Skip to main content
ART OF BOILING SUGAR,
CKYSTALLIZING, LOZENGE-MAKING, COMFITS,
GUM GOODS, AND OTHER PROCESSES
FOR CONFECTIONERY, ETC.
IN WHICH AEE EXPLAINED;
. IN AN EASY ANI> FAMILIAR MANNER,
THE VARIOUS METHODS OF MANUFACTURING
EVERY DESCRIPTION OF
RAW AND REFINED SUGAR GOODS,
AS SOLD BY THE
TRADE, CONFECTIONERS, AND OTHERS.
BY HENRY WEATHERLEY,
INVENTOR OF THE CURRANT DRESSING MACHINE, CONFECTIONERS' MACHINES,
ETC., AWARDED TWO MEDALS AND A CERTIFICATE OP " HONORABLE
MENTION" AT THE GREAT EXHIBITION, 1851.
HENRY CAREY BAIRD,
406 WALNUT STREET.
HITHERTO there has been no book published
of any practical utility upon this important
branch of confectionery. The subject is cer-
tainly discussed in a work treating upon other
branches of the trade, and the following is an
extract, copied verbatim, from the information
it gives upon boiling sugar : " To prevent
graining, put a little of any sort of acid, when it
is at the crack, but remember that too much
acid will also grain it." This contradictory
and remarkable information is to be found in
the book referred to, and that has been the
only authority published. This, therefore,
shows the necessity for a work written from
practice and actual experience; for during
twenty years' acquaintance with the subject,
the author never met with such results as the
above, but, on the contrary, has always found
that where any excess of acid has got into a
pan of sugar, and boiled in it, whether by acci-
dent or design, it becomes so weak, thin, and
discolored that it is impossible to bring it to
the proper degree, or use it for making goods.
There are other errors closely allied to this,
which evidently occur from the writer relying
upon some copied or false information. The
putting any kind of acid in at the crack (when
the sugar should be instantly poured on to the
slab) the author thought, was exploded years
ago, and only to be found in very old cookery
books. A work of this nature should be
practical, or it may lead to a great loss, and as
a book of instruction be quite useless.
The large increase in the consumption of
sweets, made from boiled sugars, in the United
Kingdom, during the last quarter of a century,
has arisen principally from the cheapness and
facility of manufacture derived from the intro-
duction of machinery. The author, having been '
one of the first who invented, and practically
applied, machines to the purposes for which
they are used in the trade, and for which he
holds two Medals and Certificates of Honorable
Mention from the Great Exhibition of 1851,
trusts his experience will prove a sufficient
introduction to the confidence of his readers
upon the subject he now presents to their
notice. Twenty years since it was considered
rather a clever thing (with a pair of scissors,
the principal tool a sugar boiler used) to cut a
seven pound "boil of acid drops to size, and,
with the help of a practised boy, make them
round and press them flat, with the hands, in
half-an-hour. The same quantity may now,
with the machine, be made into drops, by the
boy alone, in five minutes. The first was
really a laborious effort ; the second is a simple,
easy process, while the goods are more cleanly,
regular in size, and finished in appearance.
Until the year of the first Exhibition, boiled
sweets were almost exclusively an English
manufacture, but the introduction therein of
the author's and other English confectioners 7 ^
goods, and also the machines, led to their
manufacture by other nations, the German con-
fectioners in particular, and, as regards variety
or skill, they are not likely to be surpassed.
There was exhibited in their department at
the International Exhibition of 1862 (by two
houses one at Hamburg) such a display of
boiled sweets and fancy rocks, etc., that sur-
prised many practised hands in England, and
showing there is still something to be learned
in "Kock varieties," as regards manipulation
and design. The French confectioners have
not developed any striking ideas in this branch
up to the present, the national taste keeping
them almost exclusively to the manufacture of
superior chocolate and sugar bonbons, liqueurs,
pastilles, and comfits, in which they excel all
other nations, and which are sold at very high
prices. The author, on visiting Paris in 1848,
found only one description of common boiled
sweets, and this was made and sold in the open
streets, the sugar being boiled in a drop pan
over a charcoal stove on a stall. After pulling-
it white, it was cut and sold while warm, in
lumps at one or two sous each. There are now
some other varieties sold in the shops, which
are nearly all termed "Caramels." It is
beyond question that the English people
prefer boiled sugars, as the simplest and most
genuine sweets; and whether they consist of
the "Loggets" or " Cushies" of the eastern
part of the Kingdom; the "Tom Trot" or
"Butter Scotch" of the north ; the "Humbugs"
or "Lollys" of the south; the Suckers and
Hardbake of the west, they each have their
votaries, perhaps the far-famed " Toffee" taking
the le"ad for we find it a great favorite
wherever introduced. Bonapartes Ribs, Gib-
raltar Rock, Ellecampane, and many of the
old sweets which were the favorites of a past
generation, have disappeared from the London
shops, and their place taken by various other
goods of a much more difficult nature; and to
give a correct method of making these is the
aim of the author, who would remind those
manufacturers, in the trade that may object to
the publication of the various receipts, pro-
cesses, etc., that the skill which is necessary to
produce articles of the best quality and
finished appearance cannot possibly be ac-
quired without great practice and experience,
and so far from the book being prejudicial to
their interests, it is confidently hoped that it
will materially forward them. The theories
and errors of a past age, as regards the arts
and sciences, as also in connection with this
and other trades or professions, if continued,
would obstruct the advancement of those who
profess or practice them, either as a means of
knowledge, or for a living, or the employment
of capital ; and, therefore, it is endeavored by
the information the book affords, and the
matters it treats upon, to divest them of 'all
mystery and useless forms that they may
hitherto have been allied with.
54 Theobald's-road, London,
On the Qualities of Sugar 17
On Clarifying Sugar 22
On Colors and Adulteration 24
On the Workshops and Boiling-Rooms 29
Average Degrees of Heat of Drying-Stoves 31
On Hand and Machine Goods 31
On the Degrees of Boiling Sugars, and how to test
On Cutting the Grain, Lowering, Reducing, or
Greasing Sugar 37
On Artificial Fruit Essences, etc., and "the Great
On the Kinds of Goods to make, and how to make
Lemon Acid Drops 42
Lemon Barley Sugar 44
Barley Sugar Drops 45
Honey Drops 46
Pine Apple-Drops 47
Burnt Almond Rock or French Rock 47
Cocoa Nut Ice, Cream or Paste 48
Cough Candy 49
Anniseed Drops or Cough Drops 49
Horehound or Montpelier Drops 50
Horehound Candy t 50
Red Cocoa Nut Ice 51
Cocoa Nut Candy 51
Cocoa Nut Hardbake, or Eggs and Bacon 52
Crystallized Cocoa Nut Chips 52
Everton Toffee 53
To Ice Cocoa Nut Paste 54
Victoria, Alexandria, and Albert Rocks, etc 55
Large Rocks, Strawberry or Raspberry 56
Boiled Sugars in Moulds 56
Boiled Sugars as Medals, etc 57
Imitation Plum Puddings 57
Brandy Balls and Clear Balls '. 58
Clear Balls 59
Sponge Sugar, or Honey Comb, etc 59
Love Rock, or Rock Varieties, etc 60
Crystallized Imitation Ginger 61
English Almond Rock 62
Almond Hardbake 62
Clove, Brown Acid, Black Jack, etc 63
White Acid, Rose Acid, Sticks, etc 63
Small Bulls' Eyes and Nelson Balls 63
Ginger, Lemon, Rose, or Peppermint Candies. ... 64
Burnt Almonds 64
Pear Drops, Raspberry Drops, and Rose Drops. . 65
Turkey Sugars, Lemon, Peppermint, and Rose. . . 66-
Farthing and Halfpenny Sticks (clear) 66
Farthing and Halfpenny Cushions, Sticks, etc.
Peppermint, Lemon, Rose, etc., Pastilles or Drops 67
Cherry Stones and Rose Buds 68
Real Burnt Almonds, or French Pralines 69
Cherry Balls, Fishes, Tom Thumb Drops, etc .... 70
Imitation Crystallizing 71
Imitation Indian Corn 72
Pink and White Sugar Candy 72
Chocolate in Boiled Sugars 73
Ginger Toffee 73
Doncaster Butter Scotch 74
Raspberry Toffee 74
Persian Sherbet .- 75
On Crystallized Goods, Liqueur Bon-Bons, etc.. . 76
Liqueur Bon-Bons, etc 77
Liqueur Almonds and Comfits 78
Gum Pastilles, etc 78
Pink or Yellow Jujubes 79
To Crystallize Preserved Fruits 80
To Preserve Fruits Whole in Syrup 80
Raspberry Jam 81
Red Currant, Black Currant, and Gooseberry Jam, 82
Strawberry Jam 82
Preserved Ginger (Mock) 83
Preserved Orange and Lemon Peel, etc 84
Raspberry Jelly 85
Raspberry Vinegar 86
To Keep Jams or Jellies 86
Raspberry and Black Currant Squares or Cakes. . 87
Seville Orange Marmalade 88
Apple Marmalade or Jam 89
Apple Jelly 89
Quince Marmalade or Jam : . . . . 90
Damson, Apple, Apricot, Plum, Black Currant,
Paste, or Cheese 90
Red Currant Jelly 91
Black Currant Jelly . . . . 92
Pulp for Jams (to preserve without sugar) 92
Bottled Tart Fruits 93
Juice of Fruits without Sugar 93
To Remove Acids from Boiled Sugar 94
Tests for Adulterated Goods 94
For Detecting Terra-Alba or any other Earthy
Matter in Comfits, etc 95
Colored Sugars 95
Fruit Syrups, Capillaire, etc 96
On Lozenges, Comfits, etc 96
On the Manufacture of Lozenges 98
Medicated Lozenges, etc 98
Mixing for Common Mints 99
Common Ginger Lozenges . . . . , 100
Cough Lozenges 100
Coltsfoot Rock 101
Rose Lozenges 101
Musk Lozenges 102
Anniseed Lozenges 104
Bath Lozenges 105
Balsam Tolu Lozenges 105
Black Currant Lozenges 105
Cayenne Lozenges 106
Chalk Lozenges 106
Paregoric Lozenges 106
Ipecacuanha Lozenges 107
Lavender Lozenges , 107
Rhubarb Lozenges, or Long-Life Lozenges 107
Quinine Lozenges t 108
On the Manufacture of Comfits or Pan Goods. . . 108
On the Machines to Buy and how to Use them
On Spinning Sugar, Piping, Gum Paste, Orna-
ments, etc 113
To Spin Caramel Sugar 115
Gum Paste Ornaments -116
Sugar Piping for Cakes, etc 117
On Ices 119
Imitation Cream Ice (or Custard Ice) 121
Raspberry and Strawberry Cream 122
Vanilla Ice Cream . . 122
Chocolate Ice Cream 122
Cofiee Ice Cream ; 123
Tea Ice Cream 123
Water Ices Lemon Water Ice 123
Orange Water Ice 124
Strawberry Water Ice 124
Raspberry Water Ice 124
For any of the Currant Water Ices 124
Pine Apple Water Ice 125
To Preserve Oranges or Lemons Whole 125
To Preserve a Pine Apple Whole 126
Orange Quarters in Barley Sugar 126
Paris Nogat . . 127
Raspberry Syrup 127
Cherry Syrup 128
Apple Paste for Ornamenting, etc 128
Orange and Lemon Chips 129
Cherries in Brandy 129
Concluding Remarks 130
ART OF BOILING SUGAR,
AND VARIOUS OTHER PROCESSES
IN SUGAR GOODS ETC.
On the Qualities of Sugar.
Iy is necessary, before we proceed in the
work, to speak of the material used, the nature
and qualities of which are of very great im-
portance to those engaged in this branch of the
trade, and who work it into such a variety of
confections, a term derived from the Latin, con
and facere (that is to "make up"). In the earli-
est records of the Sugar Cane the produce was
assimilated and treated as Honey, for an
ancient historian, in writing of a certain peo-
ple, says they have Bees which make Honey
but the " Confectioners" make much more - It
18 QUALITIES OF SUGAR.
will be superfluous here to enter into the his-
tory of the sugar cane, the processes it under-
goes, etc.: -however interesting it might be, it
would exceed the limits of a work of this kind.
The best description of sugar for the purposes
of the Confectioner are those from the "West
Indies, and an- acquaintance with the qualities
of raw sugars is of equal importance to per-
sons using them for domestic purposes, who in
buying are so often led away by that most
deceptive bait "color," which is seldom an
advantage except when taken from an original
hogshead. Moist sugars, as sometimes sold re-
tail, are so sophisticated and artificially treated
for appearance sake that a very large amount
of the pure saccharine matter is entirely
destroyed or lost to the consumer. We find
the public at fault here: the -grocers are com-
pelled to make up their sugars to please the
eye, and as it is a leading article they are great
losers from competition, supposing they study
quality, except the darkest foots, so called from
its receiving the drainage or moisture from the
other portion of sugar in the hogshead while
QUALITIES OF SUGAR. 19
in a horizontal position during the voyage
nearly all the West India raws are good
enough for domestic purposes. During the
high prices, some years since, sugar from
potatoe starch was used largely for adulteration ;
and, though an excellent imitation, there is
very little sweetness, and it can be detected
with Iodine, which changes the color when
mixed with water. All artificial sugars, if
they may be so termed, including beet-root
sugar, made extensively in France, are quite
useless to the workman : they possess neither
strength nor richness, and, if mixed with cane
sugars, they annoy him by puffing and burning
in the pan, before they are half up to the de-
gree he requires ; besides the loss of time and
annoyance in using sugars of a low class, there
is a greater waste in boiling than many are
aware of. In choosing raw sugars, prefer those
that have a gray cast in preference to yellow
for boiling ; they should be free and sparkling
in the grain and smell sweet ; this is a neces-
sary test in all sugars', particularly those in
bags : avoid those that feel sticky in the hand
20 QUALITIES OF SUGAR.
and hang together when pressed they are weak
and will not boil well. Some bag sugars are
cheaper, and, if sound, are useful for low-class
goods ; they, however, require cajution in buy-
ing, as some kinds are very deceptive to the
boiler. Mauritius work well, and those of good
qualities answer nearly all purposes. Since
the reduction in prices of refined sugars, East
India for boiling is nearly superseded, but
when clarified, is very useful for sugar sticks,
etc., from the great tenacity of the grain in
pulling out. A great many of these sugars
smell very badly and require to be tested, or
during the evaporation in boiling they will be
extremely disagreeable. With regard to refined
sugars of English make, whether in lumps or
loaves, they generally possess quality enough
for all ordinary purposes, except for best goods
and crystallizing, when color is necessary, com-
bined with hard, close texture, and brilliant
appearance. Some few years since large quan-
tities of Dutch Eefines were introduced in the
market of very inferior quality, and badly
made in every respect. They should never .
QUALITIES OF SUGAR. 21
be used while English Refines keep at any
thing like their present prices. Crushed lump
boils well, and answers every purpose of lump
or loaves for inferior bottled and other goods.
About fifteen years since, when sugar was dear
in England, a remarkable system was carried
out by several confectioners, to obtain it
cheaper by their establishing factories in the
Channel Islands, and making up refined sugars,
which in those places were very cheap, into
various shapes in dry goods without acids or
flavorings, and sending them in barrels over to
their correspondents in England to be remelted.
There was no duty at that- period upon these
manufactured sweets, but this manifest injustice
to the rest of the trade, whom these clever
schemers very much undersold, was brought
to the notice of the Government, and a duty of
6d. per Ib. soon put an end to these question-
22 CLARIFYING SUGAR.
On Clarifying Sugar.
As it is both convenient and necessary under
some circumstances to clarify sugar, the pro-
cesses are given below. The low prices at
which refined sugars have been sold for some
time past does away with the necessity of
clarifying Eaw Sugars ; but if it should be re-
quired, for 56 Ibs. of sugar, take the whites
of six eggs, with a quart of water, into your
pan, and whisl^them thoroughly ; add 4 Ibs. of
charcoal in powder, and two and half gallons
of water; dissolve the whole; it must be
watched while on the stove until it boils ; so
soon as that takes place pull it on one side and
let it remain a short time to settle, take the
scum off, and place the syrup half over the
stove again as it must not boil violently; as
the scum accumulates take it off, and during
the time it continues to rise throw in several
half pints of cold water, which assists in bring-
ing it up ; it must afterwards be passed through
a large jelly bag, and returned until it becomes
bright, as'it will be black at first. The above
CLARIFYING SUGAR. 28
process is for dark colored sugars, for those
lighter in color use less charcoal ; some in the
trade use bullock's blood instead of charcoal,
but it is more difficult to obtain in most places,
besides being unpleasant to use. If loaf sugar
is required to be clarified, take the whites of
six eggs well beat up with a whisk, to the same
quantity, unless very dark in color, when a
third of the charcoal may be used, as in the last
process, and proceed the same. These syrups
ought not to be more than 32 degrees by
Beaumes Saccharometer, or >212 by the Ther-
mometer. The scums can be washed in water
and passed through the bag for the next
clearings. Clarified sugars must not be allowed
to remain for an indefinite time before being
used, the action of the atmosphere causing
them to boil weak and windy. The pans
used in clarifying must be one-third larger
than the bulk of sugar takes up, to allow for
the sudden rising of the scum ; it is indispensa-
ble that all the pans used either for boiling
sugar or for clarifying syrups be made of
either copper or bell metal if large sizes are
24 COLORS AND ADULTERATION.
required for clarifying, the sides may be of
block tin and the bottom copper ; for gum
goods and ^similar substances, the steam pans
or others should be glazed or tinned, sup-
posing them to be made of copper.
On Colors and Adulteration.
It is to be hoped that every manufacturing
confectioner, who went to the International
Exhibition, 1862, saw Dr. Hassall's large case
of adulterated articles, used as food, and hence-
forth determined to discard all mineral colors,
and adulterated compounds, from his work-
shop; those that missed this interesting col-
lection, may be told that it consisted of every
conceivable article, used or consumed as food,
bought indiscriminately at shops, in various
parts of London, and nearly every trader who
saw it found articles he dealt in represented
there : but in respect to this trade, adulterated
lozenges of all kinds abounded, mixtures
colored with crome, and sugar goods with
vermilion, red lead, etc. Names of parties
COLORS AND ADULTERATION. 25
were not revealed, but it was a wholesome
lesson to all interested ; and it ought to be
known in the trade generally that the "Adul-
teration of Foods Act," passed not long since,
contains very stringent clauses, as regards
using any deleterious matter, or compound, in
coloring or mixing, etc. Ignorance cannot be
urged on the part of those in the trade, who
now use poisonous mineral colors, in sweets,
or other goods, when every color than can pos-
sibly be required can be obtained, in which no
pernicious qualities exist.
[Vegetable colors ready for the Confec-
tioner's use are to be obtained of Messrs.
Bush & Co., Liverpool Street, City.]
In the regulations, established by the Minis-
ter of Commerce for the guidance of the
French Confectioners, the following are the
only colors allowed, and are all that are neces-
sary to the English Confectioner: (Blues),
Indigo, Prussian Blue, Ultramarine. (Beds),
Cochineal, Carmine, Carmine lake. (Yellows),
Saffron, French Berries, and Tumeric or Fustic.
(Greens), by mixing the yellows and blues. In
26 COLORS AND ADULTERATION".
allowing ultramarine to be used, it must not be
thought or understood- to be the description
of blue sold under that name, "of German
Manufacture," which is very unwholesome.
The best color from cochineal we have made
is as follows: J Ib. powdered cochineal, 2
ounces washing soda, "bruised," 2 ounces
rock alum, " bruised," J Ib. cream of tartar, put
3 pints of water in a copper pan, add the soda
and cochineal ; when it has boiled, add the
alum, gradually, or it will flow over, keep
stirring till it is dissolved, and boil up again ;
then add the cream of tartar, boil two or three
minutes longer, and strain through a small
hair sieve for use ; these quantities can be re-
duced in the same ratio if required. No
utensil of tin or iron must be used with this
receipt or it will give a purple cast to the
color. If desired, some of this liquor can be
dried down, by evaporation, to a paste, and
used on the slab ; the only advantage in this is
for stripes, or casings, and saving the pans.
