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Travels and Works 


Captain John Smith 

Travels and Works 


Captain John Smith 

President of Virginia, and 
Admiral of New England 

i 5 8 o- i 6 3 i 

Edited by 


A Ne<w Edition, with a Biographical and Critical Introduction, by 







The Generall Historic of Virginia, New England, &> the Summer Isles. 

The Third Book. 


A reprint, with variations, of the Second 
Part of The Map of Virginia, 


[In addition to the sayings and doings of the six Gentlemen and 
one Soldier specified on^. 86 ; there are to be found in this revised 
text, the testimonies of the following eight Gentlemen : 


Original Planters, 1607. 

President John Smith, pp. 93, 389, 403, 442. 
The Hon. George Percy, pp. 93, 389, 488. 
Robert Fenton, pp. 389, 403. 
Edward Harrington, pp. 390, 403. 
William Tankard,/^. 94, 390, 480. 

First Supply, 1608. 

Jeffrey Abbot, pp. 108, 465, 508. 
Anthony Bagnall, Surgeon,^. 421, 433. 
Thomas Mumford, pp. 109, 420. 

The contributions of these eight Gentlemen are fully sufficient to 
account for the additional facts to be found in Lib. 3.] 

The Third Booke. 



The English Colony in Virginia, 
Extracted from the Authors fol- 
lowing, by William Simons, 
Doctour of Divinitie. 


T might well be thought, a Countrie so [1606] 
faire (as Virginia is) and a people so shTAomas 
tractable, would long ere this haue TreLurer. 
beene quietly possessed, to the satis- ^ 8g] 
faction of the adventurers, and the 
eternizing of the memory of those that 
effected it. But because all the world 
'Sr^^o'^/il^W doe see a defailement [in 1612] ; this 
following Treatise shall giue satisfaction to all indifferent 
Readers, how the businesse hath bin carried : where no 
doubt they will easily vnderstand and answer to their 
question, how it came to passe there was no better speed 
and successe in those proceedings. 

Captaine Bartholomew Gosnoll, one of the first movers The first 
of this plantation, having many yeares solicited many of Sn\ 
his friends, but found small assistants ; at last prevailed 
with some Gentlemen, as Captaine Iohn Smith, Master 
Edward-maria Wingfield, Master Robert Hunt, and divers 
others, who depended a yeare vpon his proiects, but [A0O.1 


386 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. [ TSt ' 

R. Fenton, J. Smith. 

Orden for 

[1606-7] nothing could be effected, till by their great charge and 
industrie, it came to be apprehended by certaine of the 
Nobilitie, Gentry, and Marchants, so that his Maiestie by 
his letters patents [10 April 1606], gaue commission for 
establishing Councels, to direct here ; and to governe, and 
to execute there. To effect this, was spent another yeare, 
and by that, three ships were provided, one of 100 Tuns, 
another of 40. and a Pinnace of 20. The transportation 
of the company was committed to Captaine Christopher 
Newport, a Marriner well practised for the Westerne parts 
of America. But their orders for government were put in 
a box, not to be opened, nor the governours knowne vntill 
they arrived in Virginia. 

On the 19 of December, 1606. we set sayle from Black- 
wall, but by vnprosperous winds, were kept six weekes in 
i/*-9°,Q3, the sight of England] all which time, Master Hunt our 
JoV^o;. 3 ) 89 ' Preacher, was so weake and sicke, that few expected his 
recovery. Yet although he were but twentie myles from 
his habitation (the time we were in the Downes) and 
notwithstanding the stormy weather, nor the scandalous 
imputations (of some few, little better then Atheists, of the 
greatest ranke amongst vs) suggested against him, all this 
could never force from him so much as a seeming desire 
to leaue the busines, but preferred the service of God, in 
so good a voyage, before any affection to contest with his 
godlesse foes, whose disasterous designes (could they haue 
prevailed) [42] had even then overthrowne the businesse, 
so many discontents did then arise, had he not with the 
water of patience, and his godly exhortations (but chiefly 
by his true devoted examples) quenched those flames of 
envie, and dissention. 

We watered at the Canaries, we traded with the Salvages 
at Dominica ; three weekes we spent in refreshing our 
selues amongst these west- India Isles ; in Gwardalupa we 
found a bath so hot, as in it we boyled Porck as well as 
iJ^SJre. over the fire. And at a little Isle called Monica, we tooke 
f u iirf e Bildi ^ rom ^ e Dus ^ es ^h our nan ds, neare two hogsheads full 
of Birds in three or foure houres. In Mevis, Mona, and 
the Virgin Isles, we spent some time; where, with a loth- 
some beast like a Crocodil, called a Gwayn [Iguana], 
Tortoises, Pellicans, Parrots, and fishes, we daily feasted. 

Ed.byW.Sunmond,.'J ]^ lB ^ with the first SUpply inVu%\v\*. 387 

Gone from thence in search of Virginia, the company was 
not a little discomforted, seeing the Marriners had 3 dayes 
passed their reckoning and found no land ; so that Captaine 
Rat[c\liffe (Captaine of the Pinnace) rather desired to beare 
vp the helme to returne for England, then make further 
search. But God the guider of all good actions, forcing 
them by an extreame storme to hull all night, did driue them 
by his providence to their desired Port, beyond all their 
expectations ; for never any of them had seene that coast. 

The first land they made they called Cape Henry ; where 
thirtie of them recreating themselues on shore, were 
assaulted by hue Salvages, who hurt two of the English 
very dangerously. 

That night was the box opened, and the orders read, in 
which Bartholomew Gosnoll, Iohn Smith, Edward Wingfield, 
Christopher Newport, Iohn Rat[c]liffe,Iohn Martin, and George 
Kendall, were named to be the Councell, and to choose a 
President amongst them for a yeare, who with the Councell 
should governe. Matters of moment were to be examined 
by a Iury, but determined by the maior part of the 
Councell, in which the President had two voyces. 

Vntill the 13 of May [1607] they sought a place to 
plant in ; then the Councell was sworne, Master Wingfield 
was chosen President, and an Oration made, why Captaine 
Smith was not admitted of the Councell as the rest. 

Now falleth every man to worke, the Councell contriue 
the Fort, the rest cut downe trees to make place to pitch 
their Tents ; some provide clapbord to relade the ships, 
some make gardens, some nets, &c. The Salvages often 
visited vs kindly. The Presidents overweening iealousie 
would admit no exercise at armes, or fortification but the 
boughs of trees cast together in the forme of a halfe mooneby 
the extraordinary paines and diligence of Captaine Kendall. 

Newport, Smith, and twentie others, were sent to 
discover the head of the river : by divers small habitations 
they passed, in six dayes they arrived at a Towne called 
Powhatan, consisting of some twelue houses, pleasantly 
seated on a hill ; before it three fertile lies, about it many 
of their cornefields, the place is very pleasant, and strong 
by nature, of this place the Prince is called Powhatan, and 
his people Powhatans. To this place the river is navigable : 


[/. 9*-] 

Their first 

[//■ 5> 91. 

Matters of 


[/• 6.] 

The dis- 
covery of 
the FalUs 

[/. 9»-l 

388 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. p*tM£j!SH: 

[1607] but higher within a myle, by reason of the Rockes and 

Isles, there is not passage for a small Boat, this they call 

the Falles. The people in all parts kindly intreated them, 

till being returned within twentie myles of lames towne, 

they gaue iust cause of iealousie : but had God not blessed 

the discoverers otherwise then those at the Fort, there had 

then beene an end of that plantation ; for at the Fort, 

where they arrived the next day, they found 17 men hurt, 

The Fon and a boy slaine by the Salvages, and had it not chanced 

h^hi lcd a crosse barre shot from the Ships strooke downe a bough 

salvage. f rom a tree amon g S t them, that caused them to retire, our 

[A ' 7l men had all beene slaine, being securely all at worke, and 

their armes in dry fats. 
!/• 8.] Herevpon the President was contented the Fort should 

be pallisadoed, the Ordnance mounted, his men armed and 
exercised : for many were the assaults, and ambuscadoes 
of the Salvages, and our men by their disorderly stragling 
were often hurt, when the Salvages by the nimblenesse of 
their heeles well escaped. 

What toyle we had, with so small a power to guard 
our workemen adayes, watch all night, resist our enemies, 
and effect our businesse, to relade the ships, cut downe 
trees, and prepare the ground to plant our Corne, &c, I 
referre to the Readers consideration. 

Six weekes being spent in this manner, Captaine 
Newport (who was hired onely for [43] our transportation) 
was to returne with the ships. 

Now Captaine Smith, who all this time from their 
departure from the Canaries was restrained as a prisoner 
vpon the scandalous suggestions of some of the chiefe 
(envying his repute) who fained he intended to vsurpe 
the government, murther the Councell, and make himselfe 
King, that his confederats were dispersed in all the three 
ships, and that divers of his confederats that revealed it, 
would affirme it ; for this he was committed as a prisoner. 
Thirteene weekes [24 Afar. — 10 June 1607, [pp. lvii,liv] he 
remained thus suspected, and by that time the ships should 
[/• 93-1 returne they pretended out of their commisserations, to 
referre him to the Councell in England to receiue a check, 
rather then by particulating his designes [to] make him so 
odious to the world, as to touch his life, or vtterly overthrow 

Ed. by W. Simmonds."! T Tr , ~ 
1612-1624. J L ' lb - 3* 

with the first supply in Virginia. 389 

his reputation. But he so much scorned their charitie, and [1607] 
publikely defied the vttermost of their crueltie ; he wisely 
prevented their policies, though he could not suppresse 
their envies; yet so well he demeaned himselfe in this 
businesse, as all the company did see his innocency, and 
his adversaries malice, and those suborned to accuse him, 
accused his accusers of subornation ; many vntruthes were 
alledged against him ; but being so apparently disproved, 
begat a generall hatred in the hearts of the company against 
such vniust Commanders, that the President [Wingfield] 
was adiudged to giue him 200/. ; so that all he had was 
seized vpon, in part of satisfaction, which Smith presently 
returned to the Store for the generall vse of the Colony, 

Many were the mischiefes that daily sprung from their 
ignorant (yet ambitious) spirits ; but the good Doctrine 
and exhortation of our Preacher Master Hunt reconciled 
them, and caused Captaine Smith to be admitted of the 
Councel [20 June, or rather on 10 June, see pAiv] 

The next day all receiued the Communion, the day 
following [June 22] the Salvages voluntarily desired peace, 
and Captaine Newport returned for England with newes ; N^ports 
leaving in Virginia 100. the 15 [or rather 22. ; pp. lv, lxx] £^w r 
of Iune 1607. By this obserue ; 

Good men did neW their Countries mine bring. 
But when evill men shall iniuries beginne ; 
Not caring to corrupt and violate 
The iudgements-seats for their owne Lucres sake : 
Then looke that Country cannot long haue peace, 
Though for the present it haue rest and ease. 

[/A 90. 93, 

99. *°3. 3 8 6f 

402, 407.] 

The names of them that were the 
Planters, were these following. 


Master Edward Maria 

Captaine Bartholomew 

Captaine John Smith. 
Captaine Iohn Rat[c\lijfe. 
Captaine Iohn Martin. 
Captaine George Kendall. d 



Master Robert Hunt 

Master George Percie. 
Anthony Gosnoll. 
George Flower. 
Cap. Gabriell A rcher. 
Robert Fenton. 
Robert Ford. 


Sir Thomas 



39° The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. [ T - Stu £ t e & 

enton, J. Smith. 

[1607] William Bruster. 

Edward Harrington. 

Dru Pickhouse. 

Thomas Iacob. 

Iohn Brookes. 

Ellis Kingston. 

Thomas Sands. 

Beniamin Beast. 

Iehu Robinson. 

Thomas Mouton. 

Eustace Clovill. 

Stephen Halthrop. 

Kellam Throgmorton. 

Edward Morish. 

Nathaniell Powell. 

Edward Browne. 

Robert Behethland. 

Iohn Peningtcn. 

Ieremy A licock. 

George Walker. 

Thomas Studley. rGent. 

Richard Crofts. 

Nicholas Houlgrauc. 

Thomas Wcbbe. t 44j 

Iohn Waller. 

Iohn Short. 

William Tankard. 

William Smcthes. 

Francis Snarsbvough. 

Richard Simons. 
[/• 1* ) Edward Brookes. 

Richard Dixon. 

Iohn Martin. 
■cr Cooke. 

Anthony Gosnold. 

Tho: Wotton,Chirurg. 

Iohn Stevenson. 

Thomas Gore. 

Henry Ad ling. 

Francis Midwinter. 

Richard Frith. 

this List 
with tho 
161a one at 
//• 93. 94-1 

C . 
w to 


William Laxon. 
Edward Pising. 
Thomas Emry. 
Robert Small. 

Iohn Lay don. 
William Cassen. 
George Cassen. 
Thomas Cassen. 
William Rodcs. 
William White. 
Old Edward. 
Henry Tavin. 
George Goulding. 
Iohn Dods. 
William Ioiinsan. 
William Vnger. 

lam: Read, Blacksmith 
Ionas Profit, Sailer. 
Tho: Cowper, Barber. 
Will: Garret, Bricklayer. 
Edward Br into, Mason. 
William Lone, Taylor. 
Nic: Scot, Drum. 
Wil: Wilkinson, Chirurg. 

Samuell Collier, boy. 
Nat. Pecock, boy. 
lames Brnmfield, boy. 
Richard Mutton, boy. 

With divers others to the 
number of 100. 

Ed. by W. Simmonds.l 

Lib. 3. with the first supply in Virginia. 391 


What happened till the first supply. 

The occa- 
sion of 

Eing thus left to our fortunes, it fortuned [1607] 
that within ten dayes scarce ten amongst vs 
could either goe, or well stand, such extreame 
weaknes and sicknes oppressed vs. And 
thereat none need marvaile, if they consider the cause 
and reason, which was this. 

Whilest the ships stayed, our allowance was somewhat 
bettered, by a daily proportion of Bisket, which the sailers \p. 95] 
would pilfer to sell, giue, or exchange with vs, for money, JbusS" 1 *" 
Saxefras, furres, or loue. But when they departed, there 
remained neither taverne, beere house, nor place of reliefe, 
but the common Kettell. Had we beene as free from all 
sinnes as gluttony, and drunkennesse, we might haue beene 
canonized for Saints ; But our President [Wingfield] would 
never haue beene admitted, for ingrossing to his private [i.e., 
his own ws£_],Oatmeale,Sacke,Oyle, Aquavitce, Beefe,Egges, 
or what not, but the Kettell ; that indeed he allowed equally 
to be distributed, and that was halfe a pint of wheat, and 
as much barley boyled with water for a man a day, and this 
having fryed some 26. weekes [Dec. 1606 — June 1607] in the 
ships hold, contained as many wormes as graines ; so that 
we might truely call it rather so much bran then corne, our [>• 957] 
drinke was water, our lodgings Castles in the ayre. 

With this lodging and dyet, our extreame toile in bearing 
and planting Pallisadoes, so strained and bruised vs, and 
our continuall labour in the extremitie of the heat had so 
weakned vs, as were cause sufficient to haue made vs as 
miserable in our natiue Countrey, or any other place in 
the world. 

From May, to September [1607], those that escaped, 
liued vpon Sturgeon, and Sea-crabs, fiftie in this time we 
buried, the rest seeing the Presidents proiects to escape ^?J ent 
these miseries in our Pinnace by flight (who all this time 
had neither felt want nor sicknes) so moved our dead 
spirits, as we deposed him [10 Sept. 1607] ; and established 
Ratcliffe in his place, (Gosnoll being dead [22 Aug. 1607]) tA«. 

392 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. F* 8 ^,££ts£K 

[1607] Kendall deposed [? S^/tf. 1607]. Smith newly recovered, 
Martin and Ratcliffe was by his care preserved and relieued, 
and the most of the souldiers recovered with the skilfull 
diligence of Master Thomas Wotton our Chirurgian generall. 
But now was all our provision spent, the Sturgeon 
gone, all helps abandoned, each houre expecting the fury 
of the Salvages ; when God the patron of all good 

pientie indevours, in that desperate extremitie so changed the 

vn«p«:t e d. hearts of the Salvages, that they brought such plenty of 
their fruits, and provision, as no man wanted. 

And now where some affirmed it was ill done of the 
Councell to send forth men so badly provided, this incon- 
tradictable reason will shew them plainely they are too ill 

[/• 96] advised to nourish such ill conceits ; first, the fault of our 
going was our owne, [45] what could be thought fitting 
or necessary we had; but what we should find, or want, or 
where we should be, we were all ignorant, and supposing 
to make our passage in two moneths, with victuall to Hue, 
and the advantage of the spring to worke ; we were at Sea 
fiue moneths, where we both spent our victuall and lost 
the opportunitie of the time and season to plant, by the 
vnskilfull presumption of our ignorant transporters, that 
vnderstood not at all, what they vndertooke. 

Such actions haue ever since the worlds beginning beene 
subiect to such accidents, and every thing of worth is 
found full of difficulties : but nothing so difficult as to 
establish a Common wealth so farre remote from men and 
meanes, and where mens mindes are so vntoward as neither 
doe well themselues, nor suffer others. But to proceed. 

(/• 9.] The new President [Ratcliffe], and Martin, being little 

beloved, of weake iudgement in dangers, and lesse industrie 
in peace, committed the managing of all things abroad to 
Captaine Smith : who by his owne example, good words, 
and faire promises, set some to mow, others to binde 

of h wl ding thatch, some to build houses, others to thatch them, 

tmh*. himselfe alwayes bearing the greatest taske for his owne 
share, so that in short time, he provided most of them 
lodgings, neglecting any for himselfe. 

This done, seeing the Salvages superfluitie beginne to 
decrease [he] (with some of his workemen) shipped him- 
selfe [9 Nov. 1607] in the Shallop to search the Country for 

Ed. by w.shnmonds.-j LlB ^ with the first supply in Virginia. 393 

trade. The want of the language, knowledge to mannage [1607] 
his boat without sailes, the want of a sufficient power 
(knowing the multitude of the Salvages), apparell for his 
men, and other necessaries, were infinite impediments ; 
yet no discouragement. 

Being but six or seauen in company he went downe 1/.9J 
the river to Kecoughtan : where at first they scorned him, 
as a famished man ; and would in derison offer him a 
handfull of Corne, a peece of bread, for their swords 
and muskets, and such like proportions also for their The 
apparell. But seeing by trade and courtesie there was ofTrade g 
nothing to be had, he made bold to try such conclusions abroad ' 
as necessitie inforced, though contrary to his Com- 
mission : [he] Let fly his muskets, ran his boat on shore ; 
whereat they all fled into the woods. 

So marching towards their houses, they might see great 
heapes of corne : much adoe he had to restraine his hungry 
souldiers from [the] present taking of it, expecting as it 
hapned that the Salvages would assault them, as not long 
after they did with a most hydeous noyse. Sixtie or 
seaventie of them, some blacke, some red, some white, some 
party-coloured, came in a square order, singing and dauncing 
out of the woods, with their Okee (which was an Idoll made 
of skinnes, stuffed with mosse, all painted and hung with 
chaines and copper) borne before them : and in this 
manner, being well armed with Clubs, Targets, Bowes 
and Arrowes, they charged the English, that so kindly 
receiued them with their muskets loaden with Pistoll shot, 
that downe fell their God, and divers lay sprauling on the 
ground ; the rest fled againe to the woods, and ere long 
sent one of their Quiyoughkasoucks to offer peace, and 
redeeme their Okee. 

Smithtold them, if onely six of them would come vnarmed 
and loade his boat, he would not only be their friend, but 
restore them their Okee, and giue them Beads, Copper, 
and Hatchets besides : which on both sides was to their 
contents performed : and then they brought him Venison, 
Turkies, wild foule, bread, and what they had ; singing 
and dauncing in signe of friendship till they departed. 

In his returne he discovered the Towne and Country [/. 10.J 
of Warraskoyack. 

394 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. [ T ' Stu £. e ft 

enton, J. Smith. 


[/• 97-1 

Amtru, a 
Salvage his 
best friend 
slaine for 
loving vs. 


of Chicka- 


proiect to 
abandon the 

Thus God vnboundlessc by his power, 
Made them thus kind, would vs deuour. 

Smith perceiving (notwithstanding their late miserie) 
not any regarded but from hand to mouth : (the company 
being well recovered) caused the Pinnace to be provided 
with things fitting to get provision for the yeare following ; 
but in the interim he made 3. or 4. iournies and discovered 
the people of Chickahamania : yet what he carefully pro- 
vided the rest carelesly spent. 

Wingfield and Kendall liuing in disgrace, seeing all things 
at randome in the absence of Smith, the companies dislike 
of their [46] Presidents weaknes, and their small loue to 
Martins never mending sicknes, strengthened themselues 
with the sailers and other confederates, to regaine their 
former credit and authority, or at least such meanes abord 
the Pinnace, (being fitted to saile as Smith had appointed 
for trade) to alter her course and to goe for England. 

Smith vnexpectedly returning had the plot discovered to 
him, much trouble he had to prevent it, till with store of 
sakre and musket shot he forced them stay or sinke in the 
riuer : which action cost the life of captaine Kendall [after 
trial, see pp. 13,97]. 

These brawles are so disgustfull, as some will say they 
were better forgotten, yet all men of good iudgement will 
conclude, it were better their basenes should be manifest 
to the world, then the busines beare the scorne and shame 
of their excused disorders. 

The President [Ratcliffe] and captaine Archer not long 
after intended also to haue abandoned the country, which 
proiect also was curbed, and suppressed by Smith. 

The Spaniard never more greedily desired gold then he 
[Smith] victual 1 ; nor his souldiersmore to abandon the Coun- 
try, then hetokeepe it. But finding [he found] plentieofCorne 
in the riuer of Chickahamania, where hundreds of Salvages 
in diuers places stood with baskets expecting his comming. 

And now the winter approaching, the rivers became so 
covered with swans, geese, duckes, and cranes, that we 
daily feasted with good bread, Virginia pease, pumpions, 
and putchamins, fish, fowle, and diverse sorts of wild 
beasts as fat as we could eate them : so that none of our 
Tuftaffaty humorists desired to goe for England. 

Ed.byw.stomondj.-j l ib ^ w ^/ t the first supply in Virginia. 395 

But our Comcedies never endured long without a Tragedie ; [1607] 
some idle exceptions being muttered against Captaine Smith, IP- 98.] 
for not discovering the head of Chickahamania river, and 
[being] taxed by the Councell, to be too slow in so worthy 
an attempt. The next voyage hee proceeded so farre that 
with much labour by cutting of trees insunder he made his 
passage ; but when his Barge could passe no farther, he 
left her in a broad bay out of danger of shot, commanding 
none should goe a shore till his returne : himselfe with two 
English and two Salvages went vp higher in a Canowe; but 
hee was not long absent, but his men went a shore, whose 
want of government gaue both occasion and opportunity to 
the Salvages to surprise one George Cassen, whom they slew, 
and much failed not to hauecut of[f] the boat and all the rest. 

Smith little dreaming of that accident, being got to the 
marshes at the rivers head, twentie myles in the desert, 
had his *two men slaine (as is supposed) sleeping by the */**« 
Canowe, whilst himselfe by fowling sought them victuall : ^°& mon 
who finding he was beset with 200. Salvages, two of them ^ mas 
hee slew, still defending himselfe with the ayd of a Salvage siaine. 
his guid, whom he bound to his arme with his garters, 
and vsed him as a buckler, yet he was shot in his thigh a 
little, and had many arrowes that stucke in his cloathes 
but no great hurt, till at last they tooke him prisoner. 

When this newes came to lames towne, much was their 
sorrow for his losse, fewe expecting what ensued. 

Sixe or seuen weekes [rather about the three weeks 16 Dec. 
1607 — 8 Jan. 1608] those Barbarians kept him prisoner, 
many strange triumphes and coniurations they made of 
him, yet hee so demeaned himselfe amongst them, as he 
not onely diverted them from surprising the Fort, but pro- 
cured his owne libertie, and got himselfe and his company 
such estimation amongst them, that those Salvages admired 
him more then their owne Quiyouckosucks. 

The manner how they vsed and deliuered him, is as 

The Salvages hauing drawne from George Cassen whether Captaine 
Captaine Smith was gone, prosecuting that oportunity taken 
they followed him with. 300. bowmen, conducted by the P risonar 
King of Pamavnkee, who in diuisions searching the turn- 

396 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. P'^^^tsSE 

395. 401. J 

[1607] ings of the riuer, found Robinson and Entry by the fire 
[//• is, i6, side : those they shot full of arrowes and slew. Then find- 
ing the Captaine, as is said, that vsed the Salvage that 
was his guide as his shield (three of them being slaine and 
diuers other so gauld) all the rest would not come neere 
him. Thinking thus to haue returned to his boat, regard- 
ing them, as he marched, more then his way, [he] slipped vp 
to the middle in an oasie creeke and his Salvage with him ; 
yet durst they not come to him till being neere dead with 
cold, he threw away his armes. Then according to their 
composition they drew him forth and led him to the fire, 
where his men were slaine. Diligently they chafed his 
benummed [47] limbs. 

He demanding for their Captaine, they shewed him 
[/.*».} Opechankanough, King of Pamavnkee, to whom he gaue 
a round Ivory double compass Dyall. Much they 
marvailed at the playing of the Fly and Needle, which 
they could see so plainely, and yet not touch it, because 
of the glasse that covered them. But when he demon- 
strated by that Globe-like Iewell, the roundnesse of 
the earth, and skies, the spheare of the Sunne, Moone, 
and Starres, and how the Sunne did chase the night round 
about the world continually ; the greatnesse of the Land 
and Sea, the diversitie of Nations, varietie of complexions, 
and how we were to them Antipodes, and many other such 
like matters, they all stood as amazed with admiration. 
Notwithstanding, within an houre after they tyed him to 
a tree, and as many as could stand about him prepared to 
shoot him : but the King holding vp the Compass in his 
hand, they all laid downe their Bowes and Arrowes, and 
in a triumphant manner led him to Orapaks, where he was 
after their manner kindly feasted, and well vsed. 

Their order in conducting him was thus; Drawing them- 

The order 

they selues all in fyle, the King in the middest had all their Peeces 

Sir and Swords borne before him. Captaine Smith was led 


after him by three great Salvages, holding him fast by 
each arme : and on each side six went in fyle with their 
Arrowes nocked. But arriving at the Towne [Orapaks] 
(which was but onely thirtie or fortie hunting houses made 
of Mats, which they remoue as they please, as we our 
tents) all the women and children staring to behold him, 

Ed byw.sbnmonds.-j l ib> ^ w ^ the first supply in Virginia. 397 

the souldiers first all in fyle performed the forme of a [1607] 
Bissone so well as could be; and on each flanke, officers 
as Serieants to see them keepe their orders. A good time 
they continued this exercise, and then cast themselues in 
a ring, dauncing in such severall Postures, and singing 
and yelling out such hellish notes and screeches ; being 
strangely painted, every one his quiver of Arrowes, and at 
his backe a club ; on his arme a Fox or an Otters skinne, 
or some such matter for his vambrace ; their heads and 
shoulders painted red, with Oyle and Pocones mingled 
together, which Scarlet-like colour made an exceeding 
handsome shew ; his Bow in his hand, and the skinne of a 
Bird with her wings abroad dryed, tyed on his head, a peece 
of copper, a white shell, a long feather, with a small rattle 
growing at the tayies of their snak[e]s tyed to it, or some 
such like toy. All this while Smith and the King stood in 
the middest guarded, as before is said : and after three 
dances they all departed. Smith they conducted to a long 
house, where thirtie or fortie tall fellowes did guard him ; 
and ere long more bread and venison was brought him 
then would haue served twentie men. Ithinke his stomacke 
at that time was not very good ; what he left they put in 
baskets and tyed over his head. About midnight they set the 
meate againe before him, all this time not one of them would 
eate a bit with him, till the next morning they brought him 
as much more ; and then did they eate all the old, and 
reserved the new as they had done the other, which made 
him thinke they would fat him to eat him. Yet in this 
desperate estate to defend him from the cold, one Maocassater 
brought him his gowne, in requitall of some beads and 
toyes Smith had given him at his first arrivall in Virginia. 

Two dayes after a man would haue slaine him (but that [/. 17] 
the guard prevented it) for the death of his sonne, to whom How he 
they conducted him to recover the poore man then breath- SSl^iSSe 
ing his last. Smith told them that at lames towne he had fjj^' 
a water would doe it, if they would let him fetch it, but 
they would not permit that : but made all the preparations 
they could to assault lames towne, crauing his advice ; and 
for recompence he should haue life, libertie, land, and 
women. In part of a Table booke he writ his minde to tA 17.1 
them at the Fort, v/hat was intended, how they should 

398 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. [* ^g^STsSS. 


How he 
saucd James 
towne from 

[//.17, 18.J 

How they 
did Coniure 
him at 

follow that direction to affright the messengers, and with- 
out fayle send him such things as he writ for. And an 
Inventory with them. The difncultie and danger, he told 
the Salvages, of the Mines, great gunnes, and other Engins 
exceedingly affrighted them, yet according to his requestthey 
went to lames towne, in as bitter weather as could be of frost 
and snow, and within three dayes returned with an answer. 

But when they came to Iame[s] towne, seeing men sally 
out as he had told them they would, they fled ; yet in the 
night they came againe to the same place where he had 
[48j told them they should receiue an answer, and such 
things as he had promised them : which they found accord- 
ingly, and with which they returned with no small expe- 
dition, to the wonder of them all that heard it, that he 
could either divine, or the paper could speake. 

Then they led him to the Youthtanunds, the Mattapanients, 
the Payankatanks, the Nantaughtacunds, and Onawmanients 
vpon the rivers of Rapahanock, and Patawomek; over all those 
rivers, and backe againe by divers other severall Nations, 
to the Kings habitation at Pamavnkee : where they enter- 
tained him with most strange and fearefull Coniurations ; 
As if 71 care led to hell. 
Amongst the Devils to dwell. 

Not long after, early in a morning a great fire was made 
in a long house, and a mat spread on the one side, as on 
the other ; on the one they caused him to sit, and all the 
guard went out of the house, and presently came skipping 
in a great grim fellow, all painted over with coale, mingled 
with oyle ; and many Snakes and Wesels skins stuffed with 
mosse, and all their tayles tyed together, so as they met 
on the crowne of his head in a tassell ; and round about 
the tassell was as a Coronet of feathers, the skins hanging 
round about his head, backe, and shoulders, and in a 
manner covered his face ; with a hellish voyce, and a rattle 
in his hand. With most strange gestures and passions he 
began his invocation, and environed the fire with a circle 
of meale ; which done, three more such like devils came 
rushing in with the like antique tricks, painted halfe blacke, 
halfe red : but all their eyes were painted white, and some 
red stroakes like Mutchato's, along their cheekes : round 
about him those fiends daunced a pretty while, and then 

Ed.byw.simmonds.j LlB> 3. with the first supply in Virginia. 399 

came in three more as vgly as the rest ; with red eyes, and [1607-8] 
white stroakes over their blacke faces, at last they all sat 
downe right against him ; three of them on the one hand 
of the chiefe Priest, and three on the other. Then all with 
their rattles began a song, which ended, the chiefe Priest 
layd downe fiue wheat cornes : then strayning his armes 
and hands with such violence that he sweat, and his 
veynes swelled, he began a short Oration : at the conclu- 
sion they all gaue a short groane ; and then layd down 
three graines more. After that, began their song againe, 
and then another Oration, ever laying downe so many 
cornes as before, till they had twice incirculed the fire ; 
that done, they tooke a bunch of little stickes prepared for 
that purpose, continuing - still their devotion, and at the 
end of every song and Oration, they layd downe a sticke 
betwixt the divisions of Corne. Till night, neither he nor 
they did either eate or drinke ; and then they feasted 
merrily, with the best provisions they could make. Three 
dayes they vsed this Ceremony ; the meaning whereof 
they told him, was to know if he intended them well or 
no. The circle of meale signified their Country, the circles 
of corne the bounds of the Sea, and the stickes his Country. 
They imagined the world to be flat and round, like a 
trencher ; and they in the middest. 

After this they brought him a bagge of gunpowder, which 
they carefully preserved till the next spring, to plant as 
they did their corne ; because they would be acquainted 
with the nature of that seede. 

Opitchapam the Kings brother invited him to his house, 
where, with as many platters of bread, foule, and wild 
beasts, as did environ him, he bid him wellcome ; but not 
any of them would eate a bit with him, but put vp all the 
remainder in Baskets. 

At his returne to Opechancanoughs, all the Kings women, 
and their children, flocked about him for their parts; as a 
due by Custome, to be merry with such fragments. 
But his waking mind in hydeous dreames did oft see wondrous 

Of bodies strange, and hugein growth, and of stupendious makes. 

At last they brought him to Meronocomoco [5 Jan. 1608], l>- 18 > 
where was Powhatan their Emperor. Here more than two 

400 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. [7" Stu ^e?J?TsSSS 

[1608] hundred of those grim Courtiers stood wondering at him, as 
PmAatan ^ e ^ad beene a ™ onster ; till Powhatan and his trayne had 
em^rtained put themselues in their greatest braveries. Before a fire 
vpon a seat like a bedsted, he sat covered with a great robe, 
[/. 19.] made of Rarowcnn skinnes, and all the tayles hanging by. 
On either hand did sit a young wench of 16 or 18 yeares, 
and along on each side the house, two rowes [49] of men, 
and behind them as many women, with all their heads 
and shoulders painted red : many of their heads bedecked 
with the white downe of Birds ; but every one with some- 
thing: and a great chayne of white beads about their necks. 
At his entrance before the King, all the people gaue 
[//.xhx.ixv, a g rea { shout. The Queene of Appamatuck was ap- 
pointed to bring him water to wash his hands, and another 
brought him a bunch of feathers, in stead of a Towell to 
dry them : having feasted him after their best barbarous 
manner they could, a long consultation was held, but the 
conclusion was, two great stones were brought before 
Powhatan : then as many as could layd hands on him, 
dragged him to them, and thereon laid his head, and being 
ready with their clubs, to beate out his braines, Pocahontas 
the Kings dearest daughter, when no intreaty could pre- 
p^ahPHia* vaile, got his head in her armes, and laid her owne vpon 
laved his life. hj s to saue him from death : whereat the Emperour was 
contented he should Hue to make him hatchets, and her 
bells, beads, and copper ; for they thought him aswell of all 
occupations as themselues. For the King himselfe will 
make his owne robes, shooes, bowes, arrowes, pots ; plant, 
hunt, or doe any thing so well as the rest. 

They say he bore a pleasant shew, 
But sure his heart was sad. 
For who can pleasant be, and rest t 
That Hues in fear e and dread : 
And having life suspected, doth 
It still suspected lead. 
Two dayes after [7 Jan. 1608], Powhatan having disguised 
himselfe in the most fearefullest manner he could, caused 
Captain Smith to be brought forth to a great house in the 
woods, and there vpon a mat by the fire to be left alone. Not 
long after from behinde a mat that divided the house, was 
madethemostdolefullestnoyseheeverheard; ih^n Powhatan 

Ed. by w. s^mmonds.-j l ib ^ w ^/ t the fir st supply in Virginia. 401 

more like a devill then a man, with some two hundred more [1608] 
as blacke as himselfe, came vnto him and told him now ™™ katan 
they were friends, and presently he should goe to lames sent him to 
towne, to send him two great gunnes, and a gryndstone, Towne. 
for which he would giue him the Country of Capahowosick, [/. 20.] 
and for ever esteeme him as his sonne Nantaquoud. 

So to lames towne with 12 guides Powhatan sent him. 
That night [7 Jan. 1608] they quarterd in the woods, he still [A 22.] 
expecting (as he had done all this longtime of his imprison- 
ment) every houre to be put to one death or other : for all 
their feasting. But almightie God (by his divine providence) 
had mollified the hearts of those sterne Barbarians with 
compassion. The next morning [8 Jan.] betimes they came 
to the Fort, where Smith having vsed the Salvages with 
what kindnesse he could, he shewed Rawhunt, Powhatans 
trusty servant, two demi-Culverings and a millstone to carry 
Powhatan : they found them somewhat too heavie ; but 
when they did see him discharge them, being loaded with 
stones, among the boughs of a great tree loaded with Isic- 
kles, the yce and branches came so tumbling downe, that 
the poore Salvages ran away halfe dead with feare. But at 
last we regained some conference with them, and gaue them 
such toyes ; and sent to Powhatan, his women, and children 
such presents, as gaue them in generall full content. 

Now in lames Towne they were all in combustion, the The third 

, -,1 ,1 proiect to 

strongest preparing once more to run away with the abandon the 
Pinnace ; which with the hazzard of his life, with Sakre ^° un 8 trey ' 
falcon and musket shot, Smith forced now the third time ' 9 ' 
to stay or sinke. 

Some no better then they should be, had plotted with [>.ixxxvi.i 
the President [Ratcliffe], the next day [9 Jan.] to haue 
put him to death by the Leviticall law, for the Hues 
of Robinson and Emry ; pretending the fault was his that [ 3 ^; ^^.J 6 ' 
had led them to their ends : but he quickly tooke such 
order with such Lawyers, that he layd them by the heeles 
till he sent some of them prisoners for England. 

Now ever once in foure or fiue dayes, Pocahontas with her 
attendants, brought him so much provision, that saved many 
of their Hues, that els for all this had starved with hunger. 
Thus from numbe death our good God sent relief e, 
The sweete asswager of all other grief e. [50] 


402 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. [ T> St t^'eL" j rri Sh.' 

[1608] His relation of the plenty he had seene, especially at 

A 1 ™* f Werawocomoco, and of the state and bountie of Powhatan, 
SoSs'ioue (which till that time was vnknowne) so revived their dead 
Lctiol spirits (especially the loue of Pocahontas) as all mens feare 

was abandoned. 
[j. 9g .) Thus you may see what difficulties still crossed an}' 

good indevour; and the good successe of the businesse 
being thus oft brought to the very period of destruction; yet 
you see by what strange means God hath still delivered it. 
As for the insufficiency of them admitted in Commission, 
that error could not be prevented by the Electors ; there 
being no other choise, and all strangers to each others 
education, qualities, or disposition. 

And if any deeme it a shame to our Nation to haue any 
mention made of those inormities, let him pervse the 
Histories of the Spanyards Discoveries and Plantations, 
where they may see how many mutinies, disorders, and 
dissensions haue accompanied them, and crossed their 
attempts : which being knowne to be particular mens 
offences; doth take away the generall scorne and con- 
tempt, which malice, presumption, covetousnesse, or 
ignorance might produce ; to the scandall and reproach 
of those, whose actions and valiant resolutions deserue 
a more worthy respect. 
[The colony Now whether it had beene better for Captaine Smith, to 
38 men?by to baue concluded with any of those severall proiects, to haue 
ofj^yJl abandoned the Countrey, with some ten or twelue of them, 
on*s j™ ivaI w ^° were ca ^ ec ^ tne better sort, and haue left Master Hunt 
1608; u'epp. our Preacher, Master Anthony Gosnoll, a most honest, 
"I.'] 6 "' worthy, and industrious Gentleman, Master Thomas 
Wotton, and some 27 others of his Countrymen to the fury 
of the Salvages, famine, and all manner of mischiefes, and 
of two evils inconveniences, (for they were but fortie in all to keepe 
owas possession of this large Country;) or starue himselfe with 
them for company, for want of lodging : or but adventur- 
ing abroad to make them provision, or by his opposition 
to preserue the action, and saue all their liues ; I leaue to 
the censure of all honest men to consider. But 
We men imagine in our Iolitie, 
That 'tis all one, or good or bad to be. 
But then an one wee alter this againe, 

Ed.byw.s^mmonds.j LlB 3 wM t fa fi rst su ppi y j n Virginia. 403 

If happily wee feele the sence of paine ; [1608] 

For then we're tum'd into a mourning vaine. 

Written by Thomas Studley the first Cape 
Merchant in Virginia, Robert Fenton, Edward 
Harrington y and /. S. 


The Arrivall of the first supply, with their 

Proceedings, and the Ships retttrne. 

LLthis time our care was not so much to abandon 
the Countrey ; but the Treasurer and Councell 
in England, were as diligent and carefull to 
supply vs. Two good ships they sent vs, with 
neare a hundred men, well furnished with all things 
could be imagined necessary, both for them and vs ; The 
one commanded by Captaine Newport : the other by 
Captaine Francis Nelson, an honest man, and an expert 
Marriner. But such was the lewardnesse of his Ship [the The 
Phcenix] (that though he was within the sight of Cape fromclipe 
Henry) by stormy contrary winds was he forced so farre faSYto 
to Sea, that the West Indies was the next land, for the f*J£ s est 
repaire of his Masts, and reliefe of wood and water. 

But Newport got in and arrived at lames Towne, not i/.^.) 
long after the redemption of Captaine Smith [or rather in 
the evening of the 8th Jan. 1608, on which Smith returned]. 
To whom the Salvages, as is sayd, every other day repaired, 
with such provisions that sufficiently did serue them from 
hand to mouth : part alwayes they brought him as Presents 
from their Kings, or Pocahontas; the rest he as their Market 
Clarke set the price himselfe, how they should sell : so he 
[51] had inchanted these poore soules being their prisoner; 
and now Newport, whom he called his Father arriving, 
neare as directly as he foretold, they esteemed him as an ^ # X0I#1 
Oracle, and [he] had them at that submission he might com- 
mand them what he listed. That God that created all The . r 
things they knew he adored for his God: they would also opinion of 
in their discourses tearme the God of Captaine Smith. 

404 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. [ams Todkui. 

ri608] Thus the Almightie was the bringer on, 

The guide, path, terme, all which was God alone. 

But the President [Ratcliffe] and Councell so much 
envied his estimation among the Salvages, (though we all 
in generall equally participated with him of the good 
thereof,) that they wrought it into the Salvages vnder- 
standings (by their great bounty in giving foure times 
more for their commodities then Smith appointed) that 
their greatnesse and authoritie as much exceeded his, as 
their bountie and liberalise. 

Now the arrivall of this first supply so overioyed vs, that 
wee could not devise too much to please the Marriners. We 
gaue them libertie to trucke or trade at their pleasures. But 
in a short time it followed, that could not be had for a 
pound of Copper, which before was sould vs for an ounce : 
thus ambition and sufferance cut the throat of our trade, 
but confirmed their opinion of the greatnesse of Captaine 
Newport, (wherewith Smith had possessed Powhatan) 
especially by the great presents Newport often sent him, 
before he could prepare the Pinnace to goe and visit him : 
(A »3.) so that this great Savage desired also to see him. A great 
coyle there was to set him forward [Feb. 1608]. 

When he went he was accompanied with Captaine 
Smith, and Master Scrivener, a very wise understanding 
Gentleman, newly arrived and admitted of the Councell, 
with thirtie or fortie chosen men for their guard. 

(/• 24-] Arriving at Werowocomoco, Ncwports conceit of this great 

Savage bred many doubts and suspitions of trecheries, 
which Smith to make appeare was needlesse, with twentie 
men well appointed, vndertooke to encounter the worst 

PowhMtkn. that could happen : Knowing 

All is but one, and selfe-same hand, that thus 
Both one while scourgeth, and that helped vs. 


Nathanicll Powell. 
Robert Behethland. 
William Phittiplace. 
Anthony Gosnoll. 
Richard Wyffin, 


John Tavemer. 
William Dyer. I ^ . 
Thomas Coe. 
Thomas Hope. 

Anas Todkill. 

ta.byw.simmonds.-j l ib> ^ w ^ the first supply in Virginia. 405 

These, with nine others (whose names I haue forgotten) [1608] 
comming a-shore, landed amongst a many of creekes, W- I02 -l 
over which they were to passe [by] such poore bridges, onely j^ne"'* 
made of a few cratches thrust in the o[o]se, and three or tainment. 
foure poles laid on them, and at the end of them the like, 
tyed together onely with barkes of trees, that it made 
them much suspect those bridges were but traps. Which 
caused Smith to make diverse Salvages goe over first, 
keeping some of the chiefe as hostage till halfe his men 
were passed, to make a guard for himselfe and the rest. 

But finding all things well, by two or three hundred 
Salvages they were kindly conducted to their towne. 
Where Powhatan strained himselfe to the vtmost of his 
greatnesse to entertaine them, with great shouts of ioy, 
Orations of protestations ; and with the most plenty of 
victualls he could provide to feast them. 

Sitting vpon his bed of mats, his pillow of leather 
imbrodered (after their rude manner with pearle and white 
Beads) his attyre a faire robe of skinnes as large as an Irish 
mantell : at his head and [at his] feete a handsome young 
woman : on each side his house sat twentie of his Concu- 
bines, their heads and shoulders painted red, with a great 
chaine of white beads about each of their neckes. Before 
those sat his chiefest men in like order in his arbour-like 
house, and more then fortie platters of fine bread stood 
as a guard in two fyles on each side the doore. Foure 
or fiue hundred people made a guard behinde them 
for our passage : and Proclamation was made, none 
vpon paine of death to presume to doe vs any wrong or 

With many pretty Discourses to renew [52] their old lA^s-i 
acquaintance, this great King and our Captaine spent the 
time, till the ebbe left our Barge aground. Then renewing 
their feasts with feates, dauncing and singing, and such 
like mirth, we quartered that night with Powhatan. 

The next day Newport came a shore and receiued as much [/• *7-) 
content as those people could giue him : a boy named Thomas Change of 
Salvage was then giuen vnto Powhatan,whom Newport called ^ ristian 
his sonne ; for whom Powhatan gaue him Namontack his salvage, 
trustie servant, and one of a shrewd, subtill capacitie. (>• 569-1 


[/• «7-] 


[/• 103.] 

of opinions. 

[>. a8.] 

The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib 3. [An»sTodkm. 

Three or foure dayes more we spent in feasting, dauncing, 
and trading, wherein Powhatan carried himselfe so proudly, 
yet discreetly (in his salvage manner) as made vs all 
admire his naturall gifts, considering his education. 

As scorning to trade as his subiects did ; he bespake 
Newport in this manner. 

Captaine Newport it is not agreeable to my greatnesse, in 
this pedling manner to trade for trifles ; and I esteeme you also 
a great Werowance. Therefore lay me downe all your com- 
modities together ; what I like I will take, and in recompence 
giue you what I thinke fitting their value. 

Captaine Smith being our interpreter, regarding Newport 
as his father, knowing best the disposition of Powhatan, 
tould vs his intent was but onely to cheate vs ; yet Captaine 
Newport thinking to out braue this Salvage in ostentation of 
greatnesse, and so to bewitch him with him bountie, as to 
haue what he listed, it so hapned, that Powhatan hauing 
his desire, valued his corne at such a rate, that I thinke it 
[were] better cheape in Spaine : for we had not foure bushells 
for that we expected to haue twentie hogsheads. 

This bred some vnkindnesse betweene our two Captaines ; 
Newport seeking to please the vnsatiable desire of the Salvage, 
Smith to cause the Salvage to please him ; but smothering 
his distast to avoyd the Saluages suspition, [Smith] glanced 
in the eyes of Powhatan many trifles, who fixed his humor 
vpon a few blew beades. A long time he importunately 
desired them, but Smith seemed so much the more to affect 
them, as being composed of a most rare substance of the 
coulour of the skyes, and not to be worne but by the greatest 
kings in the world. This made him halfe madde to be the 
owner of such strange Iewells : so that ere we departed, for 
a pound or two of blew beades, he brought ouer my king 
for 2. or 300. Bushells of corne ; yet parted good friends. 

The like entertainment we found of Opechankanough 
king of Pamavnkee, whom also he in like manner fitted (at 
the like rates) with blew beads : which grew by this meanes, 
of that estimation, that none durst weare any of them but 
their great kings, their wiues and children. 

buS* town " And so we returned all well to lames towne [9 Mar. 1608], 
[/■ j«4 where this new supply being lodged with the rest, [had] 

Ed.byw.simmonds.j LlB ^ 3. with the first supply in Virginia. 407 

accidently fired [about 17 Jan. 1608] their quarters, and so [1608] 
the towne : which being but thatched with reeds, the fire 
was so fierce as it burnt their Pallisado's, (though eight or [/.lxxxvi. 
ten yards distant) with their Armes, bedding, apparell, and 
much priuate prouision. Good Master Hunt our Preacher ^ 
lost all his Library, and all he had but the cloathes on his 99. w*,' 386, 
backe : yet none neuer heard him repine at his losse. This 4oa " 
happned in the winter in that extreame frost. i6oj[-8]. 

Now though we had victuall sufficient I meane onely of Ashipideiy 
Oatmeale, meale and corne : yet the bhip staying 14. weekes weekes. 
[or actually 13 weeks and 2 days from 8 Jan. to 10 April 1608] 
when shee might as wel haue beene gone in 14. dayes, spent 
a great part of that, and neare all the rest that was sent to 
be landed. 

When they departed what the[i]re discretion could spare 
vs, to make a little poore meale or two, we called feastes, 
to relish our mouthes : of each somwhat they left vs, yet 
I must confesse, those that had either money, spare 
clothes, credit to giue billes of paiment, gold rings, furrs, 
or any such commodities, were euer welcome to this 
remouing tauerne, such was our patience to obay such vile \t. 104.] 
Commanders, and buy our owne provisions at 15. times 
the value, suffering them feast (we bearing the charge) yet 
must not repine, but fast, least we should incurre the cen- 
sure of [being] factious and seditious persons : and then 
leakage, ship-rats, and other casualties occasioned them 
losse : but the vessels and remnants (for totals) we were 
glad to receaue with all our hearts to make vp the account, 
highly commending their prouidence for preseruing that, 
least they should discourage any more to come to vs. 

Now for all this plenty our ordynary was but meale and 
water, so that this great charge little releeued our wants, 
whereby with the extremitie of the [53] bitter cold frost 
and those defects, more then halfe of vs dyed. 

I cannot deny but both Smith and Skriuener did their best 
to amend what was amisse, but with the President went 
the maior part, that the[i]re homes were to[o] short. 

But the worst was our guilded refiners with their golden ^ e 


promises made all men their slaues in hope of recompences ; Verbaiisu. 
there was no talke, no hope, no worke, but dig gold, 
wash gold, refine gold, loade gold, such a bruit of gold, 

408 The Discoveries and Accidents^ Lib. 3. [Ana$Todku 

[1608] that one mad fellow [a wag] desired to be buried in the sands 

least they should by the [i] re art make gold of his bones : 

little neede there was and lesse reason, the ship should stay, 

Aneedicsse the[i]re wages run on, our victualls consume 14. weekes, 

fT SC \ *h at tne Mariners might say, they did helpe to build such 

' 9S7 ' a golden Church that we can say the raine washed neere 

to nothing in 14. dayes. 

Were it that captaine Smith would not applaude all 
those golden inventions, because they admitted him not 
to the sight of their trialls nor golden consultations, I 
know not ; but I haue heard him oft question with Cap- 
taine Martin and tell him, except he could shew him a more 
substantiall triall, he was not inamoured with their durty 
skill, breathing out these and many other passions, neuer 
any thing did more torment him, then to see all necessary 
busines neglected, to fraught such a drunken ship with 
so much guilded durt. 
a retume to Till then we neuer accounted, Captaine Newport a refiner, 
England. w h being ready to set saile for England, and we not 
^. 105 ,] hauing any vse of Parliaments, Plaies, Petitions, Admiralls, 
. . Recorders, Interpreters, Chronologers, Courts of Plea, nor 
Iustices of peace, sent [10 April 1608] Master Wingfield 
l/.ixxxvii.] and Captaine Archer home with him, that had ingrossed 
all those titles, to seeke some better place of imployment. 

Oh cursed gold, those hunger-starved movers, 
To what misfortunes lead'st thou all those lovers ! 
For all the China wealth, nor Indies can 
Suffice the minde of an avWitious man. 


The Arrhall of the Phoenix ; her retume ; 

and other Accidents. 

He authoritie now consisting in Captaine Martin, 
and the still sickly President [Ratcliffe], the sale 
of the Stores commodities maintained his estate, 
as an inheritable revenew. 
The spring approaching, and the Ship departing, Master 

Ed. by w. s«nmonds.-j l ib 3. with the fir st supply in Virginia. 409 

Scrivener and Captaine Smith devided betwixt them the [1608] 
rebuilding lames towne ; the repairing our Pallizadoes ; the 
cutting downe trees ; preparing our fields ; planting our [/. 33 .] 
corne, and to rebuild our Church, and re-cover our Store house. 

All men thus busie at their severall labours, Master 
Nelson arrived with his lost Phcenix ; lost (I say) for that \p. 34] 
we all deemed him lost. Landing safely all his men, (so 
well he had mannaged his ill hap,) causing the Indian Isles 
to feede his company, that his victuail to that we had 
gotten, as is said before, was neare, after our allowance, 
sufficient for halfe a yeare. He had not any thing but he 
freely imparted it, which honest dealing (being a Marriner) 
caused vs admire him : we would not haue wished more 
then he did for vs. 

Now to relade this ship with some good tydings, the 
President (not holding it stood with the dignitie of his 
place to leaue the Fort) gaue order to Captaine Smith 
to discover and search the commodities of the Monacans sixtie 
Countrey beyond the Falls. Sixtie able men was allotted SSStoaJ 
them, the which within six dayes, Smith had so well trained Monacans. 
to their armes and orders, that they little feared with whom \p. 106.] 
they should incounter : yet so vnseasonable was the time, 
and so opposit was Captaine Martin to any thing, but onely 
to fraught this ship also with his phantasticall gold, as 
Captaine Smith rather desired to relade her with Cedar, 
(which was a present dispatch) then either with durt, or the 
hopes and reports of an vncertaine discovery, which he would 
performe when they had lesse charge and more leisure. [54] 

But, The God of Heav'n, He eas'ly can 
Immortalize a mortall man, 

With glory and with fame. 
The same God, ev'n as eas'ly may 
Afflict a mortall man, I say, 
With sorrow and with shame. 

Whilst the conclusion was a resolving, this hapned. 

Powhatan (to expresse his loue to Newport) when he Sample to 
departed, presented him with twentie Turkies, condi- seiuwords 
tionally to returne him twentie swords, which immediately |° T* 8 *" 
was sent him. 

Now after his departure, he presented Captaine Smith 

410 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. [Anas Todkm. 

[1608] with the like luggage, but not finding his humor obeyed 

in not sending such weapons as he desired, he caused his 

people with twentie devices to obtaine them. At last by 

ambuscadoes at our very Ports [gates] they would take them 

The perforce, surprise vs at worke, or any way ; which was so 

welknSS long permitted, they become so insolent there was no rule : 

the command from England was so strait not to offend 

them, as our authoritie-bearers (keeping their houses) 

would rather be any thing than peace-breakers. 

IM 35-39.] This charitable humor prevailed, till well it chanced 

smiths * ne y mec U e d with Captaine Smith, who without farther 

attempt to deliberation gaue them such an incounter, as some he 

tKafvages so hunted vp and downe the Isle, some he so terrified 

insoieacies. w jth whipping, beating, and imprisonment ; as for revenge 

they surprised two of ourforraging disorderly souldiers, and 

having assembled their forces, boldly threatned at our 

Ports to force Smith to redeliver seven Salvages, which 

for their villanies he detained prisoners, or we were all 

but dead men. But to try their furies he sallied out 

amongst them, and in lesse then an houre, he so hampred 

their insolencies, [that] they brought them his two men, 

desiring peace without any further composition for their 

prisoners. Those he examined, and caused them all 

beleeue, by severall vollies of shot one of their companions 

was shot to death, because they would not confesse their 

intents and plotters of those villanies. 

And thus they all agreed in one point, they were directed 

Pmuhatans one ly Dv Powhatan to obtaine him our weapons, to cut our 

excuse. owne throats ; with the manner where, how, and when, 

which we plainly found most true and apparant : yet he 

sent his messengers, and his dearest daughter Pocahontas 

[/>/. 38, 107.] [in May 1608] with presents to excuse him of the iniuries 

done by some rashvntowardCaptaines his subiects, desiring 

their liberties for this time, with the assurance of his loue 

for ever. 

After Smith had given the prisoners what correction he 
thought fit, vsed them well a day or two after, and then 
[/• »•] delivered them Pocahontas ; for whose sake onely he fayned 
to haue saued their Hues, and gaue them libertie. 

The patient Councell that nothing would moue towarre 
with the Salvages, would gladly haue wrangled with 

Ed. by w. simmonds.-j l ib ^ w ^ the fir st supply in Virginia. 411 

Captaine Smith for his crueltie, yet none was slaine to any [1608] 
mans knowledge : but it brought them in such feare and 
obedience, as his very name would sufficiently affright 
them ; where before, wee had sometime peace and warre 
twice in a day, and very seldome a weeke but we had some 
trecherous villany or other. 

The fraught of this Ship being concluded to be Cedar; j^f t with 
by the diligence of the Master, and Captaine Smith, Cedar, 
she was quickly reladed : Master Scrivener was neither 
idle nor slow to follow all things at the Fort ; the Ship 
being ready to set sayle, Captaine Martin being alwayes 
very sickly, and vnserviceable, and desirous to inioy the 
credit of his supposed Art of finding the golden Mine, was 
most willingly admitted to returne for England. For 
He hath not filVd his lapp, 
That still doth hold it oap. 

From the writings of Thomas Studley and 
Anas TodkilL [55] 

[As regards Studley, this must be an error, for he died on 28 Aug. 
\6o7,fi. lxxii.,and was succeeded for some time, as Cap-Merchant or 
Storekeeper, by Captain y. Smith, p. 9.] 

Their Names that were landed in this Supply. 

Mathew Scrivener appointed 
to be one of the Councell. 
Michaell Phittiplace. 
William Phittiplace. 
Ralph Morton. 
Richard Wyffing. 
Iohn Taverner. 
William Cantrell. 
Robert Barnes. 
Richard F ether stone. {-Gent. 
George Hill. 
George Pretty. 
Nathaniell Causy. 
Peter Pory. 
Robert Cutler. 
Michaell Sicklemore. 
William Bentley. 

Thomas Coe. 
Doctor Russell. 
Jeffrey Abbot. 
Edward Gurgana. 
Richard W or ley. 
Timothy Leeds. 
Richard Killingbeck. 
William Spence. 
Richard Prodger. 
Richard Pots. 
Richard Mullinax. 
William Bayley. 
Francis Perkins. 
Iohn Harper. 
George Forest. 
Iohn Nichols. 
William Griuell. 



Sir Thomas 



this List 
with the 
1612 one, at 
/>. 107-8.] 



The Discoveries and Accide?its, Lib. 3. [" 

W. Ttusv*. 

A. TodkiSl. 

LT. Momford. 

Raymond Goodison. 
William Simons. 
John Spearman. 
Richard Bristow. 
William Perce, 
lames Watkins. 
Iohn Bouth. 
Christopher Rods. 
Richard Burkct. 
lames Burre. 
Nicholas Ven. 
Francis Perkins. 
Richard Gradon. 
Rawland Nelstrop. 
Richard Savage. 
Thomas Savage. 
Richard Milm 
William May. 
Bishop Wiles. 



"f Apoth 


Thomas Hope. 
William Ward. 
Iohn Powell. 
William Yong. 
William Beckwith. 
La[w]rence Towtales. 

Thomas Field, 
Iohn Harford, 

Dani: Stallings, Ieweller. 
Will: Dawson, a refiner. 
Abram Ransack, a refiner. 
Wil: lohnson, a. Goldsmith. 
Peter Keffer, a gunsmith. 
Rob: Alberton, a perfumer. 
Richard Belfield, a Goldsmith. 
Post Ginnat, a Chirurg[ion]. 
Iohn Lewes, a Cooper. 
Robert Cotton, a Tobacco- 
Richard Dole, a Blacksmith 

And divers others 
number of 120. 

to the 

1/ 109.1 CHAPTER V 

The Accidents that hapned in the "Discovery 
of the Bay of Chisapeack. 

He prodigalitie of the Presidents [Ratcliffe] state 

went so deepe into our small store, that Smith 

and Scrivener tyed him and his Parasites to the 

rules of proportion. But now Smith being to 

depart, the Presidents authoritie so overswayed the 

discretion of Master Scrivener, that our store, our time, our 

strength and labours were idely consumed to fulfill his 


The second of Iune 1608. Smith left the Fort to performe 
his Discovery with this Company. 

Ed. by W. Simmonds."] T TT > ~ 

l6l2-l62 4 J ^^ 6' 

with the first supply in Virginia. 413 

J- Souldiers. 

Walter Russell, Doctor of I onas Profit. \ .[1608] 

Physicke. Anas Todkill. 

Ralfe Murton. \ Robert Small. 

Thomas Momford. lames Watkins. 

William Cantrill. \ ^ . John Powell. 
Richard Fetherston. r ' lames Read, 

lames Bume. Richard Keale. 

Mich [a] ell Sicklemore. t 

These being in an open Barge neare three tuns burthen. 

Leaving the Phoenix at Cape Henry, they crossed the Bay 
to the Easterne shore, and fell with the Isles called Smiths 
Isles, after our Captaines name. 

The first people we saw were two grim and stout Salvages 
vpon Cape Charles, with long poles like Iauelings, headed 
with bone, [56] they boldly demanded what we were, and 
what we would; but after many circumstances they seemed 
very kinde, and directed vs to Accomack, the habitation of 
their Werowance, where we were kindly intreated. 

This King was the comliest, proper, civill Salvage we in- [A "°-i 
countred. His Country is a pleasant fertile clay soyle, some 
small creekes ; good Harbours for small Barks, but not for 
Ships. He told vs of a strange accident lately happened 
him, and it was, two children being dead; some extreame 
passions, or dreaming visions, phantasies, or affection moued ^^gj 
their parents againe to revisit their dead carkases, whose of Salvages 
benummed bodies reflected to the eyes of the beholders such 
delightfull countenances, as though they had regained 
their vitall spirits. This as a miracle drew many to behold 
them, all which, being a great part of his people, not long 
after dyed, and but few escaped. 

They spake the language of Powhatan, wherein they made 
such descriptions of the Bay, Isles, and rivers, that often 
did vs exceeding pleasure. 

Passing along the coast, searching every inlet, and Bay, 
fit for harbours and habitations. Seeing many Isles in the 
midst of the Bay we bore vp for them, but ere we could 
obtaine them, such an extreame gust of wind, rayne, 
thunder, and lightening happened, that with great danger 
we escaped the vnmercifull raging of that Ocean-like water. 
The highest land on the mayne, yet it was but low, we Russels 
called Keales hill, and these vninhabited Isles, Russels Isles. Isle s- 

414 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. f a!?3E5: 

T ^ LT. Momford. 

[1608] The next day searching them for fresh water, we could find 

none, the defect whereof forced vsto follow the next Easterne 

withcoc*. Channell, which brought vs to the river of Wighcocomoco. 

m4K0 ' The people at first with great fury seemed to assault vs, 

yet at last with songs and daunces and much mirth became 

very tractable : but searching their habitations for water, we 

could fill but three barricoes, and that such puddle, that 

never till then we ever knew the want of good water. We 

An «*"«22 digged and searched in many places, but before two daies 

w^r? r s * were expired, we would haue refused two barricoes of gold 

for one of that puddle water of Wighcocomoco. 

Being past these Isles which are many in number, but all 
naught for habitation, falling with a high land vpon the 
mayne, we found a great Pond of fresh water, but so exceed- 
ing hot wee supposed it some bath ; that place we called 
poynt Ployer, in honor of that most honourable House of 
[/• 8a 5 ] Mousay in Britaine, that in an extreame extremitie once 
relieued our Captaine. 

From Wighcocomoco to this place, all the coast is low 
broken Isles of Morap, growne a myle or two in breadth, and 
ten ortwelue in length, good to cut for hay in Summer, and 
to catch fish and foule in Winter : but the Land beyond them 
is all covered over with wood, as is the rest of the Country. 
Being thus refreshed, in crossing ouer from the maine 
to other Isles we discouered, the winde and waters so 
much increased, with thunder, lightning, and raine, that 
our mast and sayle blew ouerbord and such mighty 
\p. us.] waues ouerracked vs in that small barge, that with great 
Their Barge labour we kept her from sinking by freeing out the water. 
Two dayes we were inforced to inhabite these vninhabited 
Isles ; which fqr the extremitie of gusts, thunder, raine, 
stormes, and ill wether we called Limbo. 

Repairing our saile with our shirts, we set sayle for the 
maine and fell with a pretty convenient riuer on the East 
called Cuskarawaok ; the people ran as amazed in troups 
from place to place, and diuers got into the tops of trees. 
They were not sparing of their arrowes, nor [of] the greatest 
passion they could expresse of their anger. Long they 
shot, we still ryding at an Anchor without the[i]re reatch 
making all the signes of friendship we could. 
The next day they came vnarmed, with euery one a 

neare sunke 
hi a gust. 


Ed.b y w.simmonds.-| l ib ^ wit j t fa fi rs i supply in Virginia. 415 

basket, dancing in a ring, to draw vs on shore : but seeing [1608] 
there was nothing in them but villany, we discharged a 
volly of muskets charged with pistoll shot ; whereat they 
all lay tumbling on the grownd, creeping some one way, 
some another into a great cluster of reedeshard by; where 
the[i]re companies lay in Ambuscado. Towards the euening 
we wayed, and approaching the shoare, discharging hue 
or six shot among the reedes. We landed where there lay 
a many of baskets and much bloud, but saw not a Salvage. 
A smoake appearing on the other side the riuer, we rowed 
thither, where we found two or three little houses, in each 
a fire ; there we left some peeces of copper, beads, bells, 
and looking glasses, and then went into the bay : but 
when it was darke we came backe againe. 

Early in [57] the morning foure Salvages came to vs in 
their Canow, whom we vsed with such courtesie, not knowing 
what we were, nor had done, [they] hauing beene in the bay 
a fishing; [who] bade vs stay and ere long they would 
returne, which they did and some twentie more with them : 
with whom after a little conference, two or three thousand 
men women and children came clustring about vs, euery 
one presenting vs with something, which a little bead would 
so well requite, that we became such friends they would 
contend who should fetch vs water, stay with vs for hostage, 
conduct our men any whither, and giue vs the best content. 

Here doth inhabite the people of Sarapinagh, Nause,Arseek, 
and Nantaquak the best Marchants of all other Salvages. 

They much extolled a great nation called Massawomekes, in ™efirst 
search of whom we returned by Limbo : this riuer but onely the M*um 
at the entrance is very narrow, and the people of small W0ntek *' 
stature as them of Wightcocomoco, the Land but low, yet 
it may proue very commodious, because it is but a ridge of 
land betwixt the Bay and the maine Ocean. Finding this 
Easterne shore, [to be] shallow broken Isles, and for most 
part without fresh water; we passed by the straites of Limbo 
for the Westerne shore : so broad is the bay here, we could 
scarce perceiue the great high clifts on the other side : by 
them we Anchored that night and called them Riccards Cliftes. 

30. leagues we sayled more Northwards not finding any 
inhabitants, leauing all the Easterne shore, lowe Islandes, 
but ouergrowne with wood, as all the Coast beyond 

416 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. [" aItS™!'." 

LT. Momford. 

[1608] them so farre as wee could see: the Westerne shore 
by which we sayled we found all along well watered, but 
very mountanous and barren, the vallies very fertill, but 
extreame thicke of small wood so well as trees, and much 
frequented with Wolues, Beares, Deere and other wild beasts. 
We passed many shallow creekes, but the first we 

BoiusKmer. f oun cl Nauigable for a ship, we called Bolus, for that the 
clay in many places vnder the clifts by the high water 
marke, did grow vp in red and white knots as gum out of 
trees; and in some places so participated together as though 
they were all of one nature, excepting the coulour, the rest 
of the earth on both sides being hard sandy grauell, which 
made vs thinke it Bole-Armoniack and Terra sigillata. 

When we first set sayle some of our Gallants doubted 
nothing but that our Captaine would make too much hast[e] 
home, but hauing lien in this small barge not aboue 12. or 
14. dayes, oft tyred at the Oares, our bread spoyled with wet 
so much that it was rotten (yet so good were their stomacks 
that they could disgest it) they did with continuall com- 
plaints so importune him now to returne, as caused him 
bespeake them in this manner [about 14 June 1608]. 
Smiths Gentlemen if you would remember the memorable history of 

SSd!lS hls Sir Ralph Layne, how his company importuned him to proceed 
\p> 3M-] 1M the discovery of Moratico, alleadging they had yet a dog, 
that being boyled with Saxafras leaues, would richly feede them 
in their returnes ; then what a shame would it be for you (thai 
haue bin so suspitious of my tendernesse) to force me returne, 
with so much provision as we haue, and scarce able to say where 
\p. i".] we haue beetle, nor yet heard of that we were sent to seeke ? 
You cannot say but I haue shared with you in the worst which 
is past ; and for what is to come, of lodging, dyet, or whatso- 
euer, I am contented you allot the worst part to my selfe. As 
for your feares that I will lose my selfe in these vnknowne large 
waters, or be swallowed vp in some stormie gust; abandon 
these childish feares, for worse then is past is not likely to 
happen : and there is as much danger to returne as to proceede. 
Regaine therefore your old spirits, for returne I will not {if 
God please) till I haue seene the Massawomeks, found 
Patawomek, or the head of this water you conceit to be 

Ed.byw.simmonds.-j LlB . 3. with the first supply in Virginia. 417 

Two or 3. dayes we expected [experienced] winde and 
wether, whose aduerse extremities added such discourage- 
ment, that three or foure fell sicke, whose pittifull complaints 
caused vs to to returne, leauing the bay some nine miles 
broad, at nine and ten fadome water. 

The 16. of Iune [1608], we fell with the riuer Patowomek : 
fearejbeing gone, and our men recovered, we were all content 
to take some paines, to know the name of that seuen mile 
broad riuer. For thirtie myles sayle, we could see no 
inhabitants : then we were conducted by two Savages vp a 
little bayed creeke, towards Onawmanient, where all the 
woods were layd with ambuscado's to the number of three 
or foure thousand Salvages, so strangely paynted, grimed 
and disguised, shouting, yelling and crying [58] as so many 
spirits from hell could not haue shewed more terrible. 

Many brauado's they made, but to appease their fury, 
our Captaine prepared with as seeming a willingnesse 
(as they) to incounter them. But the grazing of our 
bullets vpon the water (many being shot on purpose they 
might see them) with the Ecc[h]o of the woods so amazed 
them, as downe went their bowes and arrowes ; (and ex- 
changing hostage) lames Watkins was sent six myles vp the 
woods to their Kings habitation. We were kindly vsed of 
those Salvages, of whom we vnderstood, they were com- 
manded to betray vs, by the direction of Powhatan ; and he 
so directed from the discontents [discontented] at lames 
towne, because our Captaine did cause them stay in their 
country against their wills. 

The like incounters we found at Patowomek, Cecocawonee 
and diuers other places : but at Moyaones, Nacotchtant and 
Toags the people did their best to content vs. 

Hauing gone so high as we could with the bo[a]te, we 
met diuers Saluages in Canowes, well loaden with the flesh 
of Beares, Deere and other beasts; whereof we had part. 
Here we found mighty Rocks, growing in some places aboue 
the grownd as high as the shrubby trees, and diuers other 
solid quarries of diuers tinctures : and diuers places where 
the waters had falne from the high mountaines they had 
left a tinctured spangled skurfe, that made many bare 
places seeme as guilded. Digging the grown [d]e aboue in 
the highest clifts of rocks, we saw it was a claie sand so 



The dis- 
couery of 

cadoes of 

A trecher- 
ous proiect 

IP- "3-1 

418 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. [" a'.tSSu! 

LT. Momford. 

[1608] mingled with yeallow spangles as if it had beene halfe 

In our returne inquiring still for this Matchqueon, the 
king of Patawomeke gaue vs guides to conduct vs vp a little 
riuer called Quiyough, vp which we rowed so high as 
we could [p. 424]. Leauing the bo[a]te ; with six shot and 
diuers Salvages, he marched seuen or eight myle before they 
came to the mine : leading his hostages in a small chaine 
they were to haue for their paines, being proud so richly 
to be adorned. 

Amyndike The mine is a great Rocky mountaine like Antimony ; 

Anthony. wnere i n tnev digged a great hole with shells and hatchets : 
and hard by it, runneth a fayre brooke of Christal-like water, 
where they wash away the drosse and keepe the remainder, 
which they put in little baggs and sell it all ouerthe coun- 
try to paint the[i]re bodyes, faces, or Idols; which makes 
them looke like Blackmores dusted over with siluer. With 
so much as we could carry we returned to our bo[a]te, kindly 
requiting this kinde king and all his kinde people. 

The cause of this discovery was to search [for] this 
mine, of which Newport did assure vs that those small 
baggs (we had giuen him), in England he had tryed to 
hold halfe siluer ; but all we got proued of no value : also 
to search what furrs, the best whereof is at Cuscarawaoke, 
where is made so much Rawranokc or white beads that 
occasion as much dissention among the Salvages, as 
gold and siluer amongst Christians ; and what other 
mineralls, riuers, rocks, nations, woods, fishings, fruites, 
victuall, and what other commodities the land afforded : 
and whether the bay were endlesse or how farre it extended. 
Of mines we were all ignorant, but a few Beuers, Otters, 
Beares, Martins and minkes [skins] we found, and in diuers 
places that aboundance of fish, lying so thicke with 
their heads aboue the water, as for want of nets (our barge 
driuing amongst them) we attempted to catch them with 

Anaboun- a frying pan : but we found it a bad instrument to catch 

d*nt plenty fi sh w i tn : neither better fish, more plenty, nor more 
variety for smal fish, had any of vs euerseene in anyplace 
so swimming in the water, but they are not to be caught 
with frying pans. Some small codd also we did see swim 
close by the shore by Smiths lies, and some as high as 

Ed.byw.simmonds.-] l ib 3. with the first supply in Virginia. 419 

Riccards Clifts. And some we haue found dead vpon the [1608] 

To express all our quarrels, trecheries and incounters \p. n 3 .] 
amongst those Salvages I should be too tedious: but in Howto 
breefe, at all times we so incountred them, and curbed theLT-' 1 
their insolencies, that they concluded with presents to vages * 
purchase peace ; yet we lost not a man : at our first meet- 
ing our Captaine euer observed this order, to demand their 
bowes and arrowes, swordes, mantells and furrs, with 
some childe or two for hostage, whereby we could quickly 
perceiue, when they intended any villany. 

Hauing finished this discouery (though our victuall was 
neere spent) he intended to see his imprisonment-acquaint- 
ances vpon the riuer of Rapahanock, by [59] many called 
Toppahanock, but our bo[a]te by reason of the ebbe, chansing 
to grownd vpon a many shoules lying in the entrances, we 
spyed many fishes lurking in the reedes : our Captaine 
sporting himselfe by nayling them to the grownd with his 
sword, set vs all a fishing in that manner : thus we tooke 
more in one houre then we could eate in a day. 

But it chansed our Captaine taking a fish from his sword £A »*1 
(not knowing her condition) being much of the fashion of §£3?™^ 
a Thornback, but a long tayle like a ryding rodde, whereon kill c<* w " h 
the middest is a most poysoned sting, of two or three 
inches long, bearded like a saw on each side, which she 
strucke into the wrest of his arme neere an inch and a 
halfe : no bloud nor wound was seene, but a little blew 
spot, but the torment was instantly so extreame, that in 
foure houres had so swolen his hand, arme and shoulder, 
we all with much sorrow concluded [anticipated] his funerall, 
and prepared his graueinan Island by, as himselfe directed : 
yet it pleased God by a precious oyle Docter Russell at the 
first applyed to it when he sounded it with probe, (ere night) 
his tormenting paine was so well asswaged that he eate of 
the fish to his supper, which gaue no lesse ioy and content 
to vs then ease to himselfe. For which we called the 
Island Stingray Isle after the name of the fish. 

Hauing neither Chirurgian nor Chirurgery but that pre- 
seruatiue oyle, we presently set sayles for lames towne, 
passing the mouthes of the riuers of Payankatank, and 
Pantavnkee, the next day we safely arriued at Kecougtan. 

420 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. [" ^;?J d ss k f 1 ! 

LT. Momford. 

[1608] The simple Salvages seeing our Captaine hurt, and an 

^e other bloudy by breaking his shinne, our numbers of bowes, 

affrighted arrowes, swords, mantles, and furrs, would needes imagine 
owne their we had beene at warres (the truth of these accidents would 
suspition. no t sa tisfie them) but impatiently importuned vs to know 
with whom. Finding their aptnesse to beleeue, we fayled 
not (as a great secret) to tell them any thing that might 
affright them, what spoyle we had got and made of the 
Massawomeks. This rumor went faster vp the river then 
our Barge, that arrived at Waraskoyack the 20 of Iuly ; 
where trimming her with painted streamers, and such de- 
vises as we could, we made them at lames towne iealous 
of a Spanish Frigot, where we all, God be thanked, safely 
arrived the 21 of Iuly. 

Necdiesse There we found the last Supply were all sicke; the rest 
™«« a some lame, some bruised: all vnable to doe any thing 
towne. k u ^ com pi a i ne f the pride and vnreasonable needlesse 
crueltie of the silly President, that had riotously consumed 
the store : and to fulfill his follies about building him an 
vnnecessary building for his pleasure in the woods, had 
brought them all to that misery ; that had we not arrived, 
they had as strangely tormented him with revenge. 
[/. 115] But the good newes of our Discovery, and the good hope 

we had by the Salvages relation, that our Bay had stretched 
into the South Sea, or somewhat neare it, appeased their 
fury; but conditionally that Rat[c]liffe should be deposed, 
and that Captaine Smith would take vpon him the govern- 
ment, as by course it did belong. 

Their request being effected, he substituted Master 
Scrivener his deare friend in the Presidency, equally 
distributing those private provisions the other [Ratcliffe] 
had ingrossed, appointing more honest officers to assist 
master Scrivener (who then lay exceeding sicke of a 
Callenture) : and in regard of the weaknesse of the 
company, and heate of the yeare, they being vnable to 
worke, he left them to Hue at ease, to recover theii 
healths ; but imbarked himselfe to finish his Discovery. 

Written by Walter Russell, Anas Todkill, 
and Thomas Mumford. 

Ed. by w. sunmondsj l ib# 3. with the fir st supply in Virginia. 421 


The Government surrendred to Master 

What happened the second Voyage in discovering 
the Bay. 

§*|He 24 of Iuly [1608], CaptaineSwn^ set forward [1608] 
- to finish the discovery with twelue men : their [>. «6.j 
names were [60] 





Nathaniell Powell. \ . Ionas Profit. 

Thomas Momford. v Anas Todkill. 

Richard Fetherston. I § Edward Pising. 

Mich[a]ell Sicklemore. j+3 Richard Keale. 

lames Bourne. <o lames Watkins. 

Anthony B agnail, Chir. J® William Ward. 

The wind being contrary, caused our stay two or three 
days at Kecoughtan : the King feasted vs with much mirth, 
his people were perswaded we went purposely to be 
revenged of the Massawomeks. In the evening we fired a The 
few rackets, which flying in the ayre so terrified the poore 
Salvages, they supposed nothing vnpossible we attempted ; 
and desired to assist vs. 

The first night we anchored at Stingray Isle. The next 
day crossed Patawomeks river, and hasted to the river Bolus. 

We went not much further before we might see the 
Bay to divide in two heads, and arriving there we found 
it divided in foure, all which we searched so farre as we 
could sayle them. 

Two of them we found [vn]inhabited, but in crossing the 
Bay, we incountred 7 or 8 Canowes full of Massawomeks. [/. 117) 

We seeing them prepare to assault vs, left our Oares and An incoun- 
made way with our sayle to incounter them, yet were we Jii e 
but fiue with our Captaine that could stand, for within 2 Softie 
dayes after we left Kecoughtan, the rest (being all of the last Bay. 
supply) were sicke almost to death, vntill they were seasoned 
to the Country. Having shut them vnder our Tarpawling, 
we put their hats vpon stickes by the Barges side, and 

422 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. |~ njpSS 

L A. TodkflL 

[1608] betwixt two hats a man with two peeces, to make vs seeme 
many : and so we thinke the Indians supposed those hats to 
be men, for they fled with all possible speed to the shore, 
and there stayed, staring at the sayling of our barge till we 
anchored right against them. 

Long it was ere we could draw them to come vnto vs. 
At last they sent two of their company vnarmed in a Canow, 
the rest all followed to second them if neede required. 
These two being but each presented with a bell, brought 
aboord all their fellowes, presenting our Captaine with 
venison, beares flesh, fish, bowes, arrowes, clubs, targets, 
and beares-skinnes. 

We vndertood them nothing at all, but by signes, 
whereby they signified vnto vs they had beene at warres 
with the Tockwoghes, the which they confirmed by shewing 
vs their greene wounds. 

But the night parting vs, we imagined they appointed the 

next morning to meete; but after that we never saw them. 

An Entring the river of Tockwogh, the Salvages all armed, 

llthX" in a fleete of boats, after their barbarous manner, round 

Tockwhoghs. i nv i ronec i us ; s0 it chanced one of them could speake the 

language of Powhatan, who perswaded the rest to a friendly 

parley. But when they saw vs furnished with the Massa- 

womcks weapons, and we faining the invention of Kecoughtan, 

to haue taken them perforce ; they conducted vs to their 

pallizadoed towne, mantelled with the barkes of trees, with 

scaffolds like mounts, brested about with brests very 

formally. Their men, women, and children with daunces, 

songs, fruits, furres, and what they had, kindly welcommed 

vs, spreading mats for vs to sit on, [and] stretching their 

best abilities to expresse their loues. 

[/. us.] Many hatchets, kniues, peeces of iron, and brasse, we 

Hatchets saw amongst them, which they reported to haue from the 

s™ f !«sa- Sasquesahanocks, a mightie people and mortall enemies with 

hatwtkn. the Massawomeks. 

The Sasquesahanocks inhabit vpon the chiefe Spring of 
these foure branches of the Bayes head, two dayes iourney 
higher then our barge could passe for rocks ; yet we 
prevailed with the Interpreter to take with him another 
Interpreter, to perswade the Sasquesahanocks to come visit 
vs, for their language[s] are different. 

Ed.byw.simmonds.-j l ib ^ w ^ the first supply in Virginia. 423 

Three or foure dayes we expected their returne, then [1608] 
sixtie of those gyant-like people came downe, with presents 
of Venison, Tobacco-pipes three foot in length, Baskets, 
Targets, Bowes and Arrowes. Fiue of their chiefe Wero- 
wances came boldly aboord vs to crosse the Bay for 
Tockwhogh, leaving their men and Canowes ; the wind 
being so high they durst not passe. 

Our order was daily to haue Prayer, with a Psalme ; at 
which solemnitie the poore Salvages much wondred, our 
Prayers being done, a while they were busied with a con- 
sultation till they had contrived their businesse. Then they 
began in a most passionate [61] manner to hold vp their 
hands to the Sunne,with a most fearefull song, then imbrac- 
ing our Captaine, they began to adore him in like manner ; 
though he rebuked them, yet they proceeded till their song 
was finished!: 1 , which done [one] with a most strange furious 
action, and a hellish voyce, began an Oration of their loues. 

That ended, with a great painted Beares skin they i^sasgue- 
covered him : then one ready with a great chayne of %b£ tf£e 
white Beads, weighing at least six or seaven pound, hung En e UtK - 
it about his necke, the others had 18 mantels, made of 
divers sorts of skinnes sowed together ; all these with 
many other toyes they layd at his feete, stroking their 
ceremonious hands about his necke for his Creation to be 
their Governour and Protector, promising their aydes, 
victualls, or what they had to be his, if he would stay with 
them, to defend and revenge them of the Massawomeks. 

But we left them at Tockwhogh, sorrowing for our depar- 
ture ; yet we promised the next yeare againe to visit them. 

Many descriptions and discourses they made vs, of 
A tquanachuck, Massawomek, and other people, signifying they \p. 119.] 
inhabit vpon a great water beyond the mountaines, which 
we vnderstood to be some great lake, or the river of 
Canada : and from the French to haue their hatchets and 
Commodities by trade. These know no more of the terri- 
tories of Powhatan, then his name, and he as little of them: 
but the Atquanachuks are on the Ocean Sea. 

The highest mountaine we saw Northward wee called 
Perigrines mount, and a rocky river, where the Massa- 
womeks went vp, Willowbyes river, in honor of the towne 
our Captaine was borne in, and that honorable house the 

4 2 4 


[>• "9-1 

nock. R. 


loue of the 

itP- "9-4»9i 

Our fijjht 
with the 

The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. |" nSKS 

L A. Todlcill. 

Lord Willowby, his most honored good friend. The 
Sasquesahanocks river we called SW//zsfalles; the next poynt 
to Tockwhogh, Pisings poynt ; the next [to] it poynt Bourne, 
Powells Isles and Smals poynt is by the river Bolus ; and 
the little Bay at the head Profits poole ; Watkins, Reads, 
and Momfords poynts are on each side Limbo ; Ward, 
Cantrell, and Sicklemore [points], betwixt Patawomek and 
Pamavnkee, after the names of the discoverers. 

In all those places and the furthest we came vp the 
rivers, we cut in trees so many crosses as we would, and 
in many places made holes in trees, wherein we writ notes : 
and in some places crosses of brasse, to signifie to any, 
Englishmen had beene there. 

Thus having sought all the inlets and rivers worth 
noting, we returned to discover the river of Pawtuxunt ; 
these people we found very tractable, and more civill then 
any: we promised them, as also the Patawomeks to revenge 
them of the Massawomeks, but our purposes were crossed. 

In the discovery of this river [that] some call Rapahanock, 
we were kindly entertained by the people of Moraughtacund. 

Here we incountered our old friend Mosco, a lusty Salvage 
of Wighcocomoco vpon the river of Patawomek. We supposed 
him some French mans sonne, because he had a thicke 
blacke bush beard, and the Salvages seldome haue any at 
all ; of which he was not a little proud, to see so many of 
his Countrymen. Wood and water he would fetch vs, 
guide vs any whether, nay, cause divers of his Countrymen 
helpe vs [to] towe against winde or tyde from place to place 
till we came to Patawomek : there he rested till we returned 
from the head of the river, and occasioned our conduct to 
the mine we supposed Antimony [p. 418]. 

And in the place he fayled not to doe vs all the good he 
could, perswading vs in any case not to goe to the Rapahanocks, 
for they would kill vs for being friends with the Moraught- 
acunds that but lately had stolne three of the Kings women. 

This we did thinke was but that his friends might onely 
haue our trade : so we crossed the river to the Rapahanocks. 
There some 12 or 16 standingon the shore, directed vs [to] a 
little Creeke where was good landing, and Commodities for 
vs in three or foure Canowes we saw lie there : but according 
to our custome, we demanded to exchange a man in signe of 

Ed.byw.sunmonds.-| l ib< 3. w {th the first supply in Virginia. 425 

loue ; which after they had a little consulted, foure or fiue [1608] 
came vp to the middles, to fetch our man, and leaue vs 
one of them, shewing we need not feare them, for they had 
neither clubs, bowes, nor arrowes. Notwithstanding, A nas 
Todkill, being sent on shore to see if he could discover any 
Ambuscadoes, or what they had, desired to goe over the 
playne to fetch some wood ; but they were vnwilling, except 
we would come into the Creeke, where the boat might 
come close ashore. Todkill by degrees [62] having got some 
two stones throwes vp the playne, perceived two or three 
hundred men (as he thought) behind the trees ; so that 
offering to returne to the Boat, the Salvages assayed to 
carry him away perforce, that he called to vs we were 
betrayed : and by that he had spoke the word, our hostage 
was over-boord, but Watkins his keeper slew him in the 
water. Immediatly we let fly amongst them, so that they 
fled, and Todkill escaped ; yet they shot so fast that he fell 
flat on the ground ere he could recover the boat. 

Here the Massawomek Targets stood vs in good stead, for 
vpon Mosco's words, we had set them about the forepart of 
our Boat like a forecastle ; from whence we securely beat 
the Salvages from off the plaine without any hurt: yet they 
shot more then a thousand Arrowes, and then fled into 
the woods. Arming our selues with these light Targets 
(which are made of little small sticks woven betwixt strings 
of their hempe and silke grasse, as is our Cloth, but 
so firmely that no arrow can possibly pierce them :) we 
rescued Todkill ; who was all bloudy by [from] some of them 
who were shot by vs that held him, but as God pleased he 
had no hurt : and following them vp to the woods, we found 
some slaine, and in divers places much bloud. It seems all 
their arrowes were spent, for we heard no more of them. 

Their Canows we tooke ; the arrowes we found we 
broke, saue them we kept for Mosco, to whom we gaue the 
Canowes for his kindnesse, that entertained vs in the best 
trivmphing manner, and warlike order in armes of conquest 
he could procure of the Moraughtacunds. The rest of the 
day we spent in accomodating our Boat, in stead of thoules 
wee made stickes like Bedstaues, to which we fastened so 
many of our Massawomek Targets, that invironed her as 
wa[i]st clothes. 


l/A "9. 4'9. 





like bushes 


I/. 119.] 

Our fight 
with the 

The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. f^ B pSJ e ll 

L A.Todkilll 

The next morning we went vp the river, and our friend 
Mosco followed vs along the shore, and at last desired to 
goe with vs in our Boat. But as we passed by Pisacack, 
Matchopeak, and Mecuppom, three Townes situated vpon 
high white clay clifts ; the other side all a low playne 
marish, and the river there but narrow. Thirtie or fortie 
of the Rapahanocks had so accommodated themselues with 
branches, as we tooke them for little bushes growing among 
the sedge, till seeing their arrowes strike the Targets, and 
dropped in the river : whereat Mosco fell flat in the Boat on 
his face, crying the Rapahanocks, which presently we espied 
to be the bushes, which at our first volley fell downe in 
the sedge : when wee were neare halfe a myle from them, 
they shewed themselues dauncing and singing very merrily. 

The Kings of Pissassack, Nandtaughtacund, and Cuttata- 
women, vsed vs kindly, and all their people neglected not 
any thing to Mosco to bring vs to them. 

Betwixt Secobeck and Massawtcck is a small Isle or two, 
which causeth the river to be broader then ordinary; there 
it pleased God to take one of our Company called Master 
Fetherstone, that all the time he had beene in this Country, 
had behaved himselfe, honestly, valiantly, and industriously ; 
where in a little Bay we called Fetherstones Bay wee buryed 
him with a volley of shot : the rest notwithstanding their 
ill dyet, and bad lodging, crowded in so small a Barge, in 
so many dangers, never resting, but alwayes tossed to and 
againe, had all well recovered their healths. 

The next day wee sayled so high as our Boat would 
float ; there setting vp crosses, and graving our names in 
the trees. Our Sentinell saw an arrow fall by him ; 
though we had ranged vp and downe more then an houre, 
in digging in the earth, looking of stones, herbs, and 
springs, not seeing where a Salvage could well hide himselfe. 

Vpon the alarum, by that we had recovered our armes, 
there was about an hundred nimble Indians skipping from 
tree to tree, letting fly their arrows so fast as they could : 
the trees here served vs for Baricadoes as well as they. 
But Mosco did vs more service then we expected; for 
having shot away his quiver of Arrowes, he ran to the 
Boat for more. The Arrowes of Mosco at the first made 
them pause vpon the matter, thinking by his bruit and 

Ed. by w. simmonds.j l ib ^ w ^ the first supply in Virginia. 427 

skipping, there were many Salvages. About halfe an [1608] 
houre this continued, then they all vanished as suddainly 
as they approached. Mosco followed them so farre as he 
could see vs, till they were out of sight. As we returned a Salvage 
there lay a Salvage as dead, shot in the knee ; but taking j£ en and 
him vp we found he had [63J life : which Mosco seeing, prisoner. 
never was Dog more furious against a Beare, then Mosco 
was to haue beat out his braines. So we had him to our 
Boat, where our Chirurgian [A . Bagnall] who went with vs 
to cure our Captaines hurt of the Stingray, so dressed this 
Salvage that within an houre after he looked somewhat 
chearefully, and did eate and speake. In the meane time we 
contented Mosco in helping him to gather vp their arrowes, 
which were an armefull ; whereof he gloried not a little. 

Then we desired Mosco to know what he was, and what 
Countries were beyond the mountaines ; the poore Salvage 
mildly answered, he and all with him were of Hassininga, 
where there are three Kings more, like vnto them, namely 
the King of Stegora, the King of Tauxuntania, and the 
King of Shakahonea, that were come to Mohaskahod, which 
is onely a hunting Towne, and the bounds betwixt the 
Kingdome of the Mannahocks and the Nandtaughtacunds, 
but hard by where we were. 

We demanded why they came in that manner to betray 
vs, that came to them in peace, and to seeke their loues ; 
he answered, they heard we were a people come from 
vnder the world, to take their world from them. 

We asked him how many worlds he did know, he 
replyed, he knew no more but that which was vnder the 
skie that covered him, which were the Powhatans, with His relation 
the Monacans and the Massawomeks that were higher vp countries. 
in the mountaines. 

Then we asked him what was beyond the mountaines, 
he answered the Sunne : but of any thing els he knew 
nothing ; ^because the woods were not burnt. • They 

These and many such questions wee demanded, concern- SSSibut 
ing the Massawomeks, the Monacans, their owne Country, ^dslre 
and where were the Kings of Stegora, Tauxsintania, and burnt, 
the rest. The Monacans he sayd were their neighbours 
and friends, and did dwell as they in the hilly Countries 
by small rivers, liuing vpon rootes and fruits, but chiefly 

428 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. ["VpSS 

L A. TodkilL 

[1608] by hunting. The Massawomeks did dwell vpon a great 
water, and had many boats, and so many men that they 
made warre with all the world. For their Kings, they 
were gone every one a severall way with their men on 
hunting. But those with him came thither a fishing till 
they saw vs, notwithstanding they would be al[l] together 
at night at Mahaskahod. 

For his relation we gaue him many toyes, with per- 
swasions to goe with vs : and he as earnestly desired vs 
to stay the comming of those Kings that for his good 
vsage should be friends with vs, for he was brother to 
Hassininga. But Mosco advised vs presently to be gone, 
for they were all naught ; yet we told him we would not 
till it was night. All things we made ready to entertain 
what came, and Mosco was as diligent in trimming his 

The night being come we all imbarked; for the riuer 
was so narrow, had it beene light the land on the one 
side was so high, they might haue done vs exceeding 
much mischiefe. All this while the K[ing], of Hassininga 
was seeking the rest, and had consultation a good time 
what to doe. But by their espies seeing we were gone, 
it was not long before we heard their arrowes dropping on 
every side the Boat ; we caused our Salvages to call vnto 
them, but such a yelling and hallowing they made that they 
heard nothing, but now and then [we shot off] a peece, 
ayming so neare as we could where we heard the most 
voyces. More then 12 myles they followed vs in this 
manner ; then the day appearing, we found our selues in 
a broad Bay, out of danger of their shot, where wee came 
to an anchor, and fell to breakfast. Not so much as speaking 
to them till the Sunne was risen. 

Being well refreshed, we vntyed our Targets that couered 
vs as a Deck, and all shewed our selues with those shields 
on our armes, and swords in ourhands, and also our prisoner 
Amoroleck. A long discourse there was betwixt his Coun- 
trimen and him, how good wee were, how well wee vsed 
him, how wee had a Patawomek with vs, [who] loued vs as 
his life, that would haue slaine him had we not preserued 
him, and that he should haue his libertie would they be 
but friends; and to doe vs any hurt it was impossible. 

Ed. by w. simmonds.-j l ib . ^ w jf£ the first supply in Virginia. 429 

Vpon this they all hung their Bowes and Quivers vpon [1608] 
the trees, and one came swimming aboord vs with a Bow How we 
tyed on his head, and another with a Quiver of Arrowes, JS^Sh 
which they deliuered our Captaine as a present : the Cap- Jjjk^ 
taine hauing vsed them so kindly as he could, told them Monahoke. 
the other three Kings should doe the like, and then the 
great King of our world should be their friend ; whose 
men we were. It was no sooner demanded but performed, 
so [64] vpon a low Moorish poynt of Land we went to 
the shore, where those foure Kings came and receiued 
Amoroleck : nothing they had but Bowes, Arrowes, Tobacco- 
bags, and Pipes : what we desired, none refused to giue 
vs, wondering at every thing we had, and heard we had 
done : our Pistols they tooke for pipes, which they much 
desired, but we did content them with other Commodities. 
And so we left foure or flue hundred of our merry 
Mannahocks, singing, dauncing, and making merry, and 
set sayle for Moraughtacund. 

In our returnes we visited all our friends, that reioyced J^J* 
much at our Victory against the Mannahocks, who many frj«ids with 
times had Warres also with them, but now they were wf' 
friends; and desired we would be friends with the Rapa- 
hanocks, as we were with the Mannahocks. Our Captaine 
told them, they had twise assaulted him that came onely 
in loue to doe them good, and therefore he would now 
burne all their houses, destroy their corne, and for euer 
hold them his enemies, till they made him satisfaction. 
They desired to know what that should be. He told them 
they should present him the Kings Bow and Arrowes, and 
not offer to come armed where he was ; that they should 
be friends with the Moraughtacunds his friends and giue 
him their Kings sonne in pledge to performe it ; and then 
all King lames his men should be their friends. Vpon this 
they presently sent to the Rapahanocks to meete him at 
the place where they first fought, where would be the 
Kings of Nantautacund and Pissassac : which according to 
their promise were there so soone as we ; where Rapaha- 
nock presented his Bow and Arrowes, and confirmed all we 
desired, except his sonne, having no more but him he 
could not Hue without him, but in stead of his sonne he 
would giue him the three women Moraughtacund had 

430 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. f n jSw*!k 

L A. Todkill. 

[1608] stolne. This was accepted : and so in three or foure 
Canowes, so many as could went with vs to Moraughtacund, 
where Mosco made them such relations, and gaue to his 
friends so many Bowes and Arrowes, that they no lesse 
loued him then admired vs. The 3 women were brought 
our Captaine, to each he gaue a chayne of Beads : and 
then causing Moraughtacund, Mosco, and Rapahanock stand 
before him, bid Rapahanock take her he loued best, and 
Moraughtacund chuse next, and to Mosco he gaue the third. 
Vpon this, away went their Canowes over the water, to 
fetch their venison, and all the provision they could; and 
they that wanted Boats swam over the river. The darke 
[darkness] commanded vs then to rest. 

The next day there was of men, women, and children, 
as we coniectured, six or seauen hundred, dauncing, and 
singing ; and not a Bow nor Arrow seene amongst them. 
Mosco changed his name Vttasantasough, which we interpret 
Stranger, for so they call vs. All promising ever to be our 
friends, and to plant Corne purposely for vs ; and we to 
provide hatchets, beads, and copper for them, we departed : 
giuing them a Volley of shot, and they vs as loud shouts and 
cryes as their strengths could vtter. 
The That night we anchored in the river of Payankatank, and 

PasaZZ * discovered it so high as it was navigable ; but the people 
were most[ly] a hunting, saue a few old men, women, and 
children, that were tending their corne : of which they 
promised vs part when we would fetch it, as had done 
all the Nations where ever we had yet beene. 

In a fayre calme, rowing towards poynt Comfort, we 
anchored in Gosnolls Bay, but such a suddaine gust sur- 
prised vs in the night with thunder and rayne, that we 
never thought more to haue seene lames Towne. Yet 
running before the wind, we sometimes saw the Land by the 
flashes of fire from heaven, by which light onely we kept 
from the splitting shore, vntill it pleased God in that blacke 
darknesse to preserue vs by that light to finde poynt Comfort. 
There refreshing our selues, because we had onely but 
heard of the Chisapeacks and Nandsamunds, we thought 
it as fit to know all our neighbours neare home, as 
so many Nations abroad. So setting sayle for the 
Southerne shore, we sayled vp a narrow river vp the 

(A «9.] 

Ed. by w. simmonds."] LlB . ^ wM the first supply in Virginia. 43 1 

country of Chisapeack ; it hath a good channell, but many [1608] 
shoules about the entrance. By that we had sayled six 
or seauen myles, we saw two or three little garden plots 
with their houses, the shores overgrowne with the greatest 
Pyne and Firre trees wee ever saw in the Country. 
But not seeing nor hearing any people, and the riuer 
very narrow, we returned to the great riuer, to see if 
we could finde any of them. Coasting [65] the shore 
towards Nandsamund, which is most[ly] Oyster-bankes ; at 
the mouth of that riuer, we espied six or seauen Salvages 
making their wires [weirs] , who presently fled : ashore 
we went, and where they wrought we threw diuers toyes, 
and so departed. Farre we were not gone ere they came 
againe, and began to sing, and daunce, and recall vs : and 
thus we began our first acquaintance. At last one of them 
desired vs to goe to his house vp that riuer ; into our Boat 
voluntarily he came, the rest ran after vs by the shore with 
all shew of loue that could be. Seauen or eight myles we 
sayled vp this narrow riuer : at last on the Westerne shore 
we saw large Cornefields, in the midst a little Isle, and 
in it was abundance of Corne. The people he told vs were 
all a hunting, but in the Isle was his house, to which he 
inuited vs with much kindnesse : to him, his wife, and 
children, we gaue such things as they seemed much con- 
tented them. The others being come, desired vs also to 
goe but a little higher to see their houses : here our host 
left vs, the rest rowed by vs in a Canow, till we were so 
far past the Isle the riuer became very narrow. 

Here we desired some of them to come abord vs, wherat ^S!* f 
pausing a little, they told vs they would but fetch their bows the hand. 
and arrowes and goe all with vs : but being a shore and thus 
armed, they perswaded vs to goe forward, but we could 
neither perswade them into their Canow, nor into our Boat. 
This gaue vs cause to prouide for the worst. Farre we 
went not ere seauen or eight Canowes full of men armed 
appeared following vs, staying to see the conclusion. 
Presently from each side the riuer came arrowes so fast Jj^fj! 1 
as two or three hundred could shoot them, whereat we chhapcacks 
returned to get the open. They in the Canowes let fly also w,««w*. * 
as fast ; but amongst them we bestowed so many shot ; the 
most of them leaped overboord and swam ashore, but two 

43 2 

The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. 


How they 




at lames 

[/. iao.] 

A. Bagnall. 
N. Powell. 
A. Todkill. 

or three escaped by rowing. Being against their playnes: 
our Muskets they found shot further then their Bowes, 
for wee made not twentie shot ere they all retyred behind 
the next trees. Being thus got out of their trap, we 
seised on all their Canowes, and moored them in the 
midst of the open. More then an hundred arrowes stucke 
in our Targets, and about the boat ; yet none hurt, onely 
Anthony Bagnall was shot in his Hat, and another in his 
sleeue. But seeing their multitudes, and suspecting as it 
was, that both the Nandsamunds, and the Chisapeacks were 
together ; we thought it best to ryde by their Canowes a 
while, to bethinke if it were better to burne all in the 
Isle, or draw them to composition till we were prouided 
to take all they had, which was sufficient to feed all our 
Colony : but to burne the Isle at night it was concluded. 

In the interim we began to cut in peeces their Canowes, 
and they presently to lay downe their bowes, making 
signes of peace. Peace we told them we would accept it, 
would they bring vs their Kings bowes and arrowes, with 
a chayne of pearle ; and when we came againe giue vs foure 
hundred baskets full of Corne : otherwise we would breake 
all their boats, and burne their houses, and corne, and all 
they had. To performe all this they alledged onely the 
want of a Canow ; so we put one a drift and bad them 
swim to fetch her : and till they performed their promise, 
wee would but onely breake their Canowes. They cryed 
to vs to doe no more, all should be as we would : which 
presently they performed. Away went their bowes and 
arrowes, and tagge and ragge came with their baskets : so 
much as we could carry we tooke, and so departing good 
friends, we returned to lames Towne, where we safely 
arrived the 7. of September, 1608. 

There we found Master Scrivener, and divers others well 
recovered : many dead ; some sicke : the late President 
[Ratcliffe] [a] prisoner for mutiny: by the honest diligence of 
Master Scrivener, the haruest gathered ; but the provision 
in the store much spoyled with rayne. 

Thus was that summer (when little wanted) consumed 
and spent, and nothing done (such was the gouern- 
ment of Captaine Rat[c]liffe) but onely this discovery; 
wherein to expresse all the dangers, accidents, and in- 

Ed.byw.siTnmonds.-j l ib# 3 w ^ fa sec0 nd supply in Virginia. 433 

counters this small number passed in that small Barge, [1608] 
by the scale of proportion, about three thousand myles, 
with such watery dyet in those great waters and barbarous 
Countries (till then to any Christian vtterly vnknowne) I 
rather referre their merit to the censure of the courteous 
and experienced Reader, then I would be tedious or 
partiall being a partie. [66J 

But to this place to come who will adventure, 

with incitements guide and reason how to enter : 

Finds in this worlds broad sea, with winde and tyde, 

Titer's safer sayle then any where beside. 

But 'cause to wanton novices it is 

A Province full of fearefulnesse I wiss ; 

Into the great vast deepe to venter out : 

Those shallow rivers let them coast about. 

And by a small Boat learne there first, and marke, 

How they may come to make a greater Barke. 

Written by Anthony Bagnal/, Nathanaell Powell, 
and Anas Todkill. 

CHAPTER VII. [>.».«.) 

The Presidency surrendred to Captaine Smith : the 

A rrivall and rehwne of the second Supply. A nd 

what happened. 

He tenth of September, by the Election of the 
Councell, and request of the Company, Cap- 
taine Smith receiued the Letters Patents : 
which till then by no meanes he would accept, 
though he was often importuned therevnto. 

Now the building of Rat[c]lijfcs Pallace stayed, as a thing 
needlesse ; the Church was repaired ; the Store-house re- 
couered; buildings prepared for the Supplyes we expected; 
the Fort reduced to a hue-square forme ; the order of the 
Watch renewed ; the squadrons (each setting of the 
Watch) trained ; the whole Company euery Saturday 


434 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lin. 3. [ w . p h LK\ J T^kii 


when his 
court esie 
was most 

[p. I22-] 

No better 
way to 
the busines 
then by our 

exercised, in the plaine by the west Bulvvarke, prepared 
for that purpose, we called Smithfield : where sometimes 
more then an hundred Salvages would stand in an amaze- 
ment to behold, how a fyle would batter a tree, where he 
would make them a marke to shoot at ; the boats trimmed 
for trade, which being sent out with Lieutenant Percy, in 
their Iourney incountred [? Oct. 1608] the second Supply, 
that brought them backe to discover the Country olMonacan. 

How or why Captaine Newport obtained such a private 
Commission, as not to returne without a lumpe of gold, a 
certaintie of the South sea, or one of the lost company 
sent out by Sir Walter Raleigh, I know not ; nor why he 
brought such a flue peeced Barge, not to beare vs to that 
South sea, till we had borne her over the mountaines, 
which how farre they extend is yet vnknowne. 

As for the Coronation of Powhatan, and his presents of 
Bason and Ewer, Bed, Bedstead, Clothes, and such costly 
nouelties, they had beene much better well spared then so 
ill spent, for wee had his favour much better onely for 
a playne peece of Copper, till this stately kinde of solicit- 
ing, made him so much overvalue himselfe, that he 
respected vs as much as nothing at all. 

As for the hyring of the Poles and Dutch men, to make 
Pitch, Tar, Glasse, Milles, and Sope ashes, when the 
Country is replenished with people, and necessaries, would 
haue done well : but to send them and seauentie more 
without victualls to worke, was not so well aduised nor 
considered of, as it should haue beene. Yet this could 
not haue hurt vs had they beene 200. though then we were 
130 that wanted for our selues. For we had the Salvages 
in that decorum (their harvest being newly gathered) that 
we feared not to get victuals for 500. 

Now was there no way to make vs miserable, but to neg- 
lect that time to make prouision whilst it was to be had, the 
which was done by the direction from England to performe 
this strange discovery, but a more strange Coronation, to 
loose that time, spend that victualls we had, tyre and 
starue our men, hauing no meanes to carry victuals, muni- 
tion, the hurt or sicke, but on their owne backes. How or 
by whom they were inuented I know not. 

But Captaine A T £i£$ort we onely accounted the Author, who 

Ed.b y w simmonds] LlB ^ w ^ ffo seC0 nd supply in Virginia. 435 

to effect these proiects, had so guilded mens hopes with [1608] 
great promises, that both Company and Councell concluded 
his resolution [67] for the most part. God doth know 
they little knew what they did, nor vnderstood their owne 
estates to conclude his conclusions, against all the incon- 
veniences the foreseeing President [Smith] alledged. 

Of this Supply there was added to the Councell, one Cap- a consult*- 
taine Richard Waldo, and Captaine Wynne, two auncient a \i I th!! rhere 
Souldiers, and valiant Gentlemen ; but yet ignorant of the £° u ™^ mst 
busines, (being but newly arriued.) Rat[c]liffe was also thePresi- " 
permitted to haue his voyce, and Master Scrivener, desirous 
to see strange Countries : so that although Smith was 
President, yet the Maior part of the Councell had the 
authoritie, and ruled it as they listed. 

As for clearing Smiths obiections, how Pitch and Tarre, 
Wainscot, Clapbord, Glasse, and Sope ashes, could be 
provided, to relade the ship : or provision got to Hue withall, 
when none was in the Country; and that we had, spent, 
before the ship departed to effect these projects. The 
answer was, Captaine Newport vndertooke to fraught the 
Pinnace of twentie tunnes with Corne in going and return- 
ing in his Discovery, and to refraught her againe from [/»• i«3-i 
W erowocomoco of Powhatan. Also promising a great pro- 
portion of victualls from the Ship ; inferring that Smiths 
propositions were onely devices to hinder his iourney, to 
effect it himselfe ; and that the crueltie he had vsed to 
the Salvages might well be the occasion to hinder these 
Designes, and seeke revenge on him. For which taxation, 
all workes were left, and 120 chosen men were appointed 
for Newports guard in this Discovery. 

But Captaine Smith to make cleare all those seeming 
suspitions, that the Salvages were not so desperate as 
was pretended by Captaine Newport, and how willing 
(since by their authoritie they would haue it so) he was 
to assist them what he could, because the Coronation 
would consume much time, he vndertooke himselfe their 
message to Powhatan, to intreat him to come to lames 
Towne to receiue his presents. tain 

And where Newport durst not goe with lesse then 120. smifi^ 
he onely tooke with him Captaine Waldo, Master Andrew s°£ hw,th 

436 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. [ 

R. Wyfhn, J. Abbot. 
W. Thittiplace, A.Todkill. 


feared with 

A Virginia 

[>• "4-1 



Buckler, Edward Brintofi, and Samuel Collier: with these 
foure he went over land to Werowocomoco, some 12 myles; 
there he passed the river of Pamavnhce in a Salvage Canow. 

Powhatan being 30 myles of[f], was presently sent for : in 
the meane time, Pocahontas and her women entertained 
Captaine Smith in this manner. 

In a fayre plaine field they made a fire, before which, 
he sitting vpon a mat, suddainly amongst the woods was 
heard such a hydeous noise and shreeking, that the [five] 
English betooke themselues to their armes, and seized on 
two or three old men by them, supposing Powhatan with 
all his power was come to surprise them. But presently 
Pocahontas came, willing him to kill her if any hurt were 
intended ; and the beholders, which were men, women, and 
children, satisfied the Captaine there was no such matter. 

Then presently they were presented with this anticke ; 
thirtie young women came naked out of the woods, onely 
covered behind and before with a few greene leaues, their 
bodies all painted, some of one colour, some of another, but 
all differing, their leader [? Pocahontas] had a fayre payre of 
Bucks homes on her head, and an Otters skinne at her 
girdle, and another at her arme, a quiver of arrowes at her 
backe, a bow and arrowes in her hand ; the next had in her 
hand a sword, another a club, another a pot-sticke ; all 
horned alike : the rest every one with their severall devises. 

These fiends with most hellish shouts and cryes, rushing 
from among the trees, cast themselues in a ring about the 
fire, singing and dauncing with most excellent ill varietie, 
oft falling into their infernall passions, and solemnly againe 
to sing and daunce ; having spent neare an houre in this 
Mascarado, as they entred, in like manner they departed. 

Having reaccommodated themselues, they solemnly in- 
vited him to their lodgings, where he was no sooner within 
the house, but all these Nymphes more tormented him 
then ever, with crowding, pressing, and hanging about him, 
most tediously crying, Loue you not me ? loue you not me ? 

This saluaticn ended, the feast was set, consisting of all 
the Salvage dainties they could devise : some attending, 
others singing and dauncing about them ; which mirth 
being ended, with fire-brands in stead of Torches they 
conducted him to his lodging. 

Ed. by w. simmonds.-j j lB ^ ^ w ^j t fj u second supply in Virginia. 437 

Thus did they shew their feats of amies, and others art in [1608] 

dauncing : 
Some other vs'd there oaten pipe, and others voyces chanting. [68] 

The next day came Powhatan. Smith delivered his §SJ" e 
message of the presents sent him, and redelivered him message. 
Namontack he had sent for England ; desiring him to come 
to his Father Newport, to accept those presents, and 
conclude their revenge against the Monacans. 

Wherevnto this subtile Savage thus replied. 

If your King haue sent me Presents, I also am a King, and ^™J* tanl 
this is my land : eight dayes I will stay to receiue them. Your 
Father is to come to me, not I to him, nor yet to your Fort, 
neither will I bite at such a bait : as for the Monacans I can 
revenge my owne iniuries, and as for Atquanachuk, where you 
say your brother was slaine, it is a contrary way from those 
parts you suppose it; but for any salt water beyond the moun- 
taines, the Relations you haue had from my people are false. 

Wherevpon he began to draw plots vpon the ground 
(according to his discourse) of all those Regions. 

Many other discourses they had (yet both content to 
giue each other content in complementall Courtesies) and 
so Captaine Smith returned with this Answer. 

Vpon this, the Presents were sent by water which is £S£§£ 
neare an hundred myles, and the Captains went by land [/• «s.) 
with fiftie good shot. 

All being met at Werowocomoco, the next day was 
appointed for his Coronation, then the presents were 
brought him, his Bason and Ewer, Bed and furniture 
set vp, his scarlet Cloke and apparell with much adoe 
put on him, being perswaded by Namontack they would 
not hurt him : but a foule trouble there was to make 
him kneele to receiue his Crowne, he neither knowing 
the maiesty nor meaning of a Crowne, nor bending of 
the knee, endured so many perswasions, examples, and 
instructions, as tyred them all ; at last by leaning hard on 
his shoulders, he a little stooped, and three having the 
crowne in their hands put it on his head, when by the 
warning of a Pistoll the Boats were prepared with such a 
volley of shot, that the King start vp in a horrible feare, 
till he saw all was well. Then remembring himselfe, to 

438 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. [ w . n8*EWi£88: 

[1608] congratulate their kindnesse, he gaue his old shooes and 
his mantell to Captaine Newport. 

But perceiving his purpose was to discover the Monacans, 
helaboured to divert his resolution, refusing to lend him either 
men or guides more then Namontack; and so after some small 
complementall kindnesse on both sides, in requitall of his 
presents he presented Newport with a heape of wheat eares 
that might containe some 7 or 8 Bushels, and as much more 
we bought in theTowne: wherewith we returned to the Fort. 

Th e The Ship having disburdened her selfe of 70 persons, 

SmSS *" with the first Gentlewoman and woman-seruant that 
arrived in our Colony. Captaine Newport with 120 chosen 
men, led by Captaine Waldo, Lieutenant Percie, Captaine 
Winne, Master West, and Master Scrivener, set forward for 
the discovery of Monacan, leaving the President at the Fort 
with about 80. or 90. (such as they were) to relade the Ship. 
Arriving at the Falles,we marched by land somefortie myles 
in two dayes and a halfe; and so returned downe the same 
path we went. Two townes we discovered of the Monacans, 
called Massinacak and Mowhemenchonch ; the people neither 
vsed vs well nor ill, yet for our securitie we tooke one of 
their petty Kings, and led him bound to conduct vs the way. 
And in our returnes [we] searched many places we sup- 
posed Mines, about which we spent some time in refyning, 
having one William Colli cut, a refyner fitted for that pur- 
[/. i«6.] pose. From that crust of earth we digged, he perswaded 
vs to beleeue he extracted some small quantitie of silver; 
and (not vnlikely) better stuffe might be had for the digging. 
With this poore tryall, being contented to leaue this fayre, 
fertile, well watered Country ; and comming to the Falles, 
the Salvages fayned there were divers ships come into the 
How the Bay, to kill them at lames Towne. Trade they would 
ddudf? not, and finde their Corne we could not ; for they had hid 
mEJIS. it in the woods: and being thus deluded, we arrived at 
lames Towne, halfe sicke, all complaining, and tyred with 
toyle, famine, and discontent, to haue onely but discovered 
our guilded hopes, and such fruitlesse certainties, as 
Captaine Smith fortold vs. 

