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University of California Berkeley 





R <M O UR 



Plates taken from the ORIGIXAL ARMOUR in the Tower of London, 
and other Arfenals, Mufeums, and Cabinets. 



Gn o SE, fq; " F.. 2.S. 

L o j\r j) ON 

MDCCL xxxvi. 





A RICH embofled fteel fhield, reprefenting the deli- 
very of the keys of fome ancient city, to a conquer- 
ing General. The chief figures, which are ten inches high, 
are richly inlaid with gold ; the whole is encompafled with 
a border of fruits, flowers, foliage and grotefque work, like- 
wife inlaid with the fame metal. 

THE work of this fliield feems in the ftile of the fifteenth 
century. It was probably ufed as one of the infignia of 
dignity, commonly borne before the generals in chief of 
that time. It was purchafed in Italy by the late Dr. Ward, 
who gave five hundred pounds for it ; at prefent it is the 
property of Guftavus Brander, Efq; of Chrift Church, Hants. 

ITS heighth is two feet three inches, meafured over the 
convexity : its breadth, taken in the fame manner, one foot 
eleven inches. The border, which is included in the above, 
is two inches. 

IT has four holes in the face, for the conveniency of 
fixing a handle, and diverfe others round the exterior edge 
of the border, a little within the rim, at the diftance of two 
inches from each other, probably for fixing a lining of filk 
or fome other fluff. 

WEIGHT of the fhield nine pounds three quarters. 



14, note (z) for Paufanius, read Paufanias. 

15, line n, after Jleeves put ; 

1 6, note (d) line 4, for fragiliatatem, read fragilitatem. 

22, note (n) for Newchombe, read Winckcombe. 

23, line 8, for fig. 6 read 4 ; and in the note at the bottom, for John, read James. 

24, in note (s) (or plate 24, read plate 25. 

29 30, and in diverfe other places where Mr. Brander's Survey of Arms, Armour, and 

Ammunition, ift of Ed. VI. is mentioned, for MSS. read MS. 
31, in the note (p) for Archfeologia, read Archaeologia. 

48, line 14, for John, read James. 

49, note (f ) for venientes, read venientibus. 
54, line 7, for John, read James. 

59, for the note (u) put (x) and for (x) put (^J. 

68, line 3, between the words among and Jlate, infert the word the* 

71, note (r) for France, read Franc. 

76, note (k) at the bottom, for MSS. read A/S. 

80, note (t) for remembrancer's office, read office of the remembrancer of the exchequer. 

83, line 13, for MSS. read MS. 

95, note (i) line 5, after the word council and before the cypher o, put JV. 
1 09, at the bottom of the price of the pike, oppofite fumme, for iiii. vi. vi. put^o. iv. vL 
The plate marked 50 fhould have been marked 49. 
Defcription of plate I. line 12, for Pannacb, read Pennache. 

Defcription of plate XI. line 3, dele formerly ; line 5, for Pannache y read Pennacbe. 
Defcription of plate XXXIX, for Balbrough y read Barlborougk* 

or THE 



A V I N G in the courfe of my refearches 
into the military antiquities of this country, * 
in vain fought for fome treatife exhibiting a le- 

O c5 

ries of authentic delineations, and defcriptions of 
the different kinds of armour and weapons ufed 
by our anceftors 5 I conceived that a work of 
that kind would not be an unacceptable addi- 
tion to the antiquarian and military libraries, and 
might alfo be ufeful to fculptors, painters, and 
defigners, and enable them to avoid thofe ana- 
chronifms and violations of the couftume, which 
we too often meet with in works otherwife ex- 
cellently performed. 

THE author has been long employed on a HISTORY of the BRITISH 
ARMY from the time of the conqueft, to the reign of King George I. which 
hiftory is now far advanced. 

A a The 


THE chief fburces from which I have drawn 
my examples, are the armour and weapons them- 
felves, preferved either in the public arfenals, or 
private cabinets ; but as feveral fpecimens are 
wanting in thofe repofitories, I have, to fupply 
the deficiency, occafionally availed myfelf of the 
affiftance of fepulchral monuments, the great 
feals of our kings and ancient barons, and fi- 
gures on painted glafs : but thefe as fparingly 
and cautioufly as poffible, and only in the cafe 
abovementioned. For the hiftorical part I have 
confulted a variety of gloffaries, military writers, 
and ancient manufcript inventories of armour, 
both in the public libraries and thofe of my 

ALTHOUGH I mean to confine this work 
chiefly to the confideration of Englifti armour^ 
worn from the conqueft to the time of its difufe j 
I {hall, occafionally, fo far digrefs as to give a few 
plates of fuch pieces of ancient or foreign ar- 
mour as are judged authentic, curious, and have 
not been before published. 

IN order the more clearly to inveftigate my 
fubjet, I (hall in imitation of mathematical wri- 

P R E F A C E. -.-';;* v 

ters, define and defcribe every article or piece of 
armour, piece by piece, its conftru&ion and life, 
and afterwards give a general hiftory of armour 
and arms, (hewing their original forms and mate- 

J O C7 

rials, with their flicceffive improvements, and the 
different laws and regulations made refpeting 
them, with their prices. 

THE alterations in defenfive armour cauied by 
the ufe of gunpowder, the armour directed by our 
ftatutes to be worn and kept by the different ranks 
of people, its gradual and final difule. 

SUCH is the plan of this work, in the execu- 
tion of which no pains have or will be fpared, the 
plates being etched in a free painter-like manner, 
will, it is conceived, give them a more pi&urefque 
appearance, than they would have derived from 
the ftiffnefs of the graver. They are the work 
of the ingenious Mr. JOHN HAMILTON, Vice 
Prefident of the Society of Artifts of Great 

IT would be the higheft ingratitude to omit 

<-j O 

my acknowledgments to the late and prefent prin- 
cipal Store-keepers of the Ordnance, by whofe fa- 
vor I have been indulged with a free accefs to 




that curious repofitory, the armory in the Tower 
of London ; for which I here beg leave to return 

7 O 

them my moft grateful thanks. 

LIKE thanks are due and returned to Sir 
ASHTON LEVER, for his liberal permiflion 
to copy any of the armour in his extenfive 

I AM alfb much obliged to many other gen- 
tlemen for communications from their different 
cabinets, their names will be mentioned under 
the different articles they have furnilhed. 


O N 

Ancient Armour, 

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THE head was defended by a piece of armour, known by the 
general denominations of Head-piece, Cafque and Helmet. Helmets 
were anciently formed of various materials, but chiefly of fkins of 
beads, brafs and iron. 

A HELMET i-s either open or clofe, an open helmet covers only 
the head, ears and neck, leaving the face ungarded. (a) Some 
deemed open helmets have a bar or bars from the forehead to the 
chin, to guard againfl the tranfverfe cut of a broad fword, but 
this affords little or no defence againft the point of a lance or 
fword. (b) 

A CLOSE helmet entirely covers the head, face and neck, having 
on the front perforations for the admiflion of air, and flits through 

(a) As fig. 5, plate 7. j| (b) FOR fpecimens of bar helmets, fee plate 5, fig. 2, and 4. 



which the wearer may fee the objects around him, this part which 
is filled the vifor (c) lifts up by means of a pivot over each ear. 

SOME clofe helmets have a farther improvement called a (d) bever, 
the bever when clofed covers the mouth and chin, and either lifts 
up by revolving on the fame pivots as the vifor, or lets down by 
means of two or more pivots on each fide near the jaws, in which 
cafe the bever connfts of feveral laminae or plates, one fhutting 
over the other. 

HELMETS with bevers to let down, are lefs common than thofe 
whofe bevers lift up : the ufe of the bever was to enable the 
wearer to eat or drink, more comrnodioufly than could be done 
in a helmet with a vifor only. 

THE bars placed before the faces of the open helmets, were alfo 
contrived to lift up and let down by means of pivots placed as for 

the vifor. (e) 

x ' - - . 

THE helmets of the Greeks and Romans were moflly if not 
always open, fome of the latter were much like fcull caps, not long 
iince worn by our dragoons, (f ) Montfaucon fays he never faw an 
ancient helmet with a vifor to raife or let down, but is neverthelefs 
of opinion, that they had thofe contrivances ; it feems as if the 
Romans, at leafl thofe of which Pompey's army was compofed at 
Pharfalia, had open helmets, as Casfar directed his foldiers to ftrike 
them in the face : an order he would not have given had their 
faces been covered. 

(c) VISOR, from the French word Vifer, to take aim. |j (d) BEVER from beveur, 
drinker, or from the Italian Bevare to drink. || (e) FIG. 2, Plate 4, mews a helmet, 
with the vifor and bever clofed up, the Hits cut through the vifor for the benefit of fight. 
Fig. i, in the fame plate, reprefents the fame helmet, with thefcifor lifted up, the bever 
remaining clofe. Fig. 5, plate 5, a helmet with both vifor and bever up. And fig. 3, 
5, and 6, plate 4, a helmet whofe bever lets down. Fig. 2, and 4, plate 5, two helmets 
with the bars down. And Fig. i, and 3, the fame helmets with the.bars lifted up. 

(f ) SEE plate 2. fig. 2. 

A N C I E N T A R M O U R, (&. 9 

Two Grecian Helmets (g) in the Britifh Mufeum, have a kind 
of contrivance to cover the nofe, fomewhat in effect refembling 
the bar. 

OVER the top of the helmet rofe an elevated ridge called the 
creft, (h) which both ftrengthened it againft a blow, and afforded 
a place for decoration and diftincYion. 

HELMETS are again divided into different fpecies, diftinguifhed 
by the appellation of chapelle de fer, the burgonet, bacinet, falet, 
fcull or hufken, caflle, pot and morion. 


THE Chapelle de Per, is, literally tranflated, the iron hat, or 
chaplet ; but according to Father Daniel, (i) the term chapelle was 
anciently ufed, to exprefs every fort of covering for the head. The 
chapelle de fer, occurs in the ftatute of Winchefler, (k) among 
the different kinds of armour therein directed to be kept ; but by 
fome unaccountable miflake in RufFhead's Edition of the Statutes 
at large, is there repeatedly tranflated a breaft plate. (1) Under the 
denomination of the chapelle de fer, may be ranged thofe conical 

(g) &EE different views of thefe helmets in plate i. || (h) ALL the helmets, plate 5, 
have crefts ; fometimes the crefts reprefented lions, dragons, or other devices, tending 
to make the warrior appear taller and more terrible. Crefts alfo ferved to point out kings 
and generals to their followers. ( i ) The points that made the fpecific differences be- 
tween helmets, that is, which conftituted one a bacinet, another a falet, &c. are not fo 
exactly defined as could be wimed. In fome degree to afcertain this matter, is here 
neverthelefs attempted. j| (i) HISTOIRE de la Milice Francois, vol. i,p. 389. 

(k) THIS ftatute was enacted at Winchefter, 13 Ed. I. Cap. 6. whence it derived 
its name, it was alfo called the aflize of arms, becaufe therein was directed the different 
kinds of arms to be kept by every rank and degree of perfons, according to their eftates, 
or perfonal property. || (1) BY this error, defenfive armour for the head is totally 
omitted, for though there was a hood of mail to the hawberk, there was none to the 

B and 


and cylindrical head-pieces, expreffed on the great feals of our early 
kings, and ancient great barons, (m) 

THE chapelle de fer is frequently mentioned by Fro'uTart, and 
was then the head-piece worn by the light horfe, and foot foldiers. 
Father Daniel fays, (n) it was a light helmet, without vifor o? 
gorget, like thofe fince called bacinets j perhaps a kind of iron cap, 
attached to, or worn over a hood of mail. This iron hat is called 
alfa in French, armet, and was occafionally put on by knights, 
when they retired from the Melee of the battle, to reft themfelves 
and take breath. 


THIS kind of head-piece probably fucceeded the cylindric and 
conical cafques beforementioned ; that celebrated French Anti- 
quary, Monfieur Fauchet, (o) fays, <c when helmets better repre- 
fented the human head, they were called bourguinotes, poflibly 
from being invented by the Burgundians." The helmet, fig. 2 
of plate 3, and fig. i and 2 of plate 8, feem to anfwer this defi- 
nition of the burgonet, for not only the figure of the human head 
is preferved, but alfo the fhapes or out-lines of the features. 


BACINETS were light helmets, fo called from their refemblance 
to a bafon, and were generally without vizors, though from diverfe 

(m) SEE plate 9. j| (n) HIST. Mil. torn, i, p. 389. || (o) DE lordonnance, 
srrmes & inftrumens, defquels les Francois ont ufe en leurs guerres, 1. 2, p. 42. He 
there alfo fays, that theburgonets were by the Italians, called armets, falades, or celates. 



quotations cited by Du Cange, (p) they appear occafionally to have 
had them. Fauchet fuppofes them to have been a lighter fort of 
helmet, that did not cover the face, and fays, he finds that the 
knights often exchanged their helmets for baffinets, when much 
fatigued, and wiming to eafe and refrefh themfelves -, at a time 
when they could not with propriety go quite unarmed. 

BASSINETS were worn in the reigns of Edward II. and III. and 
Richard II. by mofl of the Englifh Infantry, as may be repeatedly 
feen in the Rolls of Parliament, and other public records. 

THE S A L A D E, S A L E T, OR C E L A T E. 

FATHER DANIEL (p) defines a Salet to be a fort of light 
cafque, without a crcft, fometimes having a vifor, and being fome- 
times withoutj)!!^ 

IN a manufcript (r) inventory of the royal ftores and habili- 
ments of war in the different arfenals and garrifons, taken ift of 
Edward VI. there are entries of the following articles. At Hamp- 
ton Court, fallets for archers on horfeback, fallets with grates, and 
old fallets with vizards : At Windfor, falettes and fkulls : At Ca- 
lais, faletts with vyfars and bevers, and falets with bevers. Thefe 
authorities prove, that falets were of various conftruclions. 


Is a head-piece, without vifor or bever, refembling a bowl or 
bafon, fuch as was worn by our cavalry, within twenty or thirty 

(p) GUIL. Guiart. An. 1270. Et Clers Bacinez a Vifieres. 
AN. 1304. Hauberjons, & tacles Entiercs 
Efcus, Bacinez a Vifieres. 

(q) HIST. Milice Francoife. |f, (r) THIS very curious manufcripf is- the property 
of Guftavus Brander, Efq; of Chrift Church, Hamgfhire. 


12 A T R E A T I S E ON 


THIS feems to be a light head-piece worn by archers, it is men- 
tioned in a manufcript treatife of martial difcipline by Ralph Smith, 
dedicated to Sir Chriftopher Hatton, then Vice-chamberlain to 
Queen Elizabeth : its particular form or conftruction is not de- 


THE Caflle was perhaps a figurative name for a clofe head- 
piece, deduced from its enclofing and defending the head, as a caftle 
did the whole body ; or a corruption from the old French word 
Cafquetel, a fmall or light helmet. 


THE Morion is a kind of open helmet, without vifor or bever, 
fomewhat refembling a hat; it (s) was commonly worn by the 
harquebuffiers and mufqueteers. 


THE Pot is an iron hat with broad brims : there are many under 
this denomination in the Tower, faid to have been taken from the 
French ; one of them is reprefented in plate 7, fig. i and 2. 

(s) LE Bacinet, le Cabafler, le Pot de Fer, le Chapeau de Fer, la Salade, !e Morion, 
etoient des efpeces de cafques aflez femblable, excepte que la falade avoit quelquefois 
une vifiere, & que le morion etoit propre de 1'infanterie, ces cafques fe lioient ordinaire- 
ment, ibus le menton avec des courroyes & des boucles, la bourgoignote paroit avoir 
ete plus maflive & a vifiere, puifque le Prefident Fauchet, comme on la vu ci-deflus, 
en parle comme d'un efpece de heaume. P. Daniel Hift. de la Milice Fr. torn. I. p. 400. 
Fig, i in plate 3 reprefents a morion. * 



The names of the chief pieces, particularly appropriated to the 
defence of the breaft and body, were, the coat of mail or haubergeon, 
the fhirt of mail, the jazerant, the aketon, the jack, the vambafmm, 
the cuirafs, the hallecret, and the brigandine. 

THESE pieces were of different forms and various materials, (t) 
befides brafs and iron, fuch as leather, horn, foft linen, hemp, 
cotton, and wool. The hawberk, almaine ryvetts, and corfelet, 
were terms fignifying complete fuits. 

OF mail there are two forts, viz. chain and plate mail. Chain 
mail (u) is formed by a number of iron rings, each ring having 
four others inferted into it, the whole exhibiting a kind of net work, 
with circular meihes, every ring feparately rivetted ; this kind of 
mail anfwers to that worn on the ancient breaft plates, whence 
they were denominated loricse hammatse, from the rings being 
hooked together (x). 

PLATE mail confided of a number of fmall laminse of metal, 
commonly iron, laid one over the other like the fcales of fifh, (y) 

(t) THE earlieft armour was undoubtedly made of the (kins of hearts flain in the chace, 
and afterwards of jacked leather: moft of the armour of the ancients were of thofe 
materials. The lorica was originally compofed of leather, and derives its. name from, 
lorum, a thong, as does the cuirafle, from the French word cuir, leather. || (u) From 
macula, Lat. or mafcle, French, a term in heraldry originally meant, to exprefs the mefh 
of a net. Richlet fays, mailler is ufed as a verb neuter, to exprcfs the act of netting. 
If alfo means an ancient piece of fmall money, according to fome, of a fquare figure, 
"which agrees pretty well with the plate, mail. Some derive it from the Irifh word, mala, 
aid to fignify armour, or the word mael, which in Welch properly means fteel, and 
metaphorically hardnefs and armour, fee Rowland's Mona Antiqua. Boyer in his Frencli. 
Dictionary, tranflates the word maille, a liHe iron ring. 

(x) LORICAM confertam hamis, auroquc trilicem. Virgil ^Eheid-, lib; iii. v. 67. 

(y) RUTULUM thoraca indutus ahenis, 

Horrebal Squammis.- -Lib. xi. v. 487, 

ISIDORUS. Squamma eft larica ex laminis asreis vel.ferreis concatenata, : in modum-, 
Squammarum pifcis. 

<- and 


and fewed down to ftrong linen or leathern jacket, by thread paffing 1 
through a fmall hole in each plate 3 this was exactly the form of 
the ancient lorica fquammofa (z). 

THE hauberk was a complete covering of mail from head to foot. 
It confifled (a) of a hood joined to a jacket with fleeves, breeches, 


(z) SIMILAR to this, is the Sarmatian Cuirafle, defcribed by Paufanius as quoted by 

Lipfius and Montfaucon. They take the hoofs of their horfes, which they cleanfe and 

polifh, and then cut in little pieces like dragons fcales, which done they bore the fcales, 
and afterwards few them with the {mews of an ox or horfe : if any of my readers have 
-not feen dragons fcales, he will better comprehend the thing, when he is told that they 
refemble the diviflons in a pine apple when it is green. Thus they make their cuirafles, 
which for beauty and ftrength are not inferior to thofe of the Greeks, for they very well 
iuftain both diftant and clofe blows, whereas the cuirafles of linen are not fo fure, nor 
proof againft iron. The linen ones are indeed commodious for hunters, as being what 
lions and leopards cannot enter with their teeth. || (a) See the defcription given 
by the present Fauchet. Quant aux hommes de cheval, ils chauflbient des chaufles de 
mailles, des eperons a mollettes aufi large que la paume de la main, car ceft un vieux mot 

que le chevalier, commence a farmer par les chaufles puis endoflert un Gobiflbn, 

cetoit un vetement long jufques fur les cuifles & contrepointe. 

OESSUS ce Gobiflbn ils avoient, une chemife de mailles, longue jufquau deflbus des 
Genous, appelle Auber, ou Haubert du mot Albus^ parceque les mailles de fer bien polies, 
forbies & reluifantes en fembloient plus blanches. A ces chemife etoient confues les 
chaufles, ce difent les annales de France, parlent de Regnault Comte de Dammartin, 
combattant a la Battaille de Bovines. Un capochon ou coe'fFe aufll de mailles y tenoit 
pour mettre la tete dedans, lequel capuchon fe rejettoit derriere, apres que le Chevalier 
s'etoit ote" le heaulme, & quand ils vouloient fe refraichir fans oter leur Harnois, ainfi 
que Ton voit en plufieurs fepultures. Le hauber ou brugne ceint d'une ceinture en 
large courroye. 

Sometimes under the hauberk and gambefon a breaft plate of iron was worn, this is 
mentioned by Father Daniel. Hift. de Mil. France, vol. i, p. 388. " Mais Fauchet 
" a oublie dans fa defcription, encore une efpece d'arme defenfwe, qui etoit fous le 
" Gambefon ; & cetoit un Plaftron de fer ou d'acier battu. Ceft ce que nous apprend 
" encore Guilliaume le Breton, en racontant Pes carmouche d'aupres de Monte, ou le 
" Chevalier Guilliame des Barres, fit le coup de lance avec Richard Comte de Poitiers 
** depuis Roi d'Angleterre. 

" II 


{lockings and fhoes of double chain mail, to which were added 
gauntlets of the fame conftru6tion. Some of thefe hauberks opened 
before like a modern coat, others were clcfed like a fhirt, 

IN France only perfons pouefTed of a certain eftate, called un 
fief de Hauber, were permitted to wear a hauberk, which was 
the armour of a knight, efquires might only wear a fimple coat 
of mail, without the hood and hofe. 

THE haubergeon, was a coat compofed either of plate or chain, 
mail without fleeves : the fhirt of mail was much in the form of 
the fhirts now worn, except that it had no fleeves, it was always of 
chain mail. 

THE jazerant, (b) is according to Du Cange, a fort of military 
veftment. A jazerant of double mail, occurs in many ancient 
romances. But what was the fpecific diftinction of a jazerant, 
feems at prefent uncertain. 

THE aketon, (c) gambefon, (d) vambafium, (e) and jack, (f) 
were military veftments, calculated for the defence of the body, 


" II dit quil's allerent avec tant de Roideur 1'un centre 1'autre, que leurs lances 
*' percerent, Bouchier, Cuirafle & Gambefon, mais que ce qui les empecha de s'eritre- 
" percer fut une plaque de fer battu qu'ils, avoient fous leurs autres aimes." 

Utraque per clipeos ad Corpora fraxinus ibat, 
Gambefumque audax forat & Thoraca trilicem, 
Disjicit ardenti nimium prorumpere tandem 
Vix obftat ferro fabricata Patena reco&o. 

(b) Jaferan, Jean le Maire livre i. chap. 4, & avoit pour ceux, fix cotte* de Maille 
jadis appelees Jauerans : toutes de fin or. Nicot. On appelle Jafleran auffi la chaifne d'or 
ou d'argent, qui eft de grofles mailles couchee & ferrees, dont les femmes font fort 
jfauvent des bracelets. 

JAZER ANTS of fteel and iron are mentioned In an inventory of the armour of Louis 
theL Great of France, anno 1316, quoted by Du Cange. Item 3 coleretes Pizaines 
de Jazeran d'Acier, & item une couverture de Jazeran de fer. Jj (c) Aketon, 
Acton, Sagum, Militare, quod alias Gambezonem vocant, ex Gallico, Hoqueton 



differing little from each other, except in their names, their mate- 
rials and conftruftion were nearly the fame, the authorities quoted 


aut Hauqueton, feu potius ex Cambrico-Brittanico Acluum, Lorica dupla, duplodes. 
DM Cange. 

Si tu veuil un Acqueton 
Ne L'empli mie de Coton 
Mais d'Oevres de Mifericorde, 
Afin que le Diable ne te morde. 

Le Roman du Riche & du Ladre, MS. 

(d) GAMBESO, Cento, Centunculas, Thoracomachus, Veftimentum,coaclileexcoa6tHe 
lana confeftum feu veftimenti Genus quod de coa&ili, ad menfuram & tuteiam pe&oris 
humani conficitur de Mollibus lanis, ut hoc inducla primum lorica vel cliba'nus, aut 
fimilia fragiliatatem, corporis ponderis afperitate non Lasderent. Du Cange. Statuta, MS. 
Des Armoiers & Couftepointiers de Paris, Item fe Ten fait cotes Gamboifiees, que elles 
foient couchees deuement fur neufes eftoffes & pointees enfermees, faites a deux fols, 
bien & nettement emplies de bonnes eftoffes foient de cotton, ou d'autres eftoffes, &c. 

Alia Statua, an. 1296. Item que nul dorfenavant ne puift faire Cote Gamboifiee, 

ou il noit trois- livres de Coton tout net, fe elles ne font faites en fremes & au deflbus 
foient faites entremains & que it yait, un ply de viel linge emprez 1'endroit, de demie aulne 
& demy quartier devant & autant derriere. Contrepointes vocantur in charta ann. 1206, in 
30 Regift. Archivii Regii ch. 115. Prseterea inveni in,diti bonis, quinque Albeiions & 
unum Alberc & unum Contraepointe. Vide Williamarum, feu Jofephum 
Titium, pag. 46, 47, 49. 

CE Gobefon ou Gambefon dont ou vient de parler, etoit une efpece de pourpoint fort 
long, de Taffetas ou de Cuir & bourre de laine, ou d'etc.upes, ou de Crin, pour rompre 
L'effort de la Lance, qui bien qu' elle ne penetrat pas la cuirafle auroit meurtri la corps 

en enfoncant les mailles de fer,,dont la cuirafle e'toit compofee.: P. Daniel Hift. dc 

la Mil. Fr. torn, i, p. 387. 

(e) WANBASIUM, vocis etymon a veteri Germanico quidam accerferunt Wan-bon, 
Venter, vel VVamba, ut habet Wiileramus, in cantica ; vel a Saxonica, Wafnbe, 
qnde AnglL Wombe accepere, ita ut Wambafium fuit Ventrale, vel ventrile, Ventris 
& Pedoris tegmen, quod Gejmani Wambeys v.ocant, vide Cento. Thoromachus & 
notas ad Vellharduinum, page 294, & ad Joinvillam, p. 74, & de Gaffeneuve in Etymol, 
Gall. Phillipus Cluverius, lib. i, Germ Antiq. cap. 16, ad Strahonis locum, ubi Belgos 

ait, &c. &c. hie quid aliud iuterpreteris, ad inguina & nates ufque demiflbs. nifi 

earn veftium partem > quam vuigus nunc Latinorum Thoracun appellat, pairia vepo 
lingua,' Wamjnesj & inferions Gormaniae dialectus Wambeii, Dauica, Hifpani^ 

r Juboa 

csr. 17 

in the notes, fhew they were all compofed of many folds of linen, 
fluffed with cotton, wool or hair, quilted, and commonly covered 
with leather, made of buck or doe Ikin. The aketon was long the 
fole defenfive armour for the body, worn by the Englifh infantry, 
as it not only covered the breaft, but alfo the belly, it was by the 
Germans called wambafiam, or the belly-piece, the jack gave 
name to its diminutive the jacket. 


Jubon, Itali Guiponae, Galli Pourpoint, Angli & Leodicenfes, ad Mofatn Amnem, 

CHRONICON Colmarienfe, an. 1298, Armati reputabantur, qui galeas ferreas in 
capitibus habebant & qui Wambalia, id eft tunicam fpiflam, ex lino & fluppa, vel veteribus 
pannis confutam & defupcr camifiam ferream, &c. 

(f) THE Jack. Le Jaquc, ou La Jaque eioit une efpece de Juftau-Corps, qui 
venoit au moins jufqu'aux gcnous. Nicor le deiinit ainn, Jaque, habillement de Guerre 
renfle de Cotton, & Coquillart dans fon livre des Droits, nouveaux le decrit ainfi en, 
quatre Vers, 

Cetoit un pourpoint de chamois* 
Farci de boure tus & Tons 
Un grand Vihin Jaque d'Anglois 
Quilui pendoit juiqu'aux genouSr 

DE Jaque eft venu k mot de Jaquerte, encore ufite en notre langue, pour fignifier 
rHabillement des enfans qui ne portent point encore de haut de Chaufles, Ces J?ques 
etoient bourez entre les toiles ou I'etoffe dont ils etoient compofez. Cetoit non feulement 
pour empecher que la lance ou 1'epee ne percat mais encore pour empecher les contufions, 
que TefFort de la lance ou de 1'epee pouvoient faire, Autrefois pour la meme raifon, les 
Chevaliers avoient de ces Jaques bourrez fous leur Haubert de Mailles. C'etoient ces 
efpeces de Jaques qu'on appelloit du nom de Gobiflbn, de Gombifon & de Gambefon. 

LE Jaque don't il s'agit dans le Memoire, que je vais rapporter etoit d'un cuir de cerf, 
double de vingt cinq ou de trente toiles ufees & mediocrement deliees. L'Auteur du 
Memoire dit que ces Jfaques etoient a Tepreve & qu'on avoit vu rarement des foldatz tusz 
dans cette armure. 

MEMOIRE de ce que le Roy, (Louis XI.) veut que les Francs Archicrs de fon. 
Royaume foient habillez en Jacques d'icy en avant, et pour ce a charge au Bailly de 
Mantc en faire un projet. Et femble audit Bailly de Mante que L'Habillement de Jacques 
leur feroient bon, prouffitable & avantageux pour faire la guerre, veu que font gens de pie,. 
& que en ayant les brigandmes, il leur fault porter beaucoup de chofes que ung homine 
feul & a pie ne peut faire. 



ALTHOUGH the gambefon was chiefly worn under the coat of 
mail; to protect the body from being bruifed by the ftrokes of the 
fword or lance, a circumflance that might happen without a drvi- 
fion of the mail, the verfes quoted in the note from the Poem of 
the Siege of Karleverok, (g) (hew that it was fometimes worn as a 
fur coat, and ornamented with rich decorations. So other autho- 
rities (h) point out that the acketon was occafionally put on under 
the jazerant or coat of mail. 

ET premierement leur fault des dits Jacques de 30 toiles, ou de 25 : & ung cuir de 
cerf, fa tout le moins ; et ii font de 30 & ung cuir de cerf, ils font des bons. Les 
toils ufees & deliees moyehnement font les meilleures, & doivent eftre les Jacques 
a quatre quartiers, & faut que les manches foient fortes com me le corps, referve le 
cuir ; & doit eftre Paffiete des manch es grande, & que i'affiete preigne pres du collet, 
non pas fur 1'os de 1'efpaule, qui foit large defibubz 1'aifelle, & plantureux delloubz le 
bras, aflez faulce & large fur les coftez bas. Le colet foit comme le demourant du 
Jacques, & que le colet ne foit pas trop hault derriere pour Pamour de la falade. 
Et faut que ledit Jacques foit laiTe devant, & que il ait deflbubz une porte piece de la 
force dudit Jacques. Ainfi fera feur le dit Jacques & aife : moyennent qu'il ait ur 
pourpoint fans manches ne colet, de deux toiles feulement, qui n'aura que quatre doys de 
large fur 1'efpaule. Auquel pourpoint il attachera fes chaufles. Ainfi flotera dedans fon 
Jacques, & fera a fon aife. Car on ne vit oncques tuer de coups de main ne de flefche 
dedans les dits Jacques fix hommes : & fe y fouloient les gens bien combattre. (Job- 
ferverai ici en paflant que cette armure & cette efpece de cuirafTe de linge n'etoit point une 
invention nouvelle, & qu'elle avoit etc en ufage chez quelques nations, dans les terns les 

plus eloignez, & que Xenophon en fait mention. P. Daniel, torn. i. p. 242 & 243. 

IN the MS. Inventory of armour, &c. i Edw. VI. before quoted, there occurs in 
the charge of Hans Hunter, armourer, Weftminfter, item one Northerne Jacke, covered 
with lynnen. 

(g) MEINTE heaume et meint chapeau burni 

Meint. riche Gamboifon Guarni 

De Soie et Cadas et Coton 

En lour venue veift on. 
Seize of Karlaverok, MSS. Bib. Cotton. Caligula, A. xviii. 

(h) Chronicon Bert. Guefclini, MSS. 

L'Efcu li derompi & le bon Jazerant 

Mais le Haufton fut fort, qui fut de bouquerant. 
& Le Roman de Gaydon, MSS. 

Sur L'Auqueton veft L'Auberc jazerant, et infra, 

Sor L'Auqueton, qui dor fu pointurez 

Vefti L'Auberc, qui fu fort & ferrez. 


ANCIENT A R MO UR, ^tv 19 

THE cuirafs covered the body before and behind, it confirmed of 
two parts, a breaft and back piece of iron, fattened together by 
means of flraps and buckles, or other like contrivances. They 
were originally as the name imports, made of leather, but after- 
wards of metal both brafs and iron, (i) Father Daniel fays, he 
has feen cuiraiTes of various conftrucYions, in the cabinet of arms 
at Chantilly. (k) 

THE halecret was a kind of corcelet of two pieces, one before 
and one behind, it was lighter than the cuirafs. 

THE brigandine takes its name from the troops, by which it was 
firft worn, who were called brigans, they were a kind of light 
armed irregular foot, much addicted to plunder, whence it is pro- 
bable the appellation of brigands was given to other freebooters. 

(i) SOMETIMES the part which covers the neck, and connects the helmet and cuirafs, 
is fixed to the former, fometimes it is feparate, and is then called a gorget, of which fee a 
reprefentation in plate 26, fig. 4. 

(k) J'ai vu dans le cabinet d'Armes de Chantilli, plus de quarante corps de cuirafle, 
dont plufieurs font differentes les unes des autres. II y en a une ouverte par devant, qui 
fe fermoit avec trois crochets, & une autre qui fe fermoit aufli par devant avec deux 
boutons ; une autre qui fe plioit en deux par devant, & qui n'empechoit point Thomme 
arme de fe pancher : une autre qui fe plioit par en haut & per en bas, ceft a dire que 
celled etoit de trois pieces qui rentroient les unes dans les autres, & 1'autre de deux 
pieces jointes de meme ; elles etoient plus commodes pour les mouvemensdu corps : mais 
peut-etre n'etoient elles pas fi fures centre la lance Hift. Mil. Fr. torn, i, p. 400. 

