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Full text of "Travels through space with Parseval!"

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His Excellency, the retired Secretary of State von Hollmann 

President of Board. 

Captain in the reserve von Kehler Major Dr. ing. h. c. von Parseval 
Managing Director. Constructor of the Parseval dirigibles. 

Dr. h. c. and Dr. ing. E. Rathenau 
Substitutive President of Board. 



Luftfahrzeug - Qesel Ischaft m. b. H. 

===== Berlin-Bitterfeld ======== 



Travels through space with Parseval 





H. M. the Emperor on a visit to the hangars 
of the Airship Development Society. 



In these five words is summed up the story of the 
mastery of the air won for the German nation through 
the efforts of a number of German engineers and financiers, 
continued through five long years. When accounts of the 
brilliant success of the French dirigibles first appeared in 
the newspapers, in the year 1905, Germany turned its 
eyes to the West, in anxious apprehension lest a 
foreign nation should have, once again, created a new 
instrument of transport and of warfare. Its military 
value, in case of war, might well prove decisive, while 

in time of peace it was destined, no doubt, to create a new industry providing employment for thousands 
of bread-winners. 

The danger of the menace contained in this new instrument of war, against which there was no 
means of defence, was clearly realised throughout Germany. For we still remembered the famous saying of 
that First Lord of the British Admiralty, who proudly informed Parliament, in the year 1849, that every vessel 
showing the red, black, and gold colours would promptly be treated as a pirate. Nor had we forgotten how 
many years had been spent in the struggle to enable us to meet our strong opponent on the seas 
with a fleet which, even though inferior in numbers, could worthily uphold the honour of our flag. 
What serious result might not ensue if Germany remained unprovided with aerial craft? 



— 1 — 



A:",'*:,,,.. 

None other than H.M. the Emperor himself called 
together a number of representatives of industry and com- 
merce, in the spring of 1906, to discuss with them the 
possibility of organizing means for constructing aerial craft 
destined to aid in the conquest of the air. R public appeal 
for founding a Society for the development of dirigibles was 
issued in the month of May, 1906. 

After the lapse of a few weeks, at a meeting of those 
who had taken an active interest in the project, this Society 
was finally created, endowed with a capital of a million 
marks — £ 50,000. Investigations made in foreign countries 
by the manager, Captain von Kehler, showed that although 
great progress had been achieved abroad, nevertheless there 
was no necessity for acquiring foreign airships or materials 
for their construction. Two important German inventions, the Zeppelin and Parseval airships, were thoroughly 
tested once again, whereafter it was finally decided to place adequate funds at the disposal of Count Zeppelin 
for continuing his experiments and to buy Major von Parseval's invention outright and to appoint him co- 
manager. Through the assistance of the Ministry of War and other Departments of State, the new Society was 
provided with a suitable site for the erection of the first balloon shed for the first experimental dirigible on the 
Manoeuvring Grounds at Tegel, near Berlin. 




H. R. H. the Crown Prince witnesses an ascent 
of the Parseval dirigible. 



The first experimental dirigible 



of the 



Society for Airship Development. 






First ascent of the Parseval dirigible. 



The accompanying photograph shows the first Parseval dirigible 

which, as is known, still had very rounded bows. This early 

dirigible had a volume of 3200 cubic metres (112960 eft.) and 

carried in its car a 4-cylinder petrol motor driving a propeller with 

limp fabric blades, also built to Major von Parseval's designs. 

Two considerations determined Major von Parseval to build his first airship wholly on the non-rigid 

principle. Firstly, by practically eliminating rigid parts of every kind a great saving of weight is effected, 

and in the second place, these dirigibles, when not inflated, are easily transported and can be assembled 

and inflated almost anywhere, without any special prepa- 
ration being made. Consequently the vessel is not bound 
down to a fixed base, shed or hangar, but can be trans- 
ported anywhere and inflated on the spot by means of gas 
compressed in steel cylinders. 

During the years 1906-7 the first experimental airship 
made a large number of ascents and was finally acquired 
by the Imperial flero Club after being fitted with a 
new envelope and having all its parts thoroughly over- 
hauled. 





The Parseval flying over its hangar. 



3 — 



Parseval dirigible PL1 (E type) 





The Swiss Balloon 
Corps at work. 