But those that hunger seeke to slake, 
Which thus abounding wealth would rake : 

Ed. by w. simmonds.-j l ib ^ w ^ fa second supply in Virginia. 439 

Not all the gemmes of Ister shore, [1608] 

Nor all the gold of Lydia's store, [69] 
Can fill their greedie appetite ; 
It is a thing so infinite. 

No sooner were we landed, but the President dispersed 
so many as were able, some for Glasse, others for Tarre, 
Pitch, and Sope-ashes, leauing them with the Fort to the 
Councels oversight. 

But 30 of vs he conducted downe the river some 5 
myles from lames towne, to learne to make Clapbord, 
cut downe trees, and lye in woods. Amongst the rest 
he had chosen Gabriel Beadle, and Iohn Russell, the onely 
two gallants of this last Supply, and both proper Gen- 
tlemen. Strange were these pleasures to their condi- 
tions ; yet lodging, eating, and drinking, working or 
playing, they but doing as the President did himselfe. 
All these things were carried so pleasantly as within a 
weeke they became Masters : making it their delight to 
heare the trees thunder as they fell ; but the Axes so oft 
blistered their tender fingers, that many times every third 
blow had a loud othe to drowne the eccho ; for remedie of 
which sinne, the President devised how to haue every Apunish- 
mans othes numbred, and at night for every othe to haue wearing. 
a Cann of water powred downe his sleeue, with which 
every offender was so washed (himselfe and all) that a 
man should scarce heare an othe in a weeke. 

For he who scornes and makes but tests of cursings, and his 

He doth contemne, not man but God ; nor God, nor man, but 


By this, let no man thinke that the President and these 
Gentlemen spent their times as common Wood haggers 
at felling of trees, or such other like labours ; or that they 
were pressed to it as hirelings, or common slaues ; for what 
they did, after they were but once a little invred, it seemed 
and some conceited it, onely as a pleasure and recreation : 
yet 30 or 40 of such voluntary Gentleman would doe more \j. 1*7.] 
in a day then 100 of the rest that must be prest to it by sM^Mea 
compulsion ; but twentie good workemen had beene better theJTioo. 
then them all. 

44-0 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 

n r R. Wyffin, J. Abbot. 

6' |_W. Phittiplace, A. TodkiU. 


The Chkka- 
forced to 

A bad 
reward for 

A good 
Taverne in 

Master Scrivener, Captaine Waldo, and Captaine Winne 
at the Fort, every one in like manner carefully regarded 
their charge. The President returning from amongst the 
woods, seeing the time consumed and no provision gotten, 
(and the Ship lay idle at a great charge and did nothing) 
presently imbarked himselfe in the discovery barge, giving 
order to the Councell to send Lieutenant Percie after him 
with the next barge that arrived at the Fort ; two Barges 
he had himselfe and 18 men, but arriving at Chickahamania, 
that dogged Nation was too well acquainted with our 
wants, refusing to trade, with as much scorne and inso- 
lency as they could expresse. The President perceiuing 
it was Powhatans policy to starue vs, told them he came 
not so much for their Come, as to revenge his imprison- 
ment, and the death of his men murthered by them ; and 
so landing his men and readie to charge them, they im- 
mediately fled : and presently after sent their Ambassadors 
with corne, fish, foule, and what they had to make their 
peace ; (their Corne being that yeare but bad) they com- 
plained extreamely of their owne wants, yet fraughted our 
Boats with an hundred Bushels of Corne, and in like 
manner Lieutenant Percies that not long after arrived, 
and having done the best they could to content vs, we 
parted good friends, and returned to lames towne. 

Though this much contented the Company (that 
feared nothing more then starving), yet some so envied 
his good successe, that they rather desired to hazzard a 
starving, then his paines should proue so much more 
effectuall then theirs. Some proiects there were invented 
by Newport and Rat[c]liffe, not onely to haue deposed him, 
but to haue kept him out of the Fort ; for that being 
President, he would leaue his place and the Fort without 
their consents : but their homes were so much too short to 
effect it, as they themselues more narrowly escaped a 
greater mischiefe. 

All this time our old Taverne made as much of all them 
that had either money or ware as could be desired : by 
this time they were become so perfect on all sides (I 
meane the souldiers, saylers, and Salvages) as there was 
tenne times more care to maintaine their damnable and 
private trade, then to provide for the Colony things [70] 

Ed.byw.stomonds.-j l ib ^ w ftfo fa secon d supply in Virginia. 441 

that were necessary. Neither was it a small policy in [1608] 
Newport and the Marriners to report in England we had such [/. 128.] 
plentie, and bring vs so many men without victuals, when ^bad trade 
they had so many private Factors in the Fort, that within masters and 
six or seauen weeks, of two or three hundred Axes, Chissels, saylers ' 
Hows, and Pick-axes, scarce twentie could be found : and 
for Pike-heads, shot, Powder, or any thing they could 
steale from their fellowes, was vendible; they knew as 
well (and as secretly) how to convey them to trade with 
the Salvages for Furres, Baskets, Mussaneeks, young 
Beasts, or such like Commodities, as exchange them with 
the Saylers for Butter, Cheese, Beefe, Porke, Aqua vitce, 
Beere, Bisket, Oatmeale, and Oyle : and then fayne all 
was sent them from their friends. And though Virginia 
affoorded no Furres for the Store, yet one Master in one 
voyage hath got so many by this indirect meanes, as he 
confessed to haue scld in England for 30/. 

Those are the S: int-seeming Worthies of Virgina (that 
haue notwithstanding all this, meate, drinke, and wages) ; 
but now they begin to grow weary, their trade being both 
perceived and prevented. 

None hath beene in Virginia, that hath observed anything, 
which knowes not this to be true : and yet the losse, the 
scorne, the misery, and shame, was the poore Officers, Gen- 
tlemen, and carelesse Governours, who were all thus bought 
and sold ; the adventurers cousened, and the action over- 
throwne by their false excuses, informations, and directions. 
By this let all men iudge, how this businesse could prosper, 
being thus abused by such pilfring occasions. And had not 
Captaine Newport cryed Peccavi, the President would haue 
discharged the ship, and caused him to haue stayed one 
yeare in Virginia,to learne to speake of his owne experience. 

Master Scrivener was sent with the Barges and Pinnace Master 
to Werowocomoco, where he found the Salvages more voyageta* 
readie to fight then trade : but his vigilancy was such as ZZ™°'* 
prevented their proiects, and by the meanes of Namontack, 
[he] got three or foure hogsheads of Corne ; and as much 
Pocones, which is a red roote, which then was esteemed an 
excellent Dye. 

Captaine Newport being dispatched, with the tryals of 
Pitch, Tarre, Glasse, Frankincense, Sope ashes ; with 

442 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. [J- t ! 


[1608] that Clapboord and Waynscot that could be provided 
\p. 129.] m et with Master Scrivener at poynt Comfort, and so re- 
turned for England, We remaining were about two 

1" The Copy of a Letter sent to the Treasurer and 

Councell of Virginia from Captaine Smith, then 

President in V 1 r g i n i a . 

Right Honorable, &c. 

Received your Letter, wherein you write, that our 
minds are so set vpon faction, and idle conceits in 
diuiding the Country without your consents, and 
that we feed You but with ifs and ands, hopes, and 
some few proof es ; as if we would keepe the mystery of the 
businesse to our selues : and that we must expresly follow 
your instructions sent by Captaine Newport : the charge of 
whose voyage amounts to neare two thousand pounds, the which 
\p. 928.] if we cannot defray by the Ships returne, we are like to remain 
as banished men. To these particulars I humbly intreat your 
Pardons if I offend you with my rude A nswer. 

For our factions, vnlesse you would haue me run away and 
leaue the Country, I cannot prevent them : because I do make 
many stay that would els fly any whether. For the idle Letter 
sent [?by Captain Newport's ship in April 1608, p. 389] to my 
Lord of Salisbury, by the President [Ratcliffe] and his confe- 
derals, for diuiding the Country &c. What it was I know not, 
for you saw no hand [71] of mine to it ; nor euer dream't I of 
any such matter. That we feed you with hopes, &c. Though 
I be no scholer, I am past a schoole-boy ; and I desire but to 
know, what either you, and these here, doe know but that I haue 
learned to tell you by the continuall hazard of my life. I haue 
not concealed from you any thing I know ; but I feare some 
cause you to beleeue much more then is true. 

Expresly to follow your directions by CaptaineNewport, though 
they be performed, I was directly against it ; but according to 
our Commission, I was content to be overruled by the maior 
part of the Councell, I feare to the hazard of vs all ; which now 
is generally confessed when it is too late. Onely Captaine 

Ed * by juiy TeSG ^ IB - 3- W7 '^ ^ e second supply in Virginia. 443 

Winne and Captaine Waldo / haue sworne of the Councell, [1608] 
and Crowned Powhatan according to your instructions. 

Forjhe charge of this Voyage of two or three thousand pounds, 
we haue not receiued the value of an hundred pounds. And for 
the quartred Boat to be borne by the Souldiers over the Falles, 
Newport had 120 of the best men he could chuse. If he had 
burnt her to ashes, one might haue carried her in a bag ; but as 
she is, flue hundred cannot, to a navigable place aboue the 
Falles. And for him at that time to find in the South Sea, a 
Mine of gold, or any of them sent by Sir Walter Raleigh : 
at our Consultation I told them was as likely as the rest. But 
during this great discovery of thirtie mylcs, {which might as 
well haue beene done by one man, and much more, for the value 
of a pound of Copper at a seasonable tyme) they had the 
Pinnace and all the Boats with them, but one that remained 
with me to seme the Fort. 

In their absence I followed the new begun workes of Pitch 
and Tarre, Glasse, Sope-ashes, and Clapboord ; whereof some 
small quantities we haue sent you. But if you rightly con- 
sider, what an infinite toyle it is in Russia and Swethland, 
where the woods are proper for naught els, and though there 
be the helpe both of man and beast in those ancient 
Common- wealths, which many an hundred yeares haue vsed it ; 
yet thousands of those poore people can scarce get necessaries 
to Hue, but from hand to mouth. And though your Factors 
there can buy as much in a week as will fraught you a 
ship, or as much as you please ; you must not expect from vs 
any such matter, which are but a many of ignorant miserable 
soules, that are scarce able to get wherewith to Hue, and defend 
our selues against the inconstant Salvages : finding but here 
and there a tree fit for the purpose, and want all things els the 
Russians haue. 

For the Coronation of Powhatan, by whose advice you sent 
him such presents, I know not ; but this giue me leaue to tell 
you, I feare they will be the confusion of vs all ere we heave 
from you againe. At your Ships arrivall, the Salvages 
harvest was newly gathered, and we going to buy it; our 
owne not being halfe sufficient for so great a number. As 
for the two ships loading of Come Newport promised to pro- 
vide vs from Powhatan, he brought vs but four eteene Bushels; 
and from the Monacans nothing, but the most of the men sicke 

444 TJie Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. [J' t ! 


[1608] and neare famished. From your Ship we had not provision in 
victuals worth twenty pound, and we are more then two hundred 
to Hue vpon this : the one halfe sicke, the other little better. 
For the Saylers (I confesse) they daily make good cheare, but 
our dyet is a little meale and water, and not sufficient of that. 
Though there be fish in the Sea, foules in the ayre, and Beasts 
in the woods, their bounds are so large t they so wilde, and we 
so weake and ignorant, we cannot much trouble them. Captaine 
Newport we much suspect to be the Authour of those inventions. 

Now that you should know, I haue made you as great a dis- 
covery as he, for lesse charge then he spendeth you every meale ; 
/ haue sent you this Mappe of the Bay and Rivers, with an 
annexed [72] Relation of the Countries and Nations that inhabit 
them, as you may see at large. Also two barrels of stones, and 
such as I take to be good Iron ore at the least ; so devided, as by 
their notes yon may see in what places I found them. 

The Souldiers say many of your officers maintaine their 
families out of that you send vs : and that Newport hath an 
hundred pounds a yeare for carrying newes. For every master 
you haue yet sent can find the way as well as he, so that an 
hundred pound might be spared, which is more then we haue all, 
that helps to pay him wages. 

Captaine Rat[c]liffe is now called Sicklemore, a poore 
counterfeited Imposture. I haue sent you him home, least the 
company should cut his throat. What he is, now every one can 
tell you : if he and Archer returne againe, they are sufficient 
to keepe vs alwayes in factions. 

When you send againe I intreat you rather send but thirty 
Carpenters, husbandmen, gar diners, fisher men, blacksmiths, 
masons, and diggers vp of trees, roots, well provided ; then a 
thousand of such as we haue : for except wee be able both to lodge 
them, and feed them, the most will consume with want of 
necessaries before they can be made good for any thing. 

Thus if you please to consider this account, and of the vn~ 
necessary wages to Captaine Newport, or his ships so long 
lingering and staying here {for notwithstanding his boasting to 
leaue vs victuals for 12 moneths; though we had 89 by this 
discovery lame and sicke, and but a pinte of Come a day for a 
man, we were constrained to giue him three hogsheads of that 
to viciuall him homeward) or yet to send into Germany or 
Poleland/or glasse-men and the rest, till we be able to sustains 

Eel. by W. Simmonds. - ] 

Lib. 3. with the second supply in Virginia. 445 

our seines, and relieue them when they come. It were better to 
giue fine hundred pound a tun for those grosse Commodities in 
Denmarke, then send for them hither, till more necessary things 
be provided. For in over-toyling our weake and vnskilfull 
bodies, to satisfie this desire of present profit, we can scarce ever 
recover our selues from one Supply to another. 

And I humbly intreat you hereafter, let vs know what we 
should receiue, and not stand to the Saylers courtesie to leaue 
vs what they please ; els you may charge vs with what you will, 
but we not you with any thing. 

These are the causes that haue kept vs in Virginia, from 
laying such a foundation, that ere this might haue given much 
better content and satisfaction ; but as yet you must not looke 
for any profitable retumes : so I humbly rest. 


The Names of those in this Supply, were these : t>- »«•] 
with their Proceedings and Accidents. 

Captaine Peter Winne, 
Captaine Richard Waldo, 

were appoynted to be of the 

Master Francis West, brother to the Lord La VVarre. 

Thomas Graues. N 

George Burton. 

Raleigh Chroshaw. 

Thomas Abbay. 

Gabriel Beadle. 

William Dowman. 


John Beadle. 

Thomas Maxes. 



Iohn Russell. 

Michael Lowick. 


William Russell. 

Master Hunt. 

Iohn Cuderington. 

Thomas Forrest. 

William Sambage. 


Iohn Dauxe. 

Henry Leigh. 

Henry Philpot. 

Thomas Phelps. 

Harmon Harrison. 

Iohn Prat. 

— r v? 

Daniel Tucker. 

Iohn Clarke. 


Henry Collings. 

Ieffrey Shortridge. 


03 t^ 

Hugh Wolleston. 

Dionis Oconor. 

Iohn Hoidt. 

Hugh Winne. 

g f 

Thomas Norton. 

Dauid ap Hugh. 


George Yarington. , 

Thomas Bradley. 


446 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lia 3. [w.^uripESViSdwiL 


John Burr as. 


Nicholas Hancock. 

Thomas Lavander. 



Henry Bell. 


Master Powell. 

- 0> 


David Ellis. 


M or ley. 

Thomas Gibson. j 


Thomas Dawse. 

\ £* 


Thomas Mallard. 



William Taylcr. 



Thomas Fox. 



Mistresse Forrest. 

and Anne Burras her mai 



[/>. 130.] 


Dutch men and Poles, with some others, to the number of 
seaventie persons, &c. 

Nandsa- These poore conclusions so affrighted vs all with famine, 

tTc^tHbu? 1 that the President provided for Nandsamund, and tooke 
with him Captaine Winne, and Master Scrivener, then 
returning from Captaine Newport. 

These people also long denied him not onely the 400 
Baskets of Come they promised [p. 432], but any trade at 
all ; (excusing themselues they had spent most they had ; 
and were commanded by Powhatan to keepe that they 
had, and not to let vs come into their river) till we were 
constrained to begin with them perforce. 

Vpon the discharging of our Muskets they all fled and 
shot not an Arrow ; the first house we came to we set on 
fire, which when they perceiued, they desired we would 
make no more spoyle, and they would giue vs halfe 
they had : how they collected it I know not, but before 
night they loaded our three Boats. 

And so we returned to our quarter some foure myles 
downe the River, which was onely the open woods vnder 
the lay of a hill, where all the ground was covered with 
snow, and hard frozen; the snow we digged away and made 
a great fire in the place; when the ground was well dryed, 
we turned away the fire ; and covering the place with a 
mat, there we lay very warme. To keepe vs from the 
winde we made a shade of another Mat ; as the winde 
turned we turned our shade : and when the ground grew 
cold we remoued the fire. And thus many a cold winter 
night haue wee laine in this miserable manner, yet those 

Ed.byw.simmonds : -| LlB ^ wM t/ie second supply in Virginia. 447 

that most commonly went vpon all those occasions, were [1608] 
alwayes in health, lusty, and fat. 

For sparing them this yeare,the next yeare they promised 
to plant purposely for vs ; and so we returned to lames towne. 

About this time there was a marriage betwixt John The first 
Lay don and Anne Burr as ; which was the first marriage ?S«£. m 
we had in Virginia. 

Long he stayed not, but fitting himselfe and Captaine 
Waldo with two Barges. From Chawopoweanock, and all 
parts thereabouts, all the people were fled, as being iealous 
of our intents ; till we discovered the river and people of #"^2* 
Apamatuck ; where we found not much : that they had we 
equally divided ; but gaue them copper and such things as 
contented them in consideration. 

Master Scrivener and Lieutenant Percie went also abroad, 
but could find nothing. 

The President seeing the procrastinating of time, was 
no course to Hue, resolved with Captaine Waldo (whom he 
knew to be sure in time of need) to surprise Powhatan, 
and all his provision, but the vnwillingnesse of Captaine 
Winne, and Master Scrivener (for some private respect, 
plotted in England to ruine Captaine Smith) [^.460], did their 
best to hinder their proiect. 

But the President whom no perswasions could perswade to 
starue, being invited by Powhatan to come vnto him : and if 
he would send him but men to build him a house, giue him a 
gryndstone, fiftie swords, some peeces, a cock and a hen, with 
much copper and beads, he would load his Ship with Corne. 

The President not ignorant of his devises and subtiltie,yet 
vnwilling to neglect any opportunitie, presently sent three 
Dutch-men and two English ; having so small allowance, 
[that] few were able to doe any thing to purpose : knowing 
there needed no better a Castle to effect this proiect, tooke 
order with Captaine Waldo to second him, if need required. 
Scrivener he left his substitute, and set forth with the Pin- 
nace, two Barges, and fortie six men, which onely were such 
as voluntarily offered themselues for his Iourney, the which \J 131-] 
by reason of Master Scriveners illsuccesse, was censured very 
desperate: they all knowingSm^/t would not returne emptie, 
if it were to be had ; howsoever, it caused many of those 
that he had appointed, to find excuses to stay behinde. [74] 

I4^> The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. [w.pwttiJSS 

A: Todkill. 


[/». 13a] 


Captaine Smiths loumey to Pamavnkee 

sjj^He twentie-nine of December [1608] he set forward 
for Werowocomoco : his Company were these ; 

In the Discovery Barge himself e. 

Robert Behethland. 
Nathanael Graucs. 
John Russell. 
Raleigh Chrashow. 
Michael Sicklemore. 
Richard W or ley. 

Anas Todkill. 
William Lone. 
William Bentley. 
Jeffrey Shortridgc. 
Edward Pising. 
William Ward. 



In the Pinnace. 

Lieutenant Percie, brother to the Earle of Northumberland. 
Master Francis West, brother to the Lord La Warre. 
William Phittiplace, Captaine of the Pinnace. 

Michael Phittiplace. 
Ieffrey Abbot, Ser- 

William Tankard. 
George Yarington. 
lames Browne. 
Edward Brinton. 
George Burton. 
Thomas Coe. 






Ionas Profit, Master. 

Robert Ford, Clarke of the 

Iohn Dods, Souldier. 
Henry Powell, Souldier. 

Thomas Gipson, David Ellis, Nathanael Peacock, Saylers ; 
Iohn Prat, George Acrig, lames Read, Nicholas Hancock, 
lames Watkins, Thomas Lambert, foure Dutch-men, and 
Richard Salvage were sent by land before, to build the house 
for Powhatan against our Arrivall. 

This company being victualled but for three or foure 
dayes, lodged the first night at Warraskoyack, where the 
President tooke sufficient provision. 

This kind King did his best to divert him from seeing 
Powhatan ; but perceiuing he could not prevaile, he advised 
in this manner. 

Ed. by w. s^monds.-j L IB ^ w i t j z fa secon( i su ppiy i n Virginia. 449 

Captaine Smith, you shall find Powhatan to vse you [1608-9] 
kindly : but trust him not, and be sure he haue no JJjJjJg^f 
oportunitie to seize on your Armes ; for he hath sent warras- 
for you onely to cut your throats. ioyack ' 

The Captaine thanking him for his good counsell : yet the 
better to try his loue, desired guides to Chawwonock ; for he 
would send a present to that King, to bind him his friend. 
To performe this iourney was sent Master Sicklemore, a very 
valiant, honest, and a painefull Souldier : with him two 
guides, and directions how to seeke for the lost company of 
Sir Walter Raleighs, and silke Grasse. 

Then we departed thence, the President assuring the 
King [of his] perpetuall loue ; and left with him Samuel 
Collier his Page to learne the Language. 

So this Kings deeds by sacred Oath adiurd. 
More wary proues, and circumspect by ods : 
Fearing at least his double forfeiture ; 
To offend his friends, and sin against his Gods. 

The next night [30 Dec. 1608], being lodged at Kecoughtan; rientie of 
six or seaven dayes the extreame winde, rayne, frost and victua s ' 
snow caused vs to keepe Christmas [31 Dec. 1608 — 6 Jan. 
1609] among the Salvages, where we were never more 
merry, nor fed on more plentie of good Oysters, Fish, 
Flesh, Wild-foule, and good bread; nor never had better 
fires in England, then in the dry smoaky houses of Kecoughtan. 

But departing thence, when we found no houses we were 
not curious in any weather to lye three or foure nights 
together vnder the trees by a fire, as formerly is sayd [p. 446] . 148 Fouie* 
An hundred fortie eight foules the President, Anthony \iiltt* 1 
Bagnall, and Serieant Pising did kill at three shoots. shootes. 

At Kiskiack the frost and contrary winds forced vs three 
or foure dayes also (to suppresse the insolency of those \J- 133O 
proud Salvages) to quarter in their houses, yet guard our 
Barge, and cause them [to] giue vs what we wanted ; 
though we were but twelue and himselfe, yet we never 
wanted shelter where we found any houses. 

The 12 of Ianuary [1609] we arrived at Werowocomoco, 
where the river was frozen neare halfe a myle from the shore; 
but to neglect [75] no time, the President with his Barge so 
far had approached by breaking the ice, as the ebbe left him 


450 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. [ 

R. Wyffin, J. Abbot. 
W. I'hittiplace, A. Todkill. 


discourse to 

[/• 134-1 

reply and 

amongst those oasie shoules, yet rather then to lye there 
frozen to death, by his owne example he taught them to 
march neere middle deepe, a flight shot through this 
muddy frozen oase. When the Barge floated, he ap- 
poynted two or three to returne her aboord the Pinnace. 
Where for want of water, in melting the ice, they made 
fresh water, for the river there was salt. But in this 
march Master Russell, (whom none could perswade to stay 
behinde) being somewhat ill, and exceeding heauie, so over- 
toyled himselfe as the rest had much adoe (ere he got 
ashore) to regaine life into his dead benummed spirits. 

Quartering in the next houses we found, we sent to Pow- 
hatan for provision ; who sent vs plentie of bread, Turkies, 
and Venison. 

The next day [13 Jan.] having feasted vs after his ordinary 
manner,he began to aske vs when we would be gone: fayning he 
sent not for vs, neither had he any come; and his people much 
lesse: yetforfortieswordshewouldprocurevsfortieBaskets. 

The President shewing him the men there present that 
brought him the message and conditions, asked Powhatan how 
the matter with a merry laughter, asking for our Commo- 
dities, but none he liked without gunnes and swords, valuing 
a Basket of Come more precious then a Basket of Copper ; 
saying he could rate [eat] his Come, but not the Copper. 

Captaine Smith seeing the intent of this subtill Salvage, 
began to deale with him after this manner. 

Powhatan, though I had many courses to haue made my pro- 
vision, yet beleeving your promises to supply my wants, I neglected 
all to satisfieyour desire : and to testifie my hue, I sent you my 
men for your building, neglecting mine owne. What your people 
had, you haue engrossed, forbidding them our trade : and now 
you thinke by consuming the time, we shall consume for want, 
not having to fulfill your strange demands. As for swords and 
gunnes, I told you long agoe I had none to spare ; and you 
must know those I haue can keepe me from want : yet steale or 
wrong you I will not, nor dissolue that friendship we haue 
mutually promised, except you constrainc me by our bad vsage. 

The King having attentively listned to this Discourse, 
promised that both he and his Country would spare him what 
he could, the which within two dayes they should receiue. Yet 

EuVbyw.simmonds.-| LlB ^ with the second supply inV\xgm\2i. 451 

Captaine Smith, sayth the King, some doubt I haue of your [1609] 
comming hither, that makes me not so kindly seeke to relieueyou 
as I would : for many doe informe me, your comming hither is 
not for trade, but to invade my people, and possesse my Country, 
who dare not come to bring you come, seeing you thus armed 
with your men. To free vs of this feare, leaue aboord your 
weapons, for here they are needlesse, we being all friends, and 
for ever Powhatans. 

With many such discourses, they spent the day; quarter- 
ing that night in the Kings houses. 

The next day [14 Jan.] he renewed his building, which hee 
little intended should proceede. For the Dutch-men finding 
his plentie, and knowing our want; and perceiving his 
preparations to surprise vs, little thinking we could escape 
both him and famine ; (to obtaine his favour) revealed to 
him so much as they knew of our estates and proiects, and 
how to prevent them. One of them being of so great a 
spirit, iudgement, and resolution; and a hireling that was 
certaine of his wages for his labour, and ever well vsed both 
he and his Countrymen; that the President knew not whom 
better to trust: and not knowing any fitter for that imploy- 
ment, he sent him as a spy to discover Powhatans intent, 
then little doubting his honestie, nor could ever be certaine 
of his villa[i]ny till neare halfe a yeare after [p. 467]. 

Whilst we expected the comming in of the Country, we [/• »3f.l 
wrangled out of the King ten quarters of Corne for a copper 
Kettell, the which the President perceiving him much to 
affect, valued it at a much greater rate ; but in regard of 
his scarcity he would accept it, provided we should haue 
as much more the next yeare, or els the Country of 
Monacan. Wherewith each seemed well contented, and 
Powhatan began to expostulate the difference of Peace 
and Warre after this manner. 

Captaine Smith, you may vnderstand that I having seene ^JJ^JJ 
the death of all my people thrice, and not any one lining of those peace and 
three generations but my selfe ; I know the difference of Peace 
and Warre better then any in my Country. But now I am 
old and ere long must die, my brethren [76J , namely Opitcha- 
pam, Opechancanough, and Kekataugh, my two sisters, and 
their two daughters, are distinctly each others successors. I wish 
their experience no lesse then mine, and your loue to them no 

452 Tfie Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. [ w . PhuriK^-r^ikS. 

[1609] lesse then mine to you. But this bruit from Nandsamund, that 
you are come to destroy my Country, so much affrighteth all my 
people as they dare not visit you. What will it availe you to 
take that by force you may quickly haue by hue, or to destroy 
them that provide you food. What can you get by warre, when 
we can hide our provisions and fly to the woods ? whereby you 
m ust famish by wronging vs your friends. A nd why are you thus 
iealous of our hues seeing vs vnarmed, and both doe, and are will- 
ing still to feede you, with that you cannot get but by our labours ? 
Thinke you I am so simple, not to know it is better to eate good 
meate, lye well, and sleepe quietly with my women and children, 
laugh and be merry with you, haue copper, hatchets, or what I 
want being your friend : then be forced to flie from all, to lie 
cold in the woods, feede vpon A comes, rootes, and such trash; 
and be so hunted by you, that I can neither rest, eate, nor sleepe ; 
but my tyred men must watch, and if a twig but breake, every 
one cryeth there commeth Captaine Smith : then must I fly I 
know not whether : and thus with miserable feare, end my 

\p. 136.] miserable life, leaning my pleasures to such youths as you, which 
through your rash vnaduisednesse may quickly as miserably end, 
for want of that, you never know where to finde. Let this 
therefore assure you of our loues, and every yeere our friendly trade 
shall furnish you with Come; and now also, if you would come in 
friendly manner to see vs, and not thus with your guns and 
swords as to invade your foes. 

wi ne ^° ^ ls subtill discourse, the President thus replyed. 

Reply. Seeing you will not rightly conceiue of our words, we striue 

to make you know our thoughts by our deeds; the vow I made 
you of my loue, both my selfe and my men haue kept. As for 
your promise I find it euery day violated by some of your sub- 
jects : yet we finding your loue and kindenesse, our custome is so 
far from being vngratefull, that for your sake onely, we haue 
curbed our thirsting desire of revenge ; els had they knowne as 
well the crueltie we vse to our enemies, as our true loue and 
courtesie to our friends. And I thinke your iudgement suffi- 
cient to conceiue, as well by the adventures we haue vndertaken, 
as by the advantage we haue (by our A rmes) of yours : that had 
we intended you any hurt, long ere this we could haue effected 
it. Your people comming to lames Towne are entertained with 
their Bowes and A rrowes without any exceptions ; we esteeming it 
with you as it is with vs, to weare our armes as our apparell. As 

Ed. by W. Simmonds."] 

Lib. 3. with the second supply z/z Virginia. 453 

for the danger of our enemies, in such war res consist our chief est 
pleasure : for your riches we haue no vse : as for the hiding your 
provision, or by your flying to the woods, we shall not so vnad- 
visedly starue as you conclude, your friendly care in that behalf e 
is needlesse, for we haue a rule to finde beyond your knowledge. 

Many other discourses they had, till at last they began to 
trade. But the King seeing his will would not be admitted 
as a law, our guard [not] dispersed, nor our men disarmed, 
he (sighing) breathed his minde once more in this manner. 

Captaine Smith, / neuer vse any Werowance so kindely as 
your selfe, yet from you I receiue the least kindnesse of any. 
Captaine Newport gaue me swords, copper, cloathes, a bed, 
towels, or what I desired ; euer taking what I offered him, and 
would send away his gunnes when I intreated him : none doth 
deny to lye [lay] at my feet, or refuse to doe, what I desire, but 
onely you ; of whom I can haue nothing but what you regard not, 
and yet you will haue whatso euer you demand. Captaine New- 
port you call father, and so you call me ; but I see for all vs 
both you will doe what you list, and we must both seeke to con- 
tent you. But if you intend so friendly as you say, send hence 
your amies, that I may beleeue you; for you see the loue I beare 
you, doth cause me thus nakedly to forget my selfe. 

Stnith seeing this Salvage but trifle the time to cut his 
throat, procured the Salvages to breake the ice, that his 
Boate might come to fetch his corne and him ; and gaue 
order for more men to come on shore, to surprise the King, 
with whom also he but trifled the time till his men were 
landed : and to keepe him from suspicion, entertained the 
time with this reply. 

Powhatan you must know, as I haue but one God, I honour 
but one King ; and I Hue not here as your subiect, but as your 
friend to pleasure you with what I can. By the gifts you 
bestow on me, you gaine more then by trade : yet woiddyou visit 
mee as I doe you, you should know it is not our custome, to sell our 
curtesies as a vendible commodity. Bring all your [77] countrey 
with you for your guard, I will not dislike it as being ouer 
iealous. But to content you, to morrow I will leaue my Amies, 
and trust to your promise. I call you father indeed, and as a 
father you shall see I will loue you : but the small care you- haue of 
such a childe caused my men to perswade me to looke to my selfe. 

By this time Powhatan hauing knowledge his men were 


[/• 137-1 

to haue vs 
vnarmed to 
betray vs. 

discourse to 
delay time, 
till he found 
to surprise 
the King. 

[The last 
time Smith 
sees Pow- 

454 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. [w.ii*«&^mE 

[1609] ready; whilest the ice was a breaking, with his luggage 

^t^ftu* women an ^ children, fled. Yet to auoyd suspicion, left 

murdered two or three of the women talking with the Captaine, 

*■**■ whilest hee secretly ran away, and that his men secretly 

beset the house. Which being presently discouered to 

[>-i38.] Captaine Smith, with his pistoll, sword, and target hee 

made such a passage among these naked Diuels ; that at 

his first shoot, they next him tumbled one ouer another, 

and the rest quickly fled some one way, some another : so 

that without any hurt, onely accompanied with Iohn Russell, 

hee obtained the corps du guard. 

When they perceiued him so well escaped, and with his 

eighteene men (for he had no more with him a shore), to 

the vttermost of their skill they sought excuses to dissemble 

the matter: andPowhatan to excuse his flight and the sudden 

a chaine of comming of this multitude, sent our Captaine a great brace- 

STok'toine * et anc * a cname of pearle,by an ancient Oratour that bespoke 

fora present, vs to this purpose ; perceiuing euen then from our Pinnace, 

a Barge and men departing and comming vnto vs. 

Captaine Smith, our Werowance is fled, fearing your gunnes, 

and knowing when the ice was broken there would come more 

men, sent these numbers but to guard his come from stealing, 

that might happen without your knowledge : now though some 

bee hurt by your misprision, yet Powhatan is your friend and 

so will for euer continue. Now since the ice is open, he would 

haue you send away your corne; and if you would haue his 

company, send away also your gunnes, which so affrighteth his 

people, that they dare not come to you as hee promised they should. 

Pretending Then hauing prouided baskets for our men to carry our 

men iMded come to the boats, they kindly offered their seruice to guard 

we^ed ts ' our Armes, that none should steale them. A great many 

t^mdoit they were of goodly well proportioned fellowes, as grim as 

Diuels ; yet [at] the very sight of cocking our matches, and 

being to let fly, a few wordes caused them to leaue their 

bowes and arrowes to our guard, and beare downe our 

corne on their backes ; wee needed not importune them to 

make dispatch. 

But our Barges being left on the oase by the ebbe, 
caused vs stay till the next high-water; so that wee 
returned againe to our old quarter. 

Powhatan and his Dutch-men brusting with desire to haue 

Ed. by w. simmonds."] LlB ^ w ^ fa seconc l supply in Virginia. 455 

the head of Captaine Smith ; for if they could but kill him, [1609] 
they thought all was theirs, neglected not any opportunity 
to effect his purpose. The Indians with all the merry sports 
they could deuise, spent the time till night : then they all 
returned to Powhatan, who all this time was making ready 
his forces to surprise the house and him at supper. 

Notwithstanding the eternall all-seeing God did preuent 
him, and by a strange meanes. For Pocahontas his dearest ^^ M 
iewell and daughter, in that darke night came through the hwfSE* 
irksome woods, and told our Captaine great cheare should urn «. to 
be sent vs by and by: but Powhatan and all the power he 
could make, would after come kill vs all, if they that brought 
it could not kill vs with our owne weapons when we were at 
supper. Therefore if we would Hue, shee wished vs pre- 
sently to bee gone. Such things as shee delighted in, he 
would haue giuen her : but with the teares running downe 
her cheekes, shee said shee durst not be seene to haue any : 
for if Powhatan should know it, she were but dead, and so 
shee ranne away by her selfe as she came. 

Within lesse than an houre came eight or ten lusty fellowes, 
with great platters of venison and other victuall, very impor- 
tunate to haue vs put out our matches (whose smoake made 
them sicke) and sit down to our victuall. But the Captaine 
made them taste euery dish, which done hee sent some of 
them backe to Powhatan, to bid him make haste for hee 
was prepared for his comming. As for them hee knew 
they came to betray him at his supper: but hee would 
prevent them and all their other intended villanies : so 
that they might be gone. Not long after came more mes- 
sengers, to see what newes ; not long after them, others. 

Thus wee spent the night as vigilantly as they, till it was 
high-water, yet seemed to the saluages [78] as friendly as 
they to vs : and that wee were so desirous to giue Powha- 
tan content, as hee requested, wee did leaue him Edward 
Brynton to kill him foule, and the Dutch-men to finish his 
house ; thinking at our returne from Pamavnkee the frost 
would be gone, and then we might finde a better oppor- 
tunity if necessity did occasion it, little dreaming yet of the 
Dutch-mens treachery, whose humorwell su[i]tedthisverse: 

7s any free, that may not Hue as freely as he list ? 

Let vs Hue so, then w'are as free, and bruitish as the best. 


456 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. [ w . PhutSVi^kut 

("390 CHAPTER IX. 

How wee escaped surprising at Pamavnkee. 

E had no sooner set sayle but Powhatan returned, 
and sent Adam and. Francis {two stout Dutch-men 
[pp. 467, 487]) to lames towne : who faining to 
Captaine Winnethat all things were well, and that 
Captaine Smith had vse of their armes, wherefore they 
requested new (the which were giuen them). They told him 
their comming was for some extraordinary tooles, and shift 
of apparell ; by which colourable excuse they obtained sixe or 
seauen more to their confederacie, such expert theeues, that 
presently furnished them with a great many swords, pike- 
heads, peeces, shot, powder and such like : Saluages they 
had at hand to carry it away; and the next day they returned 
vnsuspected, leauing their confederates to follow, and in the 
interim to convay them such things as they could : for which 
seruice they should Hue with Powhatan as his chiefe affected, 
free from those miseries that would happen [to] the Colony. 
The Dutch Samuel their other consort Powhatan kept for their pledge, 
the n saru n ages whose diligence had prouided them three hundred of their 
with Ames, ki n d e f hatchets ; the rest fifty swords, eight peeces, and 
eight pikes. 

Brynton and Richard Salvage seeing the Dutch-men so 
diligent to accommodate the Saluages with weapons, 
attempted to haue gotten to lames towne; but they were 
apprehended, and expected euer when to be put to death. 

Within two or three dayes, we arriued at Pamavnkee, the 
King as many dayes entertained vs with feasting and much 

And the day appointed to beginne our trade, the President, 
Lieutenant Percie, Master West, Master Russell, Master 
Behethland, Master Crashaw, Master Powell, Master Ford, 
and some others to the number of fifteene, went vp to 
Opechancanonghs house a quarter of a mile from the riuer ; 
where wee found nothing but a lame fellow and a boy : 
and all the houses round about of all things abandoned. 
lA»4o.j Not long wee stayed ere the King arriued, and after him 

came diuerse of his people loaden with bowes and arrowes : 
but such pinching commodities, and those esteemed at 

Ed.byw.s;mmonds.-| l ib ^ with the second supply z# Virginia. 457 

Speech to 

such a value, as our Captaine began with the King after [1609] 
this manner. 

Opechancanough, the great hue you prof esse with your tongue, 
seemes meere deceit by your actions. Last yeere you kindly 
fraughted our ship : but now you haue inuited mee to starue 
with hunger : you know my want, and I your plenty ; of which 
by some meanes I must haue part : remember it is fit for Kings 
to keepe their promise. Here are my commodities, whereof take 
your choice; the rest I will proportion fit bargains for your people. 

The King seemed kindly to accept his offer, and the better 
to colour his proiect, sold vs what they had to our owne con- 
tent ; promising the next day, more company, better prouided. 

The Barges and Pinnace being committed to the charge 
of Master Phetiplace ; the President [the next day] with his 
old fifteene marched vp to the Kings house : where wee found 
foure or hue men newly arriued, each with a great basket. 

Not long after came the King, who with a strained cheer- 7«>. Sai- 
fulnesse held vs with discourse what paines he had taken to Slf EngS. 
keep his promise ; till Master Russell brought vs in newes that \™ s but 
we were all betrayed : for at least seuen hundred Saluages well 
armed, had inuironed [79] the house, and beset the fields. 

The King coniecturing what Russell related, wee could well 
perceiue how the extremity of his feare bewrayed his intent : 
whereat some of our company seeming dismaied with the 
thought of such a multitude ; the Captaine encouraged vs 
to this effect. 

Worthy Countrey-men, were the mischiefes of my seeming f^(" to 
friends no more then the danger of these enemies, I little cared his 
were they as many more : if you dare doe, but as I. But this Company - 
is my torment, that if I escape them, our malicious Councell 
with their open mouthed Minions, will make me such a peace- 
breaker {in their opinions in England) as will breake my necke. 
I could wish those here, that make these seeme Saints, and me 
an oppressor. But this is the worst of all, wherein I pray you 
aid mee with your opinions. Should wee beginne with them 
and surprise the King, we cannot keepe him and defend well our 
selues. If wee should each kill our man, and so proceed with 
all in the house ; the rest will all fly : then shall wee get no more 
then the bodies that are slaine, and so starue for victuall. As 
for their fury it is the least danger ; for well you know, being 

[>. mi] 

458 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. [ w . phhtjac^xtdkut 


Smiths offer 
to Opechan- 

deuice to 

[/• X42.] 

taketh tht 

alone assaulted with two or three hundred of them, I made them by 
the helpe of God compound to saue my life. A nd wee are sixteene, 
and they but seauen hundred at the most; and assure your selues, 
God will so assist vs, that if you dare stand but to discharge your 
pieces, the very smoake will bee sufficient to affright them. Yet 
howsoeuer, let vs fight like men, and not die like sheepe : for 
by that meanes you know God hath oft deliuered mee, and so I 
trust will now. But first, I will deale with them, to bring it to 
passe wee may fight for something, and draw them to it by con- 
ditions. If you like this motion, promise me you will be valiant. 

The time not permitting any argument, all vowed to 
execute whatsoeuer hee attempted or die ; whereupon the 
Captaine in plaine tearmes told the King this. 

J see Opechancanough your plot to murder me, but I fear e it 
not. As yet your men and mine haue done no harme, but by 
our direction. Take therefore your Amies, you see mine, my 
body shall bee as naked as yours : the Isle in your riuer is a fit 
place, if you be contented : and the conquerour (of vs two) shall 
be Lord and Master ouer all our men. If you haue not enough, 
take time to fetch more, and bring what number you will ; so 
euery one bring a basket of come, against all which I will stake 
the value in copper : you see I haue but fifteene, and our game 
shall be, the Conquerour take all. 

The King being guarded with forty or fifty of his chiefe 
men, seemed kindly to appease Smiths suspicion of vnkind- 
nesse, by a great present at the doore, they intreated him 
to receiue. This was to draw him out of the doore, where 
the bait was guarded with at least two hundred men, and 
thirty lying vnder a great tree (that lay thwart as a barri- 
cado) each his arrow nocked ready to shoot. 

The President commanded one [evidently a soldier] to go see 
what kind of deceit this was, and to receiue the present; but 
hee refused to doe it; yet the Gentlemen and all the rest were 
importunate to goe, but he would not permit them, being 
vexed at that Coward : and commanded Lieutenant Percie, 
Master West, and the rest to make good the house ; Master 
Powell and Master Behethland he commanded to guard the 
doore; and in such a rage snatched the King by his long locke 
in the middest of his men, with his Pistoll readiebent against 
his brest. Thus he led the trembling King, neare dead with 
feare amongst all his people : who delivering the Captaine 

Ed. by w. simmonds.-| LlB ^ wit j t fa seC0 nd supply in Virginia. 459 

his Vambrace, Bow, and Arrowes, all his men were easily [1609] 
intreated to cast downe their Armes, little dreaming any 
durst in that manner haue vsed their King : who then to 
escape himselfe bestowed his presents in good sadnesse. 

And causing a great many of them come before him 
vnarmed, holding the King by the hayre (as is sayd), he 
spake to them to this effect. 

I see (you Pamavnkeesj the great desire you haue to kill me, Smiths 
and my long suffering your iniuries hath imboldened you to fo^Ta- 
this presumption. The cause I haue forborne your insolencies, n*™*"*- 
is the promise I made you (before the God I serue) to be your 
friend, till you giue me iust cause to be your enemy. If I keepe 
this vow, my God will keepe me, you cannot hurt me; if I breake 
it, he will destroy me. But if you shoot but one Arrow to shed 
one drop of bloud of any of my men, or steale the least of these 
Beads, or Copper, I spume here before you with my foot ; you 
shall see I will not cease revenge (if once I begin) so long as I can 
heare where to finde one of [80] your Nation that will not deny 
the name of Pamavnk. / am not now at Rassaweak halfe 
drowned with myre, where you tooke me prisoner ; yet then for 
keeping your promise and your good vsage and saving my life, 
I so affect you, that your denyals of your trechery doe halfe 
perswade me to mistake my selfe. But if I be the marke you 
ayme at, here I stand, shoot he that dare. You promised to 
fraught my Ship ere I departed, and so you shall ; or I meane to 
load her with your dead carcasses : yet if as friends you will !/■ x 43-i 
come and trade, I once more promise not to trouble you, except 
you giue me the first occasion ; and your King shall be free and 
be my friend, for I am not come to hurt him or any of you. 

Vpon this, away went their Bowes and Arrowes ; and men, ti» 
women, and children brought in their Commodities : two or dissemble 
three houres they so thronged about the President and so theirintcnt 
overwearied him, as he retyred himselfe to rest, leauing 
Master Behethland and Master Powellto receiuetheir presents. 

But some Salvages perceiuing him fast asleepe, and the 
guard somewhat carelesly dispersed, fortie or fiftie of their 
choise men each with a club or an English sword in his hand, 
began to enter the house with two or hundred others, that 
pressed to second them. The noyse and hast they made in, 
did so shake the house they awoke him from his sleepe ; and 
being halfe amazed with this suddaine sight, [he] betooke him 

460 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. [w.PhutiK^T^S: 

[1609] strait to his sword and Target; Master Crashaw and some 
others charged in like manner ; whereat they quickly 
thronged faster backe than before forward. The house thus 
cleansed, the King and some of his auncients we kept yet 

Their excuse w ith him, who with a long Oration, excused this intrusion. 

and recon- r i i • • 

diement. The rest of the day was spent with much kindnesse, the 

companie againe renewing their presents with their best 
provisions, and whatsoever he gaue them they seemed 
therewith well contented. 

Now in the meane while, since our departure, this hapned 
at our Fort. 
5 Master Master Scrivener having receiued Letters from England to 
scrivener make himselfe either Ccesar or nothing, he began to decline 
with°a skiff, in his affection to Captaine Smith [p. 447], that ever regarded 
him as himselfe ; and was willing to crosse the surprising of 
Powhatan. Some certaine daies after the Presidents depar- 
ture, he would needs goe visit the Isle of Hogs, and tooke 
with himCaptaineP7fl/rfo(though the President had appointed 
him to be ready to second his occasions) with Master A nthony 
Gosnoll and eight others ; but so violent was the wind (that 
extreame frozen time) that the Boat sunke, but where or how 
none doth know. The Skiff was much over-loaden, and would 
scarce haue liued in that extreame tempest had she beene 
empty: but by no perswasion he could be diverted, though 
both Waldo and an hundred others doubted as it hapned. 
fA M4-J The Salvages were the first that found their bodies, which 

so much the more encouraged them to effect their proiects. 
To advertise the President of this heavie newes, none 
could be found would vndertake it, but the Iorney was often 
refused of all in the Fort, vntill Master Richard Wyffin vnder- 
Master tooke alone the performance thereof. In this Iourney he 
d2j£e was incountred with many dangers and difficulties in all 
iourney. parts as he passed. As for that night he lodged with 
Powhatan, [at Werowocomoco, see pp. 456, 463] perceiuing 
such preparation for warre, not finding the President 
there: he did assure himselfe some mischiefe was intended. 
Pocahontas hid him for a time, and sent them who pursued 
him the cleane contrary way to seeke him ; but by her 
meanes and extraordinry bribes and much trouble in 
three dayes [? 19-22 Jan. 1609] travell, at length he found 

be trecher- 

Ed.byw.simmonds.-j LlB ^ with the second supply inWxgim-a.. 461 

vs in the middest of these turmoyles [apparently about 22 [1609] 
Jan. 1609, *•*•• ow ^ ^JV Smith had seized Opechancanough]. 
This vnhappy newes the President swore him to conceale 
from the company, and so dissembling his sorrow with the 
best countenances he could, when the night approched [he] 
went safely aboord with all his Souldiers; leauing Opechan- 
canough at libertie, according to his promise, the better to 
haue Powhatan in his returne. 

Now so extreamely Powhatan had threatned the death Powhatan 
of his men, if they did not by some meanes kill Captaine h^men'to 
Smith : that the next day, they appointed all the countrey 
should come to trade vnarmed : yet vnwilling to be 
trecherous, but that they were constrained, hating fighting 
with him almost as ill as hanging, such feare they had of 
bad successe. 

The next morning, the Sunne had not long appeared, but 
the fields appeared covered with people and Baskets, to 
tempt vs on shore : but nothing was to be had without his 
presence, nor they would not indure the sight of a gun. [81] 

When the President saw them begin to depart, being The third 
vnwilling to loose such a bootie, he so well contrived the bSrayU 
Pinnace and his Barges with Ambuscadoes, as onely with 
Lieutenant Percie, Master West, and Master Russell, with 
their Armes [he] went on shore ; others he appointed 
vnarmed toreceiuewhat was brought. The Salvages flocked 
before him in heapes, and the banke serving as a trench for 
a retreat, he drew them fayre open to his Ambuscado's. 

For he not being to be perswaded to goe [and] visit their 
King, the King knowing the most of them [to be] vnarmed, 
came to visit him with two or three hundred men, in the 
forme of two halfe Moones ; and with some twentie men, 
and many women loaden with painted Baskets. But when 
they approached somewhat neare vs, their women and [p-ns-i 
children fled. For when they had environed and beset the 
fields in this manner, they thought their purpose sure, 
yet so trembled with feare as they were scarse able to 
nock their Arrowes : Smith standing, with his three men 
ready bent, beholding them till they were within danger 
of our Ambuscado's ; who vpon the word discovered them- 
selues, and he retyred to the Barge. Which the Salvages 

462 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. [ w . ^SSSbS& 

[1609] no sooner perceived, then away they fled, esteeming their 
heeles for their best advantage. 

That night we sent Master Chrashaw, and Master Ford 

[evidently in a barge], to lames towne to Captaine Winne. In 

thewaybetweene Werowocomoco and the Fort, they met foure 

or hue of the Dutch-mens Confederates going to Powhatan : 

the which to excuse those Gentlemens suspition of their run- 

ningto the Salvages, returnedto the Fort andthere continued. 

The Salvages hearing our Barge goe downe the river in 

the night, were so terribly affrayde, that we sent for more 

men (we having so much threatned their ruine, and the 

Achayneof rasing of their houses, boats, and wires [weirs]), that the 

t P o e 3bfalne t next ^ av ^ e King sent our Captaine a chayne of Pearle, 

P eac«. to alter his purpose and stay his men : promising though 

they wanted themselues, to fraught our ship and bring it 

aboord to avoyd suspition : so that, hue or six dayes after, 

from all parts of the Country within ten or twelue myles, 

in the extreame frost and snow, they brought vs provision 

on their naked backes. 

The Yet notwithstanding this kindnesse and trade, had their 

poysoneS: art and poyson beene sufficient, the President, with Master 

punched?" West, and some others had beene poysoned ; it made them 

sicke, but expelled it selfe. 

Wecuttanow, a stout young fellow, knowing he was 
suspected for bringing this present of poyson, with fortie 
or fiftie of his chiefe companions (seeing the President but 
with a few men at Potavncak) so proudly braued it, as 
though he expected to incounter a revenge. Which the 
President perceiving, in the midst of his company, did 
not onely beate, but spurned him like a dogge, as scorning 
to doe him any worse mischiefe. Wherevpon all of them 
fled into the woods, thinking they had done a great matter 
to haue so well escaped : and the townsmen remaining 
[/. 146.] presently fraughted our Barge to be rid of our companies, 
framing many excuses to excuse Wecuttanow, (being sonne 
to their chiefe King, but [excepting] Powhatan) and told vs 
if we would shew tnem him that brought the poyson, they 
would deliver him to vs to punish as we pleased. 

Men may thinke it strange there should be such a stirrc 
for a little come, but had it beene gold with more ease wee 
might haue got it; and had it wanted, the whole Colony had 

Ed.byw.simmonds.j l ib 3 with the second supply in\\x<g\m&. 463 

starued. Wee may be thought very patient to endure all [1609] 
those iniuries, yet onely with fearing them wee got what 
they had. Whereas if we had taken revenge; then by their 
losse, we should haue lost our selues. 

We searched also the Countries of Youghtanund and The 
Mattapanient,wherQ the people imparted that little they had, wanS 
with such complaints and teares from the eyes of women P° vertie - 
and children, as he had beene too cruell to haue beene a 
Christian, that would not haue beene satisfied and moued 
with compassion. 

But had this hapned in October, November, and De- 
cember, when that vnhappie discovery of Monacan was 
made, we might haue fraughted a ship of fortie tuns, and 
twise as much might haue beene had from the Rivers of 
Rapahanock, Patawomek, and Pawtuxunt. 

The maine occasion of our thus temporizing with them 
was, to part friends as we did, to giue the lesse cause of 
suspition to Powhatan to fly {i.e., from Werowocomoco] ; by 
whom we now returned [82] with a purpose to haue 
surprised him and his provision. For effecting whereof 
(when we came against the Towne) the President sent 
Master Wyffin and Master Coe ashore to discover and make 
way for his intended proiect. 

But they found that those damned Dutch-men had caused ™eijw*- 
Powhatan to abandon his new house and Werowocomoco, Si hurt. 
and to carry away all his corne and provision : and the 
people they found so ill affected, that they were in great 
doubt how to escape with their Hues. 

So the President finding his intent frustrated, and that 
there was nothing now to be had, and therefore an vnfit 
time to revenge their abuses, sent Master Michael Phittiplace 
by Land to lames towne, whether we sayled with all the 
speed we could; wee having in this Iourney (for 25l[bs]. of 
Copper, and 5ol[bs]. of Iron and Beads) enough to keepe 
46 men six weekes [i.e., from 29 Dec. 1608 to about 8 Feb. 
1609], an d every man for his reward a moneths provision \p. 147] 
extraordinary (no Trade being allowed but for the store). 
We got neare 20ol[b] . waight of deere suet, and delivered 
to the Cape Merchant 479 Bushels of Corne. 

Those temporizing proceedings to some may seeme too 

464 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3- [w.phStiS n A J Todkui: 

[1609] charitable, to such a daily daring trecherous people : to 
others not pleasing, that we washed not the ground with 
their blouds, nor shewed such strange inventions in 
mangling, murdering, ransacking, and destroying (as did 
the Spanyards) the simple bodies of such ignorant soules ; 
nor delightfull, because not stuffed with Relations of 
heapes and mynes of gold and silver, nor such rare commo- 
dities, as the Portugals and Spanyards found in the East 
and West Indies. The want whereof hath begot vs (that 
were the first vndertakers) no lesse scorne and contempt, 
then the noble conquests and valiant adventures beautified 
with it, prayse and honour. Too much I confesse the 
world cannot attribute to their ever memorable merit : and 
to cleare vs from the blind worlds ignorant censure, these 
few words may suffice any reasonable vnderstanding. 

An Apology It was the Spanyards good hap to happen in those parts 

Planters" 1 where were infinite numbers of people, who had manured 
the ground with that providence, it affoorded victualls at 
all times. And time had brought them to that perfection, 
they had the vse of gold and silver, and the most of such 
commodities as those Countries affoorded : so that, what 
the Spanyard got was chiefely the spoyle and pillage of 
those Countrey people, and not the labours of their owne 
hands. But had those fruitfull Countries beene as salvage, 
as barbarous, as ill peopled, as little planted, laboured, 
and manured, as Virginia : their proper labours it is likely 
would haue produced as small profit as ours. 

But had Virginia beene peopled, planted, manured, and 
adorned with such store of precious Iewels,and rich commo- 
dities as was the Indies : then had we not gotten and done as 
much as by their examples might be expected from vs, the 

r/ 148.] world might then haue traduced vs and our merits, and 
haue made shame and infamy our recompence and reward. 
But we chanced in a Land even as God made it, where 
we found onely an idle, improvident, scattered people, 
ignorant of the knowledge of gold and silver, or any com- 
modities, and carelesse of any thing but from hand to 
mouth, except ba[u]bles of no worth ; nothing to incourage 
vs, but what accidentally we found Nature afforded. 
Which ere we could bring to recompence our paines, 
defray our charges, and satisfie our Adventurers ; we were 

Ed. by w. simmonds.j L IB ^ with the second supply in Virginia. 465 

to discover the Countrey, subdue the people, bring them [1609] 
to be tractable, civill, and industrious, and teach them 
trades, that the fruits of their labours might make vs 
some recompence ; or plant such Colonies of our owne, that 
must first make prouision how to Hue of themselues, ere 
they can bring to perfection the commodities of the 
Country: which doubtlesse will be as commodious for 
England as the west Indies for Spaine, if it be rightly 
mannaged: notwithstanding all our home-bred opinions, 
that will argue the contrary, as formerly some haue done 
against the Spanyards and Porhigalls. 

But to conclude, against all rumor of opinion, I onely 
say this, for those that the three first yeares began this 
Plantation ; notwithstanding all their factions, mutinies, 
and miseries, so gently corrected, and well prevented £ 
pervse the Spanish Decades; the Relations of Master Hack- 
luit, and tell me how many ever with such small meanes 
as a Barge of 22 [or rather two] tuns, sometimes with 
seauen, eight, or nine, or but at most, twelue or sixteene 
men, did ever discover so [83] many fayre and navigable 
Rivers, subiect so many severall Kings, people, and Nations, 
to obedience and contribution, with so little bloudshed. 

And if in the search of those Countries we had hapned 
where wealth had beene, we had as surely had it as 
obedience and contribution; but if we haue overskipped it, 
we will not enuie them that shall find it : yet can we not 
but lament, it was our fortunes to end when we had but 
onely learned how to begin, and found the right course 
how to proceed. 

By Richard Wyffin, William Pbittiplace, Ieffrey 

Abbot, and Anas Todkill. 

CHAPTER X. [/.i4s 

How the Salvages became subiect to the English. 

Hen the Ships departed, all the provision of the 

Store (but that the President had gotten) was 

so rotten with the last Summers rayne, and 

eaten with Rats and Wormes, as the Hogges 




466 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. T w.-SnES". 

L Hon. G. Percy* 

[1609] would scarcely eate it. Yet it was the Souldiers dyet till 
our returnes [about 8 Feb. 1609J, so that we found nothing 
done, but our victuals spent; and the most part of ourtooles, 
and a good part of our Armes conveyed to the Salvages. 

But now casting vp the Store, and finding sufficient till 
the next harvest, the feare of starving was abandoned, and 
the company divided into tens, fifteens, or as the busi- 
nesse required ; six houres each day was spent in worke, 
the rest in Pastime and merry exercises. 

But the vntowardnesse of the greatest number caused 
the President [to] advise as followeth. 

Countrymen, the long experience of our late miseries, I hope 

jtdvkatotha is sufficient to perswade every one to a present correction of 
ompany. /^ ;ww /^ an ^ thinke no t f na f either my pains, nor the A Ven- 
turers purses, will ever maintaine you in idlenesse and sloath. 
I speake not this to you all, for divers of you I know deserue 
both honour and reward, better then is yet here to be had : but 
the greater part must be more industrious, or starue, how euer 
you haue beene heretofore tollerated by the authoritie of the 
Councell, from that I hauc often commanded you. You see 

[/>-i49,i57, now that power resteth wholly in my selfe : you must obey this 

and 473 " ] now for a Law, that he that will not worke shall not eate 
{except by sichiesse he be disabled :) for the labours of thirtie 
or fortie honest and industrious men shall not be consumed to 
maintaine an hundred and fiftie idle loyterers. And though 
you presume the authoritie here is but a shadow, and that I 

(/. 150.] dare not touch the Hues of any but my owne must answer it : 
the Letters patents shall each weeke be read to you, whose 
Contents will tell you the contrary. I would wish you there- 
fore without contempt seeke to obserue these orders set downe, 
for there are now no more Counselors to protect you, nor curbe 
my endevours. Therefore he that ojfendeth, let him assuredly 
expect his due punishment. 

He made also a Table [notice board], as a publicke 
memoriall of every mans deserts, to incourage the good, 
and with shame to spurre on the rest to amendment. By 
this many became very industrious, yet more by punish- 
ment performed their businesse; for all were so tasked, that 
there was no excuse could prevaile to deceiue him. 

Yet the Dutch-mens consorts so closely convayed them 

Ed.byw.simmonds.-j LlB .3. with the second supply in Virginia. 467 

powder, shot, swords, and tooles, that though we could [1609] 

find the defect, we could not finde by whom, till it was too 


All this time [Feb -Mar. 1609] the Dutch men remaining The Dutch- 
with Powhatan (who kindly entertained them to instruct ^muSer 
the Salvages the vse of our Armes), and their consorts not §2£j ne 
following them as they expected ; to know the cause, they 
sent Francis their companion [p. 447, 456], a stout young 
fellow, disguised like a Salvage, to the Glasse-house, a place 
in the woods neare a myle from lames Towne ; where was 
their Randezvous for all their vnsuspected villany. 

Fortie men they procured to lie in Ambuscado for 
Captaine Smith, who no sooner heard of this Dutch-man, 
but he sent to apprehend him (but he was gone) : yet to 
crosse his returne to Powhatan, the Captaine presently 
dispatched 20. [84] shot after him; himselfe returning from 
the Glasse-house alone. 

By the way he incountred the King of Paspahegh, a most 
strong stout Salvage, whose perswasions not being able to 
perswade him to his Ambush, seeing him onely armed but 
with a faucheon, attempted to haue shot him, but the smith 
President prevented his shoot by grapling with him, and Kilf*of he 
the Salvage as well prevented him for drawing his p**tatugk 
faucheon, and perforce bore him into the River to haue pnsoner * 
drowned him. Long they strugled in the water, till the 
President got such hold on his throat, he had neare [>.i5t.l 
strangled the King; but having drawne his faucheon to cut 
off his head, seeing how pittifully he begged his life, he led 
him prisoner to lames Towne, and put him in chaynes. 

The Dutch-man ere long was also brought in, whose 
villa[i]ny though all this time it was suspected, yet he 
fayned such a formall excuse, that for want of language 
Captaine Winne vnderstood him not rightly, and for their 
dealings with Powhatan, that to saue their Hues they were 
constrained to accommodate [him with] his armes, of 
whom he extreamely complained to haue detained them 
perforce, and that he made this escape with the hazard 
of his life, and meant not to haue returned, but was onely 
walking in the woods to gather Walnuts. 

Yet for all this faire tale, there was so small appearance 
of truth, and [also] the plaine confession of Pasbahegh of 

468 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. [" w .i£nEl!. 

L Hon. G. Percy! 

(1609] his trechery, [that] he went by the heeles: Smith pur- 
posing to regaine the Dutch-men, by the saving his [i.e., 
Paspahegb's] life. 

The poore Salvage did his best by his daily messengers 
to Powhatan, but all returned that the Dutch-men would 
not returne, neither did Powhatan stay them ; and to 
bring them fiftie myles [from Orapaks] on his mens backes 
they were not able. Daily this Kings wiues, children, and 
people came to visit him with presents, which he liberally 
bestowed to make his peace. Much trust they had in the 
Presidents promise: but the King finding his guard negli- 
gent, though fettered yet escaped. Captaine Winne thinking 
to pursue him found such troupes of Salvages to hinder 
his passage, as they exchanged many vollies of shot for 
flights of Arrowes. 
SSa** Captaine Smith hearing of this, in returning to the Fort 

taketh two tooke two Salvages prisoners, called Kemps and Tussore, the 
pSerl two most exact villaines in all the Country. 

With these he sent Captaine Winne and fiftie choise 
men, and Lieutenant Percie, to haue regained the King, and 
revenged this iniury. 

And so [he] had done, if they had followed his directions, 
or beene advised with those two villaines, that would haue 
betrayed both King and kindred for a peece of Copper : but 
he trifling away the night, the Salvages the next morning 
by the rising of the Sunne, braved him to come ashore to 
\A 153.] fight. A good time both sides let fly at other, but we heard 
of no hurt ; onely they tooke two Canowes, burnt the Kings 
house, and so returned to lames towne. 

The President fearing those Bravado's would but in- 
courage the Salvages, began againe himselfe to try his 
conclusions; whereby six or seauen were slaine, [and] as 
many made prisoners. He burnt their houses, tooke their 
Boats, with all their fishing wires [weirs], and planted 
some of them at lames towne for his owne vse, and now 
resolved not to cease till he had revenged himselfe of all 
them [that] had iniured him. 

But in his iourney passing by Paspahegh towards Chicka- 
hamania, the Salvages did their best to draw him to their 
Ambuscadoes ; but seeing him regardlesly passe their 
Country, all shewed themselues in their bravest manner. 

Ed. by w. simmonds.-j l ib ^ w ^ ffa second supply in Virginia. 469 

To try their valours he could not but let fly ; and ere he [1609] 
could land, they no sconer knew him, but they threw downe Jhe^ ^ 
their armes and desired peace. Their Orator was a lustie des. y re ges 
young fellow called Okaning, whose worthy discourse Peace * 
deserveth to be remembred. And thus it was : 

Captaine Smith, my Master is here present in the company, {JJ**"* 
thinking it Captaine Winne, and not you, (of him he in- Oration. 
tended to haue beene revenged) having never offended him. If 
he hath offended you in escaping your imprisonment, the fishes 
swim, the foules fly, and the very beasts striue to escape the 
snare and Hue. Then blame not him being a man. He would 
intreat you remember, you being a prisoner, what paines he 
tooke to saue your life [pp. 16, 396]. If since he hath iniured 
you, he was compelled to it: but howsoeuer,you haue revenged it 
with our too great losse. We perceiue and well know you intend 
to destroy vs, that are here to intreat and desire your friendship; 
and to enioy our houses and plant our fields, of whose fruit you 
shall participate: otherwise you will haue the worse by our absence, 
for we can plant any where, [85] though with more labour, and 
we know you cannot Hue if you want our harvest, and that relief e 
we bring you. If you promise vs peace, we will beleeue you; if 
you proceed in revenge, we will abandon the Country. 

Vpon these tearmes the President promised them peace, IP- 153-1 
till they did vs iniury, vpon condition they should bring 
in provision. Thus all departed good friends, and so 
continued till Smith left the Countrey [4 Oct. 1609]. 

Arriving at lames Towne, complaint was made to the 
President, that the Chickahamanians, who all this while 
continued trade and seemed our friends, by colour thereof 
were the onely theeues. And amongst other things a 
Pistoll being stolne and the theefe fled, there was appre- 
hended two proper young fellowes, that were brothers, 
knowne to be his confederates. 

Now to regaine this Pistoll, the one was imprisoned, 
the other was sent to returne the Pistoll againe within 
twelue houres, or his brother to be hanged. Yet the 
President pittyingthe poore naked Salvage in the dungeon, 
sent himvictuall and some Char-coale for a fire. LoolS 

Ere midnight his brother returned with the Pistoll, but JJ/^'d 
the poore Salvage in the dungeon was so smoothered with revered. 

470 The Discoveries and Accident s y Lib. 3. [" w.T^nSrd! 

L Hon. G. Percy. 

[1609] the smoake he had made, and so pittiously burnt, that 
wee found him dead. The other most lamentably 
beway[l]ed his death, and broke forth into such bitter 
agonies, that the President to quiet him, told him that if 
hereafter they would not steale, he would make him aliue 
againe : but he little thought he could be recovered. 
Yet we doing our best with Aqua vita and Vineger, it 
pleased God to restore him againe to life ; but so drunke 
and affrighted, that he seemed Lunaticke : the which as 
much tormented and grieued the other, as before to see 
him dead. Of which maladie vpon promise of their good 
behaviour, the President promised to recover him : and 
so caused him to be layd by a fire to sleepe ; who in the 
morning having well slept, had recovered his perfect 
senses, and then being dressed of his burning, and each a 
peece of Copper giuen them, they went away so well 
contented, that this was spread among all the Salvages 
Tor a miracle, that Captaine Smith could make a man aliue 
that was dead. 

Another ingenuous Salvage of Powhatans, having gotten 
a great bag of Powder, and the backe of an Armour, at 
Werowocomoco amongst a many of his companions, to 
shew his extraordinary skill, he did dry it on the backe as 
he had seene the Souldiers at lames Towne. But he 
dryed it so long, they peeping over it to see his skill, it 
tooke fire, and blew him to death, and one or two more; 
and the rest [were] so scorched, they had little pleasure to 
meddle any more with powder. 

These and many other such pretty Accidents, so amazed 
and affrighted both Powhatan, and all his people, that 

[/. «54-i from all parts with presents they desired peace ; returning 
many stolne things which we never demanded nor thought 
of : and after that, those that were taken stealing, both 
Powhatan and his people haue sent them backe to lames 
towne, to receiue their punishment ; and all the Country 
became absoluteflvl as free for vs, as for themselues. 

Two or three 
slaine in 


Ed.byw.shnmonds.j l ib# ^ w jth the second supply zW Virginia. 471 


What was done in three moneths having Victualls, 

The Store devoured by Rats, how we lined 

three moneths of such naturall fruits 

as the Country affoorded. 

Ow we so quietly followed our businesse, that in [1609] 
three moneths [Feb. — April 1609] wee made 
three or foure Last of Tarre, Pitch, and Sope 
ashes ; produced a tryall of Glasse ; made a 
Well in the Fort of excellent sweet water, which till then 
was wanting ; built some twentie houses ; re-covered our 
Church : provided Nets and W[e]ires for fishing ; and to 
stop the disorders of our disorderly theeues, and the Salvages, 
built a Blockhouse in the neck of our Isle, kept by a Garrison 
to entertaine [86] the Saluages trade, and none to passe nor 
repasse Saluage nor Christian without the presidents order. 
Thirtie or forty Acres of ground we digged and planted. Of 
three sowes in eighteene moneths, increased 60 and od Piggs. 
And neere 500. chickings brought vp themselues without hau- 
ing any meat giuen them : but the Hogs were transported 
to Hog. Isle : where also we built ablock-house with a garison 
to giue vs notice of any shipping, and for their exercise 
they made Clapbord and waynscot, and cut downe trees. 

We built also a fort for a retreat neere a conuenient 
Riuer vpon a high commanding hill, very hard to be 
assalted and easie to be defended ; but ere it was finished 
this defect caused a stay. 

In searching our casked corne [April 1609], we found it fju-emiue 
halfe rotten, and the rest so consumed with so many by Rats, 
thousands of Rats that increased so fast, but the [i] re originall [/. 155-1 
was from the ships, as we knew not how to keepe that little 
we had. This did driue vs all to our wits end, for there was 
nothing in the country but what nature afforded. 

Vntill this time Kemps and Tassore were fettered prisoners, 
and did double taske and taught vs how to order and plant 
our fields: whom now for want of victuall we set at liberty, 
but so well they liked our companies they did not desire 
to goe from us. 

Bread made 
of dried 

472 The Discoveries and Accidents ; Lib. 3. [" w.i^nSS 

LHon.G. Percy. 

[1609] And to expresse their loues, for 16. dayes continuance, 

the Countrie people brought vs (when least) 100. a day, of 
Squirrils, Turkyes, Deere and other wilde beasts. 

But this want of corne occasioned the end of all our 
works, it being worke sufficient to provide victuall. 60. or 
80. with Ensigne Laxon was sent downe the riuer to Hue 
vpon Oysters, and 20. with liutenant Percy to try for 
fishing at Poynt Comfort : but in six weekes they would 
not agree once to cast out the net, he being sicke and burnt 
sore with Gunpouder. Master West with as many went vp 
to the falls, but nothing could be found but a few Acornes ; 
of that in store euery man had their equall proportion. 

Till this present, by the hazard and indeuours of some 
thirtie or fortie, this whole Colony had ever beene fed. 
We had more Sturgeon, then could be deuoured by Dog 
and Man, of which the industrious by drying and 
pounding, mingled with Caviare, Sorell and other whole- 
some hearbes would make bread and good meate : others 
would gather as much Tockwhogh roots in a day as would 
make them bread a weeke, so that of those wilde fruites, and 
what we caught, we liued very well in regard of such a diet. 

But such was the strange condition of some 150, that 
had they not beene forced nolens, volens, perforce to gather 
and prepare their victuall they would all haue starued or 
haue eaten one another. Of those wild fruits the Salvages 
often brought vs, and for that the President would not full- 
fill the vnreasonable desire of those distracted Gluttonous 
Loyterers, to sell not only our kettells, hows, tooles, and 
Iron, nay swords, pieces, and the very Ordnance and howses, 
might they haue prevayled to haue beene but Idle : for those 
Saluage fruites, they would haue had imparted all to the 
[/. 156.] Saluages, especially for one basket of Corne they heard of to 
be at Powhatans [his house at Orapaks], fifty myles from our 
Fort. Though he bought neere halfe of it to satisfie their 
humors ; yet to haue had the other halfe, they would haue 
sould their soules, though not sufficient to haue kept them 
a weeke. Thousands were the[i]re exclamations, sugges- 
tions and deuises, to force him to those base inventions to 
haue made it an occasion to abandon the Country. 

Want perforce constrained him to indure their exclaiming 
follies, till he found out the author, one Dyer [p. 168] a most 

desire to 

Ed. by w. simmonds.-j l ib# 3 wz ^ tfc second supply in Virginia. 473 

crafty fellow and his ancient Maligner, whom he worthily [1609] 
punished, and with the rest he argued the case in this maner. 

Fellow souldiers, I did little thinke any so false to report, or The 
so many to be so simple to be perswaded, that I either intend to order for 
starue you, or that Powhatan at this present hath come for the drones * 
himself e, much lesse for you ; or that I would not haue it, if I 
knew where it were to be had. Neither did I thinke any so 
malitious as now I see a great many; yet it shal not so 
passionate me, but I will doe my best for my most maligner. But 
dreame no longer of this vaine hope from Powhatan, not [nor] 
that I will longer forbeare to force you from your Idlenesses 
and punish you if you rayle. But if I finde any more runners 
for Newfoundland with the Pinnace, let him assuredly looke to 
ar[r]iue at the Gallows. You cannot deny but that by the hazard 
of my life many a time I haue saued yours, when {might your 
owne wills haue preuailed) you [87] would haue starued ; and 
will doe still whether I will or noe ; But I protest by that God 
that made me, since necessitie hath not power to force you to 
gather for your selues those fruites the earth doth yeeld,you 
shall not onely gather for your selues, but those that are sicke. 
As yet I neuer had more from the store then the worst of you : 
and all my English extraordinary prouision that I haue, you 
shall see me diuide it amongst the sick. 

And this Saluage trash you so scornfully repine at; being 
put in your mouthes your stomackes can disgest : if you would 
haue better, you should haue brought it ; and therefore I will 
take a course you shall prouide what is to be had. The sick 
shall not starue, but equally share of all our labours ; and he 
that gathereth not every day as much as I doe, the next day ^ lS7 .] 
shall be set beyond the riuer, and be banished from the Fort 
as a drone, till he amend his conditions or starue- 

But some would say with Seneca. 

I know those things thou sayst are true good Nurse, 
But fury forceth me to follow worse. 
My minde is hurried headlong vp and downe : 
Desiring better counsell, yet finds none. 
This order many murmured was very cruell, but it Butseuen 
caused the most part so well [to] bestirre themselues, that fnn^J 1 ^ 
of 200. (except they were drowned) there died not past seuen : jJ^JJ-Jj. 

As for Captaine Winne and Master Leigh they were dead i<toS' > 

474 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. T w .Tank£3". 

L Hon. G. Percy. 

[1609] ere this want hapned, and the rest dyed not for want of 
such as preserued the rest. 

Many were billetted amongst the Saluages, whereby we 
knew all their passages, fields and habitations, how to 
gather and vse the[i]re fruits as well as themselues; for 
they did know wee had such a commanding power at lames 
towne they durst not wrong vs of a pin. 
Th« So well those poore Salvages vsed vs that were thus 

returner billetted, that diuers of the Souldiers ran away to search 
fugume*. Kemps and Tassore our old prisoners. Glad were these 
Salvages to haue such an oportunity to testifie their loue 
vnto vs, for in stead of entertaining them, and such things 
as they had stollen, with all their great Offers, and 
promises they made them how to reuenge their iniuryes 
vpon Captaine Smith ; Kemps first made himselfe sport, in 
shewing his countrie men (by them) how he was vsed, 
feeding them with this law, who would not work must not 
eat, till they were neere starued indeede, continually 
threatning to beate them to death : neither could they get 
from him, till hee and his consorts brought them perforce 
to our Captaine, that so well contented him and punished 
them, as many others that intended also to follow them, 
were rather contented to labour at home, then aduenture 
to hue idlely amongst the Salvages ; (of whom there was 
more hope to make better Christians and good subiects, then 
the one halfe of those that counterfeited themselues both.) 
For so affraide was al those kings and the better sort 
of the people to displease vs, that some of the baser sort 
that we haue extreamly hurt and punished for the[ijre 
villanies would hire vs, [that] we should not tell it to their 
kings, or countrymen ; who would also repunish them, and 
yet returne them to lames towne to content the President, 
for a testimony of their loues. 

(A 158.) Master Sicklemore well returned from Chawwonoke ; but 

ffkuvto f° un d little hope and lesse certaintie of them [that] were 

kmeTto' left by Sir Walter Raleigh. The riuer, he saw was not 

"JtSr"* great, the people few, the countrey most[ly] over growne 

with pynes, where there did grow here and there straglingly 

Pemminaw, we call silke grasse. But by the riuer the 

ground was good, and exceeding furtill. 

Ed.byw.shnmonds.-j l ib#3# with the second supply inV'xxgxmz. 475 

Master Nathanael powell and Anas Todhill were also by [1609] 

the Quiyoughquohanocks conducted to the Mangoags to Master 

search them there: but nothing could they learne but Comejto 

they were all dead. SiLw. 

This honest proper good promise-keeping king, of all the 
rest did euer best affect vs, and though to his false Gods he 
was very zealous, yet he would confesse our God as much 
exceeded his as our Gunns did his Bow and Arrowes, often 
sending our President many presents, to pray to his God 
for raine or his corne would perish, for his Gods were angry. 

Three dayes iorney theyconducted [88] them through the 
woods, into a high country towards the Southwest : where 
they saw here and there a little corne field, by some little 
spring or smal brooke, but no riuer they could see : the 
people in all respects like the rest, except the [i] re language: 
they Hue most[ly] vpon rootes, fruites and wilde beasts; 
and trade with them towards the sea and the fatter 
countryes for dryed fish and corne, for [with] skins. 

All this time to recouer the Dutch-men and one Bentley t^ 
another fugitiue, we imployed one William Volday, a protects. 
Zwitzar by birth, with Pardons and promises to regaine 
them. Little we then suspected this double villaine of 
any villa[i]ny ; who plainly taught vs, in the most trust was 
the greatest treason ; for this wicked hypocrite, by the 
seeming hate he bore to the lewd conditions of his cursed 
country men, (hauing this oportunity by his imployment 
to regaine them) conuayed them euery thing they desired 
to effect their proiects, to distroy the Colony. 

With much deuotion they expected the Spaniard, to whom 
they intended good seruice, or any other that would but 
carry them from vs. But to begin with the first oportunity ; 
they seeing necessitie thus inforced vs to disperse our 
selues, importuned Powhatan to lend them but his forces, 
and they would not onely distroy our Hoggs, fire our 
towne, and betray our Pinnace ; but bring to his seruice 
and subiection the most of our company. With this plot 
they had acquainted many Discontents, and many were 
agreed to their Deuilish practise. But one Thomas Douse, 
and Thomas Mallard (whose christian hearts relented at 
such an vnchristian act) voluntarily reuealed it to Captaine 


476 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. r 

W. Tankard. 
Hon. G. Percy. 

[1609] Smith, who caused them to conceale it, perswading Douse 
and Mallard to proceed in their confed[e]racie: onely to 
bring the irrecla[i]mable Dutch men and the inconstant 
[A 159 1 Salvages in such a maner amongst such Ambuscado's as 
he had prepared, that not many of them should returne 
from ouv Peninsula [i.e., of James Town]. 

But this bru[i]te comming to the eares of the impatient 

multitude they so importuned the President to cut off 

those Dutch men, as amongst many that offred to cut 

Two their throats before the face of Powhatan, the first was 

wnttoThe Lieutenant Percy, and Master lohn Cuderington, two 

Germans. Gentlemen of as bold resolute spirits as could possibly be 

found. But the President had occasion of other imploiment 

for them, and gaue way to Master Wyffin and Sarieant 

[p. 508.] Ieffrey Abbot, to goe and stab them or shoot them. 

But the Dutch men made such excuses, accusing Volday 
whom they supposed had reuealed their proiect, as Abbot 
would not ; yet Wyffing would, perceiuing it but deceit. 

The King vnderstanding of this their imployment, sent 
presently his messengers to Captaine Smith to signifie 
it was not his fault to detaine them, nor hinder his men 
from executing his command : nor did he nor would he 
maintaine them or any, to occasion his displeasure. 
The first But whilst this businesse was in hand, Arriued [10 July 

SSamf 1609, see p. xcvi] one Captaine Argall, and Master Thomas 
Argaii. Sedan t sent by Master Cornelius to truck with the Colony, and 
fish for Sturgeon, with a ship well furnished with wine and 
much other good provision. Though it was not sent vs, our 
necessities was such as inforced vs to take it. He brought 
vs newes of a great supply and preparation for the Lord 
La Warre, with letters that much taxed our President for 
his hard dealing with the Salvages, and not returning the 
shippes fraughted. Notwithstanding we kept this ship 
till the fleete arriued [11-18 August 1609]. 

True it is Argall lost his voyage, but we reuictualled 
him, and sent him for England, with a true relation of the 
causes of our defailments, and how imposible it was to 
returne that wealth they expected, or obserue the[i]re 
instructions to indure the Salvages insolencies, or doe 
any thing to any purpose, except they would send vs men 
and meanes that could produce that they so much desired : 

Ed. by w. simmonds.-j l ib 3. w ith the second supply in Virginia. 477 

otherwises all they did was lost, and could not but come [1609] 
to confusion. 

The villany of Volday we still dissembled. Adam vpon 
his pardon came home, but Samuell still stayed with 
Powhatan to heare further of their estates by this supply. 
Now all their plots Smith so well vnderstood, they were 
his best advantages to secure vs from any trechery, [that] 
could be done by them or the Salvages : which with facility 
he could revenge when he would, because all those 
countreyes more feared him then Powhatan, and hee had 
such parties with all his bordering neighbours : and many 
of the rest for loue or feare would haue done any thing 
he would haue them, vpon any commotion, [89] though 
these fugitiues had done all they could to perswade 
Powhatan, [that] King lames would kill Smith, for vsing 
him and his people so vnkindly. 

By this you may see for all those crosses, trecheries, Note these 
and dissentions, how hee wrestled and overcame (without VSnce*. 
bloudshed) all that happened : also what good was done ; 
how few dyed ; what food the Countrey naturally affoord- 
eth ; what small cause there is men should starue, or be 
murthered by the Salvages, that haue discretion to mannage 
them with courage and industrie. 

The two first yeares, though by his adventures, he had 
oft brought the Salvages to a tractable trade ; yet you see 
how the envious authoritie ever crossed him, and frustrated 
his best endevours. But it wrought in him that experience 
and estimation amongst the Salvages, as otherwise it had 
bin impossible, he had ever effected that he did. 

Notwithstanding the many miserable, yet generous and 
worthy adventures, he had oft and long endured in the wide 
world ; yet in this case he was againe to learne his Lecture k>- i6o -i 
by experience. Which with thus much adoe having 
obtained, it was his ill chance to end, when he had but 
onely learned how to begin. 

And though he left those vnknowne difficulties (made 
easie and familiar) to his vnlawfull successors, (who onely by 
liuing in lames Towne, presumed to know more then all the 
world could direct them :) Now though they had all his 
Souldiers, with a tripple power, and twice tripple better 

478 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. T w .T*nErf. 

LHon. G. Percy. 

[1609] meanes ; by what they haue done in his absence, the world 
may see what they would haue done in his presence, had he 
not prevented their indiscretions : it doth iustly proue, what 
cause he had to send them for England [pp. 408, 411, 444]; 
and that he was neither factious, mutinous, nor dishonest. 
But they haue made it more plaine since his returne 
for England ; having his absolute authoritie freely in their 
power, with all the advantages and opportunitie that his 
labours had effected. As I am sorry their actions haue made 
it so manifest, so I am vnwilling to say what reason doth 
compell me, but onely to make apparant the truth, least I 
should seeme partiall, reasonlesse, and malicious. 


The Arrivall of the third Supply. 

O redresse those jarres and ill proceedings, the 
Treasurer, Councell, and Company of Virginia, 
not finding that returne and profit they ex- 
pected; and them ingaged there, not having 
meanes to subsist of themselues ; made meanes to his 
Maiestie, to call in their Commission, and take a new in 
their owne names, as in their owne publication, 1610. you 
may reade at large. 

Having thus annihilated the old by vertue of a Com- 
mission made to the right Honourable, Sir Thomas West, 
Lord de la Warre, to be Generall of Virginia ; Sir Thomas 
Gates, his Lieutenant ; Sir George Somers, Admirall ; Sir 
Thomas Dale, high Marshall ; Sir Fardinando Wain-man, 
Generall of the Horse ; and so all other offices to many 
other worthy Gentlemen, for their Hues : (though not any 
of them had ever beene in Virginia, except Captaine Newport, 
who was also by Patent made vice-Admirall :) those noble 
Gentlemen drew in such great summes of money, that they 
sent Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers, and Captaine 
Newport with nine shippes, and fiue hundred people : who 
[Gates, Somers, and Newport] had each of them a Commission, 
who first arrived to call in the old [Commission], without 
the knowledge or consent of them that had endured all 


byW ' S x6T-i624:] Lib. 3. with the third supply in Virginia. 479 

those former dangers to beat the path, not any regard [1609] 
[being] had at all of them. 

All things being ready, because those three Captaines 
oculd not agree for place, it was concluded they should goe 
all in one ship, so all their three Commissions were in that 
Ship with them, called the Sea-Venture. 

They set sayle from England in May 1609. 

AsmallCatchperishedatSeainaHericano: the Admirall 1609. 
[Hag-ship] with an hundred and fiftie men, with the two f^[^ omas 
Knights, and their new Commission, their Bils of Loading, Treasurer, 
with all manner of directions, and the most part of their 
provision, arrived not. 

With the other [90] seaven Ships as Captaines arrived Th« l<> s . se of 
Rat[c]liffe, whose right name (as is sayd [p. 444]) was lr£ima " 
Sicklemore, Martin, and Archer ,with Captaine Wood, Captaine 
Webbe, Captaine Moone, Captaine King, Captaine Davis, and 
divers Gentlemen of good meanes, and great parentage. 
But the first [i.e., Ratcliffe, Martin, and Archer] as they had 
beene troublesome at Sea, began againe to marre all ashore : 
for though (as is said) they were formerly sent for England 
[pp. 105, 107, 408, 411, 444], yet now returning againe, 
graced by the titles of Captaines of the passengers, seeing 
the Admirall wanting, and great probabilitie of her losse, 
strengthened themselues with those new companies, sc 
exclaiming against Captaine Smith, that they mortally 
hated him ere ever they saw him. 

Who vnderstanding by his Scouts [of] the arrivall of such 
a Fleet, little dreaming of any such supply, supposed them 
Spanyards. But he quickly so determined and ordered our 
affaires, as we little feared their Arrivall, nor the successe 
of our incounter ; nor were the Salvages any way negligent {/. 162.] 
for the most part, to ayd and assist vs with their best power. 

Had it so beene we had beene happy; for we would The 
not haue trusted them but as our foes, where [as] receiuing offir*?fighi 
them as our Countreymen and friends, they did what they ^fir™' 
could to murther our President, to surprise the Store, the 
Fort, and our lodgings, to vsurpe the government, and make 
vs all their servants and slaues, till they could consume 
vs and our remembrance ; and rather indeed to supplant 
vs then supply vs, as master William Box an honest r/.so*. 
Gentleman in this voyage thus relateth. 

480 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. V w .'*.k!S3: 

L Hon.' G. Fercy. 

[1609] In the tayle of a Hericano wee were separated from 

the Admirall, which although it was but the remainder 
of that Storme, there is seldome any such in England, 
or those Northerne parts of Europe. Some lost their 
Masts, some their Sayles blowne from their Yards ; 
the Seas so over-raking our Ships, much of our 
prouision was spoyled, our Fleet separated, and our 
men sicke, and many dyed : and in this miserable 
estate we arrived in Virginia. 

But in this Storme, 

When ratling Thunder ran along the Clouds ; 

Did not the Saylers poore, and Masters proud 

A terror feele as strucke with feare of God ? 

Did not their trembling ioynts then dread his rod ? 

Least for foide deeds and black mouth? d blasphemies , 

The ru[e]full time be come that vengeance cryes. 

Mutinies. To a thousand mischiefes those lewd Captaines [Ratcliffe 
&c] led this lewd company, wherein were many vnruly Gal- 
lants packed thither by their friends to escape ill destinies, 
and those would dispose and determine of the government, 
sometimes to one, the next day to another ; to day the old 
Commission must rule, to morrow the new, the next day 
neither; in fine they would rule all, or ruine all: yet in 
charitie we must endure them thus to destroy vs ; or by 
correcting their follies, haue brought the worlds censure 
vpon vs to be guiltie of their blouds. Happie had we 
beene had they never arrived, and we for ever abandoned, 
and as we were left to our fortunes : for on earth, for the 
number, was never more confusion, or misery, then their 
factions occasioned. 

The President seeing the desire those Braues had to 
rule ; seeing how his authoritie was so vnexpectedly 
changed, would willingly haue left all, and haue returned 
for England. But seeing there was small hope this new 
Commission would arriue, longer he would not suffer those 
factious spirits to proceede. 

It would be too tedious, too strange, and almost incredible ; 
should I particularly relate the infinite dangers, plots, and 
practices, he daily escaped amongst this factious crew ; the 
chiefe whereof he quickly layd by the heeles, till his leasure 

£d.byw.s^m,nonds.-] L IB> j with the third supply inV'vcgmia.. 481 

The plant- 
ing [of] 

better served to doe them iustice : and to take away all [1609] 
occasions of further mischiefe, Master Percie had his request 
granted to returne for England, being very sicke; and 
Master West with an hundred and twentie of the best he 
could chuse, he sent to the Falles ; Martin with neare as 
many to Nandsamund, with their due proportions of all 
provisions according to th[e]ir numbers. [91J 

Now the Presidents yeare being neare expired, he made 
Captaine Martin President, to follow the order for the elec- 
tion of a President every yeare : but he knowing his owne 
insufficiency, and the companies vntowardnesse and little 
regard of him within three houres after resigned, it againe \p. 163.] 
to Captaine Smith; and at Nandsamund thus proceeded. 

The people being contributes vsed him kindly; yet such The breach 
was his iealous feare, in the midst of their mirth, he did sur- JK 
prise this poore naked King, with his Monuments, houses, Salva e es - 
and the Isle he inhabited, and there fortified himselfe; 
but so apparantly distracted with feare, as imboldened the 
Salvages to assault him, kill his men, release their King, 
gather and carry away a thousand bushels of Corne, he not 
once offering to intercept them ; but sent to the President, 
then at the Falles, for thirtie good shot ; which from lames 
Towne immediately was sent him. But he so well 
imployed them they did iust nothing, but returned com- 
plaining of his tendernesse : yet he came away with them 
to lames Towne, leauing his company to their fortunes. 

Here I cannot omit the courage of George Forrest, that 
had seauenteene Arrowes sticking in him, and one shot 
through him, yet liued sixe or seauen dayes, as if he had 
small hurt ; then for want of Chirurgery dyed. 

Master West having seated his men by the Falles, pre- 
sently returned to reuisit lames Towne : the President 
followed him to see that company seated ; met him by the 
way, wondering at his so quicke returne ; and found his 
company planted so inconsiderately, in a place not onely 
subiect to the rivers invndation, but round invironed with 
many intollerable inconueniences. 

For remedie whereof he presently sent to Powhatan to jjjjj^'gj 
sell him the place called Powhatan, promising to defend him copper. °' 
against the Monacans. And these should be his Conditions 


482 The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. T w.t^w. 

L Hon. G. Percy. 

R. Pots, 

[1609] [He] (with his people) to resigne him the Fort and 

houses, andall that Countrey for a proportion of Copper; 

that all stealing offenders should be sent him, there to re- 

ceiue their punishment; that every house as aCustome 

should pay him aBushell of Corne for an inch square of 

Copper, and a proportion of Pocones, as a yearely tribute 

to King lames for their protection, as a dutie; what else 

they could spare to barter at their best discretions. 

Mutinies. But both this excellent place and those good Conditions 

did those furies refuse ; contemning both him, his kinde 

care and authoritie. So much they depended on the Lord 

Generals new Commission, as they regarded none : the 

worst they could doe to shew their spights they did; 

supposing all the Monacans Country, gold; and none 

should come there but whom they pleased. I doe more 

then wonder to thinke how onely with hue men, he either 

durst or would adventure as he did, (knowing how greedie 

[p. 164.] they were of his bloud) to land amongst them, and commit 

to imprisonment all the Chieftaines of those mutinies, till 

SeSelS" by tnen * multitudes being an hundred and twentie they 

hundred and forced him to retyre : yet in that interim he surprised one 

of their Boates, wherewith he returned to their ship, where 

in deed was their prouision ; which also he tooke, and well it 

chanced he found the Marriners so tractable and constant, 

or there had beene small possibilitie he had ever escaped. 

There were divers other of better reason and experience, 

that from their first landing, hearing the generall good 

report of his old Souldiers, and seeing with their eyes his 

actions so well mannaged with discretion, as Captaine 

Wood, Captaine Webbe, Captaine Moone, Captaine Fitz 

lames. Master William Powell, Master Partridge, Master 

White, and divers others, when they perceiued the malice 

of Rat[c\liffe and Archer, and their faction, left their 

companies, and ever rested his faithfull friends. 

Breach of But the worst was that the poore Salvages, that daily 

ihe C saWages brought in their contribution to the President, that 

attheFalle *- disorderly company so tormented those poore soules, by 

stealing their corne, robbing their gardens, beating them, 

breaking their houses and keeping some prisoners ; that 

they daily complained to Captaine Smith, he had brought 

Ed. by w. simmonds.-j l ib# 3. with the third supply in Virginia. 483 

them for Protectors, worse enemies then the Monacans [1609] 
themselues : which though till then, for his loue they had 
endured, they desired pardon if hereafter they defended 
themselues ; since he would not correct them, as they 
had long expected he would. So [92] much they impor- 
tuned him to punish their misdemeanors, as they offered 
(if he would leade them) to fight for him against them. 

But having spent nine dayes [Aug -Sept. 1609] in seeking 
to reclaime them ; shewing them how much they did abuse 
themselues with these great guilded hopes of the South 
Sea Mines, commodities, or victories, they so madly 
conceived; then seeing nothing would prevaile, he set 
sayle for lames Towne. 

Thus oft we see from small greene wounds, and from a little 

A greater sore and sicknesse growes, then will admit relief e : 
For thus themselues they did beguile, and with the rest play'd 


Now no sooner was the Ship vnder sayle, but the £ n the alt 
Salvages assaulted those hundred and twentie in their Fort, Salvages 
finding some stragling abroad in the woods: they slew many, 
and so affrighted the rest, as their prisoners escaped, and ^- l6 s ] 
they safely retyred, with the swords and cloakes of those 
they had slaine. 

But ere wee had sayled halfe a league, our ship grounding, 
gaue vs once more libertie to summon them to a parley ; 
where we found them all so strangely amazed with this 
poore silly assault of twelue Saluages, that they submitted 
themselues vpon any tearmes to the Presidents mercy; who 
presently put by the heeles sixe or seauen of the chiefe 

The rest he seated gallantly at Powhatan, in that Salvage 
Fort, readie built, and prettily fortified with poles and 
barkes of trees, sufficient to haue defended them from all 
the Salvages in Virginia, dry houses for lodgings, and neere 
two hundred acres of ground ready to be planted, and no 
place we knew so strong, so pleasant and delightfull in ?^ e f ant- 
Virginia for which we called it Non-such. Non-such. 

The Salvages also hee presently appeased, redeliuering |^ ^ 
to either party their former losses. appeased. 

4 8 4 

The Discoveries and Accidents, Lib. 3. T w .i5;£SS! 

Lllon. G. Percy. 

Thus all were friends. New officers appointed to 
command, and the President againe ready to depart. 

At that instant arriued Captaine West, whose gentle 
nature, by the perswasions and compassion of those 
mutinous prisoners (alledging they had onely done this 
for his honor) was so much abused, that to regaine their 
old hopes, new turboyles did arise. For they a-shore 
being possessed of all the[i]re victuall, munition, and euery 
thing, grew to that height in their former factions, as the 
President left them to their fortunes : they returned againe 
to the open ayre at Wests Fort, abandoning Non-such, and 
he to lames towne with his best expedition. 

Captaine But this hapned him in that Iourney. Sleeping in his 

bbwne vp Boate, (for the ship was returned two daies before) acci- 

withpowder - dentallie, one fired his powder-bag, which tore the flesh 

from his body and thighes, nine or ten inches square in a 

most pittifull manner ; but to quench the tormenting fire, 

frying him in his cloaths he leaped over-board into the 

deepe river, where ere they could recouer him he was neere 

drowned. In this estate without either Chirurgian, or 

Chirurgery he was to goe [by water] neere an hundred myles. 

Arriving at lames towne, causing all things to be prepared 

for peace or warres [and] to obtaine provision. 

Whilest those things were Tpvovi<\mg,Rat[c]liffe y A rcJier, and 
the rest of their Confederates, being to come to their trials ; 
their guiltie consciences fearing a iust reward for their 
deserts, seeing the President vnable to stand, and neere bereft 
of his senses by reason of his torment, they had plotted to 
haue murdered" him in his bed. But his heart did faile 
him that should haue giuen fire to that mercilesse Pistoll. 

So not finding that course to be the best, they ioyned 
together to vsurpe the government, thereby to escape their 

The President had notice of their proiects, the which to 
withstand, though his old souldiers importuned him but per- 
mit them to take their heads that would resist his command, 
Ih y ?S ve * ne would not suffer them ; but sent for the Masters of the 
couSre ships, and tooke order with them for his returne for England. 
and his ey Seeing there was neither Chirurgian, nor Chirurgery in 

Commit ^ p ort tQ cure j 1 £ s i lur ^ an d the ship to depart the next 

[A 166.] 

A bloudy 

Ed. by w. s«nmonds.j l ib 3. with the third supply in Virginia. 485 

day [about 13 Sept 1609, seep. 486], his Commission to be [1609] 
suppressed he knew not why, himselfe and souldiers to be 
rewarded he knew not how, and a [93] new commission 
granted they knew not to whom (the which disabled that 
authority he had, as made them presume so oft to those 
mutinies as they did :) besides so grievous were his wounds, 
and so cruell his torments (few expecting he could Hue) nor 
was hee able to follow his busines to regaine what they had 
lost, suppresse those factions', and range the countries for 
provision as he intended ; and well he knew in those affaires 
his owne actions andpresence was as requisit as his directions, 
which now could not be: he went presently abroad, resoluing 
there to appoint them governours, and to take order for the 
mutine[e]rs ; but he could finde none hee thought fit for it, 
would accept it. In the meane time, seeing him gone, they 
perswaded Master Percy to stay, who was then to goe for 
England, and be their President. 

Within lesse then an houre was this mutation begun 
and concluded. 

For when the Company vnderstood Smith would leaue 
them, and saw the rest in Armes called Presidents and 
Councellors, divers began to fawne on those new commanders, 
that now bent all their wits to get him [to] resigne them his 
Commission : who after much adoe and many bitterrepulses ; [p. 167.] 
that their confusion (which he tould them was at their 
elbowes) should not be attributed to him, for leauing the 
Colony without a Commission, he was not vnwilling they 
should steale it, but never would he giue it to such as they. 
And thus, Strange violent forces drew vs on vnwilling : 
Reason perswading 'gainst our loues rebelling. 
We saw and knew the better, ah curse accurst ! 
That notwithstanding we imbrace the worst. 

But had that vnhappie blast not hapned, he would 
quickly haue qualified the heate of those humors and 
factions, had the ships but once left them and vs to our 
fortunes ; and haue made that provision from among the 
Salvages, as we neitherfeared Spanyard, Salvage, nor famine; 
nor would haue left Virginia, nor our lawfull authoritie, 
but at as deare a price as we had bought it, and payd for it. 

What shall I say, but thus we left [lost] him, that in 

486 The Discoveiies and Accidents, Lib. 3. [" w !*„£?£ 

LHon. G. Percy. 

L1609] all his proceedings, made Iustice his first guide, and ex- 
perience his second, even hating basenesse, sloath, pride, 
and indignitie, more then any dangers ; that neuer allowed 
more for himselfe, then his souldiers with him; that vpon 
no danger would send them where he would not lead them 
himselfe ; that would never see vs want, what he either had, 
or could by any meanes get vs ; that would rather want 
then borrow, or starue then not pay; that loued action 
more then words, and hated falshood and covetousnesse 
worse then death ; whose adventures were our Hues, and 
whose losse our deaths. 

Leaving vs thus with three ships, seaven boats, com- 
modities readie to trade, the harvest newly gathered, ten 
weeks provision in the store, foure hundred nintie and od 
persons, twentie-foure Peeces of Ordnance, three hundred 
Muskets Snaphances and Firelockes ; Shot Powder and 
Match sufficient; Curats Pikes Swords and Morrio[n]s,more 
then men; the Salvages, their language, and habitations well 
knowne to an hundred well trayned and expert Souldiers ; 
Nets for fishing; Tooles of all sorts to worke ; apparell to 
supply our wants ; six Mares and a Horse ; fiue or sixe hun- 
dred Swine ; as many Hennes and Chickens ; some Goats ; 
some sheepe. What was brought or bred there, remained. 

But they, regarding nothing but from hand to mouth, did 
consume that wee had, tooke care for nothing but to perfect 
some colourable complaints against Captaine Smith. For 
effecting whereof three weekes longer [i.e., from about 13 
y. 168.] Sept, to 4 Oct. 1609, seep.xcxiii] they stayed the Ships, till they 
could produce them. That time and charge might much 
better haue beene spent, but it su[i]ted well with the rest 
of their discretions. 

Besides lames towne that was strongly Pallizadoed, 
containing some fiftie or sixtie houses, he left fiue or sixe 
other severall Forts and Plantations : though they were 
not so sumptuous as our successors expected, they were 
better then they provided any for vs. All this time we 
had but one Carpenter in the Countrey, and three others 
[94] that could doe little, but desired to be learners ; two 
Blacksmiths ; two saylers ; and those we write labourers 
were for most part footmen, and such as they that were 
Adventurers brought to attend them, or such as they 

Ed. by w. s«jmonds.-j l ib ^ w ^h ffa third supply in Virginia. 487 

could perswade to goe with them, that neuer did know [1609] 
what a dayes worke was: except the Dutch-men and Poles, 
and some dozen other. For all the rest were poore Gentle- 
men, Trad[e]smen, Serving-men, libertines, and such like, 
ten times more fit to spoyle a Common-wealth, then either 
begin one, or but helpe to maintaine one. For when neither 
the feare of God, nor the law, nor shame, nor displeasure of 
their friends could rule them here [in England], there is small 
hope ever to bring one in twentie of them ever to be good there 
[in Virginia] . Notwithstanding, I confesse divers amongst 
them, had better mindes and grew much more industrious 
then was expected : yet ten good workemen would haue r/A 6^.930.] 
done more substantiall worke in a day, then ten of them in 
a weeke. Therefore men may rather wonder how we 
could doe so much, then vse vs so badly because we did 
no more, but leaue those examples to make others beware; 
and the fruits of all, we know not for whom. 

But to see the justice of God vpon these Dutch-men ; J\ e h * nds 
Valdo before spoke of, made a shift to get for England, DutcA-mm. 
where perswading the Merchants what rich Mines he had 
found, and great service he would doe them, was very well 
rewarded, and returned with the Lord LaWarre[June 1610]: 
but being found a meere Impostor, he dyed most miserably. 

Adam and Francis his two consorts were fled againe [in 
the winter 1609-10] to Powhatan, to whom they promised at 
the arrivall of my Lord [June 1610], what wonders they 
would doe, would he suffer them but to goe to him. But 
the King seeing they would be gone, replyed ; You that 
would haue betrayed Captaine Smith to mee, will certainely 
betray me to this great Lord for your peace : so caused his 
men to beat out their braines. 

To conclude, the greatest honour that ever belonged to 
the greatest Monarkes, was the inlarging their Dominions, 
and erecting Common-weales. Yet howsoever any of them 
haue attributed to themselues, the Conquerors of the 
world : there is more of the world never heard of them, 
then ever any of them all had in subiection : for the Medes, 
Persians, and Assyrians, never Conquered all Asia; nor the 
Grecians but part of Europe and Asia. The Romans indeed 
had a great part of both, as well as Affrica : but as for all 

488 The Discoveries and Accidents. Ltb. 3. [" W . T ^S5! 

LHon. G. Percy. 

[1609] the Northerne parts of Europe and i4s/a, the interior 
Southern and Westerne parts of Affrica, all America and 
T^rra incognita, they were all ignorant : nor is our know- 
ledge yet but superficiall. That their beginnings, ending, 
and limitations were proportioned by the Almightie is most 
evident : but to consider of what small meanes many of 
them haue begun is wonderfull. For some write that even 
Rome her selfe, during the Raigne of Romulus, exceeded 
not the number of a thousand houses. And Carthage grew 
so great a Potentate, that at first was but incirculed in the 
thongs of a Bulls skinne, as to fight with Rome for the 
Empire of the world. Yea Venice at this time the admira- 
tion of the earth, was at first but a Marish, inhabited by 
poore Fishermen. And likewise Ninivie, Thebes, Babylon, 
Debts, Troy, Athens, Mycena and Sparta, grew from small 
beginnings to be most famous States, though now they 
retaine little more then a naked name. Now this our yong 
Common-wealth in Virginia, as you haue read once con- 
sisted but of 38 persons [p. 402], and in two yeares increased 
but to 200. yet by this small meanes so highly was approved 
the Plantation in Virginia, as how many Lords, with worthy 
Knights, and braue Gentlemen pretended [intended] to see it, 
and some did ; and now after the expence of fifteene yeares 
more [1609-1624], and such massie summes of men and 
money, grow they disanimated ? If we truely consider our 
Proceedings with the Spanyards, and the rest, we haue no 
reason to despayre, for with so small charge, they never 
had either greater Discoveries, with such certaine tryals of 
more severall Commodities, then in this short time hath 
beene returned from Virginia, and by much lesse meanes. 

i/>. 240-142, New England was brought out of obscuritie, and affoorded 

as6-»59-] fraught for neare 200 sayle of ships, where there is now 
erected a braue Plantation [the settlement of the Pilgrim 

1/. 749] Fathers at New Plymouth], For the happines of Summer 
Isles, they are no lesse then either, and yet those haue had 
a far lesse, and a more difficult beginning, then either 
Rome, Carthage, or Venice, 

Written by Richard Pots, Clarke of the Councell, 
William Tankard, and G. P. [95] 

The Generall Historie of Virginia, New England, S° the Summer Isles. 
The two intercalated pages, 95 and 96. 

A reprint of 
Co mp lim entary Ve rses. 


[It will be convenient here to deal with the bibliographical myth, 
that Sig. O, being pages 97 to 104, was suppressed in all copies. 

Smith, in his Prospectus of 1623, p. cxxvi, estimated the matter of 
the General History ; as " composed in [i.e., written to fill] less than 
eighty sheets," which, at four pages to the folio, or eight pages to the 
signature, equals 320 pp. The actual printed text occupies 12 un 
numbered, and 240 pages, wrongly numbered after p. 96 ; or 252 
printed//, in all : that is, nearly a fourth less than the original estimate. 

The explanation of this is very simple, and is due to the acuteness 
of H. Stevens, Esq., F.S.A. 

The manuscript had passed the licenser by the 12 July 1624 (as the 
entry at Stationers' Hall,/. 274, proves) ; and it being desired to print 
it with all possible speed, it was given out to two out of the twenty to 
twenty-five printing houses then existing in London : the " copy " being 
roughly divided between them. This is confirmed by the variation of 
the initial letters, and of the style of the headings, on and after/. 105 
of the original edition, from those before that page. 

If the matter fell short for the latter part of the book, that would 
make no difference ; but if it fell short in the earlier part, there would 
be a hiatus : and a hiatus there was, of 10 folio pages. Two of these, 
the Author filled up with this reprint of Complimentary Verses from 
the Description of New England, presumably, by then, out of print, 
beginning with the words on the opposite page. 

" Now seeing there is thus much Paper here to spare, that you 
should not be altogether cloyed with Prose ; such Verses as my 
worthy Friends bestowed upon New England, I here present you., 
because with honestie I can neither reiect, nor omit their courtesies." 

The remaining two sheets or eight pages, which should have made 
Sig. O, he left simply a gap, without any explanation at all. 

That the General History was pushed through the press with all 
possible speed, is hard to prove now : but it seems to be confirmed 
by the above ; and it is manifest from the Preface of foure Poynts at 
p. 278, that the History was written to sustain the public interest in 
the Colonizing movement, after the disgraceful collapse of the London 
Virginia Company and while its legal dissolution was in progress. 

" The which losse [ofl/ie Massacre on 22 March 1622] to repaire the 
company did what they could, till they had consumed all their stocke 
[capital] as is said ; then they broke [became bankrupt], not making 
any account, nor giving satisfaction to the Lords, Planters, Adventurers, 
nor any ; whose noble intents had referred the managing of this 
intricate businesse to a few that lost not by it. So that his Maiesty 
recalled their Commission [June 1624]." />. 931. 

In the original edition of 1624, the Fourth Book has, by an error of 
the second printer, not got Lib. 4 in the headline. We have inserted 
it in the present edition, for the sake of uniformity.] 

Now seeing there is thus much Paper here to spare, that 
you should not be altogether cloyed with Prose ; such 
Verses as my worthy Friends bestowed vpon New- 
England, i" here present you, because with honestie 
I can neither reiect, nor omit their courtesies. 

In the deserued Honour of the Author, & au] 
Captaine Iohn Smith, and his Worke. 

Amn'd Envie is a sp'rite, that ever haunts [1616] 

Beasts, mis-nam'd Men ; Cowards, or Ignorants. 
But, onely such shee followes, whose deare WORTH 
(Maugre her malice) sets their glory forth. 
If this faire Overture, then, take not ; It 
Is Envie's spight {deare friend) in men of wit ; 
Or Feare, lest morsels, which our mouths possesse, 
Might fall from thence; or else, tis Sottishnesse. 
If either ; (I hope neither) thee they raise ; 
Thy * Letters are as Letters in thy praise ; * Hindered 

Who, by their vice, improue (when they reprooue) 
Thy vertue ; so, in hate, procure thee Loue. 

Then, On firme Worth : this Monument I frame ; 
Scorning for any Smith to forge such fame. 

Iohn Davies, Heref; 

492 [Reprint of Complimentary Ferses. J, N d sm5! 


b».,8x,! To his worthy Captaine the Author. 

[1C16] ^^J^^Ha^ which wee call the subiect of all Storie, 

Is Truth : which in this Worke of thine giues glorie 
To all that thou hast done. Then, scorne the spight 
Of Envie ; which doth no mans Merits right. 
My sword may helpe the rest : my Pen no more 
Can doe, but this ; Fane said enough before. 

Your sometime Souldier, /. Codrinton, now 
Tempi er. 

fAi8 2 .i To my Worthy Friend and Cosen, 

Captaine lohn Smith. 

T over-ioyes my heart, when as thy Words 
Of these designes, with deeds I doe compare. 
Here is a Booke, such worthy truth affords, 
None should the due desert thereof impare : 
Sith thou, the man, deserving of these Ages, 
Much paine hast ta'en for this our Kingdomes good, 
In Climes vnknowne, *Mongst Turks and Salvages, 
T'inlarge our bounds ; though with thy losse of blood. 
Hence damn'd Detraction : stand not in our way, 
Envie, it selfe, will not the Truth gainesay. 

N. Smith. 

R. Crashaw, M. Phettiplace. 

W. Phettiplace, R. Wiffing. 


Reprint of Complimentary Verses.~] 493 

In the deserved Honour of my honest 

and worthy Captaine, lohn Smith, and 

his Worke. 

Aptaine and friend ; when I pervse thy Booke 
(With Iudgements eyes) into my heart / looke: 
And there I finde (what sometimes Albion knew) 
A Souldier, to his Countries-honour, true. 
Some fight for wealth ; and some for emptie praise ; 
But thou alone thy Countries Fame to raise. [96] 
With due discretion, and vnda[u]nted heart, 
/ (oft) so well haue seene thee act thy Part 
In deepest plunge of hard extreamitie, 
As fore H the troups of proudest foes to flie. 
Though men of greater Ranke and lesse desert 
Would Pish away thy Praise, it can not start 
From the true Owner : for, all good mens tongues 
Shall keepe the same. To them that Part belongs. 
If, then, Wit, Courage, and Successe should get 
Thee Fame ; the Muse for that is in thy debt : 
A part whereof (least able though I be) 
Thus here I doe disburse, to honor Thee. 

Raleigh Crashaw. 

IA 184.] 


Michael Phettiplace, Wil: Phettiplace, \t.*%\ 
and Richard Wiffing, Gentlemen, and Souldiers 
vnder Captaine Smiths command : In his deserved 
honour for his Worke, and Worth. 

Hy may not wee in this Worke haue our Mite, 
That had our share in each black day and night, 
When thou Virginia foild'st, yet kepfst vnstaind ; 
And held'st the King of Paspeheh enchaind. 

494 [Reprint of Complimentary Verses. w.phet^ce. 


[1616] Thou all alone this Salvage sterne didst take, 

Pamavnkees King wee saw thee captiue make 
A mong seauen hundred of his stoutest men, 
To murther thee and vs resolved ; when 
Fast by the hayre thou ledst this Salvage grim t 
Thy Pistoll at his breast to governe him : 
Which did infuse such awe in all the rest 
(Sith their drad Soveraigne thou had'st so distrest) 
That thou and wee (poore sixteene) safe retired 
Vnto our helplesse Ships. Thou (thus admir'd) 
Didst make proud Powhatan, his subiects send 
To lames his Towne, thy censure to attend: 
And all Virginia's Lords, and pettie Kings, 
Aw y d by thy vertuc, crouch, and Presents brings 
To gaine thy grace ; so dreaded thou hast beenc : 
And yet a heart more milde is seldome seene; 
So, making Valour Vertue, really ; 
Who hast nought in thee counterfeit, or site ; 
If in the sleight be not the truest Art, 
That makes men famoused for f aire desert. 

Who saith of thee, this sauors of vaine-glorie t 
Mistakes both thee and vs, and this true Storic. 
If it be ill in Thee, so well to doe ; 
Then, is ill in Vs, to praise thee too. 
But, if the first be well done ; it is well, 
To say it doth (if so it doth) excell. 
Praise is the guerdon of each deare desert 
Making the praised act the praised part 
With more alacritie ; Honours Spurre is Praise ; 
Without which, it (regardlesse) soone decaies. 

And for this paines of thine wee praise thee rather, 
That future Times may know who was the father 
Of that rare Worke (New England) which may bring, 
Praise to thy God, and profit to thy King. [105 

The Generall Historic of Virginia, New England, &* the Summer Isles. 

The Fourth Book. 


The History of Virginia, 

This History of Virginia from the departure of Captain Smith 
from James town, on 4 October 1609, to the dissolution of the London 
Virginia Company, in June 1624 ; is in nothing like the detail of the 
previous part of this Volume. It should be supplemented by a study 
of the Works specified on/, cxxxiii. 

The Fovrth Booke. 




for 1609. we must follow the examinations of 
Doctor Simons, and two learned Orations 
published by the Companie ; with the rela- 
tion of the Right Honourable the 
Lord De la Ware. 

What happened in the first gouernment after the 

alteration, in the time of Captaine George 

Piercie their Gouernour. 