SEE Du Cange under the word Brigandine, and FroifTart, vol. i. chap. 128, 148, 
1 60, and vol. 4, ch. 25, alfo Monftrellet and others. The manner in which brigandines 
were conftru&ed is well defcribed in the new edition of Blount's Tenures, lately published. 
The Hambergell was a coat compofed of feveral folds of coarfe linen or hempen cloth, in 
the midft of which was placed a fort of net-work of fmall ringlets of iron, about a quarter 
of an inch diameter interwoven very artificially together, and in others of thin iron plates 
about an inch from fide to fide, with a hole in the midft of each, the edges laid one over 
another, quilted through the cloth with fmall packthread, and bedded in paper covered 
with wool, parts of two fuch haubergells are now in the editor's pofleffion, either of which 
would be fufficient to defend the body of a man from the ftroke or point of a fword, if not 
from a mufquet ball, and yet fo pliable as to admit the perfon wearing them to ufe all 
his limbs, and move his joints without the leaft interruption. 



Indeed this armour, which confifted of a number of fmall plates of 
iron, fewed upon quilted linen or leather, covered over with the 
fame, was feemingly well calculated for robbers, as they were always 
armed ready for an attack, without its being obferved, fo as to 
alarm the perfons whom they meant to rob. 

THE brigandine is frequently confounded with the jack, and 
fometimes with the habergeon, or coat of plate mail. 

IN Mr. Brander's Inventory of Armour in the Royal Arfenals, 
we find a variety of brigandines, fome ftiled complete, having fleeves 
covered with crimfon, or cloth of gold, others with blue fattin, 
fame with fuftian and white cloth, thefe were called miller's coats, 
fome likewife are faid to be covered with linen cloth, and to have 
long taces, i. e. fkirts : the covering was in all likelyhood accord- 
ing to the rank or fortune of the wearer. 

THERE are feveral brigandines ftill remaining in the tower, from 
one of which the coat given, plate 26, fig. i, was drawn. 


WHAT was the particular form or conftruction of the almaine 
ryvetts, I have not been able to difcover, but conje6tur.e they were 
denominated ryvetts, from having the joints of the arms made 
flexible by means of rivets, a contrivance poffibly invented or per- 
fected in Germany, or perhaps that country might be famous for 
a manufactory of this kind of armour. 

INDEED from feveral original contracts, preferved in the libraries 
of the curious, it appears they were chiefly purchafed from foreign- 
ers, the fubftance of one in the pofleflion of Thomas Aflle, Efq; 
is given in the note below. (1) King Henry VIII. in the 38th year 


(1) AN indenture between Matter Thomas Wooley and John Dance, Gent, in the year of Henry VI! I. of the one part, and Guydo Portavarii, Merchant, of Florence, 
on the other part, whereby he covenants to furnifti two thoufand complete harnefles, 



of his reign, had almaine armourers in his pay, as we learn from 
the following entry in a book, preferred in the Remembrance 
Office, Weftminfter, containing an account of the royal expences 
of that year. " Item for the wages of the almaine armourers at 
Greenwich, &c. &c. 


THIS was a fuit of armour chiefly worn by pikemen, who were 
thence often denominated corfelets. Strictly fpeaking, the word 
corcelet meant only that part which covered the body, (m) but 
was generally ufed to exprefs the whole fuit, under the terms of a 
corfelet furnifhed, or complete. This included the head-piece and 
gorgett, the back and breaft, with fkirts of iron called taffes or 
tafTets covering the thighs, as may be feen in the figures, repre- 
fenting the exercife of the pike, publilhed anno 1622, by the 
title of the Military Art of Training j the fame kind of armour was 
worn by the harquebufiers. Plate 15 reprefents a corfelet complete 
with morion and taffeta, which are fattened to the cuirafs by hooks, 
in the manner there (hewn. 

To the back-piece of the cuirafs for the protection of the loins* 
was hooked on a piece of armour, called Garde des Reins, or Cu- 
lettes ; and the breaft-piece was occafionally flrengthened by an 
additional plate called a Plaquet. On fome fuits were fcrewed large 
iron cod-pieces j thefe, according to tradition, were intended to 

called Alemain Ryvetts* accounting always among them a falet, a gorget, a breaft plate, 
a back plate, and a payre of fplyntes for every complete harnefs, for the price of fixteen 
(hillings fterling. 

(m) CORSELET, cuirafTe pour un piquier. Richelet. Corfelet or Corflet, Armour 
for a pikeman, to cover either the whole body or the trunk of it. Boyer derives it from 
corfet, a French word fignifying a woman's quilted boddice, lacing before. Richelet 
explains it by corps de iupe de Paifanne, fome deduce it from the Latin words, cor, heart, 
and celator, a coverer. Mallet in the Travaux de Mars, fays a corcelet differs from a 
cuirafs, in being only piftol proof, whereas the cuirafs is mufquet proof. 

F prevent 

22 A T R E A T I S E ON 

prevent the ill confequences of thole Violent (hocks received in 
charging, either in battle, or at a tournament. Some fay, they 
were meant to contain fpunges for receiving the water of knights > 
who in the heat of an engagement might not have any more con- 
venient method of difcharging it. But moft probably, they were 
rather conftructed in conformity to a reigning fafhion iiv the make 
of the breeches of thofe times, (n) The armour of John of 
Gaunt and Henry VIII. reprefented in the plates 20 and 22, have 
thefe indecent appendages. Another, formerly belonging to that 
King, is preferved in the tower -, and divers others occur in the dif- 
ferent lifts of armour in our royal arfenals. 

To the cuirafs were buckled the armour for the fhoulders and 
arms, the firft called Pouldrons, the fecond BrafTarts, Garde bras, 
les avant bras, and corruptly in Englifh, Vambraces. The vam- 
braees included all the defence for the arms, from the pouldrons 
to the wrift. At the joint, or bending of the arm, the vambraces 
were cut obliquely, the vacancies on the infide, when the arms 
were {heightened, were covered by pieces of mail callet GoulTets, 
and afterwards by a contrivance of plates refembling hearts. Cui- 
rafles with entire fleeves of mail are mentioned in divers military 
writers. A defence for the arms, called (o) Splints, conftituted part 
of the fuit denominated an Almaine Ryvett. 

THE hands were defended by Gauntlets, thefe were fometimes of 
chain mail, but oftener-of fmall plates of iron riveked together, in 
imitation of the lobfter's tail, fo as to yield to every motion of the 

(n) THESE monftrous cod-pieces were in falhion in the time of King Henry VIII. 
He himfelf is painted by Holbein with a pair of breeches of this fafhion, in the picture 
-reprefenting him granting a charter to the barber-furgeons. In the old' Hiftory of John 
Newchombe, the famous clothier of Newbury, in the reign of Henry VIII. his drefs,.. 
when he went to meet the King, is thus defcribed*. He had on a plain ruflet coat, a 
pair of kerfie breeches, without welt or guard, and (lockings of the fame piece fewed ta 
his flops, which had a great cod-piece, on which he ftuck his pins. 

(o) SPLINTS, harnefs or armour for the arms. Philips's New World of "Words-. 



hand, fome gauntlets inclofed the whole hand, as in a box or cafe, 
others were divided into fingers, each finger confirming of eight or 
ten feparate pieces, the infide gloved with buff leather, fome of 
thefe reached no higher than the wrift, others to the elbow ; the 
latter were filled long armed gauntlets : many of them are to be 
feen in the Tower 3. for a reprefentation of one of them, fee 
plate 26, fig. 6. 

THE thighs of the cavalry were defended by fmall flrips of iron 
plate, laid horizontally over each other, and rivetted together, form- 
ing what were called cuifTarts, or thigh-pieces, of thefe fome entirely 
enclofed the thighs, and others only covered the front of them, (p) 
the infide, next the horfe, being unarmed. They were made flexible 
at the knees by joints like thofe in the tail of a lobfter, and were cal- 
led Genouillieres, or Knee-pieces. TafTets, or fkirts, hooked on to 
the front of the cuirafs, were, as has been before faid, ufed by the 

FOR the defence of the legs were worn a fort of iron boots,, cal- 
led Greeves. (q) Plates of iron covering the front of the leg were 
alfo frequently worn over the ftockings of mail. The greeves 
commonly covered the whole leg, as in the armour of John of 
Gaunt, and that of Henry VIII. with thefe they had broad toed iron 
{hoes, with joints at the ankle, fometimes they had Sabatons of 
mail. Boots of jacked leather, called Curbouly (cuir bouillie) were 
alfo worn by horfemen j thefe are mentioned by Chaucer, 


TILTING Armour confuted in general of the fame pieces as that 
worn in war, except that they were lighter and more ornamented, 
they had however the following peculiarities. 

(p) SEE plate 16. || SIR John Turner in his Effays on the Art of War, entitled 
Pallas Armata, chap. 3, page 169, calls Gretves armour for the arms. 

24 A T R E A T 1 S E ON 

THE helmet was perforated only on the right fide, the left fide 
of the face, the left fhoulder and breaft, were covered by a plate 
called a Grand Guard (r) which fattened on at the flomach. On 
each fhoulder was alfo fixed a plate declining from the face like 
wings, (s) thefe were intended to protect the eyes from the point of 
the lance, they were called pafs guards j alfo from the right fide of 
the cuirafs projected a contrivance like a moveable bracket, called 
a reft, for the purpoie of fupporting the lance. 

THE laft article of defenfive armour was the Shield, of which 
there was a great variety both in form and materials. The fhields 
ufed by our Norman anceftors were the triangular or heater fhield, 
the target or buckler, the roundel or rondache, and the pavais, 
pavache, or tallevas. 

OF the triangular, or as it is vulgarly called, the heater fhield, (t) 
no fpecimen has reached us, at leaft that I have been able to dif- 
cover. We have neverthelefs the united teftimony of feals, monu- 
ments, painted glafs and ancient tapiftry, to prove that fhields of 
that form were in ufe at the period above mentioned. 

MOST of the monumental figures of crofs-legged knights are 
armed with triangular fliields, which are generally a little convex, 
or curved in their breadth ; their upper extremity terminated by 
a line parallel to the horizon, and their fides formed by the in- 
terfeclion of the fegments of two circles j the fame fort are moflly 
reprefented on ancient feals and windows, fometimes, though not 
often, their furfaces are flat. 

FIG. 3 and 4 in plate 10, a tilting helmet (hewn in different pofitions, the perforations 
come on the left fide inftead of the right, from the drawing not having been reverfed. 

(r) PLATE 23 reprefents a fuit of tilting armour with the grand guard and lance 
jeft. Fig. 2 mews the grand guard on a larger fcale, and in a different pofition. 

(s) PLATE 24, the elevations or projections on the flioulders of the figure are the pafs 
guards. || (t) They were called Heater Shields, from their refemblance to that in- 
#rument of houfewifery, therefore probably a name of no very remote antiquity. 


A N C I E N T A R M O U R, &c. 25 

THE Norman fhields reprefented on the curious tapiftry at Bay- 
eux, (u) have their upper extremities circular, their whole form 
much refembling a fchool boy's kite. 

ON the infide were two or more loops of leather, or wooden 
handles, through which the arm and hand were patted, when the 
fhield was brafed, or prepared for ufe ; at other times it was car- 
ried by a leathern thong worn round the neck. 

THE Target (x)or Buckler (y) was carried by the heavy armed 
foot, it anfwered to the fcutum of the Romans j its form was fome- 
times that of a rectangular parallelogram, but more commonly had 
its bottom rounded off; it was generally convex, being curved in 
its breadth. Targets were moftly made of wood, covered with 
many folds of bull's hide or jacked leather, (z) and occafionally 
with plates of brafs or iron ; the extremities were always bound 
with metal, and frequently from the center of the front projected 
a bofs, or umbo, armed with a fpike. On the infide were two 
handles. Men of family ufually had their armorial bearings painted 
on their targets. After the invention of fire-arms, inflead of the 
fpike the center of fome targets were armed with one or more 
fmall gun barrels, a grate or aperture being left in the target for 
the convenience of taking aim j feveral of thefe are mentioned in 
Mr. Brander's manufcript, (a) one is ftill fhewn in the Spanifh ar- 
mory, in the Tower of London. 

THESE fhields or targets were of different fizes, thofe of the 
ancients were fo large as to cover almoft the whole body, fo that 

(u) ON this tapiftry is wrought the Hi/lory of William the Conqueror, it is engraved 
in Montfaucon's Hift. de la Monarchic Francoife* |j (x) From tergum, a hide. 

(y) JUNIUS derives the word Bucler from the German Beucheler or Bocken-leer, i. e. 
the (kin of a goat. || (z) BY the laws of Ethelftan, any fhield maker covering a fhield with 
flieep fkins, forfeited thirty fhillings, a prodigious fine in thofe days. See the Saxon Laws. 

(a) Targetts fteilde w. gonnes, 35. Targetts playne without gonnes, 7. Targett 
with xx. litle gonnes oone. Terget w. four gonnes oone. A long tcrgett w. oone 
gonne oone. A target of the fhell of a tortys. oone, in the Tower. 

G when 


when a centinel had fet the bafe of his fhield on the ground, (b) he 
could reft his head on the upper margin. They were alfo large 
enough to convey the dead, or thofe dangeroufly wounded, from the 
field, as is evident from the well-known exhortation of the Lace- 
demonian women to their fons and hufbands, " Bring this back, 
or come back upon it j" a circumftance that alfo marks the igno- 
miny attending the lofs of a fhield, this was common to all na- 
tions, and at the clofe of the fourteenth century, a knight who 
had loft his fhield was faid to want his coat armour, and could not 
fit at the table with the other knights, until he had by fome honor- 
able exploit, or feat of arms againft the enemy, obliterated that dif- 
gracej if before this was atchieved, he fhould attempt to place 
himfelf among them, it was the duty of the herald to tear his man- 
tle y an example of this is mentioned in the note below, (c) 

THE Roundel or Rondache derived its name from its circular 
iigure, it was made of oziers, boards of light wood, finews or ropes, 
covered with leather, plates of metal, or ftuck full of nails in con- 
centric circles or other figures. The fhields and roundels of metal, 
particularly thofe richly engraved or embofTed, feem rather to have 
been infignia of dignity, anciently born before generals or great 
officers, than calculated for war, moft of them being either too 
iheavy for convenient ufe, or too flight to refift the violence of a 
ftroke either from a fword or battle-axe. 

ALTHOUGH moft roundels are convex, yet we meet with many 
that are concave ; but thefe have commonly an umbo j the reaibn 

(b) AN iron fpike was fixed to the bottom of the ancient fhields for the purpofe of 
lixing them in the ground ; thefe fpikes were alfo ufeful in battle. 

(c) HujusqyE ritus prseclarum habetur exemplum apud Willelmum Hedam in Fre- 
-drico Epifcopo Ultrajedenfi., fub anru 1395. quippe narrat comiti Oftrevandiae Willelmo, 
menfse Regis Francorum affidenti cum aliis principibus, Fecialem quem Heraldam vocant, 
lacerafle mantile fibi antepofitum v objicientem indignum fore, quod aliquis intereflet men- 
fae Regiae, carens infignis, innuentem infignia ipfms Willelmi apud Frifos' 
orientales amirTa. Du Can^e. 



for this conftru6Hon is not very obvious, as the concave furface 
feems of all others the leaft calculated for diverting a ftroke. The 
handles are placed as in the fhield and target, the roundel feems in 
many inftances to referable the Roman Parma. 

THE Pavais, Pavache, or Tallevas was a large fhield, or rather a 
portable mantlet, capable of covering a man from head to foot, and 
probably of fufficient thicknefs to refift the miflive weapons then 
in ufe. Thefe were in fieges carried by fervants (d) whofe bufinefs 
it was to cover their mailers with them, whilft they with their bows 
and arrows {hot at the enemy on the ramparts, (e) As this muft 
have been a fervice of danger, it was that perhaps which made the 
office of fcutifer or fhield bearer honorable, as the mere carrying 
.of a helmet or fhield on a march or in a proceflion, partook more 
of the duty of a porter than that of a foldier. In the lift of the 
.army that accompanied K. Edward III. to Calais, we find many 
pavifors, thefe were probably men trained to the ufe of the pavais s 
which muft have required dexterity as well as courage. Pava- 
ches were fometimes fupported by props -, they were- alfo iifed 
at fea to defend the fides of the vefiels, like the prefent netting of 
our (hips of war 5 this defence was called a pavifade, it may be feen 
in the reprefentation of ancient fliips. The pavais was rectangu- 
lar at the top, the fides parallel, but the angles round- 
cd off at the bottom. 

UNDER the protection of the pavaches, workmen alfo ap- 

(d) TUNC praecedebat cum Parma Garcio, fub qua 
Nil fibi formidans obfeflbs damnificabat. 
Affidue poterat nee ab illis danmifkari 
AlTeribus latis dum Parma protegit ipfurn. Gulll. Breton. 

(e) QUIDAM de obfidione confa^verat venire ad foflas Parma prztenta quam quidam 
Famulus ante ipfurn portabat, non manuali quidem Parma fed immenfa, quales in ob- 
Jidionibus deferri folent, Rigord, p. 215. 



preached to the foot of the wall in order to fap it, as may be feen 
by the extract from Froiffart, in the note below, (f ) 

ALTHOUGH Spurs cannot be confidered as armour, either ofFen- 
five or defenfive, yet as they made an important part of the equip- 
ment of an ancient knight, and were the infignia of his dignity, 
itfeems necefTary to fay fomething of them. 

Two forts of fpurs feem to have been in ufe about the time of 
the Conquer!, one called a pryck, having only a fmgle point like 
the gafne of a fighting cock j the other confiding of a number of 
points of a confiderable length, radiating from and revolving on a 
center, thence named the rouelle or wheel fpur. 

DELINEATIONS of the fir ft occur in the feals of moil of our 
kings and great barons, prior to the reign of Edward III. and alfo 
on the engraved and fculptured figures of crofs-legged knights. 
The rouelle is fometimes found on figures of equal antiquity, there 
being inftances of the fame perfon being delineated with the pryck 
fpur on one feal and the rouelle on another. Some fpecimens of 

(f ) LORS pafla le Comte d'Erbi outre et prit le chemin devers Aguillon, mais ainfoit 
qu'il y parvint, trouva le chattel de la Roche-Milon qui eftoit bien pourvu de Sodoyers 
& d'Artillerie j ce non obftant ledit Comte d'Erbi commanda qu'il fut afprement aflailli : 
lors s'avan^oient Anglois & commencerent a aflaillir : ceux de dedans jettoient banes & 
grands barreaux de fer, & pots pleins de chaux dont ils occjrent & bleflerent plufjeurs 
Anglois qui montoient contrement & s'avancoient trop follement pour leur corps avan- 
turer. Quand le Comte d'Erbi vit que fes gens fe travailloient & fe faifoient tuer pour 
neant, fi les fit retraire. Le Lendemain fit achaner par les Villains du Pays grand foifon 
de bufches & falourdes & feurre & getter es foffez a-vec grand plante de terre. Quand 
une partle des fbflez furent emplis tant qu'on pouvoit bien aller jufquau pied du mur du 
chattel, il fit arrouter & bien armer & mettre en bonne ordonnance trois cens Archers, & 
puis fit pafler pardevant eux pour les emouvir, deux cens Brigands Pavefches qui tenoient 
grands pics & havets de fer, & tandis que ceux heurtoient & piquotoient au mur, les 
archers tiroient fi fort, qua peine s'ofoient ceux de dedans montrer a leur defence j & 
encet ettat furent la plus grand partie du jour, tant que les picoteurs firent un trou au 
mur fi grand, que dix hommes pouvoient entrer de front, lors s'ebahjrent ceux du Chattel 
& de la Ville, & fe jetterent par devers 1'Eglife : & aucuns vindrent par derriere. Ainfi 
fut prife la fottrefle de la Roche Milon. Froiffart^ vol. I, c. 109. 



the pryck fpur are ftill to be found in the cabinets of the cu- 
rious, (g) 

HAVING thus defcribed the different pieces of defenfive armour 
ufed by our ancient warriors, J (hall, proceed to explain and de- 
fcribe thofe worn by their horfes. 

THE defenfive armour with which the horfes of the ancient 
knights or men at arms were covered, or, to ufe the language of 
the time, barded, (h) confirmed of the following pieces made either of 
metal or jacked leather, the Chamfron, Chamfrein or ShafFron, the 
Criniere or Main Facre, the Poitrenal, Poitral or Breafl Plate, and 
the Croupiere or Buttock Piece. Thefe are frequently, though 
improperly, ftiled Barbs, (i) Horfes covered all over from head 
to foot with mail occur in fome ancient writers, but this, Father 
Daniel fays, was not common, any more than a covering of quilted 
linen alfo mentioned, (k) 

THE Chanfron, Chamfrein , or ShafFron took its denomination 
from that part of the horfe's head it covered, (1) and was a kind of 
tnafk of iron, copper or brafs, and fometimes of jacked leather, en- 
clofing the face and ears, fome of thefe chanfrons feem to have been 
fo contrived as to hinder, a horfe from feeing right before him, per- 
haps to prevent his being intimidated by any object againft which 
he might be directed, fo as to caufe him to ftart afide, or leflen the 
celerity of his charge. From the center of the forehead there fome- 

(g) CAPT. ROBSON of Chelfea has one -of iron. 

(h) BARDE. Armure qui couvre le cou, le Poitral, & la croup du Cheval. Richelet. 

(i) ITEM two hole Barbcs of ftele for horfes, graven and enelede blue. M. Bran- 
der's MSS. \\ (k) CHRONIQUE de Colmor fous Pan. 1298. 

(1) THE Chanfron is defined to be the fore part of the head, extending from under the 
ears along the interval between the eyebrows down to the nofe. Gentleman's Dictionary. 
Perhaps from champ and frein, the field or fpace for the bridle. The reins were general- 
ly of iron chains covered over with leather. Among the horfe armour in the keeping of 
Hans Hunter, armourer at Weftminfter, ift Ed. VI. there is the following item, Reynes 
for horfes of iron xxvii. Branded* MSS. 

H times 

3 o A T K E A T I S E otf 

times ifTued a fpike or horn like that given by the heralds to the 
unicorn > but generally it was adorned with an efcutcheon of ar- 
morial bearings, or other ornamental devices. In feveral of the 
French hiftorians we read of Chanfrons worn by their nobility, not 
only of gold, but alfo ornamented with precious ftones. Chan- 
frons reaching only to the middle of the face are called demy 

THE Criniere or Manefaire confifted of a number of fmall plates, 
generally about twelve, hooked together and to the chafron, fo as 
to be moveable, their ufe was to guard the neck of the horfe from 
the ilroke of a cutting fword. 

THE Poitrinal, Pectoral, or Breaft Plate was formed of plates of 
metal rivetted together, which covered the breaft and moulders of 
the horfe, it was commonly adorned with foliage, or other orna- 
ments engraved or embofled. (m) 

THE Croupiere or Buttock Piece was alfo fome times formed of 
plates of copper, brafs or iron, though often of jacked leather, 
when the chanfron and poitrinal were of metal. It defcended 
down to the hocks, (n) 

(m) IN tournaments, cavalcades and public entries the horfes, inftead of iron, were 
Covered with filken or velvet bardes embroidered with coats of arms or other devices. 

ITEM, two harneffes for a horfe being hed flail, reynes, croopers, and poytrelles of 
vellet, thone garnyfHed with copper and pafTemayne of Venyce gold j thother with copper 
filvered with pafTemayne of filver twoo. Brander's MSS. 

(n) THE arcons, bows, or faddle pieces, which were faced with metal and rofe up and 
covered the horfemen almoft as high as the navel, might in fome meafure be confidered 
as defenfive armour, though not included in that denomination. 

SEVERAL of thefe plated faddles occur in Mr. Brander's MSS. In the Kings Armory 
at Weftininfter in the cuftody of Hans Hunter. Item, in trees for faddles plated with 
ftele, and parcel guilte and graven five paier. Item in like trees plated with ftele guilte 
wrought and laied upon vellvet nine paier. Item in like trees plated with ftele, vernyfried 
and guilte feven paier. Several of the figures of our kings in the horfe armory are feated . 
on thefe faddLs. 



THE firft arms or weapons ufed by mankind were undoubtedly 
thofe with which Nature had furnifhed them, that is, their hands, 
nails and teeth, aflifted by ftones, branches, roots of trees, and 
bones of dead animals. On the difcovery of metals, weapons, firft 
of brafs and afterwards of iron, were adopted, (o) 

THE Sword feems to have been the firft artificial weapon made 
ufe of, probably even before the difcovery of metals ; fafhioned, per- 
haps of fome heavy wood, hardened by fire, this conjecture is 
juftified from fimilar weapons having been found by different tra- 
vellers in the pofleffion of diverfe favage tribes or nations. 

BRAZEN or rather copper Swords feem to have been next intro- 
duced ; thefe in procefs of time, workmen learned to harden by the 
addition of fome other metal or mineral, which rendered them al- 
moft equal in temper to iron. Several of thefe fwords have been 
found in Ireland, (p) and one delineated plate 13 was taken out of 
the Severn near Gloucefter, they are all nearly of the fame figure. 


(o) SEE the following lines of Lucretius : 

Arma antiqua manus, ungues dentefque fuere 

Et lapides, & item filvarum fragmina, rami. 

Et flammae atque ignes poftquam funt cognita primum, 

Eofterius ferri, vis eft aerifque reperta. 

Et prior aeris erat quam ferri cognitus ufus. 

(p) SOME of thefe fwords are defcribed in the Archaeologiz, vol. 3, p. 555, by. Go- 
vernor Pownal, who, that the Society might have a precife and philofophical defcription of 
the metal, applied to the matter of the mint, and by his direction Mr. Alchdrn, his Ma- 
jefty's aflay-mafter made an accurate afTay of the metal, and made the following report : 
" It appears (fays he) to be chiefly of copper, interfperfed with particles of iron, and 
* perhaps fome zink, but without containing any gold or filver ; it Teems probable, that 
** the metal was caft in its prefent ftate, and afterwards reduced to its proper figure by 

44 filing. 


WHEN defenfive armour came into general ufe it was necefiary 
to have fwords of good temper, otherwife they would not only have 
been incapable of piercing or dividing the armour, but alfo liable to 
break. Hence the art of tempering fteel became in great requeft, 
and the names of celebrated fword-fmiths and armourers were 
thought worthy of being recorded in hiftory, thofe of Luno, the 
Vulcan of the north, Galan, and the more modern Andrea Ferrara 
have been tranfmitted to us. 

SWORDS were in early ages of fuch value as to be kept in tem- 
ples and fanctuaries (q) to be particularly bequeathed in the wills 
of princes and great warriors (r) and in the days of chivalry were 
diftinguifhed by proper names, generally defcriptive of their fup- 
pofed qualities, or alluding to their deJftruclive powers : this was 
borrowed from the Perfians and Arabians, and was praftifed by 

*' filing. The iron might either have been obtained with the copper from the ore, or 
" added afterwards in the fufion to give the neceflary rigidity of a weapon, but I confefs 
" myfelf unable to determine any thing with certainty.'* One of thefe fwords is drawn 
and defcribed by Colonel Vallancey, in the i3th number of his Collectanea de Rebus 
Hibernicis, from the original in his pofleffion, meafuring twenty-two inches long : he 
fays, there is one in the College Mufeum about three inches longer. Many of thefe are 
.found in our bogs, that from which this drawing was made, was found with about two 
hundred others of the fame kind, in the bog of Cullen, in the county of Tipperary. 
The handles were of wood or bone, and were rotted away, the ryvets only remaining. 

(q) DAVID took the fword of Goliah kept'behind the ephod, Samuel, chap. 21, v. 9. 
;the Pucelle of Orleans one from the tomb of a knight buried in the church of St. Cathe- Fierbois. (See Rapin.) 

(r) IN the will of Prince .^Ethelftan, the eldeft fon of King Ethelred II. made between 
the years 1006 and 1008, in the collection of Thomas Aftle, Efq; ten fwords are there 
.devifed to different perfons, one of whom is the Prince's fword cutler, named Elfnoth, 
\vhofe art^was then in fuch eftimation, as to make him deemed fit company for the 
illuftrious perfonages with whom he is named. Among the fwords bequeathed are, the 
fword of King Offa, the fword with the fluted hilt, the fword with the crofs, the fword 
which Ulfcytel owned, and that with the filver hilt which Wulfric made. He likewife 
^bequeaths his mail, his drinking horn, Target, fhoulder fliield, and a filver plated 


ANCIENT ARMOUR, fife. -33 

Mahomet, whofe bow, fpear, and nine fwords had all proper 
names, fuch as the Piercing, Death, Ruin, &c. (s) 

SWORDS were alfo of various forms and denominations, fome 
calculated for being ufed with one, and fome with both hands. 
Some fwords were alfo made folely to thruft, and fome only to cuf ; 
others were equally adapted for both, (t) 

THE fwords ufed by the Roman legionary troops were extremely 
ihort and ftrong, their blade rarely exceeding nineteen inches in 
length, two edged, and made for either Slabbing or cutting, thefe 
do not however feem to have been adopted by the Britons, whofe 
fwords called Spathse, are faid to have been both large, long and 
heavy, as were alfo thofe of the Saxons. 

THE Norman fwords appear to have been alfo long and heavy, 
thofe of the knights templars feem more to referable the Roman 
legionary fword than any other, a drawing of one found at Sutton 
at Hone in Kent, is reprefented in plate 28. The different kinds 
of fwords of more modern date are given in the note below. The 
fword was carried in a belt of buff or other kather girded round the 

(s) THE following names of fwords belonging to different valiant knights, occur in 
romances. Fufberta Joyofa, the fword of Charlemaigne, Chryfaor that belonging to 
Arthegal, Afcalon to St. George, Tranchera to Agrican, Balifarda to Rogero, Durin- 
dana to Orlando, Caliburn, Mordure and Margalay, to King Arthur. See a lift of the 
names of weapons in Herbelot. 

(t) MR. MALLET in the Travaux de Mars, defcribes and delineates the following 
different forts of fwords, from the cabinet of arms at Chantilly, in France. A Braque- 
mart or fhort fword, a French rencontre fword. The Stoceado or long fword, the 
Efpadon or two handed fword, the Swifs or bafket hilted fword, a Spanifh fword or Toledo, 
a Tuck enclofed in a walking Stick, a Poniard, Dagger, Sabre and Cymeter, to which may 
be added the Shable, a broad fword with only one edge. 

IN Mr. Brander's manufcript, fo frequently mentioned, we have the following entries : 
firft armynge fwordes, with vellet fkaberdes XI. Item, three edged tockes, with vellet 
ikaberdes II. Item, 'great Slaughe fwordes, with lether fkaberdes II. Item, bore fpere 
fwordes, with vellet fkaberdes VI. Item, armynge fwordes of Flaunders makinge CCCII. 
.Item, one Slaughe fworde., with iii gonnes at t'handle, and crofTe with a fkaberde of vellet, 

J body, 

34 A T R E A T I S E ON 

body, or thrown over the right fhoulder, thefe fhoulder belts 
called baudricks, 

THE Pugio or Dagger was ufed by the Romans, a fpecies of that 
weapon, called the Hand Seax, was worn by the Saxons, with which 
they mafTacred the Engtifh on Salifbury Plain in 476. 

THE dagger, under the title of cultellum and mifericorde, has 
been the conftant companion of the fword, at leaft from the days 
of Edward I. and is mentioned in the ftatute of Winchefter. Its 
appellation of mifericorde is derived by Fauchet the French anti- 
quary either from its being ufed to put perfons out of their pain, 
who were irrecoverably wounded, or from the fight of it caufing 
thofe knights who were overthrown, to cry out for quarter or mer- 
cy. After the invention of fire-arms, daggers were fere wed into 
the muzzles of the mufkets, to anfwer the prefent purpofe of the 
bayonet. In a treatife entitled the Military Art of Training,, pub- 
limed anno 1622, the dagger is recommended as a military weapon 
in the following words : (u) 

"AND becaufe heere comes a controverfie opportunely to be de- 
* c cided, I will, as near as I can, plainly and honeftly anfwer the 
f fame, and that is about the wearing of daggers j to which I an- 
" fwer direclly, that it is the necefTarieft weapon belongs to a foul- 
" dier, and that for many reafons and ufes. Eirft, for ornament's 
ce fake, being a handfome, fhort light dagger, it addeth to his 
" comely carriage, and fupplieth the nakednefs of his girdle. 
<c 2. For neceflities fake, in defence and offence, for fuch may be 
< the thronging of the battaile or company, that when he can- 
" not ufe his fword, he may doe good with his dagger. 3.. For 
<e advantage, if it fhould come to a private combat, or fingling out 
" of an adverfary, a fword may breake, and many men have made 

(u) IN the fixteenth century, a mode of attack and defence was taught by the fencing 
matters of that time, wherein the fword and dagger were ufed in conjunction ; the dagger 
was. chiefly ufed for defence, the fword to offend. 

" their 


u their peace with a furious clofe, nay kept him aloofe by threat- 
<e ning to throwe it at him. 4. For execution, if there fbould be 
cc neceffity, in the difpatch of the vanquilhed. 5. For tying a 
* e horfe to the ground in an open field, where there is neither 
<{ bufh nor hedge, and Nature compels a man to difcharge the 
" burthen of his belly : nay you fhall reade that the Jews had a 
" paddle ftaff, and why may not a fouldier's dagger ferve to dig 
" a hole, and cover it with a turffe. 6. And laft of all for the 
" punifhment of offenders : for a captain or an inferior officer, 
" that only drawes a dagger, though he ftrike not at all, may 
" appeafe a fedition, and fometimes rather breake a head than 
" wound a man. As for the objections of the dangers of ftabbing 
" one another, or that a man cannot tell what he will do in his 
" fury, it is not to be talk'd of in martiall difcipline, which is 
" fometimes fevere, and the difobedient fouldier muft be taught his 
" duty with ftripes." 

THE Bow is a weapon of the moft remote antiquity, we read of 
bows in holy writ, as being in ufe in the very early ages of the 
world. The Romans had few if any archers among their national 
troops, for though fome of their emperors introduced the ufe of 
the bow among them, it was never generally adopted, moft of their 
archers were from among the auxiliaries, particularly Afiatics, 
among whom it was much efteemed, and ftill continues a prin- 
cipal weapon. 

Bows were of different forms, fometimes of two arches con- 
nected in the middle by a ftraight piece, and fometimes forming 
one uniform curve", like the Englifh bows of the prefent time. 
They were chiefly made of wood, of which yew was deemed the 
beft : am, elm and witch-hafel were alfo ufed. 

