ineossruous and absurd. For BeAJafttiit 
was only a child when Joseph was sold into Egypt > consequent* 
ly it woyld have been improper to have caUed upon him aa an 
evidence, who could not be capable, at such an age, of retaining 
the least notion or remembrance of Joseph's person. Tkirdh/^ 
Joseph's cmtsing every man to go ouiy (ver. 1.) and prm^ng his 
brethren to come near him^ (ver. 4.) should insinuate, that he had 
something to impart to them of secrecy and importance, which 
>^as not to be exposed to the ridicule, or want<m curiosity of the 
uncircumcised Egyptians. Otherwise there appears to be no- 
thing in this whole narration, which is told with so much ekgance 
and simplicity, that could in any manner offend, or which indeed 
would not gather have excited the greatest pleasure and satislac* 
tion in the Egyptians. For we learn, (ver. 16.) that as soon as 
it was known thai Jos^h^s brethren were come^ it pleased Pharaoh 
weii^ and all Itis servants. 

It seems to be implied also, Jer. ix. 25, 26. that the Egyptians 
were not circumcised at the time when that prophet lived, vi9« 
630 or 6^0 years before Christ, which was not 200 years before 
Herodotus flourished and wrote his history. 

By the Mud of tke Nik. £ 39 

sequently put an end to ail disputes upon this 
subject for the future. Now it is allowed by this 
author, (vol. i. p. 39.) that ' the Nile, by over- 

* flowing of Memphis, might bury or cover it ovcy 

* with mud, as if such a place had never been.' 
Aqd that the mud of the Nile is capable of bring- 
ing about such or greater revolutions, appears 
froufi the depth of five feet, which he tells us 
(p. 200.) * is left behind it every year in the Mi- 

* keas.' Nay, the quantity of mud brought down 
by the Nile, appeared to be so very extraordinary 
to Herodotus*, that he supposes the Red Sea, 
provided the Nile was turned into it, would, in 
the space of twenty thousand years, be filled up 
by it. 

Now, if the Nile has the property of lodging 
its sediment in one place, why may it not have 
the like property of lodging it in others ? And if 
the Nile has accumulated soil at one time, why 
UQt successively, even to this day ? And though 
the soil annually lodged upon the surface in these 
latter ages, may, from smaller depths of the stag- 
nating water, be gradually diminished, yet still, 
where the Nile is admitted, and of a suflScient 
height to overflow, there will always be some 
proportional sediment left behind, and conse- 
quently the land must be always increasing. 
When therefore the Nile, by thus raising and 
augmenting its banks, (i. e. the whole tract of 


* El «» ^ ilft^o-ii fKT^r^Mi r« pss^«9 i NciAo^ li Tf«r«y r«9 *A^atCf«r 
Herod, p. 104. 

240 Egypt is gradually augmented 

land which it overflows), is at length confined 
and collected within its own channel, and there- 
by becomes incapable of preparing the adjacent 
plains for tillage, by overflowing them, the event 
and consequence seems to be very apparent; 
that, for want of this annual inundation, (as th^re 
are no former and latter rains, as in other coun- 
tries), Egypt, from being the most fertile, by be- 
ing overflovyed, must, as I have asserted, become 
the most barren paft of the universe for want of 
it. I do not indeed say that. this will happen in 
our times ; I was only to shew the possibility of 
it in some future generations^ 

Yet, notwithstanding it is granted in several 
places by this gentleman *, that considerable ad- 


* ' Thercf are some grounds to think, thit the s6il of Egypt 
has risen some years near half an inch, without considering 
what is carried away of the produce of the earth. For on the 
banks of the Nile, I observed that the soil was in several strat^ 
or cakes, of about that thickness.' Descript, of the East, p. 250. 
Nothing certain can be said as to the rise of the soil *, for these 
banks being high, possiMy their sfratrf of earth might be made, 
only at the time of such inundations, [they could be made at n6 
other] as overflowed those banks, where we are to suppose [but 
for what reason •*] the sediment must have been greater than iA 
the ordinary overflow. It is possible also, that this might not be 
the sediment of one year.' p. 251. * The ground rising pro- 
portionaibly at the sea atid every where else.' p. 198. * The 
soil of £gypt, except what additions it has received from the 
overflow of the Nile, is naturally sandy.' p. 197. • It is salt, 
or nitre, and the rich quality of the earth, which is i/te sedlr 
tnent of the water oftlieNiUy thaft makes Egypt so fertile.' ibid, 
A cubit more of water might be necessary to overflow the lands 
plentifully before Petronius's time, than what was in Herodo- 
tu«'s, the earth being riserty and the canals made.' p. 252. * The 
ground has risen seven feet and an half at Heliopolis.' p. 23, 
The ground is so much risen, that I could not come to any 
certainty with regard to the height of their pillars.' p. 215. 

' The 

By the Mud of the Nile. 24 1 

ditions have been and are still making to the 
soilj yet it is urged, (p. QoO.Jbid.) that * by the 
perpetual falling of the stony particles, brought 
down with the Nile, the channel itself rises in 
proportion to its "banks;' Apd besides (ibid.) 
that ^ great quantities of soil are actually wasted 
or carried away by the crop;' and still (p. 198.) 
provided the lands did rise so high in Lower 
Egypt as not to be overflowed, they would only 
be in the same condition with the people of. 
Upper Egypt, who are obhged to raise the 
water by art.' These are the principaf objec- 
tions which are advanced against this part of my 

Now, with regard to the last objection, it may 
be observed of Egypt, as well as of all othei* 
countries, that where they are not, in some way 
or other, watered and refreshed, they must of 
course be barren, and incapable of producing any 
crop. This we have confirmed by Strabo*, who, 
in describuig the course of the Nile from Ethi- 
opia to Egypt, tells u5, ' that all those parts were 
' inhabited which were overflowed by the Nile ; 
* but where the lands were too highj or lay out qf^ 
VOL. iiT 2 H ^ the 

' The ptilars of Hadjar Silcili [which is built on a rock, and 
^ therefore without the reach of the Nile] are the only columns 
* I saw to the bottom.' p. 217. 

* Koiy« /Ec«y y»^ rtvu km* return rv ;^4'^» xttt m rvn^u xctt tnri^xv- 
rifl Til rm AtitoTtitv NaAo; vet^ctcKivet^Hy ff-^Ai^A^y rt etvrauq Kurtt rets 
«y«b«0-5tf$, x4Ct rvr .6tKno'tfMif ttvrtt ta ^i^o$ tcr^XtTTMv fiovav t« KecXvjrro^ 
ftiHf fy T0<$ ^y^nf^fAv^ivt^ T# }' vTi^ii^to* Km f*»rfi^«n^6f nt ^iVfMcrog 
^*f, tt«tK9iro9 fKttri^»$i9 h^icef km i^nf^f ^tet m* »vrn¥ ttvv^^tuf, Strab. 
Geogr. 1. xvii. p. 541. Can tie meadow (lOK) grow without 
water / Job viii. 11. 

^4§l JEgypt is gradually (mgmnted 

* the rwch 6f the inundation, there they ^^ere 

* barren and uninhabited for watot 6f W&t^r.' N«i- 
th6r am I speaking of what tnay bfe done by Ar- 
tificial raeair^s and contrivances, sttteh As Strabb * 
may be suppbised to describe in the t^ftie of Pe- 
troniu^ ; such likewisfe as ate at present made tise 
of in the Upper Egypt. I am speaking of the 
consequtsneesjl which, withbi^t these assistances^ 
must naturally attend a eountty that i% destitute 
of all manner of refreshment frbm isho#ers or in- 
^ndatitmsj siich as this author acktioW%edg;es 
the Uppftr Egypt Vo he at this tinre. tot it is a 
matter 6f factj that the greateist part of th^ Up- 
per Egypt, by lying too high to be regularly 
i&V«tfl5v^ed by the Nile, is aMe tb prbduce little 
«?t nothing at ail fer the sustfettanee bf mankind; 
^iceept isuch portions of it, as af^ kept constant- 
ly watered, as he himself has Observed, by the 
Immense labbur and contrivance of the inhabit 

As then it is agreed by us bothf , that all Egypt 
is, or has been, at one time or other, the gradual 


fmXMf* Ocwff 3f 9tMi i f/^Mf amitwtt tit wtrttfk^ x-Xmv ittrnfyi y«*, 

xttr» Tits fA«T)tf$ ttmiMvHs r«r«vn9r ^tr^^^fm y«y» iowt 9f v»» f»mf^ftf 
iitt r% [tq'J ftf9 ii4^uym^ lutt rt>f vct^»j^fufirm^ *Ein yw rmf «igt 

xmiticm wn^Hf ttvAounv i 2^mA«$* imcti 3* tx 6KTtty ovvi^tn }uftH* Ew* 

JAhXw fctr^v, fttyin n^f i ^«#«* ««m ««r« 7r$rt f$t9§f irX^ttrttnHp Aj^ 
vim nr^tf. Strab. 1. xvii, p. 542. 

f See the quotations from this author, p« 240-1. 

JS^ tM Mud qf the m^ 24S 

gift of t^ Nil«, thi^ hypotlv^ftii which 1 maiu-^ 
^in, sqpp^^f no q^f Qh^itg^ ajoii alteration to 
]^ppmi» in proiscisis of tm^, %p this plains about 
M^mphiPi aiid th(; l^er Bgypt, than what have 
ak^^y h4pp«Q«4 tQ th« Uppar '^ ; agieeaWy to 
it§ higJwr antiquity, and to ^bci lopg^r Qourse of 
?ige», tl».t tfae Nil^ has b^en teltQwing it9 bounty 
upQ4 it. Th« pce^ciAt states wd wmiitm thcres 
fore of the Upper Egypt, is so far from being an 

objwtipn, that it fXQvm the vejty point in dis- 
pute ; viz. th^t t;he Nil©, i» * terox of year^ n^ay 
so far aocumulAte it9 mi upon the ad^oeut plains 
of ^^ ].A>we? £gypt, aft it^ hftth already ^m in 
the Uppejr, til^i^ il wiM xi^ b# ^^^pabte to. OY^iflpw 

A? to t;|«g Qth^ic olywtio^^, wc way civen dis-r 
pute the v^f y f^ta upg^ which they ^?e fo^^nd^^^ 
Iqt, a$ tQ the ir^t, it cajft haidly he admitted tha^ 
any of th© qrigi^J s^tquy particte% brought down 
from Ethiopia by tbe^ ISile, ^.wld h^ w ^tiengiy 
b«Qyed up by ths i5t*e^», '^ hqI ^ wbsidf^ «l iowg 
time before thcif arrival at the Cataracts. Nei-» 
ther Qwkl wy furtter acue^sion of atony parti-^^ 
^les, that a&v^ld bo ^ngagfd iiftfrwatds by thd 
^trfam, eithesQ ip pdssiai^ by thtsj^ Cataraots^ ed 
the. sandy i^lftnd^ t^^t \ki in iia cdurse* aftensmrds^ . 
continue long toi be anppwted, kit the ati^eam be 


* This is ^ycti acknowl^dgdj by the au Aot of the tieicr^ttpn 
4f /«^ l^<i|l. ^ At «^at tiiae^^ ^^f^ he, < before the canalf 

' \we n^de, af4 wi^U lf9W^ %}S^ W^ ^ Wf rass, tha Hpfiff 
* pa^ of I^pt might be overflowed,, aod reCei^ that acceSf 
' sieii of a rie^ soil^ AvhieM niafee» it so fruitlu}^^ veil:. L p* 19'Y'i 

244 Egypt is gradually augmented 

never so rapid and violent. They, from thet 
own weight and specific gravity, must either be 
dropped of course as soon as the extraordifiary 
rapidity of the current ceases, or else they must 
be lodged immediately at the very foot of those 
very rocks, or along the skirts of those very 
islands, from whence they may be supposed to 
have been thus violently rubbed pfF and obtain- 

Nay, it may well be imagined, that th6 beds of 
tivers, particularly those which, like the Nite, ar6 
of a rapid nature, do rather grow lower than rise 
or increase. For their bottoms being constantly 
disturbed, by the violent motion and friction of 
the current, one particle of sand or gravel must 
impel another^ till the velocity of the stream 
abates, or till these particks meet With some im- 
pedimeut or obstruction. And this may be the 
cause why rivers are generally the deepest in theif 
middle channel, because the current is there the 
strongest. It may be the cause ' likewise, why 
eddies, whirlpools^ the immediate outlets from 
mills, sluices, • &c. ^e usually of great depths \ 
because the stream, in these cases, plunges itself 
here with greater violence, and putting thereby 
the neighbouring particles of sand and gravel ill 
motion, protrudes them before it It is owing 
also to the same impulsive force and action, that 
the ordinary depths of rivers are deeper in some 
places than in others, the deeper being usually 
succeeded by flats and shallows, whither these 
loose sandy particles are driven; and where they 


By the Mud of the Nik. 245 

remsun quiet and undisturbed, till the next inun- 

Of the same nature and origin likewise are the 
bars, as they are called, of rivers ; which arc a 
like collection of sand and gravel, forced down 
by the impetuosity of the stream, till, upon their 
nearer approach to the sea, they become them- 
selves retarded, and the more weighty contents 
of them stopped and arrested, by the heavier co- 
lumn of the sea-water, or by the more violent 
and superior force and activity of its waves. As 
the mouths of the Nile therefore, and particular- 
ly the Canopic, which is the largest, are remark^ 
ably incommoded with banks of this kind, which 
render the navigation oftentimes exceedingly 
dangerous, there is no small probability, that the 
bed of the Nile must be so far from receiving 
any annual increase, as it. is objected, from these 
stony particles, that it must be a considerable 
loser, by such large contributions of them as are 
constantly accumulated at those places. As to 
the mud, properly so called, it seems to make 
little or no part of these obstructions ; for, being 
itself of a light nature, and easily buoyed up by 
thte stream, it is visibly carried off into the sea, 
to the distance of several leagues, where it is lay-^ 
ing a foundation for future accessions to the land 
of Egypt 

Besides, if the bed of the Nile was raised by 
the subsiding of the stony particles brought along 
with the streain, the like would happen to all ri- 
vers, in proportion to their muddiness. Because 


246 Egypt is gradually augmented 

it may he presumed, that the mud buoyed up by 
rivers, is all of the same light nature and ci>&s>s- 
tence, however it may accidentally differ in co- 
lour or olher respects. As then there are few or 
BO rivers, but what are muddy in some degree of 
other ; and not only so, but are at some season^, 
for several days or weeks together, no Icjsa muddy 
than the Nile; why should not they, by precipi- 
tating tlie stony particles (provide^ there were 
any) of theii mud, have the like prc^rty of rai- 
sing their beds and channels ? We need not in- 
deed insist upon their receiving equal augmenta- 
tions with the bed of the Nile; it is enough in 
the present (question if they recrive any at at^ in 
a^ much as this, let it have bee^ annually never so 
small and inconsidefable, ye4, in process of time, 
and in the course of four thousand years, (reck- 
oning from tlie deluge, or the beginning of ri- 
vers), must have become visible and apparent. 
But notwithstanding the w^nt of that annual in- 
crease and addition to their banks, which the 
Nile can boast of, (and whereby '\t H^^ps up, as 
is pretended, tlie balance betwixt the quantity of 
water and the capacity of ibe channel that is to 
convey it), nothing of this kind has been obser- 
ved in the Dai;uibe, the Rhine, the Thames, or 
any other noted river. These liave always conti- 
nued the same ; their channels still contain tlie 
same quantity of water, which they may origi- 
nally be supposed to have done, and except upon ' 
extraordinary rains^ and the floods and inunda-* 
tions consequent thereupon, are never known td 


By the Mud ^f tiie Nik. S47 

be too full or overcharged. Whereas, liad there 
been any gradual additions made by these mean^ 
to their beds, these very beds must have been 
gradually filled up, and their streams consequent- 
ly would have been gradually excluded ; and be- 
ing thus excluded, and thereby under no confine- 
ment, they would long ago have converted all 
their adjacent plains into lakes or marshes. 

But it is further urged, that, provided the Nile 
should lodge any considerable quantity of sedi- 
ment upon the surface, yet * a great part of it 
' would be carried off annually by the crop or 
* produce of the soil/ Yet, it may be rcplied, 
that if the whole of it is not earned off, that 
which remains will still contribute, though in a 
smaller degree, to the supposed augmentation. 
By this means indeed the operation will be slow- 
er, though no less sure and certain upon that ac- 
count. Foir the precise tin^e when thfs augm6n«- 
tation is to be brought about, is not disputed ; 
but wliether such an j^ugtnentation will happen 
at all. And that there is and has been an aug^ 
mentatioii, which consequently may, and proba- 
bly will continue, is even acknowledged by this 
author, as well as proved in the foregoing chap- 
ter*. Little stress therefore can be laid upon 
this objection, which does not deny the fa«t, but 
only retards the progress of it. 

It appears, by several experiments |, that earth, 
commonly so called, or m6uld, is very little con- 

* Not.*, p. 240-1. 

•(• Vid, Boyle^s JVorkr abridged, vol. ui. p. 282, &c<i 

248 Egi/pt is graduatfy augmented 

cerned in vegetation, water being the principal, 
and in effect the only agent ; a certain genial 
and proper warmth being still supposed to accom- 
pany it. For, that water alone may be sufficient 
for this purpose appears from hence, that * from 

* it, salt*, spirit, earth, and evfen oil, maybe pro- 

* duced.' And again f, ' faip water may, by the 
^ seminal principle of mint, porapions, and other 
^ vegetables, be converted into bodies answerable 
^ to their seeds/ And again ;);, * in plants of the 

* various corpuscles found in the liquors of the 

* earth, and agitated by the heat of the sun and 
' air, those that happen to be commensumte to 

* the pores of the root> are impelled into it, or 

* imbil?ed by it, and thence conveyed to other 
' parts of the tree, in form of sap, which passing 

* through new strainers, receives the alterations 

* requisite to their conversion into wood, bark, 

* leaves, blossoms, fruit, &c/ By this account, 
the greatest tree wastes no more of the eatth or 
soil wherein it grows, than the smallest thistle ; 
the earth serving all along as a proper support^ 
defence, or covering only for the root ; or else, 
as a convenient stVaincr and corrector of the nu- 
tritive and vegetative fluid. 

Nay, upon a supposition that some vegetative 
• piarticles 

* Boyle's Works abridged, vol. iii. p. 287. 293. 

f Id. ibid. p. ^40. 

t Id. vol. i. p. 440. Vid. Philosopb. Transact, vol. xxxvii. 
p. 418. where bulbs are ssdd not to grow so well in muddy wa- 
ter as in clear. Tbe known experiment of raising sallads, &c. 
tipon flannel, &c. shews how little concern earth has to do in ve- 

' By the Mud of the Nile. 849 

particles were lodged in this sediment, (aind we 
will suppose a great many), yet how infinitely 
srjiali must they be, to enter into these roots, and 
to be conveyed through these delicate strainers? 
They, of what subtile substance soever they may 
consist, are rather the objects of our reasoning 
faculties, than of the eye or the touch ; and con- 
sequently, what loss or consumption soever may 
be made of them, it will scarce, if at all be per- 
ceived in that great mass of matter from whence 
they were secreted. 

* But we see,' as these objections are conti- 
nued, (p. 251.) that * the ground visibly sinks 
' where vegetables are produced and taken away, 
* and there is no accession of matter.' It must 
indeed be acknowledged, that every plant plyck- 
ed up by the root, and every tree dug out of the 
ground, will leave some cavities and traces be- 
hind them; but we must, at the same time, deny 
the consequence that is here draM^n from these 
appearances. For these holes and cavities, whe- 
ther they be small or great, are not made by a 
proportionable quantity of earth or soil, or vege- 
tative matter (if that will make more for the pur- 
pose), which may have been gradually taken up 
and consumed by these plants. They are made 
by the gradual accretion, and expansion of their 
roots, which, like so many wedges, force them- 
selves into the adjacent soil, loam or gravel; 
obliging it thereby to quit its native situation, 
and, from lying naturally in a more loose and 
open texture, to become more close and com- 

voL. II.. 2 1 pressed 

&50 Egyp* is graiually augmented 

pressed. No earth consequently can be lost 6f 
consumed by this expansion of their roots ; it be- 
comes only, by these means, more crowded and 

Nay, so far is it from being a matter of fact, 
that * thfe ground visibly sinks where vegetables 
^ grow, without some new accession of matter' 
be made to it, that the contrary, I presume, will 
be found by observation ; and for one instance 
-where it takes place, (which if there should, may 
perhaps be easily accounted for some other way), 
there are numbers of others where the ground is 
either higher, or at least upon a level with what 
lies contiguous to it. % 

In the produce of th^ lesser kind of vegeta- 
bles, such ^s gras^ and corn, no less than of the 
greater, such as shrubs and trees, the ground has 
probably continued much in the same height 
wherein it was left a little after the deluge. Or 
rather, froin the rottitog and corrupting of the 
roots, Stalks leaves, &c. it may, in some places, be 
a little raised and augmented ; in so much, that 
the very curious and leartied Rudbeckius*, from 
the consideration of these and such like occa- 
sional accessions of soil, has attempted to esti- 
mate the age and antiquity of this terraqueous 
globe. Where the ground is manured, there it 
,must still rise higher than by this natural pro- 
cess ; because the more subtle and volatile parti- 
cles of it can at* most be concerned in vegetation, 


'^ 01. Rudbcckii Atlantica avc Manheim, 1. 1. c. 6. Nou- 
velles de la repub. des lettres, mw de Janv. 1685. 


By the Mud of the Nik. £5 1 

while the infinitely greater share of grossj^r par- 
ticles are left behind. 

And that very little, or nothing at all of the 
real soil, the ancient a|i4 primog^nial covering of 
tihia globe, is parried off by pUpts and vegetables, 
appears from comparing the present state of the 
plains of Africa, with what they wer^ in former 
ages« For these are never manured ; yet the same 
fertility in the soil, and the lik^ plenty and abun«- 
dance that have been recorded of their crops, fot 
above these two thousand years, continue to this 
day. Now, if the nature of vegetables was such ' 
as to make the ground they grow upon * both 

* hollower and lower, by gradufilly wasting ancj 

* consuming it,' Africa by this time would have 
been drained of its \vh0le stock, and ppthipg 
could have remained of this rich and fruitful 
country, but a barren substrattfm of clay or gra-^ 

Having therefore remdved tlie force of thesd 
objections, I shall proceed to the examination of 
others. Now, on^ of the principal arguments 
which I have advanced foi* that annual increase 
which is supposed to have been made to the Lapd 
of Egypt, was taken from Herpdptus, who fells 
US, (Eut. p. 105.) that, * in the time of Myris^ 

* eight cubits at least (tH t>iipMy were required to 

* watet the country; h^t, in his tiijip, sccirgenins 

* hundred years afterwards, [sixteen op] $fteen at 
' least (t¥A«;tf«-M) were necessary.' The land there- 
fore, as I conjecture, must have T^ceived seven 
Grecian cubits gf iucrease, in tliat space of tiijue. 


252 Egypt is gradually augmented 

The whole scope of Herodotus' reasoning, both 
in this and in other places of the Euterpe, is to 
this purpose ; not only to shew the actual and 
the general increase, but even,^ in some measure, 
the very proportion and quantity of this annual 
increase. And of this, the matters of fact rela- 
ted above, are, as he calls them, fuymrtxf^^ff xt^t r* 
X^tnsy * a strong proof or evidence with regard to 
* this country.' For if he had not preserved all 
along a great regard to this gradual increase, 
which was the very foundation of what he was 
contending for — that Egypt was the gift of the 
Nile, he never could, from such a long detail and 
induction of particulars as are there enumerated, 
have at length concluded that Egypt, by ^ be- 
ing raised, in this manner^ too high to be over- 
flowed, and no rain falling upon it, the inhabi- 
tants must starve and perish with hunger.' 
But it is further objected, (p. 251.) that * the 
eight cubits [above mentioned], are to be un- 
derstood of the addition only that is to be made 
to the Nile, at the time of its overflow • but 
that the sixteen or fifteen cubits ate to be taken 
for the whole depth of the river, from the top 
to the bdttoin.' Whereas, Herodotus' words 
will bear no such interpretation. Becfause, in the 
first part of the above^cited quotatioti, it is •jm^^ 
M»$ # w&r»fMi %m ttcftt Tmxi^ f^ ix«;cf«-^, whcfi the river 
arises^ or conies^ to eight cubits at least; and, in the 

latter, t ftn i^t htuMJiixm 9 untmuitittM vrnx/uis ^mUn rMXetx/t^* i 

w^rmfUfy unless the river ascends to sixteen or fifteen 
cubits at least ; where the same meaning rs' con- 

By the Mud of the Nile. 253 

veyed in them both; 9r«r«^M( iaim and ^T^fui mf^n 
meaning, one and the other, the whole and the 
absolute, not the partial or relative depth or ri- 
sing of the Nile. Nay, if either of the words 
could be supposed to mean the quantity of the 
periodical rising, or the addition that is made to 
the ordinary height of the river at the time of 
the overflow, .it would be m»*tn\ which may in- 
deed seem to convey some idea or hint of this 
kind. Had »H&n therefore, instead of ia^m^ been 
joined to the eight cubits, as it is (unfortunately 
for this argument) joined to the fifteen, it would 
have been an objection, specious enough indeed, 
though by no means reconcileable to the whole 
scope afnd tenor of the context. 
: It is objected again, (lAirf.) that Herodotus' ac- 
count of ^ sixteen and eight cubits cannot be 

* well accounted for on any supposition, unless 

* we suppose that the canals were cut after My- 
' ris' time, and so made a greater rise of the 

* Nile, (i. d. from eight to sixteen cubits) neces- 

* sary.' But surely, as such an extraordinary in- 
crease, from eight to sixteen cubits of water^ 
could not be brought about at once, so neither 
was it at this time necessary. For in this infant 
state, as we may call it, of Egypt, when the 
main channel was of a greater breadth, and the 
inundations were at once both more extensive 
and uninterrupted, the eight cubits at least, which 
are here recorded to be the standard, may be well 
supposed to have been sufficient, at that time, 
for the exigencies of the country. And if eight 


254 Egypt w gradually augmented 

cubit$ at least were necessary, a Lesser height 
would not have occasioned a profitable inunda- 
tipn ; and a much greater would not liave been 
required. So that the l^nd of Egypt^ in this low 
and early condition of it^ during the feign of 
Myris^ might be sufficiently refreshed by an in* 
undation of eight cubits, as one of sixteen (twelve 
feet at least above the supposed, level of the 
ground at that time) must have been highly de- 
trimental and destructive. If Egypt 'then, ac- 
cording to this account^ had always continued 
the same (as the quantity of water brought down 
by the Nile has, one year with another, been the 
very same), neither had there been, since the time 
of Myris, any successive accessions of soil made 
to its banks, either in their height or breadth; 
these eight cubits of water would have still con* 
jtinued to be the standard of plenty, and the HTa- 
Jba Allah*y to this very day. 

Besides, the cutting of' canals^ which is here 
alleged, would be attended with a considerable 
loss of water in the main stream. Instead there- 
fore of the Nile's rising upon an alteration of 
this nature from eight to sixteen cubits^ the very 
reverse would certainly have happened. For the 
depth of the miain stream being reduced by thes^ 
contributions, to seven we will suppose, or a less- 
er number of cubits, (viz. in proportion to thcf 
capacity of these canals, and the uses for which 
they were intended), the river would actually 

have become lower than the land may be well 


* See above, p. 226* 

By the Mud of the Nik. 255 

i^upposed to have been at that time ; and conse- 
quently it woqld not have been able to overflow 

In the diagram, (p. 385.) thp annual successions 
of strata left by the sediment of the Nile, are all 
of them supposed to be upon a kvel ; consequent- 
ly, the whole Land bf Egypt, from the river to 
the utmost extent of the iiiyndatioh, must be so 
likewise. For as all fluids preserve a horizontal 
aitnation *, th^ sediipent, Whifch falls and is pre- 
cipitated from them, must, cdEttrU paribm^ do the 
like. Unless the inundatioh therefore should he 
obstructed by some means or other from doing 
its office, the like eflfects riiust be equally produ- 
ced in all parts. It does riot seem probable there- 
fore, that ^ ^lie land of Egypt f should have a 

* gradual 

^ Aqua, dicta, quod superficies ejus sequalis nt. Hinc et ^uor 
^Ippdlatum, quia sequaliter sursum est. Isidor. 

. f ' It is remarkable^ that the grotmd is lowest \siofing it should 

* be, otherwise there is no antithesis} near all other rivets which 

* are supplied from rivulets \ but as no water falls into the Nile^ 
^ in its passage through this country, but, «n the contrary as it is 

* necessary that this river should overflow the country, sind the 

* water of it be conveyed by canals to all parts, especially when 
^ the waters abate, so it ^ seem^ visible to me^ that the Land of 

* Egypt is lower at a distance from the Nile, than it is near it ; 
f and / imagined^ that in most parts it appeared to have a gradual 

* descent from the Nile to the iiills.^ Descripu of the East^ vol. i. 
p. 199. * The Nile need not be so high overflowing by the 
^^banks of the canal, on the supposition that the ground is lower 

* at a distance from the river.' H^id. p. 250. ' Canals being made^ 
^ it was not a bad Nile, though two cubits lower than the bad 
^ Nile of Herodotus, because a less height made it to overflow in 

* some measure^ as the banks of the canals were lower than the 

* banks of the river,' ibid. p. 252. * As they have dikes to 

* keep the water out of the canals, till the proper time come to 

* let it in, so they have contrivance!? to keep it in some canals af- 



25S Egyfit is gradually' augmmfed 

^ gradual descent from the main river to the foot 
* of the mountains on each side.' This we inay 
rather suspect to be a deceptio visus than a mat- 
ter of fact. 

For this inequality in the surface could not be 
occasioned (for the reasons just now alleged) by 
the more general and total inundations, such as 
happened in the earlier ages, when the Nile was 
neither hounded nor confined by mounds or ca- 
pal^ ^nd when the whole Land of Egypt was 
wtims itmrm^ ont Continued plain^ as Herodotus ex- 
presses it. Neither could this inequality be in- 
troduced by the partial or distributive inunda- 
tions, as we may call them ; such as were made 
at, and after the time of S^sostris *, by means of 
these canals, together with their respective banks 
and adjacent inclosures. The contrary would al- 
ways follow, unless th? Nile wa$ entirely exclu- 
ded j 

^ ter the Mle is fallen, as well as in cectahi lakes when the Nile 
^ grows low *y and from them they let it out at pleasure, on lands 

* that are higher [which wants to be explained] than the chan- 

* nels of the canals } and Strabo takes notice of these methods 

* f but the place is not quoted] to hinder the water from floiving 

* !li? ^^ E^^S ^Vit when it is in.' ibtd, p. 201. And again : 

* Tnere is great reason to think, that [contrary to what is ^ene« 
i rally observed} the fi/m'n ground of Egypt is highest Upwards 
< the river, and that there is a gentle descent to the foot of the 

* hills ^ and if so, when the canals were once opened, and the 

* water let into them, it would sooner ovcrfk)w the. banks of th« 

* canals, than those of the river, after that the canals were cut, 

* though not sooner than before they were cut. But thjcn the wa- 

* ter would overflow less, sooner abate, drain off; and evaporate, 

* by reason of the greater- mfilet^ &c. ibid, p. 250. 

* Egypt seems to have been watered by canals, and to have 
had large lakes as early as the time of MoSes, who is ordered to 
stretch out his hands upon, their streams^ upon their riper Sy ofid upon 
their ponds J Exod. vii. 19. and vjii. 5. 

By the Mud of the Nikx &57 

ded ; whicH the Egyptians, from the gteat ferti- 
lity and profit that atteilded the inundation, 
would never be induded to permit. No sUch de- 
clivity therefore, in the strata, could follow froni 
the introduction and striictiire df the canals 
theniselves, Which (besides their civil knd politi- 
cal use*, in cantdnirig otit this country into par- 
ticular districts, in conveying the water to dis- 
tant parts, aiid in preventing sudden invasions) 
Were intended, riot only to carry off the superflu-' 
ous water, arid thereby prevent the inundations 
from being hurtful, but to convey arid distri- 
bute them likewise, with greater feconomy and 
conveniencyj to the very skirts 6f the mduri- 

Wheresoever likewise ^e mc6t x<^ith ahy banks 
or mounds (whether they are interided, according 
to the exigence of the country, to shut out, to 
receive, or to. retain^ the water, as it was some- 
times practised in the outlets to the lake of My- 
ris t ), there they are miich of the sam6 hfeight 

VOL. II. 2k. and 


ktmf/u^tvTH yty«^* Air««i it ntnff eu iw^vxH yiywitvi^ utTtu wcXXtu 

Xiv^i oo't xmf AiyvTFTWf fin iitt tm inTMfMt Mngrrd ^«Aiif, «AA* AMt^f- 
&US, VTM ottif n dvt4i i ^wrttfMS v'ntiil^dm^ i^etrrnVf ^XttTurt^Mft %j^- 
funr^ TMri wftmiti f» ^^rtn ;^«<«|Wiv««. Herod. £ut. p. 144. K«tA 

vrwttftfif iut^vyOfj Ud i»i fUf ^uficcfiiitts vm xm^Tttv ^lotrrm avrr^fMiq 

;^{«f. Diod. Sic. h i. p. 36. 
Jf. 557. 

258 Egypt i$ gradually augviented 

ai]id quality, bpth along the edges of the inait^ 
streqini, and along the edges of the cxjrre^ponden^ 
branches and canals. What deterpiinat^ heigi))t 
of water therjsfpre would be requisite to pverflow 
apd refresh the grounds adjaceqt to the one, 
would be jtieitber more nor less sufficient for thf 
other. As thp ^ater therefore in the canals, fron) 
the very ftature, intention, and struc):me pf them, 
piust always keep pace, and be of thie saipe Ijori- 
zpnjal height with the main sltrea|:p, the very 
saixie fertilizipg sediment, which, at any inu^4^- 
tion, was brought down by this, would, ccetem 
paribw^ be commupicated likewise j:o the corre- 
spondent branches or canals. Sinjil^r effect^ 
would consequently follow, and one part of 
Egypt (I mean under the same parallel of lati- 
tude) would be no more ^ccumiil^ted with spjl 
than anpther. As this supposed matter of fact 
then m^y be (Jisputpd, sp will the conclvisiop like- 
wise that is drawn from it, (p. 250.) viz. * that 
' the Nile npefl ijot be so high, pverflowing by 
' the banks of the canals; on the supposition 
' [which supposition requires to be further sijp- 
' porteq] th^t the ground is lower at a distance 
* from the river.' 

If then t|ie same height of watf r is required, 
in the collateral branches or canals,«as in the 
main stream, to overflow the adjacent lands; 
what determinate height of it soever is or has 
been necessary for that purpose, in any given age, 
or period of time, will, in a great measure, deter- 
mine the hdght of the Land of Egypt at that 


By the Mud of the Nik. k59 

time. But thh is not to be un^derstood of ex- 
traordinaty inundations, sueh as wash and carry 
away the mouAcfe and inclosuf es, and somctifnear 
large portions of the land itself; bift of the or- 
dinary and udual overflows, sucK as ar6 nranaged 
and conducted according to the prober wants ancf^ 
exigencies of the country, These, I say, wifl* 
very nearly ascertain tlie height of the land above 
tlRj be(J of tlie river. For, in the two cases a"!- 
ready quoted from Herodotus, they both of them 
seem to be will circumstantiated, anrf (I hadf al- 
most said=) conclusive for this hypothesis. For 
the appellation of T»x*;tj«w, at least , which is^ thci^e' 
ascribed to thtem both (to the rising of the Nile 
to eight cubits in Myris' time, and to that of tif- 
tfeen nine hundred years afterwards) will point 
out to us the barely sufficient quantity of watcp 
that was necessary at those itespectirve times;* 
and consequently, that a Ifes^ quantity, as being 
lowe^ (we msiy suppose) than %he hsads to be re- 
freshed. Would nbt have been able to effect it. 

If we could then know what height of watei* 
at least was required^ at present for the exijgfericies 
of tlie country, particularly near Gceza or Mem-» 
phis, the supposed scene of these alterations, we 
sliould ^o faV determine the quantity of soil that 
&is been t^iere accumulated since the time of He- 
rodotus. Ill A*. D. 172^1, when I was in Egypt, 
tlie IS'ile rose con6?iderably, and yet flie baiiks» 
wei^ not ftilt, after the fFafda Allah or stahdarcf 
of sixteen (i. e. eighteen* cubits) was pfoclaimed, 


* * As they publish (says the author of the Detcriptidn of the 


^6Q Egjfpt is gradmlhf augmented 

without laying the neighbouring plains under war 
ter. We will suppose then, that the addition of 
two cubits more, making m all twenty, would 
have been sufficient for this purpose. • Now as 
the cubits, by which the rising of the Nile is 
computed at present, are not only more in num- 
ber, but of a greater length than those that are 
Tecorded by Herodotus, the difference in the mea- 
sure, will give i]\s the difFei'ence in the height of 
the soil; or^ in other Words, if, in 'Hefodotus'a 
time, fifteen Grecian cubits at least oi waiter were' 
required to prepare the land for tillage, and twen-r 
ty at least of much longer cubits are required at 
present, the land must have received an accessioi\ 
of soil in proportion. If tl^en tjie \ength of the. 

* ' present 


*■ Eastf vol. i. p. 2:58.) such an extraordinaiy rise as fifty inches, 
*■ about the tunc that they declare it is' risen sixteen pikes, it ii 

* probable, that they keep private the real rise before that time y 

* which may be a piece of policy of the people not to pay their 
' rents if it iioes not rise to eighteen pikes ; for unless it rises so 
' h^h^ they have but an indifferent year ^ and posdbly when they 

* declare that the Nile is sixteen pikes high, it may be risen to 
*". eighteen^ And again, p. 200. ^ Eighteen pikes is an indifferent 

* Nile, twenty is middling, twenty-two is a good Nile, beyond 
^ which it seldom rises \ and it is said, if it nses above twenty- 

* four pikes, it is looked on as an inundation, and is of bad con- 

* sequence, as the water does not retire in time to sow the .com. 
' But I cannot find any certain account when this has happened.*. 
And again : ^ The manner of computation has been altered \ 
*' the highest having been eighteen pikes, whereas now it is twen- 

* ty-foUr. The pillar also seems to have beet) changed/ p. 254. 
Vid. supra, p. 225. flC)' Eighteen cubits are recorded for the 
standard by P. Alpinus, 1. iv. c. 2. Hist. Nat. ^gypt. Sandys 
(p. 75.) acquaints us, that when he was at Kairo, near 140 year$ 
ago, * the Nile rose twenty-three cubits, and sometimes it would 

* rise to twenty -four.' But taifortunately, that curious traveller 
has not given us the length of the cubit by which they measured 
at that Ume. » , 

By the Mud of the Nile. ?6l 

present cubit should be (as I have supposed it^ 
p. 224.) twenty-five inches, Egypt, by requiring 
two hundred and sixty inches more water to 
overflow it than in the time of Herodotus, must 
have therefore gained the like additional height 
of two hundred and sixtv inches in its soil. 
But it is still argued, (p. 252.) that ' no com- 

* putation can be. made how much the soil has 

* risen, from considering how much the Nile 
' ought to rise for the beqefit of the country. 
Ajid this is supported by further alleging, that 
( all this depends on the openings and outlet^ 

* there are for the water, on their breadth and 

* their depths, on their being kept clean or ne- 

* glected.' Now it may be observed of these ca- 
nals, and their outlets, that their chief use is 

^either to attend the motion, and to keep up a 
constant height and pace with the main stream, 
or else, bv d^mmipg up their mouths, they are to 
serve for so many basons or reservoirs, when the 
inundation is over. When therefore the water in 
these canals begins to stagnate, either by being 
dammed up, or by being forsaken by the main 
stream, (for the beds of the canals, by the easier 
subsiding there of the mud, become frequently 
higher, if they are not kept clean, than the bed 
of the main stream) ; in these cases, and upon 
such revolutions and accidents, the Nile is no 
further concerned; its operation and influence (at 
least with regard to these canals) cease, and art 
and labour begin then to take place. If then 
these canals should, or had at any time been too 

. many 


i6^ Egypt is gradualty angmtitted 

many in number, or of too great capacitj-, so as 
to have (trained oflF too nruch water from the 
main stream, the height of water that otherwise' 
Alight have been sufficient to refresh the dountry, 
would hereby become too scanty and deficient ; 
and, without the assistance of art, {vtz. by draw- 
ing up the water with instruments), a famine 
most have .necessarily followed. Or again, if 
these canab wei^ all, or most of them choaked 
up, so that the whole body of water reverted to 
the main stream, the consequence woulrf be stilt 
Worse; because the rising would now 5e more 
thaia sufficient, and occasioning thereby too copi- 
ous an' dverflbw, would leave behinxl it too great 
a stagnation of water. These canals, therefore, 
and their oifttets, appear to be incidfental occur- 
rences only, adapted and accommodated', from 
time to time, to the exigencies and demands of 
tlie country ; without bearing any relatiop at alV 
either to the real and physical rising of the Nile, 
to the quality of these inundations, or to the al- 
terations in the soil that have been " consequent 

Why Egypt therefore, in the time of Myris, 
sliould require at least eight cubits of water to 
prepare it for tillage, and nine hundred years af- 
terwards fifteen, and at present twenty or twenty- 
two, and. yet have always continued the same, by 
losingy as it has been alleged and objected, * in 
' the produce of the crop, what is annually gain- 
* ed b? the sediment;' or, ' bv the bed of the 
' channel risitig[. in proportion with the banks ;* 


By tU Mud of the JSIile. e6p 

pr, ^ by th^ supposed relation anj jan^logy be^ 
* t\yeen the river, the canaU, aijd their outteta/ 
^DOQ^ pf which proposition$ are to \>c ^da^itted 
without further proof) ; pannpt, I presume, b^ 
accpunted for upon any other principle, either of 
reason or experiment, than that gradual rising of 
the soil, which I have all along been contending 
for, and which, by these additional arguments, I 
hope i^ now sufficiently proved. 


Cff the Egyptian Plants and Animals. 

As the whole Land of Egypt, properly so call- 
ed, is annually overflowed by the Nile, it does 
pot seeiii capable either of produqing or npurish- 
ing a great variefy either of plants or animals. 
However, Prosper Alpinus, Bellonius, and other 
authors of great reputation, have be? n very copir 
Qus upon both these subjects. And as I am un- 
willing to repeat after them, I shall make this re* 
mark only upon their several accounts, viz. that 
if the aquatic plants and animajs (which are not 
many) are excepted, there are few other branches 
of the natural history that are coeval with Egypt. 
The musa, the palm, the cassia fistula, the syca-* 
more, nay even the leek and the onion, were ori- 
ginally as great strangers as the camel, the bek- 
ker el wash, the ga^el, and the jeraifa. For as it 
has been proved in the two foregoing chapters, 
that Egypt was not made at once, but in process 


264 Of the Egyptian Plants. 

of time, one part after another, it cannot claiiii 
the like antiquity with other countries, in its ani- 
mal or vegetable productions ; all or mofet of 
which must have been gradually transplanted 
into it from other the neighbouring regions, ai 
it became capable to nourish and receive them. 

Yet even some of those plants and animals, 
that may be reckoned among the iridigenae, or at 
least of great antiquity in this country, are now 
either very scarce, or entirely wanting. For the 
inhabitants have left us very little or nothing at all 
remaining of the papyrus, by continually digging 
up the roots of it for fuel ; the persea toa, that 
had formerly so great a share in their symbolical 
writing, is either lost, or the, descriptions of li do 
not accord with the Egyptian plants that ar^ 
known at this time. It cannot certainly be the 
persica, or peach tree, as it is cohntionly render- 
ed, because the leaves of it were perennial, and 
fell not, as these do, every autumn. 

A^\t seldom or never rains in the inland parti 
of Egypt, the different species of gtain, pulse, 
and other vegetable prodtfctions, are entirely in- 
debted to the water of the Nile for their growth 
and increase; Yet they are not all of them rai- 
sed and nourished in the same \*^ay. Foi" barley 
and wheat (which are usually ripe, the first about 
the beginning, the latter a;t the end of April) re- 
quire no further culture and refreshment than, 
after the inundation is over, whether in October^ 
November, or sometimes so late as December, to 
be thrown upon the mud ; or, if tlie roud is fo6 


Of the Egyptian Plants. 265 

hard and stiff, then it is to be beat or plowed 
gently into it. At the same time also, as I wais 
informed, (for a Christian is not permitted to in- 
spect narrowly into their plantations of rice), they 
^ow flai' and HDOD, or Wee, Exod. ix. 32. as I 
suppose it may be rather rendered than rye, or 
fitches, or spelt y as it is otherwise translated, Isa. 
xxvfii. 25. Ezek. iv. 9. the first of which, viz. 
rye, is little if at all known in these countries, 
and is besides of the quickest growth. Now, as 
wheat and rice are of a slower growth than flax 
or barley, it usually falls out in the beginning of 
March, that the barley is in the e«r, and thefiaj: 
is boiled, when the wheat and the rice are not as 
yet grown up (nS*2^<), or begin only to spindle. 
For the word, which we render were not grown 
up, is in the lxx •^^<|U«; L e: serotina, late or back- 
zvard ; and, in the margin, they were dark, or, a» 
we may perhaps explain it, they were of a dark 
green colour, as young corn generally is, in contra- 
distinction to its being of a light yellow or golden 
colour, as when it is ripe. For the context sup- 
poses the wheat and the rice not only to have 
been sown, but to have been likewise in some 
forwardness, as they well might be in the month 
of Abib, answering to our March; otherwise it 
would have been to no purpose to have mention- 
ed the hail falling upon them, which destroyed in- 
deed the barley and the flax, but the wheat and 
the rice were not smitten, because their leaves at 
that time were of so soft and yielding a nature, 
VOL. II. 2 L that 

ge^ Qf the Egjtptm Pbmti. 

th3.t the hail, By meeting with no resistance, s^s 
from the flax and barley, did them no harm. 

The plantations of rice are kept almost con- 
stantly under water; and therefore the larger 
crops of it are produced near Damj-ata and Ro- 
zetto, where the ground, being low, is liiore easi- 
ly overflowed than those portions of it, which lie 
higher up the river. Rice, or oryza, as we learn 
from Pliny (1. xviii. c. \7.)v(^s the olyra of the 
ancient Egyptians. 

Besides the use that is commonly made of bar- 
ley to feed their cattle, the Egyptians, after \t is 
dried and parched, make a fermented intoxicatiug 
liquor of it, called boumhy the same probably with 
the M6t K^t^f^ of thp ancients. This is very copi- 
ously drank by the lower rank of people, and 
might be one species of the siccar * pr strong 
/drink, which is mentioned in Scripture ; for spi- 
rits drawn by th^ alenibic, were not, we may pre- 
sume, of thi^ antiquity. 

Such vegetable productions as require more 
moisture than what is occasioned by the inunda- 
tion, are refreshed by water drawn out of the ri- 
ver by instruments, and lodged afterwards in ca- 
pacious cisterns. Archimedes' skrew f seems to 
have been the first that was made use of upon 
these occasions ; though at present the inhabi- 

* St Jerome TEpist. ad Nepotianum) acquaints us that the si- 
cera was made ot several things, as of barley, ripe grapes, figs, 
siliqusB, comel-berrieSy &c. * Omnt quod inebriare potest, sicc- 
* ra dicitur.* Id. dc Nom. Hcbr. Vid. Cant. vui. 2. of pome- 
granate wine. ... 

f Diod. Sic. 1. i. p. 21. 

Of the Egi^ptian Plant L ^67 

lants serve themselves either with leathern buck- 
ets, or else with a sakiah, as they call the Persiail 
wheel, which is the general, as well as the most 
useful machine. However, engines and contri- 
vances of both these kinds, are placed all along 
the banks of the Nile, from the sea quite up to 
the cataracts ; and as thes^e banks, i. e. the land 
itself, become higher in pix>portion as we advance 
up the river, the difficulty of raising water be- 
comes likewise the greater: 

When therefore their various softs of piilse; 
safranon (or carthamus), musa, melons, sugar 
canes, &c. all which are commonly planted in 
rills, require to be refreshed, they strike but the 
plugs that are fixed in the bottoms of the cis- 
terns, and then the water gtishirig out, is con- 
ducted from one rill tb another by the gardener, 
who is always ready, as occasioii requires, to stop 
and divert the torrent, by turning the earth 
against it with hi^ foot, and opening at the same 
time with his mattock at new trfench to receive 
it. This liiethckl of conveying moisittire and nou-^ 
lishment to a land rarely or ever refreshed with 
rain, is often allhdcd to in the tialy Scriptures; 
where also it is madd the distinguisliing quality 
betwixt Egypt tnd the Latid of Canaan. " Fot 
" the land," sayd Mdses to the children of Israel, 
Deut. xi. 10, 11. " whithef tht^u gdtst in to pos- 
'^ sess it, is not as the lartd ef Egypt, froitf 
" whence ye came out, where thou sowedst thy 
" seed, and wateredst it with thy foot, tis a gar- 
" den of herbs ; but the latnd whither ye go to 

" possesii 

268 Of the Egyptian Animals. 

'' possess it, is a land of hills and vallieS; and 
" drinketh water of the rain of heaven," 

Of the Egyptian Animals. 

» r  

, If, frorn this short account of their vegetable 
productions, we enquire after their animals, the 
hippopotamus is what the present race of Egyp- 
tians are not at all acquainted with. Nay, the 
very crocodile, or timsah^ as they call it, so rarely 
appears below the cataracts, that the sight of it 
is as great a curiosity to them as to the Eu- 
ropeans. In like manner the ibis, that was once 
known to every family, is now become exceed- 
ingly rare ; neither could I learn that it was any 
where to be met with* By the skeleton of one 
of these birdls embalme^^ which I brought from 
Egypt, the upper part of the bill (for the lower 
is mouldered away) is shaped exactly like that of 
the fiumenius, or curlew. The thigh bone is five, 
2LXidi Xht tibia six inches long; each of them 
smaller and more delicate than in the heron ; and 
consequently the cms rigidum, which is attribu- 
ted to it l?y Tully*, seems to be without founda- 
tion. The feathers are so scorched, by the com- 
position they were embalmed with, that they 
have lost their original colour, which, according 
to Plutarch, should be both black and wliite as 
in the %o<m^^. That part of the rump, or region 


* Ibes ma^imaun vim ser^ielitiiim conficimit, turn ^t aves ex- 
celsae, cruribus rigidis, comeo proceroque rostro. De nat. Deor« 
1« i. p« 210« £d. Lamb. 

Of the Egtfptmn Animak* 269 

of the kidneys, which remains, is of the same 
bigness as in an ordinary pullet; from which cir- 
cumstance, the ibis appears to have been of a 
smaller size than our heron or bittern. The figure 
which I have of this itiK^t^tiiH ^mt^ in a sardonyx, 
(the same likewise that is upon an Egyptian ine- 
dal of Hadrian, in the smaller brass), shews it to 
come nearer to the stork, in shape and in ges- 
ture too, than to either of the birds last men- 

But the loss of the ibis is abundantly supplied 
by the stork. For, besides a great number of 
them that might undoubtedly escape my notice, 
I saw, in tlie middle of April 1722, (6ur ship ly- 
ing then at anchor under Mount Carmel), three 
flights of them, some of which were more open 
and scattered, with larger ^intervals between 
them ; others were closer and more compact, as 
in the flights of drows and other birds, each of 
which took up more than three hours in passing 
by us, extending itself at the same time more 
than half a mile in breadth. They were then 
leaving Egypt, where the canals and the ponds 
that are annually left by tl^ Nile were become 
dry, and dnected themselves towards the N. E. 
No less extraordinary and surprising are those, 
flights of pigeons, which have been observed in 
New England, and in other parts of America *'. 


* * • In Virginia'; I have seen thfc pigeons of passage fly in 

* such continued trains three dayfe successively, that there was 

* not the least interval in losing sight of them, but that somc- 

* where or other in the air they were to be seen continuing their 


270 Of the Egyptian Animak. 

This I mention as a parallel case, because some 
ilo not easily give credit to my account. 

