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1 I E R A L D R Y 











S Y N O P S I S. V O L. II. 


Obligation of Cadets to difference arms Effects of the Wars of 
the Roses in England Permanency of old families in Scotland 
Sub-infeudation Rise of Surnames Few names and 
original coats in Scotland. 

Modes of Differencing Change of tincture Addition of charges 
The Label Royal Cadency in England Arms of Prince Con- 
sort Canton Quarter Escucheon Change of Ordinary 
Changes of Charges Augmentations Ecclesiastical differ- 
ences The Bordure Bordures of Plantagenet Princes, etc. 
French Royal Cadency Spanish bordures Use of Bordure 
in Scotland The Marks of Cadency Difference by Quarter- 
ing The Escucheon en surtout Mortimer Coats -Low- 
Country families CROY and LANNOY MONTMORENCY 
differences pp. 396 452 



Adoption of wife's arms Early seals Composed coats Impale- 
ment by Dimidiation Arms of Cinque Ports Abbey of St. 
Etienne at Caen Polish dimidiated coats Simple Impale- 
ment Cheminee of the Palais de Justice at Bruges LEUCH- 
TENBERG Spanish parti coats DACRE tomb at Lanercost 
Dimidiation per bend, and per bend-sinister Arms of 

Quartering Grand-quarters PERCY arms Quartering per saltire 
Jus expectations Erb-i>erbriiderung Escucheon en sur- 
tout Low-Country usages Arms of an elected sovereign 
German usages Arms of MARIA THERESA Ecu Complet of 

Austrian Empire French and Spanish Marshalling Italian- 
Swedish Quarterings separated by a Cross or other Ordinary 
The Da?inebrog . . . pp. 453 512 

(SECTION IL, BY G. B. AND j. w.) 

Heraldry in the Highlands The Escucheon en surtout DOUGLAS 
quartered coats Scottish bordures Arms of feudal dignities 
en surtout Augmentations (G. B.) Arms of the heiress of a 
mother, but not of a father Issue of Morganatic marriages : 
Official arms of Ecclesiastics, etc. Arms of Kings of Arms- 
Electors of the Holy Roman Empire Grand Masters, etc., of 
etc.Q. W.) pp. 512 527 



Arms of EDWARD the Confessor HOWARD augmentation Sir 
RUTLAND Augmentations granted by HENRY VIII. to his 
wives Grants by JAMES I., and by CHARLES II. Later 
Military and Naval Grants Scottish concessions Imperial 
Augmentations Guelphic and Ghibbeline Chiefs French 
concessions Papal grants Russian Augmentations Arms 
of SUWOROFF, MENSCHIKOFF, etc. Prussian grants The 
Swedish concessions Spanish grants Arms of COLUMBUS, 
CORTEZ, and VASCO DA GAMA ... pp. 528547 



Coat armour evidence of nobility Actual status of bastards in the 
Middle Ages The bendlet-sinister, an earlyand general brisure 
for illegitimacy Vulgar error A bar sinister an impossibility 
The filet en barre, or baton peri en barre Coi'itume de 
Lorraine Low Country Ordonnances The faux escu 
Mistake of NISBET and SETON with regard to it. 

The Canton Arms on a bend The bordure of the legitimated 
Plantagenets Arms of Royal bastards Bastards of noble 
families Venality of the old heralds The bordure-ivavy 
Marks of bastardy in Scotland The bordure-gobont The 
bordure-wavy, a Scotch mark of legitimate cadency Marks 
of illegitimacy in France Royal bastards Burgundy and the 
Low Countries Interesting series of brisures Spanish and 
Portuguese bastards Italian, German, and Scandinavian 
examples The bend-sinister no certain mark of illegitimacy in 
Continental Armory pp. 548582 


BADGES. (J. W.) 

Early heraldic devices The badge the earliest form General use 
of for all decorative purposes Knots and other devices 
Royal Badges The planta genista The White and Red Roses 
The Swan White Hart The Falcon and Fetterlock, etc. 
The Ostrich Feather badge Royal badges Livery Collars 
Collar of SS pp. 583598 




Crests assumed later than Arms Early crests The " fan-shaped " 
crest, or ecran Crested helm In England of minor importance 
Crests not hereditary Used to denote cadency German 
helms Annoiries timbrees in France Limitation of use 
Materials and position of helm The Stall Plates and Crests 
at Windsor Use of several crested helms in Germany Use 
in Scandinavia In France Spain Portugal Ecclesiastics, 
right of, to use Crests Reasons for choice of Crest Buffalo 
horns Wings- Vol-banneret Trompes d'hlcphant Com- 
posed crests Penaches, hats, the plumail The mitre, and 
mitred crests German anomalies English anomalies " Our 
crest /" Differenced crests Use of more than one Absurd 

crests Lambrequins Wreaths The calotte and capeline 
Feather lambrequins Tinctures of mantlings Contoise The 
Crest- Coronet Mantles, pavilions, etc. . . pp. 599 616 



The Iron Crown// Sacro ChiodoCro\\n of CHARLEMAGNE 
Early English Crowns Development of Crowns Coronet of 
Prince of WALES Crown of SCOTLAND Closed- crowns- 
French crowns, and coronets Crowns of Emperors The 
Szent Korona Russian Crowns at Moscow Royal Prussian 
Crown Archducal coronet Princely Crowns Crown of 
Doge of VENICE Coronets, licence in use of Ducal coronet 
Used by Marshals of France, and Spanish Grandees 
Coronets of Marquesses, Earls, Counts, Barons, etc. Mortiers 
Coronets of Dutch Admirals British ignorance The Toques 
of the French Empire . ..'"-. . . pp. 617 626 



Supports, Tenans, Soutiens Origin of Supporters Evidence of 
early seals Single supporters the Unicorn of SCOTLAND 
The Apostolic Eagle Double Supporters Breton use Sup- 
porters mantled Crested Supporters Triple Supporters 
French Royal Supporters Free use of Supporters abroad 
Ordonnances des Pays Bas Unnecessary restrictions Pedan- 
tic attention to minutiae Supporters with banners Use of 
Supporters in Spain and Italy Slavonic and other uses The 
"beast" Compartments British absurdities Inanimate 
Supporters (Orders of ST. JOHN, etc.) Badges of Office, in 
Britain, France, Italy, Holland, and Spain The Cordeliere, 
Lacs d' Amour Palms, etc. Motto bands The use of Sup- 
porters, to whom limited Choice of new Supporters More 
British absurdities . . . . .. , pp. 627 648 



Banners of the Bayeux Tapestry Banners and Bannerets Bache- 
leries Fiefs en bajiniere Ecuyer-banneret A banneret, how 
made Arms on Sails of Ships Standards Variations of 
Pennoncelles Guidons National Flags Battle of the Stan- 
dard The Carrocdo in Italy English flags The " Union 
2/jtf The OriflammeVexillaLe Drapcau blancTut 
tricolor of France Imperial Standard of Germany 

pp. 649 660 



Royal Arms of ENGLAND National Arms Partitions and Curious 
Coats Amies Parlantes Scandinavian Names assumed from 
Arms Conclusion pp. 66 1 674 



APPENDICES pp. 748755 

INDEX pp. 756 859 



XXXV. Seals . . . . . facing paye 415 

XXXVI. Arms of JEAN, Due d' ALBANY . . . ,, 445 

XXXVII. Seals ,447 

XXXVIII. Emblazoned, Marshalling, Dimidiation, etc. . , 463 

XXXIX. ,, Marshalling .... 481 

XL. ,, Achievement of MARIA THERESA . 495 

XLI. Marshalling . . . . 509 

XLII. Marshalling . 513 

XLIII. ,, Marshalling .... 521 

XLIV. ,, Armorial du Heraut Gueldre . 537 

XLV. Wappenrolle von Zurich . . 539 

XLVI. Wappenrolle von Zurich . . 545 

XLVII. Illegitimacy. . . . 573 

XLVIII. Illegitimacy. ... 577 

XLIX. Crests . . . . . . 607 

L. Crowns and Coronets . . . . 623 

LI. Emblazoned, Royal Arms of England, etc. . 661 

LII. ,, Royal Arms of Great Britain, etc. 663 

LIII. ,, National Arms . . .' 665 

L1V. ,, National Arms . . " . 667 

LV. ,, Partitions, etc. . 6fi9 

LVI. Partitions, etc. ... 671 










Daubeny Achievement 





Helmet of Sovereign . 



WILLIAM, Duke of 


,, Peers 





,, Baronets and 



EDWARD, Duke of 






,, Gentlemen 



LEOPOLD, Duke of 





421 98. 

Arms, etc., of Prince 


s j 


PUTBUS .... 



421 99. 

Seal of Louis, Count of 







Princess AUGUSTA 

421 100. 

Banner of PERCY 




421 i 101. 

, , from Bay eux Tapestry 649 


,, MARY 

421 ! 102. 





42 L 103. 




Escucheon of HENRI DK 










" Ecu-Complet " of 



the Austrian Empire 

497 106. 

Tabard or Coat of Arms . 




BEFORE armorial bearings had been for a century in 
general use it was found necessary to distinguish by 
their variations, not only different families but different 
members, or branches of the same family. It came to 
be understood that the head of the house could alone 
use the pure unaltered coat. Even the heir apparent, or 
heir presumptive, had no right to use the ancestral coat 
without some variation ; in common with the other 
cadets he had to bear it with a difference, or brisure. 
This was early an unwritten but generally accepted law. 
The obligation of cadet lines to difference their arms 
was recognised over nearly the whole of civilised 
Europe in the fourteenth century ; and when, later, 
the obligation seemed in danger of being forgotten it 
was made the subject of direct legislation. 

In the treatise of ZYPCEUS, de Notitia juris Belgici, 
lib. xii., quoted also in MENETRIER, Recherches du 
Blazon, p. 218, we find the following: 

" Ut secundo et ulterius geniti, quin imo primogeniti 
vivo patre, integra insignia non gerant, sed aliqua nota 
distincta, ut perpetuo lineae dignosci possint, et ex qua 
quique descendant, donee anteriores defecerint. Exceptis 
Luxemburgis et Gueldris, quibus non sunt ii mores." 
(The exception is curious. I have printed the Regu- 
lations in force in Portugal in the Appendix to this 

The choice of these brisures was, however, left to the 
persons concerned ; and there is, consequently, a great 

2 D 

( 397 ) 

variety of these ancient modes of difference which it is 
the object of this chapter to set forth in detail. 

In England, where great stringency of regulation has 
prevailed with regard to some armorial matters of small 
importance, it has (as is often the case) been accompanied 
with extreme laxity as regards other, and more impor- 
tant, ones. 

The old system of differencing was practically 
abandoned in the sixteenth century, and was replaced 
by the present unsatisfactory " Marks of Cadency," 
consisting of minute charges intended to denote the 
order of birth of a series of brothers, and themselves to 
be charged in a second generation by a still minuter 
series. Even to this limited extent the system has been 
found unworkable, and beyond a second generation 
there is not even the semblance of provision for indicat- 
ing cadency. 

In the remarks on DIFFERENCES printed in the 
Appendix to LOWER'S Curiosities of Heraldry from an 
essay by Sir EDWARD DERING, circa 1630, occur the 
following just remarks : 

"These minute differences, as they were antiently 
dangerous and insufficient, so in manner as they are 
now used they were then unknown ; neither is there 
art enough by any of our heralds' rules, though much 
refined of late, to guide one so as to know which of the 
crescent-bearers was the uncle, or which the nephew, 
and for crescent upon crescent, mullet upon mullet, etc., 
in a pedigree of no great largeness, perspective glasses 
and spectacles cannot help you ; but you must have 
Lyncean eyes, or his that could write Homer's Iliads, 
and fold them into a nutshell." 

As in England so on the Continent generally brisures 
have gone greatly into disuse. It is in Scotland alone 
that the old system of differencing has never ceased to 
be in viridi observantia. In fact the most striking 

peculiarity of Scottish Heraldry is the importance which 
it has always attached to distinguishing the arms of the 
cadets of a family from those which pertain to its chief. 
It must, however, be confessed that circumstances, 
presently to be referred to, have made this an easier 
matter than it has been elsewhere. 

Anyone who has given attention to the different 
economic conditions of England and Scotland will have 
little difficulty in apprehending the reasons which have 
made differencing at once easier and more important in 
North Britain than in the southern kingdom. These 
are the permanency of the old families ; and the close- 
ness of the family and feudal tie. At an early period 
the leading families of England began to wane, not 
merely out of power but out of existence. Great 
baronial houses continually ended in heiresses and 
co-heiresses who often divided estates, and carried them 
to meaner men. The great struggle between the 
Houses of York and Lancaster known as the Wars of 
the Roses, swept whole families of both the greater and 
lesser nobility off the face of the earth. Of the twenty- 
five barons appointed to enforce the observance of 
Magna Charta, who must have been chief among the 
magnates of England, there is not a male descendant 
surviving in its present peerage. It is not intended to 
imply that the present nobility of the British Empire is 
inferior in point of ancient lineage, or in any other 
respect, to the existing noblesse of any other European 
country. The foreigner, who looks simply to the date 
of the Peerage dignity of one of our nobles, is very 
liable to form an entirely false idea with regard to this 
matter. He does not know, probably he has no means 
of knowing, that a person called to the House of Lords, 
Imperante Victoria, may be the head, or still more 
probably the cadet, of a family of untitled gentlemen 
who can trace their descent in the male line, if they care 

( 399 ) 

so to do, to a companion of the Norman Conqueror. 
Sir BERNARD BURKE tells us that " WROTTESLEY, 
a Baron of Queen VICTORIA'S reign, can establish 
what no other member of the House of Lords can 
a male line of descent from a FOUNDER KNIGHT 
OF THE GARTER," although "Vernon is sprung from 
Richard, Baron of Shipbroke recorded in Domesday Book; 
.... and Bagot is the head of a race of gentlemen 
traceable back to the Conquest, from a junior branch of 
which sprang the celebrated house of Stafford, ducal 
under the title of Buckingham." (The Rise of Great 
Families, p. 33, 1873.) Still there has been a great 
extinction of once noble names. A large proportion of the 
surnames borne by knightly and noble families in the 
fourteenth, and earlier centuries, have utterly passed 
away from common ken. We find them recorded, with 
the ensigns which their owners bore, in our Heraldic 
Ordinaries and Rolls of Arms, but a large proportion of 
them would sound unfamiliar in the ears of modern 

On the other hand, the Scoto-Norman Barons were 
remarkable for their numerous progeny ; a physical fact 
for which the intermixture of Celtic blood has been 
suggested as a cause. Sub-infeudation, which in England 
had been prohibited from the time of the Plantagenet 
kings, was largely practised in Scotland. The great 
baron, owner of an extensive but thinly peopled domain, 
could provide each of his sons with a fief to be held from 
him for rent, or military service. Each son divided his 
fief among his children ; and this sub-infeudation went 
on till every powerful family could count a large array 
of cadets ; many of them, no doubt, in comparatively 
obscure positions, but the tie of blood, carefully cherished 
on both sides, imparted a patriarchal character to the 
relation of superior and vassal. 

The student can hardly fail to notice the striking 


difference between England and Scotland in the matter 
of the number and variety of surnames, and arms attach- 
ing to them. Whole districts of Scotland have their 
predominating names, which are generally those of 
the old feudal families. Argyllshire is peopled with 
CAMPBELLS ; Inverness-shire with MACDONALDS ; Aber- 
deenshire with GORDONS, and FORBESES ; and the 
southern counties with SCOTTS, KERS, ELLIOTS, JOHN- 

Surnames were for a long time after their introduction, 
used only by the gentry ; and when they began to be 
assumed by the lower orders, the clansman almost 
invariably took the name of his chief, considering 
himself a member of his family, at least by adoption, 
if not by a closer tie the remembrance of which tradi- 
tion had preserved. In England it was far otherwise. 
New men emerged, and founded new families ; it was 
easier to adopt new arms than (even for those who 
might possibly have succeeded in doing so had they 
tried) to trace a connection with those who had passed 

Hence it comes to pass that while in England the 
multitude of entirely distinct coats of arms is enormous, 
in Scotland the number of original coats is small; but 
the distinct and well defined insignia of the chief of the 
family are differenced in such a manner as to show 
forth, more or less clearly, his relation to the head of the 
house, and to other cadets ; and in many cases also to 
suggest his maternal descent. I have Dr BURNETT'S 
authority for stating that : " In the Official Register of 
Arms from 1672 up to 1888 the entries for members of 
the families of CAMPBELL, HAMILTON, STEWART, and 
SCOTT, compose about a ninth of the whole ; and if we 
NINGHAMS and FRASERS, we have exhausted a fourth 

of the existing record of arms. In the case of the 
most numerous family, the CAMPBELLS for whom more 
than a hundred coats are registered by far the larger 
number have been assigned to persons either certainly 
having, or with a high degree of probability claiming, a 
connection with the head of the house." One of the 
principal duties imposed on LYON by the Scottish 
Parliament in 1592, is the assigning of proper differ- 
ences to cadets, and the bearing of arms without such 
differences was made penal, by the statutes of 1662, 
and 1672. 

In most English heraldic books this important subject 
of differencing is only adverted to very briefly ; and this 
almost entirely with reference to the little regarded 
practice of modern times. One bright exception is the 
excellent work by my late friend the Rev. C. BOUTELL, 
Heraldry ', Historical and Popular ; in \vhich there is 
a most valuable and interesting Chapter on " Cadency 
and Differencing," the materials for which are mainly 
extracted from the English Rolls of Anns. 

The Scottish Herald NlSBET treats the subject much 
more fully than his English contemporaries, in a separate 
work on Marks of Cadency, as well as in his System of 
Heraldry ; one of the causes of the popularity of the 
latter being, I imagine, the fact that in it a larger number 
of the differenced arms of cadets were there made 
accessible to the reader than could be found elsewhere (out 
of the Lyon Register), before the publication of BURKE'S 
General Armory. But NlSBET was not in possession 
of historical materials which are now easy of access ; and 
his work chiefly relates to the differencing of compara- 
tively modern times. Though in Scotland Rolls of Arms 
do not exist of the early date of those which we possess 
in England (many of which have been printed within 
the last quarter of a century), the two volumes of 
Scottish Seals, edited by Mr H. LAING, supply us with 

( 402 ) 

materials equally ancient ; and are in later times sup- 
plemented by the illuminated manuscripts of the sixteenth 
century by Sir DAVID LINDSAY ; and by the collections 
of WORKMAN, and others, which have been made acces- 
sible to the student and general reader in the late Mr 
STODART'S volumes of Scottish Arms. 

With regard to continental modes of differencing 
contemporary information more than sufficient for our 
purpose is at hand in the admirable collections of seals 
contained in the works of VREE, and DEMAY (from 
which I have already derived materials for the earlier 
portions of this work) ; in the Armorials of the 
d'Armes ; in the works of SPENER and SlEBMACHER ; 
and the several treatises of MENETRIER, and LA ROQUE ; 
as well as in MAURICE'S Blazon des Armoiries de tous les 
Chevaliers de VOrdre de la Toison d'Or ; and the 
Martyrologe des Chevaliers de VOrdre de S. Jean de 
Jerusalem, by GOUSSANCOURT. 

We will now proceed to detail the principal modes 
by which Cadency was denoted. 

The principal modes of differencing hereafter to be 
described are the following : 

1. Change of Tincture (p. 403). 

2. The addition of Small Charges to the Field ; or 

charging an Ordinary with Minor Charges 
(p. 406). 

3. The addition of the Label (p. 414). 

4. The addition of a Canton or Quarter (p. 425). 

5. The addition of an Escucheon, not en surtout 

(p. 427). 

6. The addition (or change) of an Ordinary (p. 428). 

7. Changing the boundary lines of an Ordinary 

(P- 432). 

8. Diminishing the number of Charges (p. 434). 

9. Change of Minor Charges (p. 434). 


10. The use of the Bordure (p. 437). 

1 1. The use of the " Marks of Cadency " (p. 444). 

12. The addition of Quarters (p. 446). 

13. Augmentations, and Official Arms (p. 448). 

14. The Escucheon en surtout (p. 448). 

15. Examples of Cadency combining the preceding 

(p. 448). 

The differences used to denote Illegitimacy are treated 
separately in Chapter XVII., p. 530. 

the earliest modes of difference was to preserve the 
figures, but vary the tinctures. Two families of CHANDOS 
bore a pile gules ; the Herefordshire branch on a field or ; 
the Derbyshire branch (to which belonged Sir JOHN 
CHANDOS, K.G., d. 1369) bore it on a field argent. 
In the reign of HENRY III. the LOTERELS bore: Or, a 
bend between six martlets sable, of which a differenced 
coat in the Roll of EDWARD II. is that borne by Sir 
GEOFFREY LOTEREL : Azure, a bend between six martlets 
argent. The FURNIVALS, who held lands under the 
LOTERELS, assumed the same bearings, but varied 
the tinctures. In the Roll of the Thirteenth Century, 
WALTER DE FURNIVAL bears : " d' Argent, un bend et six 
merloz gules ;" and the same coat is ascribed to GERARD 
DE FURNIVAL in ST. GEORGE'S Roll, No. 210; which 
also contains another coat borne by THOMAS FURNIVAL 
(No. 208) : Or, a bend between six martlets gules. The 
same charges, but with different tinctures, were used by 
other feudal allies of the FURNIVALS and LUTTERELS. 
The ECCLESHALLS bore : Sable, a bend between six mart- 
lets or. The MOUNTENEYS : Azure, a bend between six 
martlets or. The WADSLEYS, and WORTLEYS respec- 
tively, charged the bend gules of the FURNIVALS, with three 
escallops or, and three bezants. The TEMPESTS (temp. 
RICHARD II.) carried : Argent, a bend between six mart- 
lets sable. 

( 404 ) 

The Counts of SOLMS bear : Or, a lion rampant azure, 
which is said to indicate community of descent with the 
house of NASSAU, of which the original coat was : Azure, 
a lion rampant or. (See TRIER'S Rinleitung zu der 
Wapen-Kunst, p. 601, note, Leipzig, 1744.) The Counts 
of SCHWALENBERG bore, Gules, a star or ; those of 
STERNBERG the reverse ; those of WALDECK, Or, a star 
sable. All claimed the same progenitor ; WlTEKIND, 
Count of SCHWALENBERG d. 1190. (See LUOE, 
Graf en Saal, pp. 648-662.) 

HARCOURT uses : d'Or, a deux barres de goules (note 
these are not the French barres, but the English bars), 
and in the reign of EDWARD II. this coat is borne by a 
Sir JOHN HARCOURT ; and by another Sir JOHN, pro- 
bably a cousin, who carried the coat with the tinctures 
reversed. Similarly in the reign of EDWARD I. (First 
Nobility Roll, 1297) THOMAS MOULTON, Baron of EGRE- 
MONT, bears : Argent, three bars gules. In the Roll of 
EDWARD III. this coat is ascribed to Lord MOULTON of 
Gillesland, while Lord MOULTON of Frankton, bears " le 
revers" (COTGRAVE's Roll}. (See the BALLIOL differ- 
ences in the next section, p. 407.) In France HUCHARS 
bore: Argent, a hand within an orle of martlets gules. 
The DE LA PLANQUE of the same origin tinctured the 
charges sable {Armorial de Berry]. 

The four sons of GlLLES DE MAILLY, who bore : Or, 
three mallets vert (v. ante, p. 393), differenced by change 
of tincture ; the second, third, and fourth sons respec- 
tively made the charges, gules, azure, and sable. The 
family of DE GROLEE bore : Gyronny, or and sable, but 
the cadets in Dauphiny changed the metal to argent. 
This mode of difference was frequent in the Low 
Countries. ARNOLD, Count of ARSCHOT, circa 1120, 
who bore : Or, three fleurs-de-lis sable, had five sons ; the 
eldest inherited the paternal arms ; the second, GERARD 

( 405 ) 

of WESEMALE, took : Gules, three fleurs-de-lis argent (in 
this line another differenced coat was : Or, three fleurs- 
de-lis gules}. The third, GEOFFREY DE ROTZELAER, 
bore : A rgent, tJiree fleurs-de-lis gules ; the fourth, 
HENRY DE RIVIERE: Argent, three fleurs-de-lis sable; 
the fifth, JEAN DE SCHOONHOVEN : Gules, three fleurs-de- 
lis or. The Dukes of BRABANT carried : Sable, a lion 
rampant or, but GODFREY, brother of Duke HENRY, differ- 
enced by bearing the lion argent. GAULTIER BERTAUT, 
Seigneur de MECHLIN, bore : Or, three pales gtiles ; his 
brother GlLLES, Seigneur de BERLAER, changed the field 
to argent. (SPENER, Opus Heraldicum, pars, gen., p. 347. 
MENETRIER, Veritable Art du Blason, c. 19., p. 352.) 

In Holland averylargenumberof families who bearthree 
zuilen (chess-rooks ; vide ante, p. 388) are distinguished 
solely by the change of tincture in field and charges. 

In Germany similar mutations are abundant. Two 
families of BOYNEBURG bear : Quarterly, the one argent 
and sable ; the other argent and azure. Two families of 
the Counts of SPANHEIM use : Chequy, the one argent 
and gules, the other azure and or. The Counts of STERN- 
BERG, and HAYMSBERG, in Carinthia, who bear respec- 
tively Azure, and gules, three estoiles or, had a common 
ancestor in the Baron von SAANECK. See also LEUCH- 
TENBERG in the next chapter, p. 472. J. W.] 

[As an early Scottish instance of altering the tincture 
may be cited the family of HUME, originally a cadet of 
the Earls of MARCH, or DUNBAR, who placed the lion of 
the Earls of MARCH in a field vert instead of gules. The 
BOYDS, whose progenitor is understood to have been a 
younger brother of the first High Steward of Scotland, 
bore the STEWART coat with a change of tincture 
Azure, afess cJiecquy argent and gules. The argent field 
of the DOUGLAS coat is in some branches converted into 
ermine as early as 1373 ; and the descendants of the 
DOUGLASES of Dalkeith adopted a further change by 

making the chief gules instead of azure. A similar mode 
of differencing occurs in the earlier Lyon Register in 
other families. The HURRAYS of Culbin in the north, 
changed the azure field of their family into sable ; and 
there seems reason to believe that the southern ERASERS 
had originally the field -sable, the change to azure being 
adopted by the branches who migrated northwards. 
The engrailed cross of SINCLAIR was borne asure, instead 
of sable, by the Herdmanston line ; and several varia- 
tions of tincture are found among branches of the HAY 
family ; Boyne, reversing the tinctures, having the field 
gules, and the shields argent ; Leys having the field 
ermine ; and Broxmouth retaining the argent field, but 
making the charges vert. While the alternate gyronal 
compartments of the Argyle CAMPBELLS are or and 
sable, those of the Loudoun CAMPBELLS are ermine and 
gules, these tinctures being taken from the bearings of 
the family of CRAWFORD, a marriage with whose heiress 
gave them their Ayrshire lands. A change of tincture 
of the field frequently occurs in the Lyon Register in 
case of families bearing the same surname who are not 
asserted or certainly known to be descended from the 
same ancestor. G. B.] 

FIELD. Strewing the field with small charges, called in 
the Boke of St. Albaris gerating ; or substituting for a 
plain field what would now be called a field seme 1 , was 
a very ancient mode of differencing. Dame JULIANA 
BERNERS enumerates nine figures as used for that 
purpose, the crosslet, the crosslet-flory, the fleur-de-lis, 
the primrose, cinquefoil, escallop, chaplet, mullet, and 
crescent. The shield of WILLIAM DE ROMARE, Earl of 
LINCOLN, who died in 1 198, is adduced by Mr PLANCHE 
as an early example of differing by crosses-crosslet ; the 
principal charges are seven mascles conjoined, three, three, 
one the tinctures are unknown. We find in the Rolls 

( 407 ) 

of Arms of the thirteenth, and early part of the fourteenth, 
century many instances of coats crusily, billetty, bezanty, 
and "pleyn d'escallops," fleurette, and "a les trefoilles 
d'or." With these last Sir EDMOND DACRE of West- 
moreland powdered the coat borne by the head of his 
family : Gules, three escallops or (Roll of EDWARD II.). 

We find in the Roll of HENRY III. that JOHN BALLIOL, 
and in the Roll of the Thirteenth Century that EUSTACE 
DE BALLIOL both bore : " Gulez, a un faux escocheon (that 
is an orle} a" argent" which is also attributed to ALEX- 
ANDER DE BALLIOL in ST. GEORGE'S Roll ; and the first 
Roll of EDWARD III. This is differenced by the inversion 
of the tinctures for another ALEXANDER DE BALLIOL. 
A WILLIAM DE BALLIOL bears: Or, an orle vair (or 
azure) with a label gules. An INGRAM DE BALLIOL uses: 
Gules, an orle ermine*, with a label azure. But besides 
these is another differenced coat : Azure, crusily an orle 
or. This is attributed to EUSTACE DE BALLIOL in the 
Roll of HENRY III. (GLOVER'S Roll, No. 40). 

In fact most of the coats which we find seme of small 
charges are, in their origin, coats differenced by gerating. 
The coat borne by the ACTONS of Aldenham, Gules, 
crusily or, two lions passant argent, is evidently a gerated 
coat of LESTRANGE ; for EDWARD DE ACTON married 
the co-heiress of LESTRANGE (living 1387) who bore 
simply : Gules, two lions passant argent. (Herald and 
Genealogist, ii., p. 43.) 

The English BEAUMONTS bore : Azure, flory, and 
a lion rampant or, while those who remained in France, 
at Brienne in Champagne, had the field seme of billets. 
The original coat of the house of BERKELEY in England 
(BARCLAY in Scotland) appears to have been : Gules, 
a chevron or (or argent}. The seals of ROBERT DE 
BERKELEY, who died 4, HENRY III.; of THOMAS 
BERKELEY, who died 1281 ; all show the shield charged 

with a chevron only. MORIS DE BARKELE, in the Roll, 
temp. HENRY III., bears " goules, acheveron argent'' (In 
two of the windows at Bristol, the chevron is tinctured 
or.) But THOMAS, son of MAURICE, who died 15, 
EDWARD II., has the present coat: Gules, a chevron 
between ten crosses patee argent, while in the Roll of 
EDWARD II., "de Goules od les rosettes de argent et un 
chevron de argent" is attributed to Sir THOMAS DE 
BERKELEY. (See my paper on "The Heraldry of Bristol 
Cathedral" in the Herald and Genealogist, vol. iv., p. 
289.) In Leicestershire the BERKELEYS gerated with 
cinquefoils, an ancient and favourite bearing in that 
county. (See p. 322.) In Scotland, the BARCLAYS 
differenced by change of tincture, and bore : Azure, 
a chevron argent between (or in chief) three crosses patee 
of the same. In the Roll, temp. HENRY III. (GLOVER'S 
Roll, No. 1 08), GEOFFREY DE LUCY bears " de Goules 
a trots Inezes dor'' In the first Roll of EDWARD L, this 
is first differenced by the field being made crusily or, 
for GEOFFREY DE LUCY ; and then by a change of the 
tincture of the field, AMAURI DE LUCY bearing : Azure, 
crusily three lucies or. The fess between six crosslets of 
the Earls of WARWICK originated in the old coat of 
BEAUCHAMP, Gules, a fess or, gerated with crosslets 
which were afterwards reduced to six, and for which 
martlets were substituted by the BEAUCHAMPS of Powick. 
The arms of the HOWARDS, now Dukes of NORFOLK, are 
in all probability only a differenced coat of BEAUCHAMP, 
whose dependants they originally were. LA ROQUE 
says : " La maison de Houvard ou Havart . . . . de 
France, a le champ de son escu et la bande comme 
(celle d'Angleterre) accompagnee de six coquilles 
d'argent." (Traite de VOrigine des Noms, p. 203.) 

The Counts of SALM in the Ardennes bear: Argent, 
two salmon addorsed gules ; but this coat is borne crusily 
by the Counts of UPPER SALM in Lothririgen, for 

( 409 ) 

difference, and not, as used to be asserted, in memory of 
a crusading ancestor. The Counts DERNBACH zu DERN- 
BACH used : Or, three hearts in pairle sable, but another 
family of Barons of the same name, dit GRAUL, differenced 
by a change of tincture and the addition of smaller 
charges : Azure, billetty argent, three hearts in pairle or. 

It is curious to find, on the other hand, a new difference 
made by the omission of the differencing small charges. 
The original arms of the Counts of GUELDRES appear 
to have been three cinquefoils ; but GERARD IV. (1229) 
married RlCHARDE DE NASSAU, and assumed her arms : 
Azure, billetty and a lion rampant or. Count RENAUD, 
afterwards first Duke of GUELDRES, omitted the billets. 
(See PLANCHE'S Roll; and Mr WATSON'S remarks on 
it in the Genealogist, New Series, vol. vi., p. 158.) 

These examples might be increased almost indefinitely. 
Nearly akin to this mode of gerating was that by which 
small charges were placed in orle. One of the numerous 
ways in which the coat of the LusiGNAN, or DE 
VALENCE, families was differenced, was by the addition 
of an orle of martlets gules to the original coat : Barruly 
argent and azure ; as shown in champleve enamel on the 
monument of WILLIAM DE VALENCE, Earl of PEM- 
BROKE (d. 1296), in Westminster Abbey; a reduced 
copy of which (affording also a pretty example of 
diaper), forms the frontispiece to BOUTELL'S Heraldry, 
Historical and Popular. This coat is also attributed to 
the Earl's son in the Caerlaverock Roll of 1300. Similar 
to this was the coat of CHAWORTH : Barruly argent and 
gules, which was differenced by an orle of martlets sable. 
bears this coat, but the bars are or and azure. On. the 
original coat the martlets were eventually reduced to 
three, and so became principal charges. In England, 
in the Low Countries, and in northern France there are 
abundant instances in which the difference was effected 

by the addition of a single charge. One of the earliest 
examples, perhaps, is afforded by the coat of DE VERE, 
borne ante 1221, by ROBERT DE VERE, Earl of OXFORD, 
who was a younger brother of AUBREY, the second 
Earl. Quarterly gules and or, in tJie first a star of five 
points argent (vide ante, p. 308). The star is made ermine 
in the Roll of RICHARD II. for AUBREY DE VERE. 
BOUTELL gives, p. 203, an interesting series of the arms 
of NEVILLE of Raby: Gules, a saltire argent, differenced 
thus by a crescent sable; a martlet gules ; a mullet 
sable; a fleur-de-lis ; a rose gules; a pellet, or annulet, 
sable; and two interlaced annulets azure, all borne 
on the centre point of the saltire. The BEAUCHAMP 
shield (Gules, a fess between six martlets or) is similarly 
differenced by the additions of a pierced mullet, or a 
crescent, both of sable. The RADCLYFFES, of Win- 
marleigh, still difference their ancestral coat (Argent, a 
bend sable} with an escallop gules in the sinister chief. 

In MAURICE, Les Chevaliers de la Toison a" Or, we 
find many like instances ; e.g. p. 90, the coat of the great 
family of BORSELE (Sable, a fess argent} is differenced by 
adding a star of six points argent in the dexter chief. 
The Counts of CHALONS bore, Gules, a bend or; at p. 32, 
this is differenced by a pierced mullet sable upon the 
bend in dexter chief. (This is also the difference for 
HuGUES DE CHALONS in V Armorial de Gueldre.) 
In the arms of LOUIS DE CHALONS (Knight of the 
Order, No. Ixiv.), the bend is similarly charged with a 
crescent azure. The coat of PHILIPPE DE CREVECCEUR 
(Knight of the Order, No. Ixix.), Gules, three chevrons 
or, has a crescent azure on the uppermost chevron. 
CHARLES DE LANNOY (Knight of the Order, No. cxxxvi.) 
lays aside the ancestral difference of a bordure engrailed 
gules (to which allusion is made on p. 450), and places 
a crescent gules in the centre of his coat: Argent, 
tJiree lions rampant vert, crowned or. PIERRE DE LA 

TREMOUILLE, Seigneur de DOURS, differenced the 
main coat of his line, Or, a chevron gules between three 
eagles displayed azure, by the addition of a fleur-de-lis 
argent on the point of the chevron (p. 76). The 
LALAINS (of which family there were several Chevaliers 
de la Toison a" Or], who bore, Gules, ten lozenges conjoined 
3> 3> 3, i, argent, charged the first lozenge with a lion 
rampant gules, from the coat of BARBENCON. JACQUES 
DE BRIMEU (Chevalier, No. xviii.) bore, Argent, three 
eagles displayed gules, and in the centre point a demi-lion 
rampant of the last. 

The great family of CHATILLON (of the Counts de 
BLOIS), who bore : Gules, three pallets vair a chief or, 
used, among other differences, a martlet sable in dexter 
chief (Armorial de Berry, No. 81 1). In the Armorial de 
Gueldre, this coat is borne by " LE SlRE DE LA 
FERE" with the difference of a lion rampant gules, in 
the dexter chief. In the same MS., " LE SIRE DE 
MELUN " bears the plain coat: Azure, seven bezants 3,3, i, 
and a chief or (v. p. 341), but HUGUES DE MELUN places 
a martlet sable in dexter chief. (The bezants are also 
nine in number.) The most curious of these differences 
are perhaps the arms of DE DAMPIERRE {Armorial 
de Gueldre], where the CHATILLON chief is charged 
with two lions passant affrontes sable. On the seal of 
MARIE, Countess of BLOIS, c. 1230, the chief is charged 
with eight pallets gules (VREE, Gcnealogie des Comtes de 
Flandre, plate v.). SPENER (Opus Heraldicum, p. gen., 
p. 356) shows that many German coats remain which 
bear similar charges, evidently originally assumed as 
differences, the reason of which has faded out of remem- 
brance. In SIEBMACHER'S Wappenbuch, plates cxxiv., 
cxxv. contain four such instances among Rhenish families. 
HUND VON SALHEIM places a star of six points sable in 
the middle of the coat : Gules, tJiree crescents argent ; DIE 
KNOBEL who bear : Argent, an escucJieon gules, have in 

( 412 ) 

sinister chief an annulet sable ; DIE GROSCHLAG, who 
bore : Azure, tliree bends counter compone argent and 
gules, have between the two upper bends an open crown 
or ; and the VON LlNDAU, whose coat is Gules, a bend 
argent, add in chief a fleur-de-lis azure. (In the two last 
instances the bends are drawn as bends-sinister according 
to the German practice of reversing the charges for the 
sake of symmetrical arrangement. The student should 
bear this in mind in consulting SlEBMACHER, and other 
engraved armorials of Germany.) This mode of differenc- 
ing by additional charges was often carried much further 
than by the insertion of a single one as in the preceding 
examples. In England the original coat of DE GREY 
was Barry of six argent and azure. JOHAN DE GREY so 
bears it in the Roll of EDWARD I. In the Roll of 
EDWARD II., as borne by GREY, Duke of SUFFOLK, it 
is differenced by the addition of three torteaux in chief, 
These were converted into annulets by the DE. GREYS, 
Lords WALSINGHAM. (Plate IX., fig. 3.) 

At Caerlaverock the two brothers BASSETT difference 
the family coat : Ermine, a chief indented gules, by 
adding in the one case three mullets, in the other as 
many escallops, or. 

The seal (c. 1298) of PHILIP, Governor of Flanders, 
fifth son of Count GUY, has the arms of FLANDERS 
differenced by a bendlet charged with two escallops, one 
in chief the other in base. (VREE, Genealogie des Comtes 
de Flandre, p. 75.) 

One of the best known English examples is that of 
the coat of the COBHAMS : Gules, a chevron or, in which 
the Ordinary was charged by the cadets with three 
pierced estoiles, three lions, three crossed-crosslets, three 
fleurs-de-lis, three crescents, and three martlets, all of 
sable. The DESPENCER coat was : Quarterly, argent 
and gules a fret or, over all a bend sable. This coat 
Sir HUGH LE DESPENCER, in the reign of EDWARD II., 

2 E 

differences by charging the bend with three mullets 
argent; for which, in 1476, HENRY SPENCER substitutes 
three escallops argent ; and this coat is that now used 
by the Duke of MARLBOROUGH, and by Earl SPENCER. 
The homage seal of REGINALD CHEYNE of Inverugie 
bears in 1292: Crusily fitcJiee, a bend; and one of his 
sons charges the bend with three escallops. Another 
REGINALD CHEYNE who signs the letter of the Barons 
of Scotland to the Pope in 1320, substitutes eagles 
displayed for the escallops. 

A number of the descendants of Sir JOHN STEWART 
of Bonkyl charge the bend which was his difference with 
the three buckles of BONKYL. 

The cadency of the DAUBENYS, which is given pretty > 
fully by BOUTELL, contains some interesting examples 
which he has not recorded. In the Roll of EDWARD II. 
they bear a fess engrailed or (a bearing which was really 
synonymous in early times with a fess of conjoined fusils, 
in which latter form the coat appears in 1300, in the 
Roll of Caerlaverocfc}. It is, later, blazoned with in 
chief two martlets argent ; three martlets argent ; three 
escallops or; four lozenges or. Again, the fusils (three 
in number) are depicted ermine for difference, with the 
subsidiary brisure of three mullets or in chief. Again, the 
three fusils argent conjoined in fess, are each charged a 
mullet pierced sable, or with a fleur-de-lis sable,\\n\\\ in chief 
three martlets or. Again, the fess is of four fusils con- 
joined argent, with in chief three martlets argent, or three 
estoiles or. (See also Fig. 92, p. 600.) 

On the other side of the Channel we find from 
MORICE (Histoire de Bretagne, Ixv. and ccxliv.), RAOUL 
D'AUBIGNE bearing : Gules, four lozenges conjoined in 
fess argent ; and, in 1200, GuiLLAUME D'AUBIGNE bears 
the same between six plates. 

III. The next mode of Difference is by the introduc- 
tion into the upper part of the shield of the figure known 

(414 ) 

as the LABEL (from lambeau, a strip, or shred). In the 
earliest times it was called a file, a name which PLANCHE 
connects with fetation. The Label is a narrow horizontal 
bar, or strip, placed across the upper part of the shield, 
and having dependent from it at right angles other strips, 
usually three or five, but sometimes four in mumber. 
This label is in England considered to be the brisure of 
the eldest son (except in the case of Royal Princes), but in 
olden times its use was not so limited ; nor does it appear 
that any particular meaning was attached to the number of 
points, or to its tincture, the former varying even for the 
same individual, and the latter being only such as to make 
it conspicuous upon the shield. At Caerlaverock in 1300, 
the silver label of EDWARD, Prince of WALES, has five 
points, but in modern practice only three points are used. 
It seems early to have been the rule in England that the 
heir, and perhaps also the heir presumptive, should bear 
his family coat differenced by a label. Abroad, as will be 
shown later, instances are numerous in which the label 
was borne by the second son, and I doubt the existence 
at any time of a regular system by which the degree 
of filiation could be indicated. In the Roll of Caerlave- 
rock the label is repeatedly referred to. Of Sir MAURICE 
DE BERKELEY (whose banner borne in the siege of 
that castle is represented on a later page) it is expressly 
declared that 

" . . . . un label de asur avoit, 
Force qe ces peres vivoit." 

Sir PATRICK DUNBAR, son of the Earl of LOTHIAN 
(i.e. of MARCH), then bore arms similar to his father, 
with the addition of a label azure. On the other hand, 
Sir JOHN DE SEGRAVE is said to bear his deceased father's 
arms undifferenced, while his younger brother NICHOLAS 
carries them with a label gules; and in the case of 
EDMUND of HASTINGS the label is also assigned to a 
younger brother. Further proof of its being thus borne 

( 415 ) 

by cadets is furnished by the evidence in the GRAY and 
HASTINGS controversy in the reign of HENRY IV., 
from which it appeared that the younger line of the 
HASTINGS family had for generations differenced 
the paternal coat by a label of three points ; and, as 
various knights and esquires had deposed to this label 
being the cognisance of the nearest heir, it was argued 
that the defendant's ancestors would not have borne their 
arms in this way, had they not been the reputed next 
heirs to the family of the Earl of PEMBROKE. Other 
instances are well known in which the label became 
hereditary, and an integral part of the family bearings, 
as in the case of the English house of COURTENAY (who 
improperly laid it aside in modern times) : and it is still 
borne thus by the families of BABINGTON of Rothley ; 
RADCLYFFE of Foxdenton ; COLVILE of Duffield, etc. 

JEAN DE LUXEMBURG, one of the original Knights of 
the Golden Fleece (No. xiii.), was Count de LlGNEY, 
and younger brother of PIERRE DE LUXEMBURG, Count 
de ST. PAUL. He died in 1440, and his arms, as given 
in MAURICE, p. 15 (Argent, a lion rampant double queue 
gules crowned or), are differenced by a label azure. 
Similarly JACQUES DE LUXEMBURG, Seigneur de 
RlCHEBOURG, younger brother of LOUIS, Comte de ST. 
PAUL, has the same arms and difference. He was Knight 
of the Golden Fleece (No. Ixvii.), and died 1471. CLAUDE 
DE NEUFCHATEL (Chevalier de la Toison d'Or, No. c.), 
who was second son of THIEBAUT, Seigneur de NEUF- 
CHATEL, bore in his brother HENRY'S lifetime (though 
it may be noted that the latter had no heirs of his body) 
the arms of NEUFCHATEL (Gules, a bend argent), with a 
label azure. 

The seals of GEOFFREY DE BRABANT, third son of 
Duke HENRY, are given in VREE (Gcnealogie des Covites 
de Flandres, plates xxxiii. and xxxiv.). On the one the 
lion of BRABANT is debruised by a label of three points ; 




1. Thomas Plantagenet, KG., Duke of Gloucester, 1395 (Boutell). 2. Jean, 
Due de Berri, circa 1408 (Demay). 3. Jeanne de France, Duchess of 
Burgundy, 1316 (Vrte). 4. Henry of Lancaster, Earl of Derby, Here- 
ford, etc. 

( 416 ) 

on the other the shield borne by his mounted figure, the 
caparisons of his charger, his ailette, and the shield of his 
counter-seal, are all consistent in bearing the label of 
four points. 

In course of time the capacity of the label for differ- 
encing was extended by its points being drawn wider and 
charged ; the charges being made to have a genealogical 
significance. Thus ROBERT, Comte d'ARTOLS, brother of 
S. Louis of FRANCE, bore FRANCE-ANCIENT ; and, as 
brisure, a label of CASTILE ; that is, of Gules, each point 
charged with tJiree castles or, indicating his maternal 
descent. (See his seal in VREE, Genealogie des Comtes de 
Flandre, p. 48, where the label on his seal is of three points ; 
on his counter-seal it is of five. See also Plate I., fig. 5.) 

The Dukes of ANJOU used a label gules, v. p. 537. 
The arms of the PLANTAGENET Princes afford us 
many examples of this extended use of the label as 
indicative of descent In the Calais Roll (i 347) the arms 
are ENGLAND, a label (three, or five, points were used) of 
FRANCE (See his seal on Plate XXXVL, fig. 4). He bore 
the same label after his creation as Duke, upon : Quarterly, 
CLARENCE, third son of EDWARD III.,and Earl of ULSTER 
in right of his wife ELIZABETH DE BURGH, bore a label of 
five points, charged with crosses (probably ULSTER : Or, a 
cross gules). EDMUND" Crouchback" after his marriage 
with BLANCHE D'ARTOIS, bore ENGLAND, with a label of 

EDWARD, Earl of RUTLAND, eldest son of EDMUND of 
quarterly, with a label of CASTILE, as above described ; 
a label per pale of CASTILE and of LEON (that is of 
Argent, charged with lions gules, or ptirpure), is also 
attributed to him. His mother was ISABELLA of CAS- 
TILLE and LEON. On his seal the sail of the ship borne 

( 417 ) 

as Lord High Admiral is charged with an Augmentation 
derived from the arms of EDWARD the CONFESSOR, 
impaled with his own (see Plate XXXIV., fig. 4, and 
page 474 ; the two labels in conjunction have an 
unusual appearance). This fashion -had a great number 
of imitators among the high nobility of England. In 
the Calais Roll of 1 348 occurs the shield of Sir EDWARD 
DE MONTAGU ; Ermine, tJiree fusils conjoined in fess 
gules, witJi a label of three points or each bearing an eagle 
vert (engraved in BOUTELL, Heraldry, Historical and 
Popular, p. 225). On the stained glass at Shrewsbury 
the coat of CHARLETON of POWYS bears the POWYS 
arms (Or, a lion rampant gules), with a label vert, on each 
point an eagle or ; CHARLETON having originally borne 
Vert, three eagles or {Herald and Genealogist, vi., p. 119). 
The label on the first and fourth quarters of Sir JOHN 
BOURCHIER, K.G., Lord BERNERS in 1475, is of gules, 
eacli point charged with three lions of ENGLAND, his 
mother having been ANNE PLANTAGENET, grand- 
daughter of EDWARD III. His brother WILLIAM, Lord 
FlTZWARREN, similarly bears a label of FRANCE. The 
eldest brother, HENRY BOURCHIER, Earl of ESSEX, bore 
his paternal arms undifferenced (Argent, a cross engrailed 
sable between four water budgets gules]. 

ROBERT DE COURTENAY, second son of HUGH, first 
Earl of DEVON, by AGNES ST. JOHN, charged his azure 
label with nine of the golden mullets which appear on 
the chief, of his mother's coat : Argent, on a chief gules 
two mullets pierced or. 

Sir JAMES AUDELE, whose mother was a daughter of 
WILLIAM DE LONGESPEE, bore : Gules, fretty or, with a 
label azure charged on eacJi point with a lion rampant or 
for his maternal descent (cf. Plate XXL, fig. 12). Sir 
WILLIAM LOVEL whose coat was : Barry nebuly or and 
gules, differenced with a label of VALENCE : barry of six 
azure and argent on each of the exterior points tn'o 

martlets gules (vide ante, p. 409). Sir ROBERT DE LA 
VACHE differenced his coat : Gules, three lions rampant 
argent, witli a label of WAREEN, cJiequy or and azure. 
The two brothers, WILLIAM and THOMAS LATIMER, 
who bore : Gules, a cross patonce or, difference in the 
Roll of EDWARD II. the one with a label sable on each 
point three plates ; the label of the other is azure, each 
point charged with three fleurs-de-lis or. 

Perhaps the most singular label of which we have any 
record is that said by Mr BOUTELL, p. 229, on the 
authority of ASHMOLE, to have been borne both by 
GASTON DE Foix, K.G., Count de LONGUEVILLE, Captal 
de BUCH ; and by JOHN DE GRAILLY, K.G., Viscount de 
CHATILLON, Captal de BUCH (created Earl of KENDAL 
about 1449, though there is some doubt of the regularity 
of the creation). It is of sable with three points, each in 
the form of a cross, and charged with five escallops 
argent. The arms of DE GRAILLY are : Argent, on a 
cross sable five escallops of the field ; these appear in the 
Salle des Croises at Versailles for the year 1270. Now 
BELTZ, in his Memorials of tJie Order of the Garter, has 
shown that only one Captal de BUCH belonged to the 
Order of the Garter, and he gives the arms of JOHN DE 
GRAILLY, K.G., from the Stall Plates, as above, without 
a label, and with the field or. BLANCHE DE Foix, whose 
arms were : Quarterly, I and 4. Or, three pallets gules 
(Foix) ; 2 and 3. Or, two cows gules, belled azure (BEARN) 
married JEAN DE GRAILLY, Captal de BUCH in 1328; 
and if he assumed his wife's arms, he may have differ- 
enced by a label of GRAILLY as above ; but I am not 
aware of there being any evidence to that effect, and 
humbly conclude that ASHMOLE may have been mistaken 
on this point, as he certainly is in making the arms of 
BEARN : Azure, three garbs or. J. W.] 

[Scottish seals of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries 
afford many examples of the label, the points being 

generally three in number, though in some exceptional 
instances four or five. It is borne in the great majority 
of cases by the eldest son in his father's lifetime, e.g., on 
the homage seals of GEOFFREY DE MOWBRAY ; and of 
WILLIAM, eldest son of Sir MALCOLM MURRAY, on the 
seal of Sir ALEXANDER, eldest son of SAER DE SETON 
in 1260; by Sir THOMAS ERSKINE, eldest son of 
Sir ROBERT in 1364, PATRICK, son and heir of Sir 
DAVID GRAHAM of Dundafif in 1377, JAMES, afterwards 
second Earl of DOUGLAS, in 1378; DAVID FLEMING, 
eldest son of THOMAS FLEMING of Biggar, in 1392 ; 
MATTHEW STEWART, eldest son of JOHN (recognised 
as) Earl of LENNOX in 1470 ; ALEXANDER, Lord 
GORDON, in lifetime of his father the Earl of HUNTLY, 
etc. WILLIAM RUTHVEN, Provost of PERTH, eldest son 
of the Master of RUTHVEN, bore a label of four points 
in 1503. Two instances occur of a label borne by a 
powerful and ambitious younger brother. One is 
WALTER STEWART, Earl of MENTEITH, by marriage, 
and younger brother of ALEXANDER, the fourth High 
Steward, in 1292 ; and we find the label again on the 
seal of his son ALEXANDER STEWART, Earl of MEN- 
TEITH. (Query Has the latter not an additional 
brisure, effected by giving an engrailed or invecked 
outline to the STEWART fess chequy ; or is this an 
attempt to combine the unknown coat of the former 
Earls of MENTEITH with the STEWART fess?) The 
other instance is ROBERT, Duke of ALBANY, younger 
brother of King ROBERT III., who virtually wielded the 
supreme power in Scotland during part of his father's 
and the whole of his brother's reign, and down to his 
own death in 1420. Before 1403 he had substituted a 
label for the star, or mullet, which was his original 
difference. JANET FENTOUN, daughter and heir- 
apparent of WALTER FENTOUN of Baikie, bore a label 
in 1448, and dropped it after her father's death. MAR- 

( 420 ) 

CARET STEWART, Countess of ANGUS in her own right, 
bore a label, it is difficult to say on what ground, in 1366. 
The most unique label in the Heraldry of Scotland, is to 
be seen on the homage seal of WILLIAM FRASER, " son of 
the late Master ALEXANDER FRASER," in which there is 
no shield, and each point of the label is the recipient of 
two of the fraises belonging to his paternal coat. Of 
the arms of the CONGALTONS of that Ilk, the label seems 
always to have formed an integral part. They are : Or, 
a bend gules surmounted by a label of three points azure 
(sometimes placed in fess) a coat which seems to point 
to their having been descendants or vassals of the VAUS 
family. In the late Heraldry of Scotland the label fell 
into general disuse ; almost the only instance of its use 
being by the family of ABERCORN, who, without official 
sanction, carried a label of three points until, and even 
after, the extinction of the male line of the ducal house 
of HAMILTON. In the early Lyon Register Sir JOHN 
HAY, heir-presumptive to the Earldom of ERROLL (to 
which he afterwards succeeded) records his arms with a 
" file of three lambeaux " in chief for difference. 


[In modern English usage a label has become par 
excellence the Royal Mark of Cadency. In the lifetime 
of his brother ARTHUR, HENRY, Duke of YORK (after- 
wards HENRY VIII.) bore the label ermine. So, during 
the lifetime of HENRY, Prince of WALES, Prince CHARLES 
STUART (afterwards King as CHARLES I.) was Duke 
of YORK and ALBANY, and differenced with a label argent, 
on each of its points three torteaux in pale. This label had 
been previously used by EDMOND of Langley, Duke of 
YORK (d. 1402), fifth son of EDWARD III. BOUTELL 
(Heraldry, Historical and Popular, p. 240) suggests that 
this charge of the torteaux on the label of YORK came 
from the arms of the WAKES of Lydel : Or, two bars 
gules, in chief three torteaux ; whose heiress married 

( 421 ) 

EDMOND PLANTAGENET, the youngest son of EDWARD 
I. ; and that through his descendants the HOLLANDS it 
came to EDMOND (of Langley), Duke of YORK. 
According to HEYLYN, the same difference was used by 
HENRY, Duke of GLOUCESTER, third son of CHARLES L, 
but this appears doubtful. JAMES STUART (afterwards 
King as JAMES II.), followed the precedent of HENRY 
TUDOR, and as Duke of YORK, bore the label ermine. 

WILLIAM STUART (called Duke of GLOUCESTER), son 
of Queen ANNE, bore the silver label charged on the 
central point with a cross of ST. GEORGE (gules). 

The family of GEORGE III. bore the following labels 
of three points, all argent : 

FIG. 84. 

FIG. 89. 


( 422 ) 

The Prince of WALES, the plain label argent (fig. 80). 
FREDERICK, Duke of YORK (as WILLIAM, Duke of 

GLOUCESTER) a label argent with the cross of ST. 

GEORGE on the centre point. 

WILLIAM HENRY, Duke of CLARENCE, the centre point 
. charged with the cross of ST. GEORGE, each of the 

others with an anchor azure (fig. Si). 
EDWARD, Duke of KENT, on the central one the cross 

gules, on each of the others a fleur-de-lis azure 

(fig. 82). 

central point a fleur-de-lis azure, on each of the 

others a cross gules. 
AUGUSTUS FREDERICK, Duke of SUSSEX, on the central 

point two hearts in pale gules, on each of the 

others a cross of ST. GEORGE. 

central point the cross of ST. GEORGE, on each of 

the others two hearts in pale gules (fig. 84). 
The Princesses also differenced their arms with the 
same silver label. 
CHARLOTTE, Princess Royal, on the centre point a rose 

of ENGLAND ; on each of the others a cross of ST. 

GEORGE (fig. 85). 
The Princess AUGUSTA, on the centre point a rose of 

ENGLAND ; on each of the others an ermine spot 

sable (fig. 86). 
The Princess ELIZABETH, on the centre point the cross 

of ST. GEORGE ; on each of the others a rose of 

ENGLAND (fig. 87). 
The Princess MARY, on the centre point a rose of 

ENGLAND ; on each of the others a canton gules 

(fig. 88). 
The Princess SOPHIA, on the centre point a heart gules ; 

on each of the others a rose of ENGLAND 

(fig. 89). 

( 423 ) 

The Princess AMELIA, on the centre point a rose of 

ENGLAND ; on each of the others a heart gules. 
Prince WILLIAM HENRY, Duke of GLOUCESTER, third 

son of FREDERICK, Prince of WALES, had a label of 

five points argent ', on the centre a fleur-de-lis azure ; 

on each of the others the cross of ST. GEORGE. 

This label was also borne by his son WILLIAM 

FREDERICK, Duke of GLOUCESTER, who during his 

father's lifetime placed beneath it a second and 

smaller label of three points argent. 
The present Princes and Princesses of the Royal 
Family use for the most part the labels above given 
thus : 

The Prince of WALES, the silver label (fig. 80). 
ALFRED, Duke of EDINBURGH, as the Duke of 

CLARENCE (fig. 81). 
ARTHUR, Duke of CONNAUGHT, as the Duke of KENT 

(fig. 82). 
LEOPOLD, Duke of ALBANY, and his son, on the central 

point a cross of ST. GEORGE ; on each of the others 

a heart gules (fig. 83). 

(fig. 85). 
The late Princess ALICE (Grand-duchess of HESSE) 

(fig. 86). 

(fig. 87). 

The Princess LOUISA (Marchioness of LORNE) 
(fig. 88). 

The Princess BEATRICE (Princess HENRY OF BATTEN- 
BERG) (fig. 89). 

The Duke of CAMBRIDGE bears his father's label 

(fig. 84). 
On the marriage of Her Majesty the QUEEN to His 

late Royal Highness the PRINCE CONSORT there was 

made to him a grant of the Royal Arms of the United 

( 424 ) 

Kingdom with the difference of a label argent on the 
central point a cross of ST. GEORGE ; to be borne in the 
first and fourth quarters, with the arms of SAXONY in 
the second and third. Her Majesty the QUEEN has told 
us in her Life of the Prince Consort that she herself 
discovered the precedent for this arrangement (of which 
the then GARTER was ignorant or unmindful) in the 
grant made to Prince LEOPOLD of SAXE-COBOURG on 
the occasion of his marriage with the Princess CHAR- 
LOTTE, daughter of GEORGE IV. 

In GERMANY, SPENER tells us that the use of the label 
though occasional, was not frequent : " Sicuti in Gallia 
vix alius discerniculorum modus frequentior est, ita 
rariora exempla reperimus in Germania," and he gives 
a few examples, though he is unable to assign the reason 
for its assumption as a hereditary bearing. (Opus 
Heraldicum, p. gen., p. 350.) Both houses of the 
WESTERBERG, charged the arms of LEININGEN (which 
appear in the first and fourth quarters of the shields of 
both lines as Azure, three eagles displayed argent) with 
a label gules in chief. (SPENER'S suggestion as to the 
possible origin of this label is in Parte Spec., p. 740 of 
his work. His conjecture as to that which follows, the 
case of the BLANCKENHEIM quarter, is at p. 243 of the 
same part.) 

In the arms of the Counts of MANDERSCHEID (who 
bore Or, a fess dancetty gules ; derived from their initial 
M), the second quarter contains the arms of the County 
of BLANCKENHEIM (borne since 1443 ; but ? 1480) : Or, 
a lion rampant sable over all a label of four points gules. 

In FRANCE the label was the chief recognised mode 
of difference. The label of ARTOIS has been already 
mentioned (p. 416). As the arms of the DAUPHIN were 
sufficiently differenced by the addition of the quarter of 
DAUPHINY, the silver label became the difference of the 

( 425 ) 

House of ORLEANS, and continued so to be until the death 
of the Comte de CliAMBORD (HENRI V.) when the House 
of ORLEANS succeeded to the rights of the main line of 
FRANCE. But in FRANCE other modes of difference, 
hereafter to be noticed (p. 439), were adopted for the 
younger lines of the Royal House, and the only label 
which needs notice here is the sub-brisure of the Dukes of 
ANGOULEME, who charged each point of the ORLEANS 
label with a crescent gules. (The later legitimated Duke 
of ANGOULEME used a different brisure. See Chapter 
XVII.) The label borne in the arms of JOHN of BRA- 
GANZA, Constable of PORTUGAL (Chevalier de la Toison 
dOr, No. 244) is of two points only. (MAURICE, p. 276.) 
As to the use of this label by the line of BRAGANZA, 
see the NobiliarcJiia Portugueza, cap. xxv., p. 217. The 
labels borne by the Princes of the Royal House were of 
three points, apparently of Or. 

It should be noticed that there is no ancient precedent 
for the modern ugly couped label with dovetail points. 
The top bar should traverse the whole field. 

IV. The insertion of a CANTON was a not infrequent 
English and Low-Country mode of differencing. The 
earliest instance which has come under my notice is found 
in the seal of PIERRE, called MAUCLERC, son of Count 
ROBERT of DREUX (c. 1215); and husband of ALICE, 
Duchess of BRITTANY, who added to his paternal coat 
{Chequy or and azure, a bordure gules], a canton ermine 
for BRITTANY. At the siege of Gaerlaverock, in 1300, 
banner, but the bordure has become a bordure of 
ENGLAND, i.e. it is charged with eight lions passant 
gardant or, in memory of his mother, BEATRICE, 
daughter of HENRY III. (The ermine canton is placed 
above the bordure.) BEATRICE was the wife of JEAN 
DE DREUX, Duke of BRITTANY, grandson of PIERRE, 
whose arms are described above. It was probably from 

( 426 ) 

the use of the ermine canton of BRITTANY by the Earls 
of RICHMOND, that it came to be employed, as the early 
Rolls of Arms show us that it was, as a frequent mode 
of differencing in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. 
In a Roll of Arms of the time of HENRY III. RALPH 
BASSETT bears, Or, three piles gules, a canton ermine; 
this also appears in the Calais Roll for SIMON BASSETT ; 
and in the Garter Plate of RALPH, Lord BASSETT, K.G. 
In the Roll of the Thirteenth Century RAUFF BASSETT 
bears : " Palee d'or et de gulez in un cantele d' argent 
un crois patee sable;" and in the Roll of RICHARD 
II. the canton is charged with a griffon segreant 

These are referred to by WYRLEY, True Use of Armes, 
as proofs " that diuers did adde unto the marke of their 
owne house, some part of the deuise of that familie 
from which their mothers descended," or "some parte 
of the deuise of him who aduanced them . . . which 
served veri aptlie to distinguish them from their elder 

The arms of ZOUCHE (Gules bezanty); WROTTESLEY, 
K.G. (Or, three piles sable}; DESPENCER (Barry of six 
or and azure); TATESHALL (Chequy argent and gules) ; 
and many others, are all found in our early armorial 
Rolls with the addition of a canton, or quarter, 

In the Calais Roll the arms of WILLIAM DE WARREN: 
Chequy or and azure, are differenced by the addition of 
a canton said to be that of FlTZALAN (but really that of 
NERFORD, see Chapter on ILLEGITIMACY, p. 556), Gules, 
a lion rampant argent. The use of cantons as augmenta- 
tions will be spoken of later, but such augmentations were 
also effective differences. The use by which an heiress 
transmits to her children her own coat differenced by 
a canton charged with the arms of her husband, in the 
case of that husband having already heirs by a previous 

( 427 ) 

marriage, is a modern one ; but as far back as 1590 the 
HARFORD arms : Sable, two bends argent, were charged 
with a canton of SCROPE : Azure, a bend or, and are so 
borne at the present day. 

A considerable number of coats in Belgium and the 
Low Countries are at the present day differenced by the 
addition of a canton, or quarter, charged with another 
coat ; I believe indicative in most cases of maternal 
descent. An early example is found in the Armorial 
de Gueldre in the arms of the SlRE DE LEEFEDAEL, Or, 
three cinquefoils gules, a quarter of the last thereon an 
eagle displayed argent. (I must again remind the student 
that the full coat is first blazoned as it would appear 
if there were no canton. In the present case although 
the first is absconded, or hidden by the canton, the coat 
is nevertheless blazoned as being charged with three 
cinquefoils.) The coat of VAN WESEL in Holland is : 
Vert, three cinquefoils argent, a quarter or, thereon three 
pallets azure within a bordure gules. DE WlLDT of 
Utrecht bears : Gules, a bend argent, a quarter azure, 
thereon three eagles displayed or. SERAING of Liege, uses : 
Gules, fleury or, a quarter of the arms of BOSSUT (ante, 
p. 1 8 1 ) : Or, a tressure flory-counter-flory vert, over all a 
saltire gules. PREUDHOMME of Liege, Or, a bend gules, 
on a quarter of the last a lion rampant of the first. 

V. Akin to this usage is the employment of a SMALL 
ESCUCHEON in the chief, of which we have an instance in 
the arms of HUGH DE BALLIOL, in the Roll of HENRY III.: 
Gules, an orle azure, in the dexter chief a small es cue Jieon (of 
GALLOWAY) ; Azure, a lion rampant argent crowned or. 

In the Armorial de Gueldre the arms of LE SlRE DE 
VlLAIN, who bore : Sable, a chief argent, have the chief 
charged with a small escucheon of VAN GRIMBERGHE : 
Or, a fess azure over all a saltire gules, the composed 
arms of PERWEYS and AA (see MENETRIER, RecJierches 
du Blason, p. 167). The DE BALYS of Bruges, who use : 

( 428 ) 

Argent, a lion rampant gules, place on the shoulder of 
the lion a small escucheon of Or, three crescents gules. 
The VAN OUDENHAGEN of Brabant carry : Or, on a bend 
sable three mallets argent, and in dexter chief a small 
escucheon of the arms tf/CLUTlNCK ; Azure, three fleurs-de- 
lis argent, au pied coupe. The VAN RlEUWE of Brussels 
use : Or, a chief gules, in the dexter chief a small 
escucheon ; Or, two bars sable. 

The addition of an escucheon en surtout containing 
the maternal arms was carried to a considerable extent 
in the Low Countries, and several examples will be found 
later in this chapter (Section XIV., p. 448). 

ORDINARY. This mode of differencing occurs continu- 
ally in the early Rolls of Arms. At Caerlaverock 
HENRY of Lancaster, brother and successor of THOMAS, 

" Portait les armes son frere, 
Au beau bastoun sans label," 

i.e., he bore the Royal arms, differenced by a bendlet 
azure. The original GREY coat : Barry of six argent 
and azure is differenced in the Roll of EDWARD I. by a 
bend gules for JOHN DE GREY, at Caerlaverock this is 
engrailed. The GRANDISONS used : Paly of six argent 
and azure, over which is first placed a bend gules, and 
the process of differencing is carried on by charging this 
bend with escallops, eagles, or buckles, or (see p. 437). 

The SEGRAVE coat : Sable, a lion rampant argent, is 
differenced by the addition of a bendlet or ; or a bendlet 
gules ; and the last is again differenced by engrailing 
it. The CLIFFORD coat (CJiequy or and azure a bend 
gules) is differenced at Caerlaverock by the substitution 
of a fess for the bend ; and later both bend and fess have 
sub-brisures of cinquefoils, or lions, argent. Of this 
common early mode of difference it is not needful to 
multiply examples from English Armory. 

2 F 


A bend (gules) was the brisure of FLANDERS borne by 
the Counts of NAMUR (vide Plate XLIV., fig. 2, from the 
Armorial de Gelre] ; and other instances of its use 
are found in VREE, Genealogie des Comtes de Flandre. 
It is borne plain by FLORENT of Hainault, and by 
PHILIP of Flanders (both circa 1300). GUILLAUME DE 
FLANDRE, Seigneur de RICHEBOURG (c. 1290) bore the 
bend gobone argent and gules ; as did his son JEAN 
(c. 1320). The bend is raguly in the case of GUI DE 
FLANDRE (c. 1335). HENRI DE FLANDRE, Comte de 
LODES, also used the bend gobone (c. 1320). About the 
same time ROBERT DE NAMUR makes his bend wavy 

The brisure of the Dues de BOURBON was a bend, or 
cotice, gules. The Dues de MONTPENSIER differenced 
this by charging the upper portion with the arms of 
DAUPHINE (Or, a dauphin azure]. By the Princes de 
CONDE the bendlet was diminished into a baton alese in 
bend (the Princes de CONTI added to this a bordure 
gules). The Comtes d'ETAMPES bore : FRANCE- 
ANCIENT, a bend compone gules and ermine ; and those of 
EvREUX had the bend compone argent and gules. The 
BOURBON Princes de la ROCHE SUR YON used: FRANCE- 
MODERN, a cotice in bend gules thereon a crescent argent in 
chief. The Princes of ACHAIA, of the House of SAVOY, 
added a bend azure to the arms, Gules, a cross 

With regard to Scottish Differences of this kind the 
excellent volumes of Scottish Seals, published by Mr H. 
LAING, give us a storehouse of contemporary examples ; 
and much of the following is derived therefrom. 

An early instance in Scotland of a bend used for 
differencing is in the seal of Sir JOHN STEWART, younger 
son of ALEXANDER, fourth High Steward, and husband 
of the heiress of Bonkil ; who, in 1296, debruises his fess 
checquy with a bend. ALEXANDER SETON, in his seal 

( 43 ) 

appended to the letter by the Scots barons to the Pope 
in 1320, not only introduces a bend, but places the three 
crescents of his paternal coat on that bend. EDWARD 
KEITH, in his seal attached to the same letter, surmounts 
his paternal coat a chief paly of six with a bend ; the 
same difference being afterwards used by JOHN, second 
son of Sir EDWARD KEITH, Marischal. In 1358, 
WILLIAM RAMSAY, Earl of FIFE by marriage, surmounts 
his Ramsay eagle with a bendlet engrailed ; and a bend 
charged with three crescents debruises the eagle in the 
seal of RAMSAY of Dunoon. In 1368 JOHN HAY, of 
Tillibothil, seals with his paternal coat surmounted by a 
bend indented. The GORDONS of Lochinvar, in the 
time of Sir DAVID LINDSAY, and probably earlier, differ- 
enced the GORDON coat with a bend or placed between 
the three boar's heads. The seal of JAMES ERASER of 
Ferendrach, in 1402, shows a bend-sinister indented 
between three fraises ; and in 1499 JOHN OGILVIE, 
Sheriff-depute of INVERNESS, has also a bend-sinister 
with the lion passant of his family in base. 

MALCOLM SUTHERLAND in 1476 has a fess between 
his paternal three stars ; and JOHN RATTRAY, Bailie of 
Aberdeen, has his coat similarly differenced in 1504. 
On the seal of the first ALEXANDER DUNBAR of West- 
field, in 1488, a fess is placed between the three cushions, 
and, contrary to the general usage, surmounts the 
Royal Tressure. Sir JOHN FOULIS of Ravelston, c. 1672, 
has a fess vert charged with a primrose or between the 
three laurel leaves of his paternal coat ; a difference 
allusive to the circumstance that his wife was eldest 
daughter of Sir ARCHIBALD PRIMROSE, who settled his 
estate of Dunipace on her sons. Other examples occur 
about the same time of a fess, sometimes charged, being 
used in this way, e.g. t HAMILTON of Cairnes, who adds 
to the principal HAMILTON coat a fess argent charged 
with a man's heart gules. The coat of the COCKBURNS of 


Ormiston has already been alluded to. We find the fess 
checquy also used as a difference in later times, and with 
genealogical intent The GORDONS of Lesmoir have, 
since 1672, if not earlier, borne a fess checquy azure and 
argent between three boars heads or, in consequence of 
the first Laird of Lesmoir having in the sixteenth 
century married a daughter of STEWART of Laithers ; 
and FORBES of Echt (the older family) bore a fess checquy 
argent and gules between their three bear's heads. 

The arms assigned at the same date to Sir JOHN 
FALCONER of Balmakellie, Master of the Mint to 
CHARLES II., were those of his brother the first Lord 
FALCONER (Or, between three mullets azure, a falcon's head 
proper issuing from a mans heart gules and crowned], 
with the addition of a chief gules charged with three 
besants allusive to his office. 

But, with the exception of the bordure, no Ordinary 
has been so much in use in Scotland for differencing 
purposes as the chevron. WILLIAM MURRAY, of Gask 
and Tullibardine, has a chevron between the three stars 
of his paternal coat in his homage seal of 1292 ; and this 
chevron continued to be borne by his descendants until 
they obtained the royal tressure in the reign of JAMES VI. 
The shields of JOHN GRAHAM in 1370; THOMAS MONY- 
PENNY of Kinkell, in 1415 ; and ALEXANDER RATTRAY, 
in 1628 ; all have a chevron introduced into their 
paternal coat. The HAYS of Fudie bore a chevron sable 
between their three escutcheons from an early period ; 
and the Lyon Register is full of more modern instances. 
Thus FORBES of Monymusk places between his three 
bear's heads a chevron argent charged with a heart 
proper (the heart indicative of a maternal DOUGLAS 
descent). In like manner OLIPHANT of Bachilton places 
a chevron argent between his three crescents. Another 
cadet of the OLIPHANT family, OLIPHANT of Prinlis, alters 
the arrangement of the coat more materially by placing 

( 432 ) 

a saltire engrailed argent between his three crescents, and 
arranging them one in chief and two in flank. There 
are also cases where one Ordinary is substituted for 
another. The LESLIES of Balquhain differenced the 
chief coat of their family, Argent, on a bend azure three 
buckles or, by turning the bend into a fess. A very early 
cadet of the GRAHAM family, GRAHAM of Morphie, 
adopted an unusually pronounced difference, substituting 
a chevron for the chief, and at the same time changing 
the tinctures. The principal GRAHAM coat is : 'Or, on a 
chief sable three escallops of the field ; that of Morphie : 
Sable, a chevron between tJiree escallops argent. Different 
branches of the PRINGLE family, retaining the escallops 
which are the principal charge, turn the bend on which 
they are placed into a chevron and a saltire respectively. 
(Differencing by the addition of a bordure will be 
treated separately, p. 437.) 

ORDINARY, by engrailing, invecking, or indenting, is a 
frequent expedient in Scotland, both in earlier and in 
later times. The MACFARLANES, who descend from the 
LENNOX family, bear the coat of LENNOX, Argent, a 
saltire cantoned with four roses gules (as in Plate XXX., 
fig. 3), but difference it by making the saltire wavy ; 
while the NAPIERS of Merchiston (believed to be 
LENNOXES by descent) engrail the saltire. In 1370 the 
seal of Sir NICHOLAS ERSKINE of Kinnoull, second son of 
Sir ROBERT ERSKINE, shows the pale of his paternal 
coat engrailed. Allusion has been made above to some of 
the various ways in which the original PRINGLE coat, 
Argent, on a bend sable three escallops or, has been 
differenced. The PRINGLES of Smailhome difference it 
in a less pronounced manner by engrailing the bend. 
On the seal of PATRICK GRAHAM, Earl of STRATHERN, 
jure uxoris in 1400, the chief is indented, and it is either 
indented or engrailed on the seal of ROBERT GRAHAM 

( 433 ) 

of Kinpunt in 1433, and of ROBERT GRAHAM of 
Fintry in 1478. At a later date the indentations in 
the Fintry coat were made deeper, and have been 
blazoned as piles, and erroneously supposed to 
have been adopted from the family of LOVEL of 
Ballumbie, whose heiress the first Sir ROBERT GRAHAM 
of Fintry married. Doubtless the piles in the coat of 
DOUGLAS of Lochleven (Argent, three piles gules, the 
exterior ones charged with a star of the field) had the 
same origin ; the seal of Sir HENRY DOUGLAS of Lugton 
in 1329 has what seems to be an indented chief. J. W.] 
[In the Lyon Register in the time of Sir CHARLES and 
Sir ALEXANDER ERSKINE the examples of this mode of 
differencing are very numerous. So far as any general 
rule of practice can be discovered, the use was to have the 
Ordinary engrailed for a second son or his descendant, in- 
vecked for a third, wavy for a fourth, indented or nebuly 
for a fifth. But the usage varied a little, and there was 
a tendency to embattle the Ordinary in the case of a mili- 
tary man, while Sir WILLIAM BRUCE of Balcaskie, known 
for his skill in navigation, has his chief wavy. As examples 
of the general rule, the chief engrailed is borne by Sir 
WILLIAM GRAHAM of Braco, Baronet, "descended of 
a second son of Montrose ; " the chevron engrailed by 
WALTER RIDDELL, ancestor of the Glenriddell family, 
and second son of RlDDELL of that Ilk, and by 
ABERCROMBY of Fetternear, the first of which line was 
second son of ABERCROMBY of Birkenbog. JAMES 
DURHAM, second son of the family of DURHAM of 
Grange, engrails the fess of his family coat, and the bend 
is carried engrailed by the ELIOTTS of Stobs, "descended 
from a second son of LAURISTON." The older 
RUTHERFORDS of Fairnington engrailed their orle. 
Examples of the chief, chevron, bend, orle, and pile 
being invecked, wavy, indented, and nebuly for cadets, 
seem to indicate an attempt to make these differences 

( 434 ) 

correspond with third, fourth, fifth, and sixth sons 
respectively, and their descendants ; though the difficulty 
of ascertaining the date of the extinction of intermediate 
lines makes the intention not always so obvious as in the 
case of the engrailed Ordinary. The engrailed cross of 
the SlNCLAlRS is in one instance differenced by being 
engrailed on the outer side and invecked on the 
inner. G. B.] 

[Of the alteration of the boundary line of an Ordinary 
as a mode of difference we have examples in foreign 
coats. The French families DE LA FOREST (Marquises 
d'ARMAlLLE, and Barons de CRAON) bear : Argent, 
a chief sable ; while the line of FOREST-LANDRY in 
Flanders engrails the chief. (The FORESTEL of Cambray 
bear A rgent, a chief gules.} The senior branch of the 
French house of LA BAUME bore Or, a bend azure but 
the younger line, Comtes de MONTREVEL, bore the bend 
dancetty ; while the Marquises de PLUVINEL still further 
difference the MONTREVEL coat by adding an ermine 
spot in the sinister chief sable. 

of the same kind is an expedient for differencing seldom 
if ever practised in Great Britain, but one of which there 
are examples in Foreign Heraldry. The Counts of 
BARCELONA bore: Gules, four pales or; the house of 
Foix which descended from them, diminished the pales, 
or pallets, to three. While the house of CHOISEUL, 
Dues de CHOISEUL, bore Azure, a cross between twenty 
billets or, five in each canton ; the junior line of the Dues 
de PRASLIN diminished the number of the billets to 
eighteen, five in each of the cantons in chief, but only 
four in those in base. These are exceptions to the old 
French armorial rule which declares that the elder line 
is known by the simplicity of the coat : " Qui porte le 
mains est le plusT J. W.] 


(435 ) 

by the substitution of one charge for another is more a 
Scottish than an English usage. In 1476 the seal of 
THOMAS CUMYN of Altyre has one garb only in place of 
the three of his family ; the two uppermost garbs being 
replaced by two cushions, and a tressure superadded. 
The mother of this THOMAS CUMYN was a sister of 
THOMAS DUNBAR, Earl of Moray : and the arms in 
fact are much more a DUNBAR, or MORAY, than a 
CUMYN coat. In 1513 WILLIAM SCOTT, constable- 
depute of Montrose, replaces the third of the three lion's 
heads, which formed his family coat, by a rose, suggestive 
of Montrose, and so with obvious reference to his office. 
In 1515 we find PATRICK HEPBURN, Earl of BOTHWELL, 
Great Admiral of Scotland (an infant of four years old, 
but who entered on possession of his estates and office 
at once, as did the heirs of all whose ancestors had 
fallen at Flodden), adding an anchor in base to the 
HEPBURN coat ; and the same was borne by PATRICK 
HEPBURN, of Bolton, in 1545. 

In the early Lyon Register there are about 160 coats 
in which one or more additional charges have been 
introduced to difference cadets from their chief. A few 
examples will suffice. While Lord GRAY bears : Gules, 
a lion rampant within a bordure engrailed argent, GRAY 
of Ballengarno places an anchor or, and GRAY of 
Haystoun, a writing-pen proper in the lion's dexter 
fore-paw. In a coat consisting of the same charge three 
times repeated, the difference is usually placed in the 
centre. Thus GRANT of Ballindalloch, places a boar's 
head couped or, and GRANT of Carron, a dove argent 
holding in her beak an olive branch vert, between the 
three antique crowns which are the arms of their chief. 
GORDON of Knokespock places a pheon or ; GORDON of 
Glasterim a fraise argent ; GORDON of Earlston a bezant ; 
GORDON of Newark a billet or; and GORDON of 
Tetschie a sheaf of arrows or, between the three boars 

( 436 ) 

heads or, on a field azure, of the original coat. The 
SEMPILL coat being : Argent, a chevron checquy gules and 
of the field between three hunting-horns sable garnished of 
the second (Plate XI 1 1., No. 2), the Beltrees branch 
(whose founder, a younger son of Lord SEMPILL, 
married MARY LIVINGSTONE, one of the " Queen's 
Maries") added three gilliflowers gules (from the LIVING- 
STONE coat) for difference. The well known coat of 
DRUMMOND, Or, three bars wavy gules (Plate XV., 
No. 10), is to a certain extent differenced in the same 
way. The DRUMMONDS of Colquhalzie add three stars 
in chief; those of BLAIR charge each of the bars with 
an escallop ; and another DRUMMOND, descended from 
the Kildees branch of the Pitkellony family, has a 
singular difference, over all a naked man naiant in pale 
grasping in his dexter hand a sword, and having his 
sinister hand and feet in action all proper. In the 
majority of the instances given the difference indicated 
maternal descent, being often taken from the coat of 
the family of the wife of the first of the line. When the 
coat differenced has an Ordinary, a maternal charge of 
this kind, or an emblem of office or profession, is often 
found placed on that Ordinary. The chevron on the coat 
of the Earl of HOPETOUN is charged with a laurel leaf to 
indicate the descent of his branch of the HOPE family 
from the heiress of FOULIS of Leadhills. Colonel 
WALTER WHITEFORD, whose father was a younger son 
of the house of Miltoun, charges the bend of his paternal 
coat with three crosses patee " added at his Majestie's 
speciall command." GEORGE JARDINE has the saltire 
of his coat charged with three besants, as having been 
Treasurer of the City of Edinburgh. Sir JOHN AYTOUN 
of Keppo places his official baton as Usher of the Black 
Rod on the engrailed cross of his coat. NAPIER of 
Culcreuch, descended from a third son, charges his 
saltire with five mullets argent. PATERSON of Seafield, 

( 437 ) 

second son of the Bishop of ROSS, replaces one of the 
three mullets in the chief of his paternal coat by a mitre, 
while the fourth son of the same prelate introduces a 
mitre azure between the three pelicans in the same 
coat G. B.] 

[Although before the Reformation it was not com- 
pulsory upon ecclesiastics, who were vowed to celibacy, 
to difference their arms, we yet find that as a matter of 
fact many did so. Thus Bishop JOHN DE GRANDISON, 
of EXETER ( 1327 1 369), substitutes a silver mitre for the 
one of the golden buckles upon the bend in his ancestral 
coat (vide ante, p. 428) ; WILLIAM COURTENAY, Arch- 
bishop of CANTERBURY, 1381 1396, whose arms were 
Or, three torteaux and a label azure, charged each point 
of his label with a mitre proper. (BEDFORD, Blason of 
Episcopacy, p. 44.) Bishop EDMOND STAFFORD of 
EXETER, 1394 1419, differences his paternal coat Or, a 
chevron gules with a bordure azure, thereon eight mitres 
argent ; a still better known example is that of the war- 
like HENRY LE DESPENSER, Bishop of NORWICH (1370 
1406), who differenced the full DESPENSER coat with 
a bordure charged with mitres (eight or fifteen) or. 

times practised largely in all the western countries ; and 
in Scotland it has always been a prevalent mode of 
indicating cadency. The simple bordure is, down to the 
present day, the most usual difference for a younger 
brother or direct cadet. (But see pp. 170-174.) 

The bordure has great advantages over other modes 
of differencing since it leaves the original arms intact, and 
when methodically employed points out as no other 
difference can do the exact position held in the family 
by the cadet who bears it. Moreover it admits of being 
varied for sub-cadets, and of being charged with sub- 
brisures taken from a maternal coat when there is no 
right to quarter the entire arms. When a quartered 

( 438 ) 

escucheon has to be differenced the bordure added 
surrounds the entire quartered coat as if it were a simple 
one. The Roll of Caerlaverock shows that this mode of 
differencing was in operation in England in the reign of 
EDWARD I. (1300), and we have already noticed one 
example therefrom in the case of JOHN, Earl of RICH- 
MOND (ante, p. 425). HUGH DE VERE, a cadet of the 
family of the Earl of OXFORD, also differences the coat 
given on Plate IX., No. 2, p. 410, with a bordure indented 
sable. In GLOVER'S Roll temp. HENRY III. the coat of 
JOHN FlTZ-GEOFFREY : Quarterly or and gules has a 
bordure vair ; and that of WILLIAM DAUBENY DE 
BEAUVOIR : Or, two chevrons gules, has also a bordure 
of the last ; and so forth. 

A number of the PLANTAGENET princes differenced 
with the bordure. JOHN of ELTHAM, Earl of CORN- 
WALL, second son of EDWARD II., bore the arms of 
ENGLAND within a bordure <?/~ FRANCE, derived from his 
mother ISABEL. THOMAS, of WOODSTOCK, the youngest 
son of EDWARD III., differenced his father's arms with 
a bordure argent though his elder brothers all used the 
label. The BEAUFORTS, descendants of JOHN of GAUNT 
by KATHARINE SWYNFORD, were legitimated in 1397, 
and from that time bore the quartered arms of FRANCE 
and ENGLAND within a bordure company of the Lan- 
castrian colours: Argent and azure, or of azure and 
ermine. From this circumstance the bordure gobony 
(though borne before this time by legitimate cadets, 
and not used by the BEAUFORTS until after their legiti- 
mation) carried with it ever afterwards in England a 
soup^on of illegitimacy, which was confirmed by its later 
use (see p. 443 ; and Chapter XVII.). Abroad it was 
always a difference of legitimate cadets (e.g., BURGUNDY- 
MODERN, next page). THOMAS HOLLAND, K.G., Earl 
PLANTAGENET, the fair maid of Kent (who afterwards 

( 439 ) 

married the Black Prince), was permitted by his half- 
brother RICHARD II. to bear the arms of ENGLAND with 
a bordure argent ; the other brother, JOHN, Duke of 
EXETER, bore : ENGLAND, within a bordure of FRANCE. 

The TUDOR bordure was of Azure, charged alternately 
with fleurs-de-lys and martlets or, the former derived 
from the HOLLANDS, the latter from the BEAUCHAMPS 
of Bletsho. Many English families differenced with the 
bordure (e.g., the MONTAGUS, and STAFFORDS). One of 
the points decided in the SCROPE and GROSVENOR case 
(1390) was that a bordure is not a sufficient difference 
between strangers in blood, but only between the chief 
and a cadet of the same family. In modern English 
practice the bordure as a difference for cadets only con- 
tinues to be used by those whose ancestors bore it in 
ancient times. Its other use as a modern mark of 
illegitimacy is treated in a separate chapter. 

In the ROYAL CADENCY OF FRANCE the Dukes of 
ANJOU bore : FRANCE, within a bordure gules, the Dukes 
of BERRI, FRANCE, with a bordure engrailed gules ; the 
Dukes of ALENCON, FRANCE, with a bordure gules 
charged with eight plates ; the Dukes of BURGUNDY 
of the younger line, FRANCE, within a bordure gobony 
argent and gules (Plate XLIV., fig. 6). 

The following examples taken from the seals in VREE, 
(Genealogie des Comtes de Flandres), show us that the 
bordure engrailed was frequently used as a difference. 
MATHIEU DE LORRAINE thus differences in 1323. 
YOLANTE, Comtesse de NEVERS, bears BURGUNDY- 
ANCIENT with a bordure engrailed, circa 1290 ; BALDWIN, 
younger son of the Count of FLANDERS, c. 1290, 
FLANDERS a bordure (or rather a filet] engrailed ; 
ROBERT, younger son of ROBERT DE BETHUNE, Count 
of FLANDERS, c. 1306, the same, etc. The same bordure 
was used by the LANNOYS, vide infra. ANTOINE DE 
VERGY (Chevalier de la Toison d'Or, No. 5) differences 

( 440 ) 

his arms : Gules, three cinquefoils or with a plain bordure 
argent. JEAN DE LA CLITE, Seigneur de COMMINES 
(Chevalier de la Toison d'Or, No. 8) adds a bordure or 
to the family coat : Gules, a chevron or between three 
escallops argent. (This was the coat borne by PHILIPPE 
DE COMMINES, the chronicler; therefore correct STODART, 
Scottish Arms, vol. ii., p. 29.) 

In Germany of old the use of the bordure as a difference 
does not appear to have been very frequent. SPENER 
gives only one example. The families of FLEHINGEN 
and SlCKlNGEN both bore: Sable, five plates in saltire ; 
and the latter differenced by a bordure gules (SlEB- 
MACHER, Wappenbuch, i., 118, 122). In the Wappenrolle 
von Zurich, plate ii., 36 shows us the NtJRENBURG 
coat : Quarterly argent and sable, with a bordure gules. 
SWANDEG (iii., 65), bears : Argent, an ibex sable, a 
bordure or ; LOUBGASSEN (v., 97), Or, six linden leaves 
vert, a bordure gules ; BoNSTETTEN (xvii., 391), Sable, 
three lozenges conjoined in fess, a bordure argent ; and 
about a half dozen other examples are recorded in it. 

In the Armory of the Peninsula, although marks of 
cadency, in our restricted sense of the word, are almost 
unknown, the bordure, especially as indicating descent 
from a maternal ancestor, is very largely employed. 
The most familiar instance is afforded by the Royal 
Arms of PORTUGAL, in which the arms of PORTUGAL 
are surrounded by a bordure of CASTILE. The arms 
of the family of CUEVA, Dukes of ALBUQUERQUE, are 
Tierced in mantel : I and 2, Or, a pale gules ; 3, Vert, a 
dragon or. The whole within a bordure gules charged 
alternately with seven aspas (i.e. saltires couped) and as 
many escucJieons of MENDOZA (v. ante, p. 395 ; and 
Plate XXXIII., fig. 12). These last relate to the 
marriage of MENCIA MENDOZA, daughter of the Duke 
of INFANTADGO, with BELTRAN, first Duke of ALBU- 
QUERQUE (CHIFFLET, Arm. Gent. Equit. Aurei Velleris, 


No. 170; and MAURICE, p. 196). The arms of the 
GlRONS, Dukes of OSSUNA, have been blazoned on 
page 1 68, ante. In them it is doubtful whether the 
arms of CASTILE and LEON in chief have been assumed 
to commemorate an alliance with the Royal House ; 
or whether they are simply Coats of Augmentation; 
but SPENER (Op. Her., p. spec., p. 130) is decidedly 
of opinion that the Portuguese escucheons commemo- 
rate such an alliance. It will be obvious that these 
are rather instances of MARSHALLING than of CADENCY 
proper, and I accordingly refer the reader to the 
following chapter for other instances of this use. But, 
besides these bordures charged with entire escucheons, 
Spanish bordures are frequently found bearing charges 
derived from those in the coats of maternal progenitors. 

[The bordures to be found in the earliest Scottish 
seals are to so large an extent engrailed as to make it 
appear that the later rule to give the plain bordure to 
immediate cadets was not fully recognised. On the 
seal of Sir ALEXANDER ERASER appended to the letter 
of the barons to the Pope (1320) the bordure seems to 
be engrailed. The seal of ROGER FAUSYDE, in 1326, 
has a crane passant within a bordure engrailed. 
PATRICK HEPBURN, in his seal appended to the Act 
regarding the succession to the crown, in 1371, has 
HEPBURN within a bordure engrailed. The bordure 
engrailed was also borne by DOUGLAS of Drumlanrig, 
who was of illegitimate descent; by the STEWARTS, Earls 
of LENNOX (Plate XLIL, fig. i); HAY of Naughton ; 
OLIPHANT of Kelly, etc. WALTER STEWART, son by 
the second marriage of ROBERT II., bore in 1389 the arms 
of SCOTLAND within a bordure checquy. HAY of Tilli- 
bothil bore his arms in 1370 (according to Sir JAMES 
BALFOUR) within a bordure checquy: and in 1508 the 
seal of ROBERT MAXWELL surrounds his MAXWELL 

( 442 ) 

coat with a bordure counter-compony, quartering it with 

Bordures-compony were in early times borne by 
legitimate cadets, as by WALLACE of Ellerslie, and 
HAMILTON of Preston. Bordures charged appear at a 
comparatively early date. The seal of Sir ANDREW 
MURRAY, WALLACE'S companion-in-arms, has a bordure 
charged with eleven roses, or cinquefoils ; and another 
Sir ANDREW MURRAY, who signs the contract regarding 
the ransom of DAVID II., has a bordure charged with 
what seems to be roundles. On the seal of HUGH 
ERASER in 1377 are three fraises within a bordure 
charged -with nine stars; and HUGH Ross of Rarichies, 
second son of HUGH, Earl of ROSS, has on his seal of 
1351 a bordure charged with eleven escallops (? ermine 
spots). The bordure charged with eight roses of the 
Earls of DUNBAR and MARCH, which occurs as early 
as 1291, is of course not a difference of filiation {See 
Plate XVII., fig. 3); but in 1452 Sir DAVID DUNBAR 
of Cockburn, a younger son, differenced his paternal coat 
by substituting mullets for the roses. The STEWARTS 
of Rosyth, rejecting the bend borne by most of the 
descendants of Sir JOHN (husband of the heiress of 
Bonkyl) placed the Bonkyl buckles on a bordure. 

In the Lyon Register differencing by a bordure 
prevails largely, and is carried out somewhat more 
systematically than in earlier heraldry. As a general 
rule a plain bordure, of the tincture of the first charge, 
indicates that the bearer of it is the first cadet of his 
house : where a bordure of a different colour occurs, it 
is equally the rule that the cadet is not so ; and the 
cadets of the original bearer of the bordure are to a 


great extent differenced by engrailing, invecking, etc., 
the bordure, as described in the case of other Ordinaries. 
Sub-cadets are also differenced by charging the bordure 
with figures, generally from some maternal coat, a sort 

( 443 ) 

of cadency especially in use in the case of bordures, 
which had been already differenced by being engrailed 
or invecked. Again, the bordure may be quartered, or 
parted per pale, or per fess ; expedients resorted to 
where there are many prior cadets of former generations. 
HAMILTON of Presmennan, in the Lyon Register, bears 
the HAMILTON coatwithin a bordure quarterly of vair, and 
of counter-compony argent z.r\d gules ; and HAMILTON of 
Neilsland has a bordure quarterly argent and azure, the 
first and fourth engrailed, and the second and third in- 
vecked. The doubtful legitimacy of the Avondale and 
Ochiltree STEWARTS, who bore the bordure-compony 
in Scotland, along with its use by the BEAU FORTS 
in England, tended latterly to bring that difference into 
disrepute in the cadency of lawful sons yet some of the 
bearers of that bordure during the first twenty years of 
the Lyon Register were unquestionably legitimate, 
while others, as SCOTT of Gorrenberry and PATRICK 
SINCLAIR of Ulbster, were illegitimate, or at best 
only legitimated. The light in which the bordure- 
compony had come to be regarded is shown by a Royal 
Warrant granted in 1679 to JOHN LUNDIN of that ILK, 
allowing him to drop the coat which his family had 
hitherto carried, and, as descended of a natural son of 
WILLIAM THE LION, to bear the arms of SCOTLAND 
within a bordure-compony argent and azure. The 
bordure counter-compony is assigned to fifteen persons, 
none of them, it is believed, of illegitimate descent, and 
some expressly said to be "lineallie and lawfulie 
descended" from the ancestor whose arms they bore 
thus differenced. The idea of this bordure having been 
at any time a mark of bastardy is a very modern error, 
arising from a confusion with the bordure-compony. Of 
the bordure-checquy there are twenty examples during 
the first twenty years of the Lyon Register. G. B.] 
[The late Mr STODART, Lyon Clerk Depute, who was 

( 444 ) 

an able herald, particularly in matters relating to 
Scotland, had elaborated a system of differencing by 
the bordure which would have done much to simplify 
Scottish cadency. Its weak point was obviously this : 
that it could only be applied to new matriculations of 
arms by cadets ; and so, if adopted, might have 
occasioned doubt and misunderstanding in future times 
with regard to many important Scottish coats now 
existing, which are differenced with bordures assumed, or 
granted, without reference to Mr STODART'S system. It 
is, however, clear from LYON's remarks that he had 
adopted the main features of the system ; or at least had 
allowed Mr STODART to act upon it to a considerable 
extent in new matriculations. 

XI. Reference has already been made to the present 
unsatisfactory use of what are known as the Marks of 
Cadency, which were intended to indicate the order of 
descent of the different sons of a family. It has been 
shown (pp. 410-412), that the occasional use of some of 
these began pretty early both at home and abroad ; but 
it was only in the reigns of the Tudor Sovereigns that 
they became systematised in English Heraldry. They 
are practically the only differences employed to denote 
legitimate cadency by the English College of Arms. 
They are : i. A Label for the eldest son ; 2. A Crescent 
for the second ; 3. A Mullet for the third ; 4. A Martlet 
for the fourth j 5. An Annulet for the fifth son ; 6. A 
Fleur-de-lis for the sixth ; 7. A Rose for the seventh; 8. 
A Cross moline for the eighth ; and 9. A Double Ouatre- 
foil for the ninth, which is the ne plus ultra of provision. 
Of these the first six are given in BOSSEWELL'S Workes 
of Armorie (1572), and the author adds: "if there be 
any more than six brethren the devise or assignment 
of further difference only appertaineth to the kingis of 
armes especially when they visite their severall provinces ; 

and not to the father of the children to give them what 
2 G 

( 445 ) 

difference he list, as some without authoritie doe 

On Scottish seals of the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries the mullet is more frequently found than 
any of the other marks of cadency, but it is evidently 
not regarded as peculiarly appropriated to the third son. 
Before 1300, Sir DONALD of MAR (son and heir of 
GRATNEY, Earl of MAR, by the sister of ROBERT BRUCE), 
bore a mullet of six points in the upper part of the bend 
upon his seal (LAING, Scottish Seats, ii., No. 690). In 1373 
it appears in dexter chief on the seal of ROBERT STEWART, 
Earl of FIFE (afterwards Duke of ALBANY), second son 
of ROBERT II. (Ibid., L, 786), and from the beginning of 
the fifteenth century it is fairly common. Similarly there 
are examples, though fewer, of other marks. J. W.] 

[In 1672, when the Lyon Register was instituted, the 
import of the English marks of cadency was quite 
recognised, and during the twenty years following, they 
are to a limited extent made use of. The crescent is 
assigned to sixty-eight cadets, who in most instances are 
specifically described as second sons or descendants of 
second sons. The mullet in the same way is given thirty- 
five times to a third son or his representative, the martlet 
appears eleven times, the annulet six times, the fleur-de- 
lis six times, the rose ten times, and the cross moline 
twice. There are a very few instances of double marks 
of cadency, such as a crescent charged with another, or 
with a mullet. G. B.] 

[As was remarked at the outset of this Chapter the 
results of this mode of differencing have been far from 
satisfactory. The main consequence of the practical 
supersession of all other differences by these minute 
figures has been that the duty of differencing at all has 
been much neglected, and remote cadets bear the arms 
of the head of the house without an idea of impropriety. 
There are, however, some cases where these differences 



( 446 ) 

awarded at a time when they were coming into use, 
have become permanent in particular branches of the 
family, and where more than one has been elevated to 
the peerage we see the differences in use, e.g. the 
crescents in the coats of the Marquess of SALISBURY 
and Earl STANHOPE ; the mullet used by the Earl of 
CARLISLE, the red rose in the arms of the Earl of ABER- 
Usage of Bearing Arms condemns the system strongly; 
and advises a return to the older and better methods of 
differencing ; and, although in Scotland this usage never 
superseded these better modes, Sir GEORGE MACKENZIE 
regrets its partial introduction, and denounces the Marks 
of Cadency as tending to confound the ancient coats, 
and to fill the modern with more crescents and mullets 
than are in the arms of all Europe besides. 

lays down that the bearing by a cadet of a quartering 
not borne by the elder line is in itself a sufficient 
difference; and this rule has been recognised in Scotland. 
When a younger son of a great house became possessed 
of a feudal lordship by marriage, or by a grant from the 
crown he not unfrequently retained the simple coat of 
his ancestors, and quartered with it the arms of his new 
possession. Thus ALEXANDER, Duke of ALBANY, son 
of JAMES II., bore the undifferenced coat of SCOTLAND, 
quartered with the arms of MARCH, MAN, and ANNAN- 
DALE (see Plate XXXVI., which is reduced from MICHEL'S 
Les Ecossais en France, etc.). The STEWARTS, Earls of 
ATHOLE, and of BUCHAN, found the feudal quarterings 
of these Earldoms a sufficient difference. In later times 
we find the Lords PlTSLlGO bearing the undifferenced 
coat of FORBES quartered with ERASER ; FORBES of 
Tolquhoun bearing the same coat quartered with 
PRESTON ; and FORBES of Rires bearing WEMYSS in 
the first and fourth quarters, and the undifferenced coat 

( 447 ) 

of FORBES in the second and third. To these cases we 
may add the well known coat of the BREADALBANE 
family (the principal cadet line of the CAMPBELLS), 
as compared with that of the house of ARGYLL. 
BREADALBANE has, equally with ARGYLL, the undif- 
ferenced coat of CAMPBELL in the first and fourth 
quarters ; and each became entitled to use the arms of 
STEWART of Lorn in virtue of marriage with one of the 
co-heiresses of JOHN, Lord LORN. In the ARGYLL 
achievement this alliance is represented by the use of the 
LORN galley in the second and third quarters ; while 
BREADALBANE has LORN in the second, and the plain 
coat of STEWART in the third. This is a near approach 
to what NlSBET characterises as a German mode of 
differencing unknown in Scotland. 

It is, however, frequent enough abroad. For instance 
INGEN (v. p. 424) in the first and fourth quarters, with 
DAGSBURG in the second and third (Argent, a lion 
rampant sable, debruised by an escarbuncle of the field, all 
within a bordure gules] ; and an escucheon en surtout 
for the Lordship of ASPERMONT : Gules, a cross argent. 
The Counts of LEININGEN-WESTERBURG quartered 
LEININGEN with WESTERBURG (Gules, a cross between 
twenty crosslets or), and placed en surtout an escucheon, 
Or, a cross azure, which both SPENER and TRIER 
profess their inability to explain. (I think it originated 
in a painter's error.) 

The Barons of FRAUENBERG (now FRAUNBERG) in 
Bavaria, bore : Quarterly, I and 4. Gules, a pale argent, 
FRAUENBERG ; 2 and 3. Gules, a horse saliant argent 
bridled sable, HAAG. The Counts of HAAG, who are of 
the same descent, difference by transposing the quarters 
(SPENER, Op. Her,, p. spec., pp. 446-7). 

The arms of the two lines of LOWENSTEIN and WER- 
THEIM, in Virneberg and in Rochefort, were identical as 




1. Counter Seal of Louis XII. and Francis I. (Vrte). 2. Seal of Edmund 
Mortimer, 1372. 3. Seal of Guy de Munois, Monk of St. Germain 
1'Auxerrois (Eysenbach). 4. Portion of Seal of Blanche of Castille, 
Queen of France (d. 1252) ( Vr6e). 5. Seal of Louis, Dauphin of France, 
1216. 6. Portion of Seal of Alice of Holland, wife of Jean d'Avesnes, 
c. 1230 (Vree). 7. Seal of Isabella, Duchess of Albany, Countess of 

( 448 ) 

far as eight of the nine quarters were concerned, and 
only differed in the quartering at the point of the 
escucheon (SPENER, p. spec., tab. ix.). 

XIII. An AUGMENTATION of course serves very effec- 
tively as a mode of difference (See Chapter XVI.). The 
use of an official coat does the same. 

tout. The Escucheon en surtout is sometimes used in 
Germany as a difference. In the family of the Princes 
of AUERSPERG the eldest line thus bears the arms of 
GOTTSCHEE (Argent, a lion rampant gules crowned or) ; 
the VOLKARD line similarly use: Argent, a rose gules, 
seeded or ; and the line of PEILLENSTEIN : Azure, a 
crown or. It may be interesting if I here append 
a few of the differenced coats of an English family : the 
great house of MORTIMER. The main coat has already 
been given at p. 168 (Plate XVIII., No. 5), and the 
seal of EDMUND MORTIMER on Plate XXXVII., fig. 2, 
Barry or and azure, etc. (sometimes, as in the Second 
Roll of HENRY* 1 1 1. and the First Roll of EDWARD I., 
Azure, three bars or, etc.). RAF DE MORTIMER changes 
the tincture A sure to Sable (i, EDWARD II.). HENRY 
DE MORTIMER (i, EDWARD II.) makes the argent 
escucheon billetty sable, possibly ermine, which at any 
rate, was one of the MORTIMER differences, being borne 
MORTIMER bears "Mortimer's Arms" with a bendlet 
gules ; and GEOFFREY, with a saltire gtdes, en surtout 
(2, HENRY III.). In the same Roll JOAN changes the 
azure bars to gules. I close the list with a curious 
French example : MORTEMER in Poictou bore : Fasce 
contre fasce d'or et d'azur, en cceur un ecusson d' argent a 
la bande de gueules (qui pourrait rappeler une alliance 
avec les Seigneurs d'Azay le Rideau, qui portaient 
d^ argent a la bande de gueules]. BOURASSE, La Touraine, 
folio, Tours, 1855. 

( 449 ) 

In the case of some of the great families of the Low 
Countries, of which a number of the members were in 
succession Knights of the great Order of the Golden 
Fleece, their arms recorded in the catalogues of CHIFFLET 
and MAURICE afford interesting information as to the 
modes of differencing employed in the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries. About the middle of the fourteenth 
century GuiLLAUME DE CROY espoused ISABELLE, 
heiress of RENTY. Their son JEAN DE CROY accord- 
ingly bore, Quarterly, I and 4. Argent, three bars gules 
(CROY) ; 2 and 3. Argent three doloires (or broad-axes) 
those in chief addorsed gules (RENTY). JEAN DE CROY 
married MARIE DE CRAON and had two sons. Of these 
ANTOINE, the elder, on the death of his father at Azin- 
court in 1415, became Seigneur of CROY and bore the full 
arms of CROY and RENTY (Chev. No. xv.). The younger 
son, JEAN (Chev. No. xxii.), bore the same arms but differ- 
enced by the addition of an escucheon en surtout bearing 
the arms of his mother MARIE DE CRAON {Quarterly, i 
and 4. Lozengy or and gules, CRAON ; 2 and 3. FLANDERS, 
Or, a lion rampant sable}, which continued to form the 
standing difference of his line. He became the first Count 
of CHIMAY and founder of that line. Of the line of 
ANTOINE were several Knights of the Golden Fleece. Of 
these his grandson (No. cv.) was GuiLLAUME, Seigneur 
de CHIEVRES, Marquis d'ARSCHOT, and Duke of SORIA, 
the celebrated tutor of the Emperor CHARLES V. He 
bore CROY and RENTY, quartered, differenced by an 
escucheon en surtout ; Quarterly, I and 4. LUXEMBOURG 
{Argent, a lion rampant double queue gules) ; 2. LORRAINE ; 
3. BAR. Of these coats LUXEMBURG and BAR were 
respectively the coats of his maternal grand-parents ; 
LORRAINE was the first coat of his father's mother, 
tering HARCOURT, and ALENCON) was similarly borne in 

( 450 ) 

an escucheon en surtout by her grandson FERRY DE CROY, 
Seigneur de ROUX (No. cxxiii.), first cousin of GuiL- 
LAUME, Duke of SORIA ; and by FERRY'S son ADRIAN 
(No. clxiii.). 

Turning now to the line of CHIMAY, we find that both 
the sons of JOHN were Knights of the Order, and 
differenced their father's coat, already given, with a 
bordure azure platy. The elder son, PHILIPPE, also had 
two sons, Knights of the Order, of whom CHARLES, 
Prince de CHIMAY (No. civ.), the elder, discontinued the 
bordure, which was retained by the younger, ANTOINE 
(No. cxxxiv.). 

The differences of the knights of the house of LANNOY 
are even more instructive. 

First of their number was HUGH DE LANNOY (No. 
vii.). His father GILBERT was a younger son, and 
bore the arms of LANNOY : Argent ', three lions rampant 
vert crowned or, differenced by a. filet en bordure engrailed 
gules ; which was continued by HUGH. His younger 
brother GILBERT (No. xii.) added to this a label azure ; 
while the third brother, BALDWIN (No. xix.), who had 
as his heritage the lordship of MOLEMBAIS, his mother's 
portion, relinquished his father's bordure and bore the 
full arms of LANNOY differenced by an escucheon en 
surtout of MOLEMBAIS : Argent, four bars azure. His 
son BALDWIN (No. Ixxxix.), similarly differenced with 
the arms of his mother, ADRIENNE DE BERLAYMONT : 
Barry of six vair and gules. BALDWIN'S son PHILIP 
(No. clxxxiii.) also differenced with the arms of his 
mother MlCHELE D'ESNE : Sable, ten lozenges conjoined 
argent 3, 3, i. PHILIP had two wives ; by the first, MAR- 
GUERITE DE BOURGOGNE (natural daughter of Duke 
PHILIP by MARIE MANUEL), he had a son JEAN (No. 
ccviii.) who quartered LANNOY and MANUEL (v. p. 507), 
and placed the full undifferenced quartered coat of BUR- 
GUNDY en surtout. PHILIP'S second wife was FRANCOISE 

DE BARBENCON, and her son BALDWIN (No. ccxxxiii.) 
differenced with an escucheon en surtont of her arms : 
Argent, three lions rampant gules crowned or. 

In the line of GILBERT, the second son (No. xii.), 
his son PIERRE (No. xcviii.) bore his father's arms with 
the bordure, and in the centre point a star of six points 

Yet another line of LANNOY, descending from HUGH, 
Seigneur de MlNGOVAL, brother of GuiLLEBERT, had 
a succession of three generations of knights. CHARLES 
(No. cxxxvi.), Viceroy of Naples, laid aside his father's 
engrailed bordure, and differenced with a crescent gules 
in the centre point. His son PHILIP (No. cxcvii.), 
Prince of SuLMONE, resumed the bordure. He married 
ISABELLA CoLONNA,and their sons CHARLES (ccxxxviii.), 
and HORACE (cclxix.), both quartered LANNOY and 
COLONNA (Gules, a column argent ', its capital and base or 
crowned of the last}. 

Illustrations of most of the usages we have described 
will be found in the list of Montmorency brisures with 
which I conclude this Chapter. 

I. Or, a cross gules between sixteen allerions azure, is the 
principal coat of thefamilyin modern times (see next page). 

The MONTMORENCY DE FOSSEUX added a star argent 
in the centre point (until it became the principal line in 
1570), and the lines of COURRIERES and LORESSE did 
the same. 

M WASTINE : three plates upon the cross. 

M BOUTEVILLE; andM CROISILLES: a label azure 
(? argent) ; and a lozenge or in centre point. 

M BOURS : in chief a crescent argent. 

M ROUPY (ET NOMAING) : in chief a mullet argent 
(a crescent argent in centre]. 

M DU PLESSIS-CACHELEU : in centre a mullet sable. 


( 452 ) 

M D'HUBERMONT : an escucheon en surtout of the 
maternal arms of OlGNIES : ( Vert, a/ess ermine). 

M DE MAFFLIERS : the first canton argent plain. 

M S. LEU (ET DEUIL): the first canton ermine plain. 

M BRETEUIL ET BEAUSSAULT : the first canton 
argent, an estoile sable. 

M BEAUSANT: an escucheon en surtout of HAR- 
COURT, Gules, two bars or. 

II. (MONTMORENCY-LAVAL : five escallops argent on 
the cross.} 

M L. DE MORHEM : the same ; a bordure argent. 

M L. D'OLIVET : the bordure sable with eight plates. 

M L. ST. AUBIN, ET BOIS-DAUPHIN : a bordure 
sable with five lions rampant argent. 

M L. CHATILLON : a canton of BEAUMONT, Azure, 
flory a lion rampant or. 

M L. DE LOUE : a canton of BAUSSAY (?). 

M L. DE PACY : a canton, Gules, three lions rampant 

M L. DE CHALOUYAU : a canton, Gules, a lion ram- 
pant argent. 

M L. D'ATTICHY : a canton, Argent, a lion (passant 
sable or} rampant gules, ERQUERY. 

M L. DE LEZAY : a pJieon argent in base of the cross. 

MONTMORENCY DE MARLY : Or, a cross gules between 
four allerions azure (the original arms of the family), the 
branch of DE LAY made the cross fretty. (SPENER, 
Opus Heraldicum, pars, gen., p. 357, corrected.) 

M DE LUXE, ET DE BOUTTEVILLE: on the cross an 
escucheon of BouRBON-LA-MARCHE-PREAux : FRANCE- 
ANCIENT, a bendlet gules charged with three lions rampant 
argent (this line became MONTMORENCY-LUXEMBOURG). 

M HALLOT : a label azure.]. W.] 




IN the earliest days of Heraldry no one was supposed 
to have a right to more coats of arms than one, nor did 
more than one coat appear upon a heraldic seal. The 
hereditary descent of arms was from time to time 
interrupted by the bearer of a particular coat marrying 
into a family more powerful, or having larger possessions 
than his own ; in which case it was usual, whether the 
lady were an heiress or not, that he should adopt her 
family arms ; in so doing he entirely relinquished his 
paternal ensigns, as it was not thought that he could 
exhibit both together on the same shield, banner, or seal. 
But in the latter half of the thirteenth century, more 
shields than one began to be exhibited upon the same 
seal. This is particularly the case in the seals of Queens, 
and other highly dignified ladies, upon which the owner 
of the seal was delineated at full length having a shield 
on either side of her effigy, the one containing her 
husband's armorial insignia, the other her paternal coat. 
Thus, in 1263, the seal of AGNES DE FAUCIGNY, wife of 
Count PETER of SAVOY, bears a female figure holding 
in the dexter hand the paly shield of FAUCIGNY (Gules), 
three pallets (or); in her sinister the shield of SAVOY 
(Gules), a cross (argent). (ClBRARIO, Sigilli de y Principi 
di Savoia, No. 19.) It may be worth while to notice 

( 454 ) 

here, that this seal, already bearing the arms now known 
as those of SAVOY, is one of the many pieces of evidence 
extant which unite in refuting the fable which declares 
that these arms (identical with those borne by the 
great Order of the Hospitallers of St. John the Baptist, 
the " Knights of St. John" at Rhodes and Malta) were 
given by the Order to -AMADEUS the Great, Count of 
SAVOY (1285-1323), in recognition of assistance said to 
have been rendered by him to the Knights at a siege of 
Rhodes, with regard to which historians differ about the 
date as to whether it was in 1308, 1310, or 1315! (See 
GuiCHENON, Histoire Genealogique de la Maison de 
Savoye, i., 126, etc.) 

On a seal of MARGARET BRUCE of Skelton, Lady de 
ROS of Kendal, appended to a document of 1280, is a full 
length female figure, wearing a mantle lined with ermine, 
and holding a shield charged with the water-bougets of 
ROSS in her right hand, and one with a lion rampant for 
BRUCE in the other. (LAING, Scottish Seals, ii., No. 142.) 

MARGARET, daughter of PHILIP III. of France, second 
Queen of EDWARD I. of England, had on the obverse of 
the seal her effigy, habited in a tunic on which are 
displayed the three lions passant-gardant of ENGLAND ; 
on either side of this effigy is a shield ; the dexter bears 
the fleurs-de-lis of FRANCE-ANCIENT ; that to the left 
hand is charged with the coat of her mother MARIE, 
daughter of HENRY III., Duke of BRABANT (Sable), 
a lion rampant (or). The reverse of the seal bears the 
arms of ENGLAND only. 

This mode of using arms seems to have been prevalent 
all over Europe. For instance, the seal of MARGARET 
of CARINTHIA, wife of FREDERICK IV., Burg-grave 
of NURNBERG in 1307, bears her seated effigy. holding 
two shields : the dexter the arms of ZOLLERN : Quarterly, 
Sable and argent ; the other the shield of CARINTHIA ; 
Per pale (Gules) a fess (argent) AUSTRIA ; and (Or) 

( 455 ) 

tJiree lions passant in pale (sable] CARINTHIA. 
(Monumenta Z oiler ana, iii., p. 279.) The custom was 
continued by all the Burg-grafins of the fourteenth 
century. (See Chapter on SUPPORTERS.) 

Similar to the seal of Lady de Ros, described above, 
is the seal in 1378 of MARGARET STUART, Countess of 
ANGUS by descent, and of -MAR by marriage (the 
mother, by an incestuous intrigue with her brother-in-law, 
of the DOUGLAS, first Earl of ANGUS) ; it bears 
the representation of a lady holding in the dexter hand 
the shield of MAR, and in the sinister that of STEWART 
Scottish Seals, i., No. 792.) 

There is in the Record Office in London a fine but 
much defaced seal of MARGARET LOGIE, second Queen 
of DAVID II. of Scotland, on which, besides the figure of 
the Queen, are three separate shields. One bears the 
Royal Arms of SCOTLAND ; another, so much injured as 
to be hardly decipherable, seems to contain the coat of 
her former husband, Sir JOHN LOGIE ; while the third, 
which had on insufficient grounds been taken for LOGIE, 
bears the coat of DRUMMOND (Or), three bars wavy 
(gules). It may be mentioned as indicative of the light 
which Heraldry so often throws on history, that it was 
this seal which settled the re-discovery of the long 
forgotten paternity of DAVID II.'s strong-minded Queen. 
She was daughter of Sir MALCOLM DRUMMOND of 
Stobhall ; and aunt of the gentler, and more lovable, 
Queen ANNABELLA. The late Mr RIDDELL (Scottish 
Peerage and Consistorial Law, p. 92) had previously 
shown that she was not, as generally supposed, daughter 
of Sir JOHN LOGIE, but his widow. (See The Exchequer 
Rolls of Scotland, vol. ii., pp. Iv. and Ivi., edited by GEORGE 
BURNETT, Lyon King of Arms.) 

On the more delicately executed seals of the same 
period without effigies, we have sometimes a regular 

( 456 ) 

pattern of ornamental tracery, in which are inserted 
several separate shields, that containing the principal 
family coat generally occupying the most prominent 
position. In a few cases the family badges are intro- 
duced as parts of the composition. 

The counter-seals of LOUIS X. of France, in 1315, as 
well as those of his brothers and successors PHILIP V. 
and CHARLES I V.,bear the arms of the kingdom (FRANCE- 
ANCIENT) on a circular representation of the chains of 
NAVARRE, their mother's coat. (VREE, Genealogie des 
Comtes de Flandre, plates xli., xlii.) 

Three seals given in HUEBER'S Austria Illustrata, 
tab. xvi. and xiv., show the aggroupement of several 
shields in 1348 before quartering had become generally 
adopted. The first is that of LOUIS, Count PALATINE 
of the RHINE, and Duke of BAVARIA ; on it three 
shields are arranged in pairle, the points meeting 
in the centre of the escucheon : (i) BAVARIA ; (2) 
the PALATINATE ; (3) . . . (?). The second is that 
Here the shields of (i) AUSTRIA, (2) STYRIA, and (3) 
the impaled coat of CARINTHIA, are placed 2 and i. 
The two first are accoles in chief, and their base 
points rest on the upper edge of the shield of 
1337, has two shields pendant from a tree. 

It should be noted that Princes who had several great 
fiefs, carried their arms separately ; one on the shield, 
another on the banner, and others on the caparisons of 
their horses. (See the seals of the Dukes of AUSTRIA, in 
HUEBER ; those of the SAXON Dukes, in HONN, Des 
Hauses Sachs en Wappens und GescJilects Untersuchung, 
Leipzig, 1704, etc. ; and that of JOHN, King of BOHEMIA, 
in VREE.) SIMON DE MONTFORT thus carried a banner 
of the arms of the honour of Hinckley. 

The seal of ELIZABETH DE CLARE, daughter and 

( 457 ) 

heiress of GILBERT DE CLARE, Earl of GLOUCESTER, and 
niece of EDWARD II., like many other seals of ladies of 
that date, is without inscription. The central shield bears 
the arms of ROGER D'AMORI, the lady's third husband, 
who died c. 1322 (Barry wavy argent and g2iles a bendlet 
azure), with three lions passant-gardant of ENGLAND, 
surrounding it. A cross of tracery around this central 
shield contains four circular compartments ; that above 
the shield of AMORI bears the arms of the lady's first 
husband, JOHN DE BURGH, Earl of ULSTER (or) a cross 
(gules'] surmounted by a label ; that beneath the shield is 
charged with the fret of her second husband, THEOBALD 
DE VERDON (Orjretty gules) ; while the circles on either 
side bear her paternal arms of DE CLARE (Or, three 
chevrons gules). In the four angles of the cross are 
trefoiled compartments ; two charged with the castle of 
CASTILE ; two with the arms of LEON, for her grand- 
mother ELEANOR of CASTILE, wife of EDWARD I., whose 
daughter, JOAN of AGON, was wife of GILBERT DE CLARE. 

The seal of ELIZABETH D'AMORI, daughter and 
heiress of the above named ROGER D'AMORI, and 
ELIZABETH DE CLARE, affords an equally interesting 
example of the usage of the time. On it a central com- 
partment of circular shape is filled with octagonal 
cuspings, on which is placed the shield of the lady's 
husband, JOHN, Lord BARDOLF (Azure, three cinquefoils 
or). Around it is arranged a series of eight smaller circles 
charged with arms. In chief and base are the arms of 
BURGH, but without any label. The dexter and sinister 
flanks are charged with DE CLARE and D'AMORI, as above. 
The other four circles bear the lion of LEON or the castle 
of CASTILE. (Cf. the seal of JEANNE DE FRANCE, 
Plate XXXV., fig. 3.) 

A seal of MARGARET of FRANCE (daughter of PHILIP 
V. by JEANNE, Countess of ARTOIS and BURGUNDY ; 
and wife of LOUIS DE NEVERS, Count of FLANDERS) ; 

( 458 ) 

bears : FLANDERS, impaling FRANCE-ANCIENT. This 
central shield is surrounded by a series of four sup- 
porters : an angel in chief, a dragon in base, and two 
eagles in flanks, and by four escucheons alternating with 
these supporters: of these the ist and 4th are ARTOIS 
(FRANCE-ANCIENT, a label gules] ; the 2nd bears the 
impaled coat repeated ; the 3rd is for NEVERS, or the 
County PALATINE of BURGUNDY : Azure, billetty, a lion 
rampant or (VREE, Gen. Com. FL, plate L). 

Contemporarily with this aggroupement existed an- 
other usage for indicating maternal descent, or the posses- 
sion of a particular fief, by borrowing some bearing from 
the shield of the wife or mother, or from that of the fief 
in question, and amalgamating it with the paternal coat. 

An English instance of this usage adduced by Mr 
PLANCHE, is that of JOHN DE MOHUN (temp. EDWARD 
L), whose family coat, Gules, a maunch argent, has been 
already noticed (p. 376) ; but in consequence of his 
marriage with JOANNE D'AGULON, he (or his son) added 
to the maunch a hand issuing from it, and holding the 
fleur-de-lis which was the bearing of the AGULON family. 
In the Roll of HENRY III., known as GLOVER'S Roll, 
ROBERT DE AGULON bears : Gules, a fleur-de-lis argent 
(No. 63); see also ST. GEORGE'S Roll (No. 182), 
Archceologia, xxxix. 

Many examples of composed coats are to be found in 
Continental Heraldry, but it is in Scotland that this 
usage chiefly prevailed. 

It is well known that the marriage of Sir JOHN 
STEWART, younger son of the fourth High Steward 
of Scotland, with the daughter and eventual heiress of 
Sir JOHN BONKYL, led the greater number of his 
descendants in all subsequent times to surmount their 
fess-chequy with a bend (which was doubtless his 
difference as a younger son), charged with the three 
buckles of the shield of BONKYL. We see them on the 

( 459 ) 

seal of MARGARET, Countess of ANGUS and MAR, to 
which reference has been already made (LAING, Scottish 
Seals, i., No. 768). 

Immediately on his accession to the throne ROBERT 
II., in 1371, bestowed on DAVID, his eldest son by his 
second marriage with EUPHEMIA ROSS, the earldom of 
STRATHERN which had been forfeited to the Crown. 
The seal of the prince, in 1374, shows that he amal- 
gamated the fess-chequy of the STEWARTS with the 
chevrons which had been borne by the former Earls of 
STRATHERN as their feudal coat (Or, two chevrons gules). 
JOHN, second son of Sir ALEXANDER COCKBURN, 
married early in the fourteenth century, JANET, daughter 
and heiress of Sir ALEXANDER LINDSAY, and thus 
acquired the estate of Ormiston. He therefore placed 
the Lindsay fess-checquy between the three cocks of 
COCKBURN on his armorial shield. 

Many other Scottish coats were formed in this way, 
and allusion has been made to some of them in the 
chapter on DIFFERENCING. 

MARSHALLING, however, consists strictly neither in 
the aggroupement, nor in the amalgamation, of heraldic 
bearings, but in the exhibiting of separate coats in one 
shield which is divided by lines of partition into compart- 
ments for their display. 

Among the various means adopted for this purpose 
the most important are impalement ; quartering ; and 
the escucheon en surtout ; each of which, along with a 
few others belonging chiefly to Continental and Royal 
Heraldry, will be separately noticed. 


In impalement the shield is parted per pale, i.e. is 
divided by a vertical line into equal portions, a separate 
coat being placed in each of the divisions. 

I. DlMlDIATlON. In the form called Dimidiation, 

( 460 ) 

only the half (or a little more than the half) of each of 
the two coats is seen upon the shield, which is thus 
occupied by the dexter half of the one coat and the 
sinister half of the other. 

Mr BOUTELL (English Heraldry, p. 146) considers 
that this custom was introduced into England between 
1272-1307 ; there are, however, earlier instances of its 
use in other countries. The seal of WILLIAM of 
HAINAULT, younger brother of BALDWIN V., Count of 
HAINAULT (d. 1194), bears a shield dimidiated; the 
dexter half is seme oi fleurs-de-lis ; on- the sinister is the 
chevronny coat of HAINAULT (Or and sable], the chevrons 
being here converted into bends. This seal was in use 
in 1199 or 1 200, and is the earliest instance of dimidia- 
tion which occurs to me. (VREE, Genealogie des Comtes 
de Flandre, plate iv.) The seal of BEATRICE DE BAUX, 
in 1258, bears, TOULOUSE dimidiating BAUX. (ClB- 
RARIO, Sigilli di Savoia, No. xv.) 

The counter-seal of DEVORGILLA, wife of JOHN 
BALLIOL, daughter of ALAN, Lord of GALLOWAY, by 
MARGARET, daughter of DAVID, Earl of HUNTINGDON, 
is appended to the charter of foundation of BALLIOL 
College, Oxford, 1282. It is of vesica shape, and bears 
three escucheons suspended from a tree ; the centre, and 
by far the largest shield, bears GALLOWAY (a lion rampant 
crowned), dimidiated with BALLIOL (an orle, v. p. 407). 
The smaller escucheons bear the arms of HUNTINGDON 
and CHESTER for her grandparents. (LAING, ii., 71.) 

The seal of ANNETTE DE LAVAL, Dame de COETMEN, 
in 1298, bears, MoNTMORENCY- LAVAL (Or, on a cross 
gules between twenty allerions azure, five escallops argent] 
dimidiating COETMEN (Gules, seven annulets, 3, 3, i, 
argent) (MORICE, Bretagne, cxxii.). I am not able, there- 
fore, to give my entire assent to Mr BLANCHE'S assertion 
that " Heraldry had existed as a science at least two 
hundred years before anything like the present practice 

2 H 

( 46 1 ) 

of marshalling made its appearance. In our early 
seals the shield of arms of the husband and wife are 
displayed separately. Impalement, simply, and by dimi- 
diation, appears in the reign of EDWARD I., and quartering 
about the same period." (Pursuivant of Arms, p. 164.) 

In 1263 the counter-seal of BLANCHE DE NAVARRE 
bears a shield charged with ALBRET (Gules plain], 
impaling DREUX (Chequy or and argent, a canton ermine}. 
(MORICE, Bretagne, Ixxxi.) It must be remarked here 
that in early times impaled coats appear as a rule only on 
the seals of ladies. In opposition to modern ideas we find 
that it was the wife who impaled her husband's arms with 
her own, not the husband who impaled the wife's. The 
shield which appears on the seal of the husband usually 
contains his own arms only. 

" Usually males quartered the arms of their wives 
or ancestresses from whom they acquired their lands ; 
whilst impalements were practically the general bearings 
of married women who took an immediate interest in 
their husbands' lands by right of dower. The practice 
of husbands impaling their wives' arms, whether 
heiresses or not, probably arose near the close of the 
1 5th century. Even now it is laid down that the 
arms of a wife should not in general be borne upon 
the husband's banner, surcoat, or official seal." 
("The old Heraldry of the Percies," by Mr DYER 
LONGSTAFFE in Archceologia ^Eliana, vol. iv.) 

There are indeed a few early instances in which a man 
used an impaled coat ; not however, to indicate his own 
marriage but to denote his parentage. 

Thus, about 1290, the counter-seal of GEOFFROI DE 
BRABANT (son of HENRY, Duke of BRABANT, by his 
Duchess, ALICE OF BURGUNDY), bears a shield on 
which are impaled the arms of the two duchies : Sable, 
a lion rampant or, for BRABANT ; and, Bendy of six or 
and azure, a bordure gules, for BURGUNDY-ANCIENT. 

( 462 ) 

(In the last named coat the bordure is not removed at 
the palar line as in modern usage to be hereafter noticed, 
p. 474.) So also, about 1300, Louis, Count of NEVERS, 
son of ROBERT DE BETHUNE, Count of FLANDERS, by 
YOLANTE, daughter of EUDES of BURGUNDY, bore on 
his secretum a shield impaling the parental coats viz., 
BURGUNDY-ANCIENT (the bordure engrailed for differ- 
ence), and FLANDERS (Or, a lion rampant sable]. 

This is a curious arrangement, the place of honour 
being given to the maternal coat, in which the engrailed 
bordure for difference is also worthy of remark. It 
should be noticed that in the present case the bordure is 
removed at the palar line, unlike the example quoted 
immediately above. LOUIS (DE CRESSY) Count of 
NEVERS and RETHEL, and afterwards of FLANDERS (as 
LOUIS II.), son of the above LOUIS and YOLANTE, 
married MARGARET of FRANCE, daughter of PHILIP V. 
Her counter seals bear FLANDERS impaling FRANCE- 
ANCIENT, but on one of them FRANCE has the precedence. 
(VREE, G^ne'alogie des Comics de Flandre, plate xcviii.) 

Sometimes quartered coats are dimidiated, in which 
case the first and third quarters of the husband's coat are 
impaled with the second and fourth of the wife's. In these 
the appearance is that of a plain quartered coat, and 
may easily mislead the unwary. Thus the seal of 
MARGARET of BAVARIA, Countess of HOLLAND, and 
wife of JOHN, Count de NEVERS, in 1385 (afterwards 
Duke of BURGUNDY), bears a shield en banniere which 
appears a simple instance of quartering, but is really 
a dimidiated coat. The two coats to the dexter side of 
the palar line are : In chief BURGUNDY-MODERN 
(FRANCE-ANCIENT, a bordure company argent and gules], 
and in base BURGUNDY-ANCIENT, as above. On the 
sinister side the coat in chief is BAVARIA (Bendy -lozengy 
argent and azure]; and the one in base contains the 
quartered arms of FLANDERS (Or, a lion rampant sable]; 

and HOLLAND (Or, a lion rampant gules) ; the pourfilar 
line dividing these latter quarters being omitted, as in 
many like instances. (See ante, p. 247, and compare 
the shield of Queen PHILIPPA of HAINAULT, wife of 
EDWARD III., in Westminster Abbey.) Similarly, after 
her first marriage with the Dauphin, the seal of JACQUE- 
LINE of BAVARIA, Countess of HOLLAND, has on the 
dexter side the coat of FRANCE in chief, and that of 
DAUPHINE (Or, a dolphin embowed azure, crested gules) 
in base ; on the sinister BAVARIA, in chief over the 
quartered coat of FLANDERS and HOLLAND as above. 

The seal of JEANNE, Duchess of BRITTANY, wife of 
CHARLES of BLOIS, in 1369, bears a lozenge charged 
with two coats which might be described either as 
dimidiated, or impaled. The dexter side is Ermine 
plain ; the sinister Ermine, within a border gules (which 
of course stops at the palar line). 

I recently noticed a somewhat similar instance in 
a modern window of the Cathedral at Tours, where the 
arms of GUY DE MONTMORENCY-LAVAL are dimidiated 
with those of JEANNE DE LAVAL D'OLIVET, his wife, in 
1384. (She was widow of the Constable BERTRAND DU 
GUESCLIN.) The arms are : P er pale dimidiated \ i. Or, 
on a cross gules between sixteen allerions azure, five 
escallops argent; 2. The same, within a bordure sable 
charged with fifteen plates. 

In 1298, the seal of ANNETTE DE LAVAL, Dame de 
COETMEN, has a shield of MONTMORENCY-LAVAL (as 
above) dimidiating COETMEN ; Gules, seven annulets, 
3, 3, I, argent. (MORICE, Bretagne, No. cxxii.) In 
1306 the seal of PAIEN DE LA ROCHE bears: Vair, 
dimidiating an eagle displayed. (Ibid., No. ccxv.) 

It must be noticed that often only one of the coats 
impaled. is affected by dimidiation. Thus (circa 1310) 
the counter-seal of MARGARET of HAINAULT, third wife 
of ROBERT, Comte d'ARTOIS, bears ARTOIS dimidiated 



1. Siradia. 

2. Breslau. 

3. England, Dimidiating France. 4. Queen Elizabeth of York. 

5. Town of Youghal. 

6. The Cinque Ports. 

impaling FLANDERS entire. Here the ARTOIS label 
appears (probably only on account of the smallness of 
the coat) to be gobony ; and not of gules charged 
with the golden castles of CASTILE as represented on 
the seal of the Count himself. (VREE, Genealogie des 
Comtes des Flandre, plate xlviii.) 

On the seal of lOLANTE DE FLANDERS (died 1312), 
daughter of ROBERT DE BETHUNE, Count of FLANDERS, 
and wife of GAUTIER II., Seigneur d'ENGHiEN, the 
dimidiated coat of ENGHIEN (Gyronny of ten argent and 
sable, each piece of the latter charged witJi tJiree cross- 
crosslets fitchee of the first} is impaled with the entire 
arms of FLANDERS (p. 462). So also on the Great Seal 
of Queen MARY the dimidiated arms of FRANCE impale 
the entire arms of SCOTLAND. 

The remarkable seals of YOLANTE DE FLANDRE 
(daughter of ROBERT DE FLANDRES dit Cassel, by 
JEANNE DE BRETAGNE) ; and wife, first of HENRY IV., 
Comte de BAR ; and next of PHILIP, Comte d'EvREUX, 
and King of NAVARRE in 1344, show her Own arms 
(FLANDERS within a bordure engrailed sable] entire ; 
while those of her husband : Quarterly, I and 4. 
all a bend gobony argent and gules] are dimidiated ; so 
that the dexter side of the escucheon appears to be 
party per fess, as only the ist and 3rd quarters (the 
dexter half) of the quartered coat appear. On one of 
her seals this escucheon, supported by eight angels is en 
banniere (v. p. 635); it may also be noticed that the 
engrailed bordure of her own coat runs round the whole 
of it, and is not removed, as we might have expected, 
at the palar line. (VREE, Genealogie des Comtes de 
Flandre, plate ciii.) 

It is curious to note that a century later this same 
impalement of NAVARRE and EVREUX appears on the 
seal of JOAN DE NAVARRE, first Queen of HENRY IV. of 

( 465 ) 

ENGLAND in 1463. This seal contains an impalement, 
the King's arms (of FRANCE-ANCIENT, and ENGLAND, 
quarterly) being on the dexter side ; and on the sinister 
side, per fess, in chief NAVARRE, in base EVREUX. (It 
must be noticed that this would not be a correct 
dimidiation of her arms, in that case EVREUX would 
be in chief; NAVARRE in base.) 

The Royal Armory of England shows much earlier 
instances of dimidiation. The arms of MARGARET of 
FRANCE, who died in 1319, the second Queen of 
EDWARD I., remain on her tomb in Westminster Abbey 
as an exemplification of this mode of Marshalling 
(Plate XXXVIIL, fig. 3). The arms of ENGLAND 
are upon the dexter side of the escucheon ; and this 
coat undergoes, according to the earlier and more correct 
fashion, a certain amount of curtailment, though the 
dimidiation is not complete, only portions of the hind- 
most parts of the lions being cut off by the palar line ; 
while the coat of FRANCE-ANCIENT appears also 
dimidiated to the sinister. One of the seals of ISABEL 
of FRANCE, wife of EDWARD II., bears her standing 
effigy between two shields, one of ENGLAND, the other 
of her parental (not personal) arms FRANCE-ANCIENT 
and NAVARRE both somewhat curtailed by dimidiation. 

BOUTELL in his chapter on Marshalling in Heraldry, 
Historical and Popular, gives several early examples of 
Impalement by dimidiation, which should not be over- 
looked. The seal of EDMOND PLANTAGENET, Earl of 
CORNWALL (d. 1300), bears his arms (those of RICHARD, 
Earl of CORNWALL, and King of the Romans, v. ante, 
p. 245) dimidiating those of his wife, MARGARET DE 
CLARE. Here only the sinister half of his bordure is 
removed, while the CLARE coat (Or, three chevrons gules) 
is entirely dimidiated and the chevrons become bends, 
as in the seal of WILLIAM of HAINAULT above given 
(p. 460). Both coats are dimidiated in BOUTELL'S other 

( 466 ) 

examples (WILLIAM DE VALENCE and his wife ; and 
p. 148). On the seal of MARGARET CAMPBELL, wife of 
ALEXANDER NAPIER, in 1531, the shield has impaled 
upon the dexter side the arms of LENOX, on the sinister 
the dimidiated coat (the sinister half of the quartered 
arms) of CAMPBELL, and LORN ; thus the galley of LORN 
appears in the chief, and the CAMPBELL gyrons in base : in 
agreement with what we have already seen (p. 465) to be a 
Continental usage. (LAING, Scottish Seals, i., No. 158.) 
The arms of CHARLOTTE and ISABEL, daughters of 
WILLIAM, Prince of ORANGE (d. 1584), by CHARLOTTE 
DE BOURBON-MONTPENSIER, were dimidiated by their 
respective husbands, CLAUDE, Due de la TREMOUILLE, 
BOUILLON, who retained their own arms entire. These 
are curious examples because the dimidiation of the 
arms of the ladies affected the escucheon of pretence, 
with its escucheon en surtout. It will be sufficient if I 
give the blazon of the arms of ISABEL, Duchess de 
BOUILLON. Two coats impaled ; the dexter entire ; 
the sinister dimidiated : 

A. Quarterly: i. Azure fleury or, a tower argent 


2. Or, a gonfanon gules fringed vert (AUVERGNE). 

3. Cotice or and gules (TURENNE). 

4. Gules, a fess argent (Duchy of BOUILLON) 
(SPENER, p. s, p. 364). 

Over all : Or, three torteaux (County of BoLOGNE). 

B. Quarterly, i and 4. FRANCE, differenced by a 

baton peri en bande gules (the upper portion 

argent charged with a dolphin embowed azure ?) 


2 and 3. Azure, billetty a lion rampant or (NASSAU). 
On an escucheon, Quarterly : i and 4. Gules, 

a bend or (CHALON). 

2 and 3. Or, a hunting-horn azure vi rolled and 
stringed gules (ORANGE). Sur le totit du tout 
CJiequy of nine or and azure (GENEVA). 
The whole escucheon dimidiated. 

The seal of ANNE of CYPRUS, wife of Louis, Duke of 
SAVOY, in 1451, bears SAVOY dimidiated, impaling: 
Per fess (a) JERUSALEM, (b) CYPRUS Argent, a lion 
rampant gules crowned or (ClBRARIO, No. 103). 

An early and interesting Irish example of this kind of 
Marshalling is afforded by a dimidiated coat of CLARE 
son of RICHARD, Earl of HEREFORD, having obtained 
in 1272 a charter of the territory of Thomond in Con- 
naught, and of whatever lands besides he could win from 
the Irish by his sword, set sail for Cork with a large 
retinue, and there fell in with and married JULIANA, 
daughter and heiress of MAURICE FITZMAURICE FlTZ- 
GERALD, feudal Lord of INCHIQUIN and YOUGHAL. He 
became possessor of the town of YOUGHAL ; and the 
official seal of the Provosts of YOUGHAL dimidiated the 
coats of CLARE and FITZGERALD. (CLARE, Or, three 
chevrons gules ; FITZGERALD, Argent, a saltire gules with 
a label of five points in chief] (Plate XXXVIIL, fig. 5). 
(See Gentleman's Magazine, 1865.) 

