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Full text of "A treatise on the art of boiling sugar, crystallizing, lozenge-making, confits, gum goods, and other processes for confectionery, etc, in which are explained, in an easy and familiar manner, the various methods of manufacturing every description of raw and refined sugar goods, as sold by the trade, confectioners, and others"

A TREATISE 

ON THE 

ART OF BOILING SUGAR, 

CKYSTALLIZING, LOZENGE-MAKING, COMFITS, 

GUM GOODS, AND OTHER PROCESSES 

FOR CONFECTIONERY, ETC. 

IN WHICH AEE EXPLAINED; 
. IN AN EASY ANI> FAMILIAR MANNER, 
THE VARIOUS METHODS OF MANUFACTURING 



EVERY DESCRIPTION OF 



RAW AND REFINED SUGAR GOODS, 

AS SOLD BY THE 

TRADE, CONFECTIONERS, AND OTHERS. 
BY HENRY WEATHERLEY, 

INVENTOR OF THE CURRANT DRESSING MACHINE, CONFECTIONERS' MACHINES, 
ETC., AWARDED TWO MEDALS AND A CERTIFICATE OP " HONORABLE 

MENTION" AT THE GREAT EXHIBITION, 1851. 



PHILADELPHIA: 
HENRY CAREY BAIRD, 

INDUSTRIAL PUBLISHER, 

406 WALNUT STREET. 

1865. 




PKEFACE. 



HITHERTO there has been no book published 
of any practical utility upon this important 
branch of confectionery. The subject is cer- 
tainly discussed in a work treating upon other 
branches of the trade, and the following is an 
extract, copied verbatim, from the information 
it gives upon boiling sugar : " To prevent 
graining, put a little of any sort of acid, when it 
is at the crack, but remember that too much 
acid will also grain it." This contradictory 
and remarkable information is to be found in 
the book referred to, and that has been the 
only authority published. This, therefore, 
shows the necessity for a work written from 

practice and actual experience; for during 
3 



4 PKKKACK. 

twenty years' acquaintance with the subject, 
the author never met with such results as the 
above, but, on the contrary, has always found 
that where any excess of acid has got into a 
pan of sugar, and boiled in it, whether by acci- 
dent or design, it becomes so weak, thin, and 
discolored that it is impossible to bring it to 
the proper degree, or use it for making goods. 
There are other errors closely allied to this, 
which evidently occur from the writer relying 
upon some copied or false information. The 
putting any kind of acid in at the crack (when 
the sugar should be instantly poured on to the 
slab) the author thought, was exploded years 
ago, and only to be found in very old cookery 
books. A work of this nature should be 
practical, or it may lead to a great loss, and as 
a book of instruction be quite useless. 

The large increase in the consumption of 
sweets, made from boiled sugars, in the United 
Kingdom, during the last quarter of a century, 



PREFACE. 5 

has arisen principally from the cheapness and 
facility of manufacture derived from the intro- 
duction of machinery. The author, having been ' 
one of the first who invented, and practically 
applied, machines to the purposes for which 
they are used in the trade, and for which he 
holds two Medals and Certificates of Honorable 
Mention from the Great Exhibition of 1851, 
trusts his experience will prove a sufficient 
introduction to the confidence of his readers 
upon the subject he now presents to their 
notice. Twenty years since it was considered 
rather a clever thing (with a pair of scissors, 
the principal tool a sugar boiler used) to cut a 
seven pound "boil of acid drops to size, and, 
with the help of a practised boy, make them 
round and press them flat, with the hands, in 
half-an-hour. The same quantity may now, 
with the machine, be made into drops, by the 
boy alone, in five minutes. The first was 
really a laborious effort ; the second is a simple, 



6 PREFACE. 

easy process, while the goods are more cleanly, 
regular in size, and finished in appearance. 
Until the year of the first Exhibition, boiled 
sweets were almost exclusively an English 
manufacture, but the introduction therein of 
the author's and other English confectioners 7 ^ 
goods, and also the machines, led to their 
manufacture by other nations, the German con- 
fectioners in particular, and, as regards variety 
or skill, they are not likely to be surpassed. 
There was exhibited in their department at 
the International Exhibition of 1862 (by two 
houses one at Hamburg) such a display of 
boiled sweets and fancy rocks, etc., that sur- 
prised many practised hands in England, and 
showing there is still something to be learned 
in "Kock varieties," as regards manipulation 
and design. The French confectioners have 
not developed any striking ideas in this branch 
up to the present, the national taste keeping 
them almost exclusively to the manufacture of 



PREFACE. 7 

superior chocolate and sugar bonbons, liqueurs, 
pastilles, and comfits, in which they excel all 
other nations, and which are sold at very high 
prices. The author, on visiting Paris in 1848, 
found only one description of common boiled 
sweets, and this was made and sold in the open 
streets, the sugar being boiled in a drop pan 
over a charcoal stove on a stall. After pulling- 
it white, it was cut and sold while warm, in 
lumps at one or two sous each. There are now 
some other varieties sold in the shops, which 
are nearly all termed "Caramels." It is 
beyond question that the English people 
prefer boiled sugars, as the simplest and most 
genuine sweets; and whether they consist of 
the "Loggets" or " Cushies" of the eastern 
part of the Kingdom; the "Tom Trot" or 
"Butter Scotch" of the north ; the "Humbugs" 
or "Lollys" of the south; the Suckers and 
Hardbake of the west, they each have their 
votaries, perhaps the far-famed " Toffee" taking 



8 PREFACE. 

the le"ad for we find it a great favorite 
wherever introduced. Bonapartes Ribs, Gib- 
raltar Rock, Ellecampane, and many of the 
old sweets which were the favorites of a past 
generation, have disappeared from the London 
shops, and their place taken by various other 
goods of a much more difficult nature; and to 
give a correct method of making these is the 
aim of the author, who would remind those 
manufacturers, in the trade that may object to 
the publication of the various receipts, pro- 
cesses, etc., that the skill which is necessary to 
produce articles of the best quality and 
finished appearance cannot possibly be ac- 
quired without great practice and experience, 
and so far from the book being prejudicial to 
their interests, it is confidently hoped that it 
will materially forward them. The theories 
and errors of a past age, as regards the arts 
and sciences, as also in connection with this 
and other trades or professions, if continued, 






PREFACE. 9 

would obstruct the advancement of those who 
profess or practice them, either as a means of 
knowledge, or for a living, or the employment 
of capital ; and, therefore, it is endeavored by 
the information the book affords, and the 
matters it treats upon, to divest them of 'all 
mystery and useless forms that they may 
hitherto have been allied with. 

HENRY WEATEERLEY. 

54 Theobald's-road, London, 
1864. 



CONTENTS. 



Preface 3 

On the Qualities of Sugar 17 

On Clarifying Sugar 22 

On Colors and Adulteration 24 

On the Workshops and Boiling-Rooms 29 

Average Degrees of Heat of Drying-Stoves 31 

On Hand and Machine Goods 31 

On the Degrees of Boiling Sugars, and how to test 

them 34 

On Cutting the Grain, Lowering, Reducing, or 

Greasing Sugar 37 

On Artificial Fruit Essences, etc., and "the Great 

Exhibition 39 

On the Kinds of Goods to make, and how to make 

them 41 

Lemon Acid Drops 42 

Lemon Barley Sugar 44 

Barley Sugar Drops 45 

Honey Drops 46 

Pine Apple-Drops 47 

11 



12 CONTENTS. 

Burnt Almond Rock or French Rock 47 

Cocoa Nut Ice, Cream or Paste 48 

Cough Candy 49 

Anniseed Drops or Cough Drops 49 

Horehound or Montpelier Drops 50 

Horehound Candy t 50 

Red Cocoa Nut Ice 51 

Cocoa Nut Candy 51 

Cocoa Nut Hardbake, or Eggs and Bacon 52 

Crystallized Cocoa Nut Chips 52 

Everton Toffee 53 

To Ice Cocoa Nut Paste 54 

Victoria, Alexandria, and Albert Rocks, etc 55 

Large Rocks, Strawberry or Raspberry 56 

Boiled Sugars in Moulds 56 

Boiled Sugars as Medals, etc 57 

Imitation Plum Puddings 57 

Brandy Balls and Clear Balls '. 58 

Clear Balls 59 

Sponge Sugar, or Honey Comb, etc 59 

Love Rock, or Rock Varieties, etc 60 

Crystallized Imitation Ginger 61 

English Almond Rock 62 

Almond Hardbake 62 

Clove, Brown Acid, Black Jack, etc 63 

White Acid, Rose Acid, Sticks, etc 63 

Small Bulls' Eyes and Nelson Balls 63 

Ginger, Lemon, Rose, or Peppermint Candies. ... 64 



CONTENTS. IS 

Burnt Almonds 64 

Pear Drops, Raspberry Drops, and Rose Drops. . 65 

Turkey Sugars, Lemon, Peppermint, and Rose. . . 66- 

Farthing and Halfpenny Sticks (clear) 66 

Farthing and Halfpenny Cushions, Sticks, etc. 

(pulled) 67 

Peppermint, Lemon, Rose, etc., Pastilles or Drops 67 

Cherry Stones and Rose Buds 68 

Real Burnt Almonds, or French Pralines 69 

Cherry Balls, Fishes, Tom Thumb Drops, etc .... 70 

Imitation Crystallizing 71 

Imitation Indian Corn 72 

Pink and White Sugar Candy 72 

Chocolate in Boiled Sugars 73 

Ginger Toffee 73 

Doncaster Butter Scotch 74 

Raspberry Toffee 74 

Persian Sherbet .- 75 

On Crystallized Goods, Liqueur Bon-Bons, etc.. . 76 

Liqueur Bon-Bons, etc 77 

Liqueur Almonds and Comfits 78 

Gum Pastilles, etc 78 

Pink or Yellow Jujubes 79 

To Crystallize Preserved Fruits 80 

To Preserve Fruits Whole in Syrup 80 

Raspberry Jam 81 

Red Currant, Black Currant, and Gooseberry Jam, 82 

Strawberry Jam 82 

2 



14 CONTENTS. 

Preserved Ginger (Mock) 83 

Preserved Orange and Lemon Peel, etc 84 

Raspberry Jelly 85 

Raspberry Vinegar 86 

To Keep Jams or Jellies 86 

Raspberry and Black Currant Squares or Cakes. . 87 

Marmalades 88 

Seville Orange Marmalade 88 

Apple Marmalade or Jam 89 

Apple Jelly 89 

Quince Marmalade or Jam : . . . . 90 

Damson, Apple, Apricot, Plum, Black Currant, 

Paste, or Cheese 90 

Red Currant Jelly 91 

Black Currant Jelly . . . . 92 

Pulp for Jams (to preserve without sugar) 92 

Bottled Tart Fruits 93 

Juice of Fruits without Sugar 93 

To Remove Acids from Boiled Sugar 94 

Tests for Adulterated Goods 94 

For Detecting Terra-Alba or any other Earthy 

Matter in Comfits, etc 95 

Colored Sugars 95 

Fruit Syrups, Capillaire, etc 96 

On Lozenges, Comfits, etc 96 

On the Manufacture of Lozenges 98 

Medicated Lozenges, etc 98 

Mixing for Common Mints 99 



i 



CONTENTS. 16 

Common Ginger Lozenges . . . . , 100 

Cough Lozenges 100 

Coltsfoot Rock 101 

Rose Lozenges 101 

Musk Lozenges 102 

Anniseed Lozenges 104 

Bath Lozenges 105 

Balsam Tolu Lozenges 105 

Black Currant Lozenges 105 

Cayenne Lozenges 106 

Chalk Lozenges 106 

Paregoric Lozenges 106 

Ipecacuanha Lozenges 107 

Lavender Lozenges , 107 

Rhubarb Lozenges, or Long-Life Lozenges 107 

Quinine Lozenges t 108 

On the Manufacture of Comfits or Pan Goods. . . 108 
On the Machines to Buy and how to Use them 

(illustrated) 110 

On Spinning Sugar, Piping, Gum Paste, Orna- 
ments, etc 113 

To Spin Caramel Sugar 115 

Gum Paste Ornaments -116 

Sugar Piping for Cakes, etc 117 

On Ices 119 

Imitation Cream Ice (or Custard Ice) 121 

Raspberry and Strawberry Cream 122 

Vanilla Ice Cream . . 122 



16 CONTENTS. 

Chocolate Ice Cream 122 

Cofiee Ice Cream ; 123 

Tea Ice Cream 123 

Water Ices Lemon Water Ice 123 

Orange Water Ice 124 

Strawberry Water Ice 124 

Raspberry Water Ice 124 

For any of the Currant Water Ices 124 

Pine Apple Water Ice 125 

To Preserve Oranges or Lemons Whole 125 

To Preserve a Pine Apple Whole 126 

Orange Quarters in Barley Sugar 126 

Paris Nogat . . 127 

Raspberry Syrup 127 

Cherry Syrup 128 

Apple Paste for Ornamenting, etc 128 

Orange and Lemon Chips 129 

Cherries in Brandy 129 

Concluding Remarks 130 



ON THE 

ART OF BOILING SUGAR, 

AND VARIOUS OTHER PROCESSES 

IN SUGAR GOODS ETC. 



On the Qualities of Sugar. 

Iy is necessary, before we proceed in the 
work, to speak of the material used, the nature 
and qualities of which are of very great im- 
portance to those engaged in this branch of the 
trade, and who work it into such a variety of 
confections, a term derived from the Latin, con 
and facere (that is to "make up"). In the earli- 
est records of the Sugar Cane the produce was 
assimilated and treated as Honey, for an 
ancient historian, in writing of a certain peo- 
ple, says they have Bees which make Honey 
but the " Confectioners" make much more - It 
17 



18 QUALITIES OF SUGAR. 

will be superfluous here to enter into the his- 
tory of the sugar cane, the processes it under- 
goes, etc.: -however interesting it might be, it 
would exceed the limits of a work of this kind. 
The best description of sugar for the purposes 
of the Confectioner are those from the "West 
Indies, and an- acquaintance with the qualities 
of raw sugars is of equal importance to per- 
sons using them for domestic purposes, who in 
buying are so often led away by that most 
deceptive bait "color," which is seldom an 
advantage except when taken from an original 
hogshead. Moist sugars, as sometimes sold re- 
tail, are so sophisticated and artificially treated 
for appearance sake that a very large amount 
of the pure saccharine matter is entirely 
destroyed or lost to the consumer. We find 
the public at fault here: the -grocers are com- 
pelled to make up their sugars to please the 
eye, and as it is a leading article they are great 
losers from competition, supposing they study 
quality, except the darkest foots, so called from 
its receiving the drainage or moisture from the 
other portion of sugar in the hogshead while 



QUALITIES OF SUGAR. 19 

in a horizontal position during the voyage 
nearly all the West India raws are good 
enough for domestic purposes. During the 
high prices, some years since, sugar from 
potatoe starch was used largely for adulteration ; 
and, though an excellent imitation, there is 
very little sweetness, and it can be detected 
with Iodine, which changes the color when 
mixed with water. All artificial sugars, if 
they may be so termed, including beet-root 
sugar, made extensively in France, are quite 
useless to the workman : they possess neither 
strength nor richness, and, if mixed with cane 
sugars, they annoy him by puffing and burning 
in the pan, before they are half up to the de- 
gree he requires ; besides the loss of time and 
annoyance in using sugars of a low class, there 
is a greater waste in boiling than many are 
aware of. In choosing raw sugars, prefer those 
that have a gray cast in preference to yellow 
for boiling ; they should be free and sparkling 
in the grain and smell sweet ; this is a neces- 
sary test in all sugars', particularly those in 
bags : avoid those that feel sticky in the hand 



20 QUALITIES OF SUGAR. 

and hang together when pressed they are weak 
and will not boil well. Some bag sugars are 
cheaper, and, if sound, are useful for low-class 
goods ; they, however, require cajution in buy- 
ing, as some kinds are very deceptive to the 
boiler. Mauritius work well, and those of good 
qualities answer nearly all purposes. Since 
the reduction in prices of refined sugars, East 
India for boiling is nearly superseded, but 
when clarified, is very useful for sugar sticks, 
etc., from the great tenacity of the grain in 
pulling out. A great many of these sugars 
smell very badly and require to be tested, or 
during the evaporation in boiling they will be 
extremely disagreeable. With regard to refined 
sugars of English make, whether in lumps or 
loaves, they generally possess quality enough 
for all ordinary purposes, except for best goods 
and crystallizing, when color is necessary, com- 
bined with hard, close texture, and brilliant 
appearance. Some few years since large quan- 
tities of Dutch Eefines were introduced in the 
market of very inferior quality, and badly 
made in every respect. They should never . 



QUALITIES OF SUGAR. 21 

be used while English Refines keep at any 
thing like their present prices. Crushed lump 
boils well, and answers every purpose of lump 
or loaves for inferior bottled and other goods. 
About fifteen years since, when sugar was dear 
in England, a remarkable system was carried 
out by several confectioners, to obtain it 
cheaper by their establishing factories in the 
Channel Islands, and making up refined sugars, 
which in those places were very cheap, into 
various shapes in dry goods without acids or 
flavorings, and sending them in barrels over to 
their correspondents in England to be remelted. 
There was no duty at that- period upon these 
manufactured sweets, but this manifest injustice 
to the rest of the trade, whom these clever 
schemers very much undersold, was brought 
to the notice of the Government, and a duty of 
6d. per Ib. soon put an end to these question- 
able transactions. 



\ 
22 CLARIFYING SUGAR. 

On Clarifying Sugar. 

As it is both convenient and necessary under 
some circumstances to clarify sugar, the pro- 
cesses are given below. The low prices at 
which refined sugars have been sold for some 
time past does away with the necessity of 
clarifying Eaw Sugars ; but if it should be re- 
quired, for 56 Ibs. of sugar, take the whites 
of six eggs, with a quart of water, into your 
pan, and whisl^them thoroughly ; add 4 Ibs. of 
charcoal in powder, and two and half gallons 
of water; dissolve the whole; it must be 
watched while on the stove until it boils ; so 
soon as that takes place pull it on one side and 
let it remain a short time to settle, take the 
scum off, and place the syrup half over the 
stove again as it must not boil violently; as 
the scum accumulates take it off, and during 
the time it continues to rise throw in several 
half pints of cold water, which assists in bring- 
ing it up ; it must afterwards be passed through 
a large jelly bag, and returned until it becomes 
bright, as'it will be black at first. The above 



CLARIFYING SUGAR. 28 

process is for dark colored sugars, for those 
lighter in color use less charcoal ; some in the 
trade use bullock's blood instead of charcoal, 
but it is more difficult to obtain in most places, 
besides being unpleasant to use. If loaf sugar 
is required to be clarified, take the whites of 
six eggs well beat up with a whisk, to the same 
quantity, unless very dark in color, when a 
third of the charcoal may be used, as in the last 
process, and proceed the same. These syrups 
ought not to be more than 32 degrees by 
Beaumes Saccharometer, or >212 by the Ther- 
mometer. The scums can be washed in water 
and passed through the bag for the next 
clearings. Clarified sugars must not be allowed 
to remain for an indefinite time before being 
used, the action of the atmosphere causing 
them to boil weak and windy. The pans 
used in clarifying must be one-third larger 
than the bulk of sugar takes up, to allow for 
the sudden rising of the scum ; it is indispensa- 
ble that all the pans used either for boiling 
sugar or for clarifying syrups be made of 
either copper or bell metal if large sizes are 



24 COLORS AND ADULTERATION. 

required for clarifying, the sides may be of 
block tin and the bottom copper ; for gum 
goods and ^similar substances, the steam pans 
or others should be glazed or tinned, sup- 
posing them to be made of copper. 

On Colors and Adulteration. 

It is to be hoped that every manufacturing 
confectioner, who went to the International 
Exhibition, 1862, saw Dr. Hassall's large case 
of adulterated articles, used as food, and hence- 
forth determined to discard all mineral colors, 
and adulterated compounds, from his work- 
shop; those that missed this interesting col- 
lection, may be told that it consisted of every 
conceivable article, used or consumed as food, 
bought indiscriminately at shops, in various 
parts of London, and nearly every trader who 
saw it found articles he dealt in represented 
there : but in respect to this trade, adulterated 
lozenges of all kinds abounded, mixtures 
colored with crome, and sugar goods with 
vermilion, red lead, etc. Names of parties 



COLORS AND ADULTERATION. 25 

were not revealed, but it was a wholesome 
lesson to all interested ; and it ought to be 
known in the trade generally that the "Adul- 
teration of Foods Act," passed not long since, 
contains very stringent clauses, as regards 
using any deleterious matter, or compound, in 
coloring or mixing, etc. Ignorance cannot be 
urged on the part of those in the trade, who 
now use poisonous mineral colors, in sweets, 
or other goods, when every color than can pos- 
sibly be required can be obtained, in which no 
pernicious qualities exist. 