It is observed of the storks, xvhcn they know 
their appointed timCy Jer. viii. 7. that, for about 
the space of a fortnight, before they pass from 
one country to another, they constantly resort 
together, from all the circumjacent parts, in a 
certain plain ; and there forming themselves, once 
every day, into a dou-wanne, or council, (accord- 
ing to the phrase of these Eastern nations), are 
said to determine the exact time of their depar- 
ture, and the place of their futui'e abodes. Those 
that frequent the marshes of Barbary, appear 
about three weeks sooner than the flights above 
mentioned, though they likewise are supposed to 
come from Egypt; whither also they return a 
little after the autumnal equinox, the Nile being ' 
then retired within its banks, and the country in 
a proper disposition to supply them with nourish- 

The Mahdmetans have the beUarje (for so they 
commonly call the stork*) in the highest esteem 
and veneration. It is as sacred among them, ai 


* flight south. Where they roost (which they do on one ano- 
*• tbers backs) they often breads down the limbs of oaks by their 

* Weight, and leave their dung some inches thick under the trees 

* hey roost upon.' Catesby's Carolina, p. 23* 

^ Leklek or hegleg is the name, that is commohly u^ by the 
Arabian authors, though bel-drje prevails all over Barbary. Bo- 
chart (Hieroz, 1. ii. c. 29.) supposeth it to be the same with the 
hasida of the .Scriptures, a bird which was so called from the 
piety of it. Nam' Ptl^Dn piam et benignam sonat. Id. ibid* 
Eximia ciconlis inest pietas. Etenim quantum temporis impen« 
detint f@etibus educandis, ta[ntum et ipsae a pullis suis invicem 
aliintur. Solin. Polyhist. c* 53. JEH^n. Hist. Animal. 1. iii. 
c. 23. Horaj^. 1. ii. c. b5^ 

Of the Egyptian Animals. 271 

the ibis was amongst the Egyptians^ and no less 
profane would that person be accounted who 
should attempt to kill, nay even to hurt or mo- 
lest it The great regard that is paid to these 
birds, might have been first obtained, not so 
much frpm the service they i^re of to a moist 
fenny country *, in clearing it from a variety of 
useless reptiles and insects, as from tiie solemn 
gesticulations which they make, wiienever they 
rest upon the ground, or return to their nest^. 
For, first o£ all, they throw their heads back* 
wards, in a posture of adoratiqi^ ; then they strike 
together, as with a pair of castanfts f, the upper 
and lower parts of their bill ; afterwards they 
prostrate their necks in a suppliant manner down 
to the groun(|, repeating tlie same gesticulations 
three or four times together. The Eastern na* 
(ions have the like reverence fpr the pigeon, aud 
all the dove, kind, whose cooing, or in tlie pro* 
phet's expression, Nah. it 7. their tabri^g upon 
their breasts^ they interpret as so rnany acts of 
worship apd devotion. For upon these occasions 


* Thus it is said of the prophet of Thcssaly, BwvciXet dg wi- 

X«M» tfmur^Kf. Phit. de Isid* p. 380. Honos iis serpentkim ex- 
itio tantus, ut in T)iesssdi^ capitale fiierij^ occidisse. Plin. 1. x. 

f From this noise it wie^s called crotalistria by the ancients, 
Uie croialum beW likewiM ^pppeed to have been taken from 

it. ... * 

crepitante ciconia rostro. Ovid. Met. 1. vi. 

Sonus, quo ccepitant, oris potius, quam vocis est. Solin. Polyhist. 
ut supra* MMt «^#s 7nkm^yui% iTf«9i«» ^«^iovt«c« ^im^ KFOTISfiN. 

t'Wostr. Epist. ad £pict. Ciconia, quasi Cicaniae, a sono, quo 
crepitant, dictae sunt ) quern rostro quatlente faciunt. Isid. Orig. 
\, xii. p. 1134. 

272 Of the Egyptian Animals. 

their souls are supposed to go out in search of 
God ; or, in the Psalmist's phrase, to call upon 
kirn. The storks breed plenttfdlly in Barbary 
every summer. They make their nests with dry 
twigs of trees, which they place upon the high- 
est piarts of old ruins or houses, in thfc canals of 
ancient aqueducts, and frequently (so very fami- 
liar they are, by being never molested) upon the 
veiy tops of their mosques and dwelling houses. 
The fir, and o£her trees likewise, when these are 
wanting, are a dwelling for the stork, Psal. civ. 1 7: 

The sands and mountainous districts, on both 
sides of the N ile, afford us as great a plenty, both 
of the lizard and the serpentine kinds, a-s are 
found in the desert of Sjn.' The cerastes, proba- 
bly the true Egyptian aspic, is the ^most common 
species of the litten Sigtiore Gabrieli, whom I 
have mentioned above, shewfed me a couple of 
these vipers, which he had kept five years in a 
large crystal vessel, without any vii^ible fbod. 
They were usually coiled up in some fine sand, 
which was placed \\\ the bottom of the vessel ; 
and when I saw them, they had just cast their 
skins, and were as brisk apd lively as if newly 
taken. The horns of this viper are white and 
shining, in shape like to half a grain of barley, 
though scarce of that bignes§. 

Of the lizard kind, the warral is of so docible 
a nature, and appears withal to be so affected 
with music, that I have seen several. of them 
keep exact time and motion with the dervishes, 
in their circulatory dances, running over ^heir 


Cf the Egyptian Animal. ^7^ 

heads and arms, turning when they turned, and 
stopping when they stopped. I have likewise 
read that the dab, another lizard which I have 
described *, is d lover of music, particularly of 
the bagpipe -f. This, I presume, (as there is no 
small affinity betwixt the lizard and the setpent 
kind), may bear some relation to the quality which 
the latter is supposed to have, of being charmed 
and affected with music* The Psalmist alludes 
to it (Psal. Iviii. 4, 5.) when he mentions the deaf 
adder J which stoppeth her ear^ and refuseth tb hear 
the voice of the charmer; charm he never so tviseltf. 
The like i$ taken notice of Eccles. x. II. Surely 
the serpent will bite withmt enchantment, and a 
babbler is no better. Jer. viii. 17. I will send ser^ 
pentSy cockatrices among you^ which will not be 
charmed, and they shall bite you. The ^xpressioii 
of St Paul, ♦« /8a« T* mn^v •*!*•«;, Eph. vi. 16. is 
liuppos^d likewise to be in allusion to the •fun ut 
At9M of Orpheui, in the preface iwe' ^'^*"- In all 
which texts of Scripture, the charming of ser- 
pents seem^ to be alluded to, eithef as ai matter 
of fact, or as aii opinion at least that was com- 
monly received. The same notion of preventing 
the venom of serpents, and other noxious ani- 
voL, II. 2 m mals; 

* Vld. vol. i. p. 325. 

f Mr Qreaves^ friend .at Graiui Kairo had man7 four-legged 
serpents (lizards) blackish, with long knotty tails, ending in a 
point obtuse. These are something like the crocodile, but di£Fer 
in the head, and tail, and skin. These serpents (lizards) when 
the weather is hot, would, upon nuisic, come out and run upon 
him ) but in the winter they He as dead. Yet some of them will 
scramble a little and move. Of this music, they Itfve the bag^^ 
pipe best. Greaves^ Observations, vol. ii. p. 523; 

274 Of the Egyptian Anlmdls\ 

mals, by charmitig them with certain sbands, of 
by muttering some particular words, or by wri- 
ting ujjori scrolls of paper certaifi sentences or 
Combinations of numbers, has formerly |>revailed 
all over Greece * and Romej as it does to this 
day, all over those parts of Barbaty where I have 
travelled f . 

I was informed^ that more than forty thousand 
persons in Kairo, and in. the neighbourhood, live 
upon tK> other food than lisrards and serpents. 
This singularity entitles tbenh, among other reli- 
gious privileges, to the honour of attending m6xt 
immediately upon thie embroidered hanging of 
black silk, which are made cvtry year for the 
kaaba of Mecca, and conducted with great pomp 
aftd ceremony, from the castle, through the 
streets of Kaird, the day when they set out upon 
their pilgrimage to that place. I saw, upon this 
occasion, a number of this order, who sang and 
dsaneed before it^ throwing their bodies, at certain 
intervals, into a variety of enthusiastic gestures. 
Such like acts of devotion, how ludicrous soever 
tlicy may appear to us, have been always looked 
^pon with reverence by the Eastern nations^ 
Thus we find, (Psal. cxlix. 3.) that the Lord's 
name, was to be pfaised in the dance. And again^ 


ifHf tti» funu w^mfwr* ftm* iElian* Kst. Anittial. 1. vi. c. 3^^ 
B«cliart. (in HieKoe. ptr. post. LiiL c. 6.) ]»$ collected a great 
nany aotnorities, both fiom Gred& aii^ Latin authors, to thttf 

f Vid. Fref. and vol. i. p. S65, &c. and Ludolf. Hist. 
iBthiop« L i. c. Id. tt Commeftt* p. ftl6^ 

Of tie Egyptian Animals. S75 

(Psal. c\. 4.) that he wa$ to be praised with the tim- 
brel and dance. Agreeably ta which injunctions, 
all the womcfi went out after Miriam xvith timbrels 
and dancesy £xod. xv. 20. and David, in bringing 
the ark from the hfnise of Obed-EdQtn, danced be* 
fore the Lardy 2 Sam. vi. )4- 


Some additional Observations with regard to the 
Animals of Egypt j particularly as they relate to 
the Holy Scriptures. 

It is very prgb^ble, th^t the sacr^ historian, 
in prohibiting or allowing several species of ani- 
mals for food, made frequent allusions to those of 
Egypt, with which the Israelites (as just depart- 
ed out of that country) niay be supposed to have 
been well ^cquainted^ The Egyptian zoology 
therefore, np less than, th^f of the neighbouring 
parts of Africa, Palestine, and Arabia, deserves to 
be further inquired into wd considered, as from 
thence no small light may be given t6 the Holy 
Scriptures in thut furious branch of literature. 

For how deficient we are in the knowledge of 
the Scripture aninaals, even after the many labo- 
rious researches of the Jewish rabbies, the sacred 
critics, and other persons of profound learning 
and experience, will sufficiently appear from the 
following doubts and obs^rv^tioas. If, then we 
begin with such quadrupeds of the wilder sort, 
as were allowed the Israelites for food, (fdr the 
tamer kinds are so well knowir, that they will 

• , admit; 

^7^- Some J4tquiries and Remarks 

^piit of no dispute), we shall find se&dn of then) 
enumerated, Deut. xiv. 5. But with what uncem 
tainty and disagreement the greatest part of them 
at lea^t; h^ve; t>een understopd and interpreted, will 
sufficiently appear from the general view that isi 
here given of their respective translations. 


Sol 55 §- * . 8^ fr; §» s 

« g u W V g ^ 

■1 M'6 

^ S- SM ^ 

^gil I I I ft I 


H H « *^ « "^ 

»-4 Sr: 

^i 1 s * I 1^ 5 

cinii i 



'^< J* s ;^ ;i s J^ 
•^J d ;^ s a s *' 

. ^ • Is ^ f^ L* 

Coucemirig the Scripture Animals. S77 

I. Let us examine them therefore, according 
to the order wherein they are plaped, and begin 
with the aifc, which i^ rendered the hart or dter, 
in all translations. Now, as it may be presumed 
that the dilei% to be liere understood ytfuuf^y or as* 
a kind including its ^ecie^, it. will comprehend 
all the varieties of the deer-kind, at least as many 
pf tliem as we are to enquire after at present, 
whether they are distinguished by round horns, 
such as are peculiar to the stag, or by flat horns, 
which is tfie chief characteristic of the fallow- 
deer, or by the smallness of the branches, which 
is the distinction qf the roe. 

II. The t:^€bi then, provided it be properly, as 
it is universally, rendered the roe, could at most 
be a variety q^^ly, or species of the deer-kind, 
and not a distinct genus itself. It may be ques- 
tioned likewise, whether the roe *, or, according 
to its Latin name, caprea or capreoluSy was a na* 
tive of these southern countries. For i^*mf^ the 
Greek name, may, with more probability, be ren- 
dered the gazel or antilope^ which is very common 
all over Greece, Syria, the Holy Land, Egypt and 
Barbary. It is not likely therefore, that so no- 
ted an animal as this, should want a proper and 
peculiar appellation to identify and distinguish it 
from all other horned quadrupeds. If l#<««f then 
is not this distinguishing appellation, what other 
can be appropriate^ to it? Inasmuch as it will 

^ be shewn, that the pygargus, the strepsiceros, the 


^ \n Africa ai;^ten\ nee esse apros, nee cervos, nee capreas, nee 
yrsos, Plin. l.viii. c. 58. ^ ' 

$78 Some Inquiries and Remapis 

ad^ce, and oryx^ though noted u^me$y do more 
properly belong tq other species. 

It may be further urged, that the chsuacteris^ 
tics which are attributed to the io^»M9f both in sa- 
cred ^nd profane history, will very well agree 
with the antilope. Thus Aristotle^ describes the 
)»$«#f to be the smallest of the horned animals, asi 
the antilope certainly is, being even smaller than 
the roe. Theli|«»r is described to have fine eyesf; 
find, in these countries, those of the antilope are 
so to a proverb; 7%e damsel^ xoboie name was Tor 
bithaf iQhich iSy by interpretation, DorcaSy (Acts ix. 
36.) might be so called from this particular fea- 
turp and circumattpce. David's Gadites, (1 Che. 
xii. 8.) together with Asahel, {% S^m. ii. IH.) are 
$aid to be as ^ift of foot as ike tzqbi^ and few 
creatures e^siceed the antilope in swiftness. More- 
over the dorca^ is generally named, together with 
the bubalus, in books of natural history^, as the 
most common and noted animals of the more so- 
litary p^rts of the^e countries ; and wch are the 
antilope and wild beeve. For the lerwee and lid- 
mee, thoi^gh they are equally natives, and perhaps 
the only other clean animals (the deer and bufalo 
excepted) that are so, yet being not so gregarious 
or frequently met with, have not b^en equally 
taken notice of. The antilope likewise is in great 


t Herod. Melpom. "p. 324. Strab. 1. xvii. p. 568. In aridi$ 
fuiclem ^gypti locis, capreoli [instead of dorcades, there being 
1^0 otW L9tin name to txpress it] rescuiitui' et huhalu Amm. 
Marcell. 1. xxii. 

Conteming the Scriptttre Anirhah. fi^S 

eftteem aiiiong the Easterh liations for fbod^ h»( 
ving a very street mu3ky taste^ which is highly 
agreeable to their palatea ; and therefore the iztbi 
(or ahtilope, as I interpret it) might well b^ re^ei-" 
yed^ as one of tlie dainties at SolomoU'd table, 
1 Kings iv. 23. If then we lay all these eireuM* 
^tancei together, they will appear to bd much 
n)dre applicable to the gazel or antilopd, Which is 
a quadruped well known, and gregarious, than to 
the toe, cc^eu or cuprel^lm^ which was eitbtr not 
known at all, or eldt very r4re in these c^un- 
t rifts. 

III. As I suspect, the darha df Junius, or the 
fdUmxhd^er^ according to our translation, to be a 
Jiative of these southern tlfinatus, or provided it 
mrasy would still be comprehentled under the Sik^ 
or deer kind, yachmkr*^ the third of tbfts^ ani- 
mals, may, with more probability, be rendered 
the bubalusf i. e. the bekker el wash^ (vol. i. p. SIO.) 
or wild beeve, as it is authorized by most transla- 
tions. Now, it. has been already observed, that 
the bekker el^cash^ at bubalus, frequents the more 
solitary parts of these countries, no less than the 
antilope, and is equally gregarious. Yet it is 
much larger, being equal to our stag or red deer, 
with which likewise it agrees in colour, as yach\ 
mur likewise, the supposed Scripture name, (being 
a derivative from noil, hofnmar^ rubcre) may de-. 


* Tachfmmr^ the correspondent name in the Arabic veraon, b 
defined by Lexicographi, to be Animal btcorne, in sylvis degeni^ 
hood dissimile arvOy at eo velociiti ^ which descxi;ttion agrees revf 
well with the keiker el waih. 

2 80 Some Inquiries and R^mutks 

note. The flesh of the bekker el wash is Srtff 
sweet and nourishing^ much preferable to that of 
the red deer. So that the yachnmr^ or wild beeve^ 
as I have rendered it, might well be received with 
the deer and the antilope, at Salomon's table, asr 
above mentioned^ 1 Kings iv. SS. 

I Vr As the rupicapra^ sylvestris hircuSj or the 1a>ild 
gifatj are words of too general signification to be 
received for the akko; we may rather take it for 
that particular species of the wild goat, which 
the Lxx and the Vulgate call the tragelapktfs^ i. e. 
the goat-deer by interpretation. The tragelaphu^ 
has been described (vol. i. p. 310.) uiidef the 
Tkameof^htdll or krweCy and is probably the very 
same animal that was brought into this island 
from Barbary about two centuries ago, and known 
in books of natural history by the name of tra^ 
gelaphus CaH. As then these southern countries 
aiibrd an animal to whom this name is highly ap- 
plicable, akko may, with propriety enough, be 
rendered the lerwee, tragtlaphuSy or goat-deer. 
The horns of this species, which are furrowed 
and wrinkled, as in the goat-kind, are a foot or' 
fifteen inches long, and bend over the backj 
tl>ough they are shorter and more crooked than 
those of the ibex or steinbuck. In the Arabic ver- 
sion, the lerwee is given (by transposition per- 
haps) for the following species or the deskon, 
which will rather appear to be the pygarg. 

V. The deshon then, the next in order, is ren- 
dered in most translations, the pygarg. But what 
tlie pygarg is, ^nd what are its distinguishing 


Cam€rm% the ,Sct^uri Amkak. SS 1 

i^Wacteristics^ Will not be $o eadily determined. 
The word itself seems to denote a creature, whose 
hinder parts are of a white colour^ and may there"* 
fore tie equivalent in our language to the white 
buttocks. Such i% the lidmee, which I have ^n*^ 
deavoured to prove (voLi/ p. 313.) t6 be the 
str^keros *, from the wrefcthfed fashion of its 
horns, a& it might also be the addacCyyvYxxch, somd 
authors suppose f td be corruptly given instead of 
aldassem^ the Hebrew name^ The lidmee is sha« 
pod exactly like th<; common antilope, with which 
it agrees in colour^ and in tiie fashion. of its 
horns ; only that^ in the lidmee^ they air^ of twicd 
the length; ds thfs animal itself ii of twice the 
bigness. I have one of t^se animals well, deli- 
neated upon the reverse of a medal off Philip's, of 
the large brass, whi(;li I brQught With n^e from 
Tisdrus, called by Mediobarbusi, capfa amatthea; 
by Angelloni, more jiiustly, gazelhi f. SOL The 
skins of the Mmec and btkl^r el ttmh, (for tUd 
krwee's was lost in tanning, wete djeposi^cd toind 
time ago in the imiseunpl of the Royal Society^ 
where they may be consulted by. the Curiums. , 

VI. We come now to the sixth species, the 
ihauy which has been generally rendered the erj^* 
Now the oryx is diescribed to be of the goat^ 

VOL. ii. 2 N kind, 

^ Comua autem etecta, rug^m^^e ^amUtU' cpntorta et in 
lere iasui^um exacuta (ut. lyra& dicerrs) ylr^ft^h^Wi data sa&V 
quern tfi/i^fm Africa appellat. Plin. 1. xi. c. 37. 

f StrefsiceroUs-^Sic enim Afid yocant atd^ssem^ teste Fdiiito^ 
i, xi. c. 37. etsi corrupte legimus addacem, appeUatione ex noauiM!* 
Hebrseo et a^iculo eorum depravata. Jun. ct Trealell. ad D^ut. 
XIV. 5. .  » 

282 ' Some Inquipks and ttematki * 

kind* mih the hftit grmving^badei^ard or to- 
wards the head. It is further described to be of 
the size of a beeve, according to Herodotus ^f, and 
to be likewise a fierce dreatu re :{;j contrary to what 
is observed of the goat or deer^-kind, or even of 
the bubdus^ or bekker el rt^ash ; which, unless they 
are irritated and highly provoked, arc all of them 
of a shy and timorous nature. Now, the only 
creature that we are acquftinfed with, to which 
these signatures will in 4iiy tnanner appertain, is 
the bufalo % which i6 well kttoWn in Asia and 
Egypt, as well as in Italy, and other parts of 
Christendom. The bufah then may be so far 
reckoned of the goat-kind, as the horns are not 
smdoth atid even, a^ in the beeve, but rough and 
wrinkled as in the goat. The hair, particularly 
about the head and nedk, (for the other parts are 
thinly clothed), lies usually in a rough, curled, 
irregular maimer* It is a little- more or less of 
th«J size of a common beeve, agreeing so far with 
die desctiptipn of Hetodotus. It is alto a sullen, 
smlevotent, spiteiiil animal, being oftth known 
to purfiFue the unwary traveller, especially if clad 

• in 

* Capntnim sylveMrium generis sunt et oryges y soli quibus' 
d^tti dicti oofttrario j^o v^stlri et ad cftpiit ver^o. Plin. 1; viii^ 

• . . - » • - • 

f MiyiAK ^ r§ !^t$f ««T« fiwt ff^i. Herod, de Oryge m Melp. 

I 0|«Tfe#f% 
*A^^ii$lf^ OT^St ic^6c S^firvf putXi^a, 

Oppian. Cyncg. 1. 11. ver. 45. 

^ U Bufila^ et bourn ^feronim potisninum) senere esse tota 
ipnos cofpotis figura loqmtur.-^Bc^/irj' audax, mosque, et Infei>- 
aos hdmim-^Atttiquum hujus quadrupecBs noaen latet. AMf&v^ 
de Quadr. bisulcis, p. 365. 

Concerning th^ Scripture Ammals. C83 

in scarlet, a« | my^lf hw^ seen ; wham it wiU 
not only }>prme, but, if IlQ^prf^v^nted by force 
or flight, it will attack, aqci: ^11 Mpop with ^eat 
fiercewfs^. If the iufala th^fi, a^ being natural* 
ly of a wilcl aqd untriictabte disposition, wa« not 
originally rfck9ne4 ampngthf^ir flfiqk$*, (-however 
it may have sinpq begopie tawfi": and moro do- 
mesticated) it may not improperly he taken for 
the thau or crjf'Vi whereof' we h*ve had hitherto 
little account. ;- , i 

. VIL Thjas far, we are weH ^cqiwnted with the 
auim^els that still continue to be, as it may be 
-presumed they have always been, natives of these 
countries. Tliere small probability there^ 
fore, that they are the very same which were in- 
tended by the Hebfi^w namea above reqited. As 
for the zam^r, which i^ the la«t we ire to inquire 
after, it i3 rendered in roo&t translations, th^ m- 
mlopardaiisy and in the Arabic y^mofi Jem ffa, or 
zumffu ; which ^till continues to be the Eastern 
name of that quadmped. The Syri^c explains it 
by capra rupicola^ a» we do by chamois ; though 
neither this nor the i^&r are, a^ far as' I can learn, 
inhabitants of these countries. Bocbart calls it 
CQpTca genus^ which, like most of his other 
nanie^ are too general to be instructive. It is 


* Columella places tbe or^ an)0i|g8t ]^is fint pe^d^s ; iin exi* 
presdon that maj rather depote the creature to be o^ a wild than 
of ft fierce nature.-- -Ferae foetae pecudes, ut capreoli, daroaeque, nee 
n^n^9 oryg\im cerTommque genera, eti9rorum,-«-Nec patiitpdiis 
est oryx, aut aper, aliusve quis fcrus uUr^auadrimulum senescere. 
Column l.ix. c, 1. What the same aumor observes, //^ j-^/^/zj, 
^Imffrf^i mne ^i«/At, may belikfMrlie ai^llad tp the ^ryg^^i 
olimfirce^ nunc pecudes^, 

284 Same Inquiries and Remarks ^ 

probable therefore, from liiis concurrence in mo^t 
of the translations, the animal itself being like- 
wise of the clqan kind, that the zdmer may be 
the same with the jeraffa. For though the ca- 
mehpardaliSy as it Js objected by Bochart, was a 
very rare animal, and n6t known in Europe be- 
fore Cesar's dictatorshij^ (ten of theni were exhi- 
bited at once^ ini tl^e secular games, by the empe- 
ror Philip), yet it might stfll have been commoa 
enough in Egypt, as it was a native of Ethiopia, 
the adjoining tountry. It may therefore be pre- 
sumed, that the Israelites, during their long cap^ 
tivity in Egypt, were not pnly well acquainted 
with it, but might at drflfereijt time§ have taste4 


For it is not thie number or the plenty of the 
animals here enumerated that is to be^ regarded, 
but the nature and quality of them ; so' far,' at 
Iteast, as they agrefe with thd characteristics (Lev. 
xi. 3. Deut. xiv. 6.) of chewing the cud; and divi- 
ding the hoof ; End We may add, of having horns 
a^lsp, with which all the above mentioned species 
are arined. Neither are we to confine them alto- 
gcthipyto; such species only as were known to the 
Israelites at the giving of the law, but to such 
likewise as, in process of time, and in the course 
of their marches and settlements, they might af- 
terwards be acquainted ^th. So that, upon the 
whole, and according to the best light and know- 
ledge we have at present in this particular branch 
of the sacred zoology, the deer, the antilope, the 
wild beeve, the goat-deer, the white buttocks, the 


Concerning the^ Scripture Animals. S85 

bufalo and jeraifa, may lay in the best claim to 
be the diky tzabiy yacbmur^ akko, deshon^ thaUy and 
z&tner of the Holy Scriptufts. 

If, from the quadrupeds, we carry our inquiries 
into the names and characteristics of birds, we 
shall find the same difficulties that were com- 
plained of above, still increasing upon us. For 
it was easy, by the plain. and obvious jchamcteris- 
tics of chewing the ctul and dividing the hoof'y to 
distinguish the clean quadrupeds from those that 
were unclean. But we fin4 no such general and 
infallible distinction to have been applied tq birds. 
For to be granivprous alone, could not be the 
specific mark of those that were clean; in as 
much as the ostrich, and several others which 
were entirely excluded, would then have apper- 
tained to this tribe. Or if we understand 'nntS 
tohamr, which we translate ckan^ to intimate the 
chastity of them> in opposition to such as were 
salacious, what birds agree more with the latter 
of these characters than the dove and the pigeon ? 
which notwithstanding were reckoned cle^n, and 
universally allowed both for food and sacrifice. 
Or if tohomr should denote a clean eater, in con- 
tradistinction to those that live upon rapine, car- 
rion, and nastiness, which may probably be the 
best construction of the word, yet even this can- 
not be universally received ; because the tamer 
species of the gallinaceous kind are as fond of 
carrion and nastiness, wherever they find it, as 
some of the birds of prey. In the rabbinical 
leaiiiing, among other vague non-identifying cha- 

235 Sk>mi Inguiries and Remarks 

racteristics, the clean birds have assigned to each 
of theip ^. ^woUea neck, and aa hinder toe extract 
ordinary; expressive perhaps of the crops and 
i^pursy as we call them^ of the gallinaceous kind. 
But then several of those that are weh-footed and 
A*Iean, such as the goose and the duck, Would be 
excluded ; in as much as they are deficient in one 
or other of these tokens. 

Or, if we suppose that all birds were clean in 
general, except those which are particularly reci- 
ted by their names (Lev, xi. and Deut. xiv.) as 
luivlea^i, yet still we shall be at a loss, unless wc 
could be sure that a right interpretation has been 
put upon these names by our translators- On the 
contrary, how little truth and certainty we are 
likely to obtain in this point, will appear from 
the great variety and disagreemeat which we find 
in their respective interpretations. For it may be 
presumed, that every translator, for want of be- 
ing acquainted with the animals peculiar to these 
eastern countries, would . accommodate the He- 
brew names, as well as he could, to those of his 
own. Thus nnn, haddayoh^ (Deut xiv^ IS.) is 
rendered the vulturCy and described to be qfter his 
kind. But as we ar^ hitherto acquainted with 
one species only in these countries, it is impro- 
perly said to be after hk kind. Maddayoh^ there- 
fore, must be the name of spme other bird of a 


more extensive family. In Uke manner, if nfiJK* 
anopfwhy is rightly translated the her^ny (ver. 18.) 
which likewise was after his kind, then thfistotk, 
from the near affinity to it, wpuld not b£^,ve been 


Concerning the Scripture Animals. 287 

distinctly given, but included in that tribe. One 
or other therefore of these original names must 
belong to sotne other bird not here specified. The 
kite or gkde also, should not have been partrcU- 
larly mentioned, provided pn, haneitz, ts the 
liawk ; because as this was after his kind, (Lev\ 
3ci. 16.) the kite or gkde would be considered only 
^s a species. And it may be further obiserved, 
Jiarticularly with regard to our own translation, 
that the omfrage and the ospray, (Deut. xiv. 12.) 
the kite likewise and the glede, (rer. 13.) are ge- 
nerally taken for synonymous terms ; and conse- 
quently our English catalogue will fall short by 
two at least of the number that is given us in the 

If we pass on from the birds, to the fowls that 
creep, going upon allfour^ (Lev. xi. 20. &c.) which 
is the Scripture description of insects, we shall 
find this class of animals to be attended with no 
fewer difficulties than the former. For if the bee- 
tle, as we render b3*in, hargol, (ver. S2.) was to 
be eaten after his kind, then, among others, the 
scarabteus stercorariuSy the filthiest of animals, 
Was to be eaten. The locust too, as it was to be 
eaten after his kind, would properly have inclu- 
ded the bald locust (perhaps the mantis) and the 
grasshopper. The bald locust and grasshopper 
therefore, instead of being laid down (yif^tfi) as^ 
kindSy should have rather been considered («)««^9) 
as species only of the locust-kind, and omitted 
ypon that account. And indeed, the characteris- 
tics of this family, as they are given us in all 


288 / Some Inquiries and Remarks 

translations, seem to be laid down with veiy little, 

For, in the first places (*^wn pB^) shairaz hor 
oph, which we render Jcwk that creef^ naay be 
more properly translated breeding Jawk^ or fomli 
that multiply, from the infinitely greater ptimher 
of eggs that are produced by insects^ than bj vo* 
latiles of any other kind. It may be observed 
again, that insects do not properly walk upon 

four, but six feet. '£&»««}• }f m rtmwtt xttftm ttnfy Say 8 

Aristotle, 1. iv. c. 6. De urn pari. ' His omni-^ 
' bus,' says Pliny, 1. xi. c. 48. Vsunt seni pedes.* 
Neither is there any adequate description peculiar 
to this tribe conveyed to us, by their being said, 
to have legs upon their feet, to leap withal upon the 
earth; because they have this in common oply 
with birds, frogs, and several other creatures^ 
The original expression therefore (injS vSllS 
VyOD D^yiD nS IBfK) asher lo keraim memaal &• 
rigeleou knettar, &c. may probably bear this con-. 
St ruction; viz. which have knees upon, or above 
their hinder legs to leap * withal upon the earth: 
For to apply this description to the locust or 
Jlain, harbah, (the only one we know of the 
fourf, that are mentioned, Lev. xi, 22.) this in- 
sect has the two hindermost of its legs or feet 
much stronger, larger and longer than any of the 
foremost. In them the knee, or the articulation 


* Insecta, quae novissimos pedes babent longos, saliunt, ut lo*^ 
t\xstx, Plin. 1. xi. c. 84. 

t y^' mnN arbah, pySO sailam, f> J^H charge/, 33rf 
ciqgab ; the three latter being «?r«( kiyfMm. See the figure of 
the locust, m pl^te, p. IQl. yoL iL 

Concerning the Scripture Animals. 289 

of the leg and thigh is distinguished by a re- 
markable bending or curvature ; whereby it is^ 
able, \yhenever prepared to jump, to spring and 
raise itself up with great force and activity. As 
the principal distinction therefore betwixt the 
clean and unclean insects, seems to have depend- 
ed upon this particular shape and structure of the 
hinder feet, the action which is ascribed to the 
clean insects, of going upon four {viz. the fore- 
most feet) and leaping upon the (two) hinderrhost^ 
is a characteristic as expressive of the original 
text, as it is of the animals to whom it apper- 

After the creeping forvlsy let us, in the last 
place, take a short survey of (pB^n X^li^) shair^ 
etz hashairetZy the creeping things (Lev. xi. 29, 30.) 
that creep, or (as shairetz is taken above, and 
Gen. i. £0, 21.) which bring forth abundantly upon 
the earth. As this then appears to be the Scrip- 
ture phrase for reptiles, which are further descri- 
bed to be multiparous, with what propriety can 
we place among them the weasel, the mouse, the 
ferret, or the mole, which are no greater breeders 
than a variety of others of the lesser viviparous 
quadrupeds? For the tortoise, the chamaeleon, the 
lizard, and the snail (the slug rather, or lima.v\ 
are animals of a quite different nature, habit and 
complexion, having all of them smooth skins, 
and are likewise oviparous. Whereas the others 
partake altogether of such actions and character- 
istics, as are peculiar to the hairy viviparous un- 
clean quadrupeds, that have paws for fingers, 
VOL. II. 2 o (Lev^ 

S9Q Some Inmirie^ and Remarks 

(Lev. xi. S. 3. 27.) and would of course be inclu- 
ded among them. Instead of the weasel there- 
lore, &c. may we not with more propriety join to 
this class, the toad, the snail or cochlea terrestris^ 
ihe skink, or «e«">«^«^ i x*<;'*'^; lxj^. the crocodile, 
or some other oviparous knimals of the like pro- 
lific nature and quality ? 

But still the* greatest difficulty will lie in ap^ 
propriating the original names respectively to 
these, or if they are not approved of, to other 
species of the prolific oviparous animals, that may 
be found more suitable to them, or more pecuUar 
^o these countries^ Among the rest however, it 
may be presumed that nott^in, iinsameth^ bears 
no small. rQlation to champsay or t\msahy the Egyp- 
tian appellation for the crocodile, as aV, tzab^ and 
TiHtShf ietaah, have be?n already supposed, (vol. i. 
p. 325.) to be thedhaahzxid iaitahy the Arabic names 
at this time for the catuiiverbera and the chamakon. 
But how variously interpreters have understood 
the original names of this class of animals, will 
sufficiently appear from the general view that is 
here given of them. 

^ Heb. 

tfonc&ning the Scripture Animals. S$i 


a § 






I H O i^ O 


H h4 







X S S 


ta* c3 s jg 



J5 ^ 


s ;^ 

S >5 S -US 







2 « 


1^ ^ 













1693 • ^ Some Inquiries and Remarks 

But, besides the great variety of animals which 
have been aheady taken notice of, from Lev. xi. 
and Deut. xiv. the Scriptures afford us a number 
of others, such as the behemoth, the leviathan, the 
reem, the kaath, the tannim, &c. tJhatjaFe no less 
difficult to explain, which will' bh the subject of 
the following: section. With-resrard-likewise to 
the botanical part of the natural history of the 
Holy Scripture^*, we meet with the like doubts 
and obscurities ; the dudaim, the Mkaion, the go- 
pher* woody the almug tree, with many others, 


* In Hotter 's Cubus, the word "^fli (which Hiller, in his Hie^ 
tophyticoTiy supposes to be the. same, by a transposition of letters, 
with P]t J, and that the "^QJ ♦Jfy, Gen.Yi. 14. c6hsequcntly must 
signify |vA« Tf?{iey«yie, or hoards strloothed with the plane) seems 
to be well rendered^ piniis piceayov thc'/orrA pine. And as the 
derivative n^*^DJ is, in several places of Scripture, xzpressed in 
our translation by lUrimsione, 'the most inflsonmable of minerals, 
gopher Wood may be the same with wood that will easily take 
iire ^ such. as is the wood of the pine, the cedar, and other resi- 
hiferous trees. Besides the cedar '^and fir that were brought to 
Solomon-froln Libanus, we read likewise (2 Ghron.) of the aitnug^ 
. or, by a transposition <if letters, the atgum treed This we may 
take for the cypress, which Diodorus Siculus, L xix. c. 58. and 
Bochart in Phaleg. 1. c. 4. acquaint us, was equally known and 
flourishing in those parts. Of the ^/Rmr/Zr^^/ likewise were made 
harps and psalteries for the angers, l Kings x. 12. 2 Chron. ix. 
ll. the wood of it no doubt being of the closest grain, and fit- 
test consequently for that purpose. The like use is still made in 
Italy, and'ijidier places^ of the cypress wood, which is preferred 
to all others for violins, harpsichords, and other the like stringed 
instrument^, ' Hiller, in Jiis Hierophftisgn, makes a^mim^ or ai- 
*nuggim^ (is ^Tty, which is joined with' it, is made to signify ei- 
ther wood or trees)^ to be the general name only for the wood of 
the gum-b^a^rmg tr^es, of for &e ttees themselves. ^ Quid enim/ 
Says he, p. 106. « D^DUSK quam Dpi J SjN gu'ta gum- 

• mium ? quid D^J^oSK quam D»31D * vKJ Hquidorum guttae ? 
' Omnia edim gumioaium genera primdilquida ex arfoore manant, 

* deinde siecantur lit durescqit* But us this cedar frees, and the 


Concerning the Scripture Animals. 893 

continuing still in dispute, notwithstanding the 
same pains and labour have been equally bestow* 
ed upon that subject as upon the zoology. For 
it must be universally acknowledged, that we are 
hitherto very imperfectly instructed, and want 
therefore -to be much better acquainted with the 
real objects and things themselves, before we can 
be able to ascertain, with any certainty, their re- 
spective names, distinctions and varieties. Tlie 
names likewise which they are called by at pre- 
sent in these eastern countries, would be of great 
assistance ; as some of them, it may be presu- 
med, continue to be the very same, whilst other* 
may be traditional of, or derivatives* from, the 

We must wait therefore for the aid and assis- 
tance of some future discoveries and observations, 
before these branches of natural knowledge are 


fir trees are joined with the a/mug or a/gum trees^ some particular 
species^ rather than the whole genus^ may be presumed to have 
been here rather intended. 

* Thus the word tiesser CVif^i which is always rendered the 
eagle^ is applied by the Arabs to the vulture bhljr, which is ,a 
more specious bird ^ and indeed, from the baldness ascribed to th^ 
nesser^ (Mic, i. 16.) we should xather take nesser for the vulture, 
which has no feathers, but a little white down only upon the 
head and neck, than for the eagle, which is properly fclothdi 
with feathers in those parts ^ for what is commonly called the 
bald bu2tzard or eagle, is not really so, but differs from the other 
species by the white feathers u{<oii the crown. The dhddb^ the 
taitahy &c. above mentioned, may be other instances. Among 
the iplants likewise, diloh (H^X) which is commonly rendered 
the oakf is in Barbary, among the Arabs, the ordinary name for a 
beautiful berry>bearing tree, otherwise called azedaracL The 
safsaf too of the Arabs, by which they understand the aheile or 
pf^lar^ is the very same with the BlfDlf , £zek. xvii. 5. ^hich we 
render the wiUew tree. 

294 Of the Mosaic Pavement 

brought to any tolerable degree of certiinty* 
And indeed, provided every curious person, who 
has the good fortune to be acquainted with |^ese 
countries, would contribute his share towards this 
valuable undertaking, it could not be long, ac^ 
cording to the prevailing humour of travelling in 
this age, before a laudable, if not a sufficient 
quantity of materials might be collected for this 


Cff the Mosaic Pwvement at Prcenestey relating to 
some of the Animals and Plants of Egypt and 

Till the Scripture zoology and botany then 
are more fully and accurately considered and un- 
^derstood, it may be a digression not at all foreign 
to this subject, to give the reader, as an intrc^ 
duction to tliem both, a short description of the 
Mosaic pavement* at Praeneste; which lays be- 
fore us, in a very beautiful manner, not only a 
great variety of the animals, but of the plants 
likewise that are mentioned in the sacred wri- 
tings. It were to be wished indeed, that we had 
a more correct copy of it, carefully cotnpafed with 
the original; because the names, as well as the 
characteristics, particularly of some of the ani- 
mals there exhibited, may be suspected to have 


* See the liistory, &c. of tl|is Mosaic patement in Fatht^ 
Mont&ucon^s Antiquities^ vol. xiv. 


PM'^.^. ^j^^' 

tcdex ta2ia dmotanti v'a {cC^ AlcxandnimM. 
tTmHiUnisM) Pcra«gypiios ohj^equuAjn it 
^aZ ei reddUuros. 0^ Ci^UaUj' varicufi f w 

/nil iL(ffA»»;ini^M1l«lxvUmem,€^ (^Mt^Q^^^ 

( tif-.h /»<«. 

' « .. , r^ . rt .' 

\, rrT" •>•«"« 



At Praneste. 891 

been either ignorantly or injudiciously taken. 
However, notwithstanding these few supposed 
faults and inaccuracies, the whole is a very valu- 
able and instructive piece of antiquity, and pre* 
sents us with a greater number and variety of 
curious objects, relating both to the civil and to 
the natural history of Egypt and Ethiopia, than 
are any where pise to be met with. 

The conquest of Egypt, which seems to be 
that part of Alexander's history which is here re- 
presented, is displayed with all imaginable art 
and elegance. We see that hero («) standing in 
a commanding attitude, under a magnificent tent 
or canopy, attended by his warlike companions, 
and impatiently waiting for the tribute and sub- 
mission of the Persians (^), which, in a very so- 
lemn procession, they are hastening tp pay him. 

On the right side of this cvirious groupe, and 
all the way from, thence to the utmost extent of 
the pavement, we are entertained at every turn, 
amidst a variety of plants and animals, with dif- 
ferent prospects of cities (v), temples (>), castles (i), 
bowers (^, dove-houses («•), toils* for fish f^ J, the 
method of sitting at their banquets (.v)y &ic. We 
see the fashion likewise of the Egyptian boats («), 
and of the Grecian galleys (i^), together with the 
quality of their sails and oars ; and in what man- 

* These toils continue to be used by tbe Egyptians to thi$ 
day* Tbey are made up of several hurdles of reeds, fixed, in 
some convenient part of the river, in various windings and direo-i 
lions, and ending in a small point ^ into which the fish being 
driven, are taken out with nets or baskets, as is here represented[« 
The like practice has been taken notice of, vol. i. p. 210. 

$5(5 Of the Mosaic Pisvement 

per they are each of them managed, conducted,* 
and employed. The habits and dress, the arms 
likewise and weapons of the Greeks, no less thau 
of tlie Egyptians and Ethiopians, are oftfen exhi- 
bited ; and, from the scorpion, which is charged 
upqn some of the Grecian shields, we may con- 
clude them to have been of Commagene, and 
that the bearing of such like military devices 
was much older than the croisades. Besides all 
this variety of objects, we are entertained with a 
view of their respective actions, exercises and di* 
versions; and, under the lower bower (^), we see 
a person playing upon an instrument; the very 
same with the gaspah of the present Arabs, 
(vol. i* p. 367.) or the German flute of these 
times. The fashion likewise of their cups, or, as 
we may rather call them, drinking-horns, is here 

At Heliopolis (a), 1. e. Bethshemesh', or the house 
or city of the Sun, Jer. xliii. 13. we are very 
agreeably entertained with the. olielisks (?), that 
were erected before it *. This city is further dis- 
tinguished by a beautiful temple (*), the temple 
of the Sun, with the priests (p) standing before 
the portico f, clothed in white linen garments J ; 
circumstances which are all of them very appli- 
cable to the ancient history of this city. The fi- 
gure likewise, as it appears to be, of a well (r), 


* Vid. Diod. Sic. 1. i. p. 38. Strab. 1. xvii. p. 554. edit* 
Casaub. Plin. 1. xxxvi. c. 8. Vid. supra. p„ 194. 

f Strab. ut supra, p. 553-4. 

X Herod. £ut. p. 116. edit. Steph. 

At Praeneste. 297 

makes part of this groupe ; the bottom whereof 
is of a blue colour, to denote the epithet of cod- 
rukay that was applicable to water *. This too 
might have been designed to represent the fans 
solis or ain tl shims^; the sanie fountain of fresh 
water, for which Mattarea, as Heliopolis is now 
called, continues to be remarkable. 

After Heliopolis, we have the prospect of Ba- 
bylon (s), so called from the Babylonians, who 
were the founders of it. It is distinguished by 
a round tower or castle (•), the ^e^c*' n^f^^^, as Stra- 
bo :|; calls it, being the first part of the city that 
was built. Babylon was formerly called Latopo- 
Ks II, as it is at present Old and New Kairo ; and, 
together with Heliopolis, made papt of the land 
of Goahen. 

Qu the other side of the river, towards Libya, 
is the city Memphis (o), distinguished by several 
wlossal statues (•!), Hermes's, or mummies rather; 
the stantia busto corpora, as Silius Italicus § ex- 
presses it. The particular shape and figure of 
the basement (4.), upon which the city is built, 
may be very well intended to represent the banks 
and ramparts ^, that were raised on each side of 
it, to secure it from the inundations and ravages 
of the Nile. 

Upon a review, therefore, of all these remark- 
able circumstances, so applicable to Alexander's 
expedition in particular, and to the ancient state. 

VOL. II. 2 p of 

» Ovid. Met. 1. viii. ver. 229, f Vid. not. t, vol. ii. p. 90, 
J Lib. xvii. p. 1160, || Vid, supt^y p. §Q. 

J Vid. supra, not. *, p. 204. ^ Vid. supra, p, 83^ 

25$ Of the: Mmh Pmemevt 

pf Egypt \Xi general, there appears to he no. small 
propf and evidence that the artist, whether Greek 
qr Jlomap, had made himaelf as well acquainted 
with the topography and cjvil history of Egypt, 
a3 from the foUowing circunxstances, he will ap- 
pear to have been converaant ia the natural. 

If we begin then with the apimals, it may be 
Qb3erved of them i^ general, that, — I. Some be- 
ing better l^nown, as we may imagine, than the 
reat, are therefore ctelineated without names. 

II. Others have their pamea annexed to them in 
Qreek capitals, of ^vhich same are well known. 

III. Oth$rs^ though their names are known, yet 
the animaU themselves have not ^een accurately 
described. IV. Others aga^n there are, whose 
names are either unknown, or else have a dubi- 
ous signification. I snail treat of these in their 

I. AmoiJg those therefore of the first class, the 
precedency shall be given to the crocodih{n)y 
which, from the Sicaly qtuitity^ Ezek. xxix. 4. and 
hardness of its coat, or. because his scales so stick 
together^ that they cannot be sundered, Job xli. 1 7. 
is therefore in no danger, ver. 7. of haloing his 
skin fJkd with barbed irons^ or his head with fok- 
spears. The crocodile likewise is of too great 
weight and magnitude, ver. 1. to be drawn out of 
the rkver, as fish usually are, witji a hook. The 
crocodile then, from these apposite characteris- 
tics, may be well taken for the leviathan^ as it is 
described in the book of Job, and elsewhere al- 
luded to in the Holy Scriptures ; where the levi- 

Prantste: i25^ 

Htkak i$ called the piercing serpmt or dragon, Isa^ 
xxvii. 1. where Pharaoh is called the gtisat drd- 
g^n or leviathan^ Erek. xxix. 3. Where the head^ 
ako of the kviathan (i. e^ of Pharaoh or Egypt) 
are said to be broken in t}icces, PsaLlxxiv. 14. 
otherwise exprtesed in the preceding verse, by 
breaking thb heads i^f the dragons m the waters, or 
in the Rea Sed ; liee Ezek. xv. 6. Th^re is no 
small probability likewise (as, in th^ eatlier ages, 
there Was no great propriety in the Latin names 
of animals, vol. i. p. 315.) that the dragdii or ser- 
penti sueh ka one as Regains is S!lid to have de- 
feated with so much difficulty upon the banks of 
the fiagradasi was no other than the cfoco'dile. 
Eor thisi animal alone (from the eiiormbus size to 
.which it soaietimes arrives, from thfe almost im- 
penetrable qualify of its skin^ which, we read^ 
would hardly submit to the force of wiiHike eni- 
gines) will best answer, as aoiit of the serpent 
kidd, properly so called^ will do to that de^cripi^ 

The hij^pbtdtims, or rimt-hof^t {i% is here ex- 
pressed, as, hiding and sheltering itsielf attiong 
the reeds of the Nile. Now the beh^mtah is de- 
j^cribed. Job j^L SI, fiS. tv tit iri the iotntrts rf the 
reeds and fens^ and to he compassed about by the 
Willows of the br^ooL The river-horse feeds upon 
the hethage 6f fche Nilt, and the behe^tneth is said, 
ver. IS. to edt grass Me tm or. Ko ereatufe is 
known to have StrottgcMfatte flian the river- 
lH>rse ; and the bones of th^ behemoth, ver. 1 8. 
are satd to ht ti^ str&ng pieces of brttss ; his boned 



300 Of the Mosaic Pavement 

are like bars of iron. From all whicH cbaractei*- 
istics, the behemoth and the river-horse, appear 
to be one and the same creature. And then again, 
as the river-horse is properly an amphibious ani- 
mal, living constantly in fens and rivers, and 
might likewise, as it was one of its largest and 
most remarkable creatures, be emblematical or 
significative of Egypt, .to which the Psalmist 
might allude, Psal Ixviii. 30. ; the river-horse, I 
say, may, with much greater propriety than the 
lion or wild boar, be received.for the beast of the 
reedsj as nip n*n, hhayath konabj is better inter- 
preted there, th€ company of spearmen^ according 
to our translation. As for the lion and wild boar, 
one or other of which some have imagined to be 
this hhayath konah, they may with more proprie- 
ty be said to retire into, or to shelter themselves 
among the tamarisks and the willows that attend 
watery places, than out of choice or election to 
live and make tlieir constant abode therein. For 
the retiring, particularly of the lion, out of these 
thickets, upon the swelling. of Jordan, supposes 
it by no means to. be amphibious, as the rivei"- 
horse certainly was. 

The camelopardalis* (k)^ or jer^^a^ as it is call- 

fm TCtf^ (nC^io^i Cas.) nv^wt ptXAdt ui«f {ieC^«^M$ sriA*!^ jutrif-iy- 

in^mfuftf 4^9 6cc. Strab. 1. xvi. p. §33. ed. Casaub. Nabin 
^thiopes Tocant, coUo simileiA equo, pcdibus et cniribus tMxvi, 

camelo capite, albis maculis vudlum coloremi «^dlstinguentibus ; 

At Praneste. 301 

cd in Egypt and the Eastern countries, the zdmer 
of thq Holy Scriptures, (vol ii. p. 283.) is suffix 
ciently identified by its spotted skin and long 
iieck. A little calf, as if it were jiist dropt from 
it, is lying by it. 

The cercopithecus {z\ a noted Egyptian deity, 
is more than once expressed ; as is also the 
dog{u), the latrator AnubiSj according to its sym- 
boUcalname, which, from the shape of it, as it is 
hejre expressed, should be that particular species, 
whioh is called the canis Graius, or grey-hound. 
Nqw, as this quadruped is more, remarkably con*- 
tracted> pr, according to the Scripture name, girt 
inthe.loin^y Prov. xxx. 31. than, most other ani- 
mals, as it is likewise one of the swiftest, our in^ 
terpreters ^eem to have judiciously joined it with 
the lion and tl^e. goat, among those three animals^ 
ver. 29. that are said to go well, and are comely in 

At a Jit tie. distsmce from one of these grey- 
hounds (m), we have a smaller quadruped (n), 
which a large gapi^ng ser|>ent is ready to devour. 
This, from the size and shape, may. be intend^ 
for the ichneumon^ which Diodorus Siculus telis 
us, was of the size of ^a lap-dog. 

The riding upon mules seems to have been of 
no less, antiquity in Egypt, than in other Eastern 

countries ; 

unde appellata camclopardalls. PKn. 1. viii. c.^lS. Figura ut ca« 
' melus, maculis ut panUiera. Var. ling. Lat. 

Diversum confusa genus panthera camelo. 

Fo/it, c. ill. MiscM Vid. p. 417. 