The dirigible was next sent by the Club to take part in the Gordon- 
Bennett international balloon races at Zurich and there made its first 
ascent on October 3 rd - When the 
Parseval IV, as it had been re- 
christened, was first seen in flight 
over the town it was hailed with 
the utmost enthusiasm. Like a 
nation on the march the people 
streamed out to the balloon 
grounds at Schlieren, on foot, 
a-wheel or by train. 

The photographs depict the 
first ascent of the Parseval, and 
show the men of the Swiss 
Balloon Corps at work, inflating 
the vessel. In spite of the really bad conditions of wind and weather, and although the signal "no ascent 
will take place to-day," had been hoisted, Major von Parseval and Chief-engineer Kiefer decided to attempt an 
ascent. The chief of the Swiss General Staff, von Sprecher, was carried as passenger, in this first dirigible-trip 
from Swiss territory. After landing smoothly in a field adjoining the balloon-grounds three further ascents were 
made, in which Dr. Forrer, of the Federal Council and Colonel Schaeck took part. Ascent and landing on 
every one of these trips was absolutely smooth. The tempestuous wind prevented the ascent that had been 
arranged for the following day. Nevertheless, the Parseval dirigible had clearly proven its efficiency as a vehicle 
of locomotion even under the particularly unfavourable weather conditions that prevailed. 




'■" ts ^m^M'mm»»t^- 



The Parseval dirigible, owned by the Imperial flero-Qub, 
during the Gordon-Bennett races at Zurich. 




For its participation in the 
races the Parseval vessel was 
awarded the Prix d'Honneur 
of the city of Zurich — the 
golden lion of Zurich — ■ 
which is shown in the ac- 
companying illustration. 

In May 1908, was founded 
the Airship Company, for the 
construction of Parseval diri- 
gibles on a large scale. The 

first airship, known as the "R" type, which has a volume of 4000 cubic metres (141200 cu. ft.), was immediately 
acguired by the Prussian War Office and has taken part in the German Aerial Manoeuvres right up to the present day. 



The lion of Zurich 

Prix d'Honneur 

of the City of Zurich. 




The Parseval dirigible PL I in front of its hangar at Bitterfeld. 




The ascent. Travelling through space. 

The Parseval dirigible PL I before being handed over to the Prussian War Office. 



Landing. 




Whether working from the permanent base at Tegel, near Berlin, from Cologne, or from 
any other spot, this craft has always given the utmost satisfactory proof of its capabilities; 
so much so, that the War Office soon placed an order with the Company for a new vessel 
of considerably increased proportions. And here it may be well to give some details of the 
materials employed in the construction and especially of the method of suspending the car. 
The fabric of the envelope is double-ply cotton fabric, with diagonal threads, and 
a thick intermediate layer of indiarubber. This fabric reaches the highest possible degree 
of impermeability. Its strength is such as to afford an effective margin of safety against any 
pressures to which it may possibl/ be subjected. In addition to the two interior ballonnets 
which maintain the gas at a constant pressure with the aid of a 
ventilator, the hull comprises the following parts: the main valve for 
emptying the gas, the double air-valves with the feed-pipes for the 
ballonnets, two horizontal stability planes in the rear, a vertical stability-fin to which is 
affixed the vertical rudder, and finally the suspension-belt to which the suspension cordage 
is attached. The design of the car and its suspension system has been constantly 

altered and im- 
proved in each 
vessel; details of 
the latter there- 
fore will be 
given as we de- 
scribe each vessel 
more fully. 



Lieutenant Stelling, 

the well-known pilot of the 

Parseval Airships. 





The military dirigible P I, packed on two transport waggons within two hours of landing. 



The car of the first Army 
dirigible P I. 




Lieut. Stelling 
gives the order "Let go!' 