Saffron as a yellow for best goods cannot be
equalled, and is best kept with spirits, but
COLORS AND ADULTERATION. 27
water for small quantities, answers the same
purpose. A remarkable substitute for this
article is a solution of logwood chips, made
the same as strong tea, but it will only act
when fresh and the sugar is reduced either by
cream of tartar, or one of the acids, .used to
cut the grain, and which is a great recommen-
dation, as it instantly detects the omission, by
turning the boil a dirty color, which when dis-
covered, the lowering can be added in solution,
and it instantly changes bright. The very
high price of Saffron has made this a valuable
discovery for cheap goods, while it is equally
as wholesome to use. Indigo, dissolved with
sulphuric acid, makes a fine blue, one ounce
in powder to a quarter of pound of vitriol, it
must be mixed in a jar or pot holding about
a pint, and must not be put to any syrups
while on the fire. Carmine, though highly
prized as a color by the trade, is most gen-
erally bought. The process of making is
simple, but troublesome, and not suited to the
present work. If for any purpose a variety
of colors is desired, use the following : Purple
28 COLORS AND ADULTERATION.
(Cochineal and weak liquid blue) Orange,
(Yellow with Ked) Green, (Blue and Yellow.)
It will greatly accelerate the work, and be
much more convenient, to keep colors for
stripes and casings ready for use ; they ought
(with the exception of cochineal, saffron, etc.)
to be worked with the palate knife, with
some sweet salad oil on a piece of stone, into
a paste and kept for use in jelly pots. Where
clear casings are required, of a different color
from, the original boil, keep some in the pan
for the purpose of mixing in cochineal, etc.
Mind it is strong, and does not require boiling
in more than a minute or so, or the sugar will
become very weak. Some prefer doing this
on the slab, but for many goods it does not look
so well. Keep a roller handy to make your
casing even and regular. Should you find it
does not adhere properly to your pulled sugar,
wipe it over with a damp cloth, or you can
even wet it with your hand slightly, the heat
in the body of the pulled sugar drying it.
WORKSHOPS AND BOILING ROOMS. 29
On the Workshops and Boiling Rooms.
At the .Great Gun Trophy, in the Inter-
national Exhibition, was displayed in large
letters, "A workman is known by his chips."
To carry the simile a little further, we may say
that a workman is known by his tools, or his
workroom. I am sorry to say that very little
attention, unless by large firms, is paid to this
matter, by a great portion of the trade in sugar
boiling. The places in which it is carried on
are small, confined, and dark, often under-
ground, and sunicient attention is not paid to
ventilation and cleanliness. In this respect
they are situated much like the bakehouses in
London, but which the legislature has taken
in hand, and a new law compels masters to
whitewash and paint them at certain periods ; a-
determination to have this done in our trade
would render the workmen much more com-
fortable. In fitting up a boiling room well,
instead of having stone, slate, or marble slabs
for pouring on, they ought to be cast iron,
about an inch thick at least. They are not
30 WORKSHOPS AXD BOILING ROOMS.
very expensive, and should be smcfoth. They
save their expense in oil ; the size should be
regulated, of course, by the size o the room.
There is a great saving of time, and great com-
fort, in the work. There is no sticking to the
slab, and they can be worked on any length of
time without trouble. Stoves, also of iron,
can be built by the regular oven builders, but
the slabs can be had at any iron foundry or engi-
neer's. Boiling pans ought to be made specially
for brown goods ; if made a quarter of an inch
thick at bottom, they save a deal of time.
For loaf goods the usual thickness will do.
Irons for the pouring slab about half an inch
thick and three feet long and some half that
length are required. Large and small scales
for weighing the sugar, acids, etc., ought to be
conveniently fixed ; also a graduated glass for
measuring essences, etc., where boiling is
carried on to any extent. With regard to
fuel, that is a matter of convenience. Coke is
the cleanest, but coals much more healthy to
work over ; the large amount of carbonic acid
rising from coke or charcoal is very deleterious
HAND AND MACHINE GOODS. 31
in badly-ventilated places, although in Aus-
tralia I have known a very large trade carried
on, and no, other fuel than charcoal could be
obtained to manufacture with, but there was
good ventilation and the work was well paid
Average degrees of heat of Drying
The heat of the stove must be regulated to
some extent according to the goods placed
there. For lozenges, comfits, etc., 80 degrees;
sugar candies, 100 ; for liqueurs before crystal-
lizing, 100 ; when drained, 80 ; to dry fruits, etc.,
90. It must be observed that one part of a
drying-room will be hotter than another, if
heated by a stove ; steam pipes carried round
give the most regular heat.
On Hand and Machine Goods.
Though machines, coupled with the low
price of sugars, have created quite a revolution
in the wholesale trade of late years, as regards
prices and amount of trade done, there are
32 HAND AND MACHINE GOODS.
still some who make a great many goods by
hand. These require more labor and more
care in making, but the competition keeps
them to about the same price, and therefore
there is no advantage, except for variety and
the credit which arises from their skilful manip-
ulation ; for there are certain latent properties
in boiled sugars (when pulled, for instance)
which are only brought out when made by
hand, and by a clever workman. This is
illustrated in a striking manner by the " Eock
varieties," as they are termed ; also the beauti-
ful variety of rocks and sticks, both striped
and plain, made by some in the trade. No
amount of written instruction can perfect the
reader in hand-made goods nothing but prac-
tice, and a good deal of it, can do that but a
few practical remarks may assist him. In the
first place, a warm slab is indispensable, and
great care must be taken that the boil does not
go beyond the crack for sticks, but rather less
for some, also to keep it well together, after
turned out ; if the sides get hard and lumpy, it
will never recover, and nothing is more annoy-
HAND AND MACHINE GOODS. 33
ing or looks worse. "When the sugar is about
ready to work, and before you stripe it, begin
by doubling it in half-a-dozen times, it causes
greater tenacity and uniformity in pulling out ;
look to the pieces for stripes ; keep them of a
mellow heat, and if they are greasy, damp
them slightly when you use them. The same
remarks apply to pulled sug^i* sticks, etc.;
great care is required not to let the sugar get
too cold at the edges, before turned in ; also in
looking after the pieces for striping, that they
are kept warm; for these goods the sugar
ought to be pulled as soon as it can be
handled, they should have a silky appearance,
wMch depends to a great extent on the pulling,
but also on the boiling. Pulled goods, where
the sugar has been boiled too low, will look as
dull as putty, and work badly. It was a
common thing formerly to put a piece of
butter about the size of a nut into all boils of
pulled sugars, or oil into barley sugars, etc.,
but we regard it an old woman's practice, and
quite unnecessary for all loaf goods. After
the degree of " ball," mind there is a fierce,
34: THE DEGREES OF BU1LIN<; BUG**.
strong fire (and on the contrary for raw sugar
goods) ; it will spoil the color and weaken the
quality of any loaf sugar goods to be coddled
on the stove.
On the degrees of boiling Sugars,
and how to test them.
The number and division of these degrees
vary. Foreign confectioners engaged in a
superior class of goods, make about 10 or 12
the maximum, and for some class of fine crys-
tals, sugar must be tested to a scientific nicety ;
but for any purpose the sugar boiler requires
half the number are sufficient, and the object of
this work being to assist and instruct the work-
man, and not confuse him, we will name those
only that are found necessary: these are the
Smooth, the Thread, the Blow or Feather, the
Ball, the Crack, the Caramel. We will now
proceed to show how to test them :
1st. Smooth, or 215 degrees by thermome-'
ter; for example, take seven pounds of loaf
sugar, to which put three pints of water ; soon
THE DEGREES OF BOILING SUGAR. 35
as it boils, see that the lumps are all dis-
solved, if not, break them ; let it boil for ten
minutes or so, dip into it the handle of a tea-
spoon, draw it between the forefinger and
thumb. If on working them together they feel
slippery, that is the first degree or smooth.
Clarified sugar is the best for these examples.
2nd. Thread, or 230 by thermometer. In
the course of a few minutes the sugar passes
into this degree; having soaked the previous
sugar off the spoon, try the boil again, close
your finger and thumb together, and gentry
lift or part them, when if you perceive a thread-
like appearance between them, it has passed
into this degree.
3rd. Blow or Feather, 235 degrees. In two
or three minutes from the last, sugar passes
into this degree ; dip a small skimmer or slice,
with holes in it, into the sugar, drain it off
quickly, and blow hard through them, you will
perceive bladders and . feathery particles pass
away. This is the blow, or feather; a very
4th. The Ball, or 240 degrees. About the
THE DEGREES OF BOILING SUGAR. 36
same time as the last this degree arrives ; have
some cold water handy. Take a little sugar
out of the pan with the handle of the spoon,
dip it into the water, and if it is tough and you
can work it about with your finger and thumb,
like a pinch of heft bread, that is the ball.
5th. Crack, or 252 degrees. The same pro-
cess in testing as the last, but you must be
very expert. Take a little out of the pan, put
it into cold water, when it will crack ; or slip
it off quickly, and bite it well. If it crunches
and leaves the teeth without sticking to them,
pour the sugar out instantly on your slab.
This is the mosl useful degree to the hard
N.B. In trying this degree, unless an ex-
perienced workman, the pan must be lifted off
6th. Caramel, or 260 degrees. It is not
necessary to try this degree in the same way
as the last ; the instant the sugar changes color,
which must be closely watched, as it occurs
rapidly, it must be poured out, or if not re-
quired on the slab, but for other purj-
CUTTING THE GRAIN. 37
such as spinning . sugar, etc., place it in a tub
of cold water, the size of the bottom of the
pan, to stop the heat or it will turn very dark.
The rapidity of these degrees changing into
each other of course depends upon the heat of
the stove ; no definite time can be given. As
all loaf goods must be boiled on a sharp fire,
they require close watching.
In all the degrees from the thread, the ap-
prentice or learner should accustom himself to
try the sugar with his first or second finger
and thumb in this manner : first dip them in
your bowl of cold water and instantly snatch
a small portion from the boil and return it to
the water ; it is the quickest and best method,
and with perseverance can easily be acquired,
although we must confess a great many do not
care to adopt it for fear of being burned.
On "Cutting the Grain," Lowering,
Reducing, or Greasing Sugar.
Each of these terms has been employed to
express one and the same meaning, and we have
38 CUTTING THE GRAIN".
known all used but the last, which we do not
think at all inappropriate. It is, however, not
important what we call a method, if we adopt
a good one, and which answers the purpose,
and there have been as many tried for this as
there are names to express it: vjnegar, lemon-
juice, tartaric acid, sulphuric acid, pyrolig-
neous acid, cream of tartar, etc., etc.; each
have been, and can be used, but they require
different degrees of care in using, or the goods
will be spoiled or not keep. Cream of tartar,
though more expensive, is the safest, and the
result more safely depended on ; next to that
wood vinegar or the pyroligneous acid or
lemon -juice: the others require no remark, as
there is no advantage in adopting them. As a
rule, put about a quarter of an .ounce, not less,
of the cream of tartar to a seven pound boil,
a teaspoonful of the strong acids, or table-
spoonful of lemon-juice or the common house
vinegar to the same quantity of loaf sugar to
reduce its strength. With regard to the rea-
sons why refined sugars for the hard confec-
tioner's purpose require to be treated in this
ARTIFICIAL FRUIT ESSENCES, ETC. 39
way, it may be simply stated, that during the
process of evaporation, this sugar exhibits a
strong determination, so to speak, to return to
its original state of crystallization, and will
speedily do so when boiled beyond the degree
of the "feather," unless we lessen or reduce its
strength, whioh we do chemically, by bringing
into contact with it an acid, which, in its action,
is so totally opposed to this process, that ac-
cording to the expression it " cuts the grain,"
and prevents them being held together, by what
the learned in chemistry would call the "at-
traction of cohesion."
On Artificial Fruit Essences, etc., and
the Great Exhibition.
Although a few only of the leading flavors
are named in this book, there are a great
variety of the above, and they can be used in
many forms, either as simple or compound
flavorings, and are likely yet to give rise to
many new and curious combinations, both in
sugar and other goods, in the hands of a clever
40 ARTIFICIAL FRUIT ESSENCES, ETC.
inventive workmen: they may be ranked
among the most remarkable triumphs of chem-
ical art, for* their* wonderful similarity to the
fruits produced by nature, as regards delicacy
of flavors. Those from the laboratory of
Messrs. Bush & Co., in Liverpool Street, City,
we have found of the finest quality and produce
the nearest resemblance to the names they bear.
They were first brought prominently before
the public, in connection with confectionery by
the author, who had a large display of various
designs in boiled sugars at the Great Exhibi-
tion, 1851, and received the awards of a Medal,
and a Certificate of Honorable Mention for
them. For this success he was greatly indebted
to the fruit essences, essential oils, etc., used in
the manufacture of the goods which were
supplied by the above firm, and which were
tested by scientific men connected with tho
jurors. Amongst the goods were many new
designs in the forms of natural fruits, machines
for which have ever since continued to be
used by the trade. At the same time, in
another class, the currant and fruit dressing
THE KIND OE GOODS TO MAKE. 41
machine w.as exhibited, for which the author
also received a medal. A model of this
machine is now in the Kensington Museum
of Patents (No. 80, in the catalogue), it has
met with great approval and success, and con-
tinues in use to the present time, amongst
grocers and others, using or selling these fruits.
The author therefore refers with some satis-
faction to a recent speech on invention, by a
great living statesman, from which the follow-
ing is an extract : " There are three regions
given to man for the exercise of his faculties in
the production- of objects and the performance
of acts, conducive to civilization and to the
ordinary uses of life : of these, one is the homely
sphere of simple utility."
On the kind of Goods to make and
how to make them.
Any description of the soft rich eating
candies called " Creams" which are of recent
introduction under the name -of almond, orange,
lemon Italian, marmalade, etc. * though con-
42 THE KIND OF GOODS TO MAKE,
sidered by some a difficult and secret process,
can be made by attention to the following : Take
for example seven pounds of refined sugar (for
white creams use the best); put a quarter of an
ounce .of cream of tartar, and three pints of
water, boil it to the thread or 230 degrees by
the thermometer, then take it off the stove, and
let it stand aside about half-an-hour, to dispel
the heat; then with your spatula, work the
syrup against the sides of the pan, thoroughly
well, until it changes into a thick creamy look-
ing substance, or " soft -grain ;" when it arrives
at this state, you can add to it, and mix in any
kind of fruit essence, with a little acid, or fruit,
preserves, almonds, marmalades, etc., etc., ac
cording to fancy, and put it into tin frames or
shapes, to set, which must be previously oiled
with the best salad oil : when cold turn it out.
Lemon Acid Drops.
These drops are now mostly made white : they
have continued a great favorite with the public
ever since sugar boiling as a trade began;
AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 43
when they were sold at 2s. per pound, whole-
sale price, they were made with citric acid and
were much better in flavor than those made
now with tartaric acid, and nothing but price
ought to prevent the former being always used
in confectionery: to make a superior article,
the best refined sugar should be used. Some
houses tinge the boil with saffron, which gives
a nice cast, and more in accordance with the
name, but this cannot be done with proper
effect, without the sugar is a good color. To
make them, take a clean bright pan, into which
put seven pounds of sugar, quarter of an ounce
of cream of tartar, and 3 pints of water, place
it on a clear bright fire, stir it about ; after it
boils, take the pan off the fire, and with the
spatula break the lumps (clarified sugar saves
this trouble), put it on again, cover the pan over
for five minutes, with a cover the proper size ;
take the cover off after this time, and boil to a
crack (in winter rather less), pour out on an
oiled slab, with irons round it ; when about the
consistence of stiff dough, work in three quar-
ters of an ounce of powdered acid (some like a
44 THE KIND OF GOODS TO MATtE,
little more) and half a teaspoonful of essence
of lemon ; when a little colder pass it through
the machine ; when quite cold, break them up,
and sift them in a coarse sieve.
Lemon Barley Sugar.
This is also one of the oldest sweets made ;
this and acid drops were formerly the only
boiled sweets that the old city houses made.
"Tringhams/; on Holborn-hill, now "Moores,"
used to be a very great attraction thirty years
ago, to see the barley sugar made in the shop ;
the pouring slabs were marble, slightly con-
cave, or hollowed out, instead of using irons on
a level slab ; as its name implies, ifc was said to
be made with a decoction of barley, but of that
there is no record. Some boil this article to
what is termed "color," that is, caramel de-
gree, but unless the workman is extremely care-
ful he will spoil it. As we have before re-
marked, the only use there can be in boiling
to this degree is to keep goods clear, for when
placed in air-tigto bottles they will keep so for
AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 45
a long period. To make barley sugar, proceed
as in acid drops clarified sugar is the best
add a teaspoonful of strong saffron water, and
when up to the crack, pour over the boil a tea-
spoonful of essence of lemon, let it boil two or
three seconds longer, and quickly pour it into
the irons on the oiled slab, the irons must be
regulated to the size required ; run the blade
of a knife along the side to keep the rough
edges down ; as the sides cool, cut off strips,
and twist them. The slab mtfst be warm
before being used for this article, and to make
it very bright and keep its color, it should be
boiled as near to the caramel as possible with-
out reaching that degree, therefore 'to do so
keep it on the stove about a second beyond the
crack. There is also "a machine to pass this
through which saves the trouble of cutting,
and twisting it.
Barley Sugar Drops.
These are made precisely as the last, except
when at the crack pour it out, and when cold
THE KINDS OP GOODS TO MAKK, 46
enough, as described in acid drops, pass through
the macnine. Before the use of machines they
were dropped from a small pan with a lip to it,
on to sifted sugar, either on the slab or paper.
When the author first invented these drops,
he registered them, and they were made in the
form of a bee -hive. When at two or three
degrees beyond the crack, a ladle of honey was
put into the boil, allowing two or three seconds
for this to become incorporated with the sugar,
which it reduces again to the crack, it was in-
stantly poured out, or would become dark,
honey being very weakening to boiled sugars.
They are now made throughout the trade in the
same manner as Barley Sugar Drops, with the
exception that instead of essence of lemon, a
combination of flavors is used, made by mixing
together such as rose, pine, raspberry, vanilla,
etc., add a few drops with about half an ounce
of acid, work it into the mass of sugar, and
pass it through the machine.
AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 47
Pine Apple Drops.
These are made precisely as the last, in
every way except essence of pine apple being
used, in the place of the other essences, and
passed through a different machine.
Burnt Almond Rock or French Rock.
Prepare the same quantity of sugar as in the
previous receipts, but put half ^ the quantity
more of cream of tartar into it, boil up to the
crack. Before this is done have ready blanched
and well dried, three pounds of Barbary or
Valencia almonds, keep them warm, and when
the sugar is up to the degree stated, put the
almonds in ; the oil from the almonds will
reduce the sugar to below the crack, to which
it must be brought up again; stir the mass
with a small iron or copper rod, but only one
way ; keep an iron plate half way across the fire,
or it will be too fierce for this operation. If
the. almonds have not been well dried in an
oven or by the stove, it will be difficult to get
48 THE KINDS OF GOODS TO MAKE,
it up to the degree required, and it will be very
dark. When at the crack pour it out, as in
Barley Sugar, or in iron frames, any shape.
Cocoa Nut Ice, Cream, or Paste.
For white, take seven pounds best loaf
sugar, to which put the quantity of cream of
tartar used in the previous boils, three pints
of water, and boil to the degree of " blow or
feather," or 235 by thermometer, but previous
to which have all ready prepared, two good
sized cocoa nuts, the skin peeled off, which
can be done best with a "spoke shave," and
either rubbed through a large coarse grater, or
passed through the machine made for the pur-
pose, to be obtained from the author. When
the sugar is done rub it against the sides of
the pan well, with a palate knife or spatula,
until the sugar becomes very thick or creamy,
stir in the cocoa nut, and pour it out quickly
in your tin frames, or on the slab within irons.
A little essence of lemon very much improves
AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 49
NOTE. The object in putting " cream of
tartar" to the above and other creams which
are given in this book is to prevent too much
graining, and to make the goods keep soft and
The article sold under this name is not a
candy, but made in the following manner :
Boil the previous quantities of loaf sugar,
water and cream of tartar, to the crack, color
yellow with saffron, pour it out, and when half
cold, mix in half an ounce of acid, a teaspoon-
ful of anniseed, and two drops of peppermint;
pull it out continually about half a yard, and
return it, until it looks like satin, when you
proceed to pull it out in strips, the width of
ribbon, and when half cold twist it slightly.
The -peppermint was originally put in to dis-
guise the flavor.
Anniseed Drops, or Cougn Drops.
These are boiled the same and flavored also
as the last without the peppermint, either brown
50 THE KIND OF GOODS TO MAKE,
or loaf sugar, according to fancy, and passed
through a machine, either the acid or other
Horehound or Montpellier Drops.