[Vegetable colors ready for the Confec- 
tioner's use are to be obtained of Messrs. 
Bush & Co., Liverpool Street, City.] 

In the regulations, established by the Minis- 
ter of Commerce for the guidance of the 
French Confectioners, the following are the 
only colors allowed, and are all that are neces- 
sary to the English Confectioner: (Blues), 
Indigo, Prussian Blue, Ultramarine. (Beds), 
Cochineal, Carmine, Carmine lake. (Yellows), 
Saffron, French Berries, and Tumeric or Fustic. 

(Greens), by mixing the yellows and blues. In 
3 



26 COLORS AND ADULTERATION". 

allowing ultramarine to be used, it must not be 
thought or understood- to be the description 
of blue sold under that name, "of German 
Manufacture," which is very unwholesome. 
The best color from cochineal we have made 
is as follows: J Ib. powdered cochineal, 2 
ounces washing soda, "bruised," 2 ounces 
rock alum, " bruised," J Ib. cream of tartar, put 
3 pints of water in a copper pan, add the soda 
and cochineal ; when it has boiled, add the 
alum, gradually, or it will flow over, keep 
stirring till it is dissolved, and boil up again ; 
then add the cream of tartar, boil two or three 
minutes longer, and strain through a small 
hair sieve for use ; these quantities can be re- 
duced in the same ratio if required. No 
utensil of tin or iron must be used with this 
receipt or it will give a purple cast to the 
color. If desired, some of this liquor can be 
dried down, by evaporation, to a paste, and 
used on the slab ; the only advantage in this is 
for stripes, or casings, and saving the pans. 
Saffron as a yellow for best goods cannot be 
equalled, and is best kept with spirits, but 



COLORS AND ADULTERATION. 27 

water for small quantities, answers the same 
purpose. A remarkable substitute for this 
article is a solution of logwood chips, made 
the same as strong tea, but it will only act 
when fresh and the sugar is reduced either by 
cream of tartar, or one of the acids, .used to 
cut the grain, and which is a great recommen- 
dation, as it instantly detects the omission, by 
turning the boil a dirty color, which when dis- 
covered, the lowering can be added in solution, 
and it instantly changes bright. The very 
high price of Saffron has made this a valuable 
discovery for cheap goods, while it is equally 
as wholesome to use. Indigo, dissolved with 
sulphuric acid, makes a fine blue, one ounce 
in powder to a quarter of pound of vitriol, it 
must be mixed in a jar or pot holding about 
a pint, and must not be put to any syrups 
while on the fire. Carmine, though highly 
prized as a color by the trade, is most gen- 
erally bought. The process of making is 
simple, but troublesome, and not suited to the 
present work. If for any purpose a variety 
of colors is desired, use the following : Purple 



28 COLORS AND ADULTERATION. 

(Cochineal and weak liquid blue) Orange, 
(Yellow with Ked) Green, (Blue and Yellow.) 
It will greatly accelerate the work, and be 
much more convenient, to keep colors for 
stripes and casings ready for use ; they ought 
(with the exception of cochineal, saffron, etc.) 
to be worked with the palate knife, with 
some sweet salad oil on a piece of stone, into 
a paste and kept for use in jelly pots. Where 
clear casings are required, of a different color 
from, the original boil, keep some in the pan 
for the purpose of mixing in cochineal, etc. 
Mind it is strong, and does not require boiling 
in more than a minute or so, or the sugar will 
become very weak. Some prefer doing this 
on the slab, but for many goods it does not look 
so well. Keep a roller handy to make your 
casing even and regular. Should you find it 
does not adhere properly to your pulled sugar, 
wipe it over with a damp cloth, or you can 
even wet it with your hand slightly, the heat 
in the body of the pulled sugar drying it. 



WORKSHOPS AND BOILING ROOMS. 29 

* 

On the Workshops and Boiling Rooms. 

At the .Great Gun Trophy, in the Inter- 
national Exhibition, was displayed in large 
letters, "A workman is known by his chips." 
To carry the simile a little further, we may say 
that a workman is known by his tools, or his 
workroom. I am sorry to say that very little 
attention, unless by large firms, is paid to this 
matter, by a great portion of the trade in sugar 
boiling. The places in which it is carried on 
are small, confined, and dark, often under- 
ground, and sunicient attention is not paid to 
ventilation and cleanliness. In this respect 
they are situated much like the bakehouses in 
London, but which the legislature has taken 
in hand, and a new law compels masters to 
whitewash and paint them at certain periods ; a- 
determination to have this done in our trade 
would render the workmen much more com- 
fortable. In fitting up a boiling room well, 
instead of having stone, slate, or marble slabs 
for pouring on, they ought to be cast iron, 
about an inch thick at least. They are not 



30 WORKSHOPS AXD BOILING ROOMS. 

very expensive, and should be smcfoth. They 
save their expense in oil ; the size should be 
regulated, of course, by the size o the room. 
There is a great saving of time, and great com- 
fort, in the work. There is no sticking to the 
slab, and they can be worked on any length of 
time without trouble. Stoves, also of iron, 
can be built by the regular oven builders, but 
the slabs can be had at any iron foundry or engi- 
neer's. Boiling pans ought to be made specially 
for brown goods ; if made a quarter of an inch 
thick at bottom, they save a deal of time. 
For loaf goods the usual thickness will do. 
Irons for the pouring slab about half an inch 
thick and three feet long and some half that 
length are required. Large and small scales 
for weighing the sugar, acids, etc., ought to be 
conveniently fixed ; also a graduated glass for 
measuring essences, etc., where boiling is 
carried on to any extent. With regard to 
fuel, that is a matter of convenience. Coke is 
the cleanest, but coals much more healthy to 
work over ; the large amount of carbonic acid 
rising from coke or charcoal is very deleterious 



HAND AND MACHINE GOODS. 31 

in badly-ventilated places, although in Aus- 
tralia I have known a very large trade carried 
on, and no, other fuel than charcoal could be 
obtained to manufacture with, but there was 
good ventilation and the work was well paid 
for. 

Average degrees of heat of Drying 
Stoves. 

The heat of the stove must be regulated to 
some extent according to the goods placed 
there. For lozenges, comfits, etc., 80 degrees; 
sugar candies, 100 ; for liqueurs before crystal- 
lizing, 100 ; when drained, 80 ; to dry fruits, etc., 
90. It must be observed that one part of a 
drying-room will be hotter than another, if 
heated by a stove ; steam pipes carried round 
give the most regular heat. 

On Hand and Machine Goods. 

Though machines, coupled with the low 
price of sugars, have created quite a revolution 
in the wholesale trade of late years, as regards 
prices and amount of trade done, there are 



32 HAND AND MACHINE GOODS. 

still some who make a great many goods by 
hand. These require more labor and more 
care in making, but the competition keeps 
them to about the same price, and therefore 
there is no advantage, except for variety and 
the credit which arises from their skilful manip- 
ulation ; for there are certain latent properties 
in boiled sugars (when pulled, for instance) 
which are only brought out when made by 
hand, and by a clever workman. This is 
illustrated in a striking manner by the " Eock 
varieties," as they are termed ; also the beauti- 
ful variety of rocks and sticks, both striped 
and plain, made by some in the trade. No 
amount of written instruction can perfect the 
reader in hand-made goods nothing but prac- 
tice, and a good deal of it, can do that but a 
few practical remarks may assist him. In the 
first place, a warm slab is indispensable, and 
great care must be taken that the boil does not 
go beyond the crack for sticks, but rather less 
for some, also to keep it well together, after 
turned out ; if the sides get hard and lumpy, it 
will never recover, and nothing is more annoy- 



HAND AND MACHINE GOODS. 33 

ing or looks worse. "When the sugar is about 
ready to work, and before you stripe it, begin 
by doubling it in half-a-dozen times, it causes 
greater tenacity and uniformity in pulling out ; 
look to the pieces for stripes ; keep them of a 
mellow heat, and if they are greasy, damp 
them slightly when you use them. The same 
remarks apply to pulled sug^i* sticks, etc.; 
great care is required not to let the sugar get 
too cold at the edges, before turned in ; also in 
looking after the pieces for striping, that they 
are kept warm; for these goods the sugar 
ought to be pulled as soon as it can be 
handled, they should have a silky appearance, 
wMch depends to a great extent on the pulling, 
but also on the boiling. Pulled goods, where 
the sugar has been boiled too low, will look as 
dull as putty, and work badly. It was a 
common thing formerly to put a piece of 
butter about the size of a nut into all boils of 
pulled sugars, or oil into barley sugars, etc., 
but we regard it an old woman's practice, and 
quite unnecessary for all loaf goods. After 
the degree of " ball," mind there is a fierce, 



34: THE DEGREES OF BU1LIN<; BUG**. 

strong fire (and on the contrary for raw sugar 
goods) ; it will spoil the color and weaken the 
quality of any loaf sugar goods to be coddled 
on the stove. 



On the degrees of boiling Sugars, 
and how to test them. 

The number and division of these degrees 
vary. Foreign confectioners engaged in a 
superior class of goods, make about 10 or 12 
the maximum, and for some class of fine crys- 
tals, sugar must be tested to a scientific nicety ; 
but for any purpose the sugar boiler requires 
half the number are sufficient, and the object of 
this work being to assist and instruct the work- 
man, and not confuse him, we will name those 
only that are found necessary: these are the 
Smooth, the Thread, the Blow or Feather, the 
Ball, the Crack, the Caramel. We will now 
proceed to show how to test them : 

1st. Smooth, or 215 degrees by thermome-' 
ter; for example, take seven pounds of loaf 
sugar, to which put three pints of water ; soon 



THE DEGREES OF BOILING SUGAR. 35 

as it boils, see that the lumps are all dis- 
solved, if not, break them ; let it boil for ten 
minutes or so, dip into it the handle of a tea- 
spoon, draw it between the forefinger and 
thumb. If on working them together they feel 
slippery, that is the first degree or smooth. 
Clarified sugar is the best for these examples. 

2nd. Thread, or 230 by thermometer. In 
the course of a few minutes the sugar passes 
into this degree; having soaked the previous 
sugar off the spoon, try the boil again, close 
your finger and thumb together, and gentry 
lift or part them, when if you perceive a thread- 
like appearance between them, it has passed 
into this degree. 

3rd. Blow or Feather, 235 degrees. In two 
or three minutes from the last, sugar passes 
into this degree ; dip a small skimmer or slice, 
with holes in it, into the sugar, drain it off 
quickly, and blow hard through them, you will 
perceive bladders and . feathery particles pass 
away. This is the blow, or feather; a very 
useful degree. 

4th. The Ball, or 240 degrees. About the 



THE DEGREES OF BOILING SUGAR. 36 

same time as the last this degree arrives ; have 
some cold water handy. Take a little sugar 
out of the pan with the handle of the spoon, 
dip it into the water, and if it is tough and you 
can work it about with your finger and thumb, 
like a pinch of heft bread, that is the ball. 

5th. Crack, or 252 degrees. The same pro- 
cess in testing as the last, but you must be 
very expert. Take a little out of the pan, put 
it into cold water, when it will crack ; or slip 
it off quickly, and bite it well. If it crunches 
and leaves the teeth without sticking to them, 
pour the sugar out instantly on your slab. 
This is the mosl useful degree to the hard 
confectioner. 

N.B. In trying this degree, unless an ex- 
perienced workman, the pan must be lifted off 
the fire. 

6th. Caramel, or 260 degrees. It is not 
necessary to try this degree in the same way 
as the last ; the instant the sugar changes color, 
which must be closely watched, as it occurs 
rapidly, it must be poured out, or if not re- 
quired on the slab, but for other purj- 



CUTTING THE GRAIN. 37 

such as spinning . sugar, etc., place it in a tub 
of cold water, the size of the bottom of the 
pan, to stop the heat or it will turn very dark. 
The rapidity of these degrees changing into 
each other of course depends upon the heat of 
the stove ; no definite time can be given. As 
all loaf goods must be boiled on a sharp fire, 
they require close watching. 

In all the degrees from the thread, the ap- 
prentice or learner should accustom himself to 
try the sugar with his first or second finger 
and thumb in this manner : first dip them in 
your bowl of cold water and instantly snatch 
a small portion from the boil and return it to 
the water ; it is the quickest and best method, 
and with perseverance can easily be acquired, 
although we must confess a great many do not 
care to adopt it for fear of being burned. 



On "Cutting the Grain," Lowering, 
Reducing, or Greasing Sugar. 

Each of these terms has been employed to 
express one and the same meaning, and we have 



38 CUTTING THE GRAIN". 

known all used but the last, which we do not 
think at all inappropriate. It is, however, not 
important what we call a method, if we adopt 
a good one, and which answers the purpose, 
and there have been as many tried for this as 
there are names to express it: vjnegar, lemon- 
juice, tartaric acid, sulphuric acid, pyrolig- 
neous acid, cream of tartar, etc., etc.; each 
have been, and can be used, but they require 
different degrees of care in using, or the goods 
will be spoiled or not keep. Cream of tartar, 
though more expensive, is the safest, and the 
result more safely depended on ; next to that 
wood vinegar or the pyroligneous acid or 
lemon -juice: the others require no remark, as 
there is no advantage in adopting them. As a 
rule, put about a quarter of an .ounce, not less, 
of the cream of tartar to a seven pound boil, 
a teaspoonful of the strong acids, or table- 
spoonful of lemon-juice or the common house 
vinegar to the same quantity of loaf sugar to 
reduce its strength. With regard to the rea- 
sons why refined sugars for the hard confec- 
tioner's purpose require to be treated in this 






ARTIFICIAL FRUIT ESSENCES, ETC. 39 

way, it may be simply stated, that during the 
process of evaporation, this sugar exhibits a 
strong determination, so to speak, to return to 
its original state of crystallization, and will 
speedily do so when boiled beyond the degree 
of the "feather," unless we lessen or reduce its 
strength, whioh we do chemically, by bringing 
into contact with it an acid, which, in its action, 
is so totally opposed to this process, that ac- 
cording to the expression it " cuts the grain," 
and prevents them being held together, by what 
the learned in chemistry would call the "at- 
traction of cohesion." 



On Artificial Fruit Essences, etc., and 
the Great Exhibition. 

Although a few only of the leading flavors 
are named in this book, there are a great 
variety of the above, and they can be used in 
many forms, either as simple or compound 
flavorings, and are likely yet to give rise to 
many new and curious combinations, both in 
sugar and other goods, in the hands of a clever 



40 ARTIFICIAL FRUIT ESSENCES, ETC. 

inventive workmen: they may be ranked 
among the most remarkable triumphs of chem- 
ical art, for* their* wonderful similarity to the 
fruits produced by nature, as regards delicacy 
of flavors. Those from the laboratory of 
Messrs. Bush & Co., in Liverpool Street, City, 
we have found of the finest quality and produce 
the nearest resemblance to the names they bear. 
They were first brought prominently before 
the public, in connection with confectionery by 
the author, who had a large display of various 
designs in boiled sugars at the Great Exhibi- 
tion, 1851, and received the awards of a Medal, 
and a Certificate of Honorable Mention for 
them. For this success he was greatly indebted 
to the fruit essences, essential oils, etc., used in 
the manufacture of the goods which were 
supplied by the above firm, and which were 
tested by scientific men connected with tho 
jurors. Amongst the goods were many new 
designs in the forms of natural fruits, machines 
for which have ever since continued to be 
used by the trade. At the same time, in 
another class, the currant and fruit dressing 



THE KIND OE GOODS TO MAKE. 41 

machine w.as exhibited, for which the author 
also received a medal. A model of this 
machine is now in the Kensington Museum 
of Patents (No. 80, in the catalogue), it has 
met with great approval and success, and con- 
tinues in use to the present time, amongst 
grocers and others, using or selling these fruits. 
The author therefore refers with some satis- 
faction to a recent speech on invention, by a 
great living statesman, from which the follow- 
ing is an extract : " There are three regions 
given to man for the exercise of his faculties in 
the production- of objects and the performance 
of acts, conducive to civilization and to the 
ordinary uses of life : of these, one is the homely 
sphere of simple utility." 

On the kind of Goods to make and 
how to make them. 

Any description of the soft rich eating 
candies called " Creams" which are of recent 
introduction under the name -of almond, orange, 
lemon Italian, marmalade, etc. * though con- 



42 THE KIND OF GOODS TO MAKE, 



sidered by some a difficult and secret process, 
can be made by attention to the following : Take 
for example seven pounds of refined sugar (for 
white creams use the best); put a quarter of an 
ounce .of cream of tartar, and three pints of 
water, boil it to the thread or 230 degrees by 
the thermometer, then take it off the stove, and 
let it stand aside about half-an-hour, to dispel 
the heat; then with your spatula, work the 
syrup against the sides of the pan, thoroughly 
well, until it changes into a thick creamy look- 
ing substance, or " soft -grain ;" when it arrives 
at this state, you can add to it, and mix in any 
kind of fruit essence, with a little acid, or fruit, 
preserves, almonds, marmalades, etc., etc., ac 
cording to fancy, and put it into tin frames or 
shapes, to set, which must be previously oiled 
with the best salad oil : when cold turn it out. 



Lemon Acid Drops. 

These drops are now mostly made white : they 
have continued a great favorite with the public 
ever since sugar boiling as a trade began; 



AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 43 



when they were sold at 2s. per pound, whole- 
sale price, they were made with citric acid and 
were much better in flavor than those made 
now with tartaric acid, and nothing but price 
ought to prevent the former being always used 
in confectionery: to make a superior article, 
the best refined sugar should be used. Some 
houses tinge the boil with saffron, which gives 
a nice cast, and more in accordance with the 
name, but this cannot be done with proper 
effect, without the sugar is a good color. To 
make them, take a clean bright pan, into which 
put seven pounds of sugar, quarter of an ounce 
of cream of tartar, and 3 pints of water, place 
it on a clear bright fire, stir it about ; after it 
boils, take the pan off the fire, and with the 
spatula break the lumps (clarified sugar saves 
this trouble), put it on again, cover the pan over 
for five minutes, with a cover the proper size ; 
take the cover off after this time, and boil to a 
crack (in winter rather less), pour out on an 
oiled slab, with irons round it ; when about the 
consistence of stiff dough, work in three quar- 
ters of an ounce of powdered acid (some like a 



44 THE KIND OF GOODS TO MATtE, 

little more) and half a teaspoonful of essence 
of lemon ; when a little colder pass it through 
the machine ; when quite cold, break them up, 
and sift them in a coarse sieve. 



Lemon Barley Sugar. 

This is also one of the oldest sweets made ; 
this and acid drops were formerly the only 
boiled sweets that the old city houses made. 
"Tringhams/; on Holborn-hill, now "Moores," 
used to be a very great attraction thirty years 
ago, to see the barley sugar made in the shop ; 
the pouring slabs were marble, slightly con- 
cave, or hollowed out, instead of using irons on 
a level slab ; as its name implies, ifc was said to 
be made with a decoction of barley, but of that 
there is no record. Some boil this article to 
what is termed "color," that is, caramel de- 
gree, but unless the workman is extremely care- 
ful he will spoil it. As we have before re- 
marked, the only use there can be in boiling 
to this degree is to keep goods clear, for when 
placed in air-tigto bottles they will keep so for 



AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 45 

a long period. To make barley sugar, proceed 
as in acid drops clarified sugar is the best 
add a teaspoonful of strong saffron water, and 
when up to the crack, pour over the boil a tea- 
spoonful of essence of lemon, let it boil two or 
three seconds longer, and quickly pour it into 
the irons on the oiled slab, the irons must be 
regulated to the size required ; run the blade 
of a knife along the side to keep the rough 
edges down ; as the sides cool, cut off strips, 
and twist them. The slab mtfst be warm 
before being used for this article, and to make 
it very bright and keep its color, it should be 
boiled as near to the caramel as possible with- 
out reaching that degree, therefore 'to do so 
keep it on the stove about a second beyond the 
crack. There is also "a machine to pass this 
through which saves the trouble of cutting, 
and twisting it. 



Barley Sugar Drops. 

These are made precisely as the last, except 
when at the crack pour it out, and when cold 



THE KINDS OP GOODS TO MAKK, 46 

enough, as described in acid drops, pass through 
the macnine. Before the use of machines they 
were dropped from a small pan with a lip to it, 
on to sifted sugar, either on the slab or paper. 



Honey Drops. 