502 Of the. MosdQ Pavement 

countries * ; ad i^ppears from one of thfefti, with H 
rider upon it, under the walls of Memphis (ii). 
The rider perhaps was Sent to apprize the capital 
of Alexander's invasion ; as the pei-sott behind 
him on foot may denote the mule ilsdf to have 
been hired, according tb the like customary at- 
tendance of the uwner^ even to this day. 

This pavement does not exhibit to us a great 
variety of birds* Amdiig those that appeat to 
be of the web-£ooted kind, we may tate the 
smaller species of them (q), to be the goose, one 
of their sacred animals ) as the larger may repre- 
sent the onocrotuim {yC)^ another noted bird of 
the Nile, otherwise called the pelican. The re^ 
markabie pouch, or bag^ that is suspended from 
the bill and throat of this bird, serves not oiily 
as a repository for its fodd^ but as a hfet likewise 
wherewithal to catch it Ahd it may be furtheir 
observed, that in feeding its young ones^ whether 
this bag is loaded with water xn morfe Mlki fbod^ 
the onocroialus squeezes the contents of it into 
their mouths^ by strdngly compressing it upon it$ 
breast with its bill ; an action which might well 
give occasions to the received tradition ^nd re- 
port, that the pelican, in feeding her youngs 
'pierced her own breast^ and n#tttiSFhed them with 
her blood. HKp> knath^ Whkb in Lev. ici. 18. 
Pent, xi V. 1 7. Psal. cii. 6. Isa. xxxiv. 11. Zeph. 
ii. 14. is translated in the text, or else in the mar- 
gin, the pelican^ can be no such bird; especially 


* t 8knk< xiii.' m. 1 Kings i.^ $3.v £sdi; vHi. 10; Isa. ]xvu It. 

At Pramstc. SOS 

^ it is there described to be a biird of the wiU 
^erness. For its large webbed feet, the capaci- 
QMS pouch, with the maaiier of catching its food, 
y^rhich can be only in the water, shews it entirely 
to he a water-fowl, that must of necessity starve 
ip the d^ert 

Among th^ birds of the crane kind (s), we may 
pronot^nce one or other of them to be the ibis^ 
from the curvature of its bill ; as among the 
ptherS) we are to look for the stork and the da^ 
fnmelkf the dancing bird, or oiis of the ancients, 
which are every where to be met with. 

Besides the eagle (t), which is displayed, in a 
flying posture, over ow of the gat^s of Mem- 
phis, we should not overlook that beautitul 
bird(u), adorned with a blu^ish plumage mixed 
with red. This sitf perching upon the same tree 
with the ifHiHEN : and, provided the artist, in the 
course of these drawings, had taken the liberty 
to indulge his invention, we might have ima- 
gined it to have heei^ intended for the phoenix, a 
bird that we are sio little acquainted with. He- 
rodotus acquaints us % that he saw one of them 
painted^ which, though drflferent from this, as be- 
ing covered with red and yellow feathers, yet ap- 
pears to he no other than the manmo^Haidj or bird 
of paradise; and therefore this and the phceaix 


ci^dv, H fin #«» y^€^n' if < ?« n m y^n^n w^^a^wio^, rw^h »Mt r«t6fh» 
tn fUf levw xAwnffM [.XV*^^W*% Tan. F^b.] rm ^r%^m^ ret h 
f(vl(«. H rti fut^ift^ Htnv Trt^inynrtf ifActtrttTH^ xeti t# ftfyi^* Herod^ 
Eut. p. 131. ' • 

904 Of the Mosaic Pa&ement 

were probably the same. However, if the bird 
here displayed cannot be admitted among the 
Ijirds of paradise, we may suspect it at leas^t to 
be the peacock, which was a native of Ethiopia, 
and brought with other animals and curiosities 
from the south east parts of that country, to king- 
Solon^on, 2 Chron. ix. 21. 

As in th? whole course of these iSgures, a par- 
ticular regard seems to have been had to the sa- 
cred animals of Egypt, the fish (a), that is. exhii 
bited below one of the pelicans (e), may be re^. 
ceived for the kpidqtm *» 

There is room to conjecture, from a couple of 
tortoises (o), that are sunning themselves upon a 
bank of sand, and from the like number of crabs(p), 
that are swimming in the waters, that tb^ inland 
parts of these countries wer^ productive of both 
these animaU* 

' ^mong the reptiles^ w^ are entertained with 
some few species of the serpentine kind ; though 
it is somewhat extraordinary, that none of them 
should have the marks and signatures of the ce- 
rastes^ which was so well known in Egypt, The 
common sinake, which may be exhibited among 
them, is called by the inhabitants of these coun-. 
tries, hxinmsh ; which, by an easy transition, and 
Qhange of letters, is of the same force and sound 


* yHtfM^Hvt )f »«i TATH i^iivv^ ray JMXtr^fydf Aiirtitnw t^f nrnt, km 
mf «y;ciA«». Herod. Eut. p. 131. The following species offish 
^rc ascribed to the Nile by Athenaeus, Deipnos. 1. vi. VK&, Nat^pgn, 
Xf^'^i'^y ''i««*fo ^'^yt^^t •|v^'5s«f> «>^X«S»ij, vihH^o^,^ trvv^orrtsy iXwr^tf^ 
ff;^6Av(, ^^i7r»f eA^ttfUS, Ttf^An, AiTi$«>TOf, ^vrtt^ MT^tvi' %m tt)^6i •v\ 

j4l Prceheste. . ' 305 

with the Scripture \pt\i\ nahhesh. This (Gen. iii. 
1.) is said to be more subtle than all /Ae other beasts 
^fthe Jield ; a character, how applicable soever 
it may be. to the whole genus; yet it appears,. in 
this- text, to be only attributed to one particular 
species. The common snake, . therefore, the same 
with the natrix torquata and the anguis of iEscu- 
Japius, was the very species of the serpentine 
kind that beguiled our fiist parents. 

Others of this family (w), are represented of 
an enormous size ; being probably intended for 
that branch of it,, 'which are commonly called 
}i*Kfmf by the Greeks, and DU^JD, tarini7iim * by 
the sacred writeri?. . The \argest of these (x), has 
seized upon a birdj which, from the contrast, ap- 
pears to have fallen down directly into its mouth. 

VOL. II. 2 Q If 

* There is no word in Scriptare of a more indotem^ied mean- 
ing than ?»jn n Wn» 0*i*in or DOn \ being somedoies ta- 
ken for great fishes, for serpents, and sometimes for howling ani- 
mals, or jackalb. Rabbi Tancbuo^ whose opinion is espoused by 
the great Dr Pococke, Hos. i. 8. and by his learned, successcir, 
Dr Hunt, (^Orat, maug,)l?Ljs down a general ruje how to distin- 
guish the several interpretations that are to be put upon the 
words, viz. that wheresoev^gr Q^Jfl* V^D or nijll are plurals, 
they signify those howling wild beasts that inhabit desolate places j 
but that D^J^jn with OOP and J^JH in the singular, may be 
rendered iiragonSf serpents^ wltales^ or the liKe.: And according- 
ly D*jn» Job XXX, 29, Psal. xliv. 19. Isa. xiii. 22. and xxxiv. 
1.^. and xxxT. 7. and xliii. 20. Jer.ix* 11. and x,2>2, and xlix. 
33. and li. 37. Mic.L 8. together with J^JJlj JLam. iv. 3.. and 
nun, Mai. i. 3. are to be taken for jackals. ButC3»J.»jn# 
Gen. i. 21. Exod. vii..l2, . Deut. xxxii. 33. Psal. Ixxiv. 13. and 
cxlviii. 7. together with ^*in> Ex. vii. 9, 10. Job vii. 12. Psal. 
xci. 13. Isa. xxvii. 1. and li. 9. Jer. li. 34. and CJri, Ezek, 
xxix. 3. and xxxii. 2. are to be rendered </rtf^o«j-, serpents^ whales^ 
sea-monsters y or the like 5 according as they are spoken of sucli 
^re^tures, either as they relate to the land or to the water. 

^06 • Of the Mosaic Pacement 

If then the common fame be true, that the rattle- 
snake* and other serpents, have a power of charm- 
ing birds and other animals, and bringing them 
dipwn into their mouths, it may be presumed that 
•we have here an action of this kind of great an- 
tiquity, and very j^ertinently recorded. 

II. Among those animal^^ that are distinguish- 
ed by their names, and are likewise well known^, 
we may give the first place to the PiNoi^EPOct. 
Now, as this i% the only animal that we are ac- 
quainted with, which is usually armed with one 
Wn:j;, (for what is commonly called the uni-. 


. \ 

* *I am abundantly satisfied,^ says tbe foUo'wing author, *iroii\ 
' many "witnesses, both £nglish and Indian, that a rattle-snake 
< will charm squirrels and birds from a tree into its mouth.' Vid^ 
J^aul Dudky, Esq. his account of thfi rattk-sa^ke. F kilos. Trans, 
No. 376. p. 29^. £)r Mead on Poisons^ p. 82. Others imagine, 
that the rattle-snake, by some artifice or other, had before bitten 
them ; asid as thi^ poison did not immediately operate, the squir- 
rel or bird, in the surprise, might betake themselves to some 
neighbouring tree, and afterwards fall down to be seised upon by 
the rattle-snake, which, sensible of the mortal wound that had 
been given, was impatiently waiting and looking for them. 

■f In Bartoli's drawings, which will be hereafter mentioned, 
the name is PiM)iiC^2wC, which I presume must be a mistake. 
According to a late account I had of this pavement from my 
worthy friend, Thomas Blackbume, Esq. jun. of Warrington, 
he acquaints me that it is PINOKEPoK: ; as, among the other 
names, nAKT£C is eo^AMTEC, EKHTAFIC is ENrAPIC, and 
ingenious Dr Parsons, F. R. S. {Pkilosoph, Trans, No. 470.) has 
given us a most accurate figure, as well as a very curious (Hsser- 
tetion upon the rhinoceros. 

X In Sir Hans Sloane^s and Dr Mead^s curlpus collections, 
there are ispecimens of two of these horns being placed one above 
the other at a spanks distance ^ the one upon the snout, the other 
nearer the forehead ^ to a species of which kind the gemtnum cor^ 
nu of Martial (i^pig* xxiv. De spectaculis) might probably relate. 



Pritnesti. 307 

^otn'$ ihom, is iiot the horn of a quadruped; but 
of the mrvMj a cetaceous fish), oiir commehta^ 
tors have, for the iiid$t part, taken it for the Dn> 
reem* And indeed^ in justification of this inter- 
pretation, the rhinoceros, from the vety make and 
structure of its body; appears to be the strongest 
of quadrupeds, the elephant not excepted; so 
that, in expre^ng the strength of Israel, Num. 
Xxiii. ss;. it i;s justly compared to the strength of 
the reemy or rhinoceros, or unicorn^ as it is com- 
monly translated: JRam then cannot be, as 
Sphultens and otfaeirs have interpreted it, the arya^ 
Or bdbaliis, or indeed any other species of the 
i^lean quadrupeds, which will by no means an* 
swer to this description of it. 

We have nothing curious to ciffier with regard 
to the Tirjfkc or the iiaxi^A, with a cub sucking 
it.; if wie except the roundness of the spots in 
the former, which are unquestionably the distin- 
guishing marks of the panther, and not of the 
tiger, as it is here called. 

The AiFM is incorrectly given us for Arm ; the 
i^ in this name, and a^so in the G4»iMru, being put 
instead of the r ; which however may shew how 
the r was pronounced befboe the letters s and n 

' / . By 

The Ethiopian thinoceros, which Psfusanias (tfi B(£9titis) calk 
&e Ethiopia^ Imll, wcs of this kittd. SAr * mm rttt^tg^ rv( n 

rn fm if Utttt* M^ttf fuu «AAo v^ «vt« v ^lyii. Yet the rhinoce« 
tos upon ibt medals of Domitiati, the Samd we may suppbse that 
was exhibited at the secukr games in his times, appears with one 
horn only upon the snout, as in those which have been bcpught 
ta us hither, at different times, from thfe East Indies. 

305 Of the Mosaic^ Pavement 

By the figare and attitude,. it appears, tci 1>€. the 
same creature(xX which the Ethiopians" arc shoot- 
ing at ia the:upper part of the pavement.' No^ 
the lynx Jbeing generally received. for the ^*s^, or 
lupus cervarius of the ancieots, it can bear no af^- 
linity atall with thi^ creature; which is much 
hetter designed for the wild-ass-or onager^ one Df 
the noted animals of these countries* 

The CAVOG, by the. addition of a p, will be cat- 
p<>c^ th^ lizard; the figAweagreeing, with proprie- 
ty enough, to tlie name. The ehhtapic, in like 
manner, is no other than entapic, the«H being re- 
dundant ; and denotes the lutru ox ^tter^ or,.as it 
is otherwise called, thedog^of the,rimri They 
are two in number,, holding each of them a fish 
in their mouths ; agreeably, to the character of 
that piscivorous animal. This was likewise on*^ 
of those quadrupeds thai wtre accouoted sacred ^ 
by the Egyptians. 

The xoiponoTAM0]f, by exchanging the © for 
an o, will be xoiPonoTAMor, ©r the rher hog. 
This is anew aiame indeed, though we cto hard- 
ly be mistaken in the interpretation of it, as tlie 
animals here exhibited, are exactly of that spe- 
cies. In Dr Mead's .curkili&jcolleetiott of Barto-*. 
li's drawings^ we see the same groupe of animals, 
with the appellation of xoip6ni0-iA annexed to 
it: and as this,:^prd seems to be related to, or a 
derivative from xdipoc and hi®hroc or nient, it 
ishoiild denote them to be baboons^ man-tigersf 


Herod. Eut.'p. I31. 

At Premtte. SAp 

irafi^-ofifcwg'^, or, according to the literal inter- 
pretation,. /i^^-^^suTnArey^/ or ^^-&^i6(Wii9. But, be- 
sides the Jeiigth and cuiied fashion of their tails, 
the very shape and attitude of the animals theni- 
^1 yes shew them to be much nearer related (ds It 
l>as been alj^ady observed) to the hog, than to 
the monkey kind, and therefore xoipohotamot is 
rather to be reeeived- 

. The AFBAAPov likewise, frop the similitude of 
the figure should have been written aiaotpot, i.e. 
t{ie cat ; which, being one of the sacred animals 
of Egypt, could not well be denied a- place iri 
this collection. 

. HI. Though the names of some other of these 
animals are as well known in books of natural 
history, as those already mentioned, yet the ani- 
m^ls themselves have not been so well described; 
they will require therefore some further illustra- 

The. KPOKOABiAoc HAPAAAfc then, or the spotted 
lizardy as it may be interpreted, might be intend- 
ed for the stellio of the ancients, or the xoctrral^ 
(vol. i. p. 325 ) according to the present name. 

The KPOKOAEiAoc XEPCAioc^ OP Umd crocodiky (so 
called in contradistinction, as it may be presu- 
med, to the river crocodile^ which was the kpoko- 
. AI^UQC by. way of eminence), is the same species 
of lizard with the ckifkoc *. However the head 
Is not here well expressed, being too round and 


* Xkiyxti fefy rtf ff/y AtyvTttff i h Uhxt^'-t^t h x^«K»}eiX«; 
^^^rcMos iii^yhnif, &G. Diosc. 1. U. c. 71.' Rail Hist. Annual; 
p. 271. 

810 Of the Me^ak Pm)ement 

large; whereas that of the seine's is long, and 
rather more pointed, than in the other species of 
the lizard kind. Egypt has always abounded 
with the seme ; and to this day, several boxes of 
them, dried and prepared, are shipped off every 
year for Venice, as. an ingredient in their the^ 

The ONOKENTATPA IS moch better delineated 
than the ^^^^hkh xn^t^^y and roay be called the fe- 
male ass-eenteure. -Elian * is very copioas in de- 
scribing this imaginary creature, the only fictiti- 
ous animal in this collection; which the lxx 
however have placed instead of DV^? or the wild 
beasts of the islands, as we translate it, Isa. xiii. 
22. xxxiv. 14. &c. 

The KPOKpTAC, or crocuta, is a name as well 
known to the natural historians as the tfiMsimi«^« ; 
though the apimal itself has not been so well 
and so particularly described. iElian (1. vii. c. SS.) 
acquaints us, that it ^ had the saine art with the 

* hyasqa t> of learning the names of particular 

* persons, e^nd decoying them afterwards, by Cjall- 
' ing upon them by the same.' But he. gives us 
no characteristics whereby the kfokotac may 
be distinguished from other quadiopeds. We 

t .may 

^ iElian. Bisu Ani«ia^l. 1. mi. c. 9. (^ 1. vii; c. 3S. PBm 

Lviii. c. 21. & 30. 

f Tkis property (PKn. tfist. Nat. 1. viii. c. 30.) is asicribed to 
the hys&na, vi'ss. Sermoncm humanuin intet pastortxm stabula as- 
simulare, nbminaque alicujus addiscere, quern evocatum foras la- 
cerat. — Hujus generis coitu lesena ^thiopica pant crocutam, si- 
militer voces imitantem honUtium pecorumque. Idem ibid, c.21* 
dicit crocutas velut e& cane et hipo conceptus; Surab. 1. xrb 
p. 553. 

At Praneste. 314 

may supply the deficiency therefore fvova this 
figure, which is all over spotted. The head is 
rather long, like the bear's, than short and round 
as in the cat kind, Agatharcides ascribes to it 
sharp claws and a fierce cotintenance *. The ears 
of it are small, the body is short and well set, 
and appears to have either no tail at all, or else a 
very short one. These then are to -be received as 
the characteristics; of the «^M«T«f. 

To this class we may join the c^mriA, the 
same grammatical name with •f lyrnt* These havd 
heen commonly numbered among the imaginary 
beings, but appear here to be cetcapitheci, or mon- 
kies J as indeed some ancient authors J have de- 
scribed them. The prominence likewise that is 
said to he in their breasts or nipptes, may perhaps 
be authorized from the lowest of them, which has 
its limbs the most displayed ; for those of the 
pther are folded up and collected together, as the 
))abit and custmn is of that antic animal. 

IV. Among 

i»^$tf w^mji. Agath, de Mar. rubr. p. 45. ed. Oxon. 

f Ai ffiy^Hf T« vftyfitt. Salinas. Plin. Exercit. in Solinum, 

:|: Lyncas vulgo frequeptes et sphinges^ fusco pilo, mammis in 
pectore ^fi»m£r j£thiopia general. Plin. t. vii!. c. 21. Inter si- 
mias habentut et spii^eSf villosfe comls, mammis prominulis et 
profundis, dociles ad feritatis oblivionem. Solin. c. 27. At v^iy- 

T^tyKtivirmm mm ^C A^'mtmk* £'^< % tu fin '^^yfif rent y{«^«« 
l^%9M$ 7ret^6fumt» nA«y *«ri Vitntt itttrHtu, tuti reuf '^v^mi^ nftt^M xut 

«rari9 t^wTtrtmr' •n Tuv w^v^wmf ii tFMtn Bmvfut^M. Agatharcid. de 
Mare rubro, p. 43. edil. Ox« ^mtumicia (i. e. sf hinges) ovaxi 
deformitate ridicula. Amm. MarcelL 1. x^« 

8J2 Of the Mosaic Paa^ement 

IV. Among such of these -animals, whose 
paines are either dubious or unknown, we may 
take notice of the AHPOC ; which notwithstand* 
>ng the aflfinity of it to the Latin word apeVy yet 
has no reUtion at all to the boar kind. Except-r 
ing the spots, it agrees in shape, habit Df . body, 
and all other circumstances, with the kpokotac. 
If we might presume that apjctoc was the true 
reading in the payement, the figure will answer, 
with propriety cnqugh, to the bear, one of the 
noted aniipalg of this country. 

The tABQTc; is another unknown name. The 
large quadruped to which it belongs has the ex- 
act shape and b^bit of th^ camel. The. ears like-^ 
wise are ^reqt, with a large tuft. of hair growing 
betwixt them, fis i^ common, though not peculiar 
indeed to this creature. The large bump too, 
which is usually placed upon the middle of tlie 
back, is here fixed nearer the shoulders. Yet, 
notwithstanding this mistake, wrfw . may still 
be ^ derivative from v&f, the bump or bunchy one 
of the chief characteristics of the camel, ajpd 
from whenqe it y^ry properly receivejl this nacne^ 
The custom of carrying treasures upon these 
bunches of camels^ is mentioned I;^a, xxx. 6.' 

Below the »«C«i^ is the KHmr^j, \vhicb is a beau- 
tiful little creature, with a shaggy neck, like the 
tuthxi^^il"^ y and shaped exactly li^ke those mon- 
kies that are commonly called marmosets. The 


* Efferocior a/noc^halis natun; sicut ilittisfiima saiyrit et 
^phingibus, Calluriches toto pene aspectu di&runt, barba est lA 
jfacie, Cauda late fusa priori parte. Plin. 1. viii« Cw54. 

At Praneste. 31 3 

HHinEN therefore may be the Ethiopian monkevr^ 
called by the Hebrews (f\\p) kouph, and by the 
Greeks khhos*, kh^os, or KEinos, from whence 
the Latin name cephus f ; with this difference 
only, that KEiHEN has here an heteroclite termi- 
nation. For little regai-d, as we may perceive 
from the preceding names, has been paid either 
to the orthography, the number, or any other 
grammatical accuracies. 

At a little distance from the khihen is the 
iroiT, and near this again are the oantec ; appel- 
lations probably of Ethiopic extraction. With 
regard to the sioit, it has all the appearance of a 
very fier4:e and rapacious animal. It seems to be 
howling, with the mouth half open. Tlie jaws 
are long, and well armed with teeth. There is no 
small probability therefore, that it was intended 
for the wolf, and consequently will be the same 
(by softening the letter ^ by) with T^Jt'fl^', 
nzyhytt^ or ^ztjbt^ the Ethiopic name plural of the 
htpus^ or wolf. 

We find the like analogy betwixt oantec and 
the Ethiopic word A^Tlfl aankes or oanques^ as it 
may be differently pronounced. The nANTEc 
then were (the Ethiopian) civet cats^^ as A?ilrt 

VOL. ir. 2 R is 

xwi xect «{jtrv /ciT»|v. Tivwm V sv Aitf/osrM. Strab. 1. xvii. p. 817. 
edit. Almclov. 

f Pompeius Magnus xnisit ex Ethiopia, quas vocant tephos ; 
cparum pedes posteriores pedibus humanis et cruribus ^ priores 
manibus fuere similes. Plin. Nat. Hist. 1. nij, c. 19. , 

X Felts iEthiopica, s. animal %ihsikicum^ 5^ hjccna odorifera^ 

314 Of the Mosaic Pavement 

is interpreted by Ca$t€l and Ludolfiis. For 
greater differences than these arc found in the 
derivatives of most languages. And, considering 
the nature and quality of the Greek and Ethiopic 
alphabets, and of their respective pronunciations* 
it cannot be expected, either that the sanie let-.- 
ters, or the same force or sound of any one given 
letter, word or appellation, should be exactly 
conveyed from one of thes? languages into the 

So much then with, regard to the animals of 
Ifhis pavement. If botany is regarded, we have 
here the figures of the palm-tree ; both of the 
common species (a), that grows up in one stem, 
and of the doom{B\ or %i»t^^^f^ that was forked^ 
The stately uprighttvess of the palm is finely al- 
luded to, Jer. X, 5. We have tlie musa like- 
wis(B(c), which is remarkably distinguished by 
large verdant leaves. The fruit of it is supposed 
by some commentators, to. be the dudaim or man- 
drakes, (vol. ii. p. 148.) as others have taken the 
leaves for those, which our first parents used in- 
stead of aprons, or girdles^ as it should be rather 
rendered, Gen. iii. 7. 

The lotus (d), that extraordinary vegetable sym- 
bol in the Egyptian mythology, (vol. ii. p. 178.) 
is still more frequent than the palm-tree and the 
musa ; and, as it is here represented, agrees in the 
rotundity of its leaf and rosaceous flower, with 
the nymph(Ba aquatka. 

The large spreading tree (e), that presents it- 
self so often to the eye, may be designed for the 


At Prteneste, 315 

iycamihe, or sycomare^ one of the common timber 
trees, not only of Egypt, biit also of the Holy 
Land *. The mammy chests, the sacred boxes, 
the irui^Hyfutfat^ the niodels of ships, and a variety 
of other curiosities foubd in the catacombs, are 
all of them, as I have before observed, made out 
of this wood. And further, as the grain and tex- 
ture of it is remarkably coarse and spongy, it 
could not therefore stand in the least competition 
(Isa. ix. 10. 1) with the cedar, for beauty and or- 
nament. The sycomore, from budding very late 
^n the spring, is called arborum mpientissima ; and 
from having a larger and more extensive root 
than most other trees, it is alluded to as tile most 
difficult to be plucked tip, Luke ivii. 6. Tins mul- 
berry trees that are said, PsaL Ixxviii. 48. to have 
bcefi' destroifed by the f rat ^ should be rather the 
sycomore tree^ DmOptS^; as the word is. 

Above the sycomores, within the precincts pro- 
bably of Ethiopia, thertf xfi another large shady 
tree (f), distinguished by two yellowish clusters, 
as they seem to be, of flowers ; and by the khi- 
nfiN, which is running upon one of the branched. 
This thea may be the cassia Jistula% who^ 


* TSiWLtfM^Wy wm m x«i rvr* TvKtifini* Afyvn, KmXeittu }s Km i ««■* 
mvrm ^a^ir^i ^i/xf^o^, itdt ro eetdtep m^ yiv^u/i* t)iosc. L i. c. 182. 
or sycamine^ CP'DpB% sieamum. PsaL Ixxviii. 47* I Kings i. 2l. 
1 Chron. ^icvfi. 28. Amos vii. 14. Luke xvii. 6. xix. 4. 

f The sycomores are cut do'wn^ hut we will change them into 

X Cassia fistula ab Arabibus inventa, ct a recentioribus Grascis^ 
ut Actuario nMff(n% fiO^atv* nominatur. Fabani Indicam vvtemnif 
ut AristobuH, Valeiius Cordus cfedidit. Silic^^aln JE^jvUsLta 


,34^ Of the Momk Pavement 

flowers fire of this colour, grow in this fashioit^ 
iaud yield a most delightful fragrancy. 

The c«»iNriA display themselves upon Another 
large tree, of a less shady quality, and with 
boughs more open and diffused. These circum- 
stances agree very well with the azedarachj (not 
nmch diflt'erent from mtit, czrachy or the bay tree, 
as we render it, Psal* xxxvii. 35*) another noted 
,tree of these countries ; whose commoner name 
is ailak or ekak, the same with the Hebrew hSk^ 
the oak, the elm^ the lime^ &c. as it is differently 
rendered, Josh. xxiv. 21. Isa. vi, 13. Ezek. vi.13. 
Collectan. 11. Phytogr. No* 31. 

The banks of the Nile are every where adorn- 
ed with several tufts and ranges of reeds, flags, 
and bulrushes. Among the reeds, the emblem of 
Egypt, (2 Kings xviii. 21. Ezek- xxix. 6.) we arc 
to look for the cahmus scriptoriuSy the TOp, (Isa* 
xliii. 24. Jer. vi. 20.) or calamus aromaticus^ or 
sweet calamusy Exod. xxx. 23. and the arundosac- 
charifera. As most of these plants appear in 
spike or flower, they might thereby denote the 
latter end ctf the summer, the. beginning of the 
autumnal' season, or perhaps the particular time 
;When Alexander made the conquest of Egypt. 
The clusters of dates that hang down from one 
of the palm trees, the bunches likewise of grapes 
that adorn the lower bower (C), may equally typi- 

Theophrasti hist. 18. notinulll censent. C. Bauh. Fin. p. 403. 
.Beine originally an Ethiopian plant, it might not have fallen un- 
<der the cognizance of Tbeophj^astttSy as it was tot known iii 
Egypt at that time. 

At Pmneste. 317 

fy the same season. Neither should we leave 
the bower, thus occasionally mentioiied, till wc 
have admired the variety of climbers that shelter 
it from the sun. Such are the gourd (the kikaion 
ox *kiko€on^ X^''^'^?^ ^s it bids the fairest to be^ 
in the history of the prophet Jonas), the Italsa^ 
minesy the climbing apocynmnSy &c. all which 
I have seen flourishing in Egypt, at the time of 
the year, \^\x\\ great beauty. 

As to the flags and bulrushes (g), they are of-i 
ten mentioned ; particularly Exod. ii. 4. wbere 
we learn, that the mother of Moses^ zvhen she could 
no longer hide him, took for him an ark of bul- 
rushes, [or papyruSy as jiDJ is frequently rendered), 
and daubed it with dime and with pitchy and put the 
i:hild therein^ atid laid it in the flags {P^U^ suphy 
juucus) by the rivers brink. The vessels of bul- 
rushes, that are mentioned both in sacred and 
profs^ne history f, were no other than larger fa- 

• * Some authots miike the hikaion to be the same with the 
'Egyptian kik or kiki^ from whence was drawn the oil ofkikiy men4> 
tioned by DiodoruSy 1. i. c. 34. This was the ie{«r*»ir of the 
Greeks, the elharoa of the Arabians ^ the same with the ricinus^ 
or palma Christie which is a spongy quick-growing tree, well 
known in these psM^ts, (vid. Ol. Clusii Hierobotanicon, p. 273.) 
though the oil which is used at present, and perhaps has been , 
from time immemorial, fior lamps and such like purposes, is ex- 
pressed from hemp or rape seed, whereof they have annual crops \ 
whereas the ricinus is infinitely rarer, and the fruit of it conse- 
quently could not supply the demands of this country. The 
Egyptians are said to be the inventors of lamps, before which 
they used torches of pine-wood. Clem. Alex. Strom. 1. 

f Isa. xviii. 2. Pliny (1. vi. c. 22,^) takes notice of the hm)es 
papyraceasy armamentaque Niii ; and (1. xiii, c. ll») he observes, 
ex ipsa quidem papyro navigia Uxunt^ Il^xo^^^^^ ^^^ Diodorus 


3 1 8 Of the Mosaic Patement 

brics of this kind ; which, from the late intrd- 
duction of plank^ and stronger materials, are now 
laid aside. 

The short, and, it must be confessed, imperfect 
and conjectural account that is here given of this 
very instructive piece of antiquity, will, I hope, 
excite some curious person to treat and consider 
it with greater erudition^ and more copious an- 
notations. The subject very well deserves it, as 
all Egypt, and no small portion of Ethiopia, are 
here most beautifully depicted in miniature, and 
elegantly contracted into one view. And it will 
add very much to the credit and authoi'ity of the 
representations here given usj that notwithstand- 
ing the artist bad so much room for indulging 
his fancy and imagination ; yet, trnless it be th6 
dH0K£KTAYPA, wc are entertained with ho other 
object that appears to be trifling, extravagant, of 
improbable. Neither will there be much occa- 
sion to apologize even fof this figure • in as much 
as, several centuries after this pavement was fi- 
nished, iElian himself, (lib. xvii; c. 3.) that great 
searcher into nature, seems to give way to the 
common fame, and to believe the lexistence of 
such a cre^lture. 


Siculus have recorded the sam^. And, amoiig the poets, La- 
can : 

Consemtrr bibo/a Memphitis cjtahz fofyro. 





J'hc Natural History of Arabia ; particuhrly qf 
Arabia Pctr(sa^ Mount Sinai, ^c. and oj th^ 

Jlf we leave Palasstine and Egypt behind us, and 
pursue our physical observations into the Land of 
Edom, we shall be presented with a variety of 
prospects, quite different from those we have 
lately met with in the laiid of Canaan^^ or in . the 
field of Zoan. For we cannot here b^ entertain* 
ed with pastures clothed with fiochs^ or with val* 
Ues standing thick xvitk C0rnj of with brooks of wa^ 
ters, or fomtokfis op. d^thsy thaf spring out of the 
vaUies and hills, Deut. viii. 7. Here is no place of 
seedy or ^fgs, or of vines^ or pomegranates, Num. 
XX. 5. but the wlM)le is an ecil place, a lonesome 
desolate wilderness, no otherwise diversified than 
by plains covered with sand, and by mountains 
made up of naked rocks and precipices. I hated 
JEsau, (says the prophet, Mai. i. 3.) and iaid, his 
mountaim and his heritage waste for the dragons of 
the wilderness. 

Neither is this country ever, unless sometimes 
at the equinoxes, refreshed with rain; but the 
few hardy vegetables which it produces, are 


32Q Of the Air: and Weather 

Stunted by a perpetual drought; and the nourish- 
ment which the dews contribute to them in the 
night, is sufficiently irnpaired by the powerful 
teat of the sun in the day. The intenseness of 
th^ cold an4 heat, at thp^e Respect iv^, times, very 
empl^tically accounts for the |)rovision of Provi* 
dence, . irt spreading out for the Israelites a clo%d 
to be a covering hy daily and fire (likeQli harmless 
sun, Wisd* xviii. 3.) to ^ive hoth light and heat in 
the night season, Psal. cv. 39. 

But, ^o be mor? partfcular; when I travelled 
in this country, durmg the months of Septe«nber 
and October (1721), the atmosphere was perfect- 
ly clear and serene all the way from Kairo to Co- 
rondel ; but from thence to Mount Sinai, the tops 
of ^e mountains, \^hick lay on each side of us 
in the inidiand foad, would be now and then cap- 
ped with clouds, and sometime^ continue so fot 
the wliole day* This disposition of the aPr was 
succeeded sooti after by a violent tempest ; when 
the whole heavens were loaded with clouds, 
which discharged themselves, almost during a 
^whole night, in extraordinary thunderings, light- 
nings afid ram« But these phenomena are not 
freqiient, rarely falling out, as the monks inform- 
ed me, (and who ha v& reason to remember them), 
above once in two or three vears. A\\d indeed^ 
1;o make a short digression/ it is very fortunate 
for the fraternity of St Catharine's thkt they hap- 
pen ^ seldom. For as the torrents consequent 
thereupon wash down an immense quantity of 
stone and gravel from th^ mountains; tHe large 


Of AraUa PetriBd. 321 

icapactoas cisteni below, which receives its water 
frbrti the convent, arid liberally refreshes there-^ 
with the Arabs and their cattle, is usually filled 
up thereby. This the monks are immediately 
obliged to cleanse, as it happened when I was 
there, ten or a dozen of them being let doMnl 
every day, and drawn up again at night, till the 
work Was finished. And to shew J;hc ingratitude 
of these their rapacious neighbours, for whose 
conveniency all this labour had been bestowed, I 
must mention likewise^ that after these poor lay- 
'brothers had done all to their satisfaction, they 
would not suffer them to return, without paying 
^^ch of them a sultank, and a quantity of pro-^ 
visions besides, for the permission. 

Except at such extraordinary conjunctures, as 
were just now taken notice of, there is the sstme 
uniform course of weather throughout the whole 
year ; the sky being usually clear^ arid tlie winds 
blowing briskly in th6 day and ceasing in the 
night. Of these, the south winds are the gen- 
tlest, though those in other directions are the 
most frequent ; which, by blowing over d vast 
tract of these deserts, and s*kimriiirig away the 
sandy, surface along with them, leave exposed se- 
veral putrified trunks and branches of trees, make 
continual encroachments upon the sea, and occa- 
sion no less alterations in the surface of th6 con- 
tinent; For to these violent winds, we may at- 
tribute the many billows and mountains of sand, 
which we every where meet with; the sand sup- 
plying the place of water ; or, as this phenome- 

voL. II* S 8 ribri 


322 Cf the Air and fVeather 

i\oti is beautifuHy described by P. Mela, 1. i. c. 8. 

* Auster arenas, quasi maria, agehs siccis ssbvJt 

* fluctibus/ For the same cause likewise, not 
only the harbour of Suess is entirely filled up, but 
the very chanijcl of the sea, which extends itself 
two or three miles further to the northward, (as it 
once may be supposed to have reached even a^ 
far as Adjerbute, ot Heroopolis), is noV dry at 
half ebb, though the tide rises here near six 

Where any part of these deserts is sandy atid 
level, the horizon is as fit for astronomical obser-* 
vations as the sea itself; and syrtidos arva^ an ex- 
pression of Lucan's, may receive no small illus-* 
tration from this phenbmenon^ and appears, at a 
small distance, to 5e no les^ a collection of wa- 
ter *. It was likewise no less i^rprising to sed 
in what an extraordinary manner every object 
appeared*to be magnified^ within it; in so much, 
that a slftub might be taken fot a ti'ec, and a 


* Tk6 £ke observation is taken notice of by Diodoru^ Sicuhxsf' 
in bis account of Africa, 1. iii. p. 128. Dr Hyde al$<i, in bis* 
annotations on PeritsoPs biniran/y p; 15. deduces the name of 
Barca and Libya from ibis pbenomenon. . £t quidem (ut de- 
hominationis causam et rationem exquiramus) dictum npmen Bircai 
T\p^Jl!n9 splifidoretn seu spkndetaem tegioneMTisAsX, cum ea regt<^ 
radiis solaxibus tarn copiose collustretur, utreflexum ab arenis lu- 
men adeo intense fulgens, a longinquo spectantibus (ad instar cor- 
poris Solaris) aqadrum speciem referat ; et.hicce arenarum splen- 
dor et radiatio Arabibus dicitur Seherab^ i. e. magk waier — aqiue 
superficies J seu superficialis aquarum species — Hinc eliam nominis 
AiCni ratio peti potest \ cum M^^S contractum sit pro K^^H / 
at 3nS fiamma^ a ftdvesceniibus arettis ardore pcne lailamnMiK 

f Vid. Supra, p. 133; 

Of Arabia Fetrm- 323 

|)ock of birds (the achbpbbas are the most fre<» 
qu^nt) for a caravan of camels. This seeming 
collection of water always advances about a quar- 
ter of a mile before us ; whilst the intermediate 
^pace is iij one continued glow, occasioned by 
the quivering undulating motion of that quick 
succession of vapours and exhalations, which 
^re extracted by the powerful influence of the 

The same violent heat may be the reason like-i 
yise, why the carcases of camels and other crea- 
tures, which lie exposed in these deserts, are 
quickly drained of that moisture, which would 
otherwise dispose them to putrefaction ; and, be* 
ing hereby put in to. a state of preservation* not 
piuqh inferior to what is communicated by spices 
and bandies, they will continue a number of 
years without mouldering away. To the saime 
causf also, succeeded afterwards by the coldness 
of the night, we may attribute the plentiful dews, 
and those thick offensive mists, one or other of 
which we had every night too sensible a proof 
of. The dew^ particularly, as we hi^d the liea,- 
vens only for pur covering, would frequejitly wet 
us to tl^e «kiQ ; but no sooner was the sun risen, 
and the atmosphere a little heated, than the mists 
were quickly dispersed, and the copious moisture, 
which the dews communicated to the sands, 
would be entirely evaporated. 

Rills, or fountains, or ponds, or welU of water, 

* are 

^ See the accQunt qf the preserved bodies at Saibah,in the be- 
ginning of the dissertation conjoeming R^ Sem, vol.i. p. 28i, &c. 

324 The Quality oj the Waters 

are so rarely met with, that we may very weH 
account for the strife and contention * there was 
formerly about the latter. Inf the midland road, 
betwixt Kairo and Mount Sinai, I do not remem- 
ber to have heard or tasted of more than five * 
sucli sources, which were all of them either brack- 
ish or sulphureous. Yet there are great amends 
made for this disagreeafaleness in taste, by the 
wholesome quality of the waters, which provoke 
an appetite, and are besides remarkably lenitive 
ancl diuretic. And to this it may be owing, that 
few persons are acquainted with sickness," during 
their travels through these lonesome^ inhospita- 
ble, and sultry deserts. 

The fountains called Ain el Mous^y'^ luke- 
warm and sulphureous, boiling up three or four 
inches above the surface, as if they were agita^^ 
ted below by some violent heat The fountain, 
two leagues to the westward of Suez, where there 
are several large troughs for the convenience of 
watering cattle, is brackish; and therefore the in- 
habitants of that place are obliged to drink of 

* the 


* *, And Abraham reproved Abimelech, because of a well of 

* water, which Abimel^cb's servants had violently taken awaj,^ 
Gen. xxi. 25. * And the herdsmen of Grerar did strive with 

* Isaac Vberdsmen, saying, The water is ours y and he called the 

* maaat of the well^ Eseck (contention)^ because they strove with 

* him,' Gen. xxvi^ 20.* 

f Anak's memory likewise might be well transmitted to pos- 
terity Jbr finding in^ this tuiH^nexs. some source or collection of 
water^ till then undiscovered, as t3S*n (Gfiii. xxxn, 240 P*"^" 
baps may be better rendered thzn finding the tnules^ which, in all 
probability, those earlier ages, were not acquainted with. The 
first mention that is made of mules (O^n*!!))* if in the time of 
David, asles having served them to ride upon before* 

Of Arabia Petr^jea, 825 

the Ain el Mousa, which lies about the same dis- 
tance, on the other side of the Red Sea. The ex- 
change indeed is not extraordinary, yet it is pre- 
ferred in being more wholesome. The waters of 
J^ammam Pharaoune, near Gorondel, are exces- 
sively hot, and send off no small quantity of a 
souF vitriolic steam; our conductors affirming, 
that an egg might be boiled hard in one minute, 
and that it would be macerated by them in the 
next. But I had no opportunity of trying the 
experiment; the baths or hot waters themselves 
lying a great way within the roc^s, .with a nar- 
row entrance ieading untq them. The water of 
Hammam Mousa^ among the wells of Eliip, is 
moderately warm and sulphureous ; but that of 
the wells themselves, which lie at a little dis- 
tance, is brackish and of a crude digestion, crea- 
ting perhs^ps those scrophulous tumours, that sal- 
Iqwi^ei^s of complexion, and those obstructions in. 
the. bowels, which are too much Complained of 
by the inhabitants of Tor, who drink them.' 

The brackish waters of Elim, and the sulphur- 
eous waters of Ain el Motisay are situated upon 
level ground, at a great distance from any range 
of mountains. Those particularly of Aiyi el 
Motisa, cherish and refresh the highest part of an 
extensive plain. The throxving of themselves up 
therefore in^.e^ d^eam\ is a circumstance the more 
extraordinary ; and perhaps is no otherwise to be 
accounted for, than by deducing their origin from 
the great abyss. But the fountain within the 
convent of St Catharine ;. that of the Forty Mar- 

926 The Marbk wd Fossils 

. .  •> • • • ' 

tyrs, in the plain of Rephidim ; and Mother, 
which we find in the valley of Hebron, near the 
half way from thence to the desert of Sin, ar§ 
sources of excellent water; which our palates 
foupd to be the more delicious, as they had, for 
lifteen days before, been acquainted with what 
was entirel}'^ disagreeable. The fountain of St 
Catharine, after it ha.s supphed the demands of 
the convent, is received without into a large ba- 
son, which, running over, forms a little rill. This 
Avas the water ^ (Exod. xxxii. 2.0.) or the brook 
that descended out of the mount, into which the 
golden calf was cast, after it was ground to pow^ 

Of the, fixedl s^nd pertpanent foasils, there ar^ 
several here which are not comnaqiji in other 
places. Thus the ^eknitts i^ observe to shoot 
itself, sometimes for the space of thirty or forty 
yards together, in a great variety of shap^ and 
colours. If this is a sure ct^iaracteristic, as some 
naturalists maintain, of a lead mine lying below 
it, Arabia Petra^a must be well impregnated with 
this mineral, A beautiful kind of cawk, the 
pseudo-fitwr of th^ naturalists, gives likewise a 
wonderful' glaring to the rocks, and frequently 
distinguishes itself in larg^ expansions, like the 
selenites. The marble, which is sometimes call- 
ed Thebaic, from being dug in the mountains of 
that district, sometimes granite, from the num« 
her of little grains whereof it consists, is much 
more common than the pseudo-Jluor and* selenitesk 
It appears to be a congeries of cmoky nodules, of 


Of Arabia Petra^. S2f 

different shapes and sizes, beautifully united to« 
gether, whicli, from the likeness they bear to a 
composition of mortar and gravel, might occasion 
several ingenious travellers to imagine Pompey's 
pillar, the obelisks at Heliopolis, Alexandria and 
Rome, with other the hke extraordinary lumps 
of this sort of marble, to be factitious^ and pro- 
duced by fusion* That kind of it, which I saw 
in the neighbourhood of Mount Sinai, and in the 
midland road from thence to Corondel, is gene- 
rally of a light grey colour, with little black 
spots interspersed ; though, in some places I have 
seen it much blacker, and in others of a reddish 
complexion, like the marble of Syene, called by 
• Pliny, (1. xxxvi. c. S,) pyrrhopacilon, i. e. distin- 
guished with a Variety of red sp6ts, of which tht 
obeUsks were usually mad6. Sometimes also the 
constituent particles were so small and well com- 
pacted, that the contexture was not inferior ei- 
ther to tlic ophites or serpentine marble, or td 
porphyry; And out of this kind probably were 
hewn the two taluks of testimony ; tables of stone^ 
as they are calltJd, isvritten with the Jinger of God^ 
£xod. xxxi. 18. xxxiv. 1. &c. It has been alrea- 
dy observed, (vol. ii. p. 109) that what is called 
the rock of flinty Deut. viii. 15. may be more pro- 
perly named, with several other sorts of granite mar-^ 
Me here to be Iftet with, the rock of amethyst^ from 
their reddish or purple colour and complexion. 

That part of Mount Sinai, which lies to the 
westward of the plain of llephidim, and is called 
the mountain of St Catharine, consists of a hard 


528 The Marbk and FosSils 

reddish marble, like porphyry ; bat is distid-' 
giiished from it by the representations of little 
trees and bashes, which arc dispersed all over it. 
The naturalists call this sort of marble embusca- 
turn, or bushy marble * ; and; for the same rea- 
son, Buxtorf t derives the name of Sinai, from 
the bush or rubtis that was figured in the stones 
of it. It seems to be hitherto undecided, to what 
ipecies of plants this bush i.4 to be referred ; yet, 
if these impressed figures are to instruct us, we 
may very justiy rank it among the tamarisks, 
which, with the acacia, are the most common and 
flourishing trfees of these deserts. I have seen 
some branches of this fossil tamarisk, if we may 
so call it, though it appears father to be of a mi- 
neral nature, that were near half an inch in dia- 
meter. The constituent matter or substance of 
these fossils is not unlike the powder of lead-ore, 
though of less solidity, crumbling into dust by 
touching or rubbing it with our fingers. 


* Emhufcattttn ex mdnte Sinai [Hierosolymitano male addi- 
tur] depromptum j quod albicans est [nastrum rubescit] ad flave-^ 
£nem tendens ^ et quocunque modo secetur aut dividatur, in eo 
afrbusta et frutices, colore nigricante, subtiliter k Natura depictf 
ajpparent. Sa supra ignem ponatur,brevi eyanescit pictara^ &c. £ga 

Angiice ©ofcaffe sive pyX^^-xtxdiXbXz of =l^itruralem 

noimnafem. Charlt. Exercit. de fossil, p. 1^* ^'^ 

f ^J^D <SMdi^ montis nomen, a Jl^D) ^hus^ qiiodlapides ifrventi 
in €0 Jiguratum in se habuerint rttbum^ ut scribunt commentatores 
in V^iMvci More nehhuchimy p. 1. c. 66, adeo ut etiam in frag- 
mentis lapidum istorum, figiirae rubi appafuerint, qued se ephodeus^ 
adter istorum commentatorum, vidisse scribit. Buxtorf in voce 
njD* Horebj U'lrij the othet name by which this mountain is 
likewise known in Scripture, seems very justly to express the bar- 
fen desolate condition of it, from 3*109 siccatus^ vastatus, desolaiusj 
in solitudinem tedactusfuit^ Sec. 

Of. Arabia p€tr(Ba. 329 

The several strata in these and most of the 
Other mountains, which I have seen in Arabia, 
are generally so many kinds of ms^rble, cemented 
as it were together, by thin sparry sutures of va- 
rious textures and colours. There are likewise a 
great many remarkable breaches in these strata, 
some of which lie twenty or thirty yards asun- 
der, the divisions on each side corresponding, or, 
as we may call it, tallying exactly with each 
other, and leaving a deep valley in the midst. 
These are probably the effects of some violent 

Betwixt Kairo and Suez, we meet with an in- 
finite number of flints and pebbles, all of them, 
superior to the Florentine marble, and frequently 
equal to the Moca stone, in the variety of their 
figures and representations *.^ But fossil shells, 
and other the like testimonies of the deluge, are 
very rare in the mountains near Sinai, the origi- 
nal menstruum perhaps of these marbles being too 
corrosive to preserve them. Yet at Corondel, 
where the rocks approach nearer to our free-stone, 
I found a few chamce and pectunculij and a curi- 
ous echinus of the discoide kind, figured* among 
the fossils, No. 40. The ruins of the small Vil- 
lage at Jin el Mousa, and the several convey-' 
ances we have there for water, are all of them 
full of fossil shells. The old walls of Suez, and 
the remains that are left us of its harbour, are 

VOL. II. 2 T likewise 


Prosp. Alpinus (His^i Nat. ^gypt. c. vi. p. 147.) calls 
these pebbles si/ices syhifera^ in qutbus lapidibus sylva^ herbarum^ 
frutkum^ &r. fktce imagines cernuntur* 

330 The PUmis and Marine Productions 

likewise of the same materials ; all of them pro- 
bably from the same quarry. Betwixt Suez and 
Kairo likewise, and all over the mountains of Li^ 
bya, near Egypt, every little rising ground and 
hilloc discovers great quantities of the echini, as 
well as of the bivalve and turbinated shells, most 
of which exactly correspond with their respec- 
tive families, still preserved in the Red Sea. Be* 
twixt Suez and Kairo, we meet with those petri* 
iied trunks and branches of trees that have been 
already spdken of, (vol. i. p. 296, &c.) 

There is no great variety of plants in these de» 
serts. Those acacias **, azarolas, tamarisks, olean^ 
fkrSj laureolas, apocynums, and the few other Ara- 
bian plants that arc enumerated in the Phytogra^ 
phia, as they are generally indebted to some bar- 
ren rocks, or to the sandy plains, for their sup^ 
port, so they are indebted to the nightly dews 
for their nourishment ; there being no soil, pro- 
perly so called, in these parts of Arabia. The 
monks indeed of Sinai, in a long process of time, 
have covered over near four acres of these naked 
rocks, ^vith the dung and sweepings of their con- 
vent, which produce as good cabbage, roots, sa- 


* The acacia being by muqh the largest, and tbe most com- 
|bon tree of these deserts, as it might likewise have been of the 
plains of Shittim over against Jericho, i&om whence it took its 
name, "we have some reason to conjecture, that the shittim-wood, 
whereof the several utensils, &c. of the tabernacle, &c. (£xod» 
XXV. 10. 13. 23. &c.) were Ta2dt, was the wood of the acacia. 
This tree abounds with flowers of a globular figure, and of an 
CJ^ellent smell ; which may fiurther induce us to take it fer the 
same with the shittah tree, which, in Isa. xli. 19* is joined with 
the myrtle, and other sweet-smelling plants« 

Of Arabia Fetma. S3i 

Jftd, an^ all kinds &f pot-herbs, ad aby soU an4 
plimate whatsoever. Th«y hare likewise raised 
^live, prlinin, aiiitond, apple and pear trees^ not 
ooiy 10 gr»t numbeis, but of excellent kinds. 
The pears particularly, which are in shape like 
the WindioF, are in audh esteem at Kairo, that 
there is a present of them sent every season to 
tlie bashaw^ and persons of the first quality. Nei* 
ther are the grapes inferior in size and flavour to 
any wbataeiever. For we have a sufficient demon- 
stratiqn^ in what this Httle garden produ<:es, how 
far an indefatigable industry oan prevail over na^ . 
ture ; and that sev^al places are capable of cuU 
ture and improvement, which were intended by 
fiature to be barren^ and which the lazy and sloths 
ful would have always suffered to be so« 

Yet the deficieikcies kv the several classes of 
the landi piaats; are amply made up in the marine 
botany * ; no plac^ perhapsr aifording so ^reat a 
variety as the pert of Ton In rowing gently 
over it, wbilsd the suifaee of the sea was calm^ 
such a divenisity of nutdreporsSyfueuseSj and othef 
marine vegetables;^ prertnMd themsel^res to the 
eye, that we ceiuld not- forbear taking timm^ as 
Pliny f had done before us, for a £lreM . under 
water. The branchodl ?3mfrepGr6s particularly 
contribute^ very machi to. authorize tlie compswri- 
son ; for we passed over several of them tha^ 
were ei^it or ten ft«higbv growing sometimes 


^ ^e a catailogiie of these corals in the Colleadnea:, No. IL 

f PliiK Lsiii. -caS. Qirjrsbst, ex fkab, Geogrt l.«ri. ^.^isl 
edit. Huds. 