Exactly as the last, except flavor, with half a
pint of strong decoction of horehound put to
the sugar with the water ; when done pass it
through the acid drop machine.
Put half a pint of decoction of "horehound
with the water, to seven pounds of brown
sugar, boil to the feather, or 235 degrees, stir it
against the sides of the pan, with the spatula,
two or three minutes, then stir the whole in
well, and pour it into the tin frames. Expe-"
rience can only teach the precise extent candies
ought to be grained, as sugars differ in quality ;
but this gives a fair average.
AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 51
Red Cocoa Nut Ice.
Proceed exactly as in the white, with the
exception that any loaf sugar will do, and boil
to the ball or 240 degrees ; when done put in
an egg cup full of cochineal, and finish as
before. The reason why this is required
higher in degree is on account of the color,
which will reduce it.
NOTE. Where large quantities of Cocoa nut
Ice are made or required, twenty-eight pounds
of sugar to about a dozen or more dry cocoa
nuts is used, and fine powdered sugar put to
the mass, to assist the grain, and poured into
large frames on the slab the previous night,
and cut into blocks in the morning.
Cocoa Nut Candy.
Same as the previous, made with raw sugar,
but no lowering, and with dry slices of cocoa
nut instead of grated; use exactly the same
method in graining and pour out into your
62 THE KIND OP GOODS TO MAKE,
Cocoa Nut Hardbake, or Eggs and
To a seven pound boil -as previously in-
structed, add when at the crack, half an egg
cup of cochineal, and boil it in, previous to
which oil your slab, and lay it over closely
with dried slices of cocoa nut ; sprinkle over
the slab, between them, some nonparels, or
hundreds and thousands, pour your sugar
gently over them. For all these kinds of
goods form a square ,with the irons, within
which pour your sugar. It must be evident
to the reader that in giving the amount of
cochineal or any other color in this book, it
must be varied according to its strength and
the shade required.
Crystallized Cocoa Nut Chips.
Take a dozen cocoa nuts, more or less, shave
off the rind, cut them into thin slices with a
sharp knife or machine for the purpose, to be
had from the author. They must afterwards
AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 53
be well dried, but not shrivelled, in a warm
place, then place them in a bevelled tin box ;>r
shape about 4 inches deep and 12 inches over
(size not particular) ; take, for example, 7 Ibs. of
refined sugar, boil to a small thread, 225
degrees, then stand it aside till a skin forms on
the top, pour it over the cocoa nut in the box,
keep the cocoa chips under the syrup, and put
it in a hot place or stove from 90 to 100
degrees, 8 or 10 hours, pour off any superfluous
syrup, place it again in the stove till dry, when
cold it can be knocked out for use.
This article varies with the different makers ;
some make it with loaf sugar for the sake of
'color, but it is not so good in flavor ; others
put the butter in with the sugar, when first put
on the fire, which method possesses no advan-
tage, but, on the contrary, causes loss of time
in boiling, weakens the sugar, and spoils the
flavor; this, however, is the old process of
making it. The best method is as follows : To
64: THE KIND OF GOODS TO MAKE,
7 Ibs. of best raw sugar put 3J pints of water
and boil it between the ball and crack or 245
degrees, put into the boil 1 Ib. fresh butter, boil
it nearly to the crack over a slow fire, add
a teaspoonful of essence of lemon, just boil it
in, and pour into the frames. For special pur-
poses 4 to 8 ounces more butter can be used.
To Ice Cocoa Nut Paste, etc.
Make an icing as directed in sponge sugar,
add the juice of a lemon, but beat it much
more ; when your cocoa nut is nearly cold,
proceed to ice it with a palate knife, lay a thin
coat on first, and let it dry, and then finish
with a thicker coat. For white cocoa nut use
pink icing. For red ditto use white. The
creams before spoken of are iced in the same
manner sometimes ; care is required to lay the
icing over smooth, and the best sugar must be
used for the white.
AJtfD HOW TO MAKE THEM. 65
Victoria, Alexandria, and Albert
These are pulled sugar cased with red or
yellow ; reduce and boil to the crack the quan-
tity of refined sugar before named, when done
pour two-thirds on the slab, put an egg-cup of
cochineal or ^pme strong saffron water to the
rest, just boil it up, and pour out separately,
put a little acid and any of the essences desired
to flavor with, into the first portion when cold
enough to pull ; when pulled case it over with
the colored portion, after which stretch it out
and shape it to the size and form of a child's
wrist, then mark it with a knife on the top sur-
face diamond form, or right and left angles.
NOTE. The hook on which sugar is to be
pulled must be large, taking a sweep of at least
a foot, and four to six inches wide from back
to front, and fixed firmly against the wall, five
feet from the floor.
56 THE KIND OF GOODS TO MAKE
Large Rocks, Strawberry, or Rasp-
Square or round are made in the same way
as the last, with some of the solid sugar put
into the middle of the pulled sugar, doubled
over a half a dozen times or more, and after-
wards cased, they are flavored with any of the
fruit essences, and for all very 'thick rocks the
sugar must have a little more lowering and be
boiled a little beyond the crack, and when
pulled out to the diameter of about six inches,
put them between two iron bars ; by turning
over, when half cold they become .square, and
when cold are chopped in slices.
Boiled Sugars in Moulds.
There are many kinds of boiled loaf sugars,
lowered and colored as for drops, and cast into
iron moulds of all shapes, and before the whole
mass sets pour it out, which leaves that only
which clings to the shapes ; as they are well
oiled previously, they easily come out when the
mould is parted.
AKO HOW TO MAKE THEM. 67
Boiled Sugars as Medals, etc.
These are from the same sugars as the last,
some are cast in moulds, but others are cut off
like the halfpenny cushions from the clear
sugar, put into small round rings made of tin,
and afterwards pressed on the top with a die.
NOTE. It must be observed in bdiling
sugar to keep the sides of the pan free from
accumulation of candy; this can be done with-
out trouble, by having tin or copper covers
without rims to lay over them for ten minutes
when they begin to boil.
Imitation Plum Puddings.
These were a very great novelty when first
made ; though not so general now, they are still
made at Christmas in some places. The follow
ing plan will be found to answer for them:
having got ready picked three pounds plums,
two pounds currants, half pound peel cut in
strips, and about one pound of almonds
blanched, and cut into small pieces to look like
suet, take seven pounds of raw sugar, boil to
58 THE KIND OF GOODS TO MAKE,
the blow (if very strong sugar is used it must
be reduced), let it remain off the fire a short
time to take some of the heat off, then grain it
in the usual way, and immediately put into the
sugar your - ingredients, work an ounce of
mixed spice into it thoroughly with the spatula,
put it into wet pudding cloths, and tie them
tight, exactly the same as a pudding, and hang
up till they get firm
Brandy Balls, and Clear Balls.
Brandy Balls are made with brown sugar
boiled to the crack, and when on the slab work
in of good peppermint sufficient to make them
strong ; some make them black by working ir
about an ounce of ivory black to seven pounds
of sugar, they are cut as before directed, and
rolled round with the hands; if left as they are
cut, they are called peppermint cushions, they
are also put through a ball machine.
AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 59
Are made exactly the same, with loaf sugar
colored with cochineal and saffron and flavored
Sponge Sugar, or Honey Comb, etc.
Having made a wooden frame about twelve
or sixteen inches square, and four inches deep,
place it on a wet slab or wooden bench ; take
seven pounds of loaf sugar (no lowering), boil
to the caramel degree, previous to which, in a
pound jar, three parts filled with fine powdered
sugar, mix the whites of two eggs, beat it well
till stiff, when the sugar comes to the degree re-
quired, put in any flavoring or color you like,
take it off, pour your icing in, and immediately
agitate the whole quickly with the spatula ; in
two or three minutes it will rise to the edge of
the pan, let it fall again, and continue . stirring ;
as soon as it begins to rise the second time,
instantly pour it into the frame. Many fail at
this process, from pouring out at the first
60 THE KIND OF GOODS TO MAKE,
rising, which on the slab becomes perfectly flat,
and heavy ; when cold, remove it, by passing a
fine string, or long palate-knife underneath it.
Love Rock, or Rock Varieties, etc.
As before observed, no amount of instruction
will inform the reader sufficiently of the manu-
facture of these goods, but, having mastered the
principal difficulties of his business, which it is
hoped this book will assist him in doing, he
may try his hand at some of these special kind
of goods, which take their origin from " Love
Kock," that is, the word "LOYE," as thus
printed, being seen in the stick, wherever
broken off; the dark outlines of the letters are
the solid clear sugar made into the shape of the
letters, and filled in with sugar about half or
three parts pulled (if too much, it becomes
windy) ; to do this at first, and to exercise the
reader's ingenuity, he must have a very warm
slab, and not boil his sugar quite to the crack
' (they are not difficult, and after all only an
exercise at casing in various forms) ; the words
being cased must be kept in shape, and covered
AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 61
with the remainder of the pulled sugar, and
afterwards cased again with the solid sugar ; it
is then pulled out in straight sticks about an
inch thick. None of these operations can be
carried on without an expert assistant.
Crystallized Imitation Ginger.
Have Lozenge trays, or any trays, about an
inch in depth, filled with starch -powder (or
starch-powder, terra-alba, and flour mixed and
well dried) ; make a level surface with a smooth
stick, then with your ginger-moulds (or pieces
of ginger attached to a stick an inch apart)
make clear impressions on the powder, with
the same ;to the depth of the moulds, work
them slightly about, to make the impress a
little larger than the models ; put on a boil of
sugar any size you like (without lowering),
boil to the degree of blow, or 235 degrees, put
in half a teaspoonful of extract of ginger, and a
little saffron to tinge it, then take into a drop-
pan with a lip to it, as much of the syrup as
you require, grain it, and fill up the impres-
62 THE KIND OP GOODS TO MAKE,
sions; when cold, brush off the. powder and lay
them in crystallizing-pans, with the face down-
wards, and wire frames between each layer,
make sufficient syrup to cover the whole, and
proceed exactly as stated foF,crystallizing cocoa
chips. By the same process of boiling the
sugar and modelling, other fancies can be made.
English Almond Rock.
To seven pounds of raw sugar, put three and
a half pints of water, boil to the crack, pour it
on your slab, and put over it quickly four
pounds of picked Barbary almonds, mix them
well in ; when very firm, make it into a thick
block, place it on a wooden bench and cut
slices off with a long thin sharp knife; it is
safer to reduce the above a little if the sugar is
strong, or it will grain in the working.
Lay your split almonds on your slab or
frames, round or any other shape, proceed as in
AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 63
the last boil, and when the sugar is done pour
Clove, Brown Acid, Black Jack, etc.
These are boiled to crack, are all made from
brown sugar, and flavored with the usual.flavor-
ing ; ivory black is used with the last, mixed
in after it is poured out about an ounce to seven
pounds; they are pulled out and rolled into
White Acid, Rose Acid, Sticks, etc.
Instead of making the drops from the boils
already named, such as acid and rose, make
the same into sticks ; keep them rolling on the
slab till cold.
Small Bulls' Eyes and Nelson Balls
Are made for the boils as instructed for
sticks either plain or striped, the bulls' eyes are
cut with scissors and the balls are passed
through the machines for the purpose.
6-i THE "KIND OF GOODS TO MAKE,
Ginger, Lemon, Rose, or Peppermint
Are all made from loaf sugar, without being
reduced, by acids ; the same instructions given
for horehound will do for these ; as regards
boiling and graining, they can be colored with
saffron and cochineal, and flavored as their
names import ; the difficulty a novice finds with
candies is, that they grain too much in the pan,
before he can get them out ; to avoid this, as
soon as you see the place at the side of the
pan white, where you are rubbing against, dis-
continue, and stir . that well into the boil
quickly, and pour out into tins.
These, as commonly -sold, are not burnt, but
merely sugared; to make them, put two
pounds of Borbary almonds into a good sized
pan, boil four pounds raw sugar to the thread,
or 235 ; having kept the almonds in the pan
warm; put a quarter pound of sugar dust amongst
them, then pour about half a pound 'of the
ANP HOW TO MAKE THEM. 65
boiled sugar over them, and immediately stir
them well about with the spatula; the sugar
thus having grained partly over the almonds,
and dried, and having parted those that adhere,
proceed to do the same with the rest of the
sugar, till you get them to size ; increase the
syrup to about a pound, after the first coating,
but avoid putting too much on at a time ; sift
them in a coarse sieve to take the loose sugar
away; to finish, boil about three or four
pounds loaf sugar as before, with an egg-cup
of cochineal ; proceed with that as before
directed. When at the last, add to the re-
mainder of syrup, an egg-cup of cochineal or
liquid carmine, the same of water, poured over
and stirred till well covered ; turn them out in
a coarse sieve to dry.
Pear Drops, Raspberry Drops, and
Are all boiled and made the same way as in-
structed for pine apple, color and flavoring
excepted ; an egg-cup of cochineal put in when
66 THE KIND OP GOODS TO MAKE,
nearly ^.one and half a teaspoonful of essence,
and a quarter of an ounce of acid, mixed in on
the slab ; half a dozen drops of the otto of rose
is sufficient for the rose drops.
Turkey Sugars, Lemon, Peppermint
Take seven pounds of loaf sugar lowered,
and boil to the crack, when half cold put in the
usual quantity of flavor of either sort, and com-
mence to pull on a large hook, fixed against
the wall, till it begins to get stiff, and shines,
when you can -form it into either straight or
twisted sticks ; to color the rose, keep some
.cochineal paste or carmiite ready, and put it in
the sugar on the slab.
Farthing and Halfpenny Sticks (clear).
Beyond the instructions given in the article
on "hand-made" goods, and those also on
" sugar boiling," no idea can be conveyed by
a book as to pulling these out to the re-
AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 67
quired size, and smooth: as only with practice
can it be done properly.
Farthing and Halfpenny Cushions,
Sticks, etc., (pulled.)
Previous to pulling the sugar as directed in
Turkey sugar, mix with two or three small
pieces of the boil, any color you fancy, and keep
them warm ; after pulling, lay these stripes
along the sugar alternately, pull it out a little
at a time as thick as your thumb, cut it off in
cushions an inch long with the scissors, for the
farthings and twice the size and thickness for
the halfpenny ; for sticks pull it out as thick as
a little finger, about a yard long and twist them.
Peppermint, Lemon, Rose, etc., Pas-
tilles or Drops.
These are not made of boiled sugars but on
the old plan of peppermint drops. Sift any
quantity of powdered loaf sugar through a
coarse hair sieve, afterwards sift the same
68 THE KIND OF GOODS TO MAKE,
through a fine sieve (to take out the fine sugar),
then put the coarse sugar into a glazed earthen
pan, mix it very stiff with water, flavor or color
it with any thing you like to your palate,
lemon juice, etc., and take out enough to nearly
fill a small drop pan, which must fit into an
iron ring on the stove, keep stirring it till it
gets near to the boil, then take the drop pan,
just tilt it and stroke the drops off from the tip
with a piece of wire on to tin plates ; a little
practice will perfect any one in this ; in an hour
knock the tins on the back to loosen them into
a sieve. The French mix these drops with the
juices of fruits, instead of water and artificial
essences, etc., and sell them at a high price ; if
the above gets too thin on the fire add more
sugar, it ought to be of a substance just to flow
from the spoon or spatula.
Cherry Stones and Rose Buds.
These are red casings over pulled sugars,
flavored as their names import, the rose buds
are white with red casings, the cherry stones
AXD HOW .TO M*AKE THEM. 69
pink with red casing, one is put through the
Nelson ball, the other through the acid drop
Real Burnt Almonds, or French '
Boil three pounds of loaf sugar in a pint and
a^half of water; soon as it boils, put into it
two pounds of Valencia almonds (or Jordan),
and boil them to candy height ; take it off, stir
it with the spatula, till it all grains into powder,
then throw them into the coarse sieve, sift and
separate them, after which make them into
four parts with some of the sittings, and keep-
ing a thin plate over the stove ; put one of the
parts into your pan, which for the purpose
ought to have a thick bottom, stir them
gradually, the siftings will dissolve, and adhere
to the almonds, and they gradually become
crisp, and parched, of which you must judge
by tasting, when so, turn them out, and proceed
with the others the same. They are sometimes
sold in this state, but to finish them as in
70 THE KIND OF GOODS TO MAKE,
France, when the whole are burnt, wash your
pan, return the almonds to it, and in another
small one boil four pounds of sugar to caramel,
put an egg-cup of liquid carmine or cochineal
in it, pour it over the almonds, in two coats,
stirring them each time, and finish, to give
them a nice crinkly appearance.
Cherry Balls, Pishes, Tom Thumb,
Eed, yellow, or white are all made the same
as the previous boils, with the exception of not
using tartaric acid, the gold and silver fishes
from the white and yellow boils ; the cherry
balls from the yellow and red ; the Tom Thumb
from any of them, and mixed colors.
NOTE. In all boils of sugar it is important
that the sides be turned in soon enough where
the sugar is to be worked for hand-made and
AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 71
Many of the descriptions of Fruit Essence
drops named in this book, and also other
shapes, that can be made from the same boils,
provided you have the machines, are very often
sold 'as crystallized goods ; the process is very
simple, and can be done after passing any kind
of drops through the machine, and while warm,
bift quite set ; break them up, sift them well,
put them into a large clean boiling pan ; have
ready a rather weak solution of clear gum-
water, in w"hich dip your right hand, and with
the gum-water that clings to it, work over the
drops. When they are all equally wet, but
only slightly so, spread over them according to
quantity centrifugal sugar (a white granulous
sugar, sold at the grocers), shake them well up
with this two or three minutes, put them into
trays in the stove to dry, when dry, sift them.
72 T1JE KIND OF GOODS TO MAKE
Imitation Indian Corn.
An excellent imitation of Indian Corn in ap-
pearance, can be made as follows : First loosen
the rolls of your Tom Thumb machine, by un-
screwing them a quarter of an inch, pull a"
portion of any of the yellow boils flavored;
case it over thickly with some of the clear
sugar, flatten it, and pass through the rolls ac-
cording to the width ; cut them the length of
the pods of corn, and when half cold, fold them
loosely to the shape.
Pink and White Sugar Candy.
Copper pans are sold or made for this pur-
pose ; they are perforated, so that fine string
can be put across, and fixed outside by pasting
paper round; they are then filled with clarified
loaf sugar, some white, some tinged with car-
mine, and some with saffron ; for blue, a weak
solution of indigo; the sugar being boiled to
the small feather, or -230 degrees, stand it
aside till a skin forms on the top, pour it
in the' moulds and place it in the drying
AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 73
stove, at 100 degrees Fahrenheit, for a week ;
when the crystals are formed, pour off the
superfluous syrup, rinse the candy out with
lukewarm water, and again set it in the stove
to dry. It can afterwards be knocked out.
Brown candies are made the same way, with
the best strong raw sugars.
Chocolate in Boiled Sugars.
Raw sugar boiled to the crack, and chocolate
* powder worked into it on the slab ; when the
sugar is strong, it must be reduced, as there will
be a great inclination to grain ; when the choc-
olate is mixed in, roll out into sticks, or for
drops pass it through the machine.
To seven pounds of loaf sugar, put the usual
lowering and water, and a tablespoonful of
saffron water, boil to crack ; then put in a half
a teaspoonful of extract of ginger (not essence),
which just boil in and pour into the toffee
74 THE KIND OF GOODS TO MAKE,
Doncaster Butter Scotch.
This article, which is almost as renowned as
the Everton toffee, is made in the same way,
but by using treacle with the sugar ; either the
common or the "golden syrup" is used, and
butter the same, without any lemon; it is
poured on the slab, in very thin sheets, marked
out with a cutter in strips, which are afterwards
wrapped in long pieces of paper or .tinfoil
twelve are put in a packet, and sold at sixpence
the packet ; the treacle used in this makes the
article get very soft and sticky, but which ap-
pears to be thought no disadvantage, as it eats
To seven pounds loaf sugar put in three
pints of water, a quarter of an ounce of cream
tartar ; when at nearly caramel degree put in
half a pound raspberry jam, previously thinned,
with an egg-cupful of cochineal, this will reduce
the sugar to about the crack, if not it must be
got to that degree, stirring the white with the
AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 75
small rod mentioned in French rock, after
which pour into frames.
Mix fourteen pounds of fine powder sugar
with five and a-half pounds tartaric acid, and
five pounds of carbonated soda ; before the soda
is added, work into it one ounce of essence of
lemon; a little orange essence adds to the
fragrance and flavor ; there is a cheaper article
made but the above is not to be surpassed.