HEday before fcOct. 1609] Captaine Stow*/* [1609] 
returned [4 Oct. 1609, see pp. 167, 170] 
for England with the ships, Captaine [A «t»J 
Dauis arriued in a small Pinace, with 
some sixteene proper men more : To 
these were added a company from 
lames towne, vnder the command of 
Captaine Iohn Sickelmore alias Rat [cjliffe, 
to inhabit Point Comfort. Captaine Martin and Captaine 
West, hauing lost their boats and neere halfe their men 
among the Saluages, were returned to lames towne; for the 1609 
Saluages no sooner vnderstood Smith was gone, but they 
11 reuolted, and did spoile and murther all they incountered. 


The plant 
ing Point 

49$ The gouernment resigned to Lib. 4. [ Rev - W >5S3£ 

[1609] Now wee were all constrained to Hue onely on that Smith 

had onely for his owne Companie, for the rest had consumed 
their proportions. And now they had twentie Presidents 
with all their appurtenances: Master Piercie, our new Pre- 
sident, was so sicke hee could neither goe nor stand. But 
ere all was consumed, Captaine West and Captaine Sickel- 
more, each with a small ship and thirtie or fortie men well 
appointed, sought abroad to trade. Sickelmore vpon the 
confidence of Powhatan, with about thirtie others as 
carelesse as himselfe ; were all slaine ; onely Jeffrey Short- 

(/ o8i 45 ' ™dge escaped; and Pokahontas the Kings daughter saued a 
boy called Henry Spilman [pp. 172, 503, 528, 586, 606J, 
that liued many yeeres after, by her meanes, amongst the 

Powhatan still, as he found meanes, cut off their Boats, 
denied them trade : so that Captaine West set saile for 

Now we all found the losse of Captaine Smith, yea his 
greatest maligners could now curse his losse: as for corne 
prouision and contribution from the Saluages, we had 
nothing but mortall wounds, with clubs and arrowes ; as 
for our Hogs, Hens, Goats, Sheepe, Horse, or what liued, 
our commanders, officers and Saluages daily consumed 
them, some small proportions sometimes we tasted, till 
all was deuoured; then swords, armes, pieces, or any 
thing, wee traded with the Saluages, whose cruell fingers 
were so oft imbrewed in our blouds, that what by their 
crueltie, our Gouernours indiscretion, and the losse of our 
ships, of fiue hundred within six moneths after Captaine 
Smiths departure [Oct. 1609 — Mar. 1610], there remained 
not past sixtie men, women and children, most miserable 
and poore creatures ; and those were preserued for the 
most part, by roots, herbes, acornes, walnuts, berries, now 
and then a little fish : they that had startch in these 
extremities, made no small vse of it ; yea, euen the very 
skinnes of our horses. 

Nay, so great was our famine, that a Saluage we slew 
and buried, the poorer sort tooke him vp againe and eat 
him ; and so did diuers [106] one another boyled and 
stewed with roots and herbs : And one amongst the rest 

Ed,by juiy S "6t'] LlB - 4- Sir Thomas Gates, 1610. 499 

did kill his wife, powdered [salted] her, and had eaten part [1609-10] 
of her before it was knowne ; for which hee was executed, 
as hee well deserued: now whether shee was better roasted, 
boyled or carbonado'd, I know not ; but of such a dish as 
powdered wife I neuer heard of. 

This was that time, which still to this day [1624] we [The 
called the staruing time ; it were too vile to say, and T ime!] ng 
scarce to be beleeued, what we endured : but the occasion 
was our owne, for want of prouidence industrie and gouern- 
ment, and not the barrennesse and defect of the Countrie, 
as is generally supposed ; for till then in three yeeres, for 
the numbers were landed vs, we had neuer from England 
prouision sufficient for six moneths, though it seemed by 
the bils of loading sufficient was sent vs, such a glutton 
is the Sea, and such good fellowes the Mariners ; we as 
little tasted of the great proportion sent vs, as they of our 
want and miseries, yet notwithstanding they euer ouer- 
swayed and ruled the businesse, though we endured all 
that is said, and chiefly liued on what this good Countrie 
naturally afforded. Yet had wee beene euen in Paradice 
it selfe with these Gouernours, it would not haue beene 
much better withe vs ; yet there was amongst vs, who had 
they had the gouernment as Captaine Smith appointed, 
but that they could not maintaine it, would surely haue 
kept vs from those extremities of miseries. This in ten 
daies more, would haue supplanted vs all with death. 

But God that would not this Countrie should be [*if*l 
vnplanted, sent Sir Thomas Gates, and Sir George Sommers J f h | i " riua11 
with one hundred and fiftie people most happily preserued Thomas 
by the Bermudas to preserue vs [21 May 1610] : strange it 
is to say how miraculously they were preserued in a 
leaking ship, as at large you may reade in the insuing 
Historie of those Hands [p. 635]. 



The government deuolued to Lib. 4. [ 

W. Box. 
T- !_? June i6ix. 




T/ie gouernment resigned to Sir Thomas 
Gates, 1 6 10. 

Hen these two Noble Knights did see our 
miseries, being but strangers in that Countrie, 
and could vnderstand no more of the cause, 
but by coniecture of our clamours and com- 
plaints, of accusing and excusing one another : They 
embarked vs with themselues, with the best meanes they 
could, and abandoning lames towne [7 June 1610], set saile 
for England : whereby you may see the euent of the gouern- 
ment of the former Commanders [Ratcliffe, Martin, and 
Archer] left to themselues; although they had liued there 
many yeeres, as formerly hath beene spoken (who hindred 
now their proceedings, Captaine Smith being gone). 

At noone they fell to the He of Hogs, and the next 
morning [8 June] to Mulbery point, at what time they descried 
the Long-boat of the Lord la Ware ; for God would not haue 
it so abandoned. For this honourable Lord, then Gouer- 
nour of the Countrie, met them with three ships exceedingly 
well furnished with all necessaries fitting; who againe 
returned them to the abandoned lames towne. 

Out of t/ie obseruations of William Simmons 

Doctor of Diuinitie. 

The arriuall 
of the Lord 
la Ware. 

Ifi. 171.] 

The gouernment devalued to the Lord la Ware. 

,Is Lordship arriued the ninth of Iune 1610. 
accompanied with Sir Ferdinando Waynman, 
Captaine Houlcroft, Captaine Lawson, and diuers 
other Gentlemen of sort ; the tenth he came vp 
with his fleet, went on shore, heard a Sermon, read his Com- 
mission, and entred into consultation for the good of the 
Colonie : in which secret counsell we will a little leaue them, 
that we may duly obserue the reuealed counsell of God. 

Hee that shall but turne vp his eie, and behold the 

by jii y s ^:] Lib. 4. the Lord la Ware. 501 

tangled canopie of heauen, or shall but cast downe his eie, [1610] 
idconsiderthe embroydered carpet of the earth, and withall 
rail marke how the heauens heare the earth, and the earth 
le Corne and Oile, and they relieue the necessities of man, 
iat man will acknowledge Gods infinite [107] prouidence. 
lut hee that shall further obserue, how God inclineth all 
:asuall euents to worke the necessary helpe of his Saints, 
lust needs adore the Lords infinite goodnesse. 
Neuer had any people more iust cause, to cast them- 
jelues at the very foot-stoole of God, and to reuerence his 
lercie, than this distressed Colonie; for if God had not 
:nt Sir Thomas Gates from the Bermudas, within foure daies 
iey had almost beene famished ; if God had not directed 
the heart of that noble Knight to saue the Fort from 
fiering at their shipping [embarkation], for many were very 
importunate to haue burnt it, they had beene destitute 
of a present harbour and succour : if they had abandoned 
the Fort any longer time, and had not so soone returned, 
questionlesse the Indians would haue destroied the Fort, 
which had beene the meanes of our safeties amongst them 
and a terror. If they had set saile sooner, and had 
lanched into the vast Ocean ; who would haue promised 
they should haue incountered the Fleet of the Lord la 
Ware : especially when they made for Newfound land, as 
they intended; a course contrarie to ourNauie approaching. 
If the Lord la Ware had not brought with him a yeeres 
prouision, what comfort would those poore soules haue 
receiued, to haue beene relanded to a second distruction ? 
This was the arme of the Lord of Hosts, who would 
haue his people passe the red Sea and Wildernesse, and 
then to possesse the land of Canaan : It was diuinely 
spoken of Heathen Socrates, If God for man be carefull, 
why should man bee ouer-distrustfull ? for he hath so 
tempered the contrary qualities of the Elements, 
That neither cold things want heat, nor moist things dry, 
Nor sad things spirits, to quicken them thereby, 
Yet make they music all content of contrarietie, 
Which conquer 'd, knits them in such links together. 
They doe produce euen all this whatsoeuer. 

The Lord Gouernour, after mature deliberation, deliuered 

502 The gouernment deuolued to Lib. 4. [ ?Jl ^®°*; 

[1610] some few words to the Companie, laying iust blame vpon 
them, for their haughtie vanities and sluggish idlenesse, 
earnestly intreating them to amend those desperate follies 
lest hee should be compelled to draw the sword of Iustice 
and to cut off such delinquents, which he had rather draw 
to the shedding of his vitall bloud, to protect them from 
iniuries ; heartning them with relation of that store hee had 
brought with him, constituting officers of all conditions, to 
rule ouerthem, allotting euery man his particular place, to 
watch vigilantly, and worke painfully. 

This Oration and direction being receiued with a generall 
applause, you might shortly behold the idle and restie 
diseases of a diuided multitude, by the vnitie and authoritie 
of this gouernment to be substantially cured. Those that 
knew not the way to goodnesse before, but cherished 
singularitie and faction, can now chalke out the path of all 
respectiue dutie and seruice : euery man endeuoureth to 
outstrip other in diligence : the French preparing to plant the 
Vines, the English labouring in the Woods and grounds ; 
euery man knoweth his charge, and dischargeth the same 
with alacritie. 

Neither let any man be discouraged, by the relation of 
their daily labour (as though the sap of their bodies should 
bee spent for other mens profit) the setled times of work- 
ing, to effect all themselues, or as the Aduenturers need 
[Divine scr- desire, required no more paines than from six of the clocke 
i!S. a Ind m tne rnorning, vntill ten, and from two in the afternoone, 
4 /•>*.] till foure ; at both which times they are prouided of spirituall 
and corporall reliefe. First, they enter into the Church, 
1/-957-] anc * ma ke their praiers vnto God; next they returne to 
their houses and receiue their proportion of food. Nor 
should it bee conceiued that this businesse excludeth 
Gentlemen, whose breeding neuer knew what a daies 
labour meant : for though they cannot digge, vse the Spade, 
nor practice the Axe, yet may the staied spirits of any 
condition, finde how to imploy the force of knowledge, 
the exercise of counsell, the operation and power of theii 
best breeding and qualities. 
1/957] The houses which are built, are as warme and defensiue 

against wind and [108] weather, as if they were tiled and 
slated, being couered aboue with strong boards, and some 

Ed. by J. Smith.") T tt» 
Julyi62 4 .J L-IB' 

the Lord la Ware. 


Sir Gtorge 
to the 

matted round with Indian mats. Our forces are now such as [1610] 
are able to tame the furie and trecherie of the Saluages: Our 
Forts assure the Inhabitants, and frustrate all assaylants. 

And to leaue no discouragement in the heart of any, 
who personally shall enter into this great action, I [i.e., 
W. Box] will communicate a double comfort ; first, Sir 
George Sommers, that worthy Admirall hath vndertaken a 
dangerous aduenture for the good of the Colonic 

Vpon the 15. [or 19,^. 639] of Iune [1610], accompanied 
withCaptaine Samuel A r gall, hee returned in two Pinaces 
vnto the Bermudas, promising (if by any meanes God will 
open a way to that Hand of Rocks) that he would soone 
returne with six moneths prouision of flesh ; with much 
crosse weather at last hee there safely arriued, but Captaine 
Argall was forced backe againe to lames towne : whom the 
Lord De la Ware not long after sent to the Riuer of Pata- 
womeke, to trade for Corne ; where finding [in Sept. 1610] [/-17a-] 
an English boy, one Henry Spilman [pp. 172, 498, 528, 586, 
606], a young Gentleman well descended, by those people 
preserued from the furie of Powhatan, by his acquaintance had 
such good vsage of those kinde Saluages, that they fraughted 
his ship with Corne, wherewith he returned to lames towne. 

The other comfort is, that the Lord la Ware hath built The 
two new Forts, the one called Fort Henry, the other Fort &« Xf«r, 
Charles, in honour of our most noble Prince, and 
hopefull brother, vpon a pleasant plaine, and neare a 
little Riuilet they call Southampton Riuer ; they stand in 
a wholsome aire, hauing plentie of Springs of sweet water, 
they command a great circuit of ground, containing Wood, 
Pasture and Marsh, with apt places for Vines, Corne and 
Gardens ; in which Forts it is resolued, that all those that 
come out of England, shall be at their first landing 
quartered, that the wearisomnesse of the Sea may bee 
refreshed in this pleasing part of the Countrie. 

And Sir Thomas Gates hee sent for England[i$ July 1610]. 

But to correct some iniuries of the Paspahegs, he sent 
Captaine Pearcie, Master Stacy, and fiftie or threescore 
shot : where the Saluages flying, they burnt their houses, 
tooke the Queene and her children prisoners, whom not 
long after they slew. 

The fertilitie of the soile, the temperature of the climate 

U : and Fort 
b Charlit. 

504 The government of the Lord la. Ware. Lib. 4. [ ? j™ e 'S£ 

[1611] the forme of gouernment, the condition of our people, their 
daily inuocating of the Name of God being thus expressed; 
why should the successe, by the rules of mortall iudgement, 
bee disparaged ? why should not the rich haruest of our 
hopes be seasonably expected ? I dare say, that the 
resolution of Cczsar in France, the designes of Alexander, 
the discoueries of Hernando Cortes in the West, and of 
Emanuel King of Portugal in the East, were not encouraged 
vpon so firme grounds of state and possibilitie. 

But his Lordship being at the fal[ljes, the Saluages 
assaulted his troopes and slew three or foure of his men. 

Not long after, his Honour growing very sicke, he returned 
for England the 28. of March [161 1] ; in the ship were about 
hue and fiftie men, but ere we arriued at Fyall, fortie of vs 
were neare sicke to death, of the Scuruie, Callenture, and 
other diseases : the Gouernour, being an English-man, 
kindly vsed vs, but small reliefe we could get but Oranges, 
of which we had plenty ; whereby within eight daies wee 
recouered, and all were well and strong by that they came 
into England. 

Written by William Box. 

The Counsell of Virginia finding the smalnesse of that 
returne which they hoped should haue defrayed the charge 
of a new supply, entred into a deep consultation, whether 
it were fit to enter into a new Contribution, or in time to 
send for them home and giue ouer the action, and there- 
fore they adiured Sir Thomas Gates to deale plainly with 
them, who with a solemne and a sacred oath replyed, 

That all things before reported were true : and that all 
men know that wee stand at the deuotion of politicke 
Princes and States, who for their proper vtilitie, deuise 
all courses to grind our Merchants, and by all pretences 
to confiscate their goods, and to draw from vs all manner 
of gaine by their inquisitiue inuentions; when in Virginia, 
a fewyeeres labour by planting and husbandry, will furnish 
all [109] our defects with honour and securitie. 

Out of a Declaration published by the Counsell, 16 10. 


Relation cf 
the Lord In 

The gouernment left againe to ieu. 

Captaine George Piercie, and the 

returne of the Lord la Ware, with his 
Relation to the Councell. 

Y Lords, now by accident returned from [1611] 
my charge at Virginia, contrary either sfr ?*«»«* 
to my owne desire, or other mens ex- Treasurer, 
pectations, who spare not to censure 
me, in point of dutie, and to discourse 
and question the reason, though they 
apprehend not the true cause of my 
returne ; I am forced out of a willing- 
nesse to satisfie euery man, to deliuer vnto your Lordships x w<£c 
and the rest of this assemblie, in what state I haue liued 
euer since my arriuall to the Colonie, what hath beene the 
iust cause of my sudden departure, and on what tearmes 
I haue left the same : the rather because I perceiue, that 
since my comming into England, such a coldnesse and 
irresolution is bred in many of the Aduenturers, that some 
of them seeke to withdraw their payments, by which the 
action must be supported, making this my returne colour 
of their needlesse backwardnesse and vniust protraction: 
which that you may the better vnderstand, I was welcomed 
to lames towne by a violent ague ; being cured of it, within 
three weekes after I began to be distempered with other 
grieuous sicknesses which successiuely and seuerally as- 
sailed me, for besides a relapse into the former disease, which 
with much more violence held me more than a moneth, and 
brought me to greater weaknesse ; the flux surprised mee, 
and kept me manydaies; then the crampe assaulted my weake 
body with strong paines ; and after, the gout : all those drew 
me to that weaknesse, being vnable to stirre, [that] brought 
vponme thescuruie; which though in others it be a sicknesse 
of slothfulnesse, yet was it in me an effect of weaknesse, 
which neuer left me, till I was ready to leave the world. 
In these extremities I resolued to consult with my 

506 The gouernment surrendred to Capt. Piercie. [ Lor ji*^"; 

[1611] friends, who finding nature spent in me, and my body 
almost consumed, my paines likewise daily increasing, 
gaue me aduice to preferre a hopefull recouerie before an 
assured ruine ; which must necessarily haue ensued, had I 
liued but twentie daies longer in Virginia, wanting at thai, 
instant both food and Physicke fit to remedie such extra- 
ordinary diseases : wherefore I shipped [2SMar. 1611] my selfe 
with Doctor Bohun and Captained rg<z// for Menisinthe West 
Indies, But being crossed with Southerly winds, I was forced 
to shape my course for the Westerne lies [Azores'], where 
I found helpe for my health, and my sicknesse asswaged, by 
the meanes of fresh dyet, especially Oranges and Limons, 
an vndoubted remedie for that disease : then I intended to 
haue returned backe againe to Virginia, but I was aduised 
not to hazard my selfe, before I had perfectly recouered my 
strength : so I came for England. In which accident, I 
doubt not but men of iudgement will imagine, there would 
more preiudice haue happened by my death there, than I 
hope can doe by my returne. 

For the Colony, I left it to the charge of Captaine George 
Piercie, a Gentleman of honour and resolution, vntill the 
comming of Sir Thomas Dale, whose Commission was like- 
wise to bee determined vpon the arriuall of Sir Thomas 
Gates, according to the order your Lordships appointed : 
the number I left were about two hundred, the most in 
health, and prouided of at least ten moneths victuall, and 
the Countrie people tractable and friendly. 

What other defects they had, I found by Sir Thomas Gates, 
at the Cowes,his Fleet was sufficiently furnished with sup- 
plies : but when it shall please God that Sir Thomas Dale, 
ITd :S> ne anc * Sir Thomas Gates shall arriue in Virginia with the extra- 
Swinesentto ordinarie supply of 100. Kine, and 200. Swine, besides 
vtreimm. store f ther prouision, for the maintenance of the Colonie, 
there will appeare that successe in the action, as shall 
giue no man cause of distrust, that hath already aduentured, 
but incourage euery good minde to further so good a 
worke, as will redound both to the glory of God, to the 
credit of our [110] nation, and the comfort of all those 
that haue beene instruments in the furthering of it. 
Out of the Lord la Wares discourse, published 
by Author itie, 1 6 1 1 . 

The gouernment surrendred to Sir 1611 . 

Thomas Dale, who arriued in Virginia 

the tenth of May, 1 6 1 1 . out of Master 

Hamors Booke. 

Efore the Lord la Ware arriued in P-611] 
England, the Councell and Companie fj„[^ mas 
had dispatched away Sir Thomas Dale Treasurer, 
with three ships, men, and cattell, and J f h gir rriua11 
all other prouisions necessarie for a rww 
yeere ; all which arriued well the tenth DaU ' 
of May 1611 : where he found them 
growing againe to their former estate 
of penurie, being so improuident as not to put Corne in the 
ground for their bread ; but trusted to the store, then 
furnished but with three moneths prouision. His first care 
therefore was to imploy all hands about setting of Corne, at 
the two Forts at Kecoughtan, Henry and Charles ; whereby, 
the season then not [being] fully past, though about the end 
of May, wee had an indifferent crop of good Corne. 

This businesse taken order for, and the care and trust ^ s aration 
of it committed to his vnder-Ofncers, to lames towne he * obl v ld , a D 
hastened, where most of the companie were at their 
daily and vsuall works, bowling in the streets : these 
hee imployed about necessarie workes, as felling of 
Timber, repayring their houses ready to fall on their 
heads, and prouiding pales, posts and railes, to impale 
his purposed new towne, which by reason of his ignorance, 
being but newly arriued, hee had not resolued where 
to seat. Therefore to better his knowledge, with one 
hundred men he spent some time in viewing the Riuer 

new towne. 

508 The gouernment surrendered to Sir T '. Dale. [ l8 j;2^J; 

[1611] of Nansanwnd, in despight of the Indians then our enemies ; 
then our owne Riuer to the Fal[ljes, where vpon a high land, 
inuironed with the maine Riuer, some twelue miles from the 
Fal[l]es, by Arsahattock, he resolued to plant his new towne. 
It was no small trouble to reduce his people so timely 
to good order, being of so ill a condition, as may well 
witnesse his seueritie and strict imprinted booke of 
Articles, then needfull with all extremitie to be executed; 
now much mitigated : so as if his Lawes had not beene 
so strictly executed, I see not how the vtter subuersion 
of the Colonie should haue beene preuented, witnesse 
Webbes and Prices designe the first yeere, since that of 
Abbots and others, more dangerous than the former. 

Here I entreat your patience for an Apologie, though 
not a pardon. This Jeffrey Abbots, how euer this Author 
censures him, and the Gouernour executes him ; I know 
he had long serued both in Ireland and Netherlands. Here 
hee was a Sargeant of my Companie, and I neuer saw 
[#. 108, 131, in Virginia, a more sufficient Souldier, lesse turbulent, 
159, 4». 44, a b etter w j tj more hardy or industrious, nor any more 
forward to cut off them that sought to abandon the 
Countrie, or wrong the Colonie; how ingratefully those 
deserts might bee rewarded, enuied or neglected, or his 
farre inferiors preferred to ouer-top him, I know not : but 
such occasions might moue a Saint, much more a man, to 
an vnaduised passionate impatience, but how euer, it 
seemes he hath beene punished for his offences, that was 
neuer rewarded for his deserts. 

miufn7e[s] And euen tn ^ s Summer Cole and Kitchins plot with three 

suppressed, more, bending their course to Ocanahowan, hue daies iourney 

from vs, where they report are Spaniards inhabiting. These 

were cut off by the Saluages, hired by vs to hunt them home 

to receiue their deserts. 

So as Sir Thomas Dale hath not beene so tyrannous nor 
seuere by the halfe, as there was occasion, and iust cause for 
it ; and though the manner was not vsuall, wee were rather 
to haue regard to those, whom we would haue terrified and 
made fearefull to commit the like offences, than to the 
offenders iustly condemned : foramongst them so hardned in 

Ed ' by juiySG The gouernment returned to Sir T. Gates. 509 

euill, the feare of a cruell painfull and vnusuall death more [1611} 
restraines them, than death it selfe. This much I haue pro- 
ceeded of his endeuours, vntill the comming of Sir Thomas 
Gates, in preparing himselfe to proceed as he intended. [Ill] 
Now in England againe, to second this noble Knight, 
the Counsell and Companie with all possible expedition 
prepared for Sir Thomas Gates six tall ships, with three 
hundred men, and one hundred Kine and other Cattell, 
with munition and all other manner of prouision that 
could be thought needfull ; and about the first or second 
of August, 1 61 1. [they] arriued safely at lames towne. 

The gouernment returned againe to Sir 
Thomas Gates, 161 1. 

Hese worthy Knights being met, after their ™f u ^° n f d 
welcoming salutations, Sir Thomas Dale sir r/iomai 
acquainted him what he had done, and 
what he intended : which designe Sir Thomas 
Gates well approuing, furnished him with three hundred 
and fiftie men, such as himselfe made choice of. 

In the beginning of September, 1611. hee set saile, and 
arriued where hee intended to build his new towne : within 
ten or twelue daies he had inuironed it with a pale, and in 
honour of our noble Prince Henry, called it Henrico. The 
next worke he did, was building at each corner of the 
Towne a high commanding Watch-house, a Church, and 
Store-houses : which finished, hee began to thinke vpon 
conuenient houses for himselfe and men, which, with all 
possible speed hee could, he effected, to the great content 
of his companie, and all the Colonic 

This towne is situated vpon a necke of a plaine rising Thebmid. 
land, three parts inuironed with the maine Riuer, the Enrico. 
necke of land well impaled, makes it like an He ; it hath 
three streets of well framed houses, a handsome Church, 
and the foundation of a better laid (to bee built of Bricke), 
besides Store-houses, Watch-houses, and such like. 
Vpon the verge of the Riuer there are fiue houses, wherein 
liue the honester sort of people, as Farmers in England, 
and they keepe continuall centinell for the townes securitie. 

510 The gouernment returned to Lib. 4. [ l8 ^; 

une 1614. 

[1611] About two miles from the towne, into the Maine, is another 

pale, neere two miles in length, from Riuer to Riuer, 
guarded with seuerall Commanders, with a good quantitie 
of Corne-ground impailed, sufficiently secured to maintaine 
more than I suppose will come this three yeeres. 

On the other side of the Riuer, for the securitie of the 
towne, is intended to be impaled for the securitie of our 
Hogs, about two miles and a halfe, by the name of Hope 
in Faith, and Coxendale, secured by fiue of our manner of 
Forts, which are but Palisadoes, called Charitic Fort, 
Mount Malado (a guest house [hospital] for sicke people) a 
high seat and wholsome aire, Elisabeth Fort, and Fort 
Patience : And here hath Master Whitaker chosen his Par- 
sonage, impaled a faire framed Parsonage, and one hundred 
acres called Rocke hall, but these are not halfe finished. 

Thejwiiding About Christmas following, in this same yeere 1611. in 
mmimt. regard of the iniurie done vs by them of Apamatuck, Sir 
Thomas Dale, without the losse of any, except some few 
Saluages, tooke it and their Come, being but fiue miles by 
land from Henrico : and considering how commodious it 
might be for vs, resolued to possesse and plant it, and at the 
instant called it the new Bermudas ; whereunto hee hath laid 
out and annexed to the belonging freedome and corporation 
for euer, many miles of Champian and Woodland ground in 
seuerall hundreds, as the vpper and nether hundreds, Roch- 
dale hundred, West Sherly hundred, and Digs his hundred. 
In the nether hundred he first began to plant, for 
there is the most Corne-ground, and with a pale of two 
miles, cut ouer from Riuer to Riuer, whereby we haue 
secured eight English miles in compasse : vpon which 
circuit, within halfe a mile of each other, are many faire 
houses already built ; besides particular mens houses neere 
to the number of fiftie. Rochdale, by a crosse pale welnigh 
foure miles long, is also planted with houses along the pale, 
in which hundred our Hogs and Cattell haue twentie miles 
circuit to graze in securely. The building of the Citie is 
referred till our haruest [1612] be in, which he intends 
to make a retreat against any forraigne enemie. 

About fiftie miles from these is lames towne, vpon a 
fertill peninsula, which although [112] formerly scandaled 

Ed by jii y s "6 2 t 4.j Lib. 4. Sir Thomas Gates. 5 1 1 

for an vnhealthfull aire, wee finde it as healthfull as any [1611-12] 
other part of the Countrie ; it hath two rowes of houses of 
framed timber, and some of them two stories and a garret 
higher, three large Store-houses ioined together in length, 
and hee hath newly strongly impaled the towne. This 
He, and much ground about it, is much inhabited. 

VoKecoughtan we accounted it fortie miles, where they Hue 
well with halfe that allowance the rest haue from the store, 
because of the extraordinarie quantitie of Fish, Fowle and 
Deere ; as you may reade at large in the Discoueries of 
Captaine Smith. And thus I haue truly related vnto you the 
present estate of that small part of Virginia wee frequent 
and possesse. 

Since there was a ship fraughted with prouision, and 1612 - 
fortie men ; and another since then with the like number ^SJtk" 1 " 1 
and prouision, to stay twelue moneths in the Countrie, with Treasurer - 
Captaine Argall, which was sent not long after. After Captaine 
hee had recreated and refreshed his Companie, hee was amCLu. 
sent to the Riuer Patawomeake, to trade for Corne : the 
Saluages about vs hauing small quarter, but friends and 
foes as they found aduantage and opportunitie. 

But to conclude our peace, thus it happened. Captaine 
Argall, hauing entred into a great acquaintance with 
Iapazaws, an old friend of Captaine Smiths, and so to all 
our Nation, euer since hee discouered the Countrie: h[e]ard 
by him there was Pocahontas, whom Captaine Smiths 
Relations intituleth the Numparell of Virginia [pp. 38, 
169], and though she had beene many times a preseruer 
of him and the whole Colonie, yet till this accident shee was 
neuer seene at lames towne since his departure [^Oct. 1609]. 

Being at Patawomeke, as it seemes, thinking her selfe 
vnknowne, was easily by her friend Iapazaws perswaded 
to goe abroad with him and his wife to see the ship : for 
Captaine Argall had promised him a Copper Kettle to 
bring her but to him, promising no way to hurt her, but 
keepe her till they could conclude a peace with her father; 
the Saluage for this Copper Kettle would haue done any 
thing, it seemed by the Relation. 

For though she had seene and beene in many ships, yet ^^ ktH/ai 
hee caused his wife to faine how desirous she was to see was taken 
one, that hee offered to beat her for her importunitie, tiH pr,soner • 

512 How Pocahontas was taken prisoner. Lib. 4. 

[R. Hamor. 
18 June 1614. 


letter of 
June 1613 
(in Purchas 
iv., 1764, 
Ed. 1625), it 
appear that 

in the 
of April 







she wept. But at last he told her, if Pocahontas would goe 
with her, hee was content : and thus they betraied the poore 
innocent Pocahontas aboord, where they were all kindly 
feasted in the Cabbin. Iapazaws treading oft on the 
Captaines foot, to remember he had done his part ; the 
Captaine when he saw his time, perswaded Pocahontas to 
the Gun-roome, faining to haue some conference with 
Iapazaws, which was onely that she should not perceiue hee 
was any way guiltie of her captiuitie : so sending for her 
againe, hee told her before her friends, she must goe with 
him, and compound peace betwixt her Countrie and vs, 
before she euer should see Powhatan ; whereat the old lew 
and his wife began to howle and crie as fast as Pocahontas, 
that vpon the Captaines faire perswasions, by degrees paci- 
fying her selte, and Iapazaws and his wife, with the Kettle and 
other toies, went merrily on shore ; and shee to lames towne. 

A messenger forthwith was sent to her father, that his 
daughter Pocahontas he loued so dearely, he must ransome 
with our men, swords, peeces, tooles, &c. hee trecherously 
had stolne. 

This vnwelcome newes much troubled Powhatan, because 
hee loued both his daughter and our commodities well, yet 
it was three moneths after [July 1613] ere hee returned vs 
any answer : then by the perswasion of the Councell, he 
returned seuen of our men, with each of them an vnseruice- 
able Musket, and sent vs word, that when wee would deliuer 
his daughter, hee would make vs satisfaction for all iniuries 
done vs, and giue vs fiue hundred bushels of Corne, and 
for euer be friends with vs. 

That he sent, we receiued in part of payment, and 
returned him this answer: That his daughter should be 
well vsed ; but we could not beleeue the rest of our armes 
were either lost or stolne from him, and therefore till hee 
sent them, we would keepe his daughter. 

This answer, it seemed, much displeased him, for we 
heard no more from him for a [113] long time after : when 
with Captaine Argals ship, and some other vessels belong- 
ing to the Colonie ; Sir Thomas Dale, with a hundred and 
fiftie men well appointed, went vp into his owne Riuer, to 
his chiefe habitation, with his daughter. 

Ed ' b Vuiy S T624.*] LlB - 4- sir Thomas Gates 513 

With many scornfull brauado's they affronted vs, [1613] 
proudly demanding Why wee came thither ; our reply 
was, Wee had brought his daughter, and to receiue the 
ransome for her that was promised, or to haue it perforce. 

They nothing dismayed thereat, told vs, We were wel- 
come if wee came to fight, for they were prouided for vs : 
but aduised vs, if wee loued our Hues to retire ; else they 
would vse vs as they had done Captaine Ratcliffe : We [/• cm.] 
told them, Wee would presently haue a better answer; 
but we were no sooner within shot of the shore than 
they let flie their Arrowes among vs in the ship. 

Being thus iustly prouoked, wee presently manned our a man she: 
Boats, went on shore, burned all their houses, and spoiled forlhead. 
all they had we could finde; and so the next day proceeded 
higher vp the Riuer, where they demanded Why wee burnt 
their houses, and wee, Why they shot at vs : They replyed, 
it was some stragling Saluage, with many other excuses, 
they intended no hurt, but were our friends : We told 
them, Wee came not to hurt them, but visit them as 
friends also. 

Vpon this we concluded a peace, and forthwith they 
dispatched messengers to Powhatan ; whose answer, they 
told vs, wee must expect foure and twentie houres ere 
the messengers could returne : Then they told vs, our 
men were runne away for feare we would hang them, 
yet Powhatans men were runne after them ; as for our 
Swords and Peeces, they should be brought vs the next 
day, which was only but to delay time; for the next 
day they came not. 

Then we went higher, to a house of Powhatans, called 
Matchot, where we saw about foure hundred men well 
appointed ; here they dared vs to come on shore, which 
wee did ; no shew of feare they made at all, nor offered 
to resist our landing, but walking boldly vp and downe 
amongst vs, demanded to conferre with our Captaine, 
of his comming in that manner, and to haue truce 
till they could but once more send to their King to 
know his pleasure, which if it were not agreeable to their 
expectation, then they would fight with vs, and defend 
their owne as they could. Which was but onely to deferre 
the time, to carrie away their prouision ; yet wee pro- 


514 The gouernment returned to Sir T . Gates. Lib. 4. [ R "^^ 

sonnes come 
to see 

[1613-14] mised them truce till the next day at noone, and then if 
they would fight with vs, they should know when we 
would begin by our Drums and Trumpets. 
Two of Vpon this promise, two of Powhatans sonnes came vnto 

Powhatan* vs ^ see their sister : at whose sight, seeing her well, 
though they heard to the contrane, they much reioiced, 
promising they would perswade her father to redeeme her, 
and for euer be friends with vs. And vpon this, the two 
brethren went aboord with vs ; and we sent Master Iohn 
Rolfe and Master Sparkes to Powhatan, to acquaint him 
with the businesse : kindly they were entertained, but not 
admitted [to] the presence of Powhatan, but they spoke with 
Opechancanough, his brother and successor ; hee promised 
to doe the best he could to Powhatan, all might be well. 
So it being Aprill [1613], and time to prepare our 
ground and set our Corne, we returned to lames Towne, 
promising the forbearance of their performing their 
promise, till the next haruest. 

maria e of Long before this, Master Iohn Rolfe, an honest Gentle- 

p^lahotuas man, and of good behauiour, had beene in loue with Poca- 

/oAn^o/fe. hontas, and she with him : which thing at that instant I 

1613 made knowne to Sir Thomas Dale by a letter from him, 

sw Thomas wherein hee intreated his aduice, and she acquainted her 

Tourer, brother with it, which resolution Sir Thomas Dale well 

approued: the bru[i]te of this mariage came soone to the 

knowledge of Powhatan, a thing acceptable to him, as 

appeared by his sudden consent, for within ten daies he 

sent Opachisco, an old Vncle of hers, and two of his sons, 

to see the manner of the mariage, and to doe in that 

behalfe what they were requested, for the confirmation 

thereof, as his deputie ; which was accordingly done about 

the first of Aprill [1614]. And euer since wee haue had 

friendly trade and commerce, as well with Powhatan 

himselfe, as all his subiects. [114] 


JamaitT Besides this, by the meanes of Powhatan, we became in 
league with our next neighbours, the Chicahamanias, a 
lustie and a daring people, free of themselues. These 
people, so soone as they heard of or peace with Pow- 
hatan, sent two messengers with presents to Sir Thomas 

Articles of 

^•^juiyT^'.] Lib. 4. The Articles of peace. 515 

Dale, and offered them his [him their] seruice, excusing all [1614] 
former iniuries, hereafter they would euer be King lames his 
subiects, and relinquish the name of Chickahamania, to be 
called Tassautessus, as they call vs ; and Sir Thomas Dale 
the[i]reGouernour, as the Kings Deputie; onely they desired 
to be gouerned by their owne Lawes, which is eight of their 
Elders as his substitutes. This offer he kindly accepted, 
and appointed the day hee would come to visit them. 

When the appointed day came, Sir Thomas Dale and 
Captaine Argall with fiftie men well appointed, went to 
Chickahamania, where wee found the people expecting our 
comming ; they vsed vs kindly, and the next morning sate 
in counsell, to conclude their peace vpon these conditions: 

First, they should for euer bee called Englishmen, and bee 
true subiects to King lames and his Deputies. 

Secondly, neither to kill nor detaine any of our men, nor 
cattell, but bring them home. 

Thirdly, to bee alwaies ready to furnish vs with three hundred 
men, against the Spaniards or any. 

Fourthly, they shall not enter our townes, but send word they 
are new Englishmen. 

Fiftly, that euery fighting man, at the beginning of haruest, 
shall bring to our store two bushels of Come, for tribute, for 
which they shall receiue so many Hatchets. 

Lastly, the eight chief e men should see all this performed, or 
receiue the punishment themselues : for their diligence they 
should haue a red coat, a copper chaine, and King lames his 
picture, and be accounted his Noblemen. 

All this they concluded with a generall assent, and a 
great shout to confirme it : then one of the old men began 
an Oration, bending his speech first to the old men, then 
to the young, and then to the women and children, to 
make them vnderstand how strictly they were to obserue 
these conditions, and we would defend them from the 
furie of Powhatan, or any enemie whatsoeuer, and furnish 
them with Copper, Beads, and Hatchets : but all this was 
rather for feare Powhatan and we, being so linked together, 
would bring them againe to his subiection ; the which to 
preuent, they did rather chuse to be protected by vs, than 
tormented by him, whom they held a Tyrant. 

And thus wee returned againe to lames towne. 

516 TJie government left to Lib. 4. [ R ,U *S£ 

[1613-14] When our people were fed out of the common store, and 
SubCTtuf 1 l aDoure d iointly together, glad was he could slip from his 
in the labour, or slumber ouer his taske he cared not how, nay, 
planters. ^ e most honest among them would hardly take so much 
true paines in a weeke, as now for themselues they will 
doe in a day : neither cared they for the increase, pre- 
suming that howsoeuer the haruest prospered, the 
generall store must maintaine them, so that wee reaped 
not so much Corne from the labours of thirtie, as now 
three or foure doe prouide for themselues. 

To preuent which, Sir Thomas Dale hath allotted euery 
man three Acres of cleare ground, in the nature of Farmes, 
except the Bermudas [p. 510] : who are exempted, but for one 
moneths seruice in the yeere, which must neither bee in 
seed-time, nor haruest; for which doing, no other dutie they 
pay yeerely to the store, but two barrels and a halfe of Corne. 
Ensigne From all those Farmers (whereof the first was William 

fimFanncr Spence, an honest, valiant, and an industrious man, and hath 
mvirginia. con ti n ued from 1607. to this present [1614]) from those is 
expected such a contribution to the store, as wee shall 
neither want for our selues, nor to entertaine our sup- 
plies ; for the rest, they are to worke eleuen moneths for 
the store, and hath one moneth onely allowed them to 
get prouision to keepe them for twelue, except two bushels 
of Corne they haue out of the store. If those can Hue so, 
why should any feare staruing ; and it were much better 
to denie them passage that would not, ere they come, bee 
content to ingage themselues to those conditions: for 
onely from the slothfull and idle [115] drones, and none 
else, hath sprung the manifold imputations, Virginia inno- 
cently hath vndergone ; and therefore I would deter such 
from comming here, that cannot well brooke labour, 
except they will vndergoe much punishment and penurie, 
if they escape the skuruie : but for the industrious, there 
is reward sufficient, and if any thinke there is nothing but 
bread, I referre you to his [Smith's] relations that discouered 
the Countrie first. 

M,b Vui|?£;3 L i B - 4- Sir Thomas Dale. 


The gouemment left to Sir Thomas Dale, vpon 
Sir Thomas Gates returne for 

Ir Thomas Dale vnderstanding there was a plan- 
tation of Frenchmen in the north part of Vir- 
ginia, about the degrees of 45. sent Captaine 
Argall to Port Royall and Sancta Crux; where 
finding the Frenchmen abroad dispersed in the Woods, [he] 
surprized their Ship and Pinnace, which was but newly come 
from France, wherein was much good apparel and other 
prouision, which he brought to lames towne : but the men 
escaped, and liued among the Saluages of those Countries. 

It pleased Sir Thomas Dale, before my returne to Eng- 
land, because I would be able to speake somewhat of my 
owne knowledge, to giue mee leaue to visit Powhatan and 
his Court : being prouided, I had Thomas Saluage with 
mee, for my Interpreter ; with him and two Saluages for 
guides, I went from the Bermuda [£.510] in the morning, and 
came to Matchot the next night, where the King lay vpon 
the Riuer of Pamavnke. His entertainment was strange to 
me, the boy he knew well, and told him ; My child, I gaue 
you leaue [pp. cii-ciii, 27, 31, 37, 102], being my boy, to goe 
see your friends, and these foure yeeres [1610-1614] I haue 
not seene you, nor heard of my owne man Namoutack I 
sent to England [pp. 31, 102, 124 ; he had been murdered 
by another Indian at the Bermuda Islands in 1610, see p. 638], 
though many ships since haue beene returned thence. 

Hauing done with him, hee began with mee, and 
demanded for the chaine of pearle he sent his brother Sir 
Thomas Dale at his first arriuall, which was a token betwixt 
them, when euer hee should send a messenger from him- 
selfe to him, he should weare that chaine about his necke, 
since the peace was concluded, otherwaies he was to 
binde him and send him home. 

It is true Sir Thomas Dale had sent him such word, 
and gaue his Page order to giue it me, but he forgot 
it, and till this present I neuer heard of it, yet I replyed 

I did know there was such an order, but that was 
when vpon a sudden he should haue occasion to send 


A rgals 
voyage to 


Sir Thomax 



Journey to 

5 1 8 William Parkers recouerie Lib. 4. [ R - 


[1614] an Englishman without an Indian Guide ; but if his 

owne people should conduct his messenger, as two of 

his did me who knew my message, it was sufficient ; 

with which answer he was contented, and so conducted vs 

to his house, where was a guard of two hundred Bow-men 

that alwaies attend his person. 

The first thing he did, he offered me a pipe of Tobacco, 
then asked mee how his brother Sir Thomas Dale did, 
and his daughter, and vnknowne sonne, and how they 
liued, loued and liked ; I told him his brother was well, and 
his daughter so contented, she would not Hue againe with 
him ; whereat he laughed, and demanded the cause of my 
comming : I told him my message was priuate, and I was 
to deliuer it onely to himselfe and Papaschicher, one of my 
* guides that was acquainted with it ; instantly he com- 
manded all out of the house, but onely his two Queenes, 
that alwaies sit by him, and bade me speake on. 
misa e to * to ^ ^im, D y my Interpreter, Sir Thomas Dale hath 

Powhatan sent you two pieces of Copper, hue strings of white 

and blue Beads, fiue woodden Combes, ten Fish- 
hookes, a paire of Kniues, and that when you would 
send for it, hee would giue you a Grind-stone ; all this 
pleased him : but then I told him his brother Dale, 
hearing of the fame of his youngest daughter, desiring 
in any case he would send her by me vnto him, in 
testimonie of his loue, as well for that he intended to 
marry her, as the desire her sister had to see her, 
because being now one people, and hee desirous for 
euer to dwell in his Countrie, he conceiued there 
could not be a truer assurance of peace and friendship, 
than in such a naturall band of an vnited vnion. [116] 
I needed not entreat his answer by his oft interrupting 
mee in my speech, and presently with much grauitie he 
thus replyed. 
Powhatan* \ gladly accept your salute of loue and peace, which 

while I Hue, I shall exactly keepe ; his pledges thereof 
I receiue with no lesse thanks, although they are not 
so ample as formerly he had receiued: but for my 
daughter, I haue sold her within this few daies to a 
great Werowance, for two bushels of Rawrenoke, three 
daies iournie from me. 


Ed by juiy n ?624.] Lib. 4. from among the Saluages. 519 

I replyed, I knew his greatnesse in restoring the [1614] 
Rawrenoke, might call her againe to gratifie his 
brother, and the rather, because she was but twelue 
yeeres old, assuring him, besides the band of peace, 
hee should haue for her, three times the worth of the 
Rawrenoke, in Beads, Copper, Hatchets, &c. 
His answer was, he loued his daughter as his life, and 
though hee had many children, hee delighted in none so 
much as shee, whom if he should not often behold, he 
could not possibly Hue, which she liuing with vs he could 
not do, hauing resolued vpon no termes to put himselfe 
into our hands, or come amongst vs; therefore desired 
me to vrge him no further, but returne his brother this 
answer: That I desire no former assurance of his friendship 
than the promise hee hath made, from me he hath a 
pledge, one of my daughters, which so long as she Hues 
shall be sufficient, when she dies, he shall haue 
another: I hold it not a brotherly part to desire to 
bereaue me of my two children at once. Farther, tell 
him though hehad no pledge at all, hee need not distrust 
any iniurie from me or my people ; there haue beene 
too many of his men and mine slaine, and by my occa- 
sion there shall neuer be more, (I which haue power to 
performe it, haue said it) although I should haue iust 
cause, for I am now old, and would gladly end my daies 
in peace ; if you offer me iniurie, my countrie is large 
enough to goe from you : Thus much I hope will satisfie 
my brother. Now because you are wearie, and I 
sleepie, wee will thus end. 
So commanding vs victuall and lodging, we rested that 
night, and the next morning he came to visit vs, and kindly 
conducted vs to the best cheere hee had. 

William Parker. 

Hile I here remained, by chance came an wunam 
Englishman, whom there had beene surprized Scoured 
three yeeres agoe [1611] at Fort Henry, grown e 
so like, both in complexion and habit like a Sal- 
uage, I knew him not, but by his tongue : hee desired mee 
to procure his libertie, which I intended, and so farre vrged 

5 20 [Extracts from letters from Virginia, *jf S3E 


[1614] Powhatan, that he grew discontented, and told mee, You 

haue one of my daughters, and I am content : but 

you cannot see one of your men with mee, but you 

must haue him away, or breake friendship ; if you 

must needs haue him, you shall goe home without 

guides, and if any euill befall you, thanke your selues. 

I told him I would, but if I returned not well, hee 

must expect a reuenge ; and his brother might haue 

iust cause to suspect him. 

So in passion he left me till supper, and then gaue me 

such as hee had with a cheerefull countenance: 

About midnight he awaked vs, and promised in the 
morning my returne with Parker ; but I must remember 
his brother to send him ten great pieces of Copper, a 
Shauing-knife, a Frowe, a Grind-stone, a Net, Fish-hookes, 
and such toies ; which lest I should forget, he caused me 
[to] write in a table-booke he had; how euer he got it, it was 
a faire one, I desired hee would giue it me ; he told me, no, 
it did him much good in shewing to strangers, yet in the 
morning when we departed, hauing furnished vs well with 
prouision, he gaue each of vs a Bucks skin as well dressed 
as could be, and sent two more to his sonne and daughter : 
And so we returned to lames towne. 

Written by Master Ralph Hamor and Iohn Rolph. 

Haue read the substance of this relation, in a 
Letter written by Sir Thomas Dale, another by 
Master W hitakcr y &nd a third by M aster Iohn Rolfe ; 
how carefull they were to instruct her in Chris- 
tianity, and how capable and desirous shee was thereof, 
after she hadbeene some time thus tutored, shee neuerhad 
desire to goe to her father, nor could well endure the society 
of her owne nation : the true affection she constantly bare her 
husband was much, and the strange apparitions and violent 
passions he endured for her loue, as he deeply protested, 
was wonderful [117], and she openly renounced her countries 
idolatry, confessed the faith of Christ, and was baptized. 

But either the coldnesse of the aduenturers, or the bad 
vsage of that was collected, or both, caused this worthy 
Knight [Sir Thomas Dale] to write thus. 

Ed " by iui y s ^4.' Extracts from letters from Virginia.'] 521 

Oh why should so many Princes and Noblemen [1614] 
ingage themselues, and thereby intermedling herein, 
haue caused a number of soules transport themselues, 
and be transported hither ? Why should they, I say, 
relinquish this so glorious an action : for if their ends 
be to build God a Church, they ought to perseuere ; 
if otherwise, yet their honour ingageth them to be 
constant ; howsoeuer they stand affected, here is enough 
to content them. These are the things [which] haue 
animated me to stay a little season from them, I am 
bound in conscience to returne vnto ; leauing all 
contenting pleasures and mundall delights, to reside 
here with much turmoile, which I will rather doe 
than see Gods glory diminished, my King and Country 
dishonoured, and these poore soules I haue in charge 
reuiued, which would quickly happen if I should 
leaue them ; so few I haue with me fit to command 
or manage the businesse : 
Master Whitaker their Preacher complaineth, and much 
museth, that so few of our English Ministers, that 
were so hot against the surplice and subscription 
come hether, where neither is spoken of. Doe they 
not wilfully hide their talents, or keepe themselues at 
home, for feare of losing a few pleasures ; be there 
not any among them of Moses his minde, and of the 
Apostles, that forsooke all to follow Christ, but I 
refer them to the Iudge of all hearts, and to the King 
that shall reward euery one according to his talent. 

From Virginia, Iune 18. 16 14. 

The businesse being brought to this perfection, Cap- 
taine Argall returned for England, in the latter end of 
Iune, 1614. ariuing in England, and bringing this good 
tidings to the Councell and company by the assistances of 
Sir Thomas Gates, that also had returned from Virginia but 
the March before [1614]; it was presently concluded, that to 
supply this good successe with all expedition, the standing 
Lottery should be drawne with all diligent conueniency, 
and that posterity may remember vpon occasion to vse 
the like according to the declaration, I thinke it not 
amisse to remember thus much. 

The Contents of the declaration 

of the Lottery published by the 

T is apparent to the world, by how many 
former Proclamations, we manifested our 
intents, to haue drawn out the great 
standing Lottery long before this, which 
not falling out as we desired, and others 
expected whose monies are aduentured 
therein, we thought good therefore for 
the auoiding all vniust and sinister con- 
structions, to resolue the doubts of all indifferent minded, 
in three speciall points for their better satisfaction. 

But ere I goe any farther, let vs remember there was a 
running Lottery vsed a long time in Saint Pauls Church- 
yard, where this stood, that brought into the Treasury 
good summes of mony dayly, though the Lot was but small. 
Now for the points, the first is, for as much as the 
Aduenturers came in so slackly for the yeere past, without 
preiudice to the generality ; in losing the blankes and 
prises, we were forced to petition to the honourable Lords, 
who out of their noble care to further this Plantation, 
haue recommended their Letsenters to the Countries, 
Cities, and good townes in England, which we hope by 
[adjding in their voluntary Aduenturers, will sufficiently 
supply vs. 

The second for satisfaction to all honest well affected 
minds, is, that though this expectation answer not our 
hopes, yet wee haue not failed in our Christian care, the 

**A?353 Lib. 4. Z^ Zotory. 523 

good of that Colony, to whom we haue lately sent two [1616] 
sundry supplies, and were they but now supplied with 
more hands, wee should soone resolue the diuision of the 
Country by Lot, and so lessen the generall charge. 

The third is our constant resolution, that seeing our 
credits are so farre ingaged [118] to the honourable Lords 
and the whole State, for the drawing this great Lottery, (A cxxv.j 
which we intend shall be without delay, the 26. of Iune 
next [1616], desiring all such as haue vndertaken with bookes 
to solicit their friends, that they will not with-hold their 
monies till the last moneth be expired, lest we be vn- 
willingly forced to proportion a lesse value and number 
of our Blankes and Prises which hereafter followeth. 



O him that first shall be drawne out with 

a blanke, 100 

To the second, 50 

To the third, 25 

To him that euery day during the drawing of this 

Lottery, shall bee first drawne out with a blanke, 10 

Prizes. Crownes. 

1 Great Prize of 4500 

2 Great Prizes, each of 2000 
4 Great Prizes, each of 1000 
6 Great Prizes, each of 500 

10 Prizes, each of 300 

20 Prizes, each of 200 

100 Prizes, each of 100 

200 Prizes, each of 50 

400 Prizes, each of 20 

1000 Prizes, each of 10 

1000 Prizes, each of 8 

1000 Prizes, each of 6 

4000 Prizes, each of 4 

1000 Prizes, each of 3 

1000 Prizes, each of 2 

524 The Lottery. Lib. 4. [ Edb V uly s ^ h 4 : 


*§0 him that shall be last drawne out with 
a blanke, 25 

To him that putteth in the greatest Lot, 
vnder one name, 400 

To him that putteth in the second greatest number, 300 
To him that putteth in the third greatest number, 200 
To him that putteth in the fourth greatest number, 100 
If diuers be of equall number, their rewards are to be 
diuided proportionally. 

Addition of new Rewards. 

He blanke that shall bee drawne out next 
before the great Prize shall haue 25 

The blanke that shall be drawne out next 
after the said great Prize 25 

The blancks that shall be drawne out immediatly 
before the two next great Prizes, shall haue each of 
them 20 

The seuerall blankes next after them, each shall 
haue 20 

The seuerall blankes next before the foure great 
Prizes [of 1000 crowns each], each shall haue 15 

The seuerall blankes next after them, each shall 
haue 15 

The seuerall blankes next before the six great Prizes 
[of 500 crowns each], each shall haue 10 

The seuerall blankes next after them, each shall 
haue 10 [119 

The prizes, welcomes, and rewards, shall be payed in 
ready Mony, Plate, or other goods reasonably rated ; if 
any dislike of the plate or goods, he shall haue mony, 
abating only the tenth part, except in small prizes of ten 
Crownes or vnder. 

The mony for the Aduenturers is to be paied to Sir 
Thomas Smith, Knight, and Treasurer for Virginia, or 

Bd-by juiyT625: Arrival of a Spanish skip in Virginia.'] 525 


such Officers as he shall apoint in City or Country, vnder [1616] 
the common seale of the company for the receit thereof. 

All prizes, welcomes and rewards drawne where euer 
they dwell, shall of the Treasurer haue present pay, and 
whosoeuer vnder one name or poesie payeth three pound in 
eady money, shall receiue six shillings and eight pence, 
or a siluer spoone of that value at his choice. 

About this time it chanced a Spanish ship, beat too and f h ^-n 1!;h 
againe before point Comfort, and at last sent a shore their Virginia. 
boat, as desirous of a Pilot. Captaine lames Dauis the 
gouernor, immediatly gaue them one : but he was no 
sooner in the boat, but a way they went with him, leauing 
three of their companions behind them ; this sudden 
accident occasioned some distrust, and a strict examina- 
tion of those three thus left, yet with as good vsage as 
our estate could afford them. They only confessed, hauing 
lost their Admirall, accident had forced them into those 
parts; and two of them were Captaines, and in chiefe 
authority in the fleet : thus they liued till one of them was 
found to be an Englishman, and had been the Spaniards 
Pilot for England in [i5]88. and hauing here induced some 
male-contents, to beleeue his proiects, to run away with a 
small barke, which was [who were] apprehended, some exe- 
cuted, and he expecting but the Hangmans curtesie, directly 
confessed that two or three Spanish ships was at Sea, 
purposely to discouer the estate of the Colony : but their 
Commission was not to be opened till they arriued in the 
Bay, so that of any thing more he was vtterly ignorant. 

One of the Spaniards at last dyed ; the other was sent for 
England, but this reprieued, till Sir Thomas Dale hanged 
him at Sea in his voyage homeward : the English Pilot 
they carried for Spaine, whom after a long time imprison- 
ment, with much su[i]te was returned for England. 

Whilstthosethingswere effecting, Sir Thomas Dale, hauing 1616. 
setled to his thinking all things in good order, made choice s ^l f J/l° max 
of one Master George Yearly, to be Deputy-Gouernour in Treasurer. 
his absence, and so returned for England; accompanied 
with Pocahontas the Kings Daughter, and Master Rolfe her [/As29,s33.l 
husband : and arriued at Plimmoth the 12. of June. 1616. 


A degres- 

The gouernment left to 
Captaine Yearly. 

Ow a little to commentary vpon all these 
proceedings, let me leaue but this as a 
caueat by the way ; if the alteration 
of gouernment hath subuerted great 
Empires, how dangerous is it then in 
the infancy of a common-weale ? The 
multiplicity of Gouernors is a great 
damage to any State ; but vncertaine 
daily changes are burdensome, because their entertain- 
ments are chargeable, and many will make hay whilst 
the sunne doth shine, how euer it shall faire with the 

This deare bought Land with so much bloud and cost, 
hath onely made some few rich, and all the rest losers. 
But it was intended at the first, the first vndertakers 
should be first preferred and rewarded, and the first 
aduenturers satisfied, and they of all the rest are the most 
neglected ; and those that neuer aduentured a groat, 
neuer see the Country, nor euer did any seruice for it, 
imploied in their places, adorned with their deserts, and 
inriched with their mines : and when they are fed fat, 
then in commeth others so leane as they were, who 
through their omnipotency doth as much. Thus what 
one Officer doth, another vndoth, only ayming at their 
owne ends; thinking all the world derides his dignity, [who] 
cannot fill his Coffers being in authority with any thing. 
Euery man hath his minde free, but he can neuer be a 
true member to that estate, that to enrich himselfe beggers 

Ed ' b Yuiy S S;:] Lib. 4. The gouernment left to Capt. Yearly. 527 

[120J all the Countrie. Which bad cou*ise, there are [1616] 

many yet in this noble plantation, whose true honour and 

worth as much scornes it, as the others loues it ; for the 

Nobilitie and Gentrie, there is scarce any of them expects 

my thing but the prosperitie of the action : and there are 

some Merchants and others, I am confidently perswaded, 

loe take more care and paines, nay, and at their continual! 

^reat charge, than they could be hired to for the loue of 

loney ; so honestly regarding the generall good of this great 

/orke, they would hold it worse than sacrilege, to wrong it 

>ut a shilling, or extort vpon the common souldier a penny. 

But to the purpose, and to follow the Historic 
Master George Yearly now inuested Deputie Gouernour The 
>y Sir Thomas Dale, applied himselfe for the most part If "capS 
n planting Tobacco, as the most present commoditie they Yearle y- 
:ould deuise for a present gaine, so that euery man be- 
:ooke himselfe to the best place he could for the purpose : 
low though Sir Thomas Dale had caused such an abun- 
lance of corne to be planted, that euery man had sufficient, 
fet the supplies were sent vs, came so vnfurnished, as 
quickly eased vs of our superfluitie. 

To relieue their necessities, he sent to the Chichahamanias 
for the tribute Corne Sir Thomas Dale and Captaine Argall 
lad conditioned for with them : But such a bad answer 
they returned him, that hee drew together one hundred of 
lis best shot, with whom he went to Chickahamania ; the 
)eople in some places vsed him indifferently, but in most 
)laces with much scorne and contempt, telling him he 
was but Sir Thomas Dales man, and they had payed his 
Master according to condition, but to giue any to him 
they had no such order, neither would they obey him as 
they had done his Master; after he had told them his 
authoritie, and that he had the same power to enforce 
:hem that Dale had, they dared him to come on shore to 
fight, presuming more of his not daring, than their owne 

Yearly seeing their insolencies, made no great diffi- 
cultie to goe on shore at Ozinies, and they as little to 
incounter him : but marching from thence towards 
Mamanahunt, they put themselues in the same order they 

528 Thegouernmentof ^C^. Yearly. Lib. 4. [w*<^l3K£2£ 

[1616] see vs, lead by their Captaine Kissanacomen, Gouernour of 
Ozinies, and so marched close along by vs,each as threatning 
other who should first begin. But that night we quartered 
against Mamanahunt, and they passed the Riuer. 

The next day we followed them ; there are few places 

in Virginia had then more plaine ground together, 

nor more plentie of Corne, which although it was but 

newly gathered, yet they had hid it in the woods where 

we could not finde it : a good time we spent thus in 

arguing the cause, the Saluages without feare standing 

in troupes amongst vs, seeming as if their countenances 

had beene sufficient to dafu]nt vs : what other practises they 

had I know not ; but to preuent the worst, our Captaine 

caused vs all to make ready, and vpon the word, to let 

flie among them, where he appointed : others also he 

commanded to seize on them they could for prisoners ; all 

which being done according to our direction, the Captaine 

Twdue gaue the word, and wee presently discharged, where twelue 

Sainef" lay, some dead, the rest for life sprawling on the ground, 

goners twelue more we tooke prisoners, two whereof were brothers, 

taken, and two of their eight Elders, the one tooke by Sergeant 

concluded. Boothe, the other by Robert a Polonian. 

Neere one hundred bushels of Corne we had for their 
ransomes, which was promised the Souldiers for a reward, 
but it was not performed : now Opechankanough had agreed 
with our Captaine for the subiecting of those people, that 
neither hee nor Powhatan could euer bring to their obedi- 
ence ; and that he should make no peace with them 
without his aduice : in our returne by Ozinies with our 
prisoners wee met Opechankanough, who with much adoe, 
fained with what paines hee had procured their peace, the 
which to requite, they called him the King of Ozinies, 
and brought him from all parts many presents of Beads, 
Copper, and such trash as they had. 

Here as at many other times wee were beholding to Cap- 
taine Henry Spilman our Interpreter, a Gentleman [that J had 
liued long time in this Countrie, and sometimes a prisoner 
among the Saluages [pp. ci-cxiv, 172, 498, 503, 586, 606] ; 
and done much good seruice, though but badly rewarded. 

From hence we ma relit towards lames towne, we had three 
[121] Boats loaded with Corne and other luggage; the one of 

Ed - by /uiyT624.] Lib. 4. Concerning the Princesse Pocahontas. 529 

I them being more willing to be at lames towne with the [1616-7] 
newes than the other, was ouerset, and eleuen men cast ^"|^ en 
away with the Boat, Corne and all their prouision. Not- 
withstanding this put all the rest of the Saluages in that 
feare, especially in regard of the great league we had with 
Opechankanough, that we followed our labours quietly, and 
in such securitie that diuers saluages of other Nations, 

I daily frequented vs with what prouisions they could get, 
and would guide our men on hunting, and oft hunt for vs 
themselues. Captaine Yearly had a Saluage or two so a bad 
well trained vp to their peeces, they were as expert as any £S«,«J2]. 
of the English, and one hee kept purposely to kill him 
fowle. There were diuers others had Saluages in like 
manner for their men. 
Thus we liued together, as if wee had beene one people, 
all the time Captaine Yearley staied with us, but such 
grudges and discontents daily increased among our selues, 
that vpon the arriuall of Captaine Argall, sent by the 
Councell and Companie to bee our Gouernour, Captaine 
Yearley returned for England in the yeere 1617. 

From the writings of Captaine Nathaniel Powell, 
William Cantrill, Sergeant Boothe, Edward 


During this time, the Lady Rebecca, alias Pocahontas, Pocahontas 
daughter to Powhatan, by the diligent care of Master I dim 
Rolfe her husband and his friends, [w]as taught to speake 
such English as might well bee vnderstood, well instructed 
in Christianitie, and was become very formall and ciuill 
after our English manner; shee had also by him a childe 
which she loued most dearely, and the Treasurer and 
Company tooke order both for the maintenance of her and 
it, besides there were diuers persons of great ranke and 
qualitie had beene very kinde to her ; and before she 
arriued at London, Captaine Smith to deserue her former 
courtesies, made her qualities knowne to the Queenes 
most excellent Maiestie and her Court, and writ a little 
booke to this effect to the Queene : An abstract whereof 


To the most high and vertuous 

Princesse, Queene Anne of 
Great Brittanie. 

Most admired Queene, 

[1616] t ^ggC ^^S f 7 He loue I beare my God, my King and 
1 Countrie, hath so oft emboldened mee 
in the worst of extreme dangers, that 
now honestie doth constraine mee [toj 
presume thus farre beyond my selfe, to 
present your Maiestie this short dis- 
course : if ingratitude be a deadly poyson 
to all honest vertues, I must bee guiltie 
of that crime if I should omit any meanes to bee thankfull. 

So it is, 

That some ten yeeres agoe [i.e., Jan. 1608] being in 
Virginia, and taken prisoner by the power of Powhatan 
their chiefe King, I receiued from this great Saluage 
exceeding great courtesie, especially from his sonne 
Nantaquaus, the most manliest, comeliest, boldest 
spirit, I euer saw in a Saluage, and his sister Pocahontas, 
the Kings most deare and wel-beloued daughter, being 
but a childe of twelue or thirteene yeeres of age 
[therefore Smith,in June 161 6, estimated Pocahontas to have 
been born in 1595, or 1596; and consequently, in 1616, to 
be 21 or zoyears old : but in June 1608, he looked upon her 
as a child of 10 years of age (p. 38), or born in 1598; which 
would make her only 18 in 16 16. But that she was the 
older of these two estimates , is evident from the inscription 

A relation 
to Queene 
Anne, of 


jinfTe'SG Lib. 4. Concerning the Princesse Pocahontas. 531 

on her picture; which is further confirmed by the text [1616] 
at p. 169], whose compassionate pitifull heart, of my 
desperate estate, gaue me much cause to respect her : \j>. cxxxvi.] 
I being the first Christian this proud King and his 
grim attendants euer saw: and thus inthralled in 
their barbarous power, I cannot say I felt the least 
occasion of want that was in the power of those my 
mortall foes to preuent, notwithstanding al their 
threats. After some six weeks [or rather about three 
weeks, Smith was altogether away from James town, from 
10 Dec. 1607 to 8 Jan. 1608, i.e., four complete weeks 
and portions of two others : see pp. lxxxv-vi] fatting 
amongst those Saluage Courtiers, at the minute of 
my execution, she hazarded the beating out of her 
owne braines to saue mine ; and not onely that, but 
so preuailed with her father, that I was safely con- 
ducted to lames towne : where I found about eight 
and thirtie miserable poore and sicke creatures, to 
keepe possession of all those large territories of Vir- 
ginia ; such was the weaknesse of this poore Common- 
wealth, as had the Saluages not fed vs, we directly 
had starued. And this reliefe, most gracious 
Queene, was commonly brought vs by this [122] 
Lady Pocahontas. 

Notwithstanding all these passages, when inconstant 
Fortune turned our peace to warre, this tender Virgin 
would still not spare to dare to visit vs, and by her 
our iarres haue beene oft appeased, and our wants 
still supplyed ; were it the policie of her father thus 
to imploy her, or the ordinance of God thus to make 
her his instrument, or her extraordinarie affection to 
our Nation, I know not: but of this I am sure; 
when her father with the vtmost of his policie and 
power, sought to surprize mee [at Werowocomoco, about 
15 Jan. 1609, see pp. 138, 455], hauing but eighteene 
with mee, the darke night could not affright her from 
comming through the irkesome woods, and with 
watered eies gaue me intelligence, with her best 
aduice to escape his furie ; which had hee knowne, 
hee had surely slaine her. 

lames towne with her wild traine she as freely 

532 Concerning the Princesse Pocahontas. Lib. 4. \j^ 

une 1616. 

[1616] frequented, as her fathers habitation ; and during the 

time of two or three yeeres [1608-9], sn e next vnder 
God, was still the instrument to preserue this Colonie 
from death, famine and vtter confusion ; which if in 
those times, [it] had once beene dissolued, Virginia 
might haue line [lain] as it was at our first arriuall to 
this day. 

Since then, this businesse hauing beene turned and 
varied by many accidents from that I left it at [on 
4 Oct. 1609, see p. 497]: it is most certaine, after a long 
and troublesome warre after my departure, betwixt 
her father and our Colonie ; all which time shee was 
not heard of. 

[/. 5"l About two yeeres after [April 1613] shee her selfe 

was taken prisoner, being so detained neere two 
yeeres longer, the Colonie by that meanes was 
relieued, peace concluded ; and at last reiecting her 

[/ S x 4 .] barbarous condition, [she] was maried [1 April 1614] to 

an English Gentleman, with whom at this present she 
is in England ; the first Christian euer of that Nation, 
the first Virginian euer spake English, or had a childe 
in mariage by an Englishman : a matter surely, if my 
meaning bee truly considered and well vnderstood, 
worthy a Princes vnderstanding. 

Thus, most gracious Lady, I haue related to your 
Maiestie, what at your best leasure our approued Histories 
will account you at large, and done in the time of your 
Maiesties life ; and howeuer this might bee presented you 
from a more worthy pen, it cannot from a more honest 
heart, as yet I neuer begged any thing of the state, or any : 
and it is my want of abilitie and her exceeding desert ; 
your birth, meanes and authoritie ; hir birth, vertue, want 
and simplicitie, doth make mee thus bold, humbly to 
beseech your Maiestie to take this knowledge of her, 
though it be from one so vnworthy to be the reporter, as 
my selfe, her husbands estate not being able to make her 
fit to attend your Maiestie. The most and least I can doe, 
is to tell you this, because none so oft hath tried it as my 
selfe, and the rather being of so great a spirit, how euer 
her stature [Pocahontas was therefore not a tall woman] : if 

junfTele.] Lib. 4. Concerning the Princesse Pocahontas. 533 

she should not be well receiued, seeing this Kingdome may [1616] 
rightly haue a Kingdome by her meanes ; her present loue 
to vs and Christianitie might turne to such scorne and 
furie, as to diuert all this good to the worst of euill : 
where[as] rinding so great a Queene should doe her some 
honour more than she can imagine, for being so kinde to 
your seruants an subiects, would so rauish her v/ith 
content, as endeare her dearest bloud to effect that, your 
Maiestie and all the Kings honest subiects most earnestly 

And so I humbly kisse your gracious hands. 

Being about this time preparing to set saile for New- Pocahontas 
England, I could not stay to doe her that seruice I desired, £»S° 
and she well deserued ; but hearing shee was at Branford Sptaine 
with diuers of my friends, I went to see her. After a Smith > 
modest salutation, without any word, she turned about, 
obscured her face, as not seeming well contented ; and in 
that humour her husband, with diuers others, we all left 
her two or three houres, repenting my selfe to haue writ 
she could speake English. But not long after, she began 
to talke, and remembred mee well what courtesies shee 
had done : saying, 

You did promise Powhatan what was yours should 

bee his, and he the like to you ; you called him father 

being in his land a stranger, and by the same reason 

so must I doe you : 

which though I would haue excused, -I durst not allow 

of that title, because she was a Kings daughter ; with a 

well set countenance she said, 

Were you not afraid to come into my fathers 
Countrie, and caused feare in him and all his people 
(but mee), and feare you here I should call you father; 
I [123] tell you then I will, and you shall call mee 
childe, and so I will bee for euer and euer your 
Countrieman. They did tell vs alwaies you were 
dead, and I knew no other till I came to Plimoth 
[on 12 June 1616, p. 525]; yet Powhatan did command ™J%"^' 
Vttamatomakktn to seeke you, and know the truth, ualtionsoT" 
because your Countriemen will lie much. havsage. 

534 Concerning the Princess Pocahontas. Lib 4. [j 

J Smith, 
line 1616. 

[1616-7] This Saluage, one of Powhatans Councell, being amongst 
them held an vnderstanding fellow ; the King purposely 
sent him, as they say, to number the people here, and 
informe him well what wee were and our state. Arriuing 
at Plimoth, according to his directions, he got a long sticke, 
whereon by notches hee did thinke to haue kept the num- 
ber of all the men hee could see, but he was quickly wearie 
of that taske. 

Comming to London, where by chance I met him, hauing 
renewed our acquaintance, where many were desirous to 
heare and see his behauiour, hee told me 

Powhatan did bid him to finde me out, to shew him 

our God, the King, Queene, and Prince, I so much 

had told them of. 

Concerning God, I told him the best I could, the King 

I heard he had seene, and the rest hee should see when 

he would ; he denied euer to haue seene the King, till by 

circumstances he was satisfied he had : Then he replyed 

very sadly, 

You gaue Powhatan a white Dog, which Powhatan 
fed as himselfe ; but your King gaue me nothing, and 
I am better than your white Dog. 


her enter- 
with the 

The small time I staid in London, diuers Courtiers and 
others, my acquaintances, hath gone with mee to see her, 
that generally concluded, they did thinke God had a great 
hand in her conuersion, and they haue seene many English 
Ladies worse fauoured, proportioned, and behauioured ; 
and as since I haue heard, it pleased both the King and 
Queenes Maiestie honourably to esteeme her, accom- 
panied with that honourable Lady the Lady De la Ware, 
and that honourable Lord her husband, and diuers other 
persons of good qualities, both publikely at the maskes 
and otherwise, to her great satisfaction and content, which 
doubtlesse she would haue deserued, had she liued to 
arriue in Virginia, 


The gouernment deuolued to iei7. 
Captaine Samuel Argall, 1617. 

L^||§>f He Treasurer, Councell and Companie, [1617] 
hauing well furnished Captaine Samuel | ir T%° mas 
A rgall, the Lady Pocahontas alias Rebecca, Treasurer, 
with her husband and others, in the 
good ship called the George ; it pleased 
God at Grauesend to take this young The death 
Lady to his mercie, where shee made f ££t 
not more sorrow for her vnexpected 
death, than ioy to the beholders to heare and see her 
make so religious and godly an end. Her little childe 
Thomas Rolfe therefore was left at Plimoth with Sir Lewis 
Stukly, that desired the keeping of it. 

Captaine Hamar his vice-Admirall was gone before, but 
hee found him at Plimoth. In March they set saile 1617. 
and in May he arriued at lames towne, where hee was 
kindly entertained by Captaine Yearley and his Companie 
in a martiall order, whose right hand file was led by an 
Indian. In lames towne he found but fiue or six houses, 
the Church downe, the Palizado's broken, the Bridge in 
pieces, the Well of fresh water spoiled ; the Store-house 
they vsed for the Church ; the market-place, and streets, 
and all other spare places planted with Tobacco : the 
Saluages as frequent in their houses as themselues, 
whereby they were become expert in our armes, and had 
a great many in their custodie and possession ; the Colonie 
dispersed all about, planting Tobacco. 


The gouernment of 

LIB. 4. L J. Rolfe. 

[1617-8] Captaine Argall not liking those proceedings, altered 
them agreeable to his owne minde, taking the best 
order he could for repairing those defects which did 
exceedingly trouble vs ; we were constrained euery 
yeere to build and repaire our old Cottages, which were 
alwaies a decaying in all places of the Countrie : yea, 
the very Courts of Guard built by Sir Thomas Dale y was 
ready to fall, and the Palizado's not sufficient to keepe out 
Hogs. Their number of people were about 400. but not 
past 200. fit for husbandry and tillage : we found there in 
all one hundred twentie eight cattell, and fourescore and 
eight Goats, besides innumerable numbers of Swine, and 
good [124] plentie of Corne in some places, yet the next 
yeere [1618] the Captaine sent out a Frigat and a Pinnace, 
that brought vs neere six hundred bushels more, which did 
greatly relieue the whole Colonic For from the tenants 
wee seldome had aboue foure hundred bushels of rent 
Corne to the store, and there was not remaining of the 
Companies companie, past foure and fiftie men women 
and Children. 

This yeere hauing planted our fields, came a great 
drought ; and such a cruell storme of haile, which did such 
spoile both to the Corne and Tobacco, that wee reaped but 
small profit : the Magazine that came in the George, being 
fiue moneths in her passage, proued very badly conditioned; 
but ere she arriued, we had gathered and made vp our 
Tobacco, the best at three shillings the pound, the rest at 
eighteene pence. 

To supply vs, the Councell and Company with all pos- 
sible care and diligence, furnished a good ship of some 
two hundred and fiftie tunne, with two hundred people 
and the Lord la Ware. They set saile in Aprill [1618], and 
tooke their course by the westerne lies, where the Gouer- 
nour of the He of Saint Michael receiued the Lord la Ware, 
and honourably feasted him, with all the content hee could 
giue him. 

Going from thence, they were long troubled with con- 
trary winds, in which time many of them fell very 
sicke ; thirtie died, one of which number was that most 
honourable Lord Gouernour the Lord la Ware, whose 
most noble and generous disposition is well knowne to 

1000. [f 600] 

of Corne 
from the 


Sir Thomas 



The death 
of the Lord 
la Ware. 

Edby j J uiy S T6 l S:] LlB - 4- Captaine Samuel Argall. 537 

his great cost, had beene most forward in this businesse [1618] 
for his Countries good. 

Yet this tender state of Virginia was not growne to 
that maturitie, to maintaine such state and pleasure 
as was fit for such a personage, with so braue and 
great attendance : for some small number of aduentrous 
Gentlemen to make discoueries, and lie in Garrison 
ready vpon any occasion to keepe in feare the inconstant 
Saluages, nothing were more requisite ; but to haue more 
to wait and play than worke, or more commanders and 
officers than industrious labourers was not so necessarie. 
For in Virginia, a plaine Souldier that can vse a Pick-axe 
and spade, is better than fiue Knights, although they 
were Knights that could breake a Lance : for men of great 
place, not inured to those incounters, when they finde 
things not su ijtable, grow many times so discontented, they 
forget themselues, and oft become so carelesse, that a dis- 
contented melancholy brings them to much sorrow, and 
to others much miserie. 

At last they stood in for the coast of New-England; ^EJSIr, 
where they met a small Frenchman [i.e., a ship], rich of ^- e 
Beuers and other Furres. Though wee had here but Engla,td - 
small knowledge of the coast nor countrie ; yet they tooke 
such an abundance of Fish and Fowle, and so well 
refreshed themselues there with wood and water, as by 
the helpe of God thereby, hauing beene at Sea sixteene 
weekes [April-August 1618], [they] got to Virginia, who 
without this reliefe had beene in great danger to perish. 
The French-men made them such a feast, with such an 
abundance of varietie of Fish, Fowle and Fruits, as they 
all admired, and little expected that wild wildernesse could 
affoord such wonderfull abundance of plentie. 

In this ship came about two hundred men, but very little 
prouision : and the ship called the Treasurer came in againe 
not long after with fortie passengers. 

The Lord la Wares ship lying in Virginia three moneths 
[Aug. — Nov. 1618], wee victualled her with threescore 
bushels of Corne, and eight Hogsheads of flesh, besides 
other victuall she spent whilest they tarried there : this ship 
brought vs aduice that great multitudes were a preparing in 
England to bee sent, and relied much vpon that victuall 

538 Gouernement of Capt. Samuel Argall. Lib. 4. [ s j A R^e. 




and foure 



by the 



Church and 

and two 
boyes also 

they should finde here: whereupon our Captaine [Argall} 
called a Councell, and writ to the Councell here in England 
the estate of the Colonie, and what a great miserie would 
insue, if they sent not prouision as well as people ; and what 
they did suffer for want of skilfull husbandmen, and meanes 
to set their Ploughs on worke : hauing as good ground as 
any man can desire, and about fortie Bulls and Oxen; but 
they wanted men to bring them to labour, and Irons for the 
Ploughs, and harnesse for the Cattell. Some thirtie or fortie 
acres wee had sowne with one Plough, but it stood so long 
on the ground before it was reaped, it was most[ly] shaken ; 
and the rest spoiled with the [125] Cattell and Rats in the 
Barne, but no better Corne could bee for the quantitie. 

Richard Killingbeck being with the Captaine [Argall] at 
Kekoughtan, desired leaue to returne to his wife at Charles 
hundred, hee went to lames towne by water, there he got 
foure more to goe with him by land, but it proued that he 
intended to goe trade with the Indies [Indians] of Chicka- 
hamania: where making shewof the great quantitie of trucke 
they had, which the Saluages perceiuing, partly for their 
trucke, partly for reuenge of some friends they pretended 
should haue beene slaine by Captaine Yearley ; one of them 
with an English peece shot Killingbeck dead, the other 
Saluages assaulted the rest and slew them, stripped them, 
and tooke what they had. But fearing this murther would 
come to light, and might cause them to suffer for it, would 
now proceed to the perfection of villanie ; for presently 
they robbed their Machacomocko house of the towne, stole 
all the Indian treasure thereout, and fled into the woods, 
as other Indians related. 

On Sunday following, one Farfax that dwelt a mile from 
the towne, going to Church, left his wife and three small 
children safe at home, as he thought, and a young youth : 
she supposing praier to be done, left the children, and 
went to meet her husband ; presently after came three or 
foure of those fugitiue Saluages, entred the house, and slew 
a boy and three children : and also another youth that stole 
out of the Church in praier time, meeting them, was like- 
wise murdered. 

Of this disaster the Captaine [Argall] sent to Opechan- 

Ed. by J. Smith."] 
July 1624.J 

Lib. 4. A relation from Master I. Rolfe. 539 

kanough for satisfaction, but he excused the matter, as 
altogether ignorant of it ; at the same time the Saluages 
that were robbed were complaining to Opechankanough, and 
much feared the English would bee reuenged on them : so 
that Opechankanough sent to Captaine Argall, to assure him 
the peace should neuer be broken by him, desiring that he 
would not reuenge the iniurie of those fugitiues vpon the 
innocent people of that towne; which towne he should haue, 
and sent him a basket of earth, as possession giuen of it, 
and promised, so soone as possibly they could catch these 
robbers, to send him their heads for satisfaction, but he 
neuer performed it. 

Samuel Argall, lohn Rolfe. 


A relation from Master lohn Rolfe, Iune 15, 161 8. 

Oncerning the state of our new Common-wealth, 
it is somewhat bettered, for we haue sufficient 
to content our selues, though not in such abun- 
dance as is vainly reported in England. 

Powhatan died this last Aprill [1618], yet the Indians 
continue in peace. Itopatin his second brother succeeds 
him, and both hee and Opechankanough haue confirmed our 
former league. 

On the eleuenth of May, about ten of the clocke in the 
night, happened a most fearefull tempest, but it continued 
not past halfe an houre, which powred downe hailestones 
eight or nine inches about, that none durst goe out of their 
doores, and though it tore the barke and leaues of the 
trees, yet wee finde not they hurt either man or beast ; it 
fell onely about lames towne, for but a mile to the East, 
and twentie to the West there was no haile at all. 

Thus in peace euery man followed his building and 
planting without any accidents worthy of note. 

Some priuate differences happened betwixt Captaine 
Bruster and Captaine Argall, and Captaine Argall and the 
Companie here in England ; but of them I am not fully 
informed, neither are they here for any vse, and therefore 
vnfit to be remembred. 

In December [1617] one Captaine Stallings, an old planter 


eight inches 


The gouernment of 

Lib. 4. [j. 



[1617-9] in those parts, being imployed by them of the West countrie 
for a fishing voyage in New-England, fell foule of a French- 
man [i.e., ship] whom hee tooke, leauing his ovvne ship to 
returne for England, himselfe with a small companie 
remained in the French barke, some small time after vpon 
the coast, and thence returned to winter in Virginia. L126] 





The gouernment surrendred to Sir George Yearley. 

Or to begin with the yeere of our Lord, 1619. 

there arriued a little Pinnace priuatly from 

England about Easter [Easier Sunday 0. S. was 

28 Mar. in 1619] for Captained rga//; who taking 

order for his affaires, within foure or flue daies returned in 

her, and left for his Deputy, Captaine Nathaniel Powell. 

On the eighteenth of Aprill, which was but ten or twelue 
daies after, arriued Sir George Yearley, by whom we vnder- 
stood Sir Edwin Sand[y]s was chosen Treasurer, and Master 
Iohn Farrar his Deputy ; and what great supplies was a 
preparing to be sent vs, which did rauish vs so much with 
ioy and content, we thought our selues now fully satisfied 
for our long toile and labours, and as happy men as any 
in the world. Notwithstanding, such an accident hapned 
Captaine Stallings, [that] the next day his ship was cast 
away, and he not long after slaine in a priuate quarrell. 

Sir George Yearly to beginne his gouernment, added to 
be of his councell, Captaine Francis West, Captaine 
Nathaniel Powell, Master Iohn Pory, Master Iohn Rolfe, 
and Master William Wick[h]am, and Master Samuel Macocke, 
and propounded to haue a generall assembly with all 

Vpon the twelfth of this Moneth [April 1619], came in a 
Pinnace of Captaine Bargraues ; and on the seuenteenth 
[April 1619] Captaine Lownes, and one Master Euans, who 
intended to plant themselues at Waraskoyack : but now 
Ophechankanough will not come at vs, that causes vs 
[to] suspect his former promises. 

In May [1619J came in the Margaret of Bristoll, with foure 
and thirty men, all well and in health ; and also many deuout 
gifts : and we were much troubled in examining some scan- 

Ed. by J. Smith. "1 T TT > , 
July 1624 J A ' IB - 4- 

Sir George Yearley. 


dalous letters sent into England, to disgrace this Country [1619] 
with barrennesse, to discourage the aduenturers, and so 
bring it and vs to ruine and confusion. Notwithstanding, 
we finde by them of best experience, an industrious man 
not other waies imploied, may well tend foure akers of 
Corne, and 1000. plants of Tobacco; and where they say an 
aker will yeeld but three or foure barrels, we haue ordin- a barren 
arily foure or flue, but of new ground six, seuen, and eight, account 
and a barrell of Pease and Beanes, which we esteeme as buSeis. 
good as two of Corne, which is after thirty or forty bushels 
an aker, so that one man may prouide Corne for fiue; and 
apparell for two by the profit of his Tobacco. They say also 
English Wheat will yeeld but sixteene bushels an aker, 
and we haue reaped thirty : besides to manure the Land, 
no place hath more white and blew Marble [? marl]tha.n here, 
had we but Carpenters to build and make Carts and Ploughs, 
and skilfull men that know how to vse them, and traine 
vp our cattell to draw them ; which though we indeuour to 
effect, yet our want of experience brings but little to per- 
fection but planting Tobaco. And yet of that, many are so 
couetous to haue much, they make little good; besides 
there are so many sofisticating Tobaco-mungers in England^ 
were it neuer so bad, they would sell it for Verinas, and the 
trash that remaineth should be Virginia-, such deuilish bad 
mindes we know some of our owne Country-men doe beare, 
not onely to the businesse, but also to our mother England 
her selfe ; could they or durst they as freely defame her. 

The 25. of June [1619] came in the Triall with Corne and 
Cattell all in safety, which tooke from vs cleerely all feare 
of famine ; then our gouernour and councell caused Bur- 
gesses to be chosen in all places, and met at a generall Sneof 
Assembly, where all matters were debated [that were] Parlament - 
thought expedient for the good of the Colony, and Captaine 
Ward was sent to Monahigan in new England, to fish in 
May, and returned the latter end of May, but to small 
purpose, for they wanted Salt. The George also was sent 
to New-found-land with the Cape Merchant: there she 
bought fish, that defraied her charges, and made a good 
voyage in seuen weekes. 

About the last of August [1619] came in a dutch man of 
warre that sold vs twenty Negars [this was the first intro- 

542 A relation from Lib. 4. p'*^; 

[1619] duction of Negro slavery into Virginia] : and Iapazous King of 
Patawomeck, came to lames towne, to desire two ships to 
come trade in his Riuer, for a more plentifull yeere of Come 
had not beene in a long time, yet very contagious, and by 
the trechery of one Poide, in a manner turned heathen, wee 
[127] were very iealous the Saluages would surprize vs. 

Foure The Gouernours haue bounded foure Corporations ; 

corporations ^j^ j s me Companies, the Vniuersity, the Gouernours 
and Gleabe land : Ensigne Wil. Spencer, and Thomas Barret 
a Sergeant, with some others of the ancient Planters being 
set free, weare the first farmers that went forth ; and haue 
chosen places to their content : so that now knowing their 
owne land, they striue who should exceed in building and 

The fourth of Nouember [1619], the Bona noua came in 
with all her people lusty and well ; not long after one 
Master Dirmer sent out by some of Plimoth for New- 
England, arriued in a Barke of fiue tunnes, and returned 
the next Spring. 

Notwithstanding the ill rumours of the vnwholsomnesse 
of lames towne, the new commers that were planted at old 
Paspaheghe, [a] little more then a mile from it, had their 
healths better then any in the Country. 

captaine In December [1619J, Captaine Ward returned from 

wpiou. Patawomeck, the people there dealt falsly with him, so 
that hee tooke 800. bushels of Come from them perforce. 
Captaine Woddiffe of Bristol came in not long after, with 
all his people lusty and in health : and we had two par- 
ticular Gouernours sent vs, vnder the titles of Deputies to 
the Company, the one to haue charge of the Colledge 
Lands, the other of the Companies. 

Now you are tovnderstand,that because there haue beene 
many complaints against the Gouernors, Captaines, and 
Officers in Virginia: for buying and selling men and boies, 
or to bee set ouerfrom one to another for a yeerely rent, was 
held in England a thing most intolerable ; or that the tenants 
or lawfull seruants should be put from their places, or 
abridged their Couenants, was so odious, that the very report 
thereof brought a great scandall to the generall action. 
The Councell in England did send many good and worthy in- 
structions for the amending [of] those abuses, and appointed 

Ed - by /uiyT<£:] Lib. 4. Master Iohn Rolfe. 


a hundred men should at the Companies charge be allotted 

and prouided to serue and attend the Gouernour during 

the time of his gouernment, which number he was to make 

good at his departure, and leaue to his Successor in like 

lanner; fifty to the Deputy-Gouernour of the College land, 

tnd fifty to the Deputy of the Companies land, fifty to the 

treasurer, to the Secretary fiue and twenty, and more to^the 

larshall and Cape merchant ; which they are also to leaue 

to their successors; and likewise to euery particular Officer 

such a competency, as he might Hue well in his Office, 

without oppressing any vnder their charge : which good 

law I pray God it be well obserued, and then we may truly 

>ay in Virginia, we are the most happy people in the world. 

By me Iohn Rolfe. 


Here went this yeere by the Companies records, JsiS u «amd 
11. ships, and 1216. persons to be thus disposed men. lpsai 
on : Tenants for the Gouernors land fourescore, 
besides fifty sent the former spring; for the 
Companies land a hundred and thirty, for the College a 
hundred, for the Glebe land fifty, young women to make 
wiues ninety, seruants for publike seruice fifty, and fifty 
more whose labours were to bring vp thirty of the infidels 
children : the rest were sent to priuate Plantations. 

Two persons vnknowne haue giuen faire Plate and Gifts s Iuen 
Ornaments for two Communion Tables, the one at the 
College, the other at the Church of Mistris Mary Robinson, 
who towards the foundation gaue two hundred pound. 
And another vnknowne person sent to the Treasurer fiue 
hundred and fifty pounds, for the bringing vp of the saluage 
children in Christianity. Master Nicholas Farrar deceased, 
hath by his Will giuen three hundred pounds to the 
College, to be paid when there shall be ten young Saluages 
placed in it, in the meane time foure and twenty pound 
[i.e., the interest on £300 at the then rate of £6 per cent.] 
yeerely to bee distributed vnto three discreet and godly 
young men in the Colony, to bring vp three wilde young 
infidels in some good course of life. 

Also there were granted eleuen Pattents, vpon condition to ^J*^ 
transport people and cattle to increase the Plantations. [128] tEm rnM 

A French 
man [i.e. , a 
French ship\ 
cast away at 

A desperat Sea-fight betwixt two 

Spanish men of warre, and a small 

English ship, at the He of Dominica^ 

going to Virginia^ by Captaine 

Anthojiy Chester. 

I Airing taken our iourney towards Virginia 
in the beginning of February, a ship 
called the Margaret and Iohn, of one 
hundred and sixty tuns, eight Iron Peeces 
and a Falcon, with eightie Passengers 
besides Sailers ; After many tempests 
and foule weather, about the foureteenth 
of March [1620] we were in thirteene 
degrees and an halfe of Northerly latitude, where we 
descried a ship at hull ; it being but a faire gale of wind, 
we edged towards her to see what she was, but she 
presently set saile, and ran vs quickly out of sight. 

This made vs keepe our course for Mettalina, and the 
next day passing Dominica, we came to an anchor at 
Guardalupo, to take in fresh water. Six French-men there 
cast away sixteene moneths agoe [? Nov. 1618] came 
aboord vs; they told vs a Spanish man of Warre but 
seuen daies before was seeking his consort, and this was 
she we descried at hull. 

At Metiis we intended to refresh our selues, hauing 
beene eleuen weeks [Feb. — April 1620] pestered in this 
vnwholsome ship ; but there we found two tall ships with 
the Hollanders colours ; but necessitie forcing vs on shore, 
we anchored faire by them, and in friendly manner sent to 

Ed ' by juiy TeS.'] Lib. 4. A desperat Sea-fight at Dominica. 545 

ha[i]le them : but seeing they were Spaniards, retiring to our [1620] 
ship, they sent such a volley of shot after vs, that shot the JJ*^ . 
Boat, split the Oares, and [shot] some thorow the clothes, begin!*'' * 
yet not a man hurt ; and then followed with their great 
Ordnance, that many times ouer-racked our ship, which 
being so cumbred with the Passengers prouisions, our 
Ordnance was not well fitted, nor any thing as it should 
haue beene. 

But perceiuing what they were, we fitted our selues the 
best we could to preuent a mischiefe. Seeing them warp 
themselues to windward, we thought it not good to be 
boorded on both sides at an anchor; we intended to set The vice- 
saile, but that the Vice-Admirall battered so hard our star- ^ irsdl 
boord side, that we fell to our businesse, and answered ^JJ^J 
their vnkindnesse with such faire shot from a Demiculuer- water, 
ing, that shot her betweene wind and water, whereby she 
was glad to leaue vs and her Admirall together. 

Comming faire by our quarter, he tooke in his Holland 
flag, and put forth his Spanish colours, and so ha[i]led vs. 
We quietly and quickly answered him, both what wee 
were, and whither bound ; relating the effect of our Com- 
mission, and the cause of our comming thither for water, 
and not to annoy any of the King oiSpaines Subiects,nor any. 

She commanded vs amaine for the King of Spaine. 

We replied with inlarging the particulars what friends 
both the Kings our Masters were ; and as we would doe 
no wrong, we would take none. 

They commanded vs aboord to shew our Commission ; 
which we refused, but if they would send their Boat to 
vs willingly they should see it. But for answer they made ^*£? nna 
two great shot at vs, with a volley of small shot, which fight eir 
caused vs to leaue the decks ; then with many ill words 
they laid vs aboord, which caused vs to raise our maine 
saile, and giue the word to our small shot which lay close 
and ready, that paid them in such sort, they quickly retired. 

The fight continued halfe an houre, as if we had beene 
inuironed with fire and smoke, vntill they discouered the 
waste of our ship naked, where they brauely boorded vs 
loofe for loofe, hasting with pikes and swords to enter; but 
it pleased God so to direct our Captaine, and encourage 
our men with valour, that our pikes being formerly placed 


546 A desperat Sea-fight Lib. 4. ["-^^ 

[1620] vnder our halfe deck, and certaine shot lying close for that 
purpose vnder the Port holes, encountred them so rudely, 
that their fury was not onely rebated, but their hastinesse 
intercepted, and their whole company beaten backe. Many 
of our men were hurt, but I am sure they had two for one. 
In the end they were violently repulsed, vntill they were 
reinforced to charge [129] againe by their commands, who 
standing vpon their honors, thought it a great indignity 
to be so affronted, which caused a second charge, and that 
answered with a second beating backe : whereat the Cap- 
taine grew inraged, and constrained them to come on 
againe afresh, which they did so effectually, that question- 
lesse it had wrought an alteration, if the God that tosseth 
Monarchies, and teareth Mountaines, had not taught vs 
to tosse our Pikes with prosperous euents, and powred 
out a volley of small shot amongst them, whereby that 
Sjtain. valiant Commander was slaine, and many of his Souldiers 
turn*. dropped downe likewise on the top of the hatches. 

This we saw with our eies, and reioyced with it at our 
hearts, so that we might perceiue good successe comming 
on, our Captaine presently tooke aduantage of their dis- 
comfiture, though with much comiseration of that resolute 
Captaine, and not onely plied them againe with our 
Ordnance, but had more shot vnder the Pikes, which was 
bestowed to good purpose, and amazed our enemies with 
the suddennesse. 
a worthy Amongst the rest, one Lucas, our Carpenters Mate, must 
ISm. not be forgotten, who perceiuing a way how to annoy 
them ; As they were thus puzled and in a confusion, drew 
out a Minion vnder the halfe decke, and there bent it 
vpon them in such a manner, that when it was fired, the 
cases of stones and peeces of Iron fell vpon them so thick, 
as cleared the decke, and slew many; and in short time we 
saw few assailants, but such as crept from place to place 
couertly from the fury of our shot, which now was thicker 
than theirs : for although as far as we may commend our 
enemies, they had done something worthy of commenda- 
tions; yet either wanting men, or being ouertaken with 
the vnlooked for valour of our men, they now began to 
shrinke, and giue vs leaue to be wanton with our aduantage. 
Yet we could onely vse but foure peece of Ordnances, 

^'^juiy^l;:] Lib. 4. at the He of Dominica. 547 

but they serued the turne as well as all the rest : for [1620] 

she was shot so oft betweene wind and water, we saw 

they were willing to leaue vs, but by reason she was fast 

in the latch of our cable, which in haste of weighing our 

anchor hung aloofe, she could not cleare her selfe as she 

wrought to doe, till one cut the Cable with an axe, and 

was slaine by freeing vs. Hauing beene aboord vs two 

houres and an halfe, seeing her selfe cleere, all the shot 

wee had, plaied on both sides, which lasted till we were 

out of shot ; then we discouered the Vice-Admirall com- 

ming to her assistance, who began a farre off to ply vs 

with their Ordnances, and put vs in minde we had another 

worke in hand. Whereupon we separated the dead and 

hurt bodies, and manned the ship with the rest, and were 

so well incouraged wee waifed them amaine. 

The Admirall stood aloofe off, and the other would not 
come within Falcon shot, where she lay battering vs till 
shee receiued another paiment from a Demiculuering, 
which made her beare with the shore for smooth water 
to mend her leakes. 

The next morning they both came vp againe with vs, 
as if they had determined to deuour vs at once, but 
it seemed it was but a brauado, though they forsooke 
not our quarter for a time within Musket shot ; yet all the 
night onely they kept vs company, but made not a shot. 
During which time we had leasure to prouide vs better 
than before : but God bethanked they made onely but 
a shew of another assault, ere suddenly the Vice-admirall 
fell a starne, and the other lay shaking in the wind, and 
so they both left vs. 

The fight continued six houres, and was the more Theeuent 
vnwelcome, because we were so ill prouided, and had no ofthefight 
intent to fight, nor giue occasion to disturbe them. As 
for the losse of men, if Religion had not taught vs what 
by the prouidence of God is brought to passe, yet daily 
experience might informe vs, of the dangers of wars, 
and perils at sea, by stormes tempests, shipwracks, en- 
counters with Pirats, meeting with enemies, crosse winds, 
long voiages, vnknowne shores, barbarous Nations, and 
an hundred inconueniences, of which humane pollicies 
are not capable, nor mens coniectures apprehensiue. 

548 A desperat Sea-fight at Dominica. Lib, 

4TEd. by J. Smith. 

July 1634. 



We lost Doctor Bohun, a worthy valiant Gentleman, (a 
long time brought vp amongst the most learned Surgeons 
and Physitions in Netherlands, and this his second iourney 
to Virginia :) and seuen slaine out right ; two died shortly 
of their wounds; sixteene was shot, whose limbs [130] God 
be thanked was recouered without maime, and [they are] 
now setled in Virginia. 

How many they lost we know not, but we saw a great 
many lie on the decks, and their skuppers runne with 
bloud. They were about three hundred tunnes apeece, 
[and] each [of] sixteene or twentie Brasse-peeces. 

Captaine Chester, who in this fight had behaued himselfe 
like a most vigilant, resolute, and a couragious souldier, 
as also our honest and valiant Master, did still so comfort 
and incourage vs by all the meanes they could. 

At last, to all our great contents, we arriued in Virginia^ 
and from thence returned safely to England, 

The Names of the Aduenturers 

for Virginia^ Alphabetically set downe, 

according to a printed Booke, set out by the 

Treasurer and Councell in this present 

yeere, 1620. 

Edward Allen. 

Edmund A lien Esquire. 

John Allen. 

Thomas Allen. 

William A tkinson, Esquire. 

Richard Ashcroft, 

Nicholas Andrews. 

Iohn Andrews the elder, 

Iohn A ndrews the younger. 

lames Ascough. 

Giles Allington, 

Morris A bbot. 

Ambrose Asten. 

lames Askew. 

Ir William A liffe. 
Sir Roger Aston. 
Sir Anthony Ashley. 
Sir Iohn A kland. 
Sir Anthonie Aucher, 
Sir Robert Askwith. 
Doctor Francis A nthony. 
Charles Anthony. 

Anthony Abdey. 

Iohn Arundell, Esquire, 



Edward, Earle of Bedford, 
lames, Lord Bishop of Bathe 

and Wells. 
Sir Francis Barrington. 
Sir Morice Barkley. 
Sir Iohn Benet. 
Sir Thomas Beamont. 
Sir A mias Bamfield, 
Sir Iohn Bourcher* 


The names of the Aduenturers. Lib. 4. [ Edby jJ] y s ^. 

Sir Edmund Bowyer. 

Iohn Baker. 

Sir Thomas Bladder, 

Iohn Bustoridge. 

Sir George Bolles. 

Francis Burley. 

Sir John Bingley. 

William Browne. 

Sir Thomas Button. 

Robert Barker. 

Sir Henry Beddingfield. 

Samuel Bumham. 

Companie of Barbers - Sur- 

Edward Barkley. 


William Bennet. 

Companie of Bakers, 

Captaine Edward Brewster. 

Richard Banister. 

Thomas Brocket. 

Iohn Bancks. 

Iohn Bullock. 

Miles Bancks. 

George Bache. 

Thomas Barber. 

Thomas Bayly. 

William Bonham. 

William Barkley. 

lames Bryerley. 

George Butler. 

William Barners. 

Timothie Bathurst. 

Anthony Barners, Esquire. 

George Burton. 

William Brewster. 

Thomas Bret. 

Richard Brooke. 

Captaine Iohn Brough. 

Hugh Brooker, Esquire. 

Thomas Baker. 

A mbrose Brewsey. 

Iohn Blunt. 

Iohn Brooke. 

Thomas Bayly. 

Matthew Bromridge. 

Richard and Edward Blunt. 

Christopher Brooke, Esquire. 

Mineon Burrell. 

Martin Bond. 

Richard Blackmore. 

Gabriel Beadle. 

William Beck. 

Iohn Beadle. 

Beniamin Brand. 

Dauid Borne. 

Iohn Busbridge. 

Edward Barnes. 

William Burrell. 

Iohn Badger. 

William Barret. 

Edmund Branduell. 

Francis Baldwin. 

Robert Bowyer, Esquire. 

Edward Barber. 

Robert Bateman. 

Humphrey Basse. 

Thomas Britton. 

Robert Bell. 

Nicholas Benson. [131] 

Matthew Bromrick. 

Edward Bishop. 

Iohn Beaumont. 

Peter Burgoney. 

George Barkley. 

Thomas Burgoney. 

Peter Bartle. 

Robert Burgoney. 

Thomas Bretton. 

Christopher Baron. 

Iohn Blount. 

Peter Benson. 

Arthur Bromfeld Esquire. 

Ed. by J. Smith."] 
July 1624.J 

Lib. 4. The names of the Aduenturers. 


William Berbloke. 
Charles Beck. 

George, Lord Archbishop of 

William Lord Cranborne, 

now Earle of Salisburie. 
William, Lord Compton, now 

Earle of North-hampton. 
William Lord Cauendish, 

now Earle of Deuonshire. 
Richard, Earle of Clanricard. 
Sir William Cauendish now 

Lord Cauendish. 
Gray, Lord Chandos, 
Sir Henry Cary. 
Sir George Caluert. 
Sir Lionell Cranfield. 
Sir Edward Cecill. 
Sir Robert Cotten. 
Sir Oliuer Cromwell. 
Sir Anthony Cope. 
Sir Walter Cope. 
Sir Edward Carr. 
Sir Thomas Conisbie. 
Sir George Cary. 
Sir Edward Conwey. 
Sir Walter Chute. 
Sir Edward Culpeper. 
Sir Henry Cary, Captaine. 
Sir William Crauen. 
Sir Walter Couert. 
Sir George Coppin. 
Sir George Chute. 
Sir Thomas Couentry. 
Sir Iohn Cutts. 
Lady Cary. 

Company of Cloth-workers. 
Citie of Chichester. 

Robert Chamberlaine. 
Richard Chamberlaine. 
Francis Couill. 
William Coyse, Esquire. 
A braham Chamberlaine. 
Thomas Carpenter. 
Anthony Crew. 
Richard Cox. 
William Crosley. 
lames Chatfeild. 
Richard Caswell. 
Iohn Cornelis. 
Randall Carter. 
Executors of Randall Carter* 
William Canning. 
Edward Carue, Esquire. 
Thomas Cannon, Esquire. 
Richard Champion. 
Rawley Crashaw. 
Henry Collins. 
Henry Cromwell. 
Iohn Cooper. 
Richard Cooper. [132] 
Iohn Casson. 
Thomas Colthurst. 
Allen Cotten. 
Edward Cage. 
Abraham Carthwright. 
Robert Coppin. 
Thomas Cenock. 
Iohn Clapham. 
Thomas Church. 
William Carpenter, 
Laurence Campe. 
lames Cambell. 
Christopher Cletheroe. 
Matthew Cooper. 
George Chamber. 
Captaine Iohn Cooke. 
Captaine Thomas Conwey, 


552 The names of the Aduenturers. Lib. 4. [^ by jJi y s S£5; 

[1620] Edward Culpeper, Esquire. 
Master William Crashaw. 
Abraham Colmer. 
Iohn Culpeper. 
Edmund Colbey. 
Richard Cooper. 
Robert Creswell. 
Iohn Cage, Esquire. 
Matthew Caue. 
William Crowe. 
Abraham Carpenter. 
Iohn Crowe. 
Thomas Cordell. 
Richard Connock, Esquire. 
William Compton. 
William Chester. 
Thomas Couel. 

Richard Carmarden, Esquire. 
William and Paul Canning. 
Henry Cromwell, Esquire. 
Simon Codrington. 
Clement Chichley. 
lames Cullemore. 
William Cantrell. 

Richard Earle of Dorset. 

Edward Lord Denny. 

Sir Iohn Digbie, now Lord 

Sir Iohn Doderidge. 
Sir Drew Drewry the elder. 
Sir Thomas Dennis. 
Sir Robert Drewry. 
Sir Iohn Dauers. 
Sir Dudley Digs. 
Sir Marmaduke Dovrel. 
Sir Thomas Dale. 
Sir Thomas Denton. 

Companie of Drapers. 

Thomas Bond, Esquire. 

Dauid Bent, Esquire. 

Com[p]anie of Dyers. 

Towne of Douer. 

Master Richard Deane, Al- 

Henry Dawkes. 

Edward Dichfield. 

William Dunne. 

Iohn Dauis. 

Matthew Dequester. 

Philip Durdent. 

Abraham Dawes. 

Iohn Dike. 

Thomas Draper. 

Lancelot Dauis. 

Rowley Dawsey. 

William Dobson Esquire. 

Anthony Dyot, Esquire. 

Auery Dranfield. 

Roger Dye. 

Iohn Downes. 

Iohn Drake. 

Iohn Delbridge. 

Beniamin Decroe. 

Thomas Dyke. 

Ieffery Duppa. 

Daniel Darnelly. 

Sara Draper. 

Clement and Henry Dawk- 

Thomas, Earle of Exeter. 
Sir Thomas Euer field. 
Sir Francis Egiock. 
Sir Robert Edolph. 
Iohn Eldred, Esquire. 
William Euans. 

Ed. byjf. Smith. - ! T T1J 
Jilyi62 4 j ^ IB * 

4. The names of the Aduenturers. 553 

Richard, Euans. 
Hugh Euans. 
Ralph Ewens, Esquire. 
Iohn Elkin. 
John Elkin. 
Robert Euelin. 
Nicholas Exton. 
Iohn Exton. 
George Ether idge. 

Sir Moyle Finch. 

Sir Henry Fanshaw. 

Sir Thomas Freake. 

Sir Peter Fretchuile. [133] 

Sir William Fleetwood. 

Sir Henry Fane. 

Company of Fishmongers. 

Iohn Fletcher. 

Iohn Farmer. 

Martin Freeman, Esquire. 

Ralph Freeman. 

William and Ralph Free- 
Michael Fetiplace. 

William Fettiplace. 

Thomas Forrest. 

Edward Fleetwood, Esquire. 

William Felgate. 

William Field. 

Nicholas Ferrar, 

Iohn Farrar. 

Giles Francis. 

Edward Fawcet. 

Richard Farrington* 

Iohn Francklin. 

Richard Frith. 

Iohn Feme. 

George Farmer. 

Thomas Francis. 

Iohn Fenner. 

Nicholas Fuller, Esquire. 

Thomas Foxall. 

William Fleet. 

Peter Franck, Esquire. 

Richard Fishbome. 

William Faldoe. 

Iohn Fletcher, and Company. 

William Ferrars. 

Lady Elizabeth Gray. 
Sir Iohn Gray. 
Sir William Godolfine. 
Sir Thomas Gates. 
Sir William Gee. 
Sir Richard Grobham. 
Sir William Gar aw ay. 
Sir Francis Goodwin. 
Sir George Goring. 
Sir Thomas Grantham. 
Company of Grocers. 
Company of Goldsmiths. 
Company of Girdlers. 
Iohn Geering. 
Iohn Gardiner. 
Richard Gardiner* 
Iohn Gilbert. 
Thomas Graue. 
Iohn Gray. 
Nicholas Griece. 
Richard Goddard. 
Thomas Gipps. 
Peter Gates. 
Thomas Gibbs Esquire, 
Laurence Greene. 
William Greenwell. 
Robert Garset. 
Robert Gore. 


554 The names of the Aduenturers. 

T TB i rEd. by J. Smith. 

[1620] Thomas Gouge. 

Francis Glanuile, Esquire. 


Henry, Earle of Huntington. 

Lord Theophilus H award, L. 

Sir Iohn Harrington, L. 

Sir Iohn Hollis, now Lord 

Sir Thomas Holecroft. 

Sir William Harris. 

Sir Thomas Hareflect. 

Sir George Haiward. 

Sir VVarwicke Heale. 

Sir Baptist Hicks. 

Sir Iohn Hanham. 

Sir Thomas Horwell. 

Sir Thomas Hewit. 

Sir William Herrick. 

Sir Eustace Hart. 

Sir Pory Huntley. 

Sir Arthur Harris. 

Sir Edward Heron. 

Sir Perseuall Hart. 

Sir Ferdinando Heiborne. 

Sir Lawrence Hide. 

Master Hugh Hamersley, A U 

Master Richard Heron, Al- 

Richard Humble, Esquire. 

Master Richard Hackleuit. 

Edward Harrison. 

George Holeman. 

Robert Hill. 

Griffin Hinton, 

Iohn Hawkins. 

William Hancocke. 

Iohn Harper. 
George Hawger. 
Iohn Holt. 
Iohn Huntley. 
Ieremy Heiden. 
Ralph Hamer. 
Ralph Hamer, Iunior. 
Iohn Hodgeson. 
Iohn Hanford. 
Thomas Harris. [134] 
Richard Howell. 
Thomas Henshaw. 
Leonard Harwood. 
Tristram Hill. 
Francis Haselridge. 
Tobias Hinson. 
Peter Heightley. 
George Hawkenson. 
Thomas Hackshaw. 
Charles Hawkens. 
Iohn Hodgis. 
William Holland, 
Robert Hartley. 
Gregory Herst. 
Thomas Hodgis. 
William Hodgis. 
Roger Harris. 
Iohn Harris. 
M. Iohn Haiward. 
lames Haiward. 
Nicholas Hide, Esquire, 
Iohn Hare, Esquire. 
William Hackwell, Esquire. 
Gressam Hoogan. 
Humfrey Hanford m 
William Haselden. 
Nicholas Hooker. 
Doctor Anthony Hunion. 
Iohn Hodsale. 
George Hooker. 
Anthony Hinton. 

Ed * b5 juiy TeSjQ Lib. 4. The names of the Aduenturers. 555 

Iohn Hogsell. 
Thomas Hampton. 
William Hicks. 
William Holiland. 
Ralph Harison. 
Harman Harison. 


Sir Thomas Iermyn. 

Sir Robert Johnson. 

Sir Arthur Ingram. 

Sir Francis I ones. 

Company of Ironmongers. 

Company of Inholders. 

Company of Imbroyderers. 

Bailiffes of Ipswich. 

Henry Iackson. 

Richard Ironside. 

M. Robert Iohnson Alderman. 

Thomas I ones. 

William Iobson. 

Thomas Iohnson. 

Thomas Iadwine, 

Iohn Iosua. 

George Isam. 

Philip Iacobson. 

Peter Iacobson. 

Thomas Iuxson Senior. 

lames Iewell. 

Gabriel Iaques. 

Walter Iobson. 

Edward lames. 

Zachary Iones, Esquire. 

Anthony Irbye, Esquire. 

William I-anson. 

Humfrey Iobson. 

Sir Valentine Knightley. 

Sir Robert Killegrew, 

Sir Charles Kelke. 

Sir Iohn Kaile. 

Richard Kirrill. 

Iohn Kirrill. 

Ra[l]ph King. 

Henry Kent. 

Towne of Kings lynne. 

Iohn Kettleby, Esquire. 

Walter Kirkham, Esquire* 

Henry Earle of Lincolne. 
Robert, L. Lisle, now Earls 

of Leicester. 
Thomas, Lord Laware. 
Sir Francis Leigh. 
Sir Richard Lowlace. 
Sir William Litton. 
Sir Iohn Lewson. 
Sir William Lower. 
Sir Samuel Leonard. 
Sir Samson Leonard. 
Company of Lethersellers, 
Thomas Laughton. 
William Lewson. 
Peter Latham. 
Peter Van Lore. 
Henry Leigh. 
Thomas Leuar. 
Christofer Landman* 
Morris Lewellin. 
Edward Lewis. 
Edward Lewkin. 
Peter Lodge. 
Thomas Layer. 
Thomas Lawson. 
Francis Lodge. [135] 
Iohn Langley. 
Dauid Loide. 


556 The names of the Aduenturers. Lib. 

., TEd. by J. Smith, 
4- L July 16,4. 

[16201 John Leuitt. 

Thomas Fox and Luke Lodge. 
Captaine Richard Linley. 
Arnold Lulls. 
William Lawrence. 
Iohn Landman. 
Nicholas Lichfield, 
Nicholas Leate. 
Gedeon de Laune. 


Philip Earle of Montgomerie. 
Doctor George Mountaine, 

now Lord Bishop of 

William Lord Mounteagle, 

now Lord Morley. 
Sir Thomas Mansell. 
Sir Thomas Mildmay. 
Sir William Maynard. 
Sir Humfrey May. 
Sir Peter Manhood, 
Sir Iohn Merrick. 
Sir George More. 
Sir Robert Mansell. 
Sir Arthur Mannering, 
Sir Dauid Murrey. 
Sir Edward Michelborn. 
Sir Thomas Middleton. 
Sir Robert Miller. 
Sir Caualiero Maicott. 
Doctor lames Meddus. 
Richard Martin, Esquire. 
Company of Mercers. 
Company of Merchant Taylors. 
Otho Mowdite. 
Captaine Iohn Martin. 
Arthur Mouse. 
Adrian More. 
Thomas Mountford. 

Thomas Morris. 
Ralph Moorton. 
Francis Mapes. 
Richard Maplesden. 
lames Monger. 
Peter Monsell. 
Robert Middleton 
Thomas Maile. 
Iohn Martin. 
Iosias Maude. 
Richard Morton. 
George Mason. 
Thomas Maddock. 
Richard Moore. 
Nicholas Moone. 
Alfonsus van Medkerk. 
Captaine Henry Meoles. 
Philip Mutes. 
Thomas Mayall. 
Humfrey Marret. 
Iaruis Mundz. 
Robert Mildmay. 
William Millet. 
Richard Morer. 
Iohn Miller. 
Thomas Martin. 
Iohn Middleton. 
Francis Middleton. 


Dudly, Lord North. 

Francis, Lord N orris. 

Sir Henry Neuill of Bark' 

Thomas Nicols. 
Christopher Nicols. 
William Nicols. 
George Newce. 
Ioseph Newberow. 
Christopher Newgate 

M,by j{iySfe5.'] Lib. 4. The names of the Aduenturers. 557 

Thomas Norincott. 
Ionathan Nuttall. 
Thomas Norton. 