Vertical steering, in the great Parseval dirigibles, is effected 
by feeding the air from the ventilator either into the rear or the 
forward ballonnet alone, or simultaneously into both. If the forward 
ballonnet is filled to a greater extent than the rear one, the diri- 
gible descends, owing to the fact 
that the bulk of the gas is driven 
to the rear of the envelope; the 
ascent is effected in the opposite 




Packing the dirigible after landing. 



manner. The velocity of the first dirigible P I — about 
11 to 12 m. p. s. (24 to 27 miles per hour) was not deemed 
quite sufficient for military purposes, for which a dirigible 
must be able to negotiate in safety continuous strong head- 
winds. It was therefore decided to adopt higher-powered 

engines, which, owing to their greater weight and consumption of petrol, added considerably to the load to be 
lifted. In consequence the volume had to be increased from 4000 to 6600 cu. m. (141200 to 233000 c. ft.) 




The Army dirigible P 
(B type) 



...... 



The B type thus came into being, with its two 100 H.P. motors placed 
side by side. The shape of the hull was also modified: it had been demon- 
strated during the large number of ascents already carried out and by laboratory 
tests that the head-resistance of the vessel is actually of less importance than 
the friction of the air along the sides of the hull. By analogy with marine 
ships, the lines of the hull were so designed as to offer the minimum of 
resistance, by allowing the air to flow away regularly towards the rear. The 
B type and all later vessels consequently underwent considerable modifications 
in their shape: the hull tapering gradually towards the rear and ending 
in a fairly sharp point. The construction of the new car, too, required 
the greatest care having regard to the powerful motors it contained; built of 
steel throughout, it was in addition reinforced in every direction in order to 
withstand the thrust of the twin , ... _ 



propellers, 
side. 



situated one on either 



The dirigible P II at Bitterfeld. 



The driving mechanism was so 
designed that either motor by itself can drive both propellers, 
both motors working in conjunction can drive both propellers 
or again either motor can drive one propeller. Since there 
are two couplings, it is quite easy to uncouple the motors; 
consequently one of the motors only need be started and the 
other motor can then be thrown into gear. 




Landing after the first trial ascent at Bitterfeld. 




The Army dirigible 
"P II" starting on a 
long-distance journey. 



On this occasion 6-cylinder motors, provided with three carburettors, were 
used for the first time. With this arrangement it is possible to stop any single 
pair of cylinders, while the others continue working, in order to make adjust- 
ments or repairs while the motor is running during an ascent. Another notable 
feature of these 6-cylinder motors is the absence of vibration while they are run- 
ning, a point which considerably adds to the comfort of the passengers in the car. 
This dirigible "PL 3" — its official military designation is "P II" — has 
so far had a brilliant career; it has made more than one-hundred ascents, 
including journeys extending over several days through the interior of Germany; 
these cruises will be referred to in detail on another page. The military 

authorities — its present 
owners — especially, have 
every reason to be satisfied 
with its performances on ac- 
tive service; it was notably 
the only dirigible which suc- 
ceeded in making the journey 
fromCologne toHomburg and 
return without mishap. Its suc- 
cess on this latter occasion has 
proved decisive in regard to 
the acquisition of further diri- 
gibles of the Parseval type for 
military purposes, 
housing the "P II" in its hangar at Bitterfeld. 




9 - 




The austrian army dirigible "PL 4" ("C" type) 



Mo sooner had the successful perfor- 
mances of the Parseval dirigibles become 
known in other countries than a large num- 
ber of orders began to come in from foreign 
Governments. 

The first dirigible built for a foreign 



First ascent of the dirigible "PL 4" in Vienna. 

Power was the "C" type, a vessel of 2000 cm. (70600 eft.) capacity, actually constructed under licence in Austria to 
Major von Parseval's designs. This vessel has developed the high average speed of12m.p.s. (27 miles per hour) and 
has given proof of exceptional facility of control owing to its relatively small volume; it can be inflated very rapidly, 
while a few waggons suffice to transport the gas-cylinders required for inflation. 
Repeated messages of congratulations have been received by us 
ftom the Austrian War Office. 

The remarkably successful series of journeys made through South 
Germany by the dirigible "P II" led a number of residents of the town 
of Munich to organise a scheme of passenger services from Munich to 

Oberammergau and to other popular 

resorts in the Bavarian Highlands. Rs 

a consequence, during the winter of 

1909, we received an order from the 

Parseval Company of Munich for a 

dirigible of 6700 cm. (236 500 eft.) 

designed to carry in addition to a crew 

of 4, a complement of 12 passengers. 