Before we bring the observations on boiling
to a close, it may be as well to remark, that it
is very necessary to make allowances for
changes of season, and the weather, in boiling
sugar ; the evil effects of any extremes may be
to a great extent avoided, if studied by the
boiler, and, where goods are exposed for sale,,
this is very important: for instance, in very
hot weather, some goods must be boiled higher
than in ve?y cold, and vice versa, but these are
76 THE KIND OF GOODS TO MAKE,
matters which any experienced man will allow
for ; with regard to the size of boils, they so
depend upon the usages of the house, the
employer, or the foreman, that no rule can be
laid down for them, and those mentioned in the
book are merely for example ; but at the same
time we will remark that, while there is greater
risk, there is no advantage in having very large
boils of sugar.
We have got through work with more com-
fort and greater celerity, with twenty pound
boils, than larger ones, whatever quantity of
goods have been reouired.
On Crystallized Goods, Liqueur Bon-
These are now made very largely in Eng-
land, and will bear comparison with the
French. In the International Exhibition, one
case of English crystallized goods quite equalled
them ; this was a small unpretending display by
an exhibitor named Marshall, in the eastern
annexe, who, though the author found had re-
AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 77
ceived but " Honorable Mention," for the bril-
liancy of crystal, delicacy of color and finish,
deserved the prize-medal. The manufacture
of crystallized goods is made a separate one,
and, indeed, cannot be properly carried on in a
small way, and the prices at which they are
sold wholesale does away with the necessity of
doing so ; we, however, give the processes.
Liqueur Bons-Bons, etc.
Have trays of thoroughly dried starch-
powder filled about an inch deep, and smoothed
over with a board ; make impressions with any
plaister designs, arranged on a stick in a row ;
any quantity of sugar can be taken, and the.
syrup boiled to about 230 degrees ; then fill
your moulds from either a funnel or drop-pan
with a lip, according to the size of bon-bons
required ; the syrup must be previously flavored
with any of the artificial essences, or spirituous
liquors; the " attraction of cohesion," as before
mentioned, takes place in the mould, and the
outside becomes a crust, leaving the inside in a
78 THE KIND OF GOODS TO MAKE,
state of liqueur. They are afterwards dried in
the stove, taken from the trays and crystallized
in tin boxes about two feet by one foot, and
four inches deep, by boiling syrup, to about 223
degrees, not higher, and then put them in a
stove or warm place for ten or twelve hours.
The syrup must be cooled before putting on
the goods; when crystallized, the superfluous
syrup can be poured out from the top, or drawn
off with a plug at bottom ; then re-dry the
goods in the stove.
Liqueur Almonds and Comfits
Are made exactly in the same way as tho
last, and afterwards coated with gum mucilage
and powdered sugar, or starch-powder, suffi-
ciently to stand the working of the pan in which
they with the syrup are to be agitated, to make
them the smooth comfit they become afterwards.
Gum Pastilles, etc.
Pastilles and various other shapes in gum
goods are made with a thick mucilage clarified,
AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 79
and syrup boiled to about 240 degrees, or more,
according to the substance of your dissolved
gum. When they are mixed, flavor with any
essence desired, carefully, as they are un-
pleasant if too strong; then run them into
starch-powder, as liqueurs; and observe the
same rule in crystallizing as before given. In
crystallizing, a piece of linen or canvas should
be fitted to the top of the tins containing the
syrup, to prevent a crust forming, which can be
lifted to see how the crystallizing progresses ;
if enough, draw off the syrup, and return them
to the stove to dry.
Pink or Yellow Jujubes.
All gum goods are best made by steam:
these are prepared in the same manner as gum
pastilles, the gum is perfectly clarified, and
mixed with the strong syrup, and poured into
oiled tin trays, and dried in a stove, heated by
steam, till quite firm ; they are afterwards cut
into form, by a machine now, but formerly by
a knife or scissors ; highly polished or silvered
tins are used instead of oil for best goods.
80 THE KIND OF GOODS TO MAKE,
To Crystallize Preserved Fruits.
Take them from the syrup, wash them in
warm water, and drain them, put them in the
stove to dry ; afterwards, proceed to treat them
in every respect as directed for other crystal-
lized goods. Tins, in which any thing is crys-
tallized, should have a hole at the bottom, in
which a cork is placed, to draw off the syrup,
though they can be drained from the top.
To Preserve Fruits whole in Syrup.
To preserve any of the plums, damsons,
apricots, peaches, nectarines, etc., they must not
be too ripe ; prick them, place them in earthen
pans in a slow oven for an hour, or scald them
slightly, but not to boil or break them, but
merely to make them tender ; make a syrup of
sugar to the degree of thread, and pour over
them hot ; in a day or two draw the syrup off,
put some more sugar to it, and make it up to
its original substance, do this so long as the
juices from the fruit make it thin ; as it must
AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 81
be left thick, keep them in a dry and cold situ-
The fruit being passed through a cane or
copper sieve, and reduced by boiling about a
quarter of an hour, add the sugar pounded
small ; to every pound of the original weight
add three quarters of a pound of good loaf
sugar, continue boiling and stirring it till it will
set on a plate, the sharper it boils the better
the quality and color; in known quantities
these jams could be boiled to time, but not
In any case where fruit is of a firm, dry na-
ture, it is necessary, before mashing the pulp or
drawing the juice, to soften it in the oven, or
over the stove. Water may be used in small
quantities, to help this maceration ; it is a fal-
lacious idea that wet fruit will not keep, when
made up into either jellies, marmalade, or jams,
always supposing the fruit to be sound; the
evaporation it must necessarily undergo, be-
82 JAMS, JELLIES, ETC.
fore it comes to the proper degree in boiling,
carries it off.
Red Currant, Black Currant and
In addition to the pulps which are left in the
making of "jellies," and which can be made into
good common jams, the above jams are made
from the whole of the fruit, both pulp and juice
together, as follows : a copper or cane sieve is
required, to rub the fruit through, just small
enough to prevent a whole currant passing;
after rubbing the fruit through, treat the red
currant, or any fruit where color is an object,
the same as raspberry jam ; the dark, such as
black currant, ripe gooseberry and others, are
boiled the same, but do not require so much
care as to color.
Though any kind of strawberry can be made
into jam, the best for the purpose is the
scarlet, on account of color ; proceed exactly as
JAMS, JELLIES, ETC. 83
for raspberry jam, but being of a much less
body it will take longer in boiling, which re-
quires watching, as, being so thin, it does not
appear boiled enough when it may be too much
so ; try it often as directed, and when' it jellies
remove it from the fire ; some add one-third red
currant pulp, which improves the jam.
Preserved Ginger (Mock).
The stalks of lettuces can be so preserved as
to deceive many judges of the article; when
the luttuces are running to seed but not too old,
the stalks are to be cut off, washed, cut into
pieces, and put into a thin syrup of sugar in
which some of the best bruised ginger is put,
boil the whole for half an hour gently, let it
remain a day or two, repeat the same process a
few times till tender, and tastes of the ginger ;
to finish, draw from the syrup and boil some
fresh sugar to thread and flavored with extract
of ginger to palate, into which put the stalks
and 'heat it up once or twice till clear like the
West India. Put it in jars with thick syrup.
84 JAMS, JELLIES, ETC.
Preserved Orange and Lemon Peel, etc.
To carry this out profitably it must be done
on a large scale. The few wholesale houses
who do so, sell it at such prices that prevents
the necessity or the possibility of smaller com-
peting with them, but if from circumstances it
is required to be done at home, take any
quantity of Seville oranges, Messino lemons or
citrons. Cut them in half, lengthways, and
squeeze out the juice, which can be preserved
for other purposes. Make a strong brine with
salt that an egg will float in it. Keep the
peels in this not less than a week, then broil
them in water till tender, so that the nails of
the forefinger and thumb will pass through.
Throw them into cold water, and take out the
pulp, which is useless. Fit the caps of peel
loosely into one another, and pack them in rows
round a tub till the bottom is covered. Then
proceed with another layer. Make a strong
syrup with loaf sugar, pour it over not very
hot. In a day or two add more sugar to the
syrup, and warm up again. This must be con-
JAMS, JELLIES, ETC. 85
tinned till the syrup keeps thick, and the peel
kept in it till it becomes colored and saturated.
It can be forced into condition by continually
pouring boiling hot syrup over it, but it is not
so good ; if required to be candied, drain from
the syrup and dry it in the stove ; boil the
sugar to the blow or feather ; put your peel in
and keep your sugar grained only at the side
of the copper, in which dip each piece. It is
then put on wire frames till set. The raw peels
can be kept any length of time in brine.
This is a very favorite jelly, and can be
made exactly as directed for red currant jelly,
but as it does not require the same time in
boiling before it becomes a jelly, it must be at-
tended to closer. Jellies are often put into
glasses, and tied over, and they have a very
nice appearance if made clear ; in making them
some prefer to boil the sugar to the crack
before they add the juices.
86 JAMS, JELLIES, ETC.
In making quantities of jam, if the raspberries
have been bought in bulk, there is a great deal
of the juice which may be applied to this pur-
pose without materially affecting the quality
of the jam. To every gallon after it is put
through the jelly bag, put eight pounds of loaf
sugar and one quart of wood vinegar (or pyro-
ligneous acid) or three quarts of common vine-
gar. This can be fined down afterwards with
isinglass dissolved first in half a pint of the
vinegar ; it can also be made by soaking the
raspberries in the ordinary vinegar, and after-
wards straining. To every quart put two
pounds of sugar.
To Keep Jams or Jellies.
The principal cause of either of these getting
mouldy or fermenting is that they are not suffi-
ciently boiled. If this is found to be the case
with any quantity, and they become very thin,
JAMS, JELLIES, ETC. 87
the best plan is to reboil them and make them
stifier, but this spoils the color.
NOTE. Jams and jellies ought not to be
shut up in a cupboard or close chamber, but
kept on shelves where there is a dry and cool
current of air.
Raspberry and Black Currant Squares
These are the pulps of fruits, and before any
sugar is put to them they can either be pre-
served for future use, or dried down imme-
diately, and if so they must be evaporated over
a moderate stove till they flap against the side,
when stirred with the spatula. When it arrives
at this substance, it will also show the bottom
of the pan when moved about ; when so, mix in
powdered sugar, almonds, seeds, or any other
addition thought proper, spread it out on wafer
paper, cover with the same, and put a tray on
it to keep it flat. The receipt for keeping
pulp, juice, fruit, or any thing of that nature
rtill be given in another page.
JAMS, JELLIES, ETC.
The machine-cut marmalade now so univer-
sally sold is, if genuine, so much superior in
appearance and use, that it has quite super-
seded the old style of making ; the price it is
generally sold at wholesale precludes the neces-
sity of small makers attempting the manufac-
ture, but as circumstances, may arise in which
a knowledge of the mode of preparing may be
useful, we give the processes for marmalades,
jams and jellies. The machine for cutting
peel can be had from the author.
Seville Orange Marmalade.
Take any quantity desired of the Seville
oranges, and squeeze out the juice, after which
boil the peels in plenty of water till they are
very tender, so soft that you can nip them
through with your thumb and finger nails,
then put them into cold water, scrape out the
pulp with your fingers, without breaking the
peel, after that cut the peel in very fine strips
JAMS, JELLIES, ETC. 89
with a knife, or pass it through the machine,
strain the juice, and to every pint and pound
of peel, boil in the juice a pound of loaf sugar,
till it jellies when dropped on a saucer, then
add the fine-cut peel, which merely requires
boiling in the syrup a short time.
Lemon marmalade is made precisely as the
Seville orange, but is not so much in request.
Apple Marmalade or Jam.
Take any quantity of good boiling apples,
pare them, and cut the cores out, put them into
the pan, and cover with water, boil till they
break and become soft, rub through a cane
sieve, and to every pound put three quarters of
a pound of loaf sugar, in small pieces, boil till
it sets on a plate.
Take any quantity of good juicy eating
apples, pare them, and cut the cores out, put
them into the pan, and cover with water, boil
90 JAMS, JELLIES, ETC,
till they become quite soft, but not mashed,
drain the whole off through a sieve as coarse as
muslin, afterwards pass through a jelly-bag.
Clarify some loaf sugar to the thread and add a
pint to a pint of juice. Boil, take off the scum
as it rises, stir and boil till it jellies on a plate,
the pulp will make common jam.
Quince Marmalade or Jam.
A great favorite with many; is prepared
when the quinces are quite ripe, the same way
as apple jam.
Damson, Apple, Apricot, Plum, Black
Currant, Paste or Cheese.
Prepare the pulp of these fruits by drying
down; after being rubbed through sieves, as
directed in the receipts for " Kaspberry cakes,
or squares," they are put into oil tins, or shapes,
and dried in the stove, at a moderate heat ; in a
few days they become stiff enough to cut ; the
juice in these are not taken out ; the black cur-
rants must be rubbed through a fine wire sieve
JAMS, JELLIES, ETC. 91
to keep the seeds out. For all these purposes,
stir a fourth of their weight of fine powdered
sugar, when off the fire, into the mass. If the
sugar is put to it before this, they will not
become the proper substance.
Red Currant Jelly.
Put any quantity of red currants into a pan
or jar, put them into an oven to soften, but
not hot enough to smash them ; if a very cool
oven, they can be put in over night; in the
morning strain them through a sieve, to take
the juice out, pass it through a jelly bag till
fine ; to every pint of juice, pnt fourteen
ounces if loaf sugar, or one pound clarified
syrup. Boil quick till it becomes a jelly, to
tell which, in about twenty minutes try it, by
dropping some on a plate or saucer ; let it re-
main in a cool place two minutes ; if it sets take
your jelly off the fire.
NOTE. Practice decides the proper substance
of jellies, by a web which forms on the skimmer
92 JAMS, JELLIES, ETC.
after dipping it in them, and it is the best
method of trying them.
Black Currant Jelly.
Proceed the same as in red currant except in
passing the juice through a bag ; a hair sieve
will do for this as it is not required so clear.
Pulp for Jams.
TO PRESERVE WITHOUT SUGAR.
Eub the fruit through a sieve, and bring it
to the boil ; take it off the stove, and fill with a
large funnel one or two gallon wide-mouthed
stone bottled, bung them down with good
corks, and tie them over with string (they
must only be filled to the shoulder), place them
in a tank of cold water with a board made to fit
the bottom, as soon as possible, and let it get
up on the stove to 180 degrees, by the ther-
mometer, then place them in a very cool place..
We have preserved fruit for years by this
method perfectly fresh, but it must be quite
sound when boiled.
JAMS, JELLIES, ETC. 93
Bottled Tart Fruits.
Take any quantity of fruit dry and sound ;
pick it and fill your bottles; nearly fill a
copper, with a board at the bottom, with cold
water ; place the bottles in up to the neck ; lot
the water get up on the stove to 150 degrees,
by the thermometer ; let them stand after this
twenty minutes at the same heat ; when they
are taken out fill up with boiling spring- water,
bung them well down, and tie over, they will
keep any number of years under this process
if the necks are dipped in melted bottle wax.
Juice of Fruits without Sugar.
The juice of fruits can be preserved any
length of time, as well as the .pulps, by strictly
observing the rules as laid down for preserving
without sugar. Where for special reasons it is
not desired to lay down large quantities of
sugar into jam, these receipts, etc., are very
valuable if at any time sugar becomes espec-
ially dear, when the fruit can be used as re-
94 JAMS, JELLIES, ETC.
To remove Acids from Boiled Sugar.
It occasionally occurs that acid goods, having
grained, or become stale, are useless in that
state ; to divest them of all the acid, supposing
there to be twenty-eight pounds, dissolve it in
twice the quantity of water that is usual with
sugar, break into it and mix seven pounds* of
whitening or powdered chalk, put on the stove
to boil up and thoroughly incorporate, then
pass through the jelly bag till clear, the syrup
can afterwards be used in other sugars.
Tests for Adulterated Goods.
When any description of goods is believed
to be mixed with farina or starch, dissolve a
small portion in a tumbler with warm water,
when all melted, put a few drops of solution
of iodine, to be obtained at any chemist's, into
it, and if so adulterated it will turn yellow.
JAMS, JELLIES, ETC. 95
For detecting Terra-Alba, or any
earthy matter in Comfits, etc.
Dissolve in a tumbler with warm water some
of the articles: if adulterated with "Terra
Alba," or earthy substances, they will be set
free in twenty-four hours, and fall to the
bottom, but if all- sugar it will remain in solu-
tion and clear.
These are very useful for various purposes,
especially to sprinkle over iced cocoa nut, the
creams, etc., for which receipts are* given pre-
viously ; pink is most usually put on white, and
on others according as the fancy dictates. To
make them, prepare coarse powdered sugar, as
directed in the receipt for peppermint and
other drops, put about a pound or two in any
small clean pan, and warm them on the hot
plate, rubbing them with the hand until they
are thoroughly heated, then add a little of the
liquid colors, rub it in well till dry and keep
LOZENGES, COMFITS, ETC.
till required. Dry colors must be moistened
with water previous to using.
Fruit Syrups, Cappillaire, etc.
To be sold by the gallon or retailed in
bottles, for mixing with punch, cordials, or used
as summer drinks, the sick room and other
purposes ; boil clarified syrup to smooth, 215
degrees by the thermometer ; to each pint add
an ounce of pyroligneous acid> tartaric, or citric
acid, add any of the fruit essences to suit the
palate, and tinge them slightly with color such
as saffron or cochineal if desired. Tor cappil-
laire, the syrup must be white, without acid,
and flavored with orange flower water. The
lemon syrup must be made with citric acid, and
kept white, or slightly tinged with saffron
water. For the above use the juices of real
fruits when in season.
On Lozenges, Comfits, etc.
Though formerly almost every hard confec-
tioner made his own dry goods, it has become
LOZENGES, COMFITS, ETC. 97
of late years quite an exclusive trade, through
the introduction of expensive steam machinery,
nearly every kind is offered at such prices,
principally from Scotland, that they supersede
the necessity of making them in small quanti-
ties. These goods cannot be made successfully
unless there are p'roper separate conveniences,
from the boiling room, especially adapted, as
they require -great cleanliness, and freedom
from smoke and dust ; it would therefore be
foreign to the purpose of this book to enter
upon the manufacture of all the varieties of
lozenges, comfits, etc. Through the aid of
machinery four tons of comfits can be produced
in one house in a week ; they are enabled there-
fore to sell them not much above the price
some pay for the raw material. Whether more
sugar is consumed in dry goods, than in boiled
sugars, cannot be exactly estimated; but the
greater facilities they offer for export over
them would lead to the conclusion that such
is the case. The increase in the consumption
of sugars for all kinds of hard confectionery, of
late years, is something enormous, and approxi-
98 LOZENGES, COMFITS, ETC.
mates to about 400 tons weekly, averaging
50 per ton, and gives a gross value of about
a million a year for jaw material alone, to
which must be added expense of labor, and all
the adjuncts of the wholesale trade.
On the Manufacture of Lozenges.
Machines are now made for grinding loaf
sugar so fine and in such quantities, for the
purpose of lozenges, icing, etc., that they save
a vast amount of labor to the trade ; under the
old system pounding the sugar was considered
by many the best where color was the object,
such as the best peppermint lozenges and other
kinds ; there can be no question but that the
great friction during that process whitens the
powdered sugar, but as the quantity is now
considered of most importance, the pounded
Medicated Lozenges, etc.
Medicated goods require great discrimination
in the preparation and finish, and do not all
LOZENGES, COMFITS, ETC. 99
come within the province of this work ; the re-
ceipt for mixing any kind will be found in the
pharmacopoeia, or can be had from the author ;
many come strictly within the province of the
druggist. We give only those of ordinary
sale, but as there is but one principle adopted
to make all kinds, any person who makes
these can also make the others: the paste is
mixed and the operation conducted so far pre-
cisely as mixing flour with water to make
dough ; using thick dissolved gum instead of
water, and powdered sugar for the flour. It is
rolled out the same, using plenty of starch
powder to prevent it sticking ; the thickness is
regulated according to the lozenge, from an
eighth to a quarter inch, and the process for
making as follows :
Mixing for Common Mints.
Take two quarts of thick gum mucilage
which has been strained free from specks, and
work it into twenty-eight fine powdered sugar,
with one ounce of foreign peppermint. For a
100 LOZENGES, COMFITS, ETC.
middling quality, work into the same one and
a half ounces of best American mint. For the
best, two ounces of Mitcham peppermint : for
the extra qualities large or small, three ounces
to the same quantity. The above are given as
examples, but there are many medium qualities
Common Ginger Lozenges.