THE French under Clovis, who died anno 514, made no ufe of 
the bow 5 (x) but about the time of Charlemagne, who fiourifhed the 


(x) PAidit, fur le temoifiage de Procope & d'Agathias confirme parcelui de Corneiire- 
Tacite r que L'ufage des cuirafles & des cafques fons le commencement de la premiere Race* 


3 6 A T R E A T I S E ON 

beginning of the eighth century, bows were undoubtedly in ufe, as 
in an article of the Capitularies of that king, a count, who was to 
conduct foldiers to the army, is directed to fee they have their pro- 
per arms, that is a lance, a buckler, a bow, two firings, and twelve 

Ac c o R D i N G to fome of our ancient chronicles, the bow was intro- 
duced into England by the Normans, who therewith chiefly gained 
the battle of Haftings j it is not to be fuppofed that the bow was 
totally unknown to the Saxons ; indeed, we have many evidences 
to the contrary, but only that they did not generally ufe it in war. 
After its introduction into this kingdom, it became the favourite 
weapon of the people, and by conftant practice the Englifh were 
allowed to be the beft archers in Europe, and from time to time 
diverfe acts of parliament have been made to enforce the practice 
of archery j to procure a fupply of bow ftaves from foreign coun- 
tries, to oblige the arrow head makers to a careful {miming and 
temporing the arrow heads, and to furnifli the diftant counties with 
bowyers, fletchers, and arrow head makers. 

To enforce the firft, every man under the age of fixty, not labour- 
ing under fome bodily or other lawful impediment, (ecclefiaftics 
; and judges excepted) was directed to exercife the art of fhooting in 
the long bow, and fathers, governors and mafters to bring up the 
children under their care, in the ufe thereof, every man having a 
boy or boys in hi&houfe, was to provide for each of them above the 
.age of feven, and under that of feventeen years, a bow and two 
ihafts, if fervants, the coft of the bow and arrows might be de- 

retoit fort rare parmi les Francois ; &t que celui de 1'arc k des fleches n'etoit point non 
.plus d'abord dans leurs Armees. Or ces ufages fe trouvent non-feulement introduits, 
,mais encore commandez fous la feconde race. 

TOUT cela paroit diftin&ement dans un article des Capitulaires de Charlemagne, en 
ces termes. * Que-le comte ...ait foin <jue les armes ne manquent point aux foldats qu'il 
.doit conduire a 1'armee, c'eft a dire, qu'ils avent une lance, un bouchier, un arc & deux 
eordes .& douze fleches . . . . cp'ils ayent des cuiraffes, ou des cafques. P. Daniel. 


A N C I E N T A R M O U R, . K ^ 

dueled out of their \vages ; after that age they were to provide 
bows and four arrows for themfelves. (y) 

To give them an accurate eye and ftrength of arm, none under 
twenty-four years of age might {hoot at any {landing mark, except 
it was for a rover, and then he was to change his mark at every 
fhot $ (z) and no perfon above that age might {hoot at any mark 
whofe diftance was lefs than eleven fcore yards, (a) The inhabi- 
tants of all cities and towns were ordered to make butts, and to 
keep them in repair, under a penalty of twenty {hillings per month 
and to exercife themfelves in {hooting at them on holidays. 

To fecure a proper fupply of bow {laves, merchants trading from 
places whence bow {laves were commonly brought, were obliged to 
import four bow {laves for every ton of merchandife, and that in 
the fame {hip in which the goods were loaded, (b) They were alfo 
to bring in ten bow {laves of good and able {luff for every ton of 
Malmfey, or of Tyre (c) wine. To encourage the voluntary im- 
portation, bow {laves of fix feet and a half long or more, were ex- 
cufed the payment of cuftom, (d) the chief magiftrates were to 
appoint proper and {kilful perfons at the different ports to examine 
the bow {laves imported, and to fee they were good and fufficient. 

To prevent a too great confumption of yew, bowyers were di- 

(y) PERSONS offending againft thefe laws were liable to the following penalties, any pa- 
rent or mafter having a youth or youths under feventeen years of age, who fuffered him 
or them to be without a bow and two arrows for one month together, far every fuch neg- 
lect to forfeit 6s. 8d. and every male fervant receiving wages, above the age of feventeen, 
and under that of fixty, negleding to furnifli himfelf as above direded, for every default 
to forfeit 6s. 8d. 33d Hen. VIII. 

(z) UNDER penalty of 41!. for each fhot. y (a) 6s. 8d. for each fhot. 33 Hen. VIII. 

(b) 12 Ed. IV. under penalty of 6s. 8d. to the king for each bow (lave deficient. 

(c) i ft Rich. III. under penalty of 135. 4d. f (d) THIS feems to point out the 
length of our ancient bows to have been at leaft fix feet long, but a gentleman of the 
Archers Club, who has made the properties of the long bow his ftudy, fays, that the beft 
length for a bow is five feet eight inches from nock to nock j and that of an arrow two 
feet three inches. We however read of arrows a cloth ell long. 

K refted 

38 A T R E A T I S E ON* 

rcdled to make four bows of witch-hafel, am or elm, to one of yew, 
and no perfon under feventeen years of age, uniefs poflefled of movei- 
ables worth forty marks, or the fon of parents having an eftate of 
ten pounds per annum might moot in an yew bow, under a pe- 
nalty of 6s. 8d. 

IN order that diftant countries fhould be furniflied with bow- 
yers, fletchers, firing and arrow head makers, any of thofe work- 
men, not being freemen of London,, might be fent by the appoint- 
ment of the king's council, the lord chancellor, lord privy feal, 
.or one of them, to inhabit any city, borough or town within the 
realm that was deftitute of fuch artificers. Bowyers, 6tc. being, 
duly warned, and neglecting to repair to the places directed, were 
liable to a penalty of 403. a day for every day's neglect and contrary 

IN the reign of Edward III. the price of a painted bow was 
is. 6d. that of a white bow is. a fheaf of arrows, if acerata, or 
fharpened, is. 2d. non acerata, or blunt, is. 

THE prices of bows were occasionally regulated by acts of par- 
liament ;. from whence we learn, that the price of bow flaves had 
encreafed from 2l.~to ial, the hundred, between the reigns of Ed- 
ward III. and the 8th of Elizabeth, though this is faid to have 
been partly effected by the confederacy of the Lombards. 

IN the 24th of Edward IV. no bowyer might fell a yew bow to 
any of the king's fubjects for more than 33. 4d. and in the 38th of 
Hen. VIII. the price of a yew bow for any perfon between, the ages 
of feven and fourteen years was not to exceed is. the bowyer was 
befides to have by him inferior bows of all prices from 6d. to is. 
the price of a yew bow of the tax called elk, to any of his majefty's 
fubjects was limited to 35. 4d. In the 8th of Elizabeth, bows of 
foreign yew were directed to be fold for 6s. 8d. the fecond fort at 
35. 4d. and the coarfe fjrt called, livery bows, at a price not exceed- 
ing two millings each, and the fame for bows of Englifh yew.. A 
claufe of a former act directing the bowyers of London and Weft- 
minlier to make four bows of different wood for one of yew, was. 



repealed on their reprefentation that the citizens of London would 
ufe none but yew bows, and in its place they were ordered always 
to have by them at leaft fifty bows of elm, witch-hafel, or afh. (e) 
Bow firings were made of hemp, flax and filk. 

ARROWS were anciently made of reeds, afterwards of cornel 
wood, and occasionally of every fpecies of wood : but according to 
Roger Afcham, afh was the beft -, arrows were reckoned by fheaves, 
a fheaf confuted of twenty-four arrows. Arrows were armed an- 
ciently with flint or metal heads, latterly with heads of iron,, (f) 
of thefe there were various forms and denominations, (g) 

BY an acT: of parliament made the yth of Henry IV. it was 
enacted that for the future, all the heads for arrows and quarrells 
fhould be well boiled or brafed, and hardened at the points with 
fteel, and that every arrow head or quarrel fhould have the mark 
of the maker j workmen difobeying this order, were to be fined and 
imprifoned at the king's will, and the arrow heads or quarrells to 
be forfeited to the crown. 

ARROWS were carried in a quiver, called alfo an arrow cafe, 
which ferved for the magazine, arrows for immediate ufe were worn 
in the girdle. 

THE range of a bow, according to Neade, was from fix to eigh- 
teen and twenty fcore yards, and he likewife fays, an archer may 

(e) THE bow was commonly kept in a cafe to keep it dry, and prevent it from 
warping. Shakefpeare in his dialogue between the Prince of Wales and Falftaff makes 
the latter call the prince a bow cafe, in allufion to his fiender make, 

(f) A CURIOUS particular refpecling arrow heads occurs in Swinden's Hiftory of 
Great Yarmouth, where the fheriff of Norfolk, 42 Ed. III. being ordered to provide a 
certain number of garbs of arrows headed with fteel for the king's ufe, for the heading of 
them is directed to feize all the nooks of anchors (omnes alas ancarum) neceffary. for that 

(g) ROGER ASCHAM makes a diftin&ion between arrow heads for war, and thofe 
for pricking, that is, (hooting at a mark : of the latter he mentions the Rigged, Creafed or 
fliouldred heades, or Silver fpoone heades, for a certain likeneiTe that fuch heades have with 
the knob end of fome filver fpoons. 


40 A T R EAT ! S 

flioot fix arrows, in the time of charging and difcharging one 

IN ancient times (h) phials of quick lime, or other combuftible 
matter, for burning houfes or {hips, was fixed on the heads of 
arrows, and fhot from long bowes, (i) this has been alfo pradlifed 
fince the ufe of gunpowder, Neade fays, he has known by expe- 
rience, that an archer may moot an ounce of fire work upon an 
arrow, twelve fcore yards. Arrows with wild fire, and arrows for 
fire works, are mentioned among the (lores at Newhaven and Bar- 
wick, in the ift of Edward VI. (k) 

THE force with which an arrow flrikes an object at a moderate 
diftance, may be conceived from the account given by King Ed- 
ward VI. in his journal, wherein he fays, that an hundred archers 
of his guard fhot before him, two arrows each, and afterwards all 
together, and that they fhot at an inch board, which fome pierced 
quite through, and flruck into the other board, diverfe pierced it 
quite through with the heads of their arrows, the boards being 
well feafoned timber; their diftance from the mark is not men- 

To prevent the bow firing from hanging on the left arm, it is 
covered with a piece of fmooth leather, faflened on the outfide of 
the arm, this is called a bracer. And to guard the fingers from 
being cut by the bow firing, archers wear fhooting gloves. (1) 

(h) USED by the Romans and called falarica, and fome mallioli. 

(i) MATHEW PARIS mentions arrows headed with combuftible matter, and (hot from 
frows into towns or caftles, and alfo arrows headed with phials full of quick time, p. 1090. 
Mifimus igitur fuper eos fpicula ignita. And p. 1091. Et phialas plenas cake, arcubus 
per parva haftilia ad modum fagittarum fuper hoftes jaculandas. 

(k) IN Mr. Brander's MSS. 

(1) A BRACER ferveth for two caufes, one to fave his arme from the ftrype of the 
fringe, and his doublet from wearing, and the other is, that the ftringe gliding fharplye 
and quicklye off the bracer, may make the (harper (hot.' A (hooting glove is chiefly 
to fave a man's finger from hurting, that he may .be able to bear the (harp ftringe to the 
.yttermoft of his ftrengih. Roger Jfcham, 



CHAUCER in his prologue to the Canterbury Tales, thus de- 
fcribes an archer of his day. 

" And he was cladde in cote and hode of grenc, 

ce A fhefe of peacock arwes bright and kene, 

" Under his belt he bare ful thriftily; 

" Wei coude he drefle his takel yewmanly, 

" His arwes drouped not with fetheres lowe, 

" And in his hand, he bare a mighty bowe, 

" A not-hed hadde he, with broune vifage, 

<e Of wood crafte coude he wel all the ufage ; 

" Upon his arme he had a gai bracer, 

" And by his fide a fvverd and a bokeler, 

" And on the other fide a gaie daggere 

" Harneifed wel, and {harp as pointe of fpere : 

< A criftofre on his breft of filver fhene, 

ff An horn he bare, the baudrik was of grene, 

" A forefter was he fothely as I gefTe." 

THE following defcription of an archer, his bow and accoutre- 
ments, is given in a MSS. in my poiTeffio-n, written in the time of 
Queen Elizabeth, (m) 


" CAP TENS and officers (hould be Ikilfull of that moil noble 
<e weapon, and to fee that their foldiers according to their draught 
" and flrength have good bowes, well nocked, well flrynged, everie 

(m) ENTITLED, A Treatife of Martial Difcipline, collected and gathered together out of 
t&e opynions of dyverfe and fundry of the befte and mofte approved fouldiers, with cer- 
taine other additions thereunto by Ralphe Smithe, feperately dedicated to the Right 
Honourable the Lord Burrows, governor of the towne of Brille, in the lowe countries, and 
to the Right Honourable Sir Chriftopher Hatton, Knt. vice-chamberleine to her Majeftie, 
and of her highnes moft honorable privy council. 

L * e ftringe 





'* ftringe whippe in their nocke, and in the myddes rubbed with 
wax, brafer and Uniting glove, fomerfpare flringes trymed as 
aforefaid, every man one fhefe of arrowed, with a cafe of leather 
defenfible againft the rayne, and in the fame fower and twentie ar- 
rowes, whereof eight of them fhould be lighter than the refidue, to 
gall or afloyne the enemye with the hailfhot of light arrows, before 
they fhall come within the danger of their harquebufs {hot. Let 
every man have a brigandine, or a Htle cote of plate, a Ikull or huf- 
kyn, a mawle of leade, of five foot in lengthe, and a pike, and the 
fame hanging by his girdle, with a hook and a dagger j being thus 
11 furniihed teach them by mutters to march, fhoote and retire, 
" keepinge their faces uppon the enemys. Sumtyme put them 
" into great nowmbers, as to battell apparteyneth, and thus ufe 
" them often times praftifed, till they be perfecle j ffor thofe men 
" in battell, ne ikimifh can not be fpared. None other weapon 
" maye compare with the fame noble weapon." 

THE long bow maintained its place in our armies, long 
after the invention of fire arms. Nor have there been wanting 
experienced foldiers, who were advocates for its continuance, and 
who in many cafes even preferred it to the harquebufs or mufket. 
King Charles I. twice granted fpscial commiffions under the great 
feal, for enforcing the ufe of the long bow, the firft in the 4th 
year of his reign, (n) but this was revoked by proclamation four 
years afterwards, on account of diverfe extortions and abufes com- 
mitted under fanction thereof. The fecond anno 1633, in the 9th 
year of his reign, to William Neade and his fon, alfo named Wil- 
liam, wherein the former is ftyled an ancient archer, who had pre- 
fented to the king a warlike invention for uniting the ufe of the 
pike and bow, (o) feen and approved by him and his council of war , 

(n) To Timothy Taylor, John Hubert, Henry Hubert, Gentlemen, and Jeffery 
le Nev^ Efq. || (o) PRINTED under the title of the Double Armed Ma-n. The dif- 
ferent motions are illuftrated by wooden cuts, very well drawn. 


A N C I E N T A R M O U R, &c. 43 

wherefore his majefty had granted them a commiffion to teach and 
exercife his loving fubjects in the faid invention, which he parti- 
cularly recommended the chief officers of his trained bands to learn 
and practife ; and the juflices, and other chief magistrates throughout 
England, are therein enjoined to ufe every means in their power to 
aflift Neade, his fon, and all perfons authorifed by them in the fur- 
therence, propagation, and practice of this ufeful invention, both 
the commiffions and proclamation are printed at large in Rymer. 

AT the breaking out of the civil war, the earl of EfTex ifTued a 
precept, dated in November 1643, for flirring up all well affected 
people by benevolence, towards the railing of a company of archers 
for the fervice of the king and parliament. 

To protect our archers from the attacks of the enemy's horfe, 
they carried long flakes pointed at both ends, thefe they planted in 
the earth, (loping before them. In the ift of Edward VI. three 
hundred and fifty of thefe were in the flores of the town of Ber- 
wick, under the article of archers flakes j there were alfo at the 
fame time, eight bundles of archers flakes in Pontefraft Caflle. (p) 


THE Sling (q) is alfo a weapon of great antiquity, formerly in 
high eftimation among the ancients. But as it does not appear 
from hiflory to have been much ufed by the Englifh, at leafl within 



(q) THE Romans had companies of {lingers in their armies, the inhabitants of the 
Balearic Iflands, now called Majorca and Minorca, were peculiarly famous for their 
dexterity in the ufe of this weapon. Diodorus Siculus fays, that they always carried three 
flings, one they bound round their heads, another they girded round their waifts, and the 
third they held in their hands. In fight they threw large ftonei with fuch violence, that 
they feemed to be projected from fome machine, info much that no armour could refift 
their ftroke. In befieging a town, they wounded and drove the garrifon from the walls, 


44. A T R E A T 1 S E ON 

the period to which this work is confined, (r) it will be fuificient 
to fay, that flings were conftrufted for throwing ftones, leaden bul- 
lets, and clay balls, baked or hardened in the fun. That they were 
made of different materials, chiefly flax, hair, or leather, woven into 
bands, or cut into thongs, broadeft in the center, for the reception 
of the flone or ball, and tapering off gradually towards both ends : 
with one of thefe flings, a good (linger would (it is faid) throw a 
ftone fix hundred yards. An ancient Iflandic treatife, entitled 
Speculum Regale, fuppofed to have been written about the twelfth 
century, mentions flings fixed to a flaff. 

UNDER the general appellation of fpear, lance and pike, may be 
included a great variety of weapons of the kind, anciently com- 
prehended by the French under the term of bois (wood); 
fpears or lances, particularly thofe ufed by the cavalry, are by many 
of our old writers called ftaves. 

THE fpear or lance, is among the oldeft weapons recorded in 
hiftory, and is nearly coeval with the fword or bow, and even feems 
a much more obvious weapon than the latter, probably originating 
in a pole or flake, fharpened at one or both ends, afterwards armed 

throwing with fuch exadtnefs, as rarely -to mifs their mark ; this dexterity they acquired by 
conftant exercife, being trained to it from their infancy, their mothers placing their daily 
food on the top of a pole, and giving them no more than they beat down with ftones from 
their flings. This art is ftill in fome meafure preferved by the Minorquin Shepherds. 
Some writers have, though falfely, attributed the invention of the fling to the inhabitants 
<of thefe iflands. 

(r) FROISSART, vol. i, chap. 85, p. 304, gives an inftance in which flings were 
.-employed for the Englifh, by the people of Brittany, in a battle fought in that province 
during the reign of Philip de Valois, between the troops of Walter de Mauni, an Englifh 
knight, and Louis d'Efpagne, who commanded -fix thoufand men, in behalf of Charles de 
Blois, then competitor with the Earl of Montfort, for the dutchy of Brittany. Froiflart 
{ays, that what made Louis lofe that battle, was, that during the engagement the people 
of the country came unexpectedly, and afTaulted his army with bullets and flings. 
According to the fame author they were alfo ufed in naval combats. Slings were ufed in 
5,572, at the fiege of Sancerre, by the Huguenots, in order, to fave their powder, D'Aubigue 
<w]io reports this fact, fays, they were thence called Sancerre harquebuffe.s. 


A N C I E N T A R M O U R, &c. 45 

with a head of flint, and in procefs of time, on the difcovery and 
ufe of metals, with copper, brafs, or iron. Flint heads for both 
fpears and arrows, are frequently found in England, Scotland and 
Ireland, as are alfo fpear, javelin, and arrow heads of a metal nearly 
refembling brafs. (s) 

THE fpear, lance, javelin, darts of different kinds, and even the 
more modern pikes, all come under one common defcription, that 
is, a long ftafF, rod, or pole, armed with a pointed head of ftone 
or metal at one or both ends, conftrufled for the purpofe of pier- 
cing, or wounding with their points only, either by being pufhed 
or thrown with the hand. But as the confideration of every 
fpecies would greatly exceed the limits of the plan laid down for 
this work, I (hall confine my enquiries to thofe fpears, lances and 
pikes, ufed by our anceftors. 

LONG fpears and lances were ufed by the Saxons and Normans, 
both horfe and foot, but particularly by the cavalry of the latter, 
who in charging, retted the but end of the lance againfl the a^on 
or bow of their faddle. The mail armour not admitting the fixture 
of lance refts, as was afterwards praclifed on the cuirafs. (t) 

IT does not appear from hiftory, that there was ever any parti- 
cular ftandard or regulation, refpefting the length or thicknefs of the 

(s) GUSTAVUS BRANDER, Efq; has fpecimens in his colle&ion, of both flint and 
brafs heads for fpears and arrows, and many others are to be found in the different 
cabinets and collections of curiofities, both public and private. In the year 1782, a 
fervant of Mr. Fuller's digging for turf, on Sullington Common, near Storrington, in 
Suflex, found very near the furface, a great number of fpear and da-rt, or arrowheads, 
pieces of fword blades, and fome celts, all of metal like brafs, they are now in the 
pofleflion of Thomas Aftle, Efq. The fpear and arrow heads greatly refemble fome of 
the fame metal found in Ireland, engravings and defcriptions of which may be feen in 
the thirteenth number of Colonel Valiancy's Collectanea, where there is alfo a delineation 
of a fpear head of flint. 

(t) A LANCE reft was a kind of moveable iron bracket, fixed to the right fide of the 
cuirafs, for the purpofe of fupporting the lance, fee a reprefentation of one in the Mifcel- 
laneous Plate. 

M ancient 


ancient lances, or the fize or form of their heads, but rather feems 
that every military man had his lance, as well as his other arms, 
con ft ru died of the dimenfions that bell accorded with his ftrength 
and ftature. It is however certain, that the heads of lances and 
fpears, were always made of the befl tempered fleel, and their flaves 
of the foundefl afh, of which wood they were fo generally made, that 
the writers of Latin verfe, frequently ufed the Latin word for the 
afh, (Fraxinus) to exprefs a lance or fpear. 

ALTHOUGH lances and fpears were chiefly the weapons of horfe- 
men, they were alfo ufed by the infantry, and difmounted knights, 
to keep off the cavalry, for this* purpofe they fixed the butts in the 
ground, their points Hoping towards the breafts of the enemy's 
iiorfes. Two inftances of this occur in hiftory, one is mentioned 
by Joinville, in the Life of St. Louis, the other by William Patin, 
in his account of the battle of MufTelborough, in Scotland, the lit 
of Edward VI. fee both accounts in the note below, (u) In tourna- 
ments, the knights fometimes fought on foot with their lances, in 
that cafe, Father Daniel fays, it was cuftomary to fhorten them, by 
cutting off part of the ftaff. 

(u) AINCOIS nous fiz ariver devant un groffe bataille de Turs, la ou il avoitbien, fix 
mille homes a Cheval. Siloft corame il nous virent a terre, il vindrent ferant des Efperons 
vers nous. Quant nous les veifmes venir, nous fichames les pointes de nos efcus ou 
Sablon, & le fuft de nos lances ou fablon & les pointes vers eulz. Maintenant que il 
virent ainfi comme pour aler parmi les venti-es, il tour nerent ce devant darieres & senfou-* 
erent. Joinville p. 34. 

" STANDING at defence, they (i. e. the Scots) thruft (houlders likewife fo nie together, 
" ye fore rankes wel nie to kneling ftoop lowe before, for their followers behynd holdyng 
** their pykes in both handes, and thear with in their left,- their bucklers, the one end of 
" the pyke agaynfte the right foot, tother againft their enemie breft hye, their followers 
** croffing their pyke poyntes with them forewarde, and thus each with tother fo nye 
" as place and fpace will fuffer, though the hole was fo thick, that as eafy mail a bare 
" finger perce through the fkyn of an angrie hedgehog, as any encounter the frunt f 
" their pykcs. 



TILTING Lances differed from thofe ufed in war, both in their 
heads and (raves, the heads of tilting lances being biting or occa- 
fionally fitted with a contrivance to prevent penetration, called a 
coronel or cronel, (x) from its refemblance to a crov/n. The 
ftaves were thick at the butt end, tapering off gradually to the 
point, and generally fluted; near the butt end they had a 
cavity for the reception of the hand. The front of it was defended 
by an iron plate, called a vamplat, that is an avant plat, and behind 
it was a broad iron ring,' called a burr. Thefe handles feem not 
confined to the tilting lance, but were made alfo on thofe de- 
figned for war. Fauchet fays, they were not in ufe before the 
year 1300. (y) 

LANCES were ornamented with a banderole near the poinr,- 

(x) THE following defcription of the coronels or coronets, is given by Guillim in his 
difplay of heraldry. Thefe cronels or coronets (for I find them called by both thefe 
names) are the iron heads of tilt fpears, or tilt-ftaffs, which ufually have fix or eight 
mourns, (for fo are thofe little piked things called, which are on the top or head of this 
cronel or coronet,) three of which appear in each of thefe, the other three which are not 
here feen, cannot be demonftrated by the art of cutting or painting, fome have termed, or 
rather mif-termed thefe cronels, burrs, for the confutation of which error, I have caufed 
the true figure of a tilt ftaffor tilt fpear, to be here reprefented unto your view, without the 
vamplet. For this another delineation of a tilt ftaff with the vamplet, fee the plate 48. 
The family of Wifeman, bear fable, a chevron ermine, between three cronels of a tilt 
fpear, argent, this was meant as a pun on that name, fignifying that a wife man, never 
meddled with any other arms but fuch as were blunted, or prevented from doing mifchief. 

(y) A WEAPON termed a launceguay, is mentioned in feveral ftatutes, made during the 
reign of K. Richard II. Many of the commentators on our ancient laws, declare their 
inability to explain what kind of weapon it was. Perhaps it may not be a too far fetched 
interpretation, to fuppofe the term launceguay, a corruption of the French words lance 
aigue, a (harp or pointed lance, and if the intention of thofe a8s is confidered. it will in 
fome meafure juftify this fuppofition, they being evidently framed to prevent thofe violent 
affrays, that frequently arofe among the gentry of that time, commonly attended by. a 
numerous fuite, who if armed with mifchievous weapons, might have fpilt much blood. 
A lance fit for war was perhaps termed' fharp or pointed, in oppofition to a blunt or 
tilting lance. 


48 A T R E A T I S E ON 

which gave them a handfome appearance, thefe were alfo called 
pencells. (z) 

OF the pike Father Daniel fays, that although the name is mo- 
dern, and not to be found in the hiflories of France, before the 
time of Louis XI. it is rieverthelefs an ancient weapon, much re- 
fembling the farhTa of the Macedonians, but not quite fo long. It 
was introduced into France by the Switzers. 

MARKHAM in his Soldiers Accidence (a) fays, the pikemen 
fhould have flrong flreight, yet nimble pikes of afh wood, well 
headed with fleel, and armed with plates downward from the head, 
at leafl four foot, and the full fize or length of every pike Hi all be 
fifteen foot, befides the head. The general length fixed for the 
pike, by moil princes and flates, was, according to Sir John Turner, 
(b) eighteen feet, but he obferves that few exceeded fifteen. In a 
fmall anonymous treatife, entitled Englifh Military Difpline, (c) it 
is faid, ". All pikes now a dayes are of the fame length, made of 
flrong afhe, and very flreight, about fourteen or fifteen foot long 
between the head and foot. The head is four inches long, 
and two and a half broad at the largefl place, the iron bands at the 
head mufl be long and flrong, otherwayes it would be an eafie 
matter for the horfe to cut off the ends of the pikes with their 

LORD ORRERY in his Treatife on the Art of War, complains 
that it was too common to have in one regiment, pikes of different 
lengths, and recommends it to have all pikes fixteen feet and a 
half long, made of feafoned afh, armed at the points with lozenge 
heads, the cheek or fide of the pikes to be of thin iron plates, four 

(z) IN an ancient MSS. mark 1. 8, in the College of Arms, defcribing the field equi- 
page neceflary for a baron, banneret, or riche bacheler, is the following item. " pencells 
for your fpeers. || (a) PUBLISHED 1648. |} (b) P ALIAS Armata, written in 1670 
1671. || (c) PuBListjEp 1680. 


A N C I E N T A R M O U R, c. 49 

feet long, to prevent the head of the pike from being cut off by the 
fwords of the cavalry. 

IN a military work, filled the Art of Training, (d) a kind of 
ornament for the pike, called an armin, is thus defcribed. " You 
" had then armins for your pikes, which have a graceful fhew, for 
<c many of them were of velvet, embroiderd with gold, and ferved 
ef for faftnefs when the hand fweat, now I fee none, and fome in- 
" conveniences are found by them." 

THE London price of a pike as fettled by the Lords Commif- 
fioners of the Council of War, anno 1631, the 7th of Charles II. 
was 43. 6d, each article thus eftimated, head is. 8d. flafF as. 6d. 
focket and colouring 4d. 

THE Gifarme called alfo Gifaring, and, by Fleta, Sifarmes is like- 
wife an ancient weapon of the flaff kind, but of what form feems 
doubtful. In the flatute of Winchefler, it is named among the 
weapons appropriated to the lower order of people, (e) that is fuch 
as were not pofTefled of forty (hillings in land. An ancient flatute 
of William, king of Scotland, explains it to be a hand bill, (f ) 

IT is mentioned in the poem of Flodden Field, in a manner that 
feems to fhew it was a weapon for cutting, grinding being rather. 
more applicable to an edged, than a pointed weapon. 

Some made a mell of mafTey lead, 
Which iron all about did bind, 
Some made flrong helmets for the head, 
And fome their grifly gifarings grind. 

(d) 12. R. D. Publifhed 1622, with a curious portrait of King Charles I. on horfe- 
back, whilft a boy, and alfo engravings of the exercife of the mufquet and pike. 

(e) E QUE meins ad de quaurante fouz de terre feit jure a fauchons, gifarmes e 
coutaux e autreS jnenus armes. 

(f) DE Venientes ad Guerram. Et qui minus habet quam quadraginta 

folidos terrae habeat gyfarum quod dicitur hand bill, arcum t fagittam, William bega.i 
his reign, A, D, 1165* 



THE Reverend Mr. Lamb, editor of this poem, has the following 
notes on this weapon. C Gifarings, Halberts, from the French Guif- 
" arme, a kind of ofFenfive long handled and long headed weapon, 
<e or as the Spanifh Vifarma, a flafF that has within it two long 
" pikes, which with a flioot or thrufl forward, come forth." 

Every knight 
Two javelins, fpears, or than gifarm flaves. 


Du CANGE in his GlofTary, renders this word by Securis, and 
derives it from the Geefum of the Gauls. 

LA COMBE in the fupplement to his Dictionary of the Ancknt 
French, has the term Gifarme, which he calls a fort of lance or pike, 
and Bailey defines Gifarme to be a military weapon with two points 
or pikes. Strutt, I know not from what authority, has in his 
Horda Angel-cynnan, reprefented the Gifarme like a battle ax on a 
long flafF, with a fpike projecting from the back of the ax. 

'PERHAPS it may have been the weapon, afterwards called the 
black, and fometimes the brown Bill, the former name poflibly 
derived from its being occafionally varnifhed over, to preferve it 
from rain, like the black armour; the appellation of brown might 
arife from the raft carelefsly wiped ofF, which would leave it of 
that colour. Bills were not only borne by foldiers, but alfo by 
fherifFs officers at executions, watchmen, &c. with whom it was no 
uncommon praftife to chalk the edges, which gave them the 
appearance of having been newly ground, a delineation of a black 
bill is given in the plate of halberts. 

ANOTHER kind of pike called a morris, that is aMoorifh pike, (g) 

(g) THEN on the Englifh part with fpeed, 
The bills ftept forth, and bows went back, 
The Moorifh pikes and mells of lead 
Did deal there many a dreadful thwack. 

Battle of Floddcn^ v. 498. 



was much in fafhion about the reigns of Henry VIII. and Eliza- 
beth. Morris pikes were ufed both by land and at fea, what were 
their characleriftic peculiarities I have not been able to find. 
From the following directions in Ralph Smith's Manufcript, many 
of the motions ufed in the exercifeof them, greatly refembled thofe 
practifed with the common pike. 


<e CAPTAINES and officers leadinge morris pikes, fhoulde bee 
<e experienced in that flronge and warlike weapon. Teache the 
cc fouldiers fometimes to pufhe, traile, and order the fame both for 
" the bewtie of the battaile, and for the neceflitie of the fame, and 
" to fee them have white corfeletts, which mufle bee allwaies cleane 
" kepte, ffor it is a bewtifull fight in the battell, and a great terror 
" to the enemies. Suche men in the fronte of battailes in ould 
" tymes, weare called men at armes, on foote thefe men foe armed 
and placed, bee in more jeapordie then other men bee, their 
armour bee more coftlie then other mens bee, wherefore they 
merite more wages than other men have ; thofe be chofen chief- 
<c lye for the battell, with baces, long taces, vambraces and morians. 
" They mufte have fwordes and daggers, their pikes of v ufuall 
" length, fharpe grounded and well nayled, caufe them in tymes to 
" lay their pikes upon their fhoulders, their thumbe under the 
" fame, the butte end on the out fide of their loades man. After 
" this forte to mufter, marche, retire, and embattell them as afore- 
" faide : that noe fouldier of purpofe or negligence doe cutt or 
" breake his pike, for the greater flrengthe of the battaile con- 
" fifteth in the fame." 

HALBE.RTS differ very little from the bill, being like them con- 
jftrudted both for pufhing and cutting : a halbert confifts of three 
parts, the fpear, or fometimes a kind of fword blade for pufhing, an 
ax, or hatchet for (hiking and cutting, and a flook or hook for pul- 
ling down fafcines, in the attack of trenches, or temporary fortifica- 

52 A T R E A T I S E ON 

tions. The halbert is faid to have been originally invented by the 
Switzers. Halberts are of a variety of forms, they are commonly 
mounted on ftaves of feven feet long, with a pointed ferril at the 
end, for the purpofe of {ticking them in the ground. 