Gas-cylinders for inflatting 
a 9000 cm. dirigible. 




The Parseval soaring over Viena. 



10 



cm. 




m 



The Munich dirigible PL 6 (B type) 



= 



This vessel is under construction and 
was intended to start on its regular 
passenger-service on June 1 of this year. 
Unfortunately, the collapse of the hangars 
while under construction has occasioned 
some delay. Nevertheless it is still hoped 
to make the first ascents during the 



Parseval dirigible PL 6 on a trial trip. 



present sum 
Its engines 



mer months. This Munich dirigible is practically a sister-ship to P II. 
are identical, namely two motors, each developing 100 H. P., 

while outwardly it only 
differs by the more elon- 
gated shape of the hull 
- an improvement which 
will mean an addition to 
its speed of some 1 or 
V/, m. p. s. (2Vi to 3 7, 
miles per hour). 

Simultaneously with the 
contract for the Munich 
dirigible came an order from 
the Russian Qovernment for 

another B type vessel. 
Arrival of PL 6 at Dresden. 




V, 



F\vss\*\\voq PKi/mJjtntylO . 



fabric D 
n-|vftstl/iff 



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roit «iiwm 




- Laift$il|!2<w;g«settlsd)aft Muractjeu, ra.lt H 



The Russian military dirigible PL 7 (B type) 



3 



Rs is generally known the Russian Government at 
one time acquired several dirigibles in France; but these 
craft met with but slight success, being disabled during 
their acceptance trials in Russia partly through fire and 
partly through defects in the mechanism. The Parseval diri- 
gible built for Russia will shortly be handed over. This 
vessel also is engined with two 100 H. P. motors, but in 
this case these are not placed side by side, but disposed 




Parseval PL 7 destined for Russia. 




Car fittec 



with two 
4 semi- 



100 H.P. 6 
rigid prope 



cylinder 
lers. 



motors. 



longitudinally. The Munich dirigible was designed 
principally in order to carry the greatest possible 
number of passengers; the Russian Government, 
on the other hand, demanded high speed in the 
first place, while the crew will not exceed six men. 
Although the trials of this vessel are not yet 
terminated, its velocity will undoubtedly attain 
16 m. p. s. (36 miles an hour). 
R detail to be noted in the case of the last two named dirigibles 

is the altered design of the propellers. While the earlier Parseval 

vessels were fitted with wholly limp propellers, the latest types carry 

the so-called semi-rigid propeller. 

Propellers of this semi-rigid type possess the advantage of 

greater reliability, while all danger of damage through possible contact 



12 




with the rigid driving mechanism, as in the case of the wholly limp propeller, is avoided. 
Furthermore, disasters such as have occurred in France, and also with Qerman dirigibles 
of the rigid type, due to a propeller-blade breaking off in flight, piercing the envelope 
and sending the vessel hurtling down like a stone — as in the case of the French 
"Republique" — are impossible with these semi-rigid screws. Finally, recent laboratory 
tests have conclusively proved that Parseval propellers are actually more efficient than 
even the best specimens of rigid wooden propellers. 

In the spring of 1910, there was designed a new "Q" type, a vessel of 
5600 c. m. (197700 c. m. ft.) capacity, which will be driven by two 150 H.P, motors 
placed one behind the other, and is designed to develop a speed of 17 m. p. s. 
(38 miles per hour). 

The drawings on page 14 clearly show the arrangement of the car and its 

mechanism, including the engines. This vessel is intended for the Brussels Exhibition and will therefore be 

completed at the earliest possible moment and navigated to its new harbour. 



Herr Kiefer, 

chief engineer of the 

Parseval Airship Company 




Pieschen a. Elbe Oschatz Eilenburg 

Photographs taken from the car of the PL 6 during the first trial-journey Bitterfeld — Dresden — Bitterfeld. 



Parseval dirigible for Brussels Exhibition, 
197700 eft, "G" type (PL 8). 




Side-elevation of ,,PL8." The dotted lines indicate the position of the two ballonnets. 




tm^ 




The two 150 HP. motors placed behind one another. 



Driving gear of the twin semi-rigid propellers. 



- 14 — 




S'he uarseoal dirigible of ihe Z/mperial jHero-Gtub circling round the Ducal Uas/le at cHltenburg. 