SS2 The Marine Productions 

pyramidicaly like the cypress.; at other times^ 
they had thdr. branches more. open and difFusfed^ 
like the oak ; not to speak of others, which, hke 
the creeping plants, spread themselves over the 
bottonf of the sea* 

To these species, which are branched,- we may 
join the fungi, the brain-stones, the astnnte^mad^ 
reports^ with 6ther coralline bodies, which fre- 
quently, grow, into masses of an extraordinary 
size ; and serve, not only for lime, but also for 
the chief materials in the buildings of Tor. The 
fungm, properly so called, is. always joined to the 
rock, by a seemingly small root, being the reverse 
of the land-mushroom, in having its gills placed 
upwards. This and the brain-jtone are observed 
to preserve constantly a certain specific form ; 
the other coralline bodies also have each, of them 
their different star-like figures or asterisks im- 
pressed upon them, : whereby they likewise may 
be particularly distinguished. But. these only re- 
gard, their surfaces j for, having not the least ap- 
piearances:of roots, as. the fungus and the brain- 
stone have, . they are to* be considered as certain 
rude masses only of this coralline substance, 
which, at .the several periods of their growth, 
mould thetn selves itito the figures of the rocks, 
shells^, and.otlier matrices, that lie within the 
reach .of their vegetation. 
. All these species are covered* over with a thin 
glutinous substance or pellicuk, as I shall call it ; 
which is more thick and spongy near and upon 
the asterisks, thaa, in any othej part. For, if we 


Of Arabia Petraea. 333 

may be allowed to offer a few conjectures con- 
cerning the method of their growth and vegeta* 
tion, it is probable, that the first offices of it arc 
performed from these asterisks; especially if 
those sets of little fibres, which belong to them, 
should prove to be, as in all appearance they are, 
so many little roots. Now these little roots, if 
carefully attended to, while the madrepores are 
under water, may be observed to wave and ex- 
tend themselves like the little filaments of mint 
when it is preserved in glasses, or like the mouths 
or suckers of the sea-star, or like those of the small 
floating polypuSy {vol. i. p. 348.) But the very 
moment they are exposed to the air, they be- 
come invisible, by a power which they have at 
that time of contracting themselves, and retiring 
within the cavities or. furrows of their respective 

In the true coral and tithophyta (to hint some- 
thing also of their history), the method is a littl6 
different. For these are not marked with aste- 
risks, like the madrepores^ but have their little roots 
issuing out of certain small protuberances, that 
are plentifully dispersed all over their pellkules ; 
serving, as the asterisks do in the other class, for 
so many valves or cases, to defend and shot in 
their respective little roots. We may take no- 
tice further, that these protuberances are gene-* 
rally full of a milky clammy juice, perhaps just 
secreted by the little roots, which in a small'time 
coagulates ; then becomes like bees- wax, in co- 
lour and consistence ; and afterwards, as I con- 

334 The Marine Product hm 

jectare^ is assimilated into the ' s&bstanoe of tbd 
caral or lithopkyton itself. 

Nature having^ not aUowed these marine plants 
one large root^ as it has done to the terrestrial^ 
how wisely is that mechanism supplied by a rmm- 
ber of little ones, which are distributed in so jnst 
a proportion all over tliem, that they are lodgetl 
tliicker upon the branches, where the vegetation 
is principally carried on, than in the trunk, wber^ 
it is more at a stand ; the trunk being often fownd 
naked, and seldom increases in the same propor- 
tion with the branches ^^ Tb^ terrestrial plants 
could not subsist without ah ^Apparatus pf great 
and extensive roots; because they atre not only 
to be thereby supported against the violence of 
the wind, but their food also is to be fetched at 
a great distance. Whereas the ttiarine vegetables, 
as they are more securely placed, so they lie 
within a nearer reach of their food, growing as 
it were in tlxe midst of plenty; and therefore aa 
apparatus of tl»c former kind must have been un- 
necessary cither to nourish or support them. 
Though indeed, according to the late wonderful 
discoveries with relation to the polypus, all that 
I have said of these little roots, valves and aste- 
risks, may be some time or other found to belong 
to animals of that class ; and consequently^ that 
coraby madrepores, and Uthophjfta^ are to be no 
longer reckoned in the vegetable, but in the ani- 
mal kingdom. 

'Yhtfacuses mentioned, seem to have given the 
name of ^tD, suph or muph, to this gulfot tongue 


Of Arabia Petrcea. 335 

(Isa. xi. 15.) of the Egyptian Sea; which is other- 
wise called the Sea of Edom, and improperly the 
Red Sea, by taking Edom* for an appellative. 
The word ^'D i& also rendered Jlags^ by our tran* 
slators, (Exod. ii. 8. and Isa. xix. 6.) and juncus 
or juncetum by Buxtorf. I no where observed 
^ny species of the flag-kind ; but there are seve- 
ral thickets of arundinaceous plants at some smali 
distances from the Red Sea, though never, as far 
as I pierceived, either upon the immediate banks, 
or growing directly out of it. We have little ' 
reason therefore to imagine, that this sea should 
receive a name from a production, which does 
not properly belong to it. » It has been thought 
more proper therefore to translate P)10 £5% yct^, 
suphy the sea qfweeds^ or the weedy sea'\^ from the 
variety of algce andjTwci, and perhaps the ma^ 
drepores and coralline substances just now descri- 
bed, which grow within its channd, and at low 
water particularly, after strong tides, winds, and 
currents, are left in great quantities upon the sea 

Though the marine botany is very entertain- 


* Vid. Suid. in voc^ 'Egwd^*. Nic. Fullei;. Misc. sacra. 1. iv. 
c. 20. Prid. Connect, vol. i. p. 15. 

•f- However, it should not be omitted, that Lipcnius furnisheth 
us with a very ingenious conjecture in supposing this, in contra- 
distinction perhaps to the ^^^Ijn uD^? Great Sea^ or Mediterra- 
nean^ to be the same with a sea that is eircufnscribed by (visible) 
bounds on both sides, Dicitur mare Suph. Hebraice ex rad, C^^Q 
dejicere^ Jinire^ unde est nomen ttlQ finis se^ exU^^^^^is, Eccl.iii. 
11. Hinc mare Suph est^ lii verbi^ mare fi«iiu^i Vimitatum, ter* 
minis et littoribus circumsepLum. Vi^^ ^ '^et^^ "Navigal. Sajo* 
monis Ophirit. illustrat. Witt. 16G0. n* "^" 


336 The Marine Productions 

irig, yet there is an additional pleasure in obser- 
ving the great variety of urchins, stars, and shells, 
which present themselves at the same time. The 
first are most of them beautiful and uncommon. 
We find some that are flat and unarmed, of the 
pentaphylloid kind ; others that are oval, or else 
globular, very elegantly studded with little knobs, 
which support so many spires or prickles. This 
sort of armour is sometimes, thicker than a swan's 
quill; smooth and pointed* in some, but blunt, 
rough, and knobbed, like the lafides Judaiciy ix% 
pthers, - : 

The most curious star which I saw, made 
with its five rays (or fingers as we call them) a 
circumference of nine inches in diameter. It was 
convex above, guarded all over with knobs, like 
some of the echini ; but the under side was flat 
and smoother, having a slit or furrow, capable of 
expanding or contracting itself, which run the 
whole length of each finger. For this part of the 
fish, wlien in the water, always lies open, and 
displays an infinite number of small filaments, 
not uqjike in shape to what we commonly call 
the horns of snails. These are so manv mouths, 
as in the circular polypus above mentioned, that 
are continually searching after nourishment ; and 
as the coralline bodies, if they really are such 
and not animals, have been observed to be all 
root, the star may be said to be all mouth ; each 
of the little filaments performing that office. By 
applying the hand to them, we quickly perceive 
the faculty they have of sucking like so many 


Of Arabia Petraa. 337 

cupping-glasses ; but no sooner is the fish remo- 
ved into the air, than they let go their holds, and 
the furrow from whence they proceeded, which 
was before expanded, is now immediately shut 

There would be no end of enumerating the 
great diversity of shells which adorn the banks, 
or lie in the shallows of the Red Sea ; for no fur- 
ther had we an opportunity to search it. The 
concha Veneris is seen in a great variety of spots 
and sizes; whilst the turbinated and bivalve 
shells are not only common, and in a gre^t luxu-? 
riancy of shapes and colours, but are also some- 
times so exceedingly capacious, that there have 
been found some buccina which >vere a foot ^nd 
a half long, whilst som^ of ^h^ bivalve shells 
were as much or more in diameter. I have al- 
ready observed, tliat thp port of Toy has greatly 
contributed to the buildings of the adjacent vil- 
lage. But this is not the only conveniency and 
advantage which the inhabitants receive from it; 
in as much as they are almost entirely nourished 
and sustained by that plenty of excellent fish 
which it affords them. Neither is this all ; for 
the very furniture and utensils of their houses 
are all fetched from the same plentiful magazine; 
the naut litis serving them instead of a cup, the 
buccinum instead of a jar, and the concha imbri^, 
catOf instead of a dish or platter to serve up their 

The short stay which our conductors allowed 
us at Tor and Suez, would not give me an oppor- 

YOL. II. 2 u tunity 

338 The ISheil Ptsk and Animal^ 

tunitjr of making any further observations, either 
in the botany 6r zoology of the Red Sea. As 
we were likewise freqyently obliged, for coolness, 
to travel in the night, several fossils, plants and 
animals, besides other curiosities, must h^ve 
undoubtedly escaped my notice. Yet I should 
mot omit observing, that we were now and then 
offended with several little swarms of locusts 
Und hornets, both of them of an unusual size, 
though of the ordinary colours. Vipers, espe- 
cially in the wilderness of Sin, which might very 
properly be called the inheritance of dra^onsy were 
Very dangerous and troublesome ; i^ot only our 
tamels, but the Arabs who attended thpm, run- 
ning every moment the rislc of being bitten, 
JSut the lizard kind, in their variety of spotted 
coverings, afforded us an amusement far more in- 
nocent and diverting. Near Kairo, there are se- 
veral flocks of the ach bobba *, the percnopterus^ 
or oripelargus\y which, like the ravens about Lon- 
don, feed upon the carrion and nastiness that is 
thrown without the city. This the Arabs call 
tachcmahy the same with Dm, Lev. xi. 18. and 
noni, Deut. xiv. 17. which is rendered in both 
plates the geer eagle in our translation. The same 


* Ach bobha, xn tEfe 'Jf urkish language, signifies- white-fafher ; 
a name given 'it partly out of the reverence they have for it, 
partly from the* colour^of its ploo^age } though in the other re- 
spect it di£fers little frdm the i|tork, being black in several places. 
It is as big as a large' eapon; and exactly like the figure which 
Gesner (l.iii. ^De Avth^ p. 176*) hath given us of it. 

^ Vid. Gesn. ut supra. Arist. Hist* Anim. 1. bu c. $2. PliiL 

Of Arahia Petrxa. $39 

bird likewise might be the Egyptian hawk, which 
StrabQ describes; contrary to the usual qualities 
of birds of that class, to be of no great fierce- 
.i^ess. Doves are known to frequent those moun- 
tainous districts where there is water, as the os- 
trich, which .will be hereafter spoken of, delights 
chiefly in the plains i being the grand ranger and 
vhiquitarian of the deserts^^ from the Atlantic 
ocean to the very utmost skirts of Arabia, and 
perhaps far beyond it to the east. Hares, of the 
same white colour with those of the Alps, and 
other cold countries, have been seen by some tra- 
vellers ; the badger too, from the frequent men- 
tion that is made of their skins, (£xod. xxvi. 14. 
&a) must have been likewise an inhabitant^ 
though the antilope was the only quadruped, as 
tlie dove and the ach bobba were the only birds, 
which fell under my observation. For perhaps- 
there are no places ii^ the whole world that 
abound less with living creatures than these de- 
serts; and indeed, where has nature made less 
provision for their sustenance ? The quails must 
have been fed, as well as brought by a miracle, if 
they had continued alive with the Israelites; and 
might they not, without the Uke miracle, have 
died of thirst in the wilderness? We cannot 
therefore sufficiently admire the great care and 
wisdom of God, i;i providing the camel for the 
traffic and commerce of these and such like de- 
solate countries. For, if these serviceable crea- 
tures were not able to subsist several days with- 
out water ; or if they required a quantity of nou- 

340 Of the Ostrich. 

rishmeht in proportion to their bulk, the travel-* 
ling in these deserts w^ould be either ciinibersome 
and expensive^ or altogether impracticable. 

But something still would be wanting to the 
natural history of these deserts, without a inore 
particular description, as I have promised, of the 
ostrich, called all over these cq/intries naamah: 
For thete are several cUrious circumstances, in thei 
account we are to give bf it, which few persons 
could ever have an opportunity of being ac- 
quainted with. Some of them likewise will bd 
of no small consequence in illustratirtg the more 
difficult part of the description, which is given 
of it in the following verses of the thirty-ninth 
chapter of the book of Job. 

Ver. 13. * Gavfest thou the goodly wings unto 

* the peacock, or wings and feathers unto the os^ 

* trick ?' Which may be rendered thus from the 
original, ' The wing of the ostrich is [quivering or] 

* expanded * ; the very feathers and plumage of 

* the stork.' 

14. ' Which kaveth f [depoiSitfes or trusts] her 


* Expanse J or quivering, T\u/^i naiei-esohj ^l^f^ua exu/- 
t'are facta est. Radix olas propricf est d-^cedi^nir, Vibrantem motuni 
cdere, irrequieta jactatione agitari. Vid. p. 277. JUb Jobi^ Schal- 
tens edit. vir. cl. R. Grey, S. T. P. 

f Which leaveth^ Dtj^H? ta%oh^ tnanjat. Exquisite locatum 
illud tja%oby xelinquit, quod duplici potestate ntin^ auctum ^ prima 
deponendi, prout onus potiitur et traditur alteri portandum. AI-« 
tera vis infert derelictionem^ quam hie omittendam non esse, se- 
qiientia satis arguunt ; edamsi ista desertio non ta& stricte sit su- 
menda, ut statim atque ova deposuerit, ea d^relinqu^ ; nam sat 
lohgum saepe tempus incubat, quia et escludit baud raro ova ; 


Its Plumage. 34 1 

^ ^SS^ ^^ ^^^ e^zrM, and warmeth them [viz. by in- 

* cubation *j in [the sand] dtist. 

15. ^ And forgetteth that the foot may crush 

* them^ or that the wild beast may break them. 

16. * She is hardened against her young ones, as 

* though they were not hers ; her labour is in vain 

* ivithout fear, 

17. ^ Because God hath deprived her of wis-- 

* dom^ neither hath he imparted to her understand^ 

18. ^ TtOmt, time she liftcth herself up on high,' 
or, as it may otherwise be translated, * When she 

* raiseth herself up to run away t, {viz. from her 
' pursuers), she scorneth [or laughs at] the horse 

* and his riderC 

In commenthig therefore upon these texts^ it 
may be observed, that when the ostrich is full 
grown, the neck, particularly of the male, which 


sed tamcn tarn trepida et stupida est natura, ut ad minimum stre- 
pitum fugiat, ovaque sua dcserat, quae deinceps pies vecordia in<<> 
venire non valet. Id. p. 278. 

* Several natural hist6rians, and among the rest, Mr Ray, 
probably by understanding ta%ob as of a total dereliction) have 
supposed the eggs of the ostrich to be hatched entirely by the 
Sun ^ (qua^ in arena condita, solis calore foveri dicuntur. 
Raii Synops. Av. p. 36. \) ^hereas the original word DDnn, 
tehhammem, signifies actively that she heateth them, vi2. by incu- 

f ^uo tempore in ahum se bdcursum tncitat* CDIIDSj tfa^- 
morom, in aitum, vel ad staturam referre licet, vel ad edita clivo- 
rum, coUium, &c. Arridet magis prius, quasi proceritas staturse 
commendaretur, quum e nido suO exsurgens, accedentibus vena- 
toribus, in altum alas erigit, vel ipsa potius V^ altum attollitur, 
mole corporis et colli spat^o, Supra £dem ^ta).^^^^* Schult. ut 
supra^ p. 279« 

54a lu Plumage. 

before was almost naked, is now very beautifully 
covered with red feathers. The plumage likewise 
upon the shoulders, the back, and some parts of 
the wings, from being hitherto of a dark greyish 
colour, becomes now as black as jet ; whilst the 
rest of the feathers retain an exquisite whiteness* 
They are^ as described at ver. 13. the very feathers 
and plumage of the stork ; L e. they consist of 
such black and white feathers as the stork, called 
from thence «A«gy«f, is known to have. But the 
belly, the thighs, and the breast, do not partake 
of this covering ,' being usually naked, and, when 
touched, are of the same warmth as the flesh of 

Under die joint of the great pinion, and some- 
. times upon the lesser, there is a strong pointed 
excrescence, like a cock's spur, with which it is 
said to prick and stimulate itself; and thereby 
acquire fresh strength and vigour whenever it is 
pursued. But nature seems rather to have in- 
tended, that, in order to prevent the suffocating 
effects of too great a plethora, a loss of blood 
should be consequent thereupon, especially ad the 
ostrich appears to be of a hot constitution, with 
lungs always confined, and consequently liable 
to be preternaturally inflamed upon these occa- 
sions. • 

When these birds are surprized, by coming 
suddenly upon there whilst they arc feeding in 
ilome valley, or behind some rocky or sandy emi- 
nence in the deserts, they will not. stay to be cu- 
tiously viewed and examined. Neither are the 


Its Swiftness and Agility, S43 

Arabs ever dextrous enough to overtake them, 
even when they are mounted upon their jimt, or 
horses (as they are called) of family *. They^ when 
they raise themsehes np for flighty (ver. 1 8.) laugh 
at the horse and his rider. They afford him an 
opportunity only of admiring, at a drstance, the 
extraordinary agility and the stateliness likewise 
of their motions, tlie richne!i3 of their plumage, 
and the great propriety there was of ascribing to 
them, (ver. 1 3.) e?« expanded quivering wing. No^- 
thing certainly can be more beautiful and enter- 
taining than such a sight ; the wings, by theii- 
repeated, though unwearied vibrations, equally 
serving them for sails and oars; whilst-their feet, 
no less assisting in conveying them out of sight, 
$ire no less insensible of fatigue. 

By the repeated accounts which I have had 
from my conductors, as well as from Arabs of dif- 
ferent places, I have been informed, that the ost- 
rich lays from thirty to fifty eggs. iElianf men- 
tions more than eighty ; but I never heard of so 
large a number. The first egg is deposited in the 
centre; the rest are placed as conveniently as pos- 
sible, round about it. In this manner it is said 
to layy deposite or trust, (ver. 14.) her eggs in the 
earth J and to warm, them in the sand^ and forget- 
teth (as they are not placed like those of some 


* These horses are descended from such as were concerned in 
the hagyra or flight which Mahomet, together with Omar, Abu- 
becker, &c. made from Mecca to Medina. There is as exact an 
account taken and preserved of th^ir pedigrees, as there is of the 
families of kings and princes in £urope, 

f Hist. Animal. 1. idr. ۥ 7. 

344 Its. ^'(J<nt of natural Afection. 

other birds, upon trees, or ia the clifts of rocks, 
&c.) that the foot (of the traveller) may crwh tkem, 
or that t/ie wild beast ^y break them. 

Yet, notwithstanding the ample provision which 
is hereby made for a numerous offspring, scarce 
one quarter of the$e eggs are ever supposed to be 
hatched ; and of those that are, no small share of 
the young ones may perish with hi](ngeif« from be- 
ing left too early by their dams to shift for tiiem- 
selves. For in thesje, the most barrea and deso- 
late recesses of th^ Sahara, where the ostrich 
chuses to make her nest, it would not be enough 
to lay eggs and hatch them, unless som^ proper 
food was near at hand, and already prepared for 
their nourishment And accordingly, we are not 
to consider this large collection of eggs as if they 
were all intended for a, brpqd; they are, ^he 
greatest part of them, reserved for food *, wl\ich 
the dam breaks and disposes of, according to. the 
number and the cravings of her yo.ung ones. 

But yet, for all this, ia very littlje. share of that 
f««y», or natural cffieQtion^ which so, s&trongly exerts 
itself in most other creatures, is observable in the 
ostrich. For, upon the least distant noise, or tri- 
vial occasion, she forsakes her eggs, or her young 
ones, to which perhaps she never returns ; or, if 
she does, it may be too late, either to restore life 
to the one, or to preserve the lives of the other. 
Agreeably to this account, the Arabs meet some- 
times with whole nests of these eggs undisturb- 

* Vid. ^lian. Hist. Animal. I. vr. c. 37. Phik in lambis^ 
Boch. i£eroz. par. post. 1. ii. c» 17. 

Of its Food. 345 

ed ; some of which are sweet and good ; others 
are addle and corrupted ; others again have their 
young ones of different growths, according to the 
time, it may be presumed, they have been forsa- 
ken by the dam. They oftcner meet a few of the 
little oneS; no bigger than well-grown pullets, 
half starved ; straggling and moaning about, 
like so many distressed orphans, for their mother. 
And in this manner the ostrich may be said, ver. 
16. to be hardened against her ;^ung ones^ as though 
they were not hers ; her labour (in. hatching and 
attending them so far) being in vain^ without Jear, 
or the least concern of what becomes of them 
afterwards. This want of aifection is also re- 
corded, Lam. iv. 3. The daughter of my people^ 
says the prophet, is cruel, like the ostriches in the 

Neither is this the only reproach that may b6 
due to the ostrich ; she is likewise inconsiderate 
and foolish in her private capacity, particularly 
in the choice of food, which is frequently highly 
detrimental and pernicious to it ; for she swal- 
lows every thing greedily and indiscriminately; 
wliether it be pieces of rags, leather, wood, stone 
or iron. When 1 was at Oran, I saw one 6( these 
birds swallow, without any seeming uneasiness or . 
inconveniency, several leaden bullets^ as ihey 
were thrown upon the floor, scorching hot from 
the mould ; the inWard coats of the oesophagus 
and stomlach b^irig probably better stockfed with 
glands arid jiiiciesi thati in other aniiYials witK 
shorter necks. They are particularly fond of theii- 

VOL. ir. 2 X owil 

346 Of its Food. 

own excrement, which they greedily eat up as 
«oon as it is voided. No less fond are they of 
the dung of heus and other poultry. It seems 
as if their optic as well as olfactory nerves were 
less adequate and conducive to their safety and 
preservation, than in other creatures. The di- 
vine Providence in this, no less than jn other re- 
spects, (ver. 17.) having deprived them of wisdom^ 
neither hath it imparted to them understanding. 
' Those parts of the Sahara, which these birds 
chiefly frequent, are destitute of all manner of 
food and herbage, except it be some fevy tufts of 
coai*se grass, or else a few other solitary plants, 
of the laureolUf appcynum, and some other kinds ; 
each of which is equally destitute of nourish- 
ment, and, in the Psalmist's phrase, (cxxix. 6.) 
even withereth afore it be plucked up. . Yet these 
herbs, notwithstanding this dryness and want of 
moisture in. their temperature, will sonvetimes 
have both their leaves and their stalks studded 
all over with a great variety of land snails, which 
may afford them some little refreshment. It is 
very probable likewise, that they may sometimes 
seize upon lizards, serpents, together with insects 
and reptiles of vgirjous kinds. Yet still, consi- 
dering tl>€ great voracity and size of this camel- 
biril, it is wonderful, not only how. the little ones, 
after they are weaned from the provisions I have 
mentioned, should be brought up and nourished, 
but even how tljose of fuller growth, and much 
better qualified to look out for themselves, arc 
able to subsist/ 


The Ostrich a Lover of the Deserts. 347 

Their organs of digestion, and particularly the 
gizzards, which, by their strong friction, will 
wear away even iron itself, shew them indeed to 
be granivorous ; but yet they have scarce ever an 
opportunity to exercise them in this way, unless 
when they chance to stray (which is very seldom) 
towards those parts of the country which are 
sown and cultivated. For these, as they are much 
frequented by the Arabs, at the several seasons of 
grazing^ plowing, and gathering in the harvest ; 
so they are little visited by, as indeed they would 
be an improper abode for, this shy timorous bird, 
a hoer (^ia^^jims) of the deserts. This last circum- 
stance, in the behaviour of the ostrich, is fre- 
quently alluded to in the Holy Scriptures ; par- 
ticularly Isa. xiii. 21. andxxxiv. 13. and xliii. 20. 
Jer. 1. 39. where the word njys jaanah^ insteald 
of being rendered the ostrich^ as it is rightly put 
in the margin, is called the owl; a word used 
likewise instead of jaanah, or the ostrich, Lev. xi, 
16. and Dent. xiv. 15. 

Whilst I was abroad, I had several opportuni- 
ties of amusing myself with the actions and be- 
Tiaviour of the ostrich. It was very diverting to 
observe, whh what dexterity and equipoise of 
body it would play and frisk about on all occa- 
sions. In the heat of the day particularly, it • 
would strut along the sunny side of the house 
with great majesty. It would be perpetually fan- 
ning and priding itfelf with its quivering expand-- 
ed wings ; and seem, at every turn, to admire and 
be in love with its shadow. Even at other times, 


S48 The Ostrich a Jierce Bird 

whether walking about or resting itself upon the 
ground, the wings would continue these fanning 
vibrating motions, as if they were designed to 
mitigate and assuage that extraordinary heat, 
where\yith their bodies seem to be naturally af- 

Notwithstanding these birds appeared tame and 
tractable to such persons of the family as were 
more known and familiar to them, yet they were 
often very rude and fierce to strangers, especially 
the poorer sort, whom they would uot only en-^ 
deavour to push down by running furiously upon 
them, but would not cease to peck at them vio^ 
lently with their bills, and to strike at them with 
their feet, whereby they were frequently very 
Qiiscbievoii^. For . the inward claw, or hoof ra- 
ther, as we may call it, of this dwisi bimlca^ being 
exceedingly strong pointed and angular, I once 
saw an unfortunate person, who had his belly 
ripped open by one of these strokes. 

Whilst they are engaged in these combats and 
assaults, they sometime^ make a fierce angry and 
hissing noise, with their throats inflated and their 
mouths open ; at other times, when less resist- 
ance is made, they have a. chuckling or cackling 
voice, as in the poultry'^kind, and thereby seem 
to rejoice and laugh, as it were, at the timorous- 
ness of their adversary. But during the lone- 
some part of the night (as if their organs of voice 
had then attained a quite different tone), they 
often made a very doleful and hideous noise, 
which would sometimes be like the roaring of a 

lion ; 

With a strong Voice. 349 

lion ; at other tim^s it would bear a nearer resem- 
blance to the hoarser voices of other quadrupeds; 
particularly of the bull and the ox. I have often 
heard them groan, as if they were in the greatest 
agonies ; an action beautifully alluded to by the 
prophet Micah, (i. 8.) where it is said, / Z5e;i// make 
a mourning like the jaanah^ or ostrich. Jaanah 
therefore, and (D*i j"l) rinonemy the names by 
which the ostrich is known in the Holy Scrip- 
tures may very properly be deduced from njy, 
onahy and pn, ronan, words which the lericogra- 
phi explain by exclamare^ or clamarcfortiter. For 
the noise made by the ostrich being loud and so- 
norous, exclamarcy or clamare for titer y may, with 
propriety enough, be attributed to it ; especially 
as those words do not seem to denote * any cerr- 
tain or determined mode of voice or sound pecu- 
liar to any one particular species of animals, but 
such as may be applicable to them all, to birds as 
Avell as to quadrupeds and other creatures. 


 Vid, -ffilian. Hist Anim. 1. v. c. 51. et 1. vi. c. 19. 


The folUming Corrections are submitted to the 

Judgment of the Reader. 

Vol. L— p. 91. 1. 14. for SaUis r. Saidtt. 

?• 21 9« L 8. for aquis regiis r. aqua regime. 

P. 239. 1.16. for aqwis Tacapitanas. r. aquee Tac4ipuana. — In 
which passages, and disewhere, the Author has, from the Iti- 
nerary, used the oblique case instead of the nominative^ which 
^s usually preserved invariably, whei\ we write in English. 

P. 312. 1. 4. at ancient fabrics add the following note, which 
the Author, in transposing his text, seems to have forgotten-.- 
sc. Ex sabuloney et calce^ et^favilla, Vitruv. Arch. 1. vii. c. 4« 
PBn. N. H. ,1. xxxvi. c. 25. 


OS. A 





ig-OumOrma ke. 




Specimen Phytographice Afrlcance. 


BSlNTHiyM Santonicum Judaicam C. B. P. 139. — Sheah 
Arabum. Copiose crescit in Arabia et in desertis Numidise.- - 

2. Acacia veira J. £. I. 429. — Cum unica fere arbar sit Arabiae 
Petraeae, quae conficiendis asseribus inservire posat, vensiiniie vi* 
detui: esse Shittixp S. SS. 

3. Acetosa i^gjpiia, roseo seminis tnvolucro, folio lacero 

4. Acetosa minor, lobis multifidis Bocc. Mus. 

5. Alchimilla Linariae folio, caljrce florum albo I. R. H. 

6. Alchlmtlla Linariae folio, floribus et vasculis in foliorum alis 
se^silibus. — ^His notis di£fert a prsecedenti specie, quae ilores fert 
versus r^muloium sumimtates, longionbus pedicuUs haerentes. 

7. Alhenna Arabum. — Frutex est floribus parvis, tetrapetalis, 
candid]^,, racemosis, staminibus OQto, binatim, in petalorum inter- 
vallis, nascentibus, et e calyce quadrifido exeuntibus, foliis myrti- 
formibus conjugatis, fructu sicco, quadriloculari, rarius triloculari, 
seminibus, Acetosx instar, angulatis, Ligustrum ^gyptiacum la- 
tifolium C. B. P. 476. Cyprus Graecorum, Alcanna vel Henne 
Arabum, nunc Grsecis Schenna, Rauwolf. et Lug. Append. Cy- ^ 
prus Plinii sive Alcanna Bell. £p. 4. ad Clus. 

8. Alkekengi fructu parvo, verticillato I. R. H. 151. 

9. Alkekengi frutescens, foliis rotundis, arete sibi invicem in« 
cumbentibus, floribus albis, calycibus aperiioribus. 

10. Alsine aquatica, Portulacse folio hirsuto. 

11. Alsine maritima, supina, foliis Chamsesyces I. App. 
665. Franca maritima, quadrifolia, antwia, supina, Chamaesyces 
folio et facie, flore ex albo purpurascei\^ft Mic^^^» Nov. Gen. 23. 
— Flos in quinquc pctalla dividitur ad ^, , \^vx coWrcntia •, basi 

VOL. ir. 2 Y ^"^ dcnuQ 

354 Specimen Phytographia Jfrkanie. 

denuo petala separantur et arete amplectuntur fructum oblongum, 
pentagonum, monangiumy plurimis seroinibas fostum. Calyx lon«i 
gus, striatuS| quinqi^eiadus est. Flores arete geniculis ramulorum 

12. Althaea bumilifly repens^ folib Malvae vulgares, flore ru- 

J 3. Alysson folus lanc^^latis^ coa&rtis, argenteis, flosculis 

14. Amaranthus spi^at^s, Siculus, radice perexinl Bocc. Rat. 

15. Anagyris fostida C. B. P. 391^ I. R, H. 647. 

16. Apium procufDbens^ crassiore folio. 

17. Apocynum tectum, incanum, latifolium, Malabaricumy 
floribus ex albo, suave-piirpurascentibus Par. Bat. 28. Boerh. 
Ind. Alt* 313.<»-CopiosQ ore^cit ii^ v^Ubua prope tnontem Si- 

18. Apocynum fnitescens, fdU<^ subrotundo, Qunore, siliquii 

19,. Aristolochia Cretica, scandens, altissima, Pistclochiae fo- 
)iis Cor. $• Aristolochia clematitis setp^ns C. B. P. 307. 

20. Asparagus sive Corruda, spinis bluncialibusy binis. 

21. Asplenium sive C«terach J. B. III. 749. 

22. Aster cotiya^ides, foliis ajigustis^ cirenatis^ 

23. Asteriscus perehnis, foliis longis, angustis. 

24. Asteriscus annuus trianthophonis, Ctaffas Arabibus dictus. 
i>— FoKa ChansLsemeli. Calyx e squamis tenuibus, albo virentibus, 
constat. Semifiosculi sinuati sunt ; Crenas laterales longiores, 
niediam breviorem habet. Suaviter olet. 

25. Astragaloides Lusltanica I. R. H. 399. Astragalus Boe-s. 
ticus Clus. H. ccxxxill. — Foole el Haloufc (s. Faba Apri) 

26. Astragalus Africanus luteus odoratus Bot. Monsp. Astra- 
galus perennis foliis hirsutis, caule recto aphyllo, flore ochroleuco, 
odoratissimo, H. Ox. II. 203. — Caroube el Maizah (s. Siliqua 
Caprarum) Arabum. 

27. Astragalus tenuifolius, flore sulphureo, siliquis tenuiter re- 

28. A^riplex maritima, Hispanica, frutescens tt procumbens 
I. R. H. 505. Hort. Elth. 46. fig. 46. 

29. Atriplex maritima pumila, Arabita, fbliis, Vtllosis, ^bio- 
tundis. — Folia unguis equini figura. 

»0. Atriplsx ollda, maritima, pumila, procumbens. 

31. Aze- 


specimen Pliytographia Africans. 355 

31. Asedutch Dod. Pempt. 848. 1. It. H. 616. Eleah Axa- 

32. Balsatnitft Cbtysanthemi segctum fpUo, disco amplo. 

33. Borrago floribiis albis^ foliis longis, angusus. 

34. Bulbocastajuun Unuitor inciso folio X>ufiUniuiQ Vir. Lus. 
1. R. H. S07. 

35. Bulbocodium crocifolium, flore parvo, violaceo I. R. H. 
Cor. 50. Sysirynchium Theophrasti Cal. £c. I. 323. 

36. Bursa Pastoris hirsuti, Erucse flpre^ nervo folii prominirn- 
te.— Folia oblonga, serrata, caulem amplectentia. Sillqugs hir- 
sutse, interdum ex adverse positse, brevibus pediculis in spicam 
digestsCi Bursse Pastoris figura, sed majores et altius sinuatse. 
Septum medium Geranii sominis instar exporrectum. 

37. Cakile maritima, angustiore folio Cor. 49. 

38. Calcitrapa flore sulphureo procurabens, caule non alato. 
lacea Cichorii folio, flore luteo^ capite spinoso Bocc. Rar. 15. 
Jacea orien talis spinosa, folio Erysimi, flore luleo Bberh. Ind. 
Alt. 141. — In juniodbus capitulis, spinse superiores reliquis Ion- 
giores sunt, et castanei colons. 

39. Calcitrapa laciniata, multifiora^ minimo flore, albicahte 
Comm. Ac. R. Sc: Ann. 1718. n.i65. Carduus orientals Cal- 
citrapa; folio, flore minimo Cor. 31. Jacea minor, &c. Pluk« 
Aim. 192. Tab. 39. f. 4. 

40. Calcitrapoides Sphserocephalos, Erucae folio, Comm. Ac. 
R. Sc. Ann. 1718. p. 168. n. 8. Jacea Tingitana, centauroides^ 
&c. Phik. Aim. 191. Tab. 38. £ 5, 

41. Calthoides foliis oblongis, csesiis, crassis. — Calycem habet 
iimplicem, non squamosum, in quinque aut plures btas lacinias 
divisum. Semina papposa sunt et ovata. Rami in humum in- 

42. Campanula rotundlfoUa, hirsuta, saxatili), folio molli Bocc* 
App. ad Mus. 

43. Campanula birsuta, Ocymi folio j caulem ambiente» flost 
jjtendulo Bocc, Bar. 83. 1. R. H. 112. 

44* Cann^corus lati&liua, vulgaris I. R. H* 367, > 

45. Capparis Anbica, fructu ovi mafftiitttdine, samine pipeife 
instar acri Bellon. Obs. l.iL c 60.-»-Nostra tricubttalis tdt. Fo^ 
Ua habet 'gl«iaca, crassa, succulentai tatun4«» wiciaUA. Fructus, 
quem yidi, pollids &it magnitttdine» ob|fMigi^ cucumeri^ fprmt^ 
quern Arabes appellant Fe^e/ Jibbed^ i. e. P^i^, mdntanunu Co- 
piose crescit in via ad montom Sinai« 

46. Carlina fbre purpuxeo rubente, patulo L R. H. 500. Comm. 
Ac. R. Sc. Ann. 1718. p. 173. n. 4. 

47. Car- 

356 Specimen Pkytographia Africamt\ 

47. Carlina acaulds, flofe. specioso, pur^ureo^ non radiato^ fa^ 
dice gummifera, succo albo et nibro. Succo albo et rubro vene- 
nato. , Chamaeleon albus, sive !{»«; Dioscpr. 1. iii. c. 1 0. et 1. vi. 
c. 21. Hujus radix ili/zW dicitur. Vid. Leo Descript. Afr. 
1. ix. cap. penult. ' 

48. Cassia fistula Alexandrina C. B. P. 403. 

49. Caucalis Myrrhidis folio, flore et fructu parvo. 

50. Cedrus Iblio Cupressi, major, fructu flavescente C. B. P. 

51. Centaurum majus laciniatum, Africanuin, H. ft. Par; App. 
I. R4 H. 444. Rhaponticoide's lutea, altissima, laciaiata, capile 
xhagno, Comm. Ac. R. Sc, Ann. 1718. p. ISO. n. 30. 

52. Centaurium majus incanum, liumile, capite Pini, I. R« H. 
449. Rhaponticum humile, capite magno Strobili, Comm. Ac. 
R. Sc. Ann. 1718. p. 176. n. 3. 

53. Chamaedry folia tomentosa, Mascafensis Pluk. Aim. p.97« 
Tab. 275. f. 6. — In Numidia vidi sine flore. Folia digitis adhae- 
rebant, Lappas capitulorum instar; Cal^x hexaphyllus. Semina 
oblohga^ punctata, angulata, gossypio obvoluta. 

54i Chamseleon Alpinus, Sonchi spinoso, lucido folio, radice 
nigra, alatb caule Bocc. Rar. 2. 148< Tab. 28. & 105. Carduus 
Cirsioides nitido glauco folio, capituld singulari, Comm. Ac.ii. 
Sc. Ann. 1718. n. 9. 

55. Chamaemelum montanum, incanum Absinthioides, Italicum 
Barr, Obs. liii. Ic. 457. Comm. Ac. R. Sc. Ann. 1720. p.3ia; 
n. 14. Leucantbemum Plinfii Angiiill. 181. — Variat nostrum 
calyce villoso, rufescente, cuxn Italici calyx nigricet.' 

50. Chams^melum specioso flore, radicc longa, fervida. — Py- 
rethrurii vulgo, et Veteribus Arabibus Guntuss dicitur. Hujutf 
riadicis magna quantitas Constantinopolim tt E^airum transmitti. 
tnr^ et Saccharo condita in doloribus pectoris et dentium come- 
ditur. Flt>ris radius amplus est, subtiis putpureus. Discus mag- 
nus, luteus, ad seminum maturitatem protuberans, Squamis rigidr$ 

57. Chamsemelum LusiUlnicufh latifolium siv^ Cotonopi folio 
Breyn. Cent^ L 149. f. if4. Comm. Ac* R. Sc. Ann. 1720. 
p. 318. n» 9. PeQis pumila crenata, Agerati semula, crenis bi- 
comibus, asperiusculis Pluk. Ahn. 65^ Tab. 17. f. 4. 

58. Chamsriphes seu Palma humlHs, spinosa, foHo flabellifbr^ 
jni J. B. III. 37. — ^Doom Arafoum. Ad altitudtnem vidi septem 
aut octo pedum, ramis quotannis e stipite avulsis. 

59. Cbondrilla minima, repens, Asplenii foliolis pilosis. 

* 60. Cbrysosplenii foliis Planta aqtiatica, flore flavo, pentape- 


Specimen Phytographia Afrkana. 857 

talo.— Habitu est hirsuto, conglomernta, Cuscutse instar. Flores 
longis pedicuUs annexi sunt. Petala non fimbriata. Fructus 
mitrx episcopalis fonna. Calyx integer arete fructum axnplecti- 

61. Cinara acauloSy Tunetana. Tafga dicta, magno fiore, sua- 
viter olente, angustis Cinerarias foliis, non spinosis TilU H. Pis. 
p. 41. F. 1. Tab. 20. — Radix optinu saporis est, et ab incolis co- 

62. Cinara sylvestris, non spinosa, Hore cseruleo, foliis tenuius 

Q'i^ Cistus latifoliuSy magno fiore, Barr, Icon. 1315. Ob$u 

64. Clinopodium Lusitanicum, spicatum et verticillatum I* R^ 
H. 193. Prunella Lusitanica capite re.ticubtOy foHo Pedica}ari$ 
Tourncfortii H. Ox. HI. 363. -Bitumen redolet tota Planta, et 
flos magis similis vidctur Moldavicse quam Clinopodii. Mihi 
enim videbatur habere galeam quadrifidam, barbam bifidam. 

65. Cljmenum, quod Vicia maxima, Galegse foliis majoribus, 
tetraphylla vel pentaphylla, binatim floribus e viridi flavescenti- 
bus H. Catb. 

66. Cnicus cseruleus, humilis, montis Lupi H. L. B. I. R. H« 
451. Carduncelhis montis Lupl, Lob. Ic. 20. J. B. III. 92.-— 
Radix dolcis tt edulis est, Gemashdee dicta ab Arabibus. 

67. Colocyntbis pumila, Arabica, fructu Nucis Juglandis mag- 
nitudine, coftice Isevi. 

68. Colocyntbis pumila, echlnata, Arabica, striis duodecim lu- 
tein et viridibus variegata. 

69. Colocyntbis. pumila, &c. Cucumis Afncanus ecbinatus 
minof. Hystrix vegetabilis vulgo Harm. Par. B. 133. Descr. 
Cudumis ecbinatus, Colocynthidis folio, ibid. Ic. 

70. Coiis caerulea maritima C. B. P. Hanzaerah Arabum, cu- 
jus decoctionem in Luc Venerea copiose sumunt. 

'71. Coris cserulea maritima, foliis brevioribus, magis confer- 

72. Conyza tormentosa, Polii foliis crehatis* — Planta haec tri- 
luicialis est, suaveolens, floribus singularibus. 

73. Cotyledon palustris, Sedi folio, floribus rubris, longioribus. 
— Flores oblongi sunt, Centaurii mitioris facie, tt in umbella quasi 

74. Cqtyledon palusttis, Sedi folio, floribus luteis, breviori- 
bus. ' 

75. Crambe spinosissima Arabica^ foliis longis, angustis, flori* 
bus in foliorum alis. 

i6. Cre- 

si 8 specimen Phytograpkitp Africans. 

76. Creipis Chondrillsft folio Comm. Ac. R. Sc. Ann. 1721. 
|». 195. 

77. Cynoglossam Hispamcuniy angu$t!foliiUDy Acre obsolete. 
— Variat fiore candido. 

78. Cynoglossum Myosotidls foliis incanis, flore parvo, rubcr-» 
rimo.- -Variat foliis ct floribus majoribus. 

79. Cyprcssus fructu quadrivalvi, foliis Equiseti instar articu* 
latis. — Mediam videtur habere naturam inter Arbores et f'rutlces ^ 
uunquam enim vidi altiorem quindecim pedibus. Folia laete vi- 
rent, in quibus multse squamulae, ut in aliis speciebus, apparent y 
sed, Equiseti instar, crebris amlculationibus sibi invicem pjxida- 
tim conjunguntur. 

80. Cypenis humilis, spicis brevibus, lotundis, conglomeratis 
Buxbaum Cent. I. p. 34. Tab. S5. f. 1. 

.81. Cytisus foliis subrotundis, glabris, flonbus amplis glomera- 
tis, pendulis. 

82. Cytisus foliis oblongis, sessilibuS| glabns, siliquis compres- 
^s, incanis. — Folia in summitatibus plerumque singularia sunt, et 
ipsoB summitates aculeatae. 

83. Cytisus spinosua H, L. B. I.B. H. 648. 

84. Dens Leonis ramosus, maximuSy foliis pilosis, sinuatis, pe- 
dalibus. Hieracium Platyneuron, Bursse Pastoris csesura, piloso 
folio H. Catli. Raij H. III. 145. 

85. Digitalis Verbasci folio, purpurea, minor, perennis. His- 
panica Barn Ic. 1183. Obs. 187. 

S6, Drypis Theophrasti Anguill. Spina umbella foliis vidua 
C £. P. 388. 

87» Echinopus Orien talis, Acanthi aculeati folio, capite magno 
spinoso caeruleo Cor. 34. Comm. Ac. R. Sc. Ann. 1718. p. 151. 
n. 4. 

88. Echium Scorpioides, spicis longis, plerumque recurvis, flo* 
iibus parvis, purpureis. 

89. Echium Tingitanum, altissimum, flore variegato H. Ox. 
in. 140. Pluk. Aim. 133. 

90. Elychrysum Gnaphaloided, floribus in strictiorem umbel- 
lam congestis. 

91. Eruca flore albo, foliis sessilibus, Bursas Pastoris. 

92. Eruca pumila, floribus albis, foliis laciniatis. 

93. Eryngium aiiiethystinum, Lusitanicumi folio longiori I. R. 
H. 327. Eryngiuni minus, mOntanum, flore cseruleo, pulchro 
Vir. Lusit. 

94. Eryngium foliis angusti^, digitatis HeUebori. 

• 95. Eryn- 

specimen Phjftographia Africana\ 359 

95. Erynglum planum, medium, foUis oblongis. Ab Eryngio 
latifolio piano C. B, P. 386.— Distinguitur foliis ad caulem Ion* 
gioiibus, magis serratis, et magis spinosisy ab Eiyngio piano mi< 
nori C. B. P. Foliis amplioribus, in pediculum non contractis, ca« 
pitulis minus frequentibus et spinosis differt. 

96. Erysimum incanum Arabicum, Marl folio. 

97. Fagonia Arabica, longissimis aculeis armata.— Folia an- 
giista sunt, succulenla, el Ronsmanni instar rugosa. Tribulus ve* 
tcrum ut et Dardar Him S. S. Olavi Celsii Hierobot. 

93. Fabago Arabica, teretifolia, fiore coccin«o. Fagonioides 
Memphitica, virens obtcurius, folio ctassioriy bidigitato, tereti, 
fnictu cylindraceo, Lipp. MS. apud Phyt. Sherard. Ox. 

99. Faeniculum Lusitanicum minimum acre I. R. H. 312. 

100; Ferrum equinum minus, siliqua in summitate singular!. 

101. Ferula Galbaniftra Lob. Ic^ 179. I. R. H. 321. 

102. Filago supina, capitulis rotundis, tomento obsitis Barr. 
Obs. 999. Leontopodium verius Dioscorldis, Hispanicum ejus- 
dem, Icon. 296. 

103. Pllicula Eupbrasisb foliis conjugatis. 

104. Filicula ramosa, Lusitanica, pinnulis ad Ceterach acce- 
dentibus I. R. H. 542. H. R. Monsy. 79. Ic. et Descript. Fili- 
cula Smymsea, pinnulis rotundis, minimis Pet. Gaz. T. 71. f. 3. 

105. filix Lonchitidis &cie, foliis angusUs, pellucidis, auricu- 

106. Fungus Mauritanicus, verrucosus, ruber Pet. Gaz. Tab. 
39. f. 8. Cynomorion purpureum officinarum Micbelii, Nov. 
Gen. p. 17. Tab. 12. Orobanchen Mauritanicam appellavi^ 
Obs. p. 264. — Tota planta est substantiae rubrae fongosge, glande 
sive capitulo florigero succo rubro scatente \ floribus stamineis, 
constipatis, arete semina dura, rotundula, ampkctentibus. 

107. Galeopsis Hispanica, frutescens, Teucrii folio I. R. H. 
168. — Sepibus conficiendis inservit prope Algeriura. Per matu- 
ritatem, semina pulpa molli, nigra, baccee instar^ involuta sunt. 

108. Genista- Spartium Lu^tanicum, siKqua falcata I. R. H. 


109. Genista-Spartium procumbens, G^manico simile, foliis 

110. Geranium pusillum, argcnteum, Heliotropii minoris folio. 
— Folia, calyces et rostrum argentea sunt. Folia eleganter stri- 
ata. Pediculi aphylli. 

111. Geranium supinum, rotundo Batraclioideis crasso, ton\en* 
toso folio, radice rufescente, longius radicata I. R» H. 269. Bocc. 
Mus. p. »i. Tab. 128. p,160. 

112. Glo- 

360 Specimen Phytographite Jfrican(e. 

112. Globularia fruticosa, Myrti folio, rigido, nunc tridcntatO| 
nunc piano. Tesseigak Arabum. 

113. Gramen alopecuroides maximum J. B. Spica divisa Scbc 
rardi Scheuchz. Agrost, 24T. 

1J4. Gramen avenaceum, strigosius, utriculis lanugine albican- 
tibus, A Gramine avenac.'utric. lanugine flavesc'. I. R. H. 525^ 
•--Diffcrl locustis minus sparsis, angustioribus, aristis tenuioribus, 
lanugine vertus basin ct ad semen Candida, Porro locustae hujus 
simplices sunt, ct semen tantum tinum lanugiiiosum, nudum con- 
tinent, cujus apoK arista simjplici terminatur, cum illius locustse 
gemina contineant semina calyce s. squama inroluta, quoruin ari- 
sta e latere vel dorso calycis exit. 

115. Gramen £a;cinonense panicula densa, aurea I. R. H^ 

116. Grai3(iesi SfOiaoides^ f(^tucae^ tenuique panicula. minus 
Barr. Ic. 76. 2. 

117. C^;rsMaDen Cypetoides, aquattcuxQ, majus, panicula Cyperi 
longi, ex crassioribus glumis compacta, et brevibus petiolis donatii 
Lael. Triumf, in Obs. J. Bapt. Fratris. • 

118r Qx^men 4sictylon, spica gemina, triunciali, glabra ct 2ru 
stata Michel. Cstt. H, Pis, Graxnen bicorne sive Distachyophe- 
ron Booc* Rar. 20, 

119, Gramen humile, capituUs glomeratis pungentibus — Pal- 
mar! est altitudine j caulibus tenuibus uno alterove folio glabro 
cinctis, quorum summitatibus capitukun nascitur rotundum, e 
pluribus spicis brevibus, e quatuor aut quinque glumarum pari- 
bus, aristis brcvissimis, rigidis terminatis conflatum. 

126. Gramen panicula spica ta, villosum, locustis villosi^ 
Scheuchz. Agrost. 248, 

121. Gramen paniceum, spica simplici aspera C, B. P. 8. Pa^ 
nicuni sylvestre dictum et Dens can^nus i. J. £. II. 443* 

1 2 2 . G ramen pauicul^lum, locustis ma^imis, phoenicei^^ tr^mui' 
lis I. R. H. 523. 

123. Gramen panicu\atum, nunus, locusti^ magnis, tremulis 
I. R. H. 523. 

124. Gramen pretense, capiUare, .p^nicolatum, Ibcustis parvis 
fiavescentibus.— Folia ad radicem capillaria, confert^ ad cul* 
mum ktiuscula, panicula $peciosa, e locustis muticis e tribus aut 
quatuor squamarum ad margines argentearum paribus compo- 

1^5. Gratiolae affinis Hyssopifolia major^ Lusitanica Flor. Bat. 