THE Mallet of arms feems to have been formerly a weapon much 
ufed by the Englifh and Scots, as well as by the French, (h) In the 
memorable combat recorded in the hiftory of Bretagne, and fought 
in that province, anno 1315, between thirty champions on the part 
of the French, and the like number on that of the Englifh, an 
Englifh champion, named Billefort, was armed with a leaden Mallet 
weighing twenty-five pounds. Father Daniel quotes the manu- 
fcript Memoirs of the Marefchal de Fleurange, in the king of 
France's Library, to prove that the Englifh archers ftill ufed Mallets 
in the time of Louis XII. who began his reign in the year 1515, 
and died 1524. In the Ancient Poem on the Battle of Floddon 
Field, leaden mallets are feveral times mentioned. Some of the 
verfes have been quoted in the articles of Gifarmes and Morris pikes. 
Mr. Brander's curious manufcript fo often referred to, among the 
different ftore-houfes at Calais, there named, defcribes one by the 
title of the malle chamber, in which were then eight hundred and 
eighty leaden Malles. There is alfo an entry of two hundred Malles 
in a ftore houfe at Berwick. A Mawle of lead of five feet long, and 
a. pike with the fame hanging by a girdle with a hook, is recom- 
mended by Ralph Smith for the arms of an archer, it has been quoted 
at length, under the article of the long bow. 

THE Mallet of arms, according to the reprefentation of it given 
by Father Daniel, exactly refembles the wooden inftrument of that 
name, now in ufe, except in the length of the handle, it was like the 

(h) Two Scotch earls of an ancient race, 

One Crawford called, the other Montrofs, 
Who led twelve thoufand Scotchmen ftrong. 
Who manfully met with their foes, 
With leaden mells and lances long, 



hammer of arms, to be ufed with both hands, (i) indeed it differed 
very little from that weapon in its form, (k) 

THE'Mallet was alfo common in France, for in a fedition of the 
Parifians, in the beginning of the reign of Charles VI. on account 
of fome new taxes, the populace forced the arfenal, and took out 
fo many Mallets, that they were called Mailliotins. Indeed, when 
we confider the intercourfe between France and England, it feems 
probable, that fcarce any approved armour or weapon could be ufed 
in one kingdom, that would not be alfo adopted in the other. 

THE Mace is an ancient weapon, formerly much ufed by the 
cavalry of all nations, and likewife by ecclefiaftics, who in 
confequence of their tenures, frequently took the field, but were by 
a canon of the church forbidden to wield the fword. Of this we 
have an inftance in Philip de Dreux, bifhop of Beavais, who fought 
with a mace at the battle of Bovines, where he beat down Long 
Sword, earl of Salifbury. Richard I. who inftituted the corps 
of ferjeants at arms, for the guard of his perfon, armed them with 
maces, bows, and arrows. 

THE Mace is commonly of iron, its figure much refembles a 
chocolate mill, many fpecimens may befeen in the tower, and other 

(i) IN the Manufcript Chronicle, of Bertrand de Guefcelin, are thefe lines, 

Olivier de Clicon dans la bataille va, 

Et tenoit un martel qu'a fes deux mains porta, 

Tout ainfi qu'un Boucher abbatit & verfa, 

And a little lower. ' , - 

Bertran de Glaiequin fu ou champ plcnier a 
Ou il affaut Anglois au martel d'acier, 
Tout ainfi les abbat comme fait le boucher. 

(k) LA difference qu'ily avoit entre le Mail ou Maillet: & le Marteau D'Arme, eft qne 
le revers du maillet etoit quarre ou un peu arondi, par les deux bouts & que le Marteau 
D'Armes avoit un cote guarre & arrondi & 1'autre en points ou trenchant. P. Daniel, 
vol. i, p. 439* 

O armories* 

54 A T R E A T I S E ON 

armories. (1) Several are mentioned in Mr. Brander's manufcript. 

(m) Among fome ancient armour formerly preferved at Pile Well, 

the feat of the Worfeleys, was a mace, with a dagg or piflol in the 


SIR JOHNSMITH, and feveral other writers before, and of the 
laft century, fpeak in favour of the mace, among them is Sir John 
Turner. The mace is, fays he, an ancient weapon for horfemen, 
neither was it out. of ufe long after the invention of hand guns, 
for we read of it ufed by moft nations, an hundred years ago, and 
certainly in a medley they may be more ferviceable than fwords, 
for when they are guided by a flrong arm, we find the party ftruck 
with them was either felled from his horfe, or having his head- 
piece beat clofe to his head, was made to reel in his faddle, with 
his blood running plentifully out of his nofe. (n) 

FATHER DANIEL has engraved two weapons, fhewn in the 
abbey of Roncevaux, as the maces of thofe famous heroes jof 
romance, Roland and Oliver, who are faid to have lived in the 
time of Charlemagne. One is a large ball of iron, fattened with 
three chains to a ftrong truncheon or ftaff of about two feet long ; 
the other is of mixed metal, in the form of a channelled melon, 
fattened alfo to a ftaff by a triple chain ; thefe balls weigh eight 

(I) MR. BRANDER has a very fine one ; another much like it belongs to the Anti- 
quarian Society, both of them have been gilt. 

(m) IN the'cuftodyof Hans Hunter, Armourer at Weftminfter. Item, a mafe of 
damefkine work. Item, one white mafe. Itecn. in mafes guilte and faier wroughte, five 
of them having ringes and plates of fylke and gold xi. Hampton Court maces of fteele 
59, maces of fteele receyved of William Damfell 26. 

(n) THIS kind of mace, which is the fame as ufed by the Turks, fome military 
writers improperly call the club of Hercules ; the club given to that Demy God, by 
the Grecian Statuaries, is a huge knotty limb of a tree. 

IN the ancient MSS. in the college of arms before quoted, among the neceflaries for 
an efquire in taking the field, there occurs the following articles. Store of fure fpeere 
hedys. Item, an ax, or an halbert to - w a Ike with in the felde. Item, an armynge fword, 
a dager, and hit were well doon to have a mafe at the fadell pomell. 


A N C I E N T A R M O U R, (&. 55 

pounds. At the end of both the (laves are rings for holding cords 
or leathers to fatten them to the hand. 

CONTRIVANCES like thefe, except that the balls were armed 
with fpikes, were long carried by the pioneers of the trained bands, 
or city militia, they are generally called morning ftars. (o) One of 
this fort is alfo, given by Father Daniel. 

THE horfeman's Hammer is a lefTer kind of hammer of arms, 
refembling it in its general form, but calculated to be ufed with 
one hand. It is commonly made of iron, both head and handle, 
the latter rarely exceeding two feet in length -, fome of thefe ham- 
mers are highly ornamented with fculpture and engraving. The 
equeftrian figure of King Edward I. in the horfe armory in the 
tower of London, is armed with a hammer of this fort, (p) Some 
horfemen's hammers equipped with guns, and fome having battle 
axes, occur in the inventory of armour and weapons, in the royal 
armoury at Weftminfter, in the firft of King Edward VI. (q) 

OF weapons denominated axes, fuch as battle axes, pole axes, 
and the like, there are a great variety, many of them having very 
little refemblance to an ax, in any of their/ parts j this probably 

(o) MORGAN ftern, or morning ar, a weapon formerly ufed for the defence of 
trenches. It was a large ftaff banded about with iron, like the maft of a halbert, having an 
iron ball at the end with crofs iron fpikes. Monro. 

(p) IT may be agreeable to fome of my readers, to be informed that many of the 
figures of our kings, fhewn in the tower of London, are the work of fome of the beft 
fculptors of the time in which they were fet up. The Kings Charles the firft and fecond, 
with their horfes, were executed by Grinlin Gibbons, in the year 1685 and 1686. 
Thofe of ten other kings, not named, with their horfes, were done by the following 
artifls, anno 1688. One by William Morgan, one by John Noft, one by Thomas 
Quillans, and two by Marmaduke Townfon. In the yeaV 1690, five not named, and 
their horfes, by John Noft, and June 22d 1702, the face of King William III. by 

Alcock, probably fixed to one of the anonymous figures. Thefe particulars were 

extracted from an authentic manufcript in the poiTefllon of a friend. 

(q) ITEM, in horfemens hammers with- gonnes viii. Item, in horfemens hammers 
with battle axes xiv. Brander's MSS. 



may in fome meafure be owing to modern alterations, as is the 
cafe with the weapons carried by the gentlemen penfioners, which 
are ftill called axes. In plats 34, are diverfe reprefentations of 
battle axes : fome richly ornamented are mentioned in Mr. Bran- 
der's manufcript. (r) 

THE Welch Glaive is a kind of bill, fometimes reckoned among 
the pole axes. They were formerly much in ufe. In an abftract 
of the grants of the firft of Richard III. among the Harleian manu- 
fcripts. (s) In the Britifh Mufeum there is an entry of a warrant, 
granted to Nicholas Spicer, authorifing him to imprefs fmiths for 
making two thoufand Welch bills or glaives. 

AND in the fame book i8s. is charged for ftaving and making 
twenty-four billes, and aos. 6d,-for making and ftaving thirty 
glaives, thefe appear to have been made at Abergavenny and 

BESIDES the weapons of the ftaff kind already mentioned, there 
were diverfe others, whofe names only are to be found in accounts of 
arfenals, and cafually in the works of ancient military writers, who do 
not defcribe their forms or dimenfions j feveral fuch appear in the in- 
ventory fo repeatedly quoted, (t) Thefe are javelins with broad 

(r) ITEM, four battle axes partely guilt, with long fmall ftaves of braflell, garnilhed 
with velvet white and greene, and filke iv. in the armory at Weftminfter. 

Poleaxcs with gonnes in th'endes xxvii. 
Poleaxes without gonnes ii. 
Short poleaxes playne c. 

Two hand poleaxes iv. 

in the Tower. 

Hand pollaxes with a gonne and a cafe for the fame oone, 
Poliaxes gilte, the ftaves covered with cremylyne velvet, 
fringed with filke of golde iv. 
(s) MARKED No. 443. 

(t) MR. Brander's MSS. in which are the following entries in different (tore houfes. 
ITEM, ten javelins with brode heddes, parteley guilt, with long braflell ftaves, garniflied 
with vellet and taflels. 


ANCIENT AR M O U R, &c. 57 

demy launces, boar fpears, northern flaves, and three grayned 

BUT the mofl fingular kind of weapon or utenfil there mentioned, 
and of which there appears to have been a great number in the 
Tower, is the holy water Sprincle, (u) fome of them having guns 
at their ends, and others at the top : what they were, or for what 
ufe, I have neither been able to find out, or even to form a probable 

THE ancient crofs bow, which differed in many particulars from 
thofe of late times, is thus <lefcribed by {Father Daniel, who formed 
his defcription from one or more then before him. 

THE Crofs Bow, called in Latin Arcus Baliftarius, or Balifta 
Manualis, was thus named to diflinguifh it from certain larger 
machines, called baliftae and catapultse, which the ancients ufed 
for battering the walls of towns with flones, and for lancing darts 
of an extraordinary magnitude. The crofs bow I fay was an 
offenfive weapon, which confifted of a;bow, fixed to the top of a 
fort of ftaff, or flock of wood, which the firing of the bow when 
unbent, crofled at right angles. 

THE handle -or bed, which was called the flock of the crofs bow, 

'Northern ftaves with yronc heddes 340. 

Demy launces 120. 

Bore /peares with amen ftaves, trymed with cremyfyrt velvet, and fringed with redde 
fiike 291. 

Bore fpeares knotted and leather'd 162- 

Javelyns with ftaves, trymed with white, greene, and black filke, and fuftanyne, of 
axes 209. 

Partyfans heddes without ftaves partie guilte 152. 

Rancons with ftaves garnyftied with velvett and fringed 56. 
(u) GREAT holly water fprincles 118. 

'Holly water fprincles, with gonnes in th'ende 7, 

Holly water fprincles, with thre gonnes in the topp oone. 

Little holly water fprincles 392. 

Item, one hatte of ftele, and two ftaves, called holy water fprinkfesi 

Caddes of fteiie 300. 

P had 

58 A T R E A T I S E ON 

had towards the middle a fmall opening or flit, of the length of 
two fingers, in which was a little moveable wheel of folid fleel, 
through the center of it pafled a fcrew that ferved for an axis ; 
this wheel projected a little beyond the furface of the flock, 
and had a notch or catch which flopped and held the firing of the 
bow when bent. In the oppofite fide of the circumference was a 
much fmaller notch, by the means of which the fpring of the 
tricker kept the wheel firm, and in its place j this wheel is called 
the nut of the crofs bow. Under the flock, near the handle, was 
the key of the tricker, like that of the ferpentine of a mufquet, by 
prefling this key with the hand, to the handle of the crofs bow, the 
fpring releafed the wheel that held the firing, and the firing by its 
motion drove forward the dart, 

UPON the flock below the little wheel, was a fmall plate of cop- 
per, which lifted up and fhut down, and was fixed by its two legs, 
with two fcrews to the two fides of the flock, this was a fight, it 
was pierced above by two little holes, one over the other, and when 
the plate was raifed, thefe two holes anfwered to a globule, which 
was a fmail bead no bigger than that of a chaplet, that was fuf- 
pended at the end of the crofs bow by a fine wire, and faflened to 
two fmall perpendicular columns of iron, one on the right, the 
other on the left, and this little globule anfwering to the holes in 
the plate, ferved to direct the aim, whether for fliooting horizon- 
tally, upwards, or downwards. 

THE cord or firing of the bow was double, each firing feparated 
by two little cylinders of iron, equidiflant from the extremities of 
the bow and the center j to thefe two firings in the middle, was 
fixed a ring of cord, which ferved to confine it in the notch I have 
mentioned, when the bow was bent. Between the two cords in 
the center of the firing, and immediately before the ring was a 
little fquare of cord, againfl which was placed the extremity of the 
arrow or dart, to be pufhed forwards by the cord. 

SUCH was the ancient crofs bow, on which I formed this defcrip- 
tion, and I believe they were all much alike in their internal parts. 



The fmaller crofs bows were bent with the hand, by the means of 
a fmall fleel lever, called the goat's foot, from its being forked on. 
the fide that retted on the crofs bow and the cord, the larger were 
bent with one or both feet, by putting them into a kind of flirrup. 
According to this verfe of William le Breton. 

Ballifla duplici tenfa pede mifla fagitta. 

They were alfo bent with a moulinet and with a pulley. 

THESE crofs bows were either of wood, home, or fleel, which 
mufl be underflood of the bow only, it not being likely the whole 
body of the crofs bow fliould be of fleel. 

CROSS bows, not only mot arrows, but alfo- darts called quar- 
rels or carreaux, from their heads, which were fquare pyramids of 
iron, fome of them feathered (as the term was) with wood. They 
alfo mot flones or leaden balls. 

THERE were two forts of Englifh. crofs bows, one called Latches 
the other Prodds. (u) 

ACCORDING to Sir John Smith, in his inflruc~lions and obfer- 
vations, &c. p. 204, a crofs bow will kill point blank between 
forty and fixty yards,, and if elevated fix, feven, or eight fcore yards, 
or farther, (x) 


(x) THE crofle bowe chamber at Calais. Crofle bowes called Prodds 418. Crofle 
bowes called Latches, winlafles for them 120. Benders to bend fmall crofle bowes 14. 
Quarrells headed and fethered with woode 2300. Quarrells unheaded and fetherede with 
woode 2300. 

CROSSE bowes of fundry making, with four paier of windelaifes being broken. Crof* 
bowes to (hoot ftoone oone, rack to bend a crofs bowe oone. Quyver for pricke arrows 
for crofs bowes oone. 

(y) MONSIEUR William de Bellay in his inftru&ions for the wars, traflated by Paul 
Ive, gent, and publiftied anno 1589, gives the crofs bow a flill greater range j " and were 
" it fo, that the archers and crofle bow men could carry about them their provifion for 
" their bowes and crofle bowes, as eafily as y e harquebufiers may do theirs for their 
" harquebufle, I would commend them before the harquebufle, as well for their readi- 



A RECORD printed in Rymer's Fcedera, of the third of Ed- 
ward II. recites that crofs bows, bauders, and quarrells were 
purchafed for the garrifon of Sherborne Caftle, each crofs bow 
at 35. 8d. each, bauder at is. 6d. and every hundred of quarrells, 
at is. 6d. 

FATHER DANJEL fays, that crofs bows were of different fizes, 
there were fome at Chantilly a foot and a half, two, and three feet, 
in length, and others ftill longer, furnifhed with their goats feet, 
their moulinets, and their pullies. 

THE excellency of the crofs bow was the great exactnefs of its 
fhot, crofs bow men being much more certain of hitting their 
mafk, than archers with the long bow, but on the other hand it 
would not carry to fo great a diftance, neither could it be fo often 
difcharged in the fame time. 

** nefle in mootinge, which is much more quicker, as alfo for the furenefs of their (hot, 
** which is almoft never in vayne. And although the harquebufier may (hoote further, 
*' notwithftanding the archer and crofle'bowe man will kill a C. or CC. pafes off, as well 
** as the beft harquebufier : and fometime the harnefle, except it be the better, cannot 
** holde out : at the uttermoft the remedy is, that they mould be brought as neare before 
** they do ftioote as poffibly they may, and if it were fo handled, there would be more 
** flain by their mot, than by twice as many harquebufiers, and this I will prove by one 
*' croffe bowman that was at Thurin, when as the Lord Marmall of Annibault was 
*' Governor there, who, as I have underftood, in five or fix fkirmimes did kill or hurt 
<* more of our enemies, than five or .fix .of the beft harquebufiers did during the whole 
* c time of the fiege./' 




HE firft guns fired in hand, were called hand cannons, coulou^ 
verines and hand guns. The^ hand gun ufed in England was a 
fhqrt piece, as appears from the ftatute of the 33d of Henry VIII. 
whereby it was enacted, that no hand gun (hould be ufed of lefs 
dimenfions than one yard in length, gun and flock included. 

THE haquebut^or hag but, was a ftill fhorter piece, by the ftatute 
above mentioned, it might not be under three quarters of a yard 
long, gun and ftock as before included. This piece is by fome 
writers fuppofed to have been called a haquebutt, from its butt end 
being hooked or bent like thofe now ufed, the ftock of the hand 
gun being nearly ftraight, there were alfo guns called demi-haques, 
either from their being lefs in fize, or from having their butts lefs 
curved. Fauchet fays, the haquebut was in his time called a har- 
quebufs : a fort of piftol called a dag, was alfo ufed about the fame 
time as hand guns and haquebuts. Mr. Brander's manufcript re- 
cords a variety of ancient fire arms, which fee in the note, below, (z) 


G R E E N W 1C H. 

(z) ITEM, one chamber pece blacke, the ftocke of redcle woode fet with bone worke, 
with a fier locke in a cafe of crymfen vellet. Item, one longe white pece with a fier locke. 
Item, one longe pece graven and guilte, with a ftocke of redde woode fet with white bone 
with a fier locke in a cafe of lether. Item, two chamber peces guilt and graven, with 
a fier locke in a ftocke of yellow. Item, one guilte chamber pece parcell guilt, with a 
redde ftocke, with a fier locke in a cafe of pupple vellet. Item, one lytle (horte pece, 
for a horfeman, of damafkine worke, the ftock of woode and bone, fet with a chamber. 
Item, one dagge with two peeces in one ftock. Item, two backe fwordes in a cafe of 
lether, and two letle dagges garnifhed with filver, parcell guilte and emaled, with knyves 
and bodkyns. Item. c. Italion peces, and everie one hys moulde, flalke, touche boxe, 
and matche. Item, one home for gonne powder, garnimed with filver. Item. iii. grete 
flafkes covered with vellet, and thre lytle touche boxes. Item. ii. longe fmall cofers for 
gonnes. Item, a white tacke with a fier locke graven, and all the ftock white bone; a 

Q. great 

62 A T R E A T I S E 

THE harquebufs is by Fauchet derived from the Italian area 
Ixmza, or the bow with a hole, (a) It does not appear that har- 
quebufles were originally of any particular length or bore j the 
harcfuebufs, as well as the hand gun, hackbutt and dag, were 
at firft fired with a match, and afterwards fome of them with the 
wheel lock. The former, by a fpring, let down a burning match 
upon, the priming in the pan, and the latter was a contrivance for 
exciting fparks of fire, by the friction of a notched wheel of fleel, 
which grated againft a flint ; thefe wheels were wound up with an 
inflrument called a fpanner. (b) 


great fiafke varnifhed and painted, a touche box of iron graven and gilded. Item. ii. 
tackes after the fafhion of a dagger, with'fier lockes vernifhed, with redde flockes, fhethes 
.covered with blacke vellet, garnifhed with.filver, and guilt, with purfes, flafkes and touch 
boxes of black vellet garnyftied wtth iron guilte. Item ii. tackes hafted like a knyff 
with fier locks, and doble lockes a pece, th'one graven parcell guilte, and tother vernyfhed 
with two purfes, two flafkes, and two touch boxes of black vellet, th'one garnimed with 
iron and guilt. 

TOWN of BERWICK. Demy hackes flocked 50. Hand gonnes unlocked 8a* 
Homes with purfes, and without purfes 20. Moulds for faid hackes 100. 

ALNWICK. CASTL!. Hagbuttes of croke of yrone 2. Hagbuttes well flocked 20. ' 

(a) GET inftrument s'appella depuis haquebute & maintenant a pris le nom de har- 
-quebuze : que ceux qui penfent le nom eftre Italien luy ont donne : comme qui deroit 
Arc a trou, que les Italiens appellent Bouzo, finablement ces bartons ont efle reduits 
a un pied & moins de longeur : & lors ils font nommez piftolles & piftolets, pour avoir 
premierement'fefte faits a Piftoye. Livre de UOriglne des Armes, &V. p. 57. 

(b) FATHER.' DANIEL, vol. i, p. 465, has the following defcription of a wheel lock. 
Les arquebufes & les piftolets a rouet font oujourdhui des armes fort inconnues, & Ton 
n'en trove gueres que dans les arfeneaux & dans les cabinets d'Armes ou Ton en a con- 
ferve quelques uns par curiofite ; ainfi je dais expliquer ce que cetoit que ce rouet qui 
<lonnoit le mouvement a tous le reftorts. 

C'ETOIT une petite roue folide d'acier tju'oft appliquoit centre la platinede L'Arquebufis 
ou d'u piftolet : elleSyoit un eflieu qui la percoit dans fon centre. Au bout interieure de 
I'effieu qui entroit dans fa pla*tine etoit attachee une chainette qui s'entortilloit autour de 
cet eflieu, quand on le faifoit tourner, & bandoit le refTort auquel elle tenoit. Pour 
lander le reffort ou fe /ervoit dune clef ou Ion enferoit le bout exterieur de I'effieu. 
n.taurnant cette gauche a droit, ou faifoit tourner le Rouet - f & par ce mouvement 



THE balls were carried in a bag or purfe, the powder in a horn 
or flafk, and the priming which was of a finer fort of mealed 
powder, in a touch box -, this powder was called ferpentine powder, 
from the part of the match lock that held the match, denominated 
the ferpentine. 

THE petronel or poitrinal, according to Fauchet, was the medium 
between the harquebufs and the piftol. Nicot defines it in his 
dictionary, as a fpecies of harquebufs, fhorter than the mufquet, 
but of a greater calibre, which on account of its great weight was 
carried on a large bauldrick, worn crofs the fhoulders like a fafh, 
and when fired was refted on the breaft of the perfon who ufed it. - 

IN the eftimate of an army made in 1620, before mentioned, 
petrinells with firelocks, flafkes, touch boxes, and cafes are charged 
as il. 8s. each. 

THE mufquet was a heavier kind of harquebufs, carrying alfo a 
larger ball. Sir Thomas Kellie in his Art Militaire, pubiifhed 
Anno 1621, fays, the barril of a mufquet fliould be four feet in 
length, the bore capable of receiving bullets twelve whereof weigh 
a pound, (c) Mufquets were fo heavy as to require a fork called a 
reft, (d) to fupport them when prefented in order to fire ; fome- 


une petite coulifle de cuivre qui couvroit le baffinet de 1'amorce, fe retiroit de deflus le 
baflinet. Par le meme mouvement le chien arme d'une pierre de mine, comme le chien 
du fufil 1'eft dune pierre a fufil, etoit on e"tat d'etre lache des que Ton tireroit avec le doigt 
la detente comme dans les piftolets ordinairesj alors le chien tombant fur le rouet d'acier 
faifoit feu, & le donnoit a 1'amorce. 

(c) SOME ancient mufquets carried balls of ten to the pound. 

(d) RESTS were of different lengths according to the heights of the men who were to 
ufe them, they were (hod with iharp iron ferrils, for flicking them into the ground, and 
were on the march when the mufquet was mouldered, carried in the right hand, or hung 
upon it by means of a firing or loop tied under the head. 

" MusKET-refls were ufed a long time, and in fome places are yet, to eafe the mufket- 
{ teers in difcharging their guns, and when they flood centiriel ; but in the late expeditions 
* in rnoft places of Chriftendom, they have been found more troublefome than helpful. 



times thefe refls were armed with a contrivance called a fwine's 
feather, which was a fort of fword blade or tuck, that iffued from 
the flaff of the reft, at the head; this being placed before the muf- 
queteers when loading, ferved, like the flakes placed before the 
archers, to keep off the cavalry: thefe preceded the ufe of the bayo- 
net; the invention of which originated in the foldiers flicking 
the handles of their daggers into the muzzles of their pieces, when 
they had difcharged all their ammunition. Mufquets were fired 
with match locks ; mufqueteers of the reign of James and Charles L 
carried their powder in little wooden, tin or leather cylindric boxes, 
each containing one charge. 

TWELVE of thefe fixed to a belt worn over the left fhoulder 
were called bandileers ; this contrivance feems to have been bor- 
rowed from the Dutch or Walloons, (e) To prevent the matches from 


*' A mufketeer in any fudden occafion not being well able to do his duty with mufket, 
" fword, and reft, efpecially if you. give him a Sweedifh feather to manage with them, 
" Bockler, the engineer^ fpeaks of an inftrument that might ferve for both reft and fea~- 
" ther, and fuch perhaps would be very ufeful and convenient ; he would have it at the 
" top as all refts are, like a fork on the one fide, whereof he would have an iron of one 
" foot and a half long flicking out fharply pointed, thefe planted in the van or flanks, 
" where you expe& the charge, as the S weed ifli feathers ufed to be, will fufliciently pal- 
" lifade and defend a body of mufketeers from horfe, and upon them they may lean 
" their mufkets when they give fire." Turner's Pallas Armata^ p. 176. 

THE Duke of Albemarle in his obfervations upon Military and Political Affairs, printed 
anno 1671, recommends the arming mufqueteers and dragoons, with mufquets having 
fvvines feathers with the heads of refts faftened to them. A part of a reft that contained 
a fwine's feather is (hewn in the mifcellaneous plate, it was formerly in the collection of 
the Rev. Mr. Goftling of Canterbury. 

" (e) AND therefore thofe fouldiers which in our time have beene for the moft part 
" levied in the lowe countries, efpecially thofe of Artoyes and Henault, called by the 
" generall name of Wallownes have ufed to hang about their neckes, upon a baudrick. 
* or border, or at their girdles, certain pipes which they call charges, of copper and tin 
' made with covers, which they thinke in fldrmifh to bee the moft readie way. But 
" the Spaniard defpifmg that order, doth altogether ufe his flafke." Davit's Art of 

War, p. 8. 


A N C I E N T A R M O U R, $c. 65 

being feen in the night, fmall tubes of tin or copper, pierced full 
of holes, were invented, it is faid, by a Prince of Orange, probably 
Prince Maurice : they are defcribed by Walhuyfen. {f) It is ne- 
ceflary, fays" he, that every mufqueteer knows how to carry his 
match dry, in moid and rainy weather ; that is, in his pocket ; or 
in his hat, by putting the lighted match between his head and hat ; 
or by fome other means to guard it from the weather. The muf- 
queteer fhould alfo have a little tin tube of about a foot long, big 
enough to admit a match, and pierced full of little holes, that he 
may not be difcovered by his match when he ftands centinel, or 
goes on any expedition j this was the origin of the match-boxes, 
till lately worn by our grenadiers. 

IN the eftimate for a royal army in 1620, a mufquet with ban- 
deliers and reft is valued at il. os. 8d. and by the council of war 

in the 7th of Charles I. i8s. lod. thus made out. 

s. d. 

For a new mufquet with mould, worm and fcowrer - 15 6 
For a mufquet reft - - 10 

For a new bandelier with twelve charges, a primer, a^j 
priming wire, a bullet-bag, and a ftrap or belt of two > 2 6 
inches in breadth - J 

THE caliver was a lighter kind of mufquet with a match- 
lock, and was made to be fired without a reft. It feems either 
to have acquired its name from being of a certain approved bore 

" To a mufketier belongs alfo a bandilier of leather, at which he mould have hanging 
** eleven or twelve (hot of powder, a bag for his ball, a primer, and a cleanfer. But it 
' is thirty years ago fince I faw thefe laid afide in fome German armies ; for it is impof- 
" fible for foldters, efpecially wanting cloaks (and more want cloaks than have any) to 
" keep thefe flames, though well and ftrongly made, from fnow and rain, which foon fpoils 
" them and fo makes the powder altogether ufelefs : befides the noife of them betray thofe 
" who carry them, in all furprizals, anflachts and fudden enterprizes." Turner's Pallas 
Armata^ p. 176. 

(f) L'ART Militaire pour 1'Infantene, &c. par Jean Jaques de Walhaufen, principal 
Capitaine des gardes, & Capitaine de la lovable ville de Dantzig, &c. en folio, p. 136. 
Printed in 1615. 

R or 


or calibre, emphatically ftiled by way of eminence, the ca- 
libre, according to that mode of expreffion, whereby we teftify 
our approbation of any machine or contrivance, by faying it 
is the thing, or from the term " a piece of calibre," being re- 
flricled to thofe not under a certain bore j juft as the appel- 
lation of a horfe of fize, is confined to a tall horfe not lefs than 
fifteen hands high, although every other horfe is undoubtedly 
a horfe of fize, either great or fmall. From calibre it was cor- 
rupted to caliver. That this was in fome meafure the cafe, we 
learn from Edmund York, an officer who had ferved in the 
Low-countries, and was employed by Queen Elizabeth to drill 
the militia of London, at the time thefe kingdoms were threat- 
ened with the Spanifh Invafion. " I remember," fays he, " when 
<c I was firft brought up in Piemont, in the countie of Brifacks 
" regiment of Old Bandes, we had our particular calibre of 
" harquebufe to our regiment, both for that one bullet fhould 
" ferve all the harquebufes of our regiment, as for that our Co- 
" lonel fhould not be deceived of his arms j of which word cal- 
" libre come firft that unapt term, we ufe to call a harquebufe 
" a calliver, which is the height of the bullet and not of the 
" piece. Before the battle of Moungunter, the Princes of the 
" religion caufed feveral thoufand harquebufes to be made, all of 
" one calibre, which was called Harquebufe du calibre de Mon- 
" fieur le Prince -, fo I think fome man, not underftanding French, 
*' brought hither the name of the height of the bullet of the 
<c piece, which word calibre is yet continued with our good ca- 
" noniers (g)." Sir John Smith (h) gives the following definition 
of a caliver, which feems rather to fall in with my fecond conjec- 
ture. His words are, " It is fuppofed by many that the weapon 
" called a caliver is anpther thing than a harquebufe j whereas, 

(g) MAITLAND'S Hiftory of London, vide Artillery. 

(h) SIR John Smith's Confutation of Capt. Berwick, MSS. No. 4685. B. Mufeum. 



c< in troth, it is not; but only a harquebufe ; favinge, that it is 
" of greater circuite, or bullet, than the other is of; wherefore 
<c the Frenchman doth call it a peece de calibre ; which is as much 
" as to faie, a peece of bigger circuite." From this it feems, as 
if a caliver was a harquebufe of a certain calibre, or bore, larger 
than that of the common ones. That it was lefs and lighter than 
a mufquet is evident, from its being fired without a reft, (i) as is 
{hewn in a Military Treatife containing the exercife of the muf- 
quet, caliver, and pike, with figures finely engraved by J. de 
Gheyn. The explanations were originally in Dutch, but were 
tranflated into Englifh, and printed with the fame plates for the 
ufe of King Charles I. 

PECKE, in his Defiderata Curiofa, has preferved the price of a ca- 
liver and its accoutrements, as paid in Queen Elizabeth's time 
by the Sheriff of Lancafhire, anno 1584, for the ufe of recruits 
raifed for the Irifh fervice; which was, the caliver furnimed with 
flalke and touche box, laces and moulds, thirteen fhillings and 

IN an eftimate made i8th James I. anno 1620, of the expences 
of a royal army of thirty thoufand men, intended to be fent 
into the Palatinate j (k) a caliver with bandaleers is valued at 
fourteen fhillings and ten pence. 

A CURRIER was another kind of piece formerly ufed, chiefly 
I believe in fieges. Very little is faid of it by military writers. It 

(i) THIS is confirmed by a paflage in Shakefpeare, where Falftaff, reviewing his re- 
cruits, fays of Wart, a poor weak underfized fellow, " Put me a caliver into Wart's 
" hands," &c. meaning that, although Wart is unfit for a mufketteer, yet if armed with 
a lighter piece he may do good fervice. 

(k) THIS eftimate was made by a committee confifting of the Earls of Oxenford, 
Eflex and Leicefter : Vifcount Wilmotj Lords Danvers and Caufieldj Sir Ed. Cecil and 
Sir Richard Morrifon, Knts. and Capt. John Bingham, which met at the Old Council 
Chamber, in Whitehall. Their report is in the Britim Mufeum among the Harleian 
MSS. marked 5109 ; the army propofed was to confift of 25,000 foot, 5,000 horfe, and 
twenty pieces of artillery, 


63 A T R E A T I S E OK 

is once or twice mentioned in Lord Wentworth's Letter to Queen 
Mary, reflecting the fiege of Calais, among flate-papers, pub- 
lifhed by Lord Hardwick. 

FROM the following paflages in Sir John Smith's animadverfions 
on the writings of Capt. Berwick, (1) it appears, that a currier was 
of the fame calibre and flrength as a harquebufs, but had a 

longer barrel. His words are " but yet in one thinge his lack 

" of confideracion is to be noted, and that is, that he doth make 
" no diftinction nor difference betwixt a currier and a barque- 
" buze, in the which he is greatly deceived j for in thofe there is 
" as great or more difference betwixt a currier of warre and a 
" harquebuze, in the length of cannon, and for (hooting, as there 
" is betwixt a harquebuze and a moufquet, which I perceive by 
" his writing he doth not confider of, and therefore doe over- 
" pafTe the fame." And in another place " fo likewife of a 
cl harquebuze and a currier, both renforced backward as they 
" ought to be, and of one caliver heighthe of bullet; and the 
<f currier in refpe6l of the greate lengthe, mufl have a greater 
" advantage and quantitie of powder to appulfe and impulfe the 
" bullet to his fardefl object marke within point blanke; then 
" the harquebuze to impulfe his bullet to his furdeft object marke ; 
" and all this in refpect to the different lengthes of the pieces, 
(l being in the reft of one caliver and renforced alike." 