Very singular examples of dimidiation are afforded by 
the arms which appear on the seals of the ClNQUE PORTS 
(Plate XXXVIIL, fig. 6), and on those of the Borough 
of GREAT YARMOUTH. In both the dexter half of 
the escucheon is occupied by the arms of ENGLAND 
dimidiated, and the sinister half is occupied by an 
azure field, charged in the case of the ClNQUE PORTS 
with three ship's hulks argent in pale, and in that of 
GREAT YARMOUTH with three herrings in pale argent. 
In both cases only the hinder halves of the charges 
appear, and they are united at the palar line with the 
bodies of the three lions of England. An even more 

( 46S ) 

curious case of dimidiation is afforded by the arms of 
the Abbey of St. ETIENNE at CAEN, in which the arms 
of ENGLAND and those of the Duchy of NORMANDY 
(Gitles, two lions passant-gardant or), were dimidiated, 
so that in the former half three of the fore-quarters of 
the lions appear, while in the sinister half only two of 
the hind-quarters are represented. 

In German Heraldry some heraldic monsters which 
appear as charges originated in the practice of dimidia- 
tion ; and to it Mr PLANCHE considers that even the 
double-headed eagle of GERMANY is due. To this 
matter attention is paid elsewhere in this book. 

The seal of ALICE, sister of WILLIAM of HOLLAND 
(elected King of the ROMANS), and wife of JEAN 
D'AVESNES, Count of HAINAULT (d. 1255) bears her 
effigy standing between an eagle displayed and a lion 
rampant. On her counter-seal is a monster composed 
of the eagle and lion conjoined by dimidiation (Plate 
XXXVII, fig. 6). 

An eagle and lion, dimidiated and conjoined under 
one crown, occur on the seals of LESEK CZARNY, Duke 
of POLAND (c. 1255); of King WLADISLAW LOKIELET 
(1315); of HEDWIG ( 1 386) ; of her husband and successor 
of ALEXANDER of LIVONIA, in 1502. 

The arms of several of the provinces of POLAND 
afford similar examples. The Duchy of SlERADZ, or 
SlRADlA, bore : Or, an eagle displayed and a bear sejant 
sable, conjoined by dimidiation, and surmounted by an open 
crown. The Palatinate of SlRADIA bore : Argent, a bear 
sejant sable, dimidiated and conjoined with an eagle dis- 
played gules. The Palatinate of BRESLAU had the same 
bearings as SlERADZ, but sometimes without the crown. 
(Plate XXXVIII, figs, i, 2.) The Palatinate of KIOVIA 
(Kljow) had in an azure field the still more curious com- 

bination of a mounted knight and a dimidiated bear, 
beneath an open crown. PODLACHIA had a similar com- 
bination of a knight and a dimidiated eagle, in a golden 
field (v. SPENER, Opus Heraldictim, p. spec., p. 696). A 
considerable number of the noble families of FRISIA bear 
arms formed by dimidiation. Usually it is the Imperial 
Eagle displayed which figures in the dexter half of the 
escucheon. The family of DOUMA bears : Per pale or and 
gules, a demi-eagle sable, dimidiating a rose argent. The 
Counts of CAMMERSTEIN in Thuringia, bear : Per pale, 

1. The arms of the EMPIRE, dimidiated as above; 2. Argent, 
a fess embattled gules. The Barons of HlMMELBERG in 
Carinthia bear : Per pale, I. The Empire dimidiated ; 

2. Gules, a bend argent. The Imperial Eagle thus 
dimidiated also forms part of the arms of several 
German cities. NUREMBERG impales it with, Bendy 
argent and gules ; MEMMINGEN, with Argent, a cross 
gules ; KAUFBEVERN, with Azure, a bend gules (sic) 
between two estoiles or, etc. The Saxon family VON 
DRANDORFF dimidiate Azure, a fess argent, with Azure, a 

fleur-de-lis gules (sic). (These two would be counted in 
England armes-fausses^] The arms of GENEVA are those 
of the EMPIRE, dimidiated with Gules, a key in pale argent, 
wards in chief. 

The Wappenrolle von Zurich contains several dimidia- 
tion examples of the fourteenth century. In No. 237, 
the Suabian family of SCHWABEGG bear: Gules, an eagle 
displayed argent ; dimidiating, Barry of eight or and gules. 
In No. 312, the family of LOCHNOW use: Or, an eagle 
displayed gules, armed sable ; dimidiating Or, a fess sable. 
(Nos. 1 1 8, 119, are other examples, but are unnamed.) 
Lastly, the reigning Dukes of ANHALT still bear en 
surtout abcfve their quartered shield, the arms : Argent, 
an eagle displayed gules ; dimidiated witJi the arms of 
SAXONY (Barry sable and or, over all a cranc^elin vert ; 
see Wappenrolle von Zurich, No. 19). 

( 47 ) 

At Bologna in the Loggia dei Mercanti I noted the 
arms of GRASSI (1462) in which the arms of the Empire 
are dimidiated with those of the family : Gules, an eagle 
displayed argent, crowned or. The Angevin rastrello 
(Plate XXXIX., fig. 6, a label of four points gules, with 
three golden fleurs-de-lis between the points) surmounts 
the latter coat. This curious example combines GUELF 
and GHIBELINE insignia (see p. 119). (See SCHILLER'S 
Wallenstein for a fanciful account of the dimidiation of 
the arms of EGRA. Act iii., scene 3.) 

II. SIMPLE IMPALEMENT. The curtailing of the 
charges which dimidiation involved was found to be 
practically inconvenient, as rendering the bearings on 
the coats so dimidiated somewhat uncertain. Chevrons 
were thus (as in two cases quoted above) converted into 
bends : and cantons, or quarters, were liable to disappear 
altogether. Accordingly impalement without dimidia- 
tion, though itself not free from inconveniences, was the 
usage which met with general acceptance in these lands. 
Instances have been already given which show that this 
custom had gone on concurrently with dimidiation. 

In Britain impalement was practised chiefly by 
Queens and ladies of Royal Houses, who bore their 
husband's coat in the dexter, their paternal coat in the 
sinister, sometimes on a shield, sometimes on a lozenge. 
In process of time husbands occasionally impaled the 
coat of the wife with their own, if she were an heiress, 
though in those times it was more usual to quarter the 
arms in this case. The present usage of English 
Heraldry which concedes to a husband, for his life-time, 
the privilege of impaling his wife's arms with his own 
though she be not an heiress ; and even of arranging the 
arms of successive wives in the same escucheon is a 
comparatively modern, and the latter practice is in my 
opinion not a very commendable one. 

Even when it is desirable to indicate a series of 

alliances this is better done by shields accoles than by 
impalement, which often cramps the bearings in both the 
coats thus conjoined. The general modern Continental 
usage is in this respect much more satisfactory from an 
artistic point of view than our own. Where impalement 
is used in Continental Heraldry it usually originated in 
marriage with an heiress, but it rather takes the place 
which quartering holds with us, as it assumes a permanent, 
not a merely temporary significance. Thus the Imperial 
Arms of AUSTRIA contain three coats impaled: (i) 
HAPSBURG, Or, a lion rampant gules ; (2) AUSTRIA, 
Gules, afess argent ; and (3) LORRAINE : Or, on a bend 
gules three alerions argent. So in the arms of the Duchy 
of CARINTHIA, the arms of AUSTRIA, just described, are 
impaled with the arms SUABIA (Or, three lions passant 
sable). (They appear on the seal of OTTAKAR, King of 
BOHEMIA in 1264. See HUEBER, Austria Illustrata, tab. 
iv. ; and post p. 454 the coat of the Burg-grafin of 
NtJRNBERG.) The position of the impaled coats is some- 
times reversed (v. p. 495). 

On the Continent impalement was used in a much 
more general way than among ourselves, as will be 
readily seen by the inspection of a series of Imperial 
seals ; or by such an exposition of the Imperial quarter- 
ings as may be seen, for instance on the splendid Cheminee 
in the Palais de Justice at Bruges. On the Imperial 
seals AUSTRIA is sometimes impaled with BURGUNDY, 
sometimes with CASTILLE ; JERUSALEM with HUNGARY; 
ARRAGON with SICILY. In these, and a multitude of 
other instances, the design was obviously not to com- 
memorate any special matrimonial alliance, but to give to 
the coats thus impaled a clearer definition than would be 
obtained in a large shield of many quarters. So the 
arms of the Counties of FLANDERS and TIROL are very 
generally conjoined by impalement in a single escucheon, 
borne upon the great shield of the quarterings of the House 

( 472 ) 

of AUSTRIA (see fig. 91, p. 497) ; this is done merely for 
convenience, and by no means as indicative of a marriage 
between a Count of FLANDERS and a Countess of TIROL 
(which as a historic fact never took place), though such 
an alliance would be denoted, according to our modern 
British notions, by their impalement 

WILLIAM of WOLFFENBUTTEL, and his brother 
MAGNUS II. used, after 1367, the arms of BRUNSWICK : 
Gules, two lions passant or, impaled with those of LtJNE- 
BURG ; Or, seme of hearts gules, a lion rampant azure. 
In later times these coats were indifferently impaled or 
quartered (see GROTE, Geschichte der Welfischen Stamm- 
wappen, p. 47 ; Leipzig, 1863), and these impaled coats 
continued to form " das Kleine Wappen " of the Duchy 
of BRUNSWICK so long as it remained independent. 

The Seal of ALBERT, Count PALATINE of the RHINE 
in 1353, has a shield containing the arms of BAVARIA 
(Bendy lozengy Argent and azure} impaling those of the 
PALATINATE of the RHINE (Sable, a lion displayed, double 
queue or, crowned gules], (See Austria ex archivis Melli- 
censibus illustrata, plate xviii., fig. 10, fol. Lipsise 1722.) 

The Dukes of CLEVE often bore CLEVE impaling 
MARK (see MAURICE, Toison d'Or, plate L). 

Anothervery curious and interesting exampleis afforded 
by the arms of the Landgraves of LEUCHTENBURG, now 
extinct. They appear to be : Per pale Argent and azure 
a fess countercJianged ; and are often so blazoned. 
SPENER, however, points out (Opus Heraldicum, pars, 
spec., lib. i., p. 214) that really we have here two coats 
united by impalement. The coat of LEUCHTENBURG 
was simply Argent, a fess azure ; but on the extinction 
of the family of the Counts of HALS, who bore : Azure, 
a fess argent, the Emperor WENCESLAS conferred the 
fief, which had lapsed to the crown, on the kindred Land- 
graves of LEUCHTENBERG. (It will be noticed that these 
two coats are otherwise interesting as an example of differ- 

( 473 ) 

encing by change of tincture, vide ante,^. 405). Henceforth 
the Landgraves of LEUCHTENBERG bore both the coats 
united by impalement. The original coat of LEUCHTEN- 
BERG alone appears in the arms of the present Dukes of 
OFFSKI in Russia, who are allied to the Imperial 

In these, and many other cases, impalement was really 
equivalent to quartering ; and in Foreign Armory it con- 
tinues so to be. There are a multitude of instances in 
which a Parti coat is borne, and has been borne for genera- 
tions. It very likely at first commemorated a marriage, 
and the consequent acquirement of possessions; but it 
now simply has the effect of a quartered coat. (The 
Counts ZU BRONCHORST for generations continued to 
impale with their own quartered coat the quartered coat 
of the County of EBERSTEIN ; part of which was acquired 
by the marriage of Count JOHN II. with SIBYLLA VON 
EBERSTEIN.) This is especially the case in Spain, where 
impalements to denote a special marriage are rarely used as 
they are with us. For instance, the CORDOVAS, Marquises 
of PRIEGO, bear impaled two of the many coats which 
appear in the escucheon of the CORDOVAS, Dukes of 
SESA. Their arms are: Per pale : (i) CORDOVA, Or, 
three bars gules ; (2) FlGUEROA, Or, five fig leaves in 
saltire vert. The MENDOZAS, Counts of CORUNA, 
impale MENDOZA with FlGUEROA as above. The 
MENDOZAS, Counts de PRIEGO, impaled: (i) CAR- 
RILLO (Gules, a castle triple-towered or) with "MENDOZA 
( Vert, on a bend or a bendlet gules). 

The Dukes of GUELDERS early united by impalement 
their own arms, Azure, a lion rampant queue, four cJiee or, 
with those of the County of JULIERS, Or, a lion rampant 
sable (and, according to German fashion, turned their 
lion to the sinister to face that of JULIERS, so that 
the lions appear as if combatant). 

( 474 ) 

Originally, even in England, impalement did not 
invariably imply marriage. On the tomb of THOMAS, 
second Lord DACRE, K.G., at Lanercost, is a series 
of impaled and quartered coats containing the arms 
borne by himself, and his wife, ELIZABETH, heiress 
of GREYSTOCK. (He quartered MULTON, VAUX, 

FERRERS, and BOTELER.) Of the escucheons one 
contains BOTELER impaling VAUX (the arms of two 
heiresses), another includes GREYSTOCK quartering 
VAUX. According to modern notions these would be 
absurdities, as there was not direct intermarriage. 
(See Archaologia ^Eliana, iv., 149.) The coat invented 
by English Heralds at a much later period, and assigned 
by them to EDWARD THE CONFESSOR (Azure, a cross 
patonce between five martlets or), was not only assumed 
and impaled in the place of honour with his own 
hereditary arms by RICHARD II., but was also assigned 
by him to be similarly used, either with or without 
a difference by some of his kinsmen. Thus, THOMAS 
MOWBRAY, K.G., Duke of NORFOLK, impaled the 
undifferenced coat ; THOMAS, Duke of SURREY, used 
it with the addition of a bordure ermine; JOHN 
BOLINGBROKE (before his accession) both differenced 
it with a label argent, and impaled it with their own 
arms. (See also the seal of EDWARD, Earl of RUTLAND, 
p. 416, ante.) 

A remnant of dimidiation has survived in the practice 
of omitting in impaled coats those portions of the bordures 
and tressures contained in them, which would naturally 
be adjacent to the dividing, or palar, line of the shield. 
This is an early custom of which we have already seen 
examples, p. 463, but there are many instances in which 
the bordure, or tressure, is carried right round the 
coat impaled (See also pp. 462, 464). On the brass of 

( 475 ) 

Westminster Abbey, 1399, the silver bordure of her 
husband's difference runs round the quartered coat of 
FRANCE-ANCIENT and ENGLAND, which is impaled with 
their arms : Quarterly: I and 4. Azure, a bend argent 
coticed or, between six lions rampant of tJie last. 2 and 
3. Gules, two bendlets, the upper or, the lower argent. 

On the seal of THOMAS HOLLAND, Earl of KENT, to 
whom as already recorded, RICHARD II. assigned the 
arms of EDWARD THE CONFESSOR, differenced by a 
bordure ermine to be impaled with his paternal coat ; 
the bordure of this augmentation, as well as that of his 
own arms (which were ENGLAND, a bordure argent], 
remains entire. We have the continuous bordure also 
on the seal of JOAN BEAUFORT, daughter of JOHN, 
Earl of SOMERSET, and Queen of JAMES I. of Scotland, 
to whom she was married in 1424. She bore SCOTLAND, 
impaling her personal arms : FRANCE and ENGLAND 
quartered within a bordure company argent and azure. 
(LAING, Scottish Seals, i., 44.) The seal of BEATRICE 
of Portugal, Countess of ARUNDEL and SURREY, in the 
reign of HENRY V., bears her arms impaled with those 
of her husband the Earl, but with her own Castilian 
bordure unbroken. The arms of CATHARINE of 
BRAGANZA, Queen of CHARLES II., were also sculptured 
with the bordure entire. This appears to have been 
the Portuguese custom. The bordure of CASTILE 
appears entire on the seal of LEONORA of AUSTRIA, 
wife of EMMANUEL, King of PORTUGAL, in 1497. So 
is it also on the seal of ISABELLE of PORTUGAL, third 
wife of PHILIP LE BON, Duke of BURGUNDY, in 1430. 
(VREE, Genealogie des Comtes de Flandre, pp. 134, 125.) 

In Spanish coats at the present day the bordure often 
remains unbroken, even when, as in the example sub- 
joined, two bordured coats are impaled. DABANCASA 
bears : Escudo partita, el i d'Azury un Icon rampant e de 

( 476 ) 

oro, bordadura de este metal cargada de una cadena de azur ; 
el 2 de Plata y bordadura de gueules y ocho cabezas de 
dguila de oro (PlFERRER, Nobiliario de Espana, No. 259). 

As for the Tressure, it was systematically dimidiated 
in the Royal Arms during the period in which the coats 
of ENGLAND and SCOTLAND were borne impaled 
(i.e. from the Union with Scotland in 1707, to the 
Union with Ireland in 1801), and the incomplete 
tressure is also to be found on the monument in 
Westminster Abbey to MARGARET, Countess of 
LENNOX, grand-daughter of HENRY VII., and mother of 
HENRY, Duke of ALBANY, and of Lord DARNLEY, 
second husband of Queen MARY of SCOTLAND. 
(BOUTELL, Heraldry Historical and Popular, plate xxii.) 

On the other hand earlier usage prescribes the 
retention of the Tressure unbroken. It is entire on the 
seal just referred to of Queen JOAN BEAUFORT ; on 
that of MARY of GUELDERS, Queen of JAMES II.; 
also on the seal of Trinity Collegiate Church in 
Edinburgh, founded by the last-named Queen ; on her 
arms sculptured in St. Giles' Church, Edinburgh, 
impaled with those of her husband (curiously the 
tressure is incomplete at the top, see The Story of St. 
Giles' Cathedral Church, Edinburgh, by WM. CHAMBERS, 
LL.D. 1879, p. 9); on the painting at Holyrood of the 
arms of MARGARET of DENMARK, Queen of JAMES III. 
in 1485 ; on the seal of MARY, Queen of Scots in her 
first widowhood ; and in the whole series of impaled 
coats of the Queens of Scotland in Sir DAVID 
LINDSAY'S Armorial MS. of the reign of JAMES V. 

Another armorial MS. in the Lyon Office dimidiates 
the tressure in a like series of the arms of the Queens of 
Scotland for all except MARY. In the same MS. the 
bordure gobony in the personal arms of Queen JOAN 
BEAUFORT is left entire. In British Heraldry a widow 
continues to bear her husband's coat impaled with her 

2 I 

( 477 ) 

own, but usually places the combined coats in a lozenge, 
instead of in a shield. 

Before leaving the subject of the combination of arms 
by dimidiation, it is necessary to point out that this 
was not only effected by impalement, but, in a few rare 
instances, by other divisions of the shield. The last 
coat emblazoned in the most valuable and interesting 
1 4th century MS. the Wappenrolle von ZiiricJi, No. 559, 
affords an example, unfortunately unnamed, in which 
the dimidiation is not by impalement but per bend. 
The coat (No. 559) is: Per bend, in chief, or, a lion 
rampant gardant dimidiated gules ; in base, Bendy lozengy 
argent and azure (the arms of BAVARIA). It seems to 
me exceedingly probable that this is the coat of a person 
of high, but illegitimate, descent. 

In the Herald and Genealogist, vol. ii., p. 560, is 
a woodcut of a coat of arms, which appears upon 
a portrait of the year 1665, and which affords a curious 
example of the dimidiation of two coats per bend 
sinister. The coats thus treated are : in chief, Gules, on 
a chief argent three mallets penchcs sable. In base, 
A rgent, on a mound a tree proper, senestre of a stag gules 
rampant against the trunk, and browsing on its branches. 
In the Genealogist, new series, vol. v., p. 207 ; nearly 
a quarter of a century after attention was directed to it, I 
was able to assign the arms to two families of the name 
of VAN DER LINDEN ; the one Barons d'Hooc- 
VOORST ; the other settled at Dordrecht. (Plate XLL, 
fig. I.) Another example is afforded by the arms of 
the Barons von KiTTLlTZ which is now borne : Per 
bend sinister, in chief Or, a bull rampant dimidiated 
sable ; in base, Gules, three bends argent. This coat is 
reversed in SlEBMACHER, Wappenbuch, i., 29. 

One curious use of impalement also remains to be 
noticed. On the Continent the arms of an unmarried 
lady of high rank were sometimes represented in the 

( 478 ) 

sinister half of a lozenge, the dexter half being left 
uncharged. These were called Anns of Expectation 
and the dexter half was left to be rilled by a future 
marriage. On the seal of MARGARET of AUSTRIA, 
Duchess of BURGUNDY in 1495, fiancee to CHARLES 
VIII. of France, her arms are on a lozenge of which the 
dexter half is left blank, the sinister being disposed thus: 
Quarterly, i. AUSTRIA (Gules, a fess argent] ; 2. 
BRABANT. Over all on an escucheon, FLANDERS, vide 
supra pp. 461, 462. (VREE, Gen. Com. Fl., 130.) On 
the seals of ISABELLA, Infanta of SPAIN, Countess of 
FLANDERS, daughter of PHILIP II. of SPAIN, in 1598 her 
arms are thus represented. What is, however, curious is 
that on the joint seal of herself and her husband, ALBERT, 
Archduke of AUSTRIA, in 1599, his arms are represented 
on an escucheon, while hers are still depicted on the sinister 
side of a lozenge, of which as in the previous instance, 
the dexter side is left blank. (VREE, de Seghelen der 
Graven van Vlaendren, Plates xcv. and xcvii.) 

QUARTERING, in its simplest form, is the dividing 
the shield into four equal sections by a vertical and a 
horizontal line, intersecting each other in the middle 
point of the escucheon. 

The earliest example known to me of the use of 
quartered arms is afforded by the seal of JOANNA of 
PONTHIEU, second wife of FERDINAND III., King of 
CASTILE and LEON, in 1272. This seal bears on its 
reverse. in a vesica the triple-towered castles of CASTILE 
and the rampant lion of LEON, repeated as in modern 
quartering. There is no separation of the quarters by a 
pourfilar line (this is a peculiarity which has already been 
noticed as existing in the early quartered coats of HAIN- 
AULT five-and- twenty years later, vide ante, p. 463). The 
lion in base is contourne, a usage which still prevails in 
many similar cases, particularly in German coats. 

( 479 ) 

HOEPING's assertion (quoted by NlSBET, ii., 86) that 
the arms of CASTILE and LEON were borne quarterly 
by FERDINAND of CASTILE, who espoused SANCHA of 
LEON, circa 1065, is unsupported by any evidence. 
Arms were not used in Spain at so early a date. 

The quartered coat of CASTILE and LEON is sculp- 
tured in Westminster Abbey on the monument erected 
to FERDINAND'S daughter, ELEANOR, first Queen of 
EDWARD I., who died in 1290. Here, according to 
usual custom, the coat of CASTILE occupies the first 
and fourth quarters of the shield ; that of LEON is 
placed in the second and third. (Examples are extant 
in which this order is inverted.) 

The earliest seal bearing a quartered coat in the 
series engraved in HUEBER's Austria Illustrata is that 

When three coats have to be marshalled, they ordi- 
narily occupy the first, second, and third quarters, and 
the first coat is repeated in the fourth. This arrange- 
ment is familiar to all in our own Royal Arms, where 
ENGLAND occupies the first quarter, SCOTLAND the 
second, IRELAND the third, while ENGLAND is repeated 
in the fourth quarter. There are, however, examples of 
a different arrangement. In the escucheon of the arms 
of ELIZABETH of YORK, Queen of HENRY VII., on his 
tomb in his chapel at Westminster Abbey, the first 
quarter is occupied by the quartered arms of FRANCE 
and ENGLAND, the fourth by that of MORTIMER, 
while both the second and third are charged with the 
coat of ULSTER : Or, a cross gules. (Plate XXXVIII., 

fig- 4-) 

Should the coats to be thus marshalled be four in 
number, each naturally occupies a single quarter of the 
shield. Thus, on the reverse of the seal of ISABELLE of 
FRANCE, Queen of EDWARD II., each of the four coats of 

( 480 ) 

a bend argent coticed potent-counter-potent or) occupies 
a single quarter of the shield. 

When more coats than four are to be represented, 
the shield is divided by horizontal and vertical lines into 
spaces, which are still called quarters, how many soever 
they may be. For five coats the shield would be divided 
into six portions by two vertical and one horizontal 
line (or, if preferijed, by one vertical and two horizontal 
lines), and the first coat would usually be repeated in 
the last quarter to make the number equal a course 
which would not be needful if the coats to be quartered 
amounted to six. In Foreign Heraldry it is usual to 
specify the number and position of the lines by which 
the shield is divided. Thus, while an English herald 
would say simply, Quarterly of six, and leave it to the 
painter's or engraver's taste to arrange the quarterings 
in three rows of two, or in two rows of three, a French 
or German herald would ordinarily specify the arrange- 
ment to be used in distinct terms, thus: " Coupe d'un 
trait, parti de deux autres, qui font six quartiers ;" or 
" Das .... Wappen besteht aus einem zweimal quer 
und einmal senkrecht getJieilten Schilde" Provision would 
similarly be made for any larger number of quarterings. 

In modern British Heraldry the usual reason for 
quartering is to indicate descent from an heiress, or 
from more than one, who has married into the 
family. If there be but one her arms appear in the 
second and third quarters : if more than three (whose 
coats could of course be placed in a plain quartered 
escucheon), the shield is subdivided sufficiently to 
make room for all ; and the arms of the heiresses 
occupy quarters corresponding in position to their 
seniority in point of time ; though in olden days 
priority was sometimes given to quarterings indicative 
of a royal descent, or to the coat of some powerful 
heiress. If the number of divisions cannot be 

( 48 1 ) 

made conveniently to correspond with the number of 
coats to be thus accommodated, the difficulty is removed 
either by the omission of the less important coats, or 
by the repetition of the first quarter in the last place in 
the escucheon. Again, it may happen that one of the 
heiresses whose arms are to be quartered, herself bore 
a quartered coat, in this case the quarter appropriated 
to her contains her whole bearings, the shield is then 
said to be counter-quartered (contre-ecartele], and the 
quarter itself is called a Grand quarter. 

The coat of the Earls of NORTHUMBERLAND as gener- 
ally borne, and still used by the Dukes (v. Plate XXXIX., 
fig. 3), is an example of the old style of Marshalling. 
The coat is : Quarterly of four Grand Quarters 

I. and IV. Quarterly, I and 4. Or, a lion rampant azure, 


2 and 3. Gules, tJireeluciesJiauriant 
argent, LUCY. 

II. and III. Azure, five fusils in f ess or, PERCY-ANCIENT. 
The original coat of PERCY (Plate XVIII., fig. 12) was 

doubtless allusive to the name, but before 1300 it 
had been abandoned in favour of the blue lion 
on the golden field which is assigned to HENRY DE 
PERCY (of Alnwick), first Baron, in the Roll of CAER- 
LAVEROCK, and appears on the seal of his letter to the 
Pope in 1301. In the Roll known as GLOVER'S Roll, 
HENRY DE PERCY bears, d'Azur, a la fesse engrele d'or, 
and PIERS PERCY the reverse. (This was the ordinary 
blazon of a fess fusily at that time, v. p. 413.) 

HENRY DE PERCI bears : Azure, five fusils in fess or, 
in the Roll known as ST. GEORGE'S Roll. It appears in 
the ACRE Roll early in the thirteenth century : and with 
some differences of tincture in other Rolls. Or, five fusils 
in fess sable are attributed to ROBERT DE PERCI ; and to 
WALTER DE PERCI, Azure, five fusils in fess argent. 
In the Second Nobility Roll, which contains the names 



1. Columbus. 

2. Seymour. 

3. Percy. 

4. Cronberg. 

5. Baden. 

6. Angevin-chief. 

( 482 ) 

and arms of the Barons, etc., summoned to the Parlia- 
ment 'held at London, 27 Edward I. (1299), HENRY 
PERCY, Baron of TOPCLIFFE, bears the coat, Or, a lion 
rampant azure. There can be little doubt that the new 
coat was adopted on this Baron's marriage to. ELEANOR 
FlTZALAN, the daughter of his Lord Paramount, JOHN, 
Earl of ARUNDEL, whose arms were, Gules, a lion 
rampant or. The assertions in the Peerages, and 
elsewhere, that the change was made in consequence of 
a marriage of a JOSCELINE DE LOUVAINE to AGNES, 
a PERCY heiress, is pure fable. Late in the fourteenth 
century the first Earl of NORTHUMBERLAND married 
the sister and heiress of Lord LUCY, who settled on him 
extensive estates on the condition that the LUCY arms 
should be quartered with those of PERCY. The counter- 
quartered coat in the I. and IV. of the escucheon 
described above, represents this alliance ; and at a later 
date the original PERCY coat was resumed and placed 
in the II. and III. quarters. (See "The Old Heraldry 
of the Percies" by Mr LONGSTAFFE, in Archceologia 
sEliana, vol. iv. ; and The Pedigrees and early Heraldry of 
the Lords of Alnwick, by TATE and LONGSTAFFE, 1866.) 

Modern English Heralds have discouraged the use of 
grand quarterings ; and advised that the quartered coat of 
an heiress should be separated into its component parts, 
and each of the quarterings be made to follow in turn her 
paternal coat. There are many cases in which such an 
arrangement would be quite inappropriate ; e.g. when there 
is, as in some Scottish shields, a feudal escucheon borne 
en surtout above the quartered coats ; or, when the quarters 
virtually form one composition by being enclosed within 
a bordure, assumed as a mark of difference, or cadency. 

Very rarely quartering is effected per saltire, as in the 
arms of SICILY (y. p. 495), and in some other coats of 
Spanish origin (y. p. 506). The CARDONAS bore two 
coats impaled: (A) Per saltire, in chief and base, Or, 

four pallets gules, ARRAGON ; in dexter flank, Gules, three 
thistles argent ; in sinister flank ANJOU. (B) The arms 
of the Counts of URGEL: Per saltire ARRAGON, and 
Chequy or and sable for URGEL (See Plate XL. and 
SALAZAR Y CASTRO, Casa de Lara, ii., p. 168). 

In Foreign Heraldry the base of the quartered shield 
is not unfrequently cut off by a horizontal line, forming 
what is known as a champagne, and the space thus 
made is occupied by one or more coats. At other times 
a pile with curved sides runs from the base some 
distance into the quartered shield, which is then said 
to be ente en point (v. Plate XVI., fig. 9), and this space 
is devoted to the display of one or more quarterings. 

The main difference between British and Foreign usage 
with regard to quartering is this, that in England quarter- 
ings are usually employed to denote simply descent from 
an heiress, or representation in blood ; in Scotland they 
also implied the possession of lands. In Foreign coats the 
quarterings are often employed to denote the possession 
of fiefs acquired in other ways than by marriage (e.g., by 
bequest or purchase), or the jus expectations, the right of 
succession to such fiefs in accordance with certain agree- 
ments. For instance, treaties of Erb- Verbrilderung were 
common in Germany, by which two nobles agreed that 
on the failure of the line of one, the representatives of 
the other line should succeed to the possessions of that 
which had become extinct. (On these Pacta successionis, 
which conveyed the immediate right to the use of the 
arms as above, consult KNIPSCHILD, de Nobilitate ejusque 
Juribus, 1693, and his other treatise, de Fidei Coinmissis^} 
It was by such a treaty of Erb -Verbrilderung that, in 
1632, the Counts of WALDECK came into possession of 
the County of PYRMONT (vide post, p. 490). 

Another mode of marshalling came into use some 

( 484 ) 

time after quartering, namely, the placing a small escu- 
cheon en surtout upon the centre of the quartered coat. 
In 1404 JOHN, Count of FLANDERS, son and heir of 
PHILIP the Bold, Duke of BURGUNDY, added to his arms 
the coat of FLANDERS en surtout, being the arms of his 
mother. He thus bore : Quarterly, I and 4. FRANCE, 
within a bordure gob one argent and gules (BURGUNDY- 
MODERN) ; 2 and 3. Bendy of six or and azure, a bordure 
gules (BURGUNDY-ANCIENT) ; en surtout, Or, a lion 
rampant, sable (FLANDERS). (VREE, de Seghelen der 
Graven van Vlaendren, p. 30.) 

An earlier seal of MARGARET of BAVARIA, wife of 
JOHN, Duke of BURGUNDY, circa 1385 (VREE, Genealogie 
des Comtes de Flandres, p. 60), bears the escucheon 
impaled by dimidiation, to which reference has been 
made at p. 462 ante; but with the addition of an escucheon 
per pale, on which no charges are now apparent. The 
shield, which is en banniere, is supported by a single 
full-length angel, who bears it in front of him. 

This coat continued to be thus borne up to the time 
of the marriage of MARY of BURGUNDY with MAXI- 
MILIAN of AUSTRIA, in 1477. But in 1430 PHILIPPE 
le Bon introduced into his main escucheon the arms of 
the Duchies of BRABANT and LIMBURG, not as separate 
quarters, but by impaling them respectively in the second 
and third quarters with the arms of BURGUNDY-ANCIENT 
(cf. Plate XLVIL). The coat then read thus: Quarterly, 
i and 4. BURGUNDY-MODERN (as above) ; 2. Per pale : 
(a) BURGUNDY-ANCIENT, (b) Sable, a lion rampant 
or, BRABANT ; 3. Per pale (a) BURGUNDY-ANCIENT, 
(b) Argent, a lion rampant gules crowned or, LlMBURG. 
Over all, FLANDERS, as above. It will be noticed that 
this arrangement illustrates what has been already said 
in the previous section about the Continental use of im- 
paled coats. CHARLES, Count of CHAROLOIS, eldest son 
of PHILIPPE le Bon, before his accession to the Duchy as 

CHARLES le Hardi, bore his father's arms differenced by a 
label, but without the escucheon of FLANDERS ; a remark- 
able omission. (See MAURICE, Toison d'Or, No. 24.) On 
his seal, circa 1430, ADOLPH of CLEVES places the arms 
of his wife, ANNE of BURGUNDY (a natural daughter of 
PHILIPPE le Bon], in an escucheon upon his quartered 
coat of CLEVES and MARK. Her arms are : Quarterly, 
I and 4. Azure, a single fleur-de-lis (or); 2 and 3. BUR- 
GUNDY-ANCIENT ; over all FLANDERS. (This is a very 
noteworthy example, and it is also instructive to notice 
that their son, PHILIP DE RAVESTEIN, placed a similar 
escucheon charged with the full Burgundian quarterings, 
without any mark of bastardy, above his quartered 
coat of CLEVES and MARK.) 

PIERRE DE BEAUFFREMONT, created first Count de 
CHARNY in 1425, twentieth knight of the Order of the 
Golden Fleece (one, therefore, of the original members 
of the Order at its foundation in 1429), bore : Quarterly, 
I and 4. Vaire or and gules, BEAUFFREMONT ; 2 and 3. 
Gules, three cinquefoils or, VERGY, the latter coat being 
quartered for his mother, JEANNE DE VERGY ; but upon 
these coats he placed, en surtout, Gules, three escucheons 
argent, which was the coat of his. maternal great-grand- 
mother, GUILLEMETTE DE CHARNY. He married, in 
1447, MARIE DE BOURGOGNE, another natural daughter 
of Duke PHILIPPE le Bon. Other Low Country instances 
of the use of the maternal arms en surtout have been 
noticed in the preceding chapter. 

In England, RICHARD, Duke of YORK (d. 1460), 
father of EDWARD IV., bore en surtout upon his seal, the 
arms of his maternal grandmother (JOAN), daughter, and 
eventual heiress of THOMAS HOLLAND, Earl of KENT 
(ENGLAND, a bordure argent}. His own arms were : 
FRANCE and ENGLAND quarterly, differenced by a label 
argent, on each point t]iree torteaux. However, two 
English instances may be pointed out of the same 

( 486 ) 

century, in which a husband placed his wife's arms, and 
not those of an ancestress, en surtout. These are afforded 
by the Garter Plates of Sir JOHN NEVILLE, Lord MON- 
TAGU, afterwards Marquess of MONTAGU (elected K.G., 
circa 1463), and of RICHARD BEAUCHAMP, fifth Earl of 
WARWICK and ALBEMARLE (elected K.G., circa 1400) ; 
but it was not until about the beginning of the i/th 
century that the practice arose by which the husband of 
an heiress places his wife's arms in an escucheon en 
surtout upon his personal arms, whether his coat be a 
quartered one or not. Such an escucheon acquired the 
name of an " escucheon of pretence," and is borne by the 
husband of the heiress alone ; the children who issue 
from the marriage bear the coats of both parents united, 
not in this way, but by quartering. GuiLLIM, the first 
edition of whose work, A Display of Heraldry, was pub- 
lished in 1 6 1 1, gives his sanction to the "escucheon of 
pretence ; " but when Sir GEORGE MACKENZIE'S Trea- 
tise on Heraldry appeared in 1680 the usage was only 
beginning to be heard of as a novelty in Scotland, and is 
alluded to with disapproval. " If a man marry an Here- 
trix, he himself impales only her arms ; but his children 
procreat of that marriage quarters (sic) them .... 
Sometimes also (says Guillims) he who marries an 
Heretrix may carry her arms in an inescutcheon upon 
his own, because the husband pretends that his heirs 
shall one day inherit an estate by her ; it is therefore 
called an escutcheon of pretence ; but this way of 
Bearing is not known abroad upon that occasion." 
(Science of Heraldry, chap, xxiv., pp. 80, Si.) 

In the Heraldry of the Continent of Europe, it has 
long been the custom for an elected Sovereign to place 
his hereditary arms in an escucheon en surtout above those 
of his dominions. This was the invariable custom of the 
Emperors of GERMANY, and of the Kings of POLAND. 
Thus JOHN SOBIESKI (JOHN III. of Poland) placed above 

the arms of that kingdom : (Quarterly, I and 4. Gules an 
eagle displayed argent, crowned or, POLAND ; 2 and 3. 
Gules, a knight in full armour proper mounted on a white 
horse, bearing in his right hand a drawn sword, and on 
his left arm a shield azure charged with a patriarchal 
cross argent, LITHUANIA) an escucheon of his personal 
arms, Or, a round buckler purpure. The Kings of SWEDEN, 
of the houses of HESSE, VASA, and, in modern times, 
BERNADOTTE, have done the same (See Det Svenska 
Riks Vapnet, af HANS HlLDEBRAND ; Antiquarisk Tids- 
krift for Sverige, 1883). The Kings of DENMARK thus 
bore the arms of OLDENBURG, etc. As having obtained 
the crown by popular election the Kings of the HELLENES 
also place en surtout upon the arms of the Greek kingdom 
(Azure, a Greek cross couped argent}, an escucheon of 
their personal arms. OTHO, the first king, thus bore the 
Bavarian arms ; the present King GEORGE, a prince of 
DENMARK, thus uses those of that kingdom. The Royal 
Arms of our own country furnish us with a similar 
example in the case of WILLIAM III., who placed the arms 
of NASSAU (p. 215) en surtout, upon the quartered coat of 
these realms. (See Plate LI I., figs. 6, 7.) Under the Com- 
monwealth the Great Seals of OLIVER CROMWELL and 
his son RICHARD as Protectors, bear a shield of arms : 
Quarterly, I and 4. Argent, a cross gules, for ENGLAND ; 2. 
Azure, a saltire argent, for SCOTLAND ; 3. Azure, a harp or 
stringed argent, for IRELAND; and upon these quarterings 
en surtout an escucheon of the personal arms of CROM- 
WELL : Sable, a lion rampant argent. After 1801 the 
quartered arms of the family of BRUNSWICK-LUNEBURG, 
which from 1714 had formed the fourth quarter of the 
Royal Arms, were placed en surtout. (See Plate LI I., 
figs. 9, 10.) 

The escucheon en surtout has also been used in other 
Royal Arms as indicative, not of election, but of descent. 
Thus, on the accession of PHILIP, Due d'ANJOU, to the 

( 488 ) 

throne of SPAIN, his arms (FRANCE, a bordure gules] 
were placed en surtout above : Quarterly, I and 4. 
CASTILE ; 2 and 3. LEON ; Ente en point of GRENADA 
(Argent, a pomegranate gules leafed and seeded proper] ; 
and these are the present Royal Arms of SPAIN. During 
the brief reign of King AMADEUS of SAVOY, there was 
substituted for the escucheon of ANJOU, the arms of 
SAVOY (Gules, a cross argent, all within a bordure azure] 
with the same intent. 

The arms of the princes and princesses of our own 
Royal House are charged en surtout with an escucheon 
of their paternal arms of SAXONY (Plate XII., fig. 6), 
and in future reigns this escucheon will form part of the 
arms of the reigning Sovereign. 

Our arrangement of grand quarters in which the same 
coat is repeated four times, as in the arms of PERCY, Duke 
of NORTHUMBERLAND (blazoned ante, page 481), is 
almost unknown among the Germans (the coat of the 
Counts of MANSFELD is an exception), but when 
quarters are repeated they sometimes adopt a different 
arrangement, of which an example will be found in the 
arms of the Prince of WALDECK and PYRMONT at p. 490. 
In it, and in the shield of the Counts of GlECH, both 
of which are Quarterly of nine, the quarters I and 9, 
2 and 8, 3 and 7, 4 and 6 correspond. In the arms of 
the Counts von HERBERSTEIN (TYROFF, Wappen des 
Adels des Kb'nigreichs Baiern, i., 47) which are : Quarterly 
of six (in three horizontal rows of two quarters), with an 
escucheon en surtout, the quarters which correspond are 
i and 4, 2 and 5, 3 and 6. In the arms of the Counts of 
SOLMS we have really two coats impaled, each being 
quartered : (A) Quarterly, I and 4. Or, a lion rampant 
azure, SOLMS ; 2 and 3. Per f ess gules and or, MtJNZEN- 
BERG. (B) Quarterly, i and 4. Or, a rose sable, WlL- 
DENFELS ; 2 and 3. Sable, a lion rampant argent, 
SONNEWALDE. If this be regarded as a single coat of 

eight quarterings, those which correspond are I and 6, 
2 and 5, 3 and 8, 4 and 7. 

To our ideas of Marshalling the coat of the Counts Zu 
CRONBERG (Plate XXXIX., fig. 4) is strangely arranged, 
though it is a simple coat of four quarters (with an escu- 
cheon of the Empire en surtout as an Imperial Augmen- 
tation) Quarterly ', I and 4. Or, a fess gules, County of 
HOHEN-GEROLDSECK ; 2. Two rows of Ftfz>(Beffroi?) on 
a cJ lief gules an open crown or. 3. Two rows of Vair, on a 
champagne gules an open crown or (both 2 and 3 for CRON- 
BERG). But we find from SPENER, Opus Heraldicum, p. 
spec., 103 (where the Imperial diploma of FERDINAND II., 
1663, is given) that the CRONBERG quarters are really a 
canting coat, " ein quartieter Schild, dessen hinter unter 
und vorder obertheil roth oder Rubinfarb, der hinterste 
ober und vorder untertheil aber weisz oder Silberfarb ist. 
In dem hindern untern und oberen vordern jed-wedern 
erscheinet eine Konigliche goldfarbe CRON. In dem 
vordern und obern hindern theil aber vier blaue paarweisz 
neben einander in Glockengestalt gesetzte BERG," etc. 

The arms of the Princes of SCHWARZBURG are a curious 
example of German blazon. It consists, first of all, of 
two quartered coats impaled : 

(A) Quarterly, I and 4. Or, an eagle displayed sable, ARN- 

2 and 3. Argent, the attire of a stag gules, 


En surtout, Azure, a lion rampant crowned or, for 

(B) Quarterly, I and 4. Chequy gules and argent, HOHN- 


2 and 3. Per fess (a) Gules, a lion ram- 
pant or and (b) Barry of eigJit 
or and gules, LAUTERBURG. 

En surtout, Argent, a stag passant sable, KLETTEN- 

( 49') 

Over these impaled coats is a narrow cross of alternate 
narrow bends, Azure, or, and sable, the perpendicular 
piece divides the quartered coats, and the traverse passes 
under the two escucheons en surtout. On the centre of 
the cross is a larger escucheon en surtout containing as an 
Imperial augmentation, the Imperial Arms, the crowned 
double eagle having on its breast a small escucheon, gules 
charged with a princely hat. The base of the whole 
escucheon is occupied by a champagne : Or, thereon a 
pitchfork, and beneath it a horse comb, both fesseways gules. 
These are the official arms of the Office of Reiclis Stall- 
meister, held by the Lords of LEUTENBERG. 

In the arms of the princely houses, and higher 
nobility of Germany, the shield is often charged with 
a number of quarterings and with an escucheon en 
surtout. This is borne for different reasons ; and it 
will be interesting to note the principal of these, and 
give an example or two of each. The quarterings are 
usually those of the several fiefs on account of which the 
bearer had the right to sit and vote in the Diets, or 
Circles, of the Empire : and often the principal, or 
original, fief of the family is placed en surtout. Thus the 
Counts of WALDECK (who received the title of Prince in 
1682 and 1712) bore : Quarterly of nine, I and 9. Argent, 
a cross moline gules, County of PYRMONT ; 2 and 8. 
Argent, three escucheons two and one gules, County of 
RAPPOLSTEIN ; 3 and 7. Argent, three raven's heads 
couped at the neck sable crowned or, Lordship of 
HOHENECK ; 4 and 6. Argent, seme of billets couches 
azure, a lion rampant gules, crowned or, Lordship of 
GEROLDSECK. The fifth or central quarter is concealed 
by the escucheon en surtout of the arms of WALDECK : Or, 
an eight-pointed star sable. (Plate XLI.) So the Margraves 
of BADEN formerly bore: Quarterly, \. Argent, a lion 
rampant gules crowned or (this lion faces to the sinister, 
in accordance with the German fashion by which in 

quartered coats animals are often made to face to 
the centre of the shield (vide ante, p. 420, and 
cf. GUELDERS, ante p. 473); Landgravate of the 
BREISGAU ; 2. Azure, an eagle's wing in fess argent 
(the feathers turned to the base), with a golden Klee 
Stengel, Lordship of USENBERG (otherwise SAUSEN- 
BERG); 3. Gules, on a pale or three chevrons sable, Lord- 
ship of BADEN WEILER (v. Plate XLVL, fig. 2) ; 4. Per 
fess wavy or and azure ; the latter charged with two bars 
argent, and the former with a lion rampant gules issuing 
from the partition line, Lordship of ROTELN (v. p. 221). 
En surtout an escucheon for the Margravate of BADEN : 
Or, a bend gules. (See Plate XXXIX., fig. 5.) In 
later times many other quarterings were added to the 
shield, and the arms of BADEN were made to occupy 
its centre quarter without being placed on a distinct 
escucheon en surtout. The great shield of the Grand 
Dukes of BADEN (who attained that dignity in 1806), 
contains thirty quarterings ; but generally only the 
simple coat of BADEN (Or, a bend gules) ensigned with 
a Royal Crown, and supported by a sable griffin, and 
a golden lion (both regardant and royally crowned) is in 
use. The arms of SAXONY are often displayed en surtout 
in the quarterings of the several Sovereign Saxon States. 

Similarly, while the shield of the Princes of LICH- 
TENSTEIN used to bear the quartered arms of 
SAXONY, CZERNABOR, and the Duchies of TROPPAU, 
SILESIA, and JAGERNDORFF (the last being the ente en 
poinf); the arms of the house of LICHTENSTEIN (Per 
fess or and gules) were placed en surtout. (See TRIER'S 
Einleitung zu der Wapen-kunst, p. 493.) Later the 
quarterings of the main shield were : i. SlLESIA ; 2. 
DORFF ; and, as before, LICHTENSTEIN en surtout. 

So the Counts (afterwards Princes) of METTERNICH 
formerly bore their family coat : Argent, tJiree vannets 

( 492 ) 

sable, en surtout above the quartered coats of the 
Lordships of WlNNEBERG and BEILSTEIN (i and 4. 
Gules, between six crosslets or a bend indented azure ; 
2 and 3. Gules, three hunting horns argent two and one). 
Other quarterings have been added in modern times, and 
an Imperial augmentation. (Note the Armes fausses.) 

Some of the escucheons borne en surtout in Germany 
do indicate possessions acquired by marriage ; but 
usually in times far remote from the present. 

Thus the Dukes, now Grand Dukes, of MECK- 
LENBURG, still place the arms of the Lordship of 
STARGARD (which are : Per fess gules and or, and 
which HENRY the LION, of MECKLENBURG obtained 
by his marriage with BEATRICE, daughter of ALBERT, 
Markgrave of BRANDENBURG, in 1220), in an 
escucheon en surtout above their main coat {Quarterly 
of six in tJiree rows of two each: i. Duchy of 
MECKLENBURG; 2. Principality of the WENDS; 3. Princi- 
pality of SCHWERIN ; 4. Principality of RATZEBURG ; 
5. County of SCHWERIN ; 6. Lordship of ROSTOCK). 

The Princes of ARENBERG, who bear : Quarterly, 
i and 4. Gules, three five-leaved flower s^fleurs de nef.ier) 
or, for the Duchy of ARENBERG ; 2 and 3. Or, a fess 
cJiequy of three rows argent and gules for the County of 
MARK ; place in an escucheon en surtout the arms 
of LlGNE ; Or, a bend gules, quartered with those of 
BARBANCON : Argent, three lions rampant gules crowned 
or. This is a curious example, inasmuch as the arms 
en surtout are those of the husband, not of the wife ; 
for MARGARET, sister and heiress of the last Count of 
ARENBERG, married JEAN, Baron of LlGNE and BAR- 
BANCON, who obtained the dignity of Prince of the 
Holy Roman Empire, in 1565. 

The Counts of RECKHEIM, who claim descent from 
the house of ESTE, which bore, Azure, an eagle displayed 
argent ; place that coat en surtout upon their quartered 

2 K 

( 493 ) 

shield : I and 4. Gules, a cross or (County of ASPER- 
MONT) ; 2 and 3. Or, a lion rampant gules (County of 

The Princes of LAMBERG descend from GEORGE SlGIS- 
MUND, Baron of LAMBERG, who married at the commence- 
ment of the seventeenth century, JOHANNA, daughter 
and heiress of JOHN SCALIGER (BELLA SCALA) and still 
bear her arms (see Plate XXXI I., fig. 9) en surtout upon 
their quartered coat : I and 4. Per pale (a) Barry of four 
argent and azure, (b) Gules plain, LAMBERG ; 2 and 3. 
Or, a hound rampant sable collared argent, for POTTWEIN. 
In TRIER'S Einleitung zu der Wapenkunst, p. 491, 
the SCALA coat in the LAMBERG arms has also a 
mount in base vert, on which the greyhounds and 
ladder rest, but this does not appear in the modern 

The Counts of KESSELSTADT place their paternal 
arms : Argent, a basilisk passant gules, in an escucheon 
en surtout upon the simple coat of the family of 
ORSBECK (now extinct in the male line), from which 
they descend : Or, a saltire gules between four nenuphar 
leaves vert (TYROFF, Wappenbuch, i., Band. Taf 59). 

The foregoing examples will probably be found 
sufficient to illustrate the German use of Marshalling 
with regard to coats borne en surtout ; on account of the 
possession of fiefs, by marriage or otherwise. 

On the use of this escucheon as a mark of difference, 
or cadency, see p. 448 ; as an indication of the tenure of 
an official dignity, see p. 526; and as containing special 
grants in augmentation, see Chapter XVI. 

But before leaving this part of the subject we may 
here notice that the great German quartered coats 
sometimes bear several of these escucheons en surtout. 
Thus in the great escucheon of the quarterings of 
the Royal House of PRUSSIA (Das grosse Staats- 
Wappen), four such separate escucheons appear upon 

( 494 ) 

the palar line, bearing respectively the arms of 
ZOLLERN. Plate XL. represents the achievement of the 
Empress MARIA THERESA before her accession to the 
Imperial throne when she was Queen of HUNGARY 
and BOHEMIA ; and, by marriage, Grand Duchess of 
TUSCANY. It is a shield of four grand quarters, each 
counter-quartered and bearing an escucheon en surtout. 
Another escucheon crowned is placed on the central point 
of the whole shield, so that the five surtouts are arranged 
in saltire. As there are twenty-nine quarterings, none 
of them being repetitions, with a very remarkable variety 
of historic interest, the full blazon is here appended. 
Quarterly of four Grand Quarters : 

I. Quarterly of six (in two horizontal rows of three 
quarters each) : 

1. BOHEMIA: Gules, a lion rampant argent, double 


2. DALMATIA : Azure, three leopard's heads affrontes 

crowned or. 

3. CROATIA: CJiequy argent and gules. 

4. ESCLAVONIA : x -Gules, issuing from the sinister 

flank an arm embowed proper, vested gules and 
holding a sabre argent. 

5. JERUSALEM : Argent, a cross potent between four 

crosslets or. 

6. INDIA: Azure, a lion rampant argent Jiolding a 

cross or. 

Over all an escucJieon per pale. (a) Barry of 
eight argent and gules, HUNGARY-ANCIENT. 
(b) Gules, on a mount in base vert, an open 
crown or, issuant therefrom a patriarchal cross 

1 These are now borne as the arms of BOSNIA (a part of ESCLA- 
VONIA), as will be shown hereafter. 

( 495 ) 

II. Quarterly: 

1. CASTILE : Gules, a castle triple-towered or. 

2. LEON : Argent, a lion rampant gules crowned or. 

3. ARRAGON : Or, four pallets gules. 

4. SICILY : Per saltire, in chief and base ARRAGON ; 

in flanks Argent, an eagle displayed sable. 
Over all the arms of BURGUNDY- ANCIENT ; 
Bendy of six or and azure, a bordure gules. 

III. Quarterly of six (in two horizontal rows of three 

each) : 

1. BRABANT : Sable, a lion rampant or. 

2. MILAN : Argent, a serpent ondoyant in pale azure, 

crowned or, v or ant a child gules. 

3. STYRIA : Vert, a griffon rampant queue" fourcJiee 

argent; vomiting flames proper, and crowned or. 

4. CARINTHIA : Or, tJiree lions passant (contournes) 

gules (should be sable}. (See also pp. 454, 47 1.) 

5. CARNIOLA : Argent, an eagle displayed azure, on 

its breast a crescent counter-company of the field 
and gules. 


and or, over all a bar gules, issuing therefrom a 
demi-eagle displayed sable, addextre in chief of 
the sun in splendour, and senestre of a crescent 
argent. In the base, seven towers, tJiree and 

four, of the third. 
Over all an escucheon per pale : (a) Or, on a bend 

gules three allerions argent, LORRAINE ; (b] Or, 

Jive balls gules two, two, one, in chief anotJier of 
larger size, azure, tJiereon three fleurs-de-lis of the 

field. TUSCANY. 

IV. Quarterly of six (in three rows of two each) : 

i . SWABI A : Or, tJiree lions passant gardant in pale 


Imperial Crown of Austria. 

Crown of St. Stephen, 


Queen of Hungary and Bohemia ; Archduchess of Austria ; and Grand 
Duchess of Tuscany. 

( 496 ) 

2. (SlLESlA : x ) Azure, an eagle chequy gules and 

argent, crowned or. 

3. TYROL : Argent, an eagle displayed gules ; crowned 

and having " Klee Stengeln " on the wings, or. 

4. BAR : Azure, seme of crosslets fitchees or, over all 

two barbel, addorsed of the last. 

5. JULIERS : Or, a lion rampant sable crowned of the 


6. GORZ : Per bend, in chief azure a lion rampant or 

in base, argent two bends-sinister gules. 
Over all HAPSBURG : Or, a lion rampant gules, 

crowned azure. 

On the central point of the whole shield an escucheon, 
ensigned with the arch-ducal crown, of AUSTRIA 
Gules, afess argent. 

The plate is enlarged from GATTERER'S Handbuch der 
Neuesten Genealogie und Heraldik (Niirnberg, 1763), but 
for want of space the supporters (two griffins regardant 
or, their wings and plumage of the neck sable] are 
omitted, as is also the Imperial Crown which in the 
original is placed on the top edge of the shield ; above 
this two angels hold the Royal Crown of HUNGARY. 
I have, however, added the crowns (apart from the 
escucheon) on the same plate (Plate XL.). 

This Austrian achievement of MARIA THERESA was 
selected by the late Dr BURNETT as one of his illustra- 
tions, and, on that account, I include it here as having 
an interest apart from its contents. For it contains 
some remarkable omissions which lead me to doubt if it 
ever had official authority. That the arms of FLANDERS 
and BURGUNDY-MODERN should be omitted, while the 
far less important coat of BRABANT is included, 

1 I have ventured to make a few important corrections in the 
blazon. Moreover the coat attributed to SILESIA is really that of 

( 497 ) 

is to me almost inconceivable. But there is a still more 
remarkable omission ; it is that of a coat which the house 
of AUSTRIA held in such estimation that for many 
generations they gave it the place of honour on their 
seals. I mean the coat of AUSTRIA-ANCIENT (see 
next page). A comparison of the shield assigned above 
to the Empress Queen MARIA THERESA, with the Ecu 
COMPLET as established by Imperial decree in 1836 






(which, while it excludes the Burgundian and Netherland 
coats, contains the arms of all the Austrian possessions, 
and of those then ruled by members of the Imperial 

House), should be of interest to the student of heraldry, 
which is truly hieroglyphic history. It will avoid 
unnecessary repetitions of the blazons if I send the 
reader back by reference to that escucheon, and the 
woodcut of the Ecu Coinplet on page 497 will, I trust, 
prevent any difficulty arising. 

Quarterly of nine Grand Quarters (containing sixty- 
two quarters) : 

I. Quarterly:^ 

i. DALMATIA, Kingdom (M.T., i. 2). 2. CROATIA, 
Kingdom (M.T., i. 3). 

3. ESCLAVONIA, Kingdom : Azure, a river in fess 

vert, bordered argent, tJiereon a weasel (or marten), 
passant proper, beneath a six-pointed star or. 


6). On this grand quarter is placed en surtout 
an escucheon, crowned with the Crown of St. 
StepJien, and bearing the impaled coats of the 
Kingdom of HUNGARY (M.T., i. surtouf). 
The coat of HUNGARY-MODERN, if correctly 
blazoned, always begins with the colour, not 
with the metal, and is : Barry of eight, gules 
and argent (or, sometimes, Gules four bars 
argent}. The bars are said to represent the 
four Hungarian rivers the Danube, Save, 
Drave, and Theiss ; just as the triple mount 
symbolises the three chief peaks of the Car- 
pathians ; but all this mere supposition. The 
mount in HUNGARY-ANCIENT should be of 
three coupeaux ; it is so borne on a separate 
shield in the Great Seals of RENE of ANJOU 
and his successors ; but in them is represented 
as an isolated mount, and the cross rises 
without the intervention of the crown, which 
was a later addition. (See VREE, Genealogie 

( 499 ) 

des Comtes de Flandre, plates cv., cvi. ; and 
compare the seals of the Emperor FERDINAND, 
plates cxxxiii., cxli.) 

II. Quarterly of eleven quarters (in three rows of four, 
three, and four) : 

1. UPPER AUSTRIA \-Per pale, Or, an eagle dis- 

played sable, dimidiated with : Gules, two pallets 

2. SALZBURG, Duchy: Per pale-. (a) Or, a lion 

rampant sable. (b) AUSTRIA : Gules, a fess 

3. STYRIA, Duchy (M.T., iii. 3): the "Stier" is now 

blazoned, as a griffin ; originally the arms were 
canting ones, and the " Stier" a rampant ox. 

4. THE TEUTONIC ORDER: Argent, a cross patee 

sable, bordered of the field, and charged with a 
cross flory or ; over all, an escucJieon of the last 
an eagle displayed of the second. 

5. TYROL, County : (M.T., iv. 3). 

6. TRIENT, Principality: Argent, an eagle displayed 

sable, beaked and membered or, its breast 
traversed by a pastoral staff in fess of the last. 

7. BRIXEN, Principality : Gules, a Paschal Lamb 

proper, the diadem or. 

8. HOHEN-EMBS, County : Azure, a steinbock or, 

horned sable. 

9. MONTFORT and FELDKIRCH, County : Argent, a 

gonfanon gules, its rings or (vide p. 373). 

10. BREGENZ, County: Azure, a pale ermine, or 

Fur, a pale ermine. I have already pointed 
out (p. 73), how strangely the blazons of this 
simple coat have varied through the ignorance 
of the artists and those who employed them. 

1 1. SONNENBERG, County : Azure, a hill in base or, 

surmounted by the sun in its splendour. 

( 5 ) 

Over all on an escucheon : AUSTRIA-ANCIENT 
(the arms of the BABENBURGER line) : Azure, 
five larks (or eaglets) displayed or. These arms 
are now assigned specially to Austria below 
the Ems. The BABENBURGER house became 
extinct in the male line, on the death of Duke 
FREDERICK of Austria,in 1246. This escucheon 
en surtout is crowned with the Arch-ducal 
crown of AUSTRIA: a cap of crimson velvet 
turned up with a broad band of ermine cut 
into points which are edged with gold and a 
row of small pearls. Like the coronet of the 
Prince of WALES, it is surmounted by a single 
arch of gold supporting a mound or orb, which 
is ensigned with a jewelled cross. 

III. Quarterly of five (in two rows of two quarters in 
chief and three in base) : 

1. MORAVIA, Marquessate : Azure, an eagle displayed 

cJiequy gules and argent, crowned or. 
This coat is mistakenly attributed to SILESIA in 
(M.T., iv. 2). 

2. SILESIA, Principality : Or, an eagle displayed sable 

crowned of the field, on its breast a crescent and 
crosslet argent. 

3. UPPER LUSATIA, Markgravate : Azure, in base a 

wall embattled or, masoned sable. 

4. TESCHEN, Duchy : Azure, an eagle displayed 

crowned or. 

5. LOWER LUSATIA, Markgravate: Argent, an ox 

passant proper (i.e., red with white belly and 
black horns). 

Over all, an escucheon, charged with the arms of 
the Kingdom of BOHEMIA (to which the above 
named provinces belonged) : Gules, a lion 
rampant queue fourcJiee argent crowned or. 

This escucheon en surtout is surmounted by 
the Royal Crown of BOHEMIA. 

IV. Quarterly of five (two quarters in chief, and three 

in base) : 

1. Cu MANIA : Argent, a lion rampant gules ; in tJie 

dexter chief a crescent, in the sinister an estoile, 
both argent. 

2. BOSNIA : The arms attributed to EsCLAVONIA 

in (M.T., i. 4). 

3. BULGARIA 1 : Azure, on a bend gules, bordered and 

coticed argent, a wolf passant gules. 

4. SERVIA 1 : Gules, a boar' s head erect proper pierced 

by an arrow in pale argent. 

5. R ASCI A : Azure, three horse shoes inverted argent. 

V. Tierced in pale : 

1. HAPSBURG, County: Or, a lion rampant gules, 

crowned azure. 

2. AUSTRIA: (" Hauswapen ") Gules, a f ess argent. 

3. LORRAINE, Duchy : Or, on a bend gules three 

allerions argent. 

VI. Quarterly of eight (in three rows the first of two 
quarters, the others of three in each) : 

1. JERUSALEM, Kingdom : (M.T., i. 5). 

2. CASTILE, Kingdom : (M.T., ii. i). 

3. LEON, Kingdom : (M.T., ii. 2). 

4. ARRAGON, Kingdom : (M.T., ii. 3). 

5. THE INDIES, Kingdom : 2 (M.T., i. 6). 

6. SICILY, Kingdom : (M.T., ii. 4). 

7. CALABRIA, Duchy : Sable, a cross argent. This 

1 As independent states BULGARIA and SERVIA have adopted 
different arms. 

2 The lion is crowned or. It appears here among the arms 
brought to the House of AUSTRIA on inheriting the Spanish crown, 
but is not usually seen on the coins or seals of the latter country. It 
occurs first on the Great Seal of CHARLES VI., among whose titles 
is " Indiaru : Rex." 

( 502 ) 

coat which is often quartered with ARRAGON 
is thus given by RlETSTAP (Armorial General} 
but in the arms of Don FERDINAND D'ARRA- 
GON, Duke of CALABRIA, Viceroy of Valencia, 
this is thus given : Quarterly, I and 4. 
ARRAGON ; 2 and 3. Argent, a cross potent sable. 
(CHIYFLET, Insignia GentilitiaEquitum Velleris 
Aurei, No. 161, and MAURICE, Toison dOr, page 
192) so also SPENER says : " Dicitur vero 
tessera Calabriae olim fuisse in parma argentea 
crux patibulata nigra " (Op. Her. ,^. spec.,p. 237). 
8. NAPLES, Kingdom : FRANCE-ANCIENT, a label 
gules (the arms of the Duke of ANJOU). 

VII. Quarterly: 

1. TUSCANY, Grand-duchy : (M.T., iii. surtouf). 

2. MODENA, Duchy : Azure, an eagle displayed 

argent crowned or (vide infra, p. 508). 

3. PARMA and PIACENZA, Duchies : Or, six fleurs- 

de-lis azure (the arms of the FARNESE family). 

4. GUASTALLA, Duchy : Argent, a cross patee- 

througJiout gules between four eagles displayed 
sable (the arms of the family of GONZAGA, 
Dukes of MANTUA, etc.). 

Over all an escucheon Per pale (a) MILAN, Duchy 
(M.T., iii. 3) () VENICE, Azure, the winged 
lion of St. Mark coucJiant and holding in its 
paws an open book tJiereon the words " PAX TIB! 
together are borne for the Lombardo- Venetian 
Kingdom and this escucheon en surtout, is 
crowned with the " Iron Crown " of LOMBARDY, 
a plain circlet of gold, enamelled with floral 
decoration and set with gems (v. p. 617). 

VIII. Quarterly of eleven (arranged in three rows ; the 

first two each contain four quarters, but the 

( 503 ; 

base row has two only and is ente en point of 
a third). 

1. CARINTHIA, Duchy : Per pale (a) Or, three lions 

passant gardant in pale sable (as M.T., iii. 4) 
but with (b] Gules, a fess argent. This is the 
correct form, and the absence of the nearly 
invariable impalement is one of the causes of 
my doubts as to the authority of the " Maria 
Theresa" escucheon. 

2. CARNIOLA (KRAIN), Duchy (M.T., iii. 5). The 

crescent is now usually chequy of three 

3. WlNDlSCHE-MARK : Argent, a hat sable, turned 

up, and stringed gules (vide ante, p. 374). 

4. FRIOUL (FRIULI), Duchy: Azure, an eagle dis- 

played and crowned or. 

5. TRIESTE, Per fess (a) in chief, Or, an eagle dis- 

played sable crowned of the field ; (^) in base, 
Gules, a fess argent, thereon an anchor in pale, 
reversed sable. 

6. I STRIA, Marquessate : Azure, a goat passant or, 

armed gules. 

7. GRADISCA, County : Per fess or and azure, over 

all a cross moline argent. 

8. G6RZ, County : (M.T., iv. 6). 

9. RAGUSA, Duchy : Argent, three bends azure. 

10. CATTARO (or ALBANIA): Argent, a lion ram- 

pant gules. 

11. ZARA, Duchy (this quarter is the one "in 

point"): Argent, a mounted knight in full 
armour his lance in pale all proper. 
Over all, the arms of ILLYRIA (Kingdom) Azure, 
an antique galley or. This escucheon is sur- 
mounted by an antique crown of golden 
rays (Plate L., fig. 13). 

( 504 ) 

IX. Quarterly: 

1. LODOMIRIA : Azure, two bars cliequy gules and 


2. CRACOW : Gules, an eagle displayed argent, armed, 

crowned, and with " Klee stengel " or. 

3. AUSCHWITZ, Duchy: Argent, an eagle displayed 


4. ZATOR, Duchy : Azure, an eagle displayed argent. 
Over all an escucheon of the Kingdom of GALICIA : 

Azure, a fillet in chief (otherwise a bar enhanced] 
gules, between a crow sable in chief, and three 
ancient crowns or in base. This escucheon is 
surmounted by a Royal Crown (Plate L., fig. 4.) 

This great shield is placed on the breast of the sable 
double-headed eagle in the golden shield of the Empire. 
Each of the heads of the eagle is royally crowned ; it 
holds in the dexter claw a drawn sword and a sceptre, 
and in the sinister the Imperial Orb, all proper. 

The shield is supported by two griffins Or (their wings 
and plumage of the head and breast being sable], and 
above it is the closed Imperial Crown. 

FRANCE. In France the varied use of the escucheon 
en surtout does not differ widely from its use in Germany 
as already described. 

We will first give some instances of important coats 
in which the escucheon en surtout contains the arms of the 
family, while the main shield contains the quarters either 
of its feudal possessions or its most important ancestors. 

The Dukes de la TREMOUILLE, who attained the 
title of "Due et Pair de France" in 1596, and who were 
already Princes de Tarente, bear their personal arms : 
Or, a clievron gules between three eagles displayed azure, en 
surtout upon the shield: Quarterly, i. FRANCE; 2. SICILY; 
(FRANCE, a baton aleze in bend gules]. The second and 

( 55 ) 

third quarters indicate descent from the marriage of 
1541) with ANNE, heiress of GUI, Comte de LAVAL, whose 
wife was CHARLOTTE of ARRAGON, daughter of FRED- 
ERICK, King of NAPLES and SICILY. The first and fourth 
commemorate descent in two lines from the royal house 

The Dukes of ROHAN-CHABOT bear a shield ; 
Quarterly, i. NAVARRE ; 2. SCOTLAND ; 3. BRITTANY ; 
4. FLANDERS ; and place en surtout an escucheon of 
ROHAN (Gules, nine mascles conjoined 3, 3, 3, or) 
quartering CHABOT (Or, three chabots gules). In 1461 
JOHN, Vicomte de ROHAN, married MARY, second 
daughter of FRANCIS L, Duke of BRITTANY, by 
ISABELLA, daughter of JAMES I. of Scotland. FRANCIS 
died without male issue, as did MARGARET, elder sister 
of MARY, and the house of ROHAN indicated their 
supposed rights to the duchy by either quartering its 
arms, or by placing a coat bearing the arms of ROHAN 
impaling BRITTANY, en surtout above their quarterings. 
In the case of the Dukes de MONTBASON these were: 
Quarterly of eight (in two rows of four each) : I . FRANCE ; 
(Argent, a f ess gules, and a fillet en bordure azure). The 
Dukes de ROHAN bore a somewhat different arrangement : 
Quarterly, i. FRANCE, quartering EVREUX (p. 464) ; 
impaling LORRAINE ; 4. SCOTLAND. On the other 
hand the Dues de ST. SIMON quartered the personal 
arms of ROUVROY ST. SlMON (Sable, on a cross 
argent five escallops gules) with those of HAVESQUERQUE 
(Or, a fess gules) and placed en surtout an escucheon of 
VERMANDOIS (Chequy, azure and or, a chief of FRANCE- 
ANCIENT), to denote their claim to a descent from the 
Counts of VERMANDOIS. 

SPANISH. It is only possible here to give a few 
examples of Spanish uses of Marshalling, though there 
are many which are of interest. Quartering is, of course, 
the mode chiefly employed for indicating descent, but 
simple impalement is very frequently substituted for it ; 
and in Spanish Heraldry, perhaps more than in any 
other, the student should be on his guard against 
assuming that an impaled coat has the meaning which 
attaches to it among ourselves. 

The MENDOZA coat, as borne by the Dukes of INFAN- 
TADGO, has already been given (Plate XXX 1 1 1., fig. 12, 
and see p. 440). The Counts of CORUNA impale with 
this coat the arms of FlGUEROA, Or, five fig leaves in 
saltire vert. The Counts of MIRANDA and Marquises 
of CANETE substitute for the golden flanks, with their 
motto, other flanks of Gules, on each ten panelles, or 
poplar leaves, argent. Two golden chains in saltire pass 
over the dividing lines, and are united to two other chains 
fessways in chief and base. This, it will be observed, is 
an instance of quartering per saltire. I am not clear to 
what family the panelles may be traced, but I cannot 
accept the suggestion of SPENER (Op. Her., p. 254) that 
they may denote a BOBADILLA alliance. 

The Marquises de la BALA SlClLlANA, on account of 
the marriage of PEDRO GONSALEZ DE MENDOZA with 
ISABELLA DE ALARCON in the i6th century, impale 
ALARCON (Gules, a cross fleury argent) with MENDOZA, 
curiously giving the precedence to the latter coat. The 
Counts de PRIEGO impale the arms of CARILLO (Gules, a 
castle triple-towered or) in the second place with MENDOZA 
in the first, in memory of the marriage of DlEGO HURTADO 

The family of PONCE DE LEON, Duke of ARCOS, 
impale the coats of LEON and ARRAGON within a 
bordure azure, tJiereon eight escucJieons of BlDAURE (Or, 
a/ess azure]. 

( 507 ) 

The family of OSORIOS, Counts of VlLLALOBOS, bore : 
Or, two wolves passant in pale gules ; and after an 
alliance with the family of MOSCOSO, who bore Argent, 
(SPENER says or, but wrongly), a wolf's head erased sable, 
the OSORIOS, Counts of ALTAMIRA, impaled these coats 
(giving the precedence to MOSCOSO) within a bordure 
Or, charged with eight escucheons of the arms of HEN- 
RIQUEZ (tierced in mantel, I and 2. CASTILE ; 3, in base, 
LEON). The OSORIOS, Dukes of AGUIAR, Counts 
de TRASTAMARA, etc., bore : Per fess : (a) OSORIO ; 
(b) Argent, three bendlets indented azure, within the 
HENRIQUEZ bordure. The present OSORIOS DE Mos- 
COSO, who have the above titles and many others, being 
thirteen times Grandees of the first class, bear : Per 
fess [A] also per fess (a) OSORIO, (b) the argent coat with 
the bendlets; [B] MOSCOSO, the whole within the HEN- 
RIQUEZ bordure given above. 

The CORDOVAS, Counts of FIGUEROA, bear: (Plate 
XLI.) Tierced in fess : 

1. Or, three bars gules, CORDOVA. 

2. Tierced in pale (a) FlGUEROA ; (b) Or, three bars 

vert, RlBERA ; (c) I and 4. MANUEL, Gules, a 
winged hand holding a sword in pale proper ; 
2 and 3. LEON. 

3. PONCE DE LEON, as on preceding page. 

The CORDOVAS, Counts de FERIA, curiously omit the 
upper piece (Or, three bars gules). 

In Spanish Marshalling, as will be seen in the arms 
of the PONCE DE LEONS, etc., coats impaled or quar- 
tered are frequently represented within a bordure, which 
itself often indicates another alliance. The PlMENTELS 
of Spain quarter Or, three bars gules, with Vert, Jive 
panelles argent, and surround the whole with a bordure 
compony of CASTILE and LEON. The PlMENTELS of 
Portugal substitute escallops ter panelles, and their bordure 
is >t Argent, charged with eight aspas 

The LiANOS of Castile use: Per pale ', i. Argent, a 
tower proper ; 2. Or, four bars azure ; all within a 
bordure gules, charged with eight plates. The use of the 
bordure in this manner occasionally causes the bordure 
and the field to be of the same tincture ; thus CARO bears : 
Argent, a cross fleur-de-lisee sable, within a (GUZMAN) 
bordure of the first, thereon eight cauldrons of the second. 

ITALY. In ITALY the modes of marshalling do not 
differ materially from those already described. The arms 
of the family are often placed en surtout, above a shield 
of quarterings representing fiefs or alliances. The old 
Dukes of MODENA used a shield divided per pale into 
three parts Tierced in pale : i. Per f 'ess (a) (in chief} the 
arms of the EMPIRE as an augmentation ; (b) (in base} 
France, within a bordure indented gules and or, Duchy of 
FERRARA. 2. Gules, the Papal keys in saltire wards in 
chief the dexter or, the sinister argent, the bows united by a 
golden cord in base ; the keys surmounted in chief by the 
Papal tiara. 3. Per fess (a) in chief FERRARA, (b) in 
base the EMPIRE as before. En surtout, and occupying 
the whole width of the central pale, an escucheon of the 
arms of the family of ESTE ; Azure, an eagle displayed 
argent crowned or. The Papal pale was an addition to 
the old quartered coat with its escucheon en surtout. 
The later Dukes of MODENA of the house of HAPSBURG- 
LORRAINE used a coat : Per pale : (a) Tierced in pale, 
i. HAPSBURG; 2. AUSTRIA; 3. LORRAINE ; (b) the arms 
of ESTE, but with the eagle holding in its dexter claw a 
sceptre, and in the sinister an orb of gold. 

The Dukes of PARMA similarly tierced their shield in 
pale : i. Per fess (a) in />/" EARN ESE, Or six fleurs-de-lis, 
3, 2, i, azure; (b] in base, AUSTRIA impaling BURGUNDY- 
ANCIENT. 2. Gules, the Papal banner, the lance in pale 
or surmounted by the Papal keys in saltire, as in the pre- 
ceding example. 3. Per fess (a) in chief AUSTRIA 

impaling BURGUNDY-ANCIENT ; (U) in base FARNESE. 
2 L 

En surtout, and occupying the whole width of the central 
pale, the arms of PORTUGAL. The impalement of 
AUSTRIA and BURGUNDY denotes the marriage of the 
Duke OTTAVIO with the celebrated Duchess MARGARET, 
natural daughter of the Emperor CHARLES V. The 
escucheon en surtout in this case denotes the pretensions 
of the Dukes of PARMA, on the death of the Cardinal 
King HENRY in 1580, to the crown of Portugal, arising 
from the marriage of ALEXANDER, Duke of PARMA, with 
MARY (d. 1577), daughter of EDWARD, Constable of 
PORTUGAL, who was younger brother of the Cardinal 
King and predeceased him. 

The Dukes of MiRANDOLA bore a quartered shield 
with in chief the arms of the EMPIRE : Or, a double- 
headed eagle displayed sable imperially crowned proper. 
The quarterings are, I and 4. Or, an eagle displayed sable, 
crowned of the field, for the Duchy of MiRANDOLA ; 2 
and 3. Barry of six argent and azure, over all a lion 
rampant gules crowned or, for the Duchy of CONCORDIA. 
The two quarters in chief are separated from those in 
base by a fess gules, and upon it is placed en surtout the 
arms of the family of PlCO, to which the Dukes belonged : 
CJiequy argent and azure. 

Other examples of the separation of the quarters by an 
Ordinary are to be met with in Foreign Heraldry. The 
Counts of HARD in Sweden bear : Quarterly, i and 4. 
Azure, a lion rampant or, holding in its fore paws a silver 
buckler charged with the cypher XII. sable ; 2 and 3. Or, 
a mounted knight proper habited argent. These quarters 
are divided by a fess argent ; charged on the dexter side 
with a cypher F sable, royally crowned, and on the sinister 
with a chapeau gules. On an escucheon en surtout 
the arms of the family : Or, a bull's head caboshed 

The Barons of DjURKLOW in Sweden similarly place 
between their quarterings a fess pate"e argent, and on it 



1. Van der Linden. 

2. Giron, Due d'Osstma. 

3. Cardona. 

4. Stael von Holstein. 

5. Cordova, Counts of Figueroa. 

6. Waldeck. 

en surtout, Argent, a bears paw sable between two lion's 
gambs proper issuant from a mount in base vert. 

A somewhat similar f ess gules masoned sable, arched or 
voutee in base but embattled in chief is borne upon their 
escucheon by the Finnish family of FlEANDT. 

Thequarters in the Royal Arms of DENMARK have been 
for many centuries separated by the Cross of the ORDER 
OF THE DANNEBROG: Argent, a cross patee-throughout 
finibriated gules. (Sometimes its arms project somewhat 
beyond the shield.) In imitation of this a considerable 
number of the principal Scandinavian families use a 
cross patee-throughout to separate the quarters of their 
frequently complicated coats. The quarterings in these 
are often not indicative of descent, but were all included 
in the original grant of armorial bearings (v. p. 546). 

On the centre of the cross thus used an escucheon, either 
of augmentation, or of the family arms, is placed en surtout. 

As an example I give the arms of the Barons STAEL 
DE HOLSTEIN : Quarterly, I and 4. Gules, two banners 
in saltire argent enfiled by a coronet or; 2. Azure, a lion 
rampant or holding with all four feet a Danish axe argent, 
the long curved handle of the second ; 3. Azure, two cannons 
in saltire or. The quarters separated by a cross patfo- 
tliroughout or. En surtout an escucheon of the arms 
of STAEL : Argent, eight balls in orle gules (Plate XLL, 

fig. 4). 

In the case of the Royal Arms of DENMARK this 
escucheon is, Quarterly : i. HOLSTEIN ; 2. STORMARN ; 
3. DlTMARSHEN ; 4. LAUENBURG ; and the impaled 
arms of OLDENBURG and DELMENHORST in an 
escucheon sur le tout du tout. 

In other Scandinavian coats a saltire patee-throughout 
is used instead of the cross to divide the quarters. In 
the arms of the Barons von BERGENSTRAHLE, the shield 
is tierced in pairle, and the quarters are divided not by 
a saltire, but by a pairle diminuee and patee-throughout or. 

A plain cross dividing the quarters, and sometimes 
charged, is found in the arms of some German families. 
Thus the Tirolese Counts d'ARCO bear: Quarterly, 
I and 4. Azure, three bows or,fesseways in pale ; 2 and 
3. Or, a bow in pale azure. These quarters are separated 
by a cross argent trellised azure. The Counts of 
I and 4. Per bend wavy argent and sable a bend counter- 
changed ; 2 and 3. Sable, a lion rampant or. The 
quarters are separated by a cross patee-tJirougJiout, on 
the centre of which is an escucheon en surtout ; A rgent, 
an eagle displayed gules crowned or its feet resting on two 
batons in saltire of the second. 

Something similar to this is to be found in Scottish 
Armory. The coat of the SINCLAIR family was, 
Argent, a cross engrailed sable. They inherited the 
earldoms of ORKNEY and CAITHNESS through female 
descent from the Norse Jarls of the ORKNEYS. The 
arms of the Earls of CAITHNESS are thus marshalled : 
Quarterly, i. Azure, within a Royal tressure a sJiip witJi 
furled sails all or, ORKNEY ; 2 and 3. Or, a lion rampant 
gules, SPAR (a family in possession of the Earldom of 
CAITHNESS before the SINCLAIRS) ; 4. Azure, a ship in 
sail or, CAITHNESS ; and over all, dividing the quarters, a 
cross engrailed sable for SINCLAIR. (Plate XLI II., fig. i.) 

It may be of interest here, as illustrative of what has 
been said in preceding paragraphs, to notice that the 
Barons SINCLAIR in Sweden (so created 1766, but 
extinct ten years later), bore the above quartered coats 
as cadets of CAITHNESS ; but separated the quarters, 
not by the SINCLAIR cross, but by a cross patce-tJirough- 
out ermine. In an escucheon en surtout they placed the 
SINCLAIR arms: Argent, a cross engrailed sable ; and, 
as a mark of cadency, they surrounded the main 
escucheon with a bordure cJiequy or and gules. 

The Lords SINCLAIR, on the other hand, adopted the 

less unusual arrangement of simply quartering the coats 
of ORKNEY and CAITHNESS, and placing an escucheon 
of SINCLAIR en surtout. (Plate XLIIL, fig. 2).]. W.] 


[Systematic Heraldry spread gradually from the 
Lowlands to the Highlands of Scotland ; and figures 
familiar upon the old sculptured crosses and other 
monuments became regular heraldic charges. Such are 
the galley, the eagle displayed, the salmon, a rock, and 
a hand holding a dagger or a crosslet fitchee. In 
two armorial seals appended to a document of 1572 
(LAING, Scottish Seals, ii., 675, 676), those of JOHN 
his son ALLAN, we have a tree placed in pale between 
a hand issuing from the dexter flank, and a galley (tied 
to the tree) on the sinister. (The hand has no dagger 
or crosslet, and appears to be a sinister hand, unless 
we are supposed to see its back.) But these figures, 
and others, soon came to be borne as quarterings by 
the Highland chiefs in a way which in many cases 
indicated neither family alliances nor the possession of 
feudal Lordships. While one branch of the LORDS OF 
THE ISLES (GLENGARRY) bore the galley and the eagle 
as in Plate XLIIL, fig. 3, several branches, including that 
of CLANRANALD, adopted a quartered coat of the kind 
referred to. In an armorial MS. of the date 1603 (said 
to bear the stamp of authority of Sir DAVID LINDSAY 
the younger, then LYON), the coat represented in Plate 
XLIIL, fig. 4, is ascribed to " MACKONEIL, laird of 
Dunnivege and Glennes," i.e. the head of the Clan IAN 
VOR, descending from JOHN, second son of JOHN, 
LORD OF THE ISLES, and the Princess MARGARET. 

The MS. of STACIE, Ross Herald 1663-1687 gives the 
coat of MACDONALD of SLATE, the ancestor of the Lords 
MACDONALD, as: Quarterly, I. Argent, a lion rampant 

gules armed of ; 2. A sure, a hand proper holding a cross 
of Calvary pate e sable ; 3. Vert, a ship ermine, her oars in 
sal fire sable on water proper ; 4. Partedper fess, wavy vert 
and argent, a salmon naiant proper 1 (cf. Plate XLIIL, 
fig. 5, the present arms of the Lords MACDONALD). 

In the record of the elder Sir DAVID LINDSAY the 
coat of MACLEAN is: Azure, a castle triple-towered argent. 
In the MS. of the younger Sir DAVID (circa 1603) a coat 
with the same Highland elements as No. 4 is introduced 
(Plate XLIIL, fig. 6). 

Quartered coats of the same elements are borne by 
QUHARSONS, slight differences in the arrangement of 
the quarters serving to difference the cadets of each. 

The higher nobility of Scotland had their arms 
marshalled somewhat after the Continental fashion ; and 
as their arrangement has been somewhat misapprehended 
by those who have studied Heraldry from an exclusively 
English point of view a few illustrations may advan- 
tageously be given here particularly with reference to 
the bearing of an escucheon en surtout. The princely 
position of the Earls of DOUGLAS in the fifteenth century 
need hardly be adverted to here, the historical student 
will need little to be reminded how after the " Red " 
DOUGLAS supplanted the " Black," the Earls of ANGUS, 
their virtual successors, notwithstanding their illegitimacy 
of descent, claimed precedence, not over Earls only, but 

1 [We may compare with this the coat borne by Marshal MAC- 
DONALD, created Duke of TARENTO by NAPOLEON I. in 1809 ; 
Quarterly, I. Argent, a lion rampant gules ; 2. Or, a left hand and 
arm is siting from the sinister flank habited gules, holding a cross let 
fitchee of the last ; 3. Argent, on a sea in base vert, in which swims 
a salmon of the first, a galley sable its pennons gules ; 4. Argent, a 
tree vert surmounted by an eagle displayed sable. On a champagne 
in base or, a scorpion sable in bend. On the centre point of the 
quarters a crescent gules for difference. Above the quarters the 
chief indicating the dignity of Duke of the French Empire : Gules, 
seme of estoiles (mullets} argent. J. W.] 



1. Stuart, Earl of Lennox. 2. Hay, Marquis of Tweeddale. 

3. Stuart, Lord Methven. 

4. Leslie, Lord Lindores. 

5. Lords Carlyle. 

6. Earls of Home. 

over all Peers, with the right of leading the van in battle, 
and bearing the Royal Crown in Parliament. The seals 
of both branches of the house of DOUGLAS, which are 
almost unique in beauty, have a peculiar fitness for 
exemplifying the subject under consideration. 

The seal of WILLIAM, ist Earl of DOUGLAS, and by 
marriage, of MAR, appended to a document, circa 1378, 
bears the arms of DOUGLAS {Argent, a human heart 
gules, on a chief azure tJiree mullets of the field) quartered 
with MAR {Azure, a bend between six crosslets or). JAMES, 
2nd Earl, who fell at Otterburn in 1388, bore in his 
father's lifetime the simple coat of DOUGLAS. ARCHI- 
BALD DOUGLAS, Lord of GALLOWAY, on whom the 
Earldom then devolved, added largely to the family 
possessions. He acquired Bothwell in Lanarkshire, 
and other considerable lands in Ross-shire, by marriage 
with the widow (not the daughter as has been repre- 
sented), of THOMAS MURRAY of Bothwell. His seal, 
a mutilated example of which is figured on the frontis- 
piece of LAING'S Supplemental Volume of Scottish Seals, 
bears DOUGLAS quartering GALLOWAY {Azure, a lion 
rampant crowned or) and on an escucheon en surtout, the 
coat of MURRAY of Bothwell (Azure) three mullets (Or). 
The accident that he thus used the MURRAY coat, while 
as will be presently shown, his son bore it as a quarter, 
has misled Mr LAING, and other writers of greater 
pretensions, into the belief that the seal of the 3rd Earl 
affords an example in the fourteenth century of the use 
of an " escucheon of pretence " in the modern acceptation 
of that term. It may be that the extent and importance 
of the inheritance which had passed into his possession, 
led to the prominent place accorded to the arms of the 
BOTHWELL lordship ; or it may only have been a desire 
for the maintenance of symmetry and a well-balanced 
escucheon which prompted the arrangement. 

His son ARCHIBALD, 4th Earl of DOUGLAS, who 

succeeded him in 1401, obtained by charter from the 
Regent ALBANY in 1409 the Lordship of Annandale. 
This made a re-arrangement of the quarterings neces- 
sary ; and the escucheon on his seal is accordingly 
Quarterly: i. DOUGLAS ; 2. GALLOWAY ; 3. MURRAY of 
Bothwell ; 4. ANNANDALE {Argent, a saltire and chief 
gules}. In his later years the Earl repaired to France, 
where he was made Duke of TOURAINE, and Count of 
in 1424, and fell at Verneuil in the same year. 

His son ARCHIBALD, the fifth Earl of DOUGLAS, and 
second Duke of TOURAINE, dropped the quarter of 
Bothwell to make room for a coat indicative of his 
Duchy (apparently the plain arms of FRANCE : Azure, 
three fleurs-de-lis or 1 ) ; this is placed in the first quarter, 
the others being : 2. DOUGLAS ; 3. ANNANDALE ; 4. 
GALLOWAY. (Mr LAING, Scottish Seals, vol. ii., No. 248, 
attributes this seal to the fourth Earl.) 

WILLIAM, his son, the 6th Earl, during the minority 
of JAMES II., and when he was in his i/th year, was 
decoyed into Edinburgh Castle in 1446, and after a mock 
trial was put to death along with his brother. This 
caused a re-distribution of the possessions of the house 
of DOUGLAS. The DucJie ' pairie lapsed to the Crown of 
France, Annandale to that of Scotland, Galloway went to 
the Earl's sister MARGARET, known as the " Fair Maid of 
Galloway," who married her cousin WILLIAM (afterwards 
8th Earl). JAMES, ;th Earl of DOUGLAS, who succeeded 

1 [This is remarkable, but is paralleled by the plain coat of 
FRANCE borne for the Duchy of CHATELHERAULT by the Earls of 
ANGUS. CHARLES VII. was the first Sovereign who departed 
from the principle of conferring the " pairie^ on princes of the 
blood alone. Wishing to create for himself allies against the 
Dukes of BURGUNDY and BRITTANY, who menaced the existence 
of the monarchy, he conferred on JAMES, King of SCOTLAND, the 
pairie of Saintonge and Rochefort in 1421, and the county and 
pairie of Evreux on JAMES STUART, sire d'Aubigny. J. W.] 

( 5T6 ) 

his grand-nephew, was, before his marriage, Earl of 
AVONDALE. His son WILLIAM, 8th Earl of DOUGLAS, 
and 2nd of AVONDALE, for a time rose high in the 
favour of JAMES II., who made him Lieutenant-General 
of the realm ; but entering with the Earl of CRAWFORD 
into a confederacy against the king in 1446 he was 
stabbed to death by JAMES in a fit of passion in Stirling 
Castle. The arms on his seal are the same as those of 
his father. {Quarterly: I. DOUGLAS; 2. GALLOWAY; 

3. MURRAY of Both well ; 4. Sable, fretty or for his lord- 
ship of LAUDERDALE.) The 9th, and last Earl, made 
open war on JAMES as his brother's murderer, but a tem- 
porary reconciliation took place, after which the struggle 
was renewed, and after the flight of DOUGLAS to Eng- 
land, was maintained by his brothers, who were respect- 
ively Earls of MORAY and ORMOND ; but the battle of 
Arkenholme in 1455 settled the fate of the Black 
DOUGLASES. The Earldom, with its vast possessions, 
was forfeited, and its strongholds of Douglas, Abercorn, 
Strathaven, and others were dismantled. The Earl 
lived for many years in England ; but in 1484, having 
invaded Scotland with the exiled Duke of ALBANY, he 
was taken captive and sent to the religious retirement of 
Linclores Abbey, where he died. 

The seal of the last Earl is one of the most beautiful 
and interesting of the series. It bears : Quarterly ', I. 
DOUGLAS; 2. LAUDERDALE; 3. MURRAY of Bothwell ; 

4. Sir piles (? for BRECHIN) ; and GALLOWAY en surtout. 
The arms in the fourth quarter are not easily to be 
accounted for ; if they are for BRECHIN, they are arms 
of pretension of a remote and far fetched kind. They 
have been blazoned both as borne by this Earl (and long 
afterwards by the 6th Earl of ANGUS), as BRECHIN, and 
sometimes as the coat of " WlSHART of Brechin." There 
never were any " WlSHARTS of Brechin." The imagined 
connection between WlSHART and BRECHIN a fancy of 

the seventeenth century arose from the fact that both the 
ancient family of BRECHIN (descended from a natural son 
of Prince DAVID, 1 Earl of HUNTINGDON), and the much 
more modern family of WlSHART bore the same charge 
" three piles in point gules" in their arms. G. B.] 

[It must be noticed that the arms of the Lordship of 
BRECHIN, or Earldom of HUNTINGDON, have the red 
piles on a golden ground, and they were thus quartered 
by the MAULES of Panmure. (See the Registrum de 
Panmure^} The field of the WlSHART coat is argent, 
vide ante, pp. 147, 149.]. W.] 

[I at one time thought that an explanation of this 
quarter might be found in some entries in the Register 
of the Great Seal of 1472, and in the Crown accounts of 
1465 and subsequent years, purporting that the rents of 
certain portions of Brechin were paid to a Countess 
JONET, wife of WILLIAM, Earl of DOUGLAS, in lieu of 
her terce. The only possible Countess seemed to be the 
above-named " Fair Maid of Galloway," widow of the 
8th Earl, who though called JONET in the Great Seal 
Register, appeared as MARGARET LINDSAY, Countess of 
DOUGLAS, in the Exchequer Rolls. It seemed as if the 
" Fair Maid," divorced from her husband, the Earl of 
ATHOLE, had re-married a LINDSAY. But the dis- 
covery of further documentary evidence about this lady, 
whose name was certainly JONET, led me to abandon 
this hypothesis for another namely, that the Countess 
in question was the widow of WILLIAM, 6th Earl, who, 
having been beheaded at an early age, had not hitherto 
been believed to be married. My grounds for this con- 
clusion are stated at length in the Preface to Vol. VII. 
of the ExcJiequer Rolls of Scotland, and I have not seen 
reason to alter the views thus expressed. That being 

1 [DAVID had married MAUD, widow of SIMON DE ST. Liz, Earl 
of HUNTINGDON ; and HENRY I. invested him with the Earldom 
in 1108. J. W.] 

so, the pretext for assuming the BRECHIN coat is 
certainly remote. The theory maintained in the 
Douglas Book (vol. i.) that these piles (which re- 
appear in the arms of the 6th Earl of ANGUS) were 
stakes to represent the Lordship of ETTRICK FOREST 
deserves consideration, yet difficulties apply to it. 
Though piles have sometimes been identified with passion 
nails, I have not found them confounded with stakes. 
There is a well-known use of stakes as an armorial 
charge in the coat of YAIR (Plate XXVIIL, fig. 12), 
where they are utterly unlike piles, though they exactly 
resemble the stakes of the DOUGLAS compartment here- 
after to be noticed. Perhaps a slight argument against 
the piles denoting BRECHIN is, that in some heraldic 
MSS. in the Advocates' Library and Lyon Office the 
piles are vert. There is also a difficulty arising from the 
number of the piles being uncertain. On the seal of 
ARCHIBALD, 6th Earl of DOUGLAS, they are five in 
number. In the arms of the ist Marquess of DOUGLAS 
they are undoubtedly piles, and on the seal of 
his brother, Sir GEORGE DOUGLAS, are three in 
number. Is it possible that, though generally attri- 
buted to BRECHIN, they may be really borne for the 
Earldom of AvONDALE? The most remarkable part 
of the seal is to be found in the two banners which 
rise behind the shield, each containing two coats quar- 
tered. In the dexter banner we have the cushions of 
MORAY (to which not this lord, but his brother, asserted 
a claim) quartered with three bars (for ....?) In 
the sinister banner the stars of BOTHWELL are quar- 
tered with (Gules] a fess ermine doubtless for the 
Lordship of CRAWFORD. 

To pass now to the Earls of ANGUS, in whose time 
the connection with France affected to a still greater 
extent the development of Scottish Armory. The 2nd 
Earl bore: Quarterly, I and 4. Argent, a lion rampant 

gules for ANGUS ; 2 and 3. DOUGLAS ; and en surtout 
what appears to be a bend charged with three estoiles. 
This may possibly have been a combination of the arms 
of DOUGLAS and SANDILANDS for Cavers and Lydel, 
Jedvvorth Forest, but it was certainly not the coat of his 
wife, who was a HAY of Yester. If we had coloured 
representations of the blazons of all the Earls of 
ANGUS we should be able to discover when the white 
lion of ANGUS in the first quarter developed itself, 
or was metamorphosed, into the GALLOWAY coat. 
ARCHIBALD, Bell the Cat, sth Earl of ANGUS, bore : 
I. ANGUS; 2. ABERNETHY ; 3. (Ermine) three chevrons 
(Gules) for LlDDESDALE (the old coat of the SOULLS 
family, from which, however, there was no descent) ; 
and 4. (Sable) fretty (Or) LAUDERDALE ; en surtozit 
the arms of DOUGLAS. Later Earls, beginning with the 
(the piles being five in number) ; 4. STEWART of Bonkyl ; 
also with DOUGLAS en surtout a coat which has been 
preserved by succeeding Earls, the sole difference being 
that the first Marquess of DOUGLAS, who put the crown 
on the heart, bore also in Continental fashion a cham- 
pagne in base of the arms of AUCHINLECK : Argent, a 
cross counter-embattled sable. (Mr LAING, Scottish Seals, 
ii., 285, thought he could trace a similar base on the 
seal of the 2nd Earl of ANGUS ; if so, it could not be 
charged with the AUCHINLECK coat. On an examina- 
tion of the cast of that seal, I, however, could not detect 
the existence of the cross in question.) It thus appears 
that the DOUGLAS quarterings were arranged much more 
in accordance with Continental ideas of marshalling 
than ill agreement with modern British usage. 

A few other Scottish examples, some of them of 
marshalling which remains unchanged to the present 
day, will show that the usages referred to were not con- 
fined to one great family ; and will also serve to illustrate 

( 520 ) 

the use of the escucheon en surtout without its modern 
application of an " escucheon of pretence." 

A curious example of Scottish marshalling may be 
eriven in liniine which indicates how little the Scottish 


lords and heralds of the fifteenth century were trammelled 
by modern rules. The seal of JOHN STUART, Lord of 
LORN (LAING, Scottish Seals, i., 797), the father of the 
three co-heiresses, the eldest of whom brought LORN to 
the house of ARGYLL, bears the following arrangement : 
Quarterly : I . Per f ess, in chief, a buckle, its pin extending 
to the dexter; in base counter-compony ; 2 and 3. 
A galley in full sail ; 4. Per fess, the chief counter-com- 
pony, and in base a garb. In this composite coat the 
buckle marks the paternal descent from STEWART of 
Bonkyl, while the garb is indicative of the Earldom of 
BUCHAN, held by ROBERT, Duke of ALBANY, his 
maternal grandfather. The galley in the second and 
third quarters, though certainly intended to represent 
the Lordship of LORN, indicated, notwithstanding, no 
descent from its ancient Lords. The late learned 
genealogist, Mr ALEXANDER SINCLAIR, has shown that 
the supposed descent is a modern blunder. JOHN 
STEWART, the first Lord of LORN of this house got the 
Lordship, not by a marriage with the DE ERGADIA 
heiress, but by exchange with his brother, who was that 
heiress's husband. 

Another interesting specimen of Scottish marshalling 
is afforded by the seal (LAING, ii., 948) of WlLLIAM 
SUTHERLAND of Duffus, appended to a charter of 1540 
which bears a shield Per f ess ; the chief per pale (a) three 
mullets for SUTHERLAND ; (b] three crosslets fitchees for 
CHEYNE of Duffus ; in the base a boars head for 

Another interesting seal is that of WALTER STEWART, 
Earl of ATHOLE and CAITHNESS (circa 1420), son of 
ROBERT II.'s second marriage, and husband of the heiress 

of BRECHIN, who suffered death in 1437 as an accessory 
to the murder of his nephew and benefactor, King JAMES I. 
The blazon is: I. SCOTLAND, differenced by a label of three 
points. 2. Paly of six (or) and (sable) for ATHOLE. 3. ( Or) 
three piles (gules) for BRECHIN. 4. (Azure) a lion rampant 
(argent) crowned (or) for GALLOWAY. En surtout (Azure), 
a galley under sail (or) for CAITHNESS. Of course 
according to modern ideas BRECHIN would have been 
borne in an escucheon of pretence. 

On Plate XLIL, fig. i is the coat of the STUARTS, Lords 
of DARNLEY and Earls of LENNOX, who bore (LAING, i., 
798, et seq.\ when they assumed the questionable title of 
Earl of LENNOX (i.e., circa 1490), Quarterly, i and 4. 
FRANCE, a bordure (gules) thereon eight buckles (or) 
for AUBIGNY. 2 and 3. STUART: (Or) a fess chequy 
(argent and azure) within a bordure engrailed (gules) ; and, 
en surtout (A rgent\ a saltire between four roses (gules] for 
the Earldom of LENNOX. 

From about 1 500 down to the present day the Lords 
HAY of Yester, afterwards Earls and Marquesses of 
TWEEDDALE, have borne their paternal coat (Argent, three 
escucheons gules) en surtout on the quartered coats of 
FRASER of Oliver Castle (Azure, three cinquefoils argent), 
and GlFFORD of Yester (Gules, three bars ermine], families 
through which the HAYS acquired considerable posses- 
sions (Plate XLIL, fig. 2). The different cadet branches 
of the house of TWEEDDALE have borne the same 
arrangement with different bordures. 

In like manner the Earls of SUTHERLAND, who 
descended from the Countess ELIZABETH, wife of ADAM 
GORDON, were in the habit of placing SUTHERLAND en 
surtout over the quartered coat of GORDON and SETON, 
a usage which continued until they dropped the surname 
of GORDON, and bore SUTHERLAND only. 

HENRY STUART, Lord METHVEN, who in 1526 became 
the third husband of MARGARET of England, Queen of 



1. Sinclair, Earl of Caithness. 

2. Lords Sinclair. 

3. M'Donnell of Glengarry. 

4. Mackoneil of Dunnivege, etc 

5. Lord Macdonald. 

6. Maclean. 

( 522 ) 

JAMES IV., bore en surtout over his quartered coat Gules, 
a hon rampant holding- between Jiis fore-paivs a tower 
argent for the Lordship of METHVEN (Plate XLIL, fig. 3). 
Lord LlNDORES similarly used the quartered coats of 
LESLIE and ABERNETHY with, en surtout: Gules, a 
castle triple-towered argent for the lordship of LlNDORES 
(Plate XLIL, fig. 4). 

surtout, over the quartered coat of LIVINGSTONE and 
C ALLEN BAR, Azure, an oak tree or, a bordure argent, 
thereon eight cinquef oils gules, for the title of LiNLlTHGOW. 
On the seal of DAVID, Earl of CRAWFORD, created Duke 
of MONTROSE by JAMES III., an escucheon bearing the 
arms of MONTROSE : Argent, a rose gules, barbed and 
seeded proper, is borne en surtout for his Duchy, over his 
quartered coats of LINDSAY and ABERNETHY. 

In the escucheon of the Lords CARLYLE of Torthpr- 
wald, from 1473 onwards, a coat probably connected with 
the title : Argent, a saltire azure (sometimes with the 
addition of a chief charged with mullets) is placed en 
surtout over the quartered arms of CARLYLE and CROSBIE 
(Plate XLIL, fig. 5). 

The first Lord HOME, so created in 1473, carried 
HOME ( Vert, a lion rampant argent) quartered with 
PEPDIE (Argent, three papingoes vert beaked and member ed 
gules} on the ground of the marriage of HUGH, one of 
his ancestors, with MARY PEPDIE, heiress of the Barony 
of DUNGLASS. 1 He acquired considerable possessions 
by his marriage with the heiress of LANDELL of that Ilk ; 
whose coat, however, did not appear on the escucheon of 
his grandson and successor, the 2nd Lord HOME, or 
on that of the immediate descendants of the latter. 
But it was borne by the Lord HOME of Sir -DAVID 

1 [It is curious that the precedence of the ist and 4th quarters is 
given to PEPDIE on the seal of PATRICK HOME, Archdeacon of 
TEVIOTDALE in 1454, LAING, i., 76. J. W.] 

( 523 ) 

LINDSAY'S time, as appears from his register, and is 
displayed on the seal of the 1st Earl of HOME, by whom 
it seems to have been adopted in accordance with the 
then prevailing usage, as the feudal coat of his 
Earldom (Plate XLIL, fig. 6). 

In later times it appears not to have been within the 
prerogative of LYON to authorise the bearing of any 
feudal coat, or coats, In surtout without a special Royal 
warrant. Two instances, only, occur among later Peers 
of Scotland . of the escucheon en surtout being thus 
granted. Sir PATRICK HUME of Polworth on being 
created Earl of MARCHMONT in 1690, had in his patent 
of peerage a Royal warrant permitting him to bear en 
surtout the following coat: Argent, an orange leaved 
proper ensigned with an Imperial Crown or. DAVID 
BOYLE of Kelburne, created Earl of GLASGOW in 1703, 
also had a Royal warrant to quarter in the principal 
place of his escucheon a coat of Augmentation : Or, an 
eagle displayed gules, which seems to have been held to 
warrant the placing of his paternal coat (Or, three stags 
horns fesseways in pale gules) en surtout above this coat 
quartered with another coat of BOYLE, Per bend 
embattled argent and gules. 

In modern grants and matriculations of arms in 
Scotland it is not the practice to allow the use of any 
coats en surtout except the " escucheon of pretence " 
when it can be properly claimed. G. B.] 

[The English " use " which began shortly before the 
Union of 1707 has thus been extended to Scotland. 

In both kingdoms the arms of husband and wife may 
be borne impaled, those of the husband being to the dexter 
side of the escucheon. But if the wife be an heiress or 
co-heiress (i.e. has no brothers) the husband may place 
her shield in pretence upon the centre of his plain or 
quartered coats. Some heralds maintain that the husband 
is only entitled to do this after he has issue by the heiress. 

It must be remembered that the term heiress in British 
and Scottish Heraldry now only means heiress of 
blood, and has no reference at all to possessions. 
The issue of the marriage are entitled to quarter the 
arms of the heiress mother in the 2nd and 3rd quarters 
with those of their paternal line in the ist and 4th. If 
the paternal coat be already one containing quarterings, 
the usual mode adopted now instead of using quarterly 
quartered coats, is to place the maternal coat with 
its quarterings (if it has any) after the paternal 

In the case of a lady being heiress to her mother, but 
not to her father (which happens when the mother was 
an heiress and has no male issue by her marriage, while 
the father has male issue by another marriage), the 
modern usage authoritatively sanctioned is that the lady 
should bear only her maternal arms with the addition of 
a canton charged with the paternal coat. If she marries, 
her children (and later descendants) ought to continue 
to bear this composite coat quartered with their 
paternal one ; but they have no right at all to any other 
use of the coat in the canton that of their maternal 
grandfather (pp. 426, 427). The use thus sanctioned 
goes back to the time of GERARD LEGH, who assigns 
to a lady heiress of her mother but not of her father, the 
maternal arms with the addition of the paternal coat on 
a chief, or on a canton, but the alternative permitted by 
LEGH is not now in vogue. 

To these examples of Marshalling we may fitly join 
one or two examples of the arms assigned to the issue 
of a legitimate but morganatic marriage. 

The Duke of TECK, issue of the marriage between 
Duke ALEXANDER of WURTTEMBERG and the Countess 
bears : Per pale : (a) Or, three stag's horns fessways in 
pale sable (WURTTEMBERG) ; (b) Or, three lions passant in 

2 M 

( 525 ) 

pale sable the dexter paw raised, gules (SUABIA). Over 
all : Lozengy in bend-sinister sable and or (Duchy of 
TECK). I have seen the impaled coats quartered, but 
do not know if this was done by authority. 

The Princes of BATTENBERG, who descend from the 
marriage of the Prince ALEXANDER of HESSE-DARM- 
STADT with the Countess JULIA VON HAUCKE, bear : 
Quarterly : I and 4. Azure, a lion rampant double queue 
barry of ten gules and argent crowned, and holding in the 
right paw a sword proper (HESSE) within a bordure 
gobone of sixteen pieces argent and gules ; 2 and 3. Argent, 
two pales sable (BATTENBERG). 

An earlier instance is afforded by the arms of the 
Counts von WARTENBERG, the issue of the morganatic 
marriage of FERDINAND of BAVARIA (d. 1608). They 
bore the arms of BAVARIA : Fusilly-bendy, Argent and 
azure, charged with the golden lion rampant of the 

The CHEVALIER DE SAXE (d. 1801), issue of the mor- 
ganatic marriage of Prince FRANCIS XAVIER of SAXONY, 
bore the arms of SAXONY, but with the addition of a fess 
sable passing over the cran^elin, and covering the third 
bar of sable and the third bar of or. 

OFFICIAL ARMS. Archbishops and Bishops impale 
the arms of their Sees with their personal arms, the 
prelate being termed maritus ecclesice, but in British 
Armory the dexter side, or place of honour, is given to 
the official coat. Deans of cathedral and collegiate 
churches, and certain other dignitaries, Masters of 
Colleges, the Regius Professors at Cambridge and others, 
have official arms which might be borne in like manner, 
but at the present day examples of their use by such 
personages are very infrequent. 

The use of official arms remains, however, constant 
among the Kings of Arms. GARTER bears: Argent, 
St. George s cross, on a chief 'azure an open crown within 

( 526 ) 

the Garter, between a lion #/ ENGLAND and a fleur-de-lis 
or. Similarly the official arms of LYON are : Argent, a 
lion sejant affrontee gules, holding in its dexter paw a 
tJiistle proper, and in the sinister an escucheon of tJie 
second ; on a chief azure a saltire of the first. Those of 
ULSTER are : Argent, the Cross of St. George, on a chief 
azure a lion ^/"ENGLAND, between the harp 0/ IRELAND and 
a portcullis or. CLARENCEUX and NORROY have also 
official coats. CLARENCEUX bears : Argent, the cross of 
St. George, on a cJiief gules a lion of ENGLAND crowned or. 
(On a seal dated 1598, the lion is uncrowned and a 
fleur-de-lis is placed in the first canton.) That of 
NORROY is : Argent, the cross of St. George, on a chief per 
pale azure and gules, a lion of ENGLAND crowned, between 
a fleur-de-lis and a key erect, all or. In all cases where 
an official coat is thus impaled, the bearer may not 
impale those of his wife in the same escucheon ; if he 
desire to use his wife's arms he may impale them with 
his own in a separate escucheon, and place the two 
shields accoles. 

Foreign ecclesiastics sometimes quarter, sometimes 
impale, the arms of their See, or other religious founda- 
tion, with their personal arms. Sometimes these latter 
are used in an escucheon en surtout. Full information 
on these subjects, which cannot be dealt with at length 
here, will be found in my forthcoming treatise on Eccles- 
iastical Heraldry. The lay Electors of the Holy Roman 
Empire had each an official coat of arms, borne generally 
en surtout above their quarterings. That of the 
ELECTOR of SAXONY, as Arch-Marshal of the Empire, 
has already been given at page 346. The ELECTOR 
PALATINE bore : Gules, an orb or, as Arch-Steward. 
The ELECTOR of BRANDENBURG : Azure, a sceptre in 
pale or, as Arch-Chamberlain (cf. p. 380). The ELECTOR 
of HANNOVER : Gules, the crown of CHARLEMAGNE, as 
Arch-Treasurer (v. p. 380). The Counts of LiMPURG 

( 527 ) 

place a golden cup in the centre of their quartered arms, 
as Hereditary Butlers of the Empire (cf. BUTLER on 
p. 381). The insignia of the Hereditary Master of the 
Horse have been given on p. 490 ; and those of the 
Hereditary Standard-Bearer on p. 352. The Grand 
Masters of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of 
Jerusalem quartered the arms of the Order (Gules, 
a cross argent) with their personal ones. The Knights 
of Justice, etc., of the Order bore its arms as above 
on a chief. By the Statutes of the Grand Priory of 
the Order of St. John, in England, H.M. the Queen 
has conferred on the Knights of Justice, etc., the same 
right ; the cross being cantoned alternately with lions 
gardant, and unicorns, both passant or. The Grand 
Masters of the Teutonic Order quartered its arms with 
those of their family. The Knights of the Order of 
St. Stephen in Tuscany bore the arms of that Order in 
chief, like the Knights of St. John, etc. J. W.] 



AUGMENTATIONS are additions made by the Sovereign 
to the coat of arms of an individual as a recognition of 
services rendered to the Prince or to the State ; or 
merely as evidence of princely favour. They sometimes 
take the form of additional quarterings ; but more com- 
monly consist of a chief, canton, or an escucheon to be 
borne thenceforth as an integral part of the hereditary 
coat. Many of them are exceedingly interesting as 
historical memorials. 

Allusion has been already made (p. 474) to the 
assumption by RICHARD II. of the mythical arms of 
EDWARD the CONFESSOR, which he impaled with his 
own coat, and to the fact that he granted them as marks 
of special favour to his kinsmen, the HOLLANDS, Dukes 
Duke of NORFOLK. We have seen (p. 383) that 
the same monarch granted to ROBERT DE VERE, 
K.G., whom he had created Duke of IRELAND, the 
mythical coat of St. EDMUND ; Azure, three open 
crowns or, differenced by a bordure argent, to be quar- 
tered with his personal arms : Quarterly gules and or, a 
mullet argent. 

We have also had under notice (p. 377) the coat of 
augmentation granted to, or assumed by, the PELHAMS 
to perpetuate the memory of the share taken by Sir 
JOHN PELHAM in the capture of King JOHN of FRANCE 
at the battle of Poictiers. 

( 5*9 ) 

HENRY VIII. granted several augmentations: both 
in commemoration of prowess in the field, and as marks 
of personal favour. 

First among the former class is the augmentation 
granted to THOMAS HOWARD, Duke of NORFOLK, for 
his victory at Flodden. To his personal arms : Gules, a 
bend between six crosses crosslet fitchy argent, he was to 
add an escucheon, to be placed in chief upon the bend, of 
a portion of the Royal Arms of SCOTLAND : Or, within 
the Royal Tressure a demi-lion rampant gules, pierced 
through the mouth with an arrow, argent. About the 
same time an augmentation was granted to Sir JOHN 
CLERK, who, less than a month before Flodden, had 
taken captive LOUIS, Duke de LONGUEVILLE, at the 
battle of Therouenne, known as the Battle of the Spurs. 
The arms of CLERK were: Argent, on a bend gules 
between three roundles sable, as many swans of the first. 
To this coat he was permitted to add, a sinister canton 
azure, charged with a demi-ram salient argent armed or, 
in chief two fleurs-de-lis gold, and over all a baton of the 

GuiLLlM considers this the coat of the Duke de 
LONGUEVILLE, and he has been followed without 
protest by NlSBET, and by many subsequent writers, 
up to the last edition of FOSTER'S Baronetage where the 
canton is said to be "the arms of LONGUEVILLE." 
This is of course an entire mistake, though the canton 
does contain a composition from the armorial insignia 
of the Duke. He was the grandson of the celebrated 
JEAN, Comte de DUNOIS, bastard son of LOUIS, Due 
d'ORLEANS. In 1428, DUNOIS sealed with the arms of 
ORLEANS (France, a label argenf], debruised by a 
bendlet-sinister argent, and the shield is supported by a 
ram. Later he took as supporters the eagles which had 
been used by his father the Duke, but retained a demy- 
ram as his crest. As his second wife he married MARIE, 

( 530 ) 

daughter of JAMES HARCOURT, Comte de LONGUE- 
VILLE, and Seigneur de PARTHENAY ; and the seal of 
his son FRANCIS, " Comte de DUNOIS et de LONGUE- 
VILLE, Seigneur de PARTHENAY" bears the following 
arms : Quarterly, I and 4. ORLEANS, over all a bendlet 
argent; 2. (A sure?) an eagle displayed (argent?); 
3. Burele argent and azure a bend gules (PARTHENAY). 
The shield has the eagle supporters, and the crest is a 
ram's head collared. We are thus able to account for 
the appearance of the ram's head in the coat of 
augmentation, and the other charges of it need no 
explanation. (I pointed out the mistake in Notes 
and Queries, 3rd Series, viii., p. 283, so long ago as 
1865, and showed that this augmentation was a very 
different thing from that which the books on Heraldry 
represented it to be, viz., the assumption of the arms 
of a vanquished knight as a matter of right by the 

As a mark of personal favour, and in commemoration 
of his royal descent from ANNE PLANTAGENET, HENRY 
VIII. augmented the arms of Sir THOMAS MANNERS, 
K.G., Earl of RUTLAND, with a chief composed from 
the quartered arms of FRANCE and ENGLAND, and the 
arms still borne by his descendants, the Dukes of 
RUTLAND, are : Or, two bars azure, a chief of augmenta- 
tion : Quarterly, I and 4. Azure, two fleurs-de-lis of 
FRANCE ; 2 and 3. Gules, a lion of ENGLAND. (Sir 
daughter and heiress of Sir THOMAS ST. LEGER, by 
title of RUTLAND was one of those borne by the Dukes 
of YORK.) 

HENRY VIII. granted quartering^ of augmentation 
to all his wives except CATHARINE of ARRAGON and 
ANNE of CLEVES, who both had sufficient of their own. 
The augmentation of the arms of ANNE BoLEYN 

consisted of the first three quarterings. She bore 
Quarterly of six : 

1 . LANCASTER : England with a label of tJiree points 


2. ANGOULEME : France- ancient, a label of four points 


3. GUIENNE: Gules, a lion passant or. 

4. Quarterly : I and 4. Or, a chief indented azure, 


2 and 3. Argent, a lion rampant sable, 
crowned gules, ROCHFORT. 

5. BROTHERTON : England, a label argent. 

6. WARREN : Chequy or and azure. 

These arms are taken from a book once in ANNE'S 
own possession. It will be noticed that altogether they 
form an instance of the perversion of the true historical 
spirit of heraldry of which the reigns of HENRY VIII. 
and his immediate successors are only too full of 
examples. ANNE'S own coat, that of BOLEYN : Argent, 
a chevron gules between three buWs heads couped sable, 
armed or, does not appear at all ! BROTHERTON and 
WARREN were quarterings taken from the coat of 
ANNE'S mother, ELIZABETH HOWARD, but were borne 
here against all heraldic rule : while the two paternal 
coats of BUTLER and ROCHFORT were brought in 
equally improperly, being the arms of MARGARET 
BUTLER of ORMOND, mother of ANNE'S father, Sir 
THOMAS BOLEYN. In one way the whole affair is not 
inappropriate for it is characteristically false ! 

To JANE SEYMOUR, HENRY granted a single quarter 
in augmentation : Or, on a pile gules between six fleurs- 
de-lis azure three lions of ENGLAND, and this coat is still 
borne in memory of this alliance by the Dukes of 
SOMERSET in the ist and 4th quarters of their shield, with 
those of SEYMOUR (Gules, two wings conjoined in lure tips 
downward or) in the 2nd and 3rd (Plate XXXIX., fig. 2). 

( 532 ) 

To his fifth wife, Lady CATHARINE HOWARD, HENRY 
granted two coats of augmentation, to be borne in the 
1st and 4th quarters : 

1. Azure, three fleurs-de-lis in pale or, between two 

flaunches ermine on each a rose gules, barbed 
and seeded proper. 

2. BROTHERTON (as above). 

3. HOWARD (as above). 

4. Azure, two lions passant gardant or, the verge of 

the escucheon charged with four demi-fleurs-de- 
lis of the second. 

Only a single coat of augmentation was granted to 
Queen CATHARINE PARR. It was : Argent, on a pile 
gules between six roses of LANCASTER three roses of YORK 
all barbed and seeded or. This coat was quartered with 
her proper arms (2. PARR ; 3. ROSS ; 4. MARMION ; 

The WHARTON augmentation has been already 
noticed, p. 376 ante. 

JAMES I. granted a lion of ENGLAND, to be borne in 
dexter chief, as an augmentation to the coat of his 
favourite, ROBERT CARR, Viscount ROCHESTER: Gules, 
on a chevron argent tJiree stars of the first ; and also an 
additional quartering, to be borne in the ist and 4th 
places, viz.: Quarterly or and gules. 

Several English coats have received augmentation in 
commemoration of assistance rendered to CHARLES II. 
after the battle of Worcester. For his distinguished con- 
duct thereat CHARLES granted to Colonel NEWMAN an 
inescucheon, Gules, charged with a portcullis imperially 
crowned or, to be borne en surtout above the paternal 
coat : Quarterly sable and argent, in the ist and fth 
quarters three mullets of the second. JOHN LANE, Esq., 
of Bentley, for facilitating the King's escape, had a 
grant of the Arms of ENGLAND, on a canton, upon his 
paternal coat : Per fess or and azure, a chevron gules 

( 533 ) 

between three mullets counter-changed. To the WHIT- 
GREAVE coat (Plate XIV., fig. 3) there was added as an 
augmentation : a chief argent, thereon a rose ^/"ENGLAND 
irradiated Or, within a wreath of oak proper. 

The coats granted to Colonel CARLOS and to PEN- 
DERELL do not properly come under the head of 
Augmentations, being new grants of arms, but may be 
mentioned here ; they only differ in their tinctures. 
Colonel CARLOS had, in 1658, a grant of Or, on a mount 
in base an oak tree vert, over all on a fess gules three 
Royal Crowns of the first. PENDERELL had the same, 
but the field is argent and the fess sable. 

These augmentations and new grants are all con- 
ceived in a true heraldic spirit, which was conspicuously 
absent from the augmentations granted to our naval and 
military commanders in the i8th and 1 9th centuries. 
The DUNCANS of Forfarshire bore : Gules, a chevron or, 
between two cinquefoils in chief and a hunting horn in 
base argent stringed and garnished azure. The chevron 
was replaced in the arms of Admiral DUNCAN, the 
victor of Camperdown in 1797 (and who was created 
Lord CAMPERDOWN and Viscount DUNCAN), by a 
representation of the gold medal conferred on him by 
the King, surmounted by a naval crown, and below the 
medal the word Camperdown. Thus, so far as I 
remember, was created a precedent for two breaches of 
heraldic good taste, of which there were only too many 
imitations in later times, viz., the introduction of words 
into the shield, and of medals, ribbons, and other decora- 
tions, which are much more fittingly used as external 
ornaments than as charges to be perpetuated in a coat 
of arms. Even these, however, were exceeded in bad 
taste by augmentations in which the chief was turned into 
a pictorial representation of a battered fortress, with or 
without bombarding ships or of a regular naval engage- 
ment. [See the arms of FULLER ; Lords EXMOUTH, 

( 534 ) 

VYVYAN, and HAMILTON (baronets) ; VASSALL, etc.] 
Of these one example will suffice : Lord Viscount 
NELSON, who deserved better things even of the heralds 
of his country, received as an augmentation : On a chief 
wavy argent waves of the sea, from which a palm tree 
issuant between a disabled ship on the dexter and a ruined 
battery on the sinister, all proper. (The last word lacks a 
syllable !) The coat to which this augmentation was 
made was not itself a very favourable specimen of the 
heraldic art of the time : Or, a cross patonce sable, sur- 
mounted by a bend gules, thereon another bend engrailed of 
the field charged with three bombs fired proper. 

Happily the augmentations granted to the great 
Dukes of MARLBOROUGH and of WELLINGTON are in 
better taste. To the former was assigned : Argent, a 
cross of St. George tJiereon an escucheon of the arms of 
FRANCE; to the latter: The bearings of the flag of the 
UNITED KINGDOM known as the " Union Jack!' Both 
these augmentations are borne in escucheons on the 
honour point of the quartered shield. 

It is pleasant to note that the augmentations granted 
in later years show signs of reversion to a simpler and 
better heraldic taste. 

In Scotland the great armorial augmentation was of 
course the Royal tressure, examples of the grant of 
which have been already given. Of other augmentations 
probably the earliest is that which is said to have been 
granted to Sir ALEXANDER SETON, Governor of Berwick, 
circa 1320 ; a sword paleways azure supporting the Royal 
Crown proper. This was placed in the centre of the SETON 
coat, Or, three crescents within the Royal Tressure gules. 

JAMES VI. gave special concessions to Sir JOHN 
RAMSAY of Wyliecleugh, created Viscount HADDING- 
TON ; Sir THOMAS ERSKINE, younger, of Gogar, after- 
wards Earl of KELLIE ; and to Sir HUGH HERRIES of 

( 535 ) 

Cowsland, in memory of the part they took in the 
frustration of the Gowrie Plot in 1600. 

The augmentation which was to be impaled to the 
dexter of the paternal coat of RAMSAY (Argent, an eagle 
displayed sable, armed gules, on its breast a crescent of the 
first*) was : Azure, issuant from the sinister flank, a dexter 
arm holding a sword erect in pale argent, kilted or, piercing 
a human heart gules, and supporting with its point an 
Imperial crown proper. 

The ERSKINE augmentation was : Gules, an Imperial 
crown within a double tressure flory-counter-flory or, which 
was quartered in the 1st and 4th quarters. The grant to 
Sir HUGH HERRIES resembled that of RAMSAY, being : 
Azure, an arm in armour issuing from the dexter side of 
the shield holding a sword erect supporting on its point the 
Imperial crown all proper. An augmentation granted to 
SANDILANDS, Lord TORPHICHEN was : Per fess, azure 
and or, in chief an Imperial crown, in base a thistle vert. 

CHARLES I. granted to Sir JOHN HAY, Earl of KIN- 
NOULL, the following augmentation : Azure, a unicorn 
salient argent, armed, maned, and unguled or, within a 
bordure of the last charged with thistles tf/ SCOTLAND and 
roses of ENGLAND (gules] dimidiated and conjoined. One 
such combined rose and thistle was granted, on a canton 
argent, as an augmentation to the arms of Sir NiCOLO DE 
MOLINA, Senator of Venice and Ambassador to King 
JAMES I. (The grant is given in GUILLIM'S Display of 
Heraldry, p. 389.) MOLINA'S coat was Azure, a mill wheel 

Foreign concessions in augmentation, both in ancient 
and modern times, are so numerous that a whole volume 
might be devoted to a record of them and of the circum- 
stances under which they were granted, and we can give 
only a few specimens in our limited space. 

First of all naturally come the IMPERIAL AUGMENTA- 
TIONS. A number of these are recorded in DUCANGE, 

( 536 ) 

tome vii., p. 106, but the intelligent student will at once 
perceive that credence cannot be accorded to some of the 
earlier ones. Those said to be granted by the Emperor 
FREDERICK I. are probably the earliest which rest on a 
foundation of truth. In 1162 he is said to have granted 
to JULIO MARIONI the right to use the Imperial Eagle 
in his arms, with the title of Count, and a like grant is 
said to have been made to the family of JoviO, which 
some centuries later received from the Emperor CHARLES 
V. a further augmentation in the shape of the pillars of 
Hercules (v. p. 643). 

the ordinary augmentation of a chief of the EMPIRE (Or, 
an eagle displayed sable). The MALASPINA arms were : 
Per fess gules and or over all, a thorn branch vert with 
five flowers argent in pale. To MAFFEO VlSCONTI 
(vide ante, p. 274) the Emperor ADOLF granted the right 
to quarter the Imperial Eagle. This was, however, to 
all appearance, only an official coat, denoting his tenure 
of the Vicarate of the Empire in Milan and Lombardy. 
Mention has already been made of the general use of the 
Imperial Eagle by officials of the Empire (vide ante, 
pp. 243, 244). 

Verona (who bore Gules, a ladder of four steps in pale 
argent} the right to quarter therewith the eagle of the 
Empire ; while LOUIS, the Bavarian, permitted CAN 
DELLA SCALA to place the eagle in an escucheon above 
the ladder. The Emperor SlGlSMUND granted to Louis 
DEL VERME, in 1433, the title of Count of SANGUINETTO, 
and the arms of the Empire. (Quarterly : I and 4. Gules, 
three bars argent; 2 and 3. Barry of four azure and argent 
are the DEL VERME arms.) GlUSTlNlANI declares that 
the four sable eagles which appear in the arms of the 
GONZAGAS, Dukes of MANTUA {Argent, between four 
eagles displayed sable, a cross patee-througJiout gules), were 

( 537 ) 

granted by the Emperor SlGISMUND to GIOVANNI 
FRANCESCO, first Marquis, in 1433 ; the ducal title came 
later, in 1530. 

The same Prince had already granted a chief of the 
Empire to FRANCESCO GlUSTlNlANl (Gules, a castle 
triple-towered argent, the port sable] in 1413 ; and, in 
1415, to ELZEAS DE SADE, an eagle displayed sable, 
crowned gules, to be borne in the centre of his arms : 
Gules, a star of eight points or. (These were the arms of 
LAURA, wife in 1325 of UGO DE SADE, the muse of 

The Emperor MAXIMILIAN II. granted to ALBERIC 
ClBO the principality of MASSA, and as an augmenta- 
tion, a chief Or charged with a double-headed eagle sable. 
The ClBO arms now are : Gules, a bend chequy azure and 
argent, on a chief argent a cross gules ; this chief abaisse 
under another of the EMPIRE : Or, a double-headed eagle 
sable, holding in its claws a ribbon charged with the word 

When this prince made Cambray into a Duchy of 
the Empire in favour of the Bishop JACQUES DE CROY 
and his successors, he permitted them to add to their 
arms a chief of the Empire, with the brisure of a label 
gules (the reason of which latter is past finding out). 

The Dukes of MlRANDOLA had what appears to be a 
double Imperial grant (vide ante, p. 509). 

The Imperial augmentation of the arms of the Dukes 
of MODENA is also referred to on pp. 508, 509. 

The arms of many noble and princely families of the 
Empire were from time to time honoured with grants of 
this kind. The Princes of SCHWARTZBURG on elevation 
to that rank received an augmentation (to be borne en 
surtout above their quarterings) of the arms of the 
EMPIRE, the eagle having on its breast an escucheon of 
the AUSTRIAN arms. 

Other instances occur in the arms of the Counts von 



1. Bertrand du Guesclin (29). 3. Le Comte de Montbeliard (16). 

2. Le Comte de Namur (196). 

4. Nicolas de Borssele (216). 6 . Le Due de Bourgogne. 

5. Le Roy de France (1). 

( 538 ) 

PAPPENHEIM (a chief of the Empire) ; the Counts of 
STEIN), already referred to on pp. 220 and 488, both 
bore an escucheon en surtout. 

Sometimes the Imperial Eagle in such concessions 
bears upon its breast the cypher of the Emperor, either 
in or without a shield ; sometimes the grant is of the eagle 
as a supporter to the arms of the family which are borne 
on its breast; other grants are of the eagle as an additional 
crest, or as a mark of distinction between the crests. 

All these and others are referred to in SPENER, Opus 
Heraldicum, pars I, cap. 2, p. 56 ; but probably the 
instances given will suffice the ordinary reader. It must 
be noticed that in Italy, during the contests between the 
Guelphic and Ghibbeline factions, those families which 
belonged to the latter frequently assumed, without any 
special Imperial grant, a chief of the Empire. On the 
other hand the Guelphic faction assumed with still 
greater frequency a chief derived from the arms of the 
Duke of ANJOU, viz. : Azure, a label of four points gules, 
between tJie points three fleurs-de-lis or. This is the 
rastrello which meets our eyes at every turn in Florence, 
Bologna, and other cities of Italy (vide ante, p. 469, and 
Plate XXXIX., fig. 6). 

Of French grants of augmentation the most import- 
ant given by DUCANGE are the following. CHARLES 
VI., in 1394, permitted GlAN GALEAZZO VlSCONTI, 
Duke of MILAN, who had married ISABEL of FRANCE, 
to quarter FRANCE-ANCIENT for himself and his heirs. 
In 1389 he granted the same privilege to his cousin 
CHARLES D'ALBRET (who bore Gules plain}. 

CHARLES VII. granted to NICOLO D'EsTE, created 
Duke of FERRARA, the arms of FRANCE-MODERN, 
within a plain bordure, indented or and gules. 

The augmentation of the MEDICI arms is referred to 
on p. 192. 

( 539 ) 

One of the earliest of French augmentations is that 
which is said to have been granted by St. Louis to 
GEOFFROI DE CHATEAUBRIAND (vide ante, p. 331). 

In later times the augmentation granted was usually 
a chief azure thereon three fleurs-de-lis or, briefly 
" a chief of FRANCE." Such a chief was granted 
by LOUIS XIV. in 1663, with the title of Count, to 
HANNIBAL DE SCHESTEDT, ambassador from Denmark 
at the court of France. (This concession seems to be 
wrongly used nowadays. In RlETSTAP's Armorial 
General, it is blazoned as : d'Azur, a trois fleurs-de-lis 
tfor, rangees en fasce; a la bordure de gueules chargee en 
pointe de la device, " PLUS ESSE QUAM VIDERI.") 

An augmentation granted in the present century has 
historical interest. The family of SEZE bore : Azure, 
three towers in fess between in chief two estoiles and in 
base a crescent or, but by a royal decree in 1817, LOUIS 
XVIII. authorised the Count de SEZE, defender of King 
LOUIS XVI., to change these to Gules, a castle repre- 
senting the " Temple" argent between in chief two estoiles or, 
and in base sixteen fleurs-de-lis of the second ranged 7, 6, 3. 

The family of FAUDOAS-BARBAZAN, bearing Azure, 
a cross or, quarter (or sometimes impale with it) the full 
arms of FRANCE, a concession made by CHARLES VII. 
in 1434 to the BARBAZAN who had the title of 
" Restaurateur du Royaume, et de la Couronne de France" 
and was buried among the Kings of FRANCE at St. 

In later times a common augmentation has consisted 
in a small escucheon to be borne en surtout, containing 
the initial, or cypher, of the Sovereign, sometimes 
surmounted by the Imperial or Royal, or other Crown ; 
sometimes the escucheon itself is so surmounted. Such 
an augmentation appears in the arms of the Princes von 
ESTERHAZY of Hungary : An escuclieon sable charged 
with the letter L or, and surmounted by a princely crown. 



1. Pfirt(30). 

2. Hevtler (222). 

3. Chiir(131). 

4. Aeschach (218). 

( 540 ) 

The Bohemian Counts CZERNIN have en surtout 
a crowned escucheon of the arms of AUSTRIA, on the 
fess the cypher F III. sable. This is a type of which 
there are a good many examples. The Bohemian 
Barons WRAZDA DE KuNWALD bear : Quarterly, I and 
4. Azure, on a terrace vert a basilisk with wings and tail 
elevated or; 2 and 3. Gules, a bend argent. Over all 
a crowned escucheon of the AUSTRIAN Arms the fess 
charged with the cypher M T, between in chief the 
cypher Fill, and in base L I. 

The Barons HOCHBURG bear en surtout the arms of 
HUNGARY-MODERN (Gules, on a mount in base vert 
a cross of Lorraine argent rising out of an open crown or). 
Analogous to this is the interesting historical 
augmentation granted in 1868 to the illustrious 
Austrian statesman, Count BEUST, the pacificator of 
HUNGARY : Per fess (a] Or, an Imperial eagle issuant 
sable crowned proper ; (b) Per pale (i) Argent an olive 
brancli in bend vert, (2) the arms of HUNGARY- 
MODERN ; over all the arms of BEUST : Per pale emanche 
gules and argent; crowned with a ducal coronet of five 
flowers or. 

The arms granted in 1853 to M. VON ETTENREICH, 
who saved the life of the Emperor FRANCIS, are : 
Quarterly, i and 4. Or, the Imperial eagle; 2 and 
3 (....). Two arms united in fess holding a 
civic crown proper. 

POLISH. SIGISMUND, King of POLAND, granted in 
1512 an augmentation consisting of the arms of that 
country : Giiles, an eagle displayed argent beaked and 
member ed and Jiaving Klee stengeln or, to be borne in the 
1st and 4th quarters ; to the family of STAFILEO of 
Dalmatia whose personal coat is : Per fess gules and 
vert, a 'vine stalk couped in fess or, bearing in chief 
two leaves of the second and in base a bunch of grapes 

2 N 


GRAMMONT a mural crown as an augmentation to his 
arms (Argent, a cross moline gules] as a reward for being 
the first to mount the breach at the siege of Pontoise in 

The Emperor NAPOLEON III. granted to FIALIN, created 
Due de PERSIGNY in 1863, a concession of Azure, seme 
of eagles of the FRENCH EMPIRE to be quartered in the 
ist and 4th, with Argent, on a bend azure three escallops 
of the field in the 2nd and 3rd. 

The PAPAL CONCESSIONS are among the most 
interesting ; good examples are found in the arms of 
the Dukes of MODENA, and of PARMA, already given at 
pp. '508 and 509. 

The Neapolitan family of MORRA (Princes of MORRA, 
Dukes de BELFORTE, etc.) bear in their quartered arms 
a pale (gules) charged with two Papal tiaras, each in front 
of the Papal keys in saltire. (Their family coat is Gules, 
two swords in saltire argent, kilted or, between four mullets 
of the last) 

The Marquises of TROTTI-BEN VOGLIO bear Quarterly : 
I and 4. Per fess or and azure, TROTTI ; 2 and 3. Per 
bend indented or and gules, BENVOGLIO. The quarters 
separated by the Papal pale of the GONFALONIERE (as 
on page 509 above). 

The Marquises of GUASTO bear the charges which 
here appear upon the pale, on an escucheon en surtout. 

The BARBERINI of Naples place them in chief above 
their personal arms, Azure, three bees or. The SODERINI 
of Florence, who bear, Gules, three stag's horns argent, 
place in chief the keys in saltire behind the Papal tiara. 
The Florentine GlROLAMI, who bear, Argent, a saltire 
sable, do the same. 

But the Armorials of RUSSIA, SWEDEN, and PRUSSIA 
contain the greatest number of modern augmentations, 
some at least of which will be found of interest. 

( 542 ) 

The arms granted to OssiP IVANOVICH, who saved the 
life of the Emperor ALEXANDER II. in 1865, and was 
raised to nobility by the name of KOMMISSAROV- 
KOSTROMSKY, are : Or, moving- from the sinister flank an 
arm proper, vested azure, the hand clutching a hydra sable, 
winged gules ; on a chief of the third a ship fully rigged 
bearing the Imperial Standard. 

The augmentation of the Counts RODIGER (who bore : 
Azure, a saltire argent between four estoiles or) is a chief 
Or, charged with the Imperial eagle issuant and crowned 
as in the Imperial arms, on its breast an escucheon gules 
bordured or and charged with the crowned Imperial 
initial H. That of the Princes and Counts LlEVEN 
(who bore : Azure, a bunch of three stalks of garden lilies 
leaved and each bearing three flowers argent) is the same 
but the escucheon is Azure, bordered and charged with 
tJie letter A or, which augmentation is identical with that 
of the Counts von der PAHLEN. 

The augmentation of SuwOROFF, Prince ITALISKI, is 
a chief of the Imperial arms tJie eagle issuant, on its breast 
tJie arms of MOSCOW (Gules, the mounted knight over- 
throwing the dragon proper]. 

The Counts and Princes ORLOFF quarter in the 1st, 
the Imperial arms, differenced by a chief azure on which 
is a third Imperial crown. 

The Princes MENSCHIKOFF have as an augmentation 
an escucheon Or, charged with the eagles of RUSSIA, and 
of the Holy Roman Empire, dimidiated and conjoined ; 
on the breast an escucheon of the personal arms : Or, a 
Jieart gules royally crowned proper. 


LEWASCHEFFS, and others have an escucheon en surtout 
charged with the Imperial eagle. 

and are of several different kinds. The first consists 

( 543) 

generally of a grant of the arms of PRUSSIA to be 
borne sometimes in the 1st Quarter, as in that granted 
to the Counts BiJLOW VON DENNEWITZ, who use 
Quarterly I and 4. Argent ', the Prussian eagle. 

2 and 3. Or, a sword argent kilted of the first, 

enfiled with a laurel crown vert. 

The whole within a bordure gules charged in base with 
the words "DENNEWITZ, 6 September; 1813," in letters 
argent. The personal arms are quartered on an escucheon 
en surtout, and bear sur le tout du tout the BtJLOW coat, 
A zure, fourteen balls 4, 4, 3, 2, I, or. 

and the Barons CODEVE bear the Prussian eagle 
in the 1st and 4th quarters. In the arms of the 
Counts von DYRRHN it occupies the 2nd quarter, 
and in those of the Comtes SCHLIEBEN both the 2nd 
and 3rd. 

Sometimes it is borne on an escucheon en surtout, as in 
the arms of DOMHARD : Quarterly, I and 4. Sable, a 
garb or; 2 and 3. Azure, a horse saliant argent, all within 
a bordure or, over all the Royal arms of PRUSSIA. It is 
so also in the arms of the Counts GOTTER, and of the 
Counts GUROWSKI ; the latter bear : Cheqtiy of 64 panes 
argent and azure, over all an escucheon of the Royal Anns 

At times only a portion of the arms is borne, as in 
the coat of CARLOWITZ : Per pale : (a) the arms of 
PRUSSIA dimidiated; (b) Gules, three roses argent barbed 
vert, seeded or ; or in those of ALTROCK : The Royal Arms 
of PRUSSIA dimidiated, impaling, Gules a greyhound 
rampant argent, collared or, on a terrace vert, the whole 
within a bordure of the third. 

Sometimes the shield is divided per fess, and the 
augmentation is placed in chief, as in the arms of ECK- 
HARDSTEIN ; Per fess (i) in chief the Royal Arms of 
PRUSSIA ; (2) Per bend or and azure over all a fess gules 

( 544 ) 

thereon three acorns argent. The whole within a b ordure 

In modern times the much prized decoration of the 
Iron Cross has been used as an augmentation of the 
arms, and some of the most interesting coats are thus 
treated (the Iron Cross is a cross patee sable, with varying 
dates and cyphers, and bordered argent}. 