69. Rail Hist. III. 526. . f 

' • i. , . • 

126. Hedysarum clypeatum, flore suavitey rubente £yst. I. 


\ 'n-. 

specimen Phytographia Africafue. 361 

tl-. H. 401. — Sellah Arabuziii quo saginantur pecora per totam 


127. Hedysamm ptocumb^ns,, annuuniy aiigustioribus foliis* 
Onobcychis major, humi projecta, longulo, cordate folidlo, flori- 
bus rubris clypeatis, articulatis, uliquis sparsis H. Catb. Raii Hist* 
III. 457. 

128. Hellanthemum Hallmi mmoris folio £arr« Obs. 527. Ic. 

129. Helianthemum luteum, Tbymi durioris folio Barr. Obs. 
521. Ic.441. 

130. Helianthemum Orientale, frutescens, folio Olese, flore 
lateo Sher. Boerh. Ind. Alt. 276. 

131. HeHanLheisLUm. supinum, Polygon! folio hispido et gluti- 

132. Heliotropii facie Planta, lanuginosa, ferrugineaf pedicuHs 
dngularibus. — Folia habet Heliotfopii minods, crassa, villosa ^ 
calyces speciosos, multifidos ^ semina quatema, nuda, ovata, nigef- 
rima. Florem non vidi. 

133: Helitropium majus autumnale^ Jaridihi odore L R. H* 

134. Hesperis hirsota, liitel, Bellidi^ foHo dentatoi — Similis est 
Barbareae muraH J. Bi Sed faJia pedicuHs ad caulem longioribus 
haerent, et Hores lutei sunt rariores. 

135. HeSpeiis incana, aspera, foliis stnctissimis. 

136. Hesperis maritima, perfoliata, Bellidis folio, glabro. — 
Non est eadem planta cum Hesperide marit. perfoliat. parvo flore 
cseruleo, Pluk. Aim. 183. — Sed differt ab ea .foliis brevioribus, 
glabris, succulentis, minus dentatis, flore msjore, simili Hesperidis 
maritimse supinae exiguse, I. R. H. 223. — Aqua foliis caulem am- 
plectentibus, obtusioribus et glabris distinguitur.  

137. Hleracium angustifoliumy parce dentatum, floribus in ex« 
tremitatibus caulium singularibus. 

138. Hieracium speciosum, squamosa calyce, Lycopi folio 
crasso, subtus incano. 

139. Hyacinthus obsoletior Hispanicus serotinus Clus. H* 

140. Hypccoon Orientalc Fumariae folio Cor. 17. 

141. Hypecoon tenuiore folio I. R. H. 230. 

142. Hypericum sive Androsaemum magnum Canaricnse, ra- 
mosum, copiosis floribus, fruticosum Pluk* Alm^ 189. Tab; 302. 
f. 1. 

143. Jacea acaulos kitea, Etucae folio, squamamtn ciliis canJi- 
As. — Radix dulcis, esc'ulcnta est, et ab A^*^^^^ Toffs dicitur. 

Vot. II. 2 z 144. Jacea 

362 Specimen PHpographue Afrkana^ 

144. Jacea purparea, Atractylidis facie. — Hujusce Plants 
squamae imicuspides sunt, ciliis ad marginem brevioribus. 

145. Ja^mmoides aculeatum Polygon! folio, floribus parvis al- 
bidis. — Frutescit sarmentis, longis, tenuibus propendentibus. Spi- 
nse tenueSi cortex ramoruni incaiuis tenuique vfllo obsitus. 

146. Ilex aculeata, cocciglandifera C. B. P. 425. I. R. H. 

147. Juniperus major, bacca cserulea C. B. 489. I. R. H. 

148. Kali spinosnm, foliis crassioribus et brevioribus I. R. H. 
247. Pluk. Aim. 202. 

149. Kali membranaceum, foliis angustis conjugatis. Faciem 
habet Kali foliis angustioribus spinosis I. R. H. 247. — Sed folia 
semper ex adverso nascuntur, et semina illius carent foliis mem- 

150. Ketmia ^gyptiaca, Vitis folio, parvo flore I. R* H^ 100. 
Bamia J. B. II. 959. 

151. Ketmia vesicaria Africana, (lore amplo, purpureo. — A 
Ketmia versic« Afinc. Toumefortii differt foliorum segmentis Ion- 
gioribus \ frequentius serratis ^ calycis segmentis angustioribus et 
loagioribus ^ flcire ampliori, toto purpureo. 

152. Lacryma Jobi latiore folio I. R. H. 532. 

153^ Lathyrus sativus, flore et fructu minore nve Kersailali 
Arabum. — Faciem habet Lathyri, qui mft^wm^mt Moiisom dici- 
tur, sed ad sdtitudinem quinque aut sex pedum crescit. 

l54; Leucoium sylvestre, latifelimn flosculo, albido^ parro 
Rail Hist. 1. 186. 

155. Limonium caulibus alatis, Aspletiii foliis, minus aspens, 
calycibus acutioribus, flavescentibus.— £1 Khaddah Arabum. 

156. Limonium eaulibus alatis, foliis minus sinuosis, calycibus 
tt viridi cseruleis. 

157. Limonium peregrinum Asplenii foliis C. B. P. 192. L 
R. H^ 342. Limonium pulchrum Rauwolfiii Park, Th. 1235.-- 
Variat nostruni ab hac Rauwolfiaiia specie, qiiod tota facie nigri- 
cet, et hirsutius sit, cum ilia rufescat^ cum calicibus cseruleis paili- 

158. Limonium mhlut, obtuso folio, viminibus foliatis Barr. 
Ic. 806. Qbs. (j90. Limonium minus J. B. III. App. 877. 

159. Limonium foliis Halimi BroSs. I. R. H. 340^ 

160. Limonium galliferum, foliis cylindraceis. — Florem habet 
pulchrum, ruberrimum. Folia incana, quasi SaccharO incnistata. 

.Gallae ovales caulibus adnascuntuTi non ttnO|Sed plurimls forami- 

nibus pertusae; 

161. Li- 

specimen Phytograpkia Africans. 363 

161. Linaria foliU subrotundisy floribus e foliorum alls nascen^ 
tibus.— Rami plerumque uno versu dispositi sunt. 

162. Linaria Myrsinites, Hore luteo, rictu puxpurco. Est Li« 
naria Myrsinites, triphylla, flore candide sulphureo, rictu crocco, 
brachiata H. Cath. — Nostra habet folia plerumque bina ex ad- 
verso po'sita ; florem luteuih ; rictum purpureum. 

163. Linaria saxatilis, Serpilli folio L R. H. 169. 

164h Linaria Sicula multicaulis, folio MoUuginis Bocc. Rar. 
38. ' . 

165. Linaria Siculse accedens, MoUuginis folio breviori. 

166. Linaria triphylla, exigua, calcari praelongo. 

167. Linum maximum Africanum, flore cseruleo Volk. Fl. 
Nov. Linum sativum, latifolium, Africanum, fructu majore I. 
R. H. 339. 

. 168. Lotus Greecai maritima, folio glauco et velul argenteo 
Cor. 27. 

169. Lotus humilis, siliqua &lcata, e foliorum alls singulari. 

170. Lotus pentaphyllos, siliqua comuta C. B. P. 332. Tri- 
folium sive. Lotus Hieraxune, edulis, siliquosa J. B. XL 365. 

171. Lotus villosa, altissima, flore glomerato I. R. H. 403. 

172. Lunaria fruticosa, perennis, incana| Leucoii folio Cor. 15. 
— In Arabia inveni. 

173. Lupinufl lanuginosus, latifolius, humilis, flore coeruleo 
purpurascente, stoloniferus H« Cath, — Tota planta est ferrugina 

174. Lychnis supina, pumila, Bellidis foliis crassis, flore bifido, 
purpureoy calyce striato, turgido Rail Hist. III. 481. 

175. Lechnis sylyestris angustifolia, calyculis turgidis, striatis 
C. B. P. 205. 

176. Lychnis sylvestris, flosculo rubro, vix conspicuo Grisl. 
Vir. Lusit. ViscagQ Lusitanlca, flore rubello, vix conspicuo H. 
£lth. p. 43 7. f.406. 

177. Lysimachia lutea humiHs, Polygalee folio. 

178. Medica magno fructu, aculeis sursum et deossom tenden- 
tibus I. R. H. 411. 

179. Medica marina Lob. Ic. 38.— Hae Medicae speciosiores 
sunt ex aliis plurimis, quae in Africa spomte nascuntur. 

180. Melongena AristolochisB foliis, fructu longo, violaceo. — 
Flores purpurei sunt, stellatim divisi, et minores quftm in aliis 
speciebus, quae in Africa coluntur. 

181. Mesembrianthemum perfoliatuiAy foUis esdguis, monacan- 
this,— Similis est Planta specimixU P^tse Siccse mesembriaalbe- 


364 Specimen Phytographia Africans. 

mi perfoliati foliis minoribus, diacanthis Hort. Elth,— Sed tota 
pallidipr est, foliis pauIo brevioribus et confertioribus, rectis, non 
reflexiSj illius instar. Caeterum folio triquctra sunt, apic^ spinoso 
terminata. Non raihi contigit florem videre. 

182. Musa fructu cucumerino, longiori Plum. 24. Mau^, 
Musa Alp. iEgypt. 78, 79, 80. 

183. Mu'scus ceranoides Palmensis, comis digitalis, Orchili 
{Argol) dictus Mus. Pet. 436. Gazoph, Nat. II. Tab. 7. £ 12- 
Fucus capillaris tinctorius J. B. III. 796. 


184. Muscus terrestris Luatanicus Clus. Hist. CCXLIX. 

185. Myrrhis annua, alba, hirsuta, nodosa, Pastinacae sylves* 
tttis fclio candicante Hort. Cath. Raij Hist. III. 254. 

186. Myrtus latifolia Baetica 1 . vel foliis laurinis C. B. P. 460. 
I. R. H. 640. — Copiose crescit in dumctis, cum aliis speciebu's, 
quae folia habent angustiora. 

187. Nasturtium Alpinum, Bellidis folio, majus C. B. P. 105. 
Prodr. 46. — Non est Nasturtii Species, pertinet enim ad PlsRitas 


188. Nerium fioribus rubescentibus C. B. P. 464. Oleandet, 
Lauras rosea Lob. Ic. 364. Diffiah Arabum. 

189. Oenanthe aquatica, tenuifolia, major, btdbulis radicum 
longissimis Cat. PI. Agr. Flor. Hort. Pis. TilUi. 

:i90. Oeboplia spinosa C. B. P. 477. Nabca foliis Rbaonni 
Yel Jujubae J. B. I. 1. 6, c. 39. 

191. Onobrychis Apula, perennis, erecta, foliis Viciae, flori- 
l^us albic^ntibuft, lineis rubris distinctis, in spica deasa congestis, 
fructu acul^ato Michel. Cat. H. Pis. 

192. Onobrychis §eu ^aput Gallinaceum minus, fructu 
maximo, insigniter iechinato Triumf. ap, ad Frat. 65. I. R. H. 

19,3. Onobtychi^ Orientalis^ arg^ntea, fructu echinato minimo 
Cor. 2Qi, 

194. Orchis angustifolia, anthrppoxi^orphos, spica laxiori, fia- 

195. Orchis anthroporaorphos, foliis latis, obtusis, capitujis 
globosis, purpurascentibus. 

196. Orchis foliis laaculatis, spig^ 4cnsa^ rubra. 

197. Orchis fucum referens, labeUo gibboso. 

198. Orchis roontana Italica, lingua trifida Burser. Camp, 
Elys. Tab. 2. p. 204. Ic. ' " 

199. Orchis myodes, lutea, Lusitanica Breyn. Cent. 101^ 
Tab. 45. 

200. Or- 

o. Tudiadarii, x 


_ « » 

specimen Phytographia AJrkancs. 365 

200. Orchis odorata> spica rubra, floribus parvulis, musctfoi:- 
mibus. , 

201. Orchis palmata, Sambuci odore, floribus purpureis C.^B. 
P. 86. I. R. H. 435. 

202. Omithopodio affinis, hirsuta, Scorpioides C. £. P. 

203. Orobanche flore specioso, fimbriato, ruberrimo. — Folia 
per caules babet angusta, et foliola floribus subjecta in longos te* 
tiuesque mucrones exeunt. 

2 04. Orobus follis angustissimis, radice tuberosa. 

205. Oxyapantha Arabica, fructu magno, eduli.-'-Facicm ha- 
}>et Ox^acanthae vulgaris, sed fructus ad Cerasi vel Azarolae 
magnitudinem accedit.— Copiose crescit in monte S. Catharinae e 
regione montis Sinai. . 

206. Palma dactylifera, sive Nahbal Arabum j cujus fructys 
Tummar j ramuli Jeridd appellantur. Triginta plus dactylorura 
(sive Tunmiar) species apud 2^benses et Jereedenses enumeran- 
tur 'y quarum Trunshah inter grandiores et moUiores \ fbrsan Ca- 
ryotae veterum ^ Deglutnore inter dulciores et conservationi ap- 
tissimas reputantur* 

207. Palma minor, "C. B. P. 506. Palma humilis Hispanica, 
spinosa et non spinosa J. B. I. 369. Chamasripbes Don. Pempt. 
Palma folio plicatili, s. flabelliformi, humilis Raii Hist. II. 1369. 
— In^rdum ad altitudinem crescit 6 aut 8 pedum, avulsis quotan- 
nis c trunco, ut in Palma, ramulis. Spectat. Palma Thebaica, 
Doom dicta. S. K»Kw^o^di> et Kt/xu Theo^hrasti Hist. Plant. 1. iv. 
c. ii. et 1. ill. c. 8. S. Cuci Plin, Hist. Nat. 1. xiii. c« 9. S. Pal- 
mae facie Cuciofeta J. Bauh. l.iii. c. 86. - 

208. Pedicularis Cretica maptima, amplioribus fialiis et Roti- 
bus Con 9. 

209. Pedicularis Cretica spicata, maxima, lutea Cor. 9. 

210. Pedicularis Teucrii folio, pediculo insidenie, flore parvo 

211. Pelecmus vulgaris I. R. H, 417. 

212. Periploca, folii§ angustis, confertis, floribus ex viridi fla- 
vescentibus. — Folia parva rigida, obtusa j qufcdam acutiota, ad 
genicula plurima nascuntur, Flores pediculis brevibus haerent c 
petalis angustis composittt 

213. Persicaria latifolia major et mitior, foliis et caule macula- 
tis, spica crassiori Cat. PL Agr. Flor. Michel. Cat. H. Pis. 

214. Phillyrea angustifolia, minus serrata Comm. Ac. R. Sc. 
Ann. 1722. p. 198. n. 7. Phillyrea angustifolia spinosa I. R, H. 

216. Phil-. 

366 Specimen Phyt(^graphia Africans. 

215. PhiUyr^a Hispantca, Nerii folio I. R. H* 596. Comm. 
Ac. R. Sc. Ann. 17:22. p, 198. n. 6. 

216. Periploca foliis angustis, confiertis, J^ribus ez viridi fla- 
vescentibus — Folia parva rigida, quaedam pbtusa^'qusBdam acuti- 
ora, ad genicula plurima nascuntur. flores ^pediculis brevibus 
basrent, e petalis angustis compositi. 

217. Phlomis lutea, villosa, perfoliata, verticilUs crebrioribus. 
— Folia incana, mollia, propemodum triangulana arete caulem 
amplectuntur, et ab eo perforantur. 

218. Pimpinella Oenanthes foliis, multum bracbiata, plerum- 
que nuda.-'-Giaveolens est Planta, quam copiose inveni super ri- 
pas Fluminis Salsi, inter montes Al Beeban dictos. Caules te- 
Hues sunt, duri, candidi, hue illuc distorti, cum umbellis parvulis 

219. Folium Valentinum, fruticosuxn, angustifblium|flore albo 
Barr. Obs. 331. tc. 1048. 

220. Poly gala vulgaris, major J. B. III. 387. 

221. Polygonum folio oblongo, crenato. — Folia unciam longa 
sunt, tertiam unciae partem lata, utrinque acujpinata, et per mar- 
gines tenuiter crenata. Flores btacteati sunt, mouopetali, candidi, 
lituris, ut in Ornithogalo, yiridibus notatL 

222. Quercus vulgaris brevibus pediciiUs J* B, I. 2. 704-*-*In 
Africa hs^c species retinet folia per totum annum. Glans dulcis 
est, et ab Africanis tosta cpmeditur, Altitudjlnem vi^nti pedum 
non excedit. Folia habet Quercus latifoliaa a Gasp. Bauhine de< 
pictae ad Matth. p. 17>6. 

223. Ranunculus Lusitanicus, folio subi^otundo, parvo flore I. 
R. H. 286. • 

224. Reseda Calcitrapae iPolio, maj ore et rarius diviso, peren- 


225. Rbagadiolus minus brachiatus, folio ampliore vix den- 

226. Rhamnus Siculus, pentaphyllos Bocc. Rar. 43. — Copiose 
crescit prope Warran. Frutex est spinosus, foliis in extremitati- 
bus pleruraque trifidis, flore herbaceo, lutescente Ziziphi, penta^ 
petslo, calyce integxo, bacca monopyrena, ruberrima, eduli, ofB- 
culo ovali, Momordicse seminis figura. 

227. Rosa sylvestris, rotundifolia glabra, purpurea, calyctbus 
eleganter foliatis. 

228. Rubeola vulgaris quadrifolia, Isevis, floribus obsoletis 
Michel. Cat. H. Pis. 

229. Ruta minor, trifoliata, incana, procumbens* 

230. Salix ramulis villosis, foliis laurinis, supeme nigricantibus. 

231. Sa- 

specimen Phytographia Africana. SB7 

231. Satureia saxadHs, tentiifolia, compactis feliolis Bocc. 
Mus. 168. T. ] 19. Satureia seu Thymbra frutescensy PasserinaB 
Tragi foliis angustioribus H. Cath. 197. 

232. Scablosa montana, fruticosa, reclinatis Arcbillese nascen- 
tis foliis H. Cath. I. R. H. 465. Pterocepbalus Achilleae foliis 
Coinm. Ac. R. Sc. Ann. 1722. p. 184. n. 3. 

233. Scabiosa prolifera, foliacea, semine membranaceo majore 
H. Ox. III. 50. n. 41. Asterocepfaalus annuus, humilis, intcgri* 
folius Comm. Ac. R. Sc, Ann. 1722. p. 18i?. n. 23. 

334. Sclarea folio mucronato, flore cseruleo, puiictato. — Folia 
pedalia sunt, laciniata Dentis Leonis instat, longo mucrone term!- 
nata. Flos dilute cserulescity cum punctulis purpurascentibus ubi- 
que dispersis. 

235. Scolymus Chrysanthemus, perennis ^gyptiacus fcrocior 
D. Lippi Comm. Ac. R. Sc. Ann. 1721. p. 519. n. 13. Cnicus 
Niliacus elatior, asperrimus, e glauco inveni, alato caule flore lu* 
tec Lip MS. apud Phyt. Sherard. Ox. 

• 236. Sc6rzonera Orientalis, foliis Calcitrapte, flore flavcsccnte 
Cor. 35. Scorzoneroides Resedse foliis nonnihil similibus Comm. 
Ac. R. Sc. Ann. 1721. p. 209. n. 2. 

237. Sctophularia Hxspanica Sambuci folio, glabra I. R. H. 
166.-— Variat foliis hirsutis. 

238» Scrophulaxia Lusitanica frutescens, Verbense foliis I« R. 
H* 167. 

- 239. Scrophularia Melissae folio I. R. H. 167. 

2 40. ScrophulaiiaOrientalis, Chiysanthemi folio, flore minimoy 
variegato Cor. 9. 

241. Sedum vermiculare, pumulum, glabrum, floribus parvis, 

242. Sena Orientalis, fruticosa, Sophera dicta H. L. Bat. 

343. Sidcritis floribus luteis, Melissae foliis, verticillis spinosis. 
— Ocymastto Valentino Clusii similis est, sed folia habet minus 
obtusa, flores luteos et spicam productiorem, 

244. Sideritis purpurea, foliis longis, serratis< — Galea floris am* 
piissima est, et folia longis pediculis adnettuntur. Caiy^, ut in 
priori, aculeatus. 

245. Sideritis purpureai angustifolia, non serrata.— Folia supe- 
riora Rorismarini magnitudine, Verticilli longtus distant, e flori- 
bus et calycibus rarioribus, aculeatis, conflati. 

246. Sinapistnim trifoliaium, angustifolium, asperum, siliqua 
latiori. — Siliqua sesquiuncialLs est, scabra, foliorum et caulis inn 
star. Semina villosa. Folia inferiora tcrna, superiora siniplicia. 
Tota planta viscosa est. 

247. Si- 

368 Specimen Phytographia Africdna. 

247. Sina^strum triphyllum, scabrum^ floribus, Saturate rabri^* 
<^-Tota planta prioris instar, viscosa est ^ sed folia babet latiors^ 
et longiora, Hyssopi figura et magnitudine \ caules crassiores f 
flores densius et umbellatim fere in summitate congest!. 

248. Sinapistrum tnpbyllum, breviore et hirtiori folio. — Haec 
speciesy ut priores, viscosa est« 

249. Slum arvense, foliis inferioribus^ suhrotundis, superioribus 
plerumque trifidis et laciniatis. 

250. Tamariscus Madraspatana, Cypressi facte Mus. Pet. 691^ 
Tamariscus Indise Orientalis Belgarum aemula, ramulis Cupressi: 
Auctocorea Malab. Pluk. Mantissw 111. Phyt. Tab. 443. f.4^— 
Copiose crescit per totam Africam. 

251* Telephium Myosotidis foliis^ amplioribus conjugatis.*^ 
Summitates ramulorum Heliotropli instar reflectuntur. Florum 
petala parva sunt ^ vascula simplicia ^ trivalvia \ plura semina 

252. Teucrium Delpbinii folio, ndh ramosum. — Flos albidus 
est, speciosuS) ad angula genicula gemellas. Caulis quadranga- 
laris, simplex. Folia glabra. 

253. Thapsia sive Turbith Garganicum, temitte latissimd J. B. 
III. 2. 50i h R. H. 322. — Boneffa Algeriensiimi, cujus radicem 
mulieres comedunt, ut pinguiores fiant. 

254. Thapsia foliis Coronopi divisura, segmentts obtusioribu^^ 
subtus incanis, sive Toufailet Arabum. 

255. Thapsia foliis Coronopi divisura, viridioxibus et acudori« 
bus, sive Edreese Arabum. 

256. Thlaspidium foliis angustis, argenteis, fructu parvo. 

257. Thlaspidium folio subrotundo, disntatOy fructu majori. 

258. Thymbra tenuissimis Ericae foliis, verticiUatim conges^ 

259* Tragacantha calyce vcsicario, spinis rccurvis. 

260. Tribulu9 tenrestris, minor, incanus, Hispanicus Barr. Ic. 


261. TrifbUum bumifusum,' glabfum, foliis ciliar^bu^ Varl. B. 
Par. 195. 

262. Turritis vulgari similis, sed fruticosior. 

' 263. Vicia l^adfolia, glabra, floribua paltidis, siliqua lata, gla- 
bra. — Carina et alse albse sunt/ galea subfusca ^ siliqua lata, uii- 
ciam longa. 

264. Viola fruticosa, longifelia, flore amplo, sobcaeruleo. — A 
Viola Hispanica ruticosa lohgifblia I. R. H. 421. Difiext iblits 
ktioribus et fioiibus magi» speciosis. 

^65. Vir- 


ii.Madrq/irra Aurvitij it. 

MI.MiiitrqitTa Abnuawidit ramniiar. 


specimen Phytop^aphiie Africance. 369 

265. Virga aurea major, foliis glutinosb et grave olentibtts I. 
R. H. 414.— Madramem Arabum. vid. Obs. vol.i. p. 361. 

266. Vulneraria flore et capitulis majoribus. — Non est eadem 
planta cum Vulneraria flore purpurascente I. R. H. 591. 

267. Vulneraria Hispanica, Omithopodii siliqms. Coronopus 
ex Cod. Csesareo Dod. Pempt. 109. 

268. Xiphion minus, flore luteo, inodoro I. R. H. 364. Iris 
Mauritanica Clus. Cur. Post.. in fol. 24. 

269. Zizipbus Dod. Pempt. 807. I. R. H* 627. Jujubse ma- 
jores, oblonga^ C. B. P. 446. 21izipha Sativa J. B. I. 40. — Hujus 
fructus ab Africanis Asafifa dicitur, unde forsan Zizipha vel Zi- 

2T0. Zizipbus sylvestris I. R. H. 627. Zizipha sylvestris in- 
fopcunda H. Cath. ^Secundum specimen Hor. Sicci Sherardiani 
Oxonisp asservatum), Seedra Arabum, quae et Lotus veterum.— 
Tiabitus Rhamni Flores ut in Zizipho. Fructus dulcior, ro- 
tundior, minor, Pruni sylvestris magnitudine. Ossiculum mag- 
num ut in Zizipho. Seedra porro fructus fert passim, Grossula^ 
lia; instar, per ramos sparsos ^ quum Jujubee surcu}is tenuibuSy 
pedalibus, quotannis e ramorum extremitatibus pullulantibus, nas-* 
euntur. ^ziphus etiam ad altitudinem viginti pedum aut plus 
excrescit ^ oanidice magno, rimoso ; ramis distortis, in extremita- 
tibus nodosis $  foliis oblongs, majoribus. Seedia vero plerumque 
non niM tricubitalis aut quadricubitalis est, ramulis plurimis ex 
eadem radice plerumque exeuntibus, levioribus, candidioribus, rec- 
•tioribus, cum foliis parvulis, rotundis rigidioribus. Sponte nasci- 
tur cum alibi, turn prsecipue in loco Regni Tuaetanorum, Jereed 
nuncupato, quae quondam Pars fuit Lotophagorum Regioni^. 
Vid. Obs. vol. i. p. 262. Fructum maturum comedi mensibu^ 
X)ecembri et Januario, . 



Appendlv de CoraUiis et eorum Afftnihus. 

1 . Alyconium candidum, cretaceum, lamellatum Maris Nu- 
fnidici. — Lamellae, ordine irregi^stri invicem connexas, cavernas 
form ant variarum figurarum. 

2. Corallum album. — Maris Numidici est, et ejusdem formae 
et habitus cum Corallo rubro, sed rarius invenitur. 

3. Corallum rubrum I. R. H 572. Tab. 339.— Copiose colU- 
gitur a piscatoribus Gallicis, apud La CaUe demorantibus, in 
nari Numidico. 

VOL. II. 3 a 4. £s- 

370 Appendis de Coralliis et eorum Affinibus. 

4« Esdian Rondektii 133. J. B. IIL 809* Retep<va Escha- 
ra iQ^na Imp. 630.- ^ex io9ri Numidtco. 

5. ]fucu$ pcnnam refcrens I. R. H. 5^9. Pcnna marina J. B. 
III. 80^. Imp. 650. — Vix Fucorum hasc species inter Zoopbyta 
interdum pmneratur, locum perperam dedi inter Pisces, Obs« voL u 
p. 348, PiscatOres Algerienses interdum retibus extrabunt, ubt 
per noctem lumen spargit, Cicindelx instar, ut proximiores pisces 
dignosci possint. 

6. Fungus coralloides lamellatus Maris Rubri. Fungus lapi- 
deus Clus. Hist, 124. Rar. Mus. Bcsl. T. 27. 26. L^. J. B. 
813. Ic. 1, 2. — Formam' et figuram fere semper iraitatur Fungi 
terrestris, qui nunc planus est, nunc gibbosus, pileatus, aut clypei- 
formls, Sed laminae semper in superiori superficie, dum inferior 
in pistnio desinit, 

7. Fungu;; coralloides rosaceus M. R.~«"Pars inferior pistillo 
innxtiturj superior in acetabula,lamellis plurimis striata, explicatur, 

8. Fungus coralloides, encepbaloides, gyris in medio sulcatls, 
lameliatis Rrratis Boerh. Ind. Alt. p. 1. Lapis fungites, cerebri- 
formis Raii H, App. 1950.-^-In pistillo desinit, sed latiori, quam 
\vi lamellata ^ut rosacea specie, £x Man Rubro. 

9. Fungus Astroites, stellis contiguis, parvulis M. R. — Stellas 
nimimm angulatas, decimam unci» partem in dtametro nqn su- 
perantf In forma fere semper ebbulari crescit base Fungorum 
species, cum aliao tequentes vano modo rupes operiunt, nee uUae 
iormae specificae constant. Vid« Obs, voL ii. p. 332. 

10. Fungus Astroites, stellis contiguis majoribus M. R. — 
Stellse ad quartam uncias partem accedunt, et nunc sunt rotundae, 
nunc oratae. 

11. Fungus Astroites, stellis contiguis, lamellatis, rotundis M. 
R. — Stelloe in bac specie semiunciales sunt, cum lamellis profim- 
dioribus et crassioribus. 

12. Fungus Astroites, stellis contiguis, profundis, angulatis 
M. R. — Stellae edam semiunciales sunt et profundae, pentagonae 
aut bexagonsip figurae, cum lamellis minoribus. 

13. Fungus Astroites, tuberosus, Stellis rarioribus M. R. — Stel- 
lae exigua^, elegantes, figuram prae se ferunt Ompbalodis Lusit. 
Lini-folio I. R. H. 140. 

14. Fungus Astroites elegans, Stdlis rarioribus, papiUatis, ro- 
tundis M. R. — Stellae paulo majores quam in nona specie, cum 
iradiis aspens, pi^nctatis, eminentibus. 

15. Fungus Astroites, stellis rarioribus, acetabulis minus pro- 
{undis M. R. — Stellae tertiam unciae partem occupant, rotundae 
aut ovatae figuiae \ minus praeterea eminent, cun^ radiis levioribas, 
et intervallis Stellarum magis sulcatis. 

16. Fun- 

Appendix de Coraliiis et eorum Affi^iihm. S7l 

16« Fangtts Astioitcsy pamm ramosus, stelfis ratioribus^ papil- 
htis Mi Ri-*^Stell8e ut in 14». specie^ sed leeviores. 

' 17. Fungus tubulatus et stcllatus M. R. Coraliiis affinis Ma-^ 
drepora J. B. III. 807. Madrepora Imp. 720. 3. Spec— Ex cy- 
lindris sive tubulis multis constat, fasdatim dispositis \ extremita- 
tibus plerumque prominentxbus et in Stellas desinentibus. Van'at 
tubulis rotundb ovaUs, ct compressis. Ad banc speciem referri 
potest Fossile illud Otcvfh piped waxen Vein dictum. 

18. Fungus eburneus, pyxidatus, compressus. — Lsevis est eat 
attritu maris \ licet ptimitus rugosa fuisse vldeatur haec speciek^ 
snstar FossiHs illius Plectronttes dicti, quod edam ad Fungum 
hunc referii debet. 

19. Keratophytpn arboreum, nigruni Boerh. Ind. Alt. p. 6« 
Corallium nigrum sive Antipatfaes J. £. III. 804*. Lob. Ic. 251; 
'>— Rami in hac specie plerumque intertexti suilt, cum materia 
quadam, ceras simili, hie illic interspersa. Est Man Numi-> 

20. Keratophyton cineteumi striatum, tuberculis minoribus Mi 
N. — Pedalis est hsec species, ramis rectis, minus frequentibus. Tu-* 
bercula, Nicotianse seminibus sequali^ ubique per ramulos disper- 

21. Keratophyton cinereum, flabellifonne, nodosum, rainis fre- 
quentioribus, huc iUuc distortis M. N. — Fotmam Lithophy ti fla<- 
belliformis babet, nisi quod rami non sunt intertexti. Pedalis 
aut altior est hsec species -y striata etiam, cum tuberculis^ ut in 
pi'iori \ sed paulo majoribus, auctioribus, et frequentioribus. . 

22. Keratophyton cinereum, fragile, ericeeforme, ramis pinn^^ 
lis M. N. — Tubercula undique circa ramulos, Ericse foliorum in- 
star, vel quasi catenatim dlsposita sunt. ^ 

23. Keratophyton rufescens^ ramulis capillaceis, sparsis M. Ni 
— Cubi talis est haec species, cum tuberculis parvulis, quasi evanes* 


24. Keratophyton rubium, Algeriense, Virgulti facie. — Tuber^ 
culis totum obseritur^ parvulis sursum spectantibus, instar vascu- 
lorum Plantaginis, sed minoribus. Tricubitalis est, cum ramis 
laxiori modo dispositis, quam in 20». specie. Lapidi, cui innas* 
cebatur, plunma semina, Lentis magnitudine, introrsum emargi- 
Data, lapidea, subfusca adhaerebant ) quprum unum postea turge* . 
l^at, quasi germine fcetum, et colorem rubrunx, Corallinum, assu- 
mebat. Ex Mari Algerlensi. 

25. Madrepora Ki^&roLuetini Candida, ramulis brevibus obtusi^ 
uno versu dispositis M. R. Planta Saxea A«^«T«y«H}«)( C!us> H< 
Exot, 1. vi. c. vii. — Variat colore fuscoi In utraque specietu- 

bercula sunt aperta* • 


372 Appendh de CoralUis et eorum AffinibUs. 

(C3r Heec et sequentes species, At^^nvmim dicuntuTy qtoa 

* Rami Abrotani seminse (a nonnullis Cbamsecyparissiis Plinii 

* existimati) foUorum formam poene referebant j nam brevibus 

* tubulis, instar minutissimorum foHorum constabsmt, eadem serie, 

* ut ilia, dispositis, sed magis multiplici, quia pauci quaternis, pie- 

* rique quiiiis, senis et septenis^ interdum etiam pluribus ordinibus 

* compacti erapt : In crassioribus autem ramis, qui quodaminodo 

* candicabant, fere attrita erant ilia folia, ut dumtaxat foramina 

* relicta apparerent tanquam foliorum tubulatOrum vestigia. Clus. 

* Eiot. 1. vi. c. vii. p. 123.* 

26, Madrepora AC^ortfy^A^sf repens, ramulis longioribus uno 
versu dispositis M. R. — Fasci est coloiis, cum tuberculis minoriA 
bus, apertis, sed asperioribus. 

527. Madrepora A^^rufieiinf nodosibr, tuberculis, uno versu 
dispositis M; R^-^Ejusdem est coloris cum priorij sed minus ra- 
mosa, cum ramis crassioribus; 

28. Madrepora Ai^trttfninf ramosior, tuberculis sursum 
spectantibui M« R«-^Candida est, cum ramis acutis^ erection- 

29. Madrcipctra Afi(«T«MM3ii( ratiiosW,. tdbetculisl longioribus, 
cl^usis, sursum spectantibus M. R. — Rami acuti stmt, ut in priori) 
sed viridescunty ^t umbellatim quasi nascuhtur^ 

30. Madrepora) AC^9T«yMi9ii( ramodor^ tuberculis horizontaliter 
dispositis M. R. — Tubercula a^rta font, et rami magis sparst 
quam in prsecedenti specie. 

31. Madrepora Astroites flavescen^, nodosa, minus ramosa Mi 
R. Corallium steUatum, minu^ tubrum J. B. 111. 806. Imp* 

CC^ Loco tuberculonim; hs^ et sequentes species asteriis sivd 
stellis exiguis plams tibique notantur ; propterea Astroites audit, 
et ab Atnfotanis distinguitur. 

32. Madrepora Astroites humilis, ceratiformis M. R.— Ramull 
in hac specie rotundi sunt^ et in extremilatibtis aduti. 

33; Madrefiora AstrofteS major, ceratiformis^ ramulis obtuas, 
planis, magis dispersis M. R; 

34. Madrepora Astroites major, ceratiformis, ramulis obtusis, 
planis, confertis M. R. 

35. Madrepora Astroites, Quercus inaxinSB vulgaris facie, ramis 
connatis M. R. 

36. Madrepora maxima atborea I. R. H. 573. Poms magnus 
I. B. III. 807. Imp. 62^, £x xnari Numidico. 

37. Madrepora tubulis ekganter coagmentatis constans, ru* 
berrimis Boerh. Ind. Alt^ p. 6. Tabularia purpurea L R. H. 


» w 


eiteliHia. Obf. p . 19*. XeU 

Catahgus Fossttium. 373 

$75. CoralUis affinis ; Alcyonium fistolosum tabrum J. B. UL 
803. H. Ox. III. Tab. et fig. uluma..-.Ex Mari Rabro, ubi 
specimina vidi longitudine tesquipedali, latitudine pedaji. 


Catalogs I^ossitium quorundam Rariorum e Rupibm 

€i Lapkidinis Africa. 

Vid. supra, p. 326. 

1; AcuiiEUS cylindraceus, striatus, bullis parValis obtusis in- 
signitus; Radiolus cucumerino sainori accedens, teretiformis 
Lbuidii Lithopbylacii Brit. 1030. — Formam bab«t aculei £cbini< 
laticlavii, bullis donatio Obs; supra^ p. 336i 

2. Aculeu$ cylmdraceusy striatum, bullis parvulis ikcilUs nota- 

3. Actltus Isevis, (^uadratuS; 

4. Balanus cinereus, fossilis. 

5. BekmniteSf Succini adiustar^ pellucidus, quibusdam Lapis 
Xiincurius Lb. Litbopb. 1707. 

6. Bucciiiites cancellatus, ebumeus. — Hsec et sequens species 
figuram babent Cocbkaruxn striatarum Listen Sect. v. c 7. Je 

li Buecihites csincellatus, ruber, twd vermiculo adsito. . 

8. Corallium ramulosum, pSrfractum Lb; Litb. 9i2. T^b; 3. 
f. 92. — Nostrum pyxidatim seu in acetabulis varisk formsB ereseit^ 
quorum plurimi compress! sunt. Li rupibus Oranensibus fire* 

9. CoraUium tenuius ramosum, al^um^ elegantissimuTa* 

10. Ecbinites bullis parvulis, rgris, prdine iircgulari posi* 

11. Ecbinites discoides, lasvls, glbbosior^ 

12. Ecbinites galeatus, spoliatus^ seu ex toto silieeus, vulgaris 
Lb. Litb. 956t Brontias sivc Ombria ovalis Plot. H. Ox. T. 2. 
£ 14. & T. 3. f. 1. — Nostrum in dorso paulo gibbosius est. 

13. Ecbinorum laticlaviorum scuta varia. 

14. Ecbinites pentapbylloides, Isevis, gibbosus, ad oris apertu* 
ram sulcatus. 

15. Ecbinites pileatus, seu figura cimoide vel quodammodd 
tttrbinata ^ aive BronUa prima Lachmundi Lb. Litb. 962. 

16. Fun- 

374 Catahgus FossUium. 

16. Fungi pyxidati fosstHs, qui vulgo Plectronitcs dicitur, va« 
lia specinuiia. 

17. Fungus. fossilis rugosus et striatus, gibbosior. 

18. Fungus fossilis^ rugosus, magis depressus, ruga intermedia, 

19. Madreporas Imperati fossilis, varia etiam specimina. 

20. Mjconites rotundus, compressus. — Ovorum piscium quo- 
rundam massa fossilis est, quam Nomades Thevestini nummum 
esse exbtixnant in lapidem conversum. 

21. Ostracites confragosusUvidus, strili iossqualibus imbrica- 
tis, et margine sinuato donatus. 

22. Palma fossilis, — ^Hoc specimen mihi dedit V. CI. Dom. 
Le Maire, quod cum aliis foasilibus, Echinis scilicet et Conchy- 
liis, recepit e Has Sem in Regionc Barcae. Eundem caudicem,* 
eosdemque iibrarum ductus et ordines prse de fert, quibus lignum 
ipsius Arboris vivse insignitur. Trunci integri interdum ibidem 

23. Pectinites eburneus, sex aut septem striis elatioribus, Icvi- 
bus, incisuris asperiusculis insignitus.— -Triunciklis &re est in cir* 
cuitu, et squaliter auritus. Striae ejus et incisurse aequalia con- 
chylii spatia occupant. 

2 1. Pectinites elegans, striis quinqtte aut sex eladoribus, ma- 
joribus, intermediis tribus minoribus, magis depressis. 

25. Pectinites laevis, parvulus, striis crebris, ad basin tenuiter 
sulcatis. ' 

26. Pectinites laevis, undecim aut duodecim striis compressis 
insignitus.— Ad pectines ex utraque parte aequaliter auritosr perti- 
net. Fasciis creberrimis, tenuissimis eleganter nbtatus est* Medio 
dorso cavus, ubi strise et &scias enanescunt. 

27. Pectinites magnus striis quindecim aut pluribus, bullatis, 
elatioribus, incisuris intermediis depression bus, asperis. Magnr- 
tudine et figura convenit cum Pectine primo Listeri, nisi quod 
noster itueqinliter auritus est* 

28. Pectinites paiTulus, striis crebris, asperis eleganter nota^ 

29* Pectunculites exiguos, eonfractus, tenuiter striatus. 

30. Pectunculites polyleptogynglymus, speciosus, leviter fasci- 
atus. — Decem uncias superat in circuitu* Cretacfei coloris est, 
intus fragmentis variorum conchyliorum fossilium repletus. 

31. Retepora fossilis, cinemu 

32. Terebratula vulgo, sive Conchites vertice perforato. — Va- 
lla hujusce Co&chlyii, ut et Pectinum genera, ubique per AhU 


Catalogus Fomliunu '375 

cam, Asiam, Arabiam, et in ipsis Pjramidum gradibus, inv^- 

33. Trochites nodosu8| luteus, semiuncialls. 

E Lapidibm praciptie Pyramidum, et loch 


Vi4. su^H-a, p. 197. . 

34. Aculeus cylindraceus buUatus. — Non striata est hsec acu- 
leorum species, ut reUquae fere omiies quae sunt buUatae, Ad 
magnitudinem pennaB anserinse aut cygneae interdum accedit. 

35. Aculeus latus, compressus, Isevis, subcaenileus.-^— Dimidiam 
unciae partem latus est. 

36. Astaci fossilis brachii articulus extimus et maximus.— As- 
tacum totum vidi in lapide inclusum, haac tamen partem nuhi 
solummodo contigit evellere. 

37. ChamdBpholadis angustse, intus fasciatse, nucleus. 

38. Chamitcs, planus, cinereus, rotundulos, rostro acuto. Cir- 
cinita minor Lb. Litb. 741. 

39. Ecbtnites laticlavius compressusy semiudcialis, ordinibus 
buUarum binis juxta positis. 

40. Ecbinites pentapbylloides, striis sequalibus, umbone aper- 
to. — Plus quam pedalis est in circuitu, dorso parum elato et aper- 
to. • In deserto Marab inveni, in via ad montem Sinai. 

41. Icbtbyodos, vulgo Bufonites dictus, gibbosus, luteus. 

. 42. Icbthyodos, vulgo Giossopetra dictus, acutus, semipelluci- 
4us, margine otrinque &vi. 

43. Lithoxylon ferruginei coloris.---PragnJcnta plurima va- 
line magnitudinis ubique jacent in Istbmo inter Kairum et 
Suez. . 

44. Madrepora astroites fossilis, Queicus marinae ^cie. 

45. Madreporas Imperati, Fori magni et Corallii cujusdam 
flavi coloris, fragmenta plurima fossilia. 

46. Pholas cinereus, fossilis, uncialis, laevis. — Figura convenit 
cum Pbolade xnvolucro spoUato Lb. Lithopb. Tab. 10. f. 878. 
nisi quod noster major est. 

47. Rhombi cylindracei, parvuli, nucleus. 

48. Turbinites compressus, fiasciatus, sesquiuncialis. — Albidus 
est, fiuore intus refulgens. figura fere convenit cum X^Asrivp 
Fab. Colum* Aquat. &c. 


376 Catahgus Fossilium. 

E Rupibus pracipue Laodicea et Scala Ty riorum. 

Vid. supra, p. 154* 

49. Actilei Echinorum fossiles, Lapides Judsuci vulgo dicti. — 
Horum ubique vmrietates qaftmplurimse. 

50. Aculeus laevisi turgidus, Lajpi4i$ Ji^daici forma et magni- 

51. Aculeus laevisy Pyri vtl ¥$ci-formis. — Hie et prsecedens 
lividi coloris sunt. 

52. Aculeus laeyisy cjlindiraceus, cinereus. — Pennam corvinam 
cirassitie aequat* 

. 53. Aculeus torosus, minor Lh. Lith. ]047. 

54. Aculeus torosus, seu ramusculis insignitus, major. — A prae^ 
cedent! differt, quod, ramu$ci|Usf'(i^culei^ potius) e^4;ieptis,. totus 
laevis sit, cum alter striis altis iiotfetur. 

55. Aculeus idem cum 53^ speci^.-^Vari^t buUis asperiort- 

56. Echii^teis a^uoi;, pentaphyUcideSy striis majoribus, aequa- 

57. £chtidtes laoiv^, pentapliylloides, postica parte gibbpsion, 
anteriori sulcata. — £x quinque suturi^ sive striis, q\iibus insigni- 
tur haec species, tres atnteriores lortgae, speciosa^ sunt, (quarum 
media sulcata est) > alterap duas rotundas, e^igua^. 

58. Locustae forficula vel sevrula i^teo^r Ui« JLiitb.1246. 
Tab. 14. f. 1246. 

59. Pectunculites lacunatus minor Lh. Litb. n. 684. 

60. Poms minimus, reticulatus Lb. Lith. n« 94. Tab. 3. 94. 
— 'Speciminum nostrorum alia- cylindracea sunt, alia compressa, 
quorum unum et alterum arcuatum est, in margine eleganter si- 

61. Piscium fossilium varia g^i^erai ad Islebri^nos accedentia 
forma, situ et materia. 

62. Squilla fossilis, cujus IcpQ exhibetur in Mus. Besl, nid 
quod nostra minor est. 

C^ Praetcr haec, plus centum alia Fossilium genera, una cum 
Echinis, Coralliis et eorura afHnibus, Vasibus, Icunculisquc quam 
plurimis ex Africa olim transmisi, et Celeberrimo Woodwardio 
conservanda commendavi. Illo interim defuncto, dum ipse apud 
exteras gentes commoratus fui, eorundera nuUam plane rationem 
reddere volucrunt Testamenti Curatores ; sed ea aut vendcbaitt 
aut retinebant omnia^ tam meo, quam Historiae Naturalis Studio- 
sorum detrimento. 




Pisces nonnulli Rariores, qui maria Algeriensiwn et 

Tunitanorum frequent ant. * 

Vid. vol. i. p. 348. 

1. Alphjestes sive Cynoedus Rondel. 170. Raii Sjnops. Pis- 
ciuniy p. 137. 

2. Asellus mollis major. Raii Synop. p. 55| $6, 

3. Asellus mollis minor. Ibid. 

4. Aurita omnium Autorum Raii Synop« p. 131. Jeiaffa 

5. Buglo!(sus, Linguacttla, et Solea Rondel, p. 320. • Raii Sy* 
nop. 33. 

6. Canis Carcharias sive Lamia Rqp4cl*. p- 18. 
7r Calulus minor vulgaris Raii Synd^. 22. 

8. Cephalus Rondel. 260. Mugil Raii Synop. 84. 

9. QuculttS Aidrovandi Rait Synop. 99. 

10. Draco sive Araneus Plimi Rondel. 301. Raii Synop*. 91.' ' 

11. Faber sive Gallus marinus Rondel. 328. Raii Synop. 99. 
a nonnuUis Pisds Sti. Petri dicitur. 

12. Galeus Acanthias sive Spinax: RbndeL 373, Rait S^nop. 

13. Galeus Isevis Rondel. 375« Raii ^nop. ^2, ' 

14. Glaucus Aldrov. p. 302. Amia Salvian. fig. & p. 121. 
Leccia (Leechy vulgo) Romse et Liburni Raii Synpp, 93* . . 

15. Hirundo Rondel. 284« IVIilyus, S^lviaQ« fig« S^p* 187« 
Raii Synop. 89. 

16. Hirundo vera Veterum Salvian. fig. & p. 185. Mugil 
alatus Rondel. 267. 

17. Lupus Rondel. 268. Raii Synop. 83. 

18. Mairo Hispan. Mai%ah s. Capra Maurorum. 

19. Mormyrus Rondel. 153. Raii Synop. 134. Maura^ vulgo 

20. Mullus barbatus Rondel. 290. Raii Synop. 90« Tr^lia 
Italis, Rouget Gallis, locis quamplurimis Salmonetta. 

21. Maursena RondeL 403. Muraena omnium Autoium Rait 
Synop. 34. 

VOL. II. 3 b 22. Or- 

378 Pisces nonnuUi RarioreSy <§'c. 

22. Orthragoriscus dve Luna Piscis Rondel. 42 1. Mola Sal- 
vlan. fig. 154. p. 155* Raii Synop. 51, 

23. Pagrus Rondel. 142. Rait Synop. 131. 

24. Pastinaca capite obtuso sive bufonio. Aquila Romanxs et 
Neapolitanis ^ nee non secunda Pastinacse species RondeL 3 3d. 
Ilaii Synop. 23* 

25. Pelamys ver^ »ve Thyttnus AtistoteHs ftimdel. 245. Raii 
Synop. 58. 

26. Perca marina Rondel. 182. Raii Synop. 140. 

27. Polypus orbicularis, exiguus, msiri innsitahSy Obs. vol. i. 
p. 348* et voLii. p. 331. Urtica marina solut^ Fab*. CoL Aquat. 
&c. p. XX. xxii. 

28. Rua clavata Rondel. 353. Rsfi Syticrp. 26. 

29. Raii okytrhytichos, Squattm ficlfe, tmico spinaniih oniline 
donata. Raia secimda oxyrihyncho$| sive Bos antiquofuiii Ron- 
deL 347. 

30. Salpa Rondel. 154. Raii Synop. 134. 

31. Sargus Rohdd. 1^2. Raii Syiiop. 130. 

32. Scbrpius minor sivi^ Sicorpamal Rdndel. 142. R^ Synop. 

'33. Serpens marinus, cauda t6mpriii»B, jihtds citicta, in 6ra 
nigris. Myms Road* Gesnero, p. 681. 

34. Squatioa dorso laevi, alis in extremitatibus clavatk. 

35. Torpedo maculis pentagonicc positis, nigris. 
9&. Trachunis Rjcnnid. 133. Rail SyiK^. 92. 

37. Turdus minor casruleus.' 

38. Turdus Bunor fiiscus, mdcu|atu$, pihnis BrahcMaHbus au- 
xmi aliis ex viridi ca^ruloseeiitibus. ' « 

39. Turdu9 nunor viridis Rdii Synop. 137« 
. 4K). Utibra Rondel. 132. Raii ^nop. 95. 

41. Zygsena Rondel. 389. Raii Synop. 20. 

.- i . • J 



Conchylia qucedam rariora Maris Mediterrami 

€t RubrL 

Vid. vol. i. p. 350. 


}., AupLis matjiui majoi:, latioi:, plurious foramlxiibus cons|ncua 
Xist. Hist. Conchyl. Secjt. 7. n. £• 

^. Balapys purpura^ceps, capitis apertura valde patend. — 
Nunc rupibus adhseret, nunc Corallinis, aut Materiae cuidam Ma- 
dreporas affinj, a PeneciUIs £t VienxiicttCuUs perforat)»» 

3. ^alanus purpurascens, ventricosior, capote ipinus apnccta* 

4. ^^ccinum ^mpal^isjani fuscuni) clavkula nodosa. 

5. Buccinum ampullaceum, rostratum, striatum, triplici ordine 
muticum cx^asperatum lisit. Hist. Conch. Sect. 13. n. 22. Pur^ 
.pura ait^9 aiiuricala Aqui^t. et Text. Obs. lxiv. Ic. lx. sive 
Murex parvus rostratus Fab. Col. Deac. 