When the author first invented these drops, 
he registered them, and they were made in the 
form of a bee -hive. When at two or three 
degrees beyond the crack, a ladle of honey was 
put into the boil, allowing two or three seconds 
for this to become incorporated with the sugar, 
which it reduces again to the crack, it was in- 
stantly poured out, or would become dark, 
honey being very weakening to boiled sugars. 
They are now made throughout the trade in the 
same manner as Barley Sugar Drops, with the 
exception that instead of essence of lemon, a 
combination of flavors is used, made by mixing 
together such as rose, pine, raspberry, vanilla, 
etc., add a few drops with about half an ounce 
of acid, work it into the mass of sugar, and 
pass it through the machine. 



AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 47 

Pine Apple Drops. 

These are made precisely as the last, in 
every way except essence of pine apple being 
used, in the place of the other essences, and 
passed through a different machine. 

Burnt Almond Rock or French Rock. 

Prepare the same quantity of sugar as in the 
previous receipts, but put half ^ the quantity 
more of cream of tartar into it, boil up to the 
crack. Before this is done have ready blanched 
and well dried, three pounds of Barbary or 
Valencia almonds, keep them warm, and when 
the sugar is up to the degree stated, put the 
almonds in ; the oil from the almonds will 
reduce the sugar to below the crack, to which 
it must be brought up again; stir the mass 
with a small iron or copper rod, but only one 
way ; keep an iron plate half way across the fire, 
or it will be too fierce for this operation. If 
the. almonds have not been well dried in an 
oven or by the stove, it will be difficult to get 



48 THE KINDS OF GOODS TO MAKE, 

it up to the degree required, and it will be very 
dark. When at the crack pour it out, as in 
Barley Sugar, or in iron frames, any shape. 



Cocoa Nut Ice, Cream, or Paste. 

For white, take seven pounds best loaf 
sugar, to which put the quantity of cream of 
tartar used in the previous boils, three pints 
of water, and boil to the degree of " blow or 
feather," or 235 by thermometer, but previous 
to which have all ready prepared, two good 
sized cocoa nuts, the skin peeled off, which 
can be done best with a "spoke shave," and 
either rubbed through a large coarse grater, or 
passed through the machine made for the pur- 
pose, to be obtained from the author. When 
the sugar is done rub it against the sides of 
the pan well, with a palate knife or spatula, 
until the sugar becomes very thick or creamy, 
stir in the cocoa nut, and pour it out quickly 
in your tin frames, or on the slab within irons. 
A little essence of lemon very much improves 
the above. 



AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 49 

NOTE. The object in putting " cream of 
tartar" to the above and other creams which 
are given in this book is to prevent too much 
graining, and to make the goods keep soft and 
eat rich. 

Cough Candy. 

The article sold under this name is not a 
candy, but made in the following manner : 
Boil the previous quantities of loaf sugar, 
water and cream of tartar, to the crack, color 
yellow with saffron, pour it out, and when half 
cold, mix in half an ounce of acid, a teaspoon- 
ful of anniseed, and two drops of peppermint; 
pull it out continually about half a yard, and 
return it, until it looks like satin, when you 
proceed to pull it out in strips, the width of 
ribbon, and when half cold twist it slightly. 
The -peppermint was originally put in to dis- 
guise the flavor. 

Anniseed Drops, or Cougn Drops. 

These are boiled the same and flavored also 

as the last without the peppermint, either brown 
o 



50 THE KIND OF GOODS TO MAKE, 

or loaf sugar, according to fancy, and passed 
through a machine, either the acid or other 
kind. 

Horehound or Montpellier Drops. 

Exactly as the last, except flavor, with half a 
pint of strong decoction of horehound put to 
the sugar with the water ; when done pass it 
through the acid drop machine. 

Horehound Candy. 

Put half a pint of decoction of "horehound 
with the water, to seven pounds of brown 
sugar, boil to the feather, or 235 degrees, stir it 
against the sides of the pan, with the spatula, 
two or three minutes, then stir the whole in 
well, and pour it into the tin frames. Expe-" 
rience can only teach the precise extent candies 
ought to be grained, as sugars differ in quality ; 
but this gives a fair average. 



AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 51 

Red Cocoa Nut Ice. 

Proceed exactly as in the white, with the 
exception that any loaf sugar will do, and boil 
to the ball or 240 degrees ; when done put in 
an egg cup full of cochineal, and finish as 
before. The reason why this is required 
higher in degree is on account of the color, 
which will reduce it. 

NOTE. Where large quantities of Cocoa nut 
Ice are made or required, twenty-eight pounds 
of sugar to about a dozen or more dry cocoa 
nuts is used, and fine powdered sugar put to 
the mass, to assist the grain, and poured into 
large frames on the slab the previous night, 
and cut into blocks in the morning. 

\ 
Cocoa Nut Candy. 

Same as the previous, made with raw sugar, 
but no lowering, and with dry slices of cocoa 
nut instead of grated; use exactly the same 
method in graining and pour out into your 
frames. 



62 THE KIND OP GOODS TO MAKE, 

Cocoa Nut Hardbake, or Eggs and 
Bacon. 

To a seven pound boil -as previously in- 
structed, add when at the crack, half an egg 
cup of cochineal, and boil it in, previous to 
which oil your slab, and lay it over closely 
with dried slices of cocoa nut ; sprinkle over 
the slab, between them, some nonparels, or 
hundreds and thousands, pour your sugar 
gently over them. For all these kinds of 
goods form a square ,with the irons, within 
which pour your sugar. It must be evident 
to the reader that in giving the amount of 
cochineal or any other color in this book, it 
must be varied according to its strength and 
the shade required. 

* 
Crystallized Cocoa Nut Chips. 

Take a dozen cocoa nuts, more or less, shave 
off the rind, cut them into thin slices with a 
sharp knife or machine for the purpose, to be 
had from the author. They must afterwards 






AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 53 

be well dried, but not shrivelled, in a warm 
place, then place them in a bevelled tin box ;>r 
shape about 4 inches deep and 12 inches over 
(size not particular) ; take, for example, 7 Ibs. of 
refined sugar, boil to a small thread, 225 
degrees, then stand it aside till a skin forms on 
the top, pour it over the cocoa nut in the box, 
keep the cocoa chips under the syrup, and put 
it in a hot place or stove from 90 to 100 
degrees, 8 or 10 hours, pour off any superfluous 
syrup, place it again in the stove till dry, when 
cold it can be knocked out for use. 



Everton Toffee, 

This article varies with the different makers ; 
some make it with loaf sugar for the sake of 
'color, but it is not so good in flavor ; others 
put the butter in with the sugar, when first put 
on the fire, which method possesses no advan- 
tage, but, on the contrary, causes loss of time 
in boiling, weakens the sugar, and spoils the 
flavor; this, however, is the old process of 
making it. The best method is as follows : To 



64: THE KIND OF GOODS TO MAKE, 

7 Ibs. of best raw sugar put 3J pints of water 
and boil it between the ball and crack or 245 
degrees, put into the boil 1 Ib. fresh butter, boil 
it nearly to the crack over a slow fire, add 
a teaspoonful of essence of lemon, just boil it 
in, and pour into the frames. For special pur- 
poses 4 to 8 ounces more butter can be used. 

To Ice Cocoa Nut Paste, etc. 

Make an icing as directed in sponge sugar, 
add the juice of a lemon, but beat it much 
more ; when your cocoa nut is nearly cold, 
proceed to ice it with a palate knife, lay a thin 
coat on first, and let it dry, and then finish 
with a thicker coat. For white cocoa nut use 
pink icing. For red ditto use white. The 
creams before spoken of are iced in the same 
manner sometimes ; care is required to lay the 
icing over smooth, and the best sugar must be 
used for the white. 






AJtfD HOW TO MAKE THEM. 65 

Victoria, Alexandria, and Albert 
Rocks, etc. 

These are pulled sugar cased with red or 
yellow ; reduce and boil to the crack the quan- 
tity of refined sugar before named, when done 
pour two-thirds on the slab, put an egg-cup of 
cochineal or ^pme strong saffron water to the 
rest, just boil it up, and pour out separately, 
put a little acid and any of the essences desired 
to flavor with, into the first portion when cold 
enough to pull ; when pulled case it over with 
the colored portion, after which stretch it out 
and shape it to the size and form of a child's 
wrist, then mark it with a knife on the top sur- 
face diamond form, or right and left angles. 

NOTE. The hook on which sugar is to be 
pulled must be large, taking a sweep of at least 
a foot, and four to six inches wide from back 
to front, and fixed firmly against the wall, five 
feet from the floor. 



56 THE KIND OF GOODS TO MAKE 

Large Rocks, Strawberry, or Rasp- 
berry. 

Square or round are made in the same way 
as the last, with some of the solid sugar put 
into the middle of the pulled sugar, doubled 
over a half a dozen times or more, and after- 
wards cased, they are flavored with any of the 
fruit essences, and for all very 'thick rocks the 
sugar must have a little more lowering and be 
boiled a little beyond the crack, and when 
pulled out to the diameter of about six inches, 
put them between two iron bars ; by turning 
over, when half cold they become .square, and 
when cold are chopped in slices. 

Boiled Sugars in Moulds. 

There are many kinds of boiled loaf sugars, 
lowered and colored as for drops, and cast into 
iron moulds of all shapes, and before the whole 
mass sets pour it out, which leaves that only 
which clings to the shapes ; as they are well 
oiled previously, they easily come out when the 
mould is parted. 



AKO HOW TO MAKE THEM. 67 

Boiled Sugars as Medals, etc. 

These are from the same sugars as the last, 
some are cast in moulds, but others are cut off 
like the halfpenny cushions from the clear 
sugar, put into small round rings made of tin, 
and afterwards pressed on the top with a die. 

NOTE. It must be observed in bdiling 
sugar to keep the sides of the pan free from 
accumulation of candy; this can be done with- 
out trouble, by having tin or copper covers 
without rims to lay over them for ten minutes 
when they begin to boil. 

Imitation Plum Puddings. 

These were a very great novelty when first 
made ; though not so general now, they are still 
made at Christmas in some places. The follow 
ing plan will be found to answer for them: 
having got ready picked three pounds plums, 
two pounds currants, half pound peel cut in 
strips, and about one pound of almonds 
blanched, and cut into small pieces to look like 
suet, take seven pounds of raw sugar, boil to 



58 THE KIND OF GOODS TO MAKE, 

the blow (if very strong sugar is used it must 
be reduced), let it remain off the fire a short 
time to take some of the heat off, then grain it 
in the usual way, and immediately put into the 
sugar your - ingredients, work an ounce of 
mixed spice into it thoroughly with the spatula, 
put it into wet pudding cloths, and tie them 
tight, exactly the same as a pudding, and hang 
up till they get firm 

Brandy Balls, and Clear Balls. 

Brandy Balls are made with brown sugar 
boiled to the crack, and when on the slab work 
in of good peppermint sufficient to make them 
strong ; some make them black by working ir 
about an ounce of ivory black to seven pounds 
of sugar, they are cut as before directed, and 
rolled round with the hands; if left as they are 
cut, they are called peppermint cushions, they 
are also put through a ball machine. 



AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 59 

Clear Balls. 

Are made exactly the same, with loaf sugar 
colored with cochineal and saffron and flavored 
with lemon. 



Sponge Sugar, or Honey Comb, etc. 

Having made a wooden frame about twelve 
or sixteen inches square, and four inches deep, 
place it on a wet slab or wooden bench ; take 
seven pounds of loaf sugar (no lowering), boil 
to the caramel degree, previous to which, in a 
pound jar, three parts filled with fine powdered 
sugar, mix the whites of two eggs, beat it well 
till stiff, when the sugar comes to the degree re- 
quired, put in any flavoring or color you like, 
take it off, pour your icing in, and immediately 
agitate the whole quickly with the spatula ; in 
two or three minutes it will rise to the edge of 
the pan, let it fall again, and continue . stirring ; 
as soon as it begins to rise the second time, 
instantly pour it into the frame. Many fail at 
this process, from pouring out at the first 



60 THE KIND OF GOODS TO MAKE, 

rising, which on the slab becomes perfectly flat, 
and heavy ; when cold, remove it, by passing a 
fine string, or long palate-knife underneath it. 

Love Rock, or Rock Varieties, etc. 

As before observed, no amount of instruction 
will inform the reader sufficiently of the manu- 
facture of these goods, but, having mastered the 
principal difficulties of his business, which it is 
hoped this book will assist him in doing, he 
may try his hand at some of these special kind 
of goods, which take their origin from " Love 
Kock," that is, the word "LOYE," as thus 
printed, being seen in the stick, wherever 
broken off; the dark outlines of the letters are 
the solid clear sugar made into the shape of the 
letters, and filled in with sugar about half or 
three parts pulled (if too much, it becomes 
windy) ; to do this at first, and to exercise the 
reader's ingenuity, he must have a very warm 
slab, and not boil his sugar quite to the crack 
' (they are not difficult, and after all only an 
exercise at casing in various forms) ; the words 
being cased must be kept in shape, and covered 



AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 61 

with the remainder of the pulled sugar, and 
afterwards cased again with the solid sugar ; it 
is then pulled out in straight sticks about an 
inch thick. None of these operations can be 
carried on without an expert assistant. 



Crystallized Imitation Ginger. 

Have Lozenge trays, or any trays, about an 
inch in depth, filled with starch -powder (or 
starch-powder, terra-alba, and flour mixed and 
well dried) ; make a level surface with a smooth 
stick, then with your ginger-moulds (or pieces 
of ginger attached to a stick an inch apart) 
make clear impressions on the powder, with 
the same ;to the depth of the moulds, work 
them slightly about, to make the impress a 
little larger than the models ; put on a boil of 
sugar any size you like (without lowering), 
boil to the degree of blow, or 235 degrees, put 
in half a teaspoonful of extract of ginger, and a 
little saffron to tinge it, then take into a drop- 
pan with a lip to it, as much of the syrup as 

you require, grain it, and fill up the impres- 
6 



62 THE KIND OP GOODS TO MAKE, 



sions; when cold, brush off the. powder and lay 
them in crystallizing-pans, with the face down- 
wards, and wire frames between each layer, 
make sufficient syrup to cover the whole, and 
proceed exactly as stated foF,crystallizing cocoa 
chips. By the same process of boiling the 
sugar and modelling, other fancies can be made. 



English Almond Rock. 

To seven pounds of raw sugar, put three and 
a half pints of water, boil to the crack, pour it 
on your slab, and put over it quickly four 
pounds of picked Barbary almonds, mix them 
well in ; when very firm, make it into a thick 
block, place it on a wooden bench and cut 
slices off with a long thin sharp knife; it is 
safer to reduce the above a little if the sugar is 
strong, or it will grain in the working. 

Almond Hardbake. 

Lay your split almonds on your slab or 
frames, round or any other shape, proceed as in 



AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 63 

the last boil, and when the sugar is done pour 
thinly over. 

Clove, Brown Acid, Black Jack, etc. 

These are boiled to crack, are all made from 
brown sugar, and flavored with the usual.flavor- 
ing ; ivory black is used with the last, mixed 
in after it is poured out about an ounce to seven 
pounds; they are pulled out and rolled into 
sticks. 

White Acid, Rose Acid, Sticks, etc. 

Instead of making the drops from the boils 
already named, such as acid and rose, make 
the same into sticks ; keep them rolling on the 
slab till cold. 

Small Bulls' Eyes and Nelson Balls 

Are made for the boils as instructed for 
sticks either plain or striped, the bulls' eyes are 
cut with scissors and the balls are passed 
through the machines for the purpose. 



6-i THE "KIND OF GOODS TO MAKE, 

Ginger, Lemon, Rose, or Peppermint 
Candies 

Are all made from loaf sugar, without being 
reduced, by acids ; the same instructions given 
for horehound will do for these ; as regards 
boiling and graining, they can be colored with 
saffron and cochineal, and flavored as their 
names import ; the difficulty a novice finds with 
candies is, that they grain too much in the pan, 
before he can get them out ; to avoid this, as 
soon as you see the place at the side of the 
pan white, where you are rubbing against, dis- 
continue, and stir . that well into the boil 
quickly, and pour out into tins. 

Burnt Almonds. 

These, as commonly -sold, are not burnt, but 
merely sugared; to make them, put two 
pounds of Borbary almonds into a good sized 
pan, boil four pounds raw sugar to the thread, 
or 235 ; having kept the almonds in the pan 
warm; put a quarter pound of sugar dust amongst 
them, then pour about half a pound 'of the 



ANP HOW TO MAKE THEM. 65 

boiled sugar over them, and immediately stir 
them well about with the spatula; the sugar 
thus having grained partly over the almonds, 
and dried, and having parted those that adhere, 
proceed to do the same with the rest of the 
sugar, till you get them to size ; increase the 
syrup to about a pound, after the first coating, 
but avoid putting too much on at a time ; sift 
them in a coarse sieve to take the loose sugar 
away; to finish, boil about three or four 
pounds loaf sugar as before, with an egg-cup 
of cochineal ; proceed with that as before 
directed. When at the last, add to the re- 
mainder of syrup, an egg-cup of cochineal or 
liquid carmine, the same of water, poured over 
and stirred till well covered ; turn them out in 
a coarse sieve to dry. 



Pear Drops, Raspberry Drops, and 
Rose Drops 

Are all boiled and made the same way as in- 
structed for pine apple, color and flavoring 
excepted ; an egg-cup of cochineal put in when 



66 THE KIND OP GOODS TO MAKE, 

nearly ^.one and half a teaspoonful of essence, 
and a quarter of an ounce of acid, mixed in on 
the slab ; half a dozen drops of the otto of rose 
is sufficient for the rose drops. 



Turkey Sugars, Lemon, Peppermint 
and Rose. 

Take seven pounds of loaf sugar lowered, 
and boil to the crack, when half cold put in the 
usual quantity of flavor of either sort, and com- 
mence to pull on a large hook, fixed against 
the wall, till it begins to get stiff, and shines, 
when you can -form it into either straight or 
twisted sticks ; to color the rose, keep some 
.cochineal paste or carmiite ready, and put it in 
the sugar on the slab. 



Farthing and Halfpenny Sticks (clear). 

Beyond the instructions given in the article 
on "hand-made" goods, and those also on 
" sugar boiling," no idea can be conveyed by 
a book as to pulling these out to the re- 



AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 67 

quired size, and smooth: as only with practice 
can it be done properly. 



Farthing and Halfpenny Cushions, 
Sticks, etc., (pulled.) 

Previous to pulling the sugar as directed in 
Turkey sugar, mix with two or three small 
pieces of the boil, any color you fancy, and keep 
them warm ; after pulling, lay these stripes 
along the sugar alternately, pull it out a little 
at a time as thick as your thumb, cut it off in 
cushions an inch long with the scissors, for the 
farthings and twice the size and thickness for 
the halfpenny ; for sticks pull it out as thick as 
a little finger, about a yard long and twist them. 



Peppermint, Lemon, Rose, etc., Pas- 
tilles or Drops. 

These are not made of boiled sugars but on 
the old plan of peppermint drops. Sift any 
quantity of powdered loaf sugar through a 
coarse hair sieve, afterwards sift the same 



68 THE KIND OF GOODS TO MAKE, 

through a fine sieve (to take out the fine sugar), 
then put the coarse sugar into a glazed earthen 
pan, mix it very stiff with water, flavor or color 
it with any thing you like to your palate, 
lemon juice, etc., and take out enough to nearly 
fill a small drop pan, which must fit into an 
iron ring on the stove, keep stirring it till it 
gets near to the boil, then take the drop pan, 
just tilt it and stroke the drops off from the tip 
with a piece of wire on to tin plates ; a little 
practice will perfect any one in this ; in an hour 
knock the tins on the back to loosen them into 
a sieve. The French mix these drops with the 
juices of fruits, instead of water and artificial 
essences, etc., and sell them at a high price ; if 
the above gets too thin on the fire add more 
sugar, it ought to be of a substance just to flow 
from the spoon or spatula. 



Cherry Stones and Rose Buds. 

These are red casings over pulled sugars, 
flavored as their names import, the rose buds 
are white with red casings, the cherry stones 



AXD HOW .TO M*AKE THEM. 69 

pink with red casing, one is put through the 
Nelson ball, the other through the acid drop 
machines 



Real Burnt Almonds, or French ' 
Pralines. 

Boil three pounds of loaf sugar in a pint and 
a^half of water; soon as it boils, put into it 
two pounds of Valencia almonds (or Jordan), 
and boil them to candy height ; take it off, stir 
it with the spatula, till it all grains into powder, 
then throw them into the coarse sieve, sift and 
separate them, after which make them into 
four parts with some of the sittings, and keep- 
ing a thin plate over the stove ; put one of the 
parts into your pan, which for the purpose 
ought to have a thick bottom, stir them 
gradually, the siftings will dissolve, and adhere 
to the almonds, and they gradually become 
crisp, and parched, of which you must judge 
by tasting, when so, turn them out, and proceed 
with the others the same. They are sometimes 
sold in this state, but to finish them as in 



70 THE KIND OF GOODS TO MAKE, 

France, when the whole are burnt, wash your 
pan, return the almonds to it, and in another 
small one boil four pounds of sugar to caramel, 
put an egg-cup of liquid carmine or cochineal 
in it, pour it over the almonds, in two coats, 
stirring them each time, and finish, to give 
them a nice crinkly appearance. 