To Prince BLUCHER there was granted the following 
coat : Quarterly, I and 4. Argent, the eagle of PRUSSIA ; 

2. Or, a sword in bend argent, surmounted by the baton 
of a Field Marshal of PRUSSIA in bend sinister, both enfiled 
by a laurel wreath proper ; 3. Or, the Iron Cross proper. 
Over all the personal arms: Gules, two keys addorsed 

paleways argent. There are four coroneted and crested 
helms: I. The eagle #/~ PRUSSIA ; 2. Two keys in saltire ; 

3. The sword and baton in saltire ; 4. A banner of the 
third quarter. The supporters are two eagles of PRUSSIA 
regardant. With this we may place the arms granted to 
Count von MOLTKE : Or, the Iron Cross toucJiing the 
borders of the shield (it has on the upper arm the initial 
W of silver, surmounted by the Royal crown gold ; on 
the others the dates 1861, 1866, 1870). On an escucheon, 
en surtout, the personal arms: Argent, three hens sable. 
The crest is : out of an open crown a penache of 
seven peacock's feathers charged with a disc bear- 
ing the Royal Arms of PRUSSIA, with the escucheon 
of HOHENZOLLERN on the breast of the eagle. The 
supporters are two eagles of PRUSSIA, each collared 
with a golden crown and bearing a French " eagle " 
with the flag all proper. Motto : ERST WAGEN DANN 

We may notice that the Prussian eagles are often 
given as supporters or crests by way of augmentation ; 
and that these of VON MOLTKE are formed upon those 
granted to Count von WRANGEL, whose eagles bore 
the Dannebrog (Gules, a cross argent}, the dexter flag 

( 545 ) 

charged with the date 1848 ; the sinister with 1864 ; and 
each having in its dexter canton two swords in saltire 

FREDERICK II., King of PRUSSIA, in 1782, granted to 
the Earl of CLARENDON the right to bear his arms on 
the breast of the Prussian eagle. In 1791, the Earl of 
MALMESBURY had an augmentation granted to him of 
A chief argent thereon the Prussian eagle, etc., as in the 
Royal Arms of PRUSSIA. 

In the arms of Count von ROON the quartered shield 
is enti en point, Argent, the Iron Cross proper. 

The arms granted to Count HARDENBERG in 1814, 
resembled those of BLUCHER : Quarterly, I. PRUSSIA ; 
2. Or, a mural crown gules between two laurel branches 
vert ; 3. Or, the Iron Cross proper ; 4. Azure, two keys 
addorsed paleways or. Over all the personal arms : 
Argent, a boar's head sable, crined or. 

The arms of Prince von BISMARCK have not been 
augmented ; they are Azure, a stemless trefoil or, in each 
interval between the leaves an oak leaf argent. 

But to these arms the following supporters have been 
joined in augmentation ; first (on being created Count 
in 1865), the black eagle of PRUSSIA, and the red eagle of 
BRANDENBURG (these are ornamented as in the Royal 
Escucheon, i.e., the Prussian eagle bears on its breast an 
escucheon of HOHENZOL'LERN; the other that borne for the 
electoral dignity, viz. : Azure, a sceptre in pale or). Second 
(on receiving the rank and title of Prince in 1871), these 
supporters were made to bear banners, the dexter charged 
with the arms of LORRAINE (ante p. 501), the sinister 
with the arms of ALSACE : Gules, a bend between six open 
crowns in orle or. The crest is : Out of an open crown, 
a Royal crown between two horns per fess alternately 
argent and azure. The motto is : IN TRINITATE ROBUR. 
The achievement is surrounded by a mantle of purple, 
lined with ermine, and surmounted by the princely crown. 



1. Bretsla (83). 

2. Badenweiler (460). 

3. Casteln (284). 4. Name unknown (526). 

( 546 ) 

A considerable number of grants have been made to 
other persons of less importance, who have had their arms 
augmented with tJie Iron Cross proper on a chief argent 
METTLER, NACHTIGAL, etc.); or have had it granted as 
a portion of the crest (e.g. HAGEN, GtJNDEL, HARTROTT, 
etc.) Crosses of the Orders of the BLACK EAGLE, ST. 
have been, but rarely, used in something like the same 
way. Since the institution of the ORDER OF THE 
CROWN in 1 86 1, a pretty frequent use has been made of 
a chief of purplish blue (the colour of its ribbon) charged 
(not with the Cross of the Order but) with a golden crown, 
by way of augmentation. 

granted in 1627 to Sir HENRY ST. GEORGE an augmen- 
tation as follows : Argent, a chief azure over all a lion 
rampant gules crowned or; on a canton of augmentation 
of the last an escucheon of the Royal Arms of SWEDEN: 
Azure, three crowns or. 

To many of the Swedish generals, especially in the 
1 8th century, augmentations have been granted consisting 
of coats of elaborate quarterings, often separated by 
a cross patee-throughout, and generally lacking in true 
heraldic taste. These are the coats where one meets 
cannon, and bombs, and the panoply of modern warfare. 
A curious mode of augmentation was by the grant of 
the crowned royal cypher to be placed between the 
crests. The Barons SCHMIDT thus use the figures XIV. 
between two interlaced C's, beneath a Royal Crown. 
In the arms of the Barons TAWAST the first quarter is 
Azure, the Royal Cypher G A beneath a crown and having 
within the G the figures IV. all of or. The Counts of the 
same name have a like quarter, but the cypher is of inter- 
laced C's, enclosing the figures XIII. The Counts UGGLAS, 
in 1799, have the like quarter but the cypher is G III. 

( 547 ) 

The Barons FLEETWOOD, of English descent, were so 
created in 1654, and had a grant of the following arms : 
Quarterly, separated by a cross patee-tJiroughout argent, 
I and 4. Argent, a lion rampant gules ; 2 and 3. Azure, 
a royal crown or. Over all tJie arms of FLEETWOOD en 
surtout: Per pale nebuly azure and or six martlets counter 
changed 2, 2, 2. 

SPAIN. The arms granted to COLUMBUS show the 
mode adopted at that time in conferring heraldic 
distinctions. His first grant was, Tierced in mantle', i. 
CASTILE ; 2. LEON, Argent, a lion rampant gules crowned 
or ; 3. (in base) Azure, representing the sea, studded with 
islands argent, bearing trees proper, and the soil strewn 
with golden grains. The crest was the Royal Orb with 
its cross. Later these arms were thus amplified : 
Quarterly: I. CASTILE ; 2. LEON ; 3. Azure, seme of 
islands and half surrounded by terra firma argent, all 
bearing tropical trees vert, and seme' with golden grains ; 
4. Azure, five anchors in saltire or. The whole escucheon 
Ente en point ; Barry wavy argent and azure (Plate 
XXXIX, fig. i). 

HERMAN CORTEZ had assigned to him : Quarterly, i. 
Or, the Imperial eagle sable; 2. Sable, three antique 
crowns or; 3. Gules, a lion rampant or; 4. Azure, out of 
a base wavy argent and of the field the City of MEXICO 
rising proper. On an escucheon en surtout the arms of 
ARRAGON : Or, four pallets gules ; within a bordure of 
CALABRIA (i.e. Argent, thereon eight crosses potent sable). 

Sometimes grants of augmentation consisted of a 
bordure of CASTILE ; or a bordure compone of CAS- 

VASCO DA GAM A, whose arms were : Chequy of fifteen 
(in three perpendicular rows) Or, and gules on each piece 
of the last two bars gemels argent, had an augmentation 
of the Royal Arms of PORTUGAL to be borne en surtout. 



SEEING that even legitimate cadency is a matter which has 
been treated very inadequately by most Heraldic writers 
it is little wonder that the modes of indicating illegiti- 
mate descent have been passed over still more lightly. 
NlSBET (from whom SETON'S remarks are, for the most 
part, condensed) MONTAGU, and PLANCHE are the 
only British heralds who have treated it in anything 
approaching a satisfactory way, and even in their works 
four or five pages are all that are devoted to a subject 
which is both curious and interesting. 

According to the correct ideas of former times the 
possession of coat-armour was the evidence of the nobility 
of the bearer. Now, as a bastard has no legal paternity, 
being in the eye of the law filius nullius, the ancient 
jurisconsults were disposed to deny the right of any 
illegitimate child, however princely or noble his actual 
paternity, to the use of arma gentilitia. HOPING in his 
treatise Dejure Insignium (cap. vii., 53) confines the right 
o those who have been formally legitimated by the sub- 
sequent mairiage of their parents ; or directly by princely 
authority, and in the latter case only when the right to 
assume arms has been distinctly conferred in the letters 
of legitimacy. (BARTOLUS says that though this was the 
general rule it was not observed in Tuscany.) 

As a matter of fact in the Middle Ages, as Mr MON- 
TAGU well remarks in his Guide to the Study of Heraldry, 
" Illegitimacy was really held as being but little deroga- 

( 549 ) 

tory. Opinion and usage were in this respect at variance 
with the letter of the law. The stern eye of the law 
looking upon the bastard as belonging to no family nor 
even to any nation, recognised in him, consequently, no 
rights either of blood or of inheritance ; while the fact 
appears to have been that in most countries of Europe the 
natural children of nobles were always reputed noble ; they 
intermarried with the highest families, and in France we 
find them sharing that invidious privilege of the nobility, 
exemption from taxes to which the rest of the people 
were subject" 

As long then as public opinion favoured the observance 
of the law which forbade the use of the arms of their 
parent to children born out of wedlock, it was their 
practice to assume, mero motu, or by legal grant, new arms 
for themselves ; or else to use the arms of the wives 
whom they married. 

In later times the custom became general that the 
illegitimate children of a noble (i.e. of one who rightfully 
bore anna gentilitia] assumed their father's arms differ- 
enced in some striking manner, e.g. by the addition of 
some conspicuous charge to the shield ; or in some of the 
ways hereafter to be indicated. PLANCH& is undoubtedly 
right in thinking that " no positive rule as to the 
mode of differencing was ever generally laid down, or 
at any rate attended to." The variety of the differences 
we shall presently adduce prove the correctness of this 
assertion, yet there is no doubt that in early times the 
brisure most generally adopted was the bend (or bendlet) 
sinister. The old French writer DE VARENNES remarks: 
"Que tous les Herauts d'armes par un consentement 
general ont affecte cette seule piece des escus d'armes 
que nous appellons barre " to this purpose (but see 
p. 581). 

From the position of this bendlet, drawn diagonally 
from the upper sinister corner of the escucheon to its 

( 55 ) 

dexter base, came the familiar expressions applied to 
persons of illegitimate birth, " etre de cote gauche," and 
" von der lincken seite." 

We have seen (p. 133) that the French name of the 
bend-sinister is um barre, and from this circumstance 
originated the common, but utterly incorrect, expression 
" a bar-sinister" often used by persons who ought to know 
better. But the bar being a horizontal piece, a diminutive 
of the Honourable Ordinary the Fess, is not used like 
the French barre as a brisure for illegitimacy, a bar- 
sinister is an absurdity and impossibility. The bend- 
sinister, usually diminished to the size of a bendlet or 
baston, was then one of the earliest, and most generally 
used brisures adopted to denote illegitimacy. In later 
times, as we shall see, it was further diminished into a 
still narrower bend called a filet en barre ; and, later 
still, this was no longer carried across the whole of the 
shield but shortened at both ends into the baton-sinister, 
or the baton peri in barre. PLANCHE, quoting from the 
earliest of our English Rolls of Arms (that known as 
GLOVER'S Roll, circa 1240-5) gives an instance of the 
baston being, as he thinks, a mark of illegitimacy. 
RICHARD LE FITZ MARMADUKE " de goules ung fesce et 
trois papegayes d'argent a ung baston d'azure surtout." 
(The arms of MARMADUKE DE TWENG were the same 
without the baston.) But we must notice that the 
position of the baston is not specified as sinister, and 
the illegitimacy of the bearer is not clear. 

The twelfth article of Les Cofitumes Generates des trois 
Bailliages de Lorraine provides that : 

" Les Bastards advouez des Gentilshommes seront de 
la condition des gens anoblis, pourveu qu'ils suivent 
1'estat de noblesse, et porteront tel nom et titre que leur 
Pere leur voudra donner. Mais ils barreront leurs 
surnoms, etc., leurs signatures, et porteront les armes de 
leur Pere barrees de barres traversantes entierement 

1'Ecusson de gauche a droit, et ne leur sera loisible ny a 
leur descendans d'oster les barres." I have not observed 
any instance in which a signature was thus " bastardised," 
though documents may exist to which such signatures 
were appended. The open way in which the appel- 
lation of " Bastard " was used in the Middle Ages upon 
seals, and in documents written or signed by persons of 
illegitimate descent, is sufficient to assure us that no 
feeling of shame would have prevented them from 
rendering obedience to such ordinances as those 

The Ordonnances which w r ere appointed in 1616 by the 
Archduke ALBERT and his wife for the regulation of the 
use of arms in the Low Countries (and which form 
the foundation of CHRISTYN's Jurisprudent Historica] 
prescribe : 

" Ut spurio sanguine nati, quamvis rescripto Principis 
legitimati, ipsi Bastardi et naturales, barram insignibus 
interserant ; Eorum autem liberi insignam notam quae a 
secundo genitis legitimis rite eos distinguat." Here in 
the second generation, it will be seen that some striking 
difference might replace the barre or bend-sinister. (See 
ROUCK, Den Nederlandtschen Herauld, p. 343 ; fol. 
Amst, 1645.) 

JEAN DE ST. REMY, Roi d'Armes de 1'Ordre de la 
Toison d'Or in 1463, gives the following among the Ordon- 
nances of the Dukes of BURGUNDY relating to marks of 
illegitimacy. (See MENETRIER, Recherches du Blason, 
p. 220.) " Un bastard doit porter ses armes comme son 
Pere, avec un traverse, et prendre son surnom de la 
Seigneurie dont son dit Pere s'attitule, et point es 
surnom de son Pere, n'estoit qu'il eust tel titre et surnom 
que les dites armes. Le Bastard ne peut oster la dite 
traverse sans le conge et licence du chef des armes, et de 
ceux du lignage portans les dites armes si ce n'estoit qu'il 
les voulut mettre en un faux escu." From this note- 

( 552 ) 

worthy statute we find that the traverse, or bend-sinister, 
might be disused, and a less prominent difference 
substituted for it, under certain circumstances. 

SETON in his book on the Law and Practice of 
Heraldry in Scotland, referring apparently to the passage 
quoted above, says (p. 463), " According to MENETRIER 
a bastard cannot cancel or alter the baton without the 
consent of the chief of the family, unless he carries his 
arms in an oval escucheon called a cartouche or false 
shield." Here SETON is clearly not quoting from 
MENETRIER at first hand, but from NISBET, who 
appears to have overlooked the important fact that the 
consent of the other members of the family as well as of 
its chief was requisite. Moreover MENETRIER is speak- 
ing of the traverse, or bend-sinister, and not of its 
modern and less obtrusive diminutive the baton. But I 
refer to this passage of NlSBET, repeated in SETON, 
mainly for the purpose of pointing out that the faux 
escu to which the Ordonnances refer is not, as these 
writers suppose, " an oral escucheon called a cartouche" 
or false shield. (In Vol. II., p. 26, NlSBET repeats 
" ' faux escu/ i.e., false shield which we take for a car- 
touche." By reference to his plate i. in the first volume 
we find that this cartouche is a simple oval escucheon.) 
Such oval escucheons, or cartouches, are (see ante, p.56) of 
frequent use in foreign Armory, especially by ecclesiastics, 
and certainly have never been in any nation a mark of 
illegitimacy. But the faux escu is simply a shield with a 
bordure. This is clear when we consider the meaning 
attached by the old heralds to the word faux; it is equiva- 
lent to voided. Thus in GLOVER'S Roll, JOHN DE VIPONT 
bears " de goules a six faux rondlets d'or," the charges 
being the well-known annulets. Again, ROGER BER- 
TRAM bears " de goules et ung faux escucion et croiseie 
d'or," while in the Roll of A nns of the time of EDWARD I. 
the same arms are thus drawn, Gules, crustily an orle or. 

( 553 ) 

There are many examples, but one more will suffice. 
The familiar coat of BALLIOL : Gules, an orle argent is 
blazoned, " de goules ove ung faux escocheon d'argent." 
^^ faux escu is clearly therefore a shield with an orle, 
or bordure, within which the arms of the bastard might 
be borne. It is, however, right to add that at least one 
Continental Herald of the first rank applies the term escu 
faux (scutum falsmti) to the plain shields upon which 
the arms of bastards were borne in a quarter, or large 
canton, SPENER, Opus Heraldicum, p. gen., p. 360. Of 
this use examples are given below (p. 574). 

Another of the Burgundian Ordonnances, given by 
MENETRIER from ST. REMY, is as follows : 

" Les fils de Bastards, nez et procreez en loyal man- 
age, si leur mere est gentil femme, doivent porter leurs 
armes ecartelees de Pere et de Mere, ayant tousiours la 
traverse au quartier du Pere, ou si autrement les veulent 
porter sans traverse les peuvent porter toutes pleines en 
un faux escu." 

We must not imagine that therefore every coat which 
bears a traverse, or a bendlet-sinister, is necessarily that 
of a person of illegitimate descent. Marks of bastardy 
were never brought under strict rules, and in early 
days there was even less attempt at systematic arrange- 
ment than in later times. PLANCHE observes that 
"in the Roll of EDWARD II.'s time the legitimate sons 
bear batons and bends," whilst, to our surprise, we find 
" Sir JOHAN LOVEL le bastarde " bearing the arms of 
LOVEL : Undee or and gules, differenced with un label de 
azure ! " the usual mark of cadency appropriated to 
legitimate offspring. But I incline to believe that this 
appropriation of the label to Sir JOHAN LOVEL le 
bastarde is an error. It appears from the Roll temp. 
EDWARD I. that there were two Sir JOHN LOVELS 
living at the same time. In the Roll neither is called 
" le bastard;" but while one differences with a label 

( 554 ) 

azure, the other uses the bendlet sable. This is obviously 
a much more likely coat to have been borne by " le 
bastard" and I accordingly think that the chronicler of 
the Roll of EDWARD II. has wronged the legitimate 
JOHN in this matter. 

I have in my cabinet an impression from an early 
seal, of which the legend is * ^igtttum johis ba.stardi 
tic (TUtffonle atmin : The coat of CLIFFORD : Chequy 
or and azure a fess gules, is debruised by a bendlet 
(dexter) which, however, passes under the fess. Among 
the knights made by EDWARD III. at the siege of 
Calais in 1347 was "Sir .... GREY, Le basterd" who 
bore the arms of GREY (Gules, a lion rampant within a 
bordure engrailed argent) debruised by a baston (dexter) 
sable. In the BOROUGHBRIDGE Roll this baston is 
gobone argent and gules. 

Sir JOHN DE WARREN, natural son of JOHN, last 
Earl of the ancient house of WARREN, who died in 
1 347, bore the arms of WARREN : Chequy or and azure 
with a canton of (the arms of his mother, ALICE DE 
XERFORD) Gules, a lion rampant ermine (v. ante, p. 426, 
see the Herald and Genealogist, vii., 193, etc.). Two other 
illegitimate brothers of Sir JOHN are said by BROOKE to 
have borne the legitimate differences of, in one case a 
chief argent ; in the other of a bordure engrailed sable. 
(See SPENER, Opus. Her., p. g., p. 360). 

The earliest instance with which I am acquainted of 
the use of arms by a royal bastard is the case of FlTZROY, 
natural son of HENRY I., to whom is assigned : Argent, 
on a canton gules, a lion of ENGLAND. The Kentish 
Roll of Arms, probably of the close of the reign of 
HENRY III., and erroneously called the Acre Roll, 
includes the arms of " RICHARD fiz le rey" who appears 
to be a natural son of King JOHN. He bears the old 
arms of NORMANDY : Gules, two lions passant-gardant 
or ; in other words, the arms of ENGLAND differenced 

( 555 ) 

by the omission of one of the charges. PLANCHE 
engraves the seal of JOHN DE VARENNE, another 
illegitimate son of King JOHN, which also bears two 
lions passant-gardant. 

One of the ancient modes of indicating illegitimate 
descent was that by which the father's arms were borne 
in a bend on an otherwise uncharged shield. Thus the 
arms . of Sir ROGER DE CLARENDON, natural son of 
EDWARD THE BLACK PRINCE (d. 1376), were : Or, on a 
, bend sable three ostrich feathers, eacJi having its quill 
fixed in an escroll argent. These were derived from the 
shield which was called by the Prince his "arms for 
peace " : Sable, three ostrich featJiers, the pen of each 
passing through an escroll argent bearing the motto 
ttlt ttt0tt+ This shield, in accordance with the testa- 
mentary instructions of the prince, is placed on his tomb 
in Canterbury Cathedral alternately with his " shield for 
war " : FRANCE and ENGLAND quarterly, with a label 

JOHN DE BEAUFORT, eldest natural son of JOHN of 
GHENT, by KATHARINE SWINFORD, bore : Per pale 
argent and azure (the well known Lancastrian colours) 
on a broad bend the arms of LANCASTER : ENGLAND, 
a label of FRANCE. (Cf. Plates XLVIL, fig. 3, and 
XLVIII., fig. i.) 

This JOHN (created Earl and Marquis of SOMERSET), 
and the other children of JOHN, Duke of LANCASTER, 
by KATHARINE SWINFORD were legitimated by Act of 
Parliament (20 RICHARD II.) and then substituted for the 
above the Royal .Arms within a bordure compone of the 
Lancastrian colours. His brother Cardinal BEAUFORT 
used the same with a crescent argent in the centre point 
for difference ; and the other brother, THOMAS, Duke of 
EXETER, made his bordure compone of ermine (instead of 
argent) and azure. After 1417 he changed the bordure to 
argent and azure, on eacJi pane of the latter a fleur-de-lis or. 

( 556 ) 

It will be noticed that these arms were assumed or 
granted when the BEAUFORTS were legitimated ; and 
accordingly that the bordure gobone was originally no 
more a mark of illegitimacy in England than it was in 
France, where it was a mark of legitimate cadency even 
for Royal Princes (v. p. 439). Indeed, it had been so 
fourth son of HENRY IV., the tinctures being argent 
and sable. (ANTIGONE, natural daughter of Duke 
HUMPHREY bore these her father's arms with a baton 
azure, and impaled this coat with the arms of her 
husband, HENRY GRAY, Earl of TANKERVILLE.) 

The arms of the legitimated BEAUFORTS are now 
borne by the SOMERSETS, Dukes of BEAUFORT, who 
descend from CHARLES SOMERSET, created Earl of 
WORCESTER, a natural son of HENRY BEAUFORT, third 
Duke of SOMERSET. CHARLES originally debruised his 
father's arms with a baton, or bendlet-sinister, which did 
not pass over the bordure. His crest and badge were 
subjected to the same brisure (Excerpta Historica, pp. 
328, 329). His eldest son relinquished the baton, and 
as if in obedience to the Ordonnance quoted at p. 552, 
assumed another insignem notam by placing the whole 
BEAUFORT arms on a broad fess in a golden shield. 
This, however, was soon discontinued by his descendants 
who use the BEAUFORT coat without any other brisure. 
We may compare this use of the coat on the fess with 
the arms borne by JEAN, batard de Bourgogne. (See 
Plate XLVII, fig. 4.) 

Sir JOHN DE CLARENCE, natural son of THOMAS, 
Duke of CLARENCE, son of HENRY IV., bore a coat 
composed from the Royal Arms : Per chevron gules and 
azure, in chief two lions counter-rampant-gardant ; in base 
a fleur-de-lis or. 

Mr MONTAGU also gives the following extract from 

the Cottonian MS. Tiberius, E. viii., in the British 
2 o 

( 557 ) 

Museum. " The base son of a noble woman if he doe 
geve armes must geve upon the same a surcote .... 
but unless you doe well marke such coat (you) may take 
it for a coat flanched." This is illustrated by an 
example from GLOVER'S MS. (Lansdowne MSS. 872), 
where a certain RADULPHUS DE ARUNDEL bears the 
coat of the Fixz-ALANS, Earls of ARUNDEL (Quarterly, 
i and 4. Gules, a lion rampant or; 2 and 3. Chequy or 
and azure) debruised by a "surcoat" argent, the "surcoat" 
being the part of the field remaining between the 
flaunches. MONTAGU reasonably suspects that this 
RADULPHUS was a son of Cardinal BEAUFORT, by the 
Lady ALICE FITZALAN, daughter of RICHARD, Earl of 

An early instance of the baton peri en barre (i.e. the 
bendlet-sinister couped at both ends, and this is what 
NlSBET means when he speaks of a baton) is found in 
the arms of ARTHUR PLANTAGENET, Viscount LlSLE, 
natural son of EDWARD IV. by ELIZABETH LUCY. He 
bore: Quarterly, i. FRANCE quartering ENGLAND; 2 and 
3. ULSTER (Or, a cross gules] ; 4. MORTIMER (cf. Plate 
XXXVIII., fig. 4) and over all a baton peri en barre azure. 

In the " List of Standards and Arms " in Excerpta 
Historica, p. 167, these arms of the House of YORK are 
debruised, not by the baton, but by a bendlet-sinister 
azure. From the same MS. we learn that crests and 
badges were also subjected to marks of bastardy. The 
crest borne by ARTHUR PLANTAGENET : The silver lion 
of MARCH, is charged on the breast with a bendlet-sinister 
gules ; and his badge, the golden falcon and fetterlock, is 
similarly debruised. He also used another crest derived 
from the old PLANTAGENET badges ; viz.: On a cap of 
maintenance gules, turned up ermine, and inscribed in 
front with the letter A, a genet gardant, per pale sable 
and argent between two broom stalks proper. (Excerpta 
Historica, p. 327.) 

( 558 ) 

HENRY FITZROY, created Duke of RICHMOND and 
SOMERSET, natural son of HENRY VIII., by ELIZABETH, 
widow of Sir GILBERT TALBOT, bore: The Royal Anns 
within a bordure quarterly of ermine, and of counter 
gobone or and azure, debruised by a baton sinister argent. 
Over all on an escucheon of pretence: Quarterly gules, and 
vaire or and vert, a lion rampant argent, on a chief azure 
a castle between two buck's heads silver attired or. 
(Excerpta Historica, p. 337.) The blazon given by 
HEYLYN, Help to English History (Edn. of 1773) is 
somewhat different This shield affords a good ex- 
ample of the debased state of Armory in the time of 
HENRY VIII. We have in it both bordure and baton 
where one alone was needed, and the complicated 
escucheon is a mystery unless we count it a further 
mark of illegitimacy. It was certainly not borne to 
denote marriage with an heiress, for the Duke's wife 
was MARY, daughter of THOMAS HOWARD, Duke of 
NORFOLK; nor can we well suppose the arms to have 
been those borne by the Duke's mother; indeed if 
they were their employment by the Duke would 
be anomalous. 

Much better heraldic feeling is evident in the 
entirely new coat granted in the same reign to 
"Sir JOHN STANLEY, bastarde" : Or, three eagle's 
legs erased gules ; on a chief azure three buck's heads 
of the field. Here, the stag's heads on the azure 
chief, are derived from the same bearings which 
appear on the azure bend of the STANLEYS, and 
the eagle's, or griffin's, legs are also taken from a 
Stanley badge. Six such legs appear on the standard 
of the Earl of DERBY in the reign of HENRY 

Sir ROGER CHOLMELEY, Chief Baron of the Exchequer 
(1546-1552), natural son of Sir RICHARD CHOLMELEY, 
Constable of the Tower, bore : Gules, the " sword of 

( 559 ) 

Justice " in fess between in chief a helmet, and in base two 
garbs or. (Compare the CHOLMELEY coat, Plate XXXI., 

fig- 4). 

The illegitimate sons of CHARLES II. usually bore his 
arms debruised by a baton sinister, but the ill-fated 
JAMES FITZROY, his son by LUCY WALTERS, created 
Duke of MONMOUTH, in 1663, had a grant of the 
following : Quarterly, I and 4. Ermine, on a pile 
gules three lions of ENGLAND ; 2 and 3. Or, a sliield 
of FRANCE within the Royal Tressure of Scotland. 
For this coat was afterwards substituted the Royal 
Arms, debruised by a baton sinister argent, over 
all an escucheon of SCOTT of BUCCLEUCH. The 
batons sinister used by CHARLES FlTZCHARLES, Earl 
of PLYMOUTH, in 1675 ; and by CHARLES, Duke 
of SOUTHAMPTON, were respectively of vair, and of 
ermine. Those of HENRY FITZROY, Duke of GRAFTON ; 
were respectively gobone of argent and azure ; and of 
ermine and azure. That of CHARLES BEAUCLERC, Duke 
of ST. ALBANS, was of Gules, thereon three roses argent 
barbed and seeded vert. MARY TUDOR, daughter of 
King CHARLES II., had a grant of the Royal Arms 
within a bordure quarterly of ermine, and of counter- 
compone argent and gules ; CHARLES LENNOX, his son 
MOUTH and of AUBIGNY, bore the Royal arms within 
a bordure gobone gules and argent, the silver panes 
each charged with a red rose of ENGLAND ; over 
all an escucheon of AUBIGNY, Gules, tJiree buckles 

The arms of JAMES FlTZ-jAMES, Duke of BERWICK, 
son of JAMES II., were those of the king, within a bordure 
gobone gules and azure charged alternately with lions of 
ENGLAND and fleurs-de-lis of FRANCE. HENRY FITZ- 
JAMES (the Grand Prior}, and his sister HENRIETTA, 

bore the Royal arms debruised by a baton sinister of 

by KATHARINE SEDLEY, bore the Royal arms within 
a bordure compone of ermine, and of FRANCE. 

Earl of MuNSTER, bore the arms of his father WILLIAM 
IV. (omitting the crowns) debruised with a baton 
sinister azure thereon three anchors or. 

This closes the list of the Royal Bastards of ENGLAND 
who were acknowledged by their parents, or created 
Peers of the Realm. Space does not permit us to record 
their crests and supporters here. We may remark that 
the crests granted to them were usually formed out of 
the Royal Crest, a chapeau being substituted for the 
crown, the lion being also crowned with a parti-coloured 
coronet, and gorged with a compone collar. The sup- 
porters were formed similarly; and a greyhound or horse 
often replaces the unicorn. 

Having seen that the usual differences for Royal 
bastards were the baton sinister and the bordure gobone, 
we now turn again for instances of the English practice 
to examples of less illustrious origin. The common 
difference was certainly the bendlet sinister (afterwards 
shortened into the baton sinister, the baton peri en barre 
of the French heralds), thus the MAINWARINGS of 
Croxton (who descend from the family of that name at 
Over Peover), in 1546 bore the arms: Gules, two bars 
argent, differenced by a bendlet or. There are plenty of 
similar examples, but other modes of brisure were 
occasionally employed. CUTHBERT TUNSTALL, Lord 
Bishop and Palatine of DURHAM, 1530-1559 (who is 
said to have been an illegitimate offshoot of the old 
TUNSTALL family who bore : Sable, three combs argent], 
changed the tincture of his coat from sable to azure (See 
TONGE'S Visitation of Durham, p. 26, Surtees Society). 

WILLIAM HERBERT, son and heir of Sir RICHARD 
HERBERT (elder of the two natural sons of WILLIAM, 
first Earl of PEMBROKE), was created Baron HERBERT of 
Cardiff, and Earl of PEMBROKE in 1551. He bore the 
HERBERT arms (Per pale azure and gules three lions ram- 
pant argent) within a b ordure gob one or and gules , on each 
pane of the last a bezant. (See CAMDEN'S Visitation of 
Huntingdonshire, 1613, p. 17.) This bordure was dis- 
continued by the third Earl, and was not replaced by 
any other " notable mark." It would be curious to 
inquire if the assumption of the full arms of the family 
had the sanction of the College of Arms. 

In 1603, Sir THOMAS EGERTON was created Baron 
ELLESMERE, and in 1616, Viscount BRACKLEY. He 
was a natural son of Sir RALPH EGERTON, Lord High 
Chancellor, who died in 1616, just as he was about to 
be created Earl of BRIDGEWATER, and this title was 
conferred on his son. He bore the EGERTON coat 
(A rgent, a lion rampant gules between three pheons sable), 
with the brisure of a bordure engrailed of the last. Here 
we have the bordure, which is a mark of lawful cadency, 
improperly used to indicate bastardy ; and even it was 
dropped, apparently in or after 1720, when the EGER- 
TONS had become Dukes of BRIDGEWATER. 

In 1627 MONTJOY BLOUNT, natural son of CHARLES, 
Earl of DEVONSHIRE, was created an English Baron ; 
and in the next year, Earl of NEWPORT. He bore the 
arms of BLOUNT (Barry nebuly or and sable) within a 
bordure gobone argent and gules. 

The laxity and venality of some of the old heralds 
come out in connection with this matter of marks of 
bastardy. In 1661, HOLME writes to DUGDALE on behalf 
of a young gentlewoman who was illegitimate .... 
" not to have a Batune across the Coat," but to change 
the tinctures. The fee offered is five pounds. The post- 
script to the letter is as follows : " There is an alder- 

( 562 ) 

mane's sone in Chester whose great-grandfather was 
base borne, whom I have been treating with sev'all tymes 
about the alteration of his coat, telling him for 10 and 
not under it may be accomplished ; five he is willing to 
give, but not above ; if y w please to accept of that sume 
y w may writt me a line or two." {Herald and Genealogist, 
ii, 151.) 

The BYRONS, Lords BYRON, originally bore their coat 
{Argent, three bendlets enhanced gules) within a bordure 
sable. The fact is stated in FOSTER'S Peerage, but not 
the reason why. This we find in the most valuable 
Complete Peerage of Mr COKAYNE, "Norroy" now in course 
of publication (vol. ii., p. 98). The family was of ille- 
gitimate descent, Sir JOHN BYRON of Newstead, and the 
next two or three generations, bore the brisure, and then 
quietly allowed it to drop. 

The MONTAGUS, Dukes of MANCHESTER ; and the 
Earls of SANDWICH retain the bordure sable as the 
difference of the MONTACUTE coat : Argent, three fusils 
conjoined in f ess gules. This, it is said, marks descent from 
SIMON, a younger brother of John, the third MONTACUTE 
edition of COLLINS's Peerage, vol. ii., pp. 42-43), points 
out that there is not the slightest evidence of the 
existence of this SlMON ; and that the bordure was 
probably assumed as a mark of illegitimacy to denote 
the descent of the MONTAGUS from JAMES MONTAGU 
of Ludsdowne in Kent, natural son of THOMAS, last 

A bordure gobong argent and azure was the brisure 
granted with the arms of SHEFFIELD {Argent, a chevron 
between three garbs gules] to CHARLES HERBERT, or 
SHEFFIELD, natural son of JOHN, Duke of NORMANBY 

In 1780 Mr ZACHARY, of Areleykings in the county of 
Worcester, obtained a patent entitling him to quarter the 

arms of SACHEVERELL (Argent, on a saltire azure five 
water bougets or) within a bordure wavy erminois. His 
maternal ancestor WILLIAM MUCKELOW had married 
FRANCES, natural daughter of HENRY SACHEVERELL of 
Morley who died in 1620. I know of no earlier 
example than this of the use of the bordure-wavy for 
the purpose of indicating illegitimate descent, though 
in modern times it has become the special mark 
employed by the English Officers of Arms. It is note- 
worthy that DUGDALE had already granted in 1665 the 
SACHEVERELL arms within a plain bordure gules to 
GEORGE SACHEVERELL, the son of VALENCE, another 
illegitimate child of HENRY SACHEVERELL. 

In 1781, JOHN INGELBY natural son of Sir JOHN 
INGELBY of Ripley, was created a baronet, and bore his 
paternal arms (Sable, an estoile argent) with the difference 
of a bordure engrailed gob one or and gules. 

The MANNERS arms differenced by a bordure-wavy 
gobony argent and sable were borne by JOHN MANNERS, 
of Grantham (a natural son of Lord WILLIAM MANNERS), 
whose son WILLIAM was created a baronet in 1793. In 
this case the crest was differenced by the addition of a 
bendlet-sinister wavy, gobone or and sable. The sinister 
bendlet wavy is often used in modern practice to differ- 
ence the crests of the persons to whom the bordure-wavy 
has been granted. In the crests of RICH, the WYND- 
HAM and EUSTACE, and possibly in others, a saltire 
wavy or has been substituted for it, for no apparent 
reason. In another, that of HARVEY, the crest has no 
mark of illegitimacy. In other cases, such as PuNSHON, 
it has been converted into a pallet wavy azure, a very 
small matter indeed on the body of a lamb passant ! 

No object would be served by giving here a detailed 
account of the manymodern instances in which the present 
brisure of a bordure-wavy has been granted. The curious 
inquirer will find sufficient examples in the plates of 

any Baronetage. There are one or two instances in 
which other bordures, nebule or dovetail, have been used 
with similar intent 

The arms of the munificent Sir RICHARD WALLACE, 
adopted son and testamentary heir of the Marquess of 
HERTFORD, were a new coat derived from the arms of 
the family of WALLACE : Gules, on a pile between two 
ostrich s heads erased argent, each holding in its beak a 
horse-shoe or, a lion rampant of the field. (It is now 
understood that, though the Baronet was not of legiti- 
mate descent, he was not, as at one time reputed, the son 
of the Marquess himself.) 

We may sum up the foregoing as concerning English 
use thus : The chief marks of illegitimacy were the 
bendlet, or baton-sinister; though sometimes the bordure, 
or faux escu, was employed. Instead of the paternal 
arms thus debruised, an entirely new coat was some- 
times granted, the charges of which had some plain 
reference to the bastard's parentage. Later, the bordure- 
gobone, originally a mark of legitimate cadency, became 
a recognised mark of illegitimacy. Since the close of 
last century the bordure -wavy has been the ordinary 
difference, or brisure, employed by the Officers of Arms, 
in England and Ireland, in grants to persons of illegiti- 
mate descent. The crests of persons to whom arms 
have been granted thus debruised, are differenced, some- 
times by the use of wavy lines of partition, sometimes 
by the addition to them of wavy pallets, saltires, or 
more generally of bendlets-sinister. 

We may remark that the bordure-wavy, now so often 
used, may be quite as fitting a mark of illegitimacy as 
the old baton, or sinister bendlet, if only its import be 
generally recognised. But as the knowledge of heraldry 
becomes more diffused, and the meaning of the bordure- 
wavy more generally understood, we may expect that 
the complaisance which caused its substitution for the 

older and better known brisures of illegitimacy will again 
devise some other less known mark, in disregard of the 
fact that armorial insignia were intended to be plain and 
clear evidence of descent, and to speak with no ambiguous 
voice as to the origin of their bearers. It seems to me 
that in the case of persons whose susceptibilities are 
too tender to permit them to bear plain and distinct 
evidence of their descent, the alternative and ancient 
plan should be adopted, and a new coat composed, as in 
the instances given of CLARENCE, STANLEY, CHOLMELEY, 
and WALLACE. This is a course which does wrong to 
no man ; and which seems, to me at least, more honour- 
able and straightforward than that of granting the 
paternal arms with such obscure differences as (even if 
they continue to be carried) to confound their bearers 
with the legitimate cadets of an ancient family. 

With regard to this matter, I am obliged to differ 
from my late friend Mr BOUTELL, who thinks that " this 
very ambiguity may not be the least satisfactory element 
of the existing practice" (English Heraldry, p. 196). 
The ambiguity may, I admit, be satisfactory to those 
who desire it, but it is not so, I think, to the legitimate 
cadets. A cadet of a great house, bearing his coat- 
armour properly differenced, will hardly hear with 
satisfaction that his illegitimate kinsmen, after perhaps 
a brief use of the b ordure-wavy, have now dropped it 
altogether, and in painted glass and sculptured stone 
set up for themselves the plain arms of the family, and 
so claim a position superior to that of the lawful cadets. 

SCOTLAND. In Scotland at an early period distinctive 
marks for bastardy seem to have been rarely if ever 
employed ; families of illegitimate descent bore differ- 
ences which were also borne by lawful cadets. In his 
Preface to the Exchequer Rolls, vol. i., p. cxxx., Dr 
BURNETT records one case which may possibly be an 
exception to the then general rule. MARGARET, wife of 

( 566 ) 

ROBERT GLEN, was a natural daughter of King ROBERT 
BRUCE. One of the co-heiresses of GLEN married 
(temp. ROBERT III.) Sir JOHN BOSWELL of Balgregie 
and brought him the estate of Balmuto. Since that time 
the BOSWELLS have quartered a coat which has no 
resemblance to that of GLEN, but has been conjectured 
to be that of ABERNETHY, viz.: Or, a lion rampant gules, 
over all a ribbon sable. No heiress, or co-heiress, of 
ABERNETHY is known to have married a GLEN ; and, as 
the ribbon was a general mark of bastardy, it seems 
probable that this coat may indicate descent from the 
natural daughter of ROBERT BRUCE. 

The third and later Earls of DOUGLAS were illegitimate, 
and to the DOUGLAS, Earls of ANGUS, the deeper stain 
attached of incestuous bastardy, yet they all carried the 
simple DOUGLAS coat; and the families of Drumlanrig 
and Cavers, sprung from two natural sons of the second 
Earl of ANGUS, carried, the one a bordure engrailed gules, 
the other a plain bordure, for difference. On the other 
hand Sir WILLIAM DOUGLAS of Nithsdale, natural son 
of the third Earl of DOUGLAS, carried (according to Sir 
DAVID LINDSAY) DOUGLAS debruised by a riband or, and 
quartered with EDGAR, for the lordship of Liddesdale. 

The majority of Churchmen, whether legitimate or 
not, used to bear the undifferenced coat of their family. 
Bastards of the Royal House, however, even when 
ecclesiastics, had usually, though not always, some 
difference suggesting their illegitimate birth ; a bend, or 
bendlet, though also in use for legitimate differencing, 
being the most frequent. Thus THOMAS STEWART, 
Archdeacon of St. Andrews, a natural son of ROBERT 
II., carried SCOTLAND debruised by a bend counter- 
compony (LAiNG, ii., 931). ALEXANDER STEWART, 
Earl of MAR by marriage, a natural son of the Wolf of 
BadenocJi, bore no decided mark of bastardy, but 
quartered Or, a fess chequy argent and azure between 

( 5^7 ) 

tJiree crowns gules (a composite coat of STEWART and 
GARIOCH) with the arms of MAR. 

JAMES STEWART, Earl of MORAY, natural son of 
JAMES IV., bore the feudal coat of MORAY quartered 
with SCOTLAND debruised by a bendlet. 

ROBERT STUART, natural son of JAMES V., Abbot, 
afterwards Commendator, of Holyrood, bore at one 
time SCOTLAND undifferenced. (It should of course 
be remembered that the external ornaments of ecclesi- 
astical dignity were in themselves an adequate difference.) 
His son PATRICK, Earl of ORKNEY, quartered SCOT- 
LAND debruised by a riband, with the feudal arms of that 
Earldom. FRANCIS STUART, afterwards Earl of BOTH- 
WELL, whose father, the Prior of Coldingham, was also 
a natural son of JAMES V., had in 1665 the Royal coat 
with a ribbon ; and later bore VAUS quartered with 
HEPBURN, and the undifferenced Royal coat en surtout. 
The Regent MORAY (half brother of ROBERT STUART, 
Commendator of Holyrood) used SCOTLAND surmounted 
by a bendlet ; his descendants in the female line adopted 
the bordure compone, thus : Quarterly, I and 4. The Royal 
Arms within a bordure compone argent and azure; 

2. Or, a fess chequy argent and azure, for STUART of 
DOUNE, husband of ELIZABETH, Countess of MORAY ; 

3. Or, three cushions in lozenge within tJie Royal tressure 
gules, for the Earldom of MORAY. This bordure compone 
was borne by the STUARTS of Avandale and Ochiltree, 
on whose legitimacy doubts had been thrown, but one 
of the family, JAMES, Earl of ARRAN, to assert his 
claim to legitimacy, quartered SCOTLAND undifferenced ; 
and STUART with a label of three points. Sir JAMES 
HAMILTON of Fynnart, the Bastard of Arran, sealed at 
one time with HAMILTON debruised by a bend, but 
later dropped the brisure and even assumed the tressure. 
Dr BURNETT informed me some years ago that in later 
times the bordure - compone had been adopted as a 

( 568 ) 

brisure " by illegitimate branches of other families, and 
is still to be found in the Lyon Register in modern 
times, e.g. GORDON of Cairnbulg, 1811, and others, even 
in my time." But it was clearly understood to have 
no such meaning in the case of families who bore it of 
old, as the WALLACES of Ellerslie and HAMILTON of 
Preston and Fingalton. Later, when the bordure compone 
had become used as a mark of illegitimacy, the HAMIL- 
TON S took a plain bordure, and the WALLACES a bordure 
counter-compone. In 1742 ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL, heir 
of Ellerslie through his mother, registered the WALLACE 
coat with the bordure compone, but in 1808, when Sir 
ILAV CAMPBELL again recorded the coat, the bordure 
was altered to counter-compone. (It is a mistake of 
SETON that this last bordure (counter-compone) was 
ever a mark of bastardy ; it occurs frequently in the 
Lyon Register as a mark of cadency for families known 
to be of legitimate descent.) 

The late Mr STODART brought to my notice an 
instance in the Lyon Register of 1763 where a double 
mark of bastardy is assigned to Colonel WILLIAM 
CAMPBELL, natural son of ARCHIBALD, Duke of ARGYLE ; 
viz., a baton sinister gules, and a bordure compone argent 
and azure. 

HAMILTON, Lord BARGENY, who derived from a 
legitimate son of the first Marquess of HAMILTON, bore 
HAMILTON quartering ARRAN (Argent, a ship with 
furled sail sable] all within a bordure compone argent and 
azure, the argent panes charged with hearts gules, the 
azure with mullets argent (in fact a DOUGLAS bordure). 
The HAMILTONS of Samuelston who descend from Sir 
JOHN HAMILTON of Clydesdale, natural son of the first 
Earl of ARRAN, have a singular mark of illegitimacy : 
Gules, a roundle cJiequy argent and azure between three 
cinquefoils of the second. The HAMILTONS of Blair, 
who derived from JOHN, Archbishop of ST. ANDREWS, 

another natural son of the first Earl of ARRAN, bore : 
HAMILTON and ARRAN within a bordure compone argent 
and gules, charged alternately with saltires and buckles 

According to the present practice of the Lyon Office 
the bordure gobond retains the meaning which, as 
NlSBET says, has only attached to it by "late practices ;" 
and though in some ancient coats for instance in that 
of the STEWARTS, Earls of CASTLE STUART in Ireland- 
it is still retained as a mark of legitimate cadency, it is 
also the mark which is assigned in the Lyon Office at 
the present time as the proper difference for the illegiti- 
mate child of a person entitled to bear arms. 

On the other hand the bordure-wavy > which as we have 
seen is employed for this purpose in England and in 
Ireland, is in Scotland a mark of legitimate descent. 
Dr BURNETT could only find for me one instance in 
which it had been granted in Scotland as a mark of 
bastardy (SHARP of Kincarrochy, in 1813). (The bor- 
dures in the arms of WRIGHT, ERSKINE of Cambo, 
and OCHTERLONY, I perhaps ought to add are English 

The bordure-wavy as a Scottish mark of lawful cadency 
is borne by GRANT of Rothiemurcus ; GORDON of 
Rusco ; CRAUFURD of Cartsburn ; GORDON of Hallhead ; 
CAMPBELLS of Inveraw, etc. (See NISBET, vol ii., plate 
ii.). In 1872 it was granted by LYON to a cadet of the 
English family of ALSTON. In this case the bordure- 
wavy or charged with tJiree fleurs-de-lis gules may not 
improbably expose the legitimacy of the wearer to 
unfounded suspicion in England. It ought not to be 
difficult, I humbly think, for the Heraldic authorities of 
the three kingdoms to agree to some uniformity of 
practice in this matter. ULSTER'S present practice is 
identical with that of the English College, but in 1 542 
an O'NEILL differenced with a bendlet- sinister sable. 

( 57 ) 

A plain bordure gules seems to have been the difference 
assigned to some illegitimate PLUNKETTS, c. 1600, while 
another PLUNKETT descent is shown in the coat of 
JOHNSTON: PLUNKETT within a bordure gobone argent 
and azure (BURKE, General Armory, 2nd edition, p. 545). 
In 1705, WILLIAM BUTLER, natural son of JAMES, Duke 
of ORMONDE, had assigned as his difference a bend- 
sinister compone argent and azure. 

We now turn our attention to the practice of other 
European states. 

FRANCE. One of the earliest instances which have 
come under my notice is the coat of PIERRE, Bishop of 
NOYON in 1 240, a natural son of PHILIP (AUGUSTUS) II. 
He bore FRANCE-ANCIENT, with a bend-sinister argent. 
This was also the brisure, borne with FRANCE-MODERN by 
HENRI, Chevalier D'ANGOULEME, Grand Prior of the 
Order of ST. JOHN in France, a natural son of HENRI II. 
Another son of HENRI II., HENRI DE ST. REMI DE 
VALOIS bore : Argent, on a fess the arms of FRANCE 
(Azure, three fleurs-de-lis or). These arms were retained 
by his descendants of whom the last were JEANNE, 
Comtesse de la MOTTE (so notorious in connection with 
the story of the diamond necklace of Queen MARIE 
ANTOINETTE), and her sister MARIANNE. 

son of CHARLES IX. by MARIE TOUCHET, debruised the 
arms of France by a bend-sinister or. 

CAESAR, Due de VENDOME (elder of the sons of 
MODERN debruised by a baton gules, thereon three lions 
rampant argent. This was derived from the brisure of 
the legitimate house of BOURBON VENDOME, which bore : 
FRANCE-ANCIENT, over all a bend gules, thereon tJiree 
lions rampant argent ; and this last-named coat was 
debruised by a bendlet-sinister argent by JEAN, Batard 
de Vendome, a natural son of LOUIS, Comte de VEN- 

( 57i ) 

DOME (d. 1447). The legitimated children of LOUIS 
XIV. bore : FRANCE-MODERN, debruised by a baton sini- 
ster gules (un baton peri en barre). 

The line of the Dukes of BOURBON, descending from 
the younger son of (ST.) Louis IX. affords several 
interesting instances of illegitimate cadency. JEAN, 
bdtard de Bourbon, Sr. de ROCHEFORT, natural son of 
Duke PIERRE I. (d. 1356), bore a plain silver shield with 
BOURBON on a quarter, or large canton (d' Argent, au franc 
quartier de FRANCE a la bande de gueules). (Plate 
XLVIIL, fig. 2.) The BOURBON difference of a bend 
gules was diminished to a baton (dexter) after the reduc- 
tion of the number of fleurs-de-lis in the Royal Arms to 
three, and this coat, BOURBON-MODERN, was borne by 
the Princes de CONDE, etc. 

JEAN, bdtard de Bourbon, son of Duke JEAN L, who 
died 1444, bore : BOURBON, over all a bend-sinister argent. 
LOUIS, bdtard de Bourbon, Comte de ROUSSILLON, 
Amiral de FRANCE (d. 1486), son of Duke CHARLES L, 
bore this bend-sinister wavy. (SPENER erroneously gives 
him a bend-sinister gules, Op. Her., p. gen., p. 119.) 

MATHIEU, Baron de la ROCHE, le grand Bdtard de 
Bourbon (d. 1505), bore : Argent, on a bend the Arms of 
BOURBON (d' Argent, a la bande de FRANCE, a la cot ice de 
gueules}. His sister MARGUERITE appears to have borne 
the modern arms of BOURBON, differenced by a second 
baton crossing the other in bend-sinister or. 

In the ORLEANS line we find the following among 
others : Le bdtard d' Orleans (d. 1380), son of PHILIPPE, 
Due d'ORLEANS, younger brother of King JEAN II., bore: 
FRANCE-ANCIENT, a label gobone argent and gules over 
all a bendlet-sinister argent. This was borne by his 
brother LOUIS, Bishop of POITIERS, in 1392. 

It has been said that the arms of the house of 
ORLEANS were FRANCE, a label argent. The celebrated 
JEAN, Comte de DUNOIS, bdtard d' Orleans, b. 1403, had 

( 57* ) 

these arms differenced by a bendlet (or cotice] sinister 
sable. (Plate XLVIIL, fig. 5.) CHARLES VII. permitted 
DUNOIS to change the position of the bendlet to the 
dexter, as if he had been a legitimate cadet. As we 
find him bearing the cotice argent (v. p. 529), the change 
of tincture was probably made on the same occasion; 
but his descendants, the Dukes de LONGUEVILLE, 
bore : ORLEANS, a bendlet-sinister gules. A son of 
DUNOIS, FRANCOIS, Grand Chambellan de FRANCE, 
bore : ORLEANS, with a baton coupe in bend argent. 

In the case of the bastards of the house of ANJOU (of 
which the arms were FRANCE, a bordure gules] the 
bendlet-sinister does not pass over the bordure. 

As a curious modern instance I give here the arms of 
the Due de MORNY, a notability of the Second Empire, 
and the moving spirit of the Coup d'Etat of 2nd December. 
He was understood to be a natural son of the Comte de 
FLAHAULT by Queen HORTENSE. His arms were : 
Argent, three martlets sable for FLAHAULT, within a 
bordure, compone of the arms of the FRENCH EMPIRE 
'(Azure, the eagle and thunderbolt or), and of DAUPHINY 
(Or, a dolphin emb owed azure). 

FLANDERS. BAUDOUIN, bdtard de Flandre, and 
his sister BEATRIX, children of LOUIS DE CRESSY, 
Comte de FLANDRE (d. 1351), both bore; Argent, 
on a canton (or quarter) the arms of FLANDERS 
(Sable, a lion rampant or.} Their brother ROBERT 
bore the same but with the field crusily sable. Another 
brother PETERKIN, whose name I do not find in 
VREE'S list, bore : Gules, a swan argent, a canton of 

LOUIS DE HAEZE, eldest of the illegitimate children 
of Louis LE MALE, Count of FLANDERS (d. 1385), 
bore : Vert, on a canton the arms of FLANDERS 
(v. V Armorial de Gelre] ; other sons appear to have 
used the field argent. One of these, LOUIS LE PRISON, 

2 P 

( 573 ) 

Seigneur de PRAET et de WOESTINE, married MARIA 
Seigneur de PRAET, etc. : bore on his seal the arms of 
his mother, Gules, a chevron ermine, placing also the 
arms of FLANDERS on a quarter, for his father, and 
adding in the sinister chief point an escucheon, Argent, 
a lion rampant gules crowned or for LlMBURG. (See 
Plate XLVIIL, fig. 4.) 

The grandson of this JEAN DE FLANDRE was Louis, 
4th Seigneur de PRAET, Chevalier de la Toison d'Or 
(No. clxxx.), Governor of Holland, and Chef des Finances 
to CHARLES V. According to CHIFFLET he bore 
FLANDERS, " brisc dune billette d* argent sur la patte 
droite du lyon" But in Les Recherches des Antiquitez et 
Noblesse de Flandre it is said : " II porta de Flandres 
plein, sauf que la lyon a la premiere patte tenoit un 
anneau d'argent ; autres disent qu'il avait une espine au 
travers de la dicte patte." 

BURGUNDY. The most curious and interesting series 
of brisures for illegitimate descent is to be found in the 
following notes on the arms of the principal bastards of 

CHRIST YN in his Jurisprudents Heroica gives several 
brisures besides the baton ; la pointe coupee, le chef coupe, 
la pointe trianglee, le chef taille or tranche", or both ; 
escloppe a dextre, et a senestre ; and the Burgundian series 
furnishes us with examples of all. 

JEAN, bdtard de Bourgogne, son of Duke JEAN, Sans 
peur (who died 1479), bore his father's arms : Quarterly, 
I and 4. FRANCE, a bordure gobont argent and gules, 
for BURGUNDY-MODERN ; 2 and 3. Bendy of six azure 
and or a bordure gules, BURGUNDY-ANCIENT; over all 
FLANDERS, Or, a lion rampant sable ; the whole debruised 
by a pointe, or champagne or (this is la pointe coupee of 
CHRISTYN). (Plate XLVIL, fig. i.) Later in life JEAN 
took Holy Orders, and became Provost of Bruges and 




1. Jean, Batard tie Bourgogne. 

2. Phillipe, le Batard, Seigneur 
de Fontaines. 

3. Antoino, Cte. de la Roche, 
"le grand Batard." 

4. Jean, Batard de Bourgogne, 
Eve~que de Cambray. 

5. Antoine, Seigneur de "Wacken 6. Phillipe, Sr. de Crubeque. 


( 574 ) 

Bishop of Cambray. His fine seal, date 1482, is engraved 
in VREE, Genealogie des Comtes de Flandre. On it both 
chief and point are couped, so that the arms are borne 
on a very wide fess (Plate XL VI I., fig. 4). They are 
Quarterly, i and 4. FRANCE-ANCIENT (intended doubt- 
less for BURGUNDY-MODERN, but there is no bordure) ; 
2. BURGUNDY-ANCIENT, impaling BRABANT (Sable, a lion 
rampant or) ; 3. BURGUNDY-ANCIENT, impaling LlM- 
BURG (Argent, a lion rampant gules crowned or]. Over 

On the MS. of the Concordat of Cambray the arms 
of JEAN as Bishop are blazoned differently : Quarterly, 

1 and 4. Or, three lions rampant azure (See of CAMBRAY) ; 

2 and 3. BURGUNDY-ANCIENT, quartering BURGUNDY- 
MODERN, over all FLANDERS ; the whole is debruised 
by a bendlet - sinister which (if my memory serves 
correctly) passes under the FLANDERS escucheon. 

ANTOINE, Comte de la ROCHE, le Grand Bdtard de 
Bourgogne, Knight of the Golden Fleece, No. liv., one 
of the many illegitimate children of Duke PHILIPPE Le 
Bon, bore (according to CHIFFLET, and MAURICE) the 
arms of his father (BURGUNDY-ANCIENT and MODERN, 
BRABANT, LIMBURG, and FLANDERS as above), debruised 
by a bendlet-sinister argent ; but on his seal (in VREE, 
Genealogie des Comtes de Flandre, p. 126), these arms 
without the bendlet are placed on a broad bend 
(See Plate XLVIL, fig. 3). An interesting series 
of papers relating to the tournament held in 
Smithfield between ANTHONY WOODVILLE, Lord 
SCALES, brother of the Queen ; and his namesake 
the Bastard of BURGUNDY, will be found in Excerpta 
Historica, pp. 171-222. In conjunction with his brother 
BAUDOUIN, ANTOINE led the van of the Burgundian 
army at Granson. The brothers were also present, and 
made prisoners, at Nancy. LOUIS XI. held ANTOINE 
in high honour, and gave him considerable grants of 

( 575 ) 

land. CHARLES VIII. made him Knight of the Order 

ANTOINE had an illegitimate son of the same name, 
who was Seigneur de la CHAPELLE, and is said to have 
borne the quartered arms of BURGUNDY on a broad fess, 
or coupe en chefet en pointe, "sic duobus discerniculis nota- 
tum, sive bis ruptum," says CliRISTYN, quoted by NlSBET. 
There are, however, a sufficient number of instances in 
which a like arrangement was used by the natural son of 
a person of legitimate descent, so that I feel exceedingly 
doubtful about CHRISTYN'S accuracy in calling it a mark 
of double bastardy. This ANTOINE'S legitimate grand- 
son ANTOINE, fourth of the name, was Seigneur de 
WACKEN, etc., and Vice-Admiral. His seal bears his 
arms emblazoned on the sail of the ship which denoted 
his office ; and I have engraved them from it on Plate 
XLVIL, fig. 5. They have the chef coupe, and are also 
ente en point. 

PHILIPPE, bdtard de Bourgogne, Seigneur de FON- 
TAINES, was a natural son of ADOLPH, a legitimate 
grandson of le Grand Bdtard, and was legitimated in 
1534, bore the quartered arms of BURGUNDY on a wide 
chevron in a plain shield. (See Plate XLVIL, fig. 2.) 
In this manner were also borne the arms of PHILIPPE, 
natural son of Duke PHILIPPE Le Bon. He was 
Seigneur de SOMELDYCK, and was elected Chevalier de 
la Toison d'Or in 1500. He was also Admiral by sea. 
Later in life he took Holy Orders, and, having been 
legitimated in 1505, he became in 1516 Bishop of 
UTRECHT. Among the knights who accompanied 
ANTOINE, le Grand Bdtard de Bourgogne, to England 
a natural son of Duke PHILIPPE of BRABANT. He bore 
a plain shield with the quartered arms of BRABANT and 
BURGUNDY-MODERN on a large canton (Plate XLVIL, 
fig. 6). 

( 576 ) 

PHILIPPE, bdtard de Nevers, son of PHILIPPE, Comte 
de NEVERS (a younger son of Duke PHILIPPE the Bold) 
bore BURGUNDY-MODERN, debruised by a bend-sinister 
gobone argent and gules. 

In the painted glass of a window in the south aisle of 
the great church at Haarlem I observed the arms of a 
member of the family of SCHAGEN (now known as 
BEIJEREN-SCHAGEN), which derives its origin illegiti- 
mately from one of the Bavarian Counts of HOLLAND. 
It is, Bendy or and gules (HODENPYL, for maternal 
descent), and on a very large canton are the arms of the 
Bavarian Counts of HOLLAND : Quarterly, I and 4. 
BAVARIA ; 2 and 3. HAINAULT quartering HOLLAND. 

The Counts of WALHEIM descended from JEAN, 
natural son of JEAN, Due de BRABANT. Of this family 
was JEAN DE BERGHES, Seigneur de WALAIN, elected 
Chevalier de la Toison dOr in 1481. He bore, Vert, 
tliree mascles argent for his maternal descent from 
BAUTERSEM, on a chief Or three pallets gules for MECHLIN, 
and over all a canton of BRABANT. By other descend- 
ants the chief was made per pale of FLANDERS and 

SPAIN. The Armory of Spain furnishes remarkable 
instances of heraldic brisures for illegitimacy, entirely 
distinct from those already recorded. 

SPENER tells us that TELLIUS, Count of BISCAY, who 
died in 1370, an illegitimate son of ALFONSO XL, 
bore, Per saltire, in chief the arms of CASTILE, in flanks 
LEON, in base Argent an eagle displayed sable for SlCILY. 
Another bore, Argent, on a lozenge-tJirougJiout gules the 
castle or for CASTILE, each division of the argent charged 
with the lion of LEON. 

The great family of HENRIQUEZ, Dukes of MEDINA 
DEL Rio SECO, descending from a natural son of 
the arms of LEON, chape ploye of CASTILE. Otherwise 

( 577 ) 

tierced en mantle, I and 2. CASTILE ; 3. LEON, as in 
Plate XLVIII, fig. 6. 

FREDERICK, Duke of BENEVENTO, a natural son of 
HENRY II. of CASTILE and LEON, bore : Chequy of nine, 
five 0/ CASTILE, four of LEON. JAMES of XERICA, son 
BlDAURE, bore : ARRAGON (Or, four pallets gules} 
charged with an orle of eight escucJieons of BlDAURE 
(Or, a fess azure]. 

HENRY, Grand Master of the Order of SANTIAGO, 
natural son of FERDINAND I., was progenitor of the 
Dukes of SEGORBIA who bore: Tierced in pale, i. 
ARRAGON ; 2. Per fess CASTILE and LEON ; 3. SICILY. 

Don JOHN of AUSTRIA, natural son of the Emperor 
CHARLES V., bore: Per pale, i. Per fess CASTILE and 
all AUSTRIA, impaling BURGUNDY-ANCIENT. (Plate 
XLVIII., fig. 3.) His sister MARGARET of PARMA bore 
the surtout only, see ante, p. 508. 

PORTUGAL. In Portugal the Dukes of BRAGANZA who 
descended from AFFONSO, natural son of King JOAO I., 
and who came themselves to the throne in 1640, bore: 
Argent, a saltire gules tJier eon five escucheons azure, on each 
as many plates in saltire. AFFONSO's sister BEATRICE 
married in 1405, THOMAS FlTZALAN, Earl of ARUNDEL. 
Her seal bears the arms of FlTZALAN, quartering WAR- 
RENNE, the whole impaling the arms of PORTUGAL as 
now used without any brisure (the seal is engraved in 
BOUTELL, Heraldry, Historical and Popular, 480). 

The NORONHAS descend from AFFONSO, Conde de 
GIJION, natural son of HENRY II. of CASTILE by 
ISABELLA, natural daughter of King FERNANDO of 
PORTUGAL ; they quartered PORTUGAL and NORONHAS 
within a b ordure compone or and vair. (Tern por arm as 
o escudo esquartelado ; ao primeiro as armas de Portugal 
ao segundo as de Castella, mantelado de prata, e dous 



1. Matthicu, " le grand Batard 2. Jean, Seigneur de Rochefort. 

de Bourbon." 

3. Don John of Austria. 

4. Jean, Seigneur de Praet. 

5. Jean, Cte. de Dunois. 
(Original arms.) 

6. Alfonso of Castile. 

( 578 ) 

Leoens de purpura batalhantes, e huma bordadura 
composta de ouro e veiros Nobiliarchia Portugueza, 
p. 31 1.) The arms of the NORONHAS were therefore the 
reverse of those of the HENRIQUEZ of Spain, vide 
ante, p. 576. 

In Portugal, however, as elsewhere the bendlet-sinister 
is a recognised mark of bastardy and as such was borne 
by the ALBUQUERQUES. We find in the Nobiliarchia 
Poituguesa (p. 223) the following : " Os bastardos had 
de trazer as armas com sua quebra de bastardia .... 
A quebra de bastardia he huma cotica ou risca, que 
atravessa o escudo em banda, como se ve nas armas da 
casa de Aveiro, a quern somente vejo observar esta ley, 
por descenderem os Duques de D. Jorge, filho bastardo 
del Key D. Joao II." 

The family here referred to bore the title of Conde 
de LANCASTRO, in remembrance of the descent of the 
Royal House from JOHN of GHENT, Duke of LANCASTER, 
whose daughter PHILIPPA was wife of Don JOAO I. The 
connection was, however, remote, as that Prince was 
only great-grandfather of JOHN II. whose bastard son 
Don JORGE, had the title DE LANCASTRO. 

The SOUSAS, who derive their origin from MARTIN 
sons of AFFONSO III. by the two sisters SOUSA, bore 
the following arms : the first, PORTUGAL quartering 
LEON ; the second PORTUGAL quartering SOUSA \Argent, 
four crescents in cross (" quadernas de meas Luas ") gules 
the points meeting towards the centre]. 

The family of MENESEZ, who descend from Don 
ALONZO SANCHEZ, son of Don DIONIS (King Denis) of 
bore : A rgent, a cross compone of nine pieces : five of 
CASTILE, four of LEON, between in each canton the 
Jive escucJieons the Quinas Reales from the arms of 

( 579 ) 

SAVOY. In the house of SAVOY the bendlet-sinister 
was the usual brisure for illegitimacy, but HUMBERT, 
batard de SAVOIE, son of Count AYMON, bore the arms 
of SAVOY : Gules, a cross argent debruised wit Ji five mufles 
de lion sable (SPENER, Opus Heraldicum, p. gen., p. 360, 
quoting from MENETRIER, gives these charges as five 
crescents azure^ but I think wrongly. See GuiCHENON, 
Hist. GMalogique de la Maison de Savoie, Hi., 271). 

In a MS. description of the arms of the Chevaliers 
who were present at Rome in 1 3 1 2, on the occasion of 
the coronation of the Emperor HENRY, we find a some- 
what similar coat borne. " M. Guillaume le Bastard, 
1'Ecu de gueules a une croix d'argent a cinq aiglettes 
de sable." The eagles of course came from the original 
arms of SAVOY. 

The brisure of a bendlet-sinister was used by RENE, 
batard de Savoie (d. 1525) son of Duke PHILIP Sansterre; 
by ANSELMO, Count de COLIGNO, natural son of PHILIP, 
Prince of ACHAIA and the MOREA ; and by ANTOINE 
DE BUSQUE, a natural son of JAMES, titular Prince of 

It may here be noted that though the above-named 
PHILIP, Prince of ACHAIA, was the eldest of the house 
of SAVOY, yet, as he did not succeed to its possessions, 
AMADEO made him and his descendants difference by 
the addition of a bend azure, as a mark of the renuncia- 
tion of the rights of seniority (GuiCHENON, Hist, de la 
Maison de Savoy e, i., 146). LOUIS DE SAVOIE, batard 
D'ACHAIE, Seigneur de RACONIS, living in 1433, was a 
son of Louis, Prince of ACHAIA, and bore as his brisure 
the azure bendlet, but sinister. His descendants, by 
permission of LOUIS, Duke of SAVOY, turned this into 
the legitimate brisure of a bend azure. 

BAVARIA. In SIEBMACHER'S Wappenbuch, vol. ii., are 
the arms of two Bavarian families which are apparently 
of illegitimate descent. The family of NUSBERG (or 

( 58 ) 

NUSSBERG), plate lix., bear, Gules, a fess charged with 
the arms of BAVARIA. The family of PUNTZINGER 
(plate Ixiii.) used BAVARIA witJi a chief gules. The 
Counts of HOLNSTEIN AUS BAYERN bore the quartered 
arms of BAVARIA and the PALATINATE, debruised by 
a baton sinister gules over all. 

HESSE. The Counts von SCHLOTHEIM in Hesse 
bear: Quarterly, I and 4. HESSE (Azure, a lion rampant 
barry argent and gules\ debruised by a bendlet-sinister or; 
2 and 3. Argent, an escucJieon reversed sable for SCHLOT- 
HEIM. (This is a remarkable difference from the arms 
of the legitimate Barons von SCHLOTHEIM, who bear : 
Argent^ an escucheon sable.} The Barons von SOMMERAU- 
BECK difference the arms of HESSE with a bendlet-sinister 

ORANGE (d. 1625), had two sons, WILLIAM and LOUIS, 
Seigneurs of LECK. These had a coat of four of the 
principal quarterings of their father's shield, NASSAU, 
brisure was an escucheon bearing the arms of the 
Lordship of LECK (Argent, a lion rampant sable}. The 
son of LOUIS was HENRY, Count of NASSAU-OUWER- 
KERKE, Master of the Horse to WILLIAM of Orange, 
who afterwards created his kinsman's son HENRY, Earl 
of GRANTHAM in 1698. 

HENRY FREDERICK, brother of MAURICE, whom he 
succeeded in the principality, had a natural son 
FREDERICK, Lord of ZULESTEIN, who bore the same 
arms as the Seigneurs of LECK, but substituted for its 
escucheon, that of the Lordship of ZULESTEIN : Gules, 
tJiree zuilen argent (v. p. 388), surmounted by a label of 
the same. 

In the Museum of Antiquities in the Porte de Hal at 
Brussels I noticed the interesting brass of WlLHELM DE 
GoiCX (circa I55S)> n it, among the escucheons denoting 

his descent, is one of NASSAU plain, ente en point 
argent, evidently for one of his ancestors who was a 
bastard of that house. The Counts of CONROY 
in Brabant, who were illegitimate descendants of 
NASSAU, bore NASSAU quartering VlANDEN (Gules, a 
fess or), the whole ente en point azure. 

have the family name of GYLDENLOVE, are illegitimate 
descendants of the Royal House of DENMARK and 
NORWAY. The former descend from ULRIC FREDERICK 
(d. 1704), a natural son of FREDERICK III. They bear : 
Quarterly, I and 4. Azure, a lion rampant argent crowned, 
holding in its fore-paws and standing on the long-handled 
Danish axe or (the arms of NORWAY with a change of 
tincture). 2. Per bend-sinister or and sable. 3. Per bend- 
sinister sable and or. These quarters are separated by a 
cross patee-througJiout argent. On the centre point is a 
crowned escucheon, Gules, charged with a cross patee and 
over all two lions passant gardant in pale or. Sur le 
tout du tout an oval escucheon Gules, crowned, and charged 
with the cypher F. III., also crowned or. (The founda- 
tion of the escucheon is SCHLESWIG, with a change 
of tincture.) The Counts of DANESKIOLD-SAMSOE 
descend from CHRISTIERN GYLDENLOVE, natural son 
of CHRISTIERN V. and bear a somewhat similar coat. 
Quarterly I and 4. Gules, a swan argent crowned and 
gorged with a coronet or (STORMARN). 2. Per bend- 
sinister azure and or. 3. Per bend-sinister or and 
azure. The remainder as in the preceding coat, but 
the escucheon sur le tout du tout has the cypher C 5 

SWEDEN. The Counts of WASABORG, who descend 
from a natural son of GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS, bear: 
Quarterly, i and 4. Argent, two barbel addorsed gules, in 
chief a crown or. 2 and 3. Gules, a griffon rampant 

crowned or. Over all an escuclieon sable, thereon a " vase " 
(or sheaf) or, debruised by a bendlet gules. 

Disregarding these Scandinavian examples, which are 
of modern date and debased style, we find that while the 
bend-sinister was the usual brisure, yet in the Low 
Countries the paternal arms were often borne upon a 
fess, canton, or other honourable Ordinary. In other 
cases, a point, or a champagne, or a chief was added. In 
the Peninsula, though the bendlet-sinister was used, a 
more frequent mode of denoting illegitimacy was by 
the assumption of a new shield composed from the 
parental quarterings. 

I must, however, remind the student that abroad a 
bend-sinister, when not used to debruise other bearings, is 
no mark of illegitimacy ; and its use carries with it no 
trace of suspicion. In Germany the custom referred to 
on pp. 135 and 220 has caused many shields bearing 
bends to appear as bends - sinister, as in the great 
armorial SlEBMACHER's Wappenbuch where nearly 
every plate contains examples of bends converted into 
bends - sinister, and charges turned from the normal 
position to face the sinister, the helmets and crests 
being similarly contournes, simply for pictorial effect 
(All this is, however, so contrary to the pre-conceived 
ideas of the ordinary British Herald, that I have known 
amusing instances of a failure to grasp the truth on the 
part even of highly-placed officials !) In France a con- 
siderable number of the coats granted by D'HoziER, in 
virtue of the edict of 1696, contain the Barre, or bend- 
sinister, as a principal charge. (See L Armorial General 
de France, by HoziER.) 



BEFORE we enter upon the subject of the external 
ornaments of armorial achievements the less familiar 
subject of badges claims a little attention. 

Family badges may probably have been the earliest 
form of hereditary insignia, preceding shield, or coat- 
armory. We have already noted that on the seal of 
Louis VII. of FRANCE (i 137-1 1 80) the single fleur-de-lis 
appears simply as a badge or device, not being included 
in a shield ; Louis's successor, PHILIP AUGUSTUS, was 
the first who bore the fleur-de-lis in numbers on a shield 
(vide ante, Chapter XII., p. 328). ODO BURNARD, in 
the reign of RICHARD I. sealed with a leaf as his badge, 
and afterwards with three leaves on his shield. 

In Scotland JOHN MONTGOMERY sealed with a fleur- 
de-lis, not enclosed in an escucheon, in 1175. (This is 
noticed as the MONTGOMERY device in a list of English 
badges in the reign of EDWARD IV.) His descendants 
bore three fleurs-de-lis as arms. ROBERT BRUCE, Earl 
of CARRICK (the competitor for the Scottish throne, and 
grandfather of King ROBERT I.), who had on his shield 
a saltire and chief, the latter charged with a lion passant 
gardant, also used a seal bearing this charge as his 
badge, not upon a shield. 

WILLIAM DE YNAIS, or INNES, had in his homage 
seal of 1295 a single six-pointed star not on an escucheon, 
his descendants bore three stars. (Other examples are 
given at p. 50, ante?) But if badges thus preceded formal 
hereditary arms they were also in high favour in the 

( 584) 

days of the purest heraldry. The badge was sometimes, 
as in the cases referred to above, identical with a charge 
of the shield, but this became less frequent in later times. 
Distinct as were crests and badges, the family badge 
sometimes came to be used as a crest. A badge may be 
described as a subsidiary family ensign, occasionally 
accompanied by a motto, borne not by the owner of it 
himself but by his adherents, dependants, or retainers. 
The silken hangings of beds, the tapestry of chambers, 
the caparisons of horses, as well as robes, were often 
powdered with badges. The badge was largely employed 
for all decorative purposes. In the fifteenth century, 
it was used (usually in combination with the crest) as 
a charge upon the Royal and knightly standards. 
(Vide Chapter XXII.) 

At an earlier period it often formed part of the 
ornamental work of the seals of magnates of the 
fourteenth century. In this and the following century 
there was not one of the leading nobility who had not 
his "household badge" (SHAKESPEARE, Henry F/., 
Act i., s. i) which, like other heraldic insignia, was often 
allusive to a name, estate, or office. Some families had 
more than one badge in general use ; for instance, the 
PERCIES of Northumberland used as their chief badges 
the silver crescent, and a golden locket, or pair of 
manacles. These are sometimes combined as on the 
standard of HENRY, 5th Earl, where the manacles are 
placed within the horns of the crescent. But they also 
used (as on the standard of HENRY ALGERNON 6th 
Earl) a key in pale surmounted by an open crown (the 
badge of their barony of POYNINGS), the falchion of 
FlTZPAYNE, and the bugle-horn of BRYAN. (See Mr 
LONGSTAFFE's paper on "The Old Heraldry of the 
Percies," originally published in the A rchceologia ALliana; 
and see also the " List of Standards" in Excerpta Historica y 
p. 334, etc.) The bear and ragged staff (originally two 

( 5*5 ) 

separate devices of the BEAUCHAMPS, Earls of WARWICK, 
the bear being allusive to their remote ancestor URSO), 
were united by the " King-maker," Earl of WARWICK, 
and the DUDLEYS who succeeded the NEVILLES, into 
one badge, "The rampant bear chained to the ragged 
staff." (A list of the principal badges is printed in 
Appendix G. Others will be found in the Chapter on 
STANDARDS already referred to.) 

KNOTS of particular form were not infrequently used 
as badges both in England and elsewhere ; e.g. the 
STAFFORD knot, the BOURCHIER knot, the WAKE and 
ORMOND knot ; in all these the silk is twined having 
some resemblance to the initial letter of the family name. 
In the BOWEN knot the allusion is double, it is formed 
of four bows, or loops, and each bears a resemblance to 
one form of the Greek letter B. Knots were also used to 
unite the badges of two families which had merged into 
one ; or the badge of an office to a personal one. Thus, 
the badge of the Lords DACRE of the North, was a silver 
escallop united by the DACRE knot gules to a ragged 
staff argent. The escallop was one of the charges of 
their arms (Gules, three escallops argent), while the ragged 
staff was said to commemorate the hereditary forester- 
ship of Inglewood, but Lord DACRE of GlLSLAND, K.G., 
who bore this badge on his standard, married ELIZABETH, 
daughter and heiress of Lord GREYSTOCK, K.G. and this 
may be the allusion. 

The HUNGERFORDS used the badge of a sickle erect, 
the handles gules, the bands or. (See the seal of Sir 
ROBERT HUNGERFORD, where the shield is placed 
between two sickles, the blades each charged with an 
ermine spot for cadency.) Later (when Lord HUNGER- 
FORD married CATHARINE PEVEREL) this was united 
by a knot to the golden garb of the PEVERELS, taken 
from their arms, Azure, three garbs or (on the HUNGER- 
FORD and PEVEREL Heraldry, in Cricklade Church, see 

( 586 ) 

a paper in Notes and Queries, 5th Series, viii., 193-194), 
as appears on a standard of their descendant EDWARD, 

These badges which, as has been said above, were 
borne generally by the owner's dependants, must when 
possible be carefully distinguished from the personal 
devices, temporarily used by exalted persons alone, and 
not by their households, often with an occult meaning 
known only to the wearer and his mistress, or special 
friends, and which was also generally accompanied by an 
allusive motto. Mr MONTAGU, one of the first English 
writers who directed attention to the wide subject of 
badges and devices, gives several instances which he con- 
siders to come under the latter category. These include 
the salamander in flames of FRANCOIS L, which occurs 
so frequently at Fontainbleau and Chambord, and of 
which there is a splendid example above the fireplace of 
one of the rooms in the Chateau de Blois. (It was used 
with varying mottoes Nutrisco et extinguo ; Jamais ne 
estaindra ; and, as at Azay, Ung seul desir.) So also 
the star of the MONTMORENCYS combined with its 
Greek motto AHAANflS ; Lord LATIMER'S human heart 
with its legend a Dieu et a ma fiancee ; and Sir THOMAS 
HENEAGE'S heart-shaped knot with the motto Fast 
t/io* untied, were eventually rather badges than devices. 
This whole subject has been very fully treated by Mrs 
PALLISER in her excellent volume Historic Devices, 
Badges, and War Cries, London 1870, and to this work 
the reader is referred for much amusing and interesting 
information on the subject, though it will be laid under 
contribution in the following paragraphs, in which a brief 
account is given of some of the principal English Royal 
Badges, including personal devices. 

First in order of these is the sprig of Broom, the 
famous planta genista which gave its name of PLANTA- 
GENET to the great house of the Counts of ANJOU, 

( 587 ) 

Kings of ENGLAND ; of which it continued to be one of 
the badges up to the time of HENRY VIII. We 
have already seen, p. 557, that a genet cat per pale 
sable and argent, between two broomcods stalked proper 
was the crest granted by EDWARD IV. to his natural son, 
ARTHUR PLANTAGENET, created Viscount LISLE by 
HENRY VIII. A sprig of broom appears on each side 
of the throne in the Great Seal of RICHARD I. (British 
Museum Catalogue, 80). The occasion of the assumption 
of this badge by the house of ANJOU is entirely unknown. 
Upon his monumental effigy in Westminster Abbey the 
robe of RICHARD II. is ornamented with the peascods, or 
pods of the planta genista ; the badge does not appear, 
however, to have been very frequently used in England, 
although a livery collar of broomcods, with a white hart 
as the pendant, appears on a portrait of the same prince 
at Wilton. It does not appear among the Royal badges 
upon the standards given in Excerpta Historica from the 
MS. in Coll. Arm., i., 2. 

A star between the horns of a crescent appears on the 
Great Seals of RICHARD I., and HENRY III. (Catalogue 
of Seals in the British Museum, Nos. 80 and 100). 

EDWARD I. is said to have had as his badge a rose or, 
stalked 'proper (HARL. MS., 304) ; and from his time down- 
ward roses of gold, white, and red, were used as orna- 
ments on their dress and furniture by many of the 
House of PLANTAGENET who descended from him. 

ELEANOR of Provence was the mother of EDWARD 
I., and Mr PLANCHE very plausibly suggests that from 
the sunny clime of Provence we have derived, not 
merely the rose of our gardens, but the famous floral 
emblems of the rival Royal Houses of YORK and 
LANCASTER. The tomb of her second son, EDMUND 
CROUCHBACK, Lord of LANCASTER, was covered with 
red roses. To his children, THOMAS and HENRY, 
descended the claim to PROVENCE. HENRY'S eldest 

( 533 ) 

son, the ist Duke of LANCASTER, has on his seal a 
bunch of roses. JOHN of GAUNT married BLANCHE, his 
younger daughter and heiress, and claimed PROVENCE 
accordingly. He bequeathed to St. Paul's Cathedral 
his bed powdered with roses. 

Regarded, probably, as of minor importance to the 
white swan, the antelope, and other principal cognizances 
of the Royal House, the use of the rose was retained by 
the Sovereign, and by the older family of JOHN of 
GAUNT. Borne white by the House of YORK, the rose 
is said to have been allusive to the fair ROSAMOND 
CLIFFORD. It came to the House of YORK by the 
marriage of RICHARD of CONINGSBURGH, son of 
EDMOND of LANGLEY with his second wife MAUD, 
daughter of THOMAS, Lord CLIFFORD. It was 
tinctured red by the House of LANCASTER, with 
the BEAUFORT line of which it seems to have been 
particularly associated ; Shakespeare calls it the Badge 
-of SOMERSET. Roses of the two colours seem to have 
corresponded to the livery colours of the PLANTAGENETS, 
and came, not unnaturally, to be the badge of the 
contending factions. 

Both red and white roses occur on a standard of 
EDWARD IV., which also bears the Royal Crest of the 
crowned lion passant gardant. Another standard, of 
which the principal device is the white rose of YORK 
en soleil, has only smaller charges of the same. A third, 
bearing the white lion of MARCH, has only white roses. 
The standard of HENRY V. has the heraldic antelope as 
its main charge, and the smaller ones are red roses only. 

EDWARD III. had as his special badge rays of the sun 
descending from a cloud. (I notice that on the fifth and 
sixth seal of this Prince (British Museum Catalogue, 183, 
and 1 86), the legend on the reverse is said to be 
" preceded by a hand of blessing issuing from a cloud ; " 

was this the origin of the badge ; or is it only a mis- 
2 Q 

description of the badge usually described as "a cloud 
and rays " ? 

This badge appears several times on the standard 
ascribed to EDWARD III., in the MS. (Coll. Arm.) so 
often referred to in this chapter. (It is not asserted that 
these standards were contemporary with the Princes to 
whom they are assigned.) 

The SWAN, argent, collared and chained or, was a 
badge of the House of LANCASTER, derived from the 
BOHUNS, whose co-heiress HENRY IV. had married. 
According to PLANCHE the BOHUNS had inherited this 
badge through the MANDEVILLES, Earls of ESSEX, from 
ADAM FITZ SWANNE, who held large estates in the 
time of the Conqueror. If this conjecture be correct the 
use of hereditary badges must have long preceded here- 
ditary heraldry. 

The WHITE HART lying down (technically lodged}, 
ducally collared and chained, was a cognizance of 
RICHARD II., and has been conjectured to be only a 
rebus on his name Rich-hart. On the other hand it is 
asserted that the badge was derived from THE FAIR 
whose badge was a white hynd (" the Whyte Hynd by 
the fayre mayden of Kent," HARL. MS., 304, fol. I2)> 
and it is certain that RICHARD'S half-brother, THOMAS- 
HOLLAND, Earl of KENT, used this, his mother's device. 
RICHARD II. also used the badge of a stock of a tree 
for Woodstock, and this appears on the banners of 
HENRY V., etc. 

The first distribution of the badge of a white hart as 
a livery collar was made by RICHARD II. at the jousts 
held at Smithfield on Sunday, October 12, 1390, in 
honour of his visitor the Count d'OSTREVANT (son of 
the Duke of HOLLAND), who was created a Knight of 
the Garter on the feast of St. EDWARD, the following 
day. We read that the King distributed his badge of 

( 59 ) 

the white hart, gorged with a crown and chain of gold 
pendent therefrom, to twenty-four Knights of the Garter, 
in the presence of his stranger guests. 

" On the kynges syde were the xxiv. Knyztes of the 
Garter, and they weren all of sute, here cotes, here 
armoure, sheldes, hors trappure, and all was whyte 
hertys with crownes abowte here neckes and chaynes of 
gold hanginge there uppon, and the crowne hanging 
lowe before the hertys body, the whyche herte was the 
kynges livery that he zaf to lordis and ladyes, knyztes 
and squyers, for to know his household from other 
people, and at the ferst connynge to here justes xxiv. 
ladyes ladden those xxiv. lordis of Gartour with chaynes 
of golde, and all in the same sute of hertys as is aforne 
sayde, from the toure on horsebacke thorowe the cete 
of London into Smethfelde, where the justis sholde ben 
holde." (MS. Chronicle, ending with reign of HENRY 
V., quoted from ANSTIS by BELTZ, History of the 
Order of the Garter, p. 252.) He had in his ninth year 
mortgaged certain jewels a la gyse de cerfs blancs 

The Wardrobe Accounts of 1399, show that " Two jaks 
volants" or streamers, were to be prepared for the King's 
visit to Ireland, of which one was to be worked with 
white harts. (It is curious that the crest assigned to 
Ireland (HARL. MS., 1073) was a white hart issuant from 
a castle. It not improbably dates from this expedition.) 
JOHN of GAUNT bequeathed to his daughter, the Queen 
of PORTUGAL, " mon meilleur cerfd'or," and the Duchess 
of YORK in 1392 left to the King "mon cerf de perle" 

Another cognizance of RICHARD II. was THE SUN IN 
SPLENDOUR. The second seal of HENRY IV. (British 
Museum Catalogue, 301) has a background composed of 
quatrefoil spaces charged alternately with suns, and roses 
en soleil. The same badges appear on the first and fourth 
seals of EDWARD IV. (British Museum Catalogue, 300, 

313), for the Yorkists always cherished the memory of 
the unfortunate king who had declared ROGER MORTI- 
MER his heir in preference to the descendants of JOHN 
of GAUNT. Hence both these devices became in course 
of time Yorkist badges, the Sun in Splendour being 
familiar to us from the opening lines of SHAKESPEARE'S 
Richard III. 

THE FALCON AND FETTERLOCK is generally con- 
sidered a Yorkist badge. The falcon alone is said to 
have been used by RICHARD II. With a padlock in its 
mouth it was a cognizance of JOHN of GAUNT. EDWARD 
IV., who had the falcon with the lock closed, ordered his 
son RICHARD to bear it with the lock open, and it is 
so represented on the gate of HENRY VII.'s chapel at 
Westminster. Langelyn is equivalent to "bind together" 
(Promptorium Parvuloruiri) ; and langele is still used in 
the north country with the meaning to hobble, or fetter a 
horse. Thus the fetterlock may have been assumed as 
a badge to denote the place Langley. EDMUND of 
LANGLEY built Fotheringhay Castle on a ground plan 
of this shape. 

OSTRICH FEATHERS. Of all the English Royal 
Badges that which is regarded with the most interest is 
the plume of ostrich feathers associated in legend with 
the BLACK PRINCE, and in later times appropriated as 
the special badge of the Princes of WALES. 

Its origin has exercised the ingenuity of antiquaries 
for several centuries. The romantic story which connects 
the badge with the capture of JOHN of LUXEMBOURG, 
King of BOHEMIA, at the battle of Cressy in 1346, which 
first appears in CAMDEN's Remains in 1614, must be 
dismissed as altogether fabulous. In his first edition 
that writer says "the tradition is that the Prince won 
them at the battle of Poictiers," but in the second 
edition " the truth is that he wonne them at the battle 
of Cressy, from JOHN, King of BOHEMIA, whom he there 

( 59' ) 

slew!" Neither FROISSART nor any contemporary 
historian can be appealed to in support of this tradition ; 
nor is there any evidence that the ostrich feather was 
ever the badge or device of King JOHN of BOHEMIA, 
or that the motto " Ich Dien " which has for so long a time 
been associated with the badge, was ever used by him. 

The crest of King JOHN of BOHEMIA, which appears 
on his seals as engraved in VREE (Genealogie des Comtes 
de Flandres, plate Ixiii.) was, not an ostrich feather, but 
the full wings of an eagle (being engraved in profile only 
one wing is seen on the seals), a favourite Low Country 
crest of the time. (Plate XLIX., fig. 4.) On his secretum 
the wing has several trefoil, or heart-shaped, charges 
(possibly linden leaves) which we also find of gold on the 
eagle wings borne as crests by LOUIS DE NAMUR, and 
ROBERT DE NAMUR, K.G., as well as by HENRI DE FLAN- 
DRES (see Plate XL IV., fig. 2, from the contemporary, 
Armorial de Gelre)\ and this is the crest which surmounts 
the arms of"Le roi de Boheme" in that valuable MS., the 
leaves being there certainly linden leaves, and, probably 
so, in the Wappenrolle von Zurich, plate i., also of the I4th 
century. An ostrich feather piercing a scroll was, un- 
doubtedly, the favourite badge of the BLACK PRINCE, but 
he had no exclusive property in it, as with variations it 
was similarly used by most of the Plantagenet princes, 
and is found upon one seal of EDWARD III. himself. 

Sir HARRIS NICOLAS in his valuable paper on the 
Badge (printed in Archczologia xxxi., pp. 350-384) informs 
us that among certain pieces of plate belonging to Queen 
PHILIPPA of HAINAULT was a large silver gilt dish, 
enamelled with a black escutcheon with ostrich feathers 
" vno scucJi nigro cumpennis de ostrich " ; and he suggests 
that the ostrich feather was probably originally a badge 
of the Counts of HAINAULT, derived from the County 
of OSTREVANT, a title which was held by their eldest 
sons. The sable escucheon with the silver ostrich 

( 593 ) 

feathers, not united but borne singly, arranged paleways 

two and one, the stem of each passing through a little 

escroll bearing the motto Jj^ frttt0 t is called by the 

BLACK PRINCE in his will, his shield " for Peace " ; and 

by the provisions of that testament was displayed, and 

still remains, on his monument in Canterbury Cathedral, 

alternating with his shield "for War" which bears 

the Royal Arms (FRANCE and ENGLAND quarterly), 

with a label argent, and is surmounted by his other 

motto: " )j0jnttflllt " (Hoogk-moed, i.e., High-minded, or 

Magnanimous). The Prince also ordered by his will 

that the chapel should be ornamented with " noz bages 

dez plumes d'ostruce" and he disposes in it of certain 

vestments embroidered with the same device. The badge 

of an ostrich feather borne singly, appears upon several 

seals of the BLACK PRINCE, but not invariably on those 

used after CRECY. With the motto IcJi dien upon the 

scroll, it is to be seen upon the seal of EDWARD, Duke 

of YORK, who fell at AGINCOURT. By the other Princes 

of the Plantagenet line who used the single ostrich 

feather the little scroll is usually uncharged, but there are 

differences in the tinctures. We learn from the HARL. 

MS., 304, folio 12, that the " Feather silver with the pen 

gold is the KING'S ; the ostrich feather, pen and all silver 

is the PRINCE'S ; and the ostrich feather gold, the pen 

ermine is the Duke of LANCASTER'S." The Seal of 

HENRY, Duke of LANCASTER, afterwards HENRY IV., 

bears on either side of his helmed and crested escucheon 

an ostrich feather erect ; a garter, or belt, with its buckle 

in base, and bearing his favourite motto Sovereygne, is 

twined around the whole feather, and the escroll is omitted. 

(Plate XXXV., fig. 4.) JOHN of GHENT had before 

this placed a chain along the quill ; and his brother 

THOMAS, Duke of GLOUCESTER, had used upon his seal 

the same badge with the substitution of a garter and 

buckle for the chain. (Plate XXXV., fig. i.) 

( 594 ) 

The garter-plate of JOHN BEAUFORT, Duke of 
SOMERSET, bears two ostrich feathers erect with golden 
escrolls, the " pens " being company argent and azure, the 
tinctures of the bordure with which the shield is differ- 
enced. (See Note on p. 598.) 

The shield bearing three ostrich feathers is one of 
those engraved on the obverse of the second seal of HENRY 
IV. in 1411 (Brit. Mus. Cat. No. 259), the others being 
a lion rampant within a bordure engrailed, or indented. 
BOUTELL calls this the shield of the Duchy of CORNWALL; 
I think it possibly the arms of WALES, as assigned to 
third shield bears (Azure) three garbs (or) for the Earldom 
of CHESTER. The Chantry Chapel in Worcester Cathe- 
dral, in which lies the body of ARTHUR, Prince of 
WALES, is ornamented with Royal badges, among which 
occurs the single feather with its escroll ; but on a window 
in St. Dunstan's Church in London, there was, within 
a wreath of roses, a roundly per pale sanguine and azure, 
charged with the letters E.P., and between them, a plume 
of ostrich feathers argent, their pens or, passing through 
an escroll inscribed with the motto IcJi Dien, and 
ensigned with the Prince's coronet. This was for 
EDWARD (afterwards EDWARD VI.), eldest son of 
HENRY VIII., but who was never Prince of WALES. 
EDWARD appears also to have placed the badge on a 
radiant sun, in which manner it was also used by HENRY, 
son of JAMES I. Since this reign the plume of feathers 
has become the peculiar badge of the Princes of WALES. 

HENRY V. used a fire-beacon ; an antelope lodged, 
gorged, and chained or ; and the white swan of BOHUN ; 
all three combined are to be seen in Westminster Abbey, 
in King HENRY'S Chantry. HENRY VI. retained the 
antelope, but also used two ostrich feathers in saltire or 
and argent ; and a panther inflamed. RICHARD III.'s 
chief badge was the white boar, armed and bristled gold. 

( 595 ) 

His banner bears this device, and is powdered with 
golden suns (HARL. MS. 4632). 

The chief TUDOR badges were the golden portcullis 
with its motto Altera securitas, supposed to be, after the 
fashion of the time, a rather far-fetched pun on the name 
TUDOR (Two door, or a second door) ; (the portcullis, 
however, seems rather to be a Lancastrian or BEAUFORT 
badge ; and its motto might imply that the BEAUFORT 
descent was an additional title to the throne) ; and 
the crowned rose of YORK and LANCASTER combined. 
Sometimes this rose is per pale argent and gules ; some- 
times the red rose is placed within the white, or the white 
within the red ; sometimes the flower is quarterly gules 
and argent. 

Other TUDOR badges were : the Royal Crown in, or 
above, a bush of hawthorn all proper, combined with the 
Royal Cypher ; the red dragon of WALES ; and the silver 
greyhound of LANCASTER (this sometimes has a golden 
collar charged with the red rose). The crown and bush 
were allusive to the story that after the battle of Bos- 
WORTH the golden circlet of RICHARD'S helm was found 
in a hawthorn bush by Sir REGINALD BRAY, and that 
with it Lord STANLEY crowned HENRY on the battlefield. 

One of the standards of HENRY VII. (which were of 
longitudinal stripes of the TUDOR livery colours white 
and green), bears the red dragon inflamed as its principal 
device, and the field is seme of flames. Another bears 
the white greyhound collared gules, and the field is charged 
with red roses. Yet another has the red dragon, but the 
field bears both red and white roses. 

The standard of HENRY VIII. has as its principal 
device the red dragon passant. The subsidiary badges 
are the fleur-de-lis or, the York and Lancaster rose (that 
is the white rose inside the red one) ; and flames of 
fire. The portcullis continued to be in use as a Royal 
badge in this reign. 

( 596 ) 

EDWARD VI. bore the same badges, and the radiant 

Queen MARY (TUDOR) had for her badge a red rose 
within a white one, impaled by dimidiation with a sheaf 
of arrows or, tied with a golden knot upon a semi-circular 
field argent and vert, the whole surrounded with rays, 
and ensigned with an open crown or. The arrows were 
a badge of the Queen's mother, KATHARINE of ARRAGON 
who inherited them from her progenitor, Queen ISABELLA 

ELIZABETH had numerous devices particularly her 
own, such as a phoenix, and a sieve. She also used her 
mother's badge of the falcon with crown and sceptre, 
besides the usual Royal badges of the crowned rose, the 
fleur-de-lis, and a harp or stringed argent, crowned of the 
first, used respectively for ENGLAND, FRANCE, and 


Under the House of STUART the badges above named 
were used for the kingdoms ; but the roses were some- 
times white, sometimes red, sometimes united (the white 
within the red, or quartered argent and gules]. Two 
STUART badges were also in use : a lion rampant gules, 
and the Scottish thistle. The latter was often repre- 
sented in conjunction with the English rose ; both being 
dimidiated and conjoined on a single stalk, with its 
proper leaf on either side, and a Royal Crown resting on 
the conjoined flower. 

No trace seems to exist of the thistle as the badge of 
Scotland, earlier than the time of JAMES III.; but that it 
was in use during that reign appears from an inventory 
of the jewels and furniture which at his death came into 
the possession of his sons. One of the articles named was 
a "covering of variand .... tartan browdered with 
thissels and a unicorn." BARBOUR'S poem of " The 
Thistle and the Rose" shows the former floral emblem to 
have been in general recognition as a Royal badge at the 

( 597 ) 

time of the wedding of JAMES IV. (1523), and the thistle 
figures prominently on the paper of the ratification by 
JAMES of his treaty of marriage with MARGARET of 

The present Royal badges, as settled under the Sign 
Manual in 1801, are: 

1. A white rose within a red one, barbed, seeded, and 

slipped proper ; ensigned with the Imperial Crown, 

2. A thistle, slipped and leaved proper ; ensigned 

with the Imperial Crown, for SCOTLAND. 

3. A harp or stringed argent; ensigned as before, for 


4. On a mount vert a dragon passant, its wings 

expanded and endorsed gules, for WALES. 
LIVERY COLLARS, composed of the badges or devices 
of a house, and often having the principal badge as 
a pendant, were much in use in England about the 
fifteenth century. They were often employed to denote 
political partisanship, as in the case of the collars of Suns 
and Yorkist Roses with the pendent White Boar of 
RICHARD III. The best known of these Livery Collars, 
the Collar of SS, was originally a Lancastrian decoration. 
The origin of the device has been the subject of almost 
interminable discussion, and is still far from clear. The 
letter S has been variously supposed to be the initial of 
the word Souverayne, Seneschal (JOHN of GAUNT was 
Steward, " Seneschalus" of ENGLAND) and Swan. The 
last derivation proposed by Mr PLANCHE, was suggested 
by the badge of a swan which appears pendent from 
the Collar of SS on the effigy of the poet GOWER in 
Southwark Church. I am not aware that there is any 
corroboration of this opinion elsewhere. Under HENRY 
VII. the collar lost its Lancastrian associations, and 
down to the present day it has been worn as a part of 
their official costume by certain officers of State, including 

( 598 ) 

Lords Chief Justices, Kings of Arms, and the Lord 
Mayor of London. 

Evidence exists of a limited use of family badges in 
Scotland. A contemporary list of badges of the prin- 
cipal English nobles, which Mr PLANCHE printed from 
a manuscript in the College of Arms, includes two 
Scottish examples. The badge of the Earl of DOUGLAS 
is said to be a heart gules ; and that of Sir THOMAS 
MONTGOMERY a fleur-de-lis. Figures that may be 
supposed to be badges, or devices, occur on the Great 
Seals of Scotland, and on the seals of some of the more 
considerable nobles. A stag couchant on the reverse of 
the seal of WALTER STEWART, Earl of ATHOLE, has 
been considered a personal device. 

Often, however, either the crest or some charge taken 
from the arms, seems, in Scotland as elsewhere, to have 
done duty as the badge. 

A different species of badge, unrecognised by authority, 
has gradually sprung up among the Highland clans, 
namely a leaf or sprig of some tree or shrub, usually 
carried in the bonnet which the chief wears, along with 
two eagle's feathers. 

A list of badges is given in the Appendix. 

NOTE. On the Privy Seals of our Sovereigns the 
ostrich feather is still employed as a badge. The shield 
of arms is usually placed between two lions sejant 
(gardant} addorsed, each holding the feather. On the 
Privy Seal of HENRY VIII. the feathers are used with- 
out the lions ; and this was the case on the majority of 
the seals of the Duchy of LANCASTER. On the reverse 
of the present seal of the Duchy the feathers appear to 
be ermine {Brit. Mus. Cat., No. 747). On the obverse of 
this seal, and on that of GEORGE IV., the Royal Sup- 
porters hold banners of the arms of ENGLAND, and of 
the Duchy (ENGLAND, a label for difference). 





OF the external ornaments of a shield of arms the 
most important is the helmet with its crest, to which 
later 1 was joined the wreath or a crest-coronet, and 
the lambrequins, or mantlings. 

We find from ancient seals that the armorial shield 
was in use before crests appeared upon the helms. 
The cylindrical helmet of PHILIPPE D'ALSACE, Count 
of FLANDERS (c. 1181), bears indeed the figure of 
a lion similar to that upon his shield, but this 
is no true crest, it is simply painted on the side 
of the helm. The earliest crested helm is that of 
RICHARD I. of England in 1198, it bears a lion-passant 
in the centre of a fan-shaped crest. No other example 
is known until we come to the seal of MATTHIEU DE 
MONTMORENCY in 1224; on it the cylindrical flat- 
topped helm has the crest of a peacock's head and 

( 6oo ) 

neck. The similar helm of OTHO, Count of BUR- 
GUNDY in 1248, bears three small banners. The 
helm of ALEXANDER III. of Scotland (c. 1307) has a 
flat top edged with a coronet, and bearing a fan-shaped 
crest. (Plate XLIX., fig. 8.) The contemporaneous seal 
of EDWARD I. of England has a similar helm but no crest 
The oval-topped helm was soon ornamented with the 
fan-shaped crest as shown in Plate XLIX., fig. 9, from 
the seal of CHARLES, Count de VALOIS (c. 1295); 
and this ecran continues to be used as the crest 
of many important German families. The earliest 
crested helm which appears among the seals given in 
RUBBER'S Austria, is that of ULRIC DE CHAPELLE in 
1280; the shield is couche, and the helm is surmounted 
by a wing. On the seal of GEOFFREY D'ARSCHOT 
(c. 1295) the helm has the fan-crest, and on either side a 
tall cock's feather (?) rises from its base, this is a type 
often repeated, and was perhaps the germ of the use of 
wings which later became so frequent. A dragon 
couchant between two feathers is the crest of CHARLES, 
Count de VALOIS, in 1308; and, with the dragon statant, 
is that of PHILIPPE DE VALOIS in 1307 ; while in 1316, 
the helm of EDWARD III. of England bears a lion 
statant without a crown. (Plate XLIX., fig. 2.) The 
seals of JEAN D'AvESNES, and of FLORENT of HAIN- 
AULT (c. 1295) show their helms crested with an eagle 

In England the crested helm had not the same 
importance as in Germany and the Low Countries. The 
crests are not recorded in the many ancient Rolls of 
Anns which are still extant. This may have arisen from 
the fact that in early times the crest was considered 
rather a personal than a hereditary possession ; it was 
subject to change at the caprice of the bearer, and all 
members of a family did not necessarily use the same 
crest. In fact the use of a different crest was an early 

( 6oi ) 

mode of denoting cadency. In SlEBMACHER's Wappen- 
bucli, vol. iii., we find that no less than thirty-one branches 
of the Alsacian family of ZORN (who bore : Per fess 
gules and or, in chief a star argent) differenced solely in 
this way. 

In German Armory the helmets are of two kinds 
only: shut, or visored ; open, or barred; the former were 
used by the newly ennobled, and the greatest importance 
attached to the crested helm ; this was fostered by the 
regulations of the tourneys, which required the shields of 
the combatants to be exposed before the contest, penches 
beneath the crested helm (see Appendix C). 

In France the timbred helm came to be considered the 
prerogative of the military noblesse, and was denied to 
nouveaux annoblis, who were only entitled to use it on 
becoming in the third generation bons gentilhommes. 
When, in 1 372, CHARLES V. conferred on the bourgeoisie of 
Paris the right to use armorial bearings, it was strenuously 
denied that they could use the timbred helm. In 1568 
an edict of CHARLES IX. prohibited the use of armoiries 
timbre'es to any who were not noble by birth. 

In the Imperial patent of arms in my possession, 
granted by the Emperor LEOPOLD under his sign 
manual to Dr F. GHIBELLI, the escucheon is surmounted 
by two helms coroneted but without crests. 

Originally helmets were of the same shape and 
materials for all ranks ; but in later times (when they 
had ceased to be generally worn) distinctions were made 
in depicting them, and the rank of the owner was 
denoted by their matter, shape, and position. MENE- 
TRIER, in 1680, says the helm should be of gold for 
sovereigns ; of silver for princes and great nobles ; and 
of polished steel for simple nobles or gentlemen. 

The old French heralds differ as to the number of the 
grilles, or bars, which should denote the various ranks of 
nobility, but I do not propose to occupy space with an 

( 602 ) 

account of these diversities, being very much of 
PLANCHE'S opinion that, " the various positions of the 
helmet, and the rules for its being open, closed, or barred, 
are all of comparatively modern date, and as useless as 
embarrassing." In modern British Heraldry the helm 
of the sovereign is of gold, placed full-face, and having 
golden grilles ; the helms of peers are of silver, in profile, 
with five golden grilles ; those of baronets and knights 
are of steel, full-faced with open vizor ; and those of 
gentlemen are of steel, placed in profile with the vizor 

FIG. 93. FIG. 94. FIG. 95. FIG. 96. . 


The barred helm only came into general use at 
the very end of the sixteenth century. An examination 
of the interesting series of Stall-Plates at Windsor shows 
that "only one barred or tourney helm .... is 
found on the early plates, viz. : on that of RICHARD 
PLANTAGENET, Duke of GLOUCESTER (el. 1475). The 
helms on the early plates, though of various fashions, are 
all of the same class of tilting helms, drawn in profile ; 
and those which are antecedent to 1421 are drawn, in 
accordance with the general custom, so as to face the 
High Altar (y. p. 134), thus those on the north side 
are turned to the sinister." (See Mr HOPE'S excellent 
paper on the " Early Stall Plates," in Archceologia for 
1889.) Lord KNOLLYS, in 1615, is the first baron whose 
plate shows the barred helm ; and it was only about 
the time of the Restoration that the full-faced helmet 
became a distinguishing mark for baronets and knights. 

The crested helms which are now suspended above the 
stalls of the Knights of the Garter are affrontes, but the 
crests are all made to range to the dexter. Now, in the 
days when helmets and crests were really worn, the animal 
used as a crest looked straight forward from the front 
of the helm. But when represented on seals, etc., as 
borne by a knight riding to the right or left ; or when 
arranged above an escucheon, the animal while placed to 
range with the helm, often had its head turned a little so as 
to face the spectator. Thus the lion passant, or statant, of 
the Crest of England became the lion statant-gardant 
(See Plate XXXV., fig. 4.) So far as the crest was con- 
cerned it was really not intended originally to be a variant 
from the lion passant. Accordingly no knight in ancient 
times, and no decently well-informed foreign heraldic 
artist in our own, would think of placing on a full-faced 
helm a lion or other beast presenting its side to the 
spectator, with its head over the wearer's right shoulder 
and its tail over the left ! Yet this is how the crests are 
represented in the Chapel of the " Most Noble " Order of 
Christian Chivalry, and the cJiapeaux that support many 
of them are turned round to the side of the helm in a way 
which would be suggestive of anything but sobriety on 
the part of the wearer ! This is a matter which affords 
matter for amused amazement to the intelligent foreigner. 
(Herald and Genealogist, viii., 366.) 

In Germany and other northern countries, where the 
crested helmet and crest are of as much importance as 
the shield of arms, several crested helms are generally 
placed above a quartered escucheon. Each formerly 
denoted a noble fief for which the proprietor had a right 
to vote in the "circles" of the Empire. 1 When the 
number of the helms is even, they are arranged so that 
all look inwards towards the centre line of the escucheon, 

1 No less than thirteen were thus arranged above the shield of 
the Markgraves of Brandenburg Anspach. 

( 604 ) 

half being turned to the dexter, half to the sinister. If 
the number be uneven, the principal helm is placed in 
the centre affronte, the others with their crests being 
tournes towards it ; thus some face to the dexter, some 
to the sinister. (In Scandinavia the centre helm is 
affronte ; the others, with their crests, are often turned 
outwards.) One of the good points of the illustra- 
tions in FOSTER'S Peerage, was that he had the courage 
thus to arrange many of his helmets and crests in a 
common-sense way, without regard to the modern 
ignorant custom which prescribes that, whether the 
helm be full-faced or in profile, all crests shall look in 
the same direction, i.e., to the dexter. 

In Germany when several crested helmets are used, 
two of them are often placed upon the heads of the 
supporters (as in fig. 98, page 627) ; not as permanent 
additions to them but/r<? hac vice. The modern English 
use by which crests are represented floating about in the 
air above the shield, without a helm, or any other adequate 
support, is not one that commends itself to the German 
herald (who very rarely dissevers the helm from the crest), 
or, indeed, to any one else who can give the subject 
intelligent consideration. In France the use of crests is 
not nearly so general as in England and Germany ; in 
Italy, and especially in Spain and Portugal, it is less 
frequent still. This has greatly arisen from the unre- 
stricted use of coronets by those who, according to our 
insular ideas, would have no right to them (y. p. 626). 

Many writers have denied the right of ecclesiastics 
(and, of course, of women) to the use of helmet and crest. 
SPENER, the great German herald, defends their use by 
ecclesiastics, and says that, in Germany at any rate, 
universal custom is opposed to the restriction. There, 
the prelates, abbots, and abbesses, who held princely fiefs 
by military tenure, naturally retained the full knightly 
insignia. On the other hand, in the southern kingdoms 

2 R 

clerics almost invariably replace the helmet and crest 
by the ecclesiastical hat. 

The early crests were frequently derived from the 
charges of the escucheon ; an examination of any 
series of ancient seals will show this, and many con- 
tinue to be borne without material change up to the 
present day. On the other hand, at least as frequently 
the crests do not correspond to the charges, and have 
been repeatedly varied at the caprice of the owners. 
Sometimes the crest assumed had reference to an office 
held by the wearer. On the seal of DAVID LINDSAY, 
Lord CRAWFORD, in 1345, the crest is a key erect, which 
is said to have been adopted to denote the wardenship 
of the Castle of Berwick, or of Edinburgh. The Earls 
of DUNBAR and MARCH, Wardens of the Marches, had 
as a crest a horse's head bridled ; and the JOHNSTONS 
of Annandale, Wardens of the West Marches, a spur 
between a pair of wings ; in both cases the crest was 
assumed with reference to their constant readiness to 
discharge the duties of those offices (NlSBET, ii., 19). 
More frequently the crest referred to descent. Thus, that 
of the LYONS, Earls of STRATHMORE : a demi-woman 
holding in her right hand a thistle, and placed within 
two laurel branches proper, commemorates an alliance 
with the daughter of ROBERT II. The STUARTS of 
Traquair, as descendants of the Earls of BUCHAN, used 
a garb as their crest. SETON of Touch used a boar's 
head or, in memory of a descent from a GORDON heiress ; 
just as in England the demi-monk, the crest of the Lords 
STOURTON, commemorates a descent from the family of 
LE MOYNE. The crest of the WOODWARDS a white 
greyhound sejant on a golden crest-coronet was derived 
from the CLINTONS of Baddesley through the marriage 
(c. 1460) of JOHN WODEWARD with their heiress 
PETRONILLA. The Lancastrian greyhounds (y. p. 595) 
are still the supporters of the CLINTONS, Dukes of 

( 606 ) 

NEWCASTLE, of the Earls FORTESCUE (once Lords 
CLINTON), and of the present Lords CLINTON. 

Among the earliest crests assumed without reference 

to the charges of the shield, were buffalo, or ox horns, 

and wings. These latter if cut square at the top were 

called vols bannerets, and were sometimes charged with 

the arms. Thus the crest of BERTRAND DU GUESCLIN, 

on his seal in 1365, was an eagle's head between a vol 

banneret, thereon a bend charged with his arms : Argent, 

a double-headed eagle displayed, debruised by a bendlet 

gules (cf. Plate XLIV., fig. i). The crest of JOHN DE 

GRAILLY, K.G., Captal de BUCH, was a man's head in 

profile with long asses' ears. The SOUDAN DE LA TRAU, 

K.G., in 1379 used the same crest ; both appear on their 

stall-plates at Windsor, and the seal of the latter is in 

BELTZ, Memorials of t/ie Order of tJie Garter, p. 269. The 

ox-horns which appear so frequently in German crests were 

affixed one on either side of the helm. Originally, as will 

be seen in the ZilricJi Wappenrolle and in our example 

(Plate XLIX., fig. i), the horns were simply curved and 

pointed. In the more florid heraldry of later times they are 

recurved, and have a mouth-piece in which are sometimes 

placed tufts or plumes of feathers (See Plate XLIX., figs. 

5, 6, 7). This latter form, not being understood by French 

armorists, received the absurd name of trompes d' elephant, 

w proboscides ! These horns are usually of the tinctures 

of the shield. If this be barry the horns will probably be 

so also ; if it be per pale the dexter horn will be of the 

one tincture, the sinister of the other. If the coat is 

quarterly each horn will be divided per fess, so that the 

colours appear alternately (see BOYNEBURG below, and 

Plate XLIX., fig. 6). Sometimes the horns are stringed, 

as on the seal of MARQUARD DE SCHELTENBERG in 

1310 (see HUEBER, Austria Illustrata, tab. vii., 13, and 

the ZiiricJi Wappenrolle, plates ii., iv., ix., and xxi.). 

Sometimes one crest serves for two quartered coats, 

thus the crest of BAVARIA was the PALATINATE golden 
lion, sejant between two horns (or as many wings) charged 
with the fusilly-bendy of BAVARIA. 

The wings are usually those of eagles ; they are nearly 
as frequently found, are probably as ancient as the horns, 
and are generally tinctured on the same principle. Thus 
the crest of the Counts zu TRAUN, who bear : Per pale 
argent and sable is : out of a crest coronet or a pair of 
wings, the dexter argent the sinister sable. When a vol 
forms the crest, the whole bearings of the shield are 
often found upon each of the wings. Such a crest is still 
borne by the Duke of NORFOLK. Sable eagle's wings 
are often powdered with linden leaves of gold or silver 
(v. Plate XLIX., fig. 3, and p. 592). 

Penaches, plumes, usually of peacock's or ostrich 
feathers, were very frequently used in mediaeval times in 
England, and are still in great favour abroad. The eyes 
of peacock's feathers are often used to adorn crests, see 
Plate XLIX., figs. 3 and 10, and Plate XLVI., fig. I. 
The crest of AUSTRIA is ^.penacJie of peacock's feathers 
rising from a golden coronet (v. p. 614). 

The human figure, which is a favourite crest in 
Germany, is usually a half-length, without arms, and is 
often habited in the bearings of the shield (v. Plate 
XLVI., fig. 2). Its arms are frequently replaced by a 
pair of horns, which gives the figure a bizarre appearance 
to British eyes. The explanation is easy ; the human 
figure was originally placed between the horns, which 
were attached to the helm. The same explanation 
suffices for such crests as that of MUMPELGARD, Plate 
XLIV., fig. 3, where the arms are replaced by fish. 

Though the use of the coroneted helm is general, 
German crests often rise from a cap, or chapeau ; and 
there are numerous examples in which a hat is the sole 
crest. The usual shape is perhaps a tall conical hat 
charged with the arms. The crest of SAXON V is a 




1, 5, 6, 7, 10. From Hildebrand's Heraldisches Musterbuch. 2. Edward IIL 
of England. 3. Burggrave of Niirnberg. 4. John, King of Bohemia. 
8. Alexander III. of Scotland. 9. Charles Comte de Valois. 

( 668 ) 

familiar example of this. Out of a coronet rises a tall 
hat charged with the arms, coroneted at the point, and 
ending in a small tuft of three peacock's feathers. From 
ignorance of its meaning this hat is often erroneously 
blazoned a " Column " (!), a term which is also applied 
to the plumail, or tuyau, the tube out of which feathers 
sometimes rise, an ancient form of which is shown in 
Plate XLIX., fig. 7. Curious mediaeval hats, used 
with considerable frequency, are represented in Plate 
XLIV, fig. 4, and Plate XLVL, fig. 3. 

The mitre, or a mitred figure, is occasionally found as 
a crest, and has sometimes given rise to the most absurd 
explanations. It is usually borne to indicate that the 
user, or his progenitors, held the office of advocate 
(Avoue ; Vidame ; Vogf] to a bishopric, or great ecclesi- 
astical foundation. (The curious crest, Plate XLV., 
fig. 3, is only a mitre in profile, with tufts of feathers at 
the points.) 

According to British ideas there are many anomalies 
in the German use of crests. Occasionally a shield 
bearing a single coat is timbred with two or more 
crested helms ; and still more curiously these are some- 
times identical. Thus, the Barons von BOYNEBURG, who 
bear : Quarterly sable and argent, have three coroneted 
helms, each bearing a hat per pale of the colours, and 
surmounted by two buffalo horns per fess alternately of 
the same. The Counts of MARCK used as crest an entire 
buffalo head, enveloping the helm so that the mouth 
served as the visor. The head was crowned with a 
coronet of gold fleurons upon a circlet cJiequy argent and 
gules, out of which the horns arose. The crest of the 
Royal House of France was a double Jfour-d6-/is, so placed 
that from every point of view a full fleur-de-lis was seen. 

In Germany, Russia, and Austria the Imperial and 
Prussian eagles, usually on a coroneted helm, are fre- 
quently given as augmentations. 

In Great Britain the crest has become the part of the 
armorial insignia most generally employed. We 
find it divorced from the helm and coat of arms, 
doing the duty of a badge on household furniture, on 
silver plate, on servants' buttons, on the panels of 
carriages, and the harness of their horses. It need 
hardly be said that all this is an entire departure from 
the original idea of the crest as the ornament of a 
knightly helm ; that the use of a crest by ladies 
(unless they are sovereign princesses) is an indefensible 
anomaly ; and that to speak (as people who ought to be 
better informed often do) of a whole achievement 
arms, helm, crest, and motto as " our crest" is as absurd 
as it would be to call a suit of clothes a tiara ! 

In British Armory crests are (theoretically) susceptible 
of differences ; the crests of the Plantagenet princes, for 
instance, were differenced by the labels used on their 
coats of arms ; and the same custom has been shown to 
obtain with regard to the labels used by the Princes of 
the Royal House at the present day. But the use of 
the modern marks of cadency the crescent, mullet, etc. 
upon their crests by persons of lower station is even 
more infrequent than their use in the armorial escucheon. 
In Scotland, where cadets and sub-cadets are very 
numerous, and the prevalent system of differencing is 
inapplicable to crests, the custom has long prevailed by 
which cadet lines are allowed to use a different one from 
that employed by the chief line of the family. (Compare 
the Continental use described on p. 60 1.) 

According to modern English practice two crests can 
only be properly borne, either when a special grant of a 
crest has been made by the crown as an honourable 
augmentation, or in virtue of a Royal licence to use an 
additional family name and the corresponding Armorial 
Insignia. In Scotland the system of change of name 
by Royal licence does not obtain, but it may be 

( 610 ) 

remarked here that before the year 1809 no instance 
can be found of more than a single crest being 
used by an individual north of the Tweed ; and it was 
considerably later that instances of the modern practice 
began to appear in the Lyon Register in some (though 
by no means in all) cases in which a double surname 
had been assumed ; and in a very few other instances in 
which this apology could not be made for the innova- 

The entire lack of true heraldic feeling which 
characterised the armory of the last century and the 
first half of the present, is shown nowhere more forcibly 
than in the tasteless and absurd devices granted to be 
borne as crests. Objects which it would be impossible 
to attach to the summit of a helm are frequently found, 
and of these the Lyon Register contains more than a 
fair share. Such are the waves of the sea with floating 
ships, etc., which appear in connection with the achieve- 
ments of Lords NELSON and CAMPERDOWN ; of CALDER 
and DlCK-CuNYNGHAM (barts.) ; the shipwreck of Lord 
and STODART ; the rainbows of HOPE, BENSON, and 
EDWARDS ; the coronets floating in the air above the 
hand of DuNBAR (bart) ; the sun shining on a stump of 
a tree of GRANT (bart.) ; the bees flying about the hive 
of Lord LANSDOWNE, etc. Tastes of course differ, but 
the writer can hardly think that the epergne given to 
Lieutenant-General SMITH by his friends at Bombay 
was a fitting ornament for a helmet ; or that the fact of 
its presentation was worthy of perpetual commemoration 
in his armorial achievement (see Crests of SMITH- 
GORDON, Bart). It is quite clear that many figures 
now used would never have had official sanction had the 
origin and design of crests been duly remembered. 
Something might be done to remove present incongruities 
by more intelligent drawing, e.g., arms embowed should 

not be drawn in the unstable position of resting on the 
elbow ; and hands holding wreaths, etc., should issue, not 
from the heavens above, but from the helm beneath. 

LAMBREQUINS AND WREATHS. Ancient crests were 
moulded out of cuir bouilli, and fixed on the helm by 
a calotte or cap of the same substance. This appears 
from the old tourney rules printed in MENETRIER, de 
rOrigine des Annoiries et du Blason, pp. 79, 80, from a 
MS. in the library of SEGUIER, Chancellor of France, 
printed in Appendix C. In the Zurich Wappenrolle 
there are no wreaths, and the calotte is usually of a red 
colour (see Plates XLV. and XLVL). In later times the 
line of junction was masked by a wreath of silk, the ends 
of which floated behind. Some have seen in this a 
reminiscence of the turbans of the Saracens. In a large 
number of cases crest and calotte are in one piece (see 
Plates XLIV., XLV., XLVL). In the Armorial de Gelre, 
the calotte no longer fits the helm tightly, though it often 
forms part of the crest, but it has greater length behind, 
and its floating edges are scalloped ; this was the origin 
of the lambrequins. In other cases the calotte is distinct, 
and varies in colour, from the crest. It has become a 
capucJion or capeline, and the line of junction with the 
crest is either hidden by a crest-coronet or covered by a 
hat from which the crest rises. The tortil or wreath 
occurs but seldom in the Armorial de Gelre. In many 
instances the capeline was armoyee (v. Plate XLIV., figs. 
5, 6). On the capeline of ROBERT II. of Scotland are 
the arms of BRUCE. Other Scottish examples are 
found in the cases of the Sire de SANDILANDS, and Sir 
GAUTHIER HALYBURTON, in both of which the lambre- 
quins are armoyes. In the arms of the Due de BAVIERE, 
shield, capeline, and crest are all alike tinctured with the 
Bavarian fusils. When the crest was formed by the 
head and neck of a bird its plumage was prolonged to 
serve as a capeline, as in Plate XLIV., fig. I. There 

( 6-12 ) 

are several instances of these feather lambrequins in the 
stall-plates at Windsor. (See those of Sir HUGH 
XLV., fig. 4, from the ZilricJi Wappenrolle, we see the 
scaly skin of a salmon similarly used. The mane of the 
lion, which forms the crest of MERTZ ; and the hair and 
beard of the men in the case of the crests of BOHN, 
LANDSCHADEN, etc., are similarly prolonged into lambre- 
quins. The capeline was not merely ornamental, it 
discharged the same office as the puggree does on a 
modern helmet, protecting the head and neck of the 
wearer from the rays of the sun. When the helmet 
ceased to be worn, the capeline, as depicted in painting 
or sculpture, underwent a double conversion ; first into 
lambrequins of the helmet, and then into a mantling 
surrounding the arms. The picturesque lambrequins 
have now degenerated into mere unmeaning flourishes 
and scrolls, and, whether they envelope the shield or not, 
are known as mantlings. In Germany the tinctures of the 
lambrequins of the crested helms correspond with those 
of the quartering to which they belong. When a single 
helm is used with a quartered coat the lambrequins vary 
on either side so as to correspond with the tinctures of 
the adjacent quarters. According to modern British 
usage, while the rule for the tinctures of the wreath is 
that they should be of the principal metal and colour of 
the arms, the mantlings are of gules, or crimson, lined 
with white. This is so general that, with the usual 
official tendency to regulate that which needs no regula- 
tion, modern grants of arms distinctly prescribe these as 
the tinctures of the mantlings, instead of permitting the 
wearer to follow the old custom of using mantlings 
composed, like the wreath, of the principal tinctures. 
One of the respects in which we may expect (or at 
all events may hope for) better things as a result 

of the spread of a greater knowledge of heraldry com- 
bined with better artistic taste is in this matter of the 
mantlings and lambrequins. We need only look at the 
early stall-plates of the Knights of the Garter to find 
precedents for treatment of these which are both heraldic 
and truly artistic. Thus the mantlings of the arms of 
GEORGE, Duke of CLARENCE, are seme of the white 
roses of YORK. Those of Sir JOHN BOURCHIER, 
Lord BERNERS, have their silver lining powdered 
alternately with water-budgets (the charge of his arms) 
and with his badge, the Bourchier Knot ; while the 
crimson mantling is seme' of golden billets from one of 
his quarterings. The azure mantling of HENRY V. as 
Prince of WALES is seme of the French golden fleurs-de- 
lis; and that of JOHN, Lord BEAUMONT (K.G., 1397) is 
similarly flory argent, as the -field of his arms. The 
BTHUNES, Dues de SULLY, etc., Princes de BETHUNES 
HESDIGNUEL bear exceptionally a golden helm with 
lambrequins of azure, fleury or, their arms being Argent, 
afess gules. The DAUBENY mantling is seme* of mullets 
(see Fig. 92, p. 600). On the brass of Sir JOHN 
WYLCOTE at Tew the lambrequins are chequy ; and 
the WARRENS also used the mantling chequy or and 
azure from their arms. (VINCENT'S MSS. in Coll. 
Arm.) On the seals of Sir JOHN BUSSY in 1391 and 
1407 the mantlings are barry, the coat being Argent, 
three bars sable. ( Visitation of Huntingdon, pp. 67, 68.) 

There are many exceptional cases in which the rule 
that the lambrequins should agree with the tinctures of 
the arms is not observed ; e.g., the Swiss GULDINEN 
have lambrequins of or and argent ; the Prussian 
STEINMANS of purple only ; the GHELDERSONS of vert 
and azure. 

There is as great variety in the use of the wreath. 
A knight in the old tournament days on occasion 
substituted a contoise of the colours of his mistress, or a 

sleeve of her dress, for the armorial wreath of his own 
colours. COSSO in Dalmatia uses azure and gules ; DOPF, 
sable and gules. In more cases the wreath is of three or 
more tinctures ; it is chequy on the seals of ROBERT 
STEWART, Duke of ALBANY, in 1389, and of his son 
MURDOCH (LAING, i., 787, 789). Occasionally a wreath 
of flowers or leaves is substituted for the ordinary tortil. 
The wreath of PATRICK HEPBURN appears to be of 
roses in r Armorial de Gelre, and several German 
examples are to be found in SlEBMACHER. The helm 
of ENGELBERT, Comte de NASSAU, was couronne d'une 
haye d'or, and there are several examples of the use of a 
crown of thorns. The wreath of the TROUTBECKS is 
formed of trouts in an example in MOULE'S Heraldry 
of Fish ; that of JEAN DE GUEVARA, Comte d'ARIANO, 
was of peacock's feathers. I have collected very many 
other curious examples for which my present limits 
afford no space. Among us the modern wreath is 
usually very badly drawn ; it is disproportionately large, 
and like a straight twisted bar, balanced on the top of 
the helm ! (See the funny examples at Windsor.) 

The CREST-CORONET. The use of this was developed 
from the wreath. It is an open crown, usually of gold, 
and having (but not invariably) four foliations like those 
of a ducal coronet, by which name it still is vulgarly 
designated, though there is in it no reference to ducal or 
any other titular rank. It was much employed in the 
Low Countries and in Germany, where, however, it is 
properly considered an adjunct to the helm rather than 
a portion of the crest, but there are few examples of its 
use in the Zurich Wappenrolle ; one of these is that of the 
Dukes of AUSTRIA (ante, p. 608), but there is no coronet 
on the seals of LEOPOLD in 1216, of ALBERT in 1286, or 
of FREDERICK in 1 3 1 1 . The coronet is used by RODOLPH 
in 1305, and FREDERICK in 1313 (see HUEBER, Austria 
Illustrata). Sometimes the coronet was tinctured of 

other colours than gold. In the Armorial de Gelre, that 
used by " le Roi de Navarre" is actually of ermine ! The 
use of a coroneted helm is said by some writers to be 
peculiar to those who are of tourney nobility whose 
ancestors had taken part in those conflicts. BRYDSON 
(Summary View, p. 189), thought it a distinction of a 
banneret (but this it certainly was not in England), and 
he quotes OLIVIER DE LA MARCHE, " that none ought 
to adorn the tymbres of their armorial ensigns with a 
golden crown but gentlemen of name, arms, and cry." 

By the regulations of the English College of Arms 
no new grants of crests arising from crest-coronets, or 
chapeaux, are made to ordinary applicants. But mural, 
naval, and Eastern, crowns form part of the grant in the 
case of persons who have respectively served with great 
distinction as military or naval officers, or in the public 
service of our Asiatic possessions. These coronets are 
figured on Plate L. Other forms of the crest-coronet 
are rarely found, that used by the Marquess of RlPON is of 
fleurs-de-lis ; and that of the RlDDELLS of Ardnamurchan 
is said to be " the coronet of a French count." 

MANTLES AND PAVILIONS. The mantles which are 
frequently drawn around the arms of sovereigns and 
great nobles must be distinguished from the mantlings 
or lambrequins of the helm ; though, as has been said, 
both were simply enlargements of the capeline, and like 
it were often annoy ees. In later times the arms of 
Sovereigns ; the German Electors, etc., were mantled, 
usually with crimson velvet fringed with gold, lined with 
ermine, and crowned ; but the mantling annoy e was one 
of the marks of dignity used by the Pairs de France, 
and by cardinals resident in France ; it was also 
employed by some great nobles in other countries. An 
early example is afforded by the arms of the Duke of 
LORRAINE (MOULE, Heraldry of Fish, p. 71). In 
NlSBET the arms appended to the dedications of the 

( 616 ) 

work to the Duke of HAMILTON and the Earl of 
MORTON are thus armoyees. The mantling of the 
Princes and Dukes of MlRANDOLA was CJiequy argent 
and azure, lined with ermine. Other families ' used 
a mantling which, though not strictly armoyee, was 
seme with one or other of the charges of their 
arms. In France the mantling of the CJiancellier was 
of cloth of gold ; that of Presidents, of scarlet, lined with 
alternate strips of ermine and petit gris. 

Some Sclavonic families have mantlings of fur only ; 
that of the Hungarian CHORINSKI is a bear skin. In 
Sweden the mantlings are specified in the patent, and are 
often curiously varied. In England the suggestion that 
the arms of peers should be mantled with their Parlia- 
ment robes was never generally adopted. In France, 
NAPOLEON I., who used a mantling of purple semt of 
golden bees, decreed that the Princes and Grand- 
Dignitaries should use an azure mantling thus seme* ; 
those of dukes were to be plain, and lined with vair 
instead of ermine. In 1817, a mantling of azure, 
fringed with gold and lined with ermine, was appro- 
priated to the dignity of Pair de France. 

From the use of the large mantling was developed the 
crowned canopy known as the pavilion, of which we see 
traces on the Great Seals of the Kings of FRANCE since 
Les Sceaux, pp. 135-148, Paris 1890.) This pavilion of 
the King of FRANCE was of azure seme de fleurs-de-lis 
a" or. The King of PRUSSIA assumed a pavilion of 
crimson, seme of golden crowns and Prussian eagles ; 
and bearing aloft the banner of the Prussian Arms. 




THE earliest form of the crowns and coronets in use in 
western Europe is a circlet of gold, plain or jewelled, or 
ornamented with enamels. Of these the first which is 
of heraldic interest is the celebrated IRON CROWN OF 
LOMBARD Y, gifted by Queen THEODOLINDA (died 616) 
to the Basilica of Monza where it is still preserved. It 
is a jointed circlet of gold about three inches in width. 
It derives its name from the iron band which runs round 
its interior, and is said to have been forged out of // 
Sacro Chiodo, one of the nails used at the Crucifixion. 
With it the Kings of ITALY are crowned. It is used as a 
heraldic ornament in the Ecu Complet of the Austrian 
Empire. (See p. 502.) 

The crown of CHARLEMAGNE is preserved in the 
Imperial Treasury at Vienna. (See the engraving 
above, fig. 97.) This is the model on which has been 
formed the present Imperial crown of the German 
Empire. The circlet resembles that of the crown of 

( 618 ) 

CHARLEMAGNE, but is set alternately with crosses and 
eagles-displayed in gems, and it has four ogee arches 
terminating in the orb and cross. (See Plate LV., fig. I.) 
When the crown of CHARLEMAGNE appears as a heraldic 
charge, as in the arms of HANNOVER (Plate LI I., figs. 
9, 10), it is drawn in profile. 

The circlet of gold worn by our English kings was 
early ornamented with points, or floriations. The seal of 
EDWARD THE CONFESSOR shows the king wearing a 
crown with four rays. That of WILLIAM THE CON- 
QUEROR is a circlet which has four trefoils, or strawberry 
leaves, of which three are visible. Cuspings supporting 
a pearl, or a smaller foliation, were soon introduced, 
and this open and foliated crown is that which appears 
on the head of the sovereign in the early Great Seals of 
ENGLAND, FRANCE, etc. The crown of HENRY IV. has 
smaller fleurs-de-lis introduced between the (six ?) conven- 
tional strawberry leaves ; small groups of pearls separate 
all the foliations. 

HENRY V. was the first English king who added the 
arches (with their orb and cross) to the circlet, and 
converted the open coronet into that which is techni- 
cally known as a close crown. The arches of the 
crowns used by later sovereigns (though the open circlet 
occasionally appears up to the reign of HENRY VIII.) 
were generally four in number, but HENRY VI. and 
CHARLES I. used the crown with eight arches. The rim 
of the crown of England has been heightened with 
alternate fleurs-de-lis and crosses patee (four of each) 
since the time of HENRY VI. The cap within the crown, 
worn by RICHARD III., and perhaps by earlier sovereigns, 
is distinctly shown in the crown of the Great Seal of 
HENRY VIII. The ogee curves of the golden arches, 
set with pearls, which appear in the crowns of CHARLES II. 
and all succeeding sovereigns, have disappeared from use 
during the later part of the reign of Queen VICTORIA, 

and the arches have now the simple curve which is found 
in the early examples. The actual crown worn at the 
coronation of Her Majesty (Plate L., fig. 2) differs in 
shape from the Imperial crown as represented on the 
coinage, etc. (Plate L., fig. i). The bands, which have 
nearly the shape of a right angle, are formed of wreaths of 
oak leaves in brilliants, with acorns of pearls in brilliant 
cups. (Correct BOUTELL, p. 320.) 

The crown of the Prince of WALES resembles the 
Imperial crown except that it has but a single arch 
supporting a small orb and cross. The coronet used 
by the other sons of the Sovereign is like that of the 
Prince of WALES a circlet heightened with four 
crosses patee alternating with as many fleurs-de-lis 
but it is not arched-in (Plate L., fig. 3). In the 
coronets used by the princesses two conventional straw- 
berry leaves are substituted for two of the crosses patte. 
(Plate L., fig. 6.) Their coronet, therefore, bears 
two crosses patee, four fleurs-de-lis, and two strawberry 
leaves (the cross patee occupies the central place in all 
the British princely coronets). The grand-children of 
the Sovereign use a coronet in which four crosses patee 
alternate with as many strawberry leaves. (Plate L., 

fig- 7.) 

The Royal crown of SCOTLAND is a circle of gold set 
with stones and pearls, and heightened with ten (entire) 
golden fleurs-de-lis, alternating with as many floriations 
resembling crosses fleury set with gems. Four rather 
small arches support a mound of blue enamel on which 
rests a cross slightly patee, set with an amethyst and 
pearls. (The Regalia of SCOTLAND have been very fully 
and accurately described by Messrs REID and BROOK, 
in most interesting papers printed in the Proceedings of 
the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 1890, pp. 18-141.) 

The Royal crowns used by most foreign sovereigns, 
whatever be their titular rank, though they differ slightly 

( 620 ) 

in details, are (with exceptions hereafter noted) of one 
general type a circlet of gold heightened with eight 
floriations between which are low cuspings supporting a 
pearl. The crown is closed in by eight pearled arches, 
surmounted by an orb and cross. (Plate L., fig. 4.) 

The use of the closed crown by foreign sovereigns (the 
Emperor being excepted) dates only from the sixteenth 
century. The arms of Queen LEONORA of PORTUGAL, 
in 1498, have only the open circlet. I think the Spanish 
crown was not generally closed in before the times of the 
Emperor CHARLES. ERIK XIV. (1560-1568) was the 
first of the Swedish kings to bear the closed crown. 
Among the Danish regalia in the castle of Rosenberg, 
near Copenhagen, is still preserved the elegant open 
crown, probably made about the year 1600, worn by 
CHRISTIAN IV. The closed crown appears to have been 
adopted by CHRISTIAN V. (c. 1670). 

FRANCE. CHARLES VIII. is said to have assumed 
the closed crown in 1495, after the conquest of Naples, but 
it does not appear upon his Great Seal, or on that of his 
successors until the reign of HENRY II., 1547. FRANCIS I. 
(1515) is also said to have used the closed crown, and it 
certainly appears on the seal of his queen, LEONORA of 
PORTUGAL. The crown borne later by himself and his 
successors is a circlet of gold heightened with eight fleurs- 
de-lis (more accurately by eight demi-fleurs-de-lis], closed 
by eight pearled bands which unite in a fleur-de-lis. 
(Plate L., fig. 17.) The crown of the Dauphin was 
similar, but was arched in by four dolphins embowed 
supporting with their tails the crowning fleur-de-lis. 
(Plate L., fig. 1 8.) The coronet of the other children of 
the king (les fils de France] was a circlet adorned with 
eight (demi-) fleurs-de-lis. (Plate L., fig. 19.) That 
used by the princes, their children, was set alternately 
with four (demi-} fleurs-de-lis and as many conventional 
strawberry leaves. (Plate L., fig. 20.) 

2 S 

( 621 ) 

The crown adopted by NAPOLEON, and used under 
both Empires, was a gemmed circlet of gold supporting, 
and completely closed in by, eight Imperial eagles, whose 
elevated wings united with alternate conventional palm 
branches, rising from Greek honeysuckle floriations, to 
support the orb and cross. 

The crown of the HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE, the crown 
worn by the GERMAN Emperors, appears to have been 
completely closed, not merely arched, at an early date, 
probably in imitation of the diadems used by the 
Byzantine Emperors from the time of BASIL I. The 
seal of HENRY I. (1002-1024) is closed in, and has also 
four rays or spikes surmounted by balls. That of his 
successor CONRAD I. has an open crown of four folia- 
tions ; but CONRAD'S son, the Emperor HENRY II., 
reverted to the previous type, and, with variations in 
detail, this was maintained by most of his successors. 
(The exceptions known to me are LOUIS IV., CHARLES 
IV., and RUPERT, who are represented with open 
crowns. See ROEMER-BtJCHNER, Die Siegel der Deut- 
schen Kaiser ; and GLAFEY, Specimen Decadent Sigil- 
lorum.} The vitt<z> or fillets, are clearly indicated on the 
seals of CONRAD, 1143 ; FREDERICK, 1165; and PHILIP, 

The crown of WLADISLAS, King of BOHEMIA, 1 160, is 
shown by his Great Seal to have been of the same type as 
that worn by the Emperor at the same period (GLAFEY, 
tab. x., fig. 39). The type used by the later Emperors 
of GERMANY, and by the Emperors of AUSTRIA, is 
shown on Plate XL., as is also the celebrated crown 
of HUNGARY, the Szent Korona, or crown of St. 

RUSSIA. The present Imperial crown of RUSSIA does 
not differ very materially from that used by the later 
German Emperors. A gemmed band rises from the 
floriated circlet and crosses the head from back to front, 

( 622 ) 

supporting on its summit the orb and cross ; the side 
pieces of the cap are sections of a sphere, as in the old 
German and Austrian Imperial crowns. 

The treasury of the Kremlin at Moscow contains 
among the regalia several most curious and ancient 
Russian crowns. Of these one of the most interesting is 
the crown of VLADIMIR (Monomachus\ which is a dome- 
shaped cap of six sections, of gold filigree adorned with 
gems. It is truncated, and the opening is covered by a 
hemisphere of like workmanship supporting large gems 
and a tall cross of Latin shape. The circlet is covered 
by a broad band of sable fur. This is said to have 
been sent to St, VLADIMIR in the tenth century, but is 
certainly of later workmanship. The crown of PETER 
ALEXIEVITCH is similar in general character, but has a 
circlet from which rise small pliant rods of gold topped 
with large uncut gems. The crowns of SIBERIA, KAZAN, 
etc., are all of the general tiara, or pagoda shape, but 
are not easily described without reference to coloured 
engravings ; such will be found in the splendid work, 
The Antiquities of the Russian Empire, 4to., 1849-52, of 
which there is a copy in the Art Library at South 

The PRUSSIAN Royal crown (distinct from the Im- 
perial crown of GERMANY) is of gold, the circlet set with 
large diamonds, and heightened with diamond rosettes 
or foliations ; it is arched-in with eight bands set with 
diamonds, and is surmounted by the orb and a brilliant 

The other European Royal crowns need no special 
mention ; generally they are used not only by the 
sovereign and his consort, but as a heraldic ornament 
by the princes of the Royal House. Thus the crown of 
the late Prince ALBERT of SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA, the 
lamented Prince Consort of Queen VICTORIA (a 
younger brother of the reigning Duke of SAXE- 

COBURG), was in all respects of the Royal type, differ- 
ing only in minor details from that given in Plate L., 
fig. 4. 