William Oxenbridge, Esquire. 
Robert Offley. 
Francis Oliuer. 

William, Earle of Pembroke. 

William, Lord Paget. 

Iohn, Lord Petre. 

George Percy, Esquire, 

Sir Christofer Parkins. 

Sir Amias Preston. 

Sir Nicholas Parker. 

Sir William Poole. 

Sir Stephen Powell. 

Sir Henry Peyton. 

Sir lames Perrot. 

Sir Iohn Pettus. 

Sir Robert Payne. 

William Payne. 

Iohn Payne. 

Edward Parkins. 

Edward Parkins his 

widow. [136] 
Aden Perkins. 
Thomas Perkin. 
Richard Partridge. 
William Palmer. 
Miles Palmer. 
Robert Parkhurst. 
Richard Perciuall, Esquire. 
Richard Poyntell. 
George Pretty. 
George Pit. 
Allen Percy. 

A braham Peirce. 
Edmund Peirce. 
Phenice Pet. 
Thomas Philips. 
Henry Philpot. 
Master George Procter. 
Robert Penington. 
Peter Peate. 
Iohn Prat. 
William Powell. 
Edmund Peashall. 
Captaine William Proude. 
Henry Price. 
Nicholas Pewriffe. 
Thomas Pelham. 
Richard Piggot. 
Iohn Pawlet, Esquire. 
Robert Pory. 
Richard Paulson. 

William Quicke. 



Sir Robert Rich, now Earle 

of Warwicke. 
Sir Thomas Row. 
Sir Henry Rainsford. 
Sir William Romney. 
Sir Iohn Ratcliffe. 
Sir Steuen Ridlesdon. 
Sir William Russell. 
Master Edward Rotheram, 

Robert Rich. 
Tedder Roberts. 
Henry Robinson. 
Iohn Russell. 
Richard Rogers. 


The names of the Aduenturers. Lib. 

A TEd. by J. Smith. 
4* L July 1624. 

[1620] Arthur Robinson. 
Robert Robinson. 
Millicent Ramsden. 
John Robinson. 
George Robins. 
Nichalas Rainton. 
Henry Rolffe. 
Iohn Reignolds. 
Elias Roberts. 
Henry Reignolds, Esquire. 
William Roscarrocke, Esquire. 
Humfrey Raymell. 
Richard Robins. 

Henry, Earle of Southampton. 

Thomas, Earle of Suffolke. 

Edward Semer, Earle of 

Robert, Earle of Salisbury. 

Mary, Countesse of Shrews- 

Edmund, Lord Shejfeld. 

Robert, Lord Spencer. 

Iohn, Lord Stanhope. 

Sir Iohn Saint-Iohn. 

Sir Thomas Smith. 

Sir Iohn Samms. 

Sir Iohn Smith. 

Sir Edwin Sandys. 

Sir Samuel Sandys. 

Sir Steuen Some. 

Sir Ra[l]ph Shelton. 

Sir Thomas Stewkley. 

Sir William Saint-Iohn. 

Sir William Smith. 

Sir Richard Smith. 

Sir Martin Stuteuill. 

Sir Nicolas Salter. 

Doctor Matthew Sutcliffe 

Captaine Iohn Smith. 
Thomas Sandys, Esquire. 
Henry Sandys, Esquire. 
George Sandys, Esquire. 
Company of Skinners. 
Company of Salters. 
Company of Stationers. 
Iohn Stokley. 
Richard S taper. 
Robert Singleton. 
Thomas Shipton. 
Cleophas Smith. 
Richard Strongtharm. 
Hildebrand Spruson. 
Matthew Scriuener. 
Othowell Smith. 
George Scot. 
Hewet S tapers. [137] 
lames Swift. 
Richard Stratford. 
Edmund Smith. 
Robert Smith. 
Matthias Springham. 
Richard Smith. 
Edward Smith. 
Ionathan Smith. 
Humfrey Smith. 
Iohn Smith. 
George Swinhow. 
Ioseph Some. 
William Sheckley. 
Iohn Southick. 
Henry Shelley. 
Walter Shelley. 
Richard Snarsborow. 
George Stone. 
Hugh Shepley. 
William Strachey. 
Vrion Spencer. 


Ed ' by juiy 3s£:] ^ 1B - 4* The names of the Aduenturers. 559 

Iohn Scarpe. 
Thomas Scott. 
William Sharpe. 
Steuen Sparrow. 
Thomas Stokes. 
Richard Shepard. 
Henry Spranger. 
William Stonnard. 
Steuen Sad. 
Iohn Stockley. 
Thomas Steuens. 
Matthew Shepard. 
Thomas Sherwell. 
William Seabright, Esquire. 
Nicholas Sherwell. 
Augustine Steward. 
Thomas Stile. 
Abraham Speckhard. 
Edmund Scot. 
Francis Smalman. 
Gregory Sprint, Esquire. 
Thomas Stacey. 
William Sandbatch. 
Augustine Stuard, Esquire. 

Sir William Twisden. 
Sir William Throckmorton. 
Sir Nicholas Tufton. 
Sir Iohn Treuer. 
Sir Thomas Tracy. 
George Thorpe, Esquire. 
Doctor William Turner. 
The Trinity house. 
Richard Turner, 
Iohn Tauerner. 
Daniel Tucker. 
Charles Towler. 
William Tayler. 
Leonard Townson. 

Richard Tomlins. 
Francis Tate, Esquire. 
Andrew Troughton. 
George Tucker. 
Henry Timberlake. 
William Tucker. 
Lewis Tite. 
Robert Thornton. 

Sir Horatio Vers. 
Sir Walter Vaughan. 
Henry Vincent. 
Richard Venne. 
Christopher Vertue. 
Iohn Vassell. 
Arthur Venne. 


Henry Bishop of Worcester. 
Francis West, Esquire. 
Sir Ralph Winwood. 
Sir Iohn Wentworth. 
Sir William Waad. 
Sir Robert Wroth. 
Sir Perciual Willoby. 
Sir Charles Wilmott. 
Sir Iohn Wats. 
Sir Hugh Worrell. 
Sir Edward Waterhouse. 
Sir Thomas Wilsford. 
Sir Richard Williamson. 
Sir Iohn Wolstenholm. 
Sir Thomas Walsingham. 
Sir Thomas Watson. 
Sir Thomas Wilson. 
Sir Iohn Weld. 
Mistris Katharine West, now 
Lady Conway. 


560 The names of the Aduenturers. Lib. 4. 

LEd. by J. Smith. 
July 1624. 

L1620] Iohn Wroth, Esquire. 

Captaine Maria Winckfield, 

Thomas Webb. 
Rice Webb. 
Edward Webb. 
Sands Webb. 
Felix Wilson. 
Thomas White. 
Richard Wiffen. [138] 
William Williamson. 
Humfrey Westwood. 
Hugh Willeston. 
Thomas Wheatley. 
William Wattey. 
William Webster, 
lames White. 
Edmund Winne. 
Iohn West. 
Iohn Wright. 
Edward Wooller. 
Thomas Walker. 
Iohn Wooller. 
Iohn Westrow. 
Edward Welch. 
Nathaniel Waad. 
Richard Widowes. 
Dauid W ater house , Esquire. 
Captaine Owen Winne. 
Randall Wetwood. 
George Wilmer, Esquire. 
Edward Wilkes. 
Leonard White. 
Andrew Willmer, 

Clement Willmer, 
George Walker. 
William Welbie. 
Francis Whistler. 
Thomas Wells. 
Captaine Thomas Winne. 
Iohn Whittingham. 
Thomas Wheeler. 
William Willet. 
Deuereux Woogam. 
Iohn Walker. 
Thomas Wood. 
Iohn Willet. 
Nicholas Wheeler, 
Thomas Wale. 
William Wilston. 
Iohn Waller. 
William Ward. 
William Willeston. 
Iohn Water. 
Thomas Warr, Esquire, 
Dauid Wiffen. 
Garret Weston. 

Sir George Yeardley, now 

Gouernour of Virginia. 
William Yong. 
Simon Yeomans. 

Edward, Lord Zouch, 
Iohn Zouch, Esquire, 

^ ^Ip ' Hat most generous and most honour- [1620-1] 
able Lord, the Earle of Southampton, 
being pleased to take vpon him the 
title of Treasurer, and Master Iohn 
Farrar his Deputy, with such instruc- 
tions as were necessary, and admoni- 
tions to all Officers to take heede of 
extortion, ingrosing commodities, fore- 
stalling of markets, especially to haue a vigilant care, the 
familiarity of the Saluages liuing amongst them made 
them not [a] way to betray or surprize them, for the building 
of Guest-houses [hospitals] to relieue the weake in, and that 
they did wonder in all this time they had made no dis- 
coueries, nor knew no more then the very place whereon 
they did inhabit, nor yet could euer see any returne for all 
this continuall charge and trouble ; therefore they sent to be 
added to the Councell seuen Gentlemen, namely Master 
Thorp, Captaine Nuce, Master Tracy, Captaine Middleton, 
Captaine Blount, Master Iohn Pountas, and Master Harwood, 
with men, munition, and all things thought fitting; but they 
write from Virginia, many of the Ships were so pestred 
with diseased people, and throngedtogether in their passage, 
there was much sicknesse and a great mortality, wherefore 
they desired rather a few able sufficient men well prouided, 
then great multitudes. 

And because there were few accidents of note, but 
priuate aduertisements by letters, we will conclude this 
yeere, and proceed to the next. 

Collected out of the C ounce Is letters for Virginia. 

The instructions and aduertisements for this yeere were 1621. 
both from England and Virginia, much like the last : only 

36 ' 

562 [Extracts from Letters from Virginia. 

Ed. by J. Smith. 
July 1624. 


The Earle 
of South- 

The elec- 
tion of Sir 
for Vir- 




A degres- 

whereas before they had euer a suspicion of Opechan- 
kanough, and all the rest of the Saluages, they had an 
eye ouer him more then any ; but now they all write so 
confidently of their assured peace with the Saluages, there 
is now no more feare nor danger either of their power or 
trechery ; so that euery man planteth himselfe where he 
pleaseth, and followeth his businesse securely. 

But the time of Sir George Yearley being neere expired, 
the Councel here [139] made choise of a worthy young 
Gentleman Sir Francis Wyat to succeed him, whom they 
forthwith furnished and prouided, as they had done his Pre- 
decessors, with all the necessary instructions all these times 
had acquainted them, for the conuersion of the Saluages ; 
the suppressing of planting Tobacco, and planting of Corne ; 
not depending continually to be supplied by the Saluages, 
but in case of necessity to trade with them, whom long ere 
this, it hath beene promised and expected should haue beene 
fed and relieued by the English, not the English by them ; 
and carefully to redresse all the complaints of the needlesse 
mortality of their people : and by all diligence seeke to 
send something home to satisfie the Aduenturers, that all 
this time had only liued vpon hopes, [and] grew so weary 
and discouraged, that it must now be substance that must 
maintaine their proceedings, and not letters, excuses and 
promises ; seeing they could get so much and such great 
estates for themselues, as to spend after the rate of 100. 
pounds, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. nay some 2000. or 3000. 
pounds yearely, that were not worth so many pence when 
they went to Virginia, can scarce containe themselues 
either in diet, apparell, gaming, and all manner of such 
superfluity, within a lesse compasse than our curious, costly, 
and consuming Gallants here in England, which c?nnot 
possibly be there supported, but either by oppressing the 
Comminalty there, or deceiuingthe generality here (or both). 

Extracted out of the C ounce Is Letters for Virginia. 

From Virginia, by the relations of the Chieftains there, 
and many I haue conferred with, that came from thence 
hither; I haue much admired to heare of the incredible 
pleasure, profit and plenty this Plantation doth abound 

^'^/ni^S] LlB - 4- Master Stockams Relation. 563 

in, and yet could neuer heare of any returne but Tobacco : [1621] 
but it hath oft amazed me to vnderstand how strangely 
the Saluages hath beene taught the vse of our armes, and 
imploied in hunting and fowling with our fowling peeces ; 
and our men rooting in the ground about Tobacco like 
Swine. Besides, that the Saluages that doe little but 
continually exercise their bow and arrowes, should dwell 
and lie so familiarly amongst our men that practised little 
but the Spade ; being so farre asunder, and in such small 
parties dispersed, and neither Fort, exercise of armes vsed, 
Ordnances mounted, Courts of guard, nor any preparation 
nor prouision to preuent a forraine enemy, much more the 
Saluages howsoeuer : for the Saluages vncertaine confor- 
mity I doe not wonder; but for their constancy and 
conuersion, I am and euer haue beene of the opinion of 
Master Ionas Stockam a Minister in Virginia, who euen at 
this time, when all things were so prosperous, and the 
Saluages at the point of conuersion, against all their 
Gouernours and Councels opinions, writ to the Councell 
and Company in England to this effect. 

May 28 [1621]. 

E that haue left our natiue country to soiourne fj^SLu 
in a strange land, some idle spectators, who relation, 
either cowardly dare not, or couetously will not 
aduenture either their purses or persons in so 
commendable a worke ; others supporting Atlas of this 
ilmost vnsupportable burdens as your selues, without 
whose assistance this Virginia Firmament (in which 
some) and I hope in short time will shine many more 
glorious Starres, though there be many Italiannated and 
Spaniolized Englishmen enuies our prosperities, and by 
all their ignominious scandals they can deuise seekes to 
dishearten what they can, those that are willing to further 
this glorious enterprize, to such I wish according to the 
decree of Darius, that whosoeuer is an enemy to our 
peace, and seeketh either by getting monipolicall paten[t]s, 
or by forging vniust tales to hinder our welfare, that his 
house were pulled downe, and a paire of gallowes made of 
the wood, and he hanged on them in the place. 

564 Tht gouernment of Sir Francis Wyat. Lib. 4. [ Rw ; 8 J i£iy JSJ: 

[1621] As for those lasie seruants, who had rather stand all 

day idle, than worke, though but an houre in this Vine- 
yard ; and spend their substance riotously, than cast the 
superfluity of their wealth into your Treasury : I leaue 
them, as they are, to the eternall Iudge of the world. 

But you, right worthy, that hath aduentured so freely; I 
[140] will not examine, if it were for the glory of God, or 
your desire of gaine, which, it maybe, you expect should flow 
vnto you with a full tide ; for the conuersion of the Saluages : 
I wonder you vse not the meanes, I confesse you say well 
to haue them conuerted by faire meanes, but they scorne 
to acknowledge it ; as for the gifts bestowed on them they 
deuoure them, and so they would the giuers if they could : 
and though they haue endeuoured by all the meanes they 
could by kindnesse to conuert them, they finde nothing 
from them but derision and ridiculous answers. 

We haue sent boies amongst them to learne their 
Language, but they returne worse than they went ; but I 
am no Statesman, nor loue I to meddle with any thing but 
my Bookes, but I can finde no probability by this course 
to draw them to goodnesse : and I am perswaded if Mars 
and Minerua goe hand in hand, they will effect more good 
in an houre, then those verball Mercurians in their Hues ; 
and till their Priests and Ancients haue their throats cut, 
there is no hope to bring them to conuersion. 

The gouernment of Sir Francis Wyat. 

Bout October [1621] arriued Sir Francis Wyat, with 

Master George Sand\y]s [the poet] appointed 

Treasurer, Master Dauison Secretary, Doctor Pot 

the Physician, and Master Cloyburne the Surgian ; 

but much [of the] prouision was very badly conditioned, nay 

the Hogs would not eat that Come they brought, which was 

a great cause of their sicknesse and mortality ; and what- 

soeuer is said against the Virginia Corne, they finde it 

doth better nourish than any prouision is sent thither. 

The Sailers still they complaine are much to blame for im- 

besling the prouisions sent to priuate men, killing of Swino, 

and disorderly trucking ; for which some order would be taken. 

In them nine Ships that went with Sir Francis Wyat 

Ed,b Vu'i|T<SG LlB - 4- The government of Sir Francis Wyat. 565 

not one Passenger died. At his arriuall he sent Master [1621] 
Thorpe to Opechancanough, whom hee found much satisfied 
with ' his comming, to confirme their leagues as he had 
done his Predecessors, and so contented his people should 
coinhabit amongst them, and hee found more motions of 
Religion in him than could be imagined. Euery man 
betaking himselfe to his quarter, it was ordered, that for 
euery headthey should plantbut 1000. Plants of Tobacco, and 
vpon each plant nine leaues, which will be about 100. weight 
[=112 lbs.] ; the Corne being appointed but at two shillings 
and six pence the bushell, required such labour, it caused 
most men [to] neglect it, and depend vpon trade : where[as] 
were it rated at ten shillings the bushell, euery man would 
indeuour to haue plenty to sell to the new commers, or any 
that wanted ; and seldome any is transported from England, 
but it standeth in as much, besides the hazard ; and other 
necessaries the Ships might transport of that burden. 

The 22. of Nouember [1621] arriued Master Gookin out of %™£* s 
Ireland, with fifty men of his owne, and thirty Passengers, Plantation 
exceedingly well furnished with all sorts of prouision and 
cattle, and planted himselfe at Nupor[f]s-newes : the Cotton 
trees in a yeere grew so thicke as ones arme, and so high 
as a man : here any thing that is planted doth prosper so 
well as in no place better. 

For the mortality of the people accuse not the place, 
for of the old Planters and the families scarce one of twenty 
miscarries, onely the want of necessaries are the occasions 
of those diseases. 

And so wee will conclude this yeere with the shipping 
and numbers sent. 

Out of the Councels Letters from Virginia. 

This yeere was sent one and twenty saile of Ships that Thenumber 
imployed more than 400. sailers and 1300. men, women men. ipsan 
and children of diuers faculties, with fourescore cattle ; the 
Tiger fell in the Turkes hands, yet safely escaped: and by the 
returne of their letters from thence, the company is assured 
there can bee no fitter places of Mines, Wood and Water for 
Iron than there ; and the French men affirme no Country 
is more proper for Vines, Oliues, Sike, Rice and Salt, &c. 
of which the next yeere they promise a good quantity. [141J 




Gifu g iu«n. jS^Gl^SSp^He Gentlemen and Mariners that came 

in the Roy all lames from the East-Indies, 
gaue towards the building of a free 
Schoole 70 pound, eight shillings, and 
six pence ; and an vnknowne person 
to further it, sent thirtie pounds; and 
another in like manner hue and twentie 
pounds ; another refusing to be made 
knowne, gaue fortie shillings yeerely for a Sermon before 
the Virginia companie : also another that would not be 
knowne, sent for the College at Henrico, many excellent 
good religious bookes, worth ten pound, and a most 
curious Map of al that coast of America. Master Thomas 
Bargaue their Preacher there deceased, gaue a Librarie 
valued at one hundred Markes : and the Inhabitants hath 
made a contribution of one thousand and hue hundred 
pounds, to build a house for the entertaining of strangers. 
This yeere [1621] also there was much suing for Patents 
for Plantations, who promised to transport such great 
multitudes of people : there was much disputing con- 
cerning those diuisions, as though the whole land had 
beene too little for them : six and twentie obtained their 
desires, but as yet not past six hath sent thither a man ; 
notwithstanding many of them would haue more, and are 
not well contented ; whom I would intreat, and all other 
wranglers, to peruse this saying of honest Claudius. 

See'st not the world of Natures worke, the fairest well, I wot, 

How it, it selfe together ties, as in a true-hues knot. 

Nor seest how th' Elements ayre combined, maintaine one 

constant plea, 
How midst of heauen contents the Sunne, and shore containes 

the sea ; 
And how the aire both compasseth, and carrieth still earths 

Yet neither pressing burdens it, nor parting leaues the same. 

The Obseruations of Master Iohn 

Pory Secretarie ^Virginia, 

in his trauels. 

Auing but ten men meanly prouided, 
to plant the Secretaries land on the 
Easterne shore neere Acomack (Cap- 
taine Wilcocks plantation), the better 
to secure and assist each other. Sir 
George Yearley intending to visit Smiths 
lies, fell so sicke that he could not, so 
that he sent me with Estinien Moll a 
French-man, to finde a conuenient place to make salt in. 
Not long after Namenacus the King of Pawtuxunt, came 
to vs to seeke for Thomas Saluage our Interpreter. Thus 
insinuating himselfe, he led vs into a thicket, where all 
sitting downe, he shewed vs his naked brest ; asking if we 
saw any deformitie vpon it, we told him, No ; No more, 
said hee, is the inside, but as sincere and pure ; therefore 
come freely to my Countrie and welcome : which wee 
promised wee would within six weekes after. Hauing 
taken a muster of the companies tenants; I went to Smiths 
lies, where was our Salt-house : not farre off wee found a 
more conuenient place, and so returned to lames towne. 

Being furnished the second time, wee arriued at Aquo- 
hanock, and conferred with Kiptopeke their King. Passing 
Russels He and Onaucoke, we arriued at Pawtuxunt: the 
discription of those places, you may reade in Captaine 
Smiths discoueries, therefore needlesse to bee writ againe 
[pp. no, 119, 348, 413, 424]. 

But here arriuing at Attoughcomoco the habitation of 
Namenacus, and Wamanato his brother, long wee staied not 
ere they came aboord vs with a brasse Kettle, as bright 
without as within, ful of boyled Oisters. Strict order was 


My iourney 
to the 


A good 
place to 
make salt 

The King 
of Paw- 

568 The obseruations of Master Iohn Pory. Lib. 4. [ J -*gJ; 

U621] giuen none should offend vs, so that the next day I went 
with the two Kings a hunting, to discouer what I could in 
their confines. Wamanato brought mee first to his house, 
where hee shewed mee his wife and children, and many 
Corne-fields ; and being two miles within the woods a 
hunting, as the younger conducted me forth, so the elder 
brought me home, and [142] vsed me as kindly as he 
could, after their manner. The next day, he presented me 
twelue Beuer skinnes and a Canow, which I requited with 
such things to his content, that he promised to keepe 
them whilst hee liued, and burie them with him being dead. 
Hee much wondered at our Bible, but much more to heare 
it was the Law of our God, and the first Chapter of Ge?iesis 
expounded of Adam and Eue, and simple mariage; to which 
he replyed, hee was like Adam in one thing, for he neuer 
had but one wife at once : but he, as all the rest, seemed 
more willing of other discourses they better vnderstood. 

The next day, the two Kings with their people, came 
aboordvs,but brought nothing according to promise; so that 
Ensigne Saluage challenged Namenacus [with] the breach of 
three promises, w>. not in giuing him a Boy, nor Corne though 
they had plentie, nor Moutapass (a fugitiue called Robert 
Marcum, that had liued 5. yeeres [1616-1621] amongst those 
northerlynations) : which heecunninglyansweredbyexcuses. 

Womanato it seemes, was guiltlesse of this falshood, 
because hee staied alone when the rest were gone. I asked 
him if he desired to bee great and rich ; he answered, 
They were things all men aspired vnto : which I told him 
he should be, if he would follow my counsell, so he gaue 
me two tokens, which being returned by a messenger, 
should suffice to make him confident the messenger could 
not abuse vs. Some things being stolne from vs, he tooke 
such order that they were presently restored, then we 
interchanged presents : in all things hee much admired 
our discretions, and gaue vs a guide that hee called brother, 
to conduct vs vp the Riuer: by the way we met with 
diuers that stil tould vs of Marcum : and though it was 
in October [162 1], we found the Countrie very hot, and 
their Corne gathered before ours at lames towne. 

The next day, wewent to Paccamaganant, andtheydirected 
vs to Assacomoco, where their King Cassatowap had an old 

Ed,by juiy s ^4.'] Lib. 4. The trecherie of Namanicus. 569 

quarrell with Ensigne Saluage, but now seeming reconciled, [1621 
went with vs, with another Werowance, towards Mattapa- ™* herie 
nient, where they perswaded vs ashore vpon the point of a otNammu 
thicket ; but supposing it some trecherie, we returned to our cut ' 
boat : farre we had not gone from the shore, but a multitude 
of Saluages sallied out of the wood, with all the ill words 
and signes of hostilitie they could. When wee saw plainly 
their bad intent, wee set the two Werowances at libertie,that 
all this while had line [lain] in the Cabbin, as not taking 
any notice of their villanie, because we would conuert 
them by courtesie. Leauing them as we found them, very 
ciuill and subtill ; wee returned the same way wee came 
to the laughing Kings on the Easterne shore, who told vs 
plainly, Namanicus would also haue allured him into his 
Countrie, vnder colour of trade, to cut his throat. Hee 
told vs also Opechancanough had imployed Onianimo to kill 
Saluage ; because he brought the trade from him to the 
Easterne shore, and some disgrace hee had done his sonne 
and some thirteene of his people before one hundred of 
those Easterlings [Indians on the eastern shore of Chesapeake 
Bay], in rescuing Thomas Graues whom they would haue 
slaine : where hee and three more did challenge the thirteene 
Pamavnkes to fight, but they durst not ; so that all those 
Easterlings so derided them, that they came there no more. 

This Thomas Saluage, it is sixteene yeeres[Y.£., 1608-1624] JJ^'" 
since he went to Virginia, being a boy [He arrived with good 
Captain Newport on 8 Jan. 1608, see pp. 100, 102, 108], hee sermce " 
was left with Powhatan for Namontacke, to learne the [>-ptO 
language : and as this Author [J. Pory] affirmeth, with 
much honestie and good successe hath serued the publike 
without any publike recompence, yet had an arrow shot 
through his body in their seruice. 

This laughing King at Accomack, tels vs the land is not 
two daies iourny ouer in the broadest place, but in some 
places a man may goe in halfe a day, betwixt the Bay 
and the maine Ocean, where inhabit many people ; so that 
by the narrownesse of the Land there is not many Deere, 
but most abundance of Fish and Fowle. Kiptop[ek]e his 
brother rules as his Lieutenant, who seeing his younger 
brother more affected by the people than himselfe, freely 

5 jo Captaine Each sent to build a Fort. Lib. 4. [ J - fgj* 

r 1621-2] resigned him the moitie of his Countrie, applying himselfe 
onely to husbandry and hunting, yet nothing neglected in 
his degree ; nor is hee carelesse of any thing concernes 
the state, but as a vigilant and faithfull Counceller, as 
hee is an affectionated [143] Brother, bearing the greater 
burden in gouernment, though the lesser honour: where 
cleane contrary they on the Westerne shore, the younger 
beares the charge, and the elder the dignitie. Those are the 
best husbands [providers] of any Saluages we know: for they 
prouide Corne to serue them all the yeare, yet spare ; and 
the other not for halfe the yeare, yet want. They are the 
most ciuill and tractable people we haue met with; and by 
little sticks will keepe as iust an account of their promises, 
as by a tally. In their manages they obserue a large 
distance, as well in affinitie as consanguinitie ; nor doe 
[//• 77. 373] they vse that deuilish custome in making black Boyes. 

There may be on this shore about two thousand people : 
they on the West would inuade them, but that they 
want Boats to crosse the Bay ; and so would diuers other 
Nations, were they not protected by vs. A few of the 
Westerly Runnagados had conspired against the laughing 
King: but fearing their treason was discouered, fled to 
Smiths lies, where they made a massacre of Deere and 
Hogges ; and thence to Rickakfke, betwixt Cissapeack and 
Nanscwiund, where they now are seated vnder the command 
of Itoyatin. 

• And so I returned to lames Towne, where I found the 
gouernment rendred [Oct. 1621] to Sir Francis Wyat. 

In February [1622] also he trauelled to the South Riuer 
Chawonock, some sixtie miles ouer land ; which he found to be 
a very fruitfull and pleasant Country, yeelding two haruests 
in a yeare, and found much of the Silke grasse formerly 
spoken of, was kindly vsed by the people, and so returned. 

Captaine Each sent to build a Fort to secure 

the Countrey. 

T was no small content to all the Aduenturers 
to heare of the safe ariuall of all those ships 
and companies, which was thought sufficient to 
haue made a Plantation of themselues : and 

ld,by j£iy?624.] Lib. 4. Captaine Each sent to build a Fort. 571 

againe to second them, was sent Captaine Each in the [1622] 
Abigale, a ship of three or foure hundred tunnes, who hath gj r JJJ r 
vndertaken to make a Block-house amongst the Oyster 
banks, that shall secure the Riuer. The furnishing him 
with Instruments, cost three hundred pounds ; but the 
whole charge and the ships returne, will be neere two 
thousand pounds. In her went Captaine Barwicke with 
fiue and twentie men for the building ships and Boats, Fiueand 
and not other waies to be imploied : and also a selected onfyto sem 
number to build the East Indie Schoole, but as yet from and^ats* 
Virginia little returnes but priuate mens Tobacco, and 
faire promises of plentie of Iron, Silke, Wine, and many 
other good and rich commodities, besides the speedy 
conuersion of the Saluages, that at first were much dis- 
couraged from liuing amongst them, when they were 
debarred the vse of their peeces ; therefore it was disputed 
as a matter of State, whether such as would Hue amongst 
them should vse them or not, as a bait to allure them ; or 
at least such as should bee called to the knowledge of 

But because it was a great trouble for all causes to 
be brought to lames Towne for a triall, Courts were 
appointed in conuenient places to releeue them : but as 
they can make no Lawes in Virginia till they be ratified 
here ; so they thinke it but reason, none should bee inacted 
here without their consents, because they onely feele them, 
and must Hue vnder them. 

Still they complaine for want of Corne, but what must 
be had by Trade, and how vnwilling any Officer when he 
leaueth his place, is to make good his number of men to 
his Successor, but many of them during their times to 
help themselues, vndoes the Company : for the seruants 
you allow them, or such as they hire, they plant on their 
priuate Lands, not vpon that belongeth to their office, 
which crop alwaies exceeds yours, besides those which 
are your tenants to halfes, are forced to row them vp and 
downe, whereby both you and they lose more then halfe. 
Nor are those officers the ablest or best deseruing, but 
make their experience vpon the companies cost, and your 
land lies vnmanured to any purpose, and will yeeld as 
little profit to your next new officers. [144] 


The death 
oiNem ... 
writ by 

The massacre vpon the two and 

twentieth of March [1622]. 

y He Prologue to this Tragedy, is sup- 
posed was occasioned by Nemattanow, 
otherwise called lack of the Feather, 
because hee commonly was most 
strangely adorned with them ; and for 
his courage and policy, was accounted 
amongst the Saluages their chiefe 
Captaine, and immortall from any hurt 
could bee done him by theEnglish. This Captaine comming 
to one Morgans house [in March 1622], knowing he had many 
commodities that hee desired, perswaded Morgan togoe with 
him to Pamau[n]ke to trucke, but the Saluage murdered him 
by the way ; and after two or three daies returned againe to 
Morgans house, where he found two youths his Seruants, 
who asked for their Master : lack replied directly he was 
dead ; the Boyes suspecting as it was, by seeing him 
weare his Cap, would haue had him to Master Thorp : 
But lack so moued their patience, they shot him ; so he 
fell to the ground, [they] put him in a Boat to haue him 
before the Gouernor, then seuen or eight miles from them. 
But by the way lack finding the pangs of death vpon him, 
desired of the Boyes two things : the one was, that they 
would not make it knowne hee was slaine with a bullet ; 
the other, to bury him amongst the English. 

At the losse of this Saluage, Opechankanough much 
grieued and repined, with great threats of reuenge ; but 
the English returned him such terrible answers, that he 
cunningly dissembled his intent, with the greatest signes 

Ed.byj.smith.-j LlB# 4> A relation of the massacre. 573 

he could of loue and peace: yet within fourteene daies [1622] 
after he acted what followeth. 

Sir Francis Wyat at his arriuall [Oct. 1621] was aduer- ^ urity J 
tised, he found the Countrey setled in such a firme peace, ^^ 
as most men there thought sure and vnuiolable, not onely 
in regard of their promises, but of a necessitie. The poore 
weake Saluages being euery way bettered by vs, and 
safely sheltred and defended, whereby wee might freely 
follow our businesse : and such was the conceit of this 
conceited peace, as that there was seldome or neuer a 
sword, and seldomer a peece [used], except for a Deere or 
Fowle; by which assurances the most plantations were 
placed straglingly and scatteringly, as a choice veine of 
rich ground inuited them, and further from neighbours the 
better. Their houses [were] generally open to the Saluages, 
who were alwaies friendly fed at their tables, and lodged in 
their bed-chambers; which made the way plaine to effect their 
intents, and the conuersionof the Saluages as they supposed. 

Hauing occasion to send to Opechankanough about the 
middle of March, hee vsed the Messenger well, and told 
him he held the peace so firme, the sky should fall or he 
dissolued it ; yet such was the treachery of those people, 
when they had contriued our destruction, euen but two 
daies before the massacre, they guided our men with 
much kindnesse thorow the woods, and one Browne that 
liued among them to learne the language, they sent home 
to his Master. Yea, they borrowed our Boats to transport 
themselues ouer the Riuer, to consult on the deuillish 
murder that insued, and of our vtter extirpation, which 
God of his mercy (by the meanes of one of themselues 
conuerted to Christianitie) preuented ; and as well on 
the Friday morning that fatall day, being the two and The manna 
twentieth of March [1622], as also in the euening before, 
as at other times they came vnarmed into our houses, with 
Deere, Turkies, Fish, Fruits, and other prouisions to sell 
vs : yea in some places sat downe at breakfast with our 
people, whom immediatly with their owne tooles they 
slew most barbarously, not sparing either age or sex, 
man woman or childe ; so sudden in their execution, that 


574 A relation of the massacre. Lib. 4. [ ? 

[1622] few or none discerned the weapon or blow that brought 
them to destruction. In which manner also they slew 
many of our people at seuerall works in the fields, well 
knowing in what places and quarters each of our men 
were, in regard of their familiaritie with vs, for the effecting 
that great master-peece of worke their conuersion : and by 
this meanes fell that fatall morning vnder the bloudy and 
barbarous hands of that perfidious [145] and inhumane 
people, three hundred forty seuen men, women and children ; 
most[l]y by their owne weapons; and not being content with 
their Hues, they fell againe vpon the dead bodies, making as 
well as they could a fresh murder, defacing, dragging, and 
mangling their dead carkases into many peeces,and carrying 
some parts away in derision, with base and brutish triumph. 
Their Neither yet did these beasts spare those amongst the 

crudty. rest we jj k nowne vn t them, from whom they had daily 
receiued many benefits; but spightfully also massacred 
them without any remorse or pitie : being in this more 
fell then Lions and Dragons, as Histories record, which 
haue preserued their Benefactors ; such is the force of 
good deeds, though done to cruell beasts, to take humanitie 
vpon them, but these miscreants put on a more vnnaturall 
brutishnesse then beasts, as by those instances may appeare. 

?M« urdcr That worthy religious Gentleman Master George Thorp, 
TActf'* Deputie to the College lands, sometimes one of his Ma- 
iesties Pensioners, and in command one of the principall 
in Virginia; did so truly effect [affect] their conuersion, that 
whosoeuer vnder him did them the least displeasure, were 
punished seuerely. He thought nothing too deare for 
them, he neuer denied them any thing ; in so much that 
when they complained that our Mastiues did feare them, 
he to content them in all things, caused some of them to 
be killed in their presence, to the great displeasure of the 
owners, and would haue had all the rest guelt to make 
them the milder, might he haue had his will. The King 
dwelling but in a Cottage, he built him a faire house after 
the English fashion : in which he tooke such pleasure, 
especially in the locke and key, which he so admired, 
as locking and vnlocking his doore a hundred times a day, 
he thought no deuice in the world comparable to it. 

Ed. by J. Smith. 1 

Lib. 4. A relation of the massacre. 


Thus insinuating himselfe into this Kings fauour for his 
religious purpose, he conferred oft with him about Re- 
ligion, as many other in this former Discourse had done : 
and this Pagan confessed to him (as he did to them) our 
God was better then theirs, and seemed to be much 
pleased with that Discourse, and of his company, and to 
requite all those courtesies ; yet this viperous brood did, 
as the sequell shewed, not onely murder him, but with 
such spight and scorne abused his dead corps as is vn- 
fitting to be heard with ciuill eares. One thing I cannot 
omit, that when this good Gentleman vpon his fatall 
houre, was warned by his man, who perceiuing some 
treachery intended by those hell-hounds, to looke to him- 
selfe, and withall ran away for feare he should be appre- 
hended, and so saued his owne life ; yet his Master out of 
his good meaning was so void of suspition and full of con- 
fidence, they had slaine him, or he could or would beleeue 
they would hurt him. 


Captaine Nathaniel Powell one of the first Planters, a 
valiant Souldier, and not any in the Countrey better 
knowne amongst them; yet such was the error of an ouer- 
conceited power and prosperitie, and their simplicities, 
they not onely slew him and his family, but butcher-like 
hagled their bodies, and cut off his head, to expresse their 
vttermost height of cruelty. 

Another of the old company of Captaine Smithy called 
Nathaniel Causie, being cruelly wounded, and the Saluages 
about him, with an axe did cleaue one of their heads, whereby 
the rest fled and he escaped : for they hurt not any that did 
either fight or stand vpon their guard. In one place, where 
there was but two men that had warning of it, [they] 
defended the house against sixty or more that assaulted it. 

Master Baldwine at Warraskoyack, his wife being so 
wounded, she lay for dead ; yet by his oft discharging of his 
peece, [he] saued her, his house, himselfe, and diuers others. 

At the same time they came to one Master H arisons house, 
neere halfe a mile from Baldwines, where was Master 
Thomas Hamer with six men, and eighteene or nineteene 
women and children. Here the Saluages with many presents 
and faire perswasions, fained they came for Captaine Ralfe 


slaughter of 

[>. 885.] 
A Saluage 




with 33 


576 A relation of the massacre. Lib. 4. [ t 

[1622] Earner to go to their King, then hunting in the woods : 
presently they sent to him, but he not comming as they 
expected, [they] set fire of a Tobacco-house, and then came 
to tell them in the dwelling house of it to quench it ; all the 
men ran towards it but Master Hamer, not suspecting any 
thing, whom [146] the Saluages pursued, [and] shot them 
full of arrowes, then beat out their braines. Hamer hauing 
finished a letter hee was a writing, followed after to see 
what was the matter, but quickly they shot an arrow in 
his back, which caused him returne and barricado vp the 
doores, whereupon the Saluages set fire on the house. 

Harisons Boy finding hisMasters peece loaded, discharged 

it at randome, at which bare report the Saluages all fled, 

Baldwin still discharging his peece, and Master Hamer 

with two and twentie persons thereby got to his house, 

leauing their owne burning. In like manner, they had 

fired Lieutenant Basse his house, with all the rest there 

about, slaine the people, and so left that Plantation. 

Captaine Captaine Hamer all this while not knowing any thing, 

Hamer comming to his Brother that had sent for him to go hunt 

SS/Sir w i tn tne King, meeting the Saluages chasing some, [who] 

yet escaped, retired to his new house then a building, 

from whence he came ; there onely with spades, axes, and 

brickbats, he defended himselfe and his Company till the 

Saluages departed. 

Not long after, the Master from the ship had sent 
six Musketiers, with which he recouered their Merchants 
store-house, where he armed ten more ; and so with thirtie 
more vnarmed workmen, found his Brother and the rest 
at Baldwins. 

Now seeing all they had was burnt and consumed, they 
repaired to lames Towne with their best expedition ; yet 
not far from Martins hundred, where seuenty three were 
slaine, was a little house and a small family, that heard 
not of any of this till two daies after. 

All those, and many others whom they haue as mali- 
ciously murdered, sought the good of those poore brutes, 
that thus despising Gods mercies, must needs now as mis- 
creants be corrected by Iustice : to which leauing them, 
I will knit together the thred of this discourse. 

Ed. by j. smith. j Lib. 4. A relation of the massacre. 577 

At the time of the massacre, there were three or foure ships [1622J 
in lames Riuer, and one in the next; and daily more to come J he 
in, as there did within foureteene daies after; one of which auempuo 
they indeuoured to haue surprised : yet were the hearts of shiJT*** 
the English euer stupid, and auerted from beleeuing any 
thing might weaken their hopes, to win them by kinde 
vsage to Christianitie. 

But diuers write from thence, that Almighty God hath 
his great worke in this Tragedy, and will thereout draw 
honor and glory to his name, and a more flourishing estate 
and safetie to themselues, and with more speed to conuert 
the Saluage children to himselfe, since he so miraculously 
hath preserued the English ; there being yet, God be 
praised, eleuen parts of twelue [*'.£., 347 X 11=3817] re- 
maining, whose carelesse neglect of their owne safeties, 
seemes to haue beene the greatest cause of their destruc- 
tions : yet you see, God by a conuerted Saluage that 
disclosed the plot, saued the rest, and the Pinnace then in 
Pamavnkes Riuer, whereof (say they) though our sinnes made 
vs vnworthy of so glorious a conuersion, yet his infinite 
wisdome can neuerthelesse bring it to passe, and in good 
time, by such meanes as we thinke most vnlikely: for in the 
deliuery of them that suruiue, no mans particular carefulnesse 
saued one person, but the meere goodnesse of God him- 
selfe, freely and miraculously preseruing whom he pleased. 

The Letters of Master George Sand[y]s, a worthy Gentle- 
man, and many others besides them returned, brought vs 
this vnwelcome newes, that hath beene heard at large in 
publike Court, that the Indians and they liued as one 
Nation : yet by a generall combination in one day plotted 
to subuert the whole Colony, and at one instant, though 
our seuerall Plantations were one hundred and fortie 
miles vp on [the] Riuer on both sides. 

But for the better vnderstanding of all things, you must 
remember these wilde naked natiues Hue not in great 
numbers together; but dispersed, commonly in thirtie, 
fortie, fiftie, or sixtie in a company. Some places haue 
two hundred, few places more, but many lesse ; yet they 
had all warning giuen them one from another in all their 
habitations, though farre asunder, to meet at the day and 
houre appointed for our destruction at al our seueraJ 



How Pace discouered the massacre. Lib. 4. [ ? 


Six of the 

How it was 

l>. 567O 


Plantations ; some directed to one place, some to another, 
all to be done at the time appointed, which they did 
accordingly. Some entring their houses vnder colour of 
trading, so tooke their [147] aduantage ; others drawing 
vs abroad vnder faire pretences; and the rest suddenly 
falling vpon those that were at their labours. 

Six of the counsell suffered vnder this treason, and the 
slaughter had beene vniuersall, if God had not put it into 
the heart of an Indian, who lying in the house of one Pace, 
was vrged by another Indian his Brother, that lay with 
him the night before, to kill Pace, as he should doe Perry 
which was his friend, being so commanded from their 
King : telling him also how the next day the execution 
should be finished. Perrys Indian presently arose and 
reueales it to Pace, that vsed him as his sonne ; and thus 
them that escaped was saued by this one conuerted Infidell. 
And though three hundred fortie seuen were slaine, yet 
thousands of ours were by the meanes of this alone thus 
preserued; for which Gods name be praised for euer and euer. 

Pace vpon this, securing his house, before day rowed to 
lames Towne, and told the Gouernor of it, whereby they 
were preuented, and at such other Plantations as possibly 
intelligence could be giuen : and where they saw vs vpon 
our guard, at the sight of a peece they ranne away ; but the 
rest were most[ly] slaine, their houses burnt, such Armes 
and Munition as they found they tooke away, and some 
cattell also they destroied. 

Since, wee finde Opechankanough the last yeare [162 1] 
had practised with a King on the Easterne shore, to 
furnish him with a kind of poison, which onely growes in 
his Country to poison vs. But of this bloudy acte neuer 
griefe and shame possessed any people more then themselues, 
to be thus butchered by so naked and cowardly a people, 
who dare not stand the presenting of a staffe in manner 01 
a peece, nor an vncharged peece in the hands of a woman. 

(But I must tell those Authors, though some might be 
thus cowardly, there were many of them had better spirits.) 

Thus haue you heard the particulars of this massacre, 
which in those respects some say will be good for the 
Plantation, because now we haue iust cause to destroy 

JS i622:] The manner how the Spaniard gets his wealth. 579 

them by all meanes possible : but I thinke it had beene [1622] 
much better it had neuer happened, for they haue giuen 
/s an hundred times as iust occasions long agoe to subiect 
them, (and I wonder I can heare of none but Master 
Stockam and Master Whitaker of my opinion.) Moreouer, 
where before we were troubled in cleering the ground of 
great Timber, which was to them of small vse : now we 
may take their owne plaine fields and Habitations, which 
are the pleasantest places in the Countrey. Besides, the 
Deere, Turkies, and other Beasts and Fowles will exceed- 
ingly increase if we beat the Saluages out of the Countrey: 
for at all times of the yeare they neuer spare Male nor 
Female, old nor young, egges nor birds, fat nor leane, in 
season or out of season ; with them all is one. The like 
they did in our Swine and Goats, for they haue vsed to 
kill eight in tenne more then we, or else the wood would 
most plentifully abound with victuall ; besides it is more 
easie to ciuilize them by conquest then faire meanes ; for 
the one may be made at once, but their ciuilizing will 
require a long time and much industry. 

The manner how to suppresse them is so often related 
and approued, I omit it here : And you haue twenty 
examples of the Spaniards how they got the West-Indies, 
and forced the treacherous and rebellious Infidels to doe 
all manner of drudgery worke and slauery for them, them- 
selues liuing like Souldiers vpon the fruits of their labours. 
This will make vs more circumspect, and be an example 
to posteritie : (But I say, this might as well haue beene §JgJ BB 
put in practise sixteene yeares agoe [1606] as now [1622J.) 

Thus vpon this Anuill shall wee now beat our selues an 
Armour of proofe hereafter to defend vs against such 
incursions, and euer hereafter make vs more circumspect : 
but to helpe to repaire this losse, besides his Maiesties 
bounty in Armes [that] he gaue the Company out of the His 
Tower, and diuers other Honorable persons haue renewed gift!" 
their aduentures, we must not omit the Honorable Citie of 
London, to whose endlesse praise wee may speake it, are f u 7^ sets 
now [1622] setting forward one hundred persons: and diuers 
others at their owne costs are a repairing; and all [148] 
good men doe thinke neuer the worse of the businesse for 
all these disasters. 

A lament- 

too ol 
appro aed. 

580 The manner how the Spaniard gets his wealth. [ J - s ™ 6 '£; 

[1622] What growing state was there euer in the world which 

had not the like ? Rome grew by oppression, and rose 
vpon the backe of her enemies : and the Spaniards haue 
had many of those counterbuffes, more than we. Colum- 
bus, vpon his returne from the West-Indies into Spaine, 
hauing left his people with the Indies, in peace and promise 
of good vsage amongst them, at his returne backe found 
not one of them liuing, but all treacherously slaine by the 
Saluages. After this againe, when the Spanish Colonies 
were increased to great numbers, the Indians from whom 
the Spaniards for trucking stuffe vsed to haue all their 
corne, generally conspired together to plant no more at 
all, intending thereby to famish them ; themselues liuing 
in the meane time vpon Cassaua, a root to make bread, 
onely then knowne to themselues. This plot of theirs by 
T e the Spaniards ouersight, that foolishly depended vpon 
strangers for their bread, tooke such effect, and brought 
them to such misery by the rage of famine, that they 
spared no vncleane nor loathsome beast, no not the 
poisonous and hideous Serpents, but eat them vp also, 
deuouring one death to saue them from another ; and by 
this meanes their whole Colony well-neere surfeted, 
sickned and died miserably. And when they had againe 
recouered this losse, by their incontinency an infinite 
number of them died on the Indian disease, we call the 
French Pox, which at first being a strange and an vn- 
knowne malady, was deadly vpon whomsoeuer it lighted. 
Then had they a little flea called Nigua, which got betweene 
the skinne and the flesh before they were aware, and there 
bred and multiplied, making swellings and putrifactions, 
to the decay and losse of many of their bodily members. 

Againe, diuers times they were neere vndone by their 
ambition, faction, and malice of the Commanders. Colum- 
bus, to whom they were also much beholden, was sent 
with his Brother in chaines into Spaine ; and some other 
great Commanders killed and murdered one another. 
Pizzaro was killed by Almagros sonne, and him Vasco 
beheaded ; which Vasco was taken by Blasco, and Blasco 
was likewise taken by Pizzaros Brother: And thus by 
their couetous and spightfull quarrels, they were euer 
shaking the maine pillars of their Common-weale. 

J. Smith."] 
1622. J 

Lib. 4. [Therefore let us not be discouraged^ 581 

These and many more mischiefes and calamities hapned [1622] 
them, more then euer did to vs, and at one time being euen 
at the last gaspe, had two ships not arriued with supplies 
as they did, they were so disheartned, they were a leauing 
the Countrey : yet we see for all those miseries they haue 
attained to their ends at last, as is manifest to all the 
world, both with honour, power, and wealth ; and whereas 
before few could be hired to goe to inhabit there, now with 
great su[i]te they must obtaine it; but where there was 
no honesty, nor equity, nor sanctitie, nor veritie, nor pietie, Note this 
nor good ciuilitie in such a Countrey, certainly there can conclusion - 
bee no stabilitie. 

Therefore let vs not be discouraged, but rather animated 
by those conclusions, seeing we are so well assured of the 
goodnesse and commodities [that] may bee had in Virginia ; 
nor is it to be much doubted there is any want of Mines 
of most sorts, no not of the richest, as is well knowne to 
some yet liuing that can make it manifest when time 
shall serue : and yet to thinke that gold and siluer Mines 
are in a country otherwise most rich and fruitfull, or the 
greatest wealth in a Plantation, is but a popular error ; as 
is that opinion likewise, that the gold and siluer is now 
the greatest wealth of the West Indies at this present. 

True it is indeed, that in the first conquest the Spaniards How the 
got great and mighty store of treasure from the Natiues, riSTthdr* 
which they in long space had heaped together; and in ^ e e a west 
those times the Indians shewed them entire and rich Indie * 
Mines, which now by the relations of them that haue 
beene there, are exceedingly wasted, so that now the 
charge of getting those Metals is growne excessiue, besides 
the consuming the Hues of many by their pestilent smoke 
and vapours in digging and refining them, so that all 
things considered, the cleere gaines of those metals, the 
Kings part defraied, to the Aduenturers is but small, and 
nothing neere so much as vulgarly is imagined. And were 
it not [149] for other rich Commodities there that inrich 
them, those of the Contraction House were neuer able to 
subsist by the Mines onely ; for the greatest part of their 
Commodities are partly naturall, and partly transported 
from other parts of the world, and planted in the West- 
Indies, as in their mighty wealth of Sugar canes, being 

582 The number of people that were slaine. Lib. 4. [ Edb yJ- 



[1622] first transported from the Canaries ; and in Ginger and 
other things brought out of the East-Indies, in their 
Cochanele, Indicos, Cotton, and their infinite store of 
Hides, Quick-siluer, Allum, Woad, Brasill woods, Dies, 
Paints, Tobacco, Gums, Balmes, Oiles, Medicinals and 
Perfumes, Sassaparilla, and many other physicall drugs : 
These are the meanes whereby they raise that mighty 
charge of drawing out their gold and siluer to the great 
and cleare reuenue of their King. 

Now seeing the most of those commodities, or as vsefull, 
may be had in Virginia by the same meanes, as I haue 
formerly said ; let vs with all speed take the priority of 
time, where also may be had the priority of place, in 
chusing the best seats of the Country; which now by 
vanquishing the saluages, is like to offer a more faire and 
ample choice of fruitfull habitations, then hitherto our 
gentlenesse and faire comportments could attaine vnto. 

The numbers that were slaine in those 
seuerall Plantations. 

T Captaine Berkleys Plantation, himselfe 
and 21. others, seated at the Falling- 
Crick, 66. miles from lames City. 22 

2 Master Thomas Sheffelds Plantation, 
some three miles from the Falling-Crick, 
himselfe and 12. others. 13 

3 At Henrico Hand, about two miles from Sheffelds 

Plantation. 6 

4 Slaine of the College people, twenty miles from 

Henrico. *7 

5 At Charles City, and of Captaine Smiths men. 5 

6 At the next adioyning Plantation. 8 

7 At William Farrars house. 10 

8 At Brickley hundred, fifty miles from Charles City, 

Master Thorp and 10 

Ed.byj.smith.-| l ib> ^ The number of people that were slaine. 583 

9 At Westouer, a mile from Brickley, 2 [1622] 

10 At Master Iohn Wests Plantation. 2 

11 At Captaine Nathaniel Wests Plantation. 2 

12 At Lieutenant Gibs his Plantation. 12 

13 At Richard Owens house, himselfe and 6 

14 At Master Owen Macars house, himselfe and 3 

15 At Martins hundred, seuen miles from lames City. 73 

16 At another place. 7 

17 At Edward Bonits Plantation. 50 

18 At Master Watershis house, himselfe [seep. 591] and 4 

19 At Apamatucks Riuer, at Master Perce his Planta- 

tion, flue miles from the College. 4 

20 At Master Macocks Diuident, Captaine Samuel 

Macock and 4 

21 At Flower da hundred, Sir George Yearleys Planta- 

tion. 6 

22 On the other side opposite to it. 7 

23 At Master Swinhows house, himselfe and 7 

24 At Master William Bickars house, himselfe and 4 

25 At Weanock, of Sir George Yearleys people. 21 

26 At Powel Brooke, Captaine Nathaniel Powel t and 12 

27 At South-hampton hundred. 5 

28 At Martin Brandons hundred. 7 

29 At Captaine Henry Spilmans house. 2 

30 At Ensigne Spences house. 5 

31 At Master Thomas Perse his house by Mulbery He, 

himselfe and 4 

The whole number 347. [150] VA »*»»•) 

Men in this taking bettered with affliction, 
Better attend, and mind, and marke Religion, 
For then true voyces issue from their hearts, 
Then speake they what they thinke in inmost parts, 
The truth remaines, they cast off fained A rts. 


584 Gookins and Iordens resolutions. Lib. 4. [ EdbyJs ^ 

iHis lamentable and so vnexpected a disaster 
caused them all beleeue the opinion of Master 
Stockam, and draue them all to their wits end. 
It was twenty or thirty daies ere they could 
resolue what to doe, but at last it was concluded, all the 
petty Plantations should be abandoned, and drawne onely 
to make good hue or six places, where all their labours 
now for the most part must redound to the Lords of those 
Lands where they were resident. Now for want of Boats, 
it was impossible vpon such a sudden to bring also their 
cattle, and many other things, which with much time, 
charge and labour they had then in possession with them ; 
all which for the most part at their departure was burnt, 
ruined and destroyed by the Saluages. 
Gookins m& Only Master Gookins at Nuports-newes would not obey 
rewhufon. the Commanders command in that, though hee had scarce 
fiue and thirty of all sorts [i.e., ages &c.~) with him, yet he 
thought himselfe sufficient against what could happen, 
and so did to his great credit and the content of his Aduen- 
turers. Master Samuel Iorden gathered together but a 
few of the straglers about him at Beggers-bush, where 
he fortified and liued in despight of the enemy. Nay, 
Mistrisse Proctor, a proper, ciuill, modest Gentlewoman 
did the like, till perforce the English Officers forced her 
and all them with her to goe with them, or they would 
fire her house themselues ; as the Saluages did when they 
were gone, in whose despight they had kept it and what 
they had, a moneth or three weekes after the Massacre ; 
which was to their hearts a griefe beyond comparison, to 
lose all they had in that manner, onely to secure others 

The opinion Now here in England it was thought, all those remainders 
snutW 1 ** might presently haue beene reduced into fifties or hundreds 
in places most conuenient with what they had, hauing such 
strong houses as they reported they had, which with small 
labour might haue beene made inuincible Castles against all 
the Saluages in the Land : and then presently raised a com- 
pany, as a running Armie to torment the Barbarous and 

Ed.byj.smith.-j l ib< 4. [Captain Smith's opinion] 585 

secure the rest, and so haue had all that Country betwixt [1622] 
the Riuers of Powhatan and Pamavuke to range and sustaine 
them ; especially all the territories of Kecoughtan, Chiskact 
and Paspahege, from Ozenies to that branch of Pamavuke, 
comming from Youghtanund, which strait of land is not past 
4. or 5. miles, to haue made a peninsula much bigger then 
the Summer lies, inuironed with the broadest parts of 
those two maine Riuers, which for plenty of such things 
as Virginia affords is not to be exceeded, and were it well 
manured, more then sufficient for ten thousand men. 

This, were it well vnderstood, cannot but be thought 
better then to bring hue or six hundred to lodge and Hue 
on that, which before would not well receiue and main- 
taine a hundred, planting little or nothing, but spend that 
they haue vpon hopes out of England, one euill begetting 
another, till the disease is past cure. Therefore it is 
impossible but such courses must produce most fearefull 
miseries and extreme extremities ; if it proue otherwise, I 
should be exceeding glad. 

I confesse I am somewhat too bold to censure other [/>.6©o] 
mens actions being not present, but they haue done as 
much of me ; yea many here in England that were neuer 
there, and also many there that knowes little more then 
their Plantations, but as they are informed : and this doth 
touch the glory of God, the honour of my Country, and 
the publike good so much, for which there hath beene so 
many faire pretences, that I hope none will be angry for 
speaking my opinion ; seeing the old Prouerbe doth allow 
losers leaue to speake, and Du Bartas saith, 

Euen as the wind the angry Ocean moues, 

Wane hunteth Wane, and Billow Billow shoues, [151] 

So doe all Nations iustell each the other, 

And so one people doe pursue another, 

And scarce a second hath the first vnhoused, 

Before a third him thence againe haue roused* 


586 Captaine Nuses Relation. Lib. 4. [ EdbyJs ^ 

[1622] f^Q$yQ\ Mongst the multitude of these seuerall Relations, 

The y£JnbL&2 it appeares Captaine Nuse seeing many of the 

of°capui C n e e SrcffeE &MB difficulties to ensue, caused as much Come to 

num. ife«2N57« be planted as he could at Elizabeths city, and 

though some destroyed that they had set, fearing it would 

serue the Saluages for Ambuscadoes, trusting to releefe 

by trade, or from England (which hath euer beene one 

cause of our miseries, for from England wee haue not had 

much : and for trading, euery one hath not Ships, Shalops, 

Interpreters, men and prouisions to performe it ; and those 

that haue,vse them onely for their owne priuate gaine, not 

the publike good), so that our beginning this yeere doth 

cause many to distrust the euent of the next. 

Here wee will leaue Captaine Nuse for a while, lamenting 
the death of Captaine Norton, a valiant industrious Gentle- 
man, adorned with many good qualities, besides Physicke 
and Chirurgery, which for the publike good he freely 
imparted to all gratis, but most bountifully to the poore ; 
and let vs speake a little of Captaine Croshaw amongst the 
midst of those broiles in the Riuer of Patawomeke. 

Captaine Being [in Mar. 1622] in a small Barke called the Elizabeth, 

his't^ge vnder the command of Captaine Spilman, at Cekacawone, a 

X w£k. Saluage stole aboord them, and told them of the Massacre; 

[/>. 173, and that Opechancanough had plotted with his King and 

%l' SI'] Countrey to betray them also, which they refused : but them 

of Wighcocomoco at the mouth of the riuer had vndertaken it. 

Vpon this Spilman went thither, but the Saluages seeing 

his men so vigilant and well armed, they suspected them- 

selues discouered, and to colour their guilt, the better to 

delude him, so contented his desire in trade, his Pinnace 

was neere fraught ; but seeing no more to be had, Croshaw 

went to Patawotfiek, where he intended to stay and trade 

for himselfe, by reason of the long acquaintance he had 

with this King that so earnestly entreated him now to be 

his friend, his countenancer, his Captaine and director 

against the Pazaticans, the Nacotchtanks, and Moyoans his 

mortall enemies. 

Of this oportunity Croshaw was glad, as well to satisfie 

Ed. by j. smity LlB . 4 . [Arrival of the news in England.] 587 

his owne desire in some other purpose he had, as to keepe [1622] 
the King as an opposite to Opechancanough, and adhere him 
vnto vs, or at least make him an instrument against our 
enemies ; so onely Elis Hill stayed with him, and the [/. 59^] 
Pinnace returned to Elizabeths City ; here shall they rest 
also a little, till we see how this newes was entertained in 

It was no small griefe to the Councell and Company, to Theamuaii 
vnderstand of such a supposed impossible losse, as that so Seisin 
many should fall by the hands of men so contemptible ; En e land - 
and yet hauing such warnings, especially by the death of 
Nemattanow, whom the Saluages did thinke was shot-free, 
as he had perswaded them, hauing so long escaped so 
many dangers without any hurt. 

But now to leape out of this labyrinth of melancholy, 
all this did not so discourage the noble aduenturers, nor 
diuers others still to vndertake new seuerall Plantations ; 
but that diuers ships were dispatched away, for their 
supplies and assistance thought sufficient. 

Yet Captaine Smith did intreat and moue them to put in 
practise his old offer ; seeing now it was time to vse both 
it and him, how slenderly heretofore both had beene 
regarded, and because it is not impertinent to the businesse, 
it is not much amisse to remember what it was. [152] 

g""^JJ*gs. f mmm 



Ttie protect and offer of Captaine 

Iohn Smith, to the Right Honourable 

and Right Worshipfull Company 

[of] Virginia. 

F you please I may be transported with 
a hundred Souldiers and thirty Sailers 
by the next Michaelmas [1622J, with vic- 
tuall, munition, and such necessary pro- 
uision ; by Gods assistance, we would 
endeuour to inforce the Saluages to leaue 
their Country, or bring them in that 
feare and subiection that euery man 
should follow their businesse securely. Whereas now halfe 
their times and labours are spent in watching and warding, 
onely to defend, but altogether vnable to suppresse the 
Saluages : because euery man now being for himselfe will 
be vnwilling to be drawne from their particular labours, 
to be made as pack-horses for all the rest, without any 
certainty of some better reward and preferment then I 
can vnderstand any there can or will yet giue them. 

These I would imploy onely in ranging the Countries, 
and tormenting the Saluages, and that they should be as 
a running Army till this were affected ; and then settle 
themselues in some such conuenient place, that should 
euer remaine a garison of that strength, ready vpon any 
occasion against the Saluages, or any other for the defence 
of the Countrey, and to see all the English well armed, 
and instruct them their vse. 

h *$£] Lib. 4. The protect of Captaine John Smith. 589 

But I would haue a Barke of one hundred tunnes, and [1622] 
meanes to build sixe or seuen Shalops, to transport them 
where there should bee occasion. 

Towards the charge, because it is for the generall good, 
and what by the massacre and other accidents, Virginia is 
disparaged, and many men and their purses much dis- 
couraged, howeuer a great many doe hasten to goe, think- 
ing to bee next heires to all the former losses, I feare they 
will not finde all things as they doe imagine ; therefore 
leauing those gilded conceits, and diue into the true estate 
of the Colony ; I thinke if his Maiestie were truly informed 
of their necessitie, and the benefit of this proiect, he would 
be pleased to giue the custome [custom-house dues] of 
Virginia ; and the Planters also according to their abilities 
would adde thereto such a contribution, as would be fit to 
maintaine this garison till they be able to subsist, or cause 
some such other collections to be made, as may put it 
with all expedition in practice : otherwise it is much to be 
doubted, there will neither come custome, nor any thing 
from thence to England within these few yeares. 

Now if this should be thought an imploiment more fit 
for ancient Souldiers there bred, then such new commers 
as may goe with me ; you may please to leaue that to my 
discretion, to accept or refuse such voluntaries, that will 
hazard their fortunes in the trialls of these euents, and 
discharge such of my company that had rather labour the 
ground then subdue their enemies : what releefe I should 
haue from your Colony I would satisfie, and spare them 
(when I could) the like courtesie. Notwithstanding these 
doubts, I hope to feede them as well as defend them, and 
yet discouer you more land vnknowne then they all yet 
know, if you will grant me such priuiledges as of necessity 
must be vsed. 

For against any enemy we must be ready to execute the 
best [that] can be deuised by your state there, but not that 
they shall either take away my men, or any thing else to 
imploy as they please by vertue of their authority : and in 
that I haue done somewhat for New-England as well as 
Virginia, so I would desire liberty and authority to make 
the best vse I can of my best experiences, within the 
limits of those two Patents, and to bring them both in one 

590 The Companies answer. Lib. 4. [ J - 



[1622] Map, and the Countries betwixt thern, giuing alwaies that 
respect to the Gouernors and gouernment, as an English- 
man doth in Scotland, or a Scotchman in England, or as 
the regiments in the Low- countries doe to the Gouernors 
of the Townes and Cities where they are billited, or in 
Garrison, where though they Hue with them, and are as 
their [153] seruants to defend them, yet not to be disposed 
on at their pleasure, but as the Prince and State doth 
command them. And for my owne paines in particular I 
aske not any thing but what I can produce from the 
proper labour of the Saluages. 

Their Answer. 

Slier ^19|d8§ Cannot say, it was generally for the Company, 
for being published in their Court, the most 
that heard it liked exceeding well of the motion, 
and some would haue been very large Aduen- 
turers in it, especially Sir John Brookes and Master Dauid 
Wyffin, but there were such diuisions amongst them, I 
could obtaine no answer but this, the charge would be too 
great ; their stocke was decayed, and they did thinke the 

[/•955O Planters should doe that of themselues if I could finde 
meanes to effect it ; they did thinke I might haue leaue of 
the Company, prouided they might haue halfe the pillage, 
but I thinke there are not many will much striue for that 
imploiment, for except it be a little Corne at some time 
of the yeere is to be had, I would not giue twenty pound 
for all the pillage is to be got amongst the Saluages in 
twenty yeeres : but because they supposed I spake only 
for my owne ends, it were good those vnderstand[ing] proui- 
dents for the Companies good they so much talke of, were 
sent thither to make triall of their profound wisdomes and 
long experiences. 

?th? lanner About this time also was propounded a proposition con- 

saii^y cerning a Sallery of flue and twenty thousand pounds to 
be raised out of Tobacco, as a yeerely pension to bee paid 
to certaine Officers for the erecting a new office, concern- 
ing the sole importation of Tobacco, besides his Maiesties 
custome, fraught, and all other charges. To nominate 

£dby jui y s TS:] Lib. 4. {Captain Crashaw at Patawomek.] 591 


the vndertakers, fauourers and opposers, with their argu- [1622-3] 
ments (pro) and (con) would bee too tedious and needlesse 
being so publikely knowne ; the which to establish, spent 
a good part of that yeere, and the beginning of the next. 

This made many thinke wonders of Virginia, to pay such 
pensions extraordinary to a few here that were neuer there, 
and also in what state and pompe some Chieftaines and 
diuers of their associates Hue in Virginia ; and yet no 
money to maintaine a Garrison, pay poore men their 
wages, nor yet hue and twenty pence to all the Adven- 
turers here, and very little to the most part of the Planters 
there, bred such differences in opinion it was dissolued. 

Ow let vs returne to Captaine Croshaw at Captaine 
Patawomek, where he had not beene long ere staTest™ 
Opechancanough sent two baskets of beads to SS*. 
this King, to kill him and his man, assuring JjJJjJ^ 
him of the Massacre he had made, and that before the tA 587.] 
end of two Moones there should not be an Englishman 
in all their Countries : this fearefull message the King 
told this Captaine, who replied, he had seene both the 
cowardise and trechery of Opechancanough sufficiently tried 
by Captaine Smith [pp. 142, 459], therefore his threats he 
feared not, nor for his fauour cared, but would nakedly 
fight with him or any of his with their owne swords ; if 
he were slaine, he would leaue a letter for his Country 
men to know, the fault was his owne, not the Kings. 

Two daies the King deliberated vpon an answer, at 
last told him the English were his friends, and the 
Saluage Emperour Opitchapam, now called Toyatan, was 
his brother ; therefore there should be no bloud shed be- 
twixt them : for hee returned the Presents, willing the 
Pamavukes to come no more in his Country, lest the English, 
though against his will, should doe them any mischiefe. 

Not long after, a Boat going abroad to seeke out some The escape 
releefe amongst the Plantations, by Nuports-newes met andhu'™ 
such ill weather, [that] though the men were saued they wife# 
lost their boat, which the storme and waues cast vpon the 
shore of Nandsamund : where Edward Waters [pp. 583, 638, 


The arriuall of Captaine Lib. 4. \. Smith 
L July 1624. 


The arriuall 
of Captaine 
Havtar at 

Fort and 
plot for 


640, 660] one of the three that first stayed in Summer lies 
and found the great peece of Amber-greece, dwelling in 
Virginia at this Massacre, [154] hee and his wife these 
Nandsamunds kept Prisoners till it chanced they found this 
Boat ; at which purchase they so reioyced, according to their 
custome of triumph, with songs, dances and inuocations. 
They were so busied, that Waters and his wife found oppor- 
tunity to get secretly into their Canow, and so crossed the 
Riuer to Kecoughtan, which is nine or ten miles : whereat 
the English no lesse wondred and reioyced, then the 
Saluages were madded with discontent. Thus you may 
see how many desperate dangers some men escape, when 
others die that haue all things at their pleasure. 

All men thinking Captaine Croshaw dead, Captaine 
Hamer arriuing with a Ship and a Pinnace at Patawomeke, 
was kindly entertained both by him [Crashaw] and the King; 
that Don Hamar told the King he came for Corne ; the King 
replied hee had none, but the Nacotchtanks and their con- 
federats had, which were enemies both to him and them ; 
if they would fetch it, he would giue them 40. or 50 choise 
Bow-men to conduct and assist them. Those Saluages, 
with some of the English, they sent ; who so well played 
their parts, they slew 18. of the Nacotchtanks, some write 
but 4. and some they had a long skirmish with them ; 
where the Patawomeks were so eager of reuenge, they driue 
them not onely out of their towne, but all out of sight 
through the woods, thus taking what they liked, and spoil- 
ing the rest, they retired to Patawomek : where they left 
Captaine Croshaw, with foure men more, the rest set saile 
for lames towne. 

Captaine Croshaw now with hue men and himselfe 
found night and day so many Alarums, he retired into 
such a conuenient place, that with the helpe of the 
Saluages, hee had quickly fortified himselfe against 
all those wilde enemies. Captaine Nuse his Pinnace 
meeting Hamar by the way, vnderstanding all this, came 
to see Captaine Croshaw: after their best enterchanges of 
courtesies, Croshaw writ to Nuse the estate of the place 
where he was, but vnderstanding by them the poore estate 
of the Colony, offered if they would send him but a bold 


' ^/u'lyTeS:] Lib. 4. Hamar to Patawomek. 


Shallop, with men, armes and prouision for trade, the next [1622] 
Haruest he would prouide them Corne sufficient, but as 
yet it being but the latter end of Iune [1622], there was 
little or none in all the Country. 

This being made knowne to the Gouernour and the rest, ^^^ n 
they sent Captaine Madyson with a ship and pinnace, and sent to 
some six and thirtie men : those Croshaw a good time taught «,S£*. 
the vse of their armes, but receiuing a letter from Boyse [/. 599-1 
his Wife, a prisoner with nineteene more at Pamavuke, to 
vse meanes to the Gouernour for their libertie; So hee 
dealt with this King, hee got first two of his great men to 
goe with him to lames towne, and eight daies after to send 
foure of his counsell to Pamavuke, there to stay till he sent 
one of his two to them, to perswade Opachankanough to 
send two of his with two of the Patawomekes, to treat about 
those prisoners, and the rest should remaine their hostage 
at Pamavuke. 

But the Commanders, at lames towne, it seemes, liked 
not of it, and so sent the Patawomekes backe againe to 
their owne Countrie, and Captaine Croshaw to his owne 

All this time we haue forgot Captaine Nuse, where we J he ™ dv * 
left him but newly acquainted with the Massacre, calling captaine 
all his next adioyning dispersed neighbours together, he Nus * 
regarded not the pestring his owne house, nor any thing to 
releeue them, and with all speed entrenched himselfe, 
mounted three peece of Ordnance, so that within 14. daies, 
he was strong enough to defend himselfe from all the 
Saluages, yet when victuall grew scant, some that would 
forrage without order, which he punished, neere occasioned 
a mutiny. Notwithstanding, he behaued himselfe so 
fatherly and kindly to them all, they built two houses for 
them he daily expected from England, a faire Well of 
fresh water mantled with bricke, because the Riuer and 
Cricks are there brackish or salt ; in all which things he 
plaied the Sawyer, Carpenter, Dauber, Laborer, or any 
thing ; wherein though his courage and heart were steeled, 
he found his body was not made of Iron, for hee had many 
sicknesses, and at last a Dropsie, no lesse griefe to him- 
selfe, then sorrow to his Wife and all vnder his gouern- 


594 Sir George Yearleys Lib. 4. [ Ed - by jJi y s T^ 

[1622] ment. These crosses and losses were [155] no small 
increasers of his malady, nor the thus abandoning our 
Plantations, the losse of our Haruest, and also Tobacco 
which was as our money ; the Vineyard our Vineyetours 
had brought to a good forwardnesse, bruised and destroyed 
with Deere, and all things ere they came to perfection, with 
weeds, disorderly persons or wild beasts ; so that as we are 
I cannot perceiue but the next yeere [1623] will be worse, 
being still tormented with pride and flattery, idlenesse and 
couetousnesse, as though they had vowed heere to keepe 
their Court with all the pestilent vices in the world for 
their attendants, inchanted with a conceited statelinesse, 
euen in the very bottome of miserable senselesnesse. 

c»pujne Shortly after, Sir George Yearly and Captaine William 

s^lieJ. 3 ' Powel, tooke each of them a company of well disposed 
Gentlemen and others to seeke their enemies. Yearley 
ranging the shore of Weanock, could see nothing but their 
old houses which he burnt, and so went home : Powel 
searching another part, found them all fled but three he 
met by chance, whose heads hee cut off, burnt their houses, 
and so returned ; for the Saluages are so light and swift, 
though wee see them (being so loaded with armour) they 
haue much aduantage of vs though they be cowards. 

The| jpinion I confesse this is true, and it may cause some suppose 
smitt™* they are grown inuincible : but will any goe to catch a 
Hare with a Taber and a Pipe ? for who knowes not though 
there be monsters both of men and beasts, fish and fowle, 
yet the greatest, the strongest, the wildest, cruellest, 
fiercest and cunningest, by reason, art and vigilancy, 
courage and industry hath beene slaine, subiected or made 
tame : and those are still but Saluages as they were, onely 
growne more bold by our owne simplicities, and still will 
be worse and worse till they be tormented with a con- 
tinuall pursuit, and not with lying inclosed within 
Palizados, or affrighting them out of your sights, thinking 
they haue done well, [that] can but defend themselues: 
and to doe this to any purpose, will require both charge, 
patience and experience. But to their proceedings. 

^•^jiy 8 *^] Lib. 4. tourney to Accomack. 595 

About the latter end of Iune [1622], Sir George Yearley [1622] 
accompanied with the Councell, and a number of the fjjj^f* 
greatest Gallants in the Land, stayed three or four daies bomMyto 
with Captaine Nuse t he making his moane to a chiefe man Accomack - 
amongst them for want of prouision for his Company, the 
great Commander replied hee should turne them to his 
greene Corne, which would make them plumpe and fat : 
these fields being so neere the Fort, were better regarded 
and preserued then the rest, but the great mans command, 
as we call them, were quickly obeied, for though it was 
scarce halfe growne either to the greatnesse or goodnesse, 
theydeuoured it greene though it did them small good. 

Sir George with his company went to Accomack to his new 
Plantation, where he staied neere six weekes : some Corne 
he brought home ; but as he aduentured for himselfe, he 
accordingly enioyed the benefit. Some pet[t]y Magazines 
[Victualling ships] came this Summer, but either the 
restraint by Proclamation, or want of Boats, or both, 
caused few but the Chieftaines to be little better by them. 

So long as Captaine Nuse had any thing we had part ; Captaine 
but now all being spent, and the people forced to Hue vpon iUSS^ 11 
Oisters and Crabs, they became so faint no worke could be 
done ; and where the Law was, no worke, no meat, now the 
case is altered, to no meat, no worke : some small quantity 
of Milke and Rice the Captaine had of his owne, and that 
he would distribute gratis as he saw occasion; I say gratis, 
for I know no place else, but it was sold for ready paiment. 
Those eares of Corne that had escaped till August, though 
not ripe by reason of the late planting, the very Dogs did 
repaire to the Corne fields to seeke them as the men till 
they were hanged : and this I protest before God is true 
that I haue related, not to flatter Nuse, nor condemne any, 
but all the time I haue liued in Virginia, I haue not seene 
nor heard that any Commander hath taken such continuall 
paines for the publike, or done so little good for himselfe ; 
and his vertuous wife was no lesse charitable and com- 
passionate according to her power. For my owne part, 
although I found neither Mulberies planted, houses built, 
[156] men nor victuall prouided, as the honourable 
Aduenturers did promise mee in England ; yet at my owne 
charge, hauing made these preparations, and the silke- 


596 The kindnesse of the Lib. 4. [ Edby j J uly s S^; 

L1622] Wormes ready to be couered, all was lost, but my poore life 
andchildren,bythe Massacre, thewhich as God in his mercy* 
did preserue, I continually pray we may spend to his glory. 

&ires a E ^ e 9* of September [1622], we had an alarum, and two 
men at their labours slaine ; the Captaine [Nuse], though 
extreme sicke, sallied forth, but the Saluages lay hid in 
the Corne fields all night, where they destroyed all they 
could, and killed two men more. Much mischiefe they did 
to Master Edward Hills cattle, yet he alone defended his 
house though his men were sicke and could doe nothing, 
and this was our first assault since the Massacre. 

ifSte^fthe About this time Captaine Madyson passed by vs, hauing 

King of taken Prisoners, the King of Patawomek, his sonne, and 
two more, and thus it happened. Madyson not liking so 
well to Hue amongst the Saluages as Croshaw did, built 
him a strong house within the Fort, so that they were not 
so sociable as before, nor did they much like Poole the 
Interpre[te]r. Many Alarums theyhad,but sawnoenemies: 
Madyson before his building went to Moyaones, where hee 
got prouisionfor a moneth, and was promised much more ; 
so he returned to Patawomek and built this house, and 
was well vsed by the Saluages. Now by the foure great 
men the King sent to Pamavuke for the redemption of the 
Prisoners, Madyson sent them a letter, but they could 
neither deliuer it nor see them : so long they stayed that 
the King grew doubtfull of their bad vsage, that hee swore 
by the Skyes, if they returned not well, he would haue 
warres with Opechankanough so long as he had any thing. 
At this time two of Madysons men rannefrom him, to finde 
them he sent Master John Vpton and three more with an 
Indian guide to Nazatica, where they heard they were. 
At this place was a King beat out of his Country by the 
Necosts, enemies to the Patawomeks ; this expulsed King 
though he professed much loue to the Patawomeks, yet hee 
loued not the King because he would not helpe him to 
reuenge his iniuries, but to our Interpreter Poole hee pro- 
tested great loue, promising if any treason were, he would 
reueale it ; our guide conducted this Bandyto with them 
vp to Patawomek and there kept him ; our Fugitiues we 
found the Patawomeks had taken and brought home, and 
the foure great men returned from Pamavuke. 

Ed,b 7uiyS;:] LlB - 4- XiHg of Patawomek. 597 

Not long after, this expulsed King desired priuate [1622] 
conference with Poole, vrging him to sweare by his God 
neuer to reueale what hee would tell him, Poole promised 
he would not ; then quoth this King, those great men that 
went to Pamavuke, went not as you suppose they pretended, 
but to contract with Opechankanongh how to kill you all 
here, and these are their plots. 

First, they will procure halfe of you to goe a fishing A j£ luages 
to their furthest towne, and there set vpon them, and P icy * 
cut off the rest; if that faile, they will faine a place where 
are many strangers [that] would trade their Furres, 
where they will perswade halfe of you to goe trade, 
and there murder you and kill them at home ; and if 
this faile also, then they will make Alarums two nights 
together, to tire you out with watching, and then 
set vpon you, yet of all this, said he, there is none 
acquainted but the King and the great Coniurer. 
This being made known to the Captain, we all stood Madho-% 
more punctually vpon our guard, at which the Saluages King Lid 
wondering, desired to know the cause; we told them we ^ s 3°- or 
expected some assault from the Pamavukes, whereat they 
seemed contented ; and the next day the King went on 
hunting with two of our men, and the other a fishing and 
abroad as before, till our Shallop returned from lames 
towne with the two Saluages sent home with Captaine 
Croshaw : by those the Gouernour sent to Madyson, that 
this King should send him twelue of his great men ; word 
of this was sent to the King at another towne where he 
was, who not comming presently with the Messenger, 
Madyson conceited hee regarded not the message, and 
intended as he supposed the same treason. 

The next morning the King comming home, being sent 
for, he came to the Captaine and brought him a dish of 
their daintiest fruit ; then the Captaine fained his returne 
to lames towne, the [157] King told him he might if he 
would, but desired not to leaue him destitute of aid, hauing 
so many enemies about him ; the Captaine told him he 
would leaue a guard, but intreated his answer concerning 
the twelue great men for the Gouernour ; the King replied, 
his enemies lay so about him he could not spare them ; then 
the Captaine desired his sonne and one other ; my sonne, 

598 The proceedings of the Lib. 4. [ Ed - by ,ii y s ^ 

[1622] said the King, is gone abroad about businesse, but the other 
you desire you shall haue, and that other sits by him, but 
that man refused to goe, whereupon Madyson went forth and 
locked the doore, leauing the King, his sonne, and foure 
Saluages, and flue English men in the strong house, and 
setting vpon the towne with the rest of his men, slew thirty 
or forty men, women and children. The Kingdemanding the 
cause, Poole told him the treason, crying out to intreat the 
Captaine cease from such cruelty : but hauing slaine and 
made flye all in the towne, hee returned, taxing the poore 
King of treason, who denied to the death not to know of 
any such matter, but said, This is some plot of them that 
told it, onely to kill mee for being your friend. 

Then Madyson willed him, to command none of his men 
should shoot at him as he went aboord, which he presently 
did, and it was performed : so Madyson departed, leading the 
King, his sonne, and two more to his ship, promising when 
all his men were shipped, he should returne at libertie ; 
The King notwithstanding he brought them to lames towne, where 
Ktathberty. t h ev i av some daies, and after were sent home by Captaine 
Hamer, that tooke Corne for their ransome, and after set 
saile for New found Land. 

But, alas the cause of this was onely this 
They vnderstood, nor knew what was amisse. 

a digression Euer since the beginning of these Plantations, it hath 
beene supposed the King of Spaine would inuade them, or 
our English Papists indeuour to dissolue them. But 
neither all the Counsels of Spaine, nor Papists in the world 
could haue deuised a better course to bring them all to 
ruine, then thus to abuse their friends, nor could there 
euer haue beene a better plot, to haue ouerthrowne 
Opechankanough then Captaine Croshaws, had it beene fully 
managed with expedition. But it seemes God is angry to 
see Virginia made a stage where nothing but murder and 
indiscretion contends for victory. 

Their Amongst the rest of the Plantations all this Summer 

ofSTolhS [1622] little was done, but securing themselues and planting 
piamutions. Tobacco, which passes there as current Siluer, and by the 

Ed. by J. Smith.-] T TR . 
July 1624.J ^ IB - 4* 

Plantations in Virginia. 





oft turning and winding it, some grow rich, but many [1622] 
poore : notwithstanding ten or twelue ships or more hath 
arriued there since the massacre [22 Mar.], although it was 
Christmas [1622] ere any returned [i.e., to England], and 
that returne greatly reuiued all mens longing expectation 
here in England: for they brought newes, that notwith- 
standing their extreme sicknesse many were recouered, and 
finding [found] the Saluages did not much trouble them, 
except it were sometimes some disorderly straglers they 
cut off. 

To lull them the better in securitie, they sought no 
reuenge till their Corne was ripe, then they drew together 
three hundred of the best Souldiers they could, that would 
leaue their priuate businesse, and aduenture themselues 
amongst the Saluages to surprise their Corne, vnder the 
conduct of Sir George Yearley, being imbarked in conuenient 
shipping, and all things necessary for the enterprise ; they 
went first to Nandsamund, where the people set fire on their 
owne houses, and spoiled what they could, and then fled 
with what they could carry ; so that the English did make 
no slaughter amongst them for reuenge. Their Corne fields 
being newly gathered, they surprized all they found, burnt 
the houses [that] remained vnburnt, and so departed. 

Quartering about Kecoughtan, after the Watch was set, 
Samuell Collyer one of the most ancientest Planters, and 
very well acquainted with their language and habitation, [#-94.449-] 
humors and conditions, and Gouernor of a Towne, when 
the Watch was set, going the round, vnfortunately by a 
Centinell that discharged his peece, was slaine. [158] 

Thence they sailed to Pamavuke, the chiefe seat of 
Opechankanough, the contriuer of the massacre : the Sal- 
uages seemed exceeding fearefull, promising to bring them 
Sara, and the rest of the English yet liuing, with all the l/- 393-1 
Amies, and what they had to restore, much desiring peace, 
and to giue them any satisfaction they could. Many such 
deuices they fained to procrastinate the time ten or twelu* 
daies, till they had got away their Corne from all the other 
places vp the Riuer, but that where the English kept their 
quarter : at last, when they saw all those promises were but 
delusions, they seised on all the Corne there was, set fire 
on their houses : and in following the Saluages that fled 




6oo How to bring the Lib. 4. [j&^SJ; 

[1622] before them, some few of those naked Deuils had that spirit, 
they lay in ambuscado, and as our men marched discharged 
some shot out of English peeces, and hurt some of them 
flying at their pleasures where they listed, burning their 
empty houses before them as they went, to make them- 
selues sport : so they escaped, and Sir George returned 
with Corne, where for our paines we had three bushels 
apeece, but we were enioyned before we had it, to pay ten 
shillings the bushell for fraught and other charges. 

Thus by this meanes the Saluages are like as they report, 
to endure no small misery this Winter, and that some of 
our men are returned to their former Plantations. 

The opinion What other passages or impediments hapned in their 
smttL ' ne proceedings, that they were not fully reuenged of the 
Saluages before they returned, I know not; nor could [I] euer 
heare more, but that they supposed they slew two, and 
how it was impossible for any men to doe more then they 
did : yet worthy Ferdinando Courtus had scarce three 
hundred Spaniards to conquer the great Citie of Mexico, 
where thousands of Saluages dwelled in strong houses. 

But because they were a ciuilised people, had wealth, and 

those meere Barbarians as wilde as beasts haue nothing ; 

I intreat your patience to tell you my opinion : which if it 

be Gods pleasure I shall not Hue to put in practice, yet it 

[/• 585-1 may be hereafter vsefull for some ; but howsoeuer I hope 

not hurtfull to any, and this it is. 

How to Had these three hundred men beene at my disposing, I 

aShe 1 would haue sent first one hundred to Captaine Rawley 

vtrTmT" 1 Chroshaw to Patawomek, with some small Ordnance for the 

Fort, the which but with daily exercising them, would 

haue struck that loue and admiration into the Patawomeks, 

and terror and amazement into his enemies, which are not 

farre off, and most seated vpon the other side the Riuer, 

they would willingly haue beene friends, or haue giuen 

any composition they could, before they would be tormented 

with such a visible feare. 

Now though they be generally perfidious, yet necessity 
constraines those to a kinde of constancy because of their 
enemies, and neither my selfe that first found them, 

/ulyT&ij L IB - 4. Saluages vnder subiection. 601 

Captaine Argall, Chroshaw, nor Hamar, neuer found them- [1622 1 
selues in fifteene yeares trials [1608-1623] : nor is it likely 
now they would haue so hostaged theirmen, suffer the build- 
ing of a Fort, and their women and children amongst them, 
had they intended any villany ; but suppose they had, who 
would haue desired a better aduantage then such an 
aduertisement, to haue prepared the Fort for such an 
assault, and surely it must be a poore Fort they could hurt, 
much more take, if there were but hue men in it [that] durst 
discharge a peece : Therefore a man not well knowing their 
conditions, may be as wel too iealous as too carelesse. 

Such another Lope Skonce would I haue had at Onaw- 
manient, and one hundred men more to haue made such 
another at A tquacke vpon the Riuer of Toppahanock, which 
is not past thirteene miles distant from Onawmanient: each 
of which twelue men would keepe, as well as twelue 
thousand, and spare all the rest to bee imploied as there 
should be occasion. And all this with these numbers 
might easily haue beene done, if not by courtesie, yet by 
compulsion, especially at that time of September when all 
their fruits were ripe, their beasts fat, and infinite numbers 
of wilde Fowle began to repaire to euery creeke, that men 
if they would doe any thing, could not want victuall. 

This done, there remained yet one hundred who should 
haue done the like at Ozinieke, vpon the Riuer of Chickaha- 
tnania, not past six [159] miles from the chiefe habitations 
of Opechankanough. These small Forts had beene cause 
sufficient to cause all the Inhabitants of each of those 
Riuers to looke to themselues. 

Then hauing so many Ships, Barks, and Boats in Virginia 
as there was at that present, with what facility might you 
haue landed two hundred and twentie men, if you had but 
onely fiue or six Boats in one night ; forty to range the 
branch of Mattapanyent, fortie more that of Youghtanund, and 
fortie more to keepe their randiuous oXPamavuke it selfe. All 
which places lie so neere, they might heare from each other 
within foure or fiue houres ; and not any of those small 
parties, if there were any valour, discretion, or industry in 
them, but as sufficient as foure thousand, to force them all 
to contribution, or take or spoile all they had. For hauing 
thus so many conuenient randeuous to releeue each other, 

602 The arriuall of Lib. 4. [ j; J; s ™*- 

[1622] though all the whole Countries had beene our enemies, 
where could they rest, but in the depth of Winter we might 
burne all the houses vpon all those Riuers in two or three 
daies? Then without fires they could not liue, which they 
could not so hide but wee should finde, and quickly lj tire 
them with watching and warding, they would be so weary 
of their liues, as either fly [from] all their Countries, or giue 
all they had to be released of such an hourely misery. 

Nowif but a small number of the Saluages would assist vs, 
as there is no question but diuers of them would ; And to 
suppose they could not be drawne to such faction, were to 
beleeue they are more vertuous then many Christians, and 
the best gouerned people in the world. All the Pamavukes 
might haue beene dispatched as well in a moneth as a 
yeare, and then to haue dealt with any other enemies at 
our pleasure, and yet made all this toile and danger but a 

If you think this strange or impossible, 12 men with my 
selfe I found sufficient, to goe where I would adaies, and 
surprise a house with the people, if not a whole towne, 
in a night, or incounter all the power they could make, as 

M&m*. a whole Army, as formerly at large hath beene related: 
And it seemes by these small parties last amongst them, 
by Captaine Crashow, Hatnar, and Madyson, they are not 
growne to that excellency in policy and courage but they 
might bee encountred, and their wiues and children appre- 

I know I shall bee taxed for writing so much of my 
selfe : but I care not much, because the iudiciall know 
there are few such Souldiers as are my examples, haue 
writ their owne actions, nor know I who will or can tell 
my intents better then my selfe. 

Some againe finde as much fault with the Company for 
medling with so many Plantations together, because they 
that haue many Irons in the fire some must burne ; but I 
thinke no if they haue men enow know how to worke them, 
but howsoeuer, it were better some burne then haue none 
at all. The King of Spaine regards but how many power- 
full Kingdomes he keepes vnder his obedience, and for the 
Saluage Countries he hath subiected, they are more then 


Ed * by jui y s ?6£:] Lib. 4. Captaine Butler into Virginia. 


enow for a good Cosmographer to nominate, and is three [1622-3] 
Mole-hills so much to vs ; and so many Empires so little 
for him ? For my owne part, I cannot chuse but grieue, 
that the actions of an Englishman should be inferior to 
any, and that the command of England should not be as 
great as any Monarchy that euerwas since the world began, 
I meane not as a Tyrant to torment all Christendome, 
but to suppresse her disturbers, and conquer her enemies. 

For the great Romans got into their hand 

The whole worlds compasse, both by Sea and Land, 

Or any seas, or heauen, or earth extended, 

A nd yet that Nation could not be contented. 

Much about this time, arriued a small Barke of Barnes- T f h ^ r J2„J 
table, which had beene at the Summer lies, and in her %utur*™d. 
Captaine Nathaniel Butler, who hauing beene Gouernour dents. 01 " 
there three yeares, and his Commission expired, he tooke 
the opportunity of this ship to see Virginia [p. 685]. At 
lames Towne he was kindly entertained [160] by Sit Francis 
Wyat the Gouernour. 

After he had rested there fourteene daies, he fell vp with 
his ship to the Riuer of Chickahamania, where meeting 
Captaine William Powell, ioyning together such forces as 
they had to the number of eighty, they set vpon the 
Chickahamanians, that fearefully fled, suffering the English 
to spoile all they had, not daring to resist them. 

Thus he returned to lames towne, where hee staied a 
moneth, at Kecoughtan as much more, and so returned for 
England [Feb. 1623]. 

But riding at Kecoughtan, Master Iohn Argent, sonne to ^fJJJJJJ^ 
Doctor Argent, a young Gentleman that went with Cap- of Master 
taine Butler from England to this place, Michael Fuller, %$£.'"* 
William Gany, Cornelius May, and one other going ashore 
with some goods late in a faire euening, such a sudden 
gust did arise, that driue [drove] them thwart the Riuer, in 
that place at least three orfoure miles in bredth, where the 
shore was so shallow at a low water, and the Boat beating 
vpon the Sands, they left her, wading neere halfe a mile, 
and oft vp to the chin. So well it hapned, Master Argent 
had put his Bandileir of powder in his hat, which next God 

604 A strange deliuerance of M. Argent. Lib. 4. [ Ed " by / u iy T^ 

[1623] W as all their presentations : for it being February [1623], 
and the ground so cold, their bodies became so benumbed, 
they were not able to strike fire with a Steele and a stone 
hee had in his pocket ; the stone they lost twice, and thus 
those poore soules groping in the darke, it was Master 
Argents chance to finde it, and with a few withered leaues, 
reeds, and brush, make a small fire, being vpon the 
Chisapeaks shore, their mortall enemies, great was their 
feare to be discouered. 

The ioyfull morning appearing, they found their Boat 
and goods driue[n] ashore, not farre from them, but so split 
shee was vnseruiceable : but so much was the frost, their 
clothes did freeze vpon their backs, for they durst not make 
any great fire to dry them, lest thereby the bloudy Saluages 
might discry them, so that one of them died the next day ; 
and the next night, digging a graue in the Sands with 
their hands, buried him. 

In this bodily feare they liued and fasted two daies and 
nights, then two of them went into the Land to seeke fresh 
water ; the others to the Boat to get some meale and oyle. 
Argent and his Comrado found a Canow, in which they 
resolued to aduenture to their ship, but shee was a drift in 
the Riuer before they returned. Thus frustrate of all hopes, 
Captaine Butlerthe third night rangingthe shore in his Boat 
to seeke them, discharged his Muskets ; but they supposing 
it some Saluages [that] had got some English peeces, they 
grew more perplexed then euer: so he returned and lost his 

The fourth day they vnloaded their Boat, and stopping 
her leakes with their handkerchiefes, and other rags, two 
rowing, and two bailing out the water; but farre they 
went not ere the water grew vpon them so fast, and they 
so tired, they thought themselues happy to be on shore 
againe, though they perceiued the Indians were not farre 
off by their fires. 

Thus at the very period of despaire, Fuller vndertooke 
to sit a stride vpon a little peece of an old Canow; so 
well it pleased God the wind and tide serued, by padling 
with his hands and feet in the water, beyond all expec- 
tation God so guided him three or foure houres vpon this 
boord, [that] he arriued at their ship, where they no lesse 

Ed,by j J ui^4.*] Lib. 4. A strange deliverance of M. Argent. 605 

amazed, then he tired they tooke him in. Presently as [1622-3] 
he had concluded with his Companions, he caused them 
discharge a peece of Ordnance if he escaped : which gaue 
no lesse comfort to Master A rgent and the rest, then terror 
to those Plantations that heard it, (being late) at such an 
vnexpected alarum ; but after, with warme clothes and a 
little strong water, they had a little recouered him, such 
was his courage and care of his distressed friends, he 
returned that night againe with Master Felgate to conduct 
him to them : and so giuing thanks to God for so hopelesse 
a deliuerance, it pleased his Diuine power, both they and 
their prouision came safely aboord, but Fuller they doubt 
will neuer recouer his benumbed legs and thighes. 

Now before Butlers arriuall in England, many hard 
speeches were rumored against him for so leauing his 
charge, before he receiued order from the Company. 
Diuers againe of his Souldiers as highly commended him, 
for his good government, [161] art, iudgement and industry. 

But to make the misery of Virginia appeare that it 
might be reformed in time, how all those Cities, Townes, 
Corporations, Forts, Vineyards, Nurseries of Mulberies, 
Glasse-houses, Iron forges, Guest-houses, Silke-wormes, 
Colleges, the Companies great estate, and that plenty some 
doe speake of here, are rather things in words and paper 
then in effect, with diuers reasons of the causes of those 
defects ; if it were false, his blame nor shame could not be 
too much : but if there bee such defects in the gouernment, 
and distresse in the Colony, it is thought by many it hath 
beene too long concealed, and requireth rather reformation 
then disputation : but howeuer, it were not amisse to pro- 
uide for the worst, for the best will help it selfe. Notwith- 
standing, it was apprehended so hardly, and examined with 
that passion, that the bru[i]te thereof was spread abroad with 
that expedition, it did more hurt then the massacre ; and 
the fault of all now by the vulgar rumour, must be attri- 
buted to the vnwholesomnesse of the ayre, and barrennesse 
of the Countrey : as though all England were naught, 
because the Fens and Marshes are vnhealthy ; or barren, 
because some will lie vnder windowes and starue in Cheap- 
side, rot in Goales, die in the street, high-waies, or any 


606 Captaine Spilman left in Patawomek. Lib. 4. [ Ed - by ^ ;££ 

[1623] where, and vse a thousand deuices to maintaine them- 
selues in those miseries, rather then take any paines to 
liue as they may by honest labour, and a great part of such 
like are the Planters of Virginia, and partly the occasion 
of those defailements. 

1623. In the latter end of this last yeare, or the beginning of 

Jsoufh!* tn ^ s » Captaine Henrie Spilman a Gentleman, that hath 
TnSSTrer ^ ue( * m tnose Countries thirteene or fourteene yeares 
HoT™" [1609-1622, see pp. 172, 498, 503, 528, 606], one of the best 
gjjjj Interpreters in the Land, being furnished with a Barke 
wm left fa and six and twentie men, hee was sent to trucke in the 
?«*. merof Riuer of Patawomek, where he had liued a long time 
amongst the Saluages. 

Whether hee presumed too much vpon his acquaintance 
amongst them, or they sought to be reuenged of any for 
the slaughter made amongst them by the English so 
lately [p. 598], or hee sought to betray them, or they him, 
are all seueral relations, but it seemes but imaginary : for 
they [who] returned, report they left him ashore about 
Patawomek, but the name of the place they knew not, with 
one and twentie men, being but hue in the Barke. 

The Saluages, ere they suspected any thing, boorded 
them with their Canowes, and entred so fast, the English 
were amazed, till a Sailer gaue lire to a peece of Ordnance 
onely at randome ; at the report whereof, the Saluages 
leapt ouer-boord, so distracted with feare, they left their 
Canowes and swum a shore ; and presently after they 
heard a great bru[i]te amongst the Saluages a shore, and 
saw a mans head throwne downe the banke. Whereupon 
they weighed Anchor and returned home, but how he was 
surprised or slaine, is vncertaine. 

Thus things proceed and vary not a iot, 
Whether we know them, or we know them not. 


A particular of such necessaries 

as either priuate families, or single 

persons, shall haue cause to prouide to goe 

to Virginia, whereby greater numbers may 

in part conceiue the better how to prouide 

for themselues. 

Monmoth Cap 
3 falling bands. 
3 shirts, 
i Waste-coat, 
i suit of Canuase 
i suit of Frize. 
i suit of Cloth. 

3 paire of Irish 
stockings. 4s. 

4 paire of shooes. 8s. 8d. 
1 paire of garters. lod. 
1 dozen of points. [162] 3d. 
1 paire of Canuas 


is. lod. 
is. 3d. 




1 OS. 



7 ells of Canuas to 
make a bed and 
boulster, to be 


filled in Virginia, 
seruing for two 

ells of course Can- 
uas to make a bed 
at Sea for two men. 

1 course rug at sea 
for two men. 




for one man, 
and so after 
the rate for 

l l. [i.e.. for one man.] 

608 Such things as men ought to provide Lib. 4. [ Ed " by / U *iy 


[1623] Victuall for a whole year e for 
a man, and so after the 
rate for more. 

8 bushels of meale. 2/. 

2 bushels of pease. 6s. 

2 bushels of Ote- 

1 gallon of Aqua- 

1 gallon of oyle. 

2 gallons of Vine 


2s. 6d. 
3s. 6d. 


3*- 3*- 

A rmes for a man ; but if halfe 

your men be armed it is 

well, so all haue swords 

and peeces. 

I Armor compleat, 

light. 17s. 

1 long peece fiue 
foot and a halfe, 
neere Musket 
bore. 1/. 2s. 

1 Sword. 5s. 

1 Belt. is. 

1 Bandilier. is. 6d. 

20 pound of powder. 18s. 

60 pound of shot 
or Lead, Pistoll 
and Goose shot. 5s. 

3/. 9s. 6d. 

Toolcs for a family of six per 

sons, and so after the rate 
for more. 
5 broad howes at 

2s. a peece. 
5 narrow howes at 

i6d. a peece 
2 broad axes at 3s. 

Sd. a peece. 

5 felling axes at 
i8d. a peece 

2 Steele handsawes 

at i6d. a peece. 
2 two handsawes at 

5s. a peece. 

1 whipsaw, set and 
filed; with box, 
file and wrest. 

2 hammers I2d. a 

3 shouels at iSd. a 

2 spades at iSd. a 

2 Augers at 6d. peece 

6 Chissels at 6d. a 

2 Percers stocked 

[at] \d. a peece. 
2 Hatchets at 21^. 

a peece. 
2 frowes to cleaue 

pale i8d. each. 
2 hand Bills 20^. a 


1 Grindstone. 
Nailes of all sorts to 

the value of 2/ 

2 Pickaxes. 

1 os. 

6s. U. 

ys. 4d. 

ys. 6d. 

2s. 8d. 
1 os. 

I OS. 

4s. 6d. 




3s. 6d. 


3s. ^d. 



61. 2S. 8d. 

Ed " by /uiy?624.] Lib. 4. when they goe to Virginia. 


Houshold implements for a 

family and six persons, 

and so for more or lesse 

after the rate. 

Iron pot. 

large Frying-pan. 
Platters, dishes, 
spoones of wood. 



2s. 6d. 
is. 6d. 



il. 8s. 

For Sugar, Spice, and Fruit, 

and at Sea for six men. 

12s. 6d. 

So the full charge after this 
rate for each person, will 
amount to about the 
summe of 12I. 10s. lod. 

The passage of each man 
is 61. 

The fraught of these pro- 
uisions for a man, will be 
about halfe a tun, which 
is il. 105. 

So the whole charge will 
amount to about 20I. 


Now if the number be great ; [not only] Nets, Hooks, 
and Lines, but Cheese, Bacon, Kine and Goats must be 

And this is the vsuall proportion the Virginia Company 
doe bestow vpon their Tenents they send. 



The causes 
of our first 

A briefe relation written by 

Captaine Smith to his Maiesties 

Commissioners for the reformation 

of Virginia^ concerning some 

aspersions against it. 

[Onourable Gentlemen, for so many faire 
and Nauigable Riuers so neere adioyn- 
ing, and piercing thorow so faire a 
naturall Land, free from any inunda- 
tions, or large Fenny vnwholsome 
Marshes, I haue not seene, read, nor 
heard of: And for the building of Cities, 
Townes, and Wharfage, if they will vse 
the meanes, where there is no more ebbe nor floud, 
Nature in few places affoords any so conuenient. For salt 
Marshes or Quagmires, [163] in this tract of lames 
Towne Riuer I know very few ; some small Marshes and 
Swamps there are, but more profitable than hurtfull : and 
I thinke there is more low Marsh ground betwixt Eriffe and 
Chelsey, then Kecoughton and the Falls, which is about one 
hundred and eighty miles by the course of the Riuer. 

Being enioyned by our Commission not to vnplant nor 
wrong the Saluages, because the channell was so neere the 
shore, where now is lames Towne, then a thick groue of i 
trees; wee cut them downe, where the Saluages pretending 
as much kindnesse as could bee, they hurt and slew one 
and twenty of vs in two houres. At this time our diet was 
for most part water and bran, and three ounces of little 

J ' s ?624.] Lib. 4. Of the Commodities of the Countrey. 61 i 

better stuffe in bread for fiue men a meale ; and thus we [1607-8] 
liued neere three moneths : our lodgings vnder boughes of 
trees, the Saluages being our enemies, whom we neither 
knew nor vnderstood; occasions I thinke sufficient to make 
men sicke and die. 

Necessity thus did inforce me with eight or nine, to try I" 1 ? 8 ,- 
conclusions amongst the Saluages, that we got prouision mVL in 
which recouered the rest|being most sicke. Six weeks [see £1HM ' 
p. 531] I was led captiue by those Barbarians, though some 
of my men were slaine, and the rest fled ; yet it pleased 
God to make their great Kings daughter the means to 
returne me safe to lames towne, and releeue our wants : 
and then [8 Jan. 1608] our Common-wealth was in all 
eight and thirty, the remainder of one hundred and fiue. 

Being supplied with one hundred and twenty, with twelue JhJJjjJJjf. 
men in a boat of three tuns, I spent fourteene weeks finesse 
in [2 June — 21 July, and 24 July — 7 Sept. 1608] those large countrey 
waters; the contents of the way of my boat protracted 
by the skale of proportion, was about three thousand miles, 
besides the Riuer we dwell vpon : where no Christian 
knowne euer was, and our diet for the most part what we 
could finde, yet but one died. 

The Saluages being acquainted, that by command from gj^* 
England we durst not hurt them, were much imboldned ; became 
that famine and their insolencies did force me to breake sublected - 
our Commission and instructions ; cause Powhatan [to] fly 
his Countrey, and take the King of Pamavnke Prisoner ; and 
also to keepe the King of Paspahegh in shackels, and put 
his men to double taskes in chaines, till nine and thirty of 
their Kings paied vs contribution, and the offending Sal- 
uages sent to lames towne to punish at our owne discre- 
tions : in the two last yeares [Oct. 1607 — Oct. 1609] I staied 
there, I had not a man slaine. 

All those conclusions being not able to preuent the bad P°^ w f e h 
euents of pride and idlenesse, hauing receiued another natural 
supply of seuentie, we were about two hundred in all, but cSS^* 
not twentie work-men : In following the strict directions 
from England to doe that was impossible at that time; So 
it hapned, that neither wee nor they had any thing to eat 
but what the Countrey afforded naturally ; yet of eightie 
who liued vpon Oysters in Iune and Iuly [1609], with a 

6 1 2 Of the Commodities of the Countrey. Lib. 4. [ J Sl ^*; 

[1608-9] pint of corne a week for a man lying vnder trees, and 120 
for the most part liuing vpon Sturgion, which was dried 
til we pounded it to powder for meale, yet in ten weeks 
[1 May — 10 July 1609] but seuen died. 

^ ioofe of the it is true, we had of Tooles, Armes, and Munition suffi- 

wemumed. cient, some Aquavita, Vineger, Meale, Pease, and Ote- 
meale, but in two yeares and a halfe not sufficient for six 
moneths ; though by the bils of loading the proportions 
sent vs, would well haue contented vs : notwithstanding we 
sent home ample proofes of Pitch, Tar, Sope Ashes, 
Wainskot, Clapboord, Silke grasse, Iron Ore, some 
Sturgion and Glasse, Saxefras, Cedar, Cypris, and blacke 
Walnut; crowned Powhatan; sought the Monacans Countrey, 
according to the instructions sent vs, but they caused vs 
[to] neglect more necessary workes: they had better haue 
giuen for Pitch and Sope ashes one hundred pound a tun 
in Denmarke : Wee also maintained fiue or six seuerall 

what we lames towne being burnt [Jan. 1608], wee rebuilt it and 

three Forts more: besidesthe Church and Store-house,we had 

\p- 957.] about fortie or fiftie seuerall houses to keepe vs warme and 
dry, inuironed with a palizado of foureteene or fifteene foot, 
and each as much as three or foure men could carrie. We 
digged a faire Well of fresh water in the Fort, where wee 
had three Bulwarks, foure and twentie peece[s] of Ordnance 
[164] (of Culuering, Demiculuering, Sacar and Falcon), 
and most well mounted vpon conuenient plat-formes: [and] 
planted one hundred acres of Corne. We had but six 
ships to transport and supply vs, and but two hundred 
seuenty seuen men, boies, and women : by whose labours 
Virginia being brought to this kinde of perfection, the 
most difficulties past, and the foundation thus laid by this 
small meanes ; yet because we had done no more, they 
called in our Commission, tooke a new in their owne 
names, and appointed vs neere as many offices and Officers 
as I had Souldiers, that neither knew vs nor wee them, 
without our consents or knowledge. 

Since [by 1624], there haue gone more then one hundred 

ships of other proportions, and eight or ten thousand people. 

Now if you please to compare what hath beene spent, 

J ' S T<524'.] The reason why Capt. Smith left the Countrey. 613 

sent, discouered, and done this fifteene yeares [1609-1624], [1608- 
by that we did in the three first yeares : and [that] euery 1624] 
Gouernor that hath beene there since, giue you but such 
an account as this, you may easily finde what hath beene 
the cause of those disasters in Virginia. 

Then came [about 10 July 1609] in Ca-ptame A r gall, and 
Master Sedan, in a ship of Master Cornelius, to fish for 
Sturgion; who had such good prouision,we contracted with 
them for it, whereby we were better furnished then euer. 

Not long after came in seuen ships [11 — 14 August 1609], 
with about three hundred people ; but rather to supplant 
vs then supply vs : their Admirall with their authoritie being 
cast away in the Bermudas, very angry they were we had 
made no better prouisionfor them. Seuen or eight weekes 
[11 Aug. — 4 Oct. 1609] we withstood the invndations of these 
disorderly humors, till I was neere blowne to death with 
Gun-powder, which occasioned me to returne for England. 

In the yeare 1609 about Michaelmas [viz., on Oct. 4, see How 1 left 
p. xcviii] , I left the Countrey, as is formerly related , with three tr£ 
ships, seuen Boats, Commodities to trade, haruest newly 
gathered, eight weeks prouision of Corne and Meale, about 
fiue hundred persons, three hundred Muskets, shot powder 
and match with armes for more men then we had. The 
Saluages their language and habitation well knowne to two 
hundred expert Souldiers; Nets for fishing, tooles of all 
sorts, apparell to supply their wants : six Mares and a 
Horse, fiue or six hundred Swine, many more Powltry, 
what was brought or bred, but [except] victuall, there 

Hauing spent some fiue yeares [1604-1609], and more My charge 
then fiue hundred pounds in procuring the Letters Patents 
and setting forward, and neere as much more about New 
England, &c. Thus these nineteene yeares [1603-1624] I 
haue here and there not spared any thing according to my 
abilitie, nor the best aduice I could, to perswade how those 
strange miracles of misery might haue beene preuented, 
which lamentable experience plainly taught me of necessity 
must insue, but few would beleeue me till now too deerely 
they haue paid for it. Wherefore hitherto I haue rather left 

6 14 The reason why Capt. Smith left the Countrey. [ J - 


[1624] all then vndertake impossibilities, or any more such costly 
Myrtwwd. taskes at such chargeable rates: for in neither of those two 
Countries haue I one foot of Land, nor the very house I 
builded, nor the ground I digged with my owne hands, nor 
euer any content or satisfaction at all. And though I see 
ordinarily those two Countries shared before me by them 
that neither haue them nor knowes them, but by my 
descriptions : Yet that doth not so much trouble me, as to 
heare and see those contentions and diuisions which will 
hazard if not ruine the prosperitie of Virginia, if present 
remedy bee not found, as they haue hindred many hun- 
dreds, who would haue beene there ere now, and makes 
them yet that are willing to stand in a demurre. 

For the Books and Maps I haue made, I will thanke him 
that will shew me so much for so little recompence ; and 
beare with their errors till I haue done better. For the 
materials in them I cannot deny, but am ready to affirme 
them both there and here, vpon such grounds as I haue 
propounded : which is to haue but fifteene hundred men to 
subdue againe the Saluages, fortifie the Countrey, discouer 
that yet vnknowne, and both defend and feed their Colony, 
which I most humbly refer to his Maiesties most iudiciall 
iudgement, and the most honourable Lords of his [165] 
Priuy Councill, you his trusty and well-beloued Commis- 
sioners, and the Honourable company of Planters and 
well-willers to Virginia, New-England and Sommer-I lands. 

Out of these Obseruations it pleased 

his Maiesties Commissioners for 

the reformation of Virginia , to 

desire my answer to these 

seuen Questions. 

Quest, i. W^iWVfS^M Hat conceiue you is the cause 

the Plantation hath prospered 
no better since you left it in 
so good a forwardnesse ? 

Answ. Idlenesse and care- 
lesnesse brought all I did 
in three yeeres, in six 
moneths to nothing ; and 
of fiue hundred I left, scarce threescore remained ; and 
had Sir Thomas Gates not got from the Bermudas, I thinke 
they had beene all dead before they could be supplied. 

Quest. 2. What conceiue you should be the cause, though 
the Country be good, there comes nothing but Tobacco ? 

Answ The oft altering of Gouernours it seemes causes 
euery man [to] make vse of his time, and because Corne was 
stinted at two shillings six pence the bushell, and Tobacco 
at three shillings the pound; and they value a mans labour 
a yeere worth fifty or threescore pound, but in Corne not 
worth ten pound, presuming Tobacco will furnish them with 
all things: now make a mans labour in Corne worth three- 
score pound, and in Tobacco but ten pound a man, then shall 
they haue Corne sufficient to entertaine all commers, and 


616 Answer to the Commissioners Questions. Lib. 4. [ JS ?j£; 

[1624] keepe their people in health to doe any thing; but till then, 
there will be little or nothing to any purpose. 

Quest. 3. What conceiue you to haue beene the cause of the 
Massacre, and had the Saluages had the vse of any peeces in 
your time, or when, or by whom they were taught ? 

Answ. The cause of the Massacre was the want of 
marshall discipline; and because they would haue all the 
English had by destroying those they found so carelesly 
secure, that they were not prouided to defend themselues 
against any enemy; being so dispersed as they were. In my 
time, though Captaine Nuport furnished them with swords 
by truck, and many fugitiues did the like, and some Peeces 
they got accidentally : yet I got the most of them againe ; 
and it was death to him that should shew a Saluage the 
vse of a Peece. Since, I vnderstand, they became so good 
shot, they were imployed for Fowlers and Huntsmen by 
the English. 

Quest. 4. What charge thinke you would haue setled the 
gouernment both for defence and planting when you left it ? 

Answ. Twenty thousand pound would haue hyred good 
labourers and mechanicall men, and haue furnished them 
[/>• 487 930. with cattle and all necessaries ; and 100. of them would haue 
done more then a thousand of those that went : though the 
Lord Law are, Sir Ferdinando Waynman, Sir Thomas Gates 
and Sir Thomas Dale were perswaded to the contrary ; but 
when they had tried, they confessed their error. 

Quest. 5. What conceiue you would be the remedy and the 
charge ? 

Answ. The remedy is to send Souldiers and all sorts of 
labourers and necessaries for them, that they may be there 
by next Michaelmas [1624], the which to doe well will stand 
you in fiue thousand pound : but if his Maiesty would 
please to lend two of his Ships to transport them, lesse 
would serue ; besides the benefit of his grace to the action 
would encourage all men. 

Quest. 6. What thinke you are the defects of the gouernment 
both here and there ? 

Answ. The multiplicity of opinions here, and Officers 
there, makes such delaies by questions and formalitie, that 
as much time is spent in complement as in action ; [166] 
besides, some are so desirous to imploy their ships, hauing 

J ' S T<524-] Lib. 4. Answer to the Commissioners Questions. 617 

six pounds for euery Passenger, and three pounds for euery [1624] 
tun of goods, at which rate a thousand ships may now 
better be procured then one at the first, when the common 
6tocke defrayed all fraughts, wages, prouisions and Maga- 
zines, whereby the Ships are so pestred, as occasions much 
sicknesse, diseases and mortality: for though all the Pas- 
sengers die they are sure of their fraught ; and then all must 
be satisfied with Orations, disputations, excuses and hopes. 