6. B^c^num ^pull9<:£um9 xosfcratum^ (ieviter) striatum, mu- 
ricatum, ex duplici ordine in ima parte primi orbis List. H. 
Conch. Sect. ).3. n. 20. — Variat colore ebi^nveo ;et iusco; 

7. Bup,c;num axnpi^llaciei^ t^ue, rostro levijter sinuQso, pro- 
funde et rarius si^lcalo Lji^t. If. Cgpch. Sect. 13.. ti. XH» 

8. Bucci|iU(n biling^e stfiati^ni 1^9 prpp^lQ.— JLafanim 
nostri planum est, sine digito aliter figuram jirse se fert n. 20. 
List. I^. Conchyl. Sect. 1 2. 

9. Buccinum biljngue, rostf,9 riccurvo, labro pro4ucto, clavi- 
cula muricata. — Variat inter n. 19. et 28. List. H. Conch. Sect. 
15*. n. 1. 

10. Bucciuum brevirostruif) ni^dpsum List. jEJ. Cotich; Sect. 
15. n. 1. Purpura vblacea Fab. Col. Purpur. Jc. et Descript. 
P» Jl* 

11. Buccinum maximum, variegatum ac striatum Fab. CoL 
Aquat. et Terrest. Obs. Llll. Ic. Descript. Lyi. 

12. Buccinum recurvirosytruin,. striatum^ quinque aut sex mu^ 
•ricum ordinibus asperam. 

1 3. Buccinum rgstratuiti, candi4um, Ieviter striatum, ^nuosum 
List. H. Conch. S. 14. n. 14i 

14. Buccinum rostratum, labro 4upltcatO| quasi triangulari 
List. H. Conch. Sect. 14. n. 37. 

J 5. Buccmum rostratum l^Ve, labro siniplici, alte Striatum ad 
iritervalla List. H. Corich. Sect. 14. n. 27* 

16. Buc- 

380 Conchy lia qucedam rariora^ Sgc. 

16. Buccinum rostratum, triplici ordine muricum canalicalt»* 
torum horridum List. H. Conch. Sect. 14. n. 41. . Purpura dve 
Murex pelagius, marrooreus Fab. Col. Ic. LX. Descr. LXll. 

17. Chamarum et TelUnarum, margine Isevi et dentato, multa 

18. Cochlea variegata, dense et admodum tenuiter striata, item 
quolibet orbe diiae insignes striae parallelsB, bullatse List. H* 
Conch. Sect. 4. n. 60. 

19. Concha ' mar garitifera plerisqu^ : Berberi antiquis^ Indis 
dicta List. H. Conch. 1. 3. Sect. 1. n. 56. 

20. Concha marina marmorea imbricata List. H. Conch. 1. 3. 
41. 191. 

21. Concharum Veneris variitateS quamplurimae. 

22. Musculus polyleptogynglymus, eleganter striatus, rostrisa 
cardine remotis. Musculus JVIattbioli List. H. Conch. 1. 3. Sect. 6* 
n. 208. 

23. Nautilus maximus dense striatus, auritus. Nautilus Cal- 
CEOL. Nautili primum genus Aristot. secundum BelL et Aldrov. 
List. Hist. Cdnch. Sect. 4. n. 7. 

24. Nerita albidus, ad columellam dentatus, striis magnis et 
paryis altematim dispositis donatus. 

25. Ostrea rostro crasso, elato in aciem compresso. 

- 4t6. Patella major striata, rufescens intus eburtiea, vertice acu- 
to. — Ovalis est figurse, pedemque fere habet in circuitu. 

27. Patellarum vetticibus integris et perforatis varia ge- 

28. Pecten parvus, inaequaliter auritus, tenuiter admodum 
striatus. — Magna colorum varietal^ ubique reperitur haec species 
«t man Rubro et Mediterraneo. ^ 

29. Pecten ruber, aequaliter auritus, 13 striarum, dorsocom- 
|>resso -l^erviori.-^- Striae et canaliculi spatia aequalia occupant. 

30. Pectunculus cinereus, asper, ahgustior, tenuiter et creber- 
rime striatus. 

31. Pectunculus crassus, ebumeus, alte striatus, orbicularis. — 
Variat colore rufescente. 

32. Pectunculus ebiirneus, dorso in aciem compresso List. H. 
Conch. 1. 3. Sect. 5. n. 155. 

33. Pectunculus in medio leviter striatus, intus lividi coloris.--- , 
Striae et fasciae viridescunt ^ caeterum albidus est, et ad figuram 
acee£t n. 169. List. H. Conch. 1. 3. Sect. 5. 

34. Pectunculorum laevium, triquetrorum varia genera. 

35. Pectunculus polyleptogynglymus crassus^ pro&nde sulca- 

Conchylia quadam rariora^ S^c. 381 

tu«, luteus.-«-Ad figuram actedit n. 70. List. H. Conch. 1. Z* 
Par. 1, sed noster duplo major est. 

36. Pectunculus polyl. lavis, rufescens, fasciis albidis. 

37. Pectunculus polyl. cancellatus^ oblongus, margtiie ex una 
parte production. — Margo ubique musco fimbriatus est. Figura 
convenit cum Chama nigra Rondeletii List. H. Conch. 1. 3. 
n. 260. 

38. Pectunculus recurviroster, medio Isevis, ad marginem fas- 
ciis nigosisy quasi Corallinis, notatus.— >Non dissimilis est forma 
patellis vertice adunco. 

39. Pectunculus rufescens, striis magnis compres$iS| in dorso 
leviter sulcatis, in margine echinatis. 

40. Pectunculorum striatorum, rostris rectis et recurvis, infi- 
nita genera. 

41. Pinna magna, imbricata, ^ve muricata List. H. Conch* «. 
1. 3. n. 214. — Nacre vel Nakker vulgo maris Mediterranei ; cu- 
jus Barba, Serici instar mollis, fuit forsan fiyssus Antiquorum. 

42. Solen vectus, ex purpura radiatus List. H. Conch. L 3. 
n. 256. 

43. Sf^ondylus cocclneus, striatus, rostro lato, ex ima parte 

44. Sphondylus ebumcus, lamellatus, rostro acuto, recurvo. — 
Lamellas plerumque pyxidatim positae sunt, et Balanos forma rct 

45. Trochus clavicula brcviori, striis eleganter nodosis. 

46. Idem striis inferioribus nodosis, superioribus muricatis. 

47. Idem muricatus, clavicula magis exporrecta. 

48. Trochus pyraroidalis, erectus, rufescens, Jaevis, orbibus la* 
tis, in imis partibus solum nodosb. Icon apud Jonst. H. de £x- 
ang. p. 36. Tab. 12. sub titulo Trochi magni. Turbo maxiihus 
Persicus verior Fab. Col. Aq. et Terr. Obs. LXV. Tab. LX. 

49. Trochus pyramidaiis, striatus, muricibus radiatim ad mar- 
ginem dispositis List. Hi«t. Conch. Sect. 8« n. 9. 




A Vocabulary of the Sbatwiah Tongue. 

Vid. vol.i. p. 402, 




Afiue • ' 








Aowde 1 

Yecie J 






Aufkee, or 




a Fool 
the Hand 


a Hokse 
a Boy 


{a Master^ or 
the Nose 

a Horse 

To-morrovj , 
a City 
a Year 
a Mountain 









Elkaa 1 

Tamout ^ 



Ergez or 













a Stone 
a Serpent 
a Little 

the Earth 

the Night 
the Mouth 

a Man 


the Head 


the Body 

Lj or something 


the Teeth 

the Heart 

a Sheep 


The Names of other Metals^ as in the Arabic. 

Taphoute \ 
Kylah \ 
Tcgmcrt 1 
Alowdah J 
Tizccr 7 
Youle I 


a Girl 

the Sun 

a Ttee 

a Mare 


the Moon 

a Woman 














a Fountain 
a Fever 
the Night 
the Pace 
a River 
a Star 


A Vocabulary of the Showiah Tongue. 383 

The JDeclemhn of' 

NouM dnd 1 


a MouHtam 






a Rrver 






a Man 























thy Hand 
his Hand 
our Hands 
your Hands 
their Hands 

FerbSf with their Conjugations. 


to eat 


to see 


to drink 


to stand 


to mount 


to discount 


to give 


to take away 



to sleep* 

Sewel to speak 

JJeck sewel 1 speak 

Ketche sewel Thou speakest 

f^ck seulgas 1 spoke 
Ketche seulgas Thou spokest^iac* 

Itch eat 

Iswa drink 

Iker rise^ &c. 


Nurhhers and Phrases. 

One Seen Two 

The other Numbers as in the Arabic* 

Manee ilia ? 
Oushee eide, 

Where is it/ 
Give me that* 
I give it* 

If kee alsOj or Ifgeci is another word fir give me : as^ 

Ifkee ikia adetshag, neck alou- Gfue me to eat^ fir I am hun- 

zagh. ^ * gry* 

Hkee ikra watnani adeswaag, Gifoe me water to drink, fir I 

nee foudagah. 
Neck urfedaag ikra. 

am thirsty* 
I am not thirsty* 



Stations of the Hadjees^ Sgc. 

Kadesh assegassen themeurtaye How many years kave ynTbeem 

akyth ? here .? 

Ergez illalee oury tagadt ikra* A good man fears nothing. 

£rgez defoual tagedt. A bad man is afrtad. 


The several Stations of the Hadjees, or Pilgrims, 

in their Journey to Mecca. 

Vid. supra, p. U7. 

Deraje *« 

BiRQUC £L HaDJ^ 80 

Dal cl Sultan 500 

Adjeroute 200 

Hasty watter 1$0 

Teah-wahad 200 

Callah Nahhar 22Q 

AUy ^30 

Callah Accaba izo 

Thare cl Hamar 20o 

Shirfah^ 240 

Maggyre el Shouibe f 230 

Ain el Kasaab 220 

Callah Mowlah 220 

Shcck Murzooke 180 

Callah Azlem 190 

AstabelAnter 230 

Callah Watiah 200 

Akrah 250 

Hunneck -180 

Howry 200 

Ne-bat 200 

Houdaarah 200 

Casabah Yembah 220 

Sakeefah 200 

a pond of water 
no water 
bitter water 
no water 
no water 
good water 
no water 
good water 
no water 
no water 
running water 
running water 
. good water 
good water 
bad water 
good water 
good water 
bad water 
no water 
bad water 
good water 
bad water 
running water 
no water 


* Each Deraje is equal to four minutes of an hour. 

f Shouibe, the fime with Jethro, who is supposed to have lived here. 

Mesure de la grande Pyramided S^c. S85 


Bedder Houneenc * 80 running water 

Sebeely Ma-sonnc 240 no water 

Raaky Mc kat f 230 good water 

Kadeedah 220 no water 

A^haan 200 running water 

Wed cl Fathmah 200 running water 

Mecca 120 Zim-zcm } 

Arafat If 60 

The pilgrims, in their retom from Mecca, visit the sepulchre 
of their prophet at Medina, which lies at ihe distance of three 
stations from fiedder Houneene, in the following niannery «/»• 
from thence to 

• I>eraj«. 
Sakarah Zedeedah 180 good water 

Kubbourou Showledahy 230 no water 
Medeexa Mowiiowarah 200 



Mesure de la grande Pyramide de Memphis^, 

Vid. supra, p. 75. 

Gette Pyramide est orientee aux 4 parties du Moadi Sst, 
Quest, Nord, Sud, 

L'entree est du cote du Nord. 

Vol. II. ZQ La 

* Here the pilgrims arrive the night of th^ new mdofi, aod perform seve- 
ral religious ceremonies, lighting up a number of lamps, and discharging & 
variety of squibbs, rockets^ and other fire- works. 

t Here, out of veneration tb the Holy City they are ap{^tfaching, thejr 
strip themselves naked, and travel in that mianner the four following days^ 
covering only their heads and privities with napkins. 

\ This they call the Thram, or sacred habit ^ consisting of two woollen 
wrappers, one for the head, the pther for the private parts. They wear at 
the same tim^ a pair of narrow sltppers.^^/^'/ Alcbtan^ Pretim. Disc, 
p. up. 

{ This well, whicH lies near the Kaaba,- the Mahometans affirm to^ be 
the same that Hagar .«aw in the wilderness, when she was driven out with 
her son Ishmael, from the presence of Sarah, Geo. xxi. 19. 

^ Here each person performs a sacrifice, in commemoration of that which 
Abraham offered inftead of liis sdn tshmael, and not Isaac, according to t^eir 
traditionr. Arafat also is supposed to be the High Laud, or the land of Mow 
riah, where Abraham was to offer up his son. Gen. zzii. i, 2. 

386 Mesure de la grande Pyramide^ Sgc. 

La porte nVst tout a fait au milieu, le cote Quest etatit plus 
long que celui de I'Esty d^environ 30 pieds. 

La porte est elevee 45 pieds au dessus du terrain. 
Hauteur perpendiculaire de la Piramide, 500 pieds. 
Longeur des Cotez 670 pieds. 

l<^r. Canal d'entree, qui ya en descendant, 3 pieds, 6 pouces, 
en quaree. < 

Longueur du dit Canal, 84 pieds. 
Pente du dit 35 degrees. 

Le Canal est termine par la sable, qu^il faut netoyer pour en- 
trer a gauehc \ tn entrant est une espoce devoote, rompue d^en- 
virott trois tmses de diametre, poor doffiner conmiuiiicationh au Ca- 
nal montant. 

2^1? Canal, qui va en montant, et tire Sud comme le premier 
Canal descendant, et autrefois ils s^embouchoient Tune a Pautre. 
Longueur du dit Canal 9d pieds. 
Largeur et Hauteur 3 pieds, 6 ponces en quarree. 
Au bout du Canal montant est a droite un puits sec creuse en 
partie dans le Roc d* environ 27 toises de profondeur, compose de 
4 boyaux, un droit, un oblique, au bout du quel est un repoisoir, 
et encore un droit et puis un oblique, qui aboutit a du sable. 

Au bout du meme Canal montant est une plateforme, sa lon- 
gueur 12 pieds, largeur 3 pieds, 4 pouces. Cette plateforme 
\ s^unit a un 3m^ Canal de niveau. 
A. Longuer du dit Canal 113 pieds. 
:; t' Hauteur et Laiguer 3. 

Chambre d'en bas, Longuer 18 pieds* 

Larguer 1 6. 
Plaitefenne de la Chambre en dos d*ane chaque cote 10 pieds. 
Hauteur des murs jusqu^au dos d'ane 11 pieds, 3 pouces. 
II y a un trou de 10 a 12 pas de profondeur dans la dite 
Ckambre a gauche en entrant les pierres qu'on a tirez du trou 
sont repandues dans la Chambre \ a P entree de ce trou paroit une 

4^. Canal qui est ausst montant, sa voute presq* en dos d^ane. 
Longueur 136 pieds^ Larguer entre les mures 6 pieds et demi. 
Larguer de la tranchee entre les Banquettes 3 pieds et demi. 

Les deux Banquettes chacune un pied et denu de large et de 
haut. * 

Mortaises dans les Banquettes chacune un pied 8 pouces de 
long, 5 ou 6 pouces de large. 

' Leuc profondeur' d'environ or deni pied* Distance d'une 
itaortaise a Pautre 3 pieds et environ un tiers. Nombre de mor- 
taises 56^ c^est a dire 28 sur chaque Banquette. 

Hauteur de la voute du 4^ Canal 22 pieds et demi est neuf 


Mesure de la grande Pymmide, Sfc. 387 

Pierres, chacune de deux pleds 4 de haut, fiomees d^im plancher 
de la larguer de tranche inferieure. 

De 9 pierres de la voute 7 seulement sont sertantes, leur saillee 
est de 2 pouces 4-« 

Au b(K>t de 4e. Canal est un 5e. Camal de niveau, qui aboutit a 
une grande Chambre mortuaire. Longuer 21 pieds.— Larguer 
3 pieds, 8 pouces. 

Hauteur anegale, car vers le millieu il y a une espece d'Eu- 
tresole avec de Canalures, les deux tiers de ce 5e. Canal sont re- 
vettt de marmor grantt. 

Grande Chambre ou Sale mortuaire, toute encrustee de granit, 
pave, plancher et muraiUes. — Longueur 32 pieds. — Larguer 16. 
Hauteur idem in 5 pierres egales. Plancher de 7 grandes pierres 
traversenk la Sale par la larguer, et deux pierres aux deux bouts, 
lesquelles enl^ent a moitie dans le mur. 

Au fonde de la Sale et a droit, a 4 pieds et 4 pouees dc mur, 
est le Tombeau de Granit sans couvercle, d^une seule pierre. II 
resonne comme une cloche. Hauteur de Tombeau 3 pieds et 
demi. Longueur 7. Larguer 3. Epaisseur demipied. 

A droit du Tombeau dans le coin a terre on voit un tiou long 
de trois pas, et profend d'environ 2 t<Hses, fait apres coup. 

II y » deux trous a la muraiUe de la Sale proche de la Porte, 
l*un a droit, I'autre a gauche, d'environ deux pieds en quaree ^ on 
ne connoit pas leur longueur, ils ont ete fait en meme tems que 
la Pyramide. 


" Rcmarques sur le Natron. . ' 

Le Natron ou Nitre d^ Egypte a ete connu des anciens ^ il est 
produtt dans deux Lacs, dont Pline parle arec eloge \ \l les place 
ontre les ViUes de Naucrate et de Memphis. Strabon pose ces 
deuK Lacs -.Nitneux dans la Profectuxe Nitriotique, proche les 
Villes de Hermopolis et Mom^nphis, vers les Canaux, qui coule 
dans la Mareote ^ toutes ceS autgrites se confirment par ia situa- 
tion presente des deux Natron. L'un des deux LaosNi- 
trieux, nomme le grand Lac, occupe un terrain de qu^tre ou cinq 
lieues de long, sur une lieue de large dans le desert ^^e Scete ou 
Nitrie J il n*est pas eloigne des monasteres de Saint'^acaii-^V de 
Notre Dame de Suriens et desGrecs; et il n'estqu^a un^.grackde 
joumee a I'Ouest du Nil et a deux de Memphis vers le Carre, et 
autant de Naucrate vers Alcxandrie et la Mer. 



888 Remarques sur k Natron. 

L^autre Lac nomine en Arabe Nehile, a trois lieues de long, 
sur une et demie de large \ il s^etend au pied de la montagne a 
rOuest et a douze ou quinze mille de Pancienne Heimopolis 
parva, aujourd^ hui Damanchour, Capitale de la Province Beheixe, 
autrefois Nitriotiquey assez pres de la Mareote, et a une joume 

Dans ces deux Lacs le Natron est couvert d^un pied ou deux 
^^eau \ il sVnfbnce en terre jusqu^ a quatre ou cinq pieds de pro- 
fondeur \ on le coupe avec de loogues barres de fer pmntues par 
le bas \ ce qu^on a coupe est remplace Tannee suivante, ou quel- 
que^ annees apres, par un nouveau Sel Nitre* qui sort du sein de 
la terre. Pour entretenir , sa fecondite, les Arabes out soin de 
remplir les places vuides de matieres etrangeres, teUes qu' elles 
soient, sable, boue, ossemens, cadavres d'auimau}(, cbameaux, 
chevauxy anes et autres \ toutes ces matieres sont propres a se re- 
duire, et se reduisent en e£Fet en vrai Nitre, de sorte que les tra- 
yailleurs revenant un ou deux ans apres dans les roemes quar- 
tiers, quails avoient epuises, y trouvent nouvelle recolte a xecue- 
illir. ^ 

Pline se trompe, quand il assure que le Nil agit dans les salines 
du Natron, comme le Mer dans celles du sel, c^cst a diret que la 
Production du Natron depend de Peau douce, qui inondd.ces 
Lacs \ point du tout, les deux Lacs sont innaccces^ble par ieur 
^tu^tion haute et superieure aux inondations du fleuve, II est 
siir pourtant, que la pluye, la rosee, la bruine et les bvauilUrds 
sont les veritables peres du Natron, quails en hatent la formation 
dans le sein Me la terre, qujils le multiplient et le rendent rouge ^ 
cette couleur est le meilleure de toutes, on en voit aussi du blanc, 
du jaune, et du noir.  * * 

Outre le Nitron, on recueille dans certsuns quartiers des deux 
Lacs, du Sel ordinaire et fort blanc ; ou y trouve aussi du Sel 
gemme» qui vient ^n petits morceaux d^une figure Piramidale, 
c'est-adire quarree par le bas, et finissant en polnte. Ce dernier 
Sel ne paroit qu^ au Printems, 

Upon making experiment^ with the Natron, we find it to be 
an alkali^ and to occasion a strong fermentation with acids ^ 
which will very well illustrate Prov. xxv. 20. where the singing 
to a heayy heart is finely compared to the contrariety or collucta- 
tion there is betwixt vinegar^ nHii N^ron; not nitre^ or saltpetr^y 
ftt we rende* it, which, being an acid^ easily mixes with vinegar* 



 • X. 

The Method of making Sal Armoniac in Egypt. 

Sal Armoxiac Is made of dung, of which camels is esteem- 
ed the strongest and best. The HtUe boy^. and girls run about 
the streets of Kairo, with baskets in their hands, picking up the 
dung, which they cany and sell to the keepers of the fa^gnips \ 
or, if *they keep it for their own burning, they afterwards sell 
the soot at the place where the Sal Armoniac is made. Also ;the 
villages round about Kairo, where they bum little else than 
dung, bring in their quota \ but the best is gathered from the 
bagnios, where it crusts upon the wall, about half a finger^s 
breadth. They mix it all together, and put it into large globu- 
lar glasses, about the size of a peck^ having a small vent like 
the neck of a bottle, but shorter. These glasses are thin as a 
wafer, but are strengthened by a treble coat of dirt, the mouths 
of them being luted with a piece of wet cotton. They are pla- 
ced over the ^mace, in a thick bed of ashes, nothing but the 
neck appearing, and kept there two days and a night, with a con- 
tinual strong fire. The steam swells up the cotton^ and forms a 
paste at the vent-hole, hindering thereby the salts from evapora- 
ting, which, being confined, stick to the top of the bottle, and 
»Te, upon breaking it, taken out in those large cakes, which they 
^nd to England. 



(in Account of the JVeaiher at Alexandria in 
Egypt, in the months of January and February, 
a' D. 163.9. 

Jan. 1. Faire, the wind little, and southerly, 

2. Faire. 

3. Faire, at night it railed a little. 

4. Clowdy and rainy in the afternoon, and at night. 

5. Ciowdy, rainy and windy, N. W. 

6. Very rainy and windy, N. W. day and all night. 

7. Rainy 

390 An Account of* the IFeather, ^c, 

7. Rainy and windy. N. W. all day and night. 

8. Rainy in the morning, very windy all day and night, at 
the latter end of the night very rainy, the wnd was N. W. 

9. The morning very rainy and windy, at night very rainy 
and windy. N. W- 

10. All day very rainy and windy. N. W. The rain falls in 
sudden' gusts, afterwards a little fair, then again clowdy and 
rainy. At nigkt it rained vety mnch, and in the morning 

11. Friday, it rained, the afternoon fair, at night rainy. N- 

12. Saturday in the .morning rainy, the afternoon £»ir, and at 
Night little wind. 

13. Sunday birtf a little wind. N. N. W. 

14. Idofiday little wind S. £. faire. 

15. Faire, little wind. S. E. the air full of vapours, so that 
although no Clowds, yet the body of the suti shined not bright. 

16. Faire, little wind. S. E. 

17. Faire, Uttle wind. S. £. These four days, especially the 
two last, though no clouds, yet a caligo all day and night, so 
that the sun gave but a weak shadow, and the stars little light. 
This caligo or hazy weather arose partly from the rains that fell 
before^ ahd partly jErpm the^usual overfl^^twiiQg <of Nilus. 

18. Frid^ like Thursday^, or rather wo^se, the E. S. £. wind 
Seing great. 

19. Saturday like Friday. 

20. Sunday the wind N. snd cloudy, night faire. 

21. Monday the wind N. W. faire. 

2'2, Tuesday faire, the wind N. W^. it rained a little towards 
night, the wind — 

23. Wednesday fair, day and night, the wind N.W. The 
wind somewhat great. 

24. Cloudy, at night it rained much. N. W. 

25. Sometimes faire, sometimes cloudy. N..W. about 4 P. M. 
it rained, so likewise at night very much. 

26. Saturday very windy. N. W. and often rainy. 

27. In the day very windy. N. W* sometimes rainy, at 
night faire ; no great wind but full of vapours j so that the pole- 
star, nor the yards could be clearly seen. 

28. In the day a dusky sky all over, yet not many clouds, 
the sun could not be seen, so at night, in the night it rained a 
little, the wind east. 

29. The 

An Account of the Weather , <§t. 39 1 

29. The sky full of vapours, but not so obscure as the 28. a 
quarter of an hour before sun set, the sun being immesst in the 
vapours, about the horizon seemed for a.'wfaile like burning iron, 
or like the moon, as I have seen sometimes in an eclipse, as sh« 
grew low or half, more or less appeared, and so by degrees, till 
the upper edge, at last she was quite lost, though not below the 
horizon. This may something serve to shew the manner of these 
vapours above 4 K M. tb^ N.-N* W. begun 10 blow> dA night 

30. Faire, N. N. W. 

31. Faire, so till 10 at night, then it grew dusky from store 
of vapours by the east wind. 

Febr. 1. Clowdy at night, faire, sometimes clowdy, a very 
great N. W. wind and some rain. 

2. Clowdy, faire, rainy, N. N. W. wind gr^te, Saturday at 
night .... 

3. e Very windy. N. N. W. often rainy day and lU^t^ very 

4. Monday very windy N. N. W. day and night, often rainy, 
very cold. 

5. Tuesday very windy and clowdy. 

6. Wednesday little wind N. at night obscure. • 

7. Thursday obscure* and dusky, little wind. 

8. Faire, little wind, at night the wind northerly, and it rain-, 
ed much. 

9. Saturday morning rainy, afternoon fair, wind E. at night. 

10. Very faire day and night, wind N. 

11. Faire, rainy. N. W. 

12. Faire day and night. 1 

13. -| I 

14. ! -^ - . ^ little wind northerly. 
« ^ Very laire. • 

15. \ I 

16. J J 

* 17. I saw 2 spots in the sun. 

18. I went to Cairo. 

19. Very faire. 

20. Faire and obscure. 

21. Obscure, at night it rained much ; being at ShwKfone^ a 
great village, some 50 miles from CairOj on the outside of the 
river for feat of rogues j and there 1 saw boats of leather, and 
Z men sailing upon 225 pot*^. 



An Account of the same, A. D/ 1633. 

The mend, altitude of the sunne taken by my birasse quadrant of 
7 feet, and sometimes by the brasse sextans of 4 feet, without 
respect to refraction or parallax. 

Decern. 3d. Having well rectified my instru- 
ments. Quadr. 35 *o* 

^^ ■500 

4. St. Vet, Tuesday the observat. very CQuadnSS i^i 

good. I^Sext. 35 — 

5. Observat. good. f Quadr. 35 ^^ 

TStxt. 35 IZZ 
^ 47 

6. Observat. good. ^ f Quadr. 35 100 

|Sext- 35 !£2 


7. Observat. good. ^3.27. t yQnadr. 35 100 

353c TT|sext, 35 IE 


8. (3 or 4 days past it was windy) Qu. 35 " 100 

S, Clowdy. 

10. Clowdy, at night windy and rainy. Qu. 35 124 

11. It was windy, clowdy and rainy, I obs. well in the breaks 
ing up of a clowd. 

J 2. Clowdy and rainy. 

13. Clowdy. 

14. Very windy, in the morning it rained much. Qu. 35. i3£ 

15. Clowdy. 

16. Sunday the observation good, it was very 

clear and no wind. Qu, 35, « 

17. Clowdy and windy. 

18. Tuesday no wind, the obs. good. Qu. 35. 128- 

19. The obs. good, no wind, no clowdes^ ^ 

21. > Qowdy or rainy these 3 days* 

22. J 

^ 23. The obs. good, at 3 o'clock, and in the 
night it rained much, the wind westerly. Qu. 35, 28^ 

24. 25. 26. 27. 28. ii9. It rained exceedingly day and niirht^ 
ivith great winds from the W- N. Wr 


Jfi Account of the Weather^ S^c. 39S 

The observations which were hitherto made of the sunne by the 
brasse quadrant, were by taking of the shadow on the top of 
the ruler by the other sight or top at the end. These which 
fellow, were taken by letting the shadow of the cylindar fall 
upon one of the faces, which is thus marked Q. 

Dec. 31. St. Vet. Qu. 36. a£f 

the wind northerly, the obs. go6d. 

Jan. 2. St. Vet. Qu. 37. J3 

3- St. Vet. Qu. 37. 300 

4. St. Vet. (58. 55.) Qu. 37. 12£ 

Jan. 25. St. Vet. the quadrant with the rular, 
the cylindar being broken, the obs. good. N. W. Qja. 42. ^ 

Jan. 26. Clowdy. Qu. 43. 300 

27. SUnd. obs, good N. W. Qu. 43. 85. 

28. Obscure. Wind £. 



Nummi nonnulli ab auctore in Africa coUecti, qtiiqUe 

in ea regions cusi fuissc videritur. 

1. REX IVBA ♦. 
Caput Jubse, diadematum. " ; ' * 

CrocodilttS |. 

VOL. 11. 3J>. . ^. D. 


 Jaba, quem exhibet Wc nafmnus, secuitjiis foit istiai nominif, qui ua- 
orem dvixit Cleopairam f. cognoosine Se1tn«i>, Antonii triamviri et Cleopa- 
tr« iEgypti reginse filiam. Filiuoi habnit Ftolemgeain, regain Noaiidaruiii 
ultimum, qui a Caligula intcrfcctus fait. Fqrro Juba hie nostcr fuit Jubael. 
lUius, IJicmpsalis ntpos, Gaudae pronepos. Masi;iis* proncpotis nepos. Ita 
•fiim se habet scries ilia regum Numidarum, cjuam in R. Rcincccio (de Fa- 
mil. Tab. 43. p. 3«9.) >ntcrrupttirf videoias, nt, fidenr fack inscripti6*«c 
sequens antiqua, quam in arce Carthagini« NovsB apod Hispaniim iovemC 
mcciimque Commuaicavit V. R. Pa- Ximeoes. 

REGl IVBAE regis 





T» VIR Q^l'NQ, P4XB>C>N^ 

i Crbcodilas^utpote Niloticurri aoiinal, ty* c^^m^^^^-^ITPt*; «»** Clc- 
patra daxit ddginem. ^ W 



3d4- Nummi in Jiijricu calkciiy S^C. 

Cs^ut JusUniaiii dittdematuBou 

N  X 


O — 

3. KARTAGO, in epigraphc. 
Miles Stat, sinisti:a hastam tenens. 
Caput £qui, decursorii*: et in Exerg. XXL , 

Nummi sequentes nee una nee altei;a parte inscripti sunt : quo« 
rum decern priores exhibent, 

4. Caput C^erisy ontatumj: spici&$ interdum, etiam comu 
bubulo II 'j et inauribus. 

Equum | stantem, cum cemce erecix). Ad pedem tria punc* 
ta, forma tfiangulari po^ta. 

5. ALrf Equum stantem, cum annulo. 

6. AI« Equum stantem, cervice reflexo. 

7. AL. Equum stantem, cei^icc ireflexo cum Lunula ^« 

8. ALr Equum currentem. 

/ 9* AL- 

* NumiDtts bic dcseribitur a Mcdipbarba de Imp. Rom. Humism, p« 5^4. 
edit. Milan. 1613.  « * 

f Belisarius forsan, qui, devv:to Gilltmere, Car^haginem imperio Roaano 
imtituit. Numenu xxi. et Kufti. xiv. in priori numfho, anoo» Regni Jus- 
. tiniani dcsignant, vm. A. D. 547. 540. .Vid. Mediobirb. ut supra. 

I Ceres enioi V«At9!r«%v«'.dicitar ; nnde H»nitiui Carn* SecuL 

^. * . • * spicea donat 

: '^' ^ Ceterem corona. 

(J^|iic'eti«m DeaiKigifera est, ideoque Mtpiua cemitur in nttramis AfricsB, 
SiciliK, ^gypti, aliarumque regionuni, qua olini« proptsr trittci et frameuti 
l>ef tatejB, celeberritne fuenint. 

Q Ceres etiam, quae e adem cum Iside est, bovinis comibus pingitur Ita. 
enim Herodotus, £ut. >} 41* T» y«( tiK l^tH ^ftXfm f«y yvutmn mv, 
IIOYKEFON §ti. kMrmm^ EAAwnc: rnt Iwv y^wwi* Vid. Obs. snpra, 
P »73- 

{ Equus, ntpote uitmal potens et belticosnm, a Lybibus forsan imprimis 
domitttm, insigoe fuit MaMritaniae, )lumidi«, et Carthaginiensium re^ionis. 
NunidflB enim ab antiquissimis temporihus, ob equitattonem et in equis edu- 
candis solerttam, palaam caetetis gentibus prsaripuerunt. Puncta forte pon<* 
dvu vel valorem indicant ; ut antliulus in sequenti. Vel si nummus in una 
aut altera Carthaginiensitini colonia, apud Siciliam, i- e* Trinacriam, cusus 
fuit, per puncta totidtem istius iiisu'lse pibmontoria deootari possint. 

If Lunula sive crescens symbolum fuit Isidis, t. a Cereris, De se frugiferip. 
Via. Not« ic Obk «t sttpnk 

Numm in Ajrka Collecti, Sfc. 395 

* 9# AL. Equum stantem cum Palma *. 

10. AL. Equum desultorium, cervice reflexo, pedem dex- 
trum ekvantexn* 

11. AL. Equum, cervice reflexo, pedem dextrutn elevan- 

12. AX. Caput Eqiuf. 

ji 13. AL. Caput Equi, cum uncise nota. 

14. Caput diadematum, promissa barba. 

X Equus currens, cum unciae nota. Cum S ^^<1* ap^^ Collect. 
Com. Pembroch. 

15. Caput diadematum, promissa barba, cincimus in orbem 
tords sett calamistratis. 

Equus currens, cum Palmae ramulo ||. 

^ 16. Idem : quod Jubae majoris, ob vultus similitttfliinem, esse 

* videtur. 
Equus gradiens, cum Stella f • 

n. Ca- 

* Africa, (prsecipue loteriores ejus partes), leque dactylis ftbandat, ftc JE 
|ryptus, Idume, Babylon, 8cc. ideoque Palm am pro insigni suo sive symboid 
sequo jure vendicare possit. Vid. Obi toI i. p. I37. 174. 

t Hoc symbolttm referre posramus ad capat equi inventum in jactis Car* 
tbagiais fandamentis. — In primis fundamentifl caput bubulum inventum ett ; 
quod auspicium quidem fructuosse terrst, sed laborioste, perpetuoque serve 
urbis fuit, propter quod in alium locum urbs trsnslata. Ibi quoque eqai ca- 
put repertum, bcUicosnm potentemque populum fatarum significans, urbi 
ausi»icacam sedem dedit. Just. I. zviii. 5. Sic etian Virgilius JEn. i 44s* 

IiOCtts in urbe fuit media, Isetissimus umbra ; 
Quo primum jactati undts et turbine. Pceni 
Ettbdere loco signum, quod regia Juno 
Monstrarat, caput acris equi : sic nam fore bello 
Egregiam et facilem victu per secula gentem. 


t Nummns hie forsan resprcit ilttos Cratres, aut cognatos, vel patren et 
filium, qui in imperio fuerant socii, ut sflepias contingebat apud Numidas, 
Komanos, aliasque gentes, 

II Palma ramuius ve^ victoriam quandam ab iniraico portatam,vel Jabaa 
minorem (modo numrous hie Jubae senioris est) designare potest ; Artemi- 
dorus quippe auctor est (Oneir, 1. i. c Uxiz ) Principam Itberos per ramot 
Palmarum designari Unde certe hand maie coUegiise videtur Tristanttt, 
signatbs in quodam Constantii nummo tres Palmse ramos denotaretres mag- 
ni Constant ini filios. Spanb. De Usu, dec. Numism. Diss, vi p. 336. 

} Per stellam, virtus forsan solis in frugibus producendis viribusque proli. 
ficis et beilicosis equis addendis denotetur. Quidni etiam Hesperus esse pos- 
sit ^ Ut enim hsec pastoris Stella 6St, Nutnidls certe, utpote vitam pattoraiem 
agcntibus, semper grata esset et veneranda. Stella, in quodam Battiadoruoai 
nummo, ApoUinem denotabat in eo trad^w Sacerdotem, secundum Begerom 
(Thes Brand vol i. p. 5x8.) vei regein ^ t ^dis c<l^^^^^^* ^^^^^'^''^ rever- 
te»tem, stella sea sole duce, secunduQi ^ nb^faiv^a^i ^^^ ^ P* 3^^* 

396 Nummi in Africa CoUecti, Sgc. 

17. Capat Jovis Ammoois ^« . * 
Elepbas f • 

18. Caput Herculis X^ pelle leonino amicttuo* 
Leo gradiens ||. 

19. Palma, cum dactylis. 
Pegasus §. 

20. AL. Equus staffs, cervice 6recto« 

£x aere omnes, praeter quartum et quintum, quorum hic ex ar* 
gentOy alter ex auro conficitur* 


' * Tn Libya, templum et ortcaliim celeberrimnni, olim Jovi Ammotti con* 
^itam fait : Anomoni illt nempe, qui idem esse perhibetur cum Chamo, cui 
^gyptii et Libyes debent originfem. 

f Tempore, quo casus fuit hie numnius,«elephantes frequentes errabant 
in septentrionalibus Africae partibut, ut patet ex Plin. N. H. I. v. c. i. Itst 
eoim poeta, de Africa loquens : 

£t vastos elepbantas babet, saevosque leones 
... In posnas ficcgunda suas parit horrida Tellos. 

Manil. I. iv. 

1 Ifercales aempe Ubycus, cnjus fama, propter cert amen cum Antaeo^ 
(Plin. K. H. 1. V. c. I ) Aram apud Lixon, (ibid. D ) Specus in promonto« 
rio Aropclusia dicto (Pomp. Mela, c. v ) Columnasque (ibid.} semper fuit 
inter Afros ceieberrima. 

I Per leonem bic ezhibitam, intelligl potest vel Africa^ symbolum, qusfi 
apoeta nunpupatur, 

^ ^ • • Leonum 

Arida nutriKt 

Vel Leo ab Hercule inter£ectas. 

{ Nummus hie etiam inter Africanos nuoierandas ett, licet altera parte 
pegasum, Coriutbiorum symbolum, exhibeat. Palma quippe bic expressa 
racemos suos profert propendentes, utpote dactylic onustos, quae apud Conn, 
thorn, ob regioqis frigiditatem, nulla alia esse possit quam sterilis. Preterea^ 
ut pegasus nihil aliud sit nisi celer equus^ tale insigne optime Africae conve- 
niet, ob celerum nempe equorum in ea terrarum parte proventum. Vid. 
Trill.- Gomikient. torn. I. p.^ 8> et Spanheim. Dissert v. p 277. 



Vbtfl p..^g/. 


\ I- 

.11 ^"irf^Ki voce k^wa-i^; 





These Plates marked 1. 11. III. IV. were designed by the Au- 
thor to have been omitted ; but as they will be esteemed of 
importance by many, and an ornament by ^U, it has been 
thought proper to insert them here, mth the explanation of 
the three first, in the words of the author \ as they followed at 
Sect. II. supra, p. 213. The fourth, which is Peutinger's Ta- 
ble, will be of use to the learned who shall compare it with 
the Itinerary, as Gerhard Vossius, de Scient. Mathem. advises, 
& Fabricius Biblioth. Lot, voce Tabula^ and as this author 
has sometimes done. See vol. i. p. 198. vol. ii. p. 26. et alUfu 

The greatest part of the little images that are sold in Egypt, 
are commonly reported to have been lodged in the breasts of 
mummies. What may favour this opinion is, that the people of 
Sakara are the chief venders of these antiquities at present ^ of 
wliom likewise I purchased the vase (0, which was probably an 
£lgyptian censer, being of a beautiful slate-like stone, with the 
handle vtrj artfully contrived to imitate the leg of a camel, tied 
Up in the same fashion the Arabs use to this day to prevent those 
creatures from straying away, jf ^ are two pendants of the 
like materials, and from the same place. Of this kind perhaps 
were the (Afi^iv« x'SIol) stones, which they suspended upon the 
•ars of their sacred crocodiles*. The Canopus, with two others f, 
in the possession of Dr Mead, (now of Mr Walpole) were like- 
wise from 3akara. This of mine, which is of an ^most trans- 
parent alabaster, is seventeen inches long, and six in diameter ; 
having a scroll of sacred characters painted upon the breast, and 
the head of Isis, veiled, for the Operculum, The vessels J, that 
^-ere carried about in their processions, either to denote the great 
blessing of water, or that water, the humid principle, was the be- 
ginning of all things, may be supposed to have been of this 
fashion, or rather, as the Canopuses usually are, somewhat more 
turgid. In the famous contest also (Plate I.) betwixt the Chal- 
deans and Egyptians, concerning the strength and power of their 
respective deities. Tire and Water, the latter was personated by a 
Canopus "y the story whereof is humorously told by Suidas ||. 


* A^nfMertf n >ii9tvx ^vrec (forsitan) xett ;^gvo'8« i$ T» ttrct (t» jtg«- 
x«9»Av fr(lfyri$, &cc. Herod. Eut. § 6p 

f Th^sc arc figured by Mr Gordon, Tab, xviii. whereof the first is of 
. baked earth, the other of alabaster. 

t Qnintos auream vannum aareis congestam ramulis ; et ttlius fereiaf 
AfHphoram, Apul. Met. 1. ii. p. 261. 

n Suid. i«i voce KiKVivsra;, 



The Icwfeulae here represented, were intended, in all probabi- 
lity, to be so many of their Lares or Amulets *; whereof the first, 
• A, (Platfe II. III.) is an Egyptian priest with his head shaven, 
and a scroll of HiefOglyphics upon his knees. B is Osiris, 
with his Tutulus «, fhgMum b^ and hook c. C, is the same 
deity (ff^de»«^iM(^H) with the hawk^s head \ having been for- 
merly enamelled upon the breast, and holding either a palm 
bi'anch, or a feather, which seems likewise to have been enamel- 
led. D is the homed Isis, or lo-if |I««i>m<}ik. In her lap she car- 
ries her son Orus, £ \ the same with F, the Sigalion, or god of 
silence^ who is accordingly seen with his finger upon his mouth, 
4 and known by the name of Harpocrates. G is another figure 

also of Harpocrates, In the same sitting posture that is used to 
this day by the eastern nations. H (Plate III.) is supposed to be . 
Orus +, i. e, the earth, turgid with the variety of things which 
it is ready to produce. I, (Plate II.) provided the turn of the 
lH)dy and the Pileus do not suppose ic to have originally belonged 

* ' ' Ko 

^ Inter amuleta JE^yptia nU tf^% coix^«a^tas HarpocraU, Hore, Apide^ 
Osiride et Iside, Canopo ; quorum primus Cornucopia instructus sub forma 
pueri nodi digito silentia suai^ente conspiciebatur ; alter ibidem sub forma 
pueri, sed fascibus, aat reticulato amicfeu invoiutus; tertius sub Ibrma bovini 
capitis ; quartus sab variis formis ; nunc U^Awfu^'p*^^ none »«y«p«^^i$, 
iDodo leoniformii ; (|iiinta sub- mulieris habuu, scutica tt teti snstructa, 
aiiiique instrumentis. Per Harpocratis amuletum, arcauofum per varias di« 
vinationuiq species se conscios hituros sperabant. reli£iose gestatum ; gesta- 
tum autem fuisse. ansuUe satis demonstrant. Per Hori ^muletom naturae 
mundanv notitiam se habituros putabant: per Apidis ^mtiletum. foecundi- 
tatem ; per Osiridis influsus superni abnodantiam ; per Tsidis, quae ad ter- 
rain et Nilum pertment, 6onoru^ omnium temporalium ubertatem se con- 
secuturos sperabant. Per Accipitrem, se €on«ecuturos sperabant claritatem 
luminis turn oculorumr tum inteilectus ; per Bovem, dome»ticse substaotiae ' 
atnpUtudinem; per Can^m sctentiarom et artium notitiam ; per Cynoc^ph- 
alum et ^lurum iunaris nurainis attractjim £rat ex inMctis quoque Sca- 
rabeus, certis et appropriatis lapidibus incisos, potentissimum amuletam et 
passim usurpatum, ad solaris numinis attractum, contra omnes tum corporis, 
tum animi roorbos institutum. Kirch. Gymu. Hierogl. Clas. xi. p. 447 '$• 

' f Horus semper sub puerili forma referebatur, et mystice, Plutarcho teste, 
nihil alind est, quam sensibilis mundi machina, quam sol sen Osiris per Sea- 
rabsBum («) indicatus, continua solarium numinum per hino^ accipitres (x) 
et terrrstrium gcniorum, per Penates (ji^) iatcribiia a&sisteotes indicatorum, 
mtnisterio, summa sapientia gubernat et moderatur. Pueri iorroa pingitur, 
quia muttdusgenerabilium lerum innovatione co'ntinuo veiuti re juvenescit : 
tumido corpore (r) pingitur, quia genitalium reruro toetura et jr^frvf^psm 
perpetu^ turget : sub utroque pede crocodilum (J) calcat, t e. beboniam 
seu typhoniam malignitatem mundo adeo perniciosam ne invalescat, cohi- 
btt i scaticaque («) t. e. virtutis suae efficacii in officio coniinet In pos* 
tica parte per figuram At Isis» ^u luna eiphmitur, quod comua et veIoa» 
quibos temper, exhibetur, ostendunt . ubere turget, quia mater omnium ia- 
ventionum est, et Hori a Typhone extincti vrndicatnx et reaiiacitatrix ; dam 
mundum siccitatr et adustiva quadam vi oppressum, humido suo influxu. 
per radios apte indicato, tempeiiem et vitam fevocat. Kirch, ibid. p. 449* 


to 8omc otter nation snd worship), may perhaps, from its posture, 
be the Egyptian Cr^Uus*: as, among others of a lesser size, K is 
the Anubui L, M, the Apis; N, the cat •, O, the Cynocephalus ; 
P, the hawk j i^, R, the &og •, S, the beetle •, T, the Phalluf 
Qculatus t ; U» a Niioscofie ; X, a pyramid > and Y, a Flee- 

irum, ^ .ft 

Of these Icuncula^ the last is of alabaster •, O is of brown 
marble, spotted with yellow \ A, B, C, D, E, r, G, I, K, L, 
M, N, P, R, arc of copper, and the rest of baked earth* All of 
them, except A, G. I, O, P, R, are either bored through, or else 
have little rings fixed to them, whereby wc^ may conjecture that 
they were suspended upon !he necks of their votaiics. Yet the 
spindles or pivots, fl, «, tf, tf, of the images. A, B, C, D, may 
give us room to suspect, that they in particular were either to 
be erected in some convenient place of their houses as objects of 
their worship, or else that they were to be fixed upon their sym- 
bolical rods and sceptres, and carried about in tljat manner m 
their solemn processions. « 


As nothing has been said in this edition, of the Chrysamthike 
Map, inserted above, we shall subjoin the account of it in 
the author's words, as they stood in thtt first edition. 

The Reverend and ingaiious Mr Costard obliged me with a 
sight of the Ch%ysafUkine map^ as it has been called, of Egypt, 
wnich is projected in a large scale, with the names of places /in 
Greek and Arabic. In* this, the Tiah bent Israel^ {Trav. supra, 
p. 95.) which is likewise the name in Albufeda, is Terwk berti 
Israel^ words of the same force \ which Tiah^ or "Tertch^ lies all 
the way in this map, through two ranges of mountains, from Vet* 
ftutxi (torruptly given for Vetforgn^ or Vatfonrm^ Exod. xii. 37. 
Numb, xxxiii. 3.) to the Red Sea. The authpr of the Describe 
Hon of the East^ as fiu at least as I understand his iibrorum de- 
scripuones^ &c. gives little credit to this map« * Hssc cbarta 
* (says he, Dissert. Geogr* p* 286^) descripta est signis tam Ara- 

* bicis 

* Nee Serapidero aiAsis quAOi Strepitus, pel* padf nda corporis c ipre ssos, 
conttemiscant (^gyptii) Minut- Felix. } 38. Crepitus ventris inflati, quae 
Pelusiaca religio est. S. Hieron. in Isai. 1. liii- c xlvi. 

f Osirin .per brachiam extensum, beneficentiae et liberalitatis notam, 
inaItislociso<tendimu«; atque adeo Phallus hie ocalatus [cunb brachio oc- 
culte et eo emergente] nihil aliud innuic, qaaoi pruvidentiam benefieam di* 
vini OsiridiS) in H^eunda genrratione elucesccntem ; qua occulta et insensi. 
bill operations omnia foeicandat. eratque potissiraumapud^gyptios acnule"- 
turo, dec. Kirch. 0£dip. ^gvpL Synt. xiii. p. 415. 


* bids quam Graecis, m usam (ut dtulus prse se fert) Chrysanthi 

* Patriarchae Hierosolymitani, anno Domini 1722. Delineator 

* (quisquis fiierit ilie) videtur se totum composuisse ad libronim 

* descriptiones, non oculorum fidem in locis perlustrandis acutus ; 

* inde adeo cautius illius vestigiis inhaerendum censui.* Whereas, 
I must beg leave to differ from this gentleman, in taking it to be 
a valuable chart, and which deserves well to be published. Nei- 
ther does it appear from the title, as is here pretended, that it was 
of no older date than 1722, because nEPIFPA^^M AirxnTOY, 
&c. nPOS«£FOM£NH TIX, &c. XPTSANen, &c. as the title 
runs, may denote nothing more than that this particular copy 
(not the original) was Qn-^$9^§ftm) offered, or, in our style, de* 
dicated to, and not properly made for Chrysanthus, &c. in such a 
year. (^ I have inserted an elctract from this, No. Ill, in 
a much smaller scale, as far as it relates to this controversy. 





vT£N*i.20,21. vol 







Gen.xxix.9 • 


i. 432 






i. 432 






i. 266 

Ul. 1 

• • 



xxxi. 2^1 


u. 19 


• • 



xxxii. 10 


11. ib. 

vi. 14 


xxxvi. 24 


ii. 324 

X. 13, 14 






i. 427 

xi. 31 





iL 87 

xu. 9 

.. . 





i. 415 

xiii. 2, 5 






L 432 

XIV. 5, 6 * 




i. 252 

XV. 18 




iL 90 

xvi. 14 




u. 144 







i. 266 

xviii. 4 





p. . 

i. 426 






i. 415 





xKv. 5. 


L 437 







11. 86 

XX. 1 

• • 





11. 236 

xxi. 14. /- 



xlvi. 1 


u. 87 





ilvii. 6. 11 

u. 89 





ii. ib. 






ii. 36 

xxiii. 6 





^ > 

i. 378 

17 - 



12. 15. 20 

ii. 141 

XXIV. 11 . - 






iL 8a 

22 - 




£xod.i. 11 


iu 90 

24 - 






ii. 318 

53 - 






ii. 335 







i. 415 

65 . 




Ul. 2 


ii. 106 

XXV. 30, 34 






i. 250 

xxvi. 1 



vii. 9, 10 


ii. 305 

20 . 





ii. 265 


• • 





i. 343 

xxvii. 4 






ii. 87 

xxix.2.23 - 






L 416 

VOL. u. 




402 Texts qf Scripture Illustrated^ 

£xod.xii. 13 
xui. 16 




9 - 


10, ?0 


. 83.27 


xvi, 3 • 

ivii,!. 6 - 
. 9* 12 

2ud. 2< 5 

SLxiii. 31 w 

33 - 
ixv. 10. 13. 23 

. ixvi. ^0 
XXX. 23 

. xxxl. 16 



• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 



xxxiv. 1 

• •«» 

. . xu3 





i. 405 
j. 437 
ii. 54 
ii. 101 
ii. 103 
ii; 104 
iii 275 
it. 99 
ii. 93 
ii. 104 
ii: 102 
i- -^15 
ii. 109 
fi; 109 
u. 98 
ii. 41 
ii. $6 

•• ^ .0m. 