The archducal crown of AUSTRIA is at present a 
circlet of gold set with strawberry leaves, and having a 
single arch, as in the crown of the Prince of WALES. It 
also shows the cap of crimson velvet which rarely 
appears in the present day in foreign Royal crowns. 
The crown of the Electors of the Holy Roman (or 
Germanic) Empire was, like the old archducal crown of 
AUSTRIA, provided with a circlet of ermine cut into 
points ; in the archducal crown these points were edged 
with gold and pearls (see page 500). 

The crown used by many German Princes (Furs ten) 
resembles the old electoral crown, having a scalloped 
circlet of ermine, a crimson velvet cap, and four golden 
arches with the orb and cross (Plate L., fig. 29). Other 
bearers of princely titles in Italy, etc., use a crown practi- 
cally identical with a Royal one. 

The Grand Dukes of TUSCANY used a circlet of gold 
set in front with a large fleur-de-lis floren^ee, the rest of 
the rim being ornamented with blades of iris leaves, and 
intermediate buds of the same flower. 

The coronet of the Doges of VENICE is represented 
in Plate L., fig. 10 ; the plain coronet of gold enclosed 
a cap of cloth of gold, or silk damask, of peculiar 

CORONETS. When we come to the consideration of 
the coronets borne by the European nobility, we must 
remark at the outset that great licence prevails, and that 
it is only in our own land that we can be certain that the 
coronet which is used as a heraldic adornment is a clear 
indication of the rank of the user. 

Even the ducal coronet (Plate L., fig. 21), which is 
common to that rank in all European countries, is 
sometimes employed on the Continent by nobles of an 






1. Imperial. 2. Royal. 3. Prince of Wales. 4. Royal. 

5. Sons of Sovereign. 6. Princesses. 7. Grandsons of 8. Viscounts. 

Sovereign. (Netherlands.) 

9. Baron. 10. Doge of Venice. 11. Vidame. 12. Nobles. 


13. Eastern. 14, Vallary. 15. Naval. 16. Mural. 

17. King of France. 18, Dauphin. 19. Pils de France. 20. Prince. 


21. Ducal. 22. Marquis. 23. Count. 24. Viscount. 

(France.) (France.) (France.) 

25. Baron. 26. President. 


27. Marquis. 28. Noble. 


5. Prince. 30. Count. 

(Holy Roman Empire.) (Germany.) 

31. Baron. 32. Marquis. 


33. Marq 

34. Earl. 35. Viscount. 36. Baron. 

(624 ) 

inferior title, without exposing them, as such an assump- 
tion would do among us, to comment or derision. The 
ducal coronet, it appears from RlETSTAP, is generally 
borne by Marquises in Belgium and the Netherlands. 
It was also borne by the Marshals of France and 
their wives. I may remark also that all Grandees of the 
first class in Spain have the right to use the ducal 
coronet, though they may choose to be known by an 
inferior title ; a Spanish grandee will frequently prefer 
to be known as the possessor of a great historical Mar- 
quessate or County than as the owner of a more modern 
Dukedom. All Spanish Dukes are grandees. Some- 
times the titles of two ranks are there borne together. 
The well-read student of history will at once remember 
that OLIVAREZ, the Minister of State of PHILIP IV., was 
known as the " Conde-Duque? 

The coronet of a Marquess among us is a circlet of 
gold heightened with four strawberry leaves, and as 
many large pearls set alternately (Plate L., fig. 33). 
In other countries the number of strawberry leaves 
remains the same, but our single pearl is often replaced 
by a group of two or three smaller ones, separate or con- 
joined. (Plate L., figs. 22, 27, 32.) Fig. 27 is that which 
is most frequently used by French Marquises at the 
present day, but under LOUIS XIV. the form in fig. 22 (but 
with three pearls instead of two) was just as frequent. 

The coronet of an Earl (Plate L., fig. 34) has the 
usual circlet of gold, heightened with eight strawberry 
leaves, and as many large pearls raised on high points, 
or rays. The coronet of a Count abroad is usually 
ornamented with sixteen pearls, of which nine are 
visible. In Germany these are usually placed on high 
points ; in the old French coronets they are raised very 
very little above the circlet (see Plate L., figs. 23 and 
30). Another French coronet used by Counts has the 
circlet set with four groups, each of three pearls in a 

trefoil, and with smaller pearls on the rim in the inter- 
mediate spaces. The Counts of the NETHERLANDS use 
a coronet very closely resembling that which is now 
known among us as the " crest-coronet ; " but the inter- 
mediate cusping of our crest-coronet has not (or ought 
not to have) the small alternating pearl which appears 
in the coronet of the Dutch Counts ; in other words, 
their coronet much resembles that of a Marquess (fig. 
33), but has much smaller pearls. 

The Viscount's coronet is with us a golden circlet with 
twelve pearls, of which seven are visible, set close to the 
rim. (Plate L., fig. 35.) In France it had at first only 
four pearls, of which three were visible ; but later these 
were a little raised and four smaller pearls were placed 
in the intervals. (Plate L., fig. 24.) The Viscounts of 
the Netherlands have attributed to them by RlETSTAP 
a coronet set with four pearls on points, of which three 
are visible ; and the intermediate spaces are occupied by 
strawberry leaves. (Plate L., fig. 8.) 

The Baron's coronet with us has the circlet set 
with six large pearls, of which four are visible. In 
Germany, and in Italy, the coronet resembles that of a 
Count, but has only twelve pearls, of which seven are 
visible. (Plate L., fig. 31.) In France, the baronial 
coronet is a circle of gold wreathed with strings of 
small pearls. (Plate L., fig. 25.) A curious coronet 
is used by the Barons of the Low Countries created 
under Austrian rule ; it is represented in Plate L., fig. 9, 
and is a circlet of gold with a cap ornamented with 
gold and pearls. 

The coronet of a Vidame ( Vogt, Avouty was a circlet 
of gold ornamented with four crosses patee, of which 
three are visible. (Plate L., fig. 11.) 

The Chancellor of France, and the Premiers 
Presidents used, instead of a coronet, a mortier, or 
cap edged with gold (Plate L., fig. 26). 

( 626 ) 

The Admirals of the United Provinces of the Nether- 
lands adorned their escucheons with a naval crown 
composed of prows of ships. (See the monuments of DE 
Kerk, and those of SWEERS, HULST, etc., in the Oude 
Kerk, at Amsterdam.) 

Plate L. contains two figures, Nos. 12 and 28, which 
have not yet been described. They are the coronets 
often used abroad by Jonkheers, hereditary knights, 
and nobles generally, who have not the right to the 
titles of Baron and upwards. These coronets when 
they appear on carriages or visiting-cards are often 
supposed by the unlearned to mean something much 
more than they really indicate. They are on all fours 
with the crest-coronet, or with the circlets which appear 
in early times upon the basinets of knights, and out of 
which no doubt the crest-coronet was evolved. But by 
the average Englishman, whose idea is that there is no 
nobility apart from the Peerage, the foreign coronet is 
assumed to be the index of high noble and titled rank, 
and the ignotum is taken only too often pro magnifico 
with very little reason indeed. 

NAPOLEON, who had no objection to assume an 
Imperial crown for himself, endeavoured to substitute 
for the helmets and coronets of his nobles a series of 
velvet toques, or hats turned up with various colours, 
and ornamented with ostrich feathers. Those who are 
curious on the subject will find these all set out in 
SlMON, L* Armorial General de V Empire Franqais^ tome i., 
but they were tasteless in design, and the new noblesse 
were not; likely willingly to use insignia which marked 
them out as nouveaux annoblis ; they had consequently 
but a very brief existence. The title of Marquess was 
not conferred by NAPOLEON ; and is unknown in Poland 
and Scandinavia. 




SUPPORTERS are figures of living creatures placed at the 
side, or sides, of an armorial shield, and appearing to 
support it. French writers make a distinction, giving 
the name of Supports to animals, real or imaginary, thus 
employed ; while human figures or angels similarly used 
are called Tenants. Trees, and other inanimate objects 
which are sometimes used, are called Soutiens. 

MENETRIER and other old writers trace the origin of 
supporters to the usages of the tournaments, where the 
shields of the combatants were exposed for inspection, 
and guarded by their servants or pages disguised in 
fanciful attire, "C'est des Tournois qu'est venu cet usage 
parce que les chevaliers y faisoient porter leurs lances, 
et leurs ecus, par des pages, et des valets de pied, 
deguisez en ours, en lions, en mores, et en sauvages." 

( 628 ) 

Usage des Aruioiries, p. 119. The old romances 
give us evidence that this custom prevailed ; but I think 
only after the use of supporters had already arisen from 
another source. 

There is really little doubt now that ANSTIS was quite 
correct when in his Aspilogia he attributed the origin of 
supporters to the invention of the engraver, who filled up 
the spaces at the top and sides of the triangular shield 
upon a circular seal with foliage, or with fanciful animals. 
Any good collection of mediaeval seals will strengthen 
this conviction. For instance, the two volumes of 
LAING'S Scottish Seals afford numerous examples in 
which the shields used in the I3th and I4th centuries 
were placed between two creatures resembling lizards or 
dragons. (See the seal of ALEXANDER DE BALLIOL, 
1295. LAING, ii., 74.) In CIBRARIO, Sigilli de' Principi 
de Savoia, etc., Torino, 1834, the shield of BEATRICE of 
Savoy, Dauphine de VlENNOLS in 1279, is placed between 
the lacs d^amour, which were a badge of her house 
and still appear in the collar of the ORDER OF THE 
ANNUNCIADA. On the seal of AMADEUS V., Count of 
Savoy, in 1309, the shield has on either side a lion's 
head ; and on the counter-seal the spaces above and 
around the shield are each charged with the same. 
The seals of EDWARD, Count of Savoy, in 1311, 1322, 
etc., are similarly arranged. (See also VREE, Gen. Com. 
FL, plate Ixxviii.) On the counter-seal of MAGNUS 
(LADISLAS) of Sweden, in 1275, the shield ( . . . . 
seme of small hearts, three bends-sinister, over all a lion 
rampant, crowned for the first time) is surmounted by 
an open crown and placed between two others in flanks. 
(See HlLDEBRAND, Det Svenska Riks-Vapnet, fig. 14, p. 
23, and SCHEEFER, Tab. F, fig. 24.) The seal of JOHN 
SEGRAVE has a garb on either side of the shield. On 
the counter-seal of CHARLES of ANJOU, in 1308, the 
shield of COUCY is placed between four lions rampant, 

( 629 ) 

within a quatrefoil. The seal of JOHN, Duke of NOR- 
MANDY, eldest son of the King of FRANCE, before 
1316 bears his arms (FRANCE-ANCIENT, a b ordure gules] 
between two lions rampant away from the shield, and 
an eagle with expanded wings standing above it. The 
secretum of ISABELLE de FLANDRES (c. 1308) has her 
shield placed between three lions, each charged with a 
bend (VREE, Gen. Com. Flandr., plates xliii., xliv., xcii.). 
In 1332 AVMON of SAVOY places his arms (SAVOY, with 
a label} between a winged lion in chief and a lion without 
wings at either side. Later, on the seal of AMADEUS VI., 
a lion's head between wings became the crest of SAVOY. 
In 1332 AMADEUS bears SAVOY on a lozenge (v. p. 
58) between in chief two eagles, in base two lions. 
(ClBRARIO, Nos. 61, 64; and GuiCHENON, tome i., No. 
130.) In Scotland the shield of REGINALD CRAWFORD 
in 1292 is placed between two dogs, and surmounted by 
a fox ; in the same year the paly shield of REGINALD, 
Earl of ATHOLE, appears between two lions in chief and 
as many griffins in flanks (LAING, i., 210, 761). 

The seal of HUMBERT II., Dauphin de VIENNOIS, in 
1349, is an excellent example of the fashion. The shield 
of DAUPHINY is in the centre of a quatrefoil. Two 
savages mounted on griffins support its flanks ; on the 
upper edge an armed knight sits on a couchant lion, and 
the space in base is filled by a human face between two 
wingless dragons. The spaces are sometimes filled with 
the Evangelistic symbols, as on the seal of YOLANTE 
de FLANDRES, Countess of BAR (c. 1340). The seal of 
JEANNE, Dame de PLASNES in 1376 bears her arms 
en banniere (p. 57) in a quatrefoil supported by two 
kneeling angels, a demi-angel in chief, and a lion 
couchant gardant in base. 

But though in this abhorrence of a vacuum originated 
the use of animals, etc., as quasi supporters, other causes 
certainly co-operated. Allusion has been made to the 

usage by which on vesica-shaped seals ladies of high 
rank are represented as supporting with either hand 
shields of arms (vide ante, p. 454). From this probably 
arose the use of a single supporter. MARGUERITE 
in 1311, bear in one hand a shield of the husband's 
arms, in the other one of their own. The curious seal 
of MURIEL, Countess of STRATHERNE, in 1284, may be 
considered akin to these. In it the shield is supported 
partly by a falcon, and partly by a human arm issuing 
from the sinister side of the vesica, and holding the 
falcon by the jesses (LAING, i., 764). The early seal of 
BOLESLAS III., King of POLAND, in 1255, bears a 
knight holding a shield charged with the Polish eagle 
(VOSSBERG, Die Siegel des Mittelalters}. In 1283 the 
seal of FLORENT of HAINAULT bears a warrior in chain 
mail supporting a shield charged with a lion impaling 
an eagle dimidiated. Probably that which contributed 
most to the general adoption of a single supporter was 
the use by the German Emperor of the eagle displayed, 
bearing on its breast his personal arms, a fashion 
early adopted by his kinsmen and feudatories. Thus 
FLORENT, Count of HOLLAND, brother of the Emperor 
WlLHELM, bore (c. 1260) the shield of HOLLAND on the 
breast of an eagle displayed, a usage maintained by 
later Counts, e.g., by WILLIAM III. and his sister 
MARGARET, wife of the Emperor LOUIS, as well as by 
their sons, WILLIAM, Count of OSTREVANT, Duke of 
BAVARIA (d. 1377), and ALBERT, Count Palatine of the 
RHINE ; these two used the double-headed eagle. We 
have seen the use of the eagle in this way by RICHARD 
of CORNWALL, elected King of the Romans in 1256 
(ante, p. 245), and by his son EDMUND, Duke of CORN- 
WALL. In Scotland about the same date the Earl of 
MENTEITH placed his shield on the breast of an eagle, 
as does ALEXANDER, Earl of ROSS, in 1338; in 1345 

( 6 3 i ) 

the shield of Sir DAVID LINDSAY is thus supported ; 
and on the seal of EUPHEMIA, Countess of ROSS, in 
1394, the shield of ROSS is borne on the breast of an 
eagle, while the arms of LESLIE and COMYN appear 
on its displayed wings. \Cf. the imperfect seal of 
MARGARET STEWART, Countess of ANGUS, in 1366; 
the shields remaining on the wings are ANGUS (a lion 
rampant), and STEWART (a fess cJiequy and label').'} In 
1370 the seal of LOUIS, Due d'ANJOU, bears his shield 
on the breast of a crowned eagle displayed, whose feet 
rest on couchant lions (DEMAY, fig. 260). 

On the seal of HUMPHREY DE BOHUN in 1322 the 
guige is held by a swan, the badge of the Earls of 
HEREFORD ; and in 1356 the shield of the first Earl of 
DOUGLAS is supported by a lion whose head is covered 
by the crested helm, 'a fashion of which there are many 
examples. A helmed lion holds the shield of MAGNUS 
I., Duke of BRUNSWICK, in 1326. (That of a successor, 
Duke HENRY, in 1373 is supported by a single angel.) 
On the seal of JEAN, Due de BERRI, in 1 393 the supporter 
is a helmed swan (compare the armorial slab of HENRY 
of LANCASTER, in BOUTELL, plate Ixxix.). JEAN IV., 
Comte d'ALENCON (1408) has a helmed lion sejant as 
supporter. In 1359 a signet of LOUIS van Male, Count 
of FLANDERS, bears a lion sejant, helmed and crested, 
and mantled with the arms of FLANDERS between two 
small escucheons of NEVERS, or the county of Burgundy 
{Azure, billetty a lion rampant or), and RETHEL (Gules, 
two heads of 'rakes fessways in pale or). His seal in 1382 
has a similar lion between four escucheons of ARTOIS, 
NEVERS, BRABANT, and RETHEL. I have engraved 
this seal (fig. 99, p. 648) from VREE, de SegJielen der 
Graven van Vlaendren, plate xxvi. A single lion sejant, 
helmed and crested, bearing on its breast the quartered 
arms of BURGUNDY between two or three other 
escucheons, was used by the Dukes up to the death of 

( 6 3 2 ) 

CHARLES the Bold in 1475. In LITTA'S splendid work, 
Famiglie celebri Italiane, the BUONAROTTI arms are sup- 
ported by a brown dog sejant, helmed, and crested with 
a pair of dragon's wings issuing from a crest-coronet. 
On the seal of THOMAS HOLLAND, Earl of KENT in 
1380, the shield is buckled round the neck of the white 
hind lodged, the badge of his half-brother RICHARD II. 
Single supporters were very much in favour in the 
1 3th and I4th centuries and the examples are numerous. 
CHARLES, Dauphin de VIENNOIS (c. 1355), has his 
shield held by a single dolphin. (In 1294 the seal of the 
Dauphin JEAN, son of HUMBERT I., bears the arms of 
DAUPHINE pendent from the neck of a griffon.) The 
shields of arms of BERTRAND DE BRICQUEBEC, in 1325 ; 
PIERRE DE TOURNEBU, in 1339 ; of CHARLES, Count of 
ALENCON,in 1356; and of OLIVIER DE CLISSON, in 1397, 
are all supported by a warrior who stands behind the 
shield. In England the seals of HENRY PERCY, first 
Earl, in 1346, and another in 1345, have similar repre- 

The earliest appearance of the unicorn as a supporter 
of the Royal Arms of SCOTLAND is on a gold coin of 
JAMES III. The unicorn is single. Other Scottish 
examples of single supporters are found on the seals 
of DOUGLAS, in 1418, as Duke of TOURAINE in 1421 
(his wife, MARGARET, in 1425 has an angel as the 
supporter of her shield) ; of WILLIAM, Earl of DOUGLAS, 
in 1446. The arms of the city of PERTH : Gules, a 
pascJial lamb argent, the banner azure, a saltire and royal 
tressure of the second, are borne on the breast of a 
double-headed eagle displayed. {See LAING, Scottish 
Seals ; and SETON, Scottish Heraldry, pp. 269, 270.) 

The seals of MARY, Duchess of BURGUNDY, show her 
use of an angel, or of a lion, as a single supporter, and 

< 633 ) 

her husband, the Archduke MAXIMILIAN, similarly used 
a single lion sejant, crested and helmed. On the secretum 
of CHARLES V. and later Kings of FRANCE, a single 
angel appears behind the shield as a single supporter 
bearing the sceptre and the main de justice. 

FERDINAND and ISABELLA, out of devotion to St. JOHN, 
placed the shield of the Royal Arms (Quarterly : I and 
4. CASTILE quartering LEON ; 2 and 3. ARRAGON), on 
the breast of the single-headed Apostolic eagle displayed, 
of which use there are many examples on the refa, and 
walls of the Capilla de los Reyes at Granada, and, if I 
remember aright, at Seville also. 

In England there are a few examples of the use of 
a single supporter in later times. CHARLES I. is said 
to have granted to the lord of the Manor of Stoke Lyne 
the right to bear his arms on the breast of a displayed 

The use of DOUBLE SUPPORTERS, as at present, arose 
contemporaneously with that of the single one. In the 
majority of cases both supporters were alike, but even at 
an early date this was by no means invariably the case. 
In Brittany the supporters were usually different, and 
there is a frequent combination of the lion and the griffon, 
as on the seals of ALAIN DE BEAUMONT, 1298 ; GUI DE 
CLEMENT, Vicomte de THOUARS, 1378; ROBIN DE 
GUITE, 1379; and CHARLES, Comte de DAMMARTIN, 
in 1394. Even after the use of double supporters had 
become general a third figure is often placed behind the 
shield, and forms a connecting link with the old practice 
of filling the void spaces on seals to which we have 
already referred. On the seal of WILLIAM STERLING 
in 1292, two lions rampant support the shield in front of 
a tree. The shield on the seal of OLIVIER ROUILLON 
in 1376 is supported by an angel, and by two demi-lions 
couchant-gardant in base. That of PIERRE AVOIR, in 

1378, is held by a demi-eagle above the shield, and by 
two mermaids. On many ancient seals the supporters 
hold the crested helm above a couche shield. 

Instances have been given in which a single supporter 
has a mantling annoy ee. Double supporters are simi- 
larly treated, as are the eagles of JEAN D'HARCOURT in 
1410, the lions of HUGH DE GRAMMONT in 1 341. On the 
seal of PERRONELLE, Vicomtesse de THOUARS, in 1378 
the mantling is of DREUX (CJiequy or and azure, a bordure 
gules, see DEMAY, fig. 259). On that of ALAIN DU 
PERRIER in 1387 the lions sejant hold banners, and have 
volets apparently of vair (MORICE, Bretagne, tome ii.). 

The counter-seals of RUDOLF IV., Archduke of 
AUSTRIA, in 1359 and 1362, afford instances in which a 
second set of supporters is used to hold up the crested 
helm. The shield of AUSTRIA is supported by two lions 
on whose volets are the arms of HAPSBURG and PFIRT ; 
the crested helm (coroneted, and having a penache of 
ostrich feathers) is also held by two lions whose volets 
are charged with the arms of STIRIA, and of CARINTHIA. 
(HuEBER, Austria Illustrata, tab. xviii.) 

In 1372 the seal of EDMUND MORTIMER represents 
his shield hanging from a rose-tree, and supported by 
two lions couchant (of MARCH), whose heads are covered 
by coroneted helmets with a penache (azure] as crest. 
(See Plate XXXVII., fig. 2.) BoUTELL directs atten- 
tion to the fact that the shield of EDMUND DE ARUNDEL 
(1301-1326) is placed between similar helms zn&penaches 
without the supporting beasts (Heraldry, Historical and 
Popular, pp. 271-418). 

Crested supporters have sometimes been misunder- 
stood, and quoted as instances of double supporters 
for instance, by LOWER, Curiosities of Heraldry, who 
gives (p. 144) a cut from the achievement of the French 
D'ALBRETS as "the most singular supporters, perhaps, 
in the whole circle of Heraldry." These supporters are 

( 635 ) 

two lions couchant (or), each helmed, and crested with 
an eagle au vol leve. These eagles certainly assist in 
holding the shield, but the lions are its true supporters ; 
nor is this arrangement by any means unique. The 
swans which were used as supporters by JEAN, Due de 
BERRT, in 1386, are each mounted upon a bear. Two 
wild men, each a cheval on a lion, support the escucheons 
GlRESME in 1464. Two lions sejant, helmed and 
crested (the crest is a human head with the ears of an 
ass), were the supporters of ARNAUD D'ALBRET in 1368 
(DEM AY, p. 214). 

Really curious supporters are those of the Roman 
GESARINI, Dukes de CITTANOVA. They are two 
eagles ; the head of the dexter bears the hind-quarters 
of a bear passant (away from the shield !), the sinister 
the fore-quarters of the same animal. 

On the secretum of JAMES I. the Royal Arms of SCOT- 
LAND are supported by two lions rampant-gardant ; but 
JAMES V. changed them to two unicorns royally gorged 
and chained. Queen MARY used the unicorns, but her 
privy seal has the lions. 

Several instances of TRIPLE SUPPORTERS have been 
already given. The shield of JACQUELINE DE BETHUNE, 
in 1422, is supported by four angels ; that of YOLANTE 
DE FLANDRES, Countess of BAR, etc. (bearing en banniere 
NAVARRE quartering EVREUX, dimidiated, and impaled 
with FLANDERS a bordure engrailed] is supported by no 
less than eight demi-angels. 

The escucheon of JEAN, Due de BERRI, circa 1408, 
has six bears as its supporters. I have engraved this 
pretty and spirited design on Plate XXXV., fig. 2, from 
DEMAY, p. 216. 

The supporters of the Royal Arms in France in 
modern times were two angels habited in albs, over 
which were dalmatics charged with the Royal Arms, 

( 636 ) 

and holding banners of the same. When the shields of 
FRANCE and NAVARRE were borne accolees, as by LOUIS 
XIV., the dexter supporter was habited of FRANCE ; 
the sinister of NAVARRE. 

The FRENCH ROYAL SUPPORTERS were the follow- 
ing: PHILIP AUGUSTUS used two lions ; Louis VIII., 
two wild boars (the supporters of the Dukes of BRIT- 
TANY) ; ST. LOUIS (IX.), two dragons ; PHILIP III., two 
eagles ; PHILIP V., two lions ; CHARLES IV., two lions ; 
PHILIP VI., two greyhounds ; JOHN, two swans (chained 
to the shield) ; CHARLES V., two greyhounds (azure, 
blesses de gueules) or two dolphins ; Charles VI., 
CHARLES VII. and LOUIS XL, two winged stags; 
CHARLES VIII., two unicorns ; LOUIS XII., two porcu- 
pines ; FRANCIS I., two salamanders; HENRY II., two 
greyhounds; FRANCIS II., two lions of SCOTLAND; 
HENRY III., two white eagles (of POLAND); HENRI 
IV., two "vacJies de Beam de gueules ;" LOUIS XIII., two 
figures of HERCULES. These were not borne to the 
exclusion of the angels, \vhich were common to all the 
Kings after CHARLES VII. LOUIS XIV. and his suc- 
cessors used no others. (The above list is mainly from 
LA ROQUE, Trait e Singulier du Blason, Paris, 1673.) 

The arms of the DAUPHIN were supported by angels 
in dalmatics, that of the dexter is charged with the 
arms of FRANCE, that of the sinister with the arms of 
DAUPHIN Y. The other princes of the blood used angels 
in albs without dalmatics. The use of angel supporters 
was not, as is sometimes asserted, a prerogative of the 
Royal House in France. 

In France, and indeed on the Continent generally, the 
use of supporters is not nearly so restricted as with us. 
A noble has the right to all the insignia of nobility, 
even though he be an untitled gentleman. If, as in 
Italy and Spain, he does not generally use supporters, it 
is only because fashion has made their use infrequent, not 

2 T 

( 637 ) 

because he considers them the peculiar property of great 
nobles they, in fact, use them as little as he does. Nor 
would it be thought that he needed the Royal, or any 
other, licence to assume or to change them, any more than 
to leave off their use. No doubt, in some great families 
the supporters have become practically hereditary, and 
the present representatives probably use what their 
ancestors used three or four centuries ago. Where, as is 
often the case in Germany, an armorial augmentation 
has taken the form of a special grant of supporters (y. 
pp. 544, 545), no doubt these will continue to be used 
without change. What is meant is simply that there is 
and has been practical liberty with regard to these 
matters ; not only where (as in France) there is no 
longer a College of Arms, but in other countries where 
armorial insignia were under regular supervision. 

An attempt was indeed made by the Archduke 
ALBERT to restrict the too general use of supporters, as 
of coronets and titles, in the Low Countries, by the 
Ordonnances to which reference has already been made 
in these pages (p. 551). One of these prescribed: 
" Vt nemo sibi aut alteri tribuat titulum Baronis aut 
majorem, aut secus insignia sua delatores, aut susten- 
tatores ponat, coronasve indebite assumptas, nisi haec 
sibi per litteras Principum nostrorum probet attributa, 
seu perditis per bella litteris notorie possessa, quo casu 
aliae dabuntur litterae actis Heraldorum inscribendae. 
(ZYPCEUS. Notitia luris Belgici, i., xii., and MENE- 
TRIER, Usage des Armoiries, p. 215.) These Ordon- 
nances had little practical result ; and I only quote them 
here lest it should be supposed that what I have said 
above was written in ignorance of their existence. In 
early times there is no doubt whatever that supporters, 
like crests, had not a hereditary character, nor was 
their use even in England confined to peers, or other 
great nobles. Even now a good many untitled families 

( 638 ) 

bear them by prescription ; such are the HlLTONS of 
Hilton, TREVANIONS of Cornwall, the FULFORDS, LUT- 
TRELS, etc. As their assumption was unrestricted, so 
was their use. A noble family, for instance, which had 
become accustomed to use golden lions as supporters 
would have them drawn or engraved with a variety of 
attitude which would shock the pedantic notions of 
many people now-a-days who think they know all about 
Heraldry. At one time the lions would look towards 
the shield ; at another would be affrontes ; at another 
regardant ; at another they might even be en barroque ; 
so that the supporters were two golden lions, that 
was enough. Nor was it required that they should be 
absolutely unlike those borne by any other family. It is 
only in modern times that the over-regulation of what 
really did not need restriction has checked artistic fancy, 
and under the pretence of forbidding licence has limited 
lawful liberty. 

Now-a-days, it would appear that every minute detail 
must be specified in the blazon, down to the colour of a 
sailor's neck-tie, the number of buttons on his jacket, or 
the fact of his shoes being either buckled or tied. 
Learned gentlemen (with and without tabards) warmly 
debate such highly important matters as whether 
a leopard supporter must show one ear or two ! 
It may somewhat appease any who, after having read 
this, are inclined to denounce me either as an ignoramus 
or as a radical innovator, if I remind them that I only 
express the views of one who certainly was neither the 
one nor the other my late learned friend, JOHN 
GOUGM NICHOLS. He quotes with approval, from 
so old and usually pedantic an authority as BOSSEWELL, 
a passage declaring the needlessness of specifying 
such minutice, and says, "It is agreeable .... 
to come across instructions so rational as these, which we 
venture to regard as more in correspondence with the 

( C'39 ) 

simple and homogeneous blazon of still earlier days than 
with the minute technicalities of our own, which the 
irreverent are sometimes bold enough to stigmatise as 
the 'jargon of Heraldry." 1 (Herald and Genealogist, 
ii., 109.) 

In the Netherlands, and especially in Belgium, the 
use of supporters which also hold erect armorial banners 
is not infrequent. The possession of lands which were 
once fiefs en banniere may sometimes be thus denoted ; 
but I think that where, as is often the case, the arms on 
the banners do not coincide with those on the shield, 
their use may be a kind of Marshalling, and the banners 
may commemorate an important line of descent. 

In Spain the infrequency of the use of supporters by 
the high nobility is probably due to the fact that the 
Regulations of the ORDER OF THE GOLDEN FLEECE 
permitted no supporters, and only one crested helm, to a 
shield surrounded by the collar of the Order. The 
finely carved achievements of the VELASCOS, which are 
supported by savages, in the glorious Capilla del Condes- 
table in the Cathedral at Burgos, are exceptional. 

In Italy the use of supporters was very infrequent in 
late mediaeval times, and is still very far from general. 
In Germany their use is somewhat more in accordance 
with our own, but the fashion of placing the arms of 
princes, and counts of the Empire, on the breast of an 
eagle displayed is still not unfrequently seen. (Cf. 
Arms of Earl of CLARENDON at p. 545 ; though the 
eagle is there the Prussian one.) Instances are met 
with, chiefly in German and Slavonic Heraldry, in which 
the shield is encircled by a serpent, or dragon. Of this 
fashion I have a dozen or more instances, but one will 
suffice. The Barons von WARTENBERG, who bear Per 
pale or and sable, have the shield encircled by a dragon 
which holds its tail in its teeth. In the Griinenberg 
Armorial the shield of the Count of COSSENTANIA has 

( 640 ) 

around it a serpent with a female head. Single sup- 
porters are occasionally met with in modern Continental 
use, but, like the preceding examples, belong rather to 
the curiosities of Heraldry. SlEBMACHER'S Wappenbuch 
contains several examples. The Counts VON HOCHE- 
NEGG in Austria (who bore CJiequy argent and sable, a 
quarter gules] have the shield supported by a man-at- 
arms in profile, turned to the dexter, holding in his right 
hand a halberd, and having on his head a helm crested 
(out of a coronet two wings as the arms). Wappenbuch^ 
i., 35. The arms and crest borne by the modern Counts 
are entirely different, but a man-at-arms is still used as 
the supporter. The Barons NEU use a single knight ; 
the Barons van de MOER, in Holland, a single bear ; 
the Prussian STERNEMANNS, a Roman warrior. The 
Counts von BoiNEBURG, whose arms are Quarterly sable 
and argent, bear them on the breast of a double-headed 
eagle displayed Quarterly argent and sable, the heads 
crowned proper. 

The Arms of the Swiss Cantons are frequently repre- 
sented with a single supporter; thus the Arms of the 
Canton of BERNE (Gules, on a bend or, a bear passant 
sable], are as often supported by one bear as by two ; and 
those of ZURICH (Per bend-sinister argent and azure) by 
one lion rampant brandishing a sword as by two. 

A still better known example is afforded by the Arms 
of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA : Paly often (some- 
times of thirteen) gules and argent, on a cJiief azure as many 
stars (of five points) argent as there are States in the 
Union. These are supported by an eagle displayed 
proper, holding in the dexter claw a laurel wreath, in the 
other three silver arrows. The motto (generally held in 
the eagle's beak) is E Pluribus Unum. (Plate LI V., fig. 2.) 

The Lombard Counts da MULA use two supporters 
but place them both on the sinister side of the shield. 
They are ; a sea griffin per fess or and vert, supporting 

on its head a naked woman with extended arms, her 
sinister hand holds the shield ; the dexter, a laurel 
wreath all proper. 

On some early seals the arms are represented not on 
a shield but on a banner, usually held by a " beast," or 
single supporter. Thus on the seal of HENRY PERCY, 
eldest son of the Earl of NORTHUMBERLAND in 1445, 
the arms (of PERCY quartering LUCY) differenced by a 
label, are displayed on a banner supported by a lion 
sejant-gardant (Archceologia sEliana, vol. iv., p. 185.) 
In the hall of Naworth Castle the arms of DACRE, 
depicted on banners held by " beasts." The seal of 
WALTER, Lord HUNGERFORD, K.G., has in 1432 the 
arms (Sable, two bars argent, in chief tJiree plates] 
differenced by a label, placed between the HEYTESBURY 
sickles, while on either side of the crested helm rises a 
banner : the dexter of HEYTESBURY (Per pale indented 
gules and vert, a chevron or) ; the sinister of HUSSEY 
(Barry of six ermine and gules), both are differenced by a 

The Lombard family of MlLLESlMO, Marquises de 
SAVONA, who bear Bendy or and gules, place the escucheon 
on the breast of the Imperial Eagle, which rests its claws 
on a triumphal car drawn by two lions passant argent 
crowned or. This very curious arrangement brings us 
naturally to the consideration of what are known as 
COMPARTMENTS. This term is one peculiar to Scottish 
heraldry and denotes the architectural panel, a figure of 
no definite form, on which the shield and supporters are 
often made to rest. It is also applied to the ground or 
terrace, upon which these supporters stand in ancient 
seals, and in modern continental practice. Our own 
custom by which supporters are represented balancing 
themselves with unstable footing upon a thing resembling 
the scroll of a gas burner ; or with even less comfort 

upon the edge of the motto ribbon, is one which is 
almost peculiar to ourselves, and is ludicrous in the 
highest degree. 

Abroad, the supporters are much more reasonably 
represented as standing usually on a piece of solid ground 
(see fig. 98, p. 627) (though in the case of angels, or fish, 
clouds, or waves of the sea are occasionally employed). 
Many of the escucheons in FOSTER'S PEERAGE have the 
supporters thus sensibly supported. 

Our own departure from the common sense practice 
of ancient times has led to the compartment, when 
retained in use, being supposed to be a peculiar mark of 
high dignity or royal favour. The seals of the Earls of 
DOUGLAS from 1434, have in the base a "pale of wood 
wreathed," supposed to represent the forest of Jedburgh. 
The same device appears on the seal of GuiLLAUME DE 
BAVIERE, Comte D'OSTREVANT in 1412, on which the 
shield of arms (v. pp. 462, 463) is held by a single lion 
sejant on a mound enclosed by wattled pales with a gate, 
said to represent the palisade with which he blockaded 
the citadel of Hagenstein and the chateau of Everstein. 
(VREE, Gen. Com. FL, i., 368). His daughter JACQUELINE 
DE BAVIERE (wife successively of the DAUPHIN, the 
DE BORSELE) used this same device of the hedge. The 
compartment used by the DRUMMONDS, Earls of PERTH, 
is a green mount, seme of caltraps. The appropriate motto 
is Gang Warily. The MACFARLANEShave a wavy com- 
partment with the words, Lock Sloy. 

The arms of OGILVY, baronets of Inverquharity, 
are supported by two savages who stand on as many 
serpents nowed and spouting fire, the whole being 
arranged upon a mount, or compartment. The arms of 
the Barons von LOBENSTEIN (Or, three bars gules) are 
supported by two golden lions regardant, who tread 
under foot a serpent bent into an oval, proper. 

The term compartment is often improperly applied to 
other bearings which would be more fitly described either 
as devices, or supporters. Such are the salamander of 
DOUGLAS, the star of SETON, the chained savage of 
ROBERTSON of Struan ; all placed beneath the respective 
shields of arms. 

On the seals of JOHN LANDEL (c. 1224), and 
the counter-seal of MALCOLM, Earl of LENNOX in 
1292, the shield is placed between the attires of 
a stag's head caboshed ; as it was also by the 

INANIMATE OBJECTS are sometimes used to fill the 
office of supporters. Of these the best known example 
is afforded by the " Pillars of Hercules," assumed as 
supporters with the motto, Ne plus ultra by CHARLES V, 
After the discovery of America the ne was omitted. The 
PlOSASCO family of Savoy, who bear : Argent, nine mart- 
lets sable, use as supporters "due torni o cilindri, col 
motto, Qui, Qui" (See the Teatro Araldico of TETTONI 
E SALADINI ; 8 vols. 4to, Milan, 1841. RIETSTAP oddly 
misreads the blazon, and gives the supporters as bulls !) 
Akin to these are the military trophies, the banners, 
weapons, etc., which are not unfrequently found in use in 
Continental Armory as adjuncts to the shield. The 
ACHARDS of Poitou have the shield thus accosted by four 
halberts. The DALZELLS of Bins had in 1685 the grant 
of a pair of tent-poles to be placed one on either side of 
the shield. The shield of the Marquises ALBERTI is 
accosted, or embraced, by two lighted flambeaux. The 
Breton family of BASTARD have the shield accosted by 
two swords, points in base. The SCHEPERS of Holland, 
and the BlLLES of Denmark, place two anchors in saltire 
behind the shield. I have collected a considerable 
number of examples of the use of banners in this way : 
e.g. the TOLEDOS. dukes of ALVA, surround the shield 
with twelve Moorish Standards ; the BAZANS have 

( 644 ) 

twenty-eight ; the CORDOVAS sixty-four. Several German 
families have a trophy of arms, similar to that used as 
a background for his achievement by the Earl of BANTRY. 
The BRANDOLINI of Italy had the right to crown their 
arms, and to place on either side of them a naked sword. 
The motto was Pour loyaute maintenir, and the whole 
was a concession of a King of Cyprus. 

With this class of External Ornaments we may group 
the collars, crosses, ribbons, and badges of Orders of 
Knighthood, the latter of which are not only suspended 
beneath the shield but in many cases the shield is placed 
upon the cross or star ; as by the Members of the ORDERS 
OF S. JOHN, Aviz, the TEUTONIC ORDER, etc. We 
may also refer, though we can do so but briefly, to some 
of the marks of office which accompany the shields of 
great Officers of State. The Lord Chancellor of England 
places two maces in saltire (or one in pale) behind the 
shield, and the purse of the Great Seal beneath. The 
Earl Marshal uses in like manner two golden rods tipped 
with black enamel. The Lord High Chamberlain might 
use two golden keys in saltire (MORGAN, Sphere of 
Gentry, iv., p. 82) and the Lord Chamberlain of the 
Household a golden key in pale, etc. In Scotland the 
Lord High Chamberlain used the two golden keys ; the 
Great Master of the Household, two batons gules, seine 
of thistles and surmounted by the Crest of Scotland ; the 
Justice General, two naked swords. The Duke of 
ARGYLL as possessing these two dignities places a baton 
and a naked sword in saltire behind his arms ; the Earl 
Marshal, two batons gules, seme of thistles or. 

In the Museum at Brussels is the portrait of FERDI- 
NAND DE BoiSSCHOT, Comte D'ERPS, Chancellor of 
BRABANT (d. 1649). His arms (Or, three fers de moulin 
azure) are placed upon the cross of SANTIAGO, two 
golden maces are in saltire behind the shield, and the 
whole is surmounted by his coronet. 

( 645 ) 

In France, the Admiral placed two anchors in saltire 
(and the Vice- Admiral one in pale) behind the shield ; 
the beams are Azure, fleury or. The Marshals used two 
similar batons ; the Chancellor, as many maces ; the 
Grand Esquire, two sheathed and belted swords (azure, 
fleury or) in pale ; the Grand Master of Artillery, two 
mounted cannon ; the Grand Constable (like the Grand 
Master of the ORDER OF S. JOHN), two arms in armour 
issuing from clouds at the base of the shield holding 
a naked sword paleways on either side. Under the 
Empire, the Vice Connetable similarly used the swords, 
but sheathed, and semes of golden bees. The Grand 
Chamberlain had two golden keys in saltire (the imperial 
eagle in the bows) ; arid the batons of the MarecJiaux de 
France were semes of bees instead of fleurs-de-lis. 

In Italy the Duca de SAVELLI, as Marshal of the 
Conclave, hangs on either side of his shield a key, the 
cords of which are knotted beneath his coronet. 

In Holland Admirals used the naval crown (ante, 
p. 626), and added two anchors in saltire behind the 
shield, as on the monument of VAN TROMP in the Oude 
Kerk at Delft 

In Spain the Admirals of Castile and of the Indies 
placed an anchor in bend behind the shield. 

The Cordeliere, or Lacs d' Amour, a knotted cord 
with tassels, was often placed around the lozenge, or 
shield of arms, by widows and abbesses in France ; 
while the use of garlands, or palm branches, about the 
escucheon was never thought to need the intervention of 
any heraldic authorities. On Plate XXXVL, the arms of 
the Duke of ALBANY are represented ornamented with 
the Collar and Badge of the ORDER OF S. MICHAEL. 

Occasionally arms are found improperly surrounded 
by a motto band after the fashion of the ORDER OF THE 
GARTER ; more usually the motto is placed in a riband 
below the shield, or in a listel above the crest. 

( 646 ) 

By the understood English use supporters are at 
present borne by all temporal peers, including those who 
have life peerages, but not by bishops as such. (This 
is a modern restriction without ancient precedent or 
authority, or rather in defiance of it, but as to this I 
refer the reader to my forthcoming work on Ecclesiastical 
Heraldry^] They are also borne as personal distinctions 
by Knights Grand Crosses of the Several Orders, and it is 
considered that there is precedent for their use by certain 
great officers of the Royal Household. (As a matter of 
fact the precedents have to be sought in times when 
the use of supporters was not so strictly limited 
by custom as it is now.) The right to use supporters 
has been occasionally conceded by Royal Warrant, 
and a modern example is recorded in Appendix D. 
A few of the persons to whom these warrants have 
been granted are baronets, but baronets as such have 
no right to use them. These eldest sons of peers above 
the rank of viscount, and the younger sons of dukes 
and marquesses, generally use the supporters of the 
family, but this modern return to a less restricted use 
of them has not the approval of the English College of 
Arms. The use of supporters by prescription in the case 
of some old English families has been already alluded to. 

In Scotland the use of supporters is less restricted. By 
custom they are employed by the chiefs of the more im- 
portant clans, and the representatives of all minor barons 
who had full baronial rights prior to 1 507. The baronial 
status implied, in theory at least, the right to sit in Parlia- 
ment until that year when parliamentary representation 
was finally established. There is no foundation for the 
oft-repeated assertion that Scottish baronets are, as such, 
entitled to supporters. In some cases they bear them by 
virtue of the baronial qualification ; or as being chiefs of 
important families ; but in various cases when application 
has been made for them they have been refused. It has 

( 647 ) 

often been laid down that LYON has the power of con- 
ferring supporters ex gratia on persons who would not be 
considered as having a claim to them by the strict 
heraldic rule of modern times. Mr SETON expresses 
considerable doubt as to the existence of any such 
power ; and though I do not take quite the same strong 
view as is held by him upon the subject, I must admit 
that, except at one not very glorious period in the history 
of the Lyon office (1763-1820), the power has been spar- 
ingly used, and usually on fairly satisfactory grounds. But 
any further remarks on this subject may be deferred until 
the time when I may be able to print Dr BURNETT'S 
chapter on the Lyon office, for which I cannot find space 
in these volumes. In Ireland, according to Sir BERNARD 
BURKE, the heads of the different septs assert their right 
to use supporters ; but there is no instance of their 
registration in Ulster's office, by an Irish chieftain in right 
of his chieftaincy alone, and without the possession of a 
peerage dignity. In Wales, the Barons of EDEIRNION 
in Merioneth, who enjoyed baronial rights in their 
domains, and who had these rights specially confirmed 
after the subjugation of the country, have always used 
them without question. 

In the selection of the supporters for new peers a 
little better taste might well be exercised. Where the 
new peer is a descendant from a family which bore sup- 
porters, one or both of these may fairly be assumed, with 
or without difference as may appear desirable. But a 
fashion has sprung up of clogging modern supporters 
with escucheons pendent from the neck, which would 
make free motion difficult, if not impossible, to the living 
beast. This fashion is now in great favour ; and the sup- 
porters granted to nearly all peers of new creation afford 
instances of it. (See those of Lords ARDILAUN, BELPKK, 
etc.) These escucheons are often charged with bearings 


indicative of descent ; but the Low Country use, to 
which reference has been made, of supporters hold- 
ing banners, is a much more: suitable and truly heraldic 
way of denoting this. Supporters are often, not im- 
properly, charged with a mark of cadency ; but to affix 
to the shoulders of Lord ROMILLY'S greyhounds ,-i 
" lily slipped proper "(?), or to charge the bodies of Lord 
EVERSLEY'S lalbots with the mace of the Speaker of the 
House of Commons, are incongruities which in my judg- 
ment are as faulty artistically as they arc heraldically. 

Other supporters, in which this lack of artistic taste and 
of true heraldic feeling is conspicuous, are what we may 
(.ill "chintz supporters," in which the body of the beast 
is covered with a pattern (!) (See the supporters of the 

KM. !)!!. - SKA i. OF Loris, ('CM-NT OK FI.AXPKIIS. 




THE earliest banners with which we are concerned are 
those which appear on the Bayeux tapestry, examples of 
which are figured here and in Plate XXXV. 

FIG. 10L 

FIG. 1C 2. 

FIG. 1C3. 

FIG. 104. 

Of the thirty-seven pennons borne on their lances by 
the Norman soldiers, twenty-eight are represented as 
terminating in triple points, or streamers, and we may 
therefore conclude that this was the usual form at the 
period. In the British Museum Catalogue of Seals, the 
lances borne by the effigies of WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR, 
and WILLIAM RUFUS, are said to have triple streamers 

( 65 ) 

(Nos. 1 5 and 22). The number of points was, however, by 
no means constant, nor were the streamers always 
pointed. In both these respects there was considerable 
variation in later times, and the pennon which fluttered 
at the end of the lance was as often triangular, or 
swallow-tailed. A Saxon banner in the Bayeux tapestry 
is triangular, with four streamers issuing from the lower 
edge. (FRENCH, Banners of the Bayeux Tapestry, xvi., 


If we turn to the other contemporary source of informa- 
tion, we find that on early seals the owner was frequently 
represented bearing a lance, to the head of which was 
attached a flag, often of considerable size. The lance of 
RAOUL, Comte de VERMANDOIS, in 1116, has a square 
banner, charged probably with the chequers of VERMAN- 
DOIS, and having attached to its edge three attenuated 
streamers. (DEMAY, p. 158.) The seal of WILLIAM, 
Count of FLANDERS, in 1122, shows a long banner split 
throughout nearly its whole length, and pointed at the 
ends (WREE, de Seglielen, plate vii.). That of BALDWIN 
V., Count of HAINAULT (d. 1 194), is of similar character; 
neither of these have any distinguishable device. The 
seal of LEOPOLD, Duke of AUSTRIA, circa 1199, is 
swallow-tailed. His seal three or four years later has 
the flag simply divided towards the extremity into two 
unpointed but .fringed tails. Other seals in 1216 and 
1231 have three such tails ; in 1217 the banner is charged 
with the stier of STYRIA (v. ante, p. 499). This arrange- 
ment alternates with the banner proper for a long time 
after the general adoption of the latter. (HuEBER, 
Austria Illustrata.} The lance of JEAN DE CHALONS, 
Comte de BOURGOGNE, in 1239, has at its head a small 
square banner annoy ee (Azure, a bend or], and having 
four narrow tails, or bannerols. The well-known brass of 
Sir JOHN DAUBERNOUN (1277) at Stoke d'Abernon, in 
Surrey, represents him with his lance, to the head of 

which is attached a small pennon with a single point, 
bearing his arms, Azure, a c/tevron or. 

The BANNER which was used eventually by knights- 
bannerets, barons, and all persons of higher rank, was a 
rectangular flag, usually square, but often oblong in 


shape, and attached to the staff by one of the longer 
sides. This was emblazoned over its whole surface 
with the arms of the wearer. (See fig. 105, the banner 
of MAURICE DE BERKELEY, from the Roll of Caer- 
laverock^] DEMAY gives as an example the banner of 
earliest seals with the banner-proper are those of HENRY 
I. and III., Dukes of BRABANT (c. 1230 and 1260). 
OTTAKAR, Duke of AUSTRIA, is represented on his seal 
in 1264, bearing a shield with the Austrian fess, and 
having a lance with a banner of STYRIA (HUEBER, tab. 
iv., No. 4). By a later fashion a long bannerol, pointed 
or cleft, was attached to the upper portion of the external 
part of the " fly." But in earlier times, when a knight 
was to be raised to the rank of banneret on the field 01 
battle, the ceremonial consisted in the cutting off of the 
points of the pennon, so that it was made to assume the 
square shape of a banner, exactly or approximately. 

Under the feudal system knights were of two classes : 
Bachelors and Bannerets. A bachelerie was a noble 
fief inferior in importance to that held by a knight. 
Sometimes two or three bacheleries sent only a single 
man at arms to the army between them. The chevaliers- 
bacheliers bore the lance with a pennon, and fought 
under the command of a knight-banneret. A knight- 
banneret was one who held a fief 'en banniere, investiture 
of which was given by the delivery of a banner by the 
prince, or superior ; he was obliged not only to give 
personal military service, but also to provide as many 
knights as his fief contained knightly fees, and these 
fought under his banner. Until he had received the 
rank of knighthood, though his banner was displayed 
and knights followed it, he was styled un Ecuyer- 
Banneret, and received only the pay of a chevalier, 
instead of the double pay to which a chevalier-banneret 
was entitled. MENETRIER gives the following from an 
old MS. : " Ouand un Bachelier a grandement servy et 
suivy la guerre, et que il a terre assez, et qu'il puisse 
avoir Gentilshommes ses hommes et pour compagner sa 
Banniere, il peut licitement lever Banniere et non autre- 
ment. Car nul homme ne peut, ne doit porter ne lever 
Banniere en bataille, s'il n'a du moins cinquante hommes 
d'armes tous ses hommes, et les Archers, ou Arbalestriers 
qui luy appartiennent ; et s'il les a, il doit a la premiere 
bataille ou il se trouvera apporter un Pennon des ses 
armes, et doit venir au Connestable, ou aux Mareschaux, 
ou a celui qui sera Lieutenant de 1'Ost pour le Prince, 
requerir qu'il porte Banniere, et si luy octroyent, doit 
sommer les Heraux pour temoignage, et doivent de- 
couper la queue du Pennon, et alors le doit porter, et 
lever avant les autres Bannieres au dessons des autres 
Barons. (RedwrcJies du Blason, pp. 15, 16.) 

In Flanders the required number of men at arms seems 
to have been only twenty-five. At the siege of Caer- 

2 u 

( 653 ) 

laverock in 1300 this also seems to have been about the 
proportion ; there was a banner to every twenty-five or 
thirty men. MENETRIER gives, from OLIVIER DE LA 
MARCHE, an account of the way in which LOUIS, a 
cadet of the family of VlEUILLE, and himself holding the 
lands of Sains, a terre en banniere, was raised to the rank 
of banneret. " Si bailla le Roy d'Armes un couteau au 
Due et prit le Pennon en ses mains, et le bon Due sans 
oster le gantelet de sa main senestre fit un tour au tour 
de sa main de la queue du Pennon, et de 1'autre main 
coupa le dit Pennon : et demeura quarre : et la banniere 
faite le Roy d'Armes bailla la banniere audit Messire 
Louys et luy du : Noble Chevalier, recevez 1'honneur 
que vous fait au jour d'huy vostre Seigneur et Prince, et 
soyez au jour d'huy bon Chevalier, et conduisez vostre 
banniere a 1'honneur de vostre lignage." 

The banner was the sign of a command, and all 
persons who would now be called general officers had the 
right to its use whatever their civil rank might be. 

On the tomb of Sir LEWIS ROBSART, K.G., Lord 
BOURCHIER, d. 1431 ; in the Chapel of St. Paul in 
Westminster Abbey, a banner annoyee is placed at each 
corner of the slab, those at the bottom are supported 
the one by a lion, the other by a falcon. Compare with 
this the use of a banner annoyee, held by the lion sejant 
gardant on the seal of Sir HENRY PERCY, ante p. 641. 

The use of banners held by the supporters used in 
Belgium has been already noticed, p. 641. Somewhat 
akin to the use of the banner was the custom of display- 
ing the arms upon the large square sail of the mediaeval 
ship by the Lords High Admirals. Instances of this are 
found not only in the pictorial illustrations which remain 
of battles, etc., but on the seals of these high personages. 
As an example we give on Plate XXX., fig. 4, the sail 
of the Earl of RUTLAND from his seal. 

STANDARDS. In and after the reign of EDWARD III., 

a large flag known as the Standard came into use, it 
varied in size according to the rank of the person using 
it, but does not appear to have been allowed to any who 
were not knights. The HARLEIAN MS., No. 2358, written 
about the time of HENRY VIII., gives the length of these 
standards ; the king's eight or nine yards, a duke's seven, 
an earl's six, a baron's five, a banneret's four-and-a-half, 
and a knight's four yards long. The LANSDOWNE MS. 
255, makes the standard of a Marquis six-and-a-half 
yards in length, and that of a viscount five-and-a-half. 

These standards all contained in the nearly square com- 
partment close to the staff, the red Cross of St. GEORGE 
on a silver field, the rest of the standard, which tapered 
gradually, was generally divided into two or four longi- 
tudinal stripes usually of the owner's livery colours. 
On these stripes were placed the various badges or 
devices, separated from each other by slanting slips 
containing the motto of the bearer. The standard was 
split a little way from the end, and the divided pieces 
were rounded into a semi-circular shape. Fig. 100, at 
the head of this chapter is the standard of HENRY PERCY, 
sixth Earl of NORTHUMBERLAND (1527-1537). It is 
divided into four horizontal bands, the upper being 
russet, the two central ones yellow, and the lowest tawny. 
The whole is powdered with silver crescents and "lockets," 
or manacles, and also contains the PERCY blue lion 
passant ; a silver key crowned, the badge of POYNINGS ; 
a blue bugle-horn unstringed garnished gold, that of 
BRYAN ; and a falchion, hilted or and sheathed sable, 
for FITZPAYNE. (Heraldry of the Perezes, p. 211.) 

Several of the Royal standards of the same type have 
already been described in a previous chapter. 

Besides \hzsz, pennoncelles, or "pencils," were also used 
in considerable numbers ; they were of smaller size than 
the standard but somewhat similar in shape, though 
shorter and unsplit, they also contained the Cross of ST. 

GEORGE, and usually only a single badge without motto 
bands (eleven of these as used by the PERCYS are 
engraved in the article already referred to, and one is 
represented on Plate XXXV., fig. 3). 

The ancient guidon is said to have been a smaller 
standard with a swallow tail. It was charged with a 
cognizance or badge. 

NATIONAL FLAGS. Besides the banners and standards 
referred to above, which were peculiar to individuals, a 
separate flag was used as the National Emblem. This 
was often of large size, so large as to require to 
be transported upon a carriage. This usage seems 
to have been derived from the Saracens " in the 
midst of whom was a wagon drawn by eight oxen 
upon which was raised their red banner" (see TURPIN'S 
Life of Charlemagne in DUCANGE, Glossarium ; sub voce 
" Carrocium "). The battle fought between the English 
and Scotch in 1138 at Northallerton, was called The 
Battle of the Standard from a consecrated standard 
thus brought on the field in its carriage. The pole was 
surmounted by a pyx bearing the Sacred Host ; and 
from the shaft floated the banners of ST. CUTHBERT, 
Battle of Bouvines in 1214, the Imperial Standard was 
thus borne : " Aquilam deauratam super draconem 
pendentem in pertica longa erecta in quadriga." 

Frequent allusion is made by the Italian historians 
and poets to the Carroccio, on which the standard 
of the republics of Florence, Milan, or Pisa, etc., was 
borne, e.g., TASSONI says, 

" Ecco il carroccio uscir fuor della porta 
Tutto coperto d'oro." 

La Secchia Rapita. 

Two of the poles of the Carroccio of Florence, taken 
at the Battle of Monte-aperto in 1260, are still fastened 

- ( 656 ) 

to the columns of the cupola of the Cathedral of 

The national banners borne in the English army at 
Caerlaverock in 1300 were; first, that of ST. GEORGE, 
given above ; next, that known as the banner of ST. 
EDMUND : Azure, three croivns or ; and lastly, that which 
has been more than once noticed as containing the arms 
of EDWARD THE CONFESSOR (these two are mentioned in 
the Wardrobe Accounts of 1299). To these later was 
added a banner containing the well-known device of the 
Trinity ; and the four, with another of the Royal Arms, 
were those borne at Agincourt. (See paper " On the 
Banners used in the English Army." Retrospective 
Review, 2nd series, i., p. 90.) 

The banner of ST. GEORGE in combination with the 
banner of ST. ANDREW of Scotland formed the first flag 
known as the " Union Jack'' The latter was Azure, a 
saltire (or cross of ST. ANDREW) argent ; and on the 
union of the crowns the red cross of ST. GEORGE 
fimbriated argent, both as a reminiscence of its original 
field, and in order to prevent a breach of the rule which 
forbade colour to be used on colour was placed upon the 
Scottish flag. This Union Jack was declared to be the 
national ensign of Great Britain in 1606, and it continued 
so to be until the Union with Ireland in 1801. At that 
time the charge of the flag which was supposed to 
represent the last-named kingdom : Argent, a saltire 
gules, was added in such a way that the " Union Jack " 
now consists of a blue field on which are conjoined the 
silver saltire of ST. ANDREW, and the red saltire of ST. 
PATRICK (the latter fimbriated or bordered argent where 
it touches the azure field), and, over the whole, the red 
cross of ST. GEORGE with its white fimbriation. 

The banner of ST. GEORGE, with the " Union " placed 
in the first canton is known as the " White Ensign," and 
is the flag of the Royal Navy, and of a few privileged 

( 657 ) 

yacht clubs. A blue flag with the " Union " in the upper 
corner is known as the " Blue Ensign," and is flown by 
the ships connected with the Naval Reserve, and by 
some yacht clubs. A like flag, but of red, is the " Red 
Ensign " the flag of the British Mercantile Marine. 
These three flags were up to 1864 the distinguishing 
ensigns of the three squadrons of the British Navy, but 
these divisions no longer exist. 

The celebrated ORIFLAMME of France is said to have 

originated in the Chape de S. Martin, which was the 

banner of the At>bey of Marmoutiers. The vulgar 

tradition was that this was part of the actual blue 

cloak of the Saint which he divided with the beggar of 

Amiens, as in the well-kno\Vn story. But the word 

" capa" or " caps 'a sancti Martini" rather denoted the 

reliquary in which certain remains of the saint were 

enclosed. This was the vexillum, which the Counts of 

ANJOU had the right of taking to battle with them in the 

belief of thus obtaining the assistance of the saint in the 

conflict. A MS. of the Church of S. Martin, treating of 

the prerogatives of the Counts of ANJOU in respect of 

the abbey, says : " Ipse habet vexillum beati Martini 

quoties vadet in bello." Dr REEVES has shown that 

"the Irish vexilla were boxes," reliquaries, or portable 

shrines and, following in his steps, Dr JOSEPH 

ANDERSON, in the sixth of his Rhind Lectures for 1879, 

on Scotland in Early Christian Times, has given us 

excellent reasons for believing that the celebrated 

vexillum of the Brecbennoch, of which the custody was 

confirmed by WILLIAM THE LlON in 1211-1214, to the 

newly founded monastery of Arbroath (Aberbrothock), 

was a similar reliquary containing relics of S. Columba, 

and is in all probability the casket now known as the 

Monymusk reliquary. Its identification was long 

delayed by the common, but entirely erroneous, idea 

that vexillum necessarily denoted a banner. There seems 

( 658 ) 

to have been a similar confusion of ideas in France ; and 
at any rate the unlearned transferred to the Chape de S. 
Martin, which had become a banner bearing his image, 
the same reverence which had formerly been paid to the 
vexillum in the forme of a c/iasse, or reliquary, which had 
once been the chief treasure of the church of S. Martin 
of Tours. The vexillum was borne by CLOVIS in 507 
against ALARIC at the battle of Vouille ; and three 
centuries later was the palladium of CHARLEMAGNE at 
the battle of Narbonne. 

It seems probable that the precious relic having thus 
come into the royal keeping was not restored to the abbey 
but preserved in the royal palace, while the abbey had 
to content itself with the embroidered coverings which 
had enclosed the shrine, and from which possibly the 
oriflamme as a standard was first manufactured. The 
Counts of ANJOU, who were governors of Touraine, 
claimed for themselves the office of hereditary standard 
bearers of la CJiape de S. Martin ; but the Kings of 
FRANCE having fixed their residence at Paris their 
devotion to S. Martin was insensibly transferred to S. 
Denis, who thus became the patron saint of the realm ; 
and the CJiape de S. Martin ceased to be the oriflamme 
of FRANCE. It is difficult to determine at what period 
the Church banner, or gonfanon, of the Abbey of S. 
Denis, became in its turn the chief of those under which 
the French kings fought. The Counts of the Vexin, as 
chief feudatories of the Abbey, bore by hereditary right 
the banner of S. Denis, but PHILIP I. appears to have 
transferred to the crown the rights of these turbulent 
vassals on the death of SIMON, last Count of the 
Vexin, without issue in 1088. It is not easy to say 
whether the celebrity of the Enseigne de Saint Denis is 
anterior to this reunion or not, but it was already known 
as the oriflamme. PHILIPPE MOUSKES in his rhyming 
chronicle of France, says : 

( 659 ) 

" Si a fait bailler esraument 
L'oriflambe de Saint Denise." 

As to its form and colour there is no doubt that it 
resembled the banners already described under the title 
gonfanon, having three points : and that it was composed 
of crimson silk with green fringe and tassels. " Oriflamme 
.... d'un vermeil samit a guise de gonfanon a trois 
queues, et avoit entour houppes de soye verte." (Chronique 
de Flandre^} It was not charged, and the common idea 
that it was seme of fleurs-de-lis is as entirely erroneous as 
the other one that it derived its name from golden flames 
similarly used. It was preserved in the Treasury of S. 
Denis, apart from the lance and cross beam, and in 
time of war was taken from the altar by the King 
himself after a solemn service. Its presence in the army 
denoted that of the sovereign also ; the battle of Agin- 
court in 1415 is said to be the only instance in which 
the oriflamme was raised in the absence of the King ; in 
that case its bearer was made prisoner and died of his 
wounds, and the after history of the oriflamme is quite 
unknown. M. REY, in his Histoire du Drapeau de la 
Monarchie Fran^aise, to which I am indebted for a 
great part of the above notice, patriotically insists that 
as Pere ANSELME declares LOUIS XI. to have received 
the oriflamme at S. Denis in 1465, it must have been 
preserved and restored. We may, however, be quite sure 
that if the old oriflamme were not forthcoming a substi- 
tute would be provided. 

The royal flag of France was white, " le drapeau 
blancT The origin of the Tricolor of France, with 
its vertical division into blue, white, and red, is found 
in the union of the drapeau blanc with the colours 
of the City of Paris (v. p. 369). In 1789, July 14, 
it was determined that a garde civique of 40,000 men, 
should be raised, to be called the Parisian militia ; 
that its colours should be those of the city, blue and 

( 660 ) 

red, to which on the proposal of M. DE LA FAYETTE 
the white from le drapeau blanc was added ; together an 
ensign which, in LA FAYETTE'S own words, "devait faire le 
tour du monde" (Memoires de La Fayette, ii., p. 286). On 
the 1 7th, Louis XVI. returning to Paris, was presented 
by the Maire with a tri-coloured cockade, and placed it 
in his hat as having become, as BAILLY said, " the dis- 
tinguishing symbol of Frenchmen." Under the Empire 
the staff of the flag as used in the army was surmounted 
by the Imperial Eagle. 

The Imperial Standard was the tricolor, seme of 
golden bees, and bearing the Imperial Eagle crowned in 
the central compartment, i.e. on the white portion of the 

silk fringed with gold. It bears the German single- 
headed eagle, displayed, on its breast an escucheon of 
the arms of PRUSSIA (v. p. 543) with the inescucheon 
of HOHENZOLLERN (Quarterly argent and sable]. The 
main escucheon is surrounded by the collar of the ORDER 
OF THE BLACK EAGLE. The German Eagle is of sable, 
beaked and numbered gules, and is surmounted by the 
Imperial Crown as described at p. 621. 



THIS concluding chapter contains some matters which, 
had our limits permitted it, would have been treated 
much more fully. They are : 

I. The Royal Arms and Supporters of England. 
II. National Arms of the chief European Countries. 

III. Curious Partitions, and a few remarkable Coats. 

IV. Armes Parlantes, or Canting Coats. 
V. Conclusion. 

LI I. are arranged the Royal arms of ENGLAND, and of 
the United Kingdom of GREAT BRITAIN and IRELAND. 

The Norman kings who bore arms used only the 
present arms of ENGLAND (Plate LI., fig. i). With 
these the PLANTAGENET kings after 1340 quartered the 
arms of FRANCE-ANCIENT in the first and fourth places 
(Plate LI., fig. 2). With this quartered coat RICHARD 
II. combined by impalement the mythical arms of 
EDWARD THE CONFESSOR, as in Plate LI., fig. 3. From 
1405 to the close of the reign of ELIZABETH in 1603, 
the coat of the English sovereigns was : FRANCE- 
MODERN, quartering ENGLAND ; as in Plate LI., fig. 4. 
(There are a few examples, as on the south porch of 
Gloucester Cathedral, in which ENGLAND has the pre- 

The supporters used were as follows (the early ones 
are doubtful) : 

EDWARD III. A golden lion and silver falcon (Harl. 
MS., 1073, Brit. Mus.). 

is n 

( 662 ) 

RICHARD II. Two white harts (?) (Vincents MS., 
Coll. Arm.). 

HENRY IV. A golden lion, the white antelope of 
BOHUN (before his accession he used two swans 
holding ostrich feathers in beak) ; the antelope 
and swan. 

HENRY V. The lion and antelope as above. (?) 

HENRY VI. Two antelopes (of BOHUN) ; the lion 
and antelope ; the lion and heraldic tiger. 

EDWARD IV. The lion of ENGLAND, and black bull 
(of CLARE) ; two silver lions (of MARCH). 

EDWARD V. The white lion and white hart. 

RICHARD III. Two silver boars, armed or. The lion 
of ENGLAND, and a boar. 

HENRY VII. The dragon (gules) of WALES. A 
silver greyhound (of BEAUFORT). The lion 
of ENGLAND, and the dragon of WALES. Two 
greyhounds argent. 

HENRY VIII. The dragon and greyhound (as above). 
Two greyhounds. The lion and dragon. The 
antelope and stag (Exchequer Seal). 

EDWARD VI. The lion and dragon. The lion and 

MARY. The lion and greyhound. The lion and 
dragon (or). 

ELIZABETH (as her sister). The dragon and grey- 
hound. On Exchequer Seal, the heraldic ante- 
lope and stag, gorged and chained. [The ante- 
lope appears like a goat on Exchequer Seals of 
JAMES II. and GEORGE I. (Brit. Mus. Cat.}.} 
On the accession of JAMES VI. of Scotland to the 
throne of England the arms became : Quarterly I and 4. 
FRANCE and ENGLAND quarterly. 2. SCOTLAND. 
3. IRELAND. This coat was borne by all the STUART 
Sovereigns. (Plate LI., fig. 5.) WILLIAM of ORANGE, 
as an elected Sovereign, placed upon it en surtout his 

( 663 ) 

arms of NASSAU : Azure, billetty and a lion rampant or. 
(Plate LI I., fig. 7.) The supporters were the lion of 
ENGLAND, and the unicorn of SCOTLAND. Instances 
of other supporters are to be met with. On the Exchequer 
Seal of CHARLES I. they are an antelope and a stag both 
ducally gorged and chained ; and on his seal used at the 
Session in S. Wales, the supporters are a dragon and 
heraldic antelope. On the Privy Seal of JAMES II., and 
on that for the Duchy of LANCASTER, the arms of the 
Duchy are supported by two greyhounds sejant addorsed, 
each holding an ostrich feather. On the Seal of Common 
Pleas of JAMES I., CHARLES II., and GEORGE I., the 
supporters are a griffin and a greyhound. ANNE used 
the lion and greyhound. 

After the union with Scotland in 1707, the arms are : 
Quarterly, I and 4. ENGLAND, impaling SCOTLAND ; 2. 
FRANCE-MODERN ; 3. IRELAND. (Plate LI I., fig. 8.) 

On the succession of GEORGE I. in 1714, his arms as 
Elector of HANNOVER were introduced into the Royal 
shield. These were: Tierced in pairle reversed; I. 
BRUNSWICK : Gules, two lions passant gar dant in pale or. 
2. LUNEBURG : Or, seme of 'hearts gules a lion rampant 
azure. 3. (In point) WESTPHALIA : Gules, a horse courant 
argent ; and over all, for the electoral dignity, Gules, the 
crown of CHARLEMAGNE or (v. p. 617, fig. 97), and the 
Royal arms consequently were (Plate LII.,fig.9) Quarterly, 
i. ENGLAND impaling SCOTLAND ; 2. FRANCE ; 3. IRE- 
LAND ; 4. The Hannoverian quartered coat (as above). 

After the union with Ireland, in 1801, the arms of 
FRANCE ceased to be employed, and the Royal arms up 
to the death of WILLIAM IV., in 1837, were: Quarterly, 
i and 4. ENGLAND ; 2.. SCOTLAND ; 3. IRELAND. Over 
all the Hannoverian escucJieon. (Plate LI I., fig. 10.) 

On the accession of Queen VICTORIA, in 1837, the 
Hannoverian escucheon was removed, and the Royal 
arms assumed their present form. 



( 66 4 ) 

The supporters since the time of JAMES I. are thus 
blazoned : Dexter, a lion rampant gardant or, crowned 
with the Imperial crown. Sinister, a unicorn argent, 
armed, unguled and maned or, gorged with an open 
crown of crosses patee and fleurs-de-lis, and chained of 
the last. These supporters are sometimes represented 
holding banners. On the Great Seal of JAMES I. the 
dexter banner is charged with a cross patonce, the sinister 
with the arms of EDWARD THE CONFESSOR. On later 
Great Seals the banners bear respectively the crosses of 
ST. GEORGE and ST. ANDREW (see also p. 598). 

The Royal crest is, on the Imperial crown a lion 
statant gardant, also crowned with the Imperial crown. 

The motto, Dieu et inon droit, said to have been 
assumed by EDWARD III., appears to have been first 
used by EDWARD IV. On the Great Seal of MARY I. 
the motto is Teuiporis filia veritas ; on that of ELIZABETH 
the motto is Pulchrum pro patria pati ; but that which 
seems to have been most in favour with her was Semper 
eadein, afterwards used by JAMES I. and by Queens ANNE 
and MARY II. JAMES I. is said to have used Beati 
pacifici. Under the Commonwealth the motto was Pax 
quceritur bello. WILLIAM III. sometimes used the 
NASSAU motto Je maintiendrai. 

The arms of Queens Consort were supported on the 
dexter side by the lion of ENGLAND ; on the sinister by 
one of the supporters of their personal arms. It will be 
remembered that the Royal arms have always been borne 
within the Garter with its motto Honi soit qui vial y pense 
since the foundation of that Order by EDWARD III. 

EMPIRE are given on Plate LI II., fig. i. The double- 
headed eagle with golden beak and claws, holds in its 
right claw a golden sceptre and a drawn sword ; in the 
left, the Imperial Orb. Each head is royally crowned. 
On the breast is the escucheon : Tierced in pale: i. 

( 665 ) 

are the Collar of the ORDER OF THE GOLDEN FLEECE ; 
and the Grand Cordon of the ORDER OF MARIA 
THERESA. On the wings and tail of the Imperial Eagle 
are eleven crowned escucheons : I. HUNGARY (Ancient 
and Modern impaled) ; 2. ESCLAVONIA ; 3. AUSTRIA 
above the Enns, impaling AUSTRIA below the Enns ; 4. 
SALZBURG ; 5. STYRIA ; 6. TYROL ; 7. (at top of sinister 
MORAVIA, impaling SILESIA ; 11. CARINTHIA, impaling 
CARNIOLA. (These are all blazoned on pages 494, 495.) 
The Imperial Crown is placed above the crowned heads 
of the double eagle. 

When supporters are used they are : Two griffons Or, 
the plumage and the breast and wings sable. 

The Arms of the GERMAN EMPIRE are already de- 
scribed at page 543, and are shown on Plate LI V., fig. i. 

The Arms of RUSSIA (Plate LI 1 1., fig. 2) are borne 
on the breast of the crowned Imperial double-headed 
eagle (with red beaks and claws) the right claw 
holds the Imperial sceptre, the left the Orb. The 
central shield contains the shield known as the Arms of 
MOSCOW : Gules, the mounted effigy of St. George slaying 
the dragon all proper. Around it hangs the collar and 
badge of the ORDER OF ST. ANDREW. On the dexter 
wing are four escucheons : I. KAZAN : Argent, a dragon 
sable winged gules crowned or ; 2. POLAND (v. p. 254) ; 
3. TAURIA, Or, a double-headed eagle displayed sable on 
its breast a shield : Azure, thereon a cross triple-traversed, 
within a bordure or; 4. Tierce 'd in pairle, KIEV, 
NOVGOROD, and VLADIMIR. On the sinister wing 
are : i. ASTRAKAN : Azure, a royal crown, surmounting 
a scimitar fessways proper ; 2. SIBERIA: Ermine, two 
martins (or sables) counter-rampant, supporting a royal 
crown ; behind tJiem two arrows in saltire, and a bow in 
fess gules ; 3. Quarterly: KABARDA, IBERIA, KARTALINIA, 


( 666 ) 

and ARMENIA ; ente en point of ClRCASSIA, over all 
GEORGIA 1 ; 4. FINLAND : Gules, seme of roses argent, over 
all a lion rampant crowned or, brandishing a sword and 
Jiolding in its sinister paw the scabbard proper. 

The Imperial Crown is placed above the crowned 
heads of the eagles. 

BADEN : (v. p. 491) Or, a bend gules. Supporters, 
two griffins regardant sable, crowned or. 

BAVARIA : (v. p. 525) Supporters, two lions ram- 
pant regardant queue fourcJiee proper, crowned or. 

BELGIUM : Sable, a lion rampant or. Supporters, two 
crowned lions rampant or, eacJi holding a banner tierced in 
pale, sable, or, and gules. Motto, U Union fait la force. 

BULGARIA : Gules, a lion rampant or. 

DENMARK : Or y seme of hearts gules, three lions 
passant gardant in pale azure. Supporters, two savages 
with clubs, wreathed proper. Motto, Dominus mihi 
adjutor. Generally the full shield is used : Quarterly, 
separated by the Cross of the DANNEBROG, argent 
bordered gules (v. p. 510) ; i. DENMARK ; 2. ICELAND (v. 
p. 271); 3. Gules, a dragon crowned or, VANDALIA ; 4. Or, 
two lions passant gardant in pale azure, SLESVIG. Over 
all an escucJieon, Quarterly \. HOLSTEIN : Gules, an 
escucJieon per fess argent and of the field, between three 
demi-nettle leaves and as many passion nails in pairle of 
the second ; 2. STORMARN, Gules, a swan argent royally 
gorged or ; 3. DlTMARSCHEN, Gules, a mounted knight 
proper ; 4. LAUENBURG, Gules, a horses head argent. 
Sur le tout du tout OLDENBURG (Or, two bars gules), 
impaling DELMENHORST (Azure, a cross patee alesee or). 

GREECE : Azure, a Greek cross couped argent. 
Supporters, two savages (of DENMARK). 

1 In the plate GEORGIA alone appears (this is often the case 
when the arms are depicted on a small scale). Or, S. George 
Proper, mounted on a horse sable, slaying a dragon of the third 
winged vert. 

( 66 7 ) 

HESSE (y. ante, p. 525). Supporters, two lions queue 
fourcJiee or. 

ITALY : Gules, a cross argent. 

LUXEMBURGH : Barry of ten azure and argent over 
all a lion rampant gules crowned or. 

NETHERLANDS : Azure, seme of billets, a lion rampant 
crowned or, holding in its dexter paw a naked sword, and 
in the sinister a bundle of arrows proper. Supporters, 
two lions crowned or. Motto, Je maintiendrai. 

PORTUGAL: Argent, five escucheons in cross azure on 
each as many plates in saltire, all within a bordure gules 
tJiereon seven castles or. Supporters, two dragons proper 
Jwlding banners of the A rms. 

ROUMANIA : Quarterly \. Azure, an eagle displayed 
Jiolding a sceptre, sword, and cross, in dexter chief a sun or 
(WALLACHIA). 2. Gules, a bull's head cabosJied, between 
its horns a star, and in sinister chief a crescent or 
(MOLDAVIA). 3. Gules, on an operi crown a lion rampant 
crowned and Jiolding a star or. 4. Azure, two dolphins 
affrontes, heads in base, tails in chief. Over all HOHEN- 
ZOLLERN : Quarterly, A rgent and sable. 

SAXONY (v. Plate XII.): Supporters, two lions 
regardant, crowned proper. 

SPAIN : Quarterly, CASTILE and LEON, ente en point 
of GRENADA. Over all an escucheon of FRANCE- 
MODERN. Supporters are seldom used, but are two 
golden lions holding banners of the A rms. 

SWEDEN AND NORWAY. The shield is divided into 
three parts by a golden pairle patte-throughout ; I. (in 
chief) SWEDEN, Azure, three open crowns or. 2. 
NORWAY, Gules, a lion rampant crowned or, Jiolding 
a long-handled Danish axe argent. 3. GOTHLAND, 
Azure, tJiree bends-sinister wavy or, over all a lion rampant 
gules. Over all the personal Arms of the King ; VASA, 
impaling PONTECORVO: I. VASA, Tierced in bend azure, 
argent, and gules, over all a sheaf or. 2. PONTECORVO, 

( 668 ) 

Azure, in chief the eagle of the French Empire Or; in base 
a bridge of tJiree arcJies towered, and passing over a river 
all argent. 

SERVIA : Gules, a cross argent betiveen four fusils 

MONACO: Fusilly argent and gules. 

MONTENEGRO : Gules, a double-headed eagle displayed 
argent crowned or, and holding sceptre and orb ; on its 
breast an escucheon Azure, in base a mount vert, thereon a 
lion passant or. 

SWITZERLAND : Gules, a cross couped argent. 

TURKEY : Gules, a crescent decrescent, and an estoile 
within its horns argent. 

WtJRTTEMBERG : Or, three stags attires fessways in 
pale sable, impaling Or, tJiree lions passant in pale sable, 
tJieir right paws ecorches gules (SWABIA). Supporters, 
a lion of the arms crowned or, and a stag proper. 

especially German Heraldry contains many curious 
coats formed by partition lines unknown to British 
Armory. Of these some examples have been already 
given in Plates V., VI, VIII., and XXIX., but a few 
more are added in Plates LI 1 1. and LIV, and I here 
append a French or a German blazon of these coats. 
These, it is hoped, will not only be interesting and 
instructive to a student, but may be made useful as 
exercises. It will tax all his powers to describe them 
succinctly in the terms of English blazon. 


1. LANG VON LANGENAU : Von Silber und roth in 

vier Reyhen geweckt, oben mit einem Lincks 
angestlickten giildenen Winckel. 

2. ROSDORFF : Losange d'argent et de gueules a une 

enchaussure senestre de gueules. 
2 x 

( 669 ) 

3. EYFELSBERG ZUM WEYR : Fasce de quatre pieces, 

de gueules, d'azur, d'argent, et d'or, un lion d'or 
brochant sur le tout. 

4. STAUFFENECK : De gueules, a trois fasces d'argent, 

le champ chaperonne du second. 

5. MARSCHALCK VON STUNTSBERG : In rothen schild 

einen nach der lincken Seiten gelegten silbernen 
Sparren (chevron couche}. 

6. POLMAN : D'or, au sautoir echiquete de deux tires 

d'argent et de gueules, auquel manque le bras 
superieur a dextre. 

7. GOLDEGGER : Kin Rechts-getheilter silberner Schild, 

hinten mit funf nach der Lincken aufsteigenden 
rothen Spitzen. 

8. SCHROT : De sable, a une fleur-de-lis d'or posee en 

bande, mouvante d'une enchaussure senestre du 
meme email. 

9. KlRMREITTER : De sable a une equerre d'or. 

10. ALTORF : Coupe en chef, faille en taillant, recoupe, 

retaille, et encore recoupe, de sable sur argent. 

11. HELCKNER : Ein roth und silberne Schild mit 

zweyen offnen und ineinander gefiigten Nachen 
in zwei Theil getheilt. (Taille de deux cotes 
en forme de gueule de lion de gueules et 

12. LEUBERSTORF : Mi-tranche, failli en taillant, et 

retranche vers senestre, d'argent sur gueules. 


1. ORZON : D'Argent, a deux cantons de sable en 

chef, et une pointe du second email mouvante de 
la base de 1'ecu. 

2. TAPPE : Durchgeschnitten : Die lincke Helffte 

von einem ablangs durchgeschnitten doppelten 
schwarzen Adler, im giildnen Schild. 



1. Lang v. Langenau. 2. Rosdorff. 3. Eyffelsberg. 

4. Stauffeneck. 5. Marschalck. 6. Polman. 

7. Goldegger. 8. Schrot. 9. Kirmreitter. 

10. Altorf. 11. Helckner. 12. Leuberstorf. 

3. RUESDORFF : De sable au pal retrait en chef 


4. LOWENSTEIN : Ein mit schwarz und gold viermal 

ablangs gegenstreiffter Schild, mit. einem iiber- 
gelegten schwartzen Quer-Streiff. 

5. EGGENBERG : In silbernem felde drei schwarze 

Adler, welche mit den schnabeln eine giildene 
Crone in der Vertieffung halten, und in Form 
eines Schacher-Creutzes schweben. 

6. SQUARCIAFICHI : De gueules a la croix potencee, 

repotencee en bande a 1'extremite senestre du 
bout superieur, en barre au bras dextre de la 
croix, et en bande et en barre aux deux cotes du 
pied de la croix, le tout d'or. 

7. OBERNBURG : Einen silbernen und schwartz sechs- 

mal lincks-gestreifften Schild, wovon der obere 
aufsteigende schwartze und untere absteigende 
silberne Streiff abgekiirtst sind. 

8. PlLAWA : D'Azur, a une croix alesee de trois 

traverses d'argent, a laquelle manque le bras 
inferieur a dextre. 

9. LlNDECK : Im blauen Schild eine aus dem untern 

rechten Wirickel aufsteigende, und unter sich 
gekriimmte giildene Spitze. 

10. KAUFFUNGEN : Mi-tranche au dessus du canton 

dextre de la pointe, failli en remontant vers le 
canton dextre du chef, et retranche vers le flanc 
senestre de 1'ecu un peu au dessous du chef, d'or 
sur gueules. 

11. HEYERLING zu WINKHL: Coupe, au i, d'Or a 

deux pointes accostees de sable ; au 2, d'Or 
a une pile de sable. 

12. DOLENGA : D'Azur au fer de cheval verse d'argent, 

somme d'une croix patee d'or, et accompagne 
entre ses branches d'une Heche tombante et 
empennec du deuxiemc email. 

( 6 7 i ) 

IV. ARMES PARLANTES. Nothing is more certain 
than that by far the larger number of the arms 
assumed in early times were phonetic in character 
armes parlantes allusive to the name, title, or office of 
the bearer. 

The notion at one time current in this country that 
such arms belonged to the degenerate days of heraldry, 
and were a sign of debasement, is thoroughly refuted by 
an examination of our own Rolls of Arms, and a reference 
to the Wappenrolle von Zurich, and other early foreign 
authorities. In them the canting element is preponde- 
rant ; and proves to be so more and more as we investi- 
gate the changes which have taken place in the French 
and other languages within the last six centuries, and 
the varying names of animals and other charges in 
provincial dialects. Many armorial allusions which in 
early times were obvious are now entirely lost, or require 
much research for their discovery. Heraldry was in its 
beginnings intended more for use than for show ; it was 
addressed as much to the unlearned as to the learned, 
since its primary object was to enable soldiers to readily 
recognise their leaders at a time when, as has been 
shown in the early chapters of this work, the defensive 
armour worn caused a difficulty in distinguishing them. 
The examples selected from the Rolls of Arms, etc., in 
illustration of the earlier portion of this book will show 
how very largely the bearings selected played upon the 
names of the wearers. Mr ELLIS'S view was that in the 
case of many families it is impossible to say whether 
they took their names from their arms, or vice versa ; an 
opinion in which he stands almost alone among critical 
investigators of the subject. It is in Scandinavia only 
where the adoption of surnames under GUSTAVUS 
ADOLPHUS was long posterior to the use of armorial 
bearings that we find any warrant for the idea that 
the name was derived from the bearings of the shield. 



1. Orzon. 

2. Tappe. 3. Ruesdorf. 

4. Lowenstein. 5. Eggenberg. 6. Squarciafichi. 

7. Obernburg. 

8. Pilawa. 9. Lindeck. 

10. Kauffungen. 11. Heyerling. 12. Dolenga. 

In Scandinavia a large number of family names were 
thus derived ; not only where the name is that of an 
animal, but there are very many instances of such 
appellations as LEJONHUFVUD (lion's head), HJORTS- 
HORN (stag's horn), SPARRE (chevron), STIERNA, CRON- 

derived from the bearings of the shield. 

But in the southern kingdoms the reverse was the 
case, and the examples I have selected from the Armory 
of all the Continental nations abundantly prove this 
position. Some of the allusions may seem to us very 
far-fetched, but a pun was dear to the mediaeval mind. 
" Tout ce qui, dans la nature ou dans les arts, pouvait 
donner naissance a une equivoque etait mis a contribu- 
tion." I have engraved on Plate XXXVII., fig. 3., from 
EYSENBACH, a seal which, though not armorial, is an 
excellent instance of the taste of the time. It is that of 
GUI DE MUNOIS, monk of St. Germain 1'Auxerrois. 
The cowled ape in the sky, scratching its back with its 
hand, was a hieroglyphic in which all might read : 
Singe-air-inain-dos-serre, Saint Germain d'Auxerre ! 

I have now to bring to a conclusion a work which has 
been to me a labour of love ; and which I trust may be 
found of some interest and value to the increasing 
number of students of Heraldry. It has been a matter 
of regret to me that I have had of necessity to leave out 
much valuable and interesting matter, and to deal some- 
what superficially with subjects which I have ample 
materials for treating more fully and systematically. 
But, as it stands, the work embodies the collections of 
many years ; and I trust that, apart from the absence of 
literary graces, to which it makes no pretension, its 
faults of which no critic can be better aware than the 
writer may be found rather those of omission than of 

commission. I have not, as my abundant references will 
show, been slow to acknowledge the sources of my 
information, and it would have been a valuable addition 
to the book if (as I had purposed) it had been possible 
to include in it a full catalogue of the multitude of 
works which have been put under contribution in the 
course of its compilation. I shall count myself no mean 
benefactor to my brethren if I increase their interest in a 
very important branch of archaeology. To myself for 
many years it has afforded a great deal of that rest 
which is produced by a change of labour ; it has given 
increased enjoyment to foreign travel, it has acted as an 
incentive to the study of history, and has led me to some 
knowledge of many out of the way but most interesting 
collateral subjects. 

The value of heraldry is becoming more and more 
generally recognised, not only in respect of its poetic 
associations, and of its decorative capacities, but as a link 
between the present and the past. In the past it has been 
a faithful chronicler of the history, alike of Royal dynas- 
ties and of private families. It, in fact, constituted a 
thorough system for distinguishing not only family from 
family, but one branch of a family from another. Every 
change in the hereditary succession of a kingdom ; every 
fresh accession of territory ; every union of houses by 
marriage, occasioned a corresponding change in the coat 
of arms, so that it became a record whose nice distinc- 
tions asserted, briefly but clearly to those who understood 
its language, a number of facts regarding its owner. 

And in the present, though the crested helm and the 
emblazoned shield have no longer all the significance 
which they once possessed when they were in actual use, 
they have still strong hereditary claims upon our recog- 
nition. Although it be the boast of our gentry, or lesser 
nobility (as well as of our greater nobility or Peers), that 
they receive into their ranks with open arms the eminent 

and the meritorious, whatever be their origin and lineage, 
the possession of insignia gentilitia is still the legal test 
of gentility, and one of the duties still delegated in our 
country by the Sovereign to the -Kings of Arms is that 
of assigning appropriate bearings to those who have 
acquired a social importance that entitles them to take 
a place among the gentlemen of their country, and 
which may serve as a bond of union to their family and 
hand down their name and memory to their descendants. 



(N.B. The Reader is advised also to consult the Index.} 

ABASED Applied to an Ordinary, or other charge, which occupies 

a lower position than usual in the shield. 
ABATEMENTS Certain marks of disgrace invented by the old 

heralds, but which naturally never came into use. 

MENETRIER justly calls them " sottises Anglaises" 

The marks of illegitimacy are the only abatements 

in use (see Chapter XVII.). 
ACCOSTED Placed side by side. When used of animals the 

F. equivalent is accoste; but when of shields accole. 
ADDORSED (F. adosse} Placed back to back. 
AFFRONTE A synonym tec gardant ; also see Combatant. 
AILE, or AISLE Winged. 
AILETTES Small square wings attached to the shoulders of knights 

in armour (v. Plate XXXIV., fig. i). 
ALANT A mastiff with short ears. 
ALLERION (F. alerton) A young eagle without beak or feet 

.(p. 258). 

AMETHYST The gem employed to designate the tincture purpure. 
AMPHISBCENA A serpent having a head at each end of its body. 
ANCRED, or ANCHORED (F. ancrc'} Having extremities ending in 

figures resembling the flukes of an anchor (p. 158). 
ANGENNE A flower of six petals. 
ANGLED (F. angle] Having figures in the angles. 
ANNULET (F. annelet, see also Vires) A plain ring ; one of the 

modern marks of cadency, used for a fifth son (p. 444). 
ANTELOPE (Heraldic) A beast with nearly straight and tapering 

horns ; it has a long lashed tail, and a goat's beard 

(v. p. 236). 

APPAUME Describes the open hand showing the palm. 
2 Y 

( 677 ) 

ARCHED Curved, usually a synonym for embowed (but see 

Plate X, fig. 5). 
ARGENT Silver. 
ARMED (F. arme 1 } The term applied to the horns, hoofs, beaks, 

and talons, of beasts or birds of prey when they differ 

from the rest of the body. 

ARMOYE Applied to lambrequins, ailettes, mant lings, and capari- 
sons charged with armorial devices (v. pp. 61 1 and 615). 
ARRACHE A synonym for erased, which see. 
ARRONDIE Rounded. 

ASPERSED (F. seme} Sprinkled, or strewed. 
Assis Seated ; a synonym for sejant. 
ATTIRED (cf. F. somme, or rame} Used, instead of armed, for the 

horns of deer, etc., when differing from the rest of the 

ATTIRES The horns of stags, etc. (F. ramure, a single horn demi- 

AVELLANE Applied to a cross whose arms resemble a filbert in 

its husk (v. ante, p. 162). 
AVLETS Cornish-choughs (?/. p. 264). 
AZURE (F. azur) The colour blue, probably from lapis lazuli, is 

usually of a darker tint in British than in Foreign 



BAILLONNE Applied to a beast which holds a staff in its teeth. 
BALLS (F. boules de . . . ) The colour must be specified. 
BANDED (F. bande, lie} Encircled with a band, applied to garbs 

when tied of another colour (v. p. 342); (see also Cintre, 

and Bangle"}. 

BAR A diminutive of the fess (v. p. 125). 
BARBED Said of flowers, showing a leaf between the petals. 
BARNACLES A twitch for compressing the nostrils of a horse (v. 

BARRULET (F. burele}^ diminutive of the bar (v. p. 128). Cf. the 

French Glossary, Fasce en divise. 

BARRULY (F. burele} Covered with ten or more barrulets. 
BARRY (F. fasce} Covered with bars (v. p. 92). BARRY-PI LY 

(p. TGI). 
BARRY-BENDY Divided into lozenge-shaped pieces by horizontal 

and diagonal lines intersecting. 
BARS-GEMELS (Y.jumelles) Barrulets borne in pairs. 

( 673 ) 

BAR-WISE Placed in a horizontal direction. 

BASE The lower part of the shield. 

BASILISK ( V. p. 293). 


BATTLEMENTS (F. creneaux] See Embattled. 

BEACON (Y.fanal] A fire grate set on a pole against which a 

ladder leans. It is generally shown lighted, or inflamed 

(v. p. 352). 
BEAKED (F. becque} Having the beak of a different tincture from 

that of the body. 
BELLED Said of cows (F. clarin\ hawks (grillete\ or other 

creatures to which bells are attached. 

BEND (F. bande}Ont of the ORDINARIES (see Chapter III., p. 129). 
BENDLET A diminutive of the bend (v. p. 131). 
BENDWISE (Y.penchJ) Said of mallets, helmets, etc. 
BENDY (F. bande] Covered with bends (v. p. 94). 
BEVILY (F. mortaise} Dovetailed (v. p. 77), a partition line. 
BEZANT A gold plate, or flat piece of gold without impression (cf. 

Figured and v. p. 189, and Plate XIX., fig. 2). 
BEZANTY, or BEZANTEE Seme", or strewed, with bezants. 
BI-CORPORATE Having two bodies. 

BILLET (F. billette] An oblong rectangular charge ; a Sub- 
Ordinary (v. Chapter V., p. 186, Plate XIX., fig. i). 
BILLETTY (F. billete}Seme, or strewn, with billets (v. p. 112). 
BIRD-BOLT A short arrow with blunted head (v. p. 350). 
BLADED Having leaves differing in tincture from the rest of the 

BORDERED (F. borde, lisere} Edged of a different tincture 

BORDURE (F. bordure) A border applied to the shields ; one of 

the Sub-Ordinaries (see Chapter V.). 

BOTEROL The metal end of a sheath or scabbard (v. p. 321). 
BOTONNY (F. trefle'} Applied to crosses, crosslets, etc., whose 

arms end in a trefoil shape (v. p. 160, Plate XIV., fig. 1 1). 
BOUGET (F. bouse} (See Water-bouget, v. p. 355). 
BOURDON A pilgrim's staff (v. p. 375). 
BRACED Interlacing ; usually applied to chevronels (v. p. 140 

and Plate XII I., fig. 12). 
BRANCHED (F. tige\ 
BRETESSE (F. bre'tesse] Having embattlements on both sides 

opposed to one another. 
BREYS (F. broycs, and morailles] (See Barnacles above, and p. 357). 

( 679 ) 

BRIGANTINE A coat of mail. 

BRISURE A mark of cadency (v. Chapter XIV., etc.). 

BROAD ARROW The head of an arrow having two smooth barbs 

detached from the shaft (v. PHEON, from which it 

differs, see p. 350). 

BROGUE, or SHAMBROGUE A kind of shoe (v. p. 392). 
BUDDING (F. boutonne\ 
BURGONET A steel cap. 

CABOSHED, or CABOSSED (F. cabosse"} Is the term applied to the 

head of an animal (cf. F. massacre] borne affronte and 

showing no part of the neck. 

CABRE A term applied to a horse saliant (cf. Ramp an f}. 
CADENCY, MARKS OF (F. brisures] Figures introduced into the 

shield to distinguish the cadets of a family from its 

head, and from one another (?/. Chapter XIV., p. 396). 
CALTRAP (F. chatcsse-trape] A ball of iron with projecting spikes 

(v. p. 352). 

CALVARY-CROSS A "long" cross, mounted on steps (v. p. 152), 
CANTING-ARMS (F. armes parlantes] Are those which have a 

punning reference to the name of the bearer (?>. p. 671). 
CANTON One of the SUB-ORDINARIES (v. p. 165). 
CANTONED (F. cantonne} Said of a cross placed between objects 

which occupy the corner spaces of the field. 
CAPARISONED (F. barde, housse ). 

CARBUNCLE (F. rais des carbuncles] ( V. Escarbunde). 
CARTOUCHE An oval shield (v. p. 56). 
CAT-A-MOUNT A wild cat (always gardanf). 
CATHARINE-WHEEL The instrument of the martyrdom of Saint 

Catharine, a wheel having sharp curved teeth on the rim. 
CENTAUR A mythological animal having the bust and arms of a 

man conjoined with the body of a horse (i>. p. 298). 
CERCELEE ( V. Resercelee}. Applied to a cross denotes that its ends 

are curled on each side into circular figures (it. p. 160). 
CHAMBER A short piece of ordnance. 
CHAMFRONT The armour-plate for the head of a horse. 
CHAMPAGNE A narrow piece cut off the base of a shield 

(v. p. 311)- 

CHAMPAINE NISBET'S term for Urdy. 
CHAPEAU A " cap of maintenance," v. infra. 

( 680 ) 

CHAPLET (F. chapelef] A garland of leaves and flowers. 
CHARGE A figure borne on the field in a coat of arms. 
CHARGED (F. charge} Is said of a field, ordinary, or other bearing, 

upon which a charge is placed. 
CHEQUY (F. echiquete, cf. equipolle} Divided into rectangular 

pieces, usually squares, of alternate tinctures (v. p. 99, 

Plate XVI I., fig. 6). 
CHESS-ROOK (F. roc d^echiquier) The " castle " used in the game 

of chess (p. 387, ante). 

CHEVAL-TRAP (F. chausse-trape)(See Caltrap}. 
CHEVRON One of the ORDINARIES, or principal charges of 

Armory (vide Chapter IV., p. 135). 

CHEVRON, PER (F. divise en chevron} (V. pp. 77 and 88). 
CHEVRONEL A diminutive of the chevron (v. ante, p. 139). 
CHEVRONNY (F. chevronne} Divided into pieces shaped like a 

CHIEF (F. chef] One of the ORDINARIES, or principal pieces, in 

Heraldry (v. ante, Chapter IV., p. 116). 
CHIMERA (F. chimere) A mythological figure (v. p. 294). 
CHOUGH (F. choucas) (See Cornish chough). 
ClNQUE-FOiL (F. Quintefeuille) A herb of five leaves (v. p. 322). 
ClRCULAR-BORDURE (V. p. 173). 

CIVIC-CROWN A wreath of oak leaves and acorns. 

CLARICHORD, or CLARION (See Chapter XIII., p. 386). 

CLOSE (F. clos) Said of a bird whose wings are not expanded. 

CLOSET A diminutive of the bar (?/. p. 126). 

COCKATRICE (See Basilisk, p. 293). 

COLLARED i. (F. collete} Having a collar round the neck ; 2. 
(accole"} Said of the shield, when ornamented with the 
collar or ribbon of an Order of Knighthood. 

COMBATANT (F. affronte} Fighting; said of two lions or other 
beasts rampant face to face (v. p. 220 and Plate XXII., 
fig. i). 

COMPARTMENT A term applied to the ground or other object on 
which the shield and its supporters rest, as distinct from 
the scroll or " gas bracket " ornament applied by herald- 
painters to this purpose in the days of debased 

COMPLEMENT, IN HER A term applied to the full moon (?/. F. 
LuNE, pleine). 

COMPONE, COMPONY (F. compone} Formed by a single row of 
rectangular pieces of alternating tinctures. 

CONJOINED United (v. Plate XX., fig. 5). 

CONJOINED-IN-LURE Is said of two wings united (F. -z/0/), the 

tips being downwards (v. Plate XXV., fig. 5). 
CONTOURNE Is applied to animals which face the sinister side of 

the shield (v. p. 220). 
CORDED Said of a cross, or saltire, of which the parts are bound 

together by cords. 

CORNISH CHOUGH (F. choucas) A crow with red beak and legs. 
COTICE A diminutive of the bend (v. p. 131). 
COTICED (Y.cotice, cotoye; cf. accompagne"} Placed between two 

cotices. This term is also applied to the fess, chevron, 

etc. Thus, a fess between two barrulets, or a chevron 

between two chevronels, is said to be coticed (Plates 

XII., fig. 10 ; and XI 1 1., fig. 6). 
COUCH ANT (F. couchant) gisanf) Lying down, but with uplifted 

COUCHE A shield is said to be couche when it is suspended with 

the sinister angle uppermost, as in many ancient seals 

and armorials (^-Plates XLIV., XLV., and XLVI.). 
COUNTER-CHANGED (F. de Pun a rautre; de Fun en Tautre] 

Having an interchange of tinctures (v. Plate XIX., 

fig. 4). 
COUNTER -CO MPONY Formed by a double row of small squares 

of alternating tinctures (see Plate XVII., fig. 5). N.B. 

See contre compone, for which this is not always the 

COUNTER-EMBATTLED (F. bretesse} Embattled on both sides, so 

that the battlement, or merlon, on the one side is 

opposed to the embrasure on the other. 
COUNTER-EMBOWED Bent in the reverse direction. 
COUNTER-FLORY When an Ordinary, an orle or tressure, is flory 

on both sides (cf. Plate XVII., figs. 10 and 12). 
COUNTER-PASSANT Proceeding in opposite directions (v. Plate 

XXII., fig. 2). 

COUNTER-SALIANT Leaping in opposite directions. 

chase passing each other. 
COUNTER-VAIR (F. cojitre vair) Is an arrangement of vair by 

which the bells of the same colour are arranged base to 

base and point to point (v. Plate IV., fig. 8). 
COUPED (F. coupe'} Cut clean off by a straight line, as distinct 

from erased in which the line is jagged. 

( 682 ) 

COUPLE-CLOSE The diminutive of a chevronel (u. p. 140). 

COURANT (F. couranf) Running. 

COWARD (F. couard} A term applied to an animal which has its 
tail between its legs. 

CRAMPETTE (See Boterot]. 

CRAMPONS Hooks used in building, usually borne singly abroad, 
in pairs in British Armory. 

CRANCELIN A wreath of peculiar shape (u. p. 131, and Plate 

CRENELLE Embattled (cf. Bretesse}. 

CREST-CORONET The little crown out of which some crests 
rise (cf. Ducal Coronet, infra). 

CRESTED (F. crete] Is said when the crest or comb of a cock, 
cockatrice, etc., is of a different tincture to the rest of 
the body. 

CRINED (F. chevele, said of a human being ; crine, of an animal) 
when the colour of the hair or mane is to be 

CRONEL, or CORONEL (F. roc] The blunted head of a lance 
used in tournaments (cf. CHESS-ROOK and p. 387). 

CROSS (F. croix} One of the ORDINARIES (see Chapter IV.). 

CROSSLET (F. croisette] A diminutive of the cross (see Chap- 
ter IV.). 

CROWNED (F. couronne, cf. diadeine, and distinguish). 

CROZIER (F. crosse] A pastoral staff, with a crook or curved 
head, used by Archbishops, Bishops, Abbots, and 
Abbesses. The later use, which would confine the 
word to the cross borne (not by, but) before an Arch- 
bishop as a sign of dignity, is inexact (see Pastoral- 

CRUSSILY, or CRUSILY (F. crtisile"]Seme of small crosses, usually 
cross-crosslets ; if not, the shape of the crosslet requires 
to be named (e.g., Crusily-fitchy, Plate XXVI., fig. 

CUBIT-ARM (F. avant-bras] The hand and the arm cut off at the 

CURVED (7/. F. anche, voute, affaisse, cotirbe, in French Glossary]. 


D ANCETTE, or DANCETTY (F. danche, cf. Vivre'} The larger form of 
indentation, of which the points do not exceed three in 

( 683 ) 

number (see partition lines of the shield, Chapter III., 
PP. 75, 76). 

DANSE, or DANCETTE The term used in old writers for a bar 
indented, or dancetty. 

DEBRUISED Is the term employed when a bend, fess, or other 
Ordinary is placed across an animal or other charge. 

DECKED Ornamented. 

DECRESCENT (F. contourne] The term applied to a moon when 
in its last quarter, having its horns turned to the sinister 
side of the escucheon (v. p. 307). 

DEFAMED (F. diffame*} Said of an animal deprived of its tail. 

DEGRADED Said of a cross of which the arms end in steps. 

DEGREES (Y.grices) Steps (of a cross-calvary, etc.). 

DEJECTED Thrown down. 

DELVE A square turf or clod of earth (v. p. 187). 

DEMEMBERED, or DISMEMBERED (F. de'membre', cf. morne}\s 
said of an animal or charge, from which portions are 
severed, and removed slightly from the main body of 
the charge, but so as to preserve the general shape of 
the figure (see Arms of MAITLAND, Plate XXL, 
fig. 8). 

DEMI The half. In Armory the upper or foremost half is the 
one used (unless the reverse be specified), except in the 
case of coats united by dimidiation, when the division of 
the dimidiated charge is made by a perpendicular line. 
In this case a demi-eagle or demi-fleur-de-lis would 
be the dexter or sinister half of the bird or flower, 
applied to the line of partition. 

DETRIMENT A term applied to the full moon when borne of a 
sable, or red, colour as if eclipsed. 

DEVELOPED Displayed. Said of a flag or banner unfurled. 

DEXTER The right hand side. 

DIAMOND The jewel used to indicate sable in the fanciful way of 
blazoning by precious stones. 

DIAPERED (F. diapre} Covered with fretwork or floral enrich- 
ment of a colour slightly differing from the rest of the 
bearing (p. 114). 

DIFFERENCED (See Brisures, or Marks of CADENCY, Chapter 


DIMIDIATED Divided into halves. 

DISCLOSED With wings expanded ; the equivalent for displayed in 
the case of birds which are domestic, or not birds of prey. 

( 684 ) 

DISMEMBERED (See Demembered}. 

DISPLAYED (F. eploye"} The expanded wings of a bird of prey are 

described by this term. 
DISTILLING (F. degouttanf} Letting fall drops (cf. Plate XVII., 

fig- 9)- 

DISTINCTION (F. difference] (See Brisure}. 

DORMANT Sleeping ; it differs from couchant, as the head of the 
animal is not raised, but rests on its fore-paws. 

DOUBLE OUATREFOIL The brisure for a ninth son in the modern 
system of Differences. 

DOUBLE QUEUE Having two tails (see Queue four chee\ 

DOUBLE TRESSURE (F. double trecheur] One tressure within 
another (v. SUB-ORDINARIES, Chapter V.). 

DOUBLED (F. double} The term applied to mantles and lambre- 
quins, lined of a different tincture, or with fur. 

DOVETAIL (F. mortaise} One of the lines of partition (vide p. 77), 
seldom used as the bounding line of an Ordinary except 
in very modern coats. In the Arms of COWELL and 
of PICKFORD the chief is dovetailed. (NiSBET calls 
this partition pate'e.} The Coat of LUCAS, Baronet, is : 
Per bend argent and gules, a bend dovetailed between 
six annulets all counter-changed. 

DRAGON An imaginary monster ; in British Heraldry it is a 
quadruped (see Chapter X.). 

DRAGON'S HEAD, and TAIL Were the terms respectively applied 
to tenne (orange) and sanguine (murrey) in the mode of 
blazoning by the planets (v. ante, p. 65). 

DUCAL CORONET The term applied by custom, but quite errone- 
ously, to the small coronet out of which many crests are 
represented as rising. Crest-coronet, first suggested by 
Mr BOUTELL, is a term as easily understood and much 
more correct (v. ante in the Chapter on EXTERNAL 
ORNAMENTS, s.v. CREST, p. 614). 

DuciPER An old name for a cap of dignity. 

EASTERN CROWN A band of gold from which arise pointed rays 

(v. page 615, and Plate L., fig. 13). 
ECLIPSED (F. ombre de soleit] The sun is said to be eclipsed if 

represented of a red, or sable, tincture (v. p. 306). 
ElGHTFOlL The same as the double quatrefoil, q.v. 

ELECTORAL CROWN (V. Chapter XX., p. 623). 

ELEVATED (F. leve") The term applied to wings raised above the 

EMBATTLED (F. crenelle, bretesse, bastille, which see, pp. 75, 76) 
Having battlements like the wall of a fortress ; the 
pieces projecting upwards are called merlons, the inter- 
vening spaces embrastires. 

EMBOWED (F. courbe} Bent. When applied to arms and legs the 
elbow or knee is to the dexter. 

EMBRASURE ( Vide supra, Embattled}. 

EMBRUED Stained with blood (cf. F. ensanglante}. 

EMERALD The stone used to indicate the tincture vert. 

ENALURON A fanciful old term applied to a bordure charged 
with eight birds ; now obsolete. 

ENDORSE A diminutive of the Pale (v. Chapter IV.). 

ENDORSED (F. Addorsed}. 

ENFIELD An imaginary animal of very rare occurrence, having 
the head of a fox, maned ; the fore-legs are those 
of an eagle, the body and hind-legs those of a 
greyhound, and the tail that of a lion ; (the crest of 


ENFILED (F. enfile} The term applied to a sceptre, sword, or 

lance, which passes through a ring, wreath, or coronet ; 

also to a weapon which pierces a head, heart, or portion 

of a body. 
ENGOULE (See Glossary of French Terms}. Is applied to the 

extremities of Ordinaries, etc., which enter the mouth of 

an animal (Plate XII., fig. 5). 
ENGRAILED (F. engrele, cf. echancre, and distinguish) A form of 

the partition line (v. ante, pp. 75, and 77). 
ENHANCED (F. hausse} The term applied when an Ordinary, or 

other charge, is raised above its usual position. (The 

converse of abaisse} 
ENSIGNED Adorned. 
ENTE Grafted. 
ENTE EN POINTE (V. ante, Chapter IV.). A division of the 

shield (Plate XVI., p. 9). 
ENTOYRE An obsolete term for a bordure charged with eight 

inanimate charges. 
ENURNEY An old fanciful term, now obsolete, formerly applied 

to a bordure charged with eight animals. 
ENVIRONED Surrounded, enveloped. 

( 686 ) 

EQUIPPED (F. equipe} Fully armed and caparisoned ; rigged. 
ERADICATED (F. arrache} Torn up by the roots ; applied to trees 

and plants (Plate XXIX., figs. 2 and 3). 
ERASED (F. arrache} Forcibly torn off, so as to leave the severed 

part jagged, as distinguished from couped. 
ERECT (F. hauf) Set in a vertical position. 

Plate IV.). 
ESCALLOP-SHELL (F. coquille, cf. vannef}b. common charge of 

blazon showing the outside, as distinguished from 

Va?met, which see. 
ESCARBUNCLE The term applied to a bearing which originated 

in the iron bands radiating from the centre of an 

ancient shield, and serving to strengthen it (v. ante, 

p. 45, and Plate I.). Per saltire argent and gules, two 

gryphojfs heads erased in f ess, and as many escarbtmclcs 

in pale all counter-changed, is the coat of LAMPSON, 


ESCUCHEON Points of, are described at p. 59. 
ESCUCHEON OF PRETENCE The small shield borne upon the 

centre of his own achievement by a man who marries 

an heiress, or co-heiress, and containing her Arms (v. 

Chapter XV. on MARSHALLING, p. 486). 
ESQUIRE (F. giron] A term applied to a gyron (see Chapter V., 

and Arms of MORTIMER, Plate XVIII., fig. 5). 
ESTOILE A star ; its mode of delineation, as distinguished from a 

mullet, is discussed ante, p. 307. 
EXPANDED (F. eploye of wings, epanoui of flowers, ouvert of fruits) 

Opened or displayed. 
EYES Express tincture by F. allume ; anime for birds, etc. 

FALSE (F. faux, fausse] A term applied to things voided (v. 

p. 552). 

FAN In British Armory is a winnowing fan for blowing away chaff. 
FAULCHION (F. badelaire}^ sword with a broad blade. 
FEATHERED (F. empenne} The term used to describe the fact 

that the wings of an arrow differ in tincture from the 

shaft. (A synonym of Flighted.} 
FER-DE-FOURCHETTE The term used (but rarely found) for 

crosses, etc., which end in a forked iron. 

( 687 ) 

FER-DE MOLINE The mill-rind, or iron in the centre of a mill- 
stone, through which the shaft passes. 

FERMAIL A buckle. 

FESS One of the Hojiotirable Ordinaries, or principal charges, of 
Armory (u. ante, Chapter IV.). 

FESS, PER (F. coupe} (V, p. 79). 

FESS POINT The central point of the escucheon (u. p. 59). 

FESSWAYS (F. en abime .... en cceur) In the direction per- 
taining to a fess. 

FETTERED ( V. Spancelled}. 

FETTER-LOCK A shackle with a lock (v. p. 591). 

FIELD (F. champ} The surface of the shield upon which the 
charges are depicted. 

FIGURED (F. figure} A term applied to the sun, crescents, coins, 
etc., when they contain a human face ; and to bezants or 
plates stamped like a coin. 

FILE (F. lambel] An old term for the label. 

FILLET A diminutive of the chief. A fillet en bordure is a 
diminutive of the bordure. 

FIMBRIATED (F. borde} Having a narrow bordure. 

FIRE-BALL A grenade. 

FIRME A term applied to a cross-patee-throughout, i.e., reaching 
the edges of the escucheon (v. p. 153). 

FINNED (F. lorre, cf. Fierte in Fre?ich Glossary}. 

FITCHE, or FITCHED (F. ficlie} Applied to crosses, etc., which 
have a point whereby they can be fixed in the ground. 

FLANCHES, or FLAUNCHES (F. flanque en rond} Sub-Ordinaries 
(see Chapter V., p. 185). This bearing has been granted 
pretty frequently in recent times, e.g., see the coats of 
BAGGE, LAWES, and SAVORY, Baronets. 

FLANKS (Y.flancs] The sides of the escucheon. 

FLASQUES Diminutives of Flaunches (?/. p. 185). 

FLEURETTY, FLEURY (FLORY) (F. fleur-de-lise} A term applied 
to a surface seme Q{ fleurs-de-lis. 

FLEURY (F. fleure, fleurettee} Ornamented with fleurs-de-lis 
(?/. cross-flcury, p. 117). 

FLEXED Bent or bowed (cf. vottte, affaisse}. 

FLIGHTED (F. empenne} (See Feathered}. 

FLORY, FLORETTY (See Fleury}. 

FLOTANT Floating ; said of banners, etc. 

FLOWERED (F.fleuri} Said of plants. 


( 688 ) 

FORMY, or FORMEE (See Patty, or Pate'e). 

FOUNTAIN Conventionally represented by a roundle wavy argent 

and azure (Plate XIX., fig. 5). 
FOURCHE (F. fotirche", fourchette} Forked (see Cross-fourchee, 

p. 161). 

FRACTED (F. brise, and cf.faillt) Broken. 
FRAISE, or FRASER A cinquefoil in Scotland (v. p. 323, Plate 

FRET (F. frette] A Sub-Ordinary (v. Chapter V., p. 181) 

(u. Treillis, in French Glossary, and Plate XIX., fig. 11). 
FRETTED (F. frette} Interlaced (cf. Plate XIX., fig. 11). 
FRETTY Covered with fretwork or interlacings (v. Treillisse ). 
FRUCTED (F.fruite, and cf. Enghmte} Bearing fruit. 
FURCHY (See Fourche ). 

FURNISHED (F. equipe ) Equipped, or provided with sails, ropes, etc. 
FUSIL (F. fusee] A narrow lozenge (a SUB-ORDINARY, v. pp. 

116, 182). 

FUSILLY (Y.fusele] Covered with fusils (?/. Chapter III., p. 100). 
FYLFOT The Gammadion, an ancient symbol composed of four 

Gammas (F) united in cross. 

GALLEY (F. navire and galere] A ship propelled by sails and 

oars (see Lymphad\ 

GAL-TRAPS (F. chausse-trape] (See Caltrafi). 
GAME (F. membre de lion} The whole fore-leg of a beast, as 

distinct from a paw. 
GARB (F. gerbe] A wheat-sheaf (if composed of any other grain 

the fact must be specified) (v. p. 340). 
CARD ANT Full-faced (v. Lion}. 
GARLAND A wreath of flowers and leaves. 
GARNISHED Ornamented (cf. lisere}. 
GARTER An old term for a diminutive of a bendlet. 
GAUNTLET (F. gantelef] A glove of steel plates. 
GAZE, AT (F. affronte, m gar dan f] Used of a beast of chase. 
GEMELLS (BARS-GEMELS) (F. jumelles) Small barrulets borne in 

pairs (v. ante, p. 128). 

GEM-RING An annulet set with a precious stone. 
GENET A small animal like a weasel. 
GERATED Differenced by small charges (v. p. 406). 
GlMMEL-RlNG Two annulets interlaced. 

( 689 ) 

GIRON, or GYRON A SUB-ORDINARY (v. p. 167). 

GlRONNY, or GYRONNY (Y.gironne] A division of the field (?/. 
ante, p. 83). 

GLIDING (F. ondoyante) Applied to reptiles or fishes moving 
forward with undulations of the body. 

GOBONY, or GOBONE (See Company]. 

GOLPES The obsolete name applied to roundles of purpure (v. p. 
190, Chapter V.). 

GONFANON An ecclesiastical banner described at p. 372- (see also 
Oriflamme, Chapter XXI I.). 

GORE, or GUSSET One of the old fanciful Abatements. 

GORGE (F. bouse) A water bouget, ^.7/., p. 355. 

GORGED (. collete} Wearing a collar. 

GORGES, or GURGES (F.gouffre) A whirlpool represented conven- 
tionally (Plate XIX., fig. 6, and see p. 193). 

GOUTTE, a drop. 

GOUTTEE, GUTTY, GUTTEE Seine" with drops (see Chapter III.). 

GRADED Having steps (A CROSS-GRADED, F. croix perronnee}. 

GRADIENT Applied to a tortoise walking. 

GRAFTED A term sometimes used for ENTE, q.i>. 

GREAVES Armour for the legs. 

GRICES Steps ; (also the appellation of the young of the wild 

GRIECES (F. marcassins, cf. sangiier) (V. Grices). 

GRIFFON A chimerical animal, the fore part that of an eagle, the 
hinder that of a lion ; the " male griffon " has no wings. 

GRINGOLY, or GRINGOLEE The term applied to crosses, etc., 
whose extremities end in the heads of serpents (?/. Plate 
XV., fig. 6). 

GUARD ANT ( V. Gardanf]. 

GUIDON A kind of banner with a semi-circular end. 

GUIVRE (V. Gringoly\ 

GULES (F. gueules} The colour red. 

GUN-STONE The old name for a pellet or sable roundle (v. p. 190). 

GURGES ( V. s. Gorges). 

GUSSET ( . goussel}--^. pairle without the top opening. 

GUTTY, or GUTTEE Seme of drops. 

GUZES The obsolete name given by the old armorists to roundles 
of sanguine or blood colour (v. p. 190). 

GYRON A Sub-Ordinary (v. F. Girori). 

GYRONNY (F. gironne'} (See Gironny). Very occasionally Ordi- 
naries are gyronede.g., Vair on a chevron gules three 

bezants; a chief gyronny Or and sable, is the coat of 
HOZJER, Baronet 


HABERGEON A coat of mail. 

HABITED (F. habille} Clothed, vested. 

HACKLE (F. broie] A hemp-break. 

HAIE A hedge. 

HALBERT A pole-axe. 

HAMES Part of the equipment of a horse. 

HANDLED (F. ///) Said of spears, etc. 

HARPY A mythological creature (i>. Chapter X.). 

HART A stag in its sixth year. 

HARVEST-FLY A kind of butterfly. 

HATCHMENT A term for Atchievement ; the representation of 
the full armorial bearings of a deceased person, fixed 
upon his house, or in a church. 

HAUBERK A coat of chain-mail. 

HAURIANT Applied to fish in a perpendicular attitude, or pale- 
ways (?/. p. 268). 

HAUSSE Said of a charge placed higher in the escucheon than its 
usual position. 

HAWK'S BELLS and JESSES (bells, Y.grelots or grillets] The bells 
are globular in form and are affixed to the hawk's legs 
by small leather straps called jesses. 

HAWK'S LURE A decoy used by falconers to recover the hawk. It 
is composed of two wings conjoined with the tips down- 
ward (hence wings so represented are said to be in lure, 
or conjoined in lure] ; they have also a line attached, 
ending in a ring, by which the falconer waved the lure 
in the air. 

HAY-FORK A name for the pall or pairle in Scotland. 

HEADS Of men, beasts, etc., are drawn in profile unless the blazon 
specify that they are affrontes, m gardant. 

HEMP-BRAKE (F. broie} See Hackle or Heckle. 

HILL, HILLOCK (F. monf) The latter term is used if more than 
one appear in a coat, unless the charges are separated 
by an Ordinary. 

HILTED (F. garni] Is used to describe the tincture of the hilt of 
a sword if it differ from that of the blade. 

HIND The female stag, usually tripping. 

( 6 9 i ) 

HOODED (F. chaperonne] Wearing a hood, applied both to human 

figures and to hawks. 
HOOFED Having the hoofs of a particular tincture (distinguish from 

ungulcd which applies only to beasts with cloven feet). 
HOOPED (F. cercle\ 
HORN, HUNTING (F. cor de chasse, grelier, huchet ; See French 


HORN, OF A STAG (F. demi-ramure). 
HORNED (F. arme} Having horns of a special tincture but 

compare attired. 

HuiT-FOiL An eight foil (q.v.\ or double quatre foil. 
HUMMETTY Couped at the ends, said of an Ordinary which does 

not touch the edge of the shield. 
HURST (F. bois,fort>) A clump of trees. 
HURT A roundle of an azure colour (v. p. 190). 
HYDRA A mythological monster (v. Chapter X., p. 296). 


IBEX An antelope with straight horns in British Armory, the 
horns project from the forehead and are serrated. In 
Foreign Armory the charge is drawn an naturel. 

ICICLES kxt gouttes reversed. 

IMBRUED (See Kmbrued; F. ensanglante ). 

IMPALED Coats conjoined paleways, that is by the shield being 
divided into two parts by a perpendicular or palar line 
and having one coat placed on each side thereof, are 
said to be impaled (see Chapter on MARSHALLING). 

IMPERIAL CROWN Differs not from a Royal Crown in general. 
The crowns of specific empires however differ from one 
another (see Plate L., and Chapter XX. on CORONETS 

IN LURE (See Lure). 

IN PRIDE (F. rouant] Said of a peacock with expanded tail. 

IN SPLENDOUR Said of the sun irradiated (Plate XXVIII., fig. i). 

INCENSED Is the same as inflamed. Said of animals which have 
flames issuing from mouth and ears. 

INCRESCENT (F. croissant-tourne} Said of a crescent whose 
horns are turned to the dexter side of the shield. 

INDENTED (F. danche, dentele, endente'} A partition line with 
small indentations (?/. p. 75). 

INDORSED (K Endorsed, cf. F. Adosse}. 

INESCUCHEON A small shield borne en surtout, usually containing 
the arms of an heiress or some feudal charge in British 
Heraldry, but used with different meanings in Foreign 
Armory (see Chapter on MARSHALLING). 

INFLAMED (F. ardent, flamb an f] (See Incen&ed &x& Alluine\ 

INK-MOLINE ( V. Per de Moline] A mill-rind. 

INTERLACED (F. entrelace} Linked together. Said of annulets, 
the bows of keys, crescents, etc. 

INVECKED, or INVECTED (F. cannele] One of the partition lines, 
the reverse of engrailed (v. pp. 75, 76) than which 
it is much less frequently employed. 

INVERTED (F. verse} Reversed. 

IRRADIATED (F. rayonne, cf. herisse}. 

ISSUANT, or ISSUING (F. issant\ (For the distinction between this 
and naissant v. ante, p. 221, and Plate XXII., figs. 4, 5.) 


JELLOPED Said of the comb of a cock or cockatrice. (Wattled.) 

JESSANT Shooting forth. 

JESSANT DE LIS Said of a leopard's face with z.fleur-de-lis passing 

through the mouth (v. p. 225 and Plate XXII., fig. n). 
JESSED Having straps or thongs. 
JESSES The straps of hawk's bells (?'. p. 261). 
JOWLOPPED ( V. Jelloped}. 
JUPITER The planet signifying azure in the old blazon by 

heavenly bodies (v. p. 65). 

KNOTTED^Of trees, F. noueuxj of a cord, or a snake, none. 


LABEL (F. lambel) A mark of cadency, also in occasional use as a 

charge (v. pp. 188 and 414). 
LADDER (SCALING) (F. echelle d 'escalade] A ladder with hooks ; 

occasionally of a single piece with short traverses (v. 

ante, p. 364). 
LAMB, THE PASCHAL (F. agneau pascal, or Agnus Dei} Is 

described ante, p. 236. 

LAMBREQUIN The mantling of a helm (v. p. 610). 
LANGUED (F. lampasse") The term used to denote that the tongue 
2 z 

( 693 ) 

of a beast or bird is of a different tincture from the rest 
of the charge, or from that usually employed. 

All birds and beasts are langued gules unless they 
are themselves of that tincture, in that case they are 
langued azure, unless the blazon distinctly express that 
the tongue is to be of some other tincture. If the 
general rule given above is followed there is no need to 
mention that the animal is langued at all. 

LARMES Gouttes of blue tincture, tears. 

LATTICE (See Trellis, p. 97). 

LEASH (F. longe) The line by which falcons are tied to the hand, 
or by which hounds are retained. 

LEASHED (F. longt}. 

LEAVED (F.femlle', cf. pampre}. 

LEG OF AN EAGLE (F. main tfaigle}. 

LEGGED (Membered) (F. membre] Is said when the legs of a bird 
differ in tincture from the rest of the body. 

LEOPARD The lion passant-gardant in French Heraldry. 

LEOPARD-LIONNE (See French Glossary) a lion rampant-gardant. 

LEOPARD'S FACE Is used when the head is represented ajfronte 
or gardant, no part of the neck being visible. 

LEOPARD'S HEAD Is used either when the head is in profile, or 
affronte if part of the neck, either couped or erased, is 

LEVER The name given to the bird (really the eagle, the 
evangelistic symbol of St. John) in the arms of the city 
of Liverpool; now drawn as a cormorant. 

LIGHTED, or INFLAMED (F. allume'}. 

LINED Attached to a line or cord ; is also said of mantles, caps, etc. 

"LINES OF PARTITION" Are described in Chapter III. 

LlONCEL A young lion ; sometimes used by pedantic heralds to 
denote the beasts when several (more than three) are 
borne in the same field. 

LOCHABER-AXE A pole-axe whose top has a hook. 

LODGED (F. couchd} Is said of a hart, and other beasts of chase, 
when lying on the ground ; distinguish from couchant 
applied to beasts of prey. 

LOZENGE (F. losange] One of the SUB-ORDINARIES (v. 
Chapter V.) ; also one of the forms of the escucheon 
(u. pp. 58, 631, and add that English examples of this 
use occur on early seals of FURNIVAL arid PAYNELL). 

LOZENGY (F. losangt} Covered with lozenges (v. p. 100). 

LUCY An old name for the pike fish. 
LURE (See Hawk's Litre}. 

LYMPHAD (F. galere] A galley propelled by oars but also having 
a mast and square sail (v. p. 367). 


MAINTENANCE, CAP OF A cap of dignity ; usually of crimson or 
azure velvet " turned up " or lined with ermine or other 
fur, or stuff of a different tincture. Often used to 
support crests in mediaeval times. 

MANCHE, or MAUNCHE (F. manche-mal tailtie) The old-fashioned 
sleeve of a lady's garment ; its full form is maunche mal 
tattlfe (v. p. 376 and Plate XXXIII., fig. i). 

MANED Having a mane of a different tincture from the rest of 
the body. 

MANTEL (Tierced in) A division of the shield (?/. Chapter III., 
p. 88). 

MANTEL^ (See above). 

MANTICORA, or MAN-TIGER A fabulous beast. 

MANTLE, MANTLING The cloak or robe placed around a shield 
of arms (see the Chapter on EXTERNAL ORNAMENTS). 

MANTLINGS (F. lambrequins] The coverings of helmets cut into 
foliage shape. 

MARS In blazoning by planets represents gules. 

MARTLET (F. merlette} A martin or swallow, without legs, but 
with the tufts of feathers at their junction with the body 
(v. ante, p. 266) ; the mark of cadency for the fourth 

MASCLE (F. mdcle} A voided lozenge (see Chapter V., page 184). 

MASCULY (F. made 1 } Covered with mascles. 

MASONED (F. ma$onne'} Divided by lines, usually of sable, to 
represent the mortar between the stones of castles, 
bridges, and other buildings. 

MAUNCHE ( V. Manche}. 

MEMBERED (F. membre"} The term used to describe the legs 
of a bird if of a different tincture from the rest of 
the body. Some armorial writers think the term 
includes the beak, which is certainly not the case in 
French Armory. 

MERCURY The planet used to denote purpure. 

MERLION (F. merlette] A synonym for the martlet. 

MERLONS The pieces of an embattlement between the em- 

METALS Or and Argent. 

MILL-PICK A tool with sharp head and short handle, used to 
dress mill-stones. 

MILL-RIND (See Per de Moline, and Anille}. 

MINIVER A fur ; a corruption of menu-vair (?/. ante, p. 69). 

MITRE The cap of an abbot, bishop, or archbishop. 

MOLINE, CROSS A cross with arms, like the ends of a mill-rind. 
It resembles a cross ancree, but the hooks at the end of 
the arms not so acute. It is used among the modern 
marks of cadency as the difference for an eighth son. 

MORION A steel cap. 

MORSE A sea-lion. 

MORT A death's head, or skull. 

MORTAR A piece of ordnance ; a druggist's bowl. 

MORTNE, or MORNE A French term for a lion without tongue, 
teeth, or claws. 

MOTTO A short sentence, accompanying armorial bearings, 
usually borne on a separate listel or ribbon, sometimes 
in the coat itself (v. p. 395, and Plate XXXIII., fig. 12). 

MOUND (monde) An orb or globe of sovereignty, usually ensigned 
with a cross. 

MOUNT A hill in base of the shield. In Foreign Heraldry is 
often drawn conventionally with three coupeau.r or 
domes (cf. Plate XXVI 1 1., figs. 8, 9). 

MOUNTED Applied to a horse bearing a rider. 

MOUNTING Rising ; (F. montant, of a crescent). 

MOURNE Blunted (morne\ applied to spears. 

MULLET A star usually of five straight points ; if of more the fact 
must be specified. It is taken for the rowel of a spur, 
and is then pierced. (On the distinction between 
mullets and estoiles, v. ante, p. 307.) 

MURAL-CROWN A coronet of gold, with battlements along its 
upper edge (Plate L., fig. 16). 

MURREY The colour Sanguine. 

MUSCHETOURS (F. mouchetures] The tail of the ermine without 
the three hairy spots usually drawn at its top. 

MUSIMON A fabulous beast, ram and goat combined. 

MUSION A mouser, a domestic cat (v. ante, p. 97). 

MUZZLED (F. emmusele"} Applied to bears and other beasts which 
have the mouth tied with bands. 



NAIANT (F. nageanf] Swimming ; applied to fish borne fesseways, 
or horizontally (distinguish from haiiriant}. 

NAILED (F. doue}(V. Treillis, and p. 97). 

NAISSANT Rising out of the middle of a fess or other Ordinary. 
The distinction between this term and isstumt is 
explained ante, p. 221. 

NARCISSUS A sex-foil. 

NAVAL CROWN A coronet of gold, ornamented on its upper edge 
with alternate sterns and sails of ships (see Plate L., 
fig. 15, and pp. 615 and 646). 

NEBULEE, or NEBULY (F. nebule} A line of partition (v. 
ante, pp. 75, 76). This line is infrequent in ancient 
coats either as a partition line, or as the bound- 
ing line of an Ordinary ; but in modern times it has 
been pretty frequently employed as a difference, and in 
some cases not inappropriately, to indicate a possible 
but doubtful descent from a family bearing arms. 

NERVED (F. nerve} Said of the leaves of trees on which the fibres 
are drawn of a different tincture from the rest of the 

NILLE Formed by slender traces or narrow lines. 

NOMBRIL One of the points of the escucheon (v. ante, p. 59). 

NOWED (F. noue"} Knotted, also said of the tails of reptiles. 

NUAGE (See Nebulee}. 


OGRESS An old name for a gun-stone, pellet, or roundle of sable 
(v. p. 190). 

OMBRE Shaded. 

ONDY, or ONDEE (Undy, undee] Wavy (v. p. 75). 

OPINICUS A fabulous animal of rare occurrence, resembling a 
gryphon winged, and with a lion's legs, and short tail. 

OPPRESSED (See Debruised}. 

OR The metal gold. 

ORB (F. monde) (See Mound}. 

ORDINARIES Certain heraldic charges of most frequent occur- 
rence (see Chapter IV.). 

ORDINARIES, SUB Heraldic charges also of frequent use, but 

not so important as the preceding (see Chapter V.). 

OREILLER A cushion, or pillow (?/. ante, p. 377). 

ORGAN-REST A "clarion" or rest (v. ante, p. 386, and Plate 
XXXIIL, fig. n). 

ORLE A narrow border within the shield but removed from its 
edge ; one of the SUB-ORDINARIES, Chapter V., p. 175. 

ORLE, IN Charges arranged in a circular form, or following the 
outline of the shield. 

ORLE An old term for bordered. 

OVER-ALL The term used when a charge or an Ordinary or an 
escucheon is placed upon others. The French equiva- 
lent is en surtout (v. pp. 483, etc.). 

OVERT (F. ouverf) Open ; applied to gates, and to the wings of 
birds expanding for flight. 

OWL (F. hibou, cf. Qiseau-duc] This bird is always drawn full- 

PALE One of the Ordinaries (see Chapter IV.). 

PALISADO, CROWN, or VALLARY A coronet of gold ornamented 

en the upper edge of the rim with golden palisades 

(v. Plate L., fig. 14). 
PALL (i.) An Archiepiscopal vestment of white wool, shaped like 

the letter Y, and bearing five crosses patees fitchees 

sable (originally the pins fastening it to the chasuble). 

(2.) One of the Ordinaries (v. pp. 150, 375 ; Plate XVI.). 
PALLET A diminutive of the Pale. 
PALMER'S STAFF (F. bourdon} A pilgrim's walking-stick (?/. 

P- 375)- 

PALY Divided into perpendicular divisions like pales. 
PALY-BENDY Divided into lozenge-shaped pieces by lines pale- 
ways and bendways (v. p. 100). 
PANTHER ( . panthiere] In heraldry is drawn conventionally, and 

with fire issuing from mouth and ears (v. p. 226). 
PAPILONNE A form of vair (v. pp. 71-73 and Plate VIII., fig. 6), 

covered with scales like butterfly's wings. 
PARTY (per bend, pale,fess, etc.) Are the phrases used to denote 

that the field or charge is divided by a line drawn in 

the direction of the Ordinary named. 
PASCHAL LAMB (F. agneau-pascal ' j Agnus Dei] (Is described at 

p. 236). 

( 698 ) 

PASSANT The heraldic term for a beast walking and looking 

straight before it (of the lion, F. lion leoparde\ 
PASSANT-COUNTER-PASSANT (F. passant-contre-passanf) Is said 

of two or more animals walking alternately in opposite 

directions the first to the dexter, the second to the 

sinister, the third as the first, etc. (v. Plate XXII., 

fig. 2). 
PASSANT-GARDANT Denotes that the beast is walking forward 

but that its head is affront e, or full-faced (cf. lion}. 
PASSANT-REGARDANT Walking forward but with the head looking 

backward (Plate XXL, fig. 6.) 
PASSANT-REPASSANT The same as the preceding. 
PASSION CROSS A name for the long cross (see fig. 47, p. 164). 

It differs from the Calvary Cross in not having steps. 
PASSION NAIL (F. clous de la passion] A long spike with a 

quadrangular head. The Ordinary known as the 

Pile is sometimes, but erroneously, called by this 

PATONCE A floriated form of the cross (see p. 157, and fig. 56, 

p. 164). 

PATRIARCHAL CROSS (See p. 152 and fig. 50, p. 164). 
PATTY, PATEE (FORMY, FORMEE) A form of the cross, each arm 

expanding from the centre and terminated by a straight 

line (v. p. 154). 
PATTY-THROUGHOUT Means that the bearing is carried right out 

to the edge of the' shield (Plate XIV., fig. 5). 
PAVILION A tent. It is also the name given to the canopy under 

which the arms of sovereigns are sometimes represented 

(v. Chapter XIX., p. 615). 
PAW (F. patte] The foot of an animal, couped, or erased at the 

first joint ; distinguish from Gamb. 

PEACOCK (F. paon] Is drawn passant unless it is blazoned a 
PEACOCK IN ITS PRIDE (Y.pao?i rouant) It is then drawn with 

tail expanded in a circle. 
PEAN A form of ermine, a fur with a sable ground and golden 


PEARL The precious gem used to denote silver or white. 
PEARLED (F. grele'} Adorned with pearls. 
PEEL (F. pelle] A baker's instrument. 
PEGASUS The winged horse of mythology (v. ante, Chapter 

X, p. 298). 
PELICAN In Armory is drawn conventionally ; usually with 

( 699 ) 

expanded wings, with neck embowed vulning its breast 

whence drops of blood distil for the nourishment of 

her young ones which are placed beneath her in the nest ; 

she is then said to be a 

PELLET A sable roundle (see Ogress, Gunstone, and p. 190). 
PENDENT Hanging down. 
PENON, or PENNON A small oblong flag. 
PENONCELLE, or PENCIL A diminutive of the pennon. 
PENNY-YARD-PENNY A silver penny. 
PER Through, or by means of (see PARTY, above). 
PERCLOSE The half of a buckled garter. 
PERFORATE (Y.perce\ cf. ajoure'} Pierced. 
PETRONEL An early form of the pistol. 
PHEON The broad head of a dart or javelin (see p. 350). In 

English Armory it is borne with the point towards 

the base, in French coats the reverse is usually the 

case (v. Plate XXXI., fig. 7). 
PHCENIX A mythological bird represented like an eagle in the 

midst of flames. 
PIERCED (F. perce, ajoure} Is the term when a cross, mullet, 

or other charge has a perforation through which the 

field is visible. 

The form of the piercing should be expressed except 

in the case of mullets where it is always circular 

(v. p. 307). 

PILE One of the ORDINARIES (see Chapter IV. and Plate XVI.). 
PILGRIM'S SCRIP A wallet or bag (v. p. 375). 
PILGRIM'S STAVES Bourdons (p. 375). 
PLATE A flat roundle of silver (v. p. 189). 
PLATY, or PLATEE Seme of plates. 
PLAYING TABLES A backgammon-board. 
PLOYE Curved, or bent (v. p. 137). 
POINT, IN Is said when piles, swords, etc., are arranged in the 

form of a pile that is approaching each other in the 

base of the shield. 
POINTED (F. aiguise ; cf, Fichc}. 
POINTS The pendants of the label. 
POINTS OF THE ESCUCHEON (See p. 59, figs. 15 and 16). 
POMEIS Green spherical roundles resembling apples (p. 190). 
POMELLED Describes the knob, or pomel, at the end of a sword 


OMMELLY, or PoMMETTY (F. pomuiette} Is said of a cross whose 

arms end in balls. 

POPINJAY (F. papegayc] An old name for a parrot. 
PORTCULLIS (F. herse sarasine}^ strong grating let down to 

close the passage through a castle gate ; it usually 

has spikes in its base, and chains attached to its 

upper beam (v. p. 365). 
POSE The same position as statant. 
POTENT An old name for a crutch. The name given to a fur 

composed of crutch-like or T-shaped pieces (really only 

a form of vair, vide pp. 70, 71, and Plate IV., figs. 1 1 and 

12). It is sometimes termed 
POTENT, CROSS (See page 156). 
POTENTE, or POTENCY A partition or dividing line of the field 

seldom used (v. p. 177). 
POWDERED The old phrase for seme. 
PRETENCE, ESCUCHEON of (F. ecusson sur le tout} (See Escucheon, 

p. 486). 
PRIDE, IN (F. rouanf] See Peacock, also applied to a Turkey 

cock with tail expanded. 
PROPER Borne of its natural colours (F. au naturelj of flesh, 

carnation, v. p. 102). 
PURFLED Bordered (horde}. 

PURPURE The heraldic name of the colour purple. 
PYOT A magpie. 


QUADRATE In the form of a square. When a cross-potent has a 
square projection in the centre it is said to be a cross- 
potent-quadrate, as in the arms of LICHFIELD (Plate 
XIV, fig. 7). 

QUARTER (F. franc-quartier} A SUB-ORDINARY (v. Chapter V, 
p. 1 66). 

QUARTERED (F. ecartele} Divided into quarters or quar- 

QUARTERINGS, or QUARTERS (F. ecartelures} Different coats, 
not necessarily only four in number, combined in one 
escucheon to denote descent, etc. (see Chapter XV. on 

QUARTERLY (F. Ecartele} The division of the shield by a perpen- 

dicular and a horizontal line into four nearly equal parts 

called quarters. 

QUARTER-PIERCED ( V. Plate XIV., fig. 3). 
OUATREFOIL A herb with four leaves. 
QUEUE The tail of a beast. 

QUEUE FOURCHEE Having a double tail (Plate XXL, fig. 9). 
QuiSE, A LA (for a la cuisse) Said of the leg of a bird erased at 

the thigh. 