Cherry Balls, Pishes, Tom Thumb, 
Drops, etc. 

Eed, yellow, or white are all made the same 
as the previous boils, with the exception of not 
using tartaric acid, the gold and silver fishes 
from the white and yellow boils ; the cherry 
balls from the yellow and red ; the Tom Thumb 
from any of them, and mixed colors. 

NOTE. In all boils of sugar it is important 
that the sides be turned in soon enough where 
the sugar is to be worked for hand-made and 
machine goods. 



AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 71 

Imitation Crystallizing. 

Many of the descriptions of Fruit Essence 
drops named in this book, and also other 
shapes, that can be made from the same boils, 
provided you have the machines, are very often 
sold 'as crystallized goods ; the process is very 
simple, and can be done after passing any kind 
of drops through the machine, and while warm, 
bift quite set ; break them up, sift them well, 
put them into a large clean boiling pan ; have 
ready a rather weak solution of clear gum- 
water, in w"hich dip your right hand, and with 
the gum-water that clings to it, work over the 
drops. When they are all equally wet, but 
only slightly so, spread over them according to 
quantity centrifugal sugar (a white granulous 
sugar, sold at the grocers), shake them well up 
with this two or three minutes, put them into 
trays in the stove to dry, when dry, sift them. 



72 T1JE KIND OF GOODS TO MAKE 

Imitation Indian Corn. 

An excellent imitation of Indian Corn in ap- 
pearance, can be made as follows : First loosen 
the rolls of your Tom Thumb machine, by un- 
screwing them a quarter of an inch, pull a" 
portion of any of the yellow boils flavored; 
case it over thickly with some of the clear 
sugar, flatten it, and pass through the rolls ac- 
cording to the width ; cut them the length of 
the pods of corn, and when half cold, fold them 
loosely to the shape. 

Pink and White Sugar Candy. 

Copper pans are sold or made for this pur- 
pose ; they are perforated, so that fine string 
can be put across, and fixed outside by pasting 
paper round; they are then filled with clarified 
loaf sugar, some white, some tinged with car- 
mine, and some with saffron ; for blue, a weak 
solution of indigo; the sugar being boiled to 
the small feather, or -230 degrees, stand it 
aside till a skin forms on the top, pour it 
in the' moulds and place it in the drying 



AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 73 

stove, at 100 degrees Fahrenheit, for a week ; 
when the crystals are formed, pour off the 
superfluous syrup, rinse the candy out with 
lukewarm water, and again set it in the stove 
to dry. It can afterwards be knocked out. 
Brown candies are made the same way, with 

the best strong raw sugars. 

* 

Chocolate in Boiled Sugars. 

Raw sugar boiled to the crack, and chocolate 
* powder worked into it on the slab ; when the 
sugar is strong, it must be reduced, as there will 
be a great inclination to grain ; when the choc- 
olate is mixed in, roll out into sticks, or for 
drops pass it through the machine. 

Ginger Toffee. 

To seven pounds of loaf sugar, put the usual 
lowering and water, and a tablespoonful of 
saffron water, boil to crack ; then put in a half 
a teaspoonful of extract of ginger (not essence), 
which just boil in and pour into the toffee 
frames. 



74 THE KIND OF GOODS TO MAKE, 

Doncaster Butter Scotch. 

This article, which is almost as renowned as 
the Everton toffee, is made in the same way, 
but by using treacle with the sugar ; either the 
common or the "golden syrup" is used, and 
butter the same, without any lemon; it is 
poured on the slab, in very thin sheets, marked 
out with a cutter in strips, which are afterwards 
wrapped in long pieces of paper or .tinfoil 
twelve are put in a packet, and sold at sixpence 
the packet ; the treacle used in this makes the 
article get very soft and sticky, but which ap- 
pears to be thought no disadvantage, as it eats 
very rich. 

Raspberry Toffee. 

To seven pounds loaf sugar put in three 
pints of water, a quarter of an ounce of cream 
tartar ; when at nearly caramel degree put in 
half a pound raspberry jam, previously thinned, 
with an egg-cupful of cochineal, this will reduce 
the sugar to about the crack, if not it must be 
got to that degree, stirring the white with the 



AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 75 

small rod mentioned in French rock, after 
which pour into frames. 



Persian Sherbet 

Mix fourteen pounds of fine powder sugar 
with five and a-half pounds tartaric acid, and 
five pounds of carbonated soda ; before the soda 
is added, work into it one ounce of essence of 
lemon; a little orange essence adds to the 
fragrance and flavor ; there is a cheaper article 
made but the above is not to be surpassed. 



Before we bring the observations on boiling 
to a close, it may be as well to remark, that it 
is very necessary to make allowances for 
changes of season, and the weather, in boiling 
sugar ; the evil effects of any extremes may be 
to a great extent avoided, if studied by the 
boiler, and, where goods are exposed for sale,, 
this is very important: for instance, in very 
hot weather, some goods must be boiled higher 
than in ve?y cold, and vice versa, but these are 



76 THE KIND OF GOODS TO MAKE, 

matters which any experienced man will allow 
for ; with regard to the size of boils, they so 
depend upon the usages of the house, the 
employer, or the foreman, that no rule can be 
laid down for them, and those mentioned in the 
book are merely for example ; but at the same 
time we will remark that, while there is greater 
risk, there is no advantage in having very large 
boils of sugar. 

We have got through work with more com- 
fort and greater celerity, with twenty pound 
boils, than larger ones, whatever quantity of 
goods have been reouired. 



On Crystallized Goods, Liqueur Bon- 
Bons, etc. 

These are now made very largely in Eng- 
land, and will bear comparison with the 
French. In the International Exhibition, one 
case of English crystallized goods quite equalled 
them ; this was a small unpretending display by 
an exhibitor named Marshall, in the eastern 
annexe, who, though the author found had re- 



AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 77 

ceived but " Honorable Mention," for the bril- 
liancy of crystal, delicacy of color and finish, 
deserved the prize-medal. The manufacture 
of crystallized goods is made a separate one, 
and, indeed, cannot be properly carried on in a 
small way, and the prices at which they are 
sold wholesale does away with the necessity of 
doing so ; we, however, give the processes. 



Liqueur Bons-Bons, etc. 

Have trays of thoroughly dried starch- 
powder filled about an inch deep, and smoothed 
over with a board ; make impressions with any 
plaister designs, arranged on a stick in a row ; 
any quantity of sugar can be taken, and the. 
syrup boiled to about 230 degrees ; then fill 
your moulds from either a funnel or drop-pan 
with a lip, according to the size of bon-bons 
required ; the syrup must be previously flavored 
with any of the artificial essences, or spirituous 
liquors; the " attraction of cohesion," as before 
mentioned, takes place in the mould, and the 
outside becomes a crust, leaving the inside in a 



78 THE KIND OF GOODS TO MAKE, 

state of liqueur. They are afterwards dried in 
the stove, taken from the trays and crystallized 
in tin boxes about two feet by one foot, and 
four inches deep, by boiling syrup, to about 223 
degrees, not higher, and then put them in a 
stove or warm place for ten or twelve hours. 
The syrup must be cooled before putting on 
the goods; when crystallized, the superfluous 
syrup can be poured out from the top, or drawn 
off with a plug at bottom ; then re-dry the 
goods in the stove. 

Liqueur Almonds and Comfits 

Are made exactly in the same way as tho 
last, and afterwards coated with gum mucilage 
and powdered sugar, or starch-powder, suffi- 
ciently to stand the working of the pan in which 
they with the syrup are to be agitated, to make 
them the smooth comfit they become afterwards. 

Gum Pastilles, etc. 

Pastilles and various other shapes in gum 
goods are made with a thick mucilage clarified, 



AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 79 

and syrup boiled to about 240 degrees, or more, 
according to the substance of your dissolved 
gum. When they are mixed, flavor with any 
essence desired, carefully, as they are un- 
pleasant if too strong; then run them into 
starch-powder, as liqueurs; and observe the 
same rule in crystallizing as before given. In 
crystallizing, a piece of linen or canvas should 
be fitted to the top of the tins containing the 
syrup, to prevent a crust forming, which can be 
lifted to see how the crystallizing progresses ; 
if enough, draw off the syrup, and return them 
to the stove to dry. 

Pink or Yellow Jujubes. 

All gum goods are best made by steam: 
these are prepared in the same manner as gum 
pastilles, the gum is perfectly clarified, and 
mixed with the strong syrup, and poured into 
oiled tin trays, and dried in a stove, heated by 
steam, till quite firm ; they are afterwards cut 
into form, by a machine now, but formerly by 
a knife or scissors ; highly polished or silvered 
tins are used instead of oil for best goods. 



80 THE KIND OF GOODS TO MAKE, 

To Crystallize Preserved Fruits. 

Take them from the syrup, wash them in 
warm water, and drain them, put them in the 
stove to dry ; afterwards, proceed to treat them 
in every respect as directed for other crystal- 
lized goods. Tins, in which any thing is crys- 
tallized, should have a hole at the bottom, in 
which a cork is placed, to draw off the syrup, 
though they can be drained from the top. 



To Preserve Fruits whole in Syrup. 

To preserve any of the plums, damsons, 
apricots, peaches, nectarines, etc., they must not 
be too ripe ; prick them, place them in earthen 
pans in a slow oven for an hour, or scald them 
slightly, but not to boil or break them, but 
merely to make them tender ; make a syrup of 
sugar to the degree of thread, and pour over 
them hot ; in a day or two draw the syrup off, 
put some more sugar to it, and make it up to 
its original substance, do this so long as the 
juices from the fruit make it thin ; as it must 



AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 81 

be left thick, keep them in a dry and cold situ- 
ation. 

Raspberry Jam. 

The fruit being passed through a cane or 
copper sieve, and reduced by boiling about a 
quarter of an hour, add the sugar pounded 
small ; to every pound of the original weight 
add three quarters of a pound of good loaf 
sugar, continue boiling and stirring it till it will 
set on a plate, the sharper it boils the better 
the quality and color; in known quantities 
these jams could be boiled to time, but not 
otherwise. 

In any case where fruit is of a firm, dry na- 
ture, it is necessary, before mashing the pulp or 
drawing the juice, to soften it in the oven, or 
over the stove. Water may be used in small 
quantities, to help this maceration ; it is a fal- 
lacious idea that wet fruit will not keep, when 
made up into either jellies, marmalade, or jams, 
always supposing the fruit to be sound; the 
evaporation it must necessarily undergo, be- 



82 JAMS, JELLIES, ETC. 

fore it comes to the proper degree in boiling, 
carries it off. 

Red Currant, Black Currant and 
Gooseberry Jam. 

In addition to the pulps which are left in the 
making of "jellies," and which can be made into 
good common jams, the above jams are made 
from the whole of the fruit, both pulp and juice 
together, as follows : a copper or cane sieve is 
required, to rub the fruit through, just small 
enough to prevent a whole currant passing; 
after rubbing the fruit through, treat the red 
currant, or any fruit where color is an object, 
the same as raspberry jam ; the dark, such as 
black currant, ripe gooseberry and others, are 
boiled the same, but do not require so much 
care as to color. 



Strawberry Jam. 

Though any kind of strawberry can be made 
into jam, the best for the purpose is the 
scarlet, on account of color ; proceed exactly as 



JAMS, JELLIES, ETC. 83 

for raspberry jam, but being of a much less 
body it will take longer in boiling, which re- 
quires watching, as, being so thin, it does not 
appear boiled enough when it may be too much 
so ; try it often as directed, and when' it jellies 
remove it from the fire ; some add one-third red 
currant pulp, which improves the jam. 



Preserved Ginger (Mock). 

The stalks of lettuces can be so preserved as 
to deceive many judges of the article; when 
the luttuces are running to seed but not too old, 
the stalks are to be cut off, washed, cut into 
pieces, and put into a thin syrup of sugar in 
which some of the best bruised ginger is put, 
boil the whole for half an hour gently, let it 
remain a day or two, repeat the same process a 
few times till tender, and tastes of the ginger ; 
to finish, draw from the syrup and boil some 
fresh sugar to thread and flavored with extract 
of ginger to palate, into which put the stalks 
and 'heat it up once or twice till clear like the 
West India. Put it in jars with thick syrup. 



84 JAMS, JELLIES, ETC. 

Preserved Orange and Lemon Peel, etc. 

To carry this out profitably it must be done 
on a large scale. The few wholesale houses 
who do so, sell it at such prices that prevents 
the necessity or the possibility of smaller com- 
peting with them, but if from circumstances it 
is required to be done at home, take any 
quantity of Seville oranges, Messino lemons or 
citrons. Cut them in half, lengthways, and 
squeeze out the juice, which can be preserved 
for other purposes. Make a strong brine with 
salt that an egg will float in it. Keep the 
peels in this not less than a week, then broil 
them in water till tender, so that the nails of 
the forefinger and thumb will pass through. 
Throw them into cold water, and take out the 
pulp, which is useless. Fit the caps of peel 
loosely into one another, and pack them in rows 
round a tub till the bottom is covered. Then 

* 

proceed with another layer. Make a strong 
syrup with loaf sugar, pour it over not very 
hot. In a day or two add more sugar to the 
syrup, and warm up again. This must be con- 



JAMS, JELLIES, ETC. 85 

tinned till the syrup keeps thick, and the peel 
kept in it till it becomes colored and saturated. 
It can be forced into condition by continually 
pouring boiling hot syrup over it, but it is not 
so good ; if required to be candied, drain from 
the syrup and dry it in the stove ; boil the 
sugar to the blow or feather ; put your peel in 
and keep your sugar grained only at the side 
of the copper, in which dip each piece. It is 
then put on wire frames till set. The raw peels 
can be kept any length of time in brine. 



Raspberry Jelly. 

This is a very favorite jelly, and can be 
made exactly as directed for red currant jelly, 
but as it does not require the same time in 
boiling before it becomes a jelly, it must be at- 
tended to closer. Jellies are often put into 
glasses, and tied over, and they have a very 
nice appearance if made clear ; in making them 
some prefer to boil the sugar to the crack 

before they add the juices. 
8 



86 JAMS, JELLIES, ETC. 

Raspberry Vinegar. 

In making quantities of jam, if the raspberries 
have been bought in bulk, there is a great deal 
of the juice which may be applied to this pur- 
pose without materially affecting the quality 
of the jam. To every gallon after it is put 
through the jelly bag, put eight pounds of loaf 
sugar and one quart of wood vinegar (or pyro- 
ligneous acid) or three quarts of common vine- 
gar. This can be fined down afterwards with 
isinglass dissolved first in half a pint of the 
vinegar ; it can also be made by soaking the 
raspberries in the ordinary vinegar, and after- 
wards straining. To every quart put two 
pounds of sugar. 

To Keep Jams or Jellies. 

The principal cause of either of these getting 
mouldy or fermenting is that they are not suffi- 
ciently boiled. If this is found to be the case 
with any quantity, and they become very thin, 



JAMS, JELLIES, ETC. 87 

the best plan is to reboil them and make them 
stifier, but this spoils the color. 

NOTE. Jams and jellies ought not to be 
shut up in a cupboard or close chamber, but 
kept on shelves where there is a dry and cool 
current of air. 



Raspberry and Black Currant Squares 
or Cakes. 

These are the pulps of fruits, and before any 
sugar is put to them they can either be pre- 
served for future use, or dried down imme- 
diately, and if so they must be evaporated over 
a moderate stove till they flap against the side, 
when stirred with the spatula. When it arrives 
at this substance, it will also show the bottom 
of the pan when moved about ; when so, mix in 
powdered sugar, almonds, seeds, or any other 
addition thought proper, spread it out on wafer 
paper, cover with the same, and put a tray on 
it to keep it flat. The receipt for keeping 
pulp, juice, fruit, or any thing of that nature 
rtill be given in another page. 



88 



JAMS, JELLIES, ETC. 



Marmalades. 

The machine-cut marmalade now so univer- 
sally sold is, if genuine, so much superior in 
appearance and use, that it has quite super- 
seded the old style of making ; the price it is 
generally sold at wholesale precludes the neces- 
sity of small makers attempting the manufac- 
ture, but as circumstances, may arise in which 
a knowledge of the mode of preparing may be 
useful, we give the processes for marmalades, 
jams and jellies. The machine for cutting 
peel can be had from the author. 



Seville Orange Marmalade. 

Take any quantity desired of the Seville 
oranges, and squeeze out the juice, after which 
boil the peels in plenty of water till they are 
very tender, so soft that you can nip them 
through with your thumb and finger nails, 
then put them into cold water, scrape out the 
pulp with your fingers, without breaking the 
peel, after that cut the peel in very fine strips 



JAMS, JELLIES, ETC. 89 

with a knife, or pass it through the machine, 
strain the juice, and to every pint and pound 
of peel, boil in the juice a pound of loaf sugar, 
till it jellies when dropped on a saucer, then 
add the fine-cut peel, which merely requires 
boiling in the syrup a short time. 

Lemon marmalade is made precisely as the 
Seville orange, but is not so much in request. 



Apple Marmalade or Jam. 

Take any quantity of good boiling apples, 
pare them, and cut the cores out, put them into 
the pan, and cover with water, boil till they 
break and become soft, rub through a cane 
sieve, and to every pound put three quarters of 
a pound of loaf sugar, in small pieces, boil till 
it sets on a plate. 



Apple Jelly. 


Take any quantity of good juicy eating 

apples, pare them, and cut the cores out, put 
them into the pan, and cover with water, boil 



90 JAMS, JELLIES, ETC, 

till they become quite soft, but not mashed, 
drain the whole off through a sieve as coarse as 
muslin, afterwards pass through a jelly-bag. 
Clarify some loaf sugar to the thread and add a 
pint to a pint of juice. Boil, take off the scum 
as it rises, stir and boil till it jellies on a plate, 
the pulp will make common jam. 

Quince Marmalade or Jam. 

A great favorite with many; is prepared 
when the quinces are quite ripe, the same way 
as apple jam. 

Damson, Apple, Apricot, Plum, Black 
Currant, Paste or Cheese. 

Prepare the pulp of these fruits by drying 
down; after being rubbed through sieves, as 
directed in the receipts for " Kaspberry cakes, 
or squares," they are put into oil tins, or shapes, 
and dried in the stove, at a moderate heat ; in a 
few days they become stiff enough to cut ; the 
juice in these are not taken out ; the black cur- 
rants must be rubbed through a fine wire sieve 



JAMS, JELLIES, ETC. 91 

to keep the seeds out. For all these purposes, 
stir a fourth of their weight of fine powdered 
sugar, when off the fire, into the mass. If the 
sugar is put to it before this, they will not 
become the proper substance. 

Red Currant Jelly. 

Put any quantity of red currants into a pan 
or jar, put them into an oven to soften, but 
not hot enough to smash them ; if a very cool 
oven, they can be put in over night; in the 
morning strain them through a sieve, to take 
the juice out, pass it through a jelly bag till 
fine ; to every pint of juice, pnt fourteen 
ounces if loaf sugar, or one pound clarified 
syrup. Boil quick till it becomes a jelly, to 
tell which, in about twenty minutes try it, by 
dropping some on a plate or saucer ; let it re- 
main in a cool place two minutes ; if it sets take 
your jelly off the fire. 

NOTE. Practice decides the proper substance 
of jellies, by a web which forms on the skimmer 






92 JAMS, JELLIES, ETC. 

after dipping it in them, and it is the best 
method of trying them. 

Black Currant Jelly. 

Proceed the same as in red currant except in 
passing the juice through a bag ; a hair sieve 
will do for this as it is not required so clear. 

Pulp for Jams. 

TO PRESERVE WITHOUT SUGAR. 

Eub the fruit through a sieve, and bring it 
to the boil ; take it off the stove, and fill with a 
large funnel one or two gallon wide-mouthed 
stone bottled, bung them down with good 
corks, and tie them over with string (they 
must only be filled to the shoulder), place them 
in a tank of cold water with a board made to fit 
the bottom, as soon as possible, and let it get 
up on the stove to 180 degrees, by the ther- 
mometer, then place them in a very cool place.. 
We have preserved fruit for years by this 
method perfectly fresh, but it must be quite 
sound when boiled. 



JAMS, JELLIES, ETC. 93 

Bottled Tart Fruits. 