Work into the same mixture of gum and
sugar one pound of the fine powdered ginger,
half ounce of the essence of lemon. For the
best, one pound finest Jamaica ginger, half
ounce of the extract ditto, half ounce essence
Dissolve liquorice to a thick consistence, and
work into the paste sufficient to make them a
light or dark brown according to fancy, work
well in two ounces of ipecacuanha in one
powder, one drachm of acetate of morphia, one
ounce oil of anniseed, and one ounce of tartaric
LOZENGES, COMFITS, ETC. 101
acid to powder; these ingredients must be
Nearly every manufacturer makes his own
cough lozenges, and gives them qualities and a
name different from others, but the above can-
not be surpassed as a really good and effectual
Instead of two quarts of gum mucilage use one,
and about a quarter pound gum dragon well
soaked in a quart of water ; this must be done
twenty -four hours before it is required, force it
through a coarse cloth or sieve ; mix the liquor-
ice in with half an ounce of essence of lemon ;
the paste must be stiff and tough to pass through
the machine or it will not look smooth.
To the same weight of paste as first named,
work in a drachm of ^real otto of roses, half an
ounce of acid, and carmine to color according
to the tint desired.
102 LOZENGES, COMFITS, ETC.
To the same amount of paste, add one
drachm of pure musk in powder, acid as in the
last, and use carmine to color: any of the
colors mentioned before in this book can be
used with lozenge paste to assimilate them to the
name they bear ; also to bring up the color of
white lozenges (peppermint, etc.), Prussian blue
can be used ; avoid buying cheap East India or
common gums, they will not make good
lozenges, Turkey gums have greater strength
and tenacity, and the paste is easier to work
and much smoother.
NOTE. In the manufacture of lozenges
great cleanliness must be observed, and to
make them on the smallest scale there must be
one very smooth marble, or other slab, four
feet by two feet to cut them on, also another to
mix them, of less size. Boiling pins of hard
wood, two feet long, by two inches diameter,
these can be made to gauge the paste to the
thickness required. A large palate knife fif-
teen or eighteen inches in length ; a hand brush
LOZENGES, COMFITS, ETC. 103
with long, soft hairs ; soft cloths to run through
the cutters; lozenge trays to dry them, with
edges inch deep, about tjiree feet by two feet,
made with good seasoned pine wood, half an
inch thick when planed ; hot closet or room to
dry the goods in, heated by steam, or other
method to prevent smoke and dust; lozenge
cutters of various sizes and shapes; stamps and
dyes are also required in some cases ; a box with
fine starch powder must be handy ; also a jelly
pot or some similar article with a small quan-
tity of clean water to soak the edges of the
cutter when clogged with paste. As nothing but
practice can initiate any one in rolling out a
sheet of paste, afterwards to cut it out well, the
instruction to do so must be considered only as
indefinite, for to make lozenges properly re-
quires a clever hand, and is a separate branch
of the trade. In rolling the paste to the
desired size and thickness it must be repeatedly
lifted with the palate knife to see that it is free
from the slab, it must be also turned over three
or four times by means of the roller and fresh
dusted ; in smoothing the surface use tlfe brush
104 LOZENGES, COMFITS, ETC.
freely. The less the paste is handled the better ;
the palate knife and brush with practice will
do all that is required. In cutting out take a
straight line to commence with near the left
edge, and, however slowly, continue to work
parallel to the preceding lines; empty your
cutters often and place the lozenges even and
flat in your trays previously dusted over with
starch powder. Machinery has been intro-
duced for lozenge making, and, though elaborate
and expensive at present, no doubt it will
become more simplified and cheaper.
Fourteen pounds powdered sugar, one quart
gum mucilage. Take liquorice dissolved as
before described, and work sufficiently into this
mixture to make it the usual brown color half
an ounce of the oil of anniseed, and cut out
with an oval cutter.
LOZENGES, COMFITS, -ETC. 106
With the exception of more liquorice, this
isr precisely the same mixture as the last (with-
out the oil of anniseed), and cut with a round
cutter. This is the trade mixture, but the
pharmacopoeia gives a different one, as it also
does for nearly every lozenge made by the
Balsam Tolu Lozenges.
To fourteen pounds of powdered sugar mix
in one quart of gum mucilage, half an ounce
gum Benzoin, one ounce powdered tartaric acid ;
dissolve the gum in spirits in a warm place, or
use one ounce strong prepared tincture instead.
Black Currant Lozenges.
To four pounds of black currant extract
about the consistence of honey when moder-
ately thiak, work in ten pounds of powdered
sugar, one pound of powdered Turkey gum,
106 LOZENGES, COMFITS, ETC.
and two ounces powdered tartaric acid ; roll the
paste on coarse powdered sugar as the last,
before you cut them out. Oval cutter.
Fourteen pounds of powdered sugar, one
quart of thick mucilage, one ounce of common
extract, or half an ounce of the condensed or
thick extract of cayenne, six drops rose.
To seven pounds of lozenge paste, as already
directed (with plain sugar and gum), work in
half a pound of prepared chalk in powder, and
flavor with a little lemon or rose. Cut out
with round cutter.
Fourteen pounds of powdered sugar, one
quart of gum, one ounce balsam Tolu, quarter
of an ounce oil of anniseed, quarter of an ounce
LOZENGES, COMFITS, ETC. 107
spirits of camphor, three quarters of an ounce
powdered tartaric acid, colored with carmine
and cut with round cutter.
Fourteen pounds of powdered sugar, one
quart of mucilage, two ounces of powdered
ipecacuanha, three quarters of an ounce tartario
acid, a few drops of otto rose. Cut out with
oval-shaped cutter. The ipecacuanha powder
must be thoroughly worked in.
Fourteen pounds of powdered sugar, one
quart of gum, half an ounce of Mitcham oil of
lavender. These are mostly colored with a
faint blue or deep pink, and cut out with a
fluted cutter or other shapes to fancy.
Rhubarb Lozenges, or Long-Life
To four pounds of lozenge paste, as directed
for peppermint lozenges (without the flavor),
108 LOZK o.MKITS, ETC.
work in a quarter of a pound of the 'finest
Turkey rhubarb in powder, and two ounces of
the best Jamaica ginger in powder. Cut out
with oval or round cutter.
^To four pounds of paste, as above, work in
half an ounce of quinine. Oval cutter.
N.B. For all the above mixtures the gum
mucilage must be a good substance, and the
ingredients, particularly where drugs are used,
well mixed in.
On the Manufacture of Comfits or
Through the introduction of steam pans for
making these goods, so great a revolution has
taken place in the method, and also in the
prices, that they are to be purchased genuine at
a less price than the sugar itself was only a few
years since. Under the old system it took a
man a day to make fifty-six pounds of good
smooth comfits; the same man could now
LOZENGES, COMFITS, ETC. 109
superintend half-a-dozen steam pans, that will
produce 112 Ibs. each. A skilled workman in
fact is not required at all 'excepting as to the
degree and temperature of the syrup used.
We have seen a lad attend to the working of
the pans ; the new system entirely supersedes
the necessity of making these goods under the
old plan or on a small scale. The apparatus
was introduced in Paris, and consists of a pan
in the shape of a ball or orange, about one-
third cut off; inside there is a lining, between
which and the outside through its whole in-
terior the steam passes. Some are made to re-
volve vertically on an axis, others to oscillate
on another principle and which is certainly an
improvement. The first is supplied with steam
through the hollow axis in which it works, the
others by India rubber tubes. A shaft, carried
through a long room and the primary motion
of which is derived from an engine, will work
by means of pullies a number of these pans ;
two pounds of seeds will make a hundredweight
of 'large carraway comfits. They are first
grounded with syrup and starch powder or
110 ON THE MACHINES TO BUY.
flour, they afterwards only require the syrup
added in small quantities ; when once they are
coated with sugar and that supplied continually,
they can be left to the action of the pan till
completed. The same plan is adopted with
almonds and other articles.
It having been established by necessity, the
prices of the wholesale trade, and the conven-
ience and facility of manufacturing goods, to
have machines, it becomes important to know
which are the best to use. The author, from
his long practical experience and knowledge of
them,, can recommend the best machines for any
purpose required, upon receiving a communi-
cation upon the subject. Collier's, of Rochdale,
AND HOW TO USE THEM. Ill
are excellent, and their efficiency is guaranteed
by a host of testimonials. Some houses have a
large number of the old style of drop machines,
when half the quantity of the best make would
answer every purpose, as rolls of any design
can be made to suit frames of the new patterns,
into which they can be fitted in two minutes.
As regards the size of drop machines (unless to
use by steam), it is unnecessary to go beyond
the seven-inch for any moderate wholesale
trade. In smaller trades the lesser sizes are
quite as ^applicable and easily worked. There
are many doing a good business who make
nearly all their goods by these sizes. But
whether one size or the other, they each save
an immense amount of manual labor and
wages, and make quite easy what used to be
the most laborious part of the work, while we
at the same time obtain a much larger assort-
ment of goods in beautiful designs. Where it
can be conveniently fixed, a turn-table of any
required size for the machines to be fixed upon
can be fitted at the end of the slabs, in principle
similar to those on the railways. If the slabs
112 ON THE MACHINES TO BUY
are so situate, each machine can be brought to
work opposite them, affording a great saving
of room, and great convenience. We have had
one of them in use for years ourself, but have
not seen or heard of their being used by any
In working a drop machine for the first
time, or if it be a new one, be careful not to put
too much of the sugar through at a time.
Half a pound is sufficient for the smallest and
two pounds for a large size, until it works true
and delivers the drops freely. The best ma-
chines are now delivered to the purchaser in
working order, but they may still require a
little adjusting by the workman, which can be
done by any person having the slightest ingen-
uity, the parts in good machines, such as nuts,
screws, plates, etc., being portable, and easily
shifted. Formerly this was not the case, and
there are stili some very bad machines sold,
and, like a watch that will not keep time, they
are dear at any price. They deliver badly, are
difficult to work, and eventually are thrown
aside as useless. The rolls of good machines
AND HOW TO USB THEM. 113
require no oiling, thougn it is a practice some
adopt. Those of the best make deliver the
goods with the greatest facility without.
Where drops or other goods are intended for
bottling or air-tight packages, it is necessary to
keep them as free from oil or grease as possi-
ble, or the goods smell and taste rancid and
disagreeable when opened for sale, and they
soon become dull and opaque. The slightest
chemical knowledge explains this, and it is the
greatest reason why boiled sugar goods ex-
ported to the tropical climates or having to
pass through them, reach their destination in
bad condition. We have seen and experi-
enced this in Melbourne. Tons of goods have
been sent there, both from this country and
America, that never realized the cost of freight.
On Spinning Sugar, Piping, Gum .
Paste, Ornaments, etc.
The making of the numerous artistic designs
in the above is the most difficult and the most
interesting of the confectioner's art, and as prac-
114 * ON SPINNING SUGAR.
tised in first-rate houses and families of dis
tinction. and especially in France, the workman
must not only -understand the rules and prin-
ciples of art as regards perspective, etc., but
must be an adept at drawing, modelling, and
decoration. The amateur may however prac-
tice it for his improvement, and the great satis-
faction arising from this pleasing method of
employing spare time ; and time and patience
are very necessary to insure success in these
processes, together with skill in manipulation,
conception, and design. Gum. paste ornaments
are used largely for wedding cakes, etc., com-
bined with the liberal application of piping,
and we have known many instances in which
these alone have fulfilled all the purposes of
other and more expensive ornamentation.
Great practice is requisite to make a good
hand at piping, but we do not see why any
moderately ingenious person may not try the
process and succeed. The same remarks apply
to spinning sugar. Determination and per-
severance will accomplish any of the operations
ON SPINNING SUGAR. 115
To Spin Caramel Sugar.
Take any small or moderate quantity of clar-
ified loaf sugar and boil to the caramel, take it
off quickly and put the pan into a tub of cold
water to stop the principal heat, then 'place it
near the stove to keep the sugar warm enough
to work with facility.
The moulds you intend to work upon should
be copper, tin, or glass, etc., made on the bevil,
so as to deliver well. They must be rubbed
slightly with fresh butter. The sugar pre-
viously spoken of having cooled a little, take a
fork and try it by dipping it into the sugar, and
hold it up rather high and spin it by a sh'ake
of the hand ; if "it forms threads it will do for the
purpose of spinning. Take your mould in the
left hand, turn it upside down, take out a little
sugar with the bowl of a spoon and pour it out
equally in threads or lines certain distances.
When this is finished one way turn the mould
round, so as to form an angle, and proceed
again crossways in the same manner. The
threads ought to be the thickness of twine.
116 ON SHNM.NG SUGAR,
"When the body of the shape is formed it can be
ornamented with the fine silken threads made
by spinning the sugar from forks or pronged
tools. They can be also made into baskets, by
drawing a handle on a smooth greasy slab, a^nd
then following the lines with the sugar from
the spoon. Spun sugar can also be made into
vases, ships, etc., by making the parts separate
and afterwards sticking them together with
some of the sugar used in the process.
Gum Paste Ornaments.
Blocks, cutters, and moulds are required for
this process. Gum dragon is the main and
necessary ingredient. It is difficult to dissolve
and strain, and to do it properly it requires
two persons to wring the cloth through which
it passes, but it may be forced through a sieve.
The gum must be well washed and covered
with water a day and night, then strain it as
directed; work it well in a marble mortar,
with equal quantities of the finest powder
sugar and starch powder. It must be very
PIPING, GUM PASTE, ETC. 117
tough by working it thoroughly and bear
pulling till it breaks.
Keep the paste in an earthen pot, with a
damp cloth always on it. The above is made
better with all sugar, or commoner, with more
starch powder, and has been very much adul-
terated by using plaster of Paris. To take the
impression from the moulds, use fine starch
powder shook over it, as also in rolling the
paste to the required thickness and size.
Press the paste in the moulds or blocks with
your thumb or the ball of your hand, and cut
off the superfluous paste with a very thin knife
sold for the purpose. You must then knock it
out, or make a small lump of paste adhere to
the impression, and pull it out.
Sugar Piping for Cakes, etc.
A very fine sugar icing is prepared as
directed in the book with the finest powdered
loaf sugar and whites of eggs and lemon juice.
The tubes through which this is forced are
made for many designs in tinbv the "Confec-
118 PIPING, GUM PASTE, ETC.
tioners' Tool Maker," but they can be made
with good stiff writing-paper. They are made
similar to a cone, with the tip cut off. It is
partly filled with the icing, the top edges turned
in, the same as the bags are that the moist
sugars are sold in by the pound, then press out
with the thumb and forefinger through the
opening at the end over your previously iced
cake in any form, design, or shape you like,
according to the manner you cut the fine end
of the paper cone so the icing comes out.
Various shapes can be made by varying the
cutting, which is done with fine sharp scissors.
Many persons may be surprised with the effects
of this simple method of piping or ornamenting,
and which they can easily try, and with a little
ingenuity succeed in, so as to answer all the
purposes of a family twelfth cake, or even pro-
duce sufficiently well formed designs on a
ON ICES. 119
The very large consumption of the above in
London of late years, consequent upon the
great number of ice shops in various parts of
the town, principally kept by foreigners, makes
the subject of sufficient importance to be treated
upon in a work of this description, more espec-
ially as it has become an important trade, and
one that principally applies to the summer
time, when most confectioners in sweets have
sufficient time to apply themselves to the
manufacture of them. Ices are composed of
all kinds of substances, juices of fruits, creams,
liqueurs of all sorts, etc., prepared and con-
gealed by means of broken rough ice mixed
with salt. The freezing pot should be always
of pewter, because it prevents the mixture
from congealing too quickly, for on this depends
the smoothness of the ices. Other vessels can
be used, but the contents freeze so quickly that
they have not time to get thoroughly mixed
and smooth. Ices that are badly mixed and
frozen become full of lumps, the sugar sinks to
120 ON ICES.
the bottom, "and are a -bad color. To make
ices there must be a tub in which the freezing
pots are placed in the midst of broken ice well
mixed with several handfuls of common salt,
sold for the purpose. These must be thoroughly
well incorporated, or the mixture will not
freeze. The pot being placed in the middle of
the ice up to the cover, pour into it the mix-
ture you intend to freeze, which you can make
agreeable to the palate by tasting previously ;
then turn the pots round rapidly in the ice, by
the handles at first, but after it is frozen a little
it can be done better with a pewter v paddle sold
for the purpose, with which the sides must be
kept continually scraped down, and the pots
kept whirling round. As you must previously
have taken the lids off to do this you will per-
ceive the cream or custard begin to set, and
greater rapidity of action must then be used,
as upon the great agitation and well mixing
depends the quality of the ices. It will be
easily perceived when this operation is com-
pleted, by the stiffness which ensues. It can
then remain in the tub till wanted.
ON ICES. 121
NOTE. In mixing the rough ice mind it is
broken small enough, and use plenty of salt, or
it will not freeze well.
Imitation Cream Ice (or Custard Ice).
As sold at the Ice Shops, at onepence and twopence
To a quart of milk put six eggs, half a
pound of loaf sugar, and one ounce of fresh
butter. Keep whisking it altogether on a mod-
erate fire till it nearly boils, but not quite, or
it will curdle. This you must watch closely.
When it becomes thick, immediately take it
off. Strain it through a hair sieve. Give it
what flavor is required; vanilla is mostly
preferred. When cool freeze it as described.
Some tinge it with a little saffron water, which
makes it look very rich.
The above may be colored with cochineal,
and flavored with raspberry jam or juice for
raspberry creams, and the same for other flavors.
The best ice creams are made with either
half cream and half best new milk or all cream,
according to the quality desired, with the juices
122 ON ICES.
of fruits and other flavors, and sweetened to the
Raspberry and Strawberry Cream.
"Wash and strain either of the above over a
pan and put sufficient to the cream to taste
rich, add the juice of a lemon, color with a little
cochineal, sweeten and put it into the freezing
pot and wok the same as previously described.
Vanilla Ice Cream
Is simply the essence of vanilla added to the
sweetened cream to suit the palate ; tinge with
a little saffron water and freeze.
Chocolate Ice Cream.
Add to the pint of sweetened cream four
ounces of the best chocolate dissolved in a
little water, mix it well in and strain through
a sieve ; freeze it as above.
ON ICES. 123
Coffee Ice Cream.
To the pint of sweetened cream add a cup of
strong infusion of Mocha coffee, and proceed
as directed to freeze.
Tea Ice Cream.
To the pint of sweetened cream add a cup
of strong tea and act as before.
NOTE. Any description of the cream ices
of whatever flavor can be produced by similar
processes to the above.
Water Ices Lemon Water Ice.
Take any number of lemons, squeeze the
juice out, rasp some of the peels and mix it
with syrup or sugar and water to the palate,
strain through a sieve to keep out the pips, etc.,
beat the whites of two eggs and put with it,
which gives body and makes it soft ; freeze the
whole as directed before.
Orange Water Ice.
Precisely as above, but no eggs, rub some of
the peels on sugar and dissolve that in the juice.
Strawberry Water Ice.
Strain the strawberries through a hair sieve
over a pan or basin, add to the juice clarified
sugar water and lemon juice to the taste.
NOTE. The directions given in the article on
freezing must be carefully attended to in all
water ices, or they will get lumpy, which they
are more liable to be than the c-reams.
Raspberry Water Ice.
Proceed as in the strawberry; the juice of
currants can be added with advantage to this.
For any of the Currant Water Ices.
Pick and strain your currants as directed
through a sieve, and proceed as with the other
MISCELLANEOUS EECEIPTS. 125
Pine Apple Water Ice.
Peel a pine apple, pound it and pass it through
a sieve, add the juice of three lemons and clari-
fied- syrup with water to the taste, strain it off
into the freezing pot and proceed as with other
To preserve Oranges or Lemons whole.
Carve on the rind any device, such as stars,
stripes, etc., but do not cut deeper than the
white pith, put them into boiling water and
boil them till the head of a pin will easily
penetrate them. Then throw them into cold
water, boil some loaf sugar to a thread as ex-
plained in the book, drain the oranges dry,
boil them up half a dozen times in the syrup
and put them aside ; next day drain them from
the syrup, add a little more sugar, boil it up and
pour over your fruit ; repeat this three days ;
the fourth add more sugar, and boil to a stiff
.thread, put in the oranges, boil them up, put
them in glasses, and when cold tie them down.
126 MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS.
To preserve a Pine Apple whole.
Break off the top and stem, prick it all over
with a large needle, and boil it in water till
tender, which can be tested with the needle,
then place it in cold water; when cold drain it
quite dry, boil sugar enough to cover it to the
thread, and pour it over, and proceed for three
or four days with the same process as in the
last receipt for oranges, etc.
Orange quarters in Barley Sugar.
Peel and divide some fine St. Michael
oranges, put them for a short time in the stove
to get warm, boil some sugar to the caramel
degree as explained previously in this book.
Dip them into this so as to completely cover
them. Then place them in an ornamented
glass dish for dessert. This is a very simple
and delicious preparation for the table, and is
sold in the shops of the confectioners of Paris.
MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 127
Use a small copper pan, put into it eight
ounces of powdered loaf sugar, place it on a
moderate stove and melt the same, stirring it
all the time with a small wooden spatula ; when
it is a brown color put into it three-quarters of
a pound of blanched almonds well dried and
cut into strips ; mix them well in, and when the
whole is a nice brown, pour it out on a marble
or dish slightly greased with fresh butter, and
spread it out with a palette knife with which it
may be shifted to detach it while warm.
Take any quantity of raspberries and put
them into a pan in a warm place to ferment,
which will take place in two or three days, then
strain them through a jelly bag; to every pint
put two pounds of loaf sugar, and boil it to 223
degrees ; when cool bottle it for use.
128 MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS.
Press Morello cherries through a sieve when
quite ripe and obtain the juice from them ; for
every pint, boil two pounds of loaf sugar to the
crack ; add the juice and boil up, skim it ; when
cold bottle for use. The pulp can be made into
a jam by following the directions given under
the articles on jams and jellies.
Apple Paste for Ornamenting, etc.
Take any quantity of good- juicy apples,
pare and core them, boil them in water till quite
soft, mash and pass them through a hair sieve,
weigh the pulp and put it into a preserving
pan, weigh the same quantity of loaf sugar and
boil it to the feather, mix it with the pulp and
boil it a short time, pour it out thin on sheets
of tin, previously coloring some of it with car-
mine or cochineal; put it into a warm stove
twenty -four hours ; cut it into strips or other
shapes to form knots or other devices; some
may be poured into small moulds; these are
often used for ornamenting twelfth cakes, etc.
MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 129
Orange and Lemon Chips.
Take large lemons with thick rinds, peel them
off in long strips with a knife, put them into
cold water, boil them till tender and then place
them into cold water again ; when quite cold
drain them dry, place them in a pan, boil
enough sugar to cover them to a thread and
pour it over them hot ; the next day boil the
syrup up again and pour it over them, repeat
the process by adding more sugar a few times;
the last time boil the chips up in the sugar, and
they will be ready for use. If they are to be
candied proceed as directed in the . article on
orange and lemon peel in a previous part of the
Cherries in Brandy.
Take fine Morello cherries, cutr off nearly all
the stems, wash them in cold water, drain them
on a sieve, place them in glasses and cover with
good strong brandy, make them air tight, after
a month strain the cherries from the brandy,
and add a quarter of a pound of powdered loaf
130 CONCLUDING REMARKS.
sugar to each pint of the brandy ; when melted
strain through a flannel bag till clear, and again
pour it over the cherries; 'in another month
they may be used.
NOTE. The covering pots or glasses of either
Jams, Jellies, Marmalades, etc., before they are
tied over with bladder or parchment, cut
writing-paper to fit the interior of pots and rub
over the paper two or three drops of salad oil.
The processes and receipts in this book are
either from the author's practical knowledge
or have been under his immediate supervision
in the working. Many of them are valuable,
and under some circumstances are worth
pounds, especially to those only partially ac-
quainted with the manufacturing, and are
desirous of improving. The work could have
been very much enlarged, but the author con-
sidered it more to his own interest, and to his
readers' advantage also, to keep the matter
within its present limits, rather than imitate
CONCLUDING REMARKS. 131
some writers, who, to make a book of large
dimensions, fill it with receipts of'no practical
use, and give processes the nature of which
they are unacquainted with themselves. The
author's aim has been, not to swell out the
volume, but to give his readers plain instruc-
tions in as few words and as distinct a manner
as the subject would admit; and though, ac-
cording to an old adage, a little showing
is worth a bushel of telling, he feels convinced
they will not be unsuccessful in any. of his re-
ceipts with ordinary care and attention to those
rules and general principles given at the com-
mencement; but should difficulties arise re-
specting matters connected with the book, the
author will be happy to render assistance in
removing them. At the same time, he will be
happy to receive information of any error that
may inadvertently appear, and should the work
prove interesting and serviceable, he may meet
his readers again upon other branches.
HENRY CAREY BAIRD,
No. 4O6 T^T . 1 xx -u. t JStroot,
53=" Any of the following Books will be sent by mail, free
of postage, at the publication price. Catalogues furnished
American Miller and Millwright's Assistants
A new and thoroughly revised Edition, with additional
Engravings. By WILLIAM CARTER HUGHES. In one vol-
ume, 12 mo., $1.25
Armengaud, Amoroux, and Johnson,
THE PRACTICAL DRAUGHTSMAN'S BOOK OF INDUS-
TRIAL DESIGN, and Machinist's and Engineer's Drawing
Companion ; forming a complete course of Mechanical'
' Engineering and Architectural Drawing. From the French
of M. Armengaud the elder, Prof, of Design in the Con-
servatoire of Arts and Industry, Paris, and MM. Armen-
gaud the younger, and Amouroux, Civil Engineers. Re-
written and arranged, with additional matter and plates,
selections from and examples of the most useful and
generally employed mechanism of the day. By William
Johnson, Assoc. Inst. C. E., Editor of "The Practical
Mechanic's Journal." Illustrated by fifty folio steel
plates and fifty wood-cuts. A new edition, 4to.,... $10.00
Among the contents are : Linear Lravring, Definitions and Problems,
P*ate I. Applications, Designs for inlaid Pavements, Ceilings and
Balconies, Plate II. Sweeps, Sections and Mouldings, Plate III. Ele
mentary Gothic Forms and Rosette%, Plate IV. Ovals, Ellipses,
PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC BOOKS,
Parabolas and Volutes, Plato V. Ruins and Practical Data. Study o*
Projection, Klcini-nt.-iry I'rinriplrs, l'l;itc VI. Ot I'MMUS find other
Solids, Plate VII. Kul. ical Data. On < :,>/ . with
Apftl T"/(07i* ( '<in\ i utioiial Colors, Composition or Mixture of Colors,
Plate ,\. Contiuinilion uf ttif Stiulij of Projections Use of sections de-
tails of machinery, Plate XI. Simple applications spindles, s-
couplings, wooden patterns, Plate XII. Method of constructing a
wooden model or pattern of a coupling, Elementary applications
rails and chairs for railways, Plate XIII. Rules and Practical Data
Strength of material, Resistance to compression or crushing force,
Tensional Resistance, Resistance to flexure, Resistance to torsion,
Friction of surf a con in contact.
THE INTERSECTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SURFACES, WITH AP-
PLICATIONS. The Intersection of Cylinders and Cones, Plate XIV. The
Delineation and Development of Helices, Screws and Serpentines, Plate
XV. Application of the helix the construction of a staircase, Plate
XVI. The Intersection of surfaces applications to stop-cocks, Plate
XVII. Rules and Practical Data Steam, Unity of heat, Heating surface,
Calculation of the dimensions of boilers, Dimensions of liregratea,
THE STUDY AND CONSTRUCTION OF TOOTHED GEAR. Involute, cy-
cloid, and epicycloid, Plates XVIII. and XIX. Involute, Fig. 1, Plate
XVIII. Cycloid, Fig. 2, Plate XVIII. External epicycloid, described
by a circle rolling about a fixed circle inside it, Fig. 3, Plate XIX.
Internal epicycloid, Fig. 2, Plate XIX. Delineation of a rack and
pinion in gear, Fig. 4, Plate XVIII. Gearing of a worm with a worm-
wheel, Figs. 5 and 6. Plate XVIII. Cylindrical or Spur Gearing, Plate
XIX. Practical delineation of a couple of Spur-wheels, Plate XX.
The Delineation and Construction of Wooden Patterns for Toothed Wheels.
Plate XXI. Rules and Practical Data Toothed gearing, Angular and
circumferential velocity of wheels, Dimensions of gearing. Thickness
of the teeth, Pitch of the teeth, Dimensions of the web, Number and
dimensions of the arms, wooden patterns.
CONTINUATION OF THE STUDY OF TOOTHED GEAR. Design for a
pair of bevel-wheels in gear, Plate XXII. Construction of wooden
patterns for a pair of bevel-wheels, Plate XXIII. Involute and
Helical Teeth, Plate XXIV. Contrivances for obtaining Differential
Movements The delineation of eccentrics and cams, Plate XXV. Rules
and Practical Data Mechanical work of effect, The simple machines,
Centre of gravity, On estimating the power of prime movers, Calcu-
lation for the brake, The fall of bodies, Momentum, Central forces.
ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF SHADOWS. Shadows of Prisms, Pyra-
mids and Cylinders, Plate XXVI. Principles of Shading, Plate XXVII.
Continuation of the Study of Shadows, Plate XXVIII. Tuscan Order,
Plate XXIX. Rules and Practical Data Pumps, Hydrostatic principles,
Forcing pumps, Lifting and forcing pumps, The Hydrostatic press,
Hydrostatical calculations and datadischarge of water through dif-
ferent orifices, Gaging of a water-course of uniform section and fall,
Velocity of the bottom of water-courses, Calculation of the discharge
of water through rectangular orifices of narrow edges, Calculation of
the discharge of water through overshot outlets, To determine the
width of an overshot outlet, To determine the depth of the outlet,
Outlet with a spout or duct.
APPLICATION OF SHADOWS TO TOOTHED GEAR, Plate XXX. Ap-
plication of Shadows to Screws, Plate XXXI. Application of Shadows to
a, Boiler and its Furnace, Plate XXXII. Shading in Black Shading in
Colors, Plate XXXIII.
THE CUTTING AND SHAPING OF MASONRY, Plate XXXIV. Rvl'8
and Practical Data Hydraulic motors, Undershot water wheels, with
plane floats and a circular channel, Width, Diameter, Velocity, Num-
ber and capacity of the buckets. Useful effect of the water wheel.
Overshot water wheels, Water wheels with radial floats, Water wheel
with curved buckets, Turbines. Remarks on Machine Tools.
PUBLISHED BY HENBY CABEY BAIBD.
THE STUDY OF MACHINERY AND SKETCHING. Various applications
and combinations: The Sketching of Machinery, Plates XXXV. and
XXXVI. Drilling Machine; Motive Machines; Water wheels, Con-
struction and setting up of water wheels, Delineation of water wheels,
Design for a water wheel, Sketch of a water wheel ; Overshot Water
Wheels. Water Pumps, Plate XXXVII. Steam Motors; High-pressure
expansive steam engine, Plates XXXVIII., XXXIX. and XL. Details
of Construction ; Movements of the Distribution and Expansion Valves ;
Rules and Practical Data Steam engines : Low-pressure condensing
engines without expansion valve, Diameter of piston, Velocities.
Steam pipes and passages, Air-pump and condenser, Cold-water and
feed-pumps, High-pressure expansive engines, Medium pressure con-
densing and expansive steam engine, Conical pendulum or centrifugal
OBLIQUE PROJECTIONS. Application of rules to the delineation of
an oscillating cylinder, Plate XLI.
PARALLEL PERSPECTIVE. Principles and applications, Plate XLII.
TRUE PERSPECTIVE. Elementary principles, Plate XLIII. Appli-
cationsflour mill driven by belts, Plates XLIV. and XLV. Descrip-
tion of the mill, Representation of the mill in perspective, Notes of
recent improvements in flour mills, Schiele's-mill, Mullin's "ring mill-
stone," Barnett's millstone, Hastie's arrangement for driving mills,
Currie's improvements in millstones ; Rules and Practical Data Work
performed by various machines, Flour mills, Saw mills, Veneer-sawing
machines, Circular saws.
EXAMPLES OF FINISHED DRAWINGS OF MACHINERY. Plate A,
Balance water-meter; Plate B, Engineer's shaping machine; Plate
C D E, Express locomotive engine ; Plate F., Wood planing machine ;
Plate G, Washing machine for piece goods ; Plate H, power loom ;
Plate I, Duplex steam boiler ; Plate J, Direct-acting marine engines.
Blinn, A Practical Workshop Companion
for Tin, Sheet-Iron, and Copper-Plate
Containing Rules for Describing various kinds of Patterns
used by Tin, Sheet-Iron, and Copper-Plate Workers ;
Practical Geometry; Mensuration of Surfaces and Solids ;
Tables of the Weights of Metals, Lead Pipe, etc. ; Tables
of Areas and Circumferences of Circles ; Japans, Varnishes ,
Lackers, Cements, Compositions, etc. etc. By Leroy J.
Bliiih. With numerous Illustrations. 12mo $2.50
Beans, A Treatise on Railroad Curves and the
Location of Railroads,
By E. W. Beans, C. E. 12mo. (In press.)
Bishop, A History of American Manufactures,
From 1608 to 1860 ; exhibiting the Origin and Growth
of the Principal Mechanic Arts and Manufactures, from
the Earliest Colonial Period to the Present Time ; with a
PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC BOOKS,
Notice of the Import;mt Inventions, Tariffs, and the Re-
sults of each Decennial Census. By J. Leander Bi>li<>i>,
M. D, : to which is added Notes on the I'rini-.ip.-il Manu-
facturing Centres and Remarkable Manufactories. P,y
Edward Young and Edwin T. Freedlej. In two
Bookbinding: A Manual of the Art of Book
Containing full instructions in the different branches of
Forwarding, Gilding and Finishing. Also, the Art <f
Marbling Book-edges and Paper. By James B. Nicholson.
Illustrated. 12mo., cloth, $2.25
CONTENTS Sketch of the Progress of Bookbinding, Sheet-
work, Forwarding the Edges, Marbling, Gilding the Edges, Covering,
Half Binding, Blank Binding, Boarding, Cloth-work, Ornamental Art,
Finishing, Taste and Design, Styles, Gilding, Illuminated Binding.
Blind Tooling, Antique, Coloring, Marbling, Uniform Colors, Gold
Marbling, Landscapes, etc., Inlaid Ornaments, Harmony of Colors,
Pasting Down, etc., Stamp or Press-work, Restoring the Bindings of
Old Books, Supplying imperfections in Old Books, Hints to Book Col-
lectors, Technical Lessons.
Booth and Morfit, The Encyclopedia of
Chemistry, Practical and Theoretical :
Embracing its application to the Arts, Metallurgy, Mine-
ralogy, Geology, Medicine, and Pharmacy, By JAMES C.
BOOTH, Melter and Refiner in the United ' States Mint ;
Professor of Applied Chemistry in the Franklin Institute,
etc.; assiated by CAMPBELL MORFIT, author of " Chemical
Manipulations," etc. 7th Edition. Complete in one
volume, royal octavo, 978 pages, with numerous wood
cuts and other illustrations, $5.00
From the very large number of articles in this volume, it is entirely
Impossible to give a list of the Contents, but attention may be called
to some among the more elaborate, such as Affinity, Alcoholometry,
Ammonium, Analysis, Antimony, Arsenir, Blowpipes, Cyanogen, Dis-
tillation, Electricity, Ethyl, Fermentation, Iron, Lead and Water.
Brewer; (The Complete Practical,)
Or Plain, Concise, and Accurate Instructions in the Art
of Brewing Beer, Ale, Porter, etc., etc., and the Process
of Making all the Small Beers. By M. LAFAYETTE BYRN,
M. D. With Illustrations. 12mo $1.25
*Many an old brewer will find in this book valuable hints and Bug-
PUBLISHED BY HENHY CAREY BAIRD.
gestions worthy of consideration, and the novice can post himself up
ir his trade in all its parts." Artisan.
Builder's Pocket Companion:
Containing the Elements of Building, Surveying, and
Architecture ; with Practical Rules and Instructions con-
nected with the subject. By A. C. SMEATON, Civil Engi-
neer, etc. In one volume, 12mo., $1.25
CONTENTS. The Builder, Carpenter, Joiner, Mason, Plasterer,
Plumber, Painter, Smith, Practical Geometry, Surveyor, Cohesive
Strength of Bodies, Architect.
" It gives, in a small space, the most thorough directions to the
builder, from the laying of a brick, or the felling of a tree, up to the
most elaborate production of ornamental architecture. It is scientific,
without being obscure and unintelligible ; and every house-carpenter,
master, journeyman, or apprentice, should have a copy at hand
always." Evening Bulletin.
Byrne, The Handbook for the Artisan, Me-
chanic, and Engineer,
Containing Instructions in Grinding and Sharpening of
Cutting Tools, Figuration of Materials by Abrasion, Lapi-
dary Work, Gem and Glass Engraving, Varnishing and
.Lackering, Abrasive Processes, etc., etc. By Oliver
Byrne. Illustrated with 11 large plates and 185 cuts.
8vo., cloth, $5.00
CONTENTS. Grinding Cutting Tools on the Ordinary Grind-
stone ; Sharpening Cutting Tools on the Oilstone ; Setting Razors ;
Sharpening Cutting Tools with Artiflcial.Grinders ; Production of Plane
Surfaces by Abrasion ; Production of Cylindrical Surfaces by Abra-
sion ; Production of Conical Surfaces by Abrasion ; Production of
Spherical Surfaces by Abrasion ; Glass Cutting ; Lapidary Work ;
Setting, Cutting, and Polishing Flat and Rounded Works; Cutting
Faucets ; Lapidary Apparatus for Amateurs ; Gem and Glass Engrav-
ing ; Seal and Gem Engraving ; Cameo Cutting ; Glass Engraving,
Varnishing, and Lackering ; General Remarks upon Abrasive Pro-
cesses ; Dictionary of Apparatus ; Materials and Processes for Grinding
and Polishing commonly employed in the Mechanical and Useful Arts.
Byrne, The Practical Metal-worker's Assist-
For Tin-plate Workers, Braziers, Coppersmiths, Zino-
plate Ornrmenters and Workers, Wire Workers, White-
smiths, Blacksmiths, Bell Hangers, Jewellers, Silver and
Gold Smiths, Electrotypers, and all other Workers in
Alloys and Metals. Edited by OLIVER BYRNE. Complete
in one volume, octavo, ....$7,00
It treats of Casting, Founding, and Forging; of Tongs and other
Tools ; Degrees of Heat and IVIanagement of Fires ; Welding of
PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC BOOKS,
Heading and Swage Tools ; of Punches and Anvils ; of Hardi-Minir >u,-4
Tempering; of MnllcaMt- Inui CMtlngl. < :i -- ^l.t
and Cast Iron; the Management and M.-uiijiul.-ition ot
Alloys, Melting and Mixing; the Management of Kurn>i>
and Founding with Metallic Moulds, Joining and Working s
Peculiarities of the different Tools employed ; Process .- di ( -ii<:.
thi ductility of Metals; \Vire Dr.-iwin-. Drawing Metal Tubes, Solder-
Ing ; The use of the Blowpipe, and every other known Metal Worker'*
Byrne, The Practical Model Calculator,
For the Engineer, Machinist, Manufacturer of I
Work, Naval Architect, Miner, and Millwright. By
OLIVER BYRNE, Compiler and Editor of the Dictionary of
Machines, Mechanics, Engine Work and Engineering, and
Author of various Mathematical and Mechanical Works.
Illustrated by numerous engravings. Complete in one
large volume, octavo, of nearly six hundred pages, ..$4.50
The principal objects of this work are : to establish model calcula-
tions to guide practical men and students ; to illustrate every practical
rule and principle by numerical calculations, systematically arranged ;
to give information and data indispensable to those for whom it is in-
tended, thus surpassing in value any other book of its character ; to
economize the labor of the practical man, and to render his every-day
calculations easy and comprehensive. It will be found to be one 01
the most complete and valuable practical books ever published.
Cabinetmaker's and Upholsterer's Companion,
Comprising the Rudiments and Principles of Cabinet-
making and Upholstery, with Familiar Instructions, il-
lustrated by Examples for attaining a proficiency in the
Art of Drawing, as applicable to Cabinet Work ; the
processes of Veneering, Inlaying, and Buhl Work ; the
Art of Dyeing and Staining Wood, Bone, Tortoise Shell,
etc. Directions for Lackering, Japanning, and Varnish-
ing ; to make French Polish ; to prepare the best Glues,
Cements, and Compositions, and a number of Receipts
particularly useful for Workmen generally. By J. STOKES.
In one volume, 12mo. With Illustrations, $1.25
" A large amount of practical information, of great service to all
concerned in those branches of business."
Campin, A Practical Treatise on Mechanical
Comprising Metallurgy, Moulding, Casting, Forcing,
Tools, Workshop Machinery, Mechanical Manipulation,
Manufacture of Steam Engines", etc. etc. With an
dix on the Analysis of Iron and Iron Ores. By Francis
Campin, C. E. To which are added, Observations on the
PUBLISHED BY HENRY CAEEY BAIRD.
Construction of Steam Boilers and remarks upo'u Furnaces
used for Smoke Prevention ; with a Chapter on Explosions.
By R Armstrong, C. E., and John Bourne. Rules for Cal-
culating the Change Wheels for Screws on a Turning Lathe
and for a Wheel-cutting Machine. By J. La Nicca. Maul
agement of Steel, including Forging, Hardening, Temper-
ing, Annealing, Shrinking, and Expansion. And the Case-
hardening of Iron. By G. Ede. 8vo. Illustrated with 29
plates and 100 wood engravings. 8vo..... $6.00
Colburn, The Locomotive Engine ;
Including a Description of its Structure, Rules for Esti-
mating its Capabilities, and Practical Observations on its
Construction and Management. By ZERAH COLBUKN. Il-
lustrated. A new edition. 12mo, $1.25
" It is the most practical and generally useful work on the Steam
Engine that we have seen." W Boston Traveler."
Daguerreotypist and Photographer's Companion,
12mo., cloth, $1.25
Distiller (The Complete Practical),
By M. LAFAYETTE BYRHT, M.D. With Illustrations. 12mo.
" So simplified, that it is adapted not only to the use of extensive
Distillers, but for every farmer, or others who may want to engage in
Distilling." Banner of the Union.
Dussauce, Practical Treatise
ON THE FABRICATION OF MATCHES, GUN COTTON, AND FULMI-
NATING POWDERS. By Prof. H. Dussauce. 12mo.,....$3.00
CONTENTS. Phosphorus. History of Phosphorus ; Physical
Properties ; Chemical Properties ; Natural State ; Preparation of
White Phosphorus ; Amorphous Phosphorus, and Benoxide of Lead.
Matches. Preparation of Wooden Matches ; Matches inflammable by
rubbing, without noise ; Common Lucifer Matches: Matches without
Phosphorus ; Candle Matches ; Matches with Amorphous Phospho-
rus ; Matches and Rubbers without Phosphorus. Gun Cotton. Proper-
ties ; Preparation ; Paper Powder ; use of Cotton and Paper Powders
for Fulminating Primers, etc.; Preparation of Fulminating Primers,
Dussauce, Chemical Receipt Book :
A General Formulary for the Fabrication of Leading
Chemicals, and their Application to the Arts, Manufac-
tures, Metallurgy, and Agriculture. By Prof. H. Dus-
sauce. (/ press.)
PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC BOOKS.
DYEING, CALICO PRINTING, COLOES, COTTON SPIN-
NING, 'AND WOOLEN MANUFACTURE,
Baird, The American Cotton Spinner, and
Manager's and Carders Guide:
A Practical Treatise on Cotton Spinning ; giving the Di-
mensions and Speed of Machinery, Draught and Twist
Calculations, etc.; with Notices of recent Improvements :
together with Rules and Examples for making changes
in the sizes and numbers of Roving and Yarn. Com-
piled from the papers of the late Robert H. Baird.
Capron i)e Dole, Dussauce, Biies and Car-
mines of Indigo:
A Practical Treatise on the Fabrication of every Commer
cial Product derived from Indigo. By Felicien Capron
de Dole. Translated, with important additions, by Pro-
fessor H. Dussauce. 12mo
Chemistry Applied to Dyeing,
By James Napier, F. C. S. Illustrated. 12mo $2.50
CONTENTS. General Propcrt it* of Matter. Heat, Light. Ele-
ments of Matter, Chemical Affinity. Non-Mftallic Substances. Oxygen,
Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Chlorine, Sulphur, Selenium, Phosphorus, Iodine,
Bromine, Fluorine, Silicum, Boron, Carbon. Metallic Substances.;
General Properties of Metals, Potassium, Sodium, Lithium, Soap,
Barium. Strontium, Calcium, Magnesium, Alminum, Manganese, Iron,
Cobalt, Nickel, Zinc, Cadmium, Copper, Lead, Bismuth, Tin, Titanium,
Chromium, Vanadium, Tungstenum or Wolfram, Molybdenum, Tella-
rium, Arsenic, Antimony, Uranium, Cerium. Mercury, Silver, Gold,
Platinum. Palladium, Iridium, Osmium, Rhodium, Lanthanium. M<--
dnnts.RcA Spirits, Barwood Spirits, Plumb Spirits, Yellow Spirits,
Nitrate of Iron, Acetate of Alumina, Black Iron Liquor, Iron and Tin
for Royal Blues, Acetate of Copper. Veg" >ifted in Dyeing.
. Sumach, Catechu, Indigo, Logwood, Brazil-woods, Sandal-wood,
Barwood, Camwood, Fustic, Young Fustic, Bark or Quercitron, Fla-
vine, Weld or Wold, Turmeric, Persian Berries, Safflower, Madder,
Munjeet, Annota, Alkanet Root, Archil. Proposed New Vegetable
Dyes. Sooranjee, Carajuru, Wongshy, Aloes, Pittacal, Barbary Root.
Animtd Matters used in Dyeing. Cochineal, Lake or Lac, Kerms.
This will be found one of the most valuable books on the subject of
dyeing, ever published in this country.
Dussauce, Treatise on the Coloring Matters
Derived from Coal Tar;
Their Practical Application in Dyeing Cotton, Wool, and
PUBLISHED BY HEJvTRY CAREY BAIRD.
Silk ; the Principles of the Art of Dyeing and of the Dis-
tillation of Coal Tar ; with a Description of the most Im-
portant New Dyes now in use. By Professor H. Dus-
sauce, Chemist. 12mo.. $2.50
CONTENTS. Historical Notice of the Art of Dyeing Chemical
Principles of the Art of Dyeing Preliminary Preparation of Stuffs
Mordants Dyeing On the Coloring Matters produced by Coal Tar
Distillation of Coal Tar History of Aniline Properties of Aniline-
Preparation of Aniline directly from Coal Tar Artificial Preparation
of Aniline Preparation of Benzole Properties of Benzole Prepara-
tion of Nitro-Benzole Transformation of Nitro-Benzole into Aniline,
by means of Sulphide of Ammonium ; by Nascent Hydrogen ; by Ace-
tate of Iron ; and by Arsenite of Potash Properties of the Bi-Nitro-
Benzole Aniline Purple Violine Roseine Emeraldine Bleu de
Paris Futschine, or Magenta Coloring Matters obtained by other
bases from Coal Tar Nitroso-Phenyline Di Nitro- Aniline Nitro-
Phenyline Picric Acid Rosolic Acid Quinoline Napthaline Colors
Chloroxynaphthalic and Perchloroxynapthalic Acids Carminaph-
tha Ninaphthalamine Nitrosonaphthaline Naphthamein Tar Red
A/uline Application of Coal Tar Colors to the Art of Dyeing and
Calico Printing Action of Light on Coloring Matters from Coal Tar
Latest Improvements in the Art of Dyeing Chrysammic Acid Mo-
lybdic and Picric Acids Extract of Madder Theory of the Fixation
of Coloring Matters in Dyeing and Printing Principles of the Action
of the most important Mordants Aluminous Mordants Ferruginous
Mordants Stanniferous Mordants Artificial Alizarin Metallic Hy-
posulphites as Mordants Dyer's Soap Preparation of Indigo for Dye-
ing and Printing Relative Value of Indigo Chinese Green Murexide.
Dyer and Color-maker's Companion:
Containing upwards of two hundred Receipts for making
Colors, on the most approved principles, for all the
various styles and fabrics now in existence ; with the
Scouring Process, and plain Directions for Preparing,
Washing-off, and Finishing the Goods. Second edition.
In one volume, 12mo $1.25
French Dyer, (The) :
Comprising the Art of Dyeing in Woolen, Silk, Cotton,
etc., etc. By M. M. Riffault, Vernaud, De Fontenelle,
Thillaye, and Mallepeyre. (/n press.)
Love, The Art of Dyeing, Cleaning, Scouring,
ON THE MOST APPKOVBD ENGLISH AND FRENCH METHODS ;
being Practical Instructions in Dyeing Silks, Woolens
and Cottons, Feathers, Chips, Straw, etc., Scouring and
Cleaning Bed and Window Curtains, Carpets, Rugs, etc.,
French and English Cleaning, anyColor or Fabric of
Silk, Satin, or Damask. By Thomas Love, a working
Dyer and Scourer. In one volume, 12mo ....$3.00
PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC BOOKS.
O'Neill, Chemistry of Calico Printing, Dye-
ing, and Bleaching ;
Including Silken, Woolen, and Mixed Goods ; Practical
and Theoretical. By Charles O'Neill. (In press.)
O'Neill, A Dictionary of Calico Printing and
By Charles O'Neill. (In prets.)
Scott, The Practical Cotton-spinner and Han*
OR, THE MANAGER 'AND OVERLOOKER'S COMPANION. This
work contains a Comprehensive System of Calculations
for Mill Gearing and Machinery, from the first Moving
Power, through the different processes of Carding, Draw-
ing, Slabbing, Roving, Spinning, and Weaving, adapted
to American Machinery, Practice and Usages. Compen-
dious Tables of Yarns and Reeds are added. Illustrated
by large Working-Drawings of the most approved Ameri-
can Cotton Machinery. Complete in one. volume, oc-
This edition of Scott's Cotton-Spinner, by Oliver Byrne, is designed
for the American Operative. It will be found intensely practical, and
will be of the greatest possible value to the Manager, Overseer, and
Sellers, The Color-mixer,
By John Sellers, an Experienced Practical Workman.
To which is added a CATECHISM OF CHEMISTRY. In one
volume, 12mo $2.50
Smith, The Dyer's Instructor;
Comprising Practical Instructions in the Art of Dyeing
Silk, Cotton, Wool and Worsted, and Woolen Goods, as
Single and Two-colored Damasks, Moreens, Camlets,
Lastings, Shot Cobourgs, Silk Striped Orleans, Plain Or-
leans, from White and Colored Warps, Merinos, Woolens,
Yarns, etc.; containing nearly eight hundred Receipts.
To 'which is added a Treatise on the Art of Padding, and
the Printing of Silk Warps, Skeins and Handkerchiefs,
and the various Mordants and Colors for the different
PUBLISHED BY HENRY C &.REY BAIRD.
styles of such work. By David Smith, Pattern Dyer.
A new edition, in one volume, 12mo $3.00
CONTENTS. Wool Dyeing, 60 receipts Cotton Dyeing, 68 re-
ceiptsSilk Dyeing, 60 receipts Woolen Yarn Dyeing, 69 receipts-
Worsted Yarn Dyeing, 61 receipts Woolen Dyeing, 62 receipts Da-
mask Dyeing, 40 receipts Moreen Dyeing, 38 receipts Two-Colored
Damask Dyeing, 21 receipts Camlet Dyeing, 23 receipts Lasting Dye-
ing, 23 receipts Shot Cobourg Dyeing, 18 receipts Silk Striped Or-
leans, from Black, White, and Colored Warps, 23 receipts Colored
Orleans, from Black Warps, 15 receipts Colored Orleans and Co-
bourgs, from White Warps, 27 receipts Colored Merinos, 41 receipts
Woolen Shawl Dyeing, 15 receipts Padding, 42 receipts Silk Warp,
Skein, and Handkerchief Printing, 62 receipts Nature and Use of Dye-
wares, including Alum, Annotta, Archil, Ammonia, Argol, Super
Argol, Camwood, Catechu, Cochineal, Chrome, or Bichromate of Pot-
ash, Cudbear, Chemic, or Sulphate of Indigo, French Berry, or Persian
Berry, Fustic or Young- Fustic, Galls, Indigo, Kermes or Lac Dye,
Logwood, Madder, Nitric Acid or Aqua Fortis, Nitrates, Oxalic Tin.
Peachwood, Prussiate of Potash, Quercitron Bark, Safflower, Saun-
ders or Red Sandal, Sapan Wood, Sumach, Turmeric, Examination of
Water by Tests, etc., etc.
Ulrich, Dussauce, A Complete Treatise
ON THE ART OF DYEING COTTON AND WOOL, AS PRACTISED IN
PARIS, ROUEN, MULHOUSE AND GERMANY. From the French
of M. Louis Ulrich, a Practical Dyer in the principal
Manufactories of Paris, Rouen, Mulhouse, etc., etc. ; to
which are added the most important Receipts for Dyeing
Wool, as practised in the Manufacture Imperiale des
Gobelins, Paris. By Professor H. Dussauce. 12mo..$3.00
Rouen Dyes, 106 Receipts.
Alsace " 235 "
German " 109 "
Mulhouse " 72 "
Parisian " 66 "
Gobelins " 100 "
In all nearly 700 Receipts.
Easton, A Practical Treatise on Street or
Their Location, Construction and Management ; with
general Plans and Rules for their Organization and Ope-
ration ; together with Examinations as to their Compara-
PBA.CTICAL, AND SCIENTIFIC BOOKS,
tive Advantages over the Omnibus System, and Inquiries
as to their Value for Investment ; including Copies of
Municipal Ordinances relating thereto. By Alexander
Easton, C. E. Illustrated by twenty-three plates, 8vo.,
cloth ................................................................. $2.00
Examinations of Drugs, Medicines, Chemicals,
As to their Purity and Adulterations. By C. H.
M. D. 12mo., cloth ............................................ $2.50
Fisher's Photogenic Manipulation,
16mo., cloth ............................... .......................... 62
Gas and Ventilation;
A Practical Treatise on Gas and Ventilation. By E. E.
Perkins. 12mo., cloth ....................................... -$1.00
Gilbart, A Practical Treatise on Banking,
By James William Gilbart, F. R. S. A new enlarged and
improved edition. Edited oy J. Smith Homans, editor
of " Banker's Magazine." To which is added " Money,"
by H. C. Carey. 8vo .......................................... $3.50
Gregory's Mathematics for Practical Men;
Adapted to the Pursuits of Surveyors, Architects, Me-
chanics and Civil Engineers. 8vo., plates, cloth. ..$2.25
Hardwich, A Manual of Photographic Chem-
Including the practice of the Collodion Process. By J.
F. Hardwich. (In press.")
Hay, The Interior Decorator;
The Laws of Harmonious Coloring adapted to Interior
Decorations ; with a Practical Treatise on House Paint-
ing. By D. R. Hay, House Painter and Decorator. Il-
lustrated by a Diagram of the Primary, Secondary and
Tertiary Colors. 12uio. (fn
PUBLISHED BY HENRY CAREY BAIRD.
Inventor's Guide Patent Office and Patent
Or, a Guide to Inventors, and a Book of Reference for
Judges, Lawyers, Magistrates, and others. By J. Q-.
Moore. 12mo., cloth ...$1.25
Jervis, Railway Property, A Treatise
ON THE CONSTRUCTION AND MANAGEMENT OP RAILWAYS ; de-
signed to afford useful knowledge, in the popular style,
to the holders of this class of property ; as well as Rail-
way Managers, Officers and Agents. By John B. Jervis,
late Chief Engineer of the Hudson River Railroad, Cro-
ton Aqueduct, etc. One volume, 12mo., cloth $2.00
CONTENTS. Preface Introduction. Construction. Introduc-
toryLand and Land Damages Location of Line Method of Business
Grading Bridges and Culverts Road Crossings Ballasting Track-
Cross Sleepers Chairs and Spikes Rails Station Buildings Loco-
motives, Coaches and Cars. Operating. Introductory Freight Pas-
Running Trains Competition
Management General Remarks.
Johnson, The Coal Trade of British America ;
With Researches on the Characters and Practical Values
of American and Foreign Coals. By Walter R. Johnson,
Civil and Mining Engineer and Chemist. 8vo $2.00
This volume contains the results of the experiments made for the
Navy Department, upon which their Coal contracts are now based.
Johnston, Instructions for the Analysis of
Soils, Limestones and Manures,
By J. F. W. Johnston. 12mo 38
Larkin, The Practical Brass and Iron Found-
A Concise Treatise on the Art of Brass Founding, Mould-
ing, etc. By James Larkin. 12mo., cloth $1.25
Leslie's (Miss) Complete Cookery;
Directions for Cookery in its Various Branches. By Miss
Leslie. 58th thousand. Thoroughly revised ; with the
addition of New Receipts. In one volume, 12nio., half
bound, or in sheep .'. $1.25
PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC BOOKS,
(Miss) Ladies' House Book;
A Manual of Domestic Economy. 20th revised edition.
12mo., sheep $1.25
Leslie's (Miss) Two Hundred .Receipts in
Cloth, 12mo 25
Lieber, Assayer's Guide;
Or, Practical Directions to Assayers, Miners and Smelters,
for the Tests and Assays, by Heat and by Wet Processes,
of the Ores of all the principal Metals, and of Gold and
Silver Coins and Alloys. By Oscar M. Lieber, late Geolo-
gist to the State of Mississippi. 12mo. With illustra-
tions * l.'2~)
"Among the indispensable works for this .purpose, is this little
Lowig, Principles of Organic and Physiologi-
By Dr. Carl Lowig, Doctor of Medicine and Philosophy;
Ordinary Professor of Chemistry in the University of
Zurich ; Author of " Chemie des Organischen Verbindun
gen." Translated by Daniel Breed, M. D., of the U. S.
Patent Office ; late of the Laboratory of Liebig and Lowig.
8vo., sheep $3.50
Marble Worker's Manual;
Containing Practical Information respecting Marbles in
general, their Cutting, Working and Polishing, Veneer-
ing,' etc., etc. 12mo., cloth ., $1.25
Miles, A Plain Treatise on Horse-shoeing,
With Illustrations. By William Miles, Author of " The
Horse's Foot." $1.00
PUBLISHED BY HENRY CAREY BAIRD.
Main & Brown, The Marine Steam-Engine,
By Thomas J. Main, F.R. Ast. S. Mathematical Professor
at the Royal Naval College, Portsmouth, and Thomas
Brown, Assoc. Inst. C. E. Chief Engineer R. N. attached
to the Royal Naval College. Authors of "Questions Con-
nected with the Marine Steam-Engine," and the "Indi-
cator and Dynamometer. ' ' With Numerous Illustrations.
In one Volume, 8vo :$5.00
CONTENTS. Introductory Chapter, The Boiler, The Engine, Get-
ting up Steam, Duties to Machinery when under Steam, Duties to En-
gine, &c., on arriving in harbor, Miscellaneous, Appendix.
Main & Brown, Questions on Subjects Con-
nected with the Marine-Steam Engine,
And Examination Papers ; with Hints for their Solution.
By Thomas J. Main, Professor of Mathematics Royal Naval
College, and Thomas Brown, Chief Engineer R. N. 12mo.,
cloth ,\ $1.50
Main & Brown, The Indicator and Dynamo-
With their Practical Applications to the Steam Engine.
By Thomas J. Main and Thomas Brown. With Illustra-
tions. Svo., cloth $1.50
Morfit, A Treatise on Chemistry
APPLIED TO THE MANUFACTURE OF SOAP AND CANDLES ; being
a Thorough Exposition, in all their Minutiae, of the prin-
ciples and Practice of the Trade, based upon the most
recent Discoveries in Science and Art. By Campbell
Morfit, Professor of Analytical and Applied Chemistry in
the University of Maryland. A new and improved edi-
tion. Illustrated with 260 Engravings on Wood. Com-
plete in one volume, large Svo $7.50
CONTENTS CHAPTER I. The History of the Art and its Rela-
tions to Science II. Chemical Combination III. Alkalies and Alka-
line Earths IV. Alkalimentary V. Acids VI. Origin and Composi-
tion of Fatty Matters VII. Saponiflable Fats Vegetable Fats Ani-
mal Fats Waxes VIII. Action of Heat and Mineral Acids of Fatty
Matters IX. Volatile or Essential Oils, and Resins X. The Proxi-
mate Principles of Fats Their Composition ftnd Properties Basic
Constituents of Fats XT. Theory of Saponifleation XII. Utensils
Requisite for a Soap Factory XIII. Preparatory Manipulations m
the Process of Making Soap Preparation of the Lyes XIV. Hani
PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC BOOKS,
Soaps XV. Soft S.i-m* -XVI. Soi|Mliy tlip C,.l,1 I'ro-csn- \ V 1 1. Sill
IMtl-.l S(>. H|>- -\VIII. Toil,
and Adulterations in tho Manufacture ol . \II.
Illumination XXIII. Philosophy of Flame XXIV. K-iw M
for Candle*- Purification and Bleaching oi . \vi.
Dippi-d (.'andlcs -XXVII. .M..ul.l-d CuHllrs \\YIII. St,.. !r in ('.iiull.-rf
\.\I\. Stc;irir Ari.l r.-ui.;.- Of \<! tin . < !!*
S ipnnitiivition by Lime S.i|><>nilir;it ion tiy Lime and Sulphurou-
saponiflcation by Sulphuric Acid Saponiflcation by the
action of licit. Pressure ami Steam XXX. S]>.-r- lies-
Wax Candles XXXII lle XXXIIL Paraffla
\\XIV. Patent Candles XXXV. Hydrometers and Thermometers.
Mortimer. Pyrotechnist's Companion;
Or, a Familiar System of Fin--woik.s. By G. W. Morti-
mer. Illustrated by numerous V. .
Napier, Manual of
Including the Application of the Art to Manufacturing
Processes. By James Napier. From the second ^onlou
edition, revised and enlarged. Illustrated by Engrav-
ings. In one volume, 12mo ............... . ................. $1.50
Napier's Electro-Metallurgy is generally regarded as the very best
Practical Treatise on the Subject in the English Language.
CONTENTS. History of the Art of Electro-Metallurgy 1>
tion of Galvanic Batteries, and their respective Peculiarities Elec-
trotype Processes Miscellaneous Applications of the Process 01 '
ing with Copper Bronzing Decomposition of IH't;tls upon one
another Electro-Plating Electro-Gilding Results of "Expert
on the Deposition of other Metals as Coatings, Theoretical O!>
Norris's Hand-book for Locomotive Engineers
Comprising the Calculations for Constructing Locomo-
tives, Manner of setting Valves, etc., etc. By Septimus
Norris, Civil and Mechanical Engineer. In one volu
12mo., with Illustrations ..................................... i
" With pleasure do we meet with such a work as Messrs. Norris
and Baird have given us." Artizan.
" In this work he has given us what are called ' the secrets of the
business, 7 in the rules to construct locomotives, in order that the mil-
lion should be learned in all things." Scientific American.
Nystrom. A Treatise on Screw-Propellers
their Steam-Engines ;
With "Practical Rules and Examples by which to '
late and Construct the same for any description of V.-<-
sels. By J. W. Nystrom. Illustrated by over thirty
large Working Drawings. In one volume, octavo.
PUBLISHED BY HENBY CABEY BAIBD.
Overman, The Manufacture of Iron in all its
To which is added an Essay on the Manufacture of Steel.
By Frederick Overman, Mining Engineer. With one
hundred and fifty Wood^ngravings. Third edition. In
one volume, octavo, five hundred pages $7.50
" We have now to announce the appearance of another valuable
work on the subject, which, in our humble opinion, supplies any defi-
ciency which late improvements and discoveries may have caused,
from the lapse of time since the date of ' Mushet' and ' Schrivenor.'
It is the production of one of our Trans- Atlantic brethren, Mr. Fred-
erick Overman, Mining Engineer ; and we do not hesitate to set it
down as a work of great importance to all connected with the iron in-
terests ; one which, while it is sufficiently technological fully to ex-
plain chemical analysis, and the various phenomena of iron under
different circumstances, to the satisfaction of the most fastidious, is
written in that clear and comprehensive style as to be available to the
capacity of the humblest mind, and consequently will be of much ad-
vantage to those works where the proprietors may see the -desirability
of placing it in the hands of their operatives." London Mining
Painter, Gilder and Varnisher' s Companion;
Containing Rules and Regulations in everything relating
to the Arts of Painting, Gilding, Varnishing and Glass
Staining ; with numerous useful and valuablevReceipts ;
Tests for the detection of Adulterations in Oils and
Colors ; and a statement of the Diseases and Accidents to
which Painters, Gilders and Varnishers are particularly
liable, with the simplest methods of Prevention and
Remedy. Eighth edition. To which are added Complete
Instructions in Graining, Marbling, Sign Writing, and
Gilding on Glass. 12mo., cloth $1.25
Paper-Hanger's (The) Companion;
In which the Practical Operations of the Trade are sys-
tematically laid down ; with copious Directions Prepara-
tory to Papering ; Preventions against the effect of Damp
in Walls ; the various Cements and Pastes adapted to
the several purposes of the Trade ; Observations and Di-
rections for the Panelling and Ornamenting of Rooms,
etc., etc. By James Arrowsmith. In one volume
12mo : $1.25
Practical (The) Surveyor's Guide;
Containing the necessary information to make any per-
son of common capacitv a finished Land Survevor, with-
PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC BOOKS,
out the aid of a Teacher. By Andrew Duncan,
Purveyor and Civil Engineer. 12mo ?l.U."j
Hiving .had an experience <>r, etc., of thirty
yearn, it is believed that the au'hor of this volume posseaHes a thorough
knowledge of the wants of the profession ; and never having met with
any work Biifliciently concise and instructive in the .several detail*
necessary for the proper qualification ot the Surveyor, it has been his
object to supply that want. Among other important matters in the
* book, will be found the following:
Instructions in levelling and profiling, with a new and speedy pi. in
of setting grades on rail and plank roads the method of inflecting
curves the description and design of r^iew instrument, when
tances are found at once, without any calculation a new method of
surveying any tract of land by measuring one line through it-
metrical method of correcting surveys taken with the compass, to tit
them for calculation a short method of finding the angles from the
courses, and vice versa the method of surveying with the co;
through any mine or iron works, and to correct the deflections of the
needle by attraction description of an instrument by the help of
which any one may measure a map by inspection, without calculation
a new and short method of calculation, wherein fewer figures are
used the method of correcting the diurnal variation of the needle
various methods of plotting and embellishing maps the most cor-
rect method of laying off plots with the pole, etc. description of a
new compass contrived by the author, etc., etc.
Railroad Engineer's Pocket Companion, for the
By W. Griswold. 12mo., tucks $1.25
Kegnault, Elements of Chemistry,
By M. V. Regnault. Translated from the French by T.
Forrest Betton, M.D., and edited, with notes, by James
C. Booth, Melter and Refiner U. S. Mint, and William L.
Faber, Metallurgist and Mining Engineer. Illustrated by
nearly 700 wood engravings. Comprising nearly 1,500
pages. In two volumes, 8vo., cloth ,...$10.00
An Elementary Introduction to the Study of the Science,
in its relation to Agriculture and the Arts of Life. Hy
Edward Solly, Professor of Chemistry in the Horticul-
tural Society of London. From the third improved Lon-
don edition. 12ino $1.:~>0
Sliunk, A Practical Treatise
ON RAILWAY CURVES, AND LOCATION FOR YOUNG ENGINEERS.
By Wm. F. Shunk, Civil Engineer. 12ino =rl.< : ''
Strength and Other Properties of Metals;
/Reports of Experiments on the Strength and other Pro-
PUBLISHED BY HENRY CAREY BAIRD.
perties of Metals for Cannon. With a Description of the
Machines for Testing Metals, and of the Classification 6*t
Cannon in service. By Officers of the Ordnance Depart-
ment U. S. 'Army. By authority of the Secretary of
War. Illustrated by 25 large steel plates. In one vol-
ume, quarto $10.01
The best Treatise on Cast-iron extant.
Tables Showing the Weight
OF ROUND, SQUARE AND FLAT BAR IRON, STEEL, etc., by
Measurement. Cloth 5G
Taylor, Statistics of Coal;
Including Mineral Bituminous Substances employed in
Arts and Manufactures ; with their Geographical, Geo-
logical and Commercial Distribution, and Amount of Pro-
duction and Consumption on the American Continent.
With Incidental Statistics of the Iron Manufacture. By
R. C. Taylor. Second edition, revised by S. S. Halde-
man. Illustrated by five Maps and. many Wood Engrav-
ings. 8vo., cloth $6.00
Templelon, The Practical Examinator on
Steam and the Steam Engine;
With Instructive References relative thereto, arranged
for the use of Engineers, Students, and others. By WEI.
Templeton, Engineer. 12mo $1.25
This work was originally written for the author's private use. He
was prevailed upon by various Engineers, who had seen the notes, to
consent to its publication, from their eager expression of belief that
It would be equally useful to them as it had been to himself.
Tin and Sheet Iron Worker's Instructor;
Comprising complete Descriptions of the necessary Pat-
terns and Machinery, and the Processes of Calculating
Dimensions, Cutting, Joining, Raising, Soldering, etc.
etc. With numerous Illustrations $2.50
Treatise (A) on a Box of Instruments,
And the Slide Rule ; with the Theory of Trigonometry
and Logarithms, including Practical Geometry, Survey
ing, Measuring of Timber, Ca*k and Malt Gauging,
PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC BOOKS,
, Hjeights and Distances. By Thomas Kentish. In one
volume, 12mo $1.25
A volume of inestimable value to Engineers, Gaugcrs, Students, and
Tunibull. The Electro-Magnetic Telegraph;
With an Historical Account of its Rise, Progress, and
Present Condition. Also, Practical Suggestions in regard
to Insulation and Protection from the Effects of Light-
ning. Together with an Appendix containing several
important Telegraphic Devices and Laws. By Lawrence
Turnbull, M. D., Lecturer on Technical Chemistry at the
Franklin Institute. Second edition. Revised and im-
proved. Illustrated by numerous Engravings. 8vo..$2.50
Turner's (The) Companion;
Containing Instruction in Concentric, Elliptic and Eccen-
tric Turning ; also various Steel Plates of Chucks, Tools
and Instruments ; and Directions for Using the Eccentric
Cutter, Drill, Vertical Cutter and Rest ; with Patterns
and Instructions for working them. 12mo., cloth.. $1.25
Weatherley (Henry). Treatise on the Art of
Boiling Sugar, Crystallizing, Lozenge-
making, Comfits, Gum Goods,
Williams, On Heat and Steam;
Embracing New Views of Vaporization, Condensation,
and Expansion. By Charles Wye Williams. Illustrated.
THE WORKS OF HENRY C. CAREY.
" I challenge the production from among the writers on political
economy of a more learned, philosophical, and convincing speculator
on that theme, than my distinguished fellow-citizen, Henry < . Carey.
The works he has published in support of the protective poli.
remarkable for profound research, extensive range of inquin.
logical acumen, and a consummate knowledge of history.'
Hn. Hdircirtf Joy Morris, in the House of Representatives of the I'niUd
Slates, February 2, 1869.
PUBLISHED BY HENKY CAREY BAIRD.
THE WORKS OF HENRY C. CAREY.
" Henry C. Carey, the best known and ablest economist of North
America. ***** in Europe he is principally known by his
striking and original attacks, based upon the peculiar advantages of
American experience, on some of the principal doctrines, especially
Malthus' ' Theory of Population' and Ricardo's teachings. His views
have been largely adopted and thoroughly discussed in Europe."
" The German Political Lexicon." Edited by Bluntschli and Brater. Leipsic.
" We believe that your labors mark an era in the science of political
economy. To your researches and lucid arguments are we indebted
for the explosion of the absurdities of Malthus, Say, and Ricardo, in
regard to the inability of the earth to meet the demands of a growing
population. American industry owes you a debt which cannot be re-
paid, and which it will ever be proud to acknowledge. From a Letter
of Hon. George W. Scranton, M. C., Hon. William Jessup, and over sixty
influential citizens of Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, to Henry C. Carey,
April 3, 1859.
Their Causes and Effects. 8 vo., paper 25
French and American Tariffs,
Compared in a Series of Letters addressed to Mons. M.
Chevalier. 8vo., paper 25
Harmony (The) of Interests;
Agricultural, Manufacturing and Commercial. 8vo.,
" We can safely recommend this remarkable work to all who wish
to investigate the causes of the progress or decline of industrial com-
munities." Blackwood's Magazine.
Letters to the President of the United States,
8vo., Paper .'.... 50
Comprising "Harmony of Interests," "Money," "Let-
ters to the President," "French and American Tariffs,"
and " Financial Crises." One volume, 8vo $3.00
Before the New York Geographical and Statistical So-
ciety. 8vo., paper 25
PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC BOOKS,
THE WORKS OF HENRY C. CAREY.
Past (The), the Present, and the Fill HIT,
8vo *2.. r ,0
" Full of important facts bearing on topics that are now agitating
all Kurope. * * These quotations u ill only whet the aj;
of the scientific reader to devour the whole work. It is a book full of
valuable information." Economist.
" Decidedly a book to be read by all who take an interest in the pro-
gress of social science." Spectator.
"A Southern man myself, never given to tariff doctrines, I confess to
have been convinced by his reasoning, and, thank Heaven, have not
now to learn the difference between dogged obstinacy and consistency.
' Ye gods, give us but light !' should be the motto of every inquirer
after truth, but for far different and better purposes than that which
prompted the exclamation.'' The late John S. Skinner.
" A volume of extensive information, deep thought, high intelli-
gence, and moreover of material utility." London Morning Advertiser.
" Emanating from an active intellect, remarkable for distinct views
and sincere convictions." Britannia.
" ' The Past, Present, and Future,' is a vast summary of progressive
philosophy, wherein he demonstrates the benefit of political economy
in the onward progress of mankind, which, ruled and directed by over-
whelming influences of an exterior nature, advances little by little,
until these exterior influences are rendered subservient in their turn,
to increase as much as possible the extent of their wealth and riches."
Dictionnaire Universel des Contemporains. Par G. Vapereau. Paris.
Principles of Social Science,
Three volumes, 8vo., cloth ,$10.00
CONTENTS. Volume I. 'Of Science and its Methods Of Man,
the Subject of Social Science Of Increase in the Numbers of Mankind
Of the Occupation of the Earth Of Value Of Wealth Of the For-
mation of Society Of Appropriation Of Changes of Matter in Place
Of M hanical and Chemical Changes in the Forms of Matter. Vol-
ume U. Of Vital Changes in the Form of Matter Of the Instrument
of Assoe.ation. Volume III. Of Production and Consumption Of
Accumulation Of Circulation Of Distribution Of Concentration
and Centralization Of Competition Of Population Of Food and
Population Of Colonization Of the Malthusian Theory Of Com-
merce Of the Societary Organization Of Social Science.
" I have no desire here to reproach Mr. Malthus with the extreme
lightness of his scientific baggage. In his day, biology, animal and
vegetable chemistry, the relations of the various portions of the hu-
man organism, etc. etc., had made but little progress, and it is to the
general ignorance in reference to these questions that we mus*
think, look for explanation of the fact that he should, with so much
confidence, in reference to so very grave a subject, have ventured To
suggest a formula BO arbitrary in its character, and one whose hollow-
ness becomes now so clearly manifest. Mr. Carey's advantage over
him, both as to facts and logic, is certainly due in great part to the
progress that has since been made in all the sciences connected with
life ; but then, how admirably has he profited of them ! How entirely
IB he au courant of all these branches of knowledge which, whether
PUBLISHED BY HENRY C ABE'S BAIRD.
THE WORKS OF HENRY C. CAREY.
directly or indirectly, bear upon his subject ! With what skill does he
ask of each and every of them all that it can be made to furnish,
whether of facts or arguments ! With what elevated views,- and
what amplitude of means, does he go forward in his work ! Abov
all, how thorough jn his scientific caution ! Accumulating inductions,
and presenting for consideration facts the most undoubted and proba
bilities of the highest kind, he yet affirms nothing, contenting himself
with showing that his opponent had no good reason for affirming the
nature of the progression, nor the time of duplication t nor the gene-
ralization which takes the facts of an individual case and deduces
from them a law for every race, every climate, every civilization,
every condition, moral or physical, permanent and transient,
healthy or unhealthy, of the various populations of the many coun-
tries of the world. Then, having reduced the theory to the level of a
mere hypothesis, he crushes it to atoms under the weight of facts."
M. De Fontenay in the "Journal des Economistes." Paris, September, 1862.
" This book is so abundantly full of notices, facts, comparisons, cal-
culations, and arguments, that too much would be lost by laying a
part of it before the eye of the reader. The work is vast and severe
in its conception and aim, and is far removed from the common run
of the books on similar subjects." .K Hondo Letterario, Turin.
" In political economy, America is represented by one of tho
strongest and most original writers of the age, Henry C. Carey, of
Philadelphia. * * * * *******
" His theory of Rents is regarded as a complete demonstration- that
the popular views derived from Ricardo are erroneous; and on the
subject of Protection, he is generally confessed to be the master-
thinker of his country." Westminster Review.
" Both in America and on the Continent, Mr. Henry Carey has ac-
quired a great name as a political economist. *****
" His refutation of Malthus and Ricardo we consider most triumph-
ant." London Critic.
" Mr. Carey began his publication of Principles twenty years ago ;
he is certainly a mature and deliberate writer. More than this, he is
readable : his pages swarm with illustrative facts and with American
" We are in great charity with books which, like Mr. Carey's, theo-
rize with excessive boldness, when the author, as does Mr. Carey,
possesses information and reasoning power." London Athenceum.
" Those who would fight against the insatiate greed and unscrupu-
lous misrepresentations of the Manchester school, which we have fre-
quently exposed, without any of their organs having ever dared to
make reply, will find in this and Mr. Carey's other works an immense
store of arms and ammunition. ********
" An author who has, among the political economists of Germany
and France, numerous readers, is worth attentive perusal in Eng-
land." London Statesman.
" Of all the varied answers to the old cry of human nature, 'Who
will show us any good 1' none are more sententious than Mr. Carey's.
He says to Kings, Presidents, and People, ' Keep the nation at work,
and the greater the variety of employments the better.' He is seek-
ing and elucidating the great radical lawe of matter as regards man.
He Is at once the apostle and evangelist of temporal righteousness."
" A work which we believe to be the greatest ever written by an
American, and one which will in future ages be pointed out as the
most successful effort of its time to form the great scientia scientiarum."
Philadelphia Evening Bulletin.
.fRACTICAIi AND SCIENTIFIC BOOKS,
THE WORKS OF HENRY C. CAREY.
The Slave Trade, Domestic and Foreign ;
Why it Exists, and How it may be Extinguished. 12mo.,
CONTENTS. The Wide Extent of Slavery Of Slavery in the
British Colonies Of Slavery in the United States Of Emancipation
in the British Colonies How Man passes from Poverty and Slavery
toward Wealth and Freedom How Wealth tends to Increase How
Labor acquires Value and Man becomes Free How Man passes from
Wraith and Freedom toward Poverty and Slavery How Slavery
prow, and How it is now maintained in the West Indies How Slavery
f rew, and is maintained in the United States How Slavery grows in
Portugal and Turkey How Slavery grows in India How Slavery
prows in Ireland and Scotland How Slavery grows in England
How can Slavery be extinguished? How Freedom grows in Northern
fJorinany How Freedom grows in Russia How Freedom grows in
Denmark How Freedom grows in Spain and Belgium Of the Duty
of the People of the United States Of the Duty of the People of Eng-
" As a philosophical writer, Mr. Carey is remarkable for the union
of comprehensive generalizations with a copious induction of facts.
His research of principles never leads him to the neglect of details ;
nor is his accumulation of instances ever at the expense of universal
truth. He is, doubtless, intent on the investigation of la\rs, as the
appropriate aim of science, but no passion for theory seduces him
Into the region of pure speculation. His mind is no less historical
than philosophical, and had he not chosen the severer branch in
which his studies have borne such excellent fruit, he would have
attained an eminent rank among the historians from whom the litera-
ture of our country has received such signal illustration." Kew York
French Politico-Economic Controversy,
Between the Supporters of the Doctrines of CAREY and
of those of RICARDO and MALTHOS. By MM. De Fontenay,
Dupuit, Baudrillart, and others. Translated from the
"Journal des Ecouomistes," 1862-63. (In press.)
Protection of Home Labor and Home Produc-
Necessary to the Prosperity of the American Farmer.
By H. C. Baird. Paper i3
Smith, A Manual of Political Economy,
By E. Peshine Smith. 12mo., cloth $1.25
UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO
Acme Library Card Pocket
Under Pat. "Ref. Index File."
Made by LIBEAEY BUEEAU, Boston