RADIANT (F. rayonne'} Shining with rays. 

RAGULED, or RAGULY (F. ragule, cf. Ebranche and Ecote} Like 
the stem of a tree from which the branches have been 
lopped. It is also, but very infrequently, used as a line 
of partition, and is drawn with regular projections, as in 
p. 75, fig. 24. Ordinaries are not often formed by this 
line, except the cross and the saltire. But exceptionally 
the coat of KNOTSHULL is, Azttre gutty d'eau, a chevron 
raguly between three crescents argent. In a few modern 
grants the fess is raguly ; e.g., JESSEL, Baronet, bears : 
Azure, a fess ragtily ermine, between three eagle's heads 
erased argent ; in the centre chief point a torch inflamed 
paleways proper. There is a modern use of the raguly 
line as a partition in the coat of Sir FREDERICK LEIGH- 
TON, Baronet, P.R.A., which is: Quarterly, per fess 
raguly or and gules, in the second and third quarters a 
wyvern of the first. 

RAINBOW Conventional (u. Plate XIX., fig. 7). 

RAMPANT Standing upright on the hind legs (cf. F. accule, 
of a rearing horse). In Foreign Heraldry this is the 
normal position of the lion, and does not need to be 
expressed. D'Azur, ate lion (for is Azure, a lion 
rampant or. A bull rampant is said to \>tfurieux; 
a horse, effare, or cabre (cf. F. Grimpant, applied to 
a stag). 

RAMPANT-GARDANT Standing up on the hind-legs, but with the 
face affrontee (of the lion F. leopard-lionne} (u. Plate 

RAMPANT-REGARDANT Standing up upon the hind-legs, but with 
the head looking backwards (u. Plate XXL). 

RAMPANT-SEJANT Sitting in profile, but pawing the air. 

( 702 ) 

RAVISSANT (see French Glossary] Is the term applied to a beast 

of prey carrying off an animal in its jaws. 
RAYONNANT (F. rayonnc} Adorned with beams of light (u. Plate 

X., fig. 8). 

RAYS Of the sun, in number are sixteen. 

REBATED (cf. F. en retraif] Having a portion of the end removed. 
RECERCELEE Having the ends curled back in circular form 

(applied to the cross, if. p. 160). 
REFLECTED, or REFLEXED Bent back ; usually said of the line 

or chain attached to the collar of an animal, and bent 

over the back of it. 

REGARDANT Looking backward (u. Plate XXL, fig. 3). 
REINDEER In Heraldry, is a stag with two sets of attires. 
REST (F. claricorde) (See Clarion}. 
RETORTED Bent, or twisted back. 
RETRANCHE ( V. Fretich Glossary}. 
RIBAND A diminutive of the bendlet. 
RIGGED (F. cquippe, habille}. 
RISING (F. essora?if) Preparing for flight ; said of birds only 

(u. p. XXV., fig. 7). 

R.OMPU Fracted or broken (u. p. 139). 
ROSE In modern cadency is the difference used by the seventh 

son (see p. 444). 
ROUNDED (F. arrondi}. 

ROUNDLES SUB-ORDINARIES (see Chapter V., p. 189). 
ROUSANT Said of swans with wings endorsed and preparing for 

RUBY The gem used to denote gules in the system of blazoning 

by precious stones. 
RUSTRE (F. ruste] A lozenge with a circular piercing (if. p. 185). 

SABLE The tincture black. 

SAGITTARY A centaur, armed with bow and arrow (if. p. 299). 

SALIANT (F. cabre, or effare, cf. Rampant} Leaping ; of a horse 

on its haunches. 

SALTIRE (F. sautoir] The Ordinary shaped like an X. 
SALTIREWAYS (F. en sautoir] Arranged in the form of a saltire. 
SALTORELS (Y.flanckis, Spanish aspas] Small saltires 
SANS-NOMBRE Synonym for Seme. 

( 703 ) 

SAPPHIRE The precious stone used for azure in the system of 
blazoning by gems. 

SARACEN'S HEAD The head of a Moor, usually borne wreathed 
of two colours. (Plate XX., fig. 4.) 

SARCELLE (Recercelee}(V. p. 160). 

SARDONYX The gem representing Sanguine in the blazon of 
arms by gems. 

SATYR A mythological figure, half man, half goat, horned. 

SCALED (F. ecaille\ 

SCALLOP (F. coquille, vannet}( V. Escallop}. 

SCARPE A diminutive of the bend-sinister, very seldom used. 

SCINTILLANT (F. etincellant} Sparkling, or emitting sparks. 

SCRIP A pilgrim's purse. 

SCROLL A ribbon charged with a motto (v. Escroll}. 

SCRUTTLE A winnowing fan. 

SEA-DOG (F. chien-de-mer) A seal, drawn conventionally with a 
beaver's tail, a finned crest along the whole back, with 
web feet and a scaly body and legs (?/. p . 300). 

SEA-HORSE (F. cheval-marine} A monstrous animal ; the head 
and forebody of a horse, with webbed feet joined to a 
fish-like tail. 

SEA-LION (F. lion-marine'] As the preceding, with the substitu- 
tion of the head and mane of a lion. 

SEEDED Applied to roses, indicating the colour of the seed- 

SEGREANT Applied to wyverns and gryphons when represented 
rampant with endorsed or expanded wings (v. Plate 
XXVII., fig. 5). 

SEJANT (F. asst's, accroupi] Sitting. 

SEJANT-ADDORSED Said of two beasts sitting back to back. 

SEME Strewn, or powdered regularly, with small charges (?/. 
Plate VI 1 1., figs. 8, 9, 10, and p. 112). 

SENGREEN A house-leek. 

SERAPH (F. seraphiii) A child's head between three pairs of 
wings, the two uppermost and the two lowest crossed. 

SHACK-BOLT (F. ceps)K fetter. 

SHAFTED Handled ; said of a spear or pike. 

SHAKE-FORK A pall, or pair ~le, with chevron-pointed, ends. 

SHAMBROUGHS A kind of slipper. 

SHEEP (Grazing, F. brebis; passant, F. moutoji}. 

SHIVERED (F. e'clate} Broken irregularly. 

SINISTER The left-hand side. (BEND-SINISTER, pp. 133, 582.) 

( 704 ) 

SINOPLE The French term for vert, or green. 
SIREN A mermaid. 
SKENE A Scottish knife. 

SLASHED Ornamented with slashings ; apertures cut in a vest- 
ment to allow the lining or under garment to be 

SLIPPED Having a slip or stalk torn off from the stem ; applied 

to leaves and flowers. (Plate XXX., figs. 4, 8, 10, 11.) 
SPANCELLED Is said of a horse whose fore and hind legs are 

hobbled together. 
SPHYNX A mythological creature, described under MONSTERS 

(Chapter X., p. 295). 
SPLENDOUR, IN A term applied to the sun irradiated and having 

a human face. (Plate XXVIII., fig. i.) 

SPOTTED (F. mouchete ; of insects, miraille, bigarre, marque}. 
SPRINGING Equivalent of rampant for stags and smaller 


STAFF (Of a bishop F. crosse; of a pilgrim F. bourdon], 
STANDARD (See Chapter XXII.). 
STAPLE An iron fastening. 

STAR (See Mullet, and Estoile, and Plate XXVIII., figs. 5, 6, 7.) 
STARVED (F. effeuille} Denuded of leaves. 
STATANT (Y.pose, statant, arrete'} Standing. 
STOCK (F. chicot, estoc\Qi a tree. 
STELLION An old name for a lizard or snake. 
STRINGED (F. corde'} Said of a musical instrument with cords or 

strings ; also of the cord or belt of a bugle-horn, or of a 


SUFFLUE An old name for a Rest, or Clarion, q.i>. 
SURCOAT The portion of the field of an escucheon lying between 

a pair Qiflaunches, orflasques (v. p. 557). 
SURMOUNTED (F. surmonte] A charge upon which another is 

placed is sometimes said to be surmounted by it. 
SURTOUT, SUR LE TOUT Over all, said of an escucheon of 

SUSTAINED An English phrase for sontenu, for which see the 

Glossary of French Terms. 

SWEPE A synonym for the balista or mangonel (v. p. 365). 
SWIVEL A name for a handcuff, or locket ; two rings , connected 

by a bolt (see under BADGES, p. 584). 
SYKES A fountain drawn conventionally (v. p. 193 ante, and Plate 

XIX., fig. 5). 

( 705 ) 

TABARD A surcoat, embroidered or painted with armorial 
bearings, now used by officers of arms (fig. 106, p. 674). 

TAILED (Of comets, etc., F. caude, and comete '; of animals, 
queue ). 

TALBOT An old English hunting dog. 

TARGET A circular shield. 

TAU A cross in the shape of a T (fig. 61, p. 164). 

TAWNY, TENNE The tincture of Orange. 

TERRACE (F. terrasse) A "champagne" (or narrow mount in base 
bounded by a straight line). 

THOYE An old name for a lynx. 

THUNDERBOLT (F. foudre] Conventionally represented as a 
twisted bar inflamed at the ends ; winged, and having 
issuing from its centre four forked and barbed darts in 

TIARA The triregno, or Papal mitre. A white cap of oval shape, 
rising from an open crown ; encircled by two other 
coronets, and surmounted by a small orb with its cross. 
The tiara has infulaz, or pendants, embroidered with 
gold, and fringed. 

TiERCED (F. tierce} Divided into three approximately equal areas ; 
applied to the field. (For the different modes of 
tiercing see pp.. 86, 87 and Plate VI.) 

TiLTiNG-SPEAR A blunted lance (v. cronel}. 

TIMBRE A French term for the helmet with its wreath, lambre- 
quins, and crest. 

TINCTURE Heraldic colour. 

TIRRET, or TURRET A manacle or swivel. 

TOISON D'OR The badge of the Order of the Golden Fleece. 

TOPAZ The precious stone used to denote or, or gold, in the 
fanciful system of blazoning by gems. 

TORQUED (F. tortilU} Wreathed or twisted (Plate XL, fig. 6). 

TORSE An old term for the crest-wreath. 

TORTEAU A flat cake ; in English Heraldry tinctured gules (v. 
ante, p. 190). 

TORTOILY An old word for seine of torteaux. 

TOUCHING (At the points) (Cf. F. appointe, aboute\ 

TOURNE Regardant. 

TOWERED (F. donjonne} Having turret?. 

TRANSFIXED Pierced through. 

TRANSFLUENT The term applied to a stream passing through the 

arches of a bridge. 

TRANSPOSED Removed from its ordinary position. 
TREFOILED (F. trefle} As applied to a cross, denotes that its arms 

terminate in trefoils ; as applied to another Ordinary, it 

denotes that it is edged with trefoils ; as applied to the 

field, it is an abbreviated expression for seme of trefoils. 
TREILLE (F. treillise, or trellised} Latticed, as distinguished from 

fretty (v. p. 97). 

TRESSURE (F. trecheur] A diminutive of the orle (v. p. 175). 
TRESSURE-FLORY (F. trecheur-fleur-de-lise} A small single orle 

ornamented with fleurs-de-lis, all the heads of which 

point outwards, and the stalks inward. 
TRESSURE-FLORY-COUNTER-FLORY The same as the above, but 

with the difference that the heads (and stalks) point 

alternately outwards and inwards. 

sure of Scotland (v. p. 176). 
TRICORPORATE Having three bodies united in a single head 

(i>. Plate XXL, fig. 10). 

TRIDENT A long handled fish-spear with three prongs, or teeth. 
TRIPARTED Divided into three. 
TRIPPANT, TRIPPING The term applied to animals of the chase 

in the passant, or walking, attitude. 
TRONONNE (F. tronconne"} Dismembered ; divided but preserving 

the general outline. 
TRUNCATED, TRUNKED Said of trees cut smoothly off at top and 


TRUNKED (F. affuie"} Having the trunk of a specified colour. 
TRUSSING {F. empietanf] The term applied to a bird of prey that 

has seized with claws and beak another animal (v. p. 262). 
TURNED-UP (F. rebrasse'} Said of a cap of which the edging or 

lining of a different colour is shown. 
TuRRETED (F. donjonne] Having small towers. 
TUSKED (F. arme] Having teeth or tusks (F. of tusks, defendu] ; 

used when these differ from the ordinary colour, or from 

that of the body. 


UMBRATED (F. ombre] Shadowed. 
UNDEE, UNDY (F. onde} Wavy (v. p. 77). 

( 707 ) 

UNGULED (F. ongle] Having hoofs ; applied to stags, unicorns, 
bulls, etc., whose cloven feet are of a different tincture 
from the rest of the body. 

UNICORN A fabulous animal, having the general form of a 
horse, but with a twisted horn proceeding from its 
forehead, the beard of a goat, cloven feet, and a lion's 

URCHIN (F. herisson] An old name for the hedgehog. 

URDEE, URDY (See partition lines, p. 77). 

URINANT The term for a fish paleways but with its head in base ; 
the reverse of hauriant. 


VAIR One of the heraldic furs (see p. 69, and Plate IV.). 

VAIRE Vair of other tinctures than the usual blue and white (see 

Plate IV., fig. 13, and page 71). 

VALLARY CROWN The crown of palisades (v. Plate L., fig. 14). 
V AM BRACE Armour for the arm. 
VAMBRACED Wearing a vambrace. 
VAMPLATE (F. arret de lance) The circular plate of steel fixed on 

a tilting lance to protect the hand. 
VAN NET An escallop shell without ears, and showing the inside 

of the shell. 

VENUS The colour vert in blazoning by planets. 
VERDOY An old term for a bordure charged with flowers, fruit, or 


VERT (F. sinople)Thz tincture green. 
VERVELS, VERRULES, VERRELS Small rings, or ferules. 
VESTED Habited. 
VIGILANCE The stone held by a stork or crane in its uplifted foot 

is thus called (v. p. 263). 
VIGILANT In an attitude of watchfulness. 
VIRES Annulets (v. Plate XIX., fig. 10). 
VlROLED (F. virole") Ornamented with rings or verrels (Plate 

XXXIII., fig 10). 

VIZOR The movable part of a basinet (the " garde-visure "). 
VOIDED (F. vide") Is said of an Ordinary of which the interior is 

removed leaving the field visible within the narrow 

outlines (u. Plate XIV., figs. 4 and 8). 
VOIDER A diminutive of the SUB-ORDINARY the Flaunches^ rarely 

used in practice (v. p. 186). 

( 70S ) 

VOL A pair of wings conjoined (Plate XXV., fig. 5). 

VOLANT Flying. 

VORANT (F. 7igoulanf) Devouring, or swallowing whole (Plate 

XXVII., fig. 4, cf. Empietant, and distinguish). 
VULNANT, VULNING Wounding ; said of a pelican (p. 264). 
VULNED Wounded. 


WATER BAGS, or WATER BUDGETS (See Chapter XIII., p. 355). 

WATTLED (F. barbe} A term used for the gills of a cock, or 
cockatrice, when the colour has to be expressed 
(cf. Plate XXVII., fig. 9). (See Jelloped.} 

WAVY (V. Undy). A line of partition (p. 75); when said of a 
rough sea (F. mer agile}. 

WEEL A fish-pot of ozier work. 

WEIR, WEAR A dam of wattles interwoven. 

WERVELS V. Vervels. 


WINGED (F. aile} Having wings. 

WOODMAN (F. sauvage) A savage. 

WREATH (F. tortilj bonrlet ) The twisted bands of silk round the 
base of the crest. Also any chaplet or garland. 

WREATHED (F. cable ' ; tortille} Having, or wearing, a wreath ; 
sometimes said of an Ordinary (v. Plate XL, fig. 6). 

WVVERN A monstrous animal (v. Chapter X., p. 292). The 
wyvern of British Heraldry, a dragon with only two legs, 
and resting on a nowed tail, does not differ from the 
dragon as generally depicted in Foreign Heraldry 
(v. Plate XXVI I., fig. 8). 


(N.B. The Reader is advised to consult the Index 
for further references.} 

ABAISSE This term is applied (i.) To an Ordinary or other 
charge occupying a lower place in the shield than that 
which is usually assigned to it. Thus, a chief is said to 
be abaisse when it does not reach to the top edge of the 
shield ; or again, when two chiefs appear in the same 
coat (v. Plate X., fig. 4, and p. 119) the lower is said to 
be abaisse beneath the upper. The fess and the chevron 
are sometimes found abaisses. (2.) To the wings of an 
eagle, or other bird (au vol abaisse}, when their points 
are directed to the base of the shield. (3.) To a sword, 
or other weapon, held with its point downward. 

ABIME (v. Cceur} Is the name given to the centre point (p. 59, 
fig. 1 6) of the shield. A charge occupying this position 
is said to be en abime; but if it be the sole charge its 
position is not expressed. DE CLISSON : d'Aztir, a 
trois molettes d> argent et un croissant du meme en abime. 
(Azure, a crescent between three mullets argent.} 

ABOUTE Is the term applied to lozenges, and other like charges, 
which touch each other by their acute points. When 
the points of piles, etc., have a charge (as a rose) at the 
end the same term is used. The ermine spots in the 
arms of HURLESTON of England : Argent, four ermine 
spots in cross sable, are thus blazoned : d* Argent, a 
quatre queues cPhermine en croix et aboutees en cosur, 
because the upper points of the spots touch each other 
in the centre of the shield. 

ACCOL This term is used (i.) Of two escucheons placed side 
by side so as to touch each other, as in the case of the 
arms of husband and wife when borne in separate es- 
cucheons. Louis XIV. bore the Arms of FRANCE and 
NAVARRE thus accoles (see Chapter on MARSHALLING). 
(2.) Of mascles, lozenges, and other charges, which 
are conjoined or touch each other. Thus in the arms of 
ROHAN (p. 185) the mascles are accolees (de Guetdes, a 
neuf macles d'or accolees et aboutees de gueules]. (3.) Of 
shields, surrounded by the collar, or ribbon, of an Order 
of Knighthood. (4.) It is also used erroneously for 
collete, q.v. 

ACCOMPAGNE DE This term is employed when an Ordinary, or 
other principal charge occupying the middle of the 
shield, has other charges accompanying it (distinguish 
from Accost e\ ESPARBEZ : d* Argent, a la fasce de 
gueules accompagnee de trois merlettes de sable (Argent, 
a fess between three martlets sable]. 

ACCORNE This is said of animals whose horns are of a different 
tincture from that of their bodies; (ST. BELIN : d*Azur, 
a trots rencontres de belier d 1 argent, accornees d'or). . 

ACCOSTE This term is used (i.) Of charges placed side by side. 
(2.) Instead of Accompagne (see above) when the charges 
run in the same direction as the piece which they 
accompany. Thus the sword in the arms granted to her 
brothers in memory of JEANNE D'ARC is accoste'bj the 
fleurs-de-lis. Argent, a pale between six annulets gules, 
would be blazoned : d 1 Argent, au pal de gueules accoste 
de six annulets du meme, if the annulets were placed 
paleways. (This is one of the niceties of French blazon.) 

ACCROUPI This is the equivalent of our sejant, as applied to lions 
and other animals. Our wyvern is thus drawn (Plate 
XXVI I., fig. 8). (PASCAL-COLOMBIER : d' Argent, a un 
singe accroupi de gueules .) 

ACCULE Is the phrase employed (i.) When a horse, or other 
animal, is represented rampant, but thrown back on 
its haunches. (It is sometimes used for Accroupi.} 
(2.) When two cannons are represented in the same 
line, with their breeches opposed to each other. 
(3.) When two crescents are represented, the one with 
its horns upwards, the lower with its horns towards the 
base of the shield. (RONCHAUX : d>Azur, a deux 

croissans accules d'* argent, accompagnes de quatre bezajis 
en croix.} 

ADEXTRE (cf. Senestre'} This is said of (i.) A charge which is 
accompanied by another charge placed upon its right 
side. (Note, that the position of this secondary charge 
may also be in chief, or in base, which fact must then 
be noted.) (2.) A shield which is charged with a pale 
united to the dexter flank is said to be adextre. (This is 
really a partition.) 

ADOSSE The equivalent of our addorsed ; is used of animals, 
birds, fishes, wings, axes, keys, and other objects placed 
back to back. (CLUNY : d'Aztir, a deux cles d^ot 
adosses en pal, les anneaux entre laces.} (Cf. Affronte, 
and see Plate XXIX., fig. 9.) 

AFFAISSE Is the term applied to a fess, or bend, curved in the 
direction of the base of the shield. (It is the opposite 
of Voute, q.v.} 

AFFRONTE Is the reverse of Adosse, being used of charges which 
face each other. (CHIAVARO : de Gtieules, a deux cles d^or 
affrontees en pal} (See also Plate XXII., fig. i.) 

AFFUTE This term is applied (i.) To the carriage of a piece of 
ordnance when it differs from the tincture of the 
cannon. (2.) It is also applied to the trunks of trees. 

AGITE Is said of a sea with curling waves. 

AGNEAU-PASCAL This is a lamb, usually passant, having a 
nimbus around its head, and bearing a banner or 
bannerol of argent charged with a red cross (Plate 
XXIV., fig. 4). 

AlGLE When the eagle is borne in profile, and in its natural form, 
it is termed une aigle de profil; otherwise the aigle of 
Heraldry is always represented in the form known as 
displayed, and this fact does not therefore need to be 
specified. In French blazon aigle is always of the 
feminine gender. In early German examples the eagle 
is always represented au vol abaisse (v. HILDEBRANDT, 
Heraldisches Musterbuch, 4to, Berlin, 1872), and not, 
as in more recent times, with the tips of the wings 
raised above the head of the bird. The development 
of the eagle is well marked in HILDEBRANDT'S plates. 
Though in the I5th century the wings reach the level of 
the head, it is only at the close of the i6th, or early in 
the 1 7th, that they begin to rise distinctly above it. 

AIGLE, MAIN D' This is the technical term for an eagle's leg in 
French blazon. 

AIGLONS, AIGLETTES (AlGLlAUX, obsolete] These are terms 
employed by heraldic purists for eagles when more 
than one appear in a shield, unless they are separated 
from each other by a fess, bend, or other Ordinary. 

AIGUIERE A water-vessel used in religious ceremonies. 

AIGUISE (cf. Fiche} When a pale, or cross, etc., has one of its 
ends (usually the lowest) sharpened, this is the phrase 
used to denote the fact. (BOUTON, Nouveau Traite de 
Blason, pp. 196-7, distinguishes between a pal fiche and 
a pal aiguise, considering that in the latter case both 
ends are pointed. This is a mistake.) 

AlLE Birds with plumage, or insects with wings, or windmills 
with sails, of a different colour from the body, are said 
to be ailes of that tincture. So also, hearts, hands, 
swords, animals, and other charges which have not 
naturally wings, are said to be ailes of such and such a 

AIRE This is the technical name of the nest in which a pelican 
and her young are represented. 

AJOURE (Pierced) Is the term applied (i.) When the windows 
of a tower or other building are of a colour differing 
from that of the charge. (Note, that the gate is not said 
to be ajouree, but ouverte.}(2.} It is said of openings, 
usually square, in the field ; e.g., VON UBERACKER in 
Bavaria bears : de Gueules, ajoure en chef d'une seule 
piece d'or. (The opening commences at the edge of 
the shield.) (3.) A cross with an opening in the centre 
is also said to be ajoure, the shape of the opening being 
specified (v. Perce\ (VlRY : de Sable, a la croix 
ancree d> argent ajouree en carre Sable, a cross moline 
square pierced argent ; and cf. Plate XIV., fig. 6.) 

AjOUTE This word is used in the rare cases in which the battle- 
ments of a chief crenele differ in tincture from the rest 
of the Ordinary. 

AJUSTE Is said of an arrow placed on the string of a bent bow. 

ALAISE, ALESE, ALEZE These words are used to express the fact 
that the Ordinary to which they are applied does not 
touch the edge of the shield with one (or more) of its 
extremities. The term is the synonym of raccourci (see 
also retraif}. (Plate LVL, fig. 8.) 

ALCYON A chimerical bird represented of a swan-like form, 
sitting on its nest, which floats on the waves of the 

ALERION This is the name given to eaglets, when represented 
without beaks or legs. They are not borne singly. 

ALLUME Is the term indicating (i.) The flame of a torch, 
candle, grenade, or other burning matter, when it 
differs in tincture from the rest of the charge. (2.) It is 
also used to indicate the colour of the eyes of birds and 
other animals. (LA FARE : d'Azur, a troix flambeaux 
tfor allume de gueules.} 

AMPHIPTERE (Amphistere, BOUTON, Nouveau Traite de Blason} 
A winged serpent (v. p. 294). 

AMPHISBENE (Cf. Amphisbcena in English Glossary}. 

ANCHE A term applied to the curving of a scimitar ; the horn of 
a stag, a bend, etc. (VON MOLSBACH : d^Azur, a une 
demi-ramure de cerf anchee et chevillee de six cors 
d' argent.} 

ANCOLIE An imaginary flower of three petals, its slipped stalk is 
always upwards. 

ANCRE Said of crosses and saltires whose arms divide into 
pieces like the flukes of a grapnel (?/. Plate XV., 
fig. 11). 

ANGEMME, ou ANGENNE A flower of heraldry very rarely met 
with, and with regard to which heralds differ as to 
whether it be a quatre- or a cinque-foil. BOUTON makes 
them of five thin separate petals with a small round piece 
in the centre. The Counts of TANCARVILLE bear : de 
Gueules, a V ecus son d" 1 argent, a forle d'angemmes d^or 
(Nouveau Traite de Blason, p. 391. As used by the 
English TANKERVILLES, temp. EDWARD I., they did 
not differ from the ordinary cinquefoils). 

ANGLE Said of a cross, or saltire, which has rays or other figures 
in its angles. The Florentine MACHIAVELLI bore : 
Argent, a cross azure angle with four nails of the same. 
(Note that this differs from between four nails, the latter 
are in saltire in the MACHIAVELLI coat.) 

ANILLE A French form of the mill-rind, or fer de moulin; it is 
formed by two semi-circles addorsed and connected by 
two horizontal bands which thus leave a nearly square 

ANILLEE (Croix) (cf. Nillcc]^ cross anillee has the appear- 

ance of being formed out of two anilles, one in pale the 

other in fess. 
ANIME (cf. Allume} A term applied to describe the tincture of 

the eyes of animals. 
ANNELET The equivalent of our annulet, a ring of metal of equal 

width all round. 
ANTIQUE, A LA A term used to denote a fashion no longer in 

general use ; a couronne a F antique is the rayed, or 

Eastern, crown (Plate L., fig. 13). 
APPAUME Said of a hand extended and showing the palm. 

WAROQUIER : d'Azur, a une main dextre d" 1 argent 

appaumee et posee en paL 
APPOINTE Is said of chevrons, lozenges, swords, and other 

charges which touch each other at the point (v. p. 148. 

AQUIN, and Plate XVI., fig. 3). 
AQUILON (cf. Boree, etc.) A conventional representation of the 

north wind, as the head of an infant with inflated 

cheeks (v. p. 311). 

ARC EN CIEL The conventional colours by which this is repre- 
sented in Foreign Armory are : or, gules, vert, argent. 

Any others require specification (see Plate XIX., fig. 7). 
ARCHE DE NOE Is drawn like the toy of our infancy, but in some 

Polish coats has a high prow and stern ending in lion's 

heads (v. p. 371). 
ARCHIERES These are the slits, or apertures, usually cruciform, 

made in the battlements, or walls, of a fortress to admit 

of the passage of arrows. 

ARCTE Curved in an arc, an old phrase of PETRA SANCTA. 
ARDENT Said of a glowing coal. The coat of CARBONNIERES is : 

d'Azur, a quatre bandes d } argent chargees de charbons 

de sable, ardentes degueules. Azure, four bendlets argent 

charged with coals sable inflamed gules. (Inflamed 

scarcely conveys the correct idea.) 
ARGENT Silver. 
ARGUS, TETE D' Is represented in the form of a human head seme 

of eyes. It is the charge of the arms of SANTEUIL 

(v. p. 201). 
ARME Is said (i.) Of the talons of animals ; (2.) Of the heads 

of arrows, spears, etc., when these differ in tincture from 

the rest of the bearing. It is also used of a man 

wearing armour. 
ARMES-PLEINES The term for the undifferenced coat of arms 

which, in theory, belongs to the head of a family 

ARRACHE A term equivalent both for our eradicated and erased 

(DE LAUNAY : d 'Argent, a un arbre de sinople arrache; 

GROIN : d"* Argent, a trois tetes de lion arrachees de 

gueules couronnees d'or}. 

ARRETE (POSE) Standing still, equivalent to statant. 
ARRETS-DE-LANCE Vamplates, to protect the hand holding a 

lance in the tourney. 

ARRI ERE- MAIN ( V. Contre-appaummee]. 
ARRONDI Curved into a circular form. 
AssiS The term equivalent to sejant, applied to dogs, cats, 

squirrels, etc. 

Av ANT-BRAS The arm from below the elbow. 
AVANT-MUR A small piece of wall attached to a castle, or tower, 

in some coats (v. p. 362). ORIOL : d^Azur, a une tour 

senestree dhm avant mur d' argent. 
AZUR The colour azure, or blue. 


BADELAIRE A faulchion. 

BAILLONNE Is said of any animal represented holding a baton, 

or stick, between its jaws. 
BANDE The Ordinary known as a bend. 
BANDE, EN Is said of a charge or charges placed bend ways, or 

in the direction taken by the bend. 
BANDE (i.) Divided into bends (of equal number). (2.) 


BANDE-CONTRE- BANDE Bendy, counterchanged per bend- 

BANNERET (VOL) ( V. Vol-banneref). 
BANNIERE A flag of a square shape, the distinctive ensign of a 

chevalier banneret (v. pp. 57, 640, 652). 
BANNIERE, EN A form of the escucheon (v. p. 57). 
BAR The fish known as barbel, generally borne in pairs, addorsed 

paleways (Plate XXVI., fig. 9). 

BARBE Bearded, of animals ; wattled, of cocks, dolphins, etc. 
BARDE Caparisoned in armour ; said of a horse. RIPERDA : de 

Sable, au chevalier d*or le cheval barde d* argent. 
BARRE A bend-sinister (Plate XII., fig. 12). Hence comes the 

common mistake as to a "bastard bar." A "bar- 

sinister" is an absurdity, the bar being a horizontal 
piece, and as much dexter as sinister (v. pp. 126 and 582). 

BARR Covered with bends-sinister in equal numbers. 

BARROQUE, EN A term applied to supporters, when they are 
drawn as if emerging from behind the shield. 

BASILIC The basilisk (v. p. 293, ante}. 

BASTILLE Embattled on the lower edge. BELOT : d 1 Argent, a 
trois lozenges d'azitr, au chef cousu bastille cTor. 
Argent, three lozenges azure, a chief embattled (cousu} 

BATAILLE When the clapper of a bell is, as often, of a different 
colour from the rest of the charge, it is said to be 
bataille. BELLEGARDE : d^Azitr, a une cloche d'argent 
bataille de sable (Azure, a bell argent the clapper 

BATON (i.) A stick. (2.) A cotice couped at the ends. In the 
coats of the later French princes it was used as a mark 
of difference in the case of those who had been 
legitimated (see Chapter XVI I., p. 572). 

BATON D'ESCULAPE A rod and a serpent intertwined. 

BATON FLEUR-DE-LISE A rod ending in a fleur-de-lis, often 
arrache, having roots at the end as in the coat of 
DELBENE : Azure, two batons fleur-de-lisee and 
eradicated in saltire argent. 

BECQUE Indicates the colour of the beak of a bird. COLIGNI : 
de Gueules, a Vaigle a"* argent, couronne, becque, et membre, 

BEFFROI Vair of the largest size (v. p. 69). 

BELIER-MILITAIRE A battering ram. 

BEQUILLE DE ST. ANTHOINE A term for the cross-tau (q.v.}. 

BESANT Coin of gold or silver, usually without stamp. If the 
head be depicted it is figure. 

BESANTE Seme of bezants. 

BESANT-TOURTEAU A roundle partly of metal, partly of colour, is 
always placed on a field of colour (v. Tourteau-besanf}. 

BIGARRE Said of a butterfly's wings of divers colours. 

BlLLETE Seme of billettes. 

BlLLETTE A rectangular figure with elongated sides ; always 
borne perpendicularly unless otherwise specified ; when 
placed horizontally it is said to be couchee. 

BISSE Name of a serpent when twined into knots (cf. Guivre]. 

BOCQUET A lance, or pike-head. 

BCEUF The ox has a pendent tail ; distinguish from taiireau. 

BONNET-ALBANAIS A pointed hat bent in the form of a semi- 

BORD Edged ; said of Ordinaries having a bordure of a different 
colour ; also of the shield if it has a very narrow 
bordure (cf. Filet en bordure]. 

BORDURE One of the SUB-ORDINARIES (v. Chapter V.). 

BOREE ( V. Aquilori). 

BOUCLE (i.) Buckled. (2.) Said of the ring in the nostrils of an 
animal (v. p. 235, cf. Buffle}. 

BOULES In German Armory nearly all the roundles are thus 
globular, and are shaded accordingly (v. p. 190). 

BOURDON (DE PELERIN) A pilgrim's staff, usually balled at the 

BOURDONNE (cf. Pommetty) Said of a cross whose arms terminate, 
like a bourdon, in balls. ROCHAS : d^Or, a la croix 
bourdonnee de gueules au chef d^azur charge dhine 
etoile d>or. 

BOURLET The wreath of a crested helm. 

BOUSE The water-bouget. 

BOUTEROLLE The end of a scabbard, somewhat in the form of a 
linden or nenuphar leaf. 

BOUTOIR The snout of a boar ; used in describing the position of 
the head when exceptionally it is placed paleways, or in 
bend, le boutoir vers le chef^ ou vers V angle droit, de 

BOUTONNE (i.) Having buds. (2.) Buttoned. 

BRANCHE Branched (v. Tige\ 

BREBIS A sheep grazing (distinguish from Mouton}. 

BRETESSE Is said of Ordinaries embattled on both sides, so that 
the merlon on one side corresponds to the merlon on 
the other (v. arms of SCARRON, p. 130). 

BRETESSE (contre} Embattled on both sides, but with the merlon 
on the one side corresponding to the embrasure on the 

BRIS D'HUIS The long hinge of a door (v. Vertenelle}. 

BRIS (i.) Broken ; said of lances, chevrons, etc., VIOLLE : d^Or, 
a trois chevrons brises de sable. See rompu and ecime, 
and distinguish. (2.) Differenced by a brisure. 

BROCHANT Is said of charges which are placed upon other 
charges so as to pass over them (see Arms of TORSAY 
on next page ; and Plate XIII., figs. 5 and 9). 

( 718 ) 

BROYES (cf. Morailles}(\.} A twitch for horses. (2.) A hemp 

BUFFLE An ox-head with a ring in the nostrils is blazoned as a 

tete de buffle, as in the arms of MECKLENBURG. 
BURELE A diminutive of a bar a barrulet. 
BURELE Barry of ten or more pieces, equal in number. TORSAY : 

Burele d? argent et d'azur, a la bande de gueules 

brochante sur le tout. 

CABLE Wreathed (v. Tortille\ is said of Ordinaries wreathed like 
a cable. 

CABOCHE Caboshed (v. p. 233). 

CAERE (Cf. Effare}. Is said of a horse thrown back on its haunches. 

CADUCEE The rod of Mercury, winged at the end, and having 
two serpents entwined around it. 


CALVAIRE, CROIX (V. p. 152). 

CANETTE A duck without beak or feet like a merlette. (Some 
writers, however, make the distinction that c.anettes 
have beaks and feet while merlettes have not.) 

CANNELE Invecked (v. p. 76). 

CANTON A diminutive of \htfranc-qiiartier. 

CANTONNE Said of a cross, or other charge, along with which one 
or more charges are borne in the cantons of the shield. 
Thus BRUNSVELT in Holland bears : Azure, a cross 
couped argent, cantonnee oft. four roses of the same. We 
should simply say "between." It is also used of four 
charges placed 2 and 2. 

CAPUCHON ( V. Chaperon}. A hood. 

CARNATION The " proper " colour of flesh. 

CARREAUX Cushions, usually en lozenge. 

CAUDE Said of a star or comet's tail. 

CEINTRE A synonym for voute. 

CEINTRE Said of an orb of sovereignty, banded. 

CEP DE ViGNE A vine shoot. 

CEPS A handcuff. 

CERCLF. Hooped. 

CHABOTS Chubs, borne hauriant. 

CHAMP The field of the shield. 

CHAMPAGNE, or PLAINE The base of the shield cut off by a 

straight line ; distinguish from a mound which is made 
by a curved line (fig. 36, p. 77, and see p. 311). 

CHANDELIERS DE L'EGLISE Have three branches. 

C HANTANT Crowing. 

CHAPE A division of the shield by two straight lines issuing 
from the middle of the top line of the shield to the 
dexter and sinister base (Plate VI., fig. 8, and p. 88). 

CHAPE-CHAUSSE The combination of chape with chausse (see the 
latter term below). 

CHAPE-PLOYE The same formed by curved, or concave lines 
(Plate VI., fig. 10). 

CHAPELET (i.) A rosary. (2.) A wreath. 

CHAPERON (i.) A hood. (2.) The hood of a falcon. 

CHAPERONNE (i.) Wearing a hood. (2.) A diminutive of chape 
(p. 89). (See Plate LV., fig. 4.) 

CHARGE Charged. 

CHATEAU A castle, flanqued with towers (distinguish from 
tower, v. p. 359). 

CHATELE 6>;;z/ of castles (cf. Plate VIII., fig. 10). 

CHAUDIERE The cauldron ; a frequent Spanish charge. 

CHAUSSF, The reverse of chape, that is, the lines start from the 
middle of the base and end in the extremities of the 
top line of the shield. When the shield is both chape 
and chausse both forms undergo some diminution, and 
the field takes a lozenge shape, chape-chausse thus 
becomes the same as vein, see p. 89. (For even a greater 
diminution see p. 89, Arms of SANTAPAU.) 

CHAUSSE-PLOYE Chausse, but with curved lines (see p. 88). 


CHAUVE-SOURIS The bat ; it is borne displayed like an eagle. 

CHEF The Chief. 

CHEF DE FRANCE A chief azure charged with three fleurs-de-lis 
or (in early coats seme de fleurs-de-lis\ (v. p. 539)- 

CHEF DE L'EMPIRE (Gennanique) Un chef d^ or a une aigle eployee 
de sable (v. p. 536-538). 

Variations not known in British Armory are these : 

CHEF-CHEVRON The union of the chief with the chevron without 
any dividing line. 

CHEF-DEXTRE A chief formed by a line proceeding from the 
sinister end of the top line of the shield, and crossing 
the shield to the point where the line forming the chief 

( 720 ) 

begins, thus making a long giron, or triangular bearing, 

with its base on the dexter flank. 

CHEF-PAL The union of the chief with the pale (v. p. 120). 
CHEF-SENESTRE The reverse of CHEF-DEXTRE ; the partition line 

starts from the dexter end of the top line and crosses 

to the sinister flank (Plate LV., fig. i). 
CHEF-TRIANGULAIRE Is formed by two lines starting from the 

extremities of the top line of the shield, and uniting in 

the honour point. 
CHEF-VOUTE Is a chief formed by an arched line instead of by a 

straight one (Plate X., fig. 5). 

CHERUBINS Angel's heads with two or six wings (v. p. 201). 
CHEVELE Is said of human heads which have the hair of a 

special tincture named. 
CHEVILLE Is used when it is desired to give the number of 

"points" (cors} on a stag's attire (cf. Arms of MOLSBACH 

on p. 713). 
CHEVRON The Ordinary so called may be abaisse, alaise, brise, 

coupe\ couche, ecime, ploye, verse, vuide, tonrne, 


CHEVRON, DIVISE EN Parti per chevron (v. p. 81). 
CHEVRON, EN Is said of objects arranged in the form taken by 

the Ordinary. 

CHEVRONNE Covered with chevrons (Plate VII., fig. 5). 
CHICOT ( V. Ecot}. A thick knotted stick. 
CHIMERE ( V. Chim<zra, p. 294). 
CHOUCAS The Cornish chough. 
CHOUETTE The great owl, always borne affrontee, 
CIMIER The crest. 

ClNTRE Banded ; said of the Monde (q.v.\ or Orb. 
CLAIREVOIES The lozenge - shaped spaces within a fret or 

CLARICORDE The name for the English charge known as a rest, 

sufflue, clarion, etc. (?/. p. 386). 
CLARINE This term is used when it is desired to describe the 

colour of the bells of cows or sheep. 
CLECHEE Said of a cross the arms of which are shaped like the 

handle of an ancient key. The Cross of Toulouse is a 

cross-dechee (v. Plate XV., fig. 7, and p. 161). 
CLOUE Is said when the heads of nails appear on trellises (v. p. 97), 

horse-shoes, etc. 
CLOUS-DE-LA-PASSION Passion nails, having a triangular or 

( 7" ) 

square head. (CHAUSNES : tfAznr, au chevron d'or 
accompagne de trois clous de la passion du jneme.} 

CCEUR, EN (en abime) In the centre point of the shield. 

COLLETE Collared ; said (i.) Of a dog or other animal. (2.) Of 
a spur attached to the collet or collar. (3.) Of a wild 
animal seized by the neck or ears by a hound (vulgarly 

COLONNES (i.) Architectural charges. (2.) The name some- 
times given to the zules (zuylen] or chess-rooks, in Dutch 

COMBLE A diminutive of the chief, and half its width. 

COMETE The comet is represented in Foreign Armory as an 
estoile of six or eight rays, one of which is prolonged 
into a wavy tail, usually in bend but not always ; the 
position must therefore be specified. Caude is the term 
applied to the tail. 

COMETE Having a tail or termination like a comet. 

COMPON One of the rectangular pieces of which compony is 
made up. 

COMPONE Is said of a bordure or other Ordinary, divided into 
one row of rectangular pieces alternating in colour 
(Plate XVI I., fig. 4). 

CONQUE-MARINE The conch shell borne by a triton. 

CONTOURNE Turned to face the sinister side of the shield. In 
the case of a crescent both horns are towards the 
sinister (v. p. 307). 

CONTRE-APPAUME Said of a human hand placed so as to show 
its back (rarely employed). 


FASCE, CONTRE-PALE All these are terms which 
indicate that the field is covered with bends, bends- 
sinister, chevrons, fesses, or pales, and that it is also 
divided by a line on the two sides of which the metal 
and colour are alternately placed. Thus the coat of 
HORBLER is : Parti, et centre bande (Tor et de gueules. 
Here the coat bendy or and gules is also divided by the 
palar line, so that the bend which is or on the dexter 
side becomes gules on the sinister, and so on alternately 
throughout. MEIRANS : Centre pale d^argent et d'azur 
a la fasce d'or. Here the pallets are counter-changed 
on each side of the fess (see also p. 96). 
CONTRE-COMPONNE (Counter-compony) Made up of compons 

( 722 ) 

arranged alternately. The Counts SEVA : Fasce d'or et 

de sable a la bordure contre-componnee de meme. (Here 

the compons of or are at the ends of the sable bars, 

and vice versa.} 
CONTRE-ECARTELE (Counter-quartered) Is said of quarterings 

which are themselves quartered (see Plate XXX IX., fig. 3). 
CONTRE-FLAMBANT Flaming on opposite sides. 
CONTRE-HERMINE (Ermines). A fur of which the field is sable 

and the spots white (Plate IV.). 
CONTRE-PASSANT (Counter-passant) Said of two or more animals, 

arranged paleways, and proceeding in opposite direc- 
tions (v. Plate XXII., fig. 2). 
CONTRE-VAIR Vair so arranged that in any two rows the panes 

of the same tincture are conjoined by their bases, or by 

their points, as in Plate IV., fig. 8. 
CONTRE-VAIRE The same arrangement as in counter-vair, but 

with tinctures other than argent and azure. 
COQUERELLES A group of three filberts in their cups arranged 

one in pale and two fesseways. 
COQUILLAGE ( V. Conque-marine). 
COQUILLE An escallop shell, placed to show the convex side of 

the shell (cf. Vannef). 
COR-DE-CHASSE A hunting horn ; in French Armory is always 

stringed (cf. Grelier and Huchef), and the lip piece, as 

in English (but not in Scottish) Heraldry, is to the 

sinister side of the shield. 
CORDE Said of bows ; or of hunting horns or harps whose strings 

require specification. (ARPAIOU : cTAzur^ a une harpe 

cor dee dor.} 
CORDELIERE A knotted cord placed in a circular form round 

the escucheon or lozenge of widows. 
CORMORAN A cormorant, usually drawn proper. 
CORNES The horns used in crests, especially in Germany. 
CORNIERE The handle of a cauldron. 
CORS 1h& points of a stag's attire (v. MOLSBACH, p. 713). 
COTICE A diminutive of a bande^ or bend, of which it is only 

the third part. 

COTICE-EN-BARRE The like diminutive of the bend-sinister. 
COTICE (i.) Is said of a field divided into bendlets of at least the 

number of ten. (2.) Cotised ; said of an Ordinary (fess, 

pale, bend) placed between its diminutives, as in Plates 

X. (fig. ii) and XI. (fig. 12) (cf. Cotoye, infra). 

COTICE-EN-BARRE Bendy-sinister often or more pieces. 
COTOYE Is said of a bend or bend-sinister placed between two 

charges which take the same direction as the Ordinary. 

(Cf. Accoste and Accompagne, and note the difference.) 
COUARD Coward ; said of a lion or other beast drawn with its 

tail between its legs. 
COUCHE Couchant ; said (i.) Of an animal lying down, but not 

asleep, with the head in the air (distinguish from 

Dormant}. (2.) Of billets placed horizontally (?/. p. 

490) (3.) Of a chevron (v. p. 137, and Plate LV., 

%. 5). 

COULEUVRE A serpent, usually drawn in pale and with undulat- 
ing body. 

COULISSE Said of a castle whose gateway shows the portcullis. 

COUPE (i.) Parti per fess (Plate V., fig. 3). (2.) Coupedj said of 
parts of animals cut smoothly off, as distinct from erased. 
(3.) Ql& fleur-de-lis divided horizontally. 


COUPEAU Name for the summits of the conventional hill ; usually- 
drawn de trots coupeaux that is, with three rounded 
summits like inverted cups (v. p. 311). 

COUPLE-DE-CHIENS An instrument of the chase serving to couple 
two hounds in one leash. 

COUPLES Is said (i.) Of hounds thus united. (2.) Of other 
things tied together. 

COURANT Courant, running. 

COURBE Curved, (i.) Said of the dolphin, etc. (2.) Equivalent 
of vout^ as applied to a fess, etc. 

COURONNE Surmounted by a crown or coronet. 

COURTINE (i.) A curtain of masonry uniting two towers. (2.) 
The side pieces of a pavilion or mantling. 

COUSU Is the term used to indicate that the law forbidding the 
use of metal on metal, or colour on colour, has been 
intentionally disregarded. This frequently happens in 
the case of the chief ; less frequently in that of other 
Ordinaries (?/. a,7ite, Bastille, arms of BELOT). The 
violation of the rule occurs but seldom in the coats of 
the old French noblesse; frequently in those of towns 
and corporations secular and religious. 

COUVERT Said (i.) Of a cup or chalice having a cover. (2.) Of 
a tower, or building, with a pointed roof. 

CRAMPON A cramp or hook of iron used in building. It is a 

( 724 ) 

perpendicular piece, with a hook at each end on the 
opposite sides. 

CRAMPONNE Is said of the cross (and other figures) of which an 
arm, or traverse, ends in a crampon, or hook. 

CRANCELIN A figure derived from German Heraldry ; a bend 
curved and ornamented on the upper edge with leaves 
and pearls like a coronet. The arms of SAXONY (see 
Plate XI I.). 

CREMAILLIERE The ratchet hook of a cauldron ; a charge 
frequent in the Armory of some parts of Germany 
(v. p. 390). 

CRENEAUX Is the French term for the merlons, or portions pro- 
jecting upwards, of an embattlement. In Italy the 
form of the battlement indicated the political party of 
the owner of the building. The Guelphic battlement is 
the ordinary rectangular one ; the Ghibbeline has 
an angular or swallow-tail notch in the upper line. 

CRENELE Embattled on the upper side (Plate XL, fig. 4). LA 
LANDE : d' Argent, a lafasce crenelee de guetiles. 

CREQUIER A wild cherry tree, drawn conventionally, as in 
Plate XXIX., fig. 4 ; and, better, at p. 344, fig. 72. 

CRETE The crest of a cock, dolphin, or other animal. (N.B. Not 
of a helmet, which is cimier.} 

CRETE Having the crest of a special tincture. 

CRI-DE-GUERRE A motto placed in a listel above the crest. 

CRINE Word used in indicating the colour of the hair. 

CROC, or CROCHET A hook. 

CROISE Charged, or ornamented, with a cross. 

CROISSANT A half moon, drawn conventionally montant, or with 
its horns upwards. (Note that any other posi- 
tion requires specification ; and see tottrne, verse, 
contourne,jigtire, and luiiels.} 

CROISSETTES Small crosses. 

CROIX, EN Arranged in the form of a cross. 

CROIX, PASSE EN Is said of two lances, or other charges, placed 
the one in pale, the other crossing it fessways. 

CYCLAMOR An orle. 


DAIM A deer ; it has broader and wider antlers than the cerf. 
DALMATIQUE Is the name of the tunicle with short sleeves, often 

( 725 ) 

armoyee, worn by angels over their long flowing robes 
(see French Supporters, pp. 636-7). 

DAUPHIN This animal is usually drawn embowed, or courbe 
en pal i.e., with its head in chief, and its body 
curved towards the sinister side of the shield, and its 
tail beneath the head ; in fact, like a 0, C reversed 
(Plate XXVI., fig. 7). When drawn naiant (fessways 
in pale), the body is not so much curved (Plate XXVI., 
fig. 8). When drawn hauriant the curvature is still less. 

DE L'UN A. L'AUTRE DE L'UN EN L'AUTRE Counter-changed. 
The coat of RODES is : Per pale sable and argent, thir- 
teen estoiles in three palar rows, 4, 5, 4, counter-changed. 
The French blazon shows the difference of the two 
phrases : Parti de sable et d^argent, a treize etoiles 
rangees en trois pals, les cinque du milieu de Pun a 
Fautre, et les quatre de chaque flanc de Pun en Fautre. 
A nicety of French blazon. 

DECAPITE Having the head removed. 

DEFAILLANT Is said when a cross or other charge is deficient in 
some portion. The blazon must indicate the position 
of the deficiency ; thus a cross deprived of its right arm 
would be said to be defaillant a dextre, etc. 

DEFENDU Tusked ; is said of an elephant, or wild boar. 

DEFENSES Are the tusks of a wild boar or elephant (a porcu- 
pine in a ball is styled en defence). 

DEGOUTTANT (De sang} Distilling drops of blood. 

DEJOINT Is said of an Ordinary severed in the middle and dis- 

DEMANCHE Without a handle. 

DEMEMBRE Without members ; said of birds. 

DEMI-RAMURE Is a single horn of a stag (cf. ramure). 

DEMI-VOL A single wing, as vol means both wings. 

DENCHE Indented (cf. Dentele}. 

DENCHURE A filet in chief indented. 

DENTE Toothed, same as 

DENTELE Indented, but with more and smaller indentations than 
Denche, q.v. 

DEPOUILLE The name of the skin of a lion or other animal. 

DESARME Disarmed, without claws or talons. 

DEVISE A motto. 

DEXTRE The right side of the shield, opposite to the beholder's 
left hand. 

( 726 ) 

DEXTROCHERE The whole right hand and arm (cf. avant-bras, 

which distinguish ; and Senestrochere). 
DIADEMF, Is said of Imperial eagles whose heads are surrounded 

by annulets, or glories. 
DIAPRE Diapered (v. p. 114). 
DIFFAME Deprived of its tail. 
DIMINUE Is said of charges, or Ordinaries, borne of a smaller 

size than usual. 
DIVISE (v. Fasce en diirise}(See Plate X., fig. 6). A barrulet 

borne in the chief of the shield. (PoiSiEU : de Gueules, 

a deux chevrons d* argent, sommes cFune divise de meme.} 
DiviSE EN CHEVRON Parti per chevron. 
DOLCE A kind of fox ; an animal found in Italian coats. 
DOLOIRE A broad axe (v. p. 449, arms of RENTY, and p. 348). 
DONJONNE Equivalent to "towered with a single tower" (cf. 

Somme\ PRUNIER : de Gueules, d une tour donjannee 

d 1 argent. 

DOUBLETS Gnats drawn in profile. 
DRAGON The French dragon has usually only two legs, and is 

like our British wyvern (v. Chapter X., p. 292). 
DRAGON-MONSTREUX Is a dragon with a human head, bearded 

with serpents (v. p. 293). 
DRAGONNE An epithet applied to animals which are drawn as 

monsters with a dragon's tail. BRETIGNY : d'Or, au 

lion dragonne de gueules, arme, lampasse, et couronnc 

Due Le hibou-duc, a small kind of owl, always drawn affronte '; 

found in Low Country crests. 

EBRANCHE Is said of a trunk of a tree deprived of its branches. 
ECAILLEE Scaled. Said (i.) Of a fish. (2.) Of an Ordinary 

covered with scales like those of a fish, as in the arms 

of the Counts TATTENBACH of Bavaria : d* Argent, d une 

bande ecaillee de gules (cf. Papelonne, which is probably 

the same bearing, and v. p. 72). 
ECARTELIL (i.) Divided into four approximately equal parts by 

the palar and the fess line. (2.) Is said of a shield 

divided into four or more quarterings. 
ECARTELE EN EQUERRE is described at p. 82 (see also Plate V., 

fig. 11). 

( 727 ) 

ECARTELF, EN SAUTOIR Parti per saltire (Plate V., fig. 12). 

ECARTELURES Quarterings. 

ECHANCRF. Is like engrailed, but has much wider and deeper 
indentations (cf. canele}. 

ECHELLES D'ESCALADE Scaling-ladders ( i.) Of two side pieces, 
each having a hook at the top. (2.) A single pole, 
hooked, and having short traverses, or steps. 

ECHIQUET Chequy ; in Foreign Modern Armory, is of thirty-six 
panes, when the whole field is chequy. 

EciME Is said of a chevron whose top is cut straight off (v. p. 138, 
Plate XIII., fig. 9). Distinguish from Brisc and 
Rompu (Plate XIII., figs. 10 and 11). 

ECLATE Splintered ; is said of spears and lances. 

EcORCHE Is said of animals whose paws are tinctured gules (cf. 
the lions in arms of WURTEMBERG). 

ECOT Is equivalent of Chicot, a piece of the branch of a 

ECOT Is the old style of raguly, having projections as if boughs 
had been cut off. LECHERAINE in Savoy : d^Azur, a la 
bande ecotee de gueules. 

ECOTE, CONTRE Counter-raguly ; said of a field so divided. 

ECRAN Is the French name for the fan-shaped crest so frequently 
found in German Heraldry. Usually it is octagonal, 
but sometimes of fewer sides, having a plane surface 
often charged with the arms of the shield, the edge 
echancre, and the points ornamented with little balls, or 
tufts of feathers (?/. p. 600, Plate XLVI., fig. i). 

ECREVISSE Usually drawn in pale, head in chief. 

Ecu, DE L' A term used in blazoning crests and mantlings in 
which the charges of the shield are represented just as 
they are on the shield. 

Ecu EN BANNIERE Said of the square shield used by bannerets, 
and by some families descending from ancient ban- 
nerets (v. ante, p. 57). 

ECUSSON EN ABIME An escucheon in the centre of the shield ; 
sometimes has arisen from an undue enlargement of the 
bordure. Gules, an escucheon en abime argent was quite 
probably originally : Argent, a bordure gules. 

ECUSSON, FAUX Name for an orle, or an inescucheon having a 
bordure (v. p. 553). 

ECUSSON SUR LE TOUT ( V. En surtout, p. 448). 

EFFARE Is said of a horse (v. Cabre, and Forcend}. 

( 728 ) 

EFFAROUCHE A useless term of blazon, used for rampant by some 
authors for cats, unicorns, etc. (v. Furieux). 

EFFEUILLE Deprived of its leaves. 

ELANCE Is a term applied to a stag saliant, or springing forward. 

EMAIL (i.) Colour (plural Emaux}. (2.) Was used for the small 
enamelled escucheons of their master's arms, worn upon 
the breast by the ancient heralds. 

EMANCHE A figure formed of two or more pile-like pieces con- 
joined, and issuing from the point or flanks of the shield 
(Plate XVI., fig. 8, and Plate LV., fig. 9). 

EMANCHE Is said when these piles are of greater length in pro- 
portion to their breadth, reaching nearly across the 
shield (Plate VIII., fig. 2). Parti-emanche tf argent et 
de gueules is the coat of HOTMAN. This may also be 
formed in the other ways coupe, tranche, or faille. 

EMANCHURE Is the name of one of the small triangular sections 
when the field is chape. 

EMBQUCHE Is said of horns, etc., whose mouthpiece is of a 
different tincture from the rest of the charge. 

EMBOUTE Is said of batons, etc., which have a piece at the end 
differing in tincture from the rest. 

EMBRASSE Is the equivalent for parti per chevron when the lines 
forming it rise not from the base points, but from the 
extremities of a flank. It may, therefore be embrasse a 
dextre, or a senestre, and this particular needs to be 
specified (cf. Plate VI., fig. 12, which is embrasse 

EMMANCHE The term applied to denote that a charge has a 
handle of a different tincture. 

EMMUSELE Is said of an animal wearing a muzzle differing in 
tincture from the rest of the beast. 

EMOUSSE Is said of the point of a spear, or other weapon, blunted 
at the end. 

EMPENNE Flighted 'j is said of the feathers of arrows, etc. 

EMPIETANT Is said of a bird of prey holding in its beak and 
talons another creature (cf. Ravissanf}. 

EMPOIGNANT Holding in a closed fist. 

EMPOIGNEE Is said of a bunch of arrows, spears, etc., held in the 
fist, and spreading in various directions. 

EN FORME Said of a hare couchant. 

ENCHAINE Chained. 

ENCHAUSSE ( V. Chansse\ 

( 7*9 ) 

ENCHAUSSURE The name of one of the angular sections, two of 

which make the partition chausse (Plate LV., figs. 2 

and 8). 
ENCLAVE Is said when, in a coat divided per pale per fess per 

bend, a piece (usually square in form) intrudes into the 

opposite colour. 

ENCLOS Enclosed ; is said of a charge within an orle, or tressure. 
ENCLUME A mallet. 
ENCOCHE (v. Ajuste} Said of an arrow and string adjusted to a 

bent bow. 

ENDENTE Indented (cf. Denche}. 
ENFILE Enfiled ; said of a sword, lance, or other long-shaped 

charge, around which coronets, wreaths, annulets, etc., 

are placed. 

ENGLANTE Said of an oak bearing acorns (Plate XXIX., i). 
ENGLOUTISSANT, or ENGOULANT Swallowing whole (Plate 

XXVI I, fig. 4). 

ENGOUL^; Is said of the arms of a cross, or saltire, or the extremi- 
ties of a bend, etc., which, as in many Spanish blazons, 
enter the mouth of a dragon, or lion, (v. Plate XII. , 

fig. 5)- 

ENGRELE Engrailed. 

ENGRELURE A very narrow bordure engrailed. 

ENGUICHE When horns, etc., have the mouthpiece and bell 
environed with rims of metal, etc., this term is used 
(v. Plate XXXI 1 1., fig. 10). 

ENQUERRE, A, or A ENQUERIR Is said of certain annes 
fausses to which a legend is attached. 

ENSANGLANTE Said of an animal stained with blood. 

ENT A partition line, resembling undy, or the old form of nebuly 
(but see Pointe infra}. 

ENTRAVAILLE Interlaced (cf. Entrelace}. VERTAMY : d'Azur, a 
trots fasces d 1 argent, et un chevron d'or entravaille (the 
chevron is sometimes argent like the bars). Is also 
said of fish and other animals, fretted or interlaced with 
bars, bends, etc. Gules, two bars wavy azure with two 
barbel addorsed or, entravailles in the bars, is the coat 
Heraldry of Fish, p. 76). 

ENTRELACES Interlaced (Plate XIII., fig. 12) said of annulets, 
chevrons, crescents, etc. 

ENTRETENUS Is said of the bows of keys, etc., interlaced. 

( 730 ) 

EOLE Like BOREAS, the conventional symbol of the wind. 
EPANOUI Opened, or expanded ; said of flowers, and especially 

of the Florentine \\\y,floren<;ee. 
EPLOYE Displayed ; said of the eagle. 
EQUERRE A mason's or carpenter's square. 
EQUERRE, ECARTEL EN (v. Plate V., fig. n, and p. 82). 
EQUIPE Is said of boats, ships, etc., rigged. 
EQUIPOLLE Is said of a large form of chequy (Plate VII., fig. 8). 

Chequy of nine pieces azure and argent would be 

blazoned : Cinq poitits d'azur equipolles a quatre points 

d' argent, the coat of ST. GELAIS. 
ESCARRE Is the name of a small filet, sometimes placed on the 

edge of a franc-quartier, or canton, which is of the 

same tincture as the field, in order to prevent the arms 

becoming annes fausses. 
ESSONIER A synonym for tressure. 

ESSORANT Soaring, or taking flight (Plate XXV., fig. 7, v. p. 262). 
ESSORE Is said of the pointed roofs of castles, etc., when differing 

in tincture from the rest of the charge. 
ESTACADE A palisade. 
ESTOC (V. Chicot\ 
ETAI (ESTAYE) A chevronel. 
ETETE (V. Decapite"}, 
ETINCELANT Sparkling, or shooting out sparks, like the flints in 

the collar of the ORDER OF THE GOLDEN FLEECE. 
ETOILE (On this charge, v. ante, p. 307). 
EVASEE, EVIDE Voided. HULSEN bears : Or, a pile reversed in 

bend-sinister, voided gules. 
EVIRE Without the attributes of sex. 

FAILLI Is said of a chevron one of whose sides is fractured 
(specify which) ; or of a pale which does not quite 
reach the border of the shield (specify whether in chief 
or in base). It is also said of those partition lines which 
in some German parted coats are only carried a portion 
of their distance (see Plate LV., figs. 10 and 12). 

FALOT A torch, or fire-grate. 

FANAL A beacon. 

FASCE A fess. 

FASCE, EN Placed in the direction of a fess. 

FASCE Barry of six pieces us.ually, if of four or eight specify the 
number (Plate VII., fig. 2). 

FASCE-CONTRE-FASCE Is said of a shield per pale, and barry 

FAUX-ECU A shield charged with an escucheon which has a 
bordure (v. p. 553). 

FER-DE- LANCE Sometimes pointed, sometimes blunt (emousse"} or 
a cronel (v. p. 387). 

FER-DE-MOULIN ( V. Anille). 

FERMAIL A buckle ; its form requires to be specified. 

FEUILLE Leaved. 

FEUILLE DE SCIE A term sometimes applied to bars indented on 
the bottom edge only. COSSE, Due et Pair de BRISSAC, 
bore : de Sable, a trots fenilles de scie d'or; otherwise, 
de Sable, a trois fasces d^or denchees par le bas. 

FlCHE, FITCHY Having a point to fix in the ground. 

FIERTE Is a French term applied to the whale, when its teeth, 
tail, and fins are tinctured gules. , 

FIGURE Is said of the sun, crescents, moons, and besants which 
have on them the delineation of a human face. 

FIL A file, or label. 

FILET A narrow band, a diminutive of the bend, or bend-sinister. 

FILET EN BORDURE ( V. Filiere.} 

FILET EN CROIX A cross formed of very narrow pieces. 

FILIERE A diminutive of the bordure. 

FLAMBANT Inflamed. 

FLAMBANT, CONTRE Inflamed on both sides. 

FLANCHIS The name given to saltorels, or diminutive saltires 
(Plate XV., fig. 12). 

FLANCS The flanks, or sides, of the shield. 

FLANQUE-EN-ROND (Plate XVIII., fig. 6). The French blazon 
of our Flaunches, e.g., d^Azur, a trois fleurs-de-lis d"*or 
en pal, flanquees en rond d^ argent (Azure, three fleurs- 
de-lis in pale or, between two flaunches argent], the coat 

FLEUR-DE-LISE (flory} Said of a cross, etc., whose extremities end 

v& fleurs-de-lis (v. p. 117). 
FLEURE, CONTRE Having fleurs-de-lis arranged alternately on 

both sides. 
FLEURE, FLEURETE, FLEURONNE (flory] Terms applied to 

Ordinaries bordered flory. 
FLEURI Flowered, applied to plants. 

( 73* ) 

FLORENCES A term applied (i.) To \kizfleur-de-lis as borne in the 

arms of FLORENCE (v. Plate XXX., fig. 7), and budding 

for\hfleitrs-de-lis. (2.) As applied to a cross, etc., it is 

the equivalent Qtfleur-de-lise^ g.v. 
Foi The name for two arms issuing from the flanks, clenching 

the hands in the centre of the shield (?/. p. 205). 
FORCENE Equivalent for Effare, and Cabre, q.v. 
FORCES (forces a tondeur) Shears with square ends. 
FOUDRE A thunderbolt (masculine gender in blazon). 
FOURCHE Said (i.) Of a lion's tail (2.) Of anything else forked at 

the end, e.g., the arms of a cross. 
FOURCHETE Same as Fourchc. 
FOURRURE Fur au naturel (v. p. 73). 

Foreign Armory it is usually charged. 
FRETTE The fret is almost peculiar to English Heraldry (v. 

p. 181, Plate XIX., fig. 11). 
FRETTE, FRETTY ( V. Treillis^ etc.) French heralds make fretty of 

six pieces only, three in each direction. 

FRUITE Said of trees the colour of whose fruit is to be specified. 
FURIEUX Synonym for Effdrouche"^ is said of bulls, etc., rampant. 
FUSEE A fusil (Plate XVIII., fig. 11). 
FUSELEE, FUSILLY (Plate VII., fig. 10). 
FUSIL A steel for striking fire, as in the Collar of the ORDER OF 

FUTE Is said (i.) Of the trunk of a tree when of a colour different 

from the rest of the charge. It is used also (2.) of the 

staves of pikes, lances, etc. 

GAI Is said of a horse without harness or trappings. 

GALERE A lymphad or galley (v. Plate XXXII., figs. 11 and 12). 

GARNI Is said of swords and other arms, equivalent for our 

kilted and pommelled. 
GERION, TETE DE A head formed of three human faces, cf. 

Arms of MORRISON (Plate XX., fig. 5). 
GlRON kgyron (v. Plate XVIII., fig. 4). 
GIRONNANTS Is said of gyrons curved in the form of a scroll or 

volute (v. Plate VIII., fig. 4). 

GlRONNE Divided regularly into girons (Plate VI.). 
GlRONNE EN CROIX Is said when the lines forming it are not 

( 733 ) 

those of regular gyronny, but two issue from each edge 

or border of the shield. 
GIRONNE, MAL When the girons are fewer in number than 

eight (v. Plate VI., fig. 3). 
GlROUETTF, Adorned with giroiiettes^ attribute of castles, etc. 

(v. pp. 358, 359)- 

GlSANT A synonym for Couche. 

GONFALON, or GONFANON A church banner (v. p. 372). 
GORGE (V. Collete}. 

GOUFFRE kgnrges, or whirlpool (v. Plate XIX., fig. 6 and p. 193). 
GOUSSET A pairle not opened in chief. 
GOUTTES Drops, synonym for LARMES ; modern heralds make 

this distinction, the GOUTTE has a straight tail the 

LARME a wavy one. 

GRAPPIN Is a grapnel, drawn with four flukes. 
GRELE Adorned with pearls set close, and not raised on points. 
GRELIER A hooped or circular hunting-horn of large size, without 

cords or attachments. 

GRELOTS, GRILLETS Hawk's bells (Plate XXV., fig. 8). 
GRENADES Pomegranates, usually drawn slipped with a couple 

of leaves and having a little crown of leaves on the top ; 

when they show the seed they are ouverts. 

GRENADES DE GUERRE A modern bearing usually drawn inflamed. 
GRIFFON The gryphon, or griffin (v. Chapter X., p. 286). 
GRILLES The bars of a helmet. 
GRILLET (V. Ore lot}. 

GRILLETE Having grelots, or bells, attached to it. 
GRIMPANT Equivalent of rampant as applied to a stag. 
GRINGOLE Applied to a cross, the extremities of the arms of 

which end in heads of serpents (v. Plate XV., fig. 6). 
GRUE The crane is represented with uplifted foot holding a stone 

its vigilance (v. p. 263). 

GUEULES (Gules) The heraldic name for the colour red. 
GUIDON A split bannerol (Chapter XXII., p. 655). 
GUIVRE A large snake engloutissant, or vorant, a child (Plate 

XXVII, fig. 4). 
GUMENE The cable of an anchor. 


HABILLE (i.) Habited. (2.) Rigged and fitted with sails. 
HACHE-DANOISE Has a long curved handle (v. p. 510). 

( 734 ) 

HACHEMENS Lambrequins. 

HALISANT ( V. Engloutissant, and Vorant}. 

HAMEYDE The name given to three bars coupes arranged in pale. 

HARDI Said of a cock with uplifted head and right foot. 

HAUSSE The term applied to Ordinaries, etc., placed higher in 

the shield than their natural position (reverse of 

HERISSE Is said of etoiles which have little rays between the 

larger ones. 
HERISSONNE Or the preceding is said of a hedgehog, or of a cat, 

whose quills, or hairs, stand erect. 
H ERMINE, CROIX D' Cross formed of four ermine tails, the spots 

in the centre of the shield (cf. Aboicte"}. 
HERSE (V. Coulisse}. 
HERSE-SARASINE A portcullis. 
HIE A rare charge, a paving rammer. 

HONNEUR, POINT D' The honour point of the shield. 
HOUSSE Caparisoned. 

HUCHET A hunting horn without bands (v. Cor de Chasse). 
HURE The head of a wild boar or fish. 


IMMORTALITE The name for the fire out of which the phoenix 

ISOLE Said of a mount or hill separated from the base of the 

ISSANT (Issuant, cf. Naissant\ and see Plates XXII., 3, 4, and 

XXIV., fig. 8). 


JANUS, TETE DE A man's head with a double face. 
JUMELLES Bars-gemels (Plates IX., fig. 6, and XL, fig. 1 1). CAE- 
TANI : d* Argent, a une jumelle ondee d'azur, en bande. 

LAMBEL A label (v. pp. 188 and 414). 

LAMBREQUINS The mantling of a helm, usually in floriations as 

distinct from the capeline, or hood. 
LAMPASS Langued ; applied to the eagle and to quadrupeds ; but 

( 735 ) 

LANGUE Is said of other creatures, whose tongues require speci- 

LARMES (V. Gouttes). 

LEGENDE A motto. 

LEOPARD A lion passant-gardanl. 

LEOPARD, TETE DE Is always affrontee, 

LEOPARD-LIONNE A lion rampant-gardant. 

LEVE (i.) Said of a bear rampant (upright). (2.) Of wings with 
their points upwards. 

LEVRIER A greyhound, usually collared. 

LEVRON A greyhound without a collar. 

LiCORNE The unicorn. 

LIE Tied, or banded. GONDI : tfOr, a deux masses Cannes en 
sautoir de sable, liees de gttettles. 

LlMACON The snail ; always drawn out of its shell and showing 
its horns. 

LlON Usually drawn rajnpajit; this is understood unless the 
contrary be expressed (Plate XXL, fig. i). 

LlON DE S. MARC The evangelistic symbol (v. p. 219). 

LION, OMBRE DE ( V. ante, p. 223). 

LION-LEOPARDE A lion passant (Plate XXL, fig. 4). 

LIS-DE-JARDIN The lily as distinct from \hzfleur-de-lis. 

LISERE Bordered. 

LlSTEL The ribbon of a motto. 

LONGE The line by which hawks were held. 

LONGE Having a line attached. 

LORRE Term used to indicate the colour of the fins of fish. 

LOSANGE A lozenge. 

LOSANGE Covered with lozenges. 

LOSANGE EN BANDE Is said of lozenges arranged in bend. 

LOSANGE EN BARRE Is the same in bend-sinister. 

LOUP The wolf, is distinguished from the fox by having its tail in 
the air. 

LOUP-CERVIER An imaginary animal. 

LUNE The full moon with a human face. 

LUNELS A bearing found in Southern Heraldry, consisting of four 
crescents arranged in cross, all the horns being directed 
towards the centre of the shield (v. p. 579). 


MACLE A mascle. 
MACLE Masculy. 

( 736 ) 

MACONNE Having the divisions of the stones (or mortar lines) 

indicated in a different tincture. 
MAILLET A mallet of a peculiar shape, having a broad head and 

short handle. Often it is placed bendways on a chief or 

other Ordinary, and is then said to \>e penche. 
MAIN D'AIGLE The whole leg of an eagle, including the tufts of 

the thigh. These have developed into a wing attached 

to the leg, in the arms of MANUEL (u. p. 507). 
MAIN-BENISSANTE A right hand of which the thumb and first two 

fingers are erect, the others bent into the palm. 
MAL-GIRONNE (V. Gironne}. 

MAL-ORDONNE Said of charges placed one and two. 
MAL-TAILLE A term applied to a manche. 
MANCHE-MAL-TAILLEE ( V. ante, p. 376). 
MANIPULE An ecclesiastical vestment which appears attached to 

some examples of the dextrochkre. 
MANTELE (i.) Mantled. (2.) A division of the shield, a small 

point in base. 

MARCASSINS The young of the wild boar. 
MARINE Said of animals converted into monsters by the addition 

of a fish's tail. 
MARMITE A cooking-pot with a handle on each side, and' three 


MARQUE Spotted, said of dice. 

MARQUETE Said of the body of a butterfly (cf. Miraille}. 
MARTINET A martlet. 
MASQUE Hooded. 

MASSACRE The horns or attire of a stag united by the scalp. 
MASSES D'ARMES Maces (v. Arms of GONDI, p. 735). 
MASURE Said of a castle, etc., in ruins. 
MEDUSE, TETE DE Head of the Gorgon. 
MELUSINE A mermaid in a tub has this name (v. p. 303). 
MEMBRE D'AIGLE The leg of an eagle, claws uppermost. 
MEMBRE DE LION A lion's leg. 
MEMBRE The term applied when the legs of a bird are of a 

distinct tincture. 

MENUVAIR, MINIVER The smaller size of vair (u. p. 69). 
MENUVAIRE Said of a field of mentwair when other tinctures 

than argent and azure are employed. 
MERLETTE The martlet, borne without beak or feet (cf. Canette 

and Martinet}, 
METAUX Or and argent. 

( 737 ) 

MEUBLES The designation of all charges. 

MEZAIL The front, or middle, of a helm. 

MIDAS, TETE DE The head of a man with an ass's ears. HERDA, 

in Saxony, bears : Gules, the head of MIDAS sable. It 

appears also in some of the crests of the Low Countries 

(see Chap. XIX., p. 606). 
Ml-PARTl Said of dimidiated arms, and of an Ordinary parti 

per pale. SALIGNON : d'Azur, au chevron mi-parti 

tfor et d? argent (cf. Mi - TRANCHE). (Plate LV., 
f fig. 12). 
MIRAILLE The term used to indicate the markings on the wings 

of butterflies (cf. Marquete"}. 
MOLETTE The wheel of a spur, abroad usually of six rays. It is 

said to be colletee when it is attached to the iron of the 


MONDE The Orb of Sovereignty, cintre et croise. 
MONSTRUEUX Is said of an animal with a human head. 
MONTANT Said of a crescent in its proper position (e.g., with 

horns upwards), when borne with others which have not 

that position. 

MORAILLES A twitch (v. Broyes, and Plate XXXII., fig. i). 
MORNE Said of a lion disarmed and diffamed; i.e., without 

claws, tongue, or tail ; also of an eagle without beak 

or claws. 

MORTAISE Dovetailed. 

MORTIER The cap worn by French judges (Plate L., fig. 26). 
MOUCHETE Spotted. 

MOUCHETURES The tails in ermine, and ermines, etc. 
MOUTON A sheep. (Compare Brebis, and note difference ; the 

Mouton has its head erect.) 
MOUTON A PILOTER A pile driver. 
MOUVANT Said of animals, or other charges, which seem to 

proceed from the borders of the shield, or the edge of 

an Ordinary (Plate XXI I., fig. 4). 
MUR A wall (v. Avant-mur). If crenele it should be specified. 


NACELLE A small boat, flat bottomed, is the charge in the arms 

of the Polish herba of LODZIA (u. ante, p. 370). 
N AGEANT Naiant. 
NAISSANT Is said of the upper part of an animal rising out of the 

( 738 ) 

midst of an Ordinary, etc. (distinguish from Issant, 
and see ante, p. 221, and Plate XXII., figs. 3, 4, and 5). 

NATUREL, Au Proper; of the natural colour. 

NAVIRE A ship ; specify the number of masts (cf. Vaisseaii). 

NEBULE Nebuly (v. Plate VII., fig. 3). 

NENUPHAR, FEUILLES DE The leaves of an aquatic plant, some- 
times blazoned as hearts, scarabcei (v. ante, p. 321). 

NERVE Nerved, said of the leaves of plants which have the lines 
in a different colour. 

NOMBRIL ( V. points of the escucheon, ante, p. 59). 

NOUE Knotted ; said (i.) Of the tail of a lion. (2.) Of cords. (3.) 
Of a fess which has one or more enlargements. 

NOUEUX Knotted, as applied to branches, staves, trunks of trees, 
etc. (cf. Ragule\ 

NOURRI Is said of fleurs-de-lis " au pied coupe" i.e., of which the 
lower piece is removed. 

NUAGE A synonym for Nebule. 

NUEES In early blazon the clouds are usually indicated by nebuly 
lines. In later instances they are drawn less conven- 
tionally. The puffings at the shoulder of the arms 
which appear as charges in some Foreign coats were 
ignorantly turned into clouds, and are at present 
so drawn and blazoned (v. p. 205, arms of MECKLEN- 


OMBELLE A pavilion, or umbrella, which replaces the standard in 
certain Papal augmentations (cf. p. 508). 



OMBRE Shaded. 

ONDOYANT Is said of a serpent whose body undulates. 

ONDY Undy or Wavy (v. p. 77). 

ONGLE Having talons of a specified tincture. 

OR Gold. 

ORANGE The colour Tenne. 

OREILLE Is said (i.) of Vannets, which have oreilles, the small 
projections at the hinge of a scallop shell. (2.) Of ani- 
mals, having their ears of a specified tincture. 

OREILLERS Pillows, or Cushions. 

ORLE A small bordure detached from the edge of the shield. 

( 739 ) 

ORLE, EN Said of figures arranged around the escucheon near the 
edge within the space which would be occupied by the 
bordure (cf. Plate XVII., fig. 9). 

ORLE Bordured (obsolete). 

OTELLES ( V. ante, p. 1 54). 

OUVERT Open, is said (i.) Of a pomegranate showing its seeds. 
(2.) Of a castle gate. (3.) Of the wings of birds. 

PAIRLE ^pall, or pairle (v. Plate XVI., fig. 10). 

PAIRLE, EN In pairle (i.e., occupying the position taken by a 

PAISSANT Feeding (v. Brebis). 

PAL A pale. 

PAL, EN Said of charges arranged vertically. 

PALE, PALY Covered with an equal number of pales, usually six ; 
if not, specify the number (v. Plate VII., fig. i). 

PALE, CONTRE (V. Contre, ante, p. 721). 

PALISSE Is a division of the shield by sharpened pallets counter- 
changed. It is also the term used to denote an enclo- 
sure of pales, as in the coat of the town of DERBY. 

PALME A palm branch. 

PALMIER A palm tree. 

PAME Is said of a dolphin with its mouth wide open. 

PAMPRE Is the term used when it is desired to express the tinc- 
ture of the leaves of a vine shoot, or bunch of grapes. 

PANACHE Plumed. 

PAN-DE-MUR A piece of wall attached to a tower (cf. Avant-mur\ 

PANELLES Is the name given to poplar leaves. 


PANNETON, or PENNETON The blade, or head, of a key. 

PANTHERE AU NATUREL Only occurs as a supporter. 

PANTHERE-HERALDIQUE In some Styrian coats has the form of 
a Griffon, inflamed at the mouth and ears. The 
original coat of STYRIA was, however, a Stier, and the 
ignorance of the artists has been the sole cause of the 
conversion of the horns of the harmless ox into flames, 
as of equally ridiculous transmutations in other coats. 

PAON The Peacock, is said to be ronant when it shows its tail in 
a circular form. 

PAPEGAY A popinjay, or parrot. 

( 740 ) 

PAPELONNE (Plate VIII., fig. 6) On this bearing see Chapter 

III., pp. 71-73, and cf. Ecaille, p. 44. 
PARE Vested (cf. Habille}. 
PARTI Divided per pale (Plate V., fig. i). 
PASSANT Walking with the fore-foot raised (one of the hinder ones 

is often slightly raised). 
PASSE (EN CROIX, EN SAUTOIR) Is said of lances and other long 

charges arranged in cross, or in saltire. 
PATEE Patty (v. ante, p. 153). 
PATENOTRE (Croi.v] A cross of small beads. 

PAVILLION (i.) The opening of a horn opposite to the mouth- 
piece. (2.) The tent-like mantling or baldachino which 

is often drawn surmounting the arms of sovereign 

princes (?'. p. 615). 
PEAUTRE Indicates the colour of the tails of mermaids and fishes, 

if that requires to be specified. 

PENCHE Said of Mallets or Helmets, placed bendways. 
PENNON A small flag, triangular in French Armory ; applied also 

to a large banner (or shield) containing quarterings. 
PERCE Pierced, or voided. 
PERCH E Perched, said of birds. 
PERI EN BANDE Is said of a baton placed bendways. 
PERI EN BARRE Is said of a baton in bend-sinister (Plate XII., 

fig. 12). 

PERRONE, CROIX One whose four arms end in steps. 
PHEON A pheon, drawn point upward in French coats (?/. p. 350). 
PHCENIX ( V. p. 298). 

PIECES HERALDIQUES The Ordinaries in Armory. 
PlETE ( V. Pelican, in English Glossary, and p. 264). 
PlGNATES Small jugs. 
PlGNON A pyramidal heap of stones, or steps, in the base of 

PlGNONNE (Tranche-crenelc} is per bend embattled, so that the 

crdneaux take the form of small steps. 
PILE kpile, an Ordinary descending from the chief to the base : 

the reverse of the pointe. 
PLAINE A diminutive of the CHAMPAGNE, and only half its size, 

occupying the base of the shield (v. p. 311). 

PLEIN Said of afield of one tincture when uncharged (?'. pp. 66, 67). 
PLIE Folded. (i.) Said of bird's wings close. (2.) Of Ordinaries, 

or other charges, slightly bent out of a straight line (cf. 
Voutee, Affaissee, Ploye, etc.). 

PLIE EN ROND Said of reptiles bent in a circle, the head biting the 

PLOMB, A Is said when the lines of the merlons in an embattled 
bend or saltire are drawn in pale, and not at right angles 
to the line of the Ordinary. (V. Plate V., fig. 5.) 

PLOYE (V. Chape, etc., i>. Plates V., fig. 5, and XIII., fig. 4). 

PLUMETE (Plate VI II., fig. 7, -u. ante, p. 72, Chapter III.). 

POINT DU CHEF The central point in the chief (see B, Fig. 16). 

POINT D'HONNEUR The point K in Fig. 15. 

POINTE (i.) The point, or lower part of the shield. (2.) The con- 
verse of the pile (pile reversed) issuing from the base, 
and diminishing towards the chief (see Plate LVL, fig. i). 
(For a point e entee, v. Plate XVI., fig. 9.) 

POINTS-EQUIPOLLES ( V. Equipolles}. 

POMMES-DE-PIN Have the stalk upwards. 

POMMETTEE Pommelly or pometty (Plates XIV., fig. 12, and XV. 

fig- 7)- 
PORTILLE A term used to specify the colour of the gate of a 

house, etc. 

POSE (i.) Statant. (2.) Placed in a certain position. 
POTENCE A figure shaped like a T. 
POTENCE (i.) Charged with potences. (2.) Said of a cross with 

the arms like potences (see Plate LVL, fig. 6). 
POURPRE The colour purpure. 
PROBOSCIDES The horns in German crests are erroneously termed 

proboscides in French blazon (?'. Chapter XIX., CRESTS). 

QUARTEFEUILLE A quatre-foil. 

QUARTIERS Divisions of the shield containing different coats of 


QUEUE-FOURCHEE Having a forked tail (Plate XXL, fig. Q). 
QUINTEFEUILLE A cinque-foil (Jeuille de pervanche}. 


RABAT The turn-back of a collar, or cuff (cf. Rebrassc}. 

RACCQURCI Synonym of Alaise. 

RAIS The rays of estoiles, or escarbuncles. 

RAME Branched, said of a stag's horn. 

RAMPANT The distinctive attitude of a lion erect on one foot. 

( 742 ) 

RANCHIER A term uncertainly applied to (i.) Rams (BOUTON, 
Noiivean Traite de Blason, p. 349). (2.) A deer 
(GOURDON DE GENOUILLAC, p. 270) (cf. Renchier\ 

RANG Arranged in a certain form, or direction, e.g., range en 
chef, en croLr, etc. 

RANGIER A reaping hook without a handle. 

RAVISSANT Carrying off its prey (?/. p. 228, and cf. Empietant}. 

RAYONNANT Irradiated (Plate X., fig. 8). 

REBATTEMENTS An obsolete term for parted coats. 

REBRASSE Said of cuffs, etc., turned back (cf. Rabats and 

RECERCELE Said of a cross-ancree with larger circles and more 
convolutions (v. p. 160). 

RECOUPE When in a shield divided per fess a piece is again 
divided per fess. (V. Plate LV., fig. 12.) 

REDORTE A branch of a tree bent into a double saltire circulat- 
or oval shape (Plate XXIX., fig. 6). 

REFENTE The space between the petals of a trefoil, quatrefoil, 
etc. (cf. Arms of BISMARCK, p. 545). 

REGARDANT Said of animals (i.) Looking backwards (2.) Gazing 
at a star in chief. 

REMPLI Is said of an Ordinary voided, and filled up with another 
tincture, thus MONTFORT : d'Argent, a trois rustres de 
sable remplis tfor. 

RENARD A fox drawn like a wolf but with a pendent tail. 

RENCHIER A deer (MENETRIER, Methode du Blason, p. 631.) 

RENCHIER ( V. Ranchier}. 

RENCONTRE The head of a lion placed affronte (cf. Caboshed). 

RENVERSE Is said of the chevron, and other charges, borne in a 
reversed position (cf. Plate XIII., fig. 5). 

REPOTENCE Is said of any piece potencee, which has another 
potence at the extremity of the potences (see Plate 
LVI, fig. 6). 

RESARCELE Is said of a cross, or other Ordinary, which is 
coticed ; also of a cross which has a bordure running 
round it at a little distance from the edge. The figures 
are practically identical. 

RETRAIT Is said of an Ordinary which only touches one edge of 
the shield, and does not proceed very far towards the 
other. Un chef retrait is one about half its proper 
width (v. Raccourci, and Alaise}. (Plate LVI., fig. 3.) 

RE-TRANCHE Again divided in bend (cf. Recoupe"}. 

( 743 ) 

RETROUSS Turned up, or bordered. 

Roc A cronel of a lance (v. p. 387). 

Roc D'ECHIQUIER The rook or castle at chess. 

ROMPU Broken. Said of a chevron of which one or other of the 

pieces has a break in it (Plate XIII., fig. 11), cf. Brise 

which refers to a chevron when the break is at the point, 

(Plate XI II., fig. 10). 
ROUANT Said of a peacock in its pride. 
ROUE DE ST. CATHERINE A wheel having blades upon its 

RUSTE, RUSTRE A rustre (v. Arms of MONTFORT, p. 185). 

SABLE The colour black. 

SAFFRE A sea eagle, or osprey. 

SAILLANT Said of animals of the chase, horses, etc., in the 

attitude of leaping forward. 
SANGLE Is said of an animal girt with a band whose colour is to 

be specified. GLAUBITZER : d'Azur, aupoisson d 1 argent 

enfasce, sangle de gueules. 
SANGLIER A wild-boar (cf. Marcassiri). 
SAUTOIR A saltire. 
SAUTOIR, EN Is said of charges arranged in the directions taken 

by the Ordinary. 
SAUTOIR, PASSES EN Is said of swords, or other charges arranged 

SEME Powdered ; covered with small charges of indefinite 

number, but arranged with regularity according to 

modern usage. On old seals (e.g., those of SWEDEN 

where the field is semee of hearts) the small charges 

point irregularly in all directions. 
SEME DE FRANCE Seme of golden fleurs-de-lis. 
SENESTRE The left hand side of the shield, opposite to the right 

hand of the beholder. 
SENESTRE Is said of an Ordinary or charge, which has one or 

more subordinate charges to the left of it. It is also a 

partition of the shield in which the sinister side of a pale 

touches the sinister edge of the shield (cf. Adextre\ 
SENESTROCHERE -The whole left arm issuing from the side of 

the escucheon (cf. Dextrochere, and distinguish from 

Av ant-bras, pp. 204, 205). 

( 744) 

SINOPLE The colour green. 

SIRENE A mermaid (v. p. 301). 

Soc DE CHARRUE A plough-share. 

SOLEIL The sun (with a human face, and irradiated with sixteen 

rays alternately wavy and straight). 

SOLEIL, OMBRE DE The sun eclipsed ; tinctured gules, or sable. 
SOMM (i.) Said of a castle towered ; CASTILLO : d'Or, a une tour 

sommee de trots tourelles de gueules (v. Donjonne}. 

(2.) Said of a charge which supports another (v. p. 43, 

Arms of POISIEU). 
SOUTENU Said of an Ordinary or charge which is supported by 

another, as a chiej "by a divise, etc. 
SPHINX A fabulous animal (v. p. 300). 
STANGUE The stem of an anchor (cf. Trabe}. 
SUPPORTS Animals used as supporters (distinguish from te?iants). 
SUR LE TOUT DU TOUT Is said often of an escucheon placed en 

surtout upon another which is itself en surtout. 
SURCHARGE Is said of a charge which is itself charged. 
SURMONTE Is said of a charge above which another is placed 

without touching it (distinguish from somme where the 

pieces touch a refinement not always observed). 
SURTOUT, or SUR LE TOUT Over all, en surtout. 

TACHETE Spotted. 

TAF A synonym for Tau, q.v. 

TAILLE Divided per bend-sinister. 

TARE Describes the position of a helmet, e.g., tare de front, de 
profile, etc. ; equivalent of Pose. 

TAU The Cross of St. Anthony (v. p. 161). 

TENANTS Human beings, monkeys, or angels, acting as supporters 
(distinguish from supports}. When the shield is sup- 
ported both by a tenant and by a support, both are 
known by the latter name. (See Chapter XXI.) 

TERRASSE A terrace ; diminutive of the champagne (v. p. 311). 

TERRASSE-ISOLEE The terrace is so named when it is detached 
from the borders of the escucheon. 

TERRASSE Placed on, or growing out of, a terrasse. 

TERTRE A small mount, usually of three coupeaux in the base of 
the shield (v. p. 311). 

TIERCE Tierced. A partition of the shield into three equal or 

( 745 ) 

approximately equal portions, e.g., TIERCE EN PAL, 
MANTEL, etc. 

TlERCE-FEUlLLES Trefoils without the tail or stem. 
TIERCES Barrulets borne in threes, as gemelles are in pairs. 
TIGE The stem of a plant. 
TIGE Is said when the stem differs in colour from the rest of a 


TIGRE-HERALDIQUE The conventional tiger (?/. p. 208). 
TIMBRE The crested helm, with its wreath and lambrequins. 
TIMBRE Ornamented with helm, etc. 
TIRE A row of panes, or points, in chequy. 
ToiSON The fleece and head of a sheep, as in the badge of the 

TORTIL A wreath of silk of two or more colours. 
TORTILLE Wreathed with a twisted band ; said of Moor's heads, 
also of the bands of a sling (cf. Wreathed, English 
TOUR A tower ; distinguish from the castle, which has two or 

more towers connected by a Avail, or curtain. 

TOURNE Is said of a crescent whose points are turned to the 
'dexter side of the escucheon (cf. Contonrne, where 
they are turned to the sinister). 
TOURTEAUX (E. torteaux) Discs of colour on a field of metal, or 


TOURTEAUX-BESANTS Discs composed partly of colour, partly of 
metal, and placed as charges on a field of metal or fur 
(v. Besants-tourtcaiix}. 

TOURTELE An obsolete term for seme of tourteaux. 
TRABE The traverse, or beam, of an anchor (if. Stangue). 
TRAIT Equivalent for Tire (g.v.}. 

TRANCHE A division of the shield, Parti per bend (cf. Taille}. 
TRANGLES A synonym for Tierces. 

TRECHEUR The diminutive of an orle. The tressure is often 
borne flory, but more frequently is double, and flory- 
counter-flory (i>. ante, p. 175). 
TREFLE A trefoil, three leaves and a wavy stem ; distinguish 

from Tierce-fenille (g.v.}. 
TREFLE Ornamented with trefoils (Plate XIV., fig. u, and see 

also Plate XXIX., fig. u). 
TREILLIS A trellis (u. ante, p. 97). 
TREILLISSE Trelliced. (RIETSTAP thinks it a fretty of thinner 

( 746 ) 

pieces, and more than six in number; but this is not 
the distinction, which is pointed out on p. 97.) As 
a curiosity I add the arms of NARISCHKIN of Russia : 
Gules, afess of the same trellised or, 

TRIANGLE A triangle, sometimes pierced, or voided. 

TRIANGLE Covered with triangles ; that is, the field is divided by 
horizontal and diagonal lines (both bends and bends- 

TROMPES The horns used as crests, 

TRONCONNE Cut, or broken into fragments, but preserving the 
general outline of the charge (cf. Plate XXI., fig. 8). 


VACHE Has its tail along the flank as one of its distinguishing 

VAIR One of the furs. 

VAIR-ANTIQUE The old form ofvatr (see Plate IV.). 

VAIR-EN-PAL ( V. Plate IV.). 

VAIR-ONDE ( V. Plate IV.). 

VAIRE Term employed when the vair is of other tinctures than 
the usual argent and azure. 

VAISSEAU A ship with three masts (cf. Navire]. 

VANNETS Escallops turned to show the inside, and usually with- 
out oreilles (cf. Coquille}. 

VERGETTE A pallet ; a diminutive of the pale. 

VERGETTE Covered with pallets. 

VERSE Inverted ; synonym of renverse, and used of a crescent 
whose horns point to the base of the shield. 

VERTENELLE The hinge of a gate. 

VETU A field chape-chausse (v. ante, p. 719, and see Plate VI., 
fig. 11). 

VETU EN OVALE Having a bordure which leaves the field of an 
oval shape. 

VETU EN RONDE Having a circular bordure. 

VIDE Voided. 

VIGILANCE The stone carried by a stork or crane. 

VlLENE Having the virile parts of a specified tincture. 

VIRES Concentric annulets, usually three in number. 

ViROLE Is said of the bands of metal encircling a hunting-horn. 

VIVRE Dancetty. 

VOGUANT Sailing ; equivalent for Flottant. CASTELLI : d'Azur, a 

( 747 ) 

un vaisseau voguant sur un mer, le tout au naturel, 

accompagne en chef (Tune etoile d'or. 
VOL The two wings of a bird. 
VOLANT Flying with expanded wings. 
VOL-BANNERET The term for the wings of a bird used as a crest, 

when they are represented as cut off square at the upper 

ends (v. Plate XLIV., fig. i, and p. 606). 
VOLET A small mantling, or capeline, attached to a helmet 

(v. Plate XLIV., figs. 5, 6). 
Arched (v. Plate XL, fig. 7); contrary of Affcdse. 

( 748 ) 



"DEpar le Due de Calabre, Lorraine, Bar, Gueldre, etc. . . . 
Nous avons etc diiment averti que plusieurs de nos sujets, tant 
natifs de nos pays que venus d'ailleurs, se sont de tant avances par 
subtilite, connivence, tolerance de nos Officiers et autres moyens 
illicites, qu'ils ont tache d'usurper et s'attribuer les titres et qualites 
de Noblesse ; . . . et, qui plus est, les dits anoblis, pour se 
deguiser, ou faire egarer la connaissance de leur race et basse 
condition dont ils sont nouvellement descendus, changent et 
alterent les surnoms de leurs aieux et famille, des quels ils ont pris 
la source et origine de leur Noblesse, par adjonction a. leurs 
surnoms de cette vocale : la, de, le, du, ou de quelque Seigneurie 
forgee a leur fantaisie ; en sorte qu'aujourd'hui il est forte difficile, 
voire presque impossible, de reconnaitre ceux qui sont extraits 
d'ancienne famille de Noblesse, ou par Nous et nos predecesseurs 
decores d'icelle entre tels ; . . . a quoi pour remedier et obvier 
a de tels abus,, avons inhibe et defendu, inhibons et defendons a 
toutes personnes, quelles elles soient, qu'ils n'aient a se qualifier ni 
de titres, ni de qualites de Noblesse, ni d'autres plus grands titres 
et qualites, si done ils ne sont extraits de Noblesse et qualite ou 
prerogative qu'ils s'attribuent, et si defendons aux anoblis et issus 
de Nobles qu'ils n'aient a soi par adjonction vocale le, la, du, ou de, 
et semblables mots qui ne servent que pour obscurcir la famille 
dont ils sont sortis, a changer ou a alterer en fa^on que ce soit leurs 
surnoms, ains se contenir ou arreter a celui de leurs ai'eux, grand- 
pere ou pere, qui aura obtenu de Nous ou de nos Predecesseurs 
titre de Noblesse, et aux quels par cette concession leur Noblesse 
et qualite aura pris source et origine, et sans qu'il leur soit loisible 
ajouter et prendre plus grande qualite qu'il ne leur appartient, si 
done ils n'en ont concession et privilege particulier de Nous et de 
nos predecesseurs, et ce a peine d'amende arbitraire. . . . 
Mandons a notre procureur general, et a ses substituts qu'ils y 

( 749 ) 

tiennent tellement le main et fassent rayer, tant des registres des 
causes judiciaires comme ailleurs, ceux qui se sont ingeres et 
voudront ingerer de prendre et usurper les dits qualites de Noble 
adjonction de ces vocales : /<?, la, de, ou du, et attribution d'autres 
plus grandes qualites qui ne leur appartiennent, dont ils ne seront 



" O CHEFE de linhagem he obrigado a trazer as armas direitas, sem 
difference, ou mistura de outras algumas armas. E sendo chefe de 
mais que huma linagem, serd obrigado a trazer as armas direitas 
de todas aquellas linhagens de que sor chefe, e sem mistura, em 
seus quarteis. Os otros Irmaos, e todos os otros da linhagem, as 
hao de trazer com difference. E assim poderao trazer ate quatro 
Armas, se quizerem, daquelles, de quern descenderem,esquartelados, 
e mais nao. E se quizerem trazer somente as armas da parte de 
suas mays, podelo hao fazer. E os bastardos hao de trazer as armas 
com sua quebra de bastardia. A differenga que hao de trazer os 
filhos segundos, Ihe ha de ordenar o Rey de Armas, a quern 
pertence ; costuma assentarse no canto do escudo, e ha de ser 
huma flor, huma estrella, ou hum passaro, ou outra cousa semel- 
hante. E aqulle espago, em que se poem a differenga, se chama 
Brica" (Nobiliarchia Portugueza, p. 223). 



"Vous tous Princes, Seigneurs, Barons, Cheualiers, et Escuyers, 
qui auez intention de tournoyer, vous estes tenus vous rendre es 

( 75 ) 

heberges le quatrieme jour deuan le jour du Tournoy, pour faire de 
vos Blasons fenestres, sur payne de non estre receus audit Tournoy. 
Les armes seront celles-cy. Le tymbre doit estre sur vne piece de 
cuir botiilly, la quelle doit estre bien faultree d'vn doigt d'espez, ou 
plus, par le dedans : et doit contenir la dite piece de cuir tout le 
sommet du heaulme, et sera couuerte la dite piece du lambrequin 
armoye des armes de celuy qui le portera, et sur le dit lambrequin 
au plus haut du sommet, sera assis le dit Tymbre, et autour 
d'iceluy aura vn tortil des couleurs que voudra le Tournoyeur. 

" Item, et quand tous les heaulmes seront ainsi mis et ordonnez 
pour les departir, viendront toutes Dames et Damoiselles, et tous 
Seigneurs, Cheualiers, et Escuyers, en les visitant d'vn bout a autre, 
la present les Juges, qui meneront trois ou quatre tours les Dames 
pour bien voir et visiter les Tymbres, et y aura vu Heraut ou 
poursuivant, qui dira aux Dames selon 1'endroit ou elles seront, le 
nom de ceux a qui sont les Tymbres, afin que s'il y en a qui ait 
des Dames medit, et elles touchent son Tymbre, qu'il soit le lende- 
main pour recommande." (MENETRIER, UOrigine des Annoiries, 
pp. 79-8i.) 



"VICTORIA R. Whereas we, taking into our Royal considera- 
tion the services of the late JOHN MANNING SPEKE, Esquire, 
Captain in our Indian Military Forces, in connection with the 
discovery of the sources of the Nile, and who was, by a deplorable 
accident, suddenly deprived of his life before he had received any 
mark of our Royal favour ; and being desirous of preserving in his 
family the remembrance of these services by the grant of certain 
honourable armorial distinctions to his family arms : Know ye 
that we, of our princely grace and special favour have given and 
granted, and by these presents do give and grant unto WILLIAM 
SPEKE, of Jordans, in the parish of Ashill, in the county of Somer- 
set, Esquire, the father of the said JOHN HANNEN SPEKE, our 
Royal Licence and Authority that he and his descendants may 

( 761 ) 

bear to his and their armorial ensigns the honourable augmentation 
following : that is to say, On a chief a representation of flowing 
water superinscribed with the word NILE ; and for a crest of 
honourable augmentation a crocodile ; also the Supporters follow- 
ing": that is to say on the dexter side a Crocodile, and on the 
sinister side a Hippopotamus, provided that the same be first duly 
exemplified according to the Law of Arms, and recorded in our 
College of Arms, etc. 

" Given at our Court of St. James's, the 26th day of July 1867, 
in the thirty-first year of our Reign. 

" By Her Majesty's Command, 


The arms to be augmented were : Barry of eight azure and 
argent, over all an eagle displayed with two heads gules (Plate 
XXV., fig. 2). The crest, a porcupine. It is worthy of notice that 
per incuriam, the grant is to all the descendants of WILLIAM SPEKE. 



" Nous, Haman, Comte de Deux-Ponts et Sire de Bitche, a tons 
ceux qui ces presentes lira ou entendront lire savoir faisons : que 
le vol coupe d'argent et de sable que nous portons en cimier nous a 
ete octroye et concede en fief pour notre vie durante par notre cher 
oncle le Comte Jean de Sarrebruck. En temoignage de quoi, nous, 
sus dit Haman, Comte de Deux Fonts, Sire de Bitche, avons 
appendu notre seel aux presentes qui ont ete donnees le premier 
mardi qui suit le jour de Quasimodo de Pan, depuis la naissance 
de Dieu, mil trois cent soixante et cinq" (i.e., April 22, 1365) 
Le Heraut d'Armes, p. 208. 

752 ) 



IT is only possible to give here, in fulfilment of the promise made 
at p. 67, a few of the multitudinous instances in which the law 
requiring colour on metal and metal on colour is disregarded. 
The following are from SIEBMACHER'S Wappejibuch: GRUNBERG: 
Gules, a fess vert (i., 57) VON BREITENBUCH : Azure, two chev- 
rons gules (i., 94) VON WALDAU : Azure, three crescents, those in 
chief addorsed, the third reversed gules (i., 54) VON GORLITZ : 
Per pale argent and or, two hatchets addorsed in pale counter- 
changed (i., 156) GRASSE : Azure, ten stars gules, i, 2, 3, 4 (iv., 69) 
GREFEN : Argent, a saltire couped or (i., 153) VON FRIDUNG : 
Argent, a pallet between two wings affrontes paleways or (Hi., 105) 
BERGER : Azure, two bars sable, over all a chevron counter- 
compone argent and gules (iii., 149) HlLTPRANDT : Bendy 
(sinister} sable and azure, over all a lion rampant or (ii., 50). 

The others are from various sources : BUBENHAUSER : Per fess 
gules and azure, a Jleur-de-lis counter-changed The Counts LEON- 
BERG : Gules, a bend azure ULF : Azure, a fess gules DORO : 
Argent, a lion or DOTTENSTEIN : Azure, an eagle displayed gules. 
The very earliest coat of the MONTMORENCYS was : Or, a cross 
argent ADELSBACH bore : Per fess gules and azure, a lion counter- 
changed HEN EM A : Or, a boar rampant argent KROGEDANTZ : 
Purpure, two reindeer horns gules MERKMAN : Argent, three 
fleurs-de-lis or CABOGA : Azure, a bend gules CAMPLIONCH : 
Gules, a pale azure EGILSBERG : Sable, on a cross gules a sun or 
BORDOLO : Gules, a cross vert CIMANI : Azure, three bends gules 
ALBACHSEN : Gules, on a bend azure three crescents or SAND- 
BERG : Or, a chevron argent between three trefoils vert. 

Here are a couple of dozen instances, taken at random from the 
Armory of Germany, Denmark, Italy, and Spain, and out of a very 
considerable number which I have recorded. It is quite possible 
that one or other might be suspected of being erroneously blazoned, 
but this will not get rid of the multitude that remain. I therefore 
humbly think I have proved my case, and that future compilers of 
books on Heraldry should "gang warily" if they are to avoid the 
imputation of ignorance when they talk of the arms of JERUSALEM, 
etc., as " the only instance " of the violation of rule. 

( 753 ) 



Acorn (slipped) ARUNDEL. 



Barnacles, or Breys ST. LEGER. 

Bear, and Ragged Staff Earl of LEICESTER ; the bear sable, the 

staff argent, Earl of WARWICK ; the Earl of KENT the 

reverse (if. pp. 584, 585). 
Bear's Head (muzzled) Lord MORLEY. 
Boar (white} Lord WINDSOR ; COURTENEY, Earl of DEVON ; 

blue, VERE, Earl of OXFORD. 
Bouget (silver] BOURCHIER ; Roos ; TRUSBUTT. 
Bucket Lord WELLES. 
Buckle PELHAM (v. p. 377) ; WILLOUGHBY. 
Bull (black, horned 0r) CLARENCE ; dun, NEVILLE. 
Bull's Head (argent} WHARTON ; gules, OGLE ; sable, gorged 

with golden crown, HASTINGS. 
Cinquefoil ASTLEY. 
Crampet D EL A WAR R . 
Dragon (red) CUMBERLAND ; black, CLIFFORD, BURGH ; green, 


Eagle CAMBRIDGE ; with child in nest. STANLEY. 
Eagle's Claw STANLEY (v. p. 558). 
Escallop SCALES ; DACRE (v. p. 585). 
Fetterlock SUFFOLK. 
Fire Beacon COMPTON. 
Fish-hook NEVILLE. 
Galley (sable] NEVILLE. 
Griffin Lord WENTWORTH ; head only, FlENNES, Lord DACRE. 
Hedge-hog SYDNEY. 
Horns (silver)-^ CHENEY. 

( 754 ) 

Horse (white] FlTZALAN. 

Horse-collar ST. JOHN. 

Horse-shoe FERRERS. 

Lion (gold} SUFFOLK ; white, HOWARD ; crowned and gardant, 

Lion's Head (erased) BRANDON. 

Maiden's Head BUCKINGHAM. 


Mermaid BERKELEY. 

Mill-sail WlLLOUGHBY. 

Mulberry (leaf and fruit) MOWER AY. 

Ostrich DlGBY. 

Pelican CROMWELL. 

Pepper-sheaf PEVERELL (v. p. 342). 



Saracen's Head COBHAM. 


Ship's Buoy NEVILLE. 

Sickle HUNGERFORD (see PEVERELL, i>. p. 585). 

Spear-head PEMBROKE. 






Unicorn WINDSOR. 


Wings (of bat) DAUBENY. 

Wolf (argejif) MORTIMER. 


" To all them wch shall see or heare this present lettre, Thomas 
Grendall of Fenton, cousin and heyre to John Beaumeys, sometime 
of Sawtre, greeting. As the armes of the ancestors of the said 

( 755 ) 

John, since the day of his death, by lawe and right of inheritance, 
are escheted unto me as to the next heyre of his linage, know yee 
that I, the aforesaid Thomas, have given and granted by these 
presents the whole armes aforesaid, with theyr appurtenances, unto 
Sir William Moigne, Knight, which armes are Argent, a cross 
azure, five garbes or, to have and to hould the said armes, with 
theyr appurtenances, to the said Sr William and his heyres and 
assignes for ever. In witnesse whereof, I have to these present 
letters set my scale. Given at Sawtre the 22 day of Novembr. in 
the 15 yeare of King Richard the Second." ( Visitation of Hunting- 
don, p. 1 6.) 

Another curious armorial transaction, as late as 1777, is recorded 
in STODART, Scottish Arms, ii., 306 ; in which Neil Grant (who 
claimed to be representative " of the family of Grant of Auchernack, 
chieftain or head of the Clan Allan ") professed to divest himself of 
his " coat of arms and ensign armorill," and transfer them to his 
" near and beloved cousine, Doctor Gregory Grant, physician in 


A la cuisse, 701. 

AA, VANDER, arms, 94 ; 143, 427. 

AACHEN, arms, 283. 

AAVAILLE, arms, 185. 

Abaisse, 119 ; 709. 

ABARCA, amis, 392. 

ABARIA, arms, 89. 

Abased, <)76. 

Abatements, 676. 

ABBATI, arms, 121. 

ABBENBROEKS, arms, 392. 


ABEL, arms, 196. 

ascribed to, 23. 

ABERBROTHOCK, Monastery of, 657. 
ABERBURY, arms, 124; PI. XI., fig. 4, 

p. 124. 

ABERCORN, Family, label, 420. 
,, Stronghold of, 516. 

ABERCROMBY of Birkenbog, 433. 

,, of Fetternear, brisure, 


ABERDEEN, City of, arms, 179 ; PL 
XXXII., fig. 5, p. 361; 
seal of, 179. 

Earl of, arms, 180. 

ABERGAVENNY, Earl of, rose, 446. 
ABERNETHY, arms, 106, 133, 519, 522, 

566; PI. IX., fig. 6, p. 108. 
ABERNONS, d', arms, 136. 
ABICI, arms, 394. 
ABILLON, arms, 186. 
Abime, 709. 

ABINGDON, Earl of, arms, 352. 
ABLEIGES, Comtes d', arms, 239. 
Aboute, 705, 709. 
ABOYNE, CHARLES, Earl of, arms, 

Earl of, arms, PI. XVII., 

fig. 12, p. 172. 
ABRY, Dues d', arms, 113. 
ABSPERG, arms, 89 ; PL VI., fig. 10, p. 84. 
Accole, 636, C76, 680, 710. 
Accompagne, 109, 681, 710. 
ACCORAMBONI, arm*, 289. 
Accorne, 710. 
Accosti, 109, 676, 710. 
Accosted, 676. 
Accroupi, 703, 710. 
AccuU, 701, 710. 

ACHAIA, JAMES, Titular Prince of, 579. 
LOUIS, Prince of, 579. 
PHILIP, Prince of, 579. 

,, Princes of, brisure of, 429. 

ACHAIUS, fictitious King of the Dal- 

riadic SCOTS, 176, 335. 
ACHARD, supporters, 643. 


arms, 348. 

ACHTOW, Abbot of, 371. 
ACON, JOAN of, 457. 
Acorn (slipped), as a badge, 753. 
Acorns, 340. 

ACQUAVIVA, arms, 214. 
ACRE Roll, 481, 554. 
ACTIUM, Battle of, 277. 
ACTON, EDWARD DE, arms, 407. 
ADALBERT, arms, 173. 
ADAM, arms, 195. 

,, ascribed to, 23. 

,, as a charge, 195. 
ADAMOLI, arms, 195. 
Adder nowed, PI. XX VII., fig. 1, p. 288. 
ADDERBURY, arms, 124. 
AMers, 273. 
Addorsed, 220, 676. 
Addosses, 220. 
ADELSBACH, arms, 752. 
Adextre, 711. 

ADLERSTJERNA, arms, 309. 
Admiral, Castile, mark of office, 645. 

,, French, mark of office, 645. 

Holland, mark of office, 645. 

,, Lord High, badge, 753. 

,, of the Indies, mark of office, 645. 
ADOLF, Emperor, augmentation, granted 
by, 536. 

of NASSAU, coins of, 246. 
Adosse, 270, 676, 711. 
ADRIANI, arms, 235. 
Advocates' Library, Heraldic MSS. in, 


AELST, VAN, amis, 341. 
JEolus, Head of, 201. 

^SCHACH, arms, PI. XLV., fig. 4, p. 539. 
AESCHYLUS, Description of devices on 

shields, 29. 

Affaisse, 125, 682, 687, 711, 740. 
AFFAITATI, arms, 289. 
Affenartiff, 198. 

A'FFENSTEIN, arms, 240. 

AFFLECK, arms, 127. 
,, son of JOAO I., King of 

Affronte, 603, 604, 676, 680, 688, 698, 701, 


AtTute, 706, 711. 

AGINCOURT, Battle of, 593; 659. 
Agile, 711. 

Affneau pascal, 692, 697, 711. 
AGNELLI, Marquis, arms, 235. 
Aftnus Dei, 692, 697. 
AGOULT, Marquises d', arms, 228. 
AGRAIN, EUSTACHE d', Prince of 

Sidon and Cfesarea, arms, 118. 

( 757 ) 

Agricultural implements as charges, 393. 
AGUIAR, Dukes of, arms, 507. 
AGULON, arms, 458. 

JOANNE d', 458. 

ROBERT, arms, 331. 
AHEIM, arms, 669. 
AHLEFELD, supporters, 231. 
Aigle, 711. 

,, Main d', 712. 
Aiglettes, 712. 
Aigliaux, 712. 
Aiglons, 712. 
Aiguiere, 712. 
Aiguise, 123, 699, 712. 
Aipuisee, Cross, fig. 60, p. 164. 
AIKENHEAD, arms, 340. 
^i/e, 676. 
-4iW, 70S, 712. 
Ailettes, 676. 

AILSA, Marquises of, arms, 163. 
Jire, 712. 

AIRLY, Earl of, arms, 216. 
Aisle or Jiie, 676. 
4/OMj^, 158, 699, 712. 
Ajoutt, 712. 
Ajuste, 712, 729. 
^toise, 712, 742. 
ALAMANI, arms, 95. 
Jia?i, 676. 
ALARCON, arms, 506. 

ALARIC, 658. 
ALBACHSEN, arms, 752. 
ALBANIA, anus, 503. 
ALBANY, ALEXANDER, Duke of, arms, 


,, Duke of, 516. 
,, ,, arms, 645. 

,, Dukes of, wreath, 614. 

HENRY, Duke of, 476. 
' ISABELLA, Duchess of, sea?, 

PI. XXXVII., fig. 7, p. 447. 
,, JEAN, Due d', arms, PI. 

XXXVL, p. 445. 
JOHN, Duke of, ISO. 
,, LEOPOLD, Duke of, label, 

423 ; Fig, 83, p. 421. 
Regent, 515. 

ROBERT, Duke of, 17S, 520 ; 
brisure, 445 ; label, 419. 
ALBASTER, arms, 349. 
ALBEMARLE, Earl of, arms, 273 ; Garter 

Plate, 486. 

ALBERGHI, arms, 73. 
ALBERICI, arms, 73. 
ALBERT, Archduke, 246; Oraonnances 

of, 551, 637. 
Count PALATINE of the 

RHINE, seal of, 251. 
,, Emperor, arms, 247. 

PIERRE D', 10. 

ALBERTAS, Marquis d', arms, 22S. 
ALBERTI, arms, 355. 

,, Marquises, supporters, 643. 
ALBRET, arms, 66, 461. 

,, ARNAUD D', supporter, 635. 
,, CHARLES D', augmentation, 


supporters, 634. 
ALBUQUERQUE, arms, 440, 57S. 

BELTRAN, First Duke 
of, 440. 

Alcyon, 713. 

ALDAM, arm*, 130, 146. 
ALDENBURG, VON, arms, 86. 
ALEGRE, Marquis de TOURZEL, arms 


,, CHARLES, Count of, sup- 

porters, 632. 

,, Comte d', arms, 140. 

,, Dukes of, arms, 439. 

JEAN IV., Comte d', sup- 
porter, 631. 
AUrion, 258, 676, 713. 
Alese, 712. 

ALESSANDRI, Counts, arms, 236. 
ALESSO, Marquis d'ERAQUY, arms, 279. 

II., King of SCOTLAND, 

92 ; seal of, 177. 
III., King of SCOTLAND, 
209 ; crest, 600 ; PI. 
XLIX.,fig.8, p. G07; 
seal of, 177. 

,, III., Pope, 40, 66. 

,, IV., Pope, arms, 256. 

,, VII., Pope, arms, 319. 

,, arms, 21. 

,, arms, PI. IX., fig. 11, 

p. 108. 
Earl of STIRLING, arms, 

,, JOHN of Kinglassie,ar?HS, 


,, Lord of the ISLES, seal 

of, 367. 

ALEXANDROWICZ, Counts, arms, 351. 
ALEXIUS I., Biography of the Greek 

Emperor by his daughter, 26. 
Aleze, 712. 
ALF, arms, 350. 

ALFONSO XL, King of SPAIN, 576. 
ALICE, Princess, Grand Duchess of 

HESSE, label, 423 ; Fig. 86, p. 421. 
ALIGHIERI, DANTE, arms, 126. 
ALINGTON, Lords, arms, 18G. 
ALKEVEDERS, arms, 240. 
ALKMAAR, VAN, a?-?>is, 140. 
ALLAIRE, arms, 280. 
ALLAN, Chief of Clan. 755. 
ALLEMAN, AYMAR, arms, 52. 

,, EUDES, Seigneur des 

CHAMPS, arms, 51. 
GUI, arms, 52. 
ODO, arms, 52. 
of Arbent, arms, 52. 
of Uriage, arms, 52. 
of Vaubonnois, arms, 52. 
SIBOUD, Bishop of GRE- 
NOBLE, arms, 52. 
ALLEMANDS, arms, 370. 
ALLEN, arms, 124, 294. 

J. ROMILLY, Christian Sym- 
bolism in Great Britain and Ireland, 

Allerion, 258, 676. 
ALLEYN, arms, 156. 
Alligator, The, 277. 
ALLOIS, arms, 181. 
Allume, 693, 686, 713, 714. 
ALM, VON DER, arms, 121. 
ALMOND, arms, 145. 
ALOST, Seigneur d', arms, US. 
Alphabet, Letters of the, as charges, 394. 
ALPHONSO VI., '168. 

( 753 ) 

ALPHONSO of Castile, seal of, 244. 
ALSACE, arms, 545. 

PHILIPPE, d'.ComtedeFLAN- 

DERS, seal, 36, 48 ; helmet, 599. 
ALSTON, Uordure, 569. 
ALTAMIRA, Counts of, arms, 507. 
ALTDORF, Counts von, arm*, 213. 
ALTBNBURG, Burg-gravate of, arms, 


ALTHANN, Barons, arms, 394. 
ALTORF, arms, 669; PI. LV., fig. 10, 

p. 669. 

ALTROCK, arms and augmentation. 543. 
ALTSTETEN, arms, 93. 
ALVA, Duke of, 99. 

,, ,, arms, 100. 

,, ,, supporters, 643. 

ALZON, arms, 97. 
Amaranth or Columbine colour, 61. 
AMBESACE, arms, 387. 
AMBLISE, Princes d', arms, 113. 
AMBOISE, arms, 91. 
AMBOIX, arms, 317. 
AMELIA, Princess, label, 423. 
AMELOT, 12. 
AMERICA, Discovery of, 643. 


supporter, nutf motto, 640. 

arins, 124. 
Amethyst, 65, 676. 
AMHERST, Earls AMHERST, arms, 


AMICI, arms, 87 ; PI. VI., fig. 5, p. 84. 
AMIRATO, arms, 93. 
AMORI, D', arms, 93, 457. 

ELIZABETH D', senl, 457. 
ROGER D', arms, 457. 
Amphiptere, The, 294, 713. 
Amjihisbene, 713. 
Amphisbcena, 676, 713. 
Amphisterc, 713. 
AMPURIAS, arms, 93. 
AMSTERDAM, City of, arms, 146, 283. 

,, Nieuwe and Oude Kerk 

in, 626. 

AMUNDEVILLE, arms, 122. 
Amusement, Instruments of, as charges, 


Ananas, 341. 
ANAUT, -arms, 318. 
ANCASTER, Duke of, arms, 352. 
ANCE, Comte d', et de MAGUSAC, 

supposed arms of, 40. 

arms, 293. 
ANCHE, 682, 713. 

Anchor as a badge, 753 ; as a charge, 370. 
Anchored or Ancred, 676. 
Anchors as supporters, 643. 
Ancolie, 713. 
ANCRAM, arms, 371. 
J7ic?-e, 676, 713. 
Ancred, 676. 
^/HC7-ee, Cross, 158. 

ANDELOT, Marquesses d', arms, 257. 
ANDERSEN, arms, 120. 
ANDERSON, arms, 232. 

,, Dr JOSEPH, Scotland in 

Early Christian Times, 657. 
ANDERTON, arms, 354. 
ANDLAU, Barons, arms, 141. 

ANDRE, D', Seigneurs de MONTFORT, 

10. , 

ANDREE, Due d', arms, 308. 


ANDUSE, Seigneur d', 12. 
ANFREVILLE, see GU1OT, 344. 
Angel supporter, 631, 632, 633, 635, 636. 

,, Demi, as supporters, 635. 
Angemme, 713. 
Angenne, 676, 713. 
ANGERS, Cloister of ST. AUBIN at, 


DU PLESSIS, arms, 71. 
Angevin rastrello, 470. 
Angle, 676, 713. 
Angled, 676. 

ANGLERIA, Lordship, 274. 
and ESTOGES, arms, 113. 
,, Les Saladinsd' 113. 

ANGOULEME, arms, 531. 

,, Due d', arms, 570. 

,. Dukes of, label, 425. 

HENRI, Chevalier d', 

arms, 570. 

ANGRIA, Duchy of, arms, 321. 
ANGUILLARA, arms, 120, 272. 
ANGUIVARIA, Lordship, 274. 
ANGUS, ARCHIBALD, Bell the Cat, 5th 

Earl of, arms, 519. 
arms, 519, 631. 
Countess of, label, 420. 

,, seal, 455, 631. 

2nd Earl of, arms, 518. . 

seal,, 519. 

6th Earl of, arms, 516, 518, 519. 
Earls of, arms, 179, 322, 455, 513, 

515, 518, 519, 566. 
,, crest, 294. 

Margaret, Countess of, seal, 459. 
of the ISLES, sea I of, 367. 
White lion of, 519. 
ANHALT, arms, 67. 

Dukes of, arms, 321, 469. 
Anille, 731. 
Anillee (croix), 713. 
Animate charges, 194, 208, 242. 
Anime, 686, 714. 

ANJORRANT, Marquises of, arms, 334. 
ANJOU, arms, 483; PI. XXXIX., fig. 6, 

p. 481. 
,, CHARLES, Comte d', seals of, 

329, 628. 

,, Comtes d', arms, 261, 657, 658. 
,, ,, badge, 586. 

,, Dues d', a?-ms, 104, 439, 502, 538, 


Dukes of, label, 416, 470. 
,, LOUIS, Due d', arms on Eagle, 


NAPLES, arms, 258. 
,, PHILIP, Due d', and King of 

SPAIN, arms, 487. 
RENE, Due d', Tourney Regula- 
tions, 749. 

,, of, seal, 498. 

sea I of MARIE D', 57. 
GENET, Count d', 43. 
ANNANDALE, arms, 144, 378, 446, 515. 
an/is, 144. 

( 759 ) 

ANNE, Queen of England, arm*, PL LIT., 
fig. 8, p. 663 ; motto of, 421, 664 ; sup- 
porters on seal, 663. 

Annelet, 676, 714. 

ANNESLEY, arms, 91. 

Annilte, 713. 

ANNS, arm*, 306. 

Annulet, 676, PI. XIX., fig. 8, p. 192. 
, , as a badge, 7 53. 
for fifth son, 444. 
Stonerf, PI. XIX., fig. 9, p. 192. 


ANREP, arms, 391. 

ANREP-ELMPT, Counts, arms, 392. 

ANSBLMB, Pere, 659. 


ANSTIS, Aspilogia, 628. 

quoted by BELTZ, 590. 

ANSTRUTHER, arms, 147, 149 ; PL XVI., 
fig. 2, p. 146. 

ANTELMI, anus, 349. 

Antelope, The, 236, 676; PI. XXIV., 

fig. 5, p. 236. 
,, as & badge, 588, 594. 

ANTIOCH, Principality of, arms, 141. 

Antiquarian Society, Roll of Arms of, 

Antiquaries of Scotland, Proceedings of 
Society of, 619. 

Antiquaries, Society of, London, 63. 

Antique, a I', 713. 

Antiqvarisk Tidskrift for Seerige, 52, 487. 

ANTOING, arms, 213. 

ANTONELLI, arms, 197. 

Ants, 284. 

ANTWERP, arms, 283, 361. 

ANVERS, D', 17. 

ANVIN, arms, 186. 

ANWICKE, arms, 152. 

AOSTA, Duchy of, arms, 214. 

APCHIER, Marquises d', amis, 360. 

Ape, The, 240. 

APELVOISIN, arms, 366. 

APFALTRER, Barons, arms, 317. 

Apollo, Winged horse of, 298. 

Apparel, Wearing, as charges, 392. 

Appaume, 204, 676, 714. 

APPELBOOM, arms, 317. 

Appendix A, 748. 

B, 749. 

C, 749. 

D, 750. 

E, 751. 

F, 752. 

G, 753. 
H, 754. 

APPLEGARTH, arms, 340. 

APPLEGH, arms, 240. 

Apples, 340. 

APPLETON; arms, 340, 341. 

Appointe, 705, 714. 

APREECE, arms, 348. 

Aquilon, 714, 717. 

AQUIN, arms, 148, 714. 

AQUINO, Duos de CASOLI, arms, 95. 


arms, 349. 

ARBOUVILLE, Marquis d', arms, 93. 
ARBROATH, Monastery of, 657. 
ARC, Brothers of JEANNE D', arms, 

331, 710. 
Arc en del, 714. 
Arclwoloyia, C3, 70, 252, 458, 592, 602. 

ArcJiwolofiia JEliana, 461, 474. 482, 584.. 

641 ; PI. XXXIV., fig. 3. 
,, Cantiana, 73. 

Archaeological Association, Journal of the 

British, 291, 386. 
Archaeology, Heraldry important branch 

of, 672. 

ARCHAMBAULTS, arms, 57. 
Archbishops, arms, 525. 
Arche de Noe, 714. 
Arched, 677. 

ARCHEL, L', arms, 371. 
ARCHER, arms, 363. 
ARCHERS, arms, 350. 
Arches, 363. 

ARCHIAC, Marquis d', arms, 260. 
Archieres, 714. 

ARCO, Counts d', arms, 349, 511. 
ARCOS, Duke of, arms, 506. 
Arete, 714. 

ARCY D', arms, 174. 
Ardent, 692, 714. 

ARDILAUN, Lord, supporters, 647. 
ARENBERG, Duchy of, arms, 492. 

MARGARET, sister ami 
heiress of the last Count 
of, 492. 

,, Princes of, arms, 492. 

ARENSBERG, County of, arms, 256. 
ARESEN, arms, 229. 
ARFETTI, arms, 198. 
ARGELO, D', arms, 318. 
ARGENSOLA, arms, 341. 
Argent or Silver, 60, 65, 677, 714 ; PI. III.,. 

fig. 2, p. 60. 
plein, D', 66. 

ARGENTEUIL, Cornte, arms, 184. 
ARGENTINE, D', arms, 381. 
ARGOTE DE MOLINA Nobleza del Anda- 

luzia, 353. 

Argus, Head of, 201. 
,, Tete d', 714. 
ARGYLE, ARCHIBALD, Duke of, 568. 

,, arms, 83, 84, 368, 447, 6J4. 

House of, 520. 

ARGYLLSHIRE names, 400. 
ARIANO, Comte d', u-reath, 614. 

,, arms, 213. 

ARIGONIO, arms, 313, 364; PL XXXII.,. 

fig. 8, p. 358. 

Arithmetical figures as charges, 394. 
ARKEL, arms, 99, 124, 127; PL XI.,. 

fig. 9, p. 124. 

ARKENHOLME, Battle of, 516. 
ARLOTT, arms, 225. 
Arm, Human, 204. 
Arma inquirenda, 103, 729. 
ARMAGH, arms of See, 375. 
ARMAGNAC, Counts of, arms, 213. 

,, seal of JEAN, Comte d',. 


ARMAILLE, Marquises d', arms, 434. 
ARMANES, Marquises of BLACON,. 

arms, 93. 

Arme, 677, 691, 706, 714. 
Armed, 211, 227, 257, 677. 
ARMELLINI, arms, 140. 
ARMENIA, arms, 666. 
Armes fausscs, Les, 752. 

parlantes', 661, 670, 679. 
-pleines, 65, 66, 714. 
,, pour enquerir, 103, 729. 
Armi del Municipj Toscani, Le, 359. 

Armorial bearings, Object for adoption 

of, 45. 

,, on coins, 44. 
,, on monuments, 43. 
,, on ehields, 45. 
, , playing upon names of 
wearers, 671. 
combats, 33. 

de Berry, 109, 393, 394, 404, 411. 
de Gelre, or de Getdre, 34, 55, 165, 
1(59, 223, 254, 331, 332, 357, 
302, 373, 393, 410, 411, 427, 
429, 572, 593, 611, 614, 615; 
PI. XLIV., p. 537. 
,, Insignia, Origin of, 19. 
Armorists, Ignorance of oid, 62. 
-A nnory, Sources of information regarding, 


Armour, Norman, 53. 

Armoye,$\\, 615, 634, 650, 653, 654, 677,725. 
Arms, PL XX., fig. 10, p. 198. 

,, and Crest, Tourney regulations for 

the exposure of, 749. 
,, Earliest period to which use of can 

be traced, 32. 

Gifts and assignations of, 35. 
Kings of, collar, 598. 
of expectation, 478. 
of Kings of Arms, 525, 526. 
Official, 525. 
on a banner, 641. 
Pictorial, 312. 

Portuguese regulations as to the 
bearing of differences of arms, 

,, Rolls of, 357, 600. 
,, Transference of right in, 754. 
ARMSTRONG, amis, 206. 
de MAGUSAC, supposed arms of, 46. 
ARNEEL, arms, 272. 
ARNIM, Counts, arms, 126. 
quises de BUSSY d'AMBOISE, arms, 

ARNSTADT, arms, 489. 
ARNSTEIN, Counts von, arms, 93. 
ARPAIOU, arms, 722. 
ARPAJON, Ducd', amis, 384. 
Arrache, 677, 686, 715. 
ARRAGON, arms, 122, 15G, 471, 483, 495, 
501, 502, 505, 506, 547, 577, 
633; PI. X.,fig. 9, p. 118. 
CATHARINE of, 530. 
CHARLOTTE of, 258, 505. 
of CALABRIA, amis, 502. 
KATHARINE of, badge, 596. 
ARRAGON-SICILY, arms, 577. 
ARRAN, arms, 368, 568, 570. 

Earl of, amis, 163, 567, 568, 569. 
ARRAS, arms, 372. 

,, See of, arms, 240. 
ARREAU, arms, 350. 
Arret de lance, 707, 715. 
Arrete, 704, 715. 
Arriere Main, 715. 
ARRIPE, D', arms, 337. 
Arrondi, 677, 702, 715. 
Arrow, PI. XXXI., fig. 6, p. 346. 

Broad, 350. 
Arrows, 349. 

Arrows in bundles, 350. 

, , Sheaf of, as a badge, 596. 
ARSCHOT, ARNOLD, Count of, amis 


GEOFFREY D', crest, 600. 
,, Marquises d', arms, 127, 449. 

,, VAN, arms, 337. 

ARTHUR, King, arms (''), 21. 

Prince of WALES, 420. 
Artichokes, 344. 
Artillery, Grand Master, French, mark of 

office, 645. 

ARTOIS, arms, 458, 463, 631. 
BLANCHE D', 416. 
JEANNE, Countess of, 457. 
label, 424, 464. 
ROBERT, Comte d', 463. 

,, ,, arms and 

label, 416. 

,, D', PI. II., fig. 5, p. 44. 

ARUNDEL, arms, 266. 
badge, 753. 
BEATRICE, Countess of, 

seat, 475. 
Earl of, 577. 

,, arms, 557. 
EDMUND DE, shield, 634. 
JOHN, Earl of, arms, 482. 

,. RICHARD, Earl of, 557. 

Sir WILLIAM, lambrequin, 

ASBACH, arms, 136. 
ASCHAU, arms, 61. 
ASGILL, crest, 295. 
Ash colour or Cendree, 61. 
ASHLEY, crest, 295. 
ASHMOLE, quoted, 418. 
ASHWEED, arms, 240. 
ASLOWSKI, amis, 93. 
A spas, 702. 

ASPENELL, amis, 276. 
ASPERG, arms. 373. 
ASPERMONT, County of, arms, 493. 
,, Lordship of, arms, 447. 

Aspersed, 677. 
ASPINALL, arms, 320. 


,, Lordship of, arms, 141. 

Ass, The, 237. 
Axsis, 677, 703, 715. 
Aster, The, 336. 
ASTI, Dukes of, arms, 214. 


Lord, arms, 322. 
ASTON, arms, 81 ; PI. V., tig. 8, p. 80. 
ASTRAKAN, arms, 665. 
Astronomical charges, 305. 
ATAIDES, arm*, 95. 
ATH, D', 17. 

ATHLONE, Earls of, arms, 127. 
ATHOLE, arms, 521; PI. VII., fig. 1, 

p. 90. 

Dukes of, arms, 207. 
Earl of, 517. 

,, badge, 598. 
,, seal and arms, 520. 
Earldom of, arms, 90. 
Earls of, arms, 368, 446. 


ATHOLE, REGINALD, Earl of, sup- 
porters, 629. 

D', brisure, 452. 
Attired, 232, 677. 
Attires, 232, 677. 
ATTLEY, badge, 753. 
ATTON, arms, 153. 
Au naturel, 700, 732. 
Aupied coupe, 738. 
AUBER, arms, 173. 
AUBERD arms, 67. 
AUBIGNE, GUILLAUME D', arms, 413. 

,, RAOUL D', arms, 413. 
AUB1GNY, arms, 124, 521, 559. 
,, Duchess of, 559. 
Sire d', 515. 
AUBRAIS, DBS, arms, 371. 

etc., arms, 159. 

Duo de la ROANNAIS, 

arms, 159. 

AUCHENLECK, arms, 127, 142, 519. 
AUCHMUTY, arms, 347. 
ATJDELE, Sir JAMES, arms, 417. 
AUDELEY, amis, 96. 

,, Lord, grants arms, 35. 
,, Lords, arms, 136. 
AUERSPERG, Princes of, arms, 234, 


AUFFRECK, arms, 207. 
Augmentation, Chief, used as an, 119. 

,, Difference by an, 448. 

Augmentations, 528, 655. 

Imperial, 535. 

AUGUSTA, Princess, label, 422 ; Fig. 86, 

p. 421. 

AUGUSTINS, arms, 137. 
AUNOY, GUILLAUME D', arms, 118. 
AURBERG, arms, 88; PI. VIII., fig. 3, 

p. 100. 


AUSCHWITZ, Duchy, arms, 504. 
AUSSONNE, Marquises d', arms, 316. 
AUSTIN, arms, 152. 

Austria ex archivis Meliicensibus illustrata, 
472 (see HUEBER for other references 
to this book). 

AUSTRIA, achievements of Empress 


,, ALBERT, Archduke of, seal, 

,, Duke of, seal, 456. 

of, 246. 

ANCIENT, arms, 497, 500. 
,, Arch-ducal crown, 500, 623. 
,, arms, 247, 253, 454, 456, 471, 

478, 499, 508, 509, 537, 
540, 577, 664, 665. 
,, crest, 607. 

,, crest as augmentation, 608. 
,, crown of Emperors of, 621. 

Don JOHN of, arms, 577 ; PL 

XLVIII., fig. 3, p. 577. 
,, Duke FREDERICK of, 500. 
,, Dukea of, a7-ms, 456. 
,, Emperors of, arms, 258. 
,, " Hauswapen," arms, 123, 472, 


,, Imperial arms, 471. 

Imperial seals, 471. 
,, LEONORA of, seal, 475. 


FREDERICK, Dukesof, 614. 

LEOPOLD, Duke of, banner, 

MARGARET of, Duchess of 

BURGUNDY, seal, 478. 
MAXIMILIAN of, 484. 
,, -MODERN, arms, 253. 
,, Old Imperial crowns of, 622. 
,, Original arms of Emperors or, 

OTTAKAR, Duke of, seal and 

banner, 651. 

ICK, Dukes of, crest-coronet, 

RUDOLF IV., Archduke of, 
two sets of supporters, 634. 
seal of LEOPOLD of, 243. 
,, supporters of arms, 288, 634. 

The "Ecu Complet" of, Fig. 

91, p. 497. 
UPPER, arms, 499. 

AUSTRIAN EMPIRE, arms, 497, 6t>4 ; 
PI. LIIL, fig. 1, 
p. 665. 

,, ,, supporters of, 665. 

AUTENRIED, Barons von, arms, 94. 
AUTROCHE, arms, 277. 
AUVERGNE, arms, 466. 

Comtes d', arms, 360, 373. 

Dauphin, d', 269. 
Due de BOUILLON, arms, 

ROBERT V., Count of, 373. 
AUX, Marquis d', arms, 388. 
Avant-bras, 682, 715, 726. 
Avant-mur, 715, 737. 
AVAUGOUR, D', arms, 118. 
AVAZZI, arms, 280. 
AVELAND, Lord, arms, 192. 
Avellane, 677. 

,, Cross, 162. 

AVESNES, D', seal of ALICE, wife of 
JEAN, 245; PI. XXXVII., 
fig. 6, p. 447. 
JEAN D', Count of HAIX- 

AULT, 468. 

,, ,, crest, 600. 

AVILLIERS, D', arms, 170. 
AVOGLI, Counts, a?-ms, 231. 
AVOIR, PIERRE, supporters, 633. 
AVONDALE, Earldom of, arms, 518. 


Earls of, 516. 
A roue, 625. 

brisure, 451. 
Axe, 348. 
,, Battle, 348. 
Lochaber, 348. 
AYDIE, Marquises de RIBERAC, arm.-', 


AYLESFORD, Earls of, arms, 2S9. 
Aylets, 677. 

AYLMER, Lords, amis, 265. 
AYSCOUGH, arms, 237. 
AYTOUN of Keppo, Sir JOHN, brisure, 




AZINCOURT, Battle of, 449. 
Azur, 677, 715. 

,, plein, d', 66. 

Azure or Blue, 60, 62, 65, 677; PL III., 
fig. 4, p. 60. 

Shield, plain, 66. 

BAAD, arms, 370. 
BABENBURGEll, arms, 500. 
BABINGTON, arms, 108; PL IX., fig. 0, 

p. 108. 

of Rothley, label, 415. 

Bachelerie, 652. 

Backgammon-boards as cliarges, 387. 
BACON, arms, 227. 
BACQUERE, arms, 228. 
BACQUBVILLB, UE, arms, 393. 
Badelaire, 686, 715. 
BADEN, arms, 129, 491, 666 ; PL XXXIX., 

fig. 5, p. 481. 

,, Grand Dukes of, arms, 212, 221. 
,, Great Shield of, 491. 

,, Margravate of, arms, 490. 
Badenoch, Wolf of, 566. 
BADENWEILER, Lordship of, arms, 491 ; 

PL XLVI., fig. 2, p. 545. 
BADGER, arms, 239. 

The, 239. 
Badges, 583, 753. 
BADLESMERE, arm*, 128. 
BAEZA, Capture of, 143. 
BAGGE, arms, 687. 
BAGOT, arms, 139. 
family, 399. 

Dukes of BUCKINGHAM, 390. 
BAGRATION, Princes, arms, 3S4. 
BAIBEL, arms, 302. 
BAIGNEAU, arms, 176. 
BAIGNI, arms, 82. 
BAIL-LETS, DBS, arms, 133. 
BAILLEUL, arms, 78. 
BAILLIE of Lamington, arms, 308. 
Baillonve, 677, 715. 
BAILLY quoted, 660. 
BAIRD, arms, PL XXIII., fig. 1, p. 228. 

,, of Auchmedden, arms, 227. 
BAISNE, arms, 364. 
BAKER, arms, 263. 
BALA SICILIANA, Marquises de la, 

arms, 506. 
BALBI, arms, 230. 
,, Family, 16. 

-PORTO, arms, 125; PL XL, 
fig. 7, p. 124. 

BALCKENSTADT, Counts von, arms, 94. 
BALFOUR, arms, 238. 

,, Sir JAMES, 441. 

BALINCOURT, Marquis de, arms, 220. 
BALIOL, arms, PL XVII., fig. 8, p. 172. 
Balista as a charge, 365. 
BALISTE, ar?)is, 349. 
BALLENSTEDT, Counts von, arms, 94. 

seal, 628. 
arms, 460, 553. 
EUSTACE DE, arms, 407. 
HUGH DE, arms, 427. 
INGRAM DE, arms, 407. 
JOHN, 460. 

,, arms, 407. 
King of SCOTLAND, 
arms, 174. 
WILLIAM DE, arms, 407. 

Sails, 677. 

BALMANNO, arms, 142. 

BALNEO, arms, 82. 

BALYS, DE, arms, 427. 

BALZAC, Marquis d'ENTRAGUES, arms, 


BANASTRE, arms, 153. 
BANBUBY. Earl of, arms, 160. 
BAND, Sir WALTER, arms, 260. 
Bande, 94, 677, 678, 715. 
Sande, 129, 678, 715. 
Bande-contre-bande, 715. 
Bande, En, 715. 
Banded, 350, 677. 
BANDEIRA, arms, 352. 
BANDINELLI, arms, 66. 
BANDINI, arms, 192. 
BANDON, Earl of, arms, 273. 
BANESTER, arms, 140, 157. 
BANESTRE, arms, 157. 
BANGOR, Viscounts, arms, 157. 
Bannatyne Club Miscellany, 233. 
Banner, 651. 

,, armoyee, 653, 654. 

,, Church as a charge, 372. 

from Bayeux Tapestry, PI 
XXXIV., fig. 2. 
Banneret (col), 715. 
Banneret's banner, 651. 

,, standard, Length of, 654. 
BANNERMAN, arms, 351. 
Bannerol, 651. 
Banners, 649. 