MARKHAM, in his Souldiers Accidence, publifhed in 1648, 
p. 37, mentions a kind of piece I do not recollect to have met 
with elfewhere, which he calls a dragon ; and, in his direction 
for arming the dragon, thus defcribes it: <e And for offenfive 
" arms they have a fayre dragon fitted with an iron work to be 
<c carried in a belt of leather, which is buckled over the right 
" fhoulder, and under the left arm; having a turnell of iron 
" with a ring through which the piece runneth up and downe, 

(1) HARLEIAN MSS. No. 4685. 



" and thefe dragons are fhort pieces, of fixteen inches the barrel!, 
and full mufquet bore, with firelocks or fnaphaunces." (m) 

WITH this weapon I lhall clofe the defcription of armour and 
arms, and next endeavour to point out the various changes they 
have undergone, whether occafioned by ftatutes, royal ordonnan- 
ces, or other caufes, with the dates when thofe changes happened. 
For the convenience of artifts, I fhall alfo defcribe the armour and 
weapons, with which the different kinds of foldiers ihould be re- 
prefented at the three following periods, viz. about the time of 
Henry II. the reign of Henry VI. and that of Charles II. 

ALTHOUGH the particular kinds of armour and weapons ufed 
by the Englifh, about the time of the Norman invafion, is not de- 
fcribed by any writer of that time; yet it is certain, they were de- 
fenfively armed, and even heavily, for which we have the tefti- 
mony of Ingulphus ; who relates that in the year 1063, King Ed- 
ward having fent an army, under the command of Harrold, Earl of 
the Weft Saxcsis, againft the Welch, that General obferving his 
men were unable from the weight of their armour to overtake the 
, enemy, who having committed their depredations fuddenly retired, 
caufed them to ufe armour of boiled, or jacked leather, and other 
light defences. That the heavy armour here mentioned was of 
mail, there is every reafon to believe; mail was a contrivance of 
very great antiquity, it was known to the Saxons, and worn by 
their princes and great men; (n) it was alfo ufed by the Danes, 
and confidering the vicinity of the kingdoms of England and 
France, and the conflant intercourfe between them, might be im- 

(m) THE piece derived its name from the fpecies of foldiers, by whom it was carried, 
who to this day are in France, called and fpelt dragons, and were from the celerity of their 
movements, compared to the fabulous monfter of that name. Dragons or dragoons were 
originally not confidered as cavalry, but only as infantry mounted for the fake of being 
fpeedily tranfported from one place to another. The fnap haunce is the Dutch name fo r 
the prefent locks ufed to our pieces. 

(o) MAIL is mentioned in the Will of Prince ^EtheHlan, p. 32. note r. 

S ported, 

70 A T R E A T I S E ON 

ported, or the art of making it acquired by Englifti workmen. 
The Englifh had alfo helmets and fhields; their offcnflve weapons 
were the fpear, the fword, and the battle ax, the bowe was not 
then in general ufe. 

THE defenfive armour of a Norman knight, about this time and 
long after the conqueft, confifled of a Helmet, a Haw berk, or complete 
fuit of Mail, the Gambefon, the Plaftron, and Sur Coat of Arms ; 
this laft was a loofe garment of filk or fattin lined, and frequently 
embroidered, much in form refembling a carter's frock, but with- 
out fleeves, and reaching only to the middle of the thigh. 

THE helmets then chiefly worn were either of a conical, orapy- 
ramidical figure open before, the latter having a fmall plate, or 
raafal of iron or brafs, projecting over the nofe to defend it from 
the ilroke of a broad fword. William the conqueror is repre- 
fented with the conical helmet, on two of his great feals published 
by Sandford. (o) Many of the principal figures in the Bayeux ta- 
peftry have pyrarnidical helmets, with the nafals beforementioned. 
William, earl of Mellent and Worcefter, who lived in the middle 
of the 1 2th century, is alfo reprefented in a pyrarnidical helmet 
and nafal; (p) thefe as well as moft of the other helmets of that 
time, appear to be generally worn over hoods of mail, which 
guarded the neck, (q) 

ANOTHER kind of helmet feems fhortly after to have been in 
fafhion, both in England and France; its form was nearly that 
of a cylinder, and fometimes of a truncated cone, the bafe up- 

(o) SEE thofe helmets, fig. i and 2, plate 9, and Several others here mentioned. 

(p) SEE fig. 3, plate 9. 

(q) WHEN the wearer of QRC of thefe pyramidical helmets had occafion to drink, or 
wimed to uncover his face, to breathe freely or converfe, it was effected by thrufting back 
the helmet, by which the nafal was raifed up almoft parallel with the horizon, an inftancc 
4f this may be feen in the Bayeux upeftry. 



wards, both were flat on the top. Thefe flat helmets, Montfau- 
con fays, were in ufe during the age of St. Louis, (r) but being 
foon after left off were never revived, (s) Indeed, as he juftly 
obferves, it was the worft form that could have been adopted, as 
"a Irroke of a fword or mace would fall with its full force on that 
flat furface, whereas on a conical or pyramidical helmet both thofe 
weapons would either glance off, or a<5l obliquely. Many of our 
kings, great barons, and knights, are reprefented on their coins, 
feals and tombs with thefe cylindric headpieces. On them kings 
wore their crowns, which originally were meant as diftingifhing 
helmets, and great men different ornaments and devices ; from 
behind them there fometimes hung a kind of flreamer called a 
fouleret. (t) 

THE fhields ufed at this period by the cavalry were large, trian- 
gular and convex, their weapons were the fword, fpear, and long 

THE horfes of the knights when equipped for war, were barded 
with iron or jacked leather to defend them from wounds; for, as the 
laming or killing ahorfe would effectually render the knight unfit for 
fervice, that would undoubtedly be always attempted; but as on the 
contrary, at tournaments, it was againft the laws of chivalry to 
ftrike a horfe, they were on thofe occafions, and in folemn pro- 
ceflions or entries, caparifoned or covered with filk or velvet bards, 
embroidered with armorial bearings or other ornaments- 

THE infantry wore Coats of Mail, Aketons and open Bacinets. 

(r) MONARCH. France, jj (s) St. Louis died 1270, he was contemporary with 
Henry III. fome of thefe flat helmets lafted in England till the reign of Edward II. at 
lead are to be feen on tombs of that date. 

(t) ALTHOUGH the conical, pyramidkal, and cylindric helmets were chiefly worn 
about the twelfth century ; yet there were fome of a different fhape. John, fon of 
Richard I. afterwards King John, is reprefented on his great feal in Sandford, with a round 
helmet, like thofe of more modern date, it is open before except: the covering of a nafal. 
See it fig. 4. p. 9. 



They had fhields fome round, and fomefquare, and made of hurdles 
covered with leather; fome of the round fhields were remarkably 
conical, (u) and armed with a projecting fpike: their weapons were 
fwords, fpears, clubs, battle-axes, and the long bow. 

THE armour and weapons in ufe at the time of Edward I. 
may be collected from the ftatute of Winchefter, made the i3tli 
of that reign, where the particular fpecies for every rank are 

BY this ftatute every man having lands of the value of fifteen 
pounds,, (x) and chattels of forty marks, was bound to keep a 
haubergeon, an iron head piece called a chapel, a fword, a dagger, 
and a horfe. Thofe porTerling ten pounds in land, and twenty 
Shillings in chattels, a haubergeon, chapel of iron, fword and 
dagger. Perfons having an hundred fhillings in land, were to keep 
a doublet, (y) a chapel of iron, a fword and dagger. Such as 
had from forty friillings in land to any fum lefs than an hundred 
fhillings, a fword, (z) bow and arrows, and a dagger. Perfons pof- 
feffing lefs than forty fhillings land to keep faulchions, gifarmes, 
daggers, and other inferior weapons > thofe who had only chattels 
under the value of twenty marks, to have fwords, daggers, and 
other inferior weapons. In this regulation there are two remark- 
able circumftances, one that the horfeman is not armed with a 
lance, and the other that a fhield is not mentioned, either for him, 
or thofe of the inferior degrees j thefe regulations were, it is true, 
made more with a view to the prefervation of the internal peace 
of the kingdom againfl fudden commotions, than for the regular 

(u) SEVERAL fpecimens of thefe may be feen in the Bayeux tapefiry, the round 
fiiields of later times were frequently concave. 

(x) THE ftatute does not explain whether the annual value is meant, or that of the 
fee fimple. || (y) POURPOINT, a haqueton, or jacket of defence. 

(z) THOSE who were to keep bows and arrows might have them out of the foreft; 
a review of thefe arms to be made twice a year by two conftables out of every hundred, 
who were to report the defaulters to the juftices, and they to prefent them to the king. 



purpofes of war; they were, however, occasionally to ferve for 
both; the lance and fhield were among the arms directed to be 
kept by the country people in France, as is fhewn by the verfes in 
the note below, quoted by Fauchet, from, an ancient poem written 
about the time of St. Louis, called the furniture of a villain, or 
villager, (a) 

THE hawberk and haubergeon long continued almoft the fole 
defenfive armour of this country, the firft material change that 
happened refpecting it was the introduction of plate armour, that 
is, armour compofed of plates of iron, rivetted together ; but as 
this change was not brought about by the mandate of the fovereign, 
or any publick ordonance or regulation, it naturally took place 
but flowly, and by degrees ; a flriking proof of this may be gathered 
from an entry in our public records, whence we learn that plate 
armour was known in England two years (b) before the ftatute of 
Winchefter was enacted ; yet by that ftatute, the ufe of the hau- 
bergeon was directed, befides which, many monuments and feals 


(a) Si.le convient armer 
Por la terre garder 
Coterel & Haunet 
Et Macue & Guibet, 
Arc & lance enfumee 

Puis ait fon viel Efcu 
A la parrois pendu. 
A fon col' le doit pendre, 
Pour la terre deffendre 
Quand il vient Oft banie. 

Quil nait foin de meflee 
Avec lui ait couchiee 
Lefpee enroiiillee, &c. 

(b) FROM an entry in the Efcheat roll of the nth of Edward I. quoted in Blount's 
Tenures, it appears that Painell de Chaworth was found feized of four hundred acres of 
land in Eaft Gavefton, in the county of Berks, held by the fervice of finding a knight 
armed in plate armour in the king's army, when it fhould be in the territory of Kidwel- 
ley, in Wales. 

IF the fuit of Armour fhewn in the tower (fee plate 14.) was really what it is faid to 
have been, that is, the Armour of John de Courcy, Earl of Ulfter in Ireland, brought 
with him to the tower; it will prove that plate armour was in ufe as early as 1204, 

T the 


fliew that the general ufe of mail armour continued long after that 
period, and that it was even ufed with the plate armour, (c) 

Two reafons probably confpired to check the progrefs of this 
innovation, one, the great price of a fait of plate armour, which 
therefore could be purchafed only by men of fortune j the other, 
that attachment which moffc men have for their ancient cuftoms 
and fafhions, and the great reluctance with which they exchange 
them for new inventions. Fauchet fays, this change happened in 
the year 1330; father Daniel does not entirely fubfcribe to that 
opinion, (d) Plate armour was, however, completely introduced 
both here and in France about the middle of the fourteenth 

IT feems mod likely that the exchange of the hawberk for plate 
armour, was firfl occafioned by the infufferable heat and incum- 
brance of the former, and its appendages; for though the plate 
armour was undoubtedly heavier than the hawberk, (e) it was 
by no means fo fweltering and cumberfome, the heat of the gam- 

the date of his confinement; indeed, it is moft probable, that plate armour was known 
and ufed by princes and great men from the time of the Romans; but not commonly 

(c) MAIL was never intirely left off, fleeves and guflets of mail were worn long after 
the common ufe of plate armour. Many ancient knights fem to have worn a fhirt of 
mail under their cuirafles, as in their figures on monuments, it is feen both below their 
taflets and round their necks, ferving in the place of a gorget. Mail is recommended by 
fome military writers as late as the middle of the i6th century. 

(d) TOUT ces faits prouvent que ce changement d'armure &du Hauber a quoi fucceda 
1'armure fait de pur fer, commenc.a au plutard fous Phillipe Le Bel ; & il eft vrai auffi que 
fous Phillipe de Valois 1'armure de fer fut prefque feul en ufage. Froiflart que je viens 
<!e citer, qui vivoit fous le Regne de ce prince, & qui a ecrit 1'hiftoire de ce terns la, ne 
fait gueres mention de Haubers, & ne parle par tout que des armures de fer. P. Daniel 
Hift. de la Mil. Franc, vol. i. p. 396. 

(e) THE weight of a complete fuit of proof Armour is from fixty to feventy five 
pounds, the weight of Mr. Green's hawberk, helmet included, is only thirty five pounds. 
See plate 21. 



befon and fur coat alone, without reckoning the plaftron and haw- 
berk, were more than a man could well bear in the throng and 
duft of an engagement, particularly in fummer, and indeed we 
read of more than one inflance of knights being fufFocated ia 
their armour. 

ANOTHER innovation of an inferior kind, but prior in its date, 
arofe from the reintrcduclion or revival of the crofs bow, which 
had been for fome time laid afide, in obedience to a decree of the 
fecond Lateran council held in 1139, (f) afterwards confirmed by 
Pope Innocent III. 

THIS weapon was again introduced into our armies by King 
Richard I. who being (lain with a quarrel fliot from one of 
them, at the fiege of the caftle of Chaluz in Normandy, it was 
confidered as a judgment from Heaven inflicted upon him for his 
impiety (g). 

THE crofs bow is by fome faid to be of Sicilian origin, others 
afcribe the invention of it to the Cretans j it is fuppofed to have been 
introduced into France by fome of the firfl crufaders. The crofs bow 
is mentioned by the Abbe Suger in the life of Louis leGros, as being 

(f) ARTEM illam mortiferam & Deo odibilem balliftariorum & fagittariorum adverfus 
Chriftianos & Catholicos exerceri de caetero fub anathemate prohibemus. Can. 29. 

THIS prohibition was obferved under the reign of Louis the Young, and in the begin- 
ning of that of Philipe Augufte, but afterwards no regard was paid to ir, neither in France 
nor in England, notwithstanding that Innocent III. had renewed it, and again recom- 
mended the obfervance of it. 

(g) GUILLIAUME le Breton, relating the death of this king, puts the following into 
the mouth of Atropos one of the Parcae. L. 5. Philipid. 

Hac volo, non alia Richardum morte perire 
Ut qui Franci genis balliftae primitus ufuin 
Tradidit, ipfe fui rem primitus experiatur, 
Quamque alios docuit, in fe vim fcntiat artis, 



ufed by that prince in the beginning of his reign (h). Louis le 
Gros afcended the throne of France in the year 1108, he was 
contemporary with king Henry I. 

VERSTEGAN feems to attribute the introdu6lion of the crofs 
bow into England to the Saxons under Hengifl and Horfa, but 
cites no authority to fupport that fuppofition. In a print re- 
prefenring the landing of thofe generals, the foremoft of them is 
delineated with a crofs bow on his fhoulder, of this print the 
author fays, " And becaufe thefe noble gentlemen were the firft 
<f bringers in, and conductors of the anceftors of Englifhmen 
" into Britaine, from whence unto their pofterity the pofeflion 
" of the countrey hath enfued, I thought fit here in pourtraiture 
<e to fet down their firft arrivall, therewithall to fhewe the man- 
<c ner of the apparell which they wore, the weapons which they 
" ufed, and the banner or enfign firft by them there fpred in the 
<c field." (i) Some writers fay, William the Conqueror had crofs 
bows in his army at the battle of Haftings. 

AFTER the revival of this weapon by Richard I. it was much 
ufed in our armies. In the lift of forces raifed by King Edward II. 
againft the Scots, anno 1322, the crofs bow men make the 
fecond article in the enumeration of the different kinds of foldiers 
of which it confifted (k). 

(h) SEE Pere Daniel. Hift. de la Mil. Fr. vol. r. p. 425. 

(i) RESTITUTION of decayed intelligence, p. 117. 

(k) TITULUS de vadiis tarn peditum, baliftariorum, lanceatorum & fagittariorum An- 
glias, Walliae & Vafcon ; quam quorundam hominum ad arma et hobelariorum, retentorurn 
ad vadia domini Regis Edwardi, filii Regis Edwardi in Guerra Scotiae & alibi, a primo 
die Maii, anno quinto decimo, ufque Septimum diem Julii anno regni ejufdem, fexto 
decimo, finiente tempore. Rogeri de Waltham tune cuftodis, et Roberti de Baldok tune 
J^ontra^rotulatoris Garderobse. MSS. in the library of Tho. Aftle, efq. 



THE crofs bow was alfo confidered as a royal weapon ; Geraid 
de la Warre is recorded as being crofs bow bearer to Henry III. 
and diverfe manors, lands and tenements were held by finding 
crofs bows, firings, or the materials for making them, for our 
different kings. (1) King Henry VII. ufed frequently to exercife 
himfelf in fhooting with the crofs bow for wagers, feveral fums 
loft by him to his courtiers are entered in the book belonging to 
the remembrancers office, before quoted. Notwithstanding which 
a flatute was made in the i9th year of that king's reign forbidding 
the ufe of crofs bows, as tending to leffen the praftife of archery 
with the long bow. (m) 

THE crofs bow continued to be generally ufed in our armies, 
even fo late as the year 1572, when Queen Elizabeth, in a treaty 
with King Charles IX. of France, engaged to furnifh him with - 
fix thoufand men, armed part with long bows and part with 
crofs bows. And in the attack of the ifle of Rhee by the Eng- 
lifh, anno 1627, fome crofs bows were flill faid to be in that 
army, (n) 

THE crofs bow makers ufed to exercife themfelves and try 
their weapons at the popinjoy or artificial parrot, in a field called 
TafTel clofe, in London, from the number of thirties growing 
there, this was afterwards hired by the Artillery Company, and is 
called the Old Artillery Ground (o). Crofs bows were ufed by 
the fraternity of St. George (p). ., 


(1) SEE Blount's Tenures, a new edition of which with many curious illuftrations has 
been lately publifhed by Mr. Jofiah Beckwith. || (m) RASTELLS Stat. 19 H. 7. c. 4. 

(n) THE monthly wages of a crofs bowe maker, a yeoman and groom of the crofle 
bowes are charged in the expences of Henry VIII. an. 38. in the curious MSS. in the 
Remembrancer's office, the firft ics. ^.d. the fecond 20S. 8d. the third IDS. ^d. And in 
the hiftory of the firft fourteen years of King James I. among the artificers of the ord- 
nance, is Rodger Choven crofs bowe maker with a fallery of 4d; per diem. 

(o) SEE Maitland's Hiftory of London. 

(p) THE king (vc. Hen, 8.) having reftrained the annual cuftom of the city watch, 

U owing 


SIR John Smith fays (q) he faw many large crofs bows in the 
armoury of the grand matter of Maltha, and in thofe of many 
princes in Germany, fuch as no armour nor target could refift, al- 
though capable of turning amufketball, (hooting quarrels of fudi 
bignefs with fquare tempered heads, fome of them three inches 

THE fhield, although it was not entirely relinquifhed fo long 
as the ufe of the long and crofs bows continued, feems to have 
undergone fome alteration in its form, the triangular or heater 
fhield gradually giving place to thofe of a circular or rectangular 
figure ; fhields were firft left off by the cavalry ; they were, how- 
ever ufed in the army of king Edward I. at the fiege of Karlaverok 
in the year 1300 (r). 


owing to its great expence, endeavoured to preferve the manly exercife of mooting, by 
granting a charter to the company of Archers, who were called the fraternity of St. George, 
by which they had the power to ufe and exercife fhooting at all manner of marks, as well 
in the city as fuburbs, with long bows, crofs bows, and hand guns, with thefe claufes, 
that in cafe any perfons were (hot or flain in thefe fports by an arrow (hot by one of thefe 
archers, the Ihooter was not to be fued or molefted, if he had immediately before the (hot 
ufed the common word fafl. The chieftain of thefe archers was called prince Arthur, 
and the reft of them his knights ; the principal place of exercifing this fport was Mile 
End, where they were frequently honoured with the prefence of the king himfelf. Cham- 
berlain's Hi/}, of London, p. 192. || (q) SIR John Smith's Confutation of Captain 
Barwick MSS. No. 4685. Harl. Collet. Britim Mufeum. 

(r) LORS i peuft on revoir, 
Aufll efpes pieres chaoior; 
Com fi on en deuft poudrer, 
E chapeaus et heaumes offronder, 
Ecus et targes depefcier, 

And in another place 

Car meinte targe frefchement, 
Peinte, et guarnie richement, 



MR. Pennant in his Journey to Snowden, fpeaking of Wales 
in the time of Henry IV. fays, as a proof of the high value of 
arms, and that we had few manufactures of that kind ; a two- 
handed fword was valued at ten {hillings, a one-handed at fix 
fhillings and eight-pence, and a fteel buckler at two {hillings and 
eight-pence : but what is very fingular, a bow which themfelves 
could make, was valued at fixteen pence, and an arrow at fix- 
pence (s). 

A SORT of fliields were worn by the Scots at the battle of 
Muriel borough, the ift of Edward VI. which Paton thus defcribes, 
" Nye this place of Onfet, whear the Scottes at their runnings 
" away had let fall their weapons (as I fayd) thear found we befyde 
" their common manner of armour, certeyn nice inftruments for 
" war (as we thought) and they were nue boardes endes cut of, 
* c being aboute a foote in breadth and half a yarde in lengthe, 
" havyngon the infyde handels made very cunningly of two cordes 
" endes i thefe, a God's name, wear their targettes againe the 
(t {hot of our fmall artillerie, for they wear not able to hold canon. 
" And with thefe found we great rattels fwellyng bygger than the 
" belly of a pottle pot, covered with old parchment, or dooble 
" papers, fmall ftones put into them to make noys, and fet upon 
" the ende of a ftaff of more than two ells long, and this was 
<c their fyne devyfe to fray our horfes, when our horfemen ihoulde 
" cum at them. Howbeit, becaufe the ryders were no babyes, 
w nor the horfes no colts : they could neyther duddle the t'one, 
" nor fray the toother, fo that the pollecye was as witles as their 
** powr forceles." 

Meinte et meint chapeau burni, 
Meint riche gamboifon guarni, 
De foie et Cadas et cotoun 
En lour venue veift on. 

Siege of Karlaverok MSS. Bib. 'Cotton Caligula A, XVIII, 
(s) JOURNEY to Snowden, p. 86. 



AMONG the artificers in the pay of Henry VIII. in the 38th 
year of his reign, is a buckler maker, Geffrey Bromfield, whofe 
quarters wages are there charged 153. ad. (t) Shields or bucklers 
feem to have been ufed in affrays and private quarrels by perfons 
in the civil line, as late as the reigns of Elizabeth and King 
James I. Dugdale records an order made in the Temple in the 
i ft of Queen Elizabeth, that no fellow of that fociety fhould wear 
any fword or buckler, or caufe either to be born after him into the 
town under the penalty of three fhillings and four-pence for the 
firft time j fix fhillings and eight-pence for the fecond, and expul- 
fion from the fociety for the third, (u) George Silver mentioning 
an affray that happened between an Englifh and an Italian fencing- 
mafter, fays, the former was armed with a fword and buckler, 
the latter with a two handed fword. (x) The common appellation 
for a quarrelfome or fighting fellow about that period, was a fwafh- 
buckkr, that is, a breaker or clafher of bucklers, (y) 

MAURICE, prince of Orange, was a great advocate for the 
ihield, and even attempted to revive the ufe of it. His company 
of Dutch guards were armed with targets and roundels, and he 
formed a regular plan of exercife for them. A book in folio, 
containing all the motions for both, finely engraved, and accom- 
panied with explanations in French, was publiihed by his order 
anno 1618. (z) 

(t) MSS. In the Remembrancers Office. || (u) DUGDALE'S Origin. Jurid. p. 345. 

(x) GEORGE Silver's Paradoxes of Defence. N. B. The copy here quoted wants 
the title and date. || (y) PHILIPS in his New World of Words defines, to fwafh, to 
make fly about ; to clafh, or make a noife with fwords ; and a fwafh-buckler, a vain 
glorious fword player or fencer, a meer braggadochoe, a vapouring fellow. 

(z) LE Maniement d'Armes de Naflau avecq Rondelles, piques efpees & targes, repre- 
fentez par figures felon le nouveau ordere du tres illuftre, prince Maurice de Naflau, &c. 
&c. par Adam van Breen, avec inftru&ion par efcript pour tous cappitaines & comman- 
deurs nouvellement mis en lurniere, imprime anno 16181 



THE target and broad fword were the favourite arms of the 
Scotch highlanders, as late as the year 1746, and even after j for 
I remember many private men of the old highland regiment in 
f landers in the years 1747 and 1748, armed with targets, which 
though no part of their uniform they were permitted to carry. 

SWORDS and bucklers were anciently borne before great military 
officers, as infignia of their dignity ; thofe carried before King Ed- 
ward III. in France, are fhewn in Weftminfter abbey. The fhield 
born before the commandant of the forces on board the Spanifh 
Armada is preferved in the tower, and a fword was borne before 
the bifhop of Norwich as commander of the troops, with which 
he indented to ferve King Richard II. (a) Mod of the ornamented 
.metal fhields, and many of the very large fwords, were defigned 
for this ufe, 

THE application of gunpowder to projectile engines at firfl 
<caufed little or no alteration in the article of defensive armour, 
-fince none could be made fo flrong as to refift a cannon ball, and 
the number of men who carried hand guns, for a long time, bore 
a very fmall proportion to thofe armed with other weapons; that 
ufual predilection for ancient ufages operating in this inftance fo 
ilrongly againil the admiflion of thefe new weapons, that tho' artil- 
lery was, as it is faid, ufed at the battle of CrerTy, fought in the 
year 13465 the general introduction of fmall arms was not thorough- 
ly eftablifhed in England, at the time the kingdom was threatened 
with an invasion by the Spanifh Armada in 1588^ a period of more 
than two hundred and forty years, (b) 

' ' T 


(a) SEE the rolls of Parliament, 7. R. II. 

(b) ALTHOUGH the invention of gunpowder and its application to artillery and final!, 
arms have been commonly fuppofed modern difcoveries, there is great reafon to believe 
they have both been very long known to, and ufed by the Chinefe, and other Eaftern peo- 
ple. Artillery is mentioned in the Gentoo code of Laws, fuppofed of -very high anti- 

X quity 

8a A T R E A T I S E ON 

IN the 41 ft of Edward III. A. D. 1368, both plate and mail 
armour were worn, as may be gathered from the following inftance 
recorded in Rymer. Thomas de Erfkine, and James the heir of 
William Douglas, of Degliemont, being engaged to fight a duel, 
according to the laws of Scotland, obtained a licence from King 
Edward directed to all fheriffs, mayors, &c. to provide themfelves 
with the following armour and weapons in London. Thomas de 
Erlkine, a pair of plates, (c) a bacinet, a pair of brafers, (d) 
quiffets (e) greeves, a chafron for a horfe, a dagger, a long fworc^ 
a fhort fword, and a pair of iron gauntlets. James Douglas, a 
pair of plates, a haubergeon, a pair of fteel gauntlets, a helmet, 
a pair of brafers and long armour, and covering for two horfes ; 
two, daggers, and the head of a lance, with other armour for the 
faid duel, (f) 


quity ; and our countryman, Friar Bacon, who lived before Bartholdus Swartz, particu- 
larly recites the compofition of gunpowder, and fays he learned it from a Greek write?*. 
This invention, although by Milton, and other poets and writers, afcribed to the devil, 
was without doubt a moft fortunate difcovery for mankind, and has greatly leflened the 
Daughter and miferies of war. Formerly when men engaged hand to hand, they were fo 
intermingled that the only criterion of victory was the having no more of the enemy to 
kill ; the duration of fieges has alfo been confiderably fhortened fince the ufe of gunpowder 
and artillery, by which the lives of many millions have been faved, who would othes- 
vvife have perimed by hardihips or difeafe, commonly in fieges more fatal than the fword, 

(c) BREAST and back plates. || (d) ERASERS for the arms. |[ (ej QUISSETS for 
the thighs. 

(f) As fame ftatutes in the reign of Edward III. and Richard II. regard armour, an ab- 
ftradl of them is here given. By the 2d of Ed. III. No perfon to ride armed, either by 
night or day in fairs, markets [nor in the prefence of the juftices or other minifters^} upon 
pain to forfeit their armour to the king, and their bodies to prifon at the king's 

^th of Richard II. chap. 13, None Ihall ride with harnefs contra 2d Ed. III. nor 
with launcegays, " the which launcegays be clerely put out within the faid realm as a 
" thing prohibited by our Lord the King, upon pain of forfeiture of the faid launcegays, 
armQur 5 and other harnefs." 


THE common armour for the infantry was in this, as in the 
preceding reigns, the Aketon and Baffinet. Men thus eqipped re- 
ceived a penny per diem more pay than thofe without defensive 
armour, (g) 

TE armour worn about the time of King Henry VII. by both 
barons and knights, is defcribed in an ancient manufcript in the 
college of arms already quoted, (h) and as the camp equipage 
then deemed necefTary for perfons of thofe ranks are alfo there 
fpecified, they are here tranfcribed at length, ferving to ihew the 
monflrous quantity of baggage and number of fervants of different 
denominations, with which our ancient armies were encumbered. 

Extract from, a MSS. L. 8. fol. 85. in the Coll. of Arms. 

TH' apparell for the feld for a baron in his fouvereyn cora* 
peny, or for a baneret, or a ryche bacheler 

OON whyte harnefle complette w* 2 hed peces according. 

ITEM, 2 peyrc of lege harnefle, 

ITEM, 2 peyre of gauntelets. 

ITEM, a peyre of brygandyrons w* foldes and flanchardes and 

ITEM, i axe. 

ITEM, i holebarte, 

ITEM, i fpere. 

ITEM, a armyne fwerde. 

2ift. of Richard II, a confirmation of this ftatute under the former penalties, with the 
additional ones of fine and imprifonment, excepting the king's officers and minifters in 
doing their offices. In this acl is moreover added, that no lord, knight, nor other, little 
nor great, (hall go nor ride by night nor day armed, nor bear fallet nor Ikull of iron. 

(g) ROGER de Waltham's account of the army fent to Scotland, 1322. 

(h) SEE note z. p. 48. this MSS. is .fuppofed to have been written about the time 
of Richard III. or Henry VII. 



ITEM, a dager. 

ITEM, 2 peyre of armyng fpores. 

ITEM, cayfFs breches. 

ITEM, a peyre of cofres for the barneys or gardeveynes. 

ITEM, garnylhe for your fallat or elemet w* your devyfe for 
the creft. 

ITEM, a fumpter hors for the armory. 

ITEM, 2 or 3 courfers. 

ITEM, a large amylyng hors to hymfelffe armed byfydes an 
hakeney or tweyne for to ryde at pleaf r . 

As for traper demy trapers of your armes, or of Seynt George, 
or of oder deyfe, or bardes peynted, hyt is more worihyppfull than 

ITEM, to remember hors hernefs of velvet of ledd r , or of gold- 
'imethes werke. 

ALSO change of fadell for your courfers, fum covered w* leder 
and fum w* velvet ; item, for your hakeneys v/ harnefle according. 
Item, flufFe of harfhoufes 12, and furfyngles 12, of twyne, ftore 
of gurthes, 12 tramelles, 12 par paftrons, 13 halters, horfcombes 
6, manecombes 6 w* fponges, wateryng brydells, canvafs for duf- 
tinge cloths, portmares, bodekyns, halter, reyngnes, ledeyng 
reygnes; ftore of double fterrop leders, ftore of horfay, and horfe 
nayles, i pere gilt fterops, fterropis of blacke vernyftie .werke. 

ITEM, foure fterrop lederes for herynfmen. 

.ITEM, fockets for ftandards or baners. 

ITEM, fpores for heynfmen. 

ITEM, a charyett ftrongly made w 1 hors and draught barneys 
according w* byndyng and braying ropes. Supterclothe w* your 
armes or badge. Item, a hyd of whytleder, or at the left half a 
hyd for mendynd of .your drawgharneys, fupterhorfe w* the 
fadelles wanteys and long ledyng reynes. 

ITEM, a cart, or a charyet for your tentes and pavylions. 



SPERE fhaftes, bowes, arrowes, bow flreynges, bylles, and a 
cart to carry them. 

M. a pavylion for your felf. 

ITEM, a hale for horfes. 

ITEM, a hale for your fervantes. 

ITEM, cotes of your armes for yourfelf and for your pfuivant, 

ITEM, a penon of your armes. 

ITEM, flandardes of your devyfe. 

ITEM, logyng ftandard. 

ITEM, logyng fcotchyns. 

ITEM, pencells for your fpeers. 

ITEM, connoyfaunce betyn in oyle colour for your carnage. 

OFFICERS neceflaries achappeleyn, that to the mafle belongeth, 
harberours, purveyours for your ftable and for your vitayles, a 
barber, furgeon, a fmythe w l his neceflaries, a fadeler, an armourer 
w l bycorn, and hys oder neceflaries 3 a trufty chofen man to bear 
the ban r , anoder for the ftandred, a yeoman for your tentes, by- 
fides horfekeepers, fumptermen, carters. 

FOR the wache. 

FIRST, a jake, or a good doublet of fence. 
ITEM, a hede-pece for the fame. 
ITEM, a large wachynge gowne. 
ITEM, furred or lyned, butteaux. 

TH' apparell for your bodye. 

FIRST, 2 armynge doublets. 

ITEM, 2 jaketts of leder under your harneys. 

ITEM, ilore of dozen of armynge poyntesfum w* gylt naighletts. 

ITEM, a jaket of white damalk or fattin, cloth of gold, filver, 
or velvett, with a red crofle. 

ITEM, a ryche journett or tweyn. Item, a bend of Saint George 
over your harneys. 

ITEM, long gownes of filke both furred and lyned. 


S<S A 

ITEM, demy gownes both of filke and clothe. 