Take any quantity of fruit dry and sound ; 
pick it and fill your bottles; nearly fill a 
copper, with a board at the bottom, with cold 
water ; place the bottles in up to the neck ; lot 
the water get up on the stove to 150 degrees, 
by the thermometer ; let them stand after this 
twenty minutes at the same heat ; when they 
are taken out fill up with boiling spring- water, 
bung them well down, and tie over, they will 
keep any number of years under this process 
if the necks are dipped in melted bottle wax. 

Juice of Fruits without Sugar. 

The juice of fruits can be preserved any 
length of time, as well as the .pulps, by strictly 
observing the rules as laid down for preserving 
without sugar. Where for special reasons it is 
not desired to lay down large quantities of 
sugar into jam, these receipts, etc., are very 
valuable if at any time sugar becomes espec- 
ially dear, when the fruit can be used as re- 
quired. 



94 JAMS, JELLIES, ETC. 

To remove Acids from Boiled Sugar. 

It occasionally occurs that acid goods, having 
grained, or become stale, are useless in that 
state ; to divest them of all the acid, supposing 
there to be twenty-eight pounds, dissolve it in 
twice the quantity of water that is usual with 

I 

sugar, break into it and mix seven pounds* of 
whitening or powdered chalk, put on the stove 
to boil up and thoroughly incorporate, then 
pass through the jelly bag till clear, the syrup 
can afterwards be used in other sugars. 

Tests for Adulterated Goods. 

* 

When any description of goods is believed 
to be mixed with farina or starch, dissolve a 
small portion in a tumbler with warm water, 
when all melted, put a few drops of solution 
of iodine, to be obtained at any chemist's, into 
it, and if so adulterated it will turn yellow. 



JAMS, JELLIES, ETC. 95 

For detecting Terra-Alba, or any 
earthy matter in Comfits, etc. 

Dissolve in a tumbler with warm water some 
of the articles: if adulterated with "Terra 
Alba," or earthy substances, they will be set 
free in twenty-four hours, and fall to the 
bottom, but if all- sugar it will remain in solu- 
tion and clear. 



Colored Sugars. 

These are very useful for various purposes, 
especially to sprinkle over iced cocoa nut, the 
creams, etc., for which receipts are* given pre- 
viously ; pink is most usually put on white, and 
on others according as the fancy dictates. To 
make them, prepare coarse powdered sugar, as 
directed in the receipt for peppermint and 
other drops, put about a pound or two in any 
small clean pan, and warm them on the hot 
plate, rubbing them with the hand until they 
are thoroughly heated, then add a little of the 
liquid colors, rub it in well till dry and keep 



96 



LOZENGES, COMFITS, ETC. 



till required. Dry colors must be moistened 
with water previous to using. 

Fruit Syrups, Cappillaire, etc. 

To be sold by the gallon or retailed in 
bottles, for mixing with punch, cordials, or used 
as summer drinks, the sick room and other 
purposes ; boil clarified syrup to smooth, 215 
degrees by the thermometer ; to each pint add 
an ounce of pyroligneous acid> tartaric, or citric 
acid, add any of the fruit essences to suit the 
palate, and tinge them slightly with color such 
as saffron or cochineal if desired. Tor cappil- 
laire, the syrup must be white, without acid, 
and flavored with orange flower water. The 
lemon syrup must be made with citric acid, and 
kept white, or slightly tinged with saffron 
water. For the above use the juices of real 
fruits when in season. 



On Lozenges, Comfits, etc. 

Though formerly almost every hard confec- 
tioner made his own dry goods, it has become 



LOZENGES, COMFITS, ETC. 97 

of late years quite an exclusive trade, through 
the introduction of expensive steam machinery, 
nearly every kind is offered at such prices, 
principally from Scotland, that they supersede 
the necessity of making them in small quanti- 
ties. These goods cannot be made successfully 
unless there are p'roper separate conveniences, 
from the boiling room, especially adapted, as 
they require -great cleanliness, and freedom 
from smoke and dust ; it would therefore be 
foreign to the purpose of this book to enter 
upon the manufacture of all the varieties of 
lozenges, comfits, etc. Through the aid of 
machinery four tons of comfits can be produced 
in one house in a week ; they are enabled there- 
fore to sell them not much above the price 
some pay for the raw material. Whether more 
sugar is consumed in dry goods, than in boiled 
sugars, cannot be exactly estimated; but the 
greater facilities they offer for export over 
them would lead to the conclusion that such 
is the case. The increase in the consumption 
of sugars for all kinds of hard confectionery, of 

late years, is something enormous, and approxi- 
9 



98 LOZENGES, COMFITS, ETC. 

mates to about 400 tons weekly, averaging 
50 per ton, and gives a gross value of about 
a million a year for jaw material alone, to 
which must be added expense of labor, and all 
the adjuncts of the wholesale trade. 

On the Manufacture of Lozenges. 

Machines are now made for grinding loaf 
sugar so fine and in such quantities, for the 
purpose of lozenges, icing, etc., that they save 
a vast amount of labor to the trade ; under the 
old system pounding the sugar was considered 
by many the best where color was the object, 
such as the best peppermint lozenges and other 
kinds ; there can be no question but that the 
great friction during that process whitens the 
powdered sugar, but as the quantity is now 
considered of most importance, the pounded 
sugar predominates. 

Medicated Lozenges, etc. 

Medicated goods require great discrimination 
in the preparation and finish, and do not all 



LOZENGES, COMFITS, ETC. 99 

come within the province of this work ; the re- 
ceipt for mixing any kind will be found in the 
pharmacopoeia, or can be had from the author ; 
many come strictly within the province of the 
druggist. We give only those of ordinary 
sale, but as there is but one principle adopted 
to make all kinds, any person who makes 
these can also make the others: the paste is 
mixed and the operation conducted so far pre- 
cisely as mixing flour with water to make 
dough ; using thick dissolved gum instead of 
water, and powdered sugar for the flour. It is 
rolled out the same, using plenty of starch 
powder to prevent it sticking ; the thickness is 
regulated according to the lozenge, from an 
eighth to a quarter inch, and the process for 
making as follows : 



Mixing for Common Mints. 

Take two quarts of thick gum mucilage 
which has been strained free from specks, and 
work it into twenty-eight fine powdered sugar, 
with one ounce of foreign peppermint. For a 



100 LOZENGES, COMFITS, ETC. 

middling quality, work into the same one and 
a half ounces of best American mint. For the 
best, two ounces of Mitcham peppermint : for 
the extra qualities large or small, three ounces 
to the same quantity. The above are given as 
examples, but there are many medium qualities 
made. 

Common Ginger Lozenges. 

Work into the same mixture of gum and 
sugar one pound of the fine powdered ginger, 
half ounce of the essence of lemon. For the 
best, one pound finest Jamaica ginger, half 
ounce of the extract ditto, half ounce essence 
lemon. 

Cough Lozenges. 

Dissolve liquorice to a thick consistence, and 
work into the paste sufficient to make them a 
light or dark brown according to fancy, work 
well in two ounces of ipecacuanha in one 
powder, one drachm of acetate of morphia, one 
ounce oil of anniseed, and one ounce of tartaric 



LOZENGES, COMFITS, ETC. 101 

acid to powder; these ingredients must be 
thoroughly mixed. 

Nearly every manufacturer makes his own 
cough lozenges, and gives them qualities and a 
name different from others, but the above can- 
not be surpassed as a really good and effectual 
cough lozenge. 

Coltsfoot Rock. 

Instead of two quarts of gum mucilage use one, 
and about a quarter pound gum dragon well 
soaked in a quart of water ; this must be done 
twenty -four hours before it is required, force it 
through a coarse cloth or sieve ; mix the liquor- 
ice in with half an ounce of essence of lemon ; 
the paste must be stiff and tough to pass through 
the machine or it will not look smooth. 

Rose Lozenges. 

To the same weight of paste as first named, 
work in a drachm of ^real otto of roses, half an 
ounce of acid, and carmine to color according 
to the tint desired. 



102 LOZENGES, COMFITS, ETC. 

Musk Lozenges. 

To the same amount of paste, add one 
drachm of pure musk in powder, acid as in the 
last, and use carmine to color: any of the 
colors mentioned before in this book can be 
used with lozenge paste to assimilate them to the 
name they bear ; also to bring up the color of 
white lozenges (peppermint, etc.), Prussian blue 
can be used ; avoid buying cheap East India or 
common gums, they will not make good 
lozenges, Turkey gums have greater strength 
and tenacity, and the paste is easier to work 
and much smoother. 

NOTE. In the manufacture of lozenges 
great cleanliness must be observed, and to 
make them on the smallest scale there must be 
one very smooth marble, or other slab, four 
feet by two feet to cut them on, also another to 
mix them, of less size. Boiling pins of hard 
wood, two feet long, by two inches diameter, 
these can be made to gauge the paste to the 
thickness required. A large palate knife fif- 
teen or eighteen inches in length ; a hand brush 



LOZENGES, COMFITS, ETC. 103 

with long, soft hairs ; soft cloths to run through 
the cutters; lozenge trays to dry them, with 
edges inch deep, about tjiree feet by two feet, 
made with good seasoned pine wood, half an 
inch thick when planed ; hot closet or room to 
dry the goods in, heated by steam, or other 
method to prevent smoke and dust; lozenge 
cutters of various sizes and shapes; stamps and 
dyes are also required in some cases ; a box with 
fine starch powder must be handy ; also a jelly 
pot or some similar article with a small quan- 
tity of clean water to soak the edges of the 
cutter when clogged with paste. As nothing but 
practice can initiate any one in rolling out a 
sheet of paste, afterwards to cut it out well, the 
instruction to do so must be considered only as 
indefinite, for to make lozenges properly re- 
quires a clever hand, and is a separate branch 
of the trade. In rolling the paste to the 
desired size and thickness it must be repeatedly 
lifted with the palate knife to see that it is free 
from the slab, it must be also turned over three 
or four times by means of the roller and fresh 
dusted ; in smoothing the surface use tlfe brush 



104 LOZENGES, COMFITS, ETC. 

freely. The less the paste is handled the better ; 
the palate knife and brush with practice will 
do all that is required. In cutting out take a 
straight line to commence with near the left 
edge, and, however slowly, continue to work 
parallel to the preceding lines; empty your 
cutters often and place the lozenges even and 
flat in your trays previously dusted over with 
starch powder. Machinery has been intro- 
duced for lozenge making, and, though elaborate 
and expensive at present, no doubt it will 
become more simplified and cheaper. 

Anniseed Lozenges. 

Fourteen pounds powdered sugar, one quart 
gum mucilage. Take liquorice dissolved as 
before described, and work sufficiently into this 
mixture to make it the usual brown color half 
an ounce of the oil of anniseed, and cut out 
with an oval cutter. 



LOZENGES, COMFITS, -ETC. 106 

Bath Lozenges. 

With the exception of more liquorice, this 
isr precisely the same mixture as the last (with- 
out the oil of anniseed), and cut with a round 
cutter. This is the trade mixture, but the 
pharmacopoeia gives a different one, as it also 
does for nearly every lozenge made by the 
trade. 

Balsam Tolu Lozenges. 

To fourteen pounds of powdered sugar mix 
in one quart of gum mucilage, half an ounce 
gum Benzoin, one ounce powdered tartaric acid ; 
dissolve the gum in spirits in a warm place, or 
use one ounce strong prepared tincture instead. 
Bound cutter. 

Black Currant Lozenges. 

To four pounds of black currant extract 
about the consistence of honey when moder- 
ately thiak, work in ten pounds of powdered 
sugar, one pound of powdered Turkey gum, 



106 LOZENGES, COMFITS, ETC. 

and two ounces powdered tartaric acid ; roll the 
paste on coarse powdered sugar as the last, 
before you cut them out. Oval cutter. 

Cayenne Lozenges. 

Fourteen pounds of powdered sugar, one 
quart of thick mucilage, one ounce of common 
extract, or half an ounce of the condensed or 
thick extract of cayenne, six drops rose. 
Octagon cutter. 

Chalk Lozenges. 

To seven pounds of lozenge paste, as already 
directed (with plain sugar and gum), work in 
half a pound of prepared chalk in powder, and 
flavor with a little lemon or rose. Cut out 
with round cutter. 

Paregoric Lozenges. 

Fourteen pounds of powdered sugar, one 
quart of gum, one ounce balsam Tolu, quarter 
of an ounce oil of anniseed, quarter of an ounce 



LOZENGES, COMFITS, ETC. 107 

spirits of camphor, three quarters of an ounce 
powdered tartaric acid, colored with carmine 
and cut with round cutter. 

Ipecacuanha Lozenges. 

Fourteen pounds of powdered sugar, one 
quart of mucilage, two ounces of powdered 
ipecacuanha, three quarters of an ounce tartario 
acid, a few drops of otto rose. Cut out with 
oval-shaped cutter. The ipecacuanha powder 
must be thoroughly worked in. 

Lavender Lozenges. 

Fourteen pounds of powdered sugar, one 
quart of gum, half an ounce of Mitcham oil of 
lavender. These are mostly colored with a 
faint blue or deep pink, and cut out with a 
fluted cutter or other shapes to fancy. 

Rhubarb Lozenges, or Long-Life 
Lozenges. 

To four pounds of lozenge paste, as directed 
for peppermint lozenges (without the flavor), 



108 LOZK o.MKITS, ETC. 

work in a quarter of a pound of the 'finest 
Turkey rhubarb in powder, and two ounces of 
the best Jamaica ginger in powder. Cut out 
with oval or round cutter. 



Quinine Lozenges. 

^To four pounds of paste, as above, work in 
half an ounce of quinine. Oval cutter. 

N.B. For all the above mixtures the gum 
mucilage must be a good substance, and the 
ingredients, particularly where drugs are used, 
well mixed in. 

On the Manufacture of Comfits or 
Pan Goods. 

Through the introduction of steam pans for 
making these goods, so great a revolution has 
taken place in the method, and also in the 
prices, that they are to be purchased genuine at 
a less price than the sugar itself was only a few 
years since. Under the old system it took a 
man a day to make fifty-six pounds of good 
smooth comfits; the same man could now 



LOZENGES, COMFITS, ETC. 109 

superintend half-a-dozen steam pans, that will 
produce 112 Ibs. each. A skilled workman in 
fact is not required at all 'excepting as to the 
degree and temperature of the syrup used. 
We have seen a lad attend to the working of 
the pans ; the new system entirely supersedes 
the necessity of making these goods under the 
old plan or on a small scale. The apparatus 
was introduced in Paris, and consists of a pan 
in the shape of a ball or orange, about one- 
third cut off; inside there is a lining, between 
which and the outside through its whole in- 
terior the steam passes. Some are made to re- 
volve vertically on an axis, others to oscillate 
on another principle and which is certainly an 
improvement. The first is supplied with steam 
through the hollow axis in which it works, the 
others by India rubber tubes. A shaft, carried 
through a long room and the primary motion 
of which is derived from an engine, will work 
by means of pullies a number of these pans ; 
two pounds of seeds will make a hundredweight 
of 'large carraway comfits. They are first 

grounded with syrup and starch powder or 
10 



110 ON THE MACHINES TO BUY. 

flour, they afterwards only require the syrup 
added in small quantities ; when once they are 
coated with sugar and that supplied continually, 
they can be left to the action of the pan till 
completed. The same plan is adopted with 
almonds and other articles. 




It having been established by necessity, the 
prices of the wholesale trade, and the conven- 
ience and facility of manufacturing goods, to 
have machines, it becomes important to know 
which are the best to use. The author, from 
his long practical experience and knowledge of 
them,, can recommend the best machines for any 
purpose required, upon receiving a communi- 
cation upon the subject. Collier's, of Rochdale, 



AND HOW TO USE THEM. Ill 

are excellent, and their efficiency is guaranteed 
by a host of testimonials. Some houses have a 
large number of the old style of drop machines, 
when half the quantity of the best make would 
answer every purpose, as rolls of any design 
can be made to suit frames of the new patterns, 
into which they can be fitted in two minutes. 
As regards the size of drop machines (unless to 
use by steam), it is unnecessary to go beyond 
the seven-inch for any moderate wholesale 
trade. In smaller trades the lesser sizes are 
quite as ^applicable and easily worked. There 
are many doing a good business who make 
nearly all their goods by these sizes. But 
whether one size or the other, they each save 
an immense amount of manual labor and 
wages, and make quite easy what used to be 
the most laborious part of the work, while we 
at the same time obtain a much larger assort- 
ment of goods in beautiful designs. Where it 
can be conveniently fixed, a turn-table of any 
required size for the machines to be fixed upon 
can be fitted at the end of the slabs, in principle 
similar to those on the railways. If the slabs 



112 ON THE MACHINES TO BUY 

are so situate, each machine can be brought to 
work opposite them, affording a great saving 
of room, and great convenience. We have had 
one of them in use for years ourself, but have 
not seen or heard of their being used by any 
other house. 

In working a drop machine for the first 
time, or if it be a new one, be careful not to put 
too much of the sugar through at a time. 
Half a pound is sufficient for the smallest and 
two pounds for a large size, until it works true 
and delivers the drops freely. The best ma- 
chines are now delivered to the purchaser in 
working order, but they may still require a 
little adjusting by the workman, which can be 
done by any person having the slightest ingen- 
uity, the parts in good machines, such as nuts, 
screws, plates, etc., being portable, and easily 
shifted. Formerly this was not the case, and 
there are stili some very bad machines sold, 
and, like a watch that will not keep time, they 
are dear at any price. They deliver badly, are 
difficult to work, and eventually are thrown 
aside as useless. The rolls of good machines 



AND HOW TO USB THEM. 113 

require no oiling, thougn it is a practice some 
adopt. Those of the best make deliver the 
goods with the greatest facility without. 
Where drops or other goods are intended for 
bottling or air-tight packages, it is necessary to 
keep them as free from oil or grease as possi- 
ble, or the goods smell and taste rancid and 
disagreeable when opened for sale, and they 
soon become dull and opaque. The slightest 
chemical knowledge explains this, and it is the 
greatest reason why boiled sugar goods ex- 
ported to the tropical climates or having to 
pass through them, reach their destination in 
bad condition. We have seen and experi- 
enced this in Melbourne. Tons of goods have 
been sent there, both from this country and 
America, that never realized the cost of freight. 



On Spinning Sugar, Piping, Gum . 
Paste, Ornaments, etc. 

The making of the numerous artistic designs 
in the above is the most difficult and the most 
interesting of the confectioner's art, and as prac- 



114 * ON SPINNING SUGAR. 

tised in first-rate houses and families of dis 
tinction. and especially in France, the workman 
must not only -understand the rules and prin- 
ciples of art as regards perspective, etc., but 
must be an adept at drawing, modelling, and 
decoration. The amateur may however prac- 
tice it for his improvement, and the great satis- 
faction arising from this pleasing method of 
employing spare time ; and time and patience 
are very necessary to insure success in these 
processes, together with skill in manipulation, 
conception, and design. Gum. paste ornaments 
are used largely for wedding cakes, etc., com- 
bined with the liberal application of piping, 
and we have known many instances in which 
these alone have fulfilled all the purposes of 
other and more expensive ornamentation. 
Great practice is requisite to make a good 
hand at piping, but we do not see why any 
moderately ingenious person may not try the 
process and succeed. The same remarks apply 
to spinning sugar. Determination and per- 
severance will accomplish any of the operations 
here named. 



ON SPINNING SUGAR. 115 

To Spin Caramel Sugar. 

w- 

Take any small or moderate quantity of clar- 
ified loaf sugar and boil to the caramel, take it 
off quickly and put the pan into a tub of cold 
water to stop the principal heat, then 'place it 
near the stove to keep the sugar warm enough 
to work with facility. 

The moulds you intend to work upon should 
be copper, tin, or glass, etc., made on the bevil, 
so as to deliver well. They must be rubbed 
slightly with fresh butter. The sugar pre- 
viously spoken of having cooled a little, take a 
fork and try it by dipping it into the sugar, and 
hold it up rather high and spin it by a sh'ake 
of the hand ; if "it forms threads it will do for the 
purpose of spinning. Take your mould in the 
left hand, turn it upside down, take out a little 
sugar with the bowl of a spoon and pour it out 
equally in threads or lines certain distances. 
When this is finished one way turn the mould 
round, so as to form an angle, and proceed 
again crossways in the same manner. The 
threads ought to be the thickness of twine. 



116 ON SHNM.NG SUGAR, 

"When the body of the shape is formed it can be 
ornamented with the fine silken threads made 
by spinning the sugar from forks or pronged 
tools. They can be also made into baskets, by 
drawing a handle on a smooth greasy slab, a^nd 
then following the lines with the sugar from 
the spoon. Spun sugar can also be made into 
vases, ships, etc., by making the parts separate 
and afterwards sticking them together with 
some of the sugar used in the process. 



Gum Paste Ornaments. 