,, as supporters, 643. 

,, Military, 351. 

,, National, of English Army ;it 

, , of the Bayeux Tapestry, 650. 
., used in the English Army, 65(5. 
Marquis de PUYGIRON, n/w, 
Banniere, 715. 

En, 715. 

BANTRY, Earl of, amis, 644. 
Bar, 677, 715. 

,, and Canton, joined, 167. 
,, -sinister, & misnomer, 126. 
,, The, 125, 270. 
,, Varieties of, 127. 
,, -wise, 678. 
BAR and MONTBELIARD, seal of 

THIERRY II., Count of, 47. 
,, arms, 270, 309, 449, 496 ; PL XXVI., 

fig. 9, p. 266. 
,, Countess of, seal, 629. 

, , supporters, 635. 

,, HENRY IV., Comte de, 46-1. 
BARA, Le Grand Blason d'Armoirien, 2. 
BARBANCOIS, Marquis de, arms, 22o. 
BARBANCON, arms, 223, 492. 
BARBANI, arms, 203. 
BARBARANI, Counts, 213. 
BARBAZAN, Restaurateur du R"i/aun,e 

et de la Couronne de France, 539. 
Barbe, 708, 715. 
Barbed, 325, 349, 677. 
Barbel, The, PL XX VI., fig. 9, p. 266 ; 270. 
BARBENCON, arms, 411." 


BARBENTANE, Marquises de, arms, 

( 763 ) 

BARBERINI, arms and augmentation, 

BARBIER, LE, Marquises de KERJAN, 

arms, 120. 

BARBONIANI, arm*, 203. 
BARBOTTE, arms, 67. 
BARBOUR, The Thistle and the Rose, 596. 
BARBU, LE, arms, 145. 
BARBY, Counts of, 270. 
BARCELONA, Counts of, arms, 122, 434. 
BARCLAY, arms, 154, 407, 408. 

of Touch, arms, 172 ; PI. 

XVII., fig. 6, p. 172. 
Barde, (579, 715. 
BARDOLF, arms, 322. 

,, JOHN, Lord, arms, 457. 
BARENSTEIN, arms, 229. 
BARESTIJNS, arms,, 188. 
BARGE DE VILLE, DE LA, arms, 66. 
BARGENY, Lord, arms, 568. 
BARIN, arms, 280. 

BARING, Earl of Northbrook, amu, 230. 
BARISONI, arm*, 72. 
BARKELE, MORIS DE, arms, 408. 

Collections, 386. 
Barley, Ears of, 341. 
BARLOT, armt, 57, 155. 
Barnacles, 357, 677; PI. XXXII., tig. 1, 
p. 358. 

as a badge, 753. 
BARNAKE, arms, 357. 
BARNARD, arms, 229. 

arms, 170, 171. 
Baron Chretien, Premier, 11. 
BARONCELLI, arms, 93. 
Baronets, helm of, 602. 
Baron's banner, 651. 
,, coronet, 625. 

,, standard, Length of, 654. 
BAROZZI, arms, 123. 
BARR, arms, 339. 

Barre, 133, 715. 
Barre, 716. 
BARRE, arms, 134. 

BARRE DE BAREY, Barons, arms, 95. 
BARRINGTON, Viscounts, supporters, 


Barroque, En, 716. 

Barrulet, 126, 128, 677. 
Barruly, 677. 
Barry, 92, 677 ; PI. VII., rig. 2, p. 90. 

-bendy, 100, 677. 

,, .nebuly, 93 ; PI. VII., fig. 3, p. 90. 

,, -pity, 101, 677 ; PI. VIII., fig. 2. 
p. 100. 

,, wavy, 93. 
BARRY, DE, arms, 231. 
BARRYMORE, Earls of, arnu, 93. 
BARRYS, Earls of BARRYMORE, arm*, 

Bars, PI. XL, fig. 8, p. 124. 
,, counter-embattled, PI. XL, fig. 9, 

p. 124. 
-gemels (gemells), 128, 677, 687 ; PI. 

XL, fig. 11, p. 124. 
icavy, PI. XL, fig. 10, p. 124. 
BART, DE, arms, 94. 

BARTON, arms, 227. 
BAS, arms, 294. 
BASCLE, LE, amis, 184. 
Base, 678. 

,, Dexter, 59. 
,, Middle, 59. 
,, Sinister, 59. 
BASFORD, amu, 301. 
BASIL!., BYZANTINE Emperor, crown, 


Basilic, 716. 
Basilicus, 294. 
Basilisk, 293, 678. 
BASING, amis, 160, 169. 
BASKERVILLE, arnu, 192. 
BASSET, arms, 93, 128. 
BASSETT, arms, 93, 147, 412. 

RALPH, Lord, arms, 426. 
RAUFF, arm*, 426. 
SIMON, arms, 426. 
BASSEWITZ, Counts von, arm*, 227. 
BASSINGBOURNE, anus, PI. VI., fig. 2, 

p. 84. 

BASSINGBURNE, arms, 86. 
BASSINGFORD, arm*, 191. 
BASSOMPIERRE, Marquis de, arm*, 


BASTARD supporters, 643. 
Bastille, 685, 716. 
Bataille, 374, 716. 
BATH, Earl of, arms, 386. 

, , Marquess of, arm*, 94. 
Baton, 135, 678, 716. 
,, d'Esculape, 716. 
,, Jleur-de-iise, 716. 
,, peri en barre, 560. 
Baton, sinister, 560; PI. XII., fig. 12, 

p. 130. 
BATTENBERG, arm*, 525. 

,, Princes of , arm*, 525. 

Princess BEATRICE, 
Princess HENRY of, label, 423. 
Battering ram, 352; PL XXXI. , fig. 8, 

p. 346. 

Battle-axe, PI. XXXI., fig. 3, p. 346. 
Battlements, 678. 
BATTUTI, arnu, 374. 
BAUDRAC, anii*, 296. 
BAULANDE, arm*, 181. 
BAUME, LA, arms, 434. 

Counts de ST. AMOUR, arms, 

BAUMEISTER, augmentation, 546. 
BAUSSAY, Canton of, 452. 
BAUTERSEM, arms, 576. 
BAUX, arm*, 99, 460. 

BEATRICE DE, seal, 460. 
,, Due d'ANDREE, arm*, 308. 
BAVARIA, arms, 57, 67, 100, 251, 456, 
462, 463, 472, 477, 525, 576, 
580, 611, 666; PI. VII., fig. 
11, p. 90. 

ALBERT of, Count of 
etc., 57. 
,, crest and arm*, 607. 

FERDINAND of, 525. 
JACQUELINE of, Countess 
of HOLLAND, seal, 463, 
LOUIS, Duke of, seal, 456. 

BAVARIA, MARGARET of, Countess of 


seal, 58, 462, 


,, ,, seal and 

arms, 57. 

,, Marks of illegitimacy in, 579. 

seal of Duke WILLIAM of, 

WILLIAM, Duke of, arm* 

on eagle, 630. 

,. ,, of, Comte <T 

OSTREVANT, seal, supporter, and 
compartment, 642. 
BAVARIAN, coins of the Emperor 

LOUIS THE, 251. 
Bayeux Tapestry, 29, 53, 54, 291, 367, 649. 
,, tennerfrom PL XXXIV.. 

tig. 2. 

,, ,, Description of, 30. 

,, ,, pennons from, Figs. 101- 

104, p. 649. 

BAYNARD, arms, 137. 
BAYSSE, arms, 68. 
BAZAN, supporters, 643. 
BAZENTIN, arms, 331. 
BAZIN, arms, 169. 
Beacon, 678. 
Beacons, 352. 
BEACONSFIELD, Viscountess, arms, 

Beaked, 678. 

,, as applied to birds, 257. 
Bean cods, 343. 
Beans, 343. 

Bear, 229 ; PI. XXIII., fig. 4, p. 228. 
,, and ragged staff as a badge, 584, 753. 
,, as a supporter, 640. 
,, Polar, 229. 
Beard, The, 203. 
BEARN, arms, 418. 

,, Counts of, arms, 122, 234. 
,, seals of Counts of, 56. 
BEARN, Viscount of, seals to contract of 
marriage of GUILLELMINE, dtr. of 
Bear's head as a badge, 753. 
Bears' heads, 229; PI. XXIII., fig. 5, 

p. 228. 
Beasts, 208. 
Bcati pacifici, 664. 
BtiATON, arms, 185. 

Cardinal, 185. 
BEATRICE, daughter of JOAO I., King 

of PORTUGAL, 577. 
,, Princess, Princess HENRY 

of BATTENBERG, label, 423; Fig. 
89, p. 421. 

BEAUCHAMP, anus, 123, 408, 410; PI. 

XL, fig. 1, p. 124; PI. 

XV., fig. 4, p. 144. 

Earls of WARWICK, arm*, 


,, ,, ,, badge, 585. 

,, of Bletsho, 439. 

of Powick, arms, 408. 
RICHARD, Earl of WAR- 
Plate, 486. 

ALBANS, arms, 559. 
BEAUFFREMONT, DE, arms, 71, 485. 
Dues de, arms, 70. 


de CHARNY. arms, 485. 
BEAUFORT, arts*, 438, 556. 
badge, 595. 

,, bordure, 443. 

Cardinal, 557. 
,, ,, arms, 55f). 

,, Duke of, arms, 556 ; sv.p- 

pm-ters, 226. 
,, Greyhound of, 662. 

HENRY, 3rd Duke of 

,, JOAN, seal, 475. 

,, JOHN DE, arms, 555. 

Marquis of SO- 

MERSET, arms, 

,, Dukeof SOMERSET, 
Garter Plate of, 594. 
,, line, badge, 588. 

,, Queen JOAN, seal, 476. 

THOMAS, Duke of EXE- 
TER, arms, 555. 

BEAUGENCY, RAOUL DE, seal of, 47. 
BEAUHARNAIS, Marquises de, arms, 


arms, 57, 186. 
BEAUMEYS, JOHN, arms transferred, 


,, ,, of Sail tray, arms, 

BEAUMONT, ALAIN DE, supporters, 


arms, 91, 127, 139, 145, 215, 
407, 452; PI. XIII., 
fig. 11, p. 136. 
,, badf/e, 753. 

JOHN, Lord, mantling, 


ROBERT DE, Earl of 
LEICESTER, arms, 322. 
of, 48. 

SUR OISE, seal of 
MATHIEU III., Count of, 48. 
BEAUREPAIRE, arms, 136. 

brisure, 452. 

brisure, 452. 

BEAUVAU, DE, arms, 219. 

,, Seigneur de, 

arms, 51. 
see DAGUET. 
see DAUBENY, 438. 
Beaver, The, 239. 
BEC, arms, 159, 160, 303. 
CREPIN, DU, artns, 100. 
,, DU, Marquises de Vardes, arms and 

supporters, 303. 
BECHE, DE LA, 17. 
BECKET, THOMAS A, Archbishop of 

CANTERBURY, arms, 264. 
Becque, 257, 678, 716. 
BEDFORD, badge, 754. 

,, Blason of Episcopacy, 437. 

,, Duke of, arms, 107. 

( 765 ) 

BEDOYERE, DE LA, arms, 187. 

BEE, arms, 281. 

BEEBEE, arms, 281. 

Beehives, 284. 

BEERVELT, VAN, arms, 127. 

Bees, 281. 

,, Golden, 281. 
BEESTON, arms, 281. 
Beetroot, The, 343. 
Beffroi, 71(5. 

(vair), 69. 
BEHR, arms, 229. 

BEIJEREN-SCHAGEN family, 570. 
BEILSTEIN, Lordship of, arms, 492. 
BEJARANO, arms, 276. 
BEKE, arms, 159, 160. 
BELASYSE, arms, PI. X., fig. 11, p. 118. 

arms, 123. 

BELCHER, arms, 70. 
BELESME, arms, 139. 

PHILIPPE DE, arms, 140. 
BELFILE, arms, 189. 
BELFORTE, Dukes of, arms and awgr- 

mentation, 541. 
BELGIUM, anus, 666. 

,, coronet of Marquises in, 624. 
,, motto of, 666. 
,, Use of canton in, 427. 
,, ,, supporters in, 639. 

Belier-militaire, 716. 
BEL IN, anus, 236. 
BELL, arms, 374. 
BELLAFILLA, an/is, 123. 
BELLARMINE on origin of double-headed 

eagle, 249. 
BELLCHAMBER, arms, PI. XXV., fig. 8, 

p. 260. 
Belted, 235, 678. 

applied to Falcon, 261. 
BELLEGARUE, arms, 716. 
BELLEGARSE, Comtes de, amis, 37 1. 
BELLENDEN, quoted, 233. 
BELLERO, arais, 277. 
BELLEVILLE, DE, arms, 85. 
BELLEVOIRS, arms, 202. 
BELLEW, arms, 96. 
BELLINCIONI, arms, 173. 

LEICESTER, anus, 322. 
Bells as charges, 373. 
BELLUOMI, arms, 213. 
BELLY, an/is, 191. 
BELOT, arms, 716, 723. 
BELPER, Lord, supporters, 647. 
BELS, arm*, 374. 
BELSCHES, arms, 70. 
BELSUNCE, Marquises de, arms, 296: 
BELTZ, Memorials of the Order of the 

Garter, 324, 418, 590, 606. 
Bend, 78, 678; Fig. 39, p. 116; 129; PI. 

XII., fig. 1, p. 130. 
,, Charges on a, PI. XII., fig. 3, p. 

130; PI. XII., fig. 4, p. 130. 
cotised, PJ. XII., fig. 10, p. 130. 
embattled a plomb, Per, PI. V., 

5, p. 

embattled, Per, PI. V., fig. 4 p 80 
engoulee, 131 ; PI. XII., fig. 5, p. 


ermine, PI. XII., fig. 2, p. 130. 
Parted per, 80 ; Fig. 31, p. 77. 
sinister, PI. XII., fig. 11, p. 130. 

Bend - sinister fitchee. Per, PI. V., fig. 7, 

p. 80. 
,, ,, Parted per, SO ; Fig. 32, p. 

Per,' PI. V. fig. 6, p. 80. 
,, The, Fig. 40, p. 116, 133. 

Varieties of, 130. 
BENDERS, arms, 302. 
Bendlet, sinister, 560. 

The, 131, 135, 678. 
Bendlets enhanced, PI. XII., fig. 8, p. 130. 

wavy, PI. XII., fig. 7, p. 130. 
Bend-ways, 108 ; PI. XII., fig. 9, p. 130. 
Bendicise, 678. 
Bendy, 94, 678. 

,, per pale counter-changed, 96. 
,, wavy, PL VII., fig. 4, p. 90. 
BENE, DEL, arms, 332. 

arms, 577. 

BENEVVITZ, arms, 176. 
BEN1GNI, arms, 133. 
BENNERAYE, DE LA, arms, 240. 
BENNET, Earl of TANKERV1LLE, arm*, 


BENNS, arms, 238. 
BENOIT, arms, 204, 371. 
BENSON, crest, 610. 
BENSTEDT, arms, 82. 
BENTHEM, arms, 143. 
BENTINCK, Dukes of PORTLAND, arms, 


BENTOUX, arms, 183. 
BENVOGLIO, arms, 541. 
BENZONI, arms, 72. 
Be'iuiLle de St. Anthoine, 716. 

BERANGER, arms, 86. 

BERBERICH, arms, 302. 
BERBISSY, arms and supporter, 302. 
BERENGUER, arms, 188. 
BERESFORD, arms, 229. 

arms, 95. 

BERGEN OP ZOOM, arms, 332. 
BERGENSTRAHLE, Barons von, arms, 


BERGER, ornw, 752. 
BERGHES, JEAN DE, Seigneur de 

WALAIN, anus, 576. 
BERINGTON, arms, 66. 
BERKELEY, arms, 136, 407. 
bad fie, 754. 
Earls of, arms, 154. 
seal of MAURICE DE, 407 ; 

banner, Fig. 105, p. 651. 
seal of ROBERT DE, 407. 
seal of THOMAS DE, 407. 
Sir MAURICE DE, label of, 

,, Sir THOMAS DE, arms, 


,, supporters and badge, 303. 

THOMAS, son of MAUR- 
ICE, DE, anus, 408. 
BERLAER, Seigneur de, arms, 405. 


BERLO, Counts of, arms, 126. 
BERMINGHAM, arms, 130. 
BERMUDEZ, arms, 353. 

( 766 ) 

BERN, arms, 134. 

BERNADOTTE, House of, arms, 487. 
BERNALEZ, arms, 372. 
BERNARD, armt, 229. 


arms, 156. 

Earl of BANDON, arm*, 273. 
BERNBACII, arms, 271. 
BERNE, Canton of, arms and supporters, 

229, 640. 
BERNERS, arms, 81. 

Dame JULIANA, Bole of St. 

Albans, 19, 35, 151, 400. 
,, Lord, arms, 417. 

,, ,, mantling, 613. 

BERNSTEIN, amis, 288. 
BERRI, Dukes of, arms, 439. 

JEAN, Due de, seal, PI. XXXV., 
fig. 2, p. 415 ; supporters, 631, 

,, seal of, 57. 

BERRY, Encyclopedia Heraldica, 151. 
,, Hoi d'Armcs, Armorials of, 113, 

161, 402. 

BERSTETT, Barons, arms, 213. 

MECHLIN, arms, 405. 


BERTIE, anus, PI. XXXI., fig. 8, p. 346. 
,, Earl of Abingdon, etc., arms, 

BERTRAM, ROGER, arms, 552. 
BERTRAND, amis, 91. 
BERWICK, Castle of, 605. 

,, Duke of, arms, 559. 

Sesant, 190, 716. 
Besante, 716. 

Besants-tourteaux, 716, 745. 
Besom, as a charge, 390. 
BESOYEN, arms, 145. 
BESSBOROUGH, Earl of, arms, 391. 
BESSON, arms, 198. 
BESYNGBURGH, arms, 167. 
BETHUNE, arms, 185. 
BETHUNE, Dues de SULLY, arms, 123. 
porters, 635. 
,, ROBERT DE, Count of 

FLANDERS, 462, 464. 
DE, Count of FLANDERS, 
brisure, 439. 

BETHUNES, Dues de SULLY, lambre- 
quin, 613. 

de, lambrequins, 613. 
BEUCHLINGEN, Counts von, arms, 93. 
BEUST, arms, 540. 

,, Count, augmentation, 540. 
BEUVILLE, arms, 68. 
BEVERWIJCK, arms, 145. 
BEVILACQUA, Princes of, arms, 260. 
BEVILL, arms, PI. XXIV., fig. 1, p. 236. 

,, of Gwarnack, arms, 234. 
Bevily, 678. 

BEYER, DE, arms, 374. 
Bezant, 189, 678. 
Bezantee, 678. 

Bezants, PI. XIX., fig. 2, p. 192. 
Bezanty, 678. 
BIANCHETTI, arms, 95. 
BIBER, arnts, 239. 

BIBRA, Barons, arms, 239. 
BICCHIERI, arms, 382. 
BICHI, arms, 275. 
Bi-corporate, 678. 
BIDAURE, arm*, 506, 577. 

BIEDMA, arms, 121. 
BIEDERMANN, Baron, arms, 322. 
BIEL, Barons, arms, 348. 
BIELSKI, Counts, arms, 347. 
Bigarre, 704, 716. 
BIGOT, arms, 141. 

,, Counts of ST. QUINTIN, arms, 


BILLES, supporters, 643. 
Billet, 117, 165, 186, 678 ; PI. XIX., fig. 1, p. 


Billete, 678, 716. 
Billette, 678, 716. 

Billetty, 112, 678 ; PI. VIII., fig. 11, p. 100. 
BILLICHS, arms, 240. 
BILLY, arms, 186. 
BILQUES DE ORCION, arms, 306. 
BIORN, arms, 229. 
BIORNSEN, arms, 141. 
BISCHOFF, arm*, 371. 
B1SCIA, arms, 364. 
Bird-bolt, 678. 
-bolts, 350. 
,, of Paradise, 267. 
BIRON, arms, 129, 132. 

,, Duo de, arms, 81. 
BISCAY, TELLIUS, Count of, arms, 576. 
BISE, amis, 66. 
BISHOPS, arms, 525. 
BISMARCK, Counts von, arms, 320, 742. 
,, Prince, 320. 

,, ,, von, arms and sup- 

porters, 545. 
Bisse, 716. 

BISSET, arms, 133, 191. 
BISSI, arms, 275. 
BISSY, Marquis de, arms, 273. 
BITSCH, Lordship of, arms, 169. 

d'ANJOU, arms, 261. 
BLACK EAGLE, Cross of the Order of 

the, 546. 
or Sable, 60, 65. 
Prince, 439, 591. 

badge of the, 592, 593. 
Prince's shield for peace, 593. 
,, shield for war, 593. 
BLACKADDER, arms, 325. 
BLACKSTOCK, arms, 318. 

BLACKSTONE'S definition of Esquire, 

7, 8. 

BLACKWOOD, crest, 610. 
BLACON, Marquises of, arms, 93. 
Bladed, 678. 
BLAKET, arms, 137. 
BLANCHAERT, arms, 136. 
BLANCHE of CASTILE, seal of Queen, 

329 ; PI. XXX VII., fig. 4, p. 447. 
BLANCKENHEIM, County of, arms 

and label, 424. 
BLANDIN, arms, 187. 
BLANKENBERG, arms, 234. 
BLANKFRONT, arms, 169. 
BLARU, Marquise de, arms, 331. 
BLASERE, DE, arms, 387. 

( 767 ) 

Blazon, French, 109. 

J. Gough Nichols's Rules of, 


Sules of, 101, 105. 

BLBDDYN, EDNOWA1N AP, arms, 333. 
BLENCOWE, arms, 165. 

,, ADAM OF, arms granted 

to, 35. 

Blessing hand, A, 204. 
Bleu-celeste, or light blue, 61. 
,, du del, or light blue, 61. 
BLTX, arms, 311. 
I3LOI8, CHARLES DE, 58, 463. 
,, Chateau de, 586. 
,, Counts de, amis, 411. 
GUI DE, supporters, 633. 
MARIE, Countess of, seal, 411. 
BLOM, arms, 338. 
BLOME, Counts, arms, 241. 
BLOMMESTEIN, VAN, arms, 338. 
Blood colour or Sanguine, CO, 65. 
BLOSSEV1LLE, Marquis de, arms, 340. 
BLOT, Comtes de, arms, 214. 
BLOUNT, arms, 93, 359, 561 ; PL VII., 

tig. 3, p. 90. 
,, Earl of DEVON, arms, 93. 

JPORT, arms, 561. 

BLUCHER, Prince, arms and augmenta- 
tion, 544. 
Blue-bottles, 337. 

Light, or Bleu-celeste, 61. 
or Azure, 60, 62, 65. 
BLUMENTHAL, Counts of, augmenta- 
tion, 543. 

BLUMERT, arms, 337. 

CHESTER, arms, 341. 
BLUNT, arms, 359. 
Boar, PL XXIII., fig. 1, p. 228. 
as a badge, 753. 
The Wild, 227. 
White, as a badge, 594. 
Boars as supporters, 636. 
Boar's head, 227. 

,, as a crest, 605. 
Boars' heads, PL XXIII., fig. 2, p. 228. 
Boats as charges, 369. 
BOBADILLA alliance, 506. 
BOCK, Die Kleinodien des Heil. Romischen 

Reiches, 244, 245, 248. 
BOCQUET or BOQUET, arms, 66, 716. 
BODENHAM, arms, 388. 
Bceuf, 717. 

B(EUVRES, arms, 68. 
BOFFIN D'ARGENCON, arms, 161. 
BOGAERT, VAN DEN, arms, 316. 
BOGUSLAWSKI, arms, 371. 
BOHEMIA, arms, 218, 252, 494, 665. 

CHARLES IV., King of, 


JOHN, King of, seal, 456. 
,, King of, 591. 

i, ,, counter-seal of, 252. 

,, Kingdom, arms, 500. 

OTTAKAR, King of, seal, 


,, Queen of, achievement, 494. 

,, Royal Crown of, 501. 

BOHN, crest, 612. 

GLOUCESTER, arms, 475. 
,, arms, 262. 

badge, 589, 594, 754. 

BOHUN, HUMPHREY DE, supporter, 


White antelope of, 662. 

BOINEBURG, Counts VON, amis, 640. 
Bois, 691. 
BOIS, arms, 68. 


LAVAL DE, brisure, 452. 
,, DU, arms, 240. 

-GEFFROY, Marquis of arms, 280. 
,, YVON, arms, 140. 

D'ERPS, arms, 644. 
BOISSIEU, arms, 223. 
BOJAXOWSKI, Barons, arms, 236. 
COLN, arms, 160. 
BOLEBEC, Barons, arms, 214. 
BOLESLAS III., King of POLAND, seal 

of, 630. 

,, seal of, King, 254. 

BOLEYN, ANNE, arms and augmenta- 
tion, 530. 
,, arms, 531. 

Sir THOMAS, 531. 

BOL1NGBROKE, HENRY, arms, 474. 
BOLLORD, arms, 280. 
BOLOGNA, Loggia dei Mercanti in, 470. 
BOLOGNE, Count of, 373. 

,, County of, arms, 466. 

BOLTON, arms, 350. 

,, Elements of Armorie, 2. 
BON, arms, 370. 
BONACOLSI, arms, 128. 
BONAR of Kimmerghame, arms, 346. 
BONELLI, Marquises, arms, 95. 
BONES COMBES, armn t 207. 
BONI, amis, 78. 

BONIFACE VIII. , Pope, arms, 132. 
BONKYL, arms, 458. 
,, buckles, 413. 

Sir JOHN, 458. 
BONNEFOUX, Barons, arms, 388. 
Bonnet- Albanais, 717. 
BONNEUIL, Marquis de, arm*, 306. 
BONN1ERES, Dues de GUINES, arms, 


BONO, arms, 371. 
BONSTBTTEN, arms, 440. 
BONVICINI, arms, 119. 
BONVILLE, arms, 79. 
BONVINO, arms, 66. 
BOOTH, arms, 227. 
Boots as charges, 392. 
BOQUET or BOCQUET, arms, 66. 
Borde, 678, 687, 700, 717, 742. 
BORDEAUX, amis, 66. 
Bordered, 678. 
BORDOLO, arms, 752. 
Bordure, 116, 165, 170, 678, 717 ; PL XVII., 
fig. 1, p. 172; PL XVII., fig. 2, 
p. 172; PL XVII. fig. 3, p. 

checquy, PL XVII., fig. 6, p. 172. 
,, circular, 173. 

compone, 555; PL XVII. fig. 4, 

p. 172; 564, 569. 
,, ,, and counler-compone, 

, , counter-company, 443 ; PL XVII., 

fig. 5, p. 172. 
,, Difference by a, 437. 
,, Double, 173. 

( 768 ) 

Bordure of CASTILE, 172; PI. XVII., 

fig. 7, p. 172. 
of ENGLAND, 172. 
of FRANCE, 172. 
Treatment of, in impaled coat, 


Use of, in Scotland, 170. 
Varieties of, 171. 
icavy, 564, 569. 
Bordures-componv, 442. 
BOREAS, Head of. 201, 311, 730. 
Boree, 714, 717. 
BORGHARTS, arms, 143. 
BORGHESE, arms, 292. 
,, Princes, 16. 

BORIAS, arms, 311. 

arms, 232. 

BORMANS, DE, arms, 374. 
BOROLLA, arms, 93. 
BORSAN, arms, 96. 
BORSELE, arms, 410; PI. XLIV., fig. 4, 

p. 537. 

BORTHWICK, Lord, amis, 323. 
BOSCAWEN, Admiral, supporters, 300. 

Earls of FALMOUTH, 
o.rms, 324. 

BOSE, Counts of, arms, 61. 

DE, arms, 44. 
BOSNIA, anus, 501. 

and SERVIA, Czar of, 251. 
BOSSENSTEIX, amis, 66. 
BOSSEWELL, Armorie of Honor, 2, 444, 


BOSSU, Comte de, arms, 129. 
BOSSUT, arms, 181, 427. 
BOSWELL, arms, 566. 

of Balgregie, Sir JOHN, 566. 
BOSWORTH, Battle of, 595. 
BOTELER, arms, 125, 163, 474. 


Boterol, 678. 
BOTH, arms, 370. 
BOTHELIER, arms, 337. 
BOTHELL, arms, 337. 
BOTH MAR, Counts, arms, 370. 
BOTHMER, arms, 370. 
BOTHWELL, Earl of, arms, 567. 
,, ,, brisure, 435. 

seal of AGNES, Countess 

of, 369. 

,, stars of, 51 S. 

BOTILHER, arms, 381. 
BOTON, arm*, 121. 
Botonnee, 160. 
Botonny, 678. 

CV<m, 160. 

BOTREAUX, arms, 278. 
BOTVILLE, anus, 94. 
BOUCHAGE, arms, 71. 

Count de, arms, 289. 


BOUCHOUT, VAN, arms, 141. 
BOUCIQUAUT, Marechal de, arm*, 254. 
Boucle, 717. 

BOUDOYER, arms, 93. 
BOUDRIC, arms, 731. 
J3<rag>e, 678. 

,, as a badge, 753. 
BOUILLON, Count of, 373. 

,, Due de, arms, 123, 185, 360, 

,, Duchy of, arms, 466. 

GODFREY DE, 47, 243, 373. 
ISABEL, Duchess de, arms, 


BOULA DE MAREUIL, arms, 191. 

,, Counts, arms, 127. 

BOULENGER, arms, 191. 
Boules, 677, 717. 
BOULOGNE, Counts of, arms, 192, 373. 

Bouquet, A, 339. 
Boutjuetins, 232. 

BOURASSE, La Tonraine, 189, 448. 
BOURBON, arms, 571. 

-CONDE, 258. 
,, ,, arms, 504. 

,, Dues de, bend, 429. 

Duke CHARLES I. of, 571. 
,, Duke Jean I. of, 571. 
,, Dukes of, 571. 
,, House of, 57. 
,, JEAN, bdtard de, arms, 571. 


arms, 452. 

,, LOUIS, bdtard de, arms, 571. 
MATHIEU, le grand Bdtard 
de and his sister MAR- 
GUERITE, arms, 571 ; PI. 
XLVIIL.fig. 1, p. 577. 
-MODERN, arms, 571. 
MONTPENSIER, arms, 466. 

DE, 466. 

PIERRE I., Duke of, 571. 
,, ,, sup- 

porters, 303. 

VENDOME, arms, 570. 
BOURCHIER, badge, 753. 

HENRY, Earl of ESSEX, 

arms, 417. 
knot, 585, 613. 

Lord, tomb of, 653. 
Sir JOHN, Lord BER- 

NERS, a?-ms, 417. 
Sir JOHN, Lord BER- 
NERS, mantling, 613. 
Bourdon, as a charge, 375, 678, 697, 


(de Pelerin), 717. 
BOURDON, arms, 375. 

DU PLESSIS, arms, 375. 
Bourdonne, 717. 
Bourdons, 717. 
BOURG, LE, arms, 272. 
BOURGHIELLES, arms, 68. 
BOURGOGNE, ADOLPH, grandson of le 

Grand Bdtard, de, 575. 
,, ANTOINE, le Grand Bdtard 

de, arm*, 574, 575. 
BAUDOUIN, bdtard de, 574. 
,, Comte de, banner, 650. 

Duke PHILIP DE, 450. 
,, JEAN, bdtard de, 556. 

,, ,, arms, 573 ; 

PL XLVIL, fig. 1, p. 573. 

MARIE DE, 485. 
PHILIPPE, bdtard cle, arms, 

BOURKE, 17. 

BOURLEMONT, Counts de, arms, 113. 
Sour let, 708, 717. 

BOURNAZEL, Marquises de, arms, 31(3. 


Bouse, 355, 678, 689, 717. 

BOUTELL, Christian Monuments, 44, 


,, English Heraldry, 400, 565. 

, , Heraldry, Historical and Pojiu- 
lar, 76, 114, 187, 401, 409, 410, 413, 417, 
418, 420, 465, 476, 577, 594, 619, 631, 
634 ; PI. XXXV., fig. 1, p. 415. 
Bouterolle, 717. 

brisure, 451. 
Boutoir, 717. 
BOUTON, Nouveau Traite de Blason, 

233, 712, 713, 742. 
Boutonne, 717. 

brisure, 452. 
BOUVIER, GILLES IE, Armorial of, 113, 

161, 402. 

BOUVINES, Battle of, 245, 655. 
BOVILE, arms, 81. 
Boio, PI. XXXI., fig. 5, p. 346. 
BO WEN, knot, 585. 

BOWES, arms, PI. XXXI., fig. 5, p. 346. 
,, of Streatharu, arms, 349. 
,, Lords, arms, 349. 
Boies, 349. 

,, Cross, 349. 
BOYD, arms, 405. 

BOYLE, arms, SO, 523; PL V., fig. 4, p. 
80; PL XXIII.. fig. 12, p. 

,, of Kelbnrne, arms, 234. 
,, ,, DAVID, arms, 523. 

BOYNE, Viscounts, supporters, 302. 
BOYNEBURG, arms, 405. 

Barons Von, arms and 

crest, 608. 
BOYSLEVE, Marquis d'HAROUE, arms, 


BOZON, RALPH DE, arms, 350. 
BRABANT, ALICE, daughter of HENRY 

I., Duke of, 373. 
,, arms, 461, 478, 484, 495, 496, 

574, 575, 576, 631. 
,, Chancellor of, mark of office, 


,, Duchy of, arms, 214, 484. 

Duke PHILIPPE of, 575. 

,, Dukes of, arms, 405, 642. 

GODFREY, brother of Duke 

HENRY, arms, 405. 
GEOFFREY DE, arms, 461 ; 

seal and label, 415. 
HENRY I. and III., Dukes 

of, seals and banners, 651. 
,, HENRY, Duke of, 415, 461. 

JEAN, natural son of JEAN, 

Due de, 576. 
Lion of, 415. 

,, MARIE, daughter of 

HENRY III., Duke of, arms, 454. 


CRUBEQUE, arms, 575. 
BRACCHE, supporters, 2D4. 
Braced, 140, 678. 

BRACKENBURY, arms, 96, 140. 
BRACKLEY, Viscount, arms, 561. 
BRADBURY, arms, 224. 
BRADSHAW, arms, 131. 


,, Dukes of, arms, 577. 

,, House of, label, 425. 

JOHN of, label, 425. 
BRAHE, arms, 120. 
BRAITEAU, Vicomtes de, arms, 280. 
Branch, Linden, 318. 
,, Olive, 317. 
,, Palm, 319. 
Branche, 717. 
Branched, 678. 
BRANCHELEY, arms, 156. 
GRAVES of, helms, 
,, a?-ms, 344, 494. 

BEATRICE, daugh- 
ter of ALBERT, 

Death of JOHN, 
,, Elector of, arms, 


arms, 255. 

,, (Prussia), arms, 67. 

,, Red eagle of, 545. 

BRANDIS, arms, 314. 
BRANDOLINI, arms and motto, 644. 
BRANDON, badge, 754. 
BRANDT, Barons, arms, 314. 

Counts de M ARCONNE, arms, 

BRANT I., Polish Clan of, arms, 314. 
BRAOSE, arms, 213, 215. 
BRASCHI, Dukes of NEMI, arms, 311. 

arms, 183. 

BRAUNBERG, Barons VON, arms, 126. 
Braunschweiffer Chronicle, 41. 
BREADALBANE, arms, 368. 

, , Earls of, arms, 84, 447. 

Bream naiant, PI. XXVI., fig. 5, p. 266. 

,, The, 268. 
BREAME, arms, 268; PL XXVI., fig. 5, 

p. 266. 

Brebis, 703, 717, 737, 739. 
BRECBENNOCH, Vexillum of the, 657. 
BRECHANE of Auld, Lord of, arms, 149. 
BRECHIN, arms, 149, 516, 517, 518, 519, 
521; PI. XVI., fig. 3, 
p. 146. 

,, City of, arms, 147. 

,, Heiress of, 521. 

,, Lordship of, 147, 517. 

,, See of, arms, 147. 

BRECKNOCK, Baron of, arms, 71. 
BREDA, Lordship of, arms, 140. 
BREDOW, Counts, arms, 365. 

( 770 ) 

Breeches as charges, 392. 
BREGENZ, arms, 73. 

,, County, arms, 499. 

BREHNA, County of, arms, 321. 
BRE1SGAU, Landgravate of, arms, 491. 
BREITENBACH, arms, 139. 
BREITENBUCH, VON, arms, 752. 
BREMEN, arms, 283. 
BRENT, arm*, 2S9. 
BRESLAU, Palatinate of, arms, 468 ; PI. 

XXXVIII., fig. 2, p. 463. 
BRET, LE, arm*, 68. 
BRETAGNE, ALICE, Duchess of, 55. 
arms, 91, 342. 
CONAN, Count of, 30. 
JEAN DE, Earl of Rich- 
mond, arms, 425. 
JEANNE DE, 464. 
seal of JEANNE DE, 58. 
BRETESCHE, Marquis de la, arms, 155. 
Bretesse, 124, 678, 681, 682, 685, 717. 

,, line, 76. 
BRETEUIL, Comtes de, arms, 262. 


brisure, 452. 
BRETIGNY, arms, 726. 
BRETSLA, arms, PI. XLVL, fig. 1, p. 545. 
BREUBERG, aritis, 308. 

,, Lordship of, arms, 126. 

BREUS, arms, 215. 
BREWES, arms, 215. 
BREWSE, arms, 214. 
BREWYS, arms, 213. 
Breys, 357, 678. 

, , as a badge, 753. 

arms, 164. 
Due de, 164. 

BRIAN BOROIHME, Harp of, 384. 
porter, 632. 
BRIDGE, arms, 362. 
Bridges, 362. 
BRIDGEWATER, Duke and Earl of, 


BRIERLEY, arms, 162. 
BRIESEN, arm.?, PI. VI., fig. 6, p. 84. 

VON, arms, 88. 
BRIEY, arms, PI. X., fig. 12, p. 118. 

,, Counts de, arms, 123. 
Brigantine, 679. 

BRIMEN, JACQUES DE, arms, 411. 
BRIORDE, GERARD DE, amis, 130. 
BRIQUEVILLE, arms, 91. 
BRIS DE HOUAREE, LA, arms, 27. 
Bris d'huis, 717. 
Brise, 138, 688, 717, 743. 
BRISSAC, Due de, arms, 731. 
BRISTOL, BUTLER, Bishop of, arms, 


,, City of, arms, 312. 
,, Earl of, arms, 331. 
,, Marquess of, antis, 320. 
,, See of, arms, 379. 
Brisure, 396, 679. 

BRITAIN, coronet of a Marquess in, 624. 
,, coronets of children and grand- 
children of the Sovereign of, 
,, Form of shield in, 56. 

GREAT, arms, 56, 237 ; PL 

LIL, p. 663. 

helmets for different ranks, 602. 
,, Impalement in, 470. 

BRITAIN, Kings of GREAT, using es- 

cucheon en surtoul, 487. 
,, Royal arms, 479. 
,, Tincture of mantling in, 612. 

,, wreath in, 612. 

WILLIAM III., King of, 
arms, 487. 

| British Museum Catalogue of Seals, 37, 210. 
330, 384, 587, 588, 590, 594, 598, 662, 

BRITTANY, ALICE, Duchess of, 425. 
,, arms, 425, 505. 

,, canton of, 426. 

Death of GEOFFREY 
of, 40. 

Duke of, 515. 

, , Dukes of, arms, 68. 

., ,, supporters, 636. 

,, furs common in armory of, 

,, JEANNE, Duchess of, seal, 


,, MARGARET, daughter of 

FRANCIS I., Duke of, 

MARY, daughter of FRAN- 
CIS I., Duke of, 505. 
BRIXEN, Principality, arms, 499. 
Broad arrow, 679. . 
BROADHURST, arms, 97. 
Brochant, 717. 

,, sur le tout, 109. 
BROCK, arms, 239. 
BROCKE, arms, 182. 
Brog as a charge, 363. 
BROGLIE, arms, PI. XV., fig. 11, p. 


,, Dues de, arms, 145. 
Brogue, 679. 
Broi, 690. 
BROME, arms, 79. 
BROMFIELD, arms, 131. 

EDMUND, Bishop of 
LLANDAFF, arms, 217. 
BROMLEY, Barons MONTFORD, arms, 


,, Counts ZU, arms, 473. 

BRONCKHORST, Counts of, arms, 192. 
BRONKHORST, VAN, arms, 127. 
BROOK and REID, Description of 

Scottish Regalia, 619. 
BROOKE, 554. 
Broom as a badge, 586. 
BROSSE, Vicomtesde, arms, 342. 
BROTHERTON, arms, 531, 532. 
BROTIN, arms, 71. 
BROUCHIER, arms, 359. 
BROUILLART, arms, 136. 
BROUILLI, DE, Marquises de PIENNE, 

supporters, 298. 
BROUN, arms, 333. 
Brown colour, or Brunatre, 61. 
BROWN, arms, 333. 

,, of Colstoun, arms, 331. 
BROWNING, anus, 93. 
Br ot/es, 678, 718, 737. 
BROYES, Seigneurs de, arms, 357. 

SIMON DE, seal of, 47. 
BRUCE, arms, 212, 611. 

ISOBEL, 177. 
, , Lion rampant for, 454. 

BRUCE, Lord of ANNANDALE, arms, 

MARGARET, of Skelton, seal, 

,, of Annandale, amis, PL XV., 

fig. 10, p. 144. 
of Bal 

ilcaskie, arms. 144. 

brisure, 433. 
of Kinross, arms, 144. 
ROBERT, 144. 

Earl of CARRICK, 

badge, 583. 

,, King of SCOT- 

LAND, 33, 34, 
177, 178, 37S. 
sister of ROBERT, 445. 
BRUCKNERS, arms, 362. 

arms, 392. 

BRUERE, Sir WILLIAM, seal, 301. 
BRUGES, Palais de Justice at, 471. 
BRUHL, arms, 136. 

BRUININGK, Barons de, supporters, 297. 
NOCK, arms, 71. 
BRUMMER, arm*, 374. 
Bruncitre, or Brown colour, 61. 
BRUNNER, Annales Sold, 40. 
BRUNSVELT, arms, 718. 
BRUNSWICK, arm*, 214, 472, 663. 
,, Dnkes of, arms, 234. 

-LUNEBURG, arms, 487. 
,, MAGNUS I. and HENRY, 

Dukes of, supporter, 631. 
BRUSSELS, City of, arms, 196, 283. 

,, Museum of Antiquities at, 

580, 644. 

BRUUN, arms, 200. 
BRUWERE, Sir WILLIAM, seal, 301. 
BRUYN, LE, arms, 170. 
BRYAN, arms, 147. 
., badge, 654. 
Bugle-horn of, 584. 

LINS'S Peerage," 562. 
BRYDSON, Summary View, 615. 
BRYRERLEGH, arms, 160. 
BRZOSTOWSKI, Counts, arms, 357. 
BUBENHAUSER, amis, 752. 
BUBNA, arms, 383. 
BUCCAFOCO, arms, 201. 
BUCH, Captal de, crest, 606. 
label, 418. 

BUCHAN, arms, 367. 

,, Earl of, arms, 342. 
Earldom of, 520. 
,, Earls of, 605. 
,, ,, arms, 446. 

BUCHANAN, arms, 179. 
BUCHEG, arms, 325. 
BUCHHEIM, County of, arms, 342. 
BUCHNER, Dr ROEMER, Die Seigel der 
Deutschen Kaiser, 243. 244, 247, 24S, 
252, 253. 

Buck as a badge, 753. 

BUCK, arms, 101 ; PI. VII., fig. 12, p. 90. 
Bucket as a badge, 753. 
Buckle as a badge, 753. 

JOHN, Duke of, 562. 
,, badge, 754. 

,, Duke of, arms, 135, 343. 

BUCKINGHAM, Dukes of, 399. 

,, Earls of, armt 


Buckles, PI. XXXIIL, fig. 2, p. 376. 
,, as charges, 377. 

Lozenge-shaped, PI. XXXIIL, fig. 
3, p. 376. 
Bucks, 231. 
BUCKS, badge, 754. 
BUCQUOY, Princes de, anns, 95. 
Budding, 679. 
Budget, Water, 355. 
Buttle, 718. 
BUGGE, arms, 151. 
Bugle-horn as a badge, 584. 

,, as a charge, 385. 

BUISSONS, DE, arms, 316. 

Marquises d'AUSSONNE, 
arms, 316. 

BULGARIA, arms, 501, 666. 
BULGARINI, arms, PI. XIII., fig. 5, p. 


,, Counts, arms, 138. 

Bull, PJ. XXIV. fig. 1, p. 236. 

,, as a badge, 753. 
Bulls, 234. 
Bull's head, PI. XXIV., fig. 2, p. 236; 235. 

, , as a badge, 763. 
BULING, arms, 350. 
BULOW, arms, 121, 543. 


arms and augmentation, 543. 
BUNBURY, arms, 130; PI. XII., fig. 3, 

p. 130. 

BUOCAFOCO, arms, 201. 
BUONACORSI, arms, 189. 
BUONAROTTI, arms, 632. 
BUONCOMPAGNI, Princes, arms, 293. 
BURDON, arms, 375. 
.Bwefc?, 94, 677, 718. 
Burele, 718. 
BURGH, arms, 457. 
,, ftat^e, 753. 
DE, 17. 
Earl of ULSTER, arms, 


arms, 457. 
Burgonet, 679. 

BURGOS, Cathedral at, 639. 

,, -ancient, arms, 57, 253, 439, 

462, 478, 484, 485, 495, 
461, 462, 508, 573, 574, 
,, ANNE of, arms, 485. 

arms, 450, 471, 509, 575, 631. 
,, County of, arms, 631. 

PALATINE of ,aniis, 
,, Duchess of, seal, 478. 

Duke CHARLES, the bold, 


Duke JEAN of, 573. 
Duke of, 515. 
,, ,, arms, 253 ; PL 

XLIV., fig. 6, p. 537. 
Duke PHILIPPE, Le Bon 

of, 574. 
,, ,, the bold of 

,, Dukes of, arms, 439. 

( 772 ) 

BURGUNDY, Dukes of, Ordonnances, 


,, JEANNE, - Countess of, 


Duchess of, 
seal, PI. XXXV., fig. 3, 
p. 415. 

JOHN, Duke of, 462, 484. 
,, Marks of illegitimacy in, 


,, MARY, Duchess of, sup- 

porter, 632. 

,, ,, of, 484. 

,, modern, arms, 57, 462, 478, 

484, 496, 573, 574, 575, 
,, OTHO, Count of, crest, 

PHILIP LE BON, Duke of, 

,, the Bold, Duke of, 


PHILIPPE, natural son of 

BON, arms, 575. 
,, saltire in, 143. 

seal of HUGH II., Duke of, 


YOLANTE, daughter of 

EUDES of, 462. 

BURKE, General Armory, 360, 401, 570. 
,, Sir BERNARD, 647. 

The Rise of 
Great Families, 399. 
BURLAY, arms, 191. 
BURLEIGH, badge, 754. 
BURNABY, arms, 270. 
BURNARD, ODO, badge, 583. 

,, seal and a?-ms, 50. 

, , of Faringdon, seal and arms, 

BURNETT, arms, 319. 

Dr GEORGE, Lyon King of 
Arms, 51, 
158, 400, 496, 
565, 567, 569, 

,, ,, Lyon King of 

Arms, arms, 

,, . ,, Lyon King of 

Arms, edits part of Ex- 
chequer Rolls of Scotland, 
455, 565. 

,, of Kernnay, arms, 51. 

,, of Leys, arms, 50. 

BUROSSE, arms, 337. 
BUSC, arms, 261. 
BUSCH, arms, 313, 316,391; PI. XXIX., 

fig. 5, p. 318. 

Bush and Croien as a badge, 595. 
BUSH, arm*, 315. 

BUSQUE, ANTOINE DE, ami*, 579. 
BUSSNANG, Barons von, arms, 98. 
BUSSY, D' AM BOISE, Marquises de, arm*, 


,, Sir JOHN, mantling and arms, 

BUTEN, VAN, arms, 235. 
BUTERA, Princes de, arms, 89. 
BUTKENS, System of lines representing 

colour, 64. 

,, Trophies de Brabant, 51. 

BUTLER, arms, 118, 163, 531. 

3 E 

BUTLER, Bishop of DURHAM and 
BRISTOL, arms, 381. 
arms, 381. 
,, of Ormond, Margaret, arms, 


WILLIAM, bend sinister, 

BUTLERS of Ormonde, arms, 381. 
Butterflies, 280. 
BYDANT, arms, 272. 
BYE, arms, 281. 
BYRES, arms, 283. 
BYRON, arms, PL XII., fig. 8, p. 130. 
,, Lord, arms, 132. 
,, Lords, arms, 562. 
,, of Newstead, Sir JOHN, arms, 

BYSSHE, Sir EDWARD, Notes on, De 

Studio Militari, 19, 33. 
BYSTRZONOWSKI, Counts, arms, 237. 

CAARTEN, arms, 387. 

Cabbage, The, 343. 

CABELLIC, a?*ms, 156. 

Caberfae, 233. 

Cable, 125, 70S, 718. 

Caboche, 718. 

CABOGU, arms, 752. 

Caboshed, 233, 679. 

Cabosse, 679. 

Cabossed or Caboshed, 233, 679. 

Cabre, 679, 701, 702, 718, 727. 

CABRERA, arms, 235. 

CADE, JACK, 346. 

CADENAT, arms, PL XXXL, fig. 11, p. 


Cadency, Marks of, 444, 679. 
or Differencing, 396. 
,, Principal modes of, 402. 
, , Royal mark of, 420. 
CADENETS, arms, 354. 
CADEROUSSE, Dues de, arm*, 214, 293. 


CADRODHARD, arms, 230. 
Cadueee, 718. 

arms, 468. 

CAERLAVEROCK, National banners of 
English Army at 
siege of, 425, 656. 
Roll, 409, 413, 414, 
438, 481, 651. 

C^ESAREA, Prince of, arm*, 118. 
CAETANI, arms, 132, 734. 
CAITHNESS, arms, 369, 511, 512, 521. 

,, Earl of, arms, 142 ; PL 

XXXIL, fig. 12, p. 358 ; 
PL XLIIL, fig. 1, p. 521. 
Earl of, seal and arms, 520. 
Earldom of, 511. 

arms, 368. 
Earls of, arms, 369, 511. 
,, supporters, 288. 
seal of JOHN, Earl of, 


seal of THOMAS MUR- 
RAY, Bishop of, 369. 
CAIXAL, arms, 203. 
CALABRIA, Duchy, a?-ms, 156, 501, 

,, Duke of, arms, 502. 

( 773 ) 

Calais Roll, 416, 417, 426. 
,, Second, 166. 
CALAIS, Siege of, 167, 554. 
Calatrara, Cross of, 158, 718. 
Calatrave, Croix de, 158, 718. 
CALDER, achievement, 610. 
CALDORA, arms, 81. 
Caldron, The, 275. 

Caldrons, PI. XXXIII., fig. 8, p. 376. 
CALERGI, Princes of, arms, 95. 
CALL, arms, 386. 
CALLENDAR, arms, 186, 522 ; PI. XIX., 

tig. 1, p. 192. 

Calotte, 611. 
Caltrap, 352, 679; PL XXXI., fig. 9, p. 

CALVADOS, Church of St. Pierre deDive 

in, 254. 

Calvaire, Croix, 718. 
Calvary-Cross 152, 679 ; Fig. 49, p. 164. 
Calves, 234. 

CAMARA, arms, 361. 
CAMBACERES, le Due, 15. 
CAMBI, arms, 73. 

CAMBRAY, Duke of, augmentation, 537. 

MS. of the Concordat of, 574. 

seal and arms of JEAN, 

Bishop of, 574 ; PL XL VII., fig. 4, p. 


RICK, Duke of, label, 
422 ; Fig. 84, p. 421. 
,, badge, 753. 

badge of RICHARD, 

Earl of, 324. 
Duke of, label, 423. 
aniis, 325. 
CAMDEN, 35. 

,, Marquis, arms, 231. 

,, on Nobility, 4, 7, 8. 

,, Remains, 591. 

,, Visitation of Huntingdon- 

shire, 2.06, 363, 561. 
WILLIAM, arms, 163. 
Camel, The, 231. 
CAMEL, arms, 231. 
CAMERINO, Dukes of, arms, 71. 
CAMERON, armt, 127. 
CAM IN, Principality of, arms, 159. 
CAMMERSTEIN, Counts of, arms, 469. 
CAMOENS, arms, 294. 

ar?us, 568. 
arms, 78, 447, 466 ; PL VI., 

fig. 1, p. 84. 
, , arms in Lyon Office Register, 

400, 401. 
,, Bart., ar??ts, 534. 

Col. WILLIAM, arms, 568. 
,, Duke of ARGYLL, arms, 

83, 84, 406. 

arms, 84. 
,, Earls of CAWDOR, arais, 

Earls of LOUDOUN, arms, 


arms, 84. 

,, MARGARET, seal, 466. 

., of Ardkinlas, supporters, 

CAMPBELL of Argyle, arms, 406. 

,, of Glenorchy, arms, 84. 

,, of Invevaw, bordure, 569. 

,, of Loudoun, a7-ms, 406. 

, , of Strachur, arms, 84. 

,, Sir ILAY, arms, 568. 

CAMPERDOWN, achiecenient of Lord, 


,, Lord, arms and aug- 

mentation, 533, 610. 
CAMPLIONCH, arms, 752. 
CAMPORELLS, arms, 93. 
CANABRI, amis, 121. 
CANALI, arms, 121. 

,, Counts, arms, 136. 
CANDAVENE, arm,?, 49. 
Ca.ndles as charges, 372. 
CANDOLLE, Marquises de, arms, 81. 
Canele, 727. 

CANETE, Marquises of, arms, 506. 
Canette, The, 266, 718, 736. 
CANIZARES, arms, 174. 
CANNEGIETER, arms, 382. 
Cannele, 138, 692, 718. 

line, 76. 

CANNING, arms, 200. 
Cannon as charges, 366. 
CANO, Barons de MEGHEM, arms, 360. 
CANTACUZENE, arms, 318. 
CANTALUPO, Princes de, arms, 128. 


CANTELUPE, arms, 225, 333. 

THOMAS DE, Bishop of 

WILLIAM DE, arms, 331. 
CANTERBURY, arms of See, 150, 375 ; 
PL XVI., fig. 11, p. 

Cathedral, 593. 
bishop of, 142. 
bishop of, arms, 152. 
Archbishop of, armf, 

NAY, Archbishop of, arms, 437. 
Canting-arms, 679. 

Canton, 116, 165, 166, 107, 679, 718; PL 
XVIII., fig. 1, p. 190 ; PI. XVIII., 
fig. 2, p. 190. 

,, and Fess, PL XVIII., fig. 3, p. 190. 
,, ,, or Bar, joined, 167. 

, , Difference by the insertion of a, 425. 
Cantoned, 679. 
Cantonne, 679, 718. 
Cap or Mortier, 625. 
Caparisoned, 679. 
CAPECI, arms, 214. 
Capeline, 611, 612, 615. 
CAPELLO, arms, 374, 392. 
CAPET, HUGH, Duke of FRANCE, etc., 


,, Line of, 283. 

CAPLENDORF, Counts von, arms, 90. 
CAPPELLI, a?-7)is, 374, 392. 
CAPPERS, arms, 392. 
CAPPONI, arms, 80. 

( 774 ) 

C APR [XI, arms, 277. 
Caps as charges, 392. 
,, of maintenance as charges, 392. 
Capuchon, 611, 718. 
CARBONNIERES, arms, 714. 
Carbuncle, 679. 
GARDEN, arms, 365. 
CARDIGAN, Earl of, arms, 392. 
,, Prince of, arms, 212. 

Cardinals in France, mantling armoye, 


CARDOX, arms, 335. 
CARDOXAS, arms, 335, 482 ; PI. XLI., 

fig. 3, p. 509. 
CARDOZO, arms, 339. 
Cards as charges, 387. 
CARENCY, Princes de, arms, 121, 319. 
CAREW, arms, 223. 
CARILLO, arms, 506. 
CARINTHIA, ALBERT, Duke of, seal, 

Duchy, arms, 454, 455, 456, 

471, 495, 503, 634, 665. 
MARGARET of, seal, 454. 
CARLAVEROCK, Siege of, 273. 
CARLINGFORD, Lord, supporter, 232. 
CARLISLE, Earl of, mullet, 446. 
CARLOS, Colonel, arms, 533. 
CARLOWITZ, arms and augmentation, 


CARLSSON, arms, 101. 
CARLYLE, arms, 157, 522; PI. XLIL, 

fig. 5, p. 513. 
Lord TORTHORWALD, arms, 

142, 522. 
CARMICHAEL, arms, 125, 127; PI. XL, 

fig. 6, p. 124. 
Carnation, 700, 718. 

,, or naked flesh colour, 62. 
Carnations, 337. 
CARXEGIE, Earls of SOUTHESK, arms, 

CARNIOLA, Duchy, arms, 247, 256, 495, 

503, 665. 

CARO, arms, 508. 
CAROLATH-BEUTHEN, Princes, arms, 

CAROUGES, JEANNE, Dame de, seal of, 


STER, arms and augmentation, 532. 
Carreaux, 378, 718. 
CARRICK, Earl of, badge, 583. 
CARRILLO, arms, 473. 

CARRO, arms, 378. 
CARROLL, arms, 162. 
Carrots, 344. 
CARR'S MS.. 366. 
CARS, Dues des, arms, 121. 
CARTIER D'YVES, Barons, arms, 183. 
Cartouche, 679. 

Cartulary nf St. Pere de Chartres, 10. 
CARTWRIGHT, arms, 310. 

,, arms, 363. 

CASOLI, Dues de, arms, 95. 

arms, 129. 

CASSANTS, arms, 284. 
CASSILIS, Earls of, arms, 163. 
CASTANEDA, arms, 93. 

CASTELAIN, arms, 289. 
CASTELLANE, DE, arms, 358. 
CASTELLETS, arms, 360. 
CASTELLI, arms, 746. 
CASTELN, arms, 222 ; PL XLVL, fig. 3, 

p. 545. 

XLVIII., fig. 6, p. 577. 
arms, 168, 253, 306, 329, 358, 

391, 416, 441, 457, 464, 471, 
478, 479, 488, 495, 501, 507, 
547, 576, 577, 578, 633, 667. 
VIII., King of, 329; seal, 
PL XXXVII., fig. 4, p. 

,, bordure of, 172, 329, 440, 475, 
507; PL XVII., fig. 7, p. 
ELEANOR of, 457. 

,, monument, 479. 

FERDINAND of, 479. 

III., King of, 

label of, 416. 
Queen ISABELLA of, badge, 


seal of ALPHONSO of, 244. 

arms, 471 ; PL XXXIL, fig. 3, 

p. 358. 
DE, Marquis de CHENOISE, 

supporters, 303. 
Marquises de CHENOISE, 

arms, 358. 

,, SANCHO, Infant of, seals to 
contract of marriage of, 46. 
CASTILLO, arms, 744. 


CASTILLON, Marquises of, arms, 358. 
Castle, 357; PL XXXIL, figs. 3 and 6, 

p. 358. 

,, with other buildings, 362. 
CASTLE STUART, Earl of, arms, 569. 
CASTRIES, Due de, arms, 141. 
CASTRO DE, arms, 192. 
Cat, 97, 226. 

,, Genet, as a badge, 557, 587. 
Cat-a-mount, 226, 679. 
CATANEI, arms, 72. 
Catapult as a charge, 365. 
CATENAS, arms, 360. 
Catharine-wheel, 679. 
CATHCART, arms, 307; PL XXVIII., 

fig. 4, p. 308. 
TTARO, aims, 503. 


Caudt, 705, 718. 
CAUDRELIER, LE, arms, 266. 
Cauldron as a charge, 389. 

,, Abecedaire d' Archeologie, 

2S7, 293, 299, 301. 
CAVALLI, arms, 237. 
CAVAN, Earl of, anus, 323. 
CAVE, arms, 96. 

arms, 233. 

CAVILL, arms, 124. 
CAWDOR, Earls of, arms, 84. 
CEBA, arms, 72. 
CECIL, badge, 754. 

,, LordROOS, 17. 

( 775 ) 

Ceintre, 718. 
Celery, 344. 
CELLES, arms, 133. 
Cendree or ash colour, 61. 
CENNINO, arms, 294. 
Censers as charges, 372. 
Centaur, 298, 079. 

Female, 298. 

,, -sagittaire, 299. 
CENTELLES, arms, 100. 
Centre, le (abime) ; " en cceur," 59. 
Cep de Viyne, 718. 
CEPEDES, arms, 379. 
tap*, 703, 718. 

CERAMI, Princes of, arms, 310. 
Cerberus, 304. 
Cercelee, 679. 
Cercfe, 691, 718. 

supporters, 635. 
CETRACINI, arms, 99. 
CETTNER, Counts, arms, 352. 
CEVA, Barons, arms, 93. ' 
CHABAN, Comte de, arms, 281. 
CHABOT, 12. 

,, arms, 505. 
Chabots, 718. 
CHADWICK, arms, 175. 
CHAI, arms, 68. 

CHAILLU, DU, Viking Age, 367. 
CHAILONS, arms, 202. 
Chains, 353; PI. XXXI., fig. 10, p. 346; 

PI. XXXI., fig. 11, p. 346. 
CHALANGE, arms, 306. 
Chalice as a charge, 372. 
CHALMERS, arms, PI. XXII., fig. 4, 
< : p. 222. 

,, of Balnacraig, arms, 221. 

CHALOX, arms, 129, 466. 
CHALOXS, Counts of, arms, 410. 

HUGUES DE, arms, 410. 

JEAX DE, Comte de BOUR- 

GOGXE, banner, 650. 
LOUIS DE, arms, 410. 

LAVAL DE, briiure, 452. 
Chamber, 679. 
Chamberlain, Grand, French, mark of 

office, 645. 
,, Lord High, of England, 

mark of office, 644. 
,, Lord High, of Scotland, 

mark of office, 644. 
of the Household, Lord, 

mark of office, 644. 
CHAMBERS, WM., The Story of St. Giles' 

Cathedral Church, Edinburgh, 476. 

arms, 93. 

CHAMBORD, Comte de, 425. 
Chameleon, 277. 
Chamfront, 679. 
Chamois, 232. 
Champ, 687, 718. 
Champagne, 311, 483, 679, 705, 718. 

Parted per, fig. 36, p. 77. 

CHAMPAGXE, arms, 479. 

,, Grand Capitulaire of, 10. 

seal of Counts of, 48. 

CHAMPERXOXS, arms, 136. 
CHAMPXEY, arms, 184; PI. XVIII., 

fig. 11, p. 190. 
CHAMPREDOXDE, arms, 337. 


de, arms, 51. 

CHAMPSDIVERS, arms, 136. 
CHAXAC, arms, 79. 
Chancellor, French, mark of office, 645. 
Chandeliers de I'Eglise, 719. 
CHANDOS, arms, 146, 403; PI. XVI., 

fig. l,p. 146. 
Sir JOHX, K.G., 403. 
Chantant, 719. 
CHAXTRELL, arms, 264; PI. XXV., 

fig. 12, p. 260. 
Chaise, 81, 88, 719, 741 ; PI. VI., fig. 8, 

p. 84. 

-chausse, 89, 719, 746. 
,, ploye, 719 ; PL VI., fig. 10, p. 84. 
Chapeau, 679. 
Chapel, 363. 
Chapelet, 680, 719. 
CHAPELLE, AXTOIXE, Seigneur de, 

arms, 575. 

,, DE LA, arms, 97, 363. 

ULRIC DE, crest, 600. 
Chaperon, 718, 719. 
Chaperonne, 89, 691, 719. 
Chaplet, 680 ; PL XXX., fig. 9, p. 332. 
Chaplets of leaves or flowers, 336. 
CHAPPELL, arms/370. 
CHARBOXXEAU, arms, 365. 
CHARDOIGXE, arms, 187. 
CHARDOX DU HAVET, arms, 330. 
Charge, 680, 719. 
Charged, 680. 

Charges, Animate, 194, 208, 242. 
,, Astronomical, 305. 
,, Common, 102. 
,, Difference by addition of small, 

,, ,, change of the minor, 

,, ,, diminishing the 

number of, 434. 
,, Different kinds of, 101. 
,, Inanimate, 305. 
,, Military, 345. 
,, Miscellaneous, 345. 
CHARLEMAGXE, 176, 658. 

,, adopts the Eagle as his 

ensign, 242. 
,, arms, 21. 

crown of, 254, 526, 
617, 618, 663 ; 
Fig. 97, p. 

,, ,, as a charge, 


CHARLES I., King of BRITAIX, 420, 

421,535, 633; arms, PL 

LI., fig. 5, p. 661 ; crown, 


,, ,, supporters on Exchequer 

Seal of, 663. 

II., King of BRITAIX, 14C,, 

181, 316, 431, 475, 532, 

559; arms, PL LI., fig. 5, 

p. 661. 

,, King of BRITAIX, crown, 

,, ,, supporters on Seal of 

Common Picas of, 663. 
IV., Emperor HOLY ROM AX 

EMPIRE, crown, 621. 
King of FRAXCE, sup- 
porters, 636. 

( 776 ) 

CHARLES IV., King of FRANCE, seal, 
354, 456. 

and BOHEMIA, 252. 
,, seal of the Emperor, 248. 
V., Duchess MARGARET, 
daughter of Emperor, 
509, 577. 

,, ,, Emperor, 449, 573, 577, 620. 
,, ,, ,, augmentations 

granted by, 53(5. 

,, ,. Great Seal of the Em- 
peror, 253. 

., King of FRANCE, 601. 
,, ,, ,, ,, Edict of, 


,, ,, ,, ,, sup- 

porter, 633, 636. 

porters and motto, 643. 
,, VI., Aurea Bulla of the Em- 
peror, 253. 

King of FRANCE, aug- 
mentation granted by, 
,, King of FRANCE, siip- 

porters, 636. 
,, of SPAIN, Great Seal of, 

,, VII., augmentation granted 

by, 538, 541. 

King of FRANCE, 57, 
113, 250, 331, 515, 
539, 572. 

,, King of FRANCE, sup- 
porters, 636. 
,, ,, seal of the Emperor, 

,, VI II., 575. 

King of FRANCE, 478. 
,, ,, ,, ,, crown, 


,, M ,, sup- 

porters, 636. 
IX., FRANCE, 570, 


,, arms, 317. 

EMANUEL, King of SAR- 
DINIA, supporter of, 244. 
,, Emperor, as King of SPAIN, 

crown, 620. 
Roll, 350, 357, 377, 378, 379. 

THE BOLD, Duke of BUR- 
GUNDY, 39, 485. 
CHARLETON, arms, 212, 417. 

of POWYS, arms, 417. 
CHARLOTTE, Princess, daughter of 
King GEORGE IV. of 
ENGLAND, 424. 

,, Princess Royal, label, 

422 ; Fig. 85, p. 421. 
CHARNY, Count de, arms, 485. 


arms, 484. 

CHARTERIS of Kinfauns, arms, 179. 
CHARTERS, arms, 123. 
Chasse or Reliquary, 658. 
CHASTELLUX, Marquises de, arms, 186. 
CHASTRE, DE LA, arms, 351. 
Chateau, 719. 
CHiTEAU-GONTIER, arms, 140. 

CHATEAU MELIAND, arms, 127. 
CHATEAUBRIAND, arms, 112, 330, 341. 


augmentation, 539. 
motto, 331. 

CHATELAIN, arms, PI. XXXII., fig. 6, 

p. 358. 

CHATELAINS, arms, 359. 
Chatele, 719. 
CHATELHERAULT, Duchy of, arms, 


CHATILLION, Dues de, arms, 257. 
CHATILLON, arms, 411. 

EUSTACIA DE, secretum 

of, 54. 

DE, brisure, 452. 
Viscount de, label, 418. 

arms, 317. 

CHATTERTON, arms, 156. 
Chaudiere, 719. 
CHAUMELLS, arms, 314. 
CHAUMONT, arms, 118, 314. 
CHAUSNES, arms, 721. 
Chausse, 88, 719. 

-ploye, 88, 719 ; PI. VI., fig. 9, p. 


-trape, 352, 679, 680, 688. 
,, -trapes, 719. 
CHAUTONS, arms, 278. 
Chauve-souris, 719. 
CHAUVIGNY, arms, 214. 
CHAWORTH, arms, 139, 409. 

,, Sir PATRICK, arms, 409. 

CHAYLAU, arms, 202. 
CHAYTOR, arms, 322. 
Checquy, Pi. VII., fig. 6, p. 90 ; PI. VII., 

fig. 7, p. 90. 
Chef, 117, 680, 719. 
-chevron, 719. 
cousu, 104. 
de France, 719. 

de V Empire (Germanique), 719. 
-dextre, 719. 
le canton dextre du, 59. 

,, stnestre du, 59. 
le point du, 59. 
-pal, 720. 
-senestre, 720. 
-triangulaire, 720. 
, -route, 720. 
CHEMILLE, arms, 72. 
CHENEY, badge, 753. 
CHENOISE, Marquises de, arms, 358. 

,, ,, supporters, 303. 

CHEPSTOW, arms, 364. 
CHEPY, Marquises of, arms, 128. 
Chequy, 99, 680. 
CHERINS, arms, 201. 
Cherries, 341. 
Cherub, 201. 
Cherubins, 720. 
CHERUEL, Dictionnaire Historique des 

Institutions, etc., de la France, 269. 
CHESNE, DU, arms, 340. 
CHESNEAU, DU, arms, 136. 
Chess pieces as charges, 387. 

,, -rook, 680. 
CHESTER, arms, 460. 

( 777 ) 

CHESTER, Earl of, arms, 341, 342. 
Earldom of, arms, 594. 
CHESTERFIELD, Earls of, arms, 81. 
CHETTLES, arms, 281. 
CHETWODE, arms, 109 ; PL IX., fig. 12, 

p. 108. 
Cheval-marine, 703. 

trap, 352, 680. 
CHEVALERIE, arms, 237. 
Chevaliers-bacheliers, (!52. 
Chevaliers-banneret, 57, 652. 
Cherele, 682, 720. 
CHEVERELL, arms, 223. 
Cheveron, The, 135. 
Cheville, 720. 
Chevron, 78 ; Fig. 41, p. 116 ; 135, 680, 720 ; 

PL XIII., fig. 1, p. 136. 
,, braced or interlaced, 140. 
,, broken orfracted, 138. 
,, Charges on a, PI. XIII. , fig. 3, p. 


checquy, PL XIII., fig. 2, p. 136. 
coticed, 140; PL XIII., fig. 8, p. 


,, Divise. en, 720. 
,, ecime, 138; PL XIII., fig. 9, p. 


,, En, 7.20. 
,, failli, 139. 

,, fracted, PL XIII., fig. 10, p. 136. 
Parted per, 81 ; Fig. 34, p. 77. 
Per, 680 ; PL V., fig. 8, p. 80. 
ploye, PL XIII., fig. 4, p. 136. 
reversed, PL XIII., fig. 5, p. 136. 
rompu, 139; PL XIII., fig. 11, p. 


Varieties of, 137. 
Chevronel, 139, 680; PL XIIL, fig. 7, p. 


Chevronne, 98, 680, 720. 
Chevronny, 98, 680 ; PL VII., fig. 5, p. 90. 
Chevrons interlaced, PL XIII., fig. 12, p. 

CHEYNE, arms, 163. 

,, of Duffus, arms, 520. 
REGINALD, arms, 413. 
CHIAVARO, arms, 711. 
CHICHESTER, Earls of, badge, 377. 
,, See of, arms, 194. 

Bishop of, arms, 152. 

Chicot, 704, 720, 727, 730. 
CHIDIOK, Sir JOHN, arms, 176. 
Ch ef, 116, 117, 680 ; PL X., fig. 1, p. 118. 
arched, PL X., fig. 5, p. 118. 
Dexter, 59. 
Ghibbeline, 119. 
Guelphic, 119. 

indented, PL X., fig. 2, p. 118. 
Middle, 59. 
Napoleonic Ducal, PL X., fig. 3, p. 

pale, 120. 
,, sinister, 59. 

,, used as an augmentation, 119. 
Chien-de-mer, 703. 

CHIEVRES, Seigneur de, arms, 449. 
Gentilitia Eijuitum Ordinis Velleris 
Aurei, 282, 440, 449, 502, 573, 574. 
CHILDERIC, supposed tomb of, 281. 
Chimara, 294, 680, 720. 
CHIMAY, ANTOINE DE, arms, 450. 

CH1MAY, CHARLES, Prince of, arms, 

,, Counts and Princes of, arms, 

127, 348, 449. 

,, PHILIPPE DE, arms, 450. 
Chimere, 680, 720. 
CHINA, Imperial Dragon of, 292. 
Chiodo, 11 Sacro, 617. 
CHIPPENDALE, arms, 222. 
CHISHOLM, arms, 520. 
CHIVALETS, arms, 237. 
CHIVERS, arms, 167. 
CHOISEUL, Dues de, arms, 434. 

PRASLIN, arms, 
CHOLMELEY, arms, 559, 565. 

Sir RICHARD, 558. 
Sir ROGER, arms, 558. 
CHOLMONDELEY, arms, 342, 349 ; PL 
XXXI., fig. 4, p. 

badge, 753. 

,, Marquises, 342. 

CHORINSKI, mantling, 616. 
Choucas, 680, 720. 
Chouelte, 720. 
Chough, Cornish, 264, 680; PL XXVI., fig. 

1, p. 266. 

CHRIST, arms ascribed to, 20. 
Christian Names, 9. 

crown, 620. 
V., King of DENMARK, 

crown, 620. 
,, definition of Esquire, 8. 

Notes to Btac/cstone, 8. 
DENLOVE, natural son of, 581. 

,, Jurisprudentia Heroica, 551, 


Chronicon Turonensc, 39, 40. 
Chronicum Selgicum Magnum, 41. 

to Cor., 9. 
CHUR, arms, 373; PL XLV., fig. 3, p. 

Church banner, 658. 

,, candlestick as a charge, 372. 
CHUTE, arms, 347. 
CIBO, ALBERIC, arms and augmentation, 


,, arms, 537. 
CIBRARIO, Sigilli de' Principi de Savoia, 

453, 460, 467, 628, 629. 
CIMANI, arms, 752. 
Cimier, 720, 724. 
CINIorCINTI, arms, 61. 
CINQUE PORTS, arms, 467; PL 

XXXVIII., fig. 6, p. 463. 
Cinque-foil, 680, 322. 

,, as a badge, 753. 
Cinfjuefoils, PL XXX., fig. 1, p. 332. 
CINTI, or CINI, arm*, 61. 
Cintre, 720. 
CIOLEK, arms, 234. 
CIOLI, arms, 136. 
CIPRIANI, arms, 275. 
CIRCASSIA, arms, 666. 
Circular-bordure, 680. 

DE, arms, 167. 
CISTERNA, Princes DELLA, arms, 293. 

( 778 ) 

Cities as charges, 363. 

CITTANOVA, Dukes de, supporters, 635. 

Civic-crown, 680. 


DEUIL, arms, 221. 
CLAIRAUNAY, arms, 297. 
Claire voies, 97, 720. 

VILLE, armt, 160. 

CLANCARTY, Earl of, supporters, 648. 
.CLANRANALD, Captain of, arms, 512. 
CLAPS, arms, 811. 
CLARE, arms, 146, 457, 465, 467 ; PI. 

XIII., fig. 7, p. 136. 
Slack bull of, 662. 
Earl of GLOUCESTER, badge, 


Earls of GLOUCESTER, 139, 457. 
ELIZABETH DE, seal, 456. 
CESTER, 457. 

Lords of GLAMORGAN, 386. 
MARGARET DE, arms, 465. 
Sir THOMAS DE, 467. 
CLARENCE, arms, 565. 
,, badge, 753. 

,, Duke of, arms and label, 


,, GEORGE, Duke of, mant- 

ling, 613. 
Sir JOHN DE, illegitimate, 

arms, 556. 

THOMAS, Duke of, 556. 
of, label, 422 ; Fig. 81, p. 421. 
CLARENCEUX, King of Arms, arms, 526. 
CLARENDON, Earl of, arms, 183, 639. 

,, ,, augmentation, 545. 

Sir ROGER DE, illegiti- 
mate, arms, 555. 
Clarichord, 680. 
Clarichords as charges, 386. 
Claricorde, 702, 720. 
Clarine, 235, 678, 720. 
Clarion, as a charge, 386. 

or Clarichord, 680; PI. XXXIII., 
fig. 11, p. 376. 
CLARKE, arms, 122. 
CLAVER, arms, 113. 
CLAYHILLS of Invergowrie, arms, 61. 
Clechee, 720. 
CLELAND, arms, 237 ; PI. XXIV., fig. 7, 

p. 236. 

CLEMENT IV., Pope, arms, 43. 
CLEMENT, Marechal de France, arms, 


CLERAMBAULT, arms, 94. 
CLERK, arms, 529. 

,, Sir JOHN, augmentation, 529. 
CLERMONT, Lord, supporter, 232. 

,, NESLE, arms, 270. 

CLEVE, Dukes of, arms, 472. 
CLEVELAND, Dukes of, supporters, 288. 
CLEVES, ADOLPH of, seal, 485. 
,, ANNE of, 530. 
,, arms, 485. 
,, Dukes of, onus, 354. 

,, arms, 428, 554. 

,, badge, 753. 

,, Fair Rosamond, 324, 588. 

MAUD, daughter of Lord. 

I CLIFFORD, MAUD, daughter of 

THOMAS, Lord, 588. 
CLINTON, badge, 753. 

Duke of NEWCASTLE, arms, 

,, ,, sup- 

porters, 605. 

,, Lord, supporters, 606. 
,, of Baddesley, arms, 333. 

heiress of, 605. 
CLISSON, DE, arm*, 709. 

OLIVIER DE, seal and shield 

of, 56. 

,, ,, supporter, 632. 

CLITE, JEAN DE LA, Seigneur de COM- 

MINES, arms, 440. 
CLOCK, arms, 374. 

arms, 341. 
CLOOS, NICHOLAS, Grant of Nobility 

to, 5. 

CLOOT, arms, 191. 
Clos, 680. 
Close, 680. 

applied to Falcon, 261. 
,, Moll 1252, 20P. 
Closet, The, 126, 680. 
Clouds, 310. 
Clout-, 696, 720. 
Clones, 97. 

Clous de la pension, 698, 720. 
CLOVIS, King of the Franks, 281, 326, 


the same as LOUIS, 327. 
CLUN, arms, 118. 
CLUNY, arms, 711. 
CLUSEAU, DE, arms, 167; PI. XVIII. , 

fig. 4, p. 190. 
CLUTINCK, arms, 428. 
GLUTTON, arms, PI. XIII., fig. 8, p. 136. 

seal, 554. 
Coats, Parted, 74. 
COBHAM, arms, 136, 412. 

,, Viscount, arms, 273. 

Cockatrice, 293, 680 ; PI. XXVII., fig. 9, p. 

COCKBURN, arms, 265. 

JOHN, second son of Sir 

, , of Orm iston, fess, 430. 

Cock-flak, The, 299. 
Cocks, 265 ; PI. XXVI., fig. 3, p. 266. 
COCKS, Earl SOMERS, arms, 234. 
COCQ, LE, Counts de HUMBEKE, arms, 


CODEVE, Barons, augmentation, 543. 
COELEN, arms, 343. 
COELHO, NICOLAO, arms, 238. 
COETIVY, Princes de MORTAGNE, arms, 

COETMEN, arms, 460, 463. 

,, Dame de, seal; 460, 463. 

COETQUEN, Marquises de, arms, 95. 
Cveur, En, 721. 
CCEURET, Marquis de NESLE, arms, 


COEURVERT, arms, 202. 
Cohort Ensigns, Figs. 5 and 6, p. 19. 
COIGNE, arms, 68. 

( 779 ) 

COING, arms, 222. 

Coins, Heraldic Devices on, 24, 44. 

CO1SLIN, Dues de, arms, 128. 

COISPEL, arms, 279. 

COKAYNE, arms, 2(55 ; PI. XXVI., fig. 3, 

p. 266. 

,, Complete Peerage, 562. 

COKE, Sir EDWARD, on Nobility, 4. 
COKER, arms, 392. 

de, arms, 275. 
Marquis de SEIGNELAY, 

arms, 275. 

,, supporter, 297. 
COLE, arms, 277. 
COLIGNI, arms, 716. 
COLIGNO, ANSELMO, Count de, arms, 


arms, 257. 

COLLALTO, Princes of, arms, 81. 
Collar of SS, 597. 

of Suns and Roses, 597. 
Collared, 680. 
Collars, Livery, 597. 
College of Arms, 287, 646. 

MS., 589, 598. 

COLLEONI, Counts, arms, 203. 
COLLET, arms, 150. 
Collete, 680, 689, 721, 733, 737. 
COLLINS'S Peerage, 562. 
COLLONGUE, arms, 68. 
COLOGNE, arms, 283. 

,, Prince-Archbishops, Electors 

of, arms, 141. 
COLOMBIER, arms, 136. 
COLOMBIERE, DE LA, arms, 88. 

,, ,, La Science Hero'i- 

que, 2, 23, 190. 
Colonia Nemausensis, 277. 
COLONNA, arms, 302, 451 ; PI. XXXII., 

fig. 7, p. 358. 

,, Princes, 16. 

etc., arms, 363. 
Colonnes, 721. 
Colour on Colour, etc., 102. 
Colours represented by lines, etc., 64. 
,, ,, planets and precious 

stones, 65. 

,, used in Heraldry, 60. 
COLQUHOUN, arms, 148. 
COLSTON, arms, 270. 
COLT, arms, 237. 
Colt, The, 237. 

Columbine or Amaranth colour, 61. 
COLUMBUS, arms and augmentation, 
312, 547; PI. XXXIX., fig. 1, p. 

Column, PI. XXXII., fig. 7, p. 358. 
Columns, 363; PI. XXXII. , fig. 8, p. 

COL VILE, arms, PI. XIV., fig. 6, p. 


of Duffield, label, 415. 
COLVILLE, arms, 157, 159. 

of Ochiltree, arms, 159. 

Combatant, 220, 680. 
Combats, Armorial. 33. 
COMBAUT, DE, Ducsde COISLLN, anus 


Comble, 721. 
COMBOURG, Counts, arms 95. 

Combs us charges, 391. 

Comet, The, 310. 

Cometc, 705, 721. 

Comete, 728. 

COM INS, arms, 342. 

COMMENCES, Counts of, arms, 154. 

seal of, Count BER- 
NARD V., 154. 


Commonwealth, motto of, 664. 
COMNENA, ANNA, biography of her 

father, 26. 

COMNENI, arms, 374. 
COMPAGNI, arms, 130. 
Compartment, 680. 
Compartments, 641. 
Complement, 680. 
Compon, 721. 
Compone, 680, 721. 
Company, 680. 
COMPTON, 6rt>>, 753. 

,, of Catton, arms, 226. 

COMYN, amis, 631. 

Earl of BUCHAN, arms, 342. 
CON AN, Count of BRETAGNE, 30. 
Conclave, Master of the, Italy, mark of 

office, 645. 

CONCORDIA, Duchy of, arms, 509. 
CONDE DE COERNEY, arms, 376. 
,, Princes de, arms, 571. 

bend, 429. 

CONGALTOX, arms and label, 420. 
CONGREVE, arms, 348; PI. XXXI., 

fig. 3, p. 346. 

CONIGAN, Barons de ROZ, arms, 151. 

,, Earl of 

CAMBRIDGE, badge of, 324. 
Conjoined, 681. 

,, in lure, 260, 681. 

ARTHUR, Duke of, label, 
423 ; Fig. 82, p. 421. 

CONN1SBURGH, seals and arms of GIL- 
BERT and WILLIAM, 50. 
Confjue-marine, 721, 722. 

EMPIRE, crown, 621. 
,, II., seal of the Emperor, 328. 
CONROY, Counts of, arms, oSl. 
CONS I DINE, arms, 175. 
Constable, Grand, French, mark of office, 


CONSTABLE, arms, 93. 

Constellations, 309. 
CONTARINI, arms, 1?2. 
CONTI, Princes de, bend, 429. 
Contoise, 613. 

Contournc, 220, 681, 683, 721, 745. 
Contre, 717. 
Contre, 739. 

-appaume, 721. 
-bande, 721. 
baii-e, 721. 
-chevronne, 721. 
-componne, 721. 
ecartde, 722. 
-fasce, 721. 
-flambant, 722. 
-hermine, 722. 
-2?aJe, 721. 

Contre-passant, 722. 
-ratr, 681, 722. 
,, -mire, 722. 
CONTRIZAKIS, arms, 66. 
CONYERS, arms, 376. 
Cooking-pot as a charge, 275, 389. 
COOLE, arms, 343. 

DE, arms, 343. 
COOLMAN, amis, 343. 
COPE, arms, PI. XXX., fig. 4, p. 332. 

WILLIAM, arms, 325. 
Coped, 88. 
Coquerelles, 722. 
Coquillaye, 722. 
Coquille, 6S6, 703, 722. 
Cor de eAasse, 691, 722. 
CORBET, seate and arm* of ROBERT, 
THOMAS, amis, 264. 
CORBOLI, arms, 264. 
Corde, 704, 722. 
Corded, 681. 
Cordetiere, 645, 722. 
CORDOVA, arm*, 128, 473, 507. 

,, Dukes of SESA, arms, 473. 

,, Marquises of PRIEGO, a.rms, 

,, Counts de FERIA, arms, 


,, Counts of FIGUEROA, arms, 
507; PI. XLL, fig. 5, p. 

,, supporters, 644. 
CORKE, arms, 222; PL XXIL, fig. 9, 

p. 222. 

Cormoran, 722. 
CORNAIS, DES, arms, 181. 
CORNEILLAN, Counts de, arms, 264. 
CORNEILLE, arms, 106, 264. 
Comes, 722. 
CORNET, arms, 3S6. 
Cornflowers, 337. 
Comhill Magazine, 246. 
Corniere, 722. 
Cornish chough, 681. 


CORNWALL, Earl of, arms, 257; PI. 
XVII., fig. 1, 
p. 172. 
seal, 465. 
EDMUND, Duke of, arms 

on Eagle, 630. 
JOHN of Eltham, Earl of, 

brisure, 438. 

RICHARD, Earl of, arms, 
172, 465 ; firms on Eagle, 
630 ; seal of, 245. 

,, shield of the Duchy of, 

CORNWALLIS, arm*, 264; PI. VIII., 

fig. 12, p. 100. 

,, Marquesses of, arms, 114. 

Coronel or Cronel, 682. 
Coronet, Ducal, PI. L., fig. 21, p. 623. 
Coronet of Baron, PI. L., fig. 36, p. 623. 
,, Baron of Belgium, PI. L., fig. 9, 

p. 623. 
,, Baron of France, PI. L., fig. 25, 

p. 623. 
,, Baron of Germany, PI. L., fig. 

31, p. 623. 

,, Count of France, PI. L., fig. 23, 
p. 623. 

Coronet of Count of Germany, PI. L., fig. 

30, p. 623. 
Dope of Venice, PL L., fig. 10, p. 


Sari, PI. L., fig. 34, p. 623. 
Fils de France, PI. L., fig. 19, 

p. 623. 
,, Grandsons of Sovereigns, PI. L., 

fig. 7, p. 623. 
Marquis, PI. L., figs. 27, 32, and 

33, p. 623. 
Marquis of France, PI. L., fig. 

22, p. 623. 
,, Noble of Germany, PI. L., fig. 28, 

p. 623. 

Nobles, PI. L., fig. 12, p. 623. 
,, President, PI. L., fig. 26, p. 


,, Prince of France, PL L., fig. 20, 
. P- " 

Princesses, PI. L., fig. 6, p. 623. 
p. 623. 

Sons of Sovereigns, PI. L., fig. 5, 

,, Vidame, PI. L., fig. 11, p. 623. 

,, Viscount, PI. L., fig. 35, p. 

,, Viscount of France, PI. L., fig. 
24, p. 623. 

,, Viscounts of Netherlands, PI. L., 

fig. 8, p. H23. 

Coronets, 617, 623 ; PL L., p. 623. 
,, as charges, 379. 
,. attempt to restrict use of, 637. 
Corpus Christi College, Oxford, arms, 


CORRA.RO, arms, 89, 182. 
CORRER, amis, 182. 
Cars, 232, 722. 
CORSANT, arms, 163. 
CORSBY, arms, 141. 
CORSICA, arm*, 200. 
CORTEZ, HERMAN, arms and augmenta- 
tion, 312, 363, 547. 
CORTI arm*, 202. 
CORUNA, Counts of, arms, 506. 
COSSE, Due de BRISSAC, arms, 731. 
COSSENTANIA, Count of, arms, 639. 
COSSINGTON, arms, 324. 
COSSO, wreath, 614. 
COSTA, DA, arms, 206. 
COSTANZO, arms, 206. 
COSTE, DE LA, arms, 376. 

DU VIVIER, DE LA, a?-m, 


COTG RAVE'S Roll, 404. 
Cotice, 131, 132, 681. 
,, en barre, 722. 
,, Varieties of, 133. 
Cotice, 96, 681, 722. 
,, en barre, 723. 
Coticed, 128, 681. 
COTONER, arms, 338. 



Cotojtf, 681, 723. 
COTTE BLANCHE, arms, 392. 
COTTERS, arms, 277. 
Cottes as charges, 392. 
Cotton plant, 338. 
Cottonian MS., 556. 
Couard, 682, 723. 
Couchant, 217, 232, 681. 
Couche, 138, 600, 634, 681, 693, 723, 733. 
COUCI, arms, PI. VII., fig. 2, p. 90. 

COUCY. arms, 48, 70, 92. 

ENGUERRAN, DE, seal and 

shield of, 56. 

,, motto, 92. 
Queen MARIE DE, 92. 
seal, 48. 

supporters, 628. 

arms, 361. 
COUE, arms, 133. 
Couleuvre, Une, 275, 723. 
Coulisse, 723, 734. 
Count, coronet of a, 624. 
,, Senator of the French Empire, 

badge, 276. 

Counter-changed, 109, 681. 
,, -company, 681. 
,, -embattled, 681. 
-embou-ed, 681. 
-^ory, 681. 
-possanf, 220, 681; PI. XXII., 

fig. 2, p. 222. 
,, -rampant, 220. 
,, -saliant, 681. 
,, -trippant, 681. 
,, -tripping, 681. 
Counterpotent, PI. IV., fig. 12, p. 62. 
Countervail-, 681 ; PI. IV., fig. 8, p. 62. 
ftwpe, 79, 123, 681, 687, 723, 728. 

,, alternativement, 723. 
Coupeau, 723. 
Ctotpeaw.*:, 311. 
Couped, 681. 

COUPER, Lord, supporters, 298. 
Couple-close, 140, 682. 
-de-chiens, 723. 
Couples, 723. 
CowraH, 232, 682, 723. 
Courbe, 682, 685, 723. 
COURCELLES, arms, 81. 

supporter, 630. 
COURCY, DE, 17. 

,, Barons of Kingsale. arms, 

COURLAND, Duke of, arms, 215, 390. 
Couronne, 682, 723. 
COURRAN, anus, 185. 

brisure, 451. 
COURTENAY, arms, PL XIX., fig. 3, 

p. 192. 
,, label, 415. 

ROBERT DE, label, 417. 
Sir HUGH, lambrequin. 


WILLIAM, Archbishop 
of CANTERBURY, a?-ms, 437. 
COURTENEY, arms, 192. 
badge, 753. 

Earl of DEVON, badge, 

Courtine, 723. 

COURVOL, Marquises de, arms, 159. 

Counts, arms, 205. 
COUSTIN, 1-2. 
Cousu, 723. 
Convert, 723. 

COVERDALE, arms, 81. 
Coward, 682. 
COWDREY, arms, 112. 
COWE, arms, 133. 

COWELL, arms, 684. 
Coios, 234. 

,, as supporters, 636. 
CRAB of Robslaw, arms, 273. 
Crabs, 273. 

CRACOW, arms, 359, 504. 
CRAIGMYLE, amis, 51. 
Crampet as a badge, 753. 
Crampette, 682. 
Crampon, 723. 
Cramponne, 724. 
CVamp0ns, 682. 
Crancelin, 131, 682, 724. 
tfrawe, The, 263. 
CRANE, arms, 80. 
CRANSTOUN, Lords, arms, 263. 
CRAON, arms, 100, 434, 449. 

,, MARIE DE, arms, 449. 
CRAUFURD of Cartsburn, bordure, 569. 
CRAUFURD'S Peerage, 83. 
Craupaud," Sobriquet of " Johnnie, 278. 
CRAVEN, Earls of, amis, 163. 
Lord of, 51. 
,, arms, 406. 

DAVID, Earl of, seal, 

,, Earls of, arms, 179, 257, 


,, Lord, crest, 605. 

,, Lordship of, arms, 518. 

REGINALD, supporters, 

,, seal and or??is of Sir DAVID 

LINDSAY, Lord of, 51. 
Sir GREGAN, 233. 

CRAWFURD, arms, 124, 232. 
CRAYEN, arms, 264. 
Crayfish, 273. 

CRAYN, Duchy of, arms, 256. 
CRECY, Battle of, 593. 
Cremailliere as a charge, 390, 724. 
Creneaux, 678, 724. 
Crenele, 124, 724. 

line, 76. 
Crenelle, 682, 685. 
Crequier, 318, 724; PI. XXIX., fig. 4, p. 

CREQUY, arms, 318 ; PI. XXIX., fig. 4, 

p. 318. 

,, Dues de, arms, 318. 
Crescent and Star as a badge, 587. 
,, as a badge, 584. 

Cross and, PL XXVIII., fig. 4, p. 


,, -decrescent, 307. 
,, for second son, 444. 
,, -increscent, 306. 
Crescents, PI. XXVI II., fig. 2, p. 308. 
CRESPIN, arms, 206. 
CRESSY, arms, 337. 

Battle of, 591. 

LOUIS DE, Comte de FLAN- 

DRE, 752. 
Count of NEVERS, 
Crest, 599. 

-coronet, 599, 614, 682. 
Crested, 682. 

CRESTIENNOT, arms, 340. 
Crests, PI. XLIX., p. 607. 
,, Derivation of early, 605. 
,, German use of, 608. 


Crests, Materials of which they were made, 


,, Eight of ecclesiastics to use, 604. 
,, Right of women to use, (504. 
CrSte, 682, 724. 
Crete, 724. 
CRETIEXTE, First four Barons of the, 

ORE VANT, Marquis d'HUMIERES, arms, 

CREVECCEUR, arms, 139. 



CREWES, arms, 213. 
Cri-de-guerre, 724. 

CRICHTON of Frendraught, arms, 212. 
Crickets, 284. 
Cricklade Church, 585. 
Crime, 682, 724. 
Crined, 682. 
CRISPIN, arms, 206. 
CROATIA, Kingdom, arms, 494, 498. 
Croc, 724. 
Crochet, 724. 
Crocodile, The, 273, 277. 
CROELS, arms, 370. 
CROESEN, arms, 382. 

Vicomtes, arms, 382. 
CROFTS, JAMES, arms, 146. 
Croisades, Salle des, 10, 12, 71, 117, 163, 
170, 212, 213, 221, 337, 342, 346, 373, 
393, 418., 724. 
Croisette, 682. 

brisure, 451. 
Croissant, 300, 724. 

,, contourne, 307. 
,, -tourne, 306, 691. 
-verse, 307. 
Croissettes, 724. 
Croix, 682. 
,, bourdonnee, 160. 
En, 724. 
,, Passe en, 724. 
,, perronce, 689. 
CROIX, LA, Due de, CASTRIES, arm*, 


CROMWELL, arms, 214, 4S7. 
,, &ad0e, 754. 

OLIVER, Great Seal, 487. 
RICHARD, Great Seal, 487. 
CROXBERG, arms, 489; PI. XXXIX., 

fig. 4, p. 481. 
,, Counts of, augmentation, 


Counts ZU, anus, 489. 

CroraZ, 682, 705, 731. 
Cronels, 347. 

CRONENBURG, Barons de, arms, 137. 
CRONSFELD, County of, arms, 192. 
CROSBIE, arms, 522. 
Cross, 682 ; PI. XIV., fig. 1, p. 140. 
,, aiguisee, 162 ; Fig:. (50, p. 164. 
ancrte, 158 ; PI. XV., fig. 2, p. 144. 
,, and Crescent, PI. XXVIII., fig. 4, p. 


,, arellane, 162. 

,, botonnee, PL XIV., fig. 11, p. 140. 
,, botonny, 160. 

.'7y, 160. 

,, -Calvary, 152 ; Fig. 49, p. 164. 

Cross, couped, 153. 
,, crosslet-iitchy, 162. 
, crosslets, PL XV., fig. 4, p. 144. 

Jltchee, PL XV., fig. 5, p. 
fleur-de-lisee, 158 ; Fig. 57, p. 164 ; 

PL XIV., fig. 10, p. 140. 
,, jteurette, 158. 
,, flory, PL XIV., fig. 9, p. 140 ; Fig. 

58, p. 164. 

,, ,, or Fleury, 157. 
,, flurty,15S. 
formy, 153. 
,, fourchee, 161. 
,, fourchette, 161. 
,, 'fourchy, Fig. 59, p. 164. 
Greek, 153 ; Fig. 48, p. 164. 
,, gringolee, 161, 276 ; PL XV., fig. 6, 


,, guivre, 161. 
,, hummetty, 153. 
,, Latin, 152. 
,, long, 152. 

,, Maltese, 155 ; Fig. 55, p. 164. 
moline, 158 ; PL XV., fig. 1, p. 144. 
,, ,, for eighth son, 444. 

,, ,, square pierced, PL XIV., 

fig. 6, p. 140. 

voided, PL XV., fig. 3, p. 144. 
,, of Calatrava, 158. 
,, ,, Jerusalem, 156. 
,, ,, Lorraine, 152 ; Fig. 52, p. 164. 
,, the Passion, 151, 152; Fig. 47, 

p. 164. 
Toulouse, 161; PL XV., fig. 7, 

p. 144. 

,, or crossed crosslet, 162. 
,, patee checquy, PL XIV., fig. 5, p. 140. 
,, ,, formee, 153. 
,, patonce, 157 ; Fig. 56, p. 164. 

voided, PL XIV., fig. 8, p. 

,, patriarchal, 152 ; Fig. 50, p. 164. 
,, patty, 153 ; Fig. 53, p. 164. 

,, .litchy, 155 ; Fig. 54, p. 164. 
pommetty, 160. 
potent, 156 ; fig. 51, p. 164. 
fitchy, 156. 

,, -quadrate, 700; PL XIV., 
fig. 7, p. 140. 
,, quarter pierced, PL XIV., fig. 3, 

p. 140. 

,, raguly, PL XIV., fig. 2, p. 140. 
,, recercellee, 160. 
,, retranchee, 162. 

,, and pommettee, PL XIV., 
fig. 12, p. 140. 
,, sarcelly, 160. 
tau, 161, Fig. 61, p. 164. 
,, The, 116, 141, 151. 
,, urdce, 162. 
,, Varieties of, 142. 
,, Victoria, 155. 

,, u-ary raided, PL XIV., fig, 4, p. 140. 
Crosse, 682, 704. 
Ci-osslet, 682. 
Crosslets, 1(52. 
CROSSLEY, arms, 162. 
CROUSXILHOX, arms, 156. 
CROVILLE, firms, 142. 
Crow, The, 264. 

Croicn and Bush as a badge, 59. r . 
,, closed, 620. 

Crown, Dauphin's, PL L., fig. IS, p. 623. 
,, Eastern, PL L., fig. 13, p. 623. 
,, Eastern or antique as a charge, 379. 
Imperial, PI. L., fig. 1, p. (523. 
,, King of France's, PI. L., fig. 17, p. 


Mural, PI. L., fig. 16, p. 623. 
Naval, PL L., fig. 15, p. 623. 

of CHARLEMAGNE, as a charge, 


of Italy, Cross of the Order of, 244. 
,, Order of the, in Prussia, 546. 
Prince of Holy Roman Empire's, 

PI. L., fig. 29, p. 623. 
Prince of Wales', PI. L., fig. 3, p. 


,, Royal, PI. L., figs. 2 and 4, p. 623. 
,, Royal, as a charge, 380. 

Vallary, PI. L., fig. 14, p. 623. 
Crowned, 682. 
Crou-ns, 617 ; PI. L., p. 623. 

Antique, PL XXXIII., fig. 5, 

p. 376. 
,, as charges, 379. 

Ducal, PL XXXIII., fig. 4, 

p. 376. 

,, of Thorns, 337. 
,, Type of Foreign Royal, 619. 
CROY, ADRIAN DE, arms, 450. 
ANTOINE DE, arms, 449. 

Bishop JACQUES DE, augmenta- 
tion, 537. 

Comtes de CHIMAY, arms, 127. 
FERRY DE, Seigneur de ROUX, 

arms, 450. 

Duke of SORIA, etc., ami*, 449. 
JEAN DE, arms of, 11, 449. 
,, Marquises d'ARSCHOT, arms, 

,, Princes de, arms, 127. 

,, de CHIMAY, arms, 127, 

Crazier as a charge, 371, 682. 

arms, 575 ; PL XL VII., fig. 6, p. 573. 
CRULLS, arms, 276. 
Crusade, Second, 31. 

Third, 32, 36. 
Crusile, 682. 

Crusily or Crussilv, 112, 682. 
CRUSSOL, Due d'USEZ, arms, 94. 
CRUYCKENBERG, Counts de, arms, 136. 
Cubit arm, 204, 682. 
Cucumbers, 344. 

arms, 440. 

Culterin as charges, 366. 
CUMANIA, arms, 501. 
CUMBERLAND, haiipe, 753, 754. 

Duke of, label, 422. 

CUMYN of Altyre, THOMAS, seal, 435. 
CUNNINGHAM, arms, 150; PL XVI., 

fig. 12, p. 146. 

,, arms in Lyon Office 

Register, 400. 
Cups as charges, 381. 

covered, PI. XXXIII., fig. 7, p. 376. 
Curved, 682. 
CUSA, Cardinal NICOLAS DE, arms, 


Cushions as charges, 377 ; PL XXXIII., 
fig. 9, p. 376. 

CUSTANCE, arms, 185. 
CUSTINE, Marquises de, arms, 132. 
Ct/clamor, 724. 
Cymbals as charges, 383. 

C'YNAN, MERGETH AP, arms, 199. 

CYPRUS, ANNE of, seal, 467. 

,, amis, 467. 

King of, 644. 

seal, 468. 

CZERNABOR, arms, 491. 
CZERNIN, Counts, augmentation, 540. 
CZERWNIA, arms, 66. 

DABANCASA, arms, 475. 


DACHS, arms, 239. 

DACHSBERG, Counts von, arms, 239. 

DACRE, arms, 273, 641 ; PL XXVI., fig. 

12, p. 266. 
,, knot, 585. 
,, Lord, badge, 753. 

of GILSLAND, badge of Lord, 


,, of the North, badge and arms of, 
Lord, 585. 


Sir EDMOND, arms, 407. 
THOMAS, second Lord, tomb, 

DADVISARDS, Marquises de TALAI- 

RAN, arms, 338. 
DAGSBURG, Counts, a?-ms, 744. 
,, label, 424. 

Daim, 724. 
DAISIE, arms, 336. 
Daisy, The. 336. 
DALBIAC', amis, 277. 


DALHOUSIE, Earls of, arms, 123, 147. 
DALINGRIUGE, arms, 142. 
D ALL A WAY, Rev. JAMES, Inquiry into 

the Origin and Progress of Heraldry in 

England, 24. 

DALLINGTON, arms, 217. 
DALMATIA, arms, 494. 

,, Kingdom, arms, 498. 

Dalmatique, 724. 
DALRYMPLE, anus; PL XV., fig. 9. p. 

DALZELL, PL XX., fig. 1, p. 198. 

,, of Bins, supporters, 643. 

DALZIEL, arms, 197. 
DAM, Vicomtes von, arms, 362. 
DAMAS, 12. 
DAMIGLIA, arms, 95. 

supporters, 633. 

DAMPIERRE, DE, arms, 411. 
DAN BY, a?-ms, 347. 
Dancette, 682. 
Dancetty line, 76 ; Fig. 23, p. 75. 

,, or Dancette, 6S2. 
Danche, 682, 691. 

line, 76. 
DANE, arms, 155. 

of, arms, 5S1. 
-SAMSOE, Counts of, 

arms, 581. 

,, supporters, 231. 

DANIEL, Book of, 196. 

DANIEL in Heraldry, 196. 
DANIELI, arms, 196. 
DANIELS, arms, 196. 
Danish Regalia, 620. 


,, Cross of the Order of the, 

510, 666. 
Danse, 683. 
DANTE ALIGHIERI, arms, 126. 

,, Divina Commedia; I' Inferno, 299. 
,, quoted, 275. 
Danube River, 498. 
D'ARCY, arms, 323. 


,, Lord of, arms, 476, 521. 

DARTMOUTH, EARL of, arms, 233. 

,, ,, supporters, 648. 

DARWIN, arms, 273. 
DASBOURG, arms, 165. 
DAUBENEY, arms, 124. 
DAUBENY, achievement, Fig. 92, p. 600. 
arms, 349, 413, 438. 

badge, 754. 


arms, 438. 

,, mantling, 613. 

DAUBERNOUN, Sir JOHN, arms and 

pennon, 650. 
DAUBIGNY, arms, 124. 
DAUN, Counts of, arms, 96. 
DAUNEY, arms, 292 ; PI. XXVII. fig. 7, 

p. 288. 

DAUNT, arms, 352. 
DAUPHIN, arms of the, 424. 
,, coronet of the, 269. 

,, cron:n of the, 620. 

The, 269, 725. 

,, ,, supporters, 636. 

DAUPHINE, arms, 424, 429, 463, 572, 632, 


shield of, 629. 
DAVID, 12. 

,, arms, 21, 384. 

I., King of Scotland, 233. 
,, II., 34, 442, 


DAWRE, arms, 281. 
DAWSON, arms, 155. 
DAWTREY, arms, 133. 
DE CAUMONT, Abecedaire d'Archeologie, 


De, definition of term, 8. 
,, Use of term, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 

17, IS. 

De Vun a I'autre, 681, 725. 
en I'autre, 681, 725. 
DEATH, 17. 
Debruised, 683. 

Barons, arms, 320. 
Decapitc, 725, 730. 
Decked, 683. 

DECKEN, Counts ran der, arms, 390. 
Decrescent, 683. 

and Increscent, PI. XX VIII. , 
tig. 3, p. 308. 
DEDNAM, arms, 167. 
DEEGHBROODT, arms, 314. 
Defaillant, 725. 
Defamed, 683. 
Defendu, 227, 706, 725. 

Defenses, 227, 725. 
Degouttant, 684, 725. 
Degraded, 683. 
Degrees, 683. 

DEICHSLERS, arms, 150. 
DEISIE, arms, 336. 
Dejected, 683. 
Dejoint, 725. 

DELAFIELD, arms, 342. 
DELAHAY, ar/its, 146. 

,, arms, 132. 

,, Barons, arms, 342. 

Lords, supporters, 288. 
DELAWARR, badge, 753. 

Earls of, arms, 124. 

,, ,, supporters, 294. 

Lords, 17. 

DELBENE, arms, 332, 716. 
DELFT, Oude Kerk at, 645. 

arms, 319. 

LAUME, arms and augmentation, 541. 
DELMENHORST, arms, 510, 666. 
Delve, The, 186, 187, 683. 
Demanche, 725. 

DEMAY, 631, 634, 650, 651 ; PI. XXXIV., 
fig. 1, p. 388; PI. XXXV., 
fig. 2, p. 415. 

,, Le Costiyne, d'apres les Sceaux, 
37, 47, 48, 49, 50, 54, 56, 57, 58, 208, 
254, 303, 328, 356, 369, 402, 635. 
Demembered, 683. 
Demembre, 683, 725. 


Demi, 683. 
-lion, 220. 
,, -ramure, 677, 691, 725. 
-vol, 260, 725. 
DEMMIN, Weapons of War, 46. 
Denche, 725, 729. 
,, line, 76. 
Denrhure, 725. 
DENHAM, arms, 191. 
,, shield, 643. 
DENIS, arms, 202. 
DENMARK, 379. 

arms, 113, 272, 666; PI. 

MIL, fig. 9, p. 100. 
,, Ensign of Prince of, 208. 

,, Kings of, using escucheon en 

surtout, 487. 

,, MARGARET of, arms, 476. 

Marks of illegitimacy in, 


,, motto of, 666. 

,, Royal Arms of, 510. 

,, Royal House of, 581. 

Portrait of MARGARET of, 


,, supporters of, 666. 

DENNIS, arms, 226. 
DENNISTON, arms, 442. 
DENNISTOUN, arms, 130. 
Dente, 725. 
Dentele, 691, 725. 

,, line, 76. 
DENYS, arms, 226. 

Depaulis Collection, 333. 

Depouilie, 725. 

DERBY, arms of town, 739. 


MOILLE, Countess of, 258. 
Earl of, 324. 

,, Earls of, arms, 71, 207, 356. 
FERRERS, Earls of, 52. 

HENRY, Earl of, seal, PI. 
XXXV., fig. 4, p. 415. 

,, standard of Earl of, 558. 
BERING, Essay by Sir EDWARD, 397. 
DERNBACH, Counts of, arms, 202. 


arms, 409. 

DERVAL, Barons, arms, 126. 
DERX, arms, 231. 
Desarme, 725. 

DESPALAU, arms, 363. 
DESPENCER, arms, 412, 426. 

Sir HUGH LE, arms, 412. 

NORWICH, brisure, 437. 
Detriment, 683. 

DEUX FONTS (Zwei-Briicken Bitsche), 

concession of a crest to HAMAN (or 

HANNEMANN), Comte de, 751. 
Developed, 683. 
Devils, 303. 
Devise, 725. 
DEVON, Earls of, arms, 93, 214. 

,, badge, 753. 

HUGH, Earl of , 417. 

,, Dnkes of, arms, 233. 


seal, 460. 
Dexter, 683. 

side of shield, 59. 
Dextre, 725. 

Dextro-chere, 205, 726, 736, 743. 
DEYBROOT, arms, 314. 
DEYN, arms, 160. 
Diademe, 682, 726. 
Diamond, 65, 683. 
Diapered, 683. 
Diapering, 114. 
Diapre, 683, 726. 
DIAZ, arms, 133, 214, 310. 
DIBBITS, a?-ms, 336. 
Dice as charges, 387. 

DICK-CUNYNGHAM, achievement, 610. 
DICKSON, arms, 309. 
DIDIER DE MORTAL, arms, 203. 
DIDRON, Annales, 294. 
DIEK, arms, 231. 
DIENHEIM, arms, 120. 

,, VON, arms, PI. X., fig. 5. p. 

DIETRICH, arms, 156. 

,, DE DIEDEN, Barons, arms, 


DIETZ, arms, 580. 
Dieu et mon droit, 664. 
Diffame, 683, 726. 
Diffamed, 219. 
Difference, 684. 

Difference by a bordure, 437. 

by an augmentation, 448. 

, , by an escucheon en surtout, 448. 

,, by addition of a label, 413. 

,, ,, an Ordinary, 


,, ,, Mark of Cadency, 


,, ,, small charges, 406. 

,, ,, ,, escucheon in 

chief, 427. 

,, by change of the minor charges, 
. 434. 

,, ,, tincture, 403. 

,, ,, the boundary line 

of an ordinary, 432. 

,, by diminishing the number of 
charges, 434. 

,, by quartering, 446. 

,, by the insertion of a Canton, 425. 
Differenced, 683. 
Differencing or Cadency, 396. 

,, Principal modes of 402. 

DIG BY, badge, 754. 

,, Earl of Bristol, arm.?, 331. 
DIGHTON, arms, 237; PI. XXIV., fig. 5, 

p. 236. 
DIJON, arms, 283. 

,, Stained glass of Notre Dame at, 


<ler, arms, 145. 
DILLINGTON, arms, PL XXL, fig. 7, p. 


Dimidiated, 683. 
Dimidiation, 459 ; PI. XXX VIII. , p. 463. 

,, per bend, 477. 

Diminue, 726. 
DIONIS, King of PORTUGAL, 578. 
Disclosed, 683. 

Dismembered or Demembered, 217, 683. 
Displayed, 259, 684, 
Distilling, 684. 
Distinction, 684. 

DITMARSHEN, arms, 510, C66. 
Divise, 119, 126, 726; PL X., fig. 6, p. 118. 
Divise en chevron, 81, 680, 726. 
DJURKLOW, Barons of, arms, 509. 
DOBRZENSKY, Barons, arms, 263. 
DOES, 231. 
Dog, The, 240, 632. 
,, Sea, 300. 
DOGGE, arms, 268. 
DOIGNON, Marquesses GUIOT DE, arms, 


Dolce, 726. 
DOLENGA, arms, 670 ; PI. LVL, fig. 12, 

p. 671. 

,, Counts, arms, 356. 

DOLFINI, arms, 270; PI. XX VI., fig. 8, 

p. 266. 

DOLKS, arms, 272. 
DOLL, a?-ms, 272. 
Doloire, 726. 

DOLOMIEU, Marquis de, arms, 289. 
Dolphin, 268 ; PI. XX VI., fig. 7, p. 266. 

,, as supporter, 632. 
Dolphins, PI. XXVI., fig. 8, p. 266. 

,, as supporters, 636. 
DOMAIGNE, arms, 96. 
Domesday Book, 399. 
Domestic Charges, 389. 

( 786 ) 

DOMEYERS, arms, 391. 
DOMHARD, firms and augmentation, 543. 
Dortiinus mihi adjutor, 666. 
DONATI, arms, 79. 
DONATO family, 16. 
Donjonne, 705, 706, 726, 744. 
DONNE RSPERG, arms, 811. 
DONODEI, arms, 336. 
DONOP, Barons von, arms, 365. 
DONZE, arms, 72. 
DONZEL, arms, 72. 
DOORE, arms, 281. 
DOPF, wreath, 614. 
DORAND, a?-ms, 124. 
DORE, arms, 281. 
DORGELO, arms, 318. 
DORIA, arms, 256. 
family, 16. 
Dormant, 217, 684. 
DORNBERG, Barons von, arms, 87. 

an/is, 78. 

DORNHEIM, arms, 271. 
DORO, arms, 752. 
DOTTENSTEIN, arms, 752. 
Double, 684. 
Double-quatrefoil, 684. 
,, queue, 684. 
,, trecheur, 684. 
,, tressure, 684. 
Doubled, 684. 
DOUBLET, arms, 138. 
Doublets, 726. 
Douglas Book, 518. 
DOUGLAS, 1st Earl of, 202. 

,, ,, supporter, 631. 

,, 1st Marquess of, arms, 518, 

and MAR, WILLIAM, 1st 

Earl of, seal, 514. 

,, JAMES, 2nd Earl of, arms, 


ARCHIBALD, 3rd Earl of, 
seal and 
arms, 514. 
4th Earl of, 
seal and 
arms, 514. 
,, ,, 5th Earl of, 

arms, 515. 
,, ,, 6th Earl of, 

seal, 518. 

,, Duke of 


,, ,, Earl of, seal, 


Lord of GAL- 
LOWAY, seal and arms, 


arms, 178, 202, 405, 514, 515, 

516, 518, 519, 566 ; PI. XX., 
fig. 12, p. 198. 
arms in Lyon Office Register, 

,, bordure, 568. 

Countess JONET, wife of 

WILLIAM, Earl of, 517. 
Earl of Angus, 455, 566. 
,, ,, ,, crest, 294. 

,, badge, 598. 
,, MORAY, 516. 

DOUGLAS, Earls of ORMOND, 516. 

ANGUS, 455, 566. 
,, ,, arms, 178, 515. 

MORTON, arms, 

,, ,, -seals and compart' 

ment, 642. 

JAMES, 7th Earl of, 515. 
,, ,, 9th Earl of , seal and 

arms, 515. 
Earl of AVON- 
DALE, 515. 

,, MARGARET, Countess of, 

,, "Fair Maid 

of Galloway," 515. 
NICOLAS, seal, 632. 
,, of Cavers, arms, 566. 

Dalkeith, anus, 405. 
Drnmlanrig, arms, 566. 

,, bordure, 441. 

Lochleven, arms, 433. 
Lugton, Sir HENRY, seal, 

Nithsdale, Sir WILLIAM, 

arms, 566. 
,, Salamander of, 643. 

Sir GEORGE, arms, 518. 
Sir JAMES, 202. 
,, Stronghold of, 516. 

WILLIAM, 6th Earl of, 515, 


8th Earl of, 515, 

,, ,, ,, seal 

and arms, 516. 

,, Earl of, seal, 632. 

DOUGLASES, "Red" and "Black," 513, 

516. , 

DOULLE, arms, 279. 
DOUMA, arms, 469. 
DOURS, Seigneur de, arms, 411. 
Dove cots, 363. 
Doves, 267. 
Dovetail, 683. 

Dovetailed line, Fig. 26, p. 75, 77. 
DOWNE, Earl of, a?-ms, 290. 
DOWNES, arms, 232 ; PI. XXIII., fig. 10, 

p. 228. 
DOWNSHIRE, Marquis of, supporter, 

DRACHENFELS, Barons von, arms, 


Draco, 291. 
Dracones, 291. 

DRAECK, Barons de, arms, 292. 
DRAGE, aris, 292. 
DRAGHO, arms, 292. 

,, DE, arms, 292. 
DRAGOMANNI, arms, 292. 
Dragon, 290, 684, 726 ; PI. XXVII., fig. 7, 

p. 288. 

as a badge, 753. 
as a crest, 600. 
monstreux, 293, 726. 
Red, as a badge, 595. 
shield encircled by a, 639. 


Dragonne, 726. 
Dragons as supporters, 636. 
Dragon's head, 65. 

,, and tail, 65, 684. 

DRAKE, arms, 292; PI. XXVII., fig. 8, 

p. 288. 

DRAKELOWS, arms, 290. 
DRANDORFF, VON, arms, 469. 
Drave River, 498. 
DRAYTON, arms, 142. 

MICHAEL, anus, 298. 

Dresden China, Red sirords on, 347. 
Dress, Articles of, as charges, 375. 
DREUX, arms, 461, 634. 


Duke of BRITTANY, 425. 
,, Counts de, arms, 170. 
PIERRE DE, seal and seeretum 

of, 55. 

called MAUCLERC, 

son of Count ROBERT of, 
arms, 425. 

seal and secretum of ROBERT 
II., Comte de, 55. 

DRIESCHE, VAN, arms, 136. 
Drinking glasses as charges, 382. 
DROGOMIR, ar??is, 207. 
Dromedary, The, 231. 
DROUALLEN, arms, 280. 
DRUAYS, arms, 68. 

DRUMMOND, arms, 128, 436, 455 ; arms 
in Lyon Office Register, 
400;' PI. XL, fig. 10, 
p. 124. 

,, Earl of PERTH, Compart- 

ment and motto, 642. 
,, JAMES, Sculptured Monu- 

ments of lona and the 
West Highlands, 367. 
of Blair, brisure, 436. 
,, Colquhalzie, brisure, 436. 
Concraig, arms, 79. 
Kildies, arms, 199. 
,, brisure, 436. 
,, Pitkellony, brisure, 436. 
Queen Annabella, 455. 
Sir MALCOLM of Stobhall, 

Drums as charges, 383. 
DRYLAND, anus, 124. 
DU CANGE, 39, 250, 535, 538. 

,, Dissertatio de Inferioris 

jEvi Numismatibus, 248. 
,, Dissertation sur Vhistoire de 

St. Louis, par de Joinville, 

,, Glossarium, 655. 

DUBLIN, arms of See, 375. 
,, City, arms, 361. 
Marquess of, arms, 383. 
DUBOIS, arms, 315. 
DUBUISSON, arms, 165. 
Due, 726. 

Ducal coronet, 684. 
DUCAS, arms, 141. 
Duciper, 684. 
DUCKINFIELD, arms, PL XIV., fig. 4, 

p. 140. 

Duckling, The, 266. 
Ducks, 267. 

DUCKWORTH, crest, 300. 
DUCLAU, Barons, arms, 277. 
DUDLEY, Earl of WARWICK, badge, 

,, Lord, arms, 218. 
DUDZEELE, Van, arms, 


DUFF, Earls and Duke of FIFE, arms, 

DUGDALE, Sir WILLIAM, Antient Usage 

of Bearing Arm*, 446, 561, 563. 
DUGUID, arms, 155. 
DUINEN, arms, 136. 
DUIVEN, arms, 136. 
Duke's standard, Length of, 654. 
DUNBAR, ALEXANDER, of Westfield, 

Jess, 430. 

arm*, PI. XVII., fig. 3, p. 17:2. 
crest, 610. 

Earls of, a?-?HS, 171, 405. 
,, bordure, 442. 
,, crest, 605, 610. 
Earls of MORAY, arms, 378. 
of Westfield, arms, 378. 
Sir DAVID, of Cockburn, 

brisure, 442. 

Sir PATRICK, label of, 414. 
DUNCAN, Admiral (Viscount), arms and 

augmentation, 533. 
DUNDEE, City of, rms, 334. 

Earl of, 149. 

DUNGLASS, Barony of, 522. 
DUNKELD, See of, arms, 152. 
DUNNING, arms, 162. 
DUNOIS, FRANCIS, Comte de, seal, 530. 
,, JEAN, Comte de, arms, 571 ; PI. 
5, p. 577. 
sea^, 529. 
DURANT, arms, 162. 
DURFORT, arms, 129. 
Durham, Visitation of 366. 
DURHAM, BUTLER, Bishop of, arms, 


Bishop of, a?-ms, 560. 
,, Earl of, arms, 235. 

HUGH PUDSEY, Bishop of, 

arms, 154. 

,, JAMES, brisure, 433. 

,, of Grange, 433. 

DUROY, Barons, arms, 68. 
DURRANT, arms, 162. 
DUSSEAUX, arms, 124. 
DYMOCK, arms, 345. 
DYRRHN, Counts von, augmentation, 


DYSON, arms, 306. 
DZ1ULI, arms, 276. 

Eagle, 242. 

Apostolic, 633. 

a?-ms on breast of an, 630, 639. 

as a bo.dge, 753. 

as a crest, 600. 

as a supporter, 640. 

-demi, as supporter, 634. 

displayed, PI. XXV., fig. 1, p. 260. 

Double headed, 248. 

German, 660. 

Imperial, PI. XXV., fig. 3, p. 260. 



Tico-headed, PI. XXV., fig. 2, p. 
Eagles as supporters, 635, 636. 

( 788 ) 

Eagles, Imperial and Prussian, as crests, 


,, Parts of, 259. 
Eagle's claw as a badge, 753. 

head, PI. XXV., fig. 4, p. 260. 
,, ,, as a crest, 606. 
,, leys, 260. 
,, wings, 259. 
Eaglet, 259. 

EAM, Sir HENRY, arms, 221. 
Earl Marshal of ENGLAND, mark of 

office, 644. 

SCOTLAND, mark of 
office, 644. 
Earl's coronet, 624. 

,, standard, Length of, 654. 
Earth worm, 279. 

East, arms of Emperors of the, 249. 
Eastern croicn, 684. 
Eatables as charges, 391. 
EBERSPERG, Barons Von, arms, 227. 
EBERSTEIN, Counts of, arms, 214. 
,, County of, arms, 473. 

Sbranche, 701, 726. 
Ecaillc, 703, 726. 
Etartele, 700. 
Ecartele, 81, 726. 

,, en cquerre, 82, 726. 
en sautoir, 82, 727. 
ficartehires, 700, 727. 
ECCLES of Kildonan, arms, 348. 
ECCLESHALL, arms, 403. 
Ecclesiastical things as charges, 371. 
Echancre, 685, 727. 
line, 76. 
c7iee d'escalade, 692, 727. 
Echiquetc, 99, 680, 727. 
Ji'ciHje, 138, 727. 
ECKFOORD, arms, 299. 
ECKHARDSTE1N, arms and augmenta- 
tion, 543. 
e, 703, 727. 
Eclipsed, 684. 
Ecorche, 727. 
X'co, 720, 727. 
.Ecote, 701, 727. 

, ,, contre, 727. 
ficote line, 76. 
Jfcran, 600. 
Ecran, 727. 
Ecrevisse, 727. 
i'cK, c T, 727. 
,, en banniere, 727. 
,, lapointe de I', 59. 
,, Ze nombril de, 59. 
ticusson, 169. 

,, e>i abime, 727. 
,, .Fawa:, 727. 
,, w te tout, 700, 727. 
jfccuyer- Banneret, Un, 652. 
EDEIRNION, Barons of, supporters, 647. 
EDGAR, arms, 566. . 

ATHELING, arms assigned to, 

label, 423 ; Fig. 81, p. 
,, arms in St. Giles' Church 

in, 476. 

,, Castle of, 605. 

,, City, arms, 360. 

, , Trinity Collegiate Church 

in, seal, 476. 


BDMONDSON, Cbf^W Jodyo/fleroWry, 


EDMONSTON, arms, 307. 
EDMONSTONE, arms, 178. 
EDMUND (Crouchback), Earl of LAN- 
CASTER, monument of, 114. 
son of RICHARD, Earl of 
CORNWALL, etc., arms, 245. 
EDNOUAIN, arms, PI. XXVII., fig. 2, p. 


arms, 274. 
EDWARD, arms, 364. 

,, I., King of ENGLAND, 34, 

50, 70, 128, 170, 322, 3* 7, 38* , 
404, 421, 438, 454, 457, 458, 
465, 479, 482, 713; arms, 
PI. LI., tig. l,p. 661 ;&(/<>, 

323, 587 ; helm, 600 ; Roll, 
408, 412, 428, 448, 552, 553 ; 
seal of, 330. 

II., King of ENGLAND, 128. 
257, 404, 408, 412, 448, 457, 
465, 479 ; and his Queen 
ISABEL, 438; arms, PI., 
LI., fig. 1, p. 661; Roll of, 
260, 403, 407, 408, 409, 412, 
413, 418, 553, 554 ; seal of, 
III. King of ENGLAND, 221, 

324, 357, 416, 417, 420, 438, 
463, 554, 592, 653; arms, 
PI. LI., fig. 2, p. GQl; badge, 
588, 593; crest, 600; PI. 
XLIX.,fig. 2, p. 607 ; foun- 
dation of ORDER of the 
GARTER by, 664 ; motto 
of, 664; PHILIPPA,Queen, 
of, 257 ; Roll of, 287, 289, 
404, 407 ; seal of, 324, 330 ; 
standard ascribed to, 589 ; 
supporters of, 661. 

IV., King of ENGLAND, 167, 
308, 485, 530, 557, 5S3, 587 ; 
arms, PI. LI., fig. 4, p. 661 ; 
badge, 591 ; motto of, 664 ; 
Restoration of, 17 ; first and 
fourth seals of, 590 ; stan- 
dard of, 588 ; supporters of, 

,, V., King of ENGLAND, arm*, 
PI. LI.; fig. 4, p. 661 ; sup- 
porters of, 662. 

VI., King of ENGLAND, 384 ; 
arms, PI. LI., fig. 4, p. 661 ; 
badge, 594, 596 ; supporters 
of, 662. 

ENGLAND, 30; arms, 44, 369, 417, 
474, 475, 528, 656, 661, 664; crown, 

EDWARDS, crest, 610. 
BE, VAN DER, an/w, 394. 
EECKHOUT, VAN DEN, a?-ms, 143. 
Eel, The, 272. 

] Eel-spears as charges, 393. 
EESE, VAN DER, arms, 237. 
EESEN, arms, 153. 
| Effare, 701, 702, 718, 727, 732. 
Effaroucke, 728, 732. 

j Effeuille, 704, 728. 

EGBRET, arms, 94. 
EGERTON, arms, 5t51. 

Sir RALPH, Lord High 

Chancellor, 561. 
Sir THOMAS, Viscount 
BRACKLEY, arms, 561. 

arms, 670; PL LVL, fig. 

5, p. 671. 

EGGER, Counts von, arms, 184. 
Eggs as charges, 391. 
EGILSBERG, arms, 752. 
EGLIXTON, Earls of, arms, 180 ; PI. 
XIX., fig. 9, p. 192. 
,, supporters, 293. 
HUGH, Earl of, seal of, 

EGLOF DE SCHONAU, arms, 279. 
EGMOND, arms, PI. VII., fig. 5, p. 90. 

,, Counts, arms, 98, 99. 
EGMONT, arms, 125. 

,, Counts, arms, 98, 99. 
EGRA, Dimidiatian of arms of, 470. 
EGREMONT, Baron of, amis, 404. 
EICHSTADT, Princes of, arms, 473. 
EIDEN, Sir JACOB VAN, arms, 180. 
Eightfoil, 684. 
isen-farbe, 62. 
Elance, 728. 
Elderberries, 341. 
Electoral-crown, 685. 
Elephant, as a badge, 753. 

The, 230. 

Elephant's head, 231. 
,, iwsArs, 231. 
Elerated, 685. 
ELIOT, Earl of ST. GERMAN'S, arm*, 


ELIOTT of Stobs, brisure, 433. 
ELIZABETH, Princess, label, 422 ; Fig. 

87, p. 421. 

Queen of ENGLAND, 661 ; 
arms, PI. LI., fig. 4, p. 661; badge, 
384, 596 ; device, 298 ; Funeral of, 384 ; 
Great Seal of, 664 ; motto of, 664 ; sup- 
porters of, 662. 

ELLESMERE, Baron, arms, 561. 
ELLEY, amis, 270. 
ELLIOT, arms, 387. 
ELLIOTS in south Scotland, 400. 
ELLIOTT, Earl of MINTO, arms, 200. 
ELLIS, arms, 301. 

,, W. G., Antiquities of Heraldry, 

26, 27, 28, 43, 44, 73, 86, 99, 125, 672. 
ELPHINSTONE, anus, 227, 230; PI. 
XXIII., fig. 2, p. 

supporters, 298. 
ELST, VAN DER, arms, 200. 
ELTERSHOFEN, arms, 82, 87. 
ELY, Bishop of, arms, 90. 

arms, 167. 
,, JOHN DE FONTIBUS, Bishop of, 

arms, 309. 

See of, arms, 379 ; PI. XXXIII., fig. 
4, p. 376. 

finail, 728. 
mam-he, 148. 
Emanche, 728. 

Einanche, 728 ; PI. XVI., fig. 8, p. 146. 
Emanche en pal , 101. 

Emanchure, 728. 
Emaux, 728. 
Embattled, 685. 

,, line, Fig. IS, p. 75, 76. 
Embouche, 728. 
Emboute, 728. 
Emboired, 204, 269, 685. 
Embrasse, 90, 728 ; PI. VI., fig. 12, p. 84. 
,, a dextre, etc., 728. 
,, vivre, 728. 
Embrasure, 685. 
Embrued, 685. 

EMBRUN, ami* of See, 375. 
EMELIE, arms, 198. 
Emerald, 65, 685. 
EMERSON, cr*, 610. 
EM LAY, arms, 198. 
EMLINE, arms, 198. 
EMLYN, arras, PL XX., fig. 2, p. 198. 
Emmanche, 728. 
Emmusele, 695, 728. 
EMO, a7-ms, 94. 
Emousse, 728, 731. 
Empenne, 686, 687, 728. 
Emperors of the East, arms, 249. 
Empietant, 262, 706, 728, 742. 
EMPIRE, arms of the, 469, 508, 509, 


,, chief of the, 536, 537, 538. 
Empoignant, 728. 
Empoignee, 728. 
in a&tHK, 687, 721. 

cceur, 687. 
, forme, 728. 

retrait, 702. 
, sautoir, 702. 

mrtout, 697, 727. 
Enaluron, 685. 
Enchaine, 728. 
Enchausse, 728. 
Enchaussure, 729. 

,, single, 89. 

Enclave, 729. 
Enclos, 729. 
Enclume, 729. 
Encoche, 729. 

Enci/clopcedia Britannica, 190. 
END, arww, 222. 
Endente, 691, 729. 
Hne, 76. 

Endorse, The, 123, 685. 
Endorsed, 685. 
Enfield, 685. 
JftyH^, 729. 
Enfiled, 685. 

ENGERN, Duchy of, anna, 321. 
ENGHIEN, D', a7-fts, 86, 464. 

GAUTIER IT., Seigneur d', 

ENGLAND, arms, 108, 171, 416, 417, 438, 
439, 465, 468, 475, 476, 479, 
485, 530, 532, 555, 557, 559, 
593, 598, 662, 663; PL LI., 
p. 661. 
,, arms, during Commonwealth, 


,, bailye, 596, 597. 

,, banner of, 141. 

bordure of, 172, 425. 
crest of, 603. 
crested helm in, 600. 
crowns, 618. 
De in, 16. 
Differencing in, 397. 

( 79 ) 

ENGLAND dimidiating FRANCE, arms, 
PL XXXVIII., tig. 3, p. 

,, Dimidiation in, 465. 

,, Earl Marshal of, mark of 

office, 644. 

,, Early Great Seals of, 618. 

,, ensign of Princes of, 208. 

,, escucheon en surtout in, 485. 

,, fars common in armory of, 


,, Historical Heraldry of, 218. 

,, Impalement in, 474. 

, , Kings of, badges, 587. 

,, Large number of names in, 

Lions of, 146, 216, 454, 457, 

531, 532, 554, 559, 662. 
,, Lord Chancellor of, mark of 

office, 644. 
,, Lord High Chamberlain of, 

mark of office, 644. 
MARGARET of, Queen of 
LAND, 521. 
,, MARGARET, Queen of 

EDWARD I., seal of, 454. 
,, Mode of representing crests 

in, 602, 603, 604. 
,, Princess MARGARET of, 


flow of, 421, 583, 559. 
, , Royal arms and supporters of, 


,, Royal lions of, 216. 

, single supporter in, 633. 

,, steward of, 597. 

,, supporters in, 646. 

The label in, 414. 
Enplante, 688, 729. 
ENGLISH arms, 224. 

,, College of Arms, regulations 

on crest-coronets, 615. 
,, families who use the de, 17. 

,, Glossary, 676. 

,, marks of illegitimacy, 564. 

Engloutissant, 729, 734. 
Engoulant, 708, 729. 
Engoule, 131, 685, 729. 
Engrailed line, 685 ; Fig. 17, p. 75. 
Engrele, 685. 
Engrele, 729. 

,, line, 75. 
Engrelure, 729. 
Enguiche, 384, 729. 
Enhanced, 132, 685. 
Enquerir, a, 729. 
Enquerre, a, 729. 
Ensanglante, 685, 729. 
Ensign, Blue, 657. 
Red, 657. 
White, 656. 
Ensigned, 685. 
Ente, 685, 729. 

,, en point, 483, C85. 
,, ,, ,, Parted per, Fig. 35, p. 77. 
,, ,, pointe, 148. 
,, line, 76. 
Entoyre, 685. 

ENTRAGUES, Marquis d', arms, 146. 
Entravaille, 729. 
Entrelace, 692, 729. 
Entretenus, 729. 
Enumey, 685. 

Environed, 685. 
Eole, 730. 
Epanoui, 686, 730. 
Eploye, 684, 686, 730. 
EPPSTEIN, Counts of, arms, 98. 
EPTINGEN, arms, 261. 
Equerre, 730. 

,, Ecartele en, 730. 
Equipe, 686, 688, 730. 
Equipolle, 680, 730, 741; PI. VII., fig. 8, 

p. 90. 

Equippe, 702. 
Equipped, 686. 
Eradicated, 315, 686. 
ERAQUY, Marquis d', arms, 280. 
Erased, 686. 

ERATH, Barons, arms, 221. 
Erb- Verbruderung, Treaties of, 483. 
ERBACH, Counts of, arms, 126. 

WILLIAM LINDSAY, Lord of, 51. 
Erect, 274, 686. 

,, -wavy, 274. 
ERGADIA heiress, DE, 520. 
ERIK XIV., King of SWEDEN, crown, 


ERIKSENS, arms, 136. 
Ermine, 63, 67, 68, 686; PI. IV., fig. 2, 

p. 62. 

(ancient), PL IV., fig. 1, p. 62. 
,, shield, plain, 68. 

spots, PL XXIV., fig. 12, p. 236. 
Ermines, 63, 686 ; PL IV., fig. 3, p. 62. 

,, shield, plain, 68. 
Erminois, 63, 686 ; PL IV., fig. 4, p. 62. 

shield, plain, 68. 
ERPACH, Counts of, arms, 308. 
ERPINGHAM, arms, 174. 

Sir THOMAS, lambrequin, 

ERPS, Comte d', arms, 644. 
ERQUERRER, arms, 91. 
ERQUERY, arms, 452. 
ERROLL, Earldom of, 420. 
ERSKINE, arms, 346; PL X., fig. 7, 

p. 118. 

,, Earls of MAR, arms, 120. 

,, of Cambo, arm*, 569. 

,, ,, Dun, arms, 346. 

,, Gogar, Sir THOMAS, Earl 
of KELLIE, augmenta- 
tion, 534, 535. 
,, Kinnoull, Sir NICHOLAS, 

brisure, 432. 
Sir ALEXANDER and Sir 

CHARLES, 433. 
,, ,, CHARLES, Lyon King of 

Arms, 361. 
ROBERT, 432. 
THOMAS, son of Sir 
ROBERT, label, 419. 
ERSKYN, Lord of BRECHINE, arms, 


ERTHAL, Barons von, arms, 126. 
Escallop as a badge, 585, 753. 

shell, 272, 686 ; PL XXVI., fig. 12, 
p. 266. 

Escarbuncle, 686. 
Escarre, 730. 

Complet du Blason, 388. 
ESCHELBACH, arms, 95. 
ESCLAVON1A, Kingdom, arms, 494, 498, 
501, 665. 

ESCLIGNAC, D', arm*, 213. 

ESCOBARS, arntx, 390. 

ESCOCE, LE ROY I)', arms, 177. 

ESCORNA, arms, 174. 

ESCORNA1X, arms, 181. 

Escucheon, 169, 68(3; PI. XIX., fig. 12, 

p. 192. 
,, en surtout, 459. 

,, Difference by an, 
,, English and French, Points of, 

Figs. 15, 16, p. 59. 
,, in chief, Difference by addition 

of small, 427. 
,, of pretence, 686. 
,, or Jnescucheon, 169. 
,, surtout. The, 483. 
ESEL, arms, 237. 
ESENDORF, VON, arms, 82. 
ESKENS, augmentation, 546. 
ESME, arms, PI. XXII., fig. 5, p. 222. 

Sir HENRY, arms, 221. 
ESNE, MICHELE D', arms, 450. 
ESPAGNET, Marquises d', arms, 33S. 
ESPARBEZ, arms, 710. 
Esquire, 686. 

,, definitions of term, 7. 
ESSARTS, Seigneur des, 12. 
ESSCHEDE, arms, 379. 
ESSEX, Earl of, arms, 417. 

,, ,, supposed efh'gy of , 45, 115. 

,, Earls of, 589. 
,, ,, arms, 81. 

Essonier, 730. 
Essorant, 259, 702, 730. 
Essore, 730. 
Estacade, 730. 

ESTAMPES, arms, PI. X., fig. 4, p. 118. 
Chevalier d', Bailli de 

VALENCE, anus, 119. 
,, D', arms, 146. 

Estaye, 730. 
ESTCOURT, arms, US; PI. X., fig. 2, p. 

ESTE, House of, 492. 

arms, 256, 50S. 

arms and augmentation, 538. 

,, Princes Von, augmenta- 

tion, 539. 

ESTISSAC, arms, 91. 
Estoc, 704, 730. 

ESTOGES, Counts de, arm*, 113. 
Estoile, 308, 686; PL XXVIII., fig. 6, p. 


ESTON, arms, 299. 

ESTOUBLON, Marquises d', arms, 284. 
ESTOUTEVILLE, arms, 94. 
Etai, 730. 
ETAMPES, Comtes d', arms, 429. 

,, Dues d', arms, 342. 

ETCHINGHAM, arms, 96, 182. 
Etete, 730. 
ETHELRED, King of WESSEX, arms 

assigned to, 156. 
titincellant, 703, 730. 
Etoile, 730. 

arms, 334. 

Etruscan Vases, Figures on, Figs. 1, 2, 3, 

4, p. 18. 

ETTENREICH, M. von, arms and aug- 
mentation, 540. 
ETTRICK FOREST, Lordship of, a?-ms, 


EU, tomb of Comtes d', 332. 
EUBING, arms, 89, 182. 
Eucalyptus branch, 339. 
EUGENIE, Empress of FRANCE, 390. 
EUGENIUS III., Pope, 40. 
EURIPIDES, description of devices on 

shields, 29. 
European countries, national arms of 

chief, 661. 

EUSTACE, crest, 563. 
EVA, arms, 196. 
EVANS, arms, 333, 339. 
EVANS' tour Through Bosnia and the 

Herzepo cina, 251. 
Evasee, 730. 
EVE, arms ascribed to, 23. 

,, in Heraldry, 195. 
EVEREUX, D', 17. 
EVERSLEY, Lord, supporters, 648. 
EVERSTEIN, chateau of, 642. 
Evide, 730. 
Ecire, 219, 730. 

CESTER, arm*, 79. 
,, arm*, 464, 465, 505, 635. 
,, Comtes d', bend, 429. 
,, County and Pairie of, 515. 

PHILIP, Comte d', 464. 
EWIG, arms, 320. 
Excerpta Historica, 5, 291, 292, 556, 557, 

558, 574, 584, 587. 

Exchequer Rolls of Scotland, 455, 517. 
EXETER, badge, 754. 

,, Duke of, arms, 439, 474, 555. 


of, arms, 437. 

Bishop of, brisure, 437. 
See of, arms, 371 ; PI. XXXIII., 
fig. 6, p. 376. 
BXMOUTH, crest of Lord, 610. 

,, Lord, arms, 533. 
Expanded, 686. 
Expectation, Arms of, 478. 
External ornaments, 599, 617, 627. 
EYCK, VAN, arms, 123, 143, 340. 
Eye, PI. XX., fig. 11, p. 198. 

,, Human, 201. 
Eyes, 686. 

PI. LV., fig. 3. p. 669. 
EYRE, SIMON, arm*, 239. 
EYSENBACH, Hixtaire du Blason, etc., 
38, 46, 673 ; PI. 
XXXVIL, fig. 3, p. 

,, on hereditary arms, 37. 

EYTZENRIET, arms, 166. 
EZE, VANDER, arm*, 68. 
EZEKIEL, Book of, 253. 
EZEL, arms, 364. 

FABERT, arms, 141. 
FABYAN'S Chronicle, 17. 
FACCHINETTI, arms, 318. 
FADA, arms, 294. 
Faggot as a badge, 753. 
FAGNANI, arms, 256. 

( 792 ) 

FAHRBECK, arms, 120. 