ITEM, rydyng gownes of filke, dowbletts, fhirtes, hofen, poyntes, 
ribandes for laces or gurdyls. 

BONETS, hatts, bottes, fpores, burgegifes, fhoes, and fuch things 
as fhalbe neceflary for apparell. 

ITEM, a bed w l fluff accordinge, a table made light for cariage, 
flagons, piece, a low fait, table clothes, a bafyn to waftie in, 
towells, a piece of kannevas. 

ITEM, a caudron or two to fethe in mett. 

ITEM, a fpett, a gredyron, dyflies, a ladyll. 

ITEM, a hatchett to make logyngs, and to hew wode to make 

ITEM, a fhort fithe to mow grafs. 

ITEM, two or three hokeys to cut corne and fetches. 

IT-EM, a chappelyn w* the oornamentes, that ys to fay, vefty- 
aanentis, ,rnafsbooke, chales, fuperaltare, a box with ftore of fyngyng 
bred, ftore of wax-candell, byfydes his portens. 

AND a cooke w* a caudron, a gredyron, a ladill, dii(hes, afpit, a 
bage w* poudres, fait, a flagon, a bottell wythe vyneger and oyle olyve. 

ITEM, ftore of dyverfe fpices as almands, &c. 

Rembrans of the apparell for the felde belonging to a Knight or 
a Efquire of faire lande wiche hath a retin-u. 

IN prim, an whyt barneys coplette, with two hede peces ac- 

ITEM, 2 good horfes, at the left oon for hymfelf anod r foo: his 

a large amelyng hors to bere hymfelfe armed to fpare the 

ITEM, good flrong fadels of warre w* hameys accordyng. 
ITEM, harneys for hys amelyng hors. 

ITEM, flore of gurthes and furfengles of twyne, of ftirroppes 
and ftcrrop ledders both for hymfelfe and hys page. 



HALTERS, horfe combes, mane combs, waterynge brydels, horf- 
houes, c'anvas for duftynge clothes, halter reyngnes, ledyng reyngnes, 
kafes of leder for the fadels. 

ITEM, 2 pere of armyng fpores. 

ITEM, and he may have a barde for the courfer hyt is commend- 

ITEM, to remember the garnyfhe of oone the left. 

ITEM, ftore of fure fpeere hedys ; item, an axe or an halbert to 
walke w* in the felde ; item, an armynge fword, a dager, and hit 
were well doon to have a mafe at the fadell pomell ; item, a fumpter- 
horfe harnyfhed and w* cofFers or gardeinans for his harnoys. 

ITEM, a cote of armes for hymfelfe. 

ITEM, a penon of his armes, and a baneret to have a baner of 
hys armes. 

ITEM, a ftandard of his devyfe. 

ITEM, oone or 2 getours at the leeft. 

ITEM, pencells for his fpeere. 

ITEM, cognyfaunces for his carnage. 

ITEM, loging fcochyngs both on bokeram in oyle and fum in- 
paper, both in colour and metall. 

FOR the wache. 

A payre of breygandyrons or a ftrong doublett of feure with a 
hede pece for the fame. 

ITEM, a large wachynge gowne forred or lyned yet better lyned* 
ITEM, good warme boteaulx or burgegyfes. 

THE appareille for his bodye. 

FIRST, ij arrnyng doubeletts. 

ITEM, a jakett of leder under his harneis. 

ITEM, ftore of armyng poyntes. 

ITEM,, a jakett of white damafke or faten with a red crofle;' 

ITEM, a bend of Seynt George above your barneys, 


ITEM, gownnes both lang and demy fu of filke, and fu of clothe 
bothe furred and lyned. 

ITEM, rydyng gownes of filke. 

ITEM, doubelettes and fhertes. 

ITEM, hofyn and poyntes. 

ITEM, {tore of rybandes for laces and gurdells. 

ITEM, ftore of bonettes, hattes, botes, fpores, burgegefes and 
fhon for hymfelfe and hys page. 

ITEM, flagons and botayles peces or gobeletts. 

ITEM, a good pelow to fleppe on. 

FOR his botye felow and hym. 

IN pmis, a pavylyon and an hale for their horfes and fervantes, 
and yeff they ij may have a good ftrong chariatt w* ftronge draught 
for ther tent hale and oder rayment and necefTaries, hit wer well 
doon, for a cart is foon over throwyn and may nott cary oon of 
your fluff. Item, a low fait. 

ITEM, a barber w* his bafyn, wiche may ferve theym bothe w* 
ftore of towells, I meen to wefhe in dayly as well as for fhavyng. 

ITEM, oon or ij hachettes to hew wod, and to make logynge 
for the yemen. 

ITEM, a fhort fythe or ij to mow grafs of the medowe for ther 

ITEM, iij or iiij hokys to cutt fechefs and corne. Item, and ther 
carters bey weell chofyn, they may bothe fett your tentes wythe of 
oon or ij of ther foottmen, and wythe ther cart-horfes to feche ther 
forage, and to make ther logyng. 

As for cooke, every man can be cher w* help of vitalers, hit 
wer good to have ftore of fait, poudre-amt vynegar, and falet oyle 
and fpyce. 

THE ftatute of the 4th and 5th of Philip and Mary (repealing 
all other acts refpecting keeping armour and horfes) Ihews the 



quantity and kind of armour and weapons were to be kept at that 
time by perfons of different eftates. 

ALL temporal perfons having eflates of a thoufand pounds or 
upwards fhall from the ifl of May, 1588, keep fix horfes or geld- 
ings fit for mounting demi launces, three of them at lead to have 
fufficient harnefs, fleele faddles, and weapons requifite and apper- 
taining to the faid demi launces, horfes, or geldings ; and ten light 
horfes or geldings with the weapons and harnefs requifite for light 
horfemen. Alfo forty corfelets furnifhed, forty almaine rivetts, or 
inftead of the faid forty alamaine rivetts, forty coats of plate, 
corfelets or brigandines furnifhed ; forty pikes, thirty long bowes, 
thirty fheaf of arrowes, thirty fteele cappes or fculles, twenty 
black bills or halberts, twenty haquebuts, and twenty morians or 

TEMPORAL perfons having eflates to the value of a thoufand 
marks and upwards, and under the clear yearly value of a thou- 
fand pounds, to maintain four horfes or geldings for demi launces, 
whereof two, at the leaft, to be horfes, with fufficient weapons, 
faddles, meete, and requifite to the faid demi launces; fix light 
horfes with furniture, &c. neceflary for the fame ; thirty corcelets 
furnifhed, thirty almaine rivetts, or in lieu thereof, thirty coats 
of plate, v corcelets, or brigandines furnifhed; thirty pikes, twenty- 
long bows, twenty fheaf of arrowes, twenty fteel taps or fculls, 
ten black bills or halberts, ten haquebuts, and ten morians or 

EVERY temporal perfon having 400!. per annum, and under 
the clear yearly value of 1000 marks, to keep two horfes, or one 
horfe and one gelding, for demi launces, furnifhed as above ; four 
geldings for light horfes, twenty corcelets furnifhed, twenty al- 
maine rivetts furnifhed, or inflead thereof, twenty coats of plate, 
torcelets, or brigandines furnifhed; twenty pikes, fifteen long 
bowes, fifteen fheaves of arrowes, fifteen fteel caps or fculls, fix 
haquebuts and fix morians or fallets. 



TEMPORAL perfons having clear 200!. per annum, and under 
400!. per annum, one great horfe or gelding fit for a demi launce, 
with diffident furniture and harnefs, fleeled faddle, 8cc. two gel- 
dings for light horfe, with harnefs and weapons as aforefaid: ten 
corcelets furnifhed, ten almaine rivetts, or inflead thereof, ten 
coats of plate, corcelets, or brigandines furnifhed, ten pikes, eight 
long bows, eight fheafs of arrowes, eight fleel caps or fculls, three 
haquebuts and three morians or fallets. 

EVERY temporal perfon, &c. having lool. or under 200!. per 
annum, two geldings and furniture, &c. for light horfemen, three 
corcelets furnifhed, three almaine rivetts, corcelets or brigandines 
furnifhed, three long pikes, three bowes, three fheafes of arrowes, 
three fleel caps or fculls, two haquebuts, and two morians or 

TEMPORAL perfons having 100 marks and under lool. per 
annum, one gelding and furniture for a light horfeman, two corce- 
lets furnifhed, two almaine rivetts, coat of plate or brigandines 
furnifhed, two pikes, two long bowes, two fheafs. of arrowes, two 
fleel caps or fculls, one haquebut, one morian or fallet. , 

TEMPORAL perfons having 40!. or under i.oo marks per annum, 
two corcelets furnifhed, two almaine rivetts, corcelets or brigaa- 
dines furnifhed; two pikes, one long bowe, one fheaf of. ar- 
rowes, one fleel cap or fcull, two haquebutts, two morians or 

PERSONS having 20!. and under 40!. per annum, one corce- 
let furnifhed, one pike, one haquebut, one morian or fallet, 
one long bowe, one fheaf of arrowes, and one fleel cap or 

TEMPORAL perfons having lol. and under 20!. per annum, 
ne almaine rivett, a coat of plate or brigandine furnifhed, one 
haquebut, one morian or fallet, and one long bowe, one fheaf of 
arrowes, and one fleel cap or fcull. 

TEMPORAL perfons having 5!, and under lol. per annum, 



one coat of plate furnifhed, one black bill or halbert, one long 
bowe and one fheaf of arrowes, one fteel cap or fcull. 

TEMPORAL perfons having goods and chattels to the amount 
of 1000 marks, one horfe or gelding furnifhed for a demi launce, 
one gelding furnifhed for a light horfeman, or eighteen corce-- 
lets furnifhed inftead of the faid horfe and gelding, and furniture 
of the fame, at their choice j two corcelets furnifhed, two almaine 
rivetts, or inftead thereof two corcelets or two brigandines fur- 
nifhed, two pikes, four long bowes, four fheafs of arrowes, -four 
fteel caps or fculls, and three haquebtits, with three morians or 

TEMPORAL perfons having goods, &c. to the amount of 400!. 
and above, and under 1000 marks, one gelding for a light horfe- 
man, properly furnifhed, or inftead thereof nine corcelets furnifhed 
at his choice, and one other corcelet furnifhed - 3 one pike, two 
almaine rivetts, or plate coates, or brigandines furnifhed, one 
haquebut, two long bowes, two fheafs of arrowes, and two fteel 
caps or fculls. 

GOODS, &c. to the amount of 200!. and upwards, and under 
400!. one corcelet furnifhed, one pike, two almaine rivetts, plate 
coats, or brigandines furnifhed j one haquebut, one morian or 
fallet, two long bowes, two fheafs of arrowes, and two fculls or 
fteel caps. 

GOODS, &c. to the amount of lool. or above, and under 2ooh 
one corcelet furnifhed, one pike, one pair of almaine rivets, one 
plate coat, or pair of brigandines furnifhed, two long ,bowes, and 
two fheafs of arrowes and two fculls. 

GOODS, &c. to the amount of 40!. and under lool. two paiV 
of almaine rivetts, or two coats of plate or brigandines furnifhed, 
one long bowe, one fheaf of arrowes, one fteel cap or one fcull, 
and one black bill or halbert. 

GOODS, &c. to the amount of 20!. and upwards, and under 
40!. one pair of almaine rivetts, or one coat of plate, or one 



pair of brigandines, two long bowes, two fheafs of arrowes, two 
fculls or fteel caps, and one black bill or halbert. 

GOODS, &c. to the amount of id. and above, and under 20!. 
one long bowe, one fheaf of arrowes, with one fteel cap or fcull, 
and one black bill or halbert. 

TEMPORAL perfons not charged by this act, having annuities, 
copyholds, or eftate of inheritance to the clear yearly value of 
30!. or upwards, to be chargeable with furniture of war, accord- 
ing to the proportion appointed for^goods and chattels. 

AND every perfon who by the act of the 33d of King Hen. VIII. 
cap. 5. was bound by reafon, that his wife fhould wear fuch kind 
of apparell, or other thing, as in the fame ilatute is mentioned 
and declared, to keepe or find one great {toned trotting horfe, viz. 
.Every perfon temporall whofe wife (not being divorced nor wil- 
lingly abfenting herfelf from him) doth weare any gowne of filke, 
French hood, or bonet of velvet, with any habiliment, parr, or 
edge of golde, pearle, or {tone, or any chaine of golde about her 
necke, or in her partlet, or in any apparell of her body, except 
the fonnes and heires apparent of dukes, marquefes, carles, viconts, 
and barons, and others having heriditaments to the yearly value 
of 600 marks or above, during the life of their fathers; 
and Wardes having heriditaments of the yearly value of 200!. 
and who are not by this act before charged, to have, main- 
taine, and keep any horfe or gelding 5 ihall from the faid ift of 
May, have, keep, and maintain, one gelding, able and meete for 
a light horfeman with fufficient harnefs and weapon for the fame, 
in fuch manner and forme, as every perfon having lordfhips, 
houfes, lands, &c. to the clear yearly value of 100 marks is 
appointed to have. 

ANY perfon chargeable by this act, who for three whole 
months from the ift of May, {hall lack or want the horfes or 
Armour, with which he is charged, {hall forfeit for every horfe 



or gelding in which he is deficient, ten pounds : for every demi 
launce and furniture, three pounds ; for every corfelet and furni- 
ture of the fame forty fhillings, and for every almaine rivet, coat 
of plate, or brigandine and furniture of the fame, twenty (hillings ; 
and for every bow and fheaf of arrows, bill, halbert, hacquebut, 
fteel cap, fcull, morian and fallet, ten fhillings, one half of thefe 
forfeitures to the King and Queen, the other half to the parties 
fuing for the fame. 

THE inhabitants of all cities, burroughs, towns, parifhes, &c. 
other than fuch as are fpecially charged before in this act, fhall 
keep and maintain at their common charges, fuch harneis and wea- 
pons as fhall be appointed by the commiflioners of the king and 
queen, to be kept in fuch places as fhall by the faid commiflioners 
be appointed. 

INDENTURES to be made of the numbers and kinds thereof be- 
tween two or more of the faid commiflioners, and twelve, eight, or 
four, of the principal inhabitants of every fuch city, borrough, &c. 
&c. one part to remain with the chief officer of the faid city, 6cc. 
and the other part with the clerk of the peace of the county. 

AND if any of the inhabitants fliall be deficient for three months 
in any of the articles directed to be found, they fhall forfeit for 
every article according to the proportion before mentioned, to be 
applied and levied as there directed. 

THE lord chancellor for the time being fliall have full power to 
grant commiflions under the great fealof England, to as many juf- 
tices of every fhire or county as he fhall deem neceflary for making 
this appointment of horfes and armour. This act not to invalidate 
any covenant between a landlord and his tenant for finding of 
horfes, armour, or weapons. 

THE juflices of every county are hereby authorifed to make 
fearch and view from time to time of and for the horfes, armour, 
&c. to be kept by perfons poflefled of 200!. per ann. and not above 
400!. per ann. or to be found by perfons chargeable on account of 

A a their 

their goods, chattels, &c. as aforefaid, and to hear and determine 
at their quarter feffions every default committed or done, contrary 
to this act, within the county, and to level the penalties. 

ANY foldier making {ale of his horfe, harneis, or weapon, or any 
of them, contrary to the form of the ftatute made in the faid 2d 
and 3d year of the late king, i. e. the 2d and ^d of King Edw. VI. 
(which fee in Captains) fhall incur the penalty of the faid flatute, 
and the fale fhall be void, the purchafer knowing him to be a 

ALL preferments and profecutions to be within one year after 
the commiflion of the offence. 

PERSONS profecuted for deficiencies of armour may plead their 
inability to procure it, on account of the want of it within the 
realm, which plea, if true, fhall be a fufficient justification j if de- 
nied, iflue to be joined, and the trial of fuch ifTue, only had by the 
certificate of the lord chancellor, lord treasurer, the lord prefident 
of the council, the lord steward of the king's and queen's mofl ho- 
nourable houfehold, the lord privie feal, the lord admiral, and the 
lord chamberlain of the faid houfehold, or by three of them, under 
their hands and feals, &c. &c. this act or any ufage to the contrary 
notwithstanding. No perfons to be charged both for lands and 
goods. This act not to repeal the act of the 33d Henry VIII. for 
having long bowes, and exercifing archery. 

PROVIDED any horfes fhall die, or be killed, or armour be loft 
or expended in the defence of the realm, the owner fhall not be 
profecuted for the deficiency within one year after fuch lofs. 

THE want of a gantlet or gantlets fhall not be reckoned a de- 
ficiency for a corcelet. 

THE fervants of fuch perfons as are bound to find a haquebut, 
may exercife themfelves in fhooting at fuch marks as are limited 
and appointed by the 33d of Henry VIII. (which fee in crofs bows) 
fo that they do not life fuch haquebut in any highway. This act 
not to extend to Wales, Lancafler or Chester, nor to oblige any 



one to have or to find a haquebut, but that they may, at their will 
and pleafure, have and keep, inftead of every haquebut charged in 
this aft, one long bowe, and one fheaf of arrowes, over and above 
fuch other armour and munition, as is by the laws of the realm 
appointed (i). 

THE lord chancellor or lord keeper of the great feal may from 
time to time by virtue of the king's commiflion, appoint commif- 
fioners in every city, borrough, &c. &c. as well in England as 
Wales, confiding of juflices, with other perfons joined with them, 
as he fhall think meet, to take a view of armour, and to affign what 
harneis, &c. they (hall be bound to provide and keep. 

BARDED horfes continued to be ufed in our armies at leaft to 
the time of Queen Elizabeth ; feveral contemporary writers men- 
tion them in the reigns of King Henry VIII. and Edward VI. among 
them is Patin, who, in his defcription of the battle of Muffelbo- 
rough, fays, " becaufe the Scottifh mens pykes wear as long or 
longer than their (i. e. the Englifh horfemen's) flaves, as alfo that 
their horfes wear al naked without BAR BBS, whereof though thear 
wear right many among us, yet not one put on, forafmuch as at 
our cumming foorth in the morning we looked for nothing lefs 
then for battail that day." 

IN the reign of Queen Elizabeth the ancient armour feems to 
have fallen into difrepute, as in the i5th year of that queen, anno 
1597, a motion was made in the houfe of commons by Mr. George 
Moor, complaining, that the fubjecls of this realm were com- 

(i) THIS claufe plainly (hews that the rulers of .thofe times were not very felicitous to 
introduce the ufe of fire-arms into the nation, but confidered a long bowe as equal to 
a haquebut. 

IN a let of inftructions for executing the commiflion for muttering and training all 
manner of perfons, 15 KHz. 1572, iubfcribed by the privy council. o. 68 4, Harleian 
MSS. In every hundred footmen, forty are directed to be harquebufiers, tv\e ty archers, 
if fo many can be procured, the remainder to be bill men, halberdiers, or morris-pykes. 



pel led under great penalties, to have and keep fundry forts of 
armour and weapons, at prefent altogether unneceflary and ufelefs, 
befides being charged with the finding and providing of other 
fuch weapons and armour from time to time, as the captains who 
are appointed to this charge, upon any occafion of fervice will 
call for, and appoint at their own pleafure ; wherefore he moved 
for a law to eftablifh fomething certain on this head, on which 
a committee was appointed j what was their determination dees 
not appear, it is however certain that defenfive armour began to 
>e laid afide about this time, of which Sir John Smith complains 
in the manufcript before quoted, (k) faying, that captains embark- 
ing men for foreign fervice, ordered them to throw away their 
poldrons, vambraces, and tafles, as being incumbrances without 
ufe. (1) 

IN the reign of King James I. no great alterations were made 
in the article of defenfive armour, except that the buff coat or 
jerken, which was originally worn under the cuirafs, now became 
frequently a fubftitute for it, it having been found, that a good 
buff leather, would of itfelf refift the ftroke of a fword j this how- 
ever only occafionally took place among the light armed cavalry 
and infantry, compleat fuits of armour being (till worn by the 
heavy horfe. Buff coats continued to be worn by the city trained 
bands, till within the memory of perfons now living, fo that defen- 
five armour may in fome meafure be faid to have terminated in 

(k) No. 4685, Harl. 

(1) THIS feems to mew that nothing like any uniform pattern of defenfive armour 
was then adopted, but every foldier was permitted to wear and ufe fuch armour and 
weapons as they themfelves could provide, for which in ancient times they had an allow- 
ance made them in their pay. It is clearly pointed out by many articles in the code of 
military laws, enabled by Henry V. and others, that the horfes, armour and weapons of 
the private men were their property, as diverfe offences were therein punifhed with for- 
feiture of horfes, armour, and weapons. 



the fame materials with which it began, that is the fkins of 
animals, or leather. 

RESPECTING offenfive arms, the chief difference of this period, 
was a gradual difufe of halberts, bills, morris pikes, and all the 
other weapons termed ftaves, except the common pike, together 
with a more general , reception of fire arms, ib that muikets, 
calivers, pikes and fvvords, became the chief and altnoft the only 
weapons carried by the infantry, fwords, carabines and piilols by 
the cavalry. 

KING CHARLES I. foon after his acceffion to the crown, caufed 
a furvey to be made of ail the armour, arms, and ammunition in 
the Tower of London, the feveral forts and caftles throughout the 
kingdom, and alfo on board the different (hips of war; (1) and in 
the feventh year of his reign, appointed commiflioners confirming 
of a number of experienced armourers, gun, pike, and bandalier 
makers, to travel throughout England and Wales, to furvey, prove, 
repair, and put the armour and weapons of the militia into a flate 
fit for fervice. He alfo took meafures for bringing about an uni- 
formity in the fafhion of their armour and arms, a circumflance 
never before attended to, the want of which mufl have been pro- 
-duclive of many inconveniencies. 

HE at the fame time fettled the prices for making and repairing 
the different pieces of a fuit of armour, for both horfe and foot ; 
the rates to be charged for the feveral parts of a mufket, piftol, 
or carbine, with thofe for a pike and bandaliers. 

As this commifTion and fchedule of the prices eftabliflied, contain 
many curious particulars refpe<5ting the arms and armour of thofe 
times, they are here given at length, (m) 

A SPECIAL commiffion for the furveying of the armours, arms, 

(1) A. D. 1629, 5 Charles I. See Rymer in anno. 

(m) RYMER, torn. xix. p. 914, A. D. 1631. 7 Charles I. 

B b &c, 

9 3 A TR E ATISE ow 

&c. of the trained bands, and for fettling the rates and prices of 
the fame. 

CHARLES, by the Grace of God, &c. To our trufty and wel- 
beloved John Franklin, William Crouch, John Afhton, Thomas 
Stephens, Rowland Foiler, Nicholas Marftiall, William Coxe, and 
Edward Aynefley, workemen, armourers, and freemen of the com- 
pany of armourers of our cittye of London ; and Henry Rowland, 
Richard Burrowe, Thomas Addis, John Norcott, William Dawftin, 
John Watfon, and William Graves, of our faid cittie of London, 
gun makers; and John Edwards, Robert Tucker, and Bartholomew 
Ray, pike makers of our cittie of London, and John Gate, and 
William Beauchamp, bandalier makers of our cittie of London, 
aforefaid ; and to every of them, greeting. 

WEE forefeeinge in our princely judgment, how necefTary it is 
for the prefervation of our felfe, and the fubjets of our kingdome 
in generall, that the armours, gunnes. pikes, and bandaliers thereof, 
be from tyme to tyme repaired, amended, drefled and (lamped ; and 
that they according to the juft and full number charged by the 
mufter rolls in every feverall county, be fully furnifhed and com- 
pleatly mayntayned, which now as we are credibly informed, are in 
many parts of this kingdom much decayed and negle6ted ; and that 
expert and fkilfull workmen may be trayned up, imployed, and 
maintayned, as well in tyme of peace as of warre, to the end wee 
may not be inforced in tyme of warre to feeke for armes, armours, 
gunnes, pikes and bandaliers, in forraigne parts, as it hath been 
heretofore accuftomed, and foe be eyther unprovided of them, or 
fupplyed at deare and uncertaine rates, at the pleafure of forraigne 
princes and flates, when any unexpected occafion of imployment, 
or fudden fervice, for the fafety and honour of our peribn and ftate 
fhall require; and wee well weighing in our princely consideration, 
the dangerous confequence thereof, did for our better information, 
refer the further consideration thereof to our counfell of warre, and 
ether fpeciall committees > who upon mature deliberation have cer- 


tified us, that the company of workmen, armourers, gun makers, 
pike makers, and bandalier makers of our cittie of London, (being 
the Ikilfullefl and prime workmen of this land) are moft fit to be 
employed and encouraged in this fervice, that foe they having con- 
venient employment in tyme of peace, wee may be afTured of their 
true and efTe<5tuall fervice in the tymes of warre, and yett they to 
performe the faid fervice at fuch rates and prices as fhall not be left 
at their owne difcretion, but fhall be particularly agreed upon, and 
ordered herein ; and they have alfo certified unto us, that they 
find it very behoofefull for our fervice, and for the ftrength and 
fafety of this kingdom, and for the increafing of the number o 
fldlfull and expert workemen of the feverall trades and profeffions 
of armourers, gun makers, pike makers, and bandalier makers ; that 
a commifiion fhould be awarded to the tenor and effect of thefe 
prefents, and a proclamation thereupon made and publifhed, to 
fignifie what wee herein command or forbid, for the general good 
of this kingdome: and whereas the faid armourers, gun makers, 
pike makers, and bandalier makers, are accordingly willing to 
accept of and undertake this fervice, and according to the faid 
certificate, have given caution in our office of ordinance to be ready, 
when we fhall have occafion to &tt them on worke, at feven dayes 
warning, and that the faid armourers will deliver into our ftores, 
for ready money, fifteen hundred armours every month, and the 
gun makers as many mufkets, and baftard mufkets, (n) and fmall 
fhot, upon the fame warninge ; as alfo the pike makers, and banda- 
lier makers, a proportionable number upon the like warning, four 
our fervice ; and that the faid armourers, gun makers, pike makers, 
and bandalier makers, will bring up apprentices from tyme to tyme, 
to be expert and fkilfull in thefe feverall occupations, which are 
foe necefTary for the defence of this kingdome, foe as they may 

PROBABLY- calivm, 


' v 



be imployed in making, mending, dreffinge, {lamping and repayf- 
ing of armours, guns, pikes, and bandaliers in the cittie and coun- 
try, and have agreed and entred into bond as aforefaid, that they 
will not exceed the rates and prices in a fchedule hereunto annexed, 
expreffing the feveral rates and prices which fhall be allowed them 
reflectively for the faid worke, which are very reafonable, and not 
only without grievance, but very much for the eafe and benefit of 
our fubjers, who are or fhall be thereby concerned in refpecl of 
their former trouble and charges in that kynde j and likewife will 
perform fuch other directions as wee fhall from tyme to tyme pre- 
fcribe unto them, for the better advancing of fo necefTary and pub- 
lique a fervice as need fhall require. 

KNOW yee therefore that wee, by and with the advice of the lords 
and others our counfcll of warre, and other committees to whom 
wee referred the confiderations of this good worke for the better 
efFectinge and advancing of the fame : and repofmg allured trufl 
and confidence in the fidelity, experience and diligence of you the 
faid John Franklyn, William Crouch, John Afhton, Thomas Stee- 
vens, Rowland Fofter, Nicholas Marfhall, William Coxe, Edward 
Anefley, Henry Rowland, Richard Berrowe, Thomas Addis, John 
Norcott, William Dawftin, William Watfon, John Wa'tfon and 
William Graves, armourers and gun makers ; and John Edwards, 
Robert Thacker, and Bartholomew Raye, pike makers j and John 
Gate and William Beachamp, bandalier makers of our citty of 
London, have authorifed, affigned and appointed you to be our 
commifiioners, armourers, gun makers, pike makers, and bandalier 
makers : And we doe by thefe prefents give unto you, or any one, 
two, three or more of you, and to your deputies, ailiftants and af- 
fignees, and every of them, by you or the greater part of you, law- 
fully authorifed, free libsrtie, licence, power and authority, to 
travell or goe into any county, place or places svithin this our 
realme of England, and the dominion of Wales, as well within li- 
berties as without ; and there with the approbation and afiiftance 



of the lord lieutenant and deputy lieutenants where you fhall hap- 
pen to come, or of any other to be by them deputed and appointed, 
to make diligent furvey of all armes, armours, gunnes, pikes and 
bandaliers whatfoever, appoynted to be found and maynteyned at 
the common charge of every cittie, towne or village, and of the 
trayned bands in every county, as well horfe as foot, throughout 
our faid realme of Englande and dominion of Wales j and upon 
and after the faid furvey, to new make, alter, amend, drefs, repayre, 
prove and ftampe (as need fhall require) all or any of the faid ar^ 
mour, gunnes, pikes and bandaliers, and make them compleate 
and fit for fervice, as by the faid lord lieutenant and deputy lieu- 
tenants, or any other by them deputed and appoynted as aforefaid, 
fhall be appoynted and directed ; and that by the direction of the 
faid lord lieutenants or the deputy lieutenants of the feverall coun- 
tyes and divifions refpectively, the faid armour, gunnes, pikes and 
bandaliers, once or twice every yeare or oftner (if need fhall be) be 
brought to fuch convenient place or places, upon the mufter days, 
or at fuch other convenient tyme or tymes as they fhall think fit, 
to the end that the fame may be then and there viewed and fur- 
veyed, and as occafion fhall require, be altered, amended or renewed 
as aforefaid. 

AND that you may the better performs this fervice, and informe 
us by the lords lieutenants and deputy lieutenants as aforefaid, as 
occafion fhall require, of all fuch defects and negligences as may 
happen from tyme to tyme, wee doe hereby give full power and 
authority unto you, or any one, two, three or more of you, your 
deputies and afligns, by the direction of the lords lieutenants or 
deputy lieutenants as aforefaid (if they fhall foe think it fitt and 
behoofefull for our fervice) to require all minifters of mufters, who 
have the records or keeping of the mufter rolls of the faid armours, 
forthwith to deliver unto you true copyes of the faid mufter rolls, 
to the end that you may be truely informed who ought to be 
charged with the faid armour, gunnes, pikes and bandaliers, ac- 
cording to the juft numbers and natures of them. 

C c AND 


AND farther our will and command is, that you our faid com- 
nnffioners, armourers, gun makers, pike makers, and bandalier ma- 
kers, your deputies or affigns (upon your faid furvey) do obferve 
what numbers of armcs, armourers, gunnes, pikes, and bandaliers, 
are wholly wanting as aforefaid, that are appointed and ought to be 
charged upon any perfon or perfons in any place, and that you dif- 
tinguifh the utterly unferviceable, from fuch as by mending and 
repairing may be made ferviceable ; and that you fet downe the 
numbers and natures of their defects, and that you may make up 
the furvey in a booke to be certified under the hands of you our 
faid commiffioners, armourers, gun-makers, pike-makers, and ban- 
dalier makers, or any two, three or more of you, to be figned and 
approved of by the lord lieutenant or deputy lieutenants, or fuch as 
they in every place fhall depute for that purpofe to affift in the faid 
furvey j and likewife that upon fuch your furvey, you approve of 
all fuch armours of the faid common armes and trayned band, as 
fhall be found fit for fervice, and to prove and trye all forts of 
gunnes, pikes and bandaliers of the faid common armes and trayned 
band, before they be ufed or exercifed, and to approve of fuch as are 
ferviceable for warres at the owners charge, and being proved, fhall 
allow as fit for fervice ; and allowing fhall framp the fame with the 
" A and Crown," being the hall mark for the company of work- 
men armourers of London, which marke or /lamp our pleafure is, 
lhall with the confent of the lord lieutenant or his deputy lieute- 
nants, remayne in their cuftodye, who fhall have the charge to be 
intrufted with the execution of this fervice, wherein, and in this 
whole commiflion, they are further to follow fuch inftructions as 
are and fhall from tyme to tyme be given forth from us, or the 
lords of our privy councell or councell of warre, in that behalf. 