As for the letters of aduice from hence, and their 
answers thence, they are so well written, men would be- 
leeue there were no great doubt of the performance, and 
that all things were wel, to which error here they haue 
beene euer much subiect ; and there not to beleeue, or not 
to releeue the true and poore estate of that Colony, whose 
fruits were commonly spent before they were ripe, and this 
losse is nothing to them here, whose great estates are not 
sensible of the losse of their aduentures, and so they thinke, 
or will not take notice ; but it is so with all men. 

But howsoeuer they thinke or dispose of all things at their 
pleasure, I am sure not my selfe onely, but a thousand 
others haue not onely spent the most of their estates, but 
the most part haue lost their Hues and all, onely but to 
make way for the triall of more new conclusions : and he 
that now will aduenture but twelue pounds ten shillings, 
shall haue better respect and as much fauour then he that 
sixteene yeere agoe [in 1609] aduentured as much, except he 
haue money as the other hath ; but though he haue aduen- 
tured fiue hundred pound, and spent there neuer so much 
time, if hee haue no more and [be] not able to begin a family 
of himselfe, all is lost by order of Court. 

But in the beginning it was not so, all went then out of 
one purse, till those new deuices haue consumed both 
mony and purse ; for at first there were but six Patentees, 
now more then a thousand; then but thirteene Counsailors, 
now not lesse then an hundred : I speake not of all, for 
there are some both honourable and honest, but of those 
Officers which did they manage their owne estates no better 
then the affaires of Virginia, they would quickly fall to 
decay so well as it. But this is most euident, few Officers 
in England it hath caused to turne Banquerupts, nor for 
all their complaints would [they] leaue their places; neither 

6 1 8 Answer to the Commissioners Questions. Lib. 4. [ J - s ™ 6 5 £; 

[1624] yet any of their Officers there, nor few of the rest but they 
would be at home. But fewer Aduenturers here will aduen- 
ture any more till they see the businesse better established, 
although there be some so wilfully improuident they care 
for nothing but to get thither, and then if their friends be 
dead, or want themselues, they die or Hue but poorely for 
want of necessaries, and to thinke the old Planters can 
releeue them were too much simplicity ; for who here in 
England is so charitable to feed two or three strangers, 
haue they neuer so much ; much lesse in Virginia where 
they want for themselues. Now the generall complaint 
saith, that pride, couetousnesse, extortion and oppression 
in a few that ingrosses all, then sell all againe to the com- 
minalty at what rate they please (yea euen men, women 
and children for who will giue most), occasions no small 
mischiefe amongst the Planters. 

As for the Company, or those that doe transport them, 
prouided of necessaries, God forbid but they should receiue 
their charges againe with aduantage, or that masters there 
should not haue the same priuilege ouer their seruants as 
here : but to sell him or her for forty, fifty, or threescore 
pounds, whom the Company hath sent ouer for eight or 
ten pounds at the most, without regard how they shall be 
maintained with apparell, meat, drinke and lodging, is 
odious, and their fruits su[i] table: therefore such merchants 
it were better they were made such merchandize them- 
selues, then suffered any longer to vse that trade, and those 
are defects sufficient to bring a well setled Common-wealth 
to misery, much more Virginia. 

Quest. 7. How thinke you it may be rectified ? 

Answ. If his Maiestie would please to intitle [resume] it 
to his Crowne, and yearely that both the Gouernours here 
and there may giue their accounts to you, or some that are 
not ingaged in the businesse, that the common stocke bee 
not spent in [167] maintaining one hundred men for the 
Gouernour, one hundred for two Deputies, fifty for the 
Treasurer, fiue and twenty for the Secretary, and more for 
the Marshall and other Officers who were neuer there nor 
aduentured any thing ; but onely preferred by fauour to be 
Lords ouer them that broke the ice and beat the path, and 
must teach them what to doe. If any thing happen well, it 

J " S T<S;3 Lib. 4. Answer to the Commissioners Questions, 619 

is their glory ; if ill, the fault of the old directors, that in [1624" 
all dangers must endure the worst, yet not flue hundred 
of them haue so much as one of the others. 

Also that there bee some present course taken to main- 
taine a Garrison to suppresse the Saluages, till they be 
able to subsist, and that his Maiesty would please to 
remit his custome; or it is to be feared they will lose 
custome and all, for this cannot be done by promises, hopes, 
counsels and countenances, but with sufficient workmen and 
meanes to maintaine them : not such delinquents as here 
cannot be ruled by all the lawes in England. Yet when the 
foundation is laid, as I haue said, and a common-wealth 
established, then such there may better be constrained 
to labour then here ; but to rectifie a common-wealth 
with debaushed people is impossible, and no wise man 
would throw himselfe into such a society, that intends 
honestly, and knowes what he vndertakes. For there is no 
Country to pillage as the Romans found : all you expect 
from thence must be by labour. 

For the gouernment I thinke there is as much adoe about 
it as the Kingdomes of Scotland and Ireland, men here con- 
ceiting Virginia as they are, erecting as many stately Offices 
as Officers with their attendants, as there are labourers in 
the Countrey : where a Constable were as good as twenty 
of their Captaines ; and three hundred good Souldiers and 
labourers better then all the rest, that goe onely to get the 
fruits of other mens labours by the title of an office. Thus 
they spend Michaelmas rent in Mid-summer Moone, and 
would gather their Haruest before they haue planted their 

As for the maintenance of the Officers, the first that 
went neuer demanded any, but aduentured good summes: 
and it seemes strange to me, the fruits of all their labours, 
besides the expence of an hundred and fifty thousand 
pounds, and such multitudes of people, those collaterall 
Officers could not maintaine themselues so well as the old 
did ; and hauing now such liberty to doe to the Saluages 
what they will, [which] the others had not. 

I more then wonder they haue not hue hundred Saluages 
to worke for them towards their generall maintenance; 
and as many more to returne some content and satisfaction 

620 Answer to the Commissioners Questions. Lib. 4. [ J - s ™j£ 

[1624] to the Aduenturers, that for all their care, charge and 
diligence, can heare nor see nothing but miserable com- 
plaints : therefore vnder your correction to rectifie all, [it] 
is with all expedition to passe the authority to them who 
will releeue them, lest all bee consumed ere the differences 
be determined. 

And except his Maiestie vndertake it, or by Act of Par- 
lament some small tax may be granted throughout his 
Dominions, as a Penny vpon euery Poll, called a head- 
penny; two pence vpon euery Chimney, or some such 
collection might be raised, and that would be sufficient to 
giue a good stocke, and many seruants to sufficient men 
of any facultie, and transport them freely for paying onely 
homage to the Crowne of England, and such duties to the 
publike good as their estates increased, [as] reason should 
require. Were this put in practice, how many people of 
what quality you please, for all those disasters would yet 
gladly goe to spend their Hues there, and by this meanes 
more good might be done in one yeere, then all those 
pe[t]ty particular vndertakings will effect in twenty. 

For the Patent the King may, if he please, rather take it 
from them that haue it, then from vs who had it first; pre- 
tending to his Maiestywhat great matters they would doe, 
and how little we did : and for any thing I can conceiue 
had we remained still as at first, it is not likely we could 
haue done much worse ; but those oft altering of gouern- 
ments are not without much charge, hazard and losse. 

If I be too plaine, I humbly craue your pardon ; but you 
requested me, therefore I doe but my duty. For the Nobility, 
who knowes not how freely both in their [168] Purses and 
assistances many of them haue beene to aduance it, com- 
mitting the managing of the businesse to inferiour persons : 
amongst whom questionlesse also many haue done their 
vtmost best, sincerely and truly according to their conceit, 
opinion and vnderstanding ; yet grosse errors haue beene 
committed, but no man Hues without his fault. For my 
owne part, I haue so much adoe to amend my owne, I haue 
no leisure to looke into any mans particular [i.e., fault], but 
those [faults] in generall I conceiue to be true. And so I 
humbly rest Yours to command, 

r. s. 

Hus those discords, not being to be [1624] 
compounded among themselues; nor yet fiihSed 
by the extraordinary diligences, care and to take it 
paines of the noble and right worthy skEratUn"" 
Commissioners, Sir William Iones, Sir 
Nicholas Fortescue, Sir Francis Goston, 
Sir Richard Sutton, Sir Henry Bourgchier 
and Sir William Pit: a Corante was 
granted against Master Deputy Farrar, and 20. or 30. 
others of that party, to plead their causes before the right 
Honourable the Lords of His Maiesties Priuy Councell. 

Now notwithstanding all the Relations, Examinations, 
and intercepting of all Letters whatsoeuer [that] came from 
thence, yet it seemes they were so farre vnsatisfied and 
desired to know the truth, as well for the preseruation of 
the Colony, as to giue content and doe all men right, [that] 
they sent two Commissioners strictly to examine the true 
estate of the Colony. 

Vpon whose returne after mature deliberation, it pleased 
his royall Maiesty to suppresse the course of the Court at 
Deputy Farrars : and that for the present ordering the 
affaires of Virginia, vntill he should make a more full 
settlement thereof, the Lord Viscount Mandeuile, Lord 
President of his Maiesties Priuie Councell, and also other 
Priuy Councellors, with many vnderstanding Knights and 
Gentlemen, should euery Thursday in the afternoone meet 
at Sir Thomas Smiths in Philpot lane : where all men whom 
it should concerne may repaire, to receiue such directions 
and warrant for their better security; as more at large 
you may see in the Proclamation to that effect, vnder the 
great Seale of England, dated the 15. of Iuly, 1624. 

622 The King takes it into his consideration. Lib. 4. [ J,S S£: 

[1624] But as for the relations last returned, what numbers they 

are, how many Cities, Corporations, townes, and houses, 
cattle and horse they haue; what fortifications or discoueries 
they haue made, or reuenge vpon the Saluages ; who are 
their friends or foes ; or what commodities they haue more 
then Tobacco ; and their present estate or what is presently 
to be put in execution : in that the Commissioners are not 
yet fully satisfied in the one, nor resolued in the other, at 
this present time when this went to the Presse, I must 
intreat you pardon me till I be better assured. 

Thus far I haue trauelled in this Wildernesse of Virginia, 
not being ignorant [that] for all my paines, this discourse 
will be wrested, tossed and turned as many waies as there 
is leaues [The first four Books of this General History, occupy 
168 leaves] ; that I haue writ too much of some, too little 
of others, and many such like obiections. 

To such I must answer, in the Companies name I was 
requested to doe it, if any haue concealed their approued 
experiences from my knowledge, they must excuse me : as 
for euery fatherles or stolne relation, or whole volumes of 
sofisticated rehearsals, I leaue them to the charge of them 
that desire them. I thanke God I neuer vndertooke any 
thing yet [wherein] any could tax me of carelesnesse or 
dishonesty, and what is hee to whom I am indebted or 
troublesome ? Ah ! were these my accusers but to change 
cases and places with me but 2. yeeres, or till they had 
done but so much as I, it may be they would iudge more 
charitably of my imperfections. 

But here I must leaue all to the triall of time, both my 
selfe, Virginia's preparations, proceedings and good euents; 
praying to that great God the protector of all goodnesse to 
send them as good successe as the goodnesse of the action 
and Country deserueth, and my heart desireth. 

FINIS. [169] 

The Generall Historic of Virginia, New England, &> the Summer Isles. 

The Fifth Book. 


The General 

History of the Bermudas. 


Captain Smith was never at Bermuda. This part of the Generall 
Historie therefore is clearly a compilation. 

Our Author may have made large use of Sloanc MS. 750, in the 
British Museum ; which has been edited by General Sir J. Henry 
Lefroy, R.A., C.B., K.C.M.G., for the Hakluyt Society in 1881, 
under the title of " The History of the Bermudas or Somer Islands. 
Attributed to Captain John Smith : " but clearly he was not the Author 
of that manuscript, which was written apparently by a Governor 
previous to Governor Butler ; ? by Governor Tucker. 

The Fifth Booke. 




called the Summer lies, from their 

beginning in the yeere of our Lord 

1593. to this present 1624. with their 

proceedings, accidents and 

present estate. 

Efore we present you the matters of fact, 
it is fit to offer to your view the Stage 
whereon they were acted : for as Geo- 
graphy without History seemeth a 
carkasse without motion ; so History 
without Geography, wandreth as a 
Vagrant without a certaine habitation. 
Those Hands lie in the huge maine The 
Ocean, and two hundred leagues from any continent, ofTh^ne! 
situated in 32. degrees and 25. minutes, of Northerly 
latitude, and distant from England West South- West, 
about 3300. miles ; some twenty miles in length, and not 
past two miles and a halfe in breadth, enuironed with 
Rocks, which to the North-ward, West-ward, and South- 
East, extend further then they haue bin yet well dis- 



626 The description of the Summer lies Lib. 5. T JS ^ 

Lsee/. 629. 

[1593- couered: by reason of those Rocks the Country is naturally 
1623] ver y strong, for there is but two places, and scar[c]e two 
vnlesse to them who know them well, where shipping may 
safely come in, and those now are exceeding well fortified, 
but within is roome to entertaine a royall Fleet : the 
Rocks in most places appeare at a low water, neither are 
they much couered at a high, for it ebbs and flowes not 
past fiue foot ; the shore for most part is a Rocke, so 
hardened with the sunne, wind and sea, that it is not apt 
to be worne away with the waues, whose violence is also 
broke by the Rocks before they can come to the shore. 

It is very vneuen, distributed into hills and dales ; the 
mold is of diuers colours, neither clay nor sand, but a meane 
betweene ; the red which resembleth clay is the worst, 
the whitest resembling sand and the blackest is good, but 
the browne betwixt them both which they call white, 
because there is mingled with it a white meale is the best : 
vnder the mould two or three foot deep, and sometimes 
lesse, is a kinde of white hard substance which they call 
the Rocke : the trees vsually fasten their roots in it ; 
neither is it indeed rocke or stone, or so hard, though for 
most part more harder then Chalke ; nor so white, but 
pumish-like and spungy, easily receiuing and containing 
much water. In some places Clay is found vnder it, it 
seemes to be ingendred with raine water, draining through 
the earth, and drawing with it of his substance vnto a 
certaine depth where it congeales ; the hardest kinde of it 
lies vnder the red ground like quarries, as it were thicke 
slates one vpon another, through which the water hath 
his passage, so that in such places there is scarce found 
any fresh water, for all or the most part of the fresh water 
commeth out of the Sea draining through the sand, or that 
substance called the Rocke, leauing the salt behinde, it 
becomes fresh. Sometimes we digged wells of fresh water 
which we finde in most places, and but three or foure paces 
from the Sea side, some further, the most part of them would 
ebbe and flow as the Sea did, and be leuell or little higher 
then the superficies of the sea : and in some places [there 
are] very strange, darke and cumbersome Caues. [170] 
SlferTnd ^e a i re ™ most commonly cleere, very temperate, 
fcItSy. an moist, with a moderate heat, very healthfull and apt for 

J s ^;] Lib. 5. and their naturall Commodities. 627 

the generation and nourishing of all things, so as many [1593- 
things transported from hence yeeld a farre greater increase, 1623] 
and if it be any liuing thing it becomes fatter and 

By this meanes the country is so replenished with Hens 
and Turkies, within the space of three or foure yeeres, 
that many of them being neglected, forsake the houses and 
become wilde, and so Hue in great abundance ; the like 
increase there is in Hogs, tame Conies, and other Cattle 
according to their kindes. 

There seemes to be a continuall Spring, which is the 
cause some things come not to that maturity and perfec- 
tion as were requisite ; and though the trees shed their 
leaues, yet they are alwaies full of greene. The Corne is 
the same they haue in Virginia, and the West-Indies : of 
this and many other things, without plowing or much 
labour, they haue two Haruests euery yeere. For they 
set about March, which they gather in Iuly ; and againe 
in August, which theyreape in December; and little slips 
of Fig-trees and Vines doe vsually beare fruit within the 
yeere, and sometimes in lesse ; but we finde not the Grapes 
as yet come to any perfection : the like fertility it hath 
in Oranges and Limons, Pomgranates, and other things. 

Concerning the serenity and beauty of the skie, it may 
as truly be said of those Ilands as euer it was said of the 
Rhodes, that there is no one day throughout the 12. 
moneths, but that in some houre thereof, the sun lookes 
singularly and cleere vpon them : for the temperature it 
is beyond all others most admirable; no cold there is 
beyond an English Aprill, nor heat much greater then 
an ordinary Iuly in France. So that frost and snow is neuer 
seene here, nor stinking and infectious mists very seldome ; 
by reason of the maine Ocean, there is some wind stirring 
that cooles the aire : the winter they haue obserues the 
time with ours, but the longest daies and nights are 
shorter then ours almost by two houres. 

We found it at first all ouergrowne with weeds, and Trees and 

plants of seuerall kinds, as many tall and goodly Cedars, Frmts ' 
infinite store of Palmetoes, numbers of Mulberies, wild 
Oliue-trees store, with diuers others vnknowne both by 



628 The description of the Summer lies Lib. 5. [ T * s ^ 

[1593- name and nature, so that as yet they become lost to many 

1623] vsefull imployments, which time and industry no doubt 
will one day discouer. And euen already certaine of the 
most notorious of them haue gotten them appellations 
from their apparent effects, as 

ThePrkkcii The Prickell-peare which growes like a shrub by the 
ground, with broad thick leaues, all ouer-armed with long 
and sharpe dangerous thornes, the fruit being in forme 
not much vnlike a small greene Peare, and on the outside 
of the same colour, but within bloud red, and exceeding 
full of iuice ; with graines not much vnlike the Pomgranat, 
and colouring after its nature. 

The^poison The poysoned weed is much in shape like our English 
Iuy, but being but touched, causeth rednesse, itching, and 
lastly blisters ; the which howsoeuer after a while passe 
away of themselues without further harme : yet because for 
the time they are somewhat painfull, it hath got it selfe an 
ill name, although questionlesse of no ill nature. 

The^red Hereisalso frequently growing a certaine tall Plant, whose 

stalke being all ouer couered with a red rinde, is thereupon 
termed the red weed : the root whereof being soked in any 
liquor, or but a small quantity of the Iuice drunke alone, 
procures a very forcible vomit, and yet is generally vsed 
by the people, and found very effectual against the paines 
and distempers of the stomacke. 

The purging A kinde of Wood-bind there is likewise by the Sea very 

Bcane * commonly to bee found, which runnes vpon trees, twining 
it selfe like a Vine : the fruit somewhat resembles a Beane, 
but somewhat flatter, the which any way eaten worketh 
excellently in the nature of a purge, and though very 
vehemently, yet without all perill. 

Thecostiue Contrary to this, another small tree there is, which 
causeth costiuenesse. 

There is also a certaine Plant like a bramble bush, which 
beares a long yellow fruit, hauing the shell very hard, and 
within it a hard berry, that beaten and taken inwardly 
purgeth gently. 

Red Pepper. There is another fruit much like our Barberies, which 
being beaten or brused betweene the teeth, sets all the 
mouth on an extreme heat very terrible for the time, to 
auoid which they are swallowed downe whole, [171] and 



J - S ^;] Lib. 5. and their naturall Commodities. 629 

found of the same or better operation then the red Pepper, [1593- 
and thence borroweth the name. 1623] 

In the bottome of the Sea there is growing vpon the Rocks J^^l* 
a large kinde of Plant in the forme of a Vine leafe, but far 
more spread with veines in colour of a pale red, very 
strangely interlaced and wouen one into another, which 
we call the Feather, but the vertue thereof, is altogether 
vnknowne, but only regarded for the rarity. 

Now besides these naturall productions, prouidences and *™ l ** n 
paines since the Plantation, haue offered diuers other seeds 
and plants, which the soile hath greedily imbraced and 
cherished : so that at this present 1623. there are great abund- 
ance of white, red, and yellow coloured Potatoes, Tobacco, 
Sugarcanes, Indicos, Parsnips, exceeding large Radishes, the 
American bread, the Cassado root, the Indian Pumpian, the 
Water-millon, Musk-millon, and the most delicate Pine- 
apples, Plantans, andPapawes; also the English Artichoke, 
Pease, &c. : briefly whatsoeuer else may be expected for 
the satisfaction either of curiosity, necessity or delight. 

Neither hath the aire for her part been wanting with Birds, 
due supplies of many sorts of Fowles, as the gray and 
white Hearne, the gray and greene Plouer, some wilde 
Ducks and Malards, Coots and Red-shankes, Sea-wigions, 
Gray-bitterns, Cormorants, numbers of small Birds like 
Sparrowes and Robins which haue lately beene destroyed 
by the wilde Cats, Wood-pickars : very many Crowes, 
which since this Plantation are kild, the rest fled or seldome 
seene except in the most vninhabited places, from whence 
they are obserued to take their flight about sun set, 
directing their course towards the North-west, which 
makes many coniecture there are some more Hands not 
far off that way. Sometimes are also seene Falcons and 
Iar-falcons, Ospraies, a Bird like a Hobby : but because 
they come seldome, they are held but as passengers. 

But aboue all these, most deseruing obseruation and re- 
spect are those two sorts of Birds, the one for the tune of his 
voice, the other for the effect, called the Cahow, and Egge- 
bird: [the latter of] which on the first of May, a day con- Egge-Bird*. 
stantly obserued, fall a laying infinite store of Eggs neere as 
big as Hens, vpon certaine small sandie baies especially in 

630 The description of the Summer lies Lib. 5. [ JS ^; 

[1593- Coupers He ; and although men sit downe amongst them 

1623] w hen hundreds haue bin gathered in a morning, yet there is 

hath stayed amongst them till they haue gathered as many 

more: they continue this course till Midsummer, and so tame 

and feareles, you must thrust them off from their Eggs with 

your hand. Then they grow so faint with laying, they 

suffer them to breed and take infinite numbers of their 

yong to eat, which are very excellent meat. 

Cahowes. The Cahow is a Bird of the night, for all the day she 

lies hid in holes in the Rocks, where they and their young 

are also taken with as much ease as may be : but in the 

night if you but whoop and hollow, they will light 

vpon you, that with your hands you may chuse the fat and 

leaue the leane. Those they haue only in winter : their 

Eggs are as big as hens, but they are speckled, the other 

white. Master Norwood hath taken twenty dozen of them 

in three or foure houres, and since there hath beene such 

hauocke made of them, they were neere all destroyed, till 

there was a strict inhibition for their preseruation. 

th« . The Tropicke bird is white, as large as a Pullet, with one 

BirTand the onely long Feather in her taile, and is seldome seene far 

p^ b g e c - os distant from other of the Tropicks. Another small Bird 

ments. there is, because she cries Pemblyco they call her so, she is 

seldome seene in the day but when she sings, as too oft she 

doth very clamorously ; too true a Prophet she proues of 

huge winds and boysterous weather. 

There were a kinde of small Owles in great abundance, 
but they are now all slaine or fled : some tame Ducks, Geese 
and Pigeons there are, but the two latter prosper not. 

ofVermine. Concerning vermine and noisome creatures, there are 
not many, but onely Rats and Cats there increased since 
the Plantation, but how they agree together you shall 
heare hereafter. The Musketas and Flies are also too 
busie, with a certaine India Bug, called by the Spaniards 
a Cacarootch, the which creeping into Chests they eat and 
defile with their ill-sented dung. Also the little Ants in 
summer time are so troublesome, they are forced to dry 
their figs vpon high frames, and anoint their feet with tar, 
wherein they sticke, else they would spoile them all [172] 
ere they could be drycd. Wormes in the earth also there 

JS ^] Lib. 5. and their natur all Commodities. 631 

are but too many, so that to keepe them from destroying R«oqi 
their Corne and Tobacco, they are forced to worme them "»23J 
euery morning, which is a great labour, else all would be 
destroyed. Lizards there were many and very large, but 
now none ; and it is said they were destroyed by the Cat. Nott. 
Certaine Spiders also of very large size are found hanging 
vpon trees, but instead of being any way dangerous as in 
other places, they are here of a most pleasing aspect, all 
ouer drest, as it were with Siluer, Gold, and Pearle : and 
their Webs in the Summer wouen from tree to tree, are 
generally a perfect raw silke, and that as well in regard of 
substance as colour; and so strong withall, that diuers 
Birds bigger than Black-birds, being like Snipes, are often 
taken and snared in them as a Net. Then what would the 
Silke-worme doe were shee there to feede vpon the 
continuall greene Mulbery ? 

But aboue all the rest of the Elements, the Sea is found FisW 
most abundantly liberall : hence haue they as much 
excellent Fish, and as much variety as need be desired. 
The most of which being vnknowne to our Northerne 
parts, got there new names, either for their shapes or 
conditions ; as the large Rocke-fish from his like hew, and 
haunting amongst the Rocks ; the fat Hog-fish from his 
swine-like shape and snout, for this is not the old knowne 
Hog-fish with brussels on his backe ; the delicate Amber- 
fish from his taste and smell ; Angell-fish, Cony-fish the 
small yellow taile from that naturall painting ; the great 
Growper from his odde and strange grunting : some of 
them yet knowne to the Americans, as the Purgoose, the 
Cauallo, the Gar-fish, Flying-fish and M orerayes ; the rest 
are common to other Continents, as the Whale in great 
numbers, the Sharke, the Pilot-fish, the Sea-Breame, the 
Oyster and Lobster, with diuers others. Twenty Tortoises 
haue beene taken in a day, and some of them will affoord halfe 
a bushell of Egges, and suffice to feed forty men at a meale. 

And thus haue you briefely epitomized Mother Natures 
benefits to this little, yet dainty spot of earth ; neither 
were it ingenuity to conceale wherein shee inclineth 
to the Stepdame, especially since the particulars are so 

632 The description of the Summer lies &c. Lib. 5. p ,s 2£ 

[1593- few, as rather requisite Antidotes against idlenesse to 
1623] rouse vp industry, then any great cause of much distaste, 
iwuif 1 much lesse despaire : and of those to speake troth, there are 
ShSTiki. one ly two : v i z ' tne Winds, and the Wormes, especially in 
the Spring and Autumne ; and thus conditioned as yet we 
will let rest these small Hands, in the midst of this 
mightie and maine Ocean, so inuironed on euery side, by 
infinite numbers of vncertaine scattered Rocks, lying 
shallowly hid vnder the surface of the water, a league, 
two, three, foure, or fiue, to Sea, to the which aduantagers 
added by art, as hereafter you shall heare at large, and 
finde described in the Map. It may well be concluded to 
be the most impregnable place in the world; and although 
the Amber Greece, Pearles, nor Tobacco, are of that 
quantity and certainty to be relied vpon to gaine wealth ; 
yet by practise and experience they finde, by Silke, Saffron, 
Indico, Madar, Sugar-canes, Wine, Oile, and such like, 
great profit may be expected. Yet were those hopelesse, 
in regard of their conueniency to nourish and maintaine 
themselues, and releeue them shall visit them with wood, 
water, and other necessaries; besides what an eye-sore they 
are already becommed to them that haue them not [p. 688], 
and how deare and pretious to them that haue them, I 
thinke none will deny but they are well worth the keeping : 
and so we will proceed to the accidents that befell the first 
finders ; also the proceedings of the first Planters and 
their successors, Master Norwod, Thomas Sparkes, and 
diuers others. 


A brief e relation of the shipwracke 1593. 
of Henry May. 

Ow these lies came by the name of [1591-3] 
Bermudas, or the infinite number of Apposed 
blacke Hogs, or so fearefull to the world th ?, y rr e 

i iiii 1 ti /»t»'t called the 

that many called them the lie of Deuils, Bermudas. 
that all men did shun as Hell and 
perdition ; I will not expostulate, nor 
trouble your patiences with those vn- 
certaine antiquities [173] further then 
thus ; our men found diuers crosses, peeces of Spanish 
monies here and there. Two or three wracks also they 
found, by certaine inscriptions to bee some Spanish, some 
Dutch, some French ; but the greatest rumour is, that a 
Spanish ship called Bermudas was there cast away, carry- 
ing Hogges to the West-Indies that swam a shore, and 
there increased : how the Spaniards escaped is vncertaine : 
but they say, from that ship those lies were first called 
Bermudas, which till then for six thousand yeares had 
beene namelesse. 

But the first English-man that was euer in them, was 
one Henry May, a worthy Mariner that went with Captaine 
Lancaster to the East-Indies 1591. and in their returne by 
the West-Indies, being in some distresse, [he] sent this 
Henry May for England by one Mounsier de la Barbotier, to 
acquaint the Merchants with their estate. 

The last of Nouember [1591], saith May, we departed 
from Laguna in Hispaniola, and the seuenteenth of Decem- 
ber following [1591], we were cast away vpon the North- 
west of the Bermudas; the Pilots about noone made 
themselues Southwards of the lies twelue leagues, and 
demanded of the Captaine their Wine of hight as out of all 
danger, which they had : but it seemes they were either 
drunke, or carelesse of their charge ; for through their 
uegligences a number of good men were cast away. 

I being but a stranger amongst fiftie and odde French- 
men, it pleased God to appoint me to be one of them should 

634 <A briefe relation of Henrie May. Lib. 5. [ H 


The build- 
ing and 
their Barke, 

[1591-4] be saued. In this extremity we made a raft, which we towed 
with our Boat, there were but six and twentie of vs saued ; 
and I seeing scarce roome for the one halfe, durst not passe 
in amongst them till the Captaine called me along with 
him, leauing the better halfe to the seas mercy. 

That day we rowed till within two houres of night ere we 
could land, being neere dead with thirst, euery man tooke his 
way to seeke fresh water; at length, by searching amongst 
many weeds, we found some raine water : but in the maine 
are many faire Baies, where we had enough for digging. 

Now it pleased God before our ship split we saued our 
Carpenters tooles, some Nailes, Sailes, and Tacklings ; 
wherewith we went roundly to worke, and built a Barke 
of eighty tunnes. In stead of Pitch, we made Lime, mixed 
with Tortoise oyle ; and as the Carpenters calked her, I 
and another paied the seames with this plaster, which 
being in Aprill, became quickly dry, and as hard as a stone. 

In Aprill [1592] it was so hot, we feared our water would 
faile, two great Chests wee made, which we calked as our 
ship ; those we stowed on each side our maine Mast, filled 
them with water and thirtie liue Tortoises. Wee found many 
Hogges, but so leane wee could not eat them. The tops of 
the Palmeta berries was our bread, and the iuyce we got 
out of the trees we cut downe our drinke, and of the leaues, 
which are more then an Ell long, we couered our Cabens, 
and made our beds, and found many of those prouisions 
as is related, but little foule weather. 

The eleuenth of May [1592] it pleased God to set vs cleere 
of the He, after wee had liued there fiue moneths : and the 
twentieth wee fell with Cape Britton neere New found Land, 
where refreshing [we refreshed] our selues with wood and 
water, and such things as we could get of the Saluages. It 
seemed a good Countrey, but we staied not past foure houres 
before we set saile for the banke of New found land : where 
wee met many ships, but not any would take in a man of 
vs, vntill it pleased God we met a Barke of Fawmothe, 
which receiued vs for a little time. And with her we tooke 
a French ship, wherein I left Captaine de la Barbotier, my 
deare friend, and all his Company : and in August arriued 
at Falmouth in this honest English Barke, 1594. 

Written by me Henry May. [174] 

HU returne 



"The first English ship knowne to 

haue beene cast away vpon the Bermudas, 
1609. From the relation of Master Iordan, 
Master Iohn Euens, Master Henry- 
Shelly, and diuers others. 

^Ou haue heard, that when Captaine Smith [1609] 
was Gouernor of Virginia, there were 
nine ships sent with Sir Thomas Gates, 
and Sir George Somers, and Captaine 
Nuport, with hue hundred people, to take 
in the old Commission, and rectifie a new 
gouernment: they set saile in May, and in 
the height of thirty degrees of Northerly a most 
latitude, they were taken with an extreme storme, or rather SeTy 
a part of Hericano, vpon the hue and twentieth of Iuly [1609], 
which as they write, did not onely separate them from the 
Fleet, but with the violent working of the Seas, their ship 
became so shaken, torne, and leak[i]e, she receiued so much 
water as couered two tire [teir] of Hogsheads aboue the 
ballace [ballast], that they stood vp to the middles, with 
Buckets, Baricos, and Kettles, to baile out the water. 

Thus bailing and pumping three daies and three nights 
without intermission, and yet the water seemed rather to 
increase then diminish, in so much that being all vtterly 
spent with labour, were euen resolued without any hope to 
shut vp the hatches, and commit themselues to the mercy 
of the Sea, which is said to be mercilesse, or rather to the 
mercy of Almighty God, whose mercy farre exceeds all his 

a storm. 

6 3 6 

The first English ship Lib. 

5fMr. Jordan, J. Evans, 
• L H. Shelley, &c. 


and iudge- 
ment of 
Sir George 

An euident 
token of 
Gods mercy. 

workes: seeing no sense or hope in mans apprehension, but 
presently to sinke ; some hailing some good and comfortable 
waters [spirits], fetched them and dranke one to another, 
as taking their last leaues vntill a more happy and a more 
ioyfull meeting in a more blessed world ; when it pleased 
God out of his most gracious and mercifull prouidence, so 
to direct and guide their ship for her most aduantage. 

That Sir George Somers all this time sitting vpon the 
poupe, scarce taking leisure to eat nor sleepe, couing [coning] 
the ship to keepe her as vpright as he could, otherwaies she 
must, long ere that, needs haue foundered, most wishedly 
and happily descried land : whereupon he most comfort- 
ably incouraged them to follow their worke, many of them 
being fast asleepe. This vnlooked for welcome newes, as if 
it had bin a voice from heauen, hurrieth them all aboue 
hatches, to looke for that they durst scarce beleeue ; so 
that improuidently forsaking that taske which imported no 
lesse then their Hues, they gaue so dangerous aduantage to 
their greedy enemy the salt water, which still entred at 
the large breaches of their poore wooden castle, as that in 
gaping after life, they had well-nigh swallowed their death. 
Surely it is impossible any should now be vrged to doe his 
best, and although they knew it, [to be] that place all men 
did so shun, yet they spread all the saile they could to 
attaine them : for not long it was before they strucke vpon 
a rocke, till a surge of the sea cast her from thence ; and so 
from one to another, till most luckily at last [she stuck] 
so vpright betwixt two, as if she had beene in the stocks. 

Till this they expected but euery blow a death : But now 
behold, suddenly the wind giues place to a calme, and the 
billowes, which each by ouertaking her, would in an instant 
haue shiuered her in peeces, become peaceable and still; so 
that with all conueniency and ease, they vnshipped all their 
goods, victuall, and persons into their Boats, and with 
extreme ioy, euen almost to amazednesse, arriued in 
safetie, though more then a league from the shore, without 
the losse of a man ; yet were they in all one hundred and 

Yet their deliuerance was not more strange in falling 
so happily vpon the land, as their feeding and preseruation 
was beyond their hopes ; for you haue heard, it hath beene 

Ed ' by j J uiyS:] Lib. 5. cast vpon the Bermudas. 637 

to the Spaniards more fearefull then an Vtopian Purgatory ; [1609] 
and to all Sea-men no lesse terrible then an inchanted den 
of Furies and Deuils; the most dangerous, vnfortunate, and 
forlorne place in the world : and they found it the richest, 
healthfullest and pleasantest they euer saw, as is formerly 

Being thus safe on shore, they disposed themselues to fjj^jf? 
search the lies for food [175] and water ; others to get a firsfrang- 1 * 
shore what they could from the ship ; not long Sir George jand. he 
wandred but [he] found such a fishing, that in halfe an houre 
with a hooke and line, he tooke so many as sufficed the 
whole company. In some places they were so thicke in the 
Coues, and so great, they durst not goe in lest they should 
bite them, and these rocke fish are so great two will load 
a man, and fatter nor better fish cannot be. Master Shelly 
found a Bay neere a quarter of a mile ouer, so full of 
Mullets, as none of them before had euer seene or heard of 
the like : the next day seeking to kill them with fis-gigs, 
they strucke so many the water in many places was red 
with bloud, yet caught not one ; but with a net they caught 
so many as they could draw a shore, with infinite number 
of Pilchards and diuers other sorts. Great craw-fishes in 
a night by making a fire they haue taken in great quantity. 
Sir George had twice his hooke and line broke out of his 
hand, but the third time he made it so strong he caught 
the same fish ; which had pulled him into the Sea had not 
his men got hold of him, whereby he had his three hookes 
againe [that] were found in her belly. At their first hunting 
for hogs they found such abundance, they killed 32 : and 
this hunting and fishing was appointed to Captaine Robert 
Walsingham, and Master Henry Shelly for the company in 
general : they report they killed at least 500. besides Pigs, 
and many that were killed by diuers others ; for the birds 
in their seasons, the facility to make their cabens of 
Palmeta leaues, caused many of them vtterly forget or 
desire euer to returne from thence, they liued in such 
plenty, peace and ease. 

But let vs remember how the Knights began to resolue what 
in those desperat affaires. Many proiects they had, but unmade 
at last it was concluded, to decke their long boat with ^-^S^JJ 
their ship hatches ; which done, with all expedition they 

638 How they with 1 50. lined there 9. mondhs. [ Mr - Jo nf s'hiii^ &S 

[1609-10] sent Master Ratten, a very sufficient Mariner, with eight 
more in her to Virginia, to haue shipping from thence to 
fetch them away. Three weekes or a moneth they expected 
her returne, but to this day [1624] she was neuer more 
heard of. 

All this time was spent in searching the lies : now although 
God still fed them with this abundance of plenty, yet such 
was the malice of enuy or ambition, for all this good 
seruice done by Sommers, such a great difference fell 
amongst their Commanders, that they liued asunder in this 
distresse, rather as meere strangers then distressed friends : 
but necessity so commanded, patience had the victory. 
A d 1 ti ag<v ^ wo S ^P S at ^ ls ^ me kv those seuerall parties were a 
children building ; in the meane time two children were borne, the 
Boy was called Bermudas, the Girle Bermuda, and amongst 
all those sorrowes they had a merry English manage. 

The forme of those lies you may see at large in the Map 
of Master Norwood, where you may plainly see no place 
knowne hath better walls, nor a broader ditch. 

But hauing finished and rigged their two new Cedar ships 
with such prouisions they saued from the Sea-aduenturer 
they left amongst the Rocks, they called the one the Patience, 
the other the Deliuerance ; they vsed Lime and Oile, as 
May did, for Pitch and Tar. Sir George Summers had in 
his Barke no Iron at all but one bolt in her Keele ; now 
hauing made their prouisions of victuall and all things 
ready, they set saile the tenth of May 1610. onely leauing 
two men behinde them, called Christopher Carter and 
Edward Waters, that for their offences, or the suspition 
they had of their iudgements, fled into the woods : and 
there rather desired to end their daies then stand to their 
trials and the euent of Iustice ; for one of their consorts 
was shot to death, and Waters being tied to a tree also to be 
executed, had by chance a Knife about him, and so secretly 
cut the Rope, he ran into the woods where they could not 
finde him [pp. 591, 640, 648, 649, 660]. 

There were two Saluages also sent from Virginia by 
Captain Smith, the one called Namuntack [p. 517], the other 
Matchumps : but some such differences fell betweene them, 
that Matchumps slew Namuntack, and hauing made a hole 
to bury him, because it was too short, he cut of[f] his legs 

Ed ' by j{i y s T^:] Lib. 5. The death of Sir George Summers. 639 

and laid them by him ; which murder he concealed till he [1610] 
was in Virginia. 

The foure and twentieth of the same moneth [May 1610] Jif^iiin 
they arriued in Virginia at lames towne, where they found Virginia. 
but threescore persons, as you may reade at large in the 
History of Virginia [pp. 498, 500], of the hue hundred left 
by Captaine Smith: [as] also of the arriuall [176] of the Lord 
Laware, that met them thus bound for England, returned 
them backe [p. 500] ; and vnderstanding what plenty there 
was of hogs and other good things in the Bermudas, was 
desirous to send thither to supply his necessary occasions. 

Whereupon Sir George Summers ,the best acquainted with 
the place, whose noble minde euer regarded a generall good 
more then his owne ends, though aboue threescore yeeres 
of age, and had meanes in England su[i]table to his ranke, 
offered himselfe by Gods helpe to performe this dangerous 
voyage againe for the Bermudas; which was kindly accepted, 
so vpon the 19. of Iune [1610], he imbarked in his Cedar 
ship, about the burthen of thirty tunnes, and so set saile. 

Much foule and crosse weather he had, and was forced sir George 
to the North parts of Virginia ; where refreshing himselfe STeTume 
vpon this vnknowne coast, he could not bee diuerted from jJ«S»«<&* 
the search of the Bermudas, where at last with his company 
he safely arriued : but such was his diligence with his 
extraordinary care, paines and industry to dispatch his 
businesse, and the strength of his body not answering fhe 
euer memorable courage of his minde ; hauing liued so 
long in such honourable seruices the most part of his 
well beloued and vertuous life, God and nature here 
determined, should euer remaine a perpetuall memory of 
his much bewailed sorrow for his death : finding his time 
but short, after he had taken the best course he could to 
settle his estate ; like a valiant Captaine he exhorted them 
with all diligence to be constant to those Plantations, and 
with all expedition to returne to Virginia. In that very 
place which we now call Saint Georges towne, this noble 
Knight died, whereof the place taketh the name. 

But his men, as men amazed, seeing the death of him who 
waseuen as the life of them all, embalmed his body and set 
saile for England ; being the first that euer went to seeke 
those Hands : which haue beene euer since called Summers 

640 [ The greatest piece of ambergris ever seen]. Lib. 5. \J^f ? 6 l £; 

[1611-12] lies, in honour of his worthy memory, leauing three men 
behind them, that voluntarily stayed, whose names were 
Christopher Carter, Edward Waters, there formerly left as 
is said [p. 638] ; and Edward Chard. 

This Cedar ship at last with his dead body arriued at 
Whit-Church in Dorsetshire ; where by his friends he was 
honourably buried, with many vollies of shot, and the rites 
of aSouldier: andvpon his tombewas bestowed this Epitaph. 


[>• 173-1 

Hei mihi Virginia quod tarn cito praterit AZstas, 
A utumnus sequitur, sceuiet inde et hiems ; 
A t ver perpetuum nascetur, et A nglia lata, 
Decerpit flores florida terra tuas. 

In English thus : 

A las Virginia's Summer so soone past, 

A utumne succeeds and stormy Winters blast, 

Yet Englands ioyfull Spring with ioyfidl showers, 

O Florida, shall bring thy sweetest flowers. 

A peece of 
greece of 
80. pound 

He honour of this resolution belongs principally 
to Carter : for through his importunity, not to 
leaue such a place abandoned, Chard and 
Waters were moued to stay with him, and the 
rest promised with all the speed they could againe to 
reuisit them. But the ship once out of sight, those three 
Lords, the sole inhabitants of all those Ilands, began to 
erect their little common wealth for a while with brotherly 
regency, repairing the ground, planting Corne, and such 
seeds and fruits as they had, building a house, &c. Then 
making priuy search amongst the creuises and corners of 
those craggy Rocks, what this maine Ocean since the 
worlds creation had throwne amongst them ; at last they 
chanced vpon the greatest peece of Amber-greece was euer 
seene or heard of in one lumpe, being in weight foure- 
score pound, besides diuers other small peeces. 

But now being rich, they grew so proud and ambitious, 
contempt tooke such [177] place, they fell out for supe- 

juiy?624. Master Richard More sent to make a Plantation^ 64 1 

riority, though but three forlorne men, more then three [1610-12] 
thousand miles from their natiue Country, and but small 
hope euer to see it againe. Notwithstanding, they some- 
times fell from words to blowes about meere trifles : in 
one of which fights, one of them was bitten with his owne 
dog, as if the dumbe beast would reproue them of their 
folly ; at last Chard and Waters, the two greater spirits, 
must try it out in the field, but Carter wisely stole away their 
weapons, affecting rather to Hue amongst his enemies, 
then by being rid of them Hue alone. And thus those 
miserable men liued full two yeeres [May 1610 — July 1612J, 
so that all their clothes were neere worne cleane from 
their backs, and their hopes of any forraine releefe as 
naked as their bodies. 

At last they began to recouer their wits, yet jn a fashion 
perhaps would haue cost them dearer then when they 
were mad ; for concluding a tripartite peace of their Mata- 
chin warre, they resolued to frame as good a Boat as 
they could, and therein to make a desperate attempt for 
Virginia, or New found Land : but no sooner were they 
entred into that resolution, but they descried a saile 
standing in for the shore, though they neither knew what 
she was, nor what she would, they were so ouer-ioyed ; 
[that] with all possible speed they went to meet her ; and 
according to their hearts desire she proued an English- 
man, whom they safely conducted into their harbour. 

Now you are to vnderstand, that Captaine Matthew J e ° r e the3 
Somers, Nephew and heire to Sir George, that returned supplied. 
with his dead body, though both he and his Company did 161L 
their vtmost in relating all those passages to their 
but as trauellers tales, till it came to be apprehended by 
some of the Virginia Company, how beneficiall it might 
be, and helpfull to the Plantation in Virginia : so that some 
one hundred and twentie of them bought the pretended 
right of all the Company, and had sent this ship to make 
a triall; but first they had obtained Letters Patents of the 
Kings most excellent Maiestie. Sir Thomas Smith was 
elected Treasurer and Gouernor heere, and Master Richard 
More to be Gouernor of the lies and Colony there. 




Sir Thomas 



about the 

The first beginning of a Colonie in 

the Somer lies, vnder the command 
of Master Richard More, extracted 
out of a plot of Master Richard 
Norwood Surueior, and the re- 
lations of diuers others. 

Aster More thus found those three men 
not onely well and lusty, but well 
stored with diuers sorts of prouisions, 
as an Acre of Corne ready to be gathered, 
number of Pumpions and Indian Beanes, 
many Tortoises ready taken, good store 
of hogs flesh salted, and made in flitches 
of Bacon, [which] were very good : and so 
presently landed his goods and sixty persons towards the 
beginning of Iuly 1612. vpon the South side of Smiths He. 
Not long after his arriuall, More hauing some priuate 
intelligence of this Amber-greece,tooke first Chard in exami- 
nation, he being one of the three [with] the most masterfull 
spirit, what Amber-greece, Pearle, Treasure, or other 
Commodities they had found. Chard no lesse witty then 
resolute, directly answered ; Not any thing at all but the 
fruits of the He : what his fellowes had done he knew not, 
but if they had, he doubted not but to finde it out, and 
then hee should know it certainly. 

This he spake onely to win time to sweare his Consorts 
to secrecy, and he would finde the meanes how they should 
all returne in that ship with it all for England, otherwise 
they should be deceiued of all. Till this was effected they 
thought euery houre an age; now for the better conueiance 
of it aboord, they acquainted it to Captaine Dauis, master 
of the ship, and one Master Edwin Kendall, that for their 
secrecy and transportation should participate with them. 
Without further ceremony the match was accepted, and 
absolutely concluded, the plot laid, time and place set downe 
to haue it aboord. But Carter, were it for feare the Gouernor 

fed ' by juiv S ?624.'] Lib. 5. [The planting of the Bermudas.] 643 

at last should know of it, to whom so oft they had denied [1612] 
it; or that the [178] rest should deceiue him, is vncertaine ; 
but most certaine it is, he reuealed all the plot to Master 
Move. To get so much wealth he knew would please them 
in England, though it did displease all his Company ; and 
to lose such a prize he would not for hazarding a mutiny. 
So first hee reuealed himselfe to Kendall in faire tearmes, 
reprouing his dishonesty ; but not being answered accord- 
ing to his expectation, he committed both Chard and him 
to person [prison]. 

The next Sabboath day Dauis comming on shore, More 
also taxed with very hard language and many threats, to 
lay him fast also, if he mended not his manners; Dauis for 
the present replied little, but went with him to the place 
of praier : but in the midst of diuine seruice he goeth 
away, commanding all his Sea-men to follow him presently 
aboord ; where he encourageth them to stand to him like 
men, and hee would free the Prisoners, haue all the 
Amber-greece for themselues, and so be gone. 

The Gouernor hearing of this resolution, prepares with £jj^ J 
his company to repulse force with force, so that a generall hanging, 
expectance of a ciuill vnciuill warre possessed euery man; 
but this threatning gust passed ouer more calmlier then 
was expected : for Dauis hauing better aduised with him- 
selfe, repented his rashnesse, and desired a reconcilement 
with the Gouernor. Peace thus concluded, Kendall was 
set at libertie ; but Chard was condemned, and vpon the 
ladder to be hanged for his obstinacy : yet vpon better 
consideration More repri[e]ued him, but kept him a prisoner 
all the time he staied in the Country, which was generally 
thought a very bad reward for his great desert ; and that 
there was more of this Amber-greece imbeziled, then 
would haue contented all the finders, that neuer had any 
consideration at all. 

The greatest part th[r]ough More [was] thus recouered; 
yet Dauis and Kendall had so much, either by the ignorance 
or conniuency of the Gouernors, that arriuing in England, 
they prepared themselues for a new voiage : at last they 
two falling out, the Company hauing notice thereof, so 
tormented them both, they gaue ouer their voiage, and 
durst not be seene a long time after. 

644 Master Richard More Lib. 5. [ R - No 7XJ: 

[1612] The Gouernorthus rid of the ship and those discontents, 

Master remoued his seat from Smiths He to Saint Georges, after he 
industry in had fitted vp some small Cabbens of Palmata leaues for 
fortifying j^ w -£ e an( j family j n th^t valley where now stands their 
planting. p r i me towne called 5. Georges, hee began to apply him- 
selfe to fortifie the Countrey, and training his men in the 
exercise of armes. For although he was but a Carpenter, 
he was an excellent Artist, a good Gunner, very witty 
and industrious : he built and laid the foundation of eight 
or nine Forts, called the Kings Castle, Charles Fort, 
Pembrookes Fort, Smiths Fort, Pa gits Fort, Gates Fort, 
Warwicks Castle, Saint Katharines Fort, &c. mounting in 
them all the Ordnance he had, preparing the ground to 
build Houses, plant Come, and such Fruits as they had. 
Acontemion Being thus busied, and as the necessitie of the time 
Mincer required, keeping his men somewhat hard at worke, 
Governor! 6 Master Keath his Minister; were it by the secret prouocation 
of some drones that grew weary of their taskes, or his 
affection to popularity is not certaine : But he begins 
to tax the Gouernor in the Pulpit, hee did grinde the 
faces of the poore, oppressing his Christian brethren with 
Pharoahs taxes. More finding this in short time, might 
breed ill bloud, called the Company together and also the 
Minister, vrging them plainly, to tell him wherein he had 
deserued those hard accusations : whereupon, with an 
vniuersall cry they affirmed the contrary, so that Keath [fell] 
downe of his knees to aske him forgiuenesse. But Master 
More kindly tooke him vp, willing him to kneele to God, 
and hereafter be more modest and charitable in his 
speeches ; notwithstanding two other discontents so 
vpbraided More with that doctrine, and stood to main- 
taine it, he impaneled a Iury, with a great deale of seem- 
ing much adoe he would hang them being condemned, 
one of them with the very feare, fell into a dead Palsie; 
so that the other was set at libertie, and proued after a 
very good labourer. 
Twopecces Many conclusions he tried about the Sea-venture, the 
oTthe^r 1 wracke of Sir George Somers, [179] but he got onely for his 
paines but two peece[s] of Ordnance. Hauing framed a 
Church of timber, it was blowne downe by a tempest ; so that 
he built another in a more closer place with Palmeta leaues. 


Ed ' by jui y s ?624:] Lib. 5. sent to make a Plantation. 645 

Before this yeere was expired, the aduenterers sent them [1612-3] 
an aduiso with thirtie Passengers and good prouisions, to T u he f rst 
prepare with all expedition for their defence against the suppy * 
Spaniard, whom they vnderstood ere long would visit 
them. This occasioned him to keepe all his men together 
in that He so hard at worke, that wanting libertie to goe 
abroad for food, liuing onely on that they had, and 
expected daily to receiue from England, they were so ouer- 
toiled, [that] many fell sicke, but none died. Very earnest 
this ship [the Elizabeth] was to haue all the Amber-greece : 
which Master More perceiuing was the chiefest cause of 
their comming, and that it was the onely loadstone to 
draw from England still more supplies ; for all the expresse 
command sent from the Company, he returned this ship 
but with the one third part ; so from thence she went to 
Virginia, and not long after arriued safely in England. 

But before her returne the Company sent the Martha 1613. 
with sixtie Passengers more, they arriued in Iune [1613] The second 
with one Master Bartlet to suruey the Hand, and the estate SLr T ^, mas 
of the Colonie, with expresse command for all the Amber- %££ 
greece : but More perceiuing him not as he would haue 
him, and that the Company began to mistrust him, would 
send no more but another third part : wherewith they 
returned, leauing a French-man to make triall of the 
Mulberies for Silke, but he did not bring any thing to 
perfection ; excusing himselfe, they were not the right 
Mulberies he expected. 

About this time they were in hope of a small crop of 
Tobacco, but it was most spoiled for want of knowledge 
to vse it. 

Now in England Master More became amongst the 
Merchants maruelous[ly] distastfull, for the detaining so 
long the Amber-greece; which delaies they so much 
abhorred, they forthwith dispatched the Elizabeth the 
second time and forty Passengers, much rebuking More 
for so long detaining the Amber-greece : for the which, 
hauing now no more colourable excuses, he deliuered it, 
wherewith the ship went to Virginia, and thence home. 

In this ship was brought [i.e., to Bermuda] the first Potata £ e s / e r * s n e g * f 
roots ; which flourished exceedingly for a time, till by Potatoes. 
negligence they were almost lost ; all but two cast-away 

646 Master More his accidents and proceedings. 

f"R. Norwood. 


[1613] roots, that so wonderfully haue increased, they are a maine 

releefe to all the Inhabitants. 
?twp tempt This ship was not long gone but there came two Spanish 
Sp^ish ships, sounding with their Boat, which attempted to come 
in : but from the Kings Castle, Master More made but two 
shot, which caused them presently depart. Marke here 
the handy-worke of the diuine prouidence, for they had 
but three quarters of a barrell of powder, and but one shot 
more ; and the powder by carelesnesse was tumbled downe 
vnder the mussels of the two peeces, [which] were discharged, 
yet not touched with fire when they were discharged. 

This feare thus past, appeares another much worse, 
which was the extremity of famine : in this extremity 
God sent Captaine Daniel Elfrid with a car[a]uell of meale, 
which a little relieued them ; but brought withall so many 
Rats, that within two yeeres after neere ruined all. Now 
though Elfrid had deceiued his friend Fisher of this Caruell 
in the West-Indies, they reuenged Fishers iniury ; for Elfrid 
had his passage for England, and they made vse of all he had. 
Some two moneths after, came in the Blessing with an 
hundred Passengers ; and two daies after, the Starre with 
a hundred and fourescore more, amongst which were many 
Gentlemen, as Master Lower for Marshall, Master Barret, 
Master Felgate, and diuers others ; but very vnproper for 
what they vndertooke. 

Within foureteene daies after, came in the Margaret and 
two Frygats, and in them one hundred and threescore 
Passengers ; also Master Bartlet came now expresly to 
diuide the Country into Tribes, and the Tribes into shares. 
But Master More finding no mention made of any part for 
himselfe nor all them with him, as he was promised in 
England, by no meanes would admit of any diuision, nor 
suffer his men from finishing their fortifications, which was 
so necessary, [that] it was his maine ambition to see that 
accomplished : but such vnkindnesse grew betwixt this 
Master Bartlet and [180] the Gouernour, that the rude 
multitude, with all the disdaine they could deuise, caused 
Bartlpt [to] returne for England as he came. 

About this time William Millington was drawne into the 
Sea by a fish, but neuer after euer seene. 

The neglect of this diuision was very hardly conceited 

Edby j{i y s ^;] Master More his accidents and proceedings. 647 

in England, so that Master More grew more and more in [1614] 
dislike with the company ; notwithstanding he followed 1614. 
the building of these Forts so earnestly, neglecting planting ^sjjj^ 
of Corne, till their store was neere all consumed, whereby moruiitie. 
they became so feeble and weake, some would not, others smTaT"" 
could not goe abroad to seeke releefe, but starued in their Treasurer, 
houses, and many that went abroad, through weaknesse 
were subiect to be suddenly surprized with a disease called 
the Feauges: which was neither paine nor sicknesse, but as 
it were the highest degree of weaknesse, depriuing them of 
power and ability from the execution of any bodily exercises, 
whether it were working, walking, or what else : being thus 
taken, if any presently gaue them food many times they 
straight recouered, yet some after a little rest would bee 
able to walke ; but if they found not present succour, died. 

About this time or immediatly before, came in a company £jjjjp 
of Rauens, which continued amongst them all the time of Rauens 
this mortality and then departed ; which for any thing knowne, 
neither before nor since were euer seene or heard of : this 
with diuers other reasons caused Master More to goe out 
to Sea, to see if he could discouer any other Hands, but he 
went not farre ere ill weather forced him backe; and it were 
a noble aduenture of him [that] would vndertake to make 
more perfect all the dangers [that] are about the Summer lies. 

Thus famine and misery caused Gouernour More [to] j^jjjjjjj 
leaue all his workes, and send them abroad to get what they to g « oneiy 
could. One hundred and fifty of the most weake and sicke yictuals * 
he sent to Coupers He, where were such infinite numbers 
of the Birds called Cahowes, which were so fearlesse they 
might take so many as they would ; and that admired 
abundance of fish, that the extremity of their hunger, and 
their gluttony was such, those heauenly blessings they so 
consumed and wasted by carelesnesse and surfetting, 
many of them died vpon those silly Birds that offered 
themselues to the slaughter : which the Gouernour vnder- 
standing, caused them for change of aire to be remoued to 
Port-royall, and a Company of Fishers with a Boat to 
releeue them with fish. But the Gange grew so lazie the 
poore weaklings still died ; they that remained killed the 
Cattle they found in the He, faining the heat caused them 
to runne into the Sea and so were drowned ; so that the 

648 Master More his accidents and p7-oceedings. [ 

R. Norwood. 
? 1622. 

[1614] Gouernour sent againe for them home, but some obtained 
leaue still to Hue abroad; one amongst the rest hid himselfe 
in the Woods, and liued onely on Wilkes and land Crabs, 
fat and lusty many moneths. 

But most of them being at Saint Georges, ordinarily was 
taken one hundred and fifty or two hundred great fishes 
daily for their food ; for want of hookes and lines, the Smith 
made hookes of old swords, and lines of old ropes. But 
finding all those poore Engines also decay, they sent one of 
the two Frigats last left with them for England, to tell 
them of this misery. 

All which was now attributed to Master Mores peruers- 
nesse, who at first when he got the Amber-Greece had not 
such a generall applause, but now all the worst could pos- 
sibly be suggested was too good for him ; yet not knowing 
for the present how to send a better, they let him con- 
tinue still, though his time was neere expired: and with all 
speed sent the Welcome fraught with prouision, where shee 
well arriued, and proued her selfe as welcome in deed as 
in name; for all those extremities, Master Lewes Hues 
writeth, not one of all those threescore that first beganne 
this Plantation was dead, which shewes it was not impos- 
sible, but industry might haue preuented a great part of 
the others sluggish carelesnesse. 
Asutmiy, This ship much refreshed this miserable Colony, but 
and^Master faster Mare seeing they sent not for him ; his time being 
retume. now ex pired, vnderstanding how badly they reputed him 
in England, and that his imploiment now was more for 
their owne ends then any good for himselfe, resolued 
directly to returne with this ship. 

Hauing setled all things in the best order he could, [he] 
left the gouernment to the charge [181] of the counsell of 
six to succeed each other monethly, till they had further 
directions from England ; whose names were Captaine 
Miles Kendall, Captaine John Mansfield, Thomas Knight, 
Charles Caldycot, Edward Waters, and Christopher Carter, 
with twelue others for their assistances. 

More thus taking leaue of those Hands, arriued in 
England. Much wrangling they had, but at last they con- 
firmed him according to promise eight shares of Land, 
and so he was dismissed of his charge, with shew of fauour 
and much friendship. 

The rule of the six Gouemors. wib. 

^^^CtfffedSff He first thing they did was casting of lots, [1615] 
who should rule first ; which lot lighted 
vpon Master Caldicot. 

This last supply somewhat abated the sir Ttomat 
extremitie of their miseries, and the t*mui€t. 
better in that their fortifications being 
finished, they had the more leasure to 
goe abroad with that meanes [which] was 
brought to that purpose to fish. 

Chard as you haue heard, whom all this while More had 
kept Prisoner, they set at libertie : now by reason of their 
former miseries, little or nothing could be done : yet this 
Gouernor hauing thus concluded his moneth, and prepared 
a Frigot and two and thirtie men, hee imbarked himselfe 
with two other of his fellow counsellers; namely Knight 
and Waters, for the West-Indies, to get Fruits and Plants, 
Goats, young Cattle, and such like. 

But this poore vessell, whether through ill weather, or 
want of Mariners, or both, in stead of the Indies fell with 
the Canaries ; where taking a poore Portugall, the which 
they manned with ten of their owne people, as soone after 
separated from her in a storme, and the next day [it] was 
taken by a French Pickaroune ; so that the Frigot, out of 
hope of her prize, makes a second time for the West-Indies, 
where she no sooner arriued, but [she] foundred in the sea. 
But the men in their Boat recouered a desolate He, where 
after some few moneths stay, an English Pyrat tooke them 
in ; and some of them at last got for England, and, some 
few yeares after, returned to the Somer lies. 

Captaine Iohn Mansfield his moneth. 

HE Frigot thus gone, Captaine Mansfield suc- 
ceeded. Then was contriued a petition, as 
from the generalitie, vnto the triumuerat 
Gouernors ; wherein they supplicated, that by no 

650 Capt. Iohn Mansfield his moneth. Lib. 5. [*• 

T 1623. 

[1615] meanes they should resigne the gouernment to any [that] 
should come from England, vpon what tearmes soeuer, 
vntill six moneths after the returne of their ship sent to the 
West-Indies. About this vnwarrantable action, Master 
Lewes Hues their Preacher was so violent in suppressing 
it, that such discontents grew betwixt the Gouernors and 
him, and diuisions among the Company, he was arraigned, 
condemned, and imprisoned ; but not long detained before 
released. Then the matter fell so hotly againe to be 
disputed betwixt him and one Master Keath a Scotch- 
man, that professed scholarship, that made all the people 
in a great combustion : much adoe there was, till at last 
as they sate in the Church and ready to proceed to a 
iudicary course against Master Hues, suddenly such an 
extreme gust of wind and weather so ruffled in the trees 
and Church ; some cried out a miracle ; others, it was but 
an accident common in those lies, but the noise was so 
terrible it disolued the assembly : notwithstanding, 
Master Hues was againe imprisoned, and as suddenly 
discharged; but those factions were so confused, and their 
relations so variable, that such vnnecessary circumstances 
were better omitted then any more disputed. 

His mans moneth thus ended, begins Master 
Carter, which was altogether spent in quietnesse; 
and then Captaine Miles Kendall had the rule, 
whose moneth was also as quietly spent as his 
Predecessors. Then Captaine Mansfield begins his second 
moneth, when the ship called the Edwin arriued with good 
supplies. About this time diuers Boats going to sea were 
lost, and some men drowned ; and [182] many of the 
Company repaired to Master Hues, that there might bee 
a Councell according to Master Mores order of sixe 
Gouernours, and twelue Assistants : whereupon grew as 
many more such silly brawles as before, which at last 
concluded with as simple a reconciliation. 

In the in[t]erim happened to a certaine number of priuate 
persons as miserable and lamentable an accident, as euer 
was read or heard of, and thus it was : 

In the month of March [1615], a time most subiect of all 

Ed ' b juiy3S:] Lib. 5. The deliuerance 0/" Andrew Hilliard. 651 

others to such tempests ; on a Friday there went seuen [16151 
men in a boat of two or three tunnes, to fish. The morn- £j ronder 
ing being faire, so eager they were of their iourney, some accident 
went fasting : neither carried they either meat or drinke 
with them, but a few Palmeta berries: but being at their 
fishing place some foure leagues from the shoare, such a 
tempest arose, they were quickly driuen from the sight of 
land in an ouergrowne Sea, despairing of all hope, onely 
committing themselues to Gods mercy, let the boat driue 
which way shee would. 

On Sunday the storme being somewhat abated, they 
hoysed saile as they thought towards the Island. In the 
euening it grew starke calme ; so that being too weake to 
vse their oares, they lay a drift that night. 

The next morning Andrew Hilliard (for now all his com- 
panions were past strength either to helpe him or them- 
selues), before a small gale of winde, spred his saile againe. 

On Tuesday one died, whom they threw ouer board. On 
Wednesday three. And on Thursday at night the sixt[h]. 

All these but the last were buried by Hilliard in the 
Sea, for so weake hee was growne hee could not turne 
him ouer as the rest, whereupon hee stripped him, ripping 
his belly with his knife, throwing his bowels into the 
water, hee spread his body abroad tilted open with a sticke, 
and so lets it lie as a cisterne to receiue some lucky raine- 
water, and this God sent him presently after, so that in 
one small shoure hee recouered about foure spoonefuls of 
raine water to his vnspeakable refreshment ; he also pre- 
sented neere halfe a pint of blood in a shooe, which he did 
sparingly drinke of to moist his mouth. Two seuerall daies 
he fed on his flesh, to the quantity of a pound, on the 
eleuenth day from his loosing the sight of land, two flying 
fishes fals in his boat, whose warme iucie blood hee sucked 
to his great comfort. But within an houre after to his 
greater comfort you will not doubt, he once againe descried 
the land, and within foure houres after was cast vpon a 
rocke neere to Port r©yall, where his boat was presently 
split in pieces,but himselfe,though extreamly weake, made 
shift to clamber vp so steepe and high a rocke, as would 
haue troubled the ablest man in the He to haue done that 
by day [which] hee did by night. 

652 The proceedings 0/" Daniel Tuckar. Lib. 5. [ 

R. Norwood. 
? i6aa. 


[1615-6] Being thus astride on a rocke, the tumbling Sea had 
gotten such possession in his braines, that a good while it 
was before his giddy head would suffer him to venture vpon 
the forsaking it : towards the morning he craules a shore, 
and then to his accomplished ioy descernes where hee is, 
and trauels halfe a day without any refreshment then 
water ; whereof wisely and temperately he stinted himselfe, 
otherwise certainly hee had drunke his last. 

In which case hee attaines a friends house: where at the 
first they tooke him for a ghost, but at last acknowledged 
and receiued him with ioy ; his story, after some houres of 
recouery of strength to tell it, [theyj heard out with admi- 
ration : he was not long after conueyed to the towne, where he 
receiued his former health, and was liuing in the yeere 1622. 

foJJJ5 u ™ th The next newes that happened in this time of ease, was, 

summer that a merry fellow hauing found some few Dollars against 
the Flemish wracke, the bruit went currant the treasure 
was found, and they all made men. Much adoe there was 
to preuent the purloining of it, before they had it : where 
after they had tyred themselues with searching, that they 
found amounted not to aboue twenty pounds starling, 
which is not vnlike but to be the remainder of some greater 
store, washed from some wracke not farre from the shore. 
The company, by the Edwin receiuing newes of the reuels 

eWn7* [that] were kept in Somer lies, resolued to make choice of a 
new Gouernour, called Master Daniel Tuckar, that a long 
time had beene a planter [in] Virginia in the gouernment 
of Captaine [183] Smith [pp. 129, 145]. 

All things being furnished for his voyage ; hee set saile 
in the George, consorted with the Edwin, with many 
passengers, which being discouered by them in those lies, 
they supposed them the Frigot sent to the West Indies ; 
but when they vnderstood what they were, much prepa- 
ration they made to resist the new Gouernour. 

Many great ostentations appeared on both sides, but 
when the quondam Gouernour did see his men for most 
part forsake him, all was very well and quietly compounded ; 
and with much kindnesse [they] receiued and welcomed 
[him] a shore, where his Commission was no sooner 
read, then they accepted and acknowledged him for their 

A new 

Gouernment of Captaine 
Daniel Tuckar. 

Bout the midst of May [1616] arriued this 
Gouernor, where finding the Inhabitants 
both abhorring all exacted labour, as also 
in a manner disdaining and grudging 
much to be commanded by him ; it could 
not but passionate any man liuing. But 
at last, according to the Virginia order, 
hee set euery one [that] was with him 
at Saint Georges, to his taske, to cleere grounds, fell trees, 
set corne, square timber, plant vines and other fruits 
brought out of England. These by their taske- Masters 
by breake a day repaired to the wharfe, from thence to be 
imployed to the place of their imployment, till nine of the 
clocke, and then in the after-noone from three till Sunne- 
set. Beside meat, drinke and cloaths, they had for a time 
a certaine kinde of brasse money with a hogge on the one 
side, in memory of the abundance of hogges [that] was 
found at their first landing. 

This course thus squared, imitating diuers orders vsed 
in Virginia by Sir Thomas Dale : he began by them to looke 
into his instructions giuen by the Company. Whereupon 
by one Master Richard Norwood a Suruayor, sent ouer for 
that purpose, in the time of Master Moore, hee began to lay 
out the eight tribes in the maine, which were to consist of 
fifty shares to a tribe ; and twenty five acers to euery 
share. He also began to plant some Colony men, on some 
of the especiall shares. He swore also certaine of the 
chiefe men of euery tribe to bee Bailiffes thereof; and 


Sir Tkomcu 



[pp. 149, 
466, 502.] 


654 Fine men in a boat of 3. tuns Lib. 5. [ N *ku°r!&£ 

[1616] appointed as many men as hee was able for all supplied 
shares. The goods landed in the store houses hee sent 
from thence, and dispersed it to his workemen in generall : 
some Boats also began to be builded ; but the pinace 
called the Thomas [which it was] suspected might make an 
escape, waslaidvp in adocke,weresheeyet [i624]remaineth. 

a Bark* In the beginning of the second moneth of his gouernment, 

westlndL. he directed warrants to all the Bailiffes, for the holding 
of a generall Assise at Saint Georges, and appointed Master 
Stokes Lieutenant of the Kings Castle at the Gurnets 

0*. 656.1 head. The Edwin [that] came with him, he sent to the 
West Indies by directions from England, to trade with the 
natiues, for cattell, corne, plants, and other commodities. 
A course of great importance, which had it been pursued, 
would certainly have produced more hopefull effects for 
the good of the Colony, then all the supplies and 
Magazines from England hath or will in a long time. 

The Assises. Presently after her departure, began the Assises, executed 
by his Deputy. The chiefe matter handled was the 
hanging one John Wood a French man, for speaking many 
distastefull and mutinous speeches against the Gouernour, 
to shew the rest by that example, the power of his 
authority: which after with his owne hands he so oft 
executed with a bastinado amongst the poorer sort ; many 
tearmed it a cruelty, not much lesse then tyranny : but the 
sequell is more then strange. 

The strange So it was that flue of them, seeing by no meanes 
Le men r tn°a they could get passage for England, resolued to vndergoe 
boat * all hazards but they would make an escape from such ser- 

uitude. The chiefe manner and plotter of this businesse, 
was Richard Sanders and his confederates, William Goodwin 
a ship Carpenter, Thomas Harison a Ioyner, lames Barker 
a Gentleman, and Henry Picet. These repairing to the 
Gouernour, and with pleasing insinuations told him, if hee 
would allow them but [184] things necessary, they would 
build him a boat of two or three tunnes, with a close decke, 
[that] should go a fishing [in] all weathers. The Gouernour 
halfe proud that hee had brought his men to so good a 
passe, as he concerned, to offer themselues to so necessary 
a worke; instantly with all willingnesse furnished them with 

Ed ' ^jjiy^:] Lib. 5. sailes ouer the mame Ocean. 655 

all things they could desire, and many faire promises to [1616] 
incourage them to performe it with all expedition. Hauing 
made choise of a place most fit from molestation, they 
went forward with that expedition, that in a short time 
shee was brought to perfection. By this time, the ship 
that brought the Gouernour, being ready to depart, hee 
sends a lusty gange to goe [and] fetch his new boat to carry 
him aboard; but arriuingat the place where she was built, 
they could heare no more of her, but [that] she was gone 
the last euening to Sea, to try how shee would saile. 

Much search and dispute was where this boat should be : 
but at last they found diuers letters in the cabbins, to this 
effect, directed to the Gouernour, and other their friends : 
that their hard and bad vsage was so intollerable, and their 
hope so smal euer againe to see their Countrey, or be 
deliuered from such seruitude, they did rather chuse to 
put themselues to that desperate hazard to goe for England, 
in which if they miscaried, as it was much to be mis- 
trusted, their Hues and bloods should be required at their 
hands [who] was the cause. A compasse Diall Barker had 
borrowed of Master Hues, to whom he writ that as hee had 
oft perswaded them to patience, and that God would pay 
them though none did : hee must now bee contented with 
the losse of his Diall, with his owne doctrine. Such 
leasure they found to bee merry when in the eye of reason 
they were marching into a most certaine ruine. 

The Gouernour being thus satisfied of their escape, 
extreamly threatned them no lesse then a hanging, but the 
stormes of the Ocean they now more feared then him ; good 
prouision by bartering they had got from the ship, where 
Goodwin in a brauado told the Mariners, though he could 
not be permitted to goe with them, yet peraduenture hee 
might be in England before them : whereat the Master and 
his Mate laughed merrily. 

But hauing beene now vnder saile three weekes, the 
winds so fauoured them, they felt nothing of what they had 
cause to feare : then a blustering gale blowing in their 
teeth, put them to much extremity for diuers dayes, then 
becomming more gentle away they past prosperously some 
eight or ten dayes more, till meeting a French Piccaroune 
of whom they desired succour, hee like himselfe tooke from 

656 The proceedings of Lib. 5. [ N M B r ;£f&c! 

[1616] them what hee liked, leauing them not so much as a 
crosse-staffe to obserue withall, and so cast them off : 
their course stiil they continued till their victuall began to 
fall to the lowest ebbe ; and the very knees of their small 
vessell were halfe hewed away for fire wood. 

At last to their infinit ioy they arriued in Ireland, where 
the Earle of Tomund honorably entertained them, and 
caused the boat to be hung vp for a Monument ; and well 
she might, for shee had sailed more then 3300 miles by 
a right line thorow the maine Sea, without any sight of 
land : and I thinke since God made the world, the like 
nauigation was neuer done, nor heard of. 

This fortunate Sanders going to the East Indies, in the 
rifling [o£ some ships there tooke, it was his chance to buy 
an old chest for three or foure shillings ; but because it 
wanted a key hee repented his bargaine, and would gladly 
haue sold it againe for lesse. A certaine time it lay tossed 
to and fro as a thing hee little regarded, but at last hauing 
little to doe, hee broke it open, where he found a thousand 
pounds starling, or so much gold as bought him in England 
a good estate: which leauing with his wife, he returned 
againe to the East Indies, 

The George setting saile three dayes after this escape, 

the Gouernour seazed and confiscated all that those 

fugitiues left behinde them. 

Plants from With in a weeke after, returned the Edwin from the 

indi^f 5 ' West Indies, furnished with figges, pynes, sugar-canes, 

I/.654.] plantaines, papanes and diuers other plants; which were 

presently replanted, and since increased into greater 

numbers : also an Indian and a Negar, and so much ligna 

vit[ce] as defrayed all the charge. The Gouernor thus busied 

amongst his plants, making hedges of Figtrees, and 

Pomgranets, and seuerall diuisions by [185] Palizadoes for 

the defence of their guarding and keeping their cattell, 

for in such husbandry qualities he well deserued great 


The exploits The Aduenturers to supply him sent with all speed they 

/wK am could, the Hopewell, a small Barke, but an excellent sailer ; 

and in her one Captaine Powell an excellent Mariner, and 

well acquainted in the Indieswherehewastogoe[and] trade, 

Edby /uiy^ h 4 :] Lib. 5. Captaine Daniel Tuckar. 657 

after he had landed his passengers in the Summer lies : but [1616] 
in his iourney at the Westerne lies meeting a Brasile man, 
hee liked the suger and passengers sowell, hee man[ne]d the 
Caruill with his owne men, and continued his course, but 
bethinking himself how this would be entertained at the 
Summer lies, hee found such doubts, hee went directly 
for the West Indies to take time to resolue what to doe. 

Arriuing there hee met a French rouer, one euery way as 
cunning as himselfe, but much more trecherous. A great 
league of kindnesse is soone made betweene them ; vpon 
confidence whereof, Powell and some of the chiefe with 
him being inuited aboord him, is easily entised, and in the 
midst of their cups both hee and his company treacher- 
ously made prisoners : and thus was forced to giue him 
their prise, or hang at the yards arme with all his company. 

Hauing set them a shore, away goes the French man ; 
Powels ship being but hard by, presently fetcht them 
all a boord : but finding his victuall neere spent, and no 
hope at all to recouer his prize, [he] set his Portugales on 
shore, and set saile for the Summer lies ; where safely 
arriuing, hee declared the whole passage to the Gouernour, 
lest some other in telling might make it worse, of which 
the Gouernour seemed well enough to approue. 

This Gouernour still spent his time in good husbandry, 
although some of the snarling sort here in England, whom 
nothing will please, writ to him hee was fitter to be a 
Gardiner then a Gouernour: some time he spent in digging 
of agreat pond, but that workeprouedaltogethervnprofitable. 

About that time was held the second Assise. The J^£ cond 
greatest matter passed, was a Proclamation against the 
spoile of Cahowes ; but it came too late, for they were 
most destroyed before : a platforme [battery] hee caused to 
be erected by Pagits Fort, where a good Fort were very 

Captaine Powell not hauing performed his seruice in 
the West Indies [that] he conditioned with the Company, 
is sent thither againe by this Gouernour, and thirteene 
or fourteene of his best men, furnished with all things 
necessary. In the meane time the Company vnder- 
standing, that in Ianuary, February and March, there are 
many Whales ; for which fishing they sent the Neptune, a 


with rats. 

658 The wonderfull increase Lib. 5. [ N M B r ut Te r" a ^ 

[1616-7] tall ship well prouided with euery thing fitting for that 
pupose. But before she arriued, Captaine Tuckar, who 
had brought also with him most prouisions for that imploi- 
ment, sent three good Shalops to try what could be done : 
but whether it was the swiftnes of the Whale in swim- 
ming, or the condition of the place, certaine it is for all 
their labour and hazard, they could kill none, though they 
strucke many. 
1617 To be<;in his second yeere, he called the third Assise, 

Assise"" 1 wnere diuers were punished as their faults deserued : three 
sir Thomas were condemned to die ; two were repri[e]ued, but the third 
Tourer was nan g e ci : the next day there was also a leuy for the 
repairing two Forts ; but that labour tooke not such effect 
as was intended, for want of good directions. 
The But the great God of heauen being angry at somewhat 

neer e trey happened in those proceedings, caused such an increase of 
silly rats, in the space of two yeeres so to abound, before 
they regarded them, that they filled not onely those places 
where they were first landed, but swimming from place to 
place, spread themselues into all parts of the Countrey, 
insomuch that there was no Hand but it was pestered with 
them ; and some fishes haue beene taken with rats in their 
bellies, which they caught in swimming from He to He : 
their nests they had almost in euery tree, and in most 
places their burrowes in the ground like conies : they 
spared not the fruits of the plants, or trees, nor the very 
plants themselues, but ate them vp. When they had set 
their corne, the rats would come by troupes in the night 
and scratch it out of the ground. If by diligent watch 
any escaped till it came to earing, it should then very 
hardly escape them : and they became noysome euen to 
the very persons of men. 

They vsed all the diligence they could for the destroying 
of [186] them, nourishing cats both wilde and tame, for 
that purpose; they vsed ratsbane, and many times set fire 
on the woods, that oft ran halfe a mile before it was 
extinct ; euery man was enioyned to set twelue traps, and 
some of their owne accord haue set neere an hundred, 
which they euer visited twice or thrice in a night ; they 
also trained vp their dogges to hunt them, wherein they 
became so expert, that a good dog in two or three houres 

Ed- by j J u'i y s T624.] Lib. 5. and confusion of Rats, 659 

would kil forty or fifty. Many other deuices they vsed to [1617] 
destroy them, but could not preuaile, finding them still 
increasing against them : nay they so deuoured the fruits 
of the earth, that they were destitute of bread for a yeere 
or two ; so that when they had it afterwards, they were 
so wained [weaned] from it, they easily neglected to eat it 
with their meat. Besides they endeuoured so much for the 
planting [of] Tobacco for present gaine, that they neglected 
many things [that] might more haue preuailed for their 
good ; which caused amongst them much weaknesse and 
mortality, since the beginning of this vermine. 

At last it pleased God, but by what meanes it is not a strange 
well knowne, to take them away; in so much that the $rats!° n 
wilde cats and many dogs which liued on them, were 
famished, and many of them leauing the woods, came 
downe to their houses, and to such places where they vse 
to garbish their fish, and became tame. Some haue 
attributed the destruction of them to the encrease of wild 
cats, but that is not likely they should be so suddenly 
encreased rather at that time, then foure yeeres before ; 
and the chiefe occasion of this supposition was, because 
they saw some companies of them leaue the woods, and 
slew themselues for want of food. Others by the cold- 
nesse of winter, which notwithstanding is neuer so great 
there as with vs in March, except it be in the wind : 
besides the rats wanted not the fethers of young birds and 
chickins, which they daily killed, and Palmeta mosse to 
build themselues warme nests out of the wind, as vsually 
they did; neither doth it appeare that the cold was so 
mortall to them, seeing they would ordinarily swimme 
from place to place, and bee very fat euen in the midst of 
winter. It remaineth then, that as God doth sometimes 
effect his will without subordinate and secondary causes, 
so wee need not doubt, but that in the speedy encrease of 
this vermine ; as also by the preseruation of so many of 
them by such weake meanes as they then enioyed, and 
especially in the so sudden remouall of this great annoy- 
ance, there was ioyned with and besides the ordinary and 
manifest meanes, a more mediate and secret worke of God. 

About this time Henry Long, with seuen others in an 
extreame storme were cast away, but three of them 

660 The adventures of Master Powell. Lib. 5. [A^: 

[1617] escaped. One of them being asked what hee thought in 
the worst of that extremity, answered, he thought [of] 
nothing but gallowes claime thy right : and it seemes God 
well heard his prayer, and rewarded his ingratitude; for 
he was handed within halfe a yeere after. 

In that March [1617] also hue men went to Sea, but as yet 
was neuer heard of; and three more [were] drowned in a boat. 
By Hilliards house grew a very faire Cedar, which by a 
thunder clap was rent almost to small shiuers, and a man 
[that] stood by him and Samuel Tanton, [was] most fearfully 
blasted ; yet neither they, the house, nor a little childe : 
yet a paire of racks in the house was all torne to fitters. 

The Neptune not long after arriuing to fish for whale, 

her fortune proued no better then the Gouernours ; yet 

some are of opinion, profit might be made by them. 

SmS"™ 6 ^ n ^ a y t 1 ^ 1 ?] theydiscried foure saile, so that manning 

Poweihom all their Forts, they stood two daies in Armes, expecting 

the indies. what they were . at last they f ounc i j t Master Powell 

returned from the West-Indies in the Hopewell, where 
missing such trade as he expected, these three Frigots 
comming in his way, he could not chuse but take them. 
Meale, Hides and Munition was their lading. Faire 
weather the Gouernor made with Powell, till he had got 
all the goods into his owne possession, and then called 
Powell to a strict account for doing such an vnwarrantable 
act; much a doe then was betwixt the taker and receiuer: 
but Powell was glad to be excused to answer it in England, 
leauing all hee had taken behinde him in the lies. The 
Neptune also returned with him, but noble Powell lost all 
his pay and pillage for [187] this yeeres worke. For which 
the Company sent for to Tuckar, so that he also lost his 
part as well as Powell. 

Notwithstanding, the Gouernour by this meanes being 
strong in shipping, fitted the Caruill with twelue men, 
(M59i> vnder the command of Edward Waters formerly spoken 
648,' 64^.'] of, and sent them to Virginia about such businesse as hee 
had conceiued. Arriuing there, they obtained some goates, 
and hogs, and what they could spare, and so returned 
for the Summer lies ; but whether they could not finde the 
lies for want of skill, or [were] beaten off by ill weather ; or 
the ill will they bare the Gouernor, it matters not much : 

Ed. by J. Smith."] 
July 1624. J 

The diuision of the lies by M. R. Norwood. 661 

but they bare vp again for Virginia, where they all [1617-8] 
remained, and would returne no more to Summer lies. 

The Gouernour thinking to make some vse of the hides, 
set some that professed themselues Tanners, to make 
tryall of their skill ; but they lost their labours and spoiled 
the hides. 

Also he called another Assise concerning a poore a supposed 
fellow called Gabriel, for concealing some speeches Master ES by 
Pollard and Master Rich should vse, tending to the dis- 2dSter 
reputation of the Gouernour, and his iniustice and cruelties; Rich - 
which being brought within the compasse of sedition and 
mutiny, though a yeere agoe : many were called in ques- 
tion about it, although euery one ordinarily had spoke as 
much. Yet Gabriel for example sake was condemned to 
bee hanged ; and was vpon the ladder, but reprieued. The 
other two Master Pollard, and Master Rich were imprisoned ; 
but vpon better consideration, the fact appeared so small 
and ridiculous, vpon their submission they were pardoned, 
and restored to their places. 


The diuision of the Summer lies into Tribes, by 
Master Richard Norwood, Surueyor. 


The diui- 
sion of the 


Sir Thornm 
Or Smith 


Ccording to the directions of the Councell and 
Company, as they had determined by lot, 
Master Norwood tooke a plot of the He, and ii« 
diuided it with as much faithfulnes as he J 
could, assigning to euery Aduenturer his share 
proportion, as namely, to lay out a large proportion, 
to bee called the generall land, and imployed for 
publike vses, as for the maintenance of the Gouernour, 
Ministers, Commanders of Forts, souldiers, and such like: 
and to this end was assigned 5. Georges Hand, 5. Dauids 
Hand, Longbridge Hand, Smiths Hand, Coopers Hand, Cony 
Hand, Nonesuch Hand, part of the maine, and sundry other 
small lies. The rest was to be diuided into eight parts, 
each part to be called a tribe, and to haue his denomina- 
tion of some principall person that was Aduenturer therein : 

662 [ The names and shares of the Adventurers. 

Mr. Pollard 
N. Butler, &c. 

[1618] and accordingly the first Tribe to bee Eastward, was then 
called Bedfords Tribe, now Hamiltons: the second, Smiths: 
Tribe the third, Cavendish, now Denonshires : the fourth, 
Pembrooks : the fift, Pagits : the sixt, Mansils now Warwicks: 
the seuenth, Southhampton : the eighth, Sand[y]s : m the 
honours of the Right honorable the Marquis Hamilton, Sir 
Thomas Smith, the Earle of Deuonshire, the Earle of 
Pembrooke, the Lord Pagit, the Earle of Warwicke, the 
Earle of Southhampton, and Sir Edwin Sand[y]s. 

Againe each of those Tribes were to bee diuided into fifty 
parts, called shares ; and euery Aduenturer to haue his 
shares in these tribes as was determined, by casting lots in 
England, the manner of it appeares by the Map, and more 
largely by his Booke of the Suruay of the Countrey, which 
is in the Records of the Colony. 

And then began this which was before as you haue 
heard, but as an vnsetled and confused Chaos, to receiue a 
a disposition, forme, and order, and become indeed a 
Plantation. [188] 

The names of the Aduenturers, and their shares 

in euery Tribe, according to the suruey, and 

the best information yet ascertained, 

of any of their alterations. 


Hamiltons Tribe. 


Ames L. Marquis 

Hamilton] . 6 

Sir Edward 

Harwood. 4 

John Delbridge. 3 

Iohn Dike 3 

Ellis Roberts. 2 

Robert Phips. 1 

Ralph King. 1 

Quicks assignes. 2 

William Canni[n]g. 4 

William Canni[n]g. 1 

Master William Web. 1 

Master Iohn Bernards as- 
signes. 2 
Master Elias Roberts Iun. 1 
Master Iohn Gearing. 2 
Master Cleophas Smith. 2 
Robert Earle of Warwick. 4 
Master Thomas Couell. 3 
Master Greenwels assignes. 1 
Master Cley. 1 
Master Powlson. 2 
Master Iohn Dike. ij 
Common land for con- 

ueniency. 25 

Master Iohn Dike. ij 

Ed. by J. Smith. 
July 1624. 

The names and shares of the Adventurers^ 663 

Master George Thorps as- 

2. Smiths Tribe. 

Sir Dudley Digs assignes. 2 
Master Richard Edwards. 2 
Master William Pane. 4 
Master Robert Smith. 2 

Master George Barkley as- 
signes. 5 
Sir Samuel Sand[y]s. 1 
Master A nthony Pennistone. 4 
Sir Edwin Sand[y]s. 5 
Sir Thomas Smith. 5 
Master Richard More. 4 
Master Ad[am\ Brumfteld. 2 
Master Robert Iohnson 

A Iderman. 5 

Master Iohn Wroth. 3 

Master George Smith. 4 

3. Deuonshire Tribe. 

Master Anthony Penistone. 2 
Master Iohn Dike. 1 

Master Iohn Dike. 1 

Master Iohn Bernards heir es. 2 
Robert Earle of Warwick. 2 
Master Francis West. 2 

William Lord Cavendish. 5 
William E arle of Deuonshire 5 
Master Edward Luckin. 5 
Master Edward Ditchfield. 1 
Master Edward Ditchfield. 4 
Master William Nicols. 2 
Master Edward Ditchfield. 1 
Master Iohn Fletcher. 2 

Master Gedion Delawne. 2 
Master Anthony Pennistone. 3 

Master Best. 2 

Master Edward Luckin. 2 

Master Richard Rogers. 2 

Master William Palmer. 4 

4. Pembrookes Tribe. 

Master George Smith. 4 

Gleab land. 2 

Master Nicholas Hide. 1 

Sir Lawrence Hide. 1 

Master Thomas Iudwyn. 2 
WilliamE arle of Pembroke. 10 

Master Richard Edwards. 1 

Master Harding. 1 

Master Richard Edwards. 1 

Master Elias Roberts. 1 

Master Richard Edwards. 1 

Master Iacobsons assignes. 1 

Master Iohn Farrar. 1 

Master Nicholas Farrar. 1 

Master Nicholas Farrar. 1 

Master William Canning. 2 

Master Richard Martin. 2, 

Master Moris Abbot. 2 

Master Richard Caswell. 1 

Master Richard Caswell. 2 

Master William Caswell. 1 

Master Richard Edwards. 2 

Master Richard Caswell. 1 

Master Richard Edwards. 1 
Master George Sand[y]s 

assignes. 2 

Master William Paine. 2 

5. Pagits Tribe. 

Master Iohn Chamberlaine. 5 
Master Thomas Ayres, and) 

Master Richard Wiseman.) ^ 

Master Richard Wiseman. 1 
William Lord Pagit. 10 


664 [The names of the Adventurers ', &c.~\ Lib. 5. 

r Mr. Pollard, 
l_N. Butler, &c. 

[1618] Master William Palmer. 

Master Bagnell. 
Master Iohn Bale. 
Master Wheatley. 
Master Christopher Barron. 
Master Iohn Wodall. 
Master Iohn Wodall. 
Master Lewis. 
Master Owen Arthors as- 

signes. 2 

Master George Etheridge. 4 

Sir William Wade. 1 

Master Iohn Bernards 

heires. 1 

6. Warwicks Tribe. 

Master Wheatley. 2 

Captaine Daniel Tuckar. 
Master William Felgate. 
Robert Earle of Waruicke. 
Master George Smith. 
Master Samuel Tickner. 
Master Francis Mevell. 
Master S[t]ephen Sparrow 
Master Ioseph Man. 
Captaine Daniel Tuckar. 
Master Elias More. 
Doctor Anthony Hunton. 
Master Francis Moverill. 
Master Richard Poulson. 
Master Mathew Shephard. 
Master George Tuckar. 




Master Ch[arles] Clithcroe. 1 
Master George Swinow. 2 
Master Richard Tomlings. 1 
Master Francis Meverill. 1 
Master Iohn Waters. 2 

Master Martin Bond. 2 

7. Southamptons Tribe. 
Captaine Daniel Tuckar. 4 
Master Iohn Britton. 1 

Master Richard Chamber- 
land. 3 
Master Leonard Harwods 

assignes. 1 

Master Iohn Banks. 1 

Sir Nathanael Rich. 12 

Robert Earle of War- 

wicke. 3 [189] 

Master Richard More. 6 
Master George Scot. 
Master Edward Scot. • 6 
Master Anthony A bdy. 
Henry Earle of Southampton. 4 
Master Andrew Broumfeld. 2 
Master Henry T imbed. 2 
Sir Thomas Hewet. 2 

Master Perce. 1 

Sir Ralph Winwood. 2 

8. Sandys Tribe. 

M. George Barcklies heires. 5 
Sir Edwin Sand[y]s. 5 

Master Ierom Hidon. 10 
M aster Thomas Millin and | 
Master Iohn Cuffe. 
Master Robert Chamberlaine 2 
Master Abr. Chamberlaine. 1 
Master George Smith. 2 

Master Robert Gore. 
Sir Edward Sackvile. 
Sir Iohn Dauers. 
Master Robert Gore. 
Master Iohn Del bridge. 
Master Iohn Wroth. 
Master Iohn Wests heires. 
Master Richard Chamber- 
laine. 10 

fed ' by jui y s T624.] The proceedings of Captaine Daniel Tuckar. 665 

Touching the common ground in each Tribe, as also [1618] 
the ouer-plus, you may finde that at large in the Booke of 
Surueyes amongst their Records. 

Now though the Countrey was small, yet they could 
not conueniently haue beene disposed and well setled, 
without a true description and a suruey of it ; and againe, 
euery man being setled where he might constantly abide, 
they knew their businesse, and fitted their houshold 
accordingly: then they built no more Cabbens, but sub- 
stantiall houses ; they cleered their grounds, and planted 
not onely such things as would yeeld them their fruits in 
a few moneths, but also such as would affoord them profit 
within a few yeares, so that in a short time the Countrey 
began to aspire, and neerely approach vnto that happi- 
nesse and prosperitie, wherein now it flourisheth, &c. 

But to follow the History ; vpon the best plot of ground 1618 - 
[that] could be found, the Gouernor preuailed so much with 
the generalitie, they built a faire house of Cedar : which 
being done, he appropriated it to himselfe, which occasioned 
exceeding much distaste. 

About this time arriued the Diana with a good supply of ™ e first 
men and prouision, and the first Magazin euer seene in agaaI 
those lies ; which course is not so much commended here, 
as cursed and abhorred by reason of enhansements of all 
the Inhabitants there ; six or seuen weeks this ship staied, 
then hauing towards her fraught thirtie thousand [pounds] 
weight of Tobacco : which prouing good, and comming to a 
lucky Market, gave great encouragement to the Aduenturers 
to goe lustily forward in their Plantation ; and without such 
successe, there is nothing but grudging and repining. 

But about the appropriation of this new built house, 
many bad discontents grew betwixt the oppressed Colony 
and the Gouernor ; especially betwixt him and the Minister, 
and Lewes, who would neither be feared with threats nor 
imprisonment, that their malice continued till they met in 
England: of which the Minister made the cause soplaine,[that] 
hee very well and honestly, it seemes, discharged himselfe. 

Now in those times of these endlesse vnciuill broiles, 
two desperate men and a proper Gentlewoman got into a 

666 Proceedings of Capt. Daniel Tuckar. Lib. 5. [ N M B r u J e f &J 

[1618] Boat, and thinking to make an escape to Virginia, as 
£j>ioits appeared by some Letters they left behinde them, were 
of desperate neuer more heard on. 

Fugumes. The very next moneth after, the like was attempted by six 
others, so desirous they were to be rid of their seruitude ; 
but their plot being discouered by one of their societie, they 
were apprehended, arraigned, and condemned to be hanged: 
the next day being led with halters about their neckes to the 
place of execution, one was hanged, and the rest repri[e]ued. 
o? 1 the rriua11 ^^ e D* ana arriuing well in England, for all the infinite 
Butting, numbers of complaints, the Tobacco did helpe to sweeten 
all manner of grieuances; yet it bred a distaste in the 
opinions of so many, they began to thinke of another 
Gouernor : but for that time it was so qualified by diuers 
of his friends, they dispatched away the Blessing, which 
arriued in the Somer lies. 

Though their generall Letter was faire and courteous to 
the Gouernor, yet by the report of the Passengers and 
diuers particular letters from his friends, it was assured him 
his cruelty and couetousnesse,forall his paines and industry, 
was much disliked, nor was he like[ly] to enioy his [190] 
house, and that land he had planted for himselfe by the ex- 
treme oppression of the Comminalty. This caused so many 
ielousies to arise in his conceit, that at last he fully resolued 
to returne by this ship ; that no sooner set saile for England, 
then they proceeded to the nomination of a new Gouernor. 
Many were presented according to the affections of those 
that were to giue in their voices, but it chiefely rested 
betwixt one Captaine Southwell, and one Master Nathaniel 
Butler; where wee will leaue them a while to the con- 
sideration of the Court and Company. 

Now Captaine Tuckar hauing instituted Captaine Kendall 
one of the six Gouernors before spoken of, for his substitute, 
returned with this ship directly for England ; as well to 
excuse himselfe of those obiections he suspected, as to get 
assured him the house and land he had alotted for himselfe, 
lest it might otherwise be disposed of in his absence. 

Collected out of their Records by N.B. and the 
relations of Master Pollard, and diuers others. 

of two ships. 

T'he Gouernment of Captaine 

Miles Kendall, Deputy for 
Captaine Tuckar. 

HE vnexpected returne [to England] of [1618] 
Captaine Tuckar, caused a demurre in The: 
the election of the new Gouernor; some 
perswading these oft changes were so 
troublesome, dangerous, and chargeable, 
it were best to continue Captaine Ken- 
dall; others againe stood for Captaine 
Tuckar: but during the time of these 
opinions, the Gilliflower was dispatched with a supply. 

Now I should haue remembred, Tuckar was no sooner 
out of the harbour, but he met Master Elfred in a ship 
called the Treasurer, sent from Virginia to trade : by her 
he writ to his Deputy Master Kendall, to haue a care 
of all things, and beware of too much acquaintance with 
this ship, which hee suspected was bound for the West- 
Indies. Notwithstanding, Elfred receiued what kindnesse 
the He could afford; he promised to reuisit them at his 
returne. This done, because they would not be gouernlesse 
when his Deputiship was expired, there was a generall 
assembly, and by that Election Kendall was confirmed to 
succeed still Gouernor. 

Now they began to apply themselues to the finishing [of] 
some plat-forme about Smiths Fort, and laying the foundation 
of a Church to be built of Cedar, till the Gillyflower arriued 
with some priuate letters to Kendall, how he was elected 
Gouernor of those lies for three yeeres. 

During her stay, they held their Assises, where for some 

668 The GouernmentofCapt. Miles Kendall. Lib. 5. [*•**$£ 

[1618-9] few suspected facts three were condemned, and the better 

to terrifie the rest, led to the place of execution, but 

reprieued; diuers of the rest had their faults pardoned, and 

the Gilliflower set saile for New found land. 

SS£r ne ^ e * oue anc * kindnesse, honesty and industry of this 

chosen Captaine Kendall, hath beene very much commended ; by 

Goueraor. ot h erSj somewhat disliked : but an Angell in those imploi- 

ments cannot please all men, yet this consideration bred 

much ill bloud as well here as there, so that the Company 

directly concluded, Captaine Butler should with what 

expedition they could, goe to be their Gouernor : 

In the Interim they tooke the opportunitie of a ship, 
called the Sea-flower, bound for Virginia ; and by her sent a 
Preacher and his Family, with diuers Passengers, and newes 
of a new Gouernor. This bred a great distaste amongst 
many, that still they should haue new officers and 
strangers for their Gouernors they neuer heard of, and 
themselues still kept there whether they would or no, 
without any preferment, no nor scarce any of them their 
inhabiting, to haue any land at all of their owne, but Hue 
all as tenants, or as other mens poore seruants. 

About this time came in Captaine Kerby with a small 
Barke from the West-Indies : who hauing refreshed him- 
selfe, was very kindly vsed by the Gouernor ; [191] and so 

Not long after a Dutch Frigot was cast away vpon the 
Westerne shore; yet by the helpe of the English they saued 
the men, though the ship perished amongst the Rocks. 

A little after, one Ensigne Wood being about the loading 
of a peece, by thrusting a pike into the concauitie, grating 
vpon the shot, or somewhat about the powder, strucke fire 
within her and so discharged, but wounded him cruelly 
and blew him into the Sea: though hee was got out by 
some that stood by him, yet hee died of those wounds. 

Within two or three daies after, Captaine Elfred now 
comes in a second time : but of that we shall say more in 
the gouernment of Captaine Butler ; who presently after 
arriued with a good supply, and was kindly entertained 
by Captaine Kendall and all the Colony. 

From a relation of Thomas Sparks, and diuers others. 

"The Gouernment of Captaine 
Nathaniel Butler. 

Aptaine Butler being arriued the twentieth [1619] 
of October, 1619. some mutterings there 
was how to maintaine their election of 
Captaine Kendall', but better remembring 
themselues, that conceit quickly dissolued. 

The next day [20 Oct.], Kendall, the tStfanT 
Ministers, and the Counsellwent aboord much hurt 
to salute the new Gouernor, where after Hericano. 
they had dined with the best entertainment he could giue 1619. 
them ; they saw the Redout belonging to the Kings Castle by 
a mischance on fire, whither he repaired with all the meanes 
he could to quench it ; but all the platforme and cariages 
were consumed before theirfaces,andtheycouldnothelpe it. 
Two daies after he went vp to the Towne, had his 
Commission publikely read, made a short speech to the 
Company, and so tooke vpon him the gouernment. Then 
presently he began to repaire the most necessary defects. 
The next moneth, came in the Garland, sent from 
England six or seuen weekes before him ; so that being 
seuenteene weeks in her voyage, it was so tedious and 
grieuous to diuers of the Fresh-water Passengers, that such 
a sicknesse bred amongst them, many died as well Sailers as 
Passengers. Hauing taken the best order he could for their 
releefe, [he] passed through all the Tribes, and held his first 
Assise in Captaine Tuckars house [p. 665] at the ouer-plus 
[i.e., on the spare land not yet appropriated to any particular share] . 
Towards the last of this moneth of Nouember [1619] 
there arose a most terrible storme or Hericano, that blew 
vp many great trees by the roots: the Warwick that 

670 The Gouernment of Lib. 5. L^^jifrSJ; 

[1619-20] brought the Gouernor was cast away, but the Garland, [that] 
rid by her, saued her selfe by cutting downe her Masts ; and 
not long after a second storme, no lesse violent then the 
first, wherein the Mount (which was a frame of wood built 
by Master More for a Watch-tower to looke out to Sea) 
was blowne vp by the roots, and all that Winter crop of 
corne blasted. And thus was the new Gouernor welcomed. 
The With the beginning of the new yeere [1620] he began his 

the°Kin^ s first peece of fortification, vpon a Rocke which flankers the 
CasU ** Kings Castle, and finding the ship called the Treasurer 
starke rotten and vnseruiceable, hee tooke nine peeces of 
Ordinance from her to serue other vses. The Garland for 
want of meanes, could not make her voiage to Virginia as 
she was appointed ; wherefore he entertained her to 
returne to England, with all the Tabacco they had in the 
He. It was Ianuary [1620] before she departed, in which 
time, shee failed not much to haue beene twice cast away. 
But those strange and vnauoidable mischances, rather 
seemed to quicken the Gouernors industry then to dull it. 
Hauing finished the Church begun by Captaine Kendall, 
with an infinite toile and labour he got three peeces out 

0^.669,674.] of the wracke VVarwicke. Hauing an excellent Dutch 
Carpinter he entertained of them that were cast away in 
the Dutch Frigot ; he imploied him in building of Boats, 
whereof they were in exceeding great want. 

In February [1620], they discouered a tall ship beating 
too and againe, as it seemed by her working, being ignorant 
of the Coast ; some thought her a Spaniard to view their 
Forts, which stand most to [192] that part she so neerely 
approached ; some, English ; but the most, some Dutch 
man of Warre : The wind blew so high, they durst not send 
out a Boat, though they much doubted she would be foule 
of their Rocks ; but at last she bore vp rommy for the Sea, 
and we heard of her no more. 

Amber- That euening, a lucky fellow it should seeme he was, 

fJund! tnat found a peece of Ambergreece of eight ounces, as he 
had twice before ; which bringing to the Gouernor, he had 
ready money for the one halfe, after three pound an ounce, 
according to their order of Court, to encourage others to 
looke out for more, and preuent the mischiefe insueth by 
concealing of it. 

"•^j&rfSf] Lib. 5. Captaine Nathaniel Butler. 671 

Within a few daies after, they descried two Frigots that [1620] 
came close to the shore, and sent a Letter to the Gouernor, Jj^SfjjJJ 
writ in Italian, that they were Hollanders had beene in the Frigots." c 
West-Indies, and desired but to arriue, refresh themselues 
with wood and water, and so be gone. The Gouernor 
forthwith sent them to vnderstand, that being there vnder 
his Maiestie of England to command those lies, he was 
to carrie himselfe a friend to his friends, and an enemy to 
his enemies ; if therefore he could shew a lawfull Com- 
mission for his being honestly and nobly emploied, he and 
his should be kindly welcome, otherwise they were to 
aduenture at their perills. 

But his Commission was so good, he staied there two 
moneths, and was so well fitted with Oile and Bacon, they 
were all glad and happy of this Dutch Captaine Scoutans 
arriuall ; with many thanks to their old friend Captaine 
Powell that had conducted him thither. The Colony being 
exceedingly in great want and distresse, bought the most 
part of it at reasonable rates; so Captaine Scoutan returned 
to the West-Indies, and Captaine Powell for his part in the 

Whilest these things were in action, the Aduenturers in 
England made many a long looke for their ships ; at last 
the Garland brought them all the newes, but the Tobacco 
was so spoiled either in the leaking ship, or the making vp, 
it caused a great suspicion there could none [that] was good 
come from those lies ; where (were they but perfit in the 
cure) questionlesse it would be much better then a great 
quantitie of that they sell for Verinas, and many a thousand 
of it in London hath beene bought and sold by that title. 

The Gouernor being cleere of those distractions, falls The 
vpon the restoring of the burnt Redoubt, where he cuts bUSS 
out a large new plat-forme, and mounts seuen great peece[s] Mimsters - 
of Ordnance vpon new cariages of Cedar. Now amongst 
all those troubles, it was not the least to bring the two 
Ministers to subscribe to the Booke of Common Praier, 
which all the Bishops in England could not doe. Finding 
it high time to attempt some conformitie, [he] bethought 
himselfe of the Liturgie of Garnsey and Iarse, wherein all 
those particulars they so much stumbled at, were omitted. 
No sooner was this propounded, but it was gladly imbraced 

672 The Gouernment of Lib. 5. [ Ed> by / u 'iy Te*! 

[1620] by them both, whereupon the Gouernor translated it 
verbatim out of French into English, and caused the eldest 
Minister vpon Easter day [16 April 1620] to begin the vse 
thereof at Saint Georges towne; where himselfe, most of the 
Councell, Officers and Auditorie receiued the Sacrament : 
the which forme they continued during the time of his 

Much about this time, in such a faire morning that had 
inuited many Boats farre out to the Sea to fish, did rise 
such a Hericano that much indangered them all, so that 
one of them with two Boies were driuen to Sea and neuer 
more heard of. 
T, ?e The Ministers thus agreed, a Proclamation was pub- 

the U Mount. lished for keeping of the Sabbath; and all the defective 
cariages he endeuoured to haue renewed ; [he also] builded 
a small Boat of Cedar onely to goe with Ores, to be ready 
vpon any occasion to discouer any shipping, and tooke 
order euery Fort should haue the like. Also caused num- 
bers of Cedars to be brought from diuers places in flotes, 
to rebuild the Mount, which with an vnspeakable toile, 
was raised seuen foot higher then before, and a Falcon 
mounted at the foot, to be alwaies discharged for a warning 
to all the Forts vpon the discouery of any shipping : and 
this he called Rich Mount. This exceeding toile and 
labour, hauing no Cattle but onely mens [193] strengths, 
caused many petitions to the Gouernour, that all those 
generall works might cease till they had reaped their har- 
uests, in that they were in great distresse for victuall ; 
which hee so well answered, their owne shames did cause 
them desist from that importunity, and voluntarily per- 
forme as much as hee required. 
The Tombc Finding accidentally a little crosse erected in a by place, 
summ/rs?' amongst a many of bushes, vnderstanding there was buried 
the heart and intrailes of Sir George Summers, hee resolued 
to haue a better memory for so worthy a Souldier, then 
that. So finding also a great Marble stone brought out 
of England, hee caused it by Masons to bee wrought 
handsomely and laid ouer the place, which hee inuironed 
with a square wall of hewen stone, Tombe like ; wherein 
hee caused to bee grauen this Epitaph he had composed, 
and fixed it vpon the Marble stone ; and thus it was, 

Ed. by J. Smith."] T TR 
July 1624. J l - lii ' 

5. Captaine Nathaniel Butler. 


In theyeere 1 6 1 1, 
Noble Sir George Summers went hence to heauen ; 
Whose well trVd worth that held him still imploid, 
Gaue him the knowledge of the world so wide. 
Hence 't was by heauens decree, that to this place 
He brought new guests, and name to mutuall grace. 
A t last his soule and body being to part, 
He here bequeathe his entrails and his heart. 

Vpon the sixt of Iune [1620], began the second Assise, ^ ; n r er 
that reduced them to the direct forme vsed in England, ofiawes 
For besides the Gouernour and Councell : they haue the reformed 
Bailiffes of the Tribes, in nature of the Deputy Lieu- 
tenants of the shires in England, for to them are all pre- 
cepts and warrants directed, and accordingly answered 
and respected ; they performe also the duties of Iustices of 
Peace, within their limits. The subordinate Officers to 
these in euery tribe, are the Constables, Head-borowes, 
and Church-wardens ; these are the triers of the Tobacco, 
which if they allow not to be marchantable, is burnt : and 
these are the executioners of their ciuill and politicke 

For points of warre and martiall affaires, they haue the JJgJj^ 1 
Gouernour for Lieutenant generall, the Sergeant maior, 
Master of Ordinance, Captaines of Companies, Captaines 
of Forts, with their seuerall officers, to traine and exer- 
cise those numbers vnder their charge, in martiall 

Concerning their Courts for decision of right and iustice, 
the first, though last in constitution, is their generall Courts" 
assembly ; allowed by the state in England, in the nature 
of a Parliament, consisting of about forty persons ; viz. 
the Gouernour, the Counsell, the Bailiffes of the tribes, 
and two Burgesses of each tribe chosen by voyces in the 
tribe, besides such of the Clergie as the Gouernour thinkes 
most fit, to be held once a yeere, as you shal heare more 
thereof hereafter. 

The next Court is the Assise or Iayles of deliuerie, held 
twice euery yeere, in Christmas, and Whitson weeke, 
for all criminall offenders, and ciuill causes betwixt party 
and party ; as actions of debt, trespasse, battery, slander, 


Officers and 

674 ^ Gouernment of Lib. 5. |^-*/ u -,*7J£ 

[1620] and the like : and these are determined by a Iury of 
twelue men, and aboue them is also a grand Iury to 
examine matters of greater consequence. 

The last day of the Assise might also well be held a Court, 
for hearing the trangressions in matters of contempt, mis- 
behauiour towards any Magistrate, riots, seditious speakers, 
contemners of warrants, and such like. 

There are also as occasion shall require, many matters 
heard by the Gouernor, or his Officers, and oft iustice done 
in seuerall places ; but those are but as daies of hearing, 
and as preparatiues against their Courts, &c. 

The second At this last Assize eighteene were arrained for criminall 
causes, a number very extraordinary considering the place ; 
but now occasioned by reason of the hard yeere, and the 
store of ill chosen new commers : of these, some were 
censured to the whipping post, some burned in the hand, 
but two were condemned to die, yet the one was reprieued, 
the other hanged ; this done, euery man returned to his 

[#.669,670.] Many trials they made againe about the Warwicke, 
but to small purpose, [194] her Ordnance being lashed 
so fast they could not be vnlcosed, till the ropes and decks 
were rotten, yet some few buttes of beare being flotie they 
got, which though it had lien six moneths vnder water 
was very good: notwithstanding the next yeere [1621], 
they recouered flue peeces of Ordnance. 

Ageneraii Vpon the first of August [1620], accordingtotheCompanies 

manSon"* instructions from England, began the generall assembly at 

Parliament, the towne of Saint George, which was the first these lies 
euer had : consisting as is said, of the Gouernour, Councell, 
Bailiffes, and Burgesses, and a Secretarie to whom all bils 
were presented, and by him openly read in the house, also 
a Gierke to record the Acts, being thirty two in all ; fif- 
teene of which [Acts] being sent into England, were by a 
generall consent receiued and enacted, the titles whereof 
are these following : as for all the reasons for them, they 
would be too tedious to recite. 

Their Acts The first was against the vniust sale and letting of 

apprentises and other seruants, and this was 

especially for the righting the vndertakers in England. 

The second, concerning the disposing of aged, 

fed b Vuiv^.i ^ IB - 5- Captaine Nathaniel Butler. 6^5 

diseased, and impotent persons : for it being considered [1620] 
how carelesse many are in preferring their friends, or 
sending sometimes any they can procure to goe, such 
vnseruiceable people should be returned back at their 
charge that sent them, rather then be burdensome to 
the poore Inhabitants in the lies. 

The third, the necessary manning the Kings Castle, 
being the key of the He, that a garison of twelue 
able men should bee there alwaies resident : and 
3000. eares of corne, and 1000. pounds of Tobacco 
payed them by the generality yeerely, as a pension. 

The fourth, against the making vnmarchantable 
Tobacco ; and Officers sworne to make true trials, 
and burne that was naught. 

The fift, inioyned the erection of certaine publike 
bridges, and the maintenance of them. 

The sixt, for a continuall supply of victuall for all the 
Forts, to bee preserued, till some great occasion to 
vse it. 

The seuenth was, for two fixed dayes euery yeere for 
the Assises. 

The eight, commands the making of high-waies, and 
prohibiting the passage ouer mens grounds and 
planted fields; as well to preuent the spoyling of 
gardens, as conueniencie to answer any alarum. 

The ninth, for the preseruing young tortoises and 
birds, that were carelesly destroyed. 

The tenth prouided against vagabonds, and pro- 
hibited the entertainement of other mens seruants. 

The eleuenth compelled the setting of a due quantity 
of corne for euery family. 

The twelfth, the care corne being set, enioyned the 
keeping vp of their poultry till it was past their 

The thirteenth, for the preseruation of sufficient 
fences, and against the felling of marked trees appointed 
for bounds. 

The fourteenth, granted to a leuy for a thousand 
pound weight of Tobacco, towards the payment of 
publike workes, as the bridges and the mount. 

The fifteenth, for the enioyning an acknowledgement 


The Gouernment of Lib. 5. [ Edby j J u iy 



The arriuall 
of the 

and acception of all resident Gouernours, and the 
warranting him to continue, though his time be 
expired, till the arriuall of a legitimate successor 
from England, to preuent all vnmeet and presump- 
tuous elections : besides it was desired by petition 
in England, the new Gouernour should Hue two 
months as a priuate man after his arriuall, if his 
predecessor did stay so long, the better to learne and 
obserue his course. 
And these are the contents of those fifteene Acts, 
applied as you may perceiue : which the lawes of England 
could not take notice of, because euery climate hath 
somewhat to it selfe in that kinde in particular; for 
otherwise as it is conceiued, it had beene a high impu- 
dency and presumption to haue medled with them, or 
indeed with any such as these lawes, that had with such 
great iudgement and iustice alwaies prouided for. 

No sooner was this businesse ouer, but the Magazin 
ship is discouered, and that night came into the Harbour ; 
but in a very weake and sickly case, hauing cast ouer 
board twenty or thirty of her people: and so violent was 
the infection, that the most part of the sailers, as well as 
passengers, were so sicke, or dismaid, or both, that the 
Master confessed, had they stayed at the Sea but a weeke 
longer, they had all perished. 

There arriued with this ship diuers Gentlemen of good 
fashion, with their wiues and families ; but many of them 
crasie by the tediousnesse of the voyage : [195] howsoeuer 
most of them, by the excellent salubrity of the aire, then 
which the world hath not a better, soone after recouered ; 
yet some there were that died presently after they got 
ashore : it being certainly the quality of the place, either 
to kill, or cure quickly, as the bodies are more or lesse 

By this ship the Company sent a supply of ten persons 
for the generality, but of such bad condition that it seemed 
they had picked the Males out of Newgate, the Females 
from Bridewell : As the Gouernour found it his best 
course, to grant out the women to such as were so greedy 
of wiues, and would needs haue them for better for worse ; 
and the men hee placed in the Kings Castle for souldiers. 