PART II.. 



THE SMALL 

PARSEVAL DIRIGIBLES 

For sporting purposes, for Clubs, Societies, 

or as private pleasure craft. 
For commercial purposes, for service at 
Exhibitions and for Advertising uses. 




German Pilots of Parseval Dirigibles 





Lieutenant Forsbeck. Herr Hackstetter. 




The sporting dirigible PL5 (D type) 



Capt. Dinglinger, 
Parseval-dirigible pilot 



The sporting dirigible Parseval V "D" type, completed at Bitterfeld early this year, 
was designed with the idea of producing a vessel of the smallest possible dimensions, but 
capable of carrying from 3 to 4 persons, and attaining a speed of 20 miles an hour or 
more. The design provided for a run of from 5 to 6 hours. In its principal dimensions 
the vessel measures: Length 39 m. (128 ft.), Diameter 7,7 m. (25 V 4 ft.), Volume 1350 c. m. 
(47650 c. ft.) By constructing the envelope from strips of fabric running lengthwise, the 
resistance due to surface friction has been greatly reduced. 

In one detail the "PL 5" differs radically from every other Parseval dirigible: 
vertical steering is effected, not by two ballonnets, but by a horizontal rudder affixed near the bows of 
the hull and controlled from the car by cables passing over a 
steering-wheel. 

Through this arrangement this vessel is so sensitive to 
control that it can be navigated with perfect ease at a height 
of but a few feet from the ground. The interior pressure of the 
gas, and consequently the rigidity of the hull is maintained by 
a central ballonnet fed with air by a centrifugal ventilator. In 
order to guard against the pressure being increased unduly, an 
automatic valve, opening at 15 m. m. pressure, is fitted between 
the ventilator and the ballonnet. 

The balloon itself, of course, is also provided with a valve, 
the latter, however, only opens to a pressure of 25 m. m. 

This tiny sporting dirigible has already accomplished 





many long journeys, notably from Bitterfeld to Berlin and is 



The old and the new order of things. 



17 



Type D I! (PL 9) 
under construction 




The dirigible PL 9, fitted with two 30 H. P. motors, and forward horizontal rudder. 

often hired by Societies and Clubs for the use of their members, by the week or the month. R{ the 
present time two further vessels of this D type are under construction: the dirigible PL 9, destined for the 
Brussels Exhibition, and PL 10 ordered by a German Club. Both these dirigibles differ from the first vessel 
of this type in that they contain two motors. There is no question but that the internal combustion engine is 
still liable to break down; and this is the case, not only with motor-car or motor-boat engines, but more 
particularly with the much lighter aerial engines which, in spite of constant improvement, have not yet reached 
that degree of absolute reliability possessed by the steam engine. Bearing this difficulty in view, it has been 
decided to provide this small type of craft, also, with two motors, each developing 30 to 35 H.P., and jointly 
driving a single propeller. 

In this way it becomes possible either to drive ahead under full power with both motors running, or 
else extend the possible radius of action by running either motor alternatively. 



— 18 — 




PL5 flying at 1650 ft. 

on its voyage from 

Bitterfeld to Berlin. 



This arrangement seems so extraordinarily simple and effective that 
the question justly arises why it was not adopted in the case of earlier 

dirigibles. The answer 
is that it is impossible 
to drive an ordinary rigid 
propeller at widely diffe- 
rent powers without seri- 
ous loss of efficiency 
Major von Parseval first 
solved the question by 
the invention of his semi- 
rigid propeller which is 
so designed as to possess 
a variable pitch: this 
renders the employment 
of two motors feasible, 
since the pitch of the 
propeller is reduced when 
only one motor is in 
action. These variable-pitch propellers have since been generally adopted, and possess the further remarkable 
advantage of being reversible. Although for the present a dirigible, soaring high through space, stands in no 
urgent need of being capable of rearward motion, nevertheless facility of control is greatly increased by the 
possibility of running one propeller forwards while reversing the other. 




Leaving Bitterfeld for Berlin. 