AND to the end noe abufe or deceipt may be in the number of 
armes, armours, gunnes, pikes or bandaliers borrowed one of ano- 
ther, wee doe hereby give power and authority to you, or the major 
part of you, to caufe to be framed and made, and to you, or to any 
one, two, three or more of you, your deputies or aflignes, to ufe 



two other markes or ftamps, to be firft allowed by the lords lien- 
tenants or deputy lieutenants, or fuch as they (hall depute for that 
purpofe, the one to diftinguifh the county, the other the place or 
divifion where the faid armes, armours, gunnes, pikes or bandaliers 
are charged and be, which markes and ftamps, our will and pleafure 
is, fhall remayne in the cuftodye of you, our faid commifiioners, ar- 
mourers, gun makers, pike makers, and bandalier makers, or fome 
of you, your deputies or aflignes, and fliall be entred in the faid 
booke of furvey, to be figned as abovefaid ; for the ufing and put* 
ting to, of which markes and ftamps of the place or divifion afore- 
faid, wee hold it very fitting, that our lord lieutenants, or their 
deputye lieutenants, in every place and divifion, doe appoint and 
fet downe fome competent allowance unto you the commifTioners, 
armourers, gun makers, pike makers, bandalier makers, your de- 
puties or aflignes, for your labour and attendance upon our fervice 

AND further our will and pleafure is, that upon the intreaty of 
you our faid commiflioners, or any one, two, three, or more of you, 
your deputies and aflignes, according as the wants and defects of 
the faid armour, gunnes, pikes and bandaliers, fhall appear upon 
the faid booke of furvey, figned as aforefaid, our faid lords lieute- 
nants, and their deputye lieutenants of the feveral counties re- 
fpeclively in our name, doe commaund, and give order to the fe- 
verall places and perfons chargeable therewith, within a reafonable 
tyme, and at fome convenient place to be prescribed, to fupply fuch 
defecls, either by providing new armours, gunnes, pikes and ban- 
daliers, or by mending and repayring the old, as there fliall be 

AND becaufe diverfe cutlers, fmyths, tynkers, and other botchers 
of armes, by their unfkilfulnefs have utterly fpoiled many armes, 
armours, gunnes, pikes and bandaliers, which by a fkilful work- 
man might have been altered, drefled, amended and made fervice- 
able, and yet have required great rates of the country for the doeing 
thereof; and diverfe tradefmen of other trades and myfteries, do 


104- A IKE A I IblS OK 

buy, barter and fell armes, armours, gunnes, pikes and bandaliers ; 
which are badd and infufficient, to the great prejudice of our loving 
fubjecls : To the end thefe abufes and diforders may be from hence- 
forth reflrayned and wholly prevented, we doe hereby prohibit, 
and abfolutely forbid, that noe perfon or perfons whatfoever, not 
having ferved feven years, or been brought up as an apprentice or 
apprentices in the trade and myfterie of an armourer, gun-maker, 
pike-maker, and bandalier-maker, and thereat ferved their full tyme 
of feven years as aforefaid, and be bound to do us fervice as afore- 
faid, when they fhall be thereunto required, and have their name 
and dwelling thereunto entred by you or fome of you, by your 
recommendation in our office of the ordinance as aforefaid, do 
make, mend, alter, change, drefs, or repayr, prove, or flampe, 
any armes, armours, gunnes, pikes, or bandaliers of the common 
armes of trayned band whatfoever, or any others, or any of them, 
or any part of them, or intermeddle therein : Neverthelefs, it is 
our pleafure and ftricl: commaund, that you give encouragement 
and refpect to all fuch fkilfull and well-deferving workmen of all 
fortes of armes, as you fhall find in every place within our king- 
dome and domynion aforefaid, to have them employed and fet on 
worke j and it is our further will and pleafure, that if you or our 
faid commiflioners, armourers, gun-makers, pike-makers, and 
bandalier-makers, fhall not be prefent, either by yourfelves, your 
fervants, deputies, or affignes, in every county and place, when 
and where any defects in .arms, gunnes, pikes, and bandaliers, 
at muflers or any other fuch publique meetings, in each countye, 
fhall be found j or if you or any for or under you, being fo prefent 
in each countye and place, fhall be unwilling and negligent to 
make, amend, drefs, repayre, and flamp the faid armes, armours, 
gunnes, pikes, and bandaliers, according to the intent of this our 
commhTion, then it fhall be lawful in any fuch your negligence or 
default, at fuch tyme or tymes, and in fuch cafes only, for the 
owners of armes to carry their armours, gunnes, pikes, and baa- 
daiiers unto fuch countrye workmen as heretofore ha,ve made or 



mended any of them, to make, amend, alter, and repayre them as 
heretofore they have done, without any trouble or interruption by 
you, or any for or under you, any thing in this our commiffion to 
the contrary notwithflanding : And we do abfolutely forbid, that 
no ironmonger, cutler, chandler, or other perfon whatfoever, doe 
vent or fell any armours, gunner, pikes, or bandaliers, or any 
part of them, except fuch as fhall be proved and {lamped with the 
faid hall marke of the company of workemen, armourers aforefaid, 
being the proofe marke , and alfo warranted by our faid com- 
miflioners, armourers, gun- makers, pike-makers, and bandalier- 
makers, or fome of them, or fuch as they fhall appoint thereunto, 
and be allowed by them to be fufficient, upon payne and penaltie 
of our high indignation and difpleafure, and fuch other penalties 
and imprifonments, as by the lawes of this realme, or by our pre- 
rogative royall, may be inflicted upon them. 

And to the end that by occafion of this reflraynt, no excefs of 
prices may either through neceflity or ignorance be put upon the 
country for new armours, gunnes, pikes, or bandaliers, or for the 
dreffing, repairing, proving, and flamping the old and ferviceable, 
we doe hereby require and commaund, that no armourer, gun- 
maker, pike-maker, or bandalier-maker, who (hall be employed in 
this fervice doe demand, take or receive for any new armoury, 
gunnes, pikes, or bandaliers, or for dreffinge, repayring, prove- 
inge, or {lamping the old or any part of them, above the rates 
and prices in the fchedule hereunto annexed and exprefied (which 
wee hold very much for the eafe and benefit of our loving fubjecls, 
which now are or hereafter fhall be charged with armes ;) willing 
alfoe, requireing and commaunding all perfons charged with armes, 
armours, gunnes, pikes, or bandaliers of the common armes, or 
the trained bands as aforefaid, that fhall hereafter^have of our faid 
commifnonersj armourers, gun-makers, pike-makers, or bandalier- 
makers, their deputies, or adgnes, anie new armours, gunnes/ 
pikes, or bandaliers, or upon their haveing of their armours, gunnes, 
pikes, or bandaliers, or any of them drefTed, amended, altered 3 
rep^yred, proved, or (lamped, as aforefaid, fhall and will fatisfie, 

D d- content^. 


content, and pay our faid commiflioners, armourers, gnn-fnakerSj 
pike-makers, and bandalier-makers, their deputies or aflignes, or 
any of them for the fame, according to the rates and prices in 
the aforefaid fchedule annexed, exprefled and fet down ; and if any 
difference at any tyme hereafter, (hall arife touching the natures 
or numbers of defects, between the armourers, gun-makers, pike- 
makers and bandalier-makers, im ployed for the faid new making, 
amending, drefling, repayring and ftamping of any of the armours, 
gunnes, pikes or bandaliers of the common armes or trayned 
bands aforefaid, and thofe in whofe cuftody the faid armours, 
gunnes, pikes and bandaliers, fhall be or remaine; then, our pleafure 
is, that the fame fhall be ordered by the lords lieutenants, or 
deputy lieutenants, or any of them, or fuch as fliall be by them, or 
any one of them deputed, for the tyme being, who fliall make the 
furvey above mentioned. 

AND becaufe we are credibly given to underftaiid, that the often 
and continual! altering and changing of the fafhion of armes and 
armours, fome countrys and parts of this kingdome haveing 
armours of one fafhion, and fome of another, do put many of our 
fubjecls to a great and unneceflary charge, and more than need 
requireth : for the avoiding whereof, our will and pleafure is, and 
wee doe hereby appoint and command, that hereafter there fliall 
be but one uniform fafhion of armours, of the faid common and 
trayned bands, throughout our faid kingdome of ENGLAND, and 
domynion of WALES, when as any of the faid armours fliall be 
fupplied and new made, and that that form and fafhion of armour 
fliall be agreeable to the laft and modern fafhion lately fet downe 
and appoynted to be ufed, by the lords and others of our councell 
of warre, (the patterns whereof are now and fliall remayn in the 
office of our ordinance from tyme to tyme, which is our pleafure 
likewife concerning gunnes, pikes and bandaliers, whereof patterns 
are, and fliall remayne from tyme to tyme in our faid office) and 
our will and pleafure is, that for the better compleating of every 
of the mufkettiers of our faid trayned bands, and that they may 


ANCIENT ARMOUR, fifr. ro; 

be better fitted and appoynted for fervice, (if need requires) every 
mufkettier of the fayd common and trayned bands, (hall have and 
be from tyme to tyme furnifhed and provided of a headpeece 
agreeable to the modern fafhion of the headpeeces of the foote- 
mans armour, whereof the pattern remayneth alfo in our aforefaid 
office of ordnance. 

WILLING alfoe, requireing and commaunding all and fmgular 
our lieutenants, their deputye lieutenants, juftices of the peace, 
majors, fheriffs, mutter matters, captaines of bands, and their 
lieutenants, his conftables, conftables, headboroughs, and all other 
our officers, minifters, and loving fubjects whomfoever, that they 
and every of them, be from tyme to tyme aydeing, helping and 
affifting unto you our commiffioners, armourers, gun-makers, 
pike-makers, and bandalier makers, and every or any of you, your 
deputies, affiftants, fervants and aflignes, and to all fuch others as 
fhall be employed in the execution of this our commiflion, or the 
fervice thereby required and intended, in all things as fhall be moft 
meet, and to perform what to them or any of them fhall refpec- 
tively appertayne, according to our pleafure herein and hereby fig- 
nified and declared. 

AND our farther will and pleafure is, that if you our faid com- 
miffioners, or any of you, your deputyes, affiftants or aflignes, or 
any of them, {hall find that this our commiflion in any part be not 
executed with effecl, according to the tenor and intent thereof, by 
reafon of the oppofition, contradiction, remifnefs or negligence of 
any perfon or perfons whatfoever, that then you or fome of you 
doe certifye the caufe, with the names of the perfons offending, 
unto the lords lieutenants and deputy lieutenants of each county, 
and in cafes fo requireing, to the lords of our privy councell, or 
councell of warre, by whom wee may be informed thereof, to the 
end the offenders may be punifhed according to their demerits. 

AND wee doe likewife hereby commaund and require our faide 
lords lieutenants and their deputy lieutenants, within their coun- 
tyes and divisions, refpeftively from tynre to tyme to punifh any 



of you, our faid commiflioners, armourers, gun-makers, pike- 
makers and bandalier-makers, their deputies, fervants and aflignes 
according to the quality of their faults, when they {hall neglect 
the truft and duty committed unto them by this our commiffion. 

AND laftly our will and pleafure is, that this our commiffion 
fhall (land in force, and that you our commiflioners, armourers, 
gun-makers, pike-makers, and bandalier-makers, and every of you, 
your deputies, afliftants and aflignes, and every of them may pro- 
ceed in the execution thereof, although the fame be not from tyme 
to tyme continued by adjournment. 

In witnefs, &c. 

Witnefs our felfe at Weftminfter, Vicefimo nono die Junii, 
Per Breve de Private Sigillo, 

Kymer, torn. xix. p. 314. 
An. 7, C. i. 

A Schedule- 



A SCHEDULE containing the new Rates and Prices of the 
feveral Parts and whole Arrnes, both for Horfe and Foot, 
throughout the Kingdom of England and Dominion of Wales, 
fet downe and eftablifhed by the Right Honourable, the Lords 
Committees of the Counfel of Warre, as every of the faid 
Armes may be afforded at London, by the Armourers, Gun- 
makers, Pike-makers, and Bandalier-makers, according to the 
intent of the CommifTion, herunto annexed, viz. 

The Prices of the feveral Parts and 
whole Armour of a CuiraJJier 
ru/etted, viz. 




A breaft of piftol proofe 


A backe - - - - - 



A clofe cafke lyned - - 


A payre of pouldrons - 


A payre of vambracea 




A payre of guiflets - - 


A cullet or guarderine 



A gorgett lyned - - - 



A gauntlett gloved - - 




Soe the price of the whole"! 

cuirafliers armour a- 

mmmt^tVi unto - 



The Prices of the Parts and of the 
whole Corjlet or Footman's Ar- 
mour ruffetted, viz. 

s - & 

The breaft -----o vvi 
The backe ----- o iiii vi 

The tafletts ov o 

The comb'd headpeece lyned o iiii vi 
The gorgett lyned - - - o ii vi 

The totall of the footman's" 
armour - - - - 

If the breaft, back, and tafo s. d. 
fets, be lyned with red > i iiii o 
leather, the price will be J 

The Prices of the Parts and of the 
whole Armour for a Harquebu- 
Horfeback rttj/etted, viz. 

A breaft of piftoll proofe - o 
A backe ------ o 

A gorgett ----- o 

A headpeece with great 
cheekes, and a barr be- 
fore the face - - - 

The totall of the whole,"* 

and all the parts of a I . 
harquebuzier, or light I 
horfeman's armour is ^ 



s. d. 
A comb'd headpeece for"^ 

a muflcettier rufletted V- o v o 
and lyned - - - J 

Price of the Pike. 

The ftaffe ----- oiivi 

The head - - - - - o i via 
Socket and colouring o o iiii 

Summe ------ iiii vi vl 



Rates for rep ay ring and drejjing of a Horfemans Ar- 
mour and Footmans Armour* 

For unftriking, new fyling, rufletting, new nayling, s. d 
leathering and lyning of a cuiraffiers armour - - i iii o 

For yearly dreffing and keeping clean a cuiraffiers arr 

mour that needs not new rufleting or fetting - - o iiii o 

For new rufletting and lyneing the head peece, and 

fetting a harquebuziers armour ------o vi viii 

For yearly dreffing and keeping clean a harquebuziers 

armour, that needs not new rufleting or fetting - o ii vi 

For cutting and new falhioning a long bellied breaft o ii vi 

For new rufletting of an ordinary corflet of the mo- 
dern failiion - ----- .- - - - - o iiii a 

For a furniture of joynts, viz. two {boulder joynts, 
and fower taflet joynts, with hookes and pinnes, 
being all new fett - T --------aii viii 

For yearly dreffing and keeping clean every ordinary 

croflet and pike that needs not new rufletting - - o i viii 

For ftamping every horfemans armour fit to be al- 
lowed - -------- - ; - - - o o o 

For ftamping every harquebuziers armour fit to be 

allowed ------------- o o a 


For a new mufcet with mould, worm and fcowrer - o xv vi 
For new walnutt-tree ftock for a mufkett plated at 

the butt end with iron -------- o ii vi: 

For a muf&et ftock of beech plated at the butt end 

with iron ------- - - - - - o i viii 

For a match tricker-lock compleat ------ o i o 

For a whole worke confifting of the pan, the cover of 

the pan, the fcutchion and the fcrew pynn - - o i o 

For a ftick, worm, fockett, fcowrer and bone - ~ - o i o 



' ^ 
For a handle or guard of a tricker - - - - - , o o vi 

For a new cock fitted - - ----..-o o viii 

For a new breech -----------o i o 

For furnifhing and fetting of a tricker lock in place 
of a feare lock, with a handle, tricker, and tricker 
pynnes ------------- o ii vi 

For a new touch-hole fcrewed ------- o o x 

For a new barrell of a mulkett, only forged and bored 
fower foote in length, the bore according to th& 
bullet of ten in the pound {landing, and twelve 
rowleing - - - - - - - - - -. - - - o viii o 

For making clean and new rufletting of a mufkett - o o iiii 
For a mufkett reft -------- --o ox 

For making clean a fquare fyled mufkett white - - o i viii 
For the yearly drefling and keepeing clean a mufkett 
that needs not new rufletting, with the furniture 
and reft ------------ -o o x 

For powder and fhot for proving every mufkett - - o o o 
For ftamping every mufkett proved and allowed - - o o o 
For a new bandalier with twelve charges, a prymer, a 
pryming wyre, a bullet bag, and a ftrap or belt of 
two inches in breadth --------- o ii vi- 

For a pair of firelock piftols, furnifhed with a key, 
mould, fcowrer, worm, flafk, and cafes of leather, 
of length and boar according to the allowance of 
the counfel of war -----.--- iii o o 

For a pair of horfemans piftols furnifhed with fnap- 
hances, mouldes, worms, fcowrer, flafk, a charger 
and cafes - - - - . - - - - - - - ii o o 

For a harque-buze with a firelock and belte, fwivell, 

flafk, key, moulde, worme, and fcowrer - - - i xvi o 
For a carabine with a fnaphance, belt, fwivell and 
flafk, ,6cc. as aforefaid - ~ - --_--...- i, o o 



The armour and weapons directed to be worn by the militia, 
after the reftoration, are thus defcribed in the flatute of the 13111 
and i4th of King Charles II. 

" The arms offenfive and defenfive, with the furniture for horfe, 
are to be as follovveth : the defenfive arms, a back, breaft and pot, 
a&d the breaft and pot to be piftol proof ; the offenfive arms, a 
fword and a cafe of piftols, the barrels wherof are not to be under 
fourteen inches in length : the furniture for the horfe to be a great 
faddle or padd, with burrs and ftraps to affix the holfters unto, a 
bit and bridle with a pecloral and crupper. For the foot, a muf- 
qyeteer is to have a mufqet, (o) the barril whereof is not to be under 
three foot in length, and the gauge of the bore to be for twelve 
bullets to the pound, a collar of bandeleers with a fword. Pro- 

(o) As the mufquet reft is not here mentioned, it is probable refts were then laid afide; 
the price of a mufquet reft is given in the fchedule of rates for armour and weapons, 
fettled the yth of Charles I. The ufe of the reft is alfo taught in a treatife publifhed in 
the year 1634, called the Soldier's Pra&ice, written by Thomas Fifher, an officer who 
had ferved twenty-fix years in the Low Countries, and was afterwards employed by Philip 
earl of Pembrook Lord Lieutenant of the county of Kent, to difcipline the militia of that 
county. We may, therefore, with great probability, date the difufe of the reft fometime 
about the commencement of the civil war under Charles I. when the weight and in- 
cumbrance of the mufquet and its apparatus might be found too great for the a&ive 
fervice, infeparable from war carried on in fmall detachments. Mufquet refts were not 
only ufed by the infantry, but were alfo borne by the cavalry. Sir John Smith in the 
MS. before quoted, mentions a very particular kind of them : " I myfelf (fays he) have 
feen mofquetteers on horfeback in two divers armies, and that in this forte, I have feen 
fquadrons of lances have in one only wing ten or twelve mufquetiers in one ranke, and 
fometimes in two winges, upon cold and quiet horfes, onely to carry them a marche, or 
a trott with the fquadron of launces, and the mofquetiers were armed with half breafts 
or cuyrats, with long reafts of fteele ftrong and firmly fet in them, to put backward over 
their moulders, and when they lift to pull them forwardes, for the mofquetiers to lay their 
mofquets upon when they woulde difcharge them. Even fuch Sir William Pelham 
did caufe tt> be made at the Mynories, by one Henricke a Dutchman, before his laft 
going over into the Lowe Countries, which invention came not from his own devyce, 
but from that he had fecne the like ufed by certen mufquetiers on horfeback in the warres 
of the Emperor Charles V. ;> 



vided that all mufter mafters (hall for the prefent admit and allow 
of any mufquets already made, which will bear a bullet of fourteen 
to the pound, but no mufkets which henceforth fhall be made are 
to be allowed of, but fuch as are of the gauge of twelve bullets to 
the pound. A pikeman is to be armed with a pike made of am, 
not under fixteen feet in length, the head and foot included, with 
a back, breaft, headpiece and fword : provided that all mufter 
mafters fhall for the prefent admit and allow of any pikes already 
made, that are not under fifteen foot in length, but no pikes which 
fliall be hereafter made are to be allowed of, that are under fixteen 
feet in length. 

IN the fhort reign of James II. the firft ftep was taken towards 
the abolition of the ufe of pikes in England, by the introduction 
of the practice of flicking the dagger into the muzzle of the muf- 
quet, in order to protect the mufquetteers from being charged by 
the horfe immediately after they had fired. This practice, which 
was borrowed from the French, and confined to the grenadiers only, 
was the origin of the bayonet. 

THE regular introduction of bayonets took place in France 
about the year 1671, the firft corps armed with them was the 
regiment of fufileers raffed that year, and fince called the royal 
regiment of artillery, (p) but although the adoption of the bay- 
onet is fo recent, the idea of it had long occurred to different 
officers, fome of whom had occafionally put it in practice - 3 among 
them was Monfieur de Puifegar in the diftrict in Flanders where 
he commanded : C For my part," fays he, in his Memoirs, " when 
I commanded in Bergue, in Ypres, Dixmude and Quenoque, all the 
parties I fent out pafled the canals in this fort j it is true that the 
foldiers had no fwords, but they had bayonets with handles of a 
foot long, the blades of the bayonets were as long as the handles, 

(p) P. DANIEL. 

F f the 


the ends of which were fitted for being put into the barrels of the 
fufils, to defend themfelves if attacked after they had fired, (q) 
THE firfl time this contrivance occurs in any Englifh military 

(q) MR. WILLIAM BARIFFE, in his Treatife of Military Difcipline, entitled the 
Young Artillery Man, the fecond edition of which was printed in 1639, defcribes and 
confiders feveral contrivances invented in England, to protect the mufquetteer againfl: 
Cavalry, after he had parted with his fire, and before he had reloaded. " Having often 
(fays he) confidered the danger of the mujkettier, and how unable he is to refift the horfe, 
after he hath poured forth his Jhotte, without he bejheltered, either by fome natural/ or ar- 
tificial defence ; and withall having knowledge that in feverall parts of Chrijtendome, divers 
Captain es and Souldiers have oft beene trying conclufions, to make the mufketteer as well 
defenjive as offenfive. Some by unfcrewing the heads of their rejls, and then fcrewing 
the Jlaffe of their rejts into the muzzle of the mujket, with the arming of a pike at the 
lower end, by which means they would ufe the mufket and reft together, in the nature 
of a whole pike : but this proved fo tedious and troublefome, that it fell without profit. 
Another fort had made rejts with the one end of the forke (or head) being like a fpike, 
about eighteen inches in length; this alfo proved extreme troublefome to themfelves, 
dangerous to their followers, and of no validity againft the enemie. A third forte had 
halfe-pikes of about feve'n or eight foot in length, ufeing it after the manner of a rejl : but 
all the while the mujkettier was charging (his mufket) one of them was enough to trouble 
a whole file, befides the danger in the recovery.. A fourth forte there was (yet better than 
the former) that with a hooke was fajlened to the girdle, the while the mujkettier wa? 
making ready : but this had its defects alfo, as being both tedious and troublefome. Many 
other wayes and conclufions have alfo been tryed, with fuccefie like the former ; which I 
forbeare to demonftrate, for as their conceits proved ufelefle, fo the difcourfe would prove 
as fruitlefle. Laftly, myfelfe, with another gentleman of our ground, (Matter John Davies 
of Blackefriers) both well affecting the ufe of the mufket, found out a way to ufe the 
half pike and mujket, with fo much facilitie and eafe, that is farre leffe troublefome than 
the reft, and yet of greater length than any of the former rejls, or half e pikes, as being com- 
pleat ten foot in length, with the arming. 

ALL the former devices, if they could have beene brought to any maturitie, yet would 
have falne farre fhort of this, for the triple ufe thereof, as being a rejl, if there be no farther 
occafion ; as being a pallifado (if there be occafion) to defend the mufkettier from the 
horfe ; as being a halfe-pike to ufe in trenches ; as alfo when our Jhotte have poured out a 
great volly or fhowre of lead on the adverfe mufkettiers, they may then nimbly with 
their halfe-pikes, fall in amongft them. And Lftly for the purfuite of an enemy, it being 
of all others the bed weapon. A ferviceable halfe-pike may be had for two millings and 
fix-pence, which exceeds not much the price of a rejl. 



writer, at leaft that I have feen, is in a treatife publifhed in the 
year 1686, where it is mentioned under the denomination of the 
dagger, (r) but is confined to the grenadiers only, and in their 
hands it continued anno 1690; where in a treatife of military dif- 
cipline, publifhed by authority, it is called a bayonet, (s) It is not 
however mentioned in fome inftruclions for the manual exercife 
publiftied two years after, for the ufe of the militia, but from di- 
verfe other military books written about the fame time, it appears 
that the dragoons as well as grenadiers, both horfe and foot, had 
daggers or bayonets, and fixed them in the muzzles of their pieces j 
neither Father Daniel nor Monfieur St. Remy give the particular 
date, when the prefent mode of fixing bayonets took place, nor 
by whom it was invented, the improvement is faid to have originated 
in France, which feems to be corroborated by the following anecdote 
communicated to me by Lieut. Col. Chriflopher Maxwell of the 
3oth regiment of foot, who had it from his grandfather, formerly 
Lieutenant Colonel of the 25th regiment of foot. In one of the cam- 
paigns of King William III. in Flanders, in an engagement, the 
name of which my informant has forgot, there were three French 
regiments, whofe bayonets were made to fix after the prefent 
fafhion, a contrivance then unknown in the Britifh army; one 
of them advanced againft the 25th regiment with fixed bayonets, 
Lieutenant Colonel Maxwell who commanded it, ordered his men 
to fcrew their bayonets into their muzzles to receive them j but to 

(r) THE dagger was fixed by the following words of command, to which were added 
the annexed directions : the grenadiers having fired and recovered their arms, the word of 
command was, cajl over to the left, on which, they were to lay their right hands on their 
daggers, draw your dagger^ holding it faft before you upright, fcrew it into the muzzle of 
your firelock , fo that the flat fide may be toward you when recovered. 

(s) BAYONET, from being firft made at Bayonne in Spain. Thofe ancient bayonets 
are called by the French, bayonets a manche. Many of them may be feen in the fmajl 
armory in the Tower, the handles are plain, fitting tight into the muzzle of the mufket, 
and rather enlarging towards the blade, to prevent their entering too far into the piece. 



his great furprife, when they came within a proper diflance, the 
French threw in a heavy fire, which for a moment daggered his 
people, who by no means expected fuch a greeting, not conceiving 
how it was poffible to fire with fixed bayonets j they neverthelefs 
recovered themfelves, charged and drove the enemy out of the line. 

AT what time the mode of fixing the bayonet fo as not to 
prevent loading and firing with it was adopted in England, I have not 
been able to difcover, but believe it was not at firfl done quite in the 
prefent form, the late Rev. Mr. W. Codling of Canterbury, a man 
very curious refpe&ing military matters told me he had feen two 
horfe grenadiers riding before Queen Anne's coach with fixed 
bayonets, that thefe bayonets were of the dagger kind having han- 
dles originally intended for fcrewing into the muzzles of the pieces, 
which handles then had two rings, fixed to them for the admifiion 
of the barrel of the piece. In a book of exercife, for the horfe 
dragoons and foot, printed anno 1728 by authority, the bayonet of 
the prefent fafhion is defcribed. 

THE introduction of the bayonet naturally procured the difmif- 
fion of the pike, which with the exchange of the matchlock for the 
fnaphance, the original name of the prefent lock, took place about 
the third or fourth year of the reign of King William III. this ex- 
change feems not to have been made all at once, but by degrees, 
wherefore an exact period for that alteration cannot be afTigned. 

IN the beginning of the reign of King William III. notwith- 
ilanding the act of the i3th of Charles II. defenfive armour was fo 
much laid afide, that we learn from the Journals of the Houfe of 
Commons, in the year 1690, a petition was prefented by the work- 
men armourers of the city of London, fetting forth that by the act 
of the 1 3th of Charles II. it was provided that at every mufter and 
exercife of the militia, every horfeman is to bring with him defen- 
five arms, viz. breaft and potts, piftol proof ; and the back, fwprd 
proof : every pikeman to have a back, breaft, and head-piece -, and 
every mufquetier a head-piece : for want of due execution of which 
the petitioners trade is like to be utterly loft : and praying 



the confederation of the houfe for reviving and encouraging the art 
of making armour. In anfwer to which it was ordered, that the 
confederation of the above-mentioned petition of the workmen 
armourers of the city of London be referred to the committee, to 
whom it is referred to prepare and bring in a bill for the better 
regulating and making the militia of the kingdom more ufeful. 

ABOUT the fame time moft of the defenfive armour was returned 
into the Tower, by the different corps of the army, and has never 
fince been called for, except fome cuiraiTes, and plain iron fcull 
caps like bafons, both occafionally ufed by the heavy cavalry j fcull 
caps were likewife till lately worn by the dragoons. Of the cuirafs, 
frequently the breaft-piece only was put on, the back-pieces having 
been deemed more cumberfome than ufeful, particularly as the 
backs of the Britifh troops are rarely expofed to an enemy. Cui- 
rafliers are ftill to be found in rnoft of the European armies ; thofe- 

(t) SINCE the printing of the preceding fheets, accident has thrown into my hands Sir 
Richard Hawkins's account of his Voyage to the South Sea A. D. 1591, wherein he 
mentions (hooting arrows from mufkets, with great fuccefs. Although this does not' 
fuit in point of time, with the part of this work now under consideration, yet rather than' 
omit fo curious a fad}, that irregularity is difperifed with,. and the paflage here given in his- 
own words. 

"!N this difcourfe Generall Michaell Angell demanded, for what purpofe ferved the 
little ihort arrowes, which- we had in our fliippe, and thofe in fo great quantitie, I fatisfied 
him that they were for our mufkets. They are not as yet in ufe amongft the Spaniards, 
yet of fmgular effect and execution, as our enemies confefled ; for the upper worke of 
their fllippes being mufket proofe, in all places they pafTed through both fides with facilitie, 
and wrought extraordinary difafters, which caufed admiration to fee themlelves wounded 1 
with fmall fhotr, where they thought themfelves fecure ; and by no means could find 
where they entered, nor come to the fight of any of the fhott. Hereof they proved to 
profit themfelves after, but for that they wanted the tampkings, which are firft to be 
driven home, before the arrow be put in, and as th?n underftood not the fecret, they 
rejected them as uncertaine, and therefore not to be ufed ; but of all the (hot ufed now a 
dayes, for the annoying of an enemie in fight by fea, few are of greater moment for 
many refpe&s, which I hold not convenient to treat of in publique." P. 164, Sec. LXVI.- 

Gg o 

xi8 A TREATISE, &c. 

of this kingdom muft in future be fupplied from the old ftores, the 
profeffion of an armourer being now totally extinft. The father of 
Mr. Cooper of the armory in the Tower, was the laft perfon re- 
gularly bred to that art. 




IG i. A brafs helmet, formerly the property of Sir Williatti 
Hamilton, but fince, with divers other articles of his collection, pur- 
chafed by the public, and now depofited in the Britilh Mufeum. 
Mr. D'Hancarville, author of the Etrufcan Antiquities, who was 
employed to make a catalogue of this collection, fays this helmet 
is of Grecian workmanihip, and intended to refemble the face of an 
owl, the favourite bird of Minerva, protectrefs of Athens. Its 
front is ornamented with a rude pattern of leaf* work and flowers, 
coarfely engraved ; the top is perforated, probably for the infertion 
of fome contrivance to fatten the creft, or pannache ; there are two 
other holes at the points near the chin, and one under each ear, near 
the bottom, undoubtedly ufed for fattening it on. It is remarkably 
thick, and weighs eight pounds and one ounce. According to Mr. 
D'Hancarville, it was found, anno 1752, in the memorable field 
of Canna, where Hannibal gained a complete victory over the Ro- 
mans. As there were many Greeks in the Carthaginian army, this 
helmet is fuppofed to have belonged to one of them, who pro- 
bably fell in the combat, and was buried in his armour. 

FIG. 2, and 3, are different views of the fame helmet. 

FIG. 4, and 5, reprefent another helmet of the fame form and 
metal, but much lighter and confequently thinner. It was purchafed 
by Sir William Hamilton, at Rome, but where it was found, or any 
farther particulars concerning it are unknown. 


FIG. i. An ancient Venetian morion, or head-piece, ornamented 
with arms, armour, and other military trophies, chafed on a thin 
plate of iron, fattened to another more fubftantial. 

FIG. 2. THIS, according to Mr. D'Hancarville's catalogue, before 
recited, is a Roman helmet, found alfo at Canna ; on the top arc 

* two 


two moveable pins, feemingly intended for fattening a creft or plume 
of feathers. This helmet is of brafs, extremely thin, and without 
a lining ; it feems incapable of refitting the flighted ttroke of a 
fword, or blow from a ttone thrown by a fling. 


FIG. i. The Venetian morion, of which the former plate gave 
a front view, is here mewn en profile. In the center, immediately 
under the creft, is the figure of A&eon ; anfwering to it, on the 
other fide, is the figure of fome hero in complete armour. From 
the {Hie of the armour and ornaments, this morion feems to be the 
work of the fifteenth century. It is the property of Mr. Rawle, 
military accoutrement- maker in the Strand, London. 

FIG. 2. The helmet here reprefented is drawn from one in the 
Tower. It is of a very fingular conftruction ; the nafal part in the 
viibr projecting much farther than ufual ; it is of the burgonet kind, 
having the vifor and bever both in one. 


THE originals of all the helmets in. this plate, are in the Toweiv 
FIG. i, A black helmet, its vifor lifted up. 
FIG. 2. The, fame helmet, with the vifor let down or clofed. 
FIG 3. A grated helmet, with a bever that lets down. 
FIG. 4. A grated helmet. 

FIG. 5, and 6. Different views of the helmet, fig. 3.. with its 
bever down.* 


FIG. i. A barred helmet ; the bar lifted up. 
FIG. 2. The fame helmet, with the bar let down. 
FIG. 3. A helmet with three bars ; the bars lifted up. 
.FiG. 4. The fame helmet, with the bars let down. 
FIG. 5. A helmet, having both its vifor and bever open. 
FIG. 6. The fame helmet, with its bever and vifor down or clofed. 
The originals of thefe are all in the Tower. 


a F T HE PLAT E S, lit 


FIG. i. A black helmet in the Tower, with its vifor down or clofed. 

FIG. 2. The fame helmet, with its vifor raifed or open. 

FIG. 3. An open head-piece, faid to have belonged to Oliver 
Cromwell. It is of iron, the ornaments and nails or fluids are of 
brafs : the original is in the collection of Mr. Rawle. 

FIG. 4, and 5. Different views of the helmet, fig. 2. plate 3. 


FROM the Tower. 

FIG. i, and 2. Iron hats called pots, faid to be taken from ther 
French in the time of King Charles I. 

FIG. 3. A curious fteel cap richly engraved, feemingly in the ftile 
of the beginning of the i6th century. 

FIG. 4. A large bright helmet, of very neat workmanmip. 

FIG. 5. An open helmet. 

FIG. 6. A large helmet richly ornamented and inlaid with cref* 
cents of gilt metal : its vifor opens with a hinge, the creft of gilt 


ALL drawn from the originals in the Tower. 

FIG. i. The helmet to a fuit of armour faid to have belonged to 
John de Courcy Earl of Ulfter in Ireland, confined there anno 1 204.- 

FIG. 2. The fame in profile. 

FIG. 3. The helmet of John of Gaunt Duke of Lancafter, fourth 
fon of King Edward III. who died anno ^1399. 

FIG. 4. A helmet fimilar to that of Oliver Cromwell's, the back 
view of this is given, in order to fhew the contrivance for raifing , 
or deprefling the head. 

FIG. 5. The helmet to a fuit of armour made for K. Henry VIIL 
when but eighteen years of age. It is rough from the hammer. 




TAKEN from the Great Seals of the following Kings and au- 
cient Barons. 

FIG. i, and 2. The helmets of William the Conqueror, both 
from Sandford. 

FIG. 3. Of William Earl of Mellent and Worcefter, who lived (bon 
after the conqueft, vide Dugdale's Baronage, and Mills's Catalogue, 
created Earl of Worcefter, anno 1144, died 116$. Taken' from his 
fcal in the library of Thomas Aftle, Efq. 

FIG. 4. John, fon of Richard I. from his great feal in Sandford. 

FIG. 5. William, fon of Robert, Duke of Normandy from his 
tomb at the Abbey of St. Bertin's at St. Omers ; vide Montfaucoii's 
Monarchic Francoife. 

FIG. 6. Richard I. from his great feal in Sandford. 

FIG. 7. Ferdinand III King of Caflile and Leon, from a win- 
dow of Notre Dame de Chartres. He died anno 1 248. 