Edby /uiy s lt] Lib. 5. 

Captaine Nathaniel Butler. 


But this bad, weake, sickly supply being dispersed for [1620] 
their best reliefe, by the much imployment of his boats in 
remoouing them, many of his owne men became infected, 
so that for some weekes, they were not able to doe him 
any seruice at all. 

Strict instructions also they brought for the planting of 
Sugar canes, for which the Iland being rockie and dry, is 
so vnproper, that few as yet haue beene seene to prosper : 
yet there are others [that] hold the contrary opinion, that 
there is raine so ordinarily, the lies are so moist, as pro- 
duceth all their plants in such infinit abundance : there is 
no great reason to suspect this, were it rightly vsed, more 
then the rest. 

Seuenty thousand [pounds] weight of Tobacco being ££°£ tof 
prepared towards her fraught, she returned for England. Tobacco. 

No sooner was shee gone then came in another, sent by 
the Company and generalty, well conditioned ; but shee 
failed not much to haue beene cast away amongst those 
dangerous and terrible rocks. By her came also expresse 
command, they should entertaine no other ships, then 
were directly sent from the Company : this caused much 
grudging, and indeed a generall distraction and exclamation 
among the Inhabitants, to be thus constrained to buy what 
they wanted, and sell what they had at what price the 
Magazin pleased ; and to debarre true men from comming 
to them for trade or reliefe, that were daily receiued in all 
the harbours in England. So long this ship stayed going 
for fraught and wages, the Master not caring how long he 
lay at that rate in a good harbour, [that] the Gouernour 
was ready to send her away by Proclamation. Thus ended 
the first yeere of the gouernment of C[aptaine] Butler. 

ing of three 
bridges and 
other works. 

With the first [? days] of the second yeere were held the 1620. 
Assises, where all the Bailiffes were fined for not giuing a Thebuild - 
beginning to the building of the bridges ; there was also an 
order to restraine the excessiue wages all handicrafts men 
would haue : and that the Church-wardens should meet 
twice a yeere, to haue all their presentments made perfect 
against the Assises. 

The Assises done, all the ablest men were trained in 
their armes, and then departed to their owne homes. 

578 The Gouernment of Lib. 5. [■*• by fc^ 4 ; 

[1621] The towne thus cleered, he made certaine new carriages 

for some demy Culuerings, and a large new storehouse of 
Cedar for the yeerely Magazines goods ; finished Warwicks 
Fort begun by Master More, and made a new platforme 
at Pagits Fort, also a faire house of lime and stone for 
the Townes-house. The three bridges appointed by the 
generall assembly, was followed with such diligence, [that] 
though they were more then an hundred, or an hundred 
and twenty foot in length, hauing the foundation and 
arches in the Sea, [they] were raised and accomplished, 
so that man or beast with facility might passe them. 
The At Whitsonday [zoMay 1621] was held the fourth generall 

AsS, Assise at Saint Georges, where were tryed twenty seuerall 
prieed- causes ; foure or hue were whipped or burnt in the hand, for 
>ngs. breaking of houses : also an order was made, that the 

party cast in the triall of any cause, should pay to euery 
of the Iurours foure pence : moreouer, that not past ten 
leaues at the most should grow vpon a plant of Tobacco, 
and that also in the making it vp, a distinction should 
diligently be obserued of two kinds, a better and a worse : 
then they built a strong stone house for the Captaine of 
the Kings Castle and corps du guard ; and repaired what 
defects they could finde in the platformes and carriages. 

Captaine Powell so oft mentioned, hauing beene in the 
West-Indies for the States of Holland, came to an anchor 
within shot of their Ordnance, desiring admittance for 
wood and water, of which hee had great need, but the 
Gouernor [196] would not permit him, so he weighed 
and departed ; whereat the company were so madded, it 
was not possible to constraine them to cease their exclai- 
mations against the Companies inhibition, till they were 
weary with excla[i]ming. But still for their better defence, 
not thinking themselues sufficiently secure, hauing finished 
two new plat-formes more, arriued the Magazin ship [Sept. 
1621] : but her Master was dead, and many of the Passengers; 
the rest for most part very sicke. And withall, a strange 
and wonderfull report of much complaint made against the 
Gouernor to the Company in England, by some of them 
returned in the last yeeres shipping. But it was eight 
daies before she could get in by reason of ill weather, 
being forced againe to Sea j so that time, they kept euery 


Edby jii y s ?6 ! S:] LlB - 5- Captaine Nathaniel Butler. 679 

night continually great fires, [that] she might see the He as [16211 
well by night as day : but at last she arriued, and he plainly 
vnderstood, he had more cause a great deale to looke for 
misconstruction of all his seruice then an acknowledg- 
ment, much lesse a recompence any better then his pre- 
decessors; but it is no new thing to requite the best desert 
with the most vildest of ingratitude. 

The very next daies night after the arriuall of the a strange 
Magazins ship, newes was brought the Gouernor by a ofaSpiS 
dismaied Messenger from Sand[y]s his Tribe, that one hun- 
dred Spaniards were landed in that part, and diuers ships 
discouered at Sea ; whereupon he presently manned the 
Forts, and instantly made thitherward in person with 
twentie men, determining as he found cause to draw 
together more strength by the way. Being got thither 
by the breake of the next day, in stead of an enemy which 
he expected, he met onely with a company of poore dis- 
tressed Portugals and Spaniards, who in their passage 
from Carthagena in the West-Indies, in consort with the 
Spanish fleet of Plait [the annual Plate Fleet, taking the 
treasure to Spain] ; by the same storme that had in- 
dangered the Magazin ship, lost theirs vpon those terrible 
Rocks, being to the number of seuenty persons, [who] were 
strangely preserued ; and the manner was thus. 

About Sunne-set their ship beating amongst the Rock3, 
some twenty of the Sailers got into the Boat with what 
treasure they could ; leauing the Captaine, the Master, 
and all the rest to the mercy of the Sea. But a Boy not 
past foureteene yeares of age that leaped after, to haue 
got into the Boat ; missing that hope, it pleased God he 
got vpon a Chest a drift by him : whereon they report 
he continued two daies, and was driuen neere to the 
cleane contrary part of the He, where he was taken vp 
neere dead, yet well recouered. All this night the ship 
sticking fast, the poore distressed in her the next day spying 
land, made a raft; and were those [that] gaue the alarum 
first a shore about three of the clocke in the after noone. 

The morning after, about seuen of the clocke came in the 
Boat to a place called Mangroue Bay ; and the same day 
their Carpenter was driuen a shore vpon a Planke neere 
Bog-Bay. There was a Gentlewoman that had stood wet 

68o The Gouernment of Capt. Nathaniel Butler. [ Edby j{ 

uly 1624. 

[1621] vp to the middle vpon the raft from the ship to the shore, 
being big with childe ; and although this was vpon the 
thirteenth of September, [1621] she tooke no hurt, and was 
safely deliuered of a Boy within three daies after. 

The best comfort [that] could be giuen them in those 
extremities they had, although some of the baser sort had 
beene rifling some of them before the Gouernors arriuall. 
Also the Spanish Captaine and the chiefe with him, much 
complained of the treachery of his men to leaue him in that 
manner, yet had conueyed with them the most of the 
money they could come by, which he easily missed ; where- 
upon hee [Butler] suddenly caused all them he accused, to 
be searched, and recouered to the value of one hundred and 
fortie pounds starling : which he deliuered into the Cap- 
taines hands, to be imploied in a generall purse towards 
their generall charge. During their stay in the lies, some 
of the better sort, nine or ten weeks [13 Sept. — ? 12 Nov.], 
dieted at his owne table ; the rest were billited amongst 
the Inhabitants at foure shillings the weeke, till they found 
shipping for their passage, for which they paied no more 
then the English paied themselues ; and for the passage 
of diuers of them, the Gouernor was glad to stand bound 
to the Master. Some others that were not able to procure 
such friendship, were so constrained to stay in the lies, 
till by their labours they had got [197] so much as would 
transport them : and thus they were preserued, releeued, 
and deliuered. 

In the moneth insuing [October 1621] arriued the second 
ship ; and she also had lost her Master, and diuers of her 
Passengers : in her came two Virginian Women [these 
were of the Indian maids that had gone to England in 1616, in 
attendance on Pocahontas] to be married to some would 
haue them, that after they were conuerted and had 
children, they might be sent to their Countrey and kindred 
to ciuilize them. 

Towards the end of this moneth [Oct.] came in the third 
ship with a small Magazin ; [she] hauing sold what she 
could, caried the rest to Virginia : and neuer did any of 
those Passengers complaine either of their good diet, or too 
good vsage at sea; but the cleane contrary still occasioned 
many of those extremities. 

Ed. by J. Smith."] T TT3 
July 1624 J ^ IB ' 

5. Their accidents and proceedings. 68 1 

The fift of Nouember [1621] the damnable plot of the 
powder treason was solemnized, with Praiers, Sermons, 
and a great Feast : whereto the Gouernor inuited the 
chiefe of the Spaniards, where drinking the Kings health, 
it was honored with a quicke volly of small shot, which 
was answered from the Forts with the great Ordnance, 
and then againe concluded with a second volley of small 
shot ; neither was the afternoone without musicke and 
dancing, and at night many huge bone-fires of sweet-wood. 

The Spaniards to expresse their thankfulnesse, at their 
departure, made a deed of gift to the Gouernor of whatso- 
euer he could recouer of the wracked ship ; but the ships 
as they went out came so dangerously vpon a Rock, that 
the poore Spaniards were so dismaied, swearing this place 
was ominous vnto them, especially the women, that 
desired rather to goe a shore and die howsoeuer, than 
aduenture any further in such a labyrinth of dangers : but 
at last she got cleere without danger, and well to England. 

The other went to Virginia, wherein the Gouernor 
sent two great Chests filled with all such kinds and 
sorts of Fruits and Plants as their Hands had ; as Figs, 
Pomgranats, Oranges, Lemons, Sugar-canes, Plantanes, 
Potatoes, Papawes, Cassado roots, red Pepper, the Prickell 
Peare, and the like. 

The ships thus dispatched, hee goeth into the maine, 
and so out to sea to the Spanish wracke. He had beene 
there before, presently after her ruine ; for neuer had ship a 
more sudden death, being now split in peeces all vnder 
water. He found small hope to recouer any thing, saue a 
Cable and an Anchor, and two good Sacars ; but the wind 
was so high hee was forced to returne, being ten miles 
from the shore, onely with three Murderers [small cannon], 
which were knowne to be the same Captaine Kendall had 
sold to Captaine Kerby : whose ship was taken by two men 
of warre of Carthagena, the most of his men slaine or 
hanged, and he being wounded, died in the woods. Now 
their Pilot being at this seruice, got thus those three 
Murderers to their ship; and their ship thus to the 
Bermudas, as the Spaniards remaining related to the 
Gouernor and others. 

Hauing raised three small Bulwarkes at Southhamptons 


How they 
the powder 
treason, and 
the arriuall 
of two 


returne, and 
in danger 



found in 
the Spanish 

682 The Gotternment of Capt. Nathaniel Butler. [ Edby jii y s ^ 

[1621-2] Fort, with two Curtaines, and two Rauilings, which indeed 

is onely the true absolute peece of fortification in the lies. 

Their Christmas [1621] being come, and the prefixed day of the 

•S'Sher Assise ; diuers were whipped and burnt in the hand, onely 

passages, three young boyesfor stealing were condemned, and at tfte 

very point of hanging repri[e] ued. The Gouernour then sent 

his Lieutenant all ouer the maine to distribute Armes to 

those were found most fit to vse them, and to giue order [s] for 

their randezuous, which were hanged vp in the Church. 

About this time it chanced a pretty secret to be discouered 
to preserue their corne from the fly, or weauell, which did 
in a manner as much hurt as the rats. For the yeere before 
[1620] hauing made a Proclamation that all Corne should 
be gathered by a certaine day; because many lazy persons 
(A W ranne so after the ships to get Beere and Aquavita, for 
which they will giue any thing they haue, much had beene 
lost for want of gathering. This yeare [1621] hauing a very 
faire crop, some of the Inhabitants, none of the best hus- 
bands, hastily gathered it for feare of the penaltie, threw 
it in great heaps into their houses vnhusked, and so let it 
lie foure or fiue moneths, which was thought would haue 
spoiled it : where the good husbands husked it, and with 
much labour hung it vp, where the Flies did so blow on 
it, they increased to so many Weauels, they generally [198] 
complained of great losse ; but those good fellowes that 
neuer cared but from hand to mouth, made their boasts, 
that not a graine of theirs had beene touched nor hurt ; 
there being no better way to preserue it then by letting it 
lie in its huske, and spare an infinite labour formerly [that] 
had beene vsed. 

There were also very luckily about this time found out 
diuers places of fresh water, of which many of the Forts 
were very destitute; and the Church-wardens and Side-men 
were very busie in correcting the prophaners of the 
Sabbath, Drunkards, Gamesters, and such like. 

There came also from Virginia a small Barke with many 
thanks for the presents sent them : much Aquauitae, Oile, 
Sacke, and Bricks they brought in exchange of more Fruits 
and Plants, Ducks, Turkies and Limestone ; of which she 
had plenty, and so returned. 

During the aboad of the stay of this ship, the manage of 

Ed " by jui y s T624*] Lib. 5. Their accidents and proceedings. 683 

one of the Virginia m&idesw&s consummated with a husband [1622] 
fit for her, attended with more then one hundred guests, 
and all the dainties for their dinner [that] could be prouided. 

They made also another triall to fish for Whales, but it 
tooke no more effect then the former : this was done by 
the Master of the Virginia ship that professed much skill 
that way, but hauing fraughted his ship with Limestone, 
with 20000. [pounds] weight of Potatoes, and such things 
as he desired, [he] returned for Virginia. 

Aprill and May [1622] were spent in building a strong new 
Prison, and perfecting some of the Fortifications, and by 
the labour of twenty men in fourteene daies was got from 
the Spanish wracke foure excellent good Sacres, and 
mounted them at the Forts. 

Then began the generall Assize [June 1622], where not f s d ^ ge 
fewerthen fifty ciuill, or rathervnciuill actionswere handled, 
and twenty criminal! prisoners brought to the bar ; such a 
multitude of such vild people were sent to this Plantation, 
that he [Butler] thought himselfe happy his time was so 
neere expired : three of the foulest acts were these : the first 
for the rape of a married woman, which was acquitted by a 
senselesse Iury ; the second for buggering a Sow, and the 
third for Sodomy with a boy, for which they were hanged. 

During the time of the imprisonment of this Buggerer of 
the Sow, a Dung-hill Cocke belonging to the same man 
did continually haunt a Pigge of his also, and to the 
wonder of all them that saw it, who were many, did so 
frequently tread the Pigge as if it had beene one of his 
Hens, that the Pigge languished and died within a while 
after; and then the Cocke resorted to the very same Sow 
(that this fellow was accused for) in the very same 
manner: and as an addition to all this, about the same 
time two Chickens were hatched, the one whereof had two 
heads; the other crowed very loud and lustily within 
twelue houres after it was out of the shell. 

A desperate fellow being to bee arraigned for stealing a 
Turky, rather then he would endure his triall, secretly 
conueighed himselfe to Sea in a little Boat, and neuer since 
was euer heard of; nor is he euer like to be, without an 
exceeding wonder, little lesse then a miracle. 

In Iune [1622] they made another triall about the Spanish 

684 The Goiiernment of C apt. Nathaniel Butler. [ Ed - by / ul ^ ™% 

[1622] wracke, and recouered another Sacre and a Murderer: also 
A u oret u alls he caused to be hewed out of the maine Rocke a paire of 

about the . . ~ . ..... _ , * 

wracks. large staires ior the conuenient landing of goods and pas- 
sengers, a worke much to the beauty and benefit of the 
towne. With twenty chosen men, and two excellent 
Divers, the Gouernour went himselfe to the wracke 
Warwick, but they could recouer but one Murderer [a 
small cannon] : from thence he went to the Sea-aduenUire, 
the wracke of Sir George Summers, the hull though two 
or three fathomes in the water, they found vnperished and 
with much a doe weighed a Sacre, her sheat Anchor, 
diuers barres of Iron and pigs of Lead, which stood the 
Plantation in very great stead. 

Towards the end of Iuly [1622] he went to seeke for a 
wracke they reported lay vnder water with her hatches 
spiked vp, but they could not finde her, but from the Spanish 
wracke [which] lay there by, they weighed three faire Sacres 
more, and so returned through the Tribes to Saint Georges : 
some were also imployed to seeke out beds of Oisters for 
Pearle, some they found, some seed Pearle they got, but 
out of one little shell aboue all the rest they got about 120. 
small Pearle, but somewhat defectiue in their colour. [199] 

punters ^e t * me °^ Captain Butlers gouernment drawing neere 

compbints. an end, the Colony presented vnto him diuers grieuances, 
to intreat him to remember to the Lords and Company in 
England at his returne : also they appointed two to be 
ioyned with him, with letters of credence to solicit in their 
behalfe those grieuances following: 

First, they were defrauded of the food of their 
soules : for being not fewer then one thousand and 
flue hundred people, dispersed in length twenty miles, 
they had at that present but one Minister, nor neuer 
had but two ; and they [had been] so shortned of their 
promises, that but onely for meere pity they would 
haue forsaken them. 

Secondly, neglected in the safety of their Hues by 
wants of all sorts of munition. 

Thirdly, they had beene censured contrary to his 
Maiesties Lawes, and not allowed them the benefit of 
their booke as they are in England, but by Captaine Butler. 

E<1 ^jiiyiS.'] Lib. 5. Their accidents and proceedings. 685 

Fourthly, they were frustrated of many of their [1622] 
couenants, and most extremely pinched and vndone 
by the extortion of the Magazine ; for although their 
Tobacco was stinted but at two shillings sixpence 
the pound, yet they pitched their commodities at what 
rate they pleased. 

Fifthly, their fatherlesse children are left in little 
better condition then slaues ; for if their Parents die in 
debt, their children are made as bondmen till the debt 
be discharged. 

These things being perfected, there grew a great question 
of one Heriot for plotting of factions and abusing the 
Gouernour, for which he was condemned to lose his eares, 
yet he was vsed so fauourably he lost but the part of one 
in all. 

By this time it being growne past the wonted season ^^"JJJ 
of the comming in of ships from England, after a generall Butur. 
longing and expectation, especially of the Gouernour, 
whose Commission being neere vpon expiration, gaue him 
cause to wish for a meane of deliuerance from so trouble- 
some and thanklesse an imploiment as he had hitherto 
found it ; a saile is discouered, and long it was not before 
shee arriued in the Kings Castle-Harbour. 

This Barke was set out by two or three priuate men of 
the Company, and hauing landed her supplies, was to goe 
for Virginia', by her the Gouernour receiued certaine 
aduertisements of the carriage and behauiour of the 
Spaniards, which he had relieued as you haue heard [p. 680] 
the yeere before : that quite contrary both to his merit, 
their vow, and his owne expectation, they made clamours 
against him; the which being seconded by the Spanish Am- 
bassadour, caused the State to fall in examination about it. 

Whereupon hauing fully cleared their ingratefulnesse 
and impudency, and being assured of the choice of a suc- 
cessor that was to be expected within hue or six weekes ; 
hee was desirous to take the opportunity of this Barke, 
and to visit the Colony in Virginia in his returne for 
England [p. 603] : leauing the gouernment to Captaine 
Felgat, Captaine Stokes, Master Lewis Hewes, Master 
Nedom and Master Ginner. 

686 The Gouernment of Capt. Nathaniel Butler. [ Ed ' fcy / U , s ^: 

[1622] But now his time being fully expired, and the fortifi- 

cations finished, viz. 

The Kings Castle wherein were mounted vpon suf- 
ficient Platformes fixteene peece of Ordnances: 
In Charles Fort two ; 

In Southampton Fort fiue, betwixt which and the 
Castle passeth the Chanell into the Harbour, secured 
by three and twenty peeces of good artillery to play 
vpon it. 

In Cowpers He is Pembrocks Fort, where is two 

The Chanell of Saint George is guarded by Smiths 

Fort, and Pagits Fort, in which is eleuen peece of 

Ordnance. Saint George towne is halfe a league 

within the Harbour, commanded by Warwicks Fort, 

where are three great Peeces : and on the Wharfe 

before the Gouernours house eight more, besides the 

warning Peece by the mount, and three in Saint 

Katharines ; 

So that in all there are ten Fortresses and two and 

fifty peeces of Ordnance sufficient and seruiceable : their 

formes and situations you may see more plainlier described 

in the Map ; and to defend those, he left one thousand 

fiue hundred persons with neere a hundred boats, and 

the He well replenished with store of such fruits, pro- 

uisions and Poultry, as is formerly related : yet for so 

departing and other occasions, much difference hath 

beene betwixt him and some of the Company, as any of 

his Predecessors ; which I rather wish were reconciled, 

then to be a reporter of such vnprofitable dissentions. 


Till trechery and faction , and auarice be gone, 
Till enuy and ambition, and backbiting be none, 
Till periury and idlenesse, and iniury be out, 
And truly till that villany the worst of all that rout; 
Vnlesse those vises banisht be, what euer Forts you haue, 
A hundred walls together put will not haue power to saue. 

Eaby jiy ?£!;;] The gouernment of Master lohn Barnard. 

6& 7 

Master lohn Barnard sent to be Gouernour. 


O supply this place was sent by the noble [1622-3] 
aduenturers lohn Bernard, a Gentleman The Lord 
both of good meanes and quality, who Treasurer, 
arriued within eight daies after Butlers 3Jg£J» 
departure [1622] with two ships, and £* r ™ r 
about one hundred and forty passengers eputy ' 
with armes and all sorts of munition 
and other prouisions sufficient. 
During the time of his life which was but six weekes 
in reforming all things he found defectiue, he shewed 
himselfe so iudiciall and industrious as gaue great satis- 
faction ; and did generally promise vice was in great 
danger to be suppressed, and vertue and the Plantation 
much aduanced : but so it hapned that both he and his 
wife died in such short time they were both buried in one 
day and one graue ; and Master lohn Harrison chosen 
Gouernour till further order came from England. 

What hapned in the gouernment of Master 

lohn Harrison. 

j<g|^ggpHey are still much troubled with a great 1623. 
5^=§Y& short worme that deuours their Plants f^f^ ard 
in the night, but all the day they lie hid Treasurer 
in the ground ; and though early in the ciSSi 
morning they kill so many, they would £jjj^ # 
thinke there were no more, yet the 
next morning you shall finde as many. 
The Caterpillers to their fruits are 
also as pernicious, and the land Crabs in some places 
are as thicke in their Borowes as Conies in a Warren, and 
doe much hurt. 

Besides all this, there hapned this yeere [1623] a verv 
heauy disaster, for a ship wherein there had beene much 
swearing and blaspheming vsed all the voyage, and landed 
what she had to leaue in those lies, iouially froliking in 
their Cups and Tobacco, by accident fired the Powder, that 
at the very instant blew vp the great Cabin, and some one 
way and some another : it is a wonder to thinke how they 
could bee so blowne out of the gun-roome into the Sea, 

688 \_Whathapned in the gouernment of ' M. Harrison. "^jiJSS 

[1623-4] where some were taken vp liuing, so pitifully burned [that] 
their liues were worse then so many deaths, some died, some 
liued : but eighteene were lost at this fatall blast, the ship 
also immediatly sunke with threescore barrels of meale sent 
for Virginia, and all the other prouision in her was thus lost, 
Note. Now to consider how the Spaniards, French, and Dutch 

haue beene lost and preserued in those inuincible lies, yet 
neuer regarded them but as monuments of miseries, though 
at this present they all desire them ; How Sir Thomas 
Gates, and Sir George Summers being ready to sinke in the 
sea were saued, what an incredible abundance of victuall 
they found, how it was first planted by the English, the 
strange increase of Rats, and their sudden departure, 
the hue men came from England in a boat, the escape of 
Hilliard, and the rest of those accidents there hapned : 
a man would thinke it a tabernacle of miracles, and the 
worlds wonder, that from such a Paradise of admiration 
who would thinke should spring such wonders of afflictions 
as are onely fit to be sacrificed vpon the highest altars 
of sorrow, thus to be set vpon the highest Pinacles of con- 
tent, and presently throwne downe to the lowest degree of 
extremity, as you see haue beene the yeerely succeedings 
of those Plantations ; the which to ouercome, as it is an 
incomparable honour, so it can be no dishonour if a man doe 
miscarry by vnfortunate accidents in such honourable ac- 
tions, the which renowne and vertue to attaine hath [201] 
caused so many attempts by diuers Nations besides ours, 
euen to passe through the very amazement of aduentures. 
Vponthe relation of thisnewesthe Company hath sent one 
Captaine Woodhouse, a Gentleman of good repute and great 
experience in the warres,and no lesse prouident then indus- 
trious and valiant : then returned report, all goeth well there. 
It is too true, in the absence of the noble Treasurer, Sir 
Edward Sackvill, now Earle of Dorset ; there haue beene 
1624 suc ^ com pl amts betwixt the Planters and the Company, 
sir Thomas that, by command, the Lords appointed Sir Thomas Smith 
fSamra againe Treasurer, that since then according to their order 
and Master of Court he is also elected: where now we must leaue 
Depulyf* them all to their good fortune and successe, till we heare 
further of their fortunate proceedings. 

To his friend Captaine Smithy 
vpon bis description of New -England. 

Ir ; your Relations I haue read : which shew, 
The/s reason I should honour them and you : 
And if their meaning I haue vnderstood, 
I dare to censure thus: Your Proiect's good ; 
And may {if follow' d) doubtlesse quit the paine, 
With honour, pleasure and a trebble gaine : 
Beside the benefit that shall arise 
To make more happy our Posterities. 

For would we daigne to spare, though 'twere no more 
Then what ore-fils, and surfets vs in store, 
To order Nature's fruitfulnesse a while 
In that rude Garden, you New-England stile ; 
With present good, ther's hope in after-daies 
Thence to repaire what Time and Pride decaies 
In this rich Kingdome. And the spacious West 
Being still more with English bloud possest, 
The proud Iberians shall not rule those Seas, 
To checke our ships from sailing where they please ; 
Nor future times make any forraine power 
Become so great to force a bound to Our. 

0>.i8 3 


690 [Reprint of Complimentary Verses. il gSSSu 


[1^16] Much good my minde foretels would follow hence 

With little labour, and with lesse expence. 
Thriue therefore thy Designe, who ere enuy : 
England may ioy in England's Colony, 
Virginia seeke her Virgin sisters good, 
Be blessed in such happy neighbourhood : 
Or, whatsoere Fate pleaseth to permit, 
Be thou still honoured for first mouing it, 

George Wither, e societate LincoL 


i/.tsa.] To that worthy and generous 

Gentleman, my very good friend, 
Captaine Smith. 

Ay "Fate thy Protect, prosper that thy name 
May be eternized with liuing fame : 
Though foule Detraction Honour would peruert, 
And Enuie euer waits vpon desert : [202] 
In spight of Pelias, when his hate lies cold, 
Returne as Iason with a fleece of gold. 
Then after-ages shall record thy praise, 
That a New-England to this He didst raise: 
And when thou di'st (as all that Hue must die) 
Thy fame Hue here ; thou, with Eternity. 

R. Gunncll. 

E.Robin*oa. Reprint of Complimentary Verses.] 691 

To his wort hie Captaine, fr^i 

the Author. 

Ft thou hast led, when I brought vp the Rere [1616] 

In bloudy wars, where thousands haue beene slaine. 

Then giue me leaue in this some part to beare ; 
And as thy seruant, here to reade my name. 
Tis true, long time thou hast my Captaine beene 
In the fierce warres o/Transiluania: 

Long ere that thou America hadst seene, 
Or led wast captiu'd in Virginia ; 

Thou that to passe the worlds foure parts dost deeme 
No more, then fwere to goe to bed, or drinke, 

And all thou yet hast done, thou dost esteeme 
As nothing. This doth cause me thinke 

That thou Fane seene so oft approu'd in dangers, 
{And thrice captiu'd, thy valour still hath freed) 
Art yet preserued, to conuert those strangers : 
By God thy guide I trust it is decreed. 

For me : I not commend but much admire 
Thy England yet vnknowne to passers by-hcr 
For it will praise it selfe in spight of me ; 
Thou it, it thou, to all posterity. 

Your true friend and souldier, Ed. Robinson. 



[Reprint of Complimentary Verses. 

T. Carlton. 

[A »3»1 


To my honest Captaine^ 
the Author. 

Alignant Times I What can be said or done, 
But shall be censurd and traducH by some ! 

This worthy W or ke, which thou hast bought so deare, 
Ne thou, nor it, Detractors need to feare. 
Thy words by deeds so long thou hast approu'd, 
Of thousands know thee not thou art belou'd. 

And this great Plot will make thee ten times more 

Knowne and belou'd, than ere thou wert before. 
I neuer knew a Warrier yet, but thee, 
From wine, Tobacco, debts, dice, oaths, so free. 

I call thee Warrier : and I make the bolder ; 

For, many a Captaine now, was neuer Souldier. 
Some such may swell at this : but (to their praise) 
When they haue done like thee, my Muse shall raise 

Their due deserts to Worthies yet to come, 

To Hue like thine (admir'd) till day of Doome. 

Your true friend, sometimes your souldier, 
Thos. Carlton. [203] 

The Generall Historie of Virginia, New England, 5r* the Summer Isles. 

The Sixth Book. 


The General History of New England. 

1606-1624 ; 

with a Note on Newfoundland. 


This Sixth Book consists: of a reprint, with variations, of our 
Author's own : 

A Description of New England, 1616, pp. 175-232. 
New Englands Trials, 1620, pp. 233-248. 

together with extracts from : 

Dr. J. DEE. British Monarchy, 1577, pp. 245, 773. 

[G. Mourt]. Relation or Journal, 6r*c, 1622, zXpp. 749- 760. 
An Abstract of Letters from New Plymouth, 16 July 1622, pp. 760-762. 

E. W[inslow]. Good News from New England, 1624, pp. 762-9. 

R. Whitbourne. A loving Invitation . . . Newfoundland, 1622, 
pp. 777-7Zi> 

The Sixth Booke. 





Oncerning this History you are to vnder- 

stand the Letters- Patents granted by his 

Maiesty in 1606. for the limitation of 

Virginia, did extend from 34. to 44. 

which was diuided into two parts ; 

namely, the first Colony and the second : 

the first was to the honourable City of 

London, and such as would aduenture 

with them to discouer and take their choice where they 

would, betwixt the degrees of 34. and 41. The second was 

appropriated to the Cities of Bristol, Exeter and Plimoth, &c. 

and the West parts of England, and all those that would 

aduenture and ioine with them, and they might make their 

choise any where betwixt the degrees of 38. and 44. ; prouided 

Here should bee at least 100. miles distance betwixt 

^se 2 Colonies : each of which had lawes, priuileges and 

^ritie, for the gouernment and aduancing their seuerall 

: ons alike. 


696 \_The Northern Virginia company^ Lib. 6. [ EHarl &*; 

1.1607-8] Now this part of America hath formerly beene called 
Norumbega, Virginia, Nuskoncus, Penaquida, Cannada, and 
such other names as those that ranged the Coast pleased. 
But because it was so mountainous, rocky and full of 
lies, few haue aduentured much to trouble it, but as is 
formerly related ; notwithstanding, that honourable Patron 
%^T* of vertue, Sir John Popham, Lord chiefe Iustice of Eng- 
Treasurer. land, in the yeere 1606. procured meanes and men to 
possesse it, and sent Captaine George Popham for Presi- 
dent, Captaine Rawley Gilbert for Admirall, Captaine 
Edward Harlow master of the Ordnance, Captaine Robert 
Dauis Sargeant-Maior, Captaine Elis Best Marshall, Master 
Seaman Secretary, Captaine lames Dauis to be Captaine of 
the Fort, Master Gome Carew chiefe Searcher : all those 
were of the Councell, who with some hundred more were 
to stay in the Country : they set saile from Plimoth the 
last of May [1607], and fell with Monahigan the eleuenth 
of August. 

At Sagadahock 9. or 10. leagues southward, they planted 
themselues at the mouth of a faire nauigable Riuer, but the 
coast all thereabouts [being] most extreme stony and rocky : 
that extreme frozen Winter [1607-8] was so cold they 
could not range nor search the Country, and their proui- 
sion so small, they were glad to send all but 45. of their 
company backe againe. Their noble President Captaine 
Popham died, and not long after arriued two ships well 
prouided of all necessaries to supply them ; and some 
small time after another, by whom vnderstanding of the 
[204] death of the Lorde chiefe Iustice, and also of Sir 
Iohn Gilbert: whose lands there the President Rawley Gilbert 
was to possesse according to the aduenturers directions, 
finding nothing but extreme extremities, they all returned 
for England in the yeere 1608. and thus this Plantation was 
begunne and ended in one yeere, and the Country esteemed 
as a cold, barren, mountainous, rocky Desart. 

Notwithstanding, the right Honourable Henry Earle of 
South-hampton and those of the He of Wight, imploied 
Captaine Edward Harlow to discouer an He supposed about 
Cape Cod, but they found their plots had much abused them, 
for falling with Monahigan, they found onely Cape Cod no 

Edby /a'iy^4:] LlB - 6 - [Captaine Harlow'* Relation.] 697 

He but the maine, there they detained three Saluages [1608] 
aboord them, called Pechmo, Monopet and Pekenimne, but 
Pechmo leapt ouer board, and got away; and not long 
after with his consorts cut their Boat from their sterne, 
got her on shore, and so filled her with sand, and guarded 
her with Bowes and Arrowes the English lost her. Not 
farre from thence they had three men sorely wounded 
with Arrowes. 

Anchoring at the He of Nohono, the Saluages in their 
Canowes assaulted the Ship till the English Guns made 
them retire ; yet here they tooke Sakaweston that, after 
he had liued many yeeres in England, went a Souldier to 
the warres of Bohemia. 

At Capawe they tooke Coneconam and Epenow [pp. 264, 
701], but the people at Agawom vsed them kindly. So with 
fiue Saluages they returned for England. 

Yet Sir Francis Popham sent diuers times one Captaine 
Williams to Monahigan onely to trade and make core fish, 
but for any Plantations there was no more speeches. 

For all this, as I liked Virginia well, though not their 
proceedings ; so I desired also to see this country, and 
spend some time in trying what I could finde, for all those 
ill rumors and disasters. 

From the relations of Captaine Edward Harlow 
and diuers others. 

[My first visit to New England.] 

N the month of Aprill 1614. at the charge of V-«8 7 .] 
Captaine Marmaduke Roydon, Captaine George J^ a g r e st t0 
Langam, Master Iohn Bidey and Master William %*» 
& Skelton, with two ships from London, I chanced 
to arriue at Monahigan an He of America, 434. P43 , 40'], ^ 
of Northerly latitude : our plot was there to take Whales, 256.936.] 
for which we had one Samuel Cramton, and diuers others 
expert in that faculty, and also to make trialls of a Mine 
of gold and copper ; if those failed, Fish and Furs were 
then our refuge to make our selues sauers howsoeuer. 



698 Captaine Smith his first voiage to Norumbega. [ 3 . l6J J; 

une 1616. 

[1614] We found this Whale-fishing a costly conclusion ; we saw 

many and spent much time in chasing them, but could 

not kill any. They being a kinde of Iubartes, and not 

the Whale that yeelds Fins and Oile as we expected ; 

for our gold it was rather the Masters deuice to get a 

voyage that proiected it, then any knowledge he had at all 

of any such matter. Fish and Furs were now our guard, 

and by our late arriuall and long lingring about the Whale, 

the prime of both those seasons were past ere wee perceiued 

it, wee thinking that their seasons serued at all times : but 

we found it otherwise, for by the middest of lime the fishing 

failed, yet in Iuly and August some were taken, but not 

sufficient to defray so great a charge as our stay required. 

Of dry fish we made about forty thousand, of Cor-fish 

about seuen thousand. 

t/>. 188.] Whilest the Sailers fished, my selfe with eight others 

moditfeT °^ them might best bee spared, ranging the Coast in a 

1 got small Boat, we got for trifles neere eleuen thousand 

tJT 5 u £ ted Beuer skinnes, one hundred Martins, as many Otters, and 

po« nd * the most of them within the distance of twenty leagues. 

We ranged the Coast both East and West much further, 

but Eastward our commodities were not esteemed, they 

were so neere the French who afforded them better, 

with whom the Saluages had such commerce that only by 

trade they made exceeding great voyages (though they 

were without the limits of our precincts ) : during the 

time we tried those conclusions, not knowing the coast, 

nor Saluages habitations. 

With these Furres, the traine Oile and Cor-fish, I 
returned for England in the Barke, where within six 
moneths after our departure from the Downes, wee safely 
arriued backe. The best of this fish was sold for 5. li. the 
hundred; the rest, by ill vsage, betwixt three pounds and 50. 

The other ship stayed to fit her selfe for Spaine with the dry 
fish which was sold at Maligo, at forty Rialls the Quintall, 
each hundred [weight] weighing two quintals and a halfe. 
Thetrechery But one Thomas Hunt [205] the Master of this ship (when 
°H™T tT I was gone) thinking to preuent that intent I had to 
make there a Plantation, thereby to keepe this abounding 
Countrey still in obscuritie, that onely he and some few 

T. Smith."] 
July 1624.J 

and how it was first called New England. 699 

Merchants more might enioy wholly the benefit of the [1614] 
Trade, and profit of this Countrey, betraied foure and 
twenty of those poore Saluages aboord his ship : and most [A 754-1 
dishonestly, and inhumanely, for their kinde vsage of me 
and all our men, caried them with him to Maligo, and 
there for a little priuate gaine sold those silly Saluages 
for Rials of eight ; but this vilde act kept him euer after 
from any more emploiment in those parts. 

Now because at this time I had taken a draught of the 
Coast, and called it New England; yet so long he [i.e., 
Hunt] and his Consorts drowned that name with the Eccho 
of Cannaday ; and some other ships from other parts also, 
that vpon this good returne the next yere went thither [June 
1615] : that at last I presented this Discourse with the Map, 
to our most gracious Prince Charles, humbly intreating his 
Highnesse hee would please to change their barbarous 
names for such English, as posteritie might say Prince 
Charles was their God-father ; which for your better vnder- 
standing both of this Discourse and the Map, peruse this 
Schedule, which will plainly shew you the correspondency of 
the old names to the new, as his Highnesse named them. 

The old names. 

Cape Cod. 

The Harbor at Cape Cod. 




Massachusets Mount. 

Massachusits Riuer. 


A great Bay by Cape Anne. 

Cape Tragabigsanda. 



Smiths lies. 



Sassanows Mount. 


The new names. 

Cape lames. 

Milforth hauen. 




Cheui[o]t hills. 

Charles Riuer. 



Cape Anne. 



Smiths lies. 



Snowdon hill. 


How Prince 
called the 
most re- 
in New- 

[p. 232.) 

7<do The Description of New England Lib. 6. [ 3 _ t6J J 

une 1616. 

[1614] Bahama. Dartmouth. 

A good Harbor within that Bay. Sandwich. 

Ancociscos Mount. Shuters hill. 

Ancocisco. The Bas[s]e. 

A nmoughcawgen. Cambridge. 

Kenebecka. Edenborow. 

Sagadahock. Letii. 

Pemmayquid. S. Iohns tovvne. 

Segocket. Norwich. 

Mecadacut. Dunbarton. 

Pennobscot. Aberden. 

Nusket. Low Mounds [i.e., Lomonds], 

Those being omitted, I named my selfe. 

Monahigan. Bar ties lies. 

Matinack. Willowbies lies. 

Metinacus. Haughton lies. 

The rest of the names in the Map, are places that had no 
names that we did know. 

Aspersions But to continue the History succeedingly as neere with 

1$tfaJi. tw the day and yeere as may bee. 

[y.«i*] Returning in the Barke as is said ; it was my ill chance 

to put in at Plimoth, where imparting those my purposes 
to diuers I thought my friends, whom as I supposed were 
interested in the dead Patent of this vnregarded Countrey, 
I was so encouraged and assured to haue the managing [of J 
their authoritie in those parts during my life, and such large 
promises, that I ingaged my selfe to vndertake it for them. 
Arriuing at London^ though some malicious persons 
suggested there was no such matter to be had in that so 
bad abandoned Countrey, for if there had, other could haue 
found it so well as I ; therefore it was to be suspected I 
had robbed the French men in New France or Cannada ; 
and the Merchants set me forth seemed not to regard it : 
yet I found so many promised me such assistance, that I 
entertained [contracted with] Michael Cooper the Master of the 
Barke, that returned with me and others of the Company. 

How he dealt with others, or others with him, I know not ; 
but my publike proceeding gaue such encouragement, that 
it became so well apprehended by some few of the Virginia 

/uiyTJS:] I- IB - 6 - h Captaine Iohn Smith. 701 

Company, as those proiects [206] for fishing onely was so [1614] 
well liked, they furnished Couper with foure good ships to 
Sea, before they at Plimoth had made any prouision at all 
for me ; but onely a small Barke set out by them of the 
He of Wight. 

Some of Plimoth, and diuers Gentlemen of the West ^fj^ 
Countrey, a little before I returned from New England, in voiage to 
search for a Mine of Gold about an He called Capawuck, Capawu ' 
South -wards from the Shoules of Cape lames, as they 
were informed by a Saluage called Epenew [p. 697] : that 
hauing deluded them as it seems thus to get home, seeing 
they kept him as a prisoner in his owne Countrey, and 
before his friends : being a man of so great a stature, he 
was shewed vp and downe London for money as a wonder ; 
and it seemes of no lesse courage and authoritie, then of 
wit, strength, and proportion. For so well he had contriued 
his businesse, as many reported he intended to haue . 
surprised the ship ; but seeing it could not be effected to 
his liking, before them all he leaped ouer-boord. Many 
shot they made at him, thinking they had slaine him : but 
so resolute they were to recouer his body, the master of 
the ship was wounded, and many of his company. And 
thus they lost him ; and not knowing more what to do, 
returned againe to England with nothing : which so had 
discouraged all your West Countrey men, they neither 
regarded much their promises, and as little either me or 
the Countrey, till they saw the London ships gone and me 
in Plimoth according to my promise [in Jan. 1615, p. 733], 
as hereafter shall be related. 

I must confesse I was beholden to the setters forth of JJj doiiere 
the foure ships that went with Couper, in that they offered send foure 
me that imploiment if I would accept it ; and I finde fo New' ps 
still my refusall incurred some of their displeasures, whose ^ n i lantl - 
loue and fauour I exceedingly desired ; and though they 
doe censure me opposite to their proceedings, they shall 
yet still in all my words and deeds finde, it is their error, 
not my fault that occasions their dislike : for hauing 
ingaged my selfe in this businesse to the West Countrey, I 
had beene very dishonest to haue broke my promise, nor 

7o2 The Description of New England Lib. 6. [ 3 _ l6 j{, 

une 1616. 

1614] will I spend more time in discouery or fishing, till I may 
goe with a Company for a Plantation ; for I know my 
grounds, yet euery one to whom I tell them, or that reads 
this Booke, cannot put it in practise, though it may helpe 
any that hath seene or not seene to know much of those 
parts. And though they endeuour to worke me out of 
my owne designes, I will not much enuy their fortunes : 
but I would be sorry their intruding ignorance should by 
their defailments bring those certainties to doubtfulnesse. 
So that the businesse prosper I haue my desire, be it by 
whomsoeuer that are true subiects to our King and 
Countrey : the good of my Countrey is that I seeke, and 
there is more then enough for all, if they could be 

r/. 188.3 New England is that part of America in the Ocean Sea, 

SnofNew opposite to N oua Albion [California] in the South Sea, 
England, discouered by the most memorable Sir Francis Drake in his 
Voyage about the world, in regard whereof this is stiled 
New England, being in the same latitude. New France of 
it is Northwards, South-wards is Virginia, and all the 
adioyning continent with new Granado, new Spaine, new 
Andolosia, and the West-Indies. 

Ow because I haue beene so oft asked such 
strange questions of the goodnesse and great- 
nesse of those spatious Tracts of Land, how 
they can be thus long vnknowne, or not pos- 
sessed by the Spaniards, and many such like demands ; I 
t/. 189] intreat your pardons if I chance to bee too plaine or tedious 

in relating my knowledge for plaine mens satisfaction. 
Notes^of Florida is the next adioyning to the Indies, which 

vnprosperously was attempted to be planted by the 
French, a Countrey farre bigger then England, Scotland f 
France and Ireland, yet little knowne to any Christian, 
but by the wonderfull endeuours of Ferdinando de Soto, a 
valiant Spaniard, whose writings in this age is the best 
guide knowne to search those parts. 


juiy 8 ?^*.] Lib. 6. by Captaine Iohn Smith. 703 

Virginia is no He as many doe imagine, but part of the [1614] 
Continent adioyning to Florida, whose bounds may be Notes 0/ 
stretched to the magnitude thereof, without offence to any Vireiiua% 
Christian Inhabitant, for from the degrees of thirtie to 
forty eight, his Maiesty hath now enlarged his Letters 
Patents. The Coast extending South-west [207] and 
North-east about sixteene or seuenteene hundred miles, 
but to follow it aboord the shore may well be three 
thousand miles at the least : of which twentie miles is 
the most giues entrance into the Bay of Chisapeacke, 
where is the London Plantation, within which is a 
Countrey, as you may perceiue by the Map, of that little 
I discouered, may well suffice three hundred thousand 
people to inhabit : but of it, and the discoueries of Sir Ralph 
Laine and Master Heriot, Captaine Gosnold, and Captaine 
Waymouth, they haue writ so largely, that posteritie may 
be bettered by the fruits of their labours. 

But for diuers others that haue ranged those parts since, 
especially this Countrey now called New England, within 
a kenning sometimes of the shore ; some touching in one 
place, some in another ; I must intreat them pardon me 
for omitting them, or if I offend in saying, that their true 
descriptions were concealed, or neuer were well obserued, 
or died with the Authors, so that the Coast is yet still but 
euen as a Coast vnknowne and vndiscouered. 

I haue had six or seuen seuerall plots of those Northerne ia *9°o 
parts, so vnlike each to other, or resemblance of the Coun- 
try, as they did me no more good then so much waste 
paper, though they cost me more, it may bee it was not 
my chance to see the best ; but lest others maybe deceiued 
as I was, or through dangerous ignorance hazard them- 
selues as I did, I haue drawne a Map from point to point, 
He to He, and Harbour to Harbour, with the Soundings, 
Sands, Rocks, and Land-markes, as I passed close aboord 
the shore in a little Boat ; although there bee many things 
to bee obserued, which the haste of other affaires did cause 
me to omit : for being sent more to get present Com- 
modities, then knowledge of any discoueries for any future 
good, I had not power to search as I would ; yet it will 
serue to direct any [that] shall goe that waies to safe 
Harbours and the Saluages habitations : what merchandize 

704 The Description of New England Lib. 6. [ 

J. Smith 
3-16 June 1616 


tions for pre- 

[/• 191.) 

and Commodities for their labours they may finde, this 
following discourse shall plainly demonstrate. 

Thus you may see of these three thousand miles, more 
then halfe is yet vnknovvne to any purpose, no not so 
much as the borders of the Sea are yet certainly dis- 
couered : as for the goodnesse and true substance of the 
Land, we are for most part yet altogether ignorant of them, 
vnlesse it be those parts about the Bay of Chisapeack and 
Sagadahock, but onely here and there where we haue 
touched or seene a little, the edges of those large 
Dominions which doe stretch themselues into the maine, 
God doth know how many thousand miles, whereof we 
can yet no more iudge, then a stranger that saileth betwixt 
England and France, can describe the harbours and dangers 
by landing here or there in some Riueror Bay, tell thereby 
the goodnesse and substance of Spaine, Italy, Germany, 
Bohemia, Hungaria, and the rest ; nay, there are many haue 
liued fortie yeeres in London, and yet haue scarce beene ten 
miles out of the Citie : so are there many that haue beene 
in Virginia many yeeres, and in New England many times, 
that doe know little more then the place they doe inhabit, 
or the Port where they fished, and when they come home, 
they will vndertake they know all Virginia and New Eng- 
land, as if they were but two Parishes or little Hands. By 
this you may perceiue how much they erre, that thinke euery 
one that hath beene in Virginia or New England, vnder- 
standeth or knoweth what either of them are ; Or that the 
Spaniards know one halfe quarter of those large Territories 
they possesse, no not so much as the true circumference 
of Terra incognita, whose large Dominions may equalize 
the goodnesse and greatnesse of America for any thing yet 
knowne. It is strange with what small power he doth 
range in the East-Indies, and few will vnderstand the 
truth of his strength in America: where hauing so much 
to keepe with such a pampered force, they need not 
greatly feare his fury in Sotnmer lies, Virginia, or New 
England, beyond whose bounds America doth stretch 
many thousand miles. Into the frozen parts whereof, 
one Master Hutson [Hudson] an English Mariner, did 
make the greatest discouerie of any Christian I know, 
where hee vnfortunately was left by his cowardly Com- 

/uiyTe^".] Lib. 6. by Captaine Iohn Smith. 705 

pany, for his exceeeding deserts, to end and die a most [1614] 
miserable death. [208] 

For Affrica, had not the industrious Portugals ranged 
her vnknowne parts, who would haue sought for wealth 
amongst those fried Regions of blacke brutish Negars 
where notwithstanding all their wealth and admirable 
aduentures and endeuours more then one hundred and 
fortie yeeres [1476-1616] they know not one third part of 
those blacke habitations. 

But it is not a worke for euery one to manage such 
an affaire, as make a discouery and plant a Colony, 
it requires all the best parts of art, iudgement, courage, 
honesty, constancy, diligence, and industry, to doe but 
neere well; some are more proper for one thing then 
another, and therein best to be imploied : and nothing 
breeds more confusion then misplacing and misimploying 
men in their vndertakings. Columbus, Courtes, Pitzara, [A965.] 
Zoto, Magilanus, and the rest serued more then a Prenti- 
ship, to learne how to begin their most memorable 
attempts in the West-Indies, which to the wonder of all 
ages successefully they effected, when many hundreds of 
others farre aboue them in the worlds opinion, being 
instructed but by relation, came to shame and confusion 
in actions of small moment, who doubtlesse in other 
matters were both wise, discreet, generous and couragious. 
I say not this to detract any thing from their incomparable 
merits, but to answer those questionlesse questions, that 
keepe vs backe from imitating the worthinesse of their braue 
spirits, that aduanced themselues from poore Souldiers to 
great Captaines, their posterity to great Lords, their King to 
be one of the greatest Potentates on earth, and the fruits 
of their labours his greatest power, glory, and renowne. 



237, 938. 


Countries or 
[/>. 938.1 

The Description of New England- 

Hat part we call New England, is betwixt 
the degrees of fortie one and fortie hue, 
the very meane betwixt the North pole 
and the line ; but that part this Dis- 
course speaketh of, stretcheth but from 
Penobscot to Cape Cod, some seuentie 
nue leagues by a right line distant each 
from other ; within which bounds I haue 
seene at least fortie seuerall habitations vpon the Sea Coast, 
and sounded about nue and twentie excellent good 
Harbours, in many whereof there is anchorage for nue 
hundred saile of ships of any burden ; in some of them 
for one thousand, and more then two hundred lies ouer- 
growne with good Timber of diuers sorts of wood, which 
doe make so many Harbours, as required a longer time 
then I had to be well obserued. 

The principall habitation Northward we were at, was 
Pennobscot. Southward along the Coast and vp the Riuers, 
we found Mecadacut, Segocket, Pemaquid, Nuscoucus, Saga- 
dahock, Aumoughcowgen, and Kenebeke; and to those 
Countries belong the people of Segotago, Paghhuntanuck, 
Pocopassum, Taughtanakagnet, Warbigganus, Nassaque, 
Masher osqueck, Wawrigweck, Moshoquen, Wakcogo, Pashara- 
nack, &c. To these are alied in confederacy, the Countries 
of Ancocisco, Accomynticus, Passataquack, Aggawom, and 
Naemkeck : All these for any thing I could perceiue, differ 
little in language, fashion, or gouernment : though most 
of them be Lords of themselues, yet they hold the Bashabes 
of Penobscot, the chiefe and greatest amongst them. 

The next I can remember by name, are Mattahunts, two 


juiy^S'.] Lib. 6. The Description of New England. 707 

pleasant lies of Groues, Gardens, and Corne fields a [1614] 
league in the Sea from the maine : Then Totant, Massa- 
chuset, Topent, Secassaw, Totheet, Nasnocomacack, Accomack, 
Chawum, Patuxet, Massasoyts, Pakanokick : then Cape Cod, 
by which is Pawmet and the He Nawset, of the language and 
aliance of them of Chawum ; the others are called Massachusets, 
and differ somewhat in language, custome, and condition. 

For their Trade and Merchandize, to each of their 
principall families or habitations, they haue diuers 
Townes arid people belonging, and by their relations and 
descriptions, more then twentie seuerall habitations and 
riuers that stretch themselues farre into the Countrey, 
euen to the Borders of diuers great Lakes, where they kill 
and take most of their Otters. 

From Pennobscot to Sagadahoc. This Coast [209] is V- 193-1 
mountainous, and lies of huge Rockes, but ouer-growne for 
most part, with most sorts of excellent good woods, for 
building Houses, Boats, Barks or Ships, with an incredible 
abundance of most sorts of Fish, much Fowle, and sundry 
sorts of good Fruits for mans vse. 

Betwixt Sagadahock, and Sowocatuck, there is but two 
or three Sandy Bayes, but betwixt that and Cape lames 
very many : especially the Coast of the Massachusets is so 
indifferently mixed with high Clay or Sandy clifts in one 
place, and the tracts of large long ledges of diuers sorts, 
and Quaries of stones in other places, so strangely diuided 
with tinctured veines of diuers colours : as Free-stone for 
building, Slate for tyling, smooth stone to make Furnasses 
and Forges for Glasse and Iron, and Iron Ore sufficient 
conueniently to melt in them ; but the most part so 
resembleth the Coast of Deuonshire, I thinke most of the 
clifts would make such Lime-stone : if they bee not of 
these qualities, they are so like they may deceiue a better 
iudgement then mine: all which are so neere adioyning 
to those other aduantages I obserued in these parts, that 
if the Ore proue as good Iron and Steele in those parts 
as I know it is within the bounds of the Countrey, I dare 
ingage my head (hauing but men skilfull to worke the 
Simples there growing) to haue all things belonging to 
the building and rigging of ships of any proportion, and 
good Merchandise for their fraught, within a square of 

708 The Description of New England. Lib. 6. [ 3 . l6 jIJTm. 


A proofe of 
an excellent 

[/>• 194-1 

ten or foureteene leagues, and it were no hard matter to 
proue it within a lesse limitation. 

And surely by reason of those sandy clifts, and clifts of 
rocks, both which we saw so planted with Gardens and 
Corne fields, and so well inhabited with a goodly, strong, 
and well proportioned people, besides the greatnesse of 
the Timber growing on them, the greatnesse of the Fish, 
and the moderate temper of the aire (for of fiue and forty 
not a man was sicke, but two that were many yeares 
diseased before they went, notwithstanding our bad lodging 
and accidentall diet) who can but approue this a most 
excellent place, both for health and fertilitie : and of all 
the foure parts of the world I haue yet seene not inhabited, 
could I haue but means to transport a Colony, I would 
rather liue here then any where ; and if it did not main- 
taine it selfe, were we but once indifferently well fitted, let 
vs starue. 

lions of the 

stapieCom. ^he maine staple from hence to bee extracted for the 

modifies Mr # i • i i i 

present. present, to produce the rest, is Fish, which howbeit may 
seeme a meane and a base Commoditie ; yet who will but 
truly take the paines and consider the sequell, I thinke 
will allow it well worth the labour. It is strange to see, 
what great aduentures the hopes of setting forth men of 
warre to rob the industrious innocent would procure, or 
such massie promises in grosse, though more are choaked 
then well fed with such hastie hopes. But who doth not 

^Hoiunders. know that the poore Hollanders chiefely by fishing at a 
great charge and labour in all weathers in the open Sea, 
are made a people so hardy and industrious, and by the 
venting this poore Commoditie to the Easterlings for as 
meane, which is Wood, Flax, Pitch, Tarre, Rozen, 
Cordage, and such like ; which they exchange againe to 
the French, Spaniards, Portugals, and English, &c. for what 
they want, are made so mighty, strong, and rich, as no 
state but Venice of twice their magnitude is so well 
furnished, with so many faire Cities, goodly Townes, 
strong Fortresses, and that abundance of shipping, and 
all sorts of Merchandize, as well of Gold, Siluer, Pearles, 
Diamonds, pretious Stones, Silkes, Veluets, and Cloth of 

/uiySS:] Lib. 6. The Description of New England. 709 

Gold ; as Fish, Pitch, Wood, or such grosse Commodities ? [1614] 
What voiages and discoueries, East and West, North and 
South, yea about the world, make they ? What an Army 
by Sea and Land haue they long maintained, in despight 
of one of the greatest Princes of the world, and neuer 
could the Spaniard with all his Mines of Gold and Siluer, 
pay his debts, his friends, and Army, halfe so truly as the 
Hollanders still haue done by this contemptible Trade of 
Fish. Diuers (I know) may alleage many other assist- 
ances ; but this is the chiefest Mine, and [210] the Sea 
the source of those siluer streames of all their vertue, 
which hath made them now the very miracle of industry, 
the onely paterne of perfection for these affaires : and the 
benefit of fishing is that Primum Mobile that turnes all 
their spheares to this height, of plentie, strength, honor, 
and exceeding great admiration. 

Herring, Cod, and Ling, is that triplicitie, that makes \p. i 9S .] 
their wealth and shippings multiplicitie such as it is : and Note. 
from which (few would thinke it) they should draw so 
many millions yeerely as they doe, as more in particular 
in the trials of New England [pp. 233-272] you may see ; 
and such an incredible number of ships, that breeds them 
so many Sailers, Mariners, Souldiers, and Merchants, neuer 
to be wrought out of that Trade, and fit for any other. I 
will not deny but others may gaine as well as they that will 
vse it, though not so certainly, nor so much in quantitie, 
for want of experience : and this Herring they take vpon 
the Coast of England and Scotland, their Cod and Ling 
vpon the Coast of Izeland, and in the North seas, if wee 
consider what gaines the Hamburgans, the Biskinners, and 
French make by fishing; nay, but how many thousands 
this fiftie or sixty yeeres [1564-1614 or 1624] haue beene 
maintained by New found land, where they take nothing 
but small Cod, whereof the greatest they make Cor-fish, 
and the rest is hard dried, which we call Poore-Iohn, would 
amaze a man with wonder. 

If then from all those parts such paines is taken for 
this poore gaines of Fish, especially by the Hollanders, 
that hath but little of their owne, for building of ships 
and setting them to sea ; but at the second, third, fourth, 
or fift hand, drawne from so many parts of the world 

Jio The Altitiide comparatiuely, Lib. 6. [ 3 _ l6J { 

unc 1616. 

[1614J ere they come together to be vsed in those voiages: If 
these (I say) can gaine, why should we more doubt then 
they; but doe much better, that may haue most of all 
those things at our doores for taking and making, and 

\p- 196.] here are no hard Landlords to racke vs with high rents, 
or extorting fines, nor tedious pleas in Law to consume 
vs with their many yeeres disputation for iustice; no 
multitudes to occasion such impediments to good orders 
as in popular States : so freely hath God and his Maiestie 
bestowed those blessings on them [that] will attempt to 
obtaine them, as here euery man may be master of his 

Note. owne labour and land, or the greatest part (if his Maiesties 

royall meaning be not abused) and if he haue nothing 
but his hands, he may set vp his Trade ; and by industry 
quickly grow rich, spending but halfe that time well, 
which in England we abuse in idlenesse, worse, or as ill. 

t F he a Au'"d / Here is ground as good as any lieth in the height of 
compara- forty one, forty two, forty three, &c. which is as temperate, 
tmely " and as fruitfull as any other parallel in the world. 

As for example, on this side the line, West of it in the 
South Sea, is Nona Albion, discouered as is said [p. 702] by 
Sir Francis Drake. East from it is the most temperate 
part of Portugall, the ancient Kingdomes of Galizia, Bisky, 
Nauarre, Aragon, Cattilonia, Castillia the old, and the 
most moderatest of Castillia the new, and Valentia ; which 
in spaitu. is the greatest part of Spaine: which if the Histories be 
true, in the Romans time abounded no lesse with gold and 
siluer Mines, then now the West-Indies ; the Romans then 
vsing the Spaniards to worke in those Mines, as now the 
Spaniards doe the Indians. 
in France. j n F ranC e the Prouinces of Gascony, Langadocke, A uignon, 
Prouince, Dolphine, Pyamont, and Turyne, are in the same 
parallel ; which are the best and richest parts of France. 

In Italy the Prouinces of Genua, Lumbar dy, and Verona, 
with a great part of the most famous state of Venice, the 
Dukedomes of Bononia, Mantua,Ferrara,Rauenna,Bolognia, 
Florence, Pisa, Sienna, Vrbine,Ancona, and the ancient Citie 
and Countrey of Rome, with a great part of the Kingdome 
of Naples. In Slauonia, Istria, and Dalmatia, with the 
in Greece Kingdomes of A Ibania. In Grecia those famous Kingdomes 

juiy?<£3 Lib. 6. and particular Commodities. 711 

of Macedonia, Bullulgaria, Thessalia, Thracia, or Romania, [1614] 
where is seated the most pleasant and plentifull Citie in 
Europe, Constantinople. 

In Asia in the same latitude, are the temperatest parts in Asia. 
of Natolia, Armenia, [211] Persia, and China ; besides diuers CA*97-] 
other large Countries and Kingdomes in those most milde 
and temperate Regions of Asia. 

Southward in the same height is the richest of Gold Mines, Beyond the 
Chily, and Baldinia, and the mouth of the great Riuer of Plate, me ' 
&c. for all the rest of the world in that height is yet vnknowne. 

Besides these reasons, mine owne eies that haue seene 
a great part of those Cities and their Kingdomes (as 
well as it) can finde no aduantage they haue in Nature 
but this, they are beautified by the long labour and 
diligence of industrious people and art ; This is onely as 
God made it when hee created the world. 

Therefore I conclude, if the heart and intrailes of those 
Regions were sought, if their Land were cultured, planted, 
and manured by men of industry, iudgement, and experi- 
ence ; what hope is there, or what need they doubt, hauing 
the aduantages of the Sea, but it might equalize any of 
these famous Kingdomes in all commodities, pleasures, 
and conditions: seeing euen the very hedges doe naturally 
affoord vs such plentie, as no ship need returne away 
emptie, and onely vse but the season of the Sea, Fish 
will returne an honest gaine, besides all other aduantages ; 
her treasures hauing yet neuer beene opened, nor her 
originals wasted, consumed, nor abused. 

And whereas it is said the Hollanders serue the Easter- JJiSu? 11 " 
lings themselues, and other parts that want with Herring, commodities 
Ling, and wet Cod: The Easterlings, a great part of & t bT yb ° 
Europe, with Sturgion and Cauiare, as the Blacke Sea industr y- 
doth Grecia, Podolia, Sagouia, Natolia, and the Hellespont. 
Cape Blanke, Spaine, Portugall, and the Leuant, with 
Mulit and Puttargo. New found land, the most part of 
the chiefe Southerne Ports in Europe, with a thin Poore- 
Iohn ; which hath beene so long, so much ouer-laied with 
Fishers, as the fishing decaieth, so that many oft times 
are constrained to returne with a small fraught. Norway 

7 i 2 The seasons and facilitie Lib. 6. [ 3 _ l6 } [ 

une 1616. 

[1814] and Poland affoords Pitch and Tarre, Masts and Yards. 
Sweathland and Russia, Iron and Ropes. France and 
Spaine, Canuase, Wine, Steele, Iron, and Oile. Italy and 
Greece, Silkes and Fruits. I dare boldly say, because I 
haue seene naturally growing or breeding in those parts, 
the same materials that all these are made of, they may 
\t. i 5 8.] as well bee had here, or the most part of them within the 
distance of seuentie leagues for some few ages, as from all 
those parts, vsing but the same meanes to haue them that 
they doe ; but surely in Virginia, their most tender and 
daintiest fruits or commodities, would be as perfit as 
theirs, by reason of the heat, if not in New England, and 
with all those aduantages. 
The nature First, the ground is so fertill, that questionlesse it is 
approued?" capable of producing any Graine, Fruits, or Seeds, you 
will sow or plant, growing in the Regions aforenamed. 
But it may be not to that perfection of delicacy, because 
the Summer is not so hot, and the Winter is more cold 
in those parts we haue yet tried neere the Sea side, then 
wee finde in the same height in Europe or Asia : yet I 
made a Garden vpon the top of a Rocky He in three and 
forty degrees and an halfe, foure leagues from the maine 
in May, that grew so well, as it serued vs for Sallets in 
Iune and Iuly. 

All sorts of Cattle may here be bred and fed in the lies 
or Peninsulaes securely for nothing. In the Interim, 
till they increase (if need be) obseruing the seasons, I 
durst vndertake to haue Corne enough from the Saluages 
for three hundred men, for a few trifles ; and if they 
should be vntowards, as it is most certaine they will, 
thirtie or fortie good men will be sufficient to bring 
them all in subiection, and make this prouision, if they 
vnderstand what to doe : two hundred whereof may eight 
or nine moneths in the yeere be imploied in helping the 
Fisher-men, till the rest prouide other necessaries, fit to 
furnish vs with other Commodities. 
The season. In March, Aprill, May, and halfe Iune, heere is Cod in 
approuedi abundance ; In May, Iune, Iuly, and August, Mullit 
and Sturgion, whose Roes doe make Cauiare and Puttargo ; 
Herring, if any desire them : I haue taken many out of 
the bellies of Cods, some in nets ; but the Saluages 

/uiyTe^'.J Lib. 6. for Trade and Plantations. 7 1 3 

compare the store in the Sea with the haires of their [1614 
heads : and surely there are an incredible abundance 
vpon this Coast. [212] In the end of August, September, 
October, and Nouember, you may haue Cod againe to 
make Core-fish or Poore-Iohn : Hake you may haue when 
the Cod failes in Summer, if you will fish in the night, 
which is better then Cod. Now each hundred you take 
here, is as good as two or three hundred in New found 
Land ; so that halfe the labour in hooking, splitting and 
touring, is saued : And you may haue your fish at what 
market you will, before they haue any in New found land, 
where their fishing is chiefelybutinlune andluly; where[as] 
it is here in March, Aprill, May, September, October and [A *99-i 
Nouember, as is said : so that by reason of this Plantation, 
the Merchants may haue their fraught both out and home, 
which yeelds an aduantage worth consideration. 

Your Core-fish you may in like manner transport as you 
see cause, to serue the Ports in Portugall, as Lisbone, Auera, 
Porta Port, and diuers others, (or what market you please) 
before your Ilanders [Icelanders] returne. They being tied 
to the season in the open Sea, and you hauing a double 
season, and fishing before your doores, may euery night 
sleep quietly ashore with good cheere, and what fires you 
will, or when you please with your wiues and family : 
they onely and their ships in the maine Ocean, that must 
carie and containe all they vse, besides their fraught. 

The Mullits here are in that abundance, you may take 
them with nets sometimes by hundreds, where at Cape 
Blanke they hooke them : yet those are but a foot and a halfe 
in length; these two, three, or foure, as oft I haue measured, 
which makes me suspect they are some other kinde of 
fish, though they seeme the same, both in fashion and 
goodnesse. Much Salmon some haue found vp the Riuers 
as they haue passed ; and here the aire is so temperate, as 
all these at any time may be preserued. 

Now, young Boies and Girles, Saluages, or any other implement 
bee they neuer such idlers, may turne, carie or returne p^opfeTnd 
a fish, without either shame or any great paine. He is chndrln. se 
very idle that is past twelue yeeres of age and cannot 
doe so much ; and she is very old that cannot spin a threed 
to make Engins to catch a fish. 

7 1 4 The seasons and facilitie Lib. 6. [ 3 _ l6 j[ 

une 1616. 

[1614] For their transportation, the ships that goe there to 

She*" 11 *" ^ s ^ ma y transport the first : who for their passage will 
Plantation, spare the charge of double manning their ships, which 
they must do in New found land to get their fraught ; 
but one third part of that company are onely proper to 
serue a stage, carie a Barrow, and turne Poore-Iohn ; 
notwithstanding, they must haue meat, drinke, clothes, 
and passage so well as the rest. 

Now all I desire is but this, That those that voluntarily 
will send shipping, should make here the best choice 
they can, or accept such as shall bee presented them to 
serue them at that rate : and their ships returning leaue 
such with me, with the value of that they should receiue 
comming home, in such prouisions and necessarie tooles, 
armes, bedding, apparell, salt, nets, hookes, lines, and 
i/. 200.1 such like, as they spare of the remainings ; who till the 
next returne may keepe their Boats, and doe them many 
other profitable offices. Prouided, I haue men of abilitie 
to teach them their functions, and a company fit for 
Souldiers to be ready vpon any occasion, because of the 
abuses that haue beene offered the poore Saluages, and the 
libertie that both French and English, or any that will, 
haue to deale with them as they please ; whose disorders 
will be hard to reforme, and the longer the worse. 

Now such order with facilitie might be taken, with euery 
Port, Towne, or Citie, with free power to conuert the bene- 
fit of their fraughts to what aduantage they please, and 
increase their numbers as they see occasion, who euer as 
they are able to subsist of themselues, may begin the new 
Townes in New England, in memory of their old : which 
freedome being confined but to the necessitie of the generall 
good, the euent (with Gods helpe) might produce an 
honest, a noble, and a profitable emulation. 

Present Salt vpon Salt may assuredly be made, if not at the first 

SeT™ 04 *" in ponds, yet till they be prouided this may be vsed : then 
the ships may transport Kine, Horse, Goats, course Cloth, 
and such Commodities as we want ; by whose arriuall may 
be made that prouision of fish to fraught the ships that 
they stay not ; and then if the Sailers goe for wages it 


junfTeie.] Lib. 6. for Trade and Plantations. 7 1 5 

matters not, it is hard if this returne defray not the [1614] 
charge : [213] but care must be had they arriue in the 
Spring, or else that prouision be made for them against 

Of certaine red berries called Kermes, which is worth Kem «*- 
ten shillings the pound, but of these haue beene sold 
for thirty or forty shillings the pound, may yeerely be 
gathered a good quantity. 

Of the Muskrat may be well raised gaines worth their Musquasses. 
labour, that will endeuour to make triall of their goodnesse. 

Of Beuers, Otters and Martins, blacke Foxes, and Beuers [/.«., 
Furres of price, may yeerely be had six or seuen thousand, theirskins ' 
and if the trade of the French were preuented, many 
more : 25000. this yeere [1614] were brought from those 
northerne parts into France, of which trade we may haue 
as good part as the French if we take good courses. 

Of Mines of Gold and Siluer, Copper, and probabilities ia**.] 
of Lead, Crystall and Allum, I could say much if rela- Mines - 
tions were good assurances ; it is true indeed, I made 
many trialls according to the instructions I had, which 
doth perswade me I need not despaire but that there are 
metals in the Country: but I am no Alcumist, nor will 
promise more then I know : which is, who will vndertake 
the rectifying of an iron Forge, if those that buy meat 
and drinke, coles, ore, and all necessaries at a deare rate, 
gaine ; where all the sethings are to be had for taking vp, 
in my opinion cannot lose. 

Of woods, seeing there is such plenty of all sorts, if woods, 
those that build ships and boats, buy wood at so great 
a price as it is in England, Spaine, France and Holland, and 
all other prouisions for the nourishment of mans life, Hue 
well by their trade; when labour is all [that is] required to 
take these necessaries without any other tax, what hazard 
will be here but to doe much better, and what commodity 
in Europe doth more decay then wood ? for the goodnesse 
of the ground, let vs take it fertill or barren, or as it is, 
seeing it is certaine it beares fruits to nourish and feed 
man and beast as well as England, and the Sea those 
seuerall sorts of fishes I haue related. 

Thus seeing all good things for mans sustenance may 
with this facility be had by a little extraordinary labour, 

7 1 6 Present commodities with the gaines. Lib. 6. [ 3 _ l6 j{' n f JJJJ: 

[1614] till that transported be increased, and all necessaries for 
shipping onely for labour, to which may added the assist- 
ance of the Saluages which may easily be had, if they be 
discreetly handled in their kinds, towards fishing, planting, 
and destroying woods. 

What gaines might be raised if this were followed (when 

there is but once men to fill your store houses dwelling 

there, you may serue all Europe better and farre cheaper 

then can the Hand Fishers, or the Hollanders, Cape-Llanke, 

or Newfound land, who must be at much more charge then 

you) may easily be coniectured by this example. 

An example Two thousand [pounds] will fit out a ship of 200. tunnes, 

Spon C euery CS and one [ship] of 100. tuns. If of the dry fish they both make, 

moneths S,x [they] fraught that of 200. and goe for Spaine, sell it but at 

retume. t en shillings a quintall, but commonly it giues fifteene or 

!>.aoa.] twenty, especially when it commeth first, which amounts 

to 3. or 4000. pound, but say but ten, which is the lowest, 

allowing the rest for waste, it amounts at that rate to 2000. 

[pounds] which is the whole charge of your two ships and the 

equipage: then the returne [by exchange] of the mony and the 

fraught of the ship for the vintage or any other voyage is 

cleere gaine; with your ship of one hundred tunnes of 

traine Oile and Cor-fish, besides the Beuers and other 

commodities, and that you may haue at home within six 

moneths if God please to send but an ordinary passage. 

Then sauing halfe this charge by the not staying of your 

ships, your victuall, ouerplus of men and wages, with her 

fraught thither with necessaries for the Planters, the Salt 

being there made, as also may the nets and lines within a 

short time ; if nothing may be expected but this, it might 

in time equalize your Hollanders gaines, if not exceede 

them : hauing their fraughts alwaies ready against the 

arriuall of the ships. 

This would so increase our shipping and sailers, and 
so incourage and imploy a great part of our Idlers and 
others that want imployment fitting their qualities at 
home, where they shame to doe that they would doe 
abroad, that could they but once taste the sweet fruits 
of their owne labours, doubtlesse many thousands would be 
aduised by good discipline to take more pleasure in honest 
industry, then in their humors of dissolute idleness. [214] 

,-ie j£nf?6i6.] The habitations of the Saluages in particular. 71 7 

But to returne a little more to the particulars of this [1614] 
Countrey, which I intermingle thus with my proiects and A des "'P- 
reasons, not being so sufficiently yet acquainted in those countrey 
parts, to write fully the estate of the Sea, the Aire, the gJEJ, and 
Land, the Fruits, their Rocks, the People, the Gouern- $™ tions , 
ment, Religion, Territories, Limitations, Friends and Foes: 
But as I gathered from their niggardly relations in a broken 
language, during the time I ranged those Countries, &c. 

The most Northerne part I was at, was the Bay of Pen- [>. *o 3 .] 
nobscot, which is East and West, North and South, more 
then ten leagues: but such were my occasions, I was 
constrained to be satisfied of them I found in the Bay, 
that the Riuer ranne farre vp into the Land, and was 
well inhabited with many people; but they were from their 
habitations, either fishing amongst the lies, or hunting 
the Lakes and Woods for Deere and Beuers. The Bay 
is full of great lies of one, two, six or eight miles in 
length, which diuides it into many faire and excellent 
good Harbours. 

On the East of it are the Tarrentines, their mortall 
enemies, where inhabit the French, as they report, that 
Hue with those people as one Nation or Family. And 
Northwest of Pennobscot is Mecaddacut, at the foot of a 
high Mountaine, a kinde of fortresse against the Tarren- 
tines, adioyning to the high Mountaines of Pennobscot, 
against whose feet doth beat the Sea ; but ouer all the 
Land, lies, or other impediments, you may well see them 
foureteene or eighteene leagues from their situation. 
Segocket is the next, then Nuskoucus, Pemmaquid, and 

Vp this Riuer, where was the Westerne Plantation, 
are Aumoughcawgen, Kinnebeke, and diuers others, where 
are planted some Corne fields. Along this Riuer thirtie 
or fortie miles, I saw nothing but great high clifts of 
barren Rocks ouergrowne with Wood, but where the 
Saluages dwell there the ground is excellent salt [fat], 
and fertill. 

Westward of this Riuer is the Country of Aucocisco, in 
the bottome of a large deepe Bay, full of many great lies, 
which diuides it into many good Harbours. 

Sawocotuck is the next, in the edge of a large Sandy 

7 i 8 The habitations of the Saluages in particular. [ 3 _ l6 / un f 7^ 

[1614] Bay, which hath many Rockes and lies, but few good 
Harbours but for Barkes I yet know. 

But all this Coast to Pennobscot, and as farre as I could 
see Eastward of it, is nothing but such high craggy 
clifty Rockes and stony lies, that I wonder such great 
Trees could grow vpon so hard foundations. It is a 
Countrey rather to affright then delight one, and how to 
describe a more plaine spectacle of desolation, or more 
[/. ao 4 .] barren, I know not ; yet are those rocky lies so furnished 
with good Woods, Springs, Fruits, Fish and Fowle, and 
the Sea the strangest Fish-pond I euer saw, that it makes 
me thinke, though the coast be rocky and thus affrightable, 
the Vallies and Plaines and interior parts may well not- 
withstanding be very fertill. But there is no Country so 
fertill [that] hath not some part barren, and New-England 
is great enough to make many Kingdomes and Countries, 
were it all inhabited. 

As you passe the coast still westward, Accominticus 
and Passataquack are two conuenient Harbours for small 
Barkes ; and a good Country within their craggy clifts. 

Augoan is the next : this place might content a right 
curious iudgement, but there are many sands at the 
entrance of the Harbour, and the worst is, it is imbayed 
too farre from the deepe Sea; here are many rising 
hils, and on their tops and descents are many come 
fields and delightfull groues. On the East is an He of 
two or three leagues in length, the one halfe plaine 
marish ground, fit for pasture or salt Ponds, with many 
faire high groues of Mulbery trees and Gardens ; there 
is also Okes, Pines, Walnuts, and other wood to make 
this place an excellent habitation, being a good and safe 

Naiemkeck, though it be more rocky ground, for Augoan 

is sandy, [is] not much inferiour neither for the harbour, nor 

any thing I could perceiue but the multitude of people. 

^a? 4 ^' From hence doth stretch into the Sea the faire headland 

l^ss 7 , ' Tragabigzanda, now called Cape An, fronted with the 

three lies wee called the three Turkes heads; to the 

r" ~' north of this doth enter a great Bay, where we found 

some habitations and Corne fields, they report a faire 

Riuer and at least 30. habitations [215] doth possesse 

\j>p. 204, 730, 

3 -i6 junf TiSi] The habitations of the Saluages in particular. 719 

this Country. But because the French had got their [1614] 
trade, I had no leisure to discouer it. 

The lies of Mattahunts are on the west side of this Bay, 
where are many lies and some Rocks that appeare a 
great height aboue the water like the Pyramides in Mgypt, 
and amongst them many good Harbours, and then the 
country of the Massachusits, which is the Paradice of all 
those parts ; for here are many lies planted with Come, 
Groues, Mulberies, saluage Gardens and good Harbours, 
the Coast is for the most part high clayie sandy clifts, the y.905.] 
sea Coast as you passe shewes you all along large Corne 
fields, and great troupes of well proportioned people : but t/A 747. 
the French hauing remained here neere six weekes, left 754 ' 933 ' 
nothing for vs to take occasion to examine the Inhabitants 
relations, viz. if there be three thousand people vpon those 
lies, and that the Riuer doth pierce many daies iourney 
the entrailes of that Country. 

We found the people in those parts very kinde, but in their 
fury no lesse valiant ; for vpon a quarrell we fought with 
forty or fifty of them, till they had spent all their Arrowes, 
and then we tooke six or seuen of their Canowes, which 
towards the eueningthey ransomed for Beuer skinnes: and 
at Quonahasit falling out there but with one of them, he 
with three others crossed the Harbour in a Canow to 
certaine rockes whereby wee must passe, and there let flie An Indian 
their Arrowes for our shot, till we were out of danger ; yet siaine, 
one of them was siaine, and another shot through his thigh. £2. er 

Then come you to Accomacke an excellent good Harbour, 
good land, and no want of any thing but industrious 
people : after much kindnesse, wee fought also with them, 
though some were hurt, some siaine, yet within an houre 
after they became friends. 

Cape Cod is the next [that] presents it selfe, which is onely 
a headland of high hils, ouer-growne with shrubby Pines, 
hurts and such trash; v but an excellent harbour for all 
weathers. This Cape is made by the maine Sea on the 
one side, and a great Bay on the other in forme of a 
Sickell; on it doth inhabit the people of Pawmet, and in the 
bottome of the Bay them of Chawum. 

Towards the South and South-west of this Cape, is found 
a long and dangerous shoule of rocks and sand, but so 

720 The land markes and other notes. Ltb. 6. Q-^/unfT^.' 

[1614] farre as I incercled it, I found thirty fathome water and a 
strong currant, which makes mee thinke there is a chanell 
about this Shoule, where is the best and greatest fish to 
be had winter and summer in all the Country ; but the 
Saluages say there is no Chanell, but that the Shoales 
beginne from the maine at Pawmet to the He of Nawset, 
and so extends beyond their knowledge into the Sea. 

[//. 264,697, The next to this is Capawucke, and those abounding 

701,733] Countries of Copper, Corne, People and Mineralls, which 
I went to discouer this last yeere [1615] ; but because I mis- 

{/. 206.] carried by the way, I will leaue them till God please I haue 
better acquaintance with them. 

The Massachusets they report sometimes haue warres 
with the Bashabes of Pennobscot, and are not alwaies friends 
with them of Chawum and their alliance ; but now they 
are all friends, and haue each trade with other so farre as 
they haue society on each others frontiers : for they [the 
Bashabes] make no such voyages as from Pennobscot to 
Cape Cod, seldome to Massach[u]set. 

In the North as I haue said they haue begun to plant 
Corne, whereof the south part hath such plenty as they 
haue what they will from them of the North, and in the 
Winter much more plenty of fish and fowle ; but both 
Winter and Summer hath it in one part or other all the 
yeere, being the meane and most indifferent temper betwixt 
heat and cold, of all the Regions betwixt the Line and the 
Pole : but the Furs Northward are much better, and in 
much more plenty then Southward. 

Mikes' 1 ^e remar kablest U es ana " Mountaines for land Markes 

are these : the highest He is Sorico in the Bay of Pen- 
nobscot, but the three lies, and the lies of Matinack are 
much further in the Sea : Metynacus is also three plaine 
lies, but many great Rocks : Monahigan is a round high He, 
and close by it [is] Monanis, betwixt which is a small Harbour 
where we rid ; in Darner Us lies is such another, Sagadahocke 
is knowne by Satquin, and foure or hue lies in their mouth. 
Smiths lies are a heape together, [216] none neere them 

[#.204,718, against Accomintycus : the three Turkes heads, are three 
8381 lies, seene farre to Sea-ward in regard of the Head-land. 

[//. 204, 206, The chiefe Head-lands, are onely Cape Tragabigzanda, and 

*xjfilsl&\ Cape Cod; now called [p. 232] Cape lames, and Cape Anne. 

j-iejunfTeieJ Lib. 6. The land markes and other notes. 721 

The chiefe Mountaines, them of Pennobscot, the twinkling [1614] 
Mountaine of Acocisco, the great Mountaine of Sassanow, 
and the high Mountaine of Massachuset. Each of which 
you shall finde in the Map, their places, forme, and 

The waters are most pure, proceeding from the intrailes 
of rocky Mountaines. 

The Herbs and Fruits are of many sorts and kinds, as Herbs and 
Alkermes, Currans, Mulberies, Vines, Respises, Gooseberies, ^HJjj 
Plums, Wall-nuts, Chesse-nuts, Small-nuts, Pumpions, 
Gourds, Strawberies, Beanes, Pease, and Maize ; a kinde 
or two of Flax, wherewith they make Nets, Lines, and 
Ropes, both small and great, very strong for their quantities. 

Oake is the chiefe wood, of which there is great Woods. 
difference, in regard of the soyle where it groweth, Firre, 
Pine, Wall-nut, Chesse-nut, Birtch, Ash, Elme, Cipris, 
Cedar, Mulbery, Plum tree, Hazell, Saxefras, and many 
other sorts. 

Eagles, Grips, diuers sorts of Hawkes, Craines, Geese, Birds. 
Brants, Cormorants, Ducks, Cranes, Swannes, Sheldrakes, 
Teale, Meawes, Gulls, Turkies, Diue-doppers, and many 
other sorts whose names I know not. 

Whales, Grompus, Porkpisces, Turbut, Sturgion, Cod, *«he». 
Hake, Haddocke, Cole, Cuske or small Ling, Sharke, 
Mackarell, Herring, Mullit, Base, Pinnacks, Cunners, 
Pearch, Eeles, Crabs, Lobsters, Mustels, Wilks, Oisters, 
Clamps, Periwinkels, and diuers others, &c. 

Moos, a beast bigger than a Stag, Deare red and fallow, Beasts - 
Beuers, Wolues, Foxes both blacke and other, Aroughcunds, 
wilde Cats, Beares, Otters, Martins, Fitches, Musquassus, 
and diuers other sorts of Vermin whose names I know not. 

All these and diuers other good things doe here 
for want of vse still increase and decrease with little 
diminution, whereby they grow to that abundance, you 
shall scarce finde any bay, shallow shore or Coue of sand, 
where you may not take many clamps or Lobsters, or 
both at your pleasure, and in many places load your Boat 
if you please ; nor lies where you finde not Fruits, Birds, 
Crabs, and Mustels, or all of them ; for taking at a low 
water Cod, Cuske, Hollibut, Scate, Turbit, Mackarell, or 
such like are taken plentifully in diuers sandy Bayes, 


722 Generall Observations. Lib. 6. [^ 6 ^m 

[1614] store of Mullit, Bases, and diuers other sorts of such 
[>.ao8.j excellent fish as many as their Net can hold: no Riuer 
where there is not plenty of Sturgion, or Salmon, or both, 
all which are to be had in abundance obseruing but their 
seasons : but if a man will goe at Christmas to gather 
Cherries in Kent, though there be plenty in Summer, he 
may be deceiued ; so here these plenties haue each their 
seasons, as I haue expressed. 

We for the most part had little but bread and Vinegar, and 
though, the most part of Iuly when the fishing decayed, 
they wrought all day, lay abroad in the lies all night, and 
liued on what they found, yet were not sicke. But I would 
wish none long [to] put himselfe to such plunges, except 
necessity constraine it: yet worthy is that person to starue 
that here cannot Hue if he haue seuse, strength and health, 
for there is no such penury of these blessings in any place 
but that one hundred men may in two or three houres make 
their prouisions for a day, and he that hath experience 
to manage these affaires, with forty or thirty honest in- 
dustrious men, might well vndertake (if they dwell in 
these parts) to subiect the Saluages, and feed daily two 
or three hundred men, with as good Come, Fish, and 
Flesh as the earth hath of those kinds, and yet make 
that labour but their pleasure : prouided that they haue 
Engines that be proper for their purposes. 

iJITlhit' Who can desire more content that hath small meanes, or 
haue great but onely his merit to aduance his fortunes, then to tread and 
SI3i ,and plant that ground he hath purchased by the hazard of his 
life ; if hee haue but the taste of vertue and magnanimity, 
what to such a minde can bee more pleasant then planting 
and building a foundation for his posterity, got from the 
rude earth by Gods blessing and his [217] owne industry 
without preiudice to any ; if hee haue any graine of faith 
or zeale in Religion, what can he doe lesse hurtfull to any, 
or more agreeable to God, then to seeke to conuert those 
poore Saluages to know Christ and humanity, whose 
labours with discretion will triple requite thy charge and 
paine ; what so truly su[i]tes with honour and honesty, as 
the discouering things vnknowne, erecting Townes, peopling 
Countries, informing the ignorant, reforming things vniust, 


?-i6jinfS:] Lib. 6. Generall Obseruations. 723 

teaching vertue and gaine to our natiue mother Country [1616] 
a Kingdome to attend her, finde imploiment for those that \p. 209.] 
are idle, because they know not what to doe : so farre from 
wronging any, as to cause posterity to remember thee ; and 
remembring thee,euerhonourthat remembrance with praise. 

Consider what were the beginnings and endings of the 
Monarchies of the Chaldeans, the Syrians, the Grecians 
and Romans, but this one rule; what was it they 
would not doe for the good of their common weale, or 
their mother City ? For example : Rome, what made her 
such a Monarchesse, but onely the aduentures of her 
youth, not in riots at home, but in dangers abroad ; and 
the iustice and iudgement out of their experiences, when 
they grew aged : what was their ruine and hurt but this, 
the excesse of idlenesse, the fondnesse of parents, the want 
of experience in Maiestrates, the admiration of their vn- 
deserued honours, the contempt of true merit, their vniust 
iealousies, their politike incredulities, their hypocriticall 
seeming goodnesse and their deeds of secret lewdnesse ; 
finally in fine, growing onely formall temporists, all that 
their Predecessors got in many yeeres they lost in a few 
daies : those by their paines and vertues became Lords of 
the world, they by their ease and vices became slaues to 
their seruants ; this is the difference betwixt the vse of 
armes in the field and on the monuments of stones, the 
golden age and the leaden age, prosperity and misery, 
iustice and corruption, substance and shadowes, words and 
deeds, experience and imagination, making common weales 
and marring common weales, the fruits of vertue and the 
conclusions of vice. 

Then who would Hue at home idly, or thinke in himselfe 
any worth to Hue, onely to eat, drinke and sleepe, and so 
die ; or by consuming that carelesly , his friends got worthily ; 
or by vsing that miserably that maintained vertue honestly; 
or for being descended nobly, and pine with the vaine 
vaunt of great kindred in penury ; or to maintaine a silly 
shew of brauery, toile out thy heart, soule and time 
basely, by shifts, tricks, Cards and Dice ; or by relating 
newes of other mens actions, sharke here and there for a 
dinner or supper; deceiuethy friends by faire promises and 
dissimulation, in borrowing where thou neuer meanest to 

724 Generall Obseruations. Lib. 6. Q.,6jL2*l5: 

[1616] pay; offend the Lawes, surfet with excesse, burthen thy 
[/». aio.] Countrie, abuse thy selfe, despaire in want, and then cousen 
thy Kindred, yea euen thy owne brother, and wish thy Parents 
death (I will not say damnation) to haue their estates: though 
thou seest what honours and rewards the world yet hath 
for them that will seeke them and worthily deserue them. 
I would bee sorry to offend, or that any should mistake 
my honest meaning ; for I wish good to all, hurt to none : 
but rich men for the most part are growne to that dotage 
through their pride in their wealth, as though there were 
no accident could end it or their life. 

And what hellish care doe such take to make it their 
owne misery and their Countries spoile, especially when 
there is most need of their imploiment, drawing by all 
manner of inuentions from the Prince and his honest Sub- 
iects, euen the vitall spirits of their powers and estates : 
as if their baggs or brags were so powerfull a defence, the 
malicious could not assault them, when they are the onely 
bait to cause vs not onely to bee assaulted, but betrayed 
and murthered in our owne security ere wee will perceiue 
it. [218] 
An example May not the miserable ruine of Constantinople, their im- 
wuctoit pregnable walls, riches and pleasures [at] last taken by the 
nesse. Turke, which were then but a bit in comparison of their 
mightinesse now, remember vs of the effects of priuate 
couetousnesse; at which time the good Emperour held 
himselfe rich enough, to haue such rich subiects, soformall 
in all excesse of vanity, all kinde of delicacy and prodi- 
gality : his pouerty when the Turke besieged the Citizens 
(whose merchandizing thoughts were onely to get wealth) 
little conceiuing the desperat resolution of a valiant expert 
enemy, left the Emperour so long to his conclusions, 
hauing spent all he had to pay his young raw discontented 
Souldiers, that suddenly he, they, and their City were all 
a prey to the deuouring Turke, and what they would not 
spare for the maintenance of them who aduentured their 
Hues to defend them, did serue onely their enemies to 
torment them, their friends and Country, and all Christen- 
dome to this present day. Let this lamentable example 
remember you that are rich (seeing there are such great 
theeues in the world to rob you) not [to] grudge to lend some 

3-i6june S T65j Lib. 6. Getierall Obseruations. 725 

proportion to breed them that haue little, yet willing to [1616: 
learne how to defend you, for it is too late when the deed t>. m.i 
is doing. 

The Romans estate hath beene worse then this, for the 
meere couetousnesse and extortion of a few of them so 
moued the rest, that not hauing any imploiment but con- 
templation, their great iudgements grew to so great malice, 
as themselues were sufficient to destroy themselues by 
faction ; let this moueyou to imbrace imployment for those 
whose educations, spirits and iudgements want but your 
purses, not only to preuent such accustomed dangers, but 
also to gaine more thereby then you haue. 

And you fathers that are either so foolishly fond, or so 
miserably couetous, or so wilfully ignorant, or so negligently 
carelesse, as that you will rather maintaine your children in 
idle wantonnesse till they grow your masters ; or become so 
basely vnkinde that they wish nothing but your deaths; so 
that both sorts grow dissolute ; and although you would wish 
them any where to escape the Gallowes and ease your 
cares; though they spend you here one, two or three 
hundred pound[s] a yeere ; you would grudge to giue halfe 
so much in aduenture with them to obtaine an estate, 
which in a small time, but with a little assistance of your 
prouidence, might bee better then your owne. But if an 
Angell should tell you [that] any place yet vnknowne, can 
affoord such fortunes, you would not beleeue it, no more 
then Columbus was beleeued there was any such land as is 
now the well knowne abounding A merica, might lesse such 
large Regions as are yet vnknowne, as well in America, as 
in Africa and Asia, and Terra incognita. 

I haue not beene so ill bred but I haue tasted of plenty The 
and pleasure, as well as want and misery ; nor doth neces- £idE£ns. 
sity yet, or occasion of discontent rorce me to these 
endeuours ; nor am I ignorant what small thankes I shall 
haue for my paines, or that many would haue the world 
imagine them to bee of great iudgement, that can but 
blemish these my designes, by their witty obiections and 
detractions: yet (I hope) my reasons with my deeds will so y.«»J 
preuaile with some, that I shall not want imploiment in 
these affaires, to make the most blinde see his owne 

726 The reasons for a Plantation. Lib. 6. [ 3 _ l6J J 

le 1616. 

[1616] senselesnesse and incredulity, hoping that gaine will make 
them affect that which Religion, Charity and the common 
good cannot. It were but a poore deuice in mee to deceiue 
my selfe, much more the King and State, my Friends and 
Country, with these inducements : which seeing his Maiesty 
hath giuen permission, I wish all sorts of worthy honest 
industrious spirits would vnderstand, and if they desire 
any further satisfaction, I will doe my best to giue it, not 
to perswade them to goe onely, but goe with them ; not 
leaue them there, but Hue with them there. 

I will not say but by ill prouiding and vndue managing, 
such courses may bee taken [that] may make vs miserable 
enough: but if I may haue the execution of what I haue 
proiected, if they [219] want to eat, let them eat or neuer 
disgest mee. If I performe what I say, I desire but that 
reward out of the gaines [which] may su[i]te my paines, 
quality and condition ; and if I abuse you with my tongue, 
take my head for satisfaction. If any dislike at the yeeres 
end, defraying their charge, by my consent they should 
freely returne ; I feare not want of company sufficient, were 
it but knowne what I know of these Countries; and by the 
proofe of that wealth I hope yeerely to returne, if God please 
to blesse me from such accidents as are beyond my power 
in reason to preuent ; for I am not so simple to thinke that 

\p. 9*8.] euer any other motiue then wealth will euer erect there a 
common wealth,ordraw company fromtheireaseandhumors 
at home, to stay in New-England to effect my purposes. 

^uJS'*" ^ nc * * est an y snou ^ thinke the toile might be insupport- 

LTprofit. able, though these things may bee had by labour and dili- 
gence; I assure my selfe there are who delight extremely in 
vaine pleasure, that take much more paines in England to 
enioy it, then I should doe here [New England] to gaine 
wealth sufficient, and yet I thinke they should not haue halfe 
such sweet content: for our pleasure here is still gaines, in 
England charges and losse ; here nature and liberty affoords 

I/. »i 3 .] vs that freely which in England we want, or it costeth vs 
deerely. What pleasure can bee more then being tired 
with any occasion a shore, in planting Vines, Fruits, or 
Herbes, in contriuing their owne grounds to the pleasure 
of their owne minds, their Fields, Gardens, Orchards, 
Buildings, Ships, and other workes, &c. to recreate 

3 -i6 junkie*.] Lib. 6. The reasons for a Plantation. 727 

themselues before their owne doores in their owne Boats [1616] 
vpon the Sea, where man, woman and childe, with a small 
hooke and line, by angling may take diuers sorts of 
excellent Fish at their pleasures; and is it not pretty 
sport to pull vp two pence, six pence, and twelue pence, as 
fast as you can ha[u]le and vere a line ; hee is a very bad 
Fisher [that] cannot kill in one day with his hooke and 
line one, two, or three hundred Cods, which dressed and 
dryed, if they bee sold there for ten shillings a hundred, 
though in England they will giue more then twenty, may 
not both seruant, master and Merchant be well content 
with this gaine ? if a man worke but three daies in seuen, 
hee may get more then hee can spend vnlesse hee will bee 
exceedingly excessiue. Now that Carpenter, Mason, 
Gardiner, Tailer, Smith, Sailer, Forger, or what other, 
may they not make this a pretty recreation, though they 
fish but an houre in a day, to take more then they can eat in 
a weeke ; or if they will not eat it, because there is so much 
better choise, yet sell it or change it with the Fisher-men 
or Merchants for any thing you want ; and what sport doth 
yeeld a more pleasing content, and lesse hurt and charge 
then angling with a hooke, and crossing the sweet aire from 
He to He, ouer the silent streames of a calme Sea ; wherein 
the most curious may finde profit, pleasure and content. 

Thus though all men be not fishers, yet all men what- 
soeuer may in other matters doe as well, for necessity doth 
in these cases so rule a common wealth, and each in their 
seuerall functions, as their labours in their qualities may be 
as profitable because there is a necessary mutuall vse of all. 

For Gentlemen, what exercise should more delight them Jjgjj 1 ^ 
then ranging daily these vnknowne parts, vsing fowling Gentlemen 
and fishing for hunting and hawking, and yet you shall see 
the wilde Hawkes giue you some pleasure in seeing them 
stoupe six or seuen times after one another an houre or 
two together, at the skulls of Fish in the faire Harbours, 
as those a shore at a fowle ; and neuer trouble nor torment \p. W4-1 
your selues with watching, mewing, feeding, and attending 
them, nor kill horse and man with running and crying, 
See you not a Hawke : for hunting also, the Woods, Lakes 
and Riuers affoord not onely chase sufficient for any that 
delights in that kinde of toile or pleasure, but such beasts 

728 How New England is more proper for the 

r J. Smith. 

L3-16 June 1616. 


ments for 

to hunt, that besides the delicacie of their bodies for food, 
their skinnes are so rich, as they will recompence thy 
daily labour with a Captaines pay. [220] 

For Labourers, if those that sow Hempe, Rape, Turnups, 
Parsnips, Carrats, Cabidge, and such like ; giue twentie, 
thirtie, fortie, fiftie shillings yeerely for an Acre of Land; 
and meat, drinke, and wages to vse it, and yet grow rich : 
when better, or at least as good ground may bee had and 
cost nothing but labour ; it seemes strange to me any such 
should grow poore. 

My purpose is not to perswade children from their 
parents, men from their wiues, nor seruants from their 
masters ; onely such as with free consent may bee spared : 
but that each Parish, or Village, in Citie, or Countrey, 
that will but apparell their fatherlesse children of thirteene 
or fourteene yeeres of age, or young maried people that 
haue small wealth to Hue on, here by their labour may Hue 
exceeding well. Prouided alwaies, that first there be a 
sufficient power to command them, houses to receiue them, 
meanes to defend them, and meet prouisions for them, for 
[any] place may be ouer-laine : and it is most necessary to 
haue a fortresse (ere this grow to practise) and sufficient 
masters of all necessarie mec[h]anicall qualities, to take 
ten or twelue of them for Apprentises ; the Master by this 
may quickly grow rich, these may learne their trades them- 
selues to doe the like, to a generall and an incredible benefit 
for King and Countrey, Master and Seruant. 

of the 

[/■ 215.) 

It would be a History of a large volume, to recite the 
aduentures of the Spaniards and Portngals, their affronts 
and defeats, their dangers and miseries ; which with such 
incomparable honor, and constant resolution, so farre 
beyond beleefe, they haue attempted and indured in their 
discoueries and plantations, as may well condemne vs of 
too much imbecillitie, sloth, and negligence : yet the 
Authors of these new inuentions were held as ridiculous 
for a long time, as now are others that doe but seeke to 
imitate their vnparalleld vertues. And though we see daily 
their mountaines of wealth (sprung from the Plants of their 
generous indeuours) yet is our sensualitie and vnto- 
defaiimenu. wardnesse such, and so great, that we either ignorantly 

The causes 
of our 

3 -i6 jLlTeie'.] benefit of England, then any other Nation. 729 

beleeue nothing, or so curiously contest, to preuent we [1616] 
know not what future euents ; that we either so neglect, 
or oppresse and discourage the present, as wee spoile all 
in the making, crop all in the blooming; and building vpon 
faire Sand rather then vpon rough Rocks, iudge that we 
know not, gouerne that wee haue not, feare that which is 
not ; and for feare some should doe too well, force such 
against theiriwils to be idle, or as ill. And who is hee [that] 
hath iudgement, courage, and any industry or quality with 
vnderstanding, will leaue his Country, his hopes at home, 
his certaine estate, his friends, pleasures, libertie, and 
the preferment sweet England doth affoord to all degrees, 
were it not to aduance his fortunes by enioying his deserts, 
whose prosperitie once appearing, will encourage others : 
but it must be cherished as a childe, till it be able to goe 
and vnderstand it selfe, and not corrected nor oppressed 
aboue it[s] strength, ere it know wherefore. 

A childe can neither performe the office nor deeds of a 
man of strength, nor endure that affliction he is able : nor 
can an Apprentise at the first performe the part of a Master. 
And if twentie yeeres be required to make a childe a man, 
seuen yeeres limited an Apprentise for his trade : if scarce 
an age be sufficient to make a wise man a States-man, and 
commonly a man dies ere he hath learned to be discreet ; if 
perfection be so hard to be obtained, as of necessitie there 
must be Practice as well as Theoricke : Let no man then 
condemne this paradox opinion, to say that halfe seuen yeres 
is scarce sufficient for a good capacitie to learne in these 
affaires how to carrie himselfe. And who euer shall try in 
these remote places the erecting of a Colony, shall finde at 
the end of seuen yeeres occasion enough to vse all his dis- 
cretion: and in the Interim,, all the content, rewards, gaines, \p. 216.1 
and hopes, will be necessarily required, to be giuen to the 
beginning, till it be able to creepe, to stand, and goe, and to 
encourage desert by all possible meanes; yet time enough to 
keepe it from running, for there is no feare it will grow too 
fast, or euer to any thing, except libertie, profit, honor, and 
prosperitie there found, more binde the Planters of those 
affaires in deuotion to effect it ; then bondage, violence, 
tyrannie, ingratitude, and such double dealing, as bindes 
free men to become slaues, [221] and honest men turne 

730 How New England is more proper, &c. Lib. 6. [ 3 - l6J J 

une 1616. 

[1616] knaues; which hath euer beene the mine of the most 
popular Common-weales, and is very vnlikely euer well to 
begin anew. 

2w£ e Who seeth not what is the greatest good of the Spaniard, 
but these new conclusions in searching those vnknowne 
parts of this vnknowne world; by which meanes he diues 
euen into the very secrets of all his neighbours, and the 
most part of the world ; and when the Portngals and 
Spaniards had found the East and West-Indies, how many 
did condemne themselues, that did not accept of that honest 
offer of Noble Columbus, who vpon our neglect brought 
them to it, perswading our selues the world had no such 
places as they had found : and yet euer since we finde, they 
still (from time to time) haue found new Lands, new 
Nations, and Trades, and still daily doe finde, both in 
Asia, Affrica, Terra incognita, and America, so that there 
is neither Souldier nor Mechanicke, from the Lord to the 
Beggar, but those parts affoords them all imploiment, and 
discharges their natiue soile of so many thousands of all 
sorts, that else by their sloth, pride, and imperfections, 
would long ere this haue troubled their neighbours, or haue 
eaten the pride of Spaine it selfe. 

Now hee knowes little that knowes not England may well 
spare many more people then Spaine, and is as well able 
to furnish them with all manner of necessaries ; and seeing 
for all they haue, they cease not still to search for that 
they haue not, and know not ; it is strange we should be so 
dull, as not [to] maintaine that which we haue, and pursue 
that we know. 

Surely, I am sure many would take it ill, to be abridged 
of the titles and honors of their predecessors; when if 
but truly they would iudge themselues, looke how inferior 

t/.«y.l they are to their Noble Vertues, so much they are vn- 
worthy of their honors and liuings, which neuer were 
ordained for shewes and shadowes, to maintaine idlenesse 
and vice; but to make them more able to abound in honor, 
by Heroicall deeds of action, iudgement, pietie, and vertue. 
What was it both in their purse and person they would not 
doe, for the good of their Common-wealth, which might 
moue them presently to set out their spare children in 
these generous designes. 

a-iejunfT^:] A caueatfor the owners, <2fc, of Shipping. 731 

Religion aboue all things should moue vs, especially the [1615-6] 
Clergie, if we are religious, to shew our faith by our works, 
in conuerting those poore Saluages to the knowledge of 
God, seeing what paines the Spaniards takes to bring them 
to their adultered faith. Honour might moue the Gentry, 
the valiant, and industrious ; and the hope and assurance 
of wealth, all, if we were that we would seeme, and be 
accounted : or be we so farre inferior to other Nations, or 
our spirits so farre deiected from our ancient predicessors, 
or our mindes so vpon spoile, piracy, and such villany, as 
to serue the Portugall, Spaniard, Dutch, French, or Turke, 
(as to the cost of Europe too many doe) rather then our 
God, our King, our Country, and our selues; excusing our 
idlenesse and our base complaints by want of imploiment, 
when here is such choice of all sorts, and for all degrees, in 
the planting and discouering these North parts of America, 

My second voyage to New England. 

>N the yeere of our Lord 1615. I was imploied v L SC e°S d 
by many my friends of London, and Sir Ferdin- New 
ando Gorges, a noble Knight, and a great fgf?'"* 
fauourer of those actions, who perswaded the 
reuerend Deane of Exeter Doctor Sut\c\liffe, and diuers 
Merchants of the West, to entertaine this Plantation. 

Much labour I had taken to bring the Londoners and them 
to ioyne together, because the Londoners haue most Money, 
and the Westerne men are most proper for fishing ; and it 
is neere as much trouble, but much more danger, to saile 
from London to Plimoth, then from Plimoth to New England, 
so that halfe the voiage would thus be saued : yet by no 
meanes I could preuaile, so desirous they were both to be 
Lords of this fishing. 

Now to make my words more apparant by my deeds, to 
begin a Plantation [222] for a more ample triall of those 
conclusions, I was to haue staied there but with sixteene 
men, whose names were ; 


A caueat for the owners and Lib. 6. \ 

J. Smith. 
.3-16 June i6ifi. 

[1615] Thos. Dinner. 
ipp 223,258, Edw. S tailings. 

736.746.747O |-s • 7 ^ & 

Darnel Cage. 
Francis Abbot. 

John Gosling. 
William Ingram. 
Dauid Cooper. 
John Partridge. 



Thomas Digby. ] 
Daniel Baker. 
Adam Smith. 
Tho. Watson. 
Walter Chisell. 
Robert Miller. 
And two 

were to 
to be 

The ground 
and plot 
for our 

IPP- 747, 
754, 757-] 

p- «8.i I confesse I could haue wished them as many thousands, 

had all other prouisions beene in like proportion ; nor would 
I haue had so few, could I haue had means for more : yet 
would God haue pleased we had safely arriued, I doubted 
not but to haue performed more then I promised, and that 
many thousands ere this would haue bin there ere now. 
The maine assistance next God I had to this small number, 
was my acquaintance amongst the Saluages, especially with 
Dohoday, one of their greatest Lords, who had liued long in 
England (and another called Tantum, I [had] caried with mee 
from England, and set on shore at Cape Cod) ; by the meanes 
of this proud Saluage, I did not doubt but quickly to haue 
got that credit amongst the rest of the Saluages and their 
alliance, to haue had as many of them as I desired in any 
designe I intended, and that trade also they had by such a 
kinde of exchange of their Countrey Commodities, which 
both with ease and securitie might then haue beene vsed. 

[/.205.] With him and diuers others, I had concluded to inhabit 

and defend them against the Tarentines, with a better 
power then the French did them ; whose tyrannie did 
inforce them to embrace my offer with no small deuotion. 

And though many may think me more bold then wise, in 
regard of their power, dexteritie, treachery, and inconstancy, 
l/y. 607,701.] hauing so desperately assaulted and betraied many others; 
I say but this (because with so many, I haue many 
times done much more in Virginia then I intended here, 
when I wanted that experience Virginia taught mee) that 
to me it seemes no more danger then ordinary: and 
though I know my selfe [to be] the meanest of many 
thousands, whose apprehensiue inspection can pierce 
beyond the bounds of my abilities, into the hidden things 
of Nature, Art, and Reason: yet I intreat such, [to] giue 

J. Smith."] 
5-16 June 1616.J 

Lib. 6. setters forth of shipping. 


vsed to 
preuent it 
and me. 

IPP- 219. 

mee leaue to excuse my selfe of so much imbecillitie, as to [1614-5] 
say, that in these eighteene yeeres [1606-1624] which I haue 
beene conuersant with these affaires, I haue not learned, 
there is a great difference betwixt the directions and iudge- 
ment of experimentall knowledge, and the superficiall con- 
iecture of variable relation : wherein rumour, humour, or 
misprision haue such power, that oft times one is enough 
to beguile twentie, but twentie not sufficient to keepe one 
from being deceiued. Therefore I know no reason but to 
beleeue my owne eies before any mans imagination, that 
is but wrested from the conceits of my owne proiects and 
endeuours, but I honor with all affection, the counsell and 
instructions of iudiciall directions, or any other honest 
aduertisement, so farre to obserue, as they tie me not to 
the crueltie of vnknowne euents. 

These are the inducements that thus drew me to neglect Themeanes 
all other imploiments, and spend my time and best abilities 
in these aduentures, wherein though I haue had many dis- 
couragements, by the ingratitude of some, the malicious 
slanders of others, the falsenesse of friends, the treachery 
of cowards, and slownesse of Aduenturers. 

Now you are to remember, as I returned first from New ^uland' 
England at Plimoth, I was promised foure good ships ready returned. 
prepared to my hand the next Christmas, and what con- 
ditions and content I would desire, to put this businesse in 
practise, and arriuing at London, foure more were offered 
me with the like courtesie. But to ioyne the Londoners and 
them in one, was most impossible ; so that in Ianuary [1615] 
with two hundred pound in Cash for aduenture, and six 
Gentlemen well furnished, I went from London to the foure 
ships were promised me at Plimoth, but I found no such 
matter : and the most of those that had made such great 
promises, by the bad returne of the ship [that] went for Gold, tA 701.] 
and their priuate emulations, were extinct and qualified. 

Notwithstanding at last, with a labyrinth of trouble, 
though the [223] greatest of the burden lay on me, and a few 
of my particular friends, I was furnished with a ship of two \p. 221.J 
hundred tunnes, and another of fiftie. But ere I had sailed 
one hundred and twentie leagues, she brake all her Masts, 
pumping each watch fiue or six thousand strokes ; onely 
her spret-saile remained to spoone before the winde, till 

734 The examination of Lib. 6. [i> Baker. 

[1615] we had re-accommodated a Iury-mast to returne for Plimoth, 

or founder in the Seas. 

My Vice-Admirall being lost [i.e., lost sight of], not 

knowing of this, proceeded [on] her voyage. 
Myreim- Now with the remainder of those prouisions, I got out 

barkement, . . n t-» i r • . • . • i , . ° 

encounter againe in a small Barke of sixtie tuns with thirty men ; 
Tnd'impA- 5 ' for this of two hundred [tuns], and prouision for seuentie : 
the Trench. which were the sixteene before named [pp. 217, 732], and 
foureteene other Sailers for the ship. 

With those I set saile againe the foure and twentieth of 
Iune [1615]. Where what befell me (because my actions 
and writings are so publike to the world) enuy still seeking 
to scandalize my endeuours, and seeing no power but death 
can stop the chat of ill tongues, nor imagination of mens 
minds, lest my owne relations of those hard euents might 
by some constructors bee made doubtfull, I haue thought 
it best to insert the examinations of those proceedings, 
taken by Sir Lewis Stukeley, a worthy Knight, and Vice- 
Admirall of Deuonshire, which was as followeth. 

The 'Examination c/'Daniel Baker, late Steward to 

Captaine Iohn Smith, in there turne of Plimoth, 

taken before Sir Lewis Stukeley Knight, 

the eighth of December, 161 5. 

HE effect in briefe was this: being chased 
by one Fry an English Pirat, Edward 
Chambers the Master, Iohn Miller his Mate, 
Thomas Digby the Pylot, and diuers others 
importuned him to yeeld ; much swaggering wee had 
with them, more then the Pirats : who agreed vpon 
such faire conditions as we desired, which if they 
broke, he vowed to sinke rather then be abused. 
Strange they thought it, that a Barke of threescore 
tuns with foure guns should stand vpon such termes, 
they being eightie expert Sea-men, in an excellent ship 
of one hundred and fortie tuns, and thirty six cast 
Peeces and Murderers. 

t-rfj&SSM Lib- 6. Captaine Smiths Company, 735 

But when they knew our Captaine, so many of [1615] 
them had beene his Souldiers, and they but lately 
runne from Tunis, where they had stolne this ship, 
wanted victuall, and in combustion amongst them- 
selues, would haue yeelded all to his protection, or 
wafted vs any whither: but those mutinies occa- 
sioned vs to reiect their offer, which afterward we all 

For at Fiall we met two French Pirats, the one of 
two hundred tuns, the other thirty : no disgrace would 
cause our mutiners [to] fight, till the Captaine offered to 
blow vp the ship rather then yeeld, till hee had spent 
all his powder : so that together by the eares we went, 
and at last got cleere of them for all their shot. 

At Flowers we were againe chased with foure French 
men of warre, the Admirall one hundred and fortie 
tuns, and ninety men well armed ; the rest good ships, 
and as well prouided : much parly we had, but vowing 
they were Rochilers, and had a Commission from the 
King onely to secure true men, and take Portugals, 
Spaniards, and Pirats, and as they requested, our 
Captaine went to shew his Commission, which was 
vnder the broad Seale ; but neither it nor their vowes 
they so much respected, but they kept him, rifled our 
ship, manned her with French men, and dispersed vs 
amongst their Fleet. Within fiue or six daies thoy 
were increased to eight or nine saile. 

At last they surrendred vs our ship, and most of our 
prouisions ; the defects they promised the next day to 
supply, and did. Notwithstanding, there was no way 
but our mutiners would for England, though we were 
as neere New England ; till the major part resolued 
with our Captaine to proceed. 

But the Admirall sending his Boat for our Captaine, 
they espying a Saile, presently gaue chase; whereby our 
mutiners finding an opportunitie in the night ran away, 
and thus left our Captaine in his Cap, Bretches, and 
Wastcoat, alone among the French men : his clothes, 
armes, and what he had, our mutiners shared among 
them, and with a false excuse, faining [224] for feare 
lest he should turne man of warre, they returned for 

736 His proceedings among Lib. 6. [^ 6J &*2£: 

[1615] Plimoth: fifteene of vs being Land-men, not knowing 

what they did. 

i/- my) Daniel Cage, Edward Stalings, Walter Chisell, 

Dauid Cooper, Robert Miller, and lohn 
Partridge, vpon oath affirmes this for truth 
before the Vice-Admirall. 