II. 6^ 

ii. 330 

ii. 96 

ii; 316 

ii. 109 

il. 327 

S. 326 

fi. 327 

i. 433 

i. 416 

i. 325 

5. 284 

i. 319 

i. 335 

3. 287 

i. 333 

ii. 302 

n. 338 

H. 287 

ii. 218 

ii. 292 

Lev. xJ. 29. 30 
Numb. X. 33 
xi. 31 

xii. 16 

xui. 21 

3^v. 25 

XV. 38 

xjT. 1 

16 - 
21 - 

xxi. 1 

xxiii. 3 

xxiv. 1 

xxvit. 12, 13 
14 - 

xxxii. 8 

... ^'^ 

7 - 

- 8 - 

36 - 
48,49,50 ii. 
xxxiv. 3, 4, 5 ii. 

ii. 289 

ii. Ill 

i. 343 

ii. Ill 

ii. 113 

ii. 115 

i. 437 

ii. \1% 

ii. ib. 

ii. 12Q 

ii. ib» 

ii. 56 

i. 142 

ii. Ill 

ii. 307 

i. 437 

11. 37 

ii. 112 

ii. Ill 

u. 37 

XXX vi, 13 

peiit. i, 1 


9 - 


40 . - 





yii. 16 
▼iii. 15 


• • 


ii. 104 
ii. 11? 
ii. 112 
ii. ih, 
ii. Ill 
ii. 115 
ii. 113 
ii. 115 
ii. 116 
ii. 54 



ii. 109 







Te^ts ^ Scnifftf^e JJfu^tmi^* 40^ 

, ... -P^^^ 

Beut. yiii« 15 - ii. 3*27 

U. 9 , • . u 415 

23 * - u. Ill 

xi. lOjll^ ii. 267 

30 '-.. ii. 35 

n. 57 

xiv. 5 . ^  ii. 276 

6^ ' - ii. 284 

13 - L 3J9 

/ .11. 286 

15 '. ii. 347 

i7 - i. 333 

ii. 302 

ii. 338 

>viii. 10, 11 i. 437 

Xxil. 8 ' - .1. 380 

i5 ' . i. 455 

Xxiii. 22 • i. 292 

Ji^iv. 13 - i. 404 

>ixxii. 14 - ii. 142 

33 - ii. 305 

49 - ii. 37 

, SKxxiii. 18 - ii. 34 

, xxxiv. 1 - . ii. 37 

3 , . ii. 153 

Josh. ii. 6 ,- - i. 380 

16 - ii. 36 

ill. 20. 23 - . i. 387 

iv. 13 ' - ii. 5;8 

V. 10 ' - ii. tif. 

10,11,16 u. 57 

vii. 11~ -' ii. 96 

26 - Pr^. 

viii. 29. - . tb, 

iJlc. 4 • i. 433 


X. 4l' - ii. 55 

xii. 7 - ^ ii. • ,.42 

xiii. 2, 3 - r \u. 53 

3 " . . iu 49 

:U. 53 

xiv. 7 - .ii. 112 

12 . ,H. 145 

XV. 1, 2^ 3, 4 ii. 40 

2 . Ji. 41 

4 - ii. 48 


Josb. 3^. 5 . 

. . 4»7. 

xyii. 11. 
xix. 9 . 

' \: 29. ?p 
XTiu. 13 
xpciv. 21 
Judges i. 16. 

lu. 13 

: 311 
iv. 19 

: Vk IP 
. vi. 2 

• I 

i}. '4St 
ii. ib. 
ii. 48 
ii. 55 
ii.» 34 
ii. 40 
ii. 113 

ii. 316 

;*i ' : ii. 153 

(.•■ ii. 55 

. : ii. 153 

. , i. 420 

• .. , ii. 54 

-••i// i- 433 
i. 398 

• ; ii. 34 

.. -. u. 36 

1^,20,^4 23 i. 426 

,xiv. 1 - • ii. 54 

14 - i. 314 

,xvi* 2.7 - i. 390 

xix.JLS - ' Pref, 

20 :- i. 426 

B4thii.l4 - 1.418 

iii. 15 . " ._ i. 405 

^i^am«i. 24 r^ i. 433 

vii. 6 *' . i. 435 

x» 3 . - ^ i. 433 

xii. 17 t ii. 138 

' xm._6 • 


xvi. 11 



• xviji. ^5 ; /t 

' xxyi.20 

; xxiv. 3 

: xxy. 6 • - 

as ; . 

' xxvii. 8 
xxyiii. 20 

22 - 
; X3^. 10; ^i* 

U. 36 

ii. 142 

li 417 

i. 433 

i. 431 
ii. 137 
i. 420 
i. 426 
i. 265 
ii. 56 
i. 415 
i. ib. 
i. 456 
2 SaSi^ 

404 Tej?fs tf Scripture tUuBtratcd: 

2 Sam. j. 23 
ii. 14. 

• 29 
iv. TP 

▼i. 14.20 

XI. 2 
xui. 18 

29 - 
xiv. 26 
xvi. 22 
xvii. 28 

33 - 
xxi. 10 

1 Kingsiii, 20,21 

• iv. 12 



vut. 38 

65 * 

ix. 20 

26 - 

xi. 18 • * 
xiv. 23 
xnrn 4 

■^ 41 ^ 
xn. 4 

2 Kings i. 2 -^ 

6. 16 ^ 

29 * 
89 i 

ix; 1 

30 • 

xiii.7 ' ^ 

1. 451 2 Kings xiv. 28 

xvuii 21 
xix. IB 
XX. 2 

i. 450 

j. 451 

ii. 278 

11. 57 

ii. ib. 

i. 409 

ii. 275 

i. 381 

i. 411 

ii. 302 

i. 412 

i. 381 

i. 257 


i. 387 

i. 249 

i. 432 

Ii. 34 

ii. 53 

ii. 279 

i. 254 

ii. 140 

j. 378 

ii. . 48 

n. 61 

ii. .^2 

ii. 118 

ii. 292 

ii. 315 

11. Ill 

ii. 96 

ii. 36 

ii. 127 

i^ 378 

i. 380 

i. 378 

i. 387 

it 404 

\i 406 

1. 404 

i. 387 

i. 374 

i. 4I3 

i. 255 


xxiu. 12 

1 Chran. V. 9 

xm. 5 

xxii. 2 
xxvii. 28 

2 Chion.vii. 8 

viu. 7 

ix. 11 
xiv. 8 
XX. 2 
xxxii. 20 
xxxiii. 14 
Ezra iv. 20 

X. 9. 13 
Neh. V. 13 

viu. 16 
Esther i. 6,7 
ut. 12 
. V. 1 
vui. 10 

va. 12 
xxi. 18 
xxvui. 17 
XXX. 4 
5cxxi. 17 
Stxxviii. 11 


ii. 6^ 

ii. 316 

ii. 21 

i. 306 

i. 378 

i. 445 

i. 387 

u. 48 

ii. 43 

i. 451 

ii. 49 

ii. 61 

ii. 15 

ii. 57 

ii. 315 

ii. 48 

ii. 61 

ii. 62 

ii. 118 

fi. 293 

ii. 53 

ii. 278 

ii. 145 

i. 138 

S. 57 

ii. ib. 

ii. 44 

i. 250 

1. 406 

i. 381 

i. 377 

i. 418 

i. 445 

i. 392 

i. 306 

ii. 302 

i. 302 

j. 428 

iL 305 

i. 255 

i. 120 

i. 258 

tt. 305 


1. 158 


Texts^ Scripture tUustrated. 405 




Job xxxviii. 11 


ii. 305 

Prov. XXX. 29. 31 

U. 301 

xxxix. 6 

. • 

ii. 58 

xxxi. 24 

i. 409 



ii. 340 

£ccles.iii. 11 

iu 335 

xL 21,22 


ii. 299 



xlj. i.n 

m . 

ii. 298 

Cant. i. 5 

i. 397 

xlii. 12 


i. 302 


i. 214 



i. 255 


i. 265 

ir. 7 


ii. 138 


i. 318 



L 435 


iL 144 



i. 314 

Tii. 13 

11, 1 49 



ii. 305 

laa. i. 8 

L 254 



i. 433 


L 433 

Iviii. 4, 5 


ii. 273 


L 4l2 

IxiiL 10 


i. 318 


i. 433 

Ixviii. 30 


iL 300 

vi. 13 . 

ii. 316 

Ixxiv. 13 


ii. 305 

ix. lO 

iL 3i5 



ii. 299 

xi. l5 

iL 335 

Ixxviiu 12. 43 

u. 87 

xiii. 20 

L 397 



ii. 103 


ii. 347 



ii. 315 


L 3l9 

Ixxix. 12 


i. 406 

ii. 3Q5 

Ixxxi. 16 


ii. 142 


iL 3lO 

xci. 13 


ii, 305 

XV. 3 

L 381 

xcii. 11 


i. 262 

xviii. 2. 

ii. 3l7 



iL 302 


iL 335 



i. 376 

xxii. |2 

L 412 



i. 323 

xxiii. 3 

11. 5i 

20, 2L 


i. 320 


iL 60 

. cv. 39 



xxiv. 20 

i. 278 



i. 254 

xxvii. I 

ii. 299 

evil. 4 


ii. 113 

iL 305 

cix. 23 


u 340 


li. 47 

cxix. 83 


i. 433 


ii. 49 



i. 435 

xxviii. 25 

iL 265 

cxxvi. 4 


i. 215 

XXIX. 5 

L 255 

€x;Kviii. 3 


i. 417 


L 455 

cxxix. 6 


i. 381 

XXX. 6 

iL 3l2 


ii. 346 


L 255 

cxxxii. 3 


i. 378 


L 36^ 

■cxlviii< 6 


iL 158 

XXXiil. 9 

ii. 58 



ii. 305 

ii. 6a 

cxlix. 3 


ii. 274 


L 3l9 



H. 276 

xxxiv. 1 1 

L 334 

Prov. XXVI. 1 


i, 249 

iL 302 

XX.X. 26 


i. 323 

13 . 

ii, 30^ 

ip6 T(sxtis of ,$cnpture. Illu^mtjed. 

Isa. xiCxiv. 1 3 
x;kxv. I 


.xxxvii. 21 
Xi. 22 
xli. 19 
X^Uii. 20 . 

xlv. i9 - 
Uv. II 
Ijcv. 4 
Ixvi. 1 7 . 
Jer. ii* 6 



IV. 30 
\i, 20 - 
VUi. 7 
iK. I 

.: 17, 18 

' 25, 2S 
X. 5 
22 - 

$:m. 1 2 

Xiv. 8 
Xvii. 6 
XXii. i4* 
^Xiv. 2 
kliii. l3 
xlix. 33 

Lament. iu^48 

ii. 3lO 

}i. ^ 
i. 255 

: u. 305 

. -L 38l 

. i. 376 

. S. 330 

'i. 305 


U. 3l6 

ii. 58 

ii. 305 

. u 4l4 

J. 396 

ii. 302 

ii.. 58 

ii. 49 

ii. 60 

ii. 96 

i. 429 

U 4l3 

. ii. 3l6 

.m 270 


i. 435 

ii* 305 

i. 435 

n, 237 

ii. 3i4 

ii. 305 

i. 433 

. Pref. 

ii. 58 

i. 3*77 

l; 264 

11. I9 

ii. 296 I 

ii. 305 ' 

i. 319 : 

ii. 347 ] 

u. . 305 '' 

1}. to, . 

I 435 i 

L«nent. iv.- 3 

i7 . 
£^k.iv. 9 

.yi. i3 t 
ix. 2 - T 
xiii. II. 
I8. 20 
• xiv. 2l - 
. xvi. lO 
xvu. 5 
9UX. 8 


XXxii* 2 ^ 
. xxxix.>i5 
Klvii. 29 
ui. 5 - 
vi. 7 

.  10 - - 
Hoseaax. lO 

:^iii. 3- 

Jocli.l'2 ' . :^. 

ii. k, &c. 

lO « 

23 - 

AfDOS V. lO 

vi. 4 

•14-^ - 

vii. i4 * 

ix. 7 
Joaab i. 4 

in. 3 

iv. 8 
Mlcah i. 8 

n. 305 
u. 346 
ii. 265 
u. 3x6 
i. 4lO 

. i. 250 

i. 37» 

i. 343 

i. 433 

it. 293 

X. 3x4 

i. 4x4 

ii» 299 

- ii. 305 

ii. 29S 

ii. 3X5 

ii. 305 


ii. 19 

i. 455 

i. 255 

i. 370 

i* 445 

i. 378 

. i. 264 

ii. i49 

i. 254i 

i. 34l 

i. th. 

. i. 340 

i. 25i 

i. 455 

i. 436 

i. 378 

iL 57 

iL 61 

ii. 3i5 

ii. 23 

ii. 127 

i. 134 

ii. 70 

ii. 128 

i. 332 

i. 435 

ii. 305 


Texts of Scripture Illustrated. 307 

Micah i. 8 
Nahum li. 7 

ill. 12 
Habakkuk iii. i7 
Zephaniah i. 5 

ii. i4 
Zech. xiv. 10 
Malacbl i. 3 


li. 349 

11. 293 

ii. 27l 

i. 265 

i. 265 

i. 381 

ii. 302 

ii. 58 

ii. 305 

ii. 319 

Judith xiii. 9 

i. 399 


i. ib. 

Wisdom xvi. 3 


Eccles. xii. 19 

i. 324 

xxiv. 14 

i. 261 

Matt. iii. 4 

i. 344 


i. 255 

vii. 24 

ii. l5 

ix. I7 

I. 433 

X. 9 

i. 4i0 

xxiii. 27. 29 

i. 396 

xxiv. 40 

i. 416 


i. 433 


i. 457 

xxvi. 23 

i. 41 8 

xxvii. 60 

ii. 13 

Matk ii. 4 

i. 382 


i. 433 

iv. 31 

ii. 34 

v. 3 

i. '396 


i. 435 

vi. 8 

i. 4l0 

xi. 13 

ii. I49 

XV. 46 

11. i5 

xvi. 5 

** < 
u. I4 

I^uke i. 20 

1. 345 


i. 254 

111. I7 

i. 255 

V. 19 

i. 382 


i. 433 

vi. 38 T 

i. 406 

Luke x. 30 
xii. 46 

xvii. 6 
xix. 4 
xxiii. 53. 
John xi. 38 
xii. 13 
xiii. 4 

xix. 23 
XX. 5. II 

xxi. 7 


Acts ix. 26 

X. 9 r 

xu. 8 

XX. 8, 9 

xxvii. 6 

l5, 16 

1 Cor. X. 16 . 

2 Cor. xi. 25 < 

£ph. vi. i4 
Heb. xi. 37 
xn. 1 
1 Peter i. I3 
lu. 3 
Rev. i. 13 
vi. 13 
XV. § 

ii. 36 
i. 457 
ii. 127 
ii. 315 
i. 404 
ii. 315 
ii. 15 
ii. 15 
ii. 152 
i. 408 
i. 4l8 
i. 408 
ii. i4 
i. 426 
i. 408 
ii. 14 
i. 384 
i. 388 
ii. 278 
i. 381 
1. 404 
i. 408 
i. 388 
ii. 130 
ii. 128 
ii. ib. 
ii. 129 
i. 377 
i. 456 
i. 384 
i. 404 
ii. 273 
i. 457 
ii. 36 
i. 404 
i. 404 
i. 412 
i. 404 
i. 265 
U 404 





.BARIM mountains, u. 37 

Accaba mountains, i. 115« ii. 

Ach Bobba, the Percnopterus, 
Oripelargus^ or Kachamah, 
ii. 33.3 

Achola, Acilla^ now JEJalia, 

Acra, Ins. 1. 46 

Addace, vid. Lidmee. 

Adder, deaf, ii. 273 

Adcs, now Rhades, i. 172 

Adiris, why Mount Atlas so 
called, i. 36 

Adjeroute^ the Heroopolis, iL 

Adrumetum, i. 199. now Her* 
kla, ib. 

iEglmurur, Ins^ i. 156 

iEgypt, vid. Egypt. 

Africa Propria, i. 115. 150. 
when part of it made a Ro- 
man province, i. 226. its 
rich plains continue the same 
though never manured, ii. 

Africus, or a W. wind, violent, 

Agar, now Boo-Hadjar, i. 206 

Ailah, vid. Eloth. 

Ailah, or Oak, ii. 316 

Ain-Difiah, i. 46. or Defaily, 
i. 98 
Thyllah, i. 137 
el Houte, i. 274 
el Mousah, ii. 100. 324 
Vol. u, 3 

Ain el Mishpat, u. 115 

Kidran, or the fountain of 

tar, 1.96 
Maithie, i.96 
Ou-heide, i. 125 
Air, the temperature of it in 
Barbary, i. 245. in Syria, 
ii. 127. in Arabia Petrsea, 
ii. 319, &c. 
Ai-yacoute, the district, 1. 120 
Akker the river and city, ii. 23 
Algebra, the meaning of the 

word, i. 364. note *. 
Alleegah, the ruins of, i. 135 
Alexandria, the ports, &c. of 

ity ii. 65 
Algiers, whence caDed, i«86. 
the limits and extent of the 
kingdom, i. 29, &c. domi- 
i^ion of the Algerines in the 
Sahara, i. 33. divided into 
three provinces, i. 34. de- 
scription of the city, port, 
navy, &c. i. 82,,8^3,&c. the 
office of the ELady, ib, the 
government, wherein it con- 
sists, i. 446. the Dey, his 
power, character, and elec- 
tion, lb, frequently cut off, 
i. 447. the forces of tins 
kingdpm, i. 448. the method 
of keeping the Arabs in 
subjection, i. 449. how their 
army is recruited, i. 451. 
their ofhcers, i. 452.. the re- 
venue, i.453. the pay of the 
army, ib, its courts of jucE- 
F cature. 



cature, i. 454. of the prin- 
cipal ministers who sit in the 
gate, {b» punishments, i. 456. 
Turks not punished publicly, 
i. 457. its alliances \vith 
Christian princes, i. 459. 
how their several interests 
are maintained, i. 461 
Alhennah, i. 214, &c. ii. 353 
Alhennah, or Cypress tree, i, 

Al ka-hol, 1. 412 
Al-messer, vid. Kairo. 
Almsena, now Telemeen, i. 236 
Almond, when ripe, i. 263 
Ammer, Gaetulian Arabs, or 

Kabyles, i. 69,-99. 119 
Ammodytes, i. 330 
Amnis Trajanus the khalts that 
runs through Kairo, ii. 69. 
77. i%6 ' I 
Amoura, i. 98 

Ampsaga, fl. what it denotes, 
i.l05. now Wed el Kibeer, 
i. 31. 105.13a ' 

Anathoth, ii. 35 
Angad, the desert of, i. 43 
'A^Jm, i. 367 

Animals ; the sacred animals 
of Egypt, ii. 167, &c.— 
. others received also into 
their sacred writings, ib, 
parts also of animals, ii. 172. 
, different animals combined 
together, ii. 175. animals in 
Scripture hard to be speci- 
fied, ii. 275,-294 
Anouhah, the ruins of, i. 135 
Antaradus, or Tortosa, ii. 17 
Antilope, or Ga^ell, i,'312. ii, 

Anubts, or grey-hound, ii. 301 
Aphrodisium, or Bona, i. 108. 

or Faradecse, i. 182. 208 
Awpyt^v^^to-Mt explsdned, ii. 63 
Ap^r, or ElXallabi i. 71 

Apollinis Promont. i. 152. 15Q 
Aquae Tacapitanae, now £1- 

Hammah, i. 239 
Aquse Calidae, i. 174 
Aquae Calidde Colonia, i. 79 
Aquilaria, or Lowhareah, i. 17$ 
Aquis Regiis, i. 219 
Aquae Ti^ilitanae of Gaetulia* 

i. 98 
Arabia Petraea, few animals 

there, ii. 338, &c. 
Arabs, of the Tell, i. lit. ad- 
ininister justice among them- 
selves, i. 444. the power of 
presiding docs not always de- 
scend &om father to son, i, 
445. in what manner they 
sleep, i. 399. they go bare- 
headed, i.407. wear drawers, 
i. 4l J • t^cif method of eat- 
ing, i. 417. how they spend 
their time, i. 419. are good 
riders, i. 422. drink wine, 
though prohibited by their 
religion, i. 421. where they 
rob n\pst, Fref. wild Arabs, 
no peculiar clan, ib, 
Arabs,' vid. Bedoweens, their 
manners and customs, 1.426. 
their method of salutmg one 
another, ib. hospitable to 
strangers, yet false and 
treacherous, i. 429. always 
in war with one another, ib, 
the western Moors trade ho- 
nourably with those they n^- 
ver see, i.43Q. Arabs given 
to superstitions and sorceries, 
i. 436, &c. form of their 
government, i. 444- Arabian 
cavalry, not able to withstand 
the Turkish infantry, i.450. 
their courts of judicature, 
and punishments, i. 454 
Aradus, or Arpad, now Rou- 
wadde, ii. 18 




. Aram, or Syria, ii. 23 

Arbaal and Tessailah, the As- 

tacilis^ i. 10 
Area, or Arka, the aeat of the 

Arkites, ii. 24 
Architecture, to what degree 

arrived in Barbary, i^ 311 
Arhew, the river, i. 11 
Armua, or Seibouse, i. 110 
Arts and sciences little encou- 
raged in Barbary, i. 353 
Arzew, the ancient Arsenaria, 

i. 52 
Ashoune-tnon*'kar, i, 101 
Assanus fl. now Isser, i. 45 
Astrixis, or Mount Atlas, i, 36 
Asper, the value of it, i. 414 

Asa, afternoon prayers, i. 420 
Aslem-mah, what, i. 421 
Aspis, i. 329 

Assurus, or Assuras, i. 211 
Asphaltus lake, ii. 158 
Atlas, the mountains of, i. 35. 
A tad, where, ii. 88. note *. 
Attackah, Moimt, iL95 
Aurasians, their complexionSi 

Auzia, i. 88. 93 


Baal-tzephon, the meaning 

of the word, ii. 96. where 

situated, ib> ii. 99 
Bab el Wed,. L 84 
Babylon, now Kairo, ii. 69. 

291. or LatofJohs, ii. 90. 

291. see Kairo. icarce any 

rain falls there^ u 249 
Babylonians, their castle, ii. 10 
Back-houses, the coenacula, i. 

Bagrada, i. 158 
Bagreah, a sort of pancake, i. 


Bafayie Pharaoune, i. 237 

Baideah, what, ii. 95 
Balaneah, or Baneas, ruins, ii. 

17. 28 
Baniuri, i. 83 
Banteuse, i* 140 
Barbar, r. the saaie with the 

Zaipe, i. 25 
Barbary, the provinces of it, 

i. 3^. note. 
Barbary, state of learning there, 

i. 353. of physic, i. 357 
Barbata, river, i. 45' 
Barca, etymology of it, ii. 322« 

Bareekah, the plsdns and river 

of, i. 122 
Barinshell, i. 63 
Barley ripe in the Holy Land 

about May, ii. 137. in £- 

gypt the begimiing of April, 

ii. 264 
Barometer, how affected in 

Barbary, i. 241. not affect- 
ed with earthquakes, i. 211 
Bars of rivers, what, ii. 245 
Bashee, BuUock-Bashee, Oda- 

Bashee, Yiah-Bashee, i. 452 
Bastion, i. 110 

Bastinado, how inflicted, i.456 
Basar, or coffee-houses, t. 421 
Bazilbab, i. 193 
Beast of the reeds, ii. 300 
Bedoweens, their manner of 

life, Fref. i. 319, 416. wear 

now no drawers, as the other 

Arabs do, t. 411 
Beeban, or gates, i. 115 
Beet-cl-shaar, houses of hair, 

i. 391 
Beds of the Moors, i. J1& / 
Beetle, of what a symbol, ii. 

Beeves made use of iri Numi- 

dia, as beasts of burden, i; 





Behemoth, or Hippopotamus, 

ii. 299 
Bellmont, fountains and grotto 

there, i. 155 
Bells, an abomination among 

the Arabians, i. 394 
Belus, river, now Kardanah, ii. 

Benjamin, the tribe of, ii. 35 
Ben or Son, joined to some 
other quality, makes the 
usual cognomen of the Ara- 
bians, i, 439 
Beni, genierally prefixed to the 
respective founders of the 
Kabyles, Fref* 
Beni Abbess, i. 113 
Alia, i. 90 
Boomasoude, i. 104 
Friganah, an inhospitable 

clan, i« 105 
Haleefa, i.90 
Haleel, ib. . 
Isah, i. ;L04 
Maad, ib. 
Meleet, i. Ill 
Mezza, the Melanogee^ 

tuli, i. 98, 99 
Minna, i. Ill 
Mukhalah, i. 439 
Sala, i. 90. 135 
Selim, i. 90 
Smedl, i. 69 
Yala, i. 9.0 
2^erwall, i. 71 
Berenice, now Binga^e, i. 285 
Berk el Corondel; ii'. 104 
Berque el Hadge, p. 384 
Bery-gan, village, i. 99 
Beyond Jordan, what it means, 

Beys or viceroys of Algiers, 
their power, i. 34. called 
Dey at Tunis, i. 446 
Bida col. or Bleeda, i. 89 
Bikeer, the Canopus, ii. 64 

Biledulgerid, or Bliud el Je.^ 

ridde, i. 33 
Birds of curious species in Bar- 

bary, i. 331. which clean 

and unclean, ii. 286. bird 

of paradise, ii. 303 
Biscara, the capital of Zaab, 

i. 140 
Bishbesh, or river of Fennel, 

i. 90. the ancient Bubastis, 

ii. 90 
Bismalla, f . e» if God will, 

i. 420. note. 
Bingazee,the ancient Berenice, 

i. 285 
Bitumen, how raised from the 

bottom of the Dead Sea, ii. 

158. the quality of it, ii. 

Bizacium, not so fertile as the 

ancients have made it, i. 149. 

269. now the winter circuit 

of the kingdom of Tunis, 
^ i. 198 
Bizerta, the Hippo Diarrhytus, 

or Zaritus, i. 154 
Blaid el Madoone, vid. Tefcs- 

Blaid el Jereed, or Jeridde, u 

Bleda, or Bleeda, i. 78. the 

Bida Colon, i. 88. the de- 
scription of it, ib, 
Bledeah Kibeerah, i. 81 
Boccore, their time of being 

ripe, i. 264. ii. 137. 149 
B<ma, the Hippo regius, i. 32 
Bona,' the city, or Blaid el 

Aneb, the Apbrodisium, i. 

107, 108 
Booberak, river, i. 88. 100 
Booferjoose, ds^krah, i. 98 
Boo Hadjar, or Agar, i. 205. 
Boujeiah port, the ancient Sar- 

d«e, i. 32. lOl, the city, i. 





Boujereah, the mountain and 

dashkrahs of, i« 83 
Boomuggar, district of, L 123 
JBoomagoose, river, u 122 
Boar, wild, the lion^s food, i. 

Bones petriHed, i. i289 
Bonganie, i. 90 
Boo-jemah, river, L 108 
Boo-onk, i. 331 
Boosellam, river, i. 119 
Booshatter, or Utica, i. 161 
Borourou, L332 
Bosaada, a collection of dash- 

krahs, i. 97 
Bottles in Scriptoie, what. 

'Boujeiah, or Salda?, L 32.91. 

Brada, or Bagsada, now Me- 

jerdah, i. 137.158 
Brainstone, iL 332 
Bread, the Arabs, &c. great 

eaters of it, i«4l5. uulea- 
• vened bread baked on the 

hearth, k4I6 
Bresk, the Canuccis, k 59 
Babastis,orEishbesh,ii.90. 230 
Budwowe, the river, i. 88 
Bufalo, or Oryx, ii. 281, 282 
Bull rushes of Egypt, ii* 317 
Bugia, vid. Boojeiah* 
Burg Hamza, or Sour Guslan, 
the Auzia, i. 92 
Majanah, i» 117 
Swaary, i, 97 
Bumoose, or cloak without 

seam, the Pallium, i. 406 
Butter, the itiethod of making 

it in Barbary, i. 308 
Buzara mons, i. 113 

CiECiAS, ii. 129. or Helles- 
pontias, ii. 130. what Ari» 
stotle observes of it, ii. 131 

Cairo, vid. Kairo. 
Cal^ma, now Calma, i« 135 
Calamos, now Xalemony, ii.30 
Callah, or Calah, what it im- 
ports, i. 71« Callah, el, the 
town, ib* the ancient Gitlui, 
or Apfar, ib^ 
Callah Accaba, i. 116 
Calle, La, i« liO 
Calcorychian mountains -of Pto- 
lemy, where, i. 43 
Camel, capable of gseat fatigue, 
i. 305. the structure of their 
stomachs, th, note, a very 
watchful animal, Pr^f, their 
dung good firing, ib, 
Camelopard^is, when first 
Je&own in Europe^ ii. 284. 
See ii. 301 
Canopy, what, i. 399 
Cape Blanco, the Promonto* 
xium Candidum and 
Pulchrum, i. 151. — 
where Scipio landed, 
db. • 

Boujerone, vid. Sebba 

Bon, or Ras-addar, the 
( Promont. Mercutii, i. 

Falcon, or Ras el Harsh- 
fa, i.4f8 
Ferratt, i. 51 • 
Hamra, i, 107 
Hone, or Ras Hnuneine, 
or MeHackfthe Prom. 
Magnum, ik31. 43 
Rosa, i. 110 
Serra, i. l5i 
Zibeeb, i. 156. the Pro- 
man tor. Apollinis, tb, 
Capoudia, the Caput Vada, and 

Ammonis Promont. i. 209 
Caps of the Arabs, like the 

ancient Tiarsl, i. 407 
Capsa, i. 232 




Caravanserais, whence the word, 

Carcases rarely putrifjr in the 
deserts of Arabia, ^. 32>. 
several carcases of liien and 
cattle found preserved at Sai- 
bah, i. 285. the Cartemiae, 
i. 56 ' 

Came, the navale of Aradu», 


Cartennus, or Sikke, i* 54 
Carpis, now Hammam Gurbos, 

i. 174 
Carthage^ u 32. its. etymology, 

i. JL63. the extent of it/ i, 

166. its aqueduct, i. 167 
Carthagimensium Regio, i. 150 
Caesar's Comm. illustr. i. 200. 

Cassareen, the CoL Scillitana^ 

i. 225, 226. whence the 

wotd, i. 227* mountains, i. 

199 . 
Cassir Attyte, plains of, i. 110 
Cassir Aseite, the Civitas Sia- 

gitana, L 180 
Cassir Goulah^ or the Castle^ 

Castor and Pollux, meteors so 

called, ii. 136 
Castra Cornelia, now Gella^ i. 

Castration of men only, not of 

cattle, among the Mahome- 
tans, i. 309 
Cat^ blacky in Barbary, i. 320. 

sacred in £gypt^ ii. 309 
Castobia Arabs^ i. 90 
Catacombs, ii. 210 
Catharine, St, her convent at 

Mount Sinai^ ii. 106. 320. 

her bones preserved there^ 

Cattle, blacky of Barbary/ less 

than thote of England, i. 

307. yield less milk, ib. the 

' number and kinds of cattle 
in Barbary, i. 303. — 309 

Cement, how made, i. 372 

Ceudevia of Pliny, where, ii. 

Cerastes, or horned viper, i* 

Ccrbica, now Sbekkah, i. 234 

Cheese in Barbary, made chief- 
ly of sheeps and goats milk, 
i. 30Q 

Cheops' tomb, falsely so call- 
ed, ii. 203. it gives, by stri- 
king, the musical note, £•> 
la-mi, ii. 208. the dimen- 
sicsis of it, tb, note f . 

Chinalaph fi. now the SbelHfF, 
i. 56 

Chamteleon, i. 324. antipathy 
between it and the viper, i^ 

Chouses, or bailiffs, i. 455 

Christianissimu5, a title given 
to Justin and Sosia, long be- 
fore it vras given to the 
French king, i. 187 

Cicer, or chich-pea, i. 251 

Circumcision used by the Is- 
raelites before the Egyptians, 
ii^ 236. note. 

Cirta, or Constantina, i* 129 

Circina, or Qucrkincss,- i. 210 

Clybeay the Clypea, or ASntSj 
i. 178 

Coenacula, or back-houses, i. 

Cologliesj who, i. 452 

Colonia Augusti, or El-Khada- 
rah, i. 76 

Clocks, no more than bells, al- 
lowed of among th* Maho- 
metans, €. 364 

Compass^ mariner^s, supposed 
by some to be known to the 
ancients, ii. 185 

Constantia; or Tortosa, ii. 17 




Constantina, province, i. 100 

Cofkstsntma, or Ctrta, i. 129 

Coral, the method of its vege- 
tatioi^ 11.333. a catalogue 
of coralsy ii. 369 

Goran, vid. Koran, ib. 

Com, the time of sowing it, 
i. %5l* the increase of it, ib* 
the method of treading it 
out| i. 254. and of lodging 

. it in pits, i. 255. how they 

f grind k, i. 416 

Corondel, part of the desert' of 
Marah, ii. 100, 105 

Corsoe, river, i. 88 

Cossoure, clans, i. 324 

Cothon, what it imports, i. 61. 
note f . 

Crocodiles, rarely seen in the 
Lowo: Egypt, ii. 268. the 
same with the Leviathan,^ ii. 
298. and the serpent of He- 
gulus, ii. 299. of dififerent 
denominations, ii. 309 

Crocuta, or Onocentaura, ii. 

. 309 

Crotalistria, whence the stork 
so called, iL 270 

Crop, the quantity of one in 

Barbaxy, i.25l 
Cryptsc, or sepulchral cham- 
bers, near Latikea, ii. 11. 
that of St Tecklar, ii.l2. 
those at Jerusalem, Tortosa^ 
&.C. ib, that of pur- Saviour, 
ii. 13 
Cubb el Ar-rosah, or cupola of 

the bride, i. 126 
Cubit, various accounts of this 
measure, ii. 219. vanous 
measures of the same deno- 
mination, ib, the present 
Egyptian cubit, twenty -five 
inches, ii. 269 
Cull, the CuUu, ChuUi, or Co- 
lops Magnus, i. 106. 110 

Curobis, i. 179 
Cuscasowe, i. 415. 418. 433 

Dab, or Dhab, or Tsab, a liz- 
ard, i. H23 
Dabh, or bear, i. 323 
Dackhul, the district, i. 178 
Dagon^s temple, the fashion of 

it, i. 390, 391 
Dah-muss, the Castra Genna- 

norum, i. 59 
Daman Israel, ii. 160. the Sa- 
ltan of the Scriptures, ib. 
Dami-ata, the Thamiathis, ii. 
6i, once a sea-port town, 
though now at a distance 
from the sea, ii. 231 
Dammer Cappy, i. 115 
Dan, the tribe of, ii. 36 
Dancing, used anciently in re- 
ligious services, ii. 274 
Dama, a province of Tripoly, 

i. 284. 297 
D8shkrah,or mud-walled vil- 
lage, i. 36. 400. Fref. 
Date tree, not in perfection in 
Galilee, &c. ii. 151. an em- 
blem of Judea, ii. 151 
Day^s journey, about ten miles, 

ii. ] 13 
Dead, great respect paid by the 
Mahometans in carrying 
them to their graves, i. 395. 
no mourning for them, ib. 
buried generally without the 
city, ib. 
Deer, the size of those in Bar- 

bary, i. 311 
Defilah, river^ i. 219 
Delta, from whence it com- 
menced, ii. 67 
Delly's,town, the ancient Rus- 

curium, i. 91. 101 
Demass, or '{ hapsus, i. 206 
Derb, river, i. 225 




Desert* what it is^ iu 104 
of Marah^ ii. 104^ 
of Sdur, ii. 103 
of Sin, ii. 105 
of Tzin, ii*ll^ 
Dews, very plentiful in Arabia, 

ii. 323. Fr^, 
Dej, among the Algerines^his 

ofHce^ election, &c» i»446« 

frequently cut off, i. 447 
Diana^ now Tagouzanah, i» 

Dibse, ii. 114. note*. 
Dimmidde, dashkxah, i. 9& 
Dison, vid. Lidmee. 
Distempers thought to be cu* 

red by sacrifices^ i. 439 
Divan corruptly written for 

Douwanne, i. 446 
Dogs eaten by the Cgrthagi- 

nians, and now by the peo* 

pie of Zaaby i. 141 
Dollar of Algiers, how much^ 

i. 100 
Dou-war, what, i. 398. 445». 

Dou-wannas, or courts of jus« 

tice,. i, 392 
Doweeda,,what,. i. 415» notef. 
Dowanne, or common council* 

Dra dL Hammar, i. 117 
Draa, or eighteen inches, i. 80 
Dracontia isle, now Cam,, i., 

Dragons, ii. 30S 
Dromedary, how it differs from 

the camel, i. 30& 
Druses, ii. 161, 162 
Dry Diet, or in^ptty$ec^ ii. 108 
Dubbah, or Hyaena, i. 216 
Duccia, what,, i. SO. note* 
Dudaim, what supposed to be 

at present, L 148 
Dyris, why M. Atlas so-called, 

i. 36 

E^RTBfs, the different sorts of 
it in Barbary, i. 268 

£, usually after rain, 
L 277. their frequency in 
Barbary, iL at sea, i. 278^ 

^ting, the method in Barba- 
ry, u411 

Echinites, i. 295 

Edc Tepelaer, i. 91 

£dom, the land of, 1.41,42. 
the description of it, ii. 31d 

Education, die method of it in 
Barbary, i. 354 

Effendi, or ^r Grace^ i. 452 

Egypt, formerly the seat of 
karning, i. 163. gave Greece 
her theology, arts and sci- 
ences, i. 164w but did not 
transfer her hieroglyphics, 
i. 165. the coast of it low, 
ii. 63. the river of it the 
Nile, ii. 40« bounded by it, 
ii. 53. several arguments t<» 
prove it the gift of the Nile, 
ii. 53, 54. the increase of its 
^1, agreeable to the Scrip- 
ture sera of the flood, and 
the dispersion of mankind^ 
ii. 233, 236* in what man- 
ner the soil of it may be 

. supposed to have increased^ 
ii. 235, — 240. may in time 
become the most barren part 
of the universe, u. 241. few- 
plants or animals in Egypt, 
ii. 263. the land of Egypt 
on a level, not with a gra> 
dual descent from the main 
river, ii» 255. how high the 
land has been raised since 
the time or Herodotus, iL. 
259, 260 

Egyptians, their symboUcskl 
learning, ii. 164. what it 
lelated to, tb, no proper key 




to it, tb, the ventcity of 

their history to be called in 

question, ii. 200, 201 
Elalia, the Achola or AciUa, 

i, 209 
El-Ad-wah, or the lofty, i.lOO 
El-CuUah, i. 71. See Cullah. 
El-Had, i.71 
£1-Hammah of Gabs, i. 239. 

ii. 19 
El-Herba, i. 75, 76 
El-Jcrced, i. 234 
£l-Joube, or the cisterns, i, 42 
El-Khadarah, i. 76 
El-Medea, i. 207 
El-Mersah, i. 164 
El-Muckdah, or the ford, i. 54 
El-Tor, I. e. the mountain, ii. 

Jll-Woost, or thp middle, i. 

^leutherus, the cold streain, 

the boundary of Syria and 

Phcenice, ii. 25, 26 
Elim, the ivells, ii. 104. and 

palm trees, ii. 105. near Tor, 

^Uamite, i. 213 
Elotli, Elana, Allah, or Aela- 

na, i. 116. where situated, i. 

Elysian fields, or plains of the 

mummies, ij. 83 
Em-dou-khal, village, i. 122 
Emeer, or prince, i. 445 
Emim, president of the physv- 

cians, i. 356 
Employments, how the Turks, 

Moors and Arabs employ 

their time, i. 420, 42 1 . the 

most laborious, not below 

the greatest of them, i. 427 
Emseesy, i. 331 
Engines for raising watey in 

Egypt, ii. 266 
En-gcusah, i. 142 



£n-Mishpat, or fountain of^ 

Mishpat, ii. 112 
'£{d(v{«i>rs(, how interpreted, i. 

Ephraim mountains, ii. 35 
Esdraelon, plains of, ii. 33 
Etham, the wilderness of, ii. 

93. the Saracene, ib, 
Euphrates, styled the Great 

River, ii. 50 ' 
£uro-clydon, a Levanter, ii. 

128. not Euro-aquilo, ii. 

Eyes, blacked with lead-ore, i. 

Jlzion-gaber, or the port of 

gold, ii. 118 


Faadh, like the leopard, i. / 

Faradeese, the Aphrodisium, i. 


Farasheese, Arabs, i. 240 
Faraxen, when defeated, i. 95* 

Fereanah, the Thala, i. 228. 

and Telepte, i. 230 
Feman, the mountain of, i. 

Ffert-el-heile, i. 324 
Figs, where they are in plenty, 

i. 71. 75. the succession of 

them from the beginning of 

summer to the spring, ii. 149. 

the time of figs, w, their 

kincb, i. 264 
Ilgig, a knot of date villages, 

i. 69. 142 
figured, aiithmetical, borrowed 

from the Arabians, i. 364 
Filbert, none in Arabia, ii.266 
Fish, those that are curious in 

Baibary, i. 348. ii. 377 
. Fishtail, the tragelaphus, i. 311 
Flatnixiant, i. 170 
r> Flints, 



Flints, nohfc in Aratna, i. 2^0 

Jlumen salsitm-, or Wcd-cl- 
tn^rhSr, i. 46 

Flux of the sea, the height of 
it at Sud:, ii. 322 

fooe^, once at the mouth of 
ih* Cano^ bratrch of the 
Nile, H. 231 

F6od, the s^eral sorts fti Bar- 

\ bary, i. ^17 

Foss3 sheHs in th6 Holy L^d, 
in 154. in Arabia, ii. 329. 
rare at IVJounf Sinai, ib, ca- 

• talogue of them, ft. 373 
. Fountains very rare in Arabia, 

^ n. 324, thi different quali- 
ties of them, ii. 325 

Fowling, the ,|nethod of it in 

.• Barbary, i.424 

Fowls thai creep, or insects', ii, 

•Ftrddah liver, i. 76 

Funerals in Barbary, how ton- 
ducted, i. 3^4. the lamenta- 
tions used at them, i. 435 

Fungi, &.C. ii.332 

*Fytbe-et-]Bothmahj i. 57 


Gabs, the Epichus and I'acape, 

' i.?13.238 

GsetuUa:, its limits, i. 38. how 
situated, i, 95. mountainous, 

Gafsa, the Capse or Capsa, i. 

Gahara, i. 98 

Galata, falta, i. 151 

Game, the variety in Syria, ii. 

Gartdora, i. 157. 

Gardeiah village, i. 99 

Gar el Mailah, i. 157 

Gardens of Bar bary, no regu- 
larity observed in the laymg 
them out, i. 2t38. the kit- 

chen garden, f. 258,. the 
fruit garden, i, 259 

Garments, see Habits. 

Garrar, fl. i. 139 

Garvancos^ the cicer, or chich 
pea, called leblebbi, when 
parched, i. 257. 

Gate of the palace, the court 
of justice in Arabia men- 
tioned in S ciure,i. 455 

Gavetto, \. 107 

Gaza, where situated, n. 118 

Gaiell, or antilope, i. 312. ii. 

Geeza, the ancient |lfemphis, 

Geldings, none in Barbary, i. 

Gellah ad Snaan, i. 133 
GeHah, the Castra Cornelia, i. 

Gehnah, or Kalmah, the Cala- 

ma, 1. 136 
Gemellafe, i. 121 
Gewoubee mountains, ii. 95 
Gilnra, the Cilma, or Oppidum 

Chilmanense, i. 225 
Ginetta, vid. Shibeardow, i. 

Gir of Ptolemy, i. 139 
Girdles of the Arabs, i. 409 
Gitkn, perhaps El-Callah, i. 

71 . 
Glue, a particular sort used in 

Batbary, i. 372 
Gooseberries, none in Arabia, 

i. 266 
Gopher-wood, what, ii. 292 
Gorbata, the Orbita, i. 234 
Gorgon's head, the allegory of 

it, i. 298 
Gorgoniae domus, where atua- 

ted, i. 299, 300 
Gorya, Kabyles, i. 102 
Goshen, part of the Holy 

Land, ii. 55, in the neigh- 



bour]H>od of HeUopolls, \u 
9Q» i^ear to the seat of the 
Egyptian kings, ii. 86 

Grain, the different sorts of it 
in BarWy, i. 25,2. diffe- 
rently nourished in Egypt, 
ii. 264 

Grarah, village, i. 99 

Qrassi-hopper, the cicada, false* 
ly so tr^nslatrf, i. 339 

Grey-hounds of Syria, their 
shape, ii. 159 

Grh^ing at the mill, i. 416 

Grotto, an extraordinary one 
i>ear Bellxnont, ii. 155. a ri* 
vulet rising up in it, ib, 

Gulej.ta, or Hfick-el-wed, i. 

Gumra, i. 98 

Gun-powder, or fiaroute, u 

Gurba, the Curpbis, L 179 

Gurbies, or little hovels, i.400. 
the fashion of them, the ma- 
galia, ib. 

Gurbos, or Hammam Gurbos, 
the Carpis and Axp^e calidfBi 

' i.174. ' 

Gucmant, the river, i. 64 

Gypsum, i»281 


Pabera isls^nd, i. 48 

Habits of the people of Bar- 
b^y, i. ^04,— 414. Hy,kes 
answering to the peplUf or 
toga, i. 403. burnoose, or 
<-^«rxflJ', i. i^O^* their caps or 
tiaras, i. 407. girdles, .the 
fashion of them,- i. 409. . li- 
nen, little worn by the A- 
rabs, ib» shirts, how ^)iaped, 
ib» the undi:ess of the wo- 
men, ib* 

Hab-ouse, what it nieanSy i. 
394. note. 

Habrah, \k^ river, i.54. and 

Arabs, ib. 
Hackeems, or doctors, i. 356 
Had, wh^t it denotes, i. 37 
Hadjar Xittexie, or rock of 

Titterje, i. 91 
Hadjees or pilgrims, their sta<« 

tions froih %alio to Mecca, 

li. 384 
Ha^oi^t^y the plain of, i. 81 
Haff-eff, barbers shops, i. 421 
Hair, how worn by the Ara» 

bians, i. 412 
Halleluiah, i. 435 
Hamath, where Ham, in the 

dispersion of mankind, en* 

tered the land of Canaan^ 

Hamapet, not the ancient A* 

drumetum, b^t the >^agi^} 

i. 180. 200 
Hamcese, the river, i. 87 
Hammah, el, of Gabs, or Ha^ 

inam, the Aqu§B l-ibilitanse, 

Hammah, el, the village and 

rivulet, i. 239 V- 19 
Hammaite, rivulet and ruins^ 

Hammatps^ bagnios -or stQVA% 

the di^erent kTnds of thg^i 

in Bfurbary, L 273. their re- 
spective ^tu^iops^ i. .27^. 

their water weighed h^dro- 

^atjpalLy, iJf^, 
HammaiPy or Aqu^ Tiji^ilita- 
n^, i. 135 
Gurbos, i. 174 
Lcef, i. n5, i76 
Rierecga, or the ^^^m 
cali(& cploaia of tbie 
ancients, ^ k, 89. tte 
weight (^ ks'wa^er, %• 

Meskouteen, 1. 135(. 274 

Mousa, ii. 10^. 




Hammam Ph&raoune, ii. 325 
Hamza, the plains of, i. 90. 

Har-arr, Arabs, i. 69 
Harammes, or robbers, i. 238 
Haratch, or Savus river, i. 87 
Harazel Mabarak, or blessed 

amulet, i. 366 
Hares, white, ii. 339 
Harshgoone, the port of, i. 46 
Harvest in Syria, when, ii. 137 
Hashem, the river, i. 59. 70 
Hasida of the SS. ii. 270. note. 
Hawk, of what a symbol, i^ 

Hawking/ a diversion of the 

people of Barbary, i. 42^i 

and of Syria, ii. 159. 
riay, none in Barbary, i; 254 
Hazaroth, ii. 110 
Hazazen-Tamar, i. 138. 
Hebron, ii. 144, 
Heliopolis,-or On, now Mattsi* 
- reah, ii. 89. once an emi« 

nence, now a plain, ii. 230^ 

See ii. 296 
Heliopoflitan nomos^ the land 

of Rameses, ii. 89 
Henna, see Alhennah. 
Henneishah, Arabs, i. 36, 37 
Herba, el, the ruins of, i. 98 , 
Heraclium, now Medea, ii; 64 
Herkla, the Hers^clea and A- 

drumetum, i. 199. 200 
Herodotus explained, ii. 251 
HeroopoHs, now Adjeroute, iii 

89. a city of the land of 

Rameses, ib,- gulf of it,- ii. 
Herpiditani, where,- i. 43 
Hhiroth, what it denotes, ii. 9*^ 
Hhymas, or tents, i. 397 
Hieroglyphics, vid. Symbolical 

learning, Egyptians, &c. 
Hippi Promontorium, i. 107 
Hippo Dirutus^ Diarrhytus, 

or Zaritus, i. 151, 152. 
the lake, i. 153. the port, 
Hippo, or Hippo Regius, i. 32. 

108. what it signifies, i. 

109. note. 
Hipponensis sinus, i, 156 
Hipponites, i. 183 
Hippopotamus, ii« 268. is the 

behemoth, ii. 229 

Hippozaritus, i. 175 

Hirkawse clans, i. 124 

Hirmam, a dashkrah, i. 97 

Hiroth, see Hhiroth. 

Hojiah, or secretary, i. 410 

Holy Land, the extent of it, 
ii. 41, 42. 54. the fertility of 
it, ii. 139. its olive-yards and 
<rineyards, ii. 141, 142. ho- 
ney, ii. 141. plants, ii. 146 

Honey, wild, the plenty of it 
in the Holy Land, ii. 141. 
various species of it, ii. 144. 

Hor, mount, where situated, ii. 

Horeb, from whence the namc^ 
ii. 328. note f . 

Horse,' the insignia of the Car- 
thaginians, i. 174. the qua- 
lities of a good one, i. 303* 
the price of one, anciently 
and nov^, ^, horses buried 
with their riders by the 
Goth^, i. 81. pedigree of 
horses carefully preserved in 
Arabia,- ii. 343. note. 

Houses of Barbary, their fa- 
shion, i. 273. their porches, 
i. 274. impluvium, ib. the 
court, ib. shaded by a veil 
«r awning, i. 275. cielings, 
floors, beds, &c. i. 277, 278. 
their cloisters, A. ^ parapet 
walls, ib, 

Houbaara^ not thi bustard, i. 3 3 4 




Hunting, the method of it, i. 

Husbandry in Barbary, i. 251 
Hycena or Dubbah, i, 216 ^ 
Hydrah; the ruins of, i. 222. 

the Thunudronum, ib. 
Hykc, or blanket, u 403. the 

peplus, toga, &.C. i. 405 

Jackall, or dheeb, i. 318. 

not the lion's provider, Uf, 
Jaffareah, what, i. 442 
1-aite, mountain, i. 116 
lalta isle, the Galata, i. 151 * 
Jam (or Yam) Suph, the weedy 
sea, or gulf of Heroopolis, 

u. 103 
Ibis, embalmed, ii. 210. no^ 

a rare bird in Egypt, iL 268. 

Ichneumon, ii. 301 
l£osiura) now Algiers, i* 87 
Icunculae, a variety found in 

Egypt, ii. 399 
Jemme,>the Tisdra, i. 220 
Jendil, Arabs, i. 78 
Jenounc, who, i. 438 
Jerba, or Gerba, the isle, i.2l6 
Jerboa, the description of it, L 

321, 322. the Ai5r«f, not the 

Saphan, ib, 
Jericho, its palm trees, ii. 151 
Jeridde, al, or el Jereed, i. e. 

the dry country, i. 234 
Jerrid, a palm branch stalk, L 

Jerusalem, the situation of it^ 

11. j8 
Jesneten, i. 43 
Jeune, or plain, the large one 

near Tripoly, ii. 22 
Jezeire, el, see Algiers^ i. 86 
Igilgili, 1. 104 
Ignis fatuus, an extraordinary 

one, ii. 135 

Jibbel Attackah, or mountain 
of deliverance, ii. 98 
Auress, the Mons Aura- 
sius, and Mons Audus, 
Decra, 1.95 
Diss, or mountain of reedy 

grass, i. 57 
Dwee, i. 77. the Mons 

Transcellensis, ib. 
Had-deffa, i. 271. the 
quality of the salt of it, 
Iskel or Cima, i. 183 jB 
Karkar, i. 69 
Krim, ii. 138 
Mousa, ii. 108 
Miniss, i. 57. the salt of 

it, i. 271 
Resass, i; 173 
Seilat, i»97 
Zikkar, i. 78 
Jibbelleah, mountain,'' i. 215 
Jijel, the Igilgili, i. 104 
Jillebba, a short-bodied tunic, i. 