FIG. 8. Alexander II. King of Scotland, from his feal in An- 
derfon's Diplomata. He began his reign anno 1214. His helmet has 
jnuch the refemblance of a Scottifh bonnet. 

FIG. 9. Alexander III. King of Scotland, alfo from Anderfon. He 
began to reign anoo 1249; 

FIG. 10. John Earl Warren, xoth April, 1276, from Thomas^ 
Artie, Efq. 

FIG. n. Robert de Ghifnes, who lived about the year 1250, from 
the fame. 

FIG. 1 2. King Edward I. from Sandford. 

FIG. 13. Hughes Vidame de Chalons, who died anno 1279, taken 
from an engraved figure in the Abbey of Chalons in Champaigne. 
vide Montf, Monarch. Francoife. 

FIG. 14. Raoul de Beaumont founder of the Abbey of Eftival, anno 
1 2 10, from his monument in the Chapel of that Abbey, vide Mon. 

FIG. 15. Richard Earl of Cornwall, from Sandford. 

FIG. 1 6. Edward eldefl fon of Edward III. 







FIG. i and 2. Two views of De Courcy's helmet (fee plate 8) with 
the vifbr lifted up. 

FIG. 5. The head-piece of Oliver Cromwell. (See plate 6) 

FIG. 4 and 5. A tilting helmet in two different pofitions. It is the 
property of Mr. Rawle. 

N. B. This drawing having been etched without reverfing it, divers 
particulars in Oliver Cromwell's and the tilting helmets appear on 
the wrong fide. 


FIG. i and 2. A bar helmet feen in different points of view. 

FIG. 3 and 4. The helmet to a fuit of armour, faid to have for- 
merly belonged to the Duke of Monmouth, beheaded July 15, 1685. 
The fpring (hewn in the front was intended to fupport a pannache; 
both thefe helmets are the property of Mr. Cofway, of the Royal 
Academy. The laft is twice introduced by Mr, Weft, in his battle 
of the Boyne. 


FLEMISH helmets from the armory at Breda. 


FIG. i and 2. The breaft and back-piece of an ancient brafs cui~ 
rafs, part of Sir William Hamilton's Collection, now preferved in* 
the Britim Mufeum. On this cuirafs are marked the fwell of the 
breafts, and fome of the principal mufcles of the body. This (hews 
that the reprefentations of the mufdes, feen on the armour of the 
flatues of the Grecian and Roman foldiers, are not ficlions of the 
artifts, but were to be found on the real armour of thofe times, a 
matter which has been much doubted. Mr. Hancarville in his 
catalogue,, mentions this cuirafs as a gieat curiofity, and judges it to 
be Roman. The breaft plate is nearly fquare, mea faring thirteen, 



inches in length, and twelve in breadth. From each bread projected 
a kind of button, probably ufed to fatten it to the back piece, that 
011 the right bread is loft, it appears by the remaining cavity to have 
been let into the cuirafs, this button is feparately represented over it. 

FIG. 3. A Roman Lituus, or military trumpet, fuch as is mentioned 
by Horace in his firft ode. It was found in digging a well, near 
Battle, in Suflex, and was then rilled with fmall {hells. It is of caft 
.brafs, and bears the fame proportion to the cuirafs as delineated : it 
is now the property of Mr. Rawle.. A fimilar trumpet is engraved 
in Montfaucon's Roman Antiquities. 

FIG. 4. An ancient brafs fword, found in the Severn near Glou- 
cefter, now in the pofleffion of Owen Saliibury Brereton, Efq. It is 
drawn on the fame fcale as the other objects in the plate. 


FIG. i. An ancient fuit of bright armour, exhibited in the Tower of 
London, as the armour of the famous De Courcy. The helmet in 
different pofitions has been before fhewn. 

FIG. 2. A pouldron and garde-brafs, avant-brafs or vambrace be- 
longing to the fuit of the Duke of Monmoutr^ the helmet of which 
has been reprefented in different portions, plate 1 1, fig. 3 and 4. 


A CORCELET or fuit of bright harquebufs armour from the Tower, 
the head-piece a morion. 


A SUIT of horfeman's armour, fuch as was worn about the time 
of Henry VIII. or Queen Elizabeth, drawn from a fuit in the horle 
armory, in the Tower of London. 



THE figures i and 2 both rsprefent the fame fuit, which is in the 
Tower, the helmet is an o,pen one. On. the ritJu fide of the cuirafs" 


Pub. Mop ujffj , ty S. Hooper . Nfzu, ffyh-ffaO>orn . 

, -778 * -/err- ,. . 


O F T H E P L A T E S. vli 

is part of a lance reft, which by the inverfion of the object in printing, 
here appears on the left. 

FIG. 3. A fuit of harquebufs armour. 

FIG. 4. Another fuit of the fame denomination, with long taffets 
to cover the thighs, the originals of both are in the Tower. 

A SUIT of black morion or harquebufs armour, 


A SUIT of armour made for King Henry VIII. when he was but 
eighteen years of age. It is rough from the hammer, the joints in 
the hands, arms, knees and feet, move with amazing facility. 


THE fame fuit viewed from a different point. 

N. B. The originals of plate 18 and 19, both in the Tower. 


THIS plate exhibits two ancient fuits of mail, in the mufeum of 
Mr. Richard Green, of Litchfield, the rings are nearly of the fize 
delineated, fig. 3, but at the extremities of the arms, and lower parts 
of the ikirts are of frnaller wire than thofe of the moulders, back, &c. 
every ring is drilled and rivetted. On the breafl and back are a fet 
of plates ; on thofe of the breaft are clafps to make them faft, by 
means of a leather ftrap, the whole coat being open before. The 
hood or cap is compofed of rings fimilar to thofe of the coat, but 
the crown or upper part, has a fet of thin narrow plates, diverging 
from a center or knob on the top of the head, beli exprefled in the 
fuit marked 5, which is more complete than the former, by having 
hofe or trowfers. 

LENGTH of the fuit, fig. i, from the top of the hood to the bottom 
-of the ikirts, 4 feet, 3 inches* 



LENGTH of the fuit, fig. 5, from the top of the cap or hood, to 
the bottom of the ikirts, four feet four inches; from thence to the 
bottom of the hofe or trowfers twenty-one inches. The waiftband 
of the hofe is in breadth about two inches and a half, it is of coarie 
linen, and covered with a dark coloured iilk ; inftead of buttons it is 
fattened by two leather ftraps. The buttons of the hofe are bound 
with filk ferret or ribband. The weight of the cap or hood, fig. 5, 
is three pounds eight ounces : that of the coat twenty two pounds 
eight ounces : the trowfers thirteen pounds : weight of the whole 
fuit thirty-nine pounds. The profile of the hood, fig. 2, fhews the 
particular conduction of the neck. 


THIS fuit according to the account given by the warders of the 
Tower, was the armour of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancafter. It 
ieems made for a man of gigantic iize. The projection of the cuirafs 
is fo conftructed as to tend to a point over the breaft, which gives it a 
fingular appearance, but was an admirable contrivance to divert the 
thrufl of a lance, by caufing it to glance off on one fide. On the 
fhoulders are the pafs guards mentioned in the defcription of the dif- 
ferent pieces of tilting armour. , 


FIG. i. A fuit of tilting armour from the Tower, with the defence 
called the grand guard, and the lance reft. 

FIG. 2. The helmet and grand guard, on a larger fcale, and in a 
different point of view. 

FIG. 3. The breaft-piece of a cuirafs. 


CONSISTS of chanfrons, champfrein or fhaffrons for barded horfesv 
FIG. 4 and 5 are different views of the fame maffron, which from; 

the device of the bear and ragged flaff, on the plate in the, center, 

appears to have belonged to the Warwick family. 


^ "V 



THE armed knight here reprefented is taken from the figure of 
King Edward III. in the horfe armory in the Tower of London ; as 
is alfo the war faddle ; but the chafron, criniere, poitrinal and but- 
tock piece of the horfe, are drawn from other originals in that place. 
The horfe was drawn by Mr. Gilpin, 


FIG. i. A helmet and brigandine. 

FIG. 2. An iron greave or armour for the leg. 

FIG. 3. One of the gauntlets belonging to the fuit of John of 
GauntV - 

FIG. 4. A long armed gauntlet of iron, the infide of the hand, 
gloved with buff leather. 

FIG. 5. A gorget. 

FIG. 6. An iron mace. N.'B. The hole through the handle for 
paffing a thong or ring for the convenience of carriage, could not be 
feen in this view, 

FIG. 7. An antique Pryck fpur of iron, in the collection of Cap- 
tain Robfon. 

ALL the different articles except the fpur, are diawn from the 
originals in the Tower of London. 


FIG. i. An ancient two-handed fword, kept in the caftle of Ro- 
chefter, Kent ; fuppofed to have been a fword of flate ; length of 
the fword, the handle included, five feet and half an inch ; length 
of the blade, three feet fix inches ; breadth of ditto near the hilt, 
three inches ; near the point, two inches and a quarter : weight, 
feven pounds and a half. -WJien found, the remains of fome gilding 
was diftinguifhable on the pommel and crofs. 

fe FIG, 

FIG. 2. An ancient two-handed fvvord, kept among other old 
weapons in the town-hall at Canterbury, anno 1776. Length of 
the handle, the gripe of which was covered with black leather, two 
feet; length of the blade, four feet two inches; breadth of the 
blade, &c. in the proportion here delineated. 

FIG. 3. The dagger belonging to it. 

FIG. 4 and 5. A fword and dagger digged up at Sutron, at Hone 
in Kent, formerly a preceptory of the knights of St. John of Jeru- 
falem, many of whom were buried in the chapel there. Mr. Hailed, 
author of the Hiflory of Kent, in caufing a cellar to be made, found 
two bodies in armour, with a fword and dagger lying by them : 
the armour was a helmet, back and bread-piece with cuiffets for the 
thighs. The length of the fword, blade, and handle, two feet ten 
inches ; length of the blade, two feet ; the pommel feems to have 
been gilt. On the blade was this infcription, I. N. R. I. Jefus of 
Nazareth King of the Jews. 

FIG, 6. A kind of battle-ax, in the collection of Captain Robfon 
of Chelfea. 

FIG. 7. Another battle-ax, in the fame collection. 

N. B. ALL the weapons of this plate are drawn on the fame fcale. 


FIG. i. An ancient fword -blade halbert, in the collection of 
Mr. Cotton, F.R.S. 

FIG. 2. An ancient brown bill, anno 1776, kept in the Town- 
hall at Canterbury ; it was mounted on a ftaff feven feet long, with 
a pointed ferril of iron at the end. 

FIG. 3, An ancient fword - blade halbert, in the collection of 
Captain Robfon ; its ftaff, which was once covered with green velvet, 
meafures five feet fix inches. 

FIG. 4. A Lochaber-ax, mounted on a flafF five feet long. 

FIG. 5. An antique fword-blade halbert, in the collection of 
Captain Robfon, fuppofed of the time of Henry VII. 



O F T H E P L A T E S. xi 

FIG. 6. An ancient bill. 

FIG. 7. A hand bill, in the collection of Mr. Cotton. It is hung 
round with fmall bells, probably a contrivance to frighten horfes. 

FIG. 8. A bill digged up at Battefield, near Shrewfbury; in the 
pofieffion of Mr. Dodd, the comedian. It is mounted on a ftafF 
about fix feet long. 


FIG. i and 2. Two views of a fmgular helmet, in the Tower. 

FIG. 3. A curious antique Pryck fpur, in the collection of John 
Fenn, Efq; F. A. S. The drawing of which was made by him, 
and kindly communicated to me. 

FIG. 4. A fhirt of chain mail, in the collection of curiofities at 
Don Saltero's coffee-houfe, Chelfea. 


FIG. i and 2. A helmet found in Bofworth-field, now in the 
collection of Captain Robfon. 

FIG. 3. A cuirafs, faid to have belonged to King Henry VIII. 
It confifts of fmall laminae of metal fixed on leather, which yield 
to any motion of the body by Hiding over each other. The original 
is at Don Saltero's cofFee-houfe. 


FIG. i. Section of a lance reft, drawn from the original in the 
Tower of London. 

FIG. 2. The fame feen above the eye. 

FIG. 3. The fame viewed beneath the eye. 

FIG. 4. The head of a mufquet reft, late in the collection of the 
Rev. Mr. Goftling. A tuck iilued from the fquare hole feen in the 
center, which was covered by a valve, in this view lifted up. It 
was intended to keep off the enemy's horie, whilft the ruuiquetiecr 



was loading, his reft was for that purpofe ftuck down before him, 
the point of the tuck Hoping towards the breaft of the horfe. 

FIG. 5. A mulket reft taken out of the Thames, at Windfor, 
now in the collection of Captain Robfon. 

FIG. 6. A coronel or crowneJ, ufed for the head of a tilt ftaffor 

FIG. 7. Part of the ftaff and handle of a tilt ftaffor tilting lance, 
the larger conical plate, is called the van plat, or avant plat, and 
was meant to protect the hand ; the lefler concical projection is 
called the burr, defigned to prevent the hand from flipping back- 

FIG. 8. The fame ftaff without the van plat. 


FIVE Venetian helmets, drawn from the originals in the armory 
at Venice, by that ingenious artift Mr. Miller. 


FIG. I and 2. Different views of a head-piece, being part of a fuit 
of armour of the time of King Charles I. belonging to Mr. Cof- 
way, R. A. 

FIG. 3. The fame with the back, breaft, taffets, and pouldfon. 

FIG. 4. An ancient pertuifan, in the pofleflion of Mr. Miller. 

FIG. 5. A fword belonging to Mr. Rawle, the hilt of filver ela- 
borately ornamented. 

FIG. 6. A hammer of arms, from the Tower of London. 


FIG. i. A concave Roundel, in the collection of Mr. Green of 
Lichfield, Staffordshire, to whom I am obliged for the drawing. It 
is thirteen inches diameter, made of wood covered with leather, and 
an iron plate decorated with nails and mouldings ; the bofs or umbo 
projects four inches. 

y . 


Flo. 2. A feftion of the fame. 

FIG. 3. A battle ax, in the Collection of Mr. Rawle* 

FIG. 4. Its butt end and iron ferril, the flafFori which it is fixed is 
octagonal^ and meafures five feet four inches. 

FIG. 5. An ancient pole ax, late in the collection of the Rev. Mr. 
Goflling of Canterbury. 

FIG* 6. Its butt end and ferril. 

FIG. 7. A curious and ancient weapon in the poffeffion of Colonel 
Ogle of Caulfey Park, Northumberland, ufed by fome of his ancef- 
feors in the defence of the borders againft the Scots. 

FIG. 8. Its butt end. It is mounted on a flaff feven feet long* 

ALL thefe articles are drawn on the fame fcale* 


A CURIOUS fuit of armour belonging to Mr. Cofway, of the age 
of King James, or Charles I. It is faid to be tilting armour, but 
from the circumftance of having the back piece made flrongly defen- 
fible, feems rather to have been intended for military fervice, as in 
tilting no flrokes might have been levelled at the back, the whole is 
covered with a cinamon coloured filk, and is flrongly quilted and 
(luffed ; beiides which, it feems flrengthened either with jacked lea- 
ther, or thin iron plates, fewed on in the nature of a brigandine. 
The head-piece has alfo an iron cap between the outlide and lining^ 
moft probably this fuit is what was called lilk armour. A fpecies 
often mentioned in hiflory, and found in the inventory of ancient 

FIG. i and 2. The head-piece (hewn in different points of view. 
Its weight three pounds thirteen ounces. 

FIG. 3; The breaft and back. Weight of the breaft feven pounds 
fourteen ounces, the back fix pounds thirteen ounces. 

FIG. 4. The taflet or fkirt, weight one pound five ounces. 

FIG. 5. A covering for the left arm, curioufly fluffed and quilted^ 
intended to anfwer the ufe of a (hield, weight two pounds three dunces. 

FIG. 6. The head-piece difplayed on the ground. 




A knight or man at arms completely armed and mounted, accord- 
ing to the fafhion of the time of King Henry II. that is, with a haw- 
berk of plate, or fcale mail, over which is his fur coat. On his head 
is one of thofe flat helmets ihewn in plate 8, fuch as are reprefented 
on the great feals of our kings and ancient barons, about and before that 
period, as well as in diverfe ancient paintings on glafs, alfo on fepulchral 
monuments, particularly thofe in the Temple Church, London. In 
his right hand he carries a plain lance, that is a lance without avant 
plat, or burr, and on his left arm a triangular, or heater fhield. The 
fore part of his legs are defended by iron plates called jambefons, 
his heels are armed with- pryck fpurs, and he fets on a war faddle,, 
whofe burrs and cantles are covered with fteel. 

His horfe is completely barded, having a chafron of iron, a criniere, 
a poitrinal of plate mail, a buttock piece of jacked leather, which alfo 
covers his flanks. 


AN ancient concave roundel, late in the collection of the Rev. Mr. 
Goftling of Canterbury. It was a circle of one foot diameter, formed 
of three fkins of leather, covered with a plate ef iron, {lengthened 
and decorated with ten concentric circles of brafs nails, and fecured 
within by three thin hoops of iron ; the umbo, its fpike included, pro- 
jected five inches, it was hollow and fluffed with hair : the handle 
was of wood much decayed, and fattened by thin iron plates. 

FIG. i. Reprefents the back or infide of the roundel. 

FIG. 2. Its front viewed obliquely. 

FIG. 3. The fe&ion (hewing its concavity and handle. 

FIG. 4. The handle ihewn feparately. 


f - **- 



THIS plate alfo fhews a man at arms of the i2th and i3th century, 
in the aft of charging an enemy. He is armed much the fame as the 
knight reprefented in plate 36, except that he has a hawberk of 
chain mail, i. e; formed of {mail iron rings* 


THIS plate contains a buff coat, fword, moulder belt, and walft 
belt, Toledo, and a defence for the left arm, worn in the time* of 
Charles I. by Sir Francis Rodes, Bart, of Balbrough Hall, Derbymire. 

FIG. i. Fore part of the buff coat, which was formerly decorated 
with gold lace, the body is lined with coarfe linen, the buttons and 
hoops of filver wire and brown filk, the lacing firing of coarfe white 

Flo. 2. The back part of the coat: 

FIG. 3. A buff belt intended to be flung over the right moulder, 
and fixed there by a loop on fig. i. This belt has a loop" and fwivel, 
for the purpofe of carrying a carabine. 

FIG. 4. A fword whofe hilt is of gilt filver, the gripe wire work, the 
blade triangular two feet five inches long^ to it is a buff belt two 
inches three quarters broad. 

FIG,- 5. A buff covering for the left arm, contrived to anfwer the 
purpofe of a fhield, being compofed of three fkins of leather, with 
one of cartoon or pafteboard ; the length twenty five inches, the 
width at the opening twelve inches, tapering towards the vvrift, to 
it is fixed a buff glove. 

FIG. 6. The outfide of the glove and arm piece. 

FIG. 7. A long toledo, with a hilt of filigrained fleel, length of the 
blade three feet nine inches, finely tapering to a point. 

FIG. 8. Section of the blade and fcabbard. 

Fie. 9. A more diftincl defign of the hik of the forementioned 



N. B. This fword belonged to a fuit of common iron armour* 
with a barred helmet, the cuirafs whereof is almofl deftroyed by 
ruft. On the helmet are the letters J. R. John Rodes, fon of Judge 
Francis Rodes, which Francis built Balborough Hall in 1583, and 
died in 1585. 

N. B. The coat and fbme other parts of the drawing having been 
etched without reverfing, brings the loop defcribed in No. i. and the 
fword No. 4, on the wrong fide. 


FIG. i. A matchlock mufquet from the Tower of London. 

FIG. 2. The infide -of its lock on a larger fcale. 

FIG. 3, Its bayonet, to be fixed by flicking the handle into the 
muzzle of the mufquet. 

FIG. 4. The fame fort of bayonet, to be fixed by means of the 
rings, as defcribed and drawn by Mr. Goftling. 

FIG. 5. The head of a mufquet reft armed with a bayonet, as de- 
feribed by BarirTe. 

FIG. 6. A common mufquet reft, in the collection of Mr. Goftling. 

FIG. 7. A fet of bandileers, with powder flalk, and bullet bag. 

FIG. 8. A wheel lock piece in the collection of Mr. Brander. 

FIG. 9. The lock on a larger fcale. 

FIG. 10. The fpanner for fpanning or winding up the fpring of 
the wheel lock. 

AN ancient iron mace in the collection of Guftavus Brander, Elq. 

THE whole length of this mace is two' feet one inch, the length 
of the head feven inches. 

WEIGHT, three pounds nine ounces, the handle is hollow. The 
whole mace appears to have been gilt, at prefent moft of the gilding 
is rubbed off. The handle is perforated near the middle for the 
pairing of a ring, chain, or thong* to hang it to the faddle bow. 



1 . i*78f, 

Jot- tf. cAftfrr/; 


f ' 

V r 


"ff 'A- v ? 

cNranrtiHcrti. Q/CJ 




FIG. i. Part of a helmet (hewn in Warwick Caftle, faid to have 
"belonged to Guy earl of Warwick. 

FIG. 2. A fide view of the fame helmet, with the pivot, and a 
fmall fragment of the viibr. 

FIG. 3. and 4. Two views of an iron chafron of uncommon con- 
flruftion, faid to have belonged to the above-mentioned earl, 


Aisr elegant fuit of fluted armour brought by Lord Warwick from 

A FRONT view of the fame fuit* 


A SUIT of armour faid to have belonged to the Duke of Mon 


FK>. i. Another view^of the fame fuit; fig. 2 and 3 different views 
of the helmet belonging to it. 


THE head-piece, breafl and back, which Lord Brooke had on, 
when killed in the clofe at Lichfield. A. D. 1 643* 


Two ancient fingular pieces of armour, and a two handed fword, 
faid to have belonged to Guy earl of Warwick. 

d FIG. 


FIG. i. A breaft plate, in length three feet one inch, in breadth at 
the top one foot four inches, at the bottom two feet, weight fifty- 
two pounds. 

FIG. 2. A fhield perforated in the center, enabling the bearer to 
cover his head without interrupting his fight. Its meafure two feet 
two inches, by two feet one inch. Its .weight thirty-two pounds. 

FIG. 3. The fword, its length five feet fix inches long, its weight' 
twenty pounds. 

THESE fix plates were drawn from the original armour by that in- 
genious artift Mr. Danks, at the expence of the Right Honourable 
the Earl of Warwick, who permitted engravings to be made for this 
work, for which the author here begs leave to return his moft grate- 
ful acknowledgements. 


REPRESENTS an uncommon engine, fuppofed to be a tinker's mor- 
tar, which being fixed on a flick was ufed for throwing grenades j 
the upper view of it mews it open, that at the bottom gives its ap- 
pearance when fhut : the original is in the collection of Capt. Rob- 
fon of Chelfea. 

N. B. The two views of the back and breaft pieces not before de- 
fcribed in plate xiv. are the property of Mr. Cofway, and belong to 
the fame fuit as the poldrons and avant bras. The knee piece was 
drawn from one in the tower. 



TO the article of mail armour it may be added, that the hauberk 
was frequently called le brugne, (a) in all likelyhood from its 
colour, when rufted by bad weather, 

BESIDES the fhields already mentioned, two other forts fometimes 
occur in hiftory and old romances, the firft indeed is of greater anti- 
quity than comes within the limits of this work, but as it is not 
generally known, I mall here defcribe it. This is the moulder fhield, 
which derives its name from being fixed to that part. Procopius in 
his Hiftory of the Perfian wars, fays this kind of fhield was worn by 
the Roman archers of his time ; (b) that it had no handle, but was 
fixed to the moulder in order to guard the head and neck. This fort 
of fhield was in ufe among the Saxons. Prince ^thelftan, in~"his 
will before quoted, (c) bequeaths his target and moulder fhield. 

THE other fort are the perforated fhields ; fome of thefe were pier- 
ced on the top, towards the right hand, to make a paflage for the 
lance. A curious ipecimen of them is reprefented on a bas relievo 
engraved by Mr. Carter, from the carvings on the feats in the choir 
at the cathedral of Worcefter. Others were perforated in or near the 
center, for fight, in order that the bearer might at the fame time co- 
ver himfelf, and fee the movements of his adverfary. A fpecimen 
of this kind of fhield is exhibited in plate 48, in the fhield faid to 
have belonged to Guy earl of Warwick. 

(a) LE Hauber ou Bragne. Fauchet de 1'origine des armes, &c. p. 40. 

(b) BUT our archers now adaies go into the field armed with habergeons and greaves 
that come up as high as their knees. They have befides their quiver of arrows on the 
right fide, and a fword on their left, and fome of them a javelin alfo fattened about them, 
and a kind of a fhort buckler, as it were, but without any handle, made faft to their 
fhoulders, which ferves to defend their head and neck. Hift, of Perfian Wars, book i. 
p. 2. tranflated by Sir Henry Holcroft, 1653. 

I HAVE fomewhere feen, I think in the Spanifh armory in the 
Tower of London, a perforated fhield, with a piftol projecting from 
its center or umbo, and over it a fmall grated aperture for taking 

FIRE-ARMS. The firft introduction of hand-guns into this king- 
dom was in the year 1471, when King Edward IV. landing at Ra- 
venfpurge in Yorkshire, brought with him among other forces, three 
hundred -Flemings armed with " hange-gunnes." (d) This is an ear- 
lier date than has been generally affigned for that event. Among the 
Reverend Mr. Lamb's notes on the battle of Floddon, is the follow- 
ing : " It is faid that the firft time mufkets were ufed in Britain, was 
at thu iiege of Berwick, anno 1521, they were then called hand- 
cannon ;" but for this report or tradition, he cites no authority. Mr. 
Anderfon in his Hiftory of Commerce gives the fame date for that 
introduction, (e) 

LANCE-RESTS. A more fimple kind of lance-reft than thofe re- 
prefented in plate xxxi. were in ufe in Germany and Italy. Thefe 
were only formed by a hook, fattened to the light fide of the bread 
piece, into which the lance was laid. A reft of this kind is fhewn in 
plate 43, but from the plate being reverfed, appears on the left lide 
inftead of the right. 

(d) IN the XLIX. yere of King Henry VI. cam King Edward with the Lord Haf- 
tjngs, the Lord Say, and IX.C Englifche men, and III.C Flemings with hange-gunnes. 
Leland's Colledt. vol. i. p. 721, tranfcribed from a namelefs Chronicle. Probably the 
word hange is an error of either the tranfcriber or printer, and fhould have been "hand. 

(e) ANDERSON'S Hift of Commerce, vol. i. p. 351. Mufquets are mentioned as a 
weapon of the infantry in Poland, in the year 1475, *' Quilibet peditum habeat baliftam 
vel bombardam." Let. Cafimirii III. an. 1475, Leg. Polon. torn. i. p. 228. Thefe are 
generally afligned to the year 1520. Add. to vol. i. and ii. Warton's Hiftory of Poetry, 


full. noMiw. lyffr. In- .UIu af , r . 




O N 









MANY of the Purchafers of the Trea- 
tife on Ancient Armour and Weapons, 
having intimated that they wifhed to fee a 
fimilar Reprefentation of the Arms, offenfive 
and defenfive, formerly ufed, and ftill in 
Ufe among the different Afiatic Nations, 
particularly thofe of the Eaft-Indies ; the 
Author having feveral favourable Opportu- 
nities of confulting many very curious Ca- 
binets and Colle&ions of thofe Curiofities, 
has gladly feized the Opportunity of indulg- 
ing his favourite Purfuit ; and here begs 



Leave to lay before the Public divers addi- 
tional Plates, moft of them Eaftern Subjefts, 
with fome ancient Britifh, Dantlh, and Saxon 
Inftruments and Weapons, found in different 
Parts of Great Britain* 

MR. HAMILTON'S Health not permitting 
him to etch thefe Drawings, as he originally 
intended, they have been executed by the 
beft Engravers of thofe Subje6ts ; to which 
is added, the moft authentic and accurate 
Accounts of them that could be obtained.. 

THE Afiatic Arms will be found particu- 
larly ufeful to fuch Artifts as {hall, in future, 
be employed to celebrate and immortalize, 
either by Painting or Sculpture, the A6ts of 
Britifh Valour in thofe Regions. 

( 5 ) 


OF T H 8 



O F 


PIG. i. A Maratta horfeman's fword. 

FIG. 2. Another {hewn in a different point of view. 

FIG. 3. An Afiatic fhield made of a buffalo's hide. 

FIG. 4. Another, fhewing the infide, with the rings for the arms. 

FIG. 5. An eaftern quiver and bow-cafe. 
FIG. 6. A Perfian quiver, for holding darts or javelins to be 
thrown by hand. 

FIG. 7. One of the javelins, 
FIG. 8. A Seapoy's fword. 



FIG. 9. Another of a different form. 

FIG. 10. A Perfian fcymeter. 

FIG. u. An eaftern battle-axe. 

FIG. 12. An eaftern dart. 

FIG. 33, An eaftern Naicaire, or kettle-drum. 

N. B. Numbers i and 2 are in the colle&ion of Captain Robfon, 
who brought them from India ; numbers 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 
13, are in the cabinet of Mr. Rawle ; and numbers 5, 11, and 
12, in the Mufeum of the Honourable Horace Walpole, at 

~ /~ PLATE LII. 

FIG. i and 2. A head-piece, with a hood of chain mail, for- 
merly worn by Souja Dowla. 
FIG. 3. Souja Dowla's battle-axe. 
FIG. 4 and 5. Breaft and back pieces to the fame fuk, 
FIG. 6. Afiatic avant brafs, or armour for the arm. 

All thefe were given by the nabob to Mr. Conway, and pur- 
chafed at his faie by Mr. Rawle, in whofe pofleflion they were 
A, D, 1789. 


FIG. i. A Rolygar fword. 

FIG. 2. A Colleree ftick, which being of hard heary wood, 
is thrown with fuch violence by the Collerees as to break the 



legs of men and horfes ; brought from India by Captain Robfon. 
FIG. 3. A Malay dagger. 
FIG. 4. Its (heath. 

FIG. 5. The pommel and hilt on a large fcale. 
FIG. 6. Another of a different form. 
FIG. 7. Its (heath. 

FIG. 8. Its pommel and hilt on an enlarged fcale. 
FIG. 9 and 10. Malay creffes, or daggers. 
FIG. 11 and 12. A Malay fab re and (heath. 
FIG. 13. A Malay dagger. 

All in the collection of Marfden, Efq. author of the Hifr 

tory of Sumatra. 


FIG i and 2. Afiatic match-lock guns, of different fpecies. 

FIG. 3. A brazen appendage, ferving for a reft. 

FIG. 4 and 5. Turkim guns, 

FIG. 6. A Turkim match- lock gun on a larger fcale. 

The three firft guns are in the collection of Mr. Rawle; the 
two laft, in that of the late Guftavus Brander, Efq. 


FIG. i. A furtout of chain-mail, belonging to Souja Dowla's 
fuit of armour. 

FIG. 2, A back view of the fame. 
FIG 3. A Malay creffe, or dagger. 
FIG. 4. An Afiatic bow. 

Thefe are in the collection of Mr. Rawle. 



A SADDLE for a dromedary, in the collection of Mr. Rawle; 
length about one foot. It is (hewn in different points of view. 



FIG. i. A battle-axe, in the collection of Mr. Rawle. 

FIG. 2. A dagger in the fame collection. 

FIG. 3. A Rohilla battle-axe, in the collection of Mr. Martin 
of Edinburgh. 

FIG. 4 An Indian CrefTe, in the collection of Mr. Dalton. 

FIG. 5 and 6. An eaftern powder-flafk, embroidered with gold, 
in the collection of Mr. Rawle. 


CARRYING two charges in the fame barrel; to be fired fucceffive- 
ly by two wheel -locks. 

FIG. i and 2. Different views of the carabine. 

FIG. 3. The locks. 

FIG. 4. The end of the ramrod. 

FIG. 5 and 6. Spanners, ferving alfo for holding fine powder for 




FIG. i, 2,3,4,5, 6, 7, and 8. Arrow heads of different forms. 
From the collection of John M ''Cowan, Efq. of Edinburgh. 

FIG. 9. The brafs head of a dart. From the fame collection. 

FIG. 10. An iron head of a dart for a fmall machine. From 
the collection of the late Guftavus Brander, Efq. 

FIG. 11. An iron head of a dart for a catapulta, or mangonel, 
found in the ditch of the Tower of London. From the collection 
of Mr. Rawle. They are all of the fame fize as the originals. 


FIG. i and 2. Ancient iron fwords, found in cleaning the bed 
of the river Wytham, in Lincolnfhire. The infcription on fig. i, 
is fuppofed to be a charm or amulet. 

FIG. 3 and 4. Dirks or Daggers, found in the fame place. 
They are all in the Mufeum of Sir Jofeph Banks, Bart, prefident 
of the Royal Society. 

FIG. 5. Is a bolt for a crofs-bow; it is made of bone ; in the 
notch at the point, a piece of iron or fteel was inferted ; one was 
flicking in it when found in the camp at Danbury, in EfTex. The 
original is in the collection of William Bray, Efq. 





FIG 3. Found on the borders between Scotland and England. 

FIG. 2. Found in Duddingfton Lake, near Edinburgh. 

FIG. 3. Ditto. 

FIG. 4. The handle of a brafs fword, found near Peebles. 
They are all in the collection of John M'Gowan, Efq. of Edin- 
burgh, and are three times the dimenfions here delineated. 

FIG. 5. A brafs head of a fpear, found in Duddingfton Lake, 
from the fame collection. 


FIG. i. A helmet in the Tower of London, whofe beaver opens 
by letting down. 

FIG. 2. A double barred helmet. In the colle&ion of the 
Honourable Mr. Walpole, at Strawberry-Hill. 

FIG. 3, 4, 5, 6. Different views of a falet, with oreilliets or 
car-pieces. In he pofleffion of Mr. Carter. 





Ufay. ijSff, by J'.ffoopgr. t 

Asiatic Armour 

.Asiatic Fade J addle. 


.Asiatic Anns 




. i 



. , 

^anaetot Dart Sc A?~row Seadf. 


Scale of Two 



<? Inches 


Jiaif by S Hooper 

Saxon JVeapons. 

Record Scu-lpt 



Helmete . 

5 0351