A double 

treachery. ^g^^ ^^^ 

Ow the cause why the French detained mee 
againe, was the suspition this Chambers and 
M inter gaue them, that I would reuenge my 
selfe vpon the Banke, or in Newfound land, of all 
the French I could there encounter; and how I would haue 
fired the ship, had they not ouer-perswaded me : and that if 
I had but againe my Armes, I would rather sinke by them, 
then they should haue from me but the value of a Bisket ; 
and many other such like tales to catch but opportunitie in 
this manner to leaue me, and thus they returned to Plimoth, 
and perforce with the French men I thus proceeded. 

^French Being a fleet of eight or nine saile, we watched for 

men of war, the West-Indies fleet, till ill weather separated vs from 

wUhlfe 15 the other eight : still wee spent our time about the lies 

Spaniard. f fa e Assores, where to keepe my perplexed thoughts 

from too much meditation of my miserable estate, I writ 

this Discourse, thinking to haue sent it to you of his 

Maiesties Councell by some ship or other, for I saw their 

purpose was to take all they could. 

At last we were chased by one Captaine Barra, an 
English Pirat in a small ship, with some twelue Peece[s] 
of Ordnance, about thirty men, and neere all starued. 
They sought by courtesie releefe of vs, who gaue them 
Buch faire promises, as at last they betraied Captaine 
Wollistone his Lieutenant, and foure or fiue of his men 
aboord vs, and then prouided to take the rest perforce. 

Now my part was to be prisoner in the Gun-roome, and 
not to speake to any of them vpon my life ; yet had Barra 
knowledge what I was. Then Barra perceiuing well those 
^rench intents, made ready to fight, and Wollistone as 

J. Smith.! 
3-16 June 1616.J 

Lib. 6. the French men of zvarre. 


A prise of 

A Scotch 
0. 225.] 

resolutely regarded not their threats, which caused vs [to] [1615] 
demurre vpon the matter longer some sixteene houres, and 
then returned them againe Captaine Wollistone and all their 
Prisoners, and some victuall also vpon a small composition. 

But whilest we were bartering thus with them ; a 
Caruill before our faces got vnder the Castle of Gratiasa, 
from whence they beat vs with their Ordnance. 

The next wee tooke was a small English man of Poole 
from New found land : the great Cabben at this present was 
my prison, from whence I could see them pillage these poore 
men of all that they had, and halfe their fish : when hee was 
gone, they sold his poore clothes at the maine Mast by an 
out-cry, which scarce gaue each man seuen pence a peece. 

Not long after, we tooke a Scot fraught from Saint 
Michaels to Bristow, he had better fortune then the other ; 
for hauing but taken a Boats loading of Sugar, Marmelade, 
Suckets, and such like, we descried foure saile, after whom 
we stood : who forling their maine Sailes attended vs to 
fight, but our French spirits were content onely to perceiue 
they were English red Crosses. 

Within a very small time after, wee chased 4. Spanish 
ships that came from the Indies : we fought with them 
foure or fiue houres, tore their sailes and sides with many 
a shot betwixt wind and weather, yet not daring to boord 
them, lost them ; for which, all the Sailers euer after hated 
the Captaine as a professed coward. 

A poore Caruill of Brasile was the next wee chased ; and a prise 
after a small fight, thirteene or foureteene of her men 
being wounded, which was the better halfe, we tooke her 
with three hundred and seuenty chests of Sugar, one 
hundred hides, thirty thousand Rialls of eight. 

The next was a ship of Holland, which had lost her 
Consorts in the Streights of Magilans, going for the South 
sea. She was put roomy, she also these French men with 
faire promises, cunningly betraied to come aboord them to 
shew their Commission, and so made prise of all : the most 
of the Dutch-men we tooke aboord the Admiralty and 
manned her [the Dutch ship] with French-men, that within 
two or three nights after ran away with her for France, 
The wounded Spaniards we set on shore on the He of 
Tercera, the rest we kept to saile the Caruill. 


worth 3600c 

If- 739-1 



73% How they vsed him, Lib. 6. [,_ l6 jJ-JSS; 

[1615] Within a day or two after, we met a West-Indies man of 

iorth* warre, of one hundred [225] and sixtie tuns, a forenoone 

wee fought with her, and then tooke her with one thousand 

one hundred Hides, fiftie Chests of Cutchanele, foureteene 

Coffers of wedges of Siluer, eight thousand Rialls of eight, 

V- 739-J and six Coffers of the King of Spaines Treasure, besides 

the good pillage and rich Coffers of many rich Passengers. 

Two moneths [Aug.-Oct. 1615] they kept me in this 

manner, to manage their fights against the Spaniards, and 

bee a Prisoner when they tooke any English. Now though 

the Captaine had oft broke his promise, which was to put 

me on shore [on] the lies [Azores], or the next ship he 

tooke ; yet at the last he was contented I should goe in 

the Caruill of Sugar for France, himselfe seeming as 

resolued to keepe the Seas : but the next morning we all 

set saile for France, and that night we were separated from 

[*• 739] the Admirall and the rich prise by a storme. 

Within two daies after, wee [in the Caravel] were hailed 
by two West-Indies men : but when they saw vs waife them 
for the King of France, they gaue vs their broad sides, shot 
thorow our maine Mast, and so left vs. 

Hauing liued now this Summer [Aug -Nov. 1615., 
amongst those French men of warre, with much adoe we 
arriued at the Gulion, not farre from Rotchell: where in 
stead of the great promises they alwaies fed me with, of 
double satisfaction and full content, and tenne thousand 
Crownes was generally concluded I should haue; they 
kept me hue or six daies Prisoner in the Caruill, accusing 
me to be he that burnt their Colony in New France, to 
force me to giue them a discharge before the Iudge of the 
Admiraltie, and stand to their courtesies for satisfaction, 
or lie in prison, or a worse mischiefe. 

Indeed this was in the time of combustion,that the Prince 

of Cundy was with his Army in the field; and euery poore 

Lord, or men in authoritie, as little Kings of themselues, 

For this iniury was done me by them that set out this 

voyage (not by the Sailers) ; for they were cheated of all as 

well as I, by a few Officers aboord, and the owners on shore. 

My escape But to preuent this choise, in the end of such a storme 

JSchmen. tnat De at them all vnder hatches, I watched my oppor- 

[Aaa6.j tunitie to get a shore in their Boat; whereinto in the darke 

s-iejunfTJxe.] Lib. 6. and his desperate escape. 739 

night I secretly got, and with a halfe Pike that lay by [1615] 
me, put a drift for Rat He : but the currant was so strong, 
and the Sea so great, I went a drift to Sea, till it pleased 
God the wind so turned with the tide, that although I was 
all this fearefull night of gusts and raine in the Sea the 
space of twelue houres, when many ships were driuen 
ashore, and diuers split : (and being with skulling and 
bayling the water tired, I expected each minute would 
sinke me) at last I arriued in an Oazy He by Charowne, 
where certaine Fowlers found me neere drowned, and 
halfe dead, with water, cold, and hunger. 

My Boat I pawned to finde meanes to get to Rotchell; 
where I vnderstood our man of war and the rich prize, [A738.] 
(wherein was the Captaine called Mounsieur Poyrune, and 
the thirtie thousand Rialls of eight we tooke in the Caruill), [/• 737-1 
was split ; the Captaine drowned and halfe his Company 
the same night, within six or seuen leagues of that place, 
from whence I escaped in the little Boat by the mercy of 
God, far beyond all mens reason or my expectation. 

Arriuing at Rotchell: vpon my complaint to the Iudge y^Sj Iaw 
of the Admiraltie, I found many good words and faire 
promises ; and ere long many of them that escaped 
drowning, told me the newes they heard of my owne 
death. These I arresting, their seuerall examinations 
did so confirme my complaint, it was held proofe sufficient. 

All which being performed according to their order of 
justice, from vnder the Iudges hand, I presented it to Sir 
Thomas Edmonds, then Ambassadour at Burdeaux ; where 
it was my chance to see the arriuall [21 Nov. 1615] of the 
Kings great mariage brought from Spaine. 

Here it was my good fortune to meet my old friend 
Master Crampton, that no lesse grieued at my losse, then 
willingly to his power did supply my wants; and I must 
confesse, I was more beholden to the French men that 
escaped drowning in the man of warre, Madam Chanoyes [A277J 
at Rotchell, and the Lawyers of Burdeaux, then all the rest 
of my Country-men I met in France. Of the wracke of 
the [226] rich prize, some three thousand six hundred [A738.] 
crownes worth of goods came ashore and was saued, with 
the Caruill, which I did my best to arrest : the Iudge 
promised I should haue Iustice, what will be the con- 


How he arrested the 

T T r> A r J.Smith. 

J^IH. O. [ 3 - l6 Junei6i6. 

[1615-6] elusion as yet [June 1616] I know not. But vnder the couler 
to take Pirats and the West-Indie men (because the Spaniards 
will not suffer the French to trade in the West-Indies) any 
goods from thence, though they take them vpon the 
Coast of Spaine, are lawfull prize, or from any of his 
Territories out of the limits of Europe : and as they 
betraied me, though I had the broad-seale, so did they 
rob and pillage twentie saile of English men more, besides 
them I knew not of, the same yeere. 

Leauing thus my businesse in France I returned [Dec. 
1615] to Plimoth, to finde them [that] had thus buried me 
amongst the French ; and not onely buried me, but with 
so much infamy as such treacherous cowards could 
suggest to excuse their villanies. 

The Chiefetaines of this mutiny that I could finde, I 
laid by the heeles; the rest, like themselues, confessed the 
truth, as you haue heard. 

Now how I haue or could preuent these accidents, hauing 
no more meanes, I rest at your censures ; but to proceed 
to the matter ; yet must I sigh and say, How oft hath 
Fortune in the world (thinke I) brought slauery, freedome, 
and turned all diuersly. 

My returne 
for England 

r>. 337.J 

[A 745-1 

The successe 
of my Vice- 

vr Ewfoundland I haue heard, at the first, was held 
fW\jjS as desperate a fishing as this I proiect for New 
ipSSjcJ England. Placentia, and the Banke, neare also as 
*Bsk Wa^3 doubtfull to the French. But for all the disasters 
hapned [to] me, the businesse is the same itwas,and the fiue 
ships [that] went from London, whereof one was reported 
more then three hundred tunnes, found fish so much, that 
neither Izeland man, nor Newfoundland man, [that] I could 
heare of hath bin there, will go any more to either place, 
if they may go thither. 

So that vpon the good returne of my Vice-Admirall; this 
yeere [1616] are gone 4 or 5 saile from Plimoth, and from 
London as many, only to make voyages of profit : whereas 
if all the English had bin there till my returne, put all 
their returnes together, they would scarce make one a 
sauour of neere a dozen I could nominate, except one 

3 -i6junfT6i6.] Lib. 6. French men, and his successe. 741 

sent by Sir Francis Pop[h]am ; though there be fish [1616] 
sufficient, as I am perswaded, to fraught yeerely foure or [/. ^a.] 
fiue hundred Saile, or as many as will goe. 

For this fishing stretcheth along the Sea Coast from Cape 
lames to Newfoundland, which is seuen or eight hundred 
miles at the least ; and hath his course in the deepes, and 
by the shore, all the yere long : keeping their ha[u]nts and 
feedings, as the beasts of the field, and the birds of the aire. 
But all men are not such as they should be, that haue 
vndertaken those voyages: All the Romans were not Scipioes; 
nor Carthagentans, Hanibals ; nor all the Genweses, Colum- 
busses ; nor all the Spaniards, Courteses : had they diued no 
deeper in the secrets of their discoueries then we, or 
stopped at such doubts and poore accidentall chances, 
they had neuer beene remembered as they are, yet had 
they no such certainties to begin as we. 

But to conclude, Adam and Eue did first begin this [/>.«8, 
innocent worke to plant the earth to remaine to posterity, 934 ' ] 
but not without labour, trouble, and industry. Noe and 
his family began againe the second Plantation ; and their 
seed as it still increased, hath still planted new Countries, 
and one Countrey another, and so the world to that estate 
it is : but not without much hazard, trauell, mortalities, 
discontents, and many disasters. Had those worthy 
Fathers, and their memorable off-spring, not beene more 
diligent for vs now in these ages, then we are to plant that 
yet is vnplanted for the after liuers. Had the seed of 
Abraham, our Sauiour Christ, and his Apostles, exposed 
themselues to no more dangers to teach the Gospell then 
we, euen wee our selues had at this present beene as 
saluage, and as miserable as the most barbarous Saluage, 
yet vnciuilized. 

^ The Hebrewes and Lacedemonians, the Gothes, the 
Grecians, the Romanes, and the rest, what was it they 
would not vndertake to inlarge their Teritories, enrich 
their subiects, resist their enemies. Those that were the 
founders of those great Monarchies and their vertues, 
were no siluered idle golden Pharis[i]es, but industrious 
Iron steeled Publicans: They regarded more prouisions 

742 [Honour is our lifes ambition.'] Lib. 6. [ 3 _ l6J i 

une 1616. 

[1616] and necessaries [227] for their people, then Iewels, 
[>• 229.] riches, ease, or delight for themselues ; Riches were their 
Seruants, not their Masters. They ruled (as Fathers, not 
as Tirants) their people as Children, not as Slaues ; there 
was no disaster could discourage them ; and let none 
thinke they incountred not with all manner of incum- 
brances. And what hath euer beene the worke of the 
greatest Princes of the Earth, but planting of Coun- 
tries, and ciuilizing barbarous and inhumane Nations to 
ciuilitie and humanitie, whose eternall actions fills our 
Histories. Lastly, the Portugals and Spaniards, whose 
euer-liuing actions before our eies will testifie with them 
our idlenesse, and ingratitude to all posterities, and the 
neglect of our duties in our pietie and religion. We owe 
our God, our King and Countrey, and want of Charitie to 
those poore Saluages, whose Countrey wee challenge, vse 
and possesse ; except wee be but made to vse, and marre 
what our fore-fathers made, or but onely tell what they did, 
or esteeme our selues too good to take the like paines. Was 
it vertue in them to prouide that doth maintaine vs, and 
basenesse in vs to doe the like for others ? Surely no. 
W- 229.936] Then seeing we are not borne for our selues, but each to 
help other, and our abilities are much alike at the houre 
of our birth, and the minute of our death : seeing our 
good deeds or our bad by faith in Christs merits, is all 
we haue, to carie our soules to heauen or hell. Seeing 
honor is our Hues ambition, and our ambition after 
death to haue an honorable memory of our life: and 
seeing by no meanes we would be abated of the dignities 
and glories of our predecessors, let vs imitate their ver- 
tues to be worthily their successors : to conclude with 

Its want of reason, or its reasons want 

Which doubts the minde and iudgement, so doth dant, 

That those beginnings makes men not to granU 

lohn Smith writ this with his owne hand. 

Here folio weth a briefe Discourse 

of the trials of New England, with cer- 

taine Obseruations of the Hollanders vse and 

gaine by fishing, and the present estate of that 

happy Plantation, begun but by sixtie weake 

men, in the yeere of our Lord 1620, and 

how to build a fleet of good ships to 

make a little Nauy Royall, by 

the former Author. 

E saith, that it is more then foure and 
forty yeeres agoe [i.e., by 1577], and it 
is more then fortie yeeres agoe [1577] 
since he writ it ; that the Herring 
Busses out of the Low Countries vnder 
the King of Spaine, were fiue hundred, 
besides one hundred French men, and 
three or foure hundred saile of Flemings. 
The Coast of Wales and Lancashire was vsed by 300 
Saile of Strangers. 

Ireland at Beltamore, fraughted yeerely three hundred 
saile of Spaniards, where King Edward the sixt intended to 
haue made a strong Castle, because of the straight, to haue 
tribute for fishing. 

Black Rocke was yerely fished by three or foure hundred 
saile of Spaniards, Portugals, and Biskiners. 

The Hollanders raise yeerely by Herring, Cod, and Ling, 
thirty [or rather three hundred] thousand pounds. 

English and French, by Salt-fish, Poore-Iohn, Salmons, 
and Pilchards, three hundred [or rather thirty] thousand 

[pp. 749-69-1 

IPP. 773-5-1 


Master Dee 
his report. 

[pp. 238,254.] 

The benefit 
of fishing, 
as Master 
and others 

744 Tke benefit of fishing, according Lib. 6. y^J; 

[1620] Hambrough and the Sound, for Sturgion, Lobsters and 

Eeles, one hundred thousand pounds. 

Cape Blanke for Tunny and Mullit, by the Biskiners and 
Spaniards, thirty thousand pounds. 

That the Duke of Medina receiueth yeerely tribute of 

the Fishers, for Tunny, Mullit, and Porgos, more then ten 

thousand pounds. 

o?J/5S? s Lnbecke hath seuen hundred [228] ships; Hambrough six 

and other hundred ; Emden [but] lately a Fisher towne, one thousand 

obseruen. foure hundred: whose customes by fishing hath made them 

so powerfull as they be. 

Holland and Zeland not much greater then Yorkeshire, 
hath thirty walled Townes, foure hundred Villages, and 
twenty thousand saile of Ships and Hoies; three thousand 
[>■ *39-l six hundred [ships] are Fisher-men, whereof one hundred 
are Doggers, seuen hundred Pinkes and Well-Boats, seuen 
hundred Fraud-boats, Britters, and Tode-boats, with 
thirteene hundred Busses ; besides three hundred that 
yeerely fish about Yarmouth, where they sell their fish for 
Gold : and fifteene yeeres agoe [1605] they had more then 
an hundred and sixteene thousand Sea-faring men. 
[/■ 255-) These fishing ships doe take yeerely two hundred thou- 

sand last of fish, twelue barrels to a last, which amounts 
to 3ooooo[o]. pounds by the fisher mens price, that 14. 
yeeres agoe [1606] did pay for their tenths three hundred 
thousand pound ; which venting in Pumerland, Sprustia, 
Denmarke,Lef eland, Russia, Swethland, Germany, Netherlands, 
England, or else where, &c. makes their returnes in a 
yeere about threescore and ten hundred thousand pounds, 
which is seuen millions ; and yet in Holland there is 
neither matter to build ships nor merchandize to set them 
forth, yet by their industry they as much increase as other 
nations decay. 

But leauing these vncertainties as they are, of this I am 

That the coast of England, Scotland and Ireland, the 
North Sea with Island and the Sound, Newfound-land and 
Cape Blanke, doe serue all Europe, as well the land townes 
as ports, and all the Christian shipping, with these sorts 
of staple fish, which is transported from whence it is taken 

i'J^et] Lib. 6. to ancient Authors. 745 

many a thousand mile, viz. Herring, salt Fish, Poore-Iohn, [1614-7] 
Sturgion, Mullit, Tunny, Porgos, Cauiare, Buttargo. 

Now seeing all these sorts of fish, or the most part of 
them may be had in a land more fertill, temperate, and 
plentifull of all necessaries for the building of ships, boats 
and houses, and the nourishment of man ; the seasons are 
so proper, and the fishings so neere the habitations we 
may there make, that New-England hath much aduantage 
of the most of those parts, to serue all Europe farre 
cheaper then they can, who at home haue neither wood, 
salt, nor food, but at great rates ; at Sea nothing but what 
they carry in their ships, an hundred or two hundred 
leagues from the habitation. But New-Englands fishings 
is neere land, where is helpe of Wood, Water, Fruits, 
Fowles, Corne or other refreshings needfull, and the ip. 240.] 
Terceras, Mederas, Canaries, Spaine, Portugal!, Prouaues, 
Sauoy, Sicillia, and all Italy, as conuenient markets for our 
dry fish, greene fish, Sturgion, Mullit, Cauiare and But- 
targo, as Norway, Swethland, Littuania or Germany for their 
Herring, which is heare also in abundance for taking; 
they returning but Wood, Pitch, Tar, Sope-ashes, Cordage, [/• 256.] 
Flax, Wax, and such like commodities : wee Wines, Oiles, 
Sugars, Silkes, and such merchandize as the Straits 
[i.e., of Gibraltar] offoord [afford] ; whereby our profit may 
equalize theirs, besides the increase of shipping and 
Marriners : and for proofe hereof. 

In the yeere of our Lord 1614. you haue read how 1614. 
I went from London: also the next yeere 1615. how foure 1615. 
good ships went from London, and I with two more from 
Plimoth, with all our accidents, successes and returnes : in 
the yeere 1616. ere I returned [Dec. 1615J from France, the £#.a4«,«S7-l 
Londoners for all their losse by the Turkes, sent foure 1616. 
ships more ; foure more also went from Plimoth. 

After I returned from France, I was perswaded againe to 
goe to Plimouth, with diuers of my friends with one hun- [/■ 740-] 
dred pound for our aduentures besides our charges ; but wee 
found all things as vntoward as before, and all their great 
promises nothing but aire : yet to prepare the voyage against 
the next yeere, hauing acquainted a great part of the 1617. 

746 New-Englands trialls. Lib. 6. [J; 


ec. 1620. 

[1617-8] Nobility with it, and ashamed to see the Prince his High- 
nesse till I had done some what worthy his Princely view; I 
spent that Summer [1616] in visiting the Cities and Townes 
Mysutijte of Bristoll, Exeter, Bastable, Bodnam, Perin, Foy, Milborow, 
country. Saltash, Dartmouth, Absom, Tattnesse, and the most of the 
(M267, 748, Gentry in Cornew all and Deuonshire, giuing them Bookes and 
941,1 Maps, shewing how in six moneths the most of [229] those 

ships had made their voyages, and some in lesse, and with 
what good successe ; by which incitation they seemed so 
well contented, as they promised twenty saile of ships 
should goe with mee next yeere [1617], and in regard of 
my paines, charge, and former losses, the westerne Com- 
missioners in behalfe of themselues and the rest of the 
Company, and them hereafter that should be ioyned to 
them, contracted with me by articles indented vnder our 
hands, to be Admirall of that Country during my life, and 
in the renewing of their Letters-Patents so to be nomi- 
nated. Halfe the fruits of our endeuours to be theirs, the 
rest our owne ; being thus ingaged, now the businesse is 
made plaine and likely to prosper, some of them would not 
onely forget me and their promises, but also obscure me, 
as if I had neuer beene acquainted in the businesse : but I 
am not the first they haue deceiued. 
1618. There was foure good ships prepared at Plimoth, but by 

[ //.24i,a 5 7. ] reason of their disagreement, the season so wasted, as 
onely two went forward: the one being of two hundred 
tunnes, returned well fraught to Plimoth, and her men in 
health, within flue moneths ; the other of fourescore 
tunnes, went for Bilbow with drie fish and made a good 
[#.217,323, In this voyage Edward Rowcroft, alias Stallings, a valiant 
732,736,1 Souldier, that had beene with me in Virginia, and was 
with me also when I was betrayed by the French, was sent 
againe in those ships, and hauing some wrong offered him 
there by a French man, he tooke him [i.e., his ship], and as 
he writ to me, went with him to Virginia with fish, to 
trade with them for such commodities as they might spare. 
He had not past ten or twelue men, and knew both those 
countries well, yet he promised me the next spring to 
meet me in New-England; but the ship and he both 
perished in Virginia. 

c. 1620. 

] Lib. 6. New-Englands trialls. 747 

l*. 94I-] 

542, 770.] 

This yeere againe, diuers ships intending to goe from [1619-20] 
Plimoth, so disagreed, there went but one of two hundred 1619. 
tunnes, who stayed in the Country about six weeks, which l #ff 2 > 
with eight and thirty men and boies had her fraught, which 
she sold at the first penny for 2100. [pounds] besides the 
Furres : so that euery poore Sailer that had but a single 
share had his charges and sixteene pound ten shillings for 
his seuen moneths worke. 

Master Thomas Dirmire an vnderstanding and industrious 
Gentleman, that was also with me amongst the French \j>p. 3)7 
men, hauing liued about a yeere in Newfoundland, returning 732,] 
to Plimoth, went for New-England in this ship, so much 
approued of this Country, that he staied there with hue or 
six men in a little Boat ; finding two or three French men 
amongst the Saluages who had lost their ship, [he] aug- 
mented his company, with whom he ranged the Coast to M£"gj 
Virginia : where he was kindly welcommed and well re- 
freshed [Nov. 1 6 19], thence returned to New-England againe ; 
where hauing beene a yeere, in his backe returne to Virginia 
[162 1] he was so wounded by the Saluages, he died vpon it. 

Let not men attribute these their great aduentures, and 
vntimely deaths to vnfortunatenesse, but rather wonder 
how God did so long preserue them with so small meanes 
to doe so much ; leauing the fruits of their labours to be an 
incouragement to those our poore vndertakings, and as 
warnings for vs not to vndertake such great workes with 
such small meanes : and this for aduantage as they writ 
vnto me, that God had laid this Country open for vs, and 
slaine the most part of the inhabitants by ciuill warres and 
a mortall disease, for where I had seene one hundred or 
two hundred Saluages, there is scarce ten to be found, and W- 7«% 1 
yet not any one of them [Dermer's crew] touched with any 
sicknesse but one poore French man that died. 

754. 933-1 

They say this plague vpon them thus sore fell, 

It was because they pleas 'd not Tantum well. ^sVw-l 

From the West Country to make triall this yeere onely 1620. 
to fish, is gone six or seuen saile, three of which I am 
certainly informed made so good a voyage, that euery 
Sailer that had a single share had twenty pound for his 

748 New-Englands trialls. Lib. 6. ["ik?^ 

Ljuly 1624. 

[1620-1] seuen moneths work, which is more then in twenty 
moneths he should haue gotten, had he gone [230] for 
wages any where. 

Now although these former ships haue not made such 
good voiages as they expected, by sending opinionated 
vnskilfull men, that had not experienced diligence to saue 
that they tooke, nor take that there was, which now 
patience and practice hath brought to a reasonable kinde 
of perfection ; in despight of all detractors and calumnia- 

[//.a4»,*59-] tions, the Country yet hath satisfied all, the defect hath 
beene in their vsing or abusing it, not in it selfe nor me : 

A due desert, for fortune makes prouision 

For Knaues and Fooles, and men of base condition. 

thISt2' eto £)^^SOw all these proofes and this relation I now 
called New-Englands triall. I caused two or 
three thousand of them to be printed : one thou- 
sand with a great many Maps both of Virginia 
?66,9 4 4*'.] and New-England, I presented to thirty of the chiefe Com- 
panies in London at their Halls, desiring either generally 
or particularly (them that would) to imbrace it, and by the 
vse of a stocke of fiue thousand pound, to ease them of the 
superfluity of the most of their companies that had but 
strength and health to labour. 

Neere a yeere [1621] I spent to vnderstand their resolu- 
tions, which was to me a greater toile and torment, then to 
haue beene in New-England about my businesse but with 
bread and water, and what I could get there by my labour; 
but in conclusion, seeing nothing would be effected, I was 
contented as well with this losse of time and charge, as all 
[>. 74 6.] the rest. 


A Plantation in New-England. i 8 2o. 

Pon these inducements some few well [1620] 
disposed Gentlemen, and Merchants of u>. a5 9.] 
London and other places, prouided two 
ships, the one of a hundred and three- 
score tunnes, the other of threescore and 
ten. They left the Coast of England the 
two and thirtieth {twentieth} of August 
[1620] , with about a hundred and twenty 
persons; but the next day the lesser ship sprung a leake,that 
forced their returne to Plimoth : where discharging her and \p. 260.] 
twenty passengers ; with the greater ship and one hundred 
passengers besides Sailers, they set saile againe the sixt of 
September [1620], and the ninth of Nouember fell with Cape 

But being pestred nine weekes in this leaking vnwhol- 
some ship, lying wet in their Cabins, most of them 
grew very weake and weary of the Sea ; then for want of 
experience, ranging two [weeks], and againe six weekes, 
before they found a place they liked to dwell on ; forced to 
lie on the bare ground without couerture: forty of them died, 
and threescore were left in very weake estate, at the ships 
comming away, about the fifth of Aprill following, and 
[she] arriued in England the sixth of May [1621]. 

Though the Harbour [at Cape Cod, pp. 205, 719] be good, 
the shore is so shallow, they were forced to wade a great 
way vp to the knees in water, and vsed that that did them 
much hurt ; and little fish they found but Whailes, and a 
great kinde of Mustell so fat, that few did eat of them that 
were not sicke : these miseries ocasioned some discord, and 
gaue some appearance of faction ; but all was so reconciled, 
that they vnited themselues by common consent vnder 
their hands, to a kinde of combination of a body politike, 

iourny by 

750 A Plantation in New- England. Lib. 6. ^f^^Sii 

[1620] by vertue whereof to inact and constitute lawes and 
ordinances, and Officers from time to time, as should bee 
thought most conuenient for their generall good. 

Thdrfir>t Sixteene or seuenteene daies they could doe little for 
want of their Shallcp which was a mending ; yet Captaine 
Miles Standish, vnto whom was ioyned in Councell, William 
Bradfor[d), Stephen Hopkins and Edward Tilly, went well 
armed ashore ; and by that time they had gone a mile, [they] 
met fiue or six Indians that fled into the Woods. 

We traced them by the footing eight or ten miles, then 
the night approaching we made a fire, by which we lay that 
night; and the next morning followed the Saluages by their 
tract, thinking to finde their habitations, but by [231] the 
way we found a Deere amongst many faire springs of water, 
where we refreshed our selues. Then we went a shore and 
made a fire, that they at the ship might perceiue where we 
were, and so marched to a place where we supposed was 
a Riuer ; by the way we saw many Vines, Saxefras, haunts 
of Deere and Fowle, and some fifty Acres of plaine ground 
[that] had beene planted by the Indians, where were some of 
their graues : from thence we followed a path that brought 
vs through three or foure fields that had bin planted that 
yeere ; in one graue we digged, we found a basket or two 
of Indian Corne, so much as we could carry we tooke with 
vs, the rest we buried as we found it, and so proceeded to 
the place we intended, but we found it not such a Harbour 
as we expected. And so we returned, till the night caused 
vs [to] take vp our lodging vnder a tree ; where it rained six 
or seuen houres. 

The next morning, as we wandred, we passed by a tree, 
where a young sprig was bowed downe ouer a bough, and 
some Acornes strewed vnder it, which was one of their Gins 
to catch a Deere ; and as we were looking at it, Bradford 
was suddenly caught by the leg in a noosed Rope, made as 
artificially as ours. As we passed we see a lease of Bucks, 
sprung some Partriges, and great flocks of wilde Geese and 
Ducks ; and so we returned well wearied to our ship. 

Thdr first Master Iones our Master with foure and thirty men, also 

wurny by ... 

Shallop. went vp and downe in the frost and snow, two or three 
daies, in the extremity of the cold ; but could finde no 

^^/uiyTSJ LlB - 6 - A plantation in New-England. 751 

harbour : only among the old graues we got some ten [1620] 
bushels of Come, some Beanes, and a bottle of Oile ; and 
had we not thus haply found it, we had had no Come for 
seede, so that place we euer called Come-hill. 

The next day, Master Iones with the Come and our weakest 
men returned to the Ship : but eighteene of vs quartered 
there that night, and in the morning following the paths, 
wee found in the Snow in a field a greater hill or graue then 
the rest, digging it wee found first a Mat, vnder that a 
boord three quarters long, painted and carued with three 
Tyns at the top like a Cronet, betweene the Mats also 
were Bowles, Traies and Dishes and such trash, at length 
we found a faire new Mat, and vnder that two bundles, 
the one biggar the other lesse ; in the greater wee found a 
great quantity of fine red powder like a kinde of imbalme- 
ment, and yeelded a strong but no offensiue smell, with 
the bones and skull of a man that had fine yellow haire 
still on it, and some of the flesh vnconsumed, a Knife, a 
Pack-needle, and two or three old Iron things was bound 
vp in a Sailers canuase Cassocke, also a paire of cloth 
Breeches ; in the lesse bundle we found likewise of the 
same powder, and the bones and head of a little childe ; 
about the legs and other parts of it was bound strings and 
braslets of white beades, there was also a little Bow, and 
some other odde knacks, the prettiest we tooke, and 
couered againe the corps as they were. Not farre from 
thence were two of their houses, where were a great deale 
of their miserable houshold stuffe ; which we left as wee 
found, and so returned to our Boat, and lay aboord that night. 

Many arguments we had to make here our Plantation or 
not. In the Int[e]rim, Mistris White was brought to bed of 
a young sonne, which was called Perigrine ; and a Sailer 
shooting at a Whale, his peece flew in peeces stocke and 
all, yet he had no hurt. A foolish boy discharging his fathers 
peece hard by halfe a barrell of Powder, and many people by 
it ; it pleased God it escaped firing, so that no hurt was done. 

But to make a more certaine discouery where to seat 
our selues, Captaine Standish, Master Caruer, William 
Branford [Bradford], Edward Winslo[w]e, Iohn Tilly, Edward 
Tilly, with diuers others to the number of seuenteene, vpon 


7 5 2 The description of N ew- E ngland. 

Ljg A rtfi-Win* 1 ^ 

6. [ 

iz Dec. 1621. 


Their second 
iourney by 
water to 
finde a place 
to plant in. 

Their first 

fight with 



lA 754-] 

The descrip- 
tion of their 
place to 
plant in. 

Boy borne 
in New- 

the sixt of December [1620] set saile; and hauing sailed six 
or seuen leagues, we espied eight or ten Saluages about a 
dead Grampus : still following the shore we found two 01 
three more cast vp by the ill weather. Many we see in the 
water, therefore we called it Grampus Bay. Ships may ride 
well in it, but all the shore is very shallow flats of sand. 

At last seuen or eight of vs went a shore, many fields 
we saw where the Saluages had inhabited, and a buriall 
place incompassed with a Palizado, so we returned to our 
Shallop : [232] in the night we heard a hideous cry and 
howling of Wolues and Foxes. 

In the morning as we were ready to goe into our Shal- 
lop, one of our men being in the woods, came running 
crying, Indians, Indians ; and with all their Arrowes flying 
amongst vs, some of our men being in the boat, and their 
Armes a shore : so well it chanced, Captaine Standish with 
two or three more discharged their peeces till the rest 
were ready. One Saluage more stout then the rest, kept 
vnder a tree, till he had shot three or foure Arrowes, 
and endured three or foure Musket shot ; but at last they 
all fled. This was about breake of day in the morning, when 
they saw vs, and we not them. 

Hauing the wind faire, we sailed along the coast 8. or 
10. leagues, thinking to haue got to a Harbour where one 
of our company had beene, within 8. leagues of Cape Cod, 
for neither cricke nor Harbour in this bay we could finde ; 
and the wind so increased, our Rudder broke, and our 
Mast flew ouer-boord, that we were in danger to be cast 
away : but at last it pleased God we were in a harbor we 
knew not, thinking it [the] one we were acquainted with; 
this we found to be an He where we rid that night. 

And hauing well viewed the land about it, and sounded 
the Bay to be a good Harbour for our ship, compassed with 
good land, and in it two faire lies ; where there is in their 
seasons innumerable store of all sorts of fish and fowle, 
good water, much plaine land, which hath beene planted : 
with this newes we returned to our ship ; and with the next 
faire wind brought her thither, being but within the sight 
of Cape Cod. In the meane time Goodwife Alderton was 
deliuered of a sonne, but dead borne. 

Vpon the 28. of December [1620], so many as could 

Ed ' by j{iy^!;:] Lib- 6. The description of New-England. 753 

went to worke vpon the hill, where we purposed to build [1620-1] 
our Platforme [battery or fort] for our ordnance : which JJ^^-jJ 
doth command all the Plaine and the Bay, and from whence 
wee may see far into the Sea; and be easily impailed. So 
in the afternoone we went to measure out the grounds, and 
diuided our company into 19. families, alotting to euery 
person a poule in bredth and three in length : and so we 
cast lots where euery man should lie, which we staked 
out ; thinking this proportion enough at the first to impale 
for lodgings and gardens. 

Francis Billington from the top of a tree seeing a great Two fair* 
water some three miles from vs in the land, went with the 
Masters Mate, and found it two great Lakes of fresh water : 
the bigger fiue or six miles in circuit, and an He in it of a 
Cables length square; the other three miles in compasse, 
full of fish and fowle, and two brooks issuing from it ; 
which will be an excellent helpe in time for vs. Where they 
saw seuen or eight Indian houses, but no people. 

Foure being sent a mile or two from our plantation, two of ^ loat 
them stragling into the woods was lost, for comming to a {J*™ sell,es 
Lake of water they found a great Deere, hauing a mastiue woods. 
Bitch and a Spanell with them, they followed so farre they 
could not findethe waybacke. That afternoone it rained,and 
did freeze and snow at night : their apparell was very thin, 
and had no weapons but two sickles, nor any victuals ; nor 
could they finde any of the Saluages habitations. When 
the night came they were much perplexed that they had 
no other bed then the earth, nor couerture then the skies ; 
but that they heard, as they thought, two Lions roaring a 
long time together very nigh them, so not knowing what 
to doe, they resolued to climbe vp into a tree, though that 
would be an intolerable cold lodging ; expecting their 
coming they stood at the trees root, and the bitch they 
held fast by the necke, for shee would haue beene gone to 
the Lions or what they were, that as it chanced came not 
nigh them. So they watched the tree that extreme cold 
night, and in the morning trauelling againe, passing by 
many lakes, brooks and woods, and in one place where the 
Saluages had burnt 4. or 5. miles in length, which is a fine 
champion Country ; in the afternoone they discouered the 
two lies in their Bay, and so that night, neere famished, 



Their conference and Lib. 6. [ ? ,f jJJ™ 


[1621] they got to their Plantation : from whence they had sent 
our men euery way to seeke them. 

That night the house they [the Pilgrim Fathers] had 
built and thatched, where lay their armes, bedding, powder, 
&c. tooke fire and was burnt. The Coast is so shoule, [that] 
the ship rides more then a mile from the Fort : but God be 
thanked no man was hurt, though much was burnt. [233J 

Their first 
with a 

747. 933-1 

(/• 75*1 

The second 

\PP> 73«. . 
747. 757.1 

All this time we could not haue conference with a 
Saluage, though we had many times seene them and had 
many alarums : so that we drew a Councell, and appointed 
Captaine Standish to haue the command of all martiall 
actions ; but euen in the time of consultation, the Saluages 
gaue an alarum. 

The next day also, as wee were agreeing vpon his 
[Standish's] orders, came a tall Saluage boldly amongst vs, 
not fearing any thing, and kindly bad vs welcome in English. 
He was a Sagamo, towards the North, where the ships 
vse to fish, and did know the names of most of the 
Masters that vsed thither: such victuall as we had we 
gaue him, being the first Saluage we yet could speake with. 

He told vs this place where we were was called Patuxet, 
and that all the people three or foure yeeres agoe [1617-18J 
there died on the plague. In a day or two we could not 
be rid of him ; then he returned to the Massasoyts from 
whence he came, where is some sixty people : but the 
Nawsits are 100. strong, which were they [who] encountred 
our people at the first. 

Two daies after, this Samoset, for so was his name, came 
againe, and brought fiue or six of the Massasoyts with him, 
with certaine skinnes, and certaine tooles they had got 
that we had left in the woods at their alarums: much 
friendship they promised, and so departed; but Samoset would 
not leaue vs, but fained himselfe sicke, yet at last he went 
to entreat the Saluages [to] come againe to confirme a peace. 

Now the third time, as we were consulting of our 
Marshall orders, two Saluages appeared; but when we 
went to them they vanished : not long after came Samoset, 
and Squanto, a natiue of Patuxet where we dwell, and one 
of them carried into Spaine by Hunt [pp. 219, 698], thence 
brought into England, where a good time he liued : and now 

Ed ^1^624:] Lib. 6. conditions with the Saluages. 755 

here signified vnto vs, their great Sachem of Massasoyt, with [1621] 
Quadaquina his brother, and all their men, was there by to 
see vs. Not willing to send our Gouernour, we sent Edward 
Wollisio [Winslow] with presents to them both, to know 
their minds; making him to vnderstand by his Interpreters 
how King lames did salute him and was his friend. 

After a little conference, with twenty of his men he 
came ouer the brooke to our Plantation, where we set 
him vpon a rug ; and then [we] brought our Gouernour to 
him with Drums and Trumpets : where after some cir- 
cumstances, for they vse few complements, we treated of 
peace with them to this effect. 

That neither he nor any of his should iniury or doe Their 
hurt to any of vs ; if they did, he should send vs the S'piSI 1 
offender, that we might punish him : and wee would 
doe the like to him. 

If any did vniustly warre against him, we would aid 

him, as he should vs against ourenemies; and to send to 

his neighbour confederats to certifie them of this, that 

they might likewise be comprised in these conditions. 

That when any of them came to vs, they should 

leaue their Bow and Arrowes behinde them ; as we 

would our peeces, when we came to them. 

All which the King seemed to like well of, and was 

applauded of his followers. In his person hee is a very 

lusty man, in his best yeeres, an able body, graue of 

countenance, and spare of speech : in his attire little 

differing from the rest. 

After all was done, the Gouernour conducted him to the 
brooke, but kept our hostage till our messengers returned ; 
in like manner we vsed Quaddaquina: so all departed good 

Two of his people would haue staied with vs, but wee 
would not permit them, onely Samoset and Squanto wee 
entertained kindly; as yet [11 Dec. 1621] wee haue found 
they intend to keepe promise, for they haue not hurt our 
men they haue found stragling in the Woods, and are 
afraid of their powerfull Aduersaries the Narrohiggansets, 
against whom hee hopes to make vse of our helpe. 

The next day, Squanto went a fishing for Eeles, and in 
an houre he did tread as many out of the 0[o]se with his 

756 [Their voyage to Pakanoki(ck).] Lib. 6. [^ 

Dec. 1 6a i. 

[1621] feet as he could lift with his hand, not hauing any other 

a iour- But that we might know their habitations so well as 

VakixuM. they ours, Stephen Hopkins and Edward Winslo[w) had 
Squantum for their guide and Interpreter, [and were sent] to 
Packanoki, the habitation of the King of Massasoyt, with a 
red horsemans coat for a present, to entreat him by reason 
we had not victuall to entertaine them [234]as we would, 
he would defend his people so much from visiting vs; and if 
hee did send, he should alwaies send with the Messenger a 
copper Chaine theygaue him, that theymight knowhecame 
from him, and also giue them some of his Come for seede. 
That night they lodged at Namascet, some fifteene miles 
off: by the way we found ten or twelue women and 
children that still would pester vs till we were weary of 
them; perceiuing it is the manner of them, where victuall 
is to bee gotten with most ease, there they will Hue : but 
on that Riuer of Namaschet haue beene many habitations 
of the Saluages that are dead, and the land lies waste ; and 
the Riuer abounding with great plenty of fish, and hath 
beene much frequented by the French, 
c^ageof The next day, trauelling with six or seuen Indians, 
s«°,£ c L where we were to wade ouer the Riuer, did dwell onely 
two old men of that Nation then liuing : that thinking vs 
enemies, sought the best aduantage they could to fight 
with vs, with a wonderfull shew of courage ; but when 
they knew vs their friends, they kindly welcommed vs. 
kTiT ™«i After, we came to a towne of the Massasoits ; but at Pakanoki 
the King was not : towards night he arriued and was very 
proud, both of our message and presents, making a great 
oration to all his people. 

Was not he Massasoit, Commander of the country 

about him, was not such a towne his, and the people 

of it, and 20. townes more he named was his ? and 

should they not bring their skins to vs ? 

To which they answered, they were his and they would. 

Victual they had none, nor any lodging but a poore 

planke or two, a foot high from the ground, whereon his 

wife and he lay at the one end, we at the other, but a thin 

Mat vpon them ; two more of his chiefe men pressed by 


^'^/uiy^:] Lib. 6. Their voyage to Nawsit. 757 

and vpon vs, so that we were worse weary of our lodging [1623] 
then of our iourney. 

Although there is such plenty of fish and fowle and wild 
beasts, yet are they so lasie they will not take painesto catch 
it till meere hunger constraine them ; for in two or three 
daies we had scarce a meales meat, whereby we were so faint, 
we were glad to be at home : besides what for the fleas, and 
their howling and singing in the night in their houses, and 
the Musketas without doores, our heads were as light for 
want of sleepe, as our bellies empty for want of meat. 

The next voiagewe made was in a Shallop with ten men to a voyage tc 
Nawsit, sixteene miles from vs, to fetch a Boy [that] was lost aw " ' 
in the Woods we heard was there, whom A spinet their King 
had bedecked like a saluage : but very kindly he brought 
him to vs, and so returned well to Patuyet [i.e., Patuxet]. 

Mmediatly after the arriuall of the last ship, they 1621. 
sent another of flue and fifty tuns to supply \p. *io.\ 
them ; with seuen and thirty persons they set 
saile in the beginning of Iuly [1621], but being 
crossed by westernly winds, it was the end of August ere 
they could passe Plimoth, and arriued in New-England at 
New-Plimoth, now so called, the 11. of Nouember: where 
they found all the people they left so ill, lusty and well, 
for all their pouerties, except six that died. 

A moneth they stayed ere they returned to England, loaded 
with Clap-boord, Wainscot and Wallnut, with about three 
hogs-heads of Beuer skinnes, the 13. of December : and 
drawing neere our coast was set on by a French man set 
out by the Marquesse of Cera, Gouernour of He D[t]eu ; 
where they kept the ship, imprisoned the Master and 
company, tooke from them to the value of 500 pound : and 
after 14. daies sent them home with a poore supply of 
victuall, their owne being deuoured by the Marquesse and 
his hungry seruants. 

pw you are to vnderstand this 37. brought 
nothing, but relied wholly on vs ; to make vs 
more miserable then before : which the Sachem 
Couanacus no sooner vnderstood, but [he] sent ^ m739t 
to Tusquantum our Interpreter, a bundle of new arrowes 747. 75*4-1 

758 The treachery of Coubatant Lib. 6. [^fiJU 

E. Winslow. 

[1621] in a Snakesskinne. Tusquantumbeing absent, the Messenger 
departed: but when we vnderstood it was a direct challenge, 
we returned the skin full of powder and shot, with an 
absolute defiance ; which caused vs [to] finish our fortifi- 
cation with all expedition. Now betwixt our two Saluages, 
Tusquantum and Hobbamock, grew such great emulation, we 
had much adoe to know which best to trust. 

In a iourney we vndertooke, in our way we met a 
Saluage of Tusquantums, that had cut his face [235] fresh 
bleeding, to assure vs Massasoyt our supposed friend, had 
drawne his forces to Packanokick to assault vs. Hobo- 
mak as confidently assured vs it was false, and sent his 
wife as an espy to see ; but when she perceiued all was 
well, shee told the King Massasoyt how Tusquantum had 
abused him. Diuers Saluages also hee had caused to be- 
leeue we would destroy them, but he would doe his best 
to appease vs ; this he did onely to make his Country- 
men beleeue what great power hee had with vs to get 
bribes on both sides, to make peace or warre when he 
would : and the more to possesse them with feare, he per- 
swaded many, we had buried the plague in our store house ; 
which wee could send when we listed whither wee would. 

But at last all his knauery being discouered, Massasowat 
sent his knife with Messengers for his head or him, being 
his subiect. With much adoe, we appeased the angry King 
and the rest of the Saluages, and freely forgaue Tusquantum; 
because he speaking our language, we could not well be 
without him. 

A iourney to the Towne of Namaschet, in defence 

of the King of Massasoyt, against the 

Narrohigganses ; and the supposed 

death of Squantum. 

Great difference there was betwixt the Narro- 
higganses and the Massasoytes, that had alwaies 
a iealousie ; [and] Coubatant one of their petty 
Sachems was too conuersant with the Narrohig- 
ganses. This Coubatant liued much at Namaschet, and much 
stormed at our peace with his King and others ; also at 

Edl by /uiy^4:] LlB 6 - and honesty of Hobamak. 759 

Squantum, and Tokamahamon, and Hobomak our friends, D-621] 
and chiefe occasioners of our peace, for which he sought 
to mu[r]ther Hobomak, Yet Tokamahamon went tohim,vpon 
a rumour he had taken Masasoyt prisoner, or forced him 
from his Country; but the other two would not, but in priuat 
to see if they could heare what was become of their King. 

Lodging at Namaschet they were discouered to Coubatant, 
who surprized the house and tooke Squantum ; saying, if 
hee were dead the English had lost their tongue : Hobomak 
seeing that, and [that] Coubatant held a knife at his 
brest, being a strong lusty fellow, brake from them ; and 
came to New-Plimoth, full of sorrow for Squantum, whom 
he thought was slaine. 

The next day, we sent ten men with him armed, to be t^t. 
reuenged on Coubatant; who conducted vs neere Namaschet, lavages, 
where we rested and refreshed our selues til midnight, and 
then we beset the house as we had resolued. Those that 
entred the house demanded for Coubatant, but the 
Saluages were halfe dead with feare: we charged them not 
to stirre, for we came to hurt none but Coubatant, for 
killing Squantum. Some of them seeking to escape was 
wounded ; but at last perceiuing our ends, they told vs 
Coubatant was gone and all his men, and Squantum was 
yet liuing, and in the towne. In this hurly burly we dis- 
charged two peeces at randome, which much terrified all 
the inhabitants except Squantum and Tokamahamon; who 
though they knew not the end of our comming, yet as- 
sured themselues of our honesties, that we would not hurt 
them. The women and children hung about Hobomak, 
calling him friend; and when they saw we would hurt no 
women, the young youths cryed we are women. To be 
short, we kept them all ; and whilest we were searching the 
house for Coubatant, Hobomak had got to the top, and 
called Squantum and Tokamahamon; which came vnto vs 
accompanied with others, some armed, others naked. 
Those that had bowes we tooke them from them, promising 
them againe when it was day. The house wee tooke for 
our quarter that night, and discharged the prisoners ; and 
the next morning went to breakfast to Squantums house. 

Thither came all them that loued vs to welcome vs, but 
all Coubatants faction was fled. Then we made them 
plainly know the cause of our comming, and if their King 

760 [New England trials in 162 1 #^1622.] Lib. 6. [ l6Ju iy l6aa . 

[1621-2] Massasoyt were not well, we would be reuenged vpon the 
Narrohiggansets, or any that should doe iniury to Hobomak, 
Squantum, or any of their friends. As for those [that] were 
wounded we were sorry for it, and offered our Surgion 
should heale them : of this offer a man and a woman 
accepted, that went [236] home with vs, accompanied 
with Squantum, and many other knowne friends, that 
offered vs all the kindnesse they could. 

t>. 361.] ^| \^£lf4 Rom the West of England there is gone ten 
or twelue ships to fish, which were all well 
fraughted ; those that came first at Bilbow, 
made seuenteene pound a single share, besides 
Beuers, Otters, and Martins skinnes: but some of the rest 
that came to the same ports, that were all ready furnished, so 
glutted the market, that the price was abated; yet all returned 
so well contented, that they are a preparing to goe againe. 
1622. There is gone from the West Countrey onely to fish, 

fiue and thirtie ships : and about the last of Aprill [1622] 
two more from London ; the one of one hundred tunnes, the 
other of thirtie, with some sixtie Passengers to supply the 
Plantation [i.e., Weston's men, see pp. 762, 764,892,942,946]. 

Now though the Turke and French hath beene somewhat 
too busie in taking our ships, would all the Christian 
Princes be truly at vnitie, as his Royall Maiestie our 
Soueraigne King lames desireth, seuentie Saile of good 
ships were sufficient to fire the most of his Coasts in the 
[/. «6a.] Leuant, and make such a guard in the Straights of 
Hellespont, as would make the great Turke himselfe more 
affraid in Constantinople, then the smallest Red-Crosse that 
crosses the Seas would be, either of any French Pickaroun, 
or the Pirats of A Igere, 

An abstract of dtuers Relations sent from the Colony 
in New England, Iuly 16. 1622. 

Notesand /^9w^ nce ^ e massacre m Virginia [on 22 Mar. 1622], 
though the Indians continue their wonted friend- 
ship, yet wee are more wary of them then before ; 
for their hands hath beene imbrued in much 
English bloud, onely by too much confidence, but not by 
force: and we haue had small supplies of any thing but men. 


M -*/ui??&5:] Lib. 6. [A digression by Captain Smith] 761 

I Ere I must intreat a little your fauours todigresse, [1622] 
they did not kill the English in Virginia, because 
they were Christians : but for their weapons 
and Copper, which were rare nouelties; but 
now they feare we may beat them out of their dens, which 
Lions and Tigers will not admit [of] but by force. But must 
this be an argument for an English man, and discourage any 
in Virginia or New England : No, for I haue tried them 
both, as you may reade at large in the Historie of Virginia ; 
notwithstanding since I came from thence, the Honourable IA a6 3-i 
Company hath beene humble suiters to his Maiestie, to 
get vagabonds and condemned men to goe thither ; nay, 
so the businesse hath beene so abused, that so much 
scorned was the name of Virginia, some did chuse to be 
hanged ere they would goe thither, and were. Yet for all 
the worst of spight, detraction, and discouragement, and this 
lamentable massacre, there is more honest men now [1622] 
suiters to goe, then euer hath beene constrained knaues. 
And it is not vnknowne to most men of vnderstanding, now 
happy many of those Collumners hath thought themselues 
that they might be admitted ; and yet pay for their passage 
to goe now to Virginia, and I feare mee there goeth too many 
of those that hath shifted heere till they could no longer ; 
and they will vse that qualitie there till they hazard all. 

To range this Countrey of New England in like manner, \p. 264.] 
I had but eight, as is said, and amongst their bruit con- 
ditions, I met many of their silly encounters, and I giue to»- i8 s. 
God thankes, without any hurt at all to me, or any with 6g8, 7I9<1 
mee. When your West-Countrey men were so wounded and 
tormented with the Saluages [p. 701J : though they had all 
the Politicke directions that had beene gathered from all the 
secret informations [that] could be heard of; yet they found 
little, and returned with nothing. I speak not this out of vaine- 
glory, as it may be some gleaners, or some who were neuer 
there may censure me ; but to let all men be assured by those 
examples, what those Saluages are, that thus strangely doe 
murder and betray our Countrymen. But to the purpose. 

He Paragon with thirtie seuen men sent to releeue \#. 964, 
them, miscarried twice vpon [237] our English ?66, 94, ° 
Coast, whereby they failed of their supplies. It 
is true, there hath beene taken one thousand 


How the Saluages contriue 

Lib. 6. [, E - 

10 Sept. 1623. 


They liued 
two yeeres 

Bas[s]es at a draught ; and in one night twelue Hogsheads 
of Herrings : but when they wanted all necessaries both 
for fishing and sustinance but what they could get with 
their naked industry, they indured most extreme wants ; 
hauing beene now neere two yeeres without any supply to 
any purpose, it is a wonder how they should subsist, much 
lesse so to resist the Saluages, fortifie themselues, plant 
sixtie acres of Come, besides their Gardens that were well 
replenished with many vsuall fruits. 


[/• 764-] 

Ut in the beginning of Iuly [1622], came in two 

ships of Master Westons; though we much wanted 

our selues, yet we releeued them what we could : 

and to requite vs, they destroied our Corne and 

Fruits then planted, and did what they could to haue 

done the like to vs. At last they were transported to 

Wichaguscusset at the Massachusets, where they abused the 

Saluages worse then vs. 

We hauing neither Trade, nor scarce any thing remain- 
ing, God sent in one Master I ones, and a ship of Westons 
[that] had beene at Monahigan amongst the Fisher-men, 
that for Beuer skinnes and such Merchandize as wee had, 
very well refreshed vs, though at deere rates. Weston left 
also his men a small Barke, and much good prouision ; 
and so set saile for England. Then wee ioyned with them 
to trade to the Southward of Cape Cod, twice or thrice 
wee were forced to returne ; first by the death of their 
Gouernor ; then the sicknesse of Captaine Standish. At 
last our Gouernor, Master Bradford, vndertooke it him- 
selfe to haue found the passage betwixt the Shoules and 
The death of the Maine. Then Tusquantum our Pilot died, so that we 
returned to the Massachusets, where we found the trade 
spoiled ; and nothing but complaints betwixt the Saluages 
and the English. At Nawset we were kindly vsed and had 
good trade : though we lost our Barge, the Saluages care- 
fully kept both her wracke, and some ten Ho[g]sheads of 
Corne three moneths ; and so we returned some by land, 
some in the ship. 

Captaine Standish being recouered, went to fetch them 
both, and traded at Namasket and Monomete, where the 


Ed ' *&?$%] Lib. 6. to murder all the English. 763 

people had the plague, a place much frequented with [1623] 
Dutch and French. Here the Sachem put a man to death £*^*£" s 
for killing his fellow at play ; wherein they are so violent, death 
they will play their coats from their backs, and also their InSShto 
wiues, though many miles from them. Sugo 

But our prouision decaying, Standish is sent to Malta- dweiiwith 
chist, where they pretended their wonted loue ; yet it plainly mens cfod, 
appeared they intended to kill him. Escaping thence, wee wL'a'good 
went to Monomete, where we found nothing but bad counten- Gl- 
ances. Heare one Wittuwamat a notable villaine, would 
boast how many French and English hee had slaine. This 
Champion presenting a Dagger to the Sachem Canacum, he 
had got from the English, occasioned vsto vnderstand how 
they had contriued to murder all the English in the Land; The^ 
but hauing such a faire opportunitie, they would begin heere mu^Vu 
with vs. Their scornfull vsage made the Captaine so pas- the English, 
sionate, to appease his anger and choler their intent made 
many faire excuses for satisfaction. Scar a lusty Saluage, 
alwaies seeming the most to effect vs, bestowed on vs the 
best presents he had without anyrecompence, saying; Hee 
was rich enough to bestow such fauours on his friends : yet 
had [he] vndertaken to kill the Captaine himselfe, but our 
vigilencies so preuented the aduantage they expected, we 
safely returned, little suspecting in him any such treachery. 

During this time, a Dutch ship was driuen a shore at Thesis 
Massasowat, whose King lay very sicke. Now because it is SI Mas- 
a generall custome then for all their friends to visit them : sasowa *' 
Master Window, and Master Hamden, with Habamok for 
their guide, were sent with such Cordialls as they had, to 
salute him. By the way they so oft heard the King was 
dead, Habamok would breake forth in those words. 

My louing Sachem, my louing Sachem, many haue I 
knowne, but neuer any like thee, nor shall euer see 
the like amongst the Saluages ; for he was no Her, nor 
bloudy and cruell like other Indians ; in anger soone 
reclaimed, he would be ruled by reason, not scorning 
the aduice of meane men, and gouerned his men better 
with a few strokes, then others with many : truly 
louing where he loued, yea he feared wee [238] had 
not a faithfull friend left amongst all his Countrey-men. 
Shewing how oft he had restrained their malice, much 

7 6 4 

The valour and courage Lib. 6. [^'s^ 510 ' 



His cure by 
the English. 

The King* 



A bad 

more, with much passion, he spoke to this purpose, till at 
last we arriued, where we found the Dutchmen but newly 
gone, and the house so full we could hardly get in. By 
their charmes they distempered vs that were well, much 
more him that was sicke ; women rubbing him to keepe 
heat in him : but their charmes ended, vnderstanding of 
vs, though he had lost his sight, his vnderstanding failed 
not ; but taking Winslow by the hand, said, Art thou 
Winslow, Oh Winslow, I shall neuer see thee againe ! 

Hobamock telling him what restauratiues they had 
brought, he desired to taste them. With much adoe they 
got a little Confexion of many comfortable Conserues into 
his mouth ; as it desolued he swallowed it ; then desoluing 
more of it in water, they scraped his tongue, which was 
al furred and swolne, and washed his mouth, and then 
gaue him more of it to eat, and in his drinke, that 
wrought such an alteration in him in two or three houres, 
his eies opened to our great contents. With this and such 
brothes as they there prouided for him, it pleased God 
he recouered : and thus the manner of his sicknesse and 
cure caused no small admiration amongst them. 

During the time of their stay to see his recouery, they 
had sent to New Plimoth for diuers good things for him ; 
which he tooke so kindly, that he fully reuealed all the 
former conspiracies against vs, to which he had oft beene 
moued : and how that all the people of Powmet, Nawset, 
Succonet, Mattachist, Manamet, Augawam, and Capawac, 
were ioyned to murder vs ; therefore as we respected our 
Hues, kill them of Massachuset that were the authors ; for 
take away the principals and the plot wil cease. 

Thus taking our leaues, and arriuing at our fort, we 
found our braue liberall friend of Pa[w]met drawing Standish 
to their Ambuscados ; which being thus discouered, we 
sent him away, as though he knew nor suspected any thing. 

Them [Weston* s Englishmen, pp. 760, 762] at the 
Massachusets, some were so vilde they serued the Saluages 
for victuall : the rest sent vs word the Saluages were so 
insolent, they would assault them though against theii 
Commission ; so fearefull they were to breake their Com- 
mission, so much time was spent in consultations, they 
all were famished, till Wassapincwat againe came and told 
them the day of their execution was at hand. 

■""Vu,!^:] Lib. 6 

of Captaine Standish. 


Then they {the Pilgrim Fathers] appointed Standish with 
eight chosen men, vnder colour of Trade, to catch them in 
their owne trap at Massachuset, and acquaint it with the 
English in the Towne : where arriuing he found none in 
the Barke, and most of the rest without Armes, or scarce 
clothes, wandering abroad, all so sencelesly secure, he 
more then wondered they were not all slaine. With much 
adoe he got the most of them to their Towne. 

The Saluages suspecting their plots discouered, Pecksnot 
a great man, and of as great a spirit, came to Habamak, who 
was then amongst them, saying; Te\\ Standish we know he 
is come to kill vs, but let him begin when he dare. Not long 
after many would come to the Fort and whet their Kniues 
before him, with many brauing speeches. One amongst the 
rest was by Wittawamat bragging he had a Knife, that on 
the handle had the picture of a womans face ; but at home 
I haue one [that] hath killed both French and English, and 
that hath a mans face on it ; and by and by these two must 
marrie : but this here, by and by shall see, and by and by 
eat, but not speake. Also Pecksnot being of a greater stature 
then the Captaine, told him, though he were a great 
Captaine he was but a little man ; and I though no Sachem, 
yet I am of great strength and courage. 

These things Standish bare patiently for the present ; 
but the next day seeing he could not get many of them 
together, but these two Roarers and two more ; being in a 
conuenient roome, and his company about him, Standish 
seased on Pecksnots Knife then hanging about his necke, 
wherewith he slewhim,and the rest slew Wittuwamat and the 
other Saluage : but the youth they tooke, who being Brother 
to Wittuwamat, and as villanous as himselfe, was hanged. 
It is incredible how many wounds they indured, catching at 
their weapons without any feare or bruit, till the last gasp. 

Habamack stood by all this time very silent, but all ended, he 
said, Yesterday Pecksnot bragged of his strength and stature, 
but I see you are big enough to lay him on the ground. [239] 

The Towne he left to the guard of Westons people : 
three Saluages more were slaine ; vpon which rumour 
they all fled from their houses. 

The next day, they met with a file of Saluages that let 
fly their Arrowes, shot for shot, till Hobamack shewed 


sent to sup 
presse the 





766 A wonderfull blessing, Lib. 6. [ Js™ n ^*; 

[1623] himselfe, and then they fled. For all this, a Saluage Boy 
to shew his innocency, came boldly vnto vs and told vs : 
Had the English Fugitiues [Weston* s men] but finished the 
three Canowes they were a making, to haue taken the 
ship, they would haue done as much to all the English ; 
which was onely the cause they had forborne so long. 

But now consulting and considering their estates, those 
that [chose] went in the Pinnace to Barty lies to get 
passage for England ; the rest to New Plimoth, where they 
were kindly entertained. The Sachem Obtakeest, and Powas, 
and diuers other [that] were guilty, the three fugitiues in 
their fury there slew : but not long after so distracted 
were those poore scattered people, they left their habi- 
tations, liuing in swamps; where with cold and infinite 
diseases they endured much mortalitie, suing for peace, and 
crying the God of England is angry with them. Thus you 
see where God pleases, as some flourish, others perish. 
1623. Now on all hands they prepare their ground, and about 

drought!" 16 tne niiddest of Aprill [1623], in a faire season they begin to 
la 94 aj plant till the latter end of May; but so God pleased, that in 
six weekes after the latter setting there scarcefell any raine ; 
so that the stalke [that] was first set, began to eare ere it 
came to halfe growth, and the last not like[ly] to yeeld any- 
thing at all. Our Beanes also seemed so withered, we 
iudged all vtterly dead, that now all our hopes were ouer- 
throwne, and our ioy turned into mourning. And more to 
^x!? 4 ' 76 *' our sorr ow, we heard of the twice returne of the Paragon, 
that now the third time was sent vs three moneths agoe, but 
no newes of her: onely the signes of a wracke we saw on the 
Coast, which wee iudged [to be] her. This caused not [only] 
euery of vs to enter into a priuate consideration betwixt God 
and our consciences; but most solemnly to humble our 
selues before the Lord by fasting and praying, to releeue 
our deiected spirits by the comforts of his mercy. In the 
morning when wee assembled all together, the skies were 
a wonderfuii as cleere, and the drought as like to continue as euer; yet 
Sipe n of and our exercise continued eight or nine houres. Before our 
God'*iou«. departure, the skies were all ouer-cast, and on the next 
morning distilled such soft, sweet, moderate showers, 
continuing foureteene daies, mixed with such seasonable 
weather, as it was hard tc say, whether our withered 

"*" ^jJnfTJ*'.] Lib. 6. and signe of God's loue. 767 

Come, or drooping affections were most quickned and [1623] 
reuiued ; such was the bounty and mercy of God. 

Of this thelndians by the meanes of Hobamock tooke notice, 
who seeing vs vse this exercise in the midst of the weeke, 
said ; It was but three daies since Sunday, and desired to 
know the reason : which when hee vnderstood, he and all 
of them admired the goodnesse of God towards vs, shewing 
the difference betwixt their coniurations and our praiers, 
and what stormes and dangers they oft receiue thereby. 

To expresse our thankfulnesse, we assembled together 
another day, as before; and either the next morning, 
or not long after, came in two ships to supply vs; and 
all their Passengers well except one, and he presently 
recouered. For vs, notwithstanding all these wants, there 
was not a sicke person amongst vs. 

The greater ship we returned fraught ; the other wee sent 
to the Southward, to trade vnder the command of Captaine 
Altom. So that God be thanked, we desire nothing but 
what we will returne Commodities to the value. 

Thus all men finde our great God he, 

That neuer wanted nature, 

To teach his truth, that onely he 

Of euery thing is Author. 

For this yeere [1623], from England is gone about fortie gjfygjj 
saile of ships, only to fish ; and, as I am informed, haue 
made a farre better voyage then euer. 

ow some new great obseruers will haue this [to 
bej an Hand, because I haue writ it is [240] the r/. 933-1 
Continent: others report, that the people are 
so bruit, they haue no religion, wherein surely 
they are deceiued ; for my part, I neuer heard of any 
Nation in the world which had not a Religion, deare, 
bowes and arrowes. They beleeue as doe the Virginians, Si?Ji on . 
of many diuine powers, yet of one aboue all the rest, as &>- 939-1 
the Southerne Virginians call their chiefe God Kewassa 
[p. 321], and that wee now inhabit Oke [p. 75], but both, their 
Kings, Werowance. The Massachusets call their great God 
Kiehtan, and their Kings there abouts Sachems : The Penob- 
scoteSj their greatest power Tantum, and their Kings Sagomos. 

768 The Indians Gouemment and Religion. Lib. 6. [^pi^Si 

[1623] Those where is this Plantation [New Plymouth], say 

Kiehtan made all the other Gods : also one man and one 
woman, and of them all mankinde, but how they became so 
dispersed they know not. They say, at first there was no 
King but Kiehtan that dwelleth farre westerly aboue the 
heauens, whither all good men goe when they die, and 
haue plentie of all things. The bad men goe thither also 
and knocke at the doore ; but he bids them goe wander in 
endlesse want and miserie, for they shall not stay there. 
They neuer saw Kiehtan, but they hold it a great charge 
and dutie, that one age teach another ; and to him they 
make feasts, and cry and sing for plentie and victorie, or 
any thing [that] is good. 

They haue another Power they call Hobatnock, which 
wee conceiue the Deuill, and vpon him they call to cure 
their wounds and diseases : when they are curable he 
perswades them he sent them, because they haue displeased 
him ; but if they be mortall, then he saith, Kiehtan sent 
them, which makes them neuer call on him in their 
sicknesse. They say this Hobamock appeares to them 
somtimes like a Man, a Deere, or an Eagle, but most 
commonly like a Snake; not to all, but only to their Powahs 
to cure diseases, and Vndeses, which is one of the chiefe 
next the King, and so bold in the warres, that they thinke 
no weapon can kill them : and those are such as coniure 
in Virginia, and cause the people to doe what they list. 
Their For their Gouernment : euery Sachem is not a King, 

Geuernment. k ut ^gjj. g rea t Sachems haue diuers Sachems vnder their 
protection, paying them tribute, and [who] dare make no 
warres without his knowledge ; but euery Sachem taketh 
care for the Widowes, Orphans, the aged and maimed, 
nor will they take any to first wife, but them in birth 
equall to themselues (although they haue many inferior 
Wiues and Concubins that attend on the principall), from 
whom he neuer parteth, but any of the rest when they list. 
They inherit by succession, and euery one knowes their 
owne bounds. To his men, hee giueth them land, also 
bounded : and what Deere they kill in that circuit, he 
hath the fore-part ; but if in the water, onely the skin. 
But they account none a man, till hee hath done some 
notable exploit : the men are most imploied in hunting, 

Ed-by juiyT<524.] Lib. 6. Obiections, Answers and Considerations. 769 

the women in slauery ; the younger obey the elders : 
their names are variable : they haue harlots and honest 
women ; the harlots neuer marrie, or else are widowes. 
They vse diuorcement, and the King commonly punisheth 
all offenders himselfe : when a maid is maried, she cutteth 
her haire, and keepes her head couered till it be growne 
againe. Their arts, games, musicke, attire, burials, and 
such like, differ very little from the Virginians, onely for 
their Chronicles they make holes in the ground, as the 
others set vp great stones. 

Out of the Relations of Master Edward Wins low. 


Ow I know the common question is, For An answer 
all those miseries, where is the wealth objections, 
they haue got, or the Gold or Siluer 
Mines ? To such greedy vnworthy 
minds I say once againe : The Sea is 
better then the richest Mine knowne, 
and of all the fishing ships that went 
well prouided, there is no complaint of 
losse nor misery, but rather an admiration of wealth, profit, 
and health. As for the land were it neuer so good, in two c#. 926, 
yeeres [1621-1623] so few, of such small experience, liuing 942 ' ] 
without supplies so well, and in health, it was an extra- 
ordinary blessing from God. But that with such small 
meanes they should subsist, and doe so much, to any vnder- 
standing judgement is a wonder. Notwithstanding, the 
vaine expectation of present gaine in some ; ambition in 
others, that to be great would haue all else slaues ; and 
the carelesnesse in prouiding supplies, hath caused those 
defailements in all those Plantations : and how euer some 
bad conditions will extoll the [241] actions of any Nation 
but their owne ; yet if we may giue credit to the Spaniards, 
Portugals, and French writings, they indured as many 
miseries, and yet not in twenty yeeres effected so much, 
nay scarce in fortie. 

Thus you may see plainly the yeerely successe from r/.a^.j 
New England by Virginia, which hath beene so costly to 
this Kingdome, and so deare to me ; which either to see 


770 Obiections, Answers and Considerations. Lib. 6. r^fSS! 

Ljuly 1624. 

[1622-4] perish, or but bleed ; Pardon me though it passionate me 

beyond the bounds of modesty, to haue beene sufficiently 

able to fore-see their miseries, and had neither power nor 

meanes to preuent it. By that acquaintance I haue with 

them, I call them my children ; for they haue beene my 

Wife, my Hawks, Hounds, my Cards, my Dice, and in 

totall, my best content, as indifferent to my heart as my 

left hand [is] to my right. And notwithstanding, all those 

„ miracles of disasters [that] haue crossed both them and me, 

fcJueTa"'* yet were there not an Englishman remaining (as God be 

imendVd thanked notwithstanding the massacre there are some 

£tt£from r ' s thousands), I would yet begin againe with as small meanes 

Virginia, as I did at first; not that I haue any secret encouragement 

Dec. d i6io, (I protest) more then lamentable experience : for all their 

PtHSbu- discoueries I haue yet heard of, are but Pigs of my owne 

£ h f ch i!dTn ^ ow ' nor more strange to me, then to heare one tell me 

hnPiitrimt, hee hath gone from Billingsgate and discouered Grauesend, 

X E'f.\llti Tilbury, Quinborow, Lee, and Margit, which to those [that] 

t>A 217, 35 8, did neuer heare of them, though they dwell in England, 

•*s.54^733'. might bee made some rare secrets and great Countries 

747,770.] vn £ nown e; except some few Relations of Master Dinner 

The In England, some are held great trauellers that haue seene 

voy^to Venice, and Rome, Madrill, Toledo, Siuill, Algere, Prague, or 

VhSnia Ragonsa, Constantinople, or Ierusalem, and the Piramides of 

o/av^T Egypt ; that thinke it nothing to goe to Summer lies, or 

Eng ' Virginia, which is as far as any of them ; and I hope in time 

will proue a more profitable and a more laudable iourney : 

as for the danger, you see our Ladies and Gentlewomen 

account it nothing now to goe thither ; and therefore I 

(>. a66.] hope all good men will better apprehend it, and not suffer 

them to languish in despaire, whom God so wonderfully 

and oft hath preserued. 

What here I haue writ by Relation, if it be not right I 
humbly intreat your pardons ; but I haue not spared any 
diligence to learne the truth of them that haue beene 
actors, or sharers in those voyages. In some particulars 
they might deceiue mee, but in the substance they could 
not : for few could tell me anything, except where they 
fished. But seeing all those [that] haue liued there, doe 
confirme more then I haue writ, I doubt not but all those 
testimonies with these new begun examples of Plantation, 

dct S i622."l Lib. 6. Obiec lions, Answers and Considerations. 771 

July 1624. J 

will moue both Citie and Country, freely to aduenture with [1622-4] 
me more then promises. 

But because some Fortune-tellers say, I am vnfortunate ; The 
had they spent their time as I haue done, they would against me. 
rather beleeue in God then their calculations, and perad- 
uenture haue giuen as bad an account of their actions; 
and therefore I intreat leaue to answer those obiecters, 
that thinke it strange, if this be true, I haue made no 
more vse of it, rest so long without imploiment, nor haue 
no more reward nor preferment. To which I say ; 

I thinke it more strange they should tax me, before they My answer. 
haue tried as much as I haue, both by land and sea, as 
well in Asia and Africa, as Europe and America ; where 
my Commanders were actors or spectators, they alwaies 
so freely rewarded me, I neuer needed [to] bee importunate, 
[n]or could I euer learne to beg. What there I got, I haue 
spent ; yet in Virginia I staied, till I left fiue hundred 
behinde me better prouided then euer I was; from which r/>.2 43 .] 
blessed Virgin (ere I returned) sprung the fortunate habi- 
tation of Summer lies. 

This Virgins Sister, now called New England, at my v. 267.) 
humble sute, by our most gracious Prince Charles, hath, beene [/. 232.] 
neere as chargeable to me and my friends : for all which, 
although I neuer got shilling but it cost mee a pound, yet 
I would thinke my selfe happy could I see their prosperities. 

But if it yet trouble a multitude to proceed vpon these Consider. 
certainties, what thinke you I vndertooke when nothing tlons * 
was knowne but that there was a vast land? I [242] 
neuer had power and meanes to doe any thing, though 
more hath beene spent in formall delaies then would haue 
done the businesse; but in such a penurious and miserable 
manner, as if I had gone a begging to build an Vniuersitie: 
where had men beene as forward to aduenture their purses, 
and performe the conditions they promised mee, as to crop 
the fruits of my labours, thousands ere this had beene 
bettered by these designes. Thus betwixt the spur of 
desire and the bridle of reason, I am neere ridden to 
death in a ring of despaire ; the reines are in your hands, 
therefore I intreat you [to] ease me, and those that thinke 
I am either idle or vnfortunate, may see the cause and 
know : vnlesse I did see better dealing, I haue had warn- 

772 The order, charge and Lib. 6. r ( L s T6«. 

Ljuue 1624. 

[1622-4] ing enough not to be so forward againe at euery motion 
vpon their promises, vnlesse I intended nothing but to 
carie newes ; for now they dare aduenture a ship, that 
when I went first would not aduenture a groat, so they 
may be at home againe by Michaelmas : which makes me 
remember and say with Master Hackluit ; Oh incredulitie 
the wit of fooles, that slouingly doe spit at all things faire, 
a sluggards Cradle, a Cowards Castle, how easie it is to 
be an Infidell. But to the matter. 

By this all men may perceiue, the ordinary performance 
of this voyage in flue or six moneths, the plentie of fish is 
most certainly approued ; and it is certaine, from Cannada 
and New England, within these sixyeeres [1615-1620] hath 
come neere twenty thousand Beuer skinnes. Now had 
each of these ships transported but some small quantitie 
of the most increasing Beasts, Fowles, Fruits, Plants, 
and Seeds, as I proiected ; by this time their increase 
might haue beene sufficient for more then one thousand 
men: But the desire of present gaine (in many) is so 
violent, and the endeuours of many vndertakers so 
negligent, euery one so regarding their priuate gaine, that 

l#.a44,«68.] it is hard to effect any publike good, and impossible to 
bring them into a body, rule, or order ; vnlesse both 
honesty, as well as authoritie and money, assist expe- 
rience. But your home-bred ingrossing Proiectors will 
at last finde, there is a great difference betwixt saying 
and doing, or those that thinks their directions can be as 
soone and easily performed, as they can conceit them ; or 
that their conceits are the fittest things to bee put in 
practise, or [that] their countenances maintaine Plantations. 
But to conclude, the fishing will goe forward whether you 
plant it or no ; whereby a Colony may be then transported 
with no great charge, that in short time might prouide such 
fraughts, to buy on vs their dwelling, as I would hope no 
ship should goe or come emptie from New England. 

The charge. The charge of this is onely Salt, Nets, Hookes, Lines, 
Kniues, Irish-rugges, course cloth, Beads, Glasse, and 
such trash, onely for fishing and trade with the Saluages, 
besides our owne necessarie prouisions ; whose endeuours 
would quickly defray all this charge, and the Saluages did 

[/. 73 a.] intreat me to inhabit where I would. 

Jc'tfTe*:"! Lib. 6. gaines to be expected. 773 

June 1624. J 

Now all those ships till these last two yeeres[7.0., till 1621], [1615-23] 
hauebeene fishing within a square of two or three leagues, and 
scarce any one yet will goe any further in the Port they fish 
in, where questionlesse fiue hundred may haue their fraught 
as well as elsewhere, and be in the market ere others can 
haue the fish in their ships : because New Englands fishing 
begins in February, in Newfoundland not till the midst of 
May ; the progression hereof tends much to the aduance- 
ment of Virginia and Summer lies, whose empty ships may 
take in their fraughts there ; and would be also in time of 
need a good friend to the Inhabitants of Newfoundland. 

The returnes made by the Westernemen, are commonly Theorderof 
diuided in three parts ; one for the owner of the ship ; men Westerne 
another for the Master and his Company ; the third for [p 801.] 
the victualers: which course being still permitted, will be 
no hinderance to the Plantation as yet goe there neuer so 
many, but a meanes of transporting that yeerely for little or 
nothing, which otherwise wil cost many hundreds of pounds. 

If a ship can gaine twenty, thirty, fifty in the hundred ; The gaines. 
nay three hundred for one hundred in seuen or ten moneths; 
as you see they haue done, spending twice so much 
time in comming and going as in staying there: were [//. 245,269] 
I there planted, seeing the variety of the fishings serue 
the most part of the yeere, and with a little labour we 
might make all the Salt we need vse, as is formerly 
said, and can [243] conceiue no reason to distrust of good 
successe by Gods assistance ; besides for the building of 
ships, no place hath more conuenient Harbours, ebbe nor 
floud, nor better timber; and no Commoditie in Europe 
doth more decay then wood. 

Master Dee his opinion for the building of ships. 

^ Aster Dee recordeth in his Brittish Monarchy, Theeffects 
* that King Edgar had a Nauy of foure thousand ° s ipping 
saile, with which he yeerely made his progresse, 
about this famous Monarchy of Great Britaine, 
largely declaring the benefit thereof; whereupon hee pro- 
iected to our most memorable Queene Elizabeth, the 
erecting of a Fleet of sixty Saile, he called a little Nauy 

774 How to build a fleet, Lib. 6. p-jjj 

[1620-4] Royall : imitating that admired Pericles Prince of Athens, 
that could neuer secure that tormented estate, vntill he 
was Lord and Captaine of the Sea. 

At this none need wonder, for who knowes not her 
Royall Maiestie during her life, by the incredible aduentures 
of her Royall Nauy, and valiant Souldiers and Sea-men, 
notwithstanding all treacheries at home, the protecting and 
defending [of] France and Holland, and reconquering Ireland; 
yet all the world by Sea and Land, both feared or loued, 
and admired good Queene Elizabeth, 

Both to maintaine and increase that incomparable honour 
(God be thanked) to her incomparable Successor, our most 
Royall Lord and Soueraigne King lames, this great Philo- 
sopher hath left this to his Maiestie and his Kingdomes 

That if the tenths of the earth be proper to God, it is 

also due by Sea. The Kings high waies are common to 

passe, but not to dig for Mines or any thing. So Englands 

Coasts are free to passe but not to fish, but by his Maiesties 


Sd^ojr 6 * His Maiesty of Spaine permits none to passe the Popes 

the East order, for the East and West Indies but by his permission, 

indies" 1 or at their perils ; if all that world be so iustly theirs, it is 

[/»/. 246,270.] no iniustice for England to make as much vse of her owne 

shores as strangers doe, that pay to their owne Lords the 

tenth, and not to the owner of those liberties any thing to 

speake of, whose subiects may neither take nor sell any in 

their Teritories: which small tribute would maintaine this 

little Nauy Royall, and not cost his Maiesty a peny, and yet 

maintaine peace with all Forrainers, and allow them more 

courtesie then any Nation in the world affords to England. 

It were ashame to alleage, that Holland is more worthy 

to enioy our fishing as Lords thereof, because they haue 

more skill to handle it then we, as they can our wooll and 

vndressed Cloth, notwithstanding all their warres and 

troublesome disorders. 

2on* e y°to :et T° S et rnoney to build this Nauy, he saith, who would 

build this not spare the one hundreth penny of his rents, and the hue 

htue Nauy. nun( j ret h p en ny of his goods ; each seruant that taketh 

forty shillings wages, foure pence ; and euery forrainer of 

seuen yeeres of age foure pence, for seuen yeeres ; not any 

& c ? m i62;.l Lib. 6. to make a little Nauy royall. 775 

July 1624. J 

of these but they will spend three times so much in pride, [1620-4] 
wantonnesse, or some superfluitie. And doe any men loue 
the securitie of their estates, that of themselues would not 
bee humble su[i]ters to his Maiesty to doe this of free will as 
a voluntary beneuolence, or but the one halfe of this (or 
some such other course as I haue pro[po]unded to diuers of 
the Companies) free from any constraint, tax, lottery, or 
imposition ; so it may be as honestly and truly imploied, 
as it is proiected, the poorest Mechanicke in this Kingdom 
would gaine by it. 

Hen you might build ships of any proportion and 
numbers you please, fiue times cheaper then you 
can doe here, and haue good merchandize for their 
fraught in this vnknowne Land, to the aduance- 
ment of Gods glory, his Church and Gospel ; and the 
strengthning and releefe of a great part of Christendome 
without hurt to any; to the terror of Pirats, the amazement of 
enemies, the assistance of friends, the securing [of] Merchants, V- 2 47-i 
and so much increase of Nauigation, to make Englands trade 
and shipping as much as any Nations in the world : besides 
a hundred other benefits, to the generall good of all true 
subiects, and would cause thousands yet vnborne to blesse ca»7i.] 
the time, and all them that first put it in practise. [244] 

Now lest it should be obscured as it hath beene to Contention 
priuat ends, or so weakely vndertaken by our ouerweening J«.rw* 
incredulity, that strangers may possesse it whilest we IS^ood 01 
contend for New-Englands goods, but not Englands good ; 
I haue presented it [i.e., New-Englands trials] as I haue said, [//.247, 266 
to the Prince and Nobility, the Gentry and Commonalty, 748, 94I ' ] 
hoping at last it will moue the whole land to know it 
and consider of it ; since I can finde them wood and halfe 
victuall, with the foresaid aduantages : were this Country 
planted, with what facility they may build and maintaine 
this little Nauy Royall, both with honour, profit and 
content, and inhabit as good a Country as any in the 
world within that paralell : which with my life and what I 
haue, I will endeuour to effect, if God please and you permit. 
But no man will goe from hence to haue lesse freedome 
there then here, nor aduenture all they haue to prepare the 
way for them will scarce thanke them for it ; and it % too 

7 7 6 [That most generous Prince Sigismundus.] Lib. 6. [jiiy 8 ^ 

[1620-4] well knowne there haue beene so many vndertakers of 
Patents, and such sharing of them, as hath bred no lesse 
discouragement then wonder, to heare such great promises 
and so little performance ; in the Interim, you see the French 
and Dutch already frequent it, and God forbid they in 
Virginia, or any of his Maiesties subiects, should not haue 
as free liberty as they. To conclude, were it not for Master 
Cherley and a few priuate aduenturers with them, what haue 
we there, for all these inducements ? 
The As for them whom pride or couetousnesse lulleth asleepe 

Cf^rSn in a Cradle of slothfull carelesnesse, would they but con- 
power. sider how all the great Monarchies of the earth haue beene 
brought to confusion, or but remember the late lamentable 
experiences of Constantinople, and how many Cities, Townes 
and Prouinces in the faire rich Kingdoms of Hungaria, 
Transiluania, Wallachia and Moldauia, and how many 
thousands of Princes, Earles, Barons, Knights, Merchants, 
and others haue in one day lost goods, Hues and honours, 
or sold for slaues like beasts in a market place; their wiues, 
children and seruants slaine, or wandring they knew not 
[/.a 7 a.] whither, dying or liuing in all extremities of extreme 
miseries and calamities: surely they would not onely doe 
this, but giue all they haue to enioy peace and liberty at 
home, or but aduenture their persons abroad to preuent 
the conclusions of a conquering Foe, who commonly 
assaulteth and best preuaileth where he findeth wealth 
and plenty most armed with ignorance and security. 

Though the true condition of warre is onely to suppresse 
the proud and defend the innocent, as did that most 
generous Prince Sigismundus, Prince of those Countries, 
against them whom vnder the colour of iustice and piety, 
to maintaine their superfluity of ambitious pride, thought 
all the world too little to maintaine their vice ; and vndoe 
them, or keepe them from ability to doe any thing, that 
would not admire and adore their honours, fortunes, 
couetousnesse, falshood, bribery, cruelty, extortion, and 
ingratitude: which is worse then cowardize or ignorance, 
and all manner of vildnesse, cleane contrary to all honour, 
vertue, and noblenesse. 

Iohn Smith writ this with his owne hand. 

T^he Observations &c. of Captaine 
Richard Whitbourne. 

Ere follow certaine notes and obseruations 
of Captaine Charles [or rather Richard] 
Whitbourne concerning New-found land : 
which although euery master trained vp 
in fishing, can make their proportions of 
necessaries according to their custome, 
yet it is not much amisse here to insert 
them, that euery one which desires the 
good of those actions [may] know them also. 

Besides in his Booke intituled, A discouery of New-found 
land, and the commodities thereof you shall finde many 
excellent good aduertisements for a Plantation ; and how 
that most yeeres this Coast hath beene frequented with 
250. saile of his Maiesties subiects, which supposing but 
60. tunnes a peece, one with another, they amount to 
15000. tunnes ; and allowing 25. men and boies to euery 
Barke, they will make 5000. persons, whose labours returne 
yeerely to about 135000. pound sterling : besides the great 
numbers of Brewers, Bakers, Coupers, Ship-Carpenters, 
Net-makers, Rope-makers, Hooke-makers, and the most 
of all other mec[h]anicall trades in England. [245] 


77& The charge of setting forth a Ship. Lib. 6. [ R ^fX': 

The charge of setting forth a ship of ioo. tuns 

with 40. persons, both to make a fishing voyage, 

and increase the Plantation. 

[1622] ^prNprimis, 10000. [or rather 11000] l„ #♦ &♦ 

©2Juj$ weight of Bisket at 15. s. a 100. 
weight [i.e., ii2lbs.] 
26 Tun of Beere and Sider at 53. s. 4. J. a Tun. 
2 Hogsheads of English Beefe. 
2 Hogsheads of Irish Beefe. 
10 F#£ flogs sa/tei with Salt, and Caske. 
30 Bushels of Pease. 
2 Ferkins of Butter. 
200 Waight [= 224IDS.] of Cheese. 

1 Bushell of Mustard-seed. 
SccuraJe i Hogshead of Vinegar. 
T R VT ivhil Wood to dresse meat withall. 
t° e7fi' s I ^ r ^ Copper Kettle. 
tffi ^ 2 Swfl// Kettles. 

2 Frying-Pans. 
Platters, Ladles and Cans, 
a paire of Bellowes for the Cooke. 
Taps, Boriers and Funnels. 
Locks for the Bread roomes. 
100 weight [= H2lbs.] of Candles. 
130 quarters of Salt at 2. s. the Bushell 
Mats and dinnage to lie vnder it. 
Salt Shouels. 
Particidars for the 40. persons to keepe 8. 

fishing boats at Sea, with 3. men in euery 

boat, imploies 24. ; and 500. foot of Eltne 

boords of an inch thicke, 8. s. each one. 
2000 Nailcs for the 8. Boats, at 13. s. \d. a 

4000 Nailes at 6. s. 8. d. [a] 1000. 
2000 Nailes at 5. d. [a] 100. 
500 weight [= 56olbs.] of pitch at 8.s. 100. 
2000 of good orlop nailes. 
More for other small necessaries. 3. 







































Ed. by J. Smith.! T TR (L 
July 1624.J ^ IB - °« 

The charge of setting forth a Ship, 779 


1. 6. 

















A barrell of Tar. 

200 weight [=224-lbs.] of black Ocome. 

Thrums for pitch Maps. 

Bolls, Buckets and Pumps. 1. 

2 brazen Crocks. 2. 

Canuas to make Boat sailes and small ropes, 

at 25. s. for each saile, 12. 10. 

10 rode Ropes which containe 600. weight 

[ = 672lbs.] at 30. s. the 100. 10. 

12 dozen of fishing lines. 6. 

24 dozen of fishing hookes. 2. 

for Squid line. 
For Pots and liuer maunds. 
Ironworks for the boats ruthers. 
10 Kipnet Irons 

Twine to make kipnets and gagging hooks. 
10 good Nets at 26. s. a net. 
2 Saynes, a great and a lesse. 
200 weight [ = 224lbs.] of Sow -lead. 
2 couple of ropes for the Saynes. 
Dry-fats to keepe them in. 
Twine for store. 
Flaskets and bread Baskets. 
For haire cloth. 
3. Tuns of vinegar caske, for water. 

1 douzen of Deale Bourds. 

2 Barrels of Oalmeale. 1. 
100 weight [ = 112 lbs.] of Spikes. 2. 

2 good Axes, 4. hand Hatchets, 4 Drawers, 

2. drawing Irons. 

3 yards of wollen cloth for cuffs. 
8 yards of good Canuasse. 
A Grind-stone or two. 

2000 ofpoore I ohnto spend [i.e. in eating] ingoing 6. 
1 Hogshead of A quauitce. 4. 

4 arme Sawes, 4. Handsawes, 4. thwart Sawes, 

3. Augers, 2. Crowes of Iron, 3. Sledges, 

4. shod Shouels, 2. Picaxes, 4. Matocks, 
and 4. Hammers. 5. 

The totall summe is 420. 11. o. 


The obseruations of Captaine 

I IT1 /C TR. Whitbouroe 
l^IB. O. [_ April 162= 


[Sacks, the 
name for 
&c, ships 
for cod with 

All these prouisions the Master or Purser is to be 
accountable what is spent, and what is left with those 
which shall continue there to plant : and of the 40. thus 
prouided for the voyage, ten may well be spared to leaue 
behind them, with 500. weight of Bisket, 5. hogsheads of 
Sider or beere, halfe a hogshead of Beefe, 4 sides of dry 
Bakon, 4. bushell of Pease, halfe a ferkin of Butter, halfe 
100. weight of Cheese, a pecke of Mustard-seed, a barrell 
of Vinegar, 12. pound of Candles, 2. pecks of Oatmeale, 
halfe a hogshead of Aquauitae, 2. copper Kettles, 1. brasse 
Crock, 1. Frying-pan, a Grindstone, and all the Hatchets, 
Wood-hooks, Sawes, Augers, &c. and all other iron tooles, 
with the 8. Boats and their implements, [246] and spare 
salt ; and what else they vse not in a readinesse from yeere 
to yeere, and in the meane time serued them to helpe to 
build their houses, cleanse land, and further their fishing 
whilst the ships are wanting [absent]. 

By his estimation and calculation, these 8. Boats with 
22 [or rather 24]. men in a Summer doe vsually kill 25000. 
fish for euery Boat, which may amount to 200000. allowing 
120. fishes to the 100 : sometimes they haue taken aboue 
35000. for a Boat, so that they load not onely their owne 
ship, but prouide great quantities for Sacks or other spare 
ships, which come thither onely to buy the ouerplus. If 
such ships come not, they giue ouer taking any more, when 
sometimes there hath beene great abundance ; because there 

the fishers off is no fit houses to lay them in till another yeere. 

land, as the 
Jagtrs did 
for herrings, 
off the 

Now most of those Sacks goeth empty thither, which 
might as well transport mens prouision and cattle at an 
casie rate as nothing, either to New-England or New-found 
land : but either to transport them for nothing, or pay any 
great matter for their liberty to fish, will hardly effect so 
much as freedome as yet ; nor can this be put in practice as 
before I said, till there be a power there well planted and 
setled to entertaine and defend them, assist and releeue 
them as occasion shall require : otherwaies those small 
diuisions will effect little, but such miserable conclusions 
as both the French and we too long haue tried to our costs. 

Now commonly 200000. fish will load a ship of 100. 
tunnes in New-found land, but halfe so many will neere doe 
it in New England : which carried to Toloune or Merselus 

^* by /uiyTM:] LlB - 6 - Charles [i.e., Richard] Whitborne. 781 

[Marseilles], where the custome [import duty] is small, and [1622-4] 
the Kintall lesse then go. English pounds weight, and the 
prise when least, 12. shillings the Kintall, which at that 
rate amounts to 1320. /. starling : and the ship may either 
there be discharged, or imployed as hath beene said to t#.2oa, 7 i6.] 
refraught for England ; so that the next yeere she may be 
ready to goe her fishing voyage againe, at a farre cheaper 
rate then before. 

To this adde but 12. tuns of traine oile, which deliuered 
in New-found land, is 10. /. the tun, makes 120. /. 

Then it is hard if there be not 10000. of Cor-fish, which 
also sold there at 5. /. the 1000. makes 50. /. : which brought 
to England, in some places yeelds neere halfe so much 
more ; but if at Merselus it be sold for 16. s. the Kentall, as 
commonly it is, and much dearer, it amounts to 1760. /. 

And if the Boats follow the fishing till the 15. of October, 
they may take 80000. more, which with their traine in 
New-found land at 4. /. the 1000. will amount to 320. /. : 
which added to 1320. /. with 120. /. for Oile, and 10000. of 
Corfish 50. /. and the ouerplus at Merselus, which will be 
440. I. make the totall 2250. /. ; which diuided in three ^j 44 ' 268, 
parts according to their custome, the Victualer hath for 
the former particulars (amounting to 420. /.), 751. /., so all 
the charge defraied, hee gaines 331. /. n. s. ; then for the 
fraught of the ship there is 751. /. ; and so much for the 
Master and his company ; which comparing with the 
voiages [that] hath beene made to New-England, you may 
easily finde which is the better, though both bee good. 

ut now experience hath taught them at New- ^ h ^ dlhy 
Plimoth, that in Aprill there is a fish much like g^g 
a Herring that comes vp into the small Brookes obseraed. 
to spawne, and where the water is not kneedeepe, 
they will presse vp through your hands, yea though you beat 
at them with Cudgels, and in such abundance as is incre- 
dible : which they take with that facility, they manure their 
land with them when they haue occasion. After those, the Cod 
also presseth in such plenty, euen into the very Harbours, 
they haue caught some in their armes, and hooke them so fast 
[that], three menoftloadeth a Boat of twotunsintwohoures, 
where before theyvsed most[ly] to fish in deepe water. [247] 


order of 

The present estate of 

T New-Plimoth there is [1624J about 180 
persons, some cattell and goats, but 
many swine and poultry ; 32 dwelling 
houses, whereof 7 were burnt the last win- 
ter [1623], ana * the value of hue hundred 
pounds in other goods; the Towne is 
impailed about halfea mile [in] compasse. 
In the towne vpon a high Mount they 
haue a Fort well built with wood, lome, and stone, where 
is planted their Ordnance: Also a faire Watch-tower, partly 
framed, for the Sentinell. The place it seemes is healthfull, 
for in these last three yeeres [1621-4], notwithstanding their 
great want of most necessaries, there hath not one died of 
the first planters. They haue made a saltworke, and with 
that salt preserue the fish they take ; and this yeare [1624] 
hath fraughted a ship of 180. tunnes. 

The Gouernour is one Master William Bradford ; their 
Captaine Miles Standish, a bred Souldier in Holland ; the 
chiefe men for their assistance is Master Isaak Alderton, 
and diuers others as occasion serueth ; their Preachers 
are Master William Bruster and Master Iohn Lay ford. 

The most of them liue together as one family or hous- 
hold, yet euery man followeth his trade and profession 
both by sea and land, and all for a generall stocke : out of 
which they haue all their maintenance, vntill there be a 
diuident betwixt the Planters and the Aduenturers. 

Those Planters are not seruants to the Aduenturers here, 
but haue onely councells of directions from them, but no in- 
iunctions or command ; and all the masters of families are 
partners in land or whatsoeuer, setting their labours 

/uiy 1 ^.] LlB - 6 - The present estate of New-Plimoth. 783 

against the stocke, till certaine yeeres be expired for the [1624] 
diuision : they haue young men and boies for their Ap- 
prentises and seruants, and some of them speciall families, 
as Ship-carpenters, Salt-makers, Fish-masters, yet as 
seruants vpon great wages. 

The Aduenturers which raised the stocke to begin and [/. 943-1 
supply this Plantation were about 70. : some Gentlemen, 
some Merchants, some handy-crafts men, some aduenturing 
great summes, some small, as their estates and affection 
serued. The generall stocke already imploied is about 
7000. /. ; by reason of which charge and many crosses, 
many of them would aduenture no more : but others that 
knowes so great a designe cannot bee effected without both 
charge, losse and crosses, are resolued to goe forward with 
it to their powers ; which deserue no small commendations 
and encouragement. These [the Adventurers generally] 
dwell most[ly] about London. They are not a corporation, 
but [are] knit together by a voluntary combination in a 
society without constraint or penalty, aiming to doe good 
and to plant Religion ; they haue a President and Treasurer, 
euery yeere newly chosen by the most voices, who ordereth 
the affaires of their Courts and meetings, and with the 
assent of the most of them, vndertaketh all ordinary 
businesses : but in more weighty affaires, the assent of the 
whole Company is required. 

,here hath beene a fishing this yeere [1624] vpon the 
Coast about 50. English ships : and by Cape A nne y [#.892,946 1 
there is a Plantation a beginning by the Dor- 
chester men, which they hold of those of New- 
Plimoth, who also by them haue set vp a fishing worke : some 
talke there is some other pretended Plantations, all whose 
good proceedings the eternal God protect and preserue. 

And these haue beene the true proceedings and acci- 
dents in those Plantations. 

ow to make a particular relation of all the acts and 
orders in the Courts belonging vnto them, of the 
anihilating old Patents and procuring new ; with 
the charge, paines and arguments, the reasons 

784 The present estate of New-Plimoth. Lib. 6. [4^ 

[1624] of such changes, all the treaties, consultations, orations, and 
dissentions about the sharing and diuiding those large terri- 
tories, confirming of Counsailers, electing all sorts of Officers, 
directions, Letters of aduice, and their answers, disputations 
about the Magazines and Impositions, su[ijters for Patents, 
positions for Freedomes, and confirmations with complaints 
of iniuries here, and also the mutinies, examinations, 
arraignements, executions, and the cause of the so oft 
reuolt of the Saluages at large, as many [248] would haue 
had, and it may be some doe expect it would make more 
quarrels then any of them would willingly answer, and such 
a volume as would tire any wise man but to read the 

For my owne part I rather feare the vnpartiall Reader will 
thinke this rather more tedious then necessary : but he that 
would be a practitioner in those affaires, I hope will allow 
them not only needfull but expedient : but how euer, if you 
please to beare with those errors I haue committed, if God 
please I Hue, my care and paines shall endeuour to be 
thankfull : if I die, accept my good will. 

(/*. 248,373.] If any desire to be further satisfied, what defect is found 
in this, they shall finde supplied in me; that thus freely haue 
throwne my selfe with my mite into the Treasury of my 
Countries good, not doubting but God will stirre vp some 
noble spirits to consider and examine if worthy Columbus 
could giue the Spaniards any such certainties for his 
designe, when Queene Isabel of Spaine set him forth with 
15. saile : and though I promise no Mines of gold, yet the 
warlike Hollanders let vs imitate but not hate, whose 
wealth and strength are good testimonies of their treasury 
gotten by fishing ; and New-England hath yeelded already 
[up to 1624] by generall computation one hundred thousand 
pounds at the least. Therefore honourable and worthy 
Country men, let not the meannesse of the word fish distaste 
you, for it will afford as good gold as the Mines of Guiana or 
Potassie, with lesse hazard and charge, and more certainty 
and facility. /. S. 


A N 



The Path -way to 


Necessary for all Young Sea-men, or those 

that are desirous to goe to Sea, briefly shewing 

the Phrases, Offices, and Words of Command, 

Belonging to the Building, Ridging, and Sayling, 

a Man of Warre ; And how to manage 

a Fight at Sea. 

Together with the Charge and Duty of 

every Officer ', and their Shares : 

Also the Names, Weight, Charge, Shot, and 

Powder ■, of all sorts of great Ordnance. 

With the vse of the Petty Tally. 

Written by Captaine Iohn Smith some- 
times Governour of Virginia, and Admirall 
of New England. 


Printed for Jonas Man, and Benjamin Fisher, 

and are to be sold at the signe of the Talbot, 

in Aldersgate streete. 1626. 


[This Tract was a new departure in our Literature, being the first 
printed book on seamanship, naval gunnery, and of nautical terms ; 
and was besides written by an Army Captain. 

It was thus entered for publication at Stationers' Hall : 
23 ©dobris 1626. 

Jonas Man Entred for their Copie vnder the handes of master 

Beniamin fflsher Doctor worrall and both the wardens A booke 

Called An Accidence or pathway e to experience 

necessary e for all young sea men 6r*c. by Captaine 

John Smith. ....... yjd. 

A Transcript of the Registers of the Company of Stationers of 
London^ 1 554-1640 A.D., Ed. by E. Arber, iv. 169, 1877. 
For the bibliography of this Tract, see p. cxxxi.] 


ourable and most Generous Lords in England, 

and Others : Especially of his Majesties 

Priuy Councell, and Councell 

of Warre. 

IGHT Honorable: 
In regard of the Present occasion, for the [16261 
Arte of Navigation, and many young 
Gentlemen and Valiant spirits of all sorts, do desire 
to try their Fortunes at sea : I haue beene per- 
s waded [//. 809, 970] to Print this discourse, being 
a subject I never see writ before. Not as an in- 
struction to Marriners nor Sailors, whom I intreate 
rather amend it, then condemne it, confessing it 
might be a taske for a most excellent Sea-man ; But 
as an intraduction for such as wants experience, and 
are desirous to learne what belongs to a Seaman. 
For the advansing of that incomparable faculty, seeing 
you are in place, both of power and Authoritie ; I 
most humblie present it to Your Honors Consider- 
ations. No more but sacring all my best abilities to 
the exquisite Iudgement of your renowned Vertues, I 
ever rest 

Your Worships ever most humbly denoted, 

I o h n Smith. 



Generous and Noble Adventurers by Sea ; 

and Well-Wishers to Nauigation. 
Especially the Masters, Wardens, and Assistance of 

the Trinity-House. 
Worthy Readers: 

[1626] W'^^^MOW ever your perfections may censure my imperfec- 
tions, I know not : my greatest error in this is but 
a desire to do good; which disease hath ever haunted 
mee since my child-hood; and all the miseries and 
ingratitudes I haue indured, cannot yet diuert me from that 

As both Europe, Asia, Affrica and America can partly 
witnesse, if all their extremities hath taught me any thing, I 
haue not kept it for my owne particuler. I know well I am 
blamed for not concealing that, that time and occasion hath 
taught mee to reueale ; as at large you may read in the life of 
Sigismundus Bathor Prince of Transiluania, writ by his 
Secretary Francisco Fernezsa, New Englands Trialls, With 
the Generall History of Virginia, New England, and the 
Summer Isles. 

That the most of those faire plantations did spring from the 
fruites of my aduenters and discoueries is euident, although 
their relumes as yet doth not answere the worlds expectation, 
nor my desire : yet how they haue proceeded euery yeare since 
their first originall to this present ; by the Maps therein, you 
may plainly see the Descriptions of the Countries; by the Story, 
what they are, what good they might be to this Kingdome, how 
they haue bin vsed and abused, how the defects might be 
amended, the Planters made happy, God and the King well 
pleased and serued, and all the Honorable and worthy A duen- 
turers contented : whatsoeuer malice or ignorance can {eigne to 
the contrary. 

For this small Pamphlet, if J find you kindly and friendly 
accept it, I meane ere long, more largely to explaine the par- 
ticulers : So I rest, 

To Christ and my Country a true Souldier, 
and faithfull Servant, 

John Smith. 


Young Sea-men: 


Their Path-way to Experience. 

( ^ ^^^/^Z^S h ^-^ ^aptaines charge is to commaund all, 
and tell the Maister to what Port he 
will go, or to what height [latitude]. In 
a fight he is to giue direction for the 
managing thereof, and the Maister is to 
see to the cunning [of] the Ship, and 
trimming [2] the sailes. 
The Maister and his Mate is to direct 
the course, commaund all the Saylors, for steering, trim- 
ming, and sayling the Ship: his Mates are onely his 
Seconds, allowed sometimes for the two Midships men, 
that ought to take charge of the first prize. 

The Pilot when they make land, doth take the charge of 
the Ship till he bring her to Harbour. 

The Cape-merchant and Purser hath the charge of all 
the Caragasoune or Merchandize, and the Purser doth 
keepe an Account of all that is receiued and deliuered : but 
a Man of Warre hath onely a Purser. 

The Maister Gunner hath the charge of the Ordinances, 
Shot, Powder, Match, Ladles, Spunges, Cartrages, Armes, 
and Fire-workes; and the rest euery one to receiue his 
charge from him according to directions, and to giue an 
account of his store. [3] 

The Carpenter and his Mate is to haue the Nayles, 
Clinches, roue and clinch-nailes, spikes, plates, rudder- 





The Maister 
and his 

The Pilot. 

The Cape- 
and Purser. 

The Gunner 
with his 
Mate, and 

ter and his 

790 An Accidence for yo\jt\ng Sea-men. [<£ 

ct. 1626. 


[1626J irons called pintels and gudgions, pumpe-nailes, skupper- 

nailes, and leather, sawes, files, hatchets, and such like : 

and [be] euer ready for calking, breaming, stopping leakes, 

fishing or spliceing the Masts or Yards ; as occasion 

requireth, and to giue an account of his store. 

™ e .£ ote - The Boteswaine is to haue the charge of all the Cordage, 

his Mate, tackling, sailes, fids, and marling spikes, needles, twine, 

and saile-cloth, and rigging [of] the shippe : his Mate the 

command of the long boate, for the setting forth of Anchors, 

waying and fetching home an Anchor, warping, towing, 

and moreing, and to giue an account of his store. 

ije chyrur- The Chirurgion is exempted from all duty but to attend 

fiSe" 1 a the sicke, and cure the wounded : and good care would be 

[4] had, [that] he haue a certificate from the Barber-surgions 

Hall of his sufficiency ; and also that his Chest bee well 

furnished both for Physicke, and Chyurgery, and so neere as 

may be proper for that clime you goe for, which neglect 

hath beene the losse of many a mans life. 

The ^ m The Marshall is to punish offendors, and to see Justice 

executed according to directions, as ducking at Yards arme, 

hawling vnder the Keele, bound to the Capsterne or maine 

Mast with a basket of shot about his necke, setting in 

the bilbowes, and to pay the Cobty or the Morryoune. But 

the Boyes, the Boteswaine. is to see euery Munday at the 

chist to say their Compasse ; which done, they are to 

haue a quarter can [? of beer], and a basket of bread. 

The The Corporall is to see the setting and releeuingthe watch: 

Corporaii. an( j gee a jj ^ e souldiers and saylors keepe their Armes 

cleane, neate and yare ; and teach them their vse. [5] 
The steward The Steward is to deliuer out the victuall, according to 
Mate. 15 the Captaines directions; and messe them 4, 5, or 6, a 

there is occasion. 
The quarter The quarter Maisters hath the charge of the hold for 
Meters. s t owa ge, rommageing, and trimming the shippe ; and of 
their squadrons for their Watch. A Sayne, a Fisgigg, a 
Harping iron, Fish-hookes, for Porgos, Bonetos, or Dora- 
dos, &c. and rayling lines for Mackerell. 
The cowper The Cowper is to looke to the caske, hoopes and twig- 
Mate" ges, to staue or repaire the buckets, Baricoes, Cans, 
steepetubs, runlets, hogsheads, pipes, buts, &c. for wine, 
beere, syder, beuerage, fresh water, or any liquor. 

J. Smith. 
Oct. 1626. 

An Accidence for yo\u~\ng Sea-men. 


The Coxswaine is to haue a choyce gang to attend the 
Skiffe, to go to and againe as occasion commandeth. 

The Cooke is to dresse and deliuer out the Victuall. 
He hath his store of quarter cans, small Cannes, platters, 
spoones, lanthornes, &c. and is to giue [6] his account of 
the remainder. 

The Swabber is to wash and keepe cleane the ship and 

The Lyer is to holde his place but for a weeke ; and hee 
that is first taken with a lye, euery Monday is so pro- 
claimed at the maine Mast by a generall cry, A Iyer, a Iyer, 
a lyer. He is vnderthe Swabber, and onely to keepe cleane 
the beake head and chaines. 

The Saylers are the antient men for hoysing the sailes, 
getting the tackes aboord, hawling the Bow-lines, and 
steering the ship. 

The Younkers are the yong men called Fore-mast men, 
to take in the Topsayles, or Top and yeard ; Furle, and 
Sling the maine Saile; Bousing or Trysing; and take their 
turne at Helme. 

TheLieutenantisto associate[with] the Captaine,and in his 
absence to execute his place. He is to see the Marshall and 
Corporall doe their duties, and assist them in instructing 
the Souldiers: and [7] in a fight the Forecastle is his place, 
to make good; as the Captaine doth the halfe decke; and 
the quarter Maisters the midships. But in the States men 
of Warre he is allowed as necessary as a Lieuetenant on 

When you set sayle and put to sea, the Captaine is to 
call vp the company ; and the one halfe is to goe to the 
Starreboord, the other to the Larboord, as they are 
chosen : the Maister chusing first one, then his Mate 
another, and so forward till they bee diuided in two parts. 
Then each man is to chuse his Mate, Consort, or Comrado. 
Then diuide them into squadrons according to your num- 
bers and burthen of your ship ; but care would be had, 
that there be not two Comorados vpon one watch, because 
they may haue the more roome in the Cabons to rest. 


The Coxe- 
swaine and 
his Mate. 

The Cooke 
and his 


The Lyer. 





diuide the 

To giue a true Arithmeticall and Geometricall proportion 

792 An Accidence for yo\u]ng Sea-men. [J ( 

ct. 1626. 

[1626] for the building of ships ; were they all built after one [8] 
mould, as also of their Yeards, Masts, Cables, Cordage 
and Sayles were all the stuffe of like goodnesse, a metho- 
dicall rule might bee Proiected : but it would bee too curious 
for this Discourse, and as much too troublesome either 
for the Reader or Author; but the principall names of the 
timbers about the building of a ship, according to his vnder- 
standing followeth, and how, being framed, they are fixed. 
ThePrinci- First lay the Keele, the Stemme, and Starne in a 
th"Sers° f dry docke, or vppon the stockes, and binde them with 
blXnga good" knees ; then lay all the Flore timbers, and cut your 
sh ip- Limber holes aboue the keele, to bring the water to the 

well for the pumpe. Next your Nauell timbers, and bind 
them all with sixe foote Skarfe at the least. The Garbell 
strake is the outside plancke next the keele. Be sure you 
haue a good sufficient Kelson: and then plancke your out- 
side and inside vp, with your Top timbers ; but the [9] 
lengths, breadthes, depthes, rakes, and burdens are so 
variable and different that nothing but experience can 
possibly teach it. 
Notes of a A Shippe of 400. Tunnes requires a planke of foure 
bctweenethc inches; 300. Tunnes, three inch; small Ships, two inch: but 
a?d P the ter none lesse. For clamps, middle bands and sleepers, they 
Owner. De a \\ f 5 # [ nc \i planke for binding within. The rest for 
the sparring vp of the workes of square 3. inch planke. 

Lay the beames of the Orlope, if she be 400. Tunnes at 
ten foote deepe in howle, and all the beames to be bound 
with two knees at each ende, and a stardard knee at euery 
beames end vpon the Orlope : all the Orlope to be layd 
with square three inch plancke, and all the planckes to be 
treenailed to the beames. 

Sixe foote would bee betweene the beames of the Decke 
and Orlope, and ten ports on each side vpon the lower 
Orlope: all the binding betweene them [10] should be with 
three inch, or two inch plancke, and the vpper Decke 
should be layd with so many beames as are fitting with 
knees to bind them ; laying that Decke with spruce deale 
of 30. foot long, the sap cut off, and two inches thicke, for 
it is better then any other. 

Then for the Captaines Cabben or great Cabben, the 
stearage, the halfe Decke, the round house, the Fore- 

J. Smith."! 
Oct. 1626. J 

An Accidence for yo\u\ng Sea-men. 


castle, and to binde an ende with a Capsterne and all 
things fitting for the Sea (the Smiths worke, the earning, 
ioyning, and painting excepted) are the principall things 
I remember to be obserued. 

For a Charter-party betwixt the Merchant, the Maister, 
and the Owner, you haue Presidents of all sorts in most 
Scriueners shops. 

A dry Docke, the stockes, the keele, the steme, the 
sterne, the starne-port, the flowre, the sleepers, rising 
timbers, garble strake, her rake, the fore reach, plankes, 
bindings, knees, boults, trunions, [11] brasers, riders, the 
Orlope, the ports, the bend, the bowe, the hawse, the 
hawses, the decke, the partners, a flush decke, fore and 
aft, the ram heads, the Knights, a halfe decke, a quarter 
decke, the bulke, the bulkes-head, the skuttle, the hatches, 
the hatches way, the holes in the commings, pitch, tarre, 
rosen, okum, calking. In the stearage roome, the whip, the 
bittakell, the trauas boord, the Compasse, the Fly, the 
needle, the lanthorne, the socket. About the Gun-roome, 
the Tiller, the rudder, the pintels, the gudgions, the 
bread-roome, the ships runne. The powder-roome, the 
Stewards roome, the cooke roome, the great cabbon, the 
gallery, a cabben, a hanging cabben, a Hamacke, the 
lockers, the round-house, the counter, the wayst, the 
wayst-boords, the gunwayle, stations for the nettings, a 
chaine through the stations, or brest-ropes. 

The Pumpe, the pumpes-well, the [12] pumpes brake, 
the pumpes can, the pumpes chaine, the spindle, the boxe, 
the clap. The pumpe is choaked, the pumpe suckes, the 
ship is stanche. 

The forecastle, or prow, the beake head, the bits, the 
fish-hooke, a loufe-hooke, and the blocke at the Dauids 
ende, the Cat, Cats head and Cats holes, the ships draught. 

The boule spret, the pillow, the sturrop, the spret sayle, 
the spret sayle yeard, the spret sayle top mast, the spret 
sayle top sayle yard : the fore mast, the fore yard, the fore 
top, the fore top mast, the fore top sayle yard, the fore 
top gallant mast, the fore top gallant sayle yeard. Coates 
and wouldings for all masts and yeards, grummets, and 
staples for all yeards. 