19 




This device, however, is of the greatest possible use 
in landing, since it allows a dirigible to land in a 
restricted space by reversing the propeller. 

| Another important feature is the suspension of the 

car. The main suspension- 
cables form a constant 

vertical parallelogram and 

maintain the car in a 

position parallel to the 

longitudinal axis of the 

balloon. In addition the 
car is suspended from inclined cables running to the bows and stern of the 
envelope and passing over four pulleys. This arrangement, as is well known, 
prevents the dirigible from tilting upwards under the thrust of the propeller which 
is applied to the car. In consequence the propeller works just as favourably as 
if its thrust were applied to the centre of resistance of the airship. 



PL 5. Landing at Reinickendorf, near Berlin. 




The suspension of the ca' 



20 — 



Travels in the Farseval dirigible 
= PL 3. = 









PL 3 at the Frankfort Exhibition. 



In the summer of 1909 the dirigible PL 3 
was sent to Frankfort-on-Main for the purpose of 
carrying out a series of passenger ascents during the continuance 
of the International Aeronautical Exhibition. The extremely small 
dimensions of the starting ground tested the controllability of the 
vessel most severely; in spite of this the airship behaved magnifi- 
cently, more especially in ascending, when it had to rise at a very sharp angle. Again, the fact that landings 
were regularly made, with perfect safety, on this narrowly circumscribed ground is due to the arrangement 
whereby the propellers could be reversed, here employed for the first time. In all, the dirigible made 67 ascents, 
carrying nearly 600 passengers; during the course of the summer of 1909 it remained 145 hours in the air, 
and covered a total of 3250 miles. Some of the shorter trips extended to Homburg, Wiesbaden, Mainz, 
Mannheim, Nauheim, Qiessen, Coblenz, etc. These ascents won many prizes amounting in the aggregate to 
£ 1600. In being awarded the Emperor's Prize, Major von Parseval, the designer of the vessel, received the 
highest honour of the International Aeronautical Exhibition. The longest voyage made by the P III, as the 
vessel was then designated, was the journey to Munich, via Nuremberg and Augsburg, and back to Frankfort 
by way of Stuttgart. 



21 



Piloted by Lieutenant Stelling, the able pilot of the early Parseval vessels, the dirigible started from 
Frankfort on October 12 th and returned safely from its long journey in spite of violent head-winds and heavy 
clouds encountered on the way. In the towns passed en route, the dirigible was anchored in the open during four 



nights, often in stormy 
weather; at the end 
of this long cruise, 
however, in spite of 
fog and rain, the 
envelope showed not 
a sign of having 
suffered in strength 
or solidity, find al- 
though parts of this 
trip were carried out 
at heights up to 
3600 feet, the loss 
of gas was extraordi- 
narily slighter! all only 
600 cm. (20000 eft.) 
of additional gas were 




PL 3 over Nuremberg. 



used during the three 
stops overnight at 
Nuremberg, Augsburg 
and Stuttgart. This 
affords a conclusive 
proof that alterations 
in altitude were con- 
sistently effected by 
dynamic means, and 
that no ballast had to 
be used for this pur- 
pose. Every passenger 
who was privileged to 
make a trip in the 
PL 3 - and among 
them T. R. H. Prince 
and Princess Henry of 



Prussia, Prince Waldemar of Prussia, the Hereditary Prince and Princess of Sachsen-Meiningen, the Grand 
Duchess of Hessen-Darmstadt — returned full of praises for the delights of the journey and its comfort, which 
was materially aided by the total absence of vibration from the motors, even on long distance ascents. 



22 — 




fls a sequel to this remarkably successful 
series of ascents, the vessel was purchased by 
the Prussian War Office, and the "P II" to give 
it its new military title — was ordered to the 
autumn manoeuvres at Cologne. From this base 
it carried out, in company with its sister-ship 
"P I", and together with a rigid and a non-rigid 
dirigible, a series of scouting trips, the results 
of which are obviously not available. But at 
any rate the inhabitants of Cologne were able 
to witness the splendid spectacle of 4 German 
War dirigibles — among them two Parseval 
vessels — circling round the towers of the Cathe- 
dral, flt the end of these manoeuvres the airship 
started upon a long cruise of 225 miles to the 

town of Gotha. Soaring high above the battlements of the old Wartburg, this craft of the air must have pre- 
sented an inspiring sight; and many a one, looking up from Martin Luther's rooms at this new vessel winging 
its lofty way over the ancient Castle, must have likened the impending importance of aerial navigation to the 
revolution brought about, long ago, by the great reformer in the spiritual life of the German people. 