Fnilli, 139, 688, 730. 

FAIRFAX, arms, 107 ; PI. IX., fig. 7, p. 


FALAISE, seal of, 333. 
Falchion, as a badge, 584. 
Falcon and Fetterlock as a badge, 591. 
,, as a badoe, 753. 
rising, PL XXV., fig. 7, p. 260. 
The, 261. 
,, with crown and sceptre as a badge, 


FALCOXBRIDGE, arms, 212. 
FALCONER, Lord, arms, 431. 

of Balmakellie, Sir JOHN, 

arm*, 431. 

of Hawkerston, RICH ARD, 
seal and arms of, 50. 

d'AXJOU, arms, 261. 
FALEBOWSKI, arms, 371. 
Falkirk Roll, 175. 
FALLOWES, arw.s', 231. 
FALMOUTH, Earls of, arms, 324. 

,, Viscounts, supporters, 300. 

Falot, 730. 
.Fate*, 686. 
Families, List of eminent, who never use 

particule, 12. 
Fan, 686. 

Fan-shaped crest, 599. 
Fanal, 678, 730. 
FANCHON, arms, 131. 
FARE, LA, arms, 713. 
FAREMOUTIER8, *wZ of Abbey of, 329. 
FARNESE arms, 502, 508. 
FARQUHARSON, arms, 212, 513. 
fasce, 92, 677, 731. 

,, -contre-fasce, 731. 
.Fasce, 123, 730. 
,, En, 730. 

,, en dicise, 126, 677, 726. 
,, routee, 125. 

FAUCHE, PIERRE UE LA, seal of, 58. 
FAUC1GNY, AGNES UE, seal, 453. 
,, arms, 453. 

,, Princes etc LUCINGE, arms, 

91, 122. 
FAUCONBERG, arms, 212. 

,, Earls of, arms, 123. 

FAUDOAS-BARBAZAN, arms and aug- 
mentation, 539. 
Faulchion, 584, 686. 
FAULQUEZ, Marquis of, onus, 136. 
Faun, 304. 
FAURE, DU, amis, 197, 379. 

,, .,, Abrege Methodique de la 

Science Heraldique, 2. 
Fausse, 686. 

Faussex, Lfs armes, 752. 
FAUSYDE, ROGER, seal, 441. 
jFema:, 686. 

,, -ecu, 564, 731. 
FAVELETTE, (-//w, 145. 
FAVERGES, arms, 140. 
FAVIERES, arms, 344. 
FAVYN, Theatre d'Honneur et de Cheva- 

lerie, 134. 
FAWKES, arms, 184 ; PI. XVIII., fig. 8, 

p. 190. 

FAYDIT, 12. 

FAYETTE, M. DE LA, 659. 

,, Memoires de la, 660. 
Feathered, 349, 686. 
Feathers, Ostrich, as crests, 592, 607. 

,, Peacock-, as crests, 607. 
FEATHERSTONE, -arms, 222. 
FECHENBACH, Barons von, arms, 279. 
JFW, Human, 206. 
FEILLEE, see ORANGE, 340. 
FELBRIDGE, arms, 217. 
FELDKIRCH, County, arms, 373, 499. 
FELDMANN, augmentation, 546. 
FEND, arww, 302. 
Fennel, 344. 

FENTOUN, JANET, daughter of WAL- 
TER, label, 419. 
FENWICK, arms, 266 ; PL XXVI., fig. 4, 

p. 266. 

Fer-de-fourchette, 686. 
,, -lance, 731. 
,, -moline, 687, 692. 
,, -moulin, 731. 
FERDINAND L, King of Spain, 577. 

,, II., Imperial diploma of, 

,, and ISABELLA of Spain, 

arms on eagle, 633. 
,, Emperor, seal, 499. 

FERE, LE SIRE DE LA, anus, 411. 
FERIA, Counts de, arms, 507. 
Fermail, 687, 731. 
Fermaux as charges, 377. 


FERNANDEZ, arms, 353. 
BELLA, natural daughter of King, 
FERNE, Sir JOHN, Blazon of Gentrie, 

19, 22, 97. 

FERNLAND, arms, 112. 
FERON, JEAN LE, Le Grand Blazon 

d'Armoiries, 2. 
FERRAGUT, arms, 356. 
FERRARA, Duchy of, arms, 508; arms 

and augmentation, 538. 
FERRE, GUY, 466. 
FERRERA, arms, 128. 
FERRERS, arms, 184, 355, 356, 474. 
,, badge, 754. 

Earl, arms, 165. 
Earls of DERBY, 52. 
M arms, 71, 


FERRET, arms, 354. 
FERRETTE, Counts of, arms, 271. 
FERRI, arms, 346. 
FERRIER, arms, 356. 
FERRIERE DE TESSE, arms, 173. 
FERR1ERE, LA, arms, 356. 
FERRIERES, HENRI DE, arms, 356. 

,, ,, escucheon of, 

Fig. 90, p. 

,, scai and shie Id 

of, 54. 

FERRONAY, arms, 257. 
Fess, 78, 123, 687 ; Fig. 38, p. 116 ; PI. 

XL, fig. 1, p. 124. 
,, and canton joined, 167. 
arched, PI. XL, fig. 7, p. 124. 
betweeen chevrons, PI. XI II., fig. 6, 

p. 136. 
checquy, PI. XL, fig. 5, p. 124. 

( 793 ) 

Fess, cotised, PI. XI., fig. 12, p. 124. 

dancettee, PI. XI., fig. 2, p. 124 ; PI. 

XI., fig. 3, p. 124. 

,, embattled, PI. XI., fig. 4, p. 124. 
,, Parted per, 79 ; Fig. 29, p. 77. 
Per, 687; PI. V., fig. 3, p. 80. 
,, point, 59, 687. 
tortilte, PI. XI., fig. 6, p. 124. 
Varieties of, 124. 
Fesstcays. 108, 687. 
FETTERCAIRN, Thanes of, 313. 
Fettered, 687. 
Fetter-lock, 687. 

,, as & badge, 753. 
FETZER, arms, 134. 
FEUILLADE, Comte de la, arms, 159. 
Feuille, 693, 731. 
Feuille depervanche, 741. 
Feuille de scie, 731. 
FEUQUERAY, arms, 142. 

FEZENSAC, arms, 213. 

Marquis de, arms, 191. 

FIAL1N, Due de PERSIGNY, arms and 

augmentation, 541. 
FIASCHI, Marquises, arms, 382. 
Fiche, 687, 699, 712, 731. 
FIGHTERS, arms, 226. 
FIDELER, arms, 182. 
FIEANDT, anus, 510. 
Fief-tn banniere, 652, 639. 
FIEFVET, arms, 128. 
.FieM, 686. 
Fields of a single metal, tincture, or fur, 

FIENNES, amis, 99, 213. 

Lord DACRE, badge, 752. 
FIERAMOSCA, arms, 280. 
Fierte, 272, 687, 731. 

,, arms, 95. 
FIFE, Earl of, bend, 430. 
,, brisure, 445. 

Earls and Dukes of, arms, 212. 
FIGLIAMBUCHI, amis, 73. 
FIGUEIREDOS, arms, 320. 
FIGUEROA, arms, 473, 506, 507. 

,, Counts of, arms, 507 ; PI. 

XLI., fig. 5, p. 509. 
FIGUEROAS, arms, 320. 
Figure, 687, 731. 
Figured, 687. 
.F, 731. 

File, 187, 414, 687. 
Filet, 731. 

,, en bm-dure, 731. 
,, en croix, 731. 
Filiere, 731. 

FILIOLA, Princes de, arms, 140. 
.FiWet, no, 133, 687. 
Filum, 187. 
FIMARCON, Ducsde, arm,?, 213. 

,, Marquis de, arms, 129. 

Fimbriated, 687. 
FINCH, Earls of AYLESFORD, arms, 


Finches, 267. 

FINCHFIELD, arms, 128. 
FINDERNE, arms, 156. 
FINIELS, arms, 201. 
FINLAND. a?-ms, 666. 

Finned, 687. 
FIOLO, arm*, 145. 
Fir cones, 341. 

,, tree, 315, 317. 
.Fire, 314. 
-ball, 687. 

,, -beacon as a badge, 594, 753. 
,, -paws as charges, 393. 
FIRENZUOLA, arms, 224. 
F1RMAS, arm*, 68. 
Firme, 687. 

.Fi/vrf Mobility Roll, 70, 404. 
FISCHL, arms, 239. 
Fish, 268. 

featfo, 272. 
,, -hook as a badge, 753. 
,, ,, as charges, 393. 
jav.-*, 272. 
The Cock-, 299. 
Fishes in pair le, 271. 
Fitche, 123, 687. 
Pitched, 687. 
JTCtefy/, 731. 

FITZ-ALAN, arms, 94, 118, 213, 577. 
,, ,, badge, 754. 

,, ,, canton, 426. 

,, ,, Earl of ARUNDEL, arms, 


CHRISTIAN, grand- 
daughter of WALTER, 

ELEANOR, 482. 
,, ,, Lady ALICE, 557. 

THOMAS, Earl of ARUN- 
DEL, 577. 

,, -ALURED, arms, 128. 

Earl of MUNSTER, arms, 560. 
-GEOFFREY, JOHN, arms, 438. 
-HENRY, arms, 142. 
-HUGH, arms, 140. 
,, -ROGER, arms, 213. 
-SIMON, JOHN, arms, 170. 
-SIMONS, arms, 188. 
-SWANNE, ADAM, 589. 
,, -URSE, arms, 229. 
-WARINE, arms, 82. 

PLYMOUTH, arms, 559. 
FITZGERALD, arms, 4d7. 

Duke of LEINSTER, sup- 

porter, 240. 
Lady HENRY, 17. 
ICE, JULIANA, dtr. of, 467. 

etc., arms, 143. 
FITZHUGH, arm*, 532. 
HENRY, the Grand Prior, 

arms, 559. 

JAMES, Duke of BER- 
WICK, arms, 559. 
FITZPAYNE, badge, 654. 

Falchion of, 584. 

UMBERLAND, arms, 559. 

arms, 559. 

Duke of RICH- 
arms, 558. 

JAMES, Duke of MON- 
MOUTH, a?ins, 559. 

( 794 ) 

FITZROY, natural son of King HEXRY 

I., arms, 554. 
FITZSYMON, arms, 387. 
FITZ WALTER, arm*, PI. XIII., fig. 6, 

p. 136. 

,, badge, 754. 

F1TZWARREN, WILLIAM, Lord, label, 

FITZWILLIAM, arms, 336; PI. VII., fig. 

9, p. 90. 


FIZE, DE, arms, 394. 
FIZEAUX, arms, 66. 
Flags, 649. 

,, National, 655. 
FLAHAULT, arms, 572. 

,, Conite de, 572. 

Flambant, 692, 731. 

,, centre, 731. 
Flambeaux as supporters, 643. 
Plane dextre, le, 59. 
,, senestre, le, 59. 

Planches, 687 ; PI. XVIII., fig. 6, p. 190. 
Flanchis, 702, 731. 
Flancs, 687, 731. 

FLANDERS, arms, 58, 212, 247, 251, 449, 

458, 462, 463, 464, 471, 478, 

484, 485, 496, 505, 572, 573, 

574, 576, 631, 635. 

BALDWIN, son of Count of, 

brisure, 439. 
,, brisure of, 429. 

Count GUY of, 412 ; helmet, 


, , Counts of, seals, 45. 

,, County of, arms, 471. 

. De in, 16. 

,, Effigy of WILLIAM, Count 

of, 43. 

IOLANTE DE, seal, 464. 
ISABELLA, Countess of, 

seal, 478, 629. 

JOHN, Count of, arms, 484. 
LOUIS II., Count of, 462, 

,, ,, van Male, Count of, 

signet of, 631. 
,, Marks of illegitimacy in, 


PHILIP I., Count of, sea', 
20, 32, 36, 47, 
,, ,, Governor of, arms, 

,,' ,, of, bend, 429. 

ROBERT DE, 464. 
,, seal of Count ROBERT of, 


,, WILLIAM, Count of, ban- 

ner, 650. 
Flandre, Clironique de, 659. 

,, Les Hecherches des Antiquitez et 
Noblesse de, 573. 

FLANDRE, BAUDOU1N, bntard de, and 
his sister BEATRIX, arms, 

GUI DE, bend, 429. 


HENRI DE, crest, 592. 
,, ,, ,, Comte de 

LODES, bend, 429. 

FLANDRE, JEAN DE, lend, 429. 

,, ,, Seigneur de 

PRAET, arms, 573. 
JEANNE DE, seal of, 70. 
LOUIS, Comte de, 572 ; seal, 

Fig. 99, p. 648. 
PETERKIN, bdtard de, arms, 

,, ROBERT, bdtard de, arms, 

YOLANTE DE, Countess of 

BAR, seal, 464, 629. 
YOLANTE DE, Countess 
of BAR, supporters, 635. 
Flank; dexter, 59. 
,, sinister, 59. 
Flanks, 687. 

Flanque en rond, 687, 731. 
Flasque, The, 117, 165, 185, 687. 
Flaunch, The, 117, 165, 184, 687. 
Flax plant, 338. 
Fleas, 285. 
FLECHIN, Marquis de WAMIN, arms, 


badge of the, 665, 745 ; collar of the, 
665, 730, 732 ; regulations of the, 

FLEETWOOD, Barons, arms and aug- 
mentation, 547. 
FLEHINGEN, arms, 440. 
FLEMAL, arms, 143. 
FLEMING, arms, PI. XVII., fig. 10, p. 

DAVID, son of THOMAS, 

label, 419. 

MALCOLM, arms, 178. 
,, of Biggar, arms, 178. 

Sir MALCOLM, 178. 
Flesh colour or Carnation, 62. 
FLETCHER of Saltoun, arms, 158. 
Fleur-de-lis, 326, PL XXX., fig. 5, p. 332. 
,, and leopard's face, 333. 

,, as a badge, 583, 595, 596, 598. 

florencee, PI. XXX. fig. 7, p. 


,, for sixth son, 444. 

sxipposed origin of, 326. 

Fleur-de-lise, 687, 731 ; PI. XXX., fig. 6, 

p. 332. 

,, cross, 158 ; Fig. 57, p. 164. 

Fleure, 687, 731. 

,, contre, 731.. 
Fleurfte, 731. 
Fleurette, Cross, 158. 
Fleurettee, 687. 
Fleuretly, 687. 
Fleuri, 687, 731. 
Fleuronne, 731. 
Fleury, 112, 687. 
,, Cross, 157. 
Flexed, 687. 
Flies, 280. 
Flighted, 349, 687. 
FLOCKHER, augmentation, 54fi. 
FLODDEN, Battle of 435, 529. 
FLORENCE, arm*, 283, 330, 732 ; PI. 

XXX., fig. 7, p. 332. 
,, Carroccio of, 655. 

Church of San Lorenzo in, 


,, coins of, 327. 

,, standard of, 655. 

Florences, 730, 731. 

( 795 ) 


secretum of, 245. 
Flo-retty or Floni, 687. 
Florin, The, 327. 
Flory, 112, 687, 731. 

Cross, 157 ; Fig. 58, p. 164. 
Flotant, 687. 
Floicered, 687. 
Flowers, 315. 
Flurty, Cross, 158. 
Flute as a charge, 387. 
Foi, 205, 732. 

FOI DB ST. MAURICE, arms, 206. 
FOIX, BLANCHE DE, arms, 418. 
,, Counts of, arms, 122, 418, 434. 

GASTON DE, label, 418. 
,, .Prince de, arms, 129. 
,, seals of Counts of, 56. 
Foliated, 687. 

FONTAINE, DE, arms, 170. 
arms, 575 ; PI. XLVII., fig. 2, p. 573. 
FONTENAI, arms, 91. 
FONTENAY, Marquisesde, arms, 262. 

arms, 309. 

FORABOSCHI, arms, 113. 
FORBES, arms, 229, 446, 447 ; PL XXIIL, 

iig. 5, p. 228. 
,, arms in Lyon Office Register, 


,, of Echt, fess, 431. 
,, ,, Monymusk, chevron, 431. 
,, ,, Rires, arms, 446. 

,, ,, Tolquboun, arms, 446. 

FORBESES in Aberdeen, 400. 
FORCE, Dues de la, 12. 
Forcene, 727, 732. 
Forces, 732. 

,, a tondeur, 732. 
Forest, 316 ; PI. XXIX., fig. 5, p. 318. 
FOREST, DE LA, arms, 316. 

,, ,, Marquises d'AR- 

MAILLE, arms, 434. 
-LANDRY, brisure, 434. 
FORESTEL, arms, 434. 


Foret, 691. 

FOREZ, Counts of, arms, 212. 
FORMANOIRS, arms, 202. 
Formee or Formy, 688. 
Formy, 688. 

,, Cross, 153. 
FORNARA, arms, 98. 
FORREST, amis, 315. 
FORRESTER, ADAM, seal, 632. 

,, Lord, of Corstorphine, arms, 


,, of Garden, arms, 385. 

FORT, Baron le, arms, 231. 
FORT ESC UE, Earl, arms, 133. 

,, ,, supporters, 606. 

FORTIGUIERRE, arms] 79. 
FORTUNATI, arw, 66. 
Fortune, Personification of, in Heraldry, 


FOSCARI, arms, 166. 
sure, 451. 
FOSTER'S Baronetage, 83, 84, 529. 

,, Peerage, S3, 84, 194, 562, 604, 


Fotheringhay Castle, 591. 
FOUCAULD, arms, 212. 

,, Seigneur de la ROCHE', 


Foudre, 705, 732. 
FOULIS, arms, 319 ; PI. XXIX., fig. 8, p. 


of Leadhills, 436. 
Sir JOHN, of Ravelston, fess, 
Fountain, 193, 688 ; PL XIX., fig. 5, p. 


,, arms, 240. 

Fourche, 214, 688, 732. 

Cross, 161. 
Fourchcte, 732. 
Fourche Ite, 688. 

,, Cross, 161. 

Fourclnj, Cross, Fig. 59, p. 164. 
FOURNILLON, arms, 336. 
Fourrure, 732. 

FOUSKARNAKI, arms, 195. 
Fox, The, 230. 
FOX, Bishop, arms, 264. 
Foxes counter salient, PL XXIIL, fig. 6, p. 


FOY, DE LA, arms, 206. 
Fracted, 688. 
Fraise, 323, 688. 

Praises, PL XXX., fig. 2, p. 332. 
Franc-canton, 166. 

ffv.artier, 165, 700, 732. 
FRANCE-ANCIENT, arms, 112, 329, 354, 
369, 416, 429, 452, 
456, 458, 462, 464, 
465, 475, 502, 505, 
538, 570, 571, 574, 
629, 661; PL VIII., 
fig. 8, p. 100; arms, 
PJ. XLIV., fig. 5, 
p. 537. 
,, ,, fleurs-de-lis of, 454. 

arms, 104, 146, 171, 330, 439, 
463, 464, 466, 479, 484, 485, 
488, 504, 505, 515, 521, 529, 
530, 534, 539, 555, 557, 559, 
570, 572, 573, 593, 635, 636, 
662, 663, 710; PI. XXV., fig. 
3, p. 260; PI. XXX., fig. 5, 
p. 332. 
,, augmentations in, 538. 

badge, 596. 

,, bordure of, 172, 438, 439, 560. 

,, cap of Chancellor of, 625. 

,, caj) of Premiers Presidents in, 


,, chief of, 539. 
,, coronet of a baron in, 625. 
,, of a count in, 624. 

,, of a viscount in, 625. 

,, of marquis in, 624. 
coronets of " lesftls de, 620. 
crests in, 604. 
croicns of, 620. 
DAUPHIN of, 642. 

arms, PI. XXVI. , 
fig. 7, p. 266 ; 269. 
Duke of, 11. 

,, Early Great Seals of, 618. 
,, Form of shield, in, 56. 

FRANCOIS, Grand Chambel- 
lan de, arms, 572. 

( 796 ) 

FRANCE, Great Seals of Kings of, 


,, Imperial Standard of, 660. 
ISABEL of, seal, 4(35, 479. 

Isle de, 11. 
,, JEANNE DE, seal of, 457 ; PI. 

XXXV., fig. 3, p. 415. 
King JOHN of, 528. 
label of, 416, 417. 
,, " Le drapeau blanc " of, 659. 

LOUIS, Dauphin of, seal, PI. 

XXXVII., fig. 5, p. 447. 
,, mantling for princes, dukes, 

etc., in, 616. 
,, ,, of the Chancellier, 

,, ,, of the Presidents, 

MARECHAUX DE, coronet, 


III. of, seal, 454. 

,, ,, . of, arms, 465. 

,, ,, ,, seal, 457, 462. 

,, Marks of illegitimacy in, 570. 
,, ,, office in, 645. 

-MODERN, arms, 429, 538, 

570, 571, 061, 663, (367. 
Oriftamme of, 658. 

,, Origin of Tricolor of, 659. 

,, Pairs de, mantling armoye, 


,, Pavilion of Kings of, 616. 
,, Residence of Kings of, 658. 

,, Rhyming Chronicle of, 658. 
,, Royal arms, 112. 

,, ,, cadency of, 439. 

flags of, 659. 
,, House of, 505. 

,, ,, ,, crest, 608. 

,, ,, supporters, 635, 636. 

,, Toques denoting different ranks 

in, 62(5. 
,, Use of escucheon en surtout in, 


,, ,, la/jelin,424. 

,, ,, supporters in, 636. 

FRANCHI, arms, 79, 86; PI. VI., fig. 4, 

p. 84. 

FRANCIOTI, arms, 288. 
FRANCIS I., King of FRANCE, cromi, 
620 ; device of, 294 ; seal of, 
329, 334 ; PI. XXXVII., fig. 
1, p. 447 ; supporters, 636. 
,, II., King of FRANCE, sup- 
porters, 63(-'. 
Emperor, 540. 
FRANCOIS I., badge, 586. 
FRANCONI, arms,''i2. 
FRANCQUART, in Belgium, system of 

lines representing colour, 64. 
FRANGIPANI, arm*, 391. 
FRANKFURT, City of, arms, 255. 
FRANKS, CLOVIS, King of the, 326. 
Fraser or Praise, 6S8. 
FRASER, arms, 323, 406, 446 ; PI. XXX., 

fig. 2, p. 332. 
,, arms in Lyon Office Seaister, 


HUGH, bordure, 442. 
,, JAMES of Ferendrach, bend, 


,, of Oliver Castle, arms, 521. 
Sir ALEXANDER, seal, 441. 

ANDER, label, 420. 
FRAUENBERG, Barons of, arms, 447. 
FRAUNBERG, Baron, arms, 121, 447. 
FRAUNHOFEN, Baron, arms, 121. 

of SWABIA, 244. 
,, I., Emperor, augmentations 

granted by, 536. 
,, II., Emperor, 208. 

,, ,, augmentations 

granted by, 

,, ,, banners of , 245. 

III., King of DENMARK 


FREDERICK, nat. son 

of, 581. 

,, IV., Burg-grave of NURN- 

BERG, 454. 
Emperor, HOLY ROMAN 

EMPIRE, croicn, 621. 
Prince of WALES, 423. 
FRENCH Armory, helmet in, 601. 
,, blazon, 109. 

EMPIRE, arms, 572. 
,, ,, Eagles of, 541 

,, ,, Staff of flag, 660. 

,, G. J., On the Banners of the 
Bai/eux Tapestry, 149, 291, 

Glossary, 709. 
,, Revolution, effect of, on Her- 
aldry, 25. 

FREPPELS, arms, 284. 
FRERE, arms, 186. 
FRESNAY, artns, 71. 
FRESTEL, arms, 96. 
Fret, 116, 1(35, 181, 688 ; PI. XIX., fig. 11, 

p. 192. 

FRETEL, arms, 96. 
Frette, 688, 732. 
Frette, 688, 732. 
Fretted, 688. 
Frettr, 96, 6SS, 732; PL VIII., fig. 5, 

p. 100. 

FREVILLE, arms, 157. 
FR1BERG, arm*, 184. 
FRIDUNG, VON, arms, 752. 
FRIEDLAND, Duke of, arms, 220. 

,, ,, augmentation, 


FRIES, arms, 295. 
FRIOUL, Duchy, arms, 503. 
FRISIA, Dimidiation in, 469. 
FRIULI, Duchy, arms, 503. 
Frogs, 274, 278. 
FROHBERG, Counts von, supporters, 

FROISSART, 35, 378, 592. 

,, arms, 127. 

FROSCH, arms, 279. 
FROSCHAMMER, arms, 279. 
FROSCH AUER, arms, 279. 
FROSCH L, arms, 279. 
Fructed, 688. 
Fruite, 688, 732. 
Fruits, 315, 339. 
FRUMBESEL, arms, 237. 
Frying pans as charges, 390. 
FUCHSS, Counts, arms, 230. 
FUENSALDA, ai-nu, 193. 
FUGGER, arms, 331. 

( 797 ) 

FUGGER, Spiegel der JEhren des Hauses 

Oesterreich, 247. 
FULFORD, supporters, 638. 
FULLER, arms, 533. 
FULLERTON, arms, 239. 
FUMEZ, Marques de, arms, 148. 
Furchy, 688. 
Furieux, 701, 728, 732. 
Furnished, 688. 
FURNIVAL, arms, 403. 

,, GERARD DE, arms, 403. 

THOMAS, arms, 403. 
WALTER DE, arms, 403. 
Furs, 63 ; PI. IV., p. 62. 

,, in Heraldry, supposed origin of, 22. 
,, Use of in different countries, 74. 
FtiRSTENBURG, Counts of, arms, 126. 
FURSTENHAUER, arms, 153. 
FURSTENWARTER, Barons von, arms, 


Fuseau, 184. 
Fusee, 184. 
Fusee, 688, 732. 

FUSEE DE VOISENON, arms, 184. 
Fusele, 100, 688, 732. 
FUSELIER, LE, arms, 184. 
Fusil, 182, 183, 688, 732; PL XVIII., fig. 

11, p. 190; Fig. 46, p. 116. 
Fusilly, 100, 185, 688, 732; PL VII., 

fig. 10, p. 90. 
in bend, 100 ; PL VIL, fig. 11, 

p. 90. 
Fusils conjoined, PL XVI 1 1., fig. 12, 

p. 190. 

Fute, 690, 732. 
Fylfot, 82, 688. 
FYNDERNE, arms, 156. 

GABRIELI, Princes, 16. 

GAETANI, arms, 132. 

Gai, 732. 

GAINSBOROUGH, Earls of, arms, 96. 

GAL, LE, arms, 93. 

GALBA, medal of, 328. 

GALEN, VAN, monument of, 626. 

GALEOTTI, arms, 128. 

Galere, 688, 694, 732. 

GALICIA, arms of kingdom of, 372, 504. 

GALISSONlfeRE, Marquis de la, arms, 

Galley, 688. 

, , as a badge, 753. 
,, as a charge, 367. 
GALLOT, arms, 140. 
GALLOWAY, ALAN, Lord of, 460. 

amis, 427, 460, 514, 515, 

516, 519, 521. 
Fair Maid of, 515, 517. 
,, Lordship of, arms, 214. 

Gal-traps, 688. 

GAM, Sir DAVID, arms, 348. 
GAMA, VASCO DA, arms, 100. 

,, ,, arms and augmenta- 

tion, 547. 

GAMACHES, Marquises of, arms, 118. 
GAMARAGE, Comte de, arms, 319. 
Gamb, 222, 688. 
GAMIN, amis, 191. 
Gammadion, 82. 
GAND, BAUDOIN DE, Seigneur d' 

ALOST, arms, 118. 
GANGALANDI, arms, 82. 
GANGES, Seigneurs de, 10. 
GANNAY, arms, 140. 

Gantelet, 688. 
Garb, 688 ; PL XXX., fig. 12, p. 332. 
,, as a badge, 585. 
, , as a crest, 605. 
GARBETT, arms, 352. 
Garbs, 341. 

GARCIAS, arms, 263. 
GARCIN, arms, 276. 
GARC1NI, arms, 276. 
Gardant, 688. 
GARDNER, arms, 133. 
GARIOCH, arms, 567. 
Garland, 688. 
GARLAND, amis, 336. 

GUI DE, seal of, 48. 
Garni, 690, 732. 

GARNIER, Comte de GRAY, arms, 118. 
Garnished, 384, 688. 
GARRAULT, arms, 296. 
Garter, 688. 

GARTER, avnw of ORDER OF THE, 141. 
,, crested helms above the stalls 

of the Knights of the, 603. 
,, King of Arms, arms, 424, 525. 
,, motto, 664. 

sltields of Knights of the, 63. 
,, Stall Plates of the Knights of 
the, 63, 134, 602, 612. 
GARVINE, arms, 268. 
GASCEL1N, arms, 112. 
GASCQ, 12. 

GASTINELS, arms, 364. 
Gatex as charges, 393. 
GATTERER, Handbuchder Neuesten Gen- 

ealogie und Heraldik, 496. 
GAUNT, JOHN of, 438, 555, 578, 588, 590, 


badge, 591, 593. 
Gauntlet, 688. 


GAVENOR, arms, 230. 
WALL, arms, 257. 
GAWDEY, arms, 277. 
Gaze, At, 232, 688. 

GAZET DE BRANDAY, arms, 279. 
GAZZARI, arms, 293. 
Ged, The, 271. 
GEDDES, arm*, 271. 

W. D., and P. DUGUID, Heral- 
dic Ceiling of Aberdeen Cathedral, 84. 
GEESDORP, VAN, arms, 183. 
Geese, 267. 
GELENIUS, system of lines representing 

colour, 64. 
GELIOT, La Vraie et Perfect Science des 

Armoiries, 2. 

GELLHEIM, Battle of, 246. 
Gem-ring, 688. 

GEMELL, Barons, arms, 198. 
GEMELLI, arms, 198. 
Gemells, 68S. 

GENDRON, arms, 165, 200. 
Genealogist, The, 62, 131, 409, 477. 
GENESTET, arms, 202. 
Genet, 688. 
GENEVA, arms, 467, 469. 

,, Counts of, arms, 99. 
GENEVILE, Lords, arms, 357. 

GENEVILLE, DE, arms, 47. 

( 798 ) 

GENEVILLE, DE, Seigneurs de BROYES, 

arms, 357. 

SIMON DE, arms, 357. 
GENICEI, arms, 98. 
GENNEP, VAN, arms, 337. 
GENOA, arms, 283. 

,, Republic of, arms, 141. 
GENT, VAN, arms, 161. 
Gentlemen, helm of, (301, 602. 

,, Use of term, 6. 

Gentleman's Magazine, 20, 246, 467. 
GEORGE I., Elector of HANNOVER, 

arms, 063. 

King of BRITAIN, an**, 
PL LIL, fig. 9, p. 663; 
Exchequer Heal of, 662 ; 
supporters on Seal of Com- 
mon Pleas of, 663. 
II., King of BRITAIN, arms, 

PL LIL, fig. 9, p. 663. 
III., King of BRITAIN, arms, 
PJ. HI., figs. 9 and 10, p. 
663 ; labels of his family, 

,, IV., arms, PI. LIL, fig. 10, p. 
663 ; seal of, 598. 
GEORGES, Four, Kings of BRITAIN, 

arms, 237. 

GEORGIA, arms, 666. 
GERARD, arms, 143. 
Gerated, 688. 
Gerbe, 688. 

Gmon, Tete de, 200, 732. 
GERLINGTON, arms, 283. 
GERMAN Armory, helmets in, 601. 
,, eagle, 660. 
,, Electors, arms, 615. 
,, Emperor's crown, 617, 621. 
,, EMPIRE, arms, 254, 665 ; PL 

LIV., fig. 1, p. 667. 
,, Princes (Fiirsten), crown, 623. 
GERMANY, arms of Emperor on Eagle, 


,, coronet of a Baron in, 625. 

,, ,, Count in, 624. 

,, crest as augmentation, 608. 

,, crested helm in, 600, 603, 604. 

,, croicn, Emperors of, 621. 

,, double-headed eagle of, 468. 

,, Emperor of, arms, 252. 

,, Emperors of, using escucheon 

en surtout, 486. 

,, Imperial crown of, 622. 

,, ,, standard of 660. 

,, mode of differencing, 405. 

,, old Imperial crowns of, 622. 

,, Princess Royal, Empress of, 

label, 423. 
standard of the Empress of, 

,, Tinctures of lambrequins 

in, 612. 

,, Use of bordure in, 440. 

,, ,, label in, 424. 

,, supporters in, 637, 
GEROLDSECK, Counts of, arms, 215. 

,, Lordship of, anus, 490. 

GERVIS, arms, 352. 
GEVRES, Due de, 12. 

,, ,, supporters, 294. 

GEYER, arm*, 261. 
GEYSS, amis, 299. 

GHELDERSON, lambrequin, 613. 

GHENT, arms, 283. 

JOHN of, Duke of LANCAS- 
TER (see GAUNT). 

GHERARDINI, arm*, 128. 

GHIBELINE, chief, 119, 470, 538. 

GHIBELLI, Dr, Patent of arms granted 
to, 601. 

GHIGI, arms, 319. 

GHISELIN, arms, 280. 

GHISI, arms, 88. 


GHISTELLES, arms, 136. 

MARIA DE, 573. 

GIACINTO, arms, 338. 

GIBBON, 157. 

GIBELLINI, supporters, 303. 

GIECH, Counts of, arms, 488. 

G1EDE, arms, 271. 

GIELIS, arms, 393. 

GIFFARD, arm*, 97, 183, 216. 

GIFFORD, arms, 357 ; PI. XXI., fig. 4, p. 

,, of Yester, arms, 521. 

GIJ1ON, AFFONSO, Conde de, 577. 

GILLART, arms, 295. 

GILLES, Seigneur de BERLAER, arms, 

Gillyjloicers, 337. 

Gimmel-ring, 688. 

GINKELS, Earls of, ATHLONE, arms, 

GIOLFINI, arms, 72. 

GIOVANELLI, Princes, arms, 370. 


GIRESME, NICOLE DE, supporters, 635. 

GIROLAMI, arms and augmentation, 541. 

Giron, 167, 686, 689, 732. 

GIRON, arms, 168. 

Duke of OSSUNA, etc., antis, 
167, 441 ; PI. XLL, fig. 2, p. 509. 

Gironnants, 732. 

Gironne, 83, 689, 732, 736. 
en Croix, 732. 
,, Mai, 733. 

Gironny, 689. 

Girouette, 358, 733. 

Gisant, 681, 733. 

GISE, arms, 101 ; PI. VIII., fig. 1, p. 100. 

GISSEY, arms, 372. 

GIUDICI, arms, 87. 

GIUSTI, arms, 79. 


FRANCESCO, arms and 
augmentation, 537. 

GIUSTO, arms, PL V., fig. 3, p. 80. 

GLADSTONE, anus, 175. 

GLAFEY, Specimen decadem Sigillorum, 
243, 328, 621. 

GLAMORGAN, Lords of, 386. 

LAY, arms, 343. 

GLANVILLE, anus, 145 ; PL XV., fig. 12, 
p. 144. 

GLASGOW, City and See of, anns, 316. 
,, City of, arms and supporters, 

,, Earl of, arms, 234, 523. 

GLAUBITZER, anns, 743. 

GLAVENAS, arms, 153. 

GLEDSTANES, anus, 175, 199 ; PL XVII., 
fig. 9, p. 172. 

GLEGG, arms, 220; PL XXII., fig. 2, p. 

( 799 ) 

GLEICHEN, Counts of, arms, 214. 
GLEN, amis, 5e'6. 



Gliding, 274, 689. 
GLOGATJ, Dukes of, arms, 255. 
Glossary, English, 676. 

French, 709. 

daughter of Duke 
arms, 556. 

,, badge, 754. 

,, Duchess of, arms, 475. 

Duke of, 642. 

,, ,, anus, PL 

XVII., fig. 4, 
p. 172. 
,, helm, 602. 

Earl of, 457. 

,, ,, arms, 79, 257. 

,, ,, badge, 386. 

Earls of, arms, 139. 
HENRY, Duke of, 

laltel, 421. 

of, arms, 
,, Duke of, 

bordure, 556. 
THOMAS, Duke of, 
ba-ifie, 593; seal, PI. 
XXXV., fig. 1, p. 

WILLIAM, Duke of, 



,, FREDE- 

Duke of, 
label, 423. 
Duke of, 
label, 423. 
Duke of, label, 421. 
GLOVER'S Ordinary of Arms, 133, 148, 

169, 557. 

Roll of Arms, 193, 208, 264, 
265, 331, 376, 357, 379, 404, 407, 408, 
438, 458, 4S1, 550, 552. 
Gloves as charges, 392. 
GOATLEY, crest, 295. 
Goats, PL XXIV., fig. 3, p. 236. 

,, ami Goat's heads, 235. 
GOBBI, arms, 231. 
Goblets as charges, 382. 
Gobone or Gobony, 689, 721. 
GODEFROI, arms, 113. 
GOESHEN, arms, 202. 
GOETHE, arms, 308. 
GOFFE, arm*, 188. 
GOGH, VAN, arms, 374. 
GOHAING, arms, 143. 
GOICX, WILHELM DE, brass of, 580. 
Gold or Or, 60, 65. 

,, shield, plain, 6. 
GOLDEGGER, arms, f69 ; PI. LV., fig. 7, 

p. 669. 

GOLDINGTON, arms, 130. 
GOLDISBURGH, arms, 160. 
Golpes, 190, 689. 
GO X 1)1, arm*, 736. 
GONDRECOURT, Counts of, arms, 214. 

GONDY, arms, 735. 

Gonfalon, 733. 

GONFALONIKRE, Papal pale of the, 

. 541. 
Gonfanon, 658, 659, 689, 733. 

,, as a charge, 372. 
GONNELIEU, arms, 130. 
GONTAUT, Due de BIRON, arms, 

GONZAGA, Dukes of MANTUA, arms, 

94, 259, 502, 536. 

1st Marquis of MANTUA, augmenta- 
tion, 537. 

GONZALES, arms, 361. 
GORCKEN, arms, 290. 
GORCUM, VAN, am*, 203. 
GORDON, arms, 227, 435, 436, 521. 

ADAM, 521. 

ALEXANDER, Lord, label, 

,, family, arms, 180. 

,, heiress of, 605. 

,, of Cairnbulg, arms, 568. 

,, ,, Earlston, brisure, 435. 

,, ,, (jlasterim, brisure, 435. 

,, ,, Hallhead, bordure, 569. 

Knokespock, brisure, 435. 
Lenuoir,/M, 431. 
Lochinvar, bend, 430. 
Newark, brisure, 435. 
Rusco, bordure, 569. 
Tetschie, brisure, 435. 
GORDONS in Aberdeen, 400. 
Gore, 689. 

GORE, Earl of ARRAN, arms, 163. 
Gorge, 193, 689. 
Gorge, 733. 
Gorged, 689. 
Gorges, 689. 
GORGES, arms, 193; PI. XIX., fig. 6, 

p. 192. 

GORKE, arms, 290. 
GORLITZ, VON, arms, 752. 

arms, 136. 
,, Princes of the HOLY 

ROMAN EMPIRE, arms, 136. 
GQRTERE DE, arms, 140. 
GORZ, County, arms, 496, 503. 
GOSCHEN, arms, 92, 202. 
Godtairl; PI. XXV., tig. 6, p. 260. 
GOSNOLD, arms, 80. 
GOSPATRIC, arms, 191. 
GOTHLAND, arms, 667. 
GOTSCHEN, VON, arms, 92. 
GOTTER, Counts, arms, 136. 

,, ,, augmentation, 543. 

GOTTSCHEE, arms, 448. 
GOTTSTEIN, Counts von, supporters, 


a7-is, 346. 

GOUD1E, arms, 278. 
Govffre, 689, 733. 
GOUGH, Lord, arms, 534. 

,, ,, monuments, 57. 

,, Viscount, supporter, 292. 
GOUJON, monument by, 164. 

741 ; L'Art Heraldique, 329. 
GOURNAY, arms, 67. 
i GOURNEY, ai-ms, 142. 

( 8oo ) 


DE, brisure, 451. 
GOUSSANCOURT, Martyrologe des Cheva- 

liers de I'Ordre de S. Jean de Jeru- 

salem, 365, 402. 
Gousset, 689, 733. 
Goutte, 114, 689. 
Gott.ttc*, 113, 689, 733, 735. 
GOUVIS, onus, 71. 
GOVAERTS, arms, 184. 
GOWER, arms, 157. 

,, poet, 597. 
Gowrie Plot, 535. 
GOYER, DE, arms, 184. 
GOYON, 12. 

Dues of VALENTINOIS, arms, 

,, Vicomtes de, arms, 214. 
GRACAY, arms, 213. 
Graded, 689. 

GRADENIGHI, arms, 365. 
GRADEXIGO, Counts, arms, 365 ; PI. 

XXXII., fig. 10, p. 358. 
Gradient, 689. 

GRADISCA, Counts of, amis, 159, 503. 
GRAFENEGG, Counts von, arms, 182. 
Grafted, 689. 
GRAFTOX, Duke of, arms, 559 ; PI. XII., 

fig. 12, p. 130. 
AHAM, arms, 432. 


arms in Lyon Office Register, 

Duke of MOXTROSE, arms, 


JOHN, chevron, 431. 
of Braco, Sir WILLIAM, 

brisure, 433. 
,, ,, Dundatf, PATRICK, son of 

Sir DAVID, label, 419. 
,, ,, Fintry, Sir ROBERT, 433. 

,, ,, ,, brisure, 433. 

,, ,, Garvock, arms, 178. 

,, ,, Inchbrackie, arms, 363. 

,, ,, Kinpunt, ROBERT, bri- 

sure, 432. 
,, ,, Morphie, arms, 432. 

ERX, brisure, 432. 
GRAILLY, DE, amis, 418. 

JOHN DE, Captal de BUCH, 

crest, 606. 

,, ,, label, 418. 


,, HUGH DE, lions armoye, 


,, see DELMAS, 541. 

,, Dues de, arms, 214. 

GRANADA, arms, PI. XXX., fig. 10, 

p. 332. 

,, Capilla de los Reyes, 633. 

GRANATA, arms, 339. 
Grand Capitulaire of Champagne, 10. 

,, Escuyer, French, mark of office, 645. 
GRAND PRE, Comtes de, arms, 94. 

arms, 280. 

GRANDIN, arms, 339. 
GRANDISON, arms, 428. 

JOHN DE, Bishop of 
EXETER, brisure, 437. 
GRANDORGE, arms, 341. 
GRANGE, arms, 339. 
GRANGER, arms, 339. 
GRANIER, arms, 339. 


GRANOLLACHS, arms, 279. 

Grant of Augmentation, etc. , to WILLIAM 

SPEKE, 750. 
GRANT, arms, 380; PL XXXIIL, fig. 5, 

p. 376. 

arms in Lyon Office Register, 400. 
crest, 610. 
Dr GREGORY, arms transferred 

to 755. 

NEIL, transfers arms, 755. 
of Auchernack, 755. 
,, Ballindalloch, arms, 351. 
,, ,, brisure, 435. 

,, Carron, brisure, 435. 
,, Rothiemurcus, bordure, 569. 
GRANTHAM, HENRY, Earl of, 580. 
GRANTLEY, Lord, supporters, 647. 
GRANTMESNIL, arms, 121. 
Grants of Nobility, 5. 
GRANTZ, arms, 336. 
GRANULLAS, amis, 201. 
GRANYILLE, arms; PL XXXIIL, fig. 11, 

p. 376. 

Earls of BATH, arms, 386. 
,, Lords of NEATH, 386. 

Grapes, Bunch of, as a charge, 391, 339. 
Grappin, 733. 
GRASSE, arms, 212, 752. 
Grasshoppers, 284. 
GRASS I, arms, 470. 
GRATET, arms, 289. 
GRAUL, 409. 

GRAVENECK, Counts von, arms, 182. 
GRAY and HASTINGS Controversy, 415. 
Comte de, arms, 118. 

arms, 556. 

Lord, arms, 174, 435. 
of Ballengarno, brisure, 435. 
,, Haystoun, brisure, 435. 
Howick, arms, 215. 
GREAT BRITAIN, crests in, 609. 

,, ,, Royal arms of, 661. 

YARMOUTH, arms, 467. 
Grearcs, 689. 
GREECE, arms, 153, 487, 666. 

,, GEORGE, King of, arms, 487. 

OTHO, King of, arms, 487. 
,, supporters, 666. 
Greek Cross, 153 ; Fig. 48, p. 164. 
Green or Vert, 60, 65. 
GREEN, arms, 532. 
GREENE, arms, 232. 
GREFEN, arms, 752. 
GREGORY IX., Pope, arms, 256. 
,, XII., Pope, arms, 293. 

GREIFFENSTE1N, Barons von, arms, 289. 
GREIFFN, arms, 289. 
TER, arms, 132. 

GREINDL, Barons von, arms, 341. 
Grele, 698, 733. 
Grelier, 691, 733. 
Grelot, 733. 

Grelots as charges, 373, 690, 733. 
GRENADA, arms, 488, 667 (see 


,, Kingdom of, arms, 339. 

Grenades, 733. 

,, de Guerre, 733. 

GRENDALL, THOMAS, of Fentoun, 
grants arms, 35. 

( SOT ) 

GRBNDALL, THOMAS, transfers arms, 


GRENEE, LA, arm*, 140. 
GRENIER, arms, 339. 

Bishop of, arms, 52. 
GRESHAM, crest, 285. 
GRESLEY, arms, 71. 
GREY, 17. 

and HASTINGS Controversy, 320. 
,, badge, 754. 

DE, arms, 192, 412, 428, 554 ; PI. 

IX., fig. 3, p. 108. 
,, ,, Lord WALSINGHAM, anna, 


Duke of SUFFOLK, arms, 412. 
,, Lady JANE, arms, 192. 
,, JOHAN DE, arms, 412. 
,, JOHN DE, arms, 428. 

,, Sir , Le Bastard, arms, 554. 

Greyhound as a badge, 753. 

White, as a badge, 595. 
,, ,, as a crest, (505. 

The, 241. 

Greyhounds as supporters, 636. 
GREYS, Earls of STAMFORD, arms, 92. 
GREYSPACH, arms, 93. 
GREYSTOCK, arms, 183, 474, 641. 

Baron of, arms, 336, 378. 
ELIZABETH, dtr. of 
Lord, 585. 
,, ,, heiress of, 

arms, 474. 

,, JOHN, Baron of, arms, 44. 

WILLIAM, Baron of, 
grants arms, 35. 
GRIB, arms, 287. 

GRIBAUVAL, Marquises of, arms, 128. 
Grices, 683, 689. 
Grieces, 689. 

GRIENENSTEIN. arms, 93. 
GRIESENBERG, arms, 98. 
GRIFFA, arms, 288. 
GRIFFENSTEIN, arms, 289. 
Griffin as a badge, 753. 

' or Griffon, or Gryphon, The, 286. 
Sea, 290. 

,, ,, as a supporter, 640. 
Sepreant, PI. XXVII., fig. 5, p. 288. 
GRIFFIN, Monsire de, arms, 287. 
Griffin's claws, 286. 
,, egg, 287. 

head, 289; PI. XXVII., fig. 6, 
p. 288. 
GRIFFITH, Princes of CARDIGAN, etc., 

ai-mx, 212. 

GRIFFITHS, arms, 333. 
Griffon, see Griffin, 689, 733. 

,, as supporter, 632, 633. 
GRIFFONI, arms, 80. 
GBIFONI, arms, 99. 
GRIGNAN, Comte de, arms, 132. 

,, Comtesse de, 132. 

GRIGNON, Marquis de, 12. 
GRIGNY, Marquis de, a?-ms, 165. 
Grillage, 98. 
GrilUs, 601, 602, 733. 
Grillete, 678, 733. 
Grillets, 690, 733. 

arms, 284. 

GRIMALDI, arms, PI. VII., fig. 10, p. 

GRIMALDI, Princes of MONACO, arms, 


GRIMBERGHE, VAN, arms, 427. 
GRIMMINCK, arms, 241. 
Grimpant, 701, 733. 
GRIMTHORP, arms, 641. 
GRIMTHORPE, arms, 474. 
GRINDALL, amis, 157. 
Gringole, 689, 733. 

,, cross, 161, 276. 
Gringoly, 689. 
GRIONI, arms, 285. 
GROBBENDONCK, arms, 187. 
GROENENDYK, arms, 338. 
GROIN, arms, 715. 
GROLEE, DE, arms, 404. 
GROONENDYCK, arms, 370. 
GROSCHLAG, DIE, arms, 412. 

and SCROPE Case, 341, 

arms, PI. XXX., fig. 12, p. 


, , Dukes of Westminster, arms, 

GROTE, Gcschichte der Weljischen Stamm- 

icappen, 472. 
GROUCHES, Marquises of CHEPY and 

GRIBAUVAL, amis, 128. 
GRUBEN, arms, 390. 


Grue, 738. 

GRUNBERG, arms, 752. 
Griinenberg Armorial, 639. 
GRUTEL, arms, 71. 
GRYF, herba of, arms, 289. 
GRYNS, arms, 201. 
Gryphon-marine, 290. 

The (see Griffin), 286. 
Grypishey, 287. 
GRZYMALA, Counts, arms, 359. 

,, herba of, a?-ms, 359. 

GUALTERI, arms, 132. 
Guardant, 689. 
GUASCHI, arms, 80. 
GUASTALLA, Duchy, 502. 
GUASTO, Marquises of, augmentation, 

GUE, DU, Vicomtes de MEJUSSUAUME, 

GUELDERS, Duchy of, arms, 99, 491. 

,, Dukes of, arms, 409, 


MARY of, seal, 476. 
" GUELDRE," Armorials of the Herald, 

GUELDRES, Counts of, arms, 409. 

,, GERARD IV., Count of, 

arms, 409. 

,, RENAUD, Duke of, anus 


GUELF, 470. 
Gnelphic chief, 119, 538. 

,, arms, 254 ; 
fig. 1, p. 

OCH . 

,, ,, ,, crest, 606. 

,, ,, supporters, 

GUESPEREAU, arms, 284. 

( 802 ) 


arms, 72, 353. 
Gueules, 689, 733. 
,, plein, 66. 
GUEVARA, H-W, 132. 

JEAX DE, Corate 

d'ARIANO, wreath, 614. 
GUI DE MUNOIS, monk of St. Germain 

1'Anxerrois, arms, 672. 
GUIBERT, arms, 349. 
GUICCIARDINI, arms, 386. 
GUICHE, Dues de, arm*, 214, 

,, LA, arms, 143. 

GUICHENON, Histoire Genealogigut de la 
Maison de Savoye, 454, 579. 
,, quoted, 629. 

Guidon, 655, 689, 733. 
GUIENNE, arms, 531. 
GUILLAND, arms, 68. 
GUILLAUME, DE, Seigneurs de MONT- 

Duke of SORIA, 450. 
le Bastard de SAVOIE, 
arms, 579. 
GUILLIM, Display of Heraldry, 2, 22j 23, 

64, 188, 225, 486, 529, 535. 
GUIXAXDS, arms, 277. 
GUINES, Counts and Dukes of, arms, 71. 
GUIOT DE DOIGXOX, Marquesses, 

arms, 265. 
,, ,, PONTEIL, Counts, arms, 


GUIPUSCOA, arms of Province, S66. 

QUITE, ROBIX DE, supporters, 633. 
GUITOX, Vicomtes de, arms, 388. 
GUITTARDI, arms, 383. 
GUITTOX, arms, 383. 
Guivre, 733. 
Guivre, 689. 

,, cross, 161. 
GUIZOT, M., amis, 126. 
GUJAXS, arms, 202. 
GULDIXEX, lambrequin, 613. 
Gules or Red, 60, 62, 65, 689 ; PI. III., fig. 

3, p. 60. 

,, shield, plain, 66. 

Ginnene, 733. 

GtiXDEL, augmented crest, 546. 
GUND HIGH ING, arms, 91. 
GUNNING, amis, 366. 
Gun-stone, 190, 689. 

of the Emperor, 248. 

Surges, 193, 708 ; PL XIX., fig. 6, p. 192. 

,, or Gorges, 689. 
GURNET, arms, 142. 
GUROWSKI, Counts, arms and augmen- 
tation, 543. 

GURWOOD, arms, 136. 
Giiwt or Gore, 6S9. 

SWEDEN, 546, 581. 
GUTAKOWSKI, Counts, arms, 356. 
GUTHRIE of Halkerstoun, arms, 216. 
GUTINGEN, arms, 325. 
Quite d'eau, PL VIII., fig. 12, p. 100. 
Guttee or Gouttee, 689. 

Gutty or Goutee, 114, 689. 


Guzes, 190, 689. 

GUZMAN, arms, 275, 390, 508; PL 

XXXIIL, fig. 8, p. 376. 
of TF 



?EBA, arms, 

arms, 390. 

GWENT, Princes of, arms, 212. 
GWRGAXT, JESTYN AP, arms, 140. 
GWYN, arms, 169. 
GYLDENHOFF, Barons, 314. 
LEN, arms, 581. 

,, Counts of DAXES- 

KIOLD-SAMSOE, arms, 581. 
GYXES, INGELRAM DE, arm*, 71. 
Gyron or Giron, 165, 167, 089 ; Fig. 44, 

p. 116 ; PI. XVIIL, fig. 4, p. 190. 
Gyronny of eight, PL VI., fig. 1, p. 84. 
six, PL VI., fig. 3, p. 84. 
twelee, PL VI., tig. 2, p. 84. 
,, or Gironny, 83, 689. 
Gyrons, PL XVIIL, fig. 5, p. 190. 

HAAG, Counts, arms, 121, 447. 
HAARLEM, stalls in the Cathedral of, 


HAAS, arms, 238. 
Habergeon, 690. 
HABERSTOCK, arms, 298. 
Habille, 690, 702, 733, 740. 
Habited, 690. 
Hache Danoise, 733. 
HACHE, DE LA, arms, 142. 
Hachemens, 734. 
HACKE, arms, PL XIX., fig. 7, p. 


,, Baron, arms, 310. 
Hackle, 690. 
HADDIXGTON, Viscount, augmentation, 

534, 535. 

HADELN, Barons, arms, 390. 
HADRIAN, coin of, 328. 
HAEFTEX, Barons von, arms, 119. 
HAEHNEL, arms, 306. 
HAERSOLTE, Barons van, arms, 140. 
HAEZE, LOUIS DE, arms, 572. 
HAGEN, arms, 162. 

,, augmented crest, 546. 
HAGENSTEIN, citadel of, 642. 
HAHN, Counts, arms, 265. 
Haie, 690. 
HAIG, arms, PL IX., fig. 5, p. 108. 

,, of Bemersyde, arms, 106. 

Count of, 57. 

,, ALICE, Countess of, 468. 

arms, 58, 460, 576. 

of Queen PHILIPPA 
of, 247. 

BALDWIN V., Count of, 
,, of, 
banner, 650. 
,, Counts of, arms, 98. 

badge, 592. 

,, early quartered coats of, 


HAINAULT, FLORENT of, bend, 429. 
,, ,, crest, 600. 

MARGARET of, seal, 463. 
PHILIPPA, of, 502. 
Queen PHILIPPA of, 

shield of, 463. 

,, seal and arm* of BALD- 

Count of, 48. 

,, seal and arms of MAR- 

GARET, Countess of, 

seal of FLORENT of , 630. 
WILLIAM of, seat-, 460, 
HALBERSTADT, Principality of, arms, 

Halberts, 348, 690. 

,, as supporters, 643. 

PI. VI., fig. 7, p. 84. 
HALES, arms, 349, 350 ; PI. XXXI., fig. 

6, p. 346. 

HALEWIJN, arms, 223. 
Halisant, 734. 
HALKETT, arms, 147. 
HALLOFTE, arms, 183. 


HALPENY, arms, 278. 
HALS, Counts of, arms, 472. 

bre/iuin, 611. 
Ham, 228. 
HAM, arms, 228. 
HAMBROEK, VAN, arms, 123. 
HAMBURG, arms, 283, 361. 

arms, 271. 

HAMELYN, arms, 97. 


Hames, 690. 
Hameyde, 734. 

HAMILTON, arms, 323, 368, 567, 568, 
570 ; PI. XXX., fig. 1, p. 
,, arms in. Lyon Office Register, 


,, Bart., arms, 434. 

,, Duke of, mantling armoye, 

,, family, 420. 

Lord BARGENY, arms, 


,, Marquess of, 568. 

,, of Blair, arms, 568. 

,, Cairnes, fess, 430. 
Clydesdale, Sir JOHN, 

,, ,, Colquot, arms, 186. 

Fynnart, Sir JAMES, 

arms, 567. 

,, ,, Neilsland, arms, 171. 

,, ,, bordure, 443. 

,, ,, Presmennan, bordure, 

,, ,, Preston and Fingalton, 

arms, 568. 

,, ,, ,, bordure, 442. 

,, ,, Samuelston, arms, 568. 

HAMING, arms, 374 
Hammers as charges, 393. 
HAMNER, arms, 270. 

i HANAU, Counts of, arms, 139, 169. 
i Hand, A Blessing, 204. 
,, human, 204. 

,, sinister, PI. XX., fig. 7, p. 198. 
Handled, 690. 

arm*, 290. 

HANNET, Barons, arms, 161. 
HANNOVER, arms, 618. 

,, Elector of, arms, 237, 380, 


,, House of, arms, PI. LIL, 

figs. 9 and 10, p. 663. 
HANNOVERIAN quartered coat, 663. 
HAPSBURG, arms, 247, 471, 496, 508, 

634, 664. 

,, Counts of, arms, 212. 

,, County, arms, 501. 

-LORRAINE, House of, 
HARCHIES, GERARD D', supporters, 

HARCOURT, arms, 126, 449; PI. XL, 

fig. 8, p. 124. 
,, JEAN D', eagles armoyee, 


MARIE, dtr. of JAMES, 
Comte de LONGUE- 
VJLLE, 529. 

RICHARD DE, arms, 404. 
Sir JOHN, arms, 404. 
HARD, Counts of, arms, 509. 
HARDBEANE, arms, 343. 
HARDENBERG, Count, arms and aug- 
mentation, 545. 
Hardi, 734. 
HARDING, HUGH, Grant of arms to, 

33, 34. 

Hare, 237 ; PI. XXIV., fig. 7, p. 236. 
HARELBEKE, arms, 137. 
HAREWOOD, Earls of, arms, 157. 
HARFORD, arms, 427. 
HARLAND, Sir ROBERT, arms, 299. 
HARLEIAN MSB., 66, 148, 167, 1SS, 375, 
386, 387, 587, 589, 590, 593, 595, 654, 
HARLESTON, arms, 128 ; PI. XL, fig. 12, 

p. 124. 

HARLEWIN, arms, 112. 
HARLEY, arms, 122 ; PI. XII., fig. 10, p. 


Earl of OXFORD, arms, 132. 
HAROLD of England, 30. 
HAROUE, Marquis d', arms, 145. 
Harp as a badge, 596. 
HARPE, LA, arms, 384. 
HARPEN, arms, 384. 
HARPENY, arms, 278. 
HARPHAM, arms, 384. 
Harps as charges, 383. 
HARPSFIELD, arms, 384. 
Harpy, 690. 

The, 295. 
HARRINGTON, arms, 181 ; PL XIX., 

fig. 11, p. 192. 

i-i^ii.i.i^, u jrd, arms, 534. 
HARSDORF, Barons, am*, 360, 
HARSICK, arms, 118. 
Hart, 690. 

,, White, as a. badge, 589. 
HARTROTT, augmented crest, 546. 
Harts, 231. 

HARTZHEIM, VON, arms, 82 ; PL V., 

fig. 12, p. 80. 
Harrest-tly, 690. 
HARVEY, r.rt*t, 563. 
HASENBERG, Barons, arms, 133. 
HASTINGS and GRAY Controversy, 415, 

arm*, 376; PL XXXIII. , 

tig. 1, p. 376. 
,, btidiie, 753, 754. 

Battle of, 30. 
DE, 16. 

arms, 376. 
Earls of PEMBROKE, arms, 


EDMUND of, label of, 414. 
EDWARD, Lord, standard 

of, 586. 

HENRY DE, arms, 376. 
,, label, 415. 

Hat as a crest, 608. 

,, Cardinal's as a charge, 374. 
Hatchets as charges, 394. 
Hatchment, 690. 

Hatfield Broad Oak, Essex, 308. 
HATHERTOX, Lord, supporters, 647. 
Hats as charges, 392. 
HATTOX, Earl of WINCHELSEA, armt, 


Hauberk; 690. 

HAUCKE, Countess JULIA VON, 525. 

arms, 183. 

HAULTEPENNE, Baron d', arms, 331. 
Hauriant, 268, 690. 
Haut, 686. 

Hausse, 120, 132, 685, 690, 734. 
HAUSSONVILLE, Comtes de, arms, 160. 
HAUTEN DE, arms, 88. 
HAUTIX, arms, PL VI., fig. 8, p. 84. 
HAUTOTS, amis, 227. 
HAUTPENXE, Barons de, arms, 112. 
HAVERING, arm*, 214. 
HAVESQUERQUE, arms, 505. 
Hawk as supporter, 633. 
HAWKER,, ar/iw, 262. 
Hawk's bells and ?.<;*, 690. 

PL XXV., fig. S, p. 260. 
,, lure, 690. 
HAWLE, arm*', SO. 
HAWLEY, arms, SO. 
Hay-fork, 690. 
HAY, ai-Hw, 170,406; PL XIX., fig. 12, 

p. 192. 

arms in Lyon Office Register, 400. 
JOHN, of Tillibothil, bend, 430. 
Marquis of TWEEDDALE, arms, 

PL XLIL, fig. 2, p. 513. 
of Boyne, arms, 406. 
,, Broxmouth, arms, 406. 
,, Fudie, chevron, 431. 
,, Leys, arms, 406. 
,, Naughton, bordure, 441. 
,, Tillibothil, bordure, 441. 
Yester, 519. 

,, Lord, arms, 521. 
Sir JOHN, Earl of KINNOULL, 

a i'< i mi. ntation, 535. 
label, 420. 

HAYE, JEAN DE LA, arms, 305. 

HAYMSBERG, Counts of, arms, 405. 

HAYNIN, arm*, 142. 

HAZELRIGG, arms, 319 ; PL XXIX., fig. 

7, p. 318. 

Head, Human, 199. 
Moor'*, L>00. 
Saracen's, 199. 
Savage's, 199. 
o/ JEoius, 201. 
Ar<j us, 201. 
Boreas, 201. 
/emtttf, 201. 
Jfidew, 201. 
St. /te*M*, 201. 
Si. John the Baptist, 201. 
//ea<Lx 690. 

conjoined, PL XX., fig. 5, p. 198. 
HEARNE, arms, 336. 
//cart, PL XX., fig. 12, p. 198. 
, , as a badge, 598. 
,, Human, 202. 

HECKE, VAN DEN, arms, 99 ; PL VII., 

fig. 8, p. 'JO. 
HECTOR, am*, 21. 
Hedf/e, PL XXVIIL, fig. 12, p. 308. 
Hedye-hog as a badge, 753. 

The, 239. 

HEDWIG, seat, 468. 
HEDWORTH, orw, 140. 
HEECKEREN, Barons, arms, 141. 
HEERDT, Counts, arms, 130. 
HEIDEGK, arms, 265. 
Heilif/enscheine, 244, 253. 
HEIM, VON DER, arms, 230. 
HEIN, arms, 217. 
HEINBURG, Barons, an/is, 128. 
HELCK, VAN DER, anns, 277. 
HELCKNER, arms, 669 ; PL LV., fig. 11, 

p. 669. 

HOLSTEIN, label, 423; Fig. 87, p. 

HELFENSTEIN, Counts von, arms, 230. 
HELLEMMES, arms, 71. 
HELLEN, VAN DER, arms, 372. 
HELLENES, Kings of, using escucheon en 

sui'tout, 487. 
Helm or Helmet, 599; PL XXXI., fig. 4, 

p. 346. 

,, as a badge, 753. 
,, in French Armory, 601 
of Baronets, 602 ; Fig. 95, p. 002. 
,, ,, Gentlemen, 601, 602; Fig. 96, 

p. 602. 

,, Knights, 602. 
,, ,, Nobles, 601. 
,, ,, Peers, 602 ; Fig. 94, p. 602. 
,, ,, Princes, 601. 
Sovereign, 601, 602; Fig. 93, 

p. 602. 


of ecclesiastics to 


,, ,, ,, women to use, 604. 
,, ,, timbred, 601. 
Helmets, 36, 349. 

,, in German Armory, 601. 
, , for different ranks, 601 , 602 ; Figs. 
93-96, p. 602. 
Hemp-brake, 690. 

HEMPTINES, Barons d', arms, 357. 
Hen, The, 265. 

HENDERSON, arnw, PI. XVI., fig. 5, p. 
146 ; PI. XXIV., fig. 12, 
p. 236. 

of Fordel, arms, 148. 
HENEAGE, Sir THOMAS, badge, 586. 
HENEMA, arms, 752. 
HENLINOTON, am*, 188. 
HENNEBERG, Counts of, arms, 265. 
HENNIN, Comte cle BOSSU, arms, 129. 

,, Counts, arms, 370. 

HENRI I., King of FRANCE, crown and 

sceptre of, 328. 

II., King of FRANCE, 164, 570 ; 
crown, 620 ; Death of, 40 ; 
seal of, 49 ; ntpporter..63& 
III., King of FRANCE, sup- 
porters, 636. 
,, IV., King of FRANCE, 13, 570 ; 

supporters, 636. 

V., King of FRANCE, 425. 
HENRION, Baron de PANSEY, arms, 

HENRIQUEZ, arms, 507, 578. 

Dukes of MEDINA DEL 
RIO SECO, arms, 576. 

EMPIRE, crown, 621. 
King of ENGLAND, 121, 

517, 554. 
,, ,, seal of the Emperor, 328. 

II., Emperor HOLY ROMAN 

EMPIRE, crown, 621. 
,, ,, King of CASTILE and 

LEON, 577. 
44 ; arms, PI. LI., fig. 1, p. 
III., Duke of BRABANT, amis, 

,, ,, Emperor, seal of, 243. 

King of ENGLAND, 29, 79, 
122, 193, 208, 245, 291, 331, 
345, 403, 404, 407, 425, 438, 
448, 554; arms, PI. LI., fig. 
1, p. 661 ; Great Seal of, 587 ; 
Molls of Arms of, 170, 407, 408, 
426, 427, 448, 45S. 
IV., King' of ENGLAND, 171, 
415, 464, 556, 589, 593 ; arms, 
PL LI., fig. 4, p. 661 ; crown, 
618 ; Gifts, etc., of arms 
during reign, 35 ; seat, of, 330 ; 
second seal of, 590, 594 ; sup- 
porters of, 662. 

V., King of ENGLAND, 209, 
383, 475 ; arms, PI. LL, fig. 4, 
p. 661 ; badge, 594 ; banner 
of, 589 ; croicn, 618 ; mant- 
ling, 613 ; proclamation about 
arms, 36 ; standard of, 588 ; 
supporters of, 662. 

VI., King of ENGLAND, 5, 
325, 334; arms, PL LL, fig. 
4, p. 661 ; badge, 594 ; crown, 
618 ; Gifts, etc., of arms dur- 
ing reign, 35 ; supporters of, 
,, VII., Emperor, augmentations 

granted by, 536. 
King of ENGLAND, 107, 
325, 476, 597; arms, PI. LL, fig. 
4, p. 661 ; badge and standard, 
292, 595 ; supporters of, 662 ; tomb, 

HENRY VIII., King of ENGLAND, 285, 
376, 384, 420, 529, 530, 531, 
558, 594, 654 ; arms, PI. LL, 
fig. 4, p. 661 ; ba<lf/e, 587, 
595 ; coins of, 44 ; crown, 618 ; 
Privy Seal of, 598 ; standard 
of, 292, 595 ; supporters of, 

Cardinal King, 509. 
Coronation of the Emperor in 

1312, 579. 

DE RIVIERE, arms, 405. 
Prince of Wales. 420. 
THE FOWLER, 41, 42. 
HEPBURN, arms, 137, 5(57. 

WELL, brisure, 

brisure, 435. 

,, ,, seal, 441. 

,, ,, wreath, 614. 

Herald, Duties of, 1. 
Herald and Genealogist, 5, 407, 408, 417, 

477, 555, 562, 603, 639. 
Heraldry, Designations of, used by various 

authorities, 2. 
,, Imperfection of many treatises 

on, 67. 

,, Primary object of, 671. 
Reviving interest in, 25. 
,, Value of, 673. 
Heraldry of the Percys, 654. 
HERAUT, arms, 136. 
Herba or Clan, in Poland, 289. 
HERBERSTEIN, Counts von, arms, 136, 

HERBERT, arms, 561. 

Earl of PEMBROKE, etc., 

arms, 224. 

,, of Cardiff, Baron, arms, 561. 

arms, 562. 

Sir RICHARD, 561. 
WILLIAM, Earl of PEM- 
BROKE, arms, 561. 
HERBESTEIN, Counts of, arms, 136. 
HERCULES as supporter, 636. 
,, in Heraldry, 197. 

,, Pillars of, as supporters, 643. 

HERD A, arms, 133, 737. 
HEREFORD, ADAM, d', shield, 46 ; PI. 

II., fig. 2, p. 44. 
,, badge of Earls of, 631. 

HENRY, Earl of, seal, PI. 

XXXV., fig. 4, p. 415. 
PUREFOY, Bishop of, 

arms, 206. 

RICHARD, Earl of, 467. 
,, Seeof, arms, 333 ; PI. XXII., 

fig. 11, p. 222. 

LUPE, Bishop of, 225. 
,, Viscount, supporter, 232. 

HERGOTT, Monumenta Austrice, 243. 
HERINGAUD, arms, 268. 
HERIPONT, arms, 129. 
HM**e, 692, 734. 
HERISSE, LE, arms, 239. 
////v'.vxm, 707. 
HERISSON, arms, 239. 
Herissonne, 734. 
HERKLOTS, arms, 197. 
Hermine, Contre, 63, 68. 

( 806 

Hermine, d', 68. 

Hermine, Croix d', 734. 


related by, 271. 
Heron, The, 263. 
HERON, arms, 263. 
HERONDON, arms, 263. 
HERRENBERG, arms of Counts of, 


HERRERA, arms, 390. 
HERRIES, arms, 239 ; PL XXIV., fig. 10, 

p. 236. 

,, of Cowsland, Sir HUGH, aug- 
mentation, 534, 535. 
Hen-ing, The, 268. 
Herrimn, PL XXIV., fig. 10, p. 236. 
HERSCHEL, Sir JOHN, arms, 310. 
Htrse, 734. 
Herse as a charge, 365. 

,, sarasine, 365, 700, 734. 
HERSTRATEN, amis, 82. 
HERTENSTEIN, Counts von, arms, 66. 
HERTFORD, Marquess of, 564. 

HERVEY, arms, PL XXIX., fig. 10, 

p. 318. 

JOHN, amis, 320. 

,, Marquess of BRISTOL, arms, 

HERWEGH, arms, 134. 

arms, 136. 

Marquis of NETTANCOURT, 
(ii-ms 136. 

HESHUYSENS, arms, 201; PL XX., 

fig. 11, p. 198. 
HESME, arms, 152. 
HESSE, ALICE, Grand Duchess of, label, 


ANDER of, 52.3. 

,, ,, supporters, 666. 

,, Grand Dukes of, arms, 219, 487, 

525, 580. 

,, Marks of illegitimacy in, 580. 
HEUSCH, DE, arm*, 350. 
HEUVEL, VAN DEN, arms, 145. 
HEVTLER, ami*, PL XLV., fig. 2, p. 


LVL, fig. 11, p. 671. 
HEYLBROUCK, VAN, anas, 138. 
HEYLYN, Help to English History, 421, 


HEYTESBURY, sickle and arms, 641. 
HEYTON, arms, 155. 
Hibou, 697. 
HICKMAN, arm*, PL V., fig. 2, p. 80. 

Earls of PLYMOUTH, arms, 

HICKS, arms, 360. 
Hie, 734. 
Highland badges, 598. 

,, chiefs, arms, 314. 
HILDEBRAN1), HANS, Let Svenska 

Jtiks Vapnet, 52, 379, 388, 487, 62S. 
HILDEBRANDT, Herald i*rht* Mutter- 

buch, 344, 711 ; PL XLIX., p 607. 
HILDESHEIM, Principality of, amu, 7*. 
HILINGER, am*, 321 ; PL XXIX., fig. 
11, p. 318. 

Hill, 689 ; PL XXVIII., fig. 9, p. 308. 
HILL, arms, 306. 
Hillock, 690. 
Hilled, 690. 
HILTON, arms, 336. 

,,' of Hilton, supporters, 638. 
HILTPRANDT, arms, 752. 
HIMMELBERG, Barons of, arms, 469. 
Hind, 690. 

,, arms on white, 632. 
HINDER, DIE, amis, 271. 
Hinds, 231. 
HINSBERG, arms, PL XXVIII., fig. 9, 

p. 308. 

Hironddle, 266. 

HIRSCHBERG, Barons von, arms, 232. 
HIRSCHMANN, amis, 232. 
Historical JMSS. Commission, Report of, 


HITCHCOCK, arms, 277. 
HITROF, arms, 346. 
HOBART, arms, PL XVIII., fig. 6, p. 


SHIRE, arms, 185, 259. 
HOBILLIONS, arms, 319. 
HOCHART, arms, 226. 
HOCHBURG, Barons, augmentation, 540. 
HOCHENEGG, Counts VON, arms, 640. 
HOCHREUTERS, arms, 298. 
HODENPYL, arms, 576. 
HOEDE, arms, 336. 
HOEGHOLM, Barons of, arms, 304. 
HOEGKS, Barons of HOEGHOLM, arms, 


HOENS, Barons, arms, 188. 
HOEPING, 479. 
HOETIMA, arms, 113. 
HOHENECK, Lordship of, arms, 490. 
HOHEN-EMBS, County, arms, 499. 

-GEROLDSECK, County of, 
arms, 489. 

HOHENHAUSER, arms, 217. 
HOHENSTEIN, Countess of, 524. 

Counts of, arms, 511. 
HOHENZOLLERN, arms, 81, 254, 380, 

494, 660, 667. 
,, cscucheon of, 544, 


HOHNSTEIN, ai-ms, 489. 
see THUN. 
HOLAND, Earls of KENT, etc., arms, 

216. (See HOLLAND.) 
HOLBEACH, anus, 13(5. 
HOLBERG, armn, 295. 

Count of, 57. 

ALICE, sister of WILLIAM 
of, seal, 468 ; PL XXX VII., 
fig. 6, p. 447. 

,, arms, 58, 101, 212, 215, 216, 

247, 251, 463, 576; PL 
VIII., fig. 2, p. 100. 
,, Bavarian Counts of, arms, 

,, Countess of, seal, 462, 463. 

Duke of, 589. 

,, < n.tii/ii of Counts of, 208. 

family, 421. 

HOLLAND, FLORENT. Count of, arms 

on Eagle,' 630. 
JO AX, dtr. of THOMAS, 

ami*, 485. 

JOHN, Duke of EXETER, 
,, arms, 439, 474. 

,, Lion of, 245. 

Marks of office iu, 645. 
,, mode of differencing, 405. 

,, seal and arms of MAR- 

GARET, Countess of, 58. 
,, sccretum of FLORENT V., 

Count of, 245. 
Countess of, 247. 
Sir THOMAS, 438. 
THOMAS, Earl of KENT, 
arms, 438, 439, 632. 
Earl of KENT, 

badge, 589. 
Earl of KENT, 
seal. 475. 

WILLIAM III., Count of, 
245 ; arms on Eagle, 630. 
HOLLANDS, Dukes of SURREY and 

KENT, augmentation, 528. 
HOLLIS, Earl of CLARE, arms, 146, 147. 
HOLLOFTE, amis, 183. 
HOLME, 561. 

RANDLE, 191. 

arm*, 580. 
HOLSTEIN, arm*, 510, 666. 

see STAEL. 

HOLTSLER, arms, 374. 
HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE, arms of the 
shalship of 
the, 346. 

,, ,, ,, crown of 

Electors of, 
621, 623. 

,, eagle of, 242. 

,, ,, ,, Ensign of Arch- 

of the, 380. 

,, ,, ,, Lay Electors 

of, arms, 526. 
HOLYROOD HOUSE, altarpiece at, 334 ; 

seal of ABBEY of, 233. 
HOMBURG, Lordship of, arms, 358. 
HOME, 1st Earl of, seal, 523. 
,, Lord, arms, 522. 
2nd Lord, 522. 
arms, 214, 265, 522. 
Earls of, arm*, 175; PI. XLIL, 

fig. 6, p. 513. 
HUGH, 522. 

PATRICK, Archdeacon of 
TEVIOTDALE, seal, 522. 
HOMER, Odyssey, 300. 
Hmnme-marin, 734. 
HONDT, DE, arms, 241. 
Honi soil fjui mal y pensc, 664. 
HONORIUS, Pope, 245. 
HONN, DCS Hauses Sachsen Wappens und 

Geschlechts Untersuchung, 456. 
Honneur, Point d', 734. 
HOO, Lords, arms, 81. 
,, ,, supporters, 295. 

,, Viscount, supporters, 302. 
Hooded, 691. 
Hoofed, 691. 

HOOGVOORST, Barons d', arms, 393 477. 

HOOLA, arms, 183. 

HOOP, Barons van der, arms, 370. 

Hooped, 691. 

HOPE, arms, 191. 

crest, 610. 

,, Eurlfi Stall Plates, 63, 602. 

,, Emblem of, 370. 

,, family, 436. 

HOPETOUN, Earl of, brisure, 436. 
HOPING, De Jure Insiynium, 548. 

HOPITAL DE VITRY, Marquises de r, 

HORACE, de Arte Poetica, 300. 
HORBLER, ami*, 721. 
HORBURY, Sir JOHN, arms, 128. 
HORENBERG, arms, 385. 
Horn, Hunting, 691. 
,, of a stag, 691. 
HORN,' Count of, 99. 

,, Princes of, arm*, 386. 

arms, 385. 
Horned, 691. 
Horns as a badge, 753. 
,, as charges, 3S4. 
,, Buffalo, as crests, 606. 
,, Ox. as crests, 606, 607. 
HORNUNG, arms, 336. 
Horse, 237 ; PI. XXIV., fig. 6, p. 236. 
,, as a badge, 754. 
,, -collar as a badge, 754. 
,, -shoe as a badge, 754. 
The Sea-, 299. 
Horseman, PI. XX., fig. 3, p. 198. 
HORSEMAN, arms, 353. 
Horse's hewl as a crest, 605. 
Horseshoe, 355. 
HORTENSE, Queen, 572. 


HOTMAN, arms, 148, 728. 
HOUBLONS, amis, 319. 

amis, 183. 

HOUDETOT, Marquises de, amis, 227. 
HOUGHTON, arms, 127. 
Household, Great Master of the, Scotland, 

mark of office, 644. 
Houses, 363. 
Housse, 679, 734. 

HOUTHEM, Barons van, arms, 69. 
HOUVEN, Baron von der, arms, 382. 
HOVEN, VAN DER, amis, 356. 
HOWARD, arms, 532; PL XVII., fig. 11, 

p. 172. 
,, badge, 754. 

Duke of NORFOLK, arm*, 408. 
ELIZABETH, ami*, 531. 
Lady CATHARINE, amis and 

augmentation, 532. 
MARY, dtr. of THOMAS, 

Dnke of NORFOLK, 558. 
augmentation, 529. 
HOWTH, Earl of, supporter, 302. 

,, Earls of, crest and supporter, 
HOZIER, 14. 

,, arms, 690. 
,, D', coo.ts granted by, 582. 

( 8o8 ) 


brisure, 452. 
HUCHARS, arms, 404. 
Huchet, 691, 7:M. 

HUCHTENBROEK, VAN, arms, 145. 
HUEBER, Austria Itlustrata, 456, 471, 
472, 479, (300, (506, (511, 612, 614, C34, 
650, 651. 

HUGHES, rtj-w, 213. 
Huit-foil, 691. 
HULLES, a>-is, 146. 
HULSE, arms, 147; PJ. XVI., fig. 7, 

p. 146. 

HULSEN, arms, 730. 
HULST, monument of, G26. 
VAN, aj-HW, 320. 
VAN UER, arms, 319. 
nan arm, The, 204. 

6ocfy, Parts of x in Heraldry, 199. 
eye, The, 201. 
/'e<, 20(5, 207. 
jigure as a m'.<tf, 607. 

,, The, 194. 
hand, The, 204. 

/(/, l'.)9. 

,, with ass's ears as a crest, 635. 
It tart, 202. 
/<</*, 206. 
rib bones, 206. 
HUMBEKE, Counts de, arms, 265. 
HUM BERT I., 632. 

III., Dauphin deVIENNOIS, 
HUME, nrm, 214, 265, 405. 

,, of Pol worth, Sir PATRICK, arms, 

HUMIERES, arms, 96, 129. 

,, Marquis d', arms, 81. 

HUMMELS, arms, 283. 
Hummetty, 123, 691. 
HUN1) VOX HALHEIM, arms, 411. 
HUNDESCOTE, arms, 170. 
HUX'DT, Barons, arms, 241. 
HUXGARY-AXC1ENT, 471, 494, 49S, 665. 
CHARLES IV., King of, 252. 
,, crown of, 621. 

-MODERN, arms, 494, 49S, 

540, 665. 

,, Queen of, achievement, 494. 

HUNGERFORD, badtje, 585, 764. 
Lord, 585. 
Sir ROBERT, seal of, 


WALTER, Lord, seal 
and arms, 641. 

HUNNENWEILER, arms, 134. 
HUNSDON, badge, 754. 
HUNTER, arms, PI. XXXIII., fig. 10, 

p. 376. 

,, of Hunterston, arms, 385. 

HUXTERCOMBE, arms, 128; PI. XL, 

fig. 11, p. 124. 

Huntingdon, Visitation of, 363, 613, 755. 
HUNTINGDON, arms, 460. 

,, DAVID, Earl of, arms, 


,, Earldom of, arms, 517. 

,, Earls of, arm*, 376. 

MARGARET, dtr. of 

DAVID, Earl of, 460. 
M A U D, widow of 

SIMOX, Earl of, 517. 
Prince DAVID, Earl of, 

Hunting-horn, PL XXXIII. , fig. 10, 

p. 376. 

,, as a charge, 384. 

HUXTLY, Earl of, 419. 

,, Marquess of, 180. 

Hure, 227, 272, 734. 
HURLESTOX, arms, 709. 
Hurst,. 916, 691. 


Hurt, 190, 691. 
HURTLE, arms, 191. 
HURUS, arms, 267. 
HUSSEY, arms, 93, 142, 392, 641. 
Huacinth, 338. 

HYDE, arms, PL XVIIL, fig. 7, p. 190. 
Earl of CLAREXDOX, arms, 

Hydra, The, 296, 691. 

IAN VOR, Chief of Clan, 512. 

IBANEZ DE SEGOVIA, arms, 141. 

IBERIA, arms, 665. 

Ibex, 691. 

ICELAND, arms, 271, 666; PI. XXVI., 

fig. 11, p. 266. 
ICHINGHAM, arms, 96. 
Icicles, 691. 

IDDESLEIGH, Earl of, arms, 108. 
IFIELD, arms, 341. 
IGELSTROM, arms, 279. 
ILCHESTER, Earl of , supporters, 648. 
ILE ADAM, le Sire de L', 11. 
lUef/itimacy, PL XLVIL, p. 573; PI. 
XLVIII., p. 577. 

Heraldic marks of, 548. 

in Bavaria, marks of, 579. 

,, Burgundy, marks of, 573. 

,, England, marks of, 564. 

,, Flanders, marks of, 572. 

,, France, marks of, 570. 

,, Germany, marks of, 580. 

,, Holland, marks of, 576. 

,, Ireland, marks of, 569. 

,, Portugal, marks of , 577. 

,, Savoy, marks of, 579. 

,, Scandinavia, marks of, 

,, Scotland, marks of, 569. 

,, Spain, marks of, 576. 
ILLYRIA, Kingdom, arms, 503, 665. 
Imbrued, 691. 
Immortaiite, 734. 
Impaled, 691. 
Impalement, 459, 470. 

,. of quartered shields, 402. 

Imperial crown, 691. 
In Lure, 691. 
In Pride, 691. 
In Splendour, 691. 
Inanimate charges, 305. 

,, objects in place of supporters, 


INAYS, seal of WILLIAM DE, 50. 
Incensed, 691. 

INCHIQUIN, Lord of, 467. 
Increscent, 691. 

Decrescent, PI. XXVIII., fig. 3, 
p. 308. 
Indented, 691. 

,, line, 76; Fig. 19, p. 75. 
INDIA, arms, 494. 
INDIES, Kingdom, The, arms, 501. 
Indorsed, 691. 

Industrial Implements as charges, 303. 
inescucheon, The, 110, 165, 169,' 692. 
INFANTADGO, Duke of, 440. 

,, ,, arms, 395, 506. 

Inflamed or Lighted, 692, 693. 
Infulff, 705. 
INGELBY, JOHN, arms, 563. 

of Ripley, Sir JOHN, arms, 

INGBNHEIM, Counts of, augmentation, 


ING HAM, arms, 157. 
INGLEBY, arms, 309 ; PI. XXVIII., fig. 

6, p. 308. 

INGLETHORPE, arm*, 142. 
Ink-moline, 692. 
1NNES, arms, 50. 

,. Ane Account of the Familie of, 50. 

WILLIAM DE, badge, 583. 
INNOCENT II., Pope, 40. 


arms, 256. 
arms, 318. 

Insects, 280. 
Insignia gentilitia, Possession of, legal test 

of gentility, 673. 
Interlaced, 692. 
Invecked, 692. 

line, 76 ; Fig. 20, p. 75. 
Inrected or Invecked, 692. 
Inverted, 692. 
IRELAND, arms, 383, 479, 662, 663. 

,, ,, during commonwealth, 


badge, 596, 597. 
Dimidiation in, 467. 
Duke of, arms, 383. 

,, augmentation, 528. 
supporters in, 647. 
IRIARTE, arms, 353. 
Iris, The, 333. 

Irish marks of illegitimacy, 569. 
IRON CROSS, The, 544. 
Irradiated, 692. 
IRRIBERI, arms, 171. 
IRVINE, arms, 319. 

,, of Drum, arms, 319. 
ISABEL of France, 538. 
IS A BELLE, heiress of RENTY, 449. 
ISENBURG, Lordship of, arms, 126. 
ISHAM, arms, 148; PI. XVI., fig. 4, p. 


JOURDAIN, L', arms, 161. 
ISLES, ALEXANDER, Lord of the, seal 

of, 367. 

ANGUS OF THE, seal of, 367. 
JOHN, son of JOHN, Lord of the, 


Lords of the, 368. 
,, ,, ,, arms, 178. 

>, ,, ,, (Glengarry branch). 

arms, 512. 

,, Lordship of, arms, 367. 
seal of JOHN, Lord of the, 367. 
ISNARD, arms, 337. 
hole, 734. 
Issant, 692, 734. 

ISSOUDUN, Town of, arms, 150. 
Issuant, 221, 692, 734 ; PI. XXIL, fig. 3, p. 
222; PI. XXIL, fig. 4, p. 222. 

Issuing or Issuant, 692. 
ISTRIA, Marquessate, arms, 503. 
ITALY, arms, 6f6. 

,, coronet of a Baron in, 625. 
,, crests in, 604. 

tie in, 16. 

Form of shield in, 56. 
,, Furs common in Armory of, 74. 
,, Introduction of Hereditary Arms 

into, 52. 

,, Marks of office in, 645. 
,, Marshalling in, 508. 
,, Use of supporters in, 636, 639. 

of Grand Dnke, 250. 
IVANOVICH, OSSIP, arms, 542. 

JABLONOWSKI, Counts, arms, 359. 

Jacinth, 65. 

JACQUEMINOT, Counts, arms, 338. 

JAGENSDORFF, arms, 379. 

JAGERNDORFF, Duchy of, arms, 491. 

JAGOU, arms, 280. 

JAMES I., King of ARRAGON, 577. 

,, BRITAIN, 384, 532, 

535, 594 ; arms, PL LI., fig. ft. 

p. 661 ; Great Seal of, 664 ; 

motto of, 664 ; supporters on 

Seal of Common Pleas of, 

King of SCOTLAND, 233, 

475, 521 ; supporters, 635. 

II., King of BRITAIN, 421, 559, 
56C; arm*, PI. LI., fig. 5, ]. 
661 ; Exchequer Seal of, 66'2 ; 
supporters on Privti Seal of, 
,, King of SCOTLAND, 446, 

476, 515, 516. 

III., King of SCOTLAND, 179, 

476, 522, 632; Uiulye, 596; 

coins, coverlet, and portrait 

of, 334. 

IV., King of SCOTLAND, 522, 

567 ; badge, 597. 

V., King of SCOTLAND, 179, 
ISO, 335, 476, 567 ; supporters, 

,, VI., King of SCOTLAND, ISO, 
431, 534, 662 ; arms, PI. LI., fig. 5, p. 

JAMIESON, arms, 371. 
JANER, arms, 201. 
JANINA, hvt-ba of, arms, 351. 
JAN1SZEWSKI, arms, 357. 
JANSDAM, arms, 183. 
Janus, Head of, 201. 

Tete de, 734. 
JARDINE, -arm*, 144, 145. 

,, DE LA, arms, 71. 

GEORGE, brisure, 436. 
JARSDORFF, arms, 74. 
JASTREZEMBIEC, arms, 356. 
JATSKOW, arm*, 226. 
Jaw bone, The, 203. 
JAWORSKI, arm*, 391. 
Je maintiendrai, 664, 667. 
JEAN II., King of FRANCE, 571. 
,, DE, ]0. 

,, SCHOONHOVEN, arm*, 405. 
,, Sans-Peur, Due de BOURGOGNE, 

( 8io ) 

JEANNE D'ARC, arms of brothers of , 710. 

,, Dame de PLASNES, arms, 57. 
JEDBURGH, Forest of, 042. 

,, Lords of, arms. 305. 

JELITA, arms, 347. 
Jelloped, 2(35, 692. 
JENYN'S Collection, 375. 
JERMYN, Earl of ST. ALBANS, arms, 

JERNINGHAM, arms, 377; PI. 

XXXIII., fig. 3, p. 376. 
JERUSALEM, arms, 467, 471, 494; PI. 

IX., fij:. 1, p. 108. 
,, cross of, 156. 

First Christian King of, 


,, Kingdom, arm*, 103, 501. 

Order of ST. JOHN, arms, 

119, 141, 527. 

., RENE, Roi de, Tourney 

regulations, 749. 
JessoMt, 692. 

de Us, 225, 692 ; PI. XXII. , fig. 11, 
p. 222. 

Jessed, applied to Falcon, 261, 692. 
JESSEL, arms, 701. 
JESSES, 692. 

JESTYN AP GWRGANT, arms, 140. 
JEZ, arms, 239. 

JEZIERSKI, Counts, arms, 351. 
JOAO L, King of PORTUGAL, 577. 
JOERG, arms, 195. 
JOGHEMS, arms, 348. 
JOHN II., King of PORTUGAL, 578. 
,, King of BOHEMIA, badge and 
crest, 592; PI. XLIX., fig. 4, p. 
607 ; seal, 456. 

,, King of ENGLAND, 173, 303, 
554, 555 ; arms, 32 ; PI. LI., fig. 
1, p. 661 ; seal, 37. 
,, King of FRANCE, Capture of, 

377 ; supporters, 636. 
,, Lord of the ISLES, etc., seal of, 


*cal of, Prince of ENGLAND, 210. 
JOHNSON, Origin of name, 10. 
JOHNSTON, arms, 144, 145, 378, 570. 

,, crest, 605. 

JOHNSTONES in south Scotland, 400. 
JOINVILLE, arms, 47. 

Seigneurs de BROYES, 
arms, 357. 
JONES, arms, 348. 
JONG, DE, arm*, 322. 
Jonkheers, coronet of, 626. 
JORGER, arms, 195. 
JOSEPH, arms ascribed to, 23. 
JOSEPHINE, Empress of the French, 

266, 283. 

JOSUA, Duke, arms?!), 2 i. 
JOURDAIN, L'ISLE, amis, 161. 
JOUSSEAUME, Marquis de la 

BRETESCHE, arms, 155. 
JOVE, arms, 395. 
JOVIO, augmentation, 536. 
JOWETT, arms, 369. 
Jou-topped, 265, 692. 
JOYEUSE, Comtes de, arm*, 296. 
JUDAS MACHABEUS, anu*$), 21. 
JULUACH, Counts VON, amis, 78. 
JULIERS, arms, 496. 

,, County of, arms, 99, 473. 

,, Duchy of, arms, 212. 

JULIUS C/ESAR, arm* (?), 21. 

Jumelles, 128, 677, 688, 734. 
JUNGINGENS, arms, 392. 
Jupiter, 65, 692. 
Jus expertationis, 483. 
mark of office, 644. 
LORD CHIEF, collar, 598. 
JUTPHAAS, VAN, arms, 143. 
JUYA, arm*, 91. 

KABARDA, arms, (565. 
KAISER, arms, 380. 
KALF, arms, 296. 
KALFF, arms, .235. 
KALITSCH, Barons von, arms, 228. 
KAMAROWSKI, Counts, arms, 342. 
KARA HISAR, Fort of, 250. 
KARTALINIA, arm*, 665. 
KATCHENEVSKI, arms, 343. 
KATZENELBOGEN, arms, 580. 
KAUFBEVERN, arms, 469. 
KAUFFUNGEN, arms, 670; PI. LVL, 

fig. 10, p. 671. 

KAUNITZ, Princes von, arms, 321. 
KAZAN, arms, 665. 

,, crown, (522. 
KEATE, arms, 226. 
KEATS, arms, 226. 
KECK, arms, 133. 

KEITH, arms, 179; PI. X., fig. 10, p. 118. 
Earls MARISCHAL, arms, 122. 
EDWARD, bend, 430. 
,, JOHN, second son of Sir 

EDWARD, bend, 430. 
KEKITMORE, arms, 394. 
KELDON, amis, 150. 
KELK, arms, 133. 
KELLIE, Earl of, augmentation, 534, 


KELVERDON, arms, 150. 
KEMELS, arms, 231. 
KEMP, arms, 183, 206. 
KENDAL, Earl of, label, 418. 
KENDENICH, ami*, 139. 
KENNEDY, arms, 178. 

Earls of CASSILIS, etc., 

arm*, 163. 

KENNETH HI., King of Scotland, 197. 
KENSINGTON, Lord, supporter, 232. 
KENT, Dukes of, augmentation, 528. 

Earl of, arms, 216, 438, 439, 632. 
,, bad'je, 589, 753. 
,, seal, 475. 
EDWARD, Duke of, label, 422; 

Fig. 82, p. 421. 
Fair Maid of, 438, 589. 

, JOAN, daughter of THOMAS 

HOLLAND, Earl of, arms, 485. 
KENTISH Roll of Arms, 554. 
KENTY, arms, 297. 
KEPPEL, Earl of ALBEMARLE, arms, 

KER, crest, 610. 

Lords of JEDBURGH, arms, 305. 
KERANGUEN, arms, 219. 
KERBESCAT, arms, 219. 
KERBOURIOU, arms, 218. 
KERCKEM, arm*, 112. 

Buron de WYER, arms, 331. 
KERFORD, arm*, 2SO. 
KERGROAS, arms, 155. 
KERJAN, Marquises de, arms, 126. 
KERLECH, arm*, 93. 

KEROULLE, arms, 341. 
KERS in south Scotland, 400. 
KERSBEKE, DE, arms, 187. 
KESSELSTADT, Counts of, arms, 493. 
KESTEVEN, Duke of, arms, 352. 
KETELHODT, Baron, arms, 349. 
KETHEL, arms, 121. 
KETTENHE1M, VOX, ami*, 120. 
KETTLER, Duke of COURLAND, arms, 


Key as a badge, 584. 
,, ,, crest, 605. 
J&.V*. PI. XXX III., fig. 6, p. 376. 
KEYS, ROGER and THOMAS, Grant of 

Nobility to, 5. 
KEYSER, arms, 380. 

Barons, arms, 150. 
KIES, arms, 203. 
KIEV, arms, 665. 
KIJOW, Palatinate of, arms, 468. 
KILDARE, Earls of, arms, 143. 
KILGOUR, arms, 173. 
KILPEC, arms, 345 ; PI. XXXI., fig. 1, p. 


KILSYTH, Viscount, arms, 337. 
Kino (Chess) as a charge, 3SS. 
KINGDOM, anna, 352. 
Kings of Arms, arms, 525, 526. 
King's standard, Length of, 654. 
KINGSALE, Barons of, arms, 258. 

,, supporters, 297. 

KIXGSCOTE, amis, 166; PL XVIII., fig. 

2, p. 190. 

KINGSLEY, arms, 385. 
KINNAIRD, Estate of, 258. 
KINNOULL, Earl of, augmentation, 


KIN8BBRGBN, monument of, 626. 
KIOVIA, Palatinate of, arms, 468. 
KIP, arms, 266. 
KIPPENHEIM, arms, 271. 
KIRCHNER, arms, 363. 
KIRKE, arms, 182. 
KIRKPATRICK, arm*, 144. 
KIRMREITTER, arms, PI. LV., fig. 9, p. 


KIRTON, arms, 138. 
KITTLITZ, Barons von, arms, 477. 
Klee-Stengeln, The, 344, 491. 
KLETTENBERG, arms, 489. 
KLINGSPOR, Saltisches Wappenbuch, 

267, 297, 392. 
KLOCKEL, arms, 374. 
KXATCHBULL, amis, 132, PI. XII., fig. 

9, p. 130. 
Knight as a supporter, 640. 

,, Banneret, Creating of a, 651. 
,, Duties of a, 652. 

Knight (Chess) as a charge, 388. 
KNIGHT, arms, 170, 171. 
Knights, helm of, 602. 

,, Hereditary, coronet of, 626. 
,, under feudal system, 652. 
KNIPSCHILD, de fidei Commissis, 483. 

i, ' de Nobiiitate ejus(jue 

Juribus, 483. 
KNOB, arms, 296. 
KNOBEL, DIE, anns, 411. 
KNOLLYS, Earls of BANBURY, arms, 


KNOLLYS, Lord, helm, 602. 

Knots as badges, 585. 

KNOTSHULL, arms, 701. 

Knotte<l, 692. 

KNOWLES, arms, 160 ; PL XV., fig. 3, p. 


KNOX, Earl of RANFURLAY, arms, 175. 
KOEHNE, Notice sur les Sceaux et 

Armoiries de la Russie, 251. 
KOHARY, Princes of, arms, 218. 


KOMOROWSKI, Counts, arms, 234. 
KONARSKI, Counts, arms, 289. 
KONIG, arms, 380. 

,, Barons, arms, 380. 

,, von, arms, 260. 
KONIGSTEIN, Lords of, anns, 212. 
KONINCK, arms, 379. 
KONING, arms, 388. 
KORAB, arms, 371. 
Koran, reference to, 271. 
KORBLER, amis, 96. 
KORESSIOS, arms, 251. 
KORNKOOPERS, amis, 318. 
KOSKULL, Barons, arms, 321. 
KRAIN, Duchy, arms, 503. 
KRANZ, arms, 33(5. 
Kranztein, 131. 
KRAUTERS, arms, 298. 
KRECHWITZ, arms, 271. 
KREYTSEN, Counts, arms, 120. 
KROCHER, arms, 231. 
KROGEDANTZ, arm*, 752. 
KRZYWDA, arms, 356. 
KUGLER, arms, 304. 
KUMP6THOFF, arms, 343. 
KtiNIGL, amis, PL V., fig. 7, p. SO. 

,, Counts von, arms, 81. 
KYLE, arms, 372. 
KYNASTON, anns, 136. 
KYNDER, amis, 364. 
KYRKE, arms, 182. 

LA CROIX et SERE, Histoire de I'Orfev- 

rerie-Jnaillerie, 282. 
LABARTE, Handbook of the Arts of the 

M.i<!<ile Ages, 243. 
Label, 117, 165, 187, 414, 687, 692, 734 ; 

Figs. 80-89, p. 421. 
,, a Royal mark of cadency, 420. 
,, Difference by the addition of a, 413. 
,, , for eldest son, 444. 
,, Varieties of, 189. 
Lacs d" amour, 628, 645. 
LADBROOKE, amis, 136. 
Lailder, PL XXXII., fig. 9, p. 358. 

,, -scaling, 692. 
Ladders, 364. 
LADISLAS VI., seal-, 468. 
LAHER, Barons von, arms, 93. 
LAHR, VON, arms, 66. 
LAINCEL, Counts, 348. 
LAINE, M., 12. 
LAING, Dr, Historical Description of the 

Altai-piece at Holyrood, 334. 
,, H., Scottish Seals, 49, 50, 51, 177, 
178, 179, 298, 322, 330, 335, 367, 368, 
369, 378, 401, 429, 445, 454, 455, 459, 
460, 466, 475, 512, 514, 515, 519, 520, 
521, 522, 566, 614, 628, 630, 632. 
LAITERBERG, arms, 365. 

LALAIN, arm*, 411. 

LALANDE, arm*, 188. 

Lamb, Paschal, 236, 692; PI. XXIV., fig. 

4, p. 236. 

LAM 13, arms, 236. 

LAMBART, Earl of CAVAN, amis, 323. 
Lambeau, 414. 
Lambel, 187, 687, 602, 734. 
LAMBERG, arm*, 493. 


Baron of, 493. 

,, Princes of, arms, 493. 

LAMBERT, arm*, 235. 
,, crest, 295. 

LAMBRECHT, arms, 235. 
Lambrequin, 599, 611, 612, 692, 694, 734. 
Lambs, 235. 
LAMBTON, Earl of DURHAM, arms, 


LAM I, arm*, 296. 

LAMINGTON, Lord, supporters, 647. 
LAMMENS, amis, 235, 236. 
LAMO1GNON, President, arm.?, 165. 
LAMONT, arms, 213. 
LAMORAL, Count EGMOND, arms, 98, 


Lampasse, 692, 734. 
LAMPLOWE, arms, 158 ; PI. XIV., fig. 

9, p. 140. 

LAMPLUGH, amis, 158. 
LAMPOIN8, arms, 236. 
LAMPSON, arms, 686. 
LANARK), arms, 317. 
LANCASTER and YORK, combined rose 

of, 595. 
,, armorial slab of HENRY of, 


,, arms, 531. 

,, ,, and colours, 555. 

,, badge of Royal House of, 

324, 587, 588, 589. 
BLANCHE, daughter of 

HENRY, Duke of, 588. 
,, Duchy, wals of, 598, 663. 

,, Duke of, arms and label, 


,, ,, badge, 591, 593. 

Earl of, monument, 114. 

BACK, Lord of, tomb, 

HENRY of, anus, 428; 
seal, PI. XXXV., fig. 4, 
p. 415. 
,, JOHN, Duke of, 438, 555. 

588, 590, 593, 597. 
PHILIPPA, daughter of 

Duke of, 578. 
,, Roses of, 582. 

,, seat of HENRY, 1st Duke 

of, 587, 593. 
Silver greyhound of, 595. 

THOMAS, Earl of, arms, 

Lance head, 348. 
Lances, 347. 
LANCY, arms, 142. 
Land tenure, 3. 
LAN DALE, arms, 175. 
LANDAU, Counts von, arms, 95. 
LANDE, LA, arms, 724. 

LANDEL, arms, 175. 

LANDELL of that Ilk, 522. 

LANDELLS, amis, 176. 

LANDESCRON, arms, 380. 

LANDSCHADEN, crest, 612. 

LANE of Bentley, JOHN, arms and aug- 

nti ii.tation, 532. 

LANES BOROUGH, Earls of , amis, 381. 
LANFRANCHI, anus, 79. 
LANG VON LANGENAU, amis, 668 ; PI. 

LV., fig. 1, p. 669. 
Langele, 591. 
Lanf/i-l ifii, 591. 
LANGEN, amis, 82. 
LANGLEY, arms, 293; PI. XXVII., fig. 

9, p. 28S. 

EDMUND of, 588, 591. 
LANGLOIS, amis, 370. 
Langue, 735. 
Langued, 211, 227, 692. 
LANNES, Marechal, Due de MONTE- 

BELLO, arms, 346. 
LANNOY, arm*, 450. 

BALDWIN DE, arms, 450, 451. 
,, CHARLES DE, arms, 410, 451 . 
,, ,, Viceroy of 

Naples, arms, 451. 
GILBERT DE, amis, 450, 


,, HORACE DE, arms, 451. 

HUGH DE, arms, 450. 
,, ,, Seigneur de MIN- 

GOVAL, 451. 
PHILIP DE, arms, 450. 

Prince of SUL- 
MONE, arm*, 451. 
PIERRE DE, arms, 451. 
,, bordure, 439. 
LANSDOWNE, Lord, crest, 610. 

MS., 557, 654. 
LANSER, arms, 370. 
LANVAON, an/w, 93. 
LAPLACE, arm*, 309. 
LAPOUKHIN, Princes, arms, 288. 
LARDIER, amis, 187. 
Larmes, 693, 733, 735. 
LASCARIS, arms, 251. 
LASCELLES, arms, 157, 330; PI. XXX., 

fig. 9, p. 332. 

LASSO, ORLANDO DI, arms, 387. 
LATHOM, Lord, supporters, 647. 
LATIMER, arms, 153, 157. 
,, Lord, badge, 586. 

arms and labels, 418. 
Latin cross, 152. ' 
LATBI, amis, 100. 
Lattice, 693. 

LATTRE, ROLAND DE, arm*, 387. 
LAUDEL, JOHN, seal, 643. 
LAUDERDALE, arms, 516, 519. 

,, Lordship of, 516. 

LAUENBURG, arms, 510, 66. 
LAUNAY, DE, arms, 715. 

DU VALAY, arms, 344. 
LAURENCE, arm*, PI. XIV., fig. 2, 

p. 140. 

LAURES, amis, 317. 
LAURIE, arms, 381. 

( 8i 3 ) 

LAUTERBACH, arms, 313 ; PI. XXVIII., 

fig. 11, p. 308. 

arm*, 489. 
LAUTREC, arms, 161, 214. 
LAUTZ, arms, 383. 
LAUZON, arm*, 274. 

,, ANNE, heiress of GUI, Comte 

de, 505. 
,, ANNETTE DE, Dame de COET- 

MEN, seal, 460, 463. 
,, arms, 68, 258. 
GUY, Comte de, 258. 
LAVARDIN, Marquises de, arms, 57, 

LAVAULX-VRECOURT, Counts, arms, 


LAWES, arms, 687. 
LAWLEY, arms, 154; PL XIV., fig. 5, 

p. 140. 
LAWRENCE, arms, 142. 

SIR JAMES, Nobility of 
British Gentry, 4. 

LAY, MONTMORENCY DE, arms, 452. 
LAYFORTH, arms, 133. 
Le Heraut d'Armes, 7. 
Le hibou-duc, 726. 
Leaf as a badge, 583. 
LEAKE, Garter King of Arms, 384. 
LeMh, 693. 
Leashed, 693. 
Leaved, 693. 
Leaves, Aspen, 3*20. 
adossts, Lime, PL XXIX., fig. 9, 

p. 318. 

Fig, 320. 
Hazel, 319; PI. XXIX., fig. 7, 

p. 318. 

,, Holly, 319. 
Laurel, 319; PL XXIX., fig. 8, 

p. 318. 

Linden, 320. 
Nenuphar, 321. 
,, Oak, 320. 
,, of plants, 319. 
Rue, 321. 

LECHERAINE, arms, 727. 
LECK, Lordship of, arms, 580. 

WILLIAM and LOUIS, Seigneurs 

of, arms, 580. 


LEDEBUR, Barons, arms, 136. 
Leeches, 279. 

LEEFDAEL, Sire de, arms, 165, 427. 
LEEFVELT, VAN, arms, 68. 
LEESON, Earl of MILTOWN, arnis, 811. 
Ze0, PI. XX., fig. 8, p. 198. 

,, of an eagle, 693. 
LEGAT, arms, 152. 
Legende, 735. 
Ze.</es Hastiludiales, 41. 
LEGGE, Earl of DARTMOUTH, a?-ws, 


Legged, 693. 
LEGH, GERALD, ^ccirfence o/ Armory, 

2, 19, 21, 190, 524. 
Legs, PL XX., fig. 9, p. 198. 

,, Human, 206. 
LEICESTER, Earl of, arms, 218, 219, 322, 
323, 350; PL XXL, 
fig. 9, p. 212. 
,, badge, 753. 


LEICHNAM, arms, 204. 

LEIGH, arms, 366. 



LEININGEN, Counts of, arms, 424, 447. 
,, ,, label, 424. 

label, 424. 

,, Duke of, arms, 143. 

,, ,, supporter, 240. 

,, King of, arms, 342. 

LEITOENS, arms, 127. 
Lemons, 340. 

LENFANT-DIEU, arms, 195. 
LENNOX, arms, 144, 432; PL XXX., 

fig. 3, p. 332. 
CHARLES, arms, 559. 

Earl of, arms, 325, 521 ; PL 
XLII., fig. 1, p. 

bordure, 441. 

,, ISABELLA, Countess of, 

seal, PL XXXVII., fig. 7, 
p. 447. 

MALCOLM, Earl of, seal, 643. 

MARGARET, Countess of, 

monument, 476. 

MATTHEW, son of JOHN, 

Earl of, label, 419. 
LENONCOURT, Cardinal de, arms, 


LENOX, arms, 466. 
LENTILHAC, arms, 129. 
LEO, arms, 173. 

XIII., Pope, arms, 310. 
LEON, arms, 62, 104, 168, 212, 253, 306, 
390, 416, 441, 457, 479, 488, 495, 
501, 506, 507, 547, 576, 577, 578, 
633, 667. 
bordure of, 507. 

FERDINAND III., King of, 478. 

arms, 506. 

Princes de, arms, 185. 
SANCHA of, 479. 
LEONBERG, Counts, arms, 752. 
Leopard, 209, 210, 225, 693. 

Herald, 209. 
Leopard, 735. 

lionne, 209, 210, 211, 693, 701, 


Tete de, 735. 
Leopard's face. 693 ; PL XXII., fig. 12, p. 

,, ,, ana* Fleur-de-lis, 333. 

head, 225, 693. 
LEOPOLD, Archduke, 282. 

,, Emperor, Patent of arms 

granted by, 601. 
LERMA, Dukes of, arms, 309. 
LERNOUT, arms, 148; PL XVI., fig. 9, 

p. 146. 
Les Coutumes Generales de trois Bailliages 

de Lorraine, 550. 
LESLIE, ami*, 367, 377, 522, 631; PL 

XXXIII., fig. 2, p. 376. 
,, Lord LINDORES, arms, PL 

XLII., fig. 4, p. 513. 
,, of Balquhain, arms, 432. 
LESSEPS, Count de, arms, 344. 
LESTRANGE, arms, 216, 407. 

LESVAL, arms, 360. 

LESZCZYC, arms, 363. 

Counts, arms, 3(53. 

Letters of the Alphabet as charges, 394. 

Lettuce, 344. 

LEUBERSTORF, arms, 669; PI. LV., 
fig. 12, p. 669. 

LEUCHTEXBERG, Dukes and Land- 
graves of, arm*, ]23, 473. 

LEUTENBERG, Lords of, 490. 

LEUZE, Barons de, arms, 338. 

Lew, 685, 735. 

LEVEX, Earl of, arms, 335 ; PI. XXX., 
fig. 8, p. 332. 

Levei; 693. 

LEVERS AGE, arm*, 366. 

LEVESOX, arms, 319. 

LEVIS, Dues de MIREPOIX, and de 
VEXTADOUR, arms, 140. 

Levrier, 735. 

LEWASCHEFF, augmentation, 542. 
LEWEX, ROBERT, Sheriff of Newcastle, 

arms, 366. 

LEXIXGTOX, Lord, arms, 165. 
LEYBURXE, arms, 224. 
LEYDEX, Burg-gravate of, arms, 307. 
LEYEX, Counts and Princes of, arms, 


brisure, 452. 

LEZERGUE, arms, 156. 
LIAXOS, arms, 508. 
LIBOTTOX, ami*, 156. 
LICHFIELD, See of, arms, 156, 700 ; PL 

XIV., fig. 7, p. 140. 

LICHNOWSKl, Princes, arms, 319, 339. 
LICHTEXSTEIX, Princes of , arms, 491. 
Lien mi-, 735. 
LIDDESDALE, nrm*, 519. 

,, Lordship of, 566. 

Lie, 385, 677, 735. 
LIE VEX, Princes and Counts, arms and 

augmentation, 542. 
Liffht&i, 693. 

LIGHTFORD, arms, 121. 
L'inl,t,t).-,irj, 310. 

of, 492. 

,, Principality of, arms, 129. 
LIGXEY, Count de, arms and label, 415. 
LIGXIERES, arm*, 160. 
LIHOXS, arms, 334. 
LILLIE, arms, 334. 
i.V, The, 333. 
LIMA, arms, 91. 
Liiii'ii'tin, 735. 
LIMBURG, aj-Mia, 484, 573, 574. 

,, Duchy of, arms, 484. 

Lime branch, PI. XXIX., fig. 6, p. 318. 
,, leaves adosses, PI. XXIX., fig. 9, 

p. 318. 

LIMESAY, DE, arms, 51, 256. 
LIMOJON, arms, 340. 
LIMOS, arms, 340. 
LIMPURG, Counts of, arms, 526. 
LIXAGE, Counts de, arms, 138. 

see ROZIER, 

of, arms, 160. 
shield of Earl of, 406. 

LIXDAU, VOX, arms, 412. 

LIXDECK, arms, 670; PI. LVL, fig. 9, 

p. 671. 
LIXDEX, VAX DER, arms, 477; PI. 

XLL, fig. 1, p. 509. 
LIXDEXBERG, arms, 299. 
LIXDEXPALM, arms, 139. 
LIXDEXS, VAX DEB, arms, 393. 
LIXDORES Abbey, 516. 

Lord, arm*, 522; PI. XLII., 

fig. 4, p. 513. 

,, Lordship of, arms, 358, 522. 

LINDSAY, arms, 358, 522. 
II. .MS., 84. 

DAVID, Duke of MOXT- 

ROSE, arms, 522. 


crrxt, 605. 

Earl of CRAWFORD, arms, 

,, JAXET, daughter and heiress 

of Sir ALEXAXDER, 459. 
MARGARET, Countess of 

DOUGLAS, 517. 

,, SIMOX, seal and arms of, 51. 

Sir DAVID, 430, 566. 

,, arms on eagle, 


Lord of CRAW- 
FORD, seal and 
arms of, 51. 

,, ,, Lyon King of 

Arms, Register 
of, 523! 

,, (the elder), Lyon 

King of Arms, 
Record of, 513. 

,, ,, (the younger), 

Lyon King of Arms, Armo- 
rial MS. of, illuminateii, 
84, 149, 171, 402, 476, 512, 

WILLIAM, Lord of ERC1L- 
DOUN and CRAWFORD, seal of, 51. 
LINDSAYS, Lives of the, 51. 
LIXDSEY, Earl of,' arms, 352. 
LINDT, DE, arms, 183. 
Lined, 693. 

Lines of Partition, 693. 
LIXGUET, arms, 203. 

LINLITHGOW, Earl of, arms, 522. 

,, Earldom of, arms, 522. 

LINTRE, Sire de, amis, 332. 
Lion, 208, 735. 

arms on a, 631. 
as a badge, 754. 
as a supporter, 632, 633. 
bicorporate, 219. 
contoumes, 220. 
couchant, 217. 
de S. Marc, 735. 
Demi-, 220. 
,, nalssant, 221. 
,, issuant, 221. 
diffamed, 219. 
dismembered, 217 ; PI. XXL, fig. 8, 

p. 212. 

dormant, 217. 
evire, 219. 

leoparde, 209, 211, 698, 735. 
marine, 703. 
morne, 218. 

Lion, Ombre de, 735. 

,, Palatinate, as a crest, 607. 

,-, Parts of, 222. 

,, passant, 216. 

,, as a crest, 599, (503. 

queue fourchee, 218 ; PL XXL, fig. 9, 

p. 212. 
,, rampant, 212; PL XXI., fig. 1, 

p. 212. 

,, ,, as a badge, 596. 

,, ,, as a supporter, 640. 

gardant, 215 ; PL XXI., 

fig. 2, p. 212. 
regardant, 216 ; PL XXI., 
fig. 3, p. 212. 

salient, 217; PL XXL, fig. 7, p. 212. 
,, sejant, 217. 

affronte, 217. 
,, ,, as a supporter, 642. 
,, ,, gardant, 217, 641. 
,, ,, rampant, 217. 
statant, 217. 
,, ,, as a crest, 600, 603. 
,, ,, gardant, 217. 
,, ,, ,, as a crest, 603. 

The Sea-, 299. 
,, Incorporate, 219 ; PL XXI., fig. 10, 

p. 212. 
,, Tico-headed, 219. 

Winged, 219 ; PL XXI., fig. 11, p. 


,, with helm as supporter, 631. 
Lioncel, 693. 

Lioncds, 219 ; PL XXI., fig. 12, p. 212. 
Lioness, 222. 
Lions addorsed, 220. 

,, as supporters, 634, 636. 

,, combatant, 220; PL XXII., fig. 1, 

p. 222. 
,, courhant, and helmed and crested, as 

supporters, 635. 
,, counter-passant, 220. 
,, ,, -rampant, 220. 
,, de-mi-, as supporters, 633. 
passant, PL XXI., fig. 4, p. 212. 

gardant, PL XXI., fig. 5, 

p. 212. 

-regardant, PL XXI., fig. 6, 
p. 212. 

,, rampant as supporters, 633. 
,, ,, -yard-ant as supporters, 6S5. 

sejant as supporters, 634. 
,, ,, helmed and crested as sttjp- 

porters, 635. 

Lion's gambs, PL XXII., fig. 7, p. 222. 
, , TieacZ as a badge, 754. 
,, /tearfs, 222; PI. XXII., fig. 6, p. 


,, reversed and jessant de Us, 
PL XXII., fig. 11, p. 222. 
,, paws, PL XXII., fig. 8, p. 222. 
tails, PL XXII., fig. 9, p. 222. 
LIPPE, arms, 203. 

,, Barons VON DER, arms, 188. 
,, Princes of, arms, 324. 
Xi7>, The, 203. 
LIRONI, arms, 383. 
Lis-de-jardin, 735. 
LISBURNE, Earl of, arms, 333. 
Zisere, 678, 688, 735. 
LISLE, Viscount, arms, 557. 
,, ,, badge, 587. 

LISLES, DE, mppm-tei; 239. 

Listel, 735. 

LITHUANIA, arms, 199, 255, 487. 

LADISLAS V., Duke of, 
seal, 468. 

LITTA, Celebri Famiglie Italiane, 281, 632. 
LITTLETON, Viscount COBHAM, arms, 


Livery Collars, 597. 

LIVINGSTONE, arms, 522. 


arms, 522. 
MARY, 436. 
, , Viscount TE VIOT, arms, 


arms, 337. 

LIVONIA, Alexander of, seal, 468. 
Lizards, 274, 277. 

Bishop of, arms, 217. 

arms, 224. 
LLOYD, arms, 213; PL XX., fig. 4, p. 


Lord MOSTYN, arms, 200. 

of, arms, 274. 
Loaves as charges, 391 . 
LOBENSTEIN, Barons, amis, 128. 

,, ,, von, arms, sup- 

porters, and compartment, 642. 
LOBKOWITZ, Princes of, arms, 256. 

,, System of lines represent- 

ing colour, 64. 
LOBLEY, arms, 240. 
Lobsters, 273. 
Lockaber-axe, 693. 

LOCHNOW, arms, 469. 
Locket as a badge, 584. 
LOCKHART'S Spanish Ballads, 202. 
LODBROKE, arms, 136. 
LODES, Comte de, bend, 429. 
Zoomed, 232, 589, 693. 
LODOMIRIA, arms, 504. 
LODZIA, aii us, 737. 
,, Counts, 370. 
,, herba of, arms, 370. 
LOEN, arms, 223. 
LOFFREDO, arms, 71. 
LOGAN, arms, 147. 
LOGIE, MARGARET, seal, 455. 

,, , Sir JOHN, arms, 455. 
LOHEAC, arms, 71. 

DE TREVOASEC, arms, 184. 
LOIR, JEAN, 13. 
LORE, arms, 337. 
LOMBARDI, arms, 256. 

arms, 502. 
LOMBARDY, Iron Crown of, 502, 617. 

of, 617. 

LOMELLINI, arms, 79. 
London, Visitation of, 353. 
LONDON, Art Library at South Ken- 
sington, 622. 
City of, arms, 346.. 

,, supporters, 291. 
Lord Mayor of, collar, 598. 
Record Office of, 455. 
See of, arms, 346, 371. 
St. Dunstan's Church, 594. 

( 8i'6 ) 

LONDON, Vane of Royal Exchange of. 


Loiifi Cross, 152. 

LONGASTRE, Marquis de, arms, 183. 

ELY, arm*, 90. 
Loupe, 693, 735. 
Lont/e, 693, 735. 

SALISBURY, arms, 219, 224, 417; 
PI. XXL, fig. 12, p. 212. 
LOXGSHARE, arms, 274. 
aldry of the Percies, 
461, 482, 584. 
TATE and, The Pedi- 
grees and early Heraldry of the Lords 
ofAlnwick, 482. 

arms, 95. 
LONGUEVILLE, arms, 163. 

,, Comte de, 515, 530. 

,, Dukes de, arms, 572. 

,, FRANCIS, Comte de, 

seal., 530. 

,, LOUIS, Duke of, arms, 

LOOS-CORSWAREN, Princes of, arms, 


LOPPIX, arms, 228. 
LORAINE, anagram of the name, 258. 
Lord Chancellor of ENGLAND, mark of 

office, 644. 

LORE DAN, arms, 213. 
LORENZ, Barons, arms, 126. 
Lorenzo, Church of San, in Florence, 192. 

ure, 451. 

LORETTE, arms, 195. 
LOREYN, arms, 133 ; PI. XII., fig. 11, p. 

LORN, arms, 368, 447, 466 ; PI. XXXII., 

fig. 11, p. 358. 
,, pal ley of, 368. 

JOHN, Lord, 447. 
1st Lord of, 520. 
,, Lord of, seal, 520. 
,, Lords of, 368. 
,, Lordship of, 520. 
LORNE, Princess Louise, Marchioness of, 

label, 423. . 
Lorraine, Cross of, 152 ; Fig. 52, p. 164. 

,, Les Coutumes Generales de, 550. 
LORRAINE, arms, 258, 449, 471, 495, 505, 

508, 545, 664. 
,, badge of Dukes of, 153. 

CHARLES III., Duke of, 


,, Duchy, arms, 501. 

,, Duke of, mantling armoye, 

MATHIEU DE, brisure, 

,, Ordonnance of CHARLES 

III., Duke of, 748. 
,, supposed arms of ADEL- 

BERT of, 46. 

RITE DE, anns, 449. 
Lorre, 687, 735. 
Losange, 693, 735. 
Losange, 100, 694, 735. 
,, en bande, 735. 
,, ,, barre, 735. 

LOSS, arms, 279. 
LOTEREL, arms, 403. 

Sir GEOFFREY, arms, 403. 
LOTHAIR, Emperor, 40, 41. 
LOTHIAN, Earl of, 414. 

,, Marquessate of, arms, 305. 

LOUBGASSEN, amis, 440. 
LOUDOUN, Earls of, amis, 85. 

/> rise, re, 452. 
LOUIS II., the German, 39. 

IV., Emperor HOLY ROMAN 
EMPIRE, 57, 58, 247, 630; 
augmentations granted by, 
536 ; coins of, 251 ; crown of, 
621 ; Great Seal of, 247. 
,, V., King of FRANCE, seal of, 354. 
VI., King of FRANCE, coins of, 
327 ; croi'-n and sceptre of, 

VII., King of FRANCE, 329; 
badge, 583 ; called FLORUS, 
327 ; signet of, 328. 
VIII., King of FRANCE, seal of, 

329 ; supporters, 636. 
IX., (ST.), King of FRANCE, 330, 
571 ; seal of, 329 ; supporters, 

X., King of FRANCE, seal, 456. 
XL, King of FRANCE, 12, 192, 
574, 659 ; Great Seal, 616 ; 
supporters, 636. 

XII., King of FRANCE, seal of, 
329, 334 ; PI. XXXVII., fig. 1, 
p. 447 ; supporters, 636. 
XIII., King of FRANCE, 327; 

supporters, 636. 

XIV., King of FRANCE, 13, 14, 
240, 275, 282, 297, 354, 571, 624 ; 
arms, 636, 710 ; augmentation 
granted by, 539 ; supporters, 

,, XVI., King of FRANCE, 539, 660. 
XVIII., King of FRANCE, 14; 
fiufimentation granted by, 539. 
or LOIS, or LOYS, 327. 
,, the same as CLOVIS, 327. 
LOUISE, Princess, Marchioness of 

LORNE, label, 423 ; Fig. 88, p. 421. 
Loup, 735. 

,, -cervier, 735. 
LOUVAIN, amis, 214, 215, 481 ; PI. XXL, 

fig. 1, p. 212. 
,, Seven patrician families of, 


LOUVILLE, arms, 93. 
LOUVOIS, Marquis de, arms, 277. 
LOVARI, amis, 237. 
LOVEL of Ballumbie, supposed arms, 


Sir JOHAN, arms, 553. 
Sir WILLIAM, arms, 417. 
LOVELL, arms, 215, 240. 
LQVENICH, amis, 127. 
LOVENSCHILD, arms, 213. 
LOW COUNTRIES, coronet of Baron in 

the, 625. 

,, ,, Introduction of 

Hereditary arms 
into, 51. 

,, Use of canton in the. 


( 8.7 ) 

LOWE, anna, 228. 

LOWEL, arms, 80 ; PI. V., fig. 6, p. 80. 

LOWENSTBIN, arms, 447, 609 ; PI. LVL, 

fig. 4, p. 671. 

,, Counts of, arms, 126. 

LOWER, M. A., Curiosities of Heraldry, 20, 

22, 23, 25, 31, 98, 117, 397, 634. 
LOWTHER, arms, PL XIX., fig. 8, p. 

Lozenge, 165, 182, 693; Fig., 45, p. 116; 

PI. XVIIL, fig. 7, p. 190. 
Lozenges conjoined, PI. XVIIL, fig. 9, p. 

Lozengy, 100, 185, 693 ; PI. VII. , fig. 9, p. 

couped, PL VIII. , fig. 1, p. 


in bend, 100. 
LUOA, Graf en Saal, 404. 
LUCAS, arms, 684. 
LUCCA, arms of city, 394. 
Luce, The, 268. 

LUCHTENBURG, VAN, arms, 128. 
LUCIANO, arms, 82. 
LUCINGE, Princes de, arms, 91, 122. 
Lucy, 271, 694. 

LUCY, AMAURI DE, arms, 408. 
arms, 268, 306, 481, 482, 641. 

LUDERITZ, Barons von, arms, 370. 
LUETTE, arms, 382. 
Luna, 65. 
LUNA, arms, 307. 
LUNDIN, JOHN, of that ILK, bordure, 


Liine, 735. 
LUNEBURG, Duchy of, arms, 113, 472, 


Lunels, 735. 
LUNELS, arms, 307. 
LUPARELLA, arms, 228. 
LUPIA, arms, 161. 
Lure, 694. 

,, Conjoined in, 260. 
LUSATIA, LOWER, Markgravate, arms, 


,, UPPER, Markgravate, arms, 
LUSIGNAN, am*, 94, 409. 

,, crest and supporters, 303. 

HUGH DE, Count de la 
MARCHE, 303. 
Lute as a charge, 382. 
LUTTEREL (see LOTEREL), arms, 403. 

,, supporters, 638. 

LUTWYCHE, arms, 224; PI. XXII., 

fig. 10, p. 222. 

LUTZOW, Barons von, amis, 365. 



449, 667. 


of, King of BOHEMIA, 591. 

label, 415. 
,, JEAN DE, arms and 

laliel, 415. 

PIERRE DE, Count de 
ST. PAUL, 415. 

LUYTENBURG, VAN, arms, 128. 
LUZYANSKI, arms, 272. 
Lymphad, 367, 694. 

Lymphad under sail, PL XXXII., fig. 12, 

p. 358. 

with fire, PL XXXII., fig. 11, 
p. 358. 

LYNDE, DE LA, arms, 142. 
Lynx, The, 226. 

Lyon Office, Heraldic MSS. in, 476, 518. 
,, ,, Official Register of Arms, 

Entries in, 400, 568, 610. 
,, Register, Institution of, 445. 
LYON, arms, 178, 283. 

Earl of STRATH MORE, arms, 215. 
crest, 605. 
KING OF ARMS, 179, 523, 569, 


,, ,, arms, 526. 

,, ,, duties, 401. 

LYONNAIS ETFOREZ, Counts of, arms, 

Lyre as a charge, 383. 

MABILLON, 47, 287. 
MABUSE the painter, 334. 
M'ADAM, arms, 350. 
M'ALISTER, ALLAN, arms, 512. 

of CLANRANALD, arms, 512. 

M'DONELL of GLENGARRY, arm*, 512 ; 

PL XLIIL, fig. 3, p. 521. 
M'DOUGALL, arms, 213. 
M'GREGOR, arms, 317; PL XXIX., fig. 

2, p. 318. 

M'KINNON, arms, 513. 
M'LAREN, arms, 139. 
M'LAURIN, arms, 371. 
M'LEOD, arms, 207, 358; PL XXVIII., 

fig. 10, p. 308. 
of LEWIS, arms, 314. 
M'MAHON, PL XXL, fig. 6, p. 212. 

arms, 342. 

M'NEILL, arms, 213, 513. 
MACDONALD, arms, 212. 

,, Lord, arms, 512, 513 ; PL 

XLIII., fig. 5, p. 521. 
,, Marsha], arms, 513. 

,, of Slate, arms, 512. 

MACFARLANE, arms, 144, 325. 
,, brisure, 432. 

,, compartment, 642. 

MACHIAVELLI, arms, 713. 
,, family, 16. 

MACIAS, armn, 387. 
MACINTOSH, amis, 212. 
MACKENZIE, arms, 233; PL XXIII., 

fig. 11, p. 228. 

,, arms in Lyon Office Re- 

gister, 400. 

Sir GEORGE, Science of 
Heraldry, etc., 2, 349, 446, 486. 
MACKINTOSH, arms, 513. 
MACKONEIL, of Dunnivege and Glenne.?, 
arms, 512 ; PL XLIIL. fig. 4, p. 521. 
MACLEAN, arms, 513 ; PL XLIIL, fig. 6, 

p. 521. 

Made, 694, 735. 
Made, 694, 735. 
MACMAHON, amis, 216, 263. 

Le Marechal MARIE 
GENTA, arms, 216. 

( 8i8 ) 

MACMAHON, Marquises of, arms, 216. 

MAgON, arm*, 285. 

Magonne, 694, 736. 

MADAN, arms, 262. 

MADDEN, arms, 262. 

MADOETS, arms, 184. 

MADRID, City of, arms, 313. 

MAES, arm*, 184. 


MAGALHAENS, arms, 99. 
MAGALOTTI, arms, 394. 
MAGDEBURG, Duchy of, arms, 79. 
MAGENTA, Due de, arms, 216. 
MAGNALL, arms, 365. 
of ESSEX, 
,, Earl 

of ESSEX, supposed effigy of, 45. 
MAGNE, 204. 

MAGNBNEY, Recueil des Amies, 64. 

counter-seal of, 628. 
MAGUIRE, arms, 199 ; PI. XX., fig. 3, p. 

MAGUSAG, Comte de, supposed arms of, 


MAHLBERG, Lords of, arms, 212. 
MAHREX, Markgravate of, arms, 256. 
Maiden's head as a badge, 754. 
MAIENTHAL, arm*, 66. 
MAIGRET or MEGRET, arms, 66. 
MAILLANE, Marquises de, amis, 227. 
MAILLART, amis, 128. 
MAILLEN D'OHEY, Marquises, arms, 


Maillet, 736. 
MAILLY, arms, 393. 

GILLES DE, amis, 404. 
Main-benissante, 736. 
,, d'aiffle, 693, 736. 

,, arms, 96. 
Maintenance, Cap of, 694. 
MAINWARING of 'Croxton, arms, 560. 
MAIR, arm*, 200. 
MAISTRE, Counts de, arms, 338. 

XAVIER DE, 338. 
MAITLAND, arms, 179, 217; PL XXL, 

fig. 8, p. 212. 
Maize, 344. 
MAJOR, amis, 364. 
Mal-gironne, 85, 736. 
,, -ordonne, 150, 736. 
-taille, 736. 

MALAGAMBAS, arms, 207. 

arms. 112, 331. 
see HEBV1LLY. 
MALASPINA, arms, 536. 

,, CONRAD, amis and aug- 

mentation, 536. 
MALATESTA, arms, 201. 

an/is, 380. 

of, 54. 

MALEMORT, arms, 93. 
MALGOL, arms, 138. 
MALHERBE, arms, 320. 
MALLERBY, arms, 320. 
Mallets as charges, 393. 

MALMAYXS, arms, 204. 
MALMESBURY, Earl of, augmentation, 


MALOLACU, DE, arms, 130. 
MALPAS, Barons of, arms, 157. 
MALTA, Knights of, see HOSPITAL- 

Maltese Cross, 155 ; Fig. 55, p. 164. 
MALTRAVERS, arms, 96, 181. 
Man, PI. XX., fig. 1, p. 198. 
,, -at-arms as supporter, 640. 
,, -tif/er, 694. 
MAN, ISLE OF, arms, 206, 446 ; PL XX., 

fig. 9, p. 198. 
Manacles as a badge, 584. 
Manche, 694. 

,, mal taillee, 694, 736. 
MANCHESTER, Dukes of, arms, 562. 

,, ,, supporters, 

287, 288. 

,, Lords of, and City of, 

amis, 132. 

MAXCICOURT, arms, 140. 
MAXDELSLOH, Counts of, arms, 385. 
MANDERSCHEID, Counts of, arms and 

label, 424. 
MAXDEVILLE, Earls of ESSEX, 589. 



Mandoline as a charge, 383. 
Maned. 694. 

MANFREDI, am*, 81, 162 ; PL XIV., fig. 

12, 'p. 140. 

MANIAGO, Count, arms, 92. 
Manipule, 736. 
MANNERS, arms, 563. 

Lord ROOS, 17. 

WILLIAM, 563. 
of Belvoir, Sir GEORGE, 

,, ,, Grantham, JOHN, arms, 


,, Sir JOHN, Earl of RUT- 

LAXD, augmentation, 530. 
Sir WILLIAM, 563. 
MAXXY, Sir WALTER DE, arms, 140. 
Man's head with ass's ears as a crest, 606. 
MAXSEL, amis, 376. 
MAXSFELD, Counts of, arms, 488. 
MANSOCJRAH, Battle of, 331. 
Mantel, Tierced in, 694. 
Mantele, 88, 694, 736. 
MANTELLI, amis, 213. 
MAXTEUFFEL, Counts von, arms, 123. 
Manticora, 694. 
Mantle, 694. 
Mantled, 88. 

Mantles or Mantlings, 615, 694. 
MAXTUA, Dukes of, arms, 94, 250, 259, 

502, 536. 

,, 1st Marquis of, augmentation, 


MAXUEL, arms, 450, 507, 73&. 
,, King, 238. 

MARIE, 450. 
MAR, arms, 163, 455, 514, 567. 
,, Countess of, seal, 455, 459. 

Earls of, arms, 120, 178, 566. 
,, ,, supporters, 288. 

GRATNEY, Earl of, 445. 

MAR, MARGARET, Countess of, seal, 459. 

Sir DONALD of, brisure, 445. 
MARANS, arm*, 109. 
Marcasxin, 689, 73d, 743. 
MARCELS, arms, 153. 
MARCH, Earl of, 414. 

arms, 168, 171, 405, 446. 
,, bordure, 442. 
,, crest, 605. 
Lions of, (334. 

Silver lions of, 557, 588, 662. 
MARCHAL DE SAINCY, arms, 366. 

an/w, 96 ; PL LV., fig. 5, p. 669. 
MARCHAND, anus, 66. 
MARCHE, Count de la, 303. 

,, OLIVIER DE LA, 615, 653. 

(see LECOY). 

MARCHMONT, Earl of, arms, 523. 
MARCHYDD AP CYNAN, arms, 199. 
MARCK, Counts de la, arms, 125 (see 


,, ,, crest, 60S. 

MARCONNE, Counts de, arms, 314. 
Marechaux de France, mark of office, 645. 

secretum of, 247. 
dtr. of PHILIP III. of 

France, seal, 454. 
Queen of EDWARD I. 
of ENGLAND, 11; seal, 454. 
MARGENS, arms, 69. 
MARGUERIE, Marquises de, arms, 336. 
MARGUERIT, arm*, 330. 
Marguerite, The, 336. 
MARIA THERESA, arms, 104 ; PL XL., 

p. 495. 

,, ,, Empress, arms, 494. 

Grand Cordon of the 
ORDER of, 665. 

dtr. of HENRY III., Duke of 
BRABANT, arms, 454. 
MARIENRODE, Counts of, arms, 380. 
Marigold, 338. 
Marine, 736. 

MARIONI, JULIO, augmentation, 536. 
MARISCHAL, Earls, amis, 122. 
MARK, County of, arms, 125, 472, 485, 

MARKHAM, amis, 221 ; PL XXII., fig. 

3, p. 222. 

MARKINGTON, anns, 80. 
Marks of Cadency, 397. 
MARLBOROUGH, Duke of, arms, 413. 

,, ,, augmentation, 


,, ,, supporters, 



arms, 550. 
MARMION, arms, 345, 532. 

PHILIP, Baron of SCRI- 
VELSBY, 345. 
Marmite, 736. 

MARMOUTIERS, Abbey of, 657. 
MARMYON, arms, 345. 
MARNEY, arm*, 216. 
Marque, 704, 736. 
Marquess's coronet, 624. 
Marquete, 736. 

Marquis's standard, Length of, 654. 
Mars, 65, 694. 

,, Symbol for, 309. 
I MARSCHALCK, arm*, 669. 

MARSEILLES, Figure from Abbey of 

ST. VICTOR, PL II., fig. 4, p. 44. 
MARSHALL, arms, 90. 
,, badge, 355. 

Earl of PEMBROKE, arms, 

Marshalling, 453 ; PL XXXVIII., p. 463 ; 
PL XXXIX., p. 481 ; PL 
XLI.,p. 509; PL XLIL, 
,, in Britain, Modern, 523. 

,, Modes of, 459. 

Marshals, French, mark of office, 645. 
MARSI, Counts, de, arms, 124. 
MARSTON, amis, 235. 
MARTDORF, arms, 222. 

WILLIAM, arms, 393. 


Martin, The, 266. 
MARTIN, arms, 126. 
Martinet, 736. 

,, arms, 185. 

MARTINI, Capa or Capsa Sancti, 657. 
Martlet for fourth son, 444. 
Martlets, 266, 694; PL XXVI., fig. 4, p. 


MARY I., Queen of ENGLAND, arms, 
PL LI., fig. 4, p. 661 ; badge, 
596 ; Great Seal of, 664 ; 
motto of, 664. 

II., Queen of BRITAIN, 113 ; amis, 
PL LIL, fig. 6, p. 663 ; motto 
of, 664. 
,, Princess, label, 422 ; Fig. 88, p. 


Queen of SCOTLAND, 476 ; device 
of, 298 ; Great Seal of, 464 ; seal of, 
330, 335, 476 ; supporters of, 635, 

Mascally, 185. 

MASCARENHAS, arms, 127. 
Mascle, 117, 182, 184, 694 ; PL XVIII., fig. 

8, p. 190. 
Mascles conjoined, PL XVIII., fig. 10, p. 


Masculy, 694. 
Masoned, 694. 
Masque, 736. 

MASSA, Principality of, 537. 
Massacre, 234, 679, 736. 
Masses d'Armes, 736. 
MASSON, arms, 187. 

,, LE, amis, 319. 
MASSOW, Barons, arms, 126. 
MASSY, arms, 284. 
MASTON, amis, 130. 
Masure, 736. 

Matchlock as a charge, 366. 
MATELIEFS, arms, 336. 
MATHEWS, arm*, 212. 
MATHIAS, arms, 387. 
MATILDA, Queen of WILLIAM of Nor- 
mandy, 29. 
MATOS, arms, 317. 
MATTHEWS, arms, 263. 
MAUBLANC, arms, 68. 
MAUD, Empress, 29. 

( 820 ) 

MAUGIROX, arms, 85; PI. VI., fig. 3, 

p. 84. 
MAULE, arms, 517 ; PI. XVII., fig. 2, p. 


Earls of PANMURE, arms, 171. 
Lords PANMURE, and Earls of 
DALHOUSIE, arms, 123, 

Sir DAVID, amis, 171. 
MAULEON, amis, 214. 
MAULEVERER, badge, 753. 
MAULEVRIER, arms, 241. 

,, Comtes de, arms, 164. 

,, Marquises, de, arms, 275. 

Maunch, Maunche, or Manche, 694 ; PI. 

fig. 1, p. 


,, ,, ,, as a badge, 

,, ,, ,, as a charge, 

MAUNDEVILLE, Sir JOHN, Travels, 286. 
MAUPEOU, Marquises de, arms, 239. 
MAURICE, Blazon des Armoiries de tons 
les Chevaliers de I'Ordre de la Toison 
d'Or, 89, 181, 348, 402, 410, 415, 425, 
441, 449, 472, 485, 502, 574. 
MAUVOISIN, arms, 127. 
MAWLEY, arms, 130. 
MAXIMILIAN II., Emperor, 387. 

,, ,, ,, augmentation 

granted by, 537. 

,, Archduke, supporter, 633. 

., King of the Romans, 

counter-seal of, 253. 
MAXWELL, arms, 143. 

,, ROBERT, seal and bordure, 


MAXWELLS in south Scotland, 400. 
MAYA, arms, 365. 
MAYER'S, C. VON, Heraldisches A b c- 

Buch, 388. 
MAYNARD, anm, PI. XX., fig. 7, p. 

,, ST. MICHEL, Counts, arm* 


,, Lords, arms, 204. 

MAYNIER, Barons d'OPPEDE, anm, 


MAZINGEN, arm*, 348. 
MAZINGHEM, arms, 86. 
MEARES, arms, 369. 
MEAUX, le Vicomte de, 11. 

,, Vicomtes de, arms, 337. 
MECHLIN, arms, 570. 

,, Seigneur de, arm*, 405. 

MECKLENBURG, arms, 159, 288, 718. 
,, Duchy of, arms, 492. 

HENRY the LION of, 


,, Princes and Grand 

Dukes of, arm*, 79, 205, 492. 
MEDCALFE, arms, 235. 
MEDICI, arms and augmentation, 538. 