Blocks, cutters, and moulds are required for 
this process. Gum dragon is the main and 
necessary ingredient. It is difficult to dissolve 
and strain, and to do it properly it requires 
two persons to wring the cloth through which 
it passes, but it may be forced through a sieve. 
The gum must be well washed and covered 
with water a day and night, then strain it as 
directed; work it well in a marble mortar, 
with equal quantities of the finest powder 
sugar and starch powder. It must be very 



PIPING, GUM PASTE, ETC. 117 

tough by working it thoroughly and bear 
pulling till it breaks. 

Keep the paste in an earthen pot, with a 
damp cloth always on it. The above is made 
better with all sugar, or commoner, with more 
starch powder, and has been very much adul- 
terated by using plaster of Paris. To take the 
impression from the moulds, use fine starch 
powder shook over it, as also in rolling the 
paste to the required thickness and size. 
Press the paste in the moulds or blocks with 
your thumb or the ball of your hand, and cut 
off the superfluous paste with a very thin knife 
sold for the purpose. You must then knock it 
out, or make a small lump of paste adhere to 
the impression, and pull it out. 



Sugar Piping for Cakes, etc. 

A very fine sugar icing is prepared as 
directed in the book with the finest powdered 
loaf sugar and whites of eggs and lemon juice. 
The tubes through which this is forced are 
made for many designs in tinbv the "Confec- 



118 PIPING, GUM PASTE, ETC. 

tioners' Tool Maker," but they can be made 
with good stiff writing-paper. They are made 
similar to a cone, with the tip cut off. It is 
partly filled with the icing, the top edges turned 
in, the same as the bags are that the moist 
sugars are sold in by the pound, then press out 
with the thumb and forefinger through the 
opening at the end over your previously iced 
cake in any form, design, or shape you like, 
according to the manner you cut the fine end 
of the paper cone so the icing comes out. 
Various shapes can be made by varying the 
cutting, which is done with fine sharp scissors. 
Many persons may be surprised with the effects 
of this simple method of piping or ornamenting, 
and which they can easily try, and with a little 
ingenuity succeed in, so as to answer all the 
purposes of a family twelfth cake, or even pro- 
duce sufficiently well formed designs on a 
wedding cake. 



ON ICES. 119 

On Ices. 

The very large consumption of the above in 
London of late years, consequent upon the 
great number of ice shops in various parts of 
the town, principally kept by foreigners, makes 
the subject of sufficient importance to be treated 
upon in a work of this description, more espec- 
ially as it has become an important trade, and 
one that principally applies to the summer 
time, when most confectioners in sweets have 
sufficient time to apply themselves to the 
manufacture of them. Ices are composed of 
all kinds of substances, juices of fruits, creams, 
liqueurs of all sorts, etc., prepared and con- 
gealed by means of broken rough ice mixed 
with salt. The freezing pot should be always 
of pewter, because it prevents the mixture 
from congealing too quickly, for on this depends 
the smoothness of the ices. Other vessels can 
be used, but the contents freeze so quickly that 
they have not time to get thoroughly mixed 
and smooth. Ices that are badly mixed and 
frozen become full of lumps, the sugar sinks to 



120 ON ICES. 

the bottom, "and are a -bad color. To make 
ices there must be a tub in which the freezing 
pots are placed in the midst of broken ice well 
mixed with several handfuls of common salt, 
sold for the purpose. These must be thoroughly 
well incorporated, or the mixture will not 
freeze. The pot being placed in the middle of 
the ice up to the cover, pour into it the mix- 
ture you intend to freeze, which you can make 
agreeable to the palate by tasting previously ; 
then turn the pots round rapidly in the ice, by 
the handles at first, but after it is frozen a little 
it can be done better with a pewter v paddle sold 
for the purpose, with which the sides must be 
kept continually scraped down, and the pots 
kept whirling round. As you must previously 
have taken the lids off to do this you will per- 
ceive the cream or custard begin to set, and 
greater rapidity of action must then be used, 
as upon the great agitation and well mixing 
depends the quality of the ices. It will be 
easily perceived when this operation is com- 
pleted, by the stiffness which ensues. It can 
then remain in the tub till wanted. 



ON ICES. 121 

NOTE. In mixing the rough ice mind it is 
broken small enough, and use plenty of salt, or 
it will not freeze well. 



Imitation Cream Ice (or Custard Ice). 

As sold at the Ice Shops, at onepence and twopence 
per glass. 



To a quart of milk put six eggs, half a 
pound of loaf sugar, and one ounce of fresh 
butter. Keep whisking it altogether on a mod- 
erate fire till it nearly boils, but not quite, or 
it will curdle. This you must watch closely. 
When it becomes thick, immediately take it 
off. Strain it through a hair sieve. Give it 
what flavor is required; vanilla is mostly 
preferred. When cool freeze it as described. 
Some tinge it with a little saffron water, which 
makes it look very rich. 

The above may be colored with cochineal, 
and flavored with raspberry jam or juice for 
raspberry creams, and the same for other flavors. 

The best ice creams are made with either 
half cream and half best new milk or all cream, 
according to the quality desired, with the juices 



122 ON ICES. 

of fruits and other flavors, and sweetened to the 
taste. 

Raspberry and Strawberry Cream. 

"Wash and strain either of the above over a 
pan and put sufficient to the cream to taste 
rich, add the juice of a lemon, color with a little 
cochineal, sweeten and put it into the freezing 
pot and wok the same as previously described. 

Vanilla Ice Cream 

Is simply the essence of vanilla added to the 
sweetened cream to suit the palate ; tinge with 
a little saffron water and freeze. 

% 

Chocolate Ice Cream. 

Add to the pint of sweetened cream four 
ounces of the best chocolate dissolved in a 
little water, mix it well in and strain through 
a sieve ; freeze it as above. 



ON ICES. 123 

Coffee Ice Cream. 

To the pint of sweetened cream add a cup of 
strong infusion of Mocha coffee, and proceed 
as directed to freeze. 

Tea Ice Cream. 

To the pint of sweetened cream add a cup 
of strong tea and act as before. 

NOTE. Any description of the cream ices 
of whatever flavor can be produced by similar 
processes to the above. 

Water Ices Lemon Water Ice. 

Take any number of lemons, squeeze the 
juice out, rasp some of the peels and mix it 
with syrup or sugar and water to the palate, 
strain through a sieve to keep out the pips, etc., 
beat the whites of two eggs and put with it, 
which gives body and makes it soft ; freeze the 
whole as directed before. 



124 



OX ICES. 



Orange Water Ice. 

Precisely as above, but no eggs, rub some of 
the peels on sugar and dissolve that in the juice. 



Strawberry Water Ice. 

Strain the strawberries through a hair sieve 
over a pan or basin, add to the juice clarified 
sugar water and lemon juice to the taste. 

NOTE. The directions given in the article on 
freezing must be carefully attended to in all 
water ices, or they will get lumpy, which they 
are more liable to be than the c-reams. 

Raspberry Water Ice. 

Proceed as in the strawberry; the juice of 
currants can be added with advantage to this. 



For any of the Currant Water Ices. 

Pick and strain your currants as directed 
through a sieve, and proceed as with the other 
descriptions above. 



MISCELLANEOUS EECEIPTS. 125 

Pine Apple Water Ice. 

Peel a pine apple, pound it and pass it through 
a sieve, add the juice of three lemons and clari- 
fied- syrup with water to the taste, strain it off 
into the freezing pot and proceed as with other 
ices. 



To preserve Oranges or Lemons whole. 

Carve on the rind any device, such as stars, 
stripes, etc., but do not cut deeper than the 
white pith, put them into boiling water and 
boil them till the head of a pin will easily 
penetrate them. Then throw them into cold 
water, boil some loaf sugar to a thread as ex- 
plained in the book, drain the oranges dry, 
boil them up half a dozen times in the syrup 
and put them aside ; next day drain them from 
the syrup, add a little more sugar, boil it up and 
pour over your fruit ; repeat this three days ; 
the fourth add more sugar, and boil to a stiff 
.thread, put in the oranges, boil them up, put 
them in glasses, and when cold tie them down. 






126 MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 

To preserve a Pine Apple whole. 

Break off the top and stem, prick it all over 
with a large needle, and boil it in water till 
tender, which can be tested with the needle, 
then place it in cold water; when cold drain it 
quite dry, boil sugar enough to cover it to the 
thread, and pour it over, and proceed for three 
or four days with the same process as in the 
last receipt for oranges, etc. 

Orange quarters in Barley Sugar. 

Peel and divide some fine St. Michael 
oranges, put them for a short time in the stove 
to get warm, boil some sugar to the caramel 
degree as explained previously in this book. 
Dip them into this so as to completely cover 
them. Then place them in an ornamented 
glass dish for dessert. This is a very simple 
and delicious preparation for the table, and is 
sold in the shops of the confectioners of Paris. 



MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 127 

Paris Nogat. 

Use a small copper pan, put into it eight 
ounces of powdered loaf sugar, place it on a 
moderate stove and melt the same, stirring it 
all the time with a small wooden spatula ; when 
it is a brown color put into it three-quarters of 
a pound of blanched almonds well dried and 
cut into strips ; mix them well in, and when the 
whole is a nice brown, pour it out on a marble 
or dish slightly greased with fresh butter, and 
spread it out with a palette knife with which it 
may be shifted to detach it while warm. 

Raspberry Syrup. 

Take any quantity of raspberries and put 
them into a pan in a warm place to ferment, 
which will take place in two or three days, then 
strain them through a jelly bag; to every pint 
put two pounds of loaf sugar, and boil it to 223 
degrees ; when cool bottle it for use. 



128 MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 

Cherry Syrup. 

Press Morello cherries through a sieve when 
quite ripe and obtain the juice from them ; for 
every pint, boil two pounds of loaf sugar to the 
crack ; add the juice and boil up, skim it ; when 
cold bottle for use. The pulp can be made into 
a jam by following the directions given under 
the articles on jams and jellies. 

Apple Paste for Ornamenting, etc. 

Take any quantity of good- juicy apples, 
pare and core them, boil them in water till quite 
soft, mash and pass them through a hair sieve, 
weigh the pulp and put it into a preserving 
pan, weigh the same quantity of loaf sugar and 
boil it to the feather, mix it with the pulp and 
boil it a short time, pour it out thin on sheets 
of tin, previously coloring some of it with car- 
mine or cochineal; put it into a warm stove 
twenty -four hours ; cut it into strips or other 
shapes to form knots or other devices; some 
may be poured into small moulds; these are 
often used for ornamenting twelfth cakes, etc. 






MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 129 

Orange and Lemon Chips. 

Take large lemons with thick rinds, peel them 
off in long strips with a knife, put them into 
cold water, boil them till tender and then place 
them into cold water again ; when quite cold 
drain them dry, place them in a pan, boil 
enough sugar to cover them to a thread and 
pour it over them hot ; the next day boil the 
syrup up again and pour it over them, repeat 
the process by adding more sugar a few times; 
the last time boil the chips up in the sugar, and 
they will be ready for use. If they are to be 
candied proceed as directed in the . article on 
orange and lemon peel in a previous part of the 
book. 

Cherries in Brandy. 

Take fine Morello cherries, cutr off nearly all 
the stems, wash them in cold water, drain them 
on a sieve, place them in glasses and cover with 
good strong brandy, make them air tight, after 
a month strain the cherries from the brandy, 
and add a quarter of a pound of powdered loaf 



130 CONCLUDING REMARKS. 

sugar to each pint of the brandy ; when melted 
strain through a flannel bag till clear, and again 
pour it over the cherries; 'in another month 
they may be used. 

NOTE. The covering pots or glasses of either 
Jams, Jellies, Marmalades, etc., before they are 
tied over with bladder or parchment, cut 
writing-paper to fit the interior of pots and rub 
over the paper two or three drops of salad oil. 



Concluding Remarks. 

The processes and receipts in this book are 
either from the author's practical knowledge 
or have been under his immediate supervision 
in the working. Many of them are valuable, 
and under some circumstances are worth 
pounds, especially to those only partially ac- 
quainted with the manufacturing, and are 
desirous of improving. The work could have 
been very much enlarged, but the author con- 
sidered it more to his own interest, and to his 
readers' advantage also, to keep the matter 
within its present limits, rather than imitate 



CONCLUDING REMARKS. 131 

some writers, who, to make a book of large 
dimensions, fill it with receipts of'no practical 
use, and give processes the nature of which 
they are unacquainted with themselves. The 
author's aim has been, not to swell out the 
volume, but to give his readers plain instruc- 
tions in as few words and as distinct a manner 
as the subject would admit; and though, ac- 
cording to an old adage, a little showing 
is worth a bushel of telling, he feels convinced 
they will not be unsuccessful in any. of his re- 
ceipts with ordinary care and attention to those 
rules and general principles given at the com- 
mencement; but should difficulties arise re- 
specting matters connected with the book, the 
author will be happy to render assistance in 
removing them. At the same time, he will be 
happy to receive information of any error that 
may inadvertently appear, and should the work 
prove interesting and serviceable, he may meet 
his readers again upon other branches. 






PUBLISHED BY 

HENRY CAREY BAIRD, 

INDUSTRIAL PUBLISHER, 

No. 4O6 T^T . 1 xx -u. t JStroot, 

PHILADELPHIA. 



53=" Any of the following Books will be sent by mail, free 
of postage, at the publication price. Catalogues furnished 
on application. 

American Miller and Millwright's Assistants 

A new and thoroughly revised Edition, with additional 
Engravings. By WILLIAM CARTER HUGHES. In one vol- 
ume, 12 mo., $1.25 

Armengaud, Amoroux, and Johnson, 

THE PRACTICAL DRAUGHTSMAN'S BOOK OF INDUS- 
TRIAL DESIGN, and Machinist's and Engineer's Drawing 
Companion ; forming a complete course of Mechanical' 
' Engineering and Architectural Drawing. From the French 
of M. Armengaud the elder, Prof, of Design in the Con- 
servatoire of Arts and Industry, Paris, and MM. Armen- 
gaud the younger, and Amouroux, Civil Engineers. Re- 
written and arranged, with additional matter and plates, 
selections from and examples of the most useful and 
generally employed mechanism of the day. By William 
Johnson, Assoc. Inst. C. E., Editor of "The Practical 
Mechanic's Journal." Illustrated by fifty folio steel 
plates and fifty wood-cuts. A new edition, 4to.,... $10.00 

Among the contents are : Linear Lravring, Definitions and Problems, 
P*ate I. Applications, Designs for inlaid Pavements, Ceilings and 
Balconies, Plate II. Sweeps, Sections and Mouldings, Plate III. Ele 
mentary Gothic Forms and Rosette%, Plate IV. Ovals, Ellipses, 



PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC BOOKS, 

Parabolas and Volutes, Plato V. Ruins and Practical Data. Study o* 
Projection, Klcini-nt.-iry I'rinriplrs, l'l;itc VI. Ot I'MMUS find other 
Solids, Plate VII. Kul. ical Data. On < :,>/ . with 

Apftl T"/(07i* ( '<in\ i utioiial Colors, Composition or Mixture of Colors, 
Plate ,\. Contiuinilion uf ttif Stiulij of Projections Use of sections de- 
tails of machinery, Plate XI. Simple applications spindles, s- 
couplings, wooden patterns, Plate XII. Method of constructing a 
wooden model or pattern of a coupling, Elementary applications 
rails and chairs for railways, Plate XIII. Rules and Practical Data 
Strength of material, Resistance to compression or crushing force, 
Tensional Resistance, Resistance to flexure, Resistance to torsion, 
Friction of surf a con in contact. 

THE INTERSECTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SURFACES, WITH AP- 
PLICATIONS. The Intersection of Cylinders and Cones, Plate XIV. The 
Delineation and Development of Helices, Screws and Serpentines, Plate 

XV. Application of the helix the construction of a staircase, Plate 

XVI. The Intersection of surfaces applications to stop-cocks, Plate 

XVII. Rules and Practical Data Steam, Unity of heat, Heating surface, 
Calculation of the dimensions of boilers, Dimensions of liregratea, 
Chimneys, Safety-valves. 

THE STUDY AND CONSTRUCTION OF TOOTHED GEAR. Involute, cy- 
cloid, and epicycloid, Plates XVIII. and XIX. Involute, Fig. 1, Plate 

XVIII. Cycloid, Fig. 2, Plate XVIII. External epicycloid, described 
by a circle rolling about a fixed circle inside it, Fig. 3, Plate XIX. 
Internal epicycloid, Fig. 2, Plate XIX. Delineation of a rack and 
pinion in gear, Fig. 4, Plate XVIII. Gearing of a worm with a worm- 
wheel, Figs. 5 and 6. Plate XVIII. Cylindrical or Spur Gearing, Plate 

XIX. Practical delineation of a couple of Spur-wheels, Plate XX. 
The Delineation and Construction of Wooden Patterns for Toothed Wheels. 
Plate XXI. Rules and Practical Data Toothed gearing, Angular and 
circumferential velocity of wheels, Dimensions of gearing. Thickness 
of the teeth, Pitch of the teeth, Dimensions of the web, Number and 
dimensions of the arms, wooden patterns. 

CONTINUATION OF THE STUDY OF TOOTHED GEAR. Design for a 
pair of bevel-wheels in gear, Plate XXII. Construction of wooden 
patterns for a pair of bevel-wheels, Plate XXIII. Involute and 
Helical Teeth, Plate XXIV. Contrivances for obtaining Differential 
Movements The delineation of eccentrics and cams, Plate XXV. Rules 
and Practical Data Mechanical work of effect, The simple machines, 
Centre of gravity, On estimating the power of prime movers, Calcu- 
lation for the brake, The fall of bodies, Momentum, Central forces. 

ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF SHADOWS. Shadows of Prisms, Pyra- 
mids and Cylinders, Plate XXVI. Principles of Shading, Plate XXVII. 
Continuation of the Study of Shadows, Plate XXVIII. Tuscan Order, 
Plate XXIX. Rules and Practical Data Pumps, Hydrostatic principles, 
Forcing pumps, Lifting and forcing pumps, The Hydrostatic press, 
Hydrostatical calculations and datadischarge of water through dif- 
ferent orifices, Gaging of a water-course of uniform section and fall, 
Velocity of the bottom of water-courses, Calculation of the discharge 
of water through rectangular orifices of narrow edges, Calculation of 
the discharge of water through overshot outlets, To determine the 
width of an overshot outlet, To determine the depth of the outlet, 
Outlet with a spout or duct. 

APPLICATION OF SHADOWS TO TOOTHED GEAR, Plate XXX. Ap- 
plication of Shadows to Screws, Plate XXXI. Application of Shadows to 
a, Boiler and its Furnace, Plate XXXII. Shading in Black Shading in 
Colors, Plate XXXIII. 

THE CUTTING AND SHAPING OF MASONRY, Plate XXXIV. Rvl'8 
and Practical Data Hydraulic motors, Undershot water wheels, with 
plane floats and a circular channel, Width, Diameter, Velocity, Num- 
ber and capacity of the buckets. Useful effect of the water wheel. 
Overshot water wheels, Water wheels with radial floats, Water wheel 
with curved buckets, Turbines. Remarks on Machine Tools. 
2 



PUBLISHED BY HENBY CABEY BAIBD. 

THE STUDY OF MACHINERY AND SKETCHING. Various applications 
and combinations: The Sketching of Machinery, Plates XXXV. and 
XXXVI. Drilling Machine; Motive Machines; Water wheels, Con- 
struction and setting up of water wheels, Delineation of water wheels, 
Design for a water wheel, Sketch of a water wheel ; Overshot Water 
Wheels. Water Pumps, Plate XXXVII. Steam Motors; High-pressure 
expansive steam engine, Plates XXXVIII., XXXIX. and XL. Details 
of Construction ; Movements of the Distribution and Expansion Valves ; 
Rules and Practical Data Steam engines : Low-pressure condensing 
engines without expansion valve, Diameter of piston, Velocities. 
Steam pipes and passages, Air-pump and condenser, Cold-water and 
feed-pumps, High-pressure expansive engines, Medium pressure con- 
densing and expansive steam engine, Conical pendulum or centrifugal 
governor. 

OBLIQUE PROJECTIONS. Application of rules to the delineation of 
an oscillating cylinder, Plate XLI. 

PARALLEL PERSPECTIVE. Principles and applications, Plate XLII. 

TRUE PERSPECTIVE. Elementary principles, Plate XLIII. Appli- 
cationsflour mill driven by belts, Plates XLIV. and XLV. Descrip- 
tion of the mill, Representation of the mill in perspective, Notes of 
recent improvements in flour mills, Schiele's-mill, Mullin's "ring mill- 
stone," Barnett's millstone, Hastie's arrangement for driving mills, 
Currie's improvements in millstones ; Rules and Practical Data Work 
performed by various machines, Flour mills, Saw mills, Veneer-sawing 
machines, Circular saws. 