R few hours later the vessel, piloted by Lieutenant Stelling was overtaken by a fierce snow-storm, such 
as has rarely been seen at this time of the year in any part of Germany. To continue the journey was 
clearly out of the question, since the thick driving snow rendered it impossible to see one's hand held 
up at arm's length. 



The war dirigibles "P I" and "P II" circling Cologne Cathedral. 



- 23 - 




fln improvised shelter 
from the storm. 



The "P II" after landing in 

a heavy snow storm 

near Qotha. 



competent leadership, 

while on the present 

occasion only a few 

peasants assisted the 

crew, and the material 

was brought in safety 

by ripping the envelope. 

(Never have the advantages of the Parseval system 

been shown in a more brilliant fashion. 

May this record achieved bring the Parseval 
airships a few more friends who may entrust 
themselves, in absolute safety, to their experien- 
ced pilots. 



It was decided to land, and now the enormous advantages of the 
non-rigid type in a forced landing were amply demonstrated. In a little 
under three hours, with the help of a few chance peasants, this enormous 
vessel, with its volume of 6700 cm. (236 500 eft.) was deflated, dismantled 

and packed on two carts ready for transport to 
the nearest railway station, and this without the 
slightest damage being caused either to the enve- 
lope, the motor or the car and its mechanism. 
No other type of dirigible could have been even 
held down in the open country, in such a snow- 
storm with a wind 





Dismantling the car in order to build a 
tent for shelter during the night. 



blowing in great gusts 
at a velocity almost 
double that of the 
vessel itself. 

For the long series 
of disasters to diri- 
gibles of every other 
type have occurred in 
spite of their being 
held down by hun- 
dreds of carefully trai- 
ned soldiers under 



24 



Advantages of the Parseval dirigibles. = 

Every single trial and ascent yet accomplished with a Parseval dirigible has shown this type to possess 
the following advantages: 

1. The Parseval dirigible is the lightest, because it comprises no heavy rigid framework. 

2. The Parseval dirigible is most easily controlled, because its propellers are reversible and so enable it to 
land safely and easily on the most restricted ground. 

3. The Parseval dirigible is proof against the roughest landings, because its rigid parts are cut down to an 

absolute minimum. 

4. The Parseval dirigible is the handiest, because, when deflated, 

it can easily be transported and need not be inflated until the 
starting place is reached. 

5. The Parseval dirigible, other things being equal, develops the 
highest speed and possesses the widest radius of action. 

6. The Parseval dirigible is the cheapest to buy and to run, having 
regard especially to the fact that it requires no costly hangars 
for temporary landings. 

Looking back on the last two years during which we have 
completed seven Parseval dirigibles, while four vessels are even 
now under construction, we may claim without exaggeration that 
our dirigibles - - judging from their performances alone — are the 
most efficient airships in existence, whether for military purposes, 
for sport, cr for commercial use. 




Landing in the open country without any outside assistance. 



25 



Although every vessel yet turned out has shown improvements in detail over its predecessors, the general 
design has never stood in need of alteration. Even to-day, we are fully justified in our claim to have produced 
the greatest results possible under the conditions at present prevailing and with the materials hitherto available. 




liomburg v. d. H. Photographed from the Parseval dirigible PL 3. 

May our vessels soar far beyond the frontiers of our country opening up new fields for the development 
of German industry! 



- 26 - 



Luftfahrzeug - Gesellschaft m. b. hi 

Berlin W.30, Nollendorfplatz 3 



Head Office: 

Telephone: Berlin VI, 3605, 5999 
Telegraphic Address: Luftfahrzeug, Berlin 



Works: 

Telephone: Bitterfeld, 94 = 
Telegraphic Address: Luftfahrzeug, Bitterfeld 



For the preparation of estimates full details regarding the following points are essential: 

Number of passengers to be carried exclusive of the crew. 
Maximum Speed required; and whether one or two motors are desired. 
Number of hours of ascent without replenishment of fuel. 
Description of the site for the proposed hangar. 