Grand Dukes of TUSCANY, 
arms, 192. 

MEDICO DAL SALE, arms, 304. 

uriitx, 576. 

-SIDONIA, Dukes of, arms, 390. 
Meduse, Tete de. 736. 
MEER, VAN DER, arms, 322. 

MEERMAN, Barons, 303. 

MEGENZER, amis, PI. VIII. , fig. 4, p. 


,, VON, arms, 87. 

MEGHEM, Barons de, arms, 360. 
MEGRET or MAIGRET, amis, 66. 
MEHRENBERG, arms, 163. 
MEJUSSUAUME, Vicomtes de, arms, 


MEIRANS, arms, 721. 
MELDRUM, arms, 238; PI. XXIV., fig. 8, 

p. 236. 

MELGUEIL, Comte de, arms, 118. 
MELIORATI, arms, 310. 
Melons, 341. 
MEL UN, amis, 340. 

HUGUES DE, arms, 411. 
,, le Vicomte de, 11. 
,, le sire de, arms, 411. 
,, Vicomtes de, arms, 349. 
Melusin?, 303, 736. 
Membered, 694. 

,, as applied to birds, 257. 
Memtn-e, 257, 693, 694, 736. 
Membred'Aigle, 736. 

de lion, 688, 736. 
MEMMI, arms, 340. 
MEMMINGEN, arms, 469. 
Men on lions as supporters, 635. 
MENDEL, arms, 87. 
MENDEZ, arms, 219. 
MENDOSA, arms, PI. XXXIII., fig. 12, 

p. 376. 
MENDOZA, arms, 353, 440, 473, 506. 

,, Counts de PRIEGO, amis, 

,, ,, of CORUNA, arms, 



arms, 395, 506. 
MENCIA, 440. 
MENESEZ, arms, 66, 353, 578. 

TINEZ DE, 578. 

Methodique des 
Principes Her- 
aldifjues, 2, 24, 
44, 51, 61, 353, 
388, 446, 552, 
553, 579, 601, 
653, 676. 
,, ,, VArtduBlason 

Justifie, 154. 

,, ,, La Nourelle 

Methode du 
Blason, 169. 
,, ,, La Pratique des 

Armoiries, 3. 
,, Methode du 
Blason, 148, 
154, 181, 742. 

,, ,, on origin of 

eagle, 250. 

,) on origin 

of supporters, 

,, Recherches du 

Blazon, 396, 427, 551, 652. 

( 821 ) 

de I'Originedes 
Armoiries et du 
Blason, 24, 43, 
52, 168, 275, 
,, ,, Treatises of, 


,, ,, Usage des Ar- 

moiries, 628, 

,, ,, Veritable Art 

MENSCHIKOFF, Princes, arms and 

augmentation, 542. 

MENTEITH, arms, 130. 

,, Earl of, arms on Eagle, 630. 

label, 419. 
MENTZ, Archbishop of, 282. 
Menu-vair, 69, 736. 
Menuvaire, 736. 
MENZIES, arms, 118. 
MEPPEN, arms, 90. 
Mer agite, 708. 

MERAV1GL1A, Counts of, arms, 139. 
Mercantile Marine, Hag of British, 657. 
MERCKELSBACH, arms, 162. 
MERCCEUR, arms, 128. 
Mercury, 65, 694. 
MEREDITH, arms, 213. 
MERGETH AP CYNAN, arms, 199. 
MERKMAN, arms, 752. 
Merlette, 266, 694, 736. 
Merlion, 694. 
Merlons, 685, 695-, 724. 
Mermaid, 300 ; PI. XXVII., fig. 12, p. 288. 

,, as a badge, 754. 
Mermaids as supporters, 634. 
Merman, The, 302. 
MERSEMAN, amis, 184. 
MERTON, CM-WM, 343. 
MERTZ, crest, 612. 
MESLAY, Comte de, arms, 280. 
MESTICH, arms, 290. 
JlfetaZ <m JtfeiaZ, etc., 102. 
Metals, 695. 

,, represented by dots, etc., 64. 

,, ,, ,, planets and precious 

stones, 65. 

,, used in Heraldry, 60. 
Metaux, 736. 
METCALFE, arms, 235. 
METHVEN, Lord of, arms, 521 ; PI. 

XLII., fig. 3, p. 513. 
,, Lordship of, arms, 522. 

METSCH, arms, 136. 
METTERNICH, Counts of, arms, 491. 
METTLER, augmentation, 546. 
Meubles, 737. 

MEULAN, seal and arms of JEAN DE 

DE, 49. 

MEULLENT, Counts of, arms, 214. 
MEUX, JOHN DE, arms, 289. 
MEXBOROUGH, Earl of, arms, 130. 
MEXICO, City of, 547. 

,, ,, as a charge, 363. 

MEYNELL, arms, 71. 

Mezail, 737. 

MEZERAY, I'Abrege Chronologique de 

I'Histoire de France, 38. 
Mi-parti, 737. 
MICHAEL, coins of, 250. 
MICHELI, arms, 93, 389. 

,, Doge DOMENICO, arms, 

MICHELL, arms, 185. 
MICHEL'S Les Scossais en France, 446. 
Midas, Head of, 201, 606, 737. 
Te^de, 201, 606, 737. 
MIEROSZEWSKY, in Silesia, arms, 61. 
MIGNIANELLI, arms, 70. 71. 
MILAN, Duchy of, arms, 274, 275, 495, 

502, 505. 

,, Duke of, augmentation, 538. 
,, standard of, 655. 
Military charges, 345. 
Mill-pick, 695. 
,, -rind, 695. 
,, -sail as a badge, 754. 
,, -sails as charges, 393. 
MILLAR, crest, 204. 
MILLESIMO, Counts, arms, 95. 

Marquises DE SAVONA, 

arms, 641. 
MILLY, arms, 337. 
MILON, 12. 

MILTOWN, Earl of, arms, 311. 
MINGOVAL, Seigneur de, 451. 
MINIBERTI, arms, 347. 
Miniver, 695, 736. 
MINSHULL, arms, 307. 
MINTO, Earl of, arm*, 200. 
MINUTOLI, arms, 223. 
MIOLANS, arms, 95. 
Miraille, 704, 737. 
MIRAMOMELIN, Commander of the 

Moors, 353. 

MIRANDA, Counts of, arms, 506. 
MIRANDOLA, Dukes of, arms, 509. 

,, ,, augmentation, 


,, mantling, 616. 

MIREPOIX, Due de, arms, 140. 
MIRON, 12. 
Mirrors as charges, 391. 
Mit einer lincken stufe, 87; PI. VIII., fig. 

3, p. 100. 

rechten stufe, 87. 
MITCHELL, arms, 185. 
MITFORD, arms, PL XXIV., fig. 11, 

p. 236. 

,, Lord REDESDALE, arms, 

Mitre, 695. 

,, as a. charge, 371. 
as a west, 608. 
Mitred figure as a crest, 608. 
MITTROWSKI, arms, 121. 
MIZOU, arms, 93. 
MOCENIGO, arms, 322. 
MODENA, Dukes of, 256. 

,, ,, arms, 502, 508. 

,, ,, augmentation, 537, 


MOER, Barons VAN DE, supporter, 640. 
MOFFAT, arms, 144, 145. 

arms, 200. 
MOHUN, arms, 142, 205. 

JOHN DE, arms, 458. 
WILLIAM DE, arms, 376. 

MOIGNB, Sir WILLIAM, arms trans- 
ferred to, 

,, ,, arms granted 

to, 35. 

MOLAY, DE, arms, 129. 
MOLDAVIA, arm*, 667. 
Mole, 239 ; PL XXIV., fig. 11, p. 236. 
MOLEMBAIS, arms, 128, 450. 

BALDWIN DE, arms, 450. 
MOLEX, Marquis DE ST. PONCY, arms, 

MOLESWORTH, Viscounts, supporters. 


Molettc, 308, 737. 
MOLINA, Sir NICOLO DE, arms and 

augmentation, 535. 
Moline, Cross, 158, 695. 
MOLINEUX, arms, 159. 
MOLL, arms, 239 ; PI. XIII., fig. 4, p. 136. 

VON, arms, 137. 
MOLLE, arms, 239. 
MOLSBACH, VON, arms, 713. 
MOLSEN, Battle of, 243. 
MOLYNEUX, arms, PL XV., fig. 1, p. 144. 
Earls of SEFTON, arms, 
MOLTKE, arms, 266. 

Count VON, arms and augmen- 
tation, 544. 

MONACO, Princes of, arms, 100, 668. 
MONCADA, arms, 391. 
MONCHY, DE, arms, 393. 
Monde, 695, 696, 737. 
MONESTAY, amis, 128. 
Money as a charge, 389. 
MONFRAIN, arms, 187. 
Monk, demi-, as a crest, 605. 
MONMOUTH, Duke of, arms, 146, 559. 
MONNET, Sires de, arms, 389. 
MONRO of Foulis, arms, 259. 
Monsters, 286. 

Monstrance as a charge, 372. 
Monstrueux, 737. 
Mont, 690. 

MONTACUTE, arms, 183, 257, 2S7, 562 ; 
PL XVlIL.fig. 9, p. 190. 
badge, 754. 
Earls of SALISBURY, 


Lord, badge, 753. 
SIMON, 562. 

,, DE, arms, 287. 
MONTAGU, 548, 557, 586. 

and Earls of SAND- 
WICH, arms, 562. 
Earls of SALISBURY, 

arms, 183. 

,, Family, 439. 

,, Guide to the Study of Heral- 

dry, 25, 548, 556. 
,, Marquess of, Garter Plate, 

,, of Ludsdowne, JAMES, 


,, Sir EDWARD DE, arms, 

MONTALEMBERT, arms, PL XV., fig. 2, 

p. 144. 

,, Marquises de, arms, 


MONTALT, arms, 213. 
MONTANGON, arms, 85. 
Montant, 306, 695, 724, 737. 
MONTAUBAN, arms, 112, 137. 

,, Princes de, arms, 185. 

MONTAUSIER, Dues de, arms, 124. 
MONTBAR, DE, arms, 88. 
MONTBAZON, amis, 214. 

,, Dues de, arms, 185, 505. 

MONTBEILLARD, Counts of, arms. 270 ; 

PI. XLIV., fig. 3, p. 537. 

Count of, 47 (see MUMPELGARD). 
MONTCHAL, arms, 193. 
MONTCHENSY, arms, 169. 
MONTCLAR, arms, 136. 
MONTCONIS, arms, 127. 
MONTE-APERTO, Battle of, 655. 
MONTEBELLO, Due de, arms, 346. 

GRIGNAN, arms, 132. 
Nobiliarchia Portugueza, 381, 425, 

MONTENEGRO, arms, 668. 
MONTEPULCIANO, arms, 288. 
MONTESQUIOU, DE, arms, 108. 

,, Marquis de FEZEN- 

SAC, arms, 191. 
MOXTFAUCON, Les Monumens de la 

Monarchic Frangaise, 31, 282, 328. 
MONTFERRAT, Duchy of, amis, 118. 

,, Marquesses of, arms, 250. 

MONTFORD, Barons, anns, 82. 
MONTFORT, arms, 96, 162, 742, 743 ; PL 

XV., fig. 6, p. 144. 
, , arms of Counts of, 373, 499. 

Seigneurs de, 10. 
SIMON DE, Earl of LEI- 
CESTER, anns, 218 ; PL XXL, fig. 9, 
p. 212 ; banner of, 456. 
MONTGOMERY, arms, 50, 219, 331. 
,, Earl of, anns, 224. 

JOHN, badge, 583. 
Sir THOMAS, badge, 

MONTGOMMERY, arms, 219. 
MONTHERMER, arms, PI. XXV., fig. 1, 

p. 260. 

RALPH DE, Earl of 
GLOUCESTER, arms, 257. 
MONTI, arms, 72, 73 ; PL VIII., fig. 6, p. 


MONTJEAN, arms, 96. 
MONTJOY, arms, 112. 
MONTLEART, arms, 191. 
MONTLEON, arms, 214. 
MONTMORENCY, DE, amis, 258, 451, 


badge, 586. 
,, ,, brisures, 451. 

,, kills HENRY II. 

of France, 40. 

,, MATHIEU, ban- 

ner, 651. 
I., seal 
of, 48. 

II., seal 
of 37, 48. 


crested helm, 599. 
-LAVAL, arms, 258, 

452, 460, 463, 504. 

( 823 ) 


amis, 463. 
Lord of, 11. 



MONTPELLIER, Seigneurs de, 10. 
MONTPENSIER, Dues de, bend, 429. 
MONTRAVEL, Comte de, anus, 317. 
MONTREVEL, Comtes de, amis, 81 ; 

bri-xure, 434. 

MONTROSE, Burgh of, arm*, 324, 522. 
,, Duke of, amis, 273. 

seal, 522. 

MONTS, see RIVIERE, 729. 
Monumenta Zollerana, 455. 
Monuments, Armorial bearings on, 43. 
Monymusk reliquary, 657. 
MONYPENNY, arm*, 270. 

THOMAS, of Kinkell, 
chevron, 431. 
Monza, Basilica of, 617. 
Moon, The, 306. 
Moor-foirl, 267. 

Moor's Head, 200 : PL XX., fig. C, p. 198. 
Moose-deer, The, 232. 
Morailles, 678, 718, 737. 
MORAVIA, arm*, 496, 500, 665. 

,, Markgravate of, arms, 256. 

MORAY, cushions of, 518. 

Earl of, arms, 177, 378, 435, 516, 


ELIZABETH, Countess of, 507. 
,, Regent, arms, 567. 

THOMAS, Earl of, arm*, 378. 
MORDWINOFF, augmentation, 542. 
MOREA, PHILIP, Prince of the, 579. 

,, arms, 241. 

MOREUIL, arms, 221. 
MORGAN, arms, 213, 288. 

SYLVANUS, Sphere of Gentry 
and Amiilofiia, 23, 59, 644. 

DE, brisure, 452. 

MORICE, Memoires pour servir de Preures 
a UHistoire Scclesiastique et Civile, de 
Bretagne, 46, 413, 460, 461, 463, 634. 
MORIEN, arms, 188. 
Morion, 695. 
Morions as charges, 392. 
MORISON, arms, PI. XX., fig. 5, p. 198. 

,, of Dairsie, arms, 200. 

MORLEY, arms, 226. 

, , Earls of, arms, 1 86. 
,, Lord, badge, 753. 
MORNAY, DE, amis, 218. 
Moi-ne or Mortne, 218, 683, 695, 737. 
MORXY, Due de, amis, 266 572 
MOROSINT, arms, 129. 
MORBA, Dukes of BELFORTE, aims and 

augmentation, 541. 

,, Princes of MORRA, etc., amis 
and augmentation, 541. 
MORRISON, anus, 735!. 
MORSAN, Marquises de, arms, 372. 
Morse, 695. 

MORSKI, Counts, arm*, 348. 
MORSLEDE, VAN, amis, 132. 
Mort, 695. 

MORTAGNE, Princes de, arms, 94. 
Mortaise line, 77, 678, 684, 737. 

Mnrlar, 695. 

MORTE, arms, 203. 

MORTEMAR, Dues de, arm*, 93. 

MORTEMER, arms, 448. 

Mortier, 625, 737. 

MORTIMER, arms, 112, 331, 448, 479, 557 ; 

PL XVIII., fig. 5, p. 190. 
,, badge, 754. 

Earl of MARCH, amis, 1CS, 


EDMUND, seal of, 168, 448 ; 
PL XXXVII. , fig. 2, 
p. 447 ; supporters, 634. 
GEOFFREY DE, arms, 448. 
,, HENRY DE, arms, 448. 

,, JOAN DE, arms, 448. 

RAF DE, arms, 448. 
ROGER, 591. 

,, arms, 448. 
WILLIAM DE, arms, 448. 
Mortve, 695. 
MORTON, Earl of, arm*, 179. 

,, ,, mantling amioye, 616. 

MORVILLE, aVww, 474. 
MOSCOSO, arms, 507. 

OSORIOS DE, arms, 507. 
MOSCOW, arms, 542, 665. 

,, arms of Grand Duke IVAN 

BASILOWITZ of, 250. 
,, Kremlin at, 622. 
MOST, amis, 89. 
MOSTYN, Lord, ami*, 200. 
MOTTE-FOUQUE, Barons de la, arm*, 


,, JEANNE, Comtesse de la, and 
her sister MARIANNE, arms, 

LA, arms, 170. 

Motto, 695. 
Mottoes, Royal, 664. 
MOUCHARD, Comte de CHABAN, arm*, 


Mouchete, 704, 737. 
Mouchetures, 695, 737. 
MOUCHY, Dues de, arms, 129. 
MOULE, THOMAS, The Heraldry of Fish, 
268, 271, 299, 300, 301, 302, 614, 615, 

MOULINS, arm*, 91. 
MOULTON of Frankton, Lord, arm*, 


,, ,, Gillesland, Lord, amis, 


THOMAS, Baron of EG RE- 
MONT, arms, 404. 
Mound, 695. 
Mount, A, 311, 695 ; PL XXVIII, fig. S, 

p. 308. 

Burning, 314; PL XXVIII., fig. 
10, p. 308. 

MOUNT-TEMPLE, Lord, sujrpm'tcr, 298. 
Mounted, 695. 
MOUNTENEY, arms, 403. 
MOUNTFORD, arms, 96, 214. 
Mounting, 695. 
Mourne, 695. 
Mouser, A, 97. 

MOUSKES, PHILIPPE, rhyming chro- 
nicle of France, 245, 658. 
MOUSSAYE, LA, Vicomte de ST. 

DENOUAL, arms, 96. 
Mov.ton, 703, 737. 
,, a piloter, 737. 


Mouvant, 737. 
MOWBRAY, ami*, 213. 
,, badge, 754. 

GEOFFREY DE, label, 419. 
,, Lord, supporter, 300. 

THOMAS, Duke of NOR- 
FOLK, arms, 474. 
Duke of NOR- 
FOLK, augmentation, 528. 
MOYLE, arms, 237. 
MOYXE, LE, family, 605. 
MOZZI, arms, 101; PL XV., fig. 7, 

p. 144. 

MUCH AMPS, arms, 280. 
MUDERSBACH, arms, 85. 
MtJHL, Barons, arms, 318. 
MUHLINGEX, County of, amis, 256. 
MULA, Counts DA, supporters, 640. 
Mulberry as a badge, 754. 
JV/ii/, The, 237. 
MULERT, arms, 140. 
MULLER, Baron, am*, 339. 
Mullet, The, 308, 695 ; PL XXVIII., fig. 7, 

p. 308. 

,, for third son, 444. 

MULTOX, arms, 127, 474, 641. 
MUMPELGARD, Counts of, arm*, 270. 
,, ,, crest, 607. 

MUX, Marquises de, arms, 381. 
MUX DEGUMBRI, of Eagleshame, JOHX 

1)E, seal and arms of, 50. 
MUXGO, ST., 271. 

MUXOIS, GUI DE, Monk of St. Germain 
1'Auxerrois, stal of, 672 ; PL 
XXXVII., fig. 3, p. 447. 
MUNOZ, amis, 353. 

MUXRO, arm*, PL XXV., fig. 4, p. 260. 
MUNSTER, 384. 

,, Earl of, arms, 560. 

MUNSTERBERG, Dukes of, arms, 234. 
MUNTZENBERG, Counts of, anus, 79. 
MUNZEXBERG, arms, 488. 
Mur, 737. 
Mural-crown, 695. 
MUR AT, 206. 
MURRAY, orw, 308. 

,, arms in Lyon Office Register, 

of Bothwell, a-Hw,'514, 515, 


THOMAS, 514. 
,, ,, Culbin, arms, 406. 

,, ,, Touchadam, arms, 179. 

,, Tullibardine, arms, 179. 
Sir ANDREW, bordure, 442. 
THOMAS, Bishop of CAITH- 
NESS, stal of, 369. 
WILLIAM of Gask, chevron, 


son of Sir MAL- 
COLM, labtl, 419. 
Murrey, 695. 

MUSCHAMP, amis, 128, 281. 
Muschttourt, 695. 
Mushroom, 344. 

Musical instruments as charges, 382. 
Musimon, 695. 
Jtfwiion, 97, 226, 695. 
MUSY, arms, 213. 
Muzzled, 695. 
MYNTER, OJ-MM, 364. 
MYPONT, arms, 136. 

Nacelle, 737. 

NACHTIGAL, augmentation, 546. 

Pageant, 696, 737. 

Naiant, 268, 6!>ti. 

JVw7erf, 696. 

NAIMER, a>-HM, 374. 

Naissant, 221, 696, 734, 737 ; PL XXII., 

fig. 5, p. 222. 

NAMANS, Barons, arms, 126. 
NAMUR, Counts of, arms, 429 ; PL XLI V. , 

fig. 2, p. 537. 
LOUIS DE, crest, 592. 
ROBERT DE, beml, 429. 
,, ,, crest, 592. 

NANI, arms, 7S, 80. 
,, arms, 144, 325. 

,, of Culcreuch, brisure, 436. 

,, ,, Merchiston, brisure, 432. 

PATRICK, Lord, arms, 179. 
NAPIER'S Partition of the Lennox, 180. 
NAPLES, Conquest of, 620. 

FREDERICK, King of, 505. 
,, Kingdom, arms, 502. 
NAPOLEON I. , Emperor of the FRENCH, 
309, 513 ; -mantling, 616. 
,, III., Emperor of the 

FRENCH, 390; aug- 
mentation granted by, 

,, crown of, 621. 

,, never conferred title of 

Marquess, 626. 

,, substitutes toques for coro- 

nets, 626. 

XAPOLEOX'S golden lees, 281, 282. 
XARBOXXE, Battle of, 658. 

,, Dues de, arms, 66. 

Narcissus, 696. 
XARISCHKIX, arms, 746. 
NASH, arms, 219. 

NASHE, arms, PL XXL, fig. 10, p. 212. 
NASSAU, arms, 163, 212, 215, 256, 385, 
404, 466, 487, 580, 581, 662 ; 
PL VIII., fig. 11, p. 100. 
corns of ADOLF of, 246. 
ENGELBERT, Comte de, 

wreath, 614. 
,, motto, 664. 

RICK, Prince of , 

,, ,, Marks of illegiti- 

macy in, 580. 
MAURICE, Prince 
of, 580. 

Count of, 580. 
,, Princes of ORAXGE, arms, 


RICHARDE DE, arms, 409. 
XATHELEY, amis, 274 ; PL XXVII., fig. 

1, p. 288. 

National arms, 664. 
,, flags, 655. 
Nature!, Au, 738. 
Xaval Reserve, flag of, 657. 
Naval crown, 696. 

NAVARRE, arms, 66, 235, 353, 354, 464, 
465, 479, 505, 635, 636, 710 ; 
PL XXXI., fig. 10, p. 346. 
BLAXCHEDE, seal, 461. 
., chains of, 354, 456. 

,, JOAX DE, seal, 464. 

NAVARRE. King of, crest coronet, G15. 

PHILIP, King of, 464. 
Navire, 688, 738, 746. 
Navy, Hag of Royal, 656. 
Naworth Castle, 641. 
NAYE, DE LA, onus, 74. 
NEATH, Lordship of, 386. 
Nebule, 696, 738. 

line, 76 ; Fig. 22, p. 75. 
Nebuly or Nebulee, 696. 
Needle-gun as a charge, 366. 
NEILSON, arms, 109. 
NELSON, Lord Viscount, arms and aug- 
mentation, 534, 610. 
NEMAUSUS, medal of, 277. 
NEMI, Dukes of, arm*, 311. 
Nenuphar leaf, 321, 738. 

Feuilles de, 738. 
NEPTUNE as a charge, 196. 
NERFORD, ALICE DE, amis, 554. 

arms, 426. 

Nerve, 696, 738. 
Nerved, 696. 

NESLE, Marquis de, arms, 202. 
NESSELRODE, Counts von, arms, 124. 
NETHERLANDS, Admirals of, mark of 

office, 626. 

,, arms, 667. 

,, coronet of a Count in 

the, 625. 
,, ,, a Viscount 

in, 625. 
,, ,, Marquises 

in, 624. 

,, motto, 667. 

,, Royal supporters, 667. 

,, Use of supporters in 

the, 639. 

NETTANCOURT, Marquis of, arms, 137. 
Nettle, The, 320. 
NEU, Barons, supporter, 640. 
NEUENHOF, Barons von, arms, 355. 
NEUFCHATEL, arms, 415. 

,, CLAUDE DE, arms and 

label, 415. 
HENRY DE, 415. 
THIEBAUT, Seigneur 
de, 415. 
NEUFVILLE, arms, 96. 

,, Baron de, arms, 331. 


NEUHOFF, Barons von, arms, 355. 
NEUMAYER, arms, 374. 
NEVERS, arm*, 458, 631. 

JOHN, Count de, 462. 
LOUIS, Count of, seal, 462. 
,, DE, Count of FLAN- 

DERS, 457. 
PHILIPPE, bdtard de, arms, 


,, ,, Comte de, 576. 

YOLANTE, Comtesse de, 
brisure, 439. 
NEVILE, arms, 213. 
NEVILLE, badge, 753, 754. 

Earl of WARWICK, badge, 

,, ,, ,, etc., arms, 

,, of Raby, arms, 410. 

Sir JOHN, Marquess of MON- 
TAGU, Garter Plate, 486. 
NEWCASTLE, Duke of, arms, 163. 

Duke of, supporters, 605. 

NEWDEGATE, arms, 222; PI. XXII. 

tig. 7, p. 222. 

NEWMAN, Colonel, arms and augmenta- 
tion, 532. 

NEWPORT, Earl of, arms, 561. 
NEYDECK, Barons von, arms, 137. 
NICEY, supporters, 198. 
NICHOLS, J. GOUGH, Herald and Genea- 
logist, 46, 110, 

111, 638. 

,, ,, Rules of Blazon, 

NICOLAS, Sir HARRIS, on the badge of 

Ostrich Feathers, 592. 
NICOLAY, Counts, arms, 241. 
NICOLSON, arms, 262. 
NIEDER LAUSITZ, Margravate of, arms, 


NIEMPTSCHER, DIE, arms, 297. 
NIESIECKI, Korona Polska, 359. 
NIGHTINGALE, arms, 324. 
Nille, 696, 713. 
N MES, City of, arms, 277. 
NISBET, Scottish Herald, An Essay on 
the Ancient and Modem Use 
of Armory, 2. 
,, Marks of Cadency, 401. 

on origin of double-headed eagle, 


,, System of Heraldry, 2, 23, 83, 
84, 157, 158, 159, 227, 248, 401, 447, 
479, 529, 548, 552, 557, 569, 575, 
605, 615, 684. 
Noah's Ark as a charge, 371. 
NOAILLES, Dues de NOAILLES, arms, 


MOUCHY, arms, 

Prince de FOIX, arms, 129. 

NOBELAER, arms, 262. 
Nobiliarchia Portugucsa, 381, 425, 578. 
Nobility, Definitions of, 37. 
Noble, Use of term, 6. 
Nobles, coronet of, 626. 

,, helm of, 601. 

NOCERA, JOVIUS, Bishop of, 52. 
NOB, LA, arms, 213. 
NOEL, arm*, PI. XVIII., fig. 1, p. 190. 
Earls of GAINSBOROUGH, arms, 

NOGARET, arms, 318. 
NOLTHENIUS, amis, 196. 

brisure, 451. 
Nombril, 696, 738. 
NOMPAR, amis, 87. 

Dues de la FORCE, 12. 
NOORDEN, VAN, arms, 213. 
NOORT, VAN, amis, 238. 
NOOTEN, VAN, arms, 387. 
NORFOLK, Duke of, arms, 408, 474. 

,, ,, augmentation, 528, 

,, crest, 607. 

Dukes of, arms, 99, 213. 
THOMAS, Duke of, 558. 
NORIE, arms, 175. 
NORMAN flags, 649. 

kings, arms of, 661 ; PI. LI., 

fig. 1, p. 661. 
shield, 54. 

JOHN, Duke of, 562. 


NORMANDY, Duchy of, anns, 468 ; 554. 
,, furs common in armory of, 

,, seal and arms of JOHN, 

Duke of, 629. 

WILLIAM, Duke of, 29, 30. 

NORONHAS, arms, 577, 578. 
NORROY, King of Arms, arms, 526. 
NORTH, Baroness, supporters, 292. 
NORTHALLERTON, Battle of, 655. 
NORTHBROOK, Earl of, arms, 230. 
NORTHCOTE, arms, 132; PJ. IX., fig. 

10, p. 108. 


arms, 108. 
NORTHUMBERLAND, Duke of, arms, 

488, 559. 

,, Dukes and Earls 

of, amis, 
184, 214, 

Earl of, 482, 641. 

,, ,, standard 

of, 654. 

NORTON, arms, 147. 
NORWAY, 379. 

,, and SWEDEN, personal amis 

of King of, 667. 
,, arms, 208, 581, 667. 
,, Marks of illegitimacy in, 581. 
,, Royal House of, 581. 

Bishop of, brisure, 437. 
Notes and Queries, 62, 134, 167, 335, 530. 


Noue, 696, 738. 
Noueux, 692, 738. 
Nourri, 738. 
NOUST, arms, 283. 
NOVGOROD, arms, 665. 
NOTION, Seigneur de, 12. 
Wowed, 274, 696. 
NOYCE, arms, 337. 

NO YON, PIERRE, Bishop of, anns, 570. 
NOZIER, arms, 318. 
Nuage, 696, 738. 
,, line, 76. 
Nuees, 738. 
NUGENT, Marquises of WESTMEATH, 

arms, 126. 

440, 469, 494. 
Burg-grave of, 255, 454. 

crest, PI. 

XLIX., fig. 3, p. 607. 
,, Burg-grafin of, arms, 471. 

,, City of, arms, 296. 

ZOLLERN, Burg-grave of, 255. 
NUSBERG, arms, 579, 580. 
NUSSBERG, arms, 580. 
NUTSHALL, arms, 240. 
NUVOLONI, arms, 72. 
NYDEGGEN, Marquesses of, arms, 214. 

Oak, The, 315, 316. 

OBER-LAUSITZ, Markgravate of, arms, 

OBERNBURG, arms, 670; PL LVL, fig. 

7, p. 671. 

OBERRElDERN, arms, 370. 
O'CALLAGHAN, Viscounts, arms, 316. 
OCHSENSTEIN, Baron von, arms, 126. 
OCHTERLONY, arms, 569. 

O'CONOR-DON, arms, 317. 
ODENKIRCHEN, arms, 93. 
ODET, arms, 347. 
ODO, Bishop of BAYEUX, 29. 

fdius ISAMBARDI, 10. 
ODORSKI, arms, 289. 
OELPER, arms, 229. 
GETTER, Wappenbelustigung, 244. 
OFFER, arms, 370. 
Official arms, 525. 
OF FORD, D', arms, 142. 
OGILVJE, JOHN, Sheriff-depute of 

Inverness, bend, 430. 
OGILYY, Earl of AIRLY, arms, 216. 

,, of Inverquharity, supporters and 
compartment, 642. 
OGLANDER, arms, 263; PI. XXV., fig. 

11, p. 260. 
OGLE, badge, 753. 
Ogress, 190, 696. 

OHA DE ROCOURT, amis, 188. 
O'HARA, arms, PI. X., fig. 8, p. 118. 

Lords, TYRAWLEY, arms, 121. 
Oiseau-duc, 697. 
OISI, Com tea d', arms, 221. 
OKE, anns, 341. 
OKEDEN, arms, 341. 
O'KELLY, arms, 361. 
OKSZA-GRABOWSKI, Counts, 348. 
OKULICZ, arms, 348. 
OLDENBURG, Princes of, arms, 127, 487, 

510, 666. 

OLDHAM, Bishop, arms, 264. 
OLDMIXON, anns, 348. 
OLIPHANT, arms, 307; PI. XXVIII., fig. 

2, p. 308. 

,, of Bachilton, chevron, 431. 

of Condie, arms, 172 ; PL 

XVII., fig. 5, p. 172. 
,, of Kelly, bordure, 441. 

,, of Prinlis, chevron, 431. 

OLIVAREZ, " Conde-Duque," 624. 
OLIVER, arms, 317. 

brisure, 452. 

JEANNE, arms, 463. 
OLIVIERA, anns, 317. 
OLIVIERS, arms, 317. 
OLUJA, anns, 141. 
0-mbelle, 738. 
Ombre, 696, 706, 738. 
Ombre de lion, 738. 

soleil, 305, 684, 738. 
OMODEI, anns, 81. 
OMPHAL, D', anns, 146. 
Onde, 76, 706. 
Ondee or Ondy, 696. 
Ondoyant, 272, 689, 738. 

,, in pal, 275. 
Ondoyants en pal, 274. 
Ondy, 696, 738. 
O'NEILL, difference, 569. 

Earl of TYRONE, anns, 204. 
O'NEYLANS, anns, 292. 
Ongle, 232, 707, 738. 
ONSLOW, anns, 264 ; PL XXVI., fig. 1, 

p. 266. 

OOSTDIJK, anns, 143. 
OOSTENWOLDE, VAN, arms, 187. 
Opinicus, 696. 
OPPEDE, Barons d', arms, 139. 


Oppressed, 696. 

Or or Gold, 60, 65, 696, 738 ; PL III., fig. 

1, p. 60. 
,, plcin d', 66. 
Orange, 738. 

,, branch, 338. 
,, or Tenny, 60, 65. 
ORANGE, arms, 461. 


daughters of WILLIAM, 

Count of, arms, 466. 

CHARLOTTE, daughter of 

WILLIAM, Prince of, 258. 

DE LA FEILLEE, D', anus, 

Princes of, arms, 113, 129, 146, 


WILLIAM of, 580. 
Oranges, 190, 340. 
Orb, 696. 

,, of Sovereignty as a charge, 380. 
Ordinaries, 78, 102, 116, 696. 
,, Honourable, 116. 

Origin of, 117. 

,, Subordinate, 116, 165, 696. 
Ordinary, Difference by addition of an, 428. 
,, ,, changing the boun- 

dary line of an, 432. 
Ordonnance of CHARLES III., Duke of 


Ordonnances, regulating use of de, 12, 13. 
Oreille, 738. 
Oreitlers, 378, 697, 738. 
Oreiltes, 273. 

Organ-pipes as charges, 386. 
,, -rest, 697. 
,, -rests as charges, 386. 
Oriflamme, of FRANCE, 657, 658. 
Origen de las dignidades seglares de Castilla 

y Leon, 390. 
ORIGO, arms, 86. 
ORIOL, arms, 715. 
ORKNEY, Earldom of, 511 ; arms, 368, 

369, 511, 51-2, 567. 
seal of Earl of, 369. 

ORKNEYS, Norse Jarls of the. 511. 
Orle, 697, 739. 
Orle, En, 739. 
In, 697. 

,, of martlets, PL XVII., fig. 9, p. 172. 
The, 116, 165, 174, 097, 738; PL 

XVII., fig. 8, p. 172. 

ORLEANS, Dukes of, arms, 530, 571, 
. 572. 

House of, label, 424, 425. 
,, JEAN, bdtard d', arms, 571. 

,, Le bdtard d', arms, 571. 

,, LOUIS, Due d', arms, 529. 

PHILIPPE, Due d', 571. 
ORLOFF, Counts and Princes, augme: 

tion, 542. 
ORMOND, Earl of, 516. 

knot, 585. 
ORMONDE, JAMES, Duke of, 570. 

,, BUTLERS of, arms, 381. 

O)-naments, External, 599, 617, 627. 
ORSBECK, arms, 493. 
ORSENIGHI, arms, 394. 
ORSINI, arms, 120 ; PL X., fig. 6, p. 118 
ORTELART, arms, 93. 
ORTENBURG, Counts von, arms, 260. 
ORTINS, arms, 173. 


ORTLIEB, arms, 320, 321 ; PL XXIX., 

fig. 9, p. 318. 
ORY, arms, 277. 
ORZON, arms, 669; PL LVL, fig. 1, 

p. 671. 

O'SHEA, arms, 347. 
OSMOND, 12. 
OSORIO, arms, 507. 

,, Count of ALTAMIRA, arms, 


arms, 507. 

units, 507. 


DE MOSCOSO, arm*, 507. 
Dukes of AGUIAR, etc., arms, 

OSSOL1N-OSSOLINSKI, Counts, arms, 

OSSUNA, Duke of, arms, 167, 168, 441 ; 

PL XLL, fig. 2, p. 509. 
OST-FR1ESLAND, Princes of, arms, 295. 
OSTENSACKEN, augmentation, 542. 
OSTERBECH, arms, 396. 
OSTERHAMMER, anus, 236. 
OSTERHAUSEN, arms, 236. 
OSTERRIETH, arms, 236. 
OSTERTAG, arms, 236. 
OSTICHE, Barons d', arms, 122. 
OSTREVANT, Comte d', 589, seal, sup- 
porter, and compartment, 

,, County of, 592. 

,, seal of Count of, 251. 

WILLIAM, Count of, arms 

on eagle, 630. 
Ostrich as a badge, 754. 
,, feathers, 263. 
,, ,, as a badge, 591, 598. 

The, 263. 

OSTROWSKI, arms, 289, 371. 
OSWALD, arms, 19S. 
Otelle, 154. 
Otelles, 739. 

OTHEGRAVEN, arms, 162. 

by, 246. 

OTTAV1O, Duke, 509. 
Otter, PL XXIV., fig. 8, p. 236. 
Otters and Otter's heads, 238. 
OTTO IV., Emperor, coin* of, 244, 245. 
OUDENHAGEN, VAN, ///, 428. 
OULTRE, amis, 143. 
OUPEY, amis, 112, 331. 
OUTRAM, supporters, 224. 
Ouvert, 686, 697, 739. 
Overall, 697. 
Overt, 697. 

OVID, Metamorphoses, 300. 
Old, The, 262, 697; PL XXV., fig. 9, 

p. 260. 

OWSTINS, arms, 137. 
Oxen, 234. 

OXFORD, City of, arms, 312. 
Earl of, 438. 

arms, 132, 410. 

,, ,, badge, 753. 

OYLY, D', arms, 132. 
OYRY, arms, 182. 

PABST, arms, 372. 
Pacta successionis, 483. 

( 328 ) 


brisure, 452. 
PADILLAS, arm*, 390. 
PADUA, City of, anus, 141. 
PAERNOX, arms, 66. 
PAEUVV, DE, arms, 207. 
PAHLEN, Counts von der, augmentation, 


PAIN ET VIN, a, 391. 
Pairle, en, 739. 

The, lib, 150, 739. 
Puissant, 739. 
Pa/, 120, 739. 
tti, 739. 
Palace, 363. 
PALACIO, am*, 199. 


seal of DEMETRIUS, 
PALATINATE, arms, 580. 

,, Wo?i rampant of the, 525. 



,, Elector, arms, 526. 

PALAU, anus, 363. 
Pale, cotistd, PI. X., tig. 11, p. 118. 
,, indented, Per, Plate V., tig. 2, p. 80. 
,, Ported 2>w, 78 ; Fig. 28, p. 77 ; PI. 

V., fig. 1, p. 80. 

,, rayonne, Pi. X., fig. 8, p. 118. 
,, retrait, 121. 
The, 78, 120, 697 ; Fig. 37, p. 11C ; 

Pi. X., fig. 7, p. 118. 
Varieties of, 121. 
Pale, 739. 

,, contre, 739. 
PALEOLOGUS, SOPHIA, daughter of 

THOMAS, 250. 

PALESTRINA, Princes of, arms, 363. 
Paleicays, 108. 

PALIANO, Dukes of, arms, 363. 
Palisado crown, 697. 
Palisse, 739. 

line, 77. 

Pall, The, 116, 150, 697 ; PI. XVI., fig. 10, 
p. 146 ; PL XVI., fig. 11, p. 146. 
,, as a charge, 374. 
PALLANDT, arms, 93. 
Palle, 192. 
Palle or Pale, 90. 
Pallets, 122, 697; PI. X., fig. 9, p. 118; 

Pi. X., tig. 10, p. 118. 
,, hummetty and itUhe, PI. X., fig. 

12, p. 118. 

PALLIOT, French Armorist, 76. 
PALLISER, Mrs, Historic Devices, 

Bailges, and War Cries, 192, 586. 
Pallium, as a charge, 150, 371, 374. 
PALM, arms, 317. 
Palme, 739. 
PALMER, amis, 375. 
Palmer's staff', 697. 
Palmier, 739. 
PALMIER!, arms, 319. 
Pa/* retraits, 123. 
PALVERT, draw, 91. 

, 90, 697, 739 ; PI. VII., fig. 1, p. 90. 
-bendy, 100, 697 ; PL VII., fig. 12, p. 


per bend, 92. 
perfess, 92. 
wavy, 91. 
Pame, 269. 

Pame, 739. 

Pampre, 693, 739. 

Panache, 739. 

Pan-de-Mur, 739. 

Panelles, 739. 

PANHUYS, arms, 184. 

PANMURE, Earls of, /</, 171. 

,, Lords, W/-//M, 147. 

Pannes, 739. 
Panneton, 739. 
Pa/i's ^ipe as a charge, 386. 
PANSEY, Baron de, arms, 278. 
Pansy, The, 337. 
Pantittr, Demi-, 226. 

The, 22f, 697. 
,, Heraldic, 226. 

Panthere au naiurel, 73f . 

,, heraldique, 697, 739. 
PANTOJAS, am, 158. 
Paon, 739. 

,, rouant, 698. 
PAPACODA, anus, 223. 
PAPAL augmentations, 541. 

Jiara as a charge, 372. 
Papegay, or Papegai, 700, 739. 
Papelonne, 71, 72, 73, 74, 726, 740: PI. 

VIII., fig. ti, p. 100. 
PAPENBROEK, /-iw, 146. 
Papilonne, 697, r. J'apelonne, 

arms, 280. 
Papinyots, 2c'5 ; PI. XXVI., fig. 2, p. 


PAPPENHEIM, Counts von, augmenta- 
tion, 538. 

Paradise, Bird of, 267. 
PARAV1CIN1, Counts, 262. 
PARCHW1TZ, Barons vou, arms, 297. 
PARDAILLAN, amis, 128. 
Pare, 740. 

PARIS, arms, 283. 

,, Bibliotheque Royale at, 282. 
,, Bourgeoisie of, 601. 
,, City of, arms, 369. 
,, ,, colours, 659. 

,, Count of, 11. 


MS. of, 251. 

,, seal of Chatelet of, 333. 
,, Notre Dame at, 329. 

,, University of, arms, 205. 
PAHIZOT, arms, 265. 
PARKER, Earls of MORLEY, arms, 185. 

,, Glossary of Heraldry, 309. 

PARMA, ALEXANDER, Duke of, 509. 
,, Dukes of, arms, 283, 502, 508. 
,, ,, augmentation, 541. 

,, Margaret of, arms, 577. 
PARR, arms, 532. 

Queen CATHARINE, arms and 
augmentation, 532. 
Parrot, The, 265. 
Parted coats, 74. 

per bend, 80. 
,, ,, sinister, 80. 
,, chevron, 81. 
J'ess, 79. 
,, pale, 78. 
PARTHENAY, arms, 530. 

FRANCIS, Seigneur de, 
seat, 530. 
Parti, 78, 740. 


Parti et contre-bande, 96. 

,, per chevron, 728. 
Particle, The Ordonnance respecting the 

assumption of, 748. 
Particule Nobiliaire, Origin of, 8, 9. 
Partition, arms showing Modes of, PI. V., 
p. 80 ; PI. LV., p. (569 ; PI. 
LVL, p. 671. 
,, lines, 74, 75, (397. 
,, Mode of, 74, 77. 
Partitions, 668. 

,, Curious, and remarkable coats. 

Party, 697. 
PASCAL, arms, 236; PI. XXIV., fig. 4, 

p. 236. 

Paschal Lamb, 236, 697. 
PASCHAL-COLOMBIER, arms, 240, 710. 
PASQUIER, le Dire, 15. 
Passant, 216, 698, 740. 

contre-passant, 698. 
counter-passant, 698. 
gardant, 698. 
regardant, 698. 
repassant, 698. 
en, CVoix, en Sautoir) 740. 
Passion Cross, 698; Fig. 47, p. 164. 
,, of the, 1. 
naifc, 147, 698. 
Pastoral-staff' as a charge, 371. 
PASTUREAU, arms, 236. 
Pa<ee, 153. 
flchee, 155. 
,, Formee, cross, 153. 
,, or Pott?/, 698, 740. 
Patenotre (croix), 740. 
PATERSON of Seafield, briiure, 436, 437. 
Patonce, 698. 

Gross, 157; Fig. 56, p. 164. 
Patriarchal, Cross, 152, 698 ; Fig. 50, p. 


Patte, 698. 

PATTERSON, arms, 264. 
Patty, 698. 

,, cross, 153 ; Fig. 53, p. 164. 
,, fitchy, cross, 155 ; Fig. 54, p. 164. 
,, throughout, 698. 
PATYNS, arms, 392. 
PAUL V., Pope, arms, 292. 

arms, 347. 

PAULHAC, PARADIS DE, arms, 267. 
PAULI, VON, arms, 195. 
PAULSDORF, arms, 290. - 

VON, arms, 82. 

PAVIA, Certosa at, 274. 
Pavilions, 615, 698, 740. 
Paw, 222, 698. 
PAWNE, arms, 267. 
Pox quceritur bello, 664. 
Peacock, 266, 698. 

, , in its pride, 698. 
PEACOCK, arm*, 267. 
Peacock's head as a rresf, 600. 
Peon, 63, 698; PI. IV., fig. 5, p. 62. 
Pearl, 65, 698. 
Pearled, 698. 
Pears, 340. 
Pea*, 344. 
Peautre, 740. 

PECCI, Counts, a?-ws, 310. 
PECHA, arms, 283. 
Peel, 698. 
PEEL, Sir ROBERT, arms, 283. 

Peers, helm of, 602. 

Pegasus, The, 298, 698. 

PEGRIZ, arms, 387. 

PEILLENSTEIN, Line of, arms, 448. 

PELETS, arms, 203. 

Peietfa, 190. 

PELHAM, arms, 264, 377. 

,, augmentation, 528. 

,, &cu/gre, 753. 

budge, 377. 
Sir JOHN, 528. 

,, ,, ,, DE, anns, 377. 

Peiican, i ,264, 698 ; PI. XXV., fig. 12, p. 260. 
,, as a badge, 754. 
in her piety, 699. 
Pelle, 698. 
Pellet, 190, 699. 
PELLEZAY, anns, 66. 
Pelorus, Cape, 300. 
PEMBRIDGE, anns, 93. 
PEMBROKE, badge, 753, 754. 
Earl of, 415. 

arms, 215, 224, 376, 

409, 561. 
,, ,, enamelled shield of, 


WILLIAM, first Earl of, 

Penache, 634. 
Penaches as crests, 607. 
PENAFIEL, Marquis of, arms, 167. 
Penche, 601, 678, 736, 740. 
Pencil or Penoncelle, 699. 
Pencils, 654. 
Pendent, 699. 

PENDERELL, a?-ms, 316, 533. 
PENERANDAS, arms, 361. 
PENICUIK, anus, 385. 
Penneton, 739. 
Pennon or Penon, 699, 740. 
Pennoncelle of PERCY, PI. XXXIV., fig. 3, 

p. 388. 

Pennoncelles, 654, 699. 
PENNYCOOK, arw, 385. 
Penny-yard-penny, 699. 
Penon, 699, 740. 

PENTHIEVRE, Comtes de, anus, 342. 
PEPDIB, arms, 265, 522 ; PI. XXVI., fig. 

2, p. 266. 
MARY, 522. 
PEPIN, arm*, 150; PI. XVI., fig. 10, p. 


PEPPENBERG, arms, 131. 
Pepper-pods, 341. 

,, -sheaf as a badge, 754. 
Per, 699. 

PERALTA, arms, 288, 353. 
Perce, 699, 740. 
PERCEVAL, Dr, 70. 
Perche, 740. 
PERCHE, Counts de, arms, 139. 

,, sea^ and arms of GEOFFROI, 

Count of, 49. 

seal of ROTROU, III., Count 
of, 49. 

PERCI, HENRY DE, arm*, 481. 
ROBERT DE, arms, 481. 
,, WALTER DE, arms, 481. 
Perclose, 699. 

,, arms, 215, 481, 482, 641 ; PI. 
XVIII., fig. 12, p. 190 ; PI. XXXIX., 
fig. 3, p. 481. 

PERCY, badges, 584, 654. 


arms, 184, 488. 

arms, 214. 
HENRY 5th Earl, badge, 584. 

ALGERNON, 6th Earl, 

badge, '584. 
Baron of TOPCLIFFE, 

arms, 482. 

Earl of NORTHUM- 
BERLAND, standard 
of, 654; Fig. 100, p. 
,, ,, Earl, supporter, 632. 

seal, 641. 
Pennoncelle of, PI. XXXIV., fig. 

3, p. 388. 

PIERS, arms, 481. 
Sir HENRY, seal, 653. 
PEREIRA, arms, 158 ; PL XIV., fig. 10, p. 


PEREZ, amis, 358. 
Perforate, 699. 
Pergola, 150. 
Pergula, 150. 
Peri en bande, 740. 
,, ,, barre, 740. 

PERRIER, ALAIN DU, supporters, 634. 
Pert-one, Croix, 740. 
PERROTT, arm*, 340. 
PERSIGNY, Due de, arms and augmen- 
tation, 541. 
PERTH, City arms and supporter, 179, 

,, Earl of, compartment and motto, 


PERWEYS, arw, 427. 
PERY, arms, 185. 
PESC, arms, 394. 
PESHALL, oniw, 155. 

crown, 622. 
PETIT, arms, 236. 
PETMORE, arms, 112. 

,, ,, System of lines repre- 

senting colour, 64. 

,, ,, Tesserce Gentilitiai, 64. 

PETRARCH, Muse of, 537. 
Petronel, 699. 

PETRUS fllius ALBERTI, 10. 
PEVEREL, badge and arms, 585. 

PEVERELL, arms, 342. 
,, badge, 754. 

PFIRUT or PFIRT, Counts of, arms, 

271, 634 ; PI. XLV., fig. 1, p. 539. 
PFUHLINGEN, arms, 86. 
PFULL, Baron, arms, 310. 
PHARAMOND (?), arms, 27S. 
Pheasants, 267. 

Pheon, 350, 699 ; PI. XXXI., fig. 7, p. 346. 
Pheon, 740. 
PHILIP I., King of FRANCE, 11 ; crtncn 

and sceptre of, 328, 658. 
,, ,, of FLANDERS, seal of, 26, 

III., King of FRANCE, 454; 

supporters, 636. 

IV., (le Bel), King of FRANCE, 
40, 282; JEANNE, wife 
of, 354. 
King of SPAIN, 624. 

PHILIP V., King of FRANCE, 40, 457 
462; seal of, 354, 456; 
supporters, 636. 

VI., King of FRANCE, sup- 
porter, 636. 

(AUGUSTUS), King of 
FRANCE, 269; arms, 583; 
seal of, 328 ; supporters, 636. 
(AUGUSTUS) II., King of 

FRANCE, 570. 

EMPIRE, crown, 621. 
son of LOUIS VII., King of 
FRANCE, 329. 

EDWARD III., arms, 247. 257. 

FRANCE, coins of. 44. 
le Bon, Duke of BURGUNDY, 
484, 485. 

Phcenix, 267, 298, 699, 740. 

,, as a badge, 596. 
PHOUSKARNAKI, arms, 195. 
PIACENZA, Duchy, arms, 502. 
PICCOLOMINI, Princes, arms, 307. 
PICHON, arms, 70. 
Pickaxes as charges, 393. 
PICKFORD, arms, 684. 
PICO, arms, 509. 
Pieces heraldiques, 102, 740. 
P1EDEFER, arms, 213. 
PIENNE, Marquises de, supporters, 298. 
Pierced, 322, 699. 

PIERRE, DE, Seigneurs de GANGES, 10. 
PIERREFEU, arms, 160. 
PIERREFORT, arms, 68. 
PIERREPONT, arms, 362. 
Piete, 740. 

Piety, Pelican in her, 264. 
PIFERRER, Nobiliario de los Remos y 
Senorios de JEspatta, 207, 235, 284, 387, 
390, 395, 476. 
Pig, The domestic, 227. 


PIGNATELLI, Princes, arms, 381. 
Pignates, 740. 

,, as charges, 382. 
Pignon, 740. 
Pignonne, 740. 
Pike head, 348. 

The, 268, 271. 
PILAW A, arms, 670; PL LVL, fig. 8, 

p. 671. 
Pile, 146, 699, 740; Figs. 43, p. 116; PL 

XVI., fig. 1, p. 146. 
,, reversed, PI. XVI., fig. 7, p. 146. 
Varieties of, 146. 

Piles from sinister, PL XVI., fig. 5, p. 146. 
base, PL XVI., fig. 6, p. 

in chief, PL XVI., fig. 4, p. 146. 
,, in point, PL XVI., fig. 3, p. 146. 
Three, PL XVI., fig. 2, p. 146. 
PILGRIM, amis, 375. 
Pilgrim's scrip, 699. 

,, scrips as charges, 375. 
,, staves, 699. 

,, as charges, 375. 
PILKINGTON, arms, 157 ; PL XIV., fig. 

8, p. 140. 
Pillars, 363. 
PILLERA, arms, 350. 

PIMENTELS, arms, 507. 

PIN, LA TOUR DU, arms, 269. 

Pine Apples, 341. 

Pinks, 337. 

PINOS, arms, 341. 

PINS, Marquises de, amis, 341. 

PIOSASCO, arms, supporters, and motto, 


PIOT, anus, 370. 
PIPER, amis, 387. 
PIRCH, arww, 197. 
PISA, standard of, 655. 
PITSLIGO, Lord, arms, 446. 
PITTI, arm*, 121. 
PIUS II., Pope, arms, 307. 
,, III., Pope, arms, 307. 
,, VI., Pope, arms, 311. 
PLACIDIA, crown of the Empress, 


Plain shields, 65. 
Ptaiwe, 718, 740. 

PLANCHE, Mr, Lancaster Herald, 308. 
,, Pursuivant of Arms, 25, 47, 
117, 170, 207, 209, 210, 225, 
258, 287, 327, 333, 355, 376, 
378, 386, 394, 406, 414, 458, 
459, 461, 548, 549, 550, 553, 
555, 587, 589, 598, 599, 

Moll of Arms, 104, 357, 409. 
Planets, 309. 

PLANQUE, DE LA, arms, 404. 
Planta genista as a badge, 586. 

ARTHUR, Viscount 

LISLE, arms, 557 ; 

badges, 557, 586, 587. 

champleee enamel of 


EDMOND, 421. 

Earl of 

teal, 465. 
of LANGE- 
LEY, 588. 

BACK, Earl of 
arms and label, 
219, 416 ; tomb 
of, 587. 

,, ,, Duke of 

YORK, 416. 
,, of WOOD- 
STOCK, 589. 
EDWARD, Earl of 
RUTLAND, amis 
and label, 416 ; seal 
of, 369. 

GEOFFREY, Duke of 
BRITTANY, death 
of, 40 ; shield of, 45. 
D'ANJOU, tomb of, 

HENRY, Duke of LAN- 
CASTER, arms and 
label, 416. 
JOAN, 438. 

Earl of CORNWALL, brisiu-e, 438. 

PLANTAGENET kings, arms of, 661 ; PI- 
LL, fig. 2, p. 661. 
labels, 4L6. 

LIONEL, Duke of 
and label, 416. 
RICHARD, badge, 591. 
Duke of 
TER, helm, 

of CON- 
1NGSBURGH, 588. 


Duke of GLOU- 
CESTER, teal, 
fig. 1, p. 415. 

of WOOD- 

STOCK, leisure, 438. 
PLANTAGENETS, livery colours of the, 


PLASNES, JEANNE, Dame de, arms, 57. 
,, and 

supporters, 629. 
Plata, 190. 
Plate, 189, 699. 
Platee or Platy, 699. 
PLATT, arms, 97. 
Platy, 699. 
Playing tables, 699. 

PLAYTER, arms, 95 ; 'pi. VII., fig. 4, p. 


PLEDRAN, Vicomte de, arms, 185. 
PLEHEDEL, Vicomtes de, arms, 346. 
Plein, 740. 

PLE88BN, Baron*, arms, 234. 

CY DU, brisure, 451. 
RICHELIEU, DU, amis, 140. 

;, we ANGERS. 


Plie, 740. 

,, enrond, 741. 
Plomb, a, 741. 
Ploughshares as charges, 393. 
Plovers, 267. 
PLOWDEN, arms, 124; PI. XL, fig. 3, p. 


EDMUND, 124. 
Ploye, 88, 137, 699, 741. 
Plumait, fOS. 
Plumes as crest, 607. 
Plumete, 71, 72, 741 ; PI. VIII. , fig. 7, p. 


PLUNKETT, bordurc, 570. 
PLUTARCH, Description of devices on 

shields, 29. 

PLUVINEL, Marquises de, brisure, 434. 
PLYMOUTH, Earl of, a-w, 79, 559. 
POBOG, arms, 356. 

arms, 128. 

,, ,, SIX, arms, 128. 

PODLACHIA, arms, 469. 
POER, LE, arms, 118. 
POGORSKI, amis, 299. 
POICTIERS, Battle of, 528, 591. 
POICTOU and CORNWALL, seal of 
RICHARD, Earl of, 245. 

,, Counts of, arms, 215. 

POIGNET, arms, 204. 
Point d'honneur Ic, 59, 741. 
du chef, 741. 
Honour, 50. 
,, In, 699. 
,, Nombril, 59. 
Pointe, 148, 741. 

,, entec, PI. XVI., fig. 9, p. 146. 
,, le canton d extra, de la, 59. 
,, ,, senestre de la, 59. 

POINTE, DE LA, Chevaliers de I'Ordre du 

St. Etprit, 297, 299, 303, 354. 
Pointed, 699. 
Points, 699. 

,, equipolles, 741. 
of the escucheon, 699. 
POIR1ER, amis, 340. 
POISIEU, DE, arms, 120, 726, 744. 
POISSOXIER, arms, 302. 
POITIERS, Battle of, 377. 

LOUIS, Bishop of, arms, 

Church of St. Hilaire at, 


DIANE DE, 164. 
POLAND, Dimidiation in 468. 
Duke of, seal, 468. 
,, Furs unknown in Armory of, 


JOHN III., King of, arms, 486. 
,, Kingdom of, arms, 199, 254, 

255, 487, 665. 
,, Kings of, using escucheon en 

surtout, 486. 
,, Title of Marquess unknown in, 


,, White eagles of, as supporters, 

POLANEN, arms, 370. 
POLANI, arms, 86. 
POLASTRON, arms, 213. 
POLE, Duke of SUFFOLK, arms, 225 ; 

PI. XXII., fig. 12, p. 222. 
POLIGNAC, Princes of, arms, 93. 
POLISH augmentation*, 540. 
POLLIA, arms, 298. 
POLLNITZ, Barons von, arms, 136. 
POLMAN, arms, 669; PI. LV.. fig. 6, 

p. 669. 

POLWARTH, Lord, supporter, 303. 
POLYCRATES, tale of, related by 

Pomegranate, 339; PI. XXX. fig. 10, p. 


Pomeis, 190, 699. 
Pomelled, 699. 
POMERANIA, arms, 288. 
POMEREU, Marquis de RICEYS, arms, 


Pomeys, 190. 
Pommelly, 700. 

,, cross, 160. 
Pommes-de-pin, 741. 
Pommette, 160, 700, 741. 
Pommetty, 717. 

,, cross, 160. 
,, or Pommelly, 700. 

POMPADOUR, Marquise de, 361. 
Pompey, 190. 

PONANGE, Marquises de ST., arms, 275. 
PONCE DE LEON, arms, 507. 

Duke of ARCOS, 
arms, 506. 
PONDORFFER, YON, am*, 122. 

PONIATOWSKI, Princes, amis, 234. 
PONIN-PONINSKI, Princes, 370, 
PONNAT, arms, 267. 

arms, 391. 
PONT DE VAUX, Dues de, arms, 136. 

DU, arms, 187. 
PONTAUT, arms, 362. 
PONTBRIANT, arms, 362. 
PONTCHASTEAU, EON DE, seal of, 46. 
PONTE, Counts da, arms, 362. 
PONTECORVO, arms, 667. 
PONTECROIX, Marquis de, arms, 185. 
PONTEIL, Counts GUIOT DE, arms, 


PONTEVES, Marquises of, arms, 362. 
PONTEVEZ, Dues de SABRAN, arms, 

PONTHIEU, Count of, 30. 

JOANNA of, seal, 478. 
PONTOISE, siege of, 541. 
PONTON, arms, 96. 
FONT'S MS., 145, 175, 198, 349, 381. 
POPE, Earl of DOWNE, arms, 290. 
POPEL, arms, 79. 
Popinjay, 265, 700. 
POPOLESCHI, amis, 141. 
PORCELLETS, DES, Marquises de 

MAULLANE, arms, 227. 
Porcupine, The, 239. 
Porcupines as supporters, 636. 

arms, 340. 
Portal, 363. 
Portcullis, 700. 

,, as a badge, 595. 

,, as a charge, 365. 
PORTE, LA, amis, 136, 363. 
PORTER, arms, 374. 
PORTIA, Princes of, arms, 332. 
Pm-tille, 741. 

PORTLAND, Dukes of, arms, 159. 
PORTMAN, arms, 331. 
PORTOCARRERO, arms, 100; PL VII., 

fig. 7, p. 90. 

PORTSMOUTH, Duchess of, 559. 
PORTUGAL, arm*, 100, 168, 172, 440, 509, 
547, 577, 578, 667; PL 
XVII., fig. 7, p. 172. 
BEATRICE of, seal-, 475. 
Constable of, label, 425. 
crests in, 604. 

EMMANUEL, King of, 475. 
,, ISABELLE of, seal, 475. 

,, Marks of illegitimacy in, 

MARY, dtr. of EDWARD, 

Constable of, 509. 
Queen LEONORA of, 

croion, 020. 
of, 590. 

,, "Quinas" of, 238. 

,, supporters, 667. 

,, Use of bordure in, 440. 

Portuguese Regulations as to the bearing 

on Differences of arms, 749. 
Pose, 217, 700, 704, 715, 741, 743. 
en pal, 109. 
,, en sautoir, 109. 
Pot as a charge, 389. 
,, -hook as a charge, 390. 
POT, 12. 
POTEMKIN, Princes, arms, 205. 

( 33 ) 

Potence, 741. 
Potenct, 741. 

,, line, 77, 156. 
Potency or Potcnte, 700. 
Potent, 70, 71, 700 ; PL IV., fig. 11, p. 62. 
,, counter, 70, 71. 

,, potent, 70, 700. 
cross, 156, 700 ; Fig. 51, p. 164. 
,, ntchy, cross, 156. 
Potente line, 77, 700 ; Fig. 25, p. 75. 
POTIER, arms and supporters, 294. 
Due de GEVRES, 11. 
Marquis de GRIGNON, 12. 

Seigneur de NOVION, 12. 
Pots as charges, 381. 
POTTWEIN, arms, 493. 


POULAIN, arms, 237. 
POUR LE ME RITE, Cross of the Order, 


Pourpre, 741. 
Powdered, 700. 
POWELL, arms, 333. 
POWER, 17. 

POWIS, Earl of, supporter, 231. 

arms, 347. 
POWYS, arms, 417. 

,, Princes of, 212. 
POYLE, arms, 357. 

POYNINGS, Barony of, badge, 584, 654. 
POYNTZ, arms, 94. 
POZZO DI BORGO, Prince, arms, 360. 

arms, 293. 
PRAET, JEAN, Seigneur de, arms, 573 ; 

PL XLVIIL, fig. 4, p. 577. 

de, 572, 573. 
PRAGUE, arms, 359. 
PRASLIN, Dues de, arms, 434. 
PRAUN, Dr MICHAEL, Von dem Ade- 

lichen Europa, und denen Heerschilden 

des Teutschen Adds, 41. 
Prawns, 273. 
PREEDE, arms, 279. 
PREISSAC, arms, 213. 
Premier Baron Chretien, 11. 
PRESCOTT, arms, 262 ; PL XXV., fig. 9, 

p. 260. 
PRESSIGNY, arms, 168. 

,, RENAUD DE, Marechal 

de FRANCE, arms, 168. 
PRESTON, arms, 296, 446; PL XX VII., 

fig. 10, p. 288. 
PRESTWICK, arms, 301; PL XXVII., 

fig. 12, p. 288. 
Pretence, escucheon of, 700. 
PREUDHOMME, arms, 427. 

39, 40. 

PREYSING, VON, arms, 79. 
PRICE, arms, 200, 261, 348; PL XXV., 

fig. 7, p. 260. 
Pride, In, 700. 

,, Peacock in its, 267. 
PRIDEAUX, arms, 136. 
PRIEGO, Counts de, amis, 473, 506. 

,, Marquises of, arms, 473. 
PRIGNANI, arms, 257. 
PRIME, arms, 206 ; PL XX., fig. 8, p. 


PRIMROSE, arms, 337. 

ARCHIBALD, Viscount, 

arms, ISO. 

,, of Dalmenie, Sir ARCHI- 

BALD, arm*, 181. 
Sir ARCHIBALD, 430. 

Primroses, 337. 
PRINCE CONSORT, arms, 131, 423, 424. 

OF WALES, arms, 131. 
Princes-Grands-Dignitaires of France, 

arms, 283. 
helm of, 601. 
Princess Royal, Empress of GERMANY, 

label, 423 ; Fig. 85, p. 421. 
PRINGLE, arms, 137, 273, 432 ; PL XIII., 

fig. 3, p. 136. 

,, of Smailhome, brisure, 432. 

Proboscides, 606, 741. 
PROKESCH D'OSTEN, Counts, arms, 


Promptorium Parmdorum, 591. 
Proper, 212, 700. 

,, or natural colour, 62. 
PROVENCE, ELEANOR of, 323, 587. 
,, ,, arms, 122. 

.Rose of. 32. 
PRUNIER, arms, 726. 
PRUSS II., herba of, arms, 351. 
PRUSSIA, armorials of, 541. 

,, arms, 125, 140, 159, 212, 265, 
288, 321, 344, 494, 543, 544, 
545, 660. 
,, baton of Field Marshal of, 544. 

Slack earrle of, 544, 545. 
,, FREDERICK II., King of, 
augmentations granted by, 
,, great escucheon of Royal 

House, 493. 

,, pavilion of King of, 616. 
,, Royal crown, 140, 25 1, 622. 
PRUSSIAN augmentations, 542. 
PRYSE, arms, PL XXL, fig. 3, p. 212. 

,, of Goggerdan, arms, 216. 
PRZEROWA, arm*, 352. 
PRZICHOWITZ, Counts, arms, 263. 
PUCCI, arms, 200. 

PUCELLE, Brothers of LA, arms, 331. 
PUCHBERG, anns, 307; PL XXVIII., 

fig. 3, p. 308. 

arms, 154. 
PUGET, Marquises de BARBENTANE, 

7-ms, 234. 
Puggree, 612. 

Pulchrum pro patria pati, 664. 
PULLICI, arms, 285. 
PUNCHYON, a?-ms, 193 ; PL XIX., fig. 4, 

p. 192. 

Punning arms, 672. 
PUNSHON, crest, 563. 
PUNTZINGER, arms, 580. 
PUPELLIN, arms, 67. 

arms, 206. 
Purfled, 700. 

Purple or Purpure, 60, 62, 65. 
Purpure or Purple, 60, 62, 65, 700; PL 

III., fig. 7, p. 60. 
shield plain, 67. 
PUTBUS, Prince, arms, etc., of, Fig. 98, 

p. 627. 
PUTTKAMMER, Barons von, arms, 290. 

( 834 ) 

PUY, DU, arms, 212. 

,, -PAULIN, DE, arms, 66. 
PUYGIROX, Marquis de, amis, 307. 
Pyot, 700. 
PYPE, am*, 386. 
PYRMOXT, County of, 483. 

,, ,, arms, 490. 

,, Prince of, cmns, 488. 

Quadrate, 700. 

QUAEDBACH, arms, 381. 

QUARANTA, arms, 394. 

QUAREBBE, arms, 393. 

Quarrels, 350. 

Quartefeuille, 741. 

Quarter, The, 116, 165, 167, 700. 

,, -pierced, 701. 
Quartered, 700. 
Quarterfoil, 322, 701, 741. 
Quartering, 459, 478. 

,, British usage in regard to, 


Difference by, 446. 

,, Foreign usage in regard to, 


,, per saltire, 482. 

Qiiarterings, 700. 

,, Modern English Heralds 

against grand, 482. 
Quarterly, 81, 700; Fig. 30, p. 77 ; PL V., 

fig. 9, p. 80. 
,, en equerre, 82; PI. V., fig. 11, 

p. 80. 

,, of four coats, 479. 
,, of more than four coats, 480. 
,, of three coats, 479. 
,, per f ess indented, PI. V., fig. 10, 

p. 80. 

,, per saltire, 82. 
Quarters or Quartering^, 700. 
Quartiers, 741. 

QUATERMAINE, arms, 205. 
Quatrefoil, Double, for ninth son, 444. 

The, 322, 701 ; PI. XXIX., fig. 
12, p. 318. 
QUEEX, Marriage of the, 423. 

VICTORIA, Life of the Prince 
Consort, 424. 


Queens-Consort, supporters of, 664. 
QUEEXSBERRY, Marquess of, arms, 


QUELEX, Barons de, arms, 185. 

arms, 319. 

QUERXFURTH, Barons of, arms, 214. 

of PORTSMOUTH, 559. 
QUESADA, arms, 122. 

Queue, 214, 701. 

fourchee, 218, 701, 741. 
Queue, 705. 

QUEXADA, arms, 203. 
QUIJADA, arms, 203. 
QUIXCI, DE, arms, PI. XVIII., fig. 10, p. 


arms, 184. 

QUIXSON, arms, 68. 
QUINTAXA, amis, 387. 

Quintefeuille, 680, 741. 
Quise, a la, 701. 

RAAPHORST, arms, 93. 

Rabats, 741, 742. 

Rabbit, The, 238. 

RABENSTEIN, Counts of, arms, 170. 

RABEXSTEIXER, arms, 207. 

Raccourd, 741, 742. 

RACONIS, LOUIS, Seigneur de, arms, 


RADA, arms, 158. 
RADCLYFFE, arms, 131. 

of Foxdenton, label, 415. 

,, ,, Winmarleigh, arms, 


Radiant, 701. 


RADZIWILL, Princes, arms, 386. 
RAE, arms, PI. XXIII., fig. 9, p. 228. 

,, of Pitsindie, arms, 232. 
RAEPSAET, arms, 343. 
RAET, Barons de, arms, 392. 
RAGXINA, arms, 281. 
Ragule, 701, 281. 
Raguled, 701. 
Raguly, 727. 

,, line, 76 ; Fig. 24, p. 75. 
,, or Raguled, 701. 
RAGUSA, Duchy, arms, 395, 503. 
RAIMBERT, arms, 139. 
Rainbow, 310, 701; PI. XIX., fig. 7, p. 


RAIXIER, arms, 122. 
Rais, 741. 

,, d'escarbuncles, 679. 
Rakes as charges, 393. 
Ram, Battering, 352. 
Rame, 232, 677, 741. 
RAMEFORT, DE, arms, 189. 
RAMENSPERG, arms, 236. 
RAMERA, arms, 339. 
Rampant, 212, 701, 702, 733, 741. 
,, -gardant, 215, 701. 
,, -regardant, 216, 701. 
,, -sejant, 701. 
Rams, 235. 
RAMSAY, arms, 258, 535. 

,, of Dunoon, bend, 430. 

,, Wyliecleugh, Sir JOHN, 

augmentation, 534, 535. 

bend, 430. 

RAMSEY, arms, 236. 
Ramure, 677. 
Ranchier, 742. 
RANDOLPH, arms, PI. XXXIIL, fig. 9, 

p. 376. 
Earls of MORAY, arms, 


THOMAS, Earl of 

MORAY, arms, 177. 
RAXFURLY, Earl of, amis, 175. 
Range, 742. 

en chef, 742. 
,, ,, croix, 742. 
Ranges en pal, 109. 

,, sautoir, 109. 
Rangier, 742. 
RAXGOXI, Marquises, e-w, 119. 

RAN KEN, arms, 348. 
RANTZAU, Counts, arm*, 78. 
RANULF, Earls of MORAY, arms, 378. 

,, seal, 378. 

arms, 154. 

RAPACCIOLI, arms, 343. 
RAPE, arm*, 343. 
RAPPACH, arm*, 134. 
RAPPOLSTEIN, County of, arm*, 170, 


RASCIA, arm*, 501. 
RASPE, arms, 343. 
Rastrello, 470. 
Rat, The, 240. 
RATISBON, Sepulchral Monument at, 

arm* on, 24. 
RATTRAY, am*, 163 ; PI. XV., fig. 5, p. 


ALEXANDER, chevron, 431. 
JOHN, Bailie of ABER- 
DEEN, fm, 430. 
RATZEBURG, Principality of, arms, 159, 


RAUCH, arms, 134. 
Aaufen jfmns, 131; PI. XII., fig. 6, p. 


RAVANI, arms, 343. 
Jtaren&s a badf/e, 754. 

,, The, 264. 
RAVEN, arm*, 264. 
RAVENSBERG, Count of, arms, 140. 
RAVENTHORPE, ami*, 264. 
RAVESCHOOT, a-w, 264. 
Ravishing, 228. 
Jtavftuiant, 228, 702, 728, 742. 
RAWSON, arm*, 358. 

TION, et de MELGUEIL, arms, 


RAYNOR, arm*, 292. 
Rayonnant, 308, 702, 742. 
Rayonne, 692, 701, 702. 
Ray*, 702. 
Rebated, 702. 
Rebattement*, 90, 742. 
Rebrasse, 706, 741, 742. 
Recercele, 679, 702, 703, 742. 
Recercellee, cross, 160. 
RECHTEREN, Counts of , am*, 141. 
RECHTHALER, oniw, 87. 
RECKHEIM, orM, 212. 

,, County of, arms, 492, 493. 

Recoupe, 742. 
tfea* or Gules, 60, 62, 65. 

shield, special use of, 67. 
RED EAGLE, Cross of the Order of the, 


REDESDALE, Lord, arww, 239. 
REDINGHURST, arms, 82. 
REDMAIN, arms, 379. 
Redorte, 742. 
REEDE, Counts, arm*, 127. 


anna, 127. 
REES, arm*, 348. 
REEVES, Dr, quoted, 657. 
Refente, 742. 
Reflected, 702. 
Reflexed or Reflected, 702. 
REFUGE, DU, arm*, 275. 
Regardant, 702, 742. 
REGENSTEIN, County of, arw, 234. 

Register of the Great Seal, 180, 517. 
Reffistrum de Panmure, 171, 517. 
REGROLTZWILE, arms, 320. 
REICHBROD, firm*, 391. 
REICHENSTEIN, Counts von, arm*, 34S. 
Reich* Stallmeister, arms of the office of, 

REID and BROOK, Description of 

Scottish Regalia, 619. 
REIDER, arm*, 195. 
REIGSDORP, arms, 296. 
REILLE, Counts, arm*, 299. 
REINACFI, Counts, arms, 223. 
Reindeer, The, 232, 702. 
REINECK, Barons von, arm*, 230. 

,, Counts of, arms, 94. 

Jiempli, 742. 
Renard, 742. 
RENARD, wow, 230. 
RENAUD I., of BAR, seal of, 270. 

,, arms, 230. 

Renchier, 742. 
Rencontre, Un, 234, 742. 
RENNEBURG, >-w, 139. 
RENNER, >-His, 237. 
RENNES, City of, arm*, 91. 
RENTY, arms, 348, 449, 726. 

ISABELLE, heiress of, 440. 
Renverse, 308, 742, 746. 
Repotence, 742. 
Reptile*, 273. 
Rere-mouse, 702. 
Resarrele, 742. 
JZ, 702. 

/te&l* as charges, 380. 
RETHEL, arw, 631. 

,, Count of, 462. 
Retorted, 702. 
Retrait, 742. 
Retranche, 702, 742. 
Retranchee, cross, 162. 
Retrospectire Review, 656. 
Retrousse, 743. 
REVALDO8, amw, 289. 
REVELATION, Book of, 194, 203. 
REVENTLOW, Counts, OJ-HM, 362. 
REVERONI, arms, 279. 
REVEST, DE, arms, 92. 
REY, M., Histoire du Drapeo.u, de* 

Couleurs, et des Insiffnes de la 

Monarchie Francaise, 279, 2S2, 326, 

327, 328, 332, 333', 659. 
REYNELL, arm*, 362. 
REYNOLDS, arms, 365. 
REYNOLDSWYLE, arm*, 320. 


RHEINAU, arm*, 173. 
the, arm* on Eagle, 630. 
Count PALATINE of 
the, seal, 251, 472. 
Counts PALATINE of the, arm*, 


the, seal, 456. 

of the, arm*, 
456, 472. 

biidftf, 380. 

RHODES, siege of, 454. 
RHODIUS, arms, 202. 



SOUTH WALES, anas, 594. 
Rib bones, Human, 206. 
Riband, The, 131, 133, 702. 
RIBAUMONT, DE, amis, 165. 
RIBEAUPIERRE, Counts de, arms, 170. 
RIBERA, arms, 507. 
RIBERAC, Marquises de, arms, 238. 
RICEYS, Marquis de, arms, 340. 
RICH, badge, 753. 
,, crest, 563. 

of ENGLAND, ortW, 
PI. LI., fig. 1, p. 661 ; 
badge, 587 ; crested helm, 
599 ; Great Seal of, 587 ; 
seal of, 32, 37, 54, 208, 
210, 301, 583; shield of, 

II., King of ENGLAND, 324, 
383, 403, 439, 475, 555; 
arms, 474, 528, 661 ; PI. 
LI., fig. 3, p. 661 ; badfie, 
587, 589, 590, 591, 632; 
Roll of, 410, 426; sup- 
porters of, 662. 

III., King of ENGLAND, 595 ; 
arms, PI. LI., fig. 4, p. 
661 ; badge, 594 ; croirn, 
618 ; supporters of, 662 ; 
-white boar of, 597. 
Earl of CORNWALL and King 
of the ROMANS, arms, 173, 
245 ; seal of, 245. 

,, flz le rey, natural son of King 
JOHN, amis, 554. 
RICHARDOT, arms, 319. 
RICHEBOURG, Seigneur de, arms and 
label, 415. 

bend, 429. 

RICHELET, Dictionnaire, 14. 
RICHELIEU, Cardinal Ducde, arms, 140. 

arms, 558. 
,, arms, 128. 

,, badge of the honour of, 324. 

,, Duke of, supporter, 297. 

,, Earls of, arms, 170, 425, 


JOHN, Earl of, 438. 
RICHTERSWYL, arms, 120. 
RIDDELL, arms, 341 ; PI. XXX., fig. 11, 

p. 332. 
Mr, 179. 

,, of Ardnamurchan, crest-coro- 
net, 615. 
of that Ilk, 433. 
,, Scottish Peerage and Consis- 

torial Law, 455. 
WALTER, brisure, 433. 
,, Additional Remarks on the 
Lennox Representation, ISO. 

arms, 167. 


LAND, arms, 295. 
RIETSTAP, Armorial General, 88, 101, 

169, 205, 502, 539, 624, 625, 643, 745. 
RIETTER, DIE, amis, 302. 
RIEUWE, VAN, arms, 428. 
RIGEL, VON, amis, 148 ; PL XVI., fig. 8, 

p. 146. 
Rigged, 702. 

i RIGSTRUP, arms, 296. 
RILEY, arms, 155. 
RINACH, amis, 223. 
RINALDI, arms, 94. 
RIPERDA, arms, 715. 
RIPON, Marquess of, crest-coronet, 615. 
Rixint/, 259, 702. 
RITTBERG, arms, 295, 491. 
RIVARI, arms, 289. 

River, A, 313 ; PI. XXVIII., fig. 11, p. 308. 
RIVERS, Earls of DEVON, arms, 214. 

arms, 729. 

HENRY DE, arms, 405. 
RIZZOLETTf, arms, 172. 
RJEVSKI, arms, 267. 
ROANNAIS, Due de la, amis, 159. 
ROBALOS, arms, 289. 
LAND, 33, 34, 177, 178, 566, 

II., King of SCOTLAND, 178, 
441, 445, 459, 520, 566, 605 ; 
capeline, 611. 

III. King of SCOTLAND, 178, 
419, 566. 

ROBERTOUN, arms, 349. 
ROBERTSON, arms, PI. XXIII., fig. 3, 

p. 228. 
,, of Strowan or Struan, arms, 

,, ,, ,, chained 

savage of, 643. 

,, Origin of name, 10. 


CHIER, tomb of, 653. 
Roc, 388, 682, 743. 
,, d'echiquier, 387, 680, 743. 
ROCA, arms, 388. 
ROCABERTI, arms, 388. 
ROCABRUNA, arms, 388. 
ROCCHI, arms, 388. 
ROCELINE, amis, 377. 
ROCHAS, arms, 717. 
ROCHAUSEN, arms, 86. 
ROCHE, ANTOINE, Comte de la, amis, 
574; PI. XLVIL, fig. 3, p. 

arms, 188. 
MATHIEU, Baron de la, arms. 


,, PAIEN DE LA, seal, 463. 
,, Seigneur de la, 11. 

SUR YON, Princes de la, bend, 

MAR, arms, 93. 
ROCHEFORT, arms, 71. 

,, JEAN, Sr. de, arms, 571 ; 

PI. XLV1IL, fig. 2, p. 

,, Pairie of, 515. 

XIII., fig. 9, p. 
136, 138. 

,, Le Ducde la, 11. 

ROCHESTER, Bishop of, 142, 152. 
,, Earl of, arms, 106. 

,, JOHN TURBINE, Bishop 

of, arms, 152. 

,, Viscount, arms and aug- 

mentation, 532. 
ROCHFORT, arms, 531. 

ROCHOW, arms, 229. 
ROCKENHAUS, Counts, arms, 78. 
ROCQUENGHIEN, arm*, 181. 
RODE, LA, arms, 129. 
RODEMACHER, arms, 93. 
RODENBERG, anus, 230. 

arms, 137. 
RODES, arms, 725. 
RODOLPH, Emperor, 246. 
Roebuck, 232. 
ROECK, DE, arms, 264. 
ROEMER-BUCHNER, Die Siegel der 

Deutschen Kaiser, 243, 244, 247, 248, 

252, 253, 32S, 621. 
ROGERS, arms, 220. 

arms, 123. 
ROHAN, anus, 185, 505, 710. 

-CHABOT, Dukes of, arms, 505. 

,, Dukes de, arms, 505. 

JOHN, Vicomte de, 505. 
ROHRMANN, arms, 388. 
ROISIN, Marquises de, arms, 95. 
ROJAS, arms, 309. 
ROKEWOOD, anna, 388. 
ROLA, he.rba of, arms, 351. 

,, -WOLSKf, Counts, arms, 351. 
Rolls of Arms (See VINCENT, CALAIS, 
etc.), 36, 69, 96, 268, 
355, 401, 671. 
,, 13th Century, 177, 252, 357, 

393, 403, 407, 426. 
,, ,, ,, and 14th Centuries, 


Roman warrior as a supporter, 640. 
ROMANES, arms, 335. 
ROMANOFFSKI, Princes of, arms, 473. 
ROMANS, RICHARD, King of the, 245, 


,, ,, . ,, arms 

on eagle, 630. 

WILLIAM, King of the, 468. 
COLN, shield of, 406. 
ROMBERG, Barons, arms, 322. 
ROME, arms of City, 395. 
ROMIEU, arms, 375. 
ROM ILLY, Lord, supporters, 648. 
Rompu, 139, 702, 743. 
ROMREE, Counts of, supporter, 231. 
ROMUL, arms, 228. 
RONCHAUX, arms, 710. 
RONCHIVECCHI, arms, 134. 
RONQUEROLLES, arms, 73. 
Rook (chess) as a charge, 387. 
ROON, Count von, augmentation, 545. 
ROORDA, anna, 188. 
ROOS, DE, arms, 355 ; badge, 753. 

,, Barony, 17, 18. 
ROQUE D'ESTUER, DE LA, arms, 388. 

DE LA, amis, 388. 

,, ,, ,, Traite de VOrigine des 
Ifoms, 408. 

,, ,, ,, Traite singulier du 
Blason, 327, 636. 

,, ,, ,, Treatises of, 402. 

,, LE, Traite de Noblesse, 5. 
ROQUELAURE, Dues de, amis, 388. 
ROQUEMAUREL, arms, 388. 
ROQUES, arms, 388. 

Roquet, 388. 

ROQUETTE, arm*, 388. 

RORDORF, arms, 182. 

ROS, DE, arms, 355; PL XXXI., fig. 12, 

p. 346. 

,, ,, Barony of, 17, 18 (see ROOS). 
,, EVERARD DE, 355. 
,, Lady DE, of KENDAL, seal, 454. 
ROSAMOND, Fair, 324. 
ROSDORFF, VON, arms, 89, 668; PL 

LV., fig. 2, p. 669. 
Rose, 323, 702. 

, , as a badge, 587. 
,, croicned, as a badge, 596. 
,, for seventh son, 444. 
,, Red and while, as a badge, 595. 
ROSE, arms, 355. 

,, of Kilravock, arms, 355. 

arms, 180. 

,, Earls of, arms, 337. 

ROSENBERG, Princes of, arm*, 92, 323, 


ROSENBORG, Castle of, 620. 
ROSENECK, arms, 325. 
Roses, PL XXX., fig. 3, p. 332. 

slipped, PL XXX., fig. 4, p. 332. 
Wars of the, 324, 398. 
ROSMADEC, Marquises of, arms, 91. 
ROSNY, arms, 127. 
ROSOY, seal and arms of JULIENNE, 

Dame de, 49. 

,, seal and arms of ROGER DE, 
ROSS, ALEXANDER, Earl of, arms on 

Eagle, 630. 
,, arms, 532, 631. 
,, Bishop of, 437. 
,, Earldom of, arms, 367, 368. 
,, ,, Countess of, arms 

on Eagle, 631. 
HUGH, Earl of, 442. 
,, Lords, amis, 355. 

of Rarichies, HUGH, bordurc, 

seal of ALEXANDER, Earl of 


JOHN, Earl of, 367. 
,, water-bougets of, 454. 
ROSSEL, arms, 278. 
ROSSELYN, arms, 377. 
ROSSI, arms, 66, 213. 

,, Princes of CERAMI, aj-ma, 310. 
ROSSLER, arms, 237. 
ROSSLYN, Earl of, arms, 142. 
ROST, Counts von, ann,a, 78. 
ROSTAING, arms, 214. 
ROSTOCK, Lordship of, anm, 288, 492. 
ROSTOPCHIN, augmentation, 542. 
ROSVERN, arms, 111. 
ROTELEN, County of, arms, 221, 491. 
ROTENBURG, Counts von, arms, 126. 
ROTHALL, Counts von, arms, 161. 
ROTHE, JOHANNES, of Eisenach, 

treatise by, 19. 
ROTHSCHILD, arms, 351. 


Rouant, 691, 700, 739, 743. 
ROUCK, DE, System of lines representing 

colour, 64. 

,, Den Nederlandtschen Herauld, 551. 
ROUCY, arms, 212. 


Roue de St. Catherine, 743. 
ROUILLOX, OLIVER, supporters, 633. 
ROUMANIA, arms, 667. 
Rounded, 702. 

Roundles, 165, 189, 702 ; PI. XIX., fig. 4, 
p. 192. 

,, Names of, on Continent, 191. 


Rousant, 702. 
ROUSE, amis, 127. 
ROUSSELET, arms, 68. 
ROUSSET, arms, Itil, 162. 

of, 269. 
LOUIS, Comte de, arms, 


ROUVILLE, DE, arms, 270. 
ROUX, arms, 68. 

,, Seigneur de, arms, 450. 

arms, 318. 

Royal arms and supporters, 661. 
Family, /a&ete, 423. 

using escucheon en surtout, 


ROZ, Barons de, arms, 151. 
ROZEN, DU, arms, 187. 

fig. 10, p. 136. 
RUBEI, arms, 66. 
Ruby, 65, 702. 
RUCHSTEIN, VON, arms, 90 ; PI. VI., fig. 

12, p. 84. 

RUDBERG, arms, 93. 
Rudder as a badge, 754. 
RUDICKHEIM, amis, 181. 
RUDIGER, Counts, arwis and augmenta- 
tion, 542. 

RUDOLPHUS, Heraldica Curiosa, 3, 42. 
RUELLE, DE LA, oma, 279. 
RUESDORF, arms, PI. LVL, fig. 3, p. 


RUFFELAERT, amis, 93. 
RUKOFF, arms, 281. 
7fi6/es of Blazon, 101, 105, 110. 
RUMLINGEN DE BERG, Barons, arms, 


EMPIRE, amen, 621. 
RUPPELIN, Barons von, arms, 150. 
RUSE, 12. 

RUSKIN'S Modern Painters, 211. 
RUSPOLI, Princes, arms, 319. 
RUSSELL, arms, 278; PI. IX., fig. 8, p. 


Dukeof BEDFORD, arms,1Q7. 
RUSSIA, Armorials of, 541. 

arms, 250, 665 ; PL LIIL, fig. 2, 
p. 665. 

,, crest as augmentation, 60S. 

,, eagles of, 542. 

,, Imperial croicn of, 621. 
Russian Empire, The Antiquities of the, 


RUSSIAN augmentations, 542. 
Jtuste, 185, 702, 743. 
Rustre, The, 117, 182, 185, 702, 743. 
RUTHERFORD of Fairnington, brisure, 

RUTHVEN, Master of, 419. 

WILLIAM, Provost of 

PERTH, label, 419. 

RUTLAND, Duke of, supporter, 297. 
,, Dukes of, arm*, 530. 

,, Earl of, amis and label, 416. 

,, ,, augmentation, 530. 

,, ,, seal, 369. 

,, ,, sail with amis 
from, PL XXXIV., fig. 4, p. 

EDWARD, Earl of, arms, 

RUXNER'S Thurnier Such, 41. 
RUYSBROEK, Counts de, amis, 122. 
RUYTER, Admiral de, arms, 127. 

,, monument of, 626. 
RYCKEVORSEL, VAN, arms, 279. 
Rye, PL XXX., fig. 11, p. 332. 

,, Ears of, 341. 
RYE, arms, 257, 341. 
RYMER, quoted, 590. 
RYTS, VAN DER, arms, 139. 
arms, 356. 

SAANECK, Baron von, 405. 
SAAREBRUCK, concession of a crest by 

JOHN, Comte de, 751. 
SAARWERDEN, Counts of, arms, 256. 
SAB BEN, arms, 188. 
SABBINGEN, VAN, arms, 128. 
SABCOTT, arms, 351. 
Sable, 702, 743. . 
,, or Black, 60, 65 ; PL III., fig. 5, p. 


,, plein, de, 67. 
,, shield, plain, 67. 
SABLE, Marquises de, arms, 275. 
SABLONNIERE, DE LA, arms', 204. 
SABRAN, amis, 214. 

,, Dues de, arms, 213. 
SACHEVERELL, amis, 563. 

,, GEORGE, amis, 563. 

of Morley, FRANCES, 
daughter of HENRY, 

VALENCE, daughter 
of HENRY, 563. 

SACQUEVILLE, arms, 260. 
SACQUINVILLE, amis, 260. 
SADE, ELZEAS DE, arms and augmenta- 
tion, 537. 

LAURA, wife of UGO DE, 537. 
Satfre, 743. 

SAFFRES, amis, 259. 
Sage, 344. 
Sagittary, 702. 
Saillant, 743. 
SAILLY, arms, 96. 
SAINCY, see MARCHAL, 366. 
Saint Denis, Enseigne de, 658. 
SAINT PRIEST, arms, 99. 

VRAIN, ISABELLA DE, arms, 58. 
SAINTONGE, Pairie of, 515. 
Salamander as a badge, 586. 

The, 294. 

Salamanders as supporters, 636. 
SALAMONI, amis, 100. 
SALAZAR Y CASTRO, Cam de Lara, 483. 
Saliant, 217, 702. 
SALIGNON, amis, 136, 737. 
SALINS, DE, arms, 129. 

,, Vicomtes de, arms, 389. 
SALIS, Counts de, arms, 318. 

SALISBURY, Earl of, arms, 183, 219, 
224, 257; PL XXI., tig. 
12, p. 212. 

Earls of, 562. 

Marquess of, crescent, 446. 

See of, wins, 195. 

THOMAS, Earl of, 562. 


Counts and Princes of, arms, 271, 

Salmon hauriant, PL XXVI., fig. 6, p. 266. 

The, 268, 271. 
SALMON, arms, 268. 
SALONISI, arms, 95. 

arms, 165. 

Saltire, 702 ; Fig. 42, p. 116, 142 ; PI. XV., 
fig. 8, p. 144 ; PL XV., fig. 9, 
p. 144. 

ancree, PL XV., fig. 11, p. 144. 
and chief, PL XV., tig. 10, p. 144. 
Charges on, 144. 
couped, PL XV., fig. 12, p. 144. 

,, and jlory, 145. 
echanchre, 145. 
Ported per, Fig. 33, p. 77. 
Per, PL V., fig. 12, p. 80. 
pommetty, 145. 
Quarterly per, 82. 
Varieties of, 145. 
ltireways, 702. 


SALUCES, Marquessate of, arms, 118. 
SALVERT, Marquises de, arms, 159. 
SALVIAC, arms, 358. 
SALZBURG, Duchy, arms, 499, 665. 
SAMSON, arms, 196. 

,, in Heraldry, 196. 
SAMUELSON, arms, 298. 
SAN SEVERING, arms, 505. 

,, ,, Dues de, arms, 124. 

SANCHEZ, arms, 131 ; PL XII. , fig. 5, 

p. 130. ' 


SANCHO, the Strong, of NAVARRE, 353. 
SANCOURT, arms, 9ti. 
SANDBERG, arms, 752. 
SANDFORD, arms, 82, 93 ; PL V., fig. 10, 

p. 80. 
SANDILANDS, arms, 519. 


augmentation, 535. 
Sire de, lambrequin, 611. 

SANDON, arms, 82. 
SANDOVAL, anus, 130. 
SANDWICH, Earl of, supporter, 302. 

,, Earls of, arms, 562. 

SANDWYK, VAN, arms, 213. 
SANDYS, arms, 142, 163. 

,, badge, 753. 
Sangle, 743. 
Sanglier, 227, 689, 743. 
Sanguine or Blood colour, 60, 65, 703 ; 

PL III., fig. 9, p. 60. 
SANGUINETTO, Count of, amis and 

augmentation, 536. 
Sans-nombrc, 702. 
SANTAPAU, Princes de BUTERA, arms, 


SANTEUIL, arms, 201, 714. 
SANTHEUVEL, VAN DEN, arms, 238. 
SANTIAGO, Cross of, 644. 

HENRY, Grand Master of 
the Order of, 577. 
SAPCOTE, arms, 363. 

Sapphire, 65, 703. 

Saracen banner, 655. 

Saracen's Head, 199, 703 ; PL XX., fig. 4, 

p. 198. 

,, ,, as a, 754. 

SarcelJe, 703. 
Sarcellv, Cross, 160. 
SARDINIA, arms, 200 ; PL XX., fig. 6, p. 


,, King of, supporter of, 244. 

Sardonyx, 65, 703. 
SARRANTE, arms, 66. 
SART, Counts de, arms, 13(5. 
SARTIGES, arm*, 139. 

GU1LLAUME DE, arms, 51. 

Armis et Insignis, 19. 
SATTELBOGEN, arms, 87. 
Saturn, 65. 

SATURNINI, arms, 299. 
Satyr, 703. 
SAULX, arms, 213. 

SAUSENBERG, Lordship of, arms, 491. 
Sautoir, 142, 702, 743. 
En, 743. 
,, Passes en, 743. 
Sauvage, 708. 

SAUVAGEOT collection, 332. 
SAVA, Barons, arms, 172. 
Savage, PL XX., fig. 2, p. 198. 

or Wild Man in Heraldry, 198. 
Savage's head, 199. 
SAVALLETTE, arms, 295. 
Save River, 498. 
SAVELLI, Duca de, arms, 645. 
SAVEUSE, Marquises de, arms, 186. 
SAVILE, arms, PL XII., fig. 4, p. 130. 

Earl of MEXBOROUGH, arms, 


SAVONA, Marquises DE, arms, 641. 
SAVORY, arms, 687. 
SAVOY, AMADEUS VI. of, seal, 629. 
of, King of SPAIN, 

arms, 488. 
,, ,, the Great, Count of, 

454, 579. 

,, arms, 57, 453, 467, 488, 579, 629. 
,, AYMON of, arms and supporters, 

579, 629. 

Count PETER of, 453. 
,, Counts of, arms, 244. 
crest, f29. 

Duke PHILIP, sans terre, 579. 
Dukes of, arms, 141. 

HUMBERT, bdtard de, arms, 


arms, 579. 

Duke of, 467, 579. 
,, Marks of illegitimacy in, 579. 
,, original arms, 579. 
,, RENE, bdtard de, ar,ns, 579. 
seal of AMADEUS, V. Count of, 


EDWARD, Count of, 
SAXE, Chevalier de, arms, 525. 


arms, 424. 
-COBURG, Duke of, 622. 

( 8 4 o ) 

SAXE - COBURG - GOTHA, crown of 

Prince ALBERT of, 622. 
SAXON Duchies, arms, 67, 265, 321, 362. 

,, Hags, 650. 

SAXONY, arms, 131, 469, 488, 491, 525, 
724; PI. XII., fig. 6, p. 130. 
crest, 607. 
,, Dnkes of, arms, 456. 
,, Elector of, arms, 526. 

,, Kings of, arms, 346. 

,, Palatinate of, arms 256. 



,, supporters, 667. 
SAY, Lords, arms, 81. 
SAYN, Counts of, arms, 358. 
,, Princes of, arms, 216. 

augmentation, 536. 
arms, 364, 493 ; PI. XXXII., fig. 

9, p. 358. 
,, CAN DELLA, augmentation, 


JOHANNA, daughter and 
heiress of JOHN DELLA, 
arms, 493. 
,, Princes, 364. 
,, DELLA, arms, 364. 

Scaled, 703. 

,, badge, 753. 
SCALES, Lord, 574. 

ROBERT DE, arms, 273. 
SCALI, arms, 304. 
SCALIGER, arms, 364, 493. 

JOHANNA, daughter and 
heiress of JOHN, arm*, 493. 
Scallop, 703. 

shell, 272. 
SCALTENIGHI, arm*, 72. 
SCANDINAVIA, crested helms in, 604. 

,, Title of Marquess un- 

known in, 626. 
Scarpe, 703. 
SCARRON, arms, 130. 
Sceptres as charges, 380. 
SCHAD, arms, 260. 
SCHAEP, arms, 235. 
SCHAGEN family, 576. 
SCHATZ, arms, 166. 
SCHAUMANN, arms, 383. 
SCHAW, ami*, PI. XXXIII., fig. 7, p. 


,, of Sauchie, arms, 381 (see 
SCHAWENBURG, Barons von, arms, 

SCHEFFER, de Antiquis verisque Regni 

SuecU'i Insifinibus 379, 628. 
SCHELDORFER, VON, arms, PI. V., fig. 

5, p. 80. 

SCHELKLINGEN, Counts von, arms, 95. 

seal of, 606. 

SCHEPERS, supporters, 643. 
SCHESNAYE, arms, 185. 

augmentation, 539. 


SCHEURLER, arms, 74. 
SCHIECK, arm*, 336. 
SCHILLER, Watlenttein, 470. 
SCHILLING, Counts von, arms, 389. 

SCHINDEL, DIE, arm*, 186. 

SCHIO, Counts DA, 30:?. 

SCHIPSTOW, arm*, 364. 

SCHIVES, arms, 226. 

SCHLEGEL, arms, 94. 

SCHLEICH, arms, PI. VI., fig. 9, p. 84. 

,, VON, anus, SS. 

SCHLEIDEN, arms, 68. 
SCHLESWIG, arms, 581, 666. 

-HOLSTEIN, Princess 

HELENA of, label, 423. 
SCHLIEBEN, Comtes, augmentation, 543. 
SCHLOTHEIM, Barons, and Counts von, 

arms, 580. 

SCHMID, arms, 191. 
SCHMIDBURG, Baron von, arms, 377. 
SCHMIDT, Barons, augmentation, 546. 
,, Die Wappen aller Fiirsten und 

Staaten, 73. 

Scltneckenweise, PI. VIII., fig. 4, p. 100. 
SCHONAICH, Barony of. arms, 337. 
SCHONBORN, Counts von, arms, 342. 
SCHQNBURG, Princes of, arms, 94. 
SCHQNEN, arm*, 256. 
SCHONFELD, Counts von, arms, 318. 
SCHONSTEIN, arm*, 1-21. 

,, VAN, arms, 203, 405. 

SCHOONVELT, VAN, arms, 127. 
SCHOREL, VAN, arms, 196. 
SCHORISSE, VAN, arms, 181. 
SCHRECK, anus, 276. 
SCHROT, arms, 669; PI. LV., fig. 8, 

p. 669. 

Schrb'terhiirner, 321. 
SCHROTT, VON, arm*, 89. 
SCHWABEGG, arms, 469. 
SCHWALENBERG, Counts of, arms, 


of, 404. 

SCHWARTZBURG, Princes of, aug- 
mentation, 537. 
SCHWARZBURG, ai-ms, 489. 

,, Princes of, arms, 489. 

seal of the Emperor 
SCHWARZENBERG, Princes of, arms, 

91, 200. 

SCHWEIDNITZ, Counts von, arms, 817. 
SCHWEREN, amis, 89. 
SCHWERIN, arms, PI. VI., fig. 11, p. 84. 
,, County of, an>is, 79, 182, 

205, 492. 

,, Principality of, arms, 492. 

Scintillant, 703. 
Scissors as charges, 392. 
SCLAVONIA, arms, 374. 
Sclavonic families, mantling, 616. 
SCLEROS, arms, 284. 
SCOPULI, amis, 390. 
SCORPIONE, arms, 277. 
Scorpions, 274, 277. 
SCOT, JOHN, of Thirlstane, a?-7)ts, 179. 

,, of Harden, supporters, 302. 
SCOTLAND, arm*, 330, 441, 443, 446, 455, 
464, 475, 476, 479, 505, 
521, 529, 566, 567, 662, 
, , arms, during Commonwealth , 

,, augmentation in, 534. 

( 84' ) 

SCOTLAND, badge, 596, 597. 

,, Change of name in, 609. 

coins of, 334. 
,, crest of, 644. 

,, Differencing in, 397. 

Earl Marshal, mark of 

office, 644. 
,, ensign of Princes of, 208. 

Family badges in, 598. 
,, Feudalism in, 399. 

Great Master of the House- 
hold, mark of office, 644. 
,, Great Scats of, 598. 

,, Heraldic marks of illegiti- 

macy in, 565. 
,, ISABELLA, dtr. of King 

JAMES I. of, 505. 
JAMES, King of, 515. 
,, Justice General, mark of 

office, 644. 

,, Lions of, as supporter*, 636. 

,, Lord High Chamberlain, 

mark of office, 644. 
,, Marshalling in, 512. 

,, Mode of differencing, 405. 

,, Names in southern counties 

of, 400. 
,, National emblem of, 334. 

Princess MARGARET of, 


,, Queen MARY of, 476. 

,, Royal crest of, 217. 

,, ,, crown of, 619. 

Regalia of, 619. 
,, saltirein, 143. 

Small number of names in, 

,, supporters in, 296, 632, 635, 

,, The double tressure in, 146, 


,, unicorn of, 663. 

,, Use of bordure in, 441. 

,, ,, chevron in, 431. 

,, ,, label in, 419. 

SCOTS, ACHAIUS, Mythical King of 

the Dalriadic, 176. 
SCOTT, arms, 162; PL XXIL, fig. 6, 

p. 222. 

arms in Lyon Office Register, 400. 
of Balweary, arms, 222. 
,, Buccleuch, arms, 559. 
,, Gorrenberry, bordure, 443. 
Sir WALTER, Quentin Durward, 


,, siipporter, 303. 

WILLIAM, brisure, 435. 
Scottish marks of illegitimacy, 569. 
SCOTTS in south Scotland, 400. 
Scourges as charges, 374. 
Scrip, 703. 

SCRIVELSBY, Baron of, 345. 
Scroll, 703. 
SCROPE, arms, 111, 129, 341, 427; PI. 

XII., fig 1, p. 130. 

,, and GROSVENOR Controversy, 
341, 439. 
Scruttle, 703. 
SCRYMGEOUR, arms, 149. 

Earl of DUNDEE, 149. 

SCUDAMORE, ana*, 155, 357; 

XXXII., fig. 2, p. 358. 
Viscounts, arms, 357. 


SCYLITZES, arms, 241. 
Scythes and Scythe blades, 350. 
Sea-dog, The, 300, 703. 
-griffin, 290. 
-hone, The, 299, 703; PI. XXVII., 

fig. 11, p. 288. 
-lion, The, 299, 703. 
-stag, The, 299. 
-unicorn, 297. 
SEAFIELD, Earl of, amis, 880. 
Seal, Earliest instance of armorial, 26. 
Seals, 55, 56, 238 ; PI. XXXV., p. 415 ; PL 

XXXVII., p. 447. 
,, Armorial Bearings on, 44. 
Devices on Burgh, 313. 
,, Various, 36, 37. 
SECCANO, arms, 256. 
SECKENDORF, arms, PL XXIX., fig. 6, 

p. 318. 

SECKENDORFF, Counts von, arms, 318. 
Second Nobility Moll, 71, 357, 481. 
SEDAN, Princes of, arms, 360. 
SEEBACH, anus, 298. 
Seeded, 325, 703. 
SEEVES, arms, 226. 
SEFTON, Earls of, arms, 159. 
SEGALAS, aims, 285. 
SEGOING, Armorial Universel, 260. 
Le Tresor Herat dique, 2. 

,, Mercure A rmorial, 2. 

SEGORBIA, Dukes of, arms, 577. 
SEGRAVE, ami*, 214, 342, 428. 
JOHN, *eul, 628. 
NICHOLAS DE, label of, 414. 
Sir JOHN DE, arms, 414. 
Seftreant, 287, 703. 

,, Library of, 611. 
SEGUR, annx, 228. 
SEIGNELAY, Marquis de, arms, 275. 
SEINSHEIM, anns, 200. 
Sejant, 217, 703. 

,, -addorsed, 703. 
,, -qftronte, 217. 
,, -yardant, 217. 
,, -rampant, 217. 
Seme, 112, 677, 702, 703, 743; PI. VIII., 

fig. 10, p. 100. 
,, de France, 743. 
of hearts, PI. VIII., fig. 9, p. 100. 
of fleurs-de-lis, PI. VIII., fig. 8, p. 100. 
Semper eadem, 664. 
SEMPILL, arm*, 436 ; PL XIII., fig. 2, p. 


,, Lords, arms, 137. 
,, of Beltrees, brisure, 436. 
SENECHAL, LE, ami*, 185. 
Senestre, 743. 
Senestre, 711, 743. 
Senestrochere, 205, 726, 743. 
Sengreen, 703. 

SENS, LE, Marquises de MORSAN, 

arms, 372. 
Sepulchral Monument, arms on, at 

SERAING, anns, 427. 
Semph, 703. 
Seraphin, 703. 
SERBY, NICOLAS, Leopard Herald, 209. 

( 342 ) 

SEREXELLI, arms, 303. 



SERLE, arm*, 78. 
Set-pent, Shield encircled by a, 639. 

vorant, PL XXVII., fig. 4, p. 288. 
,, with a female head, 640. 
Serpents, 273. 
Serpent's heails, 276. 
Serra, 299. 

SERVATI, arm*, 126. 
SERVIA and BOSNIA, Czar of, 251. 

,, arms, 501, 668. 
SESA, Dukes of, arms, 473. 
SETOX, ALEXANDER, bend, 429. 

anw, 307, 521, 534. 

,, G., The Law and Practice of 
Heraldry in Scotland, 44, 84, 
548, 552, 553, 568, 632, 647. 
,, of Touch, crest, 605. 
,, Sir ALEXANDER, arms, 178. 
,, ,, ,, Governor of 

Berwick, augmentation. 534. 

DE, label, 419. 
Star of, 643. 
SETTIMO, Princes de FILIOLA, arms. 


SEUSENEGG, Barons von, arms, 183. 
SEVA, Counts, arms, 722. 
SEVASTOS, arms, 333. 
SEVIGNE, Letters of, Mme. De, 132. 

,, Marquises de, arms, 82. 
SEWELL, arms, 283. 
SEYMOUR, amis, 531; PI. XXV., fig. 
5, p. 260; PI. XXXIX., 
fig. 2, p. 481. 

,, Duke of SOMERSET, arms, 


,, ,, ,, crest, 


,, JANE, Queen, augmentation, 

, 531. 
SEZE, arms, 539. 

,, Count de, augmentation, 539. 
SFORZA, arms, 218. 
Shack-bolt, 703. 
Shafted, 703. 

SHAFl'ESBURY, Earls of, arms, 234. 
Shake-fork, 151,703; PL XVI., fig. 12, p. 


arms, PL XXXI., fig. 

2, p. 346. 
Henry VI., 584. 
Richard III., 591. 
Shambrogue or Brogue, 679. 
Shambrogues as charges, 392. 
Shambroughs, 703. 
Shamrock, The, 320. 
SHARP of Kincarroch, arms, 569. 
Shaw ins as charges, 383. 
SHAWS of Sauchie, amis, 381. 
Sheaves, 350. 
Sfoep, 235, 703. 
SHEFFIELD, arms, 562. 


arms, 343. 

arms, 562. 
Shell-fish, 272. 
Skeplurd'spipe as a charge, 387. 

SHERBURN, arms, PL XXL, fig. 2, p. 212. 

SHERBURNE of Stonyhurst, arms, 210. 

Shield, llth Century, PL I., fig. tr, p. 54. 

,, between the attires of a stag's head, 

,, Different forms of, Figs. 7, 8, 9, 

10, 11, 12, i:i, 14, p. 53. 
,, English and French, Points of, Figs. 

15, 16, p. 59. 

Form of, in BRITAIN, 56. 
FRANCE, 56. 
ITALY, 56. 
SPAIN, 55, 56. 
,, lozenge shape, supposed derivation 

of, 58, 59. 

,, Red, special use of, 67. 
,, Square, 57. 
,, used by unmarried lady or -widow, 

Shields, 351. 

,, 12th century chessmen, PL I., 

figs. 8, 9, 10, p. 54. 
Different forms of, 53, 56, 57. 
,, from Bayeux Tapestry, PL I., 

figs. 1, 2, 3, p. 54. 
,, of a single metal, tincture, or 

fur, 66. 

,, on cross or star of an Order, 644. 
,, Oval and Circular, 56, 57. 
,, suspended at Tournaments, 55. 
Ship, as a badge, 754. 
,, as a charge, 369. 

descendants, 399. 
Ships as charges, 367. 
Ship's buoy as a badge, 754. 
SHIRLEY, Earl FERRERS, arms, 165. 
Shivered, 703. 
Shm.1, 8S. 
Shoe, Horse, 355. 
Shoes a.s charges, 392. 
Shovels as charges, 393. 
SHREWSBURY, badge, 754. 

,, Earl of, arms, 174. 

Shrimps, 273. 
SI BELL, arms, 225. 
SIBERIA, arms, 665. 
,, crown, 622. 
SICHTERMANN, arms, 240. 
SICILE, RENE, Roi de, Tourney Regula- 
tions, 749. 

SICILY, arms, 258, 471, 482, 495, 501, 504, 
576, 577. 

FREDERICK, King of, 50.J. 
seal of CHARLES, King of, 329. 
SICKINGEN, arms, 440. 
Sickle as a bailge, 585, 754. 
SIDON, Prince of, arms, 118. 
S1EBENBURGEN, arms, 495, 498. 
SIEBMACHER, Wappenbuch, 64, 66, 73, 
90, 92, 95, 98, 114, 134, 161, 166, 182, 
191, 263, 289, 290, 297, 336, 373, 402, 
411, 412, 440, 477, 579, 582, 601, 614, 
640, 752. 

SI3NA, Cathedral of, 656. 
SIERADZ, Duchy of, arms, 468. 
Siei-e as a badge, 596. 
SIGINOLFI, arms, 92. 
SIGISMUND, arms of Emperor, 249. 
,, Emperor, 251, 252, 255. 

,, ,, augmentation gran- 

ted by, 536, 537. 

King of POLAND, augmen- 

tation granted by, 540. 


SIGNIA, Family of, arms of, 256. 
SILESIA, Duchy of, arms, 255, 401, 496. 

,, Principality, arm*, 500, 665. 
Silk-u-orms, 280. 
Silver or argent, 60, 65. 
,, Shield, plain, 66. 

SIMIANE, arms, PI. VIII., fig. 10, p. 100. 
GUIRAND DE, seal of, 47. 
Marquises de, arms, 113. 
SIMON, L' Armorial General de I' Empire 

Fran^ais, 259, 283, 626. 
SINCLAIR, arms, 368, 369, 406, 511, 512. 
,, Barons, arms, 511 ; PI. XLIII., 

fig. 2, p. 521. 
,, brisare, 434. 

,, cross, 511. 

Earl of CAITHNESS, arms, 

PI. XLIII., fig. 1, p. 521. 
Earl of ROSSLYN, arms, 1 42. 

seal, 369. 
Lord, 3b9. 
Lord, arms, 511. 
of HERDMANSTON, arms, 



of ROSLIN, arms, 34. 
bordure, 443. 
Sinister, 703. 

side of shield, 59. 
Sinople, 704, 707, 744. 
,, Plein-de-, 67. 
SIRADIA, Duchy of, arms, 468 ; PI. 

XXXVIII., fig. 1, p. 463. 
,, Palatinate of, arms, 468. 
Siren, 704. 
Sirene, 300, 744. 
SISSINK, amis, 304. 
SIX, arms, 128. 
SIXTUS IV., Pope, arms, 318. 
Skates as charges, 392. 
Skeleton, The, 203. 
SKENE, 704. 

Celtic Scotland, 371. 

arms, 120. 
Skull, The, 203. 
Slashed, 704. 

SLAW ATA, Counts of, arms, 93. 
Sleeve, Hanging, as a charge, 376. 
SLEICH, arms, 166. 
SLESVIG, arms, 581, 666. 
Sling, The, as a charge, 365. 
Slipped, 320, 325, 704. 
Slippers as charges, 392. 
SMITH, crests, 610. 

GORDON, crest, 610. 
,, Sir SIDNEY, arms, 534. 
Smithfield, Jousts held at. 589. 
Snails, 280. 

Snake entwined, PI. XXVII., fig. 3, p. 288. 
Snakes, 274; PI. XXVII., fig. 2, p. 288. 
SNEEVOET, arms, 207. 
SO, arms, 130. 
SOBIESKI, arms, 351. 

JOHN, King of POLAND, 
arms, 486. 
Soc dt charrue, 744. 

SODERINI, arms and augmentation, 541. 

SOISSONS, 13th century Maire de, PI. I., 

fig. 1, p. 44. 

,, seal of CONON, Count of, 48. 

Sol, 65. 

SOLACES, arms, 305. 
SOLDAN1ERI, arum, 71. 
SOLDATI, amis, 347. 
SOLDONIERI, arms, 72. 
Soleil, 744. 

,, Ombre de, 744. 
SOLIGNAC, rtrww, 118. 
SOLMS, Counts and Princes of, arms, 214, 

325, 404, 488. 
SOLVI, arms, 153. 
SOMBEKE, arm*, 140. 

80MERFORD, arms, 232; PI. XXIII., 

fig. 8, p. 228. 
SOMERS, Earl, arms, 234. 

arms, 559. 
,, badge of, 588. 

CHARLES, Earl of WOR- 
CESTER, 556. 
Duke of, 556. 

,, ,, crest, 298. 

,, ,, supporter, 297. 

BEAUFORT, arms, 


,, Dukes of, a?-i, 260, 531. 

Garter Plate of Duke of, 594. 

,, JOHN, Ear] of, 475. 

Marquis of, arms, 555. 
SOMERVILLE, arms, 123. 

,, Lord, supporters, 279. 

SOMERY, arms, 131. 
Somme, 677, 726, 744. 
SOMMERAU-BECK, Barons von, arms, 


SON, VAN, arms, 305, 306. 
SONDERNDORFF, Barons von, arms, 


SONDERSHAUSEN, arms, 487. 
SONNBERG, Counts de, arms, 305. 
SONNEBERG, Count von, arms, 306. 
SONNEMAER, arms, 306. 

1, p. 308. 

,, County, arms, 499. 

SONNEWALDE, arms, 488. 
SOPHIA, Princess, label, 422; Fig. 89, 

p. 421. 
SOR1A, Duke of, arms, 449. 

GUILLAUME, Duke of, 450. 
SORIN, arms, 265. 
SOTO, arms, 353. 
SOUBISE, Princes de, arms, 185. 
SOUEFF, arms. 280. 
SOULIS, arms, 519. 
SOULT, arms, PI. X., fig. 3, p. 118. 
SOUSA, arms, 578. 

,, sisters, 578. 
Soutenu, 704, 744. 

arms, 559. 

,, Earls of, arms, 100. 

SOUTHESK, Earls of, arms, 258. 
Southwark Church, 597. 
Souliens, C27. 

Sovereign, helm of, 601, 602. 
Sovereigns, Privy Seals of our, 598. 


SPADA, arms, 346, 347. 
SPAIN, arms, 667. 

,, augmentations in, 547. 

,, coronet of Grandees of the first 

class in, 624. 
,, crests in, 604. 
J)e in, 16. 
,, Dukes in, 624. 

Form of shield in, 55, 56. 
,, furs common in Armory of, 74. 
,, Introduction of Hereditary arms 

into, 52. 
ISABELLA, Infanta of, seal, 


King AMADEUS of, arms, 488. 
,, Marks of illegitimacy in, 576. 

office in, 645. 
,, marshalling in, 506. 
PHILIP IL, King of, 478. 
,, ,, King of, arms, 488. 

,, Royal arms, 488. 

seals of ALFONZO of, 58. 
,, supporters, 667. 
,, Use of bordure in, 440. 
,, ,, supporters in, 636, 639. 

SPALDING, arms, 163, 345. 
Spancelletl, 687, 704. 
SPANHEIM, Counts of, arms, 405. 
SPAR, arms, 369, 511. 
SPARNECK, VOX, arms, 98. 
SPARRE, 672. 

,, arms, 136. 

Barons de CRONENBURG, 
arms, 137. 

Spear, PL XXXI., fig. 2, p. 316. 
,, head, 348. 
,, ,, as a badge, 754. 
Spears, 347. 
SPEKE, arms, 254, 750; PI. XXV., fig. 2, j 

p. 260. 

Captain JOHN HANNEN, 750. 
,, crest and siipporter of, 277. 
,, Grant of augmentation to WIL- 
LIAM, 750. 
SPELMAN'S, Sir HENRY, definition of 

Esquire, 7 ; Aspilogia, 210. 
SPENCER, Earl, anus, 413. 

HENRY, arms, 413. 

SPENER, Opus Heraldicum, 3, 247, 321, 
402, 405, 411, 424, 440, 441, 447, 448, 
452, 466, 469, 472, 489, 502, 506, 507, 
538, 554, 555, 571, 576, 579, 604. 
Sphinx, 744. 

The, 295, 704. 
Spiders, 281. 
SPIEGEL, arms, 391. 

BARONS, arms, 127. 
arms, 391. 

8PITZENBERG, Counts von, arms, 92. 
Splendour, In, 305, 704. 
SPOLETO, Dukes of, arms, 170. 
SPOLVERINI, Marquises, arms, 132. 
Spotted, 704. 

SPRINGHOSE, amis, 138. 
Springing, 282, 704. 
SPROTTIB. arms, 271. 
SPRUNER, amis, 336. 
Spur, Winged, as a crest, 605. 
Spurs, Battle of the, 529. 

fig. 6, p. 671. 
SQUIRE, arms, 239, 240. 

Squirrel, The, 239. 
ST. ALBAN'S, Duke of, arms, 559. 
,, ,, Earl of, arms, 307. 

AM AND, arm*, 127. 

TRISTAN DE, Traite du 
Lis, 282. 

,, AMOUR, Counts de, arms, 129. 
,, ANDREW, arms, 195. 
,, ,, badge of ORDER of, 665. 

,, ,, banner of, 656. 

collar of ORDER of, 665. 
ANDREW'S cross, 143, 664; PI. XV., 

fig. 8, p. 144. 
HN, Archbishop of, 568. 

,, ANTHONY, Order of, arms, 161. 
,, Anthony's fire, 368. 
,, AUBERT, GERARD DE, arm*. 48. 

brisure, 452. 
,, BELIN, arms, 710. 
,, BERNARD, 287. 
BRICE, arms, 91. 
,, COLUMBA, Relics of, 657. 
,, CRICQ, Corntes de, arms, 370. 
CUTHBERT, banner of , 655. 
,, DENIS, 658. 

Abbey of, 31, 658, 659. 
Burial place of the Kings of 

FRANCE at, 5S9. 
liead of, 201. 
oriflamme at, 659. 
Treasury of, 659. 
windows of Abbey of, 31. 
" DENOUAL, Vicomtes de, arms, 96. 
,, DIDIER, arms, 96. 
,, EDMUND, arms, 528. 
,, ,, banner of, 656. 

,, ,, of Wessex, arms assigned 

to, 383. 

,, EDWARD, Feast of, 589. 
,, ETHELREDA, mythical arms, 379. 
GALL, arms, 229 ; PI. XXIII., fig. 4, 

p. 228. 

,, GELAIS, arms, 730. 
,, ,, Marquises of, arms, 153. 
GEORGE, amis, 195 ; PI. XIV., fig. 1, 

p. 140. 
,, ,, banner of, 656. 

Chapel of, at WINDSOR, 

134 (see Stall Plates'), 
cross of, 141, 421, 422, 423, 

654, 655, 656, 664. 
,, ,, Sir HENRY, arms and 

augmentation, 546. 

GEORGES, Marquises de VERAC, 

arms, 141. 

,, ,, ,, VERAC, 

supporters, 303. 
Roll, 305, 376, 403, 407, 
458, 481. 

,, GERMAN'S, Earl of, arms, 128. 
,, GILLES, arms, 161. 

Charter of RAYMOND DE, 
bearing seal, 46. 
., HILAIRE, arms, 202. 
JOHN, 633. 

AGNES, arms, 417. 

badge, 753, 754. . 

banner of, 655. 

Cross of the Order of, 546. 

Grand Master of the Order of, 

mark of office, 645. 
Knight of, PI. X., fig. 4, 
p. 118. 


of, arms, 141. 
of JERUSALEM, Grand 

Master of Order, arms, 527. 
of JERUSALEM, Order of, 

,, the Baptist, head of, 201. 

KENTIGERN'S bell, 316. 

LAWRENCE, Earls of HOWTH, sup- 
porter, 300. 

LEGER, ANNE, daughter and heiress 

of Sir THOMAS, 530. 
,, badge, 753. 


,, LEU, MONTMORENCY DE, brisure, 

LIZ, MAUD, widow of SIMON DE, 

DON, 517. 

Louis, La Vie de, 11. 
,, LOUIS, King of FRANCE, augmenta- 
tions granted by, 539. 
of FRANCE, 416. 
,, MACHAR'S, ABERDEEN, Heraldic 

ceiling of, 84. 
,, MARK, symbol of, 219. 
MARTIN and the beggar, 657. 
,, ,, arms, 68. 
, , , , chape de, 657, 658. 
,, in Heraldry, 195. 

arms, 124. 

MICHAEL, arms, 195. 

in Heraldry, 196. 
,, Order of, 645. 

MUNGO'S bell, 316. 
,, PATRICK, 0>-oss of, 143. 
Order of. 143. 
,, ,, saltire of, 656. 

,, PAUL, Count de, 415. 
,, ,, Counts of, arms, 214, 342. 
, ,, emblem of, 346. 
, LOUIS, Comte de, 415. 
, Paul's Cathedral, 588. 
, PAUL'S sword as a charge, 371. 
, PERN, Marquis de, arms, 186. 
, PETER, banner of, 655. 
, PETER'S ktiis as charges, 371. 
, PHILIBERT, arms, 95. 
, POL, seal of ENGUERRAN, Count 

de, 49. 

,, PONCY, Marquis de, arms, 145. 
QUINTIN, Counts of, arms, 2S4. 

arms, 570. 
REMY, JEAN DE, Roi d'Armes de 

I'Ordre du Toison d'Or, 551. 
,, SIMON, Due de, Memoires, 14. 
,, ,, Dues de, arms, 505. 
,, ,, JEAN DE, arms, 118. 

ROUVROY, arms, 505. 
,, STEFANO, Order of, 119. 
STEPHEN, crown of, C21. 
,, ,, Knights of Order of, arms, 


,, VRAIN, seal of ISABEL DE, 254. 
,, WILFRED, banner of, 655. 
STACIE, ROSS Herald, MS. of, 512. 

STADNICKI, Counts of, arms, 172. 
STAEL, arms, 356, 510. 

DE HOLSTEIN, Barons, arms, 
510; PI. XLL, fig. 4, p. 509. 
Staff, 704. 

,, Ragged, as a bad ye, 585. 
STAFFORD, arms, 111 ; PI. XIII., fig. 1, 

p. 136. 
,, badge, 754. 


arms, 135. 

EDMONI), Bishop of 

EXETER, arms, 437. 
,, family, 439. 

knot, 585. 

STAFILEO, arms and augmentation, 540. 
Stag at gaze, PI. XXIII., fig. 8, p. 228. 
couchant as a badge, 598. 
lodged, PI. XXIII., fig. 10, p. 228. 
The sea, 299. 

trippant, PI. XXIII. , fig. 7, p. 228. 
8 igs, 231. 

courant, PI. XXIII., tig. 9, p. 228. 
Winged, as supporters, 636. 
Sag's head cabossed, PL XXIII., fig. 11, 


horns, PL XXIII., fig. 12, p. 228. 


STAIN, Baron, arms, 130. 
VON, arms, 383. 
Stair, PL XXXII., fig. 10, p. 358. 

, , as a charge, 365. 
STALTON, arms, 259. 
Stall Plates at Windsor, 602, 612, 613. 
STAMFORD, Earls of, arms, 92. 

,, ,, supporter, 297. 

STANDAERTS, arms, 352. 
Standard, 704. 

Battle of the, 655.' 
Stamlards, 649, 653. 

,, Moorish, as supporters, 643. 

Royal, 654. 

STANGATE, arms, 136. 
Stangue, 744. 

STANHOPE, arms, PL V., fig. 9, p. 80. 
,, Earl, crescent, 446. 

arms, 81. 

STANLEY, arms, 233, 558, 565. 
,, badge, 753. 

Lord, 595. 

Sir JOHN, bastarde, arms, 588. 
STANSFELD, arms, 235. 
STANSF1ELD, arms, 235. 
Staple, 704. 

Staples as a badge, 754. 
STAPLETON, arms, 131, 213, 218. 

,, badge, 754. 

Star, 704. 

,, and crescent as a badge, 587. 
,, as a badge, 583, 754. 
STARCKENBERG, arms, 90. 
STARCKENS, arms, 196. 
STARGARD, Lordship of, arms, 492. 
STARHEMBERG, Princes of, 226. 
Stars, 307 ; PL XXVIII., fig. 5, p. 308. 
Starred, 704. 
Statant, 217, 704. 

,, gardant, 217. 

STAUFFENECK, arms, 669; PL LV., 
fig. 4, p. 669. 


STAUNTON, Sir WILLIAM DB, arms, 44. 
Staves as charges, 381. 
STAYLTON, arms, 259. 
STEAD, arms, 296. 
STECKBORN, arms, 78. 
STEEN, Counts von, arms, 393. 
STEENHUYSEN, Prinoe de, arms, 319. 
STEIN, Baron, arms, 130. 


arms, 220. 

arms, 131. 

STEINPURT, Counts von, a>-w, 262. 
STEIXMAN, lambrequin, 613. 
Sti-llion, 704. 

and BOSXIA, 251. 
STEPS, arms, 375. 
STERCK, arms, 231. 
STERLING, WILLIAM, supporters, 633. 
STERXBERG, Counts of, arms, 404, 405. 
STERNEMAXXS, supporter, 640. 
STERXEXBERG, Counts von, arms, 308. 
STETTIN, Duchy of, arms, 288. 
Steward, ALEXANDER, fourth, 429. 

419, 458. 

Earl of MAR, arms, 566. 

TEITH, label, 419. 
,, arms, 125, 405, 419, 447, 459, 

567, 631 ; PI. XL, fig. 5, 
p. 124. 

, , arms in Lyon Office Register, 400. 

,, Earl of AXGUS, arms, 455. 


arms, 569. 

LEXXOX, bordure, 
,, JAMES, Earl of MORAY, 

arms, 567. 
JOHN, 1st Lord of LORX, 


MARGARET, Countess of 
ANGUS, label, 420. 
,, Countess of 

AXGUS, seal, 631. 
MATTHEW, label, 419. 
,, of Avondale, bordure, 443. 

,, Bon kill, arms, 455. 
,, Bonkyl, 520. 
,, ,, ariits, 519. 
,, Laithers, jess, 431. 
,, Lorn, arms, 447. 
,, Ochiltree, bordure, 443. 
,, Rosy th, bordure, 442. 
Dukes of ALBANY, 
i-ereath, 614. 
Earl of FIFE, 
brisure, 445. 

,, seal and arms of ALAN, 49. 

Sir JOHN, 458. 

,, of Bonkyl, arms, 413. 
,, of Bonkil, bentl, 

429, 442. 
THOMAS, Archdeacon of St. 

Andrews, arms, 566. 
WALTER, bordure, 441. 

Earl of ATHOLE 
and CAITHNESS, seal and arms, 


badge, 598. 


label, 419. 

STEWARTS, Earls of ATHOLE, arms, 


BUCK AN, arms, 

poem by, 246. 
STIERNA, (572. 
STIRIA, anus, 6S4. 
STIRLING, arms, 377. 

,, Earl of, arms, 109. 

Stirling* qf Keir, The, 377. 
Stirrvps, 357 ; PI. XXXIL, fig. 2, p. 358. 
STIXEN, ormt.m 
Stock, 704. 

STOCK AU, Counts of, amis, 79. 
StocMsh, The, 271 ; PI. XXVI., fig. 11, p. 


STOCKTONS, arms, 318. 
STODART, crest, 610. 

,, Mr, Lyon Clerk Depute, 360, 

443, 568. 

,, Scottish Arms, 50, 84, 85, 148, 

150, 173, 181, 258, 279, 283, 
302, 352, 377, 378, 381, 402, 
440, 755. 

,, System of differencing, 444. 

STOFFELLA, arms, 309. 
Stoke Lyne, Lord of Manor of, arms on 

Hawk, 633. 

STOLBERG, Counts zn, arms, 98. 



Start, The, 263 ; PI. XXV., fig. 11, p. 260. 


STORMARN, arms, 262, 510, 666. 
STOTH ARD, C. , drawing of Bayeux tapes- 
try, 30. 
STOURTON, arms, 193 ; PI. XIX., lig. 5, 

p. 192. 
,, Lord, crest, 605. 

,, supporter, 300. 
STRACHAN, arms, PL XXIII. , fig. 7. p. 


,, of Glenkindy, arms, 232. 

STRANGE, LE, arms, PI. XXL, fig. 5, p. 


STRANSHAM, arms, 121. 
STRATH A YEN, Stronghold of, 516. 
STRATHEDEN, Lords, arms, 84. 
STRATHERN, ancient, arms, 138. 

DAVID, Earl of, seal, 

,, Earl of, brisure, 432. 

Earls of, ai-ms, 138, 459. 
seal of MURIEL, Coun- 
tess of, 630. 
STRATHMORE, Earls of, arms, 215, 349 ; 

crest, 605. 

STRAUSS, arms, 263. 
Strawberries, 341. 
Strawberry flower, The, 323. 
STRAYNSHAM, arms, 121. 
STRELLS, arms, 138. 
Stringed, 704. 
STRODE, arms, 238. 

tomb of ANTONIO, 281. 

STRUENSEE, Counts, arm*, 370. 
STRYVELIN, Sir JOHN DE, arms, 377. 
STRZEMIE, herba of, arms, 357. 
STUART (see STEWART), anus, 125, 138, 
521, 567 ; PI. LI., fig. 5, p. 

,, badges, 596. 
,, Dr JOHN, Sculptured Stones of 

Scotland, 29. 

,, ,, Registrum de Pan- 

mure, 171, 517. 
,, Exhibition in London, 334. 

WELL, arms, 567. 
arms, 521 ; PL XLII., fig. 3, 
p. 513. 
JAMES, Duke of YORK, label, 

Earl of ARRAN, 

arms, 567. 

Sire d'AUBIGNY, 
JOHN, Lord of LORN, seal, 


Lord of DARNLEY and Earl 
of LENNOX, arms, 521; 
PI. XLII., fig. 1, p. 513. 
,, MARGARET, Countess of 

ANGUS and MAR, seal, 

,, of Avondale, arms, 567. 

,, ,, Doune, arms, 567. 

,, Ochiltree, arms, 567. 

,, Traquair, crest, 605. 

arms, 567. 

Prince CHARLES, Duke of 
label, 420. 
,, ROBERT, Commendator of 

Holyrood, arms, 567. 
,, Sovereigns, coat of, 662. 

CESTER, label, 421. 
STUBNER, arms, 90. 
Stump of a tree as a badge, 754. 
STUMPF, amis, 240. 
STURM Y, arms, 221. 
STUTEVILLE, arms, 94. 
STYR1A, ALBERT, Duke of, seal, 456. 
,, banner of, 651. 
,, Duchy, arms, 247, 456, 495, 

499, 665, 739. 
Stierof, 650. 

SUABIA, arms, 471, 525. 
Sub-ordinaries, 78, 102, 116, 165. 
SUBSTANTION, Comte de, arms, 118. 
SUDELEY, Lords, arms, 155. 
Suttiue, 704. 
SufHues as charges, 386. 
SUFFOLK, badge, 753, 754. 

,, Duke of, arms, 225, 412 ; PI. 

XXII., fig. 12, p. 222. 
SULBY, Sir JOHN, anus, 128. 
SULLY, Dues de, arms, 123. 
,, ,, lambrequin, 613. 

,, Sir JOHN, arms, 128. 
SULMETINGEN, arms, 134. 
SULMONE, Prince of, arms, 451. 
SUMIN-SUMINSKI, Counts, arms, 363. 
Sun in splendour, as a badge, 590. 
,, Rays of the, as a badge, 588. 
,, The, 305 ; PI. XXVllI., fig. 1, p. 308. 

Sunflower, 338. 
Supporter, Single, 630. 
Supporters, 627. 

,, Attempt to restrict iise of, 

, , charged with Mark of Cadency, 


Double, 633. 
Eight, 635. 
Four, 635. 

Mode of representing, 641. 
Origin of, (327, 628. 
Right to use, 638. 
Six, 635. 
Triple, 635. 
Supports, 627, 744. 
Sur le Tout, 744. 
du Tout, 744. 
Surcharge, 744. 
Surcoat, 704. 

,, ensigns on, 32. 
SURGERES, arms, 96. 
Surmonte, 704, 744. 
Surmounttd, 704. 
Surnames, 10. 

,, adoption of, posterior to use of 

armorial bearings, 671. 
,, derived from armorial bearings, 
SURREY, BEATRICE, Countess of , sea?, 


,, Dukes of, arms, 216, 474. 
,, ,, augmentation, 528. 

,, Earls of, arm*. 99. 

THOMAS, Duke of, arms, 474. 
SURTEES, arm*, 167. 

Society, 366, 560. 
Surlout, 744. 

,, Sur'le Tout, 704. 
SUSENBERG, Counts of, a?v,is, 215. 

Duke of, label, 422. 
,, badge, 754. 

Sustained, 704. 

SUTHERLAND, arm*, 308, 520, 521 ; PI. 

XXVIII., fig. 5, p. 308. 

,, Duke of, arms, 157, 319. 

Earls of, arms, 521. 

ELIZABETH, Countess 

of, 521. 

MALCOLM, fcss, 430. 
of Duffus, WILLIAM, 
seal, 520. 

SUTTIE, arm.v3S2. 
SUTTON, Lord DUDLEY, arms, 218. 

Lord LEXINGTON, arms, 105. 
SUWAROFF, Marshal, arms, 811. 
mentation, 542. 
SWABIA, arms, 495, 668. 
Duke of, 244. 

seal of RODOLPH of, 243. 
Su-alloic, The, 266. 
St>-an as supporter, 631. 
The, 262 ; PI. XXV., fig. 10, p. 260. 
,, White, as a badge, 588, 589, 594, 754. 
SWANDEG, arms, 440. 
Sicans as supporters, 636. 

,, on bears as supporters, 635. 
SWART, arms, 137. 
SWEDEN, 379. 

,, and NORWAY, arms, 667. 
,, Armorials of, 541. 

,, arms, 379, 546, 667. 


SWEDEN, augmentations in, 546. 

,, Earliest known shield in, 333. 


King of, augmentations 

granted by, 546. 

,. Introduction of Hereditary 

arms into, 52. 
,, Kings of, using escucheon en 

surtout, 487. 

,, Marks of illegitimacy in, 581. 
SWEERS, monument of, 626. 
SWEERTS, supporter, 304. 
SWEETING, arms, 382. 
Sicepe, 365, 704. 
SWIENEZIC, arms, 153. 
SWIETEN, Barons von, arms, 382. 
Swift, The, 266. 
SWILLTNGTON. arms, 289. 
SWINNERTOX, arms, 158. 
SWISS Cantons, supporter, 640. 
SWITZERLAND, anna, 153, 668. 
Sicivel, 704. 

Saord, The, 345 ; PI. XXXI., fig. 1, p. 346. 
Swords as supporters, 643. 
SWYXEHOWE, arms, 227. 
SWYXETHWAYTE, arms, 228. 
SYDXEY, amis, PL XXXI., fig. 7, p. 346. 
,, badge, 753. 

,, Earl of LEICESTER, arms, 

Sykes, 193, 704. 
SYKES, arms, 193. 
SYMENS, arm*, 159. 
Syren, The, 300. 
SZCBPANOWSKI, arms, 289. 
SZOLDRSKI, Counts, 370. 

Tabard, 705 ; Fig. 106, p. 674. 

TABLEY, Lord DE, 18. 

TABOUROT, arms, 383. 

Tacheti, 744. 

TACITUS, description of devices on 

shields, 29. 
TAETS D'AMEROXGEX, Barons, arms, 


Taf, 744. 

TAFFIX, arms, 150. 
TAGLIAVIA, arms, 317 ; PI. XXIX., fig. 

3, p. 318. 
Tailed, 705. 

Taille, SO, 728, 744, 745. 
TALAIRAX, Marquises de, arms, 338. 
Talbot, 241, 705 ; PI., XXIV., fig. 9, p. 236. 

,, as a badge, 754. 
TALBOT, arms, 215, 241. 

Earl of SHREWSBURY, arms, 

ELIZABETH, widow of Sir 

GILBERT, 558. 
TALE, VON, arms, 82 ; PI. V., fig. 11, p. 

80. ' 

TALMONT, CLAUDE, Prince de, 258, 


,, Princes de, amis, 257. 

TANCARVILLE, Counts of, arms, 713. 
TANIERE, LA, arms, 134. 
TANKERVILLE, arms, 713. 

,, Earl of, arms, 222, 556. 

TANNENVELS, arm*, 223. 
TAPPE, arms, 669 ; PL LVL, fig. 2, p. 671. 


TARDY, Comte de MONTRAVEL, arms, 


Tar6, 744. 
,, de front, 744. 
,, de profile, 744. 
TARENTE,' or TARENTO, Princes de, 

amis, 257, 504, 513. 
Target, 705. 
TARLET, arms, 262. 
TARLO, Counts, arms, 348. 
TARRAGONE, arms, 69. 
TASSOXI, La Seechia Rapita, 655. 
TATE and LONGSTAFFE, The Pedigrees 

and early Heraldry of the Lords of 

Alnwick, 482. 
TATESHALL, arms, 42(5. 
TATTENBACH, Counts, arms, 726. 
Tuu, 705, 744. 

,, Cross, 161 ; Fig. 61, p. 164. 
TAURIA, arms, 665. 
TAVANNES, Due et Pair de, arms, 213. 
TAW AST, Barons and Counts, augmenta- 
tion, 546. 
Tatcny, 705. 
TAYLARD, arms, 222. 
TE BA, Counts of, amis, 390. 
TECK, Duke of, arms, 524, 525. 
Teeth, The, 203. 
TEIXEIRA, arms, 141. 
TELLEZ, arms, 353. 

arms, 277. 

TEMPEST, arms, 403. 
TEMPESTA, arms, 311. 
TEMPLETOWN, Viscounts, arms, 160. 
Temporig jttia veritas, 664. 
Tenants, 627, 744. 
Tenne or Orange, 60, 65. 

,, ,, Tawny, 705. 
TENNENT, arms, 145. 
Tenm/ or Orange, 60, 65; PL III., fig. 8, p. 

TENNYSON, arms, 226. 

,, Lord, arms, 226. 

TENREMONDE, arms, 72 ; PL VIII., fig. 

7, p. 100. 

TEXTEXIER, arms, 351. 
TEXTOX, arms, 351. 
Tent-poles as supporters, 643. 
Tents, 351. 

TERBRUGGEX, arms, 319. 
Terrace, A, 311, 705. 
Terrasse, 705, 744. 

,, -isolee, 744. 
Terrasse, 744. 
Tertre, 312, 744. 
TESCHEX, Dnchy, arms, 500. 

TESTU, ' Marquis de BALINCOURT, 

arms, 220. 
Te<<? efe Gerion, 200. 
TETTONI E SlLDINI, Tealro Araldico, 

TEUFEL, arms, 304. 

,, VON, arms, 87. 

TEUTONIC ORDER, Grand Masters, 

arms, 527. 

,, THE, arms, 499. 

TEVIOT, Viscount, arms, 340. 
TEYES, OHJW, 135. 

( 49 ) 

TEYEYES, arms, 135. 


NEBU, 12. 

,, Seigneur des 

Thalers as charges, 3S9. 
THANET, Earls of, crest, 300. 
The Book of Arms of the Nobility of Bosnia, 
or Jllyria, and Servia, 251 (see 
Theiss River, 498. 
THEODORE, King of CORSICA, amis, 


THEODORUS LASCARIS, coins of, 250. 
THEROUENNE, Battle of, 529. 
THIARD, Marquis de BISSY, arms, 273. 
THIERMES, Counts de, arms, 173. 
THIERRY, II. of BAR, seal of, 270. 
French histor