EXAMPLES OF FINISHED DRAWINGS OF MACHINERY. Plate A, 
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C D E, Express locomotive engine ; Plate F., Wood planing machine ; 
Plate G, Washing machine for piece goods ; Plate H, power loom ; 
Plate I, Duplex steam boiler ; Plate J, Direct-acting marine engines. 

DRAWING INSTRUMENTS. 

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for Tin, Sheet-Iron, and Copper-Plate 
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rubbing, without noise ; Common Lucifer Matches: Matches without 
Phosphorus ; Candle Matches ; Matches with Amorphous Phospho- 
rus ; Matches and Rubbers without Phosphorus. Gun Cotton. Proper- 
ties ; Preparation ; Paper Powder ; use of Cotton and Paper Powders 
for Fulminating Primers, etc.; Preparation of Fulminating Primers, 
etc., etc. 

Dussauce, Chemical Receipt Book : 

A General Formulary for the Fabrication of Leading 
Chemicals, and their Application to the Arts, Manufac- 
tures, Metallurgy, and Agriculture. By Prof. H. Dus- 
sauce. (/ press.) 



PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC BOOKS. 

DYEING, CALICO PRINTING, COLOES, COTTON SPIN- 
NING, 'AND WOOLEN MANUFACTURE, 

Baird, The American Cotton Spinner, and 
Manager's and Carders Guide: 

A Practical Treatise on Cotton Spinning ; giving the Di- 
mensions and Speed of Machinery, Draught and Twist 
Calculations, etc.; with Notices of recent Improvements : 
together with Rules and Examples for making changes 
in the sizes and numbers of Roving and Yarn. Com- 
piled from the papers of the late Robert H. Baird. 
12mo $1.25 

Capron i)e Dole, Dussauce, Biies and Car- 
mines of Indigo: 

A Practical Treatise on the Fabrication of every Commer 
cial Product derived from Indigo. By Felicien Capron 
de Dole. Translated, with important additions, by Pro- 
fessor H. Dussauce. 12mo 

Chemistry Applied to Dyeing, 

By James Napier, F. C. S. Illustrated. 12mo $2.50 

CONTENTS. General Propcrt it* of Matter. Heat, Light. Ele- 
ments of Matter, Chemical Affinity. Non-Mftallic Substances. Oxygen, 
Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Chlorine, Sulphur, Selenium, Phosphorus, Iodine, 
Bromine, Fluorine, Silicum, Boron, Carbon. Metallic Substances.; 
General Properties of Metals, Potassium, Sodium, Lithium, Soap, 
Barium. Strontium, Calcium, Magnesium, Alminum, Manganese, Iron, 
Cobalt, Nickel, Zinc, Cadmium, Copper, Lead, Bismuth, Tin, Titanium, 
Chromium, Vanadium, Tungstenum or Wolfram, Molybdenum, Tella- 
rium, Arsenic, Antimony, Uranium, Cerium. Mercury, Silver, Gold, 
Platinum. Palladium, Iridium, Osmium, Rhodium, Lanthanium. M<-- 
dnnts.RcA Spirits, Barwood Spirits, Plumb Spirits, Yellow Spirits, 
Nitrate of Iron, Acetate of Alumina, Black Iron Liquor, Iron and Tin 
for Royal Blues, Acetate of Copper. Veg" >ifted in Dyeing. 

. Sumach, Catechu, Indigo, Logwood, Brazil-woods, Sandal-wood, 
Barwood, Camwood, Fustic, Young Fustic, Bark or Quercitron, Fla- 
vine, Weld or Wold, Turmeric, Persian Berries, Safflower, Madder, 
Munjeet, Annota, Alkanet Root, Archil. Proposed New Vegetable 
Dyes. Sooranjee, Carajuru, Wongshy, Aloes, Pittacal, Barbary Root. 
Animtd Matters used in Dyeing. Cochineal, Lake or Lac, Kerms. 

This will be found one of the most valuable books on the subject of 
dyeing, ever published in this country. 

Dussauce, Treatise on the Coloring Matters 
Derived from Coal Tar; 

Their Practical Application in Dyeing Cotton, Wool, and 
8 



PUBLISHED BY HEJvTRY CAREY BAIRD. 

Silk ; the Principles of the Art of Dyeing and of the Dis- 
tillation of Coal Tar ; with a Description of the most Im- 
portant New Dyes now in use. By Professor H. Dus- 
sauce, Chemist. 12mo.. $2.50 

CONTENTS. Historical Notice of the Art of Dyeing Chemical 
Principles of the Art of Dyeing Preliminary Preparation of Stuffs 
Mordants Dyeing On the Coloring Matters produced by Coal Tar 
Distillation of Coal Tar History of Aniline Properties of Aniline- 
Preparation of Aniline directly from Coal Tar Artificial Preparation 
of Aniline Preparation of Benzole Properties of Benzole Prepara- 
tion of Nitro-Benzole Transformation of Nitro-Benzole into Aniline, 
by means of Sulphide of Ammonium ; by Nascent Hydrogen ; by Ace- 
tate of Iron ; and by Arsenite of Potash Properties of the Bi-Nitro- 
Benzole Aniline Purple Violine Roseine Emeraldine Bleu de 
Paris Futschine, or Magenta Coloring Matters obtained by other 
bases from Coal Tar Nitroso-Phenyline Di Nitro- Aniline Nitro- 
Phenyline Picric Acid Rosolic Acid Quinoline Napthaline Colors 
Chloroxynaphthalic and Perchloroxynapthalic Acids Carminaph- 
tha Ninaphthalamine Nitrosonaphthaline Naphthamein Tar Red 
A/uline Application of Coal Tar Colors to the Art of Dyeing and 
Calico Printing Action of Light on Coloring Matters from Coal Tar 
Latest Improvements in the Art of Dyeing Chrysammic Acid Mo- 
lybdic and Picric Acids Extract of Madder Theory of the Fixation 
of Coloring Matters in Dyeing and Printing Principles of the Action 
of the most important Mordants Aluminous Mordants Ferruginous 
Mordants Stanniferous Mordants Artificial Alizarin Metallic Hy- 
posulphites as Mordants Dyer's Soap Preparation of Indigo for Dye- 
ing and Printing Relative Value of Indigo Chinese Green Murexide. 

Dyer and Color-maker's Companion: 

Containing upwards of two hundred Receipts for making 
Colors, on the most approved principles, for all the 
various styles and fabrics now in existence ; with the 
Scouring Process, and plain Directions for Preparing, 
Washing-off, and Finishing the Goods. Second edition. 
In one volume, 12mo $1.25 



French Dyer, (The) : 



Comprising the Art of Dyeing in Woolen, Silk, Cotton, 
etc., etc. By M. M. Riffault, Vernaud, De Fontenelle, 
Thillaye, and Mallepeyre. (/n press.) 

Love, The Art of Dyeing, Cleaning, Scouring, 
and Finishing, 

ON THE MOST APPKOVBD ENGLISH AND FRENCH METHODS ; 
being Practical Instructions in Dyeing Silks, Woolens 
and Cottons, Feathers, Chips, Straw, etc., Scouring and 
Cleaning Bed and Window Curtains, Carpets, Rugs, etc., 
French and English Cleaning, anyColor or Fabric of 
Silk, Satin, or Damask. By Thomas Love, a working 

Dyer and Scourer. In one volume, 12mo ....$3.00 

9 



PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC BOOKS. 

O'Neill, Chemistry of Calico Printing, Dye- 
ing, and Bleaching ; 

Including Silken, Woolen, and Mixed Goods ; Practical 
and Theoretical. By Charles O'Neill. (In press.) 

O'Neill, A Dictionary of Calico Printing and 
Dyeing, 

By Charles O'Neill. (In prets.) 

Scott, The Practical Cotton-spinner and Han* 
ufacturer ; 

OR, THE MANAGER 'AND OVERLOOKER'S COMPANION. This 
work contains a Comprehensive System of Calculations 
for Mill Gearing and Machinery, from the first Moving 
Power, through the different processes of Carding, Draw- 
ing, Slabbing, Roving, Spinning, and Weaving, adapted 
to American Machinery, Practice and Usages. Compen- 
dious Tables of Yarns and Reeds are added. Illustrated 
by large Working-Drawings of the most approved Ameri- 
can Cotton Machinery. Complete in one. volume, oc- 
tavo... $5.00 

This edition of Scott's Cotton-Spinner, by Oliver Byrne, is designed 
for the American Operative. It will be found intensely practical, and 
will be of the greatest possible value to the Manager, Overseer, and 
Workman. 

Sellers, The Color-mixer, 

By John Sellers, an Experienced Practical Workman. 
To which is added a CATECHISM OF CHEMISTRY. In one 
volume, 12mo $2.50 

Smith, The Dyer's Instructor; 

Comprising Practical Instructions in the Art of Dyeing 
Silk, Cotton, Wool and Worsted, and Woolen Goods, as 
Single and Two-colored Damasks, Moreens, Camlets, 
Lastings, Shot Cobourgs, Silk Striped Orleans, Plain Or- 
leans, from White and Colored Warps, Merinos, Woolens, 
Yarns, etc.; containing nearly eight hundred Receipts. 
To 'which is added a Treatise on the Art of Padding, and 
the Printing of Silk Warps, Skeins and Handkerchiefs, 
and the various Mordants and Colors for the different 
10 



PUBLISHED BY HENRY C &.REY BAIRD. 

styles of such work. By David Smith, Pattern Dyer. 
A new edition, in one volume, 12mo $3.00 

CONTENTS. Wool Dyeing, 60 receipts Cotton Dyeing, 68 re- 
ceiptsSilk Dyeing, 60 receipts Woolen Yarn Dyeing, 69 receipts- 
Worsted Yarn Dyeing, 61 receipts Woolen Dyeing, 62 receipts Da- 
mask Dyeing, 40 receipts Moreen Dyeing, 38 receipts Two-Colored 
Damask Dyeing, 21 receipts Camlet Dyeing, 23 receipts Lasting Dye- 
ing, 23 receipts Shot Cobourg Dyeing, 18 receipts Silk Striped Or- 
leans, from Black, White, and Colored Warps, 23 receipts Colored 
Orleans, from Black Warps, 15 receipts Colored Orleans and Co- 
bourgs, from White Warps, 27 receipts Colored Merinos, 41 receipts 
Woolen Shawl Dyeing, 15 receipts Padding, 42 receipts Silk Warp, 
Skein, and Handkerchief Printing, 62 receipts Nature and Use of Dye- 
wares, including Alum, Annotta, Archil, Ammonia, Argol, Super 
Argol, Camwood, Catechu, Cochineal, Chrome, or Bichromate of Pot- 
ash, Cudbear, Chemic, or Sulphate of Indigo, French Berry, or Persian 
Berry, Fustic or Young- Fustic, Galls, Indigo, Kermes or Lac Dye, 
Logwood, Madder, Nitric Acid or Aqua Fortis, Nitrates, Oxalic Tin. 
Peachwood, Prussiate of Potash, Quercitron Bark, Safflower, Saun- 
ders or Red Sandal, Sapan Wood, Sumach, Turmeric, Examination of 
Water by Tests, etc., etc. 



Ulrich, Dussauce, A Complete Treatise 

ON THE ART OF DYEING COTTON AND WOOL, AS PRACTISED IN 
PARIS, ROUEN, MULHOUSE AND GERMANY. From the French 
of M. Louis Ulrich, a Practical Dyer in the principal 
Manufactories of Paris, Rouen, Mulhouse, etc., etc. ; to 
which are added the most important Receipts for Dyeing 
Wool, as practised in the Manufacture Imperiale des 
Gobelins, Paris. By Professor H. Dussauce. 12mo..$3.00 

CONTENTS. 

Rouen Dyes, 106 Receipts. 

Alsace " 235 " 

German " 109 " 

Mulhouse " 72 " 

Parisian " 66 " 

Gobelins " 100 " 
In all nearly 700 Receipts. 



Easton, A Practical Treatise on Street or 
Horse-power Railways; 

Their Location, Construction and Management ; with 
general Plans and Rules for their Organization and Ope- 
ration ; together with Examinations as to their Compara- 



11 



PBA.CTICAL, AND SCIENTIFIC BOOKS, 

tive Advantages over the Omnibus System, and Inquiries 
as to their Value for Investment ; including Copies of 
Municipal Ordinances relating thereto. By Alexander 
Easton, C. E. Illustrated by twenty-three plates, 8vo., 
cloth ................................................................. $2.00 

Examinations of Drugs, Medicines, Chemicals, 
etc,, 



As to their Purity and Adulterations. By C. H. 

M. D. 12mo., cloth ............................................ $2.50 

Fisher's Photogenic Manipulation, 

16mo., cloth ............................... .......................... 62 

Gas and Ventilation; 

A Practical Treatise on Gas and Ventilation. By E. E. 
Perkins. 12mo., cloth ....................................... -$1.00 

Gilbart, A Practical Treatise on Banking, 

By James William Gilbart, F. R. S. A new enlarged and 
improved edition. Edited oy J. Smith Homans, editor 
of " Banker's Magazine." To which is added " Money," 
by H. C. Carey. 8vo .......................................... $3.50 

Gregory's Mathematics for Practical Men; 

Adapted to the Pursuits of Surveyors, Architects, Me- 
chanics and Civil Engineers. 8vo., plates, cloth. ..$2.25 

Hardwich, A Manual of Photographic Chem- 
istry; ' 

Including the practice of the Collodion Process. By J. 
F. Hardwich. (In press.") 

Hay, The Interior Decorator; 

The Laws of Harmonious Coloring adapted to Interior 
Decorations ; with a Practical Treatise on House Paint- 
ing. By D. R. Hay, House Painter and Decorator. Il- 
lustrated by a Diagram of the Primary, Secondary and 
Tertiary Colors. 12uio. (fn 
12 



PUBLISHED BY HENRY CAREY BAIRD. 

Inventor's Guide Patent Office and Patent 
Laws : 

Or, a Guide to Inventors, and a Book of Reference for 
Judges, Lawyers, Magistrates, and others. By J. Q-. 
Moore. 12mo., cloth ...$1.25 

Jervis, Railway Property, A Treatise 

ON THE CONSTRUCTION AND MANAGEMENT OP RAILWAYS ; de- 
signed to afford useful knowledge, in the popular style, 
to the holders of this class of property ; as well as Rail- 
way Managers, Officers and Agents. By John B. Jervis, 
late Chief Engineer of the Hudson River Railroad, Cro- 

ton Aqueduct, etc. One volume, 12mo., cloth $2.00 

CONTENTS. Preface Introduction. Construction. Introduc- 
toryLand and Land Damages Location of Line Method of Business 
Grading Bridges and Culverts Road Crossings Ballasting Track- 
Cross Sleepers Chairs and Spikes Rails Station Buildings Loco- 
motives, Coaches and Cars. Operating. Introductory Freight Pas- 



Running Trains Competition 
Management General Remarks. 

Johnson, The Coal Trade of British America ; 

With Researches on the Characters and Practical Values 
of American and Foreign Coals. By Walter R. Johnson, 
Civil and Mining Engineer and Chemist. 8vo $2.00 

This volume contains the results of the experiments made for the 
Navy Department, upon which their Coal contracts are now based. 

Johnston, Instructions for the Analysis of 
Soils, Limestones and Manures, 

By J. F. W. Johnston. 12mo 38 

Larkin, The Practical Brass and Iron Found- 
er's Guide; 

A Concise Treatise on the Art of Brass Founding, Mould- 
ing, etc. By James Larkin. 12mo., cloth $1.25 

Leslie's (Miss) Complete Cookery; 

Directions for Cookery in its Various Branches. By Miss 
Leslie. 58th thousand. Thoroughly revised ; with the 
addition of New Receipts. In one volume, 12nio., half 

bound, or in sheep .'. $1.25 

13 



PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC BOOKS, 

(Miss) Ladies' House Book; 

A Manual of Domestic Economy. 20th revised edition. 
12mo., sheep $1.25 

Leslie's (Miss) Two Hundred .Receipts in 
French Cookery, 

Cloth, 12mo 25 

Lieber, Assayer's Guide; 

Or, Practical Directions to Assayers, Miners and Smelters, 
for the Tests and Assays, by Heat and by Wet Processes, 
of the Ores of all the principal Metals, and of Gold and 
Silver Coins and Alloys. By Oscar M. Lieber, late Geolo- 
gist to the State of Mississippi. 12mo. With illustra- 
tions * l.'2~) 

"Among the indispensable works for this .purpose, is this little 
guide." Artizan. 

Lowig, Principles of Organic and Physiologi- 
cal Chemistry, 

By Dr. Carl Lowig, Doctor of Medicine and Philosophy; 
Ordinary Professor of Chemistry in the University of 
Zurich ; Author of " Chemie des Organischen Verbindun 
gen." Translated by Daniel Breed, M. D., of the U. S. 
Patent Office ; late of the Laboratory of Liebig and Lowig. 
8vo., sheep $3.50 

Marble Worker's Manual; 

Containing Practical Information respecting Marbles in 
general, their Cutting, Working and Polishing, Veneer- 
ing,' etc., etc. 12mo., cloth ., $1.25 

Miles, A Plain Treatise on Horse-shoeing, 

With Illustrations. By William Miles, Author of " The 
Horse's Foot." $1.00 

14 



PUBLISHED BY HENRY CAREY BAIRD. 

Main & Brown, The Marine Steam-Engine, 

By Thomas J. Main, F.R. Ast. S. Mathematical Professor 
at the Royal Naval College, Portsmouth, and Thomas 
Brown, Assoc. Inst. C. E. Chief Engineer R. N. attached 
to the Royal Naval College. Authors of "Questions Con- 
nected with the Marine Steam-Engine," and the "Indi- 
cator and Dynamometer. ' ' With Numerous Illustrations. 

In one Volume, 8vo :$5.00 

CONTENTS. Introductory Chapter, The Boiler, The Engine, Get- 
ting up Steam, Duties to Machinery when under Steam, Duties to En- 
gine, &c., on arriving in harbor, Miscellaneous, Appendix. 

Main & Brown, Questions on Subjects Con- 
nected with the Marine-Steam Engine, 

And Examination Papers ; with Hints for their Solution. 
By Thomas J. Main, Professor of Mathematics Royal Naval 
College, and Thomas Brown, Chief Engineer R. N. 12mo., 
cloth ,\ $1.50 

Main & Brown, The Indicator and Dynamo- 
meter, 

With their Practical Applications to the Steam Engine. 
By Thomas J. Main and Thomas Brown. With Illustra- 
tions. Svo., cloth $1.50 



Morfit, A Treatise on Chemistry 

APPLIED TO THE MANUFACTURE OF SOAP AND CANDLES ; being 
a Thorough Exposition, in all their Minutiae, of the prin- 
ciples and Practice of the Trade, based upon the most 
recent Discoveries in Science and Art. By Campbell 
Morfit, Professor of Analytical and Applied Chemistry in 
the University of Maryland. A new and improved edi- 
tion. Illustrated with 260 Engravings on Wood. Com- 
plete in one volume, large Svo $7.50 

CONTENTS CHAPTER I. The History of the Art and its Rela- 
tions to Science II. Chemical Combination III. Alkalies and Alka- 
line Earths IV. Alkalimentary V. Acids VI. Origin and Composi- 
tion of Fatty Matters VII. Saponiflable Fats Vegetable Fats Ani- 
mal Fats Waxes VIII. Action of Heat and Mineral Acids of Fatty 
Matters IX. Volatile or Essential Oils, and Resins X. The Proxi- 
mate Principles of Fats Their Composition ftnd Properties Basic 
Constituents of Fats XT. Theory of Saponifleation XII. Utensils 
Requisite for a Soap Factory XIII. Preparatory Manipulations m 
the Process of Making Soap Preparation of the Lyes XIV. Hani 



PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC BOOKS, 

Soaps XV. Soft S.i-m* -XVI. Soi|Mliy tlip C,.l,1 I'ro-csn- \ V 1 1. Sill 

IMtl-.l S(>. H|>- -\VIII. Toil, 

and Adulterations in tho Manufacture ol . \II. 

Illumination XXIII. Philosophy of Flame XXIV. K-iw M 

for Candle*- Purification and Bleaching oi . \vi. 

Dippi-d (.'andlcs -XXVII. .M..ul.l-d CuHllrs \\YIII. St,.. !r in ('.iiull.-rf 

\.\I\. Stc;irir Ari.l r.-ui.;.- Of \<! tin . < !!* 
S ipnnitiivition by Lime S.i|><>nilir;it ion tiy Lime and Sulphurou- 

saponiflcation by Sulphuric Acid Saponiflcation by the 

action of licit. Pressure ami Steam XXX. S]>.-r- lies- 

Wax Candles XXXII lle XXXIIL Paraffla 

\\XIV. Patent Candles XXXV. Hydrometers and Thermometers. 