General sea 
terms be- 
longing to 

belongs to 
the Pumpe. 

belongs to 
the fore 

The Masts, 
Caps, and 

794 An Accidence for yo\_u~\ng Sea-men. [J^ t ! 


[1626] The trussell trees or crosse trees, the maine mast, the 

step in the kelson where it puts its heele, as doth also the 

fore mast ; the maine yard, the maine top, the main top 

mast, the maine top sayleyeard, the top gallant [13] mast, 

the maine top gallant sayle yeard, the trucke or flagge staffe. 

The misen, the misen yeard, the misen top mast, the 

misen top sayle yeard. In great ships they haue two misens, 

the latter is called the boneauentuer misen. Then the poope, 

Lanthorne, and flagge staffe. When a mast is borne by the 

boord, they make a Iury-mast ; which is made with yards, 

rouftrees, or what they can, splised or fished together. 

The The Capsterne, the pawle, the whelps, the capsterne 

aXher bars. A Ieare capsterne is only in great ships to hoyse their 

g hr^ei! sayles. The canhookes, slings, and parbunkels, ports and 

ringbolts and hooks, the skuppers, the skupper holes, the 

chaines, the steepe tubs, an entring ladder or cleats, a boy, 

a can boy. A ship cranke sided, Iron sicke, spewes her 

okum, a leak[i]e ship. The sheathing, furring, carrying, 

washing, and breaming, lanching, caruing, guilding, and 

painting a ship. Ballast, kintlage, canting [14] coynes, 

standing coynes, roufe trees, a grating, netting or false 

decke for your close fights. 

The ropes The entring rope, the boate rope, the bucket rope, the 

names m a ^oy rope, guest rope, the cat rope, the port ropes, the heele 

rope,therudderrope,thetopropes, thebolt ropes. The brest 

ropes are now out of vse, the water line is [i.e., in use]. 

concerning f he tacklings are the fore stay, the maine stay. The 

andrigginf tackles, the mison stay, the collers, the maine shrouds 

[oO » ship. an( j ghaine^ th e m aine top shroudes, the fore shroud, the 

fore top shroud, the swifters, the mison shroudes, the mison 

top shroudes and their ratlings, and the parels to all masts. 

The maine hallyards, the maine top sayle hallyards, the 

top gallant saile hal[l]yards, the fore hallyards, the fore top 

sayle hallyard, the misen hallyard, and the spret sayle 

hallyeard, the horse, the maine sheats, the maine top 

sayle sheats, the maine braces, the maine top sayle [15] 

braces, the maine bowling and bridles, the maine top 

sayle bowlin[e], the bunt lines, the trusses, the lifts, the 

earring, the cat harpings, a Ieare, leatch lines ; the Robins, 

garnit, Clew garnits, tyes, martlits. The most of all these 

are also belonging to the fore mast, misen and bowlespret, 

oct S ™62 h 6.] An Accidence for yo\u\ng Sea-men. 795 

and hath the same denomination after their masts ; onely [1626] 
the boulespret hath no bow lines, and the misen sheats, 
are called the starne sheats. They haue all of them pullies, 
blockes, shiuers and dead mens eyes, Lanyeards, caskets, 
and crowes feete. A snap blocke is seldom vsed but in 
heauing of goods and ordnances. 

There is also diuerse other small cordage, as head lines, 
the knaulings, gassits or furling lines, marlines, rop[e] 
yearne, Caburne, Sinnet, paunches, and such like. 

The Cables, hawsers or streame cables, are most vsed in 
the water by the Anchors. When they are too short, [16] 
they shoote one into another. When they are galled or 
breake, they splice them. When that way vnseruiceable, 
they serue for Iunkes, fendors and braded plackets for 
brests of defence ; and then, as the rest of the ouerworne 
tackling, for rope yarne, caburne, sinnit, an[d] okum. Sheeps 
feet is a stay in setling a top mast, and a guie in staying the 
tackles when they are charged with goods. 

The Anchor hath a stocke, a ring, a shanke, a flouke. JJ3JJ£ for 
The greatest in euery ship is called the sheat Anchor, the 
rest Anchors. The streame Anchor, graplings or kedgers. 
Bend your cables to your Anchors. 

The maine saile, the fore sayle called sometimes the The names 

„ , \ J . c 1 r oftnesailes. 

fore course ; the maine course or a paire of courses, each ol 
them hath a bonnet and a drabler ; the maine top sayle, 
the top gallant sayle, and in a faire gaile your studding 
sayles ; then your mison, your misen [17] top sayle, your 
spret sayle, and spret sayle top sayle, a drift sayle, a 
crosiack, a netting sayle. Twyne, a munke seame, a round 
seame, a suit of sayles, a shift of sayles, top Armours, 
wayst clothes, pendants and colours. 

A channell, a bay, a rode, a sound, an offen, a cone, J h r e t t h e e armes 
a crike, a riuer ; cleere ground, very fast ground or good harbor. 
anchoring ; foule ground, osie ground, sandy ground, clay 
ground ; a headland, a furland, a reatch, a land marke. _ 

A calme, a brese, a fresh gaile, a pleasant gayle, a stiffe F°rAe 
gayle. It ouerblowes. A gust, a storme, a spoute, a loume 
gaile, an eddy wind, a flake of wind, a Turnado, a mounth- 
soune, a Herycano. 

J Tearmes 

A calme sea, becalmed, a rough sea, an ouergrowne sea, f ort he 


796 An Accidence for yo[u\ng Sea-men. [Jet?**! 

[1626] the rut of the sea, the roaring of the sea. It flowes quarter 
floud, high water, or a still water. A full sea, a spring tide, 
^ebbe, a quarter ebbe, halfe ebbe, three quarters ebbe, a 
lowe water, a dead low water, a nepe tide, a [18] shoule, 
a ledge of rockes, a breach, a shallow water, deepe water, 
soundings, fadome by the marke, 3 od and a shaftment left. 
40^. Disimboage, a gulph, the froth of the sea. 

«e£iT* for Starbord is the right hand, Larbord is the left. Starboord 

iring " the helme, right your helme a loufe, keepe your loufe, 

come no neere, keepe full, stidy, so you goe well, port, 

warre, no more ; beare vp the helme, goe roumy, be yare 

at the helme, a fresh man at the helme. 

Tearmesof A sayle, how stands she, to windward or leyward, set 
him by the Compasse, he stands right a-head ; or on the 
weather bow, or ley bow : out with all your sayles, a stydy 
man to the helme, sit close to keep her stydie. Giue 
chase or fetch him vp, he holds his owne, nowe [we] gather on 
him, out goeth his flag and pendance or streames, also his 
Colours, his wast-clothes and top armings, he furies and 
slings his maine saile, in goes his spret sayle and misen, 
he makes ready [19] his close fights fore and after. Well, 
we shall reach him by and bye. 

What is all ready ? Yea, yea. Euery man to his charge, 
Dowse your top sayle, salute him for the sea ; Ha[i]le 
him : whence your ship ? Of Spayne, whence is yours ? 
Of England. Are you Merchants or Men of Warre. We 
are of the Sea. He wayses vs to leyward for the King of 
Spaine, and keeps his loufe. Giue him a chase peece, a 
broad side, and runne ahead, make ready to tacke about, 
giue him your sterne peeces, be yare at helme, ha[i]le him 
with a noyse of Trumpets. 

We are shot through and through, and betweene winde 
and water, trye the pumpe. Maister let vs breathe and 
refreshe a little. Sling a man ouerboord to stop the leake. 
Done, done. Is all ready againe, Yea, yea : beare vp 
close with him, with all your great and small shot charge 
him. Boord him on his weather quarter, lash fast your 
graplins and sheare off, then run stemlins the [24] mid 
ships. Boord and boord, or thwart the hawse, we are 
foule on each other. 

o^SSs!] An Accidence for yo[u]ng Sea-men. 797 

The ships on fire. Cut any thing to get cleere, and [1626] 
smother the fire with wet clothes. We are cleere, and the 
fire is out, God be thanked. 

The day is spent, let vs consult. Surgion looke to the 
wounded. Wind vp the slaine, with each a waight or bullet 
at his head and feete, giue three peeces for their funerals. 
Swabber make cleane the shippe. Purser record their 
names. Watch bee vigilant to keepe your berth to wind- 
ward : and that wee loose him not in the night. Gunners 
spunge your Ordinances. Souldiers skower your peeces. 
Carpenters about your leakes. Boteson and the rest, 
repaire the sayles and shrouds. Cooke see you obserue 
your directions against the morning watch. 

Boy. Holla Maister. Holla, Is the kettle boyled ? 
Yea, yea. 

Boteswaine call vp the men to Prayer and Breakfast. [25] 

Boy fetch my celler of Bottles. A health to you all 
fore and afte, courage my hearts for a fresh charge : 
Maister lay him a bord loufe for loufe ; Midships men see 
the tops and yeards well maned with stones and brasse 
bals, to enter them in the shrouds, and every squadron 
else at their best aduantage. Sound Drums and Trumpets, 
and St. George for England. 

They hang out a flag of truse, stand in with him, ha[i]le 
him a mayne, [to] abase or take in his flagge, strike their 
sayles and come aboard, with the Captaine, Purser, and 
Gunner, with your Commission, Cocket, or bills of loading. 

Out goes their Boate, they are lanched from the Ship 
side. Entertayne them with a generall cry, God saue the 
Captayne, and all the Company, with the Trumpets 
sounding. Examine them in particuler; and then conclude 
your conditions with feasting, freedome, or punishment, as 
you finde occasion. [26] 

Other wayes if you surprize him or enter perforce ; you 
may stow the men, rifle, pillage, or sacke, and crye a prize. 

To call a Councell in a Fleete: there is the Councell 
of Warre, and the common Councell, which hangs their 
flags out in the mayne shrouds, and the misen. 

Now, betweene two Navies they use often, especially in 
a Harbour or rode, where they are at anchor, to fill olde 

798 An Accidence for yo\u\ng Stx-tnen. [o^fSS.* 

[1626] Barkes with pitch, tar, trayne oyle, linsed oyle, brimstone, 
rosen, reedes, and dry wood, and such combustable things 
sometimes they linke three or foure together, towed to- 
gether in the night, and put a drift as they finde occasion. 

To passe a Fort, some will make both shippe and sayles 
all blacke : but if the Fort keepe but a fire on the other 
side, and all their peeces poynt blanke with fire, if they 
discharge, what is betwixt them and the fire the shot will 
[27] hit, if the rule be truely obserued. 

To conclude, there is as many stratagims, advantages, 
and inventions to be vsed, as you finde occasions ; and there 
fore experiences must be the best Tutor. 

Concerning Bend your passerado to the mayne-sayle, git the sailes 
worfe g °of to the yeards, about your geare on all hands, hoyse your 
a ship. sayles halfe mast high, make ready to set sayle, crosse 
your yeards, bring your Cable to the Capsterne. Boat- 
swaine fetch an Anchor aboord, break ground or way 
Anchor, heaue a head, men into the tops, men vpon the 
yeards. Come is the Anchor a pike, heaue out your top- 
sayles, hawle your sheates. What's the Anchor away : 
Yea, yea. Let fall your fore sayle, whose at the helme 
there, coyle your cable in small slakes, hawle the cat, a 
bitter, belay, loufe, fast your Anchor with your shanke 
painter, stow the boate. Let falleyour maine saile, on with 
your bonnets and drablers,steare study before the wind. [28] 
The wind veares, git your star-boord tacks aboord, 
hawle off your ley sheats, ouerhawle the ley bowlin, ease 
your mayne brases, out with your spret-saile, flat the 
fore sheat, pike vp the misen or brade it. The ship will 
not wayer, loure the maine top saile, veare a fadome of 
your sheat. A flown sheate, a faire winde and a boune 
voyage, the wind shrinks, get your tacks close aboord, 
make ready your loufe howks and ley fagnes, to take off 
your bonnits and drablers, hawle close your maine bowline. 
It ouercasts, we shall haue winde, sattle your top 
sailes, take in the spret sayle, in with your topsayles, 
lower your maine sayles, tallow vnder the parrels, in with 
your maine sayle, lower the fore sayle. The sayle is split, 
brade vp close all your sayles, lash sure the Ordinances, 
strike your top masts to the cap, make them sure with 

o^TeS*.] An Accidence for yo\u~]ng Sea-men. 799 

your sheepes feete. A storme, hull, lash sure the helme a [1626] 
ley, lye to try out drift. How capes the ship? cun the ship 
[29] spoune before the winde, she lusts, she lyes vnder the 
Sea, trie her with a crose jacke, bowse it vp with the out- 
looker. She will founder in the Sea, runne on shore, split 
or billage on a Rocke, a wracke, put out a goose-winge, or 
a hullocke of a sayle. 

Faire weather, set your fore sayle. Out with all your 
sailes, get your Larboard tackes aboord, hawle off your 
Starboord sheats, goe large, laske, ware yawning, the 
ships at stayes, at backe-stayes, ouer-set the ship, flat 
about, handle your Sayles, or trim your sayles, let rise 
your tacks, hawle of your sheats. Rocke-weede, adrift, 
or flotes. One to the top to looke out for Land. A 
ships wake, the water way, the weather bow, weather 
coyle, lay the ship by the Ley, and heaue the lead, try 
the dipsie line, bring the ship to rights, fetch the log-line 
to try what way shee makes, turne vp the minute glasse, 
obserue the hight. Land, to make Land, how beares it, 
set it by the Compasse [30] cleare your leach-lines, beare 
in, beare off, or stand off, or sheare off, beare vp. 

Outward bound, homeward bound, shorten your Sailes, 
take in your Sailes, come to an Anchor vnder the Ley of 
the weather shore, the Ley shore, nealed too, looke to 
your stoppers, your Anchor comes home, the ships a drift, 
vere out more Cable, let fall your sheat Anchor, land locked, 
mo[o]re the ship. A good Voyage, Armes, arme a skiffe, a 
frigot, a pinnace, a ship, a squadron, a fleete. When you 
ride amongst many ships, pike your yards. 

To the boate or skiffe belongs oares, a mast, a saile, a Thetearmes 
stay, a halyard, sheats, a boat-hook, thoughts, thoules, oftheboate - 
rudder, irons, bailes, a trar-pawling or yawning, carlings, 
carling- knees, for the Dauid, the boates-wayles, a dridge. 
To row a spell, hold-water, trim the boate, vea, vea, vea, vea, 
s^*,whosaies Amen, one and all, for a dram of the bottle. [31] 

A Basillisco, double Cannon, Cannon Pedrea, demy The names 

Cannon, Culvering, Sakar, Minion, Falcon, Falconet, ofgreaT 5 

Rabbenet, Murderers, slings, Chambers, Curriors, Harga- ° r f™ e n c c e e Si 

busacrock, Musquets, bastard Musquets, Coliners, Carbines, J^fj£«f 
Crabuts, long Pistols, short Pistols, Charges, Cartrages, 


800 An Accidence for yo\u\ng Sea-men, \i' Q f!f^. 

[1626] Match, Spunges, Ladles, Rammers, Rammers heads, tom- 
kins, a worme, a bore, a barrell, taper bore, hunicomed, lint 
stockes, carrages, trukes, linch-pins, trunions, axell-trees, 
beds, coynings. The peeces in the prow, the chase peeces 
in the sterne, the quarter peeces, the mid-ships ; the vpper 
tyre, the middle tyre, their fids and leads to keepe dry the 
touch hole. Travers a peece, dispeart a peece. Com- 
passe Calipers, a gunners quadrant, a hand spike, a crow 
of iron, to mount a peece, to dismount a peece, a darke 
Lanthorne, a budge barrell, a home, a priming iron. 
Wyer, round shot, crosse-[32]-barre-shot, chayne-shot, 
langrill-shot, a case, case-shot, lead, melting ladles, 
moulds, bullet bagges, Musquet shot, Colyuer shot, 
quartred shot, Pistol shot, poysoned bullets, brasse bals, 
iron bals, granadoes, trunkes of wilde fire, pikes of wild 
fire, arrowes of wild fire, pots of wild fire or dragouns. 
To cloye a peece : To loade a peece : To poyson a peece. 
Hookes for gunners or tacklings. 
Concerning Concerning the particuler theor[e]mes, or tearmes, for 
^fgrJT" 1 * great Ordnances, as the concaue, trunke, cylinder, the 
soule or bore of a peece : To know whether she be equally 
bored, camber, taper, or belbored ; the severall names of 
her mettle, the thinnesse and thicknesse, her carnooze or 
base ring at her britch, her shaft or chase, her trunnions, 
mousell rings at her mouth, to dispart her, know her 
leuell poynt blanke and best at randome, her fortification, 
the differences of powder, be it serpentine or corned 
powder ; if she be well mounted, [33] vpon a leuell plot- 
forme or no : besides there are so many vncertaine acci- 
dents, both in the peece, shot, and powder, the ground 
the ayre and differences in proportion, they can no cer- 
taine artificiall rules be proscribed. 

Those proportions following are neere the matter, but 
for your better satisfaction, read Master Digs his Pantry - 
metria y Master Smithy or Master Burnes Arte of gun[ne]ry, 
or Master Robert Nortons expositions vpon maister Digs : 
any of these will shew you the Theoricke ; but to be a 
good Gunner, you must learn it by practise. 

The Gunners scale is made in brasse at Tower Hill, 
with prospectiue glasses, and many other instruments by 
Master Bates. [34] 


o J ct S ?626."] An Accidence for yo\u\ng Sea-men. 

A Table of Proportions for the vse of great 



of the 




of the 





of the 
shot in 


of the 


of the 


of the 



of the 





A Cannon 









Demy Cannon ... 









A Culuering ... 









Demy Culueting 









A Sacar 









A Minion 









A Falcon ... ... 









A Falconet 











Note that seldome in any Ships they vse any Ordinance 
greater then a demy Cannon. [35] 

The Ship hath one third part ; the Victualler the other f^S^ 
third; the other third part is for the Company, and this shares in a 

,,..,,,, r r J * Man of 

IS Subdivided thus. Warre. 


The Captaine 



The Master 



The Mates 



The Gunners 



The Carpenter 



The Boatswaine 




An Accidence for yo\u\ng Sea-men. [ £, 

Oct. 1636. 


The Marshall hath 

The Corporal hath 

The Chyrugion hath 

The quarter Masters hath 

The Steward hath 

The Cooke hath 

The Coxon hath 

The Trumpeter hath 

The Sailers, two or one and a halfe. 

The Boyes a single share. 

The Lieuetenant what the Captaine will giue him, 

or as they can agree. [36] 

They vse to appoint a certaine reward extraordinary 
to him that first discries a Sayle if they take her, and to 
him that first enters her. 


For to learne to obserue the Altitude, Latitude, Longi- 
tude, Amplitude, the variation of the Compasse, the 
Sunnes Azimuth and Almicanter, to shift the Sunne and 
Moone, and to know the tydes, your roomes, pricke your 
card, and say your Compasse, get some of those bookes : 
but practise is the best. 

Master [E.] Wrights errors 
of Nauigation. 

Master [J.] Taps Sea-mans 

[M. Cortes.] The Art of 

[W. Bourne.] The Sea 

[J. Davis.] The Sea-mans 

Wagganour [i.e., J. S. Wag- 
hen aer's The Marinours 
Mirrour, translated by 
A. Ashley. 1588.] 

Master [E.] Gunters workes. 
The Sea-mans glasse for skale. 
Thenew attracter for variation. 
Master Wright for the vse of 

the Globe. 
Master Hewes for the same. 

Good Sea Cards [i.e., Charts.] 
Two paire of Compasees. 
An Astralobe quadrant. 
A Crosse staff e. 
A backe staff e. 
An Astrolobe. 
An Nocturnall. 

If you haue a Divine, his pay is most commonly both from 
the Aduenturers and the Saylors ; so also is the Chyrurgion. 

oalTeS:] An Accidence for yo\u~]ng Sea-men. 803 

Young Gentlemen that desires commaund ought well [1626 
to consider, the condition of his ship, victuall, and Com- Advertise- 

•r 1 1 1 <-\i 1 ments for 

pany; lor if there be more learners then Saylers, now yongCom- 
sleightly soeuer many esteeme Saylers, all the worke to Spines 
saue Ship, goods, and Hues, must lye vpon them, espe- officer* 
daily in foule weather, the labour, hazard, wet and cold 
is so incredible I cannot expresse it. It is not then the 
number of them that here will say at home, what I 
cannot [38] doe, I can quickly learne, and what a great 
matter it is to sayle a Ship, or goe to Sea. Surely those 
for a good time will doe most trouble then good. I con- 
fesse it is more necessary such should go, but not too many 
in one ship; for if the labour of sixty should lye vpon 
thirty, as many times it doth ; they are so ouer-charged with 
labour, bru[i]ses, and ouer-strayning themselues : (for there 
is no dallying nor excuses with stormes, gusts, overgrowne 
seas, and ley shores), they fall sicke of one disease or other, 
and then if their Victuals be putrified, it indangers all. 

Men of all other professions, in lightning, thunder, 
stormes and tempests, with raine and snow, may shelter 
themselues in dry houses, by good fires, and good cheere ; 
but those are the chief times, that Sea-men must stand 
to their tackelings, and attend with all diligence their 
greatest labour vpon the Deckes. Many supposeth any 
thing is good enough [39] to serue men at sea, and yet 
nothing sufficient for them a shore, either for their healthes, 
for their ease, or estates, or state. A Commaunder at 
Sea should do well to thinke the contrary, and prouide 
for himselfe and company in like manner ; also seriously 
to consider what will be his charge, to furnish himselfe 
at sea, with bedding, linnen, armes, and apparell ; how 
to keepe his table aboord, his expences on shore, and his 
Petty Tally, which is a competent proportion according to 
your number, of these particulars following. 

Fine wheat flower, close and well packed, Rise, Cur- 
rands, Sugar, Prunes, Cinamon, Ginger, Pepper, Cloues, 
Greene-ginger, Oyle, Butter, Olde Cheese, or Holland, Wine, 
vinegar, Canary Sacke, Aqua vitce, the best Wines, the best 
Waters, the iuyce of Lemons for the Scurvey, white Bisket, 
Oate meale, Gammons of Bacon, dried neates tongues, Rosted 
Beefe packed vp in vineger. [40] Legges of Mutton minced 

804 An Accidence for yo\u\ng Sea-men. [o J ct S T6a6.' 

[1626] and stewed, and close packed vp with butter in earthen 
pots. To entertaine strangers, Marmelet, Suckets, Almonds, 
Comfits, and such like. 

Some it may bee will say, I would haue men rather to 
feast then fight. But I say the want of those necessaries, 
occasions the losse of more men, then in any English 
fleet hath bin slaine in any fight since [i5]88 : for when a 
man is ill sicke, or at the poynt of death, I would know 
whether a dish of buttered Rice, with a little Cinamon 
and Sugar, a little minced meate, or roast beefe, a few 
stewed Prunes, a race of greene-ginger, a flap Iacke, a 
can of fresh water brued with a little Cinamon, Ginger, 
and Sugar, be not better then a little poore John, or salt 
fish, with oyle and mustard, or bisket, butter, cheese or 
oatemeale pottage on fish dayes,salt beefe, porke and pease, 
and sixe shillings beere. This is your ordinary ships allow- 
ance, and good for [41] them are well, if well conditioned ; 
which is not alwayes, as sea-men can too well witnesse : 
and after a storme, when poore men are all wet, and 
some not so much a cloth to shift him, shaking with cold, 
few of those but will tell you, a little Sacke or Aquvitae, 
is much better to keepe them in health, then a little small 
beere or cold water, although it be sweete. Now that euery 
one should prouide those things for himselfe, few of them 
haue either that prouidence or meanes. And there is 
neither Alehouse, Tauerne, nor Inne to burne a faggot in ; 
neither Grocer, Poulterie, Apothocary, nor Butchers shop : 
and therefore the vse of this petty tally is necessary, and 
thus to be imployed as there is occasion, to entertaine 
strangers, as they are in quality, euery Commander should 
shewe himselfe as like himselfe as he can, as well for the 
credit of the ship and his settors forth as himselfe. But 
in that heerein euery one [42] may moderate themselues, 
according to their owne pleasures, therefore I leaue it to 
their owne discretions. And this breefe Discourse, and 
my selfe, to their friendly construction and good opinion. 

Iohn Smith Writ this with his owne Hand. 






Captaine lOHN SmITK, 

In Europe, Asia, Affrica, and America, from Anno 
Domini 1593 to 1629. 
His Accidents and Sea-fights in the Straights ; his Service 
and Stratagems of warre in Hungaria, Transilvania, Wallachia, and 
Moldavia, against the Turks, and Tartars j his three single 
combats betwixt the Christian Armie and the Turkes. 
After how he was taken prisoner by the Tur\s, sold for a Slave, sent 
into Tartaria ; his description of the Tartars, their strange manners 
and customes of Religions, Diets, Buildings, Warres, Feasts, Cere- 
monies, and Living} how hee slew the Bashaw of Nalbrits in 
Gambia, and escaped from the Turkes and Tartars. 

Together with a continuation of his generall History of Virginia, 

Summer-lies, New England, and their proceedings, since 1624. to 

this present 1629 ; as also of the new Plantations of the 

great River of the Amazons, the lies of St. Christopher, 

Mevis, and Barbados in the West Indies. 

All written by actuall Authours, whose names 
you shall finde along the History. 


Printed by J. H. for Thomas Slater, and are to bee 

sold at the Blew Bible in Greene Arbour. 1 6 3 0. 

[On the 1 8th April 1884, we personally inspected, at the College of 
Arms, Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C., Sir William Segar's 
registration of the Coat of Arms on the opposite page ; see p. xxiv. 

It may be well to repeat what we have already said at p. xxiii, that 
most of what is here recorded by Smith of his doings in Hungary, 
Transylvania, &c, in Chapters iv.-x., pp. 829-850, is but a reprint of 
PURCHAS's translated Extracts from the Italian History or Biography 
of Francisco Farnese, the Secretary to Prince Sigismundus 
Batori, pp. 788, 852 : and is therefore not Smith's own account of 
his own doings, but chiefly the narrative of a foreigner with no possible 
motive for his laudation. 

This Work was thus entered for publication at Stationers' Hall, 
London : 

29 &ugtr«t 1629. 

Thomaa Slaughter Entred for his Copie vnder the handes of master 
Doctor Jefferay and master Purfoote Warden 
The true travells aduentures and observations of 
Captaine John Smith in Europe Asia &»c.from 
Anno Domini 1593 to 1629. . . . vjd. 
A Transcript of the Registers of the Company of Stationers of 

London, 1554-1640 A.D., Ed. by E. Arber, iv. 218, 1877. 

The Travels, however, come no later than 1604, see p. 880 : the 
Observations comprise the carrying on of the story of our colonizing 
efforts from 1624, where the General History left off at p. 784, down 
to the year 1629. 

There seems to have been some delay in the publication of this 
book, for though registered in August 1629, it came out with the date 

For the bibliography of this Work step, exxxi.] 


Arms of Captain John Smith. 


To the Right Honourable 

Willi AM) Rarle ofPEMBROKE^ 

Lord Steward of his Majesties most 

Honourable Houshold. 

Robert^ Karle of Lindsey^ 

Great Chamber laine of 

H e n r i E^ Lord H U N S D O N , 

Vicount Rochford, Karle of Dover. 

And all your Honourable Friends 

and Well-wilier s. 
My Lords: 

[1629] $18^^ R R°b er * C°tt° n > that most learned Trea- 
*TV!§vM surer of Antiquitie, having by perusall of 
fl^SssC my Generall Historie, and others [i.e., his 
other earlier publications^ found that I had likewise 
undergone divers other as hard hazards in the other 
parts of the world, requested me to fix the whole 
course of my passages in a booke by it selfe : whose 
noble desire I could not but in part satisfie ; the 

A { g s S:] The Epistle Dedicatory. 809 

rather, because they have acted my fatall Tragedies [1629] 
upon the Stage, and racked my Relations at their 
pleasure. To prevent therefore all future misprisons, 
I have compiled this true discourse. Envie hath taxed 
me to have writ too much, and done too little : but 
that such should know, how little I esteeme them, I 
have writ this ; more for the satisfaction of my friends, 
and all generous and well disposed Readers. 

To speake only of my selfe were intolerable in- 
gratitude ; because, having had so many co-partners 
with me ; I cannot make a Monument for my selfe, 
and leave them unburied in the fields, whose lives 
begot me the title of a Souldier ; for as they were 
companions with me in my dangers, so shall they be 
partakers with me in this Tombe. 

For my Sea Grammar (caused to bee printed by 
my worthy friend, Sir Samuel Saltonstall \_p. 787]) 
hath found such good entertainment abroad, that I 
have beene importuned by many noble persons, to 
let this also passe the Presse. 

Many of the most eminent Warriers, and others ; 
what their swords did, their penns writ. Though I 
bee never so much their inferiour, yet I hold it no 
great errour, to follow good examples; nor repine 
at them, [who] will doe the like. 

And now my most Honourable good Lords, 
I know not to whom I may better present it, than 
to your Lordships, whose friendships, as I conceive, 



The Epistle Dedicatory. 

r J. &r 
LAu K . i 


are as much to each others, as my duty is to you 
all : and because you are acquainted both with my 
endevours, and writings, I doubt not, but your 
honours will as well accept of this, as of the rest ; 
and Patronize it under the shadow of your most 
noble vertues, which I am ever bound in all duty to 
reverence, and under which I hope to have shelter, 
against all stormes that dare threaten. 

Your Honours to be commanded, 

I o ii n Smith. 

The Contents of the severall 


Chap. i. W f 1 !%Is birth ; apprentiship ; going 
into France; his beginning 
with ten shillings and three- 
pence, his service in Nether- 
lands ; his bad passage into Scotland ; 
his returne to Willoughby; and how he 
lived in the woods page I. [p, 821] 

2. The notable villany of four e French Gal- 
lants, and his revenge; Smith throwne 
over-boord, Captaine La Roche of Saint 
Malo releeves him 3. 

3. A desperate Sea-fight in the Straights ; 
his passage to Rome, Naples, and tht 
view of Italy 5. 

4. The Siege of Olumpagh; an excellent 
stratagem by Smith ; another not much 


... 6. 

[p. 823] 
[p. 826] 
[p. 829] 

The siege of Stowlle-Wesenburg; the 
effects of Smiths Fire-workes ; a worthy 
exploit of the Earle Rosworme ; Earle 
Meldritch takes the Bashaw prisoner. 8. [p. 831] 

A brave encounter of the Turks armie 
with the Christians; Duke Mercury 
overthroweth Assan Bashaw; He divides 
the Christian armie; his noblenesse and 
death 9. [p. 833] 

8i2 The Contents. [£*£ 

Chap. 7. The unhappy siege of Caniza; Earle 
Meldritch serveth Prince Sigismundus; 
Prince Moyses besiegeth Regall ; Smiths 
three single combats 11. [p. 836] 

8. Georgio Busca an Albane his ingratitude 
to Prince Sigismundus; Prince Moyses 
his Lieutenant, is overthrowne by Busca, 
Generall for the Emperour Rodulphus ; 
Smiths Patent from Sigismundus, and 
reward 14. [p, 840] 

9. Sigismundus sends Ambassadours unto 
the Emperour ; the conditions re-assured ; 
he yieldeth up all to Busca, and retumeth 

to Prague 18. [p. 845] 

10. The Battell of Rottenton ; a pretty strata- 
gem of fire-workes by Smith 20. [p. 848] 

11. The names of the English that wereslaine 
in the battle of Rottenton ; and how Cap- 
taine Smith was taken prisoner ; and sold 

for a slave 21. [p. 851] 

12. How Captaine Smith was sent prisoner 
thorow the Blacke and Dissabacca Sea in 
Tartaria; the description of those Seas, 

and his usage 23.^.853] 

13. The Turks diet; the Slaves diet; the 
attire of the Tartars; and manner of 
Warres and Religions, &c 24. [p. 855] 

14. The description of the Crym-Tartars ; 
their houses and carts; their idolatry in 

their lodgings 26. [p. 857] 

15. Their feasts ; common diet; Princes estate; 
buildings; lawes; slaves; entertainment 

of Ambassadours 27. [p. 859] 

16. How he levieth an Armie; their Armes 
and Provision ; how he divideth the 
spoile; and his service to the Great 
Turke 29. [p. 862J 

A J ug s ?!t] The Contents, 813 

Chap. 17. How Captaine Smith escaped his cap- 
tivity; slew the Bashaw of Nalbrits in 
Cambia ; his passage to Russia, Transil- 
vania, and the middest of Europe to 
Affrica 31. [p. 866] 

18. The observations of Captaine Smith ; 
Master Henry Archer, and others in 
Barbary 34. [p. 869] 

19. The strange discoveries and observations 

of the Portugals in Affrica 37. [p. 874J 

20. A brave Sea-fight betwixt two Spanish 
men of warre, and Captaine Merham, 

with Smith 39. [p. 878] 

21. The continuation of the generall History 
of Virginia; the Summer lies; and New 
England ; with their present estate from 

1624. to this present 1629 4 1 * [p- 883] 

22. The proceedings and present estate of the 
Summer lies, from An. Dom. 1624. to 

this present 1629 45* [£• 889] 

23. The proceedings and present estate of New 
England, since 1624. io this present 

1629 46.(^.891] 

24. A briefe discourse of divers voyages made 
unto the goodly Country of Guiana, and 
the great River of the Amazons ; relating 

also the present Plantation there. ... 48. [p. 895] 

25. The beginning and proceedings of the new 
plantation of St. Christopher by Captaine 
Warner 51. [p. 900] 

26. The first planting of the Barbados. ... 55. [p. 906] 

27. The first plantation of the He of Mevis. 56. [p. 909] 

28. The bad life, qualities and conditions of 
Pyrats ; and how they taught the Turks 

and Moores to become men ofwarre. 58. [p. 913] 

8 1 4 {Complimentary Verses. r 'a!fS 


To my worthy friend, Captaine 
Iohn Smith. 

[1629] 5^j]|SBr Wo greatest Shires of England did thee beare, 

Renowned Yorkshire, Gaunt-stild Lancashire ; 
But what's all this ? even Earth, Sea, Heaven above, 
Tragabigzanda, Callamata's love, 
Deare Pocahontas, Madam Shanoi's too, 
Who did what love with modesty could doe : 
Record thy worth, thy birth, which as I live, 
Even in thy reading such choice solace give, 
As I could wish (such wishes would doe well) 
Many such Smiths in this our Israel. 

R. Brathwait. 

To my noble brother and friend, 

Captaine Iohn Smith. 

Hou hast a course so full of honour runne, 
Envy may snarle, as dogges against the Sunne 
May barke, not bite : for what deservedly 
With thy lifes danger, valour, pollicy, 
Quaint warlike stratagems, abillity 
And judgement, thou hast got, fame sets so high 
Detraction cannot reach : thy worth shall stand 
A patterne to succeeding ages, and 
Cloth' d in thy owne lines, ever shall adde grace, 
Vnto thy native Country and thy race ; 
And when dissolved, laid in thy mothers wombe, 
These, Caesar-/ifo, Smiths Epitaph and tombe. 

Anthony Fereby. 

E ' Jor it9. Complimentary Verses.] 815 

To his valiant and deserving friend, 
Captaine Iohn Smith. 

Kongst Frenchmen, Spanyards, Hungars, Tartars, [1629] 

A nd wilde Virginians too, this tells thy works : 
Now some will aske, what benefit ? what gaine ? 
Is added to thy store for all this paine ? 
TK art then content to say, content is all, 
Th'ast got content for perils, paine and thrall ; 
Tis lost to looke for more : for few men now 
Regard Wit, Learning, Valour ; but allow 
The quintessence of praise to him that can 
Number his owne got gold, and riches, than 
Wart Valiant, Learned, Wise; Pauls counsell will, 
A dmire thy merits, magnifie thy skill. 
The last of thine to which I set my hand 
Was a Sea Grammar ; this by Sea and Land, 
Serves us for imitation : I know none, 
That like thy selfe hast come, and runne, and gone. 
To such praise-worthy actions : beeH approued, 
Th' ast well deserv'd of best men to be loued : 
If France, or Spaine, or any forren soile 
Could claime thee theirs, for these thy paines and toile, 
Th' adst got reward and honour : now adayes, 
What our owne natives doe, we seldom praise. 

Good men will yeeld thee praise ; then sleight the rest ; 
Tis best praise-worthy to have pleased the best. 

Tuissimus Ed. Iorden. 

8 1 6 [Complimentary Verses, m h J 

M. Hawkins. 

To my worthy friend, Captaine 
Iohn Smith. 

[1629] Q^p^Ear^ noble Captaine, who by Sea and Land, 
To act the earnest of thy name hast hand 
And heart; who canst with skill designe the Fori, 
The Leaguer, Harbour, City, Shore, and Port : 
Whose sword and pen in bold, ruffe, Martiall wise, 
Put forth to try and beare away the prize, 
From Caesar and Blaize Monluc : Can it be, 
That Men alone in Gonnels fortune see 
Thy worth advanced ? no wonder since our age, 
Is now at large a Bedlem or a Stage. 

Rich. Iames. 

To his worthy friend, Captaine 
Iohn Smith. 

Hou that hast had a spirit to flie like thunder, 

Without thy Countries charge through those strange 
Doth make my muse amazed, and more to wonder 
That thy deserts should shared be by strangers, 
And thou neglected ; (ah miracle !) most lamented, 
At thy great patience thus to rest contented. 

M. Hawkins 

R. a SK3: Complimentary Verses^ 817 


For none can truly say thou didst deceive, [1629] 

Thy Souldiers, Sailers, Merchants, nor thy friends, 

But all from thee a true account receive, 

Yet nought to thee all these thy vertues brings ; 

Is none so noble to advance thy merit, 
If any be, let him thy praise inherit. 

Ma. Hawkins. 

To my worthy friend, Captaine 
Iohn Smith. 

combate with three Turks in single du'le^ 

Before two Armies, who the like hath done ? 
Slaine thy great lailor ; found a common weale 
In faire America where ; thou hast wonnt 
No lesse renowne amongst their Savage Kings, 
Than Turkish warres, that thus thy honour sings. 

Could not those tyrants daunt thy matchlesse spirit. 

Nor all the cruelty of envies spight : 
Will not thy Country yet reward thy merit, 

Nor in thy acts and writings take delight ? 
Which here in so few sheets doth more expresse 

Than volumes great, this is thy happinesse. 

Richard Meade. 

8 1 8 [Complimentary Verses. ^ cfiiS;. 


To my well deserving friend, 
Captaine Iohn Smith. 

[1629] !«jn r^jpHou hast no need to covet new applause, 

Nor doe I thinke vaine-glory moves thee to it ; 
But since it is thy will {though without cause) 
To move a needlesse thing, yet will I doe it : 
Doe it in brief e I will, or else I doe the[e] wrong, 

And say, rend or'e Captaine Smiths former song; 
His first then will invite thee to his latter: 
Reader 'tis true ; I am not brib'd to flatter. 

Edw. Ingham. 

To his approved friend, the Authour ; 
Captaine Iohn Smith. 

■/v., Bard.] ^^nCJw^* old Greeke Beard,* counts him the onely man, 
Who knowes strange Countries, like his Ithacan, 
A nd wise, as valiant, by his observation, 
Can tell the severall customes of each Nation : 
A 11 these are met in thee, who will not then 
Repute thee in the ranke of worthiest men ? 

To th'Westerne world to former times unknowns, 
Thy active spirit hath thy valour showne : 
The Turks and Tartars both can testifie, 
Thee fhave deserv'd a Captaines dignity ; 
But verse thou need'st not to expresse thy worth. 
Thy acts, this booke doe plainly set it forth. 

M. Cartner. 


B. O. Rourke. 


Complimentary Verses."] 


To the Valourous and trwly -vert uous 
souldier, Captaine Iohn Smith. 

O* Faith in Campe ? tis false : see pious Smith 
Hath brought stragling Astraea backe, and with 
An all outdaring spirit made Valour stand 
Vpheld by Vertue in bold Mars his land : 
If Valourous, be praise ; how great's his Name ? 
Whose Valour joynd with Vertue laud 's his Fame. 
Vwas Homers boast of wise Laertes sonne, 
t Well-read in men and Cities : than thou none 
{Great Smith) of these can more true tales rehearse ; 
What want thy praises then, but Homers verse ? 


* Nulla fides 
viris, qui 
castra sequ- 

$' avQpia- 
irutv ISev 
aorea icai 
voov iyv<o 
Horn. OdysB. 

Jn Smitkum Distichon. 

Quisque suas sortis*Faber; an Faber exstitit unquam * A PP iu« 
Te (Smithe) fortunae verior usque suae ? 

I. c. 
C. P. 

To his noble friend, Captaine 
Iohn Smith. 

see bright honour sparkled all in gore, 
Would Steele a spirit that neWe fought before : 
A nd thafs the height of Fame, when our best bloud, 
Is nobly spilt in actions great and good : 

So thou hast taught the world to purchase Fame, 

Rearing thy story on a glorious frame, 

And such foundation doth thy merits make it, 

As all detractions rage shall never shake it; 

Thy actions crowne themselves, and thy owne pen, 

Gives them the best and truest Epiphonem. 

Brian O Ro v r k b. 

820 [Complimentary Verses. STa S£ 

To his truly deserving friend 

Captaine Iohn Smith. 

[1629] j[fifr^)^An one please all ? there's none from Censure free, 
To looke forHt then it were absurd in thee ; 
It's easie worke to censure sweetest Layes, 
Where Ignorance is Iudge thou'd have no praise : 
Wisdome / know will mildly judge of all, 
Envious hearts , tongues, pennes, are dippt in Gall. 
Proud malignant times will you now bring forth 
Monsters at least to snarle at others worth ; 
doe not so, but wisely looke on him 
That wrought such Honours for his Countries King ; 
Of Turks and Tartars thou hast wonne the field. 
The great Bashaw his Courage thou hast queVd ; 
In the Hungarian warre thou'st shewd thy Arts, 
Proued thy Selfe a Souldier true in all parts : 
Thy Armes are deckt with that thy Sword hath wonne, 
Which mallice can't out- w ear e till day be done : 
For three proud Turks in single fight thou'st slue, 
Their Heads adorne thy Armes, for witnesse true; 
Let Mars and Neptune both with Pregnant wit, 
Extoll thy due deserts, He pray for it. 

Salo. Tanner 





OF CAPTAINE Iohn Smith, 

in Europe, Asia, Africke, and America : 

beginning about the yeere 1593. anc * 

continued to this present 



His birth ; Apprentiship ; Going into France ; His 

beginning with ten shillings and three pence ; His 

Service in Netherlands ; His bad passage into 

Scotland ; His returne to Willoughby ; 

And how he lived in the Woods. 

E was borne [1580] in Willoughby in [1580-96] 
Lincolne-shire, and a Scholler in the two 
Free-schooles of Alford and Louth. His 
father anciently descended from the 
ancient Smiths of Crtcdley in Lancashire; 
his mother from the Rickands at great 
Heck in York-shire. 

His parents dying [1596] when he was 
about thirteene yeeres of age, left him a competent meanes, 
which hee not being capable to manage, little regarded ; 

822 The Travel Is and Adventures of [A J u ' g s ?£!j: 

[1596-9] his minde being even then set upon brave adventures, [he] 
sould his Satchell, bookes, and all he had, intending 
secretly to [2] get to Sea, but that his fathers death [Apr. 
1596] stayed him. 

But now the Guardians of his estate more regarding 
it than him, he had libertie enough, though no meanes, 
to get beyond the Sea. 

About the age of fifteene yeeres [1595] nee was bound 
an Apprentice to Master Thomas Sendall of Linne, the 
greatest Merchant of all those parts; but because hee 
would not presently send him to Sea, he never saw his 
master in eight yeeres after [1596-1604]. 

At last, he found meanes to attend Master Perigrine Barty 
into France, second sonne to the Right Honourable Peri- 
grine, that generous Lord Willoughby and famous Souldier; 
where comming to his brother Robert, then at Orleans, now 
Earle of Linsey, and Lord great Chamberlaine of England ; 
being then but little youths under Tutorage : his service 
being needlesse, within a moneth or six weeks they sent 
him backe againe to his friends. Who when he came from 
London, they liberally gave him (but out of his owne estate) 
ten shillings to be rid of him; such oft is the share of 
fatherlesse children : but those two Honourable Brethren 
gave him sufficient to returne for England. 

But it was the least thought of his determination, for 
now being freely at libertie in Paris, growing acquainted 
with one Master David Hume ; who making some use of 
his purse, gave him Letters to his friends in Scotland to 
preferre him to King lames. Arriving at Roane, he better 
bethinkes himselfe, seeing his money neere spent, downe 
the River he went to Haver de grace, where he first began 
to learne the life of a souldier. 

Peace being concluded in France [1596], he went with 
Captaine Ioseph Duxbury into the Low-countries, under 
whose Colours having served three or foure yeeres [1596-9], 
he tooke his journey for Scotland, to deliver his Letters. 

At Ancusan he imbarked himselfe for Lethe, but as 
much danger as shipwracke and sicknesse could endure, 
hee had at the holy He in Northumberland neere Bar- 
wicke : (being recovered) into Scotland he went to deliver 
his Letters. 

Aug S SS.'] Captaine Iohn Smith, 823 

After much kinde usage amongst those honest Scots at [1600] 
Ripweth and Broxmoth,but neither money nor meanes to make 
him a Courtier; he returned to Willoughby in Lincoln-shire. 

Where within a short time being glutted with too much 
company, wherein he took small delight ; he retired 
himselfe into a little wooddie pasture, a good way from 
any towne, invironed with many hundred Acres of other 
woods : Here by a faire brook he built a Pavillion of 
boughes, where only in his cloaths he lay. His studie 
was Machiavills Art of warre, and Marcus Aurelius; his 
exercise a good horse, with his lance and Ring ; his food 
was thought to be more of venison than any thing else ; 
what he wanted, his man brought him. 

The countrey wondering at such an Hermite; His 
friends perswaded one Seignior Theadora Polaloga, Rider 
to Henry Earle of Lincolne, an excellent Horse-man, and 
a noble Italian Gentleman, to insinuate into his wooddish 
acquaintances ; whose Languages and good discourse, and 
exercise of riding, drew him to stay with him at Tatter sail. 

Long these pleasures could not content him, but hee 
returned againe to the Low-Countreyes. [3] 


The notable villany offoure French Gallants, and his 

revenge ; Smith throwne over-board ; Captaine 

La Roche of Saint Malo releeves him. 

,Hus when France and Netherlands had taught 
him to ride a Horse and use his Armes, with such 
rudiments of warre as his tender yeeres \cet. 16-20] 
in those martiall Schooles could attaine unto ; 
he was desirous to see more of the world, and trie his 
fortune against the Turkes : both lamenting and repenting 
to have seene so many Christians slaughter one another. 

Opportunitie casting him [in the Low Countries] into the a notable 
company of foure French Gallants well attended, fainingto four e ny ° 
him the one to be a great Lord, the rest his Gentlemen, and G2£iu$ 
that they were all devoted that way ; over-perswaded him to 

824 The Travells and Adventures of [ A J ug s ?6^ 

[1600] goe with them into France, to the Dutchesse of Mercury [de 
Mercceur], from whom they should not only have meanes, 
but also Letters of favour to her noble Duke, then General! 
[since Sept. 1598] for the Emperour Rodolphus in Hungary : 
which he did, with such ill weather as winter affordeth. 

In the darke night, they arrived in the broad shallow 
In-let of Saint Vatleries sur Some in Picardie ; his French 
Lord knowing he had good apparell, and [was] better fur- 
nished with money than themselves, so plotted with the 
Master of the ship to set his and their owne trunckes a 
shore, leaving Smith aboard till the boat could returne, 
which was the next day after towards evening : the reason 
hee alleaged was the sea went so high hee could come no 
sooner, and that his Lord was gone to Amiens where they 
would stay his comming. Which treacherous villany, 
when divers other souldiers and passengers understood, 
they had like to have slaine the Master; and had they 
knowne how, would have runne away with the ship. 
a carraiue Comming on shore hee had but one Carralue, [and] was 
« in^raiue a f orce( j to se jj j^s cloake to pay for his passage. One of the 
souldiers, called Curzianvere, compassionating his injury, 
assured him this great Lord Depreau was only the sonne 
of a Lawyer of Mortaigne in base Britany ; and his Attend- 
ants Cursell, La Nelie, and Monferrat, three young citizens, 
as arrant cheats as himselfe : but if he would accompany 
him, he would bring him to their friends; but in the 
interim [he] supplied his wants. 

Thus travelling by Deepe, Codebeck, Humphla, Pount- 
demer in Normandie, they came to Cane in base Normandie : 
where both this noble Curzianvere, and the great Prior of 
the great Abbey of 5. Steven (where is the ruinous Tombe 
of William the Conquerour,) and many other of his friends 
kindly welcomed him, and brought him to Mortaigne ; 
where hee found Depreau and the rest, but to small purpose. 
For Master Curzianvere was a banished man, and durst 
not be seene, but to his friends: yet the bruit of their 
cosenage occasioned the Lady Collumber, the Baron 
Larshan, the Lord Shasghe, and divers other honourable 
persons, to supply his wants ; and with them to recreate 
himselfe so long as hee would : but such pleasant pleasures 
suited little with his poore estate, and his restlesse spirit, 

A J ug S ?6£3 Captaine IohnSmith. 825 

that could neuer finde content, to receiue such noble [1600] 
favours, as he could neither deserve nor requite. [4] 

But wandring from Port to Port to finde some man of 
war, [he] spent that he had ; and in a Forest, neere dead 
with griefe and cold, a rich Farmer found him by a faire 
Fountaine under a tree. This kinde Pesant releeved him 
againe to his content, to follow his intent. 

Not long after, as he passed thorow a great grove of trees, Here he 
betweene Pounterson and Dina in Britaine, it was his chance i>ne°of £? 
to meet Cursell, more miserable than himselfe. His piercing theeves - 
injuries had so small patience, as without any word they 
both drew, and in a short time Cursell fell to the ground ; 
where from an old ruinated Tower the inhabitants seeing 
them, were satisfied, when they heard Cursell confesse 
what had formerly passed ; and that how in the dividing 
that they had stolne from him, they fell by the ears 
amongst themselves, that were actors in it : but for his 
part, he excused himselfe to be innocent as well of the 
one, as of the other. 

In regard of his hurt, Smith was glad to be so rid of ThenoMe. 
him, directing his course to an honourable Lord, the Earle ilfieof 
of Ployer; who during the warre in France [1590-6], with ployer - 
his two brethren, Viscount Poomory, and Baron d'Mercy, 
who had beene brought up in England : by him he was 
better refurnished than ever. When they had shewed him 
Saint Malo Mount, Saint Michael, Lambal, Simbreack, 
Lanion, and their owne faire Castle of Tuncadeck, Gingan, 
and divers other places in Britanny (and their Brittish 
Comwaile), taking his leave, he tooke his way to Raynes, 
the Britaines chiefe Citie, and so to Nantes, Poyters, 
Rochell, and Burdeaux. 

The rumour of the strength of Bayon in Biskay, caused 
him to see it ; and from thence [he] tooke his way from 
Leskar in Biearne, and Paw in the kingdom of Navar to 
Tolouza in Gascoigne, Bezers and Carcassone, Narbone, Mont- 
pettier, Nimes in Languedock, and thorow the Country of 
Avignion, by Aries to Mar cellos in Province. 

There imbarking himselfe for Italy, the ship was 
enforced to Tolonne ; and putting againe to sea, ill weather 
so grew upon them, they anchored close aboard the shore, 
under the little Isle of 5. Mary, against Neice in Savoy. 


The Travells and Adventures of 

[J. Smith. 
Aug. 1629. 



act of the 
in casting 
him over- 

La Roche 
releeves him. 

Here the inhumane Provincialls, with a rabble of 
Pilgrimes of divers Nations going to Rome, hourely 
cursing him, not only for a Hugonoit, but his Nation they 
swore were all Pyrats, and so vildly railed on his dread 
Soveraigne Queene Elizabeth, and that they never should 
have faire weather so long as hee was aboard them ; their 
disputations grew to that passion, that they threw him 
over-board : yet God brought him to that little Isle, where 
was no inhabitants, but a few kine and goats. 

The next morning, he espied two ships more riding by 
them, put in by the storme ; that fetched him aboard, well 
refreshed him, and so kindly used him, that he was well 
contented to trie the rest of his fortune with them. After he 
had related unto them his former discourse, what for pitie, 
and the love of the Honourable Earle of Ployer, this noble 
Britaine his neighbour, Captaine la Roche of Saint Malo, 
regarded and entertained him for his well respected friend. 

With the next faire wind they sailed along by the Coast 
of Corsica and Sardinia ; and crossing the gulfe of Tunis, 
passed by Cape Bona to the Isle of Lampadosa, leaving 
the coast of Barbary till they came at Cape Rosata, and so 
along the African shore, for Alexandria in Mgypt. 

There delivering their fraught, they went to Scandaroone ; 
rather to view what ships was in the Roade, than any thing 
else : keeping their [5] course by Cypres and the coast of 
Asia, sayling by Rhodes, the Archipellagans, Candia, and 
the coast of Gretia, and the Isle of Zaffalonia. 

They lay to and againe a few days betwixt the Isle of 
Corfue and the Cape of Otranto in the Kingdome of Naples, 
in the Entrance of the A driatike sea. 


A desperate 

A desperate Sea-fight in the Straights ; His passage 
to Rome, Naples, and the view of Italy. 

Etwixt the two Capes {at the entrance of the 
Adriatic] they meet with an Argosie of Venice. 
It seemed the Captaine desired to speake 
with them, whose untoward answer was such, 

A^TeS:] Captaine Iohn Smith. 827 

as slew them a man; whereupon the Britaine presently [1600-1] 
gave them the broad-side, then his Sterne, and his other 
broad-side also, and continued the chase, with his chase 
peeces, till he gave them so many broad-sides one after 
another, that the Argosies sayles and tackling was so 
torne, she stood to her defence, and made shot for shot. 

Twice in one houre and a halfe the Britaine boarded her, 
yet they cleared themselves: but clapping her aboard 
againe, the Argosie fired him, which, with much danger 
to them both, was presently quenched. This rather 
augmented the Britaines rage, than abated his courage ; 
for having reaccommodated himselfe againe, [he] shot hei 
so oft betweene wind and water, shee was readie to sinke ; 
then they yeelded; the Britaine lost fifteene men, she 
twentie, besides divers were hurt. The rest went to worke 
on all hands ; some to stop the leakes, others to guard the 
prisoners that were chained, the rest to rifle her. The 
Silkes, Velvets, Cloth of gold and Tissue, Pyasters 
Chicqueenes and Sultanies, which is gold and silver, they 
unloaded in foure and twentie houres, was wonderfull : 
whereof having sufficient, and tired with toile, they cast 
her off with her company, with as much good merchandize 
as would haue fraughted such another Britaine, that was 
but two hundred Tunnes, she foure or five hundred. 

To repaire his defects, hee stood for the coast of Calabria, 
but hearing there was six or seven Galleyes at Mesina, hee 
departed thence for Malta : but the wind comming faire, he 
kept his course along the coast of the Kingdome of Sicilia 
by Sardinia and Corsica, till he came to the Road of A ntibo 
[Antibes] in Peamon [Piedmont], where he set Smith on 
shore with fiue hundred chicqueenes [—about £225], and 
a little box God sent him worth neere as much more. 

Here he left this noble Britaine, and embarked himselfe 
for Lygorne, being glad to have such opportunitie and 
meanes to better his experience by the view of Italy ; and 
having passed Tuskany, and the Countrey of Sieana (where 
hee found his deare friends, the two Honourable Brethren, 
the Lord Willoughby and his Brother cruelly wounded, in a 
desperate fray, yet to their exceeding great honour), then 
to Viterbo and many other Cities, he came to Rome : where 
it was his chance to see Pope Clement the eight, with many 


The Popes 

holy Staires 





(they say) 

Christ went 

up to 



The Travells and Adventures of 

f J. Smith. 

Cardinalls, creepe up the holy Stayres, which they say are 
those our Saviour Christ went up to Pontius Pilate, where 
bloud falling from his head, being pricked with his crowne 
of thornes, the drops [6] are marked with nailes of Steele. 
Upon them none dare goe but in that manner, saying so 
many Ave-Maries and Paternosters, as is their devotion, and 
to kisse the nailes of Steele. But on each side is a paire of 
such like staires, up which you may goe, stand, or kneele ; 
but divided from the holy Staires by two walls : right 
against them is a Chappell, where hangs a great silver 
Lampe, which burneth continually, yet they say the oyle 
neither increaseth nor diminisheth. 

A little distant is the ancient Church of Saint John de 
Laterane, where he saw him [Pope Clement VIII.] say Masse, 
which commonly he doth upon some Friday once a moneth. 

Having saluted Father Parsons, that famous English 
Iesuite, and satisfied himselfe with the rarities of Rome, he 
went downe the River of Tiber to Civita Vechia ; where he 
embarked himselfe to satisfie his eye with the faire Citie 
of Naples, and her Kingdomes nobilitie. 

Returning by Capua, Rome and Seana, he passed by that 
admired Citie of Florence, the Cities and Countries of Bolonia, 
Ferrara, Mantua, Padua, and Venice, whose Gulfe he passed 
from Malamoco and the Adriatike Sea for Ragouza, spending 
some time to see that barren broken coast of Albania and 
Dalmatia, to Capo de I stria, travelling the maine [i.e., main- 
land] of poore Slavonia by Lubbiano, till he came to Grates 
in Steria, the Seat of Ferdinando Arch-duke of Austria, now 
[1629] Emperour of A Imania [from 1619 to 1637] : where he 
met an English man, and an Irish Iesuite; who acquainted 
him [made him acquainted] with many brave Gentlemen of 
good qualitie, especially with the Lord Ebersbaught. 

With whom trying such conclusions, as he projected 
to undertake ; [he] preferred him to Baron Kisell, Generall 
of the Artillery; and he to a worthy Collonell, [Henry 
Volda] the Earle of A/ eldritch : with whom going to Vienne in 
Austria, under whose Regiment, in what service, and how 
he spent his time, this ensuing Discourse will declare. 

ing^i:] Captaine Iohn Smith. 829 


The Siege of Olumpagh ; An excellent Stratagem 
by Smith ; Another not much worse. 

Fter the losse of Caniza, the Turkes with twentie [1601] 
thousand besieged the strong Towne of Olum- 3J*jJ£Jf A of 
pagh so straightly, as they were cut off from all 
intelligence and hope of succour; till Iohn 
Smith, this English Gentleman, acquainted Baron Kisell, 
Generall of the Archdukes Artillery, he had taught the 
Governour, his worthy friend, such a Rule, that he would 
undertake to make him know any thing he intended, and 
have his answer, would they bring him but to some place 
where he might make the flame of a Torch seene to the 

Kisell inflamed with this strange invention ; Smith made 
it so plaine, that forthwith hee gave him guides, who 
in the darke night brought him to a mountaine, where he 
shewed three Torches equidistant from other, which 
plainly appearing to the Towne ; the Governour presently 
apprehended, and answered againe with three other fires 
in like manner ; each knowing the others being and intent ; 
Smith, though distant seven miles, signified to him these 
words : On Thursday at night I will charge on the East, 
at the [7] Alarum, salley you. 

Ebersbaught answered he would : and thus it was done. 
First he writ his message as briefe, you see, as could 
be, then divided the Alphabet in two parts thus ; 

A. b. c. d. e. /. g. h. i. k. I. 
I. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 



























The first part from A.toL. is signified by shewing and sJS^m" 1 
hiding one linke, so oft as there is letters from A . to that 
letter you meane ; the other part from M. to Z. is men- 

830 The Travells and Adventures of [a^??<^ 

[1601] tioned by two lights in like manner. The end of a word 
is signified by shewing of three lights : ever staying your 
light at that letter you meane, till the other may write it 
in a paper, and answer by his signall, which is one light, 
it is done ; beginning to count the letters by the lights, 
every time from A . to M : by this meanes also the other re- 
turned his answer, whereby each did understand other. 
The Guides all this time having well viewed the Campe, 
returned to Kisell, who, doubting of his power being but 
ten thousand, was animated by the Guides, how the Turkes 
were so divided by the River in two parts, they could not 
Another easily second each other. To which Smith added this con- 
straugem. c i us i on . that two or three thousand pieces of match 
fastened to divers small lines of an hundred fathome in 
length being armed with powder, might all be fired and 
stretched at an instant before the Alarum, upon the Plaine 
of Hysnaburg, supported by two staves, at each lines end, 
in that manner would seeme like so many Musketteers; 
which was put in practice : and being discovered by the 
Turkes, they prepared to encounter these false fires, thinking 
there had beene some great Armie : whilest Kisell with his 
ten thousand being entred the Turks quarter, who ranne 
up and downe as men amazed. 

It was not long ere Ebersbaught was pell-mell with them 
in their Trenches; in which distracted confusion, athird part 
of the Turkes, that besieged that side towards Knousbruck, 
were slaine ; many of the rest drowned : but all fled. The 
other part of the Armie was so busied to resist the false 
fires, that Kisell before the morning put two thousand good 
souldiers in the Towne, and with small losse was retired. 
The Garrison was well releeved with that they found in the 
Turkes quarter, which caused the Turkes to raise their siege 
and returne to Caniza : and Kisell with much honour was 
received at Kerment ; and occasioned the Author a good 
reward and preferment, to be Captaine of two hundred and 
fiftie Horse-men, under the Conduct of Colonell Voldo, 
Earle of Meldritch. [8] 

A J ag S ?6£:] Captaine Iohn Smith. 831 


The siege of Stowlle-wesenburg ; The effects of 
Smiths Fireworkes ; A worthy exploit of 
Earle Rosworme ; Earle M eldritch 
takes the Bashaw prisoner. 

Generall rumour of a generall peace, now [1601] 
spred it selfe over all the face of those tor- 
mented Countries : but the Turke intended no 
such matter, but levied souldiers from all 
parts he could. The Emperour also, by the assistance of 
the Christian Princes, provided three Armies : the one led 
by the Arch-duke Mathias, the Emperours brother, and 
his Lieutenant Duke Mercury [i.e., Philippe Emmanuel de 
Lorraine, Duke de Mercceur] to defend Low Hungary ; 
the second, by Ferdinando the Arch-duke of Steria, and 
the Duke of Mantua his Lieutenant to regaine Caniza; 
the third by Gonzago, Governour of High Hungary, to 
joyne with Georgia Busca, to make an absolute conquest 
of Transilvania. 

Duke Mercury with an Armie of thirtie thousand, ^/L*"*" ' 
whereof neere ten thousand were French, besieged Stowlle- Rtgaiu. 
wesenburg, otherwise called A Iba Regalis ; a place so strong 
by Art and Nature, that it was thought impregnable. 

At his first comming, the Turkes sallied upon the 
Germane quarter, slew neere five hundred, and returned 
before they were thought on. 

The next night, in like manner they did neere as much 
to the Bemers, and Hungarians ; of which fortune still 
presuming, thinking to have found the French quarter as 
carelesse, eight or nine hundred of them were cut in 
pieces and taken prisoners. In this encounter Monsieur 
Grandvile, a brave French Colonell, received seven or eight 
cruell wounds, yet followed the enemie to the Ports ; he 
came off alive, but within three or foure dayes died. 

Earle Meldritch, by the information of three or foure 
Christians (escaped out of the Towne), [of] upon every 
Alarum, where there was greatest assemblies and throng of 

832 The Travells and Adventures of [j^ffi 

[1601j people, caused Captaine Smith to put in practice his fiery 
The effect Dragons, [which] hee had demonstrated unto him, and the 
wofkfc d *" Earle Von Sulch at Comoro, : which hee thus performed. 

Having prepared fortie or fiftie round-bellied earthen pots, 
and filled them with hand Gunpowder, then covered them 
with Pitch, mingled with Brimstone and Turpentine ; and 
quartering as many Musket-bullets, that hung together 
but only at the Center of the division, stucke them round 
in the mixture about the pots, and covered them againe 
with the same mixture; over that a strong Searcloth, 
then over all a good thicknesse of Towze-match well 
tempered with oyle of Lin-seed, Campheer, and powder of 
Brimstone : these he fitly placed in Slings, graduated so 
neere as they could, to the places of these Assemblies. 

At midnight upon the Alarum, it was a fearfull sight to 
see the short flaming course of their flight in the aire 1 but 
presently after their fall, the lamentable noise of the 
miserable slaughtered Turkes was most wonderfull to 
heare. Besides, they had fired that Suburbe at the Port 
of Buda, in two or three places ; which so troubled the 
Turkes to quench, that had there beene any meanes to 
have assaulted [9] them, they could hardly have resisted 
the fire, and their enemies. 
«JiS?S The Earle Rosworme, contrary to the opinion of all men, 
Earie ^ would needs undertake to finde meanes to surprize the 
Segeth and Suburbe of the Citie, strongly defended by a 
muddie Lake, which was thought unpassable. 

The Duke [de Mercosur] having planted his Ordnance, 
battered the other side, whilest Rosworme, in the darke 
night, with every man a bundle of sedge and bavins still 
throwne before them, so laded upthe Lake, as they surprized 
that unregarded Suburbe before they were discovered: upon 
which unexpected Alarum, the Turkes fled into the Citie ; 
and the other Suburbe not knowing the matter, got into 
the Citie also, leaving their Suburbe for the Duke, who 
with no great resistance, tooke it, with many peeces of 

The Citie, being of no such strength as the Suburbs, with 
their owne Ordnance was so battered, that it was taken 
perforce, with such a mercilesse execution, as was most 
pitifull to behold. 


T. Smith."] 
Aug. 1629.J 

Captaine Iohn Smith 


The Bashaw notwithstanding drew together a partie of 
five hundred before his owne Pallace, where he intended 
to die ; but seeing most of his men slaine before him, by 
the valiant Captaine Earl M eldritch, who tooke him prisoner 
with his owne hands ; and with the hazard of himselfe 
saved him from the fury of other troopes, that did pull 
downe his Pallace, and would have rent him in peeces, 
had he not beene thus preserved. 

The Duke thought his victory much honoured with such 
a Prisoner; tooke order hee should bee used like a Prince : 
and with all expedition gave charge presently to repaire 
the breaches, and the ruines of this famous Citie, that had 
beene in the possession of the Turkes neere threescore yeares. 


takes the 


A brave encounter of the Turkes Armie with the 

Christians ; Duke Mercury overthroweth Assan 

Bashaw ; Hee divides the Christian Armie ; 

His noblenesse and death. 

Ahomet, the great Turke, during the siege, had 
raised an Armie of sixtie thousand men to have 
releeved it; but hearing it was lost, he sent 
Assan Bashaw Generall of his Armie, the Bashaw 
of Buda Bashaw Atnaroz, to see if it were possible to 
regaine it ; The Duke understanding there could be no 
great experience in such a new levied Armie as Assan 
had ; having put a strong Garrison into it : and with the 
brave Colonell Rosworme, Culnits, Meldritch, the Rhine- 
Grave, Vahan and many others ; [and] with twenty thou- 
sand good souldiers, set forward to meet the Turke in the 
Plaines of Girke. 

Those two Armies encountred as they marched, where a brave 

began a hot and bloudy Skirmish betwixt them, Regiment ^SrVSfs 

against Regiment, as they came in order, till the night Armiewith 

parted them. Here Earle 


was so invironed christians. 

834 The Travells and Adventures of [a!^?Ss$- 

[1601] amongst those halfe circuler Regiments of Turkes, they 
supposed him their Prisoner, and his Regiment lost ; but 
his two most couragious friends, Vahan and Culnits, [10] 
made such a passage amongst them, that it was a terror 
to see how horse and man lay sprawling and tumbling, 
some one way, some another on the ground. The Earle 
there at that time made his valour shine more bright than 
his armour, which seemed then painted with Turkish bloud. 
He slew the brave Zanzack Bugola, and made his passage 
to his friends ; but neere halfe his Regiment was slaine. 

Captain Smith [who was a Captain in this Cavalry Regiment] 
had his horse slaine under him, and himselfe [was] sore 
wounded ; but he was not long unmounted, for there was 
choice enough of horses that wanted masters. 

The Turke thinking the victory sure against the Duke, 

whose Armie, by the Siege, and the Garrison he had left 

behind him, was much weakened, would not be content 

with one, but he would have all ; and lest the Duke should 

returne to Alba Regalis, he sent that night twenty thousand 

to besiege the Citie, assuring them he would keepe the 

Duke or any other from releeving them. 

Duke Two or three dayes they lay each by other, entrenching 

Mercury themselves; the Turkes daring the Duke daily to a settbattell, 

^ssan^ w ^° at l en g tn drew out his Army, led by the Rhine-Grave, 

Btuta. Culnits and M eldritch: who upon their first encounter, charged 

with that resolute and valiant courage, as disordered not 

only the formost squadrons of the Turkes, but enforced all 

the whole Armie to retire to the Campe, with the losse of 

five or six thousand, with the Bashaw of Buda, and foure 

or five Zanzacks, with divers other great Commanders, 

two hundred Prisoners, and nine peeces of Ordnance. 

At that instant appeared, as it were, another Armie com- 
ming out of a valley over a plaine hill, that caused the Duke 
at that time to be contented, and to retire to his Trenches ; 
which gave time to Assan to reorder his disordered 

Here they lay nine or ten dayes, and more supplies 
Tepaircd to them, expecting to try the event in a sett 
battell ; but the souldiers on both parties, by reason of 

Aug^S'.] Captaine Iohn Smith, S3 5 

their great wants and [the] approach of winter, grew so [1601-2J 
discontented, that they were ready of themselves to breake 
up the Leager: the Bashaw retiring himselfe to Buda, 
had some of the Reare Troopes cut off. 

Amaroz Bashaw hearing of this, found such bad welcome 
at A Iba Regalis, and the Towne so strongly repaired, with 
so brave a Garrison, [that he] raised his siege and retired 
to Zigetum. 

The Duke [de Mercczur] understanding that the Arch-duke 
Ferdinando had so resolutely besieged Caniza, as what by the 
losse of A Iba Regalis, and the Turks retreat to Buda, being 
void of hope of any reliefe, [he] doubted not but it would 
become againe the Christians. To the furtherance whereof, Jj^ 
the Duke divided his Armie into three parts. The Earle of dmdttk to 
Rosworme went with seven thousand to Caniza; the Earle of Arm,e * 
Meldritch with six thousand he sent to assist Georgio Busca 
against the Transilvanians ; the rest went with himselfe to 
the Garrisons of Strigonium and Komara : having thus 
worthily behaved himselfe, he arrived at Vienne, where 
the Arch-dukes and the Nobilitie with as much honour 
received him, as if he had conquered all Hungaria; his 
very Picture they esteemed would make them fortunate, 
which thousands kept as curiously as a precious relique. 

To requite this honour, preparing himselfe to returne into Duke 
France, to raise new Forces against the next yeare, with %£ vury 
the two Arch-dukes Mathias and Maximilian and divers jj'jj^f 
others of the Nobilitie, [he] was with great magnificence [11] suddenly 6 
conducted to Nurenburg, there by them royally feasted : 
(how it chanced is not knowne;) but the next morning 
[19 Feb. 1602] he was found dead, and his brother in law 
died two dayes after; whose hearts, after this great 
triumph, with much sorrow were carried into France, 

836 The Travells and Adventures of D&mSJ 


The unhappie Siege of Caniza; Earle Meldritcn 

serveth Prince Sigismundus ; Prince Moyses 

besiegeth Regall ; Smiths three single combats ; 

His Patent from Sigismundus, 

and reward. 

[1601-2] fg\ -He worthy Lord Rosworme had not a worse 

journey to the miserable Seige of Caniza, (where 
by the extremitie of an extraordinary continuing 
tempest of haile, wind, frost and snow, in so 
much that the Christians were forced to leave their Tents 
and Artillery, and what they had; it being so cold that 
three or foure hundred of them were frozen to death in a 
night, and two or three thousand lost in that miserable 
flight in the snowie tempest, though they did know no 
enemie at all to follow them :) than the noble Earle of 
Meldritch had to Transilvania : where hearing of the death 
of Michael [Vayvode of Wallachia, see p. 847] and the brave 
Duke Mercury, and knowing the policie of Busca, and the 
Prince his Roialtie, being now beyond all beleefe of men, in 
possession of the best part of Transilvania ; perswaded his 
troopes, in so honest a cause, to assist the Prince [Sigismun- 
dus] against the Turke, rather than Busca against the Prince. 
The souldiers being worne out with those hard payes 
Hmth and travells, upon hope to have free libertie to make bootie 
muZt™**"' u P° n what they could get possession of from the Turkes, 
was easily perswaded to follow him whithersoever. Now 
this noble Earle [Meldritch] was a Transilvanian borne, and 
his fathers Countrey [was] yet inhabited by the Turkes ; for 
Transilvania was yet in three divisions, though the Prince 
had the hearts both of Country and people ; yet the Fron- 
tiers had a Garrison amongst the unpassable mountaines, 
some for the Emperour, some for the Prince, and some for 
the Turke : to regaine which small estate, hee desired leave 
of the Prince [Sigismundus Bdtori] to trie his fortunes, and 
to make use of that experience, the time of twentie yeares 


J. Smith."] 
\ug. 1629. J 

Captaine Iohn Smith 


[1582-1602] had taught him in the Emperours service, [1602] 
promising to spend the rest of his dayes for his countries 
defence in his Excellencies service. 

The Prince glad of so brave a Commander, and so many 
expert and ancient souldiers, made him Campe-master of 
his Armie, gave him all necessary releefe for his troopes, 
and what freedome they desired to plunder the Turkes. 

The Earle having made many incursions into the Land Jgjj„ v A 
of Zarkam among those rockie mountains, where were maketh 
some Turks, some Tartars, but most Bandittoes, Rennega- ^discover 
does, and such like ; which sometimes hee forced into the Re s al1 - 
Plaines of Regall : where is a Citie not only of men and 
fortifications, strong of it selfe ; but so environed with 
mountaines, that made the passages so difficult, that in 
all these warres no attempt had beene made upon it to 
any purpose. 

Having satisfied himselfe with the Situation, [12] and 
the most convenient passages to bring his Armie unto it : 
The earth no sooner put on her greene habit, than the 
Earle overspread her with his armed troopes. To pos- 
sesse himselfe first of the most convenient passage, which 
was a narrow valley betwixt two high mountaines ; he 
sent Colonell Veltus with his Regiment, dispersed in com- 
panies to lye in Ambuscado, as he had directed them ; and 
in the morning to driue all the cattell they could finde 
before a Fort in that passage, whom he supposed would 
sally, seeing but some small partie, to recover their prey : 
which tooke such good successe, that the Garrison was 
cut off by the Ambuscado, and Veltus seized on the Skonces, 
which was abandoned. 

M eldritch glad of so fortunate a beginning, it was six 
dayes ere he could with six thousand Pioners make a 
passage for his Ordnance. The Turkes having such warning, 
strengthned the Towne so with men and provision, that 
they made a scorneof so small a number as M eldritch brought 
with him before the Citie, which was but eight thousand. 

Before they had pitched their Tents, the Turkes sallied in 
such abundance, as for an houre they had rather a bloudy 
battell than a skirmish; but with the losse of neere fifteene 
hundred on both sides. The Turkes were chased till the 
Cities Ordnance caused the Earle to retire. 

838 The Travells and Adventures of {jk^H&Z. 

[1602] The next day Zachel Moyses, Generall of the Armie, 

besuTeth pitched also his tents with nine thousand foot and horse, 
Retail. and six and twenty peeces of Ordnance ; but in regard 
of the situation of this strong Fortresse, they did neither 
feare them nor hurt them : being upon the point of a faire 
promontory, environed on the one side within halfe a 
mile with an un-usefull mountaine; and on the other side 
with a faire Plaine, where the Christians encamped, but 
so commanded by their Ordnance, [that] they spent neere a 
month in entrenching themselves, and raising their mounts 
to plant their batteries. 

Which slow proceedings the Turkes oft derided, that the 
Ordnance were at pawne, and how they grew fat for want 
of exercise ; and fearing lest they should depart ere they 
could assault their Citie, sent this Challenge to any 
Captaine in the Armie. 

That to delight the Ladies, who did long to see some 
court-like pastime, the Lord Turbashaw did dene any 
Captaine, that had the command of a Company, who 
durst combate with him for his head. 

The matter being discussed, it was accepted; but so many 
questions grew for the undertaking, it was decided by lots : 
which fell upon Captaine Smith, before spoken of. 
Thrw single Truce being made for that time, the Rampiers all beset 
with faire Dames, and men in Armes, the Christians in 
Battalio ; Turbashaw with a noise of Howboyes entred the 
fields well mounted and armed; on his shoulders were 
fixed a paire of great wings, compacted of Eagles feathers 
within a ridge of silver, richly garnished with gold and 
precious stones ; a Janizary before him, bearing his Lance ; 
on each side, another leading his horse : where long hee 
stayed not, ere Smith with a noise of Trumpets, only a 
Page bearing his Lance, passing by him with a courteous 
salute, tooke his ground with such good successe, that at 
the sound of the charge, he passed the Tnrke throw the 
sight of his Beaver, face, head, and all, that he fell dead to 
the ground; where alighting and unbracing [13] his Helmet, 
[he] cut off his head, and the Turkes tooke his body; and so 
returned without any hurt at all. 

The head hee presented to the Lord Moses, the Generall, 


A J u g s T6*:] Captaine Iohn Smith. 839 

who kindly accepted it ; and with joy to the whole armie [1602] 
he was generally welcomed. 

The death of this Captaine so swelled in the heart of 2. 
one Grualgo, his vowed friend, as, rather inraged with mad- 
nesse than choller, he directed a particular challenge to 
the Conquerour, to regaine his friends head, or lose his 
owne, with his horse and Armour for advantage : which 
according to his desire, was the next day undertaken. 

As before, upon the sound of the Trumpets, their Lances 
flew in peeces upon a cleare passage ; but the Turke was 
neere unhorsed. Their Pistolls was the next, which marked 
Smith upon the placard ; but the next shot the Turke was 
so wounded in the left arme, that being not able to rule 
his horse, and defend himselfe, he was throwne to the 
ground ; and so bruised with the fall, that he lost his head, 
as his friend before him ; with his horse and Armour : but 
his body and his rich apparell was sent backe to the Towne. 

Every day the Turkes made some sallies, but few skir- 
mishes would they endure to an) 7 purpose. Our workes 
and approaches being not yet advanced to that height and 
effect which was of necessitie to be performed ; to delude 
time, Smith, with so many incontradictible perswading 
reasons, obtained leave that the Ladies might know he 
was not so much enamoured of their servants heads, 
but if any Turke of their ranke would come to the 
place of combate to redeeme them, [he] should have his 
also upon the like conditions, if he could winne it. 

The challenge presently was accepted by Bonny Mulgro. 3. 

The next day both the Champions entring the field as 
before, each discharging their Pistoll (having no Lances, 
but such martiall weapons as the defendant appointed), no 
hurt was done ; their Battle-axes was the next, whose 
piercing bils made sometime the one, sometime the other 
to have scarce sense to keepe their saddles : specially the 
Christian received such a blow that he lost his Battle- 
axe, and failed not much to have fallen after it ; whereat 
the supposing conquering Turk, had a great shout from 
the Rampiers. The Turk prosecuted his advantage to 
the uttermost of his power ; yet the other, what by the 
readinesse of his horse, and his judgement and dexterity 
in such a businesse, beyond all mens expectation, by 

840 The Travel Is and Adventures of [a£*3!*. 

[1602] Gods assistance, not onely avoided the Turkes violence, 
but having drawne his Faulchion, pierced the Turke so 
under the Culets thorow backe and body, that although 
he alighted from his horse, he stood not long ere hee lost 
his head, as the rest had done. [14] 


Georgio Busca an Albane his ingratitude to Prince 

Sigismundus ; Prince Moyses, his Lietitenant, is 

overthrowneby Busca, Generallforthe Emperour 

Rodolphus; Sigismundus yeeldeth his Coun- 

trey to Rodolphus ; Busca assisteth 

Prince Rodoll in Wallachia. 

§^2 rj|jj\ His good successe gave such great encourage- 
* ment to the whole Armie, that with a guard of 
six thousand, three spare horses, before each a 
Turkes head upon a Lance, he was conducted 
to the General Is Pavillion with his Presents. Moyses 
received both him and them with as much respect as the 
occasion deserved, embracing him in his armes, gave him 
a faire Horse richly furnished, a Semitere and belt worth 
three hundred ducats ; and Meldritch made him Sergeant 
major [=our modem Major] of his Regiment. 

But now to the siege. Having mounted six and twenty 
peeces of Ordnance fifty or sixty foot above the Plaine, 
made them so plainly tell his meaning, that within fifteene 
dayes two breaches were made, which the Turkes as 
valiantly defended as men could. 

That day was made a darksome night, but by the light 
that proceeded from the murdering Muskets, and peace- 
making Canon ; whilest their slothfull Governour lay in a 
Castle on the top of a high mountaine, and like a valiant 
Prince asketh what's the matter, when horrour and death 

Aug S T62 h 9 :] Captaine Iohn Smith, 841 

stood amazed each at other, to see who should prevaile to [1602] 
make him victorious. 

Moyses commanding a generall assault upon the sloping Regaii 
front of the high Promontory, where the Barons of ISfSSL 
Budendorfe and Oberwin lost neere halfe their Regiments, 
by logs, bags of powder, and such like, tumbling downe 
the hill they were to mount ere they could come to the 
breach ; notwithstanding with an incredible courage they 
advanced to the push of the Pike with the defendants, 
that with the like courage repulsed, till the Earle Meldritch, 
Becklefield and Zarvana, with their fresh Regiments se- 
conded them with that fury, that the Turks retired and 
fled into the Castle, from whence by a flag of truce they 
desired composition. 

The Earle [Meldri] remembring his fathers death, bat- 
tered it with all the Ordnance in the Towne, and the next 
day tooke it ; all he found [that] could beare Armes he put 
to the sword, and set their heads upon stakes round about 
the walles, in the same manner they had used the Christians, 
when they tooke it. 

Moyses having repaired the Rampiers, and throwne 
downe the worke in his Campe, he put in it a strong 
Garrison, though the pillage he had gotten in the Towne 
was much, having beene for a long time an impregnable 
den of theeves : yet the losse of the Armie so intermingled 
the sowre with the sweet, as forced Moyses to seek a 
further revenge, that he sacked Veratio, Solmos, and 
Kupronha, and with two thousand prisoners, most[ly] women 
and children, came to Esenberg, not farre from the Princes 
Palace, where he there Encamped. 

Sigismundus comming to view his Armie, was presented 
with the Prisoners [15], and six and thirtie Ensignes ; where 
celebrating thankes to Almightie God in triumph of those 
victories, hee was made acquainted with the service Smith 
had done at Olumpagh, Stowle-Wesenburg and Regall : for 
which with great honour hee gave him three Turkes heads 
in a Shield for his Armes, by Patent, under his hand and 
Seale, with an Oath ever to weare them in his Colours, 
his Picture [i.e., Sigisnmnd's portrait] in Gould, and three 
hundred Ducats, yearely for a Pension. 


The Travells and Advenhires of 

- J. Smith. 
.Aufc. x6ao. 


The Patent. 


in the 
see p. xxiv.] 

* Augusti 


Dei gratia 
Dux Tran- 
et Vandalorum ; Comes 
Anchard, Salford, 
Growenda; Cunctis his 
Uteris significamus qui 
eas lecturi aut audituri 
sunty concessam licen- 
tiam aut facultatem 
Iohanni Smith, na- 
tione Anglo Generoso, 
250. militum Capitaneo 
sub Illustrissimi et Gra- 
vissimi Henrici Volda, Comitis de Meldri, Salmariae, et 
Peldoiae pritnario, et 1000 equitibus et 1500. peditibus bello 
Vngarico conductione in Provincias suprascriptas sub A uthori- 
tate nostra : cui servituti omni laude, perpetuaque memoria 
dignum prabuit sese erga nos, ut virum strenuum pugnantem 
pro aris et focis decet. Quare e favor e nostro militario ipsum 
ordine condonavimus, et in Sigillum illius tria Turcia Capita 
designare et deprimere concessimus, quce ipse gladio suo ad 
Vrbem Regalem in singulari prcelio vicit, mactavit, atque 
decollavit in Transilvaniae Provincia. 

Sed fortuna cum variabilis ancepsque sit idem forte fortuito 
in Wallachia Provincia y Anno Domini 1602. die Mensis 
Novembris 18.* cum multis aliisetiam Nobilibus et aliis quibus- 
dam militibus captus est a Domino Bascha electo ex Cambia 
regionis Tartarian, cujus severitate adductus salutem quantam 
potuit quesivit, tantumque effecit, Deo omnipotente adjuvante, 
ut deliberavit se, et ad suos Commilitones revertit ; ex quibus 
ipsum liberavimus, et hcec nobis testimonia habuit ut majori 
licentia frueretur qua dignus esset, jam tendet in patriam suatn 

J. Smith.-j 
Aug. 1629. J 

Captaine Iohn Smith. 


Rogamus ergo omnes nostros charissimos, confinitimos, Duces, [1603-25] 
Principes, Comites, Bar ones, Gubematores [16j Vrbium et 
Navium in eadem Regione et coeterarum Provinciarum in 
quibus ille residere conatus fuerit ut idem permittatur Capitaneus 
libere sine obstaculo omni versari. Hczc facientes pergraium 
nobis feceritis. 

Signatum Lesprizia in Misnia die Mensis Decembris 9. 
Anno Domini 1603. 
Cum Pri- 
vilegio pro- 
price Ma- 




\NlVERSiS, et singulis, cujuscunque loci, status, gradus, 
ordinis, ac conditionis ad quos hoc prcesens scriptum 
pervenerit, Guilielmus Sega.rEqttesauratus alias dictus* 
Garterus Principalis Rex Armorum Anglicorum, Salutem. 

Sciatis, quod Ego prcedictus Garterus, notum, testatumque 
facio,quod Patentem suprascriptum\ , cum manu propria prcedicti + super- 
Ducis Transilvaniae subsignatum, et Sigillo suo affixum, Vidi : addem 
et Copiam veram ejusdem (in perpetuam rei memoriam) tran- 
scripsi, et recordavi in Archivis, et Registris Officii Armorum. 
Datum Londini 19. die Augusti, Anno Domini 1625. 
Annoque Regni Domini nostri Caroli Dei gratia Magna 
Britanniae, Francise, et Hibernias Regis, Fidei Defensoris, 
&c. Primo. 

Gvilielmvs Segar, Garterus. 

844 TJic Travells and Adventures of [Aug?"** 


The same in 

Igismvndvs Bathor, by the Grace of God, 
Duke of Transilvania, Wallachia, and Moldavia, 
'English. I^^^J^) Earle of Anchard, Salford and Growenda ; to 
whom this Writing may come or appeare. Know 
that We have given leave and licence to Iohn Smith an 
English Gentleman, Captaine of 250. Souldiers, under the 
most Generous and Honourable Henry [17] Volda, Earle 
of Meldritch, Salmaria, and Peldoia, Colonell of a thousand 
horse, and fifteene hundred foot, in the warres of Hungary 
and in the Provinces aforesaid under our authority ; whose 
service doth deserve all praise and perpetual! memory 
towards us, as a man that did for God and his Country 
overcome his enemies : Wherefore out of Our love and 
favour, according to the law of Armes, We have or- 
dained and given him in his shield of Armes, the figure 
and description of three Turks heads, which with 
his sword, before the towne of Regall, in single combat 
he did overcome, kill, and cut off, in the Province of 

But fortune, as she is very variable, so it chanced and 
happened to him in the Province of Wallachia, in the 
yeare of our Lord, 1602. the 18. day of November, [when 
he] with many others, as well Noble men, as also divers 
other Souldiers, were taken prisoners by the Lord Bashaw 
of Cambia, a Country of Tartaria : whose cruelty brought 
him such good fortune, by the helpe and power of 
Almighty God, that hee delivered himselfe, and returned 
againe to his company and fellow souldiers ; of whom We 
doe discharge him, and this hee hath in witnesse thereof, 
being much more worthy of a better reward; and now intends 
to returne to his owne sweet Country. 

We desire therefore all our loving and kinde kinsmen, 
Dukes, Princes, Earles, Barons, Governours of Townes, 
Cities, or Ships, in this Kingdome, or any other Provinces 
he shall come in, that you freely let passe this the aforesaid 
Captaine, without any hinderance or molestation : and this 
doing, with all kindnesse we are alwayes ready to doe the 
like for you. 

&??&£:] Captaine Iohn Smith. 845 

Sealed at Lipswick in Misenland, the ninth of December, [1603-25] 
in the yeare of our Lord, 1603. 

With the proper privilege B A T H O R . 

of his Majestie. 

O all and singular, in what place, state, degree, 
order, or condition whatsoever, to whom this pre- 
sent writing shall come : I William Segar Knight, 
otherwise Garter, and principall King of Armes of Eng- 
land, with health. Know that I the aforesaid Garter, 
do witnesse and approve, that this aforesaid Patent, I 
have seene, signed and sealed under the proper hand 
[18] and Seale Manual of the said Duke of Transilvania ; 
and a true coppy of the same, as a thing for perpetuall 
memory, I have subscribed and recorded in the Register 
and office of the Heralds of Armes. 

Dated at London the nineteenth day of August, in the 
yeare of our Lord 1625. and in the first yeare of our 
Soueraigne Lord Charles by the grace of God, King of great 
Britaine, France, and Ireland, Defender of the faith, &c. 

William Segar. 


Sigismundus sends Ambassadours vnto the Emperour ; 

the conditions re-assured, He yeeldeth up all to 

Busca, and returneth to Prague. 

Vsca having all this time beene raising new 
forces, was commanded from the Emperour 
againe to invade Transilvania, which being one 
of the fruitfullest and strongest Countries in 
those parts, was now rather a desart, or the very spectacle 
of desolation ; their fruits and fields overgrowne with 
weeds, their Churches and battered Palaces and best 

846 The Travells and Adventures of [AugfTeS*. 

[1602] buildings, as for feare, hid with Mosse and Ivy : being the 
very Bulwarke and Rampire of a great part of Europe, 
most fit by all Christians to have beene supplyed and 
maintained, was thus brought to ruine by them it most 
concerned to support it. 

But alas, what is it, when the power of Majestie 
pampered in all delights of pleasant vanity, neither knowing 
nor considering the labour of the Ploughman, the hazard 
of the Merchant, the oppression of Statesmen ; nor feeling 
the piercing torments of broken limbes, and inveterated 
wounds, the toilsome marches, the bad lodging, the 
hungry diet, and the extreme misery that Souldiers 
endure to secure all those estates, and yet by the spight 
of malicious detraction, starves for want of their reward 
and recompences ; whilst the politique Courtier, that 
commonly aimes more at his owne honors and ends than 
his Countries good, or his Princes glory, honour, or 
security, as this worthy Prince too well could testifie. 

But the Emperor being certified how weak and desperate 
his estate was, sent Busca againe with a great Army, to 
trie his fortune once more in Transilvania. 

ThePrince considering how his Country and subjects were 
consumed ; the small means he had any longer to defend 
his estate, both against the cruelty of the Turke, and the 
power of the Emperor, and the small care the Polanders 
had in supplying him, as they had promised ; sent to Busca 
to have truce, till messengers might be sent to the Em- 
perour for some better agreement : wherewith Busca was 
contented. The Ambassadours so prevailed, that the 
Emperour re-assured vnto them the conditions he had 
promised the Prince at their confederacie, for the lands in 
Silesia, with 60000. ducats presently in hand, and 50000. 
ducats yearely as a pension. 
Buscain When this conclusion was [19] knowne to Moyses his 

^^ver- Lieftenant then in the field with the Army, that would 
SSS? d° e anything rather than come in subjection to the 
Germans ; he encouraged his Souldiers, and without any 
more adoe marched to encounter Busca, whom he found 
much better provided than he expected : so that betwixt 
them in six or seven houres, more than five or six thou- 
sand on both sides lay dead in the field. Moyses thus 

Au/TiS:] Captaine Iohn Smith. 847 

overthrowne, fled to the Turks at Temesware; and his [1602] 
scattered troopes some one way, some another. 

The Prince vnderstanding of this so sudden and un- 
expected accident, onely accompanied with an hundred of 
his Gentry and Nobility, went into the campe to Busca, 
to let him know how ignorant he was of his Lieftenants 
errour, that had done it without his direction or know- 
ledge, freely offering to performe what was concluded by 
his Ambassadours with the Emperour ; and so causing all 
his Garrisons to come out of their strong holds, he deli- J*"^** 
vered all to Busca for the Emperour, and so went to d«h y h£" 
Prague : where he was honourably receiued, and established Sj?Z*. 
in his possessions, as his Emperiall Majestie had promised. 

Busca assembling all the Nobility, tooke their oaths of 
allegeance and fidelity ; and thus their Prince being gone, 
Transilvania became againe subject to the Emperour. 

Now after the death of Michael, Vavoyd of Wallachia Busca 
[p. 836], the Turke sent one leremie to be their Vavoyd or SS/i n 
Prince ; whose insulting tyranny caused the people to take Wallachia 
Armes against him, so that he was forced to flie into the 
confines of Moldavia', and Busca in the behalfe of the 
Emperour, proclaimed the Lord Rodoll in his stead. 

But Jeremy having assembled an Army of forty thousand 
Turks, Tartars, and Moldavians, returned into Wallachia. 

Rodoll not yet able to raise such a power, fled into 
Transilvania to Busca, his ancient friend ; who considering 
well of the matter, and how good it would be for his owne 
security to have Wallachia subject to the Emperour, or at 
least such an employment for the remainders of the old 
Regiments of Sigismundus, (of whose greatnesse and true 
affection hee was very suspitious,) sent them with Rodoll to 
recover Wallachia, conducted by the valiant Captaines, the 
Earle M eldritch, Earle Veltus, Earle Nederspolt, Earle Zarvana, 
the Lord Bechlefield, the Lord Budendorfe, with their Regi- 
ments, and divers others of great ranke and quality, the 
greatest friends and alliances the Prince had ; who with 
thirty thousand, marched along by the river Alius, to the 
streights [pass] of Rebrinke, where they entred Wallachia, 
encamping at Raza 

848 The Travells and Adventures of [a^TS'. 

[1602] Ieremie lying at Argish, drew his Army into his old 
campe, in the plaines of Peteske, and with his best dili- 
gence fortified it ; intending to defend himselfe till more 
power came to him from the Crym-Tartar. 

Many small parties that came to his campe, Rodoll cut 
off; and in the nights would cause their heads to be throwne 
vp and downe before the trenches. Seven of their Porters 
were taken, whom Ieremie commanded to be flayed quicke ; 
and after hung their skinnes vpon poles, and their carkasses 
and heads on stakes by them. [20] 


The battel! of Rotenton ; a pretty stratagem of 
fire- works by Smith. 

Odoll not knowing how to draw the enemie to 
battell, raised his Armie, burning and spoyling 
all where he came, and returned againe to- 
wards Rebrinke in the night, as if he had fled 
vpon the generall rumour of the Crym-Tartars comming ; 
which so inflamed the Turkes of a happy victory, they 
vrged Jeremy against his will to follow them. 

Rodoll seeing his plot fell out as he desired, so ordered 
Rodoiixai the matter, that having regained the streights, he put his 
Army in order, that had beene neere two dayes pursued, 
with continuall skirmishes in his Reare, which now making 
head against the enemie, that followed with their whole 
Armie in the best manner they could, was furiously charged 
with six thousand Hydukes, Wallachians, and Moldavians, 
led by three Colonells, Oversall, Dubras, and Calab, to 
entertaine the time till the rest came up. Veltus and 
Nederspolt with their Regiments, entertained them with 
the like courage, till the Zanzacke Hamesbeg, with six 
thousand more, came with a fresh charge : which Meldritch 
and Budendorfe, rather like enraged lions than men, so 
bravely encountred, as if in them only had consisted the 

A battell 


Aug S T6£] Captaine Iohn Smith. 849 

victory; Meldritchs horse being slaine vnder him. The [1602] 
Turks pressed what they could to have taken him prisoner ; 
but being remounted, it was thought with his owne hand 
he slew the valiant Zanzache : whereupon his troopes 
retyring, the two proud Bashawes, Aladin and Zizimmus, 
brought up the front of the body of their battell. 

Veltus and Nederspolt having breathed, and joyning their 
troopes with Becklefield and Zarvana, with such an incredible 
courage charged the left flancke of Zizimmus, as put them 
all in disorder ; where Zizimmus the Bashaw was taken 
prisoner, but died presently upon his wounds. 

Ieremie seeing now the maine battell of Rodoll advance, 
being thus constrained, like a valiant Prince in his front of 
the Vantgard, by his example so brauely encouraged his 
souldiers, that Rodoll found no great assurance of the 

Thus being joyned in this bloudy massacre, that there 
was scarce ground to stand upon, but upon the dead 
carkasses; which in lesse than an hower were so mingled, 
as if each Regiment had singled out [the] other. 

The admired Aladin that day did leave behinde him a , 
glorious name for his valour ; whose death many of his 
enemies did lament after the victory, which at that instant 
fell to Rodoll. 

It was reported Ieremie was also slaine, but it was not 
so ; but [he] fled with the remainder of his Armie to 
Moldavia, leaving five and twenty thousand dead in the 
field, of both Armies. 

And thus Rodoll was seated againe in his Soueraignty, Yv^t 
and Wallachia became subject to the Emperour. totiTe' 6 


But long he rested not to settle his new estate, but there 
came newes, that certaine Regiments of stragling Tartars, 
were forraging those parts towards Moldavia. 

Meldritch with thirteene thousand men was sent against 
them, but when they heard it was the Crym-Tartar and his 
two [21] sonnes, with an Armie of thirty thousand ; and 
[that] Ieremie, that had escaped with fourteene or fifteene 
thousand, lay in ambush for them about Langanaw ; he 
retired towards Rottenton, a strong garrison for Rodoll : 
but they were so invironed with these hellish numbers, 


850 The Travells and Adventures of [xigf SJl 

[1602] they could make no great haste, for skirmishing with their 
scouts, forragers, and small parties that still encountred 
them. But one night amongst the rest, having made a 
passage through a wood, with an incredible expedition, 
cutting trees thwart each other to hinder their passage, 
in a thicke fogge early in the morning, unexpectedly they 
met two thousand loaded with pillage, and two or three 
hundred horse and cattell ; the most of them were slaine 
and taken prisoners, who told them where Ieremie lay in 
the passage, expecting the Crym-Tartar that was not farre 
from him. 

Meldritch intending to make his passage perforce, was 
advised of a pretty stratagem by the English Smith, which 
presently he thus accomplished ; for having accommodated 
two or three hundred truncks with wilde fire, vpon the 
heads of lances, and charging the enemie in the night, 
gave fire to the truncks, which blazed forth such flames 
and sparkles, that it so amazed not onely their horses, 
but their foot also ; that by the meanes of this flaming 
encounter, their owne horses turned tailes with such fury, 
as by their violence overthrew Ieremy and his Army, 
without any losse at all to speak of to Meldritch. 

But of this victory long they triumphed not ; for being 
within three leagues of Rottenton, the Tartar with neere 
forty thousand so beset them, that they must either fight, 
or be cut in peeces flying. 

Here Busca and the Emperour had their desire; for the 
Sunne no sooner displayed his beames, than the Tartar 
his colours; where at midday he stayed a while, to see 
the passage of a tyrannicall and treacherous imposture, 
till the earth did blush with the bloud of honesty, that 
the Sunne for shame did hide himselfe from so monstrous 
sight of a cowardly calamity. It was a most brave sight 
to see the banners and ensignes streaming in the aire, 
the glittering of Armour, the variety of colours, the motion 
of plumes, the forrests of lances, and the thicknesse of 
shorter weapons, till the silent expedition of the bloudy 
blast from the murdering Ordnance, whose roaring voice 
is not so soone heard, as felt by the aymed at object, which 
made among them a most lamentable slaughter. 

of Rotten- 

a^TSJ Captaine Iohn Smith. 851 


The names of the English that were slaine in the 

battell of Rottenton ; and how Captaine 

Smith is taken prisoner ; and sold 

for a slave. 

>N the valley of Veristhome, betwixt the riuer of [1602] 
Alius, and the mountaine of Rottenton, was this Thebatteii 
bloudy encounter, where the most of the dearest 
friends of the noble Prince Sigismundus perished 
[on 18 Nov. 1602, seep. 842]. 

Meldritch having ordered his eleuen thousand in the best 
manner he could : at the foot of the mountaine upon his 
flancks, and before his front, he had pitched [22] sharpe 
stakes, their heads hardned in the fire, and bent against 
the enemie, as three battalion of Pikes; amongst the 
which also there was digged many small holes. Amongst 
those stakes was ranged his footmen, that upon the charge 
was to retire, as there was occasion. 

The Tartar having ordered his 40000. for his best ad- 
vantage, appointed Mustapha Bashaw to beginne the battell, 
with a generall shout, all their Ensignes displaying, 
Drummes beating, Trumpets and Howboyes sounding. 

Nederspolt and Mavazo with their Regiments of horse 
most valiantly encountred, and forced them to retire. 
The Tartar Begolgi with his Squadrons, darkening the skies 
with their flights of numberless arrowes, who was as 
bravely encountred by Veltus and Oberwin ; which bloudie 
slaughter continued more than an houre, till the match- 
lesse multitude of the Tartars so increased, that they 
retired within their Squadrons of stakes, as was directed. 

The bloudy Tartar, as scorning he should stay so long foi 
the victorie, with his massie troopes prosecuted the charge : 
but it was a wonder to see how horse and man came to the 
ground among the stakes, whose disordered troopes were 
there so mangled, that the Christians with a loud shout cryed 
Victoria ; and with five or six field peeces, planted vpon the 
rising of the mountaine, did much hurt to the enemy that 
still continued the battell with that furie, that Meldritch 


The Travells and Adventures of 

|~ J. Smith. 
[_Aug. 16*9. 


out of a 
Booke inti- 
tuled, The 
warres of 

and Mol- 
written by 
a learned 
Italian, the 

by Master 

seeing there was no possibilitie long to preuaile, ioyned 
his small troopes in one body, resolued directly to make 
his passage or die in the conclusion ; and thus in grosse 
gaue a generall charge, and for more than halfe an houre 
made his way plaine before him, till the maine battel of the 
Crym-Tartar with two Regiments of Turkes and Ianizaries 
so overmatched them, that they were overthrowen. 

The night approaching, the Earle with some thirteene or 
foureteene hundred horse, swamme the River ; some were 
drowned, all the rest slaine or taken prisoners. 

And thus in this bloudy field, neere 30000. lay ; some head- 
lesse, armlesse, and leglesse, all cut and mangled : where 
breathing their last, they gaue this knowledge to the world, 
that for the Hues of so few, the Crym-Tartar neuer paid dearer. 

But now the Countreyes of Transilvania and Wallachia, 
(subjected to the Emperour) and Sigismundus that brave 
Prince his Subject and Pensioner, the most of his 
Nobilitie, brave Captaines and Souldiers, became a prey 
to the cruell devouring Turke : where[asj had the Emperor 
been as ready to have assisted him, and those three 
Armies led by three such worthy Captaines, as Michael, 
Busca, and Himselfe; and had those three Armies joyned 
together against the Turke, let all men judge, how happie 
it might have beene for all Christendome : and have either 
regained Bulgaria ; or at least have beat him out of Hun- 
garia, where hee hath taken much more from the 
Emperour, than hath the Emperour from Transilvania. 

The English 
men in this 

In this dismall battell, where Nederspolt, Veltus, Zarvana, 
Mavazo, Bavell, and many other Earles, Barons, Colonels, 
Captaines, brave Gentlemen and Souldiers were slaine, 
Give mee leave to remember the names of our owne 
Country-men with him in those exploits, that as resolutely 
as the best, in the defence of Christ and his Gospell, ended 
their dayes, asBaskerfield, Hardwicke, Thomas Milemer, Robert 
Mullineux, [23] Thomas Bishop, Francis Compton, George 
Davison, Nicholas Williams, and one John a Scot, did what 
men could doe, and when they could doe no more, left there 
their bodies, in testimonie of their mindes ; only Ensigne 
Carleton [pp. 231, 692], and Sergeant Robinson [pp. 230, 
691] escaped. 

Aug^S"] Captame Iohn Smith. 853 

But Smith among the slaughtered dead bodies, and many [1602-3] 
a gasping soule, with toile and wounds lay groaning 
among the rest, till being found by the Pillagers hee was 
able to live ; and perceiving by his armor and habit, his 
ransome might be better to them than his death, they 
led him prisoner with many others. 

Well they used him till his wounds were cured, and 
at Axopolis they were all sold for slaves, like beasts in 
a market-place ; where everie Merchant, viewing their 
limbs and wounds, caused other slaves to struggle with 
them, to trie their strength. 

Hee fell to the share of Bashaw Bogall, who sent him 
forthwith to Adri[a]nopolis, so for Constantinople to his faire 
Mistresse for a slave. 

By twentie and twentie chained by the neckes, they 
marched in file to this great Citie ; where they were 
delivered to their severall Masters, and he to the young 
Charatza Tragahigzanda [pp. 204, 206, 232, 276, 720, 855, 866]. 


How Captame Smith was sent prisoner thorow the 

Blacke and Dissabacca Sea in Tartaria ; the 

description of those Seas, and his usage. 

His Noble Gentlewoman tooke sometime occa- 
sion to shew him to some friends; or rather to 
speake with him ; because shee could speake 
Italian, would feigne her selfe sick when she 
should goe to the Banians, or weepe over the graves, to 
know how Bogall tooke him prisoner ; and if he were, as 
the Bashaw writ to her, a Bohemian Lord conquered by 
his hand, as hee had many others; which ere long hee 
would present her, whose ransomes should adorne her with 
the glorie of his conquests. 

But when she heard him protest he knew no such 
matter, nor ever saw Bogall till he bought him at Axopolis ; 
and that hee was an English-man, onely by his adventures 
made a Captaine in those Countreyes. To trie the truth, 

854 The Trave Us and Adventures of [a{*?6$! 

[1603] shee found means to finde out many [who] could speake 
English, French, Dutch, and Italian, to whom relating 
most part of these former passages [as] he thought neces- 
sarie, which they^so honestly reported to her, she tooke (as 
it seemed) much compassion on him ; but having no use 
for him, lest her mother should sell him, she sent him to 
her brother, the Tymor Bashaw of Nalbrits, in the Countrey 
of Cambia, a Province in Tartaria. 

How he was Here now let us remember his passing in this specula- 
TaUTna. tive course from Constantinople by Sander, Screwe, Panassa, 
Musa, Lastilla, to Varna, an ancient Citie upon the Blacke 
Sea. In all which journey, having little more libertie than 
his eyes judgement since his captivitie, he might see the 
Townes with their short Towers, and a most plaine, fertile, 
and delicate [24] Countrey, especially that most admired 
place of Greece, now called Romania; but from Varna nothing 
but the Blacke Sea water, till he came to the two Capes 
of Taur and Pergilos, where hee passed the Straight of 
Niger, which (as he conjectured) is some ten leagues long, 
and three broad, betwixt two low lands. The Channell is 
The descrip- deepe, but at the entrance of the Sea Dissabacca, their are 
l Dh?lbKca many great Osie-shoulds, and many great blacke rockes : 
sea. which the Turkes said were trees, weeds, and mud, throwen 

from the in-land Countryes, by the inundations and violence 
of the Current ; and cast there by the Eddy. They sayled 
by many low lies, and saw many more of those muddy 
rockes, and nothing else but salt water, till they came 
betwixt Susax and Curuske, only two white townes at the 
entrance of the river Bruapo appeared. 

In six or seven dayes saile, he saw foure or five seeming 
strong castles of stone, with flat tops and battlements 
about them ; but arriving at Cambia, he was (according to 
their custome) well used. The river was there more than 
halfe a mile broad. The Castle was of a large circum- 
ference, foureteene or fifteene foot thicke, in the foundation 
some six foot from the wall, is a Paliizado, and then a Ditch 
of about fortie foot broad full of water. On the west side of 
it, is a Towne all of low flat houses ; which as he conceived 
could bee of no great strength, yet it keepes all them bar- 
barous Countreyes about it in admiration and subjection. 

J£$£] Captaine IohnSmith. 855 

After he had stayed there three dayes ; it was two dayes [1603] 
more before his guides brought him to Nalbrits, where the 
Tymor then was resident, in a great vast stonie Castle with 
many great Courts about it, invironed with high stone 
wals, where was quartered their Armes, when they first 
subjected those Countreyes : which onely live to labour for 
those tyrannicall Turkes. 

To her unkinde brother, this kinde Ladie writ so much „£**„* 
for his good usage, that hee halfe suspected, as much as Tartar*. 
she intended; for shee told him, he should there but [%%$?£; 
sojourne to learne the language, and what it was to be a 853,866.] 
Turke, till time made her Master of her selfe. 

But the Tymor, her brother, diverted all this to the worst 
of crueltie, for within an houre after his arrivall, he caused 
his Drub-man to strip him naked, and shave his head and 
beard so bare as his hand : a great ring of iron, with a long 
stalke bowed like a sickle, [was] rivetted about his necke, 
and a coat [put on him] made of Vlgries haire, guarded 
about with a peece of an undrest skinne. 

There were many more Christian slaves, and neere an 
hundred Forsados of Turkes and Moores ; and he [i.e.. Smith] 
being the last, was slave of slaves to them all. Among 
these slavish fortunes there was no great choice ; for the 
best was so bad, a dog could hardly have lived to endure : 
and yet for all their paines and labours [they were] no 
more regarded than a beast. 


The Turkes diet ; the Slaves diet ; the attire of 
the Tartars ; and manner of Warres and 
Religions, &c 

He Tymor and his friends fed upon Pillaw, which t** 

is boiled Rice and Garnances, with little bits dvxoF 

of mutton or Buckones (which is rosted [25] S" 

peeces of Horse, Bull, Vlgrie, or any beasts). T » rktt * 
Samboyses and Muselbits are great dainties, and yet but round 

8 5 6 

The Travells and Adventures of 


Aug. 1639. 


The Slaves 

The Attire 
of those 


of Nagi 
and their 


pies, full of all sorts of flesh they can get chopped with 
varietie of herbs. Their best drinke is Coffa, of a graine 
they call Coava, boiled with water ; and Sherbecke which 
is only honey and water : Mares milke, or the milke of 
any beast, they hold restorative ; but all the Comminaltie 
drinke pure water. Their bread is made of this Coava, 
which is a kinde of blacke wheat, and Cuskus a small white 
seed like M illy a in Biskay : but our common victuall, [was] 
the entrailes of Horse and Vlgries. Of this, cut in small 
peeces, they will fill a great Cauldron, and being boiled 
with Cuskus, and put in great bowles in the forme of chaf- 
fing-dishes ; they sit round about it on the ground, after 
they haue raked it thorow so oft as they please with their 
foule fists : the remainder was for the Christian slaves. 
Some of this broth they would temper with Cuskus pounded, 
and putting the fire off from the hearth, powre there a 
bowle full, then cover it with coales till it be baked ; which 
stewed with the remainder of the broth, and some small 
peeces of flesh, was an extraordinarie daintie. 

The better sort are attired like Turkes, but the plaine 
Tartar hath a blacke sheepe skinne over his backe, and 
two of the legs tied about his necke ; the other two about 
his middle, with another over his belly, and the legs tied 
in the like manner behinde him : then two more made 
like a paire of bases, serveth him for breeches ; with a 
little close cap to his skull, of blacke felt ; and they use 
exceeding much of this felt, for carpets, for bedding, for 
Coats, and Idols. 

Their houses are much worse than your Irish, but the 
In-land Countreyes have none but Carts and Tents, which 
they ever remove from Countrey to Countrey, as they see 
occasion : driving with them infinite troopes of blacke 
sheepe, Cattell and Vlgries, eating all vp before them as 
they goe. 

For the Tartars of Nagi, they have neither Towne, nor 
house, corne, nor drinke ; but flesh and milke. The milke 
they keepe in great skinnes like Burracho's ; which though 
it be never so sower, it agreeth well with their strong 
stomackes. They live all in Hordias, as doth the Crim- 
Tartars, three or foure hundred in a company, in great 
Carts fifteene or sixteene foot broad ; which is covered with 

A J u g s ^.] Captaine Iohn Smith. 857 

small rods, wattled together in the forme of a birds nest [1603] 
turned upwards : and with the ashes of bones tempered 
with oile, Camels haire, and a clay [that] they have ; they 
lome them so well, that no weather will pierce them, and 
yet [they are] verie light. 

Each Hordia hath a Murse, which they obey as their 
King. Their Gods are infinite. One or two thousand 
of those glittering white Carts drawen with Camels, 
Deere, Buls, and Vlgries, they bring round in a ring, 
where they pitch their Campe ; and the Murse, with his 
chiefe alliances, are placed in the midst. 

They doe much hurt when they can get any Stroggs, 
which are great boats used upon the river Volga, (which 
they call Edle) to them that dwell in the Countrey of 
Perolog ; and would doe much more, were it not for the 
Muscovites Garrisons that there inhabit. [26] 


The description of the Crym-Tartars ; their houses 
and carts ; their Idolatry in their lodgings. 

Ow you are to understand, Tartary and Scythia are Thedescrip. 

11 1^1 j • r tionofthe 

all one ; but so large and spacious, few or none c*ym- 
could ever perfectly describe it ; nor all the severall cSaiT 
kinds of those most barbarous people that inhabit 
it. Those we call the Crym-Tartars, [which] border upon 
Moldavia, Podolia, Lituania, and Russia, are much more 
regular than the interior parts of Scthia. 

This great Tartarian Prince, that hath so troubled all 
his neighbours, they always call Chan, which signifieth 
Emperour ; but we, the Crym-Tartar. He liveth for most 
part in the best champion plaines of many Provinces ; and 
his removing Court is like a great Citie of houses and 
tents, drawne on Carts, all so orderly placed East and 
West, on the right and left hand of the Prince his house, 
which is alwayes in the midst towards the South : before 
which none may pitch their houses, every one knowing 
their order and quarter, as in an Armie. The Princes 

8 5 8 

The Travells and Adventures of 

J. Smith 
Aug. 1629 


His houses 
and carts. 



in their 

Cossmos is 
Mares milke. 

houses are very artificially wrought, both the foundation, 
sides, and roofe of wickers, ascending round to the top like 
a Dove-coat ; this they cover with white felt, or white 
earth tempered with the powder of bones, that it may 
shine the whiter; sometimes with blacke felt, curiously 
painted with vines, trees, birds, and beasts. The breadth 
of the Carts are eighteene or twenty foot, but the house 
stretcheth foure or five foot over each side, and is drawne 
with ten or twelve, or for more state, twenty Camels and 
Oxen. They have also great baskets, made of smaller 
wickers like great chests, with a covering of the same, all 
covered over with blacke felt, rubbed over with tallow and 
sheeps milke to keepe out the raine ; prettily bedecked 
with painting or feathers : in those they put their house- 
hold stuffe and treasure, drawne upon other carts for that 

When they take downe their houses, they set the doore 
alwayes towards the South ; and their carts thirtie or fortie 
foot distant on each side, East and West, as if they were 
two walls : the women also have most curious carts ; 
every one of his wives hath a great one for herselfe, and 
so many other for her attendants, that they seeme as 
many Courts, as he hath wives. One great Tartar or 
Nobleman, will have for his particular, more than an 
hundred of those houses and carts, for his severall offices 
and uses ; but set so farre from each other, they will seeme 
like a great village. 

Having taken their houses from the carts, they place the 
Master alwayes towards the North ; over whose head is 
alwayes an Image like a Puppet, made of felt, which they 
call his brother; the women on his left hand, and over 
the chiefe Mistris her head, such another brother; and 
betweene them a little one, which is the keeper of the house ; 
at the good wives beds-feet is a kids skinne, stuffed with 
wooll, and neere it a Puppet looking towards the Maids ; 
next the doore another, with a dried cowes udder, for the 
women that milke the kine, because only the men milke 

Every morning, those (27] Images in their orders they 
besprinkle with that they drinke, bee it Cossmos, or what- 
soever ; but all the white mares milke is reserved for the 

J. Smith."] 
Aug. 1629. J 

Captaine Iohn Smith. 


Prince. Then without the doore, thrice to the South, 
every one bowing his knee in honour of the fire; then 
the like to the East, in honour of the aire ; then to the 
West, in honour of the water; and lastly to the North, in 
behalfe of the dead. After the servant hath done this 
duty to the foure quarters of the world, he returnes into 
the house ; where his fellowes stand waiting, ready with two 
cups and