Every available information regarding the average wind conditions prevailing in the neigh- 
bourhood of the proposed hangar. 
Particulars of hydrogen supply, or whether hydrogen plant is required. 



Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft m. b. H. 



27 — 



Chief dimensions of Parseval dirigibles 


Type 


Designation Vo|ume Ung(h 
of vessel 

Cu. met. met. 


Master 
Dia- 
meter 

met. 


Span, 
in- 
cluding 

tail 
planes 

met. 


Height 
total 

met. 


Dimensions ot car 

Length Width Height 

met. met. met. 


Motors 


We 

Envelope 

with 
Cordage 

kg. 


ght 

Car with 
Motors 

kg. 


fl 


P L I 4000 


60 10,4 

II 


16 


17,3 


6 j 1,3 


1,2 


1 motor ca. 100 HP. 
or 2 motors a 50 HP, 


1350 


1480 


B 


PL3 

„ 6 6700 

„ 7 


70 


12,3 


17,8 


20 


10 1,4 


II 

1,2 2 motors a 110 HP. 2220 

I 


3140 


C 


II II 
P L 4 2300 50 


8,6 


12,6 


18 5,5 0,8 


, , 1 motor ca. 85 HP. n .' 
'»' or 2 motors a 45 H P. y4U 


800 


D 


PL5 

„ 9 1350 40 

„ 10 


8,0 


12 


16 4,5 


0,9 


1 


2 motors a 33 HP. 550 480 


E 


P L 1 3200 60 

I, I 


9,4 


15 


16,6 


7 


1,3 


1,3 


1 motor a 80 H P. 
or 2 motors a 40 HP, 


i 

1300 

I 


1400 


F 


— 


1600 


45 8,2 


12,5 


17 


5,5 


1 


1 


2 motors a 33 HP, 


— 


— 


Q 


PL8 

11 


5600 68 11,0 


17 


19 


10,2 


1,35 


1,2 


2 motors a 150 HP. 


1600 


1800 
































! ' 





















- 28 



Capabilities of the Parseval dirigibles 



Type 


Designation 
of vessel 


Volume 
cu. met. 


Speed 

met. per miles per 

sec. hour 


Length 

of flight 

hours 


Altitude 

attainable 

metres 


Crew and 

passengers 

total 


Crew only 


fl 


PL1 
„ 2 


4000 


13-14 


29-31 


15 


2000 


6 


3 


B 


PL3 

„ 6 
„ 7 


6700 


14-15 


31-34 


20 

and over 


2500 


12-16 


3 or 4 


C 


PL 4 


2300 


12,5 


28 


8 


1000 


4 or 5 


2 or 3 


D 


PL5 
« 9 
,,■10 


1350 


12 


27 


5 


1000 


3 or 4 


1 or 2 


E 


PL1 


3200 


12-13 


27-29 


10 


1500 


6-8 


2 or 3 


F 




1600 


12 


27 


6 


1000 


4 


1 or 2 


e 


PL8 

11 


5600 


16-17 


36-38 


20 

and over 


2000 


7-12 


4 



















































The statements of the total hours capabilities pass for average speed, those of the highest passenger capacity for economical speed. 



29 



PL 1 



Record of the Parseval dirigibles 



Designation Type 



Volume 



Utilisation 



4000 



Originally experimental craft 



3200 



Subsequently rebuilt (Club dirigible) 



PL 2 


fl 


4000 


Military dirigible „P I" 




PL 3 


B 


6600 


Military dirigible „PII" 




PL 4 


C 


2300 


Austrian Military dirigible 




PL 5 


D 


1450 


Pleasure craft 




PL 6 


B 


6800 


Owned by the Munich Parseval Co. 




PL7 


B 


6700 


Russian Military dirigible 




PL 8 


<3 


5600 


Fast craft for Brussels 




PL 9 


D 


1350 


Pleasure craft II 




PL 10 


D 


1350 


Pleasure craft III 




PL 11 


<3 


5600 


Fast cruiser for the Prussian War Office 








|! 





30 




J 'he military dirigible r I announcing the approach of a UUright aeroplan 6y wireless telegraphy. 



ZKofbuchdruckerei 

Qebr. 9tadetzki, Berlin SW. 48, 

sriedrichsir. 76