Jimmah, or the church, i« 393. 
• note. 

Jimmeclab, the Gemellse, i. 121 
Jiramelj the Tegsea, i. 220 
Jin»enne, river, i. 96 
Jinnett, the creek of, i. 88. 

what it signifies, »^. 
Jird, the animal of that name^ 

i. 321 
Im-am, a kind of priest, i. 393. 
Inoculation of the small-pox 
discouraged in Barbary, i. 
Insects of Barbary, i. 338. 
how termed iii Scripture, ii. 
287, 288 
Inshlowa, i. 90 

Instruments, such as were used 
in the symbolical writings of 
the Egyptians, ii. 180, 1^1 




muskfil, used in Barbary, u 

366 . 

Intercalation, on what occjisions 

used, ii. 137 
Jol, or Julia Cassarea, i. 58. a 

maritime city, not therefore 

Tigedent or TagadeiQpt, i. 

72. lol,^ what it imports, i. 

60. note. 
Jordan, the river, the bigness 

of it, ii. 157. what quanti- 
ty of vapQur is drawn from 

it every day, ib, 
Jowi^es, or ins. TaricUse, u 

Iris, some species of, in Barba- 

ry, i. 281 
fsis irepcesented the moon and 

female parts of nature, ii. 

167. her symbols, ii. 169 
Israelites, the road t,hey took to 

the Red 3ea, ii. 91, &c. 

landed at Shur, ii. 101, &c, 

the mirstculousness of their 

passage through the Red Sea, 

ii. 103 
Issachar, the tribe of, ii. 24 
Isser, the river, or Assura, i. 

Judaea, see Holy Land* 
Judah, the tribe of, ii. 35. great 

extent of it, ii. 40. how 

many mustered in it, ii. 145 
Jugis A^ua Qf SaUu^t, near 

Capse, i. 332 
Jujeb of the Seedrab, i. 263 
^urjura. Mount, the Mons Fet-^ 

ratuv, L9Q 

j&ABAT-b^r-a-hnalfountidn^ u 

Kabyleah, Kabyles, 9r A|ricah 
families, i. 36. 128, 400.-t- 
their way of Itving* ib* 

Kabyles of ]y£mnt Jurjura, i. 

90. have the appellation of 

Bern prefixed to them, Fref* 
Kaddy, an ctfficer of justice, i. 

Kadesh Bamea, ii. 42, 112 
Kairo, Cairo, or Al Kahirah, 

called Al Messer, ^. 69< its 

extent, ii. 70. stands where 

the ancient Babylon was, ii. 

77, 231. the city of Rame- 

ses, 89 
Kairwan, the Vico Augusti, i. 

Kalories, or Greek priests, live 

a strict life, ii. 107 
Kar£|burno bird, i.331 
Kardanah, or Belus, fl. ii. 33 
Katham, the meaning of it, i^ 

61. notef. 
KeflF, the Sicca Venerea, i, 188 
Ker, or Akker, £. 23 
Kf^^«<f {iut TMf) how it may 

be interpreted, i. 383 
Kermes Nassara, the opuntia, 

' or prickly pear, i. 266 
Khalis, the Amnis Trajanus^ 

ii. 69. 77 . 
Sablah, what it denotes, i. 393 
Kiki, Kikaion, or gourd, ii. 

Kishon, the river, the sources, 

&c; of it, ii. 3? 
Jkisser, the Assurus, i. 217 
Kitawiah, i^ 336 
Kitchen .gardens of Barbary, 

what they produce, i. 258 
(Kol^um, or Red Sea, ii: 99. 

Koran, ot Coran, the principal 

book that is learnt in the 

Moori^ schools, i^ 355 
Kubber Romeah, i. 65 
Kumrah, an animal betwixt an 

tai and at cow, i. 304 



Lake of Marks, i, 235. 272. 
the Tritonis Pglus, Palus Li- 
bya, Palus Pallas, and L»:us 

- Salmarum, i. 237 

Lake of Charon, ii.82 

Xakes of Menes and Myris 
not the same, ii. 82. west- 
era lake of Men^s the lake 

. of Charon, ii. 82. ^ lakes of 
Myris^ Mareotis, whence 
formed, ii. 132 

Lakh dar, Kabyles, 1. 124 

Lambe$e, or Lambeaa, L 121 

Lamida, or Medea, i. 89 

Lanigara. or Tlen^an, i. 69 

Lapis Judaicus, ii. 154 

Lataff, Arabs, L 74 

Latikea, or Laodicea ad mare, 
the situation of it, ii. 9. the 
ruins, &c. ii. 10. several 
cryptSB near it, ii. IL vari- 
ation of the, depth of water 
there by the winds, ii. 131 

Latopolis or Babylon, ii. 90 

Lead mine indicated by the Se- 
lenites, ii. 326 

Leblebby, the pigeons dung of 
the Scriptures^ i, 257 

Xeechy, fish, i. 175. note. 

Leffah, the Dipsas, i. 3i7. the 
antipathy betwixt it and the 
Taitah, i. 327 

Lemnis, or Seedy Abdelmou- 
den, i. 42 

Lempta, the Leptis Parva, i. 

Lentils supposed to be petrifi^, 

ii. 198. note 
L'erba, the Lambese, i. 125 
Lerwee, vid. Fishtail. 
Levanters, or strong easterly 
winds, ii. 127. vessels apjiear 
to be magnified in them, ii. 
Leviathan, or crocodiley ii.<298 

Libanus, the mountains of, co- 
vered in winter with snow^ 

Libya, inner, i. 38. the ety- 
mology of the name, i. 32i{» 

Lidmee, or Addace, or Strep* 
siceros, or pygarg, i. 312 

Licm, i. 3l3. whence the pau« 
City of them in modem 
times, Uf* not, as reported, 

.. afraid of women, i. 314. 
method of catching them, 
A. flv^ chiefly on the wild 
boar, i. 324 

Livy, illustrated, i. 152. 156, 

Lizards in the wilderness of 

. Sin, ii. 338 

Locusts, their multitude, i. 340. 
good to eat, i. 343. different 
species, ii. 387 

Lotophagitis, tmr. the Brachion 
and Meninx, i. 216 

Lot^s wife turned into a pillar 
of salt, i. 292 

Lotus, ii. 178. 314. the fruit 
of it, from whence the Lo- 
tophagi took their name, i. 
262, the same with the See- 
drah of the Arabs, Up, the 
form of its leaf, ii. 314 

Lowaai or Lowaate, Gastulkn 
Arabs, or Kabyles, i. 98 

Lowahreah, the Aquilada, L 

Lwo-taiah, village and moun- 
tain of salt, i. 271 

Lynx, ii. 307 

Machurebi, i. 82 
Mackpelah, cave of, ii. 144. 

•M^odama, now Mafaaresa, i. 




Madrepores, see Coral, iL 331 
-Ma&ag rirer, the Rubricatus, 

i. 110 
M^galia, or gurbies, i. 400 
Magafeah, charms, i. 351 
Magic square, i. S65, 3.66 . 
M^greb, or sun-set prayers, L 

IV{»guzzeU the spindles, . theur 
J rWantic situation, ii. 21 
Maharak, what officer, Fref. ' 
Maharess, the Macodama, L 

Mahomet bey^s plough-shares, 

i. 284 
Majaaah, the plains of, i. lllf 
Malhary, see Dromedary^ i* 

Maiherga, mountain, i. 98 
Maisearda, i. 42. 44 
Makerra,. the river, i. 70 
Maliana, Malliana, i, llf 
MalIums,Tvho^ i. 371 
Malva, Malua,,M«Ati^, Malou- 
• iah, Oir Mul-looiah, i. 30. 32« 

40. the boundary between 

Mauritania and Numidia, or 

Mauritania Tingitana and 
. Csesariensis, 1.41. the same 

with the Mulucha,.Molo- 

chath, a^. 
Maropsarus, Mons, i. 114 
Manasseh, half tribe, ii. 37 
Mandrakes, ii. 148. 314 
Maniana, Malliana, i. 77. frag- 
ments of Roman buildings 

there, i. 78 
Mansourab, the city of, ii. 231 
Mansoureah, river, the' ^sarls, 

i. 104 
Manufactures of Barbary, i. 

Map^lia, the tents of the Be« 

doween^, i. 397 
Marabbuts, or tutelar saints, i. 

42. note, their burial places. 

i. 96. note, thai title here- 
< ditary, i. 439. some of them 

impostors, ib. 
Mar^h, the desert of, iL 104 
Marathus, now the Serpent 

Fountain, ii. 21 
Marble, no quarries of it now 
in Barbary which are men.* 
' tioned by the ancients, i. 
279. marble of Numidia, ih. 
Thebaijc marble in great 
plenty in Arabia^ ii. 326. 
the bushy marble, or £m- 
.buscatum of Mount Sinai, 
ii. 328 
Marriage, how it is performed 
at Algiers, i.^431. upon for- 
feiture of the portion, the 
Algerines can put away their 
wives, i. 432 
Masafran, river, the eastern 
boundary of the province of 
Tlemsan, or Western pro- 
vince, i. 44. 66* 82. what it 
signifies, i, 66 
Masagr^n, the town, i. 54 
Mascar, the town, thfi ancient 
". Victoria, i. 70. 75 
Masharea, a farni, i. 82 
Massassyli, the pepple of Mau* 

ritania Caesariensis, i. 41 
Mathematical figures used in 
the symbolical writings of 
the Egyptians, ii. 182 
Mathematics little known in 

Barbary, i. 263 
Mattamores, what, i. 255 
Mattareah, theHeliopolis, ii. 90 
Matter, the Oppidum Mate- 

rense, i. 183 
Mauritania^, the disagreemei;^ 
of authors about their ex- 
ten tj i. 31. when made two 
. provinces, i. 95. note. 
Mauritania Tingitana, why so 

called, th» 




Matiritania . ^ Cwsariensis, vihj 

so called, 1. 95. note, the 

ancient boundaries ef it, i. 40. 

' when made a Roman colony, 

1.95. note. 
Mauritania Sitifen»s, i. 35, 

Maxula, now Mo-raisah, i. 

Mazoalah, Arabs, i. Ill 
Mazoule superannuated, i. 453 
Maxouna, the town,* i. 12 * 
Medals of tremis. col. i. 68; 
one of Gordt&n accounted 
for, i. 223. of Judsea and 
other countries, ii. l5l. of 
Hadrian, ii. 225. account of 
some collected by the author 
in Africa, and supposed to 
have been struck there, ii. 
Medea, el, the town of, or Af< 
rica, i. 207. the Lamida, 
with the description of it, 1. 
89. the Heraclium, i. 64 
Medrashem, a sepulchral mcr* 

nument, i. 120 
Meelah, the city of, the Mile* 

vum, i. 134 
Meenah el Dsabab, or Emori* 

gaber, ii. 118 
Megiddo, where, ii. 34 
Mejerdah, river, the fiagradai 

or Brada, i. 137« 158 
Melagge, river, i. 137 
Melandgastuli, who, i. 99. 142^ 

Mel-gigg, rivcrj i^ 139 
Mellack, or Cape Hone, i. 45 
Memon, the ruiiis of, i. 73 
Memouriturroy, a sepulchnll 

monument, i. 73475 
Memphis, now Geeza, ii. 71, 
— 81. situated in the bed df 
the river, whence now no re- 
mains of it, ii. 83,-86. S28. 

the seat df the Egyptiia 

kings, ib, 
Me-nara, i. 181 : 
Menzil Heire'^ the Vacca, 1. 

Menxil, the Zeta, i. 220 
Merdass, river, i. 88. Arabs, 

i. Ill 
Mergakel, river,, i; 219 
Mcribah, the rock of, ii. 109 
Merjejah, village, i. 74 
Mers' el Amoshe, i. 63 
Jll Dajaje, i. 88 
El Fahm, i. 101 
El Kibeer, or the Gireat 
Port, i. 48 
Mesg*jid, or place 6f huitiilisi- 

tion^ i. 392 
Messeelah, town of, i. 116 
Metafus, sele Temimd^se. 
Metagonium Promont; i. 48; 

Mctraheny or Mohannan^ not 
the ancient Memphis, ii. 72; 


Mittijiah^ the plairis of; i. 81 

Mettse-coube, or perforated 
rock, i. 101. 

Midroe, the village and rivu- 
let, i. 57 

Mi^ol, ii. 96 

Mikeas, Nilescdpe, or mestsur- 
ing pillar, ii. 2ld # 

Miliana, river, the Catada, ii 

Mina, river, i. 71 

Minerals, the different sort^ in 
Barbary, i. 232 . . 

Minoret, what, i. 394 

Misuari. 174 

Mocatte, ihti mouiitsun^ of, ii« 

Monasteer, the wty of j i. 205 

Mons Atlas, where situated, i. 
Audus, i. 124 

\0h> II* 





Motis Auramis, u 124 
Balbus, i. 190 
Bargylus, ii. 22 
Ferratus, i. 90 
Usalitanus, i. 219 
Monsters, not produced in Bar- 
, barjy K 352 

Moor, what it signifies, i. 434 
Moors, live as the Turks, in 
cities and towns, Pr^. their 
language the same with that 
of the Arabs, ih. 
Mo-raisah, the Maxula, i. 173 
Mosaic pavement at Seedy 
Doude, i.1'74* at Praeneste, 
ii. 294 . 
Mosques, their fashion, i. 392 
Mountainous country of Judea, 

ii^ 140 
Mownah, the district of, i«135 
Mudkat el Ha^ar, i. 123 
Muckdah, el, the ford^ i. 54 
Muedin, or cryer, i, 394 
Mules tnade use of early to 
ride on, ii 301. but not 
much before the time of Da- 
• vid, ii. 324. notef* 
Muley Ishmael, the effects of 
-. his good' government, i. 44 
Mulucha, river, of the ancients 
uncertain, imaginary, i. 51, 
Mulvia, <, the same with 
the Mullooiah, i. 30. See 
Mummies, stand npright, ii. 
204. description of them, 
ii. 210, &e^ 
Musa, ii.31.4 

Music, the different aits of it 

in Barbary, i. 366. of the 

Moors, more various than 

that of the Arabs, i. 368. 

. Turkish, has a certain' ine>- 

kncholy turn in it, i. 370 
Muskeeta net, i^ 399 

Mttsleman, whence derived, i. 

426. note. 
Musti, i.l88 
Musti-gannim, the town of, i; 

Mwe^zims, Maedins, or cry> 

ers, i. 364. 419 
Alyris, see Lake. 
Myski anah, the river, i. 137 

* Nabal, the Neapolis, i. 179 
Nackos, or Nackouse, i. e, the 
bell, the Promont. Apolli- 
nis, i. 59 
Nahal, whence Nilus, ii. 59. 2 ] S 
Nahal Mitxraim, improperly 

rendered the iorreni, instead 

of the river of Egypt, ii. 

Nahar el Berd, the cold river, 

or cold waters, the Eleuthe- 

rus, ii. 25 
Nahar el Farah, or River of 

the Mouse, ii. 156 
Nahar Wassel, the river, i. 57 
Naked, what meant by it in 

the language of the £ast, i. 

NAoiini^ the Scala Tyrioruro, 

the colour &c. of the rocks 

of it, ii< 154 
'Nasftva fl. i. 103 
Natron, hotv it is produced, ii. 

'Neapolis, or Sfchem, ii. 151 * 
Neardee, Kabyles^ the danger 

of attackmg them, i. 125 
Nebo, mountain, ii: 37. note. 
Negro, cape, 1^151 
Nememshah, Arabs, i. 240 
Nic-Kowse, the garrison o^, i* 

123 ^ 

Nigrltiansv or western Moors, 

their honourable trade, i* 





Nije-dainiah, the Caudiverbeniy 

or Uromastix, L 326 
Nile, called tlie river of {1- 
gypty ii. 40« river of the 
wilderness, ii. 61, whence 

. the name, ii. 59. 217. note t*. 
the Pelusiac branch* ii.64. 
the Pathmeticy ib. the Men- 
desian, ib. the Tanitic, ib* 
the Sebennitic. ib. the Bol- 
butic, ib, the Canopic, ib. 
how the Nil^e |s boui|ded on ^ 
each side, ii. 69. the cause 
of its inundation, ii« 214. 
the quantity x>f mud brought 
down by it, n. 217. the 
quality of the mudi ib. the 
import of the name, ii. 59. 
218;- the depth of it in win* 
t^r, ii. 223. the proportion 
in which it increasetb. ii. 

. 2f-2At, s|}^teen cubits the usual 
stan4ard, ii. 22^.- . the altler- 
ations it hath ma4e in Egypt, 
ii. 2 '27, 228. an army drown- 
ed by pulling down its 
mounds, ii. 231. note f . 
augments the soil of Egypt 
about a foot in a hundred 
]|fe^, ii.«233. may in taoi^' 
accumulate its soil on the 
ower Egypt, as it has al- 
rea^ dpne on the Upper,, 
li. 242. whenqethe pbstruc- 
•lioqs at the n^uths of the' 
Nile, ii. 245 • - . 

Ifilp»xi^,'-o^.:Ni}oitietrvim^ ii( 
218. the cubit by which it 
is divided^> 41. 219. fdalki&i 
^pfdas^ aGcount of it^ Uk' 

Niobe, her stoiy allegorifia^i i; 
^291 . . .f 

Njsua, or ]!^i^a, i. 174 

^umqratioo> a pardcular me- 
tEod of it among th^ eastern 
merchants^ i* 3^64 

Numidia, general description of 

it, 1.114 
Kumidia Propria, or Mastylo-. 

rorum, i. 34. note.* i. 115. 

or MafS8esylQnnn,i.35. note.. 
Nuts, several kinds of, i# 266. 
. natef. 


Qats, none in Arabia, i. 254 
Obeliskji, how conveyed from 
the quarry, ii. 191. bow the 
faierogly^cs were engraven 
: .upon them, ib. the propor^. 
tion o^ the parts, ib^ iatj 
were dedicated to the sun, ii- 
J92. emblematical of fire, 
ii. 185. and of the son, ii. 
192. the obelisk at Matu- 
. oreah, ii. 193. encclcd by. 

Sochis, ii. 194 
Olees, or back-houses, i. S86 
Olive trees suitable to moun- 
tainous countries, ii. 143 
Omoldy Sinaab, the ruins of, 

i. 121 
On; or Heliopolis, ii. 90 
Onocrotaltts, or pelican, ii.302 
Onokentaura, ii. 310  
Qpjiiopbagi,. ii, 274 
Oppidoneum, or Sinaab, i. 73 
Oppidum Usaliiai>um, nowJe- 

-loakh, i, 21.7 
Qran, vid. Warran. 
Orbita, now .Gorbata, i^ 234 
Qrcifrited metalsia Arabia, i.282^ 
Otlhosi^;ii.2ff - 

Osiris, or the 'Sun, or the male 
, . pAltt of natuiBy'.ii. I6r7v his 
symbols, ib. his posture aind 
dress Wblemaiical,H. 164 
Q$tricb,''natuml history of it, 

ii. 340,---3^ ' 
Qtter^ ii. 308 

Oviparous quadrupeds ia' Bar- 
bary, ii. 324 




Paltus, 11. 16, 17 

Palus Tritonis, or Lake of 
. Marks, U237 
Palm tree, how it is propagated, 
• i. 259. the age of it, i. 261. 
the honej'of the palm tree, 
i. 262. an emblem of Judea, 
and 6i some -other cities, ii. 
151/ two species of it, ii. 
314. Sec Date tree. 
Panthfer, i.313 
Papyrus of Egypt, ii. 264. 317 
Paralytic, the 'letting of hint 
' dbwn considered, i. 381 
Paran, the desert and convent 
of, ii. 110. the same with - 
Tzin, ii. Ill ^ 
Pareas, or anguis, i. 3'30 
PassoTer postponed sometimes 
for a month forthe first fruiJts, 
ii.l37 ' ' 

PatumuS| now Pithom, ii. 90 
Pebbles, the* variety of colours 
-in those of Egypt and Ara- 
bia, ii. 329 
Peek, or cubit, different, iiJ 221 
Pelicane, onocrotalus,-ii. 302 ^ 
Pellowans, or wrestlers, i. 391 
Peluaum, Tniss, or Tennis, i. 
 57 - 

Penna marina, i. 348 
Petrified village; vid«RasSem. 
Petrified olives^ melons, &c. 6^ 

the Holy Land, ii. 155 
Philistines, where they inhabit- 
ed, ii. 53, 54. oMginally^ 
Egyptians, ti^. ii.236. tiOU ^ 
Philoao^er^s stone, a good^orop, 

Phosnice, fiK>m whence the 
name,- ii.'a52. note, the 
boundary of it, it^. 27 
Phoenicopterus, or Flammant, 
-'i. 170 " '^ 
Phoenix, ii. 303 

Physgcah, i. ^29. 131 

Physic, the present state of ^t 
in Barbary, i. 357 

KgeonS dung, or leblebby, i, 

Pihahhiroth, ii. 95, 96. the 
valley from whence the Is- 
raelites crossed the Red Sea, 
ii 99 

Pillar of Holofcmes' bed, £• 

'• 399 

Pil-loe rock, i. 156 

Pisgah mountain, where, ii. 37. 

Pistachio nuts, i. 266. note. 

Pithom, or Patumus, ii. 90 

Plaster of terrace, how made, 

' i.572 

Plants of Arabia, few, ii. 330. 

' those of the Red Sea, viz. 
corals, madrepores, &c. ii. 
331. of Syria and the Holy 
Land, i. 146, 147. those that 
were used in the symbolical 
writings of the Egyptians, 
ii. 176. how refieshed in 
Egypt, ii. 267. a Catalogue 
of the curious plants of Bar- 
bary, &c. ii. 353 

Pbmegranate, once one of the 
' most delicious fruits of the 
East, i. 266 

Pompey's family, i. 78. his 
- pillar, ii. 67 

Porcupine, the casting of its 
quills, i. 321 

Port of Al Jezeire elGazie, i. 

Porto Farina, or Gar el Mai- 
lah, the Ruscinona, i. 157 

Portus Cascili, i. 32 
Deorum, i. 52 
Magnus, i. 48. ii. 65 

Po>r, small, how treated in Bar- 
bary, 1.359 

Poison of the scorpion, &c. 

how cured, i. 346 
ftttfiSSB, or mourning women^ 

J. 435 
Praeneste, Mosaic parement 

there, ii. 294 
Pfomootoriam ApolUnis, i. 59, 
Herculis, i. 174f 
Mercudi, i. 175 
Magnum, or Cape 




Prophecy, the pretensions they 
make to it, i.441. a pro- 

. ph^cy, promising to the 
Christians a restoration of all 

. they lost tO( the Turks and 
Saracens, i. 443 

Province of l^lemsan, i. -34. 44 

Provincia nova, i. 34 

Broconsularis, i. 1^0 - 
vetus, tb, 

Proviuons, the price of them 
in Barbary, i. 414 

Pulse, the several sorts of, i, 

. 257 

Punishments in Barbary, i, 

Purple, the method of extract^ 
ing it, ii* 31. note. 

Putrefaction prevented in hot 
dry countries, ii. 323 

Pyrarg^ see Lkimee. 

Pyramids of Egypt, those which 
were of unbumt brick pos- 
^bly destroyed by nun, i. 250 

' • their distance from QtKUiL 
or Memphis, ii. 73. of G«e- 
za, the same with the Mem- 
phitic i^ramids, ii. 74, 75. 
< 79. how said to be betwixt 
Memphis and the Delta, ii. 
79. the three of "Geeza 
most noted, ib> emblemati- 
cal oi fire, ii. 185. dedica- 
• 4ed to the sun, ii. 19J. their 
planes regard the four qiiar-' 

Index. 429 


tcr8bftheworld,ii.l93. their 
dimensions differently laid 
down, ii. 195. no horizon- 
tal base whereby to measure 
them, ii. 196. none 6f them 
were finished, ib. they were 
not to consist of, steps, ib, 
their stones not brought fitom 
the Trojan mountains, ii. 
197. no account of their 
founders, or the Ume of their 
foundations, ii.l99. or for 
what use they were intended, 
ii. 201,— 205. their, tnaide 
little known to tlie ancients, 
ii.205. the measure of theita, 
ii. 385 

Quadrupeds m Barbary, i« 
• 302. what the seven men- 
tioned in Deut. xiv. 5. ii* 
276. 284 
Quail, a species without^ the 

hinder toe, i. 336 
Quarantania, the mountains of^ 

ii. 36. 147 
Quarries, i. 279. See Marble. 
Querkyness isle, the Circina 
' and Circinitis, i. 210 
Quiza colonia,or Geeza, i. 51 

RACHAMAH,tor Geer eagle, 
supposed the mag-pie, or 
jay, i. 333 

Raigah Arabs, i. 1 1 9 

Rain, comes in Barbary with 
. W. and N. W. winds, i.246. 
the quantity of it that falls 
there .in a year, i. 249.* scarce 
aiiy in the Sahara and at Ba- 
bylon, ib. the effects of it 

' on buildings of brick, and 
perhaps on such of the py- 
ramids, f%. the rainy season 




IS in B*r. 

1. m Sy- 

Rhinoceros, ii. 300 

ii. 45. a city built in a de- 

136. upon 

KTt, ii. 46. no notice of s. 

pt, ii. 214. 

liver there amongst ancient 

joliun i)o- 

whence the lxx Uanslatcd 

iQd of qo- 

the river of Egypt by this 
name, ii. 48.. a river at Rhi- 


i. 31. 85 

: nocorura cpuld wilh no pro- 
priety be aylcd, the river of 
?.gyp^ ii. 51, 52 



Bjce, how raised is I^gypt^ ii. 

"ape ^Qpe, 
£1 Kishan, ii. 32 
$em, the petrification;! 
' .' thfrc found, i. 28 V- 

Baiaddar, what it v^tfaai, i. 37 
B^MiwI;? '^phs, i. ^i' ' 
Red 3ea, o^ th^ sea of Kdom, 
or Jaip ?<^E^r i- ?■ tlifl 
Weedy Sea," ' )i. ipg. of 
bounded Se», ii.3^5. tbo 
miraculousness of it$ ^■^-. 
h'mg for ft? Isi^elit^ ,il. 
Regia river, i. 88 
Regie Carthagimensium, !. 150 

?eil^,l)ina, *t. 
^mc^ies, such as aie usolin 
' Barhaiyi i, 357. thata^ajnst 
the plaguo, i. 3^2  ■" ■' 

Re^I^!,Ji(«y tcimed 

tiire, 11.280 
Bwamniih, Kill 
Reijtyi^ thetribe of, ii. 3S 
SHa:^J, i. 3^5 .'  '  
^l)^s, iyiiei)ce currants 

ca]J«(], i. 266. not; f . 
^ades, or Ades, l! 173 


gjv«r of Egypt, the Nile, ii. 

fUvets, whence the beds of ra- 
pid ones grow deeper, ii, 
^44.. .thur bars what, ii. 

Sou-w(idde, or Bou-ad, the A- 
radus, or 4ri>ad, ii. 218 

Ropttp, or Rassid, ii.64 

Bubricatus, now Mafragg, i, 

.; Jio 

Bummel, river, i. 130, 131 

Buscinona, i. 157 

Busgunite, (wr Rusconiie cojo- 

jfi^, n<>w 'i'emftndiuse, i. 87, 

83 ' 

Buricada, pow S^gata, !> 32. 

Busfi^, now Sbeah, i. 20& 
Ruspipit, npw Sab^el, i._2.04 
gusucurutn), or Dellys, i>f>li 
- 101 

. S 
$^A,^X mouniainB, 1. 97 
^fihr^^ia moutit^ns, tjie Mjms 
. 4,tlBS, 1.45.67 
$a4dpck, whgt, i.431 
S^f-saf; i. 335 

S?l»J*sl. .d« Ruspina, i. 204 
^ara, tfa;, or dcsCrt, [.33. 
.,J39. ij.3iti 




Sahul, the district of, i. 198 
Saibah, preserved bodies tbere^ 

»• 285 

Sakara, catacouibs there, ii, 210 

Sal armoniaCy how it is made, 
ii. 389 

.Sal gem, i. 272 

Saldse, or Boujeiah, i. 32. 91. 
101. 105 

SalectOy the Sullecti, i. 208 

Salinse, or salt pit^ of ArseW, 
i. 52, 270. those of the Gu- 

. letta, qf the Shott,. &c. ib* 

Salhist. Bell. Jug. illustr. i. 
184, 229 ^ . 

Salt, the gfeat quantities of !t 
in Barbary, i. 268. this salt 
of the mountains of Lwor 
taiah, i. 271, of the lake of 
Marks, 1. 272« of the Shib- 

. kahs. ib, 


Salt-petre, or mellah hace, how 
it is made, i. 272 
works, ib. 
Salt pits of Arzew^ i, 52 
Salt works upon the coast of 

Syria, ii. 153 
Salutations 6f the Arabs, L 

Sand, the drifts of it in Arabia, 

ii. 321 
Sanjactats, or secretaries! at 

war, i. 355 . . 
Saphan, not:tJ}^ Jerboa, i« 325. 

t>ut. the Damftn Israel, ii* 

Saracene, the wilderness of E* 

tham, ii. 93, 94 
45armah, what, i. 431. notcf- 
Sarsura, tiow Surse6F, i. ^20 
Sashee, a peculiar species of the 

apricot, i...264, 
.§?yus, or fiaratcb, . i» 87 . . 
Sbekkah, the Cerbic^.cff Pto- 
lemy, the Xucca Terebin- 

tiiina, i. 217. 2J4 ' 

Sbcah, i. 209 

Seal a Tyriorum, n^r £cdip- 
pa, ii. 114. Nakoiira, ii. 
153 ^ 

Scandarea, the Alexandria^ ii. 

Scillitana colon, i. 225, 226 
^cipio Africanus, where he 

landed, i. 151 
Scorpion, i.345 
Sdur, or Shur, the desert of, ii. 

103 . . 
Sdur, or Sedur, ib. 
Sea, Great, the Mediteitandan', 
ii. 42. the Dead Sea, iextent 
of it, and quantity of vafour 
. exhaled from it, ii. 156. 
^ea«fita^, ii. 336 
Sebba-RouSy i. 105 
•Sebbeine Aine, or seventy 

fountains, i. 57 
Sdsdy, the meaning of it, i.42. 
note. I 

Abdel Abuss,the Mus- 
. ti, i. 188* / 

Adelmouinen, i.42 
Abid, i. 72 
Aihmer Buck-tewah, 

i. 159 
Ashoure, his history, i. 

ben MukhaJab, his hi- 
story, i. 439 
bch Tyia, 
Doude, tfaie Mtssua;, i. 

. . 174. 

£bly, his hitifimam, i. 

Eiiibarak ^snrati, 
118 . 
. . Eei^cv or Via, i. 83 
HallifF, ib. 
Lascar, i. 140 ' 
Mdemon, i, 133 
Qccuba, i. 140 




eedy Rougeisc, mountains, i. 
Youscph, i. 7v*5 

Sedur, the place where the L- 
raelites landed, after their 
passage through the Red Sea, 

Seibouse, the river of, the Ar- 
mua, i. 108, 109 

Seir, mount, the compassing of 
it, ii. 115 

Selenites, i.28]. ii. 326 

Selloome, i. 182 

.Septem stadium, the present 
Alexandria, ii. 65 

Sepulchres, how the Moorish 
ones are built, i. 395. how 
that of our Saviour, ii. 13. 
and of Lazarus, ii. 15 

Sepulchre, a statue to Jupiter 
erected over it in the time of 
Hadrian, ii. 39 

Serpent, what a symbol of, ii* 

Serpents in Barbary, i. 326. 
numerous in Egypt, ii. 272. 
skid to be charmed with mu- 
«ic, ii. 273. and to charm 
thirds into their mouths, ii. 
306, note, eaten very com- 
monly by the people about 
Kairo, ii. 274. what kind 
beguiled our first parents, ii. 
305. frequent in the wilder- 
ness of Sin, ii. 338 

Seteef, the Sitifi or Sitifa, i. 
103. 116 

Seven Sleepers said to be buried 
kt Nickowse, i. 124 

Sfa3(, the city of, i. 212 

Sgigata, the Rusicada, i. 32 

or Scora, i. 106. 110. 

Shagarag, i. 333 

Sheck, or elder, i. 42, note, i. 

Slicdvly, or raonkry, i. 104. 

Sheep, the di&rent sorts in 

Barbaiy, i. 309 
Shelliff, tne river, the China- 

laph, i. 30. 57. 71 
Shells, a catalogue of them, ii. 
. 379 
Shenooah, mountains of the, i, 

Shershell, the Julia Csesarea, i. 

32. 59 
Shibeardou, or Gat el Ber-ra- 
• ny, the description of it, u 

Shibkah or Sibkah, what, i. 

Shibkah EUowdeah, S}. 
Shorba, or pottage, i. 419 
Shott, river^ \. 48 

valley, i. 122, what it 
denotes, ib» 
Showiah tongue, i. 401, 402. 

a vocabulary of it, ii. 382 
Shrob el Douhhan, drinking of 

smoke, i. 421. note %, 
Shur, ii. 102 
Shurph el Graab, or pinnacle 

of the ravens, i. 69 
Sicca, now Keff, i. 188 
Siccar, what, ii. 266 
Sichem, or Neapolis^ ii. 151 
Sid. vid. Seedy 
Sig, or Sikke river, i. 53 
Siga, river, the Tafna, i- 45 
city, the metropolis of the 
Mauritanian kings, i. 
Sihor, or Shihor, ii. 60. how 

variously rendered by the 

Lxx, ii. 48. the same with 

the Nile, ii. 50 . 
Sikk, a drain, &c. i^53,54. 

Sikke, or Sig river, thence 

so called, th* 
Sunyra, ii.23. 28 




Sin, the wilderness of,- ii. 105. 

Sinaab, tlie Oppidoneum, ruins 

of it, i. 75 
Sinai, the mountain and desert 

of, ii. 105,— -108. from 

whence the name, ii. 328. 

notef. the garden of the 

convent, ii. 330 
Sinan, brook, i. 46 
Sinus, Numidicus, i. Ill 

HIpponensis, i. 1 5Q 
Sisera pains, i. 183 
Sisaris H. i. 104 
Sitifa, or Sitifi, i. 118. 126 
Str]x(pt»9 ^tli«r, i. 119 
Siyah ghuih, or black- earM 

cat, i. 320 
Skinkore, a water Ikard, ii. 

Skins, the bottles of the Scrip- 
ture, i. 433. note J. 
Sleepers, seven, i. 124 
Soil, the quality of it in Bar- 

bary, i. 268. in Syria, ii. 138 
Solyman, the town of, i. 173 
Souf el Tell, the district of it, 

Sour Guslan, the Auzia, i. 93 
Souries, where they inhabit, ii. 

Sowing time in Barbary, i. 251. 

in the Holy Land, ii. 136 
Spahee, or Turkish cavalry, 

Spaitla, now Sufetula, i. 224 
Spar, i. 281 

Sphinges, or monkics, ii. 511 
Sphinx, covered with sand, ii. 

209. a square hole upon the 

rump, ib, another upon the 

head, ^. 
Springs, the several kinds in 

Barbary, i. 273 
StafFar Allah, God forgive mcj 

i. 420 

VOL. Ii. 3 

Stamboule, or Constantinople, 

Stations of the Israelites that 
arc recorded, not always one 
day's journey, ii. 92 

2Ti7u, a veil, i. 382 

Stora gulf, the Sinus Numidi- 
cus, i. Ill 

Stone, the quality of it in Bar- 
bary, i. 279. different kinds 
of it, i. 280. , towns and men 
supposed to be. turned into 
stone, i. 286. 293 

Stone coffins of I?lgypt, t)ieir 
fashion, ii. 204 

Storks, their history, ii. 269 

Stones, heaps of them over 
dead bodies, raised by pas- 
sengers contributing one 
eachj Vref 

Strata, great breaches in them, 
in some of the mountains of 
Arabia, ii. 329 

Strepsiceros. See Lidmee. 

Suc(^th, a place of tents,, ii. 

Suez, the city of that name, ii. 
92. ninety miles from Kairo, 
ih, fountain near it, ii. 324. 
walls of it made of fossil 
sheUs^ ii. 3^9 

Suph, part of the Red Sea so 
called, ii. 334 

Suph or Souph, what, ii. 335. 
npte f . 

Sufetula, i. 223 

SufTrah, what, i. 92. note. 

Sugar, known to the ancients, 
ii. 144. note. 

Sugerass river, i. 138 

Sumra, or Simyra, ot Taximy- 
ra, ii. 23 

Surseff, the Sarsura, i. 203. 220 

Susa, the city of, i. 203 

Swords, long ones found in 
ruins, i. 81 

I - Sycomore 



Sycomore wood, the durable- 
ness of it, ii. 212. 315 

Syria, the inhabitants of, ii. 161 

Symbolical learning, viz, the 
symbols of Osiris, ii. 167. 
of Isis, &c. ii. 169. what 
branches of learning record- 
ed in it, ii. 166 

Syrtis, lesser, the limits and the 
nature of it, i. 210 

Taabnah, i. ill 
T^anach, ii. 34 
Tabor, mount, ib, 
Tabraca, or l^habraca, Ta- 
parca,i.30. 151. taken fron^ 
the Genoese, i. 112 

Xacape, the Tritonis, i. 213. 

Tacapitanae aquab, i. 239 

Tacatua, i. 107 

Tackumbreetj vid. Siga, i. 46 

Tadutti, i. 121 

Tafarowy, mountains, i, 70 

Tafna, river, i. 45' 

Tagadempt, Tcrgdent, Tige- 
Jent, Tignidcnt,' Sec. i. 73 

Taggah, the wns of, i. 119 

Tagou-zainah, the Diana, i. 

Tajen, what, i. 416 

Taitah, or chamneleon, the 
same with the letaa, or li- 
zard, Lev. xi. 3. i. 325 

Talcb, vid. Thulby. 

Talk, i. 281 

Tarantula, the venom of it cu- 
red by dancing, i. 347 

Tarff, river, i.213 

Taifowah, or Taphrura, i.213 

Tarichiae ins. or the Jowries, i. 

Tattubt, the Tadutti, i. 121 

Taximyra, ii. 23 

Teddeles, vid. Dellys. 

Tefessad, the Tipasa, i. 64 
Tegaea, now Jimmel, i. 220 
Tegewse, i. 234 
Telepte, i. 230  
Tell, or land proper for tillage^ 
* i. 30. 245 
Temen^iuse, the Rusguniae 

col. i. 87 
Tempest, sacrifice oJered to it 
by Mahometans and the an- 
cients, II. 133 
Tent,, the pillar of it, i. 398 
Terrace, how made, i. 372 
'i'esseilah, mountains and city, 

the Astacilis, i. 70 
Tezzoute, the Lambese, i.l21 
'I'habba, now Ebba, i. 235 
Thebae, Thebestis, now Tif-» 
» fesh, 1.136 

Thaibanne, serpent, perhaps 
Xti^can's '('hebanus ophites, 
Thainee, the f^^?^ ^. Thene, 

Thaleb, or Thulby, scribes, i, 

Thaler, or dollar, i. 100. 453 
Thambes Mens, i. 114 
Tbapsus, now Demas, i. 206 
Thena or Thenae, i. 212 
Theneate el Gaiinim, i. ^7 
Thermae, spaws^ &c. i. 273 
Thermometer, how affected 

with heat and cold in Bar* 

bary, i. 245 
Thubuna, i. 121 
Thulby, who they are, i. 96, 

note. 365. note* 
Thunudronum, now the Hy- 

drah, i. 223 
Thyte el Botum, i. 97 
Tiah beni Israel, what, ii. 95 
Tiara, like the modern caps of 

the Arabs, i. 407 
T4beebs, or physicians, i. 356 
Tichasa, now Te-gewse, i. 234 




Tiffesh, the Tfecvestc, i. 136 
Tigaua, or Tuckcrah, i. 57 
Timicey with little reason, ge- 
nerally taken for Tlem-san, 
i. 69 ^ ^ 

Tineh, the Pekisiuin, what it 

denotes, i. 63. note. 
Ttpsa, or Tibesss^, the Tipasa 

or Tefcssad, i. 87. 137 
Tisdra, th»w Jemme, i. 220 
Tisurus, now Tozer, i. 235 
Titterie, what it signifies, i. 92 
Dosh, i. 97 
Gewle, i. 57 
Tlemsan, Tremesan, or Telem- 
san, or western provinces, i. 
34.44. the city, i. 66. the 
Lanigara, i. 69. what it de- 
notes, ih. note. 
Tniss or Tennis, the significa- 
tion of it^ i. 57 
Tobacco, the culture of it at 

Lalikea, ii; 139 
To-bulba, i* 216 
Toga, the same with the Ara- 
bian hykes, and Scotch 
plaids, i. 405 
Tor, port, its distance froth Sin, 
li. 119. abounds with ma- 
rine plants, ii. 331. and many 
other advantages from na- 
ture, ii. 337 
Tortoises in the river Eleuthe- 
rusy ii. 26« in the Kishon, 
u. 27 * 

Tortosa,or Deir-douse, the An-' 

taradus, ii. 17 
Toujah, Kabyles, i. 102 
Towers, some shaken with 

sounds, i. 140 
Tozer, the Tisurus, i. 235 
Trade, i. 403. the Westera 
Moors trade with a people 
they never see, i. 430 
Tradition is supposed to have 
truly preserved the locality 

• of our' Saviour's transac tions, 
notwithstanding the great al- 
terations in the very situation 
of Jerusalem, ii. 2t8 
Tragelaphus of the ancients, 

what, i. 212 
Trara, the mountains, i. 45 
Travelling, the method of it, 
'Bref, in the Tingitana, i.44 
Tremesen, vid. Tlemsan. 
Tres Insulae, i. 41 
Tretum Promont. i. 101 
Tribe of Issachar, Benjamiit, 
Judah, &c. how situated, 
ii. 34, 35 
Tribute, collected by the seve- 
ral viceroys of the kingdoms 
of Algiers, i. 100 
Trieris, ii. 30 
Tripoly, half a league from the 

old Tripolis, ii. 29 
Triton, river, i. 215, 237 
Tritura Promont. i. I'bd 
Trojan mount»ns, if. 197 
Truzza, mountain, i. 219 
Tubna, the Thubuna, i. 121 
TuburbOjtheTuburbum minus, 

i. 185 
Tubomoke, the Oppidum Tu- 

bumicense, i. 190, 191 
Tubersoke, the Thibursicum- 

bure, i. 186 
Tuckereah, the ancient Tiga- 

va, i. 57 
Tuc-caber, the Tuccabori, i. 

Tuckush, village, i. 107. IIO; 

Tuggurt, the capital of Wa- 

dreag, i. l4t 
Tulensii, i. 83 
Tum^ of Proco{)iiis, 1. 125 
Tunis, of the kingdom in ge- 
neral, i. 147. Its limits and 
extent, ib. not divided into 
provinces like Algiers, u 




148. extent of the city, i. 

Turbant, i. 407 

Turris Hannibalis, now El Me- 
dea, i. 207 

Tusca, ]. 112 

Twunt,- i. 44 

Tyre, its ports, &c. ii. 30. why 
c^led Sur, ii. 31 

izin, vid. Deseyt, 

Vabar, or Ash^ouiije-mon-kar, 
i. 101 

Vacca, now Beja, i. 18 j 

Vjegetatjon, few earthy parti- 
cles consumed in it, ii. 248 

Veil of Ruth, what it wa«, i, 
405. of the Moorish wo- 
men, i. 411, 432. note* 

VepillTumi now £bill^, i. 235 

Via, i. 83 

*r9ri^4v«f, what it signifies, i. 38$ 

Villages of £arbary, how built, 

Unicori|, or rhinoceros, ii. 306. 

Unglia, i. 213 

Urchins, star^, shells, &c. of 
the Red Sea, ii. 336 

Uromastix, oie caudiverbera, i. 

Us^tt^ river, or Tnton, i« 
the Mons Usalitanus, L 

Utica, now £ooshatter, i« 161 


WadREAG, the inhabitants of 
it, i. 384 114. 138. the dist- 
inct and villages of«it, i. 
141. the wells, ib, 

Wan-nash-ree9e, i. 74. 90. the 
Mons Zalacus, i. 74 

Wannoughah, Mount, i^ 116 

Warran, or Onm, i. 49 
Warral, or Quaral, i. 325. ii« 
309. a&cted With muac, ii* 
Wash, what it denotes, i. 310 
'Water, how raised in Egypt^ 

ii. 267 
Watef-spouts, bow occasioned, 

ii: 134 
Weather, an. account of at an 
Barbary, i.245. in Syria, 
ii. 127. in Arabia, ii. 319* 
at Alexandria, ii. 389 
Weaving,, botw performed in 
. Barbary, i.403 
Wed Adjcdee, the Gir, i. 139 
«l Abeydc, i. 174 
el Casab, or river of 

Canes, i.48 
el Fuddak» or river of 

Plate, i.74 
el Ham, i. 96 
el Kasaab, i.48 
' el Kibeer, the Ampsaga, 

i. 105 
/ el Mailah, or Flumen Sal- 
sum, i.46. 51.69. 98 
el Shai*er, i.98 
el Thainee, i. 212 
Welled, the meaning of it, Pref. 
Abdenore, i.ll9 
Aly, i. 70 

Attiyah, an inhospita- 
ble clan, i. 105 
BoogufF, u 241 
Booker, i. 73 
Eisah, i. 91 
Haifa, i. 70 
In-anne, i. 91 
Matthie, i. 241 
Omrin, ib. 
Seide, i. 240 
Seedy Boogannim^ ih. 
Seedy Branam Aslem- 

my, 1.97 
Seedy £esa, i. 96 




Welled Seedy Hadjeras, i. 96 
Spaihee, i, 73 
Uxeire, i, 74 
Yagouhec, i. 241 
You-noose, i. 57 

Zeire^ !• 69 
Wheat, when ripe in the Holy 
L^d, ii. 137. when in £^ 
gypt, ii. 2^4 
Wilderness, what meant by it 
in Scripture,!. 43. not. 
of Sin, ii. 105, 338 
Winds, which the most fre- 
quent in Barbary, i. 248. 
which bring rain, tb, ii.l27. 
Etesian, or northern, not 
the cause of the Nile^s in- 
undation, ii. 215 

Wine, dnmk to a great excess 
by the Turks and Moors of 
Tunis, i. 172. at Algiers 
once excellent, i. 267 

Wives, little regard paid to 
them in Barbary, i.,432. do 
all the drudgery of the fa- 
mily, ib. 

Worm, the eggs of the silk 
worm how preserved, ii.l38 

Woodcock, called by the 
Moors the ass af the paft- 
ridges, L 336 

Women of Barbary always 
veiled, i. 411. their head- 
dress, ib. their eye-lids tin- 
ged with lead ore, L 412« 
great beauties, i. 434. past 
child-bearing at thirty, ib. 
how they welcome the arri- 
val of their guests, i. 435. 
how punished, i. 457 

Wood-riff, i. 213 

Woojee-da, or Guagida, u 43 

Woolhasa, the Arabs, or Afri- 
cans, i. 46 

Woorgah, Arabs, i. 241 

Wrestling among the Turks, 

the same as in the Olympic 

games, i. 391. note. 
Wurglah, the' inhabitants of, i; 

38. part of the ancient Me- 
. lanogastuli, L 142 

Yam Suph, or Weedy Sea, H. 

Yarourou, i. 332 
Yisser, river, the Serbetis, L8S 

Zaab, the Zebe, i. 38. 113. 

the extent and situation of 

it, i. 139. its villages, u 

139, 142 

Zaccone, oil of it, L 147. note. 

Zaggo$, the mountains and salt 

pits, i.97 
Zainah, the ruins o£^ i/ll9 
Zaine, river, the ancient Tus- 
ca, i. 29. 112. 150. its sig- 
nification, i. 112. the same 
as the Barbar, i. 29 
2^koukit, what, i. 120. note. 
Zalacus, Mons, i. 74 
Zammorah, the town of, u 

Zeamah, river, L 111 
Zeckar mountain, L 97 
Zeidoure, the plains of, i. 69. 

whence derived, tb, 
Zenati, Arabs and river, i. 135 
Zermoumeah, i. 325 
Zeta, now Menzil, L 220 
Zeugitana regio, now the sum- 
mer circuit, u 150* 191 
Zhoora, river, i. 105 
Zib^, promont. i. 152, 156 
Ziganeah, Arabs and moun« 

tains, i. 129 
Zin, the desert of, ii. Ill 
Zoan, land of, the same with 
the land of Egypt, ii. 87. 
lay at a distance from the 




road which Jacob took into Ziicchabari, i. 76 

Egypt, ii.88 
'Zour el Hamam, or pigeon's 

island, i. 57 
Zowan, Zow<>aany Zoow-wan, 

Zung-gar, ruins and fountain, 

i. 168 
Zureike, serpent, or jaculus, i. 


or Zag-wan,the town,moun- Zwowah, .or Moorish soldiers, 
tain, and village, i. 168. 190 i. 448 

2^wamoore, or Zimbra, ' the Zwowiah, who, i. 96. 123 

iEgimurus, i. 156 

Zygantes, i. 192. 




1. IVLap of the Western province of Alglcfs, 

2. Map of the Southern province of Algiers, 

3. Plan of the city and country r9und Algiers, 

4. IVJap of the Eastern province of Algiers, 

5. Sfgpulchral monument near Kasbaite, &c. 

6. Map of the kingdom of Tunis, 

7. City and port of Warran, or Oran, 

8. Map of Carthage, Utica, and bay of Carthage, 

9. Back front of three temples at Suffetui^, 

10. Ichneumon, sea urchin, &c. 

11. Birds, Barbary locust, &c. - - - 

12. Music of the Bedoweens, Moors, and Turks, 

13. Representation of a house in Barbary, r 

. 29 


14. Map of the coast of Syria, Pheeriice, and the Holy 

Land, ^ - - - - 

15. Part of Syria and Phoenice, 

16. Plan of the city and country about Jerusalem, 

17. View of the Mediterranean Sea, the Nile, the Red 

Sea, Idumsea, &c. PL II. 
IS. Part of the Mediterranean Sea, &c. with the bounds 

of the Holy Land, . - - - 

19r Plan of the mud-walled villages on the NRle, 

20. Extract of Dr Pococke's map of Egypt, &c. and 

the Chrysanthine map, PI. IIL IV, 

21. Prospect of Mount Sinai from the port of Tor, 

22. Map of the winds, and of the course in which St 

Paul's ship was driven, - 

23. The obelisk at Mattareah, 

24. The embalmed biiM, Egyptian mummies, &c. 

25. The Ibis, . ' . 








26. Li- 

440 Plates contained in this Work. 

to face page 

2^ Lithostroton Praenestinum, - - 294 

27. Plants, Acetosa, &c. , - - . 353 

28. Capparis, &c. - - . 357 
29* Erysimum^ &c. ... 35g 

30. Foeniculuxn, &c.^ • • . 361 

31. Orchis, &c. ... 3^4 

32. Tblaspidiunij &c. - - 368 

33. Corals, - - i - 369 

34. Fossils, - . - - 37S 

35. Coins found in Africa, . - 394 

36. Egyptian Censer and Canofuses,, - 397 

37. Icunculse, PL II. III. . . ib. 

38. Peutingcr^s Table, PL IV. - - - ^. 

'\ ;."j''. •■■'■J •,,•->. 

t< \-<ji