Mortimer. Pyrotechnist's Companion; 

Or, a Familiar System of Fin--woik.s. By G. W. Morti- 
mer. Illustrated by numerous V. . 



Napier, Manual of 



Including the Application of the Art to Manufacturing 
Processes. By James Napier. From the second ^onlou 
edition, revised and enlarged. Illustrated by Engrav- 
ings. In one volume, 12mo ............... . ................. $1.50 

Napier's Electro-Metallurgy is generally regarded as the very best 
Practical Treatise on the Subject in the English Language. 

CONTENTS. History of the Art of Electro-Metallurgy 1> 
tion of Galvanic Batteries, and their respective Peculiarities Elec- 
trotype Processes Miscellaneous Applications of the Process 01 ' 
ing with Copper Bronzing Decomposition of IH't;tls upon one 
another Electro-Plating Electro-Gilding Results of "Expert 
on the Deposition of other Metals as Coatings, Theoretical O!> 
tions. 

Norris's Hand-book for Locomotive Engineers 
and Machinists; 

Comprising the Calculations for Constructing Locomo- 
tives, Manner of setting Valves, etc., etc. By Septimus 
Norris, Civil and Mechanical Engineer. In one volu 
12mo., with Illustrations ..................................... i 

" With pleasure do we meet with such a work as Messrs. Norris 
and Baird have given us." Artizan. 

" In this work he has given us what are called ' the secrets of the 
business, 7 in the rules to construct locomotives, in order that the mil- 
lion should be learned in all things." Scientific American. 

Nystrom. A Treatise on Screw-Propellers 
their Steam-Engines ; 

With "Practical Rules and Examples by which to ' 
late and Construct the same for any description of V.-<- 
sels. By J. W. Nystrom. Illustrated by over thirty 
large Working Drawings. In one volume, octavo. 
16 



PUBLISHED BY HENBY CABEY BAIBD. 

Overman, The Manufacture of Iron in all its 
Various Branches; 

To which is added an Essay on the Manufacture of Steel. 
By Frederick Overman, Mining Engineer. With one 
hundred and fifty Wood^ngravings. Third edition. In 
one volume, octavo, five hundred pages $7.50 

" We have now to announce the appearance of another valuable 
work on the subject, which, in our humble opinion, supplies any defi- 
ciency which late improvements and discoveries may have caused, 
from the lapse of time since the date of ' Mushet' and ' Schrivenor.' 
It is the production of one of our Trans- Atlantic brethren, Mr. Fred- 
erick Overman, Mining Engineer ; and we do not hesitate to set it 
down as a work of great importance to all connected with the iron in- 
terests ; one which, while it is sufficiently technological fully to ex- 
plain chemical analysis, and the various phenomena of iron under 
different circumstances, to the satisfaction of the most fastidious, is 
written in that clear and comprehensive style as to be available to the 
capacity of the humblest mind, and consequently will be of much ad- 
vantage to those works where the proprietors may see the -desirability 
of placing it in the hands of their operatives." London Mining 
Journal. 

Painter, Gilder and Varnisher' s Companion; 

Containing Rules and Regulations in everything relating 
to the Arts of Painting, Gilding, Varnishing and Glass 
Staining ; with numerous useful and valuablevReceipts ; 
Tests for the detection of Adulterations in Oils and 
Colors ; and a statement of the Diseases and Accidents to 
which Painters, Gilders and Varnishers are particularly 
liable, with the simplest methods of Prevention and 
Remedy. Eighth edition. To which are added Complete 
Instructions in Graining, Marbling, Sign Writing, and 
Gilding on Glass. 12mo., cloth $1.25 

Paper-Hanger's (The) Companion; 

In which the Practical Operations of the Trade are sys- 
tematically laid down ; with copious Directions Prepara- 
tory to Papering ; Preventions against the effect of Damp 
in Walls ; the various Cements and Pastes adapted to 
the several purposes of the Trade ; Observations and Di- 
rections for the Panelling and Ornamenting of Rooms, 
etc., etc. By James Arrowsmith. In one volume 
12mo : $1.25 

Practical (The) Surveyor's Guide; 

Containing the necessary information to make any per- 
son of common capacitv a finished Land Survevor, with- 

' 17 



PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC BOOKS, 

~% "~ 

out the aid of a Teacher. By Andrew Duncan, 
Purveyor and Civil Engineer. 12mo ?l.U."j 

Hiving .had an experience <>r, etc., of thirty 

yearn, it is believed that the au'hor of this volume posseaHes a thorough 
knowledge of the wants of the profession ; and never having met with 
any work Biifliciently concise and instructive in the .several detail* 
necessary for the proper qualification ot the Surveyor, it has been his 
object to supply that want. Among other important matters in the 
* book, will be found the following: 

Instructions in levelling and profiling, with a new and speedy pi. in 
of setting grades on rail and plank roads the method of inflecting 
curves the description and design of r^iew instrument, when 
tances are found at once, without any calculation a new method of 
surveying any tract of land by measuring one line through it- 
metrical method of correcting surveys taken with the compass, to tit 
them for calculation a short method of finding the angles from the 
courses, and vice versa the method of surveying with the co; 
through any mine or iron works, and to correct the deflections of the 
needle by attraction description of an instrument by the help of 
which any one may measure a map by inspection, without calculation 
a new and short method of calculation, wherein fewer figures are 
used the method of correcting the diurnal variation of the needle 
various methods of plotting and embellishing maps the most cor- 
rect method of laying off plots with the pole, etc. description of a 
new compass contrived by the author, etc., etc. 

Railroad Engineer's Pocket Companion, for the 
Field. 

By W. Griswold. 12mo., tucks $1.25 

Kegnault, Elements of Chemistry, 

By M. V. Regnault. Translated from the French by T. 
Forrest Betton, M.D., and edited, with notes, by James 
C. Booth, Melter and Refiner U. S. Mint, and William L. 
Faber, Metallurgist and Mining Engineer. Illustrated by 
nearly 700 wood engravings. Comprising nearly 1,500 
pages. In two volumes, 8vo., cloth ,...$10.00 



Rural Chemistry; 



An Elementary Introduction to the Study of the Science, 
in its relation to Agriculture and the Arts of Life. Hy 
Edward Solly, Professor of Chemistry in the Horticul- 
tural Society of London. From the third improved Lon- 
don edition. 12ino $1.:~>0 

Sliunk, A Practical Treatise 

ON RAILWAY CURVES, AND LOCATION FOR YOUNG ENGINEERS. 
By Wm. F. Shunk, Civil Engineer. 12ino =rl.< : '' 

Strength and Other Properties of Metals; 

/Reports of Experiments on the Strength and other Pro- 



PUBLISHED BY HENRY CAREY BAIRD. 

perties of Metals for Cannon. With a Description of the 
Machines for Testing Metals, and of the Classification 6*t 
Cannon in service. By Officers of the Ordnance Depart- 
ment U. S. 'Army. By authority of the Secretary of 
War. Illustrated by 25 large steel plates. In one vol- 
ume, quarto $10.01 

The best Treatise on Cast-iron extant. 

Tables Showing the Weight 

OF ROUND, SQUARE AND FLAT BAR IRON, STEEL, etc., by 
Measurement. Cloth 5G 

Taylor, Statistics of Coal; 

Including Mineral Bituminous Substances employed in 
Arts and Manufactures ; with their Geographical, Geo- 
logical and Commercial Distribution, and Amount of Pro- 
duction and Consumption on the American Continent. 
With Incidental Statistics of the Iron Manufacture. By 
R. C. Taylor. Second edition, revised by S. S. Halde- 
man. Illustrated by five Maps and. many Wood Engrav- 
ings. 8vo., cloth $6.00 

Templelon, The Practical Examinator on 
Steam and the Steam Engine; 

With Instructive References relative thereto, arranged 
for the use of Engineers, Students, and others. By WEI. 
Templeton, Engineer. 12mo $1.25 

This work was originally written for the author's private use. He 
was prevailed upon by various Engineers, who had seen the notes, to 
consent to its publication, from their eager expression of belief that 
It would be equally useful to them as it had been to himself. 

Tin and Sheet Iron Worker's Instructor; 

Comprising complete Descriptions of the necessary Pat- 
terns and Machinery, and the Processes of Calculating 
Dimensions, Cutting, Joining, Raising, Soldering, etc. 
etc. With numerous Illustrations $2.50 

Treatise (A) on a Box of Instruments, 

And the Slide Rule ; with the Theory of Trigonometry 
and Logarithms, including Practical Geometry, Survey 
ing, Measuring of Timber, Ca*k and Malt Gauging, 

19 



PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC BOOKS, 

, Hjeights and Distances. By Thomas Kentish. In one 

volume, 12mo $1.25 

A volume of inestimable value to Engineers, Gaugcrs, Students, and 
others. 

Tunibull. The Electro-Magnetic Telegraph; 

With an Historical Account of its Rise, Progress, and 
Present Condition. Also, Practical Suggestions in regard 
to Insulation and Protection from the Effects of Light- 
ning. Together with an Appendix containing several 
important Telegraphic Devices and Laws. By Lawrence 
Turnbull, M. D., Lecturer on Technical Chemistry at the 
Franklin Institute. Second edition. Revised and im- 
proved. Illustrated by numerous Engravings. 8vo..$2.50 

Turner's (The) Companion; 

Containing Instruction in Concentric, Elliptic and Eccen- 
tric Turning ; also various Steel Plates of Chucks, Tools 
and Instruments ; and Directions for Using the Eccentric 
Cutter, Drill, Vertical Cutter and Rest ; with Patterns 
and Instructions for working them. 12mo., cloth.. $1.25 

Weatherley (Henry). Treatise on the Art of 
Boiling Sugar, Crystallizing, Lozenge- 
making, Comfits, Gum Goods, 

12mo $2.0C 

Williams, On Heat and Steam; 

Embracing New Views of Vaporization, Condensation, 
and Expansion. By Charles Wye Williams. Illustrated. 
8vo $3.50 



SOCIAL SCIENCE. 

THE WORKS OF HENRY C. CAREY. 



" I challenge the production from among the writers on political 
economy of a more learned, philosophical, and convincing speculator 
on that theme, than my distinguished fellow-citizen, Henry < . Carey. 
The works he has published in support of the protective poli. 
remarkable for profound research, extensive range of inquin. 
logical acumen, and a consummate knowledge of history.' 
Hn. Hdircirtf Joy Morris, in the House of Representatives of the I'niUd 
Slates, February 2, 1869. 
20 



PUBLISHED BY HENKY CAREY BAIRD. 
THE WORKS OF HENRY C. CAREY. 

" Henry C. Carey, the best known and ablest economist of North 
America. ***** in Europe he is principally known by his 
striking and original attacks, based upon the peculiar advantages of 
American experience, on some of the principal doctrines, especially 
Malthus' ' Theory of Population' and Ricardo's teachings. His views 
have been largely adopted and thoroughly discussed in Europe." 
" The German Political Lexicon." Edited by Bluntschli and Brater. Leipsic. 
1868. 

" We believe that your labors mark an era in the science of political 
economy. To your researches and lucid arguments are we indebted 
for the explosion of the absurdities of Malthus, Say, and Ricardo, in 
regard to the inability of the earth to meet the demands of a growing 
population. American industry owes you a debt which cannot be re- 
paid, and which it will ever be proud to acknowledge. From a Letter 
of Hon. George W. Scranton, M. C., Hon. William Jessup, and over sixty 
influential citizens of Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, to Henry C. Carey, 
April 3, 1859. 

Financial Crises; 

Their Causes and Effects. 8 vo., paper 25 

French and American Tariffs, 

Compared in a Series of Letters addressed to Mons. M. 
Chevalier. 8vo., paper 25 

Harmony (The) of Interests; 

Agricultural, Manufacturing and Commercial. 8vo., 

paper 75 

Cloth $1.50 

" We can safely recommend this remarkable work to all who wish 
to investigate the causes of the progress or decline of industrial com- 
munities." Blackwood's Magazine. 

Letters to the President of the United States, 

8vo., Paper .'.... 50 

Miscellaneous Works; 

Comprising "Harmony of Interests," "Money," "Let- 
ters to the President," "French and American Tariffs," 
and " Financial Crises." One volume, 8vo $3.00 



Money ; 



A Lecture 



Before the New York Geographical and Statistical So- 
ciety. 8vo., paper 25 



PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC BOOKS, 
THE WORKS OF HENRY C. CAREY. 

Past (The), the Present, and the Fill HIT, 

8vo *2.. r ,0 

12mo $1.50 

" Full of important facts bearing on topics that are now agitating 
all Kurope. * * These quotations u ill only whet the aj; 
of the scientific reader to devour the whole work. It is a book full of 
valuable information." Economist. 

" Decidedly a book to be read by all who take an interest in the pro- 
gress of social science." Spectator. 

"A Southern man myself, never given to tariff doctrines, I confess to 
have been convinced by his reasoning, and, thank Heaven, have not 
now to learn the difference between dogged obstinacy and consistency. 
' Ye gods, give us but light !' should be the motto of every inquirer 
after truth, but for far different and better purposes than that which 
prompted the exclamation.'' The late John S. Skinner. 

" A volume of extensive information, deep thought, high intelli- 
gence, and moreover of material utility." London Morning Advertiser. 

" Emanating from an active intellect, remarkable for distinct views 
and sincere convictions." Britannia. 

" ' The Past, Present, and Future,' is a vast summary of progressive 
philosophy, wherein he demonstrates the benefit of political economy 
in the onward progress of mankind, which, ruled and directed by over- 
whelming influences of an exterior nature, advances little by little, 
until these exterior influences are rendered subservient in their turn, 
to increase as much as possible the extent of their wealth and riches." 
Dictionnaire Universel des Contemporains. Par G. Vapereau. Paris. 
1868. 

Principles of Social Science, 

Three volumes, 8vo., cloth ,$10.00 

CONTENTS. Volume I. 'Of Science and its Methods Of Man, 
the Subject of Social Science Of Increase in the Numbers of Mankind 
Of the Occupation of the Earth Of Value Of Wealth Of the For- 
mation of Society Of Appropriation Of Changes of Matter in Place 
Of M hanical and Chemical Changes in the Forms of Matter. Vol- 
ume U. Of Vital Changes in the Form of Matter Of the Instrument 
of Assoe.ation. Volume III. Of Production and Consumption Of 
Accumulation Of Circulation Of Distribution Of Concentration 
and Centralization Of Competition Of Population Of Food and 
Population Of Colonization Of the Malthusian Theory Of Com- 
merce Of the Societary Organization Of Social Science. 

" I have no desire here to reproach Mr. Malthus with the extreme 
lightness of his scientific baggage. In his day, biology, animal and 
vegetable chemistry, the relations of the various portions of the hu- 
man organism, etc. etc., had made but little progress, and it is to the 
general ignorance in reference to these questions that we mus* 
think, look for explanation of the fact that he should, with so much 
confidence, in reference to so very grave a subject, have ventured To 
suggest a formula BO arbitrary in its character, and one whose hollow- 
ness becomes now so clearly manifest. Mr. Carey's advantage over 
him, both as to facts and logic, is certainly due in great part to the 
progress that has since been made in all the sciences connected with 
life ; but then, how admirably has he profited of them ! How entirely 
IB he au courant of all these branches of knowledge which, whether 
22 



PUBLISHED BY HENRY C ABE'S BAIRD. 
THE WORKS OF HENRY C. CAREY. 

directly or indirectly, bear upon his subject ! With what skill does he 
ask of each and every of them all that it can be made to furnish, 
whether of facts or arguments ! With what elevated views,- and 
what amplitude of means, does he go forward in his work ! Abov 
all, how thorough jn his scientific caution ! Accumulating inductions, 
and presenting for consideration facts the most undoubted and proba 
bilities of the highest kind, he yet affirms nothing, contenting himself 
with showing that his opponent had no good reason for affirming the 
nature of the progression, nor the time of duplication t nor the gene- 
ralization which takes the facts of an individual case and deduces 
from them a law for every race, every climate, every civilization, 
every condition, moral or physical, permanent and transient, 
healthy or unhealthy, of the various populations of the many coun- 
tries of the world. Then, having reduced the theory to the level of a 
mere hypothesis, he crushes it to atoms under the weight of facts." 
M. De Fontenay in the "Journal des Economistes." Paris, September, 1862. 

" This book is so abundantly full of notices, facts, comparisons, cal- 
culations, and arguments, that too much would be lost by laying a 
part of it before the eye of the reader. The work is vast and severe 
in its conception and aim, and is far removed from the common run 
of the books on similar subjects." .K Hondo Letterario, Turin. 

" In political economy, America is represented by one of tho 
strongest and most original writers of the age, Henry C. Carey, of 
Philadelphia. * * * * ******* 

" His theory of Rents is regarded as a complete demonstration- that 
the popular views derived from Ricardo are erroneous; and on the 
subject of Protection, he is generally confessed to be the master- 
thinker of his country." Westminster Review. 

" Both in America and on the Continent, Mr. Henry Carey has ac- 
quired a great name as a political economist. ***** 

" His refutation of Malthus and Ricardo we consider most triumph- 
ant." London Critic. 

" Mr. Carey began his publication of Principles twenty years ago ; 
he is certainly a mature and deliberate writer. More than this, he is 
readable : his pages swarm with illustrative facts and with American 
instances. ************ 

" We are in great charity with books which, like Mr. Carey's, theo- 
rize with excessive boldness, when the author, as does Mr. Carey, 
possesses information and reasoning power." London Athenceum. 

" Those who would fight against the insatiate greed and unscrupu- 
lous misrepresentations of the Manchester school, which we have fre- 
quently exposed, without any of their organs having ever dared to 
make reply, will find in this and Mr. Carey's other works an immense 
store of arms and ammunition. ******** 

" An author who has, among the political economists of Germany 
and France, numerous readers, is worth attentive perusal in Eng- 
land." London Statesman. 

" Of all the varied answers to the old cry of human nature, 'Who 
will show us any good 1' none are more sententious than Mr. Carey's. 
He says to Kings, Presidents, and People, ' Keep the nation at work, 
and the greater the variety of employments the better.' He is seek- 
ing and elucidating the great radical lawe of matter as regards man. 
He Is at once the apostle and evangelist of temporal righteousness." 
National Intelligencer. 

" A work which we believe to be the greatest ever written by an 
American, and one which will in future ages be pointed out as the 
most successful effort of its time to form the great scientia scientiarum." 
Philadelphia Evening Bulletin. 



.fRACTICAIi AND SCIENTIFIC BOOKS, 
THE WORKS OF HENRY C. CAREY. 

The Slave Trade, Domestic and Foreign ; 

Why it Exists, and How it may be Extinguished. 12mo., 
cloth $1.50 

CONTENTS. The Wide Extent of Slavery Of Slavery in the 
British Colonies Of Slavery in the United States Of Emancipation 
in the British Colonies How Man passes from Poverty and Slavery 
toward Wealth and Freedom How Wealth tends to Increase How 
Labor acquires Value and Man becomes Free How Man passes from 
Wraith and Freedom toward Poverty and Slavery How Slavery 
prow, and How it is now maintained in the West Indies How Slavery 
f rew, and is maintained in the United States How Slavery grows in 
Portugal and Turkey How Slavery grows in India How Slavery 
prows in Ireland and Scotland How Slavery grows in England 
How can Slavery be extinguished? How Freedom grows in Northern 
fJorinany How Freedom grows in Russia How Freedom grows in 
Denmark How Freedom grows in Spain and Belgium Of the Duty 
of the People of the United States Of the Duty of the People of Eng- 
land. 

" As a philosophical writer, Mr. Carey is remarkable for the union 
of comprehensive generalizations with a copious induction of facts. 
His research of principles never leads him to the neglect of details ; 
nor is his accumulation of instances ever at the expense of universal 
truth. He is, doubtless, intent on the investigation of la\rs, as the 
appropriate aim of science, but no passion for theory seduces him 
Into the region of pure speculation. His mind is no less historical 
than philosophical, and had he not chosen the severer branch in 
which his studies have borne such excellent fruit, he would have 
attained an eminent rank among the historians from whom the litera- 
ture of our country has received such signal illustration." Kew York 
Tribune. 



French Politico-Economic Controversy, 

Between the Supporters of the Doctrines of CAREY and 
of those of RICARDO and MALTHOS. By MM. De Fontenay, 
Dupuit, Baudrillart, and others. Translated from the 
"Journal des Ecouomistes," 1862-63. (In press.) 

Protection of Home Labor and Home Produc- 
tions 

Necessary to the Prosperity of the American Farmer. 
By H. C. Baird. Paper i3 

Smith, A Manual of Political Economy, 

By E. Peshine Smith. 12mo., cloth $1.25